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Full text of "Sacred Books East Various Oriental Scholars with Index. 50 vols Max Muller Oxford 1879.1910."

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REESE LIBRARY 



UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA. 

Received -^gt+J-^^. i88/_. 

Accessions No. _ j/ifc£j££_._ Shelf No. 



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THE 



SACRED BOOKS OF THE EAST 



M a 

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Honfcon 

HENRY FRONDE 




OXFORD UNIVERSITY PRESS WAREHOUSE 
7 PATERNOSTER ROW 



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THE 



SACRED BOOKS OF THE EAST 



TRANSLATED 



BY VARIOUS ORIENTAL SCHOLARS 



AND EDITED BY 



F. MAX MULLER 



VOL. IX 



AT THE CLARENDON PRESS 
1880 

[All rights reserved"] 



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THE QUR'AN 



TRANSLATED BY 



E. H. PALMER 



PART II 



CHAPTERS XVII TO CXIV 



v&. il!* 3 ^ 



OF TUB 



DIVERSITY 

AT THE CLARENDON PRESS 
1880 

[All rights reserved] 



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I 



CONTENTS. 



XVII. 


The Chapter of the Night Journey (Mecca) 


PAGE 
I 


XVIII. 


The Chapter of the Cave (Mecca) . 


13 


XIX. 


The Chapter of Mary (Mecca) 


27 


XX. 


The Chapter of T. H. (Mecca) 


34 


XXI. 


The Chapter of the Prophets (Mecca) 


46 


XXII. 


The Chapter of the Pilgrimage (Mecca) . 


56 


XXIII. 


The Chapter of Believers (Mecca) . 


65 


XXIV. 


The Chapter of Light (Medinah) . 


73 


XXV. 


The Chapter of the Discrimination (Mecca) 


83 


XXVI. 


The Chapter of the Poets (Mecca) . 


90 


XXVII. 


The Chapter of the Ant (Mecca) . 


99 


XXVIII. 


The Chapter of the Story (Mecca) . 


107 


XXIX. 


The Chapter of the Spider (Mecca) 


117 


XXX. 


The Chapter of the Greeks (Mecca) 


124 


XXXI. 


The Chapter of Loqman (Mecca) . 


131 


XXXII. 


The Chapter of Adoration (Mecca) 


135 


XXXIII. 


The Chapter of the Confederates (Medinah) 


138 


XXXIV. 


The Chapter of Sheba (Mecca) 


150 


XXXV. 


The Chapter of the Angels, or, the Creatoi 






(Mecca) 


■ 157 


XXXVI. 


The Chapter of Y. S. (Mecca) 


162 


XXXVII. 


The Chapter of the Ranged (Mecca) 


168 


XXXVIII 


The Chapter of S. (Mecca) . 


• 175 


XXXIX. 


The Chapter of the Troops (Mecca) 


182 


XL. 


The Chapter of the Believer (Mecca) 


. 190 


XLI. 


The Chapter 'Detailed' (Mecca) . 


199 


XLII. 


The Chapter of Counsel (Mecca) . 


. 205 



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CONTENTS. 



PAGE 
211 



XLIII. The Chapter of Gilding (Mecca) 

XLIV. The Chapter of Smoke (Mecca) . . .218 

XLV. The Chapter of the Kneeling (Mecca) . . 220 

XLVI. The Chapter of El ATiqaf (Mecca) . . .224 

XL VII. The Chapter of Mohammed, also called ' Fight' 

(Medtnah) 229 

XLVIII. The Chapter of Victory (Medtnah) . . .233 

XLIX. The Chapter of the Inner Chambers (Medtnah) 238 

L. The Chapter of Q. (Mecca) . . . .241 

LI. The Chapter of the Scatterers (Mecca) . .245 

LII. The Chapter of the Mount (Mecca) . . .248 

LIII. The Chapter of the Star (Mecca) . . .251 

LIV. The Chapter of the Moon (Mecca) . . . 254 

LV. The Chapter of the Merciful (Mecca) . .258 

LVI. The Chapter of the Inevitable (Mecca) . .262 

LVII. The Chapter of Iron (Medtnah) . . .266 

LVIII. The Chapter of the Wrangler (Medtnah) . .270 

LIX. The Chapter of the Emigration (Medtnah) . 273 

LX. The Chapter of the Tried (Medtnah) . .277 

LXI. The Chapter of the Ranks (Mecca) . . ,280 

LXII. The Chapter of the Congregation (Medtnah) . 282 

LXIII. The Chapter of the Hypocrites (Medtnah) . 284 

LXIV. The Chapter of Cheating (place of origin doubtful) 286 

LXV. The Chapter of Divorce (Medtnah) . . .288 

LXVI. The Chapter of Prohibition (Medtnah) . .290 

LXVII. The Chapter of the Kingdom (Mecca) . . 292 
LXVIII. The Chapter of the Pen, also called Nun (Mecca) 295 

LXIX. The Chapter of the Infallible (Mecca) . . 298 

LXX. The Chapter of the Ascents (Mecca) . . 300 

LXXI. The Chapter of Noah (Mecca) . . . .302 

LXXII. The Chapter of the Girrn (Mecca) . . .304 

LXXIII. The Chapter of the Enwrapped (Mecca) . . 306 

LXXIV. The Chapter of the Covered (Mecca) . . 308 

LXXV. The Chapter of the Resurrection (Mecca) . .310 



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CONTENTS. 



IX 



PAGE 

LXXVI. The Chapter of Man (Mecca) . . .312 
LXXVII. The Chapter of those Sent (Mecca) . .314 

LXXVIII. The Chapter of the Information (Mecca) . 316 

LXXIX. The Chapter of those who Tear Out (Mecca) 318 
LXXX. The Chapter 'He Frowned' (Mecca) . .320 

LXXXI. The Chapter of the Folding up (Mecca) . 321 

LXXXII. The Chapter of the Cleaving asunder (Mecca) 323 
LXXXIII. The Chapter of those who give short Weight 

(Mecca) 323 

LXXXIV. The Chapter of the Rending asunder (Mecca) 325 

LXXXV. The Chapter of the Zodiacal Signs (Mecca) 326 

LXXXVI. The Chapter of the Night Star (Mecca) . 327 

LXXXVII. The Chapter of the Most High (Mecca) . 328 

LXXXVIII. The Chapter of the Overwhelming (Mecca) . 329 

LXXXIX. The Chapter of the Dawn (Mecca) . . 330 
XC. The Chapter of the Land (Mecca) . .332 
XCI. The Chapter of the Sun (Mecca) . . .333 

XCII. The Chapter of the Night (Mecca) . . 333 

XCIII. The Chapter of the Forenoon (Mecca) . 334 
XCIV. The Chapter of 'Have we not expanded?' 

(Mecca) 335 

XCV. The Chapter of the Fig (place of origin 

doubtful) 335 

XCVI. The Chapter of Congealed Blood (Mecca) . 336 
XCVII. The Chapter of 'Power' (place of origin 

doubtful) 337 

XCVIII. The Chapter of the Manifest Sign (place of 

origin doubtful) 337 

XCIX. The Chapter of the Earthquake (place of 

origin doubtful) 338 

C. The Chapter of the Chargers (Mecca) . . 339 

CI. The Chapter of the Smiting (Mecca) . . 339 
CII. The Chapter of the Contention about Numbers 

(place of origin doubtful) .... 340 
19] b 



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X 


CONTENTS. 








PAGE 


cm. 


The Chapter of the Afternoon (Mecca) 


34© 


CIV. 


The Chapter of the Backbiter (Mecca) 


341 


CV. 


The Chapter of the Elephant (Mecca) . 


341 


CVI. 


The Chapter of the Quraif (Mecca) . 


342 


CVII. 


The Chapter of 'Necessaries' (place of origin 








342 


CVIII. 


The Chapter of El Kauraar (Mecca) . 


342 


CIX. 


The Chapter of the Misbelievers (Mecca) . 


343 


ex. 


The Chapter of Help (Mecca) .... 


343 


CXI. 


The Chapter of Abu Laheb (Mecca) . 


343 


CXII. 


The Chapter of Unity (place of origin doubtful) . 


344 


CXIII. 


The Chapter of the Daybreak (place of origin 








344 


CXIV. 


The Chapter of Men (place of origin doubtful) . 


345 


Index 




347 



Transliteration of Oriental Alphabets adopted for the Trans- 
lations of the Sacred Books of the East 



359 



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1 



i THE QUR'AN. 



The Chapter of the Night Journey 1 . 
(XVII. Mecca.) 

In the name of the merciful and compassionate 
God. 

Celebrated be the praises of Him who took His 
servant a journey by night from the Sacred Mosque 2 
to the Remote Mosque 3 , the precinct of which we 
have blessed, to show him of our signs ! verily, He 
both hears and looks. 

And we gave Moses the Book and made it a 
guidance to the children of Israel : ' Take ye to no 
guardian but me.' 

Seed of those we bore with Noah (in the ark)! 
verily, he was a thankful servant! 

And we decreed to the children of Israel in the 
Book, ' Ye shall verily do evil in the earth twice *, 
and ye shall rise to a great height (of pride).' 

1 Also called ' The Children of Israel.' The subject of Moham- 
med's miraculous journey in one night from Mecca to Jerusalem, and 
his ascent into heaven, will be found discussed in the Introduction. 

8 The Kaabah at Mecca. * The Temple at Jerusalem. 

4 The Mohammedan commentators interpret this as referring 
the first to either Goliath, Sennacherib, or Nebuchadnezzar, and the 
latter to a second Persian invasion. The two sins committed by. 
the Jews, and for which these punishments were threatened and 
executed, were, first, the murder of Isaiah and the imprisonment of 
' t Jeremiah, and the second, the murder of John the Baptist. Moham- 
medan views of ancient history are, however, vague. 

[9] B 



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THE QUr'aN. XVII, 5-14' 



[5] And when the threat for the first (sin) of the 
two came, we sent over them servants of ours, 
endued with violence, and they searched inside your 
houses ; and it was an accomplished threat. 

Then we rallied you once more against them, 
and aided you with wealth and sons, and made 
you a numerous band. 

' If ye do well, ye will do well to your own souls ; 
and if ye do ill, it is against them ! 

' And when the threat for the last came ] — to harm 
your faces and to enter the mosque as they entered 
it the first time, and to destroy what they had got 
the upper-hand over with utter destruction.' 

It may be that thy Lord will have mercy on 
you; — but if ye return we will return, and we 
have made hell a prison for the misbelievers. 

Verily, this Qur'an guides to the straightest path, 
and gives the glad tidings to the believers [10] who 
do aright that for them is a great hire ; and that 
for those who believe not in the hereafter, we have 
prepared a mighty woe. 

Man prays for evil as he prays for good ; and man 
was ever hasty. 

We made the night and the day two signs; and 
we blot out the sign of the night and make the sign 
of the day visible, that ye may seek after plenty 
from your Lord, and that ye may number the years 
and the reckoning; and we have detailed every- 
thing in detail. 

And every man's augury 2 have we fastened on 

1 Supply, ' we sent foes.' 

8 I.e. 'fortune' or 'fate,' literally, 'bird;' the Arabs, like the 
ancient Romans, having been used to practise divination from the 
flight of birds. 



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XVII, H-34- THE CHAPTER OF THE NIGHT JOURNEY. 3 

his neck; and we will bring forth for him on the 
resurrection day a book offered to him wide open. 
[15] ' Read thy book, thou art accountant enough 
against thyself to-day!' 

He who accepts guidance, accepts it only for his 
own soul : and he who errs, errs only against it ; nor 
shall one burdened soul bear the burden of another. 

Nor would we punish until we had sent an apos- 
tle. And when we desired to destroy a city we bade 1 
the opulent ones thereof; and they wrought abomina- 
tion therein ; and its due sentence was pronounced ; 
and we destroyed it with utter destruction. 

How many generations have we destroyed after 
Noah ! but thy Lord of the sins of his servant is 
well aware, and sees enough. 

Whoso is desirous of this life that hastens away, 
we will hasten on for him therein what we please, 
— for whom we please. Then we will make hell 
for him to broil in — despised and outcast. 

[20] But whoso desires the next life, and strives 
for it and is a believer — these, their striving shall 
be gratefully received. 

To all — these and those — will we extend the 
gifts of thy Lord; for the gifts of thy Lord are 
not restricted. 

See how we have preferred some of them over 
others, but in the next life are greater degrees 
and greater preference. 

Put not with God other gods, or thou wilt sit 
despised and forsaken. 

Thy Lord has decreed that ye shall not serve 
other than Him; and kindness to one's parents, 

1 Bade them obey the Apostle. 
B 2 

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THE QUR'AN. XVII, 24-35. 



whether one or both of them reach old age with 
thee; and say not to them, 'Fie!' and do not 
grumble at them, but speak to them a generous 
speech. [25] And lower to them the wing of 
humility out of compassion, and say, ' O Lord ! 
have compassion on them as they brought me up 
when I was little ! ' Your Lord knows best what is 
in your souls if ye be righteous, and, verily, He is 
forgiving unto those who come back penitent. 

And give thy kinsman his due and the poor and 
the son of the road ; and waste not wastefully, for 
the wasteful were ever the devil's brothers ; and the 
devil is ever ungrateful to his Lord. 

[30] But if thou dost turn away from them to 
seek after mercy from thy Lord \ which thou hopest 
for, then speak to them an easy speech. 

Make not thy hand fettered to thy neck, nor yet 
spread it out quite open, lest thou shouldst have to 
sit down blamed and straitened in means. Verily, 
thy Lord spreads out provision to whomsoever He 
will or He doles it out. Verily, He is ever well 
aware of and sees his servants. 

And slay not your children 2 for fear of poverty ; 
we will provide for them ; beware ! for to slay 
them is ever a great sin! 

And draw not near to fornication ; verily, it is ever 
an abomination, and evil is the way thereof. 

[35] And slay not the soul that God has forbidden 
you, except for just cause ; for he who is slain un- 
justly we have given his next of kin authority ; yet 

1 I.e. if you are compelled to leave them in order to seek your 
livelihood ; or if your present means are insufficient to enable you 
to relieve others. 

2 See Part I, p. 256, note 2. 



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XVII, 35-46. THE CHAPTER OF THE NIGHT JOURNEY. 5 

let him not exceed in slaying; verily, he is ever 
helped. 

And draw not near to the wealth of the orphan, 
save to improve it, until he reaches the age of 
puberty, and fulfil your compacts ; verily, a compact 
is ever enquired of. 

And give full measure when ye measure out, and 
weigh with a right balance; that is better and a 
fairer determination. 

And do not pursue that of which thou hast no 
knowledge; verily, the hearing, the sight, and the 
heart, all of these shall be enquired of. 

And walk not on the earth proudly; verily, thou 
canst not cleave the earth, and thou shalt not reach 
the mountains in height. 

[40] All this is ever evil in the sight of your 
Lord and abhorred. 

That is something of what thy Lord has inspired 
thee with of wisdom; do not then put with God 
other gods, or thou wilt be thrown into hell re- 
proached and outcast. What ! has your Lord chosen 
to give you sons, and shall He take for Himself 
females from among the angels ? verily, ye are 
speaking a mighty speech. 

Now have we turned it in various ways in this 
Qur'an, so let them bear in mind ; but it will only 
increase them in aversion. 

Say, 'Were there with Him other gods, as ye 
say, then would they seek a way against the Lord 
of the throne.' 

[45] Celebrated be His praises, and exalted be He 
above what they say with a great exaltation ! 

The seven heavens and the earth celebrate His 
praises, and all who therein are; nor is there aught 



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THE QURAN. XVII, 46-56. 



but what celebrates His praise : but ye cannot 
understand their celebration ; — verily, He is clement 
and forgiving. 

And when thou readest the Qur'an we place 
between thee and those who believe not in the 
hereafter a covering veil. And we place covers 
upon their hearts, lest they should understand, and 
dulness in their ears. 

And when thou dost mention in the Qur'an thy 
Lord by Himself they turn their backs in aversion. 

[50] We know best for what they listen when 
they listen to thee; and when they whisper apart 
— when the wrong-doers say, ' Ye only follow a man 
enchanted/ 

Behold, how they strike out for you parables, 
and err, and cannot find the way ! 

They say, ' What ! when we have become bones 
and rubbish are we to be raised up a new creature ?' 
Say, ' Be ye stones, or iron, or a creature, the 
greatest your breasts can conceive — !' Then they 
shall say, ' Who is to restore us ?' Say, ' He who 
originated you at first ;' and they will wag their 
heads and say, ' When will that be ?' Say, ' It may, 
perhaps, be nigh.' 

The day when He shall call on you and ye shall 
answer with praise to Him, and they will think that 
they have tarried but a little. 

[55] And say to my servants that they speak in a 
kind way 1 ; verily, Satan makes ill-will between them ; 
verily, Satan was ever unto man an open foe. 

Your Lord knows you best ; if He please He 
will have mercy upon you, or if He please He will 

1 I.e. they are not to provoke the idolaters by speaking too 
roughly to them so as to exasperate them. 



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XVII, $6-62. THE CHAPTER OF THE NIGHT JOURNEY. 7 

torment you : but we have not sent thee to take 
charge of them. 

And thy Lord best knows who is in the heavens and 
the earth ; we did prefer some of the prophets over 
the others, and to David did we give the Psalms. 

Say, ' Call on those whom ye pretend other than 
God ;' but they shall not have the power to remove 
distress from you, nor to turn it off. 

Those on whom they call 1 , seek themselves for 
a means of approaching their Lord, (to see) which 
of them is nearest : and they hope for His mercy 
and they fear His torment ; verily, the torment of 
thy Lord is a thing to beware of. 

[60] There is no city but we will destroy it 
before the day of judgment, or torment it with 
keen torment ; — that is in the Book inscribed. 

Naught hindered us from sending thee with signs, 
save that those of yore said they were lies ; so we 
gave Thamud the visible she-camel, but they treated 
her unjustly! for we do not send (any one) with 
signs save to make men fear. 

And when we said to thee, ' Verily, thy Lord en- 
compasses men!' and we made the vision which we 
showed thee only a cause of sedition unto men, and 
the cursed tree 2 as well ; for we will frighten them, 
but it will only increase them in great rebellion. 

1 Sale interprets this to mean 'the angels and prophets.' Rodwell 
remarks that it is an ' obvious allusion to the saint worship of the 
Christians.' As, however, precisely the same expression is used 
elsewhere in the Qur'an for the false gods of the Arabs, and the 
existence of those ginas and angels whom they associated with God 
is constantly recognised, their divinity only being denied, I prefer to 
follow the Moslem commentators, and refer the passage to the gods 
of the Arabian pantheon at Mecca; cf. Part I, p. 127, note 2. 

2 The Zaqqumj see Chapter XXXVII, verse 60. The vision 



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8 THE QURAN. XVII, 63-71. 

And when we said to the angels, 'Adore Adam ;' 
and they adored, save Iblis, who said, ' Am I to 
adore one whom Thou hast created out of clay ?' 

Said he, ' Dost thou see now ? this one whom 
Thou hast honoured above me, verily, if Thou 
shouldst respite me until the resurrection day, I will 
of a surety utterly destroy his seed except a few.' 

[65] Said He, ' Begone ! and whoso of them fol- 
lows thee — verily, hell is your recompense, an ample 
recompense. Entice away whomsoever of them thou 
canst with thy voice; and bear down upon them 
with thy horse and with thy foot ; and share with 
them in their wealth and their children ; and promise 
them, — but Satan promises them naught but deceit. 
Verily, my servants, thou hast no authority over 
them ; thy Lord is guardian enough over them !' 

It is your Lord who drives the ships for you 
in the sea that ye may seek after plenty from Him ; 
verily, He is ever merciful to you. And when 
distress touches you in the sea, those whom ye call 
on, except Him, stray away from you ; but when He 
has brought you safe to shore, ye turn away; for 
man is ever ungrateful. 

[70] Are ye sure that He will not cleave with 
you the side of the shore, or send against you a 
heavy sand-storm ? then ye will find no guardian 
for yourselves. 

Or are ye sure that He will not send you back 
therein another time, and send against you a vio- 
lent wind, and drown you for your misbelief? then 
ye will find for yourselves no protector against us. 

referred to is the night journey to heaven, although those com- 
mentators who believe this to have been an actual fact suppose 
another vision to account for this passage. 



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XVII, 72-80. THE CHAPTER OF THE NIGHT JOURNEY. 9 

But we have been gracious to the children of 
Adam, and we have borne them by land and sea, 
and have provided them with good things, and have 
preferred them over many that we have created. 
Y*~ The day when we will call all men by their high 
priest; and he whose book is given in his right 
hand — these shall read their book, nor shall they 
be wronged a straw. But he who in this life is 
blind shall be blind in the next too, and err farther 
from the way. \ 

[75] They had well-nigh beguiled thee from what 
we inspired thee with, that thou shouldst forge 
against us something else, and then they would 
have taken thee for a friend ; and had it not been 
that we stablished thee, thou wouldst have well-nigh 
leant towards them a little: then would we have 
made thee taste of torment both of life and death, then 
thou wouldst not have found against us any helper 1 . 

And they well-nigh enticed thee away from the 
land, to turn thee out therefrom ; but then — they 
should not have tarried after thee except a little. 

[This is] the course of those of our prophets whom 
we have sent before thee ; and thou shalt find no 
change in our course. 

[80] Be thou steadfast in prayer from the declin- 
ing of the sun until the dusk of the night, and the 
reading of the dawn ; verily, the reading of the 
dawn is ever testified to. 



1 The commentators say that this refers to a treaty proposed by 
the tribe of Tffaqif, who insisted, as a condition of their submission, 
that they should be exempt from the more irksome duties of Mus- 
lims, and should be allowed to retain their idol Alldt for a certain 
time, and that their territory should be considered sacred, like that 
of Mecca. 



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IO THE QURAN. XVII, 81-91. 

And for the night, watch thou therein as an extra 
service. It may be that thy Lord will raise thee 
to a laudable station. 

And say, ' O my Lord ! make me enter with a 
just entry; and make me come forth with a just 
coming forth ; and grant me from Thee authority 
to aid.' 

And say, ' Truth has come, and falsehood has 
vanished ! verily, falsehood is transient.' 

And we will send down of the Qur'an that which 
is a healing and a mercy to the believers, but it 
will only increase the wrong-doers in loss. 

[85] And when we favour man he turns away and 
retires aside, but when evil touches him he is ever 
in despair. Say, ' Every one acts after his own 
manner, but your Lord knows best who is most 
guided in the way.' 

They will ask thee of the spirit *. Say, ' The 
spirit comes at the bidding of my Lord, and ye are 
given but a little knowledge thereof.' 

If we had wished we would have taken away that 
with which we have inspired thee ; then thou wouldst 
have found no guardian against us, unless by a 
mercy from thy Lord ; verily, His grace towards 
thee is great! 

[90] Say, ' If mankind and ^inns united together 
to bring the like of this Qur'an, they could not bring 
the like, though they should back each other up !' 

We have turned about for men in this Qur'an 
every parable ; but most men refuse to accept it, 
save ungratefully. 



1 According to some, the soul generally; but according to others, 
and more probably, the angel Gabriel as the agent of revelation. 



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XVII, 92-rOi. THE CHAPTER OF THE NIGHT JOURNEY. 1 1 

And they say, ' We will by no means believe in 
thee, until there gush forth for thee a fountain from 
the earth ; or there be made for thee a garden of 
palms and grapes, and rivers come gushing out 
amidst them ; or thou make the sky to fall down 
upon us in pieces ; or thou bring us God and the 
angels before us; [95] or there be made for 
thee a house of gold ; or thou climb up into the 
heaven ; and even then we will not believe in thy 
climbing there, until thou send down on us a book 
that we may read !' 

Say, ' Celebrated be the praises of my Lord ! was 
I aught but a mortal apostle ?' 

Naught prohibited men from believing when the 
guidance came to them, save their saying, ' God has 
sent a mortal for an apostle.' 

Say, ' Were there angels on the earth walking 
in quiet, we had surely sent them an angel as an 
apostle.' 

Say, ' God is witness enough between me and 
you ; verily, He is ever of His servants well aware, 
and sees.' 

He whom God guides, he is guided indeed ; and 
he whom God leads astray, thou shalt never find 
patrons for them beside Him ; and we will gather 
them upon the resurrection day upon their faces, 
blind, and dumb, and deaf ; their resort is hell ; 
whenever it grows dull we will give them another 
blaze ! 

[100] That is their reward for that they dis- 
believed in our signs, and said, 'What! when we are 
bones and rubbish, shall we then be raised up a 
new creation ?' 

Could they not see that God who created the 



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12 THE QUr'aN. XVII, 101-108. 

heavens and the earth is able to create the like of 
them, and to set for them an appointed time ; there 
is no doubt therein, yet the wrong-doers refuse to 
accept it, save ungratefully I 

Say, ' Did ye control the treasuries of the mercy 
of my Lord, then ye would hold them through fear 
of expending ; for man is ever niggardly !' 

And we did bring Moses nine manifest signs ; then 
ask the children of Israel (about) when he came to 
them, and Pharaoh said to him, 'Verily, I think thee, 
O Moses! enchanted.' 

He said, 'Well didst thou know that none sent 
down these save the Lord of the heavens and 
the earth as visible signs ; and, verily, I think thee, 
O Pharaoh ! ruined.' 

[105] And he desired to drive them out of the 
land ; but we drowned him and those with him, one 
and all. 

And after him we said to the children of Israel, 
' Dwell ye in the land ; and when the promise of the 
hereafter comes to pass, we will bring you in a 
mixed crowd (to judgment). 

' In truth have we sent it down, and in truth has 
it come down ; and we have not sent thee as aught 
but a herald of glad tidings and a warner. 

' And a Qur'an which we have divided, that thou 
mayst read it to mankind leisurely, and we sent 
it down, sending it down V 

Say, ' Believe ye therein, or believe not ; verily, 
those who were given the knowledge before it, when 
it is read to them fall down upon their beards 
adoring ! and they say, " Celebrated be the praises 

..- . ■ — .. -■ ... 1 ■ ■ ■■ m 

1 As occasion required. 

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XVII, I08-XVIII, 2. THE CHAPTER OF THE CAVE. 1 3 

of our Lord! verily, the promise of our Lord is 
ever fulfilled" — they fall down upon their beards 
weeping, and it increases their humility.' 

[no] Say, ' Call on God, or call on the Merciful 
One, whichever ye may call on Him by ; for His are 
the best of names V 

And do not say thy prayers openly, nor yet 
murmur them, but seek a way between these. 

And say, ' Praise belongs to God, who has not 
taken to Himself a son, and has not had a partner 
in His kingdom, nor had a patron against (such) 
abasement.' And magnify Him greatly 2 ! 




The Chapter of the 
(XVIII. Mecca.) 

In the name of the merciful and compassionate 
God. 

Praise belongs to God, who sent down to His 
servant the Book, and put no crookedness therein, 
— straight, to give warning of keen violence from 
Him ; and to give the glad tidings to the believers, 
who do what is right, that for them is a goodly 
reward wherein they shall abide for ever and for 

1 The Arabs whom Mohammed addressed seem to have ima- 
gined that he meant by Allah and Ar-ra'hm&n (the Merciful One) 
two separate deities. The various epithets which are applied to 
God in the Qur'an, such as 'kind/ ' seeing,' 'knowing,' &c, are called 
by the Muslims al 'asma'u Thusn&, 'the best of names,' and are 
repeated in telling the beads of their rosary. 

? This command is obeyed by the Muslims frequently pro- 
nouncing the phrase Allaliu akbar, especially as an expression of 
astonishment. It is the same expression as that used by the 
Egyptian women concerning Joseph, in Chapter XII, verse 31. 



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14 THE QUR'AN. XVIII, 2-13. 

aye ; and to give warning to those who say, ' God 
hath taken to Himself a son.' 

They have no knowledge thereof, nor their 
fathers ; a serious word it is that comes forth from 
their mouths ! verily, they only speak a lie ! 

[5] Haply thou wilt grieve thyself to death for 
sorrow after them, if they believe not in this new 
revelation. Verily, we have made what is on the 
earth an ornament thereof, to try them, which of 
them is best in works; but, verily, we are going 
to make what is thereon bare soil. 

Hast thou reckoned that the Fellows of the Cave 
and Er-raqlm were a wonder amongst our signs * ?' 

When the youths resorted to the cave and said, 
'O our Lord! bring us mercy from Thee, and 
dispose for us our affair aright!' 

[10] And we struck their ears (with deafness) 
in the cave for a number of years. Then we raised 
them up again, that we might know which of the 
two crews 2 could best calculate the time of their 
tarrying. We will narrate to thee their story in truth. 
Verily, they were youths who believed in their Lord, 
and we added to their guidance, and we braced up 
their hearts, when they stood up and said, ' Our 
Lord is the Lord of the heavens and the earth, 
we will not call upon any god beside Him, for 
then we should have said an extravagant thing. 

1 This is the well-known story of the Seven Sleepers of Ephesus. 
What is meant by Er-raqtm no one knows. The most generally 
accepted Mohammedan theory is that it was a dog belonging to 
the party; though some commentators take it to be the name of the 
valley or mountain in which the cave was situated ; others again say 
that it was a metal plate inscribed with the name of the Sleepers; 

* That is, the youths themselves or the people they met on their 
awakening. 



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XVIII, I4-I9- THE CHAPTER OF THE CAVE. 1 5 

These people of ours have taken to other gods 
beside Him. Though they do not bring any 
manifest authority for them. And who is more 
unjust than he who forges against God a lie ? 

[15] ' So when ye have gone apart from them and 
what they serve other than God, then resort ye to 
the cave. Our Lord will unfold His mercy to you, 
and will dispose for you your affair advantageously.' 

And thou mightst have seen the sun when it 
rose decline from their cave towards the right hand, 
and when it set leave them on the left hand, while 
they were in the spacious part thereof. That is 
one of the signs of God. Whom God guides he 
is guided indeed, and whom He leads astray thou 
shalt surely find for him no patron to guide aright. 
Thou mightst have reckoned them waking though 
they were sleeping, as we turned them towards 
the right and towards the left; and their dog 
spreading out his fore-paws on the threshold. 
Hadst thou come suddenly upon them thou wouldst 
surely have turned and fled away from them, and 
wouldst surely have been filled by them with dread. 

Thus did we raise them up that they might 
question each other. Spake a speaker amongst 
them, ' How long have ye tarried ? ' They said, 
' We have tarried a day or part of a day.' They 
said, ' Your Lord knows best your tarrying ; so 
send one of you with this coin of yours to the 
city, and let him look which of them has purest 
food, and let him bring you provision thereof; 
and let him be subtle and not let any one perceive 
you. Verily, they — should they perceive you — 
would stone you, or would force you back again 
unto their faith, and ye would never prosper then.' 



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1 6 THE QURAN. XVIII, 20-25. 

[20] Thus did we make their people acquainted 
with their story, that they might know that God's 
promise is true; and that the Hour, there is no 
doubt concerning it. When they disputed amongst 
themselves concerning their affair, and said, ' Build 
a building over them, their Lord knows best about 
them;' and those who prevailed in their affair said, 
' We will surely make a mosque over them.' 

They will say, ' Three, and the fourth of them 
was their dog : ' and they will say, ' Five, and the 
sixth of them was their dog : ' guessing at the un- 
seen : and they will say, ' Seven, and the eighth 
of them was their dog.' Say, ' My Lord knows 
best the number of them; none knows them but 
a few.' 

Dispute not therefore concerning them save with 
a plain disputation, and ask not any one of them 1 
concerning them. 

And never say of anything, 'Verily, I am going 
to do that to-morrow,' except 'if God please;' and 
remember thy Lord when thou hast forgotten, and 
say, ' It may be that my Lord will guide me to what 
is nearer to the right than this 2 .' 

They tarried in their cave three hundred years 
and nine more. [25] Say, ' God knows best of their 
tarrying. His are the unseen things of the heavens 
and the earth — He can see! and hear 3 !' 

1 That is, the Christians. 

* Mohammed being asked by the Jews concerning the number 
of the Seven Sleepers, had promised to bring them a revelation 
upon the subject on the morrow : this verse is a rebuke for his 
presumption. 

3 This expression Sale takes to be ironical, and translates,' make 
thou him to see and hear;' Rodwell renders it, 'look thou and 
hearken unto him :' both translators having missed both the force 



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XVIII, 25-30. THE CHAPTER OF THE CAVE. 1 7 

They have no patron beside Him, nor does He 
let any one share in His judgment. So, recite what 
thou art inspired with of the Book of thy Lord ; 
there is no changing His words; nor shalt thou 
ever find a refuge beside Him ; and keep thyself 
patient, with those who call upon their Lord morning 
and evening, desiring His face ; nor let thine eyes 
be turned from them, desiring the adornment of 
the life of this world ; and obey not him x whose 
heart we have made heedless of remembrance of 
us, and who follows his lusts, for his affair is ever 
in advance (of the truth). 

But say, ' The truth is from your Lord, so let 
him who will, believe; and let him who will, dis- 
believe.' Verily, we have prepared for the evildoers 
a fire, sheets of which shall encompass them ; and 
if they cry for help, they shall be helped with water 
like molten brass, which shall roast their faces : — an 
ill drink and an evil couch ! 

Verily, those who believe and act aright, — verily, 
we will not waste the hire of him who does good 
works. 

[30] These, for them are gardens of Eden ; be- 
neath them rivers flow; they shall be adorned 
therein with bracelets of gold, and shall wear green 
robes of silk, and of brocade ; reclining therein on 

of the idiom and the explanation given by the commentators Al 
B&ldMvi and Jalal&in, to whom Sale refers. The meaning is that 
which I have given, and the idiom is equivalent to that which 
occurs in a passage of Hartrt, Maq&mah 3 (p. 30, De Sacy's first 
edition), akrim bihi, 'how noble it is 1* abzar bihi being equi- 
valent to mi abzarahu, 'how observant He is!' 

1 Said to refer to Ommiiyet ibn 'Zfalf, who had requested Moham-: 
med to give up his poorer followers to please the Quraif; see 
Chapter VI, verse 52. 

[9] C 

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1 8 THE QUR'AN. XVIII, 30-40. 

thrones; — pleasant is the reward, and goodly the 
couch ! 

Strike out for them a parable : Two men, for one 
of whom we made two gardens of grapes, and sur- 
rounded them with palms, and put corn between 
the two. Each of the two gardens brought forth 
its food and did not fail in aught. And we caused a 
river to gush forth amidst them ; and he had fruit, 
and said unto his fellow, who was his next-door 
neighbour, ' I am more wealthy than thee, and 
mightier of household.' 

And he went in unto his garden, having wronged 
himself : said he, ' I do not think that this will ever 
disappear; and I do not think that the hour is 
imminent; and if even I be sent back unto my 
Lord, I shall find a better one than it in exchange.' 

[35] Said unto him his fellow, who was his next- 
door neighbour, ' Thou hast disbelieved in Him 
who created thee from earth, and then from a clot, 
then fashioned thee a man ; but God, He is my 
Lord ; nor will I associate any one with my Lord. 
Why couldst thou not have said, when thou didst 
go into thy garden, " What God pleases 1 ! there is 
no power save in God," — to look at, I am less than 
thee in wealth and children; but haply my Lord 
will give me something better than thy garden, and 
will send upon it thunder-claps from the sky, and it 
shall be on the morrow bare slippery soil ; or on 
the morrow its water may be deeply sunk, so that 
thou canst not get thereat ! ' 
[40] And his fruits were encompassed, and on the 



1 In the original Mi $&' allah; this is the usual formula for 
expressing admiration among Muslims. 



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XVIII, 40-48. THE CHAPTER OF THE CAVE. 1 9 

morrow he turned down the palms of his hands l for 
what he had spent thereon, for it was fallen down 
upon its trellises. And he said, ' Would that I had 
never associated any one with my Lord !' And he 
had not any party to help him beside God, nor was 
he helped. In such a case the patronage is God's, 
the true ; He is best at rewarding and best at 
bringing to an issue. 

Strike out for them, too, a parable of the life of 
this world; like water which we send down from 
the sky, and the vegetation of the earth is mingled 
therewith ; — and on the morrow it is dried up, and 
the winds scatter it ; for God is powerful over all. 

Wealth and children are an adornment of the life 
of this world ; but enduring good works are better 
with thy Lord, as a recompense, and better as a 
hope. 
X~* [45] And the day when we will move the moun- 
tains, and thou shalt see the (whole) earth stalking 
forth ; and we will gather them, and will not leave 
one of them behind. Then shall they be presented 
to thy Lord in ranks. — Now have ye come to us as 
we created you at first ! nay, but ye thought that we 
would never make our promise good [ J 

And the Book shall be placed 2 , and thou shalt 
see the sinners in fear of what is in it ; and they 
will say, ' Alas, for us ! what ails this Book, it leaves 
neither small nor great things alone, without num- 
bering them ?' and they shall find present what 
they have done; and thy Lord will not wrong 
any one. 

And when we said to the angels, ' Adore Adam,' 

1 I.e. wrung his hands. 3 In the hand of each. 

C 2 

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20 THE QUR AN. XVIII, 48-55. 

they adored him, save only I bits, who was of the 
ginn, who revolted from the bidding of his Lord. 
' What ! will ye then take him and his seed as 
patrons, rather than me, when they are foes of 
yours ? bad for the wrong-doers is the exchange !' 

I did not make them witnesses of the creation 
of the heavens and the earth, nor of the creation 
of themselves, nor did I take those who lead astray 
for my supporters. 

[50] On the day when He shall say, ' Call ye my 
partners whom ye pretend :' and they shall call on 
them, but they shall not answer them ; and we will 
set the vale of perdition between them; and the 
sinners shall see the fire, and shall think that they 
are going to fall therein, and shall find no escape 
therefrom. We have turned about in this Qur'an 
for men every parable; but man is ever at most 
things a caviller. 

Naught prevented men from believing when the 
guidance came to them, or from asking pardon of 
their Lord, except the coming on them of the course 
of those of yore, or the coming of the torment before 
their eyes \ 

We sent not prophets save as heralds of glad 
tidings and as warners ; but those who misbelieve 
wrangle with vain speech to make void the truth 
therewith ; and they take my signs and the warnings 
given them as a jest. 

[55] Who is more unjust than he who, being 



1 This passage is aimed at the Qur&w. The ' course of those 
of yore' is the punishment inflicted on the 'people of Noah, 
Lot,' &c. for similar acts of misbelief, and ' the torment ' is said to 
refer to their losses at the battle of Bedr. 



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XVIII, 55-63- THE CHAPTER OF THE CAVE. 21 

reminded of the signs of his Lord, turns away 
therefrom, and forgets what his hands have done 
before ? verily, we will place veils upon their hearts 
lest they should understand, and dulness in their 
ears ! 

And if thou shouldst call them to the guidance, 
they will not be guided then for ever. 

But thy Lord is forgiving, endowed with mercy ; 
were He to punish them for what they have earned 
He would have hastened for them the torment. 
Nay rather, they have their appointed time, and 
shall never find a refuge beside Him. 

These cities, we destroyed them when they were 
unjust ; and for their destruction we set an appointed 
time. 

And when Moses said to his servant, ' I will not 
cease until I reach the confluence of the two seas, 
or else I will go on for years V 

[60] But when they reached the confluence of the 
two 2 they forgot their fish, and it took its way in 
the sea with a free course. 

And when they had passed by, he said to his 
servant, ' Bring us our dinners, for we have met 
with toil from this journey of ours.' Said he, ' What 
thinkest thou ? when we resorted to the rock, then, 
verily, I forgot the fish, but it was only Satan who 
made me forget it, lest I should remember it ; and 
it took its way in the sea wondrouslyl' 

Said he, ' This is what we were searching for V 
So they turned back upon their footsteps, following 
them up. 

1 The word used signifies a space of eighty years and upwards. 
* Literally, ' of their intermediate space.' 
s See Part II, note 3, p. 23. 



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22 THE QURAN. XVIII, 64.76. 

Then they found a servant of our servants, to 
whom we had given mercy from ourselves, and 
had taught him knowledge from before us. [65] 
Said Moses to him, 'Shall I follow thee, so that 
thou mayest teach me, from what thou hast been 
taught, the right way?' said he, 'Verily, thou canst 
never have patience with me. How canst thou be 
patient in what thou comprehendest no knowledge 
of?' He said, 'Thou wilt find me, if God will, 
patient ; nor will I rebel against thy bidding.' He 
said, ' Then, if thou followest me, ask me not about 
anything until I begin for them the mention of it.' 

[70] So they set out until when they rode 1 in 
the bark, he scuttled it. 

Said he, ' Hast thou scuttled it to drown its crew ? 
Thou hast produced a strange thing.' 

Said he, ' Did I not tell thee, verily, thou canst 
never have patience with me ?' 

Said he, ' Rebuke me not for forgetting, and 
impose not on me a difficult command.' So they 
set out until they met a boy, and he killed him. 
And he (Moses) said, ' Hast thou killed a pure 
person without (his killing) a person ? thou hast 
produced an unheard-of thing.' 

Said he, ' Did I not tell thee, verily, thou canst 
not have patience with me ?' 

[75] Said he, ' If I ask thee about anything after 
it, then do not accompany me. Now hast thou 
arrived at my excuse.' So they set out until when 
they came to the people of a city ; and they asked 

1 That is, embarked. All nautical metaphors in Arabic being 
taken from camel riding. The Arabs do not call the camel ' the 
ship of the desert,' but they call a ship ' the riding camel of the 

sea.' 



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XVIII, 76-81. THE CHAPTER OF THE CAVE. 23 

the people thereof for food; but they refused to enter- 
tain them. And they found therein a wall which 
wanted 1 to fall to pieces, and he set it upright 
Said (Moses), ' Hadst thou pleased thou mightst cer- 
tainly have had a hire for this.' 

Said he, 'This is the parting between me and thee. 
I will give thee the interpretation of that with which 
thou couldst not have patience. As for the bark 
it belonged to poor people, who toiled on the sea, 
and I wished to damage it, for behind it was a king 
who seized on every bark 2 by force. And as for 
the youth, his parents were believers, and we feared 
lest he should impose upon them rebellion and mis- 
belief. [80] So we desired that their Lord would 
give them in exchange a better one than him in 
purity, and nearer in filial affection. And as for the 
wall, it belonged to two orphan youths in the city, 
and beneath it was a treasure belonging to them 
both, and their father was a righteous man, and their 
Lord desired that they should reach puberty, and 
then take out their treasure as a mercy from thy 
Lord ; and I did it not on my own bidding. That 
is the interpretation of what thou couldst not have 
patience with V 

1 The expression wanted to fall is colloquial in Arabic as well 
as in English. B&idh&vi says, ' the expression wanting to is in this 
case figuratively used for being on the point of.' 

* That is, every whole or sound ship. 

* For this legend there appears to be no ancient authority what- 
ever ; the Mohammedan commentators merely expand it, and say 
that El 'H\dhx (a mythical personage, who is identified with the 
prophet Elias, St. George, and the prime minister of Alexander the 
Great) had disappeared in search of the water of immortality. 
Moses was inspired to search for him, and told that he would find 
him by a rock where two seas met, and where he should lose a fish 



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24 THE QUR'AN. , XVIII, 82-92. 

And they will ask thee about Dhu '1 Qarnain 1 , 
say, ' I will recite to you a mention of him ; verily, 
we stablished for him in the earth, and we gave 
him a way to everything; and he followed a way 
until when he reached the setting of the sun, he 
found it setting in a black muddy spring 2 , and he 
found thereat a people.' 

[85] We said, 'O Dhu '1 Qarnain! thou mayest 
either torment these people, or treat them well.' 
Said he, ' As for him who does wrong, I will torment 
him, then shall he be sent back to his Lord, and 
He will torment him with an unheard-of torment ; 
but as for him who believes and acts aright, for him 
is an excellent reward, and we will tell him our easy 
bidding.' 

Then he followed a way until when he reached 
the rising of the sun, he found it rise upon a people 
to whom we had given no shelter therefrom. 

[90] So! And we comprehended the knowledge 
of what (forces) he had with him. 

Then he followed a way until when he reached 
the point between the two mountains, he found 
below them both a people who could scarcely under- 

which he was directed to take with him. Moses' servant in the 
legend is Joshua, and the mysterious young man who guided him 
is generally supposed to be El 'Hxdht himself, rendered immortal 
and supernarurally wise by having found and drunk of the water 
of life. 

1 Literally, 'the two horned;' this personage is generally sup- 
posed to be Alexander the Great, who is so represented on his 
coins. The Mohammedan histories of him, however, contain so 
many gross anachronisms, making him, for instance, a contemporary 
with Moses, Abraham, &c, that it is probable they may have con- 
fused him with some much more ancient traditional conqueror. 

* Probably, as B&ldtevi suggests, the ocean, which, with its dark 
waters, would remind an Arab of such a pool. 



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XVIII, 92-99- THE CHAPTER OF THE CAVE. 25 

stand speech. They said, ' O Dhu 1 Qarnain ! 
verily, Y&fftf and M&gtyr 1 are doing evil in the land. 
Shall we then pay thee tribute, on condition that 
thou set between us and them a rampart ?' He said, 
' What my Lord hath established me in is better ; 
so help me with strength, and I will set between 
you and them a barrier. 

[95] ' Bring me pigs of iron until they fill up the 
space between the two mountain sides.' Said he, 
' Blow until it makes it a fire.' Said he, ' Bring me, 
that I may pour over it, molten brass 2 .' 

So they 3 could not scale it, and they could not 
tunnel it. 

Said he, ' This is a mercy from my Lord ; but 
when the promise of my Lord comes to pass, He 
will make it as dust, for the promise of my Lord 
is true.' 

And we left some of them to surge on that day 4 
over others, and the trumpet will be blown, and 
we will gather them together. 



1 Gog and Magog. The people referred to appear to be tribes 
of the Turkomans, and the rampart itself has been identified with 
some ancient fortifications extending from the west coast of the 
Caspian to the Pontus Euxinus. The word translated mountains 
is the same as that translated rampart a little further on. I have, 
in rendering it mountains, followed the Mohammedan commen- 
tators, whose view is borne out by the subsequent mention of 
mountain sides. 

4 The process here described for repressing the incursions of 
Gog and Magog is the building of a wall of pig iron across the 
opening between the two mountains, fusing this into a compact 
mass of metal, and strengthening it by pouring molten brass over 
the whole. 

* Gog and Magog. 

* On the day of judgment, or, as some think, a little before it. 



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26 THE QURAN. XVIII, IOO-IIO. 

[ioo] And we will set forth hell on that day be- 
fore the misbelievers, whose eyes were veiled from 
my Reminder, and who were unable to hear. What ! 
did those who misbelieve reckon that they could 
take my servants for patrons beside me ? Verily, 
we have prepared hell for the misbelievers to 
alight in ! 

Say, ' Shall we inform you of those who lose most 
by their works ? those who erred in their endeavours 
after the life of this world, and who think they 
are doing good deeds.' 

[105] Those who misbelieve in the signs of their 
Lord and in meeting Him, vain are their works ; 
and we will not give them right weight on the 
resurrection day. That is their reward, — hell ! for 
that they misbelieved and took my signs and my 
apostles as a mockery. 

Verily, those who believe and act aright, for 
them are gardens of Paradise ' to alight in, to dwell 
therein for aye, and they shall crave no change 
therefrom. 

Say, ' Were the sea ink for the words of my 
Lord, the sea would surely fail before the words 
of my Lord fail ; aye, though we brought as much 
ink again !' 

[no] Say, ' I am only a mortal like yourselves ; I 
am inspired that your God is only one God. Then 
let him who hopes to meet his Lord act righteous 
acts, and join none in the service of his Lord.' 

1 Here the Persian word Firdaus is used, which has supplied the 
name to the abode of the blessed in so many languages. 



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xix, i-i2. the chapter of mary. 27 

The Chapter of Mary. 
(XIX. Mecca.) 

In the name of the merciful and compassionate 
God. 

K. H. Y. 'H. Z. The mention of thy Lord's mercy 
to His servant Zachariah, when he called on his Lord 
with a secret calling. Said he, 'My Lord! verily, 
my bones are weak, and my head flares with hoari- 
ness ; — and I never was unfortunate in my prayers 
to Thee, my Lord ! [5] But I fear my heirs after 
me, and my wife is barren ; then grant me from 
Thee a successor, to be my heir and the heir of 
the family of Jacob, and make him, my Lord ! 
acceptable.' 

' O Zachariah ! verily, we give thee glad tidings 
of a son, whose name shall be John. We never 
made a namesake of his before V 

Said he, ' My Lord ! how can I have a son, when 
my wife is barren, and I have reached through old 
age to decrepitude ?' 

[10] He said, 'Thus says thy Lord, It is easy for 
Me, for I created thee at first when yet thou wast 
nothing.' 

Said he, ' O my Lord ! make for me a sign.' 
He said, ' Thy sign is that thou shalt not speak 
to men for three nights (though) sound.' 

Then he went forth unto his people from the 

1 Cf. Luke i. 61, where, however, it is said that none of Zacha- 
riah's kindred was ever before called by that name. Some com- 
mentators avoid the difficulty by interpreting the word samfyyun 
to mean ' deserving of the name.' 



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28 THE QUR'An. XIX, 1205. 

chamber, and he made signs to them : ' Celebrate 
(God's) praises morning and evening!' 

' O John! take the Book with strength ;' and we 
gave him judgment when a boy, and grace from us, 
and purity ; and he was pious and righteous to his 
parents, and was not a rebellious tyrant. 

[15] So peace upon him the day he was born, 
and the day he died, and the day he shall be raised 
up alive. 

And mention, in the Book, Mary; when she re- 
tired from her family into an eastern place ; and 
she took a veil (to screen herself) from them ; and 
we sent unto her our spirit ; and he took for her 
the semblance of a well-made man. Said she, 
' Verily, I take refuge in the Merciful One from 
thee, if thou art pious.' Said he, ' I am only a mes- 
senger of thy Lord to bestow on thee a pure boy.' 

[20] Said she, ' How can I have a boy when no 
man has touched me, and when I am no harlot ?' 
He said, ' Thus says thy Lord, It is easy for Me ! 
and we will make him a sign unto man, and a mercy 
from us ; for it is a decided matter.' 

So she conceived him, and she retired with him 
into a remote place. And the labour pains came upon 
her at the trunk of a palm tree, and she said, 'O 
that I had died before this, and been forgotten out 
of mind!' and he called 1 to her from beneath her, 
'Grieve not, for thy Lord has placed a stream beneath 
thy feet; [25] and shake towards thee the trunk of 
the palm tree, it will drop upon thee fresh dates fit to 



1 Either the infant himself or the angel Gabriel ; or the expres- 
sion 'beneath her' may be rendered 'beneath it,' and may refer 
to the palm tree. 



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i> 



XIX, 25-40. THE CHAPTER OF MARY. 29 

gather ; so eat, and drink, and cheer thine eye ; and 
if thou shouldst see any mortal say, " Verily, I have 
vowed to the Merciful One a fast, and I will not 
speak to-day with a human being." ' 

Then she brought it to her people, carrying it ; 
said they, ' O Mary! thou hast done an extraordinary 
thing ! O sister of Aaron 1 ! thy father was not a 
bad man, nor was thy mother a harlot !' 

[30] And she pointed to him, and they said, ' How 
are we to speak with one who is in the cradle a 
child?' He said, 'Verily, I am a servant of God; 
He has brought me the Book, and He has made 
me a prophet, and He has made me blessed wher- 
ever I be ; and He has required of me prayer and 
almsgiving so long as I live, and piety towards my 

r mother, and has not made me a miserable tyrant ; 
jund peace upon me the day I was born, and the 
day I die, and the day I shall be ra&ed up alive.'' 

[35] That is, Jesus the son of Mary, — by the 
word of truth whereon ye do dispu te |j 

God could not take to himself any son ! celebrated 
be His praise ! when He decrees a matter He only 
says to it, ' BE,' and it is ; and, verily, God is my 
Lord and your Lord, so worship Him ; this is the 
right way. 

And the parties have disagreed amongst them- 
selves, but woe to those who disbelieve, from the 
witnessing of the mighty day! they can hear arid 
they can see 2 , on the day when they shall come 
to us; but the evildoers are to-day in obvious 
error ! 

[40] And warn them of the day of sighing, when 

1 See Part I, note 1, p. 50. a See Part II, note 3, p. 16. 

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> A 



30 THE QURAN. XIX, 40-53. 

the matter is decreed while they are heedless, and 
while they do not believe. 

Verily, we will inherit the earth and all who are 
upon it, and unto us shall they return ! 

And mention, in the Book, Abraham ; verily, he 
was a confessor,— a prophet. When he said to his 
father, ' O my sire ! why dost thou worship what 
can neither hear nor see nor avail thee aught ? O 
my sire! verily, to me has come knowledge which 
has not come to thee ; then follow me, and I will 
guide thee to a level way. 

[45] ' O my sire ! serve not Satan ; verily, Satan 
is ever a rebel against the Merciful. O my sire ! 
verily, I fear that there may touch thee torment 
from the Merciful, and that thou mayest be a client 
of Satan.' 

Said he, ' What ! art thou averse from my gods, 

Abraham ? verily, if thou dost not desist I will 
certainly stone thee; but get thee gone from me 
for a time ! ' 

Said he, ' Peace be upon thee ! I will ask forgive- 
ness for thee from my Lord; verily, He is very 
gracious to me : but I will part from you and what 
ye call on beside God, and will pray my Lord that 

1 be not unfortunate in my prayer to my Lord.' 
[50] And when he had parted from them and 

what they served beside God, we granted him Isaac 
and Jacob, and each of them we made a prophet ; 
and we granted them of our mercy, and we made 
the tongue of truth lofty for them 1 . 

And mention, in the Book, Moses ; verily, he was 
sincere, and was an apostle, — a prophet We called 

1 That is, ' gave them great renown.' 



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XIX, 53-65- THE CHAPTER OF MARY. 3 1 

him from the right side of the mountain; and we 
made him draw nigh unto us to commune with him, 
and we granted him, of our mercy, his brother 
Aaron as a prophet. 

[55] And mention, in the Book, Ishmael; verily, 
he was true to his promise, and was an apostle, — 
a prophet; and he used to bid his people prayers 
and almsgiving, and was acceptable in the sight 
of his Lord. 

And mention, in the Book, Idrls x ; verily, he was 
a confessor, — a prophet ; and we raised him to a 
lofty place. 

These are those to whom God has been gracious, 
of the prophets of the seed of Adam, and of those 
whom we bore with Noah, and of the seed of 
Abraham and Israel, and of those we guided and 
elected; when the signs of the Merciful are read 
to them, they fall down adoring and weeping. 

[60] And successors succeeded them, who lost 
sight of prayer and followed lusts, but they shall 
at length find themselves going wrong, except such 
as repent and believe and act aright ; for these shall 
enter Paradise, and shall not be wronged at all, — 
gardens of Eden, which the Merciful has promised 
to His servants in the unseen; verily, His promise 
ever comes to pass ! 

They shall hear no empty talk therein, but only 
' peace ; ' and they shall have their provision therein, 
morning and evening;, that is Paradise which we 
will give for an inheritance to those of our servants 
who are pious ! 

[65] We do not descend 2 save at the bidding 

1 Generally identified with Enoch. 

* Amongst various conjectures the one most usually accepted 



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32 THE QURAN. XIX, 65-75. 

of thy Lord; His is what is before us, and what 
is behind us, and what is between those; for thy 
Lord is never forgetful, — the Lord of the heavens 
and the earth, and of what is between the two ; then 
serve Him and persevere in His service. Dost 
thou know a namesake of His ? 

Man will say, 'What! when I have died shall 
I then come forth alive ? Does not man then re- 
member that we created him before when he was 
naught?' 

And by thy Lord! we will surely gather them 
together, and the devils too; then we will surely 
bring them forward around hell, on their knees ! 

[70] Then we will drag off from every sect 
whichever of them has been most bold against the 
Merciful. 

Then we know best which of them deserves most 
to be broiled therein. 

There is not one of you who will not go down 
to it, — that is settled and decided by thy Lord x . 

Then we will save those who fear us; but we 
will leave the evildoers therein on their knees. 

And when our signs are recited to them manifest, 
those who misbelieve say to those who believe, 
' Which of the two parties is best placed and in the 
best company?' 

[75] And how many generations before them 



by the Mohammedan commentators is, that these are the words of 
the angel Gabriel, in answer to Mohammed's complaint of long 
intervals elapsing between the periods of revelation. 

1 This is interpreted by some to mean that all souls, good and 
bad, must pass through hell, but that the good will not be harmed. 
Others think it merely refers to the passage of the bridge of 
el Aar&f. 



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XIX, 75-89. THE CHAPTER OF MARY. 33 

have we destroyed who were better off in property 
and appearance ? 

Say, ' Whosoever is in error, let the Merciful ex- 
tend to him length of days! — until they see what 
they are threatened with, whether it be the torment 
or whether it be the Hour, then they shall know 
who is worse placed and weakest in forces ! ' 

And those who are guided God will increase in 
guidance. 

And enduring good works are best with thy Lord 
for a reward, and best for restoration. 

[80] Hast thou seen him who disbelieves in our 
signs, and says, ' I shall surely be given wealth and 
children 1 ?' 

Has he become acquainted with the unseen, or 
has he taken a compact with the Merciful ? Not 
so ! We will write down what he says, and we will 
extend to him a length of torment, and we will make 
him inherit what he says, and he shall come to us 
alone. They take other gods besides God to be 
their glory. [85] Not so! They 2 shall deny their 
worship and shall be opponents of theirs ! 

Dost thou not see that we have sent the devils 
against the misbelievers, to drive them on to sin ? 
but, be not thou hasty with them. Verily, we will 
number them a number (of days), — the day when 
we will gather the pious to the Merciful as ambassa- 
dors, and we will drive the sinners to hell like 

1 'H&sfy ibn WSil, being indebted to 'JIabb&b, refused to pay 
him unless he renounced Mohammed. This 'Habb&b said he 
would never do alive or dead, or when raised again at the last day. 
£1 'Hdsiy told him to call for his money on the last day, as he 
should have wealth and children then. 

a That is, the false gods. 

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34 the qur'An. XIX, 89-XX, 5. 

(herds) to water! [90] They shall not possess 
intercession, save he who has taken a compact with 
the Merciful. 

They say, 'The Merciful has taken to Himself 
a son :' — ye have brought a monstrous thing ! The 
heavens well-nigh burst asunder thereat, and the 
earth is riven, and the mountains fall down broken, 
that they attribute to the Merciful a son! but it 
becomes not the Merciful to take to Himself a son ! 
there is none in the heavens or the earth but comes 
to the Merciful as a servant; He counts them and 
numbers them by number, [95] and they are all 
coming to Him on the resurrection day singly. 

Verily, those who believe and act aright, to them 
the Merciful will give love. 

We have only made it easy for thy tongue that 
thou mayest thereby give glad tidings to the pious, 
and warn thereby a contentious people. 

How many a generation before them have we 
destroyed ? Canst thou find any one of them, or 
hear a whisper of them ? 



The Chapter of T. H. 
(XX. Mecca.) 

In the name of the merciful and compassionate 
God. 

T. H. We have not sent down this Qur'an to 
thee that thou shouldst be wretched; only as a 
reminder to him who fears — descending from Him 
who created the earth and the high heavens, the 
Merciful settled on the throne! [5] His are what 



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XX, 5-19- THE CHAPTER OF T. H. 35 

is in the heavens, and what is in the earth, and 
what is between the two, and what is beneath the 
ground! And if thou art public in thy speech — 
yet, verily, he knows the secret, and more hidden 
still. 

God, there is no god but He! His are the ex- 
cellent names. 

Has the story of Moses come to thee ? When 
he saw the fire and said to his family, ' Tarry ye ; 
verily, I perceive a fire ! [10] Haply I may bring 
you therefrom a brand, or may find guidance by the 
fire V And when he came to it he was called to, 
' O Moses ! verily, I am thy Lord, so take off thy 
sandals ; verily, thou art in the holy valley Tuva, 
and I have chosen thee. So listen to what is in- 
spired thee; verily, I am God, there is no god 
but Me ! then serve Me, and be steadfast in prayer 
to remember Me. 

[15] 'Verily, the hour is coming, I almost make 
it appear 2 , that every soul may be recompensed 
for its efforts. 

' Let not then him who believes not therein and 
follows his lusts ever turn thee away therefrom, and 
thou be ruined. 

'What is that in thy right hand, O Moses ?' 

Said he, 'It is my staff on which I lean, and 



1 The Arabs used to light fires to guide travellers to shelter and 
entertainment. These fires, 'the fire of hospitality,' 'the fire of 
war,' &c. are constantly referred to in the ancient Arabic poetry. 
No less than thirteen fires are enumerated by them. 

a This may be also rendered, 'I almost conceal it (from myself) ;' 
i'Afi'un having, like many words in Arabic, two meanings directly 
opposite to each other. This probably arose from words being 
adopted into the Quralr idiom from other dialects. 

D 2 



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36 THE QUR AN. XX, 19.39. 

wherewith I beat down leaves for my flocks, and 
for which I have other uses.' 

[20] Said He, 'Throw it down, O Moses!' and 
he threw it down, and behold ! it was a snake that 
moved about. 

Said He, 'Take hold of it and fear not; we will 
restore it to its first state. 

' But press thy hand to thy side, it shall come 
forth white without harm, — another sign! to show 
thee of our great signs ! 

[25] 'Go unto Pharaoh, verily, he is outrageous!' 

Said he, ' My Lord ! expand for me my breast ; 
and make what I am bidden easy to me ; and loose 
the knot from my tongue 1 , that they may under- 
stand my speech ; [30] and make for me a minister 2 
from my people, — Aaron my brother; gird up my 
loins through him 3 , and join him with me in the 
affair; that we may celebrate Thy praises much 
and remember Thee much. 

[35] 'Verily, Thou dost ever behold us!' 

He said, ' Thou art granted thy request, O Moses! 
and we have already shown favours unto thee at 
another time. When we inspired thy mother with 
what we inspired her, " Hurl him into the ark, 
and hurl him into the sea; and the sea shall cast 
him on the shore, and an enemy of mine and of 
his shall take him ;" — for on thee have I cast my 

1 The Muslim legend is that Moses burnt his tongue with a live 
coal when a child. This incident is related at length, together with 
other Mohammedan legends connected with Moses and the Exodus, 
in my ' Desert of the Exodus,' Appendix C. p. 533. Transl. 

2 Literally, vizfr, 'vizier,' 'one who bears the burden' of office. 
* I.e. 'strengthen me.' The idiom is still in common use 

amongst the desert Arabs. 



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XX, 39-54- THE CHAPTER OF T. H. 37 

love, [40] that thou mayest be formed under my 
eye. When thy sister walked on and said, " Shall 
I guide you to one who will take charge of him ?" 
And we restored thee to thy mother, that her eye 
might be cheered and that she should not grieve. And 
thou didst slay a person and we saved thee from 
the trouble, and we tried thee with various trials. 
And thou didst tarry for years amongst the people 
of Midian ; then thou didst come (hither) at (our) 
decree, O Moses ! And I have chosen thee for 
myself. Go, thou and thy brother, with my signs, 
and be not remiss in remembering me. [45] Go 
ye both to Pharaoh ; verily, he is outrageous ! and 
speak to him a gentle speech, haply he may be 
mindful or may fear.' 

They two said, ' Our Lord ! verily, we fear that 
he may trespass against us, or that he may be 
outrageous.' 

He said, ' Fear not ; Verily, I am with you twain. 
I hear and see ! 

1 So come ye to him and say, " Verily, we are the 
apostles of thy Lord; send then the children of 
Israel with us ; and do not torment them. We have 
brought thee a sign from thy Lord, and peace be 
upon him who follows the guidance ! 

[50] ' " Verily, we are inspired that the torment 
will surely come upon him who calls us liars and 
turns his back."' 

Said he, 'And who is your Lord, O Moses ?' 

He said, ' Our Lord is He who gave everything 
its creation, then guided it' 

Said he, ' And what of the former generations ?' 

He said, ' The knowledge of them is with my 
Lord in a book ; my Lord misleads not, nor forgets ! 



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38 the our' An. XX, 55-67. 

[55] Who made for you the earth a bed; and has 
traced for you paths therein ; and has sent down 
from the sky water, — and we have brought forth 
thereby divers sorts of different vegetables. Eat 
and pasture your cattle therefrom; verily, in that 
are signs to those endued with intelligence. From 
it have we created you and into it will we send you 
back, and from it will we bring you forth another 
time.' 

We did show him our signs, all of them, but 
he called them lies and did refuse. 

Said he, ' Hast thou come to us, to turn us out 
of our land with thy magic, O Moses ? [60] Then 
we will bring you magic like it ; and we will make 
between us and thee an appointment; we will not 
break it, nor do thou either; — a fair place.' 

Said he, ' Let your appointment be for the day 
of adornment 1 , and let the people assemble in the 
forenoon V 

But Pharaoh turned his back, and collected his 
tricks, and then he came. 

Said Moses to them, ' Woe to you ! do not forge 
against God a lie ; lest He destroy you by torment ; 
for disappointed has ever been he who has forged.' 

[65] And they argued their matter among them- 
selves ; and secretly talked it over. 

Said they, ' These twain are certainly two ma- 
gicians, who wish to turn you out of your land 
by their magic, and to remove your most exemplary 
doctrine 3 . Collect therefore your tricks, and then 

1 I. e. the festival. 

2 In order that they might all see. 

s Or, ' your most eminent men,' as some commentators interpret 
it, i.e. the children of Israel. 

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XX, 67-76. THE CHAPTER OF T. H. 39 

form a row ; for he is prosperous to-day who has 
the upper hand.' 

Said they, ' O Moses ! either thou must throw, or 
we must be the first to throw.' 

He said, 'Nay, throw ye!' and lo! their ropes 
and their staves appeared to move along. [70] And 
Moses felt a secret fear within his soul. 

Said we, ' Fear not ! thou shalt have the upper 
hand. Throw down what is in thy right hand; 
and it shall devour what they have made. Verily, 
what they have made is but a magician's trick ; 
and no magician shall prosper wherever he comes.' 

And the magicians were cast down in adoration ; 
said they, ' We believe in the Lord of Aaron and of 
Moses ! ' 

Said he 1 , ' Do ye believe in Him before I give 
you leave ? Verily, he is your master who taught 
you magic ! Therefore will I surely cut off your 
hands and feet on alternate sides, and I will surely 
crucify you on the trunks of palm trees; and ye 
shall surely know which of us is keenest at torment 
and more lasting.' 

[75] Said they, ' We will never prefer thee to what 
has come to us of manifest signs, and to Him who 
originated us. Decide then what thou canst decide ; 
thou canst only decide in the life of this world ! 
Verily, we believe in our Lord, that He may pardon 
us our sins, and the magic thou hast forced us to 
use ; and God is better and more lasting !' 

Verily, he who comes to his Lord a sinner, — 
verily, for him is hell ; he shall not die therein, and 
shall not live. 

1 Pharaoh. 



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9 A, 



40 THE QUR AN. XX, 77-88. 

But he who comes to Him a believer who has 
done aright — these, for them are the highest ranks, 
— gardens of Eden beneath which rivers flow, to 
dwell therein for aye; for that is the reward of 
him who keeps pure. 

And we inspired Moses, ' Journey by night with 
my servants, and strike out for them a dry road in 
the sea. [80] Fear not pursuit, nor be afraid!' 
Then Pharaoh followed them with his armies, and 
there overwhelmed them of the sea that which over- 
whelmed them. And Pharaoh and his people went 
astray and were not guided. 

O children of Israel ! We have saved you from 
your enemy; and we made an appointment with 
you on the right side of the mount ; and we sent 
down upon you the manna and the quails. ' Eat of 
the good things we have provided you with, and do 
not exceed therein, lest my wrath light upon you; 
for whomsoever my wrath lights upon he falls ! 

'Yet am I forgiving unto him who repents and 
believes and does right, and then is guided. 

[85] ' But what has hastened thee on away from 
thy people, O Moses ? ' 

He said, ' They were here upon my track and I 
hastened on to Thee, my Lord ! that thou mightest 
be pleased.' 

Said He, ' Verily, we have tried thy people, since 
thou didst leave, and es Samariy 1 has led them 
astray/ 

And Moses returned to his people, wrathful, 
grieving ! 



1 I. e. the Samaritan ; some take it to mean a proper name, in 
order to avoid the anachronism. 



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XX, 8p-9<5- THE CHAPTER OF T. H. 4 1 

Said he, ' O my people ! did not your Lord pro- 
mise you a good promise ? Has the time seemed 
too long for you, or do you desire that wrath 
should light on you from your Lord, that ye have 
broken your promise to me ?' 

[90] They said, ' We have not broken our promise 
to thee of our own accord. But we were made to 
carry loads of the ornaments of the people, and 
we hurled them down, and so did es Samarly cast ; 
and he brought forth for the people a corporeal 
calf which lowed.' And they said, ' This is your 
god and the god of Moses, but he has forgotten!' 
What! do they not see that it does not return 
them any speech, and cannot control for them harm 
or profit? Aaron too told them before, 'O my 
people ! ye are only being tried thereby ; and, verily, 
your Lord is the Merciful, so follow me and obey 
my bidding.' 

They said, 'We will not cease to pay devotion 
to it until Moses come back to us.' 

Said he, ' O Aaron ! what prevented thee, when 
thou didst see them go astray, from following me ? 
Hast thou then rebelled against my bidding ?' 

[95] Said he, ' O son of my mother! seize me 
not by my beard, or my head! Verily, I feared 
lest thou shouldst say, " Thou hast made a divi- 
sion amongst the children of Israel, and hast not 
observed my word." ' 

Said he, ' What was thy design, O Samarly ?' 
Said he, ' I beheld what they beheld not, and I 
grasped a handful from the footprint of the mes- 
senger 1 and cast it ; for thus my soul induced me.' 

