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Full text of "Sacred Books East Various Oriental Scholars with Index. 50 vols Max Muller Oxford 1879.1910."

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BY VARIOUS ORIENTAL SCHOLARS 



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THE 



DATAPATH A -BRAHMANA 



ACCORDING TO THE TEXT OF THE 



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TRANSLATED BY 



JULIUS EGGELING 



PART I 



BOOKS I AND II 



AT THE CLARENDON PRESS 
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[ All rights reserved ] 



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V1U CONTENTS. 



PAGE 

Brahman's portions 208 

L& 216 

AnuyS^as, or after-offerings 230 

Suktavika, Samyuvaka, and offering of remains . 236 

Patnisawya^as 256 

Concluding ceremonies 262 

SECOND KAMPA. 

Agnyidhana, or Establishment of Sacred Fires . 274 

Sambharas 276 

Asterisms suitable for Agny&dhima . .282 

Seasons suitable for Agny&dhdna .... 289 

Upavasatha 291 

Churning and laying down of fire .... 294 

Oblations 302 

Punaridheya, or Re-establishment of Fire . . . 313 
Agnihotra, or Morning and Evening Milk-offerings . . 322 
AgnyupasthSna, or Worship of Fires . . . 338 
Piflflfapitr/ya^na, or Oblation of Obsequial Cakes to De- 
ceased Ancestors 361 

Agraya»esh/i, or Offering of First-fruits . . . 369 

DSkshSyawa (New and Full-moon) Sacrifice . . 374 

.ATdturm&syini, or Seasonal Sacrifices .... 383 

Vaimdeva 384 

Varu«apragh^siA 391 

S&kamedhaA 408 

MahShavW, or great oblation . . 417 

MahS-pitn'ya^wa .420 

Oblation to Rudra Tryambaka .... 437 

>Sunlstrya 444 

Additions and Corrections 452 



Transliteration of Oriental Alphabets adopted for the 

Translations of the Sacred Books of the East . .453 



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INTRODUCTION. 

The translator of the Satapatha-brahmawa can be under 
no illusion as to the reception his production is likely to 
meet with at the hand of the general reader. In the whole 
range of literature few works are probably less calculated 
to excite the interest of any outside the very limited 
number of specialists, than the ancient theological writings 
of the Hindus, known by the name of Brahmawas. For 
wearisome prolixity of exposition, characterised by dog- 
matic assertion and a flimsy symbolism rather than by 
serious reasoning, these works are perhaps not equalled 
anywhere ; unless, indeed, it be by the speculative vapour- 
ings of the Gnostics, than which, in the opinion of the learned 
translators of Irenaeus, ' nothing more absurd has probably 
ever been imagined by rational beings V If I have, never- 
theless, undertaken, at the request of the Editor of the 
present Series, what would seem to be a rather thankless 
task, the reason will be readily understood by those who 
have taken even the most cursory view of the history of 
the Hindu mind and institutions. 

The Brahmanas, it is well known, form our chief, if not 
our only, source of information regarding one of the most 
important periods in the social and mental development 
of India. They represent the intellectual activity of a 
sacerdotal caste which, by turning to account the religious 
instincts of a gifted and naturally devout race, had succeeded 
in transforming a primitive worship of the powers of nature 
into a highly artificial system of sacrificial ceremonies, and 
was ever intent on deepening and extending its hold on 
the minds of the people, by surrounding its own vocation 
with the halo of sanctity and divine inspiration. A com- 
plicated ceremonial, requiring for its proper observance and 

* A. Roberts and W. A. Rambaut, The Writings of Irenaeus, vol. i. p. xv. 

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satapatha-brahmajva. 



consequent efficacy the ministrations of a highly trained 
priestly class, has ever been one of the most effective means 
of promoting hierarchical aspirations. Even practical Rome 
did not entirely succeed in steering clear of the rock of 
priestly ascendancy attained by such-like means. There, 
as elsewhere, 'the neglect or faulty performance of the 
worship of each god revenged itself in the corresponding 
occurrence; and as it was a laborious and difficult task 
to gain even a knowledge of one's religious obligations, the 
priests who were skilled in the law of divine things and 
pointed out its requirements — the pontifices — could not 
fail to attain an extraordinary influence V The catalogue 
of the duties and privileges of the priest of Jupiter 
might well find a place in the Talmud. 'The rule — 
that no religious service can be acceptable to the gods, 
unless it be performed without a flaw — was pushed to 
such an extent, that a single sacrifice had to be repeated 
thirty times in succession on account of mistakes again and 
again committed ; and the games, which formed part of 
the divine service, were regarded as undone, if the pre- 
siding magistrate had committed any slip in word or deed, 
or if the music even had paused at a wrong time, and so 
had to be begun afresh, frequently for several, even as 
many as seven, times in succession V Great, however, as 
was the influence acquired by the priestly colleges of Rome, 
'it was never forgotten — least of all in the case of those 
who held the highest position — that their duty was not to 
command, but to tender skilled advice 3 .' The Roman 
statesmen submitted to these transparent tricks rather from 
considerations of political expediency than from religious 
scruples; and the Greek Polybius might well say that 
'the strange and ponderous ceremonial of Roman religion 
was invented solely on account of the multitude which, as 
reason had no power over it, required to be ruled by signs 
and wonders*.' 

The devout belief in the efficacy of invocation and sacri- 



1 Mommsen, History of Rome, translated by W. P. Dickson, vol. i. p. 181. 
' Ibid. vol. ii. p. 400. * Ibid. vol. i. p. 179. * Ibid. vol. iii. p. 455. 



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INTRODUCTION. XI 



ficial offering which pervades most of the hymns of the 
Rig-veda, and which may be assumed to reflect pretty 
faithfully the religious sentiments of those amongst whom 
they were composed, could not but ensure to the priest, 
endowed with the gift of sacred utterance, a considerable 
amount of respect and reverence on the part of the people. 
His superior culture and habitual communion with the 
divine rulers of the destinies of man would naturally entitle 
him to a place of honour by the side of the chiefs of clans, 
or the rulers of kingdoms, who would not fail to avail them- 
selves of his spiritual services, in order to secure the favour 
of the gods for their warlike expeditions or political under- 
takings. Nor did the Vedic bard fail to urge his claims on 
the consideration and generosity of those in the enjoyment 
of power and wealth. He often dwells on the supernatural 
virtues of his compositions and their mysterious efficacy in 
drawing down divine blessings on the pious worshipper. 
In urging the necessity of frequent and liberal offerings to 
the gods, and invoking worldly blessings on the offerer, the 
priestly bard may often be detected pleading his own cause 
along with that of his employer, as Ka«va does when he 
sings (Rig-veda VIII, a, 13), ' Let him be rich, let him be 
foremost, the bard of the rich, of so illustrious a Maghavan * 
as thou, O lord of the bay steeds ! ' Though the Dana- 
stutis, or verses extolling, often in highly exaggerated terms, 
the munificence of princely patrons, and generally occurring 
at the end of hymns, are doubtless, as a rule, later additions, 
they at least show that the sacerdotal office must have been, 
or must gradually have become during this period, a very 
lucrative one. 

Although there is no reason to suppose that the sacrificial 
ceremonial was in early times so fully developed as some 
scholars would have us believe, the religious service would 
seem to have been already of a sufficiently advanced nature 
to require some kind of training for the priestly office. In 
course of time, while the collection of hymns were faithfully 



1 Maghavan, the mighty or bountiful, is a designation both of Indra and 
the wealthy patron of priests. Here it is evidently intended to refer to both. 



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Xll SATAPATHA-BRAHMAiVA. 

handed down as precious heirlooms in the several families, 
and were gradually enriched by the poetical genius of 
succeeding generations, the ceremonial became more and 
more complicated, so as at last to necessitate the distribution 
of the sacerdotal functions among several dictinct classes 
of priests. Such a distribution of sacrificial duties must 
have taken place before the close of the period of the 
hymns, and there can be little doubt that at that time the 
position of the priesthood in the community was that of 
a regular profession, and even, to some extent, a hereditary 
one \ A post of peculiar importance, which seems to go 
back to a very early time, was that of the Purohita (literally 
• praepositus '), or family priest to chiefs and kings. From 
the comparatively modest position of a private chaplain, 
who had to attend to the sacrificial obligations of his master, 
he appears to have gradually raised himself to the dignity 
of, so to say, a minister of public worship and confidential 
adviser of the king. It is obvious that such a post was 
singularly favourable to the designs of a crafty and am- 
bitious priest, and must have offered him exceptional oppor- 
tunities for promoting the hierarchical aspirations of the 
priesthood 2 . 

In the Rig-veda there is, with the single exception of the 
Purusha-sukta, no clear indication of the existence of caste 
in the proper, Brahmanical sense of the word. That in- 
stitution, we may assume, was only introduced after the 
Brahmans had finally established their claims to the highest 

1 See J. Muir, Original Sanskrit Texts, I, p. 239 seq. 

' See Max Muller, History of Ancient Sanskrit Literature, p. 485 seq. ; A. 
Weber, Indische Studien, X, 31 seq. In Rig-veda IV, 50, 8, Vamadeva is made 
to say, ' That king alone, with whom the Brahman walks in front (purva eti), 
lives well-established in his house ; for him there is ever abundance of food ; 
before him the people bow of their own accord.' If Grassmann was right in 
excluding verses 7-1 1 as a later addition, as I have no doubt he was (at least 
with regard to verses 7-9), these verses would furnish a good illustration of the 
gradually increasing importance of the office of Purohita. Professor Ludwig 
seems to take the verses 7-1 1 as forming a separate hymn ; but I doubt not 
that he, too, must consider them on linguistic grounds, if on no other, as con- 
siderably later than the first six verses. The fact that the last pada of the sixth 
verse occurs again as the closing formula of the hymns V, 55 ; VIII, 40 ; and 
X, I2i (though also in VIII, 48, 13, where it is followed by two more verses) 
seems to favour this view. 



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INTRODUCTION. Xlll 



rank in the body politic ; when they sought to perpetuate 
their social ascendancy by strictly denning the privileges 
and duties of the several classes, and assigning to them 
their respective places in the gradated scale of the Brahma- 
nical community. The period during which the main body 
of the Vedic hymns was composed, in the land of the seven 
rivers, seems to have been followed by a time of wars and 
conquests, from the literary products of the succeeding 
period we can see that the centre of the Aryan civilisation 
had in the meantime shifted from the region of the Sindhu 
(Indus) to that of the Yamuna (Jumna) and Ganga. As 
the conquered districts were no doubt mainly occupied by . 
aboriginal tribes, which had either to retire before their 
Aryan conquerors, or else to submit to them as Sudras, 
or serfs, it seems not unnatural to suppose that it was from 
a sense of the danger with which the purity of the Brahma- 
nical faith was threatened from the idolatrous practices of 
the aboriginal subjects, that the necessity of raising an 
insurmountable barrier between the Aryan freeman and 
the man of the servile class first suggested itself to the 
Brahmans. As religious interests would be largely involved 
in this kind of class legislation, it would naturally call into 
play the ingenuity of the priestly order ; and would create 
among them that tendency towards regulating the mutual 
relations of all classes of the community which ultimately 
found its legal expression, towards the close of this period, 
in the Dharma-sutras, the prototypes of the Hindu codes 
of law. 

The struggle for social ascendancy between the priesthood 
and the ruling military class must, in the nature of things, have 
been of long duration. In the chief literary documents of 
this period which have come down to us, viz. the Ya^ur-veda, 
the Brahma«as, and the hymns of the Atharva-veda some 
of which perhaps go back to the time of the later hymns 
of the Rik, we meet with numerous passages in which the 
ambitious claims of the Brahmans are put forward with 
singular frankness. The powerful personal influence exer- 
cised by the Purohitas, as has already been indicated, 
seems to have largely contributed to the final success of the 



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XIV SATAPATHA-BRAHMAJVA. 

sacerdotal order. Thus we read in the Aitareya-brahmawa 
VIII, 24-25, 'Verily, the gods do not eat the food offered 
by the king who is without a Purohita : wherefore let the 
king, who wishes to sacrifice, place a Brahman at the head 
(puro adhtta). . . .' ' Now Agni VaLrvanara, who is pos- 
sessed of five destructive weapons, is the same as the 
Purohita. With them he constantly surrounds (protects) 
the king, even as the ocean surrounds the earth : the king- 
dom of such a ruler is undisturbed. His vital breath deserts 
him not before the (full term of) life, but he lives to old 
age, and attains to the full measure of life : he dies not 
(and is not born) again, whosoever possesses such a wise 
Brahman for his Purohita, for the guardian of his realm.' 
And again, in the Atharva-veda III, 19, 'May this prayer 
of mine be accomplished ; may perfect vigour and strength, 
may perfect, unceasing, and victorious power accrue to those 
whose Purohita I am. I perfect their kingdom, their 
might, their vigour, their strength. With this oblation 
I cut off the arms of their'enemies .... Go forth, ye men, 
and conquer ; may your arms be terrible ! ye sharp-shafted, 
smite the weak-bowed ; ye of terrible weapons and terrible 
arms, (smite) the feeble ! when discharged, fly forth, O 
arrow, sped by prayer ; vanquish the enemies ; rush forward 
and slay all the best of them ; let not one of them escape 1 .' 
The question as to how the Brahmans ultimatelysucceeded 
in overcoming the resistance of the ruling class receives 
but little light from the contemporaneous records. Later 
legendary accounts of sanguinary struggles between the 
two classes, and the final overthrow, and even annihilation, 
of the Kshatriyas can hardly deserve much credence. At 
best they seem to contain some small kernel of historical 
fact. Perseverance and tenacity of purpose were probably 
the chief means by which the Brahmans gained their ends. 
Not unfrequently, too, kings may have lent their countenance 
to the aspirations of the priesthood, as calculated to counter- 
act the unruly spirit and ambitious designs of the military 
order. We certainly meet with not a few instances of kings 

1 Cf. J. Muir, Original Sanskrit Texts, I, p. 283. 



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INTRODUCTION. XV 



figuring as the patrons of learned Brahmans. As the old 
hymns were gradually assuming the character of divinely 
inspired utterances, additional matter might occasionally 
find its way into them, almost unconsciously, which more 
adequately expressed the actual scope of the aspirations 
of their priestly depositaries. That many such additions 
must have been made to the old hymns, prior to the age 
of diaskeuasts and exegetes, cannot be doubted. 

Another, even more important, source of strength to the 
sacerdotal order was the sacrifice. The more complicated 
the ceremonial, the greater the dependence of the lay wor- 
shipper on the professional skill of the priests ; and the 
greater the number of priests required for the proper per- 
formance of these ceremonies, the larger the gains derived by 
the priesthood generally from this kind of occupation. What 
more natural, therefore, than that the highest importance 
should have been ascribed to these performances, and an 
ever-increasing attention bestowed on the elaboration of 
the ceremonial. From clear indications in not a few hymns 
of the Rig-veda it appears, as has already been remarked, 
that a distribution of the sacrificial functions among different 
classes of priests had taken place before the final redaction 
of that collection. As to the- time when such a step may 
have become necessary for the due performance of sacri- 
fices, this is a question which will probably never be 
decided. The sacrifice is an old Indo-Iranian, if not Indo- 
Germanic, institution. Some of the chief Indian sacrifices 
undoubtedly go back, in some form or other, to the 
common Indo-Iranian period, notably the Soma-sacrifice, 
and, if we may judge from the coincidence of name between 
the apri-hymns 1 and the af rl-g&n of the Pars! ritual, the 
animal sacrifice. 

As regards the third great division of Indian sacrifices, 
the havirya^ 2as (or offerings of milk, butter, grain-food, 
and similar materials), of which the present volume treats, 
we have hardly any evidence to fall back upon. It is, 



1 See Haug's Essays, p. 241 ; Max MUUer, History of Ancient Sanskrit 
Literature, p. 463 seq. 



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XVI SATAPATHA-BRAHMAVA. 

however, highly probable that these sacrifices also reach 
at all events far back into the Vedic antiquity. Perhaps 
the careful preservation of the pravara-lists 1 , or lists of 
ancestors required at the ishfi, the normal form of offering 
which underlies the havirya^vlas, might he adduced in 
favour of the antiquity of the latter. This, however, is a 
point which requires further investigation. Neither has the 
last word been spoken regarding the traditional arrange- 
ments of the hymns. It is well known that the majority of 
the single collections of which the first seven Mawrfalas 
(and to some extent those of the tenth) are made up, 
begin with hymns addressed to Agni, which, as a rule, are 
followed by hymns addressed to Indra. These, again, are 
in many cases followed by hymns to the Vtrve DevaA (and 
Maruts) 2 . Now, in the later dogmatic literature we find the 
three Aryan castes, the Brahman, the Kshatra, and the Vis, 
identified with Agni, Indra, and the VLrve DevaA (all the 
gods, or, as a special class, the All-Gods) 3 respectively. This 
identification is a very natural one. Agni, the sacrificial 
fire, the bearer of oblations and caller of the gods, is, like 
the priest, the legitimate mediator between God and man. 
Penetrating brilliance (te^as) and holy lustre (var£as) are 
the common attributes of the Brahman. Again, Indra, the 
valiant hero, for ever battling with the dark powers of the 
sky, is a not less appropriate representative of the knightly 
order. According to Professor Roth, this truly national 
deity of the Vedic Aryans would seem to have superseded 



1 See the present volume, p. 115 note. 

* See Max Muller, History of Ancient Sanskrit Literature, p. 461 seq. 

» See especially Taitt. S. VII, 1, 1, 4. 5 ; Weber, Ind. Stud. X, pp. 8, 26. In 
Sat. Br. II, 4, 3, 6. 7, Indra and Agni are identified with the Kshatra (! power 
in general) and the Visve DevsU with the Vis. Sometimes Bnhaspati or Brah- 
manaspati, the lord of prayer or worship, takes the place of Agni, as the 
representative of the priestly dignity (especially Taitt. S. IV, 3, 10, 1-3 ; Vkg. 
S. 14, 28-30) ; and in several passages of the Rik this god appears to be 
identical with, or at least Idndred to, Agni, the purohita and priest (see 
Max Muller, Translation of Rig-veda, I, 77 ; J. Muir, Original Sanskrit 
Texts, V, p. 372 seq.) In Rig-veda X, 68, 9, where Bnhaspati is said to have 
found (avindat) the dawn, the sky, and the fire (agni), and to have chased away 
darkness with his light (arka, sun), he seems rather to represent the element of 
light and fire generally (das Ur-licht, ci.\&g. S. IX, 10-12). In the second 



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INTRODUCTION. XVU 



the older Indo-Iranian god Trita 1 , and to have gradually 
encroached on the province of Varuwa, who perhaps 
was originally one of the highest deities of the Aryan 
(Indo-Germanic) pantheon. The warlike chiefs and clans- 
men evidently saw in Indra a more congenial object of 
their adoration. It can scarcely be without significance 
that of all the Vedic 7?«his, Vasish/Aa, the priest par 
excellence, has ascribed to him by far the greatest number 
of hymns addressed to Varuwa (and Mitra-Varu/ra), while 
there is not a single hymn to Varu«a in the family 
collection of the royal i?*shi Vi.rvamitra, whose religious 
enthusiasm is divided almost exclusively between Agni, 
Indra, and the Vijve DevaA. Lastly, the identification of 
the common people with a whole class of comparatively 
inferior deities would naturally suggest itself. Hence we 
also find the Maruts 2 , the constant companions and help- 
mates of Indra, the divine ruler, employed in a similar 

Mamfala the hymns to Brihaspati are placed immediately after those to Agni 
and Indra. Though the abstract conception represented by this deity may 
seem a comparatively modern one, it will by no means be easy to prove from 
the text of the hymns addressed to him, that these are modern. It would 
almost seem as if two different tendencies of adoration had existed side by side 
from olden times ; the one, a more popular and sensuous one, which, in Vedic 
times, found its chief expression in Indra and his circle of deities; and the 
other, a more spiritual one, represented originally by Varuna (Mitra, &c. ; cf., 
however, A'at. Br. IV, 1,4, 1-4), and in Vedic times, when the sacerdotal element 
more and more asserted itself, by Brihaspati, and especially by Agni. The identi- 
fication of this god with the priestly office was as happy as it was natural ; for 
Agni, the genial inmate of every household, is indeed vaisvanara, the friend 
of all men. Shadowy conceptions, such as Brihaspati and Brahman, on the other 
hand, could evoke no feelings of sympathy in the hearts of the people generally. 
Of peculiar interest, in this respect, are the hymns in which Agni is associated 
with Indra (see Max Muller's Science of Language, Second Series, p. 495 ; 
J. Muir, Original Sanskrit Texts, V, pp. 219, aao), and the passages in which Agni 
has ascribed to him functions which legitimately belong to Indra ; viz. the 
slaying of Vrt'tra and destruction of the enemies' cities. The mutual relation 
of Indra and Varuna has been well discussed in Dr. Hillebrandt's treatise ' Va- 
rum and Mitra,' p. 97 seq. It is most concisely expressed by Vasishrta, Rig-veda 
VII, 83, 9, ' The one (Indra) slays the enemies in battles ; the other (Varuna) 
ever defends the ordinances.' 

1 See the present volume, p. 48 note ; R. Roth, Zeitsch. der D. M. G , VI, 
p. 73 seq. 

' The Maruts are identified with the visa), or clans, in Sat. Br. II, 5, 1, 1 2 ; 
a, 24 ; 27 ; 35, etc. In -Sarikh. 16, 1 7, 2-4 the heaven of the Maruts is assigned 
to the Vaisya <Ind. Stud. X, p. 26). 

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XV1U SATAPATHA-BRAHMAJVA. 

sense. The identification of the Vis with the Vijve DevaA, 
which ultimately obtained, was probably determined chiefly 
by etymological considerations. 

The same triad of divinities, as representative of the 
mutual relations of the social grades of the Aryan com- 
munity, is repeatedly met with in the sacrificial ritual, and 
especially in its dogmatic exposition. This identification 
finds its most complete expression in the well-known 
passages of the Taittiriya-sa»mita (VII, i, i, 4-5) and the 
Ta«</ya-brahma«a (VI, 1, 6-11) 1 . According to these 
authorities, Pra^-apati, the lord of creatures, created from 
his mouth the B r ah m a «a, together with Agni, the tri- 
vrit stoma, the gayatri metre (and the rathantara saman 
and he-goat, according to the first source; or the spring, 
according to the other). From his breast and arms he 
created the Ra^anya, together with Indra, the pan£a- 
dara stoma, the trishAibh metre (and the brzhat saman, 
and the ram ; or the summer respectively). From the 
middle part of his body he created the Vaijy a, together 
with theVijve Deva/*, the saptadara stoma, the^agati metre 
(and the vairupa saman, and the kine ; or the rainy season 
respectively). Finally, from his feet he created the Sudra, 
together with the ekaviwwa stoma and the anush/ubh metre 
(and the vairi^a saman and the horse, according to the 
Taitt. S.), but no deity, and no season. In accordance 
with these speculations, single objects of those here enume- 
rated -are frequently found elsewhere identified with their 
respective deities and castes. On the same principle, the 
three savanas, or morning, mid-day, and evening libations 2 
at the Soma-sacrifice, as well as the first three days of the 

1 See Weber, Ind. Stud. X, p. 8. 

' In Ath.-veda IX, 1, 11, the three savanas are assigned to the Asvins, Indra- 
Agni, and the .Ribhus (cf. Ait. Br. VI, 12) respectively; and in another passage of 
the same collection. VI, 47, 1, to a. Agni ; b. the Visve DevaA, Maruts and Indra ; 
and c. the Bards (kavi). InVag-. S. XIX, 26, also, the morning libation is 
assigned to the Asvins (? as the two Adhvaryus of the gods, cf. Sat. Br. 1, 1 , 2 , 1 7 ; 
IV, 1, 5, 15 ; Ait. Br. 1, 18) ; but in Taitt. S. II, 2, 3, 1 ; Ait. Br. Ill, 13 ; Sat. 
Br. II, 4. 4, 12 ; IV, 2, 4, 4-5 they are referred to Agni, Indra, and the Visve 
DevaA respectively. See, also, Sat. Br. IV, 3, 5, 1, where the Vasus (related to 
Agni III, 4, 2, I ; VI, 1, 2, 10), Rudras, and Adityas (cf. VI, 1, 2, 10, and 
Ait. Br. Ill, 13) are connected with the three libations. ' 



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INTRODUCTION. XIX 



Dvadariha 1 , are generally assigned to Agni, Indra, and the 
VLrve Deva// respectively. If in the ekadarini, or traditional 
order of eleven victims that have to be immolated at the 
Soma-sacrifice, the victim sacred to Agni is placed first, 
while those to the Vi.rve DevaA and to Indra only come 
sixth and seventh respectively, we have probably to assume 
that this order was too firmly established (just as the 
so-called aprl-hymns are) by long usage to have been 
easily altered ; the more so as the privileged position of 
the sacerdotal class was not thereby affected. 

At the havirya^vJas not less prominent a place is assigned 
to the divine /epresentatives of the two leading classes. 
The first oblation at every ishri belongs to Agni. The 
second oblation at the new-moon sacrifice is offered 
either to Indra, or to Indra 2 and Agni ; at the full-moon 
sacrifice, to Agni and Soma, the latter of whom consti- 
tutes India's chief source of strength. Indra also plays an 
important part at the Seasonal offerings which indeed, 
according to the dogmatic, and by no means improbable, 
explanation of the Brahma#as, are performed with special re- 
ference to Indra's struggle with VWtra, the demon of drought. 
At the Agny-upasthana, or worship of the fires, which suc- 
ceeds the Agnihotra, the first prayer is addressed to Agni, 
the second to Indra and Agni 3 . Indeed, while Agni appears 
everywhere as the Purohita, the 'ya^viasya deva r*tvik,' or 
divine priest of the sacrifice, Indra is the god of sacrifice 4 , 
the Maghavan, or munificent patron of the priest. 

From these indications it would appear far from impro- 
bable that the arrangement of the hymns in which the 
collections of the Rig-veda were finally handed down, was 
intended, as far as the leading deities are concerned, to 

1 See, for instance. Ait. Br. IV, 29 ; 31 ; V, 1. 

' The special oblations of the offering of first-fruits consist of a rice-cake 
to Indra and Agni, and a pap of rice-grains to the Visve DeviU. 

* See Vaf. S. Ill, 12-13; Sat. Br. II, 3, 4, 11-12. *Indra-Agni are every- 
thing, — Brahman, Kshatra, and Vis,' Sat. Br. IV, 2, 2, 14. 

4 See, for instance, Sat. Br. I, 4, 5, 4 ; II, 3, I, 38 ; 3, 4, 38 ; and especially 
IV, 1,2, 15,' for Indra, indeed, is the Maghavan, the ruler (netri) of the sacrifice.' 
He is, as it were, the divine representative of the human sacrificer or patron, 
who is the yaj'napati or lord of sacrifice. 

b 2 



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XX SATAPATHA-BRAHMAiVA. 

exhibit a social gradation of the Hindu community which 
was either already firmly established or was steadily kept 
in view by the sacerdotal class as 'a consummation devoutly 
to be wished.' In either case the claims of the priests could 
not fail to be materially strengthened by the pre-eminent 
position assigned to their divine prototype in the inspired 
utterances of the Rishis. The question, whether the present 
arrangement is entirely the result of the final redaction, or 
whether it was already a feature of the earlier redactions, 
will perhaps never receive a quite satisfactory answer. It 
cannot, however, be denied that there is some force in 
Professor Lud wig's 1 argument, — that, if the arrangement 
of the several collections had lain with the authors of the 
final redaction, the result would probably have been a far 
greater uniformity than they now present. 

The idea of bringing together the different family collec- 
tions would seem first to have suggested itself to the priests 
at a time when the hitherto divided Aryan tribes had 
moved from the Panjab to the eastern plains and became 
consolidated into larger communities, and the want of a more 
uniform system of worship would naturally make itself felt. 
To the same period, then, we may refer the first attempts 
at a systematic arrangement of the entire ceremonial of 
worship, and the definitive distribution of the sacrificial 
duties among four classes of priests, — viz. the Adhvaryu, 
or performer of the material part of the sacrifice ; the 
UdgatW, or chanter of hymns ; the Hotri, or reciter of 
solemn sacrificial prayers; and the Brahman, or super- 
intendent of the entire performance. Though some of 
these offices had no doubt existed for a long time, we 
possess no definite information as to the exact extent of 
the duties entrusted to them 2 . The institution of the office 

1 Der Rig-veda, vol. iii. p. 45. 

* Compare the following remarks of M. Haug, who believed in the identity 
of the Vedic Adhvaryu and the Zota and Rathwi of the Zend-Avesta : — ' At the 
most ancient times it appears that all the sacrificial formulas were spoken by 
the Hotar alone ; the Adhvaryu was only his assistant, who arranged the sacri- 
ficial compound, provided the implements, and performed all manual labour. 
It was only at the time when regular metrical verses and hymns were introduced 
into the ritual, that a part of the duties of the Hotar devolved on the Adhvaryu. 



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INTRODUCTION. XXI 



of Brahman, doubtless the latest of all, marks a new era in 
the development of the sacrificial system. While the other 
priests were only required to possess an accurate know- 
ledge of their own special departments, the Brahman was 
to be the very embodiment of the sacrificial art and Vedic 
lore in general, so as to be able to advise the other priests 
on doubtful points and to rectify any mistakes that-might 
be committed during the performance of sacrifices. Neither 
had the Hotri priest any special manual of his formulas 
assigned to him. He was rather expected to have acquired 
a thorough knowledge of the whole of the Rik-sa.mhit&, 
from which the sacrificial prayers recited by him were ex- 
clusively selected. It was probably out of this class — or the 
Bahvrt&as, as the followers of the Rig-veda came to be 
called — more than from any other, that individual priests 
would fit themselves for the office of Brahmam 

As regards the two remaining classes of priests— the 
Udgat«s and Adhvaryus — we have no means of deter- 
mining in what form and to what extent the stock of chants 
and sacrificial formulas used by them may have existed 
from the time of the institution of their offices down to 
the formation of the collections that have been handed 
down, viz. the Sama-veda-sawzhita and the Ya^xir-veda. 
From the close connection that exists between the Saman 
and the eighth and ninth ma/ft/alas of the Rik, as well as 
from the fact that most of the hymns of these two ma«</alas 
are ascribed to authors whose family collections (including, 
in several instances, hymns of their own) are contained in 
earlier matidafas, — we may perhaps assume that already 
at the time when the first nine maWalas were collected the 
then existing hymns of the eighth and ninth ma»*/alas were 
set apart for the purpose of being chanted at the Soma- 
sacrifice. In course of time — hand in hand with the fuller 
development of the Soma ritual and the gradual influx of 
new hymn material which was either incorporated with the 
old collections or formed into a new maw/ala— additional 
chants (or more suitable ones in the place of those hitherto 

There are in the present ritual traces to be found, that the Hotar actually must 
have performed part of the duties of the Adhvaryu.' Ait. Br. I, p. 31. 



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XXU DATAPATH A-BRAHMAJVA. 

used) might be required and selected from the hymns of 
other ma#</alas. In its original connected form, the ma- 
terial of these chants would naturally remain all along 
an essential part of the .£«k-sa»mita, for the use of the 
Hotri and Brahman priests; and thus each of these two 
collections would henceforth have a history of its own, and 
discrepancies in the texts common to both would gradually 
become more and more numerous. 

The sacrificial texts used by the Adhvaryu priest are 
contained in the Ya^r-veda, of which several recensions 
have come down to us. These texts consist, in about equal 
parts, of verses (rik) and prose formulas (ya^us). The 
majority of the former are likewise found in the Rik- 
sawhitl, though not unfrequently with considerable varia- 
tions, which may be explained partly from a difference of 
recension, and partly as the result of the adaptation of 
these verses to their special sacrificial purpose K With the 
prose formulas, on the other hand, save a few isolated 
sacrificial calls alluded to in the Rik 2 , we meet for the 
first time in this collection. In the older recensions 
of the Yagur-veda the texts are, as a rule, followed im- 
mediately by their dogmatic explanation. Now, these 
theological treatises, composed chiefly with the view of 
elucidating the sacrificial texts and explaining the origin 
and hidden meaning of the various rites, form one of the 
most important departments of the literature of the period 
which succeeded the systematic arrangement of the sacri- 
ficial ceremonial, and in which we must place the gradual 
consolidation of the Brahmanical hierarchy. Such as they 
lie before us, they contain the accumulated wisdom and 
speculations of generations of Indian divines. They are 
essentially digests of a floating mass of single discourses or 
dicta on various points of the ceremonial of worship, 
ascribed to individual teachers, and handed down orally 
in the theological schools. Single discourses of this kind 
were called brahmawa, — probably either because they 
were intended for the instruction and guidance of priests 

1 See A. Weber, History of Indian Literature, pp. 9, 1 15. 
* fc'ee M. Haug, Ait. Br. I, p. 34. 



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INTRODUCTION. XX1U 



(brahman) generally ; or because they were, for the most 
part, the authoritative utterances of such as were thoroughly 
versed in Vedic and sacrificial lore and competent to act 
as Brahmans or superintending priests 1 . In later times 
a collection or digest of such detached pieces came to be 
likewise called a Brahma«a. Works of this kind have 
come down to us in connection with all the Vedic Sawmitas, 
generally in more than one version which, though on the 
whole betraying a common stock of material, often vary 
considerably, both in their arrangement and their treat- 
ment of these materials. Nay, owing as they do their 
origin to different schools of the same Veda, these re- 
censions not unfrequently take the very opposite view of 
single points of ceremonial. Originally the number of such 
recensions, more or less differing from each other, must 
have been much larger; but the practical tendencies of 
a later age, which led to the production of concise manuals 
of ceremonial rules-^-the Kalpa-sutras — adapted to the 
sacrificial practices of more than one school, were not 
favourable to the perpetuation of these bulky cyclopaedias 
of theological school-wisdom : thus only the Brahma«as of 
the schools which had the greatest number of followers 
survived ; while others were probably never committed 
to writing, or at best had a precarious existence down to 
more recent times. 

While the Brahma«as are thus our oldest sources from 
which a comprehensive view of the sacrificial ceremonial 
can be obtained, they also throw a great deal of light on 
the earliest metaphysical and linguistic speculations of the 
Hindus. Another, even more interesting feature of these 
works, consists in the numerous legends scattered through 
them. From the archaic style in which these mythological 
tales are generally composed, as well as from the fact that 
not a few of them are found in Brahmawas of different 
schools and Vedas, though often with considerable varia- 

1 See Max MUller, History of Ancient Sanskrit Literature, p. 172 ; Rig-veda- 
samhita IV, p. vi. Professors Weber (History of Sanskrit Literature, p. 11), 
Whitney, Westergaard, and other scholars derive brahmana from brahman, 
'prayer, worship.' 



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XXIV SATAPATHA-BRAHMAtfA. 

tions, it is pretty evident that the ground-work of many of 
them goes back to times preceding the composition of the 
Brahrna«as. From a mythological, and to some extent 
from a linguistic, point of view these legends thus form 
a connecting link between the latter and the Vedic hymns. 
In the case of some of these legends — as those of SuiaJt- 
jepha 1 and the fetching of the Soma from heaven 2 — we 
can even see how they have grown out of germs contained 
in the Vedic hymns ; their relation to the latter being thus 
not unlike that of the Sagas of the younger Edda to the 
songs of the older Edda. The Kaushltaki Br&hmawa 3 , at 
the end of a story of this kind about Soma, remarks that 
it is thus told by those versed in legend (akhyanavidaA). 
We may perhaps infer from this passage that there was 
a class of people who took a special interest in such legends, 
and made it their business to collect and repeat them. 
Indeed, many of the elaborate mythical stories with which 
we meet in the later epical and Purawic literature doubtless 
owe their origin to simple popular legends of this kind 4 . 

Besides the genuine myths which we find in the Brah- 
ma#as, there is also a large number of stories which were 
evidently invented by the authors of these treatises for the 
purpose of supplying some kind of traditional support for 
particular points of ceremonial 8 . However small the in- 
trinsic merit of such passages, they, too, are not entirely 
devoid of interest, especially from a linguistic point of 
view, since the style of narrative and the archaic mode of 
diction which they affect, readily lend themselves to syn- 
tactic turns of expression rarely indulged in by the authors 
in the purely explanatory and exegetic parts of their 
works. And, indeed, whatever opinion the general reader 
may form of the Brahma«as, as purely literary com- 

1 See R. Roth in Weber's Ind. Stud. I, 475 seq. ; II, 11 1 seq. ; Max MUller, 
History of Ancient Sanskrit Literature, p. 408 seq. 

a See the present volume, p. 183. Compare also Professor Aufrecht's remarks 
on the myth of Apala, Ind. Stud. IV, p. 8. 

» K. B. Ill, 25 ; cf. Weber, Ind. Stud. II, 313. 

4 Cf. Max Miiller, Upanishads, I, p. 39 note. 

* See, for instance, Sat. Br. II, 4, 3, 1, where a legend of this kind seems to 
be directly ascribed to Ya^iiavalkya. 



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INTRODUCTION. XXV 



positions — and, assuredly, it cannot be a very high one — 
to the Sanskrit student these works (together with their 
supplements, the Arawyakas ; and their metaphysical ap- 
pendages, the Upanishads) are of the highest importance 
as the only genuine prose works which the Sanskrit, 
as a popular language, has produced. For the com- 
parative study of syntax, which has been taken up with 
such signal success by Professor Delbriick and other 
scholars, the Brahmawas offer a rich field of enquiry. Nor 
is the style of these compositions — with its compact gram- 
matical forms and expressive particles, and its habitual 
employment of the oratio directa instead of dependent 
clauses — without a certain rough beauty of its own, which, 
however, almost entirely evaporates in a rendering into 
modern analytical speech. And notwithstanding the 
general emptiness of the speculations of the Indian 
theologians, ' there are,' as Professor Max Miiller observes ', 
'passages in the Brahmawas full of genuine thought and 
feeling, and most valuable as pictures of life, and as 
records of early struggles, which have left no trace in the 
literature of other nations.' 

Although the Adhvaryus, who had to perform all the 
manual work connected with the sacrifice, were originally 
looked upon as a subordinate class of priests, their office 
seems to have risen in the general estimation with the 
increasing importance that was attributed to the endless 
details of the ceremonial. In a passage of the Taittirfya 
Upanishad (a, 3), the Ya^Tis is said to be the head, the 
Rik the right side, the Saman the left side, the Ad&ra 2 
the soul, and the Atharvangiras (Atharva-veda) the tail. 
With better reason the Ya^ur-veda might be called the 
body of the sacrifice, since it contains almost the entire 
apparatus of sacrificial formulas, while the other ritualistic 
works are concerned, either chiefly or entirely, with the 
Soma-sacrifice. As a matter of fact, no other Veda has 
given rise to so large a number of schools as the Ya^ur- 

1 History of Ancient Sanskrit Literature, p. 408. 

* That is, the Brahmana, according to Sankara. In Sat. Br. IV, 6, 7, 6, the Rik 
and Saman are identified with Speech, and the Ya^us with the Mind. 



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XXVI DATAPATH A-BRAHMAtf A. 

veda 1 . The numerous subdivisions of the Adhvaryus 
trace their origin to either of two principal schools, an 
older and a younger one, the latter of which is itself 
an offshoot of the former. The oral transmission of the 
large body of exegetic and legendary matter attached to 
the sacrificial formulas could hardly fail, in course of time, 
to produce considerable variations, in different localities, 
both as regards the wording and the arrangement of these 
works. Different schools would naturally arise, — each with 
its own approved recension of the traditional texts, — which 
in their turn would sooner or later become liable to the 
same process of disintegration. Such, indeed, has been 
the case, more or less, with all the Vedic texts, until 
mechanical means wer-e devised to arrest this process of 
change. The names of many such subdivisions of the 
older Ya^ur-veda are recorded ; but hitherto the recensions 
of only three of them have come to light, — viz. the Kanaka, 
the Maitraya«i-sa/whiti, and the Taittiriya-sarahita. The 
two former texts belong to subdivisions of the Ka//*as and 
Maitraya«iyas, two branches of the old school of the 
Afarakas or Aarakadhvaryus. The Taittiriyas, on the 
other hand, seem to have been an independent branch of 
the old Ya^us 2 , the origin of which is ascribed to a teacher 
named Tittiri. Their text has come down to us in the 
recension of one of its subdivisions 3 , the Apastambins. 

The chief characteristic of the old Ya.fus texts consists, 
as has already been indicated, in the constant inter- 

1 Except, perhaps, the Sama-veda, which, in the Karanavyuha, is said to have 
counted a thousand schools; though that work itself enumerates only seven 
schools, one of them with five subdivisions. The number of teachers mentioned 
in connection with this Veda is, however, very considerable. 

* As such, at least, the Taittiriyas are mentioned in the Jfaranavyuha. The 
term A'araka, however, is also (e. g. in the Pratig-»a-sutra) applied to the schools 
of the Black Ya^us generally. If the Berlin MS. of the Ka/Aaka professes, in 
the colophon, to contain the faraka text of the work (which Professor Weber 
takes to refer to the ATarayaniyaA), the iTaiaka sakha of the Ka/Aaka has perhaps 
to be understood in contradistinction to those portions of the Ka/Aaka which have 
been adopted by the Taittirtyas and incorporated into their Brahmana. 

* The Taittiriyas divide themselves into two schools, the Aukhtyas and the 
Khanrfiktyas ; the Apastambins are a subdivision of the latter branch. We 
have also the list of the contents (anakramant) of the Atreyas, a subdivision 
of the Aukhtyas. 



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INTRODUCTION. XXVU 



mingling of the sacrificial formulas and the explanatory or 
Brahmawa portions. It was with the view of remedying 
this want of arrangement, by entirely separating the 
exegetic matter from the formulas, that the new school of 
Adhvaryus was founded. The name given to this school 
is Vclgasaneyins, its origin being ascribed to Ya^/Tavalkya 
Va^fasaneya. The result of this new redaction of the 
Ya^-us texts was the formation of a Sawhita, or collection 
of mantras, and a Brahmawa. This re-arrangement was 
doubtless undertaken in imitation of the texts of the Hotr* 
priests, who had a Brahmawa 1 of their own, while their 
sacrificial prayers formed part of the Rik-samhiti. Indeed, 
the Taittirtyas themselves became impressed with the 
desirability of having a Brahma«a of their own, — and 
attained their object by the simple, if rather awkward, 
expedient of applying that designation to an appendage 
to their Sawhita, which exhibits the same mixture of 
mantra and brahmawa as the older work. They also 
incorporated a portion of the Kanaka text into their 
Brahma«a and its supplement, the Taittiriyara#yaka. Of 
all the schools of the old Ya^us those of the Taittirtyas 
seem to have attracted by far the greatest number of 
adherents ; and in southern India their texts have continued 
pre-eminently the subject of study till the present day. In 
northern India, on the other hand, they have been largely 
superseded by their later rivals. On account of the lucid 
arrangement of their sacred texts, the Va^asaneyins called 
them the White (.rukla) Ya^-ur-veda ; the term of Black or 
Dark (krishna) Y&g ur-veda being, for the opposite reason, 
applied to the texts of the older schools. In later times, an 
absurd story was invented (doubtless by followers of the 
White Ya^us), in which the origin of the name Taittiriya is 
connected with the word tittiri 2 , in the sense of ' partridge.' 

1 It has come down to us in two different tecensions, the Aitareya and the 
- Kaushttaki (or Sartkhayana) Br&hmana. 

' Professor Weber, however, thinks there may be some reason for this deri- 
vation ; the name of Taittirtya having perhaps been applied to this school on 
account of the motley (partridge-like) character of its texts. According to the 
story alluded to, Yigo'avalkya, having been taught the old Ya^ns texts by Vai- 
sampayana, incurred the displeasure of his teacher, and was forced by him to 
disgorge the sacred science which, on falling to the ground, became toiled 



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XXV111 SATAPATHA-BRAHMAYA. 

The Br&hmawa of the Va^asaneyins bears the name of 
.Satapatha, that is, the Brahmawa 'of a hundred paths,' 
because it consists of a hundred lectures (adhyayas). Both 
the Va^asaneyi-sawzhita and the Satapatha-brahma«a have 
come down to us in two different recensions, those of the 
Madhyandina and the Ka«va schools. Of the latter recen- 
sion of the Brahmana, however, three books out of seventeen 
are wanting in the European libraries and have, as far as I 
know, not yet been discovered in India. The Madhyandina 
text both of the Sawhita and the Brahmawa has been edited 
by Professor Weber ; the former with the various readings 
of the Ka«va recension. To the same scholar we owe a 
German translation of the first adhyaya of the first kaWa 1 ; 
and he has, moreover, subjected the entire accessible litera- 
ture of the White Yafur-veda — with the exception of the 
Kawva text of the Brahmawa — to a careful examination, 
and has extracted from it all that seems calculated to 
throw light on its history, so that in this respect little re- 
mains to those who come after him but to state the results 
of his enquiries. Professor Max Miiller, in his History of 
Ancient Sanskrit Literature, has also fullydiscussed the ques- 
tions regarding the date and authorship of these texts, and 
has done much to clear up what was obscure in their rela- 
tions to the older Ya,^us texts and to Vedic literature gene- 
rally. Many points, however, still remain doubtful ; and, 
above all, opinions are as divided as ever regarding the 
approximate date of the teacher with whose name tradition 
connects the origin of the modern school of the Adhvaryus. 

The schools of the Va^asaneyins are stated to have been 
either fifteen or seventeen ; and their names are given, 
though with considerable variations, in different works. No 
distinct traces, however, have as yet been discovered of any 
recensions besides the two already referred to. As regards 
the names of these two,— the Madhyandina and Ka«va, — 
the latter is the name of one of the chief families of i?*shis 

(hence Black Yagus), and was picked up by Y%navalkya's condisciples, who had 
assumed the form of partridges. This story seems first to occur in the Puranas ; 
see Wilson's translation of the Vishnu Pur&na(ed. Hall), III, p. 54. Pi/iini (IV, 3, 
10 2 1 and Patan^-ali only know of the Taittirtya texts as ' promulgated by Tittiri.' 
1 Zeitsch. der D. M.G., IV, p. *8o, seq.; reprinted in Indische Streifeii I, p. 31 seq. 



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INTRODUCTION. XXIX 



of the ./?*k-sa»jhita ; and certain orthoepic peculiarities of 
the Ya^fus texts of the Ka«vas would seem to favour the 
assumption of a connection of this school with the redac- 
tion of the Rik. The name of the Madhyandinas, literally 
' meridional,' on the other hand, does not occur in the older 
literature. Nor can we draw any definite conclusions, as 
to the probable date of their recension, from Lassen's 
identification of this name with the Mavitabtvoi, mentioned 
by Megasthenes (as quoted by Arrian) as a people on the 
banks of a tributary of the Ganges ; or from Professor 
Weber's conjecture that the Madhyandina school may have 
taken its origin among that people. 

The Madhyandina text of the 5atapatha is divided into 
fourteen books (kkndu). For several reasons, however, 
some of these books have to be assigned to a later period 
than the others. In the first place, the twelfth ka«</a is 
called madhyama, ' the middle one ;' a fact which in itself 
would suggest the idea that, at the time when this nomen- 
clature was adopted, the last five books (or perhaps books 
11-13) were regarded as a separate portion of the work 1 . 
Besides, Pata«^ali, in a karika or memorial couplet to Pa«. 
IV, 2, 60, mentions the words shash/ipatha ('consisting 
of sixty paths') and datapath a, with the view of forming 
derivative nouns from them, in the sense of one who studies 
such works. Now, as the first nine books of the Satapatha, 
in the Madhyandina text, consist of sixty adhyayas, it 
was suggested by Professor Weber that it was probably 
this very portion of the work to which Patan^ali applied 
the term 'shash/ipatha,' and that consequently the first 
nine books were at that time considered as, in some sense, 
a distinct work and were studied as such. This conjecture 
has been generally accepted. There is indeed a possibility 
that Patawgali may have been acquainted with some othex 

1 The Kan va text is divided into seventeen books. Kanrfas 1 2 - 1 5 correspond 
to Madhyandina 10-13 : an< l kiWa 16, which treats of the Pravargya ceremony, 
corresponds to the first three adhyayas of the last kaiufa of the Madhyandinas. 
Thus, in the Kanva recension the fourteenth kanrfa, called ' madhyama,' is the 
middle one of kanrfas ia-16 ; the seventeenth karu/a. or Brihadaranyaka, being 
apparently considered as a supplement. Perhaps this division is more original 
than that of the Madhyandinas. 



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xxx satapatha-brAhma2v*a. 

recension of the Brahma«a of the Va^-asaneyins which 
consisted of only forty adhyayas ; but even in that case the 
latter would in all probability correspond to the first nine 
books of the Madhyandina text. As regards the K4«va 
recension, we are unfortunately not yet able, owing to the 
want of some of its ka«</as, to determine its exact extent ; 
and have to rely on a list added by a scribe on the front 
page of one of the ka«</as in the Oxford MS. \ according 
to which that text consists of 104 adhyayas. Still further 
evidence regarding the mutual relations of the several 
portions of our Brahmawa is contained in a passage of the 
Mahabharata (XII, n 739), where Ya^viavalkya relates 
that, at the inspiration of the Sun, he composed (kakre) 
the Satapatha, including 2 the Rahasya (mystery), the 
Sawgraha (epitome), and the Parmsh/a (supplement). 
Now the tenth book is really called Agni-rahasya ; while 
the eleventh contains a kind of summary of the preceding 
ritual; and ka«</as 12-14 treat of various other subjects. 
This relation between the first nine and the remaining five 
books is also fully borne out by internal evidence, as well 
as by a comparison with the Vi^asaneyi-sawhita. The 
latter consists of forty adhyayas, the first eighteen of whkh 
contain the formulas of the ordinary sacrifices — the Havir- 
ya^-nas and Soma-sacrifice — and correspond to the first nine 
books of the Satapatha-brahmawa. The succeeding adhya- 
yas have been clearly shown by Professor Weber s to be 
later additions. As a rule only those formulas which are 
contained in the first eighteen adhyayas are found in the 
Taittiriya-sawhita ; while those of the later adhyayas are 
given in the Taittir!ya-brahma«a. 

At the end of the .Satapatha the White Ya^us is said to 
have been promulgated (a-khyi) by Ya^vJavalkya Va^asa- 
neya. Now the name of this teacher is indeed more fre- 
quently met with in the Brahma«a than that of any other ; 



1 The accuracy of this list cannot be relied upon, as several mistakes occur in 
the number of kant/ikas there given. It is, however, unlikely that the scribe 
should have committed any mistake regarding the number of adhyayas. 

* Literally 'together with the rahasya (saiahasyam),' &c. 

* History of Indian Literature, p. 107 seq. 



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INTRODUCTION. XXXI 



especially in some of the later books where his professional 
connection with kanaka, king of Videha, and his skill in 
theological disputations are favourite topics. As regards 
the earlier portion of the work, however, it is a remarkable 
fact that, while in the first five books Ya^vmvalkya's opinion 
is frequently recorded as authoritative \ he is not once men- 
tioned in the four succeeding kiwrfas (6-9). The teacher 
whose opinion is most frequently referred to in these 
books, is Skndilya. This disagreement in respect of doc- 
trinal authorities, coupled with unmistakable differences 2 , 
stylistic as well as geographical and mythological, can 
scarcely be accounted for otherwise than by the assumption 
of a difference of authorship or original redaction. Now 
the subject with which these four kawrfas are chiefly con- 
cerned, is the agni^ayana, or construction of the sacred 
fire-altar. For reasons urged by Professor Weber, it would 
appear not improbable that this part of the ceremonial was 
specially cultivated in the north-western districts ; and 
since the geographical allusions in these four ka«*/as chiefly 
point to that part of India, while those of the other books 
refer almost exclusively to the regions along the Ganges 
and Jumna, we may infer from this that the fire-ritual, 
adopted by the Vi^asaneyins at the time of the first redac- 
tion of their texts — that is, of the first nine ka«</as, as far 
as the Brahmawa is concerned — had been settled in the 
north-west of India. 

Here, however, we meet with another difficulty. The 
tenth book, or Agnirahasya, deals with the same subject as 
the preceding four kawrfas ; and here also SawaTilya figures 
as the chief authority, while no mention is made of Ya^-na- 
valkya. Moreover, at the end of that ka»</a, a list of 
teachers is given in which the transmission of the sacri- 
ficial science (either in its entirety, or only as regards the 
fire-ritual) is traced from a teacher Tura Kavasheya 
— who is said to have received it from the god Pra^apati — 
downwards, through two intermediate teachers, to S&ndi- 

1 See, however, Sat. Br. II, 5, I, J-3, where Yaj-ffavalkya's opinion is 
referred to as being contrary to the Rig-veda. 
• See Weber, Ind. Stud. XIII, p. 266 seq. 



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XXX11 SATAPATHA-BRAHMAtfA. 

lya; and from thence, through six intermediate teachers, to 
•Sara^ivi-putra. Tura Kavasheya is referred to in another 
passage of the tenth k&ttda. (X, 6, 5, 9) as having built a 
fire-altar 1 to the gods at Karoti ; and in the Aitareya-brah- 
ma«a he is mentioned as the high-priest who officiated at 
the inauguration-ceremony of king (7aname^aya Pari- 
kshita, renowned in epic legend. From these indications 
we may, it seems to me, take it for certain that Tura 
Kavasheya and Skndilya (the latter of whom is also 
held in high repute by the .Oandogas or Saman-priests) 
were regarded by the Vi^asaneyins as the chief arrangers, 
if not the originators, of the fire-ritual such as it was 
finally adopted by that school. On the other hand, we 
saw that the first nine books of the Satapatha, if their 
identification with Pata/?£ali's ' shash/ipatha ' be correct, 
must have been regarded as, in some particular sense, a 
complete work. Now this combination of the fire-ritual 
in kkmias 6-9 with the complete exposition of the Havir- 
yagna and Soma-sacrifice, contained in the first five books, 
would seem to presuppose some kind of compromise be- 
tween the two schools recognising Ya^navalkya and Skn- 
rfilya respectively as their chief authority. What, then, are 
we to understand to be the exact relations between the later 
kaWas, especially the tenth, and the earlier portion of the 
work ? We do not, and could not, meet with such a term 
as ' £atvari#wat-patha,' or work of forty paths, as applying 
to the last five ka«</as of the Satapatha ; their nature was 
too well understood for that, as we see from the passage of 
the Mahabharata, above referred to. The list of teachers 
at the end of the tenth kknda shows no sign of any amal- 
gamation of the two schools up to the time of Skmg\v\- 
putra, the last teacher mentioned in it : with one exception, 
it belongs exclusively to the Skndilya school. It contains, 
however, an additional remark to the effect that from 
Saw^lvi-putra downward the list is 'identical,' — viz. with 
some other list. Now this remark can only refer to the 
vamsa. given at the end of the last k&nda. In this list the 

1 The author of ihis passage would seem to imply, though he does not 
exactly express it, that this was the first fire-altar built in the proper way. 



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INTRODUCTION. XXX1U 



transmission of the science of the Adhvaryus is traced — as far 
as human agency is concerned— from Kajyapa Naidhruvi, 
through nine teachers, to Ya^/tavalkya, and thence, 
through four other teachers, to S a mg\ vl - p u t r a 1 . The only 
name which this list has in common with the former one, 
previous to Saw^vl-putra, is that of Kujri. According to 
the former list, he was the teacher of S&ndilya., who, in his 
turn, taught Vatsya 2 . But since in the same book (X, 5, 
5, 1) he is referred to as Va^ajravasa, and in the list at the 
end of the .Satapatha he is set down as the pupil of Va^a- 
jravas, the same teacher is evidently referred to in both 
lists ; and if we can at all rely on the authenticity of these 
vawwas, we should have to infer from this coincidence, that 
there was already some connection between the two schools 
prior to both X&g «avalkya and 5a«rfilya. 

The two lines of teachers meet once more in the name of 
Sclw^-ivi-putra. In the later list the succession of teachers 



1 I here give, side by side, the lists, in inverted order, from S&mjrtvi-putra 
upwards. For the complete lists, see Max Miiller, History of Ancient Sanskrit 
literature, p. 438 seq. 

End of Book XIV. End of Book X. 

58. Aditya. (52) Brahman Svayambhu. 
57. Ambini. 

5 6 ' va *- (51) Pragapati. 
55. Kasyapa Naidhruvi. 

54. Slpa Kasyapa. ( } Turft K4vash 

53. Hanta Kasyapa. vs ' 

52. Asita Varshagana. 

51. Gihvavat Badhyoga. (49) Yaj-BavaiasRayastambayana. 
£0. Vag-asravas. 

49. Kusri. (48) Kusri. 

48. Upavesi. ( 47 ) Sandilya. 

47. Aru»a. (+6) Vatsya. 

4 6.UddaUka(Aru»eya). ( 45 ) Vamakakshaya»a. 

45. Ya*»avalkya (Vajasaneya). J« 

44. Asun. vn ' 

43. Asurayana. <43) Kautsa. 

4a. Prasni-putra (Asurivasin). (4 a ) Manrfavya. 

41. Kanakeyi-putra. (41) Mar«/ukayani. 

40. S&mftvi-putra. (40) Samg-Svl-putra. 
Follow 39 names formed by the addition (Same as elsewhere.) 

of 'putra' to the mother's name. 

* In the Brihad-aranyaka (Kanva) VI, 5, 4 the order is Kusri, Vatsya, S&ndily a. 

["] c 



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XXXIV SATAPATHA-BRAHMAJVA. 

is then continued by forty-nine more names — all of them 
formed by the addition of 'putra' (son) to the mother's 
name — which, it appears, we are to supply in the former 
list. According to Professor Max Muller \ ' Saw^ivi-putra 
seems to have united two lines of teachers.' That this must 
have been the case, cannot be doubted, provided, of course, 
that the vawwas are trustworthy 2 . Nay, I should even be 
inclined to assign to the time of S&w.glvf-putra the final 
adjustment of the ritual and its dogmatic exposition such 
as we find them in the Shash/ipatha (and the first eighteen 
adhy&yas of the Va^fasaneyi-sawhita), and consequently 
the first redaction of that part of the 6atapatha. Not that 
all the matter contained in the latter part of the work must 
necessarily be more modern. There can, on the contrary, 
be little doubt that much of it is quite as old as anything in 
the earlier books; and of the Madhukl/ttfo, which forms 
part of the Brzhad-irawyaka in the last book, we know at 
any rate, from a reference to the Madhu-brihmawa in the 
fourth ka«</a, that some such tract existed at that time. 
But such matter as, for some reason or other, was not 
included in the systematic exposition of the ceremonial, 
would naturally be in a less settled condition and more 
liable to modifications and additions. 

According to the two lists, Sa»^vi-putra is removed from 
SkndWya. by six intermediate teachers, the three older 8 of 
whom are referred to in kfkndas 6-9 ; and from Ya^na- 



* History of Ancient Sanskrit Literature, p. 437. 

' Professor Weber, Ind. Stud. II, 201 note, expresses his conviction that 
' the vamsas are, on the whole, quite authentic ; though they do not of course 
belong to the text, but are later additions ; judging from the great number of 
names, some vanuas must have been added at a very late time.' It seems to 
me, however, that if the vanuas are at all authentic — and I see no reason for 
doubt as far as the two lists above referred to are concerned — we have rather to 
assume that the lists were kept from early times and gradually added to. On 
the other hand, little can be made of the two vamsas at the end of the Madhu 
and Ya^/iavalkfya kanrfas. They look rather like attempts — and very unsuc- 
cessful ones — at throwing several independent lists into one. 

» Viz.,Vatsya IX, 5, 1, 63; Vamakakshayana VII, 1, 2, iij Mahitthi VI, 
3, 2, 10; VIII, 6, 1, 16 seq. ; IX, 5, 1, 57. Not mentioned are Kautsa, Man- 
rfavya, and M&nrfukayani. A Manrfavya occurs in the twelfth book of the 
Mahabharata, as a contemporary of Ganaka and Ya^navalkya. 



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INTRODUCTION. XXXV 



valkya by four intermediate teachers, the first of whom 
(Asuri) ' is repeatedly quoted in the second (and once each 
in the first, fourth, and fourteenth) k&ndas. Although these 
indications do not, of course, supply more than a terminus 
a quo for the final settlement of this part of the work, they 
would nevertheless seem to favour the supposition that the 
combination of the fire-ritual with the sacrificial system 
cannot have taken place at a time far removed from that 
of Sa»^lvi-putra. The custom of forming metronymics by 
means of 'putra' is of some interest. It first shows itself 
in the predecessor of Sawg'ivi-putra's teacher in the Ya^via- 
valkya line, and continues from thence down to the very 
end of the va»«a. Unfortunately, however, we have no 
means of ascertaining whether this custom had already 
been commonly practised, in certain localities, before that 
time, or whether, as seems to me more probable, it was 
a fashion of recent date. If the latter alternative could be 
proved, it might help to settle the chronological relations 
between Ya^viavalkya and Pa«ini, since it would appear 
from Pa». IV, i, 159 2 (and VI, 1, 13), that the great gram- 
marian was well acquainted, not only with the practice of 
forming metronymics of this kind, but also with that of 
forming patronymics from such metronymics. 

The relative date of Pawini and Ya^wavalkya has been 
discussed more than once by Sanskrit scholars 8 ; but no 
agreement has as yet been come to on what Goldstucker 
justly called ' one of the most important problems of 
Sanskrit literature.' The chief difficulty of this problem 
lies in the ambiguity of Kityayana's well-known varttika 
to Pa«. IV, 3, 105. According to Pacini's rule the names 

1 He is also the Xishi of V&g. S. Ill, 37. 

* This rule, which applies to the people of the north, is not explained in the 
Mahabhashya. The Kisiki Vrt'tti gives the patronymics of Gargtputra and 
Vatstputra, both of whom occur in our vamsa. It is worthy of remark that 
Kavasha Ailusha, who is mentioned in Ait. Br. II, 19, and to whom the hymns 
Rig-veda X, 30-34 are ascribed, is called Kavasha Ailushtpntra in the Kilkaka 
35,7. Cf. Weber, Ind. Stud. Ill, pp. 459, 1 57, 485. 

3 See especially Max Miiller, History of Ancient Sanskrit Literature, p. 360 
seq.; Goldstucker, Paiini, p. 133 seq. ; Weber, Ind. Stud.V, 65 seq. ; XIII, 443 ; 
Biihler, Sacred-Laws of the Aryas, I, p. xxxix note. 

C 2 



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XXXVI SATAPATHA-BRAHMAtfA. 

of Brahmawas and Kalpas proclaimed by old (sages) are 
formed by the addition of the affix in (to the sages' names). 
As instances of Brahmawas, the names of which are formed 
in this way, the Klrika VWtti gives BhallavinaA (proclaimed 
by Bhallu), SatyayaninaA, Aitareyiwa^. In accordance 
with this rule the texts of the White Ya^tis are called 
Va^asaneyinaA. This name does not, however, occur in 
any of Pa«ini's rules, but follows only from the word 
' va^saneya ' being included in the gawa '■raunakadi' to 
Paw. IV, 3, 106 ; and since we have no evidence as to 
whether any of the words in a ga«a except the first really 
belong to Pa«ini, it must remain doubtful whether or not 
he knew of the existence of the school known by that 
name. Katyayana's varttika runs thus : ' Among the 
Brihmawas and Kalpas proclaimed by the old, there is 
an exception in regard to Yi^wavalkya and others, on 
account of contemporaneousness : hence (Ya^wavalkya's 
Brahmawas are called, not Ya^-navalkinaA, but) Ya^-na- 
valkani Brahmawani ; Saulabhani B.' The question, then, 
is, Does Katyayana mean to say that the Brahmawas 
proclaimed by Ya^viavalkya do not fall under this rule, 
because he was contemporary with Pamni, — and therefore 
not an old sage in the sense of the rule, — or, that those 
works should have been excepted by Pa«ini from his rule, 
because they are of the same age as those (old) Brahmawas 
to which the rule applies ? The former alternative was the 
one generally accepted, until the late Professor Goldstiicker 
made known the text of Patawgali's and Kaiya/a's com- 
ments 1 on this varttika. He showed that Kaiya/a, at 
least, clearly interprets it in the sense that Pawini should 
have excepted works like the Ya^viavalkani Brahmawani, 
since they, too (a pi), are of the same age as the .Satya- 
yaninaA and others. The Mahabhashya, on the other hand, 
is not quite so explicit. It merely says that the Y&^-wavalkani 
Brahma«ani &c. ought to have been excepted, because 
they, too (a pi), are of the same age. Goldstiicker naturally 
took this explanation to convey the same meaning as that 
of Kaiya/a. This view was, however, controverted by 

1 Panini, p. 138. 

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INTRODUCTION. XXXV11 



Professor Weber in his review of Goldstiicker's 'Pa«ini.' 
The interpretation of the varttika adopted in the Klrika 
VWtti — according to which Pa«ini's rule does not apply to 
those works, because Ya^vJavalkya and others are not old 
authorities in the sense of Pa«ini's rule — is likewise rejected 
by him, since in that case Katyayana's exception would be 
no exception at all. On the other hand, Professor Weber 
thinks that, if we accept Kaiyatfa's interpretation, Katya- 
yana's additional remark ' on account of contemporaneous- 
ness' would be entirely superfluous. He, therefore, pro- 
poses, in the passage of the Mahabhashya, to take 'api ' in 
the sense of 'even,' and to interpret the passage thus 1 : 
'Among the Brahmawas and Kalpas proclaimed by the 
ancients, Pa«ini ought to have made an exception in regard 
to Ya^- navalkya &c, because the Brahma«as and Kalpas 
proclaimed by them, though indeed going back to ancient 
(sages), are nevertheless contemporaneous (with Pawini him- 
self).' This rather paradoxical argumentation, on the part 
of Patafl^ali, would have to be understood to mean, that 
the Ya^wavalkani Brahrnawani and similar works, though 
ascribed to old authorities, are in reality modern productions ; 
or — if we may venture to express it in somewhat different 
words — Pa«ini ought to have made an exception in regard 
to works which, in point of fact, are no exception at all. Now, 
if this be the correct interpretation, I can only say this — 
that, had Patang-ali been anxious to conceal his real meaning, 
he could scarcely have done so more effectually than by 
choosing words which, at first sight, look as clear as day. 

Professor Biihler 2 , who has recently touched upon this 
controversy, sides with Kaiya/a and Goldstucker; and I, 
too, can take no other view. But, like him, I see no 
necessity for accepting the inferences which Goldstucker 
has drawn from this varttika, viz. that we have to assume 
so long an interval between Pa«ini and Katyayana, that 
authors, whom Katyayana considered as far older than 
Pawini, were in reality his contemporaries. This assumption, 
surely, would involve a degree of ignorance, on the part of 

• Ind. Stud. V. 68 seq.; XIII, 443. 

' Sacred Laws of the Aryas, I, p. xxxix note. 



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XXXV1U SATAPATHA-BRAHMAYA. 

Katyayana, regarding the age of Pamni, such as would seem 
altogether unaccountable. The weakness of Goldstucker's 
argument lies in his identification of the Ya^-navalkani 
Brahma»ani with the Brahmawa of the Va^asaneyins. With 
Professor Weber I believe that Pawini was perfectly well 
acquainted with the term ' Va^asaneyinaA,' but saw no 
occasion for specially mentioning it in his rules. Surely, if 
his silence could possibly have been construed into an act 
of negligence, Katyayana, who was so intimately connected 
with the White Ya^us that, on Goldstucker's own showing, 
he composed the Va^asaneyi-pratijakhya before he wrote 
his varttikas, would have been the first to notice it. The 
Ya^Tiavalkani Brahmawani, in their relation to the sacred 
canon of the school, seem to me to stand somewhat on a par 
with the'Tittiri«a proktaA jloki// 1 , , which,in Patawgali's time, 
were excluded from the term ' TaittirtyaA ' as uncanonical, 
and which Professor Weber would identify, perhaps rightly, 
with some portions of the Taittiriyarawyaka. Both kinds 
of tracts probably belong to the last floating materials of 
Advaryu tradition, which had not yet been incorporated 
with the canon. Whether or not the Ya^viavalkani Brah- 
ma»ani form part of the text of the Satapatha which has 
come down to us, and what exact portions of that text we 
have to understand by this designation, must remain un- 
certain for the present. Most probably, however, we have 
to look for them to certain portions of the last book (or 
books) in which Ya^«avalkya figures so prominently. If 
we had a complete copy of the Kawva recension, we might 
perhaps be in a better position for forming an opinion on 
this subject ; for if that version should really turn out to 
consist of 104 adhyayas, four of these adhyayas may have 
to be considered as a later interpolation ; and the fact 
might have become obscured in the Madhyandina recension 
by a different division of the text 2 . But, however this may 



1 Mabibhashya on Pan. IV, a, 66; 3, 104. 

* Possibly, however, this redundancy may have been caused by the insertion of 
the thirJ or uddhart-kanrfa, consisting of 1 24 kamfikas, to which there seems to be 
nothing corresponding in the Madhyandina text. We have no MS. of this parti- 
cular kaWa. I may also mention that, while in the first kaWa (or second Kama), 
the Madhyandinas count 9, and the Kanvas 8 adhyayas, — in the fourth kinds, (or 



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INTRODUCTION. XXXIX 



be, it appears to me quite intelligible why such portions 
should have been considered as of equal age to the body 
of the work ; in fact they would probably go back to about 
the same time as some of the earlier portions ; only that, 
owing to a longer state of uncertain transmission, they may 
have been more liable to changes and additions. If these 
tracts are not mentioned by Pa«ini, it may be an accidental 
omission on his part, or he may not have been aware of 
their existence, for geographical or other reasons : we can 
hardly expect Pa«ini to have been so intimately acquainted 
with the Ya^us texts as Katyayana. As regards the dates 
of Katyayana and Patan^ali, I accept with Professor Biihler 
and others, as by far the most probable, the fourth and the 
middle of the second century B.C. respectively. 

Under the title of Va^asaneyaka, the Satapatha-brah- 
ma«a is quoted once in La/yayana's .Srauta-sutra IV, 12, 
12 ; but I have not been able to find the passage either in 
the Madhyandina text or in that part of the Kawva text 
which I have hitherto had at my disposal, viz. ka/^/as I, 
II, IV-VII (Kawva). Far more frequently the work is 
quoted, either as Va^asaneyaka or as Va^asaneyi-brahma«a, 
by Apastamba, both in his Srauta and his Dharma-sutras. 
On comparing one of these quotations in the Dharma- 
sutras (1,4,12,3) with the corresponding passage in the 
Madhyandina recension, Professor Biihler found that ' its 
wording possessed just sufficient resemblance to allow us 
to identify the passage which Apastamba meant, but dif- 
fered from the Satapatha-brahma«a in many details 1 .' 
From this he naturally inferred that Apastamba probably 
took his quotations from the Kawva recension. Now, 
although I have not been able to compare this particular 
passage with the Kawva text 2 , I have done so regarding 
a number of other passages quoted from Apastamba in 
Karka's commentary on the Katfya-Srauta-sutra. The 
result was that in no single case did Apastamba 's quota- 
tions agree with the corresponding passages in the Ka«va, 

fifth KiUva), on the other hand, the Kaavas have 8, instead of 6 adhyayas ; and 
in the fifth Vinda. (fit sixth and seventh Kanvas) they have together 7, instead of 
5 adhyayas. 

1 Biihler, loc cit. p. xxv. ' The passage occurs in Madhyandina XI, 5, 6, 3. 



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xl satapatha-brahmajva. 

any more than they did with those of the Madhyandina 
text 1 . In some cases they came nearer to the one text, 
in others to the other. To several quotations, again, I could 
find nothing corresponding in either text. Now, supposing 
the quotations, as given by Karka, to be on the whole 
correct, there seem to be only two ways of accounting for 
these discrepancies, viz. either Apastamba did not mean to 
quote the passages literally, but only to give the substance 
of them ; or he had a third recension of the 5atapatha before 
him. While some passages would seem to be in favour of the 
former alternative, others would scarcely admit of this expla- 
nation. This question,however, requires further investigation, 
before it can be definitely settled. In connection with this 
question the fact will also have to be taken into account, that 
Katyayana, in composing his Va^asaneyi-pratijakhya, seems 
to have had before him a different recension of the Sawhit4, 
from those of the Ka«va and Madhyandina schools 2 . 

Professor Biihler appears to be inclined to place Apa- 
stamba somewhere about the fifth century B. c. ; and though 
probably he himself does not consider the reasons he adduces 
as conclusive, they seem at any rate to show that that writer 
cannot have lived later than the third century B.C. From 

1 I select a few passages: — 
I. Ap. (K&ty.VII, I, 36). prigvamsasya madhyamam sthunarag-am alabhya 
£apatiti va^asaneyakam. 
Madhy. Ill, 1, 1, 11. sa pflrvardhyam sthflnara^am abhipadyaitad yagmr Sha. 
Kanva IV, 1,1, 7. sa yasau varshishMa purvardhe salasthunS bhavati tatn 
abhipadya g-apati. 
3. Ap. (Katy. V, 3, 6). atrapi meshant H. mesbint *a karottti va^asaneyakam. 
Madhy. II, 5, 3, 15. tatrapi mesham *a meshfm ia kurvanti. 
Kanva I, 5, 1, 13. mesham *a vS api meshtm ia kurvanti. 

3. Ap. (Katy. VII, 2, 34). (vritrasya kantnikastti traikakudenaiJ^anenaflkte) yadi 

traikadukam nadhigaWAed yenaiva ken4ȣanen&Sgtti vag-asaneyakam. 
Madhy. Ill, 1, 3, 12. (traikadukam bhavati; yatra va indro vritram ahams 

tasya yad akshy astt tarn girim trikakndam akarot ) yadi traikakudam 

na vinded apy atraikakudam eva syat samlnt hy evang-anasya bandhuta. 
Kanva IV, 1, 3, 10. (tat traikakudam sy&t ; yatra v4 indro vritram ahams 

tasya ha yS kantnakasa yai iakshus tarn etam girim AakSra trikakudam ; 

sa yat traikakudam bhavati iakshushy evaitai iakshur dadhati) ; yadi 

traikakudam na vinded api yad eva kiiUa sySt. 

4. Ap. (Katy. VII, 3, 38). ushnishena pradakshinam siro veshfayata iti va^asa- 

neyakam. 
Madhy. Ill, 2, 1, 16-17. sa prornute. 
Kanva IV, 3, 1, 11-13. athainam prornoti, — sa prornoti. 
* See Weber, Ind. Stud. IV, p. 69. 



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INTRODUCTION. xli 



the fact that Svetaketu, the son of Uddalaka Arum, the 
reputed teacher (and rival 1 ) of Ya^7?avalkya, is counted 
by Apastamba among the Avaras or moderns, Dr. Biihler 
infers that the promulgator of the White Ya^us cannot 
have preceded Apastamba 'by a longer interval than, at 
the utmost, two or three hundred years.' That the two 
authors may not have been separated from each other by 
a longer interval seems likely enough ; but, on the other 
hand, Apastamba, by his remark, pays no very great com- 
pliment to the inspired texts of his own school, since Aruwa 
Aupavari, the grandfather of Svetaketu Aruweya, is twice 
referred to in the Taittirtya-sawmita 2 . 

The geographical and ethnical allusions contained in 
the Satapatha-brahma«a have been carefully collected by 
Professor Weber 3 . With the exception of those in ka/«/as 
6-1 o, as I have already remarked, they point almost 
exclusively to the regions along the Ganges and Jumna. 
In the legend about Videgha Mathava 4 , and his Purohita 
Gotama Rahuga«a, tradition seems to have preserved 
a reminiscence of the eastward spread of Brahmanical 
civilisation. Among the peoples that occupied those 
regions, a prominent position is assigned in the Satapatha 
to the closely-allied Kuru-Pa«£alas. The Kurus occupied 
the districts between the Jumna and Ganges — the so- 
called Madhyadera or middle country — and the Pan- 
£alas bordered on them towards the south-east. According 
to Sat. Br. XIII, 5, 4, 7, the Pa«£alas were in olden times 
called Krivi ; and a tribe of this name is evidently referred 
to in Rig-veda VIII, 20, 24; (22, 12) s , in connection with the 
rivers Sindhu and Asiknt. The Kurus, on the other hand, are 
not directly referred to in the Rik ; but a king Kuru^ravawa, 
'glory of the Kurus,' and a patron with the epithet 
Kauraya«a are mentioned in the hymns. In Aitar. Br. 
VIII, 14, the Uttara (northern) Kurus, together with the 
Uttara-Madras, are said to dwell beyond the Himalaya. 

1 See Brih. Ar. 3, 5, where he is defeated by Yag-Savalkya in disputation. 

* Taitt. S.VI. 1,9, a ; 4, 5, 1. » Ind. Stnd. I, 187 seq. 

4 See the present volume, p. 104, with note. It would have been safer to give 
the name as Videgha Mathava, instead of Mathava the Videgha. 

• See Ludwig, Rig-veda III, p. 205 ; Zimmer, Altindisches Leben, p. 103. 



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xlii tfATAPATHA-BRAHMAJVA. 

From these indications Professor Zimmer infers that, in 
the times of the hymns, the Kurus and Krivis — whose names 
evidently are merely variations of the same word — may 
have lived together in the valleys of Klrmlr, on the upper 
Indus ; and he also offers the ingenious conjecture, that 
we may have to look for the Kuru-Krivis in the twin- 
people of the Vaikaraau, mentioned in Rig-vedaVII, 18, u. 
The names of the principal teachers of the 5atapatha mark 
them as belonging to the land of the Kuru-Pan£alas ; and 
as in I, 7, a, 8, preference is given to a certain sacrificial 
practice on the ground that it is the one obtaining among 
these peoples, it seems highly probable that the redaction 
of the work, or at least of the older portion of it, took 
place among the Kuru-Pan&Uas 1 . A prince 2 of Pa«- 
£ala, Pravahawa 6'aivali, is mentioned XIV, 9, 1, 1, in 
connection with Ya^vFavalkya's teacher, Uddalaka Aruwi. 

East of the Madhyade-ra, we meet with another con- 
federacy of kindred peoples, of hardly less importance than 
the Kuru-Pa/5£alas, at the time of the redaction of the 
Brahmawa, viz. the Kosala-Videhas. In the legend above 
referred to they are said to be the descendants of Videgha 
Mathava, and to be separated from each other by the 
river Sadanira (either the modern Ga.nda.kt or Karatoya). 
The country of the Videhas, the eastern branch of this 
allied people, corresponding to the modern Tirhut or 
Puraniya, formed in those days the extreme east of the 
land of the Aryas. In the later books of the .Satapatha, 
king (kanaka of Videha appears as one of the principal 
promoters of the Brahmanical religion, and especially as the 
patron of Ya^wavalkya. In XI, 6, 2, 1, kanaka is repre- 

' The passage III, a, 3, 15, where the Kuru-Pantalas are apparently placed 
in the north — in direct contradiction to XI, 4, 1, 1, where they are placed in 
opposition to the Northerners (udMyaA) — seems to go against this supposition. 
Professor Weber, Ind. Stud. 1, 191, tries to get over this difficulty by translating 
KurupaS/alatra by ' as among the Kuru-Panialas,' instead of ' among the Kuru- 
Paȣalas;' so that the meaning of the passage would be that 'the same 
language is spoken in the northern region, as among the Kuru-Paftlalas.' Unfor- 
tunately, however, the Kanva text of the passage is not favourable to this 
interpretation. It runs as follows (K. IV, 2, ?, 10) : — udMJm pathyaya svastyft 
vag vai pathya svastis tasmad atrottarahai vag vadatityahuA kurupaiiHleshu 
kurumahavisheshv ity etam hi tayi disam pra^anann esha hi tasyS dik pra^wata. 

* He is styled raganyabandhu in JTAindogyop. V, 3, £. 



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INTRODUCTION. xlHi 



sented as meeting, apparently for the first time, with 
.Svetaketu Aruweya, Soma^ushma Satyaya.g'ni, and Ya^na- 
valkya, while they were travelling (dhavayadbhi^). Probably 
we are to understand by this that these divines had then 
come from the west to visit the Videha country. A con- 
siderable portion of the PWhadarawyaka deals with learned 
disputations which Ya^vTavalkya was supposed to have 
held at (kanaka's court with divers sages and with the king 
himself. In Brih. Ar. II, 1, i (and Kaush. Up. IV, i) 
kanaka's fame as the patron of Brahmanical sages is said 
to have aroused the jealousy of his contemporary, A^ata- 
jatru, king of the K4ris \ The name kanaka is also in- 
teresting on account of its being borne likewise by the 
father of Sita, the wife of Rama. Unfortunately, however, 
there is not sufficient evidence to show that the two kings 
are identical. With the legend of the other great epic, the 
.Satapatha offers more points of contact ; but on this 
subject also no definite results have as yet been obtained, 
it being still doubtful whether the internecine strife between 
the royal houses of the Kurus and Pan&Uas which, according 
to the late Professor Lassen, forms the central fact of the 
legend of the Mahabharata, had not yet taken place at the 
time of the Satapatha-brahmawa, or whether it was already 
a thing of the past 2 . In the Mahabharata, I, 4723, Pawrfu, in 
speaking to his wife Kunti, mentions Svetaketu, the son of 
the Maharshi Uddalaka, as having lived ' not long ago V 

As regards the two recensions of the Satapatha-brah- 
ma«a, this is hardly the place to enter into any detailed 
discussion of their mutual relations. Nor is my acquaint- 
ance with the Ka«va text as yet sufficiently extensive to 
do justice to this important question. I intend, however, 
to publish before long a number of extracts from several 
kaWas of this recension, — including the text of all the 

1 They occupied the country about the modem Benares (Kast). 

' Dhntarash/ra Vaiiitravtrya, whose sons and nephews form the chief parties 
of this great feud, is mentioned in the KaMaka 10, 6. From this passage — which, 
unfortunately, is not in a very good condition in the Berlin MS. — it would appear 
that animosities had then existed between the Kurus and Paiiialas. It is 
doubtful, however, whether this part of the KaMaka is older than the bulk of 
the Satapatha. See Weber, Ind. Stud. Ill, 469 seq. 

» See Weber, Ind. Stud.' 1, 176. 



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xliv satapatha-brAhmajva. 

legends as well as other portions which seemed to me of 
special interest, — from which Sanskrit scholars will be able 
to form an opinion regarding the exact nature of the varia- 
tions between the two versions. In my notes to the present 
translation of the first two kindzs, I have considered it 
desirable occasionally to notice some of the variae lectiones 
of the Ka«va school ; it should, however, be understood 
that these readings have been given solely on the authority 
of the Oxford MS., for the loan of which I am deeply in- 
debted to the liberality of the Curators of the Bodleian 
Library. With the aid of the Paris MS., the use of which 
has also just been kindly granted to me, I hope soon to be 
able to verify these extracts. For most of the kawrfas, 
from the fourth 1 onwards, our materials have been lately 
enriched by a copy which Mr. Whitley Stokes has had 
made for Professor Weber from a Benares MS. 

The various readings of the Ka«va recension of the 
Va^asaneyi-sawmita have been given in Professor Weber's 
edition, at the end of each ki«</a. They may be said to 
consist either of mere verbal variations or of additional 
mantras. In regard to these readings the Brahmawa of the 
same school exhibits a feature which may have an important 
bearing on the textual criticism of the Saw/hita. While the 
Brahmawa generally shows the same verbal variations in 
the sacrificial texts as the Sawhita, it, as a rule, takes no 
notice whatever of the additional mantras, but agrees in 
this respect pretty closely with the Madhyandina text. 
Indeed, so far as I am able to judge, the two relations seem 
to coincide almost entirely, as far as the subject-matter is 
concerned ; the differences, considerable as they sometimes 
are, being rather of a grammatical and stylistic nature. 
Occasional omissions, which I have hitherto noticed 2 , may 
perhaps turn out to be due to the carelessness of scribes. 
As regards the additional mantras referred to, they may have 
found their way into the Sawhita at the time when the Sutras 

1 Viz. kanrfas 4-7, 9, 10, 11, 14-17. 

* For instance, the brahmanas MSdhy. 1, 4, 3 ; II, 3, 2 and 3 ; IV, 5, 10 ; 6, 8 
are wanting in the Oxford MS. ; see p. 338, note 3. — In the fourth (fifth Kanva) 
kanda, the Kanvas, on the other hand, have two brahmanas (V, 7, 5 ; 8, 2, the 
latter of which treats of the adabhya graba, ViLg. S. VIII, 47-50) which are not 
found in the Madhyandina text. 



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INTRODUCTION. xlv 



were composed ; though, it is true, they do not as a rule appear 
in the Katiya-sutra, and no other sutra of the White Ya^us, 
as far as I know, has hitherto come to light 1 . On the other 
hand, as there are also not a few mantras in the Madhyan- 
dina Samhita 2 , which are not noticed in the Brahmawa of that 
school, this question must be left for future investigation. 

I have already referred to the connection which seems 
to have existed between the Ka«va school of the White 
Ya^us and the redactors of the Rik-samhitL One of the 
chief points of contact between our existing recension of 
the Rik and the Ka«va text of the Ya^ur-veda is the use 
of the letters / and Ih instead of d and dh used by the 
Madhyandinas. Besides, the riks of the Kawva text gene- 
rally approach more nearly to the readings of the Rig-veda 
than those of the other school. Another, even more inter- 
esting, feature which the Ka«va recension has in common 
with the Rik, is the constant 3 employment of the ordinary 
genitive and ablative of feminine bases, where the other 
Sawhitas and Brahma«as generally use the dative ; thus 
the Kawvas read ' tasyaA' instead of ' tasyai' (M. I, i, 4, 16) ; 
'gayatryaA' instead of ' gayatryai' (I, 7, 1, 1); ' prAhivyaA ' 
instead of 'pn'thivyai' (I, 2, 5, 18) ; ' kumbhya bhastrayaA' 
instead of 'kumbhyai bhastrayai' (I, r, a, 7); 'sttrwaya 
vedeA' instead of 'stiraayai vedeA' (IV, a, 5, 3); 'dhenoA' 
instead of ' dhenvai ' (III, 1, 2, a 1), &c. Thus the Kazrva text 
is in this respect more in accordance with the i?ik-sa»mita 
than even the Aitareya-brahmawa 4 . Again, the Kawvas 
seem to form the dative of feminine i-bases in accordance 
with the usual and older practice of the Rik ; at least I find 
everywhere 'ahutayej and 'guptaye'(asalso in the Atharvan) 
instead of 'ahutyai' and 'guptyai' as the Madhyandinas 
(and Taittirlyas) read 6 . Of minor points of grammatical 

1 Professor Weber thinks that the sfltra of Vai^avapa, of which mention is 
occasionally made in the commentaries on the Katiya-sutra, may belong to the 
White Yagns. See History of Indian Literature, p. 142. Professor Biihler, 
Sacred Laws, I, p. xxvi, remarks that ' Kanva is considered the author of the 
still existing Kalpa-sutras of the Kanva school ;' but I have found no notice of 
these sutras anywhere. 

' That is, in those adhyayas to which the Brahmana forms a running 
commentary. 

* I have not met with any exception in the kanrfas hitherto examined. 

' See Aufrecht, Ait. Br. p. 428. ' See also the form ' dhenoA ' mentioned above. 



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xlvi satapatha-brahmajva. 

differences may be mentioned the form 'nililye,' which 
occurs once in the Madhyandina text (I, 2, 3, 1), and is 
otherwise only found in the Mahabharata ; while the Kawva 
recension has the periphrastic form (nilayaw £akre), which 
the Madhyandina text also offers in the other two cases 
(I, 6, 4, 1 ; IV, 1, 3, 1 ) in which the word occurs. On the other 
hand, the Kawvas seem to read invariably ' atmani (dha or 
Vri)' where the Madhyandinas have ' atman,' which is also 
(doubtless on metrical grounds) the more usual formation 
in the Rig-veda 1 . Of cases of material differences I can 
only at present adduce the passage 1, 1, 4, 12 (M.), where the 
Madhyandina text is guilty of a transposition of the second 
and third castes, while that of the Kawvas gives them in 
the proper order. Though most of these points of differ- 
ence between the two schools would seem to tell in favour 
of the higher antiquity of the Ka«va text, there will 
always be great difficulty in deciding this question, as 
it is by no means impossible that these variations are 
entirely due to different local or family traditions. In 
favour of the latter alternative one or two other points may 
be mentioned. The Madhyandina text, as has already 
been remarked, offers not a few grammatical and other 
differences between the first five and the succeeding four 
ka«das, or, as we may say, between the Ya^viavalkya and 
the .Sawrfilya books of the Shashripatha. Though I cannot 
speak with confidence on this point, as I have not yet 
examined the Ka«va text of the Sawtfilya kawrfas, I may 
refer here to at least two points in which the Kawvas, in 
the Ya^wavalkya portion, agree with the Skndilya. portion 
of the Madhyandina text, viz. the use of the imperfect 
(aspardhanta) instead of the perfect (paspr/dhire) in the 
opening clause of legends ; and the frequent employment 
of the particle ' vava ' in the place of ' vai.' 

As regards the present translation of the first two kindas, 

1 Another curious feature of the Kanva text is the frequent insertion of an 
' ity uvata' in the middle of speeches, much like the colloquial ' says he.' As 
an instance I may adduce K. IV, 2, 3, 3 (M. Ill, 2, 3, 5) : — Sa hovS*aTiam eva 
vo ya^Tfam amumuham iti hovata yad eva mayi tanvana iti mam yag-nad antara- 
gata tenaiva to yagnam amumuham iti te mahyam nu bhagam kalpayatety atha 
vo ya^BaA praroMshyata iti tatheti ho/his, &c. The Kanvas also insert much 
more frequently an ' iti ' in the middle of speeches. 



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INTRODUCTION. xlvii 



I need hardly say that I am fully aware of its shortcomings. 
My chief endeavour has been to translate as literally as 
seemed at all compatible with the English idiom. If, in 
consequence of this, many passages should be found to read 
somewhat awkwardly, I hope at least that the wish to follow 
the original as closely as possible, has not rendered them 
unintelligible. Those who have given any attention to the 
Brahmawas and the sacrificial system of the Hindus, know 
how difficult the task is, and how easy it is to commit mis- 
takes regarding the intricate minutiae of the ceremonial. The 
Brahmaaas presuppose a full knowledge of the course of 
sacrificial performance, and notice only such points as afford 
an opportunity for dogmatic and symbolic explanations, or 
seem to call for some authoritative decision to guard them 
against what were considered as heretical practices. In order 
to enable the reader to follow the course of the performance 
with something like completeness, I have supplied in my 
notes the chief details from Katyayana's Kalpa-sutras. That 
not a few of these details did not belong to the sacrificial 
ceremonial of the .Satapatha, but were the result of later 
development, or of an adaptation of sacrificial practices of 
other schools, can scarcely be doubted. Dr. Hillebrandt 1 is 
of opinion that sacrificial manuals, somewhat similar to the 
later Prayogas, must have existed as early as the time of 
the composition of the Brahma«as. In the absence of any 
direct evidence, speculation on this point can scarcely lead 
to any definite results. I may say, however, that it seems 
to me quite sufficient to assume that the performance of 
sacrifices was taught as a practical art, and that the theoretic 
instruction, supplied by the Brahmawas, was conveyed orally 
in connection with such practical performances. That the 
latter was the case, is sufficiently evident from the constant 
occurrence in the Brahmawas of demonstrative pronouns 
and particles of a 'deictic' force 2 . 

I have occasionally referred to corresponding passages 
of the Taittirlyas : an exhaustive comparison of the two 
branches of the Ya^ur-veda, however interesting this might 
be, lay outside the scope of my notes. A general view of 

1 Das Altindiscbe Neu- und Vollmondsopfer. p. xv. 
' See, for instance, Sat. Br. 1, 3, 1, J ; 8, 1, 14. 



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xlviii satapatha-brAhmajva. 

the sacrificial system might be considered desirable in this 
place ; but I have found it necessary to defer this part of 
my duty as translator to some future opportunity. Those 
who desire further information on this point, I may refer 
to Professor Weber's general survey of Hindu sacrifices, in 
vols, x and xiii of his Indische Studien. No other scholar 
has contributed so much to our knowledge of the sacrificial 
ceremonial of the Hindus. I need hardly say that I have 
also obtained much useful information from the late Pro- 
fessor Haug's notes to his translation of the Aitareya- 
brahmawa, although on many points the practices of modern 
6'rotriyas, on which he chiefly relied, are manifestly at vari- 
ance with those enjoined by the old ritualistic authorities. 
For the first k&nda., I have also been able to avail myself 
of Dr. Hillebrandt's careful exposition of the new and full- 
moon sacrifice ; and though I had already worked myself 
through that part of the ritual before the appearance of his 
treatise, his constant references to the Sutras of the Black 
Ya^ur-veda have been of great assistance to me. 

The Brahmawas and Kalpa-sutras treat of the so-called 
Srauta or Vaidik sacrifices, requiring for their performance 
three sacrificial fires; while the Paka-ya^-was, or simple 
oblations of cooked food prepared on the domestic fire, are 
dealt with in the Grihya-sutras. The present volume con- 
tains that portion of the Brahmawa which deals with the 
Havirya^was — or offerings of milk, butter, rice, barley, and 
similar materials — as distinguished from the animal and Soma 
sacrifices. The new and full-moon offering being considered 
as the normal type of an ish/i, or simplest form of a com- 
plete sacrificial performance, the place of honour is assigned 
to it in most texts of the Ya^xis ; only points of difference 
being generally noted regarding the performance of ishris, as 
parts of subsequent sacrifices. In point of time, the Darca- 
pur«amasau ought to be preceded — as indeed they are in the 
Ka«va text of the Brahmatf a — by the Agnyadhana, or esta- 
blishment of a sacred fire on the part of a young householder ; 
and by the Agnihotra, or morning and evening libations. 



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Ji:iVEESITY; 
5ATAPATH^BRAH MAiVA 

FIRST KkNDA. 



THE DARSAPURMVMASA-ISH71 OR NEW AND 
FULL-MOON SACRIFICES. 



First Adhyaya. First Brahmana. 

A. The Vow of Abstinence. 

Each of the two half-monthly sacrifices, the regular performance 
of which is enjoined on the Brahmanical householder for a period 
of thirty years from the time of his performance of the ceremony of 
agny-adh&na, or setting up of a fire of his own, — according 
to some authorities even for the rest of his life — usually occupies 
the greater part of two consecutive days. Whilst the first day — 
the upavasatha or fast-day — is chiefly taken up with preparatory 
rites, such as the sweeping and trimming of the fire-places and 
lighting of the fires ; and the formal taking of the vow of absti- 
nence (vrata) by the sacrificer and his wife; the second day is 
reserved for the main performance of the sacrifice. As to the 
exact days of the month appointed for these ceremonies, there 
is some difference of opinion among native authorities, some of 
them deciding in favour of the last two days of each half of the 
lunar month, whilst the generality of ritualistic writers consider the 
first day of the half-month — or the first and sixteenth day of the 
month respectively — to be the proper time for the main perform- 
ance. The personal restrictions involved in the householder's 
entering on the vrata include chiefly the abstention from certain 
kinds of food, especially meat, and from other carnal pleasures ; 
the cutting (optional, according to some) of the beard and hair, 
except the crest-lock; the sleeping on the ground in one of the 
chief fire-houses ; and the observance of silence during the cere- 
monies. It was, however, permitted to compress the two-days' 
t "■> [12] B 



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SATAPATHA-BRAHMAiVA. 



rites of the Full-moon sacrifice into one single day, in which case 
some of these restrictions would of course not be applicable. 

The ceremonies begin with the preparation of the sacrificial 
fires. [First, the fivefold lustration successively of the Ahavanfya 
and Dakshifl&gni fire-places, to render them fit for receiving the 
fire from the Garhapatya or householder's fire, viz. by thrice 
sweeping the hearths; thrice besmearing them with gomaya; 
drawing three lines across them from west to east, or south to 
north, with the wooden sword (sphya); removing the dust from 
the lines with the thumb and ring-finger; and thrice sprinkling the 
lines with water 1 .] Then the Adhvaryu performs the agny -u ddha- 
ra«a, or twice taking out of the fire from the GSrhapatya, 
and putting it successively on the forepart of the Ahavanlya and 
Dakshinigni hearths. After this takes place the agny-anva- 
dh&na, or putting (fuel) on the fires, by either the householder 
or the Adhvaryu ; two logs being put on each of the three fires. 
This may be done in three different ways, viz. first on the 
Ahavanlya, then on the Garhapatya, and last on the Dakshi«agni, 
in which case the first log is put on by him whilst muttering the 
verse Rig-vedaX, 128, 1 (Taitt. S. IV, 7, 14, 1), ' Let there be lustre, 
O Agni, at my invocations 1* &c, the second log silently. Or the 
first logs are put on with one of the three mystical words 'bhur, 
bhuvaA, svar' on the Garhapatya, Dakshi»agni, and Ahavanfya 
successively, and the second logs again silently. Or both logs may 
be put on silently, the order of fires being in that case the one in 
which they originate, viz. Gdrhapatya, Ahavanfya, and Dakshiwagni, 

In the afternoon the householder and his wife partake of the 
vratopantya or fast-day food (prepared chiefly of rice, barley, 
or mudga beans) with clarified butter ; whereupon they take the 
vow in the manner prescribed in the Brahmana. In the evening, 
immediately after sunset, and on the following morning just before 
sunrise, the householder has, as usual, to perform the Agnihotra, 
a burnt-offering of fresh milk, which has to be made by him twice 
daily, with certain exceptions, from the Agnyadhana to the end 
of his life. 

i. He who is about to enter on the vow, touches 
water 2 , whilst standing between the Ahavanlya 

1 The statements enclosed in brackets [ ] are drawn from the 
comments and Paddhati on K&tyayana's .Srauta-sutra. 

* I.e.' he dips his hand into water contained in a vessel,' Schol. 
K&ty. Si. S. I, 10, 14. According to the general rule there given, 



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i kAjvda, i adhyAya, i brAhmamv, 3. 3 

and Garhapatya fires, with his face turned towards 
east. The reason why he touches water is, that man 
is (sacrificially) impure on account of his speaking 
untruth ; and because by that act an internal purifi- 
cation (is effected), — for water is indeed (sacrificially) 
pure. 'After becoming sacrificially pure, I will enter 
on the vow,' thus (he thinks); for water is indeed 
purifying. ' Having become purified through the 
purifying one, I will enter on the vow,' thus (he 
thinks, and) this is the reason why he touches 
water. 

2. Looking towards the (Ahavantya) fire 1 , he 
enters on the vow, with the text (V&f. S. I, 5 a) : 
' O Agni, Lord of Vows ! I will keep the vow ! may 
I be equal to it, may I succeed in it ! ' For Agni is 
Lord of Vows to the gods, and it is to him therefore 
that he addresses these words. In the words, ' I 
will observe the vow ; may I be equal to it ; may 
I succeed in it,' there is nothing that requires 
explanation. 

3. After the completion (of the sacrifice) he di- 
vests himself (of the vow), with the text (Va^\ S. II, 
28 a), 'O Agni, Lord of Vows! I have kept the 
vow ; I have been equal to it ; I have succeeded in 



the same purificatory act has to be repeated whenever, in the course 
of ceremonial performances, a sacrificial formula or prayer has been 
used, which is addressed to, or directed against, Rudra, the Ra- 
kshas and Asuras, and the Manes ; or one directed against some 
specified enemy of the sacrificer with the view of exorcising or 
averting the evil influences with which the latter is supposed to be 
threatened from that quarter ; or lastly, when a touching of one's 
self has taken place, either accidentally or as part of the ceremonial. 
1 ' Stepping between the Girhapatya and Dakshi«a fires (apa- 
r&gnt), and standing west of the Ahavanlya, with his face turned 
eastward and looking at the fire.' KSty. Si. S. II, i, 11. 

B 2 



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satapatha-brAhmajva. 



it ; ' for he who has attained the completion of the 
sacrifice, has indeed been equal to it ; and he who 
has attained the completion of the sacrifice, has 
succeeded in it. It is in this way that most (sacri- 
ficers) will probably enter on the vow ; but one may 
also enter on it in the following way. 

4. Twofold, verily, is this, there is no third, viz. 
truth and untruth. And verily the gods are the 
truth, and man is the untruth. Therefore in saying 
(V&f. S. I, 5 b), 'I now enter from untruth into 
truth,' he passes from the men to the gods *. 

5. Let him then only speak what is true ; for this 
vow indeed the gods do keep, that they speak the 
truth ; and for this reason they are glorious : glorious 
therefore is he who, knowing this, speaks the truth. 

6. After the completion (of the sacrifice) he di- 
vests himself (of the vow), with the text (Vif. S. II, 
28 b): ' Now I am he who I really am.' For, in 
entering upon the vow, he becomes, as it were, non- 
human ; and as it would not be becoming for him to 
say, ' I enter from truth into untruth ;' and as, in 
fact, he now again becomes man, let him there- 
fore divest himself (of the vow), with the text : 
' Now I am he who I really am.' 

7. Now then of the eating (or) fasting a . And on 
this point Ashaa^a Savayasa, on the one hand, 
was of opinion that the vow consisted in fasting. For 
assuredly, (he argued,) the gods see through the mind 
of man ; they know that, when he enters on this 

1 I.e. 'he obtains a divine body (devatlrarfram),' Mahtdh. ; 
' man's existence is untruth on account of its perishableness,' id. 

* The discussion which here follows refers to the evening meal 
which the sacrificer is allowed to take after he has performed the 
Agnihotra. Cf. KSty. St. S. II, 1, 13. 



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I KANDA, I ADHYAYA, I BRAHMAtfA, IO. 5 

vow, he means to sacrifice to them the next 
morning. Therefore all the gods betake them- 
selves to his house, and abide by (him or the 
fires, upa-vas) in his house; whence this (day) is 
called upa-vasatha 1 . 

8. Now, as it would even be unbecoming for him 
to take food, before men (who are staying with him 
as his guests) have eaten ; how much more would it 
be so, if he were to take food before the gods (who 
are staying with him) have eaten : let him therefore 
take no food at all. 

9. Ya^»avalkya, on the other hand, said: ' If 
he does not eat, he thereby becomes a sacrificer to 
the Manes ; and if he does eat, he eats before the 
gods have eaten : let him therefore eat what, when 
eaten, counts as not eaten.' For that of which no 
offering is made, even though it is eaten, is con- 
sidered as not eaten. When he therefore eats, 
he does not become a sacrificer to the Manes ; and 
by eating of that of which no offering is made, he 
does not eat before the gods have eaten. 

10. Let him therefore eat only what grows in the 
forest, be it forest plants or the fruit of trees. And 
in regard to this point Barku Varsh#a said: 
'Cook ye beans for me, for no offering is made of 
them !' This, however, he should not do ; for pulse 

1 The primary meaning of upa-vas probably is ' to dwell or 
abide near (?the gods or fires);' its secondary and technical 
meaning being ' to fast,' whence upavasatha, 'a fasting or fast- 
day,' literally ' the abiding near (? or honouring, the gods or fires).' 
Cf. HI, 9, 2, 7. The term is more usually applied to the prelimi- 
nary fast-day of the Soma-sacrifice; but the latter being considered 
the most solemn and efficacious of sacrificial rites, a strong ten- 
dency prevails to establish some kind of connection between it and 
the other ceremonies. Cf. Katy. Si. S. IV, 15, 36. 



