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Full text of "Sacred Books East Various Oriental Scholars with Index. 50 vols Max Muller Oxford 1879.1910."

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THE 



SACRED BOOKS OF THE EAST 



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Honiron 
HENRY FROWDE 




OXFORD UNIVERSITY PBESS WAREHOUSE 
7 PATERNOSTER EOW 



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THE 



SACRED BOOKS OF THE EAST 



TRANSLATED 



BY VARIOUS ORIENTAL SCHOLARS 



AND EDITED BY 



F. MAX MULLER 



VOL. XI 



(Btfavli 

AT THE CLARENDON PRESS 

1881 

[All rights reserved] 



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-t'/&? 6 



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BUDDHIST SUTTAS 



TRANSLATED FROM PALI 



BY 



T. W. RHYS DAVIDS 



1. THE MAHA-PARINIBBANA SUTTANTA 

2. THE DHAMMA-ATAKKA-PPAVATTANA SUTTA 

3. THE TEVIGGA SUTTANTA 

4. THE AKANKHEYYA SUTTA 

5. THE ATETOKHILA SUTTA 

6. THE MAHA-SUDASSANA SUTTANTA 

7. THE SABBASAVA SUTTA 

rJ-IVERSITY* 
0Jrto"rTT" 

AT THE CLARENDON PRESS 
1881 

[All rights reserved] 



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CONTENTS. 



FAGK 



General Introduction to the Buddhist Suttas . . ix 

1. The Book of the Great Decease (Maha-parinibbana 

Suttanta) xxix 

Introduction xxxi 

Translation i 

2. The Foundation of the Kingdom of Righteousness 

(Dhamma-a'akka-ppavattana Sutta) . . -137 

Introduction 139 

Translation 146 

3. On Knowledge of the Vedas (Tevicca Suttanta) . 157 

Introduction 159 

Translation 167 

(The Stlas, pp. 189-200.) 

4. If he should desire (Akankheyya Sutta) . . 205 

Introduction 207 

Translation 210 

5. Barrenness and Bondage (JSTetokhila Sutta) . .219 

Introduction 221 

Translation 223 

6. Legend of the Great King of Glory (Maha-Sudas- 

sana Suttanta) 235 

Introduction 237 

(Maha-Sudassana Gataka, pp. 238-241.) 

Translation 247 

7. All the Asa v as (Sabbasava Sutta) . . . .291 

Introduction 293 

Translation 296 

Index 309 



Transliteration of Oriental Alphabets adopted for the 

Translations of the Sacred Books of the East . . 317 



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GENERAL INTRODUCTION 

TO THE 

BUDDHIST SUTTAS. 



On being asked to contribute a volume of translations 
from the Pali Suttas to the important series of which this 
work forms a part, the contributor has to face the difficulty 
of choosing from the stores of a nearly unknown literature — 
a difficulty arising from the embarrassment, not of poverty, 
but of wealth. I have endeavoured to make such a choice 
as would enable me to bring together into one volume a 
collection of texts which should be as complete a sample as 
one volume could afford of what the Buddhist scriptures, 
on the whole, contain. With this object in view I have re- 
frained from confining myself to the most interesting books 
— those, namely, which deal with the Noble Eightfold Path, 
the most essential, the most original, and the most attractive 
part of Gotama's teaching ; and I have chosen accordingly, 
besides the Sutta of the Foundation of the Kingdom of 
Righteousness (the Dhamma-£akka-ppavattana- 
Sutta), which treats of the Noble Path, six others which 
treat of other sides of -the Buddhist system ; less interesting 
perhaps in their subject matter, but of no less historical 
value. 

These are — 

i. The Book of the Great Decease (the Maha- 
parinibbana-Suttanta), which is the Buddhist repre- 
sentative of what, among the Christians, is called a Gospel. 

a. The Foundation of the Kingdom of Righte- 
ousness (the Dhamma-^akka-ppavattana-Sutta), 
containing the Four Noble Truths, and the Noble Eight- 
fold Path which ends in Arahatship. 



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THE BUDDHIST SUTTAS. 



3. The Discussion on Knowledge of the Three 
Vedas(theTevi^-a-Suttanta), which is a controversial 
dialogue on the right method of attaining to a state of 
union with Brahma. 

4. The Sutta entitled 'If he should desire — '(Akan- 
kheyya-Sutta), which shows in the course of a very 

y beautiful argument some curious sides of early Buddhist 

mysticism and of curiously unjustified belief. 

5. The Treatise on Barrenness and Bondage 
(the ATetokhila-Sutta), which treats of the Buddhist 
Order of Mendicants, from the moral, as distinguished from 
the disciplinary, point of view. 

6. The Legend of the Great King of Glory (the 
Maha-sudassana-Suttanta), which is an example of 
the way in which previously existing legends were dealt 
with by the early Buddhists. 

7. The Sutta entitled 'All the Asavas' (the Sabba- 
sava- Sutta), which explains the signification of a con- 
stantly recurring technical term, and lays down the essen- 

> tial principles of Buddhist Agnosticism. 

The Discipline of the Buddhist Mendicants, the Rules 
of their Order — probably the most influential, as it is the 
oldest, in the world — will be fully described, down to its 
minutest details, in the translation of the Vinaya Pi/aka, 
which will appropriately form a subsequent part of this 
Series of Translations of the Sacred Books of the East. 
There was therefore no need to include any Sutta on this 
subject in the present volume : but of the rest of the matters 
discussed in the Buddhist Sacred Books — of Buddhist le- 
gend, gospel, controversial theology, and ethics — the works 
selected will I trust give a correct and adequate, if necessa- 
rily a somewhat fragmentary, idea. 



The age of these writings can be fixed, without much 
uncertainty, at about the latter end of the fourth or the 
beginning of the third century before the commencement 
of the Christian era. This is the only hypothesis which 
seems, at present, to account for the facts known about 
them. It should not however be looked upon as anything 



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GENERAL INTRODUCTION. XI 

more than a good working hypothesis to be accepted until 
all the texts of the Buddhist Pali Suttas shall have been 
properly edited. For it depends only on the fact that one 
of the texts now translated contains several statements, 
and one very significant silence, which afford ground for 
chronological argument. That argument amounts only to 
probability, not to certainty; and it might scarcely be worth 
while to put it forward were it not that the course of the 
enquiry will be found to raise several questions of very 
considerable interest. 

The significant silence to which I refer occurs in the 
account of the death of Gotama at the end of the Maha- 
parinibbana-Sutta 1 ; and I cannot do better than quote 
Dr. Oldenberg's remarks upon it at p. xxvi of the able 
Introduction to his edition of the text of the Maha-vagga. 

'The Tradition regarding the Councils takes up the 
thread of the story where the accounts of the life and work 
of Buddha, given in the Sutta Pi/aka, end. After the death 
of the Master — so it is related in the Aulla-vagga — Su- 
bhadda, the last disciple converted by Buddha shortly 
before his death 2 , proclaimed views which threatened the 
dissolution of the community. 

' " Do not grieve, do not lament," he is said to have said 
to the believers. " It is well that we have been relieved of 
the Great Master's presence. We were oppressed by him 
when he said, 'This is permitted to you, this is not per- 
mitted.' In future we can do as we like, and not do as we 
do not like." 

'In opposition to Subhadda, — the tradition goes on to 
relate, — there came forward one of the most distinguished 
and oldest of Buddha's disciples, the great Kassapa, who 
proposed that five hundred of the most eminent members 
of the community should assemble at Rag-agaha, the royal 
residence of the ruler of Magadha, in order to collect the 
Master's precepts in an authentic form. It has already 
been said above, how, during the seven months' sitting of 

1 Translated below, pp. 1 12-135. 

3 This is a mistake. The Subhadda referred to is quite a different person 
from the last convert. See my note below, p. 117. 



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Xll THE BUDDHIST SUTTAS. 

the assembly, Kassapa as president fixed the Vinaya with 
the assistance of Upali, and the Dhamma with the assist- 
ance of Ananda. 

' This is the story as it has come down to us. What we 
have here before us is not history, but pure invention ; and, 
moreover, an invention of no very recent date. Apart from 
internal reasons that might be adduced to support this, we 
are able to prove it by comparing another text which 
is older than this story, and the author of which 
cannot yet have known it. I allude to the highly 
important Sutta, which gives an account of the death of 
Buddha, and the Pali text of which has recently been 
printed by Professor Childers. This Sutta gives 1 the 
story — in long passages word for word the same as in 
the Afulla-vagga — of the irreverent conduct of Subhadda, 
which Kassapa opposes by briefly pointing to the true con- 
solation that should support the disciples in their separation 
from the Master. Then follows the account of the burning 
of Buddha's corpse, of the distribution of his relics among 
the various princes and cities, and of the festivals which 
were instituted in honour of these relics. Everything that 
the legend of the First Council alleges as a motive for, and 
as the background to, the story about Kassapa's proposal 
for holding the Council, is found here altogether, except 
that there is no allusion to the proposal itself, or 
to the Council. We hear of those speeches of Subhadda, 
which, according to the later tradition, led Kassapa to make 
his proposal, but we do not hear anything of the proposal 
itself. We hear of the great assembly that meets for the 
distribution of Buddha's relics, in which — according to the 
later tradition — Kassapa's proposal was agreed to, but we 
do not hear anything of these transactions. It may be 
added that we hear in this same Sutta 2 of the precepts 
which Buddha delivered to his followers shortly before his 
death, concerning doubts and differences of opinion that 
might arise, among the members of the community, with 
regard to the Dhamma and the Vinaya, and with regard to 

1 Pages 67, 68 in the edition of Childers. 
* Pages 59, 6o, 61, ibid. 



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GENERAL INTRODUCTION. Xlll 

the treatment of such cases when he should no longer be 
with them. If anywhere, we should certainly have ex- 
pected to find here some allusion to the great authentic 
depositions of Dhamma and Vinaya after Buddha's death, 
which, according to the general belief of Buddhists, esta- 
blished a firm standard according to which differences could 
be judged and have been judged through many centuries. 
There is not the slightest trace of any such allusion to the 
Council. This silence is as valuable as the most direct 
testimony. It shows that the author of the Maha- 
parinibbana-Sutta did not know anything of the 
First Council.' 

The only objection which it seems to me possible to 
raise against this argument is that the conclusion is worded 
somewhat too absolutely; and that it is rather a begging of 
the question to state, in the very first words referring to the 
Maha-parinibbana-Sutta, that it is older than the story in 
the ATulla-vagga, and that its author could not have known 
that work. But no one will venture to dispute the accuracy 
of Dr. Oldenberg's representation of the facts on which he 
bases his conclusion ; and the conclusion that he draws is, 
at least, the easiest and readiest way of explaining the very 
real discrepancy that he has pointed out. We shall be 
quite safe if we only say that we have certain facts which 
lend strong probability to the hypothesis that the author 
of the Maha-parinibbana-Sutta did not know that account 
of the First Council which we find in the ATulla-vagga. 

We do not know for certain the time at which that part 
of the isTulla-vagga, in which that account occurs, was com- 
posed. I think it quite possible that it was as late as the 
Council of Patna (B.C. 250), though Dr. Oldenberg places 
it somewhat earlier 1 . But even if we put the conclusion of 
the isTulla-vagga as late as the year I have mentioned, it 
is still in the highest degree improbable that the Maha- 
parinibbana - Sutta, supposing it to be an older work, can 
have been composed very much later than the fourth century 
B.C. — a provisional date sufficient at present for practical 
purposes. 

1 Maha-vagga, p..KXXYiii. 

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XIV THE BUDDHIST SUTTAS. 

This conclusion, however, is only almost, and not quite 
certain. It is just possible that the author of the Book of 
the Great Decease omitted all mention of the First Council 
at Ra^agaha, not because he did not know of it, but because 
he considered it unnecessary to mention an event which 
had no bearing on the subject of his work. He was de- 
scribing the death of the Buddha, and not the history of 
the Canon or of the Order. 

I must confess however that I only mention this as a 
possibility from a desire rather to understate than to over- 
state my case. For, firstly, it should be remembered that 
the writer does not merely omit to mention an occurrence 
subsequent to and unconnected with the Great Decease. 
He does more : he gives an account of the Subhadda in- 
cident which is inconsistent and irreconcilable with the 
legend or narrative of the Ra^fagaha Council as related in 
the Aulla-vagga. Had that narrative, as we now have it, 
been received in his time among the Brethren, he would 
scarcely have done this. 

And, secondly, he does not, after all, close his book, as he 
might well have done, with the Great Decease itself. It 
will be seen from the translation below 1 that there was a 
point in his narrative, the exclamations of sorrow at the 
death of the Buddha, which would have formed, had he 
desired to omit all unnecessary details, a very fitting con- 
clusion to his narrative. The Book of the Great King of 
Glory, the Maha-sudassana-Sutta, closes with the very ex- 
clamation our author puts, at this point, into the mouth of 
Sakka. The Maha-parinibbana was then over, and the 
Maha-parinibbana-Sutta might have then been closed. 
But he goes on and describes in detail the cremation, the 
distribution of the relics, and the feasts celebrated in their 
honour. It is not necessary for my point to show that it 
was in the least degree unnatural to do so. It is sufficient 
to be able to point out that the author having clone so, — 
having gone on to the arrival of Kassapa, who was after- 
wards (in the /sTulla-vagga) said to have held the Council ; 
having mentioned the very incident which, according to the 

1 See below, Chap. VI, § ai. 

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GENERAL INTRODUCTION. XV 

other narrative, gave rise to the holding of the Council ; 
and having referred to events which took place after the 
Council, — it is scarcely a tenable argument to say that he, 
knowing of it, did not refer, even incidentally and in half a 
sentence, to so important an event, simply because it did not 
come, necessarily, within the subject of his work. And when 
we find that in other works on the death of the Buddha, 
referred to below 1 , the account of the Council of Ra^agaha 
has, in fact, been included in the story, it is difficult to 
withhold our assent to the very great probability of the 
hypothesis, that it would have been included also in the 
Pali Book of the Great Decease had the belief in the tradi- 
tion of the Council been commonly held at the time when 
that book was put into its present shape. At the same 
time we must hold ourselves quite prepared to learn that 
some other explanation may turn out to be possible. The 
argument, if it applied to writers of the nineteenth century, 
would be conclusive. But we know too little about the 
mode in which the Pali Pi/akas were composed to presume 
at present to be quite certain. 



The Maha-parinibbana-Sutta was then probably com- 
posed before the account of the First Council of Ra,§u- 
gaha in the concluding part of the Afulla-vagga. It was 
also almost certainly composed after Paftiliputta, the 
modern Patna, had become the capital city of the king- 
dom of Magadha ; after the worship of relics had become 
common in the Buddhist church ; and after the rise of a 
general belief in the ATakkavatti theory, in the ideal of a 
sacred king, a supreme overlord in India. 

The first of these last three arguments depends on the 
prophecy placed in Gotama's mouth as to the future great- 
ness of Pa/aliputta — a prophecy found in the Maha-vagga 
as well as in the Maha-parinibbana-Sutta. It is true that 
the guess may actually have been made, and that it re- 
quired no great boldness to hazard a conjecture so vaguely 
expressed. The words simply are — 

' And among famous places of residence and haunts of 



1 See p. xxxviii. 



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XVI THE BUDDHIST SUTTAS. 

busy men, this will become the chief, the city of Pa/aliputta, 
a centre for interchange of all kinds of wares. But there 
will happen three disasters to Pa/aliputta, one of fire, and 
one of water, and one of dissension 1 .' 

But it is, to say the least, improbable that the conjecture 
would have been recorded until after the event had proved 
it to be accurate : and it would scarcely be too hazardous 
to maintain that the tradition of the guess having been 
made would not have arisen at all until after the event had 
occurred. 

What was the event referred to may also be questioned, 
as the words quoted do not, in terms, declare that the city 
would become the actual capital. But we know, not only 
from Buddhist, but from Greek historians, that it did, and 
this is most probably the origin of the prophecy. 

Now the Malalankaravatthu, a Pali work of modern 
date, but following very closely the more ancient books, 
has been" translated, through the Burmese, by Bishop 
Bigandet ; and it says, 

' That monarch [Susunaga], not unmindful of his mother's 
origin, re-established the city of Vesali, and fixed in it the 
royal residence. From that time Ra^agaha lost her rank of 
royal city, which she never afterwards recovered. He died 
in 81' [that is, of the Buddhist era reckoned from the Great 
Decease] 2 . . . . 

Relying on similar authority Bishop Bigandet afterwards 
himself says: 

' King Ka/asoka left Ra^agaha, and removed the seat of 
his empire to Palibothra [the Greek name for Pa/aliputta], 
near the place where the modern city of Patna stands 2 / 

1 See below, Chap. I, § 28. I have translated Pulabhedanant, 'a centre 
for the interchange of all kinds of wares,' in accordance with the commentary, 
which is clearly based on a derivation from pu<a, ' a bag or bundle.' But I see 
that Trenckner in his PSli Miscellany renders nanapu/abhedanam by 'sur- 
rounded by a number of dependent towns.' 

At the end the text has ' from fire or from water or from dissension;' on which 
Buddhaghosa says that or stands here for and; and the comment is correct 
enough, not of course philologically, but exegetically. But in either case the 
last clause is of very little importance for the present argument. 

' Bigandet's ' Legend of the Burmese Budha,' third edition, vol. ii. pp. 115, 
183. I have altered the spelling only of the proper names. 



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X 






GENERAL INTRODUCTION. Xvii 

It would seem therefore that, according to the tradition 
followed by this writer, Susunaga first removed the capital 
to Vesali, and his successor Ka/asoka, who died, in the 
opinion of the writer in question, in 118 after the Great 
Decease, finally fixed it at Pafoliputta. 

If we therefore apply this date to the prophecy we must 
come to the conclusion that the Book of the Great Decease 
was put into its present form at least ioo years after the 
Buddha's death, and probably a little more. But the 
authority followed by Bishop Bigandet is very late ; and 
no mention of these occurrences is found either in the 
Dipavawsa or in the Mahavawsa. I think indeed that the 
whole account of these two kings, as at present accepted 
in Ceylon and Birma, is open to grave doubt 1 (in which 
connection it should be noticed that the oldest account 
of the Council of Vesali, in the iTulla-vagga^ook-fCII, 
makes no mention of Ka/asoka). 

I ' ' '■ J V .J C T rp T , 

We have next to consider the reference t«t t£e relics m" " ■* * i 
the concluding sections of Chapter VI as a possible basis for y\ ^. 
chronological argument. These sections are almost certainlyl! — - "' 
older than the time when especial sanctity was claimed for 
Buddhist dagabas on the ground that they contained par- 
ticular relics of the Blessed One (such as a tooth, or the 
bowl, or the neck bone) ; for if such special relics were 
accepted as objects of worship when the Book of the Great 
Decease was put together, they would naturally have been 
mentioned in the course of Chapter VI. 

It is even almost certain that when the sections were put 
into their present form no Buddhist dagaba was in exist- 
ence except at the eight places mentioned in them ; and 
the words are quite consistent with the belief that those 
eight had themselves then ceased to have any very wide- 
spread and acknowledged sanctity. So in Chapter V, § 13, 
where four places are spoken of ' which the believing man 
should visit with feelings of reverence and of awe,' there is 
no mention of dagabas at all ; and in Chapter V, § 16, it is 

1 See my 'Ancient Coins and Measures of Ceylon,' p. 50. 

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XVU1 THE BUDDHIST SUTTAS. 

clearly implied that only one dagaba, or memorial burial 
mound, should be erected in honour of a Tathagata, just as 
one memorial mound should be erected in honour of a king 
of kings. 

When we recollect that in the first and second, and 
perhaps in the third century before Christ, dagabas had 
already been erected in honour of the Buddha in distant 
, parts of the continent of India, and had rapidly become! 
famous as places of pilgrimage, the reasonable conclusion V 
to be drawn from these passages is that the Book of the ( 
I Great Decease is older than them all ; or, at the least, that/ 
ut was written before any of them had become famous. 

On the other hand, there is evidently an exaggerated 
belief as to the respect in which the Buddha was held by 
his contemporaries underlying the concluding and other 
sections of the book. It is probable enough that Gotama 
was held in deep respect by the simple people among 
/ whom he lived and moved about as a religious teacher andy 
Vjeformer. It may well be that the inhabitants of the village 
where he died gave him a sort of public funeral. But that 
the neighbouring clans should have vied one with the other 
for the possession of his remains is quite inconsistent with 
the position that he can reasonably be supposed to have 
held among them. It must have taken some time for this 
belief to spring up, and be received without question. 

In a similar way a considerable interval must have elapsed 
before the beautiful parable in the last section of Chapter I 
could have given rise to the belief in the miracle (the soli- 
tary miracle ascribed to the Buddha, so far as I know, in 
the Sutta Pi/aka) recorded in the previous section. 



So also the comparison drawn between the Buddha and 
a ^Takkavatti Ra^a or King of Kings in Chapter V, §37, 
and Chapter VI, § 33, can scarcely have arisen till the rise 
of a lord paramount in the valley of the Ganges had fami- 
liarised the people with the idea of a Universal Monarch. 
Now it was either just before or just after the well-known 
Councils at Vesali, of which mention has been made above, 
that that important revolution took place which raised a 



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GENERAL INTRODUCTION. XIX 

low-caste adventurer to be the first Aakkavatti Ra^a \ To 
the people of that time ATandragupta seemed to be lord 
of the world, for to them India was the world — just as 
European writers even now talk complacently of ' the world' 
while ignoring three-fourths of the human race. 

' Is it surprising,' as I have asked elsewhere, * that this 
unity of power in one man made a deep impression upon 
them? Is it surprising that, like Romans worshipping 
Augustus, or like Greeks adding the glow of the sun-myth 
to the glory of Alexander, the Indians should have formed 
an ideal of their A'akkavatti, and have transferred to this 
new ideal many of the dimly sacred and half-understood 
traits of the Vedic heroes ? Is it surprising that the Bud- 
dhists should have found it edifying to recognise in their 
hero " the A'akkavatti of Righteousness ; " and that the 
story of the Buddha should have become tinged with the 
colouring of these A'akkavatti myths?' 

In point of fact we know that in later works the attraction 
of this poetic ideal led to the almost complete disregard of 
the simpler narrative which seemed so poor and meagre in 
comparison ; and M. Senart has shown how large a pro- 
portion of the later poem called the Lalita Vistara is inspired 
by it. When, in isolated passages of the Book of the Great 
Decease, we find the earliest germs of this fruitful train of 
thought, we are I think safe in concluding that it assumed 
its present form after the notorious career of Aandragupta 
had made him supreme in the valley of the Ganges. 

All the above arguments tend in one direction ; namely, 
that the final redaction of the Book of the Great Decease 
must be assigned to the latter part of the fourth century 
before Christ, or to the earlier part of the following century. 
And so much alike are it and all the other Suttas translated 
in this volume in their form, in their views of life, and in 



1 I have ventured in my ' Ancient Coins and Measures of Ceylon,' p. 51, to 
point out that the Councils of Vesali were very possibly held just at the time 
when Nanda was defeated by K andragupta. Taranatha, the Tibetan histo- 
rian, while placing the Councils, like all the later authorities, under an Asoka 
(probably Kandragupta), says (p. 41 of Wassilief 's German translation) that the 
assembled brethren were fed by Nanda. 

D2 



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XX THE BUDDHIST SUTTAS. 

the religious doctrines they lay down, that, though it may 
be possible hereafter to show that some are a little older 
or a little younger than the others, every one will I think 
admit that they must all be assigned to about the same 
period of time. There is not the least reason to believe 
that either of them is older than the Book of the Great 
Decease; and the argument has only been confined to it 
because it alone deals with the kind of subject which can 
give foundation to chronological conclusions. When the 
whole of the literature of the Pali Pi/akas has been fully 
explored, we may perhaps be able to reach a more definite 
conclusion. 

We are in absolute ignorance as to the actual author 
of any of the texts I have translated. It is quite evident 
that they are not the work of Gotama himself; and it is 
difficult to believe that even his immediate disciples could 
have spoken of him in the exaggerated terms in which 
occasionally he is here described. On the other hand, the 
history of similar religious movements teaches us how 
quickly such notions spring up concerning the omniscience 
and sinlessness of the founder of the movement; and it 
would be better to reserve our judgment as to the impos- 
sibility, on this account alone, of those Suttas having been 
composed even by the very earliest disciples. 



It would be of less importance who composed the Suttas 
if we could be sure that they gave an accurate account of 
the teachings of the great thinker and reformer whose words 
they purport to preserve. But though, like all other writings 
of a similar character, they are doubtless based upon tra- 
ditions older than the time of their authors or final redactors, 
they cannot unfortunately be depended upon as entirely 
authentic. And it will be always difficult, even when the 
whole of the Suttas have been published, to attempt to 
discriminate between the original doctrine of Gotama, and 
the later accretions to, or modifications of it. 

But we can already make some steps towards such a 
discrimination, without much fear of being contradicted. 



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GENERAL INTRODUCTION. XXI 

There can be little doubt but that the doctrines of the 
Four Noble Truths and of the Noble Eightfold Path, the 
' Foundation of the Kingdom of Righteousness,' were not 
only the teaching of Gotama himself, but were the central 
and most essential part of it I am aware that no method 
can be more misleading, or more uncritical, than first to 
form a theory regarding the personal character of the author 
of a new religious movement — as some later critics of the 
Gospel History have done — and then to adopt those pas- 
sages in the sacred books which fit in with that character, 
and to reject those which oppose it. We cannot begin by 
postulating that Gotama was a man of high moral earnest- 
ness, and of great intellectual acuteness ; and then disregard 
all the passages in which erroneous, and even puerile, opinions 
or sayings are placed in his mouth- But it does not follow 
that we are obliged either altogether to reject the evidence 
of the Buddhist Scriptures as to what Gotama did actually 
teach, or altogether to accept it. 

It will be acknowledged that the Suttas have preserved 
for us at least the belief of the earliest Buddhists — the 
Buddhists in India — as to what the original doctrines, 
taught by the Buddha himself, had been. We have in the 
Vinaya Pi/aka an invaluable and indisputable record of 
the mental characteristics and capabilities of these earliest 
followers of the Buddhist faith. Sanskrit scholars are 
engaged in elucidating the history of the beliefs in which 
Gotama was brought up, and which though often modified 
and frequently denied, still underlie, throughout, all that he 
is represented to have taught. We have therefore reliable 
evidence of the system out of which, and we know the 
system into which, Gotama's teaching was developed. This 
being so, it will be impossible to refrain, in despair, from the 
attempt to solve one of the most interesting problems which 
the history of the Aryan race presents to us. Scholars 
will never be unanimously agreed on all points ; but they 
will agree in ascribing some parts of the early Buddhist 
Dharma or doctrine only to the early disciples; and after 
allowing for all reasonable doubts, they will agree in ascribing 
other parts to the great Teacher himself. I venture to think 



l' 



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XXII THE BUDDHIST SUTTAS. 

that not only the Four Noble Truths, but the whole of the 
Seven Jewels of the Law, may already be placed, with 
certainty, in the latter category 1 . 



The form, in which these Suttas have been preserved, 
deserves careful attention. Every reader will be struck at 
once with the constant repetitions. These repetitions are 
not essential, and are merely designed to facilitate the 
learning of the Suttas by heart. Writing was unknown in 
the age of the Buddha, and probably for long after his 
time. In all probability indeed, just as the Indians 
learnt from the Greeks, not the art of coinage, but the 
custom of issuing a legally authorised coinage 2 ; so it was 
from the Greeks that they acquired, if not their earliest 
alphabet, at least the knowledge of the utility of writing. 
But even for some time after writing was generally known, 
it was considered a desecration to make use of it for the 
preservation of the sacred books. This feeling naturally 
passed away much sooner among the adherents of the 
popular religious faith of Buddhism, than it did among their 
conservative opponents. With the latter it is by no means ex- 
tinct even now, and the first record we have of the Buddhist 
Scriptures being reduced into writing is the well-known 
passage in the Dlpavawsa, which speaks of their being 
recorded in books in Ceylon towards the beginning of the 
first century before the commencement of our era. And 
as all our copies of the Buddhist Pi/akas are, at present, 
derived from those then in use in Ceylon, we are practically 
concerned only with those thus referred to in the Dipa- 
vawsa s . 

The date of the Dipavawsa may be placed approxi- 
mately in the fourth century of our era ; but its author 
reproduces the continued tradition of the monasteries in 

1 They will be found enumerated, and shortly described, in a note below 
(pp. 62, 6$). I am glad to learn that my friend Dr. Morris is preparing a full 
account of them, drawn from various parts of the Sutta Pifaka, for his forth- 
coming work to be accordingly entitled ' The Seven Jewels of the Law.' 

a See my ' Ancient Coins and Measures of Ceylon' (Part VI of Numismata 
Orientalia), p. 13. 

* Dtpavantsa XX, w. 20, 21, quoted in the Mahavamsa, p. 107. 



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GENERAL INTRODUCTION. XX111 

which he dwelt, and he is more probably correct, than 
not, in the assertion I have quoted. It would follow that 
the Buddhist Scriptures were, till then, handed down by 
word of mouth only ; and no one who is acquainted with 
the wonderful powers of memory possessed 'by Indian 
priests, who can devote their whole lives to the task of 
acquiring and repeating their sacred books by heart, will 
doubt for a moment the possibility of this having been 
the case. 
f Two methods were adopted in India to aid this power \ 
\of memory. One, adopted chiefly by the grammarians, ) 
was to clothe the rules to be remembered in very short 
enigmatical phrases (called sutras or threads), which taxed 
the memory but little, while they required elaborate com- 
mentaries to render them intelligible. The other, the 
I method adopted in the Buddhist writings (both Sutta and \ 
^Vinaya), was, firstly, the use of stock phrases, of which / 
the commencement once given, the remainder followed as 
a matter of course ; and secondly, the habit of repeating 
whole sentences, or even paragraphs, which in our modern 
books would be understood or inferred, instead of being 
expressed. 

The stock phrases, which must be distinguished from 
the repetitions, belong certainly to a very early period of 
Buddhism, and many of them recur in Sanskrit as well as in 
Pali texts 1 . One result of these numerous repetitions of 
phrases and paragraphs is that the preservation of the text,\ 
when, once established, was rendered very easy ; and that/ 
mistakes in the MSS. can now be easily rectified when they 
occur in such repeated passages. To edit the text of such 
portions of a Pali Sutta is therefore a comparatively easy 
task ; and it may be said of all the Suttas here translated, 
that they have thus acquired a valuable protection against 
that danger of corruption from various readings which 
often renders uncertain the text of important passages of 
works written on the very different and simpler system 

1 Several examples of such passages occur in the present volume in the 
Akankheyya- and Maha-sudassana-Suttas, where they are pointed out in the 
notes. 



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XXIV THE BUDDHIST SUTTAS. 

to which we are accustomed. On the other hand, however, 
the catchwords may sometimes have given rise to serious 
interpolations. 

It is open to much doubt whether, in the numerous 
passages where such stock phrases and repetitions occur, 
the best mode of translation is to follow word for word 
the expressions found in the original (but only inserted 
there to perform a service no longer necessary), or to 
make use of contractions, the fact of their being so being 
duly pointed out, either in notes, or by some typographical 
expedient. Where, for instance, a long paragraph is devoted 
to what an elder of the Buddhist Order of Mendicants should 
do, or be, under certain given circumstances, and the whole 
paragraph is then repeated word for word, of an ordinary 
member, and of a nun, and of a lay-disciple (upasaka), 
or of a religious woman (upasika) 1 , it would be possible 
to convey the whole sense intended, by translating that 
an elder of the Order, and an ordinary member, and a 
nun, and a lay-disciple of either sex, should do, or be, 
such and such things. 

But every case of repetition is not" so simple as this ; 
such curtailing destroys at least the form and the em- 
phasis of the originals ; and it seemed more in accordance 
with the rules laid down in the prospectus to the Series 
of Translations from the Sacred Books of the East, of 
which this volume forms a part, to adhere in all cases 
strictly to the text. With the exception of the earlier 
chapters in the Book of the Great Decease, in which a 
few such contractions will be found mentioned in the 
notes, I have therefore reproduced almost all the repeti- 
tions. The result will not, I trust, be embarrassing to the 
reader who keeps constantly in mind the aim and origin of 
these stock phrases and repetitions, and does not allow 
the wearisome form in which they are presented to shut 
out from his view the logical sequence of the sometimes 
very striking ideas which these Suttas contain. I venture 
to go further and to maintain that it is not necessary or 

1 See below, Book of the Great Decease, Chap. Ill, §§ 7, 8. 

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GENERAL INTRODUCTION. XXV 

even correct to read through the whole of passages which 
were never intended to be read. We shall do wisely when 
coming to a phrase which we already know, to make use 
of a little judicious skipping, and, noting the course of 
the argument, to pass on, with even mind, to the next 
paragraph. 

I send forth the following translations with very great 
diffidence. It is not too much to say that the discovery 
of early Buddhism has placed all previous knowledge of 
the subject in an entirely new light ; and has turned the 
flank, so to speak, of most of the existing literature on 
Buddhism. I use the term 'discovery' advisedly, for 
though the Pali texts have existed for many years in our 
public libraries, they are only now beginning to be under- 
stood ; and the Buddhism of the Pali Pi/akas is not only 
a quite different thing from Buddhism as hitherto com- 
monly received, but is antagonistic to it. I cannot hope 
that the renderings of the many technical terms, now for 
the first time submitted to the judgment of students of 
early Buddhism, will all stand the test of time. So per- 
fectly dovetailed is the old Buddhist system, so utterly 
different from European Christianity are the ideas involved, 
so pregnant are the expressions used with deep and earnest 
religious feelings resting on a foundation completely apart 
from our own, that the translation of each term becomes 
a problem of great difficulty and delicacy. Where Gogerly 
or Burnouf has dealt with any word, the process has been 
easier : but there are many words they have not touched, 
and while Gogerly had no sympathy with these ancient 
beliefs, Burnouf has confined himself chiefly to later 
phases of Buddhism. There are several paragraphs — 
such as the one at Chapter I, § 12 of the Book of the 
Great Decease — which have cost me more time and 
trouble than the reader of the few words they contain 
will easily believe; and it would be impossible to add 
a note to every word justifying the rendering which was 
finally adopted to convey the Buddhist idea, without in- 
volving at the same time some misleading implication. 



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XXVI THE BUDDHIST SUTTAS. 

In order to call attention to the fact, when a word in 
the original Pali is one of these technical terms of the 
Buddhist system of self-training, and when therefore the 
English expression must be taken in that technical sense, 
I have throughout written the technical terms with capital 
letters ; and I would invite the special notice of the reader 
to the words thus distinguished \ 



Apart, too, from the necessity of great care in the 
rendering of single words, I have felt bound to make 
some attempt, however inadequate, to reproduce the style 
and tone of the Buddhist author, or authors. A mere 
word-for-word translation, though much easier to make, 
and perhaps more useful to those engaged in the study 
of the language would not only fail to do justice to the 
original, but would even convey a wrong impression to 
those who are interested in these works from the point 
of view of the comparative history of religious belief. 
There is a very real, though peculiar, eloquence in a 
considerable number of the prose passages, and more 
especially in the closing sections of each chapter; not 
the mere rhetorical eloquence of a clever word-painter, 
but the unconscious eloquence which springs from deep 
religious emotion. So also in the verses scattered through 
the Book of the Great Decease, while there is occasional 
doggrel, there are also one or two passages (such as I, 34 ; 
IV, 56; VI, 15-18, and 63) where the rhythm of the Pali 
verses is exceedingly beautiful, and the thoughts expressed 
not devoid of fancy. The translation of such passages 
has been beset with difficulty ; and I am only too con- 
. scious how small has been the success attained. But I 
must ask the reader constantly to bear in mind that words, 
dull and bare to us, are full of meaning to the Buddhist. 
f ' The Blessed Master came to the Mango-grove ' is a very 
( plain statement of supposed fact: but to the earnest 
'Buddhist the mention of 'the Master' calls up to his mind 

1 I regret to say that the printer has very frequently omitted to reproduce 
these capitals ; but they still remain in some places, and the paragraph which 
explains them is therefore retained. 



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GENERAL INTRODUCTION. XXV11 

his highest ideal of what is wise and great and kind J 
and the Mango-grove is surrounded to him with all the\ 
poetry, and is associated with all the tender memories! 
which to the devout and earnest Christian are wrapped I 
up in such names as Bethany or the Mount of Olives/ 
While impressed therefore with the knowledge of having 
come far short of my ideal, I feel there is for these 
reasons some justification in asking a kindly consideration 
for this first volume of English translations from the prose 
portions of the Pali Pi/akas. 



T. W. RHYS DAVIDS. 



Brick Court, Temple, 
August, 1880. 



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MAHA-PARINIBBANA- 
SUTTANTA. 



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INTRODUCTION 

TO THE 

BOOK OF THE GREAT DECEASE. 



In translating this Sutta I have followed the text pub- 
lished by my friend the late Mr. Childers, first in the 
Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society, and afterwards sepa- 
rately. In the former the text appeared in two instalments, 
the first two sheets, with many various readings in the foot- 
notes, in the volume for 1874; and the remainder, with 
much fewer various readings, in the volume for 1876. The 
reprinted text omits most of the various readings in the 
first two sheets, and differs therefore slightly in the paging. 
The letters D, S, Y, and Z, mentioned in the notes, refer to 
MSS. sent to Mr. Childers from Ceylon by myself, Subhuti 
Unninse, Yatramulle Unnanse, and Mudliar de Zoysa re- 
spectively. The MS. mentioned as P (in the first two sheets 
quoted only in the separate edition) is, no doubt, the Digha 
Nikaya MS. of the Phayre collection in the India Office 
Library. The other four are now I believe in the British 
Museum. 

The Hon. George Tumour of the Ceylon Civil Service 
published an analysis of this work in the Journal of the 
Bengal Asiatic Society for 1839; but as he unfortunately 
skips, or only summarises, most of the difficult passages, his 
work, though a most valuable contribution for the time, 
now more than half a century ago, has not been of much 
service for the present purpose. Of much greater value 
was Buddhaghosa's commentary contained in the Su- 
mangala Vilasini 1 ; but the great fifth-century commen- 

1 I have used the copy made for Tumour, and now in the India Office 
Collection. 



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XXX11 THE BOOK OF THE GREAT DECEASE. 

tator wrote of course for Buddhists, and not for foreign 
scholars ; and his edifying notes and long exegetical ex- 
pansions of the text (quite in the style of Matthew Henry) 
often fail to throw light on the very points which are most 
interesting, and most doubtful, to European readers. 

The Malalankara-vatthu, a late Pali work by a Bur- 
mese author of the eighteenth century 1 , is based, in that 
part of it relating to the last days of the Buddha, almost 
exclusively on the Book of the Great Decease, and on 
Buddhaghosa's commentary upon it. Bishop Bigandet's 
translation into English of a Burmese translation of this 
work, well known under the title of ' The Life or Legend 
of Gaudama the Budha of the Burmese,' affords evidence 
therefore of the traditional explanations of the text. In 
the course either of the original author's recasting, or 
of the double translation, so many changes have taken 
place, that its evidence is frequently ambiguous and not 
always quite trustworthy : but with due caution, it may be 
used as a second commentary. 

The exact meaning which was originally intended by the 
title of the book is open to doubt. ' Great-Decease-Book ' 
may as well mean 'the Great Book of the Decease,' as 'the 
Book of the Great Decease.' This book is in fact longer 
than any other in the collection, and the epithet 'Great' 
is often opposed in titles to a ' Short ' Sutta of (otherwise) 
the same name a . But the epithet is also frequently intended, 
without doubt, to qualify the immediately succeeding word 
in the title 3 ; and, though the phrase ' Great Decease,' as 
applied to the death of the Buddha, has not been found 
elsewhere, it is, I think, meant to do so here 4 . 

1 See ' The Life or Legend,' &c, third edition, vol. ii. p. 149. The date there 
given (H34 of the Burmese era = 1773 a.d.) is evidently the date of the 
original work, and not of the translation. Nothing is said in the book itself 
or in Bishop Bigandet's notes of the name of the author, or of the name or 
date of the Burmese translator. 

s There are several such pairs in the l/lagghimi Nikaya; and the Maha- 
Satippa«Aana-Sutta in the Digha is the same as the Satipa//A&na- 
Sutta in the Maxima. 

* E. g. in the Maha-padhana-Sutta and Maha-sudassana-Sutta. 

* Childers seems to have been of the same opinion, vide Diet. I, 368. 



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INTRODUCTION. XXXU1 



The division of the Book into chapters, or rather Portions 
for Recitation, is found in the MSS. ; the division of these 
chapters into sections has been made by myself. It will 
be noticed that a very large number of the sections have 
already been traced, chiefly by Dr. Morris and myself, in 
various other parts of the Pali Pitokas : whole paragraphs 
or episodes, quite independent of the repetitions and stock 
phrases above referred to, recurring in two or more places. 
The question then arises whether (i) the Book of the Great 
Decease is the borrower, whether (a) it is the original source, 
or whether (3) these passages were taken over, both into it, 
and into the other places where they recur, from earlier 
sources. It will readily be understood that, in the present 
state of our knowledge, or rather ignorance, of the Pali 
Pi&ikas, this question cannot as yet be answered with any 
certainty. But a few observations may even now be made. 

Generally speaking the third of the above possible ex- 
planations is not only more probable in itself, but is confirmed 
by parallel instances in literatures developed under similar 
conditions, both in the valley of the Ganges and in the basin 
of the Mediterranean. 

It is quite possible that while some books — such as 
the Maha-vagga, the ^Tulla-vagga, and the Digha 
Nikiya — usually owe their resemblances to older sources 
now lost or absorbed ; others — such as the Saz«yutta and 
the Anguttara — are always in such cases simply borrowers 
from sources still existing. 

At the time when our Book of the Great Decease was 
put into its present shape, and still more so when a Book 
of the Great Decease was first drawn up, there may well 
have been some reliable tradition as to the events that 
took place, and as to the subjects of his various discourses, 
on the Buddha's last journey. He had then been a public 
Teacher for forty-five years ; and his system of doctrine, 
which is really, on the whole, a very simple one, had already 
been long ago elaborated, and applied in numerous dis- 
courses to almost every conceivable variety of circumstances. 
What he then said would most naturally be, as it is repre- 
sented to have been, a final recapitulation of the most 
[n] c 



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XXXIV THE BOOK OF THE GREAT DECEASE. 

important and characteristic tenets of his religion. But 
these are, of course, precisely those subjects which are most 
fully and most frequently dealt with in other parts of the 
Pali Pitekas. No record of his actual words could have 
been preserved. It is quite evident that the speeches placed 
in the Teacher's mouth, though formulated in the first 
person, in direct narrative, are only intended to be sum- 
maries, and very short summaries, of what was said on 
these occasions. Now if corresponding summaries of his 
previous teaching had been handed down in the Order, and 
were in constant use among them, at the time when the 
Book of the Great Decease was put together, it would be 
a safe and easy method to insert such previously existing 
summaries in the historical account as having been spoken 
at the places where the Teacher was traditionally believed 
to have spoken on the corresponding doctrines. In the 
historical book the simple summaries would sufficiently 
answer every purpose; but when each particular matter 
became the subject of a separate book or division of a 
book, the same summaries would be included, but would 
be amplified and elucidated. And this is in fact the relation 
in which several of the recurring passages, as found in the 
Book of the Great Decease, stand to the same passages 
when found elsewhere. 

On the other hand, some of the recurring passages do not 
consist of such summaries, but are actual episodes in the 
history. As an instance of these we may take the long 
extract at the end of the first, and the beginning of the 
second chapter (I, ao-II, 3, and again II, 16-II, 24), which 
is found also in the Maha-vagga. The words are 
(nearly 1 ) identical in both places, but in the Book of the 
Great Decease the account occurs in its proper place in 
the middle of a connected narrative, whereas in the Maha- 
vagga, a treatise on the Rules and Regulations of the 
Order, it seems strangely out of place. So the passage, 
also a long one, with which the Book of the Great 



1 On the difference see the note at II, 16. It affects only a few localising 
phrases in a narrative occupying (in the translation) thirteen pages. 



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INTRODUCTION. 



XXXV 



Decease commences (on the Seven Conditions of Welfare), 
seems to have been actually borrowed by the Anguttara 
Nikaya from our work. 

The question of these summaries and parallel passages 
cannot be adequately treated by a discussion of the in- 
stances found in any one particular book. It must be 
considered as a whole, and quite apart from the allied 
question of the 'stock phrases' above alluded to, in a 
discussion of all the instances that can be found in the 
Pali Pifekas. For this purpose tabulated statements are 
essential, and as a mere beginning such a statement is here 
annexed (including the passages, marked with an asterisk, 
which have every appearance of belonging to the same 
category). 



BOOK OF THE GREAT DECEASE. 

Chap. I (34 sections) §§ 1-10 
§" 

,. » & 20-34 

» » §§1,2.3 • 

Chap. II (35 sections) §§ 13, 14, 15 . 



» » §§ 16-24 

» » §§ 27-35 

Chap. Ill (66 sections) §§ 1-10 

» §§"-20 

»» » §§21-23* 

» » §§ 24-32 

» §§ 33-42 

Chap. IV (58 sections) §§ 2, 3 

§§7-»* 



OTHER BOOKS. 



Anguttara (Sutta-nipata). 
„ (.Oa-nip£ta). 
Dtgha (Sampas$daniya) and 
Samyutta (Satippa//Mna- 

vagga). 
MahS-vagga VI, 28. 
Mah4-vagga VI, 29. 

SDigha (Satippa/Mna). 
Maxima. „ 

Sawyutta „ 

Vibhanga „ 

MahS-vaggaVI, 30. 
Sawyutta (Satippa/Wdna- 
vagga). 

f Sa»«yutta(IddhipScla-vagga). 
I Anguttara (A//Aa-nipata). 

Anguttara (A/Z&a-nipSta). 

? Eight Assemblies. 

Anguttara (A//Aa-nipSta). 

Anguttara (A//Aa-nipSta). 

Anguttara (JTatuka-nip&ta). 



Omitted in Po-fa-tsu. See below, p. xxxviii. 
C 2 



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XXXVI THE BOOK OF THE GREAT DECEASE. 



BOOK 


OF THE GREAT DECEASE. 




OTHER BOOKS. 


Chap. 


V(6 9 


sections) § 10 




Ahguttara (Duka-nipata). 


IJ 




» 


§§ 1 6-2 a 


■K: 


„ (.ffatuka-nipata). 


}i 




» 


§§ 27-31" 


» » 


tt 




ii 


§36 


• • 


Samyutta (Satippa/Wana- 
vagga). 


» 




» 


§§ 41-44 


■ • 


Dfgha (Maha-sudassana- 
Sutta). 


>t 




» 


§60 




JEulla-vagga V, 8, 1. 


» 




» 


§63 




Maha-vagga I, 38, 1. 


» 




» 


§68 


• • 


.Afulla-vagga XI, 1, 15. 


Chap. 


VI (6s 


i sections) § 16 




Dtgha (Maha-sudassana- 












Sutta). 


i) 




» 


§§ 36-41 


• • 


.Xulla-vagga XI, 1,1. 



No Sanskrit work has yet been discovered giving an 
account of the last days of Gotama ; but there are several 
Chinese works which seem to be related to ours. Of one 
especially, named the Fo Pan-ni-pan King (apparently 
Buddha-Parinibbana-Sutta, but such an expression is un- 
known in Pali), Mr. Beal says 2 : 

'This appears to be the same as the Sutra known in 
the South. ... It was translated into Chinese by a Shaman 
called Fa-tsu, of the Western Tsin dynasty, circa 200 A.D.' 

I do not understand this date. The Western Tsin 
dynasty is placed by Mr. Beal himself on the fly-leaf of 
the Catalogue at 265-313 A.D. And whether the book 
referred to is really the same work as the Book of the 
Great Decease seems to me to be very doubtful. At 
p. 160 of his 'Catena of Buddhist Scriptures from the 
Chinese ' Mr. Beal says, that another Chinese work ' known 
as the Mah& Parinirvawa Sutra' 'is evidently the same 
as the Maha Parinibbana Sutta of Ceylon,' but it is quite 
evident from the extracts which he gives that it is an 
entirely different and much later work. 

On this book there would seem further to be a trans- 
lated commentary, Ta Pan-ni-pan King Lo, mentioned 

1 Omitted by Po-fa-tsu. See below, p. xxxviii. 

* Catalogue of Buddhist Chinese Books in the India Office Library, p. 95. 



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INTRODUCTION. XXXVli 



at p. ioo of the same Catalogue, and there assigned to 
Chang-an of the Tsin dynasty (589-619 A.D.). 

At pp. 13-13 of the same Catalogue we find no less than 
seven other works, and an eighth on p. 77, not indeed 
identified with the Book of the Great Decease, but bearing 
titles which Mr. Beal represents in Sanskrit as Mahapari- 
nirva#a Sutra. They purport to be translated respectively — 

A. D. 

1. By Dharmaraksha of the Northern Liang dynasty . 502-555 

2. By Dharmaraksha „ „ 

3. By Fa Hian and Buddhabhadra of the Eastern Tsin 

dynasty 317-419 

4. By Gnanabhadra and others of the Eastern Tang 

dynasty 620-904 

5. By Dharmagupta and others of the Western Tsin 

dynasty 265-313 

6. By Fa Hian of the Eastern Tsin dynasty . . 317-419 
•j. Unknown. 

8. By Dharmabodhi of the Former Wei dynasty . . circa 200 
Indian author, Vasubandhu. 

Whether Nos. 1 and 2, and again 3 and 6 are the same 
is not stated; and in the Indian Antiquary for 1875 
Mr. Beal gives an account of another undated work, as 
existing in the India Office Collection, bearing a different 
title from any of the above, but which he also translates as 
Mahaparinibbana Sutta. It purports to be the very oldest of 
the Vaipulya Sutras, whereas the book quoted in the Catena 
is there said to be 'one of the latest of the expanded Sutras.' 
' The general outline,' says Mr . Beal \ 'is this. Buddha, 
on a certain occasion, proceeded to Kinsinagara (sic), and 
entering a grove of Sala trees, there reposed. He received 
a gift of food from C hand a, an artisan of the neighbouring 
town. After partaking of the food he was seized with 
illness. He discoursed through the night with his disciples, 
and disputed with certain heretical teachers. At early 
dawn he turned on his right side with his head to the 
north, and died. The Sala trees bent down to form a 
canopy over his head. The account then proceeds to relate 

1 Indian Antiquary, vol. iv. p. 90. 



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XXXV1U THE BOOK OF THE GREAT DECEASE. 

the circumstances of his cremation, and the subsequent 
disputes, between the Mallas and others, for his ashes.' 

There is a curious echo here of some of the sections 
translated below ; though each particular item of the 
summary is really in contradiction with the corresponding 
part of the Pali book. There is perhaps another Chinese 
work on the death of Buddha, of the existence of which 
I have been informed, through the kind intervention of Pro- 
fessor Max Miiller, by Mr. Kasawara. It was translated by 
Po-fa-tsu between 290 and 306 A. D. It seems to be the 
same as the first mentioned above, but it contains a good 
deal of matter not found in the Maha-parinibbana-Sutta 
(notably an account of the Ra^agaha Council, the mention 
of which is so conspicuously absent from the Pali work) ; 
and it omits many of the sections found in the Pali. Mr. 
Kasawara has been kind enough to send me the following 
details regarding those omissions, and they are of peculiar 
interest as compared with the table given above x : 

Chapters in the Pali. Sections wanting in Chinese. 

1st Chapter . . 15-18. 

3rd Chapter . . 21-42. 

4th Chapter . . "53-56. 

5th Chapter . . 4-6; 16-23; 27-31; 48-51. 

6th Chapter . . 27 ; 48-50. 

There is no evidence to show that any of the above 
works are translations of our Sutta, or in any sense the 
same work. No reliance, in fact, can be placed upon the 
mere similarity of title in order to show that a Chinese 
work and an Indian one are really the same : and I regret 
that attempts should have been made to fix the date of 
Indian works by the fact that Chinese translations bearing 
similar titles are said to have been made in a certain 
period. But the above-mentioned works on the Great 
Decease will, when published, throw valuable light on the 
traditions of different, though no doubt later, schools of 
Buddhist thought ; and a detailed comparison would pro- 
bably throw a very interesting light on the way in which 

1 On p. xxxvi. 



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INTRODUCTION. XXXIX 



religious legends of this kind vary and grow; and the 
existence of these Chinese translations affords ground for 
the hope that we may some day discover an earlier 
Sanskrit work on the same subject 1 . 



The cremation ceremonies described in the sixth chapter 
are not without interest. It would be natural enough that 
Gotama should have been buried without any of those ritual- 
istic forms the usefulness of which he denied, and without 
any appeal to gods whose power over men he ignored. 
But the tone of the narrative makes it at least possible 
that there was not really anything unusual in the method 
of his cremation ; and that the elaborate rites prescribed in 
the Brahmanical books for use at a funeral 2 were not, in 
practice, observed in the case of the death of any person 
other than a wealthy Brahman, or some layman of rank 
who was a devoted adherent of the Brahmans. 

In the same way we find that in those countries where 
the more ancient form of Buddhism still prevails, there are 
a few simple forms to be used in the case of the cremation 
of a distinguished Bhikkhu or Upasaka ; but in ordinary 
cases bodies are buried without any ceremony. 

So in Ceylon, Robert Knox — whose rare and curious 
work, one of the most trustworthy books of travels extant, 
deserves more notice than it has received, and who was a 
captive there for many years before the natives were influ- 
enced by any contact with Europeans — says 3 , 

'It may not be unacceptable to relate how they burn 
their dead. As for persons of inferior quality, they are 
interred in some convenient places in the woods (there 
being no set places for burial), carried thither by two or 
three of their friends, and buried without any more ado. 
They lay them on their backs, with their heads to the West, 
and their feet to the East, as we do. Then these people go 
and wash : for they are unclean by handling the dead. 

1 I have not been able to trace any reference to either of these Chinese 
works in Mr. Edkins's ' Chinese Buddhism.' 
1 See Max Miiller in Z. D. M. G., vol. ix. 
• Knox's * Historical Relation of Ceylon,' Part III, Chap. xi. 



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xl THE BOOK OF THE GREAT DECEASE. 

' But persons of greater quality are burned, and that with 
ceremony. When they are dead they lay them out, and 
put a cloth over their privy parts ; and then wash the body, 
by taking half a dozen pitchers of water and pouring upon 
it. Then they cover him with a linen cloth, and so carry 
him forth to burning. This is when they burn the body 
speedily. But otherwise they cut down a tree that may be 
proper for their purpose, and hollow it like a hog-trough, 
and put the body, being disembowelled and embalmed, into 
it, filling up all about with pepper, and so let it lie in the 
house until it be the king's command to carry it out to the 
burning. For that they dare not do without the king's 
order if the person deceased be a courtier. Sometimes 
the king gives no order in a great while ; it may be not at 
all : therefore, in such cases, that the body may not take 
up house-room or annoy them, they dig a hole in the floor 
of their house, and put hollowed tree and all in, and cover 
it. If afterwards the king commands to burn the body, 
they take it up again, in obedience to the king — otherwise 
there it lies. 

' Their order for burning is this : if the body be not thus 
put into a trough or hollow tree, it is laid upon one of his 
bedsteads, which is a great honour among them. This 
bedstead with the body on it, or hollowed tree with the 
body in it, is fastened with poles, and carried upon men's 
shoulders unto the place of burning, which is some eminent 
place in the fields, or highways, or where else they please. 
There they lay it upon a pile of wood some two or three 
feet high ; — then they pile up more wood upon the corpse, 
lying thus on the bedstead or in the trough. Over all they 
have a kind of canopy built (if he be a person of very high 
quality), covered at top, hung about with painted cloth, 
and bunches of cocoa-nuts, and green boughs ; and so fire 
is put to it. After all is burnt to ashes, they sweep to- 
gether the ashes into the manner of a sugar-loaf, and hedge 
the place round from wild beasts breaking in, and they will 
sow herbs there. Thus I saw the king's uncle, the chief 
tirinanx 1 (who was, as it were, the chief primate of all the 
1 Knox's way of spelling Terunnaase, that is t Thera. 

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INTRODUCTION. xll 



nation), burned upon a high place, that the blaze might be 
seen a great way 1 / 

I myself saw an Unnanse burned very much in this 
way near the Weyangoda Court-house ; and there is a long 
account in the native newspaper, the Lak-riwi-kirana 
(Ceylon Sunbeam), of the iath March, 1870, of the crema- 
tion of a Weda-rala, or native doctor. Bishop Bigandet 
relates in a note in his ' Life or Legend of Gautama ' the 
corresponding ceremonies still in use in Burma, of which he 
has been a witness 2 ; but cremation is apparently as seldom 
resorted to in Burma as it is in Ceylon. 

The unceremonious mode of burying the dead referred to 
by Knox is not adopted in the more settled districts on 
the sea coast When at Galle I enquired into the funeral 
customs there prevalent, with the following result 3 : 

A few hours after a man has died, the relations wash the 
corpse, shave it ; and, having clothed it with a strip of clean 
white cloth, place it on a bedstead covered with white cloth, 
and under a canopy (wiyana) also of white cloth. They 
then place two lamps, one to burn at the head, and the other 
at the foot of the corpse, and use perfumes. 

A coffin is then prepared, covered with black cloth ; and 
the body is placed on the coffin, and is then sprinkled over 
with lavender or rose-water. The women meanwhile bow 
backwards and forwards with their hands behind their 
heads, uttering loud wailings over the deceased. 

Then the male relatives carry the coffin to the grave, 
which is dug in one of their own cocoa-nut topes near by, 
and over which is raised a more or less elaborate canopy or 
arch of cloths and evergreens (gerfi-ge), adorned with the 
tender leaves and flowers of the cocoa-nut. Along the path 
also from the house to the grave young cocoa-nut leaves 
and flowers are sometimes hung, and the pathway itself is 
often spread with clean white cloths. 

The tom-tom beaters go first ; and the dull monotonous 

* In the older editions of Knox there is a curious engraving of a body being 
thus burnt. 

* Third edition, vol. ii. pp. 78, 79. 

* See the Ceylon Friend for 1870, pp. 109 and following. 



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xlii THE BOOK OF THE GREAT DECEASE. 

sound of their instruments of music is appropriate enough. 
Then follow some Buddhist mendicants, in number accord- 
ing to the wealth or influence of the deceased, and walking 
under a portable canopy of white cloth. Then the coffin is 
carried by the nearest male relatives, and followed by other 
male relatives and relations — no females, even the widowed 
mother of an only son, taking part in this last sad pro- 
cession. 

Three times the coffin is carried round the grave : then 
it is placed on two sticks placed across the mouth of the 
pit ; and one end of a roll of white cloth is placed on the 
coffin, the other end being held by all the Unnanses 
(Bhikkhus) whilst the people repeat three times in Pali 
the well-known formula of the Refuges (the simple Nicene 
Creed of the Buddhists) : 

'I take my refuge in the Buddha, 
I take my refuge in the Dhamma, 
I take my refuge in the Order 1 .' 

Then the priests respond, thrice repeating in Pali the 
Well-known verse discussed below 2 : 

'How transient are all component things! 
Their nature's to be born and die ; 
Coming, they go ; and then is best, 
When each has ceased, and all is rest!' 

Then the Unnanses let go the roll of white cloth, and 
whilst water is poured from a goblet into a cup placed 
on a plate until the cup is full to the brim s , they again 
chaunt three times in Pali the following verses : — 

'As rivers, when they fill, must flow, 
And reach, and fill the distant main ; 



1 Buddham saranam gaMAami 

Dhammam saranam gaMAaini 
Samgham saranam gaMAami. 
3 Aniiia vata samkh^ra* uppadavaya-dhammino 

Uppa^itva niru^Aanti tesam vupasamo sukho. 
See 'Book of the Great Decease,' VI, 16, and the 'Legend of the Great King 
of Glory,' II, 42. 
* This ceremony is called Paem wadanawS. 



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INTRODUCTION. xliil 



So surely what is given here 

Will reach and bless the spirits there! 

If you on earth will gladly give 
Departed ghosts will gladly live! 

As water poured on mountain tops 
Must soon descend, and reach the plain; 
So surely what is given here 
Will reach and bless the spirits there 1 !' 

The relations then place the coffin in the grave, and 
each throws in a handful of earth. The Unnans6s then 
go away, taking the roll or rolls of cloth, one end of which 
was placed upon the coffin. The grave is filled in. Two 
lights, one at the head of it, and one at the foot, are left 
burning. And then the friends and relations return to 
the house. 

The funeral now being over, is followed by a feast ; 
for though nothing may be cooked in a house or hut in 
which there is a corpse, yet plenty of food has been brought 
in from neighbouring tenements by the relations of the 
deceased. 

There is, however, yet another very curious ceremony 
to be gone through. Three or seven days — whichever, 
according to the rules of astrology, is a lucky day — after 
the deceased person died, an Unnlnse is duly invited to 
the house in which the deceased died. He arrives in the 
evening ; reads bana (that is, the Word, passages from the 
sacred books) throughout the night; and in the morning 
is presented with a roll of white cloth, and is asked to 
partake of food, chiefly of course curries, of those different 
kinds of which the deceased had been most particularly 
fond. 

1 Yatha varivaha pfirS. paripurenti sagaram 

Evam eva ito dinnani petanam upakappati. 

Ito dinnena yapenti peta kalakata tahifn. 

Unname udakam vattam yatha ninnam pavattati 
Evam eva ito dinnam petanam upakappati. 

These verses occur in the Tirokurfda-Sutta of the Khuddaka-P&Ma, but in a 
different order. 



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xllV THE BOOK OF THE GREAT DECEASE. 

This ceremony is called Mataka Dan ay a (Gift for 
the Dead), and the previous feast is called Mataka 
Bhatta (Feast in honour of the Dead) : the two combined 
taking the place of an ancient rite observed in pagan, 
pre-Buddhistic, times, and then also called Mataka Bhatta, 
in which offerings were made to the Petas; that is, to 
the manes, or departed ghosts, of ancestors and near 
relations. Such offerings are of course forbidden to Bud- 
dhists \ and it is a very instructive instance of a survival in 
belief, of the effect of the natural reluctance to make much 
change in the mode of paying the customary funeral re- 
spect to deceased friends, that the kind of food supposed 
to be most appreciated by the dead should still be used in 
the Buddhist funeral rites. 

Another part of the ceremony, that part where one end 
of a roll of cloth is placed on the coffin while the other end 
is held by all the assembled Unnanses 2 , is a fragment of 
ritualistic symbolism which deserves attention. The mem- 
bers of the Buddhist Order of Mendicants were enjoined to 
avoid all personal decoration of any kind ; and to attire 
themselves in cloths of no value, such as might be gathered 
from a dust heap (Pawsu-kula), or even from a cemetery. 
This was a principle to be followed, not a literal rule to be 
observed ; and therefore from the first presents of strips of 
plain white cotton cloth, first torn in pieces to deprive 
them of any commercial value, then pieced together again 
and dyed a dull orange colour to call to mind the colour of 
old worn out linen, were the material from which the 
mendicants' clothing was actually made. But the duty of 
contempt for dress (called Pawsu-kulikanga, from the 
dust heap) was never lost sight of, and advantage was taken 
of the gifts given by the faithful at funerals to impress this 
duty upon the minds of the assembled Bhikkhus. 

Nothing is known of any religious ceremony having been 
performed by the early Buddhists in India, whether the 
person deceased was a layman, or even a member of the 

1 Compare the Mataka-Bhatta-GAtaka (No. 1 8), translated in 'Buddhist 
Birth Stories,' vol. i. pp. 226 and following. 

2 See p. xlii. 



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INTRODUCTION. xlv 



Order. The Vinaya Pi/aka, which enters at so great length 
into all the details of the daily life of the recluses, has 
no rules regarding the mode of treating the body of a 
deceased Bhikkhu. It was probably burnt, and very much 
in the manner described in the- last chapter of our Sutta 
— that is to say, it was reverently carried out to some 
convenient spot, and there simply cremated on a funeral 
pyre without any religious ritual, a small tope being more 
often than not erected over the ashes. Though funerals 
are, naturally, not unfrequently mentioned in the historical 
books, and in the Birth Stories, there is nowhere any 
reference to a recognised mode of performing any religious 
ceremony \ 

The date of the Great Decease is not quite certain. 
The dwellers in the valley of the Ganges, for many genera- 
tions after Gotama's death, were a happy people, who had 
no need of dates ; and it was only long afterwards, and in 
Ceylon, that the great event became used as the starting- 
point for chronological calculations, as the Buddhist era. 

The earliest use of the Buddha's Parinibbana as such 
an era is in an Inscription of King Nissanka Malta's, of the 
twelfth century A.D., published by me in the Journal of 
the Royal Asiatic Society for 1875. Both in the historical 
records of Ceylon, and in those passages of the Purawas 
which are the nearest approach to historical records in 
India, the chronology is usually based on the lists of kings, 
just as it is in the Old Testament. Only by adding to- 
gether the lengths of the reigns of the intermediate kings 
is it possible to calculate the length of the time that is said 
to have elapsed between any two given events. 

If these lists of kings had been accurately kept from 

1 Compare Mahavamsa, pp. 4, 1 15, 1 29, 199, 223-225, and Chap. 39, verse 28 ; 
Gataka I, 166, 181, 402; II, 6; Dasaratna Gataka, pp. 1, 21, 22, 26, &c. ; 
Dhammapada Commentary, pp. 94, 205, 206, 222, 359; Hatthavana-galla- 
vihara-vamsa, Chap. IX ; Hardy, ' Eastern Monachism,' pp. 332-324. 

The words Saddham, Uddhadehikam, and Nivapo, given in Childers, 
refer to pagan rites. 

On funerals among Buddhists in Japan, see Miss Bird's ' Unbeaten Tracks,' 
vol. i. 



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xlviil THE BOOK OF THE GREAT DECEASE. 

possibly derived from a northern Buddhist Sanskrit work 
— the date of the Buddha's death is fixed at five hundred 
years before the time of Milinda 1 , who certainly reigned 
about a century after Christ. I am, therefore, of opinion 
that the hitherto accepted date of the Buddha's death 
should be modified accordingly. 

This would make the date of the Great Decease about 
420-400 B.C. (very possibly a year or two later), and the date 
of Gotama's birth therefore eighty years earlier, or in round 
numbers about 500 B.C. 

I have discussed the whole question at full length in my 
'^Ancient Coins and Measures of Ceylon/ written in ampli- 
fication of a paper read in 1874 before the Royal Asiatic 
Society; and to that work I must refer any reader, who 
may take interest in these chronological discussions, for 
ampler details. I have been able here to present only a 
summary of an argument which is in so far of little im- 
portance, inasmuch as the rectification which I have ven- 
tured to propose only differs by a little more than half a 
century from the earliest date which can in any case be 
suggested as approximately correct (that is about 485 B. c). 
The date 543 B. c, still unfortunately accepted outside the 
circle of students of Buddhism 2 , is now acknowledged to 
be too early by all scholars who have seriously considered 
the subject. 



1 Trenckner, p. 3. Mr. Trenckner says in his preface that Buddhaghosa 
quotes this work, but unfortunately he does not give any reference. See the 
note below on our Sutta, Chap. VI, § 3. 

* See, for instance, Max Duncker, 'History of Antiquity,' vol. iv. p. 364. On 
the dated Edict, ascribed by some to Asoka, see my note loc. cit., and Olden- 
berg, ' Introd. to the Mahft-vagga,' p. xxxviii. 



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THE BOOK 

OF THE 

GREAT DECEASE. 



mahA-parinibbAha-s; 




Chapter I. 

i 1 . Thus have I heard. The Blessed One was 
once dwelling in Ri^agaha, on the hill called the 
Vulture's Peak. Now at that time A^atasattu, the 
son of the queen-consort ofVideha origin 2 , the king 
of Magadha, was desirous of attacking the Vaggians ; 
and he said to himself, ' I will root out these Va^- 

1 Sections i-io, inclusive, recur in the Va.ggi Vagga of the 
Sutta Nip£ta in the Anguttara Nikaya; and there is a curiously 
incorrect version of § 3 in the Fa Kheu Pi Hu, translated from 
the Chinese by Mr. Beal, under the title of 'The Dhammapada 
from the Buddhist Canon,' pp. 165, 166. 

2 A^itasattu Vedehiputto. The first word is not a per- 
sonal name, but an official epithet, 'he against whom there has 
arisen no (worthy or equal) foe ; ' the second gives us the maiden 
family, or tribal (not personal) name of his mother. Persons of 
distinction are scarcely ever mentioned by name in Indian Buddhist 
books, a rule applying more especially to kings, but extended 
not unfrequently to private persons. Thus Upatissa, the earnest 
and thoughtful disciple whom the Buddha himself declared to be 
' the second founder of the kingdom of righteousness,' is referred 
to either as Dhamma-senapati or as Siriputta ; epithets of cor- 
responding origin to those in the text. By the Gains A^ltasattu 
is called Kfl#ika or Ko»ika, which again is probably not the name 
given to him at the rice-eating (the ceremony corresponding to 
infant baptism), but a nickname acquired in after life. 

[11] B 



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2 THE BOOK OF THE GREAT DECEASE. CH. 

^ians, mighty and powerful x though they be, I will 
destroy these Wa.ggra.ns, I will bring these Va < ^ians 
to utter ruin!' 