1 A handful of dust from the footprint of the angel Gabriel's 



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42 THE QUR'An. XX, 97-105. 

Said he, ' Then get thee gone ; verily, it shall be 
thine in life to say, "Touch me not 1 !" and, verily, for 
thee there is a threat which thou shalt surely never 
alter. But look at thy god to which thou wert just 
now devout ; we will surely burn it, and then we 
_jBwill scatter it in scattered pieces in the sea. 

' Your God is only God who, — there is no god 
but He, — He embraceth everything in His know- 
ledge.' 

Thus do we narrate to thee the history of what 
has gone before, and we have brought thee a re- 
minder from us. 

[100] Whoso turns therefrom, verily, he shall 
bear on the resurrection day a burden : — for them to 
bear for aye, and evil for them on the resurrection 
day will it be to bear. 

On the day when the trumpet shall be blown, 
and we will gather the sinners in that day blue- 
eyed 2 . 

They shall whisper to each other, ' Ye have only 
tarried ten days.' We know best what they say, 
when the most exemplary of them in his way shall 
say, ' Ye have only tarried a day.' 

[105] They will ask thee about the mountains; 

horse, which, being cast into the calf, caused it to become animated 
and to low. 

1 The idea conveyed seems to be that he should be regarded as 
a leper, and obliged to warn people from coming near him. The 
reference is no doubt to the light in which the Samaritans (see 
Part II, p. 40, note 1) were regarded by the Jews. 

* Because ' blue eyes ' were especially detested by the Arabs as 
being characteristic of their greatest enemies, the Greeks. So they 
speak of an enemy as ' black-livered,' ' red- whiskered,' and 'blue- 
eyed.' The word in the text may also mean 'blear-eyed,' or 
'blind.' 



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XX, I05-H5- THE CHAPTER OF T. H. 43 

say, ' My Lord will scatter them in scattered 
pieces, and He will leave them a level plain, thou 
wilt see therein no crookedness or inequality.' 

On that day they shall follow the caller in whom 
is no crookedness * ; and the voices shall be hushed 
before the Merciful, and thou shalt hear naught but 
a shuffling. 

On that day shall no intercession be of any avail, 
save from such as the Merciful permits, and who is 
acceptable to Him in speech. 

He knows what is before them and what is be- 
hind them, but they do not comprehend knowledge 
of Him. 

[no] Faces shall be humbled before the Living, 
the Self-subsistent ; and he who bears injustice is 
ever lost. 

But he who does righteous acts and is a believer, 
he shall fear neither wrong nor diminution^ / 

Thus have we sent it down an Arabic Quran ; 
and we have turned about in it the threat, — 
haply they may fear, or it may cause them to 
remember. 

Exalted then be God, the king, the truth! 
Hasten not the Qur'an before its inspiration is 
decided for thee; but say, 'O Lord! increase me 
in knowledge 2 .' 

We did make a covenant with Adam of yore, 
but he forgot it, and we found no firm purpose 
in him. 

[115] And when we said to the angels, 'Adore 



1 That is, the angel who is to summon them to judgment, and 
from whom none can escape, or who marches straight on. 
* Cf. Part II, p. 16, note 2. 



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44 THE QUr'AN. XX, 115-128. 

Adam,' they adored, save Iblls, who refused. And 
we said, ' O Adam ! verily, this is a foe to thee 
and to thy wife ; never then let him drive you twain 
forth from the garden or thou wilt be wretched. 
Verily, thou hast not to be hungry there, nor 
naked ! and, verily, thou shalt not thirst therein, 
nor feel the noonday heat !' 

But the devil whispered to him. Said he, ' O 
Adam ! shall I guide thee to the tree of immortality, 
and a kingdom that shall not wane ?' 

And they eat therefrom, and their shame became 
apparent to them ; and they began to stitch upon 
themselves some leaves of the garden ; and Adam 
rebelled against his Lord, and went astray. 

[120] Then his Lord chose him, and relented 
towards him, and guided him. Said he, ' Go down, 
ye twain, therefrom altogether, some of you foes 
to the other. And if there should come to you 
from me a guidance ; then whoso follows my guid- 
ance shall neither err nor be wretched. But he 
who turns away from my reminder, verily, for him 
shall be a straitened livelihood ; and we will gather 
him on the resurrection day blind ! ' 

[125] He shall say, 'My Lord! wherefore hast 
Thou gathered me blind when I used to see ?' He 
shall say, ' Our signs came to thee, and thou didst 
forget them ; thus to-day art thou forgotten !' 

Thus do we recompense him who is extravagant 
and believes not in the signs of his Lord ; and 
the torment of the hereafter is keener and more 
lasting ! 

Does it not occur to them 1 Jiow many generations 

1 The Meccans. 



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XX, 128-135- THE CHAPTER OF T. H. 45 

we have destroyed before them ? — they walk in 
their very dwelling-places ; verily, in that are signs 
to those endued with intelligence. 

And had it not been for thy Lord's word already 
passed (the punishment) would have been inevitable 
and (at) an appointed time. 

[130] Bear patiently then what they say, and 
celebrate the praises of thy Lord before the rising 
of the sun, and before its setting, and at times in 
the night celebrate them ; and at the ends of the 
day ; haply thou mayest please (Him). 

And do not strain after what we have provided 
a few * of them with — the flourish of the life of this 
world, to try them by ; but the provision of thy 
Lord is better and more lasting. 

Bid thy people prayer, and persevere in it ; we do 
not ask thee to provide. We will provide, and the 
issue shall be to piety. 

They say, ' Unless he bring us a sign from his 
Lord — What! has there not come to them the 
manifest sign of what was in the pages of yore ?' 

But had we destroyed them with torment before 
it, they would have said, 'Unless Thou hadst sent to 
us an apostle, that we might follow Thy signs be- 
fore we were abased and put to shame.' 

[135] Say, 'Each one has to wait, so wait ye! 
but in the end ye shall know who are the fellows of 
the level way, and who are guided!' 

1 Literally, ' pairs.' 



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46 THE QURAN. XXI, 1-13 



The Chapter of the Prophets. 
(XXI. Mecca.) 

In the name of the merciful and compassionate 
God. 

Their reckoning draws nigh to men, yet in heed- 
lessness they turn aside. 

No reminder comes to them from their Lord of 
late, but they listen while they mock, and their 
hearts make sport thereof! And those who do 
wrong discourse secretly (saying), ' Is this man aught 
but a mortal like yourselves ? will ye accede to 
magic, while ye can see ?' 

Say, ' My Lord knows what is said in the heavens 
and the earth, He hears and knows!' 

[5] ' Nay !' they say, ' — a jumble of dreams ; 
nay ! he has forged it ; nay ! he is a poet ; but let 
him bring us a sign as those of yore were sent.' 

No city before them which we destroyed be- 
lieved — how will they believe ? Nor did we send 
before them any but men whom we inspired ? Ask 
ye the people of the Scriptures if ye do not know. 
Nor did we make them bodies not to eat food, nor 
were they immortal. Yet we made our promise 
to them good, and we saved them and whom we 
pleased ; but we destroyed those who committed 
excesses. 

[10] We have sent down to you a book in which 
is a reminder for you ; have ye then no sense ? 

How many a city which had done wrong have 
we broken up, and raised up after it another people! 
And when they perceived our violence they ran 
away from it. ' Run not away, but return to what 



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XXI, 13-36. THE CHAPTER OF THE PROPHETS. 47 

ye delighted in, and to your dwellings ! haply ye 
will be questioned.' Said they, 'O woe is us! 
verily, we were wrong-doers.' 

[15] And that ceased not to be their cry until we 
made them mown down, — smouldering out! 

We did not create the heaven and the earth and 
what is between the two in play. Had we wished 
to take to a sport, we would have taken to one from 
before ourselves; had we been bent on doing so. 
Nay, we hurl the truth against falsehood and it 
crashes into it, and lo ! it vanishes, but woe to you 
for what ye attribute (to God) ! 

His are whosoever are in the heavens and the 
earth, and those who are with Him are not too big 
with pride for His service, nor do they weary. 
[20] They celebrate His praises by night and day 
without intermission. Or have they taken gods 
from the earth who can raise up (the dead) ? 

Were there in both (heaven and earth) gods 
beside God, both would surely have been corrupted. 
Celebrated then be the praise of God, the Lord of 
the throne, above what they ascribe ! 

He shall not be questioned concerning what He 
does, but they shall be questioned. 

Have they taken gods beside Him ? Say, ' Bring 
your proofs. This is the reminder of those who are 
with me, and of those who were before me.' Nay, 
most of them know not the truth, and they do 
turn aside. 

[25] We have not sent any prophet before thee, 
but we inspired him that, 'There is no god but Me, 
so serve ye Me.' 

And they say, ' The Merciful has taken a son } ; 

1 Or, child, since the passage refers both to the Christian 

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48 THE QUr'aN. XXI, 26-37. 

celebrated be His praise!' — Nay, honoured servants ; 
they do not speak until He speaks ; but at His 
bidding do they act. He knows what is before 
them, and what is behind them, and they shall not 
intercede except for him whom He is pleased with ; 
and they shrink through fear. 

[30] And whoso of them should say, 'Verily, I 
am god instead of Him,' such a one we recom- 
pense with hell; thus do we recompense the 
wrong-doers. 

Do not those who misbelieve see that the heavens 
and the earth were both solid, and we burst them 
asunder; and we made from water every living 
thing — will they then not believe ? 

And we placed on the earth firm mountains lest 
it should move with them, and He made therein 
open roads for paths, haply they may be guided! 
and we made the heaven a guarded roof; yet from 
our signs they turn aside ! 

He it is who created the night and the day, and 
the sun and the moon, each floating in a sky. 

[35] We never made for any mortal before thee 
immortality; what, if thou shouldst die, will they live 
on for aye ? 

Every soul shall taste of death! we will test 
them with evil and with good, as a trial ; and unto 
us shall they return ! 

And when those who misbelieve see thee 1 , they 
only take thee for a jest, ' Is this he who mentions 
your gods ?' Yet they at the mention of the Merci- 
ful do disbelieve. 

doctrine and to the Arab notion that the angels are daughters 
of God. 

1 Mohammed. 



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XXI, 38-48. THE CHAPTER OF THE PROPHETS. 49 

Man is created out of haste. I will show you 
my signs ; but do not hurry Me. 

And they say, ' When will this threat (come to 
pass), if ye tell the truth ?' 

[40] Did those who misbelieve but know when 
the fire shall not be warded off from their faces 
nor from their backs, and they shall not be helped ! 
Nay, it shall come on them suddenly, and shall 
dumbfounder them, and they shall not be able to 
repel it, nor shall they be respited. 

Prophets before thee have been mocked at, but 
that whereat they jested encompassed those who 
mocked. 

Say, ' Who shall guard you by night and by day 
from the Merciful ?' Nay, but they from the men- 
tion of their Lord do turn aside. 

Have they gods to defend them against us ? 
These cannot help themselves, nor shall they be 
abetted against us. 

[45] Nay, but we have granted enjoyment to 
these men and to their fathers whilst life was pro- 
longed. Do they not see that we come to the 
land and shorten its borders ? Shall they then 
prevail ? 

Say, ' I only warn you by inspiration ; ' but the 
deaf hear not the call when they are warned. But 
if a blast of the torment of thy Lord touches them, 
they will surely say, ' O, woe is us ! verily, we were 
wrong-doers!' 

We will place just balances upon the resurrection 
day, and no soul shall be wronged at all, even 
though it be the weight of a grain of mustard seed, 
we will bring it ; for we are good enough at 
reckoning up. 

[9] E 

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50 THE QUR'AN. XXI, 49-66. 

We did give to Moses and Aaron the Discrimina- 
tion, and a light and a reminder to those who 
fear ; [50] who are afraid of their Lord in secret ; 
and who at the Hour do shrink. 

This is a blessed reminder which we have sent 
down, will ye then deny it ? 

And we gave Abraham a right direction before ; 
for about him we knew. When he said to his 
father and to his people, 'What are these images 
to which ye pay devotion ?' Said they, ' We found 
our fathers serving them.' [55] Said he, ' Both 
you and your fathers have been in obvious error.' 
They said, * Dost thou come to us with the truth, 
or art thou but of those who play ? ' 

He said, 'Nay, but your Lord is Lord of the 
heavens and the earth, which He originated ; and I 
am of those who testify to this ; and, by God ! 
I will plot against your idols after ye have turned 
and shown me your backs !' 

So he brake them all in pieces, except a large 
one they had; that haply they might refer it to 
that. 

[60] Said they, 'Who has done this with our 
gods ? verily, he is of the wrong-doers !' They said, 
'We heard a youth mention them who is called 
Abraham.' 

Said they, ' Then bring him before the eyes of 
men; haply they will bear witness.' 

Said they, 'Was it thou who did this to our 
gods, O Abraham ?' Said he, ' Nay, it was this 
largest of them ; but ask them, if they can 
speak.' 

[65] Then they came to themselves and said, 
' Verily, ye are the wrongdoers.' Then they turned 



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XXI, 66-76. THE CHAPTER OF THE PROPHETS. 5 1 

upside down again 1 : ' Thou knewest that these 
cannot speak.' 

Said he, 'Will ye then serve, beside God, what 
cannot profit you at all, nor harm you ? fie upon 
you, and what ye serve beside God ! have ye then 
no sense ?' 

Said they, ' Burn him, and help your gods, if ye 
are going to do so!' 

We said, ' O fire ! be thou cool and a safety for 
Abraham!' 

[70] They desired to plot against him, but we 
made them the losers. 

And we brought him and Lot safely to the land 
which we have blessed for the world, and we be- 
stowed upon him Isaac and Jacob as a fresh gift, 
and each of them we made righteous persons ; and 
we made them high priests 2 to guide (men) by our 
bidding, and we inspired them to do good works, 
and to be steadfast in prayer, and to give alms ; and 
they did serve us. 

And Lot, to him we gave judgment and know- 
ledge, and we brought him safely out of the city 
which had done vile acts; verily, they were a 
people who wrought abominations ! [75] And we 
made him enter into our mercy ;• verily, he was of 
the righteous! 

And Noah, when he cried aforetime, and we 
answered him and saved him and his people from 
the mighty trouble, and we helped him against 
the people who said our signs were lies ; verily, 

1 Literally, 'they turned upside down upon their heads,' the 
metaphor implying that they suddenly changed their opinio^ 
relapsed into belief in their idols. 

* See Part I, p. 17, note 1. 

zCA Google 



52 THE QURAN. XXI, 76-84. 

they were a bad people, so we drowned them 
all together. 

And David and Solomon, when they gave judg- 
ment concerning the field, when some people's sheep 
had strayed therein at night; and we testified to 
their judgment 1 ; and this we gave Solomon to 
understand. To each of them we gave judgment 
and knowledge ; and to David we subjected the 
mountains to celebrate our praises, and the birds 
too, — it was we who did it 2 . 

[80] And we taught him the art of making coats 
of mail for you, to shield you from each other's 
violence ; are ye then grateful ? 

And to Solomon (we subjected) the wind blowing 
stormily, to run on at his bidding to the land 3 which 
we, have blessed, — for all things did we know, — and 
some devils to dive for him, and to do other works 
beside that ; and we kept guard over them. 

And Job, when he cried to his Lord, 'As for me, 
harm has touched me, but Thou art the most 
merciful of the merciful ones.' And we answered 

1 This case, say the commentators, being brought before David 
and Solomon, David said that the owner of the field should take 
the sheep in compensation for the damage ; but Solomon, who 
was only eleven years old at the time, gave judgment that the 
owner of the field should enjoy the produce of the sheep — that is, 
their milk, wool, and lambs — until the shepherd had restored the 
field to its former state of cultivation, and this judgment was ap- 
proved by David. 

8 This legend, adopted from the Talmud, arises from a too 
literal interpretation of Psalm cxlviii. 

* The legend of Solomon, his seal inscribed with the holy name 
by which he could control all the powers of nature, his carpet or 
throne that used to be transported with him on the wind wherever 
he pleased, his power over the ^ginns, and his knowledge of the lan- 
guage of birds and beasts are commonplaces in Arabic writings. 



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XXI, 84-92- THE CHAPTER OF THE PROPHETS. 53 

him, and removed from him the distress that was 
upon him; and we gave his family, and the like 
of them with them, as a mercy from us, and a 
remembrance to those who serve us. 

[85] And Ishmael, and IdrJs, and Dhu '1 Kifl 1 , 
all of these were of the patient : and we made them 
enter into our mercy; verily, they were among the 
righteous. 

And Dhu 'nnun 2 , when he went away in wrath 
and thought that we had no power over him ; and 
he cried out in the darkness, ' There is no god but 
Thou, celebrated be Thy praise! Verily, I was of the 
evildoers!' And we answered him, and saved him 
from the trouble. Thus do we save believers ! 

And Zachariah, when he cried unto his Lord, ' O 
Lord ! leave me not alone ; for thou art the best of 
heirs V [90] Arid we answered him, and bestowed 
upon him John; and we made his wife right for 
him; verily, these vied in good works, and called 
on us with longing and dread, and were humble 
before us. 

And she who guarded her private parts, and we 
breathed into her of our Spirit, and we made her 
and her son a sign unto the worlds. Verily, this 
your nation 4 is one nation; and I am your Lord, 
so serve me. 

1 That is, Elias, or, as some say, Joshua, and some say Zacha- 
riah, so called because he had a portion from God Most High, 
and guaranteed his people, or because he had double the work of 
the prophets of his time and their reward; the word Kifl 
being used in the various senses of ' portion,' ' sponsorship/ and 
'double.'— BiidAM. 

3 Literally, ' he of the fish,' that is, Jonah. 

8 See Part II, p. 27. 

* The word 'ummatun' is here used in the sense rather of 



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' *- 



54 THE QURAN. XXI, 93-103. 

But they cut up their affair amongst themselves ; 
they all shall return to us ; and he who acts aright, 
and he who is a believer, there is no denial of his 
efforts, for, verily, we will write them down for 
him. 

[95] There is a ban upon a city which we have 
destroyed that they shall not return, until Ya^u^ - 
and Ma^f are let out 1 , and they from every hum- 
mock 2 shall glide forth. 

And the true promise draws nigh, and lo! they 
are staring — the eyes of those who misbelieve ! O, 
woe is us ! we were heedless of this, nay, we were 
wrong-doers ! 

Verily, ye, and what ye serve beside God, shall 
be the pebbles of hell 3 , to it shall ye go down ! 

Had these been God's they would not have gone 
down thereto : but all shall dwell therein for" aye ; 
[100] for them therein is groaning, but they therein 
shall not be heard. 

Verily, those for whom the good (reward) from 
us was fore-ordained, they from it shall be kept far 
away; they shall not hear the slightest sound thereof, 
and they in what their souls desire shall dwell for 
aye. The greatest terror shall not grieve them ; and 
the angels shall meet them, (saying), ' This is your 
day which ye were promised !' 



' religion,' regarding the various nations and generations as each 
professing and representing a particular faith, and means that the 
religion preached to the Meccans was the same as that preached 
to their followers by the various prophets who are mentioned in 
this chapter. 

1 See Part II, p. 25. 

2 'Hadab, some read ^adath, ' grave.' 
* See Part I, p. 4, 1. 1. 



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XXI.I04-H3. THE CHAPTER OF THE PROPHETS. 55 

The day when we will roll up the heavens as 
es-Si^ill rolls up the books * ; as we produced it 
at -its first creation will we bring it back again — 
a promise binding upon us; verily, we are going 
to do it. And already have we written in the 
Psalms [105] after the reminder that 'the earth 
shall my righteous servants inherit 2 .' 

Verily, in this is preaching for a' people who 
serve me ! 

We have only sent thee as a mercy to the 
worlds. 

Say, ' I am only inspired that your God is one 
God ; are ye then resigned ?' But if they turn their 
backs say, ' I have proclaimed (war) against all alike, 
but I know not if what ye are threatened with be 
near or far!' 

[no] Verily, He knows what is spoken openly, 
and He knows what ye hide. 

I know not, haply it is a trial for you and a 
provision for a season. 

Say, ' My Lord ! judge thou with truth ! and our 
Lord is the Merciful whom we ask for aid against 
what they ascribe ! ' 

1 Es-Si^ill is the name of the angel who has charge of the book 
on which each human being's fate is written, which book he rolls 
up at a person's death. The word, however, may mean a scroll or 
register, and the passage may be rendered, 'like the rolling up of a 
scroll for writings.' 

8 Psalm xxxvii. 29. 



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56 THE QUR AN. XXII, 1-6. 



The Chapter of the Pilgrimage. 
(XXII. Mecca.) 

) In the name of the merciful and compassionate 
' God. 

O ye folk J fear your Lord. Verily, the earth- 
quake of the Hour is a mighty thing. 

On the day ye shall see it, every suckling woman 
shall be scared away from that to which she gave 
suck; and every pregnant woman shall lay down 
her load ; and thou shalt see men drunken, though 
they be not drunken : but the torment of God is 
severe. 

And amongst men is one who wrangles about 
God without knowledge, and follows every rebellious 
devil ; against whom it is written down that whoso 
takes him for a patron, verily, he will lead him 
astray, and will guide him towards the torment of 
the blaze ! 

[5] O ye folk! if ye are in doubt about the raising 
(of the dead), — verily, we created you from earth, 
then from a clot, then from congealed blood, then 
from a morsel, shaped or shapeless, that we may 
explain to you. And we make what we please 
rest in the womb until an appointed time ; then 
we bring you forth babes ; then let you reach your 
full age ; and of you are some who die ; and of you 
are some who are kept back till the most decrepit 
age, till he knows no longer aught of knowledge. 
And ye see the earth parched, and when we send 
down water on it, it stirs and swells, and brings 
forth herbs of every beauteous kind. 

That is because God, He is the truth, and because 



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( torn 



XXII, 6-17. THE CHAPTER OF THE PILGRIMAGE. 57 

He quickens the dead, and because He is mighty 
over all ; and because the Hour is coming, there 
is no doubt therein, and because God raises up 
those who are in the tombs. 

And amongst men is one who wrangles about 
God without knowledge or guidance or an illu- 
minating book; twisting his neck from the way 
of God ; for him is disgrace in this world, and we 
will make him taste, upon the resurrection day, the 
torment of burning. 

10] That is for what thy hands have done before, 
and for that God is not unjust unto His servants. 

And amongst men is one who serves God 
(wavering) on a brink; and if there befall him 
good, he is comforted ; but if there befall him a trial, 
he turns round again, and loses this world and the 
next — that is an obvious loss. He calls, besides God, 
on what can neither harm him nor profit him; — that 
is a wide error. 

He calls on him whose harm is nigher than his 
profit,— a bad lord and a bad comrade. 

Verily, God makes those who believe and do 
aright enter into gardens beneath which rivers flow ; 
verily, God does what He will. 

[15] He who thinks that God will never help him 
in this world or the next — let him stretch a cord to 
the roof 1 and put an end to himself; and let him 
cut it and see if his stratagem will remove what he 
is enraged at 

Thus have we sent down manifest signs; for, 
verily, God guides whom He will. 

Verily, -those who believe, and those who are 

1 The word may also be rendered ' sky.' 



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58 the qur'An. XXII, 17-26. 

Jews, and the Sabseans, and the Christians, and 
the Magians, and those who join other gods with 
God, verily, God will decide between them on the 
resurrection day ; verily, God is witness over all. 

Do they not see that God, whosoever is in the 
heavens adores Him, and whosoever is in the earth, 
and the sun, and the moon, and the stars, and the 
mountains, and the beasts, and many among men, 
though many a one deserves the torments ? 

Whomsoever God abases there is none to honour 
him ; verily, God does what He pleases. 

[20] These are two disputants 1 who dispute about 
their Lord, but those who misbelieve, for them are 
cut out garments of fire, there shall be poured over 
their heads boiling water, wherewith what is in their 
bellies shall be dissolved and their skins too, and for 
them are maces of iron. Whenever they desire to 
come forth therefrom through pain, they are sent 
back into it : ' And taste ye the torment of the 
burning!' 

Verily, God will make those who believe and do 
right enter into gardens beneath which rivers flow ; 
they shall be bedecked therein with bracelets of gold 
and with pearls, and their garments therein shall be 
of silk, and they shall be guided to the goodly speech, 
and they shall be guided to the laudable way. 

[25] Verily, those who misbelieve and who turn 
men away from God's path and the Sacred Mosque, 
which we have made for all men alike, the dweller 
therein, and the stranger, and he who desires therein 
profanation with injustice, we will make him taste 
grievous woe. 

1 Namely, the believers and the misbelievers. 



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XXII, 37-33- THE CHAPTER OF THE PILGRIMAGE. 59 

And when we established for Abraham the place 
of the House, (saying), ' Associate naught with me, 
but cleanse my House for those who make the 
circuits, for those who stand to pray, for those who 
bow, and for those too who adore. 

' And proclaim amongst men the Pilgrimage ; let 
them come to you on foot and on every slim camel, 
from every deep pass, that they may witness advan- 
tages for them, and may mention the name of God 
for the stated days 1 over what God has provided 
them with of brute beasts, then eat thereof and feed 
the badly off, the poor. 

[30] ' Then let them finish the neglect of their 
persons 2 , and let them pay their vows and make the 
circuit round the old House. 

' That do. And whoso magnifies the sacred things 
of God it is better for him with his Lord. 

' Cattle are lawful for you, except what is recited to 
you ; and avoid the abomination of idols, and avoid 
speaking falsely, being 'Hanlfs to God, not asso- 
ciating aught with Him ; for he who associates aught 
with God, it is as though he had fallen from heaven, 
and the birds snatch him up, or the wind blows him 
away into a far distant place. 

' That — and he who makes grand the symbols 3 of 
God, they come from piety of heart. 



1 The first ten days of Dhu '1 'Higg'eh, or the tenth day of that 
month, when the sacrifices were offered in the vale of Mini, and 
the three following days. 

a Such as not shaving their heads and other parts of their 
bodies, or cutting their beards and nails, which are forbidden the 
pilgrim from the moment he has put on the I'hram, or pilgrim 
garb, until the offering of the sacrifice at Mini. 

' This means by presenting fine and comely offerings. 



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60 THE QURAN. XXII, 34-41. 

' Therein have ye advantages for an appointed 
time, then the place for sacrificing them is at the 
old House.' 

[35] To every nation have we appointed rites, to 
mention the name of God over what He has provided 
them with of brute beasts ; and your God is one God, 
to Him then be resigned, and give glad tidings to 
the lowly, whose hearts when God is mentioned are 
afraid, and to those who are patient of what befalls 
them, and to those who are steadfast in prayer and 
of what we have given them expend in alms. 

The bulky (camels) we have made for you one of 
the symbols of God, therein have ye good ; so men- 
tion the name of God over them as they stand in a 
row \ and when they fall down (dead) eat of them, 
and feed the easily contented and him who begs. 

Thus have we subjected them to you ; haply, ye 
may give thanks ! 

Their meat will never reach to God, nor yet their 
blood, but the piety from you will reach to Him. 

Thus hath He subjected them to you that ye may 
magnify God for guiding you : and give thou glad 
tidings to those who do good. 

Verily, God will defend those who believe ; verily, 
God loves not any misbelieving traitor. 

[40] Permission is given to those who fight be- 
cause they have been wronged, — and, verily, God to 
help them has the might, — who have been driven forth 
from their homes undeservedly, only for that they 
said, 'Our Lord is God ;' and were it not for God's re- 
pelling some men with others, cloisters and churches 
and synagogues and mosques, wherein God's name is 

1 Waiting to be sacrificed. 



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XXII, 41-5°' , THE CHAPTER OF THE PILGRIMAGE. 6 1 

mentioned much, would be destroyed. But God will 
surely help him who helps Him ; verily, God is 
powerful, mighty. 

Who, if we stablish them in the earth, are stead- 
fast in prayer, and give alms, and bid what is right, 
and forbid what is wrong ; and God's is the future 
of affairs. 

But if they call thee liar, the people of Noah called 
him liar before them, as did 'Ad and Thamud, and 
the people of Abraham, and the people of Lot, and 
the fellows of Midian ; and Moses was called a liar 
too : but I let the misbelievers range at large, and 
then I seized on them, and how great was the 
change ! 

And how many a city have we destroyed while it 
yet did wrong, and it was turned over on its roofs, 
and (how many) a deserted well and lofty palace ! 

[45] Have they not travelled on through the land ? 
and have they not hearts to understand with, or ears 
to hear with ? for it is not their eyes which are blind, 
but blind are the hearts which are within their 
breasts. 

They will bid thee hasten on the torment, but 
God will never fail in his promise ; for, verily, a day 
with thy Lord is as a thousand years of what ye 
number. 

And to how many a city have I given full range 
while it yet did wrong ! then I seized on it, and unto 
me was the return. 

Say, ' O ye folk ! I am naught but a plain warner 
to you, but those who believe and do right, for them 
is forgiveness and a generous provision; [50] but 
those who strive to discredit our signs, they are the 
fellows of hell !' 



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62 THE QUR'An. XXII, 51-55. 

We have not sent before thee any apostle or 
prophet, but that when he wished, Satan threw not 
something into his wish * ; but God annuls what 
Satan throws ; then does God confirm his signs, and 
God is knowing, wise — to make what Satan throws 
a trial unto those in whose hearts is sickness, and 
those whose hearts are hard ; and, verily, the wrong- 
doers are in a wide schism — and that those who 
have been given 'the knowledge' may know that 
it is the truth from thy Lord, and may believe 
therein, and that their hearts may be' lowly ; for, 
verily, God surely will guide those who believe into 
a right way. 

But those who misbelieve will not cease to be in 
doubt thereof until the Hour comes on them sud- 
denly, or there comes on them the torment of the 
barren day 2 . 

[55] The kingdom on that day shall be God's, He 
shall judge between them ; and those who believe 
— » 

1 Some say that the word tamannS. means 'reading,' and the 
passage should then be translated, ' but that when he read Satan 
threw something into his reading;' the occasion on which the verse 
was produced being that when Mohammed was reciting the words 
of the Qur'in, Chapter LIII, verses 19, 20, 'Have ye considered 
AMt and Al 'Huzzi and Manit the other third?' Satan put it 
into his mouth to add, ' they are the two high-soaring cranes, and, 
verily, their intercession may be hoped for;' at this praise of their 
favourite idols the Qur&w were much pleased, and at the end of 
the recitation joined the prophet and his followers in adoration. 
Mohammed, being informed by the angel Gabriel of the reason for 
their doing so, was much concerned until this verse was revealed 
for his consolation. The objectionable passage was of course 
annulled, and the verse made to read as it now stands. 

* Either ' the day of resurrection,' as giving birth to no day after 
it, or, ' a day of battle and defeat,' that makes mothers childless, 
such as the infidels experienced at Bedr. 



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XXII, 55-65- THE CHAPTER OF THE PILGRIMAGE. 63 

and do aright shall be in gardens of pleasure, but 
those who misbelieve and say our signs are lies, 
these — for them is shameful woe. 

And those who flee in God's way, and then are 
slain or die, God will provide them with a goodly 
provision ; for, verily, God is the best of providers. 

He shall surely make them enter by an en- 
trance that they like ; for, verily, God is knowing, 
clement. 

That (is so). Whoever punishes with the like 
of what he has been injured with, and shall then be 
outraged again, God shall surely help him ; verily, 
God pardons, forgives. 

[60] That for that God joins on the night to 
the day, and joins on the day to the night, and 
that God is hearing, seeing; that is for that God 
is the truth, and for that what ye call on beside 
Him is falsehood, and that God is the high, the 
great 

Hast thou not seen that God sends down from 
the sky water, and on the morrow the earth is 
green ? verily, God is kind and well aware. 

His is what is in the heavens and what is in the 
earth ; and, verily, God is rich and to be praised. 

Hast thou not seen that God has subjected for 
you what is in the earth, and the ship that runs on 
in the sea at His bidding, and He holds back the 
sky from falling on the earth save at His bidding l ? 
verily, God to men is gracious, merciful. 

[65] He it is who quickens you, then makes you 



1 As it will do at the last day. The words of the text might 
also be rendered 'withholds the rain,' though the commentators 
do not seem to notice this sense. 



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64 the qur'An. XXII, 65-75. 

die, then will He quicken you again — verily, man is 
indeed ungrateful. 

For every nation have we made rites which they 
observe ; let them not then dispute about the matter, 
but call upon thy Lord ; verily, thou art surely in a 
right guidance ! 

But if they wrangle with thee, say, 'God best 
knows what ye do.' 

God shall judge between them on the resurrection 
day concerning that whereon they disagreed. 

Didst thou not know that God knows what is in 
the heavens and the earth ? verily, that is in a 
book ; verily, that for God is easy. 

[70] And they serve beside God what He has 
sent down no power for, and what they have no 
knowledge of; but the wrong-doers shall have none 
to help them. 

When our signs are read to them manifest, thou 
mayest recognise in the faces of those who mis- 
believe disdain ; they well-nigh rush at those who 
recite to them our signs. Say, ' Shall I inform you 
of something worse than that for you, the Fire 
which God has promised to those who misbelieve ? 
an evil journey shall it be !' 

O ye folk ! a parable is struck out for you, so 
listen to it. Verily, those on whom ye call beside 
God could never create a fly if they all united toge- 
ther to do it, and if the fly should despoil them of 
aught they could not snatch it away from it — weak 
is both the seeker and the sought. 

They do not value God at His true value ; verily, 
God is powerful, mighty. 

God chooses apostles of the angels and of men ; 
verily, God hears and sees. [75] He knows what is 



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V 



XXII,75-XXIII,I4. THE CHAPTER OF BELIEVERS. 65 

before them and what is behind them ; and unto 
God affairs return. 

O ye who believe ! bow down and adore, and 
serve your Lord, and do well, haply ye may prosper ; 
and fight strenuously for God, as is His due. He 
has elected you, and has not put upon you any 
hindrance by your religion, — the faith of your father 
Abraham. He has named you Muslims before and 
in this (book), that the Apostle may be a witness 
against you, and that ye may be witnesses against 
men. 

Be ye then steadfast in prayer, and give alms, and 
hold fast by God ; He is your sovereign, and an 
excellent sovereign, and an excellent help ! 



The Chapter of Believers. 
(XXIII. Mecca.) 

In the name of the merciful and compassionate 
God. 

Prosperous are the believers who in their prayers 
are humble, and who from vain talk turn aside, and 
who in almsgiving are active. [5] And who guard 
their private parts — except for their wives or what 
their right hands possess for then, verily, they are 
not to be blamed ; — but whoso craves aught beyond 
that, they are the transgressors — and who observe 
their trusts and covenants, and who guard well their 
prayers : [10] these are the heirs who shall inherit 
Paradise ; they shall dwell therein for aye ! 

We have created man from an extract of clay ; 
then we made him a clot in a sure depository ; then 
[9] * 

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66 THE QUR'An. XXIII, 14-37. 

we created the clot congealed blood, and we created 
the congealed .blood a morsel ; then we created the 
morsel bone, and we clothed the bone with flesh ; 
then we produced it another creation ; and blessed 
be God, the best of creators 1 ! 

[15] Then shall ye after that surely die j then shall 
ye on the day of resurrection be raised^A 

And we have created above you seven roads 2 ; 
nor are we heedless of the creation. 

And we send down from the heaven water by 
measure, and we make it rest in the earth ; but, 
verily, we are able to take it away ; and we produce 
for you thereby gardens of palms and grapes wherein 
ye have many fruits, and whence ye eat. 

[20] And a tree growing out of Mount Sinai which 
produces oil, and a condiment for those who eat. 

And, verily, ye have a lesson in the cattle ; we 
give you to drink of what is in their bellies ; and ye 
have therein many advantages, and of them ye eat, 
and on them and on ships ye are borne t 

We sent Noah unto his people, and he said, 
' O my people ! worship God, ye have no god but 
Him ; do ye then not fear ?' 

Said the chiefs of those who misbelieved among 
his people, 'This is nothing but a mortal like your- 
selves who wishes to have preference over you, and 
had God pleased He would have sent angels ; we 
have not heard of this amongst our fathers of yore : 
[25] he is nothing but a man possessed; let him bide 
then for a season.' 

Said he, ' Help me, for they call me liar I * 

And we inspired him, 'Make the ark under 

1 See Part I, p. 126, note a. a That is, ' seven heavens.' 



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XXIII, 27-43- THE CHAPTER OF BELIEVERS. 67 

our eyes and inspiration ; and when the oven boils 
over, conduct into it of every kind two, with thy 
family, except him of them against whom the word 
has passed ; and do not address me for those who 
do wrong, verily, they are to be drowned ! 

' But when thou art settled, thou and those with 
thee in the ark, say, " Praise belongs to God, who 
saved us from the unjust people!" 

[30] 'And say, "My Lord! make me to alight in 
a blessed alighting-place, for Thou art the best of 
those who cause men to alight ! " ' Verily, in that is 
a sign, and, verily, we were trying them. 

Then we raised up after them another generation ; 
and we sent amongst them a prophet of themselves 
(saying), ' Serve God, ye have no god but He ; will 
ye then not fear ?' 

Said the chiefs of his people who misbelieved, 
and called the meeting of the last day a lie, and to 
whom we gave enjoyment in the life of this world, 
' This is only a mortal like yourselves, who eats 
of what ye eat, [35] and drinks of what ye drink ; 
and if ye obey a mortal like yourselves, verily, ye 
will then be surely losers! Does he promise you 
that when ye are dead, and have become dust and 
bones, that then ye will be brought forth ? 

'Away, away with what ye are threatened, — there 
is only our life in the world ! We die and we live, 
and we shall not be raised ! [40] He is only a man 
who forges against God a lie. And we believe not 
in him !' 

Said he, 'My Lord! help me, for they call me 
liar!' He said, 'Within a little they will surely 
awake repenting!* 

And the noise seized them deservedly; and we 

F 2 

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68 THE QURAN. XXIII, 43-55. 

made them as rubbish borne by a torrent ; so, away 
with the unjust people ! 

Then we raised up after them other generations. 

[45] No nation can anticipate its appointed time, 
nor keep it back. 

Then we sent our apostles one after another. 
Whenever its apostle came to any nation they called 
him a liar ; and we made some to follow others ; 
and we made them legends ; away then with a 
people who do not believe ! 

Then we sent Moses and his brother Aaron with 
our signs, and with plain authority to Pharaoh and 
his chiefs, but they were too big with pride, and 
were a haughty people. 

And they said, ' Shall we believe two mortals 
like ourselves, when their people are servants of 
ours ?' 

[50] So they called them liars, and were of those 
who perished. 

And we gave Moses the Book, that haply they 
might be guided. 

And we made the son of Mary and his mother 
a sign ; and we lodged them both on a high place, 
furnished with security and a spring. 

O ye apostles ! eat of the good things and do 
right ; verily, what ye do I know ! 

And, verily, this nation * of yours is one nation, 
and I am your Lord ; so fear me. 

[55] And they have become divided as to their 
affair amongst themselves into sects 2 , each party 



1 Or, ' religion.' 

4 Literally, ' into Scriptures,' i.e. into sects, each appealing to 
a particular book. 



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XXIII, 55-73- THE CHAPTER OF BELIEVERS. 69 

rejoicing in what they have themselves. So leave 
them in their flood (of error) for a time. 

Do they reckon that that of which we grant them 
such an extent, of wealth and children, we hasten 
to them as good things — nay, but they do not 
perceive ! 

Verily, those who shrink with terror at their 
Lord, [60] and those who in the signs of their Lord 
believe, and those who with their Lord join none, 
and those who give what they do give while their 
hearts are afraid that they unto their Lord will 
return,— these hasten to good things and are first 
to gain the same. But we will not oblige a soul 
beyond its capacity ; for with us is a book that 
utters the truth, and they shall not be wronged. 

[65] Nay, their hearts are in a flood (of error) at 
this, and they have works beside this which they 
do 1 . Until we catch the affluent ones amongst them 
with the torment ; then lo ! they cry for aid. 

Cry not for aid to-day ! verily, against us ye will 
not be helped. My signs were recited to you, but 
upon your heels did ye turn back, big with pride at 
it 2 , in vain discourse by night. 

[70] Is it that they did not ponder over the words, 
whether that has come to them which came not to 
their fathers of yore ? Or did they not know their 
apostle, that they thus deny him ? Or do they say, 
' He is possessed by a ^inn ?' Nay, he came to 
them with the truth, and most of them are averse 
from the truth. 

But if the truth were to follow their lusts, the 



1 I.e. their works are far different to the good works just described. 

2 At their possession of the Kaabah. The Qurdu are meant. 



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70 THE QUR AN. XXIII, 73-86. 

heavens and the earth would be corrupted with all 
who in them are ! — Nay, we brought them their 
reminder, but they from their reminder turn aside. 

Or dost thou ask them for a tribute ? but the 
tribute of thy Lord is better, for He is the best of 
those who provide. 

[75] And, verily, thou dost call them to a right 
way ; but, verily, those who believe not in the here- 
after from the way do veer. 

But if we had mercy on them, and removed the 
distress 1 they have, they would persist in their 
rebellion, blindly wandering on! 

And we caught them with the torment 2 , but they 
did not abase themselves before their Lord, nor 
did they humble themselves ; until we opened for 
them a door with grievous torment, then lo ! they 
are in despair. 

[80] He it is who produced for you hearing, and 
sight, and minds, — little is it that ye thank. And 
He it is who created you in the earth, and unto 
Him shall ye be gathered. And He it is who gives 
you life and death ; and His is the alternation of 
the night and the day ; have ye then no sense ? 

Nay, but they said like that which those of yore 
did say. 

They said, ' What ! when we have become earth 
and bones, are we then going to be raised ? [85] 
We have been promised this, and our fathers too, 
before; — this is naught but old folks' tales!' 

Say, 'Whose is the earth and those who are 
therein, if ye but know ? ' 

1 The famine which the Meccans suffered ; and which was attri- 
buted to Mohammed's denunciations. 
* Their defeat at Bedr. 



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XXIII, 87-102. THE CHAPTER OF BELIEVERS. 7 1 

They will say, ' God's.' Say, ' Do ye not then 
mind ?' 

Say, 'Who is Lord of the seven heavens, and 
Lord of the mighty throne?' 

They will say, ' God.' Say, ' Do ye not then 
fear ?' 

[90] Say, 'In whose hand is the dominion of every- 
thing; He succours but is not succoured, — if ye did 
but know ?' 

They will say, ' God's.' Say, ' Then how can ye 
be so infatuated ?' 

Nay, we have brought them the truth, but, verily, 
they are liars ! 

God never took a son, nor was there ever any 
god with Him ; — then each god would have gone 
off with what he had created, and some would have 
exalted themselves over others, — celebrated be His 
praises above what they attribute (to Him)! 

He who knows the unseen and the visible, exalted 
be He above what they join with Him ! 

[95] Say, ' My Lord ! if Thou shouldst show me 
what they are threatened, — my Lord! then place 
me not amongst the unjust people.' 

Repel evil by what is better 1 . We know best 
what they attribute (to thee). And say, ' My Lord ! 
I seek refuge in Thee from the incitings of the 
devils ; [ioo] and I seek refuge in Thee from their 
presence !' 

Until when death comes to any one of them he 
says, ' My Lord ! send ye me back 2 , haply I may 
do right in that which I have left!' 

1 I. e. by doing good for evil, provided that the cause of IslSm 
suffers nothing from it. 

• I. e. back to life. The plural is used ' by way of respect/ say 
the commentators. 



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72 THE QURAN. XXHI, 102-116. 



the 

* criQ 



Not so! — a mere word he speaks! — but behind 
them is a bar until the day they shall be raised. 

And when the trumpet shall be blown, and there 
shall be no relation between them on that day, nor 
shall they beg of each other then ! 

[105] And he whose scales are heavy, — they are 
the prosperous. But he whose scales are light, — 
these are they who lose themselves, in hell to dwell 
for aye ! The fire shall scorch their faces, and they 
shall curl their lips therein! 'Were not my signs 
recited to you? and ye said that they were lies!' 
They say, ' Our Lord ! our misery overcame us, and 
we were a people who did err ! Our Lord ! take us 
out therefrom, and if we return \ then shall we be 
unjust/ 1 

[1 iojHe will say, ' Go ye away into it and speak 
not to me ! ' 

Verily, there was a sect of my servants who said, 
' Our Lord ! we believe, so pardon us, and have 
mercy upon us, for Thou art the best of the mer- 
ciful ones.' 

And ye took them for a jest until ye forgat my 
reminder and did laugh thereat. Verily, I have 
recompensed them this day for their patience; verily, 
they are happy now. 

He will say, ' How long a number of years did 
ye tarry on earth ? ' [115] They will say, ' We tarried 
a day or part of a day, but ask the Numberers V 

He will say, ' Ye have only tarried a little, were 
ye but to know it. Did ye then reckon that we 
created you for sport, and that to us ye would not 
return ?' But exalted be God, the true ; there is no 
god but He, the Lord of the noble throne ! and 

1 To our evil ways. 2 That is, the recording angels. 

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XXIII, II6-XXIV, 6. THE CHAPTER OF LIGHT. 73 

whoso calls upon another god with God has no 
proof of it, but, verily, his account is with his Lord ; 
verily, the misbelievers shall not prosper. And say, 
' Lord, pardon and be merciful, for Thou art the best 
of the merciful ones ! ' 



The Chapter of Light. 
(XXIV. Medinah.) 

In the name of the merciful and compassionate 
God. 

A chapter which we have sent down and deter- 
mined, and have sent down therein manifest signs ; 
haply ye may be mindful. 

The whore and the whoremonger. Scourge each 
of them with a hundred stripes, and do not let pity 
for them take hold of you in God's religion, if ye 
believe in God and the last day; and let a party 
of the believers witness their torment. And the 
whoremonger shall marry none but a whore or an 
idolatress; and the whore shall none marry but 
an adulterer or an idolater; God has prohibited 
this to the believers ; but those who cast (imputa- 
tions) on chaste women and then do not bring 
four witnesses, scourge them with eighty stripes, 
and do not receive any testimony of theirs ever, 
for these are the workers of abomination. [5] Ex- 
cept such as repent after that and act aright, for, 
verily, God is forgiving and compassionate. 

And those who cast (imputation) on their wives 
and have no witnesses except themselves, then the 
testimony of one of them shall be to testify four 



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74 THE QUR An. XXIV, 6-13. 

times that, by God, he is of those who speak the 
truth ; and the fifth testimony shall be that the curse 
of God shall be on him if he be of those who lie. 
And it shall avert the punishment from her if she 
bears testimony four times that, by God, he is of 
those who lie ; and the fifth that the wrath of 
God shall be on her if he be of those who speak 
the truth. 

[10] And were it not for God's grace upon you 
and His mercy, and that God is relenting, wise. . - 1 

Verily, those who bring forward the lie, a band 
of you, — reckon it not as an evil for you, nay, it is 
good for you ; every man of them shall have what 
he has earned of sin ; and he of them who managed 
to aggravate it, for him is mighty woe 2 . 

Why did not, when ye heard it, the believing men 
and believing women think good in themselves, and 
say, 'This is an obvious lie?' Why did they not 
bring four witnesses to it ? but since they did not 
bring the witnesses, then they in God's eyes are 

1 He would punish you. 

2 This passage and what follows refers to the scandal about 
Mohammed's favourite wife Ayesha, who, having been accidentally 
left behind when the prophet and his followers were starting at 
night on an expedition, in the sixth year of the Hi^rah, was brought 
on to the camp in the morning by Zafwan ibn de Mu'ha//al : this 
gave rise to rumours derogatory to Ayesha's character, which these 
verses are intended to refute. Ayesha never forgave those who 
credited the reports against her innocence, and 'Ali, who had 
spoken in a disparaging manner of her on the occasion, so seriously 
incurred her displeasure that she contrived to bring about the ruin 
of his family, and the murder of his two sons Hasan and Husein ; 
the principal parties concerned in the actual spread of the calumny 
were punished with the fourscore stripes above ordained, with 
the exception of the ringleader, Abdallah ibn Ubbai, who was too 
important a person to be so treated. 



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XXIV, 13-22. THE CHAPTER OF LIGHT. 75 

the liars. And but for God's grace upon you, and 
His mercy in this world and the next, there would 
have touched you, for that which ye spread abroad, 
mighty woe. When ye reported it with your 
tongues, and spake with your mouths what ye 
had no knowledge of, and reckoned it a light thing, 
while in God's eyes it was grave. 

[15] And why did ye not say when ye heard it, 
' It is not for us to speak of this ? Celebrated be 
His praises, this is a mighty calumny!' 

God admonishes you that ye return not to the 
like of it ever, if ye be believers; and God manifests 
to you the signs, for God is knowing, wise. 

Verily, those who love that scandal should go 
abroad amongst those who believe, for them is 
grievous woe in this world and the next ; for God 
knows, but ye do not know. 

[20] And but for God's grace upon you, and His 
mercy, and that God is kind and compassionate . . . ! 

O ye who believe ! follow not the footsteps of 
Satan, for he who follows the footsteps of Satan, 
verily, he bids you sin and do wrong ; and but for 
God's grace upon you and His mercy, not one 
of you would be ever pure ; but God purifies whom 
He will, for God both hears and knows. And 
let not those amongst you who have plenty and 
ample means swear that they will not give aught 
to their kinsman and the poor 1 and those who 
have fled their homes in God's way, but let them 
pardon and pass it over. Do ye not like God to 
forgive you ? and God is forgiving, compassionate. 

1 Abu bekr had sworn not to do anything more for a relation of 
his, named Mis/a'h, who had taken part in spreading the reports 
against Ayesha. 



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j6 THE QUR'AN. XXIV, 23-31. 

Verily, those who cast imputations on chaste 
women who are negligent but believing shall be 
cursed in this world and the next; and for them 
is mighty woe. The day when their tongues and 
hands and feet shall bear witness against them 
of what they did, on [25] that day God will pay 
them their just due; and they shall know that 
God, He is the plain truth. 

The vile women to the vile men, and the vile 
men to the vile women; and the good women to 
the good men, and the good men to the good 
women : these are clear of what they say to them — 
forgiveness and a noble provision ! 

O ye who believe ! enter not into houses which 
are not your own houses, until ye have asked leave 
and saluted the people thereof, that is better for 
you ; haply ye may be mindful. And if ye find 
no one therein, then do not enter them until per- 
. mission is given you, and if it be said to you, ' Go 
back ! ' then go back, it is purer for you ; for God 
of what ye do doth know. It is no crime against 
you that ye enter uninhabited houses, — a conve- 
nience for you ; — and God knows what ye show 
and what ye hide. 

[30] Say to the believers that they cast down 
their looks and guard their private parts; that is 
purer for them ; verily, God is well aware of what 
they do. 

And say to the believing women that they cast 
down their looks and guard their private parts, 
and display not their ornaments, except those which 
are outside ; and let them pull their kerchiefs over 
their bosoms and not display their ornaments save 
to their husbands and fathers, or the fathers of their 



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XXIV, 31-34- THE CHAPTER OF LIGHT. 77 

husbands, or their sons, or the sons of their hus- 
bands, or their brothers, or their brothers' sons, 
or their sisters' sons, or their women, or what their 
right hands possess, or their male attendants who 
are incapable 1 , or to children who do not note 
women's nakedness; and that they beat not with 
their feet that their hidden ornaments may be 
known 2 ; — but turn ye all repentant to God, O ye 
believers ! haply ye may prosper. 

And marry the single amongst you, and the 
righteous among your servants and your hand- 
maidens. If they be poor, God will enrich them 
of His grace, for God both comprehends and knows. 
And let those who cannot find a match, until God 
enriches them of His grace, keep chaste. 

And such of those whom your right hands 
possess as crave a writing 3 , write it for them, 
if ye know any good in them, and give them of 
the wealth of God which He has given you. And 
do not compel your slave girls to prostitution, if 
they desire to keep continent, in order to crave 
the goods of the life of this world; but he who 
does compel them, then, verily, God after they 
are compelled is forgiving, compassionate 4 . 

Now have we sent down to you manifest signs, 
and the like of those who have passed away before 
you 6 , and as an admonition to those who fear. 

1 Or, according to some, of deficient intellect. 

* I. e. they are not to tinkle their bangles or ankle-rings. 

" I. e. a document allowing them to redeem themselves on pay- 
ment of a certain sum. 

4 Abdallah ibn Ubbai, mentioned in Part II, p. 74, note 2, 
had six slave girls whom he compelled to live by prostitution. 
One of them complained to Mohammed, whence this passage. 

6 I.e. like the stories of Joseph, Part I, p. 221, and the Virgin 



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78 THE QUR'AN. XXIV, 35-40. 

[35] God is the light of the heavens and the 
earth; His light is as a niche in which is a lamp, 
and the lamp is in a glass, the glass is as though 
it were a glittering .star; it is lit from a blessed 
tree, an olive neither of the east nor of the west, 
the oil of which would well-nigh give light though 
no fire touched it, — light upon light! — God guides 
to His light whom He pleases; and God strikes 
out parables for men, and God all things doth 
know. 

In the houses God has permitted to be reared 
and His name to be mentioned therein — His praises 
are celebrated therein mornings and evenings. 

Men whom neither merchandize nor selling divert 
from the remembrance of God and steadfastness 
in prayer and giving alms, who fear a day when 
hearts and eyes shall be upset; — that God may 
recompense them for the best that they have done, 
and give them increase of His grace; for God 
provides whom He pleases without count. 

But those who misbelieve, their works are like 
the mirage in a plain, the thirsty counts it water 
till when he comes to it he finds nothing, but he 
finds that God is with him ; and He will pay him 
his account, for God is quick to take account 

[40] Or like darkness on a deep sea, there covers 
it a wave above which is a wave, above which is 
a cloud, — darknesses one above the other, — when 
one puts out his hand he can scarcely see it; for 
he to whom God has given no light, he has no 
light. 

Mary, Part II, p. 29, both of whom, like Ayesha, were accused of 
incontinence, and miraculously proved innocent 



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XXIV, 41-49- THE CHAPTER OF LIGHT. 79 

Hast thou not seen that God, — all who are in 
the heavens and the earth celebrate His praises, 
and the birds too spreading out their wings ; each 
one knows its prayer and its praise, and God knows 
what they do ? 

Hast thou not seen that God drives the clouds, 
and then re-unites them, and then accumulates them, 
and thou mayest see the rain coming forth from 
their midst; and He sends down from the sky 
mountains 1 with hail therein, and He makes it fall 
on whom He pleases, and He turns it from whom 
He pleases ; the flashing of His lightning well- 
nigh goes off with their sight ? 

God interchanges the night and the day; verily, 
in that is a lesson to those endowed with sight. 

And God created every beast from water, and of 
them is one that walks upon its belly, and of them 
one that walks upon two feet, and of them one that 
walks upon four. God creates what He pleases; 
verily, God is mighty over all ! 

[45] Now have we sent down manifest signs, and 
God guides whom He pleases unto the right way. 

They will say, 'We believe in God and in the 
Apostle, and we obey.' Then a sect of them turned 
their backs after that, and they are not believers. 

And when they are called to God and His 
Apostle to judge between them, lo ! a sect of them 
do turn aside. But had the right been on their 
side they would have come to him submissively 
enough. 

Is there a sickness in their hearts, or do they 
doubt, or do they fear lest God and His Apostle 

1 I. e. masses of cloud as large as mountains. 



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80 THE QUR'AN. XXIV, 49-56. 

should deal unfairly by them ? — Nay, it is they who 
are unjust. 

[50] The speech of the believers, when they are 
called to God and His Apostle to judge between 
them, is only to say, 'We hear and we obey;' and 
these it is who are the prosperous, for whoso obeys 
God and His Apostle and dreads God and fears 
Him, these it is who are the happy. 

They swear by God with their most strenuous oath 
that hadst Thou ordered them they would surely go 
forth. Say, ' Do not swear — reasonable obedience 1 ; 
verily, God knows what ye do.' 

Say, ' Obey God and obey the Apostle ; but if ye 
turn your backs he has only his burden to bear, and 
ye have only your burden to bear. But if ye obey 
him, ye are guided ; but the Apostle has only his 
plain message to deliver.' 

God promises those of you who believe and do 
right that He will give them the succession in the 
earth as He gave the succession to those before 
them, and He will establish for them their religion 
which He has chosen for them, and to give them, 
after their fear, safety in exchange; — they shall wor- 
ship me, they shall not associate aught with me : 
but whoso disbelieves after that, those it is who 
are the sinners. 

[55] And be steadfast in prayer and give alms 
and obey the Apostle, haply ye may obtain mercy. 

Do not reckon that those who misbelieve can 



1 The construction of the original is vague, and the com- 
mentators themselves make but little of it. The most approved 
rendering, however, seems to be either that obedience is the reason- 
able course to pursue, and not the mere swearing to obey. 



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XXIV, 56-60. THE CHAPTER OF LIGHT. 8 1 

frustrate (God) in the earth, for their resort is the 
Fire, and an ill journey shall it be. 

O ye who believe! let those whom your right 
hands possess, and those amongst you who have 
not reached puberty, ask leave of you three times : 
before the prayer of dawn, and when ye put off 
your clothes at noon, and after the evening prayer ; 
— three times of privacy for you 1 : there is no crime 
on either you or them after these while ye are con^ 
tinually going one about the other. Thus does 
God explain to you His signs, for God is knowing, 
wise. 

And when your children reach puberty let them 
ask leave as those before them asked leave. Thus 
does God explain to you His signs, for God is 
knowing, wise. 

And those Women who have stopped (child-bear- 
ing), who do not hope for a match, it is no crime on 
them that they put off their clothes so as not to 
display their ornaments ; but that they abstain is 
better for them, for God both hears and knows. 

[60] There is no hindrance to the blind, and 
no hindrance to the lame, and no hindrance to the 
sick, and none upon yourselves that you eat from 
your houses, or the houses of your fathers, or the 
houses of your mothers, or the houses of your 
brothers, or the houses of your sisters, or the houses 
of your paternal uncles, or the houses of your pa- 
ternal aunts, or the houses of your maternal uncles, 



1 I. e. at the times when persons are undressed, namely, to rise 
in the morning, to sleep at noon, and to retire for the night, their 
attendants and children must not come in without -first asking 
permission. 

[9] G. 



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82 THE QURAN. XXIV, 60-64. 

or the houses of your maternal aunts, or what ye 
possess the keys of, or of your friend, there is no 
crime on you that ye eat all together or separately 1 . 

And when ye enter houses then greet each other 
with a salutation from God, blessed and good. 
Thus does God explain to you His signs, haply ye 
may understand. 

Only those are believers who believe in God 
and His Apostle, and when they are with Him upon 
public business go not away until they have asked 
his leave; verily, those who ask thy leave they it 
is who believe in God and His Apostle. 

But when they ask thy leave for any of their own 
concerns, then give leave to whomsoever thou wilt 
of them, and ask pardon for them of God ; verily, 
God is forgiving and merciful. 

Make not the calling of the Apostle amongst 
yourselves like your calling one to the other a ; God 
knows those of you who withdraw themselves co- 
vertly. And let those who disobey his order beware 
lest there befall them some trial or there befall them 
grievous woe. Ay, God's is what is in the heavens 
and the earth, He knows what ye are at; and the 
day ye shall be sent back to Him then He will 
inform you of what ye have done, for God all things 
doth know. 



1 The Arabs in Mohammed's time were superstitiously scru- 
pulous about eating in any one's house but their own. 

2 That is, do not address the prophet without some respectful 
title. 



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XXV, 1-9. THE CHAPTER OF THE DISCRIMINATION. 

The Chapter of the Discrimination 1 . <?fi -, € 

(XXV. Mecca.) X " ^JTIA * 

In the name of the merciful and compassionate 
God. 

Blessed be He who sent down the Discrimination 
to His servant that he might be unto the world 
a warner; whose is the kingdom of the heavens 
and the earth, and who has not taken to Himself 
a son, and who has no partner in His kingdom, and 
created everything, and then decreed it determinately! 
And they take beside Him gods who create not aught, 
but are themselves created, and cannot control for 
themselves harm or profit, and cannot control death, 
or life, or resurrection. 

[5] And those who misbelieve say, 'This is nothing 
but a lie which he has forged, and another people 
hath helped him at it;' but they have wrought an 
injustice and a falsehood. 

And they say, ' Old folks' tales, which he has got 
written down while they are dictated to him morning 
and evening.' 

Say, ' He sent it down who knows the secret in 
the heavens and the earth; verily, He is ever for- 
giving,- merciful!' 

And they say, ' What ails this prophet that he 
eats food and walks in the markets ? — unless there 
be sent down to him an angel and be a warner with 
him .... Or there be thrown to him a treasury, 



1 In Arabic Al Furqan, which is one of the names of the 
Qur'an. 

G 2 



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84 THE QUR'aN. XXV, 9-20. 

or he have a garden to eat therefrom !' and the 

unjust say, ' Ye only follow an infatuated man.' 

[10] See how they strike out for thee parables, 
and err, and cannot find a way. 

Blessed be He who, if He please, can make for 
thee better than that, gardens beneath which rivers 
flow, and can make for thee castles ! 

Nay, but they call the Hour a lie ; but we have 
prepared for those who call the Hour a lie a blaze : 
when it seizes them from a far-off place they shall 
hear its raging and roaring ; and when they are 
thrown into a narrow place thereof, fastened toge- 
ther, they shall call there for destruction. 

[i 5] Call not to-day for one destruction, but call 
•for many destructions! 

Say, ' Is that better or the garden of eternity 
which was promised to those who fear — which is 
ever for them a recompense and a retreat ?' They 
shall have therein what they please, to dwell therein 
for aye : that is of thy Lord a promise to be de- 
manded. 

And the day He shall gather them and what they 
served beside God, and He shall say, 'Was it ye 
who led my servants here astray, or did they err 
from the way ?' 

They shall say, ' Celebrated be Thy praise, it was 
not befitting for us to take any patrons but Thee ; 
but Thou didst give them and their fathers enjoy- 
ment until they forgot the Reminder and were a 
lost people !' 

[20] And now have they proved you liars for 
what ye say, and they 1 cannot ward off or help. 

1 Another reading of the text is, ' ye cannot.' 



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XXV, 21-30. THE CHAPTER OF THE DISCRIMINATION. 85 

And he of you who does wrong we will make him 
taste great torment. 

We have not sent before thee any messengers 
but that they ate food and walked in the markets ; 
but we have made some of you a trial to others : 
will ye be patient ? thy Lord doth ever look. 

And those who do not hope to meet us say, ' Un- 
less the angels be sent down to us, or we see our 
Lord ....!' They are too big with pride in their 
souls and they have exceeded with a great excess ! 
J " The day they shall see the angels, — no glad tidings 
on that day for the sinners, and they shall say, ' It is 
rigorously forbidden 1 !.' 

[25] And we will go on to the works which they 
have done, and make them like motes in a sun- 
beam scattered! The fellows of Paradise on that 
day shall be in a better abiding-place and a better 
noonday rest 

The day the heavens shall be cleft asunder 
with the clouds, and the angels shall be sent down 
descending. 

The true kingdom on that day shall belong to 
the Merciful, and it shall be a hard day for the 
misbeliev ers. J 

And the day when the unjust shall bite his hands 2 
and say, ' O, would that I had taken a way with the 
Apostle 8 ! [30] O, woe is me! would that I had 



1 The ancient Arabs used this formula when they met an enemy 
during a sacred month, and the person addressed would then 
abstain from hostilities. The sinners in this passage are supposed 
to use it to the angels, but without effect. Some commentators 
take it to mean that the ' glad tidings ' are ' rigorously forbidden,' 
and that the angels are the speakers. 

2 See Chapter III, verse 115. s That is, followed him. 



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86 THE QUR AN. XXV, 30-40. 

not taken such a one for a friend now, for he did 
lead me astray from the Reminder after it had come 
to me, for Satan leaves man in the lurch !' 

The Apostle said, ' O my Lord ! verily, my people 
have taken this Qur'an to be obsolete!' 

Thus have we made for every prophet an enemy 
from among the sinners ; but thy Lord is good guide 
and helper enough. 

Those who misbelieve said, ' Unless the Qur'an 

be sent down to him all at once * ! ' — thus — that 

we may stablish thy heart therewith, did we reveal it 
piecemeal 2 . [35] Nor shall they come to thee with 
a parable without our bringing thee the truth and 
the best interpretation. 

They who shall be gathered upon their faces to 
hell, — these are in the worst place, and err most 
from the path. 

And we did give to Moses the Book, and place 
with him his brother Aaron as a minister ; and we 
said, ' Go ye to the people who say our signs are lies, 
for we will destroy them with utter destruction.' 

And the people of Noah, when they said the 
apostles were liars, we drowned them, and we made 
them a sign for men ; and we prepared for the un- 
just a grievous woe. 

[40] And 'Ad and Thamud and the people of ar 
Rass s , and many generations between them. 

1 Like the Pentateuch and Gospels, which were revealed all at 
once, according to the Mohammedan tradition. 

2 Or it may be rendered, 'slowly and distinctly;' the whole reve- 
lation of the Qur'an extends over a period of twenty-three years. 

3 The commentators do not know where to place ar Rass ; 
some say it was a city in Yamamah, others that it was a well near 
Midian, and others again that it was in 'HaaMramaut. 



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XXV, 41-52- THE CHAPTER OF THE DISCRIMINATION. 87 

For each one have we struck out parables, and 
each one have we ruined with utter ruin. 

Why, they * have come past the cities which were 
rained on with an evil rain ; have they not seen 
them ? — nay, they do not hope to be raised up again. 

And when they saw thee they only took thee for 
a jest, ' Is this he whom God has sent as an apostle? 
he well-nigh leads us astray from our gods, had we 
not been patient about them.' But they shall know, 
when they see the torment, who errs most from the 
path. [45] Dost thou consider him who takes his 
lusts for his god ? wilt thou then be in charge over 
him ? or dost thou reckon that most of them will 
hear or understand? they are only like the cattle, 
nay, they err more from the way. 

Hast thou not looked to thy Lord how He pro- 
longs the shadow? but had He willed He would 
have made it stationary ; then we make the sun 
a guide thereto, then we contract it towards us with 
an easy contraction. 

And He it is who made the night for a garment ; 
and sleep for repose, and made the day for men 
to rise up again. [50] And He it is who sent the 
winds with glad tidings before His mercy ; and we 
send down from the heavens pure water, to quicken 
therewith the dead country, and to give it for 
drink to what we have created, — the cattle and 
many folk. 

We have turned it 2 in various ways amongst 
them that they may remember; though most men 



1 That is, the idolatrous Meccans ; see Part I, p. 249. note 2. 
8 That is, either the Qur'an, cf. Part II, p. 5, line 25; or the 
words may be rendered, ' We distribute it' (the rain), &c. 



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88 the qur'An. XXV, 52-63. 

refuse aught but to misbelieve. But, had we pleased, 
we would have sent in every city a warner. So obey 
not the unbelievers and fight strenuously with them 
in many a strenuous fight. 

[55] He it is who has let loose the two seas, this 
one sweet and fresh, that one bitter and pungent, and 
has made between them a rigorous prohibition. 

And He it is who has created man from water, 
and has made for him blood relationship and mar- 
riage relationship ; for thy Lord is mighty. 

Yet they worship beside God what can neither 
profit them nor harm them ; but he who misbelieves 
in his Lord backs up (the devil). 

We have only sent thee to give glad tidings and 
to warn. Say, ' I ask you not for it a hire unless one 
please to take unto his Lord away 1 .' [60] And rely 
.thou upon the Living One who dies not ; and cele- 
brate His praise, for He knows well enough about 
the thoughts, of His servants. He who created the 
heavens and the earth, and what is between them, 
in six days, and then made for the throne ; the 
Merciful One, ask concerning Him of One who is 
aware. 

And when it is said, 'Adore ye the Merciful!' 
they say, ' What is the Merciful ? shall we adore 
what thou dost order us ?•' and it only increases 
their aversion. 

Blessed be He who placed in the heavens zo- 
diacal signs, and placed therein the lamp and an 
illuminating moon ! 

And He it is who made the night and the day 



1 That is, that if a man chose to expend anything for the cause 
of God he can do so. 



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XXV, 63-75- THE CHAPTER OF THE DISCRIMINATION. 89 

alternating for him who desires to remember or who 
wishes to be thankful. 

And the servants of the Merciful are those who 
walk upon the earth lowly, and when the ignorant 
address them, say, 'Peace!' [65] And those who 
pass the night adoring their Lord and standing 1 ; 
and those who say, ' O our Lord ! turn from us the 
torment of hell ; verily, its torments are persistent ; 
verily, they are evil as an abode and a station.' 

And those who when they spend are neither 
extravagant nor miserly, but who ever take their 
stand between the two ; and who call not upon 
another god with God ; and kill not the soul which 
God has prohibited save deservedly 2 ; and do not 
commit fornication : for he who does that shall meet 
with a penalty; doubled for him shall be the torment 
on the resurrection day, and he shall be therein for 
aye despised. [70] Save he who turns again and 
believes and does a righteous work ; for, as to those, 
God will change their evil deeds to good, for God is 
ever forgiving, merciful. 

And he who turns again and does right, verily, he 
turns again to God repentant. 

And those who do not testify falsely ; and when 
' they pass by frivolous discourse, pass by it honour- 
ably ; and those who when they are reminded of the 
signs of their Lord do not fall down thereat deaf 
and blind ; and those who say, ' Our Lord ! grant us 
from our wives and seed that which may cheer our 
eyes, and make us models to the pious !' 