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6 satapatha-brAhmazva. 

serves as an addition to rice and barley ; and hence 
he increases the rice and barley by means of it : let 
him therefore eat only what grows in the forest. 

ii. Let him sleep that night in the house of the 
Ahavanlya fire or in the house of the Garhapatya 
fire. For he who enters on the vow approaches the 
gods; and he sleeps in the midst of those very 
gods whom he approaches. Let him sleep on the 
ground 1 ; for from below, as it were, one serves 
one's superior. 

B. The Preparation of the Offerings. 
After the morning's performance of the Agnihotra and the 
subsequent rising of the sun, the sacrificer chooses his Brahman, 
or superintending priest. [In the first place he gets six seats 
ready, covered with sacrificial grass : two of these, to be used by 
the Brahman and sacrificer during the ceremony of election, are 
placed somewhere on the north side of the sacrificial ground; 
another south of the Ahavanlya fire, to serve for the Brahman's 
permanent seat (brahmasadanam), and west of the latter (placed 
so as to be quite close to the altar to be constructed hereafter, cf. 
K&ty. St. 1, 8, a 8), the sacrificer's permanent seat ; finally a seat north 
of each of the two fires, the Garhapatya and the Ahavanfya, to be 
used by the Adhvaryu on certain occasions. The sacrificer and future 
Brahman then having seated themselves on the two first-mentioned 
seats on the north side, the former with his face turned northward, 
and the latter looking toward east; the sacrificer, holding the 
wooden sword (sphya) in his left hand, touches the right knee of the 
Brahman with his right hand, in which he holds barley-corns and] 
chooses him for his Brahman with the formula : [' Thou, of such 
and such a family, N. N. barman! we are about to perform the 
Full-moon sacrifice,'] ' O Lord of the earth I Lord of the world I 
Lord of the great universe ! we choose thee for our Brahman I ' The 
chosen one then mutters (cf. V&g. S. p. 57) : 'lam the lord of the 
earth, I lord of the world, I lord of the great universe (mah£- 
bhQta) 1 earth! ether! heaven! O God Savitr*, thee they choose 
for their Brahman, their lord of prayer (Brz'haspati) !' &c, ' Bri~ 
haspati is Brahman to the gods, I to the men !' He (or, according 

1 A shake-down of grass (astara»am, ? a blanket) is not for- 
bidden. Paddh. on Kdty. St. II, 1. 



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I KAJVDA, I ADHYAYA, I BRAHMAJVA, 12. J 

to some, the sacrificer) further says, ' O Lord of speech, protect 
the sacrifice !' after which he betakes himself to the Brahman's seat 
(south of the Ahavanfya), and whilst [standing north of it, with his 
face turned eastward and] looking on it, he mutters: 'A vaunt I 
unholy one (daidhishavya, lit son of a re-married woman)! 
take thee away from here and seat thee on another's seat who is 
less exalted (pakatara) than we I* He takes one blade of grass 
from the seat and flings it towards south-west (the region of the 
Rakshas or evil spirits) with the formula: 'Expelled is sin with 
him whom we detest I ' and then sits down with the formula: 
' Here I sit on the seat of Bnhaspati, at the command of the 
divine Savitril This I proclaim to the fire, this to the wind, 
this to the earth ! ' Here he remains seated, with his face towards 
the Ahavanfya fire, to watch the progress of the ceremony and 
give directions, whenever he is appealed to. When the full or new- 
moon sacrifice is performed for the first time, it should be pre- 
ceded by the Anv&rambha»iya' offering, performed in much the 
same way as the Pauraamasf, except that the oblations themselves 
consist of a rice cake on eleven potsherds for Agni and Vishwu, 
a potful of boiled (rice) grains (£aru) for Saras vatt; and a rice 
cake on twelve potsherds for Sarasvat; the priest's fee on this 
occasion consisting of a cow four years old, or a pair of cattle, 
instead of the Anvah£rya mess. Katy. St. IV, 5, 22-23. 

12. By way of his first act on the following 
morning he (the Adhvaryu priest) betakes him- 
self to the water, and brings water forward 1 : for 

1 He, in the first place, pours water into a jug [usually made of 
vara«a wood (Crataeva Roxburghii), four-cornered, about a span or 
twelve fingers' breadths deep and four fingers' breadths square, and 
furnished with a handle], puts it down north of the Garhapatya fire, 
and touches it with the formula : ' I, the existent, will operate with 
thee(?tva karishyami), O existent one!' He then addresses himself 
to the Brahman : ' O Brahman ! shall I bring the water forward ? ' 
and to the patron or sacrificer : ' Sacrificer, restrain thy speech ! ' 
The Brahman, — after muttering the mantra (as he does, with certain 
modifications, on similar occasions when his permission is asked in 
the course of the performance) : 'Lead on the sacrifice ! gladden the 
deities ! May the sacrificer be on the vault of heaven ! Where the 
world of the seven pious /f/shis is, thither do thou lead this sacrifice 
and sacrificer!' — replies aloud : 'Hail (5m)! bring forward!' 



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8 satapatha-brAhmajva. 

water is (one of the means of) sacrifice. Hence by 
this his first act he approaches (engages in) the 
sacrifice ; and by bringing (water) forward, he spreads 
out (prepares) the sacrifice. 

13. He brings it forward with those mysterious 
words (V&£\ S. 1,6): 'Who (or Pra^apati) joins (or 
yokes) thee (to this fire) 1 ? H e joins thee. For what 
(or, for Pra^ - apati) does he join thee ? For that (or 
him) he joins thee!' For Pra^ipati is undefined 2 
(mysterious); Pra^apati is the sacrifice: hence 
he thereby yokes (gets ready for the performance) 
P ra^- apati, this sacrifice. 

14. The reason why he brings forward water is, 
that all this (universe) is pervaded by water 3 ; hence 
by this his first act he pervades (or gains) all this 
(universe). 

15. And whatever here in this (sacrifice) the 
Hotri, or the Adhvaryu, or the Brahman, or 
the Agnidhra, or the sacrificer himself, does not 
succeed in accomplishing, all that is thereby ob- 
tained (or made good). 

16. Another reason why he brings forward water 
is this : whilst the gods were engaged in performing 
sacrifice, the Asuras and Rakshas forbade (raksh) 



1 ' Ka (i. e. who ? or Pra^apati) joins thee (i. e. places thee, O 
water, by the side of the Ahavanfya fire)?(!) . . . Kasmai (i. e. for 
what purpose? or, for whom? or, for Pra^apati) does he join 
thee? (I)' Mahtdh. Dark is the meaning of these words because of 
the ambiguity of ka, the interrogative pronoun, which speculative 
theology also takes for a mystic name of Pra^apati. Cf. XI, 5, 4, 1 
seq. ; Max Mailer, History of Ancient Sanskrit Literature, p. 433. 

8 Cf. also I, 6, 1, 20, where Saya»a says that Pra^apati is ani- 
rukta, because he represents all deities. 

s A play on the word apaA (ap), ' water,' and the root £p, ' to 
obtain, to pervade.' 



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I KANDA, I ADHYAYA, I BRAHMAtfA, 20. 9 

them, saying, ' Ye shall not sacrifice ! ' and because 
they forbade (raksh), they are called Rakshas. 

1 7. The gods then perceived this thunderbolt, to 
wit, the water : the water is a thunderbolt, for the 
water is indeed a thunderbolt; hence wherever 
it goes, it produces a hollow (or depression of 
ground); and whatever it comes near, it destroys 
(lit. it burns up). Thereupon they took up that 
thunderbolt, and in its safe and foeless shelter 
they spread (performed) the sacrifice. And thus 
he (the Adhvaryu priest) likewise takes up this 
thunderbolt, and in its safe and foeless shelter 
spreads the sacrifice. This is the reason why he 
brings forward water. 

18. After pouring out some of it (into the jug) 
he puts it down north of the Garhapatya fire. 
For water (ap) is female and fire (agni) is male; 
and the Garhapatya is a house : hence a copulation 
productive of offspring is thereby effected in this 
house. Now he who brings forward the water, 
takes up a thunderbolt ; but when he takes up the 
thunderbolt, he cannot do so unless he is firmly 
placed; for otherwise it destroys him. 

19. The reason then why he places it near the 
Garhapatya fire is, that the Garhapatya is a house, 
and a house is .a safe resting-place ; so that he 
thereby stands firmly in a house, and therefore in 
a safe resting-place : in this way that thunderbolt 
does not destroy him, — for this reason he places it 
near the Garhapatya fire. 

20. He then carries it north of the Ahavanlya 
fire l . For water is female and fire is male : hence 

1 After the water has been brought forward by the Adhvaryu from 
the house of the Garhapatya fire, its technical name is T?ra.nU&fi, 



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io satapatha-brAhmajva. 

a copulation productive of offspring is thereby 
effected. And in this way alone a regular copu- 
lation can take place, since the woman lies on the 
left (or north) side of the man. 

21. Let nobody pass between the water (and the 
fire), lest by passing between them he should dis- 
turb the copulation which is taking place. Let him 
set the water down without carrying it beyond (the 
north side of the fire, i. e. not on the eastern side) ; 
nor should he put it down before reaching (the 
north side, i.e. not on the western side). For, if 
he were to put the water down after carrying it 
beyond, — there being, as it were, a great rivalry 
between fire and water, — he would cause this rivalry 
to break forth on the part of the fire ; and when they 
(the priests and the sacrificer) touch the water of 
this (vessel), he would, by carrying it and setting it 
down beyond (the northern side), cause the enemy 
to rise (spirt) in the fire. If, on the other hand, he 
were to put it down before gaining (the northern 
side), he would not gain by it the fulfilment of the 
wish for which it has been brought forward. Let 
him therefore put it down exactly north of the 
Ahavanlya fire. 

22. He now strews sacrificial grass all round (the 
fires) 1 , and fetches the utensils, taking two at a 

' brought forward.' On putting it down north of the Ahavanlya, 
he covers the jug over with sacrificial grass. 

1 Katy. Sr. II, 3, 6 : ' Having strewn sacrificial grass around the 
fires, beginning on the east side,' which the Comm. interprets: 
'He strews eastward and northward-pointed grass around first 
the Ahavaniya, then the Garhapatya, and last the Dakshinigni, 
beginning each time on the eastern side, and then moving around 
from left to right, and turning his right side towards the fire, so as 
to end on the north side ' (cf. KSty. IV, 13, 15). The Paddhati, on 



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I KANDA, I ADHYAYA, 2 BRAHMAYA, I. II 

time, viz. the winnowing basket and the Agnihotra 
ladle, the wooden sword and the potsherds, the 
wedge and the black antelope skin, the mortar and 
the pestle, the large and the small mill-stones. 
These are ten in number ; for of ten syllables con- 
sists the Vira^ - (metre), and radiant (virif) 1 also is 
the sacrifice : so that he thereby makes the sacrifice 
resemble the Vira^. The reason why he takes two 
at a time is, because a pair means strength ; for 
when two undertake anything, there is strength in 
it. Moreover, a pair represents a productive copu- 
lation, so that a productive copulation (of those 
respective objects) is thereby effected. 

Second BrAhmaya. 

i. Thereupon he takes the winnowing basket and 
the Agnihotra ladle 2 , with the text (V4f. S. I, 6 b) : 
'For the work (I take) you, for pervasion (or accom- 
plishment) you two!' For the sacrifice is a work : 
hence, in saying 'for the work you two,' he says, 'for 
the sacrifice.' And 'for pervasion you two,' he says, 

the other hand, following Apastamba, interprets it to the effect that 
on the eastern and western sides he strews the grass with its tops 
turned northward, and on the southern and northern sides with the 
tops turned eastward. 

1 Or, 'and the sacrifice also is Virig,' as the scholiast inter- 
prets the passage on the ground that at the performance of the 
Gyotish/oma 190 stotriya verses are used, and that this number 
is dividable by ten, the number of syllables in the Vir&g metre ; cf. 
Weber, Ind. Streifen I, 36, note 4. See also X, 4, 3, 21, where the 
fire is identified with the vir&g on the ground that there are ten 
fires, viz. eight dhishnya fires and the Ahavantya and Garhapa- 
tya. In VIII, 4, 5, 5 virS^ is explained as ' that which rules.' 

* For the Agnihotra-havanf or ladle used for making the 
morning and evening milk-oblations, see note on I, 3, 1, 1. For 
the winnowing basket (jurpa), see I, 1, 4, 19 seq. 



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1 2 SATAPATHA-BRAHMAtfA. 

because he, as it were, pervades (goes through, 
accomplishes) the sacrifice. 

2. He then restrains his speech ; for (restrained) 
speech means undisturbed sacrifice; so that (in so 
doing) he thinks : ' May I accomplish the sacrifice!' 
He now heats (the two objects on the Garhapatya), 
with the formula (V£f. S. I, 7 a) : ' Scorched is the 
Rakshas, scorched are the enemies!' or (Va^*. S. I, 
7b): 1 Burnt out is the Rakshas, burnt out are the 
enemies ! ' 

3. For the gods, when they were performing the 
sacrifice, were afraid of a disturbance on the part of 
the Asuras and Rakshas: hence by this means 
he expels from here, at the very opening 1 of the 
sacrifice, the evil spirits, the Rakshas. 

4. He now steps forward (to the cart 2 ), with the 
text (V&£\ S. I, 7 c) : 'I move along the wide aerial 
realm.' For the Rakshas roams about in the air, 
rootless and unfettered in both directions (below and 
above) j and in order that this man (the Adhvaryu) 
may move about the air, rootless and unfettered in 
both directions, he by this very prayer renders the 
atmosphere free from danger and evil spirits. 

5. It is from the cart that he should take (the rice 
required for the sacrifice). For at first the cart (is 
the receptacle of the rice) and afterwards this hall ; 

1 Literally, 'from the very mouth,' which refers both to the 
mouth or hollow part of the two vessels (from which the enemies 
are, as it were, burnt out), and to the opening of the sacrifice. 
The same symbolical explanation is met with on the occasion of 
the heating of the sacrificial spoon, I, 3, 1, 5. 

* The cart containing the rice or barley, or whatever material 
may be used instead, stands behind (i. e. west of) the Girhapatya, 
fitted with all its appliances (except the oxen). KSty. St. II, 3, 1 2. 
Rice-grains, as the most common material, will be assumed to con- 
stitute the chief havis (sacrificial food) at the present sacrifice. 



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I KAJV0A, I ADHYAYA, 2 BRAHMA1VA, 8. 1 3 

and because he thinks 'what was at first (in the 
cart, and hence still unimpaired by entering the 
householder's abode), that I will operate upon;' for 
that reason let him take (rice) from the cart. 

6. Moreover, the cart represents an abundance; 
for the cart does indeed represent an abundance : 
hence, when there is much of anything, people say 
that there are ' cart-loads ' of it Thus he thereby 
approaches an abundance, and for this reason he 
should take from the cart. 

7. The cart further is (one of the means of) the 
sacrifice ; for the cart is indeed (one of the means 
of) sacrifice. To the cart, therefore, refer the (fol- 
lowing) Yafus-texts, and not to a store-room, nor to 
a jar. The JZishis, it is true, once took (the rice) 
from a leathern bag, and hence, in the case of the 
/frshis, the Ya^us-texts applied to a leathern bag. 
Here, however, they are taken in their natural 
application. Because he thinks ' from (or, by means 
of) the sacrifice I will perform the sacrifice,' let him, 
therefore, take (rice) from the cart 

8. Some do indeed take it from a (wooden) jar. 
In that case also he should mutter the Ya^us-texts 
without omitting any; and let him in that case take 
(the rice) after inserting the wooden sword 1 under 

1 The sphya is a straight sword (khat/ga) or knife, a cubit 
long, carved out of khadira wood (Mimosa Catechu). Katy. St. 
I> 3> 33 > 39- It is use d f° r various purposes calculated to sym- 
bolically insure the safe and undisturbed performance of the sacri- 
fice. On the present occasion it represents the yoke, by touching 
which (par. 10) the cart is connected with the sacrifice. At the 
close of the sacrifice also the offering spoons are, as it were, un- 
yoked (or relieved of their duties), by being placed on the yoke, if 
the rice was taken from the cart ; or on the wooden sword lying on 
the jar, if it was taken from the latter. See I, 8, 3, 26. 



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14 SATAPATHA-BRAHMAJVA. 

(the jar). He does so, thinking 'where we want 
to yoke, there we unyoke;' for from the same place 
where they yoke, they also unyoke. 

9. (Like) fire, verily, is the yoke of that very cart; 
for the yoke is indeed (like) fire: hence the shoulder 
of those (oxen) that draw this (cart) becomes as if 
burnt by fire. The middle part of the pole behind 
the prop represents, as it were, its (the cart's) altar 1 ; 
and the enclosed space of the cart (which contains 
the rice) constitutes its havirdhanam (receptacle 
of the sacrificial food) 2 . 

10. He now touches the yoke, with the text 
(V&f. S. I, 8 a) : ' Thou art the yoke (dhur) ; injure 
(dhurv) thou the injurer! injure him that injures 
us ! injure him whom we injure !' For there being 
a fire in the yoke by which he will have to pass 
when he fetches the material for the oblation, he 
thereby propitiates it, and thus that fire in the yoke 
does not injure him when he passes by. 

11. Here now Aru»i said: 'Every half-moon 3 
I destroy the enemies.' This he said with reference 
to this point 

1 The pole of an Indian cart consists of two pieces of wood, joined 
together in its forepart and diverging towards the axle. Hence, as 
Siyana remarks, it resembles the altar in shape, being narrower 
in front and broader at the back, the altar measuring twenty-four 
cubits in front and thirty cubits at the back. At the extreme end 
of the pole a piece of wood is fastened on, or the pole itself is 
turned downwards, so as to serve as a prop or rest (popularly 
called ' sipoy ' in Western India, and ' horse ' in English). 

* The havirdhSna (-ma»</apa) is a temporary shed or tent 
erected on the sacrificial ground for the performance of the Soma- 
sacrifice, in which the two carts containing the Soma-plants are 
placed. These carts themselves, however, are also called havir- 
dhana. Cf. IV, 6, 9, ioseq. ; III, 5, 3, 7. 

* L e. at the time of the new and the full moon. SchoL 



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I KANDA, I ADHYAYA, 2 BRAHMAiVA, 1 4. 1 5 

1 2. Thereupon, whilst touching the pole behind 
the prop, he mutters (Vi^-. S. I, 8 b-9 a) : 'To the 
gods thou belongest, thou the best carrying one, 
the most firmly joined 1 , the most richly filled 8 , 
the most agreeable (to the gods), the best caller 
of the gods!' ' Thou art unbent, the receptacle of 
oblations; be thou firm, waver not!' Thus he 
eulogises the cart, hoping that he may obtain the 
oblation from the one thus eulogised and pleased. 
He adds (V&g. S. I, 9 b), ' May thy Lord of Sacri- 
fice not waver!' for Lord of Sacrifice is the sacri- 
ficer, and it is for the sacrificer, therefore, that he 
thus prays for firmness. 

13. He now ascends (the cart by the southern 
wheel), with the text (Vif. S. I, 9 c): 'May Vish»u 
ascend thee!' For Vishmi is the sacrifice; by 
striding (vi-kram) he obtained for the gods this 
all-pervading power (vikrinti) which now belongs 
to them. By his first step he gained this very 
(earth), by the second the aerial expanse, and by 
the last step the sky. And this very same per- 
vading power Vish»u, as sacrifice, by his strides 
obtains for him (the sacrificer). 

14. He then looks (at the rice) and (addressing 
the cart) mutters (V4f. S. I, 9 d) : ' Wide open (be 

1 Sasni-tama (?' the most bountiful'); sasni is explained by 
Mahtdhara (in accordance with Ylska, Nir. V, 1) by samsnita, 
from snd, ' to purify, cleanse,' or from snS (snai), ' to envelop, 
wrap round;' hence 'cleanest or purest,' or 'most firmly secured 
by being tied (with thongs, &c.) ' The latter was probably the 
meaning connected with the word in this sacrificial formula; 
though the correct derivation is no doubt from san, 'to acquire, 
gain,' and ' to bestow ' (Roth, Nirukta notes, p. 52). In modern 
Indian carts the yoke is fastened on to the pole by a string. 

1 Papritama, ' most filled with rice,' &c. Schol. 



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1 6 satapatha-brAhmana. 

thou) to the wind ! ' For wind means breath ; so 
that by this prayer he effects free scope for the 
air of the (sacrificer's) breath. 

15. With the text (V4f. S. I, 9 e), 'Repelled is 
the Rakshas!' he then throws away whatever (grass, 
&c) may have fallen on it But if nothing (have 
fallen on it), let him merely touch it. He thereby 
drives away from it the evil spirits, the Rakshas. 

16. He touches (the rice), with the text (Va^. S. 
I, 9 f), ' Let the five take ! ' for five are these 
fingers, and fivefold also is the sacrifice 1 ; so that 
he thereby puts the sacrifice on it (the cart). 

1 7. He then takes (the rice), with the text (V&f. S. I, 
10 a, b): 'At the impulse (prasavana) of the divine 
Savitri, I take thee with the arms of the A^vins, 
with the hands of Pushan, thee, agreeable to Agni!' 
For SavitW is the impeller (prasavitrz) of the 
gods : therefore he takes this as one impelled by 
Savitri. ' With the arms of the Asvins,' he says, 
because the two A-rvins are the Adhvaryu priests (of 
the gods). 'With the hands of Pushan,' he says, 
because Pushan is distributer of portions (to the 
gods), who with his own hands places the food 
before them. The gods are the truth, and men are 
the untruth : thus he thereby takes (the rice) by 
means of the truth. 



1 According to SSyana, because there are five kinds of obla- 
tions (havish-pahkti) at the Soma-sacrifice. Cf. Ait. Br. II, 24, 
with Haug's translation. Compare also the distinction of five 
different parts in the victim at animal sacrifices : •Sat. Br. 1, 5, 2, 16 ; 
Ait. Br. II, 14; III, 23; and the five kinds of victims, viz. man, 
horse, bullock, ram, and he-goat: Ath.V. XI, 2, 9 ; Sat. Br. I, 2, 3, 
6. 7; VI, 2, 1, 6. 18; VII, 5, a, 10; Taitt S. IV, 2, 10; ATAand. 
Up. II, 6, 1. 



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I KAATOA, I ADHYAYA, 2 BRAHMAlvA, 20. I 7 

1 8. He now announces (the oblation) to the deity 
(for whom it is intended). For when the Adhvaryu 
is about to take the oblation, all the gods draw near 
to him, thinking, ' My name he will choose ! my 
name he will choose !' and among them who are thus 
gathered together, he thereby 1 establishes concord. 

19. Another reason for which he announces (the 
oblation) to the deity, is this : whichever deities are 
chosen, they consider it as an obligation that they 
are bound to fulfil whatever wish he entertains whilst 
taking (the oblation) ; and for that reason also he an- 
nounces it to the deity. After taking the oblations 
(to the other deities) in the same way as before 8 , — 

20. He touches (the rice that is left), with the text 
(V&f. S. I, 11 a): 'For existence (or, abundance, — 
I leave) thee, not for non-offering 3 !' He thereby 
causes it to increase again. 

1 Viz. by calling out the names, since, without this being done, 
quarrels would arise among the deities as to whom the offering 
might be intended for. Mahfdh. 

* Viz. as in the case of the oblation to Agni, and substituting 
the name of the respective deity in the formula used above (par. 1 7), 
'Thee, agreeable to (Agni) I' The oblations prescribed for the 
full-moon sacrifice are a cake on eight potsherds for Agni, and one 
on eleven potsherds for Agni and Soma : for each of these cakes 
he takes four handfuls from the cart [and throws them into the 
Agnihotra ladle lying on the winnowing basket which he holds 
with his left hand. With each of the first three handfuls of each 
of the two oblations he repeats the above text, whilst the fourth 
handful is thrown in silently. After the oblation for Agni is taken, 
he pours it from the ladle into the winnowing basket so as to lie 
on the southern side ; and then takes out the oblation for Agni- 
Soma, which is afterwards poured into the basket so as to lie 
north of the first heap]. Kilty. St. II, 3, 20-21 and ScholL 

* Thus Mahtdhara (i. e. 'to serve for future oblations, or as food 
for the priests'). Perhaps the meaning is, 'For a (divine or human) 
being thee, not for the evil spirit 1' Cf. St. Petersburg Diet. s. v. 
bhuta. 

[.2] C 



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1 8 satapatha-brAhma#a. 

21. He now (whilst seated on the cart) looks 
towards east, with the text (Va^ - . S. I, 1 1 b) : ' May 

I perceive the light!' For that cart being covered 
up, its eye is thereby, as it were, affected with evil. 
Light, moreover, represents the sacrifice, the day, 
the gods, and the sun ; so that he thereby perceives 
this same (fourfold) light. 

22. He then descends (from the cart), with the 
text (VS,f. S. 1, 1 1 c) : ' May those provided with doors 
stand firm on the earth ! ' Those provided with doors 
are the houses : for the houses of the sacrificer 
might indeed be capable of breaking down behind 
the back of his Adhvaryu, when he walks forward 
(from the cart) with the sacrifice, and might crush 
his (the sacrificer's) family. By this (text), however, 
he causes them to stand firmly on this earth, so that 
they do not break down and crush (his family) ; for 
this reason he says : ' May those provided with doors 
stand firm on the earth ! ' He then walks forward 
(north of the Garhapatya fire), with the text(V4f. S. I, 

I I d), ' I move along the wide aerial realm ;' the appli- 
cation of which is the same (as before ; see par. 4). 

23. In the case of one (viz. householder) whose 
Garhapatya fire they (the priests) use for cooking 
oblations, they place the utensils in the Garhapatya 
(house) ; and let him (the Adhvaryu) in that case put 
(the winnowing basket with the rice) down at the 
back (or west) side of the Garhapatya. But in the 
case of one whose Ahavantya they use for cooking 
oblations, they place the utensils together in the 
Ahavaniya ; and let him in that case put it (the 
rice) down at the back of the Ahavaniya. He 
should (in either case) do so, with the text (Va^. S. I, 
lie),' On the navel of the earth I place thee !' for 



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I KAJVDA, I ADHYAYA, 3 BRAHMAJVA, 2. 1 9 

the navel means the centre, and the centre is safe 
from danger: for this reason he says, ' On the navel 
of the earth I place thee ! ' And further, ' In the 
lap of Aditi (the boundless or inviolable earth) ! ' for 
when people guard anything very carefully, they 
commonly say that ' they, as it were, carried it in 
their lap ; ' and this is the reason why he says, ' In 
the lap of Aditi ! ' And further, ' O Agni, do thou 
protect this offering!' whereby he makes this obla- 
tion over for protection both to Agni and to this 
earth : for this reason he says, ' O Agni, do thou 
protect this offering!' 

Third Brahma^a. 

1. He now prepares two strainers (pavitra) 1 , with 
the text (V&f. S. I, 12 a): ' Purifiers (or strainers, 
pavitra) are ye, and belonging to Vish«u!' For 
Vish»u is the sacrifice ; so that he thereby says, 
' You belong to the sacrifice.' 

2. Two there are of them: for means of cleansing 
(pavitra) is this (wind) which here ventilates (pa- 
vate) ; and this, it is true, ventilates as one only ; 
but on entering into man, it becomes a forward and 
a backward one, and they are these two, to wit, the 
pra«a (breathing out) and the udana (breathing up 
or in) 2 . And as this (clarifying process) takes place 

1 These strainers (or clarifiers) are to consist of two blades of 
Kuxa grass, with unbroken or undecayed tops, and without buds 
on them ; and they must be severed from their roots by means of 
other Kuja blades, so as to be of equal length (viz. one pradera, 
or span of thumb and fore-finger, long). Katy. St. II, 3, 31. 

5 Thus Sdyana here takes the terms prSwa (u&pingal&din&fi- 
dviri bahir nirga^Aan priwaA praft) and udSna (tathaiva dvara 
punar antaA pravuan pratyah). In Ait. Br. II, 29, and IThind. 
Up- I> 3> 3> prana, apana, and vyana are mentioned as the 

C 2 



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20 SATAPATHA-BRAHMAJVA. 

in accordance with the measure of that (process of 
breathing), therefore there are two (strainers). 

3. There may also be three: for the vy ana (or 
pervading vital air) * is a third (kind of breathing) ; 
but in reality there are only two. Having then 
strained the sprinkling water 2 with these two 
(strainers), he sprinkles with it. The reason why 
he strains it with the two (strainers) is this : 

4. VWtra in truth lay covering all this (space) 
which here extends between heaven and earth. 
And because he lay covering (vri) all this, there- 
fore his name is VWtra. 

5. Him Indra slew. He being slain flowed forth 
stinking in all directions towards the water ; for in 
every direction lies the ocean. And in consequence 
of this, some of the waters became disgusted, and, 
rising higher and higher, flowed over: whence 
(sprung) these grasses (of which the strainers are 
made) ; for they represent the water which was not 
putrified. With the other (water), however, some 

three vital airs; where prawa is taken by Professors Haug and 
Mtiller as ' in-breathing ' (' respiration ' or ' expiration,' Roer), and 
apana as 'out-breathing' ('inspiration,' R5er). Five vital airs 
are generally enumerated (Sat. Br. IX, 2, 2, 5) ; but theological 
speculation evidently considered these bodily processes a very con- 
venient source of symbolism, as we find mention made in the 
Sat. Br. of six (XIV, 1,3,32); seven (III, 1,3, 21; XIII, 1,7, 2); 
nine (I, 5, 2, 5) ; and ten (XI, 6, 3, 7) breaths or vital airs. 

1 'A combination of the out-breathing and in-breathing;' but 
as there is no distinction between this kind of breath and the 
others (combined), two must be considered as the normal number 
of strainers. Schol. 

* He pours water into the Agnihotra ladle (in which some of 
the awn of the rice remains), and after cleaning it with the two 
strainers, he sprinkles with it. K£ty. II, 3, 33 seq. The details of 
this process are given in par. 6 seq. 



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I KANDA, I ADHYAYA, 3 BRAHMAJVA, 7. 21 

matter has become mixed up, inasmuch as the 
putrid VWtra flowed into it. This he now removes 
from it by means of these two strainers ; whereupon 
he sprinkles with the (sacrificially) pure water. This 
is the reason why he strains it through them. 

6. He strains it, with the text (Vif. S. I, 12 b): 
' By the impulse of Savitr* I purify thee with this 
flawless purifier (or ventilator, pavitra), with the rays 
of the sun !' For Savitrz is the impeller (prasavitr*) 
of the gods, so that he strains this (water) as one 
impelled by Savitrz. ' With this flawless purifier (ven- 
tilator, pavitra),' he says, because this (wind) which 
here ventilates (or purifies, pa vate) is a flawless puri- 
fier. ' With the rays of the sun,' he says, because they, 
the rays of the sun, are certainly purifying ; and for 
this reason he says, 'With the rays of the sun.' 

7. Having taken it (the water with the ladle) in 
his left hand, he makes it spirt upwards with his 
right hand, and eulogises and glorifies it, with the 
text (V&£". S. I, 12 c) : ' Shining (or divine) waters ! 
ye the first-going, the first-drinking 1 ones!' For 
the waters are shining ; and for this reason he says, 
' Shining waters ! ' ' First-going,' he calls them, be- 
cause they flow towards the sea and are therefore 
going in front (or forwards). ' First-drinking,' he 
calls them, because they are the first that drink 
of king Soma 2 and are therefore 'drinking first.' 
And further : ' Forward now lead this sacrifice 3 , 

1 AgrepuvaA; Mahidhara allows to it the alternative meaning 
* first- purifying.' 

* ' Because, for the sake of extracting the juice from the Soma- 
plants, water is poured on them, so that the water drinks of the 
juice before the gods do.' Say. • 

* I. e. ' carry the sacrifice through without hindrance.' Mahidh. 



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22 DATAPATH A-BRAHMA1VA. 

forward the Lord of Sacrifice, the liberal, god-loving 
Lord of Sacrifice ! ' whereby he says, ' Well (lead) 
the sacrifice, well the sacrificer!' 

8. And further (Va^\ S. I, 13 a): 'You Indra 
chose (for his companions) in the battle against 
VWtra!' For Indra, when he was battling with 
VWtra, did choose them (the waters) and with their 
help he killed him; and for this reason he says, 
' You Indra chose in the battle against VWtra!' 

9. 'You chose Indra in the battle against VWtra!' 
for they, too, chose Indra when he was battling with 
Vmra, and with them he killed him : therefore he 
says, 'You chose Indra in the battle against Vr/'tra !' 

10. And further (V&f. S. I, 13d) : 'Consecrated 
by sprinkling are ye !' With these words he makes 
amends to them 1 . He then sprinkles the (first) 
oblation 2 . One and the same meaning applies to 
the (whole process of) sprinkling, viz. he thereby 
makes sacrificially pure that (which he sprinkles). 

11. He sprinkles, with the text (Va^. S. I, 13 e) : 
' Thee, agreeable to Agni, I sprinkle ! ' Thus for which- 
ever deity the oblation is intended, for that one he 
thereby renders it sacrificially pure. When he has in 
the same way as before sprinkled (all) the oblations, — 

12. He then sprinkles the sacrificial vessels 3 , 

1 He, in the first place, sprinkles the sprinkling water in the 
ladle with itself; and the guilt incurred in the act of consecrating 
it with itself, that is, with something unconsecrated, is made amends 
for by the accompanying formula, Say. Similarly Mahidhara : 
' The unconsecrated (water) cannot consecrate other (water).' 

2 Before doing so he asks the Brahman's permission (cf. p. 7, 
note 1), ' O Brahman I shall I sprinkle the oblation?' when the latter, 
after muttering the mantra, 'Sprinkle the sacrifice I gladden the 
deities,' Ac, gives the permission by 'Oml sprinkle !' Paddh. on 
Katy. II, 3, 36. 

s According to some authorities the vessels are placed together 



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i kAjvda, i adhyAya, 4 brAhmajva, i. 23 

with the text (V&f. S. I, 13 g), ' Be ye pure for the 
divine work, for the sacrifice to the gods!' for it is 
for the divine work, the sacrifice to the gods, that he 
consecrates them. 'Whatever, that belongs to you, 
the impure have defiled by touching, that I hereby 
purify for you!' For whatever belonging to them 
some impure one — either a carpenter or some other 
impure person — has on this occasion desecrated by 
touching, that he thereby renders sacrificially pure 
for them by means of the water; and therefore he 
says, ' Whatever, that belongs to you, the impure 
have defiled by touching, that I hereby purify for 
you 1 !' 

Fourth Brahmajva. 

1. He now takes the black antelope skin 2 , for 
completeness of the sacrifice. For once upon a 
time the sacrifice escaped the gods, and having be- 
come a black antelope roamed about. The gods 
having thereupon found it and stripped it of its 
skin, they brought it (the skin) away with them. 

on one heap, and are then consecrated together by one sprinkling. 
According to others, each vessel must be consecrated separately. 
Katy. St. II, 3, 39. 

1 After he has done the sprinkling, he puts the remaining water 
away in some place where nobody is allowed to walk [as between 
the prawttas and the Ahavanfya; or (according to Apastamba) 
before, or east of, the Garhapatya, since nobody is allowed to pass 
between the Garhapatya and Ahavaniya. The two strainers also 
remain in the sprinkling water]. Katy. St. II, 3, 40. 

' The skin of the black antelope may be regarded as one of 
the symbols of Brahmanical worship and civilisation. Thus it is 
said in Manu II, 22-23: 'That which lies between these two 
mountain ranges (the Himalaya and the Vindhya), from the eastern 
to the western ocean, the wise know as Aryavarta (the land of the 
Aryas). Where the black antelope naturally roams about, that 
should be known as the land suitable for sacrifice; what lies 
beyond that is the country of the MleAMas (barbarians).' 



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24 SATAPATHA-BRAHMAJVA. 

2. Its white and black hairs represent the Rik- 
verses and the Sim an- verses; to wit, the white the 
Saman and the black the Rik ; or conversely, the 
black the Saman and the white the Rik. The 
brown and the yellow ones, on the other hand, 
represent the Ya,fus-texts. 

3. Now this same threefold science is the sacri- 
fice ; that manifold form, that (varying) colour of 
this (science) is what is (represented by) this 
black antelope skin. For the completeness of the 
sacrifice (he takes the skin) : hence the rite of ini- 
tiation (for the Soma-sacrifice) is likewise performed 
on the black antelope skin j — for the completion of 
the sacrifice : hence it is also used for husking and 
bruising (the rice) on, in order that nothing of the 
oblation may get spilt; and that, if any grain or 
flour should now be spilt on it, the sacrifice would 
still remain securely established in the sacrifice. For 
this reason it is used for husking and bruising upon. 

4. He thus takes the black antelope skin, with 
the text (Va£\ S. 1, 14a): 'Bliss-bestowing (yarman) 
art thou !' For barman (' hide ') is the name of that 
(skin of the) black deer used among men, but 
carman (bliss) is (that used) among the gods; and 
for this reason he says, ' Bliss-bestowing art thou ! ' 
He shakes it, with the text (Va^ - . S. I, 14 b), 
'Shaken oft* is the Rakshas, shaken off are the 
enemies ! ' whereby he repels from it the evil spirits, 
the Rakshas. He shakes it whilst holding it apart 
from the vessels * ; whereby he shakes off whatever 
impure matter there may have been on it. 

1 According to some exegetes the Adhvaryu himself must step 
beyond (i.e. aside from) the vessels when he shakes the skin; 
according to others, he should not move, but only hold the skin 



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I KANDA, I ADHYAYA, 4 BRAHMAtfA, 7. 25 

5. He spreads it (on the ground with the hairy 
side upwards, and) with its neck-part turned to the 
west 1 , with the text (V£f. S. I, 14 c) : ' The skin of 
Aditi art thou! May Aditi acknowledge thee!" 
For Aditi is this earth, and whatever is on her, 
that serves as a skin to her: for this reason he says, 
' The skin of Aditi art thou ! ' And • may Aditi 
acknowledge thee!' he says, because one who is 
related (to another) acknowledges (him). Thereby 
he establishes a mutual understanding between her 
and the black antelope skin, (thinking) 'they will 
not hurt each other.' While it is still being held 
down with his left hand, — 

6. He at once takes the mortar with his right 
hand, fearing lest the evil spirits, the Rakshas, 
might rush in here in the meantime. For the 
priest (brahmawa) 2 is the repeller of the Rakshas : 
therefore, whilst it is still being held down with his 
left hand, — 

7. He puts the mortar (on it), with the text (V&£\ 
S. I, 14 d, e) : 'A wooden stone (adri) art thou!' 

apart from the vessels, so that no impure matter should fall on 
them. Some also maintain that the skin should only be shaken 
once, whilst others think it should be done three times. Cf. Katy. 
Sr. II, 4, 2. Schol. 

1 Special mention is here made of this feature, since as a rule 
(Kity. I, 10, 4) the skin is spread with its neck-part turned east- 
wards. He lays it down on the north side of the sacrificial ground, 
either west of the utkara (the mound formed by the earth dug 
out in constructing the altar, and by other rubbish) or exactly 
north of the GSrhapatya. Schol. on K&ty. II, 4, 3. 

a Only a Brihman can perform sacrifice. If, as is permitted in 
certain ceremonies, a Kshatriya or Vaijya officiates, he, as it were, 
becomes a Br&hman (and is addressed as such) for the occasion, 
by means of the dtkshS, or rite of initiation. Cf. .Sat. Br. Ill, 
2, 1, 39 ; XIII, 4, 1, 3. 



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26 SATAPATHA-BRAHMAiVA. 

or 'A broad-bottomed stone (gravan) art thou!' 
For, just as there (in the Soma-sacrifice) they press 
king Soma out with stones (gravan), thus here 
also he prepares the oblation (havirya^wa) by 
means of the mortar and pestle, and the large and 
small mill-stones 1 . Now 'stones (adraya^)' is 
the common name of these, and therefore he says, 
' a stone art thou.' And ' wooden,' he calls it, be- 
cause this one (the mortar) really is made of wood 2 . 
Or, he says, 'a broad-bottomed stone (gravan) art 
thou,' because it is both a stone and broad-bottomed. 
He adds : ' May Aditi's skin acknowledge (receive) 
thee ! ' whereby he establishes a mutual understand- 
ing between it (the mortar) and the black antelope 
skin, thinking: ' they will not injure each other.' 

8. He then pours the (two portions of) rice (from 
the winnowing basket into the mortar), with the text 
(VAf. S. I, 15 a) : ' Thou art the body of Agni, 
thou the releaser of speech ! ' For it is (material 
for) sacrifice, and hence (by being offered in the fire) 
it becomes Agni's body. ' The releaser of speech,' 
he adds, because he now releases that speech which 
he restrained when he was about to take the rice 
(from the cart). The reason why he now releases his 
speech, is that the sacrifice has now obtained a firm 
footing in the mortar, that it has become diffused ; 
and for this reason he says, 'the releaser of speech ! ' 

1 Here, as in I, 5, 2, 11 (havirya^ne 'tha saumye 'dhvare), 
we have the simple division of the ^rauta-sacrifices into obla- 
tions (of ghee, milk, rice, barley, &c.) and libations (of Soma). 
More usually the pajubandhu, or animal-sacrifice, is added as 
a third division. See also I, 7, 2, 10. 

* The mortar (ulukhala) and pestle (musala) are to be made 
of very hard wood, viz. both of vara»a wood (CraUega Roxburghii), 
or the mortar of paid* a wood (Butea Frondosa), and the pestle of 



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I KANDA, I ADHYAYA, 4 BRAHMAtfA, II. 2 J 

9. Should he, however (by some accident), utter 
any human sound before this time, let him in that 
case mutter some Rik or Ya^us-text addressed to 
Vishmi 1 ; for Vishwu is the sacrifice, so that he 
thereby again obtains a hold on the sacrifice, and 
penance is thereby done by him (for not keeping 
silent). He adds : ' For the pleasure of the gods 
I seize thee!' for the oblation is taken with the 
intention ' that it shall gladden the gods.' 

10. He now takes the pestle, with the text (Va^. 
S. I, 14 b), 'A large, wooden stone art thou!' for 
it is a large stone, and made of wood, too. He 
thrusts it down, with the text (V4f. S. 1, 14 c), ' Do 
thou prepare this oblation for the gods 2 ! do thou 
prepare it thoroughly!' thereby saying, 'Get this 
oblation ready for the gods ! get it quite ready ! ' 

11. He then calls the Havishkrzt 8 (preparer 
of the sacrificial food), ' Havishk^'t, come hither ! 
Havishkrzt, come hither ! ' The Havishkrzt 4 no 
doubt is speech, so that he thereby frees speech from 

k h a d i r a wood (Acacia Catechu). The former is to be of the height 
of the knee, and the latter three aratnis (cubits) long. Schol. on 
Katy. I, 3, 36 ; M. Mtiller, Die Todtenbestattung bei den Brah- 
manen, Zeitsch. der D. Morg. Ges. IX, p. xl. 

1 Kity. Sr. II, 2, 6-7 lays down the general rule, that if the 
Brahman or Adhvaryu (and according to some, the sacrificer also) 
by some slip were to utter any sound during the time for which 
restraint of speech (vstg-yama) is enjoined, they must atone for 
the transgression by muttering some mantra addressed to Vishnu, 
such as the couplet (V£g. S. V, 38, 41), ' Widely, O Vishwu, stride !' 
&c, or the formula (ib. I, 4), ' O Vishwu, preserve the sacrifice I ' 

* Or ' for the god,' ' for the goddess,' as the case may be. 

s Or, he pronounces the havishkr/t formula, see next note. 
According to KSty. Si. II, 4, 13 he calls out three separate times. 

4 Havishkr/'t denotes not only the person that prepares the 
oblation, but also this formula by which that person is called. 



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28 satapatha-brAhmajva. 

restraint. And speech, moreover, represents sacrifice 1 , 
so that he thereby again calls the sacrifice to him. 

12. Now there are four different forms of this 
call, viz. 'come hither (ehi)!' in the case of a 
Brahman; 'approach (agahi)!' and 'hasten hither 
(adrava) !' in the case of a VaLyya and a member of 
the military caste (r£f anyabandhu 2 ) ; and 'run 
hither (adhava)!' in that of a Sudra. On this 
occasion he uses the call that belongs to a Brah- 
man, because that one is best adapted for a sacrifice, 
and is besides the most gentle: let him therefore 
say, 'come hither (ehi) !' 

13. Now in former times it was no other than the 
wife (of the sacrificer) who rose at this (call, to act) 
as Havishkr/'t; therefore now also (she or) some 
one (priest) 3 rises in answer to this call. And at 
the time when he (the Adhvaryu) calls the Havish- 
kn't, one of the priests * beats the two mill-stones. 

1 Viz. in the shape of the sacrificial formulas. 

1 This inversion of the order of the second (or Kshatriya) and 
third (or Vairya) castes is rather strange. The Sutras of Bharadv., 
Apast., and Hirawy. assign the same formulas to the several castes 
as here. Cf. Hillebrandt, Neu- und Vollmondsopfer, p. 29. 

* According to the Schol. on Katy. St. II, 4, 13, either the 
wife of the patron or the Agntdhra (the priest who kindles the 
fire) acts as Havishkr/'t Mahidh. on Va£. S. I, 15 includes the 
patron (sacrificer) himself, unless ya^amanaA patni is a misprint 
for ya^amSnapatnf. According to Apastamba, 'either a maid- 
servant or the wife grinds; or the wife threshes and the Sudra 
woman grinds ' (cf. Schol. on Kity. St. II, 5, 7). Similarly Bhiradv. 
and Hirany. ; cf. Hillebrandt, p. 38, n. a. Similar cases of dif- 
ferences between the ritualistic practices of the present time and 
those of former times are very frequently alluded to in the ritualistic 
books ; and are of especial interest, as they afford some insight 
into the gradual development of the sacrificial ceremonial. Cf. 
Weber, Ind. Stud. X, 156 seq. 

4 Viz. the Agnidhra, whilst seated north of the expansion 



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I KAATOA, I ADHYAya, 4 BRAhMANA, 1 6. 29 

The reason why they produce this discordant noise, 
is this : 

14. Manu was in possession of a bull '. Into him 
had entered an Asura-killing, foe-killing voice ; and 
by his snorting and roaring the Asuras and Rakshas 
were continually being crushed. Thereupon the 
Asuras said to one another : ' Evil, alas ! this bull 
inflicts upon us ! how can we possibly destroy him ?' 
Now Kilata and Akuli were the two priests 
(brahman) of the Asuras. 

1 5. These two said, ' God-fearing, they say, is 
Manu : let us two then ascertain ! ' They then went 
to him and said : ' Manu! we will sacrifice for thee!' 
He said: 'Wherewith?' They said: 'With this 
bull ! ' He said : ' So be it ! ' On his (the bull's) 
being killed the voice went from him. 

16. It entered into Manavi, the wife of Manu; 
and when they heard her speak, the Asuras and 
Rakshas were continually being crushed. There- 
upon the Asuras said to one another : ' Hereby 
even greater evil is inflicted on us, for the human 
voice speaks more ! ' Kilata and Akuli then said : 
' God-fearing, they say, is Manu : let us then ascer- 
tain ! ' They went to him and said : ' Manu ! we 
will sacrifice for thee ! ' He said : ' Wherewith ? ' 

(vihira) of the fires ; he strikes with the wedge (jamy a, a stick of 
khadira wood, usually some six or eight inches long, used for 
placing under the lower grindstone on the north side, so as to 
make it incline towards east) twice the lower and once the upper 
grindstone. Schol. on Katy. Si. II, 4, 15. 

1 This bull of Manu has been compared by Dr. Kuhn (Zeit- 
schrift fur Vergl. Sprachf. IV, 91 seq.) with the Minotaur of the 
Greeks. Cf. also J. Muir, Original Sanskrit Texts, vol. i. p. 188 
seq. ; and Professor Weber's Translation of the first AdhySya, Ind. 
Streifen, I, p. 50. 



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30 SATAPATHA-BRAHMAiVA. 

They said : ' With this thy wife ! ' He said : ' So 
be it ! ' And on her being killed that voice went 
from her. 

17. It entered into the sacrifice itself, into the 
sacrificial vessels ; and thence those two (Asura 
priests) were unable to expel it. This same Asura- 
killing, foe-killing voice sounds forth (from the mill- 
stones when they are beaten with the wedge). And 
for whomsoever that knows this, they produce this 
discordant noise on the present occasion, his enemies 
are rendered very miserable. 

18. He beats the mill-stones with the wedge,, 
with the text (Vfif. S. I, 16 a) : 'A honey-tongued 
cock (kukku/a *) art thou (O wedge) ! ' For honey- 
tongued indeed was he (the bull) for the gods, 
and poison-tongued for the Asuras : hence he 
thereby says : ' What thou wert for the gods, that 
be thou for us !' He adds : ' Sap and strength do 
thou call hither ! with thy help may we conquer in 
every battle ! ' In these words there is nothing that 
is obscure. 

19. Thereupon a he (the Adhvaryu) takes the 
winnowing basket, with the text (V&f. S. I, 14 b) : 
' Rain-grown art thou ! ' For rain-grown it is indeed, 
whether it be made of reeds or of cane or of rushes, 
since it is the rain that makes these grow. 

1 Mahtdhara offers the following etymological derivation of this 
word: 1. from kva kva, 'where? where?' [' He who, wishing to 
kill the Asuras, roams about everywhere, crying 'where, where 
are the Asuras?']; 2. from kuk, 'a hideous noise,' and ku/, 'to 
spread;' or 3. one who, in order to frighten the Asuras, utters 
a sound resembling that of the bird called kukku/a (cock). Pro- 
fessor Weber translates it by ' Brttller ' (roarer, crier). 

4 Viz. when the rice has been husked (by the Havishkrjit in the 
mortar). Schol. on Katy. Si. II, 4, 16. 



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i kajvda, i adhyAya, 4 brahmajva, 22. 31 

20. He then pours out the (threshed) rice (from 
the mortar into the winnowing basket), with the text 
(Va/ - . S. I, 16 c) : ' May the rain-grown acknowledge 
(receive) thee!' For rain-grown also are these 
(grains), whether they be rice or barley, since it is 
the rain that makes them grow. By these words he 
establishes an understanding between them and the 
winnowing basket, in the hope ' that they will not 
injure each other.' 

21. He now winnows (the rice), with the text 
(Vif. S. I, 16 d) : ' Cleared off is the Rakshas ! 
cleared off are the evil-doers ! ' The husks (which 
have fallen on the ground) he throws away \ with 
the text (Va^\ S. 1, 16 e), ' Expelled is the Rakshas!' 
for those evil spirits, the Rakshas, he thereby expels. 

22. He then separates (the husked grains from 
the unhusked), with the text (Va£\ S. 1, 16 f ): ' May 
the wind separate you !' For it is that wind (which 
is produced by the winnowing) which here purifies 
(or blows, pavate); and it is the wind that separates 
everything here (on earth) that undergoes separation : 
therefore it also separates here those (two kinds of 
grain) from each other. Now when they are under- 
going this process, and whilst he is separating* (the 
husked, so as to drop them into a pot), — 

1 He puts them into the central one of the potsherds for the 
Agni cake, and throws them on the utkara, or heap of rubbish 
(cf. p. 25, note 1). Schol. on Kity. Si. II, 4, 19. Before he pro- 
ceeds with his work, he has to touch water; cf. p. 2, note 2. 

* He separates them whilst holding the mouth of the winnowing 
basket sideways or horizontally, and makes the husked ones fall 
into the pot. Schol. on KSty. Si. II, 4, 20. According to the Pad- 
dhati, he now puts the unhusked once more into the mortar and 
threshes them again, and then pouring them back into the basket, 
repeats the same process. 



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32 satapatha-brAhmamv. 

23. He addresses (those in the pot) thus (V&g: S. 
I, 16 g): 'May the divine SavitW, the golden- 
handed, receive you with a flawless 1 hand !' By this 
he says: 'May they be well received!' He then 
cleans them thrice * ; for threefold is the sacrifice. 

24. Here now some clean them with the formula: 
' For the gods get clean ! for the gods get clean !' 
But let him not do so : for this oblation is intended 
for some particular deity ; and if he were to say, 
' For the gods get clean ! ' he would make it one 
intended for all the deities, and would thereby raise 
a quarrel among the deities. Let him therefore do 
the cleaning silently 1 

Second AdhyAya. First BrAhmava. 

1. Now the one (viz. the Agnldhra) puts the 
potsherds on (the Garhapatya fire); the other (viz. 
the Adhvaryu) the two mill-stones (on the black 
antelope skin) : these two acts are done simulta- 
neously. The reason why they are done simul- 
taneously (is this) : 

2. The head of this sacrifice is (represented by) 
the rice-cake 3 : for those potsherds (kapala), no 
doubt, are to this (rice-cake) what the skull bones 
(kapala) are to the head, and the ground rice is 

1 Viz. with the fingers joined together so as not to allow any 
grains to fall to the ground. Mahtdh. 

* By removing the minute husks and grains (k a » a) he makes the 
husked grains (tawrfula) free from dust and shiny (this is apparently 
done by repeated winnowings). Schol. on KSty. St. II, 4, 22. 

* This idea was no doubt suggested by the derivation of the 
word puro<ftb (rice-cake), from puras, 'before, in front, at the 
head,' and d&s, 'to offer' (see I, 6, 2, 5); the double meaning of 
kapSla (shell or cup and skull) being made use of to complete 
the simile. 



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I KAiVDA, 2 ADHYAYA, I BRAHMAYA, 5. $$ 

nothing else than the brain. Now this (combination 
of skull and brain) certainly forms one limb : ' Let 
us put that (which is) one together ! Let us make it 
one!' thus they think; and therefore the two acts 
are done simultaneously. 

3. He who puts the potsherds on (the fire), takes 
the shovelling-stick (u pa vesh a), with the text(Vif. 
S. I, 17a): 'Bold (dhrzsh/i) art thou!' For since 
with it he, as it were, attacks the fire boldly, there- 
fore it is called dhrtsh/i 1 . And since with it he 
touches (the coals) at the sacrifice, since with it he 
attends to (upa-vish) this (Garhapatya fire), there- 
fore it is called upavesha. 

4. With it he shifts the coals to the fore-part* 
(of the khara or hearth-mound), with the text (V4f. 
S. I, 17b): 'O fire! cast off the fire that eateth 
raw flesh ! drive away the corpse-eating one ! ' For 
the raw flesh-eating (fire) is the one with which men 
cook what they eat; and the corpse-eating one is 
that on which they burn (the dead) man : these two 
he thereby expels from it (the Garhapatya). 

5. He now pulls toward himself 3 one coal, with 
the text (V&f. S. I, 17c): ' Bring hither that (fire) 
which maketh offerings to the gods ! ' He thinks : 
' On that (fire), which makes offerings to the gods, we 

1 The upavesha, or dhrj'sh/i, is made of fresh varawa or 
palfij a wood, a cubit (aratni) or span (vitasti) long; one of its ends 
having the shape of a hand (hastdkrj'ti), to serve as a coal shovel; 
cf. Mahtdh. and Schol. on K%. I, 3, 36 ; II, 4, 26. Dhr»'sh/i is 
apparently derived from the root dhr* sh, ' to be bold.' 

* The burning coals have been hitherto lying on the western 
side of the Girhapatya hearth, and as this side, which has been 
well heated by this time, will be used for the potsherds to be put on, 
he shifts the coals to the eastern or fore-part of the hearth. 

* Viz. to the centre of the cooking-place. 

[12] D 



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34 ^atapatha-brAhmaata. 

will cook the oblations! on that one we will perform 
the sacrifice!' and for this- reason he pulls (one of 
the coals) toward himself. 

6. On it he places the central potsherd 1 . For 

1 In Ya#»ika Deva's commentary on Katy. II, 4, 37, full explana- 
tions are given regarding the manner of arranging the potsherds 
(k a pal as) on which the sacrificial cakes are spread, and which 
vary in number and shape. The Adhvaryu is first to describe 
a circle, the diameter of which is six angulas (an angula or 
thumb's breadth - about $ inch). This circle he then divides into 
three parts by drawing across, from west to east, two parallel lines 
at a distance of two angulas from one another, so as to make the 
two outer (or southern and northern) segments of equal size. The 
middle division he then covers with three equal square potsherds 
(measuring two angulas on each side), by laying down first the 
central one, then the one behind or west of it, and lastly the front 
or eastern one. He then lays down another (the fourth) south of 
the first or central one ; after which he divides the still remaining 
potsherds equally between the southern and the northern segments, 
or, in case of that number being uneven, assigns the odd potsherd 
to the southern division. Thus, in the present case, where in the 
first place a cake on eight potsherds is to be offered to Agni; 
after laying down the three intermediate ones and the fourth, or 
central one of the southern division, he djpides the remaining four 
equally between the southern and northern segments, beginning, 
in laying them down, in the south-east corner, and moving around 
from right to left, so as to end in the north-east. Similarly in the 
case of the cake on eleven potsherds for Agnishomau, after 
laying down the first four potsherds, he assigns four of the re- 
maining seven to the southern, and three to the northern division. 
Thus with cakes requiring an uneven number of potsherds, the 
number of those of the southern division exceeds that of the nor- 
thern one by two ; and in the case of an even number, by one 
only. 'This is the rule applying to cakes requiring at least six 
potsherds. When one potsherd only is required, it is to be of the 
size of a hand ; when two, they are to form a circle divided into 
two equal parts by a line drawn from south to north ; when three, 
the circle is divided into three sections from south to north ; when 
four or five, it is divided into two halves from west to east ; and in 
the one case three potsherds are placed in the southern and one 
(of half-moon shape) in the northern half; in the other case three 
in the northern and two in the southern division. The potsherds, 



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I KAYDA, 2 ADHYAYA, I BRAHMAJVA, f. 35 

the gods, when they were performing sacrifice, were 
in fear of a disturbance from the Asuras and 
Rakshas. They were afraid lest those evil spirits, 
the Rakshas, might rise from below them. Now 
Agni (fire) is the repeller of the Rakshas, and for 
this reason he thus places (the potsherd) on it. 
The reason why it is just this (coal) and no other 
(on which the potsherd is put) is, that this one, 
having been consecrated by the (above) sacrificial 
formula, is sacrificially pure : that is why he places 
the central potsherd on it 

7. He puts it on, with the text (V&f. S. I, 17 d) : 
'Thou art firm; make thou the earth firm!' For 
under the form of the earth he renders this same 
(sacrifice) firm ; by it he chases away the spiteful 
enemy. He adds : ' Thee, devoted to the brah- 
man, devoted to the kshatra, devoted to the 
(sacrificer's) kinsmen, I put on for the destruction of 
the enemy ! ' Manifold, indeed, are the prayers for 
blessing in the sacrificial texts (ya.g~ us) : by this one 
he prays for the priestly and military orders, those 
two towers of strength (virye, energies) 1 . 'Thee, 
devoted to the (sacrificer's) kinsmen,' he says, be- 
cause kinsmen mean wealth, and wealth he thereby 
prays for. When he says, ' I put thee on for the 
destruction of the enemy,' whether or not he wishes 
to exorcise, let him say, ' for the destruction of so 



though mostly irregular in shape, must always exactly fit one 
another, so as not to leave any space between. This is effected by 
rubbing the edges. The cake itself is to be of the shape of a 
tortoise ; the convex shield, or carapace, of the latter consisting of 
plates arranged in a somewhat similar way as the potsherds of most 
cakes, viz. in a central (dorsal) and two lateral sets. 

1 For special prayers for the two highest castes, in the Va£as. 
Sawh., cf. Weber, Ind. Stud. X, 27. 

D 2 



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36 jatapatha-brAhmajva. 

and so ! ' The moment it (the potsherd) has been 
put down (and while it is still being touched) with 
the (fore-)finger of his left hand, — 

8. He seizes a (second) coal, lest the evil spirits, 
the Rakshas, should in the meantime rush in here. 
For the Brahman is the repeller of the Rakshas J : 
hence, the moment it (the potsherd) has been put 
down (and while it is still being touched) with the 
finger of his left hand, — 

9. He pushes the coal on it, with the text (Vi^ - . 
S. 1, 1 8 a) : 'Accept, O Agni, this holy work (brah- 
man) 2 !' He says this, lest the evil spirits, the 
Rakshas, should rush in here before ; for Agni is 
the repeller of the Rakshas : this is the reason why 
he pushes it on (the potsherd). 

10. He then puts on that (potsherd) which is 
(to stand) behind (or west of the first or central 
one), with the text (Va^ - . S. 1, 18 b) : 'A support art 
thou! make firm the aerial region!' Under the 
form of the atmosphere he makes this (sacrifice) 
firm; by this he chases away the spiteful enemy. He 
adds : 'Thee, devoted to the brahman, devoted to 
the kshatra, devoted to the (sacrificer's) kinsmen, 
I put on for the destruction of the enemy ! ' 

11. He then puts on that one which is (to stand) 

before (i. e. east of the first potsherd), with the text 

(Va^; S. I, 18 c) : 'A stay art thou ! do thou make 

firm the sky ! ' Under the form of the sky he makes 

this same (sacrifice) firm ; by it he chases away the 

spiteful enemy. He adds : ' Thee, devoted to the 

brahman, devoted to the kshatra, devoted to the 

kinsmen, I put on for the destruction of the enemy!' 
________ _ „_. 

2 Mahtdhara admits the alternative interpretation, 'Receive (me) 
the priest 1' 



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I KANDA, 2 ADHYAYA, I BRAHMAYA, 1 3. 37 

1 2. He now puts on the one that is (to stand) on 
the right (i.e. south of the first), with the text (Va^ - . S. 
1, 18 d) : ' For all the regions I put thee on ! ' What 
fourth (world) there is or is not beyond these (three) 
worlds, by that indeed he thereby chases away the 
spiteful enemy. Uncertain, no doubt, is what fourth 
(world) there is or is not beyond these (three) 
worlds, and uncertain also are all those regions ; for 
this reason he says, ' For all the regions I put thee 
on!' The remaining potsherds he puts on 1 either 
silently, or with the text (V&g. S. I, 18 e) : ' Layer- 
forming are ye! heap-forming are ye !' 

13. He then covers them over with (hot) coals, 
whilst muttering the text (Va^-. S. I, i8f): 'May 
ye be heated with the heat of the BhWgus and 

1 Viz. dividing them in the manner explained at p. 34, note 1, 
and beginning (south-east, and moving around from left to right 
(i. e. following the course of the sun). Mr. Ralph Griffith (Trans- 
lation of the R&mayan, I, p. 90) has compared this Hindu rite of 
pradakshina or dakshinikarawa with the Gaelic deasil, as 
described in the following passage of Sir W. Scott's The Two 
Drovers : ' " But it is little I would care for the food that nourishes 
me, or the fire that warms me, or for God's blessed sun itself, if 
aught but weel should happen to the grandson of my father. So 
let me walk the deasil round you, that you may go safe out into 
the far foreign land, and come safe home." Robin Oig stopped, 
half embarrassed, half laughing, and signing to those near that he 
only complied with the old woman to soothe her humour. In the 
meantime she traced around him, with wavering steps, the pro- 
pitiation, which some have thought has been derived from the 
Druidical mythology. It consists, as is well known, in the person, 
who makes the deasil, walking three times round the person who 
is the object of the ceremony, taking care to move according to 
the course of the sun.' Cf. note at p. 45. Note also the etymolo- 
gical connection between dakshi«a and deiseil (Old Ir. dessel, 
from dess, Gael, deas, south or right side). For the corresponding 
rite (dextratio) at the Roman marriage ceremonies see Rossbach, 
Romische Ehe, pp. 315, 316; Weber, Ind. Stud.V, p. 221. 



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38 satapatha-brAhmajva. 

Angiras * !' for it is indeed the brightest light, that 
of the Bh?7gus and Angiras. He covers them with 
the view that ' they shall be well heated.' 

14. Now he 2 who puts the two mill-stones on 
(the black antelope skin), (in the first place) takes 
up the black antelope skin, with the text (Va^ - . S. I, 
19) : ' Bliss-bestowing art thou ! ' He shakes it, with 
the text (ib.) : ' Shaken off is the Rakshas, shaken 
off are the enemies ! ' the import and application of 
which is the same (as above, 1, 1, 4, 4). He spreads 
it (on the ground) with the neck-part turned towards 
west, whilst muttering the text (ib.) : ' The skin of 
Aditi (the inviolate or boundless earth) art thou! 
MayAditi acknowledge (receive) thee!' the import (of 
this formula) being the same (as before, I, 1, 4, 5). 

15. He then puts the lower mill-stone on it, 
with the text (Va^ - . S. 1, 19) : 'A rock-bowl art thou ! 
May the skin of Aditi acknowledge thee ! ' for it is 
a bowl (dhisha»a) and a rock too ; and by saying, 
' May the skin of Aditi acknowledge thee,' he esta- 
blishes an understanding between it and the black 
antelope skin, so that 'they will not hurt each other.' 
This one (the lower mill-stone) represents the earth. 

16. He now puts upon (the west side of) it the 
wedge 3 with its point turned towards north, whilst 

1 The old families of the Bhn'gus and Angiras are frequendy 
mentioned together, and often also in conjunction with the Athar- 
vans: it is indeed to these three families that the native authori- 
ties attribute the texts and ritual of the Atharva-veda, or fourth 
Veda, which is generally referred to in the later Vedic writings 
under the designation AtharvShgirasas. It is probable that 
the Bhn'gu- Angiras in the above formula of the Va^as. Sam- 
hitS. are intended as equivalent to the latter term. Cf. Weber, 
Omina et Portenta, p. 346. 

* Viz. the Adhvaryu; cf. I, 2, 1,1. 

8 According to the corresponding rule of KStydyana (II, 5, 4) 



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I KANDA, 2 ADHYAYA, I BRAHMAJVA, 1 8. 39 

muttering the text (Vd^. S. I, 19) : ' The stay of 
the sky art thou !' that is to say, it represents the 
atmosphere ; for by means of the atmospheric 
region those two, the sky and the earth, are firmly 
kept asunder ; and for this reason he says, ' The 
stay of the sky art thou ! ' 

17. He then puts the upper mill-stone on (the 
lower one), with the text (Vif. S. I, 19) : 'A rock- 
born bowl art thou! May the rock acknowledge 
thee ! ' For this one being smaller is, as it were, the 
daughter (of the lower mill-stone) x ; for this reason 
he calls it ' rock-born.' ' May the rock acknow- 
ledge thee ! ' he says, because one of the same kin 
acknowledges (receives the other) : thereby he esta- 
blishes an understanding between those two mill- 
stones, thinking ' they will not hurt one another ! ' 
This one, as it were, represents the sky ; (or) the 
two mill-stones are, as it were, the two jaws, and 
the wedge is the tongue : that is why he beats 
(the mill-stones) with the wedge a , for it is with the 
tongue that one speaks. 

18. He now pours the rice on (the lower stone), 
with the text (Va^ - . S. I, 20): 'Grain (dhanyam) 
art thou ! do thou gratify (dhi) s the gods !' for it is 

and to his commentators (and Mahtdhara on Vif. S. 1, 19) and 
the Black Yagur-veda, he does not lay the wedge on the lower mill- 
stone, but inserts it under the west or back-part of the stone, so as 
to make the latter incline towards east and to steady it. 

1 In the GobhiltyaGrrhya-sutrall, 1, 16 the upper stone is similarly 
called 'the son or child' of the lower one [dr/shatputra], which the 
editor, JTandrakanta, interprets as 'drt'shad and its son;' or option- 
ally, 'the son of the dmhad.' Cf. Weber, Ind. Stud.V, p. 305 note. 

■ See I, 1, 4, 13. 

* Mahtdhara derives dhanya from the root dhi; and appa- 
rently allows to it here the double meaning ' corn or grain,' and 
' that which satisfies or pleases.' 



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40 SATAPATHA-BRAHMAWA. 

grain ; and it is with the intention ' that it may 
gratify the gods ' that the rice-oblation is taken. 

19. He then grinds it, with the text (Vif. S. I, 
20) : ' For out-breathing (I grind) thee ! for in-breath- 
ing thee ! for through-breathing (pervading vital 
air) x thee ! May I impart a long duration to the 
life (of the sacrificer) 2 ! ' He pours it (the ground 
rice on the skin), with the text (ib.) : ' May the 
divine Savitrz, the golden- handed, receive thee with 
a flawless hand 3 ! ' ' For his (the sacrificer's) eye 
(I look at) thee M' 

20. The reason why he thus grinds it, is that 
the sacrificial food of the gods is living, is am ma 
(ambrosia, or not dead) for the immortals. Now 
with the mortar and pestle, and with the two mill- 
stones they kill this rice-offering (havirya^wa). 

21. When he now says : 'For out-breathing thee ! 
for in-breathing thee ! ' he thereby again imparts 
out-breathing and in-breathing (to it), and by saying 
'for through-breathing thee!' he imparts through- 
breathing (to it). By ' may I impart a long duration 
to the life ! ' he bestows life on it. .By ' may the divine 
Savitrz, the golden-handed, receive thee with a flaw- 



1 On the three kinds of breathing, see I, 1, 3, 2-3. 

* According to Kityayana (II, 5, 7) and Mahidhara, this last 
formula (' May I,' &c.) should be joined to the one that follows, 
and pronounced by the Adhvaryu whilst he pours the ground rice 
on the skin. Mahidhara interprets it thus : ' I put thee, (0 rice I 
on the black antelope skin) for (increasing) the life (of the sacri- 
ficer) with a view to a long continuance (of the sacrificial work);' 
or ' I place thee along the long expanse (i. e. the skin) for thy 
(the rice's) long life !' 

3 See I, 1, 4, 23. 

4 Thus, according to Katy. or Mahtdh., whilst he looks at the 
ground rice on the skin. 



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I KANDA, 2 ADHYAYA, I BRAHMA2VA, 22. 41 

less hand ! ' he says : ' May they be well received ! ' 
By ' for the eye thee ! ' he bestows eye-sight on it. 
Now these (attributes) are those of a living being ; 
and thus that sacrificial food for the gods is indeed 
living, is amrtta. (ambrosia, or not dead) for the im- 
mortals. This is the reason why he thus grinds (the 
rice). (Whilst) they are grinding the (ground) grains *, 
(and whilst) they are heating the potsherds, — 

22. Some one 2 pours clarified butter (into the 
4fyasth4ll, or butter-pot). Now whatever oblation, 
in being taken, is announced to a (particular) deity, 
that belongs to the respective deity, that he takes 
with a special prayer; but in taking this oblation, 
to wit, the butter, he does not announce it to 
any particular deity, and therefore takes it with an 
undefined formula, viz. with (V&£-. S. I, 20) : 'Juice 
of the great ones art thou ! ' For ' the great ones ' 
some (take to be) a name for the cows ; and their 
juice indeed it is : for this reason he says, ' The 
juice of the great ones art thou !' And thus, more- 
over, is some of that (butter) taken with a sacrificial 
formula: and for this reason also he says, 'The juice 
of the great ones art thou !' 



1 Piwshanti pish/Sni; the grinding of the ground or grinding 
of flour (pish/a-pesha»a) is a common expression in later 
Sanskrit for doing a useless work (' carrying owls to Athens,' or 
' coals to Newcastle '). In the present passage, however, the phrase 
has to be understood, according to Sayawa, as meaning ' whilst 
they (the sacrificer's people) carry on the work of grinding begun 
by the Adhvaryu.' 

J The Agnidhra or somebody else, according to Sayawa ; but 
according to the Schol. on Kilty. II, 5, 9, it is done by the sacrificer 
himself, who thereupon prepares the veda or bunch of sacrificial 
grass, tied in the middle, and cut straight at each end, and used 
for sweeping, &c. Cf. Katy. I, 3, 21-22 ; II, 5, 9. 



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42 satapateja-brahmawa. 

Second BrAhmajva. 
i. He pours (the ground rice) into that which 
contains the strainers — viz. into a dish (patrt) on 
which he has laid the two strainers — with the text 
(V&£; S. I, 21) : ' At the impulse of the divine Savi- 
\ri I pour thee out, with the arms of the Arvins, with 
the hands of Pushan!' The import of this formula 
is the same (as before, I, i, 2, 17). 

2. He now sits down somewhere inside the altar 
(vedi) K Then some one (viz. the Agnldhra) comes 
with the kneading-water 2 and brings it to him. He 
(the Adhvaryu) receives it through the strainers, 
with the text (V&£-. S. I, 21): ' Let the waters 
mingle with the plants ! ' for thereby the water unites 
with the plants, viz. with the ground rice, — 'The 
plants with the sap 1 ' for the plants thereby unite 
with the sap ; viz. that ground rice with the water, 
for water is their sap, — 'The shining (or wealthy 
ones) with the moving!' for the shining ones are the 
waters, and the moving ones are the plants, and 
these two are thereby mixed together, — ' Let the 
sweet mingle with the sweet!' whereby he says, 'let 
the savoury be mixed with the savoury ! ' 

3. He then mixes (the two) together, with the 
text (Va^ - . S. I, 22) : ' For generation I unite thee!' 
for, in order that it (the dough or the sacrificial cake 
prepared from it) may bring offspring to the sacri- 

1 • He sits down (with the dish) either behind the cooking fire, 
or inside the altar,' Katy. II, 5, 11. According to Mahadeva, the 
former alternative is the one favoured by the Kiwvas. 

* According to Kity. II, 5, 1, the kneading-water (or mixing- 
water, upasar^anf) has been put on the (Girhapatya) fire (by 
the Agntdh) at the time of, or previously to, the spreading of 
the black antelope skin. 



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I kAjVDA, 2 ADHYAYA, 2 BRAHMAJVA, 6. 43 

ficer, for his prosperity, for food, and so on, — for 
these reasons he mixes them together. And he also 
mixes them together with the intention of placing 
it (the dough) on (the fire) : hence, in order that it 
(the sacrificial cake) may be produced over the fire, 
for that purpose also he mixes them together. 

4. He now divides it into two halves, if there be 
two oblations : at the full-moon sacrifice there really 
are two oblations. He then touches them, — where 
(by so doing) he would not again mix (the two) 
together, — with the (respective) formulas (Vif. 
S. I, 22): 'This to Agni!' 'This to Agni-Soma!' 
Separately indeed they take that sacrificial food 
(from the cart) in the first place 1 ; then they thresh 
it together, then they grind it together, then he 
again divides it : for this reason he thus touches 
(them separately). The one (the Adhvaryu) now 
places the cake over (the fire), the other (the Agnl- 
dhra) puts the clarified butter on : 

5. These two acts are done simultaneously. The 
reason why these two acts are done simultaneously 
is that one half of the body of the sacrifice no doubt 
is that butter, and the other half is this rice-offering. 
' That half and this half, these two let us now take 
to the fire!' thus (they think): for this reason those 
two acts are done simultaneously, and thus this body 
of the sacrifice is joined together. 

6. That one (the Agntdhra) puts the butter on, 
with the text (Va^f. S. I, 22): 'For sap — thee!' When 
he says ' for sap thee ! ' he says it for the sake of 
rain ; therefore he takes it off again, with the text 
( V&f. S. I, 30) : ' For juice — thee ! ' What juice is 

1 See I, 1, 2, 17 seq., especially p. 17, note 2. 

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44 SATAPATHA-BRAHMAJVA. 

derived (by the plants) from the rain, for that he 
says this. 

7. Now he (the Adhvaryu) puts on (adhi-v^zf) 
the cake, with the text (V4f. S. I, 22): ' Heat (or a 
hot vessel, gharma) art thou!' whereby he makes it 
(a means of) sacrifice, and puts it on in the same 
way as if he were putting the (pravargya) cauldron 
(gharma) 1 on, — 'Life-sustaining (visvayus)!' he 
adds, whereby he obtains life (for the sacrificer). 

8. He spreads it (over the respective potsherds), 
with the text (Va^. S. I, 22): 'Spread widely, thou 
wide-spreading one ! ' whereby he causes it to spread. 
He adds : ' May thy Lord of Sacrifice spread widely 
(prosper) ! ' Lord of Sacrifice, namely, is the sacri- 
ficer : hence it is for the sacrificer that he thereby 
prays for blessing. 

9. Let him not make it too broad ; for he would 
make it a human (profane, common cake), if he were 
to make it (too) broad. Unlucky for (or, excluded 
from) the sacrifice indeed is that one, to wit, the 
common (cake). ' That I may not do anything that 

1 Gharma, literally 'heat,' is also the technical term for a kind 
of cauldron (also called mah&vtra) used at the Pravargya cere- 
mony, a preparatory rite of the Soma-sacrince : the empty cauldron 
is there put on the fire, and when thoroughly heated (whence its 
name), fresh milk is poured into it The technical phrase for 
putting on the cauldron is pra-vr*£, from which pravargya is 
derived ; and the same verb, though with a different preposition 
(viz. adhi-vrz'^), being technically used for the putting on of 
the sacrificial cake, this verbal coincidence has probably suggested 
this connection of the two ceremonies, there being a constant 
tendency to establish some kind of relation between ordinary 
offerings and the Soma-sacrifice, as the most solemn one ; cf. Ill, 
4, 4, 1; X, 2, 5, 3 seq. ; Ait Br. I, 18 seq. Previously to the 
spreading of the cake, the cinders are swept off from the potsherds 
with the grass-brush (veda), Hilleb. p. 41, note 7. 



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I KANDA, 2 ADHYAYA, 2 BRAHMAJVA, 1 3. 45 

is unlucky at the sacrifice,' thus (he thinks, and) 
for that reason he should not make it too broad. 

10. And some now say : ' He should make it of 
the size of a horse's hoof!' But who knows how 
large is a horse's hoof? Let him make it of such 
a size as in his own mind he does not think would 
be too broad. 

11. He then touches it over with water, either 
once or three times: for whatever in this (rice- 
offering) they either injure or tear asunder in the 
threshing or grinding of it, that — water being (a means 
of) expiation (or purification)— he thereby expiates 
with water, that is, with (the means of) expiation; 
that he thereby makes good : for this reason he 
touches it over with water. 

12. He touches it over, with the text (Va^ - . S. I, 
22) : ' May the fire not injure thy skin! ' for on the 
fire he is now going to heat it : ' May that (fire) not 
injure thy skin !' this is what he thereby says. 

13. He now carries fire round it 1 . By this he 
encloses it with an unbroken fence, lest the evil 

1 The paryagnikaranam consists in performing prada- 
kshina (see p. 37, note 1) on an object whilst holding a fire-brand 
or burning coal ; or (according to the Paddhati) in moving one's 
hand, which holds the burning coal, round the oblation, from 
left to right. According to Katy. II, 5, 22, the Adhvaryu does so 
on the present occasion, whilst muttering the formula, ' Removed 
is the Rakshas! removed are the enemies!' (Taitt. S. I, 1, 8, 1.) 
This practice of paryagnikara«am may be compared with the 
carrying of fire round houses, fields, boats, &c, on the last night 
of the year, a custom which, according to Mr. A. Mitchell (The 
Past in the Present, p. 145), still prevails in some parts of Scot- 
land, and which he thinks is probably a survival of some form of 
fire-worship, and intended to secure fertility and general prosperity. 
The obvious meaning of the ceremony would seem to be the 
warding on* of the dark and mischievous powers of nature. 



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46 satapatha-brAhmajva. 

spirits, the Rakshas, should seize upon it ; for Agni 
(fire) is the repeller of the Rakshas: this is the 
reason why he carries fire round it. 

14. He bakes 1 it, with the text (Vif. S. I, 22): 
' Let the divine (or God) Savitr? bake thee ! ' for it 
is not a man that bakes it, but a god it is : therefore 
it is the God SavitW that bakes it 2 . He adds : ' In 
the highest heaven !' He means to say ' among the 
gods,' when he says ' in the highest heaven.' He 
touches it : 'I will ascertain whether it is done ! ' 
thus (he thinks, and) for that reason he touches it 

15. He touches it, with the text (Vi^. S. I, 23): 
' Be not afraid ! shrink not ! ' He thereby says : ' Do 
not thou be afraid, do not thou shrink, because I, a 
man, touch 'thee that art not human ! ' 

16. When it is done, he covers it over (with hot 
ashes) : ' Lest the evil spirits, the Rakshas, should 
espy it,' thus (he thinks) ; and ' Lest it should lie, 
as it were, naked and despoiled!' thus also (he 
thinks) : — that is the reason why he covers it over. 

17. He covers it over, with the text (V&£\ S. I, 
23): 'May the sacrifice not be liable to languish, 
nor the sacrificer's race liable to languish ! ' ' That 
the sacrifice or the sacrificer may not languish after 
this, when I cover this over,' thus (he thinks, and) 
for this reason he covers it over in this manner 
(i. e. with the above text). 



1 On the upper side it is baked by burning straw put on or held 
over it, whereby it takes a crust (tvaA, 'skin'). SchoL on KSty. 

n, 5, 33- 

* With the name of no other God the epithet deva (' shining,' 
'God') is so frequently used as with that of Savitr»: hence, 
according to the author's reasoning, it is he that must be intended, 
whenever a god not otherwise specified is alluded to. 



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I KAYDA, 2 ADHYAYA, 3 BRAHMAJVA, 2. 47 

18. He then pours out for the Aptya deities the 
water with which the dish has been rinsed and 
that in which he has washed his fingers \ The 
reason why he pours it out for the Aptyas (is this) : 

Third Brahmajva. 
The Preparation of the Altar. 

i. Fourfold, namely, was Agni (fire) at first. Now 
that Agni whom they at first chose for the office 
of Hotrt priest passed away. He also whom they 
chose the second time passed away. He also whom 
they chose the third time passed away 2 . There- 
upon the one who still constitutes the fire in our own 
time, concealed himself from fear. He entered into 
the waters. Him the gods discovered and brought 
forcibly away from the waters. He spat upon the 
waters, saying, ' Bespitten are ye who are an unsafe 
place of refuge, from whom they take me away 
against my will ! ' Thence sprung the Aptya deities, 
Trita, Dvita, and Ekata. 

2. They roamed about with Indra, even as now- 
adays a Brahman follows in the train of a king. 
When he slew Visvarupa, the three-headed son of 
Tvash/rz, they also knew of his going to be killed; 
and straightway Trita slew him. Indra, assuredly, 
was free from that (sin), for he is a god 3 . 



1 The washing of the fingers and the dish, and has taken place 
after the putting on and touching over of the cake, and before the 
paryagnikaranam is performed. 

* In 1, 3, 3, 13-16, the three former Agnis (or the three brothers 
of Agni, ace. to Mahtdh., Va£. S. II, 2) are said to have fled from 
fear of the thunderbolt, in the shape of the v ash a /formula. 

* Cf. I, 6, 3, 1 seq. In the Taitt. Samh. II, 5, 1, 1, VLrvarupa, 
the Tvdsh/ra, is said to have been a sister's son of the Asuras, and 



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48 SATAPATHA-BRAHMAyA. 

3. And the people thereupon said : ' Let those be 
guilty of the sin who knew about his going to be 
killed!' 'How?' they asked. 'The sacrifice shall 
wipe it off upon (shall transfer it to) them !' they said. 
Hence the sacrifice thereby wipes off upon them 
(the guilt or impurity incurred in the preparation of 
the offering), when they pour out for them the water 
with which the dish has been rinsed, and that in 
which he (the Adhvaryu) has washed his fingers. 

4. And the Aptyas then said : ' Let us make this 
pass on beyond us ! ' ' On whom ? ' they asked. 
' On him who shall make an offering without a 
dakshi»a (gift to the officiating priests)!' they said. 
Hence one must not make an offering without a da- 
kshi«a; for the sacrifice wipes (the guilt) off upon 
the Aptyas, and the Aptyas wipe it off upon him 
who makes an offering without a daks hi »a. 

5. Thereupon the gods ordained this to be the 

house-priest (purohita) to the gods, and to have been killed by 
Indra, because he had secretly contrived to let the oblations 
go to the Asuras, instead of to the gods. Thus by killing him, 
Indra (or Trita, according to our version of the legend) became 
guilty of that most hideous crime, the brahmahatya, or killing 
of a BrShma«a. Trita, the Aptya (i. e. probably 'sprung 
from, or belonging to the ap, or waters of the atmosphere'), 
seems to have been a prominent figure of the early Indo- 
Iranian mythology, the prototype, in many respects, of Indra, the 
favourite god of the Vedic hymns. The notion of wishing evil and 
misfortune away to Trita, or far, far away, is a familiar one to the 
Vedic bards. The name Traitana also occurs once in Rig-veda 
(1, 158, 3), though in a rather dark passage. On the connection 
between Trita (? Traitana) and the Iranian Thraetona (Ferftmn), 
son of Athvya, see E. Burnouf, Journ. Asiat. V, 120; R. Roth, 
Zeitschr. d. Deutsch. Morg. Ges. II, p. 216 seq. Dvita (the second) 
and Ekata are no doubt later abstractions suggested by the 
etymology of the name Trita (the third), although the former, 
Dvita, occurs already in the Vedic hymns. 



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I KANDA, 2 ADHYAYA, 3 BRAHMAJVA, 5. 49 

dakshiwa at the new- and full-moon sacrifices, to 
wit, the Anvaharya mess of rice 1 , 'lest the obla- 
tion should be without a dakshi«a.' That (rinsing 
water) he pours out (for each Aptya) separately : thus 
he avoids a quarrel among them. He makes it hot 
(previously) 8 : thus it becomes boiled (drinkable) for 
them. He pours it out with the formulas, ' For 
Trita thee !' ' For Dvita thee !' ' For Ekata thee !' 
— Now it is as an animal sacrifice that this sacri- 
ficial cake is offered 3 . 

1 TheAnvih&rya consists of boiled rice prepared from the 
rice-grains that remain after the sacrificial cakes have been pre- 
pared. It is put on the Dakshiwa fire by the Adhvaryu for 
cooking after covering over the cakes and pouring out the water. 
Katy. II, 5, 27. Sayana explains the term as ' that which takes 
away (anvi-hn) from the sacrificer the guilt incurred by mistakes 
during the sacrifice ;' but the St. Petersburg Dictionary offers the 
more probable explanation of it as ' that which serves to supple- 
ment (anvS-hr* - ) the sacrifice.' 

* According to S&ya»a ' he makes the poured-out water hot 
with a coal.' K&tytyana (II, 5, 26) and bis commentators, on the 
other hand, supply the following particulars : ' Having heated (with 
straw lighted in the GSrhapatya) the water which has been used 
for washing the dish and hands, he pours it out for the Aptyas 
(from east to west into three lines drawn with the wooden sword 
from west to east, north of the sacrificial ground) in such a manner 
that it does not flow together, with the formulas, " For Trita thee 1" 
&c., respectively.' 

* That is to say, the sacrificial cake is a substitute or symbol 
(pratimd) for the animal sacrifice (as this it would seem was ori- 
ginally a substitute for the human sacrifice) by which the sacrificer 
redeems himself from the gods. Cf. .Sat. Br. XI, 1, 8, 3 ; Taitt. Br. 
Ill, 2, 8, 8. The initiation (dtksha) of the sacrificer constitutes 
his consecration as the victim at the animal sacrifice (.Sat. Br. XI, 
7, i, 3 ; Ait. Br. II, 3 ; 9 ; 11 ; Taitt. Br. II, 2, 82 ; T. S. VI, 1, 1 1, 
6 ; Kaush. Br. X, 3 ; XI, 8), or as the sacrificial food at the havir- 
ya^wa (.Sat. Br. Ill, 3, 4, 21 ; Taitt. Br. Ill, 2, 8, 9), or as the horse 
at the horse-sacrifice (Taitt. Br. Ill, 9, 17, 4-5), &c. See, also, 
Taitt. S.VII, 3, io, 4; Ka//i 34, 11, where it is said that one must 

[12] E 



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50 tfATAPATHA-BRAHMAJVA. 

6. At first, namely, the gods offered up a man as 
the victim 1 . When he was offered up, the sacrificial 
essence went out of him. It entered into the horse. 
They offered up the horse. When it was offered 
up, the sacrificial essence went out of it It entered 
into the ox. They offered up the ox. When it was 
offered up, the sacrificial essence went out of it. It 
entered into the sheep. They offered up the sheep. 
When it was offered up, the sacrificial essence went 
out of it. It entered into the goat. They offered 
up the goat When it was offered up, the sacrificial 
essence went out of it 

7. It entered into this earth. They searched for 
it, by digging. They found it (in the shape of) those 
two (substances), the rice and barley : therefore even 
now they obtain those two by digging ; and as much 

not perform the dvadajaha for any one, since in having to eat of 
the victim, the cake, Ac, one would eat the sacrificed own flesh, 
Sec. Cf. Weber, Ind. Streifen, I, p. 73. In accordance with these 
notions it would seem that man originally sacrificed his equal, as 
the best substitute for his own self; and that, as advancing civilisa- 
tion rendered human sacrifices distasteful, the human victim was 
supplied by domestic animals, ennobled by constant contact with 
man ; and finally by various materials of human diet. 

1 On this legend and the one in the Ait Br. II, 8, but slightly 
differing from ours, see Max Muller's History of Ancient Sanskrit 
Literature, p. 420 ; A. Weber's Ind. Streifen, I, p. 55 ; Hang's 
Transl. of the Ait. Br. p. 90 ; J. Muir's Original Sanskrit Texts, IV, 
p. 289 note. Professor Max Mflller remarks : ' The drift of this 
story is most likely that in former times all these victims had been 
offered. We know it for certain in the case of horses and oxen, 
though afterwards these sacrifices were discontinued. As to sheep 
and goats, they were considered proper victims to a still later time. 
When vegetable offerings took the place of bloody victims, it was 
clearly the wish of the author of our passage to show that, for 
certain sacrifices, these rice-cakes were as efficient as the flesh of 
animals.' Cf. also II, 1, 4, 3. 



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I KANDA, 2 ADHYAVA, 3 BRAILMAJVA, 9. 5 1 

efficacy as all those sacrificed animal victims would 
have for him, so much efficacy has this oblation (of rice 
&c.) for him who knows this. And thus there is in this 
oblation also that completeness which they call ' the 
fivefold animal sacrifice.' 

8. When it (the rice-cake) still consists of rice- 
meal, it is the hair 1 . When he pours water on it, it 
becomes skin 2 . When he mixes it, it becomes flesh : 
for then it becomes consistent ; and consistent also 
is the flesh. When it is baked, it becomes bone : for 
then it becomes somewhat hard ; and hard is the bone. 
And when he is about to take it off (the fire) and 
sprinkles it with butter, he changes it into marrow. 
This is the completeness which they call ' the five- 
fold animal sacrifice.' 

9. The man (purusha) whom they had offered up 
became a mock-man (kim-purusha 8 ). Those two, 
the horse and the ox, which they had sacrificed, 

1 According to S&yawa, because, like the hair of the victim, the 
particles of the ground rice are minute and numerous. According 
to Ait. Br. II, 9, on the other hand, the awn or beard of the rice 
represents the hair; the husks the skin; the minute particles of 
chaff removed by the final winnowings, the blood ; the ground rice 
the flesh ; and ' whatever other substantial part is in the rice ' are 
the bones of the victim. 

■ ' Because it becomes as flexible as skin,' Sayawa. 

* It is doubtful what particular kind of being the term kim pu- 
rusha (depraved man) is here intended to denote. The authors 
of the St. Petersburg Dictionary, whom Professor Weber follows 
(Ind. Stud. IX, 246), take it (probably correctly) to denote 
' a monkey.' Professor Haug, on the other hand, in his transla- 
tion of the corresponding passage in the Ait. Br. II, 8, thinks 'the 
author very likely meant a dwarf,' whilst Professor Max Mtlller 
(History of Ancient Sanskrit Literature, p. 430) translates it by 
' a savage.' Perhaps one of the species of apes which particularly 
resemble man, is intended by it. Cf. Weber, Omina et Portenta, 
P- 35<S. 

E 2 



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52 SATAPATHA-BRAHMAJVA. 

became a bos gaurus and a gayal (bos gavaeus) 
respectively. The sheep which they had sacrificed, 
became a camel. The goat which they had sacri- 
ficed, became a sarabha 1 . For this reason one should 
not eat (the flesh) of these animals, for these animals 
are deprived of the sacrificial essence (are impure). 

Fourth Brahmawa. 

i. When Indra hurled the thunderbolt at VWtra, 
that hurled one became fourfold. Of (three parts 
of) it the wooden sword (sphya) represents one-third 
or thereabouts, the sacrificial post one-third or there- 
abouts, and the chariot one-third or thereabouts. That 
piece, moreover, with which he struck him, was broken 
off (srt) ; and on falling down it became an arrow 
(sa r a) : hence the designation arrow, because it was 
broken off. And in this way the thunderbolt became 
fourfold. 

2. In consequence of this, the priests make use of 
two (of these pieces) at the sacrifice, and men of the 
military caste (ra^anyabandhu) also make use of 
two of them in battle : viz. the priests make use of the 
sacrificial post and the wooden sword, and the men of 
the military caste of the chariot and the arrow. 

3. Now when he takes up the wooden sword 2 , he 
raises that thunderbolt against the wicked, spiteful 
enemy, even as Indra at that time raised the thunder- 
bolt against Vntra : that is the reason why he takes 
the wooden sword. 

4. He takes it, with the text (Vif. S. I, 24) : 'At 
the impulse of the divine Savitri, I take thee with 

1 A fabulous kind of deer with eight legs, which was supposed 
to kill elephants and lions. 
* See note on 1, 1, 2, 8. 



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I KANDA, 2 ADHYAYA, 4 BRAHMAiVA, 7. 53 

the arms of the A^vins, with the hands of Pushan ; 
thee that performs sacred rites to the gods !' Sa vhrt, 
namely, is the impeller of the gods : thus he thereby 
takes that (wooden sword) as one impelled by Savittx 
' With the arms of the Ayvins,' he says, because the 
A^vins are the two Adhvaryu priests (of the gods) : 
with their arms he therefore takes it, not with his own. 
Pushan is distributer of portions (to the gods) : with 
his hands he therefore takes it, not with his own; for 
it is the thunderbolt, and no man can hold that : he 
thus takes it with (the assistance of) the gods. 

5. ' I take (thee) that performs sacred rites to the 
gods,' he says, because a sacred rite means a sacrifice: 
' that performs sacrifices to the gods,' he thereby says. 
After taking it in his left hand and touching it with 
his right, he murmurs — by what he murmurs he 
makes it sharp, — 

6. He murmurs (Vif. S. I, 24) : ' Thou art Indra's 
right arm !' for Indra's right arm no doubt is the most 
powerful one, and for that reason he says : ' Thou art 
Indra's right arm !' ' The thousand-spiked, hundred- 
edged !' he adds, for a thousand spikes and a hundred 
edges had that thunderbolt which he hurled at Vn'tra : 
he thereby makes it to be that (thunderbolt). 

7. ' The sharp-edged Vayu (wind) art thou !' he 
adds; for that indeed is the sharpest edge, to wit, 
that (wind) which here blows : for that one sweeps 
right across these worlds. He thereby makes it sharp. 
When he (further) says : ' The killer of the enemy !' 
let him, whether he wishes to exorcise or not, say : 
4 The killer of so and so !' When it has been sharp- 
ened, he must not touch either himself or the earth 
with it: 'Lest I should hurt either myself or the earth 
with that sharp thunderbolt,' thus he thinks, and for 



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54 DATAPATH A-BRAHMAtf A. 

that reason he does not touch either himself or the 
earth with it. 

8. The gods and the Asuras, both of them sprung 
from Pra^tpati^were contending for superiority. The 
gods vanquished the Asuras ; and yet these after- 
wards harassed them again. 

9. The gods then said : ' We do, no doubt, van- 
quish the Asuras, but nevertheless they afterwards 
again harass us. How then can we vanquish them 
so that we need not fight them again ?' 

10. Agni then said : ' By fleeing northwards they 
escape from us.' By fleeing northwards they had 
indeed escaped from them. 

11. Agni said: ' I will go round to the northern 
side, and you will then shut them in from here* ; and 
whilst shutting them in, we will put them down by 
these (three) worlds; and from what fourth world 
there is beyond these (three) they will not be able 
to rise again.' 

12. Agni thereupon went round to the northern 
side ; and they (the other gods) shut them in from 
here ; and whilst shutting them in, they put them down 
with these (three) worlds ; and from what fourth world 

1 Pra^apati is called the father of the gods and Asuras, I, 5, 3, 2 ; 
and they are represented as entering on his inheritance, I, 7, 2, 22 ; 
IX, 5, 1, 1 2. Not only the gods and Asuras, but also the men derive 
their origin from Pra^apati, XIV, 8, 2, 1. He has created all 
beings, I, 6, 3, 35 ; Ait. Br. Ill, 36. 

* I. e. ' from the sacrificial ground,' Siya«a. It seems doubtful to 
me whether it does not rather mean ' you will then shut them in, or 
block them up, within that place,' that is to say, north of the altar, 
where the utkara, or heap of rubbish, lies. The four worlds by 
which he puts down the enemies are represented by the loose soil 
which is dug up by the sphya being flung four separate times at 
the grass-bush lying on the altar (vedi), and which is then thrown 
on the utkara. 



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I KANDA, 2 ADHYAYA, 4 BrAhMATVA, 1 5. 55 

there is beyond these (three) they did not rise again. 
Now this same (expulsion of the Asuras) is virtually 
the same act as the flinging away of the grass-bush \ 

1 3. The Agnldhra goes round to the north, for he 
is virtually the same person as Agni himself. The 
Adhvaryu then shuts them in from here ; and whilst 
shutting them in, he puts them down by means of 
these (three) worlds ; and from what fourth world 
there is beyond these (three) they do not rise again. 
Thus now also they do not rise again, for by the 
same means by which the gods kept them off, the 
priests now also keep them off during the sacrifice. 

14. And whoever has evil designs upon the sacri- 
ficer and hates him, him he thereby puts down by 
means of these (three) worlds, and what fourth world 
there is beyond these. And in putting him down 
with these (three) worlds, and what fourth world 
there is beyond these, he flings everything away 
from this (earth), for on it all these worlds rest. : for 
what would he fling away, if he were to fling (the 
grass-bush) away with the words, ' The air I throw 
away, the heaven I throw away!' therefore he flings 
everything away from this (earth) 2 . 

15. Thereupon, after putting the grass-bush be- 
tween 3 , he flings (the wooden sword at it). ' Lest I 

1 The ceremony called stambaya£-us(-hara»am) consists in 
' the throwing away of the grass-bush after cutting it by the (flinging 
of the) wooden sword, with the simultaneous reciting of Ya^us- 
texts' [ya^urmantrako darbhaA stambaya^uA, ta££a stambarupam 
sphyena bhittvotkaradcre haret, Say.,Taitt. S. 1, 1, 9]. 

1 This passage, in which the author seems to argue against 
some other ritualistic authority, k not quite clear to me. The Taitt, 
Br. has, 'from the atmosphere he drives him away (by the second 
throw), from the sky he drives him away (by the third throw).' 

* That is, between himself, or the wooden sword, and the altar. 
According to Katy. II, 6, 15, he lays the grass-bush down on the 



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56 DATAPATH A-BRAHMAJVA. 

should injure the earth with this sharp thunderbolt!' 
thus (he thinks, and) for that reason he flings after 
putting the grass-bush between. 

16. He flings it, with the text (V&f . S. I, 25) : ' O 
earth, that aftbrdest the place for making offerings 
to the gods! may I not injure the root of thy plant!' 
He thereby makes her, as it were, with roots remain- 
ing in her 1 . Whilst he takes up (the earth dug up 
by the sword), he thus addresses her : ' May I not 
injure the roots of thy plants !' — And in further say- 
ing, ' Go to the fold, the abode of the cows !' when 
he is about to throw it away (on the heap of rubbish), 
he causes it not to forsake him ; for that which is 
within the fold 2 does not forsake him : for that rea- 
son he says, ' Go to the fold, the abode of the cows !' — 
He further says (whilst looking at the hole in the 
ground) : ' May the sky rain on thee !' Wherever, 
in digging into her, they wound and injure her — 
water being (a means of) expiation — that he thereby 
expiates by the water which is (a means of) expiation ; 
that he thereby makes good by means of the water : 
that is the reason why he says : ' May the sky rain 
on thee!' — 'Tie him down, O divine Savitr*, to the 
furthest end of the earth !' he says (whilst throwing 
on the heap of rubbish the soil dug up) ; he thus 

altar with its top pointing northwards, with the text : ' The armour 
of the earth art thou !' 

1 Siyana explains it by uttaramulim iva karoti; 'pn'thivfm 
uparibhagavasthitamulayukt&m ivi' (?' with the roots remaining in 
its (the earth's) upper part, or surface'). Cf. also Say. on Taitt. S. 

It i> 9 (P- 155). 

* The Taitt. Br. (HI, 2, 9, 3) identifies the fold (pen, stable) with 
the metres (? which enclose the altar in the shape of the first set 
of lines), cf. .Sat. Br. I, 2, 5, 6 seq. This identification rests on the 
double meaning of go (in gosthanam) as ' cow' and ' metre.' 



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i kA^da, 2 adhyAya, 4 brAhmaya, i 8. 57 

says to the divine SavitW : ' Tie him down to blind 
darkness !' when he says ' to the furthest end of the 
earth,' — ' With a hundred fetters !' by this he means 
to say, ' so that he cannot free himself — ' Him who 
hates us and whom we hate, do not release from 
there !' Whether or not he wishes to exorcise, let 
him say: ' So and so ... do not release from there!' 

1 7. He then throws (the wooden sword) a second 
time, with the text (Vif. S. I, 26) : ' May I drive 
Araru away from the earth, the place of offerings !' 
Araru \ namely, was an Asura and Rakshas. Him 
the gods drove away from this (earth), and in the 
same way he (the Adhvaryu) thereby drives him 
away from this (earth). He adds (whilst repeating 
the several corresponding acts) : ' Go to the fold, 
the abode of the cows ! May the sky rain on thee ! 
Tie him down, O divine Savitrz, to the furthest end 
of the earth, with a hundred fetters, him who hates 
us and whom we hate, do not release him from 
there !' 

18. The Agnidhra presses it down (on the heap 
of rubbish), with the text (V4f. S. I, 26): ' O Araru! 
thou shalt not fly up to heaven !' For when the gods 
drove away Araru, the Asura- Rakshas, he wished to 
fly up to heaven. Agni pressed him down, saying, 
' O Araru, thou shalt not fly up to heaven V and he 
did not fly up to heaven. In the same way the 



1 Of this demon we have no further particulars except that in 
Rig- veda X, 99, 1 o, he is said to have four feet ; see also Taitt Br. Ill, 
2, 9, 4 seq. Perhaps there is some connection between Araru and 
the Arurmaghas in Ait Br. VII, 28, and the Arunmnkhas in Kaushtt. 
Up. 3, 1 ; both of them enemies of Indra. Cf. M. Haug's and 
Max Mailer's translations of these works ; and Weber, Ind. Stud. 
I, 411. 



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58 DATAPATH A-BRAHMAiV A. 

Adhvaryu thereby cuts him off from this world, and 
the Agntdhra from the side of heaven. That is the 
reason why he does this. 

19. He then throws (the wooden sword) a third 
time, with the text (Vig - . S. I, 26) : ' Let thy drop 
not spring up to the sky ! ' Her (the earth's) drop 
no doubt is that moisture of hers upon which the 
creatures subsist ' Let this thine (moisture) not fly 
away to the sky !' he thereby says. — He adds (whilst 
again repeating the several acts) : ' Go to the fold, 
the abode of the cows ! May the sky rain on thee ! 
Tie him down, O divine Savitri, to the furthest end 
of the earth, with a hundred fetters, him who hates 
us and whom we hate, do not release him from 
there!' 