2. So he spake to the Brahman Vassakara, the 
prime-minister of Magadha, and said : 

' Come now, O Brahman, do you go to the Blessed 
One, and bow down in adoration at his feet on my 
behalf, and enquire in my name whether he is free 
from illness and suffering, and in the enjoyment of 
ease and comfort, and vigorous health. Then tell 
him that A^atasattu, son of the Vedehi, the king of 
Magadha, in his eagerness to attack the Vaggians, 
has resolved, " I will root out these Vaggians, mighty 
and powerful though they be, I will destroy these 
Vaggians, I will bring these Vaggians to utter ruin!" 
And bear carefully in mind whatever the Blessed 
One may predict, and repeat it to me. For the 
Buddhas speak nothing untrue!' 

3. Then the Brahman Vassakara hearkened to the 
words of the king, saying, ' Be it as you say.' And 
ordering a number of magnificent carriages to be 
made ready, he mounted one of them', left Ra^agaha 
with his train, and went to the Vulture's Peak, 
riding as far as the ground was passable for car- 

1 Evammahiddhike evammahanubh£ve. There is nothing 
supernatural about the iddhi here referred to. Etena tesan 
samagga-bhavan kathesi says the commentator simply: thus 
referring the former adjective to the power of union, as he does 
the second to the power derived from practice in military tactics 
(hatthisippidfhi). The epithets are, indeed, most commonly 
applied to the supernatural powers of DevatSs, Nagas, and other 
fairy-like beings ; but they are also used, sometimes in the simple 
sense of this passage, and sometimes in the other sense, of Buddhas 
and of other Arahats. See M. P. S. 12, 43 ; M. Sud. S. 49-53 ; 
G&- I. 34, 35. 39. 4'- 



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MAHA-PARINIBBANA-SUTTA. 



riages, and then alighting and proceeding on foot 
to the place where the Blessed One was. On 
arriving there he exchanged with the Blessed One 
the greetings and compliments of friendship and 
civility, sat down respectfully by his side [and then 
delivered to him the message even as the king had 
commanded 1 ]. 

4. Now at that time "the venerable Ananda was 
standing behind the Blessed One, and fanning him. 
•And the Blessed One said to him : ' Have you 
heard, Ananda, that the Vaggians hold full and 
frequent public assemblies ?' 

' Lord, so I have heard,' replied he. 

' So long, Ananda,' rejoined the Blessed One, ' as 
the Va^fians hold these full and frequent public 
assemblies; so long may they be expected not to 
decline, but to prosper.' 

[And in like manner questioning Ananda, and 
receiving a similar reply, the Blessed One declared 
as follows the other conditions which would ensure 
the welfare of the Va^fian confederacy 2 .] 

' So long, Ananda, as the Vaggians meet together 
in concord, and rise in concord, and carry out 
their undertakings in concord — so long as they 
enact nothing not already established, abrogate 
nothing that has been already enacted, and act in 
accordance with the ancient institutions of the 
Vaggians as established in former days — so long 
as they honour and esteem and revere and support 
the Va < ggian elders, and hold it a point of duty to 
hearken to their words — so long as no women or girls 

1 § 2 repeated. 

1 In the text there is a Question, answer, and reply with each 
clause. 

B 2 



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4 THE BOOK OF THE GREAT DECEASE. CH. 

belonging to their clans are detained among them 
by force or abduction — so long as they honour and 
esteem and revere and support the Va.ggian shrines * 
in town or country, and allow not the proper offerings 
and rites, as formerly given and performed, to fall into 
desuetude — so long as the rightful protection, defence, 
and support shall be fully provided for the Arahats 
among them, so that Arahats from a distance may 
enter the realm, and the Arahats therein may live at 
• ease — so long may the Vajgians be expected not 
to decline, but to prosper.' 

5. Then the Blessed One addressed Vassakara 
the Brahman, and said : 

' When I was once staying, O Brahman, at Vesali 
at the Sarandada Temple 2 , I taught the Vaggians 
these conditions of welfare ; and so long as those 
conditions shall continue to exist among the Va^- 
^ians, so long as the Vaggians shall be well instructed 
in those conditions, so long may we expect them 
not to decline, but to prosper/ 

'We may expect then,' answered the Brahman, 'the 
welfare and not the decline of the Vaggians when 
they are possessed of any one of these conditions of 
Welfare, how much more so when they are possessed 
of all the seven. So, Gotama, the Vagfians cannot 
be overcome by the king of Magadha ; that is, not 
in battle, without diplomacy or breaking up their 
alliance 3 . And now, Gotama, we must go ; we are 
busy, and have much to do.' 

1 .Ketiyani, which Sum.Vil. explains as Yakkha-^etiySni. 

1 The commentator adds that this was a vihara erected on the 
site of a former temple of the Yakkha Sarandada. 

3 'Overcome' is literally 'done' (akarawfya), but the word 
evidently has a similar sense to that which ' done ' occasionally has 



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MAHA-PARINIBBANA-SUTTA. 



' Whatever you think most fitting, O Brahman/ 
was the reply. And the Brahman Vassakara, de- 
lighted and pleased with the words of the Blessed 
One, rose from his seat, and went his way. 



6. Now soon after he had gone the Blessed One 
addressed the venerable Ananda, and said : ' Go now, 
Ananda, and assemble in the Service Hall such of 
the Brethren * as live in the neighbourhood of 
Ra^agaha/ 



in colloquial English. The Sum. Vil. (fol. /}) says akara»iy&, 
akatabbi agahetabba : yadidan, nipita-mattan: yuddhas- 
siti, kara«atthe sami-va^anan, abhimukhena yuddhena 
gahetuft na sakka ti attho. Upalapana, which I have only 
met with here, must mean 'humbug, cajolery, diplomacy;' see the 
use of the verb upa-lapeti, at Maha Vagga V, 2, 21; Git II, 266, 
267; Pat. in the 70th Pa*. Sum. Vil. explains it, at some length, 
as making an alliance, by gifts, with hostile intent, which comes 
to much the same thing. The root I think is U. 

1 The word translated ' brethren ' throughout is in the original 
bhikkhu, a word most difficult to render adequately by any word 
which would not, to Christians and in Europe, connote something 
different from the Buddhist idea. A bhikkhu, literally ' beggar,' 
was a disciple who had joined Gotama's order ; but the word refers 
to their renunciation of worldly things, rather than to their conse- 
quent mendicancy; and they did not really beg in our modern 
sense of the word. Hardy has ' priests ; ' I have elsewhere used 
' monks ' and sometimes ' beggars ' and ' members of the order.' 
This last is, I think, the best rendering ; but it is too long for con- 
stant repetition, as in this passage, and too complex to be a really 
good version of bhikkhu. The members of the order were not 
priests, for they had no priestly powers. They were not monks, for 
they took no vow of obedience, and could leave the order (and 
constantly did so and do so still) whenever they chose. They 
were not beggars, for they had none of the mental and moral 
qualities associated with that word. ' Brethren ' connotes very much 
the position in which they stood to one another ; but I wish there 
were a better word to use in rendering bhikkhu. 



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6 THE BOOK OF THE GREAT DECEASE. CH, 

And he did so ; and returned to the Blessed One, 
and informed him, saying : 

' The company of the Brethren, Lord, is assem- 
bled, let the Blessed One do as seemeth to him fit.' 

And the Blessed One arose, and went to the 
Service Hall ; and when he was seated, he addressed 
the Brethren, and said : 

' I will teach you, O mendicants, seven conditions 
of the welfare of a community. Listen well and 
attend, and I will speak.' 

'Even so, Lord,' said the Brethren, in assent, to 
the Blessed One ; and he spake as follows : 

'So long, O mendicants, as the brethren meet 
together in full and frequent assemblies — so long 
as they meet together in concord, and rise in con- 
cord, and carry out in concord the duties of the 
order — so long as the brethren shall establish 
nothing that has not been already prescribed, and 
abrogate nothing that has been already established, 
and act in accordance with the rules of the order as 
now laid down — so long as the brethren honour and 
esteem and revere and support the elders of expe- 
rience and long standing, the fathers and leaders 
of the order, and hold it a point of duty to hearken 
to their words — so long as the brethren fall not 
under the influence of that craving which, springing 
up within them, would give rise to renewed exist- 
ence 1 — so long as the brethren delight in a life 
of solitude — so long as the brethren so train their 
minds 2 that good and holy men shall come to 
them, and those who have come shall dwell at ease 



1 '1 

2 <1 



'Ponobhavika' punabbhava-dayikl (S.V. fol. /fi.) 
'Pa££attaw yeva satiw upa/Mapessantf ' ti attano ab- 
bhantare sati/» upa//A£pessanti. (S. V. fol. it.) 



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MAHA-PARINIBBANA-SUTTA. 



' — so long may the brethren be expected, not to 
decline, but to prosper. So long as these seven con- 
ditions shall continue to exist among the brethren, so 
long as they are well-instructed in these conditions, 
sO long may the brethren be expected not to decline, 
but to prosper.' 

7. ' Other seven conditions of welfare will I teach 
you, O brethren. Listen well, and attend, and I 
will speak.' 

And on their expressing their assent, he spake 
as follows : 

' So long as the brethren shall not engage in, 
or be fond of, or be connected with business — so 
long as the brethren shall not be in the habit 
of, or be fond of, or be partakers in idle talk — so 
long as the brethren shall not be addicted to, or 
be fond of, or indulge in slothfulness — so long 
as the brethren shall not frequent, or be fond of, 
or indulge in society — so long as the brethren 
shall neither have, nor fall under the influence of, 
sinful desires — so long as the brethren shall not 
become the friends, companions, or intimates of 
sinners — so long as the brethren shall not come 
to a stop on their way [to Nirvana *] because they 

1 'Oramattakena' ti avaramattakena appamattakena. 'An- 
tara' ti arahattaraappatvS'vaetth'antare. 'Vosanan' ti.. .. 
osakkanam \da.m vuttara hoti. Yava sila-p&risuddhi-mat- 
tena vd vipassana-mattena vi sot&panna-bhava-mattena v£ 
sakad&gami-bhava-mattena v£ an&gami-bhava-mattena va 
'vosinaw' na 'Spa^issahti' nama 'vuddhi yeva bhikkhu- 
naffi pa/ikarakha" no parihani.' S. V. (fol. tri). This is an inter- 
esting analogue to Philippians iii. 13 : ' I count not myself to have 
apprehended : but this one thing I do, forgetting those things which 
are behind, and reaching forth unto those things which are before, 
I press toward the mark,' &c. See also below, Chap. V, § 68. 



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8 THE BOOK OF THE GREAT DECEASE. CH. 

have attained to any lesser thing — so long may the 
brethren be expected not to decline, but to prosper. 
'So long as these conditions shall continue to 
exist among the brethren, so long as they are in- 
structed in these conditions, so long may the brethren 
be expected not to decline, but to prosper.' 

8. ' Other seven conditions of welfare will I teach 
you, O brethren. Listen well, and attend, and I 
will speak.' 

And on their expressing their assent, he spake 
as follows : 

' So long as the brethren shall be full of faith, 
modest in heart, afraid of sin \ full of learning, strong 
in energy, active in mind, and full of wisdom, so 
long may the brethren be expected not to decline, 
but to prosper. 

' So long as these conditions shall continue to 
exist among the brethren, so long as they are in- 
structed in these conditions, so long may the brethren 
be expected not to decline, but to prosper.' 

9. ' Other seven conditions of welfare will I teach 
you, O brethren. Listen well, and attend, and I 
will speak.' 

And on their expressing their assent, he spake 
as follows : 

1 The exact distinction between hiri and ottappa is here ex- 
plained by Buddhaghosa as follows : 

'HirimanS' ti pipa-^iguM^ana-lakkhawdya hiriyd yut- 
ta£itt&. 'Ottipi' ti papato bhaya-lakkha«ena ottappena sa- 
manndgatd: that is, loathing sin as contrasted with fear of sin. 
But this is rather a gloss than an exact and exclusive definition. 
Ahirika" is shamelessness, anotappaw frowardness. At Git. I, 
207 we find hiri described as subjective, and ottappa as objec- 
tive, modesty of heart as contrasted with decency in outward 
behaviour. 



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MAHA-PARINIBBANA-SUTTA. 



' So long as the brethren shall exercise themselves 
in the sevenfold higher wisdom, that is to say, in 
mental activity, search after truth, energy, joy, peace, 
earnest contemplation, and equanimity of mind, so 
long may the brethren be expected not to decline, 
but to prosper. 

' So long as these conditions shall continue to 
exist among the brethren, so long as they are in- 
structed in these conditions, so long may the brethren 
be expected not to decline, but to prosper.' 

10. ' Other seven conditions of welfare will I teach 
you, O brethren. Listen well, and attend, and I 
will speak.' 

And on their expressing their assent, he spake 
as follows : 

' So long as the brethren shall exercise themselves 
in the sevenfold perception due to earnest thought, 
that is to say, the perception of impermanency, of 
non-individuality 1 , of corruption, of the danger of sin, 
of sanctification, of purity of heart, of Nirva»a, so 
long may the brethren be expected not to decline, 
but to prosper. 

' So long as these conditions shall continue to exist 
among the brethren, so long as they are instructed 
in these conditions, so long may the brethren be 
expected not to decline, but to prosper.' 

ii. ' Six conditions of welfare will I teach you, O 
brethren. Listen well, and attend, and I will speak.' 

And on their expressing their assent, he spake 
as follows : 

1 For a further explanation of the meaning of anattaw see 
Gotama's second discourse in the Maha Vagga I, 6 : 38-47. 
Buddhaghosa makes no special comment here on either of the 
seven perceptions. 



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IO THE BOOK OF THE GREAT DECEASE. CH. 

' So long as the brethren shall persevere in kind- 
ness of action, speech, and thought amongst the 
saints, both in public and in private — so long as 
they shall divide without partiality, and share in 
common with the upright and the holy, all such 
things as they receive in accordance with the 
just provisions of the order, down even to the mere 
contents of a begging bowl — so long as the brethren 
shall live among the saints in the practice, both 
in public and in private, of those virtues which (un- 
broken, intact, unspotted, unblemished) are produc- 
tive of freedom 1 , and praised by the wise; which are 
untarnished by the desire of future life, or by the 
belief in the efficacy of outward acts 2 ; and which 
are conducive to high and holy thoughts — so long as 
the brethren shall live among the saints, cherishing, 
both in public and in private, that noble and saving 
faith which leads to the complete destruction of the 
sorrow of him who acts according to it — so long 
may the brethren be expected not to decline, but 
to prosper. 

'So long as these six conditions shall continue to 

1 Buddhaghosa takes this in a spiritual sense, 'tSni pan' etini 
(sildni) ta»h£-d£savyato moietva bhu^-issa-bh&va-kara- 
«ato bhu^-iss&ni:' that is, 'These virtues are bhu^issani be- 
cause they bring one to the state of a free man by delivering him 
from the slavery of craving.' 

a Ta«h&-di/Mihi aparama//^att&, ida.m nama tvaw apan- 
napubbo ti kena^i parama/Muw? asakkuweyyatti ka., 'apa- 
r&ma//Mni' (S.V. fol. //u), that is, 'These virtues are called 
apar&ma//Mni because they are. untarnished by craving or de- 
lusion, and because no one can say of him who practices them, 
" you have been already guilty of such and such a sin." ' Craving 
is here the hope of a future life in heaven, and delusion the 
belief in the efficacy of rites and ceremonies (the two nissayas) 
which are condemned as unworthy inducements to virtue. 



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I. MAHA-PARINIBBANA-SUTTA. I I 

exist among the brethren, so long as they are in- 
structed in these six conditions, so long may the 
brethren be expected not to decline, but to prosper.' 



12. And whilst the Blessed One stayed there at 
Ri^agaha on the Vulture's Peak he held that com- 
prehensive religious talk with the brethren on the 
nature of upright conduct, and of earnest contem- 
plation, and of intelligence. ' Great is the fruit, 
great the advantage of earnest contemplation when 
set round with upright conduct. Great is the fruit, 
great the advantage of intellect when set round with 
earnest contemplation. The mind set round with 
intelligence is freed from the great evils, that is 
to say, from sensuality, from individuality, from 
delusion, and from ignorance 1 .' 

1 This paragraph is spoken of as if it were a well-known sum- 
mary, and it is constantly repeated below. The word I have 
rendered ' earnest contemplation' is samadhi, which occupies in 
the Pali Pi/akas very much the same position as faith does in the 
New Testament ; and this section shows that the relative import- 
ance of samadhi, pawM, and sfla played a part in early Bud- 
dhism just as the distinction between faith, reason, and works 
did afterwards in Western theology. It would be difficult to find 
a passage in which the Buddhist view of the relation of these 
conflicting ideas is stated with greater beauty of thought, or equal 
succintness of form. 

The expression 'set round with' is in Pali paribh&vita, which 
Dr. Morris holds to be etymologically exactly parallel to our 
phrase 'perfected by,' on the ground that facio is a causal of the 
Latin representative of the Sanskrit root bhu. In the A'etokhila 
Sutta of the Ma^g^ima NikSya eggs are said to be paribhavitani 
by a brooding hen. Buddhaghosa says simply sila-paribhavito 
ti Sdesu yamhi stle /katvi magga-sam&dhiw nibbattenti 
so tena stlena paribhavito. 'The sam&dhi belonging to 
the (Noble Eightfold) Path is said to be paribhavito by that 
virtue, in which they (that is, the converted) are steadfast whilst 
they practice the samadhi.' 



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12 THE BOOK OF THE GREAT DECEASE. CH. 

13. Now when the Blessed One had sojourned 
at Ra^agaha as long as he pleased, he addressed 
the venerable Ananda, and said : ' Come, Ananda, 
let us go to Ambala/Z^ika.' 

' So be it, Lord ! ' said Ananda in assent, and the 
Blessed One, with a large company of the brethren, 
proceeded to Ambala/A&ika. 

14. There the Blessed One stayed in the king's 
house and held that comprehensive religious talk 
with the brethren on the nature of upright conduct, 
and of earnest contemplation, and of intelligence. 
' Great is the fruit, great the advantage of earnest 
contemplation when set round with upright conduct. 
Great is the fruit, great the advantage of intellect 
when set round with earnest contemplation. The 
mind set round with intelligence is freed from the 
great evils, that is to say, from sensuality, from 
individuality, from delusion, and from ignorance.' 

15. Now when the Blessed One had stayed as 
long as was convenient at Ambala^ika, he ad- 
dressed the venerable Ananda, and said : ' Come, 
Ananda, let us go on to Nalanda.' 

'So be it, Lord!' said Ananda, in assent, to the 
Blessed One. 

Then the Blessed One proceeded, with a great 
company of the brethren, to Nalanda ; and there, at 
Nalanda, the Blessed One stayed in the Pavarika 
mango grove. 

16. *Now the venerable Sariputta came to the 

1 This conversation is given at length in the Sampasadaniya 
Sutta of the Dfgha Nikaya, and also in the Satipa//4ana Vagga 
of the Sawyutta Nik&ya. I have compressed mere repetitions at 
the places marked with [ ] where the preceding clauses are, in the 
text, repeated in full. 



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1. MAHA-PARINIBBANA-SUTTA. 1 3 

place where the Blessed One was, and having 
saluted him, took his seat respectfully at his side, 
and said : ' Lord ! such faith have I in the Blessed 
One, that methinks there never has been, nor will 
there be, nor is there now any other, whether 
Sama»a or Brahman, who is greater and wiser than 
the Blessed One, that is to say, as regards the 
higher wisdom.' 

' Grand and bold are the words of thy mouth, 
Sariputta : verily, thou hast burst forth into a song 
of ecstasy ! of course then thou hast known all the 
Blessed Ones who in the long ages of the past have 
been Arahat Buddhas, comprehending their minds 
with yours, and aware what their conduct was, what 
their doctrine, what their wisdom, what their mode 
of life, and what salvation they attained to ?' 

'Not so, O Lord!' 

' Of course then thou hast perceived all the 
Blessed Ones who in the long ages of the future 
shall be Arahat Buddhas comprehending [in the 
same manner their whole minds with yours] ?' 

• Not so, O Lord !' 

' But at least then, O Sariputta, thou knowest me 
as the Arahat Buddha now alive, and hast pene- 
trated my mind [in the manner I have mentioned] ! ' 

'Not even that, O Lord!' 

' You see then, Sariputta, that you know not the 
hearts of the Arahat Buddhas of the past and of the 
future. Why therefore are your words so grand 
and bold ? Why do you burst forth into such a 
song of ecstasy ? ' 

1 7. ' O Lord ! I have not the knowledge of the 
hearts of the Arahat Buddhas that have been, and 
are to come, and now are. I only know the lineage 



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14 THE BOOK OF THE GREAT DECEASE. CH. 

of the faith. Just, Lord, as a king might have a 
border city, strong in its foundations, strong in its 
ramparts and tora«as, and with one gate alone ; and 
the king might have a watchman there, clever, ex- 
pert, and wise, to stop all strangers and admit only 
friends. And he, on going over the approaches all 
round the city, might not so observe all the joints 
and crevices in the ramparts of that city as to know 
where even a cat could get out. That might well 
be. Yet all living things of larger size that entered 
or left the city, would have to do so by that gate. 
Thus only is it, Lord, that I know the lineage of 
the faith. I know that the Arahat Buddhas of the 
past, putting away all lust, ill-will, sloth, pride, and 
doubt ; knowing all those mental faults which make 
men weak ; training their minds in the four kinds of 
mental activity; thoroughly exercising themselves 
in the sevenfold higher wisdom, received the full 
fruition of Enlightenment. And I know that the 
Arahat Buddhas of the times to come will [do the 
same]. And I know that the Blessed One, the 
Arahat Buddha of to-day, has [done so] now V 



i8. There in the Pavarika mango grove the 
Blessed One held that comprehensive religious talk 

1 The tertium quid of the comparison is the completeness of 
the knowledge. Sariputta acknowledges that he was wrong in 
jumping to the wide conclusion that his own lord and master was 
the wisest of all the teachers of the different religious systems that 
were known to him. So far — after the cross-examination by the 
Buddha — he admits that his knowledge does not reach. But he 
maintains that he does know that which is, to him, after all the 
main thing, namely, that all the Buddhas must have passed through 
the process here laid down as leading up to Buddhahood. The 
Pali of 'the full fruition of Enlightenment' is anuttaraw sammJ- 
sambodhiw, which might be rendered 'Supreme Buddhahood.' 



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I. MAHA-PARINIBBANA-SUTTA. 1 5 

with the brethren on the nature of upright conduct, 
and of earnest contemplation, and of intelligence. 
' Great is the fruit, great the advantage of earnest 
contemplation when set round with upright conduct. 
Great is the fruit, great the advantage of intellect 
when set round with earnest contemplation. The 
mind set round with intelligence is freed from the 
great evils, that is to say, from sensuality, from 
individuality, from delusion, and from ignorance.' 



19. Now when the Blessed One had stayed as 
long as was convenient at Nalanda, he addressed 
the venerable Ananda, and said : ' Come, Ananda, 
let us go on to Pa/aligama.' 

' So be it, Lord ! ' said Ananda, in assent, to the 
Blessed One. 

Then the Blessed One proceeded, with a great 
company of the brethren, to Pa/aligama. 

20. 'Now the disciples at Pa/aligama heard of his 
arrival there, and they went to the place where he 
was, took their seats respectfully beside him, and 
invited him to their village rest house. And the 
Blessed One signified, by silence, his consent. 

21. Then the Pa/aligama disciples seeing that he 
had accepted the invitation, rose from their seats, 
and went away to the rest house, bowing to the 
Blessed One and keeping him on their right as they 
past him 2 . On arriving there they made the rest 

1 From this sentence down to the end of the verses at Chap. II, 
§ 3, is, with a few unimportant variations, word for word the same 
as Mah& Vagga VI, 28, 1, to VI, 29, 2. 

2 It would be very rude to have left him otherwise. So in 
Europe a similar custom is carried still further, persons leaving the 
royal presence being expected to go out backwards. 



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1 6 THE BOOK OF THE GREAT DECEASE. , CH. 

house fit in every way for occupation *, placed seats 
in it, set up a water-pot, and fixed an oil lamp. 
Then they returned to the Blessed One, and bowing, 
stood beside him, and said : ' All things are ready, 
Lord! It is time for you to do what you deem 
most fit.' 

22. And the Blessed One robed himself, took his 
bowl and other things, went with the brethren to 
the rest house, washed his feet, entered the hall, 
and took his seat against the centre pillar, with his 
face towards the east. And the brethren also, after 
washing their feet, entered the hall, and took their 
seats round the Blessed One, against the western 
wall, and facing the east. And the Pa/aligama disci- 
ples too, after washing their feet, entered the hall, 
and took their seats opposite the Blessed One, against 
the eastern wall, and facing towards the west. 

23. 2 Then the Blessed One addressed the Pa/ali- 
gama disciples, and said : ' Fivefold, O householders, 
is the loss of the wrong-doer through his want of 
rectitude. In the first place the wrong-doer, devoid 
of rectitude, falls into great poverty through sloth ; 
in the next place his evil repute gets noised abroad ; 
thirdly, whatever society he enters — whether of 
Brahmans, nobles, heads of houses, or Sama«as — 

1 With reference to Oldenberg's note at Maha Vagga, p. 384, it 
may be mentioned that Buddhaghosa says here, 'sabba-santha- 
rin' ti yatha sabbaw santhataw yeva. (S.V. fol. it.) 

2 The following sentences contain a synopsis of what was merely 
the elementary righteousness, the Adi-brahma-£ariyaz«, quite 
distinct from, and not for a moment to be compared in glory with 
the Magga-brahma-£ariya*H, the system developed in the Noble 
Eightfold Path. It will have been seen above, §11, that the latter, 
to be perfect, must be untarnished by the attraction of the hope of 
heaven or the fear'of hell. 



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i. maha-parinibbAna-sutta. i 7 

he enters shyly and confused; fourthly, he is full 
of anxiety when he dies; and lastly, on the dis- 
solution of the body, after death, he is reborn into 
some unhappy state of suffering or woe *. This, O 
householders, is the fivefold loss of the evil-doer ! ' 

24. ' Fivefold, O householders, is the gain of the 
well-doer through his practice of rectitude. In the 
first place the Well-doer, strong in rectitude, acquires 
great wealth through his industry ; in the next place, 
good reports of him are spread abroad; thirdly, 
whatever society he enters — whether of nobles, Brah- 
mans, heads of houses, or members of the order — 
he enters confident and self-possessed ; fourthly, he 
dies without anxiety ; and lastly, on the dissolution 
of the body, after death, he is reborn into some 
happy state in heaven. This, O householders, is 
the fivefold gain of the well-doer.' 

25. When the Blessed One had thus taught the 
disciples, and incited them, and roused them, and 
gladdened them, far into the night with religious 
discourse, he dismissed them, saying, ' The night is 
far spent, O householders. It is time for you to do 
what you deem most fit.' ' Even so, Lord!' answered 
the disciples of Pafoligama, and they rose from their 
seats, and bowing to the Blessed One, and keeping 
him on their right hand as they passed him, they 
departed thence. 

And the Blessed One, not long after the disciples 

1 Four such states are mentioned, apaya, duggati, vinipato, 
and nirayo, all of which are temporary states. The first three 
seem to be synonyms. The last is one of the four divisions into 
which the first is usually divided, and is often translated hell; but 
riot being an eternal state, and not being dependent or conse- 
quent upon any judgment, it cannot accurately be so rendered. 

[11] c 

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1 8 THE BOOK OF THE GREAT DECEASE. CH. 

of Pa/aligama had departed thence, entered into his 
private chamber. 



26. At that time Suntdha and Vassakara, the 
chief ministers of Magadha, were building a fortress 
at Pa/'aligama to repel the Varans, and there 
were a number of fairies who haunted in thousands 
the plots of ground there. Now, wherever ground 
is so occupied by powerful fairies, they bend the 
hearts of the most powerful kings and ministers to 
build dwelling-places there, and fairies of middling 
and inferior power bend in a similar way the hearts 
of middling or inferior kings and ministers. 

27. And the Blessed One, with his great and 
clear vision, surpassing that of ordinary men, saw 
thousands of those fairies haunting Pa/faligama. 
And he rose up very early in the morning, and said 
to Ananda : ' Who is it then, Ananda, who is build- 
ing a fortress at Pa/aligima ? ' 

'Suntdha and Vassakara, Lord, the chief minis- 
ters of Magadha, are building a fortress there to keep 
back the Vajgians.' 

28. They act, Ananda, as if they had consulted 
with the Tavatiwsa angels. [And telling him of 
what he had seen, and of the influence such fairies 
had, he added] : ' And among famous places of 
residence and haunts of busy men, this will become 
the chief, the city of Pa^ali-putta, a centre for the 
interchange of all kinds of wares. But three dangers 
will hang over Pa/ali-putta, that of fire, that of water, 
and that of dissension V 

1 This paragraph is of importance to the orthodox Buddhist as 
proving the Buddha's power of prophecy and the authority of the. 



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I. MAHA-PARINIBBANA-SUTTA. 1 9 

29. Now Suntdha and Vassakara, the chief 
ministers of Magadha, proceeded to the place where 
the Blessed One was. And when they had come 
there they exchanged with the Blessed One the 
greetings and compliments of friendship and civility, 
and stood there respectfully on one side. And, so 
standing, Sunldha and Vassakara r the chief ministers 
of Magadha, spake thus to the Blessed One : 

' May the venerable Gotama do us the honour 
of taking his meal, together with the company of 
the brethren, at our house to-day.' And the Blessed 
One signified, by silence, his consent. 

30. Then when Sunidha and Vassakara, the chief 
ministers of Magadha, perceived that he had given 
his consent, they returned to the place where they 
dwelt. And on arriving there, they prepared sweet 
dishes of boiled rice, and cakes; and informed the 
Blessed One, saying: 

Buddhist scriptures. To those who conclude that such a passage 
must have been written after the event that is prophesied, it is 
valuable evidence of the age both of the Maha Vagga and of the 
Mah&parinibb&na Sutta; — evidence, however, that cannot as yet 
be applied to its full extent, as the time at which Pd/ali-glma 
had grown into the great and important city of PS/ali-putta is not 
as yet known with sufficient certainty. The late Burmese tradition 
on this point given in Bigandet's Legend of the Burmese Buddha, 
vol. ii, p. 183, can scarcely be depended upon, though it doubt- 
less rests on older documents, and is mentioned also by Hiouen 
Thsang. 

The curious popular belief as to good and bad fairies haunting 
the sites of houses gave rise to a quack science, akin to astrology, 
called vatthu-vi^S, which Buddhaghosa explains here at some 
length, and which is frequently condemned elsewhere in the P&li 
Pi/akas. See, for instance, § 1 of the Mah4-sfla«, translated below 
in the Tevigga. Sutta. The belief is turned to ridicule in the 
edifying legend, No. 40, in my 'Buddhist Birth Stories,' pp. 
326-334. 

C 2 



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2Q THE BOOK OF THE GREAT DECEASE. ch„ 

' The hour of food has come,, O Gotama,. and 
all is ready.' 

And the Blessed One robed himself early, took 
his bowl with him, and repaired with the brethren 
to the dwelling-place of Suntdha and Vassak&ra, 
and sat down on the seat prepared for hinu 
And with their own hands they set the sweet rice 
and the cakes before the brethren with the Buddha 
at their head, and waited on them till they had had 
enough. And when the Blessed One had finished 
eating hist meal, the ministers brought a low seat, 
and sat down respectfully at his side. 

31. And when they were thus seated the Blessed 
One gave thanks in these verses :-—- 

' Wheresoe'er the prudent man shall take up his 

abode 
Let him support there good and upright men of 

self-control. 
Let him give gifts to all such deities as may 

be there. 
Revered, they will revere him : honoured, they 

honour him again ; 
Are gracious to him as a mother to her own, her 

only son. 
And the man who has the grace of the gods, good 

fortune he beholds V 

1 This passage gives Buddhaghosa a good deal of difficulty, as it 
apparently inculcates offerings to the gods, which is contrary not 
only to both the letter and spirit of Buddhism, but also to the 
practice of Buddhists. He explains away the gifts to the deities 
by saying they are gifts of merit only (patti) — the giver giving the. 
four necessaries to Bhikkhus, and then expressing a wish that 
the Devat^s should share in his pu««a. I am inclined to think, 
on the authority of the Deva-dhamma Gataka (No. 9 in ' Buddhist 



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I. MAHA-PARINIBfeANA-SUftA. 21 

32. And when he had thanked the ministers in 
these verses he rose from his Seat and departed 
thence. And they followed him as he went, saying, 
' The gate the Sartia#a Gotama goes out by to-day 
shall be called Gotama's gate, and the ferry at 
which he crosses the river shall be called Gotama's 
ferry.' And the gate he went out aj^wjrsvcalk 
Gotama's gate. f - ~" * l 

( >-> r> 1 t / r? •« „ ' \> 

33. But the Blessed One went on>tb ,the. river. * * .) 
And at that time the river Ganges wasNatJimful^afcii^, 
overflowing * ; and wishing to cross to the opposite 
bank, some began to seek for boats, some for rafts of 
wood, while some made rafts of basket-work 2 . Then 
the Blessed One as instantaneously as a strong man 
would stretch forth his arm, or draw it back again 
when he had stretched it forth, vanished from this 
side of the river, and stood on the further bank with 
the company of the brethren. 

34. And the Blessed One beheld the people 
looking for- boats and rafts, and as he beheld them 
he brake forth at that time into this song : — 

' They who cross the ocean drear 
Making a solid path across the pools — 

Birth Stories'), that by the deities are here meant the 'good and 
upright men of self-control,' mentioned in the previous clause. 
The verses were perhaps originally non-Buddhistic. 

1 Samatittika kakapeyya. See the note on Tevigga. Sutta 
I, 19, translated below, where the same expression occurs. 

2 Ulumpan ti parazw gamanatthlya a«iyo ko//etva ka- 
taw; kullan ti valli-adthi bandhitva katabba/w, says 
Buddhaghosa. The spelling u/umpatn would correspond better 
to the Sanskrit form urfupa, and has been chosen by Childers in 
his dictionary, and by Oldenberg in his transliteration of this 
passage (Maha Vagga VI, 28 : n, 12). 



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22 THE BOOK OF THE GREAT DECEASE. CH. 

Whilst the vain world ties, its basket rafts — 
These are the wise, these are the saved indeed 1 !' 



End of the First Portion for Recitation. 



1 That is, those who cross the 'ocean drear' of taw hi, or 
craving ; avoiding, by means of -the ' dyke ' or causeway of the 
Noble Path, the 'pools' or shallows of lust, and ignorance, and 
delusion (comp. Dhp. v. 91), whilst the vain world looks for sal- 
vation from rites, and ceremonies, and gods, — ' these are the wise, 
these are the saved indeed 1' 

How the metre of the verses in the text fell into the confusion 
in which it at present stands is not easy to see. One would 
expect — 

Ye \isagga. pallal&ni taranti znnzyum saraw 
Kullaw hi £-ano bandhati ti««a medhavino ga.nL 
That a gloss can creep into the text, even in verses, is clear from 
the indisputable instance at Gataka II, 35; and the words setuw 
katvana would have been a very natural gloss had the passage 
once stood as above. Then supposing that a copyist or reciter 
had found the words ye visa^a pallalani setu*» katvSna 
taranti awwavaw sarazn, he might have corrected, as he thought, 
the order of the words so as to avoid any possibility of the words 
being taken to mean that the setu, the solid causeway, was made 
over the a«»ava/» sara/ra, the vastly deep, which would be pal- 
pably absurd. Buddhaghosa found setuw katvdna in the text, 
but it is not possible to tell in what order he found the words. The 
Turnour MS. of the Sumangala Vil&sinf has pabandhati, but a 
Ceylon copy of the Samanta PasSdika confirms the Burmese read- 
ing bandhati at Mahi Vagga VI, 28, 13. I need scarcely say 
that the translation follows the printed text. We know too little 
about the history of the Pali Suttas to be able to do more than 
make a passing note of such curiosities. 

On vanishing away from a place, comp. below, III, 22. 



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MAHA-PARINIBBANA-SUTTA. 23 



Chapter II. 

1. Now the Blessed One addressed the venera- 
ble Ananda, and said : ' Come, Ananda, let us go 
on to Ko/igama.' 

' So be it, Lord!' said Ananda, in assent, to the 
Blessed One. 

The Blessed One proceeded with a great company 
of the brethren to Ko/igama; and there he stayed 
in the village itself 1 . 

2. And at that place the Blessed One addressed 
the brethren, and said: 'It is through not under- 
standing and grasping four Noble Truths, O brethren, 
that we have had to run so long, to wander so 
long in this weary path of transmigration, both you 
and I!' 

' And what are these four ?' 

' The noble truth about sorrow ; the noble truth 
about the cause of sorrow; the noble truth about 
the cessation of sorrow ; and the noble truth about 
the path that leads to that cessation. But when 
these noble truths . are grasped and known the 
craving for existence is rooted out, that which 
leads to renewed existence is destroyed, and then 
there is no more birth ! ' 

3. Thus spake the Blessed One ; and when the 
Happy One had thus spoken, then again the 
Teacher said : 

1 As will be observed from the similar passages that follow, 
there is a regular sequence of clauses in the set descriptions of the 
Buddha's movements. The last clause should specify the particular 
grove or house where the Blessed One stayed ; but it is also (in 
this and one or two other cases) inserted with due regularity even 
when it adds nothing positive to the sense. 



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24 THE BOOK OF THE GREAT DECEASE. CH. 

' By not seeing the four Noble Truths as they 

really are, 
Long is the path that is traversed through many 

a birth ; 
When these are grasped, the cause of birth is 

then removed, 
The root of sorrow rooted out, and there is no 

more birth.' 



4. There too, while staying at Ko/ig&ma, the 
Blessed One held that comprehensive religious dis- 
course with the brethren on the nature of upright 
conduct, and of earnest contemplation, and of in- 
telligence. 'Great is the fruit, great the advan- 
tage of earnest contemplation when set round with 
upright conduct. Great is the fruit, great the 
advantage of intellect when set round with earnest 
contemplation. The mind set round with intelligence 
is freed from the great evils, — that is to say, from 
sensuality, from individuality, from delusion, and 
from ignorance.' 

5. Now when the Blessed One had remained as 
long as was convenient at Ko/igama, he addressed 
the venerable Ananda, and said : ' Come, Ananda, 
let us go on to the villages of Nadika.' 

'So be it, Lord!' said Ananda, in assent, to the 
Blessed One. 

And the Blessed proceeded to the villages of 
Ncldika with a great company of the brethren ; and 
there, at Nadika, the Blessed One stayed at the 
Brick Hall 1 . 

'• At first Nadika is (twice) spoken of in the plural number ; but 
then, thirdly, in the last clause, in the singular. Buddhaghosa 



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H. MAHA-PARINIBBANA-SUTTA. 2$ 

6. And the venerable Ananda went to the 
Blessed One and paid him reverence and took 
his seat beside him. And when he was seated, he 
addressed the Blessed One, and said : ' The brother 
named Sa/^a has died at Nadika, Lord. Where has 
he been reborn, and what is his destiny ? The 
sister named Nanda has died, Lord, at Nadika. 
Where is she reborn, and what is her destiny?' 
And in the same terms he enquired concerning 
the devout Sudatta, and the devout lady Su^ata, 
the devout Kakudha, and Kalinga, and Nika/a, 
and Karissabha, and Tu^a, and Santu^a, and 
Bhadda, and Subhadda, 

7. 'The brother named Sa/%a, Ananda, by the 
destruction of the great evils has by himself, and in 
this world, known and realised and attained to Ara- 
hatship, and to emancipation of heart and to emanci- 
pation of mind. The sister named Nanda, Ananda, 
has, by the complete destruction of the five bonds 
that bind people to this world, become an inheritor 
of the highest heavens, there to pass entirely away, 
thence never to return. The devout Sudatta, 
Ananda, by the complete destruction of the three 
bonds, and by the reduction to a minimum of lust, 
hatred, and delusion has become a Sakadagamin, 
who on his first return to this world will make an 
end of sorrow. The devout woman Su/ata, Ananda, 
by the complete destruction of the three bonds, has 
become converted, is no longer liable to be reborn 
in a state of suffering, and is assured of final salva- 

explains this by saying that there were two villages of the same 
name on the shore of the same piece of water. On the public 
resting-place for travellers, which in this instance bore the proud 
title of Brick Hall, see ' Buddhist Birth Stories,' pp. 280-285. 



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26 THE BOOK OF THE GREAT DECEASE. CH. 

tion \ The devout Kakudha, Ananda, by the com- 
plete destruction of the five bonds that bind people 
to these lower worlds of lust, has become an inheritor 
of the highest heavens, there to pass entirely away, 
thence never to return. So also is the case with 
Kalinga, Nika/a, Ka/issabha, Tu//^a, Santu//£a, 
Bhadda, and Subhadda, and with more than fifty 
devout men of Nadika. More than ninety devout 
men of Nadika, who have died, Ananda, have by 
the complete destruction of the three bonds, and 
by the reduction of lust, hatred, and delusion, be- 
come Sakadagamins, who on their first return to 
this world will make an end of sorrow. More than 
five hundred devout men of Nadika who have died, 
Ananda, have by the complete destruction of the 
three bonds become converted, are no longer liable 
to be reborn in a state of suffering, and are assured 
of final salvation. 

8. ' Now there is nothing strange in this, Ananda, 
that a human being should die, but that as each one 
does so you should come to the Buddha, and en- 
quire about them in this manner, that is wearisome 
to the Buddha. I will, therefore, teach you a way 
of truth, called the Mirror of Truth, which if an 
elect disciple possess he may himself predict of him- 
self, " Hell is destroyed for me, and rebirth as an 
animal, or a ghost, or in any place of woe. I am 
converted, I am no longer liable to be reborn in a 
state of suffering, and am assured of final salvation." 

9. ' What then, Ananda, is this mirror of truth ? 
It is the consciousness that the elect disciple is 
in this world possessed of faith in the Buddha — 

1 See 'Buddhism,' pp. 108-110, and below, VI, 9. 

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II. MAHA-PARINIBBANA-SUTTA. 2"] 

believing the Blessed One to be the Holy One, 
the Fully-enlightened One, Wise, Upright, Happy, 
World-knowing, Supreme, the Bridler of men's way- 
ward hearts, the Teacher of gods and men, the 
Blessed Buddha. And that he (the disciple) is 
possessed of faith in the Truth — believing the truth 
to have been proclaimed by the Blessed One, of 
advantage in this world, passing not away, wel- 
coming all, leading to salvation, and to be attained 
to by the wise, each one for himself. And that he 
(the disciple) is possessed of faith in the Order — 
believing the multitude of the disciples of the Blessed 
One who are walking in the four stages of the noble 
eightfold path, the righteous, the upright, the just, 
the law-abiding — believing this church of the 
Buddha to be worthy of honour, of hospitality, of 
gifts, and of reverence ; to be the supreme sowing 
ground of merit for the world; to be possessed of 
the virtues beloved by the good, virtues unbroken, 
intact, unspotted, unblemished, virtues which make 
men truly free, virtues which are praised by the 
wise, are untarnished by the desire of future life 
or by the belief in the efficacy of outward acts, and 
are conducive to high and holy thought V 

10. 'This, Ananda, is the way, the mirror of truth, 
which if an elect disciple possess he may himself 
predict of himself: " Hell is destroyed for me ; and 
rebirth as an animal, or a ghost, or in any place of 
woe. I am converted ; I am no longer liable to be 
reborn in a state of suffering, and am assured of final 
salvation." ' 

ii. There, too, at the Brick Hall at Nadika the 
1 See above, § I, n. 



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28 THE BOOK OF THE GREAT DECEASE. CH. 

Blessed One addressed to the brethren that com- 
prehensive religious discourse on the nature of up- 
right conduct, and of earnest contemplation, and of 
intelligence. 

'Great is the fruit, great the advantage of earnest 
contemplation when set round with upright conduct. 
Great is the fruit, great the advantage of intellect 
when set round with earnest contemplation. The 
mind set round with intelligence is freed from the 
great evils, that is to say, from sensuality, from 
individuality, from delusion, and from ignorance.' 



12. Now when the Blessed One had remained as 
long as he wished at Nadika, he addressed Ananda, 
and said : ' Come, Ananda, let us go on to Vesali.' 

' So be it, Lord ! ' said Ananda, in assent, to the 
Blessed One. 

Then the Blessed One proceeded, with a great 
company of the brethren, to Vesali ; and there at 
Vesali the Blessed One stayed at Ambapali's grove. 

13. Now there the Blessed One addressed the 
brethren, and said : ' Let a brother, O mendicants, 
be mindful and thoughtful; this is our instruction 
to you.' 

14. ' And how does a brother become mindful ?' 

' Herein, O mendicants, let a brother, as he dwells 
in the body, so regard the body that he, being 
strenuous, thoughtful, and mindful, may, whilst in 
the world, overcome the grief which arises from 
bodily craving — while subject to sensations, let 
him continue so to regard the sensations that 
he, being strenuous, thoughtful, and mindful, may, 
whilst in the world, overcome the grief arising from 
the craving which follows our sensation — and so also 



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II. MAHA-PARLNIBBANA-SUTTA, 2Q 

as he thinks or reasons or feels let him overcome 
the grief which arises from the craving due to ideas, 
or reasoning, or feeling.' 

15. ' And how does a brother become thoughtful ?' 
' He acts, O mendicants, in full presence of mind 
whatever he may do, in going out and coming im,- 
itt looking and watching, in bending in his arm or 
stretching it forth, in wearing his robes or carrying 
his bowl, in eating and drinking, in consuming or 
tasting, in walking or standing or sitting, in sleeping 
or waking, in talking and in being silent. 

' Thus let a brother, O mendicants, be mindful 
and thoughtful ; this is our instruction to you V 



1 This doctrine of being 'mindful and thoughtful' — sato sampa- 
gino — is one of the lessons most frequently inculcated in the 
Pali Pi/akas, and is one of the ' Seven Jewels of the Law.' It is 
fully treated of in each of the Nikiyas, forming the subject of the 
Maha Satippa/Mna Sutta in the Dlgha Nikaya, and the Satipa//Mna 
Sutta of the Ma^g^ima NikHya, and the SatippaAlMna Vaggo of 
the Sawyutta Nik&ya, as well as of various passages in the 
Ahguttara Nikaya and of the work called Vibhanga in the Abhi- 
dhamma Pi/aka. I am glad to learn that Dr. Morris intends to 
collect and compare all these passages in his forthcoming work 
on the ' Seven Jewels of the Law.' These sections of the MahS- 
parinibbina Sutta and the treatment in the Vibhanga have pre- 
served, in Dr. Morris's opinion, the oldest form of the doctrine. 
Compare Chap. II, § 34. 

Buddhaghosa has no comment here on the subject itself, re- 
serving what he has to say for the comment on the Suttas devoted 
entirely to it; but he observes in passing that the reason why the 
Blessed One laid stress, at this particular time and place, on the 
necessity of being ' mindful and thoughtful,' was because of the 
imminent approach of the beautiful courtezan in whose grove they 
were staying. The use of the phrase sati upa/Mapetabba" 
below, Chap. V, §13 (text, p. 51), in reference to the way in which 
women should be treated, is quite in. accordance with this explana- 
tion. But see the next note. 



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30 THE BOOK OF THE GREAT DECEASE. CH. 

1 6. * Now the courtezan Ambapali heard that the 
Blessed One had arrived at Vesali, and was staying 
at her mango grove. And ordering a number of 
magnificent vehicles to be made ready, she mounted 
one of them, and proceeded with her train towards 
her garden. She went in the carriage as far as 
the ground was passable for carriages ; there she 
alighted ; and she proceeded on foot to the place 
where the Blessed One was, and took her seat 
respectfully on one side. And when she was thus 
seated the Blessed One instructed, aroused, incited, 
and gladdened her with religious discourse. 

17. Then she — instructed, aroused, incited, and 
gladdened with his words — addressed the Blessed 
One, and said : 

' May the Blessed One do me the honour of 
taking his meal, together with the brethren, at my 
house to-morrow.' 

And the Blessed One gave, by silence, his 
consent. Then when Ambapali the courtezan saw 
that the Blessed One had consented, she rose from 
her seat and bowed down before him, and keeping 
him on her right hand as she past him, she departed 
thence. 

1 From this point down to the words ' he rose from his seat,' in 
§ II, 24, is, with a few unimportant variations, word for word the 
same as Maha Vagga VI, 30/ 1, to VI, 30, 6. But the passage 
there follows immediately after the verses translated above, § I, 34, 
so that the events here (in §§ 16-22) localised at Vesali, are there 
localised at Ko/igama. Our section II, 5 is then inserted between 
our sections II, 22 and II, 23; and our section II, 12 does not 
occur at all, the Blessed One only reaching Ambapali's grove 
when he goes there (as in our section II, 23) to partake of the 
meal to which he had been invited. Buddhaghosa passes over this 
discrepancy in silence. 



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II. MAHA-PARINIBBANA-SUTTA. 3 I 

1 8. Now the L\£Ma.vis of Vesali heard that the 
Blessed One had arrived at Vesali, and was staying 
at Ambapali's grove. And ordering a number of 
magnificent carriages to be made ready, they 
mounted one of them and proceeded with their 
train to Vesali. Some of them were dark, dark in 
colour, and wearing dark clothes and ornaments ; 
some of them were fair, fair in colour, and wearing 
light clothes and ornaments : some of them were 
red, ruddy in colour, and wearing red clothes and 
ornaments : some of them were white, pale in colour, 
and wearing white clothes and ornaments. 

19. And Ambapali drove up against the young 
YAkkhzv'is, axle to axle, wheel to wheel, and yoke 
to yoke, and the \Akkh2iv1s said to Ambapali the 
courtezan, ' How is it, Ambapali, that thou drivest 
up against us thus ?' 

' My Lords, I have just invited the Blessed One 
and his brethren for their morrow's meal,' said she. 

' Ambapali ! give up this meal to us for a hundred 
thousand,' said they. 

' My Lords, were you to offer all Vesali with its 
subject territory 1 , 1 would not give up so honourable 
a feast !' 

Then the Li^^avis cast up their hands 2 , exclaim- 
ing, ' We are outdone by this mango girl ! we are 
out-reached by this mango girl 3 !' and they went on 
to Ambapali's grove. 

20. When the Blessed One saw the lAkkkdivis 



1 S&h&ran ti sa-^anapadan. (S. V. /au.) 

* AngulJ po/Aesuw. Childers translates this phrase 'to snap 
the fingers as a token of pleasure;' but Buddhaghosa says, 
ahgult poMesun ti ahgulf k&lesum. (S. V. /an.) 

3 Ambapali means mango grower, one who looks after mangoes. 



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32 THE BOOK OF THE GREAT DECEASE. CH 

approaching in the distance, he addressed the 
brethren, and said : 

' O brethren, let those of the brethren who have 
never seen the Tavatiwzsa gods, gaze upon this 
company of the LilMavis, behold this company of 
the Li£££avis, compare this company of the Li<6Ma- 
vis — even as a company of Tavati/#sa gods V 

21. And when they had ridden as far as the 
ground was passable for carriages, the Lii^avis 
alighted there, and then went on on foot to the 
place where the Blessed One was, and took their 
seats respectfully by his side. And when they 
were thus seated the Blessed One instructed and 
roused and incited and gladdened them with -reli- 
gious discourse 2 . 

22. Then they instructed and roused and incited 
and gladdened with his words, addressed the Blessed 
One, and said, ' May the Blessed One do us the 
honour of taking his meal, together with the brethren, 
at our house to-morrow ? ' 

'O Li^i>4avis, I have promised to dine to-morrow 
with Ambapali the courtezan,' was the reply. 

1 The Tavati«sa-dev£ are the gods in the heaven of the 
Great Thirty-Three, the principal deities of the Vedic Pantheon. 
Buddhaghosa says, 'Imam LiAWavi-parisa»* tumhaka/B iittena 
Tstvatiwsa-parisaw? upasawzharatha upanetha alliyapetha : Yath' eva 
hi Tavati/Bsa' abhirupa pasadika niladi-n£na-va»»i evan k' ime 
Li££Aavi-ra^ano plti. Tavatiwsehi samake katva passathS ti attho.' 

2 The Malalaftkara-vatthu gives the substance of the discourse 
on this occasion. ' The princes had come in their finest and richest 
dress ; in their appearance they vied in beauty with the nats (or 
angels). But foreseeing the ruin and misery that was soon to come 
upon them all, the Buddha exhorted his disciples to entertain a 
thorough contempt for things that are dazzling to the eyes, but 
essentially perishable and unreal in their nature.' — Bigandet, 2nd 
ed. p. 260. 



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II. MAHA-PARINIBBANA-SUTTA. 33 

Then the LiiMavis cast up their hands, exclaiming, 
' We are outdone by this mango girl ! we are out- 
reached by this mango girl ! ' And expressing their 
thanks and approval of the words of the Blessed 
One, they rose from their seats and bowed down 
before the Blessed One, and keeping him on their 
right hand as they past him, they departed thence. 

23. And at the end of the night Ambapali the 
courtezan made ready in her mansion sweet rice 
and cakes, and announced the time to the Blessed 
One, saying, ' The hour, Lord, has come, and the 
meal is ready!' 

And the Blessed One robed himself early in the 
morning, and took his bowl, and went with the 
brethren to the place where Ambapali's dwelling- 
house was : and when he had come there he seated 
himself on the seat prepared for him. And Ambapali 
the courtezan set the sweet rice and cakes before the 
order, with the Buddha at their head, and waited 
upon them till they refused any more. 

24. And when the Blessed One had quite finished 
his meal, the courtezan had a low stool brought, and 
sat down at his side, and addressed the Blessed One, 
and said : ' Lord, I present this mansion to the order 
of mendicants, of which the Buddha is the chief.' 
And the Blessed One accepted the gift ; and after 
instructing, and rousing, and inciting, and gladden- 
ing her with religious discourse, he rose from his 
seat and departed thence 1 . 

1 Bishop Bigandet says : ' In recording the conversion of a 
courtezan named Apapalika, her liberality and gifts to Budha and 
his disciples, and the preference designedly given to her over 
princes and nobles, who, humanely speaking, seemed in every 
respect better entitled to attentions — one is almost reminded of 

[11] D 



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34 THE BOOK OF THE GREAT DECEASE. CH. 

25. While at Ambapali's mango grove the Blessed 
One held that comprehensive religious discourse 
with the disciples on the nature of upright conduct, 
and of earnest contemplation, and of intelligence. 

' Great is the fruit, great the advantage of earnest 
contemplation when set round with upright conduct. 
Great is the fruit, great the advantage of intellect 
when set round with earnest contemplation. The 
mind set round with intelligence is freed from the 
great evils, that is to say, from sensuality, from 
individuality, from delusion, and from ignorance.' 



26. Now when the Blessed One had remained 
as long as he wished at Ambapali's grove, he 
addressed Ananda, and said : ' Come, Ananda, let 
us go on to Beluva 1 .' 

' So be it, Lord,' said Ananda, in assent, to the 
Blessed One. 

Then the Blessed One proceeded, with a great 
company of the brethren, to Beluva, and there the 
Blessed One stayed in the village itself. 



27. Now the Blessed One there addressed the 
brethren, and said : * O mendicants, do you take up 
your abode round about Vesali, each according to 
the place where his friends, intimates, and close 
companions may live, for the rainy season of vassa. 
I shall enter upon the rainy season here at Beluva.' 

the conversion of " a woman that was a sinner," mentioned in the 
Gospels ' (Legend of the Burmese Budha, 2nd ed. p. 258). 

1 Beluva-gamakotiVesali-samtpe pada-gamako, 'a vil- 
lage on a slope at the foot of a hill near Vesali,' says Buddhaghosa. 
(S.V. feu.) 



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II. MAHA-PARINIBBANA-SUTTA. 35 

' So be it, Lord ! ' said those brethren, in assent, 
to the Blessed One. And they entered upon the 
rainy season round about Vesali, each according 
to the place where his friends or intimates or close 
companions lived : whilst the Blessed One stayed 
even there at Beluva. 



28. Now when the Blessed One had thus entered 
upon the rainy season, there fell upon him a dire 
sickness, and sharp pains came upon him, even unto 
death. But the Blessed One, mindful and self- 
possessed, bore them without complaint. 

29. Then this thought occurred to the Blessed 
One, ' It would not be right for me to pass away 
from existence without addressing the disciples, 
without taking leave of the order. Let me now, 
by a strong effort of the will, bend this sickness 
down again, and keep my hold on life till the 
allotted time be come 1 .' 

30. And the Blessed One, by a strong effort of 
the will, bent that sickness down again, and kept 
his hold on life till the time he fixed upon should 
come. And the sickness abated upon him. 



31. Now very soon after the Blessed One began 
to recover ; when he had quite got rid of the sick- 
ness, he went out from the monastery, and sat down 
behind the monastery on a seat spread out there. 
And the venerable Ananda went to the place where 
the Blessed One was, and saluted him, and took 
a seat respectfully on one side, and addressed the 

1 The commentary on^fvita-sahkharawadhitthaya viha- 
reyyan is not quite clear, but the general meaning of the words 
cannot be very different from the version given in the text. 

D 2 



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36 THE BOOK OF THE GREAT DECEASE. CH. 

Blessed One, and said : ' I have beheld, Lord, how 
the Blessed One was in health, and I have beheld 
how the Blessed One had to suffer. And though 
at the sight of the sickness of the Blessed One my 
body became weak as a creeper, and the horizon 
became dim to me, and my faculties were no longer 
clear 1 , yet notwithstanding I took some little comfort 
from the thought that the Blessed One would not 
pass away from existence until at least he had left 
instructions as touching the order.' 

2,2. 'What, then, Ananda? Does the. order ex- 
pect that of me ? I have preached the truth without 
making any distinction between exoteric and esote- 
ric doctrine : for in respect of the truths, Ananda, the 
Tathagata has no such thing as the closed fist of 
a teacher, who keeps some things back 2 . Surely, 
Ananda, should there be any one who harbours the 
thought, "It is I who will lead the brotherhood," 
or, "The order is dependent upon me," it is he who 

1 Madhuraka-^Sto viya ti saw^-Sta-garubhavo saw^a- 
ta/Mabhavo (sic) sule uttasita-sadiso: na pakkhiyantt 
ti na pakisenti nanakarawa na upa/Mahanti: Dhamma 
pi maw na ppa/ibhantf ti sati-ppa/Mana dhamma may- 
haw paka/a na honti. (S. V. fol. /am.) As the first clause is 
corrupt, I have translated madhuraka-^ato independently of it. 
Childers's reading nam na ppa/ibhanti is clearly incorrect My 
own MS. of the Dtgha Nikaya and the Tumour MS. of the Sam- 
)Utta Nikaya agree with Buddhaghosa. 

2 Na tatth' Ananda Tathagatassa dhammesu 4£ariya- 
mu/Mi; on which Buddhaghosa says, A£ariya-mu//M (MS. vu/Wi) 
ti yatha bahirakanaw a£ariya-mu//^i nSma hoti : dahara- 
kaie kassa^i akathe.tvS pa££Aima-kale mara«a-maw£e 
nipannft piya-manapassa antevasikassa kathenti: evam Ta- 
thagatassa idaw mahallaka-kale pa££^ima-//Mne kathes- 
sam! ti xaulth'im (MS. vutthim) katva pariharitva Mapitaw 
ki«£i n' atthf ti. (S. V. /am.) Comp. Gataka II, 221, 250. 



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II. MAHA-PARINIBBANA-SUTTA. 37 

should lay down instructions in any matter concern- 
ing the order. Now the Tathagata, Ananda, thinks 
not that it is he who should lead the brotherhood, or 
that the order is dependent upon him. Why then 
should he leave instructions in any matter concern- 
ing the order ? I too, O Ananda, am now grown 
old, and full of years, my journey is drawing to 
its close, I have reached my sum of days, I am 
turning eighty years of age ; and just as a worn-out 
cart, Ananda, can only with much additional care 
be made to move along, so, methinks, the body 
of the Tathagata can only be kept going with 
much additional care \ It is only, Ananda, when 



1 Vegha-missakena, the meaning of which is not clear. The 
Malalankira-vatthu, as rendered by Bigandet, has ' repairs.' The 
SumangalaVilasinisays.Veghamissakena ti baha-bandhana- 
£akka-bandhanSdina' pa/isaftkhara»enaveghamissakena; 
thus giving the same meaning, but in such a way as to throw no light 
on the derivation of the word. The whole episode from § II, 2 7 to the 
end of the chapter occurs also word for word in the Satipa//Aana 
Vagga of the Sawyutta Nikdya, and the Burmese Phayre MS. 
there reads vekhamissakena, as the Burmese MS. does here. 
My Dtgha Nikaya confirms Childers's reading, which no doubt 
correctly represents the uniform tradition of the Ceylon MSS. 
The Sumangala VMsint goes on, mawwe ti ^ara-saka/aw? 
viya meghamissakena marine ylpeti arahatta-phala- 
veghanena ^atu-iriydpatha-kappanaw Tathdgatassa 
hoti nidasseti. Here the reading megha of the Tumour MS. 
must be a copyist's slip of the pen for vegha, and veghanena 
is no clearer than veghamissakena. On the use of the 
word missaka at the end of a compound see (rataka II, 8, 
420, 433. I have translated on what seems to me the only solu- 
tion at present possible, namely, that an initial a has been dropt, 
and that veghi or vekha = avekshi, ' attention, foresight, care.' 
In the same way though avalaw^eti does occur (G&taka I, in), 
the more usual form in Pali, and the only one given by Childers, 
is valaw^eti. 



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38 THE BOOK OF THE GREAT DECEASE. CH. 

the Tathagata, ceasing to attend to any outward 
thing, or to experience any sensation, becomes 
plunged in that devout meditation of heart which is 
concerned with no material object — it is only then 
that the body of the Tathagata is at ease. 

33. 'Therefore, O Ananda, be ye lamps unto your- 
selves. Be ye a refuge to yourselves. Betake 
yourselves to no external refuge. Hold fast to the 
truth as a lamp. Hold fast as a refuge to the truth. 
Look not for refuge to any one besides yourselves. 
And how, Ananda, is a brother to be a lamp unto 
himself, a refuge to himself, betaking himself to no 
external refuge, holding fast to the truth as a lamp, 
holding fast as a refuge to the truth, looking not 
for refuge to any one besides himself? 

34. ' Herein, O Ananda, let a brother, as he dwells 
in the body, so regard the body that he, being 
strenuous, thoughtful, and mindful, may, whilst in 
the world, overcome the grief which arises from 
bodily craving — while subject to sensations let him 
continue so to regard the sensations that he, being 
strenuous, thoughtful, and mindful, may, whilst in 
the world, overcome the grief which arises from the 
sensations — and so, also, as he thinks, or reasons, 
or feels, let him overcome the grief which arises 
from the craving due to ideas, or to reasoning, or 
to feeling. 

35. 'And whosoever, Ananda, either now or after 
I am dead, shall be a lamp unto themselves, and a 
refuge unto themselves, shall betake themselves to 
no external refuge, but holding fast to the truth 
as their lamp, and holding fast as their refuge to 
the truth, shall look not for refuge to any one 
besides themselves — it is they, Ananda, among my 



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II. MAHA-PARINIBBANA-SUTTA. 39 

bhikkhus, who shall reach the very topmost 
Height! — but they must be anxious to learn 1 .' 



End of the Second Portion for Recitation. 



1 Tamatagge me te Ananda bhikkhu bhavissanti ye ke£i 
sikkh£k£ma\ The Burmese MSS. for me te read p'ete, which 
is a little easier. Buddhaghosa says, Tamatagge ti tamagge. 
MaggAe takiro padasandhivasena vutto. Ida« vuttaw 
hoti ime aggatami ime aggam£ ti: evaw sabbaw tama- 
yogam ^Ainditva ativiya agge uttama-bhave te Ananda 
mamaw bhikkhu bhavissanti. Kesa*» ati-agge bhavis- 
santi? Ye ke£i sikkh&kama sabbesaw? te £atu-sati-ppa/- 
/Mna-go£ara ka, bhikkhu agge bhavissanti ti. Arahatta- 
tiku/ena desa«am ga«hati, 'Tamatagge is for tamagge. 
The t in the middle is used for euphony. This word means, 
"these are the most pre-eminent, the very chief." Having, as 
above stated, broken every bond of darkness (tama) those bhikkhus 
of mine, Ananda, will be at the very top, in the highest condition. 
They will be at the very top of whom ? Those bhikkhus who are 
willing to learn, and those who exercise themselves in the four 
ways of being mindful and thoughtful, they shall be at the top of 
all (the rest). Thus does he make Arahatship the three-peaked 
height of his discourse' (compare on this last phrase Nibbanena 
desanaku/aw gawhati, Gataka I, 275, 393, 401; and see also 
I, 114). Uttama, the highest (scil. bh&va, condition), is used abso- 
lutely of Arahatship or Nirva«a at G&taka I, 96; Aggaphala 
occurs in the same sense at G&taka I, 114; and even Phalagga 
at Mah. 102. The last words, 'but they must be anxious to learn,' 
seem to me to be an after thought It is only those who are 
thoroughly determined to work out their own salvation, without 
looking for safety to any one else, even to the Buddha himself, who 
will, whilst in the world, enter into and experience Nirvdwa. But, 
of course, let there be no mistake, merely to reject the vain baubles 
of the current superstitious beliefs is not enough. There is plenty 
to learn and to acquire, of which enough discourse is elsewhere. 
For aggamt in the comment we must read aggatamS. If one 
could read amatagge in the text, all difficulty would vanish ; but 
this would be too bold, and neither do I see how the use of 
anamatagge can help us. 



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40 THE BOOK OF THE GREAT DECEASE. CH. 



Chapter III. 

i 1 . Now the Blessed One robed himself early in 
the morning, and taking his bowl in the robe, 
went into Vesali for alms, and when he returned he 
sat down on the seat prepared for him, and after 
he had finished eating the rice he addressed the 
venerable Ananda, and said : ' Take up the mat, 
Ananda ; I will go to spend the day at the A'apala 
A'etiya.' 

'So be it, Lord!' said the venerable Ananda, in 
assent, to the Blessed One. And taking up the mat 
he followed step for step behind the Blessed One. 

2. So the Blessed One proceeded to the .ATapala 
Aetiya, and when he had come there he sat down 
on the mat spread out for him, and the venerable 
Ananda took his seat respectfully beside him. Then 
the Blessed One addressed the venerable Ananda, 
and said : ' How delightful a spot, Ananda, is Vesali, 
and the Udena A'etiya, and the Gotamaka Aetiya, 
and the Sattambaka -ATetiya, and the Bahuputta 
Aetiya, and the Sarandada Aetiya, and the A^pala 
Aietiya. 

3. ' Ananda ! whosoever has thought out, deve- 
loped, practised, accumulated, and ascended to the 
very heights of the four paths to Iddhi 2 , and so 

1 The whole of this passage down to the end of § 10 recurs in 
the Iddhipada Vagga of the Sawyutta Nikaya. 

8 Iddhi. The four paths are, 1. will, 2. effort, 3. thought, 
and 4. investigation, each united to earnest thought and the 
struggle against sin. The Iddhi reached by them is supposed in 
works on Buddhism to be a bodily condition (power of flying, &c), 
by which the body rose superior to all the ordinary limitations of 



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III. MAHA-PARINIBBANA-SUTTA. 4 1 

mastered them as to be able to use them as a 
means of (mental) advancement, and as a basis for 
edification, he, should he- desire it, could remain in 
the same birth for a kalpa, or for that portion of the 
kalpa which had yet to run. Now the Tathagata 
has thought them out, and thoroughly practised and 
developed them [in all respects as just more fully 
described], and he could, therefore, should he desire 
it, live on yet for a kalpa, or for that portion of the 
kalpa which has yet to run.' 

4. But even though a suggestion so evident and 
a hint so clear were thus given by the Blessed One, 
the venerable Ananda was incapable of comprehend- 
ing them ; and he besought not the Blessed One, 
saying, 'Vouchsafe, Lord, to remain during the 
kalpa ! Live on through the kalpa, O Blessed One ! 
for the good and the happiness of the great multi- 
tudes, out of pity for the world, for the good and 
the gain and the weal of gods and men ! ' So far 
was his heart possessed by the Evil One \ 

matter — a bodily condition corresponding to the mental condition 
of exaltation and power by which it was reached. On this curiously 
perverted exaggeration of the real influence of the mind over the 
body see, further, the translator's 'Buddhism,' pp. 174-177. Two 
of the string of participles — y&nikat£, which may possibly mean 
'made use of as a vehicle,' and susam&raddha, 'most thoroughly 
ascended up to' — might seem to allude to Iddhi as a power of 
flying bodily through the air. But the whole set of participles 
is used elsewhere of conditions of mind highly esteemed among 
the Buddhists, and incapable of giving support to any such 
allusion. So, for instance, of universal love (mettd) at Gataka 
II, 61. 

1 YathS tarn Marena pariyu/Mita^itto. Here turn is the 
indeclinable particle, yathi ta.m introducing an explanation. My 
MS. of the Digha Nikaya and the Tumour MS. of the Sumangala 
Vilasini read pariz>u/A4ita, and either spelling is correct. The 



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42 THE BOOK OF THE GREAT DECEASE. CH. 

5. A second and a third time did the Blessed One 
[say the same thing, and a second and a third time 
was Ananda's heart thus hardened]. 

6. Now the Blessed One addressed the venera- 
ble Ananda, and said : ' You may leave me, Ananda, 
awhile, and do whatever seemeth to thee fit.' 