[75] These shall be rewarded with a high place 3 
for that they were patient: and they shall meet 

1 For prayer. 2 See Part I, p. 1 35, note 1. * In Paradise. 

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90 THE QUR AN. XXV, 75-XXVI, 12. 

therein with salutation and peace, — to dwell therein 
for aye ; a good abode and station shall it be ! 

Say, 'My Lord cares not for you though you 
should not call (on Him) ; and ye have called (the 
Apostle) a liar, but it shall be (a punishment) which 
ye cannot shake off.' 



The Chapter of the Poets. 
(XXVL Mecca.) 

In the name of the merciful and compassionate 
God. 

T. S. M. Those are the signs of the perspicuous 
Book ; haply thou art vexing thyself to death that 
they will not be believers ! 

If we please we will send down upon them from 
the heaven a sign, and their necks shall be humbled 
thereto. But there comes not to them any recent 
Reminder from the Merciful One that they do not 
turn away from. [5] They have called (thee) liar ! 
but there shall come to them a message of that at 
which they mocked. 

Have they not looked to the earth, how we 
caused to grow therein of every noble kind ? verily, 
in that is a sign; but most of them will never be 
believers! but, verily, thy Lord He is mighty and 
merciful. 

And when thy Lord called Moses (saying), ' Come 
to the unjust people, [10] to the people of Pharaoh, 
will they not fear ? ' Said he, 'My Lord ! verily, I 
fear that they will call me liar; and my breast is 
straitened, and my tongue is not fluent ; send then 



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XXVI, 12-29. THE CHAPTER OF THE POETS. 9 1 

unto Aaron ', for they have a crime against me, 
and I fear that they may kill me 2 .' Said He, ' Not 
so ; but go with our signs, verily, we are with you 
listening. 

[15] 'And go to Pharaoh and say, " Verily, we are 
the apostles of the Lord of the worlds (to tell thee 
to) send with us the children of Israel." ' 

And he said, ' Did we not bring thee up amongst 
us as a child ? and thou didst dwell amongst us for 
years of thy life ; and thou didst do thy deed which 
thou hast done, and thou art of the ungrateful ! ' 

Said he, ' I did commit this, and I was of those 
who erred. 

[20] 'And I fled from you when I feared you, 
and my Lord granted me judgment, and made me 
one of His messengers ; and this is the favour thou 
hast obliged me with, that thou hast enslaved the 
children of Israel !' 

Said Pharaoh, ' Who is the Lord of the worlds ? ' 
Said he, ' The Lord of the heavens and the earth 
and what is between the two, if ye are but sure.' 

Said he to those about him, ' Do ye not listen ?' 
[25] Said he, 'Your Lord and the Lord of your 
fathers of yore!' 

Said he, ' Verily, your apostle who is sent to you 
is surely mad ! ' 

Said he, 'The Lord of the east and of the west, and 
of what is between the two, if ye had but sense!' 

Said he, 'If thou dost take a god besides Me 
I will surely make thee one of the imprisoned ! ' 

Said he, ' What, if I come to thee with something 
obvious ?' 

1 That he may be my minister. 
s The slaying of the Egyptian. 



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92 THE QURAN. XXVI, 30-49. 

[30] Said he, ' Bring it, if thou art of those who 
tell the truth !' 

And he threw down his rod, and, behold, it was an 
obvious serpent ! and he plucked out his hand, and, 
behold, it was white to the spectators ! 

He 1 said to the chiefs around him, ' Verily, this is 
a knowing sorcerer, he desires to turn you out 
of your land ! what is it then ye bid ?' 

[35] They said, ' Give him and his brother some 
hope, and send into the cities to collect and bring 
to thee every knowing sorcerer.' 

And the sorcerers assembled at the appointed 
time on a stated day, and it was said to the people, 
' Are ye assembled ? haply we may follow the sor- 
cerers if we gain the upper hand.' 

[40] And when the sorcerers came they said to 
Pharaoh, ' Shall we, verily, have a hire if we gain 
the upper hand?' Said he, ' Yes ; and, verily, ye shall 
then be of those who are nigh (my throne).' And 
Moses said to them, ' Throw down what ye have to 
throw down.' So they threw down their ropes and 
their rods and said, ' By Pharaoh's might, verily, we 
it is who shall gain the upper hand !' 

And Moses threAv down his rod, and, lo, it 
swallowed up what they falsely devised ! 

[45] And the sorcerers threw themselves down, 
adoring. Said they, 'We believe in the Lord of 
the worlds, the Lord of Moses and Aaron !' Said 
he, 'Do ye believe in Him ere I give you leave? 
Verily, he is your chief who has taught you sorcery, 
but soon ye shall know. I will surely cut off your 
hands and your feet from opposite sides, and I will 
crucify you all together!' 

1 Pharaoh. 



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XXVI, 50-79- THE CHAPTER OF THE POETS. 93 

[50] They said, ' No harm ; verily, unto our Lord 
do we return ! verily, we hope that our Lord will for- 
give us our sins, for we are the first of believers!' 

And we inspired Moses, 'Journey by night with 
my servants ; verily, ye are pursued.' 

And Pharaoh sent into the cities to collect; 
'Verily, these are a small company. [55] And, 
verily, they are enraged with us; but we are a 
multitude, wary ! 

'Turn them out of gardens and springs, and 
treasuries, and a noble station!' — thus, — and we 
made the children of Israel to inherit them. 

[60] And they followed them at dawn ; and when 
the two hosts saw each other, Moses' companions 
said, ' Verily, we are overtaken ! ' Said he, ' Not 
so ; verily, with me is my Lord, He will guide me.' 

And we inspired Moses, ' Strike with thy rod the 
sea ;' and it was cleft asunder, and each part was 
like a mighty mountain. And then we brought the 
others. [65] And we saved Moses and those with 
him all together; then we drowned the others; and 
that is a sign : but most of them will never be be- 
lievers! And, verily, thy Lord He is mighty, 
merciful. 

And recite to them the story of Abraham ; [70] 
when he said to his father and his people, ' What do 
ye serve •?' They said, ' We serve idols, and we are 
still devoted to them.' He said, ' Can they hear you 
when ye call, or profit you, or harm ?' 

They said, ' No ; but we found our fathers doing 
thus.' [75] He said, ' Have ye considered what ye 
have been serving, ye and your fathers before you ? 
Verily, they are foes to me, save only the Lord of 
the worlds, who created me and guides me, and who 



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9 A. 



94 THE QURAN. XXVI, 79-1 rr. 

gives me food and drink. [80] And when I am sick 
He heals me ; He who will kill me, and then bring 
me to life ; and who I hope will forgive me my sins 
on the day of judgment ! Lord, grant me judgment, 
and let me reach the righteous ; and give me a 
tongue of good report amongst posterity; [85] and 
make me of the heirs of the paradise of pleasure ; 
and pardon my father, verily, he is of those who 
err ; and disgrace me not on the day when they are 
raised up again; the day when wealth shall profit 
not, nor sons, but only he who comes to God with 
a sound heart. [90] And paradise shall be brought 
near to the pious ; and hell shall be brought forth to 
those who go astray, and it shall be said to them, 
" Where is what ye used to worship beside God ? 
can they help you, or get help themselves ? " And 
they shall fall headlong into it, they and those who 
have gone astray, [95] and the hosts of Iblls all 
together ! 

' They shall say, while they quarrel therein, " By 
God ! we were surely in an obvious error, when we 
made you equal to the Lord of the worlds ! but it 
was only sinners who led us astray. [100] But we 
have no intercessors and no warm friend; but had 
we a turn we would be of the believers." ' — Verily, 
in that is a sign, but most of them will never be 
believers ; and, verily, thy Lord He is mighty and 
merciful. 

[105] The people of Noah said the apostles were 
liars, when their brother Noah said to them, ' Will 
ye not fear ? verily, I am a faithful apostle to you ; 
then fear God and obey me. I do not ask you for 
it any hire ; my hire is only with the Lord of the 
worlds, [no] So fear God and obey me.' They 



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XXVI, III-I39- THE CHAPTER OF THE POETS. 95 

said, ' Shall we believe in thee, when the reprobates 
follow thee ?' He said, ' I did not know what they 
were doing ; their account is only with my Lord, if 
ye but perceive. And I am not one to drive away 
the believers, [115] I am only a plain warner.' 

They said, ' Verily, if thou desist not, O Noah ! 
thou shalt surely be of those who are stoned!' 
Said he, ' My Lord !. verily, my people call me liar ; 
open between me and between them an opening, 
and save me and those of the believers who are 
with me!' 

So we saved him and those with him in the laden 
ark, [120] then we drowned the rest; verily, in 
that is a sign, but most of them will never be 
believers ; and, verily, thy Lord He is mighty and 
merciful. 

And 'Ad called the apostles liars; when their 
brother Hud said to them, ' Will ye not fear ? 
[125] Verily, I am to you a faithful apostle; then 
fear God and obey me. I do not ask you for it 
any hire; my hire is only with the Lord of the 
worlds. Do ye build on every height a landmark 
in sport, and take to works that haply ye may 
be immortal ? 

[130] 'And when ye assault ye assault like tyrants; 
but fear God and obey me ; and fear Him who hath 
given you an extent of cattle and sons, and gardens 
and springs. [135] Verily, I fear for you the tor- 
ment of a mighty day !' 

They said, ' It is the same to us if thou admonish 
or art not of those who do admonish; this is nothing 
but old folks' fictions, for we shall not be tormented!' 

And they called him liar ! but we destroyed them. 
Verily, in that is a sign, but most of them will never 



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96 THE QURAN. XXVI, 139-166. 

be believers. [140] And, verily, thy Lord is mighty, 
merciful. 

Thamud called the apostles liars ; when their 
brother Zali'h said to them, ' Do ye not fear ? verily, 
I am to you a faithful apostle ; so fear God and 
obey me. [145] I do not ask you for it any hire ; 
my hire is only with the Lord of the worlds. Shall 
ye be left here in safety with gardens and springs, 
and corn-fields and palms, the spathes whereof are 
fine ? and ye hew out of the mountains houses 
skilfully. [150] But fear God and obey me; and 
obey not the bidding of the extravagant, who do 
evil in the earth and do not act aright ! ' 

They said, ' Thou art only of the infatuated ; thou 
art but mortal like ourselves ; so bring us a sign, if 
thou be of those who speak the truth !' 

[155] He said, 'This she-camel shall have her 
drink and you your drink on a certain day ; but 
touch her not with evil, or there will seize you the 
torment of a mighty day ! ' 

But they hamstrung her, and on the morrow they 
repented ; and the torment seized them ; verily, 
in that is a sign ; but most of them will never be 
believers : but verily, thy Lord He is mighty, 
merciful. 

[160] The people of Lot called the apostles liars ; 
when their brother Lot said to them, ' Do ye not 
fear ? verily, I am to you a faithful apostle ; then 
fear God and obey me. I do not ask you for it any 
hire ; my hire is only with the Lord of the worlds. 
[165] Do ye approach males of all the world and 
leave what God your Lord has created for you 
of your wives ? nay, but ye are people who trans- 
gress!' 



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XXVI, 167-190. THE CHAPTER OF THE POETS. 97 

They said, ' Surely, if thou dost not desist, O 
Lot ! thou shalt be of those who are expelled ! ' 

Said he, ' Verily, I am of those who hate your 
deed ; my Lord ! save me and my people from 
what they do.' 

[1 70] And we saved him and his people all together, 
except an old woman amongst those who lingered. 
Then we destroyed the others ; and we rained down 
upon them a rain ; and evil was the rain of those 
who were warned. Verily, in that is a sign; but 
most of them will never be believers, [i 75] And, 
verily, thy Lord He is mighty, merciful, compas- 
sionate. 

The fellows of the Grove * called the apostles liars ; 
Sho'haib said to them, ' Will ye not fear ? verily, 
I am to you a faithful apostle, then fear God and 
obey me. [180] I do not ask you for it any hire ; my 
hire is only with the Lord of the worlds. Give good 
measure, and be not of those who diminish ; and 
weigh with a fair balance, and do not cheat men of 
their goods ; and waste not the land, despoiling it ; 
and fear Him who created you and the races of 
yore!' [185] Said they, 'Thou art only of the 
infatuated; and thou art only a mortal like our- 
selves ; and, verily, we think that thou art surely 
of the liars ; so make a portion of the heaven 
to fall down upon us, if thou art of those who tell 
the truth !' 

Said he, ' My Lord knows best what ye do !' but 
they called him liar, and the torment of the day of 
the shadow seized them ; for it was the torment 
of a mighty day: [190] verily, in that is a sign; but 

1 See Part I, p. 249, note 3. 
[9] H 

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98 THE QUR'AN. XXVI, 190-216. 

most of them will never be believers ; but, verily, 
thy Lord He is mighty, merciful ! 

And, verily, it 1 is a revelation from the Lord of 
the worlds ; the Faithful Spirit came down with it 2 
upon thy heart, that thou shouldst be of those who 
warn; — [195] in plain Arabic language, and, verily, 
it is (foretold) in the scriptures of yore ! Have they 
not a sign, that the learned men of the children 
of Israel recognise it 3 ? Had we sent it down to 
any barbarian, and he had read it to them, they 
would not have believed therein. [200] Thus have 
we made for it 4 a way into the hearts of the sinners; 
they will not believe therein until they see the 
grievous woe! and it shall come to them suddenly 
while they do not perceive ! They will say, ' Shall 
we be respited ? — What ! do they wish to hasten 
on our torment ?' 

[205] What thinkest thou ? if we let them en- 
joy themselves for years, and then there come to 
them what they are threatened, that will not avail 
them which they had to enjoy! But we do not 
destroy any city without its having warners as a 
reminder, for we are never unjust. 

[210] The devils did not descend therewith; it 
is not fit work for them ; nor are they able to do it. 
Verily, they are deposed from listening s ; call not 
then with God upon other gods, or thou wilt be of 
the tormented ; but warn thy clansmen who are 
near of kin. [215] And lower 6 thy wing to those 
of the believers who follow thee ; but if they rebel 
against thee, say, ' Verily, I am clear of what ye 

1 The Qur'an. 2 The angel Gabriel. 

' The Qur'an. 4 Infidelity. 

4 See Part I, p. 5a 6 See Part I, p. 250, note 2. 



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XXVI, 2I6-XXVII, 4- THE CHAPTER OF THE ANT. 99 

do,' and rely thou upon the mighty, merciful One, 
who sees thee when thou dost stand up, and thy 
posturing amongst those who adore 1 . [220] Verily, 
He both hears and knows ! 

Shall I inform you upon whom the devils descend ? 
they descend upon every sinful liar, and impart what 
they have heard 2 ; but most of them are liars. 

And the poets do those follow who go astray ! 
[225] Dost thou not see that they wander distraught 
in every vale ? and that they say that which they do 
not do ? save those who believe, and do right, and 
remember God much, and defend themselves after 
they are wronged; but those who do wrong shall 
know with what a turn they shall be turned s . 



The Chapter of the Ant. 
(XXVII. Mecca.) 

In the name of the merciful and compassionate 
God. 

T. S. Those are the signs of the Quran and the 
perspicuous Book ; a guidance and glad tidings to 
the believers, who are steadfast at prayer, and give 
alms, and of the hereafter are sure; verily, those 
who believe not in the hereafter we have made 
seemly for them their works, and they shall wander 

1 Or, it may be thy going to and fro amongst believers, as Mo- 
hammed is reported to have done one night, to see what they were 
about, and he found the whole settlement 'buzzing like a hornet's nest 
with the sound of the recitation of the Qur'an and of their prayers.' 

8 That is, by listening at the door of heaven ; see Part I, p. 50, 
note 2. 

3 That is, in what condition they shall be brought before God. 

H 2 



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IOO THE QURAN. XXVII, 4-16. 

blindly on ! [5] These are they who shall have an 
evil torment, and they in the hereafter shall be 
those who most lose ! Verily, thou dost meet with 
this Quran from the wise, the knowing One ! 

When Moses said to his people, ' Verily, I per- 
ceive a fire, I will bring you therefrom news ; or 
I will bring you a burning brand ; haply ye may be 
warmed.' But when he came to it he was called to, 
' Blessed be He who is in the fire, and he who 
is about it ! and celebrated be the praises of God, 
the Lord of the worlds ! O Moses ! verily, I am 
God, the mighty, wise; [10] throw down thy staff!' 
and when he saw it quivering, as though it were a 
snake, he turned back fleeing, and did not return. 
' O Moses ! fear not ; verily, as for me — apostles fear 
not with me ; save only those who have done wrong 
and then substitute good for evil ; for, verily, I am 
forgiving, merciful ! but put thy hand in thy bosom, 
it shall come forth white without hurt ; — one of nine 
signs to Pharaoh and his people ; verily, they are a 
people who act abominably.' 

And when our signs came to them visibly, they 
said, 'This is obvious sorcery!' and they gainsaid 
them — though their souls made sure of them — 
unjustly, haughtily; but, behold what was the end 
of the evildoers ! 

[1 5] And we gave David and Solomon knowledge ; 
and they both said, ' Praise belongs to God, who 
hath preferred us over many of His servants who 
believe !' • 

And Solomon was David's heir ; and said, ' O 
ye folk ! we have been taught the speech of birds, 
and we have been given everything ; verily, this is 
an obvious grace !' 



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XXVII, 17-28. THE CHAPTER OF THE ANT. IOI 

And assembled for Solomon were his hosts of the 
^inns, and men, and birds, and they were marshalled ; 
until they came upon the valley of the ants. Said 
an ant, ' O ye ants ! go into your dwellings, that 
Solomon and his hosts crush you not while they do 
not perceive.' 

And he smiled, laughing at her speech, and said, 
. ' O Lord ! excite me to be thankful for Thy favour, 
wherewith Thou hast favoured me and my parents, 
and to do righteousness which may please Thee ; 
and make me enter into Thy mercy amongst Thy 
righteous servants ! ' 

[20] And he reviewed the birds, and said, ' How 
is it I see not the hoopoe ? is he then amongst the 
absent ? I will surely torment him with a severe 
torment ; or I will surely slaughter him ; or he shall 
bring me obvious authority.' 

And he tarried not long, and said, ' I have com- 
passed what ye compassed not; for I bring you 
from Seba 1 a sure information: verily, I found a 
woman ruling over them, and she was given all 
things, and she had a mighty throne ; and I found 
her and her people adoring the sun instead of God, 
for Satan had made seemly to them their works, 
and turned them from the path, so that they are not 
guided. [25] Will they not adore God who brings 
forth the secrets in the heavens, and knows what 
they hide and what they manifest ? — God, there is 
no god but He, the Lord of the mighty throne !' 

Said he, ' We will see whether thou hast told 
the truth, or whether thou art of those who lie. 
Go with this my letter and throw it before them, 

1 The Sheba of the Bible, in the south of the Arabian peninsula. 

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102 THE QUR'An. XXVII, 28-40. 

then turn back away from them, and see what they 
return.' 

Said she, ' O ye chiefs ! verily, a noble letter has 
been thrown before me. [30] It is from Solomon, 
and, verily, it is, "In the name of the merciful and 
compassionate God. Do not rise up against me, 
but come to me resigned!" ' She said, 'O ye chiefs! 
pronounce sentence for me in my affair. I never 
decide an affair until ye testify for me.' 

They said, 'We are endowed with strength, and 
endowed with keen violence ; but the bidding is 
thine, see then what it is that thou wilt bid.' 

She said, 'Verily, kings when they enter a city 
despoil it, and make the -mighty ones of its people 
the meanest ; thus it is they do ! [35] So, verily, 
I am going to send to them a gift, and will wait to 
see with what the messengers return.' 

And when he came to Solomon, he said, ' Do ye 
proffer me wealth, when what God has given me is 
better than what He has given you ? nay, ye in 
your gifts rejoice ! return to them, for we will surely 
come to them with hosts which they cannot confront; 
and we will surely drive them out therefrom mean 
and made small ! ' 

Said he, ' O ye chiefs ! which of you will bring me 
her throne before they come to me resigned?' 

Said a demon of the ^inns, ' I will bring' thee it 
before thou canst rise up from thy place, for I 
therein am strong and faithful.' 

[40] He who had the knowledge of the Book ' 
said, ' I will bring it to thee before thy glance can 

1 The commentators are uncertain as to whether this was 'Azaf, 
Solomon's prime minister, or whether it was the prophet 'Hidhr, 
or the angel Gabriel, or, indeed, Solomon himself. 

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XXVII, 40-48. THE CHAPTER OF THE ANT. IO3 

turn.' And when he saw it settled down beside 
him, he said, 'This is of my Lord's grace, that He 
may try me whether I am grateful or ungrateful, 
and he who is grateful is only grateful for his own 
soul, and he who is ungrateful, — verily, my Lord 
is rich and generous.' 

Said he, ' Disguise for her her throne ; let us see 
whether she is guided, or whether she is of those 
who are not guided.' And when she came it was 
said, ' Was thy throne like this ? ' She said, ' It 
might be it ; ' and we were given knowledge before 
her, but we were resigned x . 

But that which she served beside God turned 
her away ; verily, she was of the unbelieving people. 
And it was said to her, ' Enter the court ;' and when 
she saw it, she reckoned it to be an abyss of water, 
and she uncovered her legs. Said he, ' Verily, it is 
a court paved with glass!' [45] Said she, 'My 
Lord! verily, I have wronged myself, but I am 
resigned with Solomon to God the Lord of the 
worlds ! ' 

And we sent unto Thamud their brother Zali'h, 
'Serve God;' but behold, they were two parties 
who contended ! 

Said he, ' O my people ! why do ye hasten on 
evil acts before good deeds ? why do ye not ask 
forgiveness of God ? haply ye may obtain mercy.' 
They said, ' We have taken an augury concerning 
thee and those who are with thee.' Said he, ' Your 
augury is in God's hands ; nay, but ye are a people 
who are tried!' 

1 Commentators differ as to whether the last words are to be taken 
as the conclusion of the Queen of Sheba's speech, or as Solomon's 
comment upon it. 



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> ». 



104 THE QURAN. XXVII, 49-61. 

And there were in the city nine persons who 
despoiled the kind and did not right. [50] Said 
they, ' Swear to each other by God, we will surely 
fall on him by night and on his people; then we 
will surely say unto his next of kin, "We witnessed 
not the destruction of his. people, and we do surely 
tell the truth!'" And they plotted a plot, and we 
plotted a plot, but they did not perceive. Behold, 
how was the end of their plot, that we destroyed 
them and their people all together ! 

Thus are their houses overturned, for that they 
were unjust ; verily, in that is a sign to people who 
do know ! 

But we saved those who believed and who did 
fear. 

[55] And Lot when he said to his people, ' Do 
ye approach an abominable sin while ye can see ? 
do ye indeed approach men lustfully rather than 
women ? nay! ye are a people who are ignorant.' 
But the answer of his people was only to say, 
' Drive out Lot's family from your city ! verily, 
they are a folk who would keep pure.' 

But we saved him and his family except his 
wife, her we destined to be of those who lingered ; 
and we rained down upon them rain, and evil was 
the rain of those who were warned. 

[60] Say, ' Praise belongs to God ; and peace be 
upon His servants whom He has chosen ! Is God 
best, or what they associate with Him ?' He who 
created the heavens and the earth ; and sends down 
upon 'you from the heaven water; and we cause 
to grow therewith gardens fraught with beauty; 
ye could not cause the trees thereof to grow ! Is 
there a god with God •? nay, but they are a people 



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XXVII, 6l-75- THE CHAPTER OF THE ANT. IO5 

who make peers with Him! He who made the 
earth, settled, and placed amongst it rivers; and 
placed upon it firm mountains ; and placed between 
the two seas a barrier ; is there a god with God ? 
nay, but most of them know not! He who answers 
the distressed when he calls upon Him and removes 
the evil ; and makes you successors in the earth ; 
is there a god with God ? little is it that ye are 
mindful. He who guides you in the darkness, of 
the land and of the sea; and who sends winds as 
glad tidings before His mercy; is there a god with 
God ? exalted be God above what they associate 
with Him ! [65] He who began the creation and 
then will make it return again; and who provides 
you from the heaven and the earth ; is there a god 
with God ? so bring your proofs if ye do speak 
the truth! 

Say, ' None in the heavens or the earth know the 
unseen save only God ; but they perceive not when 
they shall be raised!' — nay, but their knowledge 
attains to somewhat of the hereafter ; nay, but they 
are in doubt concerning it ! nay, but they are blind ! 

And those who disbelieved said, ' What ! when 
we have become dust and our fathers too, shall we 
indeed be brought forth ? [70] We were promised 
this, we and our fathers before us, this is nothing 
but old folks' tales!' > 

Say, 'Journey on through the land and see how 
was the end of the sinners ! and grieve not for 
them, and be not straitened at what they plot.' 

They say, 'When shall this threat be if ye do 
tell the truth?' Say, 'It may be that there • is 
pressing close behind you a part of what ye would 
hasten on ! ' [75] But, verily, thy Lord is full of 



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106 THE QUR'AN. XXVII, 75-89. 

grace to men, but most of them will not be thankful ; 
and, verily, thy Lord knows what their breasts 
conceal and what they manifest; and there is no 
secret thing in the heaven or the earth, save that it 
is in the perspicuous Book ! 

Verily, this Qur'an relates to the people of Israel 
most of that whereon they do dispute ; and, verily, 
it is a guidance and a mercy to the believers. 
[80] Verily, thy Lord decides between them by 
His judgment, for He is mighty, knowing. Rely 
thou then upon God, verily, thou art standing on 
obvious truth. Verily, thou canst not make the 
dead to hear, and thou canst not make the deaf 
to hear the call when they turn their backs on thee ; 
nor art thou a guide to the blind, out of their error : 
thou canst only make to hear such as believe in our 
signs, and such as are resigned. 

And when the sentence falls upon them we will 
bring forth a beast out of the earth that shall speak 
to them, (and say) that, 'Men of our signs would 
not be sure.' 

[85] And the day when we will gather from every 
nation a troop of those who said our signs were lies; 
and they shall be marshalled ; until they come, and 
He will say, ' Did ye say my signs were lies, when 
ye had compassed no knowledge thereof ? or what 
is it that ye were doing ? ' and the sentence shall 
fall upon them for that they did wrong, and they 
shall not have speech. 

Did they not see that we have made the night 
for them to rest in, and the day to see by ? verily, 
in that are signs to people who believe. 

And the day when the trumpet shall be blown 
and all who are in the heavens and the earth shall 



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XXVII,89-XXVIII,3. THE CHAPTER OF THE STORY. IO7 

be startled, save whom God pleases! and all shall 
come abjectly to Him. [90] And thou shalt see 
the mountains, which thou dost deem solid, pass 
away like the passing of the clouds ; — the work of 
God who orders all things ; verily, He is well aware 
of what ye do ! 

He who brings a good deed shall have better 
than it ; and from the alarm of that day they shall 
be safe : but those who bring an evil deed shall 
be thrown down upon their faces in the fire. Shall 
ye be rewarded save for what ye have done ? 

I am bidden to serve the Lord of this country 
who has made it sacred, and whose are all things ; 
and I am bidden to be of those who are resigned, 
and to recite the Qur'an ; and he who is guided 
he is only guided for himself; and he who errs, — 
say, ' I am only of those who warn !' 

[95] And say, ' Praise be to God, He will show 
you His signs, and ye shall recognise them; for 
thy Lord is not heedless of what ye do !' 



The Chapter of the Story. 
(XXVIII. Mecca.) 

In the name of the merciful and compassionate 
God. 

T. S. M. Those are the signs of the perspicuous 
Book ; we recite to thee from the history of Moses 
and Pharaoh in truth unto a people who believe. 

Verily, Pharaoh was lofty in the land and made 
the people thereof sects; one party of them he 
weakened, slaughtering their sons and letting their 
women live. Verily, he was of the despoilers. 



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I08 THE QUR'aN. XXVIII, 4-II. 

And we wished to be gracious to those who were 
weakened in the earth, and to make them models, 
and to make them the heirs; [5] and to establish 
for them in the earth ; and to show Pharaoh and 
Haman 1 and their hosts what they had to beware 
of from them. 

And we inspired the mother of Moses, ' Suckle 
him ; and when thou art afraid for him then throw 
him into the river, and fear not and grieve not; 
verily, we are going to restore him to thee, and to 
make him of the apostles !' 

And Pharaoh's family picked him up that he 
might be for them a foe and a grief; verily, Pharaoh 
and Haman and their hosts were sinners. 

And Pharaoh's wife said, 'He is a cheering of the 
eye to me, and to thee. Kill him not; it may be 
that he will profit us, or that we may take him for a 
son ; ' for they did not perceive. 

And the heart of Moses' mother was void on the 
morrow 2 ; she well-nigh disclosed him, had it not 
been that we bound up her heart that she might be 
of the believers. 

[10] And she said to his sister, ' Follow him up.' 
And she looked after him from afar, and they did 
not perceive. And we made unlawful for him the 
wet-nurses 3 . And she said, ' Shall I guide you to 



1 Haman, according to the Qur'in, is made out to be the prime 
minister of Pharaoh. 

3 Either devoid of patience, according to some, or of anxiety, 
according to others, or it may be to everything but the thought of 
Moses. 

3 That is, Moses was made to refuse the breast of the Egyptian 
woman before his sister came to offer her services, and point out a 
nurse who would rear him. 



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XXVIII, 11-19. THE CHAPTER OF THE STORY. 109 

the people of a house who will take care of him 
for you, and who will be sincere respecting him ?' 

So we restored him to his mother that her eye 
might be cheered, and that she might not grieve, 
and that she might know that the promise of God is 
true, though most of them know not. 

And when he reached puberty, and was settled, 
we gave him judgment and knowledge ; for thus do 
we reward those who do well. And he entered into 
the city at the time the people thereof were heedless, 
and he found therein two men fighting; the one 
of his sect and the other of his foes. And he who 
was of his sect asked his aid against him who was 
of his foes ; and Moses smote him with his fist and 
finished him. Said he, ' This is of the work of 
Satan, verily, he is a misleading obvious foe.' 

[15] Said he, 'My Lord! verily, I have wronged 
my soul, but forgive me.' So He forgave him; 
for He is forgiving and merciful. 

Said he, 'My Lord! for that Thou hast been 
gracious to me, I will surely not back up the 
sinners.' 

And on the morrow he was afraid in the city, 
expectant. And behold, he whom he had helped 
the day before cried (again) to him for aid. Said 
Moses to him, ' Verily, thou art obviously quarrel- 
some.' And when he wished to assault him who 
was the enemy to them both, he said, ' O Moses ! 
dost thou desire to kill me as thou didst kill a person 
yesterday ? thou dost only desire to be a tyrant in 
the earth ; and thou dost not desire to be of those 
who do right !' And a man came from the remote 
parts of the city running, said he, ' O Moses ! verily, 
the chiefs are deliberating concerning thee to kill 



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> A , 



IIO THE QURAN. XXVIII, 19-28. 

thee ; go then forth ; verily, I am to you a sincere 
adviser ! ' 

[20] So he went forth therefrom, afraid and expect- 
ant. Said he, 'Lord, save me from the unjust people !' 

And when he turned his face in the direction of 
Midian, he said, 'It may be that my Lord will guide 
me to a level path ! ' And when he went down to 
the water of Midian he found thereat a nation of 
people watering their flocks. 

And he found beside them two women keeping 
back their flocks. Said he, ' What is your design ?' 
They said, 'We cannot water our flocks until the 
herdsmen have finished ; for our father is a very old 
man.' So he watered for them ; then he turned 
back towards the shade and said, ' My Lord ! verily, 
I stand in need of what Thou sendest down to me 
of good.' 

[25] And one of the two came to him walking 
modestly ; said she, ' Verily, my father calls thee, 
to reward thee with hire for having watered our 
flocks for us.' And when he came to him and 
related to him the" story, said he, ' Fear not, thou 
art safe from the unjust people/ Said one of them, 
' O my sire ! hire him ; verily, the best of those 
whom thou canst hire is the strong and faithful.' 

Said he, ' Verily, I desire to marry thee to one 
of these> daughters of mine, on condition that thou 
dost serve me for hire eight years ; and if thou 
shalt fulfil ten it is of thyself; for I do not wish 
to make it wretched for thee; thou wilt find me, 
if it please God, of the righteous !' 

Said he, ' That is between you and me ; which- 
ever of the two terms I fulfil, let there be no enmity 
against me, for God over what we say keeps guard.' 



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XXVIII, 29-36. THE CHAPTER OF THE STORY. 1 1 I 

And when Moses had fulfilled the appointed time, 
and was journeying with his people, he perceived 
from the side of the mountain a fire ; said he to his 
people, 'Tarry ye here; verily, I have perceived 
a fire, haply I may bring you good news therefrom, 
or a brand of fire that haply ye may be warmed V 

[30] And when he came to it he was called to, 
from -the right side of the wady, in the blessed 
valley, out of the tree, ' O Moses ! verily, I am 
God the Lord of the worlds ; so throw down thy 
rod ; ' and when he saw it quivering as though it 
were a snake, he turned away and fled and did not 
return. ' O Moses ! approach and fear not, verily, 
thou art amongst the safe. Thrust thy hand into 
thy bosom, it shall come out white, without hurt; 
and then fold again thy wing, that thou dost now 
stretch out through dread ; for those are two signs 
from thy Lord to Pharaoh and his chiefs ; verily, 
they are a people who work abomination !' 

Said he, ' My Lord ! verily, I hftve killed a person 
amongst them, and I fear that they will kill 
me : and my brother Aaron, he is more eloquent 
of tongue than I ; send him then with me as a 
support, to verify me ; verily, I fear that they will 
call me liar ! ' 

[35] Said He, 'We will strengthen thine arm 
with thy brother ; and we will make for you both 
authority, and they shall not reach you in our signs ; 
ye two and those who follow you shall gain the 
upper hand.' 

And when Moses came to them with our mani- 
fest signs, they said, ' This is only sorcery devised ; 

1 See Part II, p. 35, note 1. 



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112 THE QURAN. XXVIII, 36-46. 

and we have not heard of this amongst our fathers 
of yore.' 

Moses said, ' My Lord knows best who comes 
with guidance from Him, and whose shall be the 
issue of the abode. Verily, the unjust shall not 
prosper ! ' 

And Pharaoh said, ' O ye chiefs ! I do not know 
any god for you except me ; then set fire, O Haman ! 
to some clay and make for me a tower, haply I may 
mount up to the God of Moses ; for, verily, I think 
he is of those who lie!' 

And he grew big with pride, he and his armies 
in the land, without right; and they thought that 
they to us should not return. [40] And we over- 
took him and his army, and we flung them into the 
sea ; behold, then, how was the end of the unjust ! 

But we made them models calling to the fire ; 
and on the resurrection day they shall not be 
helped ; and we followed them up in this world with 
a curse; and on*the resurrection day they shall 
be abhorred ! 

And we gave Moses the Book, after that we had 
destroyed the former generations, as an insight to 
men and a guidance and a mercy ; haply they may 
be mindful ! 

Thou wast not upon the western side when we 
decided for Moses, but afar off; nor wast thou of 
the witnesses. [45] But we raised up (other) genera- 
tions, and life was prolonged for them ; and thou 
wast not staying amidst the people of Midian, re- 
citing to them our signs; but we were sending 
our apostles. 

Nor wast thou by the side of the mountain when 
we called; but it is a mercy from thy Lord, that 



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XXVIII, 46-55. THE CHAPTER OF THE STORY. 113 

thou mayest warn a people to whom no warner has 
come before thee ; haply they may be mindful ! 
And lest there should befall them a mishap for 
what their hands have sent before, and they should 
say, ' Our Lord ! why didst thou not send to us an 
apostle ? for we would have followed thy signs and 
been of the believers.' 

And when the truth comes to them from us they 
say, 'We are given the like of what Moses was 
given.' Did they not disbelieve in what Moses 
was given before ? — they say, 'Two works of sor- 
cery 1 back up each other;' and they say, 'Verily, 
we do disbelieve in all.' 

Say, ' Bring, then, a book from God which shall 
be a better guide than both, and I will follow it, if 
ye do tell the truth !' 

[50] And if they cannot answer thee, then know 
that they follow their own lusts ; and who is more 
in error than he who follows his own lust without 
guidance from God ? verily, God guides not an 
unjust people! 

And we caused the word to reach them, haply 
they may be mindful! 

Those to whom we gave the Book before it, 
they believe therein ; and when it is recited to them 
they say, ' We believe in it as truth from our Lord ; 
verily, we were resigned before it came!' These 
shall be given their hire twice over, for that they 
were patient, and repelled evil with good, and of 
what we have bestowed upon them give alms. 

[55] And when they hear vain talk, they turn 
away from it and say, ' We have our works, and ye 

1 That is, the Pentateuch and Qur'aU 
[9] I 

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114 THE QURAN. XXVJ1I, 55-63. 

have your works. Peace be upon you ! we do not 
seek the ignorant!' 

Verily, thou canst not guide whom thou dost like, 
but God guides whom He pleases ; for He knows 
best who are to be guided. 

And they say, ' If we follow the guidance we shall 
be snatched away from the land.' Have we not 
established for them a safe sanctuary, to which are 
imported the fruits of everything as a provision 
from us ? but most of them do not know. 

How many a city have we destroyed that exulted 
in its means of subsistence ? These are their dwel- 
lings, never dwelt in after them, except a little ; for 
we were the heirs. 

But thy Lord would never destroy cities until He 
sent to the metropolis thereof an apostle, to recite 
to them our signs ; nor would we destroy cities 
unless their people were unjust. [60] Whatever 
thing ye may be given, it is a provision for this 
world's life and the adornment thereof; but what 
is with God is better and more enduring ; have ye 

.then no sense ? 

\ Is He to whom we have promised a goodly 
promise, which he shall meet with, like him to 
whom we have given the enjoyment of the life of 
this world, and who upon the resurrection day shall 
be of the arraigned ? 

And on the day when He will call them and will 
say, ' Where are those associates which ye did pre- 
tend ? ' And those against whom the sentence is 
due shall say, ' Our Lord ! these are those whom we 
have seduced ; we seduced them as we were seduced 
ourselves : but we clear ourselves to thee .; — they 
did not worship us ! ' j 



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XXVIII, 64-75. THE CHAPTER OF THE STORY. 1 1 5 

And it will be said, 'Call upon your partners;' 
and they will call upon them, but they will not 
answer them, and they shall see the torment ; would 
that they had been guided. 

[65] And the day when He shall call them and 
shall say, ' What was it ye answered the apostles ? ' 
and the history shall be blindly confusing to them 
on that day, and they shall not ask each other. 

But, as for him who turns again and believes and 
does right, it may be that he will be among the 
prosperous. For thy Lord creates what He pleases 
and chooses ; they have not the choice ! Celebrated 
be the praise of God ! and exalted be He above 
what they associate with Him ! 

Thy Lord knows what they conceal in their 
breasts and what they manifest. 

[70] He is God, there is no god but He ; to Him 
belongs praise, in the first and the last ; and His is 
the judgment ; and unto Him shall ye return ! 

Have ye considered, if God were to make for you 
the night endless until the resurrection day, who is 
the god, but God, to bring you light ? can ye not 
then hear ? 

Say, ' Have ye considered, if God were to make 
for you the day endless until the day of judgment, 
who is the god, except God, to bring you the night 
to rest therein ? can ye not then see ?' But of His 
mercy He has made for you the night and the day, 
that ye may rest therein, and crave of His grace, 
haply ye may give thanks. 

And the day when He shall call them and shall 
say, 'Where are my partners whom ye did pretend ?' 
[75] And we will pluck from every nation a witness ; 
and we will say, ' Bring your proof and know that 

I 2 



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1 1 6 THE QURAN. XXVIII, 75-82. 

the truth is God's ; ' and that which they had devised 
shall stray away from them. 

Verily, Korah x was of the people of Moses, and 
he was outrageous against them ; and we gave him 
treasuries of which the keys would bear down a band 
of men endowed with strength. When his people 
said to him, ' Exult not ; verily, God loves not those 
who exult ! but crave, through what God has given 
thee, the future abode ; and forget not thy portion 
in this world, and do good, as God has done good to 
thee ; and seek not evil doing in the earth ; verily, 
God loves not the evildoers !' 

Said he, ' I have only been given it for knowledge 
which I have ! ' did he not know that God had 
destroyed before him many generations of those 
who were stronger than he, and had amassed more ? 
But the sinners need not to be asked concerning 
their crimes. 

And he went out amongst the people in his orna- 
ments ; those who desired the life of this world said, 
' O would that we had the like of what Korah has 
been given ! verily, he is endowed with mighty 
fortune !' 

[80] But those who had been given knowledge 
said, ' Woe to you ! the reward of God is better for 
him who believes and does right; but none shall 
meet with it except the patient. And we clave the 
earth with him and with his house ; and he had no 
troop to help him against God, nor was he of those 
who were helped ! ' 

And on the morrow those who had yearned for 

1 In Arabic Qarun. The legend based upon Talmudic tradition 
of Koran's immense wealth appears to be also confused with that 
of Croesus. 



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XXVIII, 82-XX1X, i. THE CHAPTER OF THE SPIDER. II 7 

his place the day before said, ' Ah, ah ! God extends 
provision to whom He pleases of His servants, or 
He doles it out ; had not God been gracious to us, 
the earth would have cleft open with us ! Ah, ah ! 
the unbelievers shall not prosper !' 

That is the future abode; we make it for those 
who do not wish to be haughty in the earth, nor to 
do evil, and the end is for the pious. 

He who brings a good deed shall have better 
than it ; and he who brings an evil deed — those 
who do evil deeds shall only be rewarded for that 
which they have done. [85] Verily, He who hath 
ordained the Qur'an for thee will restore thee to thy 
returning place. Say, ' My Lord knows best who 
brings guidance, and who is in obvious error ; nor 
couldst thou hope that the Book would be thrown 
to thee, save as a mercy from thy Lord ! be not 
then a backer up of those who misbelieve ; and let 
them not turn thee from the signs of God, after 
they have been sent down to thee; but call unto 
thy Lord and be not of the idolaters ; and call not 
with God upon any other god ; there is no god 
but He ! everything is perishable, except His face ; 
His is the judgment, and unto Him shall ye return ! 



The Chapter of the Spider. 
(XXIX. Mecca.) 

In the name of the merciful and compassionate 
God. 

A. L. M. Do men then reckon that they will be 
left alone to say, ' We believe,' and not be tried ? 



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1 18 THE QUR'AN. XXIX, 2-12. 

we did try those who were before them, and God 
will surely know those who are truthful, and He 
will surely know the liars. Do those who do evil 
reckon that they can outstrip us ? evil is it that they 
judge. 

He who hopes for the meeting of God, — verily, 
God's appointed time will come ; and He both hears 
and knows ! [5] And he who fights strenuously, 
fights strenuously only for his own soul ; verily, 
God is independent of the worlds. 

Those who believe and do right, we will surely 
cover for them their offences ; and we will surely 
reward them with better than that which they have 
done. 

And we have enjoined on man kindness to his 
parents; and if they strive with thee that thou 
mayest join with me, what thou hast no knowledge 
of, then obey them not ; to me is your return, and I 
will inform you of that which ye have done. 

But those who believe and do right, we will make 
them enter amongst the righteous. 

And there are those among men who say, ' We 
believe in God !' but when they are hurt in God's 
cause, they deem the trials of men like the torment 
of God ; but if help come from thy Lord they will 
say, ' Verily, we were with you ! ' does not God 
know best what is in the breasts of the worlds ? 
[10] God will surely know those who believe, and 
will surely know the hypocrites. 

And those who misbelieved said to those who 
believed, 'Follow our path, we will bear your sins ;' 
but they could not bear their sins at all ; verily, 
they are liars I But they shall surely bear their 
own burdens, and burdens with their burdens ; and 



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XXIX, 12-23. THE CHAPTER OF THE SPIDER. 119 

they shall surely be asked upon the resurrection 
day concerning what they did devise. 

And we sent Noah to his people, and he dwelt 
among them for a thousand years save fifty years ; 
and the deluge overtook them while they were 
unjust : but we saved him and the fellows of the 
ark, and we made it a sign unto the worlds. 

And Abraham when he said to his people, ' Serve 
God and fear Him, that is better for you if ye did 
but know. [15] Ye only serve beside God idols and 
do create a lie ; verily, those whom ye serve beside 
God cannot control for themselves provision ; then 
crave provision with God, and serve Him, and give 
thanks to Him ; unto Him shall ye return ! And 
if ye say it is a lie, nations before you called (the 
apostles) liars too ; but an apostle has only his plain 
message to preach !' 

Have they not seen how God produces the crea- 
tion, and then turns it back ? verily, that to God is 
easy. 

Say, ' Journey ye on in the land, and behold how 
the creation appeared ; then God produces another 
production : verily, God is mighty over all !' 

[20] He torments whom He will, and has mercy 
on whom He will ; and unto Him shall ye be re- 
turned. 

Nor can ye make Him helpless in the earth, 
nor in the heavens ; nor have ye beside God a 
patron or a helper. 

And those who disbelieve in God's signs and in 
meeting with Him, these shall despair of my mercy; 
and these, for them is grievous woe. 

But the answer of his people was only to say, 
' Kill him or burn him !' But God saved him from 



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120 THE QURAN. XXTX, 23-33. 

the fire ; verily, in that are signs unto a people who 
believe. 

He said, ' Verily, ye take beside God idols, 
through mutual friendship in the life of this world ; 
then on the day of judgment ye shall deny each 
other, and shall curse each other, and your resort 
shall be the fire, and ye shall have none to help.' 

[25] And Lot believed him. And (Abraham) 
said, 'Verily, I flee unto my Lord! Verily, He is 
mighty, wise ! and we granted him Isaac and Jacob ; 
and we placed in his seed prophecy and the Book ; 
and we gave him his hire in this world ; and, verily, 
he in the next shall be among the righteous.' 

And Lot when he said to his people, ' Verily, ye 
approach an abomination which no one in all the 
world ever anticipated you in ! What ! do ye ap- 
proach men ? and stop folks on the highway ? and 
approach in your assembly sin ?' but the answer of 
his people was only to say, ' Bring us God's torment, 
if thou art of those who speak the truth !' 

Said he, ' My Lord ! help me against a people 
who do evil !' 

[30] And when our messengers came to Abraham 
with the glad tidings, they said, ' We are about to 
destroy the people of this city. Verily, the people 
thereof are wrong-doers.' 

Said he, 'Verily, in it is Lot ;' they said, ' We know 
best who is therein ; we shall of a surety save him 
and his people, except his wife, who is of those who 
linger.' And when our messengers came to Lot, 
he was vexed for them, and his arm was straitened 
for them ; and they said, ' Fear not, neither grieve ; 
we are about to save thee and thy people, except 
thy wife, who is of those who linger. Verily, we 



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XXIX, 33-43- THE CHAPTER OF THE SPIDER. 121 

are about to send down upon the people of this 
city a horror from heaven, for that they have 
sinned ; and we have left therefrom a manifest sign 
unto a people who have sense.' 

[35] And unto Midian 'we sent their brother 
Sho'h&ib, and he said, ' My people, serve God, 
and hope for the last day ; and waste not the land, 
despoiling it.' 

But they called him liar; and the convulsion 
seized them, and on the morrow they lay in their 
dwellings prone. 

And 'Ad and Thamud — but it is plain to you 
from their habitations ; for Satan made seemly to 
them their works, and turned them from the way, 
sagacious though they were ! 

And Korah and Pharaoh and Haman — Moses 
did come to them with manifest signs, but they 
were too big with pride in the earth, although 
they could not outstrip us ! 

And each of them we seized in his sin ; and of 
them were some against whom we sent a sand- 
storm ; and of them were some whom the noise 
seized ; and of them were some with whom we 
cleaved the earth open; and of them were some 
we drowned : God would not have wronged them, 
but it was themselves they wronged. 

[40] The likeness of those who take, beside 
God, patrons is as the likeness of a spider, that 
takes to himself a house ; and, verily, the weakest 
of houses is a spider's house, if they did but 
know! 

Verily, God knows whatever thing they call upon 
beside Him ; for He is the mighty, wise. 

These are parables which we have struck out 



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122 THE QURAN. XXIX, 42-52. 

for men ; but none will understand them, save 
those who know. 

God created the heavens and the earth in truth ; 
verily, in this is a sign unto believers. 

Recite what has been revealed to thee of the 
Book ; and be steadfast in prayer ; verily, prayer 
forbids sin and wrong; and surely the mention 
of God is greater ; for God knows what ye do. 
[45] And do not wrangle with the people of the 
Book, except for what is better ; save with those 
who have been unjust amongst them and who say, 
'We believe in what is sent down to us, and what 
has been sent down to you ; our God and your God 
is one, and we are unto Him resigned.' 

Thus did we send down to thee the Book ; and 
every one to whom we have given the Book believes 
therein. But these will not believe therein ; though 
none gainsay our signs except the misbelievers. 

Thou couldst not recite before this any book, 
nor write it with thy right hand, for in that case 
those who deem it vain would have doubted. Nay, 
but it is evident signs in the breasts of those who 
are endued with knowledge, and none but the unjust 
would gainsay our signs ! 

They say, ' Unless there be sent down upon him 
signs from his Lord — ;' say, 'Verily, signs are with 
God, and, verily, I am an obvious warner !' 

[50] Is it not enough for them that we have sent 
down to thee the Book which thou dost recite to 
them ? verily, in that is a mercy and a reminder to 
a people who believe. 

Say, ' God is witness enough between me and you; 
He knows what is in the heavens and what is in 
the earth ; and those who believe in falsehood and 



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XXIX, 52-63. THE CHAPTER OF THE SPIDER. 1 23 

misbelieve in God, they shall be the losers.' They 
will wish thee to hasten on the torment ; but were 
it not for a stated and appointed time, the torment 
would have come upon them suddenly, while yet 
they did not perceive. 

They will wish thee to hurry on the torment, but, 
verily, hell encompasses the misbelievers ! 

[55] On the day when the torment shall cover 
them from above them and from beneath their feet, 
and He shall say, 'Taste that which ye have done !' 

my servants who believe ! verily, my land is 
spacious enough 1 ; me therefore do ye worship. 

Every soul must taste of death, then unto us shall 
ye return; and those who believe and act aright, 
we will surely inform them of upper chambers in 
Paradise, beneath which rivers flow ; to dwell 
therein for aye — pleasant is the hire of those who 
work! those who are patient and rely upon their 
Lord! 

[60] How many a beast cannot carry its own 
provision ! God provides for it and for you ; He 
both hears and knows ! 

And if thou shouldst ask them, 'Who created the 
heavens and the earth, and subjected the sun and 
the moon ?' they will surely say, ' God !' how then 
can they lie ? 

God extends provision to whomsoever He will 
of His servants, or doles it out to him ; verily, God 
all things doth know. 

And if thou shouldst ask them, 'Who sends down 
from the heavens water and quickens therewith the 

1 I. e. if yon are pressed in Mecca, there are plenty of places 
where you can take shelter, as Mohammed himself and a few of his 
followers did at Medfnah. 



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124 THE QURAN. XXIX, 63-XXX, 2. 

earth in its death ?' they will surely say, 'God!' say, 
' And praise be to God ! ' nay, most of them have 
no sense. 

This life of the world is nothing but a sport and 
a play; but, verily, the abode of the next world, that 
is life, — if they did but know ! 

[65] And when they ride in the ship they call 
upon God, making their religion seem sincere to 
Him; but when He saves them to the shore, be- 
hold, they associate others with Him ; that they 
may disbelieve in our signs ; and that they may 
have some enjoyment : but soon they shall know. 

Have they not seen that we have made a safe 
sanctuary whilst people are being snatched away 
around them ? is it then in falsehood that they 
will believe, and for the favours of God be un- 
grateful ? 

But who is more unjust than he who devises 
against God a lie, or calls the truth a lie when it 
comes to him ? Is there not in hell a resort for the 
misbelievers ? but those who fight strenuously for us 
we will surely guide them into our way, for, verily, 
God is with those who do well. 



The Chapter of the Greeks 1 . 
(XXX. Mecca.) 

In the name of the merciful and compassionate 
God. 

The Greeks are overcome in the nighest parts 
of the land; but after being overcome they shall 

1 In Arabic Rum, by which is meant the Byzantine or eastern 
Roman empire. 



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XXX, 2-p. THE CHAPTER OF THE GREEKS. 1 25 

overcome * in a few years ; to God belongs the 
order before and after; and on that day the be- 
lievers shall rejoice in the help of God ; — God 
helps whom He will, and He is mighty, merciful. 
[5] — God's promise ! — God breaks not His promise, 
but most men do not know ! 

They know the outside of this world's life, but 
of the hereafter they are heedless. Have they not 
reflected in themselves, that God created not the 
heavens and the earth, and what is between the two 
except in truth, and for a stated and appointed time ? 
but, verily, many men in the meeting of their Lord 
do disbelieve. 

Have they not journeyed on in the land and seen 
how was the end of those before them who were 
stronger than they, and who turned up the ground 
and cultivated it more than they do cultivate it ? 
and there came to them their apostles with manifest 
signs ; for God would never wrong them : it was 
themselves they wronged ! 

Then evil was the end of those who did evil, in 
that they said the signs of God were lies and mocked 
thereat. 

1 About the beginning of the sixth year before the Higrah the 
Persians conquered Syria, and made themselves masters also of 
Palestine, and took Jerusalem. The Greeks were so distressed by 
their defeat that there appeared little likelihood of their being able 
to retrieve their fortune, and in the following year the Persians pro- 
ceeded to lay siege to Constantinople itself. In the year 625 a.d., 
however, the fourth year before the HigTah, the Greeks gained a 
signal victory over the Persians, and not only drove them out of the 
borders of the Byzantine empire, but carried the war into Persian 
territory, and despoiled the city of Medayen. It is the defeat which 
is alluded to in this passage, and the subsequent victory that is 
prophesied, the date of the chapter being ascribed to the period 
when the Persians took Jerusalem. 



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126 THE QURAN. XXX, 10-21. 

[io] God produces a creation, then He makes it 
go back again, then unto Him shall ye return. 

And on the day when the Hour shall rise, the 
sinners shall be confused ; and they shall not have 
amongst their partners intercessors ; and their part- 
ners shall they deny. 

And on the day when the Hour shall rise, on that 
day shall they be scattered apart ; and as for those 
who believe and do right, they in the garden shall 
be joyful; [15] and as for those who misbelieved 
and said our signs and the meeting of the hereafter 
were lies, they shall be in the torment arraigned. 

Celebrated be the praises of God, when ye are in 
the evening and when ye are in the morning! for 
to Him belongs praise in the heavens and the earth! 
and at the evening, and when ye are at noon. 

He brings forth the living from the dead, and 
brings forth the dead from the living ; and He 
quickens the earth after its death, and thus shall 
ye too be brought forth. 

And of His signs is this, that He hath created 
you from dust; then, behold, ye are mortals who are 
spread abroad. 

[20] And of His signs is this, that He hath 
created for you of yourselves wives with whom 
ye may cohabit ; He has made between you affec- 
tion and pity. Verily, in that are signs unto a people 
who reflect. 

And of His signs is the creation of the heavens 
and the earth, and the diversity of your tongues and 
colours ; verily, in that are signs unto the worlds *. 



1 Or, according to another reading, ' unto those who know ;' cf. 
Part II, p. 122, line 2. 



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XXX, 23-29. THE CHAPTER OF THE GREEKS. I27 

And of His signs is your sleep by night and by 
day ; and your craving after His grace. Verily, in 
that are signs unto a people who do hear. 

And of His signs is this, that He shows you 
lightning for fear and hope ; and sends down from 
the sky water, and quickens therewith the earth 
after its death ; verily, in that are signs unto a 
people who have sense. 

And of His signs is this, that the heavens and the 
earth stand by His order ; then when He calls you 
from the earth, lo! ye shall come forth. [25] His 
are those who are in the heavens and the earth, and 
all to Him are devoted. And He it is who pro- 
duces a creation and then makes it to go back 
again ; for it is very easy to Him ; and His are 
the loftiest similitudes in the heavens and the earth; 
and He is the mighty, wise ! 

He has struck out for you a parable from your- 
selves ; have ye of what your right hand possess 
partners in what we have bestowed upon you, so 
that ye share alike therein ? do ye fear them as 
ye fear each other ? — Thus do we detail the signs 
unto a people who have sense \ 

Nay, when those who are unjust follow their 
lusts without knowledge, — and who shall guide 
him whom God has led astray? and they shall 
have none to help. 

Set thy face steadfast towards the religion as an 

1 I.e. as they, the Meccans, do not consider their slaves their 
equals, still less does God hold the false gods they associate with 
Him to be His equals, it being always remembered that these part- 
ners or false gods were not spoken of in the Qur'&n asj»efij~. ^ y 
existent, but as supernatural beings, to whom divinity b«fc vb^efen' 
wrongly ascribed. 



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128 THE QUr'An. XXX, 29-39. 

'Hanlf, according to the constitution whereon God 
has constituted men ; there is no altering the crea- 
tion of God, that is the standard religion, though 
most men do not know. 

[30] Turn repentant towards Him j and fear 
Him, and be steadfast in prayer ; and be not of 
the idolaters. 

Of those who have divided their religion and be- 
come sects, every party in what they have, rejoice. 

And when distress touches men they call upon 
their Lord, repentant towards Him ; then when He 
has made them taste mercy from Himself, behold ! 
a party of them associate others with their Lord, 
that they may disbelieve in what we have brought 
them ; — but enjoy yourselves ; for hereafter ye shall 
know ! 

Or have we sent down to them authority which 
speaks of what they do associate with Him ? 

[35] And when we have made men taste of 
mercy, they rejoice therein ; and if there befall 
them evil for what their hands have sent before, 
behold ! they are in despair. 

Have they not seen that God extends provision 
to whom He pleases, or doles it out ? verily, in 
that are signs unto a people who believe. 

Then give to the kinsman his due, and to the 
poor and to the wayfarer ; that is better for those 
who desire the face of God, and these it is who are 
prosperous. 

And what ye put out to usury that it may in- 
crease with the wealth of men, it shall not increase 
with God ; but what ye put out in alms, desiring 
the face of God — these it is who shall gain double. 

It is God who created you and then provided for 



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XXX, 39-47- THE CHAPTER OF THE GREEKS. 129 

you ; and then will make you die, and then will 
quicken you again ; is there any of your partners 
who can do aught of that ? Celebrated be His 
praises, and exalted be He above what they asso- 
ciate with Him ! 

[40] Trouble hath appeared in the land and the 
sea, for what men's hands have gained! to make 
them taste a part of that which they have done, — 
haply they may return ! 

Say, 'Journey on in the land, and behold what 
was the end of those before you, — most of them 
were idolaters!' 

Set thy face steadfast to the standard religion, 
before there come a day from God which there is 
no averting ; on that day shall they be parted into 
two bands. 

He who misbelieves, upon him is his misbelief; 
but whoso does right, for themselves they are 
spreading couches 1 : 

That He may reward those who believe and 
do right of His grace ; verily, He loves not the 
misbelievers ! 

[45] And of His signs is this, that He sends forth 
the winds with glad tidings, to make you taste of 
His mercy, and to make the ships go on at His 
bidding, and that ye may crave of His grace, and 
haply ye may give thanks. 

We have sent before thee apostles unto their 
people, and they came to them With manifest signs : 
and we took vengeance upon those who sinned, but 
due from us it was to help the believers. 

God it is who sends forth the winds to stir up 

1 In Paradise. 

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I30 THE QURAN. XXX, 47-57. 

clouds ; then He spreads them forth over the sky 
as he pleases ; and He breaks them up and ye see 
the rain come forth from amongst them ; and when 
He causes it to fall upon whom He pleases of His 
servants, behold they hail it with joy, although 
before it was sent down upon them they were 
before then confused ! 
t"*jL,ook then to the vestiges of God's mercy, how He 
quickens the earth after its death ; verily, that is the 
quickener of the dead, and He is mighty over all ! 

[50] But if we should send a wind and they should 
see it yellow 1 , they would after that become mis- 
believers. 

But, verily, thou canst not make the dead to hear, 
nor canst thou make the deaf to hear the call, when 
they turn their backs and flee ; nor hast thou to 
guide the blind out of their error ; thou canst only 
make those to hear who believe in our signs and 
who are resigned. 

God it is who created you of weakness, then 
made for you after weakness strength ; then made 
for you after strength, weakness and grey hairs : 
He creates what He pleases, for He is the know- 
ing, the powerful! 

And on the day when the Hour shall rise, the 
sinners shall swear [55] that they have not tarried 
save an hour ; thus were they wont to lie ! 

But those who are given knowledge and faith will 
say, 'We have tarried according to the Book of 
God, until the day of -resurrection ; ' and thisfis the 
day of resurrection, but ye — ye do not k niyv. \ 

And on that day their excuse shall profit not 

1 I. e. see the young corn parched. 



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XXX,57-XXXI,S. THE CHAPTER OF LOQMAN. 131 

those who did wrong ; nor shall they be asked to 
please God again. 

We have struck out to men in this Qur'an every 
kind of parable ; but if thou shouldst bring them a 
sign 1 then those who misbelieve will surely say, 
' Ye are but followers of vanity; thus does God 
set a stamp upon the hearts of those who do not 
know.' 

[60] Be thou patient then ; verily, God's promise 
is true ! and let them not flurry thee who are not 
sure. 



The Chapter of Loqman 2 . 

(XXXI. Mecca.) 

In the name of the merciful and compassionate 
God. 

A. L. M. These are the signs of the wise Book, 
a guidance and a mercy to those who do well, who 
are steadfast in prayer and give alms and who of 
the hereafter are sure ; these are in guidance from 
their Lord, and these are the prosperous. 

[5] And amongst men is one 8 who buys sportive 
legends, to lead astray from God's path, without 
knowledge, and to make a jest of it ; these, for 

1 I. e. a verse. 

* This sage is generally identified with the Aesop of the Greeks. 
The legends current in the East concerning him accord exactly 
with those of the Greek fabulist. 

8 An Na*#r ibn al 'Hareth had purchased in Persia some of the 
old legends of Rustam and Isfendi&r, which were afterwards em- 
bodied in the Shah-ndmeh of Firdausf. These he read to the 
Qurair as being more wonderful than the Qur"in. 

K 2 



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132 THE QURAN. XXXI, 5-14. 

them is shameful woe ! And when our signs are 
recited to him, he turns his back, too big with pride, 
as though he heard them not, — as if in his two ears 
were dulness. But give to him glad tidings of 
grievous woe ! 

Verily, those who believe and do right, for them 
are gardens of pleasure, to dwell therein for aye ; — 
God's promise in truth, and He is mighty, wise. 

He created the heavens without pillars that ye 
can see, and He threw upon the earth firm 
mountains lest it should move with you; and He 
dispersed thereon every sort of beast ; and we send 
down from the heavens water, and we caused to 
grow therein of every noble kind. 

[10] This is God's creation ; show me what others 
beside Him have created; — nay, the unjust are in 
obvious error ! 

We did give unto Loqman wisdom, saying, 
' Thank God ; for he who thanks God is only 
thankful for his own soul ; and he who is ungrate- 
ful — verily, God is independent, worthy of praise ! ' 

And when Loqman said to his son while ad- 
monishing him, ' O my boy ! associate none with 
God, for, verily, such association is a mighty 
wrong.' — 

For we have commended his parents to man ; 
his mother bore him with weakness upon weakness ; 
and his weaning is in two years ; — ' Be thankful to 
me and to thy parents ; for unto me shall your 
journey be. But if they strive with thee that thou 
shouldst associate with me that which thou hast 
no knowledge of, then obey them not. But asso- 
ciate with them in the world with kindness, and 
follow the way of him who turns repentant unto 



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XXXI, 14-23 THE CHAPTER OF LOQMAN. 1 33 

me ; then unto me is your return, and I will inform 
you of that which ye have done ! — 

[15] ' O my son ! verily, if there were the weight 
of a grain of mustard seed and it were (hidden) in 
the rock, or in the heaven, or in the earth, God 
would bring it (to light). Verily, God is subtle, well 
aware ! 

' O my son ! be steadfast in prayer, and bid what 
is reasonable and forbid what is wrong ; be patient 
of what befalls thee, verily, that is one of the deter- 
mined affairs. 

' And twist not thy cheek proudly, nor walk in 
the land haughtily ; verily, God loves not every 
arrogant boaster : but be moderate in thy walk, and 
lower thy voice; verily, the most disagreeable of 
voices is the voice of asses ! ' 

Have ye not seen that God has subjected to you 
what is in the heavens and what is in the earth, and 
has poured down upon you His favours, outwardly 
and inwardly ? but amongst men are those who 
wrangle about God, without knowledge, and without 
guidance, and without an illuminating book ! 

[20] And when it is said to them, ' Follow what 
God has sent down ;' they say, 'Nay! we will follow 
what we found our fathers agreed upon ;' — what ! 
though Satan calls them to the torment of the blaze? 

But he who resigns his face unto God, and does 
good, he has grasped the firm handle ; unto God is 
the issue of affairs. But he who misbelieves, let 
not his misbelief grieve thee ; to us is their return, 
and we will inform them of what they do ; — for, 
verily, God knows the nature of men's breasts ! 

We will let them enjoy themselves a little ; then 
we will force them to rigorous woe ! 



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» *, 



134 THE QURAN. XXXI, 24-32. 

And if thou shouldst ask them who created the 
heavens and the earth, they will surely say, ' God.' 
Say, ' Praise be to God !' but most of them do not 
know. 

[25] God's is what is in the heavens and what is 
in the earth ; verily, God, He is the independent, 
worthy of praise. 

And were the trees that are in the earth pens, 
and the sea (ink) with seven more seas to swell its 
tide, the words of God would not be spent ; verily, 
God is mighty, wise ! 

Your creation and your rising again are but as 
that of one soul ; verily, God both hears and sees ! 

Dost thou not see that God joins on the night 
to the day, and joins on the day to the night, and 
has subjected the sun and the moon, — each of them 
runs on unto an appointed time ? and that God of 
what ye do is well aware ? 

That is because God, He is true, and because 
what ye call on beside Him is falsehood, and be- 
cause God, He is the high, the great ! 

[30] Dost thou not see that the ship rides on 
in the sea by the favour of God, that He may show 
you of His signs ? verily, in that are signs to every 
grateful person. 

And when a wave like shadows covers them, they 
call on God, being sincere in their religion ; and 
when He saves them to the shore, then amongst 
them are some who halt between two opinions. 
But none gainsays our signs save every perfidious 
misbeliever. 

O ye folk ! fear your Lord and dread the day 
when the father shall not atone for his son, nor shall 
the child atone aught for its parent 



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XXXI,33-XXXII,5- THE CHAPTER OF ADORATION. 1 35 

Verily, the promise of God is true ! Say, ' Let not 
the life of this world beguile you ; and let not the 
beguiler beguile you concerning God.' 

Verily, God, with Him is the knowledge of the 
Hour ; and He sends down the rain ; and He 
knows what is in the wombs ; and no soul knows 
what it is that it shall earn to-morrow ; and no soul 
knows in what land it shall die ; verily, God is know- 
ing, well aware ! 



The Chapter of Adoration. 
(XXXII. Mecca.) 

In the name of the merciful and compassionate 
God. 

A. L. M. The revelation of the Book, there is 
no doubt therein, from the Lord of the worlds. 

Do they say, ' He has forged it ?' Nay! it is the 
truth from thy Lord, that thou mayest warn a 
people, to whom no warner has come before thee, 
haply they may be guided. 

God it is who created the heavens and the earth 
and what is between the two in six days ; then He 
made for the throne ! ye have no patron beside 
Him and no intercessor ; are ye not then mindful ? 

He governs the affair from the heaven unto the 
earth; then shall it ascend to him in a day, the 
measure of which is as a thousand years of what 
ye number. 

[5] That is He who knows the unseen and the 
visible ; the mighty, the merciful, who has made the 
best of the creation of everything, and produced the 



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I36 THE QURAN. XXXII, 5-19. 

creation of man from clay; then He made his stock 
from an extract of despicable water ; then He 
fashioned him and breathed into him of his spirit, 
and made for you hearing and eyesight and hearts ; — 
little is it that ye give thanks ! 

And they say, ' When we are lost in the earth, 
shall we then become a new creation?' [10] Nay! 
in the meeting of their Lord they disbelieve. 

Say, ' The angel of death shall take you away, 
he who is given charge of you ; then unto your Lord 
shall ye be returned.' 

And couldst thou see when the sinners hang 
down their heads before their Lord, ' O Lord ! we 
have seen and we have heard ; send us back then 
and we will do right. Verily, we are sure !' 

Had we pleased we would have given to every- 
thing its guidance ; but the sentence was due from 
me ; — I will surely fill hell with the ^inns and with 
men all together : ' So taste ye, for that ye forgat 
the meeting of this day of yours, — verily, we have 
forgotten you ! and taste ye the torment of eternity 
for that which ye have done ! ' 

[15] They only believe in our signs who when 
they are reminded of them fall down adoring and 
celebrate the praises of their Lord, and are not 
too big with pride. As their sides forsake their 
beds, they call upon their Lord with fear and hope ; 
and of what we have bestowed upon them do they 
give alms. No soul knows what is reserved for 
them of cheerfulness for eye, as a reward for that 
which they have done ! Is he who is a believer 
like him who is a sinner ? they shall not be held 
equal. 

As for those who believe and do right, for them 



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XXXII, 19-26. THE CHAPTER OF ADORATION. 1 37 

are the gardens of resort, an entertainment for that 
which they have done ! 

[20] But as for those who commit abomination there 
resort is the Fire. Every time that they desire to 
go forth therefrom, we will send them back therein, 
and it will be said to them, ' Taste ye the torment 
of the fire which ye did call a lie!' and we will 
surely make them taste of the torment of the 
nearer torment beside the greater torment \ — haply 
they may yet return. 