20. Three times he throws it, with the sacrificial 
formula (Yagus); for three are these worlds, and 
with these worlds he thereby puts him (the evil 
spirit) down 1 . And what these worlds are, that 
in truth is the Yag"us : for that reason he throws it 
thrice with the sacrificial formula. 

21. Silently (he throws) a fourth time 3 . What 
fourth world there may or may not be beyond these 
(three), by that one he thereby drives away the 
spiteful enemy. For uncertain indeed is what fourth 
world there may or may not be beyond these (three); 
and uncertain also is what (is done) silently : for that 
reason (he throws) silently a fourth time. 



1 In the corresponding passage of the Black Ya^us (Taitt. Br. 
Ill, 2, 9, 5 seq.) the Adhvaryu is represented as driving the enemy 
away from the four worlds by throwing the sword four times. 

* When, together with the dug-out soil, he throws the grass-bush 
on the heap of rubbish. K&ty. II, 6, 34. 



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i kXnda, 2 adhyAya, 5 brAhmaata, 5. 59 

Fifth Brahmajva. 
r. The gods and the Asuras, both of them sprung 
from Pra^apati.were contending for superiority. Then 
the gods were worsted, and the Asuras thought: * To 
us alone assuredly belongs this world ! ' 

2. They thereupon said: 'Well then, let us divide 
this world between us ; and having divided it, let 
us subsist thereon!' They accordingly set about 
dividing it with ox-hides from west to east 

3. The gods then heard of this, and said : ' The 
Asuras are actually dividing this earth : come, let us 
go to where the Asuras are dividing it. For what 
would become of us, if we were to get no share in it ? * 
Placing Vish«u, (in the shape of) this very sacrifice, 
at their head, they went (to the Asuras). 

4. They then said : ' Let us share in this earth 
along with yourselves ! Let a part of it be ours !' 
The Asuras replied rather grudgingly : ' As much as 
this Vish#u lies upon, and no more, we give you ! * 

5. Now Vish»u was a dwarf 1 . The gods, however, 

1 This legend is given in Muir's Original Sanskrit Texts, IV, p. 1 22, 
where it is pointed out that we have here the germ of the Dwarf 
Incarnation of Vishnu ; and in A. Kuhn's treatise, ' Ueber Entwick- 
lungsstufen der Mythenbildung,' p. 128, where the following re- 
marks are made on the story : ' Here also we meet with the same 
struggle between light and darkness: the gods of light are 
vanquished and obtain from the Asuras, who divide the earth be- 
tween themselves, only as much room as is covered by Vish*u, 
who measures the atmosphere with his three steps. He represents 
(though I cannot prove it in this place) the sun-light, which, on 
shrinking into dwarfs size in the evening, is the only means of 
preservation that is left to the gods, who cover him with metres, 
i. e. with sacred hymns (probably in order to defend him from the 
powers of darkness), and in the end kindle Agni in the east — the 
dawn — and thereby once more obtain possession of the earth.' 
Compare also the corresponding legend in Taitt. Br. Ill, 2, 9, 7, 



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60 SATAPATHA-BRAHMA.YA. 

were not offended at this, but said : ' Much indeed 
they gave us, who gave us what is equal in size 
to the sacrifice.' 

6. Having then laid him down eastwards, they 
enclosed him on all (three) sides with the metres, 
saying (Va^ - . S. I, 27), on the south side, 'With the 
Gayatrt metre I enclose thee ! ' on the west side : 
'With the Trish/ubh metre I enclose thee!' on the 
north side : 'With the Gagatl metre I enclose thee 1 !' 

7. Having thus enclosed him on all (three) sides, 
and having placed Agni (the fire) on the east side, 
they went on worshipping and toiling with it (or 
him, i.e. Vishmi, the sacrifice). By it they obtained 
(sam-vid) this entire earth; and because they obtained 
by it this entire (earth), therefore it (the sacrificial 
ground) is called vedi (the altar). For this reason 
they say, ' As great as the altar is, so great is the 
earth ; ' for by it (the altar) they obtained this entire 
(earth). And, verily, he who so understands this, 
wrests likewise this entire (earth) from his rivals, 
excludes his rivals from sharing in it 

8. Thereupon this Vishmi became tired; but being 
enclosed on all (three) sides by the metres, with the 

where the gods are granted by the Asuras as much as they can 
enclose ; and by the Vasus being placed in the south, the Rudras in 
the west, the Adityas in the north, and Agni in the east, they obtain' 
the whole of the earth. 

1 In the actual performance of the sacrifice this represents the 
purva-parigraha, or first enclosing of the altar by a single line 
being drawn with the wooden sword on each of the three sides (viz. 
S.W. to S. E. ; S.W. to N.W. ; N.W. to N. E.) whilst muttering the 
respective texts. Before doing so he has, however, to ask and 
receive the permission of the Brahman, mutatis mutandis, in the 
usual way (cf. p. 7 note): the same forms have to be gone through at 
the marking of the second and third enclosures. Katy. II, 6, 35 seq. 
On the ritualistic application of the metres, see note on I, 3, 2, 9. 



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I KANDA, 2 ADHYAYA, 5 BRAHMA1VA, 1 1 . 6 1 

fire on the east, there was no (means of) escaping: 
he then hid himself among the roots of plants. 

9. The gods said : 'What has become of Vishnu ? 
What has become of the sacrifice ? ' They said : 
' On all (three) sides he is enclosed by the metres, 
with Agni to the east, there is no (way of) escaping : 
search for him in this very place !' By slightly 
digging they accordingly searched for him. They 
discovered him at a depth of three inches (or thumb's 
breadths) : therefore the altar should be three inches 
deep; and therefore also Pawii 1 made the altar for 
the Soma-sacrifice three inches deep. 

10. This, however, one must not do. Among 
the roots of the plants he (Vishwu) hid himself: 
therefore let him (the Adhvaryu) bid (the Agnidhra) 
to cut out the roots of the plants. And since they 
found (anu-vid) Vishwu in that place, therefore it is 
called vedi (altar). 

1 1. When they had found him, they enclosed him 
with a second enclosure, saying (Vif. S. I, 27), 'Of 
good soil art thou, and auspicious art thou !' on the 
south side ; for when they had thus obtained this 
earth they made it of good soil and auspicious ; — 
' Pleasant art thou, and soft to sit upon!' they said 
on the west side, for when they had thus obtained 
this earth, they made it pleasant and soft to sit 
upon; — 'Abounding in food and drink art thou !' they 
said on the north side, for when they had thus 
obtained this earth, they made it abounding in food 
and drink. 

1 This teacher is mentioned again, .Sat. Br. II, 1, 4, 27, along 
with two others, viz. Asuri and Madhuki, but nothing further is 
known of him. According to the Black Ya^us the altar is made 
four (not three) angulas deep. 



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62 SATAPATHA-BRAHMAtfA. 

12. Threefold 1 he draws round the first line of 
enclosure, threefold the second : hence sixfold (die 
two) ; for six seasons there are in the year, and the 
year, as Pra^apati (Lord of Creation), is the sacrifice 3 . 
As large as the sacrifice, as wide as its extent is, 
so wide does he thereby enclose it 

1 3. With six sacred words 8 he draws around the 
first line of enclosure, with six the second : thus 
(together) twelvefold, for' twelve no doubt are the 
months of the year ; and the year, as Pra^apati, is 
the sacrifice. As large as the sacrifice, as wide as its 
extent is, so wide does he thereby enclose it. 

14. 'Let it (the altar) measure a fathom* across 
on the west side,' they say: that, namely, is the 
size of a man, and it (the altar) should be of (the) 
man's size. ' Three cubits long (should be) the 

1 Viz. each enclosing line consists of three divisions correspond- 
ing to the three sides (S., W., N.) of the altar. 

* Pra^apati (Lord of Creation) is here, as elsewhere, identified 
with the year (probably as the representative of the eternal process 
of regeneration) and consequently with the annual cycle of sacri- 
ficial performance, or the sacrifice itself. Cf. .Sat. Br. I, 5, 2, 16; 

X, 4. 3. i- 

* According to Sayawa, because each of the three mantras, 
'gayatrewa (traish/ubhena, ^igatena resp.) tva MandasS pari 
gr/hwami,' consists of two parts, the first ending with tv£, the 
second with grihnimi, which makes together six. Similarly with 
the second triad of mantras. In the former case the Taittirtya 
text (Taitt. S. I, 1, 9, 3), 'The Vasus may enclose thee with 
the Giyatrt metre, the Rudras with the Trish/ubh metre, the 
Adityas with the Gagatf metre !' would furnish a more natural 
explanation of the six sacred words. 

* Vyama, the space between the extreme ends of the out- 
stretched arms. It is doubtful whether it is here intended for a 
fixed measure, or whether it is a relative one, depending on the 
size of the respective sacrificer. The size of a man was supposed 
to be equal to the extent of his outstretched arms. 



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I KXNDA, 2 ADHYAYA, 5 BRAHMAATA, I 7. 63 

"easterly line 1 ," for threefold is the sacrifice,' (so 
they say, but) in this there is no (fixed) measure : 
let him make it as long as he thinks fit in his 
own mind! n 

15. The two shoulders (of the altar) he carries 
along both sides of the (Ahavanlya) fire. For the 
altar (vedi, fern.) is female and the fire (agni, masc.) 
•is male ; and the woman lies embracing the man : 
thereby a copulation productive of offspring is 
obtained. For this reason he carries the two 
shoulders (of the altar) along both sides of the fire. 

16. It (the altar) should be broader on the west 
side, contracted in the middle, and broad again on 
the east side ; for thus shaped they praise a woman : 
' broad about the hips, somewhat narrower between 
the shoulders, and contracted in the middle (or, about 
the waist).' Thereby he makes it (the altar) pleasing 
to the gods. 

17. It should be sloping towards east, for the 
east is the quarter of the gods ; and also sloping 
towards north, for the north is the quarter of men. 
To the south side he sweeps the rubbish (loose soil), 
for that is the quarter of the deceased ancestors. 
If it (the altar) were sloping towards south, the 
sacrificer would speedily go to yonder world; and 
thus (by making the ahar in the prescribed way) 
the sacrificer lives for a long time : for this reason 
he sweeps the loose soil to the south side. Let 

1 I. e. a line drawn from the middle of the western side through 
the centre of the altar to the Ahavaniya fire. The same line pro- 
longated from the western side of the altar westwards to the G&rha- 
patya would measure eight (eleven or twelve) steps (prakrama or 
vikrama, of two feet or pada each) from fire to fire. See I, 7, 
3. 23-25- 



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64 satapatha-brAhmaya. 

him then cover it (the altar) over with (fresh) rubbish : 
for rubbish means cattle, and well-stocked with cattle 
he thereby makes it 1 . 

1 8. He (the Agntdhra) smooths it down (from east 
to west). The gods, namely, when they were pre- 
paring for the contest, said to one another : ' Come, 
let us remove to the moon for safety what im- 
perishable place of worship there is on this earth ; 
so that if the Asuras, on vanquishing us, should drive 
us away from here, we may afterwards, by praising 
and mortifying, prevail again!' They accordingly 
removed to the moon what imperishable place of 
worship there was on this earth. That now is the 
black (spots) in the moon : hence they say, ' In the 
moon is the place of worship for this earth.' It is 
in this place of worship also that his sacrifice is 
performed : for that reason he smooths (the altar) 
down 2 . 

19. He smooths it down, with the text (V£f. S. I, 
28): 'Before the bloody (battle) with its rush- 
ings hither and thither 3 , O mighty one!' the 
bloody one no doubt is the battle, for in battle 

1 Purlsha, rubbish; 'sandy or gravel-like soil,' Say. on Taitt. 
Br. Ill, 2, 9, 12; purfsha also means 'faeces, manure,' in which 
sense it is probably taken symbolically for ' cattle.' The Taitt. Br. 
better: 'well supplied with cattle he thereby makes him (the 
sacrifice^).' 

1 1 By stroking along the altar he shifts it to the moon. 

1 The interpretation of pura krurasya visrip&A here given 
by the author, and also by Mahidhara on V&g. S. I, 28, is more than 
doubtful. Sayawa on Taitt. S. I, 1, 9 is probably more correct in 
taking pura visr»paA (abl. or gerund) krurasya to mean 'before 
the sneaking away of the cruel enemy (Araru, lying fettered on the 
heap of rubbish) ' — he supplies : * thou, O altar, containest merely 
the divine oblations, but since his removal thou containest every- 
thing.' Cf. also Weber, Ind. Streifen, II, p. 463. 



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i kAjvda, 2 adhyAya, 5 brAhmaya, 21. 65 

bloody deeds are done, and slain lie man and horse ; 
and before that battle they removed it (the altar 
to the moon) ; therefore he says, ' Before the bloody 
(battle) with its rushings hither and thither, O mighty 
one!' — 'lifting up the life-bestowing earth,' for 
after lifting up what was living on this earth, they 
removed it to the moon ; therefore he says, ' lifting 
up the life-bestowing earth;' — 'which they raised 
to the moon by prayers,' 'which they placed 
in the moon by worship,' he thereby says,— 'that 
(earth) the wise still point out and worship,' 
to that they accordingly address their worship ; and 
the offering of him also who so understands this, is 
performed in that place of worship. 

20. He now says (to the Agntdhra ; Va^*. S. I, 28), 
' Put the sprinkling-water down (on the altar) !' That 
thunderbolt, the wooden sword, and the priest (brah- 
ma«a) have hitherto defended that sacrifice. Now 
the water also is a thunderbolt: that thunderbolt 
he thereby lays down for its defence. While the 
sprinkling- water is being held close above the wooden 
sword, he takes up the latter. If he were to set the 
sprinkling-water down, wh le the wooden sword is 
still lying, the two thunderbolts would come into col- 
lision with each other; but in this way the two 
thunderbolts do not come into collision with each 
other: for that reason he takes up the wooden 
sword, while the sprinkling-water is being held close 
above it. 

21. He pronounces this (entire) speech: — 'Put 
the sprinkling-water down (on the altar)! put fuel 
and barhis (sacrificial grass) beside it! wipe the 
ladles ! gird the (sacrificer's) wife ! come hither with 
the clarified butter!' This is a direction (given to 

[12] F 



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66 satapatha-brAhmajva. 

the Agnldhra) ; he (the Adhvaryu) may pronounce it, 
if he choose ; or, if he so choose, he may omit it : 
for he (the Agnldhra) himself knows that this work 
has now to be done. 

22. He then flings the wooden sword northwards 
(on the heap of rubbish). If he wishes to exorcise 1 , 
(he does so), with the text, ' I fling thee as a thunder- 
bolt for so and so! ' and as a thunderbolt the wooden 
sword accordingly strikes down (the enemy). 

23. He then washes his hands*; for what there 
was bloody (or injured) on it (the altar) that he 
thereby removes from it: that is why he washes 
his hands. 

24. Now those who made offerings in former 
times, touched (the altar and oblations) at this 
particular time, while they were sacrificing. They 
became more sinful. Those who washed (their 
hands) became righteous. Then unbelief took hold 
of men : ' Those who sacrifice become more sinful, 
and those who sacrifice not become righteous,' they 
said. No sacrificial food then came to the gods from 
this world : for the gods subsist on what is offered 
up from this world 8 . 

25. The gods thereupon said to BWhaspati An- 
girasa, 'Verily, unbelief has come upon men; ordain 
thou the sacrifice to them!' BWhaspati Angirasa 
then went and said, 'How comes it that you do not 
sacrifice?' They replied, ' From a desire for what 

1 Otherwise he uses the text (V&g. S. I, 28): 'A killer of the 
enemy art thou !' Kity. II, 6, 42. 

* He does so (on the utkara) and then lays down the wooden 
sword west of the prawtta water. Katy. II, 6, 43. 

* Men, on the other hand, subsist on what is bestowed on them 
from yonder world. Taitt. S. Ill, a, 9, 7; Taitt. Br. H, 2, 7, 3. 



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i kXnda, 3 adhyAya, i brAhmawa, i. 67 

should we sacrifice, since those who sacrifice become 
more sinful, and those who sacrifice not become 
righteous ?' 

26. Brzhaspati Angirasa then said, 'What we 
have heard of as produced 1 for the gods that is 
this sacrifice, that is to say, the cooked oblations 
and the prepared altar; therewith you have per- 
formed while touching: that is why you have 
become more sinful. Sacrifice therefore without 
touching, for thus you will become righteous !' How 
long ?' they asked. ' Till the spreading o r the sacri- 
ficial grass (on the altar),' he said. By the sacrificial 
grass, namely, it (the altar) becomes appeased. If, 
therefore, before the spreading of the sacrificial grass 
anything were to fall on it, let him only remove 
it at the time when he spreads the sacrificial grass ; 
for when they spread the sacrificial grass, then they 
also step on it with the foot He who knowing this 
sacrifices without touching, becomes indeed righteous: 
let him therefore sacrifice, without touching (the altar 
and oblations). 

Third AdhyAya. First BrAhmajva. 
1. He (the Agntdhra) now brushes the spoons 2 
(with the grass-ends). The reason why he brushes 

1 Parishfltam, which Siyana interprets by parigrshitam, 
'hedged round' [? 'set apart']. The Kdxva MS. reads parishutam. 

* Besides the Agnihotra-havaat, or milk ladle used at the 
morning and evening oblations (see p. 11, note 2; and II, 3, 1, 17), 
three different smk or offering-spoons are used, viz. the ^ uhu, 
upabhr/'t.and dhruvd. They are made each of a different kind of 
wood, of an arm's length (or, according to others, a cubit long), with 
a bowl of the shape and size of the hand, and a hole cut through the 
bark and front side of the bowl and fitted with a spout some eight 
or nine inches long, and shaped like a goose's bill. The sruva or 
dipping-spoon, on the other hand, chiefly used for ladling the clarified 

F 2 



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68 jatapatha-brAhmajva. 

the spoons is that the course 1 pursued among the 
gods is in accordance with that pursued among 
men. Now, when the serving up of food is at 
hand among men, — 

2. They rinse the vessels, and having rinsed them, 
they serve up the food with them : in the same way 
is treated the sacrifice to the gods, that is to say, the 
cooked oblations and the prepared altar; and those 
vessels of theirs, the sacrificial spoons. 

3. Now, when he brushes (the spoons), he in reality 
rinses them, thinking, ' with these rinsed ones I will 
proceed.' He thereby rinses them with two sub- 
stances for the gods, and with one for men; viz. 
with water and the brahman (spirit of worship) for 
the gods, — for the water is (represented by) the sacri- 
ficial grass 2 , and the brahman (by) the sacrificial 
formula ; — and with one for men, that is with water 
alone : and thus this takes place separately 3 . 

4. He, in the first place, takes the dipping-spoon 

butter (or milk) from the butter vessel into the offering-spoons, is 
of khadira wood (Acacia Catechu), a cubit long, with a round bowl 
measuring a thumb's joint across, and without a spout. In our 
text the term sru£ is used both in the general sense of ' spoon ' 
and in the narrower one of ' offering-spoon,' as distinguished from 
the sruva or ' dipping-spoon.' 

1 The brushing of the spoons is here compared with the rinsing 
of vessels preparatory to their being used for serving up the food. 
At the same time, we shall see further on (I, 8, 3, 26-27) that the 
two principal offering-spoons, the^uhu and upabhrrt, are looked 
upon as yoke-fellows, they being the two horses that are supposed 
to convey the sacrifice (and consequently the sacrificer himself) to 
the world of the gods ; hence this process of cleaning also corres- 
ponds to the rubbing down of the horses preparatory to the setting 
out of the sacrificer on his progress to the world of the gods. 

• See I, 1, 3, 5. 

* It is dpubtful to me whether this last passage merely refers to 
the several spoons, or whether it refers to the symbolical meaning 



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i kAjvda, 3 adhyAya, i brAhmawa, 6. 69 

(sruva, masc.) and makes it hot (on the Garhapatya 
fire), with either of the texts (V&f. S. 1, 29), 'Scorched 
is the Rakshas, scorched are the enemies !' or, ' Burnt 
out is the Rakshas, burnt out are the enemies !' 

5. For when the gods were performing sacrifice 
they were afraid of a disturbance on the part of 
the Asuras and Rakshas. Hence by this means 
he, from the very opening of the sacrifice, expels 
from here the evil spirits, the Rakshas *. 

6. He brushes it thus inside with the (grass-)tops 
(cut off from the grass in tying the veda), with the 
text (Va^-. S. I, 29),'Not sharp 2 art thou, (but yet) 
a destroyer of the enemies!' he says this in order 
that it may unceasingly destroy the enemies of the 
sacrificer. Further, 'Thee, the food-abounding 
(masc), I cleanse for the kindling of food 8 !' — 
' thee that art suitable for the sacrifice, I cleanse for 
the sacrifice,' he thereby says. In the same way he 
brushes all the spoons, saying, ' Thee, the food- 
abounding (fern.) . . . ,' in the case of the offering-spoon 
(sru£, fern.). The pra$itrahara»a 4 (he brushes) 
silently. 

of the wiping with sacrificial grass and the accompanying formula. 
In the latter case it might mean: 'and thus that (act) becomes 
different (i.e. has a different significance).' 
1 Cf. I, i, 2, 3, and note. 

* A-nuita, 'not sharpened,' from si (so), 'to sharpen' (thus 
also Mahtdh.). If, however, anuparata, 'unceasing,' in the text is 
intended by the author to explain anuita, he would seem to 
identify the root si with sa (so), ' to bring to an end, to finish.' 
The spoon is sharpened by the wiping, cf. Taitt. Br. Ill, 3, 1, 1. 

8 Va^edhyiyai, 'for the lighting (brightening) of the sacrifice 
(by means of the butter which is poured into the fire), the sacrifice 
being the food of the gods,' Mahldh. The St. Petersburg 
Dictionary suggests va^etyiyai, ' thee, the courser, I wipe for the 
race !' Cf. p. 68, note 1. 

* The prifitrahara«a is a pan of khadira wood, either 



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JO tfATAPATHA-BRAHMAJvA. 

7. Inside he brushes with the (grass-)tops thus 
(viz. from the handle to the top, or in a forward, 
eastward direction from himself); outside with the 
lower (grass-)ends thus (viz. in the opposite or 
backward direction, towards himself) 1 : for thus (viz. 
in the former way) goes the out-breathing, and thus 
(in the opposite way) the in-breathing. Thereby he 
obtains out-breathing and in-breathing (for the sacri- 
ficer): hence these hairs (on the upper side of the 
elbow) point that way, and these (on the lower side) 
point that way 2 . 

8. Each time he has brushed and heated (a spoon), 
he hands it (to the Adhvaryu). Just as, after having 
rinsed (the eating vessels) while touching them, one 
would finally rinse them without touching them, so 
here: for this reason he hands over each (spoon) 
after heating it 8 . 

square or round (? oval, of the shape of a cow's ear, Say. ; of the 
shape of a mirror, Katy.), used for holding the Brahman's portion 
(pra-ritra) of the sacrificial cake. According to Katy. II, 6, 49, 
the ^rttavadanam (cake-cutter) and (purod4*a-)patri (cake- 
dish) also have to be cleaned on this occasion. 

1 While brushing the spoons he stands east of the Ahavanfya 
fire-house, looking toward east. The way of brushing, prescribed 
by the Black Ya^us (Taitt. Br. HI, 3, 1, 3-4; comm. on Taitt. S. 
1, 1, 10), seems to be more complicated. 

1 Viz. the former ('aratner uparibh&gasya lomani'), according 
to Sayana, point in a forward direction (away from the body), and 
the latter (' pr/'shMabhagasya lomani') in a backward direction. 
The Taitt. Br. Ill, 3, 1, 4 has 'on the elbow (aratnau) the hairs 
above (point) forward, those below backward,' which Sayawa (Taitt. 
S. 1, 1, 1, 10) explains by ' the short hairs above the wrist (? mam- 
bandhad urdhvam) are forward-pointed (pranmukha), but those 
below are backward-pointed (pratyan^).' 

* That is to say, the heating of the spoons corresponds to the 
usual final rinsing of household vessels with water without touching 
them. Sayawa. 



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i kXnda, 3 adhyaya, i brahmajva, 12. 71 

9. The dipping-spoon (sruva, masc.) he brushes 
first, and then the other spoons (sru£, fem.). The 
offering-spoon (sru£), namely, is female, and the 
dipping-spoon is male, so that, although in this way 
several women meet together, the one that is, as it 
were, the only male youth among them, goes there 
first, and the others after him. This is the reason 
why he brushes the dipping-spoon first, and after- 
wards the other (offering-)spoons. 

10. Let him brush them so as not to spatter 
anything towards the fire, as he would thereby 
bespatter him, to whom he will be bringing food, 
with the slops of the vessels: therefore let him 
brush them so as not to spatter anything towards 
the fire, that is to say, after stepping outside (the 
Ahavanlya fire-house) towards the east. 

1 1. Here now some throw the grass-ends used for 
cleaning the spoons into the (Ahavanlya) fire. ' To 
the veda (grass-bunch) they assuredly belonged, and 
the spoons have been cleaned with them : hence it 
is something that belongs to the sacrifice, and (we 
throw it into the fire) in order that it should not 
become excluded from the sacrifice/ thus (they argue). 
Let him, however, not do so, since he would thereby 
make him to whom he will offer food, drink the 
slops of the vessels \ Let him therefore throw them 
away (on the heap of rubbish). 

12. He (the Agnldhra) then girds the wife (of the 



1 The Black Ya^us (Taitt. Br. Ill, 3, a, 1) prescribes that the 
grass-ends, after the brushing, should be thrown into the fire, and not 
on the heap of rubbish, as some do; or at all events they should 
not be thrown on the utkara, without their having been previously 
washed with water, as they would otherwise bring ill-luck to the 
cattle. 



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72 SATAPATHA-BRAHMAtfA. 

sacrificer) \ She, the wife, truly is the hinder 
part of the sacrifice. ' May the sacrifice go on 
increasing before me!' thus (she thinks while) he 
girds her, thinking, 'may she sit thus girt by my 
sacrifice!' 

13. He girds her with a cord (yoktra) : for with 
a cord (yoktra) they yoke the draught-animal 
(yogya). Impure indeed is that part of woman 
which is below the navel ; and therewith she will 
be facing the sacrificial butter: that part of her 
he thereby conceals with the cord, and only with 
the pure upper part of her body she then faces the 
sacrificial butter. This is the reason why he girds 
the wife 2 . 

14. He girds her over the garment. Now the 
garment represents the plants, and (the cord repre- 
sents) Varu«a's noose 3 (ra^fu) : hence he thereby 
places the plants between (her and the noose), and 

1 The mistress of the house is seated south-west of the Girha- 
patya fire [with bent (or raised) knees and her face turned towards 
north-east]. The Agntdhra then girds her round the waist, outside 
the garment, with a triple cord of reed-grass (mu%a). Katy. II, 
7, 1 ; and S&yawa on our passage. 

* According to Taitt. Br. Ill, 3, 3, a-3 the symbolical meaning 
of this act is, that it represents the vratopanayana, or initiation 
of the wife into the sacred rite. The girding of the wife would thus 
possess a significance similar to that of the ordinary upanayana, 
or investiture of the youth with the sacred cord. 

* The noose (pdxa) is one of the chief attributes of God 
Varuaa, the symbol of his supreme power and his abhorrence of 
sin. Thus we read in Atharva-veda IV, 1 6, 4 seq. : 'And if one were 
to flee far beyond the sky, one would not escape from king Varuna. 
From heaven his spies issue forth to this (world), and with their 
thousand eyes survey the earth. King Varuna sees all that happens 
between heaven and earth and beyond them : the very twinklings 
of the eyes of men are numbered by him. . . . May all those bale- 
ful nooses of thine, O Varuwa, that are thrown sevenfold and three- 



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I KAA7)A, 3 ADHYAYA, I BRAHMAJVA, 1 7. 73 

thus that noose of Varu»a does not injure her. This 
is the reason why he girds her over the garment. 

15. He girds her, with the text (Va,f. S. I, 30), 
'A zone art thou for Aditi!' Aditi, indeed, is this 
earth. She is the wife of the gods, and that one 
is his (the sacrificer's) wife. It is for the latter, 
accordingly, that he makes it a zone instead of a 
noose (or string). A zone means a girdle, and he 
thereby makes it this for her. 

16. Let him not make a knot 1 , for the knot is 
Varu«a's (attribute); and Varu«a would lay hold 
on the (sacrificer's) wife, if he were to make a knot. 
For this reason he does not make a knot. 

1 7. He twists it through upwards *, with the text 
(Va^ - . S. I, 30), ' The pervader 8 of Vishwu art thou!' 
Let her not sit to the west of the sacrifice, with her 
face towards the east. For Aditi is this earth \ she 
is the wife of the gods, and she indeed sits on the 
west of the sacrifice of the gods, with her face turned 

fold, ensnare him who speaks untruth, and pass by him who speaks 
the truth!' 

1 Taitt. Br. Ill, 3, 3, 4, on the contrary, prescribes a knot 
(granthiw grathnati), as the symbol which is to secure all 
blessings for her. 

* He winds the cord round her waist from left to right (prada- 
kshi«am), and having fixed the southern end by twice twisting round 
the northern one, he draws the southern end through the encircling 
cord upwards (so as to hang down, uparish/al lambayet, Saya«a. 
Katy. II, 7, 1, &c, Scholl.). 

* Veshya=vyapaka, Mahtdh.; 'perhaps a headband,' St. 
Petersb. Diet. It is apparently an etymological play on the name 
of Vishnu (? the all-pervading sun). The formula, according 
to Mahidhara, is addressed to the southern end of the cord which 
is drawn through the girdle (? the pervading ray of Vish«u). 

4 Aditi is the earth and therefore the altar, which represents the 
earth : hence Aditi, in the shape of the altar, looks towards the east. 



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74 SATAPATHA-BRAHMAYA. 

towards the east: and this lady would, therefore, 
raise herself to her (Aditi), and would speedily go 
to yonder world. And thus (viz. by sitting in the 
prescribed way) she lives for a long time, thus she 
propitiates her (Aditi), and thus the latter harms her 
not For this reason let her sit somewhat to the 
south. 

1 8. She looks down upon the sacrificial butter 1 ; 
for assuredly that wife is a woman, and the butter 
(represents) seed : hence a productive union is 
thereby brought about. For this reason she looks 
towards the butter. 

19. She looks, with the text(Va^. S. 1, 30), ' With 
an unimpaired eye I look on thee;' whereby 
she says, ' with an uninjured eye I look on thee.' — 
'Agni's tongue art thou!' for when they offer up 
that (butter) in the fire, then Agni's tongues, as it 
were, issue forth: therefore she says, 'Agni's tongue 
art thou!' — 'A good caller 2 of the gods,' whereby 
she says, 'well for the gods ;' — 'be thou for every 
dainty (or, sacrificial site, dhaman), for every 
prayer of mine!' whereby she says, 'for every 
sacrifice of mine be thou (a good caller) !' 

20. Having then taken up the butter (from the 

1 He takes the pot containing the clarified butter from the fire, 
with the text (V&g. S. I, 30): 'For juice thee!' [see I, a, 2, 6,] 
puts it down on the ground before the sacrificer's wife and bids her 
look down on it Katy. II, 7, 4. 

* SuhuA. The Kanva recension and Taitt. S. I, 1, 10, 3 have 
subh u h, 'well-being, good,' which reading seems also to be presup- 
posed by our author's explanation ' well (or good) for the gods.' 
The Black Ya^us assigns this entire mantra to the Adhvaryu, when 
he has taken the butter from the Ahavantya, and puts it down north 
of the altar. In other respects also it differs considerably from the 
order followed by our author. 



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i kXnda, 3 adhyAya, i brAhmamv, 21. 75 

ground), he (the Agnldhra) carries it eastwards. In 
the case of one whose Ahavantya fire is used for the 
cooking, he (now in the first place) puts it on the 
Ahavantya, thinking, ' My oblation shall be entirely 
cooked on the Ahavantya 1 !' The reason why he 
first puts it thereon (viz. on the Garhapatya) is, 
because he will have to make the wife look at it : 
for it would not be proper, if he were to take it (from 
the Ahavantya) to the west in the midst of the per- 
formance, for the purpose of making the wife look 
at it ; and if he were not to let the wife look at it 
at all, he would thereby exclude her from the sacri- 
fice. And in this way, then, he does not exclude 
the (sacrificer's) wife from the sacrifice: therefore 
he does not take it eastwards till after melting it 
close by the wife (on the Garhapatya), and making 
her look at it In the case of one who (through 
death or from other causes) has not his wife with 
him, he puts it from the very beginning on the Aha- 
vantya. He then takes it again from thence and 
puts it down within the altar. 

21. Here now they say, — ' He must not place it 
within the altar; for from that (butter) they make 
the oblation to the wives of the gods * : he therefore 
excludes the wives of the gods from the company (of 

1 According to the ritual of the Black Ya^us, the butter, after 
the sacrificer's wife has looked at it, is again heated on the Girha- 
patya fire, in order to remove the impurity which has thereby been 
imparted to it. 

* The patnisafliya^as are four oblations of butter to Soma, 
Tvash/r», the wives of the gods, and Agni Gnnapati respectively, 
made at the end of these sacrifices. See I, 9, 2, 1. It would 
seem that, according to the ritual of the Black Ya^us, the butter is 
not put on the altar, but on a line drawn with the wooden sword 
north of the altar. See p. 74, note 2. 



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76 satapatha-brAhmajva. 

their husbands) 1 , and thereby his (the sacrificer's) 
wife becomes dissatisfied with her own husband.' 
Ya^afavalkya, however, said in reference to this point, 
' Let it be so as it has been prescribed for the wife ! 
who would care whether his wife may consort with 
other men 2 ?' 'As the altar is (part of the) sacrifice, 
and the butter is (part of the) sacrifice, I will build 
up the sacrifice from out of the sacrifice!' thus 
thinking, let him place it within the altar. 

22. The two strainers are lying in the sprinkling 
water. He takes them from thence and purifies 
(ut-pu) the butter with them. Now one of them is 
related to the wind (that blows) upwards (utpa- 
vana) 8 , so that he thereby makes it (the butter) 
sacrificially pure. 

23. He clarifies it, with the text (V&f. S. I, 31), 
' By the impulse of Savitf? I purify thee with a 
flawless purifier (strainer), with the rays of the sun !' 
The meaning (of this formula) is the same (as before). 

24. He then purifies the sprinkling water with the 
strainers covered with butter, with the text (Va.f. S. 

1 AvasabhaA karoti=avagata^anasamfihSA karoti, Say.; the 
gods are supposed to be assembled around the altar (cf. I, 3, 3, 
8) : hence by placing the butter, from which the oblations to the 
wives of the gods are to be made, within the altar, the Adhvaryu 
would separate the wives from their husbands. 

1 I am not quite certain as to whether this last scornful remark 
is really to be assigned to Yi^wavalkya. The Ka«va text has, — 
Yi^wavalkya, however, said, ' Let him place it within the altar !' 
thus he said. ' Let it be so as it has been prescribed for the wife,' 
thus (thinking) let him place it, whether or not she consort with 
other men. 

8 Probably the same as ud-Sna (breathing upwards or inspira- 
tion), which one of the strainers is said to represent in 1, 1, 3, 2. 
See also 1, 1, 3, 6 ; Taitt. Br. Ill, 3, 4, 4. The St. Petersburg 
Dictionary proposes the meaning 'an implement for cleaning' for 
utpavana in this passage. 



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i kInda, 3 adhyaya, i brAhmajva, 26. 77 

I, 31), ' By the impulse of Savitri I purify you (O 
waters) with a flawless purifier, with the rays of the 
sun !' The meaning is the same (as before). 

25. The reason why he purifies the sprinkling 
water with the strainers covered with butter is, that 
he thereby puts milk into the water, and that the milk 
thereby (becomes) beneficial 1 in the water, for, when 
it rains, plants are thereby produced ; and on eating 
the plants and drinking the water, vital fluid (serum) 
results therefrom : and thus (he does this) in order 
to supply the vital fluid (of the sacrificer). 

26. He then looks down on the butter. Here now 
some make the sacrificer look down. Y4f»avalkya, 
however, said in reference to this point, — 'Why do not 
(the sacrificers) themselves become (act as) Adhvaryu 
priests ? and why do not they (the sacrificers) them- 
selves recite when far higher blessings are prayed 
for 2 ? How can these (people) possibly have faith 
in this 3 ? Whatever blessing the officiating priests 
invoke during the sacrifice that is for the benefit of 
the sacrificer alone.' The Adhvaryu should accord- 
ingly look down on it.' 

1 A play on the word hi tarn, which means both 'put, placed,' 
and 'beneficial, salutary.' 

1 The Kinva text has as follows, — Here now some make the 
sacrificer eye it, arguing, ' whatever blessing (resides therein) that 
he should himself pray for.' Ya^wavalkya, however, said in re- 
ference to this point, 'Why then does not he himself become 
Adhvaryu? and why does he not recite (the solemn prayers of the 
Hotn priest), and that when they pray for higher blessing ? What- 
ever blessing the priests invoke at the sacrifice, that they invoke for 
the sacrificer alone;' thus he said. The Adhvaryu, therefore, 
should look down on it. 

• Teshaw *akhinam atraivavekshawaw ya^amanenaiva kartavyam 
id kasmat karanat xraddha ^ata, evam tarn jraddham prahasya, Say. 
The Kanva text omits this derisive remark. 



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78 satapatha-brahmajva. 

27. He looks down on it The eye assuredly is 
the truth, for the eye is indeed the truth. If, there- 
fore, two persons were to come disputing with each 
other and saying, 'I have seen it!' 'I have heard 
it!' we should believe him who ;^id, 'I have seen 
it !' and not the other : hence he thereby causes it 
(the butter) to increase by means of the truth. 

28. He looks down on it, with the text (Vif. S. I, 
31), 'Lustrous art thou! resplendent art thou! im- 
mortal (or, ambrosia) art thou!' That prayer is 
indeed true, for that (butter) is lustrous, it is 
resplendent, it is immortal: hence he thereby causes 
it to increase by that (prayer) which is true. 

Second BrAhmajva. 

1. Now the sacrifice is the man. The sacrifice is 
the man for the reason that the man spreads (per- 
forms) it; and that in being spread it is made of 
exactly the same extent as the man 1 : this is the 
reason why the sacrifice is the man. 

2. The ,f uhu (spoon) further belongs to that (man- 
shaped sacrifice) and so does the upabhWt ; and the 
dhruva 2 represents its trunk. Now it is from the 

1 The sacrifice is the representation of the sacrificer himself; 
and hence its dimensions are to be those of a man, viz. the altar 
(vedi) on its western side is to measure a fathom, or space between 
the extreme ends of the outstretched arms (?of the sacrificer), 
which is supposed to be equal to the size of a man ; see I, 2, 5, 14. 
Originally these measurements were no doubt relative to the size of 
the sacrificer; but it is doubtful whether this was still the case at 
the time of our author. 

* For a description of these spoons, see p. 67, note 2. The^uhu 
is supposed to represent the right, and the upabhrtt the left arm, 
and the dhruvS the trunk. 



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i vlAnda, 3 adhyAya, 2 brAhmaya, 8. 79 

trunk that all these limbs proceed, and for this rea- 
son the entire sacrifice proceeds from the dhruva. 

3. The dipping-spoon (sruva, masc.) is no other 
than the breath. This breath passes through (or, 
goes to) all the limbs, and for that reason the dipping- 
spoon goes to all the offering-spoons (sru£, fern.). 

4. That ^uhu further is to him no other than 
yonder sky, and the upabhrzt this atmosphere, and 
the dhruva this same (earth). Now it is from this 
(earth) that all the worlds originate : and from the 
dhruva, therefore, the whole sacrifice proceeds. 

5. The dipping-spoon then is no other than that 
blowing one (the wind) ; it is this that sweeps across 
all these worlds: and for that reason the sruva 
goes to all the offering-spoons. 

6. Now when this sacrifice is being performed, it 
is performed for the gods, the seasons, and the metres 
(or sacred texts). To the gods belongs what sacrificial 
food there is, to wit, king Soma and the sacrificial 
cake : all this he takes, while announcing it with the 
formula, ' I take thee, agreeable to so and so !' for 
thus it becomes theirs. 

7. And whatever oblations of butter are taken, 
they are taken for the seasons and the metres. Every 
one of them he takes in the form of butter without 
announcing it (to any particular deity). In the ^uhu 
he takes of it four times (with the sruva from the 
pot), in the upabhrit eight times 1 . 

8. Now when he takes of it four times (with the 
sruva) in the/uhu, he takes it for the seasons, since 

1 He takes butter in the ^uhu and upabhri't by four or eight 
ladlings with the dipping-spoon. As we learn further on, the 
quantity taken in the g uhu, by ladling four times, should exceed 
that in the upabhri't, although the latter requires eight ladlings. 
Cf. Katy. II, 7, 13. 



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80 satapatha-brAhmaata. 

he takes it for the fore-offerings 1 , and the fore-offer- 
ings are the seasons : all this he takes in the form of 
butter without making any announcement, in order 
to avoid sameness; for if he were to take it with 
the formulas 'For Spring (I take) thee!' 'For 
Summer — thee !' he would commit (the fault of) a 
repetition 2 : he therefore takes it in the form of 
butter without making any announcement. 

9. When, on the other hand, he takes eight times 
(with the sruva) in the upabh^z't, he takes it for the 
metres 3 , since it is for the after-offerings 1 that he 
takes it ; and the after-offerings are the metres : all 
this he takes in the form of butter without making 
any announcement, in order to avoid sameness; for 
were he to take it with the formulas ' For the Gaya- 
trl — thee!' 'For the Trish/ubh — thee!' he would 
commit a repetition : he therefore takes it in the 
form of butter without making any announcement. 

1 o. Again, when he takes four times(with the sruva) 

1 On the praya^as, or oblations of clarified butter introductory 
to, and the anuy &g as, oblations of the same material made subse- 
quently to, the chief sacrifice, see I, 5, 3, 1 seq., and I, 8, 2, 1 seq. 

* Repetition of one and the same sacrificial act on the same day 
is to be avoided, as far as possible. The repetition in the present 
case would consist in his announcing the butter-oblations to the 
several deities in the same way as he has done in regard to the rice- 
portions. See 1, 1, 2, 17-18. 

* On the frequent symbolical employment of the metres in the 
ritual, as the embodiment of supreme harmony and the efficacy of 
prayer, see Weber, Ind. Stud. VIII, 8 seq. The three principal Vedic 
metres are the gayatri (three times eight syllables), the trish/ubh 
(four times eleven syllables), and the ^agatl (four times twelve 
syllables); and three anuya^as there are at these sacrifices, viz. to 
the barhis or sacrificial grass, to Nara^awsa and Agni Svish- 
/akr*'t respectively. In the present instance (see par. 16) the trish- 
/ubh and ^agat 1 metres are taken together as one, and as a fourth 
is added the anush/ubh (four times eight syllables). 



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i kAnda, 3 adhyAya, 2 brahmajva, 14. 81 

in the dhruva, he takes it for the whole sacrifice, and 
all this he takes in the form of butter without mak- 
ing any announcement. To whom indeed should he 
announce it, since he cuts it off for all the deities ? 
He therefore takes it in the form of butter without 
making any announcement 

11. Now the sacrificer stands behind the ,fuhu, 
and he who means evil to him stands behind 
the upabhrn. The eater stands behind the^uhu, 
and what (or, he who) is to be eaten stands behind 
the UpabhWt.- And the^uhu, indeed, is the eater, 
and the upabhWt is that which is to be eaten. In 
the ^uhu he takes four times (with the sruva), and 
in the upabhWt eight times. 

12. Now when he takes four times (butter) in the 
£"uhu, he thereby makes the eater more limited, 
smaller; and when he takes eight times in the 
upabh^zt, he makes that which is to be eaten more 
unlimited, more abundant : for a flourishing con- 
dition indeed exists where the eater is smaller and 
that which is to be eaten more abundant. 

13. In taking four times in the £"uhu, he takes 
(altogether) more butter, and in taking eight times 
in the upabhr/t he takes less butter. 

14. For when, in taking four > times (butter with 
the sruva) in the ^"uhu, he takes more butter, he 
thereby, in making the eater more limited, smaller, 
imparts vigour and strength to him. And when, in 
taking eight times in the upabhr*t, he takes less 
butter, he thereby, in making that which (or, him 
who) is to be eaten more unlimited, more abundant, 
makes it (or, him) vigourless and weaker. And thus 
a king who has established himself among a number- 
less people, subdues them even from a single dwelling, 

[12] G 



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82 DATAPATH A-BRAHMAJVA. 

and takes possession of whatever he likes l : with that 
very same energy (the Adhvaryu acts) when he takes 
a greater quantity of butter in the g uhu. Now what 
he takes in the ,fuhu, that he offers with the ^uhu ; 
and what he takes in the upabhrzt, that also he 
offers with the^uhu. 

15. And in reference to this point they say: 
'Wherefore then is he to take it in the upabhr/t, if 
he does not offer it with the upabhrzt ?' Now, if he 
were to offer it with the upabhWt, those subjects^of 
the king) would assuredly become separated from 
him, nor would there be either an eater or what is 
to be eaten. When, on the other hand, he pours 
(the butter) together and thus offers it with the 
^•uhu, thereby the people pay tribute to the Ksha- 
triya. Hence by what he takes in the upabhrzt, 
the Vaisya (man of the people), under the rule of 
the Kshatriya, becomes possessed of cattle; and 
when he pours (the butter) together and offers it 
with the .fuhu, thereby the Kshatriya, whenever 
he likes, says, ' Hallo Vai^ya, just bring to me what 
thou hast stored away !' Thus he both subdues him 
and obtains possession of anything he wishes by 
dint of this very energy. 

1 6. These butter-portions, then, are taken for the 
metres. Now what he takes in the ^nhu (by ladling) 
four times (with the sruva), that he takes for the 
gayatrl; and what he takes in the upabhm (by 
ladling) eight times, that he takes for the trish/ubh 
and^agatl; and what he takes in the dhruva (by 

1 Tasmid uta rSglparira visum privasaySpy ekavcrmanaiva 
(' by one who has a single dwelling, i. e. by himself,' S£ya«a) 
^inati tvad yaM tvat kamayate taM sa/fete. The MS. of the 
Kawva text has : ' Tasmat kshatriyo ra^ot&pir&d viram pravasaya 
;in&ti tvad yath& tva(t) kamayate tat karoti.' 



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i kAatja, 3 adhyAya, 3 brAhma^a, i. 83 

ladling) four times, that he takes for the anush/ubh. 
For the anush/ubh is speech, and from speech all 
this (universe) springs : hence it is from the dhruvA 
that the whole sacrifice originates. The anush/ubh 
also is this (earth), and from it all this (universe) 
originates: hence it is from the dhruva that the 
whole sacrifice originates. 

17. He takes (butter with the sruva), with the 
text (Vif. S. I, 31), 'Verily, thou art the favourite 
resort (or, dainty) of the gods!' He thereby makes 
that butter the most favourite resort of the gods : for 
this reason he says, ' verily, thou art the favourite 
resort of the gods!' — 'An unassailable means of 
worship!' the butter is indeed a thunderbolt: there- 
fore he says, 'an unassailable means of worship!' 

18. Once he puts (butter with the sruva) into the 
^uhu with this formula, three times silently. With 
the same formula he puts (butter) once into the 
upabhm, seven times silently. With the same for- 
mula he puts once (butter) into the dhruva, three 
times silently. Now, as to this, they say, 'Thrice he 
should take with the formula in each case, for three- 
fold is the sacrifice.' Nevertheless (it is done) only 
once with each (spoon), for it is just in this way that 
the taking thrice (with a formula) is accomplished. 

Third BrAhmajva. 
1. The Adhvaryu takes the sprinkling-water, and 
sprinkles in the first place the fire-wood 1 , with the 

1 The fire-wood had been brought by the Agntdhra and laid down 
on the altar. The Adhvaryu now unties and sprinkles it [Before 
doing so he has, as usual, to ask and obtain the permission of the 
Brahman. The same is the case in regard to the barhis, but not 
in regard to the altar.] Kity. II, 7, 19. 

G 2 



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84 satapatha-brahmajva. 

text (V4f. S. II, i), 'A black deer, living in the 
den, art thou 1 ; I sprinkle thee, agreeable to Agni !' 
He thereby makes it sacrificially pure for Agni. 

2. He then sprinkles the altar, with the text (Va^ - . 
S. II, i), ' Thou art the altar ; I sprinkle thee, agree- 
able to the barhis (sacrificial-grass covering)!' He 
thereby makes it sacrificially pure for the grass 
covering. 

3. He (the Agntdhra) then hands the sacri- 
ficial grass 2 to him (the Adhvaryu). The latter 
puts it down (on the altar) with the knot turned 
to the east, and sprinkles it, with the text (Va^. S. 
II, 1), 'Barhis art thou! I sprinkle thee, agree- 
able to the spoons!' He thereby makes it sacri- 
ficially pure for the spoons. 

4. Thereupon he pours the sprinkling-water 

1 ? Akhare-shMa; it probably has a double meaning in this 
place, viz. ' that which dwells in a den (akhara)' and ' that which 
has its place on the hearth (khara).' 

1 ' At the beginning of the sacrifice the Adhvaryu makes of the 
load of Darbha or sacred grass, which has been brought to the 
sacrificial compound, seven mush/is or bunches, each of which 
is tied together with a stalk of grass, just as the Baresma (Barsom) 
of the Parsis. The several names of these seven bunches are, 1. 
Ya^amSnamush/i, the bunch kept by the sacrificer himself in his 
hand as long as the sacrifice lasts. 2. Three bunches from the 
Barhis, or the covering of the Vedi on which the sacrificial vessels 
are put. These are unloosened and spread all over the Vedi. 3. 
Prastara. This bunch, which must remain tied, is put over the 
Darbha of the Vedi. 4. Paribho^ant. From this bunch the 
Adhvaryu takes a handful out for each priest, and the sacrificer and 
his wife, which they then use for their seat. 5. The Veda. This 
bunch is made double in its first part ; the latter, part is cut off 
and has to remain on the Vedi; it is called parivasana. The 
Veda itself is always wandering from one priest to the other, and 
is given to the sacrificer and his wife. It is handed over to the 
latter only when one of the priests makes her recite a mantra.' 
Haug's translation of the Ait Br. p. 79. 



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i kXxda, 3 adhyAya, 3 brAhmawa, 7. 85 

which is left on the roots of the (grass) plants, with 
the text (Va£\ S. II, 2), 'A moistening art thou for 
Aditi !' Aditi, indeed, is this earth ; hence it is for 
the latter that he thus moistens the roots of the 
plants : thereby these plants become root-moistened ; 
and even if their tops are dry, their roots at least 
remain moist 

5. Having thereupon untied the knot, he takes 
the prastara bunch from the front (of the barhis), 
with the text (Vaf. S. II, 2), 'Vishmi's crest art 
thou!' Vish»u, namely, is the sacrifice, and this 
(the prastara) is his top-knot or crest: this he 
thereby makes it at this sacrifice 1 . From the front 
he takes it, because this top-knot also is (worn) on 
the front (of the head) : for this reason he takes 
it from the front. 

6. He then undoes the band (of the barhis). ' His 
(the sacrificer's) wife is sure to bring forth without 
difficulty 2 ,' thinking thus he undoes the band. He 
puts it down on the right hip (of the altar) ; for this 
represents his (the sacrificer's) waist-band, and it is 
on the right side that the waist-band is (tied) : this 
is the reason why he puts it down on the right hip. 
He again covers it over (with sacrificial grass) ; for 
the waist-band also is covered (by the upper gar- 
ment) : for this reason he again covers it. 

7. He now spreads the barhis (on the altar). 
For the prastara is the top-knot; and this other 

1 Because, according to Sayawa, it lies on the front, or eastern 
side of the altar, near the Ahavanfya fire, and men also wear their top- 
knot (in the form of a ball or lump) on the fore-part of their head. 
The prastara he hands to the Brahman-priest. Katy. II, 7, 22. 

* Prak/iptam; Sayawa takes it in the sense of 'a completely 
formed (child).' 



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86 DATAPATH A-BRAHMAivA. 

sacrificial grass is for this (sacrifice) what other hair 
there is below that (top-knot, viz. the beard, &c.) : — 
that (hair) he thereby puts on it, and for this reason 
he spreads the barhis. 

8. Now the altar (vedi, fern.) is a woman, and 
around her sit the gods and those priests who have 
studied and teach revealed lore 1 ; and as they thus 
sit around her, he makes her not naked : hence it 
is in order to avoid nudity (on her or the altar's 
part) that he spreads the barhis. 

9. As large as the altar is, so large is the earth ; 
and the plants (are represented by) the barhis; 
so that he thereby furnishes the earth with plants ; 
and those plants are firmly established in this earth : 
for this reason he spreads the barhis. 

10. Here now they say, ' Let him strew abundantly; 
for where the plants are most abundant on her, there 
the means of subsistence are most amply afforded 
by her: let him therefore strew abundantly!' It is 
in favour of him (the sacrificer) who procures (the 
sacrificial grass), then, (that this is done.) He strews 
it threefold 2 , for threefold is the sacrifice. Or he 
may also spread it whilst lifting up (the tops) 3 ; for 

1 'Around her on the south sit the gods and those man-gods 
(manushyadeva^), the priests who have studied and teach revealed 
lore.' Kanva recension. 

2 Viz. in three layers, one beside the other, each consisting of 
one handful of grass. He first spreads a layer on the east side 
from the southern to the northern shoulder of the altar, with the 
tops of the blades turned towards the east ; then a second one west 
of it, so as to cover the roots of the first with the tops of the 
second layer ; and in the same way a third one on the west side of 
the altar. If he thinks fit, he may make more than three layers, 
but their number should be uneven. K&ty. II, 7, 22-26 (schol.). 

3 That is to say, he is to begin on the west side, and in laying 
down the successive layers, he is to lift up (with a stick or some 



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I KANDA, 3 ADHYAYA, 3 BRAHMAJVA, 1 3. 87 

it has been said by the seer (Va^ - . S.VII, 32), 'They 
spread the barhis continuously.' He spreads it 
with the roots below (the tops); for it is with their 
roots below that those plants are firmly established 
in this earth : for this reason he spreads it with the 
roots below. 

11. He spreads it, with the text (Va^. S. II, 2), 
' I spread thee, soft as wool, pleasant to sit upon 
for the gods !' — when he says ' thee, soft as wool,' he 
thereby means to say 'agreeable to the gods;' and 
by ' pleasant to sit upon for the gods,' he means to 
say ' forming a good seat for the gods.' 

12. He now trims the fire 1 . The Ahavanlya, 
doubtless, is the head of the sacrifice, for the head 
is the fore-part 2 : that fore-part of the sacrifice he 
thereby trims. He trims it while holding the 
prastara (which he has received back from the 
Brahman) close over it; for the prastara is the 
top-knot, and it is this which he thereby puts on 
it : for this reason he trims (the fire) while holding 
the prastara close over it. 

13. He then lays the (three) enclosing-sticks 
(paridhi) around (the fire). The reason why he 
lays the enclosing-sticks around (is this). When 
at first the gods chose Agni for the office of Hotri, 
he said : ' Verily, I am not equal to this, that I 
should be your Hotrt, and that I should carry your 
oblation. Already you have chosen three before, 

other object) the heads of the preceding layer and push the roots of 
the succeeding one under them. lb. 27 (schol.). 

1 He takes one stick from the fuel and gets the fire ready (for 
the oblations, either by throwing the stick into it, or by stirring it 
with the stick). lb. 29. 

* The Ahavantya is at the foremost or eastern end of the sacri- 
ficial ground. 



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88 satapatha-brahmawa. 

and they have passed away x . Restore them tome: 
then I shall be equal to this, that I should be your 
Hot?? and that I should carry your oblation ! ' They 
said, 'So be it!' and they restored to him those 
(three former Agnis) : they are these enclosing-sticks. 

14. He then said, 'The thunderbolt, (in the shape 
of) the vas ha /-call 2 , has struck these down: I am 
afraid of that thunderbolt, the vasha/-call. Lest 
that thunderbolt, the vasha /-call, should strike me 
down, enclose me by those (three Agnis, or pari- 
dhis); and thus that thunderbolt, the vasha/-call, 
will not strike me down.' They said, 'So be it!' 
and they enclosed him with those (three sticks), and 
that thunderbolt, the vasha/-call, did not strike him 
down. When he encloses Agni with those (sticks) 
he buckles armour on him. 

15. They (the other three Agnis) then said, 'If 
you join us with the sacrifice in this wise, then let 
us also have a share in the sacrifice !' 

16. The gods said: 'So be it! What shall fall out- 
side the enclosure, that is offered unto you ; and 
what they shall offer just upon you, that will sate 

1 See I, 2, 3, 1. 

1 The call 'vasha/' (or vausha/), apparently signifying 'may 
he (Agni) carry it (the oblation) up I' (from vah, to bear, carry), is 
pronounced by the Hotr* at the end of the ya^-yas or offering 
prayers (see note on I, 5, 1/16). Professor Weber has somewhere 
proposed to derive it from vaksh, to grow, increase, hence 'may it 
prosper, or agree, with you !' Different, but quite fanciful, inter- 
pretations of vasha/ are given Sat. Br. I, 5, 2, 18 ; Ait. Br. 3, 6. 
As to the awful solemnity of this formula, and the danger arising 
from a careless use of it, see Ait. Br. 3, 8, on which Haug remarks, 
' Up to the present day the Shrotriyas or sacrificial priests never 
dare to pronounce this formula save at the time of sacrificing. 
They say that if they would do so at any other time, they would be 
cursed by the gods.' 



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I kXnda, 3 adhyAya, 3 brAhmajva, 19. 89 

you ; and what they shall offer up in the fire that will 
sate you 1' Thus what they offer up in the fire, that 
satisfies them (the Agnis) ; and what they offer up 
just upon them (the enclosing-sticks, or Agnis), that 
satisfies them ; and what is spilled outside the en- 
closure, that is offered to them 1 : hence no sin attaches 
to what (butter) is spilt ; for into this earth they en- 
tered (when they, the Agnis, passed away), and what- 
ever is spilt here, — all that remains indeed in her. 

17. That which is spilt he touches, with the 
formulas (Va^f. S. II, 2), 'To the Lord of the Earth — 
svaha !' 'To the Lord of the World— svaha !' ' To 
the Lord of Beings — svaha ! ' These, indeed, are the 
names of those Agnis, — to wit, Lord of the Earth, 
Lord of the World, and Lord of Beings. Thus in 
like manner as that (oblation) which is accompanied 
by ' Vasha/' is offered up (to the particular deity to 
which it is announced), so is this (offered up) on his 
(the sacrificer's) part to those Agnis. 

18. Here now some people take the sticks they 
lay around from the fire-wood; but let him not do so, 
for unsuitable for laying around are those which they 
take from the fire-wood, since the fire-wood is pre- 
pared for the purpose of being put upon (the fire) ; but 
what other (kind of sticks) they bring to him, called 
'enclosing-sticks (paridhis),' they are indeed suitable 
for his purpose : let them therefore bring others. 

19. Indeed, they should be of Pallia wood 

1 The KSnva text has as follows : — They said, ' So be it 1 what 
shall fall outside the enclosure that shall be yours 1 and what they 
shall offer just upon you that shall sate youl' for what they offer 
just upon them that does indeed sate them (en in) ; and what they 
offer up in the fire that is theirs (esh&m, ? the gods'); and what 
falls outside the enclosure by that he shall incur no guilt, &c. 



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90 SATAPATHA-BRAHMAJVA. 

(Butea Frondosa); for the Pala^a tree, doubtless, is 
the Brahman 1 , and Agni also is the Brahman : for 
this reason the Agnis should be of Palasa wood. 

20. Should he be unable to procure them of Pa- 
ULsa wood, they maybe ofVikankata wood (Fla- 
courtia Sapida); and if he be unable to procure any 
ofVikankata, they may be of Karshmarya wood 
(Gmelina Arborea); and if he be unable to procure 
any of Karshmarya wood, they may be of Vilva 
(Aegle Marmelos), or of Khadira (Acacia Catechu), 
or of Udumbara wood (Ficus Glomerata). These, 
doubtless, are the trees that are suitable for sacrificial 
purposes, and from these trees they (the enclosing- 
sticks) are therefore (taken). 

Fourth Brahmajva. 

1. They should be green (fresh); for that is (what 
constitutes) their living element, by that they are 
vigorous, by that possessed of strength : for this 
reason they should be green. 

2. The middle stick he lays down first (on the 
west side of the fire), with the text (Va^ - . S. II, 3), 
'May the Gandharva Vi^vavasu 2 lay thee around 

1 The Brahman, or supreme spirit (f or, sacred writ), is more 
than once identified with the Pallfa tree in the .Satapatha Br., as in 
V, 2, 4, 18 ; VI, 6, 3, 7 ; XII, 7, 2, 15; and with the leaf of that 
tree (palajasya paliram) in II, 6, 2, 8. [f Cf. Rig-veda X, 31, 7, 
'Which was the wood, which was the tree, out of which they 
fashioned heaven and earth?' and Taitt. Br. II, 8, 9, 6, 'Brahma 
was the wood, Brahma was that tree out of which they fashioned 
heaven and earth ;' also Ath.-veda X, 7, 38, 'The gods form part 
of the divine essence (Skambha- Brahma) as branches of a tree.'] 

* The genius Vis vavasu is already mentioned in Rig-veda X, 
85, 21 seq., and X, 139, 4, where Grassmann identifies him with 
the rainbow (cf. Roth, Nirukta notes, p. 145). See also SaX. Br. 
111,2,4,2; XIV, 9, 4, 18. 



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i kanda, 3 adhyAya, 4 brAhmajva, 6. 9 1 

for the security of the All ! Thou art a fence to 
the sacrificer, thou (art) Agni, invoked and worthy 
of invocation !' 

3. He then lays down the southern one, with the 
text (ib.), ' Thou art Indra's arm for the security 
of the All ! Thou art a fence to the sacrificer; thou 
Agni, invoked and worthy of invocation ! ' 

4. He then lays down the northern one, with the 
text (ib.), ' May Mitra-Varu«a lay thee around in 
the north with firm law for the security of the All ! 
Thou art a fence to the sacrificer, thou Agni, invoked 
and worthy of invocation !' They are indeed Agnis, 
and for that reason he says, 'Agni, invoked and 
worthy of invocation!' 

5. Thereupon he puts on (the fire) a samidh 
(kindling-stick). He first touches with it the middle 
enclosing-stick : thereby he first kindles those (three 
Agnis). After that he puts it on the fire : thereby 
he kindles the visible fire. 

6. He puts it on 1 , with the gayatrl stanza (Va£\ 
S. II, 4), 'Thee, O Sage, who callest (the gods) to the 
feast, we will kindle so as to shine brilliantly; thee, 
O Agni, mighty at the sacrifice ! ' He thereby kindles 
the gayatrl 2 ; the gayatrl, when kindled, kindles the 
other metres ; and the metres, when kindled, carry 
the sacrifice to the gods. 

1 According to Sayawa, the two sticks or pieces of wood are put 
on the fire in a manner similar to that in which the two dgharas 
or sprinklings of clarified butter are made (see I, 4, 4-5) ; viz. the 
first in the direction north-west to south-east, and the second from 
south-west to north-east. 

* The gayatrl is the first of the three principal metres, cf. p. 8o, 
note 3. It consists of three octo-syllabic padas, of which Rig-veda 
I, 164, 35 says, — ' The giyatra, they say, has three flames (or fire- 
brands, samidh): therefore it excelled in grandeur and power.' 



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92 DATAPATH A-BRAHMAiVA. 

7. By the second kindling-stick (samidh), which 
he now puts on, he kindles the spring ; the spring, 
when kindled, kindles the other seasons; and the 
seasons, when kindled, cause living beings to be pro- 
duced and the plants to ripen. He puts it on, with 
the formula (V&f. S. II, 5), 'Akindler (samidh) art 
thou!' for the spring is indeed a kindler. 

8. When he has put it on, he murmurs (ib.), ' May 
the sun guard thee from the east against any im- 
precation !' for the enclosing-sticks serve for pro- 
tection on all (the other three) sides ; and thereby 
he makes the sun the protector on the east side, 
fearing iest the evil spirits, the Rakshas, should rush 
in from the east:' for the sun is the repeller of the 
evil spirits, the Rakshas. 

9. By that third kindling-stick, then, which he puts 
on at the after-offerings ', he kindles the officiating 
priest (brahma«a); and he, the priest, when kindled, 
carries the sacrifice to the gods. 

10. He now returns to the altar covered (with 
sacrificial grass). Having taken two stalks of grass, 
he lays them down across (the barhis or grass 
covering, with the tops to the north), with the 
formula (Vi^. S. II, 5), ' Savit^'s arms 2 are ye!' 
The prastara bunch is indeed the top-knot (of the 
sacrifice); and he now lays down these two cross- 
wise as its eye-brows : thereby these two (represent) 
the transverse eye-brows. The prastara, further, 



1 See I, 8, a, 3. 

1 Bahu, 'the two arms,' is apparently taken here by our author 
both in its natural sense and as the arms of the bow or arch, formed 
by the eye-brows. The barhis, or grass covering of the altar, was, 
as we saw (1, 3, 3, 7), identified with the beard and other hair of the 
body. 



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I KANDA, 3 ADHYAYA, 4 BRAHMAiVA, 1 4. 93 

(represents) the kshatra (or military class); and 
the other barhis the vi.y (or, the common Aryan 
people); — (and the two stalks he puts down between 
them) for the sake of separating (vidhrzti) the 
kshatra and the vis: for this reason he lays 
them down crosswise ; and for this reason these two 
(stalks) are called vidhWti. 

11. On them he spreads the prastara, with the 
formula (Va^-. S. II, 5), ' I spread thee, soft as wool, 
pleasant to sit upon for the gods!' When he says 
' thee, soft as wool,' he means to say ' agreeable to 
the gods ; ' and by 'pleasant to sit upon for the gods' 
he means to say 'forming a good seat for the gods.' 

12. He presses it down (with his left hand), with 
the text (ib.), 'May the Vasus, the Rudras, the 
Adityas sit on thee!' These three, that is, the 
Vasus, the Rudras, and the Adityas, namely, are 
(classes of) gods; and these, he means to say, are 
to sit down on it. While it is still being held down 
with his left hand, — 

13. He seizes the ^uhu with his right, fearing 
'lest the evil spirits, the Rakshas, should enter there 
in the meantime;' for the officiating priest (br&h- 
ma»a) is the repeller of the Rakshas : therefore, 
while it (the prastara) is still being held down with 
his left hand, — 

14. He seizes the .fuhu, with the text (Va^. S. 
11,6), ' Fond of butter art thou, Guhb by name !' for 
fond of butter indeed it is, and £uhu by name; — ' Sit 
down here with the favourite resort 1 (or dainty) on the 
favourite seat!' The upabhrzt(he takes), with the 
formula (ib.), 'Fond of butter art thou, Upabhrzt 

1 Viz. the butter, which is the dear resort, or home, of the gods; 
see I, 3, 2, 17. Possibly, however, d ham an may here mean 'dainty.' 



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94 SATAPATHA-BRAHMA.WA. 

by name!' for fond of butter indeed it is, and Upa- 
bhrz't by name ; — ' Sit down here with the favourite 
resort on the favourite seat!' The dhruva (he takes) 
with 'Fond of butter art thou, Dhruva by name!' 
for fond of butter indeed it is, and Dhruva by 
name; — 'Sit down here with the favourite resort 
on the favourite seat ! ' What other sacrificial food 
there is, (he puts down on the prastara), with the 
formula, ' With the favourite resort sit down on the 
favourite seat!' 

15. He lays the ^uhu down on (the prastara), 
and the other spoons down below, (viz. on the 
barhis, north of the guhd, and so as not to touch 
it or one another); for the ^uhu assuredly is the 
kshatra, and the other spoons (sru^) are the 
vis: he thereby makes the kshatra superior to 
the vis. Hence the people here serve, from a 
lower position, the Kshatriya seated above them : 
for this reason he places the ^uhfl upon (the pra- 
stara) and the other spoons down below it. 

16. He touches the offerings, with the text (V&f . 
S. II, 6), 'Safely they have sat down,' for safely 
indeed they sat down; — 'in the lap (yoni) of divine 
truth!' for the sacrifice is indeed the lap of divine 
truth, and in the sacrifice they sat down ; — ' Protect 
these, O Vishwu ! protect the sacrifice ! protect the 
lord of sacrifice ! ' thereby he refers to the sacrificer ; 
— ' Protect me, the leader of the sacrifice ! ' thereby 
he does not exclude himself either from the sacrifice. 
Vishwu, assuredly, is the sacrifice : hence it is to the 
sacrifice that he makes all that over for protection. 
This is the reason why he says, ' Protect these, 
O Vishmi !' 



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I KAJVDA, 3 ADHYAYA, 5 BRAHMAJVA, 3. 95 



Fifth Brahmajva. 

The Kindling of the Fire, the Pravara, and the Two 
Libations (Aghara) of Butter. 

i. With the fire-wood (idh ma, lighting material) 
the Adhvaryu lights (indh) the fire: hence it is 
called fire-wood. And with the kindling verses 
(samidheni) the HotW kindles (sam-indh, to make 
blaze): hence they are called kindling verses. 

2. He (the Adhvaryu J ) says (to the Hot;*): ' Re- 
cite to the fire as it is being kindled !' for it is to the 
fire, when it is being kindled, that he recites. 

3. Here now some people say, ' O Hotar, recite 
to the fire as it is being kindled!' But let him 
not say so ; for that (priest) is not a Hotn as yet ; 
only when he (the sacrificer) elects him 2 , does he 

1 The Adhvaryu, in the first place, prepares a seat for the Hotri, 
either west of the altar or north of its left hip ; and covers it with 
dry Kiwa grass. [He then calls, 'O Hotr/ - , come!'] The Hotr/', 
having rinsed his mouth north-east of the Ahavanfya, wilh his face 
to the east, turns round from left to right and betakes himself to the 
sacrificial ground, always keeping his right foot before the left. He 
finally takes up his position so as to have the heel of the right foot 
in a line with the north hip of the altar, and the toes on the barhis ; 
whilst he keeps the hands on a level with the heart, spread open 
and joined together, and looks towards the junction of the earth 
and sky. The Adhvaryu then takes a s am idh (kindling-stick) and 
calls on him as above. The Hotr* now mutters the formulas 
'Adoration to the teacher ! Adoration to the observer 1 Adoration 
to the promulgator !' &c. (Axv. 5rautas I, 2, 1). The sacrificer then 
takes the wooden sword and says, ' Recite for me, as it were, 
stretching along (i. e. continuously)!' whereupon the Hotr/', having 
asked and received the permission of the Brahman, proceeds to 
recite the kindling verses. Kity. Ill, 1, 1 seq. ; ksv. I, 1, 4 seq. 

1 This does not take place until the pravara or invitation 
addressed to Agni, the Hotr* of the gods, to assist in calling the 



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96 satapatha-brahmaiva. 

become a Hotri. Let him therefore say, ' Recite to 
the fire as it is being kindled !' 

4. He recites (verses) addressed to Agni : he 
accordingly kindles it (the fire) with the aid of its 
own deity. In the gayatrl metre (are the verses 
which) he recites ; for the gayatrl is Agni's metre : 
by means of its own metre he thereby kindles it The 
gayatrt is vigour, the gayatrl is the brahman 1 (the 
priestly order) : with vigour he thereby kindles it. 

5. Eleven (verses) he recites ; for of eleven sylla- 
bles consists the trish/ubh metre. The gayatrl is 
the brahman and the trish/ubh is the kshatra 
(or military order) 2 . With the aid of these two 
energies he thus kindles it: for this reason he recites 
eleven (verses). 

6. Thrice he recites the first verse, and thrice the 
last one ; for of threefold beginning are sacrifices, 
and of threefold termination : therefore he recites 
thrice the first and the last (verses). 

7. Fifteen samidhenl verses result (from this re- 
petition of the first and last of the eleven verses). The 
fifteen- versed chant 3 , doubtless, is the thunderbolt, 



gods to the sacrifice, cf. SSyana and .Sat. Br. I, 5, 1, 1 seq. Accord- 
ing to some authorities, however, the choosing of the Hotrz seems 
to take place at this particular time, or even before, at the time of 
the agnyanvidhana ; cf. Hillebrandt, p. 73. 

1 The giyatrf (though it is not the most frequent metre) 
is considered as the first, as it is the shortest, of Vedic metres. 
The hymns addressed to Agni are mostly in the gSyatri metre. 

* The hymns celebrating the heroic deeds of Indra and his 
associates, the wind -gods, are almost entirely composed in the 
trish/ubh, the most frequent of Vedic metres. 

* The pan£adaja-stoma, or form of recitation in fifteen 
verses at the Soma-sacrifice, is sacred to Indra (Nirukta 7, 10), the 
wielder of the thunderbolt. 



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I KAJVDA, 3 ADHYAYA, 5 BRAHMAtfA, IO. 97 

and the thunderbolt means strength ; so that he 
thereby converts the samidhenis into strength: 
hence, if he should hate any one, he may crush him 
with his great toes l at the time when those (verses) 
are recited. By saying, 'I here crush so and so!' 
he crushes him with that thunderbolt. 

8. Fifteen nights indeed there are in a half- 
moon ; and growing by half-moons the year passes : 
hence he thereby obtains the nights. 

9. Now in the fifteen gayatri verses there are 
indeed three hundred and sixty syllables 2 ; and 
three hundred and sixty days there are in a year : 
hence he thereby obtains the days, he thereby obtains 
the year. 

10. For an ish/i (which is performed in order to 
obtain the fulfilment of a special wish) 3 let him recite 
seventeen samidhenl verses ; for in a low voice he 
sacrifices to the deity to which he offers an ish/i. 

1 Or, with his thumbs (angush/Mbhyam). The Ka«va text has 
'padyabhyam angush/Mbhyam ; ' but Katy. Ill, 1, 7 has 'an- 
gush/Aabhyaw pSdyabhyiw va,' which would seem to leave a choice 
between the thumbs and the great toes ; the commentator, how- 
ever, takes va in a restrictive sense. The sacnficer is to press 
down the earth with his great toes (or thumbs) each time when a 
kindling verse is recited. 

3 The gayatri verse consists of three times eight syllables, 
and 24 x 15 = 360. In the place of the last samidhenl (called 
paridhaniyd), however, the Vasish/Aas have a trish/ubh stanza 
(4x11 syllables), so that the above computation of syllables does 
not hold good in their case. One might be inclined to infer from 
this that the trish/ubh was the more original, a gayatri being 
substituted later to yield the above symbolical number of syllables. 
Cf. Taitt. S. II, 5, 1 seq. ; Taitt. Br. Ill, 5, 3. 

* The kamyesh/is, and ish/is generally, are performed with cer- 
tain modifications, on the model of the new and full-moon sacrifice, 
of which they are therefore said to be vikn'tis or modifications. 
[1 a] H 



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98 satapatha-brAhmawa. 

Twelve months, namely, there are in a year, and 
five seasons l : this (makes) the seventeenfold Pra- 
^apati. For verily Pra^apati is all : hence for 
what wish he performs the ish/i, that wish he 
thus accomplishes by means of the All. In a 
low voice he sacrifices to the deity; for what is 
spoken in a low voice is undefined (indistinct), 
and undefined is the 'All :' hence for whatever wish 
he performs the ish/i, that wish he thus accom- 
plishes by means of the All. This is the practice 
in regard to an ish/i. 

1 1. Some people say : ' Let him recite twenty-one 
samidheni verses also at the full and new-moon 
sacrifice.' Twelve, doubtless, are the months of the 
year, five the seasons, and three these worlds : 
this (makes) twenty; and the twenty-first is this 
very (sun) that here shines : he is the resort, he the 
stay ; thereby he (the sacrificer) obtains this resort, 
this stay. He may therefore recite twenty-one. 

1 2. Let him recite them only for one of established 
prosperity (gatasrl), who would not wish to become 
either better or worse. For, what he for whom 
they recite is like, like that he will either be or 
worse 8 , for whom, that knows this, they recite 

1 In other passages, and in later times generally, six seasons, 
comprising two months each, are counted, but the transitional 
season between winter and spring, juira, is not unfrequently, as 
in our passage, combined with the winter season (hemanta), or 
partially with that and the spring (vasanta). On the identification 
of Pra^&pati with the year, cf. note on I, 2, 5, 12. 

* The condition of one who is gataj rl cannot be improved, but 
only impaired. The construction of this paragraph is somewhat 
doubtful to me. It runs thus : T4 haita 4 gatarrer evSnubruyid ya 
When na weySnt syim na pSplySn iti y&dmiya haiva sate 
'nv&hus t&drih vi haiva bhavati p&piy&n vi yasyaivaw vidusha etS. 



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I KANDA, 3 ADHYAYA, 5 BRAHMAJVA, 1 4. 99 

those (twenty-one verses). This, however, is mere 
speculation, for those (twenty-one verses) are not 
recited 1 . 

13. Thrice he should recite the first and thrice 
the last (verse), without drawing breath ; for three 
are these worlds, so that he thereby spreads (san- 
tan) these worlds, gains these worlds. Also three 
breaths there are in man : this recitation thereby 
causes him (the sacrificer) to be extended (santata), 
not cut short (by death). 

14. He (the Hotri) should endeavour to recite 
thus (uninterruptedly) as long as his strength lasts. 
If, on the other hand, he were to take breath in 
the middle (of the verse), it would be a slight on 
this very (sacrifice) 2 : by reciting this (holy) com- 

anvahuA so eshi mim&nsaiva na tv cvaita anufyante. Saya«a 
seems to take it thus : — ' He should recite them only for a gata.rri. 
A householder who desires neither an improvement nor a lowering 
of his position, is just such a one or whom the Hotr/'s recite the 
simidhenis in the appointed (niyatena) way. Further, for 
whomsoever, that thus knows the irregular ? aniyata, not regulated) 
way of recitation, they recite those twenty-one simidhenis, he 
becomes either worse or better. What is set forth in the words 
from "A householder who desires neither an improvement" &c. 
is mere speculation ; the recitation is not to be performed in this 
way.' The corresponding paragraph of the Ka«va recension is 
much briefer and clearer: — Tad etad gat&rrfr eva kurvfta na ha 
xreySn na papiyan bhavati yasyaivam anvahuA saisha mtmawsaiva 
na tv anufyante, 'only a gata^rl, however, should do this; for 
neither better nor worse becomes he for whom they recite thus. 
This is indeed speculation, but they (the twenty-one s&midhenfs) 
are not recited.' 

1 In the Taitt. S. II, 5, 10, the number of verses (effected by the 
repetition) is given as varying, according to the special object 
in view, between fifteen and forty-eight. 

* ? Or, it would be an act of neglect on his, the sacrificer's, part : 
by (the Hotrt) reciting without fetching breath, that act, that neglect 
would be avoided. 

H 2 



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IOO SATAPATHA-BRAHMAJVA. 

position without taking breath, that slight will be 
avoided. 

15. If, however, he do not care to undertake this, 
he may also recite one (verse) at a time without 
drawing breath : he thereby spreads those worlds 
one by one, gains those worlds one by one. The 
reason why he takes breath, is that the gayatr! is in- 
deed breath ; and that by reciting a complete giyatrl 
verse, he accordingly bestows complete breathing 
(on the sacrificer) : let him therefore recite one 
(verse) at a time without breathing. 

16. He recites them in a continuous, uninterrupted 
way : thereby he makes the days and nights of the 
year continuous, and in a continuous, uninterrupted 
way revolve those days and nights of the year. 
And in this way he gives no access to the spiteful 
enemy; but access he. would indeed give, if he were 
to recite them discontinuously : he therefore recites 
in a continuous, uninterrupted way. 

Fourth Adhyaya. First BrAhmajva. 
1. He recites after uttering (the syllable) ' Hih !' 
Sacrifice, they say, is not (performed) without the 
Saman; and neither is the Saman chanted without 
' Hin ' having been uttered. By his uttering ' Hin !' 
the peculiar nature (rupam) of the word 'Hin' is 
produced (in the sacrifice) ; and by the sacred syl- 
lable (om) it assumes the nature of the Saman. By 
uttering 'Om ! Om * !' this his entire sacrifice becomes 
endowed with the Saman. 

1 That is, by uttering ' Om 1' after each verse. The recitation of 
the first verse is preceded by the mystic words ' Hih bhur bhuvaA svar 
om !' Asv. 5". I, 2, 3. Both syllables ' hih ' and ' om ' are essential 
elements in the recitation of Saman hymns. See II, 2, 4, 11 seq. 



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i kXnda, 4 adhyAya, i brAhmajva, 5. 101 

2. And (another reason) why he utters ' Hin !' is 
this. The word 'Hiii' means breath, for the word 
' Hiii * does indeed mean breath: he cannot there- 
fore pronounce the word 'Hin,' when he closes his 
nostrils. The rik (verse) he recites with his voice. 
Now, voice and breath are a pair, so that a produc- 
tive union of the samidhenls is thereby effected 
at the outset : for this reason he recites, after utter- 
ing 'Hin!' 

3. He utters the word ' Hin ' in a low voice. 
Were he, on the contrary, to pronounce 'Hin' aloud, 
he would make 'voice' of both the one and the other : 
for this reason he utters the word ' Hin ' in a low 
voice. 

4. He recites with 'a (hither)!' and ' pra (forth or 
thither) 1 !' He thereby joins a gayatrl verse di- 
rected hitherward to one directed away from here : 
the one which tends from hence carries the sacri- 
fice to the gods, and the one which tends hitherward 
pleases the men. For this reason he recites with 
'a' and 'pra.' 

5. And (another reason) why he recites with 'a' 
and 'pra,' is this. 'Pra (forth)' clearly means out- 
breathing, and ' a (hither)' means in-breathing : hence 
he thereby obtains out-breathing and in-breathing 
(for the sacrificer). For this reason he recites with 
'a' and 'pra.' 

1 The particles pra and a were apparently used in phrases 
wishing one a safe journey and return (cf. Ait. Br. 3, 26, with 
Haug's note). The first samidhent begins, ' pra vo va£l abhfdya- 
vaA' (forth go your viands, heavenward); and the second, 'agna 
S yahi vitaye' (come hither, Agni, to the feast I). It is from 
these verses that the above symbolical explanation is derived. 
Cf. Taitt. S. II, 5, 7, 3 [pra*ina« reto dhiyate— pratitfA pra^a" 
^ayante]. 



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102 SATAPATHA-BRAHMAiVA. 

6. Yet (other reasons) why he recites with ' hither 
(a)' and 'thither (pra),' are these. 'Thither' the 
seed is cast, and ' hither' birth takes place. ' Thither' 
the cattle disperse (for grazing), 'hither' they return. 
Indeed, everything here (moves) 'hither' and ' thither:' 
for this reason he recites with 'a' and 'pra.' 

7. He recites \ ' Forth go your viands, heaven- 

1 The following is a connected translation (as literal as possible, 
if not elegant) of the eleven samidhenis, or kindling verses, in 
the same octosyllabic metre as the original. The first and eleventh 
verses are recited three times ; and when at the end of each verse 
the Hotr* pronounces the syllable om, the Adhvaryu throws a stick 
(samidh) into the fire, — up to the eighth verse, at the end of which 
the tenth stick is thrown in. At the end of the ninth verse five of 
the remaining six sticks are thrown into the fire. The throwing 
of the first stick is accompanied by the sacrificer pronouncing the 
dedicatory formula (tyaga), 'For Agni this, not for mel' 

1. Forth go your viands, heavenward, 
In havis rich; with buttered (spoon) 
He nears the gods, wishful of bliss. 

2. Come hither, Agni, to the feast ; 
Invoked for the offering-gift, 

As Hotr* on the barhis sit! 

3. With samidhs thee, O Aftgiras, 
With butter we exhilarate: 

Shine forth, O youngest, brilliantly ! 

4. Agni, do thou obtain for us 
That region wide and glorious, 
That great and mighty one, O God! 

5. Praiseworthy he, adorable, 
Visible through the veil of gloom, 
Agni, the mighty one, is lit. 

6. The mighty Agni is lit up, 

Yea, as a horse that bears the gods: 
With offerings him they glorify. 

7. O mighty one ! we mighty men 
Do kindle thee, the mighty one, — 
O Agni, thee that brightly shines. 



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I KANDA, 4 ADHYAYA, I BRAHMAYA, 9. IO3 

ward !' — hereby, then, the ' thither' is (realised). And 
(in the second verse), 'Come hither, Agni, to ex- 
pand 1 !' — by this, on the other hand, the 'hither' 
is (realised). 

8. Now, in reference to this point, some people 
say, 'Both these (texts) surely result in a "thither*."' 
This, however, is beyond the ordinary understand- 
ing: the text, ' forth go your viands, heavenward !' is 
clearly (directed) away from (the sacrificer); and the 
text, ' Come hither, Agni, to expand ! ' is (directed) 
towards (him). 

9. He recites (the first kindling verse), 'Forth go 
your viands, heavenward ! ' this, then, tends in a for- 
ward direction. 'Viands' (va^a) 3 he says, because 
viands mean food : hence food is obtained (for the 
sacrificer) by this recitation. ' Heavenward ' he says, 
because those that tend heavenward are the half- 

8. Agni we choose as messenger, 
As Hotr» the all-knowing, — him, 
Performing well this sacrifice. 

9. He who is kindled at the cult, 
Agni, the bright, the laudable, 
The flaming-locked, him we adore. 

10. O Agni, worshipped, thou art lit: 
Adore, good worshipper, the gods! 
Oblation-bearer, sure, art thou. 

11. Make offerings I do reverence! — 
Him, Agni, while the cult proceeds, 
For your oblation-bearer choose ! 

1 See further on, par. 22 seq. 

* Inasmuch as Agni, whilst coming to the sacrifice, goes away 
from the gods. Say. 

* In the Taitt. S. II, 5, 7, 3-4 also va^a is in the first place 
rendered by 'food,' while afterwards it is identified with the 
months (i.e. the coursers? gamanafila, S&y.); as abhidyavaA 
(in the sense of ' shining in both directions,' i. e. in the form of the 
waxing and waning moon, S&y.) is referred to the half-moons. 



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104 SATAPATHA-BRAHMAJVA. 

moons : it is, therefore, the half-moons which he 
obtains by this recitation. ' In havis rich ' he 
further says, because those that are rich in havis 
(milk, butter) are the cattle ; it is cattle, therefore, that 
he thereby obtains through the recitation. 

10. 'With buttered (spoon) — ' he adds. Now 
Mathava, the (king of) Videgha 1 , carried Agni 
Vai-rvanara in his mouth. The J&shi Gotama Rahu- 
ga«a was his family priest. When addressed (by 
the latter), he made no answer to him, fearing lest 
Agni might fall from his mouth. 

ii. He (the priest) began to invoke the latter with 

1 To this important legend attention was first drawn by Professor 
Weber, Ind. Stud. I, 170 seq. (cf. also Ind. Streifen, I, p. 13; 
J. Muir, Sanskrit Texts, II, p. 402). It was pointed out by Weber 
that this legend distinguishes three successive stages of the east- 
ward migration of the Brahmanical Hindus. In the first place the 
settlements of the Aryans had already been extended from the 
Paw^ab (where they were settled in the times of the hymns of the 
Rig-veda) as far as the Sarasvatt. They thence pushed forward, 
led by the Videgha Mathava and his priest, according to our 
legend, as far east as the river Sadinfrd (that is, 'she that is 
always filled with water '), which, according to Siya«a, is another 
name for the Karatoya (the modern Kurattee, on which Bograh 
lies), which formed the eastern boundary of the Videhas ; or more 
probably the Gawrfakt (the modern Gunduck, a noble river which 
falls into the Ganges opposite Patna, and) which formed the boun- 
dary between the Kosalas and the Videhas (cf. par. 17). It would 
appear from our legend, that for some time the Aryans did not ven- 
ture to cross this river ; but at the time of the author the country 
to the east of it had long been occupied by them. Sayawa takes the 
hero of the legend to be Videgha, the Madhava or son of Madhu ; 
but Videgha, an older form of Videha, is more probably intended 
here (as Weber takes it) for the name of that people and country 
(corresponding to the modern Tirhut). The Agni Vawvanara (or 
Agni who is common to all men) of our legend Professor Weber 
considers a personification of Brahmanical worship and civilisation 
and the destructive effects of their extension. 



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i kXnda, 4 adhyAya, i brAhmajva, 16. 105 

verses of the Rig-veda, ' We kindle thee at the 
sacrifice, O wise Agni, thee the radiant, the mighty 
caller to the sacrificial feast (Rig-veda V, 26, 3)! — 
OVideghal' 

12. He (the king) did not answer. (The priest 
went on), ' Upwards, O Agni, dart thy brilliant, 
shining rays, thy flames, thy beams (Rig-veda VIII, 
44, 1 6) !— O Videgha-a-a !' 

1 3. Still he did not answer. (The priest continued), 
' Thee, O butter-sprinkled one, we invoke! (Rig-veda 
V, 26, 2);' so much he uttered, when at the very 
mentioning of butter, Agni Vabvanara flashed forth 
from the (king's) mouth : he was unable to hold him 
back ; he issued from his mouth, and fell down on 
this earth. 

14. Mathava, the Videgha, was at that time on 
the (river) Sarasvati 1 . He (Agni) thence went burn- 
ing along this earth towards the east ; and Gotama 
Rahugawa and the Videgha Mathava followed after 
him as he was burning along. He burnt over (dried 
up) all these rivers. Now that (river), which is called 
'Sadanira,' flows from the northern (Himalaya) moun- 
tain : that one he did not burn over. That one the 
Brahmans did not cross in former times, thinking, ' it 
has not been burnt over by Agni Vaisvanara.' 

15. Now-a-days, however, there are many Brah- 
mans to the east of it. At that time it (the land 
east of the Sadanira) was very uncultivated, very 
marshy, because it had not been tasted by Agni 
Vaisvanara. 

16. Now-a-days, however, it is very cultivated, for 
the Brahmans have caused (Agni) to taste it through 

1 Or, according to Say ana, he was then in the Sarasvati, plunged 
into the river in order to quench the heat produced by Agni. 



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106 SATAPATHA-BRAHMAiVA. 

sacrifices. Even in late summer that (river), as it 
were, rages along 1 : so cold is it, not having been 
burnt over by Agni Vawvanara. 

17. Mathava, the Videgha, then said (to Agni), 
'Where am I to abide ?' 'To the east of this (river) 
be thy abode ! ' said he. Even now this (river) forms 
the boundary of the Kosalas and Videhas ; for these 
are the Mathavas (or descendants of Mathava). 

18. Gotama Rahuga«a then said (to Mathava), 
'Why didst thou not answer when addressed by us?' 
He replied, 'Agni VaLrvanara was in my mouth; 
I did not reply, lest he should escape from my 
mouth.' 

19. ' How then did this happen ?' — 'At the moment 
when thou didst utter the words, " (Thee), O butter- 
sprinkled one, we invoke!" just then, at the mention 
of butter, Agni Vaisvanara flashed forth from my 
mouth ; I was unable to hold him back, he issued 
from my mouth.' 

20. That (word) in the s&midhenls, therefore, 
which contains butter (ghrz'ta) is especially suitable 
for kindling (sam-indh); and by it he accordingly 
kindles him (Agni, the fire) and bestows vigour on 
this (sacrificer). 

21. Now that (word) is ghrztaiya, 'with the 
buttered (spoon).' — ' He nears 2 the gods, wishful 
of bliss.' Wishful of bliss, truly, is the sacrificer, 
since he wishes to approach the gods, to go to 3 

1 That is to say, it is not affected by the heat of the summer, as the 
other rivers, but rushes along as rapidly and as well-filled as ever. 

8 Gigati is taken by Saya*a in the sense of ' he sings, praises.' 
Our author, on the other hand, seems to interpret it by 'he 
conquers (gi);' see, however, next note. 

* The text has, ' Sa hi devin^igishati sa hi dev£n^iga»*sati.' 
The Kanva recension has the same reading, except that it omits 'hi' 



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I K&NDA, 4 ADHYAYA, I BRAHMAJVA, 24. 107 

the gods : therefore he says, ' he nears the gods, 
wishful of bliss.' This (verse), which is addressed 
to Agni, is undefined (vague) ; and undefined, doubt- 
less, is the ' All :' he thus commences (this holy 
work) with the All. 

22. [He recites the second samidhenl]: 'Come 
hither, Agni, to expand!' — 'To expand' he says, 
because at the beginning these worlds were well- 
nigh contiguous to one another : at that time one 
could touch the sky thus 1 . 

23. The gods desired, ' How could these worlds 
of ours become farther apart from one another ? 
How could there be more space for us ?' They 
breathed through them (the worlds) with these 
three syllables (forming the word) 'vltaye 2 ,' and 
these worlds became far apart from one another; 
and there was then ampler space for the gods : 
ample space, therefore, he will have for whom, 
knowing this, they recite this (verse) containing (the 
word) 'vltaye.' 

24. He proceeds, ' Invoked for the giver of obla- 
tions !' ' The giver of oblations 3 ,' of course, is the 

in both cases. Instead of ^-igawsati, however, some MSS., as well 
as S£ya»a, rcad^ighawsati ('he wishes to conquer, or beat, the 
gods'), probably an old corruption, easily accounted for by the 
circumstance that ^igishati is the regular desiderative of ^i, 'to 
conquer,' though it also occurs in some passages as the desiderative 
of gi, 'to go.' Siya»a, however, though he reads glgh&ms&ti, 
here allows to the root han (with Naigh. 2, 14) the meaning of ' to 
go.' Cf. Weber, Omina und Portenta, p. 406, note 4. 
1 Viz. by stretching the arms upwards. Saya«a. 

* That is, vi-itaye, 'for going asunder,' a fanciful analysis of 
the word vf ti ; the correct rendering is ' for the meal or food,' ' for 
the feast.' 

* Havyadati, the correct meaning of the word is ' the giving 
of oblations.' 



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108 satapatha-brAhmajva. 

sacrificer : hence ' invoked for the sacrificer' is what 
he thereby means to say. — ' As Hotri on the barhis 
sit!' Agni, indeed, is the Hotri, and the barhis 
(the covering of sacrificial grass on the altar) is this 
world : hence he thereby establishes Agni (the fire) 
in this world, as this fire is established (or, beneficial, 
hita) in this world. This (verse), then, is recited with 
reference to this world (the earth) : through it this 
world is conquered by him for whom, knowing this, 
they recite this (verse). 

25. [He recites the third samidhent]: 'With 
samidhs thee, O Angiras !' — with samidhs (kindling- 
sticks), indeed, the Angiras kindled him. ' O An- 
giras !' he says, for Agni is indeed Angiras 1 . — 'With 
butter we exhilarate!' This (viz. ghrz'tena, 'with 
butter') is a word which is especially suitable for the 
kindling of Agni : by it he kindles him, and bestows 
vigour on this (sacrificer). 

26. 'Shine forth, O youngest, brilliantly!' he 
adds ; for brilliantly he shines, when kindled ; and 
' O youngest !' he says, because he is really the 
youngest Agni 2 : therefore he says, 'O youngest!' 
This (verse) is recited with reference to yonder 
world, to wit, the aerial world; hence this (verse), 
which is addressed to Agni, is undefined, for unde- 
fined is yonder world : that world he thereby gains, 
for whom, knowing this, they recite this verse. 

27. [He recites the fourth samidhenfj: 'Agni, 
do thou obtain for us that (region) wide and 

1 Rig-veda I, 31, 1, he is called the first of the Angiras. 

* The fire which has just been kindled is frequently called the 
youngest (yavishMa). Sayawa takes it as ' the ever young.' See 
also the legend regarding the three Agnis who preceded the present 
Agni in the office of divine Hotrz", I, 2, 3, 1 ; 3, 3, 13. 



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I KANDA, 4 ADHYAYA, I BRAHMAtfA, 30. IO9 

glorious!' For wide, indeed, is yonder (region) 
wherein the gods (dwell), and glorious is that 
(region) wherein the gods (dwell). When he says, 
' Do thou obtain for us V he means to say, ' make 
us go to it!' 

28. 'That great and mighty one, O God!' For 
great, indeed, is yonder (region) wherein the gods 
(dwell), and mighty 2 is that wherein the gods 
(dwell). This (verse), then, is recited with reference 
to yonder world : that heavenly world he thereby 
gains, for whom, knowing this, they recite this 
(verse). 

29. He recites (the fifth simidhenl): 'Praise- 
worthy he, adorable,' for worthy of praise he is, 
and worthy of adoration ; — ' visible through the veil 
of gloom,' for when kindled he is seen right 
through the gloom ; — ' Agni, the mighty one (bull), 
is lit,' for he is indeed lit up, the mighty one. 

[He recites the sixth samidhenl]: 'The mighty 
Agni is lit up,' for he is indeed lit up. 

30. 'Yea 3 , as a horse that bears the gods,' for 
having become a horse he does indeed carry the 
sacrifice to the gods : the (word) ' na' which occurs 
in this verse has the meaning of 'om' (verily); hence 
he says, ' Yea, as a horse that bears to the gods.' 

1 Vivasasi, Saya«a explains it by prakasaya, 'illuminate it;' 
but cf. Saya»a on Rig-veda VI, 16, asman a£Ma abhigamaya, 
' make it (dhanam) come to us.' 

* Su vt rya is taken by our author as an adjective, co-ordinate with 
the others ; but it is evidently a noun (' abundance of heroes ' or 
' manliness, manly power,' St. Petersburg Dictionary) qualified by 
the adjectives. 

* Na is taken by our author as a particle of asseveration ; though 
in reality it is a particle of comparison. In later Sanskrit na is 
only used as particle of negation. 



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IIO SATAPATHA-BRAhMAYA. 

31. 'With offerings him they glorify,' for with 
offerings men indeed glorify him ; therefore he says, 
' with offerings him they glorify.' 

32. [He recites the seventh samidhenl]: 'O 
mighty one 1 ! we mighty men do kindle thee, the 
mighty one !' for they indeed kindle him; — 'O Agni, 
thee that brightly shines!' for he indeed shone 
brightly when he was kindled. 

33. He recites this tristich which contains the 
word (vrz'shan), 'mighty.' All these kindling 
verses, it is true, are addressed to Agni; Indra, 
however, is the deity of sacrifice, Indra is the 
mighty (hero); hence these his (the sacrificer's) 
kindling verses thereby become possessed of Indra : 
this is the reason why he recites the tristich con- 
taining the word 'mighty.' 

34. He recites [the eighth samidhenl]: 'Agni 
we choose as messenger!' Now the gods and 
the A suras, both of them sprang from Pra^apati, 
were contending for superiority. When they were 
thus contending, the gayatrl stood between them. 
That gayatri was the same as this earth, and this 
earth indeed lay between them 2 . Now both of 
them knew that whichever she would side with, 
they would be victorious and the others would be 
defeated. Both parties then invited her secretly 
to come to them. Agni acted as messenger 
for the gods ; and an Asura-Rakshas, named Sa- 

1 VWshan.'the male, the vigorous one, the bull ;' cf. Max MQller, 
Translation of Rig-veda Sanhita, I, p. 121 seq. 

a ' On the top of Mount Meru lies the city of Amardvatt, wherein 
the gods dwell; and beneath Meru lies Iravati, the city of the 
Asuras : between these two lies the earth.' Saya«a. 



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I KkNDA, 4 ADHYAYA, I BRAHMAJVA, 36. Ill 

harakshas 1 , for the Asuras. She then followed 
Agni : he therefore recites, 'Agni we choose for 
messenger,' because he was the messenger of the 
gods. — ' As Hotri the all-knowing, him ! ' 

35. Here now some people recite, ' He who is 
the Hotri of the all-knowing 2 ;' lest (in saying 'for 
Hotri, the all-knowing, him') one should say to 
oneself 'enough (i.e. have done)!' This, however, 
he should not do; for by (doing) so they do at 
the sacrifice what is human ; and what is human, 
is inauspicious at a sacrifice. Therefore, lest he 
should do what is inauspicious at the sacrifice, 
he should recite, just as it is recited by the JZik, 
'for Hotri, the all-knowing, him!' [He continues], 
'Performing well this sacrifice!' for he, Agni, 
is indeed a good performer of the sacrifice : for 
this reason he says, ' performing well this sacrifice.' 
She (gayatri, or the earth) sided with the gods, 
and the gods thereupon were victorious and the 
Asuras were defeated : and verily he for whom, 
knowing this, they recite this (verse), is himself 
victorious and his adversaries are defeated. 

36. He therefore recites this, the eighth (sami- 
dheni). This, indeed, is peculiarly a gayatri 
verse, since it is of eight syllables that the gayatri 
(metre) consists : for this reason he recites the 
eighth (samidheni). 

1 Cf. the corresponding passage in Taitt. S. II, 5, 11, 8, where 
Daivya is given as the name of the messenger of the Asuras. 

* That is to say, instead of 'Hot&raw vijvavedasam,' they 
recite ' Hot4 yo vijvavedasaA;' for the reason that Ilotaram 
(accusative of hotri) might be understood to be 'hotd aram,' 
arara, 'enough,' being a particle implying a prohibition. Our 
author, however, promptly sets his face against this application of 
human reasoning to an inspired text 



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1 1 2 SATAPATHA-BRAHMAtfA. 

37. Here now some people place the two (dhayyas) 
additional kindling verses before (the eighth simi- 
dhenl), arguing, 'The two dhiyyas 1 mean food: 
this edible food we place in front (or, in the mouth, 
mukhata^).' But let him not do this: for with 
him who inserts the additional verses before (the 
eighth), the latter (the eighth) is clearly out of its 
place 2 , since in that case it (and the succeeding 
verse) become the tenth and eleventh verses. With 
him, on the other hand, for whom they recite this 
as the eighth (kindling verse), it is indeed in its 
proper place : let him therefore insert the two addi- 
tional verses after (the ninth). 

38. [He recites the ninth kindling verse] : ' He 
who is kindled at the cult' — the cult (adhvara), 
doubtless, is the sacrifice : ' he who is kindled at the 
sacrifice' he thereby says ; — ' Agni, the bright, the 
laudable,' for he is both bright and laudable ; — ' the 
flaming-locked, him we adore ! ' for when he is 
kindled, his locks, as it were, flame. Previously to 
(the beginning of the tenth verse), ' O Agni, wor- 
shipped, thou art lit !' let him (the Adhvaryu) put on 



1 Whenever thirteen kindling verses are recited instead of 
eleven (or counting the repetitions of the first and last verses, 
seventeen instead of fifteen), the two verses Rig-veda III, 27, 5 and 6 
are inserted according to our author after the ninth, and according 
to others before the eighth, samidhent. They are called dhiyya, 
probably derived from dhS/to put, add,' whilst those ritualists whose 
practice is here rejected apparently connect the word with the 
root dhl (dhe), 'to suck.' 

1 According to Sayawa, because it no longer occupies the eighth 
place for which it is specially appropriate on account of its being, 
according to our author, 'peculiarly a gayatrf (eight-syllabled) 
verse".' This reasoning is far from satisfactory, since the two 
dhayyas (Rig-veda III, 27, 5 and 6) are also gayatri verses. 