' So be it, Lord ! ' said the venerable Ananda, in 
assent, to the Blessed, and rising from his seat he 
saluted the Blessed One, and passing him on the 
right, sat down at the foot of a certain tree not 
far off thence. 

7. Now not long after the venerable Ananda 
had been gone, Mara, the Evil One, approached the 
Blessed One, and stood beside him. And so stand- 
ing there, he addressed the Blessed One in these 
words : 

' Pass away now, Lord, from existence ; let the 
Blessed One now die. Now is the time for the 
Blessed One to pass away — even according to the 

fact is that the_y or v in such cases is even less than euphonic ; it 
is an assistance not to the speaker, but merely to the writer. Thus 
in the Sinhalese duwanawi, 'to run,' the spoken word is du- 
anawS, and the w is written only to avoid the awkward use in 
the middle of a word of the initial sign for the sound a. That the 
speakers of Pali found no difficulty in pronouncing two vowels 
together is abundantly proved by numerous instances. The 
writers of Pali, in those cases in which the second vowel begins a 
word, use without hesitation the initial sign ; but in the middle of 
the word this would be so ungainly that they naturally prefer to 
insert a consonantal sign to carry the vowel sign. The varying 
readings I have pointed out are a strong confirmation of the cor- 
rectness of the pronunciation of modern native scholars ; and we 
may the more readily adopt it as the question is not really one 
concerning the pronunciation of Pali, but concerning the use which 
modern native copyists make of their own alphabet. I would pro- 
nounce therefore pari-u//Aita-£itto. 



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III. MAHA-PARINIBBANA-SUTTA. 43 

word which the Blessed One spoke when he said * : 
" I shall not die, O Evil One ! until the brethren 
and sisters of the order, and until the lay-disciples 
of either sex 2 shall have become true hearers, wise 
and well-trained, ready and learned, versed in the 
Scriptures, fulfilling all the greater and the lesser 
duties, correct in life, walking according to the pre- 
cepts — until they, having thus themselves learned 
the doctrine, shall be able to tell others of it, preach 
it, make it known, establish it, open it, minutely ex- 
plain it and make it clear — until they, when others 
start vain doctrine, shall be able by the truth to 
vanquish and refute it, and so to spread the wonder- 
working truth abroad ! " ' 

8. 'And now, Lord, the brethren and sisters of the 
order and the lay-disciples of either sex have be- 
come [all this], are able to do [all this]. Pass away 
now therefore, Lord, from existence ; let the Blessed 
One now die ! The time has come for the Blessed 
One to pass away — even according to the word 
which he spake when he said, " I shall not die, O 
Evil One! until this pure religion of mine shall 
have become successful, prosperous, widespread, and 
popular in all its full extent — until, in a word, 
it shall have been well proclaimed to men." And 
now, Lord, this pure religion of thine has become 
[all this]. Pass away now therefore, Lord, from 

1 The words here quoted were spoken by the Buddha, after he 
had been enjoying the first bliss of Nirvawa, under the shepherd's 
Nigrodha tree (see my 'Buddhist Birth Stories,' pp. 109-1 1 1). The 
Evil One then also tempted him to die (see below, paragraph III, 
43), and this was his reply. 

a The whole paragraph is repeated, here and below, for each of 
these classes of persons. 



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44 THE BOOK OF THE GREAT DECEASE. CIT. 

existence ; let the Blessed One now die ! The time 
has come for the Blessed One to pass away !' 

9. And when he had thus spoken, the Blessed 
One addressed Mara, the Evil One, and said : ' O 
Evil One ! make thyself happy, the final extinction 
of the Tathagata shall take place before long. At 
the end of three months from this time the Tathd- 
gata will die ! ' 

10. Thus the Blessed One while at the Aapala 
Aetiya deliberately and consciously rejected the rest 
of his allotted sum of life. And on his so rejecting it 
there arose a mighty earthquake, awful and terrible, 
and the thunders of heaven burst forth. And when 
the Blessed One beheld this, he broke out at that 
time into this hymn of exultation : 

' His sum of life the sage renounced, 
The cause of life immeasurable or small ; 
With inward joy and calm, he broke, 
Like coat of mail, his life's own cause ! ' 



n. Now the following thought occurred to the 
venerable Ananda : ' Wonderful indeed and marvel- 
lous is it that this mighty earthquake should arise, 
awful and terrible, and that the thunders of heaven 
should burst forth ! What may be the proximate, 
what the remote cause of the appearance of this 
earthquake ? ' 

12. Then the venerable Ananda went up to the 
place where the Blessed One was, and did obeisance 
to the Blessed One, and seated himself respectfully 
at one side, and said : ' Wonderful indeed and mar- 
vellous is it that this mighty earthquake should 
arise, awful and terrible, and that the thunders of 



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in. mahA-parinibbAna-sutta. 45 

heaven should burst forth I What may be the 
proximate, what the remote cause of the appearance 
of this earthquake ?' 

13. 'Eight are the proximate, eight the remote 
causes, Ananda, for the appearance of a mighty 
earthquake. What are the eight? This great 
earth, Ananda, is established on water, the water on 
wind, and the wind rests upon space. And at such 
a time, Ananda, as the mighty winds blow, the 
waters are shaken by the mighty winds as they 
blow, and by the moving water the earth is shaken. 
These are the first causes, proximate and remote, 
of the appearance of a mighty earthquake. 

14. 'Again, Ananda, a Sama«a or a Brahman of 
great (intellectual) power, and who has the feelings 
of his heart well under his control ; or a god or fairy 
(devata 1 ) of great might and power, — when such a 

1 DevatS is a fairy, god, genius, or angel. I am at a loss how 
to render this word without conveying an erroneous impression 
to those not familiar with ancient ideas, and specially with ancient 
Buddhist ideas, of the spirit world. It includes gods of all sorts ; 
tree and river nymphs; the kindly fairies or ghosts who haunt 
houses (see my ' Buddhist Birth Stories,' Tale No. 40) ; spirits in 
the ground (see above, §1, a 6); the angels who minister at the great 
renunciation, the temptation, and the death of the Buddha ; the 
guardian angels who watch over men, and towns, and countries ; 
and many other similar beings. ' Celestial being ' would be wholly 
inapplicable, for instance, to the creatures referred to in the curious 
passage above (§1, 26). 'Superhuman being' would be an inaccu- 
rate rendering ; for all these light and airy shapes come below, and 
after, man in the Buddhist order of precedence. ' Spirit ' being 
used of the soul inside the human body, and of the human soul 
after it has left the body, and figuratively of mental faculties — none 
of which are included under devata* — would suggest ideas incon- 
sistent with that of the P&li word. As there is therefore no appro- 
priate general word I have chosen, for each passage where the 
expression occurs, the word used in English of the special class 



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46 THE BOOK OF THE GREAT DECEASE. CH. 

one by intense meditation of the finite idea of earth 
or the infinite idea of water (has succeeded in 
realising the comparative value of things *) he can 
make this earth move and tremble and be shaken 
violently. These are the second causes, proximate 
or remote, of the appearance of a mighty earth- 
quake. 

1 5. 'Again, Ananda, when a Bodhisatta consciously 
and deliberately leaves his temporary form in the 
heaven of delight and descends into his mother's 
womb, then is this earth made to quake and tremble 
and is shaken violently. These are the third causes, 
proximate or remote, of the appearance of a mighty 
earthquake 2 . 

more particularly referred to in the passage of the text Here all 
kinds of devatds being referred to, and there being no word in 
English for them all, I have ventured to put the word devatS into 
my version, and to trouble the reader with this note. 

1 Yassa parittd paMavi-saima bhavitd hoti appam&aa 
iposanwS, on which Buddhaghosa says simply, Paritta - ti dub- 
bald: appamdwa' ti balav£, and then goes on, as a note to 
kampeti, to tell a long story how Sangharakkhita S&mawera, the 
nephew of N&ga Thera, attained Arahatship on the day of his 
admission to the order; and at once proceeded to heaven, and 
standing on the pinnacle of the palace of the king of the gods, 
shook the whole place with his big toe ; to the great consternation 
and annoyance of the exalted dwellers therein! There is no 
doubt a real truth in the idea that deep thought can shake the 
universe, and make the palaces of the gods to tremble, just as faith 
is said in Matthew xxi. 21 to be able to remove mountains, and 
cause them to be cast into the sea. But these figurative expressions 
have, in Buddhism, become a fruitful soil for the outgrowth of 
superstitions and misunderstandings ; and the train of early Bud- 
dhist speculation in this field has yet to be elucidated. There is 
much about it in the Mahi PadhSna Sutta of the Digha NikSya, 
where Chap. Ill, §§ 1 1-20 recur. 

2 The Bodhisatta's voluntary incarnation is looked upon by the 
Buddhists as a great act of renunciation, and curious legends have 



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III. MAHA-PARINIBBANA-SUTTA. 47 

16. 'Again, Ananda, when a Bodhisatta deliberately 
and consciously quits his mother's womb, then the 
earth quakes and trembles and is shaken violently. 
This is the fourth cause, proximate and remote, of 
the appearance of a mighty earthquake. 

17. 'Again, Ananda, when a Tathagata arrives 
at the supreme and perfect enlightenment, then this 
earth quakes and trembles and is shaken violently. 

gathered about it. One is that on the night when she conceived 
his mother dreamt that a white elephant entered her side. The 
account will be found at length in my 'Buddhist Birth Stories' (pp. 
62-64), and the earthquake is there mentioned in terms identical 
with those in the text. The sacred event is also one of those 
represented on the ancient bas-reliefs round the Bharhut Thupa, a 
full description of which will be found in General Cunningham's 
most interesting work, ' The Stupa of Bharhut' General Cunning- 
ham says of the description placed above this sculpture : ' Above it 
in large characters is inscribed Bhagavato rukdanta, which may 
perhaps be translated, " Buddha as the sounding elephant," from ru, 
to sound, to make a particular sort of sound.' Now the first word 
of the inscription is in the genitive case, so that if the second word 
could mean an elephant, the whole would signify, ' The Buddha's 
elephant.' But the characters which General Cunningham reads 
rfikdanta are, I venture to suggest, okkanti (? tikkanti); and the 
inscription simply says, 'The descent of the blessed One.' As 
I have pointed out in 'Buddhism' (p. 184), the white elephant 
legend is one of those hallowed sun stories by which half-con- 
verted Hindus have striven to embellish the life story of the 
Teacher whose followers they had become. In the LalitaVistara 
(Calc. ed. p. 63) the entrance of the elephant into Mayd precedes 
the dream ; but though the ignorant may have therefore accepted 
it as a fact, it is of course only a figure of speech — and I venture 
to think from the Hindu standpoint, a beautiful figure of speech — 
to express the incarnation of divine mildness and majesty in a 
human form. The use of such a figure is not confined to India. 
In the earliest of the Apocryphal Gospels, the Gospel according to 
the Hebrews, the incarnation of the divine gentleness and love is 
expressed by saying that a dove from heaven ' entered into ' the 
human form. 



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48 THE BOOK OF THE GREAT DECEASE. CH. 

This is the fifth cause, proximate and remote, of the 
appearance of a mighty earthquake. 

1 8. 'Again, Ananda, when a Tathagata founds the 
sublime kingdom of righteousness, then this earth 
quakes and trembles and is shaken violently. This 
is the sixth cause, proximate and remote, of the 
appearance of a mighty earthquake. 

19. 'Again, Ananda, when a Tathagata consciously 
and deliberately rejects the remainder of his life, 
then this earth quakes and trembles and is shaken 
violently. This is the seventh cause, proximate and 
remote, of the appearance of a mighty earthquake. 

20. ' Again, Ananda, when a Tathagata passes 
entirely away with that utter passing away in 
which nothing whatever is left behind, then this 
earth quakes and trembles and is shaken violently. 
This is the eighth cause, proximate and remote, of 
the appearance of a mighty earthquake. 



21. 'Now of eight kinds, Ananda, are these as- 
semblies. Which are the eight 1 ? Assemblies of 
nobles, Brahma»as, householders, and Sama»as, and 
the angel hosts of the Guardian Angels, the Great 
Thirty-Three, Mara, and Brahma. 

22. ' Now I call to mind, Ananda, how when I 
used to enter into an assembly of many hundred 
nobles, before I had seated myself there or talked to 
them or started a conversation with them, I used to 
become in colour like unto their colour, and in voice 
like unto their voice. Then with religious discourse 

1 The connection, or rather want of connection, between this 
and the last paragraph seems to me to be very suggestive as to the 
way in which the Sutta was composed. The narrative is resumed 
at paragraph III, 43. On vanishing away, comp. I, 33. 



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III. MAHA-PARINIBBANA-SUTTA. 49 

I used to instruct, incite, and quicken them, and fill 
them with gladness. But they knew me not when 
I spoke, and would say, "Who may this be who thus 
speaks? a man or a god?" Then having instructed, 
incited, quickened, and gladdened them with reli- 
gious discourse, I would vanish away. But they 
knew me not , even when I vanished away ; and 
would say, "Who may this be who has thus vanished 
away ? a man or a god ?" ' 

23. [And in the same words the Blessed One 
spake of how he had been used to enter into assem- 
blies of each of the other of the eight kinds, and of 
how he had not been made known to them either in 
speaking or in vanishing away.] ' Now these, Ananda, 
are the eight assemblies.' 



24. ' Now these, Ananda, are the eight positions 
of jmastery [over the delusion arising from the 
apparent permanence of external things 1 ]. What 
are the eight ? 

1 Abhibhayatani ti abhibhavanakarawini. Kim abhi- 
bhavanti? Pa££anika-dhamme pi arammawani pi: tani 
hi pa/ipakkha-bhavena pa££anika-dhamme abhibhavanti 
puggalassa wanuttaritaya aramma»Sni, says Buddhaghosa. 
(Sum.Vil. thl) 

This and the next paragraph are based upon the Buddhist 
belief as to the long-vexed question between the Indian schools who 
represented more or less closely the European Idealists and Realists. 
When cleared of the many repetitions inserted for the benefit of 
the repeaters or reciters, the fundamental idea seems to be that the 
great necessity is to get rid of the delusion that what one sees 
and feels is real and permanent. Nothing is real and permanent 
but character. 

The so-called eight Positions of Mastery are merely an expan- 
sion of the first two of the following eight Stages of Deliverance, t- 
and the whole argument is also expressed in another form in the 

[11] E 



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50 THE BOOK OF THE GREAT DECEASE. CH. 

25. ' When a man having subjectively the idea of 
form sees externally forms which are finite, and 
pleasant or unpleasant to the sight, and having mas- 
tered them, is conscious that he knows and sees — 
this is the first position of mastery. 

26. ' When a man having subjectively the idea of 
form sees externally forms which are boundless, and 
pleasant or unpleasant to the sight, and having mas- 
tered them, is conscious that he knows and sees — 
this is the second position of mastery. 

27. ' When a man without the subjective idea of 
form sees externally forms which are finite, and plea- 
sant or unpleasant to the sight, and having mastered 
them, is conscious that he knows and sees — this is 
the third position of mastery. 

28. ' When a man without the subjective idea of 
form sees externally forms which are bo undle ss, 
and pleasant or unpleasant to the sight, and having 
mastered them, is conscious that he knows and sees 
— this is the fourth position of mastery. 

29. ' When a man without the subjective idea of 
form sees externally forms that are blue in colour, 
blue in appearance, and reflecting blue, — just, for 

passage on the nine successive ' Cessations,' of which an abstract 
will be found in Childers, sub voce nirodha. 

The two lists have been translated and commented upon by 
Burnouf (Lotus de la Bonne Loi, pp. 543, 824-832), who took 
the texts from the Mahinidina Sutta and the Sangiti Sutta 
respectively. The former has been reprinted in Grimblot's Sept 
Suttas Palis, where the passage will be found at pp. 261, 262. I 
regret that in my interpretation I have been compelled to differ 
so greatly from Burnouf. Though I have devoted much care and 
time to the subject, I do not suppose that I have understood it 
better than he did. We cannot hope to get to the bottom of 
what these old Buddhists thought about matter and mind from 
such curt lists as these. 



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III. MAHA-PARINIBBANA-SUTTA. 5 1 

instance, as the Umma flower is blue in colour, blue 
in appearance, and reflecting blue ; or, again, as that 
fine muslin of Benares which, on whichever side you 
look at it, is blue in colour, blue in appearance, and 
reflecting blue, — when a man without the subjective 
idea of form sees externally forms which, just in 
that way, are blue, blue in colour, blue in appearance, 
and reflecting blue, and having mastered them, is 
conscious that he knows and sees — that is the fifth 
position of mastery.' 

30-32. [The sixth, seventh, and eighth positions 
of mastery are explained in words identical with 
those used to explain the fifth ; save that yellow, red, 
and white are respectively substituted throughout for 
blue ; and the Kawikira flower, the Bandhu-^ivaka 
flower, and the morning star are respectively substi- 
tuted for the Umma flower, as the first of the two 
objects given as examples.] 



33. 'Now these stages of deliverance, Ananda 
[from the hindrance to thought arising from the 
sensations and ideas due to external forms 1 ], are 
eight in number. Which are the eight ? 

34. 'A man possessed with the idea of form sees 
forms — this is the first stage of deliverance. 

35. 'Without the subjective idea of form, he sees 
forms externally — this is the second stage of deli- 
verance. 

1 These are the A //A a Vimokkha. Buddhaghosa has no com- 
ment upon them ; merely saying, ' The passage on the Vimokkhas 
is easy to understand ' — which is tantalizing. The last five Vi- 
mokkhas occur again below, in Chap. VI, §§ 11-13, where it is clear 
that they are used to express the progress through deep meditation, 
into absent-mindedness, abstraction, and being sunk in thought, 
until finally the thinker falls into actual trance. 

E 2 



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52 THE BOOK OF THE GREAT DECEASE. CH. 

36. ' With the thought " it is well," he becomes 
intent (upon what he sees) — this is the third stage 
of deliverance. 

37. 'By passing quite beyond all idea of form, by 
putting an end to all idea of resistance, by paying 
no attention to the idea of distinction, he, thinking 
" it is all infinite space," reaches (mentally) and re- 
mains in the state of mind in which the idea of the 
infinity of space is the only idea that is present — 
this is the fourth stage of deliverance. 

38. 'By passing quite beyond all idea of space 
being the infinite basis, he, thinking " it is all infinite 
reason," reaches (mentally) and remains in the state 
of mind to which the infinity of reason is alone 
present — this is the fifth stage of deliverance. 

39. ' By passing quite beyond the mere conscious- 
ness of the infinity of reason, he, thinking " nothing 
at all exists," reaches (mentally) and remains in the 
state of mind to which nothing at all is specially 
present — this is the sixth stage of deliverance. 

40. ' By passing quite beyond all idea of nothing- 
ness he reaches (mentally) and remains in the state 
of mind to which neither ideas nor the absence of 
ideas are specially present — this is the seventh stage 
of deliverance. 

41. ' By passing quite beyond the state of "neither 
ideas nor the absence of ideas " he reaches (men- 
tally) and remains in the state of mind in which 
both sensations and ideas have ceased to be — this 
is the eighth stage of deliverance. 

42. ' Now these, Ananda, are the eight stages of 
deliverance. 

43. ' On one occasion, Ananda, I was resting under 
the shepherd's Nigrodha tree on the bank of the 



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III. MAHA-PARINIBBANA-SUTTA. 53 

river Neraw^ara immediately after having reached 
the great enlightenment. Then Mara, the Evil 
One, came, Ananda, to the place where I was, 
and standing beside me he addressed me in the 
words : "Pass away now, Lord, from existence! Let 
the Blessed One now die ! Now is the time for 
the Blessed One to pass away ! " 

44. 'And when he had thus spoken, Ananda, I 
addressed Mara, the Evil One, and said : " I shall 
not die, O Evil One ! until not only the brethren 
and sisters of the order, but also the lay-disciples 
of either sex shall have become true hearers, wise 
and well-trained, ready and learned, versed in the 
Scriptures, fulfilling all the greater and the lesser 
duties, correct in life, walking according to the pre- 
cepts — until they, having thus themselves learned 
the doctrine, shall be able to tell others of it, preach 
it, make it known, establish it, open it, minutely ex- 
plain it and make it clear — until they, when others 
start vain doctrine, shall be able by the truth to 
vanquish and refute it, and so to spread the wonder- 
working truth abroad ! 

45. ' " I shall not die until this pure religion of 
mine shall have become successful, prosperous, 
wide-spread, and popular in all its full extent — 
until, in a word, it shall have been well proclaimed 
among men ! " 

46. 'And now again to-day, Ananda, at theTiTapala 
A'etiya, Mara, the Evil One, came to the place where 
I was, and standing beside me addressed me [in the 
same words]. 

47. ' And when he had thus spoken, Ananda, 
I answered him and said: " Make thyself happy, the 
final extinction of the Tathagata shall take place 



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54 THE BOOK OF THE GREAT DECEASE. CH. 

before long. At the end of three months from this 
time the Tathagata will die !" 

48. 'Thus, Ananda, the Tathagata has now 
to-day at the Afapala Ajetiya consciously and deli- 
berately rejected the rest of his allotted term of 
life.' 

49. And when he had thus spoken the venera- 
ble Ananda addressed the Blessed One, and said : 
' Vouchsafe, Lord, to remain during the kalpa ! 
live on through the kalpa, O Blessed One ! for the 
good and the happiness of the great multitudes, out 
of pity for the world, for the good and the gain and 
the weal of gods and men !' 

50. ' Enough now, Ananda, beseech not the Ta- 
thagata!' was the reply. 'The time for making 
such request is past.' 

51. And again, the second time, the venerable 
Ananda besought the Blessed One [in the same 
words. And he received from the Blessed One the 
same reply]. 

52. And again, the third time, the venerable 
Ananda besought the Blessed One [in the same 
words]. 

53. 'Hast thou faith, Ananda, in the wisdom of 
the Tathagata?' 

' Even so, Lord!' 

' Now why, then, Ananda, dost thou trouble the 
Tathagata even until the third time ?' 

54. ' From his own mouth have I heard from the 
Blessed One, from his own mouth have I received 
this saying, " Whosoever has thought out, Ananda, 
and developed, practised, accumulated, and ascended 
to the very heights of the four paths to saintship, 
and so mastered them as to be able to use them as 



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III. MAHA-PARINIBBANA-SUTTA. 55 

a means of (mental) advancement, and as a basis for 
edification — he, should he desire it, could remain in 
the same birth for a kalpa, or for that portion of a 
kalpa which has yet to run." Now the Tathagata 
has thought out and thoroughly practised them [in 
all respects as just now fully described], and might, 
should he desire it, remain alive for a kalpa, or for 
that portion of a kalpa which has yet to run.' 

55. ' Hast thou faith, Ananda ?' 
' Even so, Lord ! ' 

' Then, O Ananda, thine is the fault, thine is the 
offence — in that when a suggestion so evident and a 
hint so clear were thus given thee by the Tathagata, 
thou wast yet incapable of comprehending them, and 
thou besoughtest not the Tathagata, saying, " Vouch- 
safe, Lord, to remain during the kalpa. Live on, O 
Blessed One ! through the kalpa for the good and 
the happiness of the great multitudes, out of pity 
for the world, for the good and the gain and the 
weal of gods and men." If thou shouldst then have so 
besought the Tathagata, the Tathagata might have 
rejected the appeal even to the second time, but the 
third time he would have granted it. Thine, there- 
fore, O Ananda, is the fault, thine is the offence!' 

56. ' On one occasion, Ananda, I was dwelling at 
Ra^agaha, on the hill called the Vulture's Peak. 
Now there, Ananda, I spoke to thee, and said : 
" How pleasant a spot, Ananda, is Ra^agaha ; how 
pleasant is this Vulture's Peak. Whosoever has 
thought out, Ananda, and developed, practised, accu- 
mulated, and ascended to the very heights of the 
four paths to saintship, and so mastered them as to 
be able to use them as a means of (mental) advance- 
ment, and as a basis for edification — he, should he 



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56 THE BOOK OF THE GREAT DECEASE. CH. 

desire it, could remain in the same birth for a 
kalpa, or for that portion of a kalpa which has yet 
to run. But even when a suggestion so evident and 
a hint so clear were thus given thee by the Tatha- 
gata, thou wast yet incapable of comprehending 
them, and thou besoughtest not the Tathagata, 
saying, ' Vouchsafe, Lord, to remain during the 
kalpa. Live on, O Blessed One ! through the 
kalpa for the good and the happiness of the great 
multitudes, out of pity for the world, for the good 
and the gain and the weal of gods and men.' If 
thou shouldst then have so besought the Tathagata, 
the Tathagata might have rejected the appeal even 
to the second time, but the third time he would 
have granted it. Thine, therefore, O Ananda, is 
the fault, thine is the offence!" 

57. 'On one occasion, Ananda, Iwas dwelling at 
that same Ra^agaha in the Banyan Grove — on one 
occasion at that same Rifagaha at the Robbers' Cliff 
— on one occasion at that same Ra^agaha in the Satta- 
panni cave on the slope of Mount Vebhara — on one 
occasion at that same Ra^agaha at the Black Rock 
on the slope of Mount Isigili — on one occasion at 
that same Ra^agaha in the Sitavana Grove in the 
mountain cave Sappasow^ika — on one occasion at 
that same Ra^agaha in the Tapoda Grove — on one 
occasion at that same Ri^agaha in the Bambu Grove 
in the Squirrels' Feeding Ground — on one occasion 
at that same Ra^agaha in (7tvaka's Mango Grove 
— on one occasion at that same Ra^agaha in the 
Deer Forest at Maddaku^Ai.' 

58. ' Now there too, Ananda, I spoke to thee, 
and said : " How pleasant, Ananda, is Ra^gaha ; 
how pleasant the Vulture's Peak ; how pleasant the 



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lit. MAHA-PARINIBBANA-SUTTA. 57 

Banyan tree of Gotama ; how pleasant the Robbers' 
Cliff; how pleasant the Sattapa«»i cave on the 
slope of Mount Vebhara ; how pleasant the Black 
Rock on the slope of Mount Isigili ; how pleasant 
the mountain cave Sappaso#dfika in the Sitavana 
Grove ; how pleasant the Tapoda Grove ; how plea- 
sant the Squirrels' Feeding Ground in the Bambu 
Grove ; how pleasant £lvaka's Mango Grove ; how 
pleasant the Deer Forest at Maddaku£64i ! 

59. ' " Whosoever, Ananda, has thought out and 
developed, practised, accumulated, and ascended 
to the Very heights of the four paths to saintship, 
and so mastered them as to be able to use them as 
a means of (mental) advancement and as a basis for 
edification — he, should he desire it, could remain in 
the same birth for a kalpa, or for that portion of a 
kalpa which has yet to run." Now the Tathagata 
has thought out and thoroughly practised them [in 
all respects as just now fully described], and might, 
should he desire it, remain alive for a kalpa, or for 
that portion of a kalpa which has yet to run.' 

60. ' On one occasion, Ananda, I was residing 
here at Vesali at the Udena A'etiya. And there 
too, Ananda, I spoke to thee, and said : " How 
pleasant, Ananda, is Vesali ; how pleasant the 
Udena Aetiya. Whosoever, Ananda, has thought 
out and developed, practised, accumulated, and 
ascended to the very heights of the four paths to 
saintship, and so mastered them as to be able to use 
them as a means of (mental) advancement and as a 
basis for edification — he, should he desire it, could 
remain in the same birth for a kalpa, or for that 
portion of a kalpa which has yet to run." Now the 
Tathagata has thought out and thoroughly practised 



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58 THE BOOK OF THE GREAT DECEASE. CH. 

them [in all respects as just now fully described], 
and might, should he desire it, remain alive for a 
kalpa, or for that portion of a kalpa which has yet 
to run.' 

61. ' On one occasion, Ananda, I was dwelling 
here at Vesali at the Gotamaka Aetiya — on one occa- 
sion here at Vesali at the Sattamba A'etiya — on one 
occasion here at Vesali at the Bahuputta A'etiya — 
on one occasion here at Vesali at the Sarandada 
A'etiya [and on each occasion I spoke to thee, 
Ananda, in the same words]. 

62. 'And now to-day, Ananda, at the Aapala 
A'etiya, I spoke to thee, and said : " How pleasant, 
Ananda, is Vesali; how pleasant the Udena Aetiya; 
how pleasant the Gotamaka Aetiya ; how pleasant 
the Sattamba Aetiya ; how pleasant the Bahuputta 
Aetiya ; how pleasant the Sarandada Aetiya. Who- 
soever, Ananda, has thought out and developed, 
practised, accumulated, and ascended to the very 
heights of the four paths to saintship, and so mas- 
tered them as to be able to use them as a means of 
(mental) advancement, and as a basis for edification — 

-y/ he, should he desire it, could remain in the same 
birth for a kalpa, or for that portion of a kalpa 
which has yet to run. Now the Tathagata has 
thought and thoroughly practised them [in all 
respects as just now fully described], and might, 
should he desire it, remain alive for a kalpa, or for 
that portion of a kalpa which has yet to run." 



63. ' But now, Ananda, have I not formerly 1 de- 

1 That pa.figa.kk' eva means 'formerly, already' is clear from 
Maha Vagga I, 7, r ; X, 2, 3, though its derivation would seem to 
render the meaning ' frequently, recurringly ' more natural. The 



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III. MAHA-PARINIBBANA-SUTTA. 59 

clared to you that it is in the very nature of all 
things, near and dear unto us, that we must divide 
ourselves from them, leave them, sever ourselves 
from them ? How then, Ananda, can this be pos- 
sible — whereas anything whatever born, brought 
into being, and organised, contains within itself the 
inherent necessity of dissolution — how then can this 
be possible that such a being should not be dis- 
solved ? No such condition can exist ! And this 
mortal being, Ananda, has been relinquished, cast 
away, renounced, rejected, and abandoned by the 
Tathagata. The remaining sum of life has been 
surrendered by him. Verily, the word has gone 
forth from the Tathagata, saying, " The final extinc- 
tion of the Tathagata shall take place before long. 
At the end of three months from this time the 
Tathagata will die!" That the Tathagata for the 
sake of living should repent him again of that 
saying — this can no wise be 1 !' 



64. ' Come, Ananda, let us go to the Ku/agara 
Hall, to the Mahavana.' 

' Even so, Lord ! ' said the venerable Ananda, in 
assent, to the Blessed One. 

Then the Blessed One proceeded, with Ananda 

phrase occurs pretty often. Trenckner (milinda-pawhaw, p. 422) 
proposes a correction into pa/ika££' eva. Palu^iti just below 
is noteworthy as an unusual contraction of palu^e iti. 

1 I do not understand the connection of ideas between this 
paragraph and the idea repeated with such tedious iteration in the 
preceding paragraphs. The two seem to be in marked contrast, 
if not in absolute contradiction. Perhaps we have here the older' 
tradition ; and certainly the latter utterance of the two is more in 
accordance with the general impression of the character, and with 
the other sayings, of Gotama as handed down in the Pali Pi/akas. 



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60 THE BOOK OF THE GREAT DECEASE. CH. 

with him, to the Mahavana to the Ku/agara Hall : 
and when he had arrived there he addressed the 
venerable Ananda, and said : 

' Go now, Ananda, and assemble in the Service 
Hall such of the brethren as reside in the neigh- 
bourhood of Vesali.' 

' Even so, Lord,' said the venerable Ananda, in 
assent, to the Blessed One. And when he had as- 
sembled in the Service Hall such of the brethren as 
resided in the neighbourhood of Vesali, he went to 
the Blessed One and saluted him and stood beside 
him. And standing beside him, he addressed the 
Blessed One, and said : 

' Lord ! the assembly of the brethren has met 
together. Let the Blessed One do even as seemeth 
to him fit.' 

65. Then the Blessed One proceeded to the 
Service Hall, and sat down there on the mat spread 
out for him. And when he was seated the Blessed 
One addressed the brethren, and said : 

' Therefore, O brethren — ye to whom the truths 
I have perceived have been made known by me — 
having thoroughly made yourselves masters of 
them, practise them, meditate upon them, and spread 
them abroad ; in order that pure religion may last 
long and be perpetuated, in order that it may con- 
tinue to be for the good and happiness of the great 
multitudes, out of pity for the world, to the good 
and the gain and the weal of gods and men ! 

'Which then, O brethren, are the truths which, 
when I had perceived, I made known to you, which, 
when you have mastered it behoves you to practise, 
meditate upon, and spread abroad, in order that pure 
religion may last long and be perpetuated, in order 



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hi. maha-parinibbAna-sutta. 6 1 

that it may continue to be for the good and the 
happiness of the great multitudes, out of pity for 
the world, to the good and the gain and the weal of 
gods and men ?' 
They are these : 

The four earnest meditations. 

The fourfold great struggle against sin. 

The four roads to saintship. 

The five moral powers. 

The five organs of spiritual sense. 

The seven kinds of wisdom, and 

The noble eightfold path. 
These, O brethren, are the truths which, when 
I had perceived, I made known to you, which, when 
you have mastered it behoves you to practise, 
meditate upon, and spread abroad, in order that 
pure religion may last long and be perpetuated, in 
order that it may continue to be for the good and 
the happiness of the great multitudes, out of pity 
for the world, to the good and the gain and the 
weal of gods and men ! 

66. And the Blessed One exhorted the brethren, 
and said : 

' Behold now, O brethren, I exhort you, saying, 
"All component things must grow old. Work out 
your salvation with diligence. The final extinction 
of the Tathagata will take place before long. At 
the end of three months from this time the Tatha- 
gata will die !" 
' My age is now full ripe, my life draws to its close : 

I leave you, I depart, relying on myself alone ! 

Be earnest then, O brethren! holy, full of 
thought ! 



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62 THE BOOK OF THE GREAT DECEASE. CH. 

Be steadfast in resolve ! Keep watch o'er your 

own hearts! 
Who wearies not, but holds fast to this truth 

and law 1 , 
Shall cross this sea of life, shall make an end of 

grief.' 

End of the Third Portion for Recitation 2 . 



1 Dhamma and vinaya. The Buddhist religion, as just 
\ summarised, and the regulations of the order. 

J It is of great interest to notice what are the points upon which 
Gotama, in this last address to his disciples, and at the solemn 
time when death was so near at hand, is reported to have lain such 
emphatic stress. Unfortunately we have only a fragment of the 
address, and, as it would seem from its commencement, only the 
v' closing fragment. This, however, is in the form of a summary, 
consisting of an enumeration of certain aggregates, the details 
of which must have been as familiar to the early Buddhists as the 
details of similar numerical terms — such as the ten command- 
ments, the twelve tribes, the seven deadly sins, the four gospels, 
and so on — afterwards were to the Christians. This summary of 
the Buddha's last address may fairly be taken as a summary of 
Buddhism, which thus appears to be simply a system of earnest 
self-culture and self-control. 

The following are the details of the aggregate technical terms 
used in the above summary, but it will be understood that the 
English equivalents used give rather a general than an exact 
representation of the ideas expressed by the Pali ones. To 
attempt more would demand a treatise rather than a note, and 
it has given me peculiar pleasure to learn, as these sheets are 
passing through the press, that my friend Dr. Morris intends to 
devote a book to the treatment of these seven ' Te wels of the Law.' 
as the Kulfa Vagga calls them (IX, i, 4), which form, when united, 
the bright diadem of Nirva«a. 

The four Earnest Meditations (£attaro Satipa//Mna) are — 

1. Meditation on the body. 

2. Meditation on the sensations. 

3. Meditation on the ideas. 

4. Meditation on reason and character. 



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III. MAHA-PARINIBBANA-SUTTA. 63 

The fourfold Great Struggle against sin is divided into >fcattaro 
Samappadhand, which are — 

1. The struggle to prevent sinfulness arising. 

2. The struggle to put away sinful states which have arisen. 

3. The struggle to produce goodness not previously existing. 

4. The struggle to increase goodness when it does exist. 
The four Roads to Saintship are four means by whic£ 

above, § 3, note) is to be acquired. They aj«^th? iXitt&tQp' 
Iddhipada: / .' < ■ .■ 4f/> 

1. The will to acquire it united to earnest mHdiisuJp^ affdith^ _ \^ 
struggle against sin. \ , v ~? , ^ * T X \ 

2. The necessary exertion united to earnest meditation' and -therT \. 
struggle against sin. "~-^— L.**. ~1_ * -" 

3. The necessary preparation of the heart united to earnest 
meditation and the struggle against sin. 

- 4. Investigation united to earnest meditation and the struggle 
against sin. 

The five moral powers (paȣa Balini) are said to be the 
«"■ "-. same as the next class, called organs (Indriyani). It is no doubt , t ' 
" '"-^most remarkable that, in a summary like this, two classes out of p*"" J- 
seven should be absolutely identical except in name. The differ- - , ^ 1 
ence of name is altogether too unimportant to account, by itself, for^ s 
the distinction made. Either the currently accepted explanation of \*\ s 
one of the two aggregate terms must be incorrect, or we must look t i ; 
for some explanation of the repetition other than the mere desire • , - '- 
to record the double title. Is it impossible that the one class c* 
was split into two to bring the number of the classes up to the ■-'-'■ 
sacred number seven, corresponding to the seven Ratanas of a , ; 
A'akkavatti? ' ! "' '' . i 

The details of both classes are — if 

i. Faith. 2. Energy. 3. Thought. 4. Contemplation. 
5. Wisdom. 

The seven kinds of Wisdom (satta Bo£#Aang£) are — 

1. Energy. 2. Thought. 3. Contemplation. 4. Investiga- 
tion (of scripture). 5. Joy. 6. Repose. 7. Serenity. 

The Noble Eightfold Path (ariyo a/Mangiko Maggo) forms 
the subject of the Dhamma-iakka-ppavattana-sutta, translated in this 
volume, and consists of — 

i. Right views. 2. High aims. 3. Right speech. 4. Upright 
conduct. 5. A harmless livelihood. 6. Perseverance in well-doing. 
7. Intellectual activity. 8. Earnest thought. 



t.i—- 



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64 THE BOOK OF THE GREAT DECEASE. CH. 



Chapter IV. 

i. Now the Blessed One early in the morning 
robed himself, and taking his bowl, entered Vesali 
for alms: and when he had passed through Vesali, 
and had eaten his meal and was returning from his 
alms-seeking he gazed at Vesali with an elephant 
look 1 and addressed the venerable Ananda, and said: 
' This will be the last time, Ananda, that the 
Tathagata will behold Vesali. Come, Ananda, let 
us go on to Bha»da-gama.' 

' Even so, Lord !' said the venerable Ananda, in 
assent, to the Blessed One. 

And the Blessed One proceeded with a great 
company of the brethren to Bha«da-gama ; and 
there the Blessed One stayed in the village itself. 

2. There the Blessed One addressed the bre- 
thren, and said : 'It is through not understanding 
and grasping four truths 2 , O brethren, that we have 
had to run so long, to wander so long in this weary 
path of transmigration — both you and I,' 

'And what are these four? The noble conduct of 
life, the noble earnestness in meditation, the noble 
kind of wisdom, and the noble salvation of freedom. 
But when noble conduct is realised and known, 
when noble meditation is realised and known, when 
noble wisdom is realised and known, when noble 

1 Nagapalokitaw Vesaliya»« apaloketvi. The Buddhas 
were accustomed, says Buddhaghosa, on looking backwards to turn 
the whole body round as an elephant does ; because the bones in 
their neck were firmly fixed, more so than those of ordinary men ! 

2 Or Conditions (Dhamma). They must, of course, be care- 
fully distinguished from the better known Four Noble Truths 
(Sa££ani) above, Chap. II, § 2. 



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t». mahA-parinibbana-sutta. 65 

freedom, is realised and known — then is the craving 
for existence rooted out, that which leads to re- 
newed existence is destroyed, and there is no more 
birth.' 

3. Thus spake the Blessed One; and when the 
Happy One had thus spoken, then again the 
teacher said 1 : 
' Righteousness, earnest thought, wisdom, and 
freedom sublime — 
These are the truths realised by Gotama, far- 
renowned. 
Knowing them, he, the knower, proclaimed the 

truth to the brethren. 
The master with eye divine, the quencher of 
griefs, must die!' 



4. There too, while staying at Bha#da-gama, the 
Blessed One held that comprehensive religious dis- 
course with the brethren on the nature of upright 
conduct, and of earnest contemplation, and of intel- 
ligence. ' Great is the fruit, great the advantage of 
earnest contemplation when set round with upright 
conduct. Great is the fruit, great the advantage of 
intellect when set round with earnest contemplation. 

1 This is merely a stock phrase for introducing verses which 
repeat the idea of the preceding phrase (see above, paragraph 32). 
It is an instructive sign of the state of mind in which such records 
are put together, that these verses could be ascribed to Gotama 
himself without any feeling of the incongruity involved. The last 
word means, completely gone out; and here refers to the ex- 
tinction of kilesa and tawhi, which will bring about, inevitably, 
the extinction of being. Compare the passage quoted by 
Burnouf in Lotus de la Bonne Loi, p. 376. Probably the whole 
stanza formerly stood in some other connection, where the word 
parinibbuto had its more usual sense. See Buddhaghosa's 
note on IV, 23. 

[II] F 



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66 THE BOOK OF THE GREAT DECEASE. CH. 

The mind set round with intelligence is freed from 
the great evils — that is to say, from sensuality, from 
individuality, from delusion, and from ignorance.' 



5. Now when the Blessed One had remained at 
Bha«da-gama as long as he desired, he addressed 
the venerable Ananda, and said : ' Come, Ananda, 
let us go on to Hatthi-gama.' 

'Even so, Lord!' said Ananda, in assent, to the 
Blessed One. 

Then the Blessed One proceeded with a great 
company of the brethren to Hatthi-gama. 

6. [And in similar words it is then related how 
the Blessed One went on to Amba-gama, to 6ambu- 
gama, and to Bhoga-nagara.] 



7. Now there at Bhoga-nagara the Blessed One 
stayed at the Ananda .A'etiya. 

There the Blessed One addressed the brethren, 
and said : ' I will teach you, O brethren, these four 
Great References '. Listen thereto, and give good 
heed, and I will speak.' 

' Even so, Lord ! ' said the brethren, in assent 2 , to 

1 The meaning of mahSpadesa is not quite clear. Perhaps 
it should be rendered true authorities. I have followed Buddha- 
ghosa in taking apadesa as the last part of the compound. He 
says, mahtpadesi ti mahi-okdse mahi-apadese va\ Bud- 
dhadayo mahante mahante apadisitva vuttini maha- 
k£ra«£nt ti attho, 'the causes (authorities) alleged when 
referring to Buddha and other great men.' 

4 I ought perhaps to have explained why I have ventured to 
differ from Childers in the rendering of the common word pa/i- 
suwSti. The root siu seems to have meant 'to sound' before it 
meant 'to hear;' and, whether this be so or not, pa/i-suȣti 
means not simply ' to consent,' but ' to answer (assentingly).' It 



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IV. MAHA-PARINIBBANA-SUTTA. 6j 

the Blessed One, and the Blessed One spoke as 
follows : 

8. ' In the first place, brethren, a brother may 
say thus : " From the mouth of the Blessed One 
himself have I heard, from his own mouth have I 
received it. This is the truth, this the law, this the 
teaching of the Master." The word spoken, bre- 
thren, by that brother should neither be received 
with praise nor treated with scorn. Without praise 
and without scorn every word and syllable should 
be carefully understood, and then put beside the 
scripture and compared with the rules of the 
order 1 . If when so compared they do not har- 
monise with the scripture, and do not fit in with the 
rules of the order, then you may come to the con- 
clusion, " Verily, this is not the word of the Blessed 
One, and has been wrongly grasped by that 
brother ?" Therefore, brethren, you should reject 
it. But if they harmonise with the scripture and 
fit in with the rules of the order, then you may 
come to the conclusion, " Verily, this is the word of 
the Blessed One, and has been well grasped by 
that brother." This, brethren, you should receive 
as the first Great Reference. 

9. ' Again, brethren, a brother may say thus : 
"In such and such a dwelling-place there is a com- 
pany of the brethren with their elders and leaders. 
From the mouth of that company have I heard, 

has been pointed out to me that answer was formerly 'and- 
swerian,' where swerian is probably not unrelated to the root 
svar, 'to sound.' 

1 Sutte otaretabbdni vinaye sandassetabbani, where one 
would expect to find the word Pifaka if it had been in use when 
this passage was first written or composed. 

F 2 



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68 THE BOOK OF THE GREAT DECEASE. CH. 

face to face have I received it. This is the truth, 
this the law, this the teaching of the Master." The 
word spoken, brethren, by that brother should 
neither be received with praise nor treated with 
scorn. Without praise and without scorn every 
word and syllable should be carefully understood, 
and then put beside the scripture and compared 
with the rules of the order. If when so compared 
they do not harmonise with the scripture, and do 
not fit in with the rules of the order, then you may 
come to the conclusion, "Verily, this is not the 
word of the Blessed One, and has been wrongly 
grasped by that company of the brethren." There- 
fore, brethren, you should reject it.. But if they 
harmonise with the scripture and fit in with the 
rules of the order, then you may come to the con- 
clusion, "Verily, this is the word of the Blessed One, 
and has been well grasped by that company of the 
brethren." This, brethren, you should receive as 
the second Great Reference. 

10. ' Again, brethren, a brother may say thus : 
" In such and such a dwelling-place there are 
dwelling many elders of the order, deeply read, 
holding the faith as handed down by tradition, 
versed in the truths, versed in the regulations of 
the order, versed in the summaries of the doctrines 
and the law. From the mouth of those elders have 
I heard, from their mouth have I received it. 
This is the truth, this the law, this the teaching of 
the Master." The word spoken, brethren, by that 
brother should neither be received with praise nor 
treated with scorn. Without praise and without 
scorn every word and syllable should be carefully 
understood, and then put beside the scripture and 



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it. maha-parinibbana-sutta. 69 

compared with the rules of the order. If when so 
compared they do not harmonise with the scripture, 
and do not fit in with the rules of the order, then 
you may come to the conclusion, " Verily, this is 
not the word of the Blessed One, and has been 
wrongly grasped by those elders." Therefore, bre- 
thren, you should reject it. But if they harmonise 
with the scripture and fit in with the rules of the 
order, then you may come to the conclusion, 
"Verily, this is the word of the Blessed One, and 
has been well grasped by those elders." This, 
brethren, you should receive as the third Great 
Reference. 

11. 'Again, brethren, a brother may say, " In 
such and such a dwelling-place there is there living 
a brother, deeply read, holding the faith as handed \ 
down by tradition, versed in the truths, versed in 
the regulations of the order, versed in the sum- 
maries of the doctrines and the law. From the 
mouth of that elder have I heard, from his mouth 
have I received it. This is the truth, this the law, 
this the teaching of the Master." The word spoken, 
brethren, by that brother should neither be received 
with praise nor treated with scorn. Without praise 
and without scorn every word and syllable should 
be carefully understood, and then put beside the 
scripture and compared with the rules of the 
order. If when so compared they do not har- 
monise with the scripture, and do not fit in with the 
rules of the order, then you may come to the 
conclusion, " Verily, this is not the word of the 
Blessed One, and has been wrongly grasped 
by that brother." Therefore, brethren, you should 
reject it. But if they harmonise with the scripture 



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70 THE BOOK OF THE GREAT DECEASE. CH. 

and fit in with the rules of the order, then you 
may come to the conclusion, "Verily, this is the word 
of the Blessed One, and has been well grasped by 
that brother." This, brethren, you* should receive 
as the fourth Great Reference.' 

' These, brethren, are the Four Great References.' 



12. There, too, the Blessed One held that com- 
prehensive religious talk with the brethren on the 
nature of upright conduct, and of earnest contem- 
plation, and of intelligence. ' Great is the fruit, 
great the advantage of earnest contemplation when 
set round with upright conduct. Great is the fruit, 
great the advantage of intellect when set round with 
earnest contemplation. The mind set round with 
intelligence is freed from the great evils — that is 
to say, from sensuality, from individuality, from 
delusion, and from ignorance.' 



13* Now when the Blessed One had remained 
as long as he desired at Bhoga-gama, he addressed 
the venerable Ananda, and said : ' Come, Ananda, 
let us go on to Pava.* 

' Even so, Lord ! ' said the venerable Ananda, in 
assent, to the Blessed One. And the Blessed One 
proceeded with a great company of the brethren to 
Piva. 

And there at Pava the Blessed One stayed at 
the Mango Grove of .ATunda, who was by family a 
smith. 

14. Now Aunda, the worker in metals, heard 
that the Blessed One had come to P4v£, and was 
staying there in his Mango Grove. 



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IV. MAHA-PARINIBBANA-SUTTA. jl 

And .ATunda, the worker in metals, went to the 
place where the Blessed One was, and saluting him 
took his seat respectfully on one side. And when 
he was thus seated, the Blessed One instructed, 
aroused, incited, and gladdened him with religious 
discourse. 

15. Then he, instructed, aroused, incited, and 
gladdened by the religious discourse, addressed the 
Blessed One, and said : ' May the Blessed One do 
me the honour of taking his meal, together with the 
brethren, at my house to-morrow.' 

And the Blessed One signified, by silence, his 
consent. 

16. Then seeing that the Blessed One had con- 
sented, .Afunda, the worker in metals, rose from his 
seat and bowed down before the Blessed One, and 
keeping him on his right hand as he past him, 
departed thence. 

17. Now at the end of the night, Afunda, the 
worker in metals, made ready in his dwelling-place 
sweet rice and cakes, and a quantity of dried boar's 
flesh. And he announced the hour to the Blessed 
One, saying, ' The hour, Lord, has come, and the 
meal is ready.' 

18. And the Blessed One robed himself early in 
the morning, and taking his bowl, went with the bre- 
thren to the dwelling-place of Aunda, the worker in 
metals. When he had come thither he seated him- 
self on the seat prepared for him. And when he 
was seated he addressed A'unda, the worker in 
metals, and said : ' As to the dried boar's flesh you 
have made ready, serve me with it, Aunda ; and as 
to the other food, the sweet rice and cakes, serve 
the brethren with it.' 



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72 THE BOOK OF THE GREAT DECEASE. CH. 

'Even so, Lord!' said A!unda, the worker in 
metals, in assent, to the Blessed One. And the 
dried boar's flesh he had made ready he served to 
the Blessed One ; whilst -the other food, the sweet 
rice and cakes, he served to the members of the 
order. 

19. Now the Blessed One addressed A"unda, the 
worker in metals, and said : ' Whatever dried boar's 
flesh, .ATunda, is left over to thee, that bury in a hole. 
I see no one, Aunda, on earth nor in Mara's heaven, 
nor in Brahma's heaven, no one among Samawas 
and Brahma«as, among gods and men, by whom, 
when he has eaten it, that food can be assimilated, 
save by the Tathagata.' 

'Even so, Lord!' said Aunda, the worker in 
metals, in assent, to the Blessed One. And what- 
ever dried boar's flesh remained over, that he buried 
in a hole. 

20. And he went to the place where the Blessed 
One was ; and when he had come there, took his 
seat respectfully on one side. And when he was 
seated, the Blessed One instructed and aroused 
and incited and gladdened ATunda, the worker in 
metals, with religious discourse. And the Blessed 
One then rose from his seat and departed thence. 

21. Now when the Blessed One had eaten the 
food prepared by Aunda, the worker in metal, there 
fell upon him a dire sickness, the disease of dysen- 
tery, and sharp pain came upon him, even unto 
death. But the Blessed One, mindful and self- 
possessed, bore it without complaint. 

22. And the Blessed One addressed the venerable 
Ananda, and said : ' Come, Ananda, let us go on to 
Kusinara.' 



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IV. MAHA-PARINIBBANA-SUTTA. 73 

'Even so, Lord!' said the venerable Ananda, in 
assent, to the Blessed One. 



23. When he had eaten A!unda's food, 

The copper-smith's — thus have I heard — 
He bore with fortitude the pain, 
The sharp pain even unto death ! 

And from the dried flesh of the boar, as soon as 
he had eaten it, 
There fell upon the teacher sickness dire, 
Then after nature was relieved the Blessed One 
announced and said : 
' I now am going on to Kusinara V 



24. Now the Blessed One went aside from the 
path to the foot of a certain tree; and when he 
had come there he addressed the venerable Ananda, 
and said : ' Fold, I pray you, Ananda, the robe ; and 
spread it out for me. I am weary, Ananda, and 
must rest awhile!' 

' Even so, Lord ! ' said the venerable Ananda, in 
assent, to the Blessed One, and spread out the robe 
folded fourfold. 

25. And the Blessed One seated -himself on the 
seat prepared for him ; and when he was seated, he 
addressed the venerable Ananda, and said : ' Fetch 
me, I pray you, Ananda, some water. I am thirsty, 
Ananda, and would drink.' 

26. When he had thus spoken, the venerable 
Ananda said to the Blessed One : ' But just now, 

1 ' It should be understood,' says Buddhaghosa, ' that these are 
verses by the Theras who held the council.' And he repeats this 
at §§ 52, 56. 



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74 THE BOOK OF THE GREAT DECEASE. CH. 

Lord, about five hundred carts have gone over. That 
water stirred up by the wheels has become shallow 
and flows fouled and turbid. This river Kakuttha, 
Lord, not far off, is clear and pleasant, cool and 
transparent, easy to get down into, and delightful. 
There the Blessed One may both drink the water, 
and cool his limbs V 

27. Again the second time the Blessed One 
addressed the venerable Ananda, and said : ' Fetch 
me, I pray you, Ananda, some water. I am thirsty, 
Ananda, and would drink.' 

28. And again the second time the venerable 
Ananda said to the Blessed One : ' But just now, 
Lord, about five hundred carts have gone over. That 
water stirred up by. the wheels has become shallow 
and flows fouled and turbid. This river Kakuttha, 
Lord, not far off, is clear and pleasant, cool and 
transparent, easy to get down into, and delightful. 
There the Blessed One may both drink the water, 
and cool his limbs.' 

29. Again the third time the Blessed One ad- 
dressed the venerable Ananda, and said: 'Fetch me, 

A 

I pray you, Ananda, some water. I am thirsty, 
Ananda, and would drink.' 

30. ' Even so, Lord!' said the venerable Ananda, 
in assent, to the Blessed One ; and taking a bowl he 
went down to the streamlet. And lo I the streamlet 
which, stirred up by the wheels, was but just now 
become shallow, and was flowing fouled and turbid, 
had begun, when the venerable Ananda came up to it, 
to flow clear and bright and free from all turbidity. 

1 AkkAodiki ti pasannodika: satodikt ti madhurodhikS: 
sitodika ti tanu-sitala-salila : setaka ti nikkaddama: 
supatitthS ti sundara-titthl (S.V. thri.) Comp. IV, 56. 



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IV. MAHA-PARINIBBANA-SUTTA. 75 

31. Then Ananda thought: 'How wonderful, 
how marvellous is the great might and power of 
the Tathagata ! For this streamlet which, stirred up 
by the wheels, was but just now become shallow and 
flowing foul and turbid, now, as I come up to it, is 
flowing clear and bright and free from all turbidity.' 

32. And taking water in the bowl he returned 
towards the Blessed One ; and when he had come 
where the Blessed One was he said to him : ' How 
wonderful, how marvellous is the great might and 
power of the Tathagata ! For this streamlet which, 
stirred up by the wheels, was but just now become 
shallow and flowing foul and turbid, now, as I come 
up to it, is flowing clear and bright and free from 
all turbidity. Let the Blessed One drink the water ! 
Let the Happy One drink the water !' 

Then the Blessed One drank of the water. 



32- Now at that time a man named Pukkusa 1 , 
a young Mallian, a disciple of A/ara Kalama's, was 
passing along the high road from Kusinara to Piva. 

34. And Pukkusa, the young Mallian, saw the 
Blessed One seated at the foot of a tree. On 
seeing him, he went up to the place where the 
Blessed One was, and when he had come there he 
saluted the Blessed One, and took his rest respect- 
fully on one side. And when he was seated 

1 The Pukkusa caste was one of the lower castes of Sudras. 
Compare Assalayana Sutta (Pischel), pp. 13, 35; Burnoufs 'In- 
troduction,' &c, pp. 144, 208 ; Lalita Vistara XXI, 17. But Bud- 
dhaghosa says Pukkusa must here be simply a name, as the Mallas 
were of the Khattiya caste. He adds that this Pukkusa was the 
owner of the five hundred carts that had just passed by ; and that 
A/ara Kilima was called A/ara because he was Dtgha-pihgalo, 
Kalama being his family name. 



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76 THE BOOK OF THE GREAT DECEASE. CH. 

Pukkusa, the young Mallian, said to the Blessed 
One: 'How wonderful a thing is it, Lord! and 
how marvellous, that those who have gone forth out 
of the world should pass their time in a state of 
mind so calm!' 

35. ' Formerly, Lord, A/ara Kalama was once 
walking along the high road ; and leaving the road 
he sat himself down under a certain tree to rest 
during the heat of the day. Now, Lord, five hun- 
dred carts passed by one after the other, each close 
to A/ara Kalama. And a certain man, who was fol- 
lowing close behind that caravan of carts, went up to 
the place where A/ara Kalama was, and when he was 
come there he spake as follows to A/ara Kalama : 

' " But, Lord, did you see those five hundred carts 
go by?" 

' " No, indeed, sir, I saw them not." 
' "But, Lord, did you hear the sound of them ?" 
' " No, indeed, sir, I heard not their sound." 
' "But, Lord, were you then asleep ?" 
' " No, sir, I was not asleep." 
' " But, Lord, were you then conscious." 
' " Yes, I was conscious, sir." 
"'So that you, Lord, though you were both con- 
scious and awake, neither saw, nor heard the sound 
of five hundred carts passing by, one after the other, 
and each close to you. Why, Lord, even your robe 
was sprinkled over with the dust of them!" 
' " It is even so, sir." 

36. 'Then thought that man: "How wonderful a 
thing is it, and how marvellous, that those who have 
gone forth out of the world should pass their time 
in a state of mind so calm! So much so that a 
man though being both conscious and awake, 



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iv. mahA-parinibbana-sutta. fj 

neither sees, nor hears the sound of five hundred 
carts passing hy, one after the other, and each close 
to him." 

' And after giving utterance to his deep faith in 
A/ara Kalama, he departed thence.' 

37. 'Now what think you, Pukkusa, which is the 
more difficult thing either to do or to meet with — 
that a man being conscious and awake should 
neither see, nor hear the sound of five hundred 
carts passing by, one after the other, close to him, 
— or that a man, being conscious and awake, should 
neither see, nor hear the sound thereof when the 
falling rain goes on beating and splashing, and the 
lightnings are flashing forth, and the thunderbolts 
are crashing ?•' 

38. ' What in comparison, Lord, can these five 
hundred carts do, or six or seven or eight or nine 
or ten hundred, yea, even hundreds and thousands 
of carts. That certainly is more difficult, both to 
do and to meet with, that a man being conscious 
and awake should neither see, nor hear the sound 
thereof when the falling rain goes on beating and 
splashing, and the lightnings are flashing forth, and 
the thunderbolts are crashing.' 

39. 'Now on one occasion, Pukkusa, I was dwelling 
at Atuma, and was at the Threshing-floor 1 . And at 
that time the falling rain begun to beat and to 
splash, and the lightnings to flash forth, and the 
thunderbolts to crash ; and two peasants, brothers, 
and four oxen were killed. Then, Pukkusa, a great 
multitude of people went forth from Atuma, and 
went up to the place where the two peasants, 
brothers, and the four oxen, lay killed. 

1 Bhusag£re ti kha/u-s&layaw. (S.V. tkri.) 

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78 THE BOOK OF THE GREAT DECEASE. CH. 

40. ' Now at that time, Pukkusa, I had gone forth 
from the Threshing-floor, and was walking up and 
down thinking at the entrance to the Threshing- 
floor. And a certain man came, Pukkusa, out of 
that great multitude of people, up to the place 
where I was ; and when he came up he saluted me, 
and took his place respectfully on one side. 

41. 'And as he stood there, Pukkusa, I said to 
the man : 

' "Why then, sir, is this great multitude of people 
assembled together ?" 

' " But just now, the falling rain began to beat 
and to splash, and the lightnings to flash forth, and 
the thunderbolts to crash ; and two peasants, bro- 
thers, were killed, and four oxen. Therefore is this 
great multitude of people gathered together. But 
where, Lord, were you ? " 

'"I, sir, have been here all the while." 

' " But, Lord, did you see it >" 

'"I, sir, saw nothing." 

' " But, Lord, did you hear it ?" 

' " I, sir, heard nothing." 

' " Were you then, Lord, asleep ?" 

'" I, sir, was not asleep." 

' " Were you then conscious, Lord ?" 

'" Even so, sir." 

' " So that you, Lord, being conscious and awake, 
neither saw, nor heard the sound thereof when the 
falling rain went on beating and splashing, and the 
lightnings were flashing forth, and the thunderbolts 
were crashing." 

' " That is so, sir." 

42. ' Then, Pukkusa, the thought occurred to that 
man : 



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IV. MAHA-PARINIBBANA-SUTTA. 79 

'" How wonderful a thing is it, and marvellous, 
that those who have gone forth out of the world 
should pass their time in a state of mind so calm! — 
so that a man being conscious and awake neither 
sees nor hears the sound thereof when the falling 
rain is beating and splashing, and the lightnings are 
flashing forth, and the thunderbolts are crashing." 
And after giving utterance to his deep faith in me, 
he departed from me with the customary demonstra- 
tions of respect.' 

43. And when he had thus spoken Pukkusa, 
the young Mallian, addressed the Blessed One in 
these words : ' Now I, Lord, as to the faith that 
I had in A/ara Kilama, that I winnow away as in 
a mighty wind, and wash it away as in a swiftly 
running stream. Most excellent, Lord, are the words 
of thy mouth, most excellent! Just as if a man 
were to set up that which is thrown down, or were 
to reveal that which is hidden away, or were to 
point out the right road to him who has gone astray, 
or were to bring a lamp into the darkness, so that 
those who have eyes can see external forms — just 
even so, Lord, has the truth been made known to 
me, in many a figure, by the Blessed One. And I, 
even I, betake myself, Lord, to the Blessed One as 
my refuge, to the Truth, and to the Brotherhood. 
May the Blessed One accept me as a disciple, as a 
true believer, from this day forth, as long as life 
endures 1 !' 

1 This is a stock phrase constituting the final answer of a 
hitherto unconverted man at the end of one of those argumentative 
dialogues by which Gotama overcame opposition or expounded 
the truth. After a discussion of exalted themes it fits in very 
appropriately; here and elsewhere it is incongruous and strained. 
See below, V, 50. 



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86 THE BOOK OF THE GREAT DECEASE. CH. 

44. Now Pukkusa, the young Mallian, addressed 
a certain man, and said : ' Fetch me, I pray you, my 
good man, a pair of robes of cloth, of gold, burnished 
and ready for wear.' 

' So be it, sir ! ' said that man, in assent, to 
Pukkusa, the young Mallian ; and he brought a 
pair of robes of cloth of gold, burnished and ready 
for wear. 

45. And the Mallian Pukkusa presented the pair of 
robes of cloth of gold, burnished and ready for wear, 
to the Blessed One, saying, ' Lord, this pair of 
robes of burnished cloth of gold is ready for wear. 
May the Blessed One show me favour and accept it 
at my hands !' 

' In that case, Pukkusa, robe me in one, and 
Ananda in one.' 

' Even so, Lord ! ' said Pukkusa, in assent, to the 
Blessed One ; and in one he robed the Blessed One, 
and in one, Ananda. 

46. Then the Blessed One instructed and aroused 
and incited and gladdened Pukkusa, the young Mal- 
lian, with religious discourse. And Pukkusa, the 
young Mallian, when he had been instructed and 
aroused and incited and gladdened by the Blessed 
One with religious discourse, arose from his seat, 
and bowed down before the Blessed One ; and keep- 
ing him on his right hand as he past him, departed 
thence. 



47. Now not long after the Mallian Pukkusa had 
gone, the venerable Ananda placed that pair of 
robes of cloth of gold, burnished and ready for wear, 
on the body of the Blessed One, and when it was so 



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iv. mahA-parinibbAna-sutta. 8 i 

placed on the body of the Blessed One it appeared 
to have lost its splendour 1 ! 

48. And the venerable Ananda said to the Blessed 
One : ' How wonderful a thing is it, Lord, and how 
marvellous, that the colour of the skin of the Blessed 
One should be so clear, so exceeding bright! For 
when I placed even this pair of robes of burnished 
cloth of gold and ready for wear on the body of the 
Blessed One, lo! it seemed as if it had lost its 
splendour!' 

49. 'It is even so, Ananda. Ananda, there are two 
occasions on which the colour of the skin of a Tatha- 
gata becomes clear and exceeding bright. What 
are the two?' 

50. ' On the night, Ananda, on which a Tatha- 
gata attains to the supreme and perfect insight, and 
on the night in which he passes finally away in that 
utter passing away which leaves nothing whatever 
to remain — on these two occasions the colour of the 
skin of the Tathagata becomes clear and exceeding 
bright. 

51. 'And now this day, Ananda, at the third watch 
of the rfight, in the Upavattana of Kusinira, in the 
Sala Grove of the Mallians, between the twin Sala 

1 The commentator says, Bhagavato kayam upanimitan ti 
niv&sana-p&rfipana-vasena alliyapitaw: Bhagava' pi 
tato ekawi nivasesi ekaw p&rupi. Vita££ika« (MS. i&A) 
viy& ti yathi (MS. tatha) vita££iko angiro antanten' eva 
^otiti bahi pan' assa pabhi n' atthi, evam bahi pa£Minna- 
(MS. paikkAinna.-) pabhi hutv& khlyatf ti. My MS. of the 
text reads vitasikaw (as did Y£tr£mulle's MS. here, and one MS. 
of FausbolTs at G&taka. 1, 153, 154). There the word is used of 
embers in which food is cooked, 'without flame,' =' glowing, 
smoldering.' VitaMAikS, 'an eruption on the skin,' belongs 
to the root k&ik. 

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82 THE BOOK OF THE GREAT DECEASE. CH. 

trees, the utter passing away of the Tathagata will 
take place. Come, Ananda! let us go on to the 
river Kakuttha.' 

'Even so, Lord!' said the venerable Ananda, in 
assent, to the Blessed One. 

52. The pair of robes of cloth of gold, 
All burnished, Pukkusa had brought, 
Clad on with them the Master then 
Shone forth in colour like to gold 1 ! 



53. Now the Blessed One with a great company 
of the brethren went on to the river Kakuttha ; and 
when he had come there, he went down into the water, 
and bathed, and drank. And coming up out again 
on the other side he went on to the Mango Grove. 

54. And when he was come there he addressed 
the venerable ATundaka, and said : ' Fold, I pray you, 
Aundaka, a robe in four and spread it out. I am 
weary, .ATundaka, and would lie down.' 

' Even so, Lord !' said the venerable Aundaka, in 
assent, to the Blessed One. And he folded a robe 
in four, and spread it out. 

1 We have here the commencement of the legend which after- 
wards grew into an account of an actual ' transfiguration ' of the 
Buddha. It is very curious that it should have taken place soon 
after the Buddha had announced to Ananda his approaching death, 
and that in the Buddhist Sutta it should be connected so closely 
with that event ; for a similar remark applies also to the Trans- 
figuration mentioned in the Gospels. The Malalankara-vatthu, 
for instance, says, 'His body appeared shining like a flame. Ananda 
was exceedingly surprised. Nothing of this kind had, as yet, 
happened. " Your exterior appearance," said he to Budha, " is all 
at once white, shining, and beautiful above all expression." "What 
you say, O Ananda, is perfectly true. There are two occasions [&c, 
much as above]. The shining light emanating from my body is a 
certain forerunner of this great event [his Parinibbana]." ' 



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iv. mahA-parinibbAna-sutta. 83 

55. And the Blessed One laid himself down on 
his right side, with one foot resting on the other ; 
and calm and self-possessed, he meditated on the 
idea of rising up again in due time. And the 
venerable A'undaka seated himself there in front of 
the Blessed One. 

56. The Buddha to Kakuttha's river came, 
Whose clear and pleasant waters limpid flow, 
He plunged beneath the stream wearied and 

worn, 
The Buddha without equal in the world ! 
When he had bathed and drunk, the teacher 

then 
Crossed o'er, the brethren thronging round 

his steps ; 
The Blessed Master, preaching the while the 

truth, 
The Mighty Sage came to the Mango Grove. 
There spake he to the brother Aundaka : 
' Spread me the fourfold robe out as a couch.' 
Cheered by the Holy One, he quickly spread 
The fourfold robe in order on the ground. 
The Master laid him down, wearied and worn ; 
And there, before him, Aunda took his seat. 



57. And the Blessed One addressed the vener- 
able Ananda, and said : ' Now it may happen, 
Ananda, that some one should stir up remorse in 
ATunda the smith, by saying, " This is evil to thee, 
.ATunda, and loss to thee in that when the Tathagata 
had eaten his last meal from thy provision, then he 
died." Any such remorse, Ananda, in -/sTunda 
the smith should be checked by saying, " This is 
good to thee, ATiinda, and gain to thee, in that when 

G 2 



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84 THE BOOK OF THE GREAT DECEASE. CH. 

the Tathagata had eaten his last meal from thy 
provision, then he died. From the very mouth of 
the Blessed One, A"unda, have I heard, from his 
own mouth have I received this saying, ' These two 
offerings of food are of equal fruit, and of equal 
profit, and of much greater fruit and much greater 
profit than any other — and which are the two ? 
The offering of food which, when a Tathagata has 
eaten, he attains to supreme and perfect insight ; 
and the offering of food which, when a Tathagata 
has eaten, he passes away by that utter passing 
away in which nothing whatever remains behind — 
these two offerings of food are of equal fruit and of 
equal profit, and of much greater fruit and much 
greater profit than any others. There has been laid 
up by A!unda the smith a karma redounding to 
length of life, redounding to good birth, redounding 
to good fortune, redounding to good fame, redound- 
ing to the inheritance of heaven, and of sovereign 
power.' " In this way, Ananda, should be checked 
any remorse in Aunda the smith.' 