Who is more unjust than he who is reminded of the 
signs of his Lord, and then turns away from them ? 
Verily, we will take vengeance on the sinners ! 

And we did give Moses the Book ; be not then 
in doubt concerning the meeting with him 2 ; and we 
made it a guidance to the children of Israel. 

And we made amongst them high priests who 
guided by our bidding, since they were patient and 
were sure of our signs. 

[25] Verily, thy Lord, he shall decide between 
them on the resurrection day concerning that 
whereon they do dispute. 

Is it not conspicuous to them how many genera- 
tions we have destroyed before them ? they walk 



1 I. e. the torment of this world as well as that of the next. 

2 This may refer to the alleged meeting of Mohammed and 
Moses in heaven during the 'night journey;' or it may be translated, 
' the reception of it,' i. e. the Qur'&n, the expression in Chapter 
XXVII, 6, being derived from the same root in Arabic, which 
means ' to meet.' The native commentators are divided in opinion 
as to these two interpretations. It is quite possible, however, that 
it may mean, ' be not in doubt as to a meeting with Him,' and be 
a mere reiteration of the sentiment so often expressed, that Mus- 
lims are to be certain of a meeting with their Lord. 



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138 THE QUR'AN. XXXII, 26-XXXIII, 4. 

over their dwellings ! verily, in that are signs : do 
they not then hear ? 

Have they not seen that we drive the water to 
the sterile land, and bring forth thereby corn from 
which their cattle and themselves do eat ? do they 
not then see ? 

And they say, ' When shall this decision come if 
ye do tell the truth ?' Say, ' On the day of the 
decision their faith shall not profit those who mis- 
believed, nor shall they be respited ;' [30] turn then 
from them and wait ; verily, they are waiting too ! 



The Chapter of the Confederates 1 . 
(XXXIII. Medinah.) 

In the name of the merciful and compassionate 
God. 

thou prophet! fear God and obey not the 
misbelievers and hypocrites ; verily, God is ever 
knowing, wise ! 

But follow what thou art inspired with from thy 
Lord; verily, God of what you do is ever well aware. 
And rely upon God, for God is guardian enough. 

God has not made for any man two hearts in his 
inside ; nor has He made your wives, — whom you 
back away from, — your real mothers 2 ; nor has He 

1 When this surah was written Medinah was besieged by a con- 
federation of the Jewish tribes with the Arabs of Mecca, Ne^d 
and Tehamah, at the instigation of the Jewish tribe of HadMr, 
whom Mohammed had expelled from Mecca the year before. 
The event took place in the fifth year of the Hi^rah. 

* The Arabs were in the habit of divorcing their wives on 
certain occasions with the words, 'Thy back is to me as my 



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XXXIII, 4-9- THE CHAPTER OF THE CONFEDERATES. 1 39 

made your adopted sons your real sons. That is 
what ye speak with your mouths ; but God speaks 
the truth and He guides to the path ! 

[5] Call them by their fathers' names; that is 
more just in God's sight ; but if ye know not their 
fathers, then they are your brothers in religion and 
your clients. There is no crime against you for 
what mistakes ye make therein; but what your 
hearts do purposely — but God is ever forgiving and 
merciful. 

The prophet is nearer of kin to the believers than 
themselves, and his wives are their mothers. And 
blood relations are nearer in kin to each other by 
the Book of God than the believers and those who 
fled 1 ; only" your doing kindness to your kindred, 
that is traced in the Book. 

And when we took of the prophets their compact 2 , 
from thee and from Noah, and Abraham, and Moses, 
and Jesus the son of Mary, and took of them a rigid 
compact, that He might ask the truth-tellers of their 
truth. But He has prepared for those who mis- 
believe a grievous woe. 

O ye who believe ! remember God's favours to- 
wards you when hosts came to you and we sent 
against them a wind and hosts 3 that ye could not 
see ; — and God knew what ye were doing. 

mother's back,' after which they considered it as unnatural to ap- 
proach them as though they were their real mothers. This practice 
Mohammed here forbids. They used also to consider their 
adopted children in the same light as real children of their body ; 
in forbidding this practice also, Mohammed legalised his mar- 
riage with Z&nab, the divorced wife of his freedman Z&id, who 
was also his adopted son. 

1 The Muha^erfn. a See Part I, p. 57, note 1. 

' Of angels. 



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» *- 



I40 THE QURAN. XXXIII, 10-14. 

[10] When they came upon you from above you 
and from below 1 you, and when your eyesights were 
distracted and your hearts came up into your throats, 
and ye suspected God with certain suspicions. 

There were the believers tried and were made to 
quake with a severe quaking. 

And when the hypocrites and those in whose 
hearts was sickness said, ' God and His Apostle 
have only promised us deceitfully.' And when a 
party of them said, ' O people of Yathreb 2 ; there 
is no place for you (here) s , return then (to the city).' 
And a part of them asked leave of the prophet (to 
return), saying, ' Verily, our houses are defenceless ;' 
but they were not defenceless, they only wished for 
flight. 

But had they been entered upon from its environs 
and then been asked to show treason they would 
have done so; but they would only have tarried 
there a little while 4 . 



1 On the approach of the confederate army, to the number of 
1 2,000, Mohammed, by the advice of Selm&n the Persian, ordered 
a deep trench to be dug round Medinah, and himself went out to 
defend it with 3,000 men. The two forces remained for nearly a 
month in their respective camps without coming to an actual con- 
flict : until one night a piercing east wind blew so violently, and 
made such disorder in the camp of the besiegers, that a panic 
seized upon them, and they retired precipitately. Some of them had 
been encamped on the heights to the east of the town, the others 
in the lower part of the valley. 

2 The ancient name of the city; it was only called 'El Medtnah, 
' the city,' after it had become famous by giving shelter to Mo- 
hammed. 

3 In the trenches. 

4 I. e. if the confederates had effected an entry, these half-hearted 
persons would have listened to their proposals, and have deserted 
the prophet. 



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XXXIII.I5-23. THE CHAPTER OF THE CONFEDERATES. 141 

[15] They had covenanted with God before, that 
they would not turn their backs ; and God's cove- 
nant shall be enquired of. 

Say, ' Flight shall avail you naught ; if ye fly 
from death or slaughter, even then ye shall be 
granted enjoyment only for a little!' 

Say, ' Who is it that can save you from God, if 
He wish you evil, or wish you mercy?' but they 
will not find beside God a patron or a helper. 

Say, ' God knows the hinderers amongst you, and 
those who say to their brethren, "Come along unto 
us," and show but little valour ; — covetous towards 
you 1 .' When fear comes thou wilt see them looking 
towards thee, their eyes rolling like one fainting with 
death ; but when the fear has passed away they will 
assail you with sharp tongues, covetous of the best 2 . 
These have never believed, and God will make vain 
their works, for that is easy with God. 

[20] They reckoned that the confederates would 
never go away ; and if the confederates should come 
they would fain be in the desert with the Arabs, 
asking for news of you ! and if they were amongst 
you they would fight but little. 

Ye had in the Apostle of God a good example 
for him who hopes for God and the last day, and 
who remembers God much. 

And when the believers saw the confederates 
they said, ' This is what God and His Apostle 
promised us; God and His Apostle are true!' and 
it only increased them in faith and resignation. 

Amongst the believers are men who have been 

1 I. e. chary of helping you, but greedy of the spoils. 
a I.e. the best share of the spoils. 



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142 THE QURAN. XXXIII, 23-29. 

true to their covenant with God, and there are some 
who have fulfilled their vow 1 , and some who wait 
and have not changed 2 with fickleness. 

That God might reward the truthful for their 
truth, and punish the hypocrites if He please, or 
turn again towards them ; — verily, God is forgiving, 
merciful ! 

[25] And God drove back the misbelievers in 
their rage ; they gat no advantage ; — God was 
enough for the believers in the fight, for God is 
strong, mighty! 

And He drove down those of the people of the 
Book who had helped them s from their fortresses 4 
and hurled dread into their hearts ; a part ye slew 
and ye took captive a part : and He gave you their 
land, and their dwellings, and their property for an 
inheritance, and a land ye had not trodden, for God 
is ever mighty over all. 

O thou prophet ! say to thy wives, ' If ye be de- 
sirous of the life of this world and its adornments, 
come, I will give you them to enjoy and I will let 
you range handsomely at large ! But if ye be 
desirous of God and His Apostle and of the abode 
of the hereafter, verily, God has prepared for those 
of you who do good a mighty hire 6 !' 

1 I. e. their vow to fight till they obtained martyrdom. 

2 I. e. changed their mind. 

3 I. e. who had helped the confederates. 

4 The Qurai/Aah Jews, whom Mohammed attacked after the 
siege of Medinah had been raised, and punished for their treachery 
in having joined the confederates although in league with him at 
the time. 

6 Mohammed being annoyed by the demands made by his wives 
for costly dresses and the like, offered them the choice of divorce 
or of being content with their usual mode of living. They chose 
the latter. 



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XXXIII.30-35- THE CHAPTER OF THE CONFEDERATES. I43 

[30] O ye women of the prophet! whosoever of 
you commits manifest fornication, doubled shall be 
her torment twice ; and that is easy unto God ! 

But that one of you who is devoted to God and 
His Apostle and does right we will give her her 
hire twice over, and we have prepared for her a 
noble provision. 

ye women of the prophet ! ye are not like any 
other women ; if ye fear God then be not too com- 
plaisant in speech, or he in whose heart is sickness 
will lust after you ; but speak a reasonable speech. 

And stay still in your houses and show not your- 
selves with the ostentation of the ignorance of yore ; 
and be steadfast in prayer, and give alms, and obey 
God and his Apostle; — God only wishes to take 
away from you 1 the horror as people of His House 
and to purify you thoroughly. 

And remember what is recited in your houses of 
the signs of God and of wisdom ; verily, God is 
subtle and aware ! 

[35] Verily, men resigned and women resigned 2 , 
and believing men and believing women, and devout 
men and devout women, and truthful men and truth- 
ful women, and patient men and patient women, and 
humble men and humble women, and almsgiving 
men and almsgiving women, and fasting men and 
fasting women, and men who guard their private 
parts and women who guard their private parts, and 

1 Here the pronoun is changed from feminine to masculine, and 
the passage is appealed to by the Shiahs as showing the intimate 
relations that existed between Mohammed and 'Alt, for they say 
that by 'his household' are particularly meant Fa/imah and 'AH. 
In the next paragraph the feminine is again used. 

9 I.e. Muslims; see Part I, p. 15, note 1. 



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144 THE QUrAn. xs; xiii, 35-39. 

men who remember God much, and women who 
remember Him, — God has prepared for them for- 
giveness and a mighty hire- 
It is not for a believing man or for a believing 
woman, when God and His Apostle have decided 
an affair, to have the choice in that affair; and 
whoso rebels against God and His Apostle has 
erred with an obvious error. 

And when thou didst say to him God had shown 
favour to and thou hadst shown favour to, ' Keep 
thy wife to thyself and fear God ; ' and thou didst 
conceal in thy soul what God was about to display; 
and didst fear men, though God is more deserving 
that thou shouldst fear Him ; and when Zaid had 
fulfilled his desire of her 1 we did wed thee to her 
that there should be no hindrance to the believers 
in the matter of the wives of their adopted sons 
when they have fulfilled their desire of them : and 
so God's bidding to be done 2 . 

There is no hindrance to the prophet about what 
God has ordained for him ; — (such was) the course 
of God with those who have passed away before, — 
and God's bidding is a decreed decree ! Those who 



1 I. e. divorced her. 

8 Z&d was Mohammed's freedman and adopted son. Moham- 
med had seen and admired Z£id's wife Zdinab, and her husband at 
once offered to divorce her : this Mohammed dissuaded him from 
until the transaction was sanctioned by the verse. The relations of 
the Arabs to their adopted children were, as has been remarked 
before, p. 138, note 2, very strict; and Mohammed's marriage with 
Zainab occasioned much scandal among his contemporaries. This 
passage and those at the commencement of the chapter abrogate 
all these inconvenient restrictions. Zaid and Abu Laheb, Surah 
CXI, are the only two persons of Mohammed's acquaintance who 
are mentioned in the Qur'&n by name. 



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XXXIII, 39-48. THE CHAPTER OF THE CONFEDERATES. 1 45 

preach God's messages and fear Him and fear not 
any one except God, — but God is good enough at 
reckoning up. 

[40] Mohammed is not the father of any of your 
men, but the Apostle of God, and the Seal of the 
Prophets ; for God all things doth know ! 

O ye who believe ! remember God with frequent 
remembrance, and celebrate His praises morning 
and evening. 

He it is who prays * for you and His angels too, 
to bring you forth out of the darkness into the light, 
for He is merciful to the believers. 

Their salutation on the day they meet Him shall 
be ' Peace!' and He has prepared for them a noble 
hire. 

O thou prophet! verily, we have sent thee as a 
witness and a herald of glad tidings and a warner, 
[45] and to call (men) unto God by His permission, 
and as an illuminating lamp. 

Give glad tidings then to the believers, that for 
them is great grace from God. And follow not the 
unbelievers and the hypocrites ; but let alone their ill- 
treatment 2 , and rely upon God, for God is guardian 
enough. 

O ye who believe! when ye wed believing women, 
and then divorce them before ye have touche J them, 



1 The same word is used as is rendered ' pray ' in all the other 
passages in the Qur'Sn, though the commentators interpret it here 
as meaning ' bless.' So, too, in the formula which is always used 
after Mohammed's name, zalla 'Mhu 'aliihi wa sallam, 'may 
God bless and preserve him!' is literally, 'may God pray for him 
and salute him 1 ' 

* Either, ' do not ill-treat them,' or, ' take no notice of their ill- 
treating thee.' 

C9] L 



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146 THE QUR'AN. XXXIII, 48-52. 

ye have no term that ye need observe; so make 
them some provision, and let them go handsomely 
at large. 

O thou prophet ! verily, we make lawful for thee 
thy wives to whom thou hast given their hire 1 , and 
what thy right hand possesses 2 out of the booty 
that God has granted thee.'and the daughters of thy 
paternal uncle and the daughters of thy paternal 
aunts, and the daughters of thy maternal uncle and 
the daughters of thy maternal aunts, provided they 
have fled with thee, and any believing woman if she 
give herself to the prophet, if the prophet desire to 
marry her ; — a special privilege this for thee, above 
the other believers. 

[50] We knew what we ordained for them con- 
cerning their wives and what their right hands 
possess, that there should be no hindrance to 
thee ; and God is forgiving, merciful. 

Put off 3 whomsoever thou wilt of them and take 
to thyself whomsoever thou wilt, or whomsoever 
thou era vest of those whom thou hast deposed*, and 
it shall be no crime against thee. That is nigher to 
cheering their eyes and that they should not grieve, 
and should be satisfied with what thou dost bring 
them all ; but God knows best what is in their 
hearts ; and God is knowing, clement. 

It is not lawful to thee to take women after (this), 
nor to change them for (other) wives, even though 
their beauty please thee; except what thy right 
hand possesses, for God is ever watchful over all. 



I. e. dowry. s Slave girls. 

I. e. from her turn of conjugal rights. 



* I.e. divorced. 



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XXXIII.53-55- THE CHAPTER OF THE CONFEDERATES. I47 

ye who believe ! do not enter the houses of the 
prophet, unless leave be given you, for a meal, — not 
watching till it is cooked ! But when ye are invited, 
then enter ; and when ye have fed, disperse, not en- 
gaging in familiar discourse. Verily, that would 
annoy the prophet and he would be ashamed for 
your sake \ but God is not ashamed of the truth 2 . 

And when ye ask them 3 for an article, ask them 
from behind a curtain 4 ; that is purer for your hearts 
and for theirs. It is not right for you to annoy the 
prophet of God, nor to wed his wives after him 
ever ; verily, that is with God a serious thing. 

If ye display a thing or conceal it, verily, God all 
things doth know. 

[55] There is no crime against them 5 (if they 

1 He would be reluctantly obliged to ask you to leave. 

4 The tent of an Arab chief is looked upon as a place of general 
entertainment, and is always besieged by visitors. The advent of 
a stranger, or indeed any occasion that demands the preparation of 
food or any form of entertainment, is the signal for every adult 
male of the encampment to sit round it, and wait for an invitation 
to partake of the meal. This becomes a very serious tax upon the 
sheikh, as the laws of Arab hospitality imperatively require every 
person present to be invited to join in the repast. The translator 
has often witnessed scenes— especially among the Arabs of Edom 
and Moab — which gave a very living significance to these words of 
the Qur'in. Mohammed's exceptionally prominent position ex- 
posed him in a peculiar manner to these irruptions of unbidden 
guests. Another saying bearing upon the point is traditionally 
ascribed to him, zur gMbb&n tazd£d 'hubban, 'visit seldom 
and you will get more love.' 

8 The prophet's wives. 

* The women to the present day always remain behind a curtain 
which screens ofF their part of the tent from the rest, but freely con- 
verse with their husband and his guests, and hand over the dishes 
and any other articles that may be required by the company. 

' The prophet's wives. 

L 2 



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148 THE QURAN. XXXIII, 55-63. 

speak unveiled) to their fathers, or their sons, or 
their brothers, or their brothers' sons, or their sisters' 
sons, or their women, or what their right hands 
possess; but let them fear God, — verily, God is 
witness over all. 

Verily, God and His angels pray for the prophet. 
O ye who believe ! pray for him and salute him 
with a salutation x ! 

Verily, those who annoy God and His Apostle, 
God will curse them in this world and the next, and 
prepare for them shameful woe ! 

And those who annoy the believers for what they 
have not earned, such have to bear (the guilt of) 
calumny and obvious sin. 

O thou prophet ! tell thy wives and thy daughters, 
and the women of the believers, to let down over 
them their outer wrappers ; that is nearer for them 
to be known and that they should not be annoyed ; 
but God is forgiving, merciful. 

[60] Surely if the hypocrites and those in whose 
hearts is a sickness and the insurrectionists in Me- 
dinah do not desist, we will surely incite thee against 
them. Then they shall not dwell near thee therein 
save for a little while. Cursed wherever they are 
found, — taken and slain with slaughter! 

God's course with those who have passed away 
before : and thou shalt never find in God's course 
any alteration. 

The folk will ask thee about the Hour; say, 
' The knowledge thereof is only with God, and what 
is to make thee perceive that the Hour is haply 
nigh?' 

1 See p. 145, note 1. 

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XXXIII, 64-73- THE CHAPTER OF THE CONFEDERATES. 1 49 

Verily, God has cursed the misbelievers and has 
prepared for them a blaze ! 

[65] To dwell therein for ever and for aye ; they 
shall not find a patron or a helper ! 

On the day when their faces shall writhe in the 
fire they shall say, ' O, would that we had obeyed 
God and obeyed the Apostle !' 

And they shall say, ' Our Lord ! verily, we obeyed 
our chiefs and our great men and they led us astray 
from the path ! Our Lord ! give them double tor- 
ment and curse them with a great curse ! ' 

O ye who believe ! be not like those who annoyed 
Moses ; but God cleared him of what they said, and 
he was regarded in the sight of God x . 

[70] O ye who believe ! fear God and . speak a 
straightforward speech. He will correct for you 
your works, and pardon you your sins ; for he who 
obeys God and His Apostle has attained a mighty 
happiness. 

Verily, we offered the trust 2 to the heavens and 
the earth and the mountains, but they refused to bear 
it, and shrank from it ; but man bore it : verily, he 
is ever unjust and ignorant. That God may tor- 
ment the hypocritical men and hypocritical women, 
and the idolaters and idolatresses; and that God 
may turn relenting towards the believing men and 
believing women ; verily, God is ever forgiving, 
merciful. 

1 The occasion of the revelation of this verse is said to have 
been that Mohammed being accused of unfairly dividing certain 
spoils, said, 'God, have mercy on my brother Moses; he was 
wronged more than this, and bore it patiently.' 

2 That is, 'the faith.' 



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150 THE QUR'An. XXXIV, 1-7. 

The Chapter of SebA 1 . 
(XXXIV. Mecca.) 

In the name of the merciful and compassionate 
God. 

Praise belongs to God, whose is whatsoever is in 
the heavens and whatsoever is in the earth ; His is 
the praise in the next world, and He is the wise and 
well aware ! 

He knows what goes into the earth, and what 
comes forth therefrom, and what comes down from 
the sky, and what ascends thereto; for He is the 
merciful, forgiving. 

Those who misbelieve say, 'The Hour shall not 
come to us;' say, 'Yea, by my Lord it shall surely 
come to you ! by Him who knows the unseen ! nor 
shall there escape from it the weight of an atom, in 
the heavens or in the earth, or even less than that, 
or greater, save in the perspicuous Book;' and that 
He may reward those who believe and do right ; 
these, — for them is forgiveness and a noble provision. 

[5] But those who strive concerning our signs to 
frustrate them ; these, — for them is the torment of a 
grievous plague. 

And those to whom knowledge has been given 
see that what is sent down to thee from thy Lord is 
the truth, and guides unto the way of the mighty, 
the praiseworthy. 

And those who misbelieve say, 'Shall we guide 

1 A city of Yemen was also called M&rab ; it was about three 
days' journey from Sana'h. The bursting of the dyke of Marab and 
the destruction of the city by a flood are historical facts, and 
happened in about the first or second century of our era. 



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XXXIV, 7-13- THE CHAPTER OF SEBA. 151 

you to a man who will inform you that when ye are 
torn all to pieces, then ye shall be a new creation ? 
he has forged against God a lie, or there is a ^inn 
in him ;' — nay, those who believe not in the hereafter 
are in the torment and in the remote error ! 

Have they not looked at what is before them and 
what is behind them of the heaven and the earth ? 
if we pleased we would cleave the earth open with 
them, or we would make to fall upon them a portion 
of the heaven ; verily, in that is a sign to every 
repentant servant. 

[10] And we did give David grace from us, ' O 
ye mountains! echo (God's praises) with him, and 
ye birds!' and we softened for him iron: 'Make 
thou coats of mail and adapt the rings thereof, and 
do right ; verily, I at what ye do do look.' And to 
Solomon the wind; its morning journey was a 
month, and its evening journey was a month ; 
and we made to flow for him a fountain of 
molten brass ; and of the ^inns some to work be- 
fore him by the permission of his Lord ; and whoso 
swerves amongst them from our bidding we will 
give him to taste the torment and the blaze; and 
they made for him what he pleased of chambers, 
and images, and dishes like troughs, and firm pots ; 
— work, O ye family of David ! thankfully ; few is 
it of my servants who are thankful. 

And when we decreed for him death, naught 
guided them to his death save a reptile of the earth 
that ate his staff; and when he fell down it was 
made manifest to the ^inns that, had they but 
known the unseen, they need not have tarried in 
the shameful torment 1 . 

1 The Mohammedan legend is that Solomon had employed the 

* 

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I52 ' THE QUR'aN. XXXIV, 14-19. 

Seba had in their dwellings a sign; two gardens, 
on the right hand and on the left, ' Eat from the 
provision of your Lord ; and give thanks to Him ! a 
good country and a forgiving Lord!' [15] but they 
turned away, and we sent against them the flood 
of the dyke ; and we changed for them their two 
gardens into two gardens that grew bitter fruit and 
tamarisk, and some few lote trees \ 

This did we reward them with, for that they mis- 
believed ; and do we so reward any but misbe- 
lievers ? 

And we made between them and the cities which 
we had blessed (other) cities which were evident ; and 
we measured out the journey : ' Journey ye thereto 
nights and days in safety !' And they said, 'Our Lord! 
make a greater distance between our journeys;' 
and they wronged themselves, and we made them 
legends ; and we tore them all to pieces ; verily, in 
that are signs to every patient, grateful person. 
And Iblls verified his suspicion concerning them, 



£inns to construct the temple of Jerusalem for him, and perceiving 
that he must die before it was completed, he prayed God to conceal 
his death from them lest they should relinquish the work when no 
longer compelled to keep to it by fear of his presence. This 
prayer was heard, and Solomon, who died while resting on his 
staff, remained in this position for, a year without his death being 
suspected, until a worm having eaten away his staff it broke, and 
the corpse fell to the ground, thus revealing the fact of his death. 
The shameful torment which the ginns might have avoided is their 
forced labour in building the temple. 

1 The Rhamnus Nabeca of Forshal, the Rhamnus Nabeca 
Spina Christi of Linnaeus, its fruit, which is called Nebuk, is a 
small round berry, in taste something like the jargonelle pear, 
and is a great favourite with the Bedawin. It grows freely in the 
Sinaitic peninsula. 



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XXXIV, 19-26. THE CHAPTER OF SEBA. 1 53 

and they followed him, save a. party of the be- 
lievers *. 

[20] Yet had he no authority over them, save 
that we might know who it was that believed in 
the hereafter from him who amongst them was in 
doubt ; for thy Lord guards everything. 

Say, 'Call on those whom ye pretend beside God ;' 
they cannot control the weight of an atom in the 
heavens or in the earth ; nor have they any partner- 
ship in either ; nor has He amongst them any sup- 
porter ; nor is intercession of any avail with Him, 
except for him whom He permits; so that when 
fright is removed from their hearts they say, 'What 
is it that your Lord says ?' they say, ' The truth ; 
for He is the high, the great' 

Say, 'Who provides from the heavens and the 
earth?' Say, 'God.' And, verily, we or ye are 
surely in guidance or in an obvious error. 

Say, ' Ye shall not be asked about what we have 
sent, nor shall we be asked about what ye do. 

[25] 'Our Lord shall assemble us together; then 
He shall open between us in truth, for He is the 
opener who knows.' 

Say, 'Show me those whom ye have added to 
Him as partners ; not so ! nay, but He is God, the 
mighty, the wise !' 



1 A great trade used formerly to exist between Seba and Syria. 
The Mohammedan commentators suppose that the cessation of 
traffic, which naturally caused the gradual ruin of the intermediate 
towns, and the subsequent destruction of Seba or Mdreb itself by 
the flood, was a punishment for the covetous wish of the people of 
the city, that the distances which traders had to pass over were 
longer, so that they themselves might earn more money by pro- 
viding them with camels and escorts. 



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154 the qur'An. XXXIV, 27-36. 

We have only sent thee to men generally as a 
herald of glad tidings and a warner ; but most men 
do not know. 

And they say, ' When shall this promise be, if ye 
do speak the truth ? ' say, ' For you is the appoint- 
ment of a day of which ye shall not keep back an 
hour, nor shall ye bring it on ! ' 

[30] And those who misbelieve say, 'We will 
never believe in this Qur'in or in what is before 
it;' but couldst thou see when the unjust are set 
before their Lord, they shall rebut each other in 
speech. 

Those who were thought weak shall say to those 
who were big with pride, ' Had it not been for you 
we should have been believers.' Those who were 
big with pride shall say to those who were thought 
weak, ' Was it we who turned you away from the 
guidance after it came to you ? nay, ye were sinners.' 

And those who were thought weak shall say to 
those who were big with pride, ' Nay, but it was the 
plotting by night and day, when ye did bid us to 
disbelieve in God, and to make peers for Him !' and 
they shall display repentance when they see the 
torment; and we will put fetters on the necks of 
those who misbelieved. Shall they be rewarded 
except for that which they have done ? 

We have not sent to any city a warner but the 
opulent thereof said, ' We, in what ye are sent with, 
disbelieve.' 

And they say, ' We have more wealth and children, 
and we shall not be tormented.' 

[35] Say, 'Verily, my Lord extends provision to 
whom He pleases or doles it out, but most men do 
not know ; but neither your wealth nor your children 



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XXXIV, 36-44. THE CHAPTER OF SEBA. 1 55 

is that which will bring you to a near approach to 
us, save him who believes and does right ; these, for 
them is a double reward for what they have done, 
and they in upper rooms l shall be secure.' 

And those who strive concerning our signs to 
frustrate them, these in the torment shall be ar- 
raigned. Verily, my Lord extends provision to 
whomsoever He will of His servants, or doles it 
out to him. And what ye expend in alms at all, He 
will repay it ; for He is the best of providers. 

And on the day He will gather them all together, 
then He will say* to the angels, 'Are these those 
who used to worship you ?' 

[40] They shall say,- ' Celebrated be thy praises ! 
thou art our patron instead of them. Nay, they 
used to worship the ^inns, most of them believe in 
them 2 . But to-day they cannot control for each 
other, either profit or harm ;' and we will say to 
those who have done wrong, ' Taste ye the torment 
of the fire wherein ye did disbelieve !' 

And when our signs are recited to them they say, 
' This is only a man who wishes to turn you from 
what your fathers served;' and they say, 'This is 
only a lie forged,' and those who misbelieve will 
say of the truth when it comes to them, 'It is only 
obvious sorcery!' 

But we have not brought them any book which 
they may study, and we have not sent to them 
before thee a warner. 

Those before them said it was a lie, and these s 
have not reached a tithe of what we had given them. 



1 In Paradise. * See Part I, p. 127, note 2. 

8 That is, the Meccans. 



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I56 THE QUR'AN. XXXIV, 44-54. 

And they said my apostles were liars, and how 
great a change was then ! 

[45] Say, ' I only admonish you of one thing, that 
ye should stand up before God in twos or singly, 
and then that ye reflect that there is no ^inn in 
your companion 1 . He is only a warner to you 
before the keen torment.' 

Say, ' I do not ask you for it a hire ; that is for 
yourselves ; my hire is only from God, and He is 
witness over all.' 

Say, ' Verily, my Lord hurls forth the truth ; and 
He well knows the unseen.' 

Say, 'The truth has come, and falsehood shall 
vanish and shall not come back.' 

Say, ' If I err I only err against myself; and if I 
am guided it is all what my Lord inspires me; 
verily, He is the hearing, the nigh!' 

[50] And couldst thou see when they are scared, 
and there shall be no escape, and they shall be taken 
from a place that is nigh. And they say, 'We 
believe in it.' But how can they partake of it from 
a distant place ? They misbelieved before, and con- 
jectured about the unseen from a distant place. And 
there shall be a barrier between them and that 
which they lust after; as we did with their fellow 
sectaries before; verily, they were in hesitating 
doubt. 

1 That he, Mohammed, is not possessed by a ^inn. 



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xxxv, 1-9- the chapter of the angels. 1 57 

The Chapter of the Angels 1 . 

(XXXV. Mecca.) 

In the name of the merciful and compassionate 
God. 

Praise belongs to God, the originator of the 
heavens and the earth ; who makes the angels 
His messengers, endued with wings in pairs, or 
threes or fours; He adds to creation what He 
pleases ; verily, God is mighty over all ! 

What God opens to men of His mercy there is 
none to withhold ; and what He withholds, there is 
none can send it forth after Him ; for He is the 
mighty, the wise. 

O ye folk ! remember the favours of God towards 
you; is there a creator beside God, who provides 
you from the heavens and from the earth ? There 
is no god but He ; how then can ye lie ? 

And if they call thee liar, apostles were called 
liars before thee, and unto God affairs return. 

[5] O y e f°lk ' verily, God's promise is true; then 
let not the life of this world beguile you, and let 
not the beguiler beguile you concerning God. 
Verily, the devil is to you a foe, so take him as 
a foe; he only calls his crew to be the fellows of 
the blaze. 

Those who misbelieve, for them is keen torment 

But those who believe and do right, for them is 
forgiveness and a great hire. 

What! is he whose evil act is made seemly for 
him, so that he looks upon it as good, ? 

1 Also called 'of the Originator.' 



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158 THE QUR'An. XXXV, 9-15. 

Verily, God leads astray whom He pleases and 
guides whom He pleases ; let not thy soul then be 
wasted in sighing for them; verily, God knows 
what they do! 

[10] It is God who sends the winds, and they 
stir up a cloud, and we irrigate therewith a dead 
country, and we quicken therewith the earth after 
its death ; so shall the resurrection be ! 

Whosoever desires honour — honour belongs 
wholely to God; to Him good words ascend, and 
a righteous deed He takes up ; and those who plot 
evil deeds, for them is keen torment, and their 
plotting is in vain. 

God created you from earth, then from a clot; 
then He made you pairs ; and no female bears or is 
delivered, except by His knowledge; nor does he 
who is aged reach old age, or is aught diminished 
from his life, without it is in the Book ; verily, that 
is easy unto God. 

The two seas are not equal: one is sweet and 
fresh and pleasant to drink, and the other is salt 
and pungent ; but from each do ye eat fresh flesh, 
and bring forth ornaments which ye wear ; and thou 
mayest see the ships cleave through it, that ye may 
search after His grace, and haply ye may give 
thanks. 

He turns the night into day, and He turns the 
day into night; and He subjects the sun and the 
moon, each of them runs on to an appointed goal ; 
that is God, your Lord! His is the kingdom; but 
those ye call on beside Him possess not a straw \ 

[15] If you call upon them they cannot hear your 

1 Literally, the husk of a date stone. 



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XXXV, I5-J5- THE CHAPTER OF THE ANGELS. 1 59 

call, and if they hear they cannot answer you ; and 
on the resurrection day they will deny your asso- 
ciating them with God; but none can inform thee 
like the One who is aware. 

O ye folk ! ye are in need of God ; but God, He 
is independent, praiseworthy. 

If He please He will take you off, and will bring 
a fresh creation ; for that is no hard matter unto 
God. 

And no burdened soul shall bear the burden of 
another ; and if a heavily laden one shall call for its 
load (to be carried) it shall not be carried for it at 
all, even though it be a kinsman ! — thou canst only 
warn those who fear their Lord in the unseen and 
who are steadfast in prayer ; and he who is pure is 
only pure for himself; and unto God the journey is. 

[20] The blind is not equal with him who sees, 
nor the darkness with the night, nor the shade with 
the hot blast ; nor are the living equal with the dead ; 
verily, God causes whom He pleases to hear, and 
thou canst not make those who are in their graves 
hear ; thou * art but a warner ! 

Verily, we have sent thee in truth a herald of 
glad tidings and a warner; and there is no nation 
but its warner has passed away with it. 

And if they called thee liar, those before thee 
called their apostles liars too, who came to them 
with manifest signs, and the Scriptures, and the 
illuminating Book. 

Then I seized those who misbelieved, and what a 
change it was ! 

[25] Dost thou not see that God has sent down 
from the heaven water, and has brought forth there- 
with fruits varied in hue, and on the mountains 



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i6o THE qurAn, XXXV, 25-33. 

dykes 1 , white and red, various in hue, and some 
intensely black, and men and beasts and cattle, 
various in hue ? thus ! none fear God but the wise 
among His servants ; but, verily, God is mighty, 
forgiving. 

Verily, those who recite the Book of God, and are 
steadfast in prayer, and give alms of what we have 
bestowed in secret and in public, hope for the mer- 
chandise that shall not come to naught ; that He 
may pay them their hire, and give them increase of 
His grace ; verily, He is forgiving, .grateful. 

What we have inspired thee with of the Book is 
true, verifying what was before it; verily, God of 
His servants is well aware and sees. 

Then we gave the Book for an inheritance to 
those whom we chose of our servants, and of them 
are some who wrong themselves, and of them are 
some who take a middle course, and of them are 
some who vie in good works by the permission of 
their Lord ; that is great grace. 

[30] Gardens of Eden shall they enter, adorned 
therein with bracelets of gold and pearls ; and their 
garments therein shall be silk ; and they shall say, 
' Praise belongs to God, who has removed from us 
our grief; verily, our Lord is forgiving, grateful! 
who has made us alight in an enduring abode of His 
grace, wherein no toil shall touch us, and there shall 
touch us no fatigue.' 

But those who misbelieve, for them is the fire of 



1 The word is here used in its geological sense, and is applied to 
the various coloured streaks which are so plainly to be seen in the 
bare mountain sides of Arabia. The Arabs of the desert to this 
day call them by the same name as is here used in the Qur'&n. 



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XXXV, 33-4 1 - THE CHAPTER OF THE ANGELS. l6l 

hell ; it shall not be decreed for them to die, nor 
shall aught of the torment be lightened from them ; 
thus do we reward every misbeliever; and they shall 
shriek therein, ' O our Lord ! bring us forth, and we 
will do right, not what we used to do ! ' — ' Did we 
not let you grow old enough for every one who 
would be mindful to be mindful ? and there came to 
you a warner ! — [35] So taste it, for the unjust shall 
have none to help!' verily, God knows the unseen 
things of the heavens and of the earth; verily, He 
knows the nature of men's breasts, He it is who 
made you vicegerents in the earth, and he who mis- 
believes, his misbelief is against himself ; but their 
misbelief shall only increase the misbelievers in 
hatred with their Lord; and their misbelief shall 
only increase the misbelievers in loss. 

Say, ' Have ye considered your associates whom 
ye call on beside God ?' show me what they created 
of the earth ; have they a share in the heavens, or 
have we given them a book that they rest on a 
manifest sign.? nay, the unjust promise each other 
naught but guile. 

Verily, God holds back the heavens and the earth 
lest they should decline ; and if they should decline 
there is none to hold them back after Him ; verily, 
He is clement, forgiving. 

[40] They swore by God with their most strenuous 
oath, verily, if there come to them a warner they 
would be more guided than any one of the nations ; 
but when a warner comes to them, it only increases 
them in aversion, and in being big with pride in the 
earth, and in plotting evil ; but the plotting of evil 
only entangles those who practise it ; can they then 
expect aught but the course of those of yore ? but 

[9] M 

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1 62 THE QURAN. XXXV, 41-XXXVI, 9. 

thou shalt not find any alteration in the course of 
God; and they shall not find any change in the 
course of God. 

Have they not journeyed on in the land and seen 
what was the end of those before them who were 
stronger than they ? but God, nothing can ever 
make Him helpless in the heavens or in the earth; 
verily, He is knowing, powerful. 

Were God to catch men up for what they earn, 
He would not leave upon the back of it 1 a beast ; 
but He respites them until an appointed time. [45] 
When their appointed time comes, verily, God looks 
upon His servants. 



The Chapter of Y. S. 
(XXXVI. Mecca.) 

In the name of the merciful and compassionate 
God. 

Y. S. By the wise Qur'an, verily, thou art of the 
apostles upon a right way. The revelation of the 
mighty, the merciful ! [5] That thou mayest warn 
a people whose fathers were not warned, and who 
themselves are heedless. 

Now is the sentence due against most of them, 
for they will not believe. Verily, we will place upon 
their necks fetters, and they shall reach up to their 
chins, and they shall have their heads forced back ; 
and we will place before them a barrier, and behind 
them a barrier; and we will cover them and they 
shall not see; and it is all the same to them if thou 

1 The earth. 



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XXXVI, 9-21. THE CHAPTER OF Y. S. 1 63 

dost warn them or dost warn them not, they will not 
believe. [10] Thou canst only warn him who fol- 
lows the reminder, and fears the Merciful in the 
unseen ; but give him glad tidings of forgiveness and 
a noble hire. 

Verily, we quicken the dead, and write down what 
they have done before, and what vestiges they leave 
behind ; and everything have we counted in a plain 
model *. 

Strike out for them a parable : the fellows of the 
city when there came to it the apostles ; when we 
sent those two and they called them both liars, and 
we strengthened them with a third ; and they said, 
' Verily, we are sent to you.' 

They said, 'Ye are only mortals like ourselves, 
nor has the Merciful sent down aught; ye are 
naught but liars.' 

[15] They said, 'Our Lord knows that we are 
sent to you, and we have only our plain message to 
preach.' 

They said, ' Verily, we have augured concerning 
you, and if ye do not desist we will surely stone you, 
and there shall touch you from us a grievous woe.' 

Said they, ' Your augury is with you ; what ! if 
ye are reminded — ? Nay, ye are an extravagant 
people!' 

And there came from the remote part of the city 
a man hastening up. Said he, ' O my people ! fol- 
low the apostles ; [20] follow those who do not ask 
you a hire, and who are guided. What ails me that 
I should not worship Him who originated me, and 
unto whom I must return? Shall I take gods 

1 The Umm al Kit£b. See Part I, p. a, note a. v 
M 2 

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1 64 THE QUR'An. XXXVI, 21-36. 

beside Him ? If the Merciful One desires harm 
for me, their intercession cannot avail me at all, 
nor can they rescue me. Verily, I should then be 
in obvious error; verily, I believe in your Lord, 
then listen ye to me!' 

[25] It was said, 'Enter thou into Paradise!' 
said he, ' O, would that my people did but know ! 
for that my Lord has forgiven me, and has made 
me of the honoured.' 

And we did send down upon his people no hosts 
from heaven, nor yet what we were wont to send 
down ; it was but a single noise, and lo ! they were 
extinct \ 

Alas for the servants! there comes to them no 
apostle but they mock at him ! 

[30] Have they not seen how many generations 
we have destroyed before them ? verily, they shall 
not return to them ; but all of them shall surely 
altogether be arraigned. 

And a sign for them is the dead earth which we 
have quickened and brought forth therefrom seed, 
and from it do they eat ; and we made therein gar- 
dens and palms and grapes, and we have caused 
fountains to gush forth therein, [35] that they may 
eat from the fruit thereof, and of what their hands 
have made ; will they not then give thanks ? 

Celebrated be the praises of Him who created 



1 The legend is that Jesus sent two of His disciples to the city of 
Antioch, none believing them but one 'Habib en Nagg&i, that is, 
"Habib the carpenter,' and all three were thrown into prison. 
Simon Peter was subsequently sent to their rescue ; a great many 
were converted, and the rest were destroyed by a shout from the 
angel Gabriel. The shrine of 'Habib en Na^ir at Antioch is still a 
favourite place of pilgrimage for Mohammedans. 



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XXXVI, 36-50. THE CHAPTER OF Y. S. 165 

all kinds, of what the earth brings forth, and of 
themselves, and what they know not of! 

And a sign to them is the night, from which 
we strip off the day, and lo ! they are in the dark ; 
and the sun runs on to a place of rest for it 1 ; that 
is the ordinance of the mighty, the wise. 

And the moon, we have ordered for it stations, 
until it comes again to be like an old dry palm 
branch. 

[40] Neither is it proper for it to catch up the 
moon, nor for the night to outstrip the day, but 
each one floats on in its sky. 

And a sign for them is that we bear their seed 
in a laden ship 2 , and we have created for them the 
like thereof whereon to ride ; and if we please, we 
drown them, and there is none for them to appeal 
to ; nor are they rescued, save by mercy from us> 
as a provision for a season. 

[45] And when it is said to them, ' Fear what 
is before you and what is behind you, haply ye may 
obtain mercy 8 ;' and thou bringest them not any 
one of the signs of their Lord, but they turn away 
therefrom ; and when it is said to them, ' Expend in 
alms of what God has bestowed upon you,' those 
who misbelieve say to those who believe, 'Shall 
we feed him whom, if God pleased, He would feed ? 
ye are only in an obvious error.' 

They say, 'When shall this promise come to 
pass, if ye do tell the truth ?' They await but 
a single noise, that shall seize them as they are 
contending. [50] And they shall not be able to 

1 There is a various reading here, ' and has no place of rest.* 

* Some take this to refer to Noah's ark. 

3 . That is, the punishment of this world and the next. 



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1 66 THE QUR'An. XXXVI, 50-68. 

make a bequest; nor to their people shall they 
return ; but the trumpet shall be blown, and, behold, 
from their graves unto their Lord shall they slip 
out! 

They shall say, ' O, woe is us ! who has raised 
us up from our sleeping-place ? this is what the 
Merciful promised, and the apostles told the truth !' 
It shall be but a single noise, and lo! they are 
all arraigned before us. 

And on that day no soul shall be wronged at 
all, nor shall ye be rewarded for aught but that 
which ye have done. 

[55] Verily, the fellows of Paradise upon that day 
shall be employed in enjoyment; they and their 
wives, in shade upon thrones, reclining; therein 
shall they have fruits, and they shall have what they 
may call for. 'Peace!' — a speech from the merciful 
Lord! 

' Separate yourselves to-day, O ye sinners ! [60] 
Did I not covenant with you, O children of Adam ! 
that ye should not serve Satan ? verily, he is to you 
an open foe ; but serve ye me, this is the right way. 
But he led astray a numerous race of you ; what ! 
had ye then no sense ? this is hell, which ye were 
threatened; broil therein to-day, for that ye mis- 
believed ! ' 

[65] On that day we will seal their mouths, and 
their hands shall speak to us, and their feet shall 
bear witness of what they earned. And if we 
please we could put out their eyes, and they would 
race along the road ; and then how could they see ? 
And if we pleased we would transform them in their 
places, and they should not be able to go on, nor 
yet to return. And him to whom we grant old age, 



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XXXVI, 68-83. THE CHAPTER OF Y. S. 167 

we bow him down in his form ; have they then no 
sense ? 

We have not taught him 1 poetry, nor was it pro- 
per for him ; it is but a reminder and a plain Quran, 
[70] to warn him who is living ; but the sentence is 
due against the misbelievers. 

Have they not seen that we have created for 
them of what our hands have made for them, 
cattle, and they are owners thereof? and we have 
tamed them for them, and of them are some to ride, 
and of them are what they eat, and therein have 
they advantages and beverages ; will they not then 
give thanks ? 

But they take, beside God, gods that haply they 
may be helped. [75] They cannot help them ; yet 
are they a host ready for them 2 . 

But let not their speech grieve thee : verily, we 
know what they conceal and what they display. 

Has not man seen that we have created him from 
a clot? and lo! he is an open opponent; and he 
strikes out for us a likeness; and forgets his crea- 
tion; and says, 'Who shall quicken bones when 
they are rotten ?' Say, ' He shall quicken them 
who produced them at first ; for every creation does 
He know; [80] who has made for you fire out of 
a green tree, and lo ! ye kindle therewith.' 

Is not He who created the heavens and the earth 
able to create the like thereof? yea! He is the 
knowing Creator; His bidding is only, when He 
desires anything to say to it, ' BE,' and it is. Then 
celebrated be the praises of Him in whose hands is 

1 Mohammed. 

* I. e. they are ready to defend their false gods. 



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1 68 THE QUR'An. XXXVI, 83-XXXVII, 19. 

the kingdom of everything ! and unto Him shall ye 
return. 



The Chapter of the ' Ranged.' 
(XXXVII. Mecca.) 

In the name of the merciful and compassionate 
God. 

By the (angels) ranged in ranks, and the drivers 
driving 1 , and the reciters of the reminder, ' Verily, 
your God is one, [5] the Lord of the heavens and 
the earth and what is between the two, and the 
Lord of the sunrises .!'. 

Verily, we have adorned the lower heaven with 
the adornment of the stars, and to preserve it from 
every rebellious devil, that they may not listen to 
the exalted chiefs ; for they are hurled at from every 
side 2 , driven off, and for them is lasting woe; [10] 
save such as snatches off a word, and there follows 
him a darting flame ! 

Ask them 3 whether they are stronger by nature 
or (the angels) whom we have created ? We have 
created them of sticky clay. 

Nay, thou dost wonder and they jest ! and when 
they are reminded they will not remember; and 
when they see a sign they make a jest thereof, 
[15] and say, 'This is naught but obvious sorcery. 
What ! when we are dead, and have become earth 
and bones, shall we then be raised ? what ! and 
our fathers of yore ? ' 

Say, ' Yes, and ye shall shrink up, and it shall only 

1 Driving the clouds or ' scaring the devils.' 

2 See Part I, p. 50, note 2. s The people of Mecca. 



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XXXVII, 19-46. THE CHAPTER OF THE RANGED. 1 69 

be one scare, and, behold, they shall look on, [20] and 
they shall say, ' O, woe is us ! this is the day of 
judgment, this is the day of decision, which ye did 
call a lie ! ' Gather ye. together, ye who were unjust, 
with their mates and what they used to serve beside 
God, and guide them to the way of hell, and stop 
them; verily, they shall be questioned. [25] 'Why 
do ye not help each other ?' nay, on that day they 
shall resign themselves, and some shall draw near 
to others, to question each other, and they shall say, 
' Verily, ye came to us from the right V They shall 
say, ' Nay, ye were not believers, nor had we any 
authority over you ; nay, ye were an outrageous 
people. [30] And the sentence of our Lord shall 
be due for us; verily, we shall surely taste thereof; 
we did seduce you — verily, we were erring too!' 
therefore, verily, on that day they shall share the tor- 
ment : thus it is that we will do with the sinners. 

Verily, when it is said to them, ' There is no god 
but God,' they get too big with pride, and say, [35] 
'What! shall we leave our gods for an infatuated 
poet?' Nay, he came with the truth, and verified 
the apostles ; verily, ye are going to taste of grievous 
woe, nor shall ye be rewarded save for that which 
ye have done ! 

Except God's sincere servants, [40] these shall have 
a stated provision of fruits, and they shall be honoured 
in the gardens of pleasure, upon couches facing each 
other 2 ; they shall be served all round with a cup 
from a spring, [45] white and delicious to those who 
drink, wherein is no insidious spirit, nor shall 



1 That is, with a good omen, z/v \ 
8 See Chapter XV, verse 47./^" 




I70 THE QURAN. XXXVII, 46-73. 

be drunk therewith; and with them damsels, re- 
straining their looks, large eyed; as though they 
were a sheltered egg ; and some shall come forward 
to ask others; and a speaker amongst them shall 
say, 'Verily, I had a mate, [50] who used to say, 
" Art thou verily of those who credit ? What ! when 
we are dead, and have become earth and bones, 
shall we be surely judged ?"' He will say, ' Are ye 
looking down ? ' and he shall look down and see him 
in the midst of hell. He shall say, ' By God, thou 
didst nearly ruin me ! [55] And had it not been for 
the favour of my Lord, I should have been among 
the arraigned.' — ' What ! shall we not die save our 
first death ? and shall we not be tormented ? — Verily, 
this is mighty bliss ! for the like of this then let the 
workers work.' 

[60] Is that better as an entertainment, or the 
tree of Ez Zaqqum * ? Verily, we have made it a 
trial to the unjust 2 . Verily, it is a tree that comes 
forth from the bottom of hell ; its spathe is as it were 
the heads of devils; verily, they shall eat there- 
from, and fill their bellies therefrom. [65] Then 
shall they have upon it a mixture of boiling water ; 
then, verily, their return shall be to hell. 

Verily, they found their fathers erring, and they 
hurried on in their tracks; but there had erred 
before them most of those of yore, [70] and we had 
sent warners amongst them. Behold, then, what was 
the end of those who were warned, save God's sin- 
cere servants ! 

1 Ez Zaqqftm is a foreign tree with an exceedingly bitter fruit, 
the name of which is here used for the infernal tree. 

2 The unbelievers objected that the tree could not grow in hell, 
where the very stones (see Part I, p. 4, note 1) were fuel for the fire. 



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XXXVII, 73-98. THE CHAPTER OF THE RANGED. 171 

Noah did call upon us, and a gracious answer did 
we give ; and we saved him and his people from a 
mighty trouble ; [75] and we made his seed to be the 
survivors; and we left for him amongst posterity 
'peace upon Noah in the worlds; verily, thus do 
we reward those who do well; verily, he was of 
our believing servants.' [80] Then we drowned 
the others. 

And, verily, of his sect was Abraham ; when he 
came to his Lord with a sound heart ; when he 
said to his father and his people, 'What is it that 
ye serve ? with a lie do ye desire gods beside 
God ? [85] What then is your thought respecting 
the Lord of the worlds ?' 

And he looked a look at the stars and said, 
'Verily, I am sick!' and they turned their backs 
upon him fleeing \ And he went aside unto their 
gods and said, ' Will ye not eat ? [90] What ails 
you that ye will not speak ? ' And he went aside 
to them smiting with the right hand. 

And they 2 rushed towards him. Said he, ' Do 
ye serve what ye hew out, when God has created 
you, and what ye make ?' 

[95] Said they, ' Build for him a pyre, and throw 
him into the flaming hell!' They desired to plot 
against him, but we made them inferior. Said he, 
' Verily, I am going to my Lord, He will guide 
me. My Lord ! grant me (a son), one of the 

1 Mohammedan commentators say that he pretended to a know- 
ledge of astrology and made as though he saw a presage of coming 
sickness for himself in the stars, whereupon the others fled for fear 
of contagion, and Abraham took the opportunity of absenting him- 
self from the festival which was being held in honour of the idols. 

2 The people of the city. 



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172 THE QUR'AN. XXXVII, 98-123. 

righteous;' and we gave him glad tidings of a 
clement boy. 

[100] And when he reached the age to work with 
him, he said, ' my boy! verily, I have seen in 
a dream that I should sacrifice thee 1 , look then 
what thou seest right.' 

Said he, 'O my sire! do what thou art bidden; 
thou wilt find me, if it please God, one of the 
patient!' 

And when they were resigned, and Abraham had 
thrown him down upon his forehead, we called to 
him, 'O Abraham! [105] thou hast verified the 
vision ; verily, thus do we reward those who do well. 
This is surely an obvious trial.' And we ransomed 
him with a mighty victim ; and we left for him 
amongst posterity, ' Peace upon Abraham ; [1 10] thus 
do we reward those who do well ; verily, he was of 
our servants who believe ! ' And we gave him glad 
tidings of Isaac, a prophet among the righteous ; and 
we blessed him and Isaac ; — of their seed is one 
who does well, and one who obviously wrongs 
himself. 

And we were gracious unto Moses and Aaron. 
[115] We saved them and their people from mighty 
trouble, and we helped them and they had the upper 
hand; and we gave them both the perspicuous 
Book ; and we guided them to the right way; and we 
left for them amongst posterity, [1 20] ' Peace upon 
Moses and Aaron ; verily, thus do we reward those 
who do well ; verily, they were both of our servants 
who believe ! ' 



1 The Mohammedan theory is that it was Ishmael and not 
Isaac who was taken as a sacrifice. 



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XXXVII, 123-143- THE CHAPTER OF THE RANGED. 1 73 

And verily Elyas 1 was of the apostles; when he 
said to his people, 'Will ye not fear ? [125] do ye call 
upon Baal and leave the best of Creators, God 
your Lord and the Lord of your fathers of yore ?' 

But they called him liar ; verily, they shall surely 
be arraigned, save God's sincere servants. And we 
left for him amongst posterity, [1 30] ' Peace upon 
Elyasln 2 ; verily, thus do we reward those who do 
well ; verily, he was of our servants who believe ! ' 

And, verily, Lot was surely among the apostles ; 
when we saved him and his people altogether, [135] 
except an old woman amongst those who lingered ; 
then we destroyed the others ; verily, ye pass by 
them in the morning and at night ; have ye then no 
sense ? 

And, verily, Jonah was amongst the apostles; 
[140] when he- ran away 3 into the laden ship ; and 
he cast lots and was of those who lost ; and a fish 
swallowed him, for he was to be blamed ; and had 
it not been that he was of those who celebrated 



1 Supposed by trie Mohammedans to be the same as Al 'H\dhx 
and Idrfs. 

8 This is probably another form of the word Ely&s, on the model 
of many Hebrew words which have survived in the later Arabic 
dialect. The Mohammedan commentators however conjecturally 
interpret it in various ways, some consider it to be a plural form, 
including Elias and his followers ; others divide the word and read 
it Al-ya-stn, i.e. ' the family of Ya-sin/ namely, Elias and his father. 
Others imagine it to mean Mohammed or the Qur'an. Most 
probably however the final syllable -fn was nothing more than a 
prolonged utterance of the case-ending, here improperly used in 
order to preserve the rhyme or final cadence of the verse. The 
modern Bedawin frequently do the same, and I have heard them 
singing a song commencing ' Zaidun, Zaidun, Zaidun,' when they 
should say, Zaidu, 'O Zaid!' &c. Trans. 

3 The word used in the text is always applied to runaway slaves. 



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1 74 THE QUR AN. XXXVII, 143-170. 

God's praises he would surely have tarried in the 
belly thereof to the day when men shall be raised. 

[145] But we cast him on to the barren shore ; 
and he was sick; and we made to grow over him 
a gourd tree ; and we sent him to a hundred 
thousand or more, and they believed ; and we gave 
them enjoyment for a season. 

Ask them \ ' Has thy Lord daughters while they 
have sons 2 ? [150] or have we created the angels 
females while they were witnesses ? ' is it not of 
their lie that they say, ' God has begotten V verily, 
they are liars. 

Has he preferred daughters to sons ? what ails 
you ? how ye judge! [155] will ye not be mindful, 
or have ye obvious authority ? then bring your 
Book if ye do speak the truth. 

And they made him to be related to the ^inns, 
while the ^inns know that they shall be arraigned ; 
celebrated be God's praises from what they attri- 
bute ! — [160] save God's sincere servants. 

'Verily, ye and what ye worship shall not try 
any one concerning him, save him who shall broil 
in hell ; there is none amongst us but has his 
appointed place, and, [165] verily, we are ranged, 
and, verily, we celebrate His praises 3 .' 

And yet they say, ' Had we a reminder from 
those of yore we should surely have been of God's 
sincere servants.' 

[170] But they misbelieved in it 4 ; but soon shall 
they know. 

1 The Meccans. 

a See Part I, p. 256, note 2. 

3 This speech is supposed to be the words of the angel Gabriel. 

4 I. e. in the Qur'dn. 



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XXXVII, I7i-XXXVHI,3. THE CHAPTER OF S. 1 75 

But our word has been passed to our servants 
who were sent that they should be helped; that, 
verily, our hosts should gain mastery for them. 

Then turn thou thy back upon them for a time, 
[175] and look upon them, for soon they too shall 
look. 

Would they hasten on our torment ? but when it 
descends in their court, ill will the morning be of 
those who have been warned! 

But turn thy back upon them for a time; and 
look, for soon they too shall look. 

[180] Celebrated be the praises of thy Lord, the 
Lord of glory, above what they attribute! and 
peace be upon the apostles and praise be to God, 
the Lord of the worlds ! 



The Chapter of S. 1 
(XXXVIII. Mecca.) 

In the name of the merciful and compassionate 
God. 

S. By the Qur'an with its reminder ! nay, but those 
who misbelieve are in pride, schism ! 

How many a generation have we destroyed be- 
fore them, and they cried out, but it was no time 
to escape ! 

And they wonder that a warner has come from 
amongst themselves, and the misbelievers say, 'This 

1 The Arabic commentators say of this title, ' God only knows 
what He means by it' All the explanations given of it are purely 
conjectural. See the Introduction for this and the other mysterious 
letters used throughout the Qur'an. 



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176 the qur'An. XXXVIII, 3-16. 

is a magician, a liar !' What ! does he make the gods 
to be one God ? verily, this is a wondrous thing. 

[5] And the chiefs of them went away : ' Go on 
and persevere ,in your gods; this is a thing designed ; 
we never heard this in any other sect ; this is no- 
thing but a fiction ! Has a reminder come down 
upon him from amongst us ?' nay, they are in doubt 
concerning my reminder; nay, they have not yet 
tasted of my torment ! 

Have they the treasures of the mercy of thy 
mighty Lord, the giver ? or have they the kingdom 
of the heavens and of the earth, and what is be- 
tween the two ? — then Jet them climb up the ropes 
thereof. 

[10] Any host whatever of the confederates shall 
there be routed. 

Before them did Noah's people, and 'Ad, and 
Pharaoh of the stakes * call the apostles liars ; and 
Thamud and the people of Lot, and the fellows of 
the Grove, they were the confederates too. 

They all did naught but call the apostles liars, 
and just was the punishment! Do these 2 await 
aught else but one noise for which there shall be 
no pause ? 

[15] But they say, 'O our Lord, hasten for us our 
share before the day of reckoning !' 

Be patient of what they say, and remember our 
servant David endowed with might; verily, he 

1 Some say this refers to the punishment which Pharaoh used to 
inflict upon those who had offended him, whom he used to tie to 
four stakes and then torture. Others take the expression to refer, 
to the stability of Pharaoh's kingdom. The word in the original 
is applied to the pegs with which Arabs fasten their tents. 

* The Meccans. 



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XXXVIII, 1 6-26. THE CHAPTER OF S. 1 77 

turned frequently to us. Verily, we subjected the 
mountains to celebrate with him our praises at the 
evening and the dawn ; and the birds too gathered 
together, each one would oft return to him ; and we 
strengthened his kingdom, and we gave him wisdom 
and decisive address. 

[20] Has there come to thee the story of the 
antagonists when they scaled the chamber wall ? 
when they entered in unto David, and he was 
startled at them, they said, ' Fear not, we are two 
antagonists ; one of us has injured the other ; judge 
then between us with the truth and be not partial, 
but guide us to a level way. Verily, this is my 
brother: he had ninety-nine ewes and I had one 
ewe; and he said, "Give her over to my charge;" 
and he overcame me in the discourse.' Said he, 
' He wronged thee in asking for thy ewe in addition 
to his own ewes. Verily, many associates do injure 
one another, except those who believe and do what 
is right, and very few are they!' 

And he thought that we were trying him ; and he 
asked pardon of his Lord and fell down bowing, and 
did turn ; and we pardoned him ; for, verily, he has 
a near approach to us and an excellent resort. 

[25] O David! verily, we have made thee a vice- 
gerent, judge then between men with truth and 
follow not "lust, for it will lead thee astray from the 
path of God. Verily, those who go astray from the 
path of God, for them is keen torment, for that they 
did forget the day of reckoning ! 

And we have not created the heavens and the 
earth, and what is between the two, in vain. That 
is what those who misbelieved did think, but woe 
from the fire to those who misbelieve ! 

[9] N 

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178 THE QUR'AN. XXXVIII, 27-34. 

Shall we make those who believe and do right 
like those who do evil in the earth ? or shall we 
make the pious like the sinners ? 

A blessed Book which we have sent down to 
thee that they may consider its verses, and that 
those endowed with minds may be mindful. 

And we gave to David, Solomon, an excellent ser- 
vant ; verily, he turned frequently to us. [30] When 
there were set before him in the evening the steeds 
that paw the ground 1 , and he said, 'Verily, I have 
loved the love of good things better than the re- 
membrance of my Lord, until (the sun) was hidden 
behind the veil; bring them back to me;' and he 
began to sever their legs and necks. 

And we did try Solomon, and we threw upon his 
throne a form ; then he turned repentant 2 . Said he, 

1 The word in Arabic signifies a horse that stands on three legs 
and just touches the ground with the fore part of the hoof of the 
fourth. The story is that Solomon was so lost in the contempla- 
tion of his horses one day that he forgot the time of evening prayer, 
and was so smitten with remorse on discovering his negligence that 
he sacrificed them all except a hundred of the best. God however 
recompensed him by giving him dominion over the winds instead. 

2 The Mohammedan legend, borrowed from the Talmud, is that 
having conquered the king of Sidon and brought away his daughter 
Gerideh, he made her his favourite. She however so incessantly 
mourned her father that Solomon commanded the devils to make 
an image of him to console her, and to this she and her maids 
used to pay divine honours. To punish him for encouraging this 
idolatry, a devil named Sakhar one day obtained possession of his 
ring, which he used to entrust to a concubine named Amfnah when 
he went out for any necessary purpose. As the whole secret of his 
power lay in this ring, which was engraved with the Holy Name, the 
devil was able to personate Solomon, who, being changed in form, 
was not recognised by his subjects, and wandered about for the 
space of forty days, <he time during which the image had been 
worshipped in his house. After this Sakhar flew^away and threw 



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XXXVIII, 34-45- THE CHAPTER OF S. 1 79 

' My Lord, pardon me and grant me a kingdom that 
is not seemly for any one after me ; verily, thou art 
He who grants !' 

[35] And we subjected to him the wind to run on 
at his bidding gently wherever he directed it ; and 
the devils — every builder and diver, and others 
bound in fetters — ' this is our gift, so be thou lavish 
or withhold without account !' 

And, verily, he had with us a near approach, and 
a good resort. 

[40] And remember our servant Job when he called 
upon his Lord that ' the devil has touched me with 
toil and torment !' 

' Stamp with thy foot, this is a cool washing-place 
and a drink.' And we granted him his family, and 
the like of them with them, as a mercy from us 
and a reminder to those endowed with minds, — ' and 
take in thy hand a bundle, and strike therewith, and 
break not thy oath ! ' Verily, we found him patient 1 , an 
excellent servant ; verily, he turned frequently to us. 

[45] And remember our servants Abraham and 

the signet into the sea, where it was swallowed by a fish, which 
was afterwards caught and brought to Solomon, who by this means 
recovered his kingdom and power. 

1 The Mohammedan legend is that when Job was undergoing 
his trials, the devil appeared to his wife and promised, if she would 
worship him, to restore their former prosperity; this she asked her 
husband to allow her to do. Job was so enraged at her conduct that 
he swore if he recovered to give her a hundred stripes. When Job 
had uttered the prayer recorded on page 52, line 19, Gabriel ap- 
peared and bade him in the words of the text to strike the ground 
with his feet A fountain at once gushed forth, in which he washed 
and was healed, his wife also becoming young and beautiful again. 
In order not to break his oath he was commanded to strike her 
with a bundle of palm leaves, giving her a hundred painless blows 
at once. 

N 2 

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l80 THE QURAN. XXXVIII, 45-65. 

Isaac and Jacob, endowed with might and sight; 
verily, we made them sincere by a sincere quality 
— the remembrance of the abode ; and, verily, they 
were with us of the elect, the best 

And remember Ishmael and Elisha and Dhu-1- 
kifl, for each was of the righteous 1 . This is a re- 
minder ! verily, for the pious is there an excellent 
resort, — [50] gardens of Eden with the doors open 
to them ; — reclining therein ; calling therein for much 
fruit and drink ; and beside them maids of modest 
glance, of their own age, — * This is what ye were pro- 
mised for the day of reckoning !' — ' This is surely our 
provision, it is never spent !' 

[55] This I — and, verily, for the rebellious is there 
an evil resort, — hell ; they shall broil therein, and an 
ill couch shall it be ! This, — so let them taste it ! 
— hot water, and pus, and other kinds of the same 
sort ! ' This is an army plunged in with you ! there 
is no welcome for them ! verily, they are going to 
broil in the fire!' 

[60] They shall say, ' Nay, for you too is there 
no welcome ! it was ye who prepared it beforehand 
for us, and an ill resting-place it is !' 

They shall say, ' Our Lord ! whoso prepared this 
beforehand for us, give him double torment in the 
fire !■' And they shall say, 'What ails us that we 
do not see men whom we used to think amongst 
the wicked ? whom we used to take for mockery ? 
have our eyes escaped them ?' 

Verily, that is the truth ; the contention of the 
people of the fire. 

[65] Say, ' I am only a warner ; and there is no 

1 See page 53. 



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XXXVIII, 65-87. THE CHAPTER OF S. l8l 

god but God, the one, the victorious, the Lord of 
the heavens and the earth, and what is between the 
two, the mighty, the forgiving]' 

Say, 'It is a grand story, and yet ye turn from 
it !' I had no knowledge of the exalted chiefs when 
they contended. 

[70] I am only inspired that I am a plain warner. 
When thy Lord said to the angels, 'Verily, I am 
about to create a mortal out of clay; and when I 
have fashioned him, and breathed into him of my 
spirit, then fall ye down before him adoring.' And 
the angels adored all of them, save I bits, who was 
too big with pride, and was of the misbelievers. 

[75] Said He, ' O Iblis ! what prevents thee from 
adoring what I have created with my two hands ? art 
thou too big with pride ? or art thou amongst the 
exalted ?' Said he, ' I am better than he, Thou 
hast created me from fire, and him Thou hast 
created from clay.' Said He, ' Then go forth there- 
from, for, verily, thou art pelted, and, verily, upon 
thee is my curse unto the day of judgment/ 

[80] Said he, ' My Lord ! then respite me until the 
day when they are raised.' Said He, ' Then thou 
art amongst the respited until the day of the stated 
time.' Said he, ' Then, by Thy might ! I will surely 
seduce them all together, except Thy servants 
amongst them who are sincere!' [85] Said He, ' It 
is the truth, and the truth I speak; I will surely 
fill hell with thee and with those who follow thee 
amongst them all together.' 

Say, ' I do not ask thee for it any hire, nor am 
I of those who take too much upon myself. It is but 
a reminder to the servants, and ye shall surely know 
its story after a time.' 



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1 82 THE QURAN. XXXIX, 1-8. 



The Chapter of the Troops. 
(XXXIX. Mecca.) 

In the name of the merciful and compassionate 
God. 

The sending down of the Book from God, the 
mighty, the wise. 

Verily, we have sent down to thee the Book in 
truth, then serve God, being sincere in religion unto 
Him. Aye ! God's is the sincere religion: and those 

who take beside Him patrons ' We do not serve 

them save that they may bring us near to God ' 

Verily, God will judge between them concerning 
that whereon they do dispute. 

[5] Verily, God guides not him who is a mis- 
believing liar. 

Had God wished to take to Himself a child, 
He would have chosen what He pleased from 
what He creates; — celebrated be His praises! 
He is God, the one, the victorious. He created 
the heavens and the earth in truth! It is 
He who clothes the day with night ; and clothes 
the night with day; and subjects the sun and the 
moon, each one runs on to an appointed time ; aye ! 
He is the mighty, the forgiving! He created you 
from one soul ; then He made from it its mate ; and 
He sent down upon you of the cattle four pairs 1 ! 
He creates you in the bellies of your mothers, — 
creation after creation, in three darknesses 2 . That 
is God for you! His is the kingdom, there is no 
god but He ; how then can ye be turned away ? 

1 Camel, oxen, sheep, and goats. 

2 I. e. the belly, the womb, and the placenta. 



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XXXIX, 9-17- THE CHAPTER OF THE TROOPS. 1 83 

If ye be thankless, yet is God independent of you. 
He is not pleased with ingratitude in His servants ; 
but if ye give thanks, He is pleased with that in you. 
But no burdened soul shall bear the burden of an- 
other; then unto your Lord is your return, and He 
will inform you of that which ye have done. [10] 
Verily, He knows the natures of men's breasts! 

And when distress touches a man he calls his 
Lord, turning repentant to Him ;. then when He 
confers on him a favour from Himself he forgets 
what he had called upon Him for before, and makes 
peers for God to lead astray from His way ! Say, 
' Enjoy thyself in thy misbelief a little, verily, thou 
art of the fellows of the Fire.' 