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I KANDA, 4 ADHYAYA, I BRAHMAtfA, 40. II3 

all the kindling-sticks with the exception of the 
one stick (which is to be put on at the after- 
offerings 1 ); for it is now that the Hotrt completes 
(the kindling); and what then is left of the kindling- 
sticks, other than the one stick, that is left (un- 
used altogether) ; and what is left (unused) of the 
sacrifice, that is left for his (the sacrificer's) spiteful 
enemy: let him, therefore, previously to this (verse), 
put on all the samidhs, save one. 

39. [He continues]: 'Adore, good worshipper, 
the gods!' worship (adhvara) doubtless means 
sacrifice : ' adore the gods, good sacrificer' he thereby 
says ; — ' Oblation-bearer, sure, art thou !' for he, 
Agni, is indeed the bearer of oblations': for this 
reason he says 'oblation-bearer, sure, art thou.' 

[He recites the last samidhent]: 'Make offer- 
ings ! do reverence ! Him, Agni, while the cult pro- 
ceeds, for your oblation-bearer choose !' by this (verse) 
he urges them on : ' make offerings and worship ! 
do this for (the accomplishment) of whatever desire 
you kindled him !' this is what he thereby means to 
say. ' Him, Agni, while the cult proceeds,' he says, 
because cult means sacrifice : hence he thereby says, 
' him, Agni, whilst the sacrifice proceeds ;'— ' for your 
oblation-bearer choose !' for he, Agni, is indeed the 
oblation-bearer, and for this reason he says 'for 
your oblation-bearer choose (him)!' 

40. This tristich, containing (the word) 'cult 
(adhvara),' he thus recites. For once when the 
gods were engaged in sacrificing, their rivals, the 
Asuras, wished to injure (dhurv, dhvar) them; 
but, though desirous of injuring them, they were 

' See I, 8, j, 3. 

[12] I 



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1 14 SATAPATHA-BRAHMAJVA. 

unable to injure them and were foiled : for this rea- 
son the sacrifice is called adhvara (' not damaged, 
uninterrupted') ; and for whomsoever, that knows 
this, they recite this tristich containing (the word) 
adhvara ('cult, sacrifice'), his rival, though desirous 
of injuring him, is foiled; and he (the sacrificer), 
moreover, gains as much as one gains by offering a 
Soma-sacrifice \ 

Second BrAhmajva. 

1. Now in former times the gods appointed Agni 
to the chief (office), namely, that of Hotrt; and 
having appointed him to the chief (office) saying ' do 
thou carry this our oblation!' they cheered him up, 
saying, ' Surely, thou art vigorous ; surely, thou art 
equal to this!' thereby endowing him with vigour, 
even as in our own days, when they appoint any one 
from among their kinsmen to the chief (office), they 
cheer him up saying 'surely, thou art vigorous; 
surely, thou art equal to this !' thereby endowing him 
with vigour. By what, therefore, he recites after this, 
he eulogizes him, puts vigour into him 8 . 

2. 'O Agni, thou art great! O priest (brahmarca), 
O Bharata!' for Agni, indeed, is the brahman 

1 Saumya adhvara is the common designation of the solemn 
Soma-sacrifice; hence, our author argues, the word adhvara is here 
used for sacrifice (ya.g »la) with a view to insure to this offering 
the efficacy of a Soma-sacrifice. 

1 The invocations he now proceeds to recite, on the termination 
of the sS.midh.enis or kindling verses, belong to the class of 
formulas called nigada. In the present case, they consist of the 
pravara mantra — or formula by which Agni is invited to assist 
the sacrificer as Hotr» or Invoker on the present occasion, as he 
has of old assisted his ancestors (cf. the following note) — and of 
short detached formulas called nivid. Siyana. on Taitt. S. II, 5, 8. 



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i kXnda, 4 adhyAya, 2 brAhmaata, 4. 115 

(sacerdotium) : therefore he says ' O Brahma«a !' — 
' O Bharata' he says, because he (Agni) bears (bhar) 
the oblation to the gods : therefore they say ' Agni 
is bharata (the bearer).' Or, he, being the breath, 
sustains (bhar) these creatures: therefore he says 
' O Bharata (sustainer)!' 

3. He now calls on (Agni as) the ancestral (Hotrt 
priest) 1 . He thereby introduces him both to the 
.tfzshis and to the gods (as if he were to say), ' Of 
great vigour is he who has obtained the sacrifice!' 
This is the reason why he calls on (Agni as) the 
ancestral (Hotri). 

4. He calls from the remote end (of the sacri- 

1 Arsheyam pravr/nite, literally ' he chooses the ancestral ' 
(ri'shi). I take 'arsheyam' as a masculine adjective qualifying a 
supplied '(Agni/n) hotaram.' In this way the formula is explained 
by Sayanaon I, 5, 1, 9 (rishinim sambandhinam adhvaryur hotaram 
vrmfte), and this seems to me the most natural interpretation. It 
is true, however, that, as the formula (' he chooses the ancestral ') 
became stereotyped, its exact import became forgotten, and arshey a 
was generally taken as a neuter, either adjective (viz. ' namadheyam,' 
'apatyam')or noun (ancestral lineage). Agni is invoked as the 
one who has of old officiated as the Hotn' of the sacrificer's 
ancestors, three or five ancestral names being usually mentioned : 
thus, in the case of a sacrificer belonging to the Gamadagna Vatsa 
family, claiming Bhr/'gu, Ajavana, Apnavina, Aurva.and (Jamadagni 
as its founders, Agni is invoked, on the present occasion, as 
'Bhargava A'yavana Apnavana Aurva Gamadagnal' (Ajval. 
St. 12, 10, 6 ; Sayawa on Taitt. S. II, 5, 8). If the sacrificer be- 
longs to the Kshatriya or Vaifya castes, the priest substitutes for 
the sacrificer's ancestors those of his family priest (purohita) 
or his spiritual guide (guru); and in the case of kings the same 
course was adopted, or the names of their royal mhi ancestors 
(ra^arshi) were chosen. As to the second pravara, or the 
election of the human Hotri, for the present sacrifice, see I, 5, 1, 1. 
Cf. Max Muller, History of Ancient Sanskrit Literature, p. 386 seq.; 
A. Weber, Ind. Stud. IX, 32 1 seq.; X, 78 seq. ; M. Haug, Aitar. Br., 
Translation, p. 479. 

I 2 



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Il6 DATAPATH A-BRAHMAJVA. 

fleer's ancestral line) downwards ; for it is from the 
remote end downwards that a race is propagated. 
He (the Hotrt) also thereby propitiates the lord of 
seniority for him (the Sacrificer) ; for here among 
men the father comes first, then the son, and then 
the grandson : this is the reason why he calls from 
the remote end downwards. 

5. Having named (him as) the ancestral one, he 
says, ' (thou wert) kindled by the gods, kindled by 
Manu ;' for in olden times the gods did kindle him : 
for this reason he says ' kindled by the gods ;' and 
' kindled by Manu' he says, because in olden times 
Manu did kindle him : for this reason he says 
'kindled by Manu.' 

6. He continues, ' Praised by the ^??'shis (wert 
thou) ;' for in olden times the ifoshis did praise him : 
for this reason he says ' praised by the -tf/shis.' 

7. Further, 'Gladdened by bards (vipra);' for 
those bards, the ^'shis, indeed gladdened him : for 
this reason he says ' gladdened by bards.' 

8. Further, ' Celebrated by sages (kavi) ;' for 
those sages, the .ffzshis, indeed celebrated him : this 
is why he says ' celebrated by sages.' 

9. Further, 'Sharpened by the brahman (the Veda 
or vedic formulas),' for he is indeed sharpened by 
the brahman ; — ' the receiver of butter-offerings,' for 
he is indeed the receiver of butter-offerings. 

10. Further, 'The leader of oblations (ya.g-na), the 
carrier of (Soma-)sacrifices (ad h vara),' for through 
him they lead forward all oblations, both the domestic 
oblations and the others : this is why he says ' the 
leader of oblations.' 

11. 'The carrier (rathi) of sacrifices;' for being 
a cart (as it were) he conveys the sacrifice to the 



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i kXnda, 4 adhyAya, 2 brAhmawa, 16. 117 

gods: this is the reason why he says 'the carrier 
of sacrifices.' 

12. Further, 'The unsurpassed Hotri, the sur- 
passing bearer of oblations ;' for him the Rakshas 
do not surpass (tar) : for this reason he says ' the 
unsurpassed (aturta) Hotri.' 'The surpassing 
(tur«i, rather 'swift') bearer of oblations,' for he 
overcomes (tar) every evil : therefore he says ' the 
surpassing bearer of oblations 1 .' 

13. Further, 'The mouth-vessel 2 , the offering- 
spoon of the gods;' for he, Agni, is indeed the vessel 
of the gods : therefore they make offerings in Agni 
to all the gods, he being the vessel of the gods. And, 
verily, whosoever knows this, obtains the vessel of 
him whose vessel he desires to obtain 8 . 

14. Further, 'The cup from which the gods 
drink;' for from him, being (as it were) a cup, 
the gods drink (the Soma-libations) : for this reason 
he says ' the cup from which the gods drink.' 

1 5. Further, ' Thou, O Agni ! dost encompass 
the gods, as the felly the spokes ;' 'in the same 
way in which the felly on all sides encompasses 
the spokes, so dost thou on all sides encompass 
the gods,' this is what he thereby says. 

16. ' Bring hither the gods for the sacrificer!' this 
he says in order that he (Agni) may bring the gods 

1 At this point of the recitation a pause is made, during which 
(as already partly during the preceding recitation) the Adhvaryu 
and Agnidhra engage in the acts detailed in I, 4, 4, 13 seq. Cf. 
Hillebrandt, Neu und Vollm. p. 81. 

* As-p^tram: the fire is, as it were, the vessel into which the 
sacrificial food is thrown and from which it is eaten by the gods. 

8 ? Sayawa supplies ' food :' he obtains the vessel of that food of 
which he wishes to obtain the vessel. 



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1 1 8 satapatha-brAhma^a. 

to this sacrifice 1 . — ' Bring Agni hither, O Agni !' this 
he says in order that he may bring Agni to the 
butter-portion intended for Agni. — ' Bring Soma 
hither!' this he says in order that he may bring 
Soma to the butter-portion intended for Soma. — 
'Bring Agni hither!' this he says in order that 
he (Agni) may bring Agni hither to that indis- 
pensable 2 cake which is offered to Agni on both 
occasions (at the new and the full-moon sacrifices). 

17. And (in the same way) according to the 
respective deities 3 . He then continues, ' Bring 
hither the butter-drinking gods!' this he says in 
order that he may bring hither the prayagas and 
anuyagas (fore and after-offerings), for the prayagas 
and anuyagas (represent) indeed the butter-drinking 
gods. — 'Bring Agni hither for the Hotrz'ship!' this 
he says in order that he may bring Agni hither for 
the office of Hotri. — ' Your own greatness bring 
hither!' this he says in order that he (Agni) may 



1 Here begins what is called the devatan&m ivahanam, or 
invitation (lit. bringing) of the deities to the oblations. Whilst 
the Hotr» recites these formulas, the Adhvaryu performs what is 
set forth in I, 4, 5, 2 seq. 

* Aiyuta, lit. ' not fallen,' i. e. immutable, invariable. For the 
legendary explanation of this epithet of Agni and his oblation, 
see I, 6, 1, 6 ; 2, 5-6. 

8 The three preceding invocations are used alike at the new and 
full-moon sacrifices, but the subsequent ones differ according to 
the oblations that are made, viz. a rice-cake to Indra-Agni (or an 
oblation of mixed milk and butter to Indra) at the new-moon 
ceremony; and to Agni-Soma at the full-moon sacrifice. Pre- 
viously to these an upanwuya^a or 'low -voiced oblation ' is made by 
some to Agni-Soma at the full moon, and one to Vishmi (or to 
Agni-Soma) at the new- moon sacrifice; according to others also 
one to Pra^dpati, — the names of the gods being whispered in the 
respective formulas. 



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I KAJVDA, 4 ADHYAYA, 2 BRAHMAtfA, 1 9. II9 

bring hither his own greatness ; his own greatness, 
in truth, is his voice : hence he says it in order that 
he may bring hither his voice 1 . — ' Bring thou hither 
(the gods), O G&tavedas 2 , and offer up a good 
offering!' what deities he bids him bring hither, 
with regard to those (deities) he thereby says 
'bring them hither!' When he says, 'offer up a 
good offering !' he means to say, ' sacrifice in the 
proper order !' 

18. He recites (the invitatory prayer) 3 while stand- 
ing, since it is yonder (sky) which he thereby 
recites ; for, indeed, the invitatory prayer (signifies) 
yonder (sky), and by it he recites that which is 
yonder (sky). This is the reason why he recites 
standing. 

19. The offering-prayer 8 he pronounces while 
sitting, since the offering-prayer (represents) this 
(earth) : hence no one pronounces the offering- 
prayer while standing; for the offering-prayer is 

1 Saya/ra. on Taitt S. II, 5, 9 explains the formula 'Bring 
hither the own greatness' by 'bring hither whatever greatness or 
power is peculiar to each of the havis-eating gods,' and he remarks 
expressly that it is not to be referred to Agni, as our author certainly 
appears to do. Cf. I, 7, 3, 13. 

* Gitavedas probably means 'he who knoweth (all) beings,' 
but it is more generally explained by ' he who possesseth riches 
(or wisdom),' not to mention other interpretations. Acording to 
Haug, Ait. Br. vol. ii. p. 224, the proper meaning of the term is 
' having possession of all that is born, i. e. pervading it.' He further 
mentions that the J?»'shis are quite familiar with the idea of the fire 
being an all-pervading power; and that by <7atavedas the 
' animal fire' is particularly to be understood. Our present formula 
'a £a vaha ^atavedaA suya^a £a ya^a' somewhat differs from the 
corresponding formula of the Taitt S. II, 5, 9, 5, ' a £agne devan 
vaha suya^a ka. ya^a ^atavedaA.' 

* For the anuvakya or invitatory prayer, and the yigyi or 
offering-prayer, see p. 135 note. 



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I 20 tf ATAPATHA-BRAHMAJVA. 

this earth, and by it he pronounces that which is 
this (earth). This is the reason why he pronounces 
the offering-prayer while sitting. 

' Third Brahmajva. 

1. The fire that has been kindled by means of the 
kindling verses, assuredly, blazes more brightly than 
any other fire ; for, indeed, it is unassailable, unap- 
proachable. 

2. And in like manner as the fire blazes when 
kindled by means of the kindling verses, so also 
blazes the priest (brahma»a) that knows and re- 
cites the kindling verses ; for, indeed, he is unas- 
sailable, unapproachable. 

3. He recites, 'Pra va^ 1 ;' for the (word) pra«a 
contains the syllable pra {' forwards ;' or, is directed 
forwards) : hence it is the pra«a (out-breathing) 
which he kindles by this (the first samidhenl). [He 
further recites the second verse], ' Come hither, 
Agni, to expand!' the backward breathing (apa- 
na) 2 , doubtless, is of this nature: the backward 
breathing he accordingly kindles with this (verse). 
Further (in the third verse), 'Shine forth, O 
youngest, brilliantly!' the high-flaming one 8 , indeed, 
is the upward breathing (udana) : the upward 

1 The first two words of the first sftmidhenf, cf. p. 101 note. 
A mystic meaning is obtained for them by our author com- 
bining them and identifying the form obtained with the adjective 
pravant, meaning both ' containing the syllable pra' and 'directed 
forwards,' both of which meanings apply to the breathing-forth or 
expiration (pra«a, cf. I, 1, 3, 2). 

* Bahir nirgatasya vSyor atmabhimukhi vrrttir hy apanaA, udana- 
viyur dehasyotkshepa»ad adhikate^oyuktaA. Saya«a. 

' The author apparently takes brih&kkhok&(h) as a compound. 



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i kAnda, 4 adhvAya, 3 brAhmajva, 8. 121 

breathing he accordingly kindles with this (the 
third verse). 

4. Further, 'Sa naA prithu jraviyyam 1 ,' the 
'far-hearing one,' indeed, is the ear, for it is with 
the ear that one hears here far or widely : the ear 
he accordingly kindles with this (the fourth verse). 

5. Further, 'Praiseworthy he, adorable;' the 
praiseworthy 2 one, doubtless, is the voice ; for it is 
the voice which praises everything here ; by the 
voice everything is praised here : he accordingly 
kindles the voice with this (the fifth verse). 

6. Further, ' Yea, as a horse that bears (to) the 
gods ; ' that which conveys to the gods is indeed 
the mind, for it is the mind which chiefly conveys 
the wise man (to the gods) : the mind he accordingly 
kindles with this (the sixth verse). 

7. Further, ' O Agni, thee, that brightly shines!' 
the eye, assuredly, shines : the eye he accordingly 
kindles by this (the seventh verse). 

8. Further, ' Agni we choose for messenger,' — 
what central breath there is (in the body), that he 
kindles with this (the eighth verse) : that one indeed 
is the internal motive force of the breathings ; 
from it (two) others tend upwards, and from it (two) 
others tend downwards, for it is indeed the internal 
motive force. And whosoever knows that internal 
motive force of the breathings, him they regard as 
the internal motive force..' 

1 ' That (region) wide and glorious ' (do thou obtain for us) ; 
but the author takes pri'thu jraviyyam as ' that widely hearing 
one' or ' the wide hearing.' Siya«a, on Taitt. S. II, 5, 8, interprets it 
by ' that (holy work) which is extended and worthy of being heard 
by the gods.' 

' He apparently takes tdenya in an active sense. 



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122 DATAPATH A-BRAHMAiVA. 

9. Further, 'The flaming-locked, him we adore!' 
the flaming-locked, doubtless, is the sisna, for it is 
that organ which chiefly burns (torments) him who 
is endowed with it : the sisna. he accordingly kindles 
by this (the ninth verse). 

10. Further, 'O Agni, worshipped, thou art lit!' 
what downward breathing there is that he kindles 
with this (the tenth verse) ; ' make offerings, do re- 
verence!' with this (the eleventh verse) he kindles 
the entire body from the nails to the hair. 

11. And if any one were to curse this one (the 
Hotri) at the (recitation of the) first kindling verse, 
then he (the Hotri) should say to him, 'Thereby 
thou hast put thine own out-breathing into the fire : 
by that out-breathing of thine shalt thou undergo 
suffering!' for this is what would take place. 

12. If any one were to curse him at the second 
(verse), he should say to him, ' Thereby thou hast 
put thine own in-breathing into the fire : by that in- 
breathing of thine shalt thou undergo suffering !' for 
this is what would take place. 

13. If any one were to curse him at the third 
(verse), he should say to him, ' Thereby thou hast 
put thine own up-breathing into the fire : by that 
up-breathing of thine shalt thou undergo suffering!' 
for this is what would take place. 

14. If any one were to curse him at the fourth 
(verse), he should say to him, ' Thereby thou hast 
put thine own ear into the fire : by that ear of thine 
shalt thou undergo suffering, thou shalt become 
deaf!' for this is what would take place. 

15. If any one were to curse him at the fifth 
(verse), he should say to him, ' Thereby thou hast 
put thine own voice into the fire : by that voice of 



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i kKnda, 4 adhyAya, 3 brAhmajva, 21. 123 

thine shalt thou undergo suffering, thou shalt become 
dumb !' for this is what would take place. 

16. If any one were to curse him at the sixth 
(verse), he should say to him, ' Thereby thou hast 
put thine own mind into the fire: by that mind 
of thine shalt thou undergo suffering, thou shalt 
move about as one possessed with the (demon) 
" mind-stealer," as one deranged in mind!' for this 
is what would take place. 

17. If any one were to curse him at the 
seventh (verse), he should say to him, ' Thereby 
thou hast put thine own eye into the fire : by 
that eye of thine shalt thou undergo suffering, 
thou shalt become blind!' for this is what would 
take place. 

18. If any one were to curse him at the eighth 
(verse), he should say to him, ' Thereby thou hast 
put thine own central breath into the fire : by that 
central breath of thine shalt thou undergo suf- 
fering, thou shalt expire and die!' for this is what 
would take place. 

19. If any one were to curse him at the ninth 
(verse), he should say to him, ' Thereby thou hast 
put thine own organ into the fire : by that organ of 
thine shalt thou undergo suffering, thou shalt become 
emasculate !' for this is what would take place. 

20. If any one were to curse him at the tenth 
(verse), he should say to him, ' Thereby thou hast 
put thine own down-breathing into the fire : by that 
down-breathing of thine shalt thou undergo suffer- 
ing, thou shalt die from constipation !' for this is 
what would take place. 

21. If any one were to curse him at the eleventh 
(verse), he should say to him, ' Thereby thou hast 



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124 DATAPATH A-BRAhMAJVA. 

put thine entire body into the fire : with that entire 
body of thine shalt thou undergo suffering, thou 
shalt swiftly pass to yonder world !' for this is what 
would take place. 

22. For in like manner as one undergoes suffering 
on approaching the fire that has been kindled by 
means of the kindling verses, so also does one 
undergo suffering for cursing a priest (brahma«a) 
who knows and recites the kindling verses. 

Fourth BrAhmawa. 

i. That same fire, then, they have kindled, 
(thinking), 'In it, when kindled, we will sacrifice 
to the gods.' In it, indeed, he makes these two 
first oblations 1 to Mind and Speech (or, Voice) ; for 
mind and speech, when yoked together, convey the 
sacrifice to the gods. 

2. Now, what is performed (with formulas, pro- 
nounced) in a low voice, by that the mind conveys 
the sacrifice to the gods ; and what is performed 
(with formulas) distinctly uttered by speech, by that 
the speech conveys the sacrifice to the gods. And 
thus takes place here a twofold performance, whereby 

1 Viz. the two aghSras, or pourings (libations) of butter. The 
first libation, which belongs to Pra^Spati, is made by the Adhvaryu, 
while seated north of the fire, immediately after the commencement 
of the pravara, in a continuous line from west to east, on the 
north part of the fire. The second libation (cf. note on I, 4, 5, 3) 
is made by the Adhvaryu while standing on the south side, in the 
same way on the southern part of the fire. According to some 
authorities of the Black Ya^us ritual (quoted by Hillebrandt, Neu 
und Vollm. pp. 80, 86) the sacrificer pronounces the anumantra«as, 
'For Pra^ipati is this, not for me: thou art the mind of Pra^&- 
pati !' and 'Indra's voice (speech) art thou: enter into me with 
the voice, with Indra's power I' over the two libations respectively. 



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i ka\wda, 4 adhyAya, 4 brAhmajva, 8. 125 

he gratifies these two, thinking, ' gratified and pleased, 
these two shall convey the sacrifice to the gods.' 

3. With the dipping-spoon (sruva, m.) he makes 
that libation (of clarified butter) which he makes 
for the mind; for the mind (manas, n. !) is male, 
and male is the sruva. 

4. With the offering-spoon (srui, f.) he makes 
that libation which he makes for speech (viifc, f.); 
for speech is female, and female is the sru& 

5. Silently (without a formula) and even without 
'svaha (hail) !' he makes that libation which he 
makes for the mind ; for undefined (or indistinct) is 
the mind, and undefined is what takes place silently. 

6. With a mantra he makes that libation which 
he makes for speech ; for distinct is speech, and 
distinct is the formula. 

7. Sitting he makes that libation which he makes 
for the mind, and standing that which he makes 
for speech. Mind and speech, when yoked together, 
assuredly convey the sacrifice to the gods. But 
when one of two yoke-fellows is smaller (than the 
other) they give him a shoulder-piece 1 . Now speech 
is indeed smaller than mind; for mind is by far 
the more unlimited, and speech is by far the more 
limited (of the two); hence he thereby (by stand- 
ing) gives a shoulder-piece to speech, and as well- 
matched yoke-fellows these two now convey the 
sacrifice to the gods : for speech, therefore, he 
sprinkles while standing. 

8. Now the gods, when they were performing 
sacrifice, were afraid of a disturbance on the part 

1 Upavaha(m.; upavahas, n.,Ka«varec), explained by Saya»a 
as a piece of wood inserted under the yoke (and on the neck of an 
ox) in order to make it level with the height of the yoke-fellow. 



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126 satapatha-brAhmajva. 

of the Asuras and Rakshas. They, therefore, stood 
up erect against them on the south side (of the 
sacrificial ground) ; for strength is, as it were, erect ; 
hence he makes the (second) libation while stand- 
ing to the south (of the fire). When he makes a 
libation on each side (of the fire, north and south), 
this (pair), mind and speech, though indeed joined 
together, become separate : for one of the two 
libations is the head of the sacrifice and the other 
is its root 

9. With the dipping-spoon (sruva)he makes that 
libation which is the root of the sacrifice, and with 
the offering-spoon (sru£) that which is the head 
of the sacrifice. 

10. Silently he makes that libation which is the 
root of the sacrifice ; for silent, as it were, is this 
root (of trees &c), and in it the voice does not 
sound. 

11. With a formula he makes that libation which 
is the head of the sacrifice ; for the formula is speech, 
and from the head this speech sounds. 

12. Sitting he makes that libation which is the 
root of the sacrifice ; for seated, as it were, is this 
root. Standing he makes that libation which is the 
head of the sacrifice ; for this head stands, as it were. 

1 3. When he has made the first libation with the 
dipping-spoon, he says, 'Agnldh, sweep (touch over) 
the fire 1 !' In like manner as one would lay the 
yoke on (the shoulders of the team), so also he 
makes that first libation ; for after laying on the 
yoke they fasten (the team to it). 

14. He (the Agnidhra) then sweeps (the fire with 

1 See I, 4, 2, 12, with note. 



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i kXnda, 4 adhyAya, 5 brAhmajva, i. 127 

the band of the fire-wood) : he thereby harnesses it, 

thinking, ' Now that it has been harnessed, may 

it convey the sacrifice to the gods !' for this reason 

he sweeps it. While sweeping it he moves around, 

since in harnessing they move around the team. He 

sweeps thrice each time (i.e. thrice along each of the 

three enclosing-sticks): threefold is the sacrifice. 

1 5. He sweeps (once), with the text (V&g. S. 1 1 , 7 a), 

' O Agni, food-gainer ! I cleanse thee, the food-gainer, 

who art about to hasten to the food!' Whereby 

he says, ' I cleanse thee who art going to convey 

the sacrifice (to the gods), thee fit for the sacrifice ! ' 

He then sweeps thrice over (the fire) silently: for just 

as, after harnessing (the animal), one urges it on, 

saying, 'Go on! pull!' so does he thereby strike 

it with the lash \ thinking, ' Go on and convey the 

sacrifice to the gods ! ' That is why he (sweeps) 

thrice over it silently; and in like manner as this 

act is performed between (the two sprinklings of 

butter), so this mind and speech, though forming 

one, thereby become, as it were, sesai",ate>t L !;';/, ; ^v 

AV" , . •■, ,. '-V \^ 

Fifth BrAhmam*\ -■ ',', ' V 7 

1. When he (the Adhvaryu) is about to make th^.- 
second libation with the offering-spoon (sru/£), he 
(twice) lays his joined hands (a«^ali) on the ground 
before the two offering-spoons (^uhu and upa- 
bhr/t),with the formulas ly&g. S. 1 1, 7 b),' Adoration 
to the gods!' ' Svadha to the fathers!' Thereby 
he propitiates the gods and the fathers, now that 

1 The sweeping of the fire is performed with the straw-band with 
which the fire- wood was tied together (Katy. Ill, 1, 13), and which 
is here compared with the lash of a whip. 



/ 



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128 ^atapatha-brAhmawa. 

he is about to perform the duties of the sacrificial 
priest. With the formula, ' May ye two be easy 
to manage for me!' he takes the two offering- 
spoons : he thereby means to say, ' May ye two be 
easy to handle for me ; may I be able to handle 
you !' — He further says (Va^. S. II, 8), ' May I this 
day offer up the butter to the gods unspilt!' whereby 
he means to say, ' May I to-day perform an undis- 
turbed sacrifice to the gods!' 

2. And again, ' May I not sin against thee with 
my foot, O Vish/m ! ' Vishmi, indeed, is the sacri- 
fice : it is the latter therefore that he propitiates by 
saying, ' may I not sin against thee ! ' Further, ' May 
I step into thy wealth-abounding shade, O Agni !' 
whereby he says, ' may I step into thy auspicious 
shade, O Agni 1 !' 

3. Further, ' Thou art the abode of Vish»u !' 
Vishwu, indeed, is the sacrifice, and near to this he 
now stands : this is why he says, ' thou art the abode 
of Vishwu!' — 'Here Indra performed his heroic 
deed 2 ;' for it was while standing in this place that 
Indra drove off towards the south the evil spirits, the 
Rakshas: for this reason he says, 'here Indra per- 
formed his heroic deed.' — ' Erect stood the cult;' cult, 

1 While he pronounces this formula (and while the Hotr* recites 
the formula of invitation to the gods, cf. note on I, 4, 2, 16) the 
Adhvaryu steps to the south side of the altar (and Ahavantya 
fire) and in so doing must take care always to keep the left foot 
before the right (K&ty. Ill, 1, 16, 18) and not to touch the top of 
the prastara, ib. 17, schol. In returning (par. 5) to his former 
position he has to keep the right foot before the left. 

1 With this and the succeeding formulas, the Adhvaryu makes 
the second libation (cf. note on I, 4, 4, 1). Before the butter is 
poured into the fire the sacrificer pronounces the dedicatory formula, 
' Om! for Indra this, not for me !' 



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I KANDA, 4 ADHYAYA, 5 BRAHMAYA, 5. 1 29 

namely, means sacrifice, hence he thereby says 
'erect stood the sacrifice.' 

4. Further (V&f. S. II, 9): 'O Agni, take thou 
upon thyself the office of Hotri, take thou upon 
thyself the part of messenger!' for Agni is both 
Hotr*' and messenger to the gods : hence he thereby 
says, 'know thou 1 both (offices) which thou art 
(holding) for the gods ! ' — ' May earth and heaven 
guard thee! Guard thou earth and heaven I' there 
is nothing obscure in this. — ' Indra, by this butter- 
oblation, may be the maker of good offering 
(svish/akrz't) for the gods! Svaha!' Indra, indeed, 
is the deity of sacrifice; therefore he says 'Indra, 
by this butter-oblation. . .' 'It is for speech that he 
makes this sprinkling, and Indra is speech' so say 
some ; and for this reason also he says ' Indra, 
by this butter-oblation. . .' 

5. Having then returned (to his former position 
behind the altar), without letting the two offering- 
spoons touch each other, he mixes (some of the butter 
left in the ^uhu) with (that in) the dhruva. Now 
the second libation (which he has just offered) 
is the head of the sacrifice, and the dhruva is its 
body 2 : hence he thereby replaces the head on the 
body. And the second libation, moreover, is the 
head of the sacrifice, and the head (yiras) represents 
excellence (srl), for the head does indeed represent 
excellence : hence, of one who is the most excellent 
(.rresh/^a) of a community, people say that he is 
' the head of that community.' 

1 Ye A, in the formula, our author refers to vid, to know,' instead 
of to vt, ' to strive after, undertake.' 

* Cf. I, 3, 2, a, and Taitt. S. II, 5, 11, 7-8. The second liba- 
tion (aghara) has just been made with the £uhu. 



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I30 DATAPATH A-BRAHMAWA. 

6. The sacrificer, assuredly, stands behind the 
dhruva, and he who means evil to him stands 
behind the upabhrtt 1 . Hence if he were to mix 
(the butter remaining in the ^uhu) with (that in) 
the upabhrzt, he would bestow excellence on 
him who means evil to the sacrificer; but in this 
way he bestows that excellence on the sacrificer 
himself: for this reason he mixes (the butter in 
the^fuhu) with (that in) the dhruva. 

7. He mixes it, with the text (V4f. S. II, 9 h), 
'Light with light!' for light (lustre), indeed, is 
the butter in the one (spoon) and light also is that 
in the other. Thereby these two lights unite 
with each other, and for this reason he mixes (the 
butter) in this manner. 

8. Now a dispute once took place between Mind 
and Speech as to' 2 which was the better of the two. 
Both Mind and Speech said, ' I am excellent!' 

9. Mind said, ' Surely I am better than thou, for 
thou dost not speak anything that is not understood 
by me ; and since thou art only an imitator of what 
is done by me and a follower in my wake, I am surely 
better than thou !' 

10. Speech said, 'Surely I am better than thou, for 
what thou knowest I make known, I communicate.' 

1 The same idea has been expressed above, I, 3, 2, 1 r. 

* Cf. Taitt. S. II, 5, n, 4: 'Mind and Speech (or Voice) were 
contending against one another.' ' I will carry the oblation to the 
gods 1' said Speech. 'I (will carry it) to the gods !' said the Mind. 
They went to Pra^ipati to question him. Pra^-apati said (to 
Speech), 'Thou art the handmaid (dutl) of the mind, for what 
one thinks in one's mind that one speaks with one's speech.' 
[Speech replied], ' Then indeed they shall not offer to thee with 
speech !' For this reason they offer to Pra^apati with the mind; for 
Pra^ipati, as it were, is the mind, &c. 



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i kAmda, 5 adhyAya, i brAhmajva, i. 131 

1 1. They went to appeal to Pra^apati for his 
decision. He, Pra^apati,. decided in favour of 
Mind, saying (to Speech), ' Mind is indeed better 
than thou, for thou art an imitator of its deeds and 
a follower in its wake ; and inferior, surely, is he who 
imitates his better's deeds and follows in his wake.' 

12. Then Speech (va£, fern.) being thus gainsaid, 
• was dismayed and miscarried. She, Speech, then said 

to Pra^apati, ' May I never be thy oblation-bearer, 
I whom thou hast gainsaid!' Hence whatever at 
the sacrifice is performed for Pra^apati, that is per- 
formed in a low voice ; for speech would not act as 
oblation-bearer for Pra^apati. 

13. That germ (retas) the gods then brought 
away in a skin or in some (vessel). They asked: 
'Is it here (atra) ?' and therefore it developed 
into Atri. For the same reason one becomes guilty 
by (intercourse) with a woman who has just mis- 
carried (atreyl) ; for it is from that woman, from 
the goddess Speech, that these (germs) originate 1 . 

Fifth AdhyAya. First BrAhmana. 
1. He (the Adhvaryu) now utters his call for the 
Pravara (choosing of the Hotr*') 2 . The reason why 
he utters his call, is that the (Adhvaryu's) call is 

1 ' Tasm&d apy itreyyd yoshitainasvy etasyai hi yoshdyai v&fo 
devatSya" ete sambhutaA,' [ete laukiki^ sarve garbh&A sambhut&i, 
SSy.] — The Ka»va text has, ' Tasmdd api striydtreyyainasvHy ahur 
etasyS hi sa yoshaya" devatayd v&k&h sambhuta iti ' ['—for it is from 
that woman, from the goddess Speech, that he (Atri) originated']. 

* The Hotri, on concluding the invitation of the gods, sits down 
with raised knees in the same place where he has been standing 
(see p. 95, note 1), parts the sacrificial grass of the altar, and 
measures a span on the earth, with the text (Arv. I, 3, 22), 'Aditi 
is his mother, do not cut him off from the air. With the aid of 

K 2 



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1 32 SATAPATHA-BRAHMAWA. 

the sacrifice : ' having bespoke the sacrifice, I will 
choose the Hotrt,' thus (he thinks, and) for this 
reason he utters his call for the Pravara. 

2. He utters his call after taking the fuel-band ; 
for if the Adhvaryu were to utter his call without 
taking hold of the sacrifice, he would either be 
unsteady or meet with some other ailment 

3. Here now some utter the call after taking , 
sacrificial grass (barhis) from the covered altar, or 
they utter the call after cutting off and taking a 
chip of fire-wood, arguing, ' this, surely, is something 
belonging to the sacrifice ; after taking hold of this, 
the sacrifice, we will utter the call.' Let him, how- 
ever, not do this ; for that also wherewith the fire- 
wood was tied together and wherewith they sweep 
the fire 1 is, doubtless, something belonging to the 
sacrifice ; and thus indeed he utters his call after 
taking hold of the sacrifice : for this reason let him 
utter the call after taking the fuel-band. 

4. Having uttered the call, he in the first place 
chooses him who is the Hotri of the gods, that is, 
Agni. Thereby he propitiates both Agni and the 
gods : for by first choosing Agni, he propitiates Agni ; 

Agni, the god, the deity; with the threefold chant, with the 
r&thantara-saman, with the gayatri metre, with the agnish/oma 
sacrifice, with the vasha/-call, the thunderbolt, — I here kill 
him who hates us, and whom we hate !' The Adhvaryu 
having thereupon walked round the Hotr* from left to right, steps 
behind the utkara (heap of rubbish) with his face to the east and 
the fuel-band in his hand, and calls on (S-rravayati) the Agnidhra, 
with O fr&vaya (or Om jrivaya, i.e. a" jrivaya; or simply 
jr&vaya;' cf. Siyawa on Taitt. S. I, 6, n). The Agnidhra 
(whilst standing north of the Adhvaryu, with his face to the south, 
and taking the wooden sword and the fuel-band from the Adhvaryu) 
responds (pratya\rravayati) by 'astu xrausha/.' 
1 See p. 127, note 1. 



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I KANDA, 5 ADHYAYA, I BRAHMAtfA, IO. 1 33 

and by first choosing him who is the Hotri of the 
gods, he propitiates the gods. 

5. He says, 'Agni, the god, the divine Hotr* — ,' 
for Agni is indeed the Hotri of the gods, therefore 
he says 'Agni, the god, the divine Hotri:' thereby 
he propitiates both Agni and the gods ; for by his 
first mentioning Agni he propitiates Agni ; and by 
his first mentioning him who is the Hotri of the 
gods, he propitiates the gods. 

6. ' May he worship, knowing the gods *, he the 
thoughtful one,' — for he, Agni, indeed, knows the 
gods well : hence he thereby says ' may he who 
knows them well worship (them) in due form !' 

7. ' Like as Manu (did), like as Bharata;' — Manu, 
indeed, worshipped with sacrifice in olden times, 
and doing as he did these descendants of his now. 
sacrifice : therefore he says ' like as Manu.' Or, say 
they, (it means) ' at the sacrifice of Manu,' and there- 
fore he says ' as (he did) with Manu.' 

8. ' Like as (with) Bharata,' — for, say they, he 
bears (bhar) the oblation to the gods, hence Bha- 
rata (the bearer) is Agni ; or, say they, he, having 
become the breath, supports (bhar) these creatures, 
and therefore he says ' like as Bharata.' 

9. He then chooses (Agni as) the ancestral (Hotri), 
He thus introduces him both to the (ancestral) rishis 
and to the gods (as if he were saying), 'he is of 
mighty strength who obtained the sacrifice !' for this 
reason he chooses (him as) the ancestral one. 

10. He chooses from the remote end (of the sacri- 
ficer's ancestral line) 2 downwards ; for it is from the 

1 Thus our author. It should rather be 'May (he) worship 
the gods, he the wise, the considerate one.' 
* Cf. p. 115, note 1. 



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1 34 tf ATAPATHA-BRAHMAJTA. 

remote end downwards that a race is propagated. 
Thereby he also propitiates the lord of seniority ; 
for here among men the father comes first, then the 
son, and then the grandson : this is the reason why 
he chooses from the remote end downwards. 

ii. Having named the ancestral, he says, 'Like 
as Brahman;' — for Agni is the Brahman (the Veda, 
or the sacerdotium), and therefore he says ' like as 
Brahman ;' — ' may he bring (the gods) hither!' what 
deities he bids him bring hither, those he refers to 
in saying ' may he bring (them) hither.' 

12. 'The Brihma«as (priests) are the guardians 
of this sacrifice;' for guardians of the sacrifice, 
indeed, are those .Brahma#as who are versed in 
the sacred writ, because they spread it, they origi- 
nate it : these he thereby propitiates ; and for this 
reason he says, ' the Brahma»as are the guardians 
of the sacrifice.' 

13. • N. N. is the man,' thereby he chooses this 
man for his Hotr* ; heretofore he was not a Hotrz, 
but now he is a Hotrt. 

14. The chosen Hotrt mutters, — has recourse to 
the deities: in order that he may give the vasha/- 
call to the gods in its proper order, that he may 
convey the oblation to the gods in its proper order, 
that he may not stumble, he has thus recourse to 
the deities. 

15. He mutters on this occasion 1 , 'Thee, O 
divine Savitr?, they now choose,' — thereby he has 
recourse to Savitrt for his impulsion (prasava), for 
Savit/7 is the impeller (prasavitr/) of the gods ; — 
' (thee who art) Agni, for the Hotnship,' thereby he 

1 Except the beginning, these formulas are entirely different 
from those given by Asv. S. I, 3, 33-24. 



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I KANDA, 5 ADHYAYA, I BRAHMAYA, 1 9. I35 

propitiates both Agni and the gods; for by first 
naming Agni, he propitiates Agni; and by first 
naming him who is the Hotrt of the gods, he pro- 
pitiates the gods. 

16. ' Together with father Vawvanara,' — for the 
father Vawvanara ('common to all men'), doubtless, 
is the year, is Pra^apati (lord of creatures) ; hence 
he thereby propitiates the year and thus Pra^apati. — 
1 Agni ! O Pushan ! O Brzhaspati ! speak forth 
and offer up sacrifice (pra-ya^ - )!' — he (the Hotrt), 
namely, will have to recite the anuvakyas and the 
ya^yas 1 ; he therefore now propitiates those gods : 
'do ye recite, do ye offer!' thus (he thereby says). 

1 7. ' May we partake of the bounty of the Vasus, of 
the wide sway of the Rudras ! may we be beloved of 
the Adityas for the sake of (adit i) security from injury, 
free from obstruction !' — these, to wit, the Vasus, Ru- 
dras, and Adityas, namely, are three (classes of) gods : 
' may we enjoy their protection' he thereby says. 

1 8. ' May I this day utter speech that is agreeable 
to the gods ; ' — by this he means to say ' may I this day 
recite what is agreeable to the gods,' for auspicious it 
is when one recites what is agreeable to the gods. 

19. 'Agreeable to the Brahmans,' — by this he 
means to say ' may I this day recite what is agreeable 
to the Brahma«as (priests);' for auspicious it is when 
one recites what is agreeable to the Brahma«as. 



1 The jSigy&s (offering-prayers) are the prayers which the 
Hotri pronounces when the offerings are poured into the fire (this 
being done simultaneously with, or immediately after, the vausha/, 
'may he carry it,' with which the y&gy& ends, is pronounced). At 
the chief oblations the offering-prayer is preceded by an anuv&kyt 
or puro 'nu vaky & (invitatory prayer) by which the gods are invited 
to come to the offering, and which ends with ' om.' 



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1 36 ^atapatha-brAhmava. 

20. 'Agreeable to Na.rfLsa.msa 1 ,' — man (nara), 
namely, is a creature : hence he says this for all the 
creatures ; thereby it is auspicious, and whether or 
not he knows (forms of speech that are agreeable), 
they are uttered (and received with applause), ' well 
he has recited ! well he has recited !' — ' What at the 
Hotrt choice may escape the crooked eye this day, 
that may Agni bring back here, he, the knower of 
beings (^atavedas), the nimble one (vi<6arsha»i)!' 
— by this he means to say, ' even as those (three) 
Agnis, whom they first chose for the Hotr?'ship, 
passed away 2 , (but thou, the fourth Agni, wast then 
obtained,) so do thou make good for me whatever 
mistake may have been committed at my election!' 
and it is accordingly made good for him. 

2t. He now touches the Adhvaryu and the Agni- 
dhra ; for the Adhvaryu is the mind, and the Hotri 
is speech : thus he thereby brings mind and speech 
together. 

22. At the same time he mutters 8 , ' From anguish 
may the six spaces protect me, fire, earth, water, 
wind, day, and night*!' — 'may these deities protect 

1 Nardfawsa [' the hope or desire (irawsi) of man (nara)'] is a 
mystical form of Agni, invoked chiefly in the Apri-hymns at animal 
sacrifices. ' Yatha sarve'pi nard & sarvataA ramsanti tathavidhaya.' 
SSya«a. 

* See the legend I, 2, 3, 1 seq. 

8 This and the succeeding formulas also are entirely different 
from those given in Asv. S. I, 3, 27 seq. The Sankhsty. 5. I, 6 
(Hillebrandt, Neu und Vollm. p. 91) seems to coincide, to some 
extent, with those given by our author. 

4 The six spaces or wide expanses (urvt) are several times 
referred to in Vedic texts, but the conception seems to have 
been very vague. They are generally supposed to include the 
space above, the space below, and the four quarters. In Rig- 
veda VI, 47, 3-5 it is stated that they have been measured out 



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I kAyda, 5 adhyAya, i brAhmajva, 25. 137 

me from disease!' thus he thereby says; for he 
whom these deities protect from disease, will not 
stumble (or fail). 

23. He steps beside the Hotrz's seat, takes one 
stalk of (reed) grass from the Hotri's seat and casts 
it outside (the sacrificial ground), with the formula, 
'Ejected is the wealth-clutcher (paravasu, lit. "off- 
wealth ") I ' Formerly, namely, the H otri of the Asuras 
was one Paravasu by name : him he thereby ejects 
from the Hotri's seat. 

24. He then sits down on the Hotrz's seat, with 
the formula, ' I here sit down on the seat of the 
wealth-bestower (arvavasu, lit. "hither-wealth")!' 
for one Arvavasu by name was the Hot?-*' of the 
gods 1 , and on his seat he accordingly sits down. 

25. At the same time he mutters, 'O All-maker, 
thou art the protector of lives ! do not ye two (fires) 
scorch me away (from this) 2 , injure me not! this 

by Indra, and that outside of them there is no being (bhu- 
vanam); and they are then enumerated thus: the expanse of the 
earth, the height (varshman, ? highest point or sphere) of 
the sky (div), the sap (ptyusha) in the three elevations [?i. e. 
flowing, animating moisture, as rain, rivers, sap, &c], the atmo- 
sphere, the ocean (? ar»as, Pof light, air), and the sky (div). The 
enumeration of six objects in Atharva-veda II, 12, 1 seems to refer 
to the same conception : heaven and earth (dyavipr/'thivi), the 
wide atmospheric region, the genius (fern.) of the field (kshetrasya 
patnl), the far-strider (Sun, Light), the wide atmospheric region 
(uru-antariksham as before; cf. the double enumeration of div 
in the Jtik passage) ; and what has the Wind for its guardian 
(v&tagopa). Cf. Weber, Ind. Stttd. XIII, p. 164. 5ihkh. Gr/bya- 
sutra I, 6, 4 gives heaven and earth, day and night, water and 
plants (St. Petersburg Dictionary s.v.). 

1 According to the Kaushit. Br. VI, io, Arvavasu was the Brah- 
man of the gods. Weber, Ind. Stud. II, 306. 

* The Hotr»"s seat stands north of the north-west corner of the 
altar, the Ahavanlya and the Garhapatya fires being about equi- 
distant from it towards south-east and south-west respectively. 



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138 satapatha-brahmajva. 

is your sphere;' with this he moves slightly north- 
wards: by this (mantra, he indicates that) he sits 
midway between the Ahavaniya and the Girhapatya, 
and thus he propitiates these two ; and in accordance 
with what he says, ' do not scorch me away from 
this ! injure me not!' they do not injure him. 

26. He then mutters whilst looking at the (Aha- 
vaniya) fire, 'All ye gods, instruct me, how and what 
I am to mind while seated here as the chosen Hotril 
declare my share (of the sacrificial duties), how and 
by what road I am to convey the oblation to you !' — 
for as one says to those for whom food has been 
cooked, ' order me how I am to bring it you, how I 
am to serve it up for you !' in like manner he is 
desirous of directions regarding the gods, and for 
this reason he mutters thus, 'instruct me how I 
may utter the Vasha/-call for you in its proper 
order, how I may bring you the oblation in its 
proper order!' 

Second Brahmava. 
The Fore-offerings (Prayacas). 
i. [The Hotri continues], ' May Agni, the priest 
(hotri), know (undertake) Agni's priestly duty (hau- 
tram),' — thereby he says ' may Agni, as Hotri, know 
this!' 'Agni's priestly duty' he says, because it is 
his duty that he must know ; — ' that means of salva- 
tion 1 ,' — the means of salvation, assuredly, is the 
sacrifice: 'may he know the sacrifice' is what he 
thereby says. — ' Favourable to thee, O Sacrifices is 

1 Pr&vitram, literally ' that which promotes, protects '(' unser 
Hort '). Sayawa on Taitt S. II, 5, 9, 5 explains it by ' prakr/'sh- 
/am avitram phaladanarfipam asmadrakshanam yasmin hominu- 
shMane tad idam pravitram.' For this and the succeeding formulas, 
see Ajv. I, 4, 10-n. 



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I kAjvTJA, 5 ADHYAYA, 2 BRAHMAWA, 4. 1 39 

the deity!' by this he says 'favourable is the deity 
to thee, O Sacrificer, whose Hotri is Agni 1 !' — ■ 
'Take up 2 the spoon, O Adhvaryu, full of butter!' 
thereby he urges on the Adhvaryu. The reason 
why he mentions one (spoon) only (is this). 

2. The Sacrificer, doubtless, stands behind the 
^uhu, and he, who means evil to him, stands 
behind the upabhrzt; and if he were to speak of 
two (spoons), he would cause the spiteful enemy 
to countervail the Sacrificer. Behind the ^uhu 
stands the eater, and behind the upabhrz't the 
one to be eaten ; and if he were to speak of two 
(spoons), he would make the one to be eaten 
countervail the eater. For these reasons he speaks 
of one (spoon) only. 

3. [He continues], ' — (the spoon which is) de- 
voted to the gods, possessed of all boons,' he 
praises, he magnifies it when he says 'devoted 
to the gods, possessed of all boons.' — ' Let us praise 
the gods, the praiseworthy! let us adore the ador- 
able! let us worship the worshipful!' that is, 'let 
us praise those gods who are praiseworthy! let us 
adore those who are adorable ! let us worship those 
who are worthy of worship!' the praiseworthy, to 
wit, are the men, the adorable the fathers, and the 
worshipful the gods. 

4. For, indeed, the creatures that are not allowed to 
take part in the sacrifice are forlorn ; and therefore 

1 Asv. I, 4, 10, and SSnkh. I, 6 give as belonging to the text of 
the mantra : yo agniw hotiram zvrahiA, ' thou who hast chosen 
Agni for thy Hotri';' the same reading is mentioned in Taitt. 
S. II, 5, 9. 5- 

1 Thus Saya»a (asyasva= haste dhSraya); ' schopfe ein (ladle in),' 
St. Petersburg Dictionary ; ' pour into the fire,' Hillebrandt, p. 93. 



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I40 DATAPATH A-BRAHM ANA. 

he makes those creatures here on earth that are not 
forlorn, take part in the sacrifice : behind the men 
are the beasts, and behind the gods are the birds, 
the plants, and the trees ; and thus all that here 
exists is made to take part in the sacrifice. 

5. These same (preceding formulas) are nine 
utterances; for nine, in number, are those breaths 
(or vital airs) in man 1 , and these he thereby puts 
into him (the sacrificer) : for this reason there are 
nine utterances. 

6. The sacrifice fled away from the gods. The 
gods called out after it, 'Listen (a-^ru) to us 2 ! 
come back to us!' It replied, 'So be it!' and 
returned to the gods; and with what had thus 
returned to them, the gods worshipped ; and by 
worshipping with it they became the gods they 
now are. 

7. Now when he (the Adhvaryu) calls (on the 
Agnldhra), he thereby calls after the sacrifice, ' Listen 
to us! come back to us!' and when he (the Agnl- 
dhra) responds, then the sacrifice comes back, saying 
'so be it!' and with it, thus passing over to them, 
as with seed 3 , the priests carry on the tradition, im- 
perceptibly to the sacrificer; for even as people 
hand on from one to the other a full vessel*, in 

1 See p. 20, note 1. 

' The legend is intended to explain the origin and symbolical 
meaning of the call (isrivuna.) of the Adhvaryu (viz. O jrSvaya! 
'make listen 1') and the response (pratydjravawa) of the Agnldhra 
(viz. astu jrausha/!). 

* The sacrifice is the seed (vi^a) that produces heaven as its 
fruit. Sayana. 

* I. e. ' even as they pass on from hand to hand a pail (gha/a) 
filled with water when a tub is to be filled inside the house.' 
Sayana. 



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I KANDA, 5 ADHYAYA, 2 BRAHMA1VA, 12. 141 

the same way they (the priests) hand down that 
(sacrifice) from one to the other. They hand it 
down by means of speech, for the sacrifice is speech 
(prayer), and speech is seed : therefore they keep up 
the tradition by means of it. 

8. After he has said (to the Hot*-*'), ' Recite!' the 
Adhvaryu must utter nothing improper (worldly); 
neither must the Hotri utter anything improper. 
The Adhvaryu 1 utters his call: thereby the sacri- 
fice passes on to the Agnldhra. 

9. The Agnldhra must utter nothing improper 
until his response. The Agnldhra responds : thereby 
the sacrifice passes back to the Adhvaryu. 

10. The Adhvaryu must utter nothing improper 
until he pronounces (the word) 'ya,fa (recite the 
offering-prayer):' in saying 'ya^a' the Adhvaryu 
hands the sacrifice on to the HotW. 

11. The Hotrs must utter nothing improper 
until his vasha/-call. By the vasha/-call he pours 
it (the sacrifice) into the fire, as seed into the womb ; 
for the fire is indeed the womb of the sacrifice, from 
thence it is brought forth. So now at the h avis- 
sacrifice. And at the Soma-cult, — 

1 2. When he has drawn (the Soma), the Adhvaryu 
must not utter anything improper until his summons 



1 As soon as the Hotr/has pronounced the formula 'O Adhvaryu, 
take up the spoon full of butter!' (par. 2 above), the Adhvaryu 
takes the two offering-spoons (^uhu and upabhrrt) and steps 
back (from the west side along the north side of the altar and the 
west side of the fire) to the south side of the altar and the fire (the 
ya^ati-sthlna), and (with his face to north-east) utters his call, and 
(having been responded to by the Agnldhra) calls on the Hotri : 
'samidho ya^a (pronounce the offering-prayer to the kindling- 
sticks)!' Katy. Ill, 2, 16. 



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142 SATAPATHA-BRAHMAWA. 

(for the chanting of the stotra 1 ) : with the call 'draw 
near!' the Adhvaryu hands the sacrifice on to the 
Udgatrz's (chanters). 

13. The Udgatrz's must not utter anything im- 
proper until the last (stotra-verse) : ' this is the last 
one,' thus thinking, the UdgafrVs hand on the sacri- 
fice to the Hotri. 

14. The Hotri must utter nothing improper until 
the vasha/-call. With the vasha/-call he pours it 
(the sacrifice) into the fire, as seed into the womb; 
for the fire is indeed the womb of the sacrifice, since 
from thence it is brought forth. 

15. If he whom the sacrifice approaches were to 
utter anything improper, he would waste the sacri- 
fice, even as he might waste (water by spilling from) 
a full vessel. And where the officiating priests thus 
practice sacrifice with a perfect mutual understanding 
between them, there everything works regularly and 
no hitch occurs : therefore it is in this way that the 
sacrifice must be nursed, 

16. Now there are here five utterances, viz. (1) 
4 Bid (him, Agni, or them) hear!' (2) 'Yea, may he 
(or, one) hear !' (3) ' Pronounce the prayer to the 
kindling-sticks!' (4) 'We who pronounce the prayer 
. . .' (5) ' May he bear (the sacrifice to the gods) 2 !' 
fivefold is the sacrifice, fivefold the animal victim, 
five are the seasons of the year : this is the one 
measure of the sacrifice, this its consummation. 



1 See IV, 2, 5, 7-8. 

* (1) O jravaya (ford frivaya), the Adhvaryu's call; (2) astu 
jrausha/, the Agntdhra's response; (3) (samidho) ya^a, the 
Adhvaryu's summons to the Hotn ; (4) ye ya^amahe, the begin- 
ning of the Hotri 's yigySi, or offering-prayer (see p. 135 note); 
(5) vausha/, concluding formula of the y&gyi. 



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I KANDA, 5 ADHYAYA, 2 BRAHMAiVA, 20. I43 

17. These (five formulas) consist of seventeen 
syllables ; — seventeenfold, indeed, is Pra^pati, and 
Pragapati is the sacrifice : this is the one measure 
of the sacrifice, this its consummation. 

18. With 'O .yravaya 1 !' the gods sent forth the 
east wind; with 'Astu •yrausha/ 1 !' they caused 
the clouds to flow together ; with ' Ya/a (pronounce 
the ya^ya)!' (they sent forth) the lightning; with ' Ye 
ya^-amahe (we who pray),' the thunder; with the 
vasha/-call they caused it to rain 2 . 

19. Should he (the sacrificer) be desirous of rain, 
or should he perform a special offering', or even at 
the new- and full-moon sacrifice itself, he may say, 
'Verily, I am desirous of rain!' — and he may also 
say to the Adhvaryu, ' Ponder thou in thy mind 
the east wind and the lightning!' — to the Agnidhra, 
' Ponder thou the clouds in thy mind ! ' — to the 
Hotri, ' Ponder thou in thy mind the thunder 
and rain!' — to the Brahman, 'Ponder thou all 
these in thy mind!' — for where the officiating priests 
thus practice sacrifice with a perfect mutual under- 
standing between them, there it will indeed rain. 

20. With ' O .yravaya !' the gods called the shining 
one (virif, viz. cow); with 'Astu .yrausha/!' they 
untied the calf and let it go to her; with 'Ya/al' 
they raised (its head to the udder of the cow) 4 ; with 

1 For ibravaya (cf. p. 131, note a), i.e. 'bid (him, Agni, or 
them) hearl' but the author here makes jravaya the causative of 
*ru (sru), 'to flow ;' hence a fravaya, 'make flow;' and astu 
f rausha/ [properly 'Yea, may he (or one) hear !'] he makes ' Yea, 
may it flow !' 

1 A fanciful etymology ofvasha/from root vr/'sh,'to rain;' for 
the true derivation of the word, see p. 88, note a. 

• I. e. an offering made with a view to the obtainment of some 
special wish (kamyesh/i). 

* Thus (or 'they led it up to the udder of the cow') Sayawa 



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144 SATAPATHA-BRAHMAtfA. 

'Ye ya^imahe!' they sat down by her (for milk- 
ing); with the vasha/-call they milked her. The 
shining one, doubtless, is this (earth), and of her this 
is the milking: and for him who knows this to be 
the milking of the shining one, this shining (earth- 
cow) thus milks out all his desires. 

Third BrAhmaaa. 

i. The fore-offerings (praya^a), assuredly, are 
the seasons : hence there are five of them, for there 
are five seasons. 

2. The gods and the Asuras, both of them sprang 
from Pra^apati, were once contending for this sacri- 
fice, (which is) their father Pra^apati, the year : 
'Ours it (he) shall be!' 'Ours it (he) shall be!' 
they said. 

3. Then the gods went on praising and toiling. 
They saw these fore-offerings and worshipped with 
them. By means of them they gained (pra-.fi) the 
seasons, the year ; they deprived their rivals of the 
seasons, of the year : hence (the fore-offerings are) 
victories (pra^aya), for, assuredly, pra^aya is the 
very same term as praya^a (fore-offering) 1 . And 
in the same way this one (the sacrificer) wins by 
means of them the seasons, the year ; deprives his 
rivals of the seasons, of the year. This is the 
reason why he performs the fore-offerings. 

4. The sacrificial food at these offerings consists of 

explains u da nay an. In his commentary on Taitt. S. I, 6, 11 he 
interprets the analogous udanaishlt by 'he raises (or brings) the 
milk-pail;' where the St. Petersburg Dictionary apparently takes 
it in the sense of ' he led the calf away from the cow.' 

1 In reality praya^a (from yag,'to sacrifice') has, of course, 
nothing to do with pra^aya (from ^i,' to conquer'). 



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I KANDA, 5 ADHYAYA, 3 BRAHMAiVA, 7. 145 

clarified butter. Now the butter, indeed, is a thunder- 
bolt, and with that thunderbolt, the butter, the gods 
gained the seasons, the year, and deprived their rivals 
of the seasons, of the year. And with that thunder- 
bolt, the butter, he now, in the same way, gains the 
seasons, the year, and deprives his enemies of the 
seasons, of the year. For this reason clarified butter 
forms the sacrificial food at these (offerings). 

5. Now this butter is the year's own liquor: 
hence the gods gained it (the year) by means of its 
own liquor ; and in the same way he also now gains 
it by means of its own liquor. This is the reason 
why clarified butter forms the sacrificial food at 
these (fore-offerings). 

6. Let him (the Adhvaryu) not move from that 
same spot where he may be standing when he calls 
for the fore-offerings. A battle, it is true, is wit- 
nessed whenever any one performs the fore-offerings, 
and whichever of the two combatants is worsted, 
that one, no doubt, retreats ; and he who obtains 
the victory, advances still nearer : he (the Adhvaryu) 
might therefore (feel inclined to) step nearer and 
nearer (to the fire), and offer the oblations (while 
moving) nearer and nearer 1 . 

7. This, however, he should not do ; he should 
not move from that same spot where he may be 
standing when he calls for the fore-offerings. Let 

1 Though the author does not state expressly that this change 
of position in performing the five fore-offerings is advocated by 
some other ritualists, he apparently argues in this passage against an 
actually adopted theory and practice, which the Sutras also mention 
as optional. In the case of the Adhvaryu changing his position, 
he is at each successive fore-offering to pour the butter on a part of 
the fire east of the preceding one. Katy. Ill, 2, 18-21. 

["] L 



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I46 DATAPATH A-BRAHMAJVA. 

him rather offer the (five) oblations in that part (of 
the fire) where he thinks there is the fiercest blaze ; 
for only by being offered in blazing (fire), oblations 
are successful. 

8. He (the Adhvaryu), having called (on, and 
having been responded to by, the Agntdhra), says 
(to the Hotrz), ' Pronounce the offering-prayer 
(yi^ya) to the Samidhs (kindling-sticks)!' Thereby 
he kindles the spring; the spring, when kindled, 
kindles the other seasons ; the seasons, when 
kindled, generate the creatures and ripen the 
plants. In the same (formula) he also implies the 
(four) remaining seasons, and in order to avoid 
sameness, he introduces the others by merely saying 
each time, ' Pronounce the offering-prayer ! ' For 
were he to say, ' Pronounce the offering-prayer to 
Tanunapat!' ' Pronounce the offering-prayer to the 
Idfe !' and so on, he would commit (the fault of) 
repetition : hence he introduces the remaining (sea- 
sons or fore-offerings) by merely saying each time, 
'Pronounce the offering-prayer 1 !' 

9. He (the Hotri) now pronounces the offering- 
prayer (yi^ya) to the Samidhs. The samidh 
(kindler), doubtless, is the spring. The gods, at 
that time, appropriated the spring, and deprived 
their rivals of the spring ; and now this one (the 

1 On the necessity of avoiding sameness of ritualistic practices 
cf. note on I, 3, 2, 8. The five fore-offerings (praya^a, here 
identified with the five seasons) are addressed respectively to the 
kindling-sticks (samidh), to Tanunapat (or Nara^awsa, both 
mystical forms of Agni), to the Ids (personifications of the forms 
of devotional feeling), to the sacrificial grass-covering of the altar 
(barhis), and to Agni and Soma (or other deities). Since, in in- 
troducing the first fore-offering, the Adhvaryu has mentioned its 
recipient, he is not to do so in the case of the remaining four. 



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I KANDA, 5 ADHYAYA, 3 BRAHMAtfA, 12. I47 

sacrificer) also appropriates the spring, and deprives 
his rivals of the spring: this is the reason why he 
pronounces the offering-prayer to the Samidhs. 

10. After that he pronounces the offering-prayer 
to Tanunapat Tanunapat, doubtless, is the sum- 
mer; for the summer burns the bodies (tanun 
tapati) of these creatures. The gods, at that time, 
appropriated the summer, and deprived their rivals 
of the summer; and now this one also appropriates 
the summer, and deprives his rivals of the summer: 
this is the reason why he pronounces the offering- 
prayer to Tanunapat. 

1 1. He then pronounces the offering-prayer to the 
Ids. The Ids (praises), doubtless, are the rains; 
they are the rains, inasmuch as the vile, crawling 
(vermin) 1 which shrink during the summer and 
winter, then (in the rainy season) move about in 
quest of food, as it were, praising (id) the rains : 
therefore the I els are the rains. The gods, at that 
time, appropriated the rains, and deprived their 
rivals of the rains ; and now this one also appro- 
priates the rains, and deprives his rivals of the 
rains : this is the reason why he pronounces the 
offering-prayer to the Ids. 

12. He then pronounces the offering-prayer to the 
Barhis (covering of sacrificial grass on the altar). 
The barhis, doubtless, is the autumn; the barhis 
is the autumn, inasmuch as these plants which 
shrink during the summer and winter grow by 
the rains, and in autumn lie spread open after the 
fashion of barhis : for this reason the barhis is the 
autumn. The gods, at that time, appropriated the 
autumn, and deprived their rivals of the autumn ; 

1 Such as lizards, alligators. Sayawa. 
L 2 



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148 jatapatha-brAhmajva. 

and now this one also appropriates the autumn, and 
deprives his rivals of the autumn : this is why he 
pronounces the prayer to the bar his. 

13. He then pronounces the offering-prayer with 
'Svaha! Svaha 1 !' The Sviha-call, namely, marks 
the end of the sacrifice, and the end of the year is 
the winter, since the winter is on the other (remoter) 
side of the spring. By the end (of the sacrifice) 
the gods, at that time, appropriated the end (of the 
year); by the end they deprived their rivals of the end; 
and by the end this one also now appropriates the 
end ; by the end he deprives his rivals of the end : 
this is why he pronounces the offering-prayers with 
•Svaha! Svaha!' 

14. Now the spring, assuredly, comes into life 
again out of the winter, for out of the one the other 
is born again : therefore he who knows this, is 
indeed born again in this world. 

15. In order to avoid sameness he prays (alter- 
nately) with 'may they accept!' and 'may he (or it) 
accept 2 !' for he. would commit (the fault) of repe- 

1 See further on, par. 22. As to Sv&hi! marking the conclu- 
sion of the sacrifice, see the Samish/aya^us I, 9, 2, 25-28. 

* The first offering-prayer (to the logs) is 'ye" ya^mahe sami- 
dhaA, samidho agna a^yasya vyantu vausha/1' i.e. 'we who pro- 
nounce the offering-prayer to the Samidhs, — the Samidhs, O Agni, 
may accept the butter ! vSusba/ 1 ' Similarly at the other fore-offerings ; 
but at the second and fourth, where the object of worship is a single 
one (viz. Tanunapit and the Barhis respectively), ' may he (or it) ac- 
cept (vetu) 1' has to be substituted for ' may they accept (vyantu) !' 
The difference of number in these verbal forms is symbolically 
explained as implying a distinction of sex, for the reason that there 
may be more wives to one man, but only one husband to a woman. 
The elliptic expression ye ya^&mahe is thus explained by Saya«a 
on Taitt. S. 1, 6, 1 1 : 'All we Hotri priests that are urged on by the 
Adhvaryu calling "Recite (thou)P' we do recite, we do pronounce 



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i kXnda, 5 adhyAya, 3 brAhmajva, 18. 149 

tition, if he were to pray with 'may they accept!' 
each time, or with ' may he accept !' each time. By 
'may they accept!' doubtless, females (are implied); 
and by 'may he accept!' a male (is implied): thereby 
a productive union is effected, and for this reason he 
prays (alternately) with 'may they accept!' and 'may 
he (or it) accept !' 

16. Now at the fourth fore-offering, to the 
barhis, he pours (butter) together (into the ^uhu 1 ). 
The barhis, namely, represents descendants, and 
the butter seed : hence seed is thereby infused into 
the descendants, and by that infused seed descend- 
ants are generated again and again. For this reason 
he pours together (butter) at the fourth fore-offering, 
that to the barhis. 

17. Now, a battle, as it were, is going on here 
when any one performs the fore-offerings; and which- 
ever of the two combatants a friend (an ally) joins, 
he obtains the victory : hence a friend thereby joins 
theguhtt. from out of the upabhrs't, and by him 
it (or he) obtains the victory. This is why he pours 
together (butter) at the fourth fore-offering, that to 
the barhis. 

18. The sacrificer, doubtless, (stands) behind the 
^•uhfi, and he who means evil to him, (stands) 

the y&gyL' This introductory part of the offering-formula is called 
Sgur, 'acclamation, assent' (ksv. I, 5, 4); it is alluded to in Maha- 
bhar.Vanap. 12480 (cf. Muir, O. S. T. I, p. 135), and apparently 
by Paa. VIII, 2, 88 (cf. Haug, Ait. Br. II, p. 133 n.). 

1 In making the oblation, the Adhvaryu holds the ^uhu over the 
upabhrrt and pours some of the butter from the ^uhu over the 
spout of the upabhr»'t into the fire. At the third praya^a he 
empties all the butter remaining in the guhd into the fire, and there- 
upon, for the fourth oblation, replenishes the empty spoon with half 
the contents of the upabhr it, after which he proceeds as before. 



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1 50 JATAPATHA-BRAHMAiVA. 

behind the upabhr«t : hence he thereby makes the 
spiteful enemy pay tribute to the sacrificer. The 
consumer, doubtless, (stands) behind the g uhu, and 
the one to be consumed behind the upabhrz't: 
hence he thereby makes the one that is to be con- 
sumed pay tribute to the consumer. This is the 
reason why he pours (butter) together at the fourth 
fore-offering, that to the bar his. 

19. He pours (the butter) together without (the 
two spoons) touching (each other). If he were to 
touch (the one spoon with the other) he would touch 
the sacrificer with his spiteful enemy, he would touch 
the consumer with the one to be consumed: for 
this reason he pours (the butter) together without 
touching. 

20. He holds the ^uhu over (the upabh^z't). 
Thereby he keeps the sacrificer above his spiteful 
enemy, he keeps the consumer above the one to 
be consumed: for this reason he holds the ^uhu 
over (the upabhrzt). 

21. The gods once said, 'Well then, now that 
the battle has been won, let us establish the entire 
sacrifice on a firm basis ; and should the Asuras and 
Rakshas (again) trouble us, our sacrifice will then 
be firmly established!' 

22. At the last fore-offering they established the 
entire sacrifice by means of the S v ah a (' hail ! '). With 
' Svihi Agni !' they established the butter-portion 
for Agni ; with ' Svahi Soma !' they established 
the butter-portion for Soma ; and with (the second) 
'Svahi Agni!' they established that indispensable 
sacrificial cake which there is on both occasions 
(i.e. at the new and full-moon sacrifices). 

23. And so with the (other) deities respec- 



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I KANDA, 5 ADHYAYA, 3 BRAHMAiVA, 25. I51 

tively 1 . With'Svaha the butter-drinking gods!' they 
established the fore-offerings and the after-offerings 
(anuya^ as), for the fore-offerings and after-offerings, 
doubtless, represent the butter-drinking gods. With 
the formula ' May Agni graciously accept of the 
butter!' they established Agni as Svish/ak^'t 
(' maker of good offering '), for Agni is indeed the 
maker of good offering. And till this day that 
sacrifice stands as firm as the gods established it. 
This is the reason why at the last fore-offering he 
prays with ' Svihi! Svaha!' according to the number 
of oblations (there are at the chief sacrifice). After 
he (the jsacrificer) has won his battle, he establishes 
the entire sacrifice on a firm basis, so that, if after this 
he should violate the proper order of the sacrifice, 
he need not heed it ; for he will know that his sacri- 
fice is firmly established. Now what with exclaiming 
' Vashat,' with offering, and with calling out 'S viha,' 
this same sacrifice was well-nigh exhausted. 

24. The gods were anxious as to how they might 
replenish it, how they might again render it efficient 
and practise (worshipping) with it, when efficient. 

25. Now what was left in the ^uhu of the butter 
wherewith they had established the sacrifice, with 
that they sprinkled the havis (dishes, or kinds, 
of sacrificial food) one after another, and thereby 
replenished them and again rendered them efficient, 
because the butter is indeed efficient. Hence after 
offering the last fore-offering, he sprinkles the havis 
one after another, and thereby replenishes them and 
again renders them efficient, because the butter is 
indeed efficient 2 . Hence also from whatever sacrificial 

1 Cf. p. 1 18, note 3. The words ' Svaha Agnim ' &c. are pre- 
ceded by 'ye yag-amahe,' see before, p. 148, note 2. 
1 After the Adhvaryu has performed the last fore-offering, he 



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152 DATAPATH A-BRAHMAiVA. 

food he (afterwards at the principal oblations) cuts 
off (a portion for a deity), that he again sprinkles 
(with butter), that he replenishes and renders efficient 
for the (Svish/ak rix) maker of good offering. But 
when he cuts off the portion for the maker of good 
offering, then he does not again sprinkle (the sacri- 
ficial food out of which the portion has been cut), 
since after that he will not make any other oblation 
in the fire from the sacrificial food *. 

Fourth BrAhmajva. 

1 . He (accordingly) pronounces the offering-prayer 
to the Samidhs (kindling-sticks). The Samidhs 
(kindlers), doubtless, are the breaths (vital airs), and 
he thereby kindles the breaths; for this man (the 
sacrificer) is kindled (animated) by his breaths : 
hence if he (the sacrificer) be burning (with fever, 
&c), he (the Adhvaryu) will say, 'Stroke (thyself)!' 
If he be hot, then one may feel confident, for then 
he is kindled; and if he be cold, then one need 
hope no longer. Thus he thereby puts the breaths 
into him : this is the reason why he pronounces the 
prayer to the Samidhs. 

2. He then pronounces the offering-prayer to 
Tanunapat. Tanunapat, doubtless, is seed ; hence 
he thereby casts seed : this is why he pronounces 
the prayer to Tanunapat. 

steps back behind the altar and sitting down beside the dishes of 
sacrificial food, anoints, with the butter remaining in the ^uhu, 
first the (butter in the) dbruvi, then the several sacrificial dishes, 
and finally the (butter in the) upabhrrt. K&ty. Ill, 3, 9. 

1 What remains of the dish of sacrificial food, after the oblation 
toAgni Svish/akr»'t(I, 7, 3, iseq.)has been made, is eaten by the 
priests and the sacrificer, and in their case the several portions are 
basted with butter, as they are cut off, but not the dish of food from 
which the portions have been taken. 



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i kAjvca, 5 adhyaya, 4 brAhmana, 6. 1 53 

3. He then pronounces the offering-prayer to the 
Ids. The Ids, doubtless, are offspring; when the 
seed thus cast springs into life, then it moves about 
in quest of food, as it were, praising (Id). Hence 
he thereby makes him (the sacrificer) propagate 
offspring : this is the reason why he pronounces the 
prayer to the I ds. 

4. He then pronounces the offering-prayer to the 
Barhis. The barhis, doubtless, means abundance, 
hence he thereby produces an abundance : this is 
why he pronounces the prayer to the barhis. 

5. He then pronounces the offering-prayer with 
•Svaha! Svaha!' The Svaha-call, indeed, is what 
the winter is among the seasons; for the winter 
subjects these creatures to its will : hence in winter 
the plants wither, and the leaves fall off the trees; 
the birds retire more and more, and fly lower and 
lower ; and the wicked man has his hair, as it were, 
falling off 1 ; for the winter subjects these creatures 
to its will. And, verily, he who knows this, makes 
that locality wherein he lives, his own, for his own 
happiness and supply of food. 

6. The gods and the Asuras, both of them sprung 
from Pra^apati, were once contending for superiority. 
With staves and bows neither party were able to 
overcome the other. Neither of them having gained 
the victory, they (the Asuras) said, ' Well then, let 
us try to overcome one another by speech, by sacred 
writ (brahman)! He who cannot follow up our 
uttered speech by (making up) a pair, shall be 
defeated and lose everything, and the other party 

1 The KS«va recension has, ' the beasts retire more and more, 
and the birds fly lower and lower ; and the vile-caste man (papa- 
\axmh purushaA) has his hair, as it were, falling off.' 



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1 54 SATAPATHA-BRAHMAVA. 

shall win everything!' The gods replied, 'So be 
it !' The gods said to Indra, ' Speak thou !' 

7. Indra said, 'One (eka, m., unus) for me!' 
The others then said, 'One (eka, f., una) for us!' 
and thus found that (desired) pair, for eka (unus) 
and eka (una) make a pair. 

8. Indra said, 'Two (dvau, m., duo) for me!' 
The others then said, 'Two (dve, f., duae) for 
us!' and thus found that pair, for dvau (duo) and 
dve (duae) make a pair. 

9. Indra said, 'Three (traya^, m.) for me!' 
The others then said, 'Three (tisra^, f.) for us!' 
and thus found that pair, for traya^ and tisra^ 
make a pair. 

10. Indra said, 'Four (^atvara^, m.) for me!' 
The others then said, 'Four (iatasra^, f.) for 
us!' and thus found that pair, for ^atvara^ and 
/§atasra^ make a pair. 

11. Indra said, 'Five (paȣa, m. f., quinque) 
for me !' Then the others found no pair, for after 
that (numeral four) there is no pair, for then both 
(masculine and feminine) are paw^a. Thereupon 
the Asuras were defeated and lost everything, and 
the gods won everything from the Asuras, and 
stripped their rivals, the Asuras, of everything. 

12. For this reason let him (the sacrificer) say 1 , 
when the first fore-offering has been performed, 
' One (eka) for me!' and ' One (eka) for him whom 

1 Viz. as anumantrawa, or after-call, supplementary prayer, 
pronounced immediately after the oblation has been poured into 
the fire. According to Klty. Ill, 3, 5, a second anumantrana has 
to be added each time, consisting of a single word, viz. ' brilliant,' 
'respectable,' 'famous,' 'holy,' 'an eater of food' [suppl. 'may I 
become'] respectively. Differently the Black Ya^us; cf. Hille- 
brandt, p. 96, note 6. 



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I KANDA, 6 ADHYAYA, I BRAHMA1VA, 4. 155 

we hate ! ' And if he should not hate any one, let 
him say, ' who hates us and whom we hate !' 

13. With the second fore-offering, 'Two (dvau) 
for me !' and ' Two (d ve) for him who hates us and 
whom we hate!' 

14. With the third fore-offering, 'Three (traya^) 
for me !' and ' Three (tisra^) for him who hates us 
and whom we hate !' 

15. With the fourth fore-offering, 'Four (iat va- 
ra^) for me!' and ' Four (^atasra^) for him who 
hates us and whom we hate !' 

16. With the fifth fore-offering, 'Five (pa»^a) 
for me!' and 'Nothing for him who hates us and 
whom we hate!' For, there being 'five' to 'five,' he 
(the enemy) is defeated, and whoever knows this, 
appropriates to himself everything that belongs to 
that (enemy of his), strips his enemies of everything. 

Sixth Adhyaya. First Brahmaya. 

1. Now the Seasons were desirous to have a share 
in the sacrifice among the gods, and said, ' Let us 
share in the sacrifice ! Do not exclude us from the 
sacrifice ! Let us have a share in the sacrifice ! ' 

2. The gods, however, did not approve of this. 
The gods not approving, the Seasons went to the 
Asuras, the malignant, spiteful enemies of the gods. 

3. Those (Asuras) then throve in such a manner 
that they (the gods) heard of it; for even while 
the foremost (of the Asuras) were still ploughing 
and sowing, those behind them were already en- 
gaged in reaping and threshing: indeed even without 
tilling the plants ripened forthwith for them. 

4. This now caused anxiety to the gods : ' That 
owing to that (desertion of the Seasons), enemy 



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156 satapatha-brAhmajva. 

(viz. the Asuras) seeks to injure enemy (viz. us) is 
oflittle consequence ; but this indeed goes too far : try 
to find out how henceforth this may be different 1 !' 

5. They then said, 'Let us invite the Seasons!' — 
' How ?' — ' Let us offer prayer to them first of all 
at the sacrifice!' 

6. Agni then said, ' But whereas hitherto you 
used to offer prayer to me in the first place, what 
is now to become of me ? ' ' We will not remove 
you from your place!' said they. And since, in 
inviting the Seasons, they did not remove Agni from 
his place, for that reason Agni is immutable 2 ; and 
verily, he who knows that Agni to be immutable, 
does not move from the place where he bides. 

7. The gods said to Agni, ' Go and invite them 
hither!' Agni went to them and said, 'O Seasons, I 
have obtained for you a share in the sacrifice among 
the gods.' They said, 'In what form hast thou 
obtained it for us?' He replied, 'They will offer 
prayer to you first at the sacrifice.' 

8. The Seasons said to Agni, ' We will let thee 
share along with us in the sacrifice who hast obtained 
for us a share in the sacrifice among the gods!' 
And because Agni has been allowed a share along 
with the Seasons (the offering-prayers are) : ' The 
Samidhs, O Agni, (may accept the butter) 3 . . .!' 

1 'Kanfya in nv ato dvishan dvishate 'ratiyati kim v etavan- 
matram upag-anita yathedam ito 'nyathasad iti.' The Kanva MS. 
has, ' tad u vai devanam atathasa kaniya in nu tato dvishan dvishate 
'ratiyed atha kim tavanmatram. Te hokuA katham idam ito no 
'nyatha syad iti.' 

* A£yuta, literally 'not fallen,' hence invariable, indispensable 
is an epithet frequently applied to Agni's sacrificial cake; cf. I, 
4, 2, 16; 1,6, 2, 5. 

8 See p. 148, note 2. 



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I KkNDA, 6 ADHYAYA, I BRAHMAiVA, II. 157 

' Tanunapat, O Agni ... 1* « The I^s, O Agni . . . !' 
'The Barhis,0 Agni. . .!' 'Svaha Agni !' And verily, 
whosoever knows that Agni is thus allowed to share 
(in the sacrifice) along with the Seasons, he is allowed 
to participate in whatever auspicious rite is performed 
by one who professes to be equal (in that knowledge) 
to him ; — for him, being possessed of Agni, the Sea- 
sons, themselves possessed of Agni, ripen the plants 
and everything here. 

9. Now, as to this point, some raise the ob- 
jection, ' But since they invite the fore-offerings 
last of all (at the two libations of butter) 1 , why do 
they offer prayer to them first of all ?' — Because 
they established them last of all in the sacrifice 2 ; 
and because they said, 'we will offer prayer to you 
first :' for that reason they invite them last, and offer 
prayer to them first. 

10. By the fourth fore-offering the gods, assuredly, 
obtained the sacrifice, and by the fifth they firmly 
established it; and by what part of the sacrifice 
after that remained unaccomplished they gained the 
world of heaven. 

11. In going to heaven they were afraid of an 
attack from the Asuras and Rakshas. They placed 
Agni at their head, as the Rakshas-killer, the re- 
peller of the Rakshas; they placed Agni in their 
midst, as the Rakshas-killer, the repeller of the 
Rakshas; they placed Agni in their rear, as the 
Rakshas-killer, the repeller of the Rakshas. 



1 In the devat&ndm dvahanam or invitation of the deities, 
the last formula, addressed to the butter-drinking deities, is sup- 
posed to refer to the fore- and after-offerings. Cf. I, 4, 2, 16-17. 

' See I, 5, 3, 23. 



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I58 DATAPATH A-BRAHMAJVA. 

12. And if the Asuras and Rakshas wished to 
attack them in front, Agni repelled them, as the 
Rakshas-killer, the repeller of the Rakshas ; if they 
wished to attack in the centre, Agni repelled them, 
as the Rakshas-killer, the repeller of the Rakshas ; 
and if they wished to attack in the rear, Agni re- 
pelled them, as the Rakshas-killer, the repeller of 
the Rakshas : being thus guarded on all sides by 
Agnis, they reached the world of heaven. 

13. And in the same way this one now obtains 
the sacrifice by means of the fourth fore-offering, 
and by means of the fifth he establishes it; and 
by what part of the sacrifice after that remains un- 
accomplished, he gains the world of heaven. 

14. Now when he pronounces the offering-prayer 
over Agni's butter-portion, he thereby places Agni 
in front, as the Rakshas-killer, the repeller of the 
Rakshas ; and when Agni's sacrificial cake is (offered), 
he thereby places Agni in the midst, as the Rakshas- 
killer, the repeller of the Rakshas; and when he 
pronounces the offering-prayer to Agni Svish/a- 
krtt (the maker of good offering), he thereby places 
Agni in the rear, as the Rakshas-killer, the repeller 
of the Rakshas. 

15. And if the Asuras and Rakshas try to attack 
him (the sacrificer) in front, Agni repels them, as 
the Rakshas-killer, the repeller of the Rakshas ; if 
they try to attack him in the centre, Agni repels 
them, as the Rakshas-killer, the repeller of the Ra- 
kshas ; and if they try to attack him from behind, 
Agni repels them, as the Rakshas-killer, the repeller 
of the Rakshas : being thus guarded on every side 
by Agnis, he gains the world of heaven. 

16. And if any one were to imprecate evil on him 



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I KAjVDA, 6 ADHYAYA, I BRAHMAJVA, 20. 1 59 

previously to (or, in the fore-part of) the (chief) sacri- 
fice, let him be thus spoken to, ' Thou shalt suffer 
some disease of the face ! thou shalt become either 
blind or deaf!' for these, in truth, are diseases of 
the face : and thus it would indeed fare with him. 

17. If any one were to imprecate evil on him 
in the middle of the sacrifice, let him be thus spoken 
to, 'Thou shalt be without offspring, without cattle! ' 
for offspring and cattle, indeed, constitute the centre 
(i.e. the substantial possession of man): and thus it 
would indeed fare with him. 

18. If any one were to imprecate evil on him 
after the completion of the (chief) sacrifice, let him 
be thus spoken to, ' Unstable and poor, thou shalt 
swiftly go to yonder world!' for thus it would 
indeed fare with him. One should not therefore 
utter imprecations : for whosoever thus understands 
this has the advantage. 

19. He who gains by means of the fore-offerings, 
assuredly, gains the year \ But he alone gains it 
who knows its doors ; for what were he to do with 
a house who cannot find his way inside ? Even as 
those (fore-offerings) are (the doors) of this (sacrifice), 
so is the spring a door, and so is the winter a door, 
of that (year). This same year he enters, as the world 
of heaven ; for, assuredly, the year is all, and the All 
(universe) is imperishable : his thereby becomes 
imperishable merit, the imperishable world. 

The Two Butter-portions (Acyabhaga) to Agni and Soma. 

20. Here now some say, ' To what deity belong 
the butter-portions?' Let him reply, 'To Pra^apati;' 

1 See I, 5, 3, 3. 



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l60 DATAPATH A-BRAHMAJVA. 

for, assuredly, Pra^&pati is undefined * (mysterious) ; 
and undefined are the butter-portions, because 
they have the sacrificer for their deity ; for the 
sacrificer is Pra/apati at his own sacrifice, since 
it is by his order that the priests spread and 
produce it. 

21. Having basted the havis with butter and 
made two cuttings from it, he pours some of the 
butter thereon : thus the oblation is offered combined 
with butter, and thereby indeed it is offered combined 
with the sacrificer ; and for one who knows this, — 
whether he has a sacrifice performed for him while 
he is far away, or while he is near, — the sacrifice 
is performed in the same way as it would be per- 
formed if he were near ; and he who knows this, 
even though he do much evil, is not shut out from 
the sacrifice. 

Second BrAhmajva. 

i. Verily, by means of the sacrifice the gods made 
that conquest (of the world of heaven). When they 
had conquered, they said, ' How may this (celestial 
region) be made unattainable by men ?' They then 
sipped the sap of the sacrifice, as bees would suck out 
honey; and having drained the sacrifice and effaced 
the traces of it with the (sacrificial) post 2 , they 

1 Because he (? as lord of creatures) represents all the deities, 
and one cannot say ' he is such or such a one,' S£ya»a. Cf. also 

1,1,1,12. 

* Yupena yop&yitvS, literally ' having made it level by means 
of the yupa,'=ytipena&Madya, 'having covered it over with the 
yupa,' Saya«a (cf. also on Rig-veda I, 104, 4). For other ver- 
sions of the same myth, cf. Ait Br. II, 1 ['they debarred them 
(ayopayan, viz. the men and i?/shis from the sacrificial know- 
ledge) by means of the yupa,' Haug]; Taitt. S. VI, 3, 4, 7; 



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I KANDA, 6 ADHYAYA, 2 BRAHMAJVA, 4. l6l 

concealed themselves : and because they effaced 
(ay op ay an, viz. the sacrifice) with it, therefore it is 
called yupa (sacrificial post). Now this was heard 
by the Z&'shis : 

2. 'Verily, by means of the sacrifice the gods 
gained this conquest. When they had conquered, 
they said, " How may this (celestial region) be 
made unattainable by men ?" They then sipped 
the sap of the sacrifice, as bees would suck out 
honey ; and having drained the sacrifice and effaced 
the traces of it with the (sacrificial) post, they con- 
cealed themselves.' They (the Tfo'shis) thereupon 
set about searching for it. 

3. They went on praising and toiling; for by 
(religious) toil, the gods indeed gained what they 
wished to gain, and (so did) the .flzshis. Now 
whether it be that the gods caused it (the sacrifice) 
to attract (or, peep forth to) them, or whether they 
took to it of their own accord, they said, ' Come, 
let us go to the place whence the gods obtained 
possession of the world of heaven ! ' They went about 
saying (to one another), ' What attracts ? What at- 
tracts 1 ?' and came upon the sacrificial cake which had 
become a tortoise and was creeping about. Then 
they all thought, 'This surely must be the sacrifice ! ' 

4. They said, ' Stand still for the Ayvins ! stand 
still for Sarasvatl! stand still for Indral' still it 

5, 3, 1. The legend is intended to supply, by means of a fanciful 
etymology, a symbolical meaning for the yupa or sacrificial post 
to which the victim is tied. 

1 Kim praro^a te= 'what thinkest thou?' Sayawa. The primary 
meaning of pra-ru£ is 'to shine forth.' Here it has apparently 
to be taken in the double sense of ' to peep forth, to appear,' and 
'to please.' The German ' einleuchten ' (St. Petersburg Dictionary) 
approaches more nearly to the original. 
[12] M 



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1 6 2 DATAPATH A-BRAHMAtf A. 

crept on ; — ' Stand still for Agni !' at this it stopped. 
Having then enveloped it in fire (Agni), knowing, 
as they did, that it had stopped for Agni, they offered 
it up entirely, for it was an oblation to the gods. 
Then the sacrifice pleased them 1 ; they produced 
it, they spread it. And this same sacrifice is taught 
by the former to the later; the father (teaches it) 
to his son when he is a student (b rah ma /6a r in). 

5. Now that (cake), which caused the sacrifice to 
attract (or, appear to) them, first (pur as) bestowed 
(das) it upon them: hence it is (called) purodi^a, 
for purodfaja, doubtless, is the same as puroda-ya*. 
This same cake on eight potsherds for Agni is in- 
dispensable on both occasions (at the new and full- 
moon ceremonies). 

6. That (cake for Agni) does not constitute the 
(special) sacrificial food (ha vis) either at the full- 
moon, or at the new-moon, sacrifice ; since the one 
for Agni and Soma constitutes the ha vis at the 
full-moon, and the Sannayya 3 at the new-moon 
sacrifice. That one (for Agni) constitutes rather the 
regular (or, corresponding) sacrifice on both occa- 
sions, and because of its fearing lest it should become 
detached from the sacrifice, it is offered up at the 
beginning of both the full-moon and the new-moon 
sacrifice : this is the reason why it is offered at this 
particular time. 

1 Or 'appeared to them, shone forth to them,'praro£ata; see 
preceding note. 

* In the compound puro</asa or piiTod&s the original dental 
d has been changed to the lingual d, apparently through the 
influence of the preceding r. 

* See I, 6, 4, 9. One would expect the Sannayya (to Indra) or 
the cake to Indra-Agni. The full-moon offering is sacred to Agni- 
Soraa ; and the new-moon offering to Indra-Agni; see 1, 8, 3, 1 seq. 



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i kAjvda, 6 adhvAya, 2 brAhma^a, 12. 163 

7. And if any one (householder) were to resort 
to him (the Adhvaryu) and say, 'Perform an ish/i for 
me!' let him perform it. Whatever desire the ifo'shis 
entertained when they performed that sacrifice, that 
desire of theirs was accomplished ; and accordingly 
whatever desire he (the sacrificer) entertains in 
having this sacrifice performed, that desire of his is 
accomplished. For whatever deity sacrificial food 
is taken, to that deity they offer it up in the fire 
(Agni) ; — and if he is about to offer it up in the 
fire, why should he announce it to another deity ? 
To Agni alone therefore (it is announced). 

8. Agni (the fire), assuredly, represents all the 
deities, since it is in the fire that they make offering 
to all deities : to Agni alone therefore (he should 
announce it), since he thereby has recourse to all the 
deities. 

9. Agni, assuredly, is the safest 1 among the gods : 
let him then have recourse to him whom he con- 
siders the safest among the gods, and therefore 
(announce the sacrifice) to Agni. 

10. Agni, assuredly, is the most tender-hearted 
of gods : let him then have recourse to him whom 
he considers the most tender-hearted of gods, and 
therefore (announce the sacrifice) to Agni. 

1 1. Agni, assuredly, is the nearest of the gods : let 
him then have recourse to him whom he considers 
as the nearest of those to be approached, and there- 
fore (let him announce the sacrifice) to Agni. 

12. If (beside the full-moon sacrifice) he perform 
an ish/i (with a view to the accomplishment of some 

1 Addhatam&m, adv., literally ' most surely ;' according to Saya»a 
=atirayena pratyakshaphaladam, ' pre-eminently a giver of percep- 
tible benefits.' 

M 2 

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164 satapatha-brAhmajva. 

special desire) 1 , let him recite seventeen kindling 
verses; (and in that case) he utters the offering- 
prayer (y&fya) in a low voice, for this is the cha- 
racteristic form of an ish/i; the y&£"y& and the 
anuvakya should contain the word 'head 2 ;' the two 
butter- portions should be offered to theWztra-slayer 
(Indra); and the two sawya^yas 3 should be in the 
vir&f metre. 

Third BrAhmaata. 

1. Tvash/r? had a three-headed, six-eyed son. 
He had three mouths; and because he was thus 
shaped, his name was Vijvarupa (' All-shape'). 

2. One of his mouths was Soma-drinking, one 
spirit-drinking, and one for other kinds of food. 
Indra hated him and cut off those heads of his. 

3. Now from the one which was Soma-drinking, 
a hazel-cock (francoline partridge) sprang forth ; 
whence the latter is of brownish colour, for king 
Soma is brown. 

4. From the one which was spirit-drinking, further, 
a sparrow sprang; whence the latter talks as if 
stammering, for he who has drunk spirits, talks as if 
he stammered. 

5. Then from the one which served for other 
kinds of food, a partridge sprang; whence the latter 

1 See I, 3, 5, 10. 

* For these verses, the first of which begins ' Agni is the head of 
the sky,' see V&g. S. XIII, 14 and 15. 

8 That is, the y&gyi (offering-prayer) and puro'nuvaky& 
(invitatory prayer) at the Svish/akr/t, or oblation to Agni, as 
the maker of good offering, at the end of the chief oblations. The 
two virS^ formulas are Rig-veda VII, 1, 3 (V&g. XVII, 76 ; Taitt 
S. IV, 6, 5, 4) preddho agne dtdihi, and Rig-veda VII, 1, 18 
(Taitt. S. IV, 3, 13, 6) imo agne. Cf. Ait Br. I, 5. 



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i kAjvda, 6 adhyAya, 3 brAhmajva, 8. 165 

is much variegated in colour : on its wings, namely, 
butter-drops, as it were, have dropped in one place 
and honey- (or mead-) drops in another, for such- 
like, as it were, was the food which he consumed 
with that (mouth). 

6. Tvash/rz was furious : ' Has he indeed slain my 
son ?' he exclaimed. He brought Soma-juice from 
which Indra was excluded; and just as the Soma- 
juice on being produced had Indra excluded from it 
(apendra), so it remained (when it was offered up). 

7. Indra thought with himself, 'They are now 
excluding me from Soma ! ' and though uninvited, he 
consumed what pure (Soma) there was in the tub, 
even as the stronger (consumes) that of a weaker. 
That (Soma), however, injured him ; it flowed in 
all directions from (the openings of) his vital airs ; 
from his mouth alone it did not flow, but from all 
the other (openings of the) vital airs it flowed ; 
hence (was instituted) at that time the ish/i, called 
Sautrama«l: on the occasion of that (ceremony) 
it is explained how the gods healed him 1 . 

8. Tvash/W was furious, and exclaimed, ' Has he 
indeed consumed my Soma uninvited ?' However, 
he himself desecrated the sacrifice, for what pure 
(Soma) there was left in the tub he let flow (into 
the fire), saying, 'Grow thou, having Indra for 
thy foe 1 !' The moment it reached the fire, it 

, > See V, 5, 4, 2 seq., where the whole legend is repeated ; and 
Taitt. S. II, 4, 12, 1. One of the objects of the Sautramant is the \ 
expiation of an immoderate consumption of Soma by a priest. 

2 According to Taitt. S. II, 4, 1a, 1, also the fault committed by 
Tvash/ri consisted in his faulty accentuation of the compound 
indraxatru in the formula. What he intended to say was that 
Agni, on drinking the Soma, should grow strong so as to be 'the 
foe (slayer) of Indra/ and the compound should therefore have 
been accented on the second member, viz. indrajatru (the foe of 



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1 66 SATAPATHA-BRAHMAiVA. 

developed (into human shape), or, as some, say, it 
so developed whilst on its way (to the fire). It be- 
came possessed of 1 Agni and Soma, of all sciences, 
all glory, all nourishment, all prosperity. 
I 9. And since it so developed whilst rolling onwards 
j {yrix), it became VWtra; and since he sprang forth 
i footless, therefore he was a serpent. Danu and 
Danayu received him like mother and father 2 , 
whence they call him Danava. 

10. And because he (Tvash/W) said, 'Grow thou, 
having Indra for thy foe !' therefore Indra slew him 
(VWtra). Had he said, ' Grow thou, the foe (slayer) 
of Indra !' he (Vmra) would certainly have forthwith 
slain Indra. 

11. And because he (Tvash/rz) said, 'Grow thou!' 
therefore he (VWtra) grew an arrow's range sideways 
and an arrow's range forward : he forced back both 
the western ocean and the eastern one ; and in pro- 
portion as he extended did he devour the food. 

12. In the fore-noon the gods offered him food, at 
mid-day the men, and in the after-noon the Fathers. 

13. Now while Indra was thus moving on (in 
pursuit of Vmra), he addressed Agni and Soma, 
' Ye belong to me and I belong to you ! That one 
is nothing to you : why then do ye support that 
Dasyu against me ? Come over to me !' 



Indra); but by accenting it on the first member, Indra^atru, he 
made it 'having Indra for his foe (slayer).' According to the 
version of the Taitt. S., Agni, the fire, on the Soma being poured 
into it, rose up (spirted) as if to execute Tvash/r»'s wish; but 
immediately relapsed into its former state of inertness on hearing 
the mis-pronounced word. 

1 Abhisambabhfiva, 'he grew by consuming,' &c. SSya«a. 

* The Kawa text has, 'Danu and Danavt received him as 
mother and. father.' 



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I KAJVDA, 6 ADHYAYA, 3 BRAHMAiVA, I "J. 1 67 

14. They replied, 'What is to be our reward in 
that case ?' He offered them that Agni-Soma cake 
on eleven potsherds : this is the reason why there 
is a cake on eleven potsherds for Agni and Soma. 

15. They went over to him, and after them went 
forth * all the gods, all the sciences, all glory, all 
nourishment, all prosperity: thus by offering that 
(cake to Agni and Soma) Indra became what Indra 
now is. Such then is the significance of the full- 
moon offering ; and he who, knowing this, performs 
the full-moon offering in this wise, attains to the 
same state of prosperity, becomes thus endowed with 
glory, becomes such a consumer of food (as VWtra). 

16. Now Vn'tra, on being struck, lay contracted 
like a leather bottle drained of its contents, like a 
skin bag with the barley-meal shaken out. Indra 
rushed at him, meaning to slay him. 

17. He said, 'Do not hurl (thy thunderbolt) at 
me ! thou art now what I (was before). Only cut 
me in twain; but do not let me be annihilated!' 
He (Indra) said, 'Thou shalt be my food!' He 
replied, ' So be it ! ' He accordingly cut him in twain; 
and from that (part) of his which was of the Soma 
nature 2 , he made the moon, and that which was 
demoniacal (asurya) he made enter these creatures 
as their belly; hence people say 3 : 'Vn'tra was 
then a consumer of food, and VWtra is so now.' 
For even now, whenever that one (the moon) waxes 
fuller, it fills itself out of this world 4 ; and when- 

1 Preyuh, 'the gods &c. that were in VWtra's mouth went out,' 
SSyawa; see preceding page, note 1. 

" 'Yat saumyam nyaktam asa' ['yat saumyo nyanga isa,' 
Kawva rec], 'what was imbued with Soma,' 'what had Soma 
inherent in it.' Cf. 'yat somasya nyaktam asa,' I, 7, 1, 1. 

* ' People say so when anybody eats much food.' Slyawa. 

* See I, 6, 4, 15. 



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1 68 SATAPATHA-BRAHMAtfA. 

ever these creatures crave for food, they pay tribute 
to this VWtra, the belly. Whosoever knows that 
Vntra as a consumer of food, becomes himself a 
consumer of food. 

1 8. Those deities then said, 'Ye, Agni and Soma, 
whom we have followed hither, take the best part 
(of the sacrificial food) : do let us share along with 
you in what ye have !' 

19. They both said, 'What (share) shall then be 
ours ?' They replied, ' For whatever deity they 
shall take out sacrificial food, they shall in the 
first place offer to you some clarified butter!' 
Whenever, therefore, they take out sacrificial food 
for any deity, they in the first place offer two butter- 
portions to Agni and Soma. This does not take 
place at the Soma-sacrifice, nor at the animal offering; 
for they said, 'for whatever deity they take out . . .V 

20. Agni then said, ' In me they shall sacrifice 
for all of you, and thus I give you a share in me !' 
For this reason they sacrifice in Agni (the fire) to 
all the gods ; and for this reason they say that Agni 
is all the deities. 

21. Soma then said, 'Me they shall offer up to 
all of you, and thus I give you a share in me ! ' For 
this reason they offer up Soma to all the gods ; and 
hence they say that Soma is all the deities. 

22. And further, since all the gods were abiding 
in Indra, for that reason they say that Indra is 
all the deities, that the gods have Indra for their 
chief (.yresh/^a). Thus the gods came in a three- 

1 The nirvapanam, or taking out (literally throwing out) of 
(handfuls of) ha vis from the receptacle and putting it into the 
winnowing basket (or other vessels), does not apply to these two 
kinds of sacrifices. Cf. 1, 1, a, 5 seq. 



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i kAjvda, 6 adhyAya, 3 brAhmaya, 26. 169 

fold way to consist of one deity; and he who 
knows this becomes individually the chief of his 
own (people). 

23. Twofold,, verily, is this, there is no third: to 
wit, the moist and the dry; and what is dry, that 
relates to Agni ; and what is moist, that relates to 
Soma. But (it may be objected) if this is twofold 
only, why then this manifold performance : — the two 
butter-portions for Agni and Soma, the low-voiced 
offering to Agni and Soma, and the rice-cake for 
Agni and Soma, — when by means of any one of 
these he obtains all, why then this manifold per- 
formance ? [The answer to this objection is that] 
so manifold is the power, the generative force of 
Agni and Soma. ' 

24. The sun, indeed, relates to Agni, and the 
moon to Soma ; the day relates to Agni, and the 
night to Soma; the waxing half-moon relates to Agni, 
and the waning one to Soma. 