58. Then the Blessed One perceiving how the 
matter stood, uttered, even at that time, this hymn 
of exultation : 

' To him who gives shall virtue be increased ; 
In him who curbs himself, no anger can arise ; 
The righteous man casts off all sinfulness, 
And by the rooting out of lust, and bitterness, 
And all delusion, doth to Nirvana reach !' 



End of the Fourth Portion for Recitation, containing 
the Episode of A/ara. 



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v. maha-parinibbAna-sutta. 85 



Chapter V. 

1. Now the Blessed One addressed the venera- 
ble Ananda, and said : ' Come, Ananda, let us go on 
to the Sila Grove of the Mallas, the Upavattana 
of Kusiniri, on the further side of the river Hira- 
nyavat!.' 

'Even so, Lord!' said the venerable Ananda, in 
assent, to the Blessed One. 

2. And the Blessed One proceeded with a great 
company of the brethren to the Sila Grove of the 
Mallas, the Upavattana of Kusiniri, on the further 
side of the river Hiranyavati : and when he had 
come there he addressed the venerable Ananda, and 
said: 

3. ' Spread over for me, I pray you, Ananda, the 
couch with its head to the north, between the twin 
Sila trees 1 . I am weary, Ananda, and would lie 
down.' 

'Even so, Lord!' said the venerable Ananda, in 
assent, to the Blessed One. And he spread a 

1 According to the commentator ' tradition says that there was 
a row of Sala trees at the head (sfsa) of that couch (maw£a), and 
another at its foot, one young Sila tree being close to its head, 
and another close to its foot. The twin Sala trees were so called 
because the two trees were equally grown in respect of the roots, 
trunks, branches, and leaves. There was a couch there in the 
park for the special use of the (periodically elected) ra^a of the 
Mallas, and it was this couch which the Blessed One asked Ananda 
to make ready.' There is no further explanation of the term 
uttara-sisakaw, which may have been the name for a slab of 
wood or stone reserved on great occasions for the use of^the 
leaders of the neighbouring republic, but available at other times 
for passers by. 



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86 THE BOOK OF THE GREAT DECEASE. CH. 

covering over the couch with its head to the north, 
between the twin Sala trees. And the Blessed One 
laid himself down on his right side, with one leg 
resting on the other ; and he was mindful and self- 
possessed. 

4. Now at that time the twin Sala trees were 
all one mass of bloom with flowers out of season * ; 
and all over the body of the Tathagata these dropped 
and sprinkled and scattered themselves, out of 
reverence for the successor of the Buddhas of old. 
And heavenly Mandarava flowers, too, and hea- 
venly sandal -wood powder came falling from 
the sky, and all over the body of the Tathagata 
they descended and sprinkled and scattered them- 
selves, out of reverence for the successor of the 
Buddhas of old. And heavenly music was sounded 
in the sky, out of reverence for the successor of the 
Buddhas of old. And heavenly songs came wafted 
from the skies, out of reverence for the successor of 
the Buddhas of old ! 

5. Then the Blessed One addressed the vene- 
rable Ananda, and said : ' The twin Sala trees are 
all one mass of bloom with flowers out of season ; 
all over the body of the Tathagata these drop 
and sprinkle and scatter, themselves, out of rever- 
ence for the successor of the Buddhas of old. And 
heavenly Mandarava flowers, too, and heavenly 
sandal-wood powder come falling from the sky, 
and all over the body of the Tathagata they descend 
and sprinkle and scatter themselves, out of rever- 

1 Sabbaph&liphullS ti sabbe samantato pupphit£ mfllato 
pa/Mlyaydva agga" eka££Aanna" ahesuw. (S.V. thin.) Com- 
pare ekaphilliphulIaOT vana/w at GsUaka I, 52. 



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v. maha-parinibbAna-sutta. 87 

ence for the successor of the Buddhas of old. And 
heavenly music sounds in the sky, out of reverence 
for the successor of the Buddhas of old. And hea- 
venly songs come wafted from the skies, out of rever- 
ence for the successor of the Buddhas of old ! ' 

6. ' Now it is not thus, Ananda, that the Tatha- 
gata is rightly honoured, reverenced, venerated, held 
sacred or revered. But the brother or the sister, the 
devout man or the devout woman, who continually 
fulfils all the greater and the lesser duties, who is 
correct in life, walking according to the precepts — it 
is he who rightly honours, reverences, venerates, holds 
sacred, and reveres the Tathagata with the worthiest 
homage. Therefore, O Ananda, be ye constant in 
the fulfilment of the greater and of the lesser duties, 
and be ye correct in life, walking according to the 
precepts ; and thus, Ananda, should it be taught.' 



7. Now at that time the venerable Upava^a 
was standing in front of the Blessed One, fanning 
him. And the Blessed One was not pleased with 
Upava^a, and he said to him : ' Stand aside, O 
brother, stand not in front of irreJ ' 

8. Then this thought sprung up in the mind of 
the venerable Ananda : ' The venerable Upiva»a 
has long been in close personal attendance and ser- 
vice on the Blessed One. And now, at the last 
moment, the Blessed One is not pleased with Upa- 
vawa, and has said to him, " Stand aside, O brother, 
stand not in front of me ! " What may be the cause 
and what the reason that the Blessed One is not 
pleased with Upava«a, and speaks thus with him?' 

9. And the venerable Ananda said to the 
Blessed One : ' The venerable Upavawa has long 



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88 THE BOOK OF THE GREAT DECEASE. CH. 

been in close personal attendance and service on the 
Blessed One. And now, at the last moment, the 
Blessed One is not pleased with Upava#a, and has 
said to him, " Stand aside, O brother, stand not in 
front of me!" What may be the cause and what 
the reason that the Blessed One is not pleased with 
Upava«a, and speaks thus with him?' 

10. ' In great numbers, Ananda, are the gods of 
the ten world-systems assembled together to be- 
hold the Tathagata. For twelve leagues, Ananda, 
around the Sala Grove of the Mallas, the Upavattana 
of Kusinara, there is no spot in size even as the 
pricking of the point of the tip of a hair which is 
not pervaded by powerful spirits \ And the spirits, 
Ananda, are murmuring, and say, " From afar have 
we come to behold the Tathagata. Few and far 
between are the Tathagatas, the Arahat Buddhas 
who appear in the world : and now to-day, in the 
last watch of the night, the death of a Tathagata 
will take place ; and this eminent brother stands in 

1 Buddhaghosa explains that even twenty to sixty angels or gods 
(devatayo) could stand aragga-ko/i-nittudana- (MS. nittad- 
dana-) matte pi, 'on a point pricked by the extreme point of 
a gimlet,' without inconveniencing one another (awwam annam 
avyabadhenti). It is most curious to find this exact analogy to the 
notorious discussion as to how many angels could stand on the 
point of a needle in a commentary written at just that period of 
Buddhist history which corresponds to the Middle Ages of Christen- 
dom. The passage in the text does not really imply or suggest 
any such doctrine, though the whole episode is so absurd that the 
author of the text could not have hesitated to say so, had such 
an idea been the common belief of the early Buddhists. With 
these sections should be compared the similar sections in Chapter 
VI, of which these are perhaps merely an echo. 

There is no comment on nittudana, but there can be little 
doubt that Childers's conjectural reading is correct. ' 



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v. mahA-parinibbAna-sutta. 89 

front of the Tathagata, concealing him, and in his 
last hour we are prevented from beholding the 
Tathagata ; " thus, Ananda, do the spirits murmur.' 

11. ' But of what kind of spirits is the Blessed 
One thinking ?' 

1 2. ' There are spirits, Ananda, in the sky, but of 
worldly mind, who dishevel their hair and weep, who 
stretch forth their arms and weep, who fall prostrate 
on the ground, and roll to and fro in anguish at the 
thought : "Too soon will the Blessed One die ! Too 
soon will the Happy One pass away! Full soon 
will the Light of the world vanish away 1 V" 

1 3. ' There are spirits, too, Ananda, on the earth, 
and of worldly mind, who tear their hair and weep, 
who stretch forth their arms and weep, who fall pros- 
trate on the ground, and roll to and fro in anguish 
at the thought: "Too soon will the Blessed One die! 
Too soon will the Happy One pass away! Full soon 
will the Eye of the world disappear from sight ! " 

14. ' But the spirits who are free from passion bear 
it, calm and self-possessed, mindful of the saying 
which begins, " Impermanent indeed are all compo- 
nent things. How then is it possible [whereas any- 
thing whatever, when born, brought into being, and 

1 JCakkum loke antaradhayissati, on which there is no com- 
ment. It is literally, ' the Eye in the world will vanish away,* where 
Eye is of course used figuratively of that by the aid of which 
spiritual truths can be perceived, corresponding exactly to the 
similar use in Europe of the word Light. The Master is often 
called ^Takkhuma, 'He with the Eye,' 'He of the spiritual Eye' 
(see, for instance, the last verses in this Sutta), and here by a bold 
figure of speech he is called the Eye itself, which was shortly about 
to vanish away from the world, the means of spiritual insight which 
was no longer to be available for the common use of all men. But 
this is, it will be noticed, only the lament of the foolish and 
ignorant. 



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90 THE BOOK OF THE GREAT DECEASE. CH. 

organised, contains within itself the inherent neces- 
sity of dissolution — how then is it possible that such 
a being should not be dissolved ? No such condition 
can exist ! "] 1 

15. 'In times past, Lord, the brethren, when they 
had spent the rainy season in different districts, used 
to come to see the Tathagata, and we used to receive 
those very reverend brethren to audience, and to 
wait upon the Blessed One. But, Lord, after the 
end of the Blessed One, we shall not be able to 
receive those very reverend brethren to audience, 
and to wait upon the Blessed One.' 

16. 'There are these four places, Ananda, which 
the believing man should visit with feelings of rever- 
ence and awe. Which are the four ? 

1 7. ' The place, Ananda, at which the believing 
man can say, "Here the Tathagata was born!" is a 
spot to be visited with feelings of reverence and awe. 

18. ' The place, Ananda, at which the believing 
man can say, " Here the Tathagata attained to the 
supreme and perfect insight!" is a spot to be visited 
with feelings of reverence and awe. 

1 9. ' The place, Ananda, at which the believing 
man can say, " Here was the kingdom of righteous- 
ness set on foot by the Tathagata ! " is a spot to be 
visited with feelings of reverence and awe. 

20. ' The place, Ananda, at which the believing 
man can say, " Here the Tathagata passed finally 
away in that utter passing away which leaves nothing 
whatever to remain behind !" is a spot to be visited 
with feelings of reverence and awe. 

1 The words in brackets have been inserted from par. Ill, 63 
above. See par. VI, 39 below. 



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•M~. 



v. MAHA-PARINIBBANA-SUTTA. 9 1 

21. ' And there will come, Ananda, to such spots, 
believers, brethren and sisters of the order, or devout 
men and devout women, and will say, " Here was 
the Tathagata born !" or, "Here did the Tathagata 
attain to the supreme and perfect insight! " or, " Here 
was the kingdom of righteousness set on foot by the 
Tathagata !" or, " Here the Tathagata passed away 
in that utter passing away which leaves nothing 
whatever to remain behind ! " 

22. 'And they, Ananda, who shall die while they, 
with believing heart, are journeying on such pilgrim- 
age, shall be reborn after death, when the body shall 
dissolve, in the happy realms of heaven.' 

23. ' How are we to conduct ourselves, Lord, 
with regard to womankind?' 

' Don't see them, Ananda.' 
' But if we should see them, what are we to do ?' 
' Abstain from speech, Ananda.' 
' But if they should speak to us, Lord, what are 
we to do ?' 

' Keep wide awake, Ananda.' 



24. ' What are we to do, Lord, with the remains 
of the Tathagata ?' 

' Hinder not yourselves, Ananda, by honouring 
the remains of the Tathagata. Be zealous, I beseech 
you, Ananda, in your own behalf! Devote your- 
selves to your own good ! Be earnest, be zealous, 
be intent on your own good ! There are wise men, 
Ananda, among the nobles, among the Brahmans, 
among the heads of houses, who are firm believers 
in the Tathagata ; and they will do due honour to 
the remains of the Tathagata.' 



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92 THE BOOK OF THE GREAT DECEASE. CH. 

25. 1 ' What should be done, Lord, with the 
remains of the Tathagata ?' 

'As men treat the remains of a king of kings, 
so, Ananda, should they treat the remains of a 
Tathagata.' 

' And how, Lord, do they treat the remains of a 
king of kings 2 ?' 

26. 'They wrap the body of a king of kings, 
Ananda, in a new cloth. When that is done they 
wrap it in carded cotton wool 3 . When that is done 
they wrap it in a new cloth, — and so on till they have 
wrapped the body in five hundred successive layers 
of both kinds. Then they place the body in an oil 
vessel of iron *, and cover that close up with another 

1 This conversation occurs also below (VI, 33), and the older 
tradition probably had it only in that connection. 

2 King of kings is an inadequate rendering of ^akkavatti Ra^S. 
It is a king whose power no other king can dispute, who is the 
acknowledged overlord in India. The idea can scarcely have 
existed before Aandragupta, the first ^"akravarti, had raised himself 
to power. This passage, therefore, is a guide to the date at which 
the MahS-parinibbana Sutta assumed its present form. 

3 Vihatena kappisendtisupho/itena kapp&sena: KSsika- 
vatthaw? hi sukhumatta telaw na ganhati, tasma" vihatena 
kappisend ti aha. 'As Benares cloth, by reason of its fineness 
of texture, does not take the oil, he therefore says, "with vihata 
cotton wool," that is, with cotton wool that has been well forced 
asunder.' That p ho /it a is here the participle of the causal verb, 
and not of the simple verb, follows of necessity from its being 
used as an explanation of vihata, ' torn to pieces.' The technical 
use of the word, as applied to cotton wool, has only been found in 
this passage. It usually means ' torn with grief.' 

4 Ayas&ya tela-do«iy£, where one would expect &yas&ya, but 
my MS. of the Dtgha Nikiya confirms twice over here, and twice 
again below, | VI, 33, 35, the reading given by Childers. Buddha- 
ghosa says, Ayasan ti suvawwaw, suvawwamhi idha Syasan 
ti adhippeto, but here again we should expect the second time 
to find ayo or ay a saw. The meaning of the word is also not 



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V. MAHA-PARINIBBANA-SUTTA. 93 

oil vessel of iron \ They then build a funeral pile 
of all kinds of perfumes, and burn the body of the 
king of kings. And then at the four cross roads 
they erect a dagaba 2 to the king of kings. This, 
Ananda, is the way in which they treat the remains 
of a king of kings. 

' And as they treat the remains of a king of kings, 
so, Ananda, should they treat the remains of the 
Tathagata. At the four cross roads a dagaba should 
be erected to the Tathagata. And whosoever shall 
there place garlands or perfumes or paint, or make 
salutation there, or become in its presence calm in 
heart — that shall long be to them for a profit and 
a joy.' 

27. 'These men, Ananda, worthy of a dagaba 2 , 
are four in number. Which are the four ? 

' A Tathagata, or Arahat-Buddha, is worthy of a 
dagaba. A Pa^eka-Buddha is worthy of a dagaba 3 . 

quite clear. It no doubt was originally used for bronze, and only later 
for iron also, and at last exclusively of iron. As kaw»sa is already a 
common word for bronze in very early Buddhist Pali texts, I think 
Syasa or ayasa must here mean 'of iron.' When Buddhaghosa 
says it is here a name for gold, we can only conclude that iron 
had become, in his time, a metal which he might fairly consider 
too base for the purpose proposed. 

1 Buddhaghosa has no note on pa/iku^etvd; but from its use 
at (xataka I, 50, 29 : 69, 23, it must, I think, have this meaning. 
I am not certain to what root it ought to be referred. I should 
mention that pakkhipati seems to me never to mean in Pali, 'to 
hurl forth into, to throw forth,' but always ' to place (slowly and 
carefully) into.' 

8 A solid mound or tumulus, in the midst of which the bones and 
ashes are to be placed. The dome of St. Paul's as seen from the 
Thames Embankment gives a very good idea of one of the later 
Buddhist digabas. The Pali word here and below is Thupa. 

' A Pa^eka-Buddha, who has attained to the supreme and per- 
fect insight; but dies without proclaiming the truth to the world. 



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94 THE BOOK OF THE GREAT DECEASE. CH. 

A true hearer of the Tathagata is worthy of a dl- 
gaba. A king of kings is worthy of a digaba. 

28. ' And on account of what circumstance, 
Ananda, is a Tathagata, an Arahat-Buddha, worthy 
of a digaba ? 

' At the thought, Ananda, " This is the digaba 
of that Blessed One, of that Arahat-Buddha," the 
hearts of many shall be made calm and happy ; 
and since they there had calmed and satisfied their 
hearts they will be reborn after death, when the 
body has dissolved, in the happy realms of heaven. 
It is on account of this circumstance, Ananda, that 
a Tathagata, an Arahat-Buddha, is worthy of a 
dagaba.' 

29. ' And on account of what circumstance, 
Ananda, is a Pa^ieka-Buddha worthy of a digaba ? 

' At the thought, Ananda, " This is the digaba of 
that Blessed One, of that Pa^ieka-Buddha," the 
hearts of many shall be made calm and happy ; and 
since they there had calmed and satisfied their 
hearts they will be reborn after death, when the 
body has dissolved, in the happy realms of heaven. 
It is on account of this circumstance, Ananda, that 
a Pa>&£eka-Buddha is worthy of a digaba. 

30. ' And on account of what circumstance, 

A 

Ananda, is a true hearer of the Blessed One, the 
Arahat-Buddha, worthy of a digaba ? 

' At the thought, Ananda, " This is the digaba of 
that true hearer of the Blessed Arahat-Buddha," the 
hearts of many shall be made calm and happy ; and 
since they there had calmed and satisfied their hearts 
they will be reborn after death, when the body has 
dissolved, in the happy realms of heaven. It is on 
account of this circumstance, Ananda, that a true 



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V. MAHA-PARINIBBANA-SUTTA. 95 

hearer of the Blessed One, the Arahat-Buddha, is 
worthy of a dagaba. 

31. 'And on account of what circumstance, 
Ananda, is a king of kings worthy of a dagaba ? 

' At the thought, Ananda, " This is the dagaba of 
that righteous king who ruled in righteousness," the 
hearts of many shall be made calm and happy ; and 
since they there had calmed and satisfied their 
hearts they will be reborn after death, when the 
body has dissolved, in the happy realms of heaven. 
It is on account of this circumstance, Ananda, that 
a king of kings is worthy of a dagaba. 

' These four, Ananda, are the persons worthy of 
a dagaba.' 

32. ' Now the venerable Ananda went into the 
Vihara, and stood leaning against the lintel of the 
door 1 , and weeping at the thought : "Alas! I remain 
still but a learner, one who has yet to work out his 
own perfection 2 . And the Master is about to pass 
away from me — he who is so kind ! " ' 

33. Now the Blessed One called the brethren, 
and said : ' Where, then, brethren, is Ananda ?' 

The venerable Ananda, Lord, has gone into the 

1 Kapisisaw. Buddhaghosa says, Kapistsakan ti dv£ra- 
b&ha-ko/iyaz» /Aitam aggala-rukkhaw, 'apiece of wood fixed 
as a bolt at the top of the door posts.' The Sanskrit lexicographers 
give kapi-jtrsha in the sense of 'coping of a wall.' Compare 
Patimokkha, Pi^ittiya, No. 19. 

The expression that Ananda went 'into the VihSra' at the end of 
a conversation represented as having taken place in the S&la Grove, 
would seem to point to the fact that this episode originally stood 
in some other connection. Buddhaghosa attempts to explain away 
the discrepancy by saying that Vihara here means Mawrfala. 

a Ananda had entered the Noble Path, but had not yet reached 
the end of it. He had not attained to Nirvana. 



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96 THE BOOK OF THE GREAT DECEASE. CH. 

Vihara, and stands leaning against the lintel of the 
door, and weeping at the thought : ' Alas ! I remain 
still but a learner, one who has yet to work out his 
own perfection. And the Master is about to pass 
away from me — he who is so kind !' 

34. And the Blessed One called a certain brother, 
and said : ' Go now, brother, and call Ananda in my 
name, and say, " Brother Ananda, the Master calls 
for thee."' 

'Even so, Lord!' said that brother, in assent, to 
the Blessed One. And he went up to the place 
where the Blessed One was ; and when he had come 
there, he said to the venerable Ananda : ' Brother 
Ananda, the Master calls for thee.' 

''Very well, brother,' said the venerable Ananda, 
in assent, to that brother. And he went up to the 
place where the Blessed One was, and when he had 
come there, he bowed down before the Blessed One, 
and took his seat respectfully on one side. 

35. Then the Blessed One said to the venerable 
Ananda, as he sat there by his side : ' Enough, 
Ananda ! Do not let yourself be troubled ; do not 
weep ! Have I not already, on former occasions, told 
you that it is in the very nature of all things most 
near and dear unto us that we must divide ourselves 
from them, leave them, sever ourselves from them ? 
How, then, Ananda, can this be possible — whereas 
anything whatever born7 brought into being, and 
organised, contains within itself the inherent neces- 
sity of dissolution — how, then, can this be possible, 
that such a being should not be dissolved ? No 
such condition can exist ! For a long time, Ananda, 
have you been very near to me by acts of love, 
kind and good, that never varies, and is beyond all 



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v. mahA-parinibbAna-sutta. 97 

measure. For a long time, Ananda, have you been 
very near to me by words of love, kind and good, 
that never varies, and is beyond all measure. For 
a long time, Ananda, have you been very near 
to me by thoughts of love, kind and good, that 
never varies \ and is beyond all measure. You 
have done well, Ananda ! Be earnest in effort, and 
you too shall soon be free from the great evils — from V 
sensuality, from individuality, from delusion, and 
from ignorance 2 !' 



36. 3 Then the Blessed One addressed the bre- 
thren, and said : ' Whosoever, brethren, have been 
Arahat-Buddhas through the long ages of the past, 
there were servitors just as devoted to those Blessed 
Ones as Ananda has been to me. And whosoever, 
brethren, shall be Arahat-Buddhas in the long ages 
of the future, there shall be servitors just as devoted 
to those Blessed Ones as Ananda has been to me. 

37. 'He is a wise man, brethren, — is Ananda. 

1 Advayena, which Buddhaghosa explains as not being that 
kind of love which is now one thing and now another, or which 
varies in the presence or the absence of the object loved. When 
the Buddha is called in the Amara Kosha I, 1, 1, 9, advaya- 
vidin.that must mean in a similar way, 'One whose teaching does 
not vary.' 

a Literally, thou shalt become an An&sava, that is, one who is 
free from the four Asavas, all which are explained above in § 1, 1 2, 
from which I have taken the details suggested to a Buddhist by 
the word used. The state of mind to which an AnSsava has 
reached is precisely the same, though looked at from a different 
point of view, as the state of mind expressed by the better known 
word Nirvawa. 

* What follows is repeated in the SatipatthSwa Vagga of the 
Sawyutta Nikaya; but in regard to Sariputta (Upatissa) and 
Moggallana, and reading savaka-yugaw for upa//Mko. 
[11] H 



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98 THE BOOK OF THE GREAT DECEASE. CH. 

He knows when it is the right time for him to come 
and visit the Tathagata, and when it is the right 
time for the brethren and sisters of the order, for 
devout men and devout women, for a king, or for a 
king's ministers, for other teachers or their disciples, 
to come and visit the Tathagata. 

38. ' Brethren, there are these four wonderful and 
marvellous qualities in Ananda. Which are the four ? 

' If, brethren, a number of the brethren of the 
order should come to visit Ananda, they are filled 
with joy on beholding him ; and if Ananda should 
then preach the truth to them, they are filled with 
joy at the discourse ; while the company of brethren 
is ill at ease, brethren, when Ananda is silent. 

' If, brethren, a number of the sisters of the 
order, or of devout men, or of devout women, 
should come to visit Ananda, they are filled with 
joy on beholding him ; and if Ananda should then 
preach the truth to them, they are filled with joy at 
the discourse ; while the company of sisters is ill at 
ease, brethren, when Ananda is silent. 

39. ' Brethren, there are these four wonderful 
and marvellous qualities in a king of kings. What 
are the four ? 

' If, brethren, a number of nobles, or Brahman, or 
heads of houses, or Sama«as should come to visit 
a king of kings, they are filled with joy on behold- 
ing him; and if the king of kings should then speak, 
they are filled with joy at what is said ; while they 
are ill at ease, brethren, when the king of kings is 
silent. 

40. ' Just so, brethren, are the four wonderful and 
marvellous qualities in Ananda. 

' If, brethren, a number of the brethren of the 



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V. MAHA-PARINIBBANA-SUTTA. 99 

order, or of the sisters of the order, or of devout 
men, or of devout women, should come to visit 
Ananda, they are filled with joy on beholding him ; 
and if Ananda should then preach the truth to them, 
they are filled with joy at the discourse ; while the 
company of brethren is ill at ease, brethren, when 
Ananda is silent. 

' Now these, brethren, are the four wonderful and 

A 

marvellous qualities that are in Ananda.' 



41. When he had thus spoken 1 , the venerable 
Ananda said to the Blessed One : 

' Let not the Blessed One die in this little wattel 
and daub town, in this town in the midst of the 
jungle, in this branch township 2 . For, Lord, there 
are other' great cities, such as Aampa, RcL^agaha, 
Savatthi, Saketa, Kosambi, and Benares. Let the 
Blessed One die in one of them. There there are 
many wealthy nobles and Brihmans and heads of 
houses, believers in the Tathagata, who will pay due 
honour to the remains of the Tathagata V 

1 From here down to the end of section 44 is found also, nearly 
word for word, in the beginning of the Maha-Sudassana Sutta, 
translated below; compare also Maha-Sudassana Gataka, No. 95. 

1 Kutft/a-nagarake ti pa/irupake sambadhe khuddaka- 
nagare: llg^ahgala-nagarake ti visama-nagarake. (S.V.fol. 
than.) Kutfa, if this explanation be right, seems to be merely an 
old and unusual form for kshudra, and the Burmese correction 
into khudda to be unnecessary: but I venture to think it is more 
likely ,to be=ku</y a, and to mean a wall built of mud and sticks, or 
what is called in India, of wattel and daub. When Buddhaghosa 
explains u^ahgala as 'lawless,' he is expressing his view that 
a town in the jungle is likely to be a heathen, pagan sort of 
place. 

3 With reference to Childers's note in his Dictionary on maha- 
sal£, with which every one must entirely agree, Buddhaghosa's 

H 2 



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IOO THE BOOK OF THE GREAT DECEASE. CH 

A A 

42. 'Say not so, Ananda! Say not so, Ananda, that 
this is but a small wattel and daub town, a town in 
the midst of the jungle, a branch township. Long 
ago, Ananda, there was a king, by name Mahi-Sudas- 
sana, a king of kings, a righteous man who ruled in 
righteousness, Lord of the four quarters of the earth, 
conqueror, the protector of his people, possessor of 
the seven royal treasures. This Kusin&ra, Ananda, 
was the royal city of king Maha-Sudassana, under the 
name of Kusavatl, and on the east and on the west it 
was twelve leagues in length, and on the north and on 
the south it was seven leagues in breadth. 

43. 'That royal city Kusavatl, Ananda, was mighty, 
and prosperous, and full of people, crowded with 
men, and provided with all things for food 1 . Just, 
Ananda, as the royal city of the gods, A/akamanda 
by name, is mighty, prosperous, and full of people, 
crowded with the gods, and provided with all kinds 
of food, so, Ananda, was the royal city Kusavatl 
mighty and prosperous, full of people, crowded 
with men, and provided with all kinds of food. 

44. ' Both by day and by night, Ananda, the royal 
city Kusavatl resounded with the ten cries ; that is 
to say, the noise of elephants, and the noise of 
horses, and the noise of chariots ; the sounds of the 

explanation of the word will be interesting as a proof (if proof 
be needed) that the Ceylon scholars are not always trustworthy. 
He says, Khattiya-mah&sai£ ti khattiya-mah&s&ri sara- 
pattS mah&-khattiy3. Eso nayo sabbattha. 

1 The first three of these adjectives are applied at G&taka. I, 29 
(v. 212) to the religion of the Buddhas; and I think the right 
reading there must be phtta/n, in accordance with the corrections 
in two MSS. as noted by Mr. Fausb6ll, and not ptta«i as he 
has preferred to read. The whole set of epithets is often used 
of cities. 



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V. MAHA-PARIXIBBANA-SITTTA. IOI 

drum, of the tabor, and of the lute ; the sound of 
singing, and the sounds of the cymbal and of the 
gong ; and lastly, with the cry, " Eat, drink, and be 
merry * ! " 



45. ' Go now, Ananda, and enter into Kusinara, 
and inform the Mallas of Kusinara, saying, "This 
day, O Vase/Z^as, in the last watch of the night, the 
final passing away of the Tathagata will take place. 
Be favourable herein, O Vase//>6as, be favourable. 
Give no occasion to reproach yourselves hereafter, 
saying, ' In our own village did the death of our 
Tathagata take place, and we took not the opportu- 
nity of visiting the Tathagata in his last hours.' " ' 

' Even so, Lord,' said the venerable Ananda, in 
assent, to the Blessed One ; and he robed himself, 
and taking his bowl 2 , entered into Kusinara attended 
by another member of the order. 

1 This enumeration is found also at (Tataka, p. 3, only that the 
conch shell is added there — wrongly, for that makes the number of 
cries eleven. The Maha-Sudassana Sutta has in the corresponding 
passage, like the Burmese MS. noted here by Ghilders, conch 
instead of cymbal. My MS. reads cymbal here. 

* Nivasetva patta-iivaraw adaya atta-dutiyo. Buddha- 
ghosa has, naturally enough, no comment on this oft-recurring 
phrase. It cannot be meant that he put on only his under-gar- 
ments, and carried his upper robe with him ; for then his shoulders 
would have been bare ; and it is quite against the rules to go into 
a village without all the robes having been put carefully on (Pati- 
mokkha, Sekhiya 1-3). I do not even understand how Ananda, 
with due regard to the rules of the brotherhood (see Patimokkha, 
Nisaggiya 21-29), could have had a spare robe then with him. 
And patta-^tvaraw can scarcely mean simply 'bowl-robe,' refer- 
ring to the length of cotton cloth in which the bowl was carried 
over the shoulder ('Buddhist Birth Stories,' p. 71). 'With both 
his under-garments on, he entered Kusinara duly bowled and robed' 
may be impossible English, but it probably correctly catches the 



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102 THE BOOK OF THE GREAT DECEASE. CH. 

46. Now at that time the Mallas of Kusinara 
were assembled in the council hall on some public 
affair \ 

A 

And the venerable Ananda went to the council 
hall of the Mallas of Kusinara ; and when he had 
arrived there, he informed them, saying, ' This 
day, O Vase#/*as, in the last watch of the night, 
the final passing away of the Tathagata will take 
place. Be favourable herein, O Vase#/ias, be 
favourable. Give no occasion to reproach your- 
selves hereafter, saying, " In our own village did 
the death of our Tathagata take place, and we took 
not the opportunity of visiting the Tathagata in his 
last hours." ' 

47. And when they had heard this saying of the 
venerable Ananda, the Mallas with their young men 
and maidens and their wives were grieved, and sad, 
and afflicted at heart. And some of them wept, dis- 
hevelling their hair, and stretched forth their arms 
and wept, fell prostrate on the ground, and rolled 
to and fro in anguish at the thought : ' Too soon 
will the Blessed One die ! Too soon will the Happy 
One pass away! Full soon will the Light of the 
world vanish away!' 



48. Then the Mallas, with their young men and 

idea involved, though of course one (at least) of the under-cloths 
had been put on long before. See p. 122. AThera never goes 
about in public alone, he is always accompanied by a Samawera. 
1 Kena^id eva kara«iyena. Professor Pischel, in his edition 
of the Assalayana Sutta (p. 1), prints this expression kenaii deva- 
karawtyena, and translates, it (p. 28), 'for some religious pur- 
poses.' It seems to me that he has been misled by the commentary, 
which really presupposes the more correct division adopted by 
Childers. 



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v. MAHA-PARINIBBANA-SUTTA. 103 

maidens and their wives, being grieved and sad 
and afflicted at heart, went to the Sala Grove of the 
Mallas, to the Upavattana, and to the place where 
the venerable Ananda was. 

A 

49. Then the venerable Ananda thought : 'If 
I allow the Mallas of Kusinara, one by one, to pay 
their respects to the Blessed One, the whole of the 
Mallas of Kusinara will not have been presented to 
the Blessed One until this night brightens up into the 
dawn. Let me, now, cause the Mallas of Kusinara 
to stand in groups, each family in a group, and so 
present them to the Blessed One, saying, " Lord ! a 
Malla of such and such a name, with his children, 
his wives, his retinue, and his friends, humbly bows 
down at the feet of the Blessed One." ' 

50. And the venerable Ananda caused the Mallas 
of Kusinara to stand in groups, each family in a 
group, and so presented them to the Blessed One, and 
said : ' Lord ! a Malla of such and such a name, with 
his children, his wives, his retinue, and his friends, 
humbly bows down at the feet of the Blessed One.' 

51. And after this manner the venerable Ananda 
presented all the Mallas of Kusinara to the Blessed 
One in the first watch of the night. 



52. Now at that time a mendicant named Su- 
bhadda, who was not a believer, was dwelling at 
Kusinara. And the mendicant Subhadda heard 
the news : ' This very day, they say, in the third 
watch of the night, will take place the final passing 
away of the Sama«a Gotama.' 

53. Then thought the mendicant Subhadda : 
' This have I heard from fellow mendicants of 
mine, old and well stricken in years, teachers and 



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104 THE BOOK OF THE GREAT DECEASE. CH. 

disciples, when they said : " Sometimes and full 
seldom do Tathagatas appear in the world, the 
Arahat Buddhas." Yet this day, in the last watch 
of the night, the final passing away of the Sama#a 
Gotama will take place. Now a certain feeling of 
uncertainty has sprung up in my mind ; and this 
faith have I in the Samawa Gotama, that' he, me- 
thinks, is able so to present the truth that I may 
get rid of this feeling of uncertainty.' 

54. Then the mendicant Subhadda went to the 
Sala Grove of the Mallas, to the Upavattana of Kusi- 
nara, to the place where the venerable Ananda was. 

55. And when he had come there he said to the 
venerable Ananda : ' Thus have I heard from fellow 
mendicants of mine, old and well stricken in years, 
teachers and disciples, when they said : " Sometimes 
and full seldom do Tathagatas appear in the world, 
the Arahat Buddhas." Yet this day, in the last watch 
of the night, the final passing away of the Sama«a 
Gotama will take place. Now a certain feeling of 
uncertainty has sprung up in my mind ; and this faith 
have I in the Samawa Gotama, that he, methinks, is 
able so to present the truth that I may get rid of this 
feeling of uncertainty. O that I, even I, Ananda, 
might be allowed to see the Sama«a Gotama ! ' 

56. And when he had thus spoken the vener- 
able Ananda said to the mendicant Subhadda : 
' Enough ! friend Subhadda. Trouble not the Tatha- 
gata. The Blessed One is weary.' 

57. And again the mendicant Subhadda [made the 
same request in the same words, and received the 
same reply]; and the third time the mendicant 
Subhadda [made the same request in the same 
words, and received the same reply]* 



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v. MAHA-PARINIBBANA-SUTTA. IO5 

58. Now the Blessed One overheard this con- 
versation of the venerable Ananda with the men- 
dicant Subhadda. And the Blessed One called 
the venerable Ananda, and said : ' It is enough, 
Ananda ! Do not keep out Subhadda. Subhadda, 
Ananda, may be allowed to see the Tathagata. 
Whatever Subhadda may ask of me, he will ask 
from a desire for knowledge, and not to annoy me. 
And whatever I may say in answer to his questions, 
that he will quickly understand.' 

59. Then the venerable Ananda said to Subhadda, 
the mendicant : ' Enter in, friend Subhadda ; for 
the Blessed One gives you leave.' 

60. Then Subhadda, the mendicant, went in to 
the place where the Blessed One was, and saluted 
him courteously, and after( exchanging with him the 
compliments of esteem and of civility, he took his 
seat on one side. ) And when he was thus seated, 
Subhadda, the mendicant, said to the Blessed One : 
' The Brahmans by saintliness of life 1 , Gotama, who 

1 Samawa-brahma«a, which compound may possibly mean 
Sama«as and Brahmans as it has usually been rendered, but I think 
not necessarily. Not one of those here specified were Brahmans 
by caste, as is apparent from the Sumangala Vilasint on the Sa- 
mamma Phala Sutta, p. 114. Compare the use of Kshatriya- 
brahmawo-, 'a soldier priest,' a Kshatriya who offered sacrifice; 
and of Brahmawo, absolutely, as an epithet of an Arahat. In 
the use of the word sama«a there seems to me to be a hopeless 
confusion between, a complete mingling of the meanings of, the 
two roots .tram and jam (which, in Pali, would both become sam). 
It connotes both asceticism and inward peace, and might best be 
rendered ' devotee,' were it not for the intellectual inferiority im- 
plied by that won 4 in our language. A Sama»a Brahman should 
therefore mean a man of any caste, who by his saintliness of life, 
by his renunciation of the world, and by his reputation as a reli- 
gious thinker, had acquired the position of a quasi Brahman, and 



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106 THE BOOK OF THE GREAT DECEASE. CH. 

are heads of companies of disciples and students, 
teachers of students, well known, renowned, founders 
of schools of doctrine, esteemed as good men by the 
multitude — to wit, Pura«a Kassapa, Makkhali of the 
cattle-pen, Afita of the garment of hair, Ka££ayana 
of the Pakudha tree, Sa«^aya the son of the Be- 
la/^i slave-girl, and Niga#A&a of. the Natha clan 
— have they all, according to their own assertion, 
thoroughly understood things ? or have they not ? 
or are there some of them who have understood, 
and some who have not * ? ' 

6 1. 'Enough, Subhadda! Let this matter rest 
whether they, according to their own assertion, 
have thoroughly understood things, or whether 
they have not, or whether some of them have 
understood and some have not ! The truth, Ananda, 
will I teach you. Listen well to that, and give 
ear attentively, and I will speak.' 

' Even so, Lord ! ' said the mendicant Subhadda, 
in assent, to the Blessed One. 

62. And the Blessed One spake : 'In whatso- 
ever doctrine and discipline, Subhadda, the noble 
eightfold path is not found, neither in it is there 
found a man of true saintliness of the first or of 
the second or of the third or of the fourth degree 2 . 

was looked up to by the people in the same way as that in which 
they looked up to a Brahman by caste. Compare further my 
'Buddhist Birth Stories,' vol. i. p. 260; and also Mr. Beal's remarks 
in the Indian Antiquary for May, 1880; and Professor Max 
Miiller's note on Dhammapada, verse 265. 

1 Buddhaghosa has an exegetical note on abbhawnamsu, but 
passes over those celebrated Six Teachers in silence. The little 
that is thus far known of them will be discussed in another place. 

2 This refers to the four divisions of the Noble Eightfold Path. 
See above, chap. II, § 8, where their characters are described. The 



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V. MAHA-PARINIBBANA-SUTTA. \OJ 

And in whatsoever doctrine and discipline, Su- 
bhadda, the noble eightfold path is found, is found 
the man of true saintliness of the first and the 
second and the third and the fourth degree. Now 
in this doctrine and discipline, Subhadda, is found 
the noble eightfold path, and in it alone, Subhadda, 
is the man of true saintliness. Void are the sys- 
tems of other teachers — void of true saints. And 
in this one, Subhadda, may the brethren live the 
Life that's Right, so that the world be not bereft of 
Arahats \ 



word translated ' man of true saintliness,' or ' true saint/ is in the 
text Sama«o, on which see the note on page 105. I am at a loss 
how to render the word adequately here. 

1 Arahats are those who have reached Nirva«a, the 'supreme 
goal,' the ' highest fruit ' of the Noble Eightfold Path. To live 
' the Life that's Right' (samma) is to live in the Noble Path, each 
of the eight divisions of which is to be sammi, round, right and 
perfect, normal and complete. To live right (samma) is therefore 
to have — 1. Right views, free from superstition. 2. Right aims, v 

high and worthy of the intelligent and earnest man. 3. Right j / < 
speech, kindly, open, truthful. 4. Right conduct, in all concerns 
of life. 5. Right livelihood, bringing hurt or danger to no living 
thing. 6. Right perseverance, in all the other seven. 7. Right 
mindfulness, the watchful, active mind. 8. Right contemplation, 
earnest thought on the deep mysteries of life. In each of these 
the word right is sammi, and the whole paragraph being on the 
Noble Path, the allusion is certainly to this central doctrine of the 
Buddhist Dhamma. 

Buddhaghosa says that that bhikkhu samma 1 viharati, who, 
having himself entered the Noble Path, leads his brother into it, 
and this is, no doubt, good Buddhism. But it is a practical appli- 
cation of the text, a theological exegesis, and not a philological 
explanation. Even so it seems to lay the stress too much on 
'bereft,' and too little on 'Arahats.' 

In the last words of the prose we seem to have a reminiscence 
of what were once verses, which may have run — 
SuMwa 1 pavada samawehi awwe; 



/' 



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I08 THE BOOK OF THE GREAT DECEASE. CH. 

' But twenty-nine was I when I renounced 
The world, Subhadda, seeking after good. 
For fifty years and one year more, Subhadda, 
Since I went out, a pilgrim have I been 
Through the wide realms of virtue and of truth, 
And outside these no really "saint" can be 1 ! 
' Yea, not of the first, nor of the second, nor of the 
third, nor of the fourth degree. Void are the systems 
of other teachers — void of true saints. But in this 
one, Subhadda, may the brethren live the perfect 
life, that the world be not bereft of those who have 
reached the highest fruit.' 

63. And when he had thus spoken, Subhadda, 
the mendicant, said to the Blessed One : ' Most 
excellent, Lord, are the words of thy mouth, most 
excellent! Just as if a man were to set up that 
which is thrown down, or were to reveal that which 
is hidden away, or were to point out the right road 
to him who has gone astray, or were to bring a 
lamp into the darkness, so that those who have eyes 
can see external forms ; — just even so, Lord, has 
the truth been made known to me, in many a figure, 
by the Blessed One. And I, even I, betake myself. 
Lord, to the Blessed One as my refuge, to the 
truth, and to the order. May the Blessed One 
accept me as a disciple, as a true believer, from this 
day forth, as long as life endures !' 

Ime ka. sammi vihareyyu bhikkhu, 

Asunwo loko 'rahatehi assa. 
1 I have followed, though with some doubt, Childers's punctua- 
tion. Buddhaghosa refers padesa-vattl to samano; and it o, 
not to padesa, but to magga, understood ; and it is quite pos- 
sible that this is the correct explanation. On samadhikani see 
the comment at Gataka II, 383. 



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V. MAHA-PARINIBBANA-SUTTA. 109 

64. 'Whosoever, Subhadda, that has formerly been 
a follower of another doctrine and then desires to be 
received into the higher or the lower grade in this 
doctrine and discipline, he remains on probation 
for the space of four months ; and at the end of the 
four months, the brethren, exalted in spirit, receive 
him into the lower or into the higher grade of the 
order. Nevertheless in this case I acknowledge the 
difference in persons.' 

65. 'If, Lord, whosoever that has formerly been 
a follower of another doctrine and then desires 
to be received into the higher or the lower grade 
in this doctrine and discipline, — if, in that case, 
such a person remains on probation for the space 
of four months; and at the end of the four 
months, the brethren, exalted in spirit, receive 
him into the lower or into the higher grade of the 
order — I too, then, will remain on probation for the 
space of four months ; and at the end of the four 
months let the brethren, exalted in spirit, receive 
me into the lower or into the higher grade of the 
order !' 

66. But the Blessed One called the venerable 
Ananda, and said : ' As it is, Ananda, receive Su- 
bhadda into the order!' 

'Even so, Lord!' said the venerable Ananda, in 
assent, to the Blessed One. 

67. And Subhadda, the mendicant, said to the vene- 

A A 

rable Ananda : ' Great is your gain, friend Ananda, 
great is your good fortune, friend Ananda, that you 
all have been sprinkled with the sprinkling of dis- 
cipleship in this brotherhood at the hands of the 
Master himself!' 

68. So Subhadda, the mendicant, was received 



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IIO THE BOOK OF THE GREAT DECEASE. CH. 

into the higher grade of the order under the Blessed 
One ; and from immediately after his ordination the 
venerable Subhadda remained alone and separate, 
earnest, zealous, and resolved. And e'er long he 
attained to that supreme goal of the higher life 1 for 
the sake of which men go out from all and every 
household gain and comfort to become houseless 
wanderers — yea, that supreme goal did he, by him- 
self, and while yet in this visible world, bring him- 
self to the knowledge of, and continue to realise, and 
to see face to face ! And he became conscious that 
birth was at an end, that the higher life had been 
fulfilled, that all that should be done had been 
accomplished, and that after this present life there 
would be no beyond! 

69. So the venerable Subhadda became yet another 
among the Arahats ; and he was the last disciple 
whom the Blessed One himself converted 2 . 



End of the Hira»»avatiya portion, being the 
Fifth Portion for Recitation. 



1 That is, Nirv4«a. Compare Mahgala Sutta V, n, and the 
Dhammapada, verses 180, 354, and above Chap. I, § 7. 

8 Buddhaghosa says that the last five words in the text (the last 
twelve words in my translation) were added by the Theras who 
held the Council. On Subhadda's ordination he has the following 
interesting note: 'The Thero (that is, Ananda), they say, took 
him on one side, poured water over his head from a water vessel, 
made him repeat the formula of meditation on the impermanency 
of the body (Ta£a-paw£aka-kamma//Mna«; see my "Buddhist 
Birth Stories," p. 161), shaved off his hair and beard, clad him in 
the yellow robes, made him repeat the " Three Refuges," and led 
him back to the Blessed One. The Blessed One himself admitted 
him then into the higher rank of the brotherhood, and pointed out 
to him a subject for meditation (kammaZ/Mnaw; see "Buddhist 



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V. MAHA-PARINIBBANA-SUTTA. Ill 

Birth Stories," p. 147). He accepted this, and walking up and 
down in a quiet part of the grove, he thought and meditated upon 
it, till overcoming the Evil Spirit, he had acquired Arahatship, and 
with it the discriminating knowledge of all the Scriptures (Pa/i- 
sambhida). Then, returning, he came and took his seat beside 
the Blessed One.' 

According to this, no set ceremony for ordination (Sangha- 
kammaffi), as laid down in the Vinaya, took place ; and it is other- 
wise probable that no such ceremony was usual in the earliest days 
of Buddhism. 



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112 THE BOOK OF THE GREAT DECEASE. CH. 



Chapter VI. 

i. Now the Blessed One addressed the venerable 
Ananda, and said : 'It may be, Ananda, that in some 
of you the thought may arise, " The word of the 
Master is ended, we have no teacher more ! " But 
it is not thus, Ananda, that you should regard it. 
The truths and the rules of the order which I 
have set forth and laid down for you all, let them, 
after I am gone, be the Teacher to you.' 



2. 'Ananda! when I am gone address not one 
another in the way in which the brethren have 
heretofore addressed each other — with the epithet, 
that is, of "Avuso" (Friend). A younger brother 
may be addressed by an elder with his name, or his 
family name, or the title " Friend." But an elder 
should be addressed by a younger brother as " Lord " 
or as " Venerable Sir." ' 



3. 'When I am gone, Ananda, let the order, if 
it should so wish, abolish all the lesser and minor 
precepts V 

4. 'When I am gone, Ananda, let the higher 
penalty be imposed on brother A^anna.' 

' But what, Lord, is the higher penalty ?' 

1 In .Sulla Vagga XI, 1, 9, 10, is related how the brotherhood 
formally considered the permission thus accorded to them, and 
resolved to adhere to all the precepts as laid down in the Buddha's 
lifetime. In his comment on this passage Buddhaghosa incident- 
ally refers to a conversation on the subject between Nagasena and 
Milinda Ra^a, but makes no mention of the work known as Milinda 
Pawha. Compare Trenckner's edition of that work, p. 142. 



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VI. MAHA-PARINIBBANA-SUTTA. II3 

' Let A^anna say whatever he may like, Ananda, 
the brethren should -.neither speak to him, nor 
exhort him, nor admonish him 1 .' 



5. Then the Blessed One addressed the brethren, 
and said : 'It may be, brethren, that there may be 
doubt or misgiving in the mind of some brother as 
to the Buddha, or the truth, or the path, or the 
way. Enquire, brethren, freely. Do not have to 
reproach yourselves afterwards with the thought, 
" Our teacher was face to face with us, and we 
could not bring ourselves to enquire of the Blessed 
One when we were face to face with him." ' 

And when he had thus spoken the brethren were 
silent. 

6. And again the second and the third time the 
Blessed One addressed the brethren, and said : ' It 
may be, brethren, that there may be doubt or mis- 
giving in the mind of some brother as to the Buddha, 
or the truth, or the path, or the way. Enquire, 
brethren, freely. Do not have to reproach your- 
selves afterwards with the thought, " Our teacher 
was face to face with us, and we could not bring 
ourselves to enquire of the Blessed One when we 
were face to face with him.'" 

And even the third time the brethren were silent. 

1 Compare A"ulla Vagga I, 25-31: IV,>i4, 1: XI, 1, 12-14. 
.ffXanna is represented as an obstinate, perverse man ; so destitute 
of the proper ' esprit de corps ' that he dared to take part with 
the sisterhood, and against the brotherhood, in a dispute which 
had arisen between them. But after the social penalty here re- 
ferred to had been duly imposed upon him, even his proud and 
independent spirit was tamed ; he became humble : his eyes were 
opened ; and he, also, attained to the ' supreme goal ' of the 
Buddhist faith. 

[11] I 



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114 THE BOOK OF THE CxREAT DECEASE. CH. 

7. Then the Blessed One addressed the brethren, 
and said : ' It may be, brethren, that you put no 
questions out of reverence for the teacher. Let 
one friend communicate to another.' 

And when he had thus spoken the brethren were 
silent. 

8. And the venerable Ananda said to the Blessed 
One : ' How wonderful a thing is it, Lord, and how 
marvellous ! Verily, I believe that in this whole 
assembly of the brethren there is not one brother 
who has any doubt or misgiving as to the Buddha, 
or the truth, or the path, or the way !' 

9. ' It is out of the fulness of faith that thou hast 

A A ^^ 

spoken, Ananda ! But, Ananda, the Tathagata 
knows for certain that in this whole assembly of the 
brethren there is not one brother who has any 
doubt or misgiving as to the Buddha, or the truth, 
or the path, or the way ! For even the most back- 
ward, Ananda, of all these five hundred brethren 
has become converted, and is no longer liable to be 
born in a state of suffering, and is assured of final 
salvation V 

10. Then the Blessed One addressed the brethren, 
and said : ' Behold now, brethren, I exhort you, 
saying, " Decay is inherent in all component things! 
Work out your salvation with diligence!'" 

This was the last word of the TathSgata ! 



11. Then the Blessed One entered into the first 



1 Compare above, Chap. II, § 7. By 'the most backward,' 
according to Buddhaghosa, the Blessed One referred to Ananda, 
and he said this to encourage him. 



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VI. MAHA-PARINIBBANA-SUTTA. 1 1 5 

stage of deep meditation 1 . And rising out of the 
first stage he passed into the second. And rising 
out of the second he passed into the third. And 
rising out of the third stage he passed into the 
fourth. And rising out of the fourth stage of 
deep meditation he entered into the state of mind 
to which the infinity of space is alone present 2 . And 
passing out of the mere consciousness of the in- 
finity of space he entered into the state of mind to 
which the infinity of thought is alone present. And 
passing out of the mere consciousness of the infi- 
nity of thought he entered into a state of mind to 
which nothing at all was specially present. And 
passing out of the consciousness of no special object 
he fell into a state between consciousness and 
unconsciousness. And passing out of the state be- 
tween consciousness and unconsciousness he fell 
into a state in which the consciousness both of 
sensations and of ideas had wholly passed away. 

12. Then the venerable Ananda said to the 
venerable Anuruddha : ' O my Lord, O Anuruddha, 
the Blessed One is dead !' 

' Nay ! brother Ananda, the Blessed One is not 
dead. He has entered into that state in which both 
sensations and ideas have ceased to be !' 

13. Then the Blessed One passing out of the 
state in which both sensations and ideas have 
ceased to be, entered into the state between con- 
sciousness and unconsciousness. And passing out 
of the state between consciousness and uncon- 
sciousness he entered into the state of mind to 

1 GA&na, the full text and an explanation of which will be found 
in the translator's 'Buddhism,' pp. 174-176. 

2 Compare above, Chap. Ill, §§ 37-42. 

I 2 



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Il6 THE BOOK OF THE GREAT DECEASE. CH. 

which nothing at all is specially present. And 
passing out of the consciousness of no special 
object he entered into the state of mind to which 
the infinity of thought is alone present. And 
passing out of the mere consciousness of the infi- 
nity of thought he entered into the state of mind 
to which the infinity of space is alone present. 
And passing out of the mere consciousness of the 
infinity of space he entered into the fourth stage of 
deep meditation. And passing out of the fourth stage 
he entered into the third. And passing out of the 
third stage he entered into the second. And passing 
out of the second he entered into the first. And 
passing out of the first stage of deep meditation he 
entered into the second. And passing out of the 
second stage he entered into the third. And passing 
out of the third stage he entered into the fourth 
stage of deep meditation. And passing out of the 
last stage of deep meditation he immediately ex- 
pired. 

14. When the Blessed One died there arose, at the 
moment of his passing out of existence, a mighty 
earthquake, terrible and awe-inspiring : and the 
thunders of heaven burst forth. 

15. When the Blessed One died, Brahma Saham- 
pati, at the moment of his passing away from exist- 
ence, uttered this stanza : 

' They all, all beings that have life, shall lay 
Aside their complex form — that aggregation 
Of mental and material qualities, 
That gives them, or in heaven or on earth, 
Their fleeting individuality ! 
E'en as the teacher — being such a one, 



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vi. MAHA-PARINIBBANA-SUTTA. 1 1 7 

Unequalled among all the men that are, 
Successor of the prophets of old time, 
Mighty by wisdom, and in insight clear — 
Hath died 1 !' 

16. When the Blessed One died, Sakka, the king 
of the gods, at the moment of his passing away 
from existence, uttered this stanza : 
' They're transient all, each being's parts and 
powers, 
Growth is their nature, and decay. 
They are produced, they are dissolved again : 
And then is best, when they have sunk to rest 2 ! ' 

1 Brahm&, the first cause, the highest result of Indian theo- 
logical speculation, the one God of the Indian Pantheists, is repre- 
sented as using expressions full of deep allusions to the most 
characteristic Buddhist doctrines. The Samussaya is the result 
of the temporary collocation of the ' aggregations' (khandhS) of 
mental and material qualities which give to each being (bhuto, 
that is, man, animal, god, ghost, fairy, or what not) its outward and 
visible shape, its individuality. L oka is here not the world in our 
sense, but the 'locality' in the Buddhist universe which such an 
individual occupies until it is dissolved. (Comp. Chap. II, §§ 14, 34.) 
Brahma* appears therefore as a veritable Vibha^av&di. 

2 On this celebrated verse see below the Introduction to Maha- 
Sudassana Sutta. It must be the original of the first verse in the 
Chinese work, Fa Kheu Pi Hu (Beal, Dhammapada, p. 32), though 
it is there so changed that every clause has lost its point. 

'Whatever exists is without endurance. 
And hence the terms "flourishing" and "decaying." 
A man is born, and then he dies. 
Oh, the happiness of escaping from this condition !' 

The very meaning which is here the most essential connotation of 
sankh&ra is lost in the phrase 'whatever exists.' By a misap- 
prehension of the, no doubt, difficult word Dhamma, which, 
however, never means ' term,' the second clause has lost its point. 
And by a grammatical blunder the third clause in the Chinese con- 
fines the doctrine, erroneously, to man. In a Chinese tale, called 



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Il8 THE BOOK OF THE GREAT DECEASE. CH. 

17. When the Blessed One died, the venerable 
Anuruddha, at the moment of his passing away from 
existence, uttered these stanzas : 

' When he who from all craving want was free, 
Who to Nirvana's tranquil state had reached, 
When the great sage finished his span of life, 
No gasping struggle vexed that steadfast heart ! 

All resolute, and with unshaken mind, 
He calmly triumphed o'er the pain of death. 
E'en as a bright flame dies away, so was 
His last deliverance from the bonds of life 1 !' 

18; When the Blessed One died, the venerable 
Ananda, at the moment of his passing away from 
existence, uttered this stanza : 

' Then was there terror ! 
Then stood the hair on end ! 
When he endowed with every grace — 
The supreme Buddha — died 2 ! ' 

Ngan shih niu, translated by Mr. Beal, in the Indian Antiquary 
for May, 1880, the following verses occur; and they are possibly 
another reflection of this stanza : 

'All things that exist are transitory. 

They must of necessity perish and disappear ; 

Though joined together, there must be separation; 

Where there is life there must be death.' 

1 ATetaso Vimokho. Kena^i dhammena an&vara«a-vimo- 
kho sabbaso apannatti-bhivupagamo, says Buddhaghosa; 
that is, ' the deliverance which is free from the restraint of each 
and every mental quality completely vanishing away' (dhammS 
being here = sawwa~ and vedan& and sahkh£r&; see 'Bud- 
dhism,' pp. 91, 92). See also below, p. 153. 

2 In these four stanzas we seem to have the way in which the 
death of the Buddha would be regarded, as the early Buddhist 
thought, by four representative persons — the exalted God of the 
theologians ; the Jupiter of the multitude (allowing in the case of 



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VI. MAHA-PARINIBBANA-SUTTA. 1 1 9 

19 1 . When the Blessed One died, of those of the 
brethren who were not yet free from the passions, 
some stretched out their arms and wept, and 
some fell headlong on the ground, rolling to and 
fro in anguish at the thought : ' Too soon has the 
Blessed One died ! Too soon has the Happy One 
passed away from existence ! Too soon has the 
Light gone out in the world ! ' 

But those of the brethren who were free from 
the passions (the Arahats) bore their grief collected 
and composed at the thought: 'Impermanent are all 
component things! How is it possible that [they 
should not be dissolved] ? ' 

20. Then the venerable Anuruddha exhorted the 
brethren, and said : ' Enough, my brethren ! Weep 
not, neither lament! Has not the Blessed One 
formerly declared this to us, that it is in the very 
nature of all things near and dear unto us, that we 
must divide ourselves from them, leave them, sever 
ourselves from them ? How then, brethren, can this 
be possible — that whereas anything whatever born, 
brought into being, and organised, contains within 
itself the inherent necessity of dissolution — how 
then can this be possible that such a being should 
not be dissolved ? No such condition can exist ! 
Even the spirits, brethren, will reproach us 2 . 

each of these for the change in character resulting from their con- 
version to Buddhism); the holy, thoughtful Arahat ; and the loving, 
childlike disciple. 

1 Nearly=V, 11-14; and below, VI, 39. 

* U^Myanti. I have followed the reading of my own MS., 
which is confirmed by the Sumangala Vilisint and the MalS- 
lank£ra-vatthu. Vi^Myanti, which Childers reads, would be 
questionable Buddhism. The spirits do not become extinct ; that 
is, not as a general rule, as would be implied by the absolute state- 



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120 THE BOOK OF THE GREAT DECEASE. CH. 

' But of what kind of spirits is the Lord, the 
venerable Anuruddha, thinking?' 

21. 'There are spirits, brother Ananda, in the 
sky, but of worldly mind, who dishevel their hair 
and weep, and stretch forth their arms and weep, 
fall prostrate on the ground, and roll to and fro 
in anguish at the thought: "Too soon has the 

ment, ' Even the spirits, brethren, become extinct.' It is no doubt 
true that all spirits, from the lowest to the highest, from the most 
insignificant fairy to the God of theological speculation, are re- 
garded as temporary. But when they cease to exist as gods or 
spirits (devatS), they do not go out, they are not extinguished 
(viggh&yanli) ; they continue to exist in some other form. And 
though that other form would, from the European point of view, 
be a different being, as there would be no continuity of conscious- 
ness, no passage of a ' soul' from the one to the other; it would, 
from the Buddhist point of view, be the same being, as it would be 
the resultant effect of the same Karma. There would follow on 
the death of a devat&, not extinction, but a transmutation of force, 
a transmigration of character, a passing on, an inheritance of 
Karma. Only in the exceedingly rare case of an anSg&min, of 
which an instance will be found above, Chap. II, § 7, could it be 
said that a spirit becomes extinct. 

The expression 'of worldly mind,' here and above in V, n, is 
in P&li paMavi-sanwiniyo, an ambiguous phrase which has only 
been found in this connection. Buddhaghosa says merely, ' because 
they made (m&petvS) an earth in heaven.' This gloss again may 
be taken either in a figurative or in a literal sense; but, if not 
impossible, it is at least unlikely that the good commentator means 
calmly to state that the angels created a floor in the skies — for the 
greater convenience of tumbling I The word seems to me also to 
be opposed to vitaragst, 'free from passion,' and I have therefore 
taken it in a spiritual sense. There is a third possibility, viz. that 
it is used in an intellectual sense, ' having the idea of the world 
present to their mind ; ' and this would be in accordance with the 
more usual use of sam»if. But how easily, especially in Buddhism, 
the intellectual merges into the religious may be seen from such 
a phrase as mara#a-sawwino, used at Mah&vawsa 33 of the 
bhikkhus. Compare also above, III, 14. 



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VI. MAHA-PARINIBBANA-SUTTA. 121 

Blessed One died ! Too soon has the Happy One 
passed away ! Too soon has the Light gone out in 
the world!"' 

' There are spirits, too, Ananda, on the earth, and 
of worldly mind, who tear their hair and weep, and 
stretch forth their arms and weep, fall prostrate on 
the ground, and roll to and fro in anguish at the 
thought: " Too soon has the Blessed one died! Too 
soon has the Happy One passed away ! Too soon 
has the Light gone out in the world ! " 

' But the spirits who are free from passion bear it, 
calm and self-possessed, mindful of the saying which 
begins, " Impermanent indeed are all component 
things. How then is it possible [that such a being 
should not be dissolved]?'" 



22. Now the venerable Anuruddha and the vener- 
able Ananda spent the rest of that night in religious 
discourse. Then the venerable Anuruddha said to 
the venerable Ananda : ' Go now, brother Ananda, 
into Kusinara and inform the Mallas of Kusinara, 
saying, ' The Blessed One, O Vase/Mas, is dead : do, 
then, whatever seemeth to you fit!' 

' Even so, Lord ! ' said the venerable Ananda, in 
assent, to the venerable Anuruddha. And having 
robed himself early in the morning, he took his 
bowl, and went into Kusinara with one of the brethren 
as an attendant. 

23. Now at that time the Mallas of Kusinara 
were assembled in the council hall concerning that 
very matter. 

And the venerable Ananda went to the council 
hall of the Mallas of Kusinara ; and when he had 
arrived there, he informed them, saying, ' The 



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122 THE BOOK OF THE GREAT DECEASE. CH. 

Blessed One, O Vase#<&as, is dead ; do, then, what- 
ever seemeth to you fit!' 

24. And when they had heard this saying of the 
venerable Ananda, the Mallas, with their young men 
and their maidens and their wives, were grieved, 
and sad, and afflicted at heart. And some of them 
wept, dishevelling their hair, and some stretched 
forth their arms and wept, and some fell prostrate 
on the ground, and some reeled to and fro in anguish 
at the thought : ' Too soon has the Blessed One 
died ! Too soon has the Happy One passed away ! 
Too soon has the Light gone out in the world!' 



25. Then the Mallas of Kusinara gave orders to 
their attendants, saying, ' Gather together perfumes 
and garlands, and all the music in Kusinara ! ' 

26. And the Mallas of Kusinara took the per- 
fumes and garlands, and all the musical instruments, 
and five hundred suits of apparel, and went to the 
Upavattana, to the Sala Grove of the Mallas, where 
the body of the Blessed One lay. There they past 
the day in paying honour, reverence, respect, and 
homage to the remains of the Blessed One with 
dancing, and hymns, and music, and with garlands 
and perfumes ; and in making canopies of their gar- 
ments, and preparing decoration wreaths to hang 
thereon 1 . 

1 The dress of the Mallas consisted probably of mere lengths of 
muslin or cotton cloth ; and a suit of apparel consisted of two or, 
at the outside, of three of these— one to wrap round the loins, one 
to throw over the shoulders, and one to use as a turban. To. make 
a canopy on occasions of state they would join such pieces to- 
gether; to make the canopy into a tent they would simply add 
walls of the same material ; and the only decoration, as simple as it 



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VI. MAHA-PARINIBBANA-SUTTA. 1 23 

2 7. Then the Mallas of Kusinara thought : 
' It is much too late to burn the body of the 
Blessed One to-day. Let us now perform the 
cremation to-morrow.' And in paying honour, re- 
verence, respect, and homage to the remains of the 
Blessed One with dancing, and hymns, and music, 
and with garlands and perfumes; and in making 
canopies of their garments, and preparing decoration 
wreaths to hang thereon, they past the second 
day too, and then the third day, and the fourth, and 
the fifth, and the sixth day also. 



28. Then on the seventh day the Mallas of 
Kusinara thought : 

' Let us carry the body of the Blessed One, by 
the south and outside, to a spot on the south, and 
outside of the city, — paying it honour, and reverence, 
and respect, and homage, with dance and song and 
music, with garlands and perfumes, — and there, to 
the south of the city, let us perform the cremation 
ceremony ! ' 

29. And thereupon eight chieftains among the 
Mallas bathed their heads, and clad themselves in 
new garments with the intention of bearing the 
body of the Blessed One. But, behold, they could 
not lift it up! 

30. Then the Mallas of Kusinara said to the 
venerable Anuruddha: 'What, Lord, can be the 
reason, what can be the cause that eight chieftains 
of the Mallas who have bathed their heads, and 
clad themselves in new garments with the intention 

is beautiful, would be wreaths of flowers, or single lotuses, hanging 
from the roof, or stretched along the sides. 



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124 THE BOOK OF THE GREAT DECEASE. CH. 

of bearing the body of the Blessed One, are unable 
to lift it up?' 

' It is because you, O Vise^as, have one pur- 
pose, and the spirits have another purpose.' 

31. 'But what, Lord, is the purpose of the spirits?' 
' Your purpose, O Vcise//^as, is this, Let us carry 

the body of the Blessed One, by the south and out- 
side, to a spot on the south, and outside of the city, — 
paying it honour, and reverence, and respect, and 
homage, with dance and song and music, with gar- 
lands and perfumes, — and there, to the south of the 
city, let us perform the cremation ceremony. But 
the purpose of the spirits, Vdse/Mas, is this, Let us 
carry the body of the Blessed One by the north to the 
north of the city, and entering the city by the north 
gate, let us bring it through the midst of the city 
into the midst thereof. And going out again by the 
eastern gate, — paying honour, and reverence, and 
respect, and homage to the body of the Blessed 
One, with heavenly dance, and song, and music, 
and garlands, and perfumes, — let us carry it to the 
shrine of the Mallas called Maku/a-bandhana, to the 
east of the city, and there let us perform the crema- 
tion ceremony.' 

' Even according to the purpose of the spirits, so, 
Lord, let it be!' 

32. Then immediately all Kusin&ra down even to 
the dust bins and rubbish heaps became strewn 
knee-deep with Mandarava flowers from heaven! 
and while both the spirits from the skies, and the 
Mallas of Kusin&ra upon earth, paid honour, and 
reverence, and respect, and homage to the body 
of the Blessed One, with dance and song and music, 
with garlands and with perfumes, they carried the 



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VI. MAHA-PARINIBBANA-SUTTA. 1 25 

body by the north to the north of the city; and 
entering the city by the north gate they carried 
it through the midst of the city into the midst 
thereof; and going out again by the eastern gate 
they carried it to the shrine of the Mallas, called 
Maku/a-bandhana ; and there, to the east of the 
city, they laid down the body of the Blessed One 1 . 



33. 2 Then the Mallas of Kusinara said to the 
venerable Ananda : ' What should be done, Lord, 
with the remains of the Tathagata ? ' 

' As men treat the remains of a king of kings, 
so, Vase#<£as, should they treat the remains of a 
Tathagata.' 

' And how, Lord, do they treat the remains of a 
king of kings ? ' 

' They wrap the body of a king of kings, Vase#^as, 
in a new cloth. When that is done, they wrap it in 
cotton wool. When that is done they wrap it in a 
new cloth, — and so on till they have wrapped the 
body in five hundred successive layers of both kinds. 
Then they place the body in an oil vessel of iron, 
and cover that close up with another oil vessel of 
iron. They then build a funeral pile of all kinds 
of perfumes, and burn the body of the king of kings. 
And then at the four cross roads they erect a dagaba 
to the king of kings. This, Vase/Mas, is the way in 
which they treat the remains of a king of kings. 