Shall he who is devout throughout the night, 
adoring and standing, cautious concerning the here- 
after, and hoping for the mercy of his Lord . . . ? 
Say, ' Shall those who know be deemed equal with 
those who know not ? only those will remember, 
who are endowed with minds ! r 

Say, ' O my servants who believe X fear your 
Lord ! for those who do well in this world is good, 
and God's earth is spacious ; verily, the patient 
shall be paid their hire without count ! f 

Say, 'Verily, I am bidden to serve God, being 
sincere in religion to Him ; and I am bidden that 
I be the first of those resigned.' 

[15] Say, 'Vejily, I fear, if I rebel against my 
Lord, the torment of a mighty day.' Say, ' God do 
I serve, being sincere in my religion to Him ; serve 
then what ye will beside Him !' Say, 'Verily, the 
losers are those who lose themselves and their 
families on the resurrection day. Aye, that is the 
obvious loss.' 



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1 84 THE QUR'AN. XXXIX, 18-24. 

They shall have over them shades of fire, and 
under them shades ; with that does God frighten 
His servants : O my servants ! then fear me. 

But those who avoid jTa^ut 1 and serve them 
not, but turn repentant unto God, for them shall be 
glad tidings. Then give glad tidings to my servants 
who listen to the word and follow the best thereof; 
they it is whom God guides, and they it is who are 
endowed with minds. [20] Him against whom the 
word of torment is due, — canst thou rescue him 
from the fire ? 

But for those who fear their Lord for them are 
upper chambers, and upper chambers above them 
built, beneath which rivers flow ; God's promise ! 
God does not fail in His promise. 

Hast thou not seen that God sends down from 
the heaven water, and conducts it into springs in 
the earth ? then He brings forth therewith corn 
varied in kind, then it dries up, and ye see it grow 
yellow ; then He makes it grit ; — verily, in that is 
a reminder for those endowed with minds. 

Is he whose breast God has expanded for Islam, 
and who is in light from his Lord . . . . ? And woe 
to those whose hearts are hardened against a remem- 
brance of God ! those are in obvious error. 

God has sent down the best of legends, a book 
uniform and repeating ; whereat the skins of those 
who fear their Lord do creep ! then their skins and 
their hearts soften at the remembrance of God. 
That is the guidance of God ! He guides therewith 
whom He will. But he whom God leads astray 
there is no guide for him. 



1 See Part I, p. 40, note 2. 



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XXXIX, 35-37- THE CHAPTER OF THE TROOPS. 185 

t< — 

I [25] Shall he who must screen himself with his 
. own face from the evil torment on the resurrection 
I day . . . . ? And it shall be said of those who do 
^ wrong, taste what ye have earned/ 

Those before them called the (prophets) liars, and 
the torment came to them from whence they per- 
ceived it not ; and God made them taste disgrace in 
the life of this world. But surely the torment of the 
hereafter is greater, if they did but know. We have 
struck out for men in this Quran every sort of 
parable, haply they may be mindful. An Arabic 
Quran with no crookedness therein ; haply they 
may fear ! 

[30] God has struck out a parable, a man who has 
partners who oppose each other ; and a man who 
is wholly given up to another ; shall they be deemed 
equal in similitude ? praise be to God! nay, but most 
of them know not ! 
\^ Verily, thou shalt die, and, verily, they shall die ; 
then, verily, on the resurrection day before your Lord 
shall ye dispute. 

And who is more unjust than he who lies against 
God, and calls the truth a lie when it comes to him ? 
Is there not in hell a resort for those who mis- 
believe ? but whoso brings the truth and believes in 
it, these are they who fear. 

[35] F° r them is what they please with their Lord, 
that is the reward of those who do well ; that God 
may cover for them their offences which they have 
done, and may reward them with their hire for the 
best of that which they have do ne. \ 

Is not God sufficient for His servants ? and yet 
they would frighten thee with those beside Him 1 . 

1 By their idols. 

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1 86 the qur'an* XXXIX, 37-45. 

But he whom God leads astray there is no guide 
for him ; and he whom God guides there is none to 
lead him astray: is not God mighty, the Lord of 
vengeance ? 

And if thou shouldst ask them who created the 
heavens and the earth, they will surely say, ' God !' 
Say, ' Have ye considered what ye call on beside 
God ? If God wished me harm \ could they remove 
His harm ? or did He wish me mercy, could they 
withhold His mercy ?' Say, ' God is enough for 
me, and on Him rely those who rely.' 

[40] Say, ' O my people !: act according to your 
power; I too am going to act; and ye shall 
know.' 

He to whom the torment comes it shall dis- 
grace him, and there shall alight upon him lasting 
torment. 

Verily, we have sent down to thee the Book for 
men in truth ; and whosoever is guided it is for his 
own soul : but whoso goes astray it is against them, 
and thou art not a guardian for them. 

God takes to Himself souls at the time of their 
death ; and those which do not die (He takes) in 
their sleep ; and He holds back those on whom He 
has decreed death, and sends others back till their 
appointed time; — verily, in that are signs unto a 
people who reflect. 

Do they take besides God intercessors ? Say, 
' What ! though they have no control over anything 
and have no sense.' 

[45] Say, 'God's is the intercession, all of it; His 

1 The pronoun in Arabic is feminine, and refers to the false 
gods, especially to the favourite goddesses of the Quraw. 



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XXXIX, 45-54- THE CHAPTER OF THE TROOPS. 1 87 

is the kingdom of the heavens and the earth ; then 
unto Him shall ye be sent back.' 

And when God alone is mentioned the hearts 
of those who believe not in the hereafter quake, and 
when those beside Him are mentioned, lo, they 
are joyful ! 

Say, ' O God ! originator of the heavens and 
the earth, who knowest the unseen and the visible, 
thou wilt judge between thy servants concerning 
that whereon they do dispute ! ' 

And had those who do wrong all that is in the 
earth, and the like thereof with it, they would 
ransom themselves therewith from the evil of the 
torment on the resurrection day! but there shall 
appear to them from God that which they had 
not reckoned on ; and the evils of what they have 
earned shall appear to them ; but that shall close in 
on them at which they mocked ! 

[50] And when harm touches man he calls 
on us ; then, when we grant him favour from us, 
he says, 'Verily, I am given it through know- 
ledge!' nay, it is a trial, — but most of them do 
not know! 

Those before them said it too, but that availed 
them not which they had earned, and there befel 
them the evil deeds of what they had earned : and 
those who do wrong of these (Meccans), there shall 
befall them too the evil deeds of what they had 
earned, nor shall they frustrate Him. 

Have they not known that God extends His pro- 
vision to whom He pleases, or doles it out ? verily, 
in that are signs unto a people who believe. 

Say, ' O my servants ! who have been extravagant 
against their own souls !' be not in despair of the 



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w 

r 



1 88 THE QURAN. XXXIX, 54-65. 

mercy of God ; verily, God forgives sins, all of them ; 
verily, He is forgiving, merciful. 

[55] But turn repentant unto your Lord, and 
resign yourselves to Him, before there comes on 
you torment! then ye shall not be helped: and 
follow the best of what has been sent down to 
you from your Lord, before there come on you 
the torment suddenly, ere ye can perceive! 

Lest a soul should say, ' O my sighing ! for what 
I have neglected towards God! for, verily, I was 
amongst those who did jest ! ' or lest it should say, 
' If God had but guided me, I should surely have 
been of those who fear !' or lest it should say, when 
it sees the torment, ' Had I another turn I should be 
of those who do well !' 

[60] ' Yea ! there came to thee my signs and thou 
didst call them lies, and wert too big with pride, and 
wert of those who misbelieved!' 

And on the resurrection day thou shalt see those 
who lied against God, with their faces blackened. Is 
there not in hell a resort for those who are too big 
with pride ? 

And God shall rescue those who fear Him, into 
their safe place ; no evil shall touch them, nor shall 
they be griev ed. ) 

God is the creator of everything, and He is 
guardian over everything; His are the keys of 
the heavens and the earth ; and those who mis- 
believe in the signs of God, they it is who lose! 

Say, ' What ! other than God would you bid me 
serve, O ye ignorant ones ? [65] When He has 
inspired thee and those before thee that, " If thou 
dost associate aught with Him, thy work will surely 
be in vain, and thou shalt surely be of those who 



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XXXIX, 65-73- THE CHAPTER OF THE TROOPS. 1 89 

lose I" Nay, but God do thou serve, and be of those 
who do give thanks !' 

And they do not value God at His true value ; 
while the earth all of it is but a handful for Him on 
the resurrection day, and the heavens shall be rolled 
up in His right hand! Celebrated be His praise! 
and exalted be He above what they associate with 
Him ! And the trumpet shall be blown, and those 
who are in the heavens and in the earth shall swoon, 
save whom God pleases. Then it shall be blown 
again, and, lo! they shall stand up and look on. And 
the earth shall beam with the light of its Lord, and 
the Book shall be set forth, and the prophets and 
martyrs 1 shall be brought ; and it shall be decreed 
between them in truth, and they shall not be 
wronged! [70] And every soul shall be paid for 
what it has done, and He knows best that which 
they do ; and those who misbelieve shall be driven 
to hell in troops ; and when they come there, its 
doors shall be opened, and its keepers shall say to 
them, ' Did not apostles from amongst yourselves 
come to you to recite to you the signs of your Lord, 
and to warn you of the meeting of this day of 
yours ?' They shall say, ' Yea, but the sentence 
of torment was due against the misbelievers !' It 
shall be said, ' Enter ye the gates of hell, to dwell 
therein for aye ! Hell is the resort of those who are 
too big with pride !' 

But those who fear their Lord shall be driven 
to Paradise in troops; until they come there, its 
doors shall be opened, and its keepers shall say 
to them, ' Peace be upon you, ye have done well ! 

1 Or witnesses. 



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190 THE QUr'aN. XXXIX, 73-XL, 6. 

so enter in to dwell for aye!' and they shall say, 
' Praise be to God, who hath made good His promise 
to us, and hath given us the earth to inherit ! We 
establish ourselves in Paradise wherever we please ; 
and goodly is the reward of those who wor k !' f 

[75] And thou shalt see the angels circling round 
about the throne, celebrating the praise of their 
Lord ; and it shall be decided between them in 
truth ; and it shall be said, ' Praise be to God, the 
Lord of the worlds ! ' 



The Chapter of the Believer. 
(XL. Mecca.) 

In the name of the merciful and compassionate 
God. 

'H. M. The sending down of the Book from God, 
the mighty, the knowing, the forgiver of sin and 
accepter of repentance, keen at punishment, long- 
suffering! there is no god but He ! to whom the 
journey is! 

None wrangle concerning the signs of God but 
those who misbelieve; then let not their going to 
and fro in the cities deceive thee. 

[5] The people of Noah before them called the 
prophets liars ; and the confederates after them ; 
and every nation schemed against their Apostle 
to catch him. And they wrangled with falsehood 
that they might refute the truth thereby, but I 
seized them, and how was my punishment! 

Thus was the sentence of thy Lord due against 
those who misbelieved, that they are the fellows of 
the Fire! 



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XL, 7-15. THE CHAPTER OF THE BELIEVER. I91 

Those who bear the throne and those around it 
celebrate the praise of their Lord, and believe in 
Him, and ask pardon for those who believe : ' Our 
Lord! thou dost embrace all things in mercy and 
knowledge, then pardon those who turn repentant 
and follow thy way, and guard them from the 
torment of hell! Our Lord! make them enter 
into gardens of Eden which thou hast promised 
to them, and to those who do well of their fathers, 
and their wives, and their seed ; verily, thou art the 
mighty, the wise ! and guard them from evil deeds, 
for he whom thou shalt guard from evil deeds on 
that day, thou wilt have had mercy on, and that is 
mighty bliss !' 

[10] Verily, those who misbelieve shall be cried 
out to, ' Surely, God's hatred is greater than your 
hatred of each other when ye were called unto the 
faith and misbelieved ! ' They shall say, ' Our Lord ! 
Thou hast killed us twice, and Thou hast quickened 
us twice 1 ; and we do confess our sins : is there then 
a way for getting out ?' 

That is because when God alone was proclaimed 
ye did disbelieve ; but when partners were joined to 
Him ye did believe ; but judgment belongs to God, 
the high, the great ! He it is who shows you His 
signs, and sends down to you from heaven pro- 
vision ; but none is mindful except him who 
turns repentant ; then call on God, being sincere 
in your religion to Him, averse although the mis- 
believers be! [15] Exalted of degrees ! The Lord 



1 Referring to the absence of life before birth and the deprivation 
of it at death, and to the being quickened at birth and raised again 
after death. 



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192 THE QURAN. XL, 15-26. 

of the throne ! He throws the spirit by His bidding 
upon whom He will of His servants, to give warning 
of the day of meeting. The day when they shall 
be issuing forth, naught concerning them shall be 
hidden from God. Whose is the kingdom on that 
day? — God's, the one, the dominant! to-day shall 
every soul be recompensed for that which it has 
earned. There is no wrong to-day ; verily, God is 
quick at reckoning up ! 

And warn them of the day that approaches, when 
hearts are choking in the gullets; those who do 
wrong shall have no warm friend, and no intercessor 
who shall be obeyed. [20] He knows the deceitful 
of eye and what men's breasts conceal, and God 
decides with truth ; but those they call on beside 
Him do not decide at all: verily, God, He both 
hears and looks. 

Have they not journeyed on in the earth and seen 
how was the end of those who journeyed on before 
them ? They were stronger than them in might, 
and their vestiges are in the land; but God caught 
them up in their sins, and they had none to guard 
them against God. 

That is for that their apostles did come to them 
with manifest signs, and they misbelieved, and God 
caught them up; verily, He is mighty, keen to 
punish ! 

And we did send Moses with our signs, and with 
obvious authority, [25] unto Pharaoh and Hamdn 
and Qarun. They said,' A lying sorcerer!' and when 
they came to them with truth from us, they said, 
' Kill the sons of those who believe with him, and 
let their women live!' but the stratagem of the 
misbelievers is only in error! 



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XL, 27-36. THE CHAPTER OF THE BELIEVER. I$3 

And Pharaoh said, ' Let me kill Moses ; and then 
let him call upon his Lord ! verily, I fear that he 
will change your religion, or that he will cause 
evil doing to appear in the land.' 

And Moses said, 'Verily, I take refuge in my Lord 
and your Lord from every one who is big with pride 
and believes not on the day of reckoning.' 

And a believing man of Pharaoh's people, who 
concealed his faith, said, ' Will ye kill a man for 
saying, My Lord is God, when he has come to you 
with manifest signs from your Lord ? and if he be a 
liar, against him is his lie; and if he be truthful, there 
will befall you somewhat of that which he threatens 
you ; verily, God guides not him who is an ex- 
travagant liar. [30] O my people! yours is the 
kingdom to-day, ye are eminent in the land, but who 
will help us against the violence of God, if it comes 
upon us ?' 

Said Pharaoh, ' I will only show you what I see, 
and I will only guide you into the way of right 
direction.' 

And he who believed said, ' O my people ! verily, 
I fear for you the like of the day of the confederates, 
the like of the wont of the people of Noah and 'Ad 
and Haman, and of those after them ; for God desires 
not injustice for His servants. O my people ! verily, 
I fear for you the day of crying out, — [35] the day 
when ye shall turn your backs, fleeing, with no 
defender for you against God ; for he whom God 
leads astray, for him there is no guide ! 

'And Joseph came to you before with manifest 

signs, but ye ceased not to doubt concerning what 

he brought you, until, when he perished, ye said, 

" God will not send after him an apostle ;" thus 

[9] o 

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1 94 THE QUR AN. XL, 36-46. 

does God lead astray him who is extravagant, a 
doubter. 

' Those who wrangle concerning the signs of God 
without authority having come to them are greatly 
hated by God and by those who believe ; thus does 
God set a stamp upon the heart of every tyrant 
too big with pride!' 

And Pharaoh said, ' O Haman ! build for me a 
tower, haply I may reach the tracts, — the tracts of 
heaven, and may mount up to the God of Moses, 
for, verily, I think him a liar.' 

[40] And thus was his evil deed made seemly 
to Pharaoh, and he was turned from the way; but 
Pharaoh's stratagem ended only in ruin, and he who 
believed said, ' O my people ! follow me, I will guide 
you to the way of the right direction. O my people ! 
verily, the life of this world is but a provision, but, 
verily, the hereafter, that is the abode of stability! 
Whoso does evil, he shall only be recompensed with 
the like thereof; and whoso does right, be it male 
or female and a believer, these shall enter into 
Paradise ; they shall be provided therein without 
count. O my people! why should I call you to 
salvation, and you call me to the fire ? [45] Ye call 
on me to disbelieve in God, and to join with Him 
what I have no knowledge of; but I call you to 
the mighty forgiving One ! no doubt that what ye 
call me to, ought not to be called on in this world or 
in the hereafter, and that we shall be sent back to 
God, and that the extravagant, they are the fellows 
of the Fire ! 

' But ye shall remember what I say to you ; and 
I entrust my affair to God, verily, God looks upon 
His servants ! ' 



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XL, 47-57. THE CHAPTER OF THE BELIEVER. I95 

And God guarded him from the evils of what 
they plotted, and there closed in upon Pharaoh 
evil woe. 

The fire — they shall be exposed to it morning 
and evening; and 'on the day the Hour shall 
arise,' enter, O people of Pharaoh ! into the keenest 
torment. 

[50] And when they argue together in the fire, 
and the weak say to those who were big with pride, 
'Verily, we were followers of yours, can ye then 
avail us against a portion of the fire ?' 

Those who were big with pride shall say, ' Verily, 
we are all in it ; verily, God has judged between His 
servants.' 

And those who are in the fire shall say unto the 
keepers of hell, 'Call upon your Lord to lighten from 
us one day of the torment.' They shall say, ' Did 
not your apostles come to you with manifest signs ? ' 
They shall say, 'Yea!' They shall say, 'Then, 
call!' — but the call of the misbelievers is only in 
error. 

Verily, we will help our apostles, and those 
who believe, in the life of this world and on the 
day when the witnesses shall stand up : [55] the 
day when their excuse shall not avail the unjust; 
but for them is the curse, and for them is an 
evil abode. 

And we did give Moses the guidance ; and we 
made the children of Israel to inherit the Book, 
as a guidance and a reminder to those endowed 
with minds. 

Be thou patient, then ; verily, God's promise is 
true : and ask thou forgiveness for thy sins, and 

o 2 



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196 THE QUr'An. XL, 57-66. 

celebrate the praise of thy Lord in the evening 
and in the morn. 

Verily, those who wrangle concerning the signs of 
God without authority having come to them, there 
is naught in their breasts but pride ; but they shall 
not attain it : do thou then seek refuge in God ; 
verily, He both hears and looks! 

Surely the creation of the heavens and the earth 
is greater than the creation of man : but most men 
know it not. 

[60] The blind and the seeing shall not be deemed 
alike, nor those who believe and do right and the 
evildoer ; little is it that they remember. 

Verily, the Hour will surely come; there is no 
doubt therein ; but most men do not believe ! 

And your Lord said, 'Call upon me, I will answer 
you ; verily, those who are too big with pride to 
worship shall enter into hell, shrinking up.' 

God it is who has made for you the night to 
repose therein, and the day to see by; verily, God 
is Lord of grace to men, but most men give no 
thanks ! 

There is God for you ! your Lord ! the creator of 
everything ! there is no god but He, how then can 
ye lie 1 ? [65] Thus did those lie who gainsaid the 
signs of God. 

God it is who has made for you the earth as 
a resting-place, and a heaven as building, and has 
formed you and made excellent your forms ; and 
has provided you with good things ! there is God 
for you ! — your Lord ! then blessed be God, the 
Lord of the worlds ! 

1 Or ' turn away.' 



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XL, 67-76. THE CHAPTER OF THE BELIEVER. 1 97 

He is the living One, there is no god but He ! 
then call on Him, being sincere in your religion to 
Him ; praise be to God, the Lord of the worlds ! 

Say, ' Verily, I am forbidden to serve those whom 
ye call on beside God, since there have come to me 
manifest signs from my Lord, and I am bidden to 
be resigned unto the Lord of the worlds.' 

He it is who created you from the earth, then 
from a clot, then from congealed blood, then He 
brings you forth a child ; then ye reach to puberty; 
then do ye become old men, — though of you there 
are some who are taken away before, — that ye 
may reach an appointed time, and haply ye may 
have some sense. 

[70] He it is who quickens and kills, and when 
He decrees a matter, then He only says to it, 'BE,' 
and it is. 

Hast thou not seen those who wrangle concerning 
the signs of God how they are turned away? Those 
who call the Book, and what we have sent our 
apostles with, a lie, soon shall they know — when 
the fetters are on their necks and the chains, as 
they are dragged into hell ! — then in the fire shall 
they be baked. 

Then it shall be said to them, ' Where is what ye 
did associate beside God ?' They shall say, 'They 
have strayed away from us ; nay, we did not call 
before upon anything 1' — thus does God lead the 
misbelievers astray. 

[75] There ! for that ye did rejoice in the land 
without right ; and for that ye did exult ; enter 
ye the gates of hell, to dwell therein for aye ; for 
evil is the resort of those who are too big with 
pride ! 



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I98 THE QUr'An. XL, 77-85. 

But be thou patient ; verily, the promise of God 
is true ; and whether we show thee a part of what 
we promised them, or whether we surely take thee 
to ourself, unto us shall they be returned. 

And we did send apostles before thee : of them 
are some whose stories we have related to thee, and 
of them are some whose stories we have not related 
to thee; and no apostle might ever bring a sign 
except by the permission of God j but when God's 
bidding came it was decided with truth, and there 
were those lost who deemed it vain ! 

God it is who has made for you cattle, that ye 
may ride on some of them ; — and of them ye eat, 
[80] and ye have in them advantages ; — and that ye 
may attain thereon a want which is in your breasts ; 
upon them and upon ships are ye borne. 

He shows you His signs; which sign then of your 
Lord do ye deny ? 

Have they not journeyed on in the land and seen 
how was the end of those before them, who were 
more numerous than they and stronger in might, and 
in their vestiges which are still in the land ? but of 
no avail to them was that which they had earned. 

And when there came to them their apostles with 
manifest signs they rejoiced in what knowledge they 
had ; but there closed in upon them that whereat 
they had mocked. 

And when they saw our violence they said, 'We 
believe in God alone, and we disbelieve in what 
we once associated with Him.' 

[85] But their faith was of no avail to them when 
they saw our violence — the course of God with His 
servants in time past, and there the misbelievers 
lose! 



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xli, iii. the chapter 'detailed.' 199 

The Chapter 'Detailed.' 
(XLI. Mecca.) 

In the name of the merciful and compassionate 
God. 

'H. M. A revelation from the merciful, the com- 
passionate; a book whose signs are detailed; an 
Arabic Qur'an for a people who do know; a herald 
of glad tidings and a warning. But most of them 
turn aside and do not hear, and say, ' Our hearts are 
veiled from what thou dost call us to, and in our ears 
is dulness, and between us and thee there is a veil. 
Act thou ; verily, we are acting too !' [5] Say, 
' I am but a mortal like yourselves, I am inspired 
that your God is one God ; then go straight to 
Him, and ask forgiveness of Him ; and woe to the 
idolaters, who give not alms, and in the hereafter 
disbelieve !' 

Verily, those who believe and do right, for them 
is a hire that is not grudged. 

Say, 'What ! do ye really misbelieve in Him who 
created the earth in two days, and do ye make peers 
for Him ? — that is the Lord of the worlds'!' 

And He placed thereon 1 firm mountains above it 
and blessed it, and apportioned therein its foods in 
four days alike for those who ask. [10] Then He 
made for the heaven and it was but smoke, and He 
said to it and to the earth, 'Come, ye two, whether 
ye will or no!' They said, 'We come willingly!' 

And He decreed them seven heavens in two days, 
and inspired every heaven with its bidding : and we 

1 On the earth. 



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200 THE QURAN. X LI, 1 1 -20. 

adorned the lower heaven with lamps and guardian 
angels ; that is the decree of the mighty, the know- 
ing One. 

But if they turn aside, then say, ' I have warned 
you of a thunder-clap like the thunder-clap of 'Ad 
and Thamud; when their apostles came to them 
from before them and from behind them (saying), 
"Serve ye none but God/" They said, 'If our Lord 
pleased He would send down angels ; so we in what 
ye are sent with disbelieve.' 

And as for 'Ad, they were big with pride in the 
land, without right, and said, 'Who is stronger than 
us in might?' Did they not see that God who 
created them He was stronger than they in might ? 
But they did gainsay our signs. [15] And we sent 
upon them a cold blast in unfortunate days, that we 
might make them taste the torment of disgrace in 
the life of this world ; — but the torment of the 
hereafter is more disgraceful, and they shall not 
be helped. 

And as for Thamdd we guided them; but they 
preferred blindness to guidance, and the- thunder- 
clap of the torment of abasement caught them for 
what they had earned ; but we saved those who 
believed and who did fear. 

And the day when the enemies of God shall be 
gathered, together into the fire, marshalled along; 
until when they come to it, their hearing and their 
eyesight and their skins shall bear witness against 
them of that which they have done; [20] And they 
shall say to their skins, ' Why have ye borne witness 
against us?' they shall say, 'God gave us speech 
who has given speech to everything ; He created 
you at first, and unto Him shall ye be returned ; 



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XLI, 21-30. THE CHAPTER 'DETAILED.' 201 

and ye could not conceal yourselves that your hear- 
ing and your eyesight should not be witness against 
you, nor your skins ; but ye thought that God did 
not know much of what ye do. And that thought 
of yours which ye thought concerning your Lord 
has destroyed you, and ye have now become of 
diose who lose!' 

And if they are patient, still the fire is a resort 
for them ; and if they ask for favour again, they shall 
not be taken into favour. 

We will allot to them mates 1 , for they have made 
seemly to them what was before them and what was 
behind them ; and due against them was the sentence 
on the nations who passed away before them ; both of 
/inns and of mankind ; verily, they were the losers ! 

[25] Those who misbelieve say, ' Listen not to 
this Qur'dn, but talk foolishly about it, haply ye 
may gain the upper hand 2 .' But we will make those 
who misbelieve taste keen torment ; and we will re- 
compense them with the worst of that which they have 
done. That is, the recompence of the enemies of 
God, — the fire ! for them is an eternal abode therein : 
a recompence for that they did gainsay our signs. 

And those who misbelieved say, 'Our Lord, show 
us those who have led us astray amongst the ^inns 
and mankind; we will place them beneath our feet, 
and they shall both be amongst those who are put 
down!' [30] Verily, those who say, 'Our Lord is 
God,' and then go straight, the angels descend upon 
them — ' fear not and be not grieved, but receive the 
glad tidings of Paradise which ye were promised; 

1 Devils, opposed to the guardian angels of the believers. 

2 I.e. interrupt the reading of the Qur'&n by talking, in order to 
overpower the voice of the reader. 



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202 THE QUR'aN. XLI, 31-40. 

we are your patrons in the life of this world and 
in the next, and ye shall have therein what your 
souls desire, and ye shall have therein what ye 
call for, — an entertainment from the forgiving, the 
merciful !' 

And who speaks better than he who calls to 
God and does right, and says, 'Verily, I am of those 
resigned ? ' 

Good and evil shall not be deemed alike ; repel 
(evil) with what is best, and lo! He between whom 
and thyself was enmity is as though he were a warm 
patron. [35] But none shall meet with it save those 
who are patient ; and none shall meet with it save 
those who are endowed with mighty good fortune. 

And if an incitement from the devil incites you, 
then seek refuge in God ; verily, He both hears 
and knows. 

And of His signs are the night and the day, and 
the sun and the moon. Adore ye not the sun, 
neither the moon ; but adore God who created you, 
if it be Him ye serve. 

But if they be too big with pride — yet those who 
are with thy Lord celebrate His praises by night 
and day, and they are never weary. 

And of His signs (is this), that thou mayest see 
the earth drooping, and when we send down water 
upon it it stirs and swells ; verily, He who quickens 
it will surely quicken the dead ; verily, He is mighty 
over all. 

[40] Verily, those who are inclined to oppose our 
signs are not hidden from us. Is he who is cast 
into the fire better, or he who comes safe on the 
resurrection day ? Do what ye will : verily, He on 
what ye do doth look. 



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XLI, 41-47. THE CHAPTER 'DETAILED.' 203 

Verily, those who misbelieve in the reminder when 
it comes to them— and, verily, it is a glorious Book ! 
falsehood shall not come to it, from before it, nor 
from behind it — a revelation from the wise, the praise- 
worthy One. Naught is said to thee but what was 
said to the apostles before thee, 'Verily, thy Lord is 
Lord of forgiveness and Lord of grievous torment !' 

And had we made it a foreign Quran, they would 
have said, 'Unless its signs be detailed. . . . What! 
foreign and Arabic 1 ?' Say, 'It is, for those who 
believe, a guidance and a healing. But those who 
believe not, in their ears is dulness, and it is blind- 
ness to them ; these are called to from a far-off 
place.' 

[45] And we gave Moses the Book, and it was dis- 
puted about ; but had it not been for thy Lord's word 
already passed it would have been decided between 
them, for, verily, they were in hesitating doubt 
thereon. 

Whoso does right it is for his soul, and whoso 
does evil it is against it, for thy Lord is not unjust 
towards His servants. 

To Him is referred the knowledge of the Hour: 
and no fruits come forth from their husks, and no 
female conceives, or is delivered, save with His 
knowledge. 

And the day when He shall call to them, ' Where 

1 1, e. they would have said, 'What I is the revelation in a foreign 
tongue, and we who are expected to read it Arabs?' This is para- 
phrased by Sale : ' If we had revealed the Qur'dn in a foreign 
language, they had surely said, " Unless the signs thereof be dis- 
tinctly explained we will not receive the same : is the Book 
to be written in a foreign tongue, and the person unto whom 
it is directed an Arabian?"' 



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204 THE QURAN. XLI, 47-54. 

are the partners ye did join with me ?' they shall 
say, ' We do own to thee there is no witness amongst 
us !' and that on which they used to call before shall 
stray away from them, and they shall think there is 
no escape for them. Man is never tired of praying 
for good, but if evil touch him, then he is despairing 
and hopeless. 

[50] But if we make him taste mercy from us after 
distress has touched him he will surely say, ' This is 
for me, and I do not think the Hour is imminent ; 
and if I be brought back to my Lord, verily, I shall 
surely have good with Him 1 ;' but we will inform 
those who misbelieve of what they have done, and 
we will surely make them taste wretched torment. 

And when we have been gracious to man, he turns 
away and goes aside ; but when evil touches him he is 
one of copious prayer. 

Say, ' Let us see now ! if it be from God and ye 
disbelieve in it, who is more in error than he who 
is in a remote schism ? ' 

We will show them our signs in the regions and 
in themselves, until it is plain to them that it is the 
truth. Is it not enough for thy Lord that He is 
witness over all ? Ay, verily, they are in doubt 
about the meeting of their Lord ! Ay, verily, He 
encompasses all ! 

1 Or the words may be rendered, ' There is good with him still 
due to me.' 



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XLII, 1-9. THE CHAPTER OF COUNSEL. 205 



The Chapter of Counsel. 
(XLII. Mecca.) 

In the name of the merciful and compassionate 
God. 

'H. M. 'H. S. Q. Thus does God, the mighty, the 
wise, inspire thee and those before thee. 

His is what is in the heavens and what is in the 
earth, and He is the high, the mighty ! 

The heavens well-nigh cleave asunder from above 
them ; and the angels celebrate the praises of their 
Lord, and ask forgiveness for those who are on the 
earth. Ay, verily, God, He is the forgiving and 
merciful ! but those who take beside Him patrons, 
God watches over them, and thou hast not charge 
over them. # 

[5] Thus have we revealed an Arabic Quran, 
that thou mayest warn the Mother of cities 1 and all 
around it ; and warn them of a day of gathering, there 
is no doubt therein ; — a part in Paradise and a part 
in the blaze. 

But had God pleased He would have made them 
one nation ; but He makes whom He will enter into 
His mercy ; and the unjust have neither patron nor • 
help. Do they take other patrons besides Him, 
when God He is the patron, and He quickens the 
dead and He is mighty over all ? 

But whatsoever ye dispute about, tfoe judgment 
of it is God's. There is God for you 1 — my Lord 1 
upon Him do I rely, and unto Him I turn repentant. 
The originator of the heavens and the earth, He 

1 Mecca. 



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206 THE QUR'AN. XLII.9-I5. 

has made for you from yourselves wives ; and of the 
cattle mates; producing you thereby. There is 
naught like Him, for He both hears and sees. 

[10] His are the keys of the heavens and the 
earth, He extends provision to whom He will, or 
doles it out; verily, He knows everything. 

He has enjoined upon you for religion what He 
prescribed to Noah and what we inspired thee with, 
and what we inspired Abraham and Moses and 
Jesus, — to be steadfast in religion, and not to part 
into sects therein — a great thing to the idolaters is 
that which ye call them to! God elects for Himself 
whom He pleases and guides unto Himself him who 
turns repentant. 

But they did not part into sects until after the 
knowledge had come to them, through mutual envy; 
and had it not been for thy Lord's word already 
passed for an appointed ,time, it would surely have 
been decided between them ; but, verily, those who 
have been given the Book as an inheritance after 
them, are in hesitating doubt concerning it 

Wherefore call thou, and go straight on as thou 
art bidden, and follow not their lusts ; and say, ' I 
believe in the Book which God has sent down ; and 
I am bidden to judge justly between you. God is 
our Lord and your Lord ; we have our works and 
ye have your works ; there is no argument between 
us and you. God will assemble us together and 
unto Him the journey is.' 

[15] But those who argue about God after it has 
been assented to J , their arguments shall be rebutted 



1 I. e. after the faith of Islam had been accepted by them, or 
after God had assented to the prophet's prayer and supported the 



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XLII, 15-23. THE CHAPTER OF COUNSEL. 207 

before their Lord; and upon them shall be wrath, 
and for them shall be keen torment. 

God it is who has sent down the Book with truth, 
and the balance 1 ; and what shall make thee know 
whether haply the Hour be nigh ? Those who be- 
lieve not would hurry it on ; and those who believe 
shrink with terror at it and know that it is true. 
Ay, verily, those who dispute concerning the Hour 
are in remote error ! 

God is kind to His servants; He provides whom 
He will, and He is the mighty, the glorious. 

He who wishes for the tilth of the next world, we 
will increase for him the tilth ; and he who desires 
the tilth of this world, we will give him thereof : but 
in the next he shall have no portion. 

[20] Have they associates who have enjoined any 
religion on them which God permits not ?— but were 
it not for the word of decision 2 it would have been 
decreed to them. Verily, the unjust, — 'for them is 
grievous woe. Thou shalt see the unjust shrink 
with terror from what they have gained as it falls 
upon them ; and those who believe and do right, in 
meads of Paradise, they shall have what they please 
with their Lord ; — that is great grace ! 

That is what God gives glad tidings of to His 
servants who believe and do righteous acts. 

Say, 'I do not ask for it a hire— only the love of 
my kinsfolk.' And he who gains a good action 

faith, or after the Jews and Christians had assented to the teaching 
of Mohammed, for the commentaries are uncertain as to the exact 
meaning of the phrase. 

1 I. e. the law contained in the Qur'&n. 

* I. e. were it not that God has promised that those things shall 
be decided at the day of judgment 



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208 THE QURAN. XLII, 22-33. 

we will increase good for him thereby; verily, God 
is forgiving and grateful ! 

Or will they say he has forged against God a lie ? 
But if God pleased He could set a seal upon thy 
heart; but God will blot out falsehood and verify 
truth by His word ; verily, He knows the nature of 
men's breasts ! 

He it is who accepts repentance from His ser- 
vants and pardons their offences and knows that 
which ye do. [25] And He answers the prayer 
of those who believe and do right, and gives them 
increase of His grace; but the misbelievers, — for 
them is keen torment. 

And if God were to extend provision to His ser- 
vants they would be wanton in the earth. But He 
sends down by measure what He pleases ; verily, of 
His servants He is well aware and sees. 

He it is who sends down the rain after they have 
despaired ; and disperses His mercy, for He is the 
praiseworthy patron. 

And of His signs is the creation of the heavens 
and the earth, and what He hath spread abroad 
therein of beasts ; and He is able to collect them 
when He will. 

And what misfortunes befall you it is for what your 
hands have earned ; but He pardons much ; [30] yet 
ye cannot make Him helpless in the earth, nor have 
ye, besides God, either a patron or a helper. 

And of His signs are the ships that sail like 
mountains in the sea. If He will, He calms the 
wind, and they become motionless on the back 
thereof: verily, in that are signs to every patient, 
grateful person : — or He makes them founder for 
what they have earned; but He pardons much. 



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XLII, 33-44. THE CHAPTER OF COUNSEL. 209 

But let those who wrangle about our signs know 
that they shall have no escape ! 

And whatever ye are given it is but a provision 
of the life of this world; but what is with God is 
better and more lasting for those who believe and 
who upon their Lord rely, [35] and those who 
avoid great sins and abominations, and who when 
they are wroth forgive, and who assent to their 
Lor4, and are steadfast in prayer, and whose affairs 
go by counsel amongst themselves, and who of what 
we have bestowed On them give alms, and who, 
when wrong befalls them, help themselves. 

For the recompence of evil is evil like unto it ; but 
he who pardons and does well, then his reward is 
with God ; verily, He loves not the unjust And he 
who helps himself after he has been wronged, for 
these — there is no way against them. [40] The 
way is only against those who wrong men and are 
wanton in the earth without right ; these — for them 
is grievous woe. 

But surely he who is patient and forgives, — verily, 
that is a determined affair 1 . 

But whomsoever God leads astray he has no 
patron after Him ; and thou mayest see the unjust 
when they see the torment say, ' Is there no way to 
avert this 2 ?' and thou mayest see them exposed to it, 
humbled with abasement, looking with a stealthy 
glance. And those who believe shall say, ' Verily, 
the losers are they who have lost themselves and 
their families too upon the resurrection day!' Ay, 
verily, the unjust are in lasting torment! 

1 I. e. it is a duty laid down by law. 

8 Or ' to return (to the world),' BauMvi. 

[9] P 



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2IO THE QUR'AN. XLII, 45-53. 

[45] And they shall have no patrons to help them 
beside God, and whomsoever God leads astray, 
there is no way for him. 

Assent to your Lord before the day comes of 
which there is no averting from God; there is no 
refuge for you on that day; and for you there is 
no denial. 

But if they turn aside, we have not sent thee to 
them as a guardian, thou hast only thy message 
to preach. 

And, verily, when we have made man taste of mercy 
from us he rejoices therein ; but if there befall them 
an evil for what their hands have done before — 
then, verily, man is ungrateful 1 

God's is the kingdom of the heavens and the 
earth, He creates what He pleases, He grants to 
whom He pleases females, and He grants to whom 
He pleases males, or He gives them in pairs, males 
and females ; and He makes whom He pleases 
barren ; verily, He is knowing, powerful ! 

[50] It is not for any mortal that God should 
speak to him, except by inspiration, or from behind 
a veil, or by sending an apostle and inspiring, by His 
permission, what He pleases; verily, He is high and 
wise ! 

And thus have we inspired thee by a spirit 1 at our 
bidding ; thou didst not know what the Book was, 
nor the faith : but we made it a light whereby we 
guide whom we will of our servants. And, verily, 
thou shalt surely be guided into the right way, — the 
way of God, whose is what is in the heavens and 
what is in the earth. Ay, to God affairs do tend ! 

1 Gabriel. 



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XLIII, 1-13. THE CHAPTER OF GILDING. 211 



The Chapter of Gildino^^ &Il S Tti ^ 
(XLIII. Mecca.) M^W^. *) 

In the name of the merciful and compassionaf 
God. 

'H. M. By the perspicuous Book, verily, we have 
made it an Arabic Qur'an ; haply ye will have some 
sense. And it is in the Mother of the Book with 
us, — high and wise \ Shall we then push aside from 
you the Reminder, because ye are a people who are 
extravagant ? 

[5] How many prophets have we sent amongst 
those of yore ? and there never came to them a pro- 
phet but they did mock at him ; then we destroyed 
them — more valiant than these 2 ; and the example 
of those of yore passed away. 

And if thou shouldst ask them who created the 
heavens and the earth, they will surely say, • The 
mighty, the knowing One created them,' who made 
for you the earth a couch and placed for you therein 
roads, haply ye may be guided : [10] and who sent 
down from the heaven water in due measure; and 
we raised up thereby a dead country ; thus shall ye 
too be brought forth; and who has created all 
species; and has made for you the ships and the 
cattle whereon to ride that ye may settle yourselves 
on their backs ; then remember the favour of your 
Lord when ye settled thereon, and say, ' Celebrated 
be the praises of Him who hath subjected this to 
us ! We could not have got this ourselves ; and, 
verily, unto our Lord shall we return !' 

1 See Part I, p. 2, note 2. * I. e. the Meccans. 

P 2 

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212 THE QURAN. XLIII, 14-23. 

Yet they make for Him of His servants offspring ; 
verily, man is surely obviously ungrateful. 

[15] Has He taken of what He creates daughters, 
and chosen sons for you ? 

Yet when the tidings 1 are given any one of that 
which he strikes out as a similitude for the Merciful 
One, his face grows black and he is choked. What ! 
one brought up amongst ornaments, and who is 
always in contention without obvious cause 2 ? 

And have they made the angels, who are the ser- 
vants of the Merciful One, females ? Were they 
witnesses of their creation ? their witness shall be 
written down, and they shall be questioned ; and 
they say, ' Had the Merciful pleased we should never 
have worshipped them.' They have no knowledge 
of that, they only conjecture. 

[20] Have we given them a book 3 before it to 
which they might hold ? 

Nay; they say, 'We found our fathers (agreed) 
upon a religion, and, verily, we are guided by their 
traces.' 

Thus, too, did we never send before thee to a 
city any warner, but the affluent ones thereof said, 
' Verily, we found our fathers (agreed) upon a reli- 
gion, and, verily, we are led by their traces.' 

Say, 'What ! if I come to you with what is a better 
guide than what ye found your fathers agreed upon ?' 
and they will say, 'Verily, we in what ye are sent 
with disbelieve V 



1 I. e. of the birth of a daughter, see Part I, p. 256, note 2. 

2 I. e. what ! do they assign children of this kind, viz. daughters, 
to God? 

3 I. e. a scripture authorising the practice of their religion, such 
as the worship of angels and the ascribing of daughters to God. 



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XLIII, 34-35- THE CHAPTER OF GILDING. 2X3 

Then we took vengeance on them, and see how 
was the end of those who called the (apostles) 
liars. 

[25] When Abraham said to his father and his 
people, 'Verily, I am clear of all that ye serve, 
except Him who created me; for, verily, He will 
guide me :' and he made it a word remaining among 
his posterity, that haply they might return. 

Nay; but I let these (Meccans) and their fathers 
have enjoyment until the truth came to them, and 
an apostle. And when the truth came to them they 
said, 'This is magic, and we therein do disbelieve !' 
[30] And they say, 'Unless this Qur'an were sent 
down to a man great in the two cities. . . .V 

Is it they who distribute the mercy of thy Lord ? 
We distribute amongst them their livelihood in the 
life of this world, and we exalt some of them above 
others in degrees, that some may take others into 
subjection ; but the mercy of thy Lord is better than 
that which they amass. 

And but that men would then have been one 
nation, we would have made for those who mis- 
believe in the Merciful One roofs of silver for their 
houses, and steps up thereto which they might 
mount; and to their houses doors, and bedsteads 
on which they might recline ; and gilding, — for, 
verily, all that is a provision of the life of this 
world, but the hereafter is better with thy Lord 
for those who fear! 

[35] And whosoever turns from the reminder of the 
Merciful One, we will chain to him a devil, who shall 

1 I. e. had it been sent down to some man of influence and im- 
portance in Mecca and T&'if we would have received it. 



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>i , 



214 THE QURAN. , XLIII, 35-48. 

be his mate ; and, verily, these shall turn them from 
the path while they reckon that they are guided; 
until when he comes to us he shall say, 'O, would 
that between me and thee there were the distance 
of the two orients 1 , for an evil mate (art thou)!' 
But it shall not avail you on that day, since ye were 
unjust ; verily, in the torment shall ye share ! 

What ! canst thou make the deaf to hear, or guide 
the blind, or him who is in obvious error ? 

[40] Whether then we take thee off we will 
surely take vengeance on them; or whether we 
show thee that which we have promised them; 
for, verily, we have power over them. 

Say, ' Dost thou hold to what is inspired thee ?' 
verily, thou art in the right way, and, verily, it is 
a reminder to thee and to thy people, but in the end 
they shall be asked. 

And ask those whom we have sent before thee 
amongst the prophets, ' Did we make gods beside 
the Merciful One for them to serve ? ' 

[45] We did send Moses with our signs to Pha- 
raoh and his chiefs, and he said, ' Verily, I am the 
apostle of the Lord of the worlds; but when he 
came to them with our signs, lo, they laughed at 
them !' 

And we did not show them a sign, but it was 
greater than its fellow; and we seized them with 
the torment, haply they might turn. 

And they said, ' O thou magician ! pray for us to 
thy Lord, as He has engaged with thee : verily, we 
are guided.' 



1 I. e. the east and west, though some understand it between the 
two solstices. 



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XLIII, 49-61. THE CHAPTER OF GILDING. 21 5 

And when we removed from them the torment, 
behold they broke their word. 

[50] And Pharaoh proclaimed amongst his people ; 
said he, ' O my people ! is not the kingdom of Egypt 
mine ? and these rivers that flow beneath me ? 
What ! can ye then not see ? Am I better than 
this fellow, who is contemptible, who can hardly 
explain himself 1 ? Unless then bracelets of gold be 
cast upon him, or there come with him angels as 
his mates . . .!' 

And he taught his people levity; and they obeyed 
him : verily, they were an abominable people. 

[55] And when they had annoyed us we took 
vengeance on them, and we drowned them all to- 
gether, and we made them a precedent and an 
example to those after them. 

And when the son of Mary was set forth as a 
parable, behold thy people turned away from him 
and said, ' Are our gods better, or is he ?' They 
did not set it forth to thee save for wrangling. Nay, 
but they are a contentious people 2 . 

He is but a servant whom we have been gracious 
to, and we have made him an example for the chil- 
dren of Israel. [60] And if we please we can make 
of you angels in the earth to succeed you s . And, 
verily, he is a sign of the Hour 4 . Doubt not then 



1 See p. 36, note 1. 

a The Arabs objected that Jesus was worshipped by Christians 
as a God, and that when Mohammed cursed their false gods, the 
ban must apply equally to him. 

3 Just as Jesus was miraculously conceived, so can ntiraculously 
conceived offspring be produced among the Meccans themselves. 

4 Some read, ' a sign,' which is perhaps better. The reference is 
to the predicted second advent of the Messiah, which is to precede 



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2l5 THE QUR'An. XLIII, 61-75. 

concerning it, but follow this right way; and let not 
the devil turn you away; verily, he is to you an 
open foe ! 

And when Jesus came with manifest signs he 
said, ' I am come to you with wisdom, and I will 
explain to you something of that whereon ye did 
dispute, then fear God, obey me; verily, God, He 
is my Lord and your Lord, serve Him then, this 
is the right way.' 

[65] But the confederates disputed amongst them- 
selves ; and woe to those who are unjust from the 
torment of a grievous day ! 
Y"" Do they expect aught but that the Hour will 
come upon them suddenly while they do not per- 
ceive ? Friends on that day shall be foes to each 
other, save those who fear. 

O my servants ! there is no fear for you on that 
day; nor shall ye be grieved who believe in our 
signs and who are resigned. [70] Enter ye into 
Paradise, ye and your wives, happyj_j 

Dishes of gold and pitchers shall be sent round to 
them ; therein is what souls desire, and eyes shall 
be delighted, and ye therein shall dwell for aye ; for 
that is Paradise which ye are given as an inherit- 
ance for that which ye have done. Therein shall 
ye have much fruit whereof to eat. 

Verily, the sinners are in the torment of hell to 
dwell for aye. [75] It shall not be intermitted for 
them, and they therein shall be confused. We have 
not wronged them, but it was themselves they 
wronged. 

the end of the world. Some commentators, however, read 'it,' 
instead of ' he,' referring to the Qur'Sn, instead of to Jesus. 



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XLIII, f 6-86. THE CHAPTER OF GILDING. 21 7 

And they shall cry out, 'O Malik 1 ! let thy lord 
make an end of us ;' he shall say, * Verily, ye are to 
tarry here.' 

We have brought you the truth, but most of you 
are averse from the truth. Have they arranged the 
affair ? then will we arrange it too 2 ! 

[80] Or do they reckon that we did not hear their 
secrets and their whispering ? Nay, but our mes- 
sengers are with them writing down 3 . 

Say, ' If the Merciful One has a son then am I 
the first to worship him. Celebrated be the praise 
of the Lord of the heavens and the earth ! the Lord 
of the throne, above all they attribute to Him ! 

But leave them to ponder and to play until they 
'meet that day of theirs which they are promised. 

He it is who is in the heaven a God and in the 
earth a Godl and He is the wise, the knowing. 
[85] And blessed be he whose is the kingdom of 
the heavens and the earth, and what is between 
both, and His is the knowledge of the Hour, and 
unto Him shall ye be brought back ! 

And those they call on beside Him shall not 
possess intercession except those only who bear 
witness for the truth and who do know. 

And if thou shouldst ask them who created 
them they will surely say, 'God!' How then can 
they lie ? 

And what he 4 says, 'O Lord, verily, these are 



1 Malik is the keeper of hell, and presides over the tortures of 
the damned. 

2 The word used signifies twisting up the strands of a rope. 

3 I. e. the recording angel. 

4 Mohammed. . 



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2l8 THE QUR'AN. XLIII, 86-XLIV, 17. 

a people who do not believe ; shun them then and 
say, "Peace I" for they at length shall know!' 



The Chapter of Smoke. 
(XLIV. Mecca.) 

In the name of the merciful and compassionate 
God. 

'H. M. By the perspicuous Book ! verily, we have 
sent it down on a blessed night; — verily, we had 
given warning — wherein is decided every wise affair, 
as an order from us. Verily, we were sending 
(apostles) — [5] a mercy from thy Lord; verily, He 
both hears and knows : from the Lord of the 
heavens and the earth and what is between the 
two, if ye were but sure. There is no god but 
He, He quickens and He kills — your Lord and 
the Lord of your fathers of yore ! Nay, they in 
doubt do play! 

But expect thou the day when the heaven shall 
bring obvious smoke [10] to cover men — this is 
grievous torment! 

Our Lord ! remove from us the torment ; verily, 
we are believers. 

How can they have the reminder (now), when 
they have had a plain apostle, and when they turned 
their backs away from him and said, 'Taught ! mad !' 
Verily, we will remove the torment a little, (but) ye 
will surely return ! 

[15] On the day when we will assault with the 
great assault, verily, we will take vengeance. 

And we already tried the people of Pharaoh when 
there came to them a noble apostle : ' Send back to 



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XLIV, 17-39. THE CHAPTER OF SMOKE. 210, 

me God's servants; verily, I am to you a faithful 
apostle ; ' and, ' Exalt not yourselves above God ; 
verily, I come to you with obvious authority. And, 
verily, I seek refuge in my Lord and your Lord, 
that ye stone me not. [20] And if ye believe not in 
me then let me alone!' 

Then he called upon his Lord, 'Verily, these are 
a sinful people.' So journey with my servants by 
night — verily, ye will be pursued. But leave the sea 
in quiet — verily, they are a host to be drowned! 
How many gardens and springs have they left, [25] 
and corn lands and a noble place, and comfort 
wherein they did enjoy themselves! 

Thus — and we gave them for an inheritance to 
another people. And the heaven wept not for them, 
nor the earth, nor were they respited. 

But we saved the children of Israel from shame- 
ful woe! — [30] — from Pharaoh; verily, he was 
haughty, one of the extravagant! And we did 
choose them, wittingly, above the worlds ; and we 
gave them signs wherein was an obvious trial ! 

Verily, these 1 say, ' It is but our first death 2 , so 
bring our fathers, if ye do speak the truth !' 

[35] Are they better than the people of TubbaTi 3 , 
and those before them ? We destroyed them — 
verily, they were sinners ! 

Nor did we create the heavens and the earth, 
and what is between the two in sport : we did but 
create them in truth, though most of them know 
it not! 



1 The Meccans. a I. e. we shall only die once. 

8 The Himyarite Arabs, whose kings were called Tubbd'h, i. e. 
' successors.' 



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220 THE QURAN. XLIV, 40-XLV, 2. 

[40] Verily, the day of separation is their appointed 
term ; the day when master shall not avail client 
at all, nor shall they be helped ; save whomsoever 
God shall have mercy on ; verily, He is the mighty, 
the merciful ! 

Verily, the Zaqqum tree (shall be) the food of the 
sinful : [45] as it were melting 1 , shall it boil in their 
bellies like the boiling of hot water! — 'Take him 
and hale him into the midst of hell ! then pour over 
his head the torment of hot water ! — Taste ! verily, 
thou art the mighty, the honourable ! [50] Verily, 
this is that whereon ye did dispute!' 

Verily, the pious shall be in a safe place ! in gar- 
dens and springs, they shall be clad in satin and 
stout silk face to face. Thus! — -and we will wed 
them to bright and large-eyed maids ! [55] They shall 
call therein for every fruit in safety. They shall not 
taste therein of death save their first death, and we 
will keep them from the torment of hell ! Grace 
from thy Lord, that is the grand bliss ! 

And we have only made it easy for thy tongue, 
that haply they may be mindful. Then watch thou ; 
verily, they are watching too ! 



The Chapter of the Kneeling. 
(XLV. Mecca.) 

In the name of the merciful and compassionate 
God. 

'H. M. A revelation of the Book from God, the 
mighty, the wise. Verily, in the heavens and the 



1 Or 'like the dregs of oil.' 



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XLV, 2-13. THE CHAPTER OF THE KNEELING. 221 

earth are signs to those who believe ; and in your 
creation and the beasts that are spread abroad are 
signs to a people who are sure ; and in the alter- 
nation of night and day, and the provision that God 
has sent down from heaven and quickened thereby 
the earth after its death, and in the veering of the 
winds are signs unto a people who have sense. 

[5] These are the signs of God which we recite to 
thee in truth ; and in what new story after God and 
His signs will they believe ? 

Woe to every sinful liar who hears God's signs 
sent to him, then persists in being big with pride 
as though he heard them not — so give him the 
glad tidings of grievous woe — and when he knows 
something of our signs takes them for a jest! 
These, — for them is shameful woe, behind them is 
hell, and what they have earned shall not avail them 
aught, nor what they have taken besides God for 
patrons ; and for them is mighty woe. 

[10] This is a guidance, and those who misbelieve 
in the signs of their Lord, for them is torment of a 
grievous plague. 

God it is who subjects to you the sea that the 
ships may sail thereon at his bidding, and that ye 
may crave of His grace, and that haply ye may give 
thanks ; and He has subjected to you what is in the 
heavens and what is in the earth, — all from Him ; 
verily, in that are signs unto a people who reflect 

Say to those who believe that they pardon those 
who hope not for God's days \ that He may reward 
a people for that which they have earned. 

1 That is, the successful battles against the infidels, 'battles' 
being always spoken of by the ancient Arabs as ' days.' 



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oS. 



222 THE QURAN. XLV, 14-2J. 

Whosoever acts aright it is for his own soul, and 
whosoever does evil it is against it ; then unto your 
^^^ord shall ye be returned. 

^T [15] And we did bring the children of Israel the 
Book and judgment and prophecy, and we provided 
them with good things, and preferred them above 
the worlds. And we brought them manifest proofs 
of the affair, and they disputed not until after know- 
ledge had come to them, through mutual envy. 
Verily, thy Lord will decide between them on the 
resurrection day concerning that whereon they did 
dispute. \ 

ThSffwe did set thee x over a law concerning the 
affair: follow it then, and follow not the lusts of 
those who do not know. Verily, they shall not 
avail thee against God at all ; and, verily, the wrong- 
doers are patrons of each other, but God is the 
patron of those who fear. 

This is an insight for men and a guidance and a 
mercy to a people who are sure. 

[20] Do those who commit evil deeds count that 
we will make them like those who believe and work 
righteous deeds, equal in their life and their death ? 
— ill it is they judge. 

And God created the heavens and the earth in 
truth ; and every soul shall be recompensed for that 
which it has earned, and they shall not be wronged. 

Hast thou considered him who takes his lusts for 
his god, and God leads him astray wittingly, and has 
set a seal upon his hearing and his heart, and has 
placed upon his eyesight dimness ? who then shall 
guide him after God ? Will they not then mind ? 

1 Mohammed 



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XLV, 23-33. THE CHAPTER OF THE KNEELING. 223 

They say, * It is only our life in this world, we 
die and we live, and naught destroys us but time!' 
But they have no knowledge of this ; they do but 
suspect. 

And when our signs are rehearsed to them with 
evidences their only argument is to say, ' Bring our 
fathers, if ye speak the truth.' 

25] Say.'God quickens you, then He kills you, then 
He will gather you unto the resurrection day, there 
is no doubt therein ; but most men do not know.' 

God's is the kingdom of the heavens and the 
earth, and on the day when the Hour shall arise 
on that day shall those who call it 2 vain be losers ! 
And thou shalt see each nation kneeling, each nation 
summoned to its book, 'To-day are ye rewarded for 
that which ye have done/J 

This is our Book that speaketh to you with truth ; 
verily, we have written down what ye have done. 

But as to those who believe and do righteous 
deeds their Lord will make them enter into His 
mercy: that is the obvious bliss. 

[30] And as for those who misbelieve, — were not 
my signs recited to you and ye were too big with pride 
and ye were a sinful people ? And when it was said, 
'Verily, the promise of God is true, and the Hour 
there is no doubt therein;' ye said, 'We know not 
what the Hour is, we only suspect, and we are not 
sure.' 

But there shall appear to them the evils of what 
they have done, and that shall encompass them at 
which they have been mocking. And it shall be 
said, ' To-day will we forget you as ye forgat the 



The Qur'&n. 



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224 THE QURAN. XLV, 33-XLVI, 4. 

meeting of this day of yours, and your resort shall 
be the fire, and ye shall have no helpers. That is 
because ye took the signs of God for a jest and the 
life of this world deceived you ; wherefore to-day 
ye shall not be brought forth therefrom, neither 
shall ye be taken back into favour.' 

[35] God's then is the praise, the Lord of the 
heavens and the Lord of the earth, the Lord of the 
worlds! His is the grandeur in the heavens and the 
earth, and He is the mighty and the wise ! 



The Chapter of El A'hqaf 1 . 
(XLVI. Mecca.) 

In the name of the merciful and compassionate 
God. 

'H. M. The revelation of the Book from God the 
mighty, the wise. 

We have only created the heavens and the earth 
and what is between the two in truth and for an 
appointed time ; but those who misbelieve from 
being warned do turn aside. 

Say, ' Have ye considered what ye call on beside 
God ?' Show me what they have created of the 
earth ? or have they share in the heavens ? Bring me 
a book before this or a vestige of knowledge, if ye 
do tell the truth ! 

But who is more in error than he who calls beside 
God on what will never answer him until the resur- 
rection day and who are heedless of their calling, 

1 Name of a tract of land in Si'hr in Yemen. 



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XLVI, 5-14. THE CHAPTER OF EL a'hqAf. 225 

[5] and when men are gathered together are enemies 
of theirs and do deny their service ? 

And when our evident signs are recited to them, 
those who misbelieve say of the truth when it comes 
to them, ' This is obvious magic.' 

Or do they say, ' He has forged it ?' Say, ' If I 
have forged ye cannot obtain for me aught from 
God; He knows best what ye utter concerning it; 
He is witness enough between me and y6u, and He 
is the forgiving, the merciful.' 

Say, ' I am not an innovator among the apostles ; 
nor do I know what will be done with me or with 
you if I follow aught but what I am inspired with ; 
nor am I aught but a plain warner.' 

Say, ' Have ye considered, if it is from God and 
ye have disbelieved therein, and a witness from the 
children of Israel testifies to the conformity of it, 
and he believes while ye are too big with pride ? 
Verily, God guides not the unjust people.' 

[10] And those who misbelieve say of those who 
believe, ' If it had been good, they would not have 
been beforehand with us therein;' and when they 
are not guided thereby, then will they say, ' This is 
an old-fashioned lie.' 

But before it was the Book of Moses, a model 
and a mercy; and this is a book confirming it in 
Arabic language, to warn those who do wrong and 
as glad tidings to those who do well. 

Verily, those who say, 'Our Lord is God,' and then 
keep straight, there is no fear for them, and they 
shall not be grieved. These are the fellows of 
Paradise to dwell therein for aye, a recompence for 
that which they have done. 

We have prescribed for man kindness towards his 
[9] Q 

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226 THE OUR AN. XLVI, 14-19. 

parents. His mother bore him with trouble and 
brought him forth with trouble ; and the bearing of 
him and the weaning of him is thirty months ; until, 
when he reaches puberty, and reaches forty years, 
he says, ' Lord 1 stir me up that I may be thankful 
for thy favours wherewith thou hast favoured me and 
my parents ; and that I may do right to please Thee ; 
and make it right for me in my offspring ; verily, I 
turn repentant unto Thee, and, verily, I am of those 
resigned.' 

[15] There are those from whom we accept the 
best of what they have done, and we pass over their 
offences — amongst the fellows of Paradise ; the pro- 
mise of truth which they have been promised. 

But he who says to his parents, ' Fie upon 
you! Do ye promise me that I shall be brought 
forth 1 when generations have passed away before 
me ?' — then shall they both cry to God for help. 
Woe to thee ! Believe ! Verily, the promise of 
God is true. Then says he, ' This is but old folks' 
tales.' 

There are those against whom the sentence was 
due amongst the nations who have passed away 
before them of ^inns and men ; verily, they have 
been the losers; and for all are degrees of what 
they have done, so that He may repay them their 
works, and they shall not be wronged. 

And the day when those who misbelieve shall be 
exposed to the fire : ' Ye made away with your good 
things in your worldly life, and ye enjoyed them; 
wherefore to-day shall ye be rewarded with the 
torment of disgrace, for that ye were big with 

1 I. e. from the grave. 



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XLVI, 19-27. THE CHAPTER OF EL A'HqAf. 227 

pride in the earth without the right, and for that 
ye did abomination. ' 

[20] Remember too the brother of 'Ad 2 when he 
warned his people at El A'hqaf, — though warners 
have passed away before him and after him, — * Serve 
not other than God; verily, I fear for you the 
torment of a mighty day!' 

They said, ' Hast thou come to us to turn us 
from our gods ? then bring us what thou dost 
threaten us with, if thou art of those who speak 
the truth !' Said he, ' Knowledge is only with God : 
but I will preach to you that which I am sent with, 
though I see you are a people who are ignorant' 
And when they saw a traversing cloud approaching 
their valleys they said, ' This is a cloud to give us 
rain.' ' Nay, but it is what ye sought to hasten on 
— a wind in which is grievous torment ; it will de- 
stroy everything at the order of its Lord !' And in 
the morning naught was seen save their dwellings. 
Thus do we reward the sinful people ! 

[25] We had established them in what we have 
established you 2 , and we made for them hearing 
• and eyesight and hearts ; but neither their hearing 
nor their eyesight nor their hearts availed them 
aught, since they did gainsay the signs of God, and 
that encompassed them whereat they had mocked. 

And we destroyed the cities that are around 
you : : — and we turned about the signs that haply 
they might return. 

Why did not those help them, whom beside God 
they took for gods that could draw nigh to Him ? 
Nay! they strayed away from them; for that was 
their lie and what they had forged. 

1 The prophet Hfid. * I. e. the Meccans. 

Q2 

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228 THE QUR'AN. XLVI, 28-35. 

And when we turned towards thee some of the 
^inn listening to the Quran 1 , and when they were 
present at (the reading of) it, they said, ' Be silent!' 
and when it was over they turned back to their 
people, warning them. 

Said they, ' O our people ! verily, we have heard 
a book sent down after Moses, verifying what came 
before it, guiding to the truth, and unto the right 
way. [30] O our people! respond to God's crier 
and believe in Him, and He will pardon you your 
sins and will deliver you from grievous woe.' 

And whoso responds not to God's crier shall not 
frustrate Him in the earth, and shall not have any 
patrons beside Him : — these are in obvious error ! 

Did they not see that God who created the heavens 
and the earth, and was not wearied with creating 
them, is able to quicken the dead ? — nay, verily, He 
is mighty over all ! 

And the day when those who misbelieve shall be 
exposed to the fire, — ' Is not this the truth ?' they 
shall say, ' Yea, by our Lord ! ' He shall say, 'Then 
taste the torment for that ye did misbelieve !' 

Then do thou 2 be patient, as the apostles en- 
dowed with a purpose were patient, and hasten not 
on (their punishment). It shall be to them, on the 
day they see what they are threatened with, as 
though they [35] had tarried but an hour of the 
day. A preaching this ! Shall any perish but the 
people who work abomination ? 

1 See Introduction, p. xxx. 

2 Addressed to Mohammed. 



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XLVII, i-ii. THE CHAPTER OF MOHAMMED. 229 

The Chapter of Mohammed, also called Fight. 
(XLVII. Medinah.) 

In the name of the merciful and compassionate 
God. 

Those who misbelieve and turn folk from God's 
way, He will make their works go wrong. But those 
who believe and do right and believe in what is 
revealed to Mohammed, — and it is the truth from 
their Lord, — He will cover for them their offences 
and set right their mind. 

That is because those who misbelieve follow 
falsehood, and those who believe follow the truth 
from their Lord. Thus does God set forth for men 
their parables. 

And when ye meet those who misbelieve — then 
striking off heads until ye have massacred them, and 
bind fast the bonds ! 

[5] Then either a free grant (of liberty) or a 
ransom until the war shall have laid down its bur- 
dens. That! — but if God please He would con- 
quer them — but (it is) that He may try some of you 
by the others. And those who are slain in God's 
cause, their works shall not go wrong ; He will guide 
them and set right their mind j and will make them 
enter into Paradise which He has told them of. 

O ye who believe! if ye help God, He will help 
you, and will make firm your footsteps. 

But as for those who misbelieve — confound them ! 
and He will make their works go wrong. 

[10] That is because they were averse from what 
God has revealed ; but their works shall be void \ 

Have they not journeyed through the land and 



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J A 



230 THE QURAN. XLVII, 11-18. 

seen how was the end of those before them ? God 
destroyed them ; and for the misbelievers is the like 
thereof. 

That is because God is the patron of those who 
believe, and because the misbelievers have no 
patron. 

Verily, God causes those who believe and do 
right to enter into gardens beneath which rivers 
flow; but those who misbelieve enjoy themselves 
and eat as the cattle eat ; but the fire is the resort 
for them! 

How many a city, stronger than thy city which 
has driven thee out, have we destroyed, and there 
was none to help them ! 

[15] Is he who rests upon a manifest sign from 
his Lord like him, the evil of whose works is made 
seemly to him, and who follow their lusts ? 

The similitude of Paradise which is promised to 
the pious, — in it are rivers of water without corrup- 
tion, and rivers of milk, the taste whereof changes 
not, and rivers of wine delicious to those who drink ; 
and rivers of honey clarified ; and there shall they 
have all kinds of fruit and forgiveness from their 
Lord! (Is that) like him who dwells in the fire 
for aye ? and who are given to drink boiling water 
that shall rend their bowels asunder ? 

Some of them there are who listen to thee, until 
when they go forth from thee they say to those who 
have been given the knowledge 1 , 'What is this which 
he says now ? ' These are those on whose hearts 
God has set a stamp and who follow their lusts. 

1 To the more learned amongst the prophet's companions, such 
as Ibn 'AbMs. 



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XLVII, 19-28. THE CHAPTER OF MOHAMMED. 23 1 

But those who are guided, He guides them the 
more, and gives them the due of their piety. 

[20] Do they wait for aught but the Hour, that 
it should come to them suddenly ? The conditions 
thereof have come already ; how, when it has come 
on them, can they have their reminder ? 

Know thou that there is no god but God; and 
ask pardon for thy sin and for the believers, men 
and women; for God knows your return and 
your resort! 

Those who misbelieve say, ' Why has not a 
surah been revealed ?' but when a decisive surah 
is revealed and fighting is mentioned therein, thou 
mayest see those in whose heart is sickness 1 look- 
ing towards thee with the look of one fainting in 
death. Preferable for them were obedience and a 
reasonable speech ! But when the matter is deter- 
mined on, then if they believed God it were better 
for them. 

Would ye perhaps, if ye had turned back, have 
done evil in the land and severed the bonds of 
kinship ? 

[25] It is these whom God has cursed, and has 
made them deaf, and has blinded their eyesight! 
Do they not peruse the Quran ? or are there locks 
upon their hearts ? 

Verily, those who turn their backs _ after the 
guidance that has been manifested to' them — Satan 
induces them, but (God) lets them go on for a 
time ! 

That is for that they say to those who are averse 
from what God has revealed, 'We will obey you in 

1 See Introduction, p. lxiH. 



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232 THE QURAN. XLVII, 28-39. 

part of the affair!' but God knows their secrets! 
How will it be when the angels 1 take their souls, 
smiting their faces and their backs ? 

[30] This is because they follow what angers God 
and are averse from His goodwill ; and their works 
are void. 

Do those in whose hearts is sickness reckon that 
God will not bring their malice forth ? 

But did we please we would show thee them, 
and thou shouldst know them by their cognisances. 
But thou shalt known them by their distorting their 
speech, and God knows their works ! 