25. 'By means of the two butter-portions he 
obtains the sun and the moon ; by means of the low- 
voiced offering he obtains the day and the night; 
and by means of the rice-cake he obtains the two 
half-moons,' thus say some. 

26. Asuri, on the other hand, said: 'By means 
of the two butter-portions he gains any two (of those 
objects ') ; by means of the low-voiced offering he 
obtains any (other) two ; and by means of the rice- 
cake he obtains any (other) two : " all has been 
obtained, all has been conquered by me ! with that 
All I will slay Vmra ! with the All I will slay the 

1 ' Yatame vS yatame vS dve Spnoti.' Sayawa supplies vastunl, 
'objects.' The KSwva recension, on the other hand, reads, 'Yatame 
va yatame va dve devate Spnoti.' 



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1 70 DATAPATH A-BRAHMAiVA. 

spiteful enemy!" thus he thinks, and for that reason 
there is this manifold performance.' 

27. On this point it has also been remarked : 
' Why this sameness (of performance) ? By what 
is introduced between the butter(-offering) to Agni 
and Soma and the rice-cake to Agni and Soma, a 
repetition of performance (is committed) 1 .' Same- 
ness (of performance), nevertheless, is avoided in 
this way : the one (viz. the low-voiced offering) con- 
sists of butter, and the other of a rice-cake, hence 
the one is different from the other. Moreover, after 
reciting a /fok-verse as anuvakya, he pronounces 
the ya^ya with the word ' pleased ' (in the case of 
the butter-portions to Agni and Soma); and after 
reciting a J&k-verse as anuvakya, he pronounces 
the ya^-ya in the form of a ^"k- verse (in the case 
of the low-voiced offering to Agni and Soma), hence 
the one is (again) different from the other 2 . Same- 
ness of performance is also avoided in this way : in 
a low voice (he utters the formulas when) he offers 
of the butter, and with a loud voice of the cake ; 
and what is (uttered) in a low voice, that is the 
manner of Pra^apati : hence he recites for that (low- 

1 See p. 80, note 2. The objection here raised is, that the low- 
voiced offering, which is intermediate between the two above-men- 
tioned oblations to Agni-Soma, is made to the same two deities. 

* When the two butter-portions to Agni and Soma are offered 
the Hotrj' recites the verses Rig-veda VI, 16, 34 (V&g. S. 33, 9), 
and Rig-veda I, 95, 5 (V&g. S. 19, 42) respectively, as anu v&kyts, 
or invitatory prayers, each of which is followed by the y&gy& (offer- 
ing-formula) : ' We who pronounce the offering-prayer to Agni (or 
Soma respectively), — may Agni (Soma) pleased (gush&n&A) 
accept of the butter-oblation I Vausha/P At the low-voiced offer- 
ing (upamuya^-a) to Agni-Soma, on the other hand, he first 
utters (in a low voice) as anuvakya the verse Rig-veda I, 93, 2, 
and thereupon as ya^ya Rig-veda I, 93, 6. 



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I KkNDA., 6 ADHYAYA, 3 BRAHMAYA, 30. 171 

voiced offering) an anush/ubh-verse as the invita- 
tory formula (anuvakya), for the anush/ubh repre- 
sents speech, and Pra^apati also is speech. 

28. By means of that low- voiced offering the 
gods stealing near slew, with that thunderbolt, the 
vasha/-call, whichever they wished of the Asuras ; 
and so does this one, after stealing near by means 
of that low-voiced offering, slay with that thunder- 
bolt, the vasha/-call, the wicked, spiteful enemy 1 . 
This is why he performs the low- voiced offering. 

29. Having recited (at the butter-portions) a Rik- 
verse as the anuvakya, he recites the y&f ya with 
the word ' pleased :' in consequence of this, creatures 
are brought forth here with teeth on one side (in one 
jaw); for the J&k means bone and the" tooth also is 
bone, so that he thereby produces bone on one side. 

30. Having recited (at the low-voiced offering) a 
-/?*'k-verse as the anuvakya, he recites as the ya^ya 
a (second) J&k-verse : in consequence of this, creatures 
with teeth on both sides are brought forth here ; for 
the Rik means bone and the tooth also is bone, so 
that he thereby produces bone on both sides. These 
creatures, indeed, are of two kinds, viz. such as have 
teeth on one side only, and such as have teeth on 
both sides 2 ; and verily he who sacrifices, knowing 

1 The two prayers of the low-voiced offering are muttered in a 
low voice ; but the ' Vausha/I' at the end of the offering-prayer (as 
the ' Om 1' at the end of the invitatory prayer) is uttered aloud. 
Hence the above symbolical explanation. 

* The same distinction is made in Rig-veda X, 90, 10, where it 
is stated that from the Purusha sprang the horse and what other 
animals with two rows of teeth (viz. the ass and mule, according to 
Sayawa) on the one hand, and cows, goats, and sheep on the 
other. In Taitt. II, 2, 6, 3, also the horse is mentioned along with 
man as belonging to the former class of living beings. Cf. also 
Taitt. V, 1, 2, 6; Ath.-vedaV, 19, 2 ; 31, 3; Weber, Ind. Stud. X, 58. 



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172 tfATAPATHA-BRAHMAiVA. 

thus the generative power of Agni and Soma, 
becomes rich in offspring and cattle. 

31. When he (the sacrificer) is about to enter upon 
the fast of the full-moon ceremony, he may not be 
entirely sated. He therefore now compresses (that 
part of) his belly which relates to the Asuras ; and 
next morning, by means of the oblations, that which 
relates to the gods. Now the practice regarding the 
full-moon ceremony is as follows : 

32. One may (enter on the) fast at the very time 
(of full moon), thinking, 'Now I will slay VWtra, 
now I will slay the spiteful enemy ! ' 

33. One may also fast only on the following day. 
Now he who (enters on the) fast at the very time (of 
full moon), gets, as it were, into collision 1 (with some 
one); and when two come into collision with one 
another, it is indeed doubtful which of the two will 
get the better of the other. He, on the other hand, 
who prefers to fast on the second day (only), is as one 
who crushes from behind a retreating (enemy) before 
he is able to resist the attack : striking in one direc- 
tion 2 , in fact, is he who thus keeps the fast on the 
second day only. 

34. Let him therefore enter on the fast at the very 
time (of full moon). He who keeps the fast on the 
following day only is as one who finally crushes one 
struck down by some one else ; he only does what 
has been done before by some one else, he only 

1 Sam-kramate, literally 'comes together with, meets (some- 
body).' This symbolical explanation was probably suggested by the 
circumstance that the full moon marks the junction (sandhi) of 
the two pakshas or half months; whereas the new moon (ama- 
v asy a, ' dwelling together') marks the point of least distance 
between sun and moon. 

a Anyatoghatin, ?thus St. Petersburg Dictionary. 



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I KAATDA, 6 ADHYAYA, 3 BRAHMAiVA, 38. 173 

follows another's lead; let him therefore enter on 
the fast at the very time (of full moon). 

35. After Pra^apati had created the living beings, 
his joints (parvan) were relaxed. Now Prafapati, 
doubtless, is the year, and his joints are the two 
junctions of day and night (i. e. the twilights), the 
full moon and new moon, and the beginnings of 
the seasons. 

36. He was unable to rise with his relaxed joints; 
and the gods healed him by means of these havis- 
offerings : by means of the Agnihotra they healed 
that joint (which consists of) the two junctions of 
day and night, joined that together; by means of 
the full-moon and the new-moon sacrifice they 
healed that joint (which consists of) the full and 
new moon, joined that together ; and by means of 
the (three) A'aturmasyas (seasonal offerings) they 
healed that joint (which consists of) the beginnings 
of the seasons, joined that together. 

37. With his joints thus repaired he betook him- 
self to this food, — to the food which is here (offered) 
to Pra^apati ; and he who, knowing this, enters upon 
the fast at the very time (of full moon), heals Pra- 
^apati's joint at the proper time, and Pra^apati 
favours him. Thus he who, knowing this, enters 
upon the fast at the very time (of full moon) be- 
comes a consumer of food : let him therefore enter 
on the fast at the very time (of full moon). 

38. These two butter-portions (to Agni and Soma), 
truly, are the eyes of the sacrifice ; he, therefore, 
offers them in front (of, or before, the havis), for 
these eyes are in the front (of the head). Hence he 
thereby places the eyes in the front ; and for this 
reason these eyes are in the front (of the head). 



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1 74 SATAPATHA-BRAHMAtfA. 

39. Some people offer Agni's butter-portion in 
the north-eastern part (of the fire), and Soma's 
butter-portion in the south-eastern part, thinking, 
' Thereby we place the eyes in the front (of the 
head).' This, however, is rather unintelligible ; for 
the several dishes of sacrificial food (ha vis) repre- 
sent the body of the sacrifice ; when therefore he 
offers in front of (or before) the h avis, he thereby 
places the eyes in the front. Let him rather make 
the offerings (in that part of the fire) where he 
thinks the fiercest blaze is; for only by being 
offered in blazing (fire) are oblations successful 1 . 

40. Having recited (at the butter-portions) a Re- 
verse as anuvakya (invitatory formula), he recites 
by way of y&gyk (offering-prayer) the (formula con- 
taining the word) 'pleased;' thereby these boneless 
eyes are set in what is bone. If, on the other 
hand, after reciting a ^'k-verse as anuvakya, he 

1 Katy. Ill, 3, 20-22 admits either mode of offering the butter- 
portions. These oblations are effected in the following way: — The 
Adhvaryu, having called on the Hotr» to recite the anuvakya, takes 
with the dipping-spoon (sruva) butter from the dhruva and puts it 
into the gnhu ; he then draws some with the sruva from the butter- 
pot and replenishes the dhruva with it [according to the Kawvas, 
with the text ' May the dhruva fatten with the havis-butter, sacrifice 
after sacrifice, for those who go to the gods, — the udder of Surya 
in the lap of Aditi : may the earth flow abundantly at this sacrifice I']. 
The same process is then repeated three (additional) times (with a 
(Tamadagni four times): hence the offering is said to consist of four 
(or five) cuttings. The Hotri then recites the anuvakya (see note 
on I, 6, 3, 27), which is followed by the Adhvaryu's call 'om 
jravaya ' and the Agnidhra's response ' astu frausha/.' Thereupon 
the Hotrz', having been called upon by the Adhvaryu to give the 
offering-prayer to Agni (or Soma), recites the respective y&gyi, at 
the concluding vausha/ of which the oblation is poured into the 
fire, (whilst the sacrificer utters the usual dedicatory formula, ' This 
for Agni (Soma), not for me !') 



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i kAnda, 6 adhyAya, 4 brAhmaata, 2. 1 75 

were to use a ^Tc-verse as the ya^yi, he would 
make it bone instead of eye. 

41. Those two (qualities), truly, are related to the 
natures of Agni and Soma : that which is white is 
related to Agni, and that which is black is related 
to Soma. If, however (it were asserted), on the 
contrary, that what is black is related to Agni, and 
what is white is related to Soma, — [the answer would 
be: — ] what sees is of the nature of Agni, for dry, as 
it were, are the eyes of one who looks, and that 
which is dry relates to Agni ; — and what sleeps is of 
the nature of Soma, for moist, as it were, are the 
eyes of one who is asleep, and moist also is Soma. 
And, verily, he who thus knows those two butter- 
portions to be eyes, remains endowed with eye-sight 
till old age in this world, and starts in yonder world 
possessed of eye-sight. 

Fourth BrAhma^a. 

Special Preliminary Rites of the New-moon Sacrifice. 

i. When Indra had hurled the thunderbolt at 
VWtra, thinking himself to be the weaker, and 
fearing lest he had not brought him down, he con- 
cealed himself and went to the farthest distances 1 . 
Now the gods knew that VWtra had been slain and 
that Indra had concealed himself. 

2. Agni of the deities, Hira«yastupa 2 of the 
.tfzshis, and the Brihatl of the metres, set about 
searching for him. Agni discovered him and stayed 

1 PariA paravataA, literally «to the most distant distances,' 
' zu den femsten Fernen.' 

* Hiranyastupa, of the family of the Angiras, is' the reputed 
author (or seer) of the hymns Rig-veda I, 31-35; IX, 4; 69. Of 
these, I, 32 and 33, which celebrate the exploits of Indra, seem to 
have been especially prized. 



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176 SATAPATHA-BRAHMAtfA. 

with him (as a guest) that (day and) night. He 
(Indra), namely, is the Vasu 1 of the gods, for he 
is their hero. 

3. The gods said, ' Our Vasu, who has gone to 
live away from us, is this day dwelling together 
(ama vas, viz. with Agni 2 );' and as one would cook 
a dish of rice or a goat in common for two relatives 
or friends who have come to stay with him, — for 
such-like is human (fare), as the sacrificial food 
(ha vis) is that of the gods, — in like manner they 
offered to those two together that sacrificial food, 
the rice-cake on twelve potsherds for Indra and Agni. 
This is the reason why there is a rice-cake on twelve 
potsherds for Indra and Agni. 

4. Indra said, ' When I had hurled the thunder- 
bolt atVWtra, I was terrified, and (in consequence 
of this fright) I am much emaciated. This (cake) 
does not satiate me : prepare for me what will satiate 
me !' The gods replied, * So be it !' 

5. The gods said, ' Nothing but Soma will satiate 
him: let us prepare Soma for him !' They prepared 
Soma for him. Now this king Soma, the food of 
the gods, is no other than the moon 8 . When he 

1 That is, as would seem, the benefactor, or the treasure (dhana- 
rup a, Saya»a) of the gods. Indra is the chief of the Vasus. Indra 
being so beneficent and important a personage, it was, according 
to Saya»a, worth Agni's while to stay with him. Possibly also 
a play on the word Vasu, and vas, ' to dwell,' is intended here. 

a Thus Sayawa ; but it probably means, ' he is staying at a home, 
or at home (ama) to-day.' 

' The identification of the Soma (plant and juice) with the 
moon already occurs in some of the hymns of the Rig-veda, all of 
which, however, probably belong to the later ones. According to 
the St Petersburg Dictionary, the identification was probably sug- 
gested by the circumstance that indu, 'drop, spark,' applies both 
to the Soma and the moon. Rig-veda X, 85, 3 says that ' of that 
Soma which the priests know, no one ever eats.' 



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i KkNDA, 6 adhyAya, 4 brAhmava, 8. 177 

(the moon, masc.) is not seen that night either in 
the east or in the west, then he visits this world ; 
and here he enters into the waters (f.) and plants 
(f.). He is indeed a treasure for the gods, he is 
their food. And since during that night he here 
dwells together 1 (ami vas), therefore that (night 
of new moon) is called amavasya (the dwelling 
together, or at home). 

6. They prepared it 2 (Soma for Indra), after 
having it collected, part by part, by the cows : in 
eating plants (they collected it) from the plants, and 
in drinking water (they collected it) from the waters. 
Having prepared and coagulated it, and made it 
strong (pungent), they gave it to him 3 . 

7. He said, ' This does indeed satiate me, but it 
does not agree with me 4 : devise some means by 
which it may agree with me !' They made it agree 
with him by means of boiled (milk). 

8. Now although this (mixture of sweet and sour 
milk) is, indeed, one and the same substance — it 
being milk (payas) and belonging to Indra — they, 

1 Viz. with the waters and plants (or, he stays at home). 

1 It should be borne in mind that Soma is masculine in Sanskrit. 

* In Taitt S. II, 5, 3, 2 seq. the corresponding story is applied 
directly to the Sinnayya. In consequence of the struggle with 
Vr/'tra, Indra lost his energy, which fell to the earth and produced 
plants and shrubs. He thereupon complained to Pra^apati, who 
bade the cattle collect (sam-nt) it again by browsing the plants and 
shrubs. It was then milked out from them, and as the milk did not 
agree with Indra, it was boiled, and as it still did not satisfy Indra, 
it was mixed with sour milk. 

* Na mayi frayate, literally ' it does not stay in me'=na tishMati, 
na sStmyam bha^ate, Saya«a. The author here (as in I, 8, 1, 17) 
connects, or confounds, the verb sii with st&, 'to cook, make 
done,' — hence, ' it does not boil in me ; ' the milk being warm, or, 
as it were, boiled, when it comes from the cow, see II, 2, 4, 15. 
Hence also boiled milk is mixed with the Soma. 

[12] N 



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1 78 SATAPATHA-BRAHMAtfA. 

nevertheless, declare it to be (two) different (sub- 
stances). Since he said ' it satiates (dhl) me,' there- 
fore it is sour milk (dadhi); and since they made 
it agree (sri) with him with boiled milk (or, by 
boiling), therefore it is (fresh) boiled milk (srita) 1 . 

9. In the same way as the Soma stalk becomes 
strong 2 (by being touched or sprinkled with water), 
so he (Indra) became strong (by the Soma being 
mixed with boiled milk) and overcame that evil, the 
jaundice 3 . Such is likewise the significance of the 
new-moon ceremony (and the Sanniyya, or libation 
of sweet and sour milk offered to Indra thereat); 
and verily he who, knowing this, mixes (sweet and 
sour milk at the new-moon sacrifice) in like manner 
increases in offspring and cattle, and overcomes 
evil : let him therefore mix together (sweet and 
sour milk) 4 . 

1 The author here endeavours to establish some connection 
between the Sinnayya (or offering of sweet and sour milk to 
Indra, which may take the place of the second sacrificial cake 
offered, at the new-moon sacrifice, to Indra and Agni) and the 
Soma libations. Saya»a refers to the passage Taitt. Br. I, 4, 7, 
6-7, where it is stated that for the morning libation the Soma is to 
be mixed with boiled milk, for the mid-day libation with sour milk, 
and for the third (or evening) libation with sour milk that is partly 
changed into butter (nftamixra). 

* Apyayeta. On the strengthening or increasing(apyayanam) 
of the Soma-plant by sprinkling it with water before the juice is 
extracted, see HI, 4, 3, 12 seq. Sayawa seems to take the passage 
thus: 'In the same way as the Soma would make strong (?or 
become strong), so also the sannayyam destroys that evil, the 
jaundice, in those who drink it.' 

* By the admixture of milk the Soma-juice loses its brownish 
colour, and is therefore apparently considered to produce the same 
effect in those who drink the mixture. 

4 The preparation of the sinnayya, as it is now practised by 
priests in Western India, is thus described by Haug (Ait. Br. II, p. 



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I KkNDA, 6 ADHYAYA, 4 BRAHMAJVA, II. 1 79 

10. In reference to this point they say, ' One 
who has not performed the Soma-sacrifice 1 , must 
not offer the Sannayya; for, indeed, the Sannayya 
is (of the same significance as) a Soma libation, and 
the latter is not permitted to one who is not a Soma- 
sacrificer: hence he who has not performed the 
Soma-sacrifice, must not offer the Sannayya.' 

n. He may nevertheless offer the Sannayya; 
for have we not heard within this place 2 that he 
(Indra) said, ' Do ye now offer Soma to me, and then 
ye will prepare for me that invigorating draught 
(apyayana, viz. the Sannayya)!' 'This does not 
satiate me, prepare for me what will satiate me!' 
That invigorating draught they indeed prepared for 

443) : ' The Adhvaryu takes the milk from three cows called Ganga, 
Yamuna, and Sarasvatf, on the morning and evening, and gives 
it to the Agntdhra. Half the milk is first drawn from the udder of 
each of the three cows under the recital of mantras ; then the same 
is done silently. The milk is taken from these cows on the evening 
of the new-moon day, and on the morning of the following day, 
the so-called Pratipad (the first day of the month). The milk 
drawn on the evening is made hot, and lime-juice poured over it to 
make it sour ; whereupon it is hung up. The fresh milk of the 
following morning is then mixed with it, and both are sacrificed 
along with the Puro</lra. Only he who has already performed the 
Agnish/oma is allowed to sacrifice the Sannayya at theDawapurmma 
ish/i. (Oral information.)' In V&g. S. I, 4 (Sat. Br. I, 7, 1, 17 ; 
Katy. IV, 2, 25, 26) the names of the three cows are given as 
Vuvayu, Vifvakarman, and Vijvadhayus, unless these are 
intended merely for epithets or mystic names. Cf. p. 188 note; 
Weber, Ind. Stud. IX, 232. Instead of the lime-juice, mentioned 
by Haug as used for rennet, Kity. IV, 2, 33 prescribes that the 
milk remaining from the Agnihotra of the preceding evening, and 
since become sour, should be used. 

1 Thus Taitt. S. II, 5, 5, 1. 

* Atrantare«a ; atra vishaye antarewa madhye, S£ya»a ; ? within 
this our range of hearing ; or, in the course of the present ceremony. 

N 2 



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l80 DATAPATH A-BrAhMAYA. 

him, and therefore even one who has not performed 
the Soma-sacrifice, may offer the Sannayya. 

12. The full-moon oblation, assuredly, belongs to 
the VWtra-slayer, for by means of it Indra slew 
VWtra ; and this new-moon oblation also represents 
the slaying of Witra, since they prepared that invi- 
gorating draught for him who had slain Vrz'tra. 

13. An offering in honour of the Vmra-slayer, 
then, is the full-moon sacrifice. VWtra, assuredly, 
is no other than the moon 1 ; and when during that 
night (of new moon) he is not seen either in the 
east or in the west, then he (Indra) completely 
destroys him by means of that (new-moon sacrifice), 
and leaves nothing remaining of him. And, verily, 
he who knows this, overcomes all evil and leaves 
nothing remaining of evil. 

14. Here now some people enter upon the fast 
when they (still) see (the moon, on the fourteenth 
day of the half-month), thinking, ' To-morrow he 
will not rise : already, then, there is unfailing food 
for the gods in yonder heaven 2 , and to this we will 
offer them more from hence (to-morrow)!' — He, 
indeed, is in a prosperous state with whom, while 
the old food is still unfailing, fresh food is accruing; 
for such a one has indeed abundant food. How- 
ever, he is not now offering Soma, but he is offering 
milk (i.e. the Sannayya), and that (milk) becomes 
king Soma 3 (in yonder world) : 

1 See I, 6, 3, 17. 

* Viz. in the form of Soma, i. e. the moon, still shining in the 
heavens during the night preceding the new moon. 

* Who, as we saw, resides in the plants and waters at the time of 
new moon and consequently in the milk used for the S&nnayya. 
If, however, one were to enter upon the fast (and hence on the 



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I KAJfDA, 6 ADHYAYA, 4 BRAHMAJVA, 1 8. l8l 

15. But as they (the cows), previously (to the 
new moon), eat mere plants (not imbued with the 
moon or Soma), and drink mere water, and yield 
mere milk, — so that (milk which they offer on the 
day before new moon, is not imbued with Soma, is 
ordinary milk). For king Soma, the food of the 
gods, indeed, is no other than the moon. When he 
is not seen that night either in the east or in the 
west, then he visits this world, and here enters into 
the waters and plants. Having then collected him 
from the water and plants, he (the performer of the 
San nay y a) causes him to be reproduced from out 
of the libations ; and he (Soma, the moon), being 
reproduced from the libations, becomes visible in the 
western sky. 

16. Now it is only when that food of the gods 
is unfailing that it comes back (to men) : for him, 
therefore, who knows this, there is unfailing food in 
this, and imperishable righteousness in yonder, world. 

17. Thus during that night (of new moon) food 
moves away from the gods and comes to this world. 
Now the gods were desirous as to how that (food) 
might (be made to) come back to them ; how it 
might not perish away from them. For this they 
put their trust in those who prepare the libation 
of sweet and sour milk (sinnayya), thinking, 
' when they have prepared it, they will offer it to us.' 
And, verily, in him, who knows this, both his own kin 
and strangers put their trust; for in him, who attains 
to the highest rank, people indeed put their trust. 

18. Now the one that burns there (viz. the sun) 

sacrifice) previously to the new moon, he would be offering mere 
milk, not imbued with, and not liable to change into, Soma, and 
therefore unfit for the gods. 



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1 8 2 DATAPATH A-BRAhMAVA. 

is, assuredly, no other than Indra, and that moon is 
no other than VWtra. But the former is of a nature 
hostile to the latter, and for this reason, though this 
one (the moon, VWtra) had previously (to the night 
of new moon) risen at a great distance from him 
(the sun, Indra), he now swims towards him and 
enters into his open mouth. 

19. Having swallowed him, he (the sun) rises; 
and that (other) one is not seen either in the east 
or in the west. And, verily, he who knows this, 
swallows his spiteful enemy, and of him they say, 
' He alone exists, his enemies exist not 1 .' 

20. Having sucked him empty, he throws him 
out ; and the latter, thus sucked out, is seen in the 
western sky, and again increases ; he again increases 
to serve that (sun) as food : and verily if the spiteful 
enemy of one who knows this, thrives either by 
trade or in any other way, he thrives again and 
again in order to serve him as food. 

21. Now some people offer (the Sannayya) to 
(Indra under the name of) ' Mahendra' (the great 
Indra), arguing, ' Before the slaying of VWtra he 
was Indra, it is true; but after slaying Vrstra he 
became Mahendra, even as (a ri^an, or king, 
becomes) a Maharaja after obtaining the vic- 
tory : hence (the Sannayya should be offered) to 
Mahendra.' Let him, nevertheless, offer it to 
'Indra;' for Indra he was before the slaying of 
Vrz'tra, and Indra he is after slaying Vrz'tra : there- 
fore let him offer it to 'Indra 2 .' 

1 With this explanation of the disappearance of the moon may 
be compared the later notion of the sun and moon being swal- 
lowed by the demon Rihu, at the time of the eclipses. 

* Katy. IV, 2, 10 leaves it optional whether the libation of mixed 



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i kXnda, 7 adhyAya, i brAhmaata, i. 183 



Seventh AdhyAya. First BrAhmawa. 

i. He (the Adhvaryu) drives the calves away 
(from the cows) with a par«a branch 1 . The reason 
why he drives the calves away with a par«a branch 
is this. When the Giyatrt flew towards Soma 
(the moon), a footless archer aiming at her while 
she was carrying him off, severed one of the 
feathers (par»a) either of the Gayatrl or of king 
Soma 2 ; and on falling down it became a par»a 
(palixa) tree; whence its name parwa. ' May that 

sweet and sour milk is to be offered to Indra or to Mahendra. 
According to IV, 5, 25, however, such option seems to be per- 
mitted only so far as the first performance is concerned, after 
which one is apparently bound to go on offering during the rest of 
one's life to whichever deity one has chosen at the beginning. 
Taitt. S. II, 5, 4, 4, lays it down as the rule that only a gataf rt 
(one who has reached the highest grade of prosperity), viz. a 
brahraawa versed in the three Vedas (.mjruvan=vedatraya- 
bhigiiz, Saya»a), the head of a village (grama«i), and a ra^anya, 
can make offering to Mahendra, since he is their special deity. 
Others, however, may do the same, after offering the san nay yam 
to Indra for a whole year, and on the expiration of it a rice-cake on 
eight potsherds to Agni, as the Keeper of Vows. 

1 Par»a=pala*a, Butea Frondosa. 

* Gayatryai va somasya va='both of G. and of S.,' Sayawa. 
A pad as ta, ' a footless shooter,' is a doubtful reading and perhaps 
an old corruption; Sayana reads ap&dhasti (Padhastat); cf. 
Weber, various readings, p. 133. The Ka«va MS. reads, 'deve- 
bhyas tasya aharantya avadastabhyayatya parnam pra&Meda.' Ac- 
cording to Rig-veda IV, 27, 3, it was the archer Kr/ianu, who hit 
the falcon when it was carrying off the Soma from heaven, and 
brought down one of its feathers. On the whole myth, see 
A. Kuhn, Herabkunft des Feuers und des Gottertranks, p. 137 seq. 
Cf. Taitt. S. Ill, 5, 7, 1; Taitt. Br. 1, 1, 3, io, 'Soma was in the 
third heaven from here ; Gayatrt fetched him away ; one of his 
feathers was cut off, it became a parna (pallia) tree.' Similarly 
Taitt Br. I, 2, 1, 6; see also Sat, Br. I, 8, 2, 10. 



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184 .statapatha-brAhmawa. 

which then was of the Soma nature 1 be here with 
us now !' so he thinks, and for this reason he drives 
away the calves with a parwa branch. 

2. That (branch) he cuts off 2 , with the formula 
(Va^-. S. I, 1 a, b), ' For sap (I cut) thee ! for pith 
thee!' — 'for rain thee' he means to say, when he 
says 'for sap thee;' and when he says 'for pith 
thee ' he means to say ' for that food-essence which 
springs from the rain.' 

3. They then let the calves join their mothers. 
He thereupon touches (each) calf (in order to drive 
it away from the cow), with the formula (Va^. S. I, 
1 c), 'The winds are ye!' — for, indeed, it is this 
wind that here blows s , it is this (wind) that makes 
swell all the rain that falls here ; it is it that 
makes those (cows) swell ; and for this reason he 
says ' the winds are ye!' Some people add here the 
formula 4 , 'Going near are ye!' but let him not say 
this, because thereby another (an enemy) approaches 
(the sacrificer). 

4. After separating one of the mothers from her 
calf, he touches her, with the text (V&f. S. I, 1 d), 
' May the divine Savitn animate you — ' for Savitrz, 
indeed, is the impeller (prasav'itri) of the gods : 

1 'Somasya nyaktam,' see p. 167, note 2. 

2 This act as well as that of letting the calves join the cows, of 
course, precedes the driving away of the calves. These proceedings 
take place on the day before the new moon, after the agnyanvadhina. 
According to KSty., the sacrificer enters on the vow of abstinence, 
after the branch has been cut. Previously to these rites, however, 
the so-called Piw^a-pitn'ya^Ma, or oblation of obsequial piwaas 
(balls, dumplings) to the deceased ancestors, has to be performed ; 
for which see II, 4, 2, 1 seq. 

8 Pavate, ' blows, purifies.' 
« Thus Taitt S. I, 1, 1, 1. 



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I KXNDA, 7 ADHYAYA, I BRAhMANA, 9. 1 85 

'may they, impelled by Savitr?*, prepare the sacrifice!' 
so he thinks, and for this reason he says, ' May the 
divine Savitr* animate you !' 

5. ' — To the most glorious work !' for assuredly 
the sacrifice is the most glorious work : hence, when 
he says ' to the most glorious work !' he means to 
say ' to the sacrifice.' 

6. ' Make swell, ye invincible (or inviolable) ones, 
the share for Indra!' In like manner as then 1 , in 
taking the sacrificial food (rice), he announces it to 
the deity, so now also he announces that (libation 
of milk) to the deity when he says ' make swell, ye 
invincible ones, the share for Indra !' 

7. ' Over you that are rich in offspring, over you 
that are free from suffering and disease — ;' in this 
there is nothing that is obscure ; ' — no thief, no ill- 
wisher may lord it!' — he thereby means to say, 'may 
the evil spirits, the Rakshas, not lord it over you ! ' — 
' May ye be numerous and constant to this lord of 
cattle !' — thereby he means to say ' may ye be nume- 
rous with this sacrificer, and not abandon him.' 

8. He then hides the branch on the front (eastern) 
side either of the Ahavaniya or the Garhapatya house, 
with the formula (Vif. S. I, i e), ' Protect the sacri- 
ficer's cattle!' he thus makes over the sacrificer's 
cattle to it for protection by means of the Brahman 
(sacred writ). 

9. On it he fastens a strainer (pavitram) 2 , with 

*■ Viz. on the occasion of his taking from the cart the rice for the 
oblations, see 1, 1, 2, 17-19. 

1 See p. 19, note 1. According to Karka this takes place 
before the hiding of the branch, Scholl. on Katy. IV, 2, 1 5. Accord- 
ing to Katy. IV, 2, 12, 13, the upavesha (see I, 2, 1, 3) is cut at 
this juncture — with the text, 'Accomplishing (vesha) art thou' — 
from the bottom part of the pallra branch on the remaining part 



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1 86 satapatha-brahmajva. 

the formula (Vdf. S. I, 2 a), 'Vasu's means of 
purification (ventilator, strainer, pavitram) art 
thou !' Vasu, indeed, is the sacrifice : for this reason 
he says, ' Vasu's means of purification art thou !' 

10. That night he performs the Agnihotra with 
rice-gruel (yavagu). That milk, namely, (which he 
milks that night) has already been announced as 
sacrificial food to a (special) deity ; hence, if he were 
to make the offering with milk, he would offer to 
one deity that which has been set apart as sacrificial 
food for another deity : this is the reason why on 
that night he performs the Agnihotra with rice-gruel. 
As soon as they have performed the Agnihotra, the 
pot is made ready. He (the Adhvaryu) thereupon 
says, 'Announce that she (the cow) has been let 
loose to (the calf) !' When he (or she, the milker 1 ) 
announces, ' She has been let loose !' — 

11. He puts the pot on (the Garhapatya hearth), 
with the text (Va^. S. I, 2 b, c): 'Thou art the 
sky! thou art the earth!' — he praises and eulogises 
her by thus saying, 'thou art the sky! thou art 
the earth!' — ' MitarLrvan's cauldron (gharma) art 
thou 2 !' he thereby makes it (a means of) sacrifice, 
and puts it on just as if he were putting on the 

of which he thereupon fixes the strainer. When the sannayya 
oblation is not made (and consequently no palira branch is used), 
the upavesha is made of varawa wood. 

1 The milker may be anybody except a 5udra, Taitt. Br. Ill, 
2, 3, 9 ; Katy. IV, 2, 22 ; Apast. 1, 12, 15. 

s Matarwvan's cauldron is identified in Taitt. Br. Ill, 2, 3, 2 with 
the atmosphere. Matarifvan, though sometimes identified with the 
wind, is more generally either a name of Agni, or the name of 
a mythic personage who (Prometheus-like) is supposed to have 
fetched the fire from heaven and brought it to the Bhr/'gus, who 
communicated it to man. See Roth, Nir. p. 1 1 1 ; Kuhn, Herab- 
kunft des Feuers und des Gottertranks, p. 5 seq. 



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i kXnda, 7 adhyAya, i brAhmajva, 14. 187 

(pravargya-) cauldron (gharma) 1 . — ' All -holding 
art thou ! stand firm by the highest law ! do not 
waver!' — thereby he steadies it, renders it firm. — 
'May thy Lord of Sacrifice not waver!' — the Lord 
of Sacrifice, doubtless, is the sacrificer, hence it is for 
the sacrificer that he thereby prays for steadiness. 

12. He then puts the strainer (on the pot). He 
puts it down with the top turned eastwards, for 
the east is the region of the gods ; or with the top 
turned northwards, for the north is the region of the 
men ; means of purification (pavitram) assuredly is 
that (wind) which here blows, it sweeps across these 
worlds : let him therefore put it down with the front 
northwards'. 

13. Just as then (i.e. at the Soma-sacrifice) they 
clarify king Soma with a strainer, in like manner 
he now clarifies (the milk); and since the strainer 
wherewith on that occasion they clarify king Soma 
has its fringe directed towards the north, therefore let 
him now also put it down with the top northward. 

14. He puts it down, with the text (V&f. S. I, 3 a), 
'Vasu's means of purification (pavitram) art thou !' 
— Vasu, indeed, is the sacrifice : for this reason he 
says, ' Vasu's means of purification art thou !' — 'flow- 
ing in a hundred streams, flowing in a thousand 
streams ! ' — he praises and eulogises it when he says, 
' flowing in a hundred streams, flowing in a thousand 
streams.' 

1 See I, 2, 2, 1, and note. Compare also the interesting intro- 
duction to Dr. Garbe's edition and translation of Apastamba's 
aphorisms on the Pravargya ceremony, Zeitsch. der D. Morg. Ges. 
XXXIV, p. 319 seq. 

* The direction from west to east is the chief one in all sacrificial 
arrangements : hence that from south to north is the one that lies 
across the former. 



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1 88 satapatha-brAhmajva. 

15. He now maintains silence as long as the 
milking of the three (cows) lasts, for the sacrifice, 
doubtless, is speech : ' May I perform the sacrifice 
undisturbed !' so he thinks. 

16. When it (the milk of each of the three cows) is 
poured (by the milker from the wooden pail through 
the strainer into the pot), he (the Adhvaryu) con- 
secrates it by (whispering each time) the formula 
(Vif. S. 1,3 b),' May the divine Savitrz purify thee 
with Vasu's means of purification, well cleansing and 
flowing in a hundred streams !' for just as then 
(at the Soma-sacrifice) they clarify king Soma with 
a strainer, so he thereby clarifies (the milk). 

17. He then says (V&f. S. I, 3-4), 'Which didst 
thou milk ?' ' Such and such a one,' (the milker 
replies.) ' This one is Virvayu (containing all life),' 
he (the Adhvaryu) says. He then 1 asks regarding 
the second one, 'Which didst thou milk?' 'Such 
and such a one,' is the reply. ' This one is Vijva- 
karman (all-doing),' he says. He then asks re- 
garding the third, 'Which didst thou milk ?' ' Such 
and such a one,' is the reply. 'This one is Vuva- 
d h a y a s (all-sustaining),' he says. The reason why he 
thus asks is that he thereby bestows certain energies 
on them. Three (cows) he milks, for three are these 
worlds : he thereby renders them fit for these worlds. 
He is now at liberty to speak. 

1 That is, when the milk has been poured through the strainer 
as before. The Taittiriya school make the mystic names (or 
epithets) of the three cows Vijvayu, Vifvavya^as (all-embrac- 
ing), and Vuvakarman, cf. Taitt. S. 1, 1, 3 ; Taitt. Br. Ill, 2, 3, 7. 
In the latter passage these names are, as here, identified with the 
earth, atmosphere, and heavens respectively. The milker, in reply- 
ing to the Adhvaryu, apparently calls the cows by their ordinary 
names. Cf. p. 178, note 4. 



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i kArtoa, 7 adhyAya, i brAhma^a, 20. 189 

18. After having the last (cow) milked, and having 
poured a drop of water into the pail which he has 
made the milker use, and stirred it, he pours it to 
(the milk) 1 , thinking ' what milk was left there, let 
that also be here !' — (he does so) for the complete- 
ness of the sap ; for when it rains here, then plants 
spring up, and on the plants being eaten and the 
water drunk, thence is this juice produced : and 
therefore (the water is poured to the milk) for the 
completeness of the sap. Having then taken it off 
(the fire), he coagulates it 2 : he thereby makes it sharp 
(pungent); for this reason he coagulates it, after 
taking it off (the fire). 

19. He coagulates it, with the formula (Vif. S. I, 
4 d), ' With Soma I coagulate thee, the portion of 
Indra!' Just as on a former occasion 3 , when taking 
sacrificial food for a deity, he announces it (to that 
deity), in like manner he now announces it to the 
deity, saying, 'Thee, the portion of Indra!' By 
saying 'with Soma I coagulate thee,' he makes it 
palatable to the gods. 

20. He then covers it over by a vessel 4 , with the 
hollow part upwards and containing water, 'lest 
the evil spirits, the Rakshas, should touch it from 
above;' for water, indeed, is a thunderbolt; hence 

1 According to Taitt. S. I, 1, 3, Katy. IV, 2, 32, &c, he, whilst 
doing so, pronounces the text, ' Unite, ye that follow the eternal 
law, ye waving ones (with the wave, Katy.), ye sweetest, — [filling 
the milk with honey, Katy.], — ye delightful ones, for the obtain- 
ment of wealth I' 

* Viz. by adding to it the (sour) milk that is left from the 
performance of the Agnihotra. 

* See 1, 1, 2, 18. 

4 According to Taitt. Br. Ill, 2, 3, 11, it may be either a metal 
or wooden vessel, but not an earthen one (Katy. IV, 2, 34). 



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I90 DATAPATH A-BRAHMAJVA. 

he thus drives away from it the evil spirits, the 
Rakshas, with a thunderbolt: this is the reason 
why he covers it over by a vessel with the hollow 
part upwards and containing water. 

21. He covers it over, with the formula (Vdf. 
S. I, 4 e), ' O Vishmi, protect the oblation !' for 
Vishnu, indeed, is the sacrifice; hence he thereby 
makes over this sacrificial food to the sacrifice for 
protection : for this reason he says, ' O Vishmi, 
protect the oblation !' 

Second BrAhmana. 
The Chief Offerings. 

i. Verily, whoever exists, he, in being born, is 
born as (owing) a debt to the gods, to the ifoshis, 
to the fathers, and to men \ 

2. For, inasmuch as he is bound to sacrifice, for 
that reason he is born as (owing) a debt to the gods : 
hence when he sacrifices to them, when he makes 

1 The wording of this passage is very ambiguous ; so much 
so indeed, that it could also be taken in the sense that ' whoever 
exists, is born as (one to whom) a debt (is owed) from the gods,' 
&c; cf. I, i, a, 19: 'Whichever deities are chosen (for the obla- 
tions), they consider it as a debt (due from them), that they are bound 
to fulfil whatever wish he entertains while taking the oblation.' 
But see Taitt. Br. VI, 3, 10, 5 : 'Verily, a Brahmawa who is born, 
is born as owing a debt in respect to three things : in the shape 
of sacred study (brahmaiarya) to the i?/'shis, in the shape of 
sacrifice to the gods, and in the shape of offspring to the fathers. 
Free from debt, verily, is he who has a son, who is a sacrificer, who 
lives (for a time with a guru) as a religious student.' Ath.-veda 
VI, 117, 3 (Taitt. Br. Ill, 7, 9, 8): 'May we be debtless in this, 
debtless in the other, debtless in the third, world 1 What worlds 
(paths, Taitt. Br.) there are trodden by the gods and trodden by the 
fathers, — may we abide debtless on all (those) paths 1' 



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I KANDA, 7 ADHYAYA, 2 BRAHMA1VA, "J. igi 

offerings to them, he does this (in discharge of his 
debt) to them. 

3. And further, inasmuch as he is bound to study 
(the Veda), for that reason he is born as (owing) a 
debt to the -/foshis : hence it is to them that he does 
this ; for one who has studied (the Veda) they call 
' the Jfoshis' treasure-warden/ 

4. And further, inasmuch as he is bound to wish 
for offspring, for that reason he is born as (owing) a 
debt to the fathers : hence when there is (provided 
by him) a continued, uninterrupted lineage, it is for 
them that he does this. 

5. And further, inasmuch as he is bound to practise 
hospitality, for that reason he is born as (owing) a 
debt to men : hence when he harbours them, when 
he offers food to them, it is (in discharge of his debt) 
to them that he does so. Whoever does all these 
things, has discharged his duties : by him all is ob- 
tained, all is conquered. 

6. And, accordingly, in that he is born as (owing) 
a debt to the gods, in regard to that he satisfies 
(ava-day) them by sacrificing; and when he makes 
offerings in the fire, he thereby satisfies them in 
regard to that (debt): hence whatever they offer 
up in the fire, is called avadanam (sacrificial 
portion) 1 . 

7. Now this (oblation) consists of four cuttings ; 
(the reason for this is, that) there is here first, the 
invitatory prayer (anuvakya), then the offering- 
prayer (ya/'ya), then the vasha/-call, and as the 
fourth, the deity for which the sacrificial food is 

1 The word is really derived from ava-da (do), 'to cut off.' The 
Taitt. Br. gives the same fanciful etymological explanation of the 
term as here. 



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192 DATAPATH A-BRAHMA1VA. 

(destined) : for in this way the deities are dependent 
on the sacrificial portions, or the portions are de- 
pendent on the deities: hence what fifth cutting 
there is (made by some), that is redundant, for — for 
whom is he to cut it ? For this reason it consists 
of four cuttings. 

8. But a fivefold cutting also takes place (with 
some people) : fivefold is the sacrifice, fivefold the 
animal victim, and five seasons there are in the 
year, — such is the perfection of the fivefold cutting; 
and he, assuredly, will have abundant offspring and 
cattle for whom, knowing this, the fivefold cutting 
is made. The fourfold cutting, however, is the 
approved (practice) among the Kuru-Paȣalas, 
and for this reason a fourfold cutting takes place 
(with us 1 ). 

1 The four ' cuttings ' of which each oblation of rice-cake consists 
are made in the following way : first, some clarified butter, ' cut 
out* or drawn from the butter in the dhruvi-spoon by means of 
the sruva (dipping-spoon) and poured into the guht (this is called 
the upastarawa or under-layer of butter); second and third, two 
pieces of the size of a thumb's joint, cut out from the centre and 
the fore-part of the rice-cake and laid on that butter ; and fourth, 
some clarified butter poured on these pieces of cake (the technical 
name of this basting of butter being abhigh&ra«a). The family 
of the Gamadagnis, which is mentioned as always making five 
cuttings (Kity. I, 9, 3-4), take three pieces of cake instead of two, 
viz. an additional one from the back (or west) part of the cake. 
Ya^nika Deva on Katy. quotes a couplet from some Smr/'ti, in 
which the Vatsas, the Vidas, and the Arsh/ishewas are men- 
tioned beside the Gamadagnis, as pa»1MvattinaA or making 
five cuttings. At the Up&»f uya^-a (low-voiced offering), — which 
is performed between the cake-oblation to Agni and that to Agni- 
Soma at the full moon, and between the cake-oblation to Agni and 
that to Indra-Agni (or the s&nn£y y a, or oblation of sweet and sour 
milk, to Indra) at the new moon, and which consists entirely of 
butter, — the four cuttings are effected in the same way as described 



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I KAiVDA, 7 ADHYAYA, 2 BRAHMAtfA, II. 1 93 

9. Let him cut off only a moderate quantity ; for 
were he to cut off a large quantity, he would make 
it human ; and what is human is inauspicious at the 
sacrifice. Let him therefore cut off only a moderate 
quantity, lest he should do what is inauspicious at 
the sacrifice. 

10. Having made an under-layer of butter (in the 
^•uhu-spoon) and cut off twice from the h avis, he 
then pours over it some butter. There are, indeed, 
two (kinds of) oblations ; the oblation of Soma being 
one, and the oblation of (or rather, with) butter 
being the other. Now the one, viz. the Soma- 
oblation, is (an oblation) by itself; and the other, 
viz. the butter-oblation, is the same as the offering 
of ha vis (rice, milk, &c.) and the animal offering 1 ; 
hence he thereby makes it (the cake) butter, and 
therefore butter is on both sides of it. Butter, 
doubtless, is palatable to the gods ; hence he thereby 
renders it palatable to the gods : for this reason 
butter is on both sides of it. 

11. The invitatory prayer (anuvakya, f.), doubt- 
less, is yonder (sky), and the offering-prayer (ya^ya, 
f.) is this (earth) — these two are females. With 
each of these two the vasha/-call (vasha/kara, 
m.) makes up a pair*. Now the vasha/, indeed, 

page 174 note. At the s&nnayya, two (or three) sruva-fuls of both 
the sweet and the sour milk take the place of the two (or three) 
pieces of cake. 

1 See page 26, note 1. The parts of the cakes or the sSnnSyya, 
from which cuttings have been made, he bastes, each once, with butter 
taken with the sruva from the butter-pot ; and whenever butter is 
ladled with the sruva from the dhruva' into the ^nhu, the former 
is replenished from the butter-pot. 

* Tayor mithunam asti vasha/kara eva, ' to these two the vasha/- 
call is the complement in forming a pair.' On the vasha/ 
(vausha/) and the other two formulas, see note on I, 5, 2, 16. 
[12] O 



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194 SATAPATHA-BRAHMAYA. 

is no other than that scorching one (the sun). When 
he rises he approaches yonder (sky); and when he 
sets he approaches this (earth): hence whatever is 
brought forth here by these two, that they bring 
forth through that male. 

12. Having recited the invitatory prayer and pro- 
nounced the offering-prayer 1 , he afterwards (pas- 
£&t) utters the vasha/ formula; for from behind 
(pas<6at) the male approaches the female : hence, 
after placing those two in front, he causes them to 
be approached by that male, the vasha/. For the 
same reason let him make the offering either simul- 
taneously with the vasha/ or (immediately) after 
the vasha/ has been pronounced. 

13. A vessel of the gods, doubtless, is that vasha/. 
Even as, after ladling, one would mete out (food) 
into a vessel, so here. If, on the other hand, he 
were to make the offering before the vasha/, it 
would be lost, as would be that (food) falling to 
the ground : for this reason also let him make the 
offering either simultaneously with the vasha/ or 
after it has been pronounced. 

14. As seed is poured into the womb, so here. 
If, on the other hand, he were to make the offering 
before the vasha/, it would be lost, as would be 
the seed poured not into the womb : for this reason 
also let him make the offering either simultaneously 
with the vasha/ or after it has been pronounced. 

15. The invitatory formula, doubtless, is yonder 
(sky), and the offering-formula is this (earth). The 
gayatri metre also is this (earth), and the trish/ubh 

1 The usual formalities, which have been detailed before (see 
page 174 note), have, of course, to be gone through at each 
oblation. 



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I KANDA, 7 ADHYAYA, 2 BrAhMA-YA, 1 6. 1 95 

is yonder (sky) 1 . He recites the gayatri verse, 
thereby reciting yonder (sky), for the invitatory 
formula (anuvakya) is yonder (sky). He recites 
this (earth), for the gayatri verse (viz. the offering- 
formula) is this (earth). 

1 6. He then presents the offering with a trish- 
/ubh verse 2 , thereby presenting it by means of this 

1 In this passage the invitatory formula (anuvakyi or puro- 
'nuvakyd), which is in the gSyatr! metre, is identified with the 
sky, and the offering-formula (ya^-yi), which is in the trish/ubh 
metre, with the earth. On the other hand, the gayatri also is the 
earth (cf. I, 4, 1, 34), and the trish/ubh the sky; so that, accord- 
ing to this mode of reasoning, there is not only an intimate con- 
nexion between the two metres, but actual identity. The g&yatri 
verse, used as invitatory formula, on the occasion of the rice- 
cake offering to Agni, is Rig-veda VIII, 44, 16 [agnir murdhi divaA 
kakut, 'Agni, the head and summit of the sky,' &&]; with that to 
Agni and Soma, at the full-moon sacrifice, Rig-veda I, 93, 3 
(agnishomau savedasau, sahutf vanatam giraA, ' O Agni and Soma, 
of self-same wealth and invocation, accept this songl' &c.]; and 
to Indra and Agni, at the new-moon, Rig-veda VII, 94, 7 [indragni 
avast gatam, 'O Indra and Agni, come to us with favour!' &c.]; 
or with the (optional) milk-offering (s&nn&yyam), at the new moon, 
Rig-veda I, 8, 1 [endra sSnasun rayim, ' hither, O Indra, bring 
abundant treasure I'&c], if to Indra; or Rig-veda VIII, 6, 1 [mah£h 
indro ya cgasi par^anyo vr/sh/imah iva, ' the Great Indra, who in 
might is equal to the rainy thunder-cloud,' &c], if to Mahendra. 

2 The trish/ubh verse, used as offering-formula with the 
oblation of cake to Agni, both at the new and full moon, is Rig-veda 
X, 8, 6 [bhuvo yagnasya. ra^asaj £a net& . . . agne . . . , 'be thou the 
leader of the sacrifice and welkin, . . . O Agni !' &c.]; with that to 
Agni and Soma, at the full moon, Rig-veda 1, 93, 5 [yuvam etani divi 
ro£an£ni . . . agnishomau . . . , 'you, O Agni and Soma, (fixed) 
those lights in the heaven,' Sec.]; with that to Indra and Agni, at the 
new moon, Rig-veda VII, 93, 4 [girbhir viprah pramatim ikkha- 
mina . . . indragni . . . , ' the bard, seeking your grace by songs . . . , 
O Indra and Agni,' &c.]; and with the milk-offering, at the same sacri- 
fice, if to Indra, Rig-veda X, 180, 1 [pra sasahishe puruhuta jatrun 
. . . indrd . . . , ' thou, O Indra, the much-invoked, hast vanquished 
the enemies 1' &c.]; or, if to Mahendra, Rig-veda X, 50, 4 [bhuvas 

O 2 



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196 satapatha-brAhmajva. 

(earth), for the offering-formula (ya^ya) is this 
(earth). Over yonder (sky) he places the vasha/, 
for yonder (sky) also is the trish/ubh. Thereby 
he makes those two (sky and earth) yoke-fellows ; 
and as such they feed together; and after their 
common meal all these creatures get food 1 . 

1 7. Let him pronounce the invitatory formula lin- 
gering, as it were : the invitatory formula, namely, 
is yonder (sky), and the brz'hat(-saman) also is 
yonder (sky), since its form is that of the br»hat. 
With the offering-formula let him, as it were, hurry 
on fast: the offering-formula, doubtless, is this (earth), 
and the rathantara(-saman) also is this (earth), 
since its form is that of the rathantara*. With the 
invitatory formula he calls (the gods), and with the 

tvam indra brahmawa mahan, 'mighty, O Indra, mayest thou be 
through (our) prayer!' &c.]. 

1 For the notion that there is rain (and consequently food) when 
heaven and earth are on friendly terms with each other, see 1, 8, 3, 1 2. 
The rain is the food of the earth ; and the food, produced thereby, 
in its turn furnishes food for the sky (or the gods) in the form of 
oblations. 

* The brj'hat-saman (tvam id dhi havamahe, 'on thee, indeed, 
we call,' &c, Sama-veda II, i59-i6o=Rig-veda VI, 46, 1-2) and 
the rathantara-siman (abhi tva jura nonumaA, 'to thee, OHero, 
we call,' &c, Sama-veda II, 30-3 1= Rig- veda VII, 32, 22-23) are 
two of the most highly prized Sima-hymns, which are especially 
used in forming the so-called pr/shMas, or combinations of two 
hymns in such a way that one of them (being a mystic representation 
of the embryo) is enclosed in the other, which is supposed to repre- 
sent the womb. In these symbolical combinations the br/liat and 
rathantara, which must never be used together, are often employed 
as the enclosing chants, representative of the womb. They are 
already mentioned in Rig-veda X, 181. See also Sat. Br. IX, 1, 2, 
36-37. Taitt. S. VII, i, 1, 4, Pra^pati is said to have first created 
from his mouth Agni together with the Gayatri, the Rathantara- 
siman, the Brihmawa, and the goat; and then from his chest and arms 
Indra, the Trish/ubh, the Brihat-saman, the Ra^unya, and the ram. 



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I KANDA, 7 ADHYAYA, 2 BRAHMAYA, 20. I97 

offering-formula he presents (food to them) : hence 
the invitatory formula (anuvakya) has some such 
form as 'I call," We call,' 'Come hither!' 'Sit on 
the barhis !' for with it he calls. With the offering- 
formula (ya^ya) he offers : hence the offering- 
formula has some such form as, ' Accept the 
sacrificial food!' 'Relish the sacrificial food!' 'Ac- 
cept the potation (ivrishayasva)!' 'Eat! Drink! 
There 1 !' for by it he offers that which (is' indicated 
by) 'there!' 

18. Let the invitatory formula be one that has 
its distinctive indication (in the form of the name 
of the respective deity) at the beginning (in front) : 
for the invitatory formula is yonder (sky); and that 
(sky) yonder has the moon, the stars, and the sun 
for its mark below 2 . 

19. The offering-formula then should be one that 
has its characteristic indication (further) back 3 ; for 
the offering-formula is this (earth), and this same 
(earth) has plants, trees, waters, fire, and these crea- 
tures for its mark above. 

20. Verily, that invitatory formula alone is 
auspicious, in the first word of which he utters the 
(name of the) deity ; and that offering-formula alone 
is auspicious in the last word of which he pro- 
nounces the vasha/ upon the deity 4 ; for the (name 

1 Literally, 'forwards, thither (pra).' 

* Avastallakshma, 'the sign below or on this (the, to us, 
nearest or front) side.' See the formulas above, p. 195, note 1. 

1 Or upwards, on the upper side, uparish/allakshawam. 
See the offering-formulas above, p. 195, note 2. 

4 Vasha/, or rather vausha/ ['may he (Agni) carry it (to the 
gods)!'], is pronounced after each yigyi or offering-formula, which 
contains the name of the deity towards the end, or at least not at 
the very beginning. 



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I98 SATAPATHA-BRAHMA.YA. 

of the) deity constitutes the vigour of the Rik 
(verse) : hence after thus enclosing it * on both sides 
with vigour, he offers the sacrificial food to that 
deity for which it is intended. 

21. He pronounces (the syllable) vauk 2 ; for, 
assuredly, the v ash a /-call is speech ; and speech 
means seed : hence he thereby casts seed. ' Sha/' 
(he pronounces), because there are six seasons : he 
thereby casts that seed into the seasons, and the sea- 
sons cause that seed so cast to spring up here as 
creatures. This is the reason why he pronounces 
the vasha/. 

22. Now the gods and the Asuras, both of them 
sprung from Pra^apati, entered upon their father 
Pra^apati's inheritance 3 , to wit, these two half- 
moons. The gods entered upon the one which 
waxes, and the Asuras on the one which wanes. 

23. The gods were desirous as to how they 
might appropriate also the one that had fallen to 
the Asuras. They went on worshipping and toiling. 
They saw this havirya^wa, to wit, the new and 
full-moon sacrifices, and performed them ; and by per- 
forming them they likewise appropriated the one — 

24. Which belonged to the Asuras. Now when 
these two revolve, then the month is produced ; and 
month (revolving) after month, the year (is pro- 
duced). But the year, doubtless, means all; hence 
the gods thereby appropriated all that belonged to 



1 Viz. the invitatory and offering-formulas. 

s The sacrificial call vausha/ (for vasha/, irregular aorist of 
vah, 'to bear,' cf. p. 88, note 2) is here fancifully explained as 
composed of vauk, for vak, 'speech,' + sha/, 'six.' 

3 Pra^ipati, or Lord of Creatures, is here, as often (cf. I, 2, 5, 
13), taken as representing the year, or Time. 



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I KAATDA, 7 ADHYAYA, 3 BRAHMAJVA, I. 1 99 

the Asuras, they deprived their enemies, the Asuras, 
of all. And in the same way he (the sacrificer) who 
knows this appropriates all that belongs to his ene- 
mies, deprives his enemies of all. 

25. That (half-moon) which belonged to the 
gods is (called) yavan, for the gods possessed 
themselves (yu, 'to join') of it; and that which be- 
longed to the Asuras is a yavan, because the 
Asuras did not possess themselves of it. 

26. But they also say contrariwise : — That which 
belonged to the gods is (called) ayavan, because the 
Asuras did not get possession of it ; and that which 
belonged to the Asuras is yavan, because the gods 
did get possession of it. The day is (called) sabda, 
the night sagara, the months yavya, the year su- 
meka 1 : sveka ('eminently one'), doubtless, is 
the same as sumeka. And since the Hotri is 
concerned with these — to wit, the yavan and the 
ayavan, which (according to some) is yavan — they 
call (his office) yavihotram 2 . 

Third Brahmajva. 

Oblation to Agni Svish7-ak^/t, [and the Brahman's portions.] 
i. Now by means of the sacrifice the gods as- 
cended to heaven. But the god who rules over 

1 Sumeka is taken by the St. Petersburg Dictionary to mean 
'firmly established;' by Grassmann, 'bountiful,' literally 'well- 
showering.' Our author identifies it with su-eka. The words 
sabdam (jabdam, Ka«va rec, ? =the sounding one) and sa- 
gara are obscure; yavya here apparently means, 'consisting of 
the yavas or half-months.' 

2 The term yavihotram is obscure, and does not seem to 
occur anywhere else. The Kawva MS. reads ySmihotram (? = 
^amihotram). Sayawa's comment is corrupt in several places and 
affords little help. 



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200 SATAPATHA-BRAHMAiVA. 

the cattle was left behind here : hence they call him 
Vastavya, for he was then left behind on the (sacri- 
ficial) site 1 (vastu). 

2. The gods went on worshipping and toiling 
with the same (sacrifice) by which they had ascended 
to heaven. Now the god who rules over the cattle, 
and who was left behind here, — 

3. He saw (what occurred, and said), 'I have been 
left behind : they are excluding me from the sacri- 
fice!' He went up after them, and with his raised 
(weapon) 2 rose up on the north — the time (when 
this happened) was that of the (performance of the) 
Svish/akrz't. 

4. The gods said, 'Do not hurl!' He said, 'Do not 
ye exclude me from the sacrifice ! Set apart an obla- 
tion for me!' They replied, 'So be it!' He with- 
drew (his weapon), and did not hurl it ; nor did he 
injure any one. 

5. The gods said (to one another), ' Whatever 
portions of sacrificial food have been taken out by 
us, they have all been offered up. Try to discover 

1 Or perhaps, ' he was left behind with, or in, the remains (of the 
sacrifice);' vslstu being evidently also taken in this sense by our 
author, in par. 7. 

2 The text has iya.ta.yi merely, which, to become intelligible, 
clearly requires some noun, which may have been lost here. S&y a»a 
is silent on this point. In Dr. Muir's version of the legend, Original 
Sanskrit Texts, IV, p. 202, the word is left untranslated. I am in- 
clined to supply some such noun as heti, 'weapon;' cf. XII, 7, 3, 
20, where this very word is used in connexion with Rudra: in later 
times it is also specially applied to Agni's weapon or flame (g'ihvi, 
' tongue '). It is not impossible, however, that we have to supply 
tan va ('with his raised body, or self). To ma vi srakshiA (for 
which the Kamra recension reads ma 'sthaA), ' do not hurl,' and to 
sawvivarha ('he drew back'), Saya»a supplies ya^mam, 'sacrifice:' 
hence he apparently takes it thus, — 'do not scatter (the sacrifice),' — 
' he kept (the sacrifice) together and did not injure it in any way.' 



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i kXnda, 7 adhyAya, 3 brAhmajva, 8. 201 

some means by which we may set apart an oblation 
for him!' 

6. They said to the Adhvaryu priest, 'Sprinkle the 
sacrificial dishes (with butter) in proper succession ; 
and replenish them for the sake of one (additional) 
portion, and again render them fit for use ; and then 
cut off one portion for each !' 

7. The Adhvaryu accordingly sprinkled the sacri- 
ficial dishes in proper succession, and replenished 
them for the sake of one (additional) portion, and 
again rendered them fit for use, and cut off one 
portion for each. This then is the reason why he 
(Rudra) is called Vastavya 1 , for a remainder (vastu) 
is that part of the sacrifice which (is left) after the 
oblations have been made : hence, if sacrificial food 
is offered to any deity, the Svish/akrz't (Agni, 'the 
maker of good offering') is afterwards invariably 
offered a share of it; because the gods invariably 
gave him a share after themselves. 

8. That (offering) then is certainly made to 
'Agni/ for, indeed, Agni is that god; — his are 
these names : .Sarva, as the eastern people call 
him; Bhava, as the Bahlkas (call him); Pasunam 
pati ('lord of beasts,' Pasupati), Rudra, Agni 2 . 
The name Agni, doubtless, is the most auspicious 

1 On the identification of Agni with Rudra, see also VI, 1, 3, 7; 
and Muir, Original Sanskrit Texts, IV, p. 339 seq. 

* Passages such as this and VI, 1, 3, 7 seq. are of consider- 
able interest, as showing, on the one hand, the tendency towards 
identifying and blending originally distinct and apparently local 
Vedic gods, especially Rudra, with the person of Agni, the repre- 
sentative of the divine power on earth in the later Vedic triad ; 
and, on the other hand, the origin of the conception of .Siva, in the 
pantheistic system of the post-Vedic period. On our passage, see 
also Weber, Ind. Stud. II, p. 37 ; I, p. 189 ; Muir, Original Sanskrit 
Texts, IV, p. 328. 



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202 SATAPATHA-BRAHMAtfA. 

(yanta), and the other names of his are inauspicious: 
hence it is offered to (him under the name of) ' Agni,' 
and to (him as) the Svish/akrz't. 

9. They (the gods) said, ' What we have offered 
unto thee who art in yonder place 1 , do thou render 
that well-offered (svish/a) for us!' He made it 
well-offered for them; and this is the reason why 
(it is offered) to (Agni as) the Svish/akrz't. 

10. Having recited the invitatory formula 2 , he (the 
Hotri) enumerates (those deities) which (have re- 
ceived oblations at the fore-offerings, butter-portions, 
&c), as well as Agni Svish/akrz't : — ' May Agni 
offer Agni's favourite dainties!' thereby he refers 
to Agni's butter-portion 3 . — 'May he offer Soma's 
favourite dainties !' thereby he refers to Soma's 
butter-portion. — ' May he offer Agni's favourite 
dainties!' thereby he refers to that indispensable 
cake for Agni which is (offered) on both occasions 
(at the new and full-moon sacrifices). 

11. And so with the several deities. 'May he 
offer the favourite dainties of butter-drinking gods!' 
thereby he refers to the fore-offerings (praya^a) 
and after-offerings (anuya.fa), for, assuredly, the 
butter-drinking gods (represent) the fore-offerings 
and after-offerings. — ' May he offer Agni the Hotrz's 

1 That is, according to S&yawa, on the Ahavaniya fire-place. 

* The anuviky^ for the Svish/akri't is Rig-veda X, 2,1: 
piprihi dev&lfi u«ito yavish//4a ('gladden thou the longing gods, 
youngest !') &c. Asv. S. I, 6, 2. 

* See I, 4, 2, 16-17. These formulas (nigada) of enumeration 
(ayid agnir agneA priy& dhamani, &c. — yakshad agner hotuA 
priyS dhamini, &c.) form part of the offering-formula. The ya^-yi 
proper, however, which they precede is Rig-veda VI, 15, 14, agne 
yad adya vwo adhvarasya hotaA ['0 Agni, Hotr» of the cult 1 when 
this day (thou comest) to the men '], &c. 



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I KANDA, 7 ADHYAYA, 3 BRAHMA^A, 1 4. 203 

favourite dainties!' thereby he refers to Agni as 
Hotrz; for after the gods had set apart this obla- 
tion for him, they still further propitiated him by this 
(formula), and invited him to his favourite dainty 1 : 
this is the reason why he thus enumerates. 

12. Here now some make (the name of) the deity 
precede the 'may he offer (aya* 1 )!' thus — ' Of Agni 
may he offer (the favourite dainties) !' ' Of Soma may 
he offer !' But let him not do this ; for those who 
make the deity precede the 'may he offer!' violate 
the proper order at the sacrifice, since it is by pro- 
nouncing the ' may he offer,' that he pronounces what 
comes first here : let him therefore place the ' may 
he offer ' first. 

13. [The Hotrt continues to recite]: ' May he 
sacrifice to his own greatness!' When, on that 
occasion 2 , he asks him (Agni) to bring hither the 
deities, he also makes him bring hither his own 
greatness ; but before this no worship of any kind 
has been offered to 'his (Agni's) own greatness :' and 
he therefore now gratifies him, and thus that (fire) 
has been established so as to prevent failure on his 
(the sacrificer's) part. This is the reason why he 
says ' may he sacrifice to his own greatness.' 

14. ' By sacrifice may he obtain for himself food 
worthy of sacrifice 3 !' the food, doubtless, is these 
creatures : he thereby makes them eager to sacrifice, 
and these creatures go on sacrificing, worshipping 
and performing austerities. 

1 Or, resort, abode, dh&man. 

' Viz. at the ' devatanam Svahanam,' cf. I, 4, 2, 17; p. 118, n. 1. 

* 'Aya^atam egyi isha^.' Mahidhara, on Vig. S. XXI, 47, 
interprets it thus: 'May these (ishaA) desirous (creatures), fit for 
sacrifice, sacrifice properly!' Similarly perhaps Saya«a on our 
passage. 



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204 SATAPATHA-BRAHMANA. 

15. 'May he, the knower of beings, (perform) 1 
the sacred cult ; may he graciously accept the sacri- 
ficial food!' Thereby he prays for success to this 
sacrifice ; for when the gods graciously accept the 
sacrificial food, then he (the sacrificer) gains great 
things 2 : for this reason he says 'may he graciously 
accept the sacrificial food !' 

16. The reason why on this occasion the invita- 
tory and offering- formulas are made closely to 
correspond to each other (avak/zptatama), is that the 
svish/akrzt (is equivalent to) the evening libation, 
and the evening libation, doubtless, belongs to the 
VLrve Dev&6 (the 'All-gods') 8 . 'Gladden thou the 
longing gods, O youngest !' this much in the in- 
vitatory formula refers to the VLrve DevaM 'O 
Agni, Hotri of the cult! when this day (thou comest) 
to the men 8 ;' this much in the offering-formula 
refers to the VLrve Deva^. And because such is the 
form of these two (formulas), therefore they are of 

1 Here kr*«otu is omitted in the text, but cLV&g. S. XXI, 47 ; 
Taitt. Br. Ill, 5, 7, 6 ; Asv. S. I, 6, 5. Dr. Hillebrandt, Altind. 
Neu- und Vollmondsopfer, p. 118, construes it with the preceding 
formula: 'ermachedarbringungswerthdie Speisen; er, derWesen- 
kenner, nehme beim Opfer das havis an.' (?) 

s Mahat, 'grosses.' 

• See Va£. S. XIX, 26. Here the author, as usual (cf. p. 5 note), 
attempts to enhance the solemnity of the ceremony by identifying it 
with the tr*'tiya-savana, or evening libation at the Soma-sacrifice, 
both offerings constituting the final ceremonies in the main per- 
formance of the respective sacrifices. We shall, however, see (cf. 
I» 8, 3, 25) that as at the evening libation the remains of the Soma 
are offered up, so also are the remains of havis offered to the 
vuve devSA at the conclusion of the present sacrifice. At IV, 
4, 5, 1 7 it is more especially the offering of rice-cake to Agni and 
Varuwa, at the evening libation, which is identified with the svish- 
/akri't. 

4 See p. 202, note 2. 6 See p. 202, note 3. 



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I KANDA, 7 ADHYAYA, 3 BRAHMAAA, 1 8. 205 

the form of the evening libation ; and this is why 
the invitatory and offering-formulas on this occasion 
are made closely to correspond to each other. 

17. They are both trish/ubh verses; for the 
svish/akrz't is, as it were, the residue (or site, 
vistu) of the sacrifice, and the residue (or, a vacant 
site) is without energy 1 . Now the trish/ubh means 
manly power 2 , energy : hence he thereby imparts 
manly power, energy to that residue, the svish/akrzt. 
This is why they are both trishAibh verses. 

18. Or they are both anush/ubh verses. The 
anush/ubh is residue (or site, vistu), and the svish- 
/akrz t also is residue : hence he thereby puts a 
residue to a residue 8 . And, verily, one who knows 
this, and whose (invitatory and offering-formulas) 
are two anush/ubh verses, his homestead (vistu) 
is prosperous, and he himself prospers in regard 
to progeny and cattle. 

1 Avtryam ; cf. II, 1, 2, 9, where the (s artra) empty body (of 
Pra^apati) is called a vastu aya^raiyam aviryam. See also 
above, I, 7, 3, 7, where we met with vistu in the sense of 'remainder, 
that which remains,' as Sayana also seems to take it here. 

1 Indriyam, literally 'Indra's power.' The trish/ubh often 
(e.g. Rig-veda X, 130, 5) appears specially related to Indra; and 
the hymns addressed to him are almost entirely in this metre. 
Taitt. S. VII, 1, 1, 4 it is said to have been created by Pra^apati 
from his own chest and arms, immediately after Indra, and together 
with the Bnhat-saman, the Ra^anya, and the ram ; and that these 
are therefore vfryavant, having been created out of vtrya (i. e. 
the seats of ' manly power '). 

3 For this symbolical explanation see Taitt. S. VII, 1, 1, 5, where 
the anush/ubh is said to have been created by Pra^dpati, by his 
fourth and last creative act, from his feet, together with the Vaii%a- 
saman, the Sudra, and the horse ; the two last named being, there- 
fore, styled ' bhuta-sahkramin (? subservient to creatures).' I do not 
find it stated anywhere, what anush/ubh verses may optionally be 
taken for the anuvakya and yagyS. of the svish/akrrt. 



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206 SATAPATHA-BRAHMAJVA. 

19. Now here Bhallabeya 1 made the invita- 
tory formula (consist of) an anush/ubh verse, and 
the offering-formula of a trish/ubh verse, thinking, 
' I thus obtain (the benefits of) both.' He fell from 
the cart, and in falling, broke his arm. He reflected: 
' This has befallen because of something or other 
I have done.' He then bethought himself of this : 
'(It has befallen) because of some violation, on 
my part, of the proper course of the sacrifice.' Hence 
one must not violate the proper course (of sacrificial 
performance); but let both (formulas) be verses of 
the same metre, either both anush/ubh verses, or 
both trish/ubh verses. 

20. He cuts (the portions for Agni Svish/akrzt) 
from the north part (of the sacrificial dishes) 2 , and 
offers them up on the north part (of the fire): for 
this is the region of that god, and therefore he cuts 
from the north part and offers on the north part 
From that side, indeed, he arose 3 , and there 
they (the gods) appeased him : for this reason he 
cuts from the north part, and offers on the north 
part. 

21. He offers on this side (in front), as it were, of 
the other oblations. Following the other oblations 
cattle are produced, and the Svish/akm represents 
Rudra's power : he would impose Rudra's power on 

1 That is, Indradyumna Bhallabeya, as the Ka«va recension 
reads here and II, 1, 4, 6. Cf. X, 6, 1, 1. 

2 He makes, as usual, an under-layer (upastara«a) of butter in 
the ^Tihu ; cuts a piece from the north part of each of the two cakes 
(or of the one cake and of both the sweet and the sour milk consti- 
tuting the sanniyya); and thereupon bastes the pieces twice (not 
once) with butter. 

3 See above, par. 3. The same quarter is assigned to Rudra, 
IX, 1, 1, 10. See also Weber, Ind. Stud. I, p. 225. 



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I KAJVDA, 7 ADHYAYA, 3 BRAHMAJVA, 26. 207 

the cattle if he were to bring it (the Svish/akrzt) 
into contact with the other oblations ; and his (the 
sacrificer's) household and cattle would be destroyed. 
For this reason he offers on this side, as it were, of 
the other oblations. 

22. That (fire) — to wit, the Ahavantya — is, indeed, 
that sacrifice by which the gods then ascended to 
heaven ; and that (other fire) which was left behind 
here, is the Garhapatya : hence they take out the 
former from the Garhapatya, (so as to be) before 
(east) of it. 

23.- He may lay it (the Ahavanlya) down at the 
distance of eight steps (from the Garhapatya); for 
of eight syllables, doubtless, consists the gayatrl: 
hence he thereby ascends to heaven by means of 
the gayatrl. 

24. Or he may lay it down at the distance of 
eleven steps 1 ; for of eleven syllables, indeed, consists 
the trish/ubh : hence he thereby ascends to heaven 
by means of the trishAibh. 

25. Or he may lay it down at the distance of 
twelve steps ; for of twelve syllables, indeed, consists 
the^agati : hence he thereby ascends to heaven by 
means of the ^agatl. Here, however, there is no 
(fixed) measure: let him, therefore, lay it down where 
in his own mind he may think proper 2 . If he takes 
it ever so little east (of the Garhapatya), he ascends 
to heaven by it. 

26. Here now they say, ' Let them cook the sacri- 

1 The BaucMy. Vulvas. (66) lays it down as the rule that the 
Brahmawa has to construct his Ahavaniya fire at the distance of 
eight prakramas (step of two padas or feet each) to the east of the 
Garhapatya, the Ra^anya at the distance of eleven, and the VaLrya 
at the distance of twelve, steps. Thibaut, Pandit X, p. 22. 

a See I, 2, 5, 14. 



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208 satapatha-brAhmajva. 

ficial dishes on the Ahavanlya ; for thence, assuredly, 
the gods ascended to heaven, and therewith they 
went on worshipping and toiling: therein we will 
cook the sacrificial dishes ; therein we will perform 
the sacrifice! For, as it were, a displacement 1 of 
the sacrificial dishes would take place, if they were 
to cook them on the Garhapatya. The Ahavanlya 
is the sacrifice : we will perform the sacrifice in the 
sacrifice ! ' 

27. However, they also do cook on the Garha- 
patya, arguing, 'The former is indeed ahavanlya 
(i.e. "suitable for a burnt-offering"); but that one, 
surely, is not (intended) for this, — viz. that they 
should cook uncooked (food) on it ; but it is (intended) 
for this, — viz. that they should offer up cooked (food) 
on it.' He may therefore do it on whichever (fire) 
he pleases. 

28. That sacrifice spake, ' I dread nakedness.' 
' What is unnakedness for thee ?' ' Let them strew 
(sacrificial grass) all round me ! ' For this reason 
they strew (sacrificial grass) all round the fire. ' I 
dread thirst.' 'How art thou to be satiated ?' 'May 
I satiate myself after the priest has been satisfied !' 
Let him therefore, on the completion of the sacrifice, 
order that the priest be satisfied; for then he satisfies 
the sacrifice. 

Fourth Brahmajva. 
1. Pra^apati conceived a passion for his own 

1 Apaskhala. Sayawa takes skhala to mean winnowing- (or 
threshing-) floor (Pkhala): hence apaskhala would mean 'the 
leaping (of the husk, &c.) out of the winnowing-floor.' The Ka«va 
MS. reads, ' apaskhala iva sa havishara yad garhapatyaA ' (? ' the 
Garhapatya is to the sacrificial food the outside of a winnowing- 
floor, as it were.') 



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I KANDA, 7 ADHYAYA, 4 BRAHMAJVA, 4. 209 

daughter, — either the Sky or the Dawn 1 . ' May I 
pair with her!' thus (thinking) he united with her. 

2. This, assuredly, was a sin in the eyes of the 
gods. ' He who acts thus towards his own daughter, 
our sister, [commits a sin],' they thought 

3. The gods then said to this god who rules over 
the beasts (Rudra) 2 , 'This one, surely, commits 
a sin who acts thus towards his own daughter, our 
sister. Pierce him!' Rudra, taking aim, pierced 
him. Half of his seed fell to the ground. And 
thus it came to pass. 

4. Accordingly it has been said by the J?zshi 3 
with reference to that (incident), ' When the father 
embraced his daughter, uniting with her, he dropped 
his seed on the earth.' This (became) the chant 
(uktha) called agnimaruta 4 ; in (connection with) 

1 For other versions of this legend about Pra^Spati (Brahman)'s 
illicit passion for his daughter, which, as Dr. Muir suggests, pro- 
bably refers to some atmospheric phenomenon, see Ait Br. Ill, 33, 
and T&ndyi Br. VIII, a, 10; cf. Muir, Original Sanskrit Texts, IV, 
P- 455 I> P- 1 ©7- See also Sat. Br. II, 1, a, 9, with note. 

* The construction here is irregular. Perhaps this is part of the 
speech of the gods, being a kind of indirect address to Rudra in 
order to avoid naming the terrible god. Dr. Muir translates : 'The 
gods said, " This god, who rules over the beasts, commits a trans- 
gression in that he acts thus to his own daughter, our sister: pierce 
him through." ' In the Ki«va MS. some words seem to have been 
omitted at this particular place. According to the Ait. Br., the gods 
created a god B hut a vat, composed of the most fearful forms of 
theirs. After piercing the incarnation of Pra^ipati's sin.he asked, and 
obtained, the boon that he should henceforth be the ruler of cattle. 

8 Viz., Rig-veda X, 61, 7, where verses 5-7 contain the first 
allusion to this legend. 

* The SgnimSruta is one of the jfistras recited at the evening 
libation of the Soma-sacrifice ; and made up chiefly of a hymn 
addressed to Agni Vauvanara and one to the Maruts; and 
[following the stotriya and anurupa prag&tha] a hymn to 
Gatavedas; [and one to the Apas, followed by various detailed 

[12] P 



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2 1 DATAPATH A-BRAHMAJVA. 

this it is set forth how the gods caused that seed to 
spring 1 . When the anger of the gods subsided, 
they cured Pra^apati and cut out that dart of this 
(Rudra); for Pragilpati, doubtless, is this sacrifice. 

5. They said (to one another), ' Think of some 
means by which that (part of the sacrifice torn out 
with the dart) may not be lost, and how it may be 
but a small portion of the offering itself!' 

6. They said, ' Take it round to Bhaga (Szvitri, 
the Patron), who sits on the south side (of the sacri- 
ficial ground) : Bhaga will eat it by way of fore- 
portion 2 , so that it may be as though it were 
offered. They accordingly took it round to Bhaga, 
who sat on the south side. Bhaga (Savitr?) looked 
at it : it burnt out his eyes 8 . And thus it came to 
pass. Hence they say, ' Bhaga is blind.' 

7. They said, 'It has not yet become appeased 
here : take it round to Pushan !' They accordingly 

verses or couplets]; viz., Rig-veda III, 3, 'vauvanaraya pr/thupa- 
£ase,' &c, and I, 87,'pratvakshasaA pratavaso,' &c; [Rig-veda I, 
168, 1-2, stotriya; VII, 16, 11-12, anurflpa]; and Rig-veda 1, 143, 
' pratavyasim navyastm,' &c. (and X, 9, ' 4po hi shite mayobhuvas,' 
&c.) respectively, at the Agnish/bma (and first day of the dvadaraba). 
See JL?v. St. V, 20, 5; Ait. Br. Ill, 35 ; IV, 30. 

1 According to Ait. Br. Ill, 35, where this legend is also given 
in connection with the Sgnimiruta s astra, Agni Vawvanara, aided 
by the Maruts, stirred (and heated) the seed ; and out of it sprang 
successively Aditya (the sun), Bhr?'gu, and the Adityas ; whilst the 
coals (angara) remaining behind became the Angiras, and Bn'has- 
pati, and the coal dust, the burnt earth and ashes were changed into 
various kinds of animals. According to Harisvamin it would seem 
that our passage has to be understood to the effect that the compo- 
sition of the agnimaruta s&stra. shows the order of beings which the 
gods caused to spring forth from the seed. See also IV, 5, 1, 8. 

* See note on I, 7, 4, 18. 

5 ' Nirdadaha.' The Kaushit. Br. VI, 10 (Ind. Stud. II, 306) and 
Yiska Nir. 12, 14 have nir^agh&na, ' it knocked out his eyes.' The 
Kaushit. Br. also makes them first take the praxi tra to Savitrz", and 
when it cut his hands, they gave him two golden ones. 



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I KANDA, 7 ADHYAYA, 4 BRAHMAiVA, 9. 211 

took it round to Pushan. Pushan tasted it : it 
knocked out his teeth. And thus it came to pass. 
Hence they say, ' Pushan is toothless ; ' and there- 
fore, when they prepare a mess of boiled rice 
(iaru) 1 for Pushan, they prepare it from ground 
rice, as is done for one toothless. 

8. They said, ' It has not yet become appeased 
here : take it round to Brzhaspati 2 !' They accord- 
ingly took it round to B^Tiaspati. Brzhaspati hasted 
to SavitW for his impulsion (influence, prasava 8 ), 
for assuredly Szvitri is the impeller (prasavitrz) 
of the gods. ' Impel (influence) this for me !' he said. 
Savity/, as the impeller, accordingly impelled it for 
him, and being thus impelled by Savitrz, it did not 
injure him: and thus it was henceforth appeased. 
This, then, is essentially the same as the fore-portion. 

9. Now when he cuts off the fore-portion, he cuts 
out what is injured in the sacrifice, — what belongs 
to Rudra.. Thereupon he touches water: water is 
(a means) of lustration, hence he lustrates by means 
of water 4 . He now cuts off piece by piece the u/a 6 , 
(which represents) cattle. 

1 .ATaru, in the ordinary sense of the word, is a potful of rice (bar- 
ley, &c.) grains boiled, or rather steamed (antarushmapakva), so as to 
remain whole, as in Indian curry. Cf. Weber, Ind. Stud. IX, p. 216. 

* According to Kaushft. Br. VI, 10, they took it from Pftshan to 
Indra, as the mightiest and strongest of the gods; and he appeased 
it with prayer (brahman); whence the Brahman (in taking the pr&- 
jitra) says, ' Indra is Brahman.' Weber, Ind. Stud. II, p. 307. 

' The consistent use of derivations from one and the same root 
(pra-su) in this and similar passages is, of course, quite as artificial 
in Sanskrit as must be any imitation of it in English. 

4 He thereby averts the evil effects of the act which is connected 
with Rudra, 'the terrible god;' see p. 2, note 2. Besides, the idi 
with which he now proceeds representing the cattle, he thereby 
guards the cattle from the rudriya, cf. above I, 7, 3, 21. 

* See I, 8, 1, 12, 13. 

P 2 



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212 DATAPATH A-BRAHMAJVA. 

10. Let him cut off (for the fore-portion) ever so 
small a piece 1 : thus the dart comes out ; let him 
therefore cut off ever so small a piece. He should 
(according to some) put clarified butter on one side 
only, either below or above: thus that which is hard 
becomes soft and flows forth ; and for this reason he 
should put butter on one side only, either below or 
above. 

ii. Having (nevertheless 2 ) made an underlayer 
of butter 8 and a double cutting from the oblation 
(ha vis), he pours butter on the upper side of it; for 
it is only in this way that this becomes part of the 
sacrifice. 

1 2. Let him not carry it (to the Brahman) along 
the front (east) side (of the Ahavanlya fire) ; (though) 
some, it is true, do carry it along the front side. 
For on the front side stand the cattle facing the 
sacrificer: hence he would impose the power of 
Rudra on the cattle, if he were to carry it along the 
front side, and his (the sacrificer's) household and 
cattle would be overwhelmed. Let him therefore 
cross over in this way (behind the paridhis) ; for thus 
he does not impose Rudra's power on the catde and 
he removes that (dart) sideways 4 . 

1 According to Katy. Ill, 4, 7, the prlritra, or (Brahman's) fore- 
portion, is to be of the size of a barley-corn or a pippala (Ficus 
Religiosa) berry. 

8 There is no indication in the text of two different practices 
being here referred to. The KS»va recension, however, puts in 
here, ' but let him not do so,' which is evidently understood in our 
text also. 

* Viz. in the prdntraharawa, or pan which is to receive the 
Brahman's portion. The hollow part of the vessel is to be either 
of the shape of a (hand-)mirror, i. e. with a round bowl, or of that of 
a fctmasa or jug, i. e. with a square bowl (p. 7, note 1). Katy. I, 
3, 40, 41. On the 'underlayer' of butter, see I, 7, 2, 8. 
. 4 'Tiryag evainaw nirmimite.' I am in doubt as to whether 



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i kAnda, 7 adhyAya, 4 brAhmajva, 17. 213 

13. He (the Brahman) receives 1 it, with the text 
(V&f. S. II, 11 b, c), 'At the impulse (prasava) of 
the divine Savitri I receive thee with the arms of 
the Axvins, with the hands of Pushan 1' 

14. And in like manner as Brzhaspati then hasted 
to Savitri for his impulsion, — for, assuredly, Savitri 
is the impeller of the gods, — and said, 'Impel this for 
me!' and SavitW, the impeller, impelled it for him ; 
and, impelled by Savitri, it did not injure him ; so 
now also this one (the Brahman) hastes to Savitrz 
for his impulsion, — for, assuredly, Savitri is the 
impeller of the gods, — and says ' impel this for me ! ' 
and Savitn, the impeller, impels it for him ; and, im- 
pelled by Savitri, it does not injure him. 

15. He eats 2 the fore-portion, with the text (Va^f. 
S. II, 11 d), 'With Agni's mouth I eat thee!' for 
Agni, assuredly, it does not injure in any way ; and 
so neither does it injure him (the Brahman). 

16. He must not chew it with his teeth: 'lest 
this power of Rudra should injure my teeth!' so 
(he thinks), and therefore he must not chew it with 
his teeth. 

17. He then rinses his mouth with water; — water 
is (a means of) purification : hence he purifies himself 
with water, (that is, a means of) purification. After 
he has rinsed the vessel 8 , — 

enam (which is omitted in the Ka«va text) really refers to Rudra's 
dart. Cf. par. 9. 

1 According to Katy. II, 2, 15, he first looks at it, with the text 
(Vi^. S. p. 58) : ' With Mitra's eye I look on thee !' 

1 According to Katy. II, 2, 17, he previously puts it down on the 
shoulder of the altar, with the text (V&g. S. p. 58), 'I put you down 
on the navel of the earth, in the lap of Aditi !' According to 19, 
however, this is optional (except when the Brahman does not eat 
the prlritra immediately). 

? According to Katy. II, 2, 20, the Brahman, having rinsed the 



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2 1 4 satapatha-brahmawa. 

i 8. They bring him the Brahman's portion \ The 
Brahman, in truth, sits south of the sacrifice, as its 
guardian. He sits facing that portion. As regards 
the fore-portion, that they have already brought to 
him and he has eaten it. In the Brahman's portion 
which they now bring to him, he obtains his own 
share ; and henceforth he watches what remains in- 
complete of the sacrifice : for this reason they bring 
him the Brahman's portion. 

19. He (the Brahman) must maintain silence (from 
the time he takes his seat on being elected) 2 up to 
that speech (of the Adhvaryu), ' Brahman, shall I 
step forward?' Those (priests) who, in the midst of 
the sacrifice, perform the id?a, which represents the 
domestic offerings (pakaya^wa) 3 , tear the sacrifice 
to pieces, injure it. Now the Brahman, assuredly, 
is the best physician: hence the Brahman thereby 
restores the sacrifice ; but, if he were to sit there 
talking, he would not restore it : he must therefore 
maintain silence. 

20. If he should utter any human sound before 
that time, let him there and then mutter some Rik 
or Yafus-text addressed to Vishmi ; for Vish»u is 

vessel [or, according to the comment, the two praritraharana, one 
of which is used as lid to the other], touches his navel, with the 
text (Va#. S.p.58), 'May the deities there are in the waters purify 
thisl Enter the stomach of Indra, being offered with "Haill" 
Mix not with my food 1 Settle down above my navel 1 In Indra's 
stomach I make thee settle 1' 

1 The Brahman's regular portion (brahmabhaga) of the sacrifi- 
cial food is cut, like the prlr itra or fore-portion (which apparently 
he receives as the representative of Bnliaspati), from Agni's cake. 

» See I, 1, 4, 9. 

s According to the scholiast, it represents the pakaya^na or 
domestic (cooked) offerings, because at the latter, as in the idi, the 
remains of the offerings are eaten. 



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i kAyda, 7 adhyAya, 4 brAhmana, 22. 215 

the sacrifice, so that he thereby again obtains a hold 
on the sacrifice : and this is the expiation of that 
(breach of silence). 

2 1. When he (the Adhvaryu) says, ' Brahman, shall 
I step forward ?' the Brahman mutters thus (V&f. 
S. II, 12), 'This thy sacrifice, O divine Savitr?', 
they have announced . . . ,' — thereby he has re- 
course to SavitW for his impulsion (prasava), for 
he is the impeller (prasavitrz) of the gods; — 
'to Brzhaspati, the Brahman,' — for Brz'haspati, 
assuredly, is the Brahman of the gods : hence 
he announces that (sacrifice) to him who is the 
Brahman of the gods ; and accordingly he says, ' to 
B^z'haspati, the Brahman.' — ' Therefore prosper the 
sacrifice, prosper the lord of sacrifice, prosper me ! ' 
In this there is nothing that requires explanation. 

22. [He continues, Va^ - . S. II, 13]: ' May his mind 
delight in the gushing (of the) butter 1 !' By the 
mind, assuredly, all this (universe) is obtained (or 
pervaded, aptam) : hence he thereby obtains this 
All by the mind. — ' May Brzhaspati spread (carry 
through) this sacrifice ! May he restore the sacrifice 
uninjured!' — he thereby restores what was torn 
asunder. — ' May all the gods rejoice here!' — 'all the 
gods,' doubtless, means the All : hence he thereby 
restores (the sacrifice) by means of the All. He 
may add, 'Step forward!' if he choose; or, if he 
choose, he may omit it. 

1 ? ' Mano ^utir [gyotir, Ka«va rec] ^-ushatam a^yasya.' I am 
inclined to read ^uter [cf. Ath.-veda XIX, 58, 1 : ghrrtasya ^uti* 
sam£na]. Mahtdhara interprets : ' May the rushing (eager) mind 
devote itself to the butterl' Hillebrandt, Neu-und Vollmondsopfer, 
P- r 35> apparently proposes to combine mano^utir 'des Geistes 
Schnelligkeit.' Perhaps gush at am has to be taken in a transitive 
sense : ' May the gushing of the butter delight the mind.' 



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2l6 SATAPATHA-BRAHMAYA. 



Eighth Adhyaya. First Brahmaya. 

The IdX. 

i. In the morning they brought to Manu 1 water 

for washing, just as now also they (are wont to) 

bring (water) for washing the hands. When he was 

washing himself, a fish came into his hands. 

2. It spake to him the word, ' Rear me, I will 
save thee !' ' Wherefrom wilt thou save me ?' 'A 
flood will carry away all these creatures 2 : from that 
I will save thee !' ' How am I to rear thee?' 

3. It said, 'As long as we are small, there is 
great destruction for us : fish devours fish. Thou 
wilt first keep me in a jar. When I outgrow 
that, thou wilt dig a pit and keep me in it. When I 
outgrow that, thou wilt take me down to the sea, 
for then I shall be beyond destruction.' 

4. It soon became a gh a s h a (a large fish) ; for that 
grows largest (of all fish) 3 . Thereupon it said, 'In 
such and such a year that flood will come. Thou 

1 For other translations of this important legend of the deluge, 
see A.Weber, Ind. Streifen, I, p. 9 (Ind. Stud. 1, 161 seq.); Max 
Muller, History of Ancient Sanskrit Literature, p. 425; J. Muir, 
Original Sanskrit Texts, I, p. 182. For the later versions of the 
same legend, especially the one from the Mahabharata (Vanaparvan 
1 2747-1 2802), see Original Sanskrit Texts, I, p. 196 seq. 

' According to the scholiast, 'it will carry away all these creatures 
that live in Bharatavarsha to some other country.' 

* ? .Safvad dha ghasha. &sa, sa hi gyeshtham vardhate 'thetithfw 
sama/« tad augha aganlS. ' Bald war er ein Grossfisch (g/iasha), 
denn er wuchs gewaltig,' Weber. ' He became soon a large fish. 
He said to Manu, " When I am full-grown, in the same year the 
flood will come," ' Max Muller. ' Straightway he became a large fish ; 
for he waxes to the utmost,' Muir. Perhaps g/tasha is here 
intended for the name of some fabulous horned fish (cf. w»hgi, 
srihffi). In the Black Yagiir-veda (Taitt. S. I, 7, 1 ; II, 6, 7) the 



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I KANDA, 8 ADHYAYA, I BRAHMAYA, 6. 217 

shalt then attend to me (i. e. to my advice) by preparing 
a ship 1 ; and when the flood has risen thou shalt enter 
into the ship, and I will save thee from it.' 

5. After he had reared it in this way, he took it 
down to the sea. And in the same year which the 
fish had indicated to him, he attended to (the advice 
of the fish) by preparing a ship ; and when the flood 
had risen, he entered into the ship. The fish then 
swam up to him, and to its horn he tied the rope of 
the ship, and by that means he 2 passed swiftly up to 
yonder northern mountain. 

6. It then said, ' I have saved thee. Fasten the 
ship to a tree ; but let not the water cut thee off 8 , 
whilst thou art on the mountain. As the water 

idi is represented as a cow, produced by Mitra and Varcwa (see 
below, par. 24). Perhaps it was this version and the symbolical 
representation of the ida. as meaning cattle, which suggested the 
notion of a horned fish, in adapting an older legend. 

1 I adopt here, though not without hesitation, the interpreta- 
tion proposed in the St. Petersb. Diet (s.v. upa-as), which the 
separation of mam from the verb favours. Professor Max Mttller 
translates : 'Build a ship then, and worship me.' Dr. Muir: 'Thou 
shalt, therefore, construct a ship, and resort to me.' The Maha- 
bharata has : 'When standing on the ship, thou shalt look out for 
m e : I shall be recognisable (by my being) furnished with a horn,' 
which, after all, may furnish the correct explanation of our passage. 

a Or, 'it,' that is, either the ship, or the fish. Thatabhi-dudrava, 
the reading of the Ka«va school, is the right one, seems to follow 
from the next paragraph. Professor Weber's edition has ati-du- 
drava, as read by his best MS., 'it (or he) sailed across the mountain.' 
The reading of the other MSS. adhi-dudrava must be a clerical 
error, most likely for abhi-dudrava. Professor Mtlller translates: 
' The fish carried him by it over the northern mountain.' Dr. Muir : 
' By this means he passed over (or, he hastened to) this northern 
mountain.' 

' AntatMaitsit, ?'cut thee asunder,' Max Mtlller ; 'wash thee 
away;' ' fortsptllt,' Weber; 'abschneiden, intercludere,' St. Petersb. 
Diet. I adopt this last meaning, =' leave thee stranded.' 



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218 satapatha-brAhmajva. 

subsides, thou mayest gradually descend!' Ac- 
cordingly he gradually descended, and hence that 
(slope) of the northern mountain is called ' Manu's 
descent 1 .' The flood then swept away all these 
creatures, and Manu alone remained here. 

7. Being desirous of offspring, he engaged in 
worshipping and austerities. During this time he 
also performed a paka-sacrifice: he offered up in the 
waters clarified butter, sour milk, whey, and curds. 
Thence a woman was produced in a year: becoming 
quite solid 2 she rose; clarified butter gathered in 
her footprint. Mitra and Varu»a met her. 

8. They said to her, ' Who art thou ?' ' Manu's 
daughter,' she replied. 'Say (thou art) ours,' they 
said. ' No,' she said, ' I am (the daughter) of 
him who begat me.' They desired to have a share 
in her. She either agreed or did not agree 3 , but 
passed by them. She came to Manu. 

9. Manu said to her, 'Who art thou?' 'Thy 
daughter,' she replied. ' How, illustrious one, (art 
thou) my daughter?' he asked. She replied, 

1 According to the version of the Mah&bharata, ' the peak of the 
Himalaya to which the ship was tied, was afterwards called nau- 
bandhana, ' the tying of the ship.' Professor Weber also draws 
attention to Ath.-veda XIX, 39, 8, where the term n£vaprabhra«- 
jana or 'gliding down of the ship' is used in connection with the 
summit of the Himavat. 

* Pibdamanaiva, as taken by the St Petersb. Diet, The 
meaning ' dripping with fat, unctuous,' offered by the commentator, 
was probably suggested to him by what follows in the text ; and by 
the cow-version (p. 216, note 3), Taitt. Br. II, 6, 7, 1. 

8 Or, as the commentator takes it, ' she both promised and did 
not promise it;' that is to say, she promised, inasmuch as she 
(Irfa)is called maitr&varuw t (belonging to, or the daughter of, 
Mitra orVaru«a; see XIV, 9, 4, 27), but refused, inasmuch as 
Mitra and Vanwa have no share in the irfa portions. 



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r kXnda, 8 adhyAya, i brAhmajva, 13. 219 

' Those offerings (of) clarified butter, sour milk, whey, 
and curds, which thou madest in the waters, with 
them thou hast begotten me. I am the blessing 
(benediction) : make use of me at the sacrifice ! If 
thou wilt make use of me at the sacrifice, thou wilt 
become rich in offspring and cattle. Whatever 
blessing thou shalt invoke through me, all that shall 
be granted to thee!' He accordingly made use of 
her (as the benediction) in the middle of the sacri- 
fice; for what is intermediate between the fore- 
offerings and the after-offerings, is the middle of 
the sacrifice. 

10. With her he went on worshipping and per- 
forming austerities, wishing for offspring. Through 
her he generated this race, which is this race of 
Manu ; and whatever blessing he invoked through 
her, all that was granted to him. 

11. Now this (daughter of Manu) is essentially 
the same as the ld&; and whosoever, knowing this, 
performs with (the) ldk 1 , he propagates this race 
which Manu generated ; and whatever blessing he in- 
vokes through it (or her), all that is granted to him. 

12. It (the idfa) consists of a fivefold cutting; 
for the iafa, doubtless, means cattle, and cattle con- 
sist of five parts 2 : for this reason it (the id&) consists 
of a fivefold cutting. 

13. When he (the Adhvaryu) has cut off the id& 
piece by piece 3 , and broken off the fore-part of the 

1 I</ayd larati has the double meaning 'lives with I</a (the 
woman)' and 'practices sacrificial rites with the i<£-ceremony.' 

* See p. 16, note 1. 

* The technical expression used for this fivefold cutting of the 
\d& is sam-ava-do, 'to cut off completely (or together),' or, 
according to the St. Petersb. Diet, ' to divide and collect the 



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220 SATAPATHA-BRAHMAtfA. 

cake (for the sacrificer's portion), he puts it (the 
latter) down (on the barhis) before the dhruva- 
spoon. Having then handed over the former (the 
id&) to the Hotri 1 , he passes by him towards the 
south. 

14. He anoints the Hotri here 2 (with clarified 
butter taken from the \d£) ; and with it the Hotri 
anoints his lips, with the text, ' Of thee, offered by the 
lord of the mind, I eat for sap, for out-breathing! ' 

15. He then anoints the Hotri here 2 ; and with 
it the Hotri anoints his lips, with the text, ' Of thee, 
offered by the lord of speech, I eat for strength, for 
in-breathing 1' 

16. At that time, namely, Manu became appre- 
hensive (thinking), ' This (part) of my sacrifice — that 
is, this iafa representing the domestic offering — 
is certainly the weakest : the Rakshas must not 



pieces.' The five cuttings of the idi consist of the upastara«a, 
or underlayer of butter in the id&p&trt; of two cuttings of each 
of the havis (or dishes of sacrificial food) from their southern 
and central parts respectively ; and of two drippings (or bastings, 
abhigh&rawa) of butter, as in the case of the svish/akr»t (see K£ty. 
Ill, 4, 6, and note on I, 7, 3, 20). According to some authorities, 
the idi consists of four cuttings only (cf. Hillebrandt, Neu- und 
Vollm. p. 122). 

1 According to Katy. Ill, 4, 8, 9, he does so without quitting 
his hold of the idi; and he withdraws the latter from the Hotri', 
when he anoints him. 

9 A gesture here indicated the two middle joints (or, according 
toHarisvimin, the intermediate links) of the Hotrfs right fore-finger, 
viz. first the lower joint, and afterwards (par. 15) the upper joint; 
whereupon the Hotrt' applies the respective joints to his lips and 
smears the butter on them, cf. Asv. S. I, 7, 1 ; Kdty. Ill, 4, 9 ; 
Hillebrandt, op. cit, p. 124. In Sal. Br. XII, 2, 4, 5 the fore-finger 
is called anniditami, or the finger 'which eats most food;' cf. 
Weber, Pra%ft&sutra, p. 97. 



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I kXnda, 8 adhyAya, i brAhmajva, 18. 221 

injure my sacrifice at this place.' Accordingly by 
that (butter, taken from the u/a, and smeared on 
his lips) he promoted it (the ida to a safe place, 
thinking), ' Before the Rakshas (come) ! before the 
Rakshas (come) !' And in like manner this one also 
thereby promotes (the ida to a safe place, thinking), 
' Before the Rakshas (come) ! before the Rakshas 
(come)!' And though he does not (at present) eat 
(the id&) visibly, lest he should eat it before it is 
invoked, he nevertheless promotes it (to a safe 
place), when he smears the (butter) on his lips. 

17. He now cuts off piece by piece (the avan- 
tar edSi) in (or, into) the HotWs hand. That which 
is cut up piece by piece he thus makes visibly enter 1 
the Hotri ; and through that which has entered (or 
is cooked in) his own self, the Hotrt invokes a 
blessing on the sacrificer : for this reason he cuts it 
off piece by piece in the Hotrz's hand 2 . 