' And as they treat the remains of a king of kings, 
so, Vase/Mas, should they treat the remains of the 

1 The point of this interesting legend is that the inhabitants of 
an Indian village of that time would have considered it a desecra- 
tion or pollution to bring a dead body into or through their village. 

* Compare Chap.V, §§ 25-30. 



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126 THE BOOK OF THE GREAT DECEASE. CH. 

Tathagata. At the four cross roads a dagaba should 
be erected to the Tathagata. And whosoever shall 
there place garlands or perfumes or paint, or make 
salutation there, or become in its presence calm in 
heart — that shall long be to them for a profit and 
a joy.* 

34. Therefore the Mallas gave orders to their 
attendants, saying, ' Gather together all the carded 
cotton wool of the Mallas!' 

35. Then the Mallas of Kusinara wrapped the 
body of the Blessed One in a new cloth. And when 
that was done, they wrapped it in cotton wool. And 
when that was done, they wrapped it in a new cloth, 
— and so on till they had wrapped the body of the 
Blessed One in five hundred layers of both kinds. 
And then they placed the body in an oil vessel of 
iron, and covered that close up with another oil 
vessel of iron. And then they built a funeral pile 
of all kinds of perfumes, and upon it they placed 
the body of the Blessed One. 



36. Now at that time the venerable Maha Kas- 
sapa was journeying along the high road from Pava 
to Kusinara with a great company of the brethren, 
with about five hundred of the brethren. And the 
venerable Maha Kassapa left the high road, and sat 
himself down at the foot of a certain tree. 

tf. Just at that time a certain naked ascetic who 
had picked up a Mandarava flower in Kusinara was 
coming along the high road to Pava. 

38. And the venerable Maha Kassapa saw the 
naked ascetic coming in the distance ; and when he 
had seen him he said to the naked ascetic : 

' O friend ! surely thou knowest our Master ?' 



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VI. MAHA-PARINIBBANA-SUTTA. 1 27 

' Yea, friend ! I know him. This day the Samara 
Gotama has been dead a week! That is how I 
obtained this Mandarava flower.' 

39. And immediately of those of the brethren 
who were not yet free from the passions, some 
stretched out their arms and wept, and some fell 
headlong on the ground, and some reeled to and 
fro in anguish at the thought : ' Too soon has the 
Blessed One died ! Too soon has the Happy One 
passed away from existence ! Too soon has the 
Light gone out in the world!' 

But those of the brethren who were free from 
the passions (the Arahats) bore their grief collected 
and composed at the thought : ' Impermanent are 
all component things ! How is it possible that they 
should not be dissolved ?' 



40. Now at that time a brother named Subhadda, 
who had been received into the order in his old 
age, was seated there in their company K 

And Subhadda the old addressed the brethren, and 
said: ' Enough, brethren! Weep not, neither lament ! 
We are well rid of the great Sama»a. We used to 
be annoyed by being told, " This beseems you, this 
beseems you not." But now we shall be able to do 
whatever we like ; and what we do not like, that we 
shall not have to do !' 

1 At p. xxvi of the Introduction to his edition of the Mah& 
Vagga, Dr. Oldenberg identifies this Subhadda with Subhadda the 
last convert, mentioned above in Chap. V, §§ 52-68. They are y 
different persons ; the last convert being represented as a young 
man of high character, incapable of the conduct here ascribed 
to this Subhadda. The last convert was a Brahman, traditionally 
supposed to be younger brother to Anfia, Kondawwa, the first 
convert ; this Subhadda had been a barber in the village Atuma. 



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128 THE BOOK OF THE GREAT DECEASE. CH. 

41. But the venerable Maha Kassapa addressed 
the brethren, and said : ' Enough, my brethren ! 
Weep not, neither lament! Has not the Blessed 
One formerly declared this to us, that it is in 
the very nature of all things, near and dear unto 
us, that we must divide ourselves from them, 
leave them, sever ourselves from them? How then, 
brethren, can this be possible — that whereas any- 
thing whatever born, brought into being, and or- 
ganised contains within itself the inherent necessity 
of dissolution — how then can this be possible that 
such a being should not be dissolved ? No such 
condition can exist!' 



42. Now just at that time four chieftains of the 
Mallas had bathed their heads and clad themselves 
in new garments with the intention of setting on fire 
the funeral pile of the Blessed One. But, behold, 
they were unable to set it alight ! 

43. Then the Mallas of Kusinara said to the 
venerable Anuruddha : ' What, Lord, can be the 
reason, and what the cause, that four chieftains of 
the Mallas who have bathed their heads, and clad 
themselves in new garments, with the intention of 
setting on fire the funeral pile of the Blessed One, 
are unable to set it on fire ? ' 

' It is because you, O Vase/Mas, have one purpose, 
and the spirits have another purpose.' 

44. 'But what, Lord, is the purpose of the spirits?' 
' The purpose of the spirits, O Vase//>6as, is this : 

That venerable brother Maha Kassapa is now 
journeying along the high road from Pava to Kusi- 
nara with a great company of the brethren, with 
five hundred of the brethren. The funeral pile of 



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vi. mahA-parinibbAna-sutta. i 29 

the Blessed One shall not catch fire, until the venera- 
ble Maha Kassapa shall have been able reverently 
to salute the sacred feet of the Blessed One.' 

' Even according to the purpose of the spirits, so, 
•Lord, let it be !' 

45. Then the venerable Maha Kassapa went on 
to Makufo-bandhana of Kusinara, to the shrine of 
the Mallas, to the place where the funeral pile of 
the Blessed One was. And when he had come up 
to it, he arranged his robe on one shoulder; and 
bowing down with clasped hands he thrice walked 
reverently round the pile ; and then, uncovering the 
feet, he bowed down in reverence at the feet of 
the Blessed One. 

46. And those five hundred brethren arranged 
their robes on one shoulder; and bowing down 
with clasped hands, they thrice walked reverently 
round the pile, and then bowed down in reverence 
at the feet of the Blessed One. 

47. And when the homage of the venerable Maha 
Kassapa and of those five hundred brethren was 
ended, the funeral pile of the Blessed One caught 
fire of itself 1 . 

1 It is possible that we have here the survival of some ancient 
custom. Spence Hardy appropriately refers to a ceremony among 
Jews (of what place or time is not mentioned) in the following 
terms : ' Just before a Jew is taken out of the house to be buried, 
the relatives and acquaintances of the departed stand round the 
coffin; when the feet are uncovered; and each in rotation lays hold 
of the great toes, and begs pardon for any offence given to the 
deceased, and requests a favourable mention of them in the next 
world.' (Manual of Buddhism, p. 348.) 

The Buddhist bhikkhus in Siam and the great majority of 
those in Ceylon (the adherents of the Siyam-sam&gama) always 
keep one shoulder uncovered. It is evident that the bhikkhus 

[«] K 



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I30 THE BOOK OF THE GREAT DECEASE. CH. 

48. Now as the body of the Blessed One burned 
itself away, from the skin and the integument, and 
the flesh, and the nerves, and the fluid of the joints, 
neither soot nor ash was seen : and only the bones 
remained behind. 

Just as one sees no soot or ash when glue or 
oil is burned ; so, as the body of the Blessed One 
burned itself away, from the skin and the integu- 
ment, and the flesh, and the nerves, and the fluid 
of the joints, neither soot nor ash was seen : and 
only the bones remained behind. And of those five 
hundred pieces of raiment the very innermost and 
outermost were both consumed. 

49. And when the body of the Blessed One had 
been burnt up, there came down streams of water 
from the sky and extinguished the funeral pile of 
the Blessed One ; and there burst forth streams of 
water from the storehouse of the waters (beneath 
the earth), and extinguished the funeral pile of the 
Blessed One. The Mallas of Kusinara also brought 
water scented with all kinds of perfumes, and ex- 
tinguished the funeral pile of the Blessed One \ 

in Burma, and those in Ceylon who belong to the Amara-pura- 
samagama, are more in accordance with ancient custom in 
wearing the robe ordinarily over both shoulders. 

1 There is something very quaint in the way in which the 
faithful Mallas are here represented as bringing coals to Newcastle. 
The 'storehouse of the waters' is in Pali udaka-sala, on which 
Buddhaghosa has two theories : first, that the Sala trees around 
shed down a miraculous rain from their trunks and branches and 
leaves; and next, that the waters burst up from the earth and 
became as it were a diadem of crystal round the pyre. On the 
belief that water thus burst up miraculously through the earth, see 
'Buddhist Birth Stories,' pp. 64, 67. If the reading be correct it 
is scarcely possible that s£la can here have anything to do with 
Sala trees ; but the other interpretation is open to the objections 



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vi. maha-parinibbAna-sutta. 131 

50. Then the Mallas of Kusinara surrounded the 
bones of the Blessed One in their council hall with 
a lattice work of spears, and with a rampart of bows ; 
and there for seven days they paid honour and 
reverence and respect and homage to them with 
dance and song and music, and with 
perfumes. /"-^'^ V^/'^fy 

( Z VI V ? U S T T V' 

51. Now the king of Magadha, \A^asatfo, the l j 

son of the queen of the Videha cla^ : hearTd'T:ft$'\ 
news that the Blessed One had died at Kusinara. 

Then the king of Magadha, A^atasattu, the 
son of the queen of the Videha clan, sent a mes- 
senger to the Mallas, saying, 'The Blessed One 
belonged to the soldier caste, and I too am of the 
soldier caste. I am worthy to receive a portion 
of the - relics of the Blessed One. Over the remains 
of the Blessed One will I put up a sacred cairn, 
and in their honour will I celebrate a feast 1 !' 

52. And the \J\kkha.\\s ofVesali heard the news 
that the Blessed One had died at Kusinara. And 
the \Akkha.v\s of Vesali sent a messenger to the 
Mallas, saying, ' The Blessed One belonged to the 
soldier caste, and we too are of the soldier caste. 
We are worthy to receive a portion of the relics of 
the Blessed One. Over the remains of the Blessed 
One will we put up a sacred cairn, and in their 
honour will we celebrate a feast!' 

53. And the Sakiyas of Kapila-vatthu heard the 

that sala means an open hall rather than a storehouse, and that 
the belief in a ' storehouse of water ' has not, as yet, been found 
elsewhere. 

1 The commentator gives a long account of A^&tasattu's pro- 
ceedings on this occasion. 

K 2 



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132 THE BOOK OF THE GREAT DECEASE. CH. 

news that the Blessed One had died at Kusinara. 
And the Sakiyas of Kapila-vatthu sent a messenger 
to the Mallas, saying, ' The Blessed One was the 
pride of our race. We are worthy to receive a 
portion of the relics of the Blessed One. Over the 
remains of the Blessed One will we put up a sacred 
cairn, and in their honour will we celebrate a feast !' 

54. And the Bulis of Allakappa heard the news 
that the Blessed One had died at Kusinara. And 
the Bulis of Allakappa sent a messenger to the 
Mallas, saying, ' The Blessed One belonged to the 
soldier caste, and we too are of the soldier caste. 
We are worthy to receive a portion of the relics 
of the Blessed One. Over the remains of the 
Blessed One will we put up a sacred cairn, and in 
their honour will we celebrate a feast!' 

55. And the Koliyas of Ramagama heard the 
news that the Blessed One had died at Kusinara. 
And the Koliyas of Ramagama sent a messenger 
to the Mallas, saying, ' The Blessed One belonged 
to the soldier caste, and we too are of the soldier 
caste. We are worthy to receive a portion of the 
relics of the Blessed One. Over the remains of the 
Blessed One will we put up a sacred cairn, and in 
their honour will we celebrate a feast !' v 

56. And the Brahman of Ve/^adipa heard the 
news that the Blessed One had died at Kusinara. 
And the Brahman of Ve/^adfpa sent a messenger 
to the Mallas, saying, ' The Blessed One belonged 
to the soldier caste, and I am a Brahman. I am 
worthy to receive a portion of the relics of the 
Blessed One. Over the remains of the Blessed 
One will I put up a sacred cairn, and in their 
honour will I celebrate a feast!' 



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VI. MAHA-PARINIBBANA-SUTTA. 1 33 

57. And the Mallas of Pava heard the news that 
the Blessed One had died at Kusinara. 

Then the Mallas of Pava sent a messenger to the 
Mallas, saying, ' The Blessed One belonged to the 
soldier caste, and we too are of the soldier caste. We 
are worthy to receive a portion of the relics of the 
Blessed One. Over the remains of the Blessed One 
will we put up a sacred cairn, and in their honour 
will we celebrate a feast !' 



58. When they heard these things the Mallas of 
Kusinara spoke to the assembled brethren, saying, 
'The Blessed One died in our village domain. 
We will not give away any part of the remains of 
the Blessed One!' 

59. When they had thus spoken, Do«a the Brah- 
man addressed the assembled brethren, and said : 

' Hear, reverend sirs, one single word from me. 
Forbearance was our Buddha wont to teach. 
Unseemly is it that over the division 
Of the remains of him who was the best of 

beings 
Strife should arise, and wounds, and war ! 
Let us all, sirs, with one accord unite 
In friendly harmony to make eight portions. 
Wide spread let Thupas rise in every land 
That in the Enlightened One mankind may trust!' 

60. ' Do thou then, O Brahman, thyself divide 
the remains of the Blessed One equally into eight 
parts, with fair division V 

' Be it so, sir!' said Do»a, in assent, to the assem- 

1 Here again the commentator expands and adds to the com- 
paratively simple version of the text 



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134 THE BOOK OF THE GREAT DECEASE. CH, 

bled brethren. And he divided the remains of the 
Blessed One equally into eight parts, with fair 
division. And he said to them : ' Give me, sirs, 
this vessel, and I will set up over it a sacred cairn, 
and in its honour will I establish a feast.' 

And they gave the vessel to Do«a the Brahman. 



6 1. And the Moriyas of Pipphalivana heard the 
news that the Blessed One had died at Kusinari. 

Then the Moriyas of Pipphalivana sent a mes- 
senger to the Mallas, saying, ' The Blessed One 
belonged to the soldier caste, and we too are of the 
soldier caste. We are worthy to receive a portion of 
the relics of the Blessed One. Over the remains of 
the Blessed One will we put up a sacred cairn, and 
in their honour will we celebrate a feast!' 

And when they heard the answer, saying, 'There 
is no portion of the remains of the Blessed One left 
over. The remains of the Blessed One are all dis- 
tributed,' then they took away the embers. 



62. Then the king of Magadha, A^atasattu, the 
son of the queen of the Videha clan, made a mound 
in Ra^agaha over the remains of the Blessed One, 
and held a feast. 

And the Li^i^avis of Vesili made a mound in 
Vesili over the remains of the Blessed One, and 
held a feast. 

And the Bulis of Allakappa made a mound in 
Allakappa over the remains of the Blessed One, and 
held a feast. 

And the Koliyas of Ramagama made a mound in 
Ramagama over the remains of the Blessed One, 
and held a feast. 



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VI. MAHA-PARINIBBANA-SUTTA. 1 35 

And Ve/^adlpaka the Brahman, made a mound in 
Ve//fcadlpa over the remains of the Blessed One, and 
held a feast 

And the Mallas of Pava made a mound in Pava 
over the remains of the Blessed One, and held a 
feast. 

And the Mallas of Kusinara made a mound in 
Kusinara over the remains of the Blessed One, and 
held a feast 

And Do«a the Brahman made a mound over the 
vessel in which the body had been burnt, and held a 
feast. 

And the Moriyas of Pipphalivana made a mound 
over the embers, and held a feast. 

Thus were there eight mounds [Thupas] for the 
remains, and one for the vessel, and one for the 
embers. This was how it used to be \ 



[63. Eight measures of relics there were of him 

of the far-seeing eye, 
Of the best of the best of men. In India seven 

are worshipped, 
And one measure in Ramagama, by the kings of 

the serpent race. 
One tooth, too, is honoured in heaven, and one "in 

Gandhara's city, 
One in the Kalinga realm, and one more by the 

Naga race. 



1 Here closes Buddhaghosa's long and edifying commentary. 
He has no note on the following verses, which he says were added 
by Theras in Ceylon. The additional verse found in the Phayre 
MS. was in the same way probably added in Burma. 



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I36 THE BOOK OF THE GREAT DECEASE. CH. VI. 

Through their glory the bountiful earth is made 

bright with offerings painless — 
For with such are the Great Teacher's relics best 

honoured by those who are honoured, 
By gods and by Nagas and kings, yea, thus by 

the noblest of monarchs — 
Bow down with clasped hands ! 
Hard, hard is a Buddha to meet with through 

hundreds of ages !] 



End of the Book of the Great Decease. 



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DHAMMAA-AKKAPPAVAT- 
TANA-SUTTA. 



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INTRODUCTION 

TO THE 

FOUNDATION OF THE KINGDOM 
OF RIGHTEOUSNESS. 



THIS translation is made from a transcript of the text 
as found in the very beautiful Ceylon MS. on silver 
plates, now in the British Museum 1 . The letters, which 
are perfectly formed, are cut into the silver; and the 
MS. has this peculiarity, that every sentence is repeated 
with a slight change in the collocation of the words. 
Thus the first sentence is given as follows: — 

Eva*« me sutam. Eka*» samayaw Bhagava 
Bara#asiya*« viharati Isipatane Migadaye. Me 
tvam suta*». Eka#* samayaw Bhagava Barawasi- 
yara Isipatane Migadaye viharati. 

As this repetition is merely carried out for the further se- 
curity of the text it has not been followed in the translation. 

This text belongs to the Anguttara Nikaya. M. Leon 
Feer has lithographed the Sawyutta treatment in his 
'Textes tires du Kandjour 2 ,' together with the text 
of the corresponding passage in the Lalita Vistara, and 
the Tibetan translation from that poem. The Sanskrit 
text, so far as it runs parallel with our Sutta, will also 
be found in Rajendra Lai Mitra's edition of the Lalita 
Vistara (p. 540 and foil.) and the Tibetan text, with a 
French translation, in M. Foucaux's ' rGya Cher Rol Pa.' 
Dr. Oldenberg has just published the Vinaya treatment 
contained in the Maha Vagga I, 6. It is the same word 
for word as our Sutta (except § 1, which is of course not 
found there). The Sawyutta expands the idea of the 
portion numbered below §§ 9-20, having also similar 
paragraphs in reference to the bhikkhus themselves. The 



1 MS. Egerton, 794 ; bought from a bookseller named Rodel in 1839. 
a I jvraison, No. X. 



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I4O FOUNDATION OF KINGDOM OF RIGHTEOUSNESS. 

Lalita Vistara differs a good deal in minor details, but 
is substantially the same as regards the Noble Truths, 
and the eight divisions of the Noble Path. 

A translation of this Sutta, found among Mr. Gogerly's 
papers after his death, was published in the Journal of 
the Ceylon Asiatic Society for 1865: and the Journal 
Asiatique for 1870 contained a translation and full analysis 
by M. Leon Feer. 

It would be difficult to estimate too highly the historical 
value of this Sutta. There can be no reasonable doubt that 
the very ancient tradition accepted by all Buddhists as 
to the substance of the discourse is correct, and that we 
really have in it a summary of the words in which the 
great Indian thinker and reformer for the first time suc- 
cessfully promulgated his new ideas. And it presents 
to us in a few short and pithy sentences the very essence 
of that remarkable system which has had so profound 
an influence on the religious history of so large a portion 
of the human race. 

The name given to it by the early Buddhists — the 
setting in motion onwards of the royal chariot-wheel of 
the supreme dominion of the Dhamma — means, as I have 
shown elsewhere 1 , not 'the turning of the wheel of the 
law,' as it has been usually rendered ; but ' the inaugura- 
tion, or foundation, of the Kingdom of Righteousness.' 

Is it possible that the praying wheels of Thibet have led 
to the misapprehension and mistranslation now so common? 
But who would explain a passage in the New Testament by a 
superstition current, say, in Spain in the twelfth century? And 
so when Mr. Da Cuiiha thinks that the Dhamma is symbol- 
ised by the wheel, because ' Gotama ignored the beginning, 
and was uncertain as to the end 2 ,' he seems to me to 
be following a vicious method of interpreting such figures 
of speech. It cannot be disputed that the term 'wheel* 
might have implied such an idea as he puts into it. 
But if we want to know what it did imply, we must be 
guided wholly by the previous use of the word at the 

1 ' Buddhism,' p. 45. * ' Memoir on the Tooth Relic,' &c, p. 15. 

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INTRODUCTION. 1 4 1 



time when it was first used in a figurative sense: and 
that previous use allows only of the interpretation given 
above. Perhaps, however, Mr. Da Cufiha is only copying 
(not very exactly) Mr. Alabaster, who has said, ' Buddha, 
as I have tried to show in other parts of this book, did 
not attempt to teach the beginning of existence, but as- 
sumed it as a rolling circle of causes or effects. This was 
his circle or wheel of the law 1 .' 

Mr. Alabaster therefore calls his very useful book on 
Siamese Buddhism, ' The Wheel of the Law ; ' — an ex- 
pression which he on the first page of his preface takes to 
be about equivalent to Buddhism. But his theory of the 
meaning of the term seems to be based upon a misunder- 
standing of a passage in the Siamese ' Life of Buddha,' which 
he there translates. At page 78 he renders his text, ' The 
Holy Wheel which the Law taught is plenteous in twelve 
ways,' and he explains this on p. 169 as referring to the 
twelve Nidjnas, the chain of causes and effects. But the 
passage in the Siamese text is evidently a reminiscence of 
the ' twelvefold manner ' spoken of in the same connection 
in our Sutta (§ ai), and does not refer to the Nidanas at all. 

A better comment on the word is the legend of the 
Treasure of the Wheel, which will be found below in the 
'Book of the Great King of Glory 2 ,' a passage which 
shows that this figure belonged to that circle of poetical 
imagery which the early Buddhists so often borrowed 
from the previous poets of Vedic literature to aid them 
in their attempts to describe the most important events 
in the life of their revered Teacher. And, like the day 
of Pentecost by the early Christians, this Inauguration 
of the Kingdom of Righteousness was rightly regarded 
by them as a turning-point in the history of their faith. 
We find this even in the closing sections of our Sutta; 
and in later times the poets of every Buddhist clime 
have vied one with another in endeavouring to express 
their sense of the importance of the occasion. 

' The evening was like a lovely maiden ; the stars 

1 ' Wheel of the Law,' p. 288. » Chap. I, J J 10-20. 



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142 FOUNDATION OF KINGDOM OF RIGHTEOUSNESS. 

were the pearls upon her neck ; the dark clouds her 
braided hair ; the deepening space her flowing robe. As 
a crown she had the heavens where the angels dwell; 
these three worlds were as her body ; her eyes were the 
white lotus flowers which open to the rising moon; and 
her voice was as it were the humming of the bees. To 
do homage to the Buddha, and to hear the first preaching 
of his word, this lovely maiden came.' The angels (devas) 
throng to hear the discourse until the heavens are empty ; 
and the sound of their approach is like the rain of a 
storm ; all the worlds in which there are sentient beings 
are made void of life, so that the congregation assembled 
was in number infinite, but at the sound of the blast of 
the glorious trumpet of Sakka, the king of the gods, they 
became still as a waveless sea. And then each of the 
countless listeners thought that the sage was looking 
towards himself, and was speaking to him in his own 
tongue, though the language used was Magadhi! 

It is most curious that this last figure should be so 
closely analogous to the language used with respect to 
the corresponding event in the history of the Christian 
church : and I do not know the exact source from which 
Hardy (Manual of Buddhism, p. 186) derives it. But I think 
it is highly improbable that there is any borrowing on the 
one side or on the other. 

It cannot be denied that there is a real beauty of an 
Oriental kind in the various expressions which the Bud- 
dhists use; and that there was real ground for the 
enthusiasm which gave them birth. Never in the history 
of the world had a scheme of salvation been put forth 
so simple in its nature, so free from any superhuman 
agency, so independent of, so even antagonistic to the 
belief in a soul, the belief in God, and the hope for 
a future life. And we must not allow our estimate of 
the importance of the event to be influenced by our dis- 
agreement from the opinions put forth. Whether these 
be right or wrong, it was a turning-point in the religious 
history of man when a reformer, full of the most earnest 
moral purpose, and trained in all the intellectual culture 



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INTRODUCTION. 143 



of his time, put forth deliberately, and with a knowledge 
of the opposing views, the doctrine of a salvation to be 
found here, in this life, in an inward change of heart, to 
be brought about by perseverance in a mere system of 
self-culture and of self-control. 



That system, it will be seen, is called the Noble Path, 
and is divided into eight sections or divisions, each of 
which commences with the word samma — a word for 
which we have no real equivalent in English, though 
it has been rendered by such terms as 'right/ 'perfect,' 
and ' correct.' Our word ' right,' in some of its uses, would 
be a sufficiently adequate translation, but it is based on 
a different derivation, and connotes a set of ideas not 
alluded to by samma. If used as an adjective this 
word — signifying literally 'going with' — means either 
' general, common,' or ' corresponding, mutual,' and as an 
adverb, 'commonly, usually, normally,' or 'fittingly, pro- 
perly, correctly;' and hence, in a secondary sense, and 
with allusion to both these ideas, 'round, fit, and perfect, 
normal and complete.' When used to characterise such 
widely different things as language, livelihood, and belief, 
the meaning of the term is by no means difficult to grasp ; 
but it is difficult, if not impossible, to find any single 
English word which in each case would convey its full 
force without importing also some extraneous idea. From 
a desire to follow closely the Pali form of expression I 
had first in my manual of 'Buddhism' adopted the one 
word * right ' throughout the translation of the text ; and 
I have kept to this below, though I feel that that word 
quite fails to give the force of the preposition sam (avv- t 
con-), which is the essential part of the Pali samma. 
But I think the meaning of the Buddhist ideal, of the 
summary which is the most essential doctrine, the very 
pith of Buddhism, would be better brought out by a 
diversified rendering in the way I afterwards attempted 
in an article in the Fortnightly Review (No. CLVI) ; or, as 
above (p. 107), with the authorised interpretation appended. 
It would then run — 



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144 FOUNDATION OF KINGDOM OF RIGHTEOUSNESS. 

i. Right Views; free from superstition or delusion. 
a. Right Aims; high, and worthy of the intelligent, 
earnest man. 

3. Right Speech; kindly, open, truthful. 

4. Right Conduct; peaceful, honest, pure. 

5. Right Livelihood; bringing hurt or danger to no 

living thing. 

6. Right Effort; in self-training, and in self-control. 

7. Right Mindfulness; the active, watchful mind. 

8. Right Contemplation; earnest thought on the 

deep mysteries of life. 

It is interesting to notice that Gogerly, who first rendered 
samma throughout by correct 1 , afterwards adopted the 
other method 2 ; and as these eight divisions of the perfect 
life are of such vital importance for a correct understanding 
of what Buddhism really was, I here add in parallel columns 
his two versions of the terms used : — 

1. Correct views (of truth). Correct doctrines. 

2. Correct thoughts. A clear perception (of their 

nature). 

3. Correct words. Inflexible veracity. 

4. Correct conduct. Purity of conduct. 

5. Correct (mode of obtain- A sinless occupation. 

ing a) livelihood. 

6. Correct efforts. Perseverance in duty. 

7. Correct meditation. Holy meditation. 

8. Correct tranquillity. Mental tranquillity. 

The varying expressions in these two lists are intended in all 
cases, (except perhaps the second,) to convey the same idea. 
The second division (samma-sankappo) is not really 
open to any doubt. Sahkappo is will, volition, determina- 
tion, desire ; that exertion of the will in the various affairs 
of life which results from the feeling that a certain result 
will be desirable. The only variation in the meaning is 
that sometimes more stress is laid upon the implied exertion 
of the will, sometimes more stress upon the implied desire 

1 Journal of the Ceylon Asiatic Society, 1845. * Ibid. 1865. 



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INTRODUCTION. 1 45 



which calls it into action. 'Motive' would be somewhat 
too impersonal, 'volition' too metaphysical a rendering; 
'aims' or 'aspirations' seems to me to best express 
the sense intended in this passage. 

In No. 7 (samma-sati) sati is literally 'memory,' but 
is used with reference to the constantly repeated phrase 
'mindful and thoughtful' (sat o sampa^ano); and means 
that activity of mind and constant presence of mind 
which is one of the duties most frequently inculcated on 
the good Buddhist. Gogerly's rendering of the term should 
have been reserved for the last division (samma-samadhi), 
that prolonged meditation on the deep mysteries of life, 
which is stated in the Great Decease 1 to be the necessary 
complement and accessory to intelligence and goodness. 
Reason and works are good in themselves, but they require 
to be made perfect by that samadhi which in Buddhism 
corresponds to faith in Christianity. 



This Buddhist ideal of the perfect life has an analogy 
most instructive from a historical point of view with the 
ideals of the last pagan thinkers in Europe before the 
rise of Christianity, and of the modern exponents of what 
has been called fervent atheism. When after many cen- 
turies of thought a pantheistic or monotheistic unity has 
been evolved out of the chaos of polytheism, — which is 
itself a modified animism or animistic polydaemonism,— 
there has always arisen at last a school to whom theo- 
logical discussions have lost their interest, and who have 
sought for a new solution of the questions to which the 
theologies have given inconsistent answers, in a new system 
in which man was to work out here, on earth, his own 
salvation. It is their place in the progress of thought that j/ 
helps us to understand how it is that there is so much 
in common between the Agnostic philosopher of India, 
the Stoics of Greece and Rome, and some of the newest 
schools in France, in Germany, and among ourselves. 

1 Chap. I, § 12, and often afterwards. 
[11] L 



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THE FOUNDATION 

OF THE 

KINGDOM OF RIGHTEOUSNESS. 



DHAMMA-.£AKKA-PPAVATTAMA-SUTTA. 



Reverence to the Blessed One, the Holy One, 
the Fully-Enlightened One. 

i. Thus have I heard. The Blessed One was 
once staying at Benares, at the hermitage called 
Migadaya. And there the Blessed One addressed 
the company of the five Bhikkhus *, and said : 

2. 'There are two extremes, O Bhikkhus, which 
the man who has given up the world 2 ought hot 
to follow — the habitual practice, on the one hand, 
of those things whose attraction depends upon the 
passions, and especially of sensuality — a low and 
pagan s way (of seeking satisfaction) unworthy, un- 
profitable, and fit only for the worldly-minded — 



1 These are the five mendicants who had waited on the Bodisat 
during his austerities, as described in 'Buddhist Birth Stories,' 
pp. 88, 89. Their names are given on p. 113 of that book; see 
below, the note on § 32. 

4 Pabba^ito, one who has gone forth, who has renounced 
worldly things, a ' religious.' 

* Gamma, a word of the same derivation as, and corresponding 
meaning to, our word ' pagan.' 



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DH AMM A-.STAKK A-PPAVATTAN A-SUTTA. 147 

and the habitual practice, on the other hand, of 
asceticism (or self- mortification), which is painful, 
unworthy, and unprofitable. 

3. 'There is a middle path, O Bhikkhus, avoiding 
these two extremes, discovered by the Tathagata 1 
— a path which opens the eyes, and bestows under- 
standing, which leads to peace of mind, to the 
higher wisdom, to full enlightenment, to Nirva«a ! 

4. ' What is that middle path, O Bhikkhus, 
avoiding these two extremes, discovered by the 
Tathagata — that path which opens the eyes, and 
bestows understanding, which leads to peace of 
mind, to the higher wisdom, to full enlightenment, 
to Nirvawa? Verily!, it is this noble eightfold 
path ; that is to say : 

' Right views ; 
Right aspirations ; 
Right speech ; 
Right conduct ; 
Right livelihood ; 
Right effort; 
Right mindfulness; and 
Right contemplation. 

'This, O Bhikkhus, is that middle path, avoiding 
these two extremes, discovered by the Tathagata — 
that path which opens the eyes, and bestows under- 

1 The Tath£gata is an epithet of a Buddha. It is interpreted 
by Buddhaghosa, in the Samangala Vilasint, to mean that he came 
to earth for the same purposes, after having passed through the 
same training in former births, as all the supposed former Buddhas; 
and that, when he had so come, all his actions corresponded with 
theirs. 

'Avoiding these two extremes' should perhaps be referred to the 
Tathagata, but I prefer the above rendering. 

L 2 



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148 FOUNDATION OF KINGDOM OF RIGHTEOUSNESS. 

standing, which leads to peace of mind, to the 
higher wisdom, to full enlightenment, to Nirva»a ! 



5. ' Now * this, O Bhikkhus, is the noble truth 
concerning suffering. 

' Birth is attended with pain 2 , decay is painful, 
disease is painful, death is painful. Union with the 
unpleasant is painful, painful is separation from 
the pleasant ; and any craving that is unsatisfied, 
that too is painful. In brief, the five aggregates 
which spring from attachment (the conditions of 
individuality and their cause) 3 are painful. 

' This then, O Bhikkhus, is the noble truth con- 
cerning suffering. 

6. ' Now this, O Bhikkhus, is the noble truth 
concerning the origin of suffering. 

' Verily, it is that thirst (or craving), causing the 
renewal of existence, accompanied by sensual de- 
light, seeking satisfaction now here, now there — 
that is to say, the craving for the gratification of the 
passions, or the craving for (a future) life, or the 
craving for success (in this present life) *. 

1 On the following ' four truths ' compare Dhammapada, verse 
191, and Mahd-parinibbana Sutta II, 2, 3, and IV, 7, 8. 

2 Or ' is painful.' 

8 PaJi# upadinakkhandha. On the Khandhi, or the mate- 
rial and mental aggregates which go to make up an individual, see 
my 'Buddhism,' Chap. III. Up ad ana, or 'grasping' is their 
source, and the uprooting of this up a dan a from the mind is 
Arahatship. 

One might express the central thought of this First Noble 
Truth in the language of the nineteenth century by saying that 
pain results from existence as an individual. It is the struggle to 
maintain one's individuality which produces pain — a most preg- 
nant and far-reaching suggestion. See for a fuller exposition the 
Fortnightly Review for December, 1879. 

4 'The lust of the flesh, the lust of the eye, and the pride of life' 



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DHAMMA-£AKKA-PPAVATTANA-SUTTA. 1 49 

' This then, O Bhikkhus, is the noble truth con- 
cerning the origin of suffering. 

7. ' Now this, O Bhikkhus, is the noble truth 
concerning the destruction of suffering. 

' Verily, it is the destruction, in which no passion 
remains, of this very thirst ; the laying aside of, the 
getting rid of, the being free from, the harbouring 
no longer of this thirst. 

' This then, O Bhikkhus, is the noble truth con- 
cerning the destruction of suffering. 

8. ' Now this, O Bhikkhus, is the noble truth 
concerning the way * which leads to the destruction 
of sorrow. Verily! it is this noble eightfold path 2 ; 
that is to say : 

correspond very exactly to the first and third of these three tawhSs. 
' The lust of the flesh, the lust of life, and the pride of life,' or ' the 
lust of the flesh, the lust of life, and the love of this present world/ 
would be not inadequate renderings of all three. 

The last two are in Pali bhava-ta»ha and vibhava-ta«ha, 
on which Childers, on the authority of Vi^esiwha, says: 'The 
former applies to the sassata-di/Mi, and means a desire for an 
eternity of existence; the latter applies to the u£Meda-di/Mi, 
and means a desire for annihilation in the very first (the present) 
form of existence.' Sassata-di/Mi may be called the 'ever- 
lasting life heresy,' and ukkheda-dit/Ai the 'let-us-eat-and-drink- 
for-to-morrow-we-die heresy.' These two heresies, thus implicitly 
condemned, have very close analogies to. theism and materialism. 

Spence Hardy says ('Manual of Buddhism,' p. 496) : 'Bhawa- 
tawhS signifies the pertinacious love of existence induced by the 
supposition that transmigatory existence is not only eternal, but 
felicitous and desirable. Wibhawa-ta»ha is the love of the 
present life, under the notion that existence will cease therewith, 
and that there is to be no future state.' 

Vibhavain Sanskrit means, 1. development; 2. might, majesty, 
prosperity ; and 3. property : but the technical Buddhist sense, as 
will be seen from the above, is something more than this. 

1 Pa/ipadl 

' Ariyo atangiko Maggo. 



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1 50 FOUNDATION OF KINGDOM OF RIGHTEOUSNESS. 

'Right views; 
Right aspirations; 
Right speech; 
Right conduct; 
Right livelihood; 
Right effort; 
Right mindfulness; and 
Right contemplation. 

' This then, O Bhikkhus, is the noble truth con- 
cerning the destruction of sorrow. 



9. ' That this was the noble truth concerning 
_sorrow, was not, O Bhikkhus, among the doctrines 

handed down, but there arose within me the eye 
(to perceive it), there arose the knowledge (of its 
nature), there arose the understanding (of its cause), 
there arose the wisdom (to guide in the path of 
tranquillity), there arose the light (to dispel darkness 
from it) 1 . 

10. 'And again, O Bhikkhus, that I should com- 
prehend that this was .the noble truth concerning 
.sorrow, though it was not among the doctrines 
handed down, there arose within me the eye, there 
arose the knowledge, there arose the understanding, 
there arose the wisdom, there arose the light. 

11. 'And again, O Bhikkhus, that I had compre- 
hended that this was the noble truth concerning 
sorrow, though it was not among the doctrines 
handed down, there arose within me the eye, there 

1 The words in parentheses have been added by Gogerly, doubt- 
less from some comment not accessible to me; and I have included 
them also, but in parentheses, as they seem to complete the ideas 
actually involved in the text. 



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DHAMMA-tf AKKA-PPAVATTANA-SUTTA. 1 5 1 

arose the knowledge, there arose the understanding, 
there arose the wisdom, there arose the light. 

12. 'That this was the noble truth concerning 
the origin of sorrow, though it was not among the 
doctrines handed down, there arose within me the 
eye ; but there arose within me the knowledge, there 
arose the understanding, there arose the wisdom, 
there arose the light. 

13. 'And again, O Bhikkhus, that I should put 
away the origin of sorrow, though the noble truth 
concerning it was not among the doctrines handed 
down, there arose within me the eye, there arose 
the knowledge, there arose the understanding, there 
arose the wisdom, there arose the light. 

14. ' And again, O Bhikkhus, that I hadjully put 
away the origin of sorrow, though the noble truth 
concerning it was not among the doctrines handed 
down, there arose within me the eye, there arose 
the knowledge, there arose the understanding, there 
arose the wisdom, there arose the light. 

1 5. ' That this, O Bhikkhus, was the noble truth 
concerning the destruction of sorrow, though it was 
not among the doctrines handed down ; but there 
arose within me the eye, there arose the knowledge, 
there arose the understanding, there arose the wis- 
dom, there arose the light. 

1 6. ' And again, O Bhikkhus, that I should _fully 
realise the destruction of sorrow though the noble 
truth concerning it was not among the doctrines 
handed down, there arose within me the eye, there 
arose the knowledge, there arose the understanding, 
there arose the wisdom, there arose the light. 

17. 'And again, O Bhikkhus, that I had fully 
realised the destruction of sorrow, though the noble 



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152 FOUNDATION OF KINGDOM OF RIGHTEOUSNESS. 

truth concerning it was not among the doctrines 
handed down, there arose within me the eye, there 
arose the knowledge, there arose the understanding, 
there arose the wisdom, there arose the light. 

18. 'That this was the noble truth concerning the 
jway which leads to the destruction of sorrow, was 

not, O Bhikkhus, among the doctrines handed down ; 
but there arose within me the eye, there arose the 
knowledge, there arose the understanding, there 
arose the wisdom, there arose the light. 

19. 'And again, O Bhikkhus, that I should, be- 
come versed in the way which leads to the destruc- 
tion of sorrow, though the noble truth concerning it 
was not among the doctrines handed down, there 
arose within me the eye, there arose the knowledge, 
there arose the understanding, there arose the 
wisdom, there arose the light. 

20. 'And again, O Bhikkhus, that I hacLbe- 
come versed in the way which leads to the destruc- 
tion of sorrow, though the noble truth concerning it 
was not among the doctrines handed down, there 
arose within me the eye, there arose the knowledge, 
there arose the understanding, there arose the 
wisdom, there arose the light. 



21. 'So long, O Bhikkhus, as my knowledge and 
insight were not quite clear, regarding each of these 
four noble truths in this triple order, in this twelve- 
fold manner — so long was I uncertain whether I 
had attained to the full insight of that wisdom 
which is unsurpassed in the heavens or on earth, 
among the whole race of Samawas and Brahmans, 
or of gods or men. 

22. 'But as soon, O Bhikkhus, as my knowledge 



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DHAMMA-XAKK A-PPAVATTANA-SUTTA. 1 5 3 

and insight were quite clear regarding each of 
these four noble truths, in this triple order, in this 
twelvefold manner — then did I become certain that 
I had attained to the full insight of that wisdom 
which is unsurpassed in the heavens or on earth, 
among the whole race of Samaras and Brahmans, 
or of gods or men. 

23. 'And now this knowledge and this insight has 
arisen within me. Immovable is the emancipation 
of my heart. This is my last existence. There 
will now be no rebirth for me!' 



24. Thus spake the Blessed One. The company 
of the five Bhikkhus, glad at heart, exalted the 
words of the Blessed One. And when the discourse 
had been uttered, there arose within the venerable 
Konda/ma the eye of truth, spotless, and without 
a stain, (and he saw that) whatsoever has an origin, 
in that is also inherent the necessity of coming to 
an end \ 

25. And when the royal chariot wheel of the 
truth had thus been set rolling onwards by the 
Blessed One, the gods of the earth gave forth a 
shout, saying: 

' In Benares, at the hermitage of the Migadaya, 
the supreme wheel of the empire of Truth has been 
set rolling by the Blessed One — that wheel which 
not by any Sama«a or Brahman, not by any god, 

1 It is the perception of this fact which is the Dhamma^akkhu, 
the Eye of Truth, or the Eye for Qualities as it might be rendered 
with reference to the meaning of Dhamma in the words that 
follow. 

They are in Pali yaw kinii samudaya-dhammaw, sabba»? 
taw nirodha-dhammaw, literally, 'whatever has the quality of 
beginning, that has the quality of ceasing.' 



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154 FOUNDATION OF KINGDOM OF RIGHTEOUSNESS. 

not by any Brahma or Mara, not by any one in the 
universe, can ever be turned back !' 

26. And when they heard the shout of the gods 
of the earth, the attendant gods of the four great 
kings * (the guardian angels of the four quarters of 
the globe) gave forth a shout, saying : 

'In Benares, at the hermitage of the Migadaya, 
the supreme wheel of the empire of Truth has been 
set rolling by the Blessed One — that wheel which 
not by any Samara or Brahman, not by any god, 
not by any Brahma or Mara, not by any one in the 
universe, can ever be turned back!' 

27. [And thus as the gods in each of the heavens 
heard the shout of the inhabitants of the heaven 
beneath, they took up the cry until the gods in the 
highest heaven of heavens] gave forth the shout, 
saying : 

' In Benares, at the hermitage of the Migadaya, 
the supreme wheel of the empire of Truth has been 
set rolling by the Blessed One — that wheel which 
not by any Samara or Brahman, not by any god, 
not by any Brahma or Mara, not by any one in the 
universe, can ever be turned back 2 !' 

1 Their names are given in the Mah& Samaya Sutta in Grim- 
blot's ' Sept Suttas Palis.' 

1 The text repeats § 26 for each of the heavens ; and the gods 
thus enumerated are as follows, beginning with BhummaDevi 
in § 25 : 

1. Bhummi DevsL 

2. ^Tatumahara^ika Devi. 

3. Y&m&DevL 

4. Tusita Devi 

5. Nimmanaratt Deva\ 

6. Paranimmitavasavattt Devd. 

7. Brahmakayika Devi. 

See the Mahi Samaya Sutta in Grimblot's ' Sept Suttas Palis/ and 



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DHAMMA-JTAKKA-PPAVATTANA-SUTTA. 1 5 5 

28. And thus, in an instant, a second, a moment, 
the sound went up even to the world of Brahma : 
and this great ten-thousand-world-system quaked 
and trembled and was shaken violently, and an 
immeasurable bright light appeared in the universe, 
beyond even the power of the gods ! 



29. Then did the Blessed One give utterance to 
this exclamation of joy : ' Konda»»a hath realised 
it. Konda«»a hath realised it ! ' And so the vener- 
able Konda«»a acquired the name of A»»ata- 
Konda«»a (' the Konda»»a who realised ') 1 . 



End of the Dhamma-^akka-ppavattana-sutta. 



compare Professor Max Mttller's note in 'Buddhaghosha's Parables,' 
p. xxxiii, and Hardy in the ' Manual of Buddhism,' p. 25. 

1 The Maha" Vagga completes the narrative as follows : ' And 
then the venerable AftMta-Kondoima having seen the truth, having 
arrived at the truth, having known the truth, having penetrated the 
truth, having past beyond doubt, having laid aside uncertainty, 
having attained to confidence, and being dependent on no one 
beside himself for knowledge of the religion of the teacher, spake 
thus to the Blessed One : 

'"May I become, O my Lord, a novice under the Blessed 
One, may I receive full ordination 1" 

' " Welcome, O brother !" said the Blessed One, " the truth has 
been well laid down. Practice holiness to the complete suppression 
of sorrow I" 

' And that was the ordination of the Venerable One.' 

The other four, Vappa, Bhaddiya, Mahinima, and Assa^i, were 
converted on the following days, according to the ' Buddhist Birth 
Stories,' p. 113. 

It is there also said that ' myriads of the angels (devas) had been 
converted simultaneously with Kondanya.' 



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TEVIGGA-SUTTANTA. 



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INTRODUCTION 

TO 

THE TEVIGGA SUTTA. 



This is the twelfth and last Sutta in the first division 
of the Digha Nikaya, which is called the Sllakkhandha 
Vaggo, because the whole of its twelve Dialogues deal, 
from one point of view or another, with Sila, or Right 
Conduct. 

There is another Sutta sometimes called by the same 
name, No. 21 in the Middle Fifty of the Ma^^ima Nikaya : 
but it has nothing, except the name, in common with the 
present. It is called Tevig^a Sutta merely because 
Gotama is there described by the complimentary title 
of Tevi^a, 'Wise in the Vedas;' and its full name is 
the Tevi^a-va^Magotta-sutta 1 . 

I have made the present translation from a text con- 
stituted from three MSS.,— my own MS. of the Digha 
Nikaya, referred to as D ; the Tumour MS. of the same 
in the Indian Office, referred to as T; both in Sinhalese 
characters: and the Phayre MS. in the same place, in 
Burmese characters, referred to as P. 



In this book we have Right Conduct used as a sort 
of argumentum ad hominem for the conversion of 
two earnest young Brahmans. 

They ask which is the true path to a state of union 
(in the next birth) with God. After arguing, in a kind 
of Socratic dialogue, that on their own showing, on the 

1 It may be noted, in passing, that the substance of it recurs as the VaMAa- 
gotta Samyutta in the Samyutta Nikaya. 



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l6o TEVIGGA SUTTA. 



basis of facts they themselves admitted, the Brahmans 
could have no real knowledge of their God, Gotama 
maintains that union with a God whom they admitted 
to be pure and holy must be unattainable by men impure 
and sinful and self-righteous, however great their know- 
ledge of the Vedas. And he then lays down, not without 
occasional beauty of language, that system of Right 
Conduct, which must be the only direct way to a real 
union with God. 

One would think perhaps that such a Sutta might be 
adapted, without very great difficulty, for use as a mis- 
sionary tract, so closely does it remind us of the argument 
of many a sermon on the text, ' Except your righteousness 
shall exceed the righteousness of the Scribes and Pharisees, 
ye shall in no wise enter the kingdom of heaven!' And 
it is true that the Tevi^fa — the men of special knowledge 
in the three Vedas— correspond exactly in most essential 
particulars with the Scribes and Pharisees of the New 
Testament. They were the official preservers by repeating, 
as the Scribes were by copying, the sacred books; and 
they were the recognised interpreters, and the sole cus- 
todians of the traditional interpretation — which too often 
explained away the real meaning — of those books. It 
follows that as the law in both cases was included in the 
sacred books, it was they who, in both cases, were the 
real lawgivers, and practically the only lawyers. And 
as almost all learning was confined to, or in close con- 
nection with the sacred books, the Tevjgg-a were the chief 
Pawrfits, as the Scribes were the 'Doctors of the Law/ 
Like the Pharisees, too,' the Brahmans laid claim to 
peculiar sanctity ; and many of them in the pride of their 
education, their birth, and their wealth, looked down with 
self-righteous scorn on the masses of the people. And 
while, on the other hand, the Brahmans further resem- 
bled the Scribes and Pharisees in that many of them 
were justly deserving of the respect in which they were 
held ; it is only the undeserving who, in both cases, are 
intended to be condemned. 

But whatever interpretation of the ' kingdom of heaven ' 



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INTRODUCTION. l6l 



the reader may adopt, it must be very different from any- 
thing the Sutta can mean by 'a state of union with 
Brahma.' It is not easy to say what opinion is really 
imputed to the young Brahmans before their conversion. 
It is probably meant that they were seeking a way by 
which their Self should become identified, after death, 
with Brahman ; a way by which they could escape from 
the immortality of transmigration, from existence alto- 
gether as separate individuals 1 . And in holding out a 
hope of union with Brahma as a result of the practice 
of universal love 2 , the Buddha is most probably intended 
to mean ' a union with Brahma ' in the Buddhist sense — 
that is to say, a temporary companionship as a separate 
being with the Buddhist Brahma, to be enjoyed by a 
new individual not consciously identical with its pre- 
decessor. It is just possible that the argumentum ad 
hominem should be extended to this part of the Sutta; 
and that the statement in III, i should be taken to mean, 
'This (universal love) is the only way to that kind of 
union with your own Brahma which you desire.' But 
such a yielding to heretical opinion at the close of his 
own exposition of the truth would scarcely be imputed 
to a Buddha. 

Just as during the time of the early Christians, in the 
way which Archbishop Trench has so instructively pointed 
out, it was not men only who received a new birth and 
a new baptism, but old words and terms of common use 
were also infused with a new spirit; so the Indian reformer, 
while clothing his new system in the current phraseology, 
infused a different and in many cases a higher meaning 
into the old expressions. 

Thus, for instance, Tevi^a (Sanskrit Traividya) meant 
either knowledge of the Three Vedas, or as an adjective, 
a Brahman possessed of that knowledge ; and then, as a 
noun of multitude, such an assembly of those Brahmans 

1 Compare Professor Max Miiller's Preface to the Sacred Books of the East, 
vol. i. p. xxx. 
» See Chapter in, §§ i, 2. 

[11] M 



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1 62 TEVIGGA SUTTA. 



as is described in the first sections of our Sutta. As there 
were many Brahmans who had not that knowledge, the 
word naturally came to imply a person worthy of the 
respect due to special learning, and was used as a compli- 
mentary title, not very different from our Doctor. It is 
preserved as an epithet of Arahats in the Buddhist writings, 
but as meaning one possessed of the knowledge of a funda- 
mental threefold doctrine of Buddhism, the doctrine of the 
impermanency, the inherent pain, and the absence of any 
abiding principle (any Self) in the confections or compo- 
nent things \ That is to say, the knowledge of the Vedas 
was replaced by a knowledge of the real character of the 
deceptive and evanescent phenomena by which we are 
encircled, and of which we form a part. 

So also with regard to Brahma. The name was retained, 
but the idea was entirely changed. The course of religious 
belief had passed among the Indian section of the Aryan 
tribes through the usual stages of animism and polytheism 
to a kind of pantheism peculiar to India, in which Brahman 
was held to be a first cause, the highest self, emotion- 
less, infinite, absolute. As the Buddhist system was 
constructed without any use of the previous idea of a 
separate soul, or self, or ghost, or spirit, supposed to exist 
inside the human body, this woven chain of previous 
speculation had as little importance for it as theological 
discussions have for positivism. But Buddhism fell into 
what to the positivist would be the unpardonable sin — 
perhaps inevitable at the time and place of its youth— of 
continuing to express a belief in the external spirits, big 
and little, of the then Hindu pantheon. 

They were preserved very much in the previous order 
of precedence, and were all — except Mara, the Evil One, 
and his personal following, and a few others — supposed to be 
passably good Buddhists. They were not feared any more ; 
they were patronized as a kind of fairies, usually beneficent, 



1 See .Bulla Vagga VI, 6, 2, = Gataka, vol. i. p. 2lJ ; Mah&vamsa, p. 79; 
Diparamsa XV, 80 (where the Arahats are women) ; and on ' confections ' below, 
in the Introduction to the ' Book of the Great King of Glory.' 



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INTRODUCTION. 1 63 



though always more or less foolish and ignorant. They 
were of course not worshipped any more, for they were 
much less worthy of reverence than any wise and good 
man. And they were not eternal, — all of them, even the 
very best or highest, being liable, like all things and all 
other creatures, to dissolution. If they had behaved well 
they were then reborn under happy outward conditions, 
and might even look forward to being some day born as 
men, so that they could attain to the supreme goal of 
the Buddhist faith, to that bliss which passeth not away, — 
the Nirvawa of a perfect life in Arahatship. 

The duty of a Buddhist who had entered the Noble Path 
towards these light and airy shapes — for to such vain things 
had the great gods fallen — was the same as his duty towards 
every fellow creature ; pity for his ignorance, sympathy with 
his weakness, equanimity (the absence of fear or malice, or 
the sense of any differing or opposing interest), and the 
constant feeling of a deep and lasting love, all pervading, 
grown great, and beyond measure. 

No exception was made in the case of Brahma. He, 
like every other creature that had life, was evanescent, 
was bound by the chain of existence, the result of ignor- 
ance, and could only find salvation by walking along the 
Noble Eightfold Path. It must be remembered that the 
Brahma of modern times, the God of the ardent theism 
of some of the best of the later Hindus, had not then come 
into existence : that conception was one effect of the in- 
fluence of Mohammadan and Christian thought upon 
Hindu minds. And it would be useless to conjecture 
how the Buddhist theory might have been modified by 
contact with that ideal. 

While regarded however as essentially of the same class 
as all other external spirits, Brahma was still regarded 
as a superior spirit, as a very devout Buddhist, and as 
a kind of king among the angels. The Brahma of this 
world system, who was living in Gotama's time, and who 
is living now, acquired his present exalted position from 
his virtue in a previous birth as a Bhikkhu named Sahaka 
in the time when Kassapa Buddha's religion flourished 

M 2 



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164 TEVIGCA SUTTA. 



upon earth 1 . According to the author of the £ataka com- 
mentary, he assisted at the future Buddha's birth 2 ; and 
twice afterwards he rendered service to the Bodisat just 
before the great conflict with Mara s . And when after the 
victory the Blessed One hesitated whether it would be 
of any use to tell to others the truth he had found, it 
was Brahma who appeared and besought him to proclaim 
the truth *. Brahma Sahampati was the first to give 
utterance to the universal sorrow which followed on the 
death of the Buddha 6 ; and at a critical period in the 
later history of the Buddhist church he is represented to 
have descended from heaven, and to have appeared to the 
Thera Sa//fot, to confirm his wavering faith 6 . 

These instances will show the high character ascribed 
to the Brahma of the world system in which we live; 
and in each of the infinite world systems which are scat- 
tered through space there is supposed to be a like finite, 
temporary, virtuous Brahma sitting as king over the most 
exalted of the angel hosts. 

It must be evident that it follows, without the possi- 
bility of question, that the early Buddhists cannot with 
any accuracy be described as ' monotheists,' and it is much 
to be regretted that even cultured and scholarly writers 
still speak of them as such, and can suggest that the in- 
dependent monotheism of the later Jews can be paralleled 
by a supposed monotheism among the Buddhists 7 . 

And even if the idea of Brahma were at all the same 
as the idea of God, a union with this Brahma would mean 
a merely temporary life as an angel in the Brahma heaven 
— such a life as is represented below to have been the result 
of the noble life and noble thoughts of the Great King 



1 Teste a comnjent quoted by Childers, Diet. p. 327. 

1 'Buddhist Birth Stories,' p. 66. s Ibid. pp. 92, 97. 

4 Ibid. p. 1 1 1 . Related already in the Maha Vagga I, 2 ; 6, J. 

6 Book of the Great Decease, Chapter VI, § 14. 

* Mahavamsa, p. 1 7. 

' 'Their (the Jews') monotheism was perhaps independently evolved; but the 
Buddhists at least showed a contemporary monotheism.' Mr. Huth, in ' Life 
&c. of Buckle,' p. 238. 



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INTRODUCTION. 1 6 5 



of Glory. But this was not the supreme goal of the 
Buddhist faith; and the angel, though the same person 
as the king, from the Buddhist point of view (as resulting 
from, and carrying on, the same Karma), would be a dif- 
ferent person from the king, according to the Christian 
point of view ; for there is no mention of the passage of 
a soul from the earth to heaven, no conscious identity, no 
continuing memory. 



We may draw, from the above, two conclusions. Firstly, 
that the use of a word in Sanskrit authors is but very 
little guide to the meaning of the corresponding word in 
the Pali Buddhist scriptures whenever the word has 
reference to an idea of a religious character. 

And, secondly, that very little reliance can be placed, 
without careful investigation, on a resemblance — however 
close at first sight — between a passage in the Pali Pi/akas 
and a passage in the New Testament. 

It is true that many passages in these two litera- 
tures can be easily shown to have a similar tendency. 
But when some writers on the basis of such similarities 
proceed to argue that there must have been some historical 
connection between the two, and that the New Testament, 
as the later, must be the borrower, I venture to think 
that they are wrong. There does not seem to me to be 
the slightest evidence of any historical connection between 
them ; and whenever the resemblance is a real one — and 
it often turns out to be really least when it first seems 
to be greatest, and really greatest when it first seems 
least — it is due, not to any borrowing on the one side or 
on the other, but solely to the similarity of the conditions 
under which the two movements grew. 

This does not of course apply to the later literature 
of the two religions; and it ought not to detract from 
the very great value and interest of the parallels which 
may be adduced from the earlier books. If we wish to 
understand what it was that gave such life and force to 
the stupendous movement which is called Buddhism, we 
cannot refrain from comparing it — not only in the points 



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1 66 TEVIGGA SUTTA. 



in which it agrees with it, but also in the points in which 
it differs from it — with our own faith. I trust I have not 
been wrong in making use occasionally of this method, 
though the absence of any historical connection between 
the New Testament and the Pali Pifokas has always 
seemed to me so clear, that it would be unnecessary to 
mention it. But when a reviewer who has been kind 
enough to appreciate, I am afraid too highly, what he 
calls my ' service in giving, for the first time, a thoroughly 
human, acceptable, and coherent ' account of the ' life of 
Buddha,' and of the ' simple groundwork of his religion ' 
has gone on to conclude that the parallels I had thus 
adduced are 'an unanswerable indication of the obligations 
of the New Testament to Buddhism,' I must ask to be 
allowed to enter a protest against an inference which seems 
to me to be against the rules of sound historical criticism. 



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ON KNOWLEDGE OF THE 
VEDAS. 



TBVIGGA-SUTTA. 



Chapter I. 

i. This have I heard. At one time when the 
Blessed One was journeying through Kosala with a 
great company of the brethren, with about five 
hundred brethren, he came to the Brahman vil- 
lage in Kosala which is called Manasaka/a. And 
there at Manasaka/a the Blessed One stayed in the 
mango grove, on the bank of the river A&ravati, to 
the south of Manasaka/a \ 

2. Now at that time many very distinguished and 
wealthy Brahmans were staying at Manasaka/a — 
to wit, ATanki the Brahman, Tarukkha the Brahman, 
Pokkharasati the Brahman, G&nussoni the Brah- 
man, Todeyya the Brahman, and other very distin- 
guished and wealthy Brahmans 2 . 

1 Burnouf, in a long note at 'Lotus,' &c, p. 491, already 
attempted to show that the river A^iravatl is the same as the 
modern Rapti, which he supposed to be a corruption of the latter 
part of the longer name. Hiouen Thsang mentions a riveT A-chi- 
Io-fa-ti, which is doubtless the same. It is evidently the river on 
which stood the town of SSvatthi, and near to which lay the Geta- 
vana monastery (see ' Buddhist Birth Stories,' p. 331); and it must 
therefore, in accordance with Burnoufs conjecture, be the Rapti, 
which is the Sanskrit Irivati. The Phayre Burmese MS. has 
almost always A^lravatt. 

a Buddhaghosa says that 

A'anki lived at Opasida, 
T&rukkha lived at IHAagala, 



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1 68 ON KNOWLEDGE OF THE VEDAS. CH. 

3. Now a conversation sprung up between Va- 
settha. and Bharadvi^a, when they were taking 
exercise (after their bath) and walking up and down 
in thoughtful mood, as to which was the true path, 
and which the false 1 . 

4. The young Brahman Vase/Ma spake thus : 
'This is the straight path, this the direct way 

which leads him, who acts according to it, into a 
state of union with Brahma 2 — I mean that which 
has been announced by the Brahman Pokkarasati.' 

5. The young Brahman Bharadva^a spake thus : 



Pokkharasadi (sic MS.) lived at Ukka//£a, 

Gawussom lived at Savatthi, and 

Todeyya lived at Tudigama. 
There is some difference in the MSS. as to the spelling of these 
names : T. reads Aankt ; P. T. and D. Ppkkharasati (Sanskrit 
Paushkarasadi); P. Ganuyoni, T. G&tmsoni, D. G&nusoni; P. To- 
reyya, and Burnouf Nodeyya (which is possibly merely a misread- 
ing). <?a«uso»i was converted by the Bhaya-bherava Sutta ; and 
I think it very probable that the other names are also those of 
subsequent converts. 

Buddhaghosa adds that because Manasaka/a was a pleasant 
place the Brahmans had built huts there on the bank of the river 
and fenced them in, and used to go and stay there from time to 
time to repeat their mantras. 

1 Ganghavihara/wanuAankamantanam anuviiarantanaw. 
On the first word see Gataka II, 272 (and comp. II, 240). A'an- 
kamati is to walk up and down thinking. I have added ' after their 
bath ' from Buddhaghosa, who says that this must be understood 
to have taken place when, after learning by heart and repeating all 
day, they went down in the evening to the river-side to bathe, and 
then walked up and down on the sand. 

3 Brahma-sahayyataya. The first part of the compound is 
masculine (see below, § 12), but the Buddhists probably included 
under the name, when put into the mouth of Brahmans, all that 
the Brahmans included under both Brahma and Brahman. The 
Buddhist archangel or god Brahma is different from both, being 
part of an entirely different system of thought. 



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TEVIGGA SUTTA. 1 69 



' This is the straight path, this the direct way 
which leads him, who acts according to it, into a 
state of union with Brahma — I mean that which has 
been announced by the Brahman Tarukkha.' 

6. But neither was the young Brahman Vase/%&a 
able to convince the young Brahman Bharadva^a, 
nor was the young Brahman Bharadva^a able to 
convince the young Brahman V&settAa.. 

7. Then the young Brahman Vase/A6a said to the 
young Brahman Bharadva/a : 

'That Sama»a Gotama, Bharadva^a, of the Sakya 
clan, who left the Sakya tribe to adopt the religious 
life, is now staying at Manasaka/a, in the mango 
grove, on the bank of the river A&ravati, to the 
south of Manasaka/a. Now regarding that vener- 
able Gotama, such is the high reputation that has 
been noised abroad, that he is said to be " a fully 
enlightened one, blessed and worthy, abounding in 
wisdom and goodness, happy, with knowledge of 
the world, unsurpassed as a guide to erring mortals, 
a teacher of gods and men, a blessed Buddha 1 ." 
Come, then, Bharadva^a, let us go to the place 
where the Sama»a Gotama is ; and when we have 
come there, let us ask the Sama«a Gotama touch- 
ing this matter. What the Sama«a Gotama shall 
declare unto us, that let us bear in mind.' 

'Very well, my friend!' said the young Brahman 
Bharadva^a, in assent, to the young Brahman 
Vase#/&a. 

8. Then the young Brahman Vase/Ma and the 
young Brahman Bhiradva^a went on to the place 
where the Blessed One was. 



1 See below, § 46. 

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170 ON KNOWLEDGE OF THE VEDAS. CH. 

And when they had come there, they exchanged 
with the Blessed One the greetings and compli- 
ments of friendship and civility, and sat down 
beside him. 

And while they were thus seated the young 
Brahman V4se//^a said to the Blessed One : 

' As we, Gotama, were taking exercise and 
walking up and down, there sprung up a con- 
versation between us on which was the true path 
and which the false. I said thus : 

' " This is the straight path, this the direct way 
which leads him, who acts according to it, into a 
state of union with Brahma — I mean that which has 
been announced by the Brahman Pokkarasati." 

' Bharadva^a said thus : 

' " This is the straight path, this the direct way 
which leads him, who acts according to it, into a 
state of union with Brahma — I mean that which has 
been announced by the Brahman Tarukkha." 

' Regarding this matter, Gotama, there is a strife, 
a dispute, a difference of opinion between us.' 



9. ' So you say, Vase/^a, that you said thus : 

' " This is the straight path, this the direct way 
which leads him, who acts according to it, into a 
state of union with Brahma — I mean that which has 
been announced by the Brahman Pokkarasati." 

' While Bharadva^a said thus : 

' " This is the straight path, this the direct way 
which leads him, who acts according to it, into a 
state of union with Brahma — I mean that which has 
been announced by the Brahman Tarukkha." 



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TEVIGOA SUTTA. 171 



'Wherein, then, O V4se//^a, is there a strife, a 
dispute, a difference of opinion between you * ?' 

10. ' Concerning the true path and the false, Go- 
tama. Various Brahmans, Gotama, teach various 
paths — the Addhariya Brahmans, the Tittiriya 
Brahmans, the .ATi&andoka Brahmans, the A^andava 
Brahmans, the Brahma^ariya Brahmans 2 . Are all 
those saving paths ? Are they all paths which will 
lead him, who acts according to them, into a state 
of union with Brahma ? 

' Just, Gotama, as near a village or a town there 
are many and various paths 3 , yet they all meet 
together in the village — just in that way are all 
the various paths taught by various Brahmans — the 
Addhariya Brahmans, the Tittiriya Brahmans, the 
jOandoka Brahmans, the A^andava Brahmans, the 
Brahmaiariya Brahmans. Are all these saving 
paths ? Are they all paths which will lead him, 
who acts according to them, into a state of union 
with Brahma ?' 

11.' Do you say that they all lead aright, Vase//$a ? ' 

' I say so, Gotama.' 

' Do you really say that they all lead aright, 
Vasetf&t ?' 

' So I say, Gotama.' 

1 This is either mildly sarcastic — as much as to say, ' that is six 
to one, and half a dozen to the other ' — or is intended to lead on 
V4se//4a to confess still more directly the fact that the different 
theologians held inconsistent opinions. 

2 P. here Atthariyd, but below Addhariy& (Sans. Adhvaryu); 
D. Titittiriya, T. Tattiriya, P. apparently Titthiriya (Sans. Taitti- 
rtya); D. A2andava, T. P. omit (? Sans. AMndasa); all three MSS. 
A^andoka (Sans. A^andoga); P. Bavhad^i here and below Aav- 
hadig£ for Brahma£ariya (? Sans. Brahma£ari). See ' Lotus,' p. 493. 

s Maggani, which is noteworthy as a curious change of gender. 



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172 ON KNOWLEDGE OF THE VEDAS. CH. 

12. 'But then, Vase#/fca, is there a single one of 
the Brahmans versed in the Three Vedas who has 
ever seen Brahma face to face ? ' 

' No, indeed, Gotama.' 

' But is there then, Vase/Afca, a single one of the 
teachers of the Brahmans versed in the Three Vedas 
who has seen Brahma face to face ?' 

' No, indeed, Gotama ! ' 

' But is there then, Vase//^a, a single one of the 
pupils of the teachers of the Brahmans versed in the 
Three Vedas who has seen Brahma face to face ?' 

'No, indeed, Gotama!' 

' But is there then, Vase//^a, a single one of the 
Brahmans up to the seventh generation who has 
seen Brahma face to face ?' 

'No, indeed, Gotama!' 

1 3. ' Well then, Vase/Ma, those ancient ./?zshis 
of the Brahmans versed in the Three Vedas, the 
authors of the verses, the utterers of the verses, 
whose ancient form of words so chaunted, uttered, 
or composed, the Brahmans of to-day chaunt over 
again or repeat ; intoning or reciting exacdy as has 
been intoned or recited — to wit, Azalea, Vamaka, 
Vamadeva, Vessamitta, Yamataggi, Angirasa, Bha- 
radva^a, V4se//^a, Kassapa, and Bhagu 1 — did even 
they speak thus, saying : " We know it, we have 
seen it, where Brahma is, whence Brahma is, whither 
Brahma is?"' 

'Not so, Gotama!' 

14. 'Then you say, Vase#>&a [that not one of the 
Brahmans, or of their teachers, or of their pupils, 
even up to the seventh generation, has ever seen 
Brahma face to face. And that even the .fo'shis of 

1 See Maha Vagga VI, 35, 2. 

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TEVIGGA SUTTA. 1 73 



old, the authors and utterers of the verses, of the 
ancient form of words which the Brahmans of 
to-day so carefully intone and recite precisely as 
they have been handed down — even they did not 
pretend to know or to have seen where or whence 
or whither Brahma is] 1 . So that the Brahmans 
versed in the Three Vedas have forsooth said thus : 
" What we know not, what we have not seen, to a 
state of union with that we can show the way, 
and can say : ' This is the straight path, this is the 
direct way which leads him, who acts according to 
it, into a state of union with Brahma!'" 