But we will try you until we know those among 
you who fight strenuously and the patient ; and we 
will try the reports concerning you. 

Verily, those who misbelieve and turn folks off 
God's path, and break with the Apostle after 
the guidance that has been manifested to them, 
cannot harm God at all, and their works shall be 
void ! 

[35] O Y e who believe ! obey God, and obey the 
Apostle ; and make not your works vain. 

Verily, those who misbelieve and turn folks off 
God's path, and then die misbelievers, God will not 
pardon them. 

Then faint not, nor cry for peace while ye have 
the upper hand ; for God is with you and will not 
cheat you of your works ! 

The life of this world is but a play and a sport ; 
but if ye believe and fear God, He will give you 
your hire. 

He does not ask you for (all) your property; if 

1 Munkir and Nakfr; see Introduction, p. lxix. 



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XLVII, 39-XLVIII, 6. THE CHAPTER OF VICTORY. 233 

He were to ask you for it and to press you, ye would 
be niggardly, and he would bring your malice out. 

[40] Here are ye called upon to expend in God's 
cause, and among you are some who are niggardly ; 
and he who is niggardly is but niggardly against his 
own soul : but God is rich and ye are poor, and if ye 
turn your backs He will substitute another people 
in your stead, then they will not be like you. 



The Chapter of Victory. 
(XLVIII. Medinah.) 

In the name of the merciful and compassionate 
God. 

Verily, we have given thee an obvious victory ! 
that God may pardon thee thy former and later sin 1 , 
and may fulfil His favour upon thee, and guide thee 
in a right way, and that God may help thee with a 
mighty help. 

It is He who sent down his shechina 2 into the 
hearts of the believers that they might have faith 
added to their faith ; — and God's are the hosts of 
the heavens and the earth, and God is knowing, 
wise — [5] to make the believers, men and women, 
enter into gardens beneath which rivers flow, to 
dwell therein for aye ; and to cover for them their 
offences ; for that with God is a grand bliss : and 

1 Some of the commentators take this to mean sins committed 
by Mohammed before his call and after; others refer the word to 
the liaison with the Coptic handmaiden Mary, and to his marriage 
with Zainab the wife of his adopted son Zaid. See Introduction, 
pp. xxix and xl. 

* Or tranquillity; see Part I, p. 38, note 2. 



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' *.. 



234 THE QURAN. XLVIH.6-I2. 

to torment the hypocrites, men and women, and the 
idolaters, men and women, who think evil thoughts 
of God ; — over them is a turn of evil fortune, and 
God will be wrath with them and curse them, and 
has prepared for them hell, and an evil journey 
shall it be ! 

God's are the hosts of the heavens and the 
earth, and God is mighty, wise ! 

Verily, we have sent thee as a witness, and a 
herald of glad tidings, and a warner ; — that ye may 
believe in God and His Apostle, and may aid 
Him and revere Him and celebrate His praises 
morning and evening ! 

[10] Verily, those who swear allegiance to thee 
do but swear allegiance to God; — God's hand is 
above their hands ! and whoso perjures himself does 
but perjure himself against himself; but he who 
fulfils what he has covenanted with God, God shall 
bring him mighty hire. 

The desert Arabs who were left behind 1 shall say, 
' Our wealth and our people occupied us ; ask pardon 
then for us!' — they speak with their tongues what 
is not in their hearts! 

Say, 'Who can control for you aught from God, 
if He wish you harm or wish you advantage?' 
Nay, God of what ye do is well aware ! 

Nay, ye thought that the Apostle and the believ- 
ers would not ever return again to their families; 
that was made seemly in your hearts ! and ye 
thought evil thoughts, and ye were a corrupt 
people. 

1 Alluding to certain tribes who held aloof from the expedition 
of'Hudalbiyeh. 



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XLV1II, 13-18. THE CHAPTER OF VICTORY. 235 

Whoso believes not in God and His Apostle — 
we have prepared for the unbelievers a blaze ! 

God's is the kingdom of the heavens and of the 
earth. He pardons whom He pleases, and tor- 
ments whom He pleases ; and God is forgiving, 
merciful. 

[15] Those who were left behind 1 shall say when 
ye have gone forth to spoils that ye may take, ' Let 
us follow you ; ' they wish to change God's words. 
Say, ' Ye shall by no means follow us ; thus did 
God say before!' 

They will say, ' Nay ! but ye envy us ! ' Nay ! they 
did not understand save a little. 

Say to those desert Arabs who were left behind, 
' Ye shall be called out against a people endowed 
with vehement valour 2 , and shall fight them or 
they shall become Muslims. And if ye obey, God 
will give you a good hire ; but if ye turn your backs, 
as ye turned your backs before, He will torment 
you with grievous woe!' 

There is no compulsion on the blind, and no com- 
pulsion on the lame, and no compulsion on the sick, 
but whoso obeys God and His Apostle, He will 
make him enter gardens beneath which rivers 
flow; but whoso turns his back He will torment 
with grievous woe. 

God was well pleased with the believers when 

1 In an expedition against the Jews of Khiibar, which Mo- 
hammed undertook shortly after his return from 'Hudaibtyeh, and 
obtained considerable booty, which he shared only with those who 
had accompanied him on the previous occasion. 

8 The followers of Musailimah, Mohammed's rival, and the 
tribes that had apostatized from Isl&m. Some think it refers to the 
Greeks and Persians. 



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236 THE QURAN. XLVIII, 18-25. 

they did swear allegiance to thee beneath the tree 1 ; 
and He knew what was in their hearts, and He 
sent down His shechina 2 upon them and rewarded 
them with a victory nigh at hand 3 , and many spoils 
for them to take ; for God is mighty, wise ! 

[20] God promised you many spoils and hastened 
this on for you, and restrained men's hands from 
you ; and it may be a sign for the believers and 
guide you in a right way; — and other (spoils) which 
ye could not gain ; but God has encompassed them ; 
for God is mighty over all. 

And had those who misbelieved fought you, they 
would have turned their backs; then they would 
have found neither patron nor helper! — God's 
course which has been followed before, and thou 
shalt find no change in the course of God ! 

He it was who restrained their hands from you, 
and your hands from them in the mid-valley of 
Mecca* after He had given you the victory over 
them ; for God on what ye do doth look ! 

[25] Those who misbelieved and turned (you) 
away from the Sacred Mosque, and (turned away) 
the offering, kept from arriving at its destined 
place 6 ; and had it not been for believing men and 
believing women whom ye knew not, whom ye 
might have trampled on, and so a crime might have 



1 At 'Hudaibiyeh. 

* See Part I, p. 38, note 2. 

' Either the success at Khaibar or the taking of Mecca. 

* Alluding to the truce concluded at 'Hudaibiyeh. 

6 Mohammed having only set out with the intention of peace- 
ably performing the pilgrimage, carried cattle with him to sacrifice 
in the valley of Mini, but was obliged by the Quraif to turn back. 
See Introduction, pp. xxxix, xl. 



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XLVIII, 25-28. THE CHAPTER OF VICTORY. 237 

occurred to you on their account without your 
knowledge — that God may make whomsoever He 
pleases enter into His mercy. Had they been dis- 
tinct from one another, we would have tormented 
those of them who misbelieved with grievous woe. 

When those who misbelieved put in their hearts 
pique — the pique of ignorance 1 — and God sent 
down His shechina upon His Apostle and upon 
the believers, and obliged them to keep to the word 
of piety 2 , and they were most worthy of it and most 
suited for it ; for God all things doth know. 

God truly verified for His Apostle the vision 3 
that ye shall verily enter the Sacred Mosque, if 
God please, in safety with shaven heads or cut 
hair, ye shall not fear ; for He knows what ye know 
not, and He has set for you, beside that, a victory 
nigh at hand*. 

He it is who sent His Apostle with guidance 

1 Suhail ibn 'Amr, who concluded the truce with Mohammed at 
'Hudaibfyeh, objected to the formula ' In the name of the mer- 
ciful and compassionate God,' with which the prophet ordered 'Ali 
to commence the document, and insisted on the heathen formula 
'In Thy name, O God!' He also refused to admit the words 
' Mohammed, the Aposde of God,' saying, that if they had granted 
so much they would not have opposed him; the words ' Mohammed 
the son of Abdallah ' were therefore substituted. These objections 
were so annoying to the Muslims, that it was with difficulty that 
Mohammed could restrain them from an immediate breach of the 
peace. 

2 The Mohammedan profession of faith, • There is no god but 
God, and Mohammed His servant is the Aposde.' Or it may be 
the initial formula which the unbelieving Meccans rejected. 

' Mohammed dreamed that he would accomplish the pilgrimage 
to Mecca with all its rites ; the affair at 'Hudaibfyeh disappointed 
his followers, but in the following year it was fulfilled. 

* I.e. that of Khaibar. 



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238 THE QUR'AN. XLVIII, 28-XLIX, 2. 

and the religion of truth to set it above all religion ; 
for God is witness enough ! 

Mohammed is the Apostle of God, and those who 
are with Him are vehement against the misbelievers, 
— compassionate amongst themselves ; thou mayest 
see them bowing down, adoring, craving grace from 
God and His goodwill, — their marks are in their 
faces from the effects of adoration; — that is their 
similitude in the law 1 and their similitude in the 
gospel; as a seedling puts forth its sprouts and 
strengthens it, and grows stout, and straightens 
itself upon its stem, delighting the sower! — that 
the misbelievers may be angry at them; — God 
has promised those of them who believe and do 
right — forgiveness and a mighty hire. 



The Chapter of the Inner Chambers. 
(XLIX. Medlnah.) 

In the name of the merciful and compassionate 
God. 

O ye who believe! do not anticipate God and 
His Apostle, but fear God; verily, God both hears 
and knows. 

ye who believe ! raise not your voices above 
the voice of the prophet, and do not speak loud 
to him as ye speak loud to one another 2 , lest your 
works become vain, while ye do not perceive. 

1 Or the Pentateuch. 

8 Said to refer to a dispute between Abu Bekr and 'Omar, in the 
course of which they came to high words in the presence of the 
prophet. 



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XLIX.3-9- CHAPTER OF THE INNER CHAMBERS. 239 

Verily, those who lower their voice before the 
Apostle of God, they are those whose hearts God 
has proved for piety, for them is forgiveness and 
a mighty hire. 

Verily, those who cry out to thee from behind 
the inner chambers 1 , most of them have no sense ; 
[5] but did they wait until thou come out to them, 
it were better for them; — but God is forgiving, 
merciful. 

O ye who believe ! if there come to you a sinner 
with an information, then discriminate, lest ye fall 
upon a people in ignorance and on the morrow 
repent of what ye have done 2 . 

And know that among you is the Apostle of God ; 
if he should obey you in many a matter ye would 
commit a sin 3 ; God has made faith beloved by you, 
and has made it seemly in your hearts, and has 
made misbelief and iniquity and rebellion hateful 
to you. — These are the rightly directed — grace from 
God and favour ! and God is knowing, wise. 

And if the two parties of the believers quarrel 4 , 



1 Two of the Arabs wishing to speak with Mohammed when 
he was sleeping at noon in his harfm, cried out rudely to him, 
'Mohammed, come out to us!' See p. 82. 

* Al Walid ibn 'HugbS was sent by Mohammed to collect the 
zakdt (see Introduction, p. Ixxiii) from the tribe of Mustaleq, with 
whom he had had a feud in the time preceding Isl&m. Seeing 
them coming out to meet him in large numbers, he grew appre- 
hensive, and returned hastily with the information that the tribe 
had refused the tribute. Mohammed thereupon sent 'Halfd ibn 
Walid to reduce them by force, when it was found that the former 
messenger's fears had been quite groundless. 

8 I. e. ye would mislead him. 

' Alluding to one of the frequent disputes between the tribes of 
Aus and 'ffazTag at Medfnah. See Introduction, p. xxxiv. 



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24O THE QURAN. XLIX, 9-13. 

then make peace between them ; and if one of the 
twain outrages the other, then fight the party that 
has committed the outrage until it return to God's 
bidding ; and if it do return then make peace be- 
tween them with equity, and be just; verily, God 
loves the just. 

[10] The believers are but brothers, so make 
peace between your two brethren and fear God, 
haply ye may obtain mercy ! 

O ye who believe! let not one class ridicule 
another who are perchance better than they; nor 
let women ridicule other women who are perchance 
better than they; and do not defame each other, 
nor call each other bad names — an ill name is ini- 
quity after faith 1 ! 

O ye who believe ! carefully avoid suspicion ; 
verily, some suspicion is a sin. And do not play 
the spy, nor backbite each other; would one of 
you like to eat his dead brother's flesh ? — why ! 
ye would abhor it! then fear God; verily, God is 
relentant, compassionate. 

ye folk ! verily, we have created you of male 
and female, and made you races and tribes that ye 
may know each other. 

Verily, the most honourable of you in the sight 
of God is the most pious of you; verily, God is 
knowing, aware ! 

1 I. e. it is defamation to charge a person who has embraced the 
faith with iniquity. The passage is said to have been revealed on 
account of Zafiyah bint 'Huyai, one of the prophet's wives, who 
complained to him that she had been taunted by the other women 
with her Jewish origin. Mohammed answered her, * Canst thou 
not say, " Aaron is my father, Moses my uncle, and Mohammed 
my husband?"' 



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XLIX, 14-L, 4. THE CHAPTER OF Q. 24 1 

The desert Arabs say, ' We believe.' Say, ' Ye 
do not believe ; but say, " We have become Mus- 
lims ; " for the faith has not entered into your hearts : 
but if ye obey God and His Apostle He will not 
defraud you of your works at all : verily, God is 
forgiving, compassionate !' 

[15] The believers are only those who believe 
in God and His Apostle, and then doubt not, but 
fight strenuously with their wealth and persons in 
God's cause — these are the truth-tellers! 

Say, 'Will ye teach God your religion ?' when 
God knows what is in the heavens and what is in 
the earth, and God all things doth know ! 

They deem that they oblige thee by becoming 
Muslims. Say, ' Nay ! deem not that ye oblige me 
by your becoming Muslims ! God obliges you, by 
directing you to the faith, if ye do speak the truth !' 

Verily, God knows the unseen things of the 
heavens and the earth, and God on what ye do 
doth look. 



The Chapter of Q. 
(L. Mecca.) 

In the name of the merciful and compassionate 
God. 

Q. By the glorious Quran! nay, they wonder 
that there has come to them a warner from amongst 
themselves ; and the misbelievers say, ' This is a 
wondrous thing ! What, when we are dead and 
have become dust? — that is a remote return!' 

We well know what the earth consumes of them, 
for with us is a book that keeps (account). 
[9] R 

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242 THE QURAN. L, 5-15. 

[5] Nay, they call the truth a lie when it comes 
to them, and they are in a confused affair \ 

Do not they behold the heaven above them, how 
we have built it and adorned it, and how it has no 
flaws ? 

And the earth, we have stretched it out and 
thrown thereon firm mountains, and caused to grow 
thereon every beautiful kind. 

An insight and a reminder to every servant who 
repents ! 

And we sent down from the heaven water as a 
blessing, and caused to grow therewith gardens and 
the harvest grain ! 

[10] And the tall palm trees having piled up 
spathes, for a provision to (our) servants ; and we 
quickened thereby a dead land; thus shall the 
resurrection be ! 

Before them the people of Noah and the fellows 
of ar Rass 2 and Thamud and "Ad and Pharaoh 
called the apostles liars ; and the brethren of Lot 
and the fellows of the Grove 3 and the people of 
Tubba'h 4 all called the prophets liars, and the 
threat was duly executed. 

Were we then fatigued with the first creation ? 
nay ! but they are in obscurity concerning the new 
creation. 

[15] But we created man, and we know what his 

1 Alluding to the various opinions expressed by the unbelievers 
with reference to the Qur'in ; some calling it sorcery or divination, 
others poetry, and some asserting it to be 'old folks' tales' or 
mere invention. 

1 See Part II, p. 86, note 3. 

8 See Part I, p. 249, note 3. 

4 See Chapter XLIV, verse 35, p. 219, note 3. 



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L, 15-30. THE CHAPTER OF Q. 243 

soul whispers ; for we are nigher to him than his 
jugular vein ! 

When the two meeters meet 1 , sitting the one on 
the right and the other on the left, not a word does 
he utter, but a watcher is by him ready ! 

And the agony of death shall come in truth ! — 
' that is what thou didst shun !' 

And the trumpet shall be blown! — that is the 
threatened day! 

[20] And every soul shall come — with it a driver 
and a witness! 

1 Thou wert heedless of this, and we withdrew 
thy veil from thee, and to-day is thine eyesight 
keen 2 !' 

And his mate shall say, ' This is what is ready 
for me (to attest). 

' Throw into hell every stubborn misbeliever 3 ! — 
who forbids good, a transgressor, a doubter! [25] 
who sets other gods with God— rand throw him, ye 
twain, into fierce torment!' 

His mate shall say, ' Our Lord ! I seduced him 
not, but he was in a remote error.' 

He shall say, ' Wrangle not before me ; for I sent 
the threat to you before. The sentence is not 
changed with me, nor am I unjust to my servants.' 

On the day we will say to hell, 'Art thou full ?' 
and it will say, ' Are there any more ?' 

[30] And Paradise shall be brought near to the 
pious, — not far off. 

1 The two recording angels, who accompany every man and 
note down his every word and action. 

* These words are supposed to be addressed by the ' driver ' to 
the unbelieving soul. 

8 These words are spoken by God. 




244 THE QURAN. L, 31-43. 

This is what ye are promised, to every one who 
turns frequently (to God) and keeps His command- 
ments : who fears the Merciful in secret and brings 
a repentant heart. 

' Enter into it in peace : this is the day of eternity !' 

They shall have what they wish therein, and in- 
crease from us ! 

[35] How many a generation have we destroyed 
before them, mightier than they in prowess ! 

Pass through the land, is there any refuge 1 ? 
Verily, in that is a reminder to whomsoever has a 
heart, or gives ear, and is a witness thereto. 

We did create the heavens and the earth and 
what is between the two in six days, and no weari- 
ness touched us 2 . 

Be thou patient then of what they say, and cele- 
brate the praises of thy Lord before the rising of 
the sun and before the setting. And through (some) 
of the night celebrate His praise and the additional 
adorations 8 . 

[40] And listen for the day when the crier shall cry 
from a near place* ; — the day when they shall hear 
the shout 6 in truth — that is the day of coming forth ! 

Verily, we quicken and we kill, and unto us the 
journey is ! 

On the day when the earth shall be cleft asunder 



1 I. e. from the vengeance of God. 

* A protest against the assertion that God rested on the 
seventh day. 

5 Two si^dahs used at the evening prayers, but not incumbent 
on the worshipper. 

4 I. e. a place from which all men may hear; generally supposed 
by Muslims to be the temple at Jerusalem. 

6 The sound of the last trumpet. 



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L,43-LI,l8. THE CHAPTER OF THE SCATTERERS. 245 

from them swiftly; — that is a gathering together 
which is easy to us ! 

We know what they say ; nor art thou over them 
one to compel. 

[45] Wherefore remind, by the Quran, him who 
fears the threat. 



The Chapter of the Scatterers. 
(LL Mecca.) 

In the name of the merciful and compassionate 
God. 

By the scatterers 1 who scatter! and by those 
pregnant 2 with their burden ! and by those running 
on 3 easily! and by the distributors 4 of affairs! — [5] 
verily, what ye are threatened with is surely true ! 

And, verily, the judgment will surely take place ! 

By the heaven possessed of paths ! verily, ye are 
at variance in what ye say ! 

He is turned from it who is turned. 

[10] Slain be the liars, who are heedless in a flood 
(of ignorance). 

They will ask, ' When is the day of judgment ?' 
The day when at the fire they shall be tried. 
— ' Taste your trial ! this is what ye wished to 
hasten on!' 

[15] Verily, the pious are in gardens and springs, 
taking what their Lord brings them. Verily, they 
before that did well. But little of the night they 
slept; and at the dawn they asked forgiveness. 

1 The winds. 2 The clouds. * The ships. 

* Angels or winds. 



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246 THE QURAN. LI, 19-36. 

And in their wealth was what was due to him who 
asked, and him who was kept back from asking. 

[20] And in the earth are signs to those who are 
sure, and in yourselves, — what ! do ye not then see ? 

And in the heaven is your provision and that 
which ye are promised 1 . 

But by the Lord of the heaven and the earth ! 
verily, it is the truth, — like that which ye do utter 2 ! 

Has the tale of Abraham's honoured guests 
reached thee 8 ? [25] When they entered in unto 
him and said, ' Peace!' he said, ' Peace !-^a people 
unrecognised.' 

And he went aside unto his people and fetched a 
fat calf, and brought it nigh unto them ; said he, 
' Will ye then not eat ? ' 

And he felt a secret fear of them : said they, 
' Fear not.' And they gave him glad tidings of a 
knowing boy. 

And his wife approached with a noise, and smote 
her face, and said, 'An old woman, barren ! ' 

[30] Said they, 'Thus says thy Lord, He is 
knowing, wise.' Said he, ' And about what is your 
errand, O ye messengers ?' 

They said, ' Verily, we are sent unto a sinful 
people, to send upon them stones of clay, marked 
from thy Lord for the extravagant *.' 

[35] And we sent out therefrom such as were in 
it of the believers ; but we only found therein one 
house of Muslims. 

1 I. e. rain, which produces material sustenance, and there too is 
the promise of the future life. 

a I. e. unreserved and plain as ye yourselves affirm truths to each 
other. 

'See Part I, pp. 212-214. * See Part I, p. 214, note 1. 



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LI, 37-49. THE CHAPTER OF THE SCATTERERS. 247 

And we left therein a sign to those who fear the 
grievous woe. 

And in Moses; when we sent him to Pharaoh 
with obvious authority. 

But he turned his back towards his column 1 , and 
said, 'A sorcerer or mad !' 

[40] And we seized him and his hosts and hurled 
them into the sea ; for he was to be blamed. 

And in 'Ad, when we sent against them a deso- 
lating wind, that left naught on which it came with- 
out making it ashes ! 

And in Thamud, when it was said to them, 
' Enjoy yourselves for a season/ But they revolted 
against the bidding of their Lord ; and the noise 
caught them as they looked on. [45] And they 
could not stand upright, and they were not 
helped ! 

And the people of Noah of yore ; verily, they 
were an abominable people. 

And the heaven — we have built it with might, 
and, verily, we do surely give it ample space ! 

And the earth — we have spread it out ; and how 
well we lay it out ! 

And of everything have we created pairs, haply 
ye may be mindful. 

[50] Flee then to God; verily, I am a plain 
warner from Him to you! 

And do not set with God another god ; verily, I 
am a plain warner from Him to you ! 

Thus there came no apostle to those before them, 
but they said, ' A sorcerer, mad ! ' 

1 Either Pharaoh's forces, or one of his nobles, or something 
else on which he relied. See Part I, p. 214, first line, and note 1. 



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248 THE QUR'AN. LI,50-L1I,9. 

Do they bequeath it * to each other ? 

Yea, they are an outrageous people ! 

So turn thy back upon them, so thou wilt not be 
to blame. 

[55] And remind ; for, verily, the reminder shall 
profit the believers. 

And I have not created the ginn and mankind 
save that they may worship me. 

I do not desire any provision from them, and I do 
not wish them to feed me. 

Verily, God, He is the provider, endowed with 
steady might. 

Verily, for those who injure (the Apostle) shall 
be a portion like the portion of their fellows 2 , but 
let them not hurry Me ! 

[60] Then woe to those who misbelieve from 
their day which they are threatened. 




The Chapter of the Mount. 
(LII. Mecca.) 

In the name of the merciful and compassionate 
God. 

By the mount ! by the Book inscribed upon an 
outstretched vellum ! by the frequented house 3 ! [5] 
by the elevated roof* ! by the swelling sea ! verily, 
the torment of thy Lord will come to pass ; — there 
is none to avert it ! 

The day when the heavens shall reel about, 

1 I. e. this taunt. 

8 I. e. like the fate of those who wronged the apostles of old. 
3 1. e. either the Kaabah itself or the model of it, said to exist in 
the heavens and to be frequented by the angels, 
* I. e. of heaven* 



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LII, 10-27. TH E CHAPTER OF THE MOUNT. 249 

[10] and the mountains shall move about, — then 
woe upon that day to those who call (the apostles) 
liars, who plunge into discussion for a sport ! 

On the day when they shall be thrust away into 
the fire of hell, — ' This is the fire, the which ye used 
to call a lie! — [15] Is it magic, this? or can ye not 
see ? — broil ye therein, and be patient thereof or 
be not patient, it is the same to you : ye are but 
rewarded for that which ye did do ! ' 

Verily, the pious (shall be) in gardens and 
pleasure, enjoying what their Lord has given 
them ; for their Lord will save them from the 
torment of hell. 

' Eat and drink with good digestion, for that which 
ye have done!' 

[20] Reclining on couches in rows ; and we will 
wed them to large-eyed maids. 

And those who believe and whose seed follows 
them in the faith, we will unite their seed with them ; 
and we will not cheat them of their work at all ; — 
every man is pledged for what he earns '. 

And we will extend to them fruit and flesh such as 
they like. They shall pass to and fro therein a cup 
in which is neither folly nor sin. 

And round them shall go boys of theirs, as 
though they were hidden pearls. 

[25] And they shall accost each other and ask 
questions, and shall say, 'Verily, we were before 
amidst our families shrinking with terror 2 , but 
God has been gracious to us and sawed us from 
the torment of the hot blast. \ 

1 Every man is pledged to God for his conduct, and, if he does 
well, redeems himself. 

3 At the thought of the next life. 



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25O THE QUR'AN. LII, 28-43. 

' Verily, we used to call on Him before ; verily, 
He is the righteous, the compassionate !' 

Wherefore do thou * remind them : for thou art, 
by the favour of thy Lord, neither a soothsayer nor 
mad! 

Will they say, ' A poet ; we wait for him the sad 
accidents of fate ? ' 

[30] Say, ' Wait ye then ; for I too am of those 
who wait ! ' 

Do their dreams bid them this ? or are they an 
outrageous people ? 

Or will they say, ' He has invented it ? ' — nay, 
but they do not believe ! 

But let them bring a discourse like it, if they tell 
the truth ! 

[35] O r were they created of nothing, or were they 
the creators ? Or did they create the heavens and 
the earth ? — nay, but they are not sure ! 

Or have they the treasures of thy Lord ? or are 
they the governors supreme ? 

Or have they a ladder whereon they can listen 2 ?— 
then let their listener bring obvious authority. 

Has He daughters, while ye have sons ? 

[40} Or dost thou ask them a hire, while they are 
borne down by debt ? 

Or have they the unseen, so that they write it 
down? 

Or do they desire a plot? — but those who mis- 
believe it is who are plotted against! 



1 Addressed to Mohammed. 

* I. e. a ladder reaching to the gates of heaven, upon which they 
may stand and listen to the angels discoursing, as the devils do. 
See Part I, pp. 50, 51, note 2. 



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LII,43-LIH,6. THE CHAPTER OF THE STAR. 25 1 

Or have they a god beside God ? celebrated be 
God's praises above what they join with Him ! 

But if they should see a fragment of the sky falling 
down, they would say, ' Clouds in masses !' • 

[45] But leave them till they meet that day of 
theirs whereon they shall swoon 1 ; the day when 
their plotting shall avail them naught, and they shall 
not be helped ! 

And, verily, there is a torment beside that 2 for 
those who do wrong; but most of them do not 
know! 

But wait thou patiently for the judgment of thy 
Lord, for thou art in our eyes. And celebrate the 
praises of thy Lord what time thou risest, and in 
the night, and at the fading of the stars ! 



The Chapter of the Star. 

(LIU. Mecca.) 

In the name of the merciful and compassionate 
God. 

By the star when it falls, your comrade errs not, 
nor is he deluded ! nor speaks he out of lust ! It is 
but an inspiration inspired ! [5] One mighty in 
power 3 taught him, endowed with sound under- 
standing, and appeared, he being in the loftiest 
tract. 

1 At the sound of the last trumpet. 

a I. e. beside the torment of the judgment day they shall be 
punished with defeat and loss here. 

8 The angel Gabriel, who appeared twice to Mohammed in his 
natural form, namely, on the occasion of the ' Night Journey,' to 
which this passage refers, and on the first revelation of the Qur'an. 
(See Introduction, pp. xx and xxxii.) 



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252 THE QUR'AN. LIII, 7-30. 

Then drew he near and hovered o'er! until he 
was two bows' length off or nigher still! [10] Then 
he inspired his servant what he inspired him ; the 
heart belies not what he saw ! What, will ye dispute 
with him on what he saw ? 

And he saw him another time, by the lote tree 
none may pass ; [15] near which is the garden of the 
Abode! When there covered the lote tree what 
did cover it ! The sight swerved not nor wandered. 
He saw then the greatest of the signs of his Lord. 

Have ye considered AMt and Al 'Huzza, [20] 
and Manat the other third 1 ? Shall there be male 
offspring for Him and female for you ? That were 
an unfair division ! They are but names which ye 
have named, ye and your fathers! God has sent 
down no authority for them ! They do but follow 
suspicion and what their souls lust after ! — And yet 
there has come to them guidance from their Lord. 

Shall man have what he desires ? [25] But God's 
is the hereafter and the present ! 

How many an angel in the heaven ! — their inter- 
cession avails not at all, save after God has given 
permission to whomsoever He will and is pleased 
with ! 

Verily, those who believe not in the hereafter do 
surely name the angels with female names 2 ! — but 
they have no knowledge thereof; they do but follow 
suspicion, and, verily, suspicion shall not avail against 
the truth at all ! 

[30] But turn aside from him who turns his back 
upon our remembrance and desires naught but this 



1 See Introduction, p. xxvii, and Part II, p. 62, note 1. 
3 See Introduction, pp. xii and xiii. 



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LIII, 30-46. THE CHAPTER OF THE STAR. 253 

world's life ! This is their sum of knowledge ; 
verily, thy Lord knows best who has erred from 
His way, and He knows best who is guided ! 

God's is what is in the heavens and what is in the 
earth, that He may reward those who do evil for 
what they have done ; and may reward those who 
do good with good ! those who shun great sins and 
iniquities, — all but venial faults, — verily, thy Lord 
is of ample forgiveness ; He knows best about you, 
when He produced you from the earth, and when ye 
were embryos in the wombs of your mothers. 

Make not yourselves out, then, to be pure ; He 
knows best who it is that fears. 

Hast thou considered him who turns his back ? 
who gives but little [35] and then stops 1 ? Has he 
then the knowledge of the unseen, so that he can 
see ? 

Has he not been informed of what is in the pages 
of Moses and Abraham who fulfilled his word ? — 
that no burdened soul shall bear the burden of 
another ? [40] and that man shall have only that 
for which he strives ; and that his striving shall at 
length be seen ? Then shall he be rewarded for 
it with the most full reward ; and that unto thy 
Lord is the limit ; [45] and that it is He who makes 
men laugh and weep ; and that it is He who kills 
and makes alive ; and that He created pairs, male 

1 This passage refers to one El Walfd ibn Mug'Mirah, who 
being abused for following Mohammed and forsaking the religion 
of the QuriLf, answered that he had done so to escape divine ven- 
geance. Thereupon an idolater offered to take on himself El 
Walfd's sin for a certain sum of money. The offer was accepted, 
and Walfd apostatized from El Islam, paying down a portion of 
the amount agreed upon at the time. Later on he refused to pay 
the balance on the ground that he had already paid enough. 



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254 THE QURAN. LIII, 46-LIV, r. 

and female, from a clot when it is emitted ; and that 
for Him is the next production 1 ; and that he en- 
riches and gives possession; [50] and that He is 
the Lord of the Dog-star 2 , and that He it was who 
destroyed 'Ad of yore, and Thamud, and left none 
of them ; and the people of Noah before them, — 
verily, they were most unjust and outrageous ! 

And the overthrown (cities) 3 He threw down ; [55] 
and there covered them what did cover them ! 

Which then of your Lord's benefits do ye dis- 
pute ? 

This is a warner, one of the warners of yore ! 

The approaching day approaches ; there is none 
to discover it but God. 

At this new discourse then do ye wonder ? [60] 
and do ye laugh and not weep ? and ye divert your- 
selves the while ! 

But adore God and serve (Him)*. 



r 



The Chapter of the Moon. 
(LIV. Mecca.) 

In the name of the merciful and compassionate 
God. 

The Hour draws nigh, and the moon is split 



1 I. e. the resurrection. 

2 Sirius, or the Dog-star, was an object of worship amongst the 
ancient Arabs. 

3 Sodom, Gomorrah, &c. 

4 At this verse the Qur&i?, who were present at the first reading 
of this chapter when their gods were spoken well of, fell down 
adoring with Mohammed. See Introduction, p. xxxii. 



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LIV, I-II. THE CHAPTER OF THE MOON. 255 

asunder 1 . But if they see a sign they turn aside 
and say, ' Magic, continuous 2 !' 

And they call it a lie and follow their lusts ; but 
every matter is settled ! 

There has come to them some information 3 with 
restraint in it — [5] wisdom far-reaching — but warners 
avail not ! 

But turn* thy back on them ! 

The day when the caller 4 shall call to an awk- 
ward thing 6 . 

Humbly casting down their looks shall they come 
forth from their graves, as though they were locusts 
scattered abroad 1 

Hurrying forwards to the caller !\the misbelievers 
shall say, ' This is a difficult day !^J» 

Noah's people before them called (the apostles) 
liars ; they called our servant a liar ; and they said, 
' Mad !' and he was rejected. 

[10] And he called upon his Lord, 'Verily, I am 
overcome, come then to my help !' 

And we opened the gates of heaven with water 
pouring down! 



1 According to a tradition this refers to a miracle: the un- 
believers having asked for a sign, the moon appeared to be cloven 
in twain. The tradition is, however, supported by very doubtful 
authority, and is directly opposed to the teaching of the Qur*Sn 
elsewhere, for the power to comply with the demand for a sign is 
always distinctly disclaimed. The more usual explanation is the 
natural one, that the expression merely refers to one of the signs 
of the day of judgment 

8 This word is interpreted by some to mean 'transient,' by 
others ' powerful.' 

» The Qur'in. 

4 The angel Israel. 

6 The last judgment 



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256 THE OUR An. LIV, 12-31. 

And we made the earth burst forth in springs, 
and the waters met at a bidding already decreed. 

But we bore him on the thing of planks and 
nails ; sailing on beneath our eyes, a reward for him 
who had been disbelieved ! 

[15] And we left it a sign; — but is there any one 
who will mind ? 

'Ad called the apostles liars, and how was my 
punishment and my warning ? 

Verily, we sent on them a cold storm wind on 
a day of continuous ill-luck! 

[20] It reft men away as though they had been 
palm stumps torn up ! 

We have made the Quran easy as a reminder — 
but is there any one who will mind ? 

Thamud called the warnings lies, and said, 'A 
mortal, one of us, alone, shall we follow him ? then 
indeed were we in error and excitement 1 ! 

[25] ' Is the warning cast on him alone among us ? 
nay, he is an insolent liar ! 

' They shall know to-morrow about the insolent 
liar ! 

'Verily, we are about to send the she-camel as a 
trial for them, then watch them and have patience ! 
and inform them that the water is shared between 
them (and her); each draught shall be sought by 
turns.' 

Then they called their companion, and he plied 
(a knife) and hamstrung her. 

[30] Then how was my punishment and my 
warning ? Verily, we sent against them one noise, 
and they were like the dry sticks of him who 
builds a fold. 

1 Or madness. 



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LIV, 32-50. THE CHAPTER OF THE MOON. 257 

We have made the Qur'an easy as a reminder — 
but is there any one who will mind ? 

Lot's people called the apostles liars; verily, we sent 
against them a heavy sand storm; all, save Lot's 
family, we saved them at the dawn. [35] As a favour 
from us ; so do we. reward him who gives thanks ! 

He indeed had warned them of our assault, but 
they doubted of the warning. 

And they desired his guest, and we put out their 
eyes. — 

' So taste ye my torment and warning !' 

And there overtook them on the morning a set- 
tled punishment! — 

' So taste ye my torment and warning ! ' 

[40] We have made the Qur'an easy as a re- 
minder — but is there any one who will mind ? 

The warning came to Pharaoh's people ; they 
called our signs all lies, and we seized on them with 
the seizing of a mighty powerful one. 

Are your misbelievers better than they ? or have 
ye an exemption in the Scriptures ? Or do they 
say we are a victorious company ? 

[45] The whole shall be routed and shall turn 
their backs in flight 1 . 

Nay, the Hour is their promised time ! and the 
Hour is most severe and bitter ! 

Verily, the sinners are in error and excitement 
On the day when they shall be dragged to the fire 
upon their faces ! — ' Taste ye the touch of hell.' 

Verily, everything have we created by decree, 
[50] and our bidding is but one (word), like the 
twinkling of an eye ! 

1 This is appealed to by Muslims as a prophecy fulfilled at the 
battle of Bedr. 

[9] s 

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258 THE QUr'aN. LIV, 51-LV, 17. 

We have destroyed the like of you — but is there 
any who will mind ? 

And everything they do is in the books 1 , and 
everything small and great is written down. 

Verily, the pious shall be amid gardens and rivers, 
[55] in the seat of truth, with the powerful king. 



The Chapter of the Merciful. 

(LV. Mecca.) 

In the name of the merciful and compassionate God. 

The Merciful taught the Quran ; 

He created man, taught him plain speech. 

The sun and the moon have their appointed time ; 

[5] The herbs and the trees adore ; 

And the heavens, He raised them and set the balance, 

that ye should not be outrageous in the balance ; 
But weigh ye aright, and stint not the balance. 
And the earth He has set it for living creatures; 

[10] therein are fruits and palms, with sheaths; 

and grain with chaff and frequent shoots ; 
Then which of your Lord's bounties will ye twain 

deny? 
He created men of crackling clay like the potters. 

And He created the^inn from smokeless fire. 
[15] Then which of your Lord's bounties will ye 

twain deny ? 
The Lord of the two easts 2 and the Lord of the 

two wests ! 



1 The books kept by the recording angels. 

2 See p. 214, note 1. 



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LV, 18-33. THE CHAPTER OF THE MERCIFUL. 259 

Then which of your Lord's bounties will ye twain 

deny ? 
He has let loose the two seas that meet together ; 

[20] between them is a barrier they cannot pass ! 
Then which of your Lord's bounties will ye twain 

deny ? 
He brings forth from each pearls both large and 

small ! 
Then which of your Lord's bounties will ye twain 

deny? 
His are the ships which rear aloft in the sea like 

mountains. 
[25] Then which of your Lord's bounties will ye 

twain deny? 
Every one upon it * is transient, but the face of thy 

Lord endowed with majesty and honour shall 

endure. 
Then which of your Lord's bounties will ye twain 

deny ? 
Of Him whosoever is in the heaven and the earth 

does beg; every day He is in (some fresh) 

business ! 
[30] Then which of your Lord's bounties will ye 

twain deny? 
We shall be at leisure for you, O ye two weighty 

ones 2 ! 
Then which of your Lord's bounties will ye twain 

deny? 
O assembly of ginns and mankind ! if ye are able 

to pass through the confines of heaven and earth 

1 The earth. 

8 I. e. mankind and the^inn ; the meaning is, that God will have 
leisure to judge them both. 

S 2 



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» A, 



26o THE QURAN. LV, 33-50. 

then pass through them ! — ye cannot pass through 

save by authority ! 
Then which of your Lord's bounties will ye twain 

deny ? 
[35] There shall be sent against you a flash of fire, 

and molten copper, and ye shall not be helped ! 
Then which of your Lord's bounties will ye twain 

deny ? 
And when the heaven is rent asunder and become 

rosy red 1 — (melting) like grease ! 
Then which of your Lord's bounties will ye twain 

deny ? 
On that day neither man nor ^inn shall be asked 

about his crime ! 
[40] Then which of your Lord's bounties will ye 

twain deny ? 
The sinners shall be known by their marks, and 

shall be seized by the forelock and the feet ! 
Then which of your Lord's bounties will ye twain 

deny ? 
' This is hell, which the sinners did call a lie ! they 

shall circulate between it and water boiling quite !' 
[45] Then which of your Lord's bounties will ye 

twain deny? 
But for him who fears the station of his Lord are 

gardens twain ! 
Then which of your Lord's bounties will ye twain 

deny? 
Both furnished with branching trees. 
Then which of your Lord's bounties will ye twain 

deny ? 
[50] In each are flowing springs. 

1 The word is also said to mean red leather. 



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LV, 51-69. THE CHAPTER OF THE MERCIFUL. 26 1 

Then which of your Lord's bounties will ye twain 

deny? 
In each are, of every fruit, two kinds. 
Then which of your Lord's bounties will ye twain 

deny? 
Reclining on beds the linings of which are of 

brocade, and the fruit of the two gardens within 

reach to cull. 
[55] Then which of your Lord's bounties will ye 

twain deny ? 
Therein are maids of modest glances whom no man 

nor^inn has deflowered before. 
Then which of your Lord's bounties will ye twain 

deny? 
As though they were rubies and pearls. 
Then which of your Lord's bounties will ye twain 

deny ? 
[60] Is the reward of goodness aught but goodness ? 
Then which of your Lord's bounties will ye twain 

deny? 
And besides these, are gardens twain 1 , 
Then which of your Lord's bounties will be twain 

deny? 
With dark green foliage. 
[65] Then which of your Lord's bounties will ye 

twain deny ? 
In each two gushing springs. 
Then which of your Lord's bounties will ye twain 

deny ? 
In each fruit and palms and pomegranates. 
Then which of your Lord's bounties will ye twain 

deny ? 

1 For the inferior inhabitants of Paradise. 



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262 THE QUR'An. LV, 70-LVI, 9. 

[70] In them maidens best and fairest ! 

Then which of your Lord's bounties will ye twain 

deny ? 
Bright and large-eyed maids kept in their tents. 
Then which of your Lord's bounties will ye twain 

deny ? 
Whom no man nor ^inn has deflowered before 

them. 
[75] Then which of your Lord's bounties will ye 

twain deny ? 
Reclining on green cushions and beautiful carpets. 
Then which of your Lord's bounties will ye twain 

deny ? 
Blessed be the name of thy Lord possessed of 

majesty and honour! 



The Chapter of the Inevitable. 

(LVI. Mecca.) 
In the name of the merciful and compassionate God. 

When the inevitable x happens ; none shall call its 

happening a lie ! — abasing — exalting ! 
When the earth shall quake, quaking 1 [5] and the 

mountains shall crumble, crumbling, and become 

like motes dispersed ! 
And ye shall be three sorts ; 
And the fellows of the right hand — what right lucky 

fellows ! 
And the fellows of the left hand — what unlucky 

fellows ! 

1 I.e. the day of judgment. 

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LVI, 10-37. THE CHAPTER OF THE INEVITABLE. 263 

[10] And the foremost foremost 1 ! 

These are they who are brought nigh, 

In gardens of pleasure ! 

A crowd of those of yore, 

And a few of those of the latter day ! 

[15] And gold-weft couches, reclining on them face 
to face. 

Around them shall go eternal youths, with goblets 
and ewers and a cup of flowing wine ; no head- 
ache shall they feel therefrom, nor shall their wits 
be dimmed ! 

[20] And fruits such as they deem the best ; 

And flesh of fowl as they desire ; 

And bright and large-eyed maids like hidden pearls ; 

A reward for that which they have done ! 

They shall hear no folly there and no sin ; 

[25] Only the speech, ' Peace, Peace !' 

And the fellows of the right — what right lucky 
fellows ! 

Amid thornless lote trees. 

And tal'h 2 trees with piles of fruit ; 

And outspread shade, 

[30] And water out-poured ; 

And fruit in abundance, neither failing nor for- 
bidden ; 

And beds upraised ! 

Verily, we have produced them 3 a production. 

[35] And made them virgins, darlings of equal age 
(with their spouses) for the fellows of the right ! 

1 I. e. the foremost in professing the faith on earth shall be the 
foremost then. 

2 The mimosa gummifera is generally so called in Arabia ; but 
the banana is said to be meant in this passage. 

3 The celestial damsels. 



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264 THE QURAN. LVI, 38-66. 

A crowd of those of yore, and a crowd of those of 

the latter day! 
[40] And the fellows of the left — what unlucky 

fellows ! 
In hot blasts and boiling water; 
And a shade of pitchy smoke, 
Neither cool nor generous ! 
Verily, they were affluent ere this, [45] and did persist 

in mighty crime ; and used to say, 'What, when we 

die and have become dust and bones, shall we 

then indeed be raised ? or our fathers of yore ?' 
Say, 'Verily, those of yore and those of the latter 

day [50] shall surely be gathered together unto 

the tryst of the well-known day.' 
Then ye, O ye who err ! who say it is a lie ! shall 

eat of the Zaqqum tree ! and fill your bellies with 

it! and drink thereon of boiling water! [55] and 

drink as drinks the thirsty camel. 
This is their entertainment on the judgment day ! 
We created you, then why do ye not credit ? 
Have ye considered what ye emit ? 
Do we create it, or are we the creators ? 
[60] We have decreed amongst you death ; but we 

are not forestalled from making the likes of you 

in exchange, or producing you as ye know not of. 
Ye do know the first production — why then do ye 

not mind ? 
Have ye considered what ye till ? 
Do ye make it bear seed, or do we make it bear seed ? 
[65] If we pleased we could make it mere grit, so that 

ye would pause to marvel : 
'Verily, we have got into debt 1 and we are excluded 2 .' 

1 I. e. for seed and labour. * From reaping the fruits of it. 

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LVI, 67-90. THE CHAPTER OF THE INEVITABLE. 265 

Have ye considered the water which ye drink ? 

Do ye make it come down from the clouds, or do 

we make it come down ? 
If we pleased we could make it pungent — why then 

do ye not give thanks ? 
[70] Have ye considered the fire which ye strike ? 
Do ye produce the tree that gives it 1 , or do we 

produce it ? 
We have made it a memorial and a chattel for the 

traveller of the waste ? 
Then celebrate the grand name of thy Lord ! 
So I will not swear by the positions of the stars ; 

[75] and, verily, it is a grand oath if ye did but 

know — that, verily, this is the honourable Qur'an 

— in the laid-up Book ! 
Let none touch it but the purified ! 
A revelation from the Lord of the worlds. 
[80] What ! this new discourse will ye despise ? 
And make for your provision, that you call it a 

lie? 
Why then — when it 2 comes up to the throat, and ye 

at that time look on, though we are nearer to him 

than you are, but ye cannot see, — [85] why, if ye 

are not to be judged, do ye not send it back, if 

ye do tell the truth ? 
But either, if he be of those brought nigh to 

God, — then rest and fragrance and the garden 

of pleasure ! 
Or, if he be of the fellows of the right ! [90] then 

' Peace to thee !' from the fellows of the right ! 

1 The ancient Arabs produced fire by the friction of a stick in a 
hollow piece of wood. Cf. p. 167, line 25. 
' The soul of a dying man. 



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266 THE QURAN. LVI, 91-LVII, 6. 

Or, if he be of those who say it Ms a lie, — who err ! 

then an entertainment of boiling water ! and 

broiling in hell! 
[95] Verily, this is surely certain truth ! 
So celebrate the grand name of thy Lord ! 



The Chapter of Iron. 

(LVII. Mecca.) 

In the name of the merciful and compassionate 
God. 

Whatever is in the heavens and the earth cele- 
brates the praises of God, for He is the mighty, 
the wise! 

His is the kingdom of the heavens and the 
earth : He quickens and He kills, and He is mighty 
over all ! 

He is the first and the last; and the outer and 
the inner; and He all things doth know ! 

He it is who created the heavens and the earth 
in six days, then He made for the throne ; and He 
knows what goes into the earth and what goes forth 
therefrom, and what comes down from the sky and 
what goes up therein, and He is with you wheresoe'er 
ye be : for God on what ye do doth look ! 

[5] His is the kingdom of the heavens and the earth, 
and unto God affairs return. He makes the night 
succeed the day, and makes the day succeed the 
night; and He knows the nature of men's breasts. 

Believe in God and His Apostle, and give alms of 
what He has made you successors of. For those 
amongst you who believe and give alms — for them 
is mighty hire. 



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LVII, 7-13. THE CHAPTER OF IRON. 267 

What ails you that ye do not believe in God and 
His Apostle ? He calls on you to believe in your 
Lord ; and He has taken a compact from you, if ye 
be believers. 

He it is who sends down upon His servants mani- 
fest signs, to bring you forth from the darkness 
into the light; for, verily, God to you is kind, 
compassionate ! 

[10] What ails you that ye give not alms in God's 
cause ? for God's is the inheritance of the heavens 
and the earth. Not alike amongst you is he who 
gives alms before the victory and fights, — they are 
grander in rank than those who give alms after- 
wards and fight. But to all does God promise good ; 
and God of what ye do is well aware ! 

Who is there who will lend a good loan to God ? 
for He will double it for him, and for him is a 
generous reward. 

On the day when thou shall see believers, men 
and women, with their light running on before them 
and on their right hand \ — ' Glad tidings for you to- 
day. — Gardens beneath which rivers flow, to dwell 
therein for aye ; that is the grand bliss !' 

On the day when the hypocrites, men and women, 
shall say to those who believe, ' Wait for us that we 
may kindle at your light/ It will be said, ' Get ye 
back, and beg a light.' And there shall be struck 
out between them a wall with a door; within it shall 
be mercy, and outside before it torment They shall 
cry out to them, 'We were not with you!' they 
shall say, ' Yea, but ye did tempt yourselves, and did 
wait, and did doubt ; and your vain hopes beguiled 
you ; and the beguiler beguiled you about God. 

1 I. e. guiding them to Paradise. 

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268 THE QUR'AN. LVII, 14-21. 

' Wherefore to-day there shall not be taken from 
you a ransom, nor from those who misbelieved. 
Your resort is the fire ; it is your sovereign, and an 
ill journey will it be ! ' 

[15] Is the time come to those who believe, for 
their hearts to be humbled at the remembrance of 
God, and of what He has sent down in truth ? and 
for them not to be like those who were given the 
Scriptures before, and over whom time was pro- 
longed, but their hearts grew hard, and many of 
them were workers of abomination ? 

Know that God quickens the earth after its 
death! — we have manifested to you the signs; 
haply ye may have some sense! 

Verily, those who give in charity, men and 
women, who have lent to God a goodly loan,— 
it shall be doubled for them, and for them is a 
generous hire. 

And those who believe in God and His Apostle, 
they are the confessors and the martyrs with their 
Lord ; for them is their hire and their light ! But 
those who misbelieve and call our signs lies, they 
are the fellows of hell ! 

Know that the life of this world is but a sport, 
and a play, and an adornment, and something to 
boast of amongst yourselves ; and the multiplying 
of children is like a rain-growth, its vegetation 
pleases the misbelievers; then they wither away, 
and thou mayest see them become yellow ; then they 
become but grit. 

But in the hereafter is a severe woe, [20] and for- 
giveness from God and His goodwill; but the life of 
this world is but a chattel of guile. 

Race towards forgiveness from your Lord and 



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LVII, 21-27. THE CHAPTER OF IRON. 269 

Paradise, whose breadth is as the breadth of the 
heavens and the earth, prepared for those who 
believe in God and His apostles! and God's grace, 
He gives it to whom He pleases, for God is Lord 
of mighty grace ! 

No accident befalls in the earth, or in yourselves, 
but it was in the Book, before we created them ; 
verily, that is easy unto God. 

That ye may not vex yourselves for what ye 
miss, nor be overjoyed at what He gives you ; for 
God loves no arrogant boaster, who are niggardly 
and bid men be niggardly : but whoso turns his 
back \ verily, God is rich, praiseworthy. 

[25] We did send our apostles with manifest 
signs ; and we did send down among you the Book 
and the balance, that men might stand by justice ; 
and we sent down iron in which is both keen 
violence and advantages to men ; and that God 
might know who helps Him and His apostles in 
secret; verily, God is strong and mighty! 

And we sent Noah and Abraham ; and placed in 
their seed prophecy and the Book ; and some of 
them are guided, though many of them are workers 
of abomination ! 

Then we followed up their footsteps with our 
apostles; and we followed them up with Jesus 
the son of Mary; and we gave him the gospel ; 
and we placed in the hearts of those who followed 
him kindness and compassion. — But monkery, they 
invented it ; we only prescribed to them the craving 
after the goodwill of God, and they observed it not 
with due observance. But we gave to those who 

1 I. e. from almsgiving. 



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27O THE QURAN. LVII, 27-LVIII, 4. 

believe amongst them their hire ; though many 
amongst them were workers of abomination! 

O ye who believe! fear God, and believe in His 
Apostle: He will give you two portions of His 
mercy, and will make for you a light for you to 
walk in, and will forgive you ; for God is forgiving, 
compassionate. 

That the people of the Book may know that they 
cannot control aught of God's grace ; and that grace 
is in God's hands, He gives it to whom He will ; for 
God is Lord of mighty grace ! 



The Chapter of the Wrangler. 
(LVIII. Medlnah.) 

God has heard the speech of her who wrangled 
with you about her husband 1 , and complained to 
God ; and God hears your gossip ; verily, God both 
hears and sees. 

Those among you who back out of their wives 2 
they are not their mothers.: their mothers are only 
those who gave them birth ; and, verily, they speak 
a wrong speech and a false. 

Verily, God both pardons and forgives. But those 
who back out of their wives and then would recall 
their speech, — then the manumission of a captive 
before they touch each other ; that is what ye are 
admonished, and God of what ye do is well aware ! 

1 KMulah bint TWlabah being divorced from her husband by 
the formula mentioned below, and which was always considered to 
be a final separation, appealed to Mohammed, who said he could not 
alter the custom. Afterwards, on the woman praying to God, this 
passage was revealed, abolishing the objectionable form of divorce. 

2 I.e. divorce them by the formula 'Thou art to me as my 
mother's back I * See Part I, p. 43, note 4. 



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LVIII, 5-9. THE CHAPTER OF THE WRANGLER. 27I 

[5] But he who finds not (the means) : — then 
a fast for two months consecutively, before they 
touch each other; and he who cannot endure 
that : — then the feeding of sixty poor folk. That is 
that ye may believe in God and His Apostle ; and 
these are the bounds of God ; and for the mis- 
believers is grievous woe! 

Verily, those who oppose God and His Apostle 
shall be upset, as those before them were upset 

We have sent down manifest signs : for the mis- 
believers is shameful woe on the day when God 
shall raise them all together, and shall inform them 
of what they have done. God has taken account of 
it, but they forget it ; for God is witness over all ! 

Dost thou not see that God knows what is in the 
heavens and what is in the earth ? and that there 
cannot be a privy discourse of three but He makes 
the fourth ? nor of five but He makes the sixth ? nor 
less than that nor more, but that He is with them 
wheresoe'er they be ? then He will inform them of 
what they have done upon the resurrection day; 
verily, God all things doth know! 

Dost thou not look at those who were prohibited 
from privy talk, and then returned to that they were 
forbidden ? and they too discourse together with sin 
and enmity and rebellion against the Apostle ; and 
when they come to thee they greet thee with what 
God greets thee not 1 ; and they say in themselves, 
Why does not God torment us for what we say ? 
Hell is enough for them ! they shall broil therein, 
and an ill journey shall it be ! 



1 Instead of saying, ~Es salam 'halaika, 'peace be upon thee!' 
they used to say, Es sam 'halaika, ' mischief be upon thee I' 



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272 THE QUR'An. LVIII, 10-17. 

[10] O ye who believe ! when ye discourse to- 
gether, then discourse not in sin and enmity and 
rebellion against the Apostle ; but discourse together 
in righteousness and piety ; and fear God, for unto 
Him ye shall be gathered ! 

Privy talk is only from the devil, that those who 
do believe may grieve : it cannot hurt them at all, 
except by the permission of God : and upon God let 
the believers rely. 

O ye who believe ! when it is said to you, ' Make 
room in your assemblies,' then make room ; God 
will make room for you ; and when it is said to you, 
' Rise up,' then rise up ; God will raise all you who 
believe, as well as those who are given knowledge, 
in rank ; for God of what ye do is well aware ! 

O ye who believe ! when ye address the Apostle, 
then give in charity before addressing him ; that is 
better for you, and more pure. But if ye find not 
the means, — then God is forgiving, compassionate. 
What ! do ye shrink from giving in charity before 
addressing him ? then if ye do it not, and God 
relents towards you, then be steadfast in prayer, 
and give alms, and fear God and His Apostle ; for 
God is well aware of what ye do ! 

[15] Dost thou not look at those who take for 
patrons a people * God is wrath with ? they are 
neither of you nor of them, and they swear to you a 
lie the while they know ; for them God has prepared 
severe torment ; verily, evil is it they have done ! 

They take their faith for a cloak ; and they turn 
men aside from the path of God ; and for them is 
shameful woe ! 

1 The Jews. 



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LVIII,i8-LIX,I. THE CHAPTER OF THE EMIGRATION. 273 

Their wealth shall not avail them, nor their children 
at all, against God ; they are the fellows of the Fire, 
and they shall dwell therein for aye ! 

On the day when God raises them all together, 
then will they swear to Him as they swore to you ; 
and they will think that they rest on somewhat. — 
Ay, verily, they are liars ! 

[20] Satan hath overridden them, and made them 
forget the remembrance of God : they are the crew 
of Satan ; ay, the crew of Satan, they are the 
losers ! 

Verily, those who oppose God and His Apostle 
are amongst the most vile. 

God has written, ' I will surely prevail, I and my 
apostles;' verily, God is strong and mighty! 

Thou shalt not find a people who believe in God 
and the last day loving him who opposes God and 
His Apostle, even though it be their fathers, or 
their sons, or their brethren, or their clansmen. 

He has written faith in their hearts, and He aids 
them with a spirit from Him ; and will make them 
enter into gardens beneath which rivers flow, to 
dwell therein for aye ! God is well pleased with 
them, and they well pleased with Him : they are 
God's crew ; ay, God's crew, they shall prosper ! 



The Chapter of the Emigration. 
(LIX. Medinah.) 

In the name of the merciful and compassionate 
God. 

What is in the heavens and in the earth cele- 
brates God's praises ; He is the mighty, the wise ! 
[9] T 



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2 74 THE QURAN. LIX, 2-6. 

He it was who drove those of the people of the 
Book who misbelieved forth from their houses, at 
the first emigration 1 ; ye did not think that they 
would go forth, and they thought that their for- 
tresses would defend them against God ; but God 
came upon them from whence they did not reckon, 
and cast dread into their hearts ! They ruined their 
houses with their own hands and the hands of the 
believers ; wherefore take example, O ye who are 
endowed with sight ! 

Had it not been that God had prescribed for 
them banishment, He would have tormented them 
in this world 2 ; but for them in the next shall be 
the torment of the Fire ! that is because they 
opposed God and His Apostle : and whoso op- 
poses God, verily, God is keen to punish ! 

[5] What palm trees ye did cut down or what 
ye left standing upon their roots was by God's 
permission, and to disgrace the workers of abomi- 
nation; and as for the spoils that God gave to His 
Apostle from these (people) ye did not press forward 
after them with horse or riding camel ; but God 
gives His Apostle authority over whom He pleases, 
for God is mighty over all 3 ! 

1 The Jews of en Na<#!r, near Medtnah, who at first promised to 
stand neuter between him and the idolaters. After his success at 
Bedr they came over to his side, but turned again after the defeat 
of Ohod. For this offence they were forced to leave the country. 

2 Like those of Quraidftah, who were slaughtered. See Intro- 
duction, p. xxxix. 

* The Muslims did not use cavalry on the occasion, Mohammed 
himself being the only mounted member of the expedition. For 
this reason the spoils were assigned to the prophet alone, and not 
divided in the usual manner as prescribed in Chapter VIII, verse 
42, Part I, pp. 167, 1 68. 



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LIX, 7-11. THE CHAPTER OF THE EMIGRATION. 275 

What God gave as spoils to His Apostle of the 
people of the cities is God's, and the Apostle's, and 
for kinsfolk, orphans, and the poor, and the way- 
farer, so that it should not be circulated amongst 
the rich men of you. 

And what the Apostle gives you, take ; and what 
he forbids you, desist from ; and fear God, verily, 
God is keen to punish ! 

And (it is) for the poor who fled 1 , who were driven 
forth from their houses and their wealth, who crave 
grace from God and His goodwill, and help God and 
the Apostle ; they are the truthful. 

And those who were settled in the abode 2 and 
the faith before them, love those who fled to them 3 ; 
and they do not find in their breasts a need of what 
has been given to them ; preferring them to them- 
selves, even though there be poverty amongst them ; 
and whoso is preserved from his own coveteousness, 
these are the prosperous ! 

[10] And those who came after them say, 'Our 
Lord, forgive us and our brethren who were before- 
hand with us in the faith, and place not in our 
hearts ill-will towards those who believe — our Lord ! 
verily, thou art kind, compassionate !' 

Dost thou not look on those who were hypo- 
critical, saying to their brethren who misbelieved 
amongst the people of the Book 4 , ' If ye be driven 
forth we will go forth with you ; and we will never 
obey any one concerning you ; and if ye be fought 

1 The poorer Muha^erin were allowed to participate in the 
spoil, but not the AnsSrs. 

2 The Ansdrs at Medlnah. 

3 The Muha^erin. 

4 The Jews. 

T 2 



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276 THE QURAN. LIX, 11-20. 

against we will help you.' But God bears witness 
that they are surely liars ! 

If they be driven forth, these will not go forth 
with them ; and if they be fought against, these will 
not help them ; or if they do help them, they will 
turn their backs in flight ; — then shall they not be 
helped ! 

Ye indeed are a keener source of fear in their 
hearts than God ; that is because they are a people 
who do not understand ! They will not fight against 
you in a body save in fortified cities, or from behind 
walls ; their valour is great amongst themselves ; — 
thou dost reckon them as one body, but their hearts 
are separated. That is because they are a people 
who have no sense ! 

[15] Like unto those before them, recently 1 ; they 
tasted the evil result of their affair, and for them is 
grievous woe. 

Like unto the devil when he said to man, ' Dis- 
believe.' But when he disbelieved, he said, 'Verily, 
I am clear of thee ! Verily, I fear God the Lord of 
the worlds ! ' And the end of them both shall be 
that they shall both be in the Fire, to dwell therein 
for aye ! for that is the reward of the unjust ! 

O ye who believe ! fear God ; and let each soul 
look to what it sends on for the. morrow; and fear 
God ; verily, God is well aware of what ye do ! 

And be ye not like those who forget God, and 
He makes them forget themselves ; they are the 
workers of abomination ! 

[20] Not deemed alike shall be the fellows of the 



1 Either the idolaters slain at Bedr, or the Jews of Qainuqah, or 
those of Na<#ir. 



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LIX,20-LX,l. THE CHAPTER OF THE TRIED. 277 

Fire and the fellows of Paradise : the fellows of 
Paradise they are the blissful ! 

Had we sent down this Qur'an upon a moun- 
tain, thou wouldst have seen it humbling itself, 
splitting asunder from the fear of God ! These 
parables do we strike out for men ; haply they may 
reflect ! 

He is God than whom there is no god ; who 
knows the unseen and the visible ; He is the 
merciful, the compassionate ! He is God than 
whom there is no god ; the King, the Holy, the 
Peace-Giver, the Faithful, the Protector, the Mighty, 
the Repairer, the Great ! — celebrated be the praises 
of God above what they join with Him. 

He is God, the Creator, the Maker, the Fashioner ; 
His are the excellent names 1 ! His praises, whatever 
are in the heavens and the earth do celebrate ; for 
God is the mighty, the wise ! 



TUB 






The Chapter of the TR5*^*IjIF0t^j 
(LX. Medinah.) 

In the name of the merciful and compassionate 
God. 

O ye who believe ! take not my enemy and your 
enemy for patrons, encountering them with love ; 
for they misbelieve in the truth that is to come to 
you ; they drive out the Apostle and you for that 
ye believe in God your Lord 2 ! 



1 See Introduction, p. lxvii. 

a 'Ha/ib ibn abi Balta'hah had given the Meccans warning of an 



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278 THE QURAN. LX.I-6. 

If ye go forth fighting strenuously in my cause 
and craving my good pleasure, and secretly show 
love for them, yet do I know best what ye con- 
ceal and what ye display ! and he of you who does 
so has erred from the level path. 

If they find you they will be enemies to you, and 
they will stretch forth against you their hands and 
their tongues for evil, and would fain that ye should 
disbelieve ; neither your kindred nor your children 
shall profit you upon the resurrection day; it will 
separate you ! but God on what ye do doth look ! 

Ye had a good example in Abraham and those 
with him, when they said to their people, 'Verily, we 
are clear of you and of what ye serve beside God. 
We disbelieve in you : and between us and you is 
enmity and hatred begun for ever, until ye believe 
in God alone ! ' 

But not 1 the speech of Abraham to his father, 
'Verily, I will ask forgiveness for thee, though I 
cannot control aught from God !' O our Lord ! on 
thee do we rely ! and unto thee we turn ! and unto 
thee the journey is ! 

[5] Our Lord ! make us not a trial for those who 
misbelieve ; but forgive us ! Our Lord ! verily, thou 
art mighty, wise ! 

Ye had in them a good example for him who 

intended surprise by Mohammed, and on his letter being inter- 
cepted, excused himself by saying that he had only done so in 
order to make terms for his family, who were at Mecca, and that 
he knew that the information would be of no avail. Mohammed 
pardoned him, but the verse in the text prohibits such conduct for 
the future. 

1 I. e. they are not to imitate Abraham's speech to his father, 
and ask forgiveness for their infidel friends. Cp. Part I, p. 189, 
verse 115. 



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LX.6-II. THE CHAPTER OF THE TRIED. 279 

would hope in God and the last day. But whoso 
turns his back, verily, God, He is rich and to be 
praised. 

Mayhap that God will place love between you 
and between those of them ye are hostile towards 1 : 
for God is powerful, and God is forgiving, com- 
passionate. 

God forbids you not respecting those who have 
not fought against you for religion's sake, and who 
have not driven you forth from your homes, that 
ye should act righteously and justly towards them ; 
verily, God loves the just ! 

He only forbids you to make patrons of those 
who have fought against you for religion's sake, 
and driven you forth from your homes, or have 
aided in your expulsion; and whoever makes 
patrons of them, they are the unjust! 

[10] O ye who believe ! when there come be- 
lieving women who have fled, then try them : 
God knows their faith. If ye know them to be 
believers do not send them back to the mis- 
believers; — they are not lawful for them, nor are 
the men lawful for these ; — but give them 2 what 
they have expended 3 , and it shall be no crime 
against you that ye marry them, when ye have given 
them their hire. And do not ye retain a right 
over misbelieving women ; but ask for what ye 
have spent, and let them ask for what they have 
spent. That is God's judgment : He judges be- 
tween you, for God is knowing, wise ! 

And if any of your wives escape from you to the 

1 I. e. by their becoming converted to Islam 
* I. e. to their infidel husbands. 
3 The dowries. 



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280 THE QURAN. LX,n-LXI,3. 

misbelievers, and your turn comes, then give to 
those whose wives have gone away the like of what 
they have spent ; and fear God, in whom it is that 
ye believe. 

O thou prophet ! when believing women come to 
thee and engage with thee that they will not asso- 
ciate aught with God, and will not steal, and will 
not fornicate, and will not kill their children, and 
will not bring a calumny which they have forged 
between their hands and feet 1 , and that they will 
not rebel against thee in what is reasonable, then 
engage with them and ask forgiveness for them of 
God ; — verily, God is forgiving, compassionate. 

O ye who believe ! take not for patrons a people 
whom God is wrath against; they despair of the 
hereafter, as the misbelievers despair of the fellows 
of the tombs 2 ! 



The Chapter of the Ranks. 

(LXI. Mecca.) 

In the name of the merciful and compassionate 
God. 

What is in the heavens and what is in the earth 
celebrates the praises of God, for He is the mighty, 
the wise ! 

ye who believe! say not what ye do not. 
It is most hateful to God that ye say what ye 
do not. 

1 This is said by some commentators to mean foisting spurious 
children on to their husbands. 

8 I. e. of the resurrection of the dead. 



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LXI, 4-11. THE CHAPTER OF THE RANKS. 28 1 

Verily, God loves those who fight in His cause in 
ranks as though they were a compact building 1 . 

[5] When Moses said to his people, 'O my people! 
why do ye hurt me, when ye know that I am the 
apostle of God to you ? ' and when they swerved, 
God made their hearts to swerve ; for God guides 
not the people who work abomination ! 

And when Jesus the son of Mary said, ' O children 
of Israel ! verily, I am the apostle of God to you, 
verifying the law that was before me and giving you 
glad tidings of an apostle who shall come after me, 
whose name shall be A'hmed 2 !' — but when he did 
come to them with manifest signs, they said, ' This 
is manifest sorcery !' 

And who is more unjust than he who forges 
against God a lie when called unto Islam ? but 
God guides not the unjust people. 

They desire to put out the light of God with 
their mouths; but God will perfect His light, averse 
although the misbeliever be ! 

He it is who sent His Apostle with guidance and 
the religion of truth to set it above all religion ; 
averse although the idolaters may be. 

[10] O ye who believe I shall I lead you to a 
merchandise which will save you from grievous 
woe ? 

To believe in God and His Apostle, and to fight 
strenuously in Gods cause with your property and 



1 Who fight in close and unbroken lines. 

8 A'hmed is equivalent in meaning to Mohammed, and means 
'Praised,' 'Laudable.' The allusion is to the promise of the Paraclete 
in John xvi. 7, the Muslims declaring that the word irapwAriros has 
been substituted in the Greek for 7r«p«Aur<Jr, which would mean the 
same as A'hmed. See Introduction, p. xlix. 