18. He now calls 3 (the idd) in a low voice. At 
that time, namely, Manu became apprehensive (think- 
ing), ' This (part) of my sacrifice — that is, this iafa 

1 Enam hotari jrayati, literally ' he makes it enter into, remain in, 
the Hotrt'.' The author, however, here, as in I, 6, 4, 7, mixes up the 
verb xri with jra, ' to cook.' The reason for this see p. 177, note 4. 

* This, according to Ajv. St. I, 7, 3, and comm., is effected in 
the following way : the Hotrt' takes the Ma with his joined hands 
(aw^ali) and makes it lie in his left hand; whereupon the Adhvaryu 
cuts the (fivefold cut) avantare</£ from the i<fa into the Hotrt 's 
right hand, the fingers of which point northwards ; the five cuttings 
apparently consist of the 'underlayer' of butter, two pieces cut 
from the i</a, and drippings of butter on them. Cf. HiUebrandt, 
op. cit., p. 125. 

* During the invocation of the Wa the Hotrt holds the butter 
(as well as the avantare</a), and the other priests (except the 
Brahman) and the sacrificer touch the i<& (or, according to Karka, 
the Hotrt). Katy. Ill, 4, 11. 12. 



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222 DATAPATH A-BRAH M AtfA. 

representing the domestic offerings — is certainly the 
weakest : the Rakshas must not injure my sacrifice 
at this place.' He accordingly called it to him in 
a low voice (thinking), ' Before the Rakshas (come) ! 
before the Rakshas (come)!' And in like manner 
this one (the Hotrt) thereby calls it (thinking), 
' Before the Rakshas (come) 1 before the Rakshas 
(come) !' 

19. He calls thus (in a low voice) 1 , ' Hither is 
called the Rathantara (chant), together with the 
earth : may the Rathantara, together with the earth, 
call me 2 ! Hither is called the Vamadevya (chant), 
together with the atmosphere: may the Vamadevya, 
together with the atmosphere, call me! Hither is 
called the BWhat (chant), together with the sky: 
may the Br* hat, together with the sky, call me!' 
In thus calling her (the Iafa) to him, he calls to him 
both these (three) worlds and those chants 3 . 

20. ' Hither are called the cows*, together with 'the 

1 There are considerable differences between the text of the 
Hotrc"s call to the idi as here given and that given in Ajv. S. 1, 7, 7. 
The text of the Black Yagnr-veda (Taitt. Br. Ill, 5, 8 ; Taitt. S. 
II, 6, 7 ; I, 7, 1), on the other hand, only differs from ours in one 
or two points. According to Ajv. 5. 1, 5, 28, the calls are to be 
uttered in the highest pitch (cf. Hillebrandt, Neu- und Vollmonds- 
opfer, p. 126, note). 

* Viz. the Hotr?", as the representative of the officiating priests. 
Schol. 

8 On the rathantara and brthat sdmans, see p. 196, note 2. 
The v&madevya sSman is Sa'ma-veda II, 32-34 : kayS. na* £itra 
& bhuvad uti sadaWdhaA sakhS, ' with what favour will he assist 
us, the wonderful, ever-gladdening, friend,' &c. Cf. Haug, Ait. 
Br. II, 246. 

* For upahutd g&vzA, the Taitt reads upahflta* dhenuA, 
* called hither is the cow.' AjvaL St. has upahuti g&vaA sahiriraA — 
upahuta* dhenuA sahartshabhi. Here and after the succeeding 
calls we have apparently to supply the inverse formulas, 'May 



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i kXnda, 8 adhyAya, i brAhmaya, 24. 223 

bull!' — the idi., assuredly, means cattle: hence it is 
her he thereby calls in an indirect (mystic) way; 
(and in saying), 'together with the bull/ he calls her 
together with her mate. 

21. ' Hither is called (ld&) by that (sacrifice) which 
is performed by the seven HotWsl' — he thereby 
calls her by the Soma-sacrifice performed by the 
seven HotWs 1 . 

22. 'Hither is called ld&, the conquering!' — he 
thereby calls her directly. 'Conquering' he says, 
because she overcomes evil, and for that reason he 
calls her ' the conquering.' 

23. ' Hither is called the friend, the food 2 !' — the 
friend, the food, doubtless, means breath : hence 
he thereby calls hither the breath. ' Hither is called 
the Hek 3 !' — he thereby calls hither the body (of 
idiL), he thereby calls hither the entire (ida). 

24. He now intones (in a loud voice): 'I</4 is 
called hither! Hither (thither) is called ld&\ May 
\dt also call us to her!' In saying, ' Idfa is called 

the cows together with the bull call us,' &c, as in Taitt. Br., they 
being likewise omitted in Taitt S. II, 6, 7. 

1 The seven Horn's comprise the Hotr» with his assistants, the 
Maitravaruwa (or Prasistri), and A££Aavaka ; and the chief assistants 
of the Brahman, viz. the Brahma»a£Wa»isin, Agntdhra, Potr»', and 
Nesh/r*'. The Gravastut, another assistant of the Hotr*', is often 
added as eighth Hotr». Cf. Haug, Ait. Br. II, p. 147. Instead of 
upahuta saptahotrd in our text, the Kawva text and the Black 
Ya^ur-veda read upahuta A saptahotraA, 'called hither are the 
seven Hotrtships;' Axval. St. upahuta divya sapta hotaraA, 
' called hither are the seven divine Hotri's.' 

' Bhaksha, 'the eating, enjoying;' perhaps the author here 
takes it in the sense of ' feeder,' in that of ' eater, quaffer ; ' Sayawa, 
on Taitt. S. II, 6, 7, 3, takes it as Soma-drink (somapttha). 

' Apparently, like hikk4 (verb hikk), imitative of the internal 
sound of the hiccough. The Kanva MS. has harik instead; and 
the Black Ya^us ho, which it identifies with the self (it man). 



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224 satapatha-brAhmajva. 

hither,' he, in a direct way, calls her, who is thereby 
called hither, as being what she really was : a cow, 
assuredly, she was, and a cow is four-footed; and 
therefore he calls her four times l . 

25. But in calling her four times, he calls her 
in different ways, in order to avoid repetition (of 
sacrificial performance) ; for, if he were to call, ' Ida 
is called hither! Ida is called hither!' or 'Hither 
is called Ida! hither is called Ida!' he would indeed 
commit the (fault of) repetition. By saying, ' Ida is 
called hither!' he calls her hitherwards; and by 
' Hither (or thither, lit. called to somebody) is called 
Ida !' he calls her thitherwards. By saying, ' May 
Ida also call us to her,' he does not omit himself, 
and, besides, it (the formula) is changed. By (the 
second), 'Ida is called hither!' he again calls her 
hitherwards ; so that he thereby (and by the second, 
' Hither is called Ida,' again) calls her hitherwards 
and thitherwards. 

26. ' Manu's daughter, the butter-pathed (ghrz'ta- 
padf);' — Manu, indeed, begat her of old: for this 
reason he says, ' Manu's daughter.' ' The butter- 
pathed' he says, because butter gathered in her foot- 
print : therefore he calls her ' butter-pathed.' 

27. And further, 'She who belongs to Mitra and 
Vanma;' — this 'Maitravaru«a nature' (is hers), 
because she met Mitra and Varu«a*. — 'She, the 
god-fashioned one, is called hither as the Brahman 8 ; 1 

1 After 'May Idi also call us to her/ he repeats 'ld& is called 
hither] Called hither (thither) is Ml' 

* See I, 8, 1, 7-8, with note 3. 

* Brahma devakr/topahM ; the Black Ya,fur-veda and Ami. .Sr. 
read 'brahma devakmam upahutam.' Cf. Taitt S. I, 7, 1, 5, 
brahma vai devanam bnhaspatiA. 



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I KA-iVDA, 8 ADHYAYA, I BRAHMAiVA, 29. 225 

for she, the god-fashioned one, is indeed called hither 
as their Brahman. — ' Hither are called the divine 
Adhvaryus, called hither the human !' — he thereby 
calls both the divine Adhvaryus and those that 
are human: the divine Adhvaryus indeed are the 
calves 1 (vatsa//), and what others there are, are 
the human ones. 

28. ' — They who are to prosper this sacrifice, 
they who are to prosper the lord of sacrifice.' Those 
Brahma»as, who have studied and teach the Veda, 
assuredly prosper the sacrifice, since they spread 
(perform) and produce it: these he thereby pro- 
pitiates. And the calves also assuredly make the 
lord of sacrifice prosper; for the lord of sacrifice 
who possesses abundance of them, does indeed pros- 
per; for this reason he says, 'They who are to prosper 
the lord of sacrifice.' 

29. ' Hither are called the primeval, law-abiding- 
divine (fern.) heaven and earth, whose sons are 
gods.' He thereby calls to him those two, heaven 
and earth, within which all this (universe) is em- 
braced. — ' Hither is called this sacrificer :' thereby 
he calls the sacrificer to him. Why he does not 
mention his name on this occasion, is that this is a 
mysterious benediction on the ida. Were he, on 
the contrary, to mention the name, he would do 
what is human, and the human certainly is inaus- 
picious at the sacrifice : hence he does not mention 



1 ? The commentator remarks : ' He says, The divine Adhvaryus 
assuredly are the calves,' because, in his opinion, the sinnayya 
constitutes the sacrificial food which contains the Adhvaryus (havis — 
adhvaryuvat). In 1, 1, 2, 17 we met with the A-rvins as the two 
divine Adhvaryus. 

[13] Q 



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226 SATAPATHA-BRAHMAtfA. 

the name, lest he should do what is inauspicious at 
the sacrifice l . 

30. ' Hither (he is) called for future worship of 
the gods;' he thereby in a mysterious manner 
invokes the blessing of life on this (sacrificer) ; for 
as he sacrificed heretofore> so, while living, he will 
sacrifice hereafter. 

31. Moreover, he thereby in a mysterious manner 
invokes the blessing of offspring for him ; for who- 
soever has offspring, — while he, on his part, goes to 
yonder world, his offspring sacrifice in this world : 
hence future worship of the gods means offspring. 

32. Moreover, he thereby in a mysterious manner 
invokes the blessing of cattle for him ; for whosoever 
has cattle, will sacrifice hereafter, as he has sacrificed 
heretofore. 

33. 'Hither (he is) called for more abundant havis- 
•offering ;' he thereby in a mysterious manner invokes 

the blessing of life on him ; for as he has sacrificed 
heretofore, so while living will he hereafter again 
and again make offerings. 

34. Moreover, he thereby in a mysterious manner 
invokes the blessing of offspring for this (sacrificer) ; 
for whosoever possesses offspring, — though he, of 
his own self, be one only, yet that offering is made 
tenfold by his offspring : hence offspring means more 
abundant offering. 

35. Moreover, he thereby in a mysterious manner 
invokes the blessing of cattle for him ; for whoso- 
ever possesses cattle, will make offering again and 
again, as he has sacrificed heretofore. 

36. This then is the benediction (implied in these 
formulas), ' May I live, may I have offspring, may 

1 With this and the following paragraphs cf. I, 9, 1, 12 seq. 

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i kAjvda, 8 adhyAya, i brAhmajva, 39. 227 



I obtain prosperity!' Now in praying for the 
blessing of cattle, he prays for prosperity ; for cattle 
means prosperity : hence through these two benedic- 
tions everything is obtained ; and therefore these 
two benedictions are here pronounced. 

37. [He continues to call], ' Hither (he is) called 
to this (sacrifice, for the prayer 1 ), "May the gods 
graciously accept this my offering (ha vis)!'" he 
thereby invokes complete success on the sacrifice ; 
for what offering the gods graciously accept, by that 
one gains great things: for this reason he says, 'may 
they graciously accept 2 .' 

38. They (the priests and sacrificer) eat it (the 
u/a), and do not offer it up in the fire ; for assuredly 
the idi. means cattle : hence they do not offer it 
in the fire, lest they should throw the cattle into 
the fire. 

39. In the vital airs rather it is offered, partly 
in the Hotri, partly in the Sacrificer, partly in the 
Adhvaryu. Now, when he has broken off the fore- 
part of the (Agni) cake, he places it before the 
dhruva-spoon. But the dhruva represents the 
sacrificer : hence this will be eaten by the sacrificer. 
And if he does not now visibly eat it, lest he should 
eat before the sacrifice is completed, it nevertheless 
is now (symbolically) eaten by him. All of them 



1 See Sayawa's comm. on Taitt. S. II, 6, 7, 6. 

* Before this formula the Black Ya^ur-veda inserts, ' Called (he 
is) to the heavenly abode 1' and after it as the final formula, 'All 
that is dear to him (the sacrificer) is called I Called (he is) of (?by) 
everything dear that is called 1' Taitt. Br. Ill, 5, 9, 3. For the 
modifications of the concluding mantras in the case of the idi 
being invoked for the mistress of the house (5at. Br. I, 9, 2, 5), see 
Taitt. Br. Ill, 5, 13. 

Q 2 



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228 SATAPATHA-BRAHMAJVA. 

eat (of the idt): 'May it be offered for me in all!' 
thus (he thinks). Five eat of it, — the id& indeed 
means cattle, and cattle are fivefold : hence five 
eat of it. 

40. Now when he (the Hotri) intones (in a loud 
voice) 1 , he (the Adhvaryu) divides the (Agni) cake 
into four parts, and lays it on the barhis (the sacri- 
ficial grass covering the altar). Here it lies in place 
of the fathers ; for there are four intermediate 
quarters, and the intermediate quarters represent 
the fathers : for this reason he divides the cake into 
four parts, and lays it on the barhis 2 . 

1 Viz. 'I<& is called hither!' see par. 24. According to KSty. 
Ill, 4, 1 2, all (the other priests and the sacrificcr, probably with 
the exception of the Brahman) touch the Wa (or, according to 
Karka, they touch the Hotr* who holds the \dS) whilst the invoca- 
tion of the \di takes place. The quartering of the cake, according 
to ib. 13, is done with the text, 'Make swell, O ruddy onel milk 
me life ; milk me offspring ; milk me cattle ; milk me brahmahood ; 
milk me kshatriyahood ; milk me people ! Fatten through the pro- 
geny, through the cattle of him who hates us, whom we hateP 

9 According to Katy. Ill, 4, 14, the Adhvaryu puts the four 
parts on the barhis and assigns one to each priest. But according 
to the commentary and to other Sutras, it is the sacrificer who 
allocates the portions by laying them down so as to correspond 
with the four intermediate regions, commencing in the south-east 
(or Agni's) region, and saying, 'This for the Brahman," This for the 
Hotr;',' ' This for the Adhvaryu,' ' This for the Agnfdh.' The sacri- 
ficer then shifts his Brihmanical cord from the right to the left 
shoulder, and while touching the four portions, and looking towards 
the south (the region of the fathers), murmurs (Va^-. S. II, 31),' Here, 
O fathers, regale yourselves 1 Like bulls come hither (avmhaya- 
dhvam) each to his own share!' He then quits his hold of the 
portions, and murmurs, ' The fathers have regaled themselves : like 
bulls they came each to his own share ! ' See .Sat. Br. II, 4, 2, 20 seq. ; 
V&g. S. p. 57. [The Kawva text of the Brahmata does not mention 
the formulas here any more than does our author.] He then shifts 
the cord back on his left shoulder, touches water, and hands the 
portions to the priests for them to eat. Katy. Ill, 4, 16-18. 



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I KXNDA, 8 ADHYAYA, I BRAHMAtfA, 43. 229 

41. And when he recites, 'Hither are called heaven 
and earth,' he hands it (the shadfavatta 1 ) to the 
Agnldhra. The Agnldhra eats (the two pieces), 
with the respective texts (Vdf. S. II, io-i i), ' Hither 
is called mother Earth ; may mother Earth call me 
to her ! Agni (am I) by virtue of my Agnidhraship. 
Hail!' 'Hither is called father Heaven; may father 
Heaven call me to him ! Agni (am I) by virtue of 
my Agnidhraship. Hail!' He, the Agnldhra, truly 
is the representative of heaven and earth, and there- 
fore he eats (the shadavatta) in this manner. 

42. And when (the Hotri) pronounces the bene- 
diction 2 , then (the sacrificer) mutters (V&g: S. 1 1, 10 a), 
' May Indra bestow on me that power of his ! may 
abundant riches accrue to us ! may there be blessings 
for us ! may there be true blessings for us ! ' For 
indeed this is a receiving of blessings : hence what 
blessings the priests on this occasion invoke on him, 
those he thereby receives and makes his own. 

43. [On the conclusion of the invocation and the 
eating 3 ] they cleanse themselves (with water poured) 

1 K&ty. St. Ill, 4, 19. There is some uncertainty as to the 
particular time when the Adhvaryu cuts the sha</avatt,a; cf. 
Hillebrandt, p. 123. Mahidhara on V&g. S. II, 10 remarks: When 
the Hotr» pronounces the call to heaven and earth, then he (the 
Adhvaryu), having put one piece of each of the two cakes in 
(the two bowls of) the SlWavatta (vessel), gives it to the Agnidh ; 
and the latter eats it with the formulas ' Hither is called (the mother 
Earth),' &c. The ' six cuttings' of the Sharfavatta consist of a piece 
of the Agni cake with an ' underlayer ' and a dripping of butter for 
each of the two bowls of the Sha</avatta dish. 

* That is, the formula 'Hither is called the sacrificer,' see par. 29. 

' The priests eat first their quarter of the cake and then, with the 
sacrificer, their share of the idL The Hotr;' eats also the avSn- 
tare<fa, with the text (ksv. S. I, 7, 8), 'O ld&, accept graciously our 
share 1' &c. 



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23O DATAPATH A-BRAHMAiVA. 

through the two strainers (pavitra, ' purifier'). For 
they have now performed the irfa, which represents 
the domestic offerings ; and thinking, ' Purified by 
the purifiers we will now perform what part of the 
sacrifice remains still unaccomplished,' they cleanse 
themselves with the strainers. 

44. He (the Adhvaryu) then throws the two 
strainers on the prastara \ The prastara, doubtless, 
represents the sacrificer, and the two strainers the 
out-breathing and in-breathing: hence he thereby 
invokes out-breathing and in-breathing on the sacri- 
ficer ; and for this reason he throws the strainers on 
the prastara. 

Second BrAhmaata. 

The After-Offerings (AnutAgas). 

i. They now remove two burning samidhs (from 
the Ahavanlya fire). That fire, indeed, is now worn 
out, (and therefore useless) for the after-offerings, 
since it has been carrying the sacrifice to the gods : 
' Let us perform the after-offerings in such (fire) as 
is not out-worn !' thus they think, and for this reason 
they remove those two burning samidhs (from the 
fire). 

2. Thereupon they again move them close (to the 
fire). Thereby they cause the fire to increase again 
and to be no longer out-worn : ' Let us perform 
what part of the sacrifice remains still unaccom- 
plished in such (fire) as is not out-worn ! ' so think 
they, and for this reason they again move them 
close (to the fire). 

3. He (the Agnidhra) then puts on the kindling- 

1 See I, 3, 2, 5 seq. The KSwva text omits this paragraph. 



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i kXnda, 8 adhyAya, 2 brAhmajva, 5. 231 

stick (which was reserved at the time of kindling) '. 
He thereby kindles that (fire): ' Let us perform in the 
well-kindled (fire) what part of the sacrifice remains 
unaccomplished ! ' thus he thinks, and for this reason 
he puts on the samidh. 

4. The Hot*-*' consecrates it (the kindling-stick), 
with the formula (Vif. S. II, 14a), 'This, O Agni, 
is thy kindler; mayest thou grow and increase by 
it ; and may we also grow and increase !' for even as 
before he recited over the fire when it was being 
kindled, so also now he recites. This is the Hotrt's 
duty; but the sacrificer himself may pronounce the 
consecratory formula, if he think that the Hotrt does 
not know it 2 . 

5. He (the Agnidhra) then sweeps (the fire) to- 
gether. He thereby harnesses it : ' Thus harnessed, 
may it convey (to the gods) what part of the sacrifice 
still remains unaccomplished !' thus he thinks, and 
for this reason he sweeps it together. He sweeps 

1 See I, 4, 1, 38. The Adhvaryu takes the fresh stick (samidh), 
asks the permission of the Brahman to step forward for the after- 
offerings ; and orders the Agnidhra to put the stick on, and trim, 
the fire. Whilst the Brahman mutters his formula (Vi^. S. II, 
12-13), 'This thy sacrifice, O divine Savitr/, they proclaimed to 
Br/Tiaspati, the Brahman,' &c. (see 1, 7, 4, 2 1), the Agnidhra executes 
the Adhvaryu's orders. K&ty. Ill, 5, 1 ; II, 2, 21. 

2 That is to say (as would appear), if the Hotr/' follows a school 
which does not recognise this particular ceremony as belonging to 
theHot/Y's ritual. Thus the Afval. Sr. makes no mention of it, and 
hence a Hotrt belonging to the .Sakala or Bishkala ^akhas 
would not undertake the recitation of this consecratory formula. 
The .Sankhay. St., on the other hand, does prescribe it (cf. 
Hillebrandt, Neu- und Vollm. p. 135, note 4), and a Hotrt of the 
Kaushitaki-jakha would accordingly claim it as his privilege or 
duty to consecrate the samidh. For a somewhat different view, 
cf. Weber, Ind. Stud. X, 155; V, 408. 



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232 DATAPATH A-BRAHMA^A. 

once (with the band of the fire-wood along each 
of the three enclosing-sticks); for thrice each time 
they swept for the gods on the former occasion 1 : 
' Lest we should do it in the same way as for the 
gods;' thus he thinks, and accordingly he sweeps 
once each time in order to avoid repetition (of sacri- 
ficial performance). Repetition he would undoubtedly 
commit, if he were to sweep thrice the first time and 
thrice the second : for this reason he sweeps once 
(along each stick). 

6. He sweeps (each time), with the formula (Va^ - . 
S. II, 14 b), 'O Agni, food-gainer, I cleanse thee, 
the food-gainer, who hast hastened to the food !' On 
the former occasion he said, 'thee who art about 
to hasten (to the food),' for on that occasion he was 
indeed about to hasten thither; now, however, he 
says, ' who hast hastened (to the food),' for now he 
has indeed hastened thither : for this reason he says 
4 thee who hast hastened.' 

7. He now makes the after-offerings. Whatever 
gods he invokes by means of this sacrifice, and for 
whichever of them this sacrifice is performed, to all 
offering has now been made ; and to all those to 
whom offering has been made, he now, after that, 
offers once more : hence the name 'after-offerings.' 

8. Now this is why he makes the after-offerings. 
The after-offerings assuredly are the metres 2 , and 
the metres are the cattle of the gods : hence as 
cattle, when harnessed, here convey (burdens) for 
men, so in like manner the metres, being harnessed, 

1 See I, 4,4, 14. While, on the former occasion, the Agntdhra 
in sweeping moved round the fire, on the present occasion he 
remains standing on the north side of it. Katy. Ill, 5, 4. 

2 See I, 3, 2, 8, 9. 



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I KANDA., 8 ADHYAYA, 2 BRAHMAiVA, 12. 233 

convey the sacrifice to the gods. Now the occasion 
on which the metres gratified the gods, and for 
which the gods, in their turn, then gratified the 
metres, was when before this the metres, on being 
harnessed, conveyed the sacrifice to the gods and 
thereby gratified them. 

9. And this again is why he makes the after- 
offerings. The after-offerings are the metres : hence 
he thereby gratifies the metres, and for this reason 
also he makes the after-offerings. By whatever 
team, therefore, he has himself drawn, that (team) 
he would thereby unyoke, saying, ' Give it to drink, 
feed it well!' and thus his team is propitiated. 

10. In the first place he makes offering to the 
Barhis (sacrificial -grass covering). Though the 
smallest metre, the gayatri is yoked first of the 
metres 1 ; and this on account of its strength, since, 
having become a falcon, it carried off the Soma from 
heaven 2 . They consider it unseemly, however, that 
the gayatri, being the smallest metre, should be 
yoked first of the metres ; and the gods accordingly 
arranged the metres here, at the after-offerings, so 
as it ought to be, ' lest there should be a confusion.' 

11. In the first place, then, he offers to the 
Barhis. The Barhis indeed is this world; the 
Barhis is the plants : hence he thereby bestows 
plants on this world, and these plants are firmly 
rooted in this world. Now this entire universe 
(fagat) is contained in this (metre), and therefore 
the latter is (called) ^agatl : this is why they have 
placed the ^agatl metre first. 

12. In the second place he offers to Narasawsa. 

1 See, for instance, I, 3, 4, 6. 

2 For this myth, see I, 7, 1, 1. 



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234 DATAPATH A- BRAllMAJVA. 

Now, Nar&ra/wsa is the air. Man (nara), namely, 
means (human) being ; and these same beings move 
about in the air speaking aloud. And when he 
(man) speaks, they .say 'he chants (sa.ms);' and 
therefore NarAyawzsa is the air 1 . But the trish/ubh 
also is the air 2 , and for this reason they have placed 
the trish/ubh second. 

13. Then Agni is the last (to whom offering is 
made). Agni assuredly is the gayatrl; and there- 
fore they placed the gayatri last. In this way they 
established the metres in complete and proper order ; 
and hence no confusion here takes place. 

14. The Adhvaryu 8 says (to the Hotri), 'Pro- 
nounce the offering-prayer (yAfyi) to the gods!' 
and the Hotri (begins his prayer) at all (the three 
offerings) with ' The divine . . . .' For the metres as- 
suredly are the gods of the gods, since they are 
their cattle, and cattle means a home, and a home 
is a safe resting-place. The after-offerings, doubtless, 
are the metres : therefore the Adhvaryu says, ' Pro- 
nounce the offering-prayer to the gods!' and at all 
of them the Hotri begins with ' The divine ...*.' 

1 That is, because man (nara) speaks, chants (ramsati) in it 

* Either because both are in the middle (viz. the trish/ubh of the 
three chief metres, and the air between heaven and earth), or because 
they consist of eleven parts (viz. the trish/ubh of eleven syllables, 
and the air having ten directions, Sat Br. VI, 2, 2, 34 ; VIII, 4, 
2, 13, with itself as the eleventh), or because they are both con- 
nected with Rudra. Comm. 

' As on previous occasions, the Adhvaryu first calls on the 
Agnfdhra, ' Bid (Agni) hear (o jravaya) !' and the latter responds 
by 'Yea, may (he) hear (astu frausha/)!' This is repeated before 
each of the two other after-offerings. See I, 5, 2, 16. 

4 The drift of the argument of this paragraph is not quite clear to 
me. The after-offerings have for their deities the metres, and hence 
the latter are apparently called the deities of the deities, that is, of the 



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I KkNDA, 8 ADHYAYA, 2 BRAHMAJVA, 1 6. 235 

1 5. ['The divine Barhis (or Narlrawsa) may accept 
(the offering)] for abundant obtainment of abundant 
gift! [Vausha/!]' For a deity only the vasha/-call 
is pronounced, to a deity only offering is made ; 
but here at the after-offerings there is no (proper) 
deity \ When he says ' The divine Barhis,' in this 
there is neither Agni, nor Indra, nor Soma ; when 
he says ' The divine Nara^awsa,' neither is there 
in this anything whatever (of the nature of a god) ; 
and what Agni there is (in the third offering-prayer), 
he indeed is virtually the gayatrl. 

16. The reason, then, why he offers with the 
formula ' for abundant obtainment of abundant gift V 

recipients of the offerings. The difference between the fore-offer- 
ings and after-offerings in regard to the offering-formula lies in this, 
that at the first fore-offering the Adhvaryu, in calling on the Hotr», 
names the particular object of the offering, viz. ' Pronounce the offer- 
ing-prayer to the samidhs!' while for the remaining prayS^as he 
merely calls ' Pronounce the offering-prayer 1' and the Hotr»" begins 
all his prayers (after the introductory Sgur-formula) with the name 
of the respective recipient of the oblation. At the after-offering, on 
the other hand, the Adhvaryu calls each time, ' Pronounce the 
offering-prayer to the gods' (or, according to Katy. Ill, 5, 8, 
optionally without ' to the gods,' the second and third times), and 
the Hotr/'s prayers begin with ' The divine (Barhis, or Narlrawsa, 
or Agni Svish/akr»'t). . . .' See I, 5, 3, 8 seq. 

1 Agni Svish/akn't, the recipient of the third after-offering, is, as 
we saw, regarded as representing the gSyatri metre. 

* Vasuvane vasudheyasya (vetu); perhaps better, as Sdyana, 
on Taitt. S. II, 6, 9, takes it, ' May he partake of the gift of wealth 
for the (sacrificer's) obtainment of wealth.' 'For the wealth- 
desirer of wealth-gift '= 'for the desirer of wealth-possession,' 
St. Petersb. Diet. Our author apparently takes it in the sense of 
' for the obtainer of wealth and for the receiver of wealth ;' and 
Mahfdhara (Vig. S. XXII, 48; XXVIII, 12) interprets it 'for the 
giving (or obtainment) of wealth and for the depositing of treasure 
(i. e. for burying a treasure in the sacrificer's house 1)' HarisvSmin 
takes vasuvane as vocative; but the accent is against his view. 



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236 SATAPATHA-BRAHMA2VA. 

is that Agni is the obtainer of wealth, and Indra is 
the recipient of wealth ; and Indra and Agni are 
indeed the (joint) divinity of the metres : and in this 
way it is for a deity that the vasha/ is pronounced, 
and to a deity that the offering is made. 

1 7. After he has made the last after-offering, he 
pours together (the butter which remains in the 
upabhrzt with that which attaches to the ^uhu), 
and offers it (by pouring it from the ^uhu in a line 
from west to east into the fire). For doubtless these 
are the after-offerings to the fore-offerings : hence 
even as there, at the fore-offerings 1 , he makes the 
spiteful enemy pay tribute to the sacrificer, and the 
one to be consumed pay tribute to the consumer; 
so now he makes him pay tribute at the after- 
offerings. 

Third BrAhma^a. 
SCktavaka, .Saa/yuvaka, and Offering of Remains*. 
I. He now separates the two spoons (^uhu and 
upabhm), with the text (Va.f. S. II, 15a), 'May 
I be victorious after the victory of Agni and Soma ! 
with the impetus of the (sacrificial) food I urge 
myself on.' With his right hand he moves the^uhu 
eastwards (from its usual place on the prastara-bunch 
upon the altar), with the text (ib. b), ' May Agni 
and Soma drive him away who hates us, and whom 

1 See I, 5, 3, 18. 

* The whole of the third. Brihmawa is taken up with the duties 
of the Adhvaryu and Agnidhra at the three ceremonies : paragraphs 
1-19 with those at the suktav&ka; pars. 20-22 with those at the 
ja/rcyuvaka; and pars. 23-27 with those at the offering of the 
remains (sa«srava) of butter. The duties of the Hotr/ are then 
detailed in the fourth Brahmana. 



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i kXnda, 8 adhyAya, 3 brAhmava, 4. 237 

we hate ! with the impetus of the (sacrificial) food 
I drive him away.' With his left hand he moves 
the upabhrzt westwards (from its place on the 
barhis to outside the altar) : — Thus, if the sacrificer 
himself (does it) 1 . 

2. And if the Adhvaryu (does it, he says), ' May 
this sacrificer be victorious after the victory of Agni 
and Soma ! with the impetus of the food I urge 
him on ;' and, 'May Agni and Soma drive him away 
whom this sacrificer hates, and who hates him ! with 
the impetus of the food I drive him away.' Thus 
he does at the full-moon sacrifice, because the full- 
moon offering belongs to Agni and Soma. 

3. At the new-moon sacrifice, on the other hand, 
he uses the texts (ib. c, d), ' May I be victorious after 
the victory of Indra and Agni 2 ! with the impetus 
of the food I urge myself on;' and, ' May Indra and 
Agni drive him away who hates us, and whom we 
hate! with the impetus of the food I drive him 
away :' — Thus, if the sacrificer himself does it. 

4. And if the Adhvaryu (does it, he says), ' May 
this sacrificer be victorious after the victory of Indra 
and Agni ! with the impetus of the food I urge him 
on;' and, 'May Indra and Agni drive him away 
whom this sacrificer hates, and who hates him ! with 
the impetus of the food I drive him away.' Thus 
he says at the new-moon sacrifice, because the new- 



1 In Taitt. Br. Ill, 3, 9 a different symbolical explanation is 
given of the separation of the spoons: it is said there that by 
shifting the ^uhu eastwards, he drives away the enemies that have 
been born ; and by shifting the upabhrrt towards the west, he drives 
away those that will be born hereafter; and the sacrificer then 
stands firmly established in this world. 

* See p. 162, note 3. 



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238 satapatha-brAhmava. 

moon offering belongs to Indra and Agni. And in 
this manner he separates (the spoons) according 
to the respective deities. This is why he thus 
separates them : 

5. Behind the ^uhu stands the sacrificer, and 
behind the upabhrz't stands he who means evil to 
him : hereby, then, he brings the sacrificer forward 
to the front (or east), and the one who means evil 
him he drives back (or towards the west). Behind 
the ^uhu stands the eater (enjoyer), and behind the 
upabhrzt the one to be eaten (enjoyed): thus he 
now brings the eater (enjoyer) to the front, and the 
one to be eaten (enjoyed) he drives back. 

6. Thus the separation (of the eater and the 
eaten) is effected in one and the same act ; and hence 
from one and the same man spring both the enjoyer 
(the husband), and the one to be enjoyed (the wife) : 
for now kinsfolk.(fatya^)live sporting and rejoicing 
together, saying, ' In the fourth (or) third man (i. e. 
generation) we unite V And this is so in accordance 
with that (separation of the spoons). 



1 This passage is of considerable importance, as showing that 
the prohibition of intermarriage between near blood-relations, — so 
rigidly enforced in later times, and already formulated in passages 
such as Apast. Dharm. II, 5, 15, 16, 'One must not give one's 
daughter to a man belonging to the same gotra. Nor to one related 
(within six degrees) on the mother's (or father's) side.' Gobh. 
Ill, 4, 3-5, 'One must take for one's wife one who is not of the 
same gotra, or one who is not sapint/a to one's mother,' — was not 
as yet firmly established in our author's time. Harisvdmin remarks 
on our text, that the Kfinvas allow intermarriage in such cases 
from the third generation — (the Ka»va text of the Sat Br. reads, 
' In the third man we unite, in the fourth man we unite ') — and the 
Saurash/ras from the fourth generation; and that the Dakshi- 
»&tyas allow marriage with daughters of the mother's brother, 



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i kAjvda, 8 adhyAya, 3 brahmava, 10. 239 

7. Thereupon (the Adhvaryu) anoints the en- 
closing-sticks (paridhi) with (the butter attaching 
to) the g\x h u. With that (spoon) with which he has 
made offering to the gods, with which he has con- 
cluded the sacrifice, he thus gratifies the enclosing- 
sticks : this is why he anoints them with the .fuhu. 

8. He anoints them (successively) 1 , with the texts 
(Vif. S. II, 16 a-c), ' For the Vasus thee !' 'For the 
Rudras thee!' ' For the Adityas thee !' For these — 
to wit, the Vasus, Rudras, and Adityas — are three 
(classes of) gods : ' for them (I anoint) thee,' he 
thereby says. 

9. Thereupon, taking hold of the (middle) en- 
closing-stick, he calls (on the Agnldhra) to bid (them) 
listen 2 : thus (i.e. by touching the paridhi) it is for 
the enclosing-sticks that he calls for the srausha/. 
The ^raushaAcall assuredly is the sacrifice : hence 
he thereby expressly gladdens the enclosing-sticks 
by means of the sacrifice : for this reason he calls 
for the jrausha/, while taking hold of the enclosing- 
stick. 

10. Having called for the srausha/ (and been 
responded to by the Agnldhra), he thus addresses (the 
Hotrz), 'The divine Hotrz's 3 are summoned — ,' the 
divine Wotris, namely, are (represented by) these 

and with sons of the father's sister. See Weber, Ind. Stud. X, p. 75; 
Max M tiller, History of Ancient Sanskrit Literature, p. 387 ; Btlhler, 
Sacred Laws of the Aryas, I, p. 126. 

1 Viz. in the order in which they were laid around, i. e. first the 
middle one, then the southern, and lastly the northern one. K&ty. 
Ill, 5, 24. 

1 The Adhvaryu calls on the Agnldhra with ' Make listen (o si&- 
vaya) ; and the latter responds with ' Yea, may (one) listen 1 (astu 
xrausha/). See I, 5, 2, 18 seq. 

* SSyawa on Taitt. S. 1, 1, 13 explains this by 'Impelled are the 
divine Hotns by the highest Lord (paramejvara).' 



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240 ' satapatha-brAhmajva. 

enclosing-sticks, since these are Agnis (fires) 1 . 
When he says, ' the divine Hotrz's are summoned 
(ishita),' he means to say, 'the divine Hotrz's are 
wished for (ish^a).' [He continues], ' — for the pro- 
clamation of success V — for on this the gods them- 
selves are indeed intent, to wit, that they should 
speak what is favourable (conducive to success, 
sadhu), that they should do what is favourable : 
hence he says ' for the proclamation of success.' — 
' The human one is called upon for the song of 
praise (suktavaka) 3 !' by these words he urges on 
this human HotW to singing praises. 

ii. He now takes the prastara-bunch 4 . The 
prastara assuredly is the sacrificer : hence whither- 
soever his sacrifice went, thither he thereby wishes 
him good-speed 6 ! Now it is to the world of the gods 
that his sacrifice went ; and to the world of the gods 
accordingly he thereby takes the sacrificer. 

1 On the Agnis officiating as Hotn, see I, a, 3, 1. 

* Thus S&ya»a explains bhadrav££yiya on Taitt. S. 1, 1, 13 
(vol. i. p. 233). For the Hotr/'s formula itself, see .Sat. Br. 

I. 9» i> 4- 

' According to KSty. Ill, 6, 1, and the other Sutras, the Adhvaryu 
adds here suktS bruhi, 'recite the praises (hymns)!' which SSyana 
on Taitt. Br. Ill, 6, 15 combines with the preceding suktavikSya, 
and explains thus: 'hod tva« suktasya viko vaAana/n yasya 
so 'yam devaA suktavakai (? i. e. Agni, cf. -Sat. Br. I, 9, 1, 4) tasmai 
suktavakaya deviya sukt& bruhi, ida/» dySvapn'thivtm anuvakoktSni 
jobhan&ni va/tanini kathaya(!);' but differently on Taitt. S. 1, 1, 13, 
' idaw dyav£pr*'thivf bhadram abhud (Taitt. Br- HI, 5, 10) itySdy- 
anuvaka£ suktam, tasya vako vaianam, tadartham manusho hoti 
preshitaA ; ato hetoA, he hotas tat suktam bruhi.' 

* The two stalks, called vidhr/ti (separation), separating the 
prastara-bunch from the barhis or grass-covering of the altar 
(cf. I, 3, 4, 10), he puts back in the place whence they were taken. 
KSty. Ill, 6, 4. 

6 S vaga, ? literally ' self-go,' i. e. ' success to him 1' 



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i kXnda, 8 adhyAya, 3 brAhmajva, 13. 241 

12. Should he desire rain, let him take up (the 
prastara), with this text (V&f. S. II, 16 d), ''Be ye 
in harmony with each other, O heaven and earth ! ' 
for when heaven and earth are in harmony with 
each other, then indeed it rains 1 : for this reason he 
says, ' be ye in harmony with each other, O heaven 
and earth !' — ' May Mitra and Varu«a favour thee 
with rain !' whereby he says, ' may he who rules over 
the rain favour thee with rain!' Now he that rules 
over the rain is undoubtedly that blowing one (Vayu, 
the wind) ; and he, it is true, blows as one only ; but, 
on entering into man, he becomes a forward and a 
backward moving one ; and they are these two, the 
out-breathing and the in-breathing. And Mitra and 
Varu»a assuredly are the out-breathing and in- 
breathing; and hence he says by that (prayer), 
' may he who rules over the rain favour thee with 
rain !' Let him then take it up, with this text, for 
then the rain will at all times be propitious. He 
anoints it (the prastara) : thereby he makes him (the 
sacrificer) an oblation, thinking, 'May he, as an obla- 
tion, go to the world of the gods !' 

13. He anoints the top (of the prastara with 
the butter) in the ^uhu, the middle part (with that) 
in the upabhWt, and the lower end (with that) in 
the dhruva; for the^uhu is, as it were, the top, the 
upabhm the middle, and the dhruva the root. 

1 Cf. Ait. Ar. Ill, 1, 2, 2-4 (Max Mttller, Up. I, p. 249): 'The 
first half (of a sawhita or combination of final and initial letters) 
is the earth, the second half heaven, their uniting the rain, the uniter 
Par^nya. And so it is when he (Par^anya) rains thus strongly, 
without ceasing, day and night ; then they say also (in ordinary 
language), " Heaven and earth have come together.'" See also 
Sat. Br. I, 7, 2, 16. 

[ia] R 



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242 SATAPATHA-BRAHMAJVA. 

14. He anoints (each time), with the text (Va^\ S. 
II, 16 e), ' May (the gods) eat, licking the anointed 
bird 1 !' He thereby causes it (the prastara and 
hence symbolically the sacrificer) to be a bird and 
fly up from this world of men to the world of the 
gods. He then draws it twice (towards the Aha- 
vaniya) alow (near the ground). The reason why 
he must draw it alow (is this) : the prastara is the 
sacrificer ; and in this way he does not remove him 
from this firm footing of his; and he, moreover, 
secures rain for this locality. 

15. He draws it along, with the text (V&f. S. II, 
16 f), 'Go to the spotted (mares) of the Maruts!' 
He means to say, ' Go to the world of the gods,' 
when he says, ' Go to the spotted (mares) of the 
Maruts 2 !' — ' Having become a spotted cow, go to 
the sky and thence bring us rain hither !' The 
spotted cow, doubtless, is this (earth) : whatever 
rooted and rootless food is here on this (earth), by 
that this (earth) is a spotted cow. ' Having become 

1 Vyantu vayo 'ktaw Tih&niA. Mahldhara interprets it, 
'May the birds (i.e. the metres) go (?to heaven, — taking and) 
licking the anointed (prastara).' The Kanvas read, 'vyantu vayo 
ripto rihawaA.' The Black Ya^us (Taitt. S. 1, 1, 13, 1) has 'aktaw 
riha«a viyantu vaya^, prag&m yoniw mi nirmr/ksham, apyayantam 
Spa oshadhayaV which Saya«a explains by ' May the birds having 
licked the anointed (top) go their several ways,' Sec.; and the 
Taitt. Br. Ill, 3, 9, 3 remarks to viyantu vayaA, 'Having made 
him birds, he makes him go to the heavenly world.' According to 
Saya»a, the three above formulas are by Apastamba referred to the 
three acts of anointing, whereas the others, he says, divide the first 
formula into two, and use the second one (pra^am, &c.) while the 
lower part of the prastara is anointed. See, however, Hillebrandt, 
Neu- und Vollm. p. 142, note 3. 

3 The Black Ya^us (Taitt. S. 1, 1, 13) has,' The spotted (mares) 
of the Maruts are ye (O plants) 1' 



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i kanda, 8 adhyAya, 3 brAhmawa, 19. 243 

this (earth), go thou to the sky!' this is what he 
thereby says. ' Thence bring us rain hither ! ' From 
rain certainly spring vigour, sap, well-being : for this 
reason he says, ' thence bring us rain hither !' 

16. He then takes a single stalk from it. The 
prastara-bunch is the sacrificer ; and therefore, if he 
were to throw the whole prastara (at once) into the 
fire, the sacrificer would speedily go to yonder world. 
In this way, however, the sacrificer will live long ; and 
what the full measure of human life here on earth is, 
for that he takes this (single stalk) therefrom. 

17. Having held (the prastara) for a moment, he 
throws it into the fire : whither his (the sacrificer's) 
one (part of) self (or, body) 1 went, thither he thereby 
causes it to go 2 . But were he not to throw it into 
the fire, he would cut off the sacrificer from (yonder) 
world. In this way, however, he does not cut off 
the sacrificer from (yonder) world. 

18. He throws it (with its top) to the east, for the 
east is the region of the gods ; or to the north, for 
the north is the region of man. With the fingers 
only they should smooth it down, not with pieces of 
wood; since it is with sticks that they pierce any 
other corpse. Fearing, lest they should treat it in 
the same way as any other corpse, they should 
smooth it down with the fingers only, not with 
pieces of wood. When the Hotrt recites the song 
of praise, — 

19. The Agntdhra says (to the Adhvaryu), 'Throw 

1 The itara atma in pars. 17 and 19 have to be taken cor- 
relatively. 

1 That is to say, he makes sure that the sacrificer has really 
obtained the object for which the sacrifice was undertaken, — the 
right to go to the heavenly world after his death. 

R 2 



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244 SATAPATHA-BRAHMAJVA. 

(the single stalk) after (the prastara)!' — 'whither his 
(the sacrificer's) other self went, thither make it now 
go,' this is what he thereby says. [The Adhvaryu] 
having thrown it silently after, touches himself 1 , 
with the text (Vif. S. II, 16 f) : 'Guardian of the 
eye art thou, O Agni; guard mine eye!' In this 
way also he does not throw himself into the fire 
after (the prastara or sacrificer). 

20. He (the Agnldhra) then says 2 (to the Adh- 
varyu), 'Discourse together!' — he thereby says, 
' Make him (the sacrificer) discourse with the gods.' 
[The Adhvaryu asks], ' Has he gone (to the gods), 
Agnidh ?' whereby he says, 'Has he really gone ?' — 
'He has gone!' replies the other. — 'Bid (the gods) 
hear !' by these words he (the Adhvaryu) means to 
say, ' Make him (the sacrificer) be heard, make him 
be noticed by the gods!' — 'May (one or they) hear 
(srausha^)!' thereby he (the Agnldhra) means to 
say, ' They know him, they have recognised him.' 
Thus the Adhvaryu and the Agnldhra lead the 
sacrificer to the world of the gods. 

2 1 . He (the Adhvaryu) then says, ' Good-speed to 
the divine HotWs 3 !' The divine Hotrz's assuredly 
are these enclosing-sticks, since these are Agnis 
(fires) : it is to them that he thereby bids good- 
speed, and therefore he says, 'good-speed to the 



1 He touches himself near the heart, or, according to Vaidyanatha, 
he touches his eyes. After this he has, as usual, to touch the lustral 
water. See p. 2, note 2. 

1 Here begins the fawyuvdka ; see p. 241, note r. 

' ' Svaga* dafvyi h6tr*bhyaft.' The form daivy a seems to have 
become fixed before hotri', in consequence of its frequent use, 
especially in the Apri hymns, as nom. ace. dual daivy a h6tara; 
and in the invocation of the Lfi, as nom. plur. dafvya h6t&rah. 



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i kajvda, 8 adhyAya, 3 brAhmana, 25. 245 

divine Hotm!' — 'Success (svasti) to the human!' 
thereby he desires that this human Hotri may not 
fail. 

22. He now throws the enclosing-sticks into the 
fire. The middle enclosing-stick he throws first, 
with the text (Va^. S. II, 17 a), 'The stick which 
thou laidst around thee, O divine Agni, when thou 
wert concealed by the Pa«is, I bring thee for thy 
pleasure; may it not prove faithless to thee!' — With 
(ib. b), ' Approach ye the place beloved of Agni !' 
he throws the two others after it. 

23. He then 1 seizes the guhd and the upabhWt 
at the same time. For on the former occasion 2 , 
when he anoints (the prastara — sacrificer), he makes 
him an oblation, thinking, ' May he, as an oblation, go 
to the world of the gods!' for this reason he seizes 
the ^uhu and the upabhm at the same time. 

24. He seizes them for the Visve Deva^ (the All- 
gods). For, assuredly, when any sacrificial food is 
taken without being announced to any one deity, 
then all the gods think that they have a share in it. 
Now when he takes that sacrificial food, the (residue 
of) butter, he does not announce it to any one deity ; 
and hence he takes up (the two spoons) for the 
Vi^ve Deva^, and thus makes that (residue of 
butter) the vai^vadeva 8 at the havirya^»a. 

25. He seizes them, with the text (V&f. S. II, 18), 

1 Here begins the offering of the remains (sawsrava) of butter ; 
see p. 236, note 2. 

2 See par. 14 above. 

' The author again connects the havis-offering with the more 
solemn Soma-sacrifice; the third, or evening, libation of Soma 
being supposed to belong to theVijve DevlA; cf. Va#. S. XIX, 26; 
Ait. Br. VI, 4. 



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246 satapatha-brAhmajva. 

' The residue (of the butter) ye have for your share, 
ye, mighty by (this) food!' the residue, of course, 
is that which remains ; — 'O ye gods, staying on the 
prastara, and representing the enclosing -sticks 1 ;' 
for both the prastara and the enclosing-sticks have 
been thrown into the fire; — 'All of you, applauding 
this speech,' thereby he makes it the vauvadeva 
(belonging to the VLyve Deva^) ; — ' Be seated on this 
couch of grass (barhis) and enjoy yourselves! 
Svaha! Va/ 2 !' as one offers what has been con- 
secrated by ' vasha/,' this (residue) thereby becomes 
such for him (the sacrificer). 

26. For whomsoever they take the sacrificial food 
from a cart, for him they unyoke (the spoons, by 
placing them) on the yoke of that cart, thinking, 
' Where we yoke, there we also unyoke s ;' for from the 
same place where they yoke, they also unyoke. For 
him, on the other hand, for whom they take it from 
a jar, (they unyoke the spoons, by placing them) on 
the wooden sword, thinking, ' Where we yoke, there 
we also unyoke;' for from the same place where 
they yoke, they also unyoke. 

27. Yoke-fellows, indeed, are these two spoons 
for the sacrifice : he yokes them when he starts * (or, 

1 Paridhey ih, literally 'ye who are to be laid around;' according 
to Mahfdhara=paridhibhavaA. The Kawva text has pari- 
dhayaA, ' enclosing-sticks.' The Black Ya^us (Taitt. S. I, 1, 13, 2) 
has 'barhishadaA (sitting on the barhis)' instead. 

* The original meaning of this sacrificial call, as of the apparently 
allied vasha/, vausha/, appears to be, 'May he (Agni) carry it 
(the oblation to the deity)!' Cf. p. 88, note 2. , 

» See I, 1, 2, 8. 

4 This seems to refer to the time when he gets the spoons ready 
for their sacred use. He then wipes them with sacrificial grass ; 
that is, he, as it were, rubs down the horses before starting on 
his journey to the world of the gods. See p. 68, note 1. 



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I KAtfflA, 9 ADHYAYA, I BRAHMAYA, I. 247 

first uses them). Now, were he only to release 
(unyoke) either of them after putting it down, it 
would fall down just as a draught animal 1 (would, 
if made to lie down before being unyoked). At the 
Svish/akm these two undergo an unyoking : he 
then lays them down, and so unyokes them. He 
then yokes them again, at the after-offerings. Having 
performed the after-offerings, he effects another un- 
yoking : he lays them down, and so unyokes them. 
Thereupon he yokes them again when he seizes 
them both at the same time; and when he has 
travelled over the way for which he has yoked 
them, he unyokes them. After the sacrifice offspring 
(is produced). Hence this man yokes (unites), and 
then unyokes, and again yokes them ; and when he 
has travelled over the way for which he yoked them, 
he finally unyokes them. He lays (the spoons) 
down, with the text (V&£\ S. II, 19 a), ' Fond of 
butter are ye; protect the two yoke-fellows! gracious 
are ye : lead me to grace !' whereby he says, 'good 
are ye : lead me to goodness !' 

Ninth AdhyAya. First BrAhmajva. 
1. Now 2 when (the Adhvaryu) says, 'The divine 
Hotris are summoned for the proclamation of success, 

1 I adopt the interpretation of Harisvamin, who translates 
avar^et by adhaA patet. The St. Petersb. Diet, apparently 
proposes 'he would unharness them, as he would unharness a 
horse (or team).' According to Harisvamin, the author here con- 
troverts the view of the ATarakas (iarakajruti), who apparently 
taught that the (symbolical) unharnessing of the spoons should 
succeed their being laid down on the yoke; while our author 
maintains that the unharnessing should precede the laying down. 

s The author now proceeds to give in detail the formulas to 
be recited by the Hotr »' during the ceremonies treated in the pre- 
ceding Brahmana (see p. 236, note 2); pars. 1-23 treating of the 
suktavaka; pars. 24-29 of the .ramyuvaka. 



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248 satapatha-brAhmajva. 

the human one is called upon for the song of praise 
(sukta-vaka);' and when the Hotrt thereupon recites, 
he recites good words only 1 : he thereby invokes 
a blessing on the sacrificer. It is indeed after the 
sacrifice that he thus invokes a blessing. A twofold 
reason there is for his invoking the blessing after 
the sacrifice. 

2. He who sacrifices, assuredly, is the producer 
of the sacrifice, since it is by his order that the 
priests spread it, that they produce it He (the 
Hotrt) now invokes a blessing; and that blessing 
invoked by him, the sacrifice, on its part, realises 
for this (sacrificer), knowing as it does that he has 
produced it. For this reason he invokes a blessing 
after the sacrifice. 

3. He who sacrifices, assuredly, pleases the gods. 
Having pleased the gods by that sacrifice, — that is, 
partly by 7?*k-verses, partly by Yafus-formulas, and 
partly by oblations, — he obtains a share among them. 
When he has obtained a share among them, then 
(the Hotrt) invokes a blessing (on him) ; and that 
blessing, invoked by him, the gods realise for this 
(sacrificer), knowing as they do that he has pleased 
them. For this reason also he invokes a blessing 
after the sacrifice. 

4. He intones 2 , — ' Successful this has turned out, 
O heaven and earth — ,' for successful indeed it has 
turned out, when one has completed the sacrifice. — 
' We have completed the song of praise, and the 

1 Suktaiva tad &ha, which the commentator paraphrases by 
sfiktiny aha. It is apparently intended as an explanation of the 
term suktav&ka. The word sukta here has exceptionally the 
accent on the penultimate. 

1 See p. 240, note 2. The formulas are given Taitt. Br. Ill, 5, 
10; ksv. S. I, 9, 1. 



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I KANDA, 9 ADHYAYA, I BRAHMAJVA, 5. 249 

utterance of worship 1 ,' for indeed these two, the 
singing of praises and the utterance of worship, 
form the sacrifice : and accordingly he thereby says, 
' We have accomplished the sacrifice, we have ob- 
tained possession of the sacrifice. — ' Thou, O Agni, 
art the voice of praise at the listening 2 of heaven 
and earth,' he thereby says to Agni, ' Thou art the 
voice of praise, while heaven and earth listen.' — ' May 
heaven and earth be propitious to thee, O sacrificer, 
at this sacrifice ! ' whereby he says, ' May heaven 
and earth abound in food for thee, O sacrificer, at 
this sacrifice.' 

5. 'They, propitious to the cattle 8 , profuse in 
gifts,' he thereby says, ' May they both be propitious 
to the cattle, and profuse in gifts.' — ' They, the fear- 
less and inscrutable*;' he thereby says, 'Mayest thou 
not be afraid of anybody ; may no one obtain before 
thee this thy wealth !' 

1 'Suktav&kam uta namov&kam.' Our author seems to refer 
these terms to the iJ/k-verses and the Ya^ns-formulas used during 
the sacrifice. SSyawa, oh Taitt. S. II, 6, 9, takes 'namovaka' in a 
more restricted sense, viz. as referring to the formula 'namo deve- 
bhyaA.' Both the Black Ya^ur-veda and Ajv. £. add 'r/'dhyisma 
sukto>4yam,' which has probably to be taken in the sense of ' May 
we accomplish that which is expressed in the suktas.' [Sayawa, 
' May we succeed with the sukta yet to be pronounced.'] 

s For upajruti the Black Ya^ur-veda has upa^rito, which 
Saya»a explains, 'Since thou art established in heaven and earth, 
thou art able to recite the sukta.' 

' .Sawgavi seems to be a corruption of .Sawgayi (propitious to 
the household), which is the reading of the Black Ya^ur-veda and 
JLrv. S. (cf. Rig-veda IX, 97, 17). 

* ? Apravede, according to S£ya»a, on Taitt. S. 1, 1, 13, in an 
active sense, 'they who do not tell of, do not betray, our faults' 
(hence 'verschwiegen,' reticent, discreet, St. Petersb. Diet.) 'Dim- 
cult to obtain,' Harisvamin. Our author apparently takes it in the 
sense of ' not obtained before.' 



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25O SATAPATHA-BRAHMAJVA. 

6. 'They, of wide abode, the afforders of safety;' 
he thereby says, 'May they both be possessed of 
wide abodes and exempt from danger.' — 'They, 
the rain-skied, the water-pouring,' he thereby says, 
' May they both be possessed of rain.' 

7. ' They, the genial and beneficent ;' he thereby 
says, ' May they both be genial and beneficent.' — 
'They, the rich in sap and substance;' he thereby 
says, ' May they both abound in moisture and afford 
the means of subsistence.' 

8. ' They, of easy access and good abode ; ' 
he thereby says, 'May yonder (sky), which thou 
approachest from below, afford thee easy access; 
may this (earth) on which thou abidest (or movest) 
afford thee good abode.' — 'With their knowledge — ,' 
thereby he says, ' Both of these approving — ' 

9. 'Agni has graciously accepted this oblation, 
he has grown in strength, he has acquired greater 
power,' he thereby refers to Agni's butter-portion. — 
' Soma has graciously accepted this oblation, he has 
grown in strength, he has acquired greater power,' 
he thereby refers to Soma's butter-portion. — ' Agni 
has graciously accepted this oblation, he has grown in 
strength, he has acquired greater power,' he thereby 
refers to the indispensable cake which is (offered) on 
both occasions (the new and full-moon sacrifice). 

10. And in the same way according to the re- 
spective deities. ' The butter-drinking gods have 
graciously accepted the butter, they have grown in 
strength, they have acquired greater power;' thereby 
he refers to the fore-offerings and after-offerings ; for 
the butter-drinking gods truly are the fore-offerings 
and after-offerings. — 'Agni, by virtue of his Hotrt- 
ship, has graciously accepted this oblation, he has 



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I KANDA, 9 ADHYAYA, I BRAHMAJVA, 1 3. 25 1 

grown in strength, he has acquired greater power;' 
thereby he refers to Agni, in virtue of his HotWship. 
With ' has graciously accepted' he thus enumerates 
those deities to whom offering has been made : in 
saying ' Such a one has graciously accepted the 
oblation, such a one has graciously accepted the 
oblation,' he accordingly prays for the accomplish- 
ment of the sacrifice ; for whatever oblation the gods 
graciously accept, by that he gains great things : 
hence he says, '(he) has graciously accepted it.' 
And '(he) has grown in strength' he says, because 
what the gods delight in, they make mountain high : 
for this reason he says '(he) has increased.' 

11. '(He) has acquired (lit. made for himself) 
greater power' he says; for assuredly the power 
of the gods is the sacrifice : it is the latter therefore 
which they make still greater; and for this reason he 
says ' (he) has acquired greater power.' 

12. ' May he prosper in this sacrifice which goes to 
the gods !' he thereby says, ' May he be successful in 
this sacrifice which goes to the gods.' — ' Thus prays 
this sacrifices N. N. *;' here he gives the name, and 
thereby makes him directly successful in his prayer. 

1 3-. ' He prays for long life,' what there (viz. at 
the invocation of the ida) 2 was (called implicitly) 
'future worship of the gods,' that is here (called), 
expressly ' long life.' 

1 Axv. 5. reads twice asau 'N.N., N.N.;' and the commentary 
remarks that the Hotr» has here to pronounce both the ordinary 
name of the sacrificer, and his n&kshatra name (i. e. the mystic 
name given him for the duration of the sacrifice, and derived from 
the respective lunar mansion, or its tutelary deity). This practice 
was probably not yet in vogue in the time of our author. Cf. Weber, 
Nakshatra II, p. 316 seq. 

* See I, 8, i, 30 seq. 



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252 DATAPATH A-BRAhMANA. 

14. 'He prays for abundant offspring,' — what then 
was ' more abundant offering,' that is here expressly 
' abundant offspring.' He who proceeds in this way 
will ensure dominion. He may, however, say, ' He 
prays for future worship of the gods,' for thereby 
(he ensures) long life, offspring, cattle '. 

15. ' He prays for more abundant offering,' thereby 
(he prays for) that same object. ' He prays for 
dominion over his co-evals (or countrymen);' — his 
co-evals, doubtless, are his vital airs, for he is born 
along with his vital airs : hence he thereby prays 
for vital airs. 

16. 'He prays for a heavenly abode;' — he who 
sacrifices assuredly sacrifices with the desire that 
there may be for him also (a place) in the world of 
the gods : he thereby confers on him a share in the 
world of the gods 2 . 'May he obtain, may he 
accomplish what he prays for through this offering!' 
he thereby says, ' May all, that he prays for through 
this offering, be fulfilled to him !' 

1 7. These five prayers for blessings he offers now, 
and three (he offered) at the \dk, these are eight 
Of eight syllables, truly, consists the gayatrl metre, 
and the gayatrl means vigour : hence he thereby 
imparts vigour to the prayers. 

18. Let him not offer more than these; for if he 
offered more, he would do what is in excess ; and 
what is in excess at the sacrifice, that remains over 

1 The ritual of the Black Ya^ur-veda (Taitt. Br. Ill, 5, 10; Taitt 
S. II, 6, 9, 7) and the Ajv. S. prescribe both these formulas. The 
order of formulas also, as there given, differs somewhat from that 
of our work. 

s The Black Ya^ur-veda and Ajv. 5. insert here, ' He prays for 
all that is dear to him.' 



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I KkNDA, 9 ADHYAYA, I BRAHMAiVA, 21. 253 

for the benefit of his spiteful enemy: hence he 
should not offer more (prayers) than these. 

19. Even less, — seven (he may offer) 1 . — 'May 
the gods vouchsafe him that!' he thereby says, 
' May the gods grant him that' — ' May the god 
Agni solicit that from the gods, we men from Agni — ,' 
he thereby says, ' May the god Agni solicit that 
from the gods, and we will then solicit it for this 
(sacrificer) from Agni — ' 

20. ' — What was searched for and found 2 ;' they 
indeed searched for the sacrifice, and found it : there- 
fore he says, ' what was searched for and found.' — 
And 'may both heaven and earth guard this one 
(en am) from anxiety!' he thereby says, 'may both 
heaven and earth protect him from suffering.' 

2i. Here now some say, 'And may both heaven 
and earth guard me (ma 3 ) . . . ,' arguing that in this 
way the Hotri does not exclude himself from the 
benediction. Let him not, however, say this ; for, 
surely, the benediction at the sacrifice is for the 
sacrificer : what then have the officiating priests to 
do with it ? Whatever blessing the officiating priests 
invoke at the sacrifice, that is for the sacrificer only. 
On the other hand, whoever says, 'and may both 
heaven and earth guard me...,' does not establish 

1 That is, if he chooses to omit the second formula mentioned in 
par. 14. 

* ' Ish/am £a vittam fa.' This is also the reading of the Ajv. S. 
(?'What was wished for and obtained'). The Ka«va text reads 
' ish/a/n kz, vittaw labhut.' Our author seems here to refer to the 
legend in I, 5, 2, 6 seq., or to that in I, 6, 2, 1 seq. The reading of 
the Black Ya^us, ish/am ta. vltaw kz, ' what has been offered up and 
accepted (eaten by the gods),'is probably the original and correct one. 

' The Ka«va recension, the Black Ya^ur-veda, and Ajv. 5. read 
no,' us.' 



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254 SATAPATHA-BRAHMAiVA. 

that blessing anywhere : let him therefore say, ' and 
may both heaven and earth guard this one. ..." 

22. 'Hither lies the course of any boon;' he 
thereby makes over to this (sacrificer) whatever is 
excellent in the sacrifice : for this reason he says, 
1 hither lies the course of any boon.' 

23. 'And this adoration (shall be offered) to the 
gods!' having attained the completion of the sacrifice, 
he thereby renders adoration to the gods : for this 
reason he says, ' and this adoration to the gods !' 

24. Thereupon he pronounces the 'All-hail and 
blessing' (jam-yos) 1 . Now it was Samyu Barhas- 
patya who perceived, in its true nature, the con- 
summation of the sacrifice. He went to share in 
the world of the gods. Thereupon that (knowledge) 
was entirely lost to men. 

25. It then became known to the i?zshis, that Samyu 
Barhaspatya had perceived, in its true nature, the 
consummation of the sacrifice, and had gone to share 
in the world of the gods. By pronouncing the sa.m- 
yoh, they attained to that same consummation of the 
sacrifice which .Samyu Barhaspatya had perceived; 
and to that same consummation of the sacrifice, 
which Samyu Barhaspatya had perceived, this (\\otrt) 

1 See p. 247, note 2. The original meaning of the terms 
jam yos, as they occur in the Rig-veda, is happily rendered by 
Professor Max Muller (Translation of the Rig-veda, I, p. 182) by 
'health and wealth.' In the sacrificial ceremonial a deeper sig- 
nificance has come to be attached to this benedictory formula, for 
which it is difficult to find an exact equivalent. The entire umyu- 
vaka, as here given, forms part of a khila to the last book of the 
2?«k-Sa»»hit£ ; cf. Max Muller's edition, vol. vi. p. 32; A. Weber, 
Ind. Stud. IV, p. 431. The Black Ya,gus version of the legend 
regarding .Samyu Barhaspatya (Taitt. S. II, 6, 10) is quite different 
from ours ; they were both invented to explain jam yos. 



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I KklfDA, 9 ADHYAYA, I BRAHMAiVA, 29. 255 

attains by pronouncing the $am-yo^. For this 
reason he pronounces the 'All-hail and blessing.' 

26. He intones, ' We long for that All-hail and 
blessing (sa.m-yoA);' whereby he says, 'We long for 
that consummation of the sacrifice which .Samyu 
Barhaspatya perceived. 

2 7. ' Success to the sacrifice, success to the lord 
of sacrifice!' he who wishes for the consummation 
of the sacrifice, thereby wishes success to the sacri- 
fice and success to the lord of sacrifice. — ' Bliss 
(svasti) to us, bliss to men!' he thereby says, 
' May we enjoy bliss among the gods, bliss among 
men!' — 'May the means of salvation ascend on 
high!' he thereby says, 'May this sacrifice secure 
for us the world of the godsl' 

28. ' All-hail, for us, to the two-footed, all-hail to 
the four-footed * ! ' for so far as the two-footed and 
the four-footed (extend), so far does this universe (ex- 
tend). Having now attained the consummation of 
the sacrifice, he bids All-hail to this (sacrificer), and 
for this reason he says, 'All-hail, for us, to the two- 
footed, all-hail to the four-footed ! ' 

29. He then touches (the earth) thus with this 
(finger) 2 . Non-human, verily, he becomes at the 

1 This formula occurs almost identically in Rig-veda VI, 74, 1 ; 
VII, 54, 1 ; (IX, 69, 7.) Cf. Max Mtiller, Translation of the Rig- 
veda, I, p. 1 80, where attention is drawn to a somewhat similar 
phrase in the Umbric prayers of the Eugubian tables. 

* In Kity. Ill, 6, 21 the touching of the altar is prescribed, with 
the text V%. S. II, 19 b; the commentators differ as to whether 
the sacrificer or the Adhvaryu is to do this. The Kawva SarahM 
omits that formula, and hence assigns this touching to the Hotrt. 
Harisvamin remarks that the Hotrt' touches the earth with the 
little finger of his right hand, as stated in the KS«va recension. 
The latter reads ' with the little finger.' No mention is made in 
the Ajv. 5". of this touching of the earth on the part of the Hotr/. 



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256 satapatha-brAhmajva. 

time when he is chosen for the office of sacrificial 
priest; and, this earth being a safe standing-place, 
he thereby (viz. by touching the earth) stands 
on this safe standing-place; and he thereby also 
again becomes human : for this reason he thus 
touches (the earth) with this (finger). 

Second BrAhmawa. 

THE PATNtSAJ/YACAS. 

i. Being about to perform the patnlsawya^as 1 , 
they betake themselves back to the Garhapatya fire. 
The Adhvaryu takes the ^uhu and sruva, the Hotri 
the veda, and the Agnldhra the butter-(melting) pot 

2. Here now the Adhvaryu, according to some, 
passes the Ahavaniya on the east side. Let him 
not, however, do this ; for were he to walk on that 
side, he would be outside the sacrifice. 

3. According to others, the Adhvaryu walks (so 
as to pass) behind the (sacrificer's) wife 2 . Let 
him not, however, do this either; for verily the 
Adhvaryu is the fore-part, and the wife is the hind- 
part of the sacrifice : hence, if he were to pass so, 
it would be as if one were to put his head behind ; 
and he (the Adhvaryu) would be outside the sacrifice. 

1 The meaning of the term seems to be 'offerings made (to some 
deities) along with the wives (of the gods);' the deities to whom the 
four offerings are made, being Soma, Tvash/r/, the Devapa- 
tnyaA (wives of the gods), and Agni Gri'hapati. 

4 The lady of the house occupies a seat south-west of the 
Garhapatya fire. See I, 3, 1,12. The Adhvaryu now sits down 
with raised knees (south of her, with his face to the north-east). 
Katy. Ill, 7, 5. The Agntdhra sits down in the same way north of 
the fire, with his face to the south, and the Hotr* in the middle ; cf. 
Hillebrandt, Neu- und Vollm.p. 151. 



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I KANDA, 9 ADHYAYA, 2 BRAHMAiVA, 7. 257 

4. According to others, the Adhvaryu passes 
between the wife (and the Garhapatya fire). Let 
him not, however, do this either; for were he to 
pass that way, he would cut off the wife from the 
sacrifice. Along the east side of the Garhapatya 
and the inner side of the Ahavanlya (he passes) ; 
for thus he is not outside the sacrifice ; and as be- 
fore, in walking forward (to the Ahavanlya), he passed 
along the inner side, so he now also takes that path. 

5. They now perform the patntsawya^as. From 
the sacrifice offspring is assuredly produced; and 
(that offspring) produced from the sacrifice is pro- 
duced from union ; and (the offspring) produced 
from union is produced after (in consequence of) the 
completion 1 of the sacrifice: hence one thereby (i.e. 
by the patnlsawzy&fas) causes that (offspring) to be 
produced by means of a productive union after the 
completion of the sacrifice. And so now also off- 
spring is produced by means of a productive union 
after the completion of the sacrifice. This is why 
they now perform the patnlsawya^as. 

6. He makes offering to four deities. Four doubt- 
less means a couple; for a couple means a pair 
(dvandva, lit. two and two), and two and two in- 
deed they are: thus a productive union is thereby 
effected; and accordingly he makes offering to four 
deities. 

7. He makes (the offerings) of butter for sacrifi- 
cial food. Butter indeed means seed : hence he 
thereby scatters seed, and therefore makes them of 
butter for sacrificial food. 

1 Or, ' is produced from the hind-part of the sacrifice,' i. e. from 
the sacrificer's wife, seated behind the altar, see par. 3. 

["] s 



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258 SATAPATHA-BRAHMAJVA. 

8. In a low voice they engage in this (per- 
formance) 1 . Secretly, doubtless, union takes place ; 
and secretly also (takes place) what (is spoken) in 
a low voice : this is why they perform in a low 
voice. 

9. He first makes offering to Soma. Soma 
indeed means seed ; hence he thereby scatters seed : 
this is why he makes offering to Soma. 

10. He then makes offering to Tvashtrt. Now, 
it is Tvash^7 who transforms seed which is scat- 
tered. Accordingly it is he who transforms the seed 
now scattered 2 : this is why he makes offering to 
Tvashtri. 

11. He then makes offering to the wives of the 
gods. In the wives, in the womb, the seed assuredly 
is planted, and thence it is produced ; hence he 
thereby plants the seed in the wives, in the womb ; 
and thence it is produced : for this reason he makes 
offering to the wives of the gods. 

1 2. When he offers to the wives of the gods, he 
shuts (the fire) out from view on the eastern side ; 
for, up to the time when they offer to the samishfo- 
yafus, the deities continue waiting, thinking, ' This 

1 The Adhvaryu calls on the HoW: 'For Soma (Tvash/W, &c. 
respectively)' (in a low voice) — 'recite!' (aloud). The Hotr/then 
recites the invitatory prayer (anuvikyS, for which see Asv. St. 
I, 10, 5) in a low voice, except the concluding ' om !' which he pro- 
nounces aloud. The Adhvaryu now calls on the Agnidhra, who 
responds with 'Astu jrausha/.' Thereupon the Adhvaryu calls on 
the Hotr», 'For Soma,' &c. (in a low voice), — 'pronounce the 
offering prayer !' (aloud); and the Hotrt recites the y&gy&, in a low 
voice, except the concluding ' Vausha/,' which is pronounced aloud, 
and simultaneously with which the Adhvaryu pours the oblation 
(consisting of four ladlings of butter from the butter-pot into the 
^uhu, by means of the sruva) into the fire. 

2 He does so in his capacity of divine artificer and architect. 



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I KAyDA, 9 ADHYAYA, 2 BRAHMAiVA, 1 5. 259 

he must offer up to us !' He thereby conceals (this 
offering) from them ; and accordingly Yi/»avalkya 
says, 'Whenever human women here eat 1 (they do 
so) apart from men.' 

13. He then makes offering to Agni, the house- 
holder. Agni, indeed, is this world: hence it is for 
this world that he thereby produces offspring and 
that this offspring is produced : this is why he makes 
offering to Agni, the householder. 

14. This (ceremony) concludes with the ida 2 ; for 
here are neither enclosing-sticks nor the prastara- 
bunch. For on that occasion when he wishes the 
sacrificer good-speed (svagi) 8 by (offering) the pra- 
stara, good-speed is at the same time wished to this 
consort also, since the wife comes (immediately) after 
the husband. But were he to use a substitute for the 
prastara-bunch, he would produce lassitude (in the 
wife) : for this reason this (ceremony) should con- 
clude with the ida. Nevertheless a substitute for 
the prastara is (optionally) made. 

15. If he choose to use a substitute for the pra- 
stara, he thereby wishes the wife good-speed just as 



1 Gighatsanti, 'eat greedily, swallow their food.' The Kawva 
text does not mention Ya^navalkya, but merely says, 'hence 
women also here swallow their food apart from men.' 

* The i^i-ceremony (I, 8, 1, 18) is repeated after the patntsam- 
ySg-as, together with the .Samyuvaka and the offering of remains, 
but with special reference to the mistress of the house. Since the 
prastara-bunch and the enclosing-sticks have already been con- 
sumed by the fire, the Suktavaka is omitted on the present 
occasion j the Adhvaryu merely throwing a stalk of the reed-grass 
of the veda into the fire, as a substitute for the stalk of the prastara 
(representing the sacrificer). 

3 See I, 8, 3, 1 1 seq. 

S 2 



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260 satapatha-brAhmawa. 

he wishes the sacrificer good-speed by means of 
the prastara. 

1 6. If he choose to use a substitute for the pra- 
stara, he plucks out one stalk from the veda, and 
anoints its top in the ,^uhu, its middle part in the 
sruva, and its lower end in the butter-pan. 

17. The Agnldhra then says, ' Throw (it) after 1 !' 
[The Adhvaryu] having thrown it silently after (the 
prastara into the fire), touches himself, with the text 
(Vif. S. II, 16 f), ' Guardian of the eye art thou, O 
Agni, guard mine eye!' and in this way he avoids 
throwing himself after (the prastara into the fire). 

18. He (the Agnldhra) then says (to the Adh- 
varyu), 'Discourse together!' (The Adhvaryu says), 
'Has he gone (to the gods), Agnidh?' * He has 
gone!' 'Bid (the gods) hear!' 'May (one or they) 
hear!' 'Good-speed to the divine Hotrisl Success 
to the human!' [Then the Adhvaryu to the Hotrt], 
'Pronounce the "All-hail and blessing!"' 

19. Thereupon 2 he (the Adhvaryu) seizes at the 
same time the gvh& and sruva. On the former 
occasion 3 indeed, by anointing (the prastara), he 

1 See I, 8, 3, 19 seq. 

2 That is, after the Hotri has again recited the .Sarayuvaka, in 
the same way as above, I, 9, 1, 26-29. 

3 Viz. at the offering of the remains of butter (I, 8, 3, 23), of which 
the present ceremony is the counterpart. Dr.Hillebrandt, Neu- und 
Vollm. p. 160, (after a scholiast) calls this modification Pragraha- 
homa (offered to Agni adabdhayu aritama). According to Katy. 
Ill, 7, 18; 19, this ceremony is followed by the performance, in the 
Dakshi/za fire, of two(guhoti) oblations of butter, to Agni samverapati 
and Sarasvatt respectively (see the formulas Va^. S. II, 20 b, c); 
and the pish/alepa-ahuti to the Vwve Dev&A, being an offering of 
the remnants of dough, left from the preparation of the sacrificial 
cakes. These offerings would then be succeeded by the ceremonies 
treated in par. 21 seq. 



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i kXnda, 9 adhyAya, 2 brahman a, 23. 261 

made (the sacrificer) an oblation, thus thinking, 
' May he go to the world of the gods as an obla- 
tion ! ' For this reason he now seizes the ^uhu and 
sruva at the same time. 

20. He seizes them for Agni, with the text 
(Va^. S. II, 20 a), 'O Agni, unimpaired in vigour, 
far-reacher !' because Agni is immortal, he says, 
' unimpaired in vigour;' and because Agni is farthest- 
reaching, he says, ' far-reacher 1 .' — ' Guard me from 
the thunderbolt ! guard me from bonds ! guard me 
from defective sacrifice! guard me from noxious 
food ! ' he thereby says, ' Protect me from all kinds 
of injury!' — 'Make our nourishment free from 
poison !' — nourishment means food : ' make our food 
wholesome, faultless!' this is what he thereby says. — 
' In the lap, pleasant to sit in ;' he thereby says, ' in 
thyself.' — ' Svaha! Va7!' since one offers what has 
been consecrated by 'vasha/,' this (residue of butter) 
thereby becomes such for him. 

21. The mistress then unties the veda-bunch. 
The altar (vedi) assuredly is female and the veda 
is male. For union the veda was made : and accord- 
ingly when he touches (the altar) with it during 
the sacrifice, a union productive of offspring is 
thereby effected. 

22. And (the reason) why it is the mistress who 
unties the veda (is this) : the mistress is female and 
the veda is male ; consequently a union productive 
of offspring is thereby effected: this is why the 
mistress unties the veda. 

23. She unties it. Should she wish to do so 

1 Harisvamin derives ajitama and zsishihz from a;, 'to eat' 
(instead of from as, 'to reach, penetrate'), hence 'the greatest 
eater.' Mahidhara gives both derivations. 



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262 ^atapatha-brAhmajva. 

with a Ya^iis-text, let her do so with this one (Va^ - . 
S. II, 21 a), 'The Veda art thou: whereby thou, 
O divine Veda, hast become Veda for the gods, 
thereby mayest thou become Veda for me 1 !' 

24. (The Hotri) strews it (from the Garhapatya) 
as far as (the east end of) the altar 2 ; for the altar is 
female and the veda is male ; and from behind the 
male approaches the female : from behind (i. e. west) 
he accordingly causes it (the altar) to be approached 
by that male, the veda. For this reason he strews 
(the grass of the veda) as far as (the east end of) 
the altar. 

Concluding Ceremonies. 

25. He (the Adhvaryu) now makes the samish/a- 
ya^xjs-oblation, thinking, ' In the east my sacrifice 
shall be completed!' Were he to perform the 
samish/aya^us-oblation first and then the patnl- 
sawya^as, that sacrifice of his would be completed 
in the west (behind the sacrificer) 8 : hence he makes 

1 According to Katy. Ill, 8, 2, the lady thereupon unties the 
grass-cord with which she was girt (see I, 3, 1, 12), with the text, 
' I free myself from Vanwa's noose wherewith the gracious Savitr* 
bound me ; place me unscathed, together with my husband, in the 
lap of eternal law, in the world of righteousness!' Aw. 1, 11, 3, 
however, assigns this ceremony to the Hotri ; and no doubt rightly, 
since it is not mentioned by our author, and the V&g. S. does not 
give the formula. Thereby also the original form of the text (Rig- 
veda X, 85, 24), ' I free thee,' &c, is preserved. Mahtdhara on 
Va^\ S. here takes 'veda' either in the sense of 'the Veda (-Rt% 
&c.),' or as ' the knower.' Perhaps it should rather be taken as 
' the obtainer.' 

* Thus a vedeA is explained by Harisvamin (according to 
comm. on Katy. Ill, 8, 3). Others take it in the sense of ' up to 
where the barhis begins.' 

' The patnisaajya^as were performed in the GSrhapatya fire, 
and therefore west of the altar; and on their completion, the priests 
betake themselves back to the Ahavantya. 



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I KANDA, 9 ADHYAYA, 2 BRAHMAtfA, 28. 263 

the samish/aya^us-oblation at this particular time, 
thinking, ' In the east my sacrifice shall be com- 
pleted!' 

26. Now as to why it is called samish/aya/us 1 : 
whatever deities he invites through this (new or 
full-moon) sacrifice, and for whichever deities this 
sacrifice is performed, all those are thereby ' sacri- 
ficed to together' (sam-ish/a); and because he 
now makes a (butter) oblation 2 to all those deities, 
who have been 'sacrificed to together,' therefore 
this (oblation) is called samishfeya^us. 

27. And again as to why he performs the sam- 
ish/ayafus : whatever deities he invites through this 
sacrifice, and for whichever deities this sacrifice is 
performed, they continue waiting until the samish/a- 
ya^tis is performed, thinking, ' This he must offer to 
us ! ' These same (deities) he thereby dismisses in 
due form ; and whatever be the practice in their 
case in accordance with that he has, in thus per- 
forming it, produced the sacrifice, and having thus 
produced it he now establishes it safely where there 
is a safe basis for it : this is why he performs the 
samish/ayajfus. 

28. He makes the offering, with the text (Va^. 
S. II, 21 b), 'Ye path-finding gods,' — for the gods 



1 The real original meaning of the term would rather seem to 
have been ' the formula marking the completion of the sacrifice,' 
it having afterwards come to be applied to the oblation (to the 
wind-god) itself. Cf. par. 30 and Weber, Ind. Stud. IX, 232. 

8 Or rather, 'because to all those deities to whom an ish/i (or 
ya^ati-offering, made by the Adhvaryu standing south of the altar; 
and followed or accompanied by the vasha/-call) has been offered 
in common, he now makes an ahuti (or ^uhoti-offering, made by 
him whilst standing north of the altar, with the svaha-call).' 



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264 satapatha-brAhmajva. 

are indeed the finders of the path 1 ; — ' Having found 
the path — /thereby he says, 'having found the sacri- 
fice;' — 'Walk in the path!' thereby he dismisses them 
in due form ; — ' O divine Lord of mind, this sacri- 
fice — Svaha! — give to the wind!' for the sacrifice, 
indeed, is that blowing one (the wind). Having 
accordingly prepared this (special) sacrifice, he thereby 
establishes it safely in that (chief, full or new-moon) 
sacrifice, and thus unites sacrifice with sacrifice : for 
this reason he says, 'Svaha! give (it) to the wind !' 

29. He then offers up the barhis. The barhis, 
truly, is this world, and the barhis (consists of) 
plants : hence he thereby bestows plants on this 
world, and these plants are safely established in this 
world : for this reason he offers up the barhis. 

30. This offering he makes as an additional one, 
since the samish/ayag-us is the end of the sacrifice, 
and consequently what comes after the samish/a- 
ya^us is additional ; and because, in performing the 
samish/aya,fus, he offers to those (deities 2 ), and thence 
additional unlimited plants are here produced. 

31. He offers it, with the text (Va^ - . S. II, 22), 
' May the barhis combine with the sacrificial food, 
with the butter ! May Indra combine with the 
Adityas, the Vasus, the Maruts, and the Vwve 
Deva^! May what (has been offered with) 'Svaha' 
go up to the heavenly ether 3 !' 

32. Having thereupon walked round (from the 

1 Mahidhara refers g&tu-vida^ and vittva to vid,'to know.' 
* According to Harisvamin, he does so, since that offering is 

made for the sake of dismissing (satisfying) the deities. 

' Mahidhara interprets, ' May Indra — together with the Adityas, 

the Vasus, the Maruts, and the Vwve DevS^ — anoint the barhis 

thoroughly with the havis-like ghee,' &c. 



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I KANDA, 9 ADHYAYA, 2 BRAhMAM., 35. 265 

north side of the Ahavanlya fire) to the south, 
he pours the prawita-water 1 out (on the altar). 
Now, when he spreads the sacrifice, he yokes it. 
But were he not to pour out (the pra«lta-water), 
the sacrifice, being unyoked, would, in moving back- 
ward, injure the sacrificer. In this way, however, 
the sacrifice does not injure the sacrificer ; and for 
this reason he pours out the prawita-water, after 
walking round to the south. 

33. He pours it out, with the text (V4f. S. II, 23 a), 
' Who 2 unyokes thee ? He unyokes thee ! For whom 
does he unyoke thee ? For him he unyokes thee ! 
For plenty!' He thereby announces to the sacri- 
ficer the highest prosperity. He pours it out with 
the same (vessel) with which he brings it forward ; 
for wherewith they yoke the team, therewith they 
also unyoke it : with the yoke-tie they yoke it, and 
with the yoke-tie they unyoke it By means of a 
potsherd he now throws the refuse from the cleaning 
of the rice 3 right under the black antelope skin ; 
with the text(V4f. S. II, 23b), 'The Rakshas' share 
art thou!' 

34. Now the gods and the Asuras, both of them 
sprung from Pra^apati, were contending about this 
sacrifice, (that is, their) father Pra^apati, the year. 
' Ours it (he) shall be ! ours it shall be,' they said. 

35. Thereupon the gods obtained possession of 
the whole of the sacrifice, and dispossessed those 

1 See p. 9, note 1. 

2 Or, Pra^pati . . ., see I, 1, 1, 13, with note. 

* See 1, 1, 4, 23-24. According to the Paddhati on Katy. Ill, 8, 
the Adhvaryu holds the deer-skin with his left hand over the utkara, 
or heap of rubbish, and pours the refuse under the skin on the 
utkara. 



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266 satapatha-brAhmajva. 

(Asuras) of it by (giving them) what was the worst 
part of the sacrifice, to wit, with the blood of the 
victim (they dispossessed them) of the animal sacri- 
fice, and with the refuse of the rice of the havir- 
ya^»a. ' May they be duly dispossessed of the 
sacrifice,' they thought ; for he indeed is duly 
dispossessed, who is dispossessed even while obtain- 
ing a (worthless) share. He, on the other hand, who 
is dispossessed without any share whatever, hopes 
for a while, and when it occurs to him, he says, 
' What share hast thou given me ?' Hence what 
share the gods set apart for those (Asuras), that 
same share he now makes over to them in pouring 
(the refuse of the rice) right under the black ante- 
lope skin. He thereby casts it into blind darkness, 
where there is no (sacrificial) fire. And in the same 
way he casts the blood of the victim into blind 
darkness, where there is no fire; thinking, 'Thou 
art the Rakshas' share!' For this reason they "use 
not the gore of the victim (for sacrificial purposes), 
since it is the Rakshas' share. 

Third Brahmaata. 

i. The sacrifice being now complete, he (the 
Adhvaryu) walks round (the fire) to the south, and 
pours out a vessel (of water); for thus it is 
(poured out) towards north : therefore he pours 
it out after walking round to the south. He who 
sacrifices, doubtless, sacrifices with a desire that he 
also may obtain a place in the world of the gods. 
That sacrifice of his then goes forth towards the 
world of the gods : after it follows the fee which he 
gives (to the priests), and holding on to the priests' 
fee (follows) the sacrificer. 



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I KkNDA, 9 ADHYAYA, 3 BRAhMAJVA, 6. 267 

2. That same path leads either to the gods or to 
the fathers 1 . On both sides two flames are ever 
burning : they scorch him who deserves to be 
scorched, and allow him to pass who deserves to 
pass a . Now, water is (a means of) lustration : hence 
he thereby lustra tes that path. 

3. A full (vessel) he pours out, because full means 
all : hence he thereby lustrates that (path) by means 
of the All. He pours it out continuously, uninter- 
ruptedly : hence he thereby lustrates that (path) in 
a continuous, uninterrupted manner. 

4. And again why he pours out a vessel (of 
water) is: where anything is done wrongly at the 
sacrifice, there they tear or wound it; and — water 
being (a means of) lustration — he lustrates it by that 
(means of) lustration, water ; he heals it with water. 

5. A full (vessel) he pours out, because full means 
all : hence he thereby heals it by means of the 
All. Continuously, uninterruptedly he pours it out : 
hence he thereby heals it in a continuous (lasting), 
uninterrupted manner. 

6. He (the sacrificer) intercepts it with his open 
hands held together, while reciting the text (Va^ - . 

1 Cf. Mahabh. XII, 525, 'Two paths are known, one leading to 
the gods, and one leading to the fathers;' and ib. XIII, 1082, 
' That sun is said to be the gate of the paths leading to the gods ; 
and that moon is said to be the gate of the paths leading to the 
fathers.' See also A^and. Up. V, 3. In .Sat. Br. VI, 6, 2, 4 the 
gate of the heavenly world is said to be situated in the north- 
east; whilst that of the world of the fathers, according to XIII, 
8, 1, 5, lies in the south-east Cf. Kaushit. Up. I, 2 seq. (Max 
Mflller, Up. I, p. 274), ' Verily, the moon is the door of the heavenly 
world,' &c. 

* According to Harisvamin, they scorch him who has not ful- 
filled his duties, and allow him to pass who has done so. 



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268 satapatha-brAhmana. , 

S. II, 24), ' We have united with lustre, with vigour, 
with the bodies 1 , with the happy spirit. May 
Tvashtri, the dispenser of boons, grant us riches, 
and make even what was injured in our body!' 
What was torn, that he thereby heals. 

7. He then touches his face (with the water in 
his hands). The reason why he thus touches his face 
is twofold : water means ambrosia, and with ambrosia 
he accordingly touches himself; also he thereby 
transfers to himself that sacred work (the sacrifice) : 
for these reasons he touches his face. 

8. He now strides the (three) Vish«u-strides. He 
who sacrifices assuredly gratifies the gods. In 
gratifying the gods by that sacrifice — partly by riks, 
partly by ya^us, partly by oblations — he acquires 
a share among them; and having acquired a share 
among them, he goes to them. 

9. And again why he strides the Vish«u- 
strides, is: Vishmi, truly, is the sacrifice, by 
striding (vi-kram) he obtained for the gods that 
all -pervading power (vikranti) which now belongs 
to them. By his first step he gained this same 
(earth), by the second this aerial expanse, and by 
his last (step) the sky. And this same pervading 
power Vishwu, as the sacrifice, obtains by his strides 
for him (the sacrificer): for this reason he strides 

1 That is, with the departed persons, the fathers; or, more 
probably, with new bodies (?), cf. the funereal hymns, Rig-veda X, 
14-18; especially X, 15, 14; 16, 5; 14, 8. Perhaps, however, it 
would be better to construe, ' by (our) bodies we have united with 
lustre and vigour ; by (our) mind with bliss.' In IV, 6, 1, 1 it is said, 
that the sacrificer is born in the next world with his entire body ; 
similarly XI, i, 8, 6; XII, 8, 3, 31. For further quotations regard- 
ing the views on future existence, see A.Weber, Ind. Streifen, I, 
p. 20 seq.; J. Muir, Original Sanskrit Texts, V, p. 314 seq. 



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I KAJVDA, 9 ADHYAYA, 3 BRAHMAiVA, II. 269 

the Vish«u-strides. Now it is indeed from this 
(earth) that most (beings) go (upwards). 

10. Hence (he strides thrice) with the texts (Vi^. 
S. II, 25 a-c), 'On the earth Vish»u strode by means 
of the gayatri metre : excluded therefrom is he who 
hates us, and whom we hate!' ' In the air Vishwu 
strode by means of the trishAibh metre : excluded 
therefrom is he who hates us, and whom we hate!' 
' In the sky Vish«u strode by means of the^agatl 
metre : excluded therefrom is he who hates us, and 
whom we hate !' When one has thus ascended 
these worlds, that is the goal, that the safe refuge : 
the rays of him (the sun) who burns there, are 
the righteous (departed) 1 ; and what highest light 
there is 2 , that is Pra/apati or the heavenly world. 
Having then in this way ascended these worlds, he 
reaches that goal, that safe refuge. Now he who 
wishes to'give instructions from hence, should come 
hitherwards from above. Twofold is the reason 
why he should come hitherwards from above: 

11. By (or, from) the escape (of the enemies) 3 
indeed the conquering gods formerly gained first 
the sky, and then this aerial expanse ; and there- 



1 In VI, 5, 4, 8 we shall meet with the statement, that 'the stars 
(nakshatra)are the lights of righteous men who go to the heavenly 
world.' In the same passage, however (as in others), the naksha- 
tras (lunar mansions) are represented as divine female beings (with 
undipped wings; cf. VS^. S. XI, 61), with whom, in IX, 4, 1, 9, the 
moon is said to live together, as the Gandharvas with the Apsaras. 
4 See par. 16 with note. The Ka»va text reads, 'yat param bhSti.' 
* ApasarawataA; i. e. by allowing the enemies to escape, viz. 
first from the sky to the air, and then from the air to the earth. It 
also, however, has the meaning of 'from escape;' that is, the gods 
drove the enemies to the earth, whence there was no escape for 
them. 



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27O SATAPATHA-BRAHMA.YA. 

upon they drove their enemies away from this 
(earth), whence there was no escape. And in like 
manner he (the priest) also by the escape (of the 
enemies) gains first the sky, and then this aerial 
expanse ; and thereupon he drives his enemies away 
from this (earth), whence there is no escape. This 
earth indeed is a firm footing : hence he thereby 
stands firm on this firm footing. 

12. And in this way also (he may stride) 1 : 'In 
the sky Vishmi strode by means of the ^agatl 
metre : excluded therefrom is he who hates us, and 
whom we hate !' 'In the air Vishmi strode by means 
of the trish/ubh metre : excluded therefrom is he 
who hates us, and whom we hate!' 'On the earth 
Vish«u strode by means of the gayatri metre : 
excluded therefrom is he who hates us, and whom 
we hate!' — With the texts (VSf. S. II, 25 d, e), 
' (Excluded) from this food ! from this resort !' 
(pratish/^a, he looks down upon his portion and 
the altar respectively.) For on this (earth) all 
this food is safely established (pratishMita): for 
this reason he says, ' From this food ! from this 
resort!' 

13. He then looks towards the east. The east, 
indeed, is the region of the gods : for this reason he 
looks towards the east 

14. He looks, with the text (Vdf. S. II, 25 f), 
' We have gone to the realm of light (svar).' The 

1 The sacrificer in making the strides of Vishwu, may begin 
either with the stride on earth or with that in the sky (Katy. Ill, 
8, 11, 12). He begins from the southern hip (or south-west corner) 
of the altar, and makes three strides eastward with his right foot in 
front, reciting one formula with each stride, along the south side of 
the altar up to the Ahavaniya fire. 



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i kAnda, 9 adhyAya, 3 brAhmajva, 17. 271 

realm of light assuredly means the gods : hence he 
thereby says, 'We have gone to the gods.' — With 
(ib. g), 'We have united with splendour' (he looks 
on the Ahavaniya fire) : he thereby says, ' We have 
united with the gods.' 

15. He then looks up to the sun, for that is the 
final goal, that the safe resort. To that final goal, 
to that resort he thereby goes : for this reason he 
looks up to the sun. 

16. He looks up, with the text (Va^-.S. II, 26 a), 
'Self-existent art thou, the best ray of light!' The 
sun is indeed the best ray of light \ and therefore he 
says, ' Self-existent art thou, the best ray of light' 
'"Light-bestowing art thou : give me light (var^as)!" 
so say I,' said Y4^»avalkya, 'for at this indeed the 
Brahmawa should strive, that he be brahmavar- 
iasin (illumed by the brahma, or sacred writ).' 
Aupoditeya 2 , on the other hand, said,' He indeed 
will give me cows 3 : (therefore I say), " Cow-giving 
art thou, give me cows!"' Thus whatever wish 
he (the sacrificer) entertains (and expresses), that 
wish is granted to him. 

17. He then turns (from left to right), with the 
text (Va^ - . S. II, 26 b), ' I move along the course of 

1 Seven rays of the sun are mentioned, Rig-veda 1, 1 05, 9 ; 11,5,2; 
Ath.-veda VII, 107,1. Mahidhara remarks that four of them lie in, 
or point to, the four quarters ; one pointing upwards and another 
downwards ; and the seventh, and best, being the disc of the sun 
itself, called Hirawyagarbha. This apparently is the param 
bhas, or most excellent light, which in par. 10 is identified with 
Pra^apati, or the heavenly world. 

8 That is, Tumiw^a Aupoditeya Vaiyaghrapadya, as the Ka«va 
text reads; cf. Taitt. S. I, 7, 2, 1. 

s The heavenly rays of light are regarded as the heavenly cows, 
Naigh. I, 5 ; Nir. II, 6. 



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272 SATAPATHA-BRAHMA.YA. 

the sun;' having reached that final goal, that safe 
resort, he now moves along the course of that (sun) 1 . 

18. Thereupon he steps to(upa-stha) the Gar- 
hapatya fire. Twofold is the reason why he steps 
to the Girhapatya : the Girhapatya is a house, and 
a house is a safe resort, hence he thereby stays 
in a house, that is, in a safe resort And, besides, 
what full measure of human life there is for him 
here, that he thereby attains (upa-stha). This is 
why he steps to the Girhapatya fire. 

19. He steps to it, with the text (Vi£\ S. II, 27 a), 
' O householder Agni, may I become a good house- 
holder through thee, O Agni, the householder! 
Mayest thou, O Agni, become a good householder 
through me, the householder!' there is nothing in 
this requiring explanation. — 'May our household 
matters be unlike a cart with only one bullock,' he 
thereby says, ' may our household matters be free 
from calamities;' — 'for a hundred winters!' he thereby 
says, ' may I live a hundred years.' He need not, 
however, say this ; for man lives even longer than 
a hundred years : hence he need not say this. 

20. He then turns (from left to right), with the text 
(Va^-. S. II, 27 b), 'I move along the course of the 
sun:' having reached that final goal, that safe resort, 
he now moves along the course of that (sun). 

21. Now (in pronouncing the following text) he 



1 When he has executed the pradakshiwa movement, he has 
to repeat the movement in the opposite direction, in accordance 
with the general rule, Katy. I, 8, 24. The same applies to par. 20. 
Gn the sun-wise circumambulation, with and without fire, see p. 37 
note, p. 45 note; also Martin, Western Isles, pp. 16-20, 85, 97, 
116-119, 241, 277; Forbes Leslie, Early Races of Scotland, 
index, s. v. deisiol. 



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I KANDA, 9 ADHYAYA, 3 BRAHMAtfA, 23. 273 

inserts his son's name : ' May this son (N. N.) carry 
on this manly deed of mine 1 !' Should he have no 
son, let him insert his own name. 

22. He then steps up to the Ahavanlya fire. 
Silently he steps to it, thinking, ' In the east my 
sacrifice shall be completed !' 

23. Thereupon he divests himself of the vow, 
with the text (Va^-. S. II, 28 b), ' Now am I he that 
I really am.' For, in entering upon the vow, he 
becomes, as it were, non-human ; and as it would 
not be becoming for him to say, ' I enter from truth 
into untruth ;' and as, in fact, he now again becomes 
man, let him therefore divest himself of the vow, 
with the text, 'Now am I he that I really am 2 .' 



1 The Madhyandina text of the V%. S. does not give this 
formula. The Kanva text of the Sawhita has the following 
(Weber's edition, p. 59), ' Woven art thou, a web art thou : weave 
me along (? extend my life) at this sacrifice, at this holy deed, in 
this food, in this world!' 'May my son weave on (continue) this 
work, this manly deed of mine 1' Thus also Kity. Ill, 8, 25. The 
Kanva text of the Brahmana, however, mentions only the formula 
given above. According to Laugakshi he names his favourite son ; 
according to Sahkhayana, his eldest son, or as many sons as he 
has. See comm. on Kity. IV, 12, 11. 

* See 1, 1,1,6. For another mode of divesting oneself of the 
vow, see 1, 1, 1, 3. 



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2 74 SATAPATHA-BRAHMAlvA. 



SECOND KANDA. 



THE AGNYADHANA, THE AGNIHOTRA, THE 

PIA^APITK/YAG^A, THE AGRAYA^ESHH, 

AND THE /sTATURMASYAN!. 



I. THE AGNYADHANA or ESTABLISHMENT OF THE 

SACRED FIRES. 

First Adhyaya. First BrAhmaya. 

The Agny-adhana (or Agny-adheya), or ceremony of esta- 
blishing a set of sacrificial fires, on the part of a young householder, 
is, as a rule, performed on the first day of the waxing moon. Some 
authorities also allow the performance to take place at full moon, 
probably in order to enable the newly-married couple to enter on 
their sacred duties with as little delay as possible. Moreover, special 
benefits are supposed to accrue to the performer of the ceremony 
from the conjunction of the new moon with certain lunar asterisms; 
though the author of our work, at any rate, does not seem greatly 
to encourage this practice, but rather to urge the pious householder 
to set up fires of his own, whenever he feels a longing for the 
sacrifice. 

The normal performance of the Agnyadhana, as that of the full 
and new-moon offerings, requires two days; the first of which is 
taken up with preliminary rites, while the second — that is, the first 
day of the respective half-moon — is devoted to the chief ceremonies, 
beginning with the production of the sacred fire by friction. (See 

II, i, 4, 8 seq.) 

After the sacrificer has chosen his four officiating priests— viz. 
the Brahman, Hotr», Adhvaryu, and Agnidhra (or Agnfdh) — he. 
proceeds, together with them, to erect the two sheds or 'fire- 
houses.' In order to determine their exact sites, the Adhvaryu 
first draws from west to east the so-called 'easterly' line (cf. I, 2, 5, 
14), and on it marks, at 8, 11, or 12 prakramas or steps from each 
other, the centres of the Garhapatya and Ahavantya fire-places, 
the outlines of which he then traces, making each a square aratni or 
cubit in area, the former circular, the latter square. The Dakshi- 



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II KAJVDA, I ADHYAYA, I BRAHMAJVA. 275 

wagni orAnvaharya-paiana, ifit is required at all, is of the same 
area, but of semicircular form, and lies south of the space between 
the altar and the Garhapatya fire. The Garhapatya fire-house is 
constructed with its laths running either from west to east, or from 
south to north, and a door on the south side ; and so as to enclose 
both the Garhapatya and Dakshina fires. The Ahavantya fire-house, 
on the other hand, with its laths necessarily running from west to 
east, and an entrance from the east, contains the Ahavaniya fire 
and the altar (vedi) adjoining it on the west, and partly enclosing it 
with its ' shoulders' on the north and south sides. The two houses 
are also open to each other on the inner side ; and sufficient space 
is left on all sides for freely moving around the fires. 