' Now what think you, Vase/A&a ? Does it not follow, 
this being so, that the talk of the Brahmans, versed 
though they be in the Three Vedas, is foolish talk ? ' 

' In sooth, Gotama, that being so, it follows that 
the talk of the Brahmans versed in the Three Vedas 
is foolish talk!' 

1 5. ' Verily, Vase#^a, that Brahmans versed in 
the Three Vedas should be able to show the way 
to a state of union with that which they do not 
know, neither have seen — such a condition of things 
has no existence ! 

' Just, V4se//^a, as when a string of blind men are 
clinging one to the other 2 , neither can the foremost 

1 In the text §§ 12, 13 are repeated word for word. 

s Andhavewf paramparaw samsattS. The Phayre MS. has 
replaced ve»l by pave»l, after the constant custom of the Bur- 
mese MSS. to improve away unusual or difficult expressions. 
Buddhaghosa explains andhavewi by andhapavewi, and tells 
a tale of a wicked wight, who meeting a company of blind men, 
told them of a certain village wherein plenty of good food was to 
be had. When they besought him for hire to lead them there, he 
took the money, made one blind man catch hold of his stick, the 
next of that one, and so on, and then led them on till they came 
to a wilderness. There he deserted them, and they all — still 



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174 0N KNOWLEDGE OF THE VEDAS. CH. 

see, nor can the middle one see, nor can the hindmost 
see — just even so, methinks, Vase#^a, is the talk of 
the Brahmans versed in the Three Vedas but blind 
talk : the first sees not, the middle one sees not, 
nor can the latest see. The talk then of these 
Brahmans versed in the Three Vedas turns out to 
be ridiculous, mere words, a vain and empty thing ! ' 



1 6. ' Now what think you, Vase#-£a ? Can the Brahr 
mans versed in the Three Vedas — like other, ordinary, 
folk — see the sun and the moon as they pray to, 
and praise, and worship them, turning round with 
clasped hands towards the place whence they rise 
and where they set ?' 

' Certainly, Gotama, they [can] V 

1 7. ' Now what think you, Vase#/fca ? The Brah- 
mans versed in the Three Vedas, who can very 
well — like other, ordinary, folk — see the sun and 
the moon as they pray to, and praise, and worship 
them, turning round with clasped hands to the place 
whence they rise and where they set — are those 
Brahmans, versed in the Three Vedas, able to point 
out the way to a state of union with the sun or the 
moon, saying : " This is the straight path, this the 
direct way which leads him, who acts according to it, 
to a state of union with the sun or the moon ? " ' 

'Certainly not, Gotama !' 

18. 'So you say, Vase/Ma, that the Brahmans 
[are not able to point out the way to union with that 

holding each the other, and vainly, and with tears, seeking both 
their guide and the path— came to a miserable end I 

1 The words of the question are repeated in the text in this and 
the following answers. It must be remembered, for these sections, 
that the sua and moon were Gods just as much as BrahmS. 



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TEVIGGA SUTTA. I 75 



which they have seen], and you further say that 
[neither any one of them, nor of their pupils, nor 
of their predecessors even to the seventh generation 
has ever seen Brahma]. And you further say that 
even the ifo'shis of old, [whose words they hold in 
such deep respect, did not pretend to know, or to 
have seen where, or whence, or whither Brahma is. 
Yet these Brahmans versed in the Three Vedas say, 
forsooth, that they can point out the way to union 
with that which they know not, neither have seen I] 1 
Now what think you, V4se#/fca? Does it not follow 
that, this being so, the talk of the Brahmans, versed 
though they be in the Three Vedas, is foolish talk ?' 

' In sooth, Gotama, that being so, it follows that 
the talk of the Brahmans versed in the Three Vedas 
is foolish talk ! ' 

19. 'Very good, Vase#/fca. Verily then, Vaseta&a, 
that Brahmans versed in the Three Vedas should 
be able to show the way to a state of union with 
that which they do not know, neither have seen — 
such a condition of things has no existence. 



' Just, Vase^a, as if a man should say, " How 
I long for, how I love the most beautiful woman 
in this land !" 

'And people should ask him, " Well ! good friend ! 
this most beautiful woman in the land whom you 
thus love and long for, do you know whether that 
beautiful woman is a noble lady or a Brahman 
woman, or of the trader class, or a ^udra ? " 

' But when so asked he should answer " No." 

' And when people should ask him, " Well ! good 

1 The text repeats at length the words of §§ 12, 13, 14. 

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176 ON KNOWLEDGE OF THE VEDAS. CH. 

friend ! this most beautiful woman in all the land, 
whom you so love and long for, do you know what 
the name of that most beautiful woman is, or what 
is her family name, whether she be tall or short, 
dark or of medium complexion, black or fair, or 
in what village or town or city she dwells ? " 

' But when so asked he should answer " No." 

' And then people should say to him, " So then, 
good friend, whom you know not, neither have seen, 
her do you love and long for ?" 

'And then when so asked he should answer 
"Yes."' 

' Now what think you, Vase/^a ? Would it not 
turn out, that being so, that the talk of that man 
was foolish talk ? ' 

' In sooth, Gotama, it would turn out, that being 
so, that the talk of that man was foolish talk ! ' 

20. ' And just even so, Vase^a, though you say 
that the Brahmans [are not able to point out the 
way to union with that which they have seen], and you 
further say that [neither any one of them, nor of their 
pupils, nor of their predecessors even to the seventh 
generation has ever seen Brahma]. And you further 
say that even the ifoshis of old, [whose words they 
hold in such deep respect, did not pretend to know, 
or to have seen where, or whence, or whither Brah- 
ma is. Yet these Brahmans versed in the Three 
Vedas say, forsooth, that they can point out the 
way to union with that which they know not, 
neither have seen!] Now what think you, Vise/^a? 
Does it not follow that, this being so, the talk of 
the Brahmans, versed though they be in the Three 
Vedas, is foolish talk ? ' 

' In sooth, Gotama, that being so, it follows that 



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I. TEVIGGA SUTTA. 177 

the talk of the Brahmans versed in the Three Vedas 
is foolish talk ! ' 

' Very good, Vase^a. Verily then, Vase#^a, 
that Brahmans versed in the Three Vedas should 
be able to show the way to a state of union with 
that which they do not know, neither have seen — 
such a condition of things has no existence.' 



21. 'Just, Vise/Ma, as if a man should make a stair- 
case in the place where four roads cross, to mount 
up into a mansion. And people should say to him, 
" Well, good friend, this mansion, to mount up into 
which you are making this staircase, do you know 
whether it is in the east, or in the south, or in the 
west, or in the north ? whether it is high or low or 
of medium size ? ' 

' And when so asked he should answer " No." ' 
' And people should say to him, " But then, good 
friend, you are making a staircase to mount up into 
something — taking it for a mansion — which, all the 
while, you know not, neither have seen!" 

' And when so asked he should answer " Yes." ' 
' Now what think you, Vase/^a ? Would it not 
turn out, that being so, that the talk of that man 
was foolish talk ? ' 

' In sooth, Gotama, it would turn out, that being 
so, that the talk of that man was foolish talk ! ' 

22. 'And just even so, Vase#/fo., though you say 
that the Brahmans [are not able to point out the 
way to union with that which they have seen], and 
you further say that [neither any one of them, nor 
of their pupils, nor of their predecessors even to the 
seventh generation has ever seen Brahma]. And 
you further say that even the -tfzshis of old, [whose 

[n] N 



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178 ON KNOWLEDGE OF THE VEDAS. CH. 

words they hold in such deep respect, did not 
pretend to know, or to have seen where, or whence, 
or whither Brahma is. Yet these Brahmans 
versed in the Three Vedas say, forsooth, that they 
can point out the way to union with that which 
they know not, neither have seen!] Now what 
think you, Vase#^a ? Does it not follow that, this 
being so, the talk of the Brahmans versed in the 
Three Vedas is foolish talk?' 

' In sooth, Gotama, that being so, it follows that 
the talk of the Brahmans versed in the Three 
Vedas is foolish talk !' 

23. 'Very good, Vasel/£a. Verily then, Vase#^a, 
that Brahmans versed in the Three Vedas should 
be able to show the way to a state of union with 
that which they do not know, neither have seen — 
such condition of things has no existence.' 



24. 'Again, Vase//£a, if this river A&ravati 
were full of water even to the brim, and over- 
flowing 1 . And a man with business on the other 

1 Samatittiki kakapeyya, a stock phrase used of a river in 
flood time. Buddhaghosa says, Samatittika ti samahariti 
(sic ? sam&hariti) : kakapeyya ti yatthakattha^i tire /Aitena 
kakena sakki patun ti kakapeyya, which does not seem to me 
to solve the question as to the origin and history of these difficult 
terms. With respect to the right form of samatittika' it should 
be noticed that the northern Buddhist spelling is samatirthaka 
(Sukhavativyuha, ed. Max Mttller in J. R. A. S. for 1880, p. 182), 
and that both Childers and Oldenberg have read samatitthikd in 
the Burmese MSS. of MahSparinibbdna Sutta I, 33 = Mah& Vagga 
VI, 28. Now the difference in Burmese letters between tt and tth 
(83 and 83) is so ver y small that the copyists frequently write 
one for the other ; and even in good MSS. where the two are not 
confounded, it is sometimes difficult to tell which is really meant. 
When talking of rivers the mention of titthas seems so appro- 



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TEVIGGA SUTTA. I 79 



side, bound for the other side, should come up, and 
want to cross over. And he, standing on this bank, 
should invoke the further bank, and say, " Come 
hither, O further bank ! come over to this side ! " 

priate that a copyist, and especially a Burmese copyist, would 
naturally read a doubtful combination as tth ; so that even if all 
Burmese MSS. spell this word with tth (which is by no means 
certain), very little reliance should be placed upon the fact. On 
the other hand, the distinction in Sinhalese between tt and tth is 
very marked (<JS> and 3t5), and the Sinhalese MSS. all read tt. 
I think therefore that Childers was right in finally adopting sama- 
tittika" as the correct Pali form. In the numerous words in 
which Buddhist Sanskrit has a form differing in a way which sets 
philological rules at defiance from the corresponding Pali form, 
Childers thought (see Diet. p. xi, where the list of words might be 
greatly extended) that the Sanskrit was always derived from the 
Pali, and the Sanskrit writers had merely blundered. I venture, 
with great diffidence, to doubt this. It seems more likely that, at 
least in many instances, both Pali and Sanskrit were alike derived 
from a previous Prdkrit form, and that in differently interpreting 
a difficult word, both Sanskrit and Pali authors made mistakes. 
That may be the case here ; and it is almost certain that the 
original word had nothing to do with ttrtha. How easily this 
idea could be adopted we see from the fact that Childers when 
first editing the MSS. (in the J. R. A. S. for 1874), and when he 
had only Sinhalese MSS. then before him, altered their reading 
into samatitthiki, and put this form into his Dictionary; though 
he afterwards (in the separate edition), and after noting that 
reading in the Phayre MS., chose the other. But what, after all, 
does ' having equal or level tirthas or landing-places ' mean, when 
spoken of a river? Comp. Samatittikaw? bhuw^imi (Mil. 213, 
214); Sabbato tittaw? pokkharawiw (Git.l, 339, text titthaw) ; 
and Samatittiko telapatto (ibid. 393, text °iyo, but see p. 400). 
The root perhaps is tje/p. 

Klkapeyya, according to Buddhaghosa, would mean 'crow- 
drinkable.' Crows do not drink on the wing ; and they could stand 
to drink either when a river actually overflowed its banks and 
formed shallows on the adjoining land; or when in the hot season 
it had formed shallows in its own bed. * Crow-drinkable ' might 
mean therefore just as well ' shallow ' as ' overflowing.' Had the 
word originally anything to do with k£ka after all? 

N 2 



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l8o ON KNOWLEDGE OF THE VEDAS. CH. 

' Now what think you, Vise/^a ? Would the 
further bank of the river Aiiravatl, by reason of 
that man's invoking and praying and hoping and 
praising, come over to this side ?' 

' Certainly not, Gotama !' 
— « 25. 'In just the same way, Vase/^a, do the 
Brahmans versed in the Three Vedas — omitting 
the practice of those qualities which really make a 
man a Brahman, and adopting the practice of those 
qualities which really make men not Brahmans — say 
thus : " Indra we call upon, Soma we call upon, 
Varu«a we call upon, Isana we call upon,] Pa^pati 
we call upon, Brahma we call upon, Mahiddhi we 
call upon, Yama we call upon 1 !" Verily, Vase^a, 
that those Brahmans versed in the Three Vedas, 
but omitting the practice of those qualities which 
really make a man a Brahman, and adopting the 
practice of those qualities which really make men 
not Brahmans— (that they, by reason of their in- 
voking and praying and hoping and praising, should, 
after death and when the body is dissolved, become 
united with Brahma VA- verily such a condition of 
things has no existence !' 



26. ' Just, Vase#^a, as if this river Aiiravatl 
were full, even to the brim, and overflowing. And 
a man with business on the other side, bound for 
the other side, should come up, and want to cross 
over. And he, on this bank, were to be bound 
tightly, with his arms behind his back, by a strong 

1 The Sinhalese MSS. omit Mahiddhi and Yama, but repeat the 
verb ' we call upon ' three times after Brahma\ It is possible that 
the Burmese copyist has wrongly inserted them to remove the 
strangeness of this repetition. The comment is silent. 



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TEVIGGA SUTTA. l8l 



chain. Now what think you, Vase//^a, would that 
man be able to get over from this bank of the river 
A&ravati to the further bank?' 
' Certainly not, Gotama ! ' 

27. 'In the same way, Vase/Ma, there are five 
things leading to lust, which are called in the 
Discipline of the Noble One a " chain " and a 
"bond."' 

'What are the five?' 

' Forms perceptible to the eye ; desirable, agree- 
able, pleasant, attractive forms, that are accom- 
panied by lust and cause delight. Sounds of the 
same kind perceptible to the ear. Odours of the 
same kind perceptible to the nose. Tastes of the 
same kind perceptible to the tongue. Substances 
of the same kind perceptible to the body by touch. 
These five things predisposing to passion are called 
in the Discipline of the Noble One a "chain" and 
a "bond." And these five things predisposing to 
lust, Vase/^a, do the Brahmans versed in the 
Three Vedas cling to, they are infatuated by them, 
guilty of them, see not the danger of them, know 
not how unreliable they are, and so enjoy them. 

28. ' And verily, Vase#^a, that Brahmans versed 
in the Three Vedas, but omitting the practice of 
those qualities which really make a man a Brah- 
man, and adopting the practice of those qualities 
which really make men non-Brah mans— clinging to 
these five things predisposing to passion, infatuated 
by them, guilty of them, seeing not their danger, 
knowing not their unreliability, and so enjoying 
them — that these Brahmans should after death, on 
the dissolution of the body, become united to Brahma 
— such a condition of things has no existence.' 



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l82 ON KNOWLEDGE OF THE VEDAS. CH. 

29. 'Again, Vase/^a, if this river A^iravati were 
full of water even to the brim, and overflowing. 
And a man with business on the other side, bound 
for the other side, should come up, and want to 
cross over. And if he covering himself up, even to 
his head, were to lie down, on this bank, to sleep. 

' Now what think you, Vase/^a ? Would that 
man be able to get over from this bank of the river 
Aiiravat! to the further bank ? ' 

'Certainly not, Gotama!' 

30. ' And in the same way, Vase^Ma, there are 
these five hindrances, in the Discipline of the Noble 
One, which are called "veils 1 ,'' and are called "hin- 
drances 2 ," and are called "obstacles 3 ," and are called 
"entanglements V 

' Which are the five ?' 
' The hindrance of lustful desire, 
The hindrance of malice, 
The hindrance of sloth and idleness, 
The hindrance of pride and self-righteousness, 
The hindrance of doubt. 
' These are the five hindrances, Vase/^a, which, 
in the Discipline of the Noble One, are called veils, 
and are called hindrances, and are called obstacles, 
and are called entanglements. 

31. 'Now with these five hindrances, Vase#-4a, 
the Brahmans versed in the Three Vedas are veiled, 
hindered, obstructed, and entangled. 

32. ' And verily, Vase/^a, that Brahmans versed 

1 Avarafll * Ntvarawi. 

* All three MSS. onahl S. V. reads onaddhaw in the text, 
and explains it by onahd. 

4 All three MSS. pariyonaht. S. V.reads pariyoddhazn in 
the text, and explains it by pariyonahi. 



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TEVIGGA SUTTA. 1 83 



in the Three Vedas, but omitting the practice of 
those qualities which really make a man a Brahman, 
and adopting the practice of those qualities which 
really make men non-Brahmans — veiled, hindered, 
obstructed, and entangled by these Five Hindrances 
— that these Brahmans should after death, on the 
dissolution of the body, become united to Brahma — 
such a condition of things has no existence.' 



33. 'Now what think you, Vase/Afca, and what 
have you heard from the Brahmans aged and well- 
stricken in years, when the learners and teachers 
are talking together? Is Brahma in possession of 
wives and wealth, or is he not 1 ?' 

' He is not, Gotama.' 

' Is his mind full of anger, or free from anger?' 

' Free from anger, Gotama.' 

' Is his mind full of malice, or free from malice?' 

' Free from malice, Gotama.' 

' Is his mind depraved, or pure 2 ?' 

' It is pure, Gotama.' 

' Has he self-mastery, or has he not 3 ?' 

' He has, Gotama.' 

34. ' Now what think you, Vase/^a, are the 

1 Sapariggaho v£ BrahmS, apariggaho vi ti. Buddhaghosa 
says on Vise//4a's reply, 'K£ma££Aandassa abh&vato itthi- 
pariggaheno apariggaho,' thus restricting the ' possession ' to 
women, with especial reference to the first 'hindrance;' but the 
word in the text, though doubtless alluding to possession of women 
in particular, includes more. Compare, on the general idea of the 
passage, the English expression ' no encumbrances.' 

2 Asahkili//Aa-£itto. That is, says Buddhaghosa, 'free from 
mental sloth and idleness, self-righteousness, and pride.' 

3 Vasavattt v£. avasavattl vl Buddhaghosa says, in expla- 
nation of the answer : ' By the absence of doubt he has his mind 
under control' (vase vatteti). 



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184 ON KNOWLEDGE OF THE VEDAS. CH. 

Brahmans versed in the Vedas in the possession of 
wives and wealth, or are they not ?' 

' They are, Gotama.' 

' Have they anger in their hearts, or have they not ?' 

' They have, Gotama.' 

' Do they bear malice, or do they not ?' 

' They do, Gotama.' 

' Are they pure in heart, or are they not ? ' 

' They are not, Gotama.' 

' Have they self-mastery, or have they not ?' 

' They have not, Gotama.' 

35. 'Then you say, Vase/^a, that the Brahmans are 
in possession of wives and wealth, and that Brahma 
is not. Can there, then, be agreement and likeness 
between the Brahmans with their wives and pro- 
perty, and Brahma, who has none of these things ?' 

' Certainly not, Gotama!' 

36. 'Very good, Vase//^a. But, verily, that these 
Brahmans versed in the Vedas, who live married 
and wealthy should after death, when the body is dis- 
solved, become united with Brahma, who has none 
of these things — such a condition of things has no 
existence.' 

37. ' Then you say, too, Vase/Ma, that the Brah- 
mans bear anger and malice in their hearts, and are 
sinful and uncontrolled, whilst Brahma is free from 
anger and malice, and sinless, and has self-mastery. 
Now can there, then, be concord and likeness be- 
tween the Brahmans and Brahma ?' 

' Certainly not, Gotama!' 

38. ' Very good, Vase//^a. That these Brahmans 
versed in the Vedas and yet bearing anger and 
malice in their hearts, sinful, and uncontrolled, 



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TEVIGGA SUTTA. 185 



should after death, when the body is dissolved, 
become united to Brahma, who is free from anger 
and malice, sinless, and has self-mastery — such a 
condition of things has no existence.' 



39. 'So that thus then, Vise^a, the Brahmans, 
versed though they be in the Three Vedas, while 
they sit down (in confidence), are sinking down (in 
the mire) * j and so sinking they are arriving only at 
despair, thinking the while that they are crossing 
over into some happier land. 

' Therefore is it that the threefold wisdom of 
the Brahmans, wise in their Three Vedas, is called 
a waterless desert, their threefold wisdom is called a 
pathless jungle, their threefold wisdom is called 
destruction ! ' 



40. When he had thus spoken, the young Brah- 
man Vase#/fca said to the Blessed One : 

' It has been told me, Gotama, that the Sama«a 
Gotama knows the way to the state of union with 
Brahma. 

41. 'What do you think, Vase///&a, is not Manasa- 
ka^a near to this spot, not distant from this spot ?' 

' Just so, Gotama. Manasaka^a is near to, is not 
far from here. 

42. ' Now what think you, Vase#^a, suppose there 
were a man born in Manasaka/a, and people should 

1 Asiditva samsldanti. I have no doubt the commentator 
is right in his explanation of these figurative expressions. Confi- 
dent in their knowledge of the Vedas, and in their practice of Vedic 
ceremonies, they neglect higher things ; and so, sinking into sin and 
superstition, * they are arriving only at despair, thinking the while 
that they are crossing over into some happier land.' 



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1 86 ON KNOWLEDGE OF THE VEDAS. CH. 

ask him, who never till that time had left Manasa- 
ka/a, which was the way to Manasaka/a. Would 
that man, born and brought up in Manasaka/a, be 
in any doubt or difficulty V 

' Certainly not, Gotama! And why? If the man 
had been born and brought up in Manasaka/a, every 
road that leads to Manasaka/a would be perfectly 
familiar to him.' 

43. ' That man, V4se//Aa, born and brought up 
at Manasaka/a might, if he were asked the way 
to Manasaka/a, fall into doubt and difficulty, but 
to the Tathagata, when asked touching the path 
which leads to the world of Brahma, there can be 
neither doubt nor difficulty. For Brahma, I know, 
Vase//>4a, and the world of Brahma, and the path 
which leadeth unto it. Yea, I know it even as 
one who has entered the Brahma world, and has 
been born within it!' 



44. When he had thus spoken, Vase//^a the young 
Brahman said to the Blessed One : 

'So has it been told me, Gotama, even that the 
Samawa Gotama knows the way to a state of union 
with Brahma. It is well ! Let the venerable Gotama 
be pleased to show us the way to a state of union 
with Brahma, let the venerable Gotama save the 
Brahman race ! ' 

45. ' Listen then, Vase///£a, and give ear atten- 
tively, and I will speak ! ' 

' So be it, Lord ! ' said the young Brahman 
Vase///6a, in assent, to the Blessed One. 

46. Then the Blessed One spake, and said: 

' 1 Know, Vase//^a, that 1 (from time to time) a 

1 From here down to the end of p. 200 is a repetition word for 

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TEVIGGA SUTTA. 187 



Tathagata is born into the world, a fully Enlight- 
ened One, blessed and worthy, abounding in wisdom 
and goodness, happy, with knowledge of the world, 
unsurpassed as a guide to erring mortals, a teacher 
of gods and men, a Blessed Buddha 1 . He, by him- 
self, thoroughly understands, and sees, as it were, 
face to face this universe — the world below with all 
its spirits, and the worlds above, of Mara and of 
Brahma — and all creatures, Samawas and Brah- 
mans, gods and men, and he then makes his 
knowledge known to others. The truth doth he 
proclaim both in its letter and in its spirit, lovely 
in its origin, lovely in its progress, lovely in its 
consummation : the higher life doth he make 
known, in all its purity and in all its perfectness. 

47. 'A householder (gahapati), or one of his 
children, or a man of inferior birth in any class, 
listens to that truth 2 . On hearing the truth he has 
faith in the Tathagata, and when he has acquired 
that faith he thus considers with himself: 

' " Full of hindrances is household life, a path 
defiled by passion : free as the air is the life of 
him who has renounced all worldly things. How 
difficult is it for the man who dwells at home to live 
the higher life in all its fulness, in all its purity, 
in all its bright perfection! Let me then cut off 
my hair and beard, let me clothe myself in the 

word of Samamwa Phala Sutta, pp. 133 and following; including 
the passages there parallel to those in Subha Sutta, p. 157, and in 
Brahma-^ala Sutta, pp. 5-16. 

1 See above, § 7. 

* The point is, that the acceptance of this 'Doctrine and 
Discipline' is open to all, not of course that Br&hmans never 
accept it. 



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1 88 ON KNOWLEDGE OF THE VEDAS. CH. 

orange-coloured robes, and let me go forth from 
a household life into the homeless state!" 

48. ' Then before long, forsaking his portion of 
wealth, be it great or be it small; forsaking his 
circle of relatives, be they many or be they few, he 
cuts off his hair and beard, he clothes himself in the 
orange-coloured robes, and he goes forth from the 
household life into the homeless state. 

49. 'When he has thus become a recluse he passes 
a life self-restrained according to the rules of the 
Patimokkha ; uprightness is his delight, and he sees 
danger in the least of those things he should avoid; 
he adopts and trains himself in the precepts; he 
encompasses himself with holiness in word and deed; 
he sustains his life by means that are quite pure ; 
good is his conduct, guarded the door of his senses ; 
mindful and self-possessed, he is altogether happy 1 !' 

1 The argument is resumed after the Three Silas, or Descrip- 
tions of Conduct — a text, doubtless older than the Suttas in which 
it occurs, setting forth the distinguishing moral characteristics of 
a member of the Order. 

The First Stla is an expansion of the Ten Precepts ('Buddhism,' 
p. 160), but omitting the fifth, against the use of intoxicating drinks. 
The SecondSila is a further expansion of the first and then of 
the last four, and finally of the fourth Precept. The Third Stla 
is directed against auguries, divinations, prophecies, astrology, 
quackery, ritualism, and the worship of Gods (including Brahmd). 

These Three Silas may perhaps have been inserted in the Sutta 
as a kind of counterpoise to the Three Vedas. Our Sutta really 
reads better without them ; but they are interesting in themselves, 
and the third is especially valuable as evidence of ancient customs 
and beliefs. 



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II. 



TEVieCA SUTTA. 1 89 



Chapter II. 
The Short Paragraphs on Conduct. 



THE ATtfLA alLAM 1 . 



1. 'Now wherein, Vise^a, is his conduct good?' 

' Herein, O Vase//£a, that putting away the mur- 
der of that which lives, he abstains from destroying 
life. The cudgel and the sword he lays aside; and, 
full of modesty and pity, he is compassionate and 
kind to all creatures that have life ! 

' This is the kind of goodness that he has. 

2. ' Putting away the theft of that which is not 
his, he abstains from taking anything not given. 
He takes only what is given, therewith is he con- 
tent, and he passes his life in honesty and in purity 
of heart ! 

' This, too, is the kind of goodness that he has. 

3. ' Putting away inchastity, he lives a life of 
chastity and purity, averse to the low habit of 
sexual intercourse. 

' This, too, (&c, see § II, 2.) 2 

1 There is no division into actual chapters in the original, but it 
is convenient to arrange the following enumeration of moral pre- 
cepts separately, as they occur in various suttas in the same order ; 
and are always divided into the three divisions of Lower, Medium, 
and Higher Morality. 

* The clause ' this, too, is the kind of goodness that he has ' is 
repeated in the text after each section. The clause, which differs 



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I90 ON KNOWLEDGE OF THE VEDAS. CH. 

4. ' Putting away lying, he abstains from speaking 
falsehood. He speaks truth, from the truth he 
never swerves ; faithful and trustworthy, he injures 
not his fellow man by deceit. 

' This, too, (&c, see § II, 2.) 

5. ' Putting away slander, he abstains from ca- 
lumny. What he hears here he repeats not else- 
where to raise a quarrel against the people here : 
what he hears elsewhere he repeats not here to 
raise a quarrel against the people there. Thus he 
lives as a binder together of those who are divided, 
an encourager of those who are friends, a peace- 
maker, a lover of peace, impassioned for peace, a 
speaker of words that make for peace. 

'This, too, (&c, see § II, 2.) 

6. ' Putting away bitterness of speech, he abstains 
from harsh language. Whatever word is humane, 
pleasant to the ear, lovely, reaching to the heart, 
urbane, pleasing to the people, beloved of the 
people — such are the words he speaks. - 

'This, too, (&c, see § II, 2.) 

7. ' Putting away foolish talk, he abstains from 
vain conversation. In season he speaks ; he speaks 
that which is ; he speaks fact; he utters good doc- 
trine; he utters good discipline; he speaks, and at the 
right time, that which redounds to profit, is well- 
grounded, is well-defined, and is full of wisdom. 

'This, too, (&c, see § II, 2.) 

8. ' He refrains from injuring any herb or any 
creature. He takes but one meal a day ; abstaining 



in the different suttas in which this enumeration of Buddhist 
morality is found, is distinct from the enumeration itself, and, like 
the opening reference to Vase/rta, characteristic only of the par- 
ticular Sutta. 



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TEVIGOA SUTTA. 191 



from food at night time, or at the wrong time. He 
abstains from dancing, singing, music, and theatrical 
shows. He abstains from wearing, using, or adorning 
himself with garlands, and scents, and unguents, and 
he abstains from lofty couches and large beds. 
'This, too, (&c, see $11, 2.) 

9. ' He abstains from the getting of silver or 
gold. He abstains from the getting of grain un- 
cooked. He abstains from the getting of flesh that 
is raw. He abstains from the getting of any woman 
or girl. He abstains from the getting of bondmen 
or bondwomen. He abstains from the getting of 
sheep or goats. He abstains from the getting of 
fowls or swine. He abstains from the getting of 
elephants, cattle, horses, and mares. He abstains 
from the getting of fields or lands. 

1 This, too, (&c, see J II, 2.) 

10. 'He refrains from carrying out those com- 
missions on which messengers can be sent. He 
refrains from buying and selling. He abstains from 
tricks with false weights, alloyed metals, or false 
measures. He abstains from bribery, cheating, 
fraud, and crooked ways. 

'This, too, (&c, see § II, 2.) 

11. 'He refrains from maiming, killing, im- 
prisoning, highway robbery, plundering villages,, or 
obtaining money by threats of viole^^Tt St L f ; 

« This, too, (&c, see « 1 1, 2.) ' 




End of the Short Paragraphs 6a Cpftwpfr^l^' 




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192 ON KNOWLEDGE OF THE VEDAS. CH. 



The Middle Paragraphs on Conduct. 



THE ULAGGHIVLA SiLA-fl/. 



i. 'Or whereas some Sama#a-Brahmans, who 
live on the food provided by the faithful, continue 
addicted to injuring plants or vegetables : that is to 
say, the germs arising from roots, the germs arising 
from trunks of trees, the germs arising from joints, 
the germs arising from buds, or the germs arising 
from seeds. He, on the other hand, refrains from 
injuring such plants or animals. 

' This, too, (&c, see § II, 2.) 

2. 'Or whereas some Sama«a- Brahmans, who 
live on the food provided by the faithful, continue 
addicted to storing up property : that is to say, meat, 
drink, clothes, equipages, beds, perfumes, and grain. 
He, on the other hand, refrains from storing up 
such property. 

'This, too, (&c, see § II, 2.) 

3. ' Or whereas some Samawa-Brahmans, who 
live on the food provided by the faithful, continue 
addicted to witnessing public spectacles : that is to 
say, dancing, singing, concerts, theatrical representa- 
tions, recitations, instrumental music, funeral cere- 
monies, drummings, balls, gymnastics, tumblings, 
feasts in honour of the dead, combats between 
elephants, horses, buffaloes, bulls, goats, rams, cocks, 
and quails, cudgel playing, boxing, wrestling, fencing, 
musters, marching, and reviews of troops. He, on 
the other hand, refrains from such public spectacles. 



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TEVIGOA SUTTA. I93 



'This, too, (&c, see § II, 2.) 

4. 'Or whereas some Sama«a-Brihmans, who 
live on the food provided by the faithful, continue 
addicted to occupying their time with games detri- 
mental to their progress in virtue : that is to say, 
with a board of sixty-four squares, or of one hun- 
dred squares ; tossing up ; hopping over diagrams 
formed on the ground ; removing substances from a 
heap without shaking the remainder ; dicing ; trap- 
ball ; sketching rude figures ; tossing balls ; blowing 
trumpets ; ploughing matches ; tumbling ; forming 
mimic windmills ; guessing at measures ; chariot 
races ; archery ; shooting marbles from the fingers ; 
guessing other people's thoughts ; and mimicking 
other people's acts. He, on the other hand, refrains 
from such games detrimental to virtue. 

' This, too, (&c, see § II, 2.) 

5. ' Or whereas some Sama#a-Brahmans, who 
live on the food provided by the faithful, continue 
addicted to the use of elevated and ornamented 
couches or things to recline upon : that is to say, 
of large couches ; ornamented beds ; coverlets with 
long fleece ; embroidered counterpanes ; woollen 
coverlets, plain or worked with thick flowers ; cotton 
coverlets, worked with knots, or dyed with figures 
of animals ; fleecy carpets ; carpets inwrought with 
gold or with silk ; far-spreading carpets ; rich ele- 
phant housings, trappings, or harness; rugs for 
chariots ; skins of the tiger or antelope ; and pillows 
or cushions ornamented with gold lace or embroi- 
dery. He, on the other hand, refrains from the use 
of such elevated or ornamented couches or things 
to recline upon. 

' This, too, (&c, see § II, 2.) 
[11] o 



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194 ON KNOWLEDGE OF THE VEDAS. CH. 

6. ' Or whereas some Sama#a-Brahmans, who 
live on the food provided by the faithful, continue 
addicted to the use of articles for the adornment 
of their persons : that is to say, unguents ; fragrant 
oils ; perfumed baths ; shampooings ; mirrors ; anti- 
mony for the eyebrows and eyelashes ; flowers ; 
cosmetics ; dentifrices ; bracelets ; diadems ; hand- 
some walking-sticks ; tiaras ; swords ; umbrellas ; 
embroidered slippers ; fillets ; jewelry ; fans of the 
buffalo tail ; and long white garments. He, on the 
other hand, refrains from the use of such articles for 
the adornment of the person. 

' This, too, (&c, see $ II, 2.) 

7. ' Or whereas some Sama«a-Brahmans, who 
live on the food provided by the faithful, continue 
addicted to mean talk : that is to say, tales of kings, 
of robbers, or of ministers of state ; tales of arms, 
of war, of terror ; conversation respecting meats, 
drinks, clothes, couches, garlands, perfumes, relation- 
ships, equipages, streets, villages, towns, cities, pro- 
vinces, women, warriors, demigods ; fortune-telling ; 
hidden treasures in jars ; ghost stories ; empty tales ; 
disasters by sea ; accidents on shore ; things which 
are, and things which are not. He, on the other 
hand, refrains from such mean conversation. 

' This, too, (&c, see § II, 2.) 

8. ' Or whereas some Samawa-Brahmans, who 
live on the food provided by the faithful, continue 
addicted to wrangling : that is to say, to saying, 
" You are ignorant of this doctrine and discipline, 
but I understand them!" "What do you know of 
doctrine or discipline ? " " You are heterodox, but 
I am orthodox ! " " My discourse is profitable, but 
yours is worthless!" "That which you should speak 



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II. TEVIG0A SUTTA. 1 95 

first you speak last, and that which you should speak 
last you speak first !" "What you have long studied 
I have completely overturned ! " " Your errors are 
made quite plain!" "You are disgraced!" "Go 
away and escape from this disputation ; or if not, 
extricate yourself from your difficulties !" He, on 
the other hand, refrains from such wrangling. 
'This, too, (&c, see § II, 2.) 

9. ' Or whereas some Sama»a-Brahmans, who 
live on the food provided by the faithful, continue 
addicted to performing the servile duties of a go- 
between : that is to say, between kings, ministers of 
state, soldiers, Brahmans, people of property, or 
young men, who say, "Come here!" "Go there!" 
" Take this to such a place ! " " Bring that here ! " 
But he refrains from such servile duties of a 
messenger. 

' This, too, (&c, see § II, 2.) 

10. ' Or whereas some Sama«a-Brahmans, who 
live on the food provided by the faithful, continue 
addicted to hypocrisy : that is to say, they speak 
much ; they make high professions ; they disparage 
others; and they are continually thirsting after 
gain. But he refrains from such hypocritical craft. 

'This, too, (&c, see § II, 2.)' 



End of the Middle Paragraphs on Conduct 



o 2 

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196 ON KNOWLEDGE OF THE VEDAS. CH. 



The Long Paragraphs on Conduct. 



THE MAHA sllLAM. 



i. ' Or whereas some Sama#a-Brahmans, who 
live on the food provided by the faithful, continue 
to gain a livelihood by such low arts, by such lying 
practices as these : that is to say, by divination from 
marks on the body ; by auguries ; by the interpreta- 
tion of prognostics, of dreams, and of omens, good or 
bad ; by divinations from the manner in which cloth 
and other such things have been bitten by rats ; by 
sacrifices to the god of fire, offerings of Dabba 
grass, offerings with a ladle, offerings of husks, 
of bran, of rice, of clarified butter, of oil, and of 
liquids ejected from the mouth; and by bloody 
sacrifices; by teaching spells for preserving the 
body, for determining lucky sites, for protecting 
fields, for luck in war, against ghosts and goblins, 
to secure good harvests, to cure snake bites, to 
serve as antidotes for poison, and to cure bites of 
scorpions or rats; by divination, by the flight of 
hawks, or by the croaking of ravens ; by guessing 
at length of life ; by teaching spells to ward off 
wounds ; and by pretended knowledge of the lan- 
guage of beasts. — 

'He, on the other hand, refrains from seeking a 
livelihood by such low arts, by such lying practices. 

' This, too, (&c, see § II, 2.) 

2. ' Or whereas some Sama«a-Brahmans, who 
live on the food provided by the faithful, continue 
to gain a livelihood by such low arts, by such lying 



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n. TEVIGGA SUTTA. 1 97 

practices as these : that is to say, by explaining the 
good and bad points in jewels, sticks, garments, 
swords, arrows, bows, weapons of war, women, men, 
youths, maidens, male and female slaves, elephants, 
horses, bulls, oxen, goats, sheep, fowl, snipe, iguanas, 
long-eared creatures, turtle, and deer. — 

' He, on the other hand, refrains from seeking a 
livelihood by such low arts, by such lying practices. 

'This, too, (&c, see J II, 2.) 

3. ' Or whereas some Sama»a-Brahmans, who 
live on the food provided by the faithful, continue 
to gain a livelihood by such low arts and such lying 
practices as these: that is to say, by foretelling future 
events, as these : 

' " There will be a sortie by the king." " There 
will not be a sortie by the king." •" The king within 
the city will attack." "The king outside the city 
will retreat." " The king within the city will gain 
the victory." " The king outside the city will be 
defeated." " The king outside the city will be the 
conqueror." " The king inside the city will be van- 
quished." Thus prophesying to this one victory and 
to that one defeat — 

'He, on the other hand, refrains from seeking a 
livelihood by such low arts, by such lying practices. 

'This, too, (&c, see $ II, 2.) 

4. 'Or whereas some Samawa- Brahmans, who 
live on the food provided by the faithful, continue 
to gain a livelihood by such low arts and such lying 
practices as these : that is to say, by predicting — 

' "There will be an eclipse of the moon." "There 
will be an eclipse of the sun." " There will be an 
eclipse of a planet." " The sun and the moon will be 
in conjunction." "The sun and the moon will be in 



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I98 ON KNOWLEDGE OF THE VEDAS. CH. 

opposition." " The planets will be in conjunction." 
"The planets will be in opposition." "There will be 
falling meteors, and fiery coruscations in the atmo- 
sphere." " There will be earthquakes, thunderbolts, 
and forked lightnings." " The rising and setting of 
the sun, moon, or planets will be cloudy or clear." 
And then : "The eclipse of the moon will have such 
and such a result." "The eclipse of the sun will 
have such and such a result." " The eclipse of the 
moon will have such and such a result." "The sun 
and the moon being in conjunction will have such 
and such a result." " The sun and the moon being 
in opposition will have such and such a result." 
"The planets being in conjunction will have such and 
such a result." "The planets being in opposition 
will have such and such a result." " The falling 
meteors and fiery coruscations in the atmosphere 
will have such and such a result." "The earth- 
quakes, thunderbolts, and forked lightnings will 
have such and such a result." "The rising and 
setting of the sun, moon, or planets, cloudy or clear, 
will have such and such a result." 

'He, on the other hand, refrains from seeking a 
livelihood by such low arts, by such lying practices. 

' This, too, (&c, see $11, 2.) 

5. 'Or whereas some Samara- Br&hmans, who 
live on the food provided by the faithful, continue 
to gain a livelihood by such low arts and such lying 
practices as these : that is to say, by predicting — 

' " There will be an abundant rainfall." "There will 
be a deficient rainfall." "There will be an abundant 
harvest." " There will be famine." "There will be 
tranquillity." "There will be disturbances." "The 
season will be sickly." "The season will be healthy." 



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II. TEVIGGA SUTTA. 1 99 

Or by drawing deeds, making up accounts, 
giving pills, making verses, or arguing points of 
casuistry — 

' He, on the other hand, refrains from seeking a 
livelihood by such low arts, by such lying practices. 

' This, too, (&c, see § II, 2.) 

6. ' Or whereas some Sama«a-Brahmans, who 
live on the food provided by the faithful, continue 
to gain a livelihood by such low arts and such lying 
practices as these : that is to say, by giving advice 
touching the taking in marriage, or the giving in 
marriage ; the forming of alliances, or the dissolution 
of connections; the calling in property, or the laying 
of it out. By teaching spells to procure prosperity, 
or to cause adversity to others ; to remove sterility ; 
to produce dumbness, locked-jaw, deformity, or 
deafness. By obtaining oracular responses by the 
aid of a mirror, or from a young girl, or from a god. 
By worshipping the sun, or by worshipping Brahma; 
by spitting fire out of their mouths, or by laying 
hands on people's heads — 

' He, on the other hand, refrains from seeking a 
livelihood by such low arts, by such lying practices. 
'This, too, (&c, see § II, 2.) 

7. 'Or whereas some Samawa- Brahmans, who 
live on the food provided by the faithful, continue 
to gain a livelihood by such low arts and such lying 
practices as these : that is to say, by teaching the 
ritual for making vows and performing them ; for 
blessing fields ; for imparting virility and rendering 
impotent ; for choosing the site of a house ; for 
performing a house-warming. By teaching forms of 
words to be used when cleansing the mouth, when 
bathing, and when making offerings to the god of 



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200 ON KNOWLEDGE OF THE VEDAS. CH. 

fire. By prescribing medicines to produce vomiting 
or purging, or to remove obstructions in the higher 
or lower intestines, Or to relieve head-ache. By 
preparing oils for the ear, collyriums, catholicons, 
antimony, and cooling drinks. By practising cau- 
tery, midwifery, or the use of root decoctions or 
salves — 

' He, on the other hand, refrains from seeking a 
livelihood by such low arts, by such lying practices. 

'This, too, (&c, see J II, 2.)' 



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III. TEVIGGA SUTTA. 20t 



Chapter III. 

i. * ' And he lets his mind pervade one quarter of 
the world with thoughts of Love,- and so the second, 
and so the third, and so the fourth. And thus the 
whole wide world, above, below, around, and every- 
where, does he continue to pervade with heart of 
Love, far-reaching, grown great, and beyond measure. 

2. 'Just, Vase/^a, as a mighty trumpeter makes 
himself heard — and that without difficulty — in all 
the four directions ; even so of all things that have 
shape or life, there is not one that he passes by or 
leaves aside, but regards them all with mind set 
free, and deep-felt love. 

' Verily this, Vase/A6a, is the way to a state of 
union with Brahma. 

3. ' And he lets his mind pervade one quarter of 
the world with thoughts of pity, sympathy, and equa- 
nimity, and so the second, and so the third, and so 
the fourth. And thus the whole wide world, 
above, below, around, and everywhere, does he 
continue to pervade with heart of pity, sympathy, 
and equanimity, far-reaching, grown great, and be- 
yond measure. 

4. ' Just, Vase#/fca, as a mighty trumpeter makes 
himself heard — and that without difficulty — in all 
the four directions ; even so of all things that have 

1 This paragraph occurs frequently; see, inter alia, below, 
Maha-Sudassana Sutta II, 8. It will be seen from ' Buddhism,' 
pp. 170, 171, that these meditations play a great part in later 
Buddhism, and occupy very much the place that prayer takes in 
Christianity. A fifth, the meditation on Impurity, has been added, 
at what time I do not know, before the last. All five are prac- 
tised in Siam (Alabaster, ' Wheel of the Law,' p. 168). 



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202 ON KNOWLEDGE OF THE VEDAS. CH. 

shape or life, there is not one that he passes by or 
leaves aside, but regards them all with mind set 
free, and deep-felt pity, sympathy, and equanimity. 

' Verily this, Vase#^a, is the way to a state of 
union with Brahma.' 



5. ' Now what think you, Vase/Ma, will the 
Bhikkhu 1 who lives thus be in possession of 
women and of wealth, or will he not ?' 

' He will not, Gotama ! ' 

' Will he be full of anger, or free from anger ? ' 
' He will be free from anger, Gotama ! ' 
'Will his mind be full of malice, or free from 
malice ? ' 

' Free from malice, Gotama ! ' 

' Will his mind be sinful, or pure ? ' 

' It will be pure, Gotama !' 

' Will he have self-mastery, or will he not ?' 

' Surely he will, Gotama ! ' 

6. ' Then you say, Vase//>6a, that the Bhikkhu is 
free from household cares, and that Brahma is free 
from household cares. Is there then agreement and 
likeness between the Bhikkhu and Brahma ?' 

' There is, Gotama !' 

7. ' Very good, Vase/Ma. Then in sooth, Vase/- 
thdi, that the Bhikkhu who is free from household 
cares should after death, when the body is dissolved, 
become united with Brahma, who is the same — such 
a condition of things is every way possible ! 

8. ' And so you say, Vase/^a, that the Bhikkhu 
is free from anger, and free from malice, pure in 
mind, and master of himself; and that Brahma is 

1 Or * Member of our Order.' See the note on Mabiparinib- 
bana Sutta I, 6. 



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ill. TEVICGA SUTTA. 203 

free from anger, and free from malice, pure in mind, 
and master of himself. Then in sooth, Vase//^a, 
that the Bhikkhu who is free from anger, free from 
malice, pure in mind, and master of himself should 
after death, when the body is dissolved, become 
united with Brahma, who is the same — such a 
condition of things is every way possible!' 



9. When he had thus spoken, the young Brahmans 
Vase^a and BharadvS^a addressed the Blessed One, 
and said : 

' Most excellent, Lord, are the words of thy 
mouth, most excellent! Just as if a man were to 
set up that which is thrown down, or were to reveal 
that which is hidden away, or were to point out the 
right road to him who has gone astray, or were to 
bring a lamp into the darkness, so that those who 
have eyes can see external forms ; — just even so, 
Lord, has the truth been made known to us, in 
many a figure, by the Blessed One. And we, even 
we, betake ourselves, Lord, to the Blessed One as 
our refuge, to the Truth, and to the Brotherhood. 
May the Blessed One accept us as disciples, as 
true believers, from this day forth, as long as life 
endures ! ' 



End of the Tevigga Suttanta. 



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AKANKHEYYA-SUTTA 



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INTRODUCTION 

TO THE 

AKANKHEYYA SUTTA. 



Just as the Tevjgya Sutta is an argumentum ad 
hominem to the man wise in the Vedas, and seeking 
through that knowledge for union with the Deity, urging 
him to adopt rather the Buddhist method of a life of right- 
eousness here on earth ; so the present Sutta is a similar 
argument addressed to the seeker after the various things 
specified in its different sections. If he should desire any 
of these things then let him live the life of uprightness 
as set out in the opening section, and cultivate the intel- 
ligent earnestness and spiritual insight described in the 
refrain. 

The two combined amount, as would naturally be ex- 
pected, to the Nirvi«a of a perfect life in Arahatship — 
the supreme goal not only of every good Buddhist, but 
of every good Buddhist argument. As applied in the 
earlier sections it is only a re-statement of a familiar doc- 
trine ; as applied in the later sections it has the additional 
interest of showing us the answer of early Buddhism to 
the mystics, as the Tevigya shows us its answer to 
the theologians. And in the answer we find the details 
of some curious beliefs which existed in India when Bud- 
dhism arose, and which in after times, and especially in 
the northern church, had so disastrous an effect upon it. 

With regard to the reality of these mystical powers 
our Sutta gives an uncertain sound ; leaving, however, an 
impression rather in its favour. The argument is equally 
good either way, but the author of the Sutta is so en- 
grossed with Arahatship that he does not stay to say 



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208 IF HE SHOULD DESIRE — . 

whether he regards the belief in the powers referred to 
as a delusion or not. I have no doubt that he really- 
believed in their theoretical possibility, which is elsewhere 
also in the Pali Pifokas accepted or implied ; though the 
practical effect of the belief has greatly varied among 
Buddhists in djfferent times and countries. In the southern 
church, which adhered more closely to the simple doctrines 
of early Buddhism, these beliefs have been relegated to 
the region of legend and fairy tale ; in the northern church 
there have been found, from time to time, believers who 
attached to them a practical importance. There is a useful 
analogy between the expressions used in i Samuel xxviii, 
and those in the latter part of our Suttas ; and between 
the general position of witchcraft in the history of 
Christianity, and of these beliefs in the history of Bud- 
dhism ; but it would take too long to carry out the com- 
parison and contrast in detail here, and with due regard 
to the necessary limitations under which the comparison 
should be made. The analogy only reaches to their 1 
history, and to their relative importance in the religious 
systems with which they were connected ; the two sets 
of belief themselves are fundamentally different, the Indian 
beliefs being much more nearly allied to modern spiritual- 
ism and mesmerism. 

We have a curious instance of the way in which such 
legends grow in a parallel passage of the earlier and 
later lives of Gotama as accepted by orthodox Buddhists. 
In the Maha Vagga * it is said that during the first watch 
of the night following on Gotama's victory over the Evil 
One, he fixed his mind upon the Chain of Causation, 
during the second watch he did the same, and during the 
third watch he did the same — the only difference in the 
narrative being the verses with which in each of the three 
watches the meditation closed. 

In the life of Gotama prefixed to the 6&takas a , the 
simplicity of this account is improved away by saying that 

1 1, I, 7-6. 

' G&taka I, 75, translated in ' Buddhist Birth Stories,' p. 102. 



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INTRODUCTION. 209 



in the first watch he acquired the knowledge of Past Births 
(Pubbe-nivasa-nana, described in our § 17), in the 
second the knowledge of Present Births (Dibba-^akkhu, 
described in our § 19), and only in the third the knowledge 
of the Chain of Causation (Pati££a-samuppada). It is 
curious that in the corresponding passage of the northern 
Buddhist Sanskrit poem, the Lalita Vistara 1 , we find 
precisely the same tradition, which must therefore have 
been current in both northern and southern churches before 
the fifth century of our era. 

I think it is quite possible that at that time it had 
become part of the Buddhist theory that every Arahat 
possessed this supernatural insight ; and as Gotama was 
supposed by the authors of these two later works to have 
acquired Arahatship by his victory over the Evil One, it 
naturally seemed to them proper to say that he then also 
acquired these particular powers. It is clear that even in 
the time when the Pi/akas were put into their present form 
it was considered that the Buddha had acquired them 2 , 
and that they could be acquired by less exalted persons s . 
In the later literature several instances are given of par- 
ticular persons who possessed one or other of them in a 
greater or less degree ; but it is instructive to notice that 
these are always persons who lived long before the time 
of the writer who records the instances. 

The early Buddhist doctrine as to witchcraft, astrology, 
omens, auguries, sacrifices, prophecies, and the like, will be 
found in the Maha Stla (above, pp. 196-200), and in the 
Third Fetter (below, p. 232). 



1 Calcutta edition, pp. 440-448. 

* See, for instance, the Tevig£-a-va**Aagotta Sutta. 

3 SSmanna Phala Sutta, pp. 144-154. 



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IF HE SHOULD DESIRE- 



Akankheyya-sutta. 



i. Thus have I heard. The Blessed One was 
once staying at Savatthi in Anatha Pi»a?ika's park. 

There the Blessed One addressed the Brethren, 
and said, ' Bhikkhus.' ' Yea, Lord ! ' said the 
Brethren, in assent, to the Blessed One. 

Then spake the Blessed One : 

2. ' Continue, Brethren, in the practice of Right 
Conduct 1 , adhering to the Rules of the Order 2 ; 
continue enclosed by the restraint of the Rules of 
the Order, devoted to uprightness in life 3 ; train 
yourselves according to the Precepts*, taking them 
upon you in the sense of the danger in the least 
offence. 

3. ' If a Bhikkhu should desire, Brethren, to be- 
come beloved, popular, respected among his fellow- 
disciples, let him then fulfil all righteousness, let 
him be devoted to that quietude of heart which 
springs from within 6 , let him not drive back the 
ecstasy of contemplation 6 , let him look through 
things 7 , let him be much alone!' 

1 Stla. » P&timokkhl 

3 AMragoiari. Comp. Tevigga. Sutta I, 49. 

4 Sikkh&padesu. The Buddhist Decalogue (given in ' Bud- 
dhism,' p. 160). 

5 A^Aatta/w ieto samathaw. * GMna. 

7 Vipassant: it is always used, in contrast to samatha 



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AKANKHEYYA SUTTA. 211 

4. ' If a Bhikkhu should desire, Brethren, to receive 
the requisites — clothing, food, lodging, and medicine, 
and other necessaries for the sick — let him then fulfil 
all righteousness, let him be devoted to that quietude 
of heart which springs from within, let him not 
drive back the ecstasy of contemplation, let him look 
through things, let him be much alone !' 

5. ' If a Bhikkhu should desire, Brethren, that to 
those people among whom he receives the requisites 
— clothing, food, lodging, and medicine, and other 
necessaries for the sick — that charity of theirs should 
redound to great fruit and great advantage, let him 
then fulfil all righteousness, let him be devoted to 
that quietude of heart which springs from within, let 
him not drive back the ecstasy of contemplation, 
let him look through things, let him be much 
alone !' 

6. 'If a Bhikkhu should desire, Brethren, that 
those relatives of his, of one blood with him, dead 
and gone, who think of him with believing heart 
should find therein great fruit and great advantage 1 , 
let him then fulfil all righteousness, let him be de- 
voted to that quietude of heart which springs from 
within, let him not drive back the ecstasy of con- 
templation, let him look through things, let him be 
much alone!' 

7. ' If a Bhikkhu should desire, Brethren, that he 

(note 5), of insight into objective phenomena. These three quali- 
ties are constantly referred to as parts of Arahatship. The Rev. 
David da Silva makes vipassana identical with the sevenfold 
perception (sa«»i&, mentioned as conditions of the welfare of a 
community in the Book of the Great Decease, Chap. I, § 10). 

1 Even after death those who remember the Buddha, the Truth, 
or the Order with believing heart can reap spiritual advantage. 
Compare the Dhammapada commentary, p. 97. 

P 2 



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212 IF HE SHOULD DESIRE . 

should be victorious over discontent and lust 1 , that 
discontent should never overpower him, that he should 
master and subdue any discontent that had sprung 
up within him, let him then fulfil all righteousness, 
let him be devoted to that quietude of heart which 
springs from within, let him not drive back the 
ecstasy of contemplation, let him look through things, 
let him be much alone ! ' 

8. ' If a Bhikkhu should desire, Brethren, that he 
should be victorious over (spiritual) danger and 
dismay, that neither danger nor dismay should ever 
overcome him, that he should master and subdue 
every danger and dismay, let him then fulfil all 
righteousness, let him be devoted to that quietude 
of heart which springs from within, let him not 
drive back the ecstasy of contemplation, let him 
look through things, let him be much alone!' 

9. ' If a Bhikkhu should desire, Brethren, to realise 
the hopes of those spiritual men who live in the bliss 
which comes, even in this present world, from the 
four Guanas, should he desire not to fall into the 
pains and difficulties (which they avoid), let him 
then fulfil all righteousness, let him be devoted to 
that quietude of heart which springs from within, let 
him not drive back the ecstasy of contemplation, 
let him look through things, let him be much alone 2 !' 

10. 'If a Bhikkhu should desire, Brethren, to 
reach with his body and remain in those stages of 
deliverance which are incorporeal, and pass beyond 

1 Aratiratisaho. Arati is the disinclination to fulfil the 
duties of a Samawa, discontent with the restrictions of the Order. 

2 The bliss here referred to, and described in detail below, 
Maha-Sudassana Sutta, Chap. Ill, is the 'ecstasy of contem- 
plation ' referred to in the refrain. 



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AKANKHEYYA SUTTA. 



phenomena 1 , let him then fulfil all righteousness, let 
him be devoted to that quietude of heart which 
springs from within, let him not drive back the 
ecstasy of contemplation, let him look through 
things, let him be much alone!' 

ii. 'If a Bhikkhu should desire, Brethren, by the 
complete destruction of the three Bonds to become 
converted, to be no longer liable to be reborn in 
a state of suffering, and to be assured of final salva- 
tion 2 , let him then fulfil all righteousness, let him 
be devoted to that quietude of heart which springs 
from within, let him not drive back the ecstasy of 
contemplation, let him look through things, let him 
be much alone!' 

12. 'If a Bhikkhu should desire, Brethren, by the 
complete destruction of the three Bonds, and by the 
reduction to a minimum of lust, hatred, and delusion, 
to become a Sakadagamin, and (thus) on his first 
return to this world to make an end of sorrow, let 
him then fulfil all righteousness, let him be devoted 
to that quietude of heart which springs from within, 
let him not drive back the ecstasy of contemplation, 
let him look through things, let him be much alone!' 

13. ' If a Bhikkhu should desire, Brethren, by the 
complete destruction of the five Bonds which bind 
people to this earth, to become an inheritor of the 
highest heavens 3 , there to pass entirely away, thence 

1 These are the eight Vimokkhi, a list of which occurs in 
the Great Decease, Chap. Ill, §§ 33-42- 

* On this and the two following sections compare Mahipari- 
nibbana Sutta II, 7, and on the Bonds or Fetters below, p. 222. 

3 Opap£tika. This is another of those words which, from 
their connoting Buddhist ideas unknown in Europe, are really 
untranslatable. It means a being who springs into existence 
without the intervention of parents, and therefore, as it were, 



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214 IF HE SHOULD DESIRE . 

never to return, let him then fulfil all righteousness, 
let him be devoted to that quietude of heart which 
springs from within, let him not drive back the 
ecstasy of contemplation, let him look through 
things, let him be much alone!' 

14. 1 'If a Bhikkhu should desire, Brethren, to 
exercise one by one each of the different Iddhis, 
being one to become multiform, being multiform to 
become one ; to become visible, or to become in- 
visible ; to go without being stopped to the further 
side of a wall, or a fence, or a mountain, as if 
through air ; to penetrate up and down through 
solid ground, as if through water ; to walk on the 
water without dividing it, as if on solid ground ; to 
travel cross-legged through the sky, like the birds on 
wing ; to touch and feel with the hand even the 
sun and the moon, mighty and powerful though 
they be ; and to reach in the body even up to the 
heaven of Brahma ; let him then fulfil all righteous- 
uncaused, and seeming to appear by chance. All the higher 
devas (angels or gods) are opapltika, there being no sex or 
birth in the highest heavens ; and it is with especial allusion to 
this that the word is here used. There is of course from the 
Buddhist point of view (which admits of nothing without a cause) 
a very sufficient cause for the sudden appearance of an opap£- 
tika in heaven, viz. the karma of a being who has past away 
somewhere else ; but the Buddhist theory necessitated the choice 
of an expression which would give no countenance to the (here- 
tical) idea of a soul flying away after the death of its body from 
one world to another. 

In the expression ' which bind people to this world,.' by world 
is meant the Rupa-loka, or world of form, which include all 
those parte of the universe whose inhabitants have an outward 
form and are subject to lusts. 

1 With this paragraph compare Mahaparinibb&na Sutta III, 14, 
and Samawia Phala Sutta, p. 145.. 



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AKANKHEYYA SUTTA. 215 

ness, let him be devoted to that quietude of heart 
which springs from within, let him not drive back 
the ecstasy of contemplation, let him look through 
things, let him be much alone ! ' 

15. 1 'If a Bhikkhu should desire, Brethren, to 
hear with clear and heavenly ear, surpassing that 
of men, sounds both human and celestial, whether 
far or near, let him then fulfil all righteousness, let 
him be devoted to that quietude of heart which 
springs from within, let him not drive back the 
ecstasy of contemplation, let him look through 
things, let him be much alone!' 

16. 2 ' If a Bhikkhu should desire, Brethren, to com- 
prehend by his own heart the hearts of other beings 
and of other men ; to discern the passionate mind to 
be passionate, and the calm mind calm ; the angry 
mind to be angry, and the peaceable peaceable ; 
the deluded mind to be deluded, and the wise mind 
wise ; the concentrated thoughts to be concentrated, 
and the scattered to be scattered ; the lofty mind 
to be lofty, and the narrow mind narrow ; the sub- 
lime thoughts to be sublime, and the mean to be 
mean ; the steadfast mind to be steadfast, and the 
wavering to be wavering ; the free mind to be free, 
and the enslaved mind to be enslaved ; let him then 
fulfil all righteousness, let him be devoted to that 
quietude of heart which springs from within, let 
him not drive back the ecstasy of contemplation, let 
him look through things, let him be much alone !' 

17. ' If a Bhikkhu should desire, Brethren, to be 
able to call to mind his various temporary states 
in days gone by; such as one birth, two births, 

1 With this paragraph compare Samawna Phala Sutta, p. 146. 
* Compare M. P. S. 1, 16, and Samafwla Phala Sutta, p. 147. 



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2l6 IF HE SHOULD DESIRE — . 

three, four, five, ten, twenty, thirty, forty, fifty, a 
hundred or a thousand, or a hundred thousand 
births * ; his births in many an aeon of destruction, 
in many an aeon of renovation, in many an aeon of 
both destruction and renovation 2 ; (so as to be able 
to say), " In that place such was my name, such my 
family, such my caste 3 , such my subsistence, such 
my experience of comfort or of pain, and such the 
limit of my life ; and when I passed from thence, 
I took form again in that other place where my 
name was so and so, such my family, such my 
caste, such my subsistence, such my experience of 
comfort or of joy, and such my term of life ; and 
when I fell from thence, I took form in such and 
such a place*;" — should he desire thus to call to 
mind his temporary states in days gone by in all 
their modes and all their details let him then fulfil 
all righteousness, let him be devoted to that quie- 
tude of heart which springs from within, let him 
not drive back the ecstasy of contemplation, let him 
look through things, let him be much alone ! ' 

18. 5 ' If a Bhikkhu should desire, Brethren, to see 
with pure and heavenly vision, surpassing that of 

1 The Lalita Vi6tara (p. 442) characteristically carries this enu- 
meration further up into innumerable ko/is and niyutas of 
births. 

2 This is based on the Buddhist theory of the periodical destruc- 
tion and renovation of the universe, each of which takes countless 
years to be accomplished. 

3 Va«»a, colour. 

4 The text of this clause recurs nearly word for word in the 
Brahma-g-ala Sutta, pp. 17-21; and in the Lalita Vistara, Chap. 
XXII, p. 442 ; and exactly in the Samanwa Phala Sutta, p. 148. 

5 This paragraph recurs in the Samanwa Phala Sutta, p. 150, 
and in nearly the same words in the Lalita Vistara, Chap. XXII. 



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AKANKIIEYYA SUTTA. 21 7 

men, beings as they pass from one state of existence 
and take form in others ; beings base or noble, 
good-looking or ill-favoured, happy or miserable, 
according to the karma they inherit — (if he should 
desire to be able to say), " These beings, reverend 
sirs, by their bad conduct m action, by their bad 
conduct in word, by their bad conduct in thought, by 
their speaking evil of the Noble Ones \ by their 
adhesion to false doctrine, or by their acquiring 
the karma of false doctrine 2 , have been reborn, on 
the dissolution of the body after death, in some 
unhappy state of suffering or woe 3 ." "These beings, 
reverend sirs, by their good conduct in action, by 
their good conduct in word, by their good conduct 
in thought, by their not speaking evil of the Noble 
Ones, by their adhesion to right doctrine, by their 
acquiring the karma of right doctrine, have been 
reborn, on the dissolution of the body after death, 
into some happy state in heaven ;" — should he desire 
thus to see with pure and heavenly vision, sur- 
passing that of men, beings as they thus pass from 
one state of existence and take form in others ; 
beings base or noble, good-looking or ill-favoured, 
happy or miserable, according to the karma they 
inherit ; let him then fulfil all righteousness, let him 
be devoted to that quietude of heart which springs 



1 This is a collective term, meaning Buddhas, Pa££eka Buddhas, 
Arahats, Anagamins, Sakadagamins, and Sotapannas ; that is, those 
who are walking in the Noble Eightfold Path. 

2 The Pali is mi££M- (and below samma-) di/Mi-kamma- 
samadana; the Lalita Vistara, whose other expressions are 
identical with the Pali, has, very strangely, mi thy a- (and below 
samyag-) di/Mi-karma-dharma-samadana. 

8 See note on M. P. S., Chap. I, § 23. 



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2l8 IF HE SHOULD DESIRE — . 

from within, let him not drive back the ecstasy of 
contemplation, let him look through things, let him 
be much alone!' 

19. 1 ' If a Bhikkhu should desire, Brethren, by 
the destruction of the great evils (Asavas 2 ), by him- 
self, and even in this very world, to know and realise 
and attain to Arahatship, to emancipation of heart, 
and emancipation of mind, let him then fulfil all right- 
eousness, let him be devoted to that quietude of 
heart which springs from within, let him not drive 
back the ecstasy of contemplation, let him look 
through things, let him be much alone!' 

20. 'Continue therefore, Brethren, in the practice 
of Right Conduct, adhering to the Rules of the 
Order; continue enclosed by the restraint of the 
Rules of the Order, devoted to uprightness in life ; 
train yourselves according to the Precepts, taking 
them upon you in the sense of the danger in the 
least offence. For to this end alone has all, that 
has been said, been said ! ' 

21. Thus spake the Blessed One. And those 
Brethren, delighted in heart, exalted the word of 
the Blessed One. 



End of the Akankheyya Sutta. 



1 Compare SSmawna Phala Sutta, p. 151 ; Mahlparinibbana 
Sutta II, 7 ; and Lalita Vistara, Chap. XXII, p. 442. 

2 Sensuality, individuality, delusion, and ignorance. 



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7TETOK H I LA-SUTTA. 



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INTRODUCTION 

TO THE 

tfETOKHILA SUTTA. 



The following translation has been made from a text, 
based on the Tumour and Phayre MSS. in the India Office, 
of" which Dr. Morris was kind enough to allow me the use. 
The Suttas in the Maggkima. Nikaya are usually distin- 
guished by the way in which a single thought or one or 
two allied thoughts are stated shortly at the commence- 
ment, and are then elaborated and repeated through a 
number of consecutive and carefully-balanced paragraphs 
arranged in a literary form that would now be considered 
monotonous and tiresome in the extreme. The repetitions 
in the Suttas of the Dlgha Nikaya are no doubt equally 
artificial, but the train of reasoning being longer and more 
varied, there is always the hope of a change in the form, or 
of a new departure in the thought, to sustain the reader's 
flagging interest. 

The argument of this Sutta may be shortly stated thus. 
The means by which freedom from barrenness and bondage 
of heart can be reached are zeal and determined effort. 
But that zeal will be crippled in its struggle against barren- 
ness by want of confidence in the teacher, his doctrine, his 
order, or his system of self-culture, and by want of concord 
with the brethren. And that zeal will be crippled in its 
struggle against bondage by sensuality, by sloth, or by 
a craving after a future life in any of its various forms. If 
the disciple be strenuously diligent in the struggle against 
these things he need not fear or doubt, he will never fail, 
but will assuredly reach even to the supreme security of 
Arahatship. 

When I first read this Sutta I was irresistibly reminded 
of that passage in the New Testament where the exhorta- 
tion to the disciple, ' giving all diligence ' to add to his faith 



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222 BARRENNESS AND BONDAGE. 

virtue, knowledge, temperance, patience, godliness, and 
brotherly kindness, is followed by the figure that these 
things will make him to be ' neither barren nor unfruitful ; ' 
and closes with the promise that if he do these things, 
giving diligence to make his calling and election sure, he 
shall never fall, but shall enter into that everlasting kingdom 
which is the supreme goal of the Christian life. 

The analogy is sufficiently close to throw considerable 
light upon our Sutta, but it touches only the barrenness. 
The bondage is specially Buddhistic, and is allied with the 
doctrine of the Sanyo^anas, or fetters, which the pilgrim 
along the Noble Path has to break before he can reach the 
full fruit of Arahatship. It should be compared also with 
the fivefold bond mentioned in the Tevi^a Sutta, Chap. I, 
§§ 26-28, the word there used being bandhanaw, as 
against vinibandhanaw here, and the fivefold bond 
being a fivefold division of our first bondage. 

The ten fetters are — 

1. The delusion of self (sakkaya-di/Mi). 

2. Doubt (vikikikk ASi). 

3. Reliance on the efficacy of rites and ceremonies 

(silabbata-paramasa). 

4. The bodily lusts or passions (kama). 

5. Hatred, ill-feeling (patigha). 

6. Desire for a future life in the worlds of form 

(ruparaga). 

7. Desire for a future life in the formless worlds 

(aruparaga). 