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282 THE QURAN. LXI, n-LXII.2. 

your persons ; that is better for you if ye did but 
know ! 

He will pardon you your sins, and bring you into 
gardens beneath which rivers flow, and goodly 
dwellings in gardens of Eden ; — that is the mighty 
bliss ! 

And other things which ye love, — help from 
God and victory nigh ! — so do thou give the glad 
tidings unto the believers ! 

O ye who believe ! be ye the helpers 1 of God ! 
as Jesus son of Mary said to the apostles, 'Who 
are my helpers for God ? ' Said the apostles, ' We 
are God's helpers 2 ! ' 

And a party of the children of Israel believed, 
and a party misbelieved. And we aided those who 
believed against their enemies, and they were on the 
morrow superior ! 



The Chapter of the Congregation. 
(LXII. Medinah.) 

In the name of the merciful and compassionate 
God. 

What is in the heavens and what is in the earth 
celebrates the praises of God the King, the holy, the 
mighty, the wise ! 

He it is who sent unto the Gentiles s a prophet 
amongst themselves to recite to them His signs and 
to purify them, and to teach them the Book and 

1 Ansdr. 

2 See Part I, p. 53 (Chapter III, verse 45). 

3 See Introduction, p. xlvii, and Part I, p. 156, note. 



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LXII, 2-II. THE CHAPTER OF THE CONGREGATION. 283 

the wisdom, although they were before in obvious 
error. 

And others of them have not yet overtaken 
them 1 ; but He is the mighty, the wise! 

That is God's grace, He gives it to whomsoever 
He will ; for God is Lord of mighty grace. 

[5] The likeness of those who were charged with 
the law and then bore it not is as the likeness of an 
ass bearing books : sorry is the likeness of the 
people who say God's signs are lies ! but God guides 
not an unjust people. 

Say, ' O ye who are Jews ! if ye pretend that ye 
are the clients of God, beyond other people ; then 
wish for death if ye do speak the truth ! ' 

But they never wish for it, through what their 
hands have sent before ! but God knows the unjust. 

Say, ' Verily, the death from which ye flee will 
surely meet you ; then shall ye be sent back to Him 
who knows the unseen and the visible, and He will 
inform you of that which ye have done ! ' 

ye who believe ! when the call to prayer is made 
upon the Congregation Day 2 , then hasten to the 
remembrance of God, and leave off traffic ; that is 
better for you, if ye did but know ! 

[10] And when prayer is performed, then disperse 
abroad in the land, and crave of God's grace ; and 
remember God much ; haply ye may prosper ! 

But when they see merchandise or sport they 
flock to it and leave thee standing 3 ! Say, ' What is 

1 I. e. by embracing Islam. 

1 Friday, called before this 'Harubah. It was the day on which 
Mohammed entered Medinah for the first time. 

* It is said that one Friday a caravan entered the town while 
Mohammed was conducting the public prayers, and the congrega- 



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284 THE QUR'AN. LXII,ii-LXIII,4. 

with God is better than sport and than merchandise, 
for God is the best of providers !' 



The Chapter of the Hypocrites 1 . 
(LXIII. Medinah.) 

In the name of the merciful and compassionate 
God. 

When the hypocrites come to thee, they say, ' We 
bear witness that thou art surely the Apostle of 
God;' but God knows that thou art His Apostle: 
and God bears witness that the hypocrites are liars ! 

They take their faith 2 for a cloak, and then they 
turn folks from God's way : — evil is that which they 
have done ! That is because they believed and then 
disbelieved, wherefore is a stamp set on their hearts 
so that they do not understand ! 

And when thou seest them, their persons please 
thee 3 ; but if they speak, thou listenest to their 
speech : they are like timber propped up* : they 
reckon every noise against them ! They are the 
foe, so beware of them ! — God fight against them, 
how they lie ! 



tion hearing the drams beat rushed out to see the sight, with the 
exception of about twelve of them. 

1 The disaffected portion of the inhabitants of Medinah. See 
Introduction, p. xxxiv. 

2 Or, by a various reading, ' their oaths.' 

3 Abdallah ibn Ubai, the leader of the ' Hypocrites ' (see Intro- 
duction, p. xxxv), was a man of fine presence and eloquent 
address. 

4 I. e. though of tall and imposing presence, they are really like 
mere logs. 



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LXIII, S-ll. THE CHAPTER OF THE HYPOCRITES. 285 

[5] And when it is said to them, ' Come, and the 
Apostle of God will ask forgiveness for you ! ' they 
turn away their heads, and thou mayest see them 
turning away since they are so big with pride ! 

It is the same to them whether thou dost ask 
forgiveness for them, or whether thou dost not 
ask forgiveness for them, — God will not forgive 
them ; verily, God guides not a people who work 
abomination ! 

They it is who say, ' Expend not in alms upon 
those who are with the Apostle of God, in order that 
they may desert him !' — but God's are the treasures 
of the heavens and the earth ; but the hypocrites 
have no sense ! 

They say, 'If we return to el Medlnah, the 
mightier will surely drive out the meaner there- 
from ;' but to God belongs the might, and to His 
Apostle and to the believers ; but the hypocrites 
do not know! 

O ye who believe ! let not your property nor 
your children divert you from the remembrance 
of God, — for whosoever does that, they are those 
who lose ! 

[10] But expend in alms of what we have 
bestowed upon you before death come on any 
one of you, and he says, 'My Lord! wouldst thou 
but have respited me till an appointed time nigh at 
hand, then would I surely give in charity and be 
among the righteous !' But God will never respite a 
soul when its appointed time has come : and God 
of what ye do is well aware ! 



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286 THE QUR'An. LXIV, 1-9. 

The Chapter of Cheating. 
(LXIV. Place of origin doubtful.) 

In the name of the merciful and compassionate 
God. 

What is in the heavens and what is in the earth 
celebrates God's praises; His is the kingdom, and 
His is the praise, and He is mighty over all ! 

He it is who created you, and of you is (one) a 
misbeliever and (one) a believer ; and God on what 
ye do does look. 

He created the heavens and the earth in truth ; 
and has formed you and made excellent your forms ; 
and unto Him the journey is ! 

He knows what is in the heavens and the earth, 
and knows what ye conceal and what ye display ; for 
God knows the nature of men's breasts ! 

[5] Has there not come to you the story of those 
who misbelieved before, and tasted the evil result of 
their affair, and for them was grievous woe ? 

That is because their apostles came to them with 
manifest signs, and they said, ' Shall mortals guide 
us ?' and they misbelieved and turned their backs. 
But God was independent of them ; for God is rich 
and to be praised ! 

Those who misbelieve pretend that they shall 
surely not be raised : say, ' Yea ! by my Lord ! ye 
shall surely be raised : then ye shall be informed 
of that which ye have done ;' for that is easy 
unto God. 

So believe in God and His Apostle and the light 
which we have sent down ; for God of what ye do is 
well aware! 

On the day when he shall gather you to the day 



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LXIV, 9-17. THE CHAPTER OF CHEATING. 287 

of gathering, that is the day of cheating 1 ! but whoso 
believes in God and acts aright, He will cover for 
him his offences, and will bring him into gardens 
beneath which rivers flow, to dwell therein for aye ! 
that is the mighty bliss ! 

[10] But those who misbelieve and say our signs 
are lies, they are the fellows of the Fire, to dwell 
therein for aye ! and evil shall the journey be ! 

No calamity befalls but by the permission of God : 
and whoso believes in God, He will guide his heart ; 
for God all things doth know ! 

So obey God and obey the Apostle 2 : but if ye 
turn your backs — our Aposde has only his plain 
message to preach ! 

God, there is no god but He ; and upon Him let 
the believers rely ! 

O ye who believe ! verily, among your wives and 
children are foes of yours : so beware of them ! But 
if ye pardon, and overlook it, and forgive, — verily, 
God is forgiving, compassionate ! 

[15] Your property and your children are but a 
trial ; and God, with Him is mighty hire ! 

Then fear God as much as ye can ! and hear, and . 
obey, and expend in alms: it is better for yourselves. 
But whosoever is saved from his own covetousness — 
these are the prosperous ! 

If ye lend to God a goodly loan, He will double 
it for you, and will forgive you ; for God is grateful, 
clement ! 

' I. e. both the righteous and the wicked will disappoint each 
other by reversing their positions, the wicked being punished 
while the righteous are in bliss. 

9 This expression seems to indicate that this verse at least was 
revealed at Medinah. 



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288 THE QUr'aN. LXIV,i8-LXV, 4 . 

He knows the unseen and the visible ; the mighty, 
the wise ! 



The Chapter of Divorce. 

(LXV. Medlnah.) 

In the name of the merciful and compassionate 
God. 

O thou prophet! when ye divorce women, then 
divorce them at their term 1 > and calculate the term 
and fear God your Lord. Do not drive them out of 
their houses unless they have committed manifest 
adultery. These are God's bounds, and whoso 
transgresses God's bounds has wronged himself. 
Thou knowest not whether haply God may cause 
something fresh to happen after that 2 . 

And when they have reached their appointed 
time, then retain them with kindness, or separate 
from them with kindness ; and bring as witnesses men 
of equity from among you ; and give upright testi- 
mony to God. That is what He admonishes him 
who believes in God and the last day; and whoso- 
ever fears God, He will make for him a (happy) 
issue, and will provide for him from whence he 
reckoned not. 

And whosoever relies on God, He is sufficient 
for him : verily, God will attain His purpose : — God 
has set for everything a period. 

And such of your women as despair of menstrua- 

1 When they have had three periods of menstruation ; or, if they 
prove with child, after their delivery. See Part I, p. 34. 

2 I. e. whether God may not reconcile them again. 



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LXV, 4-1 1. THE CHAPTER OF DIVORCE. 289 

tion, — if ye doubt, then their term is three months ; 
and such as have not menstruated too. 

And those who are heavy with child their ap- 
pointed time is when they have laid down their 
burden ; and whosoever fears God, He will make 
for him an easy affair. 

[5] That is God's command, He has sent it down 
to you ; and whosoever fears God He will cover for 
him his offences and will make grand for him his 
hire. 

Let them 1 dwell where ye dwell, according to 
your means, and do not harm them, to reduce them 
to straits ; arid if they be heavy with child, then 
pay for them until they lay down their burdens ; 
and if they suckle (the child) for you, then give 
them their hire, and consult among yourselves in 
reason ; but if ye be in difficulties, and another 
woman shall suckle the child for him, let him who 
has plenty expend of his plenty; but he whose pro- 
vision is doled out, let him expend of what God has 
given him ; God will not compel any soul beyond 
what He has given it; — God will make after diffi- 
culty ease ! 

How many a city has turned away from the bid- 
ding of its Lord and His apostles; and we called 
them to a severe account, and we tormented them 
with an unheard-of torment ! 

And they tasted the evil results of their conduct ; 
and the end of their conduct was loss ! 

[10] God prepared for them severe torment ; — 
then fear God, ye who are endowed with minds ! 

Ye who believe ! God has sent down to you a 

1 The divorced women. 
[9] u 

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29O THE QUR AN. LXV, n-LXVI, 2. 

reminder ; — an apostle to recite to you God's mani- 
fest signs; — to bring forth those who believe and 
act aright from darkness into light ! and whoso 
believes in God and acts right He will bring him 
into gardens beneath which rivers flow, to dwell 
therein for ever and for aye ! God has made goodly 
for him his provision ! 

God it is who created seven heavens, and of the 
earth the like thereof. The bidding descends be- 
tween them, that ye may know that God is mighty 
over all, and that God has encompassed all things 
with His knowledge! 



The Chapter of Prohibition 1 . 
(LXVI. Medinah.) 

In the name of the merciful and compassionate 
God. 

thou prophet ! wherefore dost thou prohibit 
what God has made lawful to thee, craving to please 
thy wives ? but God is forgiving, compassionate ! 

God has allowed you to expiate your oaths ; for 

1 This chapter was occasioned by Mohammed's liaison with the 
Coptic girl Mary (see Introduction, p. xl), with whom he lay on the 
day due to'Ayeshah or 'Hafsah. The latter was greatly enraged, and 
Mohammed to pacify her swore never to touch the girl again, and 
enjoined 'Hafsah to keep the matter secret from the rest of his 
wives. She, however, revealed it in confidence to 'Ayeshah ; when 
Mohammed, annoyed at finding his confidence betrayed, not only 
divorced her, but separated himself from his other wives for the 
space of a month, which time he passed in Mary's apartment. 
The chapter is intended to free him from his oath respecting 
Mary, and to reprove his wives for their conduct. 



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LXVI, 2-8. THE CHAPTER OF PROHIBITION. 29 1 

God is your sovereign, and He is the knowing, the 
wise ! 

And when the prophet told as a secret to one of 
his wives a recent event, and when she gave infor- 
mation thereof and exposed it, he acquainted her with 
some of it and avoided part of it. But when he in- 
formed her of it, she said, 'Who told thee this ?' he 
said, ' The wise one, the well-aware informed me. 

' If ye both turn repentant unto God, — for your 
hearts have swerved ! — but if ye back each other up 
against him, — verily, God, He is the sovereign ; and 
Gabriel and the righteous of the believers, and the 
angels after that, will back him up. 

' [5] It may be that his Lord if he divorce you will 
give him in exchange wives better than you, Mus- 
lims, believers, devout, repentant, worshipping, giving 
to fasting — such as have known men and virgins too.' 

O ye who believe! save yourselves and your 
families from the fire, whose fuel is men and stones ; 
— over it are angels stout and stern ; they disobey 
not God in what He bids them, but they do what 
they are bidden ! 

O ye who disbelieve ! excuse not yourselves to- 
day; — ye shall only be rewarded for that which ye 
have done. 

O ye who believe! turn repentant to God with 
sincere repentance ; it may be that thy Lord will 
cover for you your offences and will bring you into 
gardens beneath which rivers flow! — the day God 
will not disgrace the Prophet nor those who believe 
with him ; their light shall run on before them, and 
at their right hands ! they shall say, ' Our Lord ! 
perfect for us our light and forgive us ; verily, Thou 
art mighty over all ! ' 

u 2 

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9 ■*. 



292 THE QURAN. LXVI, p-LXVII, 4. 

O thou prophet! fight strenuously against the 
misbelievers and hypocrites and be stem towards 
them ; for their resort is hell, and an evil journey 
shall it be ! 

[10] God strikes out a parable to those who mis- 
believe : the wife of Noah and the wife of Lot ; 
they were under two of our righteous servants, but 
they betrayed them : and they availed them nothing 
against God ; and it was said, ' Enter the fire with 
those who enter.' 

And God strikes out a parable for those who 
believe : the wife of Pharaoh, when she said, ' My 
Lord, build for me a house with Thee in Paradise, 
and save me from Pharaoh and his works, and save 
me from the unjust people ! ' 

And Mary, daughter of Imran, who guarded her 
private parts, and we breathed therein of our spirit 
and she verified the words of her Lord and His 
books, and was of the devout. 



The Chapter of the Kingdom. 
(LXVII. Mecca.) 

In the name of the merciful and compassionate 
God. 

Blessed be He in whose hand is the kingdom, 
for He is mighty over all ! 

Who created death and life, to try you, which of 
you does best ; for He is the mighty, the forgiving ! 

Who created seven heavens in stories ; thou canst 
not see any discordance in the creation of the 
Merciful ! 

Why, look again ! canst thou see a flaw ? Then 



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LXVII.4-I5- THE CHAPTER OF THE KINGDOM. 293 

look again twice ! — thy look shall return to thee 
driven back and dulled ! 

[5] And we have adorned the lower heaven 
with lamps; and set them to pelt the devils with 1 ; 
and we have prepared for them the torment of the 
blaze ! 

And for those who disbelieve in their Lord is the 
torment of hell, and an evil journey shall it be ! 

When they shall be cast therein they shall hear 
its braying 2 as it boils — it will well-nigh burst 
for rage ! 

Whenever a troop of them is thrown in, its 
treasurers shall ask them, ' Did not a warner come 
to you ?' 

They shall say, ' Yea ! a warner came to us, and 
we called him liar, and said, " God has not sent down 
aught ; ye are but in great error ! " ' 

[10] And they shall say, ' Had we but listened or 
had sense we had not been amongst the fellows of 
the blaze ! ' 

And they will confess their sins ; but ' A vaunt to 
the fellows of the blaze !' 

Verily, those who fear their Lord in secret, for 
them is forgiveness and a great hire ! 

Speak ye secretly or openly, verily, He knows the 
nature of men's breasts ! 

Ay! He knows who created! for He is the 
subtle, the well-aware ! 

[15] He it is who made the earth flat for you ; so 
walk in the spacious sides thereof and eat of His 
provision ; for unto Him the resurrection is ! 

1 See Part I, pp. 50, 51, note 2. 

a Cf. Chapters XXV, verse 12, and XXXI, verse 18. 



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294 THE Q UR AN - LXVH, 16-28. 

Are ye sure that He who is in the heaven will 
not cleave the earth with you, and that it then 
shall quake ? 

Or are ye sure that He who is in the heaven 
will not send against you a heavy sand storm, and 
that ye then shall know how the warning was ? 

But those before them did call the apostles liars, 
and what a change it was ! 

Or have they not looked at the birds above them 
expanding their wings or closing them ? — none holds 
them in except the Merciful One ; for He on every- 
thing doth look. 

[20] Or who is this who will be a host for you, to 
help you against the Merciful ? — the misbelievers 
are only in delusion! 

Or who is this who will provide you if He hold 
back His provision? — Nay, but they persist in 
perverseness and aversion! 

Is he who walks prone upon his face more guided 
than he who walks upright upon a straight path ? 

Say, 'It is He who produced you and made for 
you hearing and sight and hearts' — little is it that 
ye give thanks. 

Say, 'It is He who sowed you in the earth, and 
unto Him shall ye be gathered!' 

[25] They say, 'When shall this threat be, if ye 
do speak the truth ?' 

Say, ' The knowledge is only with God ; and I am 
but a plain warner!' 

And when they see it nigh, sorry shall be the 
faces of those who misbelieve ; and it shall be said, 
' This is that for which ye used to call !' 

Say, ' Have ye considered, whether God destroy 
me and those with me, or whether we obtain mercy, 



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LXVII, 28-LXVIII, 11. THE CHAPTER OF THE PEN. 295 

yet who will protect the misbelievers from grievous 
torment ? ' 

Say, ' He is the Merciful ; we believe in Him, and 
upon Him do we rely; and ye shall shortly know 
who it is that is in obvious error !' 

[30] Say, ' Have ye considered if your waters on 
the morrow should have sunk, who is to bring you 
flowing water ?' 



The Chapter of the Pen. 
(LXVIII. Mecca.) 

In the name of the merciful and compassionate 
God. 

N. 1 By the pen, and what they write, thou art not, 
by God's grace, mad ! and, verily, thine is a hire that 
is not grudged ! [5] and, verily, thou art of a grand 
nature 2 ! 

But thou shalt see and they shall see which of you 
is the infatuated. 

Verily, thy Lord He knows best who errs from His 
way; and He knows best those who are guided. 

Then obey not those who call thee liar; they 
would fain that thou shouldst be smooth with 
them, then would they be smooth with thee ! 

[10] And obey not any mean swearer 3 , a back- 

1 The Arabic name of the letter nun signifies both ' a fish ' and 
'an inkstand;' the symbol is by some supposed to refer to Jonah, 
mentioned in verse 48, and by others to writing on the eternal 
tablets (see Part I, p. 2, note 2), to which the first words of the 
chapter apply. 

1 For bearing so meekly the insults of the misbelievers. 

* The person meant is, probably, Waltd ibn Muj'Mirah, the 
inveterate enemy of the prophet 



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296 THE QUr'An. LXVIII, 11-31. 

biter, a walker about with slander ; a forbidder of 
good, a transgressor, a sinner ; rude, and base-born 
too ; though he have wealth and sons ! 

[15] When our signs are recited to him he says, 
'Old folks' tales!' 

We will brand him on the snout ! 

Verily, we have tried them as we tried the fellows 
of the garden when they swore, 'We will cut its 
fruit at morn!' 

But they made not the exception 1 ; and there 
came round about it an encompassing calamity 
from thy Lord the while they slept; [20] and on 
the morrow it was as one the fruit of which is cut. 

And they cried to each other in the morning, 
' Go early to your tilth if ye would cut it !' 

So they set off, saying privily to each other, 
' There shall surely enter it to-day unto you no 
poor person ! ' 

[25] And they went early deciding to be stingy 2 . 

And when they saw it they said, ' Verily, we have 
erred ! Nay, we are forbidden (its fruit) !' 

Said the most moderate of them, ' Said I not to 
you, " unless ye celebrate God's praises I" ' 

Said they, 'Celebrated be the praises of our Lord ! 
verily, we were unjust!' 

[30] And they approached each other with mutual 
blame. 

Said they, ' O woe to us ! verily, we have been 
outrageous ! Haply our Lord may give us instead a 
better than it ; verily, we unto our Lord do yearn.' 



1 I. e. they did not add, ' If God please 1 ' 
' Or, according to another interpretation, 'with a determined 
purpose.' 



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LXVIII, 33-48. THE CHAPTER OF THE PEN. 297 

Thus is the torment, but, verily, the torment of 
the hereafter is greater, if ye did but know ! 

Verily, for the pious with their Lord are gardens 
of pleasure ! 

[35] Shall we then make the Muslims like the 
sinners ? What ails you ? how ye judge ! 

Or have ye a book in which ye can study, that ye 
are surely to have what ye may choose ? 

Or have ye oaths binding on us until the judg- 
ment day that ye are surely to have what ye may 
judge ? 

[40] Ask them, which of them will vouch for this ? 

Or have they partners, then let them bring their 
partners if they do speak the truth ? 

On the day when the leg shall be bared x ; and 
they shall be called to adore and shall not be able ! 

Lowering their looks, abasement shall attack 
them, for they were called to adore while yet they 
were safe ! 

But let me alone with him who calls this new 
discourse a lie. We will surely bring them down 
by degrees from whence they do not know. 

[45] And I will let them have their way ! for my 
device is sure. 

Or dost thou ask them a hire for it while they 
are burdened with debts ? 

Or have they the knowledge of the unseen, so 
that they write ? 

But wait patiently for the judgment of thy Lord, 
and be not like the fellow of the fish 2 , when he cried 
out as he was choking with rage. 

1 An expression signifying any great calamity or battle, because 
the non-combatants gird up their loins to be ready for flight. 
8 Jonah. 



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298 THE QUR'AN. LXVIII,49-LXJX,ii. 

Had it not been that grace from his Lord reached 
him, he would have been cast out on the naked 
(shore) and blamed the while ! 

[50] But his Lord elected him, and made him of 
the pious. 

The misbelievers well-nigh upset thee with their 
looks when they hear the reminder, and they say, 
'Surely he is mad!' 

And yet it is but a reminder to the worlds ! 



The Chapter of the Infallible. 
(LXIX. Mecca.) 

In the name of the merciful and compassionate 
God. 

The Infallible, what is the Infallible ? and what 
should make thee know what the Infallible is ? 

Thamud and 'Ad called the Striking x Day a lie ; 
[5] but as for Thamud they perished by the shock ; 
and as for 'Ad they perished with the violent cold 
blast of wind, which He subjected against them for 
seven nights and eight days consecutively. Thou 
mightest see the people therein prostrate as though 
they were palm stumps thrown down, and canst 
thou see any of them left ? 

And Pharaoh and those before him of the over- 
turned cities 2 committed sins, [10] and they rebelled 
against the apostle of their Lord, and He seized 
them with an excessive punishment. 

Verily, we, when the water surged, bore you on 

1 Cf. Chapter XIII, verse 31, Part I, p. 236. 

2 Sodom and Gomorrah; cf. Part I, p. 183, note 1. 



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LXIX, 11-39. THE CHAPTER OF THE INFALLIBLE. 299 

it in a sailing ship, to make it a memorial for you, 
and that the retentive ear might hold it. 
p"" And when the trumpet shall be blown with one 
' blast, and the earth shall be borne away, and the 
mountains too, and both be crushed with one crush- 
ing; [15] on that day shall the inevitable happen; 
and the heaven on that day shall be cleft asunder, 
for on that day shall it wane ! and the angels upon 
the sides thereof ; and above them on that day shall 
eight bear the throne of thy Lord ! 

On the day when ye shall be set forth no hidden 
thing of yours shall be concealed. 

And as for him who is given his book in his right 
hand, he shall say, ' Here ! take and read my book. 
[20] Verily, I thought that I should meet my reckon- 
ing;' and he shall be in a pleasing life, in a lofty 
garden, whose fruits are nigh to cull — ' Eat ye and 
drink with good digestion, for what ye did aforetime 
in the days that have gone by !' 

[25] But as for him who is given his book in his 
left hand he shall say, ' O, would that I had not 
received my book ! I did not know what my account 
would be. O, would that it 1 had been an end of 
me ! my wealth availed me not ! my authority has 
perished from me !' [30] ' Take him and fetter him, 
then in hell broil him ! then into a chain whose length 
is seventy cubits force him ! verily, he believed not 
in the mighty God, nor was he particular to feed 
the poor : [35] therefore he has not here to-day any 
warm friend, nor any food except foul ichor, which 
none save sinners shall eatTj 

I need not swear by what ye see or what ye do 

1 I. e. death. 



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300 THE QURAN. LXIX, 39-LXX, 4. 

not see, [40] verily, it is the speech of a noble 
apostle ; and it is not the speech of a poet : — little 
is it ye believe ! 

And it is not the speech of a soothsayer, — little 
is it that ye mind! — a revelation from the Lord of 
the worlds. 

Why if he had invented against us any sayings, 
[45] we would have seized him by the right hand, 
then we would have cut his jugular vein ; nor could 
any one of you have kept us off from him. 

Verily, it is a memorial to the pious ; and, verily, 
we know that there are amongst you those who say 
it is a lie ; [50] and, verily, it is a source of sighing to 
the misbelievers ; and, verily, it is certain truth ! 

Therefore celebrate the name of thy mighty Lord ! 



The Chapter of the Ascents. 
(LXX. Mecca.) 

In the name of the merciful and compassionate 
God. 

An asker 1 asked for torment that must befall, for 
the unbelievers ; there is no repelling it ; from God 
the Lord of the ascents 2 , whereby ascend the angels 

1 The person referred to is said to have been either Abu Ga.h\, 
who challenged Mohammed to cause a portion of the heaven to 
fall on them, see Chapter XXVI, verse 187, p. 97, or one Na<#r 
ibn el 'H&reth, who said of IsUtm, ' If this be the truth from Thee, 
then rain down on us stones from heaven ! ' 

2 Either steps by which the prayers of the righteous or the angels 
ascend to heaven ; or the word may refer to the various degrees of 
the angels, or to the seven heavens themselves. See Introduction, 
p. lxx. 



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LXX, 4-35. THE CHAPTER OF THE ASCENTS. 3OI 

and the Spirit unto Him in a day whose length is 
fifty thousand years 1 . 

[5] Wherefore be patient with fair patience; verily, 
they see it as afar off, but we see it nigh ! 

The day when the heaven shall be as molten 
brass, and the mountains shall be like flocks of 
wool ; [10] when no warm friend shall question 
friend ; they shall gaze on each other, and the sinner 
would fain give as a ransom from the torment of 
that day his sons and his mate, and his brother 
and his kin who stand by him, and all who are in 
the earth, that yet it might rescue him ! 

[15] Nay, verily, it is a flame, — dragging by the 
scalp ! it shall call those who retreated and turned 
their backs and who amassed and hoarded ! 

Verily, man is by nature rash 2 ! [20] when evil 
touches him, very impatient ; when good touches 
him, niggardly; all save those who pray, who re- 
main at their prayers, and in whose wealth is a 
reasonable due (set aside) [25] for him who asks 
and him who is kept from asking, and those who 
believe in a day of judgment, and those who shrink 
in terror from the torment of their Lord ; — verily, 
the torment of their Lord is not safe; — and those 
who guard their private parts, [30] except for their 
wives or the (slave girls) whom their right hands 
possess, for they are not to be blamed ; but whoso 
craves beyond this, they are the transgressors ; and 
those who observe their trusts and their compacts, 
and those who are upright in their testimonies, and 
those who keep their prayers, [35] these shall dwell 
in gardens honoured. 

1 Cf. Chapter XXXII, verse 4, p. 135. 

2 Cf. Chapter XVII, verse 12, p. 2. 



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o 



02 THE QUR AN. LXX, 36-LXXI, 4. 



What ails the misbelievers that they hurry on 
before thee, crowding together on the right and 
on the left 1 ? Does every man of them wish to 
enter the garden of pleasure ? 

Nay, we created them of what they know ! 

[40] And I need not swear by the Lord of the 
easts and the wests 2 ; verily, we are able to change 
them for others better, nor are we prevented ! 

So leave them to plunge in discussion, and to 
play until they meet that day of theirs which they 
are threatened with, the day when they shall come 
forth in haste from the graves, as though they 
flock to a standard ! with their looks abashed ; 
meanness shall cover them ! That is the day which 
they were promised ! 



The Chapter of Noah. 
(LXXI. Mecca.) 

In the name of the merciful and compassionate 
God. 

Verily, we sent Noah to his people, ' Warn thy 
people before there come to them a grievous tor- 
ment ! ' 

Said he, ' O my people ! verily, I am to you an 
obvious warner, that ye serve God and fear Him 
and obey me. He will pardon you your sins, and 
will defer you unto an appointed time ; verily, God's 

1 Cf. pp. 262, 263. 

' I. e. of the east and the west ; or of the various points of the 
horizon at which the sun rises and sets in the course of the year. 



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LXXI, 4-24. THE CHAPTER OF NOAH. 303 

appointed time when it comes will not be deferred, 
did ye but know !' 

[5] Said he, ' My Lord ! verily, I have called 
my people by night and day, and my call did but 
increase them in flight; and, verily, every time 
I called them, that Thou mightest pardon them, 
they placed their fingers in their ears and tried to 
cover themselves with their garments and persisted, 
and were, very big with pride. Then I called them 
openly ; then I published to them and I spoke to 
them in secret, and I said, " Ask forgiveness of your 
Lord, verily, He is very forgiving. [10] He will 
send the rain upon you in torrents, and will extend 
to you wealth and children, and will make for you 
gardens, and will make for you rivers. What ails 
you that ye hope not for something serious from 
God, when He has created you by steps 1 ? Do ye 
not see how God has created the seven heavens in 
stories, [15] and has set the moon therein for a light, 
and set the sun for a lamp ? and God has made you 
grow out of the earth, and then He will make you 
return thereto, and will make you come forth there- 
from ; and God has made for you the earth a carpet 
that ye may walk therein in broad paths." ' 

[20] Said Noah, ' My Lord ! verily, they have 
rebelled against me, and followed him whose wealth 
and children have but added to his loss, and they 
have plotted a great plot, and said, "Ye shall 
surely not leave your gods : ye shall surely neither 
leave Wadd, nor Suwa'h, nor Ya^UTH, nor Ya'uq, 
nor Nasr 2 , and they led astray many." ' And thou 



1 See Chapter XXII, verse 5, p. 56. 

2 For these five idols, see Introduction, p. xii. 



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304 THE QURAN. LXXI, 24-LXXII, 5. 

(Mohammed) wilt only increase the unjust in their 
error — [25] because of their sins they were drowned 
and made to enter into the fire, and they found no 
helpers against God ! 

And Noah said, ' My Lord ! leave not upon the 
earth one dweller of the misbelievers. Verily, Thou, 
if Thou shouldst leave them, they will lead astray 
Thy servants, and they will only bear for children 
sinners and misbelievers. My Lord ! pardon me 
and my two parents, and whomsoever enters my 
house believing, and (pardon) the believers men 
and women — but Thou shalt only increase the 
unjust in loss.' 



The Chapter of the Gtnn. 
(LXXII. Mecca.) 

In the name of the merciful and compassionate 
God. 

Say, 'I have been inspired that there listened a 
company of the ^inn 1 , and they said, "We have 
heard a marvellous Quran that guides to the right 
direction ; and we believe therein, and we join no 
one with our Lord, for, verily, He — may the majesty 
of our Lord be exalted ! — has taken to Himself 
neither consort nor son. 

' " And, verily, a fool among us spake against God 
wide of the mark ! 

' " [5] And we thought that men and ^"inn would 
never speak a lie against God. 

1 See Introduction, pp. xiii-xiv. The occasion of Mohammed's 
preaching to the ginn was on his returning from his unsuccessful 
errand to TS'if ; see Introduction, p. xxx. 



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LXXII, 6-17. THE CHAPTER OF THE GINN. 305 

'"And there are persons amongst men who seek 
for refuge with persons amongst the ^inn 1 ; but 
they increase them in their perverseness. And they 
thought, as ye thought, that God would not raise up 
any one from the dead. - 

' " But we touched the heavens and found them 
filled with a mighty guard and shooting-stars ; and 
we did sit in certain seats thereof to listen ; but 
whoso of us listens now finds a shooting-star for 
him on guard. 

' " [10] And, verily, we know not whether evil be 
meant for those who are in the earth, or if their 
Lord means right by them. 

' "And of us are some who are pious, and of us are 
some who are otherwise : we are in separate bands. 

' "And we thought that we could not frustrate God 
in the earth, and could not frustrate Him by flight. 

' " But, verily, when we heard the guidance we 
believed therein, and he who believes in his Lord 
shall fear neither diminution nor loss. 

' " And, verily, of us are some who are Muslims, 
and of us some are trespassers ; but those of us who 
are Muslims they strive after right direction; [15] 
and as for the trespassers they are fuel for hell." ' 

And if they 2 will go right upon the way, we will 
irrigate them with copious water to try them there- 
by ; and whoso turns from the remembrance of his 
Lord He will drive him to severe torment. 

And (say) that the mosques are God's, and that ye 

1 The pagan Arabs when they found themselves in a lonely 
place, such as they supposed the #inn to haunt, used to say, ' I 
take refuge in the Lord of this valley from the foolish among his 
people ! ' 

* The Meccans. 

[9] x 

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306 THE QUr'An. LXXII,ir-LXXIII,4. 

should not call on any one with God, and that when 
God's servant 1 stood up to pray they 2 called out to 
him and well-nigh crowded upon him. [20] Say, 'I only 
call upon my Lord, and I join no one with Him.' 

Say, ' Verily, I cannot control for you either harm, 
or right direction.' 

Say, 'Verily, as for me none can protect me 
against God, nor do I find any refuge beside Him, — 
except delivering the message from God and His 
errands : and whoso rebels against God and His 
Apostle, verily, for him is the fire of hell for them 
to dwell therein for ever and for aye!' 

[25] Until when they see what they are threatened 
with, then shall they surely know who is most weak 
at helping and fewest in numbers ! 

Say, ' I know not if what ye are threatened with 
be nigh, or if my Lord will set for it a term. He 
knows the unseen, and He lets no one know His 
unseen, save such apostle as He is well pleased 
with : for, verily, He sends marching before him 
and behind him a guard ! ' 

That He may know that they have delivered the 
errands of their Lord, for He compasses what they 
have, and reckons everything by number. 



The Chapter of the Enwrapped. 
(LXXIII. Mecca.) 

In the name of the merciful and compassionate 
God. 

O thou who art enwrapped ! rise by night except 
a little — the half, or deduct therefrom a little, or 

1 Mohammed. a The^inn. 



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LXXI1I, 4-19. THE CHAPTER OF THE ENWRAPPED. 367 

add thereto, and chant the Quran chanting. [5] 
Verily, we will cast on thee a heavy speech. 

Verily, the early part of the night is stronger in 
impressions and more upright in speech ! 

Verily, thou hast by day a long employment ; but 
mention the name of thy Lord and devote thyself 
thoroughly to Him, the Lord of the east and the 
west ; there is no god but He ; then take Him for a 
guardian ! 

[10] And endure patiently what they say, and flee 
from them with a decorous flight. 

And leave me and those who say it is a lie, who 
are possessed of comfort ; and let them bide for a 
while. 

Verily, with us are heavy fetters and hell-fire, and 
food that chokes, and mighty woe ! 

On the day when the earth and the mountains 
shall tremble and the earth shall be as a crumbling 
sand-hill ! 

[15] Verily, we have sent unto you an apostle 
bearing witness against you, as we sent an apostle 
unto Pharaoh. 

But Pharaoh rebelled against the apostle, and we 
seized him with an overpowering punishment. 

Then how will ye shield yourselves if ye mis- 
believe from the day which shall make children grey- 
headed, whereon the heaven cleaves — its promise 
shall be fulfilled ! 

Verily, this is a memorial, and whoso will, let him 
take unto his Lord a way 1 . 

1 From verse 20 the rest of the stirah seems from its style to 
belong to the Medinah period ; and there is a tradition ascribed to 
'Ayeshah that it was- revealed a year later thaii the earlier part of 
the chapter. 

X 2 

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308 THE .QUR'AN. LXXIII, 20-LXXIV, 9. 

[20] Verily, thy Lord knows that thou dost stand 
up to pray nearly two-thirds of the night, or the 
half of it or the third of it, as do part of those who 
are with thee ; for God measures the night and the 
day; He knows that ye cannot calculate it, and He 
turns relentant towards you. 

So read what is easy of the Qur'an. He knows 
that there will be of you some who are sick and 
others who beat about in the earth craving the grace 
of God, and others who are righting in the cause of 
God. Then read what is easy of it and be steadfast 
in prayer, and gi.ve alms, and lend to God a goodly 
loan, for what ye send forward for yourselves of good 
ye will find it with God. It is better and a greater 
hire ; and ask ye pardon of God : verily, God is for- 
giving, merciful ! 



The Chapter of the 'Covered 1 .' 

(LXXIV. Mecca.) 

In the name of the merciful and compassionate 
God. 

O thou who art covered ! rise up and warn ! 

And thy Lord magnify! 

[5] And thy garments purify ! 

And abomination shun ! 

And grant not favours to gain increase ! 

And for thy Lord await ! 

And when the trump is blown, — for that day is a 



1 The first five verses of this chapter form the second revelation 
by the angel Gabriel in person, and the first after the Fatrah, or 
period of ' Intermission.' See Introduction, p. xxii. 



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LXXIV, 9-36. THE CHAPTER OF THE COVERED. 309 

difficult day! [10] for the misbelievers aught but 
easy ! 

Leave me alone with him I have created, and for 
whom I have made extensive wealth 1 , and sons that 
he may look upon, and for whom I have smoothed 
things down. [15] Then he desires that I should in- 
crease ! nay, verily, he is hostile to our signs ! I will 
drive him up a hill ! Then he reflected and planned! 
May he be killed, — how he planned ! [20] Again, may 
he be killed, — how he planned ! Then he looked ; 
then he frowned and scowled ; then he retreated and 
was big with pride and said, 'This is only magic 
exhibited! [25] this is only mortal speech!' — I will 
broil him in hell-fire! and what shall make thee 
know what hell-fire is ? It will not leave and will 
not let alone. It scorches the flesh ; [30] over it are 
nineteen (angels). 

We have made only angels guardians of the fire, 
and we have only made their number a trial to those 
who misbelieve ; that those who have been given the 
Book may be certain, and that those who believe 
may be increased in faith ; and that those who have 
been given the Book and the believers may not 
doubt ; and that those in whose hearts is sickness, 
and the misbelievers may say, ' What does God mean 
by this as a parable ?' 

Thus God leads astray whom He pleases, and 
guides him He pleases : and none knows the hosts of 
thy Lord save Himself; and it is only a reminder to 
mortals ! 

[35] Nay, by the moon ! 

And the night when it retires ! 

1 The person meant is generally supposed to be Walfd ibn 
Mu^airah, one of the chiefs of the Quraw . 

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3IO THE QURAN. LXXIV, 37-LXXV, t. 

And the morning when it brightly dawns ! 

Verily, it is one of the greatest misfortunes ; a 
warning to mortals ; [40] for him amongst you who 
wishes to press forward or to tarry! 

Every soul is pledged 1 for what it earns; except 
the fellows of the right : in gardens shall they ask 
each other about the sinners! — 'What drove you 
into hell-fire?' 

They shall say, 'We weren't 2 of those who prayed ; 
[45] we didn't feed the poor ; but we did plunge into 
discussion with those who plunged, and we called the 
judgment day a lie until the certainty 3 did come 
to us!' 

But there shall not profit them the intercession of 
the intercessors. 

[50] What ailed them that they turned away from 
the memorial as though they were timid asses fleeing 
from a lion ? 

Nay, every man of them wished that he might 
have given him books spread open ! 

Nay, but they did not fear the hereafter ! 

Nay, it is a memorial ! and let him who will re- 
member it ; [55] but none will remember it except 
God please. He is most worthy of fear ; and he is 
most worthy to forgive ! 



r 



The Chapter of the Resurrection. 
(LXXV. Mecca.) 
In the name of the merciful and compassionate 
God. 

I need not swear by the resurrection day ! 

1 See Chapter LII, verse 21, p. 249, note 1. 
* See Part I, p. 78, note 1. 
s I. e. death. 



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LXXV.2-30. THE CHAPTER OF THE RESURRECTION. 3 1 1 

Nor need I swear by the self-accusing soul ! 

Does man think that we shall not collect his 
bones ? Able are we to arrange his finger tips ! 

[5] Nay, but man wishes to be wicked hence- 
forward ! he asks, When is the resurrection day ? 

But when the sight shall be dazed, and the moon 
be eclipsed, and the sun and the moon be together, 
[10] and man shall say upon that day, 'Where is a 
place to flee to ?' — nay, no refuge ! and to thy Lord 
that day is the sure settlement : He will inform man 
on that day of what He has sent forward or delayed ! 

Nay, man is an evidence against himself, [15] and 
even if he thrusts forward his excuses — . 

Do not move thy tongue thereby to hasten it 1 . It 
is for us to collect it and to read it ; and when we 
read it then follow its reading. And again it is for 
us to explain it 

[20] Nay, indeed, but ye love the transient life, 
and ye neglect the hereafter ! 

Faces on that day shall be bright, gazing on their 
Lord ! 

And faces on that day shall be dismal ! 

[25] Thou wilt think that a back-breaking calamity 
has happened to them! 

Nay, but when the [soul] comes up into the throat, 
and it is said, 'Who will charm it back ?' and he 
will think that it is his parting [hour]. And leg 
shall be pressed on leg 2 ; [30] unto thy Lord on that 
day shall the driving be. 

For he did not believe 8 and did not pray ; but 

1 I.e. the revelation; see p. 16, note 2, and p. 43, note 2. The 
words are addressed to Mohammed by the angel Gabriel. 
* I. e. in the death struggle. 
8 Or did not give in charity. 



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312 THE QURAN. LXXV, 30-LXXVI, 8. 

he said it was a lie, and turned his back ! Then he 
went to his people haughtily — woe to thee, and woe 
to thee ! again woe to thee, and woe to thee ! 

Does man think that he shall be left to himself ? 

Wasn't 1 he a clot of emitted seed? Then he 
was -congealed blood, and (God) created him, and 
fashioned him, and made of him pairs, male and 
female. 

[35] Is not He able to quicken the dead ? 




The Chapter of Man. 
(LXXVI. Mecca.) 

In the name of the merciful and compassionate 
God. 

Does there not come on man a portion of time 
when he is nothing worth mentioning 2 ? 

Verily, we created man from a mingled clot, to try 
him ; and we gave him hearing and sight. Verily, 
we guided him in the way, whether he be grateful or 
ungrateful. 

Verily, we have prepared for those who misbelieve 
chains and fetters and a blaze ! 

[5] Verily, the righteous shall drink of a cup tem- 
pered with Kafur 8 , a spring from which God's 
servants shall drink and make it gush out as they 
please ! 

They who fulfil their vows, and fear a day, the evil 
which shall fly abroad, and who give food for His 

1 See Part I, p. 78, note 1. 

2 While in the womb. 

s Name of a river in Paradise, so called because it is white, cool, 
and sweet-smelling, as camphor is. 



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LXXVI,8-26. THE CHAPTER OF MAN. 313 

love to the poor and the orphan and the captive. 
' We only feed you for God's sake ; we desire not 
from you either reward or thanks ; [10] we fear from 
our Lord a frowning, calamitous day ! ' 

And God will guard them from the evil of that 
day and will cast on them brightness and joy; and 
their reward for their patience shall be Paradise and 
silk! reclining therein upon couches they shall 
neither see therein sun nor piercing cold 1 ; and close 
down upon them shall be its shadows ; and lowered 
over them its fruits to cull; [15] and they shall be 
served round with vessels of silver and goblets that 
are as flagons — flagons of silver which they shall mete 
out! and they shall drink therein a cup tempered 
with Zin^abil 2 , a spring therein named Silsabll ! 
and there shall go round about them eternal boys ; 
when thou seest them thou wilt think them scat- 
tered pearls ; [20] and when thou seest them thou 
shalt see pleasure and a great estate ! On them 
shall be garments of green embroidered satin and 
brocade ; and they shall be adorned with bracelets of 
silver ; and their Lord shall give them to drink pure 
drink ! Verily, this is a reward for you, and your 
efforts are thanked. 

Verily, we have sent down upon thee the Qur'an. 
Wherefore wait patiently for the judgment of thy 
Lord, and obey not any sinner or misbeliever 
amongst them. [25] But remember the name of 
thy Lord morning, and evening, and through the 



1 Zamhartr, the word here rendered ' piercing cold,' is by some 
authorities interpreted to mean ' the moon.' 

2 Zin^bil signifies ' ginger.' 



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314 THE QURAN. LXXVI, 26-LXXVII, 11. 

night, and adore Him, and celebrate His praises the 
whole night long. 

Verily, these love the transitory life, and leave 
behind them a heavy day ! 

We created them and strengthened their joints ; 
and if we please we can exchange for the likes of 
them in their stead. Verily, this is a memorial, and 
whoso will, let him take unto his Lord a way. 

[30] But ye will not please except God please ! 
Verily, God is knowing, wise. 

He makes whomsoever He pleases to enter into 
His mercy ; but the unjust He has prepared for them 
a grievous woe ! 



The Chapter of those Sent. 
(LXXVII. Mecca.) 

In the name of the merciful and compassionate God. 

By those sent in a series 1 ! 

And by those who speed swiftly ! 

And by the dispensers abroad ! 

And by the separators apart ! 

[5] And by those who instil the reminder, as an 

excuse or warning! 
Verily, what ye are threatened with shall surely 

happen ! 
And when the stars shall be erased ! 
And when the heaven shall be cleft ! 
[10] And when the mountains shall be winnowed! 
And when the apostles shall have a time appointed 

for them ! 

1 Either angels or winds, or as some interpret the passage, the 
verses of the Qur'dn. 



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LXXVH, 12-41. THE CHAPTER OF THOSE SENT. 315 

For what day is the appointment made ? 

For the day of decision ! and what shall make thee 
know what the decision is ? 

[15] Woe on that day for those who say it is 
a lie! 

Have we not destroyed those of yore, and then 
followed them up with those of the latter day? 
Thus do we with the sinners. 

Woe on that day for those who say it is a lie ! 

[20] Did we not create you from contemptible water, 
and place it in a sure depository unto a certain 
decreed term ? for we are able and well able too ! 

Woe on that day for those who say it is a lie ! 

[25] Have we not made for them the earth to hold 
the living and the dead ? and set thereon firm 
mountains reared aloft ? and given you to drink 
water in streams ? 

Woe on that day for those who say it is a lie ! 

Go off to that which ye did call a lie ! [30] Go off 
to the shadow of three columns, that shall not 
shade nor avail against the flame ! Verily, it 
throws off sparks like towers, — as though they 
were yellow camels ! 

Woe on that day for those who say it is a lie ! 

[35] This is the day when they may not speak, — 
when they are not permitted to excuse them- 
selves ! 

Woe on that day for those who say it is a lie ! 

This is the day of decision ! We have assembled 
you with those of yore ; if ye have any stratagem 
employ it now ! 

[40] Woe on that day for those who say it is 
a lie! 

Verily, the pious are amid shades and springs and 



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316 THE QURAN. LXXVII, 4t-LXXVIII, lg. 

fruit such as they love. — ' Eat and drink with 

good digestion, for that which ye have done ! ' 
Verily, thus do we reward those who do well. 
[45] Woe on that day for those who say it is 

a lie ! 
' Eat and enjoy yourselves for a little ; verily, ye are 

sinners ! ' 
Woe on that day for those who say it is a lie ! 
And when it is said to them bow down, they bow 

not down. 
Woe on that day for those who say it is a lie ! 
[50] And in what new discourse after it will they 

believe ? 



The Chapter of the Information. 
(LXXVIII. Mecca.) 

In the name of the merciful and compassionate 
God. 

Of what do they ask each other ? — Of the mighty 
information whereon they do dispute 1 ? nay, they 
shall know too well ! [5] Again, nay, they shall 
know too well ! 

Have we not set the earth as a couch, and the 
mountains as stakes, and created you in pairs, and 
made your sleep for rest, [10] and made the night 
a garment, and made the day for livelihood, and 
built above you seven solid (heavens) and set a 
burning lamp, and sent down from the rain express- 
ing clouds water pouring forth, [15] to bring out 

1 I. e. the news of the resurrection. 



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LXXVIII.I5-4'- THE CHAPTER OF THE INFORMATION. 317 

thereby the grain and herb and gardens thickly 
planted ? 
^ — Verily, the day of decision is an appointed time ; 
and the day when the trumpet shall be blown, and 
ye shall come in troops, and the heavens shall be 
opened, and shall be all doors, [20] and the moun- 
tains shall be moved, and shall be like a mirage ! 

Verily, hell is an ambuscade; a reward for the 
outrageous, to tarry therein for ages. They shall 
not taste therein cool nor drink, [25] but only boiling 
water and pus ; — a fit reward]^ 

Verily, they did not hope for the account ; but 
they ever said our signs were lies. 

Everything have we remembered in a book. 

[30] 'Then taste, for we will only increase your 
torment!' 

Verily, for the pious is a blissful place, — gardens 
and vineyards, and girls with swelling breasts of the 
same age as themselves, and a brimming cup ; [35] 
they shall hear therein no folly and no lie ; — a re- 
ward from thy Lord, a sufficient gift ! The Lord of 
the heavens and the earth, and what is between 
them both, — the Merciful, — they cannot obtain 
audience of Him M 

The day when the Spirit and the angels shall stand 
in ranks, they shall not speak save to whom the Mer- 
ciful permits, and who speaks aright. 

That is the true day ; and whoso pleases let him 
take to a resort unto his Lord ! 

[40] Verily, we have warned you of a torment 
that is nigh : on a day when man shall see what his 
two hands have sent forward ; and the misbeliever 
shall say, 'Would that I were dust!' 



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3l8 THE QUR'AN. LXXIX i-2t. 



r 



The Chapter of those who Tear Out. 
(LXXIX. Mecca.) 

In the name of the merciful and compassionate 
God. 

By those who tear out violently ! 

And by those who gaily releasf£) 

And by those who float through the air ! 

And the preceders who precede 2 ! 

[5] And those who manage the affair ! 

On the day when the quaking 3 quakes which the 
following one shall succeed ! Hearts on that day 
shall tremble ; eyes thereon be humbled ! 

[10] They say, ' Shall we be sent back to our old 
course ? — What! when we are rotten bones ?' they 
say, ' That then were a losing return ! ' J 

But it will only be one scare, and lo ! they will be 
on the surface ! 

[15] Has the story of Moses 4 come to you ? when 
his Lord addressed him in the holy valley of Tuva, 
' Go unto Pharaoh, verily , he is outrageous ; and 
say, " Hast thou a wish to purify thyself, and that 
I may guide thee to thy Lord, and thou mayest 
fear?"' 

[20] So he showed him the greatest sign; but 



1 Referring to the angel of death and his assistants, who tear 
away the souls of the wicked violently, and gently release the souls 
of the good. 

* The angels who precede the souls of the righteous to Paradise. 
3 The trumpet blast at the last day, which shall make the- uni- 
verse quake. 

* See Chapter XX, verse 12, p. 35. 



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IAXIX, 21-45- THE CHAPTER OF THOSE WHO TEAR OUT. 319 

$>. he called him a liar and rebelled. Then he re- 
treated hastily, and gathered, and proclaimed, and 
said, ' I am your Lord most High !' [25] but God 
seized him with the punishment of the future life 
and of the former. 

Verily, in that is a lesson to him who fears ! 

Are ye harder to create or the heaven that He 
has built ? He raised its height and fashioned it ; 
and made its night to cover it, and brought forth 
its noonday light ; [30] and the earth after that He 
did stretch out. He brings forth from it its water 
and its pasture. 

And the mountains He did firmly set, a provision 
for you and for your cattle. 
T~" And when the great predominant calamity shall 
come, [35] on the day when man shall remember 
what he strove after, and hell shall be brought out 
for him who sees ! 

And as for him who was outrageous and pre- 
ferred the life of this world, verily, hell is the 
resort ! 

[40] But as for him who feared the station of his 

Lord, and prohibited his soul from lust, verily, 

Paradise is the resort! 

/ >u a_ They shall ask thee about the Hour, for when it 

w is set. Whereby canst thou mention it ? Unto thy 

Lord its period belongs. 

[45] Thou art only a warner to him who fears it. 

On the day they see it, it will be as though they 
had only tarried an evening or the noon thereof j 

foilVBHSlTY, 

w - * * * 

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320 THE QURAN. LXXX, i-i2. 



The Chapter ' He Frowned.' 
(LXXX. Mecca.) 

In the name of the merciful and compassionate 
God. 

He frowned and turned his back, for that 'there 
came to him a blind man 1 ! 

But what should make thee know whether haply 
he may be purified ? or may be mindful and the 
reminder profit him ? 

[5] But as for him who is wealthy, thou dost 
attend to him ; and thou dost not care that he is not 
purified ; but as for him who comes to thee earnestly 
fearing the while, [10] from him thou art diverted ! 

Nay ! verily, it is a memorial ; and whoso pleases 
will remember it. 

In honoured pages exalted, purified, [15] in the 
hands of noble, righteous scribes ! 

May man be killed ! how ungrateful he is ! 

Of what did He create him ? Of a clot. He 
created him and fated him; [20] then the path He 
did make easy for him ; then He killed him, and 
laid him in the tomb ; then when He pleases will 
He raise him up again. 

1 One Abdallah ibn Umm Maktum, a poor blind man, once 
interrupted Mohammed while the latter was in conversation with 
Walid ibn Mu^airah and some others of the Quraif chiefs. The 
prophet taking no notice of him, the blind man raised his voice 
and earnestly begged for religious instruction, but Mohammed, 
annoyed at the interruption, frowned and turned away. This, pas- 
sage is a reprimand to the prophet for his conduct on the occasion. 
Afterwards, whenever he saw the blind Abdallah, Mohammed used 
to say, 'Welcome to him on whose account my Lord reproved 
me ! ' and subsequently made him governor of Medinah. 



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LXXX, 23-LXXXI, 5. CHAPTER OF THE FOLDING UP. 321 

Nay, he has not fulfilled his bidding ! 

But let man look unto his foods. [25] Verily, we 
have poured the water out in torrents : then we have 
cleft the earth asunder, and made to grow therefrom 
the grain, and the grape, and the hay, and the olive, 
and the palm, [30] and gardens closely planted, and 
fruits, and grass, — a provision for you and for your 
cattle ! 
\ But when the stunning noise shall come, on the 
day when man shall flee from his brother [35] and 
his mother and his father and his spouse and his 
sons ! Every man among them on that day shall 
have a business to employ him. 

Faces on that day shall be bright, — laughing, 
joyous ! [40] and faces shall have dust upon them, — 
darkness shall cover them ! those are the wicked 

misbelievers ! 5 

,,-s 



The Chapter of the Folding up. 
(LXXXI. Mecca.) 
In the name of the merciful and compassionate God. 
When the sun is folded up, 
And when the stars do fall, 
And when the mountains are moved, 
And when the she-camels ten months' gone with 

young shall be neglected 1 , 
[5] And when the beasts shall be crowded together 2 , 

1 Such camels being among the most valuable of an Arab's pos- 
sessions, neglect of them must imply some terribly engrossing 
calamity. 

a The terrors of the judgment day will drive all the wild beasts 
together for mutual shelter. 

[9] Y 



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322 THE QUR'AN. LXXXI, 5-28. 

And when the seas shall surge up, 

And when souls shall be paired with bodies, 

And when the child who was buried alive shall be 

asked for what sin she was slain 1 , 
[10] And when the pages shall be spread out, 
And when the heaven shall be flayed, 
And when hell shall be set ablaze, 
And when Paradise shall be brought nigh, 
The soul shall know what it has produced ! 
[1 5] I need not swear by the stars that slink back, 

moving swiftly, slinking into their dens ! 
Nor by the night when darkness draws on ! 
Nor by the morn when it first breathes up ! 
Verily, it is the speech of a noble apostle, [20] 

mighty, standing sure with the Lord of the throne, 

obeyed and trusty too ! 
Your comrade is not mad; he saw him 2 on the plain 

horizon 8 , nor does he grudge to communicate the 

unseen*. 
[25] Nor is it the speech of a pelted devil 6 . 
Then whither do ye go ? 
It is but a reminder to the worlds, to whomsoever 

of you pleases to go straight : — but ye will not 

please, except God, the Lord of the world, should 

please. 

1 See Part I, p. 132, note 3, and p. 256, note 2. See also Intro- 
duction, p. x. 
8 Gabriel. 

8 See Chapter LIII, verses 1-19, pp. 251, 252. 
4 Some copies have a various reading, ' suspicious of.' 
* See Part I, note 2, pp. 50, 51. 



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lxxxii.i-lxxxhi.a chapter of cleaving asunder. 323 

The Chapter of the Cleaving asunder. 
(LXXXII. Mecca.) 
In the name of the merciful and compassionate God. 
When the heaven is cleft asunder, 
And when the stars are scattered, 
And when the seas gush together, 
And when the tombs are turned upside down, 
^ ""[5] The soul shall know what it has sent on or 
kept back ! 

O man! what has seduced thee concerning thy 
generous Lord, who created thee, and fashioned thee, 
and gave thee symmetry, and in what form He 
pleased composed thee ? 
, Nay, but ye call the judgment a lie! [10] but 
over you are guardians set 1 , — noble, writing down ! 
they know what ye do ! 

Verily, the righteous are in pleasure, and, verily, 
the wicked are in hell ; [15] they shall broil therein 
upon the judgment day; nor shall they be absent 
therefrom ! 

And what shall make thee know what is the judg- 
ment day ? Again, what shall make thee know what 
is the judgment day ? a day when no soul shall control 
aught for another j and the bidding on that day be- 
longs to Go d 1 J 

The Chapter of those who give short Weight. 

(LXXXIII. Mecca.) 
In the name of the merciful and compassionate 
God. 

Woe to those who give short weight ! who when 

1 See p. 243, note 1. 
Y 2 

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324 THE QURAN. LXXXIII, 2-26. 

they measure against others take full measure ; but 
when they measure to them or weigh to them, 

' Do not these think that they shall be raised again 
[5] at the mighty day ? the day when men shall 
stand before the Lord of the worlds !J 

Nay, verily, the book of the wicked is in Siggln 1 ; 
and what shall make thee know what Sig^m is ? — 
a book inscribed ! 

[10] Woe on that day for those who say it is 
a lie ! 

Who call the judgment day a lie ! but none shall 
call it a lie except every sinful transgressor, who, 
when our signs are read to him, says, ' Old folks' 
tales !' 

Nay, but that which they have gained has settled 
upon their hearts. 

Nay, verily, [15] from their Lord on that day 
are they veiled ; and then, verily, they shall broil in 
hell ; then it shall be said, ' This is what ye once did 
call a lierj 

Nay, verily, the book of the righteous is in 
'Illiyun 2 ; and what shall make thee know what 
' Illiyun is ? — [20] a book inscribed ! those nigh to 
God shall witness it. 
j Verily, the righteous shall be in pleasure ; upon 
couches shall they gaze ; thou mayest recognise in 
their faces the brightness of pleasure; [25] they 
shall be given to drink wine that is sealed, whose 
seal is musk ; for that then let the aspirants aspire ! 



1 S^fln, the ' prison ' of hell, whence the register of the wicked 
is named. 

2 'Illiyun means ' high places.' 



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LXXXin,27-LXXXIV,l2. CHAPTER OF RENDING ASUNDER. 325 

— and it shall be tempered with Tasnim 1 ,— a spring 
from which those nigh to God shall drinlcj 

Verily, those who sin do laugh at those who 
believe; [30] and when they pass by they wink 
at one another, and when they return to their 
family they return ridiculing them ; and when they 
see them they say, 'Verily, these do go astray!' — 
but they are not sent as guardians over them ! 

But to-day those who believe shall at the mis- 
believers laugh ! [35] Upon couches shall they 
gaze ; are the misbelievers rewarded for what they 
have done ? 



The Chapter of the Rending asunder. 
(LXXXIV. Mecca.) 

In the name of the merciful and compassionate 
God. 

When the heaven is rent asunder and gives ear 
unto its Lord, and is dutiful ! 

And when the earth is stretched out and casts 
forth what is in it, and is empty, [5] and gives ear 
unto its Lord, and is dutiful ! 

man ! verily, thou are toiling after thy Lord, 
toiling ; wherefore shalt thou meet Him ! 

And as for him who is given his book in his right 
hand, he shall be reckoned with by an easy reckon- 
ing ; and he shall go back to his family joyfully. 

[10] But as for him who is given his book behind 
his back 2 , he shall call out for destruction, but he 

1 Name of a fountain in Paradise, so called because it is con- 
veyed to the highest apartments there. 

2 I. e. in the left hand, which will be chained behind the back, 
the right hand being fettered to the neck. 



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326 THE QUR'AN. LXXXIV,I2-LXXXV,7. 

shall broil in a blaze ! Verily, he was amongst his 

family joyful. Verily, he thought that he should 

never return to God. 

[15] Yea, verily, his Lord on him did look ! 

I need not swear by the evening glow, 

Or by the night, and what it drives together, 

Or by the moon when it is at its full, , 

Ye shall be surely transferred from state to stately / 
[20] What ails them that they do not believe ? 

and, when the Qur'an is read to them, do not adore ? 

Nay, those who misbelieve do say it is a lie, but 

God knows best the (malice) that they hide. 

So give them the glad tidings of grievous woe ! 

[25] save those who believe and act aright, for them 

is hire that is not grudged ! 



c 



The Chapter of the Zodiacal Signs. 
(LXXXV. Mecca.) 
In the name of the merciful and compassionate God. 
By the heaven with its zodiacal signs 2 ! 
And the promised day ! 
And the witness and the witnessed 8 ! 
The fellows of the pit were slain ; 
[5] And the fire with its kindling, 
When they sat over it 

And witnessed the while what they were doing with 
those who believed *. 

1 From life to death, and from death to the future life. 

2 Literally, ' towers.' 

3 Various interpretations are given of these words, the most 
probable perhaps being that ' the witness ' is Mohammed, and ' the 
witnessed' the faith. 

* Alluding to the persecution of the Christians at Negran by 



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LXXXV,8-LXXXVI,2. CHAPTER OF THE NIGHT STAR. 327 

And they took not vengeance on them save for 

their belief in God, 
The mighty, the praiseworthy, 
Whose is the kingdoms of the heavens and the 

earth ; 
For God is witness over all ! 

[10] Verily, those who make trial of the believers, 
men and women, and then do not repent, for them 
is the torment of hell, and for them is the torment 
of the burning ! 

Verily, those who believe and act aright, for them 
are gardens beneath which rivers flow, — that is the 
great bliss ! 
r"~ Verily, the violence of thy Lord is keen jj 
^■"~~ Verily, He produces and returns, and He is- the 
forgiving, the loving, [15] the Lord of the glorious 
throne ; the doer of what He will ! 

Has there come to thee the story of the hosts of 
Pharaoh and Thamud ? 

Nay, those who misbelieve do say it is a lie ; 
[20] but God is behind them — encompassing ! 

Nay, it is a glorious Qur'an in a preserved tablet 1 . 



The Chapter of the Night Star. 
(LXXXVI. Mecca.) 

In the name of the merciful and compassionate 
God. 

By the heaven and by the night star ! And what 

Dhu 'n Navvas, king of Yemen, who had embraced the Jewish 
religion, and who commanded all his subjects who would not do 
the same to be flung into a pit filled with fire, and burnt to death. 
1 See Part I, p. 2, note 2. 



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328 THE QUR'aN. LXXXVI,2-LXXXVH,8. 

shall make thee know what the night star is ? — The 
star of piercing brightness. 

Verily, every soul has a guardian over it. 

[5] Then let man look from what he is created : he 
is created from water poured forth, that comes out 
from between the loins and the breast bones 1 . 

Verily, He is able to send him back again, on the 
day when the secrets shall be tried, [10] and he 
shall have no strength nor helper. 

By the heaven that sends back the rain ! 

And the earth with its sprouting ! 

Verily, it is indeed a distinguishing speech, and it 
is no frivolity ! 

[15] Verily, they do plot a plot ! 

But I plot my plot too ! let the misbelievers bide ; 
do thou then let them bide awhile ! 



The Chapter of the Most High. 
(LXXXVII. Mecca.) 

In the name of the merciful and compassionate 
God. 

Celebrated the name of thy Lord most High, who 
created and fashioned, and who decreed and guided, 
and who brings forth the pasture, [5] and then 
makes it dusky stubble ! 

We will make thee recite, and thou shalt not 
forget 2 , save what God pleases. Verily, He knows 
the open and what is concealed ; and we will send 

1 From the loins of the man and the breast bones of the 
woman. — Al Bau/Mvt. 

2 See Chapter II, verse 100, Part I, p. 14. 



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LXXXVII,8-LXXXVIII,i6. CHAPTER OF OVERWHELMING. 329 

thee easily to ease ; wherefore remind, for, verily, 
the reminder is useful. 

[10] But he who fears will be mindful ; but the 
wretch will avoid it ; he who will broil on the great 
fire, and then therein shall neither die nor live ! 

Prosperous is he who purifies himself, [15] and 
remembers the name of his Lord and prays ! 

Nay ! but ye prefer the life of this world, while 
the hereafter is better and more lasting. 

Verily, this was in the books of yore, — the books 
of Abraham and Moses. 



The Chapter of the Overwhelming 1 . 
(LXXXVIII. Mecca.) 

In the name of the merciful and compassionate 
God. 

Has there come to thee the story of the over- 
whelming ? 

Faces on that day shall be humble, labouring, 
toiling, — shall broil upon a burning fire ; [5] shall be 
given to drink from a boiling spring ! no food shall 
they have save from the foul thorn, which shall not 
fatten nor avail against hunger ! 

Faces on that day shall be comfortable, content 
with their past endeavours,— [10] in a lofty garden 
wherein they shall hear no foolish word; wherein 
is a flowing fountain ; wherein are couches raised on 
high, and goblets set down, [15] and cushions ar- 
ranged, and carpets spread ! 



1 Another name of the last day. 



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330 THE QURAN. LXXXVIII,i7-LXXXIX,7. 

Do they not look then at the camel how she is 
created 1 ? 

And at the heaven how it is reared ? 

And at the mountains how they are set up ? 

[20] And at the earth how it is spread out ? 

But remind : thou art only one to remind ; thou 
art not in authority over them ; except such as turns 
his back and misbelieves, for him will God torment 
with the greatest torment. 

[25] Verily, unto us is their return, and, verily, for 
us is their account ! 



The Chapter of the Dawn. 
(LXXXIX. Mecca.) 

In the name of the merciful and compassionate 
God. 

By the dawn and ten nights 2 ! 

And the single and the double ! 

And the night when it travels on ! 

Is there in that an oath for a man of sense ? 

[5] Hast thou not seen how thy Lord did with 
'Ad ? — with Iram of the columns 3 ? the like of which 
has not been created in the land ? 

1 So useful an animal as a camel being to an Arab a singular 
instance of divine wisdom. 

2 The first ten nights of the sacred months of Dhu '1 Heggeh. 

3 Sheddad, the son of 'Ad, is related to have ordered the con- 
struction of a terrestrial paradise in the desert of Aden, ostensibly 
in rivalry of the celestial one, and to have called it Irem, after the 
name of his great-grandfather Irem (Aram). On going to take 
possession of it, he and all his people were struck dead by a noise 
from heaven, and the paradise disappeared. Certain Arab travellers 
are declared to have come across this mysterious garden. 



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LXXXIX, 8-30. THE CHAPTER OF THE DAWN. 33 1 

And Thamud when they hewed the stones in the. 
valley ? 

And Pharaoh of the stakes 1 ? 

[10] Who were outrageous in the land, and did 
multiply wickedness therein, and thy Lord poured 
out upon them the scourge of torment. 

Verily, thy Lord is on a watch tower ! and as for 
man, whenever his Lord tries him and honours him 
and grants him favour, then [15] he says, ' My Lord 
has honoured me ;' but whenever he tries him and 
doles out to him his subsistence, then he says, ' My 
Lord despises me !' 

Nay, but ye do not honour the orphan, nor do 
ye urge each other to feed the poor, [20] and ye 
devour the inheritance (of the weak) with a general 
devouring 2 , and ye love wealth with a complete 
love ! 

Nay, when the earth is crushed to pieces, and thy 
Lord comes with the angels, rank on rank, and hell 
is brought on that day, — on that day shall man be 
reminded ! but how shall he have a reminder ? 

[25] He will say, 'Would that I had sent some- 
thing forward for my life !' 

But on that day no one shall be tormented with 
a torment like his, and none shall be bound with 
bonds like his ! 

O thou comforted soul ! return unto thy Lord, 
well pleased and well pleased with ! 

And enter amongst my servants, [30] and enter 
my Paradise! 



1 Cf. p. 176, note 1. 

2 Cf. Part I, p. 72, note 1. 



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332 THE QURAN. XC, I-20. 