The Adhvaryu then procures a temporary fire, — either producing 
it by friction, or obtaining it from certain specified sources in the 
village, — and after the usual fivefold lustration of the Garhapatya 
fire-place (cf. p. 2), he lays down the fire thereon. Towards sunset 
the sacrificer [while seated east of the Ahavaniya house] invokes 
the gods and manes with ' Gods, fathers 1 fathers, gods I I sacrifice, 
being who I am ; neither will I exclude him whose I am : mine own 
shall be the offering, mine own the toiling, mine own the sacrifice !' 
He then enters the Ahavantya house from the east, passes through 
it to the Garhapatya, and sits down behind (west of) the fire ; his 
wife at the same time entering the Garhapatya house from the south 
and seating herself south of him, — both facing the east. Thereupon 
the Adhvaryu hands to the sacrificer two pieces of wood (ara»i), — if 
possible, of axvattha; grown out of a s amt tree, — to be used next 
morning for the production (or 'churning') of the sacred fire by 
one of them (the upper ara«i) being rapidly drilled in a hole in the 
other (or lower arawi). [The sacrificer and his wife then lay the 
upper and lower sticks respectively on their laps ; whereupon certain 
propitiatory ceremonies are performed by them, and honours are 
paid to the priests and the sticks ; and the latter are finally deposited 
on a seat.] In the house of the Garhapatya a he-goat may then be 
tied up for the night, which, if it belong to the sacrificer, is to be pre- 
sented by him to the Agnidhra on the completion of the sacrifice. 

After sunset the Adhvaryu measures out four vessels of husked 
rice grains — each containing three handfuls, which quantity is con- 
sidered sufficient to furnish a meal for one man — on an ox-hide 
died red [and spread out with the hairy side upwards and the neck- 
part to the east]. With this rice the (odana) /Jatushprajya, or 
' (pap) to be eaten by the four (priests),' is prepared on the provi- 
sional Garhapatya fire. When it is ready, the Adhvaryu makes a 
hollow in the pap and pours clarified butter into it He then takes 

T 2 



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276 satapatha-brAhma/va. 

three kindling-sticks (samidh), anoints them with some of that ghee, 
and puts them on the fire one after another, with texts (cf. note on 
II, i, 4, 5). Thereupon the sacrificer [having paid due honours to 
the priests by washing their feet and giving them perfumes and 
wreaths, &c, and assigned to each his share] bids them eat 

During the night the sacrificer and his wife have to remain awake 
and keep up the fire. When the night clears up, the Adhvaryu ex- 
tinguishes the fire, or, if there is to be a Dakshi»4gni, he takes it 
southwards and keeps it in a safe place till that fire is made up. He 
then draws with the wooden sword three lines across the fire-place 
and proceeds with the preparation of the hearth-mounds in the way 
set forth in the first Brahmawa of this Book. 

i. Now when he equips (Agni, the fire) from 
this and that quarter, that is the equipping (of the 
fire) with its equipments 1 . In whatever (objects) 
some of (the nature of) Agni is inherent, therewith 
he equips (the fire) ; and in thus equipping it he 
supplies it partly with splendour, partly with cattle, 
partly with a mate. 

2. In the first place he (the Adhvaryu) draws 
(three) lines (with the wooden sword on the Garha- 
patya fire-place 2 ). Whatever part of this earth 

1 The verb here translated by ' to equip,' is sam-bhn", ' to carry, 
or bring, together, to collect;' and then 'to make the necessary 
preparations, to prepare;' hence sambh&ra, 'the preparation, out- 
fit,' the technical term for the objects employed in the preparation 
of the fire-place, with the view of symbolically ensuring success to 
the fire. In paragraphs 3 seq. the primary meaning 'to bring 
(together)' has been used, except where it seemed desirable to 
preserve its technical sense. 

4 The three lines drawn across the fire-place form a necessary 
part of its lustration; see p. 2. According to the Paddhati on 
KSty. IV, 8, the Adhvaryu first makes the fivefold lustration of 
the hearth, and thereupon again draws the mystic lines (? or draws 
the outline of the fire-place, cf. Katy. IV, 8, 16) and proceeds 
with the sambharas; viz. he sprinkles the lines with water, while 
the sacrificer takes hold of him from behind; then puts down 
a piece of gold, and on it throws salt soil and the mould of a mole- 
hill, with which he forms the hearth-mound (khara) — circular in 



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II KANDA, I ADMYAYA, I BRAHMAtfA, 5. 277 

is either trodden or spit upon, that he thereby 
removes from it; and he thus establishes his fire on 
earth that is entirely proper for the sacrifice : this 
is why he draws lines (across the fire-place). 

3. He then sprinkles (the lines) with water. 
When he thus sprinkles (the fire-place) with water, 
that is the equipment (of the fire) with water. The 
reason why he brings water is that water is food; 
for water is indeed food : hence when water comes 
to this world, food is produced here. Thus he 
thereby supplies it (the fire) with food. 

4. Water (ap, fern.), moreover, is female, and 
fire (agni, masc.) is male; so that he thereby sup- 
plies the latter with a productive mate. And since 
all this (universe) is pervaded (or obtained, apta) 
by water, he sets aip the fire, after he has obtained 
it by means of water '. This is why he brings water. 

5. He then brings (a piece of) gold. Now Agni 
at one time cast his eyes on the waters 2 : ' May 
I pair with them,' he thought. He came together 
with them; and his seed became gold 3 . For this 
reason the latter shines like fire, it being Agni's 

the case of the Girhapatya, square the Ahavaniya, and semicircular 
the Dakshiwigni ; but each equal in area to a square aratni or cubit. 
Along the edge of the mound he then lays pebbles close to each other 
[50 on the Girhapatya, 73 on the Ahavaniya, and 22 on the Dakshi- 
wigni, according to the Schol. on Kity. IV, 8, 16]. According to 
some authorities, the piece of gold is laid oh the top of the mound. 
He thus prepares successively the Girhapatya, Ahavaniya, and Dak- 
shiwa hearths; afterwards, if required, those of the Sabhya and 
Avasathya fires, which are, like the Girhapatya, of circular form. 

1 An etymological play on the word ap, ipaA, ' water/ and the 
verb ip, ' to obtain, pervade.' 

1 In the version of this myth given Taitt. Br. I, 1, 3. 8, the 
waters courted by Agni are called Vanwa's wives. 

3 TiA sambabhuva tisu retaA prisinAat tad hira»yam abhavat. 



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2 78 $atapatha-brAhmajta. 

seed. Hence it (gold) is found in water, for he 
(Agni) poured it into the water. Hence also one 
does not cleanse oneself with it 1 , nor does one 
do anything else with it. Now there is splendour 
(for the fire) : for he thereby makes it to be 
possessed of divine seed, bestows splendour on it ; 
and sets up a fire completely endowed with seed. 
That is why he brings gold. 

6. He then brings salt. Yonder sky assuredly 
bestowed that (salt as) cattle on this earth : hence 
they say that salt soil is suitable for cattle. That 
(salt), therefore, means cattle ; and thus he thereby 
visibly supplies it (the fire) with cattle; and the 
latter having come from yonder (sky) is securely 
established on this earth. Moreover, that (salt) is 
believed to be the savour (rasa) of those two, the 
sky and the earth 2 : so that he thereby supplies it 
(the fire) with the savour of those two, the sky and 
the earth. That is why he brings salt. 

7. He then brings (the earth of) a mole-hill 
(akhu-kartsha)*. The moles certainly know the 

1 Siya»a interprets enena na dhavayati by 'he does not clean 
(his teeth) with it;' — the St. Petersb. Diet, by 'he does not get 
himself conveyed (driven) by it.' The Kawva text has : Tasmad 
enad apsv evanuvindanty apsu punanty apsu hy enat prasin&n 
nainena dhavayanti na kirn tana kurvanti. 

* Cf. Taitt. Br. I, 1, 3, 2 : ' The sky and the earth were (ori- 
ginally) close together. On being separated they said to each 
other, " Let there be a common sacrificial essence (ya^wiyam) for 
us I" What sacrificial essence there was belonging to yonder sky, 
that it bestowed on this earth, that became the salt (in the earth); 
and what sacrificial essence there was belonging to this earth, that 
it bestowed on yonder sky, that became the black (spots) in the 
moon. When he throws salt (on the fire-place), let him think it 
to be that (viz. the black in the moon) : it is on the sacrificial essence 
of the sky and the earth that he sets up his fire.' 

5 On the mythic connection of (the white, sharp teeth of) the 



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II KANDA, I ADHYAYA, I BRAHMA2VA, 9. 279 

savour of this earth : hence, by entering deeper and 
deeper into this earth, they (grow) very fat, know- 
ing, as they do, its savour ; and wherever they know 
the savour of this earth to be, there they cast it up. 
Hence he thereby supplies it (the fire) with the 
savour of this earth : that is why he brings a mole- 
hill. Moreover, they say of one who has attained 
prosperity (or splendour, srl) that he is purl shy a; 
and purtsha and karlsha 1 doubtless mean one and 
the same thing : it is, therefore, for his (Agni's or 
the sacrificer's) attainment of splendour (srt) that 
he brings a mole-hill. 

8. He then brings pebbles. Now the gods and 
the Asuras, both of them sprung from Pra^ipati, 
once contended for superiority. This earth was 
then trembling like a lotus-leaf; for the wind was 
tossing it hither and thither : now it came near the 
gods, now it came near the Asuras. When it came 
near the gods, — 

9. They said, ' Come, let us steady this resting- 
place ; and when firm and steady, 'let us set up 

4k hu (mole, mouse, rat), as of that of the boar, with the thunder- 
bolt, see Dr. A. Kuhn's ingenious remarks, ' Herabkunft des Feuers 
und des GSttertranks,' p. 202. According to Taitt. Br. I, 1, 3, 3, 
Agni at one time concealed himself from the gods, and having 
become a mole, dug himself into the earth ; so that the mole-hills 
thrown up by him, have some of Agni's nature attaching to them. 
The Taittiriyas also put on the hearth the earth of an ant-hill, which 
the BrShma«a (in the same way as our author does of the mole- 
hill) represents as the savour (or marrow, essence) of the earth. 

1 The primary meaning of karlsha is 'that which is scattered, 
or strewn about,' hence 'refuse, rubbish' (and &khu-k.arisha,'mole- 
cast'). Its secondary meaning, as is that of purisha, is ' manure ' 
(or perhaps also ' soft, rich mould '), an article naturally valued by 
an agricultural population. See I, 2, 5, 17, where purtsha is 
taken symbolically to represent cattle. 



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280 DATAPATH A-BRAHMAtfA. 

the two fires on it ; whereupon we will exclude our 
enemies from any share in it.' 

10. Accordingly, in like manner as one would 
stretch a skin by means of wooden pins, they 
fastened down this resting-place; and it formed a 
firm and steady resting-place. And when it was 
firm and steady, they set up the two fires on it ; and 
thereupon they excluded their enemies from any 
share in it 1 . 

ii. And in like manner that one (the Adhvaryu) 
now fastens down that resting-place by means of 
pebbles ; and on it, when firm and steady, he sets 
up the two fires ; whereupon he excludes the (sacri- 
ficer's) enemies from any share in it. This is the 
reason why he brings pebbles. 

12. These then are the five equipments 2 : for 
fivefold is the sacrifice, fivefold the animal victim ; 
and five seasons there are in the year. 

1 The corresponding myth of Taitt. Br. I, i, 3, 5, though very 
different from ours, yet presents one or two points of resemblance. 
According to it, nothing was to be seen in the beginning except 
water and a lotus-leaf standing out above it. Pra^apati (being bent 
on creating the firm ground) bethought himself that the lotus-stalk 
must rest on something; and having assumed the form of a boar, 
he dived and brought up some of the earth. This he spread out 
(prath) on the lotus-leaf, whence originated the earth (pr/'thivi), 
which he then fastened down by means of pebbles. Hence the 
latter are put on the hearth in order to afford a firm foundation 
for the fire. 

* According to the authorities of the Black Ya^ur-veda there are 
not five, but fourteen sambharas, seven of which are taken from 
the earth, viz. sand, salt, a mole-hill, an ant-hill, mire from a dried- 
up pool, pebbles, and gold ; while the remaining seven consist of 
pieces of wood from the arvattha, udumbara, palifa (? two pieces), 
jam? , and vikankata trees, and from some tree that has been struck 
by lightning. The sprinkling of water about the fire-place is not 
counted by them as a sambhara, but as one of the usual acts of 
lustration. Taitt. Br. I, 1, 3 seq. 



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II KAA'DA, I ADHYAYA, I BRAhMAJVA, 14. 28 1 

1 3. Now, as to this, they say, ' Six seasons there 
are in the year.' And in that case the very defi- 
ciency (nyuna) itself is rendered a productive union 1 , 
since it is from the lower part (nyuna, i.e. of the 
body) that offspring is here brought forth. Thus 
also a progressive improvement * (is assured to the 
sacrificer) : for this reason there are five equipments. 
And when (it is nevertheless insisted on that) there 
are six seasons in the year, then Agni is the sixth 
of them, and thus there is no deficiency. 

14. Here also they say, ' He should not equip it 
even with a single equipment 1' For (they argue) 
all those (objects) are on this earth, and hence, when 
he establishes the fire on this earth, the latter of itself 
obtains all those equipments : he need not, therefore, 
equip it with a single equipment. But let him never- 
theless bring (those objects) together ; for when he 
establishes the fire on this (earth), then it obtains all 
the equipments ; and what (benefit) accrues from the 
equipments being brought together, that also accrues 
to it 3 . Let him for that reason bring (the objects) 
together. 



1 Or, a deficient pairing is effected (on account of the uneven 
number). I do not quite understand Saya«a's interpretation of the 
passage, the published text of the commentary being apparently 
corrupt in one or two places. The Kawva text reads : Tad ahuA 
shad va rilwdh samvatsarasyeti yadi vai sha/ r/lavaA samvatsarasya 
nyunam u vai pra^anana/8 nyunad va im£& pra^aA pra^ayante, &c. 

1 Literally, ' a prevailing (or advancing) better-to-morrow,' sv&h- 
jreyasam uttaravat. 

* The drift of the author's reasoning evidently is that it is safer, 
by putting those objects on the fire-place, to make sure of the magic 
benefits of those symbols being really secured to the fire, and 
thereby to the sacrificer. The Kawva text of this paragraph, though 
differently worded, yields the same sense; except that it refers to 



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282 DATAPATH A- BR AHMAtfA. 



Second BrAhmana. 

1. He may set up the two fires 1 under the Krit- 
tikas; for they, the Krzttikas, are doubtless Agni's 
asterism, so that if he sets up his fires under Agni's 
asterism, (he will bring about) a correspondence 
(between his fires and the asterism) : for this reason 
he may set up his fires under the Krzttikas. 

2. Moreover, the other lunar asterisms (consist 
of) one, two, three or four (stars), so that the Knt- 
tikas are the most numerous (of asterisms) 2 : hence 
he thereby obtains an abundance. For this reason 
he may set up his fires under the Knttikas. 

3. And again, they do not move away from the 
eastern quarter, whilst the other asterisms do move 
from the eastern quarter. Thus his (two fires) are 
established in the eastern quarter : for this reason 
he may set up his fires under the Kmtikas. 

4. On the other hand (it is argued) why he should 
not set up the fires under the Krzttikas. Origi- 
nally, namely, the latter were the wives of the Bears 
(rz'ksha) ; for the seven ^'shis s were in former times 

the sacrificer himself and to the wishes he entertains in collecting 
the objects. 

1 That is, the Garhapatya and Ahavanfya, the two principal fires. 

* Whilst the Kr/'ttikSs, or Pleiades, are supposed to consist of 
seven (or, according to others, of six) stars, the remaining twenty- 
six nakshatras or lunar mansions, according to our author, vary 
between one and four stars. Hence the Kmtikas are also called 
Bahulas, 'the numerous.' In the later accounts, however, a larger 
number of stars is attributed to several nakshatras. Cf. Weber, 
Nakshatra, II, pp. 368, 38 1. The Kawva text has : ' Other naksha- 
tras are (i. e. consist of) four; and there is here an abundance, so 
that he thereby obtains abundance.' 

8 Saptarshi, or the seven J?/'shis, is the designation of the 



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II KANDA, I ADHYAYA, 2 BRAHMAJVA, 7. 283 

called the ^Tcshas (bears). They were, however, 
precluded from intercourse (with their husbands), for 
the latter, the seven ^'shis, rise in the north, and 
they (the Krz'ttikas) in the east. Now it is a mis- 
fortune for one to be precluded from intercourse 
(with his wife) : he should therefore not set up his 
fires under the Kr/ttikas, lest he should thereby be 
precluded from intercourse. 

5. But he may nevertheless set up (his fire under 
the Kmtikas) ; for Agni doubtless is their mate, and 
it is with Agni that they have intercourse : for this 
reason he may set up (the fire under the Kmtikas). 

6. He may also set up his fires under (the asterism 
of) Rohi«i. For under Rohi«l it was that Pra^a- 
pati, when desirous of progeny (or creatures), set up 
his fires. He created beings, and the creatures pro- 
duced by him remained invariable and constant', 
like (red) cows (rohi»i): hence the cow-like nature 
of Rohi»i. Rich in cattle and offspring therefore he 
becomes whosoever, knowing this, sets up his fires 
under Rohi«i. 

7. Under Rohi«l, indeed, the cattle set up their 
fires, thinking that they might attain to (ruh) the 
desire (or love) of men. They did attain to the 

constellation of Ursa Major, or the Wain. In the Rig-veda, riksh&A 
(bears) occurs once (I, 24, 10), either in the same restricted sense, 
or in that of stars generally. 

1 'Ta asya pra^&A srish/a ekarupa upastabdhas tasthu rohinya 
iva.' The Kawva text reads : Tam imaA prag&A sn'sh/a rohiwya 
ivopastabdhas tasthur ekarupa iva. Sayawa interprets upastab- 
dhfM ('propped up, erect,' established) by ' pratibaddha^atayaA (of 
continuous lineage),' and ekarupa^ ('uniform') by 'avi^iin- 
napravahaA (of uninterrupted flow or succession).' In Taitt. Br. 
I, 1, a, 2, it is stated that Pra^apati created Agni under (the aste- 
rism) Rohi»i, and that the gods then set up that fire under the 
same asterism. 



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284 DATAPATH A-BRAHMA.YA. 

desire of men ; and whatever desire the cattle then 
obtained in regard to men, that same desire he ob- 
tains, in regard to cattle, whosoever, knowing this, 
sets up his fire under Rohi#t. 

8. He may also set up his fires under (the aste- 
rism of) M^ga^irsha. For Mngartrsha, indeed, is 
the head of Prafapati 1 ; and the head (.riras) means 
excellence (srl), for the head does indeed mean ex- 
cellence : hence they say of him who is the most 
excellent (sreshtAa) of a community, that he is 
the head of that community. Excellence therefore 
he attains whosoever, knowing this, sets up his fire 
under Mrz'garlrsha. 

9. On the other hand (it is argued) why one should 
not set up his fire under Mrtgasirsha. 2 . The latter, 
indeed, is Pra^upati's body. Now, when they (the 
gods) on that occasion pierced him 3 with what is 
called ' the three-knotted arrow,' he abandoned that 



1 For the mythical allusions in this and the succeeding para- 
graphs, we have to compare .Sat. Br. I, 7, 4, 1 ; Ait. Br. Ill, 33. 
According to the version of the myth given in the latter work, 
Pra^&pati transformed himself into a roe-buck (rirya) and ap- 
proached his own daughter (either the sky, or the dawn), who had 
assumed the shape of a doe (rohit). Out of their most fearful 
forms the gods then fashioned a divine being called Bhutavat 
(i. e. Rudra), in order to punish Pra^Spati for his incestuous deed. 
The latter was accordingly pierced by Bhutavat's arrow and bounded 
up to the sky, where he became the constellation called Mr»'ga 
(i.e. Mngaj irsha), while his daughter became the asterism Rohiwi. 
The arrow on the other hand, with which Pra^apati was pierced, 
became the constellation called ' the three-knotted arrow (perhaps 
the girdle of Orion).' 

2 The Black Ya^us does not recommend this asterism for the 
performance of agnyddheya. 

' The Ka«va text reads, ' When, on that occasion, that god 
(viz. Rudra) pierced him with the three-knotted arrow.' 



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II KAJVDA, I ADHYAYA, 2 BRAHMAJVA, II. 285 

body, for the body is a mere relic (or dwelling, 
vastu), unholy and sapless. He should therefore 
not set up his fires under Mrigartrsha. 

10. But he may, nevertheless, set them up (under 
Mrzgartrsha). For, assuredly, the body of that god, 
Praf apati, is neither a relic nor unholy ' : he may 
therefore set up (his fires under Mrzgartrsha). 
'Under the Punarvasu he should perform the 
PunaradheyaV thus (it is prescribed). 

11. He may also set up his fires under the Phal- 
gunis. They, the Phalgunls, are India's asterism 3 , 
and even correspond to him in name; for indeed 
Indra is also called Ar/una, this being his mystic 
name; and they (the Phalgunls) are also called Ar- 
pnls.. Hence he overtly calls them Phalgunls, for 
who dares to use his (the god's) mystic name ? 
Moreover, the sacrificer himself is Indra, so that 
he in that case sets up his fires under his own 
asterism. Indra is the deity of the sacrifice ; and 
accordingly his Agnyadheya is thereby brought 

1 Na vS etasya devasya vastu naya^iyaw na xariram asti. — 
Na vai tasya vastu na niviryam niya^niyam asti, ' for the relic of 
that (god) is neither sapless nor impure.' Kawva recension. 

* I.e. the repetition of the adheya, or setting up of his fires, 
a ceremony which has to be performed in the event of the Sdheya 
having proved unsuccessful ; that is, in case he should not have 
prospered or even sustained losses. The direction has been in- 
serted in this place on account of the position of Punarvasu, as 
the fifth mansion, between Mrigarirsha, the third, and (Purva and 
Uttara) Phalgunls, the ninth and tenth mansions, in the original 
order of the nakshatras. 

* In Taitt Br. I, 1, 2, 4, the Purve Phalguni are assigned to 
Aryaman, and the Uttare Phalguni to Bhaga. While, however, 
both these asterisms are there recommended for the agnyadheya, 
the Purve Phalguni are rejected as unsuitable further on, in 
par. 8 ( ? a later addition). 



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286 satapatha-brAhmajva. 

into relation with Indra. He may set up the fires 
under the first (Purva-phalgunls) — whereby an 
advancing (successful) sacrifice accrues to him; or 
he may set them up under the second (Uttara- 
phalgunls) — whereby a progressive (uttaravat) 
improvement accrues to him. 

12. Let him set up his fires under the asterism 
Hasta 1 , whosoever should wish that (presents) 
should be offered him : then indeed (that will take 
place) forthwith; for whatever is offered with the 
hand (hasta), that indeed is given to him. 

13. He may also set up his fires under Altra. 
Now the gods and the Asuras, both of them sprung 
from Pra^apati, were contending for superiority. 
Both parties were desirous of rising to yonder world, 
the sky. The Asuras then constructed the fire (altar) 
called rauhi#a(fit to ascend by), thinking, 'Thereby 
we shall ascend (a-ruh) to the sky 2 .' 

1 In the Taitt. Br. this asterism is not mentioned as suitable for 
the agnySdheya. The Ajv. S. II, 1, 10 omits both Hasta and 
JTiiii ; but permits the asterism s Vuakhe and Uttare Prosh/^apade. 

8 In Taitt Br. I, 1, 2, 4-6 this myth is related as follows: 
' There were Asuras, named Kalaka%as. They constructed a fire 
(altar) with a view to (gaining) the world of heaven. They put, 
every man of them, a brick to it. Indra, passing himself off for 
a Brahman, put a brick on for himself, saying, " This one, .£itr4 
(the wonderful or bright one) by name, is for me I " They climbed 
up to heaven; Indra, however, pulled out his brick, and they 
tumbled down. And they who tumbled down, became spiders : 
two of them flew up, and they became the two heavenly dogs." ' On 
this myth, Dr. A. Kuhn, 'Uber entwicklungsstufen der mythen- 
bildung,' p. 1 29, remarks : ' The myth given in Homer's Od. xi, 
305-325, of Otos and Ephialtes, who, in order to fight the im- 
mortal gods, piled Ossa on Olympos, and Pelion on Ossa, t»' obpwtx 
a/ij3aTOf tli), and who are destroyed by Apollon, shows an obvious 
resemblance to these Indian myths ; the more so, if we divest the 
latter of their Brahmanical form, by which altar-bricks are sub- 



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II KANDA, I ADHYAYA, 2 BRAlIMAiVA, 1J. 287 

14. Indra then considered 1 , ' If they construct that 
(fire-altar), they will certainly prevail over us/ He 
secured a brick and proceeded thither, passing him- 
self off for a Brahman. 

15. ' Hark ye !' he said, ' I, too, will put on this 
(brick) for myself !' ' Very well,' they replied. He 
put it on. That fire (altar) of theirs wanted but very 
little to be completely built up, — 

16. When he said, ' I shall take back this (brick) 
which belongs to me.' He took hold of it and pulled 
it out; and on its being pulled out, the fire-altar 
fell down ; and along with the falling fire-altar the 
Asuras fell down. He then converted those bricks 
into thunderbolts and clove the (Asuras') necks. 

17. Thereupon the gods assembled and said, 
'Wonderfully (£itram) indeed it has fared with 
us who have slain so many enemies !' Hence 
the wonderful nature (iitratva)* of the asterism 

stituted for mountains; and if we bear in mind that the later 
versions of the myth, e. g. in the well-known passage of Ovid, put 
the Gigantes in the place of the Aloades.' See also Weber, 
Nakshatra, II, p. 372. 

1 The KS«va text here proceeds thus: The gods then were 
afraid and said, ' If those (Asuras) complete (samSsyanti) that (fire- 
altar), they will prevail over us.' Then Indra having fastened a 
brick with the lightning-band (&rke«a damni) went thither passing 
himself off for a Brabman. He said, ' I, too, will put on this (brick) 
for myself.' They said, 'On then (up a hi) I' He put it on. That 
(fire-altar) wanted but very little to be built up, when he said, 'I 
shall take this (brick) which is mine.' 'Take it then (i hi)!' they 
said. Then seizing it (t&m a b hi hay a) he pulled it out. On its 
being pulled out the fire-altar tumbled down. On the fire-altar 
having tumbled down he made thunderbolts with those bricks and 
smote those (Asuras). Then the gods prevailed and the Asuras 
were worsted, &c. 

* Or, perhaps, its identity with (Indra's brick) JTitrfi; cf. pre- 
ceding note. 



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288 DATAPATH A-BRAHMAtfA. 

ATitra ; and verily wonderfully it fares with him, and 
he slays his rivals, his spiteful enemy, whosoever, 
knowing this, sets up his fires under -ATitra. A 
Kshatriya, therefore, should especially desire to 
take advantage of this asterism ; since such a one 
is anxious to strike, to vanquish his enemies. 

1 8. Originally these (nakshatras) were so many 
different powers (kshatra), just as that sun yonder. 
But as soon as he rose, he took from them (4- da) 
their energy, their power ; therefore he (the sun) is 
called Aditya, because he took from them their 
energy, their power 1 . 

1 9. The gods then said, ' They who have been 
powers, shall no longer (na) be powers (kshatra) 2 !' 
Hence the powerlessness (na-kshatratvam) of the 
nakshatras. For this reason also one need only 
take the sun for one's nakshatra (star), since he took 
away from them their energy, their power. But if 
he (the sacrificer) should nevertheless be desirous of 
having a nakshatra (under which to set up his fires), 
then assuredly that sun is a faultless nakshatra for 
him ; and through that auspicious day (marked by the 
rising and setting of the sun) he should endeavour 
to obtain the benefits of whichever of those asterisms 
he might desire. Let him therefore take the sun 
alone for his nakshatra 3 . 

1 The KSnva text reads: T&ni ha v& etini kshatrdm ninaiva 
tepur yathisau va" surya* £andram£ vi ; teshhn hodyann evidityaA 
kshatraw viryam tegaA pralulopa, tad vaishim adade. 

* This etymology of nakshatra is of course quite fanciful. For 
Aufrecht's probably correct derivation of the word from nakta-tra, 
• night-protector,' cf. Zeitschrift fur vergl. Sprachf., VIII, pp. 71,72. 
See also Weber, Nakshatra, II, p. 268. 

' The K4»va text reads: TasmSn na nakshatram idriyeta 
yadaivaisha kadi fodryad apy Sdadhitaisha hi sarvani kshatrim ; 



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ii kXnda, i adhyAya, 3 brAhmajva, 4. 289 

Third Brahma^a. 

1. The spring, the summer, and the rains, these 
seasons (represent) the gods ; and the autumn, the 
winter, and the dewy season represent the fathers. 
That half-moon which increases represents the gods, 
and that which decreases represents the fathers. The 
day represents the gods, and the night represents 
the fathers. And, further, the forenoon represents 
the gods, and the afternoon the fathers. 

2. Those seasons, then, are the gods and the 
fathers ; and whosoever, knowing this, invokes them 
as the gods and fathers, with his invocation of the 
gods the gods comply, and with his invocation of the 
fathers the fathers comply. Him the gods favour 
at his invocation of the gods, and him the fathers 
favour at his invocation of the fathers, whosoever, 
knowing this, invokes (the seasons) as the gods and 
fathers. 

3. Now when he (the sun) moves northwards, then 
he is among the gods, then he guards the gods ; and 
when he moves southwards, then he is among the 
fathers, then he guards the fathers 1 . 

4. When he (the sun) moves northwards, then one 
may set up his fires ; — the gods have the evil dis- 

yadyu nakshatrakimaA syad upo asita nakshatram ahasya bhavati 
no etasyinudayo 'sti tasmid v apy upaina(m &)sita, 'he need 
therefore not attend to any nakshatra ; but may set up his fires at 
any time when that (sun) rises, for he (the sun) is all the kshatras. 
Should he nevertheless be desirous of a nakshatra, let him ap- 
proach (the sun) with veneration ; for then there is a nakshatra for 
him, and that (sun) does not fail to rise : for this reason let him 
approach (the sun) with veneration.' 

1 According to the Ka«va text, it is the rising sun, that guards 
the god-seasons and father-seasons respectively. 



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290 satapatha-brAhmajva. 

pelled from them (by the sun) : he (the sacrificer) 
therefore dispels the evil from himself; — the gods 
are immortal : he therefore, though there is for him 
no prospect of immortality, attains the (full measure 
of) life, whosoever sets up his fires during that time. 
Whosoever, on the other hand, sets up his fires when 
(the sun) moves southwards, he does not dispel the 
evil from him, — since the fathers have not the evil 
dispelled from them (by the sun). The fathers are 
mortal : hence he dies before (he has attained the 
full measure of) life, whosoever sets up his fires 
during that time. 

5. The spring is the priesthood, the summer the 
nobility, and the rainy season the common people 
(vis) : a Brahman therefore should set up his fires 
in spring, since the spring is the priesthood ; and a 
Kshatriya should set them up in summer, since the 
summer is the nobility ; and a VaLrya should set 
them up in the rainy season, since the rainy season 
is the common people. 

6. And whosoever 1 desires to become endowed 
with holy lustre (brahmavar&isin), let him set up his 
fires in spring, — for the spring is the priesthood, — and 
he will certainly become endowed with holy lustre. 

7. And whosoever desires to become a power 
(kshatra) 2 in prosperity and renown, let him set up 
his fires in summer, — for the summer is the nobility 
(kshatra), — and he will certainly become a power 
in prosperity and renown. 

8. And whosoever may desire to be rich in pro- 

1 I. e. whatsoever Brahman, as the Ka«va text reads. 

8 Kshatraw jriya yarasa syam iti. The Kawva text reads : Ksha- 
trasya pratima sy&m jriya yaraseti, 'whosoever should wish to be 
an image of the kshatra in wealth and glory.' 



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ii kXnda, i adhyAya, 4 brAhmava, 2. 291 

geny and cattle, let him set up his fires in the rainy 
season 1 , — for the rainy season is the common people, 
and the people means food, — and he certainly be- 
comes rich in progeny and cattle, whosoever, knowing 
this, sets up his fires in the rainy season. 

9. [In the opinion of others] both these (classes 
of) seasons have the evil dispelled from them, for 
the sun is the dispeller of their evil, and as soon as 
he rises he dispels the evil from both these (classes 
of seasons). He should therefore set up his fires at 
any time, when he feels called upon to sacrifice ; and 
should not put it off from one day to the morrow : 
for who knows the morrow of man 2 ? 

Fourth BrAhmana. 

1. On the day preceding his Agnyadheya, he (the 
sacrificer with his wife) should take his food in the 
day-time. For the gods know the minds of man : 
they are, therefore, aware that his Agnyadheya is to 
take place on the morrow ; and all the gods betake 
themselves to his house and stay (upa-vas) in his house ; 
whence this day is called upavasatha (fast-day) s . 

2. Now, as it would be unbecoming for him to 
take food before men (who are staying with him as 
his guests) have eaten ; how much more would it be 
so, if he were to take food before the gods have eaten : 
let him therefore take his food in the day-time. How- 
ever, he may also, if he choose, take food at night, 

1 The Black Ya^us recommends farad, autumn, for the Agnya- 
dheya in the case of aVaLrya. 

* Ko hi manushyasya svo veda. The KaViva text has : Na vai 
manushya^ wastanam veda (veda) ko hi (!) tasmai manushyo y&A 
jvastanaw vidyat, ' in truth no man knows the morrow, for what 
man, that knows the morrow, is there for him?' 

5 See I, 1, 1, 7 seq. 

V 2 



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292 SATAPATHA-BRAHMAATA. 

since the observance of the vow is not necessary for 
him who has not performed Agnyadheya. For so 
long as he has not set up a (sacrificial) fire of his 
own, he is merely a man, and may therefore, if he 
choose, take food at night. 

3. Here now some tie up a he-goat 1 , arguing that 
the goat is sacred to Agni and that (this is done) for 
the completeness of the fire. But he need not do 
this. Should he possess a he-goat, let him present 
it to the Agnidhra on the next morning; for it is 
thereby that he obtains the object he desires. He 
need, therefore, take no notice of that (practice). 

4. They 2 then cook a rice-pap sufficient for (the) 
four (priests) to eat. ' Hereby we gratify the metres,' 
so they say, arguing that this is done in the same 
way as if one were to order a team, which he is going 
to use for driving, to be well fed. He need not, how- 
ever, do this : for indeed that same wish (which he 
entertains in so doing) he obtains by the very fact 
that Brahmans, be they sacrificial priests or not, are 
residing in his family (kula) 3 : he need, therefore, take 
no notice of that (practice). 

5. Having then made a hollow in it (the pap) for 

1 This practice is perhaps the remnant of a former animal offer- 
ing. See I, 2, 3, 6, where the goat is mentioned as the last of the 
animals meet for sacrifice. 

9 That is, as would seem, those ritualists who maintain that a 
goat should be tied up for that night. The Ka«va text reads, ' Here 
some cook that night that £atuApra\rya rice-pap, saying (vadantaA), 
"' Hereby we gratify the metres." ' According to the Paddhati on 
Katy. IV, 8, the quotation ' Hereby we gratify the metres' seems 
to form the last of the formulas pronounced by the sacrificer, while 
washing the feet of the priests and offering them food. 

* 'The fulfilment of that wish he obtains through Brahmans, 
whether officiating priests or not, staying in his house (kula) and 
taking food there.' Kanva text 



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II KA.NDA, I ADHYAYA, 4 BRAhMAYA, 6. 293 

clarified butter to be poured in, and having poured 
clarified butter into it, they anoint three sticks of 
arvattha wood with this butter and put them on the 
fire with the (three) Rik-verses containing the words 
' kindling-stick (samidh)' and ' butter (ghma) ' ;' argu- 
ing that thereby they obtain what has grown out of a 
.rami 2 . It is, however, only by (daily) putting (three 
kindling-sticks) on the fire for a whole year previous 
(to the Adhana) that one obtains that object : let him 
therefore take no notice of that (practice). 

6. And on this point Bhallabeya remarked, 'If 
he were to cook that rice-pap, this would assuredly 

1 The three verses containing the words samidh and ghr/'ta are 
Va£\ S. Ill, 1, 3, 4. Taitt. Br. 1, 2, 1, 9-10 has them in the order 1, 4, 
3; and does not give the verse Va^. S. Ill, 2 (Rig-veda V, 5, 1). As 
neither version of our Brahmana makes any mention of this verse, it 
may be doubted whether originally it formed part of the SawhitS. 
According to Katy. IV, 8, 5-6 he (? the Adhvaryu) is to put on (the 
three kindling-sticks) with V&g. S. Ill, 1, &c, one verse with each 
stick ; whereupon he, (the sacrificer, according to the commentary,) 
is to mutter III, 4 ; and according to ib. 7 ' the Adhvaryu option- 
ally mutters the second.' The Paddhati reconciles the different 
statements thus : he takes the sticks, rises and puts the first on the 
fire with III, 1 ; then sitting down he mutters III, 2 ; thereupon he 
again rises and puts on the second with III, 3, and the third with 
III, 4. The commentator, however, alludes to differences of prac- 
tice in different schools as to this point. 

' The sacrificial fire, to be set up at the Adheya, should properly be 
produced by means of two pieces of arvattha wood which has grown 
out of a .rami tree. Sayawa remarks that the ritualists referred to in 
our passage consider that the cooking of the rice-pap takes place, not 
with the view of the latter being eaten by the priests, but merely to 
afford an opportunity for putting the kindling-sticks on the fire, and 
thereby securing to the sacrificer the benefits that would have accrued 
to him from the above mode of ignition. This view, however, is not 
countenanced by our author, who, on the contrary, favours the daily 
cooking of a mess of rice-pap for the four priests for a twelve-month 
preceding the Agnyadheya, as a substitute for the production of the 
fire by friction. See Katy. IV, 8, 11 (and Paddhati). 



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294 tfATAPATHA-BRAHMAJVA. 

be a mistake, just as if one were to do one thing, 
while intending to do another; or if one were to 
say one thing, while intending to say another; or 
if one were to go one way, while intending to go 
another.' And, indeed, it is not proper that they 
should either carry to the south, or extinguish, that 
fire on which a kindling-stick is put, or an oblation 
made, with a rik or a saman or a ya^us. Now they 
do indeed either take it to the south with the view of 
its becoming the Anviharyapa^ana (or Dakshi- 
«agni), or (if there is to be no Dakshiwagni) they 
extinguish it 1 . 

7. Thereupon they 8 remain awake (during that 
night). The gods are awake : so that he thereby 
draws nigh to the gods, and sets up his fires as one 
more godly, more subdued, more endowed with holy 
fervour (tapas). He may, however, sleep, if he 
choose, since the observance of the vow is not 
necessary for him who has not performed Agnya- 
dheya. For so long as he has not set up a 
(sacrificial) fire of his own, he is a mere man ; and 
he may, therefore, sleep, if he choose. 

8. Now some churn (the fire) 3 before sunrise and 

1 His argument seems to be that, since the cooking of the rice- 
pap involves the putting on of consecrated sticks with sacrificial 
formulas, one is not to cook the pap because that same fire will 
afterwards have to be extinguished or to be taken to the Dakshi- 
«igni hearth. The passage is, however, far from clear to me. 

1 Viz. the ritualists referred to; that is to say, they make the 
sacrificer and his wife remain awake all night. S&yawa takes 
^Sgrati to stand for ^igarti, 'he, the sacrificer, remains awake.' 
The KS»va text, however, has, 'Here now they say, he should 
remain awake that night' 

* The production of the sacred fire by means of two sticks 
(ara«i) of the arvattha (Ficus Religiosa) is thus described by Steven- 
son, 'Translation of the SamaVeda,' pref. p. vii: 'The process by 
which fire is obtained from wood is called churning, as it resembles 



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II KANDA, I ADHYAYA, 4 BRAHMAJVA, 9. 295 

take it eastwards (from the Garhapatya to the Aha- 
vantya) after sunrise, arguing that thereby they secure 
both the day and the night for the obtainment of 
out-breathing and in-breathing, of mind and speech. 
But let him not do so; for when they thus churn 
(the fire) before sunrise, and take it eastwards after 
sunrise, both his (fires) are in reality set up before 
sunrise. By churning the Ahavanlya after sunrise 
he will obtain that (combination of blessings). 

9. The gods, assuredly, are the day. The fathers 
have not the evil dispelled from them (by the sun) ; 
(and accordingly) he (the sacrificer) does not dispel 
the evil (if he churns the fire before sunrise). The 
fathers are mortal ; and verily he who churns the 
fire before the rising of the sun, dies before (he has 
attained his full measure of) life. The gods have 
the evil dispelled from them (by the sun) : hence he 
(the sacrificer) dispels the evil (from himself, if he 
churn after sunrise). The gods are immortal ; and — 
though there is for him no prospect of immortality 
— he attains (the full measure of) life. The gods are 
bliss, and bliss he obtains; the gods are glorious, 
and glorious he will be, whosoever, knowing this, 
churns (the fire) after the rising of the sun. 

that by which butter in India is separated from milk. The New- 
Hollanders obtain fire from a similar process. It consists in drill- 
ing one piece of ara«i wood into another by pulling a string tied 
to it with a jerk with the one hand, while the other is slackened, and 
so alternately till the wood takes fire. The fire is received on 
cotton or flax held in the hand of an assistant Brahman.' On the 
mythological associations of the agni-manthana, especially with 
the Teutonic need-fire and the myth of Prometheus; and those 
of the arvattha tree, grown out of a rami, with the mountain-ash 
(roun-tree, rowan-tree, witch-elm, witchen, witch-hazel, witch- wood; 
eber-esche), see A. Kuhn's epoch-making essay, 'Ueber die Herab- 
kunft des Feuers und des Gottertranks.' 



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296 jatapatha-brAhmajva. 

10. Here now they say, ' If the fire is not set up with 
either a rik- verse, or a saman, or a ya^us, wherewith 
then is it set up?' Verily, that (fire) is of the brah- 
man : with the brahman it is set up. The brah- 
man is speech : of that speech it is. The brahman 
is the truth, and the truth consists in those same 
(three) mystic utterances: hence his (fire) is esta- 
blished by means of he truth. 

11. Verily, with *bhuA (earth)!' Prafapati gene- 
rated this (earth) 1 ; with ' bhuva^ (ether)!' the ether; 
with ' sva^ (heaven)!' the sky. As far as these 
(three) worlds extend, so far extends this universe : 
with the universe it (the fire) is accordingly esta- 
blished. 

12. With 'bhM!' Pra^apati generated the Brah- 
man (priesthood) ; with ' bhuva^ !' the Kshatra (nobi- 
lity) ; with 'svaA V the Vis (the common people). As 
much as are the Brahman, the Kshatra, and the Vis, 
so much is this universe : with the universe it (the 
fire) is accordingly established. 

13. With 'bh<U!' Pra^apati generated the Self; 
with ' bhuva^!' the (human) race; with 'sva^!' the 
animals (pam). As much as are the Self, the (human) 
race, and the animals, so much is this universe : with 
the universe it (the fire) is accordingly established. 

14. 'Bhur bhuva^!' this much he utters while 
laying down the Garhapatya fire; for if he were 
to lay it down with all (three words), wherewith 
should he lay down the Ahavantya ? Two syllables 2 

1 Compare XI, 1, 6, 3. 

8 Viz. svaA, pronounced su-vaA. In laying down the Garha- 
patya he utters the first two words, consisting of three syllables; 
and in laying down the Ahavantya he pronounces all three words, 
consisting of five syllables. 



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IT KAjVDA, I ADHYAYA, 4 BRAhMAJVA, 1 8. 297 

he leaves over, and thereby those (five syllables) 
become of renewed efficacy ; and with all the five 
syllables — 'Bhurbhuva^ sva^' — he lays down the 
Ahavantya. Thus result eight syllables ; for of eight 
syllables consists the gayatri, and the gayatri is 
Agni's metre : he thus establishes that (fire) by 
means of its own metre. 

1 5. Now when the gods were about to set up their 
fires, the Asuras and Rakshas forbade them, saying, 
' The fire shall not be produced ; ye shall not set up 
your fires!' and because they thus forbade (raksh) 
them, they are called Rakshas. 

16. The gods then perceived this thunderbolt, to 
wit, the horse. They made it stand before them, 
and in its safe and foeless shelter the fire was pro- 
duced. For this reason let him (the Adhvaryu) 
direct (the Agntdhra) to lead the horse to where he 
is about to churn the fire. It stands in front of 
him 1 : he thus raises the thunderbolt, and in its safe 
and foeless shelter the fire is produced. 

1 7. Let it be one used as a leader 2 ; for such a one 
possesses unlimited strength. Should he be unable to 
obtain a leader, it may be any kind of horse. Should 
he be unable to obtain a horse, it may also be an ox, 
since that (fire) is related (bandhu) to the ox 3 . 

18. And when they carry that (fire) eastward*, 

1 The horse is to stand east of the Garhapatya fire-place, with 
its head to the west, where, behind the khara, the Adhvaryu is 
about to produce the fire. 

* Purvavah, 'drawing in front,' i.e. a young (newly-harnessed) 
horse. The term may also mean 'conveying eastwards,' whence 
it is probably used here ; cf. Taitt. Br. I, 1,5, 6. 

* See XIII, 8, 4, 6, where the ox is said to be sacred to Agni 
(agneya). See also p. 29a, note 1 ; and I, 2, 3, 6. 

4 The following particulars, not alluded to by our author, have 



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298 satapatha-brAhma^a. 

they lead the horse in front of it ; so that, in pro- 
ceeding in front of it, it wards off from it the evil 
spirits, the Rakshas ; and they carry it (to the Ahava- 
nlya) safely and unmolested by evil spirits. 

19. Let them carry it (the fire) in such wise that 
it turns back towards him (the sacrificer); for, as- 
suredly, that fire is the (means of) sacrifice, and it is 
in the direction of him (the sacrificer) that the sacri- 
fice enters him, that the sacrifice readily inclines to 
him. And, verily, from whomsoever it (the fire) 
turns away, from him the sacrifice also turns away; 
and if any one were to curse him, saying, ' May the 
sacrifice turn away from him!' then he would indeed 
be liable to fare thus. 

20. Moreover, that (fire) is the (sacrificer's) breath : 
let them therefore carry it in such wise that it turns 



to be supplied here from Katy. IV, 8, 29 seq., and the commen- 
taries : As soon as fire has been obtained from the two pieces of 
wood, [it is placed in a pan and covered with dry, powdered go- 
maya ; and] the sacrificer blows it with ' Breath I bestow on the 
immortal;' and the well-kindled flame he inhales with 'The im- 
mortal I bestow on the breath' (see II, 2, 2, 15). The fire is 
then set ablaze with fire-wood and laid down on the newly-made 
Garhapatya hearth-mound with '[Oml] Bhur bhuvaA svaAV (Vi^. 
S. Ill, 5) ; and with ' I lay thee down, O Lord of Vows (vratapati), 
with the law (vrata) of N.N.?' — the gotra-name being inserted 
in the case of the Bhrigus and Ahgiras ; and those of different 
i?*shis or gods and divine beings in that of others. At the sacri- 
ficer's bidding the Brahman or Adhvaryu then chants the Rathan- 
tara-saman (cf. p. 196, note 2). Then follows the uddhara»a or 
taking out fire from the Garhapatya for the Ahavantya. A bundle 
of wood is lighted at the lower ends on the Garhapatya and placed 
in a pan on an underlayer of clay. It is then carried eastwards in 
such a way that the smoke is directed towards the sacrificer follow- 
ing it ; the horse being led in front of the fire. At the starting of 
the procession the Brahman, at the Adhvaryu' s call, chants the 
Vamadevya-sdraan. 



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II KANDA, I ADHYAYA, 4 BRAHMAJVA, 23. 299 

back towards him ; for it is in the direction of him 
that the breath enters into him. And, verily, from 
whomsoever it (the fire) turns away, from him the 
breath also turns away ; and if in that case any one 
were to curse him, saying, ' May the breath turn 
away from him !' then he would indeed be liable to 
fare thus. 

21. And, verily, the sacrifice is yonder blowing 
(wind). Let them, therefore, carry it in such wise 
that it 1 turns towards him; for it is in the direc- 
tion of him that the sacrifice enters him, that the 
sacrifice readily inclines to him. And from whom- 
soever it turns away, from him the sacrifice also 
turns away ; and if any one were to curse him, say- 
ing, ' May the sacrifice turn away from him I ' then 
he would indeed be liable to fare thus. 

22. And, verily, that (fire) is the (sacrificer's) 
breath. Let them, therefore, carry it in such wise 
that it turns towards him ; for it is in the direction 
of him that the breath enters into him. And from 
whomsoever it (the fire) turns away ; from him the 
breath also turns away ; and if any one were to curse 
him, saying, 'May the breath turn away from him!' 
he would indeed be liable to fare thus. 

23. He (the Adhvaryu) then makes the horse step 
on (the Ahavaniya fire-place) 2 . When he has made 
it step on it, he leads it out towards the east, makes 
it turn round again (from left to right) and lets it 

1 Viz. the wind indicated by the backward- turned flame of the 
fire, as it is carried eastwards to the Ahavaniya. 

* The Adhvaryu sits down and makes the horse put its right 
fore-foot on the recently prepared hearth-mound. Having then 
led it eastwards and turned it round, he calls on the Brahman to 
chant the Brshat-saman (see p. 196, note 2). 



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300 SATAPATHA-BRAHMAJVA. 

stand there facing the west. The horse doubtless 
represents strength : hence he makes it turn round 
again in order that this strength shall not turn away 
from him (the sacrificer). 

24. He lays that (fire) down on the horse's foot- 
print 1 ; for the horse represents strength, so that 
he thereby lays it down on strength : for this reason 
he lays it down on the horse's foot-print. 

25. In the first place he silently touches (the foot- 
print with the burning fire-wood). He then lifts it 
up and touches once more with it ; and at the third 
time he lays it down with (Va£\ S. Ill, 5) 'Earth! 
ether ! heaven ! ' For there are three worlds indeed ; 
so that he thereby obtains these (three) worlds. This 
now is one (mode of laying down the fire). 

26. Then there is this other. Silently he touches 
(the foot-print with it) in the first place ; he then 
lifts it up, and at the second time lays it down 
with ' Earth ! ether ! heaven ! ' For he who wants 
to lift a load without having a firm footing on this 
(earth), cannot lift it ; nay, it crushes him. 

2 7. Now, when he touches it silently he thereby 
takes a firm footing on this resting-place ; and 
having obtained a firm footing on it, he lays down 
(the fire) : and thus he wavers not. Here now 
Asuri,. Pa»ii, and Madhuki held it (the fire) 
slightly to the back (or west of the fire-place) 2 . ' For,' 
they argued, ' everything else (that is on the hearth) 



1 Taitt. Br. I, 1, 5, 9, on the contrary, forbids the fire to be laid 
down on the horse's foot-print, as the sacrificer's cattle is thereby 
surrendered to Rudra. Moreover, the horse is there made to step 
beside, not upon, the hearth-mound. 

* The Kiwva text reads : Tad v AsurW ?inia Mddhukir iti 
dadhrire, ' here now they held it thus.' 



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II KAJVDA, I ADHYAYA, 4 BRAHMAJVA, 29. 301 

becomes, as it were, relaxed (on being touched by 
the fire) : he should therefore, after holding it up, 
lay it down at the first (touching) with " Earth ! 
ether ! heaven ! * for thus no relaxation takes place.' 
Let him then do this in whichever way he may 
deem proper. 

28. He (the sacrificer) then goes round to the 
east side (of the fire), and taking hold of the top 
part of the burning sticks he mutters (V&f. S. Ill, 
5) : 'Like unto the sky in plenty, like unto the 
earth in greatness!' When he says, ' Like unto 
the sky in plenty,' he means to say, ' Like as yonder 
sky is plenteous with stars, so may I become plen- 
teous!' and when he says, 'Like unto the earth in 
greatness,' he means to say, ' As great as this earth is 
so great may I become!' — 'On that back of thine, 
O Earth, that art meet for the worship of the 
gods' — for on her back he lays down that (fire) — 
' I lay down Agni, the eater of food, for the 
obtainment of food.' Agni is an eater of food: 
' May I become an eater of food,' this is what he 
thereby says. This is a prayer for blessing, — he 
may mutter it, if he choose; or, if he choose, he 
may omit it. 

29. He stands worshipping by (the fire) while 
muttering the (three) ^'k-verses of the queen of 
serpents (Vif. S. Ill, 6-8) \ — ' Hither has come that 
spotted bull and has settled down before the mother ; 
and before the father on going up to heaven. — She 
moves along through the luminous spheres, breathing 
forth from his breath : the mighty (bull) has illumined 

1 These verses form the hymn Rig-veda X, 189, the authorship 
of which is ascribed to the queen of serpents (either Kadru, or the 
earth, according to Mahldhara). 



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302 satapatha-brAhmajva. 

the sky. — He rules over the thirty domains; and 
song is bestowed on the winged one, yea, with the 
light at the break of day!' Thus he recites; and 
whatever (benefit) has not been obtained by him 
either through the equipments, or through the as- 
terisms, or through the seasons, or through the 
laying down of the fire, all that is thereby obtained 
by him ; and for this reason he stands worshipping 
by (the fire), while muttering the verses of the queen 
of serpents. 

30. They say, however, that one need not stand 
by (the fire) worshipping with the verses of the 
queen of serpents. For the queen of serpents, they 
argue, is this earth ; and accordingly when he lays 
down the fire on her, he thereby obtains all his 
desires : hence he need not stand by (the fire) wor- 
shipping with the verses of the queen of serpents. 

Second AdhyAya. First BrAhma^a. 

The Oblations. 
i. When he has taken out the Ahavantya fire 1 , 
he performs the Full-offering 2 . The reason why 

1 Previously to the performance of the full-offering, the other 
fires (if there are any more) are laid down. An integral part of 
the laying down of the Sabhya, or hall-fire, which seems to have 
been kept up only by Kshatriyas, is a game of dice, played by the 
priestg, with a cow, offered by the sacrificer, for the stake. On an 
ox-hide, spread north of the sacrificial ground, they place a brass 
vessel upside down, and on it throw four times five cowries (or, 
if such are not to be. had, five sticks) with ' Even I win, uneven 
thou art won (or defeated)!' 

8 The purwahuti, or 'full-offering,' is an oblation of a spoon- 
ful of clarified butter. Katy. IV, 10, 5, and comm., supply the fol- 
lowing particulars, applying to all ordinary ^uhoti-offerings: He 
puts butter into the butter-pot and places it on the Garhapatya to 



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ii kXnda., 2 adhyAya, i brAhmajva, 4. 303 

he performs the full-offering is that he thereby causes 
that Agni to become an eater of food for his own 
self; that he thereby offers food to him. Even as 
(a mother or cow) would offer the breast to a 
new-born child or calf, so does he thereby offer food 
to him. 

2. And having been appeased by that food, he 
(Agni) waits patiently for the other oblations to be 
cooked. If, on the other hand, that oblation were 
not to be offered up in him, he would ere long burn 
either the Adhvaryu or the sacrificer, for these two 
pass nearest by him. This is the reason why he 
makes this offering. 

3. He offers it (with a) full (spoon) ; for the full 
doubtless means the All (universe), so that he 
thereby appeases him with the All. He offers it 
with ' Svaha ! ' for the Svaha is undefined, and un- 
defined also is the All, so that he thereby appeases 
him by means of the All. 

4. The first offering which Pra^apati made, he 
made with ' Svaha ! ' Now that (offering) indeed is 
virtually the same as this one ; and hence he (the 
sacrificer) also makes it with ' Svaha ! ' At this 
(offering) he grants a boon (to the priests) 1 ; but 

melt. Having then wiped the dipping-spoon (sruva) and offering- 
spoon (g-uhu) with sacrificial grass in the manner described at I, 
3, 1, 6 seq., and taken the butter-pot off the fire, and strained the 
butter with the two stalks of darbha serving as strainers, he fills 
the ^uhu with the sruva. He now takes one stick, steps over to 
the north side of the Ahavantya fire, strews grass around it, and 
puts the stick on the fire. He then sits down with bent right knee, 
and, while the sacrificer takes hold of him from behind, he pours 
the spoonful of butter into the fire with 'Svaii&I' the sacrificer 
pronouncing the dedicatory formula (tytga), 'This to Agni!' 

1 After the full-offering the sacrificer breaks the silence, imposed 
on him, by the words, 'I give a boon,' KSty. IV, 10, 6; presents, 



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304 SATAPATHA-BRAHMAJVA. 

a boon (may mean) everything, so that he thereby 
appeases him (Agni) with everything. 

5. Here now they say, ' When he has made this 
offering, he need not attend to the subsequent obla- 
tions; for by this offering he obtains that wish for 
which he takes out the subsequent oblations.' 

6. He takes out (material for an oblation) 1 to 
Agni Pavamana (the Blowing) 2 . Now the blow- 
ing one is the breath, so that he thereby puts breath 
into him (the sacrificer). And this he puts into him 
by means of this (offering) ; for breath means food, 
and this offering also is food. 

according to the commentary, being then made to the Adhvaryu 
and the Brahman. This ceremony is succeeded by the silent per- 
formance of the Agnihotra. 

1 The purwahuti, which marks the close of the Agnyadheya 
proper, is followed by the Agnihotra, performed with the texts pro- 
nounced in a low voice. Not less than twelve days after the AgnyS- 
dheya (if at all) — the three fires being kept up during the interval — 
the young householder has to get performed for him (on the model 
of the new and full-moon offering, mutatis mutandis, there being 
neither the uddharana, or taking out of fire from the Garhapatya, 
nor the choosing of a Brahman, &c.) the three ish/is mentioned 
above. At the first ish/i, the special havis (sacrificial dish) con- 
sists of a rice-cake on eight potsherds for Agni Pavamana; — at 
the second of two such cakes for Agni Pavaka and Agni Suii 
respectively; — at the third of a potful of boiled rice for Adit i. The 
three havis of the first two ish/is being (according to Taitt. Br. I, 
1, 6, 3) considered as representing the three bodies (tanu) of Agni ; 
these offerings are called tanuhavir-ish/is. They are, however, 
also called Pavamanesh/is. At these the name of the recipient 
(Agni Pavamana, &c.) has to be pronounced in a low voice in the 
formulas used at the chief offering. The Taitt. Br. mentions, be- 
sides, the usual Indragni cake (of the new-moon sacrifice) which is 
to be offered before the offering to Aditi. 

8 Sstya»a, on Taitt. Br. I, 1, 5, 10, takes pavamana as 'pure' 
or 'purified by himself' (svayara jriddha); pavaka as 'purifying 
(others);' and suki as 'shining.' 



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II KAjVDA, 2 ADHYAYA, I BRAHMAtfA, 12. 305 

7. He then makes offering to Agni Pavaka (the 
Purifying). Now the purifying one means food, so 
that he thereby puts food into him (Agni, or the 
sacrificer). And this he puts into him by means of 
this (offering), for this offering is indeed food. 

8. He then makes offering to Agni Su&i (the 
Bright). Now brightness means vigour, so that he 
thereby puts vigour into him. And this he puts 
into him by means of this (offering) ; for when he 
offers up that oblation in him (Agni), then that 
vigour, that brightness of his blazes up. 

9. For this reason they say, ' When he has made 
that (full) offering, he need not attend to any further 
oblations ; for by this offering he obtains that wish 
for which he takes out the subsequent oblations.' 
But let him nevertheless take out the subsequent 
oblations ; for what invisible (blessing, or meaning) 
there was in that (full-offering) that now becomes 
thus (visible). 

10. Now the reason why he makes offering to Agni 
Pavamana, is that the blowing one is the breath. 
When (the child) is born, then there is breath. And 
as long as it is not born, it breathes in accord with 
the mother's breath ; but when it is born, then he 
thereby puts breath into it. 

1 1 . And the reason why he makes offering to Agni 
Pavaka, is that the purifying one means food: hence 
he thereby puts food into (the child) when it is born. 

12. And the reason why he makes offering to 
Agni Su&i, is that brightness means vigour. Now 
when it (the child) grows by means of food, then 
there is vigour; and hence, when he has made it grow 
by means of food, he thereby puts into it that vigour, 
that brightness. This is why (he offers) to Agni Su£i. 



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306 satapatha-brahmajva. 

i 3. That other (practice) then is altogether erro- 
neous 1 . For when Agni passed over from the gods 
to men, he bethought him, ' I must not pass over to 
men with my whole body !' 

14. He then laid down in these (three) worlds 
those three . bodies of his. That ' blowing (pava- 
mana)' form of his he laid down on this earth, that 
'purifying (pavaka)' one in the ether, and that 
'bright (su&i)' one in the sky. Now the J&'shis 
then existing became aware of this: 'Agni has not 
come to us with his whole body,' they said. They 
then prepared those oblations for him. 

15. Now when he makes offering to Agni Pava- 
mana, he thereby obtains that form of his (Agni's) 
which he laid down on this earth ; and when he 
makes offering to Agni Pavaka, he thereby obtains 
that form of his which he laid down in the ether; 
and when he makes offering to Agni Su&i, he thereby 
obtains that form of his which he laid down in the sky : 
and thus he lays down the entire Agni unmutilated. 
For this reason also he should take out the oblations 
subsequent (to the full-offering). 

16. The first oblation has a barhis (altar-covering 
of sacrificial grass) to itself ; the two following ones 
have one barhis in common. Now the first oblation 
represents this world, the second one that ether, and 
the third one the sky. But this earth is compact ; 
and the ether and yonder sky are, as it were, trem- 
bling: and in order that these two may counter- 
balance that (earth), the (last) two (oblations) have 
one barhis in common. 

1 Viz. the practice of performing the full-offering only, see par. 5. 
The Ka«va text reads ; Tad va etat sam&nam eva sad viparyastam 
iva. 



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ii kAjvda, 2 adhyaya, i brAhmava, 20. 307 

17. All these sacrificial cakes (for Agni) are on 
eight potsherds ; for of eight syllables consists the 
(pada of the) gayatrt, and the gayatrt is Agni's 
metre 1 : with its own metre he accordingly establishes 
that fire. In all, these potsherds amount to twenty- 
four ; for of twenty-four syllables consists the gayatrt 
(stanza), and the gayatrt is Agni's metre : with its 
own metre he accordingly establishes that fire. 

18. He then offers a potful of boiled rice to 
Aditi. For he who performs those (preceding) 
oblations moves away, as it were, from this world, 
since he moves in the ascent of these worlds 2 . 

19. Now when he offers a potful of boiled rice to 
Aditi, — Aditi being this earth, and this earth being 
a firm resting-place, — he thereby again takes his 
stand on this firm resting-place. This is why he 
offers a potful of boiled rice to Aditi. 

20. For her, they say, the two sawya^yis 8 should 
be vira^ - verses; for the vira^ - is this (earth); or 

1 The K£«va text remarks that the anuvakyas (invitatory 
prayers) and yS^yas (offering prayers) at the three offerings of 
cake are in the gayatrt metre; and such indeed is the case. The 
anuvakyds of the oblations to Agni Pavamana, Agni Pavaka, 
and Agni Suii are Rig-veda IX, 66, 19; 1, 12, 10; and VIII, 44, 
21 respectively: and the y&gy&s are IX, 66, 21; V, 26, 1; and 
VIII, 44, 17 respectively; all of which are gSyatrt stanzas. See 
Arv. St. II, 1, 20-25. Cf. also I, 7, 2, 15, with note. At the 
Svish/akrtt of these two ish/is also both formulas are in the gayatrt 
metre: the puro'nuvakyas being Rig-veda III, n, 2, and III, 
11, 6 ; and the ya^yas III, 11, 1, and I, 1, 1 respectively. 

3 Prafyavata iva va esho 'smal lokat . . . iman hi lokan sam&- 
rohann eti. The Klwva text has: 'For he who takes out these 
oblations makes his self, as it were, depart from this world of men 
for the world of the gods, since he, as it were, moves rising upwards 
(urdhva iva hi samarohann eti).' Cf. paragraphs 14-16. 

8 For these (virSg) samy&gye, or invitatory and offering prayers 
at the Svish/akr/t, see p. 164, note 2. — Ajv. Sr. II, i, 29. 

X 2 



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308 $atapatha-brAhmajva. 

trish/ubh verses, for the trish/ubh is this (earth) ; or 
^•agatl verses, for the ^agatl is this (earth). Still, 
however, they should be vir&f verses. 

21. The priests' fee for (offering to) her consists 
of a cow ; for this (earth) is, as it were, a cow : she 
milks out for men all their desires. The cow is 
a mother, and this (earth) also is a mother, for she 
bears the men : for this reason the priests' fee is 
a cow. This is one mode (of performing those 
offerings). 

22. Then there is this other. He simply offers 
a cake on eight potsherds to Agni, and thereby, 
implicitly, to Agni Pavamana, Agni Pavaka, and 
Agni Su&i ; and immediately after he visibly sets 
him up (as Agni). For this reason he offers (a 
cake) to Agni 1 , and then a potful of boiled rice 
to Aditi. The treatment of the potful of rice (in 
that case) is the same (as before). 

Second BrAhma.ya. 

i. Now, in performing that sacrifice, they slay it ; 
and in pressing out the king (Soma), they slay him ; 
and in quieting and immolating the victim, they 
slay it. The havirya^wa they slay with the mortar 
and pestle, and with the two mill-stones. 

2. When slain, that sacrifice was no longer vigorous. 
By means of dakshiwis (gifts to the priests) the 
gods again invigorated it : hence the name dakshiwa, 
because thereby they invigorated (dak shay) that 



1 According to the Ka«va recension, the anuvakya and ya^-yS, 
in that case, should consist of the verses containing the word mfir- 
dhan (' head'), viz. V&g. S. XIII, 14, 15; cf. .Sat. Br. I, 6, a, ia. 



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II KANDA, 2 ADHYAYA, 2 BRAhMAVA, 6. 309 

(sacrifice). Whatever, therefore, fails in this sacri- 
fice when slain, that he now again invigorates by 
means of gifts to the priests ; whereupon the sacri- 
fice becomes successful : for this reason he makes 
gifts to the priests. 

3. He may give six (cows) 1 ; for six seasons, indeed, 
there are in the year, and the sacrifice, Pra^apati, 
is the year: thus as great as the sacrifice is, as 
large as its extent is, by so many (gifts, dakshi»as) 
does he thereby invigorate it 

4. He may give twelve ; for twelve months there 
are in the year, and the sacrifice, Prafapati, is the 
year: thus as great as the sacrifice is, as large as 
its extent is, by so many (gifts) does he thereby 
invigorate it. 

5. He may give twenty-four; for twenty-four 
half-moons there are in the year, and the sacrifice, 
Pra^apati, is the year : thus as great as the sacrifice 
is, as large as its extent is, by so many (gifts) does 
he thereby invigorate it. Such is the measure of the 
priests' fees; but he may give more, according to 
(the depth of) his faith. The reason why he gives 
fees to the priests is this. 

6. Verily, there are two kinds of gods ; for, 
indeed, the gods are the gods; and the Brahmans 
who have studied and teach sacred lore are the 
human gods. The sacrifice of these is divided into 
two kinds: oblations constitute the sacrifice to the 
gods; and gifts to the priests that to the human gods, 

1 Viz. at the tanuhavir-ish/is together, or at least three cows 
at each ish/i if there are two ish/is. The greater the gift, the 
greater the merit. According to the Paddhati on Katy. IV, 10, he 
is also to entertain a hundred Brahmans at the end of the per- 
formance. See also Taitt. Br. 1, 1, 7, 9-1 1. 



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310 *aTapatha-brAhma#a. 

the Brahmans who have studied and teach sacred 
lore. With oblations one gratifies the gods, and 
with gifts to the priests the human gods, the Brah- 
mans who have studied and teach sacred lore. Both 
these kinds of gods, when gratified, place him in a 
state of bliss (sudha) 1 . 

7. Even as seed is poured into the womb, so the 
officiating priests place the sacrificer in the (hea- 
venly) world 2 , when he now makes gifts to those 
who, he hopes, will make him go thither. Such, 
then, (is the manner) of gifts to priests. 

8. Now the gods and the Asuras, both of them 
sprung from Pra/apati, were contending with each 
other. They were both soulless, for they were 
mortal, and he who is mortal is soulless. Among 
these two (classes of beings) who were mortal, Agni 
alone was immortal ; and it was through him, the 
immortal, that they both lived. Now whichsoever 
(of the gods) they (the Asuras) slew, he, indeed, was 
so (slain). 

9. Thereupon the gods were left inferior. They 
went on praising and practising austerities, hoping 
that they might be able to overcome their enemies, 
the mortal Asuras. They beheld this immortal 
Agnyadheya (consecrated fire). 

10. They said, ' Come, let us place that immortal 
element in our innermost soul ! When we have placed 
that immortal element in our innermost soul, and 
become immortal and unconquerable, we shall over- 
come our conquerable, mortal enemies.' 



1 That is, 'they convey him to the celestial world,' as reads the 
otherwise identical passage in IV, 3, 4, 4. 
8 The Ka«va text has ' svarge loke.' 



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II KAM5A, 2 ADHYAYA, 2 BRAHMAtfA, 1 5. 3II 

1 1 . They said, ' With both of us is this fire ( Agni) : 
let us then treat openly with the Asuras V 

12. They said, 'We shall set up (or, establish 
within ourselves, a-dha) the two fires, — what will 
ye do then ?' 

13. They replied, 'Then we shall lay it down 
(ni-dha), saying, Eat grass here! eat wood here! cook 
pap here! cook meat here !' Now that fire, which the 
Asuras thus laid down, is this same (fire) wherewith 
men prepare their food. 

14. The gods then established that (fire) in their 
innermost soul; and having established that immortal 
element in their innermost soul, and become im- 
mortal and unconquerable, they overcame their 
mortal, conquerable enemies. And so this one now 
establishes that immortal element in his innermost 
soul ; and — though there is for him no hope of im- 
mortality — he obtains the full measure of life ; for, 
indeed, he becomes unconquerable, and his enemy, 
though striving to conquer, conquers him not. And, 
accordingly, when one who has established his fires 
and one who has not established his fires, vie with 
each other, he who has established his fires over- 
comes the other, for, verily, he thereby becomes 
unconquerable, he thereby becomes immortal. 

15. Now, when, on that occasion, they produce 
that (fire) by churning, then he (the sacrificer) 
breathes (blows) upon it, when produced ; for fire 
indeed is breath : he thereby produces the one thus 
produced. He again draws in his breath: thereby he 
establishes that (fire) in his innermost soul ; and that 
fire thus becomes established in his innermost soul 2 . 

1 'Pra tv evasurebhyo bravameti.' — ' HaritasurebhyaA pratipra- 
bravameti,' Kanva text. ? ' Let us talk them out of it I' 
* See p. 297, note 4. 



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3 1 2 5ATAPATHA-BRAHMAJVA. 

1 6. Having kindled it, he makes it blaze, thinking, 
' Herein I will worship, herein I will perform the 
sacred work!' Thereby he makes blaze that fire 
which has been established in his innermost soul. 

17. ' It (or some one) might come between, — it 
might go away ! ' so (fear some) * ; but, surely, as 
long as he lives no one comes between him and that 
fire which has been established in his innermost soul : 
let him, therefore, not heed this. And as to its 
becoming extinguished : — surely, as long as he lives, 
that fire which has been established in his innermost 
soul, does not become extinct in him. 

18. The (sacrificial) fires, assuredly, are those 
breaths : the Ahavaniya and Garhapatya are the 
out-breathing and the in-breathing; and the Anva- 
harya-paiana is the through-breathing. 

19. Now, attendance on (or, the worship of) that 
consecrated fire (agnyadheya) means (speaking) 
the truth. Whosoever speaks the truth, acts as if 
he sprinkled that lighted fire with ghee ; for even so 
does he enkindle it : and ever the more increases his 
own vital energy, and day by day does he become 
better. And whosoever speaks the untruth, acts as 



1 This paragraph is somewhat obscure. The Ka«va recension 
has the following more explicit paragraphs instead : — As to this, 
there is a source of anxiety (agas) to some, fearing that 'it (that 
fire) might go out (anvagan).' But let him not heed this, for, 
assuredly, that fire of his, which has been established in his inner- 
most soul, does not go out. ' The carriage might pass through 
(vyayasit), the cart might pass through; — it (or some one) may 
come between (me and the fire) 1' such is another source of anxiety 
to some ; but let him not heed this either ; for, assuredly, the car- 
riage does not pass through, the cart does not pass through that 
fire of his which has been established in his innermost soul. Cf. 
XII, 4, 1, 2-3. 



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n kAjvda, 2 adhyAya, 3 brAhmaya, i. 313 

if he sprinkled that lighted fire with water ; for even 
so does he enfeeble it : and ever the less becomes his 
own vital energy, and day by day does he become 
more wicked. Let him, therefore, speak nothing 
but the truth. 

20. Now the kinsmen spake unto Aruwa Au- 
pave-ri, 'Thou art advanced in years: establish 
thou the two fires ! ' He replied, ' Speak ye not 
thus ! be thou a restrainer of speech 1 ; for he who 
has established the fires must not speak an untruth : 
let him rather not speak at all, but let him not speak 
an untruth. Worship, above all, is truthfulness.' 

Third BrAhmajva. 

The Punaradheya or Re-establishment of the Sacred Fires '. 

1. Now Varutta established this (fire), being de- 
sirous of sovereignty. He obtained sovereignty; 
and, accordingly, whether one (who has established 
the fires) knows (this) or not, they call him ' king 
Varuwa.' Soma (established the fire), being desirous 
of glory. He became glorious, and, accordingly, 
whether one obtains a hold on Soma, or whether 

1 The KSflva text has : He said, ' Speak ye not thus ; be thou 
a restrainer of speech !' — 'Speak ye not,' so (he said); for, having 
established the two fires, one should not speak untruthfully (mr/'sha), 
nor should he who utters speech speak untruthfully. He should, 
therefore, strive to speak nothing but the truth. 

3 If the householder who has set up his fires, finds, after a year 
or more, that he does not prosper in his undertakings, or if he has 
otherwise met with misfortunes, and thus his Sdheya has not proved 
successful, he should set up his fires a second time. The old fires 
have to be put out, either early in the day on which the perform- 
ance is to take place, or from three nights to a whole year previous 
to the ceremony. With the exceptions noticed in the sequel, the 
performance is the same as that of the Sdhana. 



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3T4 SATAPATHA-BRAHMAJVA. 

one does not, they both obtain (glory), — for it is 
glory that people thereby get to see. Glorious 
therefore he becomes, and sovereignty he obtains, 
whosoever, knowing this, establishes a sacrificial 
fire of his own. 

2. Now once upon a time the gods deposited with 
Agni all forms (rupa) 1 , both domestic and wild; 
either because they were about to engage in battle, 
or from a desire of free scope, or because they 
thought that he (Agni) would protect them as the 
best protector. 

3. But Agni coveted them, and seizing them he 
entered the seasons with them. ' Let us go back 
thither,' said the gods, and betook themselves to 
(the place where) Agni (was) concealed. They were 
disheartened and said, ' What is here to be done ? 
what counsel is there ?' 

4. Then Tvash/r* beheld that re-consecrated fire 
(Punar-adheya). He established it and thereby 
gained an entrance to Agni's beloved abode. He 
(Agni) gave up to him both kinds of forms, domestic 
and wild : hence they call them Tvash/rz's forms ; 
since it is from Tvash/r? that all form proceeds 2 ; but 
all other creatures of whatever kind undergo it. 

5. .It is for him (Tvash/r/), then, that one must 
re-establish the fire : for thus he enters Agni's 

1 Compare the corresponding legend Taitt. S. 1, 5, 1 ; according 
to which the gods deposited their precious goods (v&maw vasu) 
with Agni ; and Pushan and Tvash/r», on performing sacrifice to 
Agni exclusively (the punar&dhyeya), became possessed of the 
cattle, whence the latter are said to belong to Pushan (paush«a) 
and to Tvash/r; (tvSsh/ra). Afterwards Manu and DhStrz (here 
identified with the year) also performed the ceremony. See also 
.Sat Br. II, 3, 4, 1 seq. 

* Or, since it is to Tvash/n that all form belongs. 



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ii kAjvda, 2 adhyAya, 3 brAhmajva, 8. 315 

beloved abode, and the latter gives up to him both 
kinds of forms, domestic and wild. In that (fire) 
those two kinds of forms are seen: such is the ascen- 
dancy (which one obtains by the punaradhyeya), — 
people, indeed, envy him ; thus he thrives, and a 
conspicuous position (is obtained by him). 

6. To Agni belongs this sacrifice. Agni is the 
light, the burner of evil : he burns away the evil of 
this (sacrificer); and the latter becomes a light of 
prosperity and glory in this, and a light of bliss l in 
yonder, world. This, then, is the reason why he 
should establish the fires (a second time). 

7. Let him establish the fires (the second time) 
in the rainy season. The rains are all the seasons, 
for the rains are indeed all the seasons : hence, in 
counting over years, people say, ' In such and such a 
year (or rain, varsha)we did it; in such and such 
a year (or rain) we did it.' The rains, then, are one 
of the forms of manifestation (rupa) of all seasons 2 ; 
and when people say, ' To-day it is as if in summer,' 
then that is in the rainy season; and when they 
say, ' To-day it is as if in spring,' then that, too, is in 
the rainy season. From the year (or rain, varsha), 
indeed, (is named) the rainy season (varsha^). 

8. There is, moreover, an occult form (through 
which the rains manifest themselves in the seasons) 3 . 
When it blows from the east, then that is the charac- 
teristic sign of spring ; — when it thunders, it is that of 

1 GyotW amutra pu«yalokatva\ lit. ' a light by (way of) blissful 
state.' The Kanva text has the same reading. 

1 This speculation is based on the identity of the words for year 
(varsha; also 'rain') and the rains, or rainy season (varsh£A). 

' The characteristics of the seasons here selected are supposed 
to have a special connection with the rain and rainy season. 



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316 satapatha-brahmava. 

summer ; — when it rains, it is that of the rainy season ; 
when it lightens, it is that of autumn 1 ; — when it 
ceases to rain, it is that of winter. The rains are 
all the seasons. The seasons he (Agni) entered : from 
out of the seasons, therefore, he now produces him. 

9. But the sun also is all the seasons : when he 
rises, then it is spring; — when the cows are driven 
together (for milking), then it is summer ; — when it 
is mid-day, then is the rainy season ; — when it is 
afternoon, then it is autumn ; — when he sets, then it 
is winter. At mid-day (madhyandina), therefore, 
he should establish his fires, for then that (sun) is 
nearest to this world, and hence he produces that 
(fire) from the nearest centre (madhya). 

10. Verily, this man is affected with evil, as with 
a shadow. But then (at mid-day) that (evil) of his 
(like his shadow) is smallest, and shrinks, as it were, 
beneath his foot: hence he thereby crushes that evil, 
when it is smallest. For this reason also he should 
establish his fires (the second time) at mid-day. 

11. He takes it out (from the Garhapatya) by 
means of sacrificial grass. By means of fire-wood, 
indeed, he takes it out the first time ; and (were he 
to take it out) with fire-wood the first time, and with 
fire-wood the second time, he would commit a repe- 
tition, and raise a conflict. Now sacrificial grass means 
water, and the rainy season also means water. He 
(Agni) entered the seasons : with water he accordingly 
produces him from out of the waters ; this is why he 
takes it (the fire) out by means of sacrificial grass. 

12. Having prepared an (ordinary) rice cake on 

1 During the autumn, or sultry season succeeding the rains, 
there are frequent displays of sheet-lightning along the horizon at 
night. 



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II KANDA, 2 ADHYAYA, 3 BRAHMAtfA, 1 5. 317 

two arka 1 leaves, he puts it in the place where he is 
about to establish the Garhapatya fire, and thereon 
lays down the Garhapatya. 

13. Having prepared a (second) barley cake on 
two arka leaves, he puts it in the place where he is 
about to establish the Ahavanlya fire, and thereon 
lays down the Ahavanlya. [Some do so] arguing, 
'Thereby we cover them with the first two fires;' 
but let him not do so, for it is by the nights that 
they come to be covered. 

14. He then offers to Agni a sacrificial cake (pu- 
rorfasa) on five potsherds 8 . Its offering prayers and 
invitatory prayers consist of pankti strophes of five 
padas each 8 ; for there are five seasons, and the 
seasons he (Agni) entered : from the seasons he 
accordingly produces him. 

1 5. The whole (sacrifice) belongs to Agni ; for 
it was thereby that Tvash/W entered Agni's beloved 
abode, and therefore the whole (sacrifice) belongs 
to Agni 4 . 

1 Calotropis Gigantea. These cakes (apupa, not purodara) have 
first to be cooked either on the Avasathya, or on a secular fire. Before 
the cakes are then put on the Garhapatya and Ahavanlya fire-places, 
the latter have to be consecrated in the usual way (cf. p. 2) j and, 
after the putting on of the cakes, the fire-places are sprinkled by 
the Adhvaryu, while the sacrificer holds on to him from behind. 
Katy. IV, u,8, Schol. 

* Viz. he performs an ish/i with such a rice-cake for the havis, 
as a substitute for the tanuhavir-ish/is, offered after the full- 
offering, at the adhina. See II, 2, 1, 6, and note. 

* The pankti consists of five octosyllabic padas. The anuvS- 
kya" and ya^-yS at the chief offering are Rig-veda IV, 10, 2 and 4; 
those of the svish/akr»t, ib., verses 4 and 1. — Ajv. II, 8, 14. 

4 The offering prayers of all libations and offerings at this ish/i 
must therefore contain Agni's name. At each of the fore-offerings 
and after-offerings a different case-form of agni is added after 
the respective objects of those offerings, — thus, '. . . samidho agne 



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31 8 SATAPATHA-BRAHMAiVA. 

1 6. They perform it (with the formulas pro- 
nounced) in a low voice ; for if one wishes to pre- 
pare anything specially for a relative or friend, 
one must take care to keep it secret. Now the 
other sacrifice belongs to all the deities, but this 
belongs specially to Agni ; and what is (kept) secret, 
that is (spoken of) in a low voice: this is why 
they perform it in a low voice. 

17. The last after-offering he performs aloud; 
for then he has completed his work, and every one 
becomes aware of what has been done. 

18. Having uttered his call (and having been 
responded to by the Agnldhra) 1 , he says (to the 
Hotri), ' Pronounce the offering-prayer to the 
Samidhs (kindling-sticks) !' — the latter being one of 
Agni's mystic forms of manifestation (rupa) ; but 
he may also say, 'Pronounce the offering-prayer to 
the fires!' — that being Agni's real (exoteric) form 2 . 

'gna Ig-yasya vyantu,'-' tanunapad agnim agna ...,' 'ido agninagne 
. . . ,' &c. See par. 19 ; also p. 148, n. 2 ; I, 5, 4, 1 seq. ; I, 8, 2, 
1 seq. The two butter-portions otherwise offered to Agni or Soma 
respectively (cf. 1, 6, 1, 20 seq.) are in this case offered to Agni; the 
anuviky&s, according to Asv. II, 8, 7, being Rig-veda VIII, 44, 1, 
and VI, 16, 1 6 respectively. See, however, paragraphs 21 seq. 

1 Viz. the Adhvaryu calls, jr&vaya, 'cause (him or one) to 
hear I' and the Agnidhra responds by Astu jrausha/, 'yea, may 
he (or one) hearl' 

2 Here, at the first fore-offering, an option is apparently left 
between the former, regular summons (see I, 5, 3, 8), and the 
latter, modified so as to make it apply directly to Agni. Klty. IV, 
11, it allows the same option for the first praya£a and anuya^a. 
For the latter, however, see further on, par. 24. The Ki«va re- 
cension has as follows:— Now when the Adhvaryu, on stepping 
over (to the south side) and uttering his call (for the Agnidhra) 
to bid attention, says, 'Pronounce the offering-prayer to the 
Samidhs I ' then that, indeed, is one of Agni's forms of manifesta- 
tion (agneyam eva tad rupam) ; but here let him say, as it were, 



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II KANDA, 2 ADHYAYA, 3 BRAHMAYA, 21. 319 

19. He (the Hotri) recites 1 , '... They (the 
Samidhs), O Agni, may accept of the butter! 
Vau^ak 2 !' '. . . He (Tanunapat) may accept the 
fire of the butter! Vau^Aak !' ' . . . They (the Ids) 
may, through Agni, accept of the butter ! Vau^ak !' 
'. . . It (the barhis), the fire, may accept of the 
butter! Vauf^ak!' 

20. He then says 3 , 'Svaha Agnim !' with refer- 
ence to Agni's butter - portion ; — ' Svaha Agnim 
Pavamanam !' if they determine upon (offering to) 
Agni, the blowing* ; or 'Svaha Agnim Indumantam !' 
if they determine upon Agni, the drop-abounding 6 ; — 
' Svaha Agnim!' — 'Svaha, the butter-drinking Agnis! 
May Agni graciously accept of the butter!' — this is 
the offering-prayer he (the HotW) pronounces. 

21. He (the Adhvaryu) then says, with regard to 
Agni's (first) butter-portion, 'Pronounce the invitatory 
prayer to Agni!' He (the Hotri) recites 6 , 'Awake 
Agni with praise, enkindling the immortal, that he 
may take our offerings to the gods !' For, indeed, 
when Agni is removed (from the hearth) 7 , he, as it 
were, sleeps : he (the priest) now awakens, rouses 

in a mystic way, ' Pronounce the offering-prayer to the Agnis I' 
(paroksham iva tv agnin ya^eti haiva tatra bruyat.) 
1 See p. 317, note 4. 

* A modification of the ordinary vausha/. The Kinva text 
has here and in par. 25, as usual, vaushal. 

* At the fifth fore-offering; see I, 5, 3, a a seq. 
4 See II, 2, i, 6, and note; also II, 2, 1, 23. 

6 This points forward to the second butter-portion, which is 
offered to Agni Pavamana or Agni Indumat, instead of Soma; the 
first being offered to Agni simply. Katy. IV, 11, 12. 

' Rig-veda V, 14, 1. See, however, the formulas prescribed by 
Arvalayana, p. 317, note 4. 

7 The fire laid down at the adheya is removed when the puna- 
radheya is to be performed. 



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3 20 DATAPATH A-BRA H M AiVA. 

him. For the offering-prayer he recites, ' May 
Agni graciously accept of the butter !' 

22. And, if they determine upon (offering the 
second butter-portion to) Agni Pavamana, let him 
then say, ' Pronounce the invitatory prayer to Agni 
Pavamana ; and he (the Hotri) recites (Rig-veda IX, 
1 6, 19), 'O Agni, thou breathest forth life; pro- 
duce thou food and sap for us! drive far away 
misfortune!' For thus, indeed, it becomes of the 
nature of Agni. Pavamana (the one that becomes 
purified) means the Soma ; but this (Soma-element) 
they eliminate from the butter-portion of Soma 1 . 
For the offering-prayer he recites, ' May Agni Pava- 
mana graciously accept of the butter ! ' 

23. If, on the other hand, they determine upon 
(offering to) Agni Indumat, let him say, ' Pronounce 
the invitatory prayer to Agni Indumat!' He (the 
Hotn) recites (Rig-veda VI, 16, 16), ' Come hither, I 
will gladly sing to thee yet other songs, O Agni! 
mayest thou grow strong by these draughts (indu, 
drop).' Thus, indeed, it becomes of the nature of 
Agni : the draught doubtless means Soma, but this 
(Soma-element) they eliminate from the butter- 
portion of Soma. For the offering-prayer he recites, 
' May Agni, the drop-abounding, graciously accept 
of the butter!' And thus he makes it all of the 
nature of Agni. 

24. He then says, as to the chief offering (havis), 
'Pronounce the invitatory prayer to Agni!' 'Pro- 
nounce the offering-prayer to Agni ! ' ' Pronounce 
the invitatory prayer to Agni Svishtakrit (the 
maker of good offerings) !' ' Pronounce the offering- 

1 Viz. that second butter-portion which by right belongs to 
Soma (see I, 6, 1, 20 seq.), but is here offered to Agni. 



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ii kXnda, 2 adhyAya, 3 brAhmaya, 27. 321 

prayer to Agni Svish/akrzt 1 !' Then where (other- 
wise) he would say, ' Pronounce the offering-prayer 
to the gods 2 !' he now says, ' Pronounce the offering- 
prayer to the Agnis ! ' 

25. He recites 3 , '[The divine Barhis] may accept 
(the offering) for Agni's abundant obtainment of 
abundant gift! Vau^ak!' — '[The divine Nara- 
samsa] may accept (the offering) for abundant ob- 
tainment, in Agni, of abundant gift! Vau^ak!' — 
' The divine Agni Svishfokrzt . . . . ' this third (after- 
offering) is already in itself of the nature of Agni ; and 
thus he makes the after-offerings relate to Agni. 

26. Those same case-forms (of agni) 4 , which he 
recites in the offering-prayers, are six ; namely, four 
at the fore-offerings, and two at the after-offerings. 
Now there are six seasons ; and the seasons he 
(Agni) entered : out of the seasons he accordingly 
thereby produces him. 

2 7. There are either twelve or thirteen syllables 
(in these six case-forms) 6 . Now there are either 
twelve or thirteen months in a year*; and the 

1 For the formulas of the chief offering and Svish/akr*t, see 
p. 3 1 1, note 3. 

* That is, at the after-offerings; see I, 8, a, 14. Cf. also p. 318, 
note 2. 

' See I, 8, 2, 15. Here a different case-form of the word agni 
(viz. agne>i and agnau) is inserted in the offering-formulas of the 
first two anuya^as, immediately after the word indicating the object 
of the offering ; the formula of the third and last anuya^a already 
containing the nominative zgn'ih in the same place. 

4 See p. 317, note 4. 

8 The locative case agnau, inserted in the offering-prayer of the 
second after-offering, is optionally made trisyllabic by being written 
and pronounced agna-u. 

• For other allusions to intercalary months in the Vedic texts, 
see Weber, Naxatra, II, p. 336. 

[12] Y 



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322 DATAPATH A-BRAHMAJVA. 

year, the seasons, he (Agni) entered: out of the 
seasons he accordingly thereby produces him. In 
order to avoid sameness, no two (of these forms) 
are alike ; but (the fault of) sameness he would 
undoubtedly commit, were any two of them alike. 
The characteristic form of the fore-offerings is 
(alternately), 'May they accept,' 'May it (or he) 
accept 1 ;' and that of the after-offerings is, 'For 
the abundant obtainment of abundant gift' 

28. The priests' fee for this (sacrifice) consists of 
gold 2 . This sacrifice belongs to Agni, and gold is 
Agni's seed 3 : this is why the priests' fee consists 
of .gold. Or it may be an ox ; for the latter is of the 
nature of Agni as far as its shoulder is concerned, 
since its shoulder (by carrying the yoke) is as if burnt 
by fire. Moreover, Agni is oblation-bearer to the 
gods, and that (ox) bears (or draws, loads) for men : 
this is why an ox may be given as the priests' fee. 

Fourth BrAhmajva. 

II. THE AGNIHOTRA or MORNING AND EVENING 

LIBATIONS; and THE AGNY-UPASTHANA or 

HOMAGE TO THE FIRES. 

i. Pra^apati alone, indeed, existed here in the 
beginning. He considered, ' How may I be repro- 

1 See I, 5, 3, 15. 

a See also II, 2, 4, 15. In Taitt. S. I, 5, 12 (referred to K4ty. XI, 
2, 37) 'white gold ' (raguta/n hira»yam), i.e. silver, is expressly men- 
tioned as unsuitable for the dakshi»S. The reason adduced is 
that, when the gods claimed back the goods deposited with Agrri 
he wept, and the tears he shed became silver ; and hence, if one 
were to give silver as a dakshinS, there would be weeping in his 
house before a year had passed. 

8 See II, 1, i, 5. 



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II KANDA, 2 ADHYAyA, 4 BRAHMAJVA, 5. 323 

duced?' He toiled and performed acts of penance. 
He generated Agni from his mouth ; and because 
he generated him from his mouth, therefore Agni 
is a consumer of food : and, verily, he who thus 
knows Agni to be a consumer of food, becomes him- 
self a consumer of food. 

2. He thus generated him first (agre) of the gods ; 
and therefore (he is called) Agni, for agni (they say) 
is the same as agri. He, being generated, went forth 
as the first (purva); for of him who goes first, they 
say that he goes at the head (agre). Such, then, is 
the origin and nature of that Agni. 

3. Pra^apati then considered, ' In that Agni I 
have generated a food-eater for myself; but, indeed, 
there is no other food here but myself, whom, 
surely, he would not eat.' At that time this earth 
had, indeed, been rendered quite bald; there were 
neither plants nor trees. This, then, weighed on his 
mind. 

4. Thereupon Agni turned towards him with open 
mouth ;andhe(Pra£apati)beingterrified, his own great- 
ness departed from him. Now his own greatness is 
his speech : that speech of his departed from him. 
He desired an offering in his own self, and rubbed 
(his hands) ; and because he rubbed (his hands), 
therefore both this and this (palm) are hairless. 
He then obtained either a butter-offering or a milk- 
offering ; — but, indeed, they are both milk. 

5. This (offering), however, did not satisfy him, 
because it had hairs mixed with it. He poured it 
away (into the fire); saying, ' Drink, while burning 
(oshaw dhaya)!' From it plants sprang: hence 
their name ' plants (oshadhayaA).' He rubbed (his 
hands) a second time, and thereby obtained another 

y 2 



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324 SATAPATHA-BRAHMAtfA. 

offering, either a butter-offering or a milk-offering ; — 
but, indeed, they are both milk. 

6. This (offering) then satisfied him. He hesi- 
tated : • Shall I offer it up ? shall I not offer it up ?' 
he thought. His own greatness said to him, 'Offer 
it up!' Pra^pati was aware that it was his own 
(sva) greatness that had spoken (aha) to him ; and 
offered it up with 'Svaha!' This is why offerings 
are made with 'Svaha!' Thereupon that burning 
one (viz. the sun) rose ; and then that blowing 
one (viz. the wind) sprang up ; whereupon, indeed, 
Agni turned away. 

7. And Pra^apati, having performed offering, re- 
produced himself, and saved himself from Agni, 
Death, as he was about to devour him. And, 
verily, whosoever, knowing this, offers the Agni- 
hotra, reproduces himself by offspring even as 
Pra^apati reproduced himself ; and saves himself from 
Agni, Death, when he is about to devour him. 

8. And when he dies, and when they place him on 
the fire, then he is born (again) out of the fire, and 
the fire only consumes his body. Even as he is 
born from his father and mother, so is he born from 
the fire. But he who offers not the Agnihotra, verily, 
he does not come into life at all : therefore the Agni- 
hotra should by all means be offered. 

9. And as to that same birth from out of doubt, — 
when Pra^apati doubted, he, while doubting, remained 
steadfast on the better (side), insomuch that he repro- 
duced himself and saved himself from Agni, Death, 
when he was about to devour him : so he also who 
knows that birth from out of doubt, when he doubts 
about anything, still remains on the better (side). 

10. Having offered, he rubbed (his hands). Thence 



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II KkNDA, 2 ADHYAYA, 4 BRAHMAiVA, 1 4. 325 

aVikankata 1 tree sprung forth; and therefore that 
tree is suitable for the sacrifice, and proper for sacri- 
ficial vessels. Thereupon those (three) heroes among 
the gods were born, viz. Agni, that blower (Viyu), 
and Surya : and, verily, whosoever thus knows those 
heroes among the gods, to him a hero is born. 

11. They then said, 'We come after our father 
Pra^apati : let us then create what shall come after 
us !' Having enclosed (a piece of ground), they sang 
praises with the gayatri stanza without the 'Hin 2 :' 
and that (with) which they enclosed was the ocean ; 
and this earth was the praising-ground (astava). 

12. When they had sung praises, they went out 
towards the east, saying, 'We (will) go back thither!' 
The gods came upon a cow which had sprung into 
existence. Looking up at them, she uttered the 
sound ' hin.' The gods perceived that this was the 
'Hih' of the Sam an (melodious sacrificial chant); 
for heretofore (their song was) without the ' Hin.' 
but after that it was the (real) Saman. And as this 
same sound 'Hin* of the Saman was in the cow, 
therefore the latter affords the means of subsistence ; 
and so does he afford the means of subsistence whoso- 
ever thus knows that ' Hin' of the Saman in the cow. 

1 3. They said, ' Auspicious, indeed, is what we 
have produced here, who have produced the cow : 
for, truly, she is the sacrifice, and without her no 
sacrifice is performed ; she is also the food, for the 
cow, indeed, is all food.' 

14. This (word 'go'), then, is a name of those 

1 The sruva, or dipping-spoon, and the Agnihotra ladle, for 
instance, are made of this wood ; see p. 331, note 2. 

1 On ' hih ' as an essential element in the recitation of Sama- 
chants, see I, 4, 1, 1 seq. 



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326 satapatha-brAhmajva. 

(cows), and so it is of the sacrifice : let him, therefore, 
repeat * it, (as it were) saying, ' Good, excellent !' and, 
verily, whosoever, knowing this, repeats it, (as it 
were) saying, ' Good, excellent ! ' with him those 
(cows) multiply, and the sacrifice will incline to him. 

15. Now, Agni coveted her: 'May I pair with 
her,' he thought He united with her, and his seed 
became that milk of hers : hence, while the cow is 
raw, that milk in her is cooked (warm); for it is Agni's 
seed ; and therefore also, whether it be in a black 
or in a red (cow), it is ever white, and shining like 
fire, it being Agni's seed. ' Hence it is warm when 
first milked ; for it is Agni's seed. 

16. They (the men) said, ' Come, let us offer this 
up!' — 'To whom of us shall they first offer this?' 
(said those gods). — ' To me ! ' said Agni. — ' To me ! ' 
said that blower (Vayu). — 'To me!' said Surya. 
They did not come to an agreement ; and not being 
agreed, they said, ' Let us go to our father Pra/ipati ; 
and to whichever of us he says it shall be offered 
first, to him they shall first offer this.' They went 
to their father Pra^apati, and said, ' To whom of 
us shall they offer this first ?' 

17. He replied, 'To Agni: Agni will forthwith 
cause his own seed to be reproduced, and so you 
will be reproduced.' 'Then to thee,' he said to 
Surya ; ' and what of the offered (milk) he then is 
still possessed of, that shall belong to that blower 

1 Pariharet [?'let him avoid it (the term go in the sense of 
sacrifice), thinking that it is too holy']. Sayawa merely remarks, 
that both the cow and the sacrifice are here represented as 
extremely auspicious (utknsh/am puwyam). Perhaps we have here 
a play on the words upanama, 'a by-name,' and upanamuka, 
'inclining to (him).' 'Go' (for go-sh/oma) is the designation of 
one of the days of the Abhiplava at the Gavamayana. 



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II KAiVDA, 3 ADHYAYA, I BRAHMAA'A, 3. 327 

(Vayu) !' And, accordingly, they in the same way 
offer this (milk) to them till this day : in the 
evening to Agni, and in the morning to Surya ; and 
what of the offered (milk) he then is still possessed 
of, that, indeed, belongs to that blower. 

18. By offering, those gods were produced in 
the way in which they were produced, by it they 
gained that victory which they did gain : Agni 
conquered this world, Vayu the air, and Surya the 
sky. And whosoever, knowing this, offers the Agni- 
hotra, he, indeed, is produced in the same way in 
which they were then produced, he gains that same 
victory which they then gained ; — indeed, he shares 
the same world with them, whosoever, knowing this, 
offers the Agnihotra. Therefore the Agnihotra 
should certainly be performed. 

Third AdhyAya. First Brahmam. 

1. The Agnihotra, doubtless, is the Sun. It is 
because he rose in front (agre) of that offering 1 , that 
the Agnihotra is the Sun. 

2. When he offers in the evening after sunset, 
he does so thinking, ' I will offer, while he is here, 
who is this (offering) ; ' and when he offers in the 
morning before sunrise, he does so thinking, ' I will 
offer, while he is here, who is this (offering) :' and 
for this reason, they say, the Agnihotra is the Sun. 

3. And when he sets, then he, as an embryo, 
enters that womb, the fire ; and along with him thus 
becoming an embryo, all these creatures become 
embryos ; for, being coaxed, they lie down contented a . 

1 Apparently an etymological play on the word agnihotra- 
agre hotrasya, cf. II, 2, 4, a. 
* i/ita hi sere (aerate, Kawva rec.) sajwg£nanaA. 



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328 SATAPATHA-BRA H M AiVA. 

The reason, then, why the night envelops that (sun), 
is that embryos also are, as it were, enveloped. 

4. Now when he offers in the evening after sunset, 
he offers for the good of that (sun) in the embryo 
state, he benefits that embryo ; and since he offers 
for the good of that (sun) in the embryo state, there- 
fore embryos here live without taking food. 

5. And when he offers in the morning before sun- 
rise, then he produces that (sun-child) and, having 
become a light, it rises shining. But, assuredly, it 
would not rise, were he not to make that offering : 
this is why he performs that offering. 

6. Even as a snake frees itself from its skin, so 
does it (the sun-child) free itself from the night, from 
evil: and, verily, whosoever, knowing this, offers 
the Agnihotra, he frees himself from all evil, even 
as a snake frees itself from its skin ; and after his 
birth all these creatures are born ; for they are set 
free according to their inclination. 

7. Then, as to his taking out the Ahavanlya 
(from the Garhapatya) before the setting of the sun ; 
— the rays, doubtless, are all those gods ; and what 
highest light there is, that, indeed, is either Pra^a- 
pati or Indra. Now all the gods approach the house 
of him who performs the Agnihotra : but whoseso- 
ever (offering) they approach before the fire has been 
taken out, from that the gods turn away, and he 
fails in it; and after the failure of that (offering) 
from which the gods turn away, people say, that, 
whether one knows it or not, the sun went down 
on account of that (fire) not having been taken out. 

8. And another reason why he takes out the 
Ahavaniya before the setting of the sun, is this. 
In like manner as, when one's better comes to visit 



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II KANDA, 3 ADHYAYA, I BRAHMAYA, 12. 329 

one, he would honour him by trimming his house, 
so here : for whosesoever (offering) they approach, 
after the fire has been taken out, his Ahavaniya 
(house) they enter, in his Ahavaniya they repose. 

9. Now when he offers in the evening after the 
sun has set, he thereby offers to them after they have 
entered his fire-house; and when he offers in the 
morning before sunrise, he offers to them before 
they go away. Therefore Asuri said, ' The Agni- 
hotra of those who offer after sunrise we regard as 
useless ' : it is as if one were to take food to an 
empty dwelling.' 

10. That which affords (the means of) subsistence 
is of two kinds ; namely, either rooted or rootless. 
On both of these, which belong to the gods, men 
subsist. Now cattle are rootless and plants are 
rooted. From the rootless cattle eating the rooted 
plants and drinking water, that juice is produced. 

1 1. Now when he offers in the evening after sun- 
set, he does so thinking, ' I will offer to the gods 
of this life-giving juice : we subsist on this which 
belongs to them.' And when he afterwards takes 
his evening meal, he eats what remains of the 
offering, and whereof oblative portions (bali) have 
been distributed all round 2 ; for he who performs the 
Agnihotra eats only what remains of the offering. 

12. And when he offers in the morning before 
sunrise, he does so thinking, * I will offer to the gods 
of this life-giving juice : we subsist on this which be- 
longs to them.' And when he afterwards takes his 
meal in the day-time, he eats what remains of the 

1 Vi^Minna, ? lit ' cut off (from its recipient).' 
4 Bali is the technical term of the portions of the daily food 
that have to be assigned to all creatures. 