8. Pride (ma no). 

9. Self-righteousness (uddha££a). 
10. Ignorance (a vi^a). 

Here the 4th fetter is correlative to our first bondage ; the 
6th fetter to our 2nd and 3rd bondage ; and part of the 
3rd fetter to our 5th bondage. 

The 2nd, 3rd, and 5th bondage are in fact but a new way 
of stating the fundamental Buddhist doctrine that good 
must be pursued without any ulterior motive ; and that 
that man is not spiritually free in whom there is still the 
least hankering after any future life beyond the grave. 



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BARRENNESS AND BONDAGE. 



A'ETOKHILA-SUTTA. 



i. Thus have I heard. The Blessed One was 
once dwelling at Savatthi, in the park of Anatha 
Piwafika. 

There the Blessed One addressed the brethren, 
saying, ' Brethren ! ' 

'Yea, Lord!' said those brethren, in assent, to the 
Blessed One. 

Then the Blessed One spake : 

2. 'Whatsoever brother, O Bhikkhus, has not 
quite become free from the five kinds of spiritual 
barrenness 1 , has not altogether broken through the 
five kinds of mental bondage 2 — that such a one 
should reach up to the full advantage of, should 
attain to the full growth in, to full breadth in, this 
doctrine and discipline 3 — that can in no wise be !' 



3. 'And who has not become free from the five 
kinds of spiritual barrenness ?' 

' In the first place, O Bhikkhus, when a brother 

1 Pam£a £etokhila. 

* Paw£a £etaso vinibandhi. 

* Dhamma-vinaye. On the disputed question as to whether 
this compound is a Dvanda or not, see Dr. Oldenberg, Mah£ 
Vagga, p. x. M. Le"on Feer (' Etudes Bouddhiques,' p. 203) has 
taken it as Tatpurusha; and it would be hazardous to say that 
it is never used as such. Here I think it is a Dvandva. 



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224 BARRENNESS AND BONDAGE. 

doubts in the Teacher (Sattha), is uncertain re- 
garding him, has not confidence in him, and has not 
faith in him ; then is his mind not inclined towards 
zeal, exertion, perseverance, and struggle. 

' But whosesoever mind inclineth not towards 
zeal, exertion, perseverance, and struggle, he has 
not become free from this first spiritual barrenness. 

4. 'And further, O Bhikkhus, when a brother 
doubts in the System of Belief (Dhamma), is 
uncertain regarding it, has not confidence in it, has 
not faith in it ; then is his mind not inclined towards 
zeal, exertion, perseverance, and struggle. 

' But whosesoever mind inclineth not towards 
zeal, exertion, perseverance, and struggle, he has 
not become free from this second spiritual barren- 
ness. 

5. 'And further, O Bhikkhus, when a brother 
has doubt in the Brotherhood (Sahgha), is un- 
certain about it, has no confidence in it, has no faith 
in it; then is his mind not inclined towards zeal, 
exertion, perseverance, and struggle. 

' But whosesoever mind inclineth not towards 
zeal, exertion, perseverance, and struggle, he has not 
become free from this third spiritual barrenness. 

6. 'And further, O Bhikkhus, when a brother 
has doubt in the System of Self-culture (Sik- 
kha), is uncertain about it, has no confidence in it, 
has no faith in it ; then is his mind not inclined 
towards zeal, exertion, perseverance, and struggle. 

' But whosesoever mind inclineth not towards zeal, 
exertion, perseverance, and struggle, he has not 
become free from this fourth spiritual barrenness. 

7. 'And further, O Bhikkhus, when a brother 
is angry with his fellow-disciples, discontented with 



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JfETOKHILA SUTTA. 22 5 

them, excited against them, barren towards them, 
the mind of the brother, O Bhikkhus, thus angry 
with his fellow-disciples, discontented with them, 
excited against them, barren towards them does 
not incline towards zeal, exertion, perseverance, 
and struggle. 

' But whosesoever mind inclineth not towards 
zeal, exertion, perseverance, and struggle, he has 
not become free from this fifth spiritual barrenness. 

' It is such a one, O Bhikkhus, who is not free 
from the five kinds of spiritual barrenness.' 



8. 'And who has not broken through the five 
kinds of spiritual bondage?' 

' In the first place, O Bhikkhus, when a brother 
has not got rid of the passion for lusts (kame), has 
not got rid of the desire after lusts, has not got rid 
of the attraction to lusts, has not got rid of the 
thirst for lusts, has not got rid of the fever of lust, 
has not got rid of the craving after lusts. — 

'Whatsoever brother, O Bhikkhus, has not got 
rid of the passion for lusts, has not got rid of the 
desire after lusts, has not got rid of the attraction to 
lusts, has not got rid of the thirst for lusts, has not 
got rid of the fever of lust, has not got rid of the 
craving after lusts, his mind does not incline to zeal, 
exertion, perseverance, and struggle. 

' But whosesoever mind inclineth not toward zeal, 
exertion, perseverance, and struggle, he has not 
broken through this first spiritual bondage. 

9. 'And further, O Bhikkhus, when a brother 
has not got rid of the passion for a body 1 (kaye), 

1 It is possible that kaya maybe used here in a technical sense, 
as the group or aggregate of qualities, apart from form, which go 

[»3 Q 



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226 BARRENNESS AND BONDAGE. 

has not got rid of the desire after a body, has not 
got rid of the attraction to a body, has not got 
rid of the thirst for a body, has not got rid of the 
fever of a body, has not got rid of the craving 
after a body. — 

'Whatsoever brother, O Bhikkhus, has not got 
rid of the passion for a body, has not got rid of the 
desire after a body, has not got rid of the attraction 
to a body, has not got rid of the thirst for a body, 
has not got rid of the fever of a body, has not got 
rid of the craving after a body, his mind does not 
incline to zeal, exertion, perseverance, and struggle. 

' But whosesoever mind inclineth not toward zeal, 
exertion, perseverance, and struggle, he has not 
broken through this second spiritual bondage. 

10. 'And further, O Bhikkhus, when a brother 
has not got rid of the passion for a form (rupe), 
has not got rid of the desire after a form, has not 
got rid of the attraction to a form, has not got 
rid of the thirst for a form, has not got rid of the 
fever of a form, has not got rid of the craving 
after a form. — 

'Whatsoever brother, O Bhikkhus, has not got 
rid of the passion for a form, has not got rid of the 
desire after a form, has not got rid of the attraction 
to a form, has not got rid of the thirst for a form, 
has not got rid of the fever of a form, has not got 
rid of the craving after a form, his mind does not 
incline to zeal, exertion, perseverance, and struggle. 

' But whosesoever mind inclineth not toward zeal, 
exertion, perseverance, and struggle, he has not 
broken through this third spiritual bondage. 

to make up an individual. This paragraph would then correspond 
to the yth Sawyqgana. 



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tfETOKHILA SUTTA. 227 

11. 'And further, O Bhikkhus, a brother may 
have eaten enough and to satiety, and begins to 
follow after the ease of sleep, the ease of softness, 
the ease of sloth. 

'Whatsoever brother, O Bhikkhus, when he has 
eaten enough and to satiety, begins to follow after 
the ease of sleep, the ease of softness, the ease 
of sloth, his mind does not incline to zeal, exertion, 
perseverance, and struggle. 

' But whosesoever mind inclineth not toward zeal, 
exertion, perseverance, and struggle, he has not 
broken through this fourth spiritual bondage. 

12. 'And further, O Bhikkhus, a brother may 
have adopted the religious life in the aspiration of 
belonging to some one or other of the angel 
hosts 1 , and thinking to himself : " By this morality, 
or by this observance, or by this austerity, or by 
this religious life, I shall become an angel, or one 
of the angels !" — 

'Whatsoever brother, O Bhikkhus, may have 
adopted the religious life in the aspiration of be- 
longing to some one or other of the angel hosts, 
and thinking to himself : " By this morality, or by 
this observance, or by this austerity, or by this reli- 
gious life, I shall become an angel, or one of the 
angels!" his mind does not incline to zeal, exertion, 
perseverance, and struggle. 

' But whosesoever mind inclineth not toward zeal, 
exertion, perseverance, and struggle, he has not 
broken through this fifth spiritual bondage. 

' It is such a one, O Bhikkhus, who has not 
broken through the five kinds of mental bondage. 

1 Awftatarawi deva-nikaya«. Compare Mahapajrinibbana 
Sutta, Chap. I, § 11, Chap. II, § 9. 

Q 2 



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228 BARRENNESS AND BONDAGE. 

13. ' And whatsoever brother, O Bhikkhus, has 
not quite become free from the five kinds of spiritual 
barrenness, has not altogether broken through the 
five kinds of mental bondage — that such a one 
should reach up to the full advantage of, should 
attain to the full growth in, to full breadth in, this 
doctrine and discipline — that can in no wise be ! 



14. ' But whatsoever brother, O Bhikkhus, has 
become quite free from the five kinds of mental 
barrenness, has altogether broken through the five 
kinds of spiritual bondage — that such a one should 
reach up to the full advantage of, should attain to 
full growth in, to full breadth in, this doctrine and 
discipline — that can well be!' 

15. 'And who has become free from the five 
kinds of spiritual barrenness?' 

' In the first place, O Bhikkhus, when a brother 
does not doubt in the Teacher (Sattha), is not 
uncertain regarding him, has confidence in him, and 
has faith in him ; then his mind does incline to zeal, 
exertion, perseverance, and struggle. 

' But whosesoever mind inclineth towards zeal, 
exertion, perseverance, and struggle, he has become 
free from this first spiritual barrenness. 

16. 'And further, O Bhikkhus, when a brother 
does not doubt in the System of Belief (Dhamma), 
is not uncertain regarding it, has confidence in it, 
and has faith in it; then his mind does incline to 
zeal, exertion, perseverance, and struggle. 

' But whosesoever mind inclineth towards zeal, 
exertion, perseverance, and struggle, he has become 
free from this second spiritual barrenness. 

17. 'And further, O Bhikkhus, when a brother 



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JTETOKHILA SUTTA. 229 

does not doubt in the Brotherhood (Sangha), is not 
uncertain about it, has confidence in it, and has faith 
in it ; then his mind does incline to zeal, exertion, 
perseverance, and struggle. 

' But whosesoever mind inclineth towards zeal, 
exertion, perseverance, and struggle, he has become 
free from this third spiritual barrenness. 

1 8. 'And further, O Bhikkhus, when a brother 
does not doubt in the System of Self-culture (Sik- 
kha), is not uncertain about it, has confidence in it, 
and has faith in it; then his mind does incline to 
zeal, exertion, perseverance, and struggle. 

' But whosesoever mind inclineth towards zeal, 
exertion, perseverance, and struggle, he has become 
free from this fourth spiritual barrenness. 

19. 'And further, O Bhikkhus, when a brother 
is not angry with his fellow-disciples, is not discon- 
tented with them, is not excited against them, is not 
barren towards them, the mind of the brother, O 
Bhikkhus, who is thus not angry with his fellow- 
disciples, not discontented with them, not excited 
against them, not barren towards them, does incline 
toward zeal, exertion, perseverance, and struggle. 

' But whosesoever mind inclineth towards zeal, 
exertion, perseverance, and struggle, he has become 
free from this fifth spiritual barrenness.' 



20. ' And who has broken through the five kinds 
of spiritual bondage ?' 

' In the first place, O Bhikkhus, when a brother 
has got rid of the passion after lusts (kame), has 
got rid of the desire after lusts, has got rid of 
the attraction to lusts, has got rid of the thirst for 



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23O BARRENNESS AND BONDAGE. 

lusts, has got rid of the fever of lust, has got rid of 
the craving after lusts. — 

'Whatsoever brother, O Bhikkhus, has got rid 
of the passion after lusts, has got rid of the desire 
after lusts, has got rid of the attraction to lusts, has 
got rid of the thirst for lusts, has got rid of the 
fever of lust, has got rid of the craving after lusts, 
his mind does incline to zeal, exertion, perseverance, 
and struggle. 

' But whosesoever mind inclineth towards zeal, 
exertion, perseverance, and struggle, he has become 
free from this first spiritual bondage. 

2i. 'And, further, O Bhikkhus, when a brother 
has got rid of the passion after a body (kaye), has 
got rid of the desire after a body, has got rid of the 
attraction to a body, has got rid of the thirst for a 
body, has got rid of the fever of a body, has got rid 
of the craving after a body. — 

'Whatsoever brother, O Bhikkhus, has got rid 
of the passion after a body, has got rid of the desire 
after a body, has got rid of the attraction to a body, 
has got rid of the thirst for a body, has got rid of 
the fever of a body, has got rid of the craving after 
a body, his mind does incline to zeal, exertion, per- 
severance, and struggle. 

'But whosesoever mind inclineth towards zeal, 
exertion, perseverance, and struggle, he has become 
free from this second spiritual bondage 

22. 'And further, O Bhikkhus, when a brother 
has got rid of the passion for a form (rupe); has 
got rid of the desire after a form, has got rid of the 
attraction to a form, has got rid of the thirst for a 
form, has got rid of the fever of a form, has got 
rid of the craving after a form. — 



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1TET0KHILA SUTTA. 23 1 

'Whatsoever brother, O Bhikkhus, has got rid 
of the passion for a form, has got rid of the desire 
after a form, has got rid of the attraction to a form, 
has got rid of the thirst for a form, has got rid 
of the fever of a form, has got rid of the craving 
after a form, his mind does incline to zeal, exertion, 
perseverance, and struggle. 

'But whosesoever mind inclineth towards zeal, 
exertion, perseverance, and struggle, he has become 
free from this third spiritual bondage. 

23. 'And further, O Bhikkhus, when a brother 
does not, having eaten enough and to satiety, begin 
to follow after the ease of sleep, the ease of softness, 
the ease of sloth. 

'Whatsoever brother, O Bhikkhus, does not, 
having eaten enough and to satiety, begin to follow 
after the ease of sleep, the ease of softness, the ease 
of sloth, his mind does incline to zeal, exertion, 
perseverance, and struggle. 

' But whosesoever mind inclineth towards zeal, 
exertion, perseverance, and struggle, he has become 
free from this fourth spiritual bondage 1 . 

24. 'And further, O Bhikkhus, when a brother 
has not adopted the religious life in the aspiration 
of belonging to some one or other of the angel 
hosts, thinking to himself: " By this morality, or 
by this observance, or by this austerity, or by this 
religious life, I shall become an angel, or one of the 
angels ! " — 

'Whatsoever brother, O Bhikkhus, has not 



1 In this section, and in section 11, 1 have rendered sukha by 
ease, and not by happiness, as I think the former is always its 
more exact meaning in such passages. 



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232 BARRENNESS AND BONDAGE. 

adopted the religious life in the aspiration of be- 
longing to some one or other of the angel hosts, 
thinking to himself : " By this morality, or by this 
observance, or by this austerity, or by this religious 
life, I shall become an angel, or one of the angels !" 
his mind does incline to zeal, exertion, perseverance, 
and struggle. 

' But whosesoever mind inclineth towards zeal, 
exertion, perseverance, and struggle, he has become 
free from this fifth spiritual bondage. 

' It is such a one, O Bhikkhus, who has broken 
through the five kinds of spiritual bondage. 

25. 'Whatsoever brother, O Bhikkhus, has be- 
come quite free from the five kinds of mental 
barrenness, has altogether broken through the five 
kinds of spiritual bondage — that such a one should 
reach up to the full advantage of, should attain to 
full growth in, to full breadth in, this doctrine and 
discipline — that can well be! 



26. ' He practises the (first) road to saintship 1 , 
which is accompanied by the union of the will to 
acquire it with earnest contemplation, and with the 
struggle against sin. He practises the (second) road 
to saintship, which is accompanied by the union 
of exertion with earnest contemplation, and with 
the struggle against sin. He practises the (third) 
road to saintship, which is accompanied by the 
union of thought with earnest contemplation, and 
with the struggle against sin. He practises the 
(fourth) road to saintship, which is accompanied 
by the union of investigation with earnest con- 

1 Iddhipidawj. Here Iddhi must be (spiritual) welfare. 

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tfETOKHILA SUTTA. 233 

templation and the struggle against sin 1 , — and strong 
determination too as a fifth. 

27. 'The brother, O Bhikkhus, thus endowed 
with fifteenfold determination 2 becomes destined 
to come forth into the light, capable of the higher 
wisdom, sure of attaining to the supreme security s . 

28. 'Just, O Bhikkhus, as when a hen has 
eight or ten or twelve eggs, and the hen has pro- 
perly brooded over them, properly sat upon them, 
properly sat herself round them, however much such 
a wish may arise on her heart as this, " O would 
that my little chickens should break open the egg- 
shell with the points of their claws, or with their 
beaks, and come forth into the light in safety ! " yet 
all the while those little chickens are sure to break the 
egg-shell with the points of their claws, or with their 
beaks, and to come forth into the light in safety. 

29. ' Just even so, a brother thus endowed with 
fifteenfold determination is sure to come forth into 
the light, sure to reach up to the higher wisdom, 
sure to attain to the supreme security 4 !' 

1 The text of this section, so far, will be found in Childers's 
dictionary, sub voce Iddhipado. 

a That is, the four Iddhipadas, and Usso/Ai, each multiplied 
by three. 

3 Anuttarassa Yogakkhemassa; that is, Nirva»a. Com- 
pare Dhammapada, ver. 23 and p. 180. 

* The tertium quid of the parable is the absolute certainty of 
the event which will follow on the hen having duly and diligently 
followed the law of her instinct, even though she, meanwhile, in 
her ignorance, be full of doubt and desire. The certainty of the 
delivery of a woman with child is not unfrequently used as a 
symbol of what can be absolutely depended upon. So of 'the 
word of the glorious Buddhas,' which endureth for ever, in ' Bud- 
dhist Birth Stories,' p. 18. I have attempted to imitate the play in 
the text upon the two words for the ' coming forth into the light,' 



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234 BARRENNESS AND BONDAGE. 

30. Thus spake the Blessed One. And those 
Brethren, delighted in heart, exalted the word of 
the Blessed One. 



End of the Sutta, the sixth, on barrenness and 
bondage. 



figuratively and literally, of the disciple and of the little chicken. 
The first is in P&li bhabbo abhinibbidiya (from vid), the latter 
is aho vata . . . sotthin£ abhinibbhi^eyyan (from bhid). 
On samma-paribhavit&ni, here applied to the a«rf£ni, see 
above, Mah£parinibb&na Sutta, Chap. I, § ia, note. 



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MAHA-SUDASSANA- 
SUTTA. 



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INTRODUCTION 



TO THE 



MAHA-SUDASSANA SUTTA. 



THE following translation is made from a text based on 
three MSS. from the same sources as those referred to at 
the commencement of the Tevjgga Sutta, and referred to in 
my notes by the same letters. 

This Sutta follows in the Dlgha Nikaya immediately 
after the Book of the Great Decease, and is based on the 
same legend as the Maha-Sudassana G&taka, No. 95 in 
Mr. Fausboll's edition. As the latter differs in several 
important particulars from our Sutta, it is probably not 
taken directly from it, but is merely derived from the 
same source. To facilitate comparison between the two 
I add here a translation of the £ataka, which has not been 
reached as yet in my ' Buddhist Birth Stories,' and which 
is very short. 

The part enclosed in brackets [ ] is the comment, which 
was probably written in Ceylon in the fifth century of our 
era, and I have included that part of the comment which 
is explanatory of the words in the verse, as it is of more 
than usual interest. There is every reason to believe, for 
the reasons given in the Introduction to the ' Buddhist Birth 
Stories,' that the stories themselves belong to a very early 
period in the history of Buddhism ; and we may be sure 
that if this particular story had been abstracted by the 
author of the commentary from our Sutta, he would not 
have ventured to introduce such serious changes into what 
he regarded as sacred writ. 



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238 mahA-sudassana sutta. 



MAHA-SUDASSANA GATAKA. 



THE GREAT KING OF GLORY. 

['How transient are all component things.' 
This the Master told when lying on his death-couch, con- 
cerning that word of Ananda the Thera, when he said, ' Do 
not, O Blessed One, die in this little town,' and so on. 

When the Tathagata was at the Cetavana 1 he thought 
' the Thera Sariputta, who was born at Nalagama, has died, 
on the day of the full moon in the month of Kattika, in 
that very village 2 ; and Maha Moggallana in the latter, the 
dark half of that same month. As my two chief disciples 
are thus dead, I too will pass away at Kusinara.' There- 
upon he proceeded straight on to that place, and lay down 
on the Uttara-slsaka couch, between the twin Sala trees, 
never to rise again. 

Then the venerable Ananda besought him, saying, ' Let 

1 It is not easy with our present materials to reconcile the apparently con- 
flicting statements with regard to the Buddha's last journey. According to 
the Malalankara-vatthu this refers here to a residence at the Getavana, which 
took place between the end of $ 30 in Chap. II, in the Book of the Great 
Decease, and the beginning of $ 31. It will be noticed that § 31 speaks of 
' the monastery,' which is apparently an undesigned confirmation of this tra- 
dition. (Such undesigned circumstances, however really undesigned, are very 
far, of course, from proving the actual truth of the tradition. They would only 
show that it was older than the time when the works in which they occur were 
put into their present shape.) 

Mr. Fausboll, by his punctuation, includes these words in the following 
thought ascribed to the Blessed One, but I think they only describe the time 
at which the thought is supposed to have arisen. 

' Or perhaps 'at Varaka.' I do not understand the word varaka, which 
has puzzled Mr. Fausboll. The modem name of the village, afterwards the 
site of the famous Buddhist university of Nalanda, is Baraga on. The full- 
moon day in Kattika is the 1st of December. An account of the death of 
Sariputta will be found in the Malalankara-vatthu (Bigandet, ' Legend,' &c, 
3rd ed., II, 1-25), and of the murder of Moggallana by the NiganMas in the 
Dhammapada commentary (Fausboll, p. 298 seq.), of which Spence Hardy's 
account (' Manual of Buddhism,' p. 338) is nearly a translation ; and Bigandet 's 
account (loc. cit. pp. 25-27) is an abridgment. 



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INTRODUCTION. 239 



not the Blessed One die in this little township 1 , in this 
little town in the jungle, in this branch township. Let the 
Blessed One die in one of the other great cities, such as 
Ra^agaha, and the rest!' 

But the Master answered, ' Say not, Ananda, that this is 
a little township, a little town in the jungle, a branch town- 
ship. I was dwelling formerly in this town at the time 
when I was Sudassana, the king of kings ; and then it was 
a great city, surrounded by a jewelled rampart, twelve 
leagues in length!' 

And at the request of the Thera, he, telling the tale, 
uttered the Maha- Sudassana Sutta.] 

Now on that occasion when Queen Subhadda saw Maha 
Sudassana, when he had come down out of the Palace of 
Righteousness, and was lying down, not far off, on the 
appropriate couch, spread out in the grove of the seven 
kinds of gems, and when she said : ' Thine, O king, are 
these four and eighty thousand cities, of which the chief is 
the royal city of Kusavatt. Quicken thy desire after these I ' 

Then replied Maha Sudassana, ' Speak not thus, O queen ! 
but exhort me rather, saying, " Cast away desire for these, 
long not after them 2 1 "' 

And when she asked, 'Why so, O king?' 'To-day my 
time is come, and I shall die !' was his reply 3 . 

Then the weeping queen, wiping her eyes, brought her- 
self with difficulty and distress to address him accordingly. 
And having spoken, she wept, and lamented ; and the 
other four and eighty thousand women wept too, and 
lamented ; and of the attendant courtiers not one could 
restrain himself, but all also wept. 

But the Bodisat stopped them all, saying, ' Enough my 
friends! Be still!' And he exhorted the queen, saying, 
' Neither do thou, O queen, weep : neither do thou lament. 
For even unto a grain of sesamum fruit there is no such 

1 Khuddaka-nagarake. See the note on Mahaparinibbana Sutta, ver. 60. 
* Both these speeches are different from those given on the same occasion 
in the Sutta below. 
9 This question and answer are not in the Sutta. 



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24O MAHA-SUDASSANA SUTTA. 

thing as a compound which is permanent ! All are tran- 
sient, all have the inherent quality of dissolution ! ' 

And when he had so said, he further uttered this stanza : 

'How transient are all component things! 
Growth is their nature and decay: 
They are produced, they are dissolved again : 
And then is best, — when they have sunk to rest 1 !' 

[In these verses the words 'How transient are all 
component things !' mean 'Dear lady, Subhadda, where- 
soever and by whatsoever causes made or come together, 
compounds 2 , — that is, all those things which possess the 
essential constituents (whether material or mental) of exist- 
ing things 3 , — all these compounds are impermanence itself. 
For of these form 4 is impermanent, reason 6 is imperma- 
nent, the (mental) eye 6 is impermanent, and qualities 7 
are impermanent. And whatever treasure there be, whether 
conscious or unconscious, that is transitory. Understand 
therefore "How transient are all component things !" 

'And why? "Growth is their nature and decay." 
These, all, have the inherent quality of coming into (indi- 
vidual) existence, and have also the inherent quality of 
growing old; or (in other words) their very nature is to 
come into existence and to be broken up. Therefore should 
it be understood that they are impermanent. 

'And since they are impermanent, when "they are 
produced, they are dissolved again." Having come 
into existence, having reached a state 8 , they are surely 
dissolved. For all these things come into existence, taking 
an individual form; and are dissolved, being broken up. 
To them as soon as there is birth, there is what is called a 
state ; as soon as there is a state, there is what is called 



* All this is omitted in the Sutta. It is true the verse occurs there, but it 
is placed in the Sutta in the mouth of the Teacher, after the account of Maha 
Sudassana's death. 

The last clause is literally, ' Blessed is their cessation,' where the word for 
cessation, upasamo, is derived from the word sam, ' to be calm, to be quiet,' 
and means cessation by sinking into rest. Compare below. 

2 Sankh&ra. • Khandayatanadayo. * Rupam. 

» Vi»»anam. « JTakkhnm. T Dhamma. ' Thiti. 



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INTRODUCTION. 24 1 



disintegration 1 . For to the unborn there is no such 
thing as state, and there is no such thing as a state which 
is without disintegration. Thus are all compounds, having 
attained to the three characteristic marks (of imperma- 
nency, pain, and want of any abiding principle 2 ), subject, 
in this way and in that way, to dissolution. All these 
component things therefore, without exception, are imper- 
manent, momentary 3 , despicable, unstable, disintegrating, 
trembling, quaking, unlasting, sure to depart 4 , only for a 
time 5 , and without substance ; — as temporary 6 as a "phan- 
tom, as the mirage, or as foam ! 

'How then in these, dear lady Subhaddi, is there any 
sign of ease? Understand rather that "then is best, 
when they have sunk to rest;" but their sinking to 
rest, their cessation, comes from the cessation of the whole 
round (of life), and is the same as Nirvawa. That and 
this are one 6 . And hence there is no such thing as ease.'] 



And when Maha Sudassana had thus brought his dis- 
course to a point with the ambrosial great Nirviwa, he 
made exhortation also to the rest of the great multitude, 
saying, 'Give gifts! Observe the precepts! Keep the 
sacred days 7 !' and became an inheritor of the world of 
the gods. 

[When the Master had concluded this lesson in the 
truth, he summed up the £ataka, saying, ' She who was 
then Subhadda the queen was the mother of Rahula, the 
great adviser was R&hula, the rest of the retinue the Bud- 
dha's retinue, and Maha Sudassana I myself.'] 



1 Bhango. 

3 Anehkam, dukkham, anattam. See Gataka I, 275; and, on the last, 
Mahaparinibbana Sutta I, 10, and Maha Vagga I, vi, 38-47. 

3 Khanika. See Oldenberg's note on Dipavamsa I, 53. 

4 Pay it a, literally 'departed.' The forms pay St i and pay & to, given by 
Childers, should be corrected into payiti and piyato. See Gataka 1, 146. 

5 Tavakalika. See Gataka 1, 121, where the word is used of a cart let 
out on hire for a time only. 

• Tad ev ekam ekam, which is not altogether without ambiguity. 

* This paragraph, too, is omitted in the Sutta. 

[11] R 



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242 MAHA-SUDASSANA SUTTA. 

The word translated 'component things' or 'compounds' 
in this Cataka is sankhara, literally confections, from 
kar, 'to do,' and sam, ' together.' It is a word very fre- 
quently used in Buddhist writings, and a word consequently 
of many different connotations ; and there is, of course, no 
exactly corresponding word in English. ' Production' would 
often be very nearly correct, although it fails entirely to 
give the force of the preposition sam ; but a greater objec- 
tion to that word is the fact that it is generally used, not 
of things that have come into being of themselves, but of 
things that have been produced by some one else. It 
suggests, if it does not imply, a producer ; which is con- 
trary to the whole spirit of the Buddhist passages in which 
the word sankhara occurs. In this important respect the 
word ' compound ' is a much more accurate translation, 
though it lays somewhat too much stress on the sam. 

The term Confections (to coin a rendering) is sometimes 
used, as in the first line of these verses (as used in this con- 
nection), to denote all things which have been brought 
together, made up, by pre-existing causes ; and in this 
sense it includes, as the commentator here points out, all 
those material or mental qualities which unite to form 
an individual, a separate thing or being, whether conscious 
or unconscious. 

It is more usually used, with special reference to their 
origin from pre-existing causes, and with allusion to the 
wider class denoted by the same word, of the mental con- 
fections only, of all sentient beings generally, or of man 
alone. In this sense it forms by itself one of the five 
classes or aggregates (khandha) into which the material 
and mental qualities of each separate individual are divided 
in Buddhist writings — the class of dispositions, capabilities, 
and all that goes together to make what we call character. 
This class has naturally enough been again divided and 
subdivided ; and a full list of the Confections in this sense, 
as now acknowledged by orthodox Buddhists, will be found 
in my manual 'Buddhism.' At the time when the Pali 
Pi/akas reached their present form, no such elaborate list 
of Confections in detail seems to have been made ; but the 



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INTRODUCTION. 243 



general sense of the word was, as is quite clear from the 
passages in which it occurs, the idea which these details 
together convey. It is this second and more usual meaning 
of the term which is more especially emphasised in the 
concluding verse of the above stanza. 



I have ventured to dwell so far on the word Confections, 
because the commentator here says that the cessation of 
these Confections is the same thing as Nirvawa ; and the 
question* of Nirva«a engrosses so large a share of the 
attention of those who are interested in Buddhism. 

Whether it is entitled to do so is open to serious question. 
The Buddhist salvation was held to consist in a change of 
heart, a modification of personal character, to be attained 
to in this world, and forming the subject of Gotama's first 
discourse, ' The Foundation of the Kingdom of Righteous- 
ness V When looked at from different points of view this 
state of mind was denoted, in the very numerous passages 
in which it is mentioned or referred to, under a great variety 
of different names or epithets, suggestive of the different 
points of view from which it could be regarded. The term 
Nibbana, or Nirva#a, is only one of those epithets ; and it 
is a most significant fact, to which I would invite especial 
attention, that it is an epithet comparatively very seldom 
employed in the Pali Pi/akas themselves. It is to the state 
of mind itself, the salvation which every Arahat has reached 
while yet alive, in a word, to Arahatship, that importance 
ought to be attached, rather than to that particular conno- 
tation of it suggested by the word Nirvawa. 

One of the many ideas involved in Arahatship was the 
absolute dissolution of individuality. Gotama, whether 
rightly or wrongly is here of no importance, held that 
freedom from pain, absolute ease, happiness, was incom- 
patible with existence as a distinct individual (whether 
animal, god, or man). The cessation of the Confections, 
so far from being a thing to be dreaded, was the inevitable 
result of the emancipation of heart and mind in Arahatship. 

1 The Dhamma-iakka-ppavattana Sutta, translated below. 
R 2 



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244 MAHA-SUDASSANA SUTTA. 

But it was not a thing to be desired, and could not, in fact, 
be brought about apart from all the other things involved 
in Arahatship. The formation of these Confections ceases 
in Nirvawa, and in Nirvawa alone; and when the poet 
declares that their cessation is blessed, he is saying the 
same thing as if he had said ' Nirva#a is blessed V 



Turning now to the Sutta itself, we find that the portion 
of the legend omitted in the Citaka throws an unexpected 
light upon the tale ; for it commences with a long descrip- 
tion of the riches and glory of Maha Sudassana, and reveals 
in its details the instructive fact that the legend is nothing 
more nor less than a spiritualist's sun-myth. 

It cannot be disputed that the sun-myth theory has 
become greatly discredited, and with reason, by having 
been used too carelessly and freely as an explanation of 
religious legends of different times and countries which 
have really no historical connection with the earlier awe and 
reverence inspired by the sun. The very mention of the 
word sun-myth is apt to call forth a smile of incredulity, 
and the undubitable truth which is the basis of the theory 
has not sufficed to protect it from the shafts of ridicule. 
The ' Book of the Great King of Glory ' seems to afford 
a useful example both of the extent to which the theory 
may be accepted, and of the limitations under which it 
should always be applied. 

It must at once be admitted that whether the whole 
story is based on a sun-story, or whether certain parts or 
details of it are derived from things first spoken about the 
sun, or not, it is still essentially Buddhistic. A large pro- 
portion of its contents has nothing at all to do with the 
worship of the sun ; and even that which has, had not, in 



1 In this respect it should be noticed that the very word here used for cessa- 
tion, upasamo, is used as one among a string of epithets of Arahatship at 
Dhamma-iakka-ppavattana Sutta, § 3, = (?ataka I, 97, and again in Dhamma- 
pada, verses 368, 381. In this last passage the whole of the phrase in the last 
verse in our stanza recurs in the accusative case as an equivalent to Arahatship, 
and the comma inserted by Mr. Fausboll between sankharupasamam and 
sukham is, in both verses, unnecessary. 



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INTRODUCTION. 245 



the mind of the author, when the book was put together. 
Whether indebted to a sun-myth or not, it is therefore 
perfectly true and valid evidence of the religious belief of 
the people among whom it was current ; and no more 
shows that the Buddhists were unconscious sun worship- 
pers than the story of Samson, under any theory of its 
possible origin, would prove the same of the Jews. 

What we really have is a kind of wonderful fairy tale, a 
gorgeous poem, in which an attempt is made to describe 
in set terms the greatest possible glory and majesty of the 
greatest possible king, in order to show that all is vanity, 
save only righteousness — just such a poem as a Jewish 
prophet might have written of Solomon in all his glory. It 
would have been most strange, perhaps impossible, for the 
author to refrain from using the language of the only poets 
he knew, who had used their boldly figurative language in 
an attempt to describe the appearance of the sun. 

To trace back all the rhetorical phrases of our Sutta to 
their earliest appearance in the Vedic hymns would be an 
interesting task of historical philology, though it would 
throw more light upon Buddhist forms of speech than upon 
Buddhist forms of belief. In M. Senart's valuable work, ' La 
Legende du Bouddha,' he has already done this with regard 
to the seven treasures (mentioned in the early part of the 
Sutta) on the basis of the corresponding passage in the later 
Buddhist Sanskrit poem called the Lalita Vistara. The 
description of the royal city and of its wondrous Palace of 
Righteousness have been probably originated by the author, 
though on the same lines ; and it reminds one irresistibly, 
in many of its expressions, of the similar, but simpler and 
more beautiful poem in which a Jewish author, some three 
centuries afterwards, described the heavenly Jerusalem. 

When the Northern Buddhists, long afterwards, had 
smothered the simple teaching of the founder of their 
religion under the subtleties of theological and metaphy- 
sical speculation, and had forgotten all about the Noble 
Path, their goal was no longer a change of heart in the 
Arahatship to be reached on earth, but a life of happiness, 
under a change of outward condition, in a heaven of bliss 



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246 mahA-sudassana sutta. 

beyond the skies. One of the most popular books among 
the Buddhists of China and Japan is a description of this 
heavenly paradise of theirs, called the Sukhavati-vyuha, 
the ' Book of the Happy Country,' the Sanskrit text of 
which has been just published by Professor Max Miiller in 
the volume of the Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society 
for the present year. It is instructive to find that several 
of the expressions used are word for word the same as the 
corresponding phrases in the ' Book of the Great King of 
Glory.' 



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THE GREAT KING OF GLORY 1 . 



MAHA-SUDASSAU A - SITTTA. 



Chapter I. 



i. Thus have I heard. The Blessed One was 
once staying at Kusinara in the Upavattana, the 
Sala grove of the Mallas, between the twin Sala 
trees, at the time of his death. 

2. Now the venerable Ananda went up to the place 
where the Blessed One was, and bowed down before 
him, and took his seat respectfully on one side. 
And when he was so seated, the venerable Ananda 
said to the Blessed One : 

2 ' Let not the Blessed One die in this little wattel 
and daub town, in this town in the midst of the 
jungle, in' this branch township. For, Lord, there 
are other great cities, such as Aampa, Ra^agaha, 
Savatthi, Saketa, Kosambi, and Benares. Let the 
Blessed One die in one of them. There there are 
many wealthy nobles and Brahmans and heads of 
houses, believers in the Tathagata, who will pay due 
honour to the remains of the Tathagata.' 

3. ' Say not so, Ananda ! Say not so, Ananda, 

1 Sudassana means ' beautiful to see, having a glorious appear- 
ance,' and is the name of many kings and heroes in Indian 
legend. 

a From here down to the end of the next section is found also, 
nearly word for word, in the Mahdparinibbdna Sutta, above, pp. 99, 
100. Compare also Mahd-Sudassana G&taka, No. 95. 



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248 THE GREAT KING OF GLORY. CH. 

that this is but a small wattel and daub town, a 
town in the midst of the jungle, a branch township. 
Long ago, Ananda, there was a king, by name 
Maha-Sudassana, a king of kings, a righteous man 
who ruled in righteousness, an anointed Kshatriya 1 , 
Lord of the four quarters of the earth, conqueror, 
the protector of his people, possessor of the seven 
royal treasures. This Kusinara, Ananda, was the 
royal city of king Maha-Sudassana, under the name 
of Kusavatl 2 , and on the east and on the west it was 
twelve leagues in length, and on the north and on 
the south it was seven leagues in breadth. That 
royal city Kusavatl, Ananda, was mighty, and pros- 
perous, and full of people, crowded with men, and 
provided with all things for food. Just, Ananda, 
as the royal city of the gods, A/akamanda by name, 
is mighty, prosperous, and full of people, crowded 
with the gods, and provided with all kinds of food, 
so, Ananda, was the royal city Kusavatl mighty and 
prosperous, full of people, crowded with men, and 
provided with all kinds of food. Both by day and 
by night, Ananda, the royal city Kusavatl resounded 

1 Khattiyo muddh&vasitto, which does not occur in the 
Mahdparinibbina Sutta, the MaMpadh&na Sutta, the Lakkha»a 
Sutta, and other places where this stock description of a A'akka- 
vatti is found. It is omitted also in the Lalita Vistara. The 
Burmese Phayre MS. of the India Office reads here mudddbhi- 
sitto, but this is an unnecessary correction. So the name of the 
Hindu caste mentioned in the Sahy&dri Kha«<s?a of the Skanda 
PurSwa is spelt both ways. The epithet is probably inserted here 
from § 12 below. 

* Ku.ravati was the name of a famous city mentioned as the 
capital of Southern Kusala in post-Buddhistic Sanskrit plays and 
epic poems. In the Mah&bh&rata it is called Kujavatt. It is 
said to have been so named after Kuf a, son of Rlma, by whom it 
was built; and it is also called Kufasthalf. 



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I* MAHA-SUDASSANA SUTTA. 249 

with the ten cries ; that is to say, the noise of ele- 
phants, and the noise of horses, and the noise of 
chariots ; the sounds of the drum, of the tabor, and 
of the lute ; the sound of singing, and the sounds of 
the cymbal and of the gong; and lastly, with the 
cry, " Eat, drink, and be merry 1 !" 



4. 'The royal city Kusavati, Ananda, was sur- 
rounded by Seven Ramparts. Of these, one 
rampart was of gold, and one of silver, and one of 
beryl, and one of crystal, and one of agate, and one 
of coral, and one of all kinds of gems 2 !' 

1 This enumeration is found also .at Gitaka, p. 3, only that the 
chank is added there — wrongly, for that makes the number of 
cries eleven. 

8 Beryl, agate, and coral are doubtful renderings of Pali names 
of precious substances, the exact meaning of which has been dis- 
cussed on the very slender evidence available (and hence, it seems 
to me, with very little certain result) by Burnouf in the ' Lotus de 
la Bonne Loi,' pp. 319-32 1 ; and Professor Max Mtiller has a further 
note in the Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society, 1880, p. 178. 
The PSli words here are in the first column : 

1. Sova«»amayo, Suvan»asya; 

2. Rupimayo, Rupasya; 

3. Ve/uriyamayo, VaitfUryasya ; 

4. Phalikamayo, Spha/ikasya ; 

5. Lohitahkamayo, Lohitamuktasya ; 

6. MasSragallamayo, Asmagarbhasya ; 

7. Sabbaratanamayo, Musaragalvasya : 
those in the second being taken from the Sukhavativyuha in the 
passage corresponding to § 6 below. It is quite possible that 
the writers of these passages used the rarer words only as names 
of precious substances, without attaching any clearly distinct 
meaning to each (compare Rev. xxi. 19-21). The Pali author 
seems to have been hard put to it to find enough names to fill up 
the sacred number seven; just as in the 'Seven Jewels' of the 
Dh am ma, the sacred number seven is reached by giving to one 
jewel two distinct names (Pa»£* indriydni = pa»£a bal£n ; i). 
At -ATulla Vagga IX, 1, 4 we find the following enumeration of 



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25O THE GREAT KING OF GLORY. CH. 

5. 'To the royal city Kusavatl, Ananda, there 
were Four Gates. One gate was of gold, and one 
of silver, and one of jade, and one of crystal. At 
each gate seven pillars were fixed ; in height as 
three times or as four times the height of a man. 
And one pillar was of gold, and one of silver, and 
one of beryl, and one of crystal, and one of agate, 
and one of coral, and one of all kinds of gems. 

6. ' The royal city Kusavati, Ananda, was sur- 
rounded by Seven Rows of Palm Trees. One 
row was of palms of gold, and one of silver, and one 
of beryl, and one of crystal, and one of agate, and 
one of coral, and one of all kinds of gems. 

7. ' And the Golden Palms had trunks of gold, 
and leaves and fruits of silver. And the Silver 
Palms had trunks of silver, and leaves and fruits of 
gold. And the Palms of Beryl had trunks of beryl, 
and leaves and fruits of crystal. And the Crystal 
Palms had trunks of crystal, and leaves and fruits of 
beryl. And the Agate Palms had trunks of agate, 
and leaves and fruits of coral. And the Coral Palms 
had trunks of coral, and leaves and fruits of agate. 
And the Palms of every kind of Gem had trunks 
and leaves and fruits of every kind of gem. 

8. J< And when those rows of palm trees, Ananda, 

ratawas as found in the ocean, though only Nos. 1, 4, 5, 6 are 
really produced there : 

1. Mutta. 6. Pava/aw. 

2. Mawi. 7. Ragatam. 

3. Ve/uriyo. 8. Gatarupaw. 

4. Sahkho. 9. Lohitahko. 

5. Sila. 10. Masaragallaw. 

1 This section and § 9 should be compared with one in the 
Sukhavativyuha, translated by Professor Max Miiller as follows 
(Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society, 1880, p. 170) : 

' And again, O .Sariputra, when those rows of palm trees and 



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I. MAHA-SUDASSANA SUTTA. 25 1 

were shaken by the wind, there arose a sound sweet, 
and pleasant, and charming, and intoxicating. 

'Just, Ananda, as the seven kind of instruments 
yield, when well played upon, to the skilful man, a 
sound sweet, and pleasant, and charming, and in- 
toxicating — just even so, Ananda, when those rows 
of palm trees were shaken by the wind, there arose 
a sound sweet, and pleasant, and charming, and 
intoxicating. 

9. ' And whoever, Ananda, in the royal city 
Kusavatl were at that time gamblers, drunkards, 
and given to drink, they used to dance round to- 
gether to the sound of those palms when shaken 
by the wind. 

A 

10. 'The Great King of Glory, Ananda, was the 
possessor of Seven Precious Things, and was 
gifted with Four Marvellous Powers.' 

'What are those seven?' 

11. * ' In the first place, Ananda, when the Great 
King of Glory, on the Sabbath day 2 , on the day of 

strings of bells in that Buddha country are moved by the wind, 
a sweet and enrapturing sound proceeds from them. Yes, O S&ri- 
putra, as from a heavenly musical instrument consisting of a hun- 
dred thousand ko/is of sounds, when played by Aryas, a sweet 
and enrapturing sound proceeds ; a sweet and enrapturing sound 
proceeds from those rows of palm trees and strings of bells moved 
by the wind. 

* And when the men there hear that sound, reflection on Buddha 
arises in their body, reflection on the Law, reflection on the 
Assembly.' 

Compare also below, § 81, and Gataka I, 32. 

1 The following enumeration is found word for word in several 
other Pali Suttas, and occurs also, in almost identical terms, in the 
Lalita Vistara (Calcutta edition, pp. 14-19). 

* Uposatha,a weekly sacred day; being full-moon day, new- 
moon day, and the two equidistant intermediate days. Comp. § a 1. 



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252 THE GREAT KING OF GLORY. CH. 

the full moon, had purified himself, and had gone 
up into the upper story of his palace to keep the 
sacred day, there then appeared to him the heavenly 
Treasure of the Wheel 1 , with its nave, its tire, 
and all its thousand spokes complete. 

12. 'When he beheld it the Great King of 
Glory thought : 

' " This saying have I heard, ' When a king of 
the warrior race, an anointed king, has purified 
himself on the Sabbath day, on the day of the 
full moon, and has gone up into the upper story 
of his palace to keep the sacred day; if there 
appear to him the heavenly Treasure of the 
Wheel, with its nave, its tire, and all its thousand 
spokes complete — that king becomes a king of 
kings invincible.' May I, then, become a king of 
kings invincible 2 ." 

1 3. ' Then, Ananda, the Great King of Glory 
rose from his seat, and reverently uncovering from 
one shoulder his robe, he held in his left hand a 
pitcher, and with his right hand he sprinkled water 
up over the Wheel, as he said : 

' " Roll onward, O my Lord, the Wheel ! O my 
Lord, go forth and overcome ! " 

14. ' Then the wondrous Wheel, Ananda, rolled 
onwards towards the region of the East, and after it 
went the Great King of Glory s , and with him his 



1 .ATakka-ratanaxn, where the £akka is the disk of the sun. 

* .ffakkavattira^l 

8 Atha kho £akka-ratanax» puratthimam disam pavatti 
anvad eva ra^-a Mahasudassano, &c. Here anvad must be 
the Sanskrit anva«£. The Lalita Vistara has anveti in the 
corresponding passage, and the (Phayre Burmese) MS. here reads 
anud eva. The verb in the second clause must be supplied, as 



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MAHA-SUDASSANA SUTTA. 253 



army, horses, and chariots, and elephants, and men. 
And in whatever place, Ananda, the Wheel stopped, 
there the Great King of Glory took up his abode, 
and with him his army, horses, and chariots, and 
elephants, and men. 

15. 'Then, Ananda, all the rival kings in the 
region of the East came to the Great King of 
Glory and said: 

' " Come, O mighty king 1 Welcome, O mighty 
king ! All is thine, O mighty king ! Do thou, O 
mighty king, be a Teacher to us ! " 

16. ' Thus spake the Great King of Glory : 
4 " Ye shall slay no living thing. 

'"Ye shall not take that which has not been 
given. 

'"Ye shall not act wrongly touching the bodily 
desires. 

4 " Ye shall speak no lie. 

' " Ye shall drink no maddening drink. 

' " Ye shall eat as ye have eaten 1 ." 

1 7. ' Then, Ananda, all the rival kings in the 
region of the East became subject unto the Great 
King of Glory. 

18. 'But the wondrous Wheel, Ananda, having 
plunged down into the great waters in the East, 
rose up out again, and rolled onward to the region 
of the South [and there all happened as had hap- 



is the case in the one or two other passages where I have met 
with this phrase. 

1 Yath&bhuttam bhuw^atha. Buddhaghosa has no comment 
on this. I suppose it means, ' Observe the rules current among 
you regarding clean and unclean meats.' If so, the Great King 
of Glory disregards the teaching of the Amagandha Sutta, quoted 
in 'Buddhism,' p. 131. 



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254 THE GREAT KING OF GLORY. CH. 

pened in the region' of the East. And in like 
manner the wondrous Wheel rolled onward to the 
extremest boundary of the West and of the North ; 
and there, too, all happened as had happened in the 
region of the East]. 

19. 'Now when the wondrous Wheel, Ananda, 
had gone forth conquering and to conquer o'er the 
whole earth to its very ocean boundary, it returned 
back again to the royal city of Kusavatl and re- 
mained fixed on the open terrace in front of the 
entrance to the inner apartments of the Great King 
of Glory, as a glorious adornment to the inner 
apartments of the Great King of Glory. 

20. 'Such, Ananda, was the wondrous Wheel which 
appeared to the Great King of Glory. 



21. ' Now further, Ananda, there appeared to the 
Great King of Glory the Elephant Treasure 1 , 
all white, sevenfold firm 2 , wonderful in power, flying 
through the sky — the Elephant- King, whose name 
was "The Changes of the Moon 8 ." 

22. ' When he beheld it the Great King of Glory 
was pleased at heart at the thought : 



1 Hatthi-ratana. 

* Satta-ppatittho, that is, perhaps, in regard to its four legs, 
two tusks, and trunk. The expression is curious, and Buddha- 
ghosa has no note upon it. It is quite possible that it merely sig- 
nifies ' exceeding firm,' the number seven being used without any 
hard and fast interpretation. 

8 Uposatho. In the Lalita Vistara its name is 'Wisdom' 
(Bodhi). Uposatha is the name for the sacred day of the moon's 
changes — first, and more especially the full-moon day ; next, the 
new-moon day; and lastly, the days equidistant between these 
two. It was therefore a weekly sacred day, and, as Childers says, 
may often be well rendered ' Sabbath.' 



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I. MAHA-SUDASSANA SUTTA. 255 

' " Auspicious were it to ride upon that Elephant, 
if only it would submit to be controlled !" 

23. 'Then, Ananda, the wondrous Elephant — like 
a fine elephant of noble blood long since well 
trained — submitted to control. 
• 24. ' When as before, Ananda, the Great King of 
Glory, to test that wondrous Elephant, mounted on 
to it early in the morning, it passed over along the 
broad earth to its very ocean boundary, and then 
returned again, in time for the morning meal, to the 
royal city of Kusavati *. 

25. 'Such, Ananda, was the wondrous Elephant 
that appeared to the Great King of Glory. 



26. 'Now further, Ananda, there appeared to the 
Great King of Glory the Horse Treasure 2 , all 
white with a black head, and a dark mane, wonderful 
in power, flying through the sky — the Charger-King, 
whose name was " Thunder-cloud 3 ." 

27. 'When he beheld it, the Great King of Glory 
was pleased at heart at the thought : 

' " Auspicious were it to ride upon that Horse if 
only it would submit to be controlled !" 

28. 'Then, Ananda, the wondrous Horse — like 

1 Compare on this and § 29 my ' Buddhist Birth Stories,' p. 85, 
where a similar phrase is used of Kanthaka. 

* Assa-ratanaw. 

• Val&hako. Compare the ValShassa G&taka. (Fausboll, No. 
196, called in the Burmese MS. VaUthakassa G&taka), of which 
the Chinese story translated by Mr. Beal at pp. 332-340 of his 
' Romantic History,' &c, is an expanded and altered version. In 
the Valihaka Sawyutta of the Sa/rayutta Nik&ya the spirits of the 
skies are divided into U»ha-val&hak£ DevS, Stta-val&haka" 
Devi, Abbha-vaiahaki Devi, Vata-valihakl Devi, and 
Vassa-valihakS Devi, that is, the cloud-spirits of cold, heat, 
air, wind, and rain respectively. 



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256 THE GREAT KING OF GLORY. CH. 

a fine horse of the best blood long since well 
trained — submitted to control. 

29. ' When as before, Ananda, the Great King of 
Glory, to test that wondrous Horse, mounted on to 
it early in the morning, it passed over along the 
broad earth to its very ocean boundary, and then- 
returned again, in time for the morning meal, to the 
royal city of Kusavatl. 

30. 'Such, Ananda, was the wondrous Horse that 
appeared to the Great King of Glory. 



31. ' Now further, Ananda, there appeared to the 
Great King of Glory the Gem-Treasure 1 . That 
Gem was the Ve/uriya, bright, of the finest species, 
with eight facets, excellently wrought, clear, trans- 
parent, perfect in every way. 

32. ' The splendour, Ananda, of that wondrous 
Gem spread round about a league on every side. 

33. 'When as before, Ananda, the Great King 
of Glory, to test that wondrous Gem, set all his 
fourfold army in array and raised aloft the Gem 
upon his standard top, he was able to march out in 
the gloom and darkness of the night. 

34. 'And then too, Ananda, all the dwellers in 
the villages, round about, set about their daily work, 
thinking, " The daylight hath appeared." 

35. ' Such, Ananda, was the wondrous Gem that 
appeared to the Great King of Glory. 



36. ' Now further, Ananda, there appeared to the 
Great King of Glory the Woman -Treasure 2 , 
graceful in figure, beautiful in appearance, charming 
in manner, and of the most fine complexion; neither 

1 Mawi-ratanaw. l Itthi-ratanaw. 



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i. mahA-sudassana sutta. 257 

very tall, nor very short; neither very stout, nor 
very slim ; neither very dark, nor very fair ; sur- 
passing human beauty, she had attained unto the 
beauty of the gods \ 

37. ' The touch too, Ananda, of the skin of that 
wondrous Woman was as the touch of cotton or of 
cotton wool : in the cold her limbs were warm, in 
the heat her limbs were cool ; while 
was wafted the perfume of sandal 
her mouth the perfume of the lotus. 

38. 'That Pearl among Women tooV^andj&y usee 
to rise up before the Great King of Glory>iftcyif^3.i^, 
him retire to rest ; pleasant was she in speech, and 
ever on the watch to hear what she might do in 
order "so to act as to give him pleasure. 

39. ' That Pearl among Women too, Ananda, was 
never, even in thought, unfaithful to the Great King 
of Glory — how much less then could she be so with 
the body ! 

40. ' Such, Ananda, was the Pearl among Women 
who appeared to the Great King of Glory. 

41. ' Now further, Ananda, there appeared unto 
the Great King of Glory a Wonderful Trea- 
surer 2 , possessed, through good deeds done in a 

1 The above description of an ideally beautiful woman is of 
frequent occurrence. 

* Gahapati-ratanaw. The word gahapati has been hitherto 
usually rendered 'householder,' but this may often, and would 
certainly here, convey a wrong impression. There is no single 
word in English which is an adequate rendering of the term, for 
it connotes a social condition now no longer known among us. 
The gahapati was the head of a family, the representative in a 
village community of a family, the pater familias. So the god 
of fire, with allusion to the sacred fire maintained in each house- 
hold, is called in the Rig-veda the grj'hapati, the pater familias, 

[11] S 



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258 THE GREAT KING OF GLORY. CH. 

former birth, of a marvellous power of vision by 
which he could discover treasure, whether it had an 
owner or whether it had not. 

42. 'He went up to the Great King of Glory, 
and said : 

' " Do thou, O King, take thine ease ! I will deal 
with thy wealth even as wealth should be dealt with." 

43. ' Then, as before, Ananda, the Great King of 
Glory, to test that wonderful Treasurer, went on 
board a boat, and had it pushed out into the current 
in the midst of the river Ganges. Then he said to 
the wonderful steward : 

' " I have need, O Treasurer, of yellow gold !" 
' " Let the ship then, O Great King, go alongside 

either of the banks." • 

' " It is here, O Treasurer, that I have need of 

yellow gold." 

44. ' Then the wonderful Treasurer reached down 
to the water with both his hands, and drew up a jar 

of the human race. Thence it is often used in opposition to br Sh- 
in a«a very much as we might use ' yeoman' in opposition to ' clerk' 
(Gataka I, 83, and below, § 53); and the two combined are used 
in opposition to people of other ranks and callings held to be 
less honourable than that of clerk or yeoman (<?ataka J, 218). In 
this respect the term gahapati is nearly equivalent, though from 
a different point of view, to the Kshatriyas and Vauyas of the 
Hindu caste division; but the compound br&hmawa-gahapatika' 
as a collective term comes to be about equivalent to ' priests and 
laymen' (see, for instance, below, § 53, and MahS Vagga I, 22; 
3, 4, &c.) Then again the gahapati is distinct from the subor- 
dinate members of the family, who had not the control and 
management of the common property (S&mamna Phala Sutta, 
I 33> = Tevigya Sutta I, 47); and it is this implication of the term 
that is emphasised in the text. Buddhaghosa uses, as an expla- 
natory phrase, the words se/Mi- gahapati. See further the 
passages quoted in the index to the Aulla Vagga (p. 354). 



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I. MAHA-SUDASSANA SUTTA. 259 

full of yellow gold, and said to the Great King of 
Glory : 

' " Is that enough, O Great King ? Have I done 
enough, O Great King ?" 

' And the Great King of Glory replied : 

'"It is enough, O Treasurer. You have done 
enough, O Treasurer. You have offered me enough, 
O Treasurer!" 

45. ' Such was the wonderful Treasurer, Ananda, 
who appeared to the Great King of Glory. 



46. ' Now further, Ananda, there appeared to the 
Great King of Glory a Wonderful Adviser 1 , 
learned, clever, and wise ; and qualified to lead the 
Great King of Glory to undertake what he ought to 
undertake, and to leave undone what he ought to 
leave undone. 

47. 'He went up to the Great King of Glory, 
and said : 

' " Do thou, O King, take thine ease ! I will be 
thy guide." 

48. ' Such, Ananda, was the wonderful Adviser 
who appeared to the Great King of Glory. 

' The Great King of Glory was possessed of these 
Seven Precious Things. 

49. ' Now further, Ananda, the Great King of 
Glory was gifted with Four Marvellous Gifts 2 .' 

' What are the Four Marvellous Gifts ? ' 

1 PariwSyaka-ratanaw. Buddhaghosa says that he was the 
eldest son of the king ; but this is probably a mere putting back 
into the Sutta of a later idea derived from the summary in the 
(Tataka. The Lalita Vistara makes him a general. 

* .ffatuhi iddhihi. Here again, as elsewhere, it will be noticed 
that there is nothing supernatural about these four Iddhis. See 

S 2 



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200 THE GREAT KING OF GLORY. CR. 

50. ' In the first place, Ananda, the Great King 
of Glory was graceful in figure, handsome in ap- 
pearance, pleasing in manner, and of most beautiful 
complexion, beyond what other men are. 

'The Great King of Glory, Ananda, was endowed 
with this First Marvellous Gift. 

51. 'And besides that, Ananda, the Great King 
of Glory was of long life, and of many years, beyond 
those of other men. 

' The Great King of Glory, Ananda, was endowed 
with this Second Marvellous Gift. 

52. 'And besides that, Ananda, the Great King 
of Glory was free from disease, and free from bodily 
suffering ; and his internal fire was neither too hot 
nor too cold, but such as to promote good digestion, 
beyond that of other men 1 . 



the notes above on the ' Book of the Great Decease,' 1, 1 ; III, 2. 
They are merely attributes accompanying or forming part of the 
majesty (iddhi) of the iTakkavatti. 

1 Samavepakiniya gaha»iya samannagato natisftaya 
n£££u»haya. The same thing is said of Ra/Mapala in the 
Ra//tfapala Sutta, where Gogerly renders the whole passage, 
' Ra//<4apala is healthy, free from pain, having a good digestion 
and appetite, being troubled with no excess of either heat or cold' 
(Journal of the Ceylon Asiatic Society, 1847-1848, p. 98). The 
gaha»i is a supposed particular organ or function situate at the 
junction of the stomach and intestines. Moggallana explains it, 
udare tu tatha pa£analasmim gaham (Abhidhana-ppadfpika, 
972), where Subhuti's Sinhalese version is 'kukshi, pakdgni,' 
and his English version, ' the belly, the internal fire which pro- 
motes digestion.' Buddhaghosa explains samavipikiya kam- 
ma^a-te^o-dhatuya, and adds, 'If a man's food is dissolved 
the moment he has eaten it, or if it remains like a lump, he has not 
the samavepakini gaha«i, but he who has appetite (bhatta^- 
>4>4ando) when the time for food comes round again, he has the 
samavepakini gaha»i,' — which is delightfully naive. 



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I. ' MAHA-SUDASSANA SUTTA. 26 1 

' The Great King of Glory, Ananda, was endowed 
with this Third Marvellous Gift. 

53. 'And besides that, Ananda, the Great King 
of Glory was beloved and popular with Brahmans 
and with laymen alike 1 . Just, Ananda, as a father 
is near and dear to his own sons, just so, Ananda, 
was the Great King of Glory beloved and popular 
with Brahmans and with laymen alike. And just, 
Ananda, as his sons are near and dear to a father, 
just so, Ananda, were Brahmans and laymen alike 
near and dear to the Great King of Glory. 

54. ' Once, Ananda, the Great King of Glory 
marched out with all his fourfold army to the 
pleasure ground. There, Ananda, the Brahmans 
and laymen went up to the Great King of Glory, 
and said: 

' " O King, pass slowly by, that we may look 
upon thee for a longer time!" 

'But the Great King of Glory, Ananda, addressed 
his charioteer, and said : 

' " Drive on the chariot slowly, charioteer, that I 
may look upon my people (Brahmans and laymen) 
for a longer time!" 

55. ' This was the Fourth Marvellous Gift, Ananda, 
with which the Great King of Glory was endowed. 

56. 'These are die Four Marvellous Gifts, 
Ananda, with which the Great King of Glory was 
endowed. 

57. 'Now to the Great King of Glory, Ananda, 
there occurred the thought: 

'"Suppose, now, I were to make Lotus -ponds 

1 Brahma«a-gahapatikana«. See the note on § 41. 

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262 THE GREAT KING OF GLORY. CH. 

in the spaces between these palms, at every hun- 
dred bow lengths." 

' Then, Ananda, the Great King of Glory, in the 
spaces between those palms, at distances of a hun- 
dred bow lengths, made Lotus-ponds. 

58. ' And those Lotus-ponds, Ananda, were faced 
with tiles of four kinds. One kind of tile was of 
gold, and one of silver, and one of beryl, and one of 
crystal. 

59. 'And to each of those Lotus-ponds, Ananda, 
there were four flights of steps, of four different 
kinds. One flight of steps was of gold, and one of 
silver, and one of beryl, and one of crystal. The 
flight of golden steps had balustrades of gold, 
with the cross bars and the figure head of silver. 
The flight of silver steps had balustrades of silver, 
with the cross bars and the figure head of gold. 
The flight of beryl steps had balustrades of beryl, 
with the cross bars and the figure head of crystal. 
The flight of crystal steps had balustrades of crystal, 
with cross bars and figure head of beryl. 

60. ' And round those Lotus-ponds there ran, 
Ananda, a double railing. One railing was of gold, 
and one was of silver. The golden railing had its 
posts of gold, and its cross bars and its capitals of 
silver. The silver railing had its posts of silver, 
and its cross bars and its capitals of gold \ 

1 Pokkharawi, the word translated Lotus-pond, is an artificial 
pool or small lake for water plants. There are some which are 
probably nearly as old as this passage still in good preservation in 
Anuradhapuru in Ceylon. Each is oblong, and has its tiles and its 
four flights of steps, and some had railings. The balustrades, 
cross bars, figure head, and railing are in Pali thambha, 
su^iyo, unhtsaw, and vedikd, of the exact meaning of which 
I am not quite confident. They do not occur in the description 



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i. mahA-sudassana sutta. 263 

61. ' Now, to the Great King of Glory, Ananda, 
there occurred the thought : 

' " Suppose, now, I were to have flowers of every 
season planted in those Lotus-ponds for the use of 
all the people — to wit, blue water lilies and blue 
lotuses, white lotuses and white water lilies." 

' Then, Ananda, the Great King of Glory had 
flowers of every season planted in those Lotus- 
ponds for the use of all the people — to wit, blue 
water lilies and blue lotuses, white lotuses and 
white water lilies. 

62. ' Now, to the Great King of Glory, Ananda, 
occurred the thought : 

' " Suppose, now, I were to place bathing-men on 
the banks of those Lotus-ponds, to bathe such of 
the people as come there from time to time." 

' Then, Ananda, the Great King of Glory placed 
bathing-men on the banks of those Lotus-ponds, to 
bathe such of the people as come there from time 
to time. 

63. ' Now, to the Great King of Glory, Ananda, 
occurred the thought : 

' " Suppose, now, I were to establish a perpetual 
grant by the banks of those Lotus-ponds — to wit, 
food for the hungry, drink for the thirsty, raiment 
for the naked, means of conveyance for those who 
have need of it, couches for the tired, wives for 

of the Lotus-lakes in Sukhavatf. General Cunningham savs that 
the cross bars of the Buddhist railings are called su£iyo iothe 
inscriptions at Bharhut (The Stupa of Bharhut, p. 127). Budaha- 
ghosa, who is good enough to tell us the exact number or the 
ponds — to wit, 84,000, has no explanation of these words, merely 
saying that of the two vedikds one was at the limit of the tjles 
and one at the limit of the parivewa. The phrases in the, text, 
are repeated below, §§ 73-87, of the Palace of Righteousness. 



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264 THE GREAT KING OF GLORY. CH. 

those who want wives, gold for the poor, and money 
for those who are in want." 

' Then, Ananda, the Great King of Glory esta- 
blished a perpetual grant by the banks of those 
Lotus-ponds — to wit, food for the hungry, drink for 
the thirsty, raiment for the naked, means of con- 
veyance for those who needed it, couches for the 
tired, wives for those who wanted wives, gold for the 
poor, and money for those who were in want. 



64. ' Now, Ananda, the people (Brahmans and 
laymen) went to the Great King of Glory, taking 
with them much wealth. And they said : 

' " This abundant wealth, O King, have we 
brought here for the use of the King of Kings. 
Let the King accept it of us ! " 

' " I have enough wealth, my friends, laid up for 
myself, the produce of righteous taxation. Do you 
keep this, and take away more with you !" 

65. ' When those men were thus refused by the 
King they went aside and considered together, 
saying : 

' " It would not beseem us now, were we to take 
back this wealth to our own houses. Suppose, now, 
we were to build a mansion for the Great King of 
Glory." 

66. 'Then they went to the Great King of Glory, 
and said : 

' "A mansion would we build for thee, O King!'" 
' " Then, Ananda, the Great King of Glory signi- 
fied, by silence, his consent 



67. ' Now, Ananda, when Sakka, the king of the 
gods, became aware in his mind of the thoughts that 



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I. MAHA-SUDASSANA SUTTA. 265 

were in the heart of the Great King of Glory, he 
addressed Vissakamma the god 1 , and said : 

' " Come now, Vissakamma, create me a mansion 
for the Great King of Glory — a palace which shall 
be called ' Righteousness V " 

68. '"Even so, Lord!" said Vissakamma, in 
assent, Ananda, to Sakka, the king of the gods. 
And as instantaneously as a strong man might 
stretch forth his folded arm, or draw in his arm 
again when it was stretched forth, so quickly did he 
vanish from the heaven of the Great Thirty-Three, 
and appeared before the Great King of Glory. 

69. ' Then, Ananda, Vissakamma the god said to 
the Great King of Glory : 

'"I would create for thee, O King, a mansion — 
a palace which shall be called ' Righteousness !'" 

' Then, Ananda, the Great King of Glory signi- 
fied, by silence, his consent. 



70. ' So Vissakamma the god, Ananda, created 
for the Great King of Glory a mansion — a palace to 
be called " Righteousness." 

71. 'The Palace of Righteousness, Ananda, was on 
the east and on the west a league in length, and on 
the north and on the south half a league in breadth. 

72. ' The ground-floor, Ananda, of the Palace of 
Righteousness 8 , in height as three times the height 
to which a man can reach, was built of bricks, of 
four kinds. One kind of brick was of gold, and 
one of silver, and one of beryl, and one of crystal. 

1 Vissakamma^ d evaputt am, where devaputtaw means not 
' son of a god,' but ' belonging to, born into the class of, the gods.' 

2 Dhammatn nama Pasada/n. 

3 Dhammassa pasadassa vatthuw. 



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266 THE GREAT KING OF GLORY. CH. 

A 

73. ' To the Palace of Righteousness, Ananda, 
there were eighty-four thousand pillars of four kinds. 
One kind of pillar was of gold, and one of silver, 
and one of beryl, and one of crystal. 

74. ' The Palace of Righteousness, Ananda, was 
fitted up with seats of four kinds. One kind of seat 
was of gold, and one of silver, and one of beryl, and 
one of crystal. 

75. ' In the Palace of Righteousness, Ananda, 
there were twenty-four staircases of four kinds. 
One staircase was of gold, and one of silver, and 
one of beryl, and one of crystal. The staircase of 
gold had balustrades of gold, with the cross bars 
and the figure head of silver. The staircase of silver 
had balustrades of silver, with the cross bars and the 
figure head of gold. The staircase of beryl had 
balustrades of beryl, with the cross bars and the 
figure head of crystal. The staircase of crystal had 
balustrades of crystal, with cross bars and figure 
head of beryl. 

76. 'In the Palace of Righteousness, Ananda, 
there were eighty-four thousand chambers of four 
kinds. One kind of chamber was of gold, and one 
of silver, and one of beryl, and one of crystal. 