The Chapter of the Land. 
(XC. Mecca.) 

In the name of the merciful and compassionate 
God. 

I need not swear by the Lord of this land \ and 
thou a dweller in this land 2 ! 

Nor by the begetter and what he begets ! 

We have surely created man in trouble. 

[5] Does he think that none can do aught against 
him ? 

He says, ' I have wasted wealth in plenty;' does 
he think that no one sees him ? 

Have we not made for him two eyes and a 
tongue, and two lips ? [10] and guided him in the 
two highways ? but he will not attempt the steep ! 

And what shall make thee know what the steep 
is ? It is freeing captives, or feeding on the day of 
famine, [1 5] an orphan who is akin, or a poor man 
who lies in the dust ; and again (it is) to be of these 
who believe and encourage each other to patience, 
and encourage each other to mercy, — these are the 
fellows of the right 3 ! 

But those who disbelieve in our signs, they are 
the fellows of the left, [20] for them is fire that 
closes in ! 



1 I. e. the sacred territory of Mecca. 

2 Or, ' art at liberty to act as thou pleasest' 

3 See pp. 263, 264. 



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xci, l-xcii, 4. the chapter of the night. 333 

The Chapter of the Sun. 
(XCI. Mecca.) 
In the name of the merciful and compassionate God. 
By the sun and its noonday brightness ! 
And the moon when it follows him ! 
And the day when it displays him ! 
And the night when it covers him ! 
[5] And the heaven and what built it ! 
And the earth and what spread it ! 
And the soul and what fashioned it, and taught it 

its sin and its piety ! 
Prosperous is he who purifies it ! 
[10] And disappointed is he who corrupts it ! 

Thamud called the apostle a liar 1 in their outrage, 
when their wretch rose up and the apostle of God 
said to them, ' God's she-camel ! so give her to 
drink.' 

But they called him a liar, and they ham-strung 
her ; but their Lord destroyed them in their sins, 
and served them all alike; [15] and He fears not 
the result thereof! 



The Chapter of the Night. 
(XCII. Mecca.) 
In the name of the merciful and compassionate God. 
By the night when it veils ! 
And the day when it is displayed ! 
And by what created male and female ! 
Verily, your efforts are diverse ! 

1 See Part I, p. 147, note 1. 

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334 THE QurAn. xcii, 5-xcih, 6. 

[5] But as for him who gives alms and fears God, 

And believes in the best, 

We will send him easily to ease ! 

But as for him who is niggardly, 

And longs for wealth, 

And calls the good a lie, 

[10] We will send him easily to difficulty ! 

And his wealth shall not avail him 

When he falls down (into hell) ! 

Verily, it is for us to guide ; 

And, verily, ours are the hereafter and the former 

life! 
And I have warned you of a fire that flames ! 

[15] None shall broil thereon, but the most 
wretched, who says it is a lie and turns his back. 

But the pious shall be kept away from it, he who 
gives his wealth in alms, and who gives no favour 
to any one for the sake of reward, [20] but only 
craving the face of his Lord most High; in the 
end he shall be well pleased ! 



■ The Chapter of the Forenoon. 
(XCIII. Mecca.) 

In the name of the merciful and compassionate 
God. 

By the forenoon ! 

And the night when it darkens ! 

Thy Lord has not forsaken thee, nor hated thee ! 
and surely the hereafter is better for thee than the 
former ; [5] and in the end thy Lord will give thee, 
and thou shalt be well pleased ! 

Did He not find thee an orphan, and give thee 



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XCIII, 6-XCV, I. THE CHAPTER OF THE FIG. 335 

shelter ? and find thee erring, and guide thee ? and 
find thee poor with a family, and nourish thee ? 

But as for the orphan oppress him not ; [10] and 
as for the beggar drive him not away; and as for 
the favour of thy Lord discourse thereof. 



The Chapter of ' Have we not expanded ?' 
(XCIV. Mecca.) 

In the name of the merciful and compassionate 
God. 

Have we not expanded for thee thy breast 1 ? and 
set down from thee thy load which galled thy back ? 
and exalted for thee thy renown ? 

[5] Verily, with difficulty is ease ! verily, with 
difficulty is ease ! 

And when thou art at leisure then toil, and for 
thy Lord do thou yearn ! 



The Chapter of the Fig. 

(XCV. Place of origin doubtful.) 

In the name of the merciful and compassionate 
God. 

By the fig! 

And by the olive ! 

1 I. e. expanded it for the reception of the truth. Taking the 
words literally some Muslims have supposed it to refer to the 
legend, that the angel Gabriel appeared to Mohammed while he 
was a child, and having cut open his breast took out his heart, and 
cleansed it from the black drop of original sin. This explanation 
is, however, rejected by the more sensible of the orthodox Muslim 
divines. 



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336 THE QUR'AN. XCV, a-XCVI, 10. 

And by Mount Sinai ! 

And by this safe land 1 ! 

We have indeed created man in the best of sym- 
metry. [5] Then we will send him back the lowest 
of the low; save those who believe and act aright ; 
for theirs is a hire that is not grudged. 

But what shall make thee call the judgment after 
this a lie ? 

Is not God a most just of judges ? 



The Chapter of Congealed Blood 2 . 

(XCVI. Mecca.) 

In the name of the merciful and compassionate 
God. 

Read, in the name of thy Lord ! 

Who created man from congealed blood ! 

Read, for thy Lord is most generous ! 

[5] Who taught the pen ! 

Taught man what he did not know ! 

Nay, verily, man is indeed outrageous at seeing 
himself get rich ! 

Verily, unto thy Lord is the return ! 

Hast thou considered him who forbids [10] a ser- 
vant 3 when he prays 4 ? 

1 Alluding to the inviolable character of the sacred territory of 
Mecca. 

2 The five opening verses of the chapter are generally allowed 
to have been the first that were revealed. See Introduction, p. xx, 
and note 1, idem. 

* I. e. Mohammed. 

4 The allusion is to Abu Gah\, who threatened to set his foot on; 
Mohammed's neck if he caught him in the act of adoration. 



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XCVI, I i-XCVIII, i . CHAPTER OF THE MANIFEST SIGN. 337 

Hast thou considered if he were in guidance or 
bade piety? 

Hast thou considered if he said it was a lie, and 
turned his back ? 

Did he not know that God can see ? 

[15] Nay, surely, if he do not desist we will drag 
him by the forelock ! — the lying sinful forelock ! 

So let him call his counsel : we will call the guards 
of hell! 

Nay, obey him not, but adore and draw nigh ! 



The Chapter of Power 1 . 
(XCVI I. Place of origin doubtful.) 

In the name of the merciful and compassionate 
God. 

Verily, we sent it down on the Night of Power ! 

And what shall make thee know what the Night 
of Power is ? — the Night of Power is better than a 
thousand months ! 

The angels and the Spirit descend therein, by the 
permission of their Lord with every bidding. 

[5] Peace it is until rising of the dawn ! 



The Chapter of the Manifest Sign. 
(XCVI 1 1. Place of origin doubtful.) 
In the name of the merciful and compassionate 
God. 

Those of the people of the Book and the idolaters 

1 The word el Qadr signifies ' power,' ' worth/ ' measure,' and 
' the divine decree.' 

[9] z 



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338 the qur'An. XCVIII, i-XCIX, 6. 

who misbelieve did not fall off" until there came to 
them the manifest sign, — 

An apostle from God reading pure pages wherein 
are right scriptures : 

Nor did those who were given the Book divide 
into sects until after there came to them the mani- 
fest sign. 

But they were not bidden aught but to worship 
God, being sincere in religion unto Him as 'Hanifs, 
and to be steadfast in prayer, and to give alms : for 
that is the standard religion. 

[5] Verily, those who disbelieve amongst the 
people of the Book and the idolaters shall be in the 
fire of hell, to dwell therein for aye ; they are wretched 
creatures ! 

Verily, those who believe and act aright, they are 
the best of creatures ; their reward with their Lord 
is gardens of Eden, beneath which rivers flow, to 
dwell therein for aye; God shall be well pleased 
with them, and they with Him ! that is for him 
who fears his Lord ! 



The Chapter of the Earthquake. 
(XCIX. Place of origin doubtful.) 

In the name of the merciful and compassionate 
God. 

When the earth shall quake with its quaking ! 

And the earth shall bring forth her burdens, and 
man shall say, 'What ails her !' 

On that day she shall tell her tidings, [5] because 
thy Lord inspires her. % 

On the day when men shall come up in separate 



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XC1X, 6-CI, 4. THE CHAPTER OF THE SMITING. 339 

bands to show their works : and he who does the 
weight of an atom of good shall see it ! and he who 
does the weight of an atom of evil shall see it ! 



The Chapter of the Chargers. 
(C. Mecca.) 

In the name of the merciful and compassionate 
God. 

By the snorting chargers ! 

And those who strike fire with their hoofs ! 

And those who make incursions in the morning, 

And raise up dust therein, 

[5] And cleave through a host therein ! 

Verily, man is to his Lord ungrateful ; and, verily, 
he is a witness of that. 

Verily, he is keen in his love of good. 

Does he not know when the tombs are exposed, 
[10] and what is in the breasts is brought to light ? 

Verily, thy Lord upon that day indeed is well 
aware. 



The Chapter of the Smiting. 

(CI. Mecca.) 

In the name of the merciful and compassionate 
God. 

The smiting! 

What is the smiting? 

And what shall make thee know what the 
smiting is ? ,.> ■,,, 

The day when men shall be like scattered moths 1 ; 
and the mountains shall be like flocks of carded 
wool! 

z 2 

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340 THE QUR'AN. 01,5-0111,3. 

[5] And as for him whose balance is heavy, he 
shall be in a well-pleasing life. 

But as for him whose balance is light, his dwell- 
ing shall be the pit of hell 1 . 

And who shall make thee know what it is ? — a 
burning fire! 

The Chapter of the Contention about Numbers. 
(CI I. Place of origin doubtful.) 

In the name of the merciful and compassionate 
God. 

The contention about numbers deludes you till 
ye visit the tombs 2 ! 

Not so ! In the end ye shall know! And again 
not so ! In the end ye shall know ! 

[5] Not so ! Did ye but know with certain 
knowledge ! 

Ye shall surely see hell ! And again ye shall 
surely see it with an eye of certainty. 

Then ye shall surely be asked about pleasure 3 ! 



The Chapter of the Afternoon*. 

1 

(CIII. Mecca.) 
In the name of the merciful and compassionate 
God. 

By the afternoon ! verily, man is in loss ! save 

1 El Hawiyeh, see Introduction, p. lxx. 

2 The commentators say that in one of the frequent contentions 
about the respective nobility of the Arab tribes, that the Abu 
Menaf clan disputed with that of Sahm, which was the most 
numerous, and the latter, having lost many men in battle, declared 
that their dead should be taken into account as well as the living. 

s That is, the pleasures of this life. 
4 Or, ' the age.' 



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CHI, 3-CV, 5. THE CHAPTER OF THE ELEPHANT. 341 

those who believe and do right, and bid each other 
be true, and bid each other be patient. 



The Chapter of the Backbiter. 
(CIV. Mecca.) 

In the name of the merciful and compassionate 
God. 

Woe to every slanderous backbiter, who collects 
wealth and counts it. 

He thinks that his wealth can immortalize him. 

Not so! he shall be hurled into El 'Hu&tmah ! 

[5] And what shall make thee understand what 
El 'Hufomah 1 is ? — the fire of God kindled; which 
rises above the hearts. Verily, it is an archway over 
them on long-drawn columns. 



The Chapter of the Elephant. 
(CV. Mecca.) 

In the name of the merciful and compassionate 
God. 

Hast thou not seen what thy Lord did with the 
fellows of the elephant 2 ? 

Did He not make their stratagem lead them 
astray, and send down on them birds in flocks, to 
throw down on them stones of baked clay, [5] and 
make them like blades of herbage eaten down ? 

1 See Introduction, p. Ixx. 

a Abrahat el Arram, an Abyssinian Christian, and viceroy of the 
king of Sanaa in Yemen in the year in which Mohammed was born, 
marched with a large army and some elephants upon Mecca, with 
the intention of destroying the Kaabah. He was defeated and his 
army destroyed in so sudden a manner as to have given rise to the 



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9 A, 



342 the qur an. cvi, i-cviii, i. 

The Chapter of the Qurau. 
(CVI. Mecca.) 
In the name of the merciful and compassionate 
God. 

For the uniting of the Quraw; uniting them for 
the caravan of winter and summer. 

So let them serve the Lord of this house who 
feeds them against hunger and makes them safe 
against fear 1 . 

The Chapter of 'Necessaries.' 
(CVI I. Place of origin doubtful.) 

In the name of the merciful and compassionate 
God. 

Hast thou considered him who calls the judg- 
ment a lie ? He it is who pushes the orphan away ; 
and urges not (others) to feed the poor. 

But woe to those who pray [5] and who are care- 
less in their prayers, 

Who pretend and withhold necessaries 2 . 



The Chapter of El KAuthar. 
(CVIII. Mecca.) 

In the name of the merciful and compassionate 
God. 
Verily, we have given thee El Kauraar 3 ; 

legend embodied in the text. It is conjectured that small-pox 
broke out amongst his men. 

1 See Introduction, p. xvi. Some connect the first sentence with 
the last chapter. 

2 Or, ' alms.' The word might be rendered ' resources.' 

3 The word signifies * abundance.' It is also the name of a river 
in Paradise. 



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CVIII, 2-CXI, I. THE CHAPTER OF ABU LAHEB. 343 

So pray to thy Lord and slaughter (victims). 
Verily, he who hates thee shall be childless \ 



The Chapter of Misbelievers. 
(CIX. Mecca.) 
In the name of the merciful and compassionate 
God. 

Say, 'O ye misbelievers ! I do not serve what ye 
serve ; nor will ye serve what I serve ; nor will I 
serve what ye serve; [5] nor will ye serve what 
I serve; — ye have your religion, and I have my 
religion ! ' 

The Chapter of Help. 
(CX. Mecca.) 
In the name of the merciful and compassionate 
God. 
When there comes God's help and victory, 
And thou shalt see men enter into God's religion 
by troops, 

Then celebrate the praises of thy Lord, and ask 
forgiveness of Him, verily, He is relentant ! 



The Chapter of Abu Laheb 2 . 
(CXI. Mecca.) 
In the name of the merciful and compassionate 
God. 

Abu Laheb's two hands shall perish, and he shall 
perish ! 

1 This is directed against As ibn Wail, who, when Mohammed's 
son El Q&im died, called him abtar, which means ' docktailed/ 
i.e. childless. 

2 See Introduction, p. xxviii. Abu Laheb, 'the father of the flame,' 



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344 THE Qur'an. cxi, 2-cxin, 5. 

His wealth shall not avail him, nor what he has 
earned ! 

He shall broil in a fire that flames 1 , and his wife 
carrying faggots ! — [5] on her neck a cord of palm 
fibres. 

The Chapter of Unity 2 . 
(CXI I. Place of origin doubtful.) 
In the name of the merciful and compassionate 
God. 

Say, ' He is God alone ! 

God the Eternal ! 

He begets not and is not begotten ! 

Nor is there like unto Him any one !' 



The Chapter of the Daybreak. 
(CXI 1 1. Place of origin doubtful.) 
In the name of the merciful and compassionate 
God. 

Say, ' I seek refuge in the Lord of the daybreak, 
from the evil of what He has created ; and from the 
evil of the night when it cometh on 3 ; and from 
the evil of the blowers upon knots 4 ; [5] and from the 
evil of the envious when he envies.' 

was the nickname of 'Abd el 'Huzza, uncle of Mohammed, and 
a bitter opponent of Islam. 

1 A pun upon his name. 

1 The chapter is generally known in Arabic by the name of El 
I'^las, ' clearing oneself,* i. e. of belief in any but one God. 

' Or, according to a traditional explanation given by the pro- 
phet to 'Ayeshah, ' the moon when it is eclipsed.' 

* Witches who make knots in string and blow upon them, utter- 
ing at the same time some magical formula and the name of the 
persons they wish to injure. 



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cxiv, 1-6. the chapter of men. 345 

The Chapter of Men. 
(CXIV. Place of origin doubtful.) 

In the name of the merciful and compassionate 
God. 

Say, ' I seek refuge in the Lord of men, the King 
of men, the God of men, from the evil of the 
whisperer 1 , who slinks off, [5] who whispers into 
the hearts of men ! — from ^inns and men !' 

1 The devil. 



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INDEX. 



(al) Aaraf, bridge of, Int. p. lxix ; Part 

I, p. 143 ; Part II, p. 32 note 1. 
Aaron, I, 38, 94, 125, 152, 154, 201 ; 

II, 29 n, 36, 39, 41,50, 5i, 68, 
86, 91, 92, no, 172, 240 n. 

Abbas, xxxii, xli, xlii. 

'Abd ad Dar, xvii, xviii. 

■Abdallah ibn Sa'hd ibn Abf Sar*h, 

Mohammed's secretary, lvii ; I, 

126 n. 
'Abdallah ibn Ubai, xxxv. 
'Abdallah ibn Ubbai, chief of the 

' Hypocrites,' lxiii ; II, 74 n 2, 

77 n 4, 284 n. 
Abdallah ibn Umm M akttim, II, 3 20 n. 
'Abd al 'Hareth, one of Adam's sons, 

1, 161 ni. 
'Abd al Huzza, lx ; II, 344 n. 
'Abd al Mutfalib, xvii, xviii. 
'Abd ar Rahman ibn Auf, xxiii. 
'Abd Menaf, xvii, xviii, 

— clan of, II, 34m. 
'Abd Shems, xviii. 

Abraham, xiii, xvi, xlvii, 1, liii, lxxiv; 
I, 17, 18, 19, 40, 40 n 3, 41, 
50, 50 n 2, 54, 57, 58, 59, 80, 
90, 94, 125, 133 ni, 137, 183, 
189, 212, 213, 219, 223, 242, 
247, 263 ; II, 30, 31, 65, 93, 120, 

i*4, 139, >79, a° 6 , 24 6 , 253, 
269, 278, 329. 

— is cast into the fiery furnace, II, 

171, 172. 

— station of, xvi, xvii, lxxiv. 

— surnamed, ' Jfalila 'llah, the Friend 

of God, lxxi. 
Abrahat al Arram, II, 341 n. 

— attacks the Kaabah, II, 341 n. 
Abrogation of verses, lvii. 
AbuV Abbas, I, 175. 

Abu Bekr, xix, xxiii, xxiv, xxv, 
xxxiii, xliv, xlvi ; I, 68 n 1. 

— hides with Mohammed in a cave, 

lvii; 1,179 m; n, 75 ni. 
Abu Gahl, xxxiii ; II, 300, 336 n. 

— challenges Mohammed to cause 

a portion of the heavens to fall 
on the QurSu, II, 300 n. 



Abu 'Hamir, 1, 188 nr. 
Abu Laheb, xxix, lx; II, 144, 343. 
Abu Sufiyan, xxxv, xxxvii; 1, 164 n 1. 
Abu Talib, xviii, xxiv, xxv, xxviii, 

xxix, xli, xlii. 
Abyssinia, xxvi, xxvii, xl ; I, 2 1 4 n 3 ; 
<A II,34in. 
'Ad, xlviii; 1, 145, 146, 183, 210, 211, 

239; II, 61, 86, 95, 121, 176, 

193, 200, 227, 242, 247, 254, 

256, 298, 330. 
Adam, I, 5 n, 50, 54, xor, 138, 139, 

140; II, 8,9,19, 31, 43, 44. 

— children of, 1, 141, 159, 161 n 1. 
Adam, Zafiy aliah, the Chosen of 

God, lxxi. 
Adrian, persecution of, xv. 
JEsop. See Loqman. 
A'hmed, prophecy of, xlix; II, 281. 
A' Anas ibn Suraiq eTH THaqaft, 

I, 29 n 3. 

(al) A'hqif, II, 327. 

— chapter of, II, 224. 
Akabeh, xxxi. 

— pledge given at, by a deputation 

from the inhabitantsof Medinah, 

xxxii; I, 9 ni, 98 n 1. 
Al 'asml'u l'husna, II, 13 n 1. 
Alexander the Great, his prime 

minister, II, 23 n 3. 
"Ali ibn AM TSlib, xxxiii ; II, 74 n 2, 

» ,43 ' 
Allah, xii, xiii, xiv, xxiv, lxv, lxvi; 

1, 132 n 2 ; II, 13 ni. 

— meaning of name, lxvi. 
Allah ta'alah, xii, lxvi. 
Allah u akbar, II, 13 n 2. 

Allat, xii, xiii, xxvii, xliii ; 1, 160 n 1 ; 

II, 9 ni, 62 ni, 252. 

Alms, lxxi, Ixxiii; 1, 180, 181. 

Amanuensis, employed by Moham- 
med, lvii. 

AmJnah, Mohammed's mother, xviii. 
Amfnah, one of Solomon's concu- 
bines, II, 178 n. 
'Amr, xli. 
Amram, I, 50, n 1. 
'Amr ibn La*hy, xvii. 



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THE QURAN. 



Angel of death, II, 136. 

— fallen, xiv. 

Angels, lii, lxviii, lxx ; 1, 161 n 1, 164, 
169; II, 139, 145, 155, 168, 
174, 181, 200, 205, 232, 245, 

2521 3°o. 3'5, 317. 

— chapter of, II, 157. 

— ' daughters of God,' xiii, lxi ; I, 

256 n 2. 

— guardian, I, 233, 

— recording, 1, 195 ni. 
Ant, chapter of, II, 99. 
Antichrist, lxxi ; I, 94 n 2. 
Antioch, II, 164 n. 
Antistes, 1, 17 ni. 

Apes, Sabbath-breakers turned into, 

1,9- 
Apostle of the Gentiles, 1, 156 n 1. 
Apostles, the twelve, II, 282. 
Arab orators, 1. 
Arab writers, I, 257 ni. 
Arabia, 1, 191 ni; II, 263. 

— boundaries of, ix. 
Arabian prophets, 1, 159 ni. 
Arabs, I, 256 n 2 ; II, ijni. 

— ancient, I, 27, 40 n, 48, 64 n, 79, 

176 ni. 

beacon fires, 1, 106 n 1. 

character, x. 

Christian tribes, xiv. 

formula for avoiding the evil 

influence of .g-inns in lonely 
places, II, 305 n. 

— — formula of deprecation of hos- 

tilities during the sacred 

months, II, 85. 

idols, xii. 

Jewish tribes, xiv, xv. 

manners, ix, x. 

position of women amongst, xi. 

pride of birth, x. 

religion, xi, xiv, xv. 

superstitions, xi, xii. 

tribes of, 1, 145 ni. 

vices, x. 

— battles, II, 221. 

— desert, I, 216 n 1, 259, n 1 ; 11,36 

03, 234, 235, 241. 

— desert, ask to be excused from 

fighting, 1,185,187. 

— desert and town, ix. 

— dislike of female offspring, II, 2 1 2. 

— disregard of treaties if they are 

themselves of superior strength 
to their enemy, I, 260 n 2. 

— Himyarite, II, 219 n. 



Arabs, hospitality, II, 147 n. 

— hypocrisy, I, 186, 190. 

— Jewish, xxx. 

— pagan, burying female children 

alive, 1, 132 n. 

mutilate the ears of cattle, I, 

89 ni. 

"offerings to idols, 1, 132 n. 

superstitions, 1, 132 n, i34n. 

superstitious customs respect- 
ing cattle, 1, 112, 115 ni. 

— practise of divination amongst, 

II, 2 n 2. 

— relations to their adopted chil- 

dren, II, 144. 

— sacred months not to be put off, 

1, 178 ni. 

— superstitious, II, 7 n 1. 

— superstitious about entering 

houses by the doors on their 

return from Mecca, I, 27 ni. 
'Arafat, lxxiv; I, 29. 
Arafat, Mount, xliv. 
Archangels, lxix. 
'Artsh, 1, 133 n 2. 
Ark, I, 38 ; II, 164 n. 
Ar Rahman, lxi; II, 13 ni. 
Ashram, Abraha, the, xviii ; II, 34m. 
Athar, 1, 124. 

Athar Nagat en Nebi, 1, 147 n 1. 
Aus, xxx, xxxiv, xxxix ; I, 59 n 1 ; 

11,217,239,258. 
Ayatu '1 Kursiy, I, 40 n 1. 
'Ayeshah, xliv; II, 74 n 2, 75 n 1, 77 

n 5, 290, 307 n, 344 n. 
Azar, 1, 124. 

Baal, priests of, I, 68 n 2. 

Babel, tower of, I, 253. 

Babylon, 1, 14, 14 n 2. 

Babylonia, ix. 

Ba'hirah, I, 112, 112 n 1. 

Ba'Atnazr, I, 41 n 1. 

BaWAavi, Ixxx; I, 33 n 1, 177 n 1 ; 

II, 328 n. 
Bait allaii, xiii ; 1, 17 n 2. 
Balaam, I, 159 n 1. 
Bedawin, modern, xiv; I, 147 n 1, 

256 n 2. 
Bedr, battle of, xxxvi, xxxvii ; I, 47 

n 1, 61, 66 n 1, 86 n 1, 165 n 1, 

171m; II, 20m, 62n2, 70 n 2, 

257, 274 n, 276. 
Bee, similitude of, I, 4 n 3. 
Bekkah, xvi ; I, 58. 
Benu Bakr, xvii. 



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INDEX. 



349 



Benu Ghanm, 1, 188 n i, 189 n 1. 
Benu 'ffuza'hah, xvii. 
Benu Keninah, xvii. 
Bethel, xiii; 1, 17 n 2. 
Bilal, the first Muezzin, xxiii. 
Bismillah, lxviii; I, 24 n 2, 172 n. 
Byzantium, ix, xl. 

Cain, 1, 161 ni. 

Calf, golden, I, 6, 7, 12, 13, 155. 
Camels, II, 321. 
Captives, ransom of, 1, 171. 
Carmel, Mount, I, 68 n 2. 
Cave, fellows of the, II, 14. 
Chaldea, xi. 

Christianity, x, xiv, xv, li, lii, lix, lxi. 
Christians, I, 8, 15, 19, 54, 99, 105, 
107, 109; II, 16 n 1, 58. 

— accused of perverting the Scrip- 

tures, I, 250 n 3. 
Christian traditions, xlvii. 
Confederates the, siege of Medinah 

by, xxxix; II, 138, 138 n 1, 140 

n, 142 n. 
Constantinople, II, 125 n. 
Creator, the, 1, 128. 

(ed) T>agg%\, lxxi. 

Dan, xii n 1 ; 1, 1 3 n 2. 

DaY al Qarir (Chapter xl, 42), the 

Abode of Rest, lxx. 
Dar as Salam (Chapter vi, 127), the 

Abode of Peace, lxx. 
David, I, 9 n 1, 39, 52, 52 n, 94, 108, 

125; II, 7,100. 

— taught to make coats of mail, II, 

151. 

— the parable of the ewe lamb, II, 

177. 178. 
Death, angel of, II, 136. 
Deluge, Mohammedan account of 

the, I, 209 n 1. 
Demons, lii. 
Denarius, I, 55 n 2. 
Deputations, year of, xliii. 
Dervishes, I, 53 n 4. 
Deuteronomy xxi. 1-9, I, 9 n 2. 
Devil, the, 1, 162. 

— tempts man, II, 276. 
Devils, II, 168 n, 179 n. 

— appointed to watch unbelievers, 

II, 201. 

— are not allowed to listen at the 

gate of heaven, II, 98, 99, 250 n. 

— do not descend with the Qur'an, 

II, 98. 



Devils, on whom they do descend, 

11,98. 
— pelted with shooting-stars, 1,5m; 

II, 293, 305, 330 n. 
Dhu '1 'Heggeh, xxxix; II, 59 n 1. 
Dhu '1 Kifl, II, 53, 180. 
Dhu TQa'hdah, xxxix, xl; I, 27 n4. 
Dhu '1 Qarnain, 11,^4, 24 n 1, 25. 
Dhu 'n NawSs, II, 327 n. 
Dhu 'nnun, II, 53. 
Dinar = denarius. 
Diodorus, xvi. 
Dioscuri, liv. 
Discrimination, the, I, 7, 26, 46, 55, 

55 n 2, 166,168; 11,50,83. 
Divorce, II, 138, 146, 270 n, 288, 289. 

— chapter of, II, 288. 
Dog-star, II, 254. 
Dolmens, I, 97 n 2. 
Dualism, lii; 1, 115 n 2. 
Duwar, xiii. 

Eden, gardens of, I, 183, 235, 253; 

II, 160, 180, 191, 282, 338. 
Edom, II, 147 n. 
Egypt, ix, xl ; 1, 8, 202, 220 n 1, 221, 

227 n 1, 230. 
Egyptian, II, 91. 
Eidolon of Jesus crucified instead 

of him, I, 53 n.3. 
Elath, I, 9 n 1. 
Elephant, chapter of, 1, 2 14 n 3 ; 11,341. 

— year of, xviii ; II, 341. 

Elias, I, 41 n 1, 125, 147 n 1; 11,23 

n3, 53 ni. 
Elijah, I, 68 n 2. 
Elisha, I, 125 ; II, 180. 
ElySs, II, 172. 
Enoch, xi; II, jm, 
Enquirer, the, xv. 

Ephesus, Seven Sleepers of, II, 14 n 1. 
Esdras, I, 41 n 1. 
Eusebius, 1, 124. 
Eutychians, li. 
Eve, 1, 161 ni. 
Exodus, II, 36 n 1. 

— ch. x. ver. 9, p. lxxv. 

— ch. xiv. ver. 30, I, 203 n 2. 

— ch. xxxii. ver. 20, 1, 13 n 1. 

— ch. xxxii. vers. 24, 26, 27, 1, 7 n 1 i 

— 'Desert of the,' 1,147 m; II, 

36 n 1. 
Ezekiel, vision of, I, 37 n 2. 

— ch. xxxvii. vers. 1-10, I, 37 n 2. 
Ezra, Mohammedan legend of, 1, 177, 

177 n. 



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THE QURAN. 



Farewell pilgrimage, xliv. 

(al) Farqan, lvii. 

Fasting, lxxi, lxxiii. 

Fa/imah, II, 143 n 1. 

Fatrah, the, xxii; II, 308. 

Female children buried alive, 1, 13a 

n 2; II, 212, 322. 
Firdaus, II, 26 1. 
Firdausf, II, 131 n 3. 
Fire, how produced, II, 167, 265 n. 
Flight, the, 1, 176 n 1. 
Friday, the day of public prayer, 

lxxii; II, 283. 
(al) FurqSn, II, 83 n 1. 
Future life, belief in, xiv. 

Gabriel, xxxvi, lxv, lxix ; I, 2 n 2, 13, 
13 n 2, 99, 179 n, 203 n 1, 221 
n 2, 261 n 2 ; II, 10 n 1, 28 n 1, 
41 n 1, 62 n 1, 98, 164 n, 174 n ; 
291, 308, 311, 322, 335. 

— appears to Mohammed in natural 

form, II, 251 n. 
Gahim (Chapter ii, 113), the Fierce 

Fire, lxx. 
Galflt= Goliath, I, 39. 
Gannat al Firdaus (Chapter xviii, 

107), the Garden of Paradise, 

lxx. 
Gannat al 'Hilliyfin (Chapter lxxxiii, 

18), the Garden of the Most 

High, lxx. 
Gannat al 'Huld (Chapter xxv, 16), 

the Garden of Eternity, lxx. 
Gannat al Ma'wl (Chapter xxxii, 19), 

the Garden of Resort, lxx. 
Gannat an Na'hfm (Chapter vi, 70), 

the Garden of Pleasure, lxx. 
Gannat 'Hadn (Chapter ix, 72), the 

Garden of Eden, lxx. 
Gehennum (Chapter xix, 44), Ge- 
henna, lxx. 
Genesis ch. i. ver. 2, I, 205. 

— ch. vi. ver. 2, I, 14 n 2. 

— ch. ix. vers. 20-25, I, 209 n 2. 

— ch. xi. ver. 13, 1, 147 n 1. 

— ch. xv. ver. 9, I, 41 n 2. 

— ch. xxviii. vers. 18-19, P- *'•!• 
Gentiles, I, 48, 56; II, 282. 

— prophet of, xlvii. 
George, St., II, 23 n 3. 

Geradeh, one of Solomon's wives, 

II, 178 n 2. 
Ghassan, xiv. 
(al) Ghazzali, lxx. 
Gibt, ancient Arab idol, I, 79. 



Gideon, I, 38 n 4. 

Cihid, I, 32 n 2 ; II, 7 n 1. 

Ginns, xii; I, 127, 131, 142, 160, 

i6on3; II, 7m, 69, 156, 25911, 

260, 305 n, 306, 345. 

— listen to Mohammed's preaching, 

lxx; II, 304. 

— serve Solomon, II, 102, 151. 

— their creation, lxix. 
Giordi. See Cudt. 
Gnat, similitude of, I, 4. 
God, names of, lxvii; II, 277. 
Goddesses of the Qurait, II, 186 n, 

252. 
Gog, lxxi ; II, 25 n 1, n 2, n 3. 
Goliath, I, 39 n 1 ; II, 1 n 4. 
Gomorrah, 1, 183 ni; II, 255, 298. 
Gordyaei. See Giordi. 
Gospels, I, 254 n 1 ; II, 86 n 1. 
Goyim, I, 48 n 1. 
Greeks, II, 42 n 1, 235 n. 

— chapter of, II, 124. 

— prophecy of the victory of, II, 

125, 125 n. 
Grove, the, I, 249 ; II, 67, 243. 
Gudt, Mount, where the ark rested, 

I, 210, 210 n 2. 
Gulf of Oman, ix. 
Gulf, Persian, ix. 

flabbab, II, 33 n 1. 

'Hab'hab, xiii. 

Habib, II, 164 n. 

'Hadab, II, 54 n 2. 

'Hadhramaut, II, 86 n 3. 

'Hadigah, xix, xxi, xxii, xxiii, xxiv, 

xxix, xlix, lxxvi. 
Hadtth, lxvi. 
'Hafsah, II, 290 n. 
' Hagg, xvii, liii, lxxvi; 1,29 m and 2. 

— meaning of word, lxxv. 
— • pilgrims, I, 50 n 2. 

— rites of, xiii, lxxiii, lxxiv, lxxv. 
(al) *Hagr, I, 344, 249. 

— chapter of, I, 244. 

— meaning of name, I, 244 n. 
'Halid ibn Walid, xxxviii, xli, xiii ; II, 

239. 
Hainan, Pharaoh's vizier, II, 108, 108 

n 1, 112, 121 n. 
'Hami, I, 112, 112 n 1. 
'Hamr, includes all intoxicating 

drinks, I, 32 n 3. 
'Hamzah, Mohammed's uncle, 

xxxviii ; I, 264 n 1 ; II, 192, 193, 

194. 



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INDEX. 



351 



'Hantf, xt, xxiv,lii; 1, 19, 54, 90, 124, 
133111,137,204,263; H.59,338. 
Hariri, Maqamat of, lvi; II, 16 113. 
'Harfibah, II, 283 n. 
Harfit, xiv ; I, 14. 
'Hasan, 11,74 >>3. 
Hashim, xvi, xviii, lx. 
'Hasi ibn Wail, II, 33 ni. 
"Ha/ib ibn abi Balta'hah, warns the 
Meccans of an intended attack 
by Mohammed, II, 277 n 2. 
'Havlriyfin, I, 53 n 1. 
HSwiyeh (Chapter cl, 8), the Abyss, 

lxx. 
'Hazra,?, tribe of, xxx, xxxi, xxxiv ; 

I, 59 ni; II, 239m 
Heaven, names of, lxx : — 
Dar al QarSr (Chapter xl, 42), the 

Abode of Rest, lxx. 
DSr as Salam (Chaptervi, i27),the 

Abode of Peace, lxx. 
Gannat al 'fluid (Chapter xxv, 16), 

the Garden of Eternity, lxx. 
Gannat al 'Hilliyun (Chapter 
lxxxiii, 18), the Garden of the 
Most High, lxx. 
Gannat al Firdaus (Chapter xviii, 
107), the Garden of Paradise, 
lxx. 
Gannat al Ma'wa (Chapter xxxii, 
19), the Garden of Resort, lxx. 
Gannat an Na'him (Chapter vi, 70), 

the Garden of Pleasure, lxx. 
Gannat 'Hadn (Chapter ix, 72), the 
Garden of Eden, lxx. 
Heifer, chapter of, xlii ; I, 2. 
Hell, I, 70, 80, 165, 182, 183, 184, 
186 ; II, 293, 301, 309, 317, 322, 

329,337,340- 
Hell, names of, lxx : — 

Hlwiyeh (Chapter cl, 8), the 
Abyss, lxx. 

Hu/amah (Chapter civ, 4), the 
Raging Fire that splits every- 
thing to pieces, lxx. 

Gahim (Chapter ii, 1 1 3), the Fierce 
Fire, lxx. 

Gehennum (Chapter xix, 44), Ge- 
henna, lxx. 

Laftta (Chapter lxx, 15), the Flam- 
ing Fire, lxx. 

Sa'hir (Chapter iv, u), the Blaze, 
lxx. 

Saqar (Chapter liv, 58), the Scorch- 
ing Fire, lxx. 
'Hid al Az'hS, lxxiv. 



(al) 'Hidbr, I, 41 ; II, 23 n 3. 

Hig-az, ix. 

Hi^rah, the, xxxiv; 1, 16 n 1, 20 n 2, 
32 ni. 

Hind, xxxvii. 

HirS, Mount, xxii. 

Hittatun, I, 7, 7 n 4 ; II, 157. 

Holy Ghost, 1, 113. 

Holy Name, the, II, 178 n. 

Homer, liv. 

Homicide, I, 135. 

Homoiousians, li. 

Honein, xlii, xliii ; I, 176 n 1. 

Hour, the, I, 161, 249, 258; II, 16, 
33, 56, 57, 62, 84, 126, 130, 135, 
148, 150,195, 204, 215, 231, 254, 

257, 3»9- 
House, the, I, 17, 18, 58, m, 163, 

2435 II, 59, 60, 143. 
Hubal, xii. 
Ilfld, I, 145, 145 n 2, 210, 211, 215; 

II, 95, 227. 
Hudaibiyeh, I, 97 n 1 ; II, 236, 237 n. 

— expedition of, II, 234 n, 235 n. 

— house of, xl, xli ; II, 237 n. 

— oath of fealty at, xliii. 
Husein, II, 74 n 2. 
'Hu/amah, II, 341. 

'Hu/amah (Chapter civ, 4), the Rag- 
ing Fire that splits everything 
to pieces, lxx. 

'Hu/bah, lxxii. 

'Huzair ibn Sara'hya, I, 41 n 1. 

(al) 'HuzzS, xii, xiii, xxvii ; II, 62 n 1, 
252. 

Hypocrites, xxxiv, xxxvii, lxiii; I, 
169, 182, 183, 184; II, 140, 142, 
145, 148, 149, 234, 265, 284. 

Iblis, lxix; I, 5, 50 n 2, 138, 246; II, 

8, 20, 44, 94, 181. 
Ibn AbbSs, II, 230. 
Idols of the Arabs, xii, xiii, xv; I, 

4 n 1; II, 185 n, 186 n. 
Idrts, II, 31, 53. 
Idumxa, 1, 146 n 1. 
Ifrit, lxx. 
I^tna'h, lxvi. 

I'hfa'un, meaning of word, II, 35 n 2. 
(el) 1'Mas, chapter of, II, 344 n. 
I'hram, II, 59 n 2. 
Iliad, liv. 
'Illiyun, II, 324. 
Imam, I, 17 n 1. 

Imamam,meaningofword, 1, 263 n2. 
Immunity, chapter of, 1, 172, 



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352 



THE QURAN. 



Imran, I, 50. 

Iram, terrestrial paradise of, II, 330. 

Iron, chapter of, I, 266. 

Isaac, lxxiv; 1, 18, 19, 50 n 2, 57,125, 
213,219,223; II, 30,51,180. 

Isaf, xiii. 

Isaiah, murder of, II, 1 n 4. 

Isfendiar, II, 131 n. 

Ishmael, xiii, xvii, lxxiv; I, 17, 19,57, 
94,125; 11,31,53,172,180. 

Islam, li; I, 15 n 1, 19 n 1, 30 n 1, 
55 n 1, 57, 59 n 1,60 111,74 ni, 
97|i3'i»47n*i «75 ni, 181 ni, 
183, 188 ni; II, 184, 206. 

— conquests of, I, 237 n 2. 

— meaning of word, li, lxv. 

— position of women under, lxxv. 

— practical duties of, lxxi. 

Israel, I, 17, 3°, 37, 58, 100; II, 31. 

— children of, I, 6, 37 n 2, 107, 108, 

113, I 53, 202, 203 n 2 ; II, 1, 1 
ni. n, 37, 38 n 3, 91, 106, 137, 
195, 215, 219, 282. 

Israfil shall sound the last trumpet, 
II, 255. 

Jacob, I, 18, 19, 57, 94, 125, 213, 
219, 223, 226 n 2, 227; II, 27, 
30, 51, 180. 

Jacobites, li. 

Jebel Musa, I, 147 n 1. 

(al) Jelalain, commentary of, lxv. 

"eremiah, imprisonment of, II, 1 n 4. 
ericho, I, 7 n 2. 

erusalem, I, 7 n 2, 20 n 2, 41 n 1 ; 
II, 244 n. 

— taken by Persians, liii ; II, 125 n. 

— temple at, II, 1 04. 

Jesus, xxvi, li; I, 12, 19, 39, 53, 
53 n 3, 57, 94, 95, i°4, 108, 113, 

114, 125; II, 29, 139, 164 n, 
206, 216 n, 269, 282. 

— an eidolon crucified instead of, 

I, 53 n 3- 

— Rfi'ha 'Mb, the Spirit of God, lxxi. 
Jethro, I, 149 n 1, 249 n 3. 

Jews, xiv, xlvii, 1, lix ; I, 8, 10 n 1 
and 2, 15, 19, 20 n 2, 48 n 1, 54, 
55 n 1, 103, 105, 106, 107, 134, 
263; 11,42 ni, 58,272 n, 275, 
282. 

— accused of perverting the Scrip- 

tures, I, 125 n, 250 n 3. 

— of Qurafo&ah, II, 142. 

— of YaTHrib, xxxi. 

— sins of the, II, 1 o 4. 



Jewish tradition, xlvii. 
Job, I, 94, 125 ; II, 52, 179, 179 n. 
John, I, 51, 125; II, 28. 
St. John cb. xvi. ver. 7, quoted II, 
281 n. 

— ch. xx. ver. 16, quoted I, 56 n. 
John the Baptist, murder of, 1 1, 104. 
Jonas, I, 94, 125, 173, 202; II, 53, 

295, 397. 

_ ordan, I, 52 n 1. 

, orhamites, xvii. 

, oseph, xxi; I, 219, 220, 220 n 1, 
221, 222, 224, 224 n, 225, 217, 
227 ni, 228, 229; II, 13 n2, 
77 n 5, 193. 

, oshua, II, 53 n 1. 

, udaism, xiv, xv, xxxv, li. 

t udges vi, I, 38 n 4. 

] udgment day, II, 106, 107, 255, 262, 
*97, 298, 311, 314, 315, 318, 
319, 321, 323, 325, 329, 338, 

339- 

— signs preceding, lxxi. 

Kaabah, xiii, xvi, xvii, xviii, xxvi, 
xxviii, xxxix, xli, xiii, liii, lxxiv, 
lxxv; 1, 16 n 1, 17 n 1, 2, and 
3, 20 n 2, in, 165 n 2, 243 ni; 
II, 1 n 2, 69 n 2, 248 n. 

— model of the, in heaven, xvi; II, 

248 n. 
Kaffir, II, 312. 
Kalimu 'llah, I, 39 n 2. 
KauTHar, II, 342. 
Khaibar, Jews of, II, 235 n, 236 n, 

237 n. 
Khtulah bint THa'labah, II, 270 n. 
Kborassan, veiled prophet of, xiv. 
Khosrou, xl. 
Kill, II, 53 ni. 
Kindeh, xiv. 
Korah, II, 116, 116 n, 121. 

Lailat el Qadr, lxxiii. 

Land, the Holy, I, too. 

La/i>a (Chapter lxx, 15), the Flaming 

Fire lxx 
(al) Lau'h el Ma*hflto&, lxxv. 
LoqmSn, II, 131, 132. 
Lord's Prayer, liv. 
Lot, xxv; I, 61, 125, 148, 213, 214, 

215, 248; II, 30 ni, 27 ni, 51, 

97, i°4, "°> 173, 176, 34*- 

— wife of, 1 1, 292. 

Lote tree, the celestial, II, 252. 

— trees, II, 15a, 15a n. 



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353 



Magicians, 1, 151. 

Magog, lxxi ; II, 25 n 1, n 2, n 3. 

MagOg, II, 25, 54. 

(al) Maisar, games of chance, I, 32, 

32 114, 52 ni, 97 n 2, no. 
Malik, the keeper of hell, lxix; II, 

217. 
Manat, xii, xiii, xxvii; II, 62 n 1, 

252. 
Manichxans, lii. 
Manna, I, 7. 
Maqam Ibrahim, lxxiv. 
Maqauqas, xl. 
Marab, bursting of the dyke of, II, 

151, i53n. 
Marriage among the Arabs, xi. 

— with whom lawful, II, 146. 

— with women who have come out 

from the infidel ranks, II, 279, 
280. 

Marut, xiv; 1, 14. 

Marwi, Mount, xiii. 

Mary, Coptic slave, xl ; II, 290. 

Mary, daughter of Imran, II, 292. 

Mary, son of, li; 1,12,39, 51,52,93, 
95,100, 104,108,113, 114, 177; 
II, 28, 29, 68, 215, 269, 282. 

Mary, Virgin, I, 50 ni; II, 292. 

Mecca, ix, xiii, xvi, xxiv, xxvi, xxx, 
xxxi,xxxiii,xxxv,xxxvii,xli,xliii, 
xliv, xlv, xlviii, xlix, liii, lix, lxiii, 
lxxiii, lxxiv; I, 16, 17 n 2, 20 
n 2, 22 n 2, 27 n i, 30 n 1, 58 n 1, 
82 ni, 97 ni, 126 ni, 164 ni, 
165 n 2, 176 ni, 187 n 1, 188 n 1, 
192 n 1, 214 n 3, 242 n 1, 2(0111, 
264 n 1 ; 1 1, 9 n 1, 44 n 1, 70 
n 1,87,123, 168 n, 213,236,275, 
332n, 336 n, 341. 

— invasion of, by the Abyssinians, 

xviii. 

Medayen, II, 125. 

Medinah, ix, xviii, xxxi, xxxiv,xxxvii, 
xxxix, xli, xliv, xlviii, lix, lxiii, 
lxxv; I, 20 n 2, 30 ni, 32 n 1, 
163, 183 n 2, i87,i87n2,i88ni; 
II, 123 n 1, 140, 239, 284, 285, 
287, 320. 

— Jews of, xxxv. 
Mehdi, coming of, lxxi. 
Merciful, II, 317. 

Merwah, Mount, near Mecca, I, 22. 
Messiah, xxx, li; I, 52, 93, 95, 100, 

108, 177. 
Michael, xiii; I, 13 112. 
Midian, I, 148, 183, 214, 216, 249 

[9] 



n4; II, 37, 61, 86 n 3, 109, 110, 
121. 
Mina, lxxiv; 1,50 m; II, 236 n. 

— vale of, II, 59 n 1 and 3. 
Miracle, alleged at Bedr, 1, 165 n 1. 
Miriam, I, 50 n 1. 

Mista'h, a relation of Abu Bekr, who 
had assisted in spreading the 
scandal about 'Ayeshah, II, 75 
ni. 

Moab, II, 147 n. 

Mohammed, lxv; I, 13 n 2, 15 ni, 
32 n 1, 50 n 1, 97 n t, 126 n 2, 
165 n 2, 175 n 1, 183 n 2, 188 
ni, 197 m; II, 229, 236 n, 238. 

— accused of unfair division of the 

spoils, II, 149. 

— adopts Mecca as his qiblah, I, 20 

n 2. 

— amour of, with the Coptic hand- 

maiden Mary, II, 233, 290. 

— ancestors, xvi, xvii. 

— attempts the pilgrimage to Mecca, 

xxxix; II, 236. 

— bidden not to hasten the revela- 

tion of the Qur'Sn, II, 311. 

— bidden to prayBy night, II, 308. 

— birth, xviii. 

— 'black drop' taken out of his 

heart, II, 335 n. 

— chapter of, II, 229. 

— character of, xlvi. 

— children of, xix. 

— compromise with the idolatrous 

Meccans, II, 62 ni. 

— concludes truce at 'Hudiibtyeh, 

II, 237 n. 

— conspiracy to murder him, xxxiii. 

— death of, xliv. 

— death of his wife 'Hadfj'ah, xxix. 

— defeated at Ohod, xxxvii, xxxviii. 

— destroys the idols, xiii. 

— early life of, xix. 

— expedition of, against the Jews 

of Khaibar, I, 16 m. 

— first call of, xx. 

— first collision of, with the Meccan 

army, xxxv; I, 164 ni. 

— first converts of, xxiii. 

— flight of, to Medinah, xxxiii ; 

I, 187 ni. 

— hysterical symptoms of, xxi. 

— inspired through Gabriel, l,jn2. 

— invited to Medinah, xxxi. 

— marriage of, with the divorced 

wife of Zald, II, 139 n. 

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Mohammed marries 'H&dHgah, xix. 

— mental struggles, xxii. 

— 'night journey' of, to heaven, II, 

137 ns. 

— oath of fealty sworn by him at 

'Akabah, I, 98 m. 

— pedigree, xviii. 

— personal description of, xix. 

— persons supposed to have helped 

him in compiling the Qur'ln, 
I, 261, 261 04. 

— prophecies concerning him, xlix ; 

I, 21 ni, 99 si; II, 281 ni. 

— proscribed by the Qurau, xxvii, 

xxviii. 

— put out to nurse, xviii. 

— receives a check at 'Honein, I, 

176 ni. 

— removal of the ban, xxviii. 

— reproved for neglecting a poor 

convert, II, 320. 

— repulses a poor blind man, II, 

320. 

— 'seal of the prophets,' lxxi. 

— second revelation, xxii. 

— secret of his success, xlv. 

— sent to both men and #inns, xix. 

— takes Mecca, xlii. 

— takes refuge with Abu Bekr in a 

cave, xxxiii, xxxiv; 1, 178 n. 

— takes revenge on the Jews.xxxvii. 

— tomb of, at Medinah, lxxv. 

— victorious at the battle of Bedr, 

xxxvi. 

— vindicated from the charge of 

being a mere poet, II, 167. 

— vision of the congregation of the 

£-inns listening to the recitation 
of the Qur'Sn, xxx. 

— vision of the 'night journey,' xxxi, 

xxxii. 

— visits Tl'if, xxv. 

— wives of, II, 142 n 5, 147. 

— wounded at the battle of Ohod, 

xxxviii; I, 61 ni. 
Mohammed, Rusfil allah, the Apostle 

of God, lxxi. 
Mohammedan commentators, 1, 121 

ni. 
Monophysites, li. 
Monotheism, xv, xlix. 
Monothelites, li. 
Month, sacred, I, 27. 
Moon, chapter of, II, 254. 

— alleged miracle of its being cleft 

asunder, II, 255 n. 



Mosaic law, I, 9 n 2. 

Moses, I, 6, 7, 8, 12, 15, 19, 37, 38, 
39 n *, 57, 93, 94, 1°°, "5, 136, 
147 n 1, 151, 152, 154, 155, 156, 
157,201,202, 206, 216,217, 238, 
239; 11,1,12,21,22,23,30,35, 

36, 36 m, 37, 38, 39,4°,4i,5«>, 
61, 68, 86, 90, 92, 93, 100, 107, 
108, 109, 112, 113, 121, 137, 139, 
149 n, 172, 193, 194, 195, 203, 
206, 214, 225, 228, 240 n, 247, 
253,281,318,329. 

— mother of, II, 108. 
Mosque, 1, 16, 176; II, 306. 

— meaning of word, lxxii. 

— 'Remote,' II, 1. 

— 'Sacred,' xxxi, lxxiv; 1, 20, 21, 27, 

28, 3', 97, i67,i73, 175! II, 1, 

58, 237. 
Mother of cities, II, 205. 
Mother of the Book, the, see Umm 

al Kitib, I, 211, 237. 
Mu'tdhdbm, lxxii. 
(al) Mu^Sirah, lxv. 
Muha^erin, xxxiv ; I, 172 n, 187 n 1 ; 

11,139,275- 
Mu'harram, I, 96. 
(al) Mukanna , xlv. 
Munafiqin, xxxiv, lxiii. 
Munkir, lxix; II, 232 n. 
Muqam Ibrahim, 1, 17 n 3. 
Mfisa alllh, II, 18. 
Musailimah, a false prophet, xlv ; II, 

235 n. 
Muslims, I, 14 n 1, 18 n 1, 24 n 2, 

3»ni, no n 3, 127, 152 n 1, 

164 n 2, 176 n 1 ; II, 65. 

— their flight to Abyssinia, xxvi. 

— they prepare for flight to Medi- 

nah, xxxiii. 
Muta, xli. 
Mutanebbi, xlv. 
(al) Muttalib, xviii. 
Muz'hab, xxxii. 

(an) NarfAir, Jews of, II, 274 n, 

276 n. 
(an) NaJtiir ibn el Hareth, 1 1, 300. 

— prefers the Persian legends to the 

Qur'Sn, II, 131 n. 
Na.gg'Sst, xxvi, xl. 
Na^ran, xiv. 

— persecution of Christians at, II, 

326 n. 
Na'Aa'h tribe, patois, I, 236 n 2, 
Nakir, lxix; II, 232 n. 



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355 



Names, the excellent, lxvii. 

Nasr, xii; II, 303. 

NSufel, xviii. 

Nebi Saleh, 1, 147 n 1. 

(an) Nebiy el' ummiy, xlvii. 

Nebuchadnezzar, I, 41 n 1 ; II, 1 n 4. 

Nebuk, II, 15a n. 

Ne,gd, ix. 

Nehemiah ii. 13, I, 41 n 1. 

Night journey, xxi; II, 1 n 1, 251 n. 

Nights, Arabian, 1, 128 n 1. 

Nimrod, I, 40 n 3. 

Noah, xxv ; I, 50, 94, 125, 144, 145, 
183, 200, 201 n 2, 207, 208, 209, 
210, 215, 239; II, 1, 3, 20 n 1, 
31, 51, 61, 66,86, 94,119,139, 
164 n, 171, 176, 190, 193, 242, 
247, 255, 269, 302. 

— chapter of, II, 302, 303, 304. 

— wife of, II, 292. 

Noah, NaMy aliah, the Prophet of 

God, lxxi. 
Noah's son, I, 209 n 2. 
Noldeke, lvi, lx. 
Numberers, the, II, 72. 
Nun, meaning of word, II, 295 ni. 

'Obed Adama, 1, 161 n 1. 
Offspring, female, buried alive, 1,132 

n3, 256 n2. 
Ohod, battle of,xxxvii,xli; I, 61 ni, 

66 n 1, 264 n 1. 
'Omaiyyat ibn Abi Zalt, 1, 159 n 1. 
'Omar ibn el 'Ha//ab, xxiv, xlvi, lvii. 
Ommalyat ibn '.Half, II, 17 n 1. 
Ommaiyeh, family of, xviii. 
Orators, Arab, 1. 
Osamer, xliv. 
Othman, Caliph, xxiii, lix ; 1, 172 n 3. 

Parables, liv. 

Paradise, xlii, lxx; I, 15, 31, 62, 63, 
«9» 89, 139, 140, 142, 143, 155, 
207, 237, 253; II, 31, 65, 85, 
123, 164, 166, 169, 205, 207, 
216, 225, 226, 229, 230, 242, 
243, 267, 277, 292, 299, 312, 

3i6» 3i7, 322, 325 n, 329, 33', 

342 n. 
jrapaxXi/Tor, xlix; II, 281 n. 
Paul, St., liv. 
Pen, chapter of, II, 295. 
Pentateuch, li ; I, 254 n 1 ; II, 86 n 1, 

113 n. 
ncpiKhvTos, xlix; II, 281 n. 
Persia, ix, xl, lii; II, 125 n, 2350. 



Persian Gulf, ix. 

Persian invasion, II, 1 n 4. 

Petra, I, 244 n 1. 

Pharaoh, xxv; I, 6, 47, 151, 152, 153, 
154, 169, 170, 201, 202, 216, 
226 n 2; II, 36, 37, 38, 39 m, 
40, 68, 90, 91, 92, 92 n 1, 93, 

IOO, 107, 108, IIO, 112, I2X, 

176, 192, 193, 194, 195, 214, 
215, 218, 219, 242, 347, 247 n, 
257,298,307,318,327,331. 

— Mohammedan legend of, I, 203 

n 2. 

— surnamed 'of the stakes,' II, 176. 

— wife of, II, 108, 292. 
Phineas ibn Azflra, I, 68 n 1. 
Pilgrimage, lxxi; I, 28, 173 ; II, 59. 

See 'Ha^. 

— ceremonies of, liii. 

— farewell, xliv. 

Pit, fellows of, II, 326. 
Poets, II, 98. 
Power, night of, II, 337. 
Prayer, lxxi. 

— call to, lxxii. 

— enjoined at night, II, 308. 

— incumbent and supererogatory, 

lxxii. 

— times of, lxxii. 

Prophet, 'The Righteous,' 1, 147 n 1. 
Psalm xxxvii. 29, p. xlviii ; II, 55 n 2. 

— cxlviii, II, 52. 

Psalms, the, I, 7, 94 ; II, 55. 
Ptolemy, works of, 1, 145 n 2. 

Qadr, meaning of word, II, 337 n. 

Q3f, Mount, lxx. 

Qainuqah, Jews of, xxxvii ; 1, 68 n 1 ; 

II, 276 n. 
QarQn, II, 192. See Korah. 
(al) Q|sim, Mohammed's son, II, 

343 n. 
Qiblah, liii ; I, 20, 202. 
Qin<3r= talent, I, 55 n 2. 
QiySs, lxvi. 
Quails, I, 7. 

Quba', Mosque of, 1, 188 n. 
Qurau#>ah, Jewsof,xxxviii; II, 274 n. 

— fall of the, xxxix. 

Quraw, xvi, xxvi, xxviii, xxxiii, xlix, 
liii, lix, lxi; 1, 97 n, 165 n 1,254 n; 
II, 17 n 1, 62 n 1, 69 n 2, 236, 
254, 320 n, 342. 

— compromise with, xxvii. 

— idiom of, lxxvi ; II, 35 n 2. 

— territory of, I, 249 n 2. 

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Qur*an, 1, 147 n 1 ; II, 307, 308. 

— abrupt changes of persons in, I, 

195 n 2. 

— Arabic, I, 219. 

— chronological arrangement of, lix, 

lxiv. 

— division intoMeccaandMedinah,l. 

— divisions of surahs, lx, lxv. 

— English translations of, lxxix. 

— language of, lxxvi. 

— meaning of name, lvii. 

— names of, lxv. 

— on what written, lvii. 

— persons supposed to have assisted 

in the composition of, xlviii. 

— recensions of, lix. 

— revelation of, not to be hurried, 

11,3". 

— style of, liv, lv, Ixxvii. 

— various dialects incorporated in, 

lix. 

— verses of, annulled, lvii. 
Quzai, xvii. 

Rabbantyin, I, 56 n 1. 

Rabbi, 1, 177 n 2. 

Rabbinic legends, li. 

Rabbis, Jewish, I, 68 n 1, 159 n 1. 

Rabboni, I, 56 n 1. 

Ramadan, lxxiii; 1, 26, 26 112, 27 n 3. 

(ar-)Raqim, II, 14, 14 n 1. 

(ar) Rass, II, 86, 86 n 3, 242. 

Razwan, keeper of Paradise, lxix. 

Red Sea, ix, xxxv. 

Reminder, the, I, 53, 245, 254, 255 ; 

II, 26, 84, 86. 
Remote Mosque, the, xxxiii. 
Repetition, the seven of, I, 249, 249 

n6. 
Resignation. See Islam. 
Retaliation, law of, I, 25. 
Rodwell, I, 240 ni. 
Romans, ancient, II, 2 n 2. 
Rosary, Ixviii. 
(ar-)Ru'h al Amtn, lxix. 
(ar-)Ru'h al Qudus, lxix. 
Rukaiyah, xxiii. 
Rum. See Greeks. 
Rustam, II, 131 n. 

Sa'ad ibn WaqqSz, xxiii. 
Sabxans, I, 8, 107 ; II, 58. 
Sabbath, I, 263. 

— breakers punished, I, 9 n 1, 79. 

— Israelites commanded to observe 

the, I, 93. 



Sabbath, legend of breakers of, I, 

158. 
Sabeanism, xi. 
Sab'h al Mathani, I, 249 n. 
Sacred Mosque, xxxiii. 
Sacrifices, Ixxiv. 

— human, I, 132 112. 
Sadaqah, lxxiii. 

Sa'Mr (Chapter iv, u), the Blaze, 
lxx. 

Sahm, tribe of, II, 340 n. 

Saibah, I, 112, 112 n t. 

Sakhar, a giaa, assumes Solomon's 
likeness, II, 178 n. 

Sale, I, 240 n 1. 

Saleh, prophet, I, 147 n 1. 

Salman al Farst, xlviii. 

Samaritans, the, II, 40 n 1. 

(as) Samariy, II, 40, 41. 

Samuel, I, 37 n 3. 

1 Samuel iv, v, vi, I, 38 n 3. 

Sanaa, II, 341 n. 

Saqar (Chapter liv, 58), the Scorch- 
ing Fire, lxx. 

Saracen inhabitants of Sinai, I, 147 
n 1. 

Satan, I, 23, 30, 50, 65, 67, 78, 81, 
82, 83, no, 120, 134, 139, 140, 
159, 161 n 1, 164, 169, 223, 223 
n 2, 230, 241, 256, 261 ; II, 6, 8, 

21, 3°, 75, 86- 
Saul, I, 38 n 1 and 4. 
Sawaliheh, I, 147 n 1. 
Scriptures, I, 16. 
Seba, II, 101. 

— chapter of, II, 150, 152, 153 n. 
Seil al Arim, xlviii. 
Sennacherib, II, t 04. 

Seth, xi. 

Shah-nameh, II, 131 n. 

Shaiban Wail, 1. 

Shaqq as Sadr, the, II, 335 n. 

Sheba, queen of, II, 101, 102, 103, 

103 n. 
Shechina, 1, 38, 38 n 2, 176, 179; II, 

233. 237. . 

Sheddad ibn Ad, constructs a ter- 
restrial Paradise, II, 330. 

Shiahs, II, 143. 

Sho'haib, I, 149, 150, 214, 215, 249 
113; II, 97, 121. 

Sijfdah, Ixxii, lxxii n. 

Si^gin, II, 324. 

(as-)Si^ill, II, 55, 55 n 1. 

Simon Peter, II, 164 n. 

Sinai, inhabitants of, I, 147 n 1. 



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357 



Sinai, Mount, I, 57 n i ; II, 66, 336. 

— Peninsula of, I, 147 n 1. 
Sinaitic Peninsula, II, 152 n 1. 
(as) Siraf, lxix. 

Sirius, II, 254. 

Slaves, II, 127. 

Sleepers, Seven, II, 14 n 1, 16 n 2. 

Smoke, chapter of, II, 218. 

Sodom, I, 183 n 1, 249 n 4, 254; II, 

298. 
Solomon, I, 14, 14 n 1, 94, 125; II, 

52, 52 n 1 and 3, 101, 102, 151. 

— a devil assumes his likeness as 

a punishment for his allowing 
idolatry in his house, II, 178 n. 

— ring of, II, 178 n. 

— served by ^inns, lxx. 

— slays his horses, II, 178. 

— taught the language of birds, II, 

100. 
Soul, condition of, after death, lxxi. 
Spider, legend of, xxxiii. 

— chapter of, II, 117. 

— similitude of, I, 4 n 3 ; II, 121. 
Spirit, li; II, 317. 

— the Faithful, lxix ; II, 98. 

— of God, II, 53. 

— Holy, lxix; I, 12, 39. 

Spoils, II, 141 n, 145, 148, 274, 275. 

— chapter of, I, 163. 

— distribution of, 1, 163. 
Statues, I, no. 
Stesichorus, liv. 
Strabo, I, 244 n 1. 

Suhail ibn 'Amr concludes truce with 
Mohammed at 'Hudaibiyeh, II, 
237 n. 

Sunnah, lxvi. 

Sunnis, I, non;. 

Surah, I, 182, 197, 206, 231. 

— meaning of word, lvi. 
Suwa'h, xii; II, 303. 

Syria, ix, xli, xliv; I, 164 ni, 249 
m; II, 125 n, 153 n. 

Tabuk, xliii; I, 184 n 1, 190 n 1. 
Tagbtit, ancient Arabs, idols, and 

demons, I, 40, 79, 81, 82, 106, 

254; II, 184. 
Ta'if, xii, xlii, xliii, lxx; 11,213, 304 n. 
Tal'ha, xxiii, Ixv. 
Tal'h trees, II, 263. 
Talmud, liv; I, 5 n 1, 57 n 1, 116 n, 

121 n r, 155 n; II, 52 n 2, 

178 n. 
Talfit (Saul), I, 38. 



Tamannah, meaning of word, II, 
62, n 1. 

Tannfir, meaning of word, I, 209 n 1. 

Tarah, I, 124 n, 

Tarwi'h, Ixxiv. 

Tasnhn, II, 325. 

Tawaf, ceremony of, lxxv. 

Terah, I, 124 n. 

Thabir, Mount, xxii. 

Thamfid, xlviii; I, 86, 146, 147 n 1, 
183, 211, 212, 216, 239, 244 n 1, 
249 n5; II, 7, 61, 103,121,176, 
242, 247, 254, 256, 298, 327, 

33ii 333- 
(eTH) THaqalan, lxx; II, 9 m. 
THaqtf, tribe of, xii, xlii. 
THaur, Mount, xxxiii. 
Tomb, examination of, lxix. 
Tribes, the, I, 19, 57. 
Trinity, the, xiv, lii. 
Tubba'h, kings of the Himyarite 

Arabs so called, II, 219, 242. 
Tuva, the holy valley, I, 35; II, 318. 

UmmalKitab, xlviii; 1,2 na; II, 163. 
Ummatun, II, 53 n4. 

— meaning of word, I, 263 n 2. 
Umm Gemil, wife of Abu Laheb, lx. 
Ummtyfin, xlvii ; 1,482. 

Umm Salma, one of Mohammed's 
wives, I, 70 n 1. 

Veiled prophet of Khorassan, xlv. 

Venus, xii. 

Vizir, meaning of word, II, 36 n 2. 

Wadd, xii; II, 303. 

Wady, bed of a torrent, 1, 191. 

Wady as Sheikh, 1, 147 n 1. 

WaKd ibn 'Hugba wrongly accuses 
the tribe of Mustaleq of insub- 
ordination, II, 239 n. 

(al) Walfd ibn Mu^airah, II, 295, 
309 n, 330 n. 

— bargains with an idolater to be 

relieved of the sin of apostacy, 

II, 253 n. 
Waqf, lxxiii. 
Waraqah, xv, xx, xlix. 
(al) Watfyeh, I, 147 n 1. 
Wazilah, I, 112, 112 n 1. 
Whisperer, the, II, 345. 
Whistling reprimanded, I, 167. 
Witches, II, 303. 
Women, position of, lxxv. 

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Word,l; 1,51. 
Wuzfi'h, lxxii. 

Ya#&uTH, xii; II, 303. 

YZ$4g, II, 25, 54- 

Yli'as, meaning of word, I, 236 n 2. 

Yamamah, II, 86 n 3. 

Y'arishfin, meaning of word, 1,153m. 

Yastn, II, 173. 

YaTHrib, xviii, xxx, xxxi, xxxii, xxxiii, 

xxxiv, xlviii ; II, 140, 140 n 1. 
— Jews of, xxxi. 
Ya'flq, xii; II, 303. 
Yefta'h'allah, new phrase, I, 149 n 2. 
YemSmah, lvii. 

Yemen, xiv; II, 150 n, 327n, 34m. 
Yul'hidfina, meaning of word, 1, 160 

n 1. 

Zachariah, 1, 51, 125 ; II, 27, 27 n 1, 

53,53ni. 
ZafS, Mount, near Mecca, xiii; 1, 22. 
Zafiyah bint 'Huyai, one of the 

prophet's wives, II, 240. 



Zafwan ibn al Mu'hu«al, causes 
scandal concerning 'Ayesha, II, 
74 n 2. 

ZSid, Mohammed's adopted son, 
xxix, xii, xlix; II, 144, 233 n 1. 

Zaid ibn Amr, xv, xx, xxiii. 

Ziid ibn THlbit, Mohammed's ama- 
nuensis, lvii, lviii, lix. 

Zainab, a widow, afterwards one of 
Mohammed's wives, xxix. 

— divorced wife of Zaid, xxix; II, 
139 n, 144 n, 233. 

Zakat, lxxiii. 

Zali'h, 1, 146, 147, 148 n 1, 211, 212, 
215; 11,96, 103. 

Zamharlr, II, 313. 

Zaqqfim, II, 7 n 2, 170, 220, 264. 

Zemzem, xvii. 

Zin.jabil, II, 313. 

Zobeir, xxiii, Ixv. 

Zodiacal signs, IT, 326. 

Zoroastrianism, lxviii. 

Zuhaib ibn Sinan er Rflmi, I, 30 
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