'In the golden chamber a silver couch was spread; 
in the silver chamber a golden couch ; in the beryl 
chamber a couch of ivory ; and in the crystal cham- 
ber a couch of coral. 

' At the door of the golden chamber there stood 
a palm tree of silver ; and its trunk was of silver, and 
its leaves and fruits of gold. 

' At the door of the silver chamber there stood 
a palm tree of gold ; and its trunk was of gold, and 
its leaves and fruits of silver. 



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i. mahA-sudassana sutta. 267 

'At the door of the beryl chamber there stood a 
palm tree of crystal ; and its trunk was of crystal, 
and its leaves and fruits of beryl. 

'At the door of the crystal chamber there stood 
a palm tree of beryl; and its trunk was of beryl, and 
its leaves and fruits of crystal. 



77. ' Now there occurred, Ananda, to the Great 
King of Glory this thought: 

' " Suppose, now, I were to make a grove of palm 
trees, all of gold, at the entrance to the chamber of 
the Great Complex 1 , under the shade of which 
I may pass the heat of the day." 

' Then, Ananda, the Great King of Glory made 
a grove of palm trees, all of gold, at the entrance 
to the chamber of the Great Complex, under the 
shade of which he might pass the heat of the day. 

78. ' The Palace of Righteousness, Ananda, was 
surrounded by a double railing. One railing was of 
gold, and one was of silver. The golden railing had 
its posts of gold, and its cross bars and its figure head 
of silver. The silver railing had its posts of silver, 
and its cross bars and its figure head of gold 2 . 

79. ' The Palace of Righteousness, Ananda, was 
hung round with two networks of bells. One net- 
work of bells was of gold, and one was of silver. 



1 Mahavyuhassa ku/agarassa dvare. The'Great Com- 
plex' contains a double allusion, in the same spirit in which the 
whole legend has been worked out : 1. To the Great Complex as 
a name of the Sun-God regarded as a unity of the four mytho- 
logical deities, Vasudeva, Saftkarsha«a, Pra^umna, and Aniruddha ; 
and 2. To the Great Complex as a name of a particular kind of 
deep religious meditation or speculation. 

2 See above, § 60, and the note on § 54. 



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268 THE GREAT KING OF GLORY. CH. 

The golden network had bells of silver, and the 
silver network had bells of gold. 

80. ' And when those networks of bells, Ananda, 
were shaken by the wind there arose a sound sweet, 
and pleasant, and charming, and intoxicating. 

'Just, Ananda, as the seven kind of instruments 
yield, when well played upon, to the skilful man, 
a sound sweet, and pleasant, and charming, and 
intoxicating — just even so, Ananda, when those 
networks of bells were shaken by the wind, there 
arose a sound sweet, and pleasant, and charming, 
and intoxicating. 

81. ' And whoever, Ananda, in the royal city 
Kusavatl were at that time gamblers, drunkards, 
and given to drink, they used to dance round toge- 
ther to the sound of those networks of bells when 
shaken by the wind. 

82. 'When the Palace of Righteousness, Ananda, 
was finished it was hard to look at, destructive to 
the eyes. Just, Ananda, as in the last month of the 
rains in the autumn time, when the sky has become 
clear and the clouds have vanished away, the sun, 
springing up along the heavens, is hard to look at, 
and destructive to the eyes, — just so, Ananda, when 
the Palace of Righteousness was finished was it hard 
to look at, and destructive to the eyes. 

83. ' Now there occurred, Ananda, to the Great 
King of Glory this thought: 

' " Suppose, now, in front of the Palace of Right- 
eousness, I were to make a Lotus-lake to bear the 
name of ' Righteousness.' " 

' Then, Ananda, the Great King of Glory made a 
Lotus-lake to bear the name of " Righteousness." 



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i. mahA-sudassana sutta. 269 

84. ' The Lake of Righteousness, Ananda, was on 
the east and on the west a league in length, and on 
the north and on the south half a league in breadth. 

85. 'The Lake of Righteousness, Ananda, was 
faced with tiles of four kinds. One kind of tile was 
of gold, and one of silver, and one of beryl, and one 
of crystal. 

86. 'The Lake of Righteousness, Ananda, had four 
and twenty flights of steps, of four different kinds. 
One flight of steps was of gold, and one of silver, 
and one of beryl, and one of crystal. The flight of 
golden steps had balustrades of gold, with the cross 
bars and the figure head of silver. The flight of 
silver steps had balustrades of silver, with the cross 
bars and the figure head of gold. The flight of beryl 
steps had balustrades of beryl, with the cross bars 
and the figure head of crystal. The flight of crystal 
steps had balustrades of crystal, with cross bars and 
figure head of beryl. 

87. ' Round the Lake of Righteousness, Ananda, 
there ran a double railing. One railing was of gold, 
and one was of silver. The golden railing had 
its posts of gold, and its cross bars and its capitals 
of silver. The silver railing had its posts of silver, 
and its cross bars and its capitals of gold. 

88. ' The Lake of Righteousness, Ananda, was 
surrounded by seven rows of palm trees. One row 
was of palms of gold, and one of silver, and one 
of beryl, and one of crystal, and one of agate, and 
one of coral, and one of all kinds of gems. 

89. ' And the golden palms had trunks of gold, 
and leaves and fruits of silver. And the silver 
palms had trunks of silver, and leaves and fruits of 
gold. And the palms of beryl had trunks of beryl, 



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270 THE GREAT KING OK GLORY. CH. 

and leaves and fruits of crystal. And the crystal 
palms had trunks of crystal, and leaves and fruits 
of beryl. And the agate palms had trunks of agate, 
and leaves and fruits of coral. And the coral palms 
had trunks of coral, and leaves and fruits of agate. 
And the palms of every kind of gem had trunks 
and leaves and fruits of every kind of gem. 

90. ' And when those rows of palm trees, Ananda, 
were shaken by the wind, there arose a sound sweet, 
and pleasant, and charming, and intoxicating. 

'Just, Ananda, as the seven kind of instruments 
yield, when well played upon, to the skilful man, a 
sound sweet, and pleasant, and charming.and intoxicat- 
ing, — just even so, Ananda, when those rows of palm 
trees were shaken by the wind, there arose a sound 
sweet, and pleasant, and charming, and intoxicating. 

91. 'And whoever, Ananda 1 , in the royal city 
Kusavatl were at that time gamblers, drunkards, 
and given to drink, they used to dance round to- 
gether to the sound of those palms when shaken 
by the wind. 

92. ' When the Palace of Righteousness, Ananda, 
was finished, and the Lotus-lake of Righteousness was 
finished, the Great King of Glory entertained with all 
good things those of the Sama»as who, at that time, 
were held in high esteem, and those of the Brahmans 
who, at that time, were held in high esteem. Then 
he ascended up into the Palace of Righteousness.' 

End of the First Portion for Recitation. 

1 This paragraph is perhaps repeated by mistake ; but it is scarcely 
less in harmony with its context at § 8 than it is here. It is more 
probable that § 92 followed, originally, immediately after § 82, with 
the Lotus-lake clause omitted, 



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II. MAHA-SUDASSANA SUTTA. 271 



Chapter II. 

1. 'Now there occurred, Ananda, this thought to 
the Great King of Glory : 

' " Of what previous character, now, may this be 
the fruit, of what previous character the result, that 
I am now so mighty and so great ?" 

2. 'And then occurred, Ananda, to the Great King 
of Glory this thought : 

'"Of three qualities is this the fruit, of three 
qualities the result, that I am now so mighty and 
so great, — that is to say, of giving, of self-conquest, 
and of self-control 1 ." 



3. ' Now the Great King of Glory, Ananda, as- 
cended up into the chamber of the Great Complex ; 
and when he had come there he stood at the door, 
and there he broke out into a cry of intense 
emotion : 

' " Stay here, O thoughts of lust ! 
' " Stay here, O thoughts of ill-will ! 
' " Stay here, O thoughts of hatred ! 
' " Thus far only, O thoughts of lust ! 
' " Thus far only, O thoughts of ill-will ! 
' " Thus far only, O thoughts of hatred ! " 

4. ' And when, Ananda, the Great King of Glory 
had entered the chamber of the Great Complex, 



1 I have here translated kamma by 'previous character' and 
by 'quality.' The easiest plan would, no doubt, have been, to pre- 
serve in the translation the technical term karma, which is explained 
at some length in ' Buddhism,' pp. 99-106. 



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272 THE GREAT KING OF GLORY. CH. 

and had seated himself upon the couch of gold, 
having put away all passion and all unrighteousness, 
he entered into, and remained in, the First 6^&na, 
— a state of joy and ease, born of seclusion, full of 
reflection, full of investigation. 

5. ' By suppressing reflection and investigation, 
he entered into, and remained in, the Second Gkknz, 
— a state of joy and ease, born of serenity, without 
reflection, without investigation, a state of elevation 
of mind, of internal calm. 

6. ' By absence of the longing after joy, he re- 
mained indifferent, conscious, self-possessed, experi- 
encing in his body that ease which the noble ones 
announce, saying, "The man indifferent and self- 
possessed is well at ease," and thus he entered into, 
and remained in, the Third Gvfcana. 

7. * By putting away ease, by putting away pain, 
by the previous dying away both of gladness and of 
sorrow, he entered into, and remained in, the Fourth 
Gtena, — a state of purified self-possession and equa- 
nimity, without ease, and without pain \ 



8. ' Then, Ananda, the Great King of Glory went 
out from the chamber of the Great Complex, and 
entered the golden chamber and sat himself down 
on the silver couch. And he let his mind pervade 

1 The above paragraphs are an endeavour to express the inmost 
feelings when they are first strung to the uttermost by the intense 
effects of deep religious emotion, and then feel the effects of what 
may be called, for want of a better word, the reaction. Most 
deeply religious natures have passed through such a crisis; and 
though the feelings are perhaps really indescribable, this passage 
is dealing, not with a vain mockery, but with a very real event in 
spiritual experience. 



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II. MAHA-SUDASSANA SUTTA. 273 

one quarter of the world with thoughts of Love; and 
so the second quarter, and so the' third, and so the 
fourth. And thus the whole wide world, above, 
below, around, and everywhere, did he continue to 
pervade with heart of Love, far-reaching, grown great, 
and beyond measure, free from the least trace of 
anger or ill-will. 

9. 'And he let his mind pervade one quarter of 
the world with thoughts of Pity ; and so the second 
quarter, and so the third, and so the fourth. And 
thus the whole wide world, above, below, around, 
and everywhere, did he continue to pervade with 
heart of Pity, far-reaching, grown great, and beyond 
measure, free from the least trace of anger or 
ill-will. 

10. 'And he let his mind pervade one quarter of 
the world with thoughts of Sympathy ; and so the 
second quarter, and so the third, and so the fourth. 
And thus the whole wide world, above, below, 
around, and everywhere, did he continue to pervade 
with heart of Sympathy, far-reaching, grown great, 
and beyond measure, free from the least trace of 
anger or ill-will. 

11. ' And he let his mind pervade one quarter of 
the world with thoughts of Equanimity 1 ; and so the 
second quarter^ and so the third, and so the fourth. 
And thus the whole wide world, above, below, 
around, and everywhere, did he continue to pervade 
with heart of Equanimity, far-reaching, grown great, 
and beyond measure, free from the least trace of 
anger or ill-will. 

1 These are the four Appamawnas or infinite feelings, also 
called (e.g. below, § II, 36) the four Brahma-viharas. They 
are here very appropriately represented to follow immediately after 
[n] T 



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274 THE GREAT KING OF GLORY. CH. 

12. 'The Great King of Glory, Ananda, had 
four and eighty thousand cities, the chief of which 
was the royal city of Kusavatl : 

' Four and eighty thousand palaces, the chief of 
which was the Palace of Righteousness : 

1 Four and eighty thousand chambers, the chief 
of which was the chamber of the Great Complex : 

' Four and eighty thousand divans, of gold, and 
silver, and ivory, and sandal wood, spread with 
long-haired rugs, and cloths embroidered with 
flowers, and magnificent antelope skins; covered 
with lofty canopies ; and provided at both ends with 
purple cushions : 

' Four and eighty thousand state elephants, with 
trappings of gold, and gilded flags, and golden 
coverings of network, — of which the king of ele- 
phants, called "the Changes of the Moon," was 
chief : 

' Four and eighty thousand state horses, with 
trappings of gold, and gilded flags, and golden 
coverings of network, — of which " Thunder-cloud," 
the king of horses, was the chief: 

'Four and eighty thousand chariots, with cover- 
ings of the skins of lions, and of tigers, and of pan- 
thers, — of which the chariot called " the Flag of 
Victory" was the chief: 

' Four and eighty thousand gems, of which the 
Wondrous Gem was the chief: 

' Four and eighty thousand wives, of whom the 
Queen of Glory was the chief: 

the state of feeling described in the GA&n&s ; but they ought to be 
the constant companions of a good Buddhist (see KhaggavisSna 
Sutta 8 ; and compare also Tevi^a Sutta III, 7 ; <7&taka, vol. i. 
p. 246 ; and the Araka G&taka, No. 169). 



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II. MAHA-SUDASSANA SUTTA. 275 

' Four and eighty thousand yeomen, of whom the 
Wonderful Steward was the chief : 

' Four and eighty thousand nobles, of whom the 
Wonderful Adviser was the chief: 

' Four and eighty thousand cows, with jute trap- 
pings, and horns tipped with bronze : 

' Four and eighty thousand myriads of garments, 
of delicate textures, of flax, and cotton, and silk, and 
wool : 

' Four and eighty thousand dishes, in which, in 
the evening and in the morning, rice was served *. 



1 3. ' Now at that time, Ananda, the four and eighty 
thousand state elephants used to come every evening 
and every morning to be of service to the Great 
King of Glory. 

14. 'And this thought occurred to the Great 
King of Glory: 

'"These eighty thousand elephants come every 
evening and every morning to be of service to me. 
Suppose, now, I were to let the elephants come in 
alternate forty thousands, once each, every alternate 
hundred years!" 

15. 'Then, Ananda, the Great King of Glory 
said to the Great Adviser: 

' " O, my friend, the Great Adviser ! these eighty 
thousand elephants come every evening and every 
morning to be of service to me. Now, let the 
elephants come, O my friend, the Great Adviser, in 

1 Most of the trappings and cloths here mentioned are the same 
as those referred to in the Ma^g^ima Stla, §§ 5, 6, 7 recurring in 
the Tevi^g-a Sutta, and in the Brahma^ala Sutta. The whole 
paragraph is four times repeated below, §§ 29, 31, 33, 37. 

T 2 



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276 THE GREAT KING OF GLORY. CH. 

alternate forty thousands, once each, every alternate 
hundred years !" 

' " Even so, Lord ! " said the Wonderful Adviser, 
in assent, to the Great King of Glory. 

16. ' From that time forth, Ananda, the elephants 
came in alternate forty thousands, once each, every 
alternate hundred years. 



1 7. ' Now, Ananda, after the lapse of many years, 
of many hundred years, of many thousand years, 
there occurred to the Queen of Glory 1 this thought : 

""Tis long since I have beheld the Great King 
of Glory. Suppose, now, I were to go and visit the 
Great King of Glory." 

" 18. 'Then, Ananda, the Queen of Glory said to 
the women of the harem : 

' " Arise now, dress your hair, and clad yourselves 
in fresh raiment. 'Tis long since we have beheld 
the Great King of Glory. Let us go and visit the 
Great King of Glory!" 

19. '"Even so, Lady!" said the women of the 
harem, Ananda, in assent, to the Queen of Glory. 
And they dressed their hair, and clad themselves 
in fresh raiment, and came near to the Queen 
of Glory. 

20. ' Then, Ananda, the Queen of Glory said to 
the Great Adviser : 

' " Arrange, O Great Adviser, the fourfold army 
in array. 'Tis long since I have beheld the Great 
King of Glory. I am about to go to visit the Great 
"King of Glory." 

1 SubhaddS Devt. Subhadda, ' glorious, magnificent,' is a 
not uncommon name both for men and women in Buddhist and 
post-Buddhistic Hindu literature. 



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II. 



MAHA-SUDASSANA SUTTA. 277 



21. '"Even so, O Queen!" said the Great Ad- 
viser, Ananda, in assent, to the Queen of Glory. 
And he set the fourfold army in array, and had the 
fact announced to the Queen of Glory in the words : 

' " The fourfold army, O Queen, is set for thee in 
array. Do now whatever seemeth to thee fit." 

22. 'Then, Ananda, the Queen of Glory, with the 
fourfold army, repaired, with the women of the 
harem, to the Palace of Righteousness. And when 
she had arrived there she mounted up into the 
Palace of Righteousness, and went on to the chamber 
of the Great Complex. And when she had reached 
it, she stopped and lent against the side of the door. 

23. ' When, Ananda, the Great King of Glory 
heard the noise he thought : 

' " What, now, may this noise, as of a great multi- 
tude of people, mean ?" 

24. 'And going out from the chamber of the 
Great Complex, he beheld the Queen of Glory stand- 
ing leaning up against the side of the door. And 
when he beheld her, he said to the Queen of Glory : 

* " Stop there, O Queen ! Enter not !" 

25. 'Then the Great King of Glory, Ananda, said 
to one of his attendants : 

' "Arise, good man ! take the golden couch out of 
the chamber of the Great Complex, and make it 
ready under that grove of palm trees which is all 
of gold." 

26. '" Even so, Lord!" said the man, in assent, to 
the Great King of Glory. And he took the golden 
couch out of the chamber of the Great Complex, 
and made it ready under that grove of palm trees 
which was all of gold. 



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278 THE GREAT KING OF GLORY. CH. 

27. ' Then, Ananda, the Great King of Glory laid 
himself down in the dignified way a lion does ; and 
lay with one leg resting on the other, calm and self- 
possessed. 

28. ' Then, Ananda, there occurred to the Queen 
of Glory this thought : 

'"How calm are all the limbs of the Great King 
of Glory! How clear and bright is his appear- 
ance! O may it not be that the Great King of 
Glory is dead 1 ! " 
. 29. ' And she said to the Great King of Glory : 

' " Thine, O King, are those four and eighty thou- 
sand cities, the chief of which is the royal city of 
Kusavatl. Arise, O King, re-awaken thy desire for 
these ! quicken thy longing after life ! 

' " Thine, O King, are those four and eighty thou- 
sand palaces, the chief of which is the Palace of 
Righteousness. Arise, O King, re-awaken thy desire 
for these ! quicken thy longing after life ! 

' " Thine, O King, are those four and eighty thou- 
sand chambers, the chief of which is the chamber 
of the Great Complex. Arise, O King, re-awaken thy 
desire for these ! quicken thy longing after life ! 

' " Thine, O King, are those four and eighty thou- 
sand divans, of gold, and silver, and ivory, and 
sandal wood, spread with long-haired rugs, and 
cloths embroidered with flowers, and magnificent 
antelope skins; covered with lofty canopies; and 
provided at both ends with purple cushions. Arise, 



1 The rather curious connexion between these clauses is worthy 
of notice in comparison with the legend of the ' Transfiguration ' 
just before the Buddha's death (above, pp» 8c— 8a)« 



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II. MAHA-SUDASSANA SUTTA. SS 79 

O King, re-awaken thy desire for these ! quicken 
thy longing after life ! 

' " Thine, O King, are those four and eighty thou- 
sand state elephants, with trappings of gold, and 
gilded flags, and golden coverings of network, — of 
which the king of elephants, called 'the Changes 
of the Moon,' is chief. Arise, O King, re-awaken 
thy desire for these ! quicken thy longing after life ! 

' " Thine, O King, are those four and eighty thou- 
sand state horses, with trappings of gold, and 
gilded flags, and golden coverings of network, — 
of which ' Thunder-cloud,' the king of horses, is the 
chief. Arise, O King, re-awaken thy desire for these ! 
quicken thy longing after life ! 

' " Thine, O King, are those four and eighty thou- 
sand chariots, with coverings of the skins of lions, 
and of tigers, and of panthers, — of which the chariot 
called ' the Flag of Victory ' is the chief. Arise, 
O King, re-awaken thy desire for these! quicken 
thy longing after life ! 

' " Thine, O King, are those four and eighty thou- 
sand gems, of which the Wondrous Gem is the 
chief. Arise, O King, re-awaken thy desire for these! 
quicken thy longing after life ! 

' " Thine, O King, are those four and eighty thou- 
sand wives, of whom the Queen of Glory is the 
chief. Arise, O King, re-awaken thy desire for these! 
quicken thy longing after life ! 

' " Thine, O King, are those four and eighty thou- 
sand yeomen, of whom the Wonderful Steward is 
the chief. Arise, O King, re-awaken thy desire for 
these ! quicken thy longing after life ! 

1 " Thine, O King, are those four and eighty thou- 
sand nobles, of whom the Wonderful Adviser is the 



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284 THE GREAT KING OK GLORY. CH. 

sand chariots, with coverings of the skins of lions, 
and of tigers, and of panthers, — of which the chariot 
called ' the Flag of Victory ' is the chief. Cast away 
desire for these ! long not after life ! 

' " Thine, O King, are these four and eighty thou- 
sand gems, of which the Wondrous Gem is the chief. 
Cast away desire for these ! long not after life ! 

' " Thine, O King, are these four and eighty thou- 
sand wives, of whom the Queen of Glory is the chief. 
Cast away desire for these ! long not after life ! 

1 " Thine, O King, are these four and eighty thou- 
sand yeomen, of whom the Wonderful Steward is 
the chief. Cast away desire for these ! long not 
after life! 

' " Thine, O King, are these four and eighty thou- 
sand nobles, of whom the Wonderful Adviser is 
the chief. Cast away desire for these! long not 
after life! 

' " Thine, O King, are these four and eighty thou- 
sand cows, with jute trappings, and horns tipped 
with bronze. Cast away desire for these ! long not 
after life! 

' " Thine, O King, are these four and eighty thou- 
sand myriads of garments, of delicate textures, of 
flax, and cotton, and silk, and wool. Cast away 
desire for these! long not after life! 

' " Thine, O King, are these four and eighty thou- 
sand dishes, in which, in the evening and in the 
morning, rice is served. Cast away desire for these ! 
long not after life ! " 



34. ' Then immediately, Ananda, the Great King 
of Glory died. Just, Ananda, as when a yeoman 
has eaten a hearty meal he becomes all drowsy, 



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II. 



mahA-sudassana sutta. 281 



four and eighty thousand cities, the chief of which 
is the royal city of Kusavati. Cast away desire for 
these ! long not after life ! 

' " Thine, O King, are these four and eighty thou- 
sand palaces, the chief of which is the Palace of 
Righteousness. Cast away desire for these! long 
not after life ! 

' " Thine, O King, are these four and eighty thou- 
sand chambers, the chief of which is the chamber 
of the Great Complex. Cast away desire for these ! 
long not after life ! 

' " Thine, O King, are these four and eighty thou- 
sand divans, of gold, and silver, and ivory, and 
sandal wood, spread with long-haired rugs, and 
cloths embroidered with flowers, and magnificent 
antelope skins ; covered with lofty canopies ; and 
provided at both ends with purple cushions. Cast 
away desire for these ! long not after life ! 

' " Thine, O King, are these four and eighty thou- 
sand state elephants, with trappings of gold, and 
gilded flags, and golden coverings of network, — of 
which the king of elephants, called ' the Changes 
of the Moon/ is chief. Cast away desire for these ! 
long not after life! 

' " Thine, O King, are these four and eighty thou- 
sand state horses, with trappings of gold, and 
gilded flags, and golden coverings of network, — 
of which ' Thunder-cloud,' the king of horses, is the 
chief. Cast away desire for these! long not after life! 

' " Thine, O King, are these four and eighty thou- 
sand chariots, with coverings of the skins of lions, 
and of tigers, and of panthers, — of which the chariot 
called ' the Flag of Victory' is the chief. Cast away 
desire for these ! long not after life ! 



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286 THE GREAT KING OF GLORY. CH. 

of gold, and silver, and ivory, and sandal wood, 
spread with long-haired rugs, and cloths embroidered 
with flowers, and magnificent antelope skins ; covered 
with lofty canopies ; and provided at both ends with 
purple cushions. 

' Mine were the four and eighty thousand state 
elephants, with trappings of gold, and gilded flags, 
and golden coverings of network, — of which the 
king of elephants, called "the Changes of the Moon," 
was chief. 

' Mine were the four and eighty thousand state 
horses, with trappings of gold, and gilded flags, 
and golden coverings of network, — of which "Thun- 
der-cloud," the king of horses, was the chief. 

'Mine were the four and eighty thousand chariots, 
with coverings of the skins of lions, and of tigers, 
and of panthers, — of which the chariot called " the 
Flag of Victory " was the chief. 

' Mine were the four and eighty thousand gems, 
of which the Wondrous Gem was the chief. 

' Mine were the four and eighty thousand wives, 
of whom the Queen of Glory was the chief. 

' Mine were the four and eighty thousand yeomen, 
of whom the Wonderful Steward was the chief. 

' Mine were the four and eighty thousand nobles, 
of whom the Wonderful Adviser was the chief. 

' Mine were the four and eighty thousand cows, 
with jute trappings, and horns tipped with bronze. 

' Mine were the four and eighty thousand myriads 
of garments, of delicate textures, of flax, and cotton, 
and silk, and wool. 

' Mine were the four and eighty thousand dishes, 
in which, in the evening and in the morning, rice 
was served. 



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ii. mahA-sudassana sutta. 287 

38. 'Of those four and eighty thousand cities, 
Ananda, one was that city in which, at that time, I 
used to dwell — to wit, the royal city of Kusavatl. 

' Of those four and eighty thousand palaces too, 
Ananda, one was that palace in which, at that time, I 
used to dwell — to wit, the Palace of Righteousness. 

' Of those four and eighty thousand chambers too, 
Ananda, one was that chamber in which, at that 
time, I used to dwell — to wit, the chamber of the 
Great Complex. 

' Of those four and eighty thousand divans too, 
Ananda, one was that divan which, at that time, 
I used to occupy — to wit, one of gold, or one of 
silver, or one of ivory, or one of sandal wood. 

' Of those four and eighty thousand state ele- 
phants too, Ananda, one was that elephant which, 
at that time, I used to ride — to wit, the king of 
elephants, " the Changes of the Moon." 

' Of those four and eighty thousand horses too, 
Ananda, one was that horse which, at that time, 
I used to ride — to wit, the king of horses, "the 
Thunder-cloud." 

' Of those four and eighty thousand chariots too, 
Ananda, one was that chariot in which, at that time, 
I used to ride — to wit, the chariot called " the Flag 
of Victory." 

'Of those four and eighty thousand wives too, 
Ananda, one was that wife who, at that time, used 
to wait upon me — to wit, either a lady of noble 
birth, or a Velamikant. 

' Of those four and eighty thousand myriads of 
suits of apparel too, Ananda, one was the suit of 
apparel which, at that time, I wore — to wit, one of 
delicate texture, of linen, or cotton, or silk, or wool. 



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288 THE GREAT KING OF GLORY. CH. 

' Of those four and eighty thousand dishes too, 
Ananda, one was that dish from which, at that time, 
I ate a measure of rice and the curry suitable thereto. 



39. ' See, Ananda, how all these things are now 
past, are ended, have vanished away. Thus im- 
permanent, Ananda, are component things ; thus 
transitory, Ananda, are component things; thus 
untrustworthy, Ananda, are component things. In- 
somuch, Ananda, is it meet to be weary of, is it meet 
to be estranged from, is it meet to be set quite free 
from the bondage of all component things ! 



40. ' Now I call to mind, Ananda, how in this 
spot my body had been six times buried. And 
when I was dwelling here as the righteous king 
who ruled in righteousness, the lord of the four 
regions of the earth, the conqueror, the protector 
of his people, the possessor of the seven royal trea- 
sures — that was the seventh time. 

41. ' But I behold not any spot, Ananda, in the 
world of men and gods, nor in the world of Mara, 
nor in the world of Brahma, — no, not among the 
race of Samaras or Brahmans, of gods or men, — 
where the Tathagata for the eighth time will lay 
aside his body 1 .' 

1 The whole of this conversation between the Great King of 
Glory and the Queen is very much shorter in the G&taka, the 
enumeration of the possessions of the Great King being omitted 
{except the first clause referring to the four and eighty thousand 
cities), and clauses 34-38, 40, and 41 being also left out, § 39 and 
the concluding being placed in the mouth of the King immediately 
after § 33. This may be perhaps partly explained by the narrative 
style in which the (?&takas are composed — a style incompatible 



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ii. mahA-sudassana sutta. 289 

42. Thus spake the Blessed One; and when 
the Happy One had thus spoken, once again the 
Teacher said : 

' How transient are all component things ! 
Growth is their nature and decay : 
They are produced, they are dissolved again : 
And then is best, when they have sunk to rest 1 !' 



End of the Maha-Sudassana Sutta. 



with the repetitions of the Suttas, and confined to the facts of the 
story. 

But I think that no one can read this Sutta in comparison with 
the short passage found in the Book of the Great Decease (above, 
pp. 99-101) without feeling that the latter is the more original of 
the two, and that the legend had not, when the Book of the Great 
Decease was composed, attained to its present extended form. 

We seem therefore really to have three stages of the legend 
before us, and though the Gataka story was actually put into its 
present shape at a known date (the fifth century of our era) long 
after the latest possible date for the Book of the Great King of 
Glory, it has probably preserved for us a reminiscence of what the 
legend was at the time when the Book of the Great Decease was 
composed. 

1 On this celebrated verse, see the note at Mah&parinibbdna 
Sutta VI, 16, where it is put into the mouth of Sakka, the king 
of the gods, and the discussion in the Introduction to this Sutta. 



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SABBASAVA-SUTTA. 



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INTRODUCTION 

TO THE 

SABBASAVA SUTTA. 



Dr. Morris, who had borrowed the Phayre and Tumour 
MSS. of the MagfAima Nikaya from the India Office 
Library, has been good enough to transcribe the text of 
this Sutta for me. 

I had hoped from the Rev. David da Silva's analysis 
of the Sutta in the Ceylon Friend for 1872, that it would 
determine the exact meaning of the difficult word Asava 
as used in the theory of Arahatship, and in the important 
passage (the Faith, Reason, and Works paragraph) re- 
peated so often in the Mahaparinibbana Sutta. It will 
be seen that this is scarcely the case, but as it does throw 
light on the ideas wrapped up in the word, and contains 
a very interesting passage 1 on the especial value attached 
in Buddhism to the mental habit we should now call 
agnosticism, I have adhered to the intention of including 
it in this volume. 

The word Asava seems in this Sutta to be used in a 
general sense, — not confined only to the Asavas of sen- 
suality, individuality, delusion, and ignorance, but including 
the more various defilements or imperfections of mind, out 
of which those especial defilements will proceed. 

Incidentally reference is made to the well-known Bud- 
dhist doctrine, that the right thing is to seek after the 
Nirva«a of a perfect life in Arahatship, and not to trouble 
and confuse oneself by the discussion of speculative ques- 
tions as to past or future existence, or even as to the 



1 SS 9. io. 



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294 SABBASAVA SUTTA. 



presence within the body of a soul. Buddhism is not only 
independent of the theory of soul, but regards 'the con- 
sideration of that theory as worse than profitless, as the 
source of manifold delusions and superstitions. Practically 
this comes, however, to much the same thing as the denial 
of the existence of the soul ; just as agnosticism is, at 
best, but an earnest and modest sort of atheism. And 
we have seen above that ana t taw, the absence of a soul 
or self as abiding principle, is one of the three parts of 
Buddhist wisdom (v^ggl) 1 and of Buddhist perception 
(sa««a) 2 . The reconciliation of these two doctrines, of the 
agnosticism and of the denial, is, I think, that the absence 
of soul is only predicated of those five Aggregates of parts 
and powers to which a good Buddhist should confine his 
attention. These alone he should consider; and he does 
wrong to care whether beyond and beside them a soul has, 
or has not, any real existence. 

I may add that the importance of the Asavas appears 
from the fact that elsewhere the knowledge of them, of their 
origin, of their cessation, and of the way that leads to their 
cessation is placed on the road to Arahatship immediately 
after, and parallel to, the knowledge of Suffering, of its 
origin, of its cessation, and of the way that leads to its ces- 
sation — the knowledge, that is, of the four Noble Truths 3 . 

The Asavas there meant are sensuality, individuality 
(or life), and ignorance ; and the expressions ' to him who 
knows, to him who sees' (^anato passato) are used 
there much in the same way as they are in our § 3. Per- 
haps this was the passage which Burnouf had in his mind 
when he wrongly said * that he had found in the Maha- 
parinibbana Sutta an enumeration of three classes of 
Asavas, whereas that Sutta always divides them into four 
classes. 

I am unable to suggest any good translation of the term 
itself — simple though it is. It means literally ' a running 
or flowing,' or (thence) ' a leak ; ' but as that figure is not 

1 See above, p. 161. * See above, p. 9. 

* Samaftna Fhala Sutta, p. 152. * Lotus de la Bonne Loi, p. 823. 



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INTRODUCTION. 295 



used in English in a spiritual sense, it is necessary to 
choose some other figure ; and it is not easy to find one 
that is appropriate. ' Sin ' would be very misleading, the 
Christian idea of sin being inconsistent with Buddhist 
ethics. A ' fault ' in the geological use of the word comes 
somewhat nearer. 'Imperfection' is too long, and for 
'stain' the Pali has a different word 1 . In the Book of 
the Great Decease I have chosen 'evil;' here I leave the 
word untranslated. 

1 R&go. See the verses translated in ' Buddhist Birth Stories,' p. 164. 



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ALL THE ASAVAS. 



sabbAsava-sutta. 



i. Thus have I heard. The Blessed One was 
once staying at Savatthi, at the £etavana, in Anatha 
Pi«dfika's park. 

There the Blessed One addressed the brethren, 
and said, ' Bhikkhus.' 

' Yea, Lord !' said those brethren, in assent, to the 
Blessed One. 

Then the Blessed One spake : 

2. ' I will teach you, O brethren, the lesson of the 
subjugation of all the Asavas. Listen well, and 
attend, and I will speak!' 

' Even so, Lord ! ' said the brethren, in assent, to 
the Blessed One. 

Then the Blessed One spake : 

' I say that there is destruction of the Asavas, 
brethren, to him who knows, to him who sees ; not 
to him who knows not, to him who sees not. And 
what do I say, brethren, is the destruction of the 
Asavas to him who knows, to him who sees ? It 
is (a matter of) wise consideration, and of foolish 
consideration. 

3. 'In him, brethren, who considers unwisely, 
Asavas which have not arisen spring up, and Asavas 
which have arisen are increased. In him, brethren, 
who considers wisely, Asavas which have not arisen 



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SABBASAVA SUTTA. 297 

spring not up, and Asavas which have arisen do 
not increase. 

4. ' There are Asavas which should be abandoned, 
brethren, by insight, there are Asavas which should 
be abandoned by subjugation, there are Asavas 
which should be abandoned by right use, there are 
Asavas which should be abandoned by endurance, 
there are Asavas which should be abandoned by 
avoidance, there are Asavas which should be aban- 
doned by removal, there are Asavas which should 
be abandoned by cultivation. 



5. 'And which, brethren, are the Asavas which 
should be abandoned by insight * ? 

' In the first place, brethren, the ignorant uncon- 
verted man, who perceives not the Noble Ones, who 
comprehends not, nor is trained according to the 
doctrine of the noble ones ; who perceives not good 
men, who comprehends not, nor is trained according 
to the doctrine of good men ; he neither understands 
what things ought to be considered, nor what things 
ought not to be considered ; the things that ought 
not to . be considered, those he considers ; and the 
things that ought to be considered, those he does 
not consider. 

6. ' And which, brethren, are those things which 
he should not consider, which he nevertheless con- 
siders ? 

' There are things which, when a man considers 
them, the Asava of Lust springs up within him, which 
had not sprung up before ; and the Asava of Lust, 
which had sprung up, grows great; the Asava of 



Dassana. 



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298 ALL THE ASAVAS. 



Life springs up within him, which had not sprung 
up before; and the Asava of Life, which had 
sprung up, grows great ; the Asava of Ignorance 
springs up within him, which had not sprung up 
before ; and the Asava of Ignorance, which had 
sprung up, grows great 

' These are the things which ought not to be 
considered, things which he considers. 

7. ' And which, brethren, are those things which 
should be considered, which he nevertheless does 
not consider? 

' There are things, brethren, which, when a man 
considers them, the Asava of Lust, if it had not 
sprung up before, springs not up within him; and 
the Asava of Lust, which had sprung up, is put away; 
the Asava of Life, if it had not sprung up before, 
springs not up within him ; and the Asava of Life, 
which had sprung up, is put away; the Asava of 
Ignorance, if it had not sprung up before, springs 
not oip within him ; and the Asava of Ignorance, 
which had sprung up, is put away. 

' These are the things which ought to be con- 
sidered, things which he does not consider. 

8. ' It is by his consideration of those "things, 
which ought not to be considered ; and by his non- 
consideration of those things, which ought to be 
considered, that Asavas arise within him which had 

A 

not sprung up ; and Asavas which had sprung up, 
grow great.' 

9. ' Unwisely doth he consider thus : 

' " Have I existed during the ages that are past, 
or have I not ? What was I during the ages that 
are past? How was I during the ages that are 



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SABBASAVA SUTTA. 299 

past ? Having been what, what did I become in the 
ages that are past ? Shall I exist during the ages of 
the future, or shall I not ? What shall I be during 
the ages of the future ? How shall I be during the 
ages of the future ? Having been what, what shall 
I become during the ages of the future ?" 

' Or he debates within himself as to the present : 
" Do I after all exist, or am I not ? How am I ? 
This is a being; whence now did it come, and 
whither will it go ? " 

10. 'In him, thus unwisely considering, there 
springs up one or other of the six (absurd) notions 1 . 

' As something true and real he gets the notion, 
" I have a self! " 

' As something true and real he gets the notion, 
" I have not a self!" 

' As something true and real he gets the notion, 
" By my self, I am conscious of my self!" 

' As something true and real he gets the notion, 
" By myself I am conscious of my non-self! " 

' Or, again, he gets the notion, " This soul of mine 
can be perceived, it has experienced the result of 
good and evil actions committed here and there: 
now this soul of mine is permanent, lasting, eternal, 
has the inherent quality of never changing, and 
will continue for ever and ever!" 

11.' This, brethren, is called the walking in delu- 
sion, the jungle of delusion 2 , the wilderness of de- 
lusion, the puppet show of delusion, the writhing of 
delusion, the fetter of delusion. 

12. ' Bound, brethren, with this fetter of delusion, 

1 KAa.nna.rn di/Mtnam. 

a Di/Mi-gahanaw, with allusion, doubtless, if the reading is 
correct, to gaha«a«. 



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30O ALL THE ASAVAS. 



the ignorant unconverted man becomes not freed 
from birth, decay, and death, from sorrows, lamenta- 
tions, pains, and griefs, and from expedients * — he 
does not become free, I say, from pain. 



1 3. ' But the wise man, brethren, the disciple 
walking in the Noble Path, who perceives the noble 
ones; who comprehends, and is trained according to, 
the doctrine of the Noble Ones ; who perceives good 
men, who comprehends, and is trained according to, 
the doctrine of good men; he understands both 
what things ought to be considered, and what things 
ought not to be considered — and thus understand- 
ing, the things that ought to be considered those he 
considers ; and the things that ought not to be 
considered, those he does not consider. 

14. ' And which, brethren, are those things which 
ought not to be considered, and which he does not 
consider ? 

' There are things which, when a man considers 
them, the Asava of Lust springs up within him, which 
had not sprung up before ; and the Asava of Lust, 
which had sprung up, grows great ; the Asava of 
Life springs up within him, which had not sprung 
up before ; and the Asava of Life, which had 
sprung up, grows great; the Asava of Ignorance 
springs up within him, which had not sprung up 
before ; and the Asava of Ignorance, which had 
sprung up, grows great. 

' These are the things which ought not to be con- 
sidered, things which he considers. 

1 That is, the practice of rites and ceremonies and the worship 
of Gods. 



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SABBASAVA SUTTA. 3OI 



1 5. ' And which, brethren, are those things which 
should be considered, and which he does consider ? 

' There are things, brethren, which, when a man 
considers them, the Asava of Lust, if it had not 
sprung up before, springs not up within him ; and 
the Asava of Lust, which had sprung up, is put away ; 
the Asava of Life, if it had not sprung up before, 
springs not up within him ; and the Asava of Life, 
which had sprung up, is put away; the Asava of 
Ignorance, if it had not sprung up before, springs not 
up within him ; and the Asava of Ignorance, which 
had sprung up, is put away. 

' These are the things which ought to be con- 
sidered, things which he does not consider. 

16. 'It is by his not considering those things 
which ought to be considered, and by his con- 
sidering those things which ought not to be con- 
sidered, that Asavas which had not sprung up within 
him spring not up, and Asavas which had sprung up 
are put away. 

17. ' He considers, "This is suffering." He con- 
siders, " This is; the origin of suffering." He con- 
siders, " This is the cessation of suffering." He 
considers, "This is the way which leads to the cessa- 
tion of suffering." And from him, thus considering, 
the three fetters fall away — the delusion of self, 
hesitation, and the dependence on rites and cere- 
monies. 

' These are the Asavas, brethren, which are to be 
abandoned by insight 



18. 'And which are the Asavas to be abandoned 
by subjugation (samvara) ? 

' Herein, brethren, a Bhikkhu, wisely reflecting, 



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302 ALL THE ASAVAS. 



remains shut in by the subjugation of the organ of 
Sight. For whereas to the man not shut in by the 
subjugation of the organ of sight Asavas may arise, 
full of vexation and distress, to the man shut in by 
the subjugation of the organ of sight the Asavas, 
full of vexation and distress, are not 

19. ' Wisely reflecting, he remains shut in by the 
subjugation of the organ of Hearing. For whereas 
to the man not shut in by the subjugation of the 
organ of hearing Asavas may arise, full of vexation 
and distress, to the man shut in by the subjugation 
of the organ of hearing the Asavas, full of vexation 
and distress, are not. 

20. ' Wisely reflecting, he remains shut in by the 
subjugation of the organ of Smell. For whereas to 
the man not shut in by the subjugation of the organ 
of smell Asavas may arise, full of vexation and dis- 
tress, to the man shut in by the subjugation of the 
organ of smell the Asavas, full of vexation and 
distress, are not. 

21. 'Wisely reflecting, he remains shut in by the 
subjugation of the organ of Taste. For whereas to 
the man not shut in by the subjugation of the organ 
of taste Asavas may arise, full of vexation and 
distress, to the man shut in by the subjugation of 
the organ of taste the Asavas, full of vexation and 
distress, are not. 

22. 'Wisely reflecting, he remains shut in by the 
subjugation of the organ of Touch. For whereas to 
the man not shut in by the subjugation of the organ 
of touch Asavas may arise, full of vexation and 
distress, to the man shut in by the subjugation of 
the organ of touch the Asavas, full of vexation and 
distress, are not. 



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SABBASAVA SUTTA. 303 



23. ' Wisely reflecting, he remains shut in by the 
subjugation of the organ of Mind. For whereas to 
the man not shut in by the subjugation of the organ 
of mind Asavas may arise, full of vexation and dis- 
tress, to the man shut in by the subjugation of 
the organ of mind the Asavas, full of vexation and 
distress, are not. 

'These, brethren, are called the Asavas to be 
abandoned by subjugation. 



24. 'And which are the Asavas to be abandoned 
by right use 1 ? 

' Herein, brethren, a Bhikkhu, wisely reflecting, 
makes use of his robes for the purpose only of 
warding off the cold, of warding off the heat, of 
warding off the contact of gad-flies and mosquitoes, 
of wind and sun, and snakes ; and of covering his 
nakedness 2 . 

25. 'Wisely reflecting, he makes use of alms, not 
for sport or sensual enjoyment, not for adorning 
or beautifying himself, but solely to sustain the 
body in life, to prevent its being injured, to aid 
himself in the practice of a holy life — thinking the 
while, "Thus shall I overcome the old pain, and 
shall incur no new; and everywhere shall I be at 
ease, and free from blame." 

26. 'Wisely reflecting, he makes use of an abode; 
only to ward off cold, to ward off heat, to ward off 
the contact of gad-flies and mosquitoes, of wind and 
sun, and snakes ; only to avoid the dangers of the 
climate, and to secure the delight of privacy. 

1 Pa/isevan§. 

8 Compare Dickson's Kammav£££, p. 7, where the reading, 
however, is wrong. 



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304 ALL THE ASAVAS. 



27. ' Wisely reflecting, he makes use of medicine 
and other necessaries for the sick ; only to ward off the 
pain that causes injury, and to preserve his health. 

28. ' For whereas, brethren, to the man not making 
such right use, Asavas may arise, full of vexation 
and distress ; to the man making such right use, 
the Asavas, full of vexation and distress, are not. 

'These, brethren, are called the Asavas to be 
abandoned by right use. 



29. ' And which, brethren, are the Asavas to be 
abandoned by endurance 1 ? 

' Herein, brethren, a Bhikkhu, wisely reflecting, is 
patient under cold and heat, under hunger and 
thirst, under the contact of gad-flies and mosqui- 
toes, of wind and sun, and snakes ; he is enduring 
under abusive words, under bodily suffering, under 
pains however sharp, rough, severe, unpleasant, dis- 
agreeable, and destructive even to life. 

30. ' For whereas, brethren, to the man who en- 
dureth not, Asavas may arise, full of vexation and 
distress; to him who endures, the Asavas, full of 
vexation and distress, are not. 

'These, brethren, are called the Asavas to be 
abandoned by endurance. 

31. 'And which, brethren, are the Asavas to be 
abandoned by avoidance 2 ? 

' Herein, brethren, a Bhikkhu wisely reflecting, 
avoids a rogue elephant, he avoids a furious horse, 
he avoids a wild bull, he avoids a mad dog, a snake, 
a stump in the path, a thorny bramble, a pit, a 
precipice, a dirty tank or pool. When tempted to 

1 Adhiv&sanS. a Pariva^yand. 

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SABBASAVA SUTTA. 305 

sit in a place where one should not sit, or to walk 
where one should not walk, or to cultivate the ac- 
quaintance of bad companions, he is skilled to shun 
the evil : and wisely reflecting he avoids that, as 
a place whereon one should not sit, that, as a place 
wherein one should not walk, those men, as com- 
panions that are bad. 

32. ' For whereas, brethren, to the man who 
avoideth not, Asavas may arise, full of vexation 
and distress ; to him who avoids, the Asavas, full of 
vexation and distress, are not. 

'These, brethren, are called the Asavas to be 
abandoned by avoidance. 



A 

S3. 'And which, brethren, are the Asavas to be 
abandoned by removal * ? 

' Herein, brethren, a Bhikkhu, wisely reflecting, 
when there has sprung up within him a lustful 
thought, that he endureth not, he puts it away, he 
removes it, he destroys it, he makes it not to be ; 
when there has sprung up within him an angry 
thought, a malicious thought, some sinful, wrong dis- 
position, that he endureth not, he puts it away, he 
removes it, he destroys it, he makes it not to be. 

34. ' For whereas, brethren, to the man who re- 
moveth not, Asavas may arise, full of vexation and 
distress ; to him who removes, the Asavas, full of 
vexation and distress, are not. 

' These, brethren, are called the Asavas to be 
abandoned by removal. 



A 

35. ' And which, brethren, are the Asavas to be 
abandoned by cultivation 2 ? 



1 Vinodana. * Bhavana. 

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306 ALL THE ASAVAS. 



' l Herein, brethren, a Bhikkhu, wisely reflecting, 
cultivates that part of the higher wisdom called 
Mindfulness, dependent on seclusion, dependent 
on passionlessness, dependent on the utter ecstasy 
of contemplation, resulting in the passing off of 
thoughtlessness. 

36. 'He cultivates that part of the higher wisdom 
called Search after Truth, he cultivates that part of 
the higher wisdom called Energy, he cultivates that 
part of the higher wisdom called Joy, he cultivates 
that part of the higher wisdom called Peace, he 
cultivates that part of the higher wisdom called 
Earnest Contemplation, he cultivates that part of the 
higher wisdom called Equanimity — each dependent 
on seclusion, dependent on passionlessness, dependent 
on the utter ecstasy of contemplation, resulting in 
the passing off of thoughtlessness. 

37. 'For whereas, brethren, to the man who cul- 
tivateth not, Asavas may arise, full of vexation and 
distress ; to him who cultivates, the Asavas, full of 
vexation and distress, are not. 

' These, brethren, are tailed the Asavas to be 
abandoned by cultivation. 



38. 'And then when a Bhikkhu has by insight 
put away the Asavas to be abandoned by insight, 
and by subjugation has put away the Asavas to be 
abandoned by subjugation, and by right use has 
put away the Asavas to be abandoned by right use, 
and by endurance has put away the Asavas to be 
abandoned by endurance, and by avoidance has put 
away the Asavas to be abandoned by avoidance, 

1 Compare Mahlparinibbtna Sutta I, 9. 

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SABBASAVA SUTTA. 307 

and by removal has put away the Asavas to be 
abandoned by removal, and by cultivation has put 
away the Asavas to be abandoned by cultivation — 
that Bhikkhu, brethren, remains shut in by the sub- 
jugation of the Asavas, he has destroyed that 
Craving Thirst, by thorough penetration of mind he 
has rolled away every Fetter, and he has made an 
end of Pain.' 



39. Thus spake the Blessed One ; and those 
Bhikkhus, glad at heart, exalted the word of the 
Blessed One. 



End of the Sabbasava Sutta. 



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INDEX. 



Abhibhayatanani, the eight, pages 49, 

50. 
Addhariya Brahmans, 171. 
Age of the Suttas, x. 
A^atasattu, king of Magadha, 1, 

131. 
Agita, one of the Six Teachers, 106. 
Aiiravati river, 167, 178. 
Alabaster, Mr., 141. 
Allakappa, name of a place, 132. 
A&ra Kalama, teacher, 75-77. 
Ambagama, near VesSli, 66. 
AmbalaW/MkS, near Ra^-agaha, 1 2 . 
Ambaplli, the courtezan, 28. 

— entertains the Buddha, 30-32. 
Ananda's sorrow and imperfection, 

95i 9<S. 

— his character, 97, 98, 118, 119. 
Ananda ATetiya, 66. 

Angels. See TSvatiwjsa. 

— called devata, 45. 

— on the point of a needle, 88. 

— desire to become an, is spiritual 

bondage, 227. 
Ahgirasa, a Vedic poet, 172. 
Apadesa, 66. 

AppamaMas, the four, 201, 273. 
Arahat Buddhas, 13, 104. 
Arahats, who are, &c, 107, 119. 
Arahatship and the Ten Fetters, 

222. 
Arahatship and Nirva»a, 243. 
Asavas, 293-307. 

— translation of, 295. 
Assemblies, the eight, 48, 49. 
Astrology, 197, 198. 
Atuma, name of a village, 77. 
Arti>aka, Vedic poet, 172. 

Bahuputta Aetiya, 40. 
Baptism, 1. 

Beal, the Rev. Samuel, 118, 255. 
Beluva, near VesSli, 34. 



BenSres, 99. 
BenSres muslin, 54, 92. 
Bhadda, convert at Nadika, 25, 26. 
Bhagu, a Vedic poet, 172. 
Bha«</a-gama, near VesUli, 64, 66. 
BhSradva^a, a young Brahman, 168- 
170. 

— a Vedic poet, 172. 
Bhikkhu, meaning of, 5. 
Bhoga-nagara, near Vesili, 66. 
Bible, texts in, referred to — 

1 Samuel xxviii, 208. 

2 Kings vi. 17, 19. 
Matthew v. 20, 160. 
Matthew xi. 21, 46. 
Matthew xv. 14, xxii. 26, 173. 
Matthew xvii. 31, 207. 
Mark ix. 29, 207. 

Luke vii. 37-39, 34. 
Acts ii. 6, 142. 
Philippians ii. 12, 1x4. 
Philippians iii. 13, 7. 
2 Peter i. 10, 114. 
Revelation xxi. 19-21, 245, 249. 
Bigandet'sLegendofGaudama,xxxii. 

— quoted, xvi, 32, 33, 34, 82. 
Bodisat, the, 239. 
Bo£g£anga, 9, 14. 

Bonds, the five, 181. 

— the ten, 222. 

BrahmS, the supreme deity, 116, 

162-165. 
Brahmalariya Brahmans, 171. 
Brahmans, 160, 180-185. 

— different schools of, 171. 
Brahma-vihSras, the four, 201, 273. 
Brick Hall, the, at Nadika, 24. 
Buddha, the, description of character 

of, 27, 169. 

— his relation to the Order, 37. 

— his last illness, 35. 

— date of death of the, xlviii. 
Buddhahood, how reached, 14. 



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;io 



THE BUDDHIST SUTTAS. 



Buddhas, past and future, 13, 97, 
104. 

— description of character of, 186. 
Buddhism, ancient summary of, 62, 

63. 

— another, 65. 

— central doctrine of, 143, 144. 
Buddhist era, date of, xlv-xlviii. 
Buddhists, modern sects of, 129. 
Bulis of Allakappa, a clan, 132. 
Burial rites, xl-xlv, 92. 
Burnouf, Eugene, 50, 65, 75, 167. 

Cats, 14. 

Causation, chain of, 208. 
Cave dwellings, 56. 
Chetiyas, 4, 66. See JTetiya. 

— the seven at Vesili, 40, 58. 
Chinese works on the Great De- 
cease, xxxvi-xxxix. 

Christianity, is it indebted to Bud- 
dhism? 165, 166. 
Clans, customs of, 3, 4. 
Cloth of gold, 80-82. 

— of Benires, 92. 

Conditions of the welfare of a com- 
munity, 6-1 1. 

— the Four Noble, 64, 65. 
Confections fSamkhara), 242, 243. 
Council of Rag-agaha, xii, xiii, xv. 

— of Patna, xiii. 

— of Vesili, xvii, xix. 
Cremation ceremonies, xl. 
Cunningham, General, 47, 263. 

Da Cunha, Mr., 140. 
Da Silva, the Rev. David, 211, 293. 
Digaba, or tope, 93, 1 31-135. 
Dagabas, date of earliest, xvii. 
Dawn, as the Woman-Treasure of 

the King of Glory, 257. 
Deliverance, eight stages of, 51, 52. 
Delusion. See DittM. 
Destiny, result of actions, 25, 26. 
Devati, note on meaning of, 45. 
Dhamma, 62, 64, 117, 118. 
Dhamma-iakkhu, 82, 96, 119, 127, 

153- 
Dibba-lakkhu, 209, 218. 
Dtpavamsa, xxii. 
DittM. See Asava. 

— six kinds of, in detail, 297. 
Divinations condemned, 196. 
Do»a, a Brahman, 133, 134. 

Earth rests on water, 45. 



Earthquake, occurrence of, 44. 

— eight causes of, 45-48. 
Elephant look, curious belief as to, 

64. 

Era, date of the Buddhist, xlv-xlviii. 

Esoteric doctrine, none in Bud- 
dhism, 36. 

Existence, cause of renewed, 6. 

Eye, epithet of the Buddha, 84. 

Eye of Truth. SeeDhamma-zfakkhu. 

Fairies of the earth, 18, 19, 45. 

Faith, reason, and works, ti. 

Fa Kheu Pi Hu, a Chinese work, 

117. 
Fausboll, Professor, 100. 
Feer, M. Leon, 139, 140. 
Fetters, the ten, 222, 307. 

— the first three, 299. 

Final perseverance of the saints, 26, 

27, 114. 
Fortune-telling, 197, 199. 
Foucaux, M., 139. 
Funeral ceremonies, xl-xlv. 

Gahani, curious belief as to, 260. 
Gahapati, pater familias, 257, 258. 
Games of chance and skill, 193. 
Gandhara, a city, 135. 
Gods, good men so called, 20, 21. 
Gogerly, the Rev. Samuel, 139, 144, 

150, 260. 
Gotama, name of the Buddha, 103, 

104, 169. 
Gotama's gate, 21. 

— own teaching, xx-xxii. 
Gotamaka Ajetiya, 40. 

Great Decease, meaning of, xxxii. 
Grimblot's ' Sept Suttas Palis,' 50. 

Cains (and see Niga»*i6a), 1. 
Gambugima, near Vesili, 66. 
Gi»usso«i, a Brahman, 167. 
GfAna, 115, 210, 212. 

— the four, in detail, 272. 

Hardy, the Rev. Spence, 129, 142, 

149. 
Hatthi-gama, near Vesili, 66. 
Hell, corresponding belief to, among 

the Buddhists, 17. 
Hindrances, the five, 182. 
Huth's 'Life of Buckle,' quoted, 

164. 

Iddhi, 2, 40, 259. 



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INDEX. 



311 



Idealists, European and Buddhist, 

49. 
IM&agala, in Kosala, 167. 
Incarnation of the Buddha, 46, 47. 
Infinite feelings, the four, incumbent 

on the Buddhist, 201, 273. 
Isigili, Mount at Rag-agaha, 56. 

Kakudha, convert at Nadika, 16, 25. 

Kakuttha river, 74. 

Ka^iayana, one of the Six Teachers, 

106. 
Kalandaka-nivapa, 56. 
Kalinga, convert at Nadika, 25, 

26. 
Kalpa, an aeon, 41. 
Ka/3soka, xvi. 

Karma, 84, 165, 214, 217, 271. 
Kassapa. See Pfiraaa-Kassapa and 

Maha- Kassapa. 

— a Vedic poet, 172. 
Kaiissabha, convert at Nadika, 25, 

26. 
Koliyas of Ramagama, a clan, 132. 
Konika = Aj-atasattu, 1. 
Kosambi, a great city, 99. 
Kofigama, near Patna, 23. 
Ku»ika=A£&tasattu, 1. 
Kusavati, fonner name of Kusinara, 

100, 248. 
Kusinara, where the Buddha died, 

73, 100, 248. 
KMgara Hall at Vesaii, 59. 

Aakkavatti, ideal of, xviii-xx. 
A'ampa, a city, 99. 
Aandragupta, xix. 
ATanki, a Brahman of Kosala, 167. 
A'Spaia Attiya, 40, 58. 
ATiandava Brahmans, 171. 
ATrandoka Brahmans, 171. 
A"£anna, the penalty imposed upon, 
112. 

— attains Nirvana, 1 1 3. 

Afunda, the smith, of PSvS, 70-73, 

83, 84. 
ATundaka, a mendicant, 82, 83. 

Lalita Vistara, quoted, 47, 75, 139, 

209, 216, 218, 251. 
Life, future, virtue inspired by hope 

of is impure, 10, 222. 
Light of the world, 89. 
LMbavis, of Vesaii, 31, 131. 
Lineage of the Buddhist faith, 14. 
Love, duty of universal, 163. 



Love, the true path to union with 
God, 161. 

— how a Buddhist should love the 

world, 201, 273. 

MaddakuMAi at R%agaha, 56. 
Maha-Kassapa, the great disciple, 

126-129. 
MahapadesS, the four, 66-69. 
Mahavana, at VesSli, 59, 60. 
Makkhali, one of the Six Teachers, 

106. 
Maku/a-bandhana, shrine of the Mai- 

las, 124. 
MalalankJra-vatthu, the, xvi, xxxii. 
Mallas of Kusinara, 121-135. 

— of Plv3, 133, 135. 
Manasakafa, in Kosala, 167, 168. 
MandSrava flowers from heaven, 1 24. 
Mara, 41, 53. 

Max Miiller, Professor, 105, 180, 

246. 
Milinda, king, xlviii. 
Mindful and thoughtful, doctrine 

of, 29, 38. 
Mirror of Truth, the so-called, 27. 
Monotheism, 164. 
Moriyas of Pipphalavana, a clan, 1 34, 

• 35- 
Morris, Dr. Richard, 29, 221, 293. 
Muhammadanism, 163. 

Nadika, near Patna, 24. 
Niga Thera, 46. 
NSgas, the race of, 135, 136. 
Nalanda, near Rag-agaha, 12. 
Names (family, tribal, &c), 1. 
Nanda, king of Magadha, xix. 
Nature of things, doctrine of, 59. 
Neraw^ara, river, 53. 
Nigan/Aa, founder of the Cains, 106. 
Nika/a, convert at Nidika, 25, 26. 
Nirv3»a, the Brethren not to be 
satisfied till they have attained, 

7- 

— perception of, due to earnest 

thought, 9. 

— attainment of, dependent on one- 

self, 38. 

— consists of the seven jewels of 

the Law, 62. 

— is the rooting out of lust, bitter- 

ness, and delusion, 84. 

— the Supreme Goal of the higher 

life, no. 

— how the gods can attain to it, 163. 



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312 



THE BUDDHIST SUTTAS. 



Nirvana, emancipation of heart and 
mind, 218. 

— is the cessation of the Samkharas, 

241. 

— is one side of Arahatship, 243. 
Nissanka Malla, xlv. 
Nivarani, hindrances, 182. 

Noble Ones, the, 182, 272, 295, 298. 
Nymphs included under devata, 45. 

Oldenberg, Dr., xi, 139. 
Opasada in Kosala, 167. 
Order, the Buddhist, description of, 
»7- 

Parables : — 

The city guard and the cat, 14. 

Blind leading the blind, 173. 

The man in love, 175. 

The staircase up to nothing, 177. 

Praying to the further bank,i79. 

The man bound on the bank, 180. 

Themanveiledonthebank, 182. 

The skilful musician, 201, 270. 

The hen and her chickens, 233. 
Pati/fcia-samupplda, 209. 
Patimokkha, quoted, 10 1. 

— referred to, 188, 210. 
Patna. See Pafaliputta. 
PaValigama, on the Ganges, 15-22. 
PS/aliputta, prophecy concerning, 

xv, 18. 
Pava, last journey of the Buddha to, 

70. 
Pavarika, grove at Nalanda, 12. 
Penetrability of matter, 214. 
Pentecost, day of, 141. 
Pilgrimage, the four places of, 90. 
Pipphalavana, name of a place, 134. 
Pischel, Professor, 75, 102. 
Pifaka, lateness of the word, 67. 
Pi/akas and the New Testament, 

165, 166. 
Pokkharasaii, a Brihrnan, 167. 
Positions of mastery, the eight, 49, 50. 
Probation before entering the Order, 

109. 
Pubbe-niv3sa-#£na, 209, 215. 
Public assemblies of a clan, 3. 
Pukkusa, the young Mallian, 75-82. 

— name of a caste, 75. 
Pflrana-Kassapa, one of the Six 

Teachers, 106. 

Ra^agaha, 1-12, 56, 99. 
Ramagama, 132, 135. 



Rapti river, 167. 

Realists, European and Buddhist, 49. 
Rebirth, four kinds of, 25, 26. 
Rest house, public, in a village, 15, 25. 
Ritualism condemned, 10. 

— various kinds of, 199, 
Robbers' Cliff, 56. 

Sabbath day, the Buddhist, 251. 

Sahaka, a Bhikkhu, 163. 

Sakadagamin, 25, 26. 

Saketa, a town, 99. 

Sakka, king of the gods, 1 1 3, 142, 264. 

Sakyas, the clan, 131. 

Sala trees| the twin, 85. 

Sa7£a, native of Nadika, 25. 

— the Thera, 164.' 
Samadhi, 11, 145. 
Samana-brahmans, 105. 
Samson and sun-myths, 245. 
Samgharakkhita Thera, story of, 46. 
Samkharas, the Confections, 242. 
Samya^anas, the ten, 222. 
Santuttha, convert at Nadika, 25. 
Sa«,jaya, one of the Six Teachers, 

106. 
Sa«>7a, sevenfold, 9. 
SappasoWika Cave at Ra£agaha, 56. 
Sarandada, name of a shrine, 4, 40. 
Sariputta, 1, 12-14. 
Satippa//Aana, 14, 29, 38. 
Sattambaka .Xetiya, 40. 
Sattapanni Cave at Ra^-agaha, 56. 
Savatthi, on the Rapti, 99, 167, 168. 
Senart's 'Legende du Bouddha,' xix, 

245. 
Service Hall, 5, 60. 
Service, religious, how conducted 

among Buddhists, 16-18. 
Seven classes of gods, 154. 
Seven conditions of welfare, 2-7. 
Seven jewels of the Law, 29, 61-63. 
Seven sacred places at Ra^-agaha, 

56, 57- 
Seven sacred places at Vesali, 40, 58. 
Seven Treasures of a king of kings, 

63,251. 
Seven wondrous gems, 249. 
Sevenfold higher wisdom, 9, 14, 211. 
Shows of various kinds, 192. 
Silas, the three, 188-200. 
Sitavana, grove, 56. 
Sorrow, cause of, Sec., 23, 24. 
Soul, early Buddhist doctrine as to, 

162, 165, 299. 
Spells, 196, 199. 



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INDEX. 



313 



Spirits. See DevatS. 

Spiritualism, 208. 

Storehouse of waters beneath the 

earth, 130. 
Subhadda, the barber, xi, 127. 

— the last convert, 103-m. 

— convert at Nadika, 25, 26. 
Subhadda, the Queen of Glory, 240, 

241, 276. 
Subhfiti UnnansS, xxxi. 
Sudatta, convert at Nadika, 25. 
Su^itS, convert at Nadika, 25. 
Sukhavativyfiha, quoted, 246, 249. 
Sunidha, minister, 18, 19, 21. 
Sun-myths, 244, 245. 
Susunaga, xvi. 

Tapoda, grove at Ra^gaha, 56. 

TSranatha, quoted, xix. 

Tarukkha, a Brahman, 167. 

Tivatimsa angels, 18, 32. 

Tevigga-vaiA&agotta Sutta, 159, 209. 

Textile fabrics of various kinds, 193. 

Theism, 163. 

Thirst, or craving. See the Noble 
Truths. 

Thirty-Three, the Great. See TS- 
vatiwsa. 

Thunder-cloud, name of the sun- 
horse, 255, 274. 

Thfipa. See Dagaba. 

Tittiriya Brahmins, 171. 

Todeyya, a Brahman, 167. 

Tope. See DSgaba. 

Transfiguration of the Buddha, 82. 

Truth, nature of the Buddhist, 27. 

Truths, the Four Noble, 23, 24, 
148-150. 

Tudigama, in Kosala, 168. 

Tuttha, convert at NSdika, 25, 26. 

Udena ATetiya, 40. 
Vkkattbn, in Kosala, 168. 
Upatissa = Sariputta, 1. 
Upa>a»a, a mendicant, 87. 
Upavattana, at Kusinara, 85. 



Uposatha, the Sabbath day, 251. 
— : name of the solar elephant, 254. 
Uttara-sisakam, 85. 

Va^ians, t- 4 . 

Valahaka, name of the sun-horse, 

255> 274. 
Vlmadeva, Vedic poet, 173. 
VSmaka, Vedic poet, 172. 
Vanishing away, 21, 22, 118. 
VSsettAa, a young Brahman, 168- 

203. 

— a Vedic poet, 172. 

VasettAas, epithet of the Mallas, 121. 
Vassa, season of, 34. 
Vassakara, Brahman, 2-4, 18, 19, 21. 
Vebhira Mount, at Ra^agaha, 56. 
Vedehi-putto, 1. 

Vedic images adopted by the Bud- 
dhists, 141, 245. 
Vedic poets, 172. 
Ve/uriya, a kind of gem, 256. 
VesSIi, xvi, 28, 40, 58, 64. 
Vessamitta, a Vedic poet, 172. 
VefAadipa, a Brahman village, 132. 
Videha, 1. 

Vimokkha, the eight, 51, 52, 213. 
Virtue, description of Buddhist, 10. 
Vissakamma, the god (Vulcan), 265. 
Vulture's Peak, 1, 55. 

Wheel of the Law, 140, 141, 153. 
Wisdom, the sevenfold higher, 9. 

— its details, 306. 

— possessed by the Buddhas, 14. 
Witchcraft, 208. 

Women, 43, 53, 91, 98, 103, 257. 
Word of the Buddhas enduring for 

ever, 233. 
Writing, introduction of into India, 

xxii. 

Yamataggi, a Vedic poet, 172. 
Yatramullg Unnansg, xxxi. 

Zoysa, Mudaliyar de, xxxi. 



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ADDENDA ET CORRIGENDA. 

Maha-parinibbana Sutta I, 23, 24. The 'nobles' (khattiyas) 
should come before the 'BrShmans,' as in III, 21, and in the 
Tevi,gja Sutta I, 19. The sentiment of I, 24 recurs in a passage 
given by Mr. Beal from the Chinese in the ' Indian Antiquary,' 
IV, 96. 

— II, 31. 'Went out from the monastery' (vihara). There is no 

mention of a vihara in the previous sections. The following con- 
versation seems therefore to have been originally recorded in 
some other connection. 

— Ill, 20. Add at the end, ' These, Ananda, are the eight causes, 

proximate and remote, of the appearance of a mighty earth- 
quake.' 

— V, 10 (note p. 88). The passage here quoted from Buddhaghosa, 

about angels on the point of a gimlet, recurs in the Anguttara 
Nikaya, Duka Nipata. 

— V, 52. The words 'who was not a believer' should be in brackets. 

They are inserted to give the full force of the word paribbag-ako, 
as the translation ' mendicant ' might convey the impression that 
Subhadda was a Buddhist mendicant. 

— VI, 26. Compare Gataka I, 60, line 17. 



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UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA LIBRARY 
BERKELEY 

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LIBRARY USE 

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J i,7 1 4 7962 



FEB 12 1853 LO 

DECT) 1955 LU 
5Jul'56PL 

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LOAN DEPT. 



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