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330 SATAPATHA-BRAHMAJVA. 

offering, and whereof oblative portions have been 
distributed all round ; for he who performs the Agni- 
hotra eats only what remains of the offering. 

t 3. Here now they say, — All other sacrifices come 
to an end, but the Agnihotra does not come to an 
end. Although that which lasts for twelve years 
is indeed limited, this (Agnihotra) is nevertheless 
unlimited, since, when one has offered in the evening, 
he knows that he will offer in the morning; and 
when one has offered in the morning, he knows that 
he will again offer in the evening. Hence that 
Agnihotra is unlimited, and in consequence of this 
its unlimitedness, creatures are here born unlimited. 
And, verily, he who thus knows the unlimitedness 
of the Agnihotra, is himself born unlimited in pros- 
perity and offspring. 

14. Having milked 1 he puts that (milk) on (the 
Garhapatya fire), because it has to be cooked. 
Here now they say, ' When it rises to the brim, 
then we shall offer it!' He must not however let 
it rise to the brim, since he would burn it, if he 
were to let it rise to the brim ; and unproductive 
indeed is burnt seed : he must not, therefore, let it 
rise to the brim. 

15. He should not offer it without having put it 
on the fire ; for since this is Agni's seed, therefore 
it is hot {sri ta, ' cooked ') ; and by putting it on the 

1 For other ceremonies preceding those above, see I, 3, 3, 
13 seq. According to Kity. IV, 14, 1 he has the Agnihotra cow 
— standing south of the sacrificial ground and facing the east or 
north — milked by anybody except a .Sudra. The vessel to be used 
is of earthenware, and must have been made by an Arya. The 
Adhvaryu then takes the vessel, and having entered the Ahavantya 
house by the east door and passed over to the GSrhapatya, puts 
it there on coals previously shifted northwards from the fire. 



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ii kanda, 3 adhyAya, i brAhmajva, i 7. 33 1 

fire, it is indeed heated : let him, therefore, offer (of 
the milk) only after he has put it on the fire. 

16. He illumines it (with a burning straw) 1 in 
order that he may know when it is done. He 
then pours some water to it (with the sruva), both 
for the sake of appeasement, and in order to supple- 
ment the juice. For when it rains here, then plants 
spring up ; and in consequence of the plants being 
eaten and the water drunk, this juice is produced : 
hence it is in order to supplement the juice (that he 
pours water to it) ; and therefore, if it should happen 
to him to have to drink pure milk, let him have one 
drop of water poured into it, both for the sake of 
appeasement, and in order to supplement the juice. 

17. Thereupon he ladles four times (milk with 
the sruva into the Agnihotra ladle 2 ), for in a four- 
fold way was that milk supplied 8 . He then takes 
a kindling-stick (samidh), and hastes up (to the 
Ahavaniya, with the ladle) to make the libation on 
the burning (stick) 4 . He offers the first libation 

1 According to Katy. IV, 14, 5 the Adhvaryu illumines the milk 
with a burning straw; pours some water to it with the sruva or 
dipping-spoon ; then illumines it once more ; and lifts up the pot 
three several times, putting it down each time further north of the 
fire. Thereupon he warms the two spoons ; and wipes them with 
his hand; and having warmed them once more, he says to the sacri- 
ficer, 'I ladle 1' The latter, while standing, replies, 'Cm, ladle I' 

* For the Agnihotra-hava»i, or offering-spoon (srui), used 
at the morning and evening libation, and made of Vikankata wood 
(Flacourtia Sapida), see p. 67, note 2. In the case of those who 
make five cuttings from the havis (panHvattin, cf. p. 192 note) he 
takes five sruva-fuls. Katy. IV, 14, 10, Comm. 

* Viz. by the four teats of the udder. Comm. 

4 While holding a billet or kindling-stick (samidh) over the 
(handle of) the milk-ladle, he [first holds the latter close over the 
Garhapatya fire, and thereupon] takes it to the Ahavaniya, keeping 



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332 SATAPATHA-BRAHMAVA. 

(purvahuti) without putting down (the spoon) be- 
side (the fire, on the grass-bunch). For, were he to 
put it down beside (the fire), it would be as if, in 
taking food to somebody, one were to put it down 
on one's way thither. But when (he makes the liba- 
tion) without previously putting it down, it is as 
if, in taking food to somebody, one puts it down 
only after taking it to him. The second (libation 
he then makes) after putting it down : he thereby 
makes these two (libations) of various vigour. Now 
these two libations are mind and speech : hence he 
thereby separates mind and speech from each other ; 
and thus mind and speech, even while one and the 
same (samana), are still distinct (nana). 

1 8. Twice he offers in the fire, twice he wipes 
(the spout of the spoon), twice he eats (of the milk), 
and four times he ladles 1 ; — these are ten (acts), for 

it on a level with his mouth, except in the middle between the two 
fires, where he lowers it for a moment to the level of his navel. 
He then crouches down [bending his right knee, and looking east- 
wards, by the north-west corner of the Ahavaniya], puts the billet 
on [the centre of] the fire, and makes the first libation (purva- 
huti) on the burning stick (see the formula, par. 30. The sacri- 
ficer, as usual, pronounces the dedicatory formula, viz. ' This to 
Agnil' and, 'This to Suryal' respectively). Thereupon he lays 
down the ladle on the kur&t [a grass-bunch, placed behind the 
Ahavaniya fire-place, to serve as a seat, and to wipe the hands on ; 
according to others, a flat piece of Vara«a wood], then takes it up 
again and silently makes the second libation (uttarahuti) on the 
north part of the fire. Katy. IV, 14, 12-17 w ' tn Schol. 

1 He ladles four sruva-fuls of milk into the Agnihotra ladle, and 
makes in the Ahavaniya fire two libations from this milk (so 
as to leave the larger quantity in the ladle to be eaten). He then 
wipes twice the spout of the ladle. [In each of the two other fires 
he thereupon makes likewise two libations with the sruva, of one 
spoonful each.] The milk left in the ladle he eats, on the completion 
of the six libations, by twice taking it out with his ring-finger. 



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II KANDA, 3 ADIIYAYA, I BRAHMAWA, 21. 333 

of ten syllables consists the vira^ stanza, and the 
sacrifice is vir&f (shining): he thereby converts the 
sacrifice into the vira^. 

19. Now what he offers up in the fire, that he 
offers to the gods ; and thereby the gods are (ad- 
mitted to the sacrifice) 1 . And what he wipes off 
(the spoons), that he offers to the fathers and plants; 
and thereby the fathers and plants are (admitted). 
And what he eats after offering, that he offers to 
men ; and thereby men are (admitted). 

20. Verily, the creatures that are not allowed to 
take part in the sacrifice are forlorn : to those crea- 
tures that are not forlorn he thus offers a share at 
the opening of the sacrifice ; and thus beasts (cattle) 
are made to share in it along with (men), since 
beasts are behind men 2 . 

21. On this point Yif»avalkya said, * It (the 
Agnihotra) must not be looked upon as a (havis-) 
sacrifice, but as a domestic sacrifice (pakaya^wa); 
for while in any other (havis-)sacrifice he pours into 
the fire all that he cuts off (from the sacrificial dish 
and puts) into the offering spoon, — here, after offer- 
ing and stepping outside s , he sips water and licks 
out (the milk) ; and this indeed (is a characteristic) 
of the domestic offering.' This then is the animal 



1 Tasmad devaA santi; anvabhakta// ('allowed to share in the 
sacrifice ') has probably to be supplied here from the next paragraph. 

a Instead of this paragraph, the Ka»va text reads : ' Behind men 
are beasts ; behind the gods are birds, plants, trees, and whatever 
else exists here. Thus he makes these creatures share in the 
sacrifice, those that are not forlorn here.' Compare I, 5, 2, 4. 

' Utsr»"pya is variously explained by the commentators here and 
on Katy. IV, 14, 27, as * having gone out,' or ' having slowly moved 
forward,' or ' having risen,' or ' having poured out (the milk).' 



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334 -satapatha-brAhmaata. 

characteristic * of that (Agnihotra), for the domestic 
offering pertains to beasts (or cattle). 

22. Now the first of these libations, doubtless, is 
the same as that which Pra^apati offered in the 
beginning 2 ; and as those (gods) thereupon continued 
(to sacrifice) 8 , — namely, Agni, that blower (Vayu), 
and Surya, — so this second libation is offered. 

23. What first libation (purvahuti) is made, 
that is the deity of the Agnihotra 4 , and to that 
(deity) it is accordingly offered ; and what second 
one (uttarahuti) is made, that indeed is equivalent 
to the Svishtakrit (Agni, the maker of good offer- 
ing) ; whence he offers it on the north part (of the 
fire), since that is the region of the Svishtakrit 6 . 
Moreover, this second libation is made in order to 
effect a pairing, for a couple forms a productive pair. 

24. These two libations, then, form a duad : the 
past and the future, the born and the to-be-born, the 
actual 6 and the hope, the to-day and the morrow, — 
(these are) after the manner of that duad. 

25. The past is the self, for certain is that which 
is past, and certain also is that which is a self. The 
future, on the other hand, is progeny; for uncertain is 
that which is to be, and uncertain also is progeny. 

26. The born is the self, for certain is that which 
is born, and certain also is the self. The to-be-born, 

1 Pajavyaro rupam, — that is to say, its relation to the pam or 
animal sacrifice; and hence also to the idi at the havirya^wa; 
cf. I, 7, 4, 19. 

* See II, 2, 4, 4 seq. * See II, 2, 4, 18. 

* That is to say, it represents the chief offering at the havir- 
ya^na, which is followed by the (oblation to Agni) Svish/akr/t. 
See I, 7, 2, 1 seq. 

6 See 1, 1, 3, 20. 

* Agatam, 'what has arrived or come to pass,' 'the accomplished.' 



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II KAWDA, 3 ADHYAYA, I BRAHMAVA, 31. 335 

on the other hand, is progeny ; for uncertain is what 
is to be born, and uncertain also is progeny. 

2 7. The actual is the self, for certain is what is actual, 
and certain also is the self. And hope is progeny, 
for uncertain is hope, and uncertain also is progeny. 

28. The to-day is the self, for certain is what is 
to-day, and certain also is the self. The morrow 
is progeny, for uncertain is the morrow, and un- 
certain also is progeny. 

29. Now that first libation is offered on account 
of the self: he offers it with a sacred text, for certain 
is the sacred text, and certain also is the self. And 
that second one is offered on account of progeny : 
he offers it silently, for uncertain is what (is done) 
silently, and uncertain also is progeny. 

30. [In the evening] he offers (the first libation), 
with the text (Va^-. S. Ill, 9, io),'Agni is the light, 
the light is Agni, Svaha ! ' and in the morning with, 
' Surya (the sun) is the light, the light is Surya, 
Svaha!' Thus offering is made with the truth ; for, 
truly, when the sun goes down, then Agni (fire) is 
the light, and when the sun rises, then Surya is the 
light; and whatever is offered with the truth, that, 
indeed, goes to the gods. 

31. Here now Takshan recited for Aru/n 1 , who 
wished to obtain holy lustre (brahmavariasa, in- 
spired nature), 'Agni is lustre, light is lustre;' — 
'Surya is lustre, light is lustre.' Holy lustre, there- 
fore, he obtains whosoever, knowing this, thus offers 
the Agnihotra. 

1 The K£»va text has, — Here now Daksha said to Aruwi, ' For 
one wishing to obtain brahmavar^asa one should offer with this 
text, "Agni is lustre, light is lustre;" — "Surya is lustre, light is 
lustre :" a brahmavariasin, then, he becomes for whomsoever they 
so sacrifice.' 



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336 satapatha-brAhmaya. 

32. That (other text), however, has the character- 
istic form of generation. In saying, * Agni is the light, 
the light is Agni, Svaha !' he encloses that seed, the 
light, on both sides with the deity; and the seed, thus 
enclosed on both sides, is brought forth : thus enclos- 
ing it on both sides he causes it to be brought forth. 

33. And when, in the morning, he says, ' Surya 
is the light, the light is Surya, Svaha!' he encloses 
that seed, the light, on both sides with the deity, and 
the seed, thus enclosed on both sides, is brought 
forth : thus enclosing it on both sides he causes it to 
be brought forth; and this, indeed, is the charac- 
teristic form of generation. 

34. But (Jivala A!ailaki said 1 , 'Aru»i merely causes 
conception to take place, not birth : let him there- 
fore offer with that (text, in par. 32) in the evening. 

35. ' Then, in the morning, by the text, "The light 
is Surya, Surya is the light," he places that seed, the 
light, outside by means of the deity ; and the seed 
thus brought outside he causes to be born.' 

36. They also say, ' In the evening he offers Surya 
in Agni, and in the morning he offers Agni in Surya*.' 
Such, indeed, is the case with those who offer after 
sunrise ; for when the sun sets then Agni is the light, 
and when the sun rises then Surya is the light. 
Here no offence is committed on his (the sacrificer's) 
part; but an offence is indeed committed where 
offering is not made distinctly to that deity (viz. Agni 
or Surya resp.), which is the deity of the Agnihotra. 

1 I have made Givala's speech extend to the end of par. 35, as is 
done, no doubt correctly, in the Ka«va text. 

* The Kiwva has, — Now they say, ' In the evening they offer 
Agni in Surya, and in the morning they offer Surya in Agni.' 
But see the formulas (par. 30), where 'light* is to be taken as Surya 
and Agni respectively. 



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II KAJVflA, 3 ADHYAYA, I BRAHMAJVA, 39. 337 

He says 1 , ' Agni is the light, the light is Agni, Svaha!' 
and not, 'To Agni Svaha!' and in the morning, 
'Surya is the light, the light is Surya, Svaha!' and 
not,'To Surya Svaha!' 

37. He may also offer (in the evening) with this 
text (V&f. S. Ill, 10), 'Along with the divine Savi- 
Xri — ,' whereby it (the sacrifice) becomes possessed of 
Savitr* for his impulsion; ' — along with the Night, 
wedded to Indra — ,' whereby he effects a union 
with the night, and makes it (the sacrifice) possessed 
of Indra, for Indra is the deity of the sacrifice ; 
' — may Agni graciously accept! Svaha!' whereby he 
offers to Agni in a direct manner. 

38. And in the morning with, 'Along with the 
divine Savitr? — ,' whereby it becomes possessed 
of Savitri for his impulsion ; ' — along with the 
Dawn, wedded to Indra,' or 'along with the Day 
. . . . — ,' whereby he effects a union either with 
the day or the dawn 2 , and makes it (the sacrifice) 
possessed of Indra; for Indra is the deity of sa- 
crifice; ' — may Surya graciously accept! Svaha!' 
whereby he offers to Surya directly : hence he may 
offer in this way. 

39. They then spake, ' Who shall offer this unto 
us ? ' — ' The priest (brahmawa) !' — ' Priest, offer this 
unto us !' — ' What is to be my share then ?' — ' The 
residue of the Agnihotra!' Now what he leaves in 

1 Here the Ka»va text begins a new paragraph. The author's 
object seems to be to show that those who offer the Agnihotra 
after sunrise, commit a mistake in not offering to Surya unmis- 
takably; for while before sunrise, Surya is still reposing in Agni, 
and the oblation, in being poured into the fire, is consequently 
made to Surya directly, those offering after sunrise should rather 
use the formula ' To Surya Sv4haT Cf. paragraph 9. 

1 Instead of ' ahnlm voshaslw v£,' I adopt ' ahnt voshasa' va,' 
from the Kanva reading ' ushasa vahnS vaV 



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338 satapatha-brAhmajva. 

the ladle, that is the residue of the Agnihotra ; 
and what remains in the pot, is as (the rice for 
oblations which) one takes out from the enclosed 
part (of the cart) 1 . And if any one is to drink it, 
at least none but a Brahman must drink it 2 : for 
it is put on the fire (and thereby consecrated), and 
hence none but a Brahman must drink it 

Second BrAhmawa. 
i. Verily, in him that exists 8 , these deities reside, 
to wit, Indra, king Yama, Nada the Naishadha 4 
(king), Anamat Sangamana, and Asat Pa*#sava. 

2. Now Indra, in truth, is the same as the Aha- 
vaniya ; and king Yama is the same as the Girha- 
patya; and Naak Naishadha is the same as the 
Anvaharyapa^ana (Dakshma fire) ; and because 
day by day they take that (fire) to the south, there- 
fore indeed they say that day by day Naafa Nai- 
shadha carries king Yama 6 (further) south. 

3. And again what fire there is in the hall 
(sabha), that is the same as Anamat Sangamana: 
Anarvat (not eating) it is for the reason that people 

1 Yathi parfoaho nirvaped evam tat The K&wva text has: 
Yatha (yaya MS.) kosh/ia pariwaho va nirmimttaivaw tat. 

* Or, 'anybody may drink it, but none but a Brahman may 
drink it* According to the Schol. on KSty. IV, 14, 11, the milk 
which is left in the pot may be drunk by a Brahman, but by no 
one else; not even in his own house is a Kshatriya or Vauya 
allowed to drink it 

8 The commentator takes it, ' in whatever (sacrificer) exists.' The 
(Oxf. MS. of the) Kawva text has nothing corresponding to the 
second and third Br&hma»as. 

* The printed text has Naishidha. See Weber, Ind. Stud. I, 
p. 225 seq. 

e Here Yama is apparently taken as (the god of) death and 
destruction, caused, as Professor Weber suggests, by the warlike 
expeditions of Na</a, king of Nishadha, in the south. 



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ii kXnda, 3 adhyAya, 2 brAhma^a, 6. 339 

approach it before they eat. And that (place) where 
they throw the ashes they remove (from the fire- 
places) is the same as Asat Pawsava. And whosoever 
knows this, thus gains all those worlds, traverses all 
those worlds, thinking, ' In me those gods reside.' 

4. Now as to rendering homage to (upas than a, 
lit. standing near) these (fires). When in the even- 
ing and morning (after the Agnihotra) he stands 
by the Ahavanlya, and sits down by it, that is the 
homage rendered to that (fire). And when, on 
stepping back to the Garhapatya, he either sits or 
lies down, that is the homage rendered to that 
(fire). And when, in walking (out of the sacrificial 
ground), he remembers the Anvaharyapaiana, and 
thus, in his mind, tarries near it, that is the homage 
rendered to that (fire). 

5. And again, before taking food in the morning, 
having sat down for a moment in the hall, he may 
also, if he like, walk round (the Sabhya or hall-fire), 
— and this is the homage rendered to that (fire). 
And when he steps near where lie the ashes removed 
(from the fire-places) that is the homage rendered 
to that (fire). And thus homage has been rendered 
to those deities of his. 

6. Now the Garhapatya (householder's fire) has 
the sacrificer for its deity; and the Anvaharyapaiana 
(southern fire) has his foe for its deity : hence they 
should not take over that (southern fire) every day 
(from the Garhapatya) ; and he indeed has no enemies, 
for whomsoever, knowing this, they do not take it 
over every day. Indeed, it is the Anvaharyapaiana 1 . 

1 That is, the fire on which the Anvah&rya mess of rice, the 
priests' Dakshwa at the new and full-moon sacrifice, is cooked. 
See I, 2, 3, 5 ; p. 49, note 1. 

Z 2 



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340 satapatha-brAhmajva. 

7. Let them only take it over on the fast-day (of 
the new and full-moon sacrifice), when they are about 
to sacrifice on this (the Ahavanlya fire) : thus that 
(southern) one is taken over in order to prevent 
failure on his (the sacrificer's) part 

8. Or they may also take it over to a new dwell- 
ing ; and let them then cook on it food (other than 
meat) for the priests to eat. And should he not be 
able to procure anything to cook, let him order the 
milk of a cow to be put thereon and let the priests be 
asked to drink it. And his enemies will indeed fare 
ill, for whomsoever, knowing this, they do so: let 
him, therefore, endeavour by all means to do so. 

9. Now when it is first kindled, and there is as 
yet nothing but smoke, then indeed that (fire) is Rudra. 
And if any one (Kshatriya) desires to consume food (be- 
longing to others), — even as Rudra seeks after these 
creatures, now with distrust, now with violence, now 
in striking them down, — let him offer then : and, 
assuredly, he who, knowing this, offers then (when 
the fire has just been lighted), obtains that food. 

10. And when it burns rather brightly, then 
indeed that (fire) is Varuwa. And if any one de- 
sires to consume food, — even as Vanroa seeks after 
these creatures, now, as- it were, seizing on them, 
now with violence, now in striking them down, — let 
him offer then : and, assuredly, he who, knowing this, 
offers then, obtains that food. 

11. And when it is in full blaze, and the smoke 
whirls upwards with the utmost speed, then indeed 
that (fire) is Indra. And if any one wishes to 
be like Indra in splendour and glory, let him 
offer then : and, assuredly, he who, knowing this, 
offers then, obtains that food (object). 



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II KANDA, 3 ADHYAYA, 2 BrAhMAJVA, 1 7. 34 T 

12. And when the flame of the waning (fire) gets 
lower and lower, and (burns) as it were sideways, 
then, indeed, that (fire) is Mitra. And if any one 
desires to consume food here through the kindness 
(maitra, of others), — as one of whom they say, 
'Truly, this Brahman is everybody's friend, he 
harms not any one,' — let him offer (the Agnihotra) 
then : and, assuredly, he who, knowing this, offers 
then (when the fire gets low), obtains that food. 

13. And when the coals are glowing intensely, 
then, indeed, that (fire) is the Brahman. And if 
anybody wishes to become endowed with holy lustre 
(brahmavar^asin), let him offer then: and, as- 
suredly, he who, knowing this, offers then, obtains 
that food (object). 

14. Let him endeavour to adhere to some one of 
these (gods or fires) for a year, whether he (the house- 
holder) himself offer (the Agnihotra) or some one 
else offer for him. If, on the other hand, he offers 
now in this way, now in another, it is just as if, in 
digging for water or some other food, one were to 
leave off in the midst of it. But if he offers 
uniformly, it is just as if, in digging for water or 
some other food, one lays it open forthwith. 

15. Indeed, these offerings are, as it were, the 
spades for (the digging up of) food ; and, assuredly, 
whosoever, knowing this, offers the Agnihotra, pro- 
cures food. 

16. Now the first libation (purvahuti) represents the 
gods, and the second (uttarahuti) represents the men, 
and what remains in the ladle represents cattle. 

17. Only a little he offers for the first libation, 
somewhat more for the second, and still more he 
leaves in the ladle. 



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342 SATAPATHA-BRAHMAtfA. 

1 8. The reason why he offers only a little for the 
first libation, is that the gods are fewer than men ; 
and why he offers somewhat more for the second 
libation, is that men are more numerous than the 
gods ; and why he leaves still more in the ladle, is 
that cattle are more numerous than men. And, 
verily, whosoever, knowing this, offers the Agnihotra, 
his cattle will be more numerous than those (human 
beings) that have to be supported by him : for he, 
indeed, is in a prosperous condition whose cattle are 
more numerous than those (human beings) dependent 
on his support. 

Third Brahmaaa. 
i. Now when Pra^apati, in creating living beings, 
created Agni, the latter, as soon as born, sought to 
burn everything here: and so everybody tried to 
get out of his way \ The creatures then existing 
sought to crush him. Being unable to endure 
this, he went to man. 

2. He said, ' I cannot endure this : come, let me 
enter into thee ! Having reproduced me, maintain 
me ; and as thou wilt reproduce and maintain me in 
this world, even so will I reproduce and maintain 
thee in yonder world!' He (man) replied, 'So be it.' 
And having reproduced him, he maintained him. 

3. Now when he establishes the two fires, he 
reproduces that (Agni) ; and having reproduced him, 
he maintains him ; and as he reproduces and main- 
tains him in this world, even so does he (Agni) 
reproduce and maintain him in yonder world. 

4. One must not, therefore, remove it (the sa- 
crificial fire from the hearth) prematurely, for too 

1 Ity abilam Ssa, i. e. ' there was a (general rush) to a hole,' (or 
perhaps ' to the outlet.') 



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II KkNDA, 3 ADHYAYA, 3 BRAHMAiVA, 8. 343 

soon it languishes for him ; and as it languishes for 
him too soon in this world, even so does it languish 
for him too soon in yonder world : one must not, 
therefore, remove it prematurely. 

5. And when he dies, and they place him on the 
(funeral) fire, then he is reproduced from out of the 
fire; and he (Agni) who heretofore was his son 1 , 
now becomes his father. 

6. Hence it has been said by the /frshis (Rig- 
veda I, 89, 9), 'A hundred autumns (may there be) 
before us, O gods, during which ye complete the 
life-time of our bodies, during which sons become 
fathers! do not cut us off, midway, from reaching 
the full term of life!' for he (Agni) who is the son, 
now in his turn becomes the father: this, then, is 
why one must establish the fires. 

7. Now yonder burning (sun) doubtless is no 
other than Death ; and because he is Death, there- 
fore the creatures that are on this side of him die. 
But those that are on the other side of him are the 
gods, and they are therefore immortal. It is by the 
rays (or reins, thongs, rasmi) of that (sun) that all 
these creatures are attached to the vital airs (breaths 
or life), and therefore the rays extend down to the 
vital airs. 

8. And the breath of whomsoever he (the sun) 
wishes he takes and rises, and that one dies. And 
whosoever goes to yonder world not having escaped 
that Death, him he causes to die again and again in 
yonder world, even as, in this world, one regards not 
him that is fettered, but puts him to death whenever 
one wishes. 

1 Viz. inasmuch as the householder, by the Adhana, produces, 
generates Agni. 



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344 tfATAPATHA-BRAHMAJVA. 

9. Now when, in the evening after sunset, he 
offers two libations, then he firmly plants himself on 
that Death with those fore-feet of his; and when, 
in the morning before sunrise, he offers two libations, 
then he plants himself on that Death with those 
hind-feet of his. And when he (the sun) rises, 
then, in rising, he takes him up and thus he (the 
sacrificer) escapes that Death. This, then, is the 
release from death in the Agnihotra: and, verily, 
he who knows that release from death in the Agni- 
hotra, is freed from death again and again. 

10. What the arrow-head is to the arrow, that 
the Agnihotra is to sacrifices. For whither the 
head of the arrow flies, thither the whole arrow 
flies : and so are all his works of sacrifice freed by 
this (Agnihotra) from that Death. 

11. Now day and night, revolving, destroy (the 
fruit of) man's righteousness in yonder world. But 
day and night are on this side (of the sun) from him 
(after he has gone up to heaven) ; and so day and 
night do not destroy (the fruit of) his righteousness. 

12. And as, while standing inside a chariot, one 
would look down from above on the revolving 
chariot-wheels, even so does he look down from on 
high upon day and night : and, verily, day and night 
destroy not the reward of him who thus knows 
that release from day and night. 

13. [The sacrificer] having gone round the Aha- 
vanlya, (after entering) from the east 1 , passes 



1 According to Katy. IV, 13, 12 [and Schol.], the householder 
[after taking out the fires and performing his regular twilight 
adoration (sandhya), that is, muttering the Savitrf, Rig-veda 
III, 62, 10 (see Sat. Br. II, 3, 4, 39), when the sun has half disap- 
peared or until it becomes visible ; cf. AjvaL Gnhyas. XX, 3, 7] 
passes between the Garhapatya and Dakshwa fires, or south of them, 



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ii kanda, 3 adhyAya, 3 brAhmajva, i 6. 345 

between (it and) the Garhapatya (to his seat). For 
the gods do not know (this) man 1 ; but when he now 
passes by them between (the fires), they know him, 
and think, ' This is he that now offers to us.' 
Moreover, Agni (the fire) is the repeller of evil; 
and these two, the Ahavanlya and Garhapatya, repel 
the evil from him who passes between them; and 
the evil being repelled from him, he becomes a very 
light in splendour and glory. 

14. On the north side is the door of the Agni- 
hotra 2 : thus (he approaches it) as he would enter 
(a house) by a door. If, on the other hand, he were 
to sit down after approaching from the south, it would 
be as if he walked outside. 

1 5. The Agnihotra, truly, is the ship (that sails) 
heavenwards. The Ahavanlya and Garhapatya are 
the two sides 8 of that same heavenward-bound 
ship; and that milk-offerer is its steersman. 

16. Now swhen he walks up towards the east, 
then he steers that (ship) eastwards towards the 

[enters the Ahavanlya house by the east door], circumambulates 
the fire from right to left (apadakshiwam), and sits down in his 
place (south of the Ahavanlya fire and altar). The same circum- 
ambulation is performed by the wife, who thereupon sits down 
in her place, south-west of the Girhapatya. 

1 Or, ' the gods are not aware of (this) man' (na vai devS. manu- 
shya»» viduA). The gods are supposed to be assembled around 
the altar ; see I, 3, 3, 8. 

* I do not understand this, there being no door on the north 
side of the Ahavanlya fire-house. According to the commentator 
this passage is directed against those who make the sacrificer betake 
himself to the Ahavanlya from (or along) the south; and he 
quotes the words ' dakshiwena vS' from KStyiyana, apparently IV, 
13, 12, where it is said that the sacrificer, in going to the Ahavanlya, 
has to pass between the two western fires, ' or south of them.' 

8 'Nauma»</e' ? according to the commentator = bhitti (the 
two walls or sides). The Petersb. Diet, proposes ' the two rudders 
(or oars).' 



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346 satapatha-brAhmawa. 

heavenly world, and he gains the heavenly world by 
it. When ascended from the north it makes him 
reach the heavenly world; but if one were to sit 
down in it after entering from the south, it would 
be as if he tried to enter it after it has put off and 
he were left behind and remained outside. 

17. And again, the stick which he puts on the 
fire (corresponds to) a brick, and the formula where- 
with he offers is the Ya^us-text wherewith he puts 
on that brick * ; and when the brick is put on, then 
a libation is made : hence those same libations of 
the Agnihotra are offered on his pile of bricks 2 . 

18. The fire, assuredly, is Pra^apati, and Pra^a- 
pati is the year. Year after year, therefore, is his 
Agnihotra consummated with the piled-up fire-altar ; 
and year after year does he obtain the piled-up fire- 
altar, whosoever, knowing this, offers the Agnihotra. 

19. Seven hundred and twenty eighties of Rik- 
verses (he should recite at the Agnihotra in the 
course of a year). When he offers the Agnihotra 
in the morning and evening, then there are two 
libations : hence those libations of his, in the course 
of a year, amount to — 

20. Seven hundred and twenty. Thus, indeed, 
his Agnihotra is accomplished, year after year, with 
the great chant 8 ; and year after year does he obtain 

1 Viz. at the AgnUayana, or piling up of the brick-altars at 
the Soma-sacrifice. As to the putting on of the stick, see II, 3, 1, 
17. The Kawva text of theVi^. S. (but not that of the Brahm.) 
gives the formula ' Agni^yotishawi (Surya^yotishaw, in the morn- 
ing) tva vayumattm,' &c. See Katy. IV, 14, 13 ; 15, 9. 

2 After the completion of the fifth, and last, layer of the brick- 
altar, oblations of various materials are made thereon; especially 
the Satarudriyahoma, consisting of 425 single oblations; Sat. 
Br IX, 1, i, 1 seq., 2, 1, 1 seq. 

* The mahad (or, bnnad) uktha or great chant, which marks 



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II KANDA, 3 ADHYAYA, 4 BRAHMAJVA, 4. 347 

the great chant, whosoever, knowing this, offers the 
Agnihotra. 

Fourth BrAhmajva. 

1. Once on a time the gods deposited with Agni 
all their beasts, both domestic and wild ; either be- 
cause they were about to engage in battle or from a 
desire of free scope, or because they thought that he 
(Agni) would protect them as the best protector. 

2. Now Agni coveted them, and seizing them he 
entered the night with them. ' Let us go back 
thither,' said the gods, and betook themselves to 
where Agni was concealed. Now they knew that he 
had entered there, that he had entered the night ; 
and when the night returned in the evening, they 
approached him and said, ' Give us our beasts ! give 
us back our beasts !' Agni then gave them back 
their beasts. 

3. For this then let him respectfully approach 
the two fires : the fires are givers, and thereby he 
supplicates them. Let him approach them in the 
evening, for in the evening the gods approached 
(Agni). And whosoever, knowing this, approaches 
(the two fires), to him, indeed, they grant cattle. 

4. Then as to why he should not approach them. 
Now in the beginning, both the gods and men were 
together here. And whatever did not belong to the 
men, for that they importuned the gods, saying, 
' This is not ours : let it be ours !' Being indignant 

the conclusion of the Agni£ayana, consists of 3 x 80 tritas 
(strophes of three verses each), or together 720 verses. On the 
frequent use of number 80 in the fire-ritual, see Weber, Ind. Stud. 
XIII, p. 167. 



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348 SATAPATHA-BF-AHMAyA. 

at this importunity, the gods then disappeared. 
Hence (it may be argued) one should not approach 
(the fires), fearing lest he should offend them, lest 
he should become hateful to them. 

5. Then as to why he should nevertheless ap- 
proach (the fires). The sacrifice, assuredly, belongs 
to the gods, and the prayer for blessing to the 
sacrificer. Now the (Agnihotra) libation, doubtless, 
is the same as the sacrifice; and what he does 1 
in now approaching (the fires), that indeed is the 
sacrificer's prayer for blessing. 

6. And again, why he should not approach (the 
fires). Whosoever follows either a Brahman or 
Kshatriya, praising him, thinking, ' He will give 
me gifts, he will build me a house,' to him, if he 
strives to please him both in speech and deed, that 
(master of his) will think himself bound to give 
gifts. Whosoever, on the other hand, says, 'What 
art thou to me, that givest me nothing?' him that 
(master) is likely to hate, to become disgusted with. 
Hence one should not approach (the fire); for by 
kindling and offering in it, he already supplicates it, 
and he should not therefore approach (and importune 
it again). 

7. And again, why he should nevertheless ap- 
proach (the fires). He alone that asks finds a giver; 
and the master, moreover, knows nothing of his 
dependent. But when the latter says, ' I am thy 
dependent: support me!' then he does know him, 
and feels himself bound to support him. Let him 
therefore approach (the fires). This then is the 

1 The Kinva. text has: 'And when he approaches (the fires), 
that (represents) the sacrificer's wish for blessing : what there is here 
for him, that indeed he thereby makes his own (Stmani kurute).' 



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II KANDA, 3 ADHYAYA, 4 BRAHMAJVA, II. 349 

whole (argument) as to why one should approach 
(the fires). 

8. Now that (fire) being Pra^apati, — when the 
Agnihotra is offered, he casts the seed of all that 
he rules over, of all that is after his manner : and 
by approaching (the fire) one imitates (him in) all 
this, one reproduces all this \ 

9. He begins to pray 2 with the verse (V&f. S. 
Ill, 11) containing the word 'upon (up a).' Now 
the word 'upon' means this (earth), and that in 
a twofold way: for whatever is produced here, 
that is produced upon (upa-^an) this (earth); and 
whatever decays, that is buried (upa-vap s ) in this 
(earth) : hence there is here imperishable, ever- 
increasing abundance, and with that imperishable 
abundance he begins. 

10. He prays, 'Entering upon the worship — ,' 
worship (adhvara) doubtless means sacrifice : ' en- 
tering upon the sacrifice ' is what he means to say. 
' — Let us offer prayer to Agni — ,' for he is indeed 
about to offer prayer to him; ' — to him who hears 
us even from afar ! ' thereby he means to say, ' Al- 
though thou art afar from us, yet do thou hear this 
our (prayer), do thou so far think well of it !' 

11. [He continues, Va^ - . S. Ill, 12],' Agni, the head, 

1 Or, 'this All' (ida« sarvam). The Kawva text has bhu- 
manam, 'abundance,' instead. 

3 The mode of approaching and worshipping the fires (agny- 
upasthana) detailed in pars. 9-41 is ascribed to Vatsaprt (author 
of Rig-vedalX, 68; X, 45 and 46), and therefore termed vatsapra- 
upasthana. It is, however, also called mahopasthana (or dir- 
gh op as than a), or great (long) worship, as distinguished from the 
so-called kshullakopasthana (or laghupasthana), or little 
(short) worship, described in II, 4, 1, and ascribed to Asuri. 

* Or ' upa-kiryate,' according to the Ka»va text 



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350 DATAPATH A-BRAHMAYA. 

the summit of the sky ; he, the lord of the earth, 
animates the seeds of the waters.' He thereby fol- 
lows (and praises) him : — even as a supplicant would 
speak politely, 'Surely thou art the descendant of 
so and so! surely thou art able to do this!' so (he 
does) by this (verse). 

12. Thereupon the verse to Indra and Agni (Va^. 
S. Ill, 13), 'You two, O Indra and Agni, I will 
invoke ; you two I will delight together with kindly 
office ; you two, the givers of strength and wealth, 
— you two I invoke for the obtainment of strength !' 
Indra, doubtless, is the same as that burning (sun) ; 
when he sets, then he enters the Ahavaniya; — hence 
he now approaches these two that are thus united, 
thinking, ' May the two, united, grant me favours :' 
this is why the Indra- Agni (verse is muttered). 

13. [He continues, ib. 14 seq.], ' This is thy natural 
womb, whence born thou shonest forth : knowing 
this, arise, O Agni, and increase our substance!' — 
substance, doubtless, means affluence: 'grant to us 
ever-increasing affluence I' is what he thereby says. 

14. ' First was he founded by the founders here, 
the best offering priest, worthy of praise at the 
sacrifices; he whom Apnavana and the Bhngus 
kindled 1 , shining brightly in the wood, and spreading 
from house to house :' — even as a supplicant would 
speak politely, ' Surely thou art the descendant of so 
and so! surely thou art able to do this!' so in this 
(verse). And what he (Agni) really is, as such he 
speaks of him when he says ' spreading from house 
to house,' for he does indeed spread from house 
to house. 

1 Or, as Grassmann, in his translation of the iJrksawhid, takes it, 
' he whom the active Bhrtgus kindled.' 



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II KAJVDA, 3 ADHYAYA, 4 BRAHMAtfA, 20. 35 1 

15. 'In accordance with his old (pratna) splen- 
dour, the dauntless have milked the shining juice 
from the wise one that giveth a hundredfold.' The 
richest of gifts, indeed, is the hundredfold gift ; and 
in order to obtain that (giver) he says, 'the wise 
one that giveth a hundredfold.' 

16. This is a hymn of six verses collected (from 
the Rik); the first of them containing (the word) 
'upon,' and the last containing (the word) 'old' 
(pratna). And this we recited, because she (the 
earth) is the one that contains the (word) ' upon ;' 
and that which is ' old ' doubtless is yonder (sky), for 
as many gods as there were 'of old,' in the beginning, 
so many gods there are now, and hence the ' old ' 
means yonder (sky). Now within these two (worlds) 
all desires are contained; and these two are in accord 
with each other for his (the sacrificer's) benefit, and 
concede all his wishes. 

1 7. Thrice he mutters the first (verse) and thrice 
the last ; for of threefold beginning are sacrifices, 
and of threefold termination : therefore he mutters 
thrice the first and the last (verses). 

18. Now, in offering the Agnihotra, whatever mis- 
take one commits, either in word or deed, thereby 
he injures either his own body, or his life, or his 
vigour, or his offspring. 

19. Accordingly (he mutters the texts, V&f. S. 
Ill, 17),' Thou, O Agni, art the protector of bodies : 
protect my body ! Thou, O Agni, art the giver of 
life : give me life ! Thou, O Agni, art the giver of 
vigour: give me vigour! O Agni, what defect 
there is in my body, supply that for me ! ' 

20. And whatever mistake he commits, in offering 
the Agnihotra, either in word or deed, thereby he 



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352 .SATAPATHA-BRAHMA.yA. 

injures either his own body, or his life, or his vigour, 
or his offspring : 'make that up for me!' he .thereby 
says; and accordingly that (defect) is again made 
up for him. 

21. [He continues, Va^ - . S. Ill, 18], ' Kindled, we 
enkindle thee, the brilliant one, a hundred winters — ;' 
he thereby says, 'may we live a hundred years;' 
and * so long we enkindle thee, the great one,' he 
says, when he says ' we enkindle thee, the brilliant 
one.' ' — We, the vigorous — thee, the invigorating; 
we, the strong — thee, the giver of strength — ;' 
whereby he says, ' may we be vigorous, mayest thou 
be invigorating ! may we be strong, mayest thou be 
a giver of strength!' ' — We, the uninjured — thee, 
the uninjurable injurer of enemies !' whereby he says, 
' by thine aid may we render our enemies utterly 
miserable!' 

22. 'O thou, rich in lights, may I safely reach 
thine end!' this he mutters thrice. She that is 
rich in lights (^itravasu) doubtless is the night, 
since the latter, as it were, rests (vas) after gathering 
together the lights (iitra) : hence (at night) one 
does not see cfearly (£itram) from afar. 

23. Now it was by means of this same (text) that 
the ./?zshis reached safely the end of the night ; and 
because of it the evil spirits, the Rakshas, did not 
find them : by it, therefore, he also now reaches 
safely the end of the night ; and because of it the 
evil spirits, the Rakshas, find him not. — This much 
he mutters while standing. 

24. Thereupon, while seated, (he mutters, V&f. 
S. Ill, 19 seq.), 'Thou, O Agni, hast attained to 
Surya's lustre — ;' this he says, because, in setting,, 
the sun enters the Ahavanlya; ' — to the praise 



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II KANDA, 3 ADHYAYA, 4 BRAHMAiVA, 27. 353 

of the ./fo'shis — ;' this he says, because he him- 
self now approaches (and worships, praises, the 
fire); ' — to the favourite abode (or dainty);' his 
(Agni's) favourite abode doubtless are the offerings : 
'to offerings' he thereby says. '■ — May I attain to 
long life, to lustre, to offspring, to increase of wealth !' 
whereby he says, 'Even as thou didst attain to 
those (qualities), so may I attain to long life, 
lustre, offspring, affluence, — that is to say, to 
prosperity.' 

25. He then approaches the cow 1 , with the text 
(V&f. S. Ill, 20), ' Food ye are : may I enjoy your 
food! wealth ye are: may I enjoy your wealth!' — 
whereby he means to say, 'whatever energies are 
yours, whatever riches are yours, may I enjoy them.' 
— 'Strength ye are: may I enjoy your strength!' 
whereby he says, ' sap ye are : may I enjoy your 
sap!' — 'Affluence ye are: may I enjoy your 
affluence !' whereby he says, 'abundance ye are : may 
I enjoy your abundance !' 

26. 'Ye prosperous ones, disport yourselves — ;' 
cattle are prosperous : therefore he says, ' ye pros- 
perous ones, disport yourselves — ;' ' — in this seat, 
in this fold, in this place, in this homestead : remain 
here, go not from hence!' this he. says with reference 
to himself, — 'go not away from me !' 

27. He then touches the cow, with the text (Va^-. 
S. Ill, 22 a), 'Motley thou art, of all shapes;' — 
for cattle are indeed of all shapes : therefore he calls 
her all-shaped; ' — come to me with sap and pos- 
session of cattle !' when he says ' with sap,' he means 

1 Viz. the Agnihotra cow, which has supplied the milk for the 
morning and evening libation ; or any cow, if other material than 
milk be used. 

[12] a a 



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354 DATAPATH A-BRAhMAJVA. 

to say 'with juice;' and when he says 'with posses- 
sion of cattle,' he means to say ' with abundance.' 

28. He then steps up to the Girhapatya, and 
renders homage to it, with the text (ib. 22 b), 
' Thee, O Agni, illuminer of the night 1 , we ap- 
proach day by day with prayer, paying homage 
unto thee.' He thus renders homage to it in order 
that it may not injure him. 

29. [He continues, ib. 23 seq.], ' Thee that rulest 
over the sacrifices, the brilliant guardian of the 
sacred rite, thriving in thine own house;' — whereby 
he means to say, ' thine own house is this (house) of 
mine : make it ever more flourishing for us !' 

30. ' O Agni, be thou accessible unto us, even as 
a father is to his son! lead us unto well-being!' — 
whereby he says, ' As a father is easy of access to 
his son, and the latter in no wise injures him, so 
be thou easy of access to us, and may we in no 
wise injure thee!' 

31. Then the dvipada verses (V£f. S. Ill, 25, 26), 
' O Agni, be ever nigh unto us, a kindly guardian 
and protector! as wealthy Agni, famed for wealth, 
come hither and bestow on us glorious riches ! Thee, 
the most bright and resplendent, we now approach 
for happiness to our friends : be with us, hear our 
call, and keep us safe from every evil-doer !' 

32. Now when he approaches the Ahavanlya, he 
prays for cattle: he therefore approaches it with 
metres great and small, since cattle are of great and 
small size. And when he approaches the Garha- 



'uDoshftvastar, ' the illuminer of the dusk;' or perhaps, as 
Professor Ludwig proposes, ' We approach thee, day by day, at 
dusk and dawn (in the evening and morning), with prayer.' 



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ii kXnda, 3 adhyAya, 4 brAhmaata, 37. 355 

patya, he prays for men : hence the first tristich is in 
the gayatrl metre, since the gayatrl is Agni's metre, 
and he thus approaches him with his own metre. 

33. Thereupon (he mutters) the dvipada (two- 
footed) verses. The dvipada, doubtless, is man's 
metre, since man is two-footed, and men are there- 
with prayed for: and as he now prays for men, 
therefore (he uses) dvipada verses. And whoso- 
ever, knowing this, approaches (the two fires), be- 
comes possessed both of cattle and men. 

34. He then goes (again) to the cow, with the 
text (V4f. S. Ill, 27), 'O Ida, come hither! O Aditi, 
come hither!' for both Ida and Aditi are cows. He 
touches her with, 'Come hither, ye much-desired!' 
— for men's wishes are fixed on them, and hence he 
says, 'come hither, ye much-desired;' — 'Let there be 
for me the fulfilment of wishes from you!' whereby 
he says, ' may I be dear to you !' 

35. Thereupon, while standing between the Aha- 
vanlya and Garhapatya and looking eastward at the 
(former) fire, he mutters (Va^. S. Ill, 28-30), 'O 
Lord of prayer, make him sweet-voiced, the offerer 
of Soma, Kakshivat, Usig-'s son! — Be he with us, 
he the opulent, the killer of woe, the bestower of 
wealth, the increaser of prosperity, he the nimble ! — 
Let not the curse of the evil-doer reach us, nor the 
guile of the mortal : preserve us, O Lord of prayer !' 

36. Now when he approaches the Ahavanlya, he 
approaches the sky ; and when (he approaches) the 
Garhapatya, (he approaches) the earth. Hereby 
now (he approaches) the ether, that being Brehas- 
pati's region ; and that region he thereby approaches : 
this is why he mutters the prayer to Br/haspati. 

37. [He continues, V&g, S. Ill, 31-33], 'May the 

a a 2 



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356 satapatha-brahmaya. 

mighty, the heavenly, the unassailable favour of the 
three, Mitra, Aryaman, and Varuwa, be (with us)! 
For the wicked enemy lords it not over them (that 
are protected by these gods), neither at home nor on 
dangerous paths : for those sons of Aditi bestow 
undying light on the mortal that he may live !' — In 
this (prayer) he says, ' nor on dangerous paths ;' for 
dangerous indeed are the paths that lie between 
heaven and earth : those he now walks, and therefore 
he says, ' nor on dangerous paths.' 

38. Then follows a verse to Indra (Va/ - . S. Ill, 
34) ; for Indra is the deity of the sacrifice, and with 
Indra therefore he now connects the fire-worship: 
' At no time, O Indra, art thou barren ; and never 
dost thou fail the worshipper — ;' the worshipper, 
doubtless, is the sacrificer : ' never dost thou harm 
the sacrificer,' this is what he thereby says : ' — but 
more and evermore is thy gift increased, O mighty 
god!' thereby he says, ' do thou make us ever more 
prosperous here !' 

39. Then follows a verse to Savitn 1 (V&f. S. Ill, 
35), — for Savitr? is the impeller (prasavitW) of the 
gods ; and thus all his (the sacrificer's) wishes are 
fulfilled, impelled as they are by Savhri. — (He mut- 
ters), ' May we obtain the glorious light of the divine 
Savitr*', who, we' trust, may inspire our prayers !' 

40. Thereupon a verse to Agni (V4f. S. Ill, 36), — 
whereby he finally makes himself over to Agni 
for protection : ' May thine unapproachable chariot, 
wherewith thou protectest the worshippers, encircle 
us on every side!' The worshippers, doubtless, are 



1 Or, the SSvitrt, that is, the sacred prayer to Savitr»', the sun, 
also called Gayatri, Rig-veda III, 62, 10. Cf. p. 344, note 1. 



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II KAATDA, 4 ADHYAYA, I BRAHMAVA, 3. 357 

the sacrificers; and what unassailable chariot he 
(Agni) possesses, therewith he protects the sacri- 
ficers. Hence he thereby means to say, 'what 
unassailable chariot thou possessest, wherewith thou 
protectest the sacrificers, therewith do thou guard 
us on every side.' This (verse) he mutters thrice. 

41. He then pronounces his son's name f : ' May 
this son (N. N.) carry on this manly deed of mine!' 
Should he have no son, let him insert his own name. 

Fourth AdhyAya. First BrAhmajva. 

1. Now after the performance of the Agnihotra 
he (optionally 2 )' approaches the fires with (Vlf. S. 
Ill, 37), 'Earth! ether! sky!' In saying 'Earth! 
ether! sky!' he renders his speech auspicious by 
means of the truth, and with that (speech) thus 
rendered propitious he invokes a blessing: — 'May 
I be well supplied with offspring ! ' whereby he prays 
for offspring; l — well supplied with men!' whereby 
he prays for men (heroes) ; ' — well supplied with 
viands!' whereby he prays for prosperity. 

2. That long (form of) fire-worship is a prayer 
for blessing, and so is this (short) one a prayer for 
blessing : hence even with this much he obtains all, 
and he may therefore worship the fires with it. 
'Therewith, indeed, we perform,' so spake Asuri. 

3. Now, when he is about to set out on a 
journey 3 , he approaches first the Garhapatya, and 
thereupon the Ahavaniya. 



1 See I, 9, 3, a 1. 

* For this shorter form of worshipping the fires, see p. 349, note a. 

* That is, a journey which will compel him to pass the night 
beyond the village boundary. 



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358 satapatha-brAhmajva. 

4. The Garhapatya he approaches with the text 
(V&f. S. Ill, 37 b seq.), ' Thou, that art friendly to 
man, protect my offspring!' He (Agni Garhapatya), 
truly, is the guardian of offspring ; and therefore he 
now makes over to him his offspring for protection. 

5. He then approaches the Ahavanlya, with ' Thou, 
that art worthy of praise, protect my cattle!' He 
(Agni), truly, is the guardian of cattle, and therefore he 
now makes over to him his cattle for protection 1 . 

6. Thereupon he walks or drives off; and having 
got as far as what he considers to be the boundary 2 , 
he breaks silence. And when he returns from his 
journey he maintains silence from the moment he 
sees what he considers to be the boundary. And 
even though there be a king inside (one's house), 
one must not go to him (or any other person before 
one has rendered homage to the fires). 

7. He first approaches the Ahavanlya fire, and 
thereupon the Garhapatya. The Garhapatya doubt- 
less is a house (grih&A), and a house is a safe resting- 
place : so that he thereby (finally 8 ) establishes himself 
in a house, that is, in a safe resting-place. 

8. He approaches the Ahavanlya fire, with the 
text (Va/. S. Ill, 38 seq.), 'We have approached 
(thee), the all-knowing, the most liberal dispenser of 

1 The V&g. S. gives also the formulas with which the Dakshi- 
wagni should be approached, after the other two fires, by the house- 
holder, both in starting on, and returning from, his journey. See 
K&ty. IV, 12, 13; 18. The Ka»va text does not allude to the 
Dakshwa fire any more than ours. 

* According to the Paddhati on K&ty. IV, 12, he has to maintain 
silence as long as he can see the roof of one of his fire-houses; but 
according to the SShkhiyana j&kM he has to do so only as long 
as he can see one of the fires. 

» The Kawva text reads 'antata*.' 



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II KANDA, 4 ADHYAYA, I BRAHMAJVA, II. 359 

goods : O Agni, sovereign lord, bestow on us lustre 
and strength!' Having then sat down he sweeps 
the blades of grass 1 (into the fire). 

9. Thereupon he approaches the Garhapatya, 
with the text, ' He, Agni Garhapatya, is the lord of 
the house, the most liberal dispenser of goods to 
our offspring : O Agni, lord of the house, bestow on 
us lustre and strength !' Having then sat down, he 
sweeps off the blades of grass. In this way (house- 
holders) mostly approach the fires with muttered 
prayer. 

10. However, one may also approach the fires 
silently, — and that for this reason : — If in the place 
(where one lives), a Brahman or noble — in short, 
a better man — resides, one dares not say to him, 
' I am going on a journey, take care of this (pro- 
perty) of mine 2 !' Now in this (sacrificial ground) 
one's betters indeed reside, viz. the divine Agnis : 
who, then, would dare to say to them, ' I am going 
on a journey, take ye care of this (property) of 
mine!' 

11. The gods assuredly see through the mind of 
man : that (Agni) Garhapatya therefore knows that 
he (the householder) now approaches in order to give 

1 According to Katy. IV, 12, 18-19 ne [after performing ablu- 
tions, and lustrating the Ahavanfya and Dakshina fire-places, and 
taking out these fires from the GSrhapatya] approaches the Ahava- 
niya, while holding pieces of fire-wood in his hand, and mutters 
the formula given above. He then sits down and silently puts on the 
fire a piece of wood and the grass that has fallen around the fire. 
According to the K&xva text he mutters the second half of the 
formula (' O Agni,' &c.) while sweeping the grass (into the fire). 

9 In Taitt. Br. I, 1, 10, 6, a householder who is about to start on 
a journey is apparently recommended to entrust his house to a 
Brahman, who may' be staying in it. 



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360 satapatha-brAhmamv. 

himself up to him. Silently he approaches the Aha- 
vaniya fire : that (Agni) Ahavanfya knows that he 
now approaches in order to give himself up to him. 

12. Thereupon he walks or drives off; and having 
got as far as what he considers the boundary line, 
he releases his speech. And when he returns from 
the journey, he maintains silence from the moment 
he sees what he considers to be the boundary. And 
even though there be a king inside (one's house), one 
must not go to him. 

13. He first approaches the Ahavanlya, and there- 
upon the Garhapatya. Silently he approaches the 
Ahavanlya; and silently he sits down and sweeps 
away the grass-blades. Silently he approaches the 
Garhapatya; and silently he sits down and sweeps 
away the grass-blades. 

14. Then as to the observances in regard to 
(the entering of) his house. Now when a house- 
holder comes home from a journey, his house 
trembles greatly for fear of him, thinking, 'What 
will he say here ? what will he do here ?' It is there- 
fore for fear of him that speaks or does anything 
on this occasion that the house trembles and is 
liable to crush his family; but him who neither 
speaks nor does anything, his house receives with 
confidence, thinking, ' He has not spoken here, he 
has not done anything here!' And should he be 
ever so angry at anything on this occasion, let him 
rather do on the next day whatever he might wish 
to say or do. This then is the observance in regard 
to the house *. 

1 The Kiwva text here adds the formulas V&g. S. Ill, 41-43, 
lines r and 2, wherewith he approaches (upatishMate) the house. 
See Katy. IV, 12, 22. According to Kity. ib. 23, he then enters 



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II KAiVDA, 4 ADHYAYA, 2 BRAHMAJvA, 4. 361 



Second Brahmawa. 

III. THE TlNDAVITMYAGftA or OBLATION OF OBSE- 
QUIAL CAKES TO THE FATHERS. 

1. Now the living beings once approached Pra^a- 
pati — beings doubtless mean creatures — and said, 
' Ordain unto us in what manner we are to live ! ' 
Thereupon the gods, being properly invested with 
the sacrificial cord 1 and bending the right knee, 
approached him. To them he said, 'The sacrifice 
(shall be) your food ; immortality your sap ; and the 
sun your light!' 

2. Then the fathers approached, wearing the 
cord on the right shoulder, and bending the left 
knee. To them he said, 'Your eating (shall be) 
monthly; your cordial (svadha) your swiftness of 
thought ; and the moon your light !' 

3. Then the men approached him, clothed and 
bending their bodies. To them he said, ' Your eating 
(shall be) in the evening and in the morning; your 
offspring your death ; and the fire (Agni) your light !' 

4. Then the beasts approached him. To them he 
granted their own choice, saying, ' Whensoever ye 
shall find anything, whether in season or out of season, 

the house with the formula Va£. S. Ill, 43, line 3, ' For safety, for 
peace I resort to thee : be there kindliness, happiness, all-hail, and 
blessing 1 ' Thereupon, according to the Schol., he is to proceed 
in accordance with the rules laid down in the Gr/hya-sutras ; cf. 
Parask. G. I, 18; ksv. G. I, 15, 9. 

1 Ya^nopavitin, ' sacrificially invested,' i. e. wearing the sacrificial 
cord in the ordinary way, on the left shoulder and under the right 
arm. In any performance connected with the deceased ancestors, 
the cord has to be shifted from the left to the right shoulder and 
under the left arm (pra^tnopavttin, lit. * eastward invested'). 



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362 satapatha-brAhmaata. 

ye shall eat it !' Hence whenever they find anything, 
whether in season or out of season, they eat it. 

5. Thereupon — so they say — the Asuras also 
straightway 1 approached him. To them he gave 
darkness (tamas) and illusion (maya) : for there is 
indeed what is called the illusion of the Asuras. 
Those creatures, it is true, have perished ; but crea- 
tures still subsist here in the very manner which 
Pra^apati ordained unto them. 

6. Neither the gods, nor the fathers, nor beasts 
transgress (this ordinance) ; some of the men alone 
transgress it. Hence whatever man grows fat, he 
grows fat in unrighteousness, since he totters and 
is unable to walk because of his having grown fat 
by doing wrong. One should therefore eat only in 
the evening and morning ; and whosoever, knowing 
this, eats only in the evening and morning, reaches 
the full measure of life ; and whatever he speaks, 
that is (true) ; because he observes that divine truth. 
For, verily, that is Brahmanic lustre (te^as), when 
one knows to keep His (Pra^apati's) law. 

7. Now that (lustre) indeed belongs to him who 
presents (food) to the fathers once a month. When 
that (moon) is not seen either in the east or in the 
west, then he presents (food) to them ; for that moon 
doubtless is king Soma, the food of the gods. Now 
during that night (of new moon) it fails them, and 
when it fails, he presents (food to them), and thereby 
establishes concord (between the gods and fathers). 
But were he to present (food) to them when it 
is not failing, he would indeed cause a quarrel 
between the gods and fathers: hence he presents 

1 .Sarvat=' repeatedly,' Comm. ; «uvad api, 'endlich auch (at 
last also),' St Petersb. Diet 



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II KANDA, 4 ADHYAVA, 2 BRAhMAJVA, II. 363 

(food) to them when that (moon) is not seen either 
in the east or in the west 

8. He presents it in the afternoon. The fore- 
noon, doubtless, belongs to the gods ; the mid-day 
to men ; and the afternoon to the fathers : therefore 
he presents (food to the fathers) in the afternoon. 

9. While seated behind the Garhapatya, with his 
face turned toward the south 1 , and the sacrificial 
cord on his right shoulder, he takes that (material 
for the offering from the cart) 2 . Thereupon he 
rises from thence and threshes (the rice) while 
standing north of the Dakshi«a fire and facing the 
south. Only once he cleans (the rice) 3 ; for it is 
once for all that the fathers have passed away, and 
therefore he cleans it only once. 

10. He then boils it. While it stands on the 
(Dakshiwa) fire, he pours some clarified butter on it ; 
— for the gods they pour the offering into the fire; 
for men they take (the food) off the fire; and for 
the fathers they do in this very manner : hence, they 
pour the ghee on it while it stands on the fire. 

1 1. After removing it (from the fire) he offers to 
the gods two libations in the fire. For, in esta- 
blishing his sacrificial fires, and in performing the 
new and full-moon sacrifice, that (householder) resorts 
to the gods. Here, however, he is engaged in a 

1 DakshiwasinaA ; the Commentator interprets it by ' sitting south 
of the cart.' 

* The KS»va text has, — eta*» £aru»» greh»ati, ' he takes that pot, 
or potful, (of rice).' Doubtless, he is to take from the cart the quan- 
tity of rice sufficient for the offerings and put it in the pot (£aru). 
According to Katy. IV, 1, 5-7 he is to take the but-partly-filled 
pot, or a spoonful (or, according to the Schol., rather less than a 
spoonful). 

9 Compare the detailed account in I, 1, 4, 1 seq. 



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364 satapatha-brAhmajva. 

sacrifice to the fathers : hence he thereby propitiates 
the gods, and being permitted by the gods, he pre- 
sents that (food) to the fathers. This is why, on 
removing (the rice), he offers to the gods two liba- 
tions in the fire. 

12. He offers both to Agni and Soma 1 . To Agni 
he offers, because Agni is allowed a share in every 
(offering); and to Soma he offers, because Soma is 
sacred to the fathers. This is why he offers both 
to Agni and Soma. 

13. He offers 2 with the formulas (V&£\ S. II, 29 
a, b), ' To Agni, the bearer of what is meet for 
the wise, svaha !' ' To Soma, accompanied by the 
fathers, svaha 3 !' He then puts the pot-ladle on 
the fire, — that being in lieu of the Svishfokrot K 
Thereupon he draws (with the wooden sword) one 
line (furrow) south of the Dakshi#a fire 6 , — that 

According to Taitt. Br. I, 3, 10, 3, some make a third oblation, 
viz. as Saya«a states, to Yama (the chief of the fathers), with the 
formula, 'To Yama, accompanied by the Ahgiras and fathers, 
svadha ! namaA 1' see note 3. 

* The commentary on Katy. IV, 1, 7 supplies the following par- 
ticulars : — Having removed the pot off the Dakshi«a fire on the 
south side, the Adhvaryu takes it, along the east, to the north side 
of the fire. He then shifts the sacrificial cord to his left shoulder (as 
he is about to offer to gods), puts three sticks on the fire, and 
sitting down with his face towards the east offers some boiled rice 
with the pot-ladle (mekshana). 

3 The Taittiriyas use svadha! namaA ! instead of svaha 1 
They also offer first to Soma, with 'To Soma, drank by the 
fathers' (but cf. Taitt. Br. I, 6, 9, 5), and then to (Yama, and 
finally to) Agni. Taitt. Br. I, 3, 10, 2-3. 

* See I, 7, 3, 1 seq. 

8 Or west (^aghanena) of the fire [from north to south], according 
to the Ka»va text; optionally, according to Katy. IV, 1, 8. Katy. 
also gives the text ' Expelled are the Asuras, the Rakshas, seated 
on the altar' (Va^. S. II, 29 c) to be muttered during the act. 



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ii kXnda, 4 adhyAya, 2 brahmajva, 16. 365 

being in lieu of the altar: only one line he draws, 
because the fathers have passed away once for all. 

14. He then lays down a firebrand at the farther 
(south) end (of the line). For were he to present 
that (food) to the fathers, without having laid down 
a firebrand, the Asuras and Rakshas would certainly 
tamper with it. And thus the Asuras and Rakshas 
do not tamper with that (food) of the fathers : this 
is why he lays down the firebrand at the farther end 
(of the line). 

15. He lays it down, with the text (Va^ - . S. II, 
30), 'Whatsoever Asuras roam about at will 1 , as- 
suming various shapes 2 , — be they large-bodied or 
small-bodied 8 , — may Agni expel them from this 
world!' Agni is the repeller of the Rakshas, and 
therefore he lays (the firebrand) down in this way. 

16. He then takes the water-pitcher and makes 
(the fathers) wash (their hands)*, merely 6 saying, 
' N. N., wash thyself!' (naming) the sacrificer's fa- 
ther; ' N. N., wash thyself!' (naming) his grand- 
father ; ' N. N., wash thyself!' (naming) his great- 
grandfather. As one would pour out water (for a 
guest) when he is about to take food, so in this case. 



1 Or, as the Commentator takes svadhaya, '(attracted) by the 
svadha (offering to the fathers).' 

* That is, according to the Schol., assuming the shapes of deceased 
ancestors. 

9 This explanation of the words parapuraA and nipuraA, pro- 
posed by the Scholiast, is doubtful. 

* The Adhvaryu (having again shifted the sacrificial cord to his 
right shoulder) pours water through the "fathers' space" (pitn- 
tirtha, i.e. the space between the thumb and fore-finger), from 
right to left, into the line, at its beginning, centre, and end. Katy. 
IV, 1, io, and Schol. 

6 See paragraph 19. 



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366 satapatha-brAhmajva. 

17. Now those (stalks of sacrificial grass) are 
severed with one stroke, and cut off near the root ; 
— the top belongs to the gods, the middle part to 
men, and the root-part to the fathers : therefore 
they are cut off near the root And with one stroke 
they are severed, because the fathers have passed 
away once for all. 

18. He spreads them (along the line) with their 
tops towards the south. Thereon he presents [to 
the fathers the three (round) cakes of rice] *. He 
presents them thus 2 ; — for to the gods they offer 
thus; for men they ladle out (the food in any way 
they please) 3 ; and in the case of the fathers they 
do in this very way: therefore he presents (the 
cakes to them) thus. 

19. With, ' N. N., this for thee!' he presents 
(one cake) to the sacrificer's father. Some add, 
'and for those who come after thee!' but let him 
not say this, since he himself is one of those to 
whom (it would be offered) in common*: let him 

1 According to the Paddhati on Katy. the first ball is to be of 
the size of a fresh Smalaka, or fruit of the Emblic Myrobalan, and 
each of the two others is to be larger than the preceding one. 

* Here the teacher indicated by gesture the part of the hand 
sacred to the fathers (see p. 365, note 4) ; and then in the same 
way that dedicated to the gods, viz. the tip of the fingers. 

9 The Ka«va recension reads here also 'thus they take out (the 
food) for men;' the part of the hand dedicated to man being, ac- 
cording to the commentary on Katy. IV, 1, 10, the part about the 
little finger (kanish/ftikapradeja). 

4 Svayam vai teshaw saha yeshim saha. According to the com- 
mentary, the author apparently means to say, that if he were to add, 
'and those who come after thee (i.e. after his father),' he would 
include the sacrificer himself, and the latter would consequently 
offer the pinda. to himself. The form of the presentation-formula 
rejected by our author is the one adopted in AtvaL St. II, 6, 15, 
except that 'atra' is added there ('who here come after thee'). 



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II KXNDA, 4 ADHYAYA, 2 BRAHMAtfA, 23. 367 

therefore merely say, 'N. N., this for thee !' as to the 
sacrificer's father; ' N. N., this for thee!' as to his 
grandfather ; and ' N. N., this for thee !' as to his 
great-grandfather. He presents (the food) in an 
order (directed) away from the present time, be- 
cause it is away from hence that the fathers have 
once for all departed. 

20. He then mutters (V&f. S. II, 31 a), 'Here, 
O fathers, regale yourselves : like bulls come hither, 
each to his own share!' whereby he says, 'Eat ye 
each his own share ! ' 

21. He then turns round (to the left), so as to face 
the opposite (north) side : for the fathers are far 
away from men; and thereby he also is far away 
(from the fathers). ' Let him remain (standing with 
bated breath) until his breath fail,' say some, ' for 
thus far extends the vital energy.' However 1 , 
having remained so for a moment — 

22. He again turns round (to the right) and 
mutters (Va^*. S. II, 31 b), 'The fathers have re- 
galed themselves : like bulls they have come each 
to his own share ;' whereby he means to say, ' They 
have eaten each his own share V 

23. Thereupon he takes the water-pitcher and 
makes them wash themselves 3 , merely saying, 

The Kanva text mentions and rejects the two alternative readings, 
'ye ia. tvam anva/UaA' and 'y&ms -4a tvam an van asi' ('and those 
•whom thou followest'). In Taitt. Br. I, 3, 10, no presentation- 
formula is mentioned at all. 

1 The Kawva recension has tad u instead of sa vai. 

* 'Formerly the gods and men and fathers (deva-manushy&A 
pitarai) drank visibly together, but now they do so invisibly.' .Sat. 
Br. Ill, 6, 2, 26. 

• Viz. by pouring water on the obsequial cakes. According to 
Ajval. St. II, 7, 5, and other treatises, he also puts down some 



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368 SATAPATHA-BRAHMAJVA. 

' N. N., wash thyself 1 !' (naming) the sacrificer's 
father; ' N. N., wash thyself!' (naming) his grand- 
father; ' N. N., wash thyself!' (naming) his great- 
grandfather. Even as one would pour out (water 
for a guest) when he has taken his meal, so here. 

24. He then pulls down the tuck 2 (of the sacri- 
ficer's garment) and performs obeisance. The tuck 
is sacred to the fathers (pitralevatya) : therefore he 
performs obeisance to them after pulling down the 
tuck. Now obeisance means worship (or sacrifice): 
hence he thereby renders them worthy of worship. 
Six times he performs obeisance ; for there are 
six seasons, and the fathers are the seasons : for 
this reason he performs obeisance six times. He 
mutters (Va/ - . S. II, 32 g), 'Give us houses, O 
fathers!' for the fathers are the guardians (Irate) 
of houses ; and this is the prayer for blessing at this 
sacrificial performance. After the cakes have been 
put back (in the dish containing the remains of 
boiled rice) he (the sacrificer) smells at (the rice); 
this (smelling) being the sacrificer's share. The 

ointment, oil, or butter on the pi*&s, saying, ' (Father), N. N., anoint 
thyself 1' &c. ; see Donner, Pim&p., p. 25. 

1 See paragraph 19. 

* Ntvim udvr*hya=paridha^ilyasyava^aso dari tim udvrihya 
visrawsya, Sdya»a. According to Mahadeva, he (who presents the 
pi«</as, viz. either the Adhvaryu or the sacrificer) has previously 
to put on a garment with a tuck (nivimat paridh&nam), i. e. with 
the da.r&, or unwoven edge of the upper garment, tucked up 
under the waistband. This he is to pull out. Kityiyana 
has the following rules: IV, 1, 15, Having made (them) wash 
themselves as before, and having loosened (visrawsya) the tuck, 
he makes obeisance with 'adoration to your vigour, O fathers 1' 
&c. (Va^f. S. II, 32 a-f). [According to the Comm., he adds the 
formula, ' Give us houses, O fathers ! we will give to you of what 
is (ours).' Vag. S. II, 32, 9.] 16, With 'Put on this your garment, 
O fathers 1' (VSf. S. II, 32 h), he throws three threads (pieces of 



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II KAjVDA, 4 ADHYAYA, 3 BRAHMAJVA. 369 

(stalks of sacrificial grass) cut with one stroke he puts 
on the fire ; and he also again throws away the fire- 
brand 1 . 

Third BrAhmaata. 

IV. THE AGRAYAAfESHn or OFFERING OF 
FIRST-FRUITS. 

This sacrifice is performed in spring and autumn-^-generally at new 
or full moon — at the commencement of the harvest. The oblations, 
•which, as a rule, are prepared from new grain (viz. barley in spring, 
and rice in autumn), consist of — 1. a sacrificial cake contained on 
twelve potsherds for Indra and Agni ; 2. a £aru (mess of boiled 
grains) for the Vuve DevSA, prepared with water or milk; and 3. a 
cake on one potsherd for heaven and earth. Katy. IV, 6 and 
comm. According to the Paddhati, the offering of first-fruits takes 
place after the new-moon offering, and before the full-moon offer- 
ing. At the beginning of the harvest of Panicum Frumentaceum 
(.ryimaka), in the rainy season or in autumn ; and at that of bamboo 

yarn), one on each cake. 17, Or, woollen fringe [or, wool or fringe 
(das &), according to others]. 1 8, Or, hairs of the sacrificer (pulled out 
from the chest near the heart), if he is advanced in years. 19, He 
pours [the water, left in the pitcher, on the cakes] with ' Ye (O 
waters) are a refreshing draught, ye, that bring sap, immortal ghee 
and milk and foaming mead : gladden my fathers 1 ' (V£g\ S. II, 
34.) 20, [The Adhvaryu] having laid (the cakes on the dish) the 
sacrificer smells at them. 21, The firebrand and the once-cut 
stalks of grass (he throws) into the fire. 22, The wife, if desirous 
of a son, eats the middle cake with, ' Bestow offspring on me, O 
fathers, a boy crowned with lotuses ; that there may be a man here !' 
(VS^. S. II, 33.) [According to the comment, the other two cakes 
are thrown into the water or fire ; or eaten by a priest] For other 
variations, see Donner, Pi/afapit/vyag-fla. The Kawva recension, 
on the whole, agrees with our text. 

1 The Ka«va text has as follows : ' Therefore he says, Give us 
houses, fathers!' He then smells at the pot (ukhS) : that is the 
sacrificer's share. They again put down the cakes together (with 
the rice in the pot I samavadadhati). The once-severed (stalks of 
grass) they put on the fire. The firebrand he again shifts to (the 
fire; apy-ar^ati). 

[12] B b 



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37© DATAPATH A-BRAHMAJVA. 

in summer, offerings of first-fruits are also made to Soma in the 
form of a potful of boiled jyamdka or bamboo grains respectively. 

i. Now Kahoafa Kaushttaki spake, 'This sap 
(of the plants) truly belongs to those two, heaven 
and earth : having offered of this sap to the gods, 
we will eat it.' ' That is why the offering of first- 
fruits is performed.' 

2. And Ya^»avalkya also spake : — The gods 
and the Asuras, both of them sprung from Pra^apati, 
once contended for superiority. The Asuras then 
defiled, partly by magic, partly with poison, both 
kinds of plants — those on which men and beasts 
subsist — hoping that in this way they might over- 
come the gods. In consequence of this neither did 
men eat food, nor did beasts graze ; and from want 
of food these creatures well-nigh perished 1 . 

3. Now the gods heard as to how these creatures 
were perishing from want of food. They spake unto 
one another, ' Come, let us rid them 2 of this!' — 'By 
what means ? ' — ' By means of the sacrifice.' By means 
of the sacrifice the gods then accomplished all that 
they wanted to accomplish 3 ; and so did the JZishis. 

4. They then said, 'To which of us shall this 
belong?' They did not agree (each of them ex- 
claiming), ' Mine (it shall be)P Not having come 
to an agreement, they said, ' Let us run a race 
for this (sacrifice) : whichever of us beats (the 
others), his it shall be!' 'So be it!' they said, 
and they ran a race. 

1 The Ka«va text has : Ta" et& ubhayyaA pra^4 anarariena not 
parababhuvuA. 

1 Viz. the plants, according to the reading of the Kanva text : 
Hantisim oshadhin&n krityim tvad vishaw tvad apahan^meti. 

3 The Kanva text reads kalpyam instead of kalpam. 



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II KANDA., 4 ADHYAYA, 3 BRAHMAiVA, 8. 371 

5. Indra and Agni won, and hence that Indra- 
Agni cake on twelve potsherds 1 ; Indra and Agni 
having won a share in it. And where Indra and 
Agni were standing when they had won, thither 
all the gods followed them. 

6. Now, Indra and Agni are the Kshatra 
(nobility), and all the gods (or, the All-gods) are 
the Vis (common Aryan people) ; and wherever 
the Kshatra conquers, there the Vis is allowed to 
share. Thus they (Indra and Agni) allowed the 
Visve Deva^ (the All-gods) a share (in the offer- 
ing) ; and hence that pap of boiled (rice or barley) 
grain (offered) to the All-gods. 

7. ' Let him prepare it from old (grain) V say 
some; 'for Indra and Agni are the Kshatra (and 
he should therefore use old grain for the Vairva- 
deva pap) lest he (the sacrificer) should exalt (the 
Vis) to the level of the Kshatra.' Nevertheless let 
both (the cake and £aru) consist of new (grain) ; 
for (by the very fact that) the one is a cake and 
the other a pap, the nobility is not equalled (by the 
people) : hence they should both consist of new 
(grain). 

8. The All-gods spake, ' This sap (of the rice and 
barley plants) truly belongs to those two, heaven 
and earth : let us, then, allow those two a share in 
it !' They accordingly assigned that share to them, 
to wit, the cake on one potsherd offered to heaven 



1 The MS. of the Kiwva recension has : Tasmad esha aindrSgno 
dafakapala^ puroliro bhavati. The commentary on Kity. IV, 6, 
1, on the other hand, makes it a cake on eleven potsherds. 

2 Or, he may do so. Katy. IV, 6, 7 leaves the option between 
new and old grain. 

B b 2 



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37 2 SATAPATHA-BRAHMAlvA. 

and earth 1 . This is why there is a cake on one 
potsherd (kapala) for heaven and earth. Now this 
(earth) is, doubtless, the cup (depository, kapala) of 
that (sap) 2 ; and she indeed is one only: hence (the 
cake) consists of one potsherd. 
' 9. An offence (is thereby committed) by him 3 ; 
since, for whatever deity sacrificial food may be 
taken out, the Svish/akrzt ( Agni, the maker of good 
offering) is invariably allowed a share in it after (the 
respective deity). But that (cake) he offers entire, 
and he does not cut off a portion for the Svish/akm : 
this is an offence, and consequently (that cake), 
when offered, turns upside down. 

10. Hence they say, ' That (cake) contained on 
one potsherd has turned upside down : it will throw 
the kingdom into disorder.' No offence (is; how- 
ever, committed) by him, for the Ahavaniya is 
the support of oblations ; and if, after reaching the 
Ahavaniya, (the cake) were to turn upside down 
ten times, he need not heed it. And if others ask 
as to who would care to incur (the result of) such a 
combination (of errors), let him offer nothing but 
butter ; for clarified butter is manifestly the sap of 

1 This is a ' low-voiced ' oblation, the invitatory and offering 
prayers thereat (with the exception of the concluding 'Vausha/' 
and 'Om') being pronounced in a low tone. See p. 171, note 1; 
p. 192, note 1. 

1 The Ka«va text has : ' The reason why it consists of one kapala 
is that this earth is a kapala, and that she is one only.' 

" The Ka«va recension has as follows : — As to this they say, 
' It should not be a one-cup cake, (because) therein a neglect is 
(involved).' Even so (idaw nu) : for whatever deity they take out 
sacrificial food, the Svish/aknt is invariably made to share in it 
after (the respective deity). That (cake) they offer whole : this is 
consequently a neglect Moreover, it turns round (pary&bhavati). 
As to this they say, ' That (cake) has turned upside down,' &c. 



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II KANDA, 4 ADHYAYA, 3 BRAHMAATA, 1 3. 373 

those two, heaven and earth, so that he thereby 
manifestly gladdens those two with their own sap or 
essence : hence he need offer nothing but butter. 

11. By performing that same sacrifice, the gods 
removed the magic spell as well as the poison from 
both kinds of plants, — those on which men and 
beasts subsist ; and henceforward the men ate food 
and the cattle grazed. 

12. Now when he performs that sacrifice, he does 
so either for the reason that no one will then defile 
(the plants) either by magic or poison ; or because 
the gods did so. And whatever share the gods 
assigned (to themselves), that share he thereby 
makes over to them. Moreover, he thereby ren- 
ders wholesome and faultless both kinds of plants, — 
those on which men and beasts subsist; and these 
creatures subsist on those wholesome and faultless 
(plants) of his : this is why he performs that sacrifice. 

1 3. The priests' fee for this (sacrifice) consists of 
the first-born calf (of the season) ; for that is, as 
it were, the first-fruits (of the cattle). If he has 
already performed the new and full-moon offerings, 
let him first perform those offerings 1 , and there- 
upon the present (offering of first-fruits). If, on the 
other hand, he has not yet performed (the new and 
full-moon offerings), let them cook a ^atushprlyya 8 
pap on the southern fire, and let the priests eat it. 

1 I do not know how to account for the v£. Siyawa seems to 
take the passage thus : — 'If he be a Soma-sacrificer, or if he be 
performing the Darrapur»amSsa, [let him first perform that sacrifice, 
and] let him then perform the present one.' The Oxford MS. of 
the Ka«va text has : — Etat tasya karma ya fcdno vS syid darxa- 
pur»amasabhya>» vS ya^etatha yo 'nfcano 'nvaliaryapa&ina evau- 
danam ££tushprlryam paiet tarn brahmawebhya upanidadhyat. 

8 See II, 1, 4, 4 seq. 



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374 SATAPATHA-BRAHMAZVA. 

14. Verily, there are two kinds of gods : for the 
gods themselves, assuredly, are gods ; and those 
priests who have studied, and teach Vedic lore, are 
the human gods. And in like manner as that is 
offered whereon the Vasha/ has been pronounced, 
so is that (offering of first-fruits consecrated by 
the feeding of the priests). Let him also, at this 
(sacrifice), give as much as is in his power, for no 
offering, they say, should be without a dakshi«a. 
At the Agnihotra (performed at the time of the 
Agraya«eshri) let him not offer (milk obtained from 
the eating of new corn) J ; for were he to offer such 
at the Agnihotra, he would cause a conflict (between 
the deities of the two offerings). The Agraya«a is 
one thing, and the Agnihotra is another : let him, 
therefore, not offer (new material) at the Agnihotra. 

Fourth BrAhmajva. 
The Dakshayajva Sacrifice. 

This peculiar modification of the new and full-moon sacrifice 
seems to have been originated and generally to have been practised 
among the Ddkshaya«as, a royal family which was evidently still 
flourishing at the time of our author 2 . 

Here also two days were, as a rule, required for the performance, 
both at full and new" moon ; but while, at the ordinary sacrifice, 

1 KSty. has the rules IV, 6, 1 1 : 'In the case of one, who only 
performs the Agnihotra (and no longer the Darjaptirwamasa}, the 
evening and morning Agnihotra-oblation (at the time of the Agra- 
yawa) is performed with new (corn).' 12, 'Or with the milk of 
(a cow) which has been fed with such (new corn).' The Ka«va 
text has : ' Now at the Agnihotra also some offer (milk obtained 
from new corn), but let him not do so; for he would raise a quarrel 
were he to offer (such milk).' 

1 See Weber, Ind. Stud. I, p. 223; IV, p. 358; Ludwig, Rig- 
veda III, p. 195. 



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II KANDA, 4 ADHYAYA, 4 BRAHMAtfA, 2. 375 

the first day was completely taken up with the preliminary cere- 
monies, the Dakshayawas spread the special offerings over both 
days, making each time two separate ishris of them. The special 
havis, or sacrificial dishes, were, at the ordinary full-moon sacri- 
fice, a rice-cake (to Agni, and another) to Agni and Soma ; and at 
the new-moon sacrifice, a cake (to Agni, and another) to Indra 
and Agni, or, as an alternative, a dish of curds (sinniyya) pre- 
pared of sweet and sour milk, offered to Indra (or Mahendra). 
The Dakshayanas, on the other hand, offered the Agni-Soma and 
Indra-Agni cakes in the fore-noon of the first day, that of full 
and new moon respectively. The afternoons of the same days 
were then taken up with preliminary rites, such as the eating of 
fast-day food, the cutting of a pallfa branch, driving away of the 
calves from the cows, &c. The second day's performance com- 
mences (after the Agnihotra) with the election of the Brahman. 
The chief oblations of the day are (a cake to Agni, and) sour 
and sweet milk, offered separately to Indra at full moon ; and mixed 
(as sannayya or payasya) to Mitra and Varuna at new moon. 

At full moon some authorities add a special ish/i to Indra 
Vimn'dh ('the Averter of evil'). The new-moon performance con- 
cludes with libations of whey to the divine coursers (the horses of 
the gods) ; and, optionally, with an ish/i to Aditya. 

The performance of the Dakshayana. sacrifice was held to be 
obligatory only for a period of fifteen years (see XI, 1, 2, 13), 
whereas the ordinary new and full-moon- offerings had to be 
performed for double that period from the setting up of the sacred 
fires. Nay, even the daily performance of it with certain modifi- 
cations, for a whole year, was supposed to acquit the householder 
of any further obligation in this respect ; his sacrificial duties being 
henceforth limited to the performance of the Agnihotra, or morn- 
ing and evening libations. The daily performance of the Daksha- 
ya»a is so regulated that an afternoon and following forenoon are 
alternately assigned to the two days' ceremonies of the ordinary 
fortnightly Dakshaya«a sacrifice. 

1. In the beginning Pra^apati, being desirous of 
offspring, sacrificed with this sacrifice : ' May I 
abound in offspring and cattle ; may I obtain pros- 
perity ; may I become glorious ; may I become an 
eater of food!' so he thought. 

2. Now he was indeed Daksha; and because 



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376 JATAPATHA-BRAHMAA'A. 

he sacrificed in the beginning with this sacrifice, it 
is called Dakshaya«a-sacrifice. Some, however, 
call it the Vasish Ma-sacrifice; for he (Pra^apati) 
is indeed vasishMa (the best) 1 , and after him 
they call it. He sacrificed with that sacrifice ; and 
what race, what prosperity of Pra^apati was then 
produced through his performing that sacrifice, 
that same race he procreates, that same prosperity 
he obtains, whosoever, knowing this, performs that 
sacrifice : let him therefore perform that sacrifice. 

3. Now that same sacrifice was afterwards per- 
formed by Pratldarsa .SVaikna; and he indeed 
was an authority 2 to those who emulated him. 
An authority, therefore, he will become, whosoever, 
knowing this, performs that sacrifice : let him, there- 
fore, perform that sacrifice. 

4. Him Suplan Sar^aya approached for the 
sake of sanctity; and accordingly he was taught 
that sacrifice and another 8 ; and having learnt it he 
went back to the Srz#£ayas. Now they knew that 
he was coming to them after studying the sacrifice 
for their sake. They said, 'Verily, with the gods 
(saha devai^) he has come to us who has come 
after studying the sacrifice:' thus he (was called) 
Sahadeva Sarrc^aya; and even now the saying 
is, ' Lo, Suplan has taken another name !' He per- 
formed that sacrifice ; and what race and prosperity 
of the SW«£ayas was then produced through his 
performing that sacrifice, that same race he pro- 
creates, that same prosperity he obtains, whoso- 

1 The Ka«va text has : — Sa u vi ekena ntmna' vasish/ftas, ' and 
with one of his names he (Pra^apati) is indeed (called) Vasish/Aa.' 
s Viva&inam; vivi/fcanam, Kiwva recension. 
3 Viz. the Sautrama»i-sacrifice, according to XII, 8, 2, 3. 



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II KANDA, 4 ADHYAYA, 4 BRAHMAJVA, 8. 377 

ever, knowing this, performs that sacrifice : let him, 
therefore, perform that sacrifice. 

5. That same sacrifice was afterwards performed 
by Devabhaga .SYautarsha. He was Purohita 
both to the Kurus and the Sringayas. Now a very 
high position (is held by him) who is the Purohita 
of one kingdom : how much higher, then, is the 
position (of one) who (is the Purohita) of two (king- 
doms). A very high position accordingly he obtains, 
whosoever, knowing this, performs that sacrifice : let 
him, therefore, perform that sacrifice. 

6. That same sacrifice was afterwards performed 
by Daksha Parvati; and even to this day these 
(descendants of his) the Dakshayawas are possessed 
of the royal dignity : royal dignity he, therefore, here 
obtains, whosoever, knowing this, performs that sacri- 
fice : let him, therefore, perform that sacrifice. — Day 
by day there is one cake ' : thereby Fortune (sri) is 
(wedded) to him without a rival wife and undis- 
turbed. He offers on two days of the full moon 
and on two of the new moon : for two means a 
pair, so that a productive pair is thereby obtained. 

7. Now when 2 , at full moon, he offers a (cake) 
to Agni and Soma on the first day, — these are two 
deities, and two means a pair : hence a productive 
pair is thereby obtained. 

8. And on the morrow there are Agni's cake and 
Indra's Sannayya 3 , — these are two deities, and two 
means a pair, so that a productive pair is thereby 
obtained. 

1 Viz. on the first day of the full moon a cake to Agni-Soma ; 
on that of new moon a cake to Indra-Agni ; and on the second 
day of either ceremony the (ordinary) cake to Agni. 

* Or, ' Now, as to the reason why' (y ad) here and in the sequel. 

* See I, 6, 4, 9 seq. 



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378 satapatha-brAhmajva. 

9. Again when, at new moon, he offers a (cake) 
to Indra and Agni on the first day, — these are two 
deities, and two means a pair, so that a productive 
pair is thereby obtained. 

10. Then on the morrow there are Agni's cake 
and Mitra and Varuwa's curds. Now Agni's cake 
(is offered), for the sole purpose that it may not 
forsake the sacrifice 1 . Then those two, Mitra and 
Varu»a, are two deities, and two means a pair : 
hence a productive pair is thereby obtained; and thus 
is (produced) that form (of the sacrifice) whereby he 
becomes many, whereby he is reproduced. 

11. And when, at full moon, he offers the Agni- 
Soma (cake) on the first day, then this is for him 
that victim which they slaughter for Agni and Soma 
on the fast-day (of the Soma-sacrifice) 2 . 

12. And on the morrow there are Agni's cake 
and Indra's Sannayya. Now Agni's cake is for him 
what the morning libation is (at the Soma-sacrifice), 
for the morning libation is indeed sacred to Agni ; 
and the Sannayya is for him the mid-day libation, 
for the mid-day libation is indeed sacred to Indra. 

13. And again when, at new moon, he offers the 
Indra- Agni (cake) on the first day, that is for him 
the same as the third (or evening) libation ; for the 
third libation is sacred to the All-gods, and Indra 
and Agni truly are all the gods 8 . 

14. And on the morrow there are Agni's cake 
and Mitra and Vanma's curds. Now Agni's cake 
is (offered) for the sole purpose that it should not 

1 See I, 6, 2, 6, with note. 

* On the upavasatha (fast-day, or day of preparation) preceding 
the Soma-sacrifice a he-goat is sacrificed to Agni and Soma. 

* Compare II, 4, 3, 5 seq. 



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II KANDA, 4 ADHYAYA, 4 BRAHMAJVA, 1 5. 379 

forsake the sacrifice; and that dish of curds 
(payasya) is to him the same as that barren cow, 
the anubandhya, which has to be slaughtered for 
Mitra and Varu«a (at the Soma-sacrifice) 1 : thus 
by performing the full and new-moon offering one 
gains as much as is gained by performing a 
Soma-sacrifice ; and that (offering) is indeed a 
great sacrifice. 

15. And again when, at full moon, he offers the 
Agni-Soma (cake) on the first day, — it was by that 
(offering) that Indra slew Vn'tra 2 ; it was thereby 
he gained that supreme authority which he now 
wields 3 : and so does he (the sacrificer) thereby 
slay his wicked spiteful enemy and gain the 
superiority. And as to his mixing (sweet and sour 
milk), — the Sannayya is (the oblation) of the new 
moon (ama-vasya) *, and the new moon 8 means 
being far away : to him who had slain VWtra this 
was forthwith (offered), and him they regaled with 
that draught. He therefore who, knowing this, 
prepares the Sannayya at full moon, forthwith 



1 In connection with the so-called udayantya" ish/i, or con- 
cluding offering, of the Soma-sacrifice, a barren cow, called anu- 
bandhya (literally, 'to be bound afterwards'), is offered to Mitra 
and Varu»a. In default of such a cow, an ox, or even a dish of 
curds (payasyS) serves the same purpose. See Klty. St. X, 9, 
12-15 ; -Sat. Br. IV, 5, 2, 1 seq. 

* See I, 6, 4, 12. 

' Thus the frequently-occurring phrase 'vya^ayata yisyeyam 
vi^itis t£m' (literally, ' he conquered that conquest which is now 
theirs') has been translated throughout. 

* On the derivation of amd-v&sya* (' dwelling at home, or toge- 
ther'), see I, 6, 4, 3 seq. 

6 Or, 'the dwelling at home,' or '(India's) dwelling together 
(with Agni) means (Indra, the Vri'tra-slayer) being far away.' 



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380 SATAPATHA-BRAHMAATA. 

drives away evil. Now that moon doubtless is king 
Soma, the food of the gods : they extract it on 
the first day, intending to consume it on the next 
day; consequently when that (moon) wanes, it is 
being consumed by them. 

16. And when, at full moon, he offers the Agni- 
Soma (cake) on the first day, he thereby (as it were) 
extracts that (Soma) ; and, when extracted, he adds 
that juice to it, and makes it strong by means of 
that juice 1 . Whosoever, then, knowing this, pre- 
pares the Sannayya at full moon, renders his offering 
palatable to the gods, and his offering is palatable 
to the gods. 

1 7. And again as to why, at new moon, he offers 
the Indra-Agni (cake) on the first day. Indra and 
Agni doubtless are the deities of the new and full 
moon : it is to these, therefore, that he offers directly 
and expressly ; and directly to the new and full 
moon is offering made by him who thus knows 
this. 

1 8. And on the morrow there is Agni's cake and 
Mitra and Vanma's curds. Now Agni's cake is 
(offered) for the sole purpose that it may not for- 
sake the sacrifice. Mitra and Vanma, on the other 
hand, are the two half-moons : the waxing one is 
Vanma, and the waning one is Mitra. During that 
night (of new moon) these two meet, and when 
they are thus together he pleases them with that 
(cake-offering): and, verily, all is pleased with him, 
all is obtained by him who thus knows this. 

19. In that same night Mitra implants seed in 
Vanma, and when it (the moon) wanes, then it is 

1 See I, 6, 4, 6 seq. 



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II KkNDA, 4 ADHYAYA, 4 BRAHMA2VA, 21. 38 1 

produced from that seed. Now as to why that 
oblation of curds (payasya) to Mitra and Varuwa 
is here exactly analogous (to the Sannayya offered 
at new moon) 1 . 

20. The new moon doubtless is entitled to the 
Sannayya : it is prepared both then and at full 
moon. Now were he also here (at the full-moon 
offering) to mix together (the sweet and sour milk), 
he would commit a repetition and cause a quarrel 
(between the respective gods) 2 . Having collected 
that (Soma or moon) from the waters and plants, 
he causes him to be born from out of the oblations ; 
and on being born from the oblations, he is visible 
in the western (sky). 

21. It is through union that he produces him: 
the curds (payasya, fern.) are female, and the whey 
is seed. Now what is produced by union is (pro- 
duced) properly: hence he thereby produces him 
by a productive union; and therefore there is an 
offering of curds. 



1 Or, to the offering of sour and sweet milk at full moon ; see 
next note. The Ka«va text has : ' Now as to why the oblation 
of curds is here made exactly analogous (at the full and new- 
moon ceremonies).' Perhaps it may also refer to the exact corre- 
spondence of the offering of curds to Mitra and Varu«a at new 
moon and at the Soma-sacrifice. 

* At the new-moon offering of the Daksh&yawa, the s£nn&yya 
or payasyS offered to Mitra and Varu«a is prepared in the ordi- 
nary way (as at the new-moon ceremony), by fresh (boiled or un- 
boiled) milk being added to the sour milk of the preceding night's 
milking. At the full-moon offering, on the other hand, the sour 
and sweet milk remain separate, and constitute two different havis, 
or sacrificial dishes, dedicated to Indra. The terms san-nf (' to 
bring together') and s£nn&yya are here likewise applied to the 
offering of the separate substances. 



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382 DATAPATH A-BRAHMAA'A. 

22. He then offers the whey 1 to the (divine) 
Coursers. Now the Coursers are the seasons, and 
the whey is seed : and thus the seed is cast properly, 
and the seasons bring forth the seed so cast in the 
form of these creatures. This is why he offers the 
whey to the Coursers. 

23. He offers, as it were, behind the sacrifice : 
for it is from behind that the male approaches and 
impregnates the female. He first offers in the east. 
With ' O Agni, accept . . . ! ' he repeats the Vasha/, 
— this is in lieu of the Svish/akm ; and (the latter) 2 
he offers in the east. 

24. He then sprinkles (the whey) in the several 
quarters, with the texts (Va^ - . S. VI, 19 b-g), ' The 
quarters! — The fore-quarters (pra-dii)! — The by- 
quarters (a-diy)! — The intermediate quarters (vi-du)! 
The upper quarters (ud-dlr)! — To the quarters, — 
Svaha 3 !' Five are the quarters, and five the 

1 Before the oblations of curds are made, the whey is poured off 
into a vessel (then optionally sprinkled with butter), and placed on 
the utkara, or heap of rubbish. After the stalk of grass has been 
thrown into the fire (see I, 8, 3, 19), or after the dismissal of the 
spoons (I, 8, 3, 27), the Adhvaryu takes the whey and sprinkles 
the barhis (the grass covering on the altar) with it He then pours 
the remaining whey into the ^uhu spoon and calls on the Hotri' to 
recite the invitatory prayer to the Coursers. Thereupon he betakes 
himself with the spoon to the north of the fire, calls on the Hotri 
for the offering-formula, and at the two concluding Vasha/s pours 
some of the whey into the east part of the fire. He then sits down 
and sprinkles the whey on the fire according to the several quarters, 
beginning in the east, and moving around from left to right (pra- 
dakshinam), with the respective texts, Vsg. S. VI, 19 b-e; after 
which he makes two more libations in the centre and east part of 
the fire, with VI, 19 f and g. 

9 The Ki»va text has tadu instead of sa vai. On the oblation 
to Agni as ' the maker of good offering,' see I, 7, 3, 1 seq. 

8 Svaha is uttered after each formula, — 'The quarters, Svaha 1' &c. 



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n kXnda, 5 adhyAya, i brAhmajva. 383 

seasons : he thus effects a union between the quar- 
ters and the seasons \ 

25. Five partake of that (whey remaining in the 
spoon), — viz. the Hotri, the Adhvaryu, the Brahman, 
the Agnldhra, and the Sacrificer; for five are the 
seasons, so that the characteristic nature of the 
seasons is thereby obtained; and the seed that is 
cast is firmly implanted in the seasons. The sacri- 
ficer partakes of it first, thinking, ' May I first obtain 
seed!' But also last (he partakes of it) 2 , thinking, 
'May seed remain in me last of all!' By saying, 
' Invited, — invite thou 8 !' they make it (th« whey to 
resemble) the Soma. /%& \ " jf'Uj^ 

Fifth AdhyAya. First BraRp4#£*^T - k 
V. THE ^ATURMASYANI or SEASONAL SACRIF ICES. ""^ 

A. The Vaisvadeva. 

The three seasonal or four-monthly sacrifices are performed at 
the parvans, or commencement of the three seasons (spring, rainy 

1 7?itun evaitad digbhir mithunan karoti, Kawva recension. 

* The author does not express himself quite clearly. The sacri- 
ficer is to partake of the whey before the priests and also (or, as 
an alternative) after them. According to K&ty. IV, 4, 26-27, tne 
sacrificer is to eat either last of all, or first and last. TheKanva text 
has : Prathamo ya^amano bhakshayati prathamo retaA parignnna- 
mity athottamo mayy uttamaw reta^ pratitish/Md iti, — accordingly 
he is to eat first and last 

* Each of them, in his respective order, takes the spoon, calls 
on the others in the same order with 'O sacrificer (Hotr», Adh- 
varyu, &c.) invite I' Their permission having been given by ' Invited 
(thou art) ! ' he then takes some of the whey, with one of the 
texts : ' I eat thee, the courser (or whey, va^inam) of the seasons, 
the coursers !' ' I, the courser (or, mighty one) eat, invited, of the 
invited, to the whey.' ' May I be a racer in the race I' Katy. IV, 4, 



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384 SATAPATHA-BRAHMAJVA. 

season, and autumn), viz. the Vauvadeva generally on the full 
moon ofPhalguna; the Varuwapraghis&A on that of Ashi</Aa; 
and the SSkamedhaA on that of Karttika. As a fourth .ffatur- 
masya, ritual authorities add the SunSsfrtya, though they are at 
variance as to the exact time of its performance ; and neither is its 
true significance clearly indicated. It apparently marks merely the 
conclusion of the seasonal offerings (which, as a rule, are only per- 
formed once, cf. II, 6, 3, 12 seq.); but while the author of the Sata- 
patha allows it to be performed at any time (within four months) 
after the SakamedhSA, other ritualists hold that its performance should 
take place on the fifth full moon after the SakamedhaA, or, in other 
words, exactly a year after the Vauvadeva. See Weber, Nakshatra, 
II, p. 334 seq. 

1. Verily, in the beginning, Pra^apati alone ex- 
isted here 1 . He thought within himself, 'How 
can I be propagated?' He toiled and practised 
austerities. He created living beings 2 . The 
living beings created by him passed away : they 
are those birds. Now man is the nearest to Pra- 
^apati ; and man is two-footed : hence birds are 
two-footed. 

2. Prafipati thought within himself, ' Even as 
formerly I was alone, so also am I now alone.' He 
created a second (race of beings) ; they also passed 
away : they are those small crawling reptiles other 
than snakes. He created a third (race), they say ; 
they also passed away: they are those snakes. 
Yi£-»avalkya, on his part, declared them to be of 
two kinds only ; but of three kinds they are accord- 
ing to the Rik. 

3. While praising and practising austerities, Pra^a- 

1 Or, Pra^Spati alone was this (universe). Cf. Muir, Original 
Sanskrit Texts, p. 70. 

* By pra^SA, or (living) beings, mammalia — especially man 
and domestic animals — seem to be understood. 



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ii kXnda, 5 adhyAya, i brAhmajva, 6. 385 

pati thought within himself, ' How comes it that the 
living beings created by me pass away?' He then 
became aware that his creatures passed away from 
want of food. He made the breasts in the fore-part 
of (their) body 1 teem with milk. He then created 
living beings ; and by resorting to the breasts, the 
beings created by him thenceforward continued to 
exist: they are these (creatures) which have not 
passed away. 

4. Hence it has been said by the J&shi 2 , — ' Three 
generations have passed beyond,' — this is said re- 
garding those that passed away; — 'Others settled 
down around the light (arka, the sun)' — the light 
doubtless is the fire : those creatures which did not 
pass away, settled down around the fire ; it is with 
regard to them that this is said. 

5. 'The great one (neut.) 3 remained within the 
worlds' — it is with regard to Pra^apati that this is 
said. — ' The blower (or, purifier) entered the regions ' 
— the regions doubtless are the quarters, and these 
were indeed entered by that blowing wind : it is with 
regard to them that this verse was uttered. And in 
like manner as Pra^apati created these living beings, 
so they are propagated : for whenever the breasts of 
woman and the udder of cattle swell, then whatever 
is born is born ; and by resorting to the breasts these 
(beings) continue to exist. 

6. Now that milk is indeed food; for in the 
beginning Prag-apati produced it for food. But that 



1 Atmana evSgre ; the KS»va text has atmany evigre. 

* Rig-veda VIII, 90, 14. 

* Or perhaps better, as Ludwig takes it, ' On high he took his 
place within the worlds.' 

[ra] C c 



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386 satapatha-brAhmajva. 

food also means living beings (progeny), since it is 
by food that they exist : by resorting to the breasts 
of those who have milk, they continue to exist. And 
those who have no milk are nursed by the former as 
soon as they are born ; and thus they exist by means 
of food, and hence food means progeny. 

7. He who is desirous of offspring, sacrifices with 
that oblation, and thereby makes himself the sacri- 
fice, which is Pra^apati 1 . 

8. In the first place 2 there is a cake for Agni 
on eight potsherds. Agni indeed is the root, the 
progenitor of the deities; he is Prafipati ('lord 
of creatures ') : hence there is a cake for Agni. 

9. Then follows a potful of boiled rice (/karv) for 
Soma. Soma doubtless is seed, and that in Agni, 
the progenitor ; he (Agni) casts the seed Soma : thus 
there is at the outset a productive union. 

10. Then follows a cake on twelve or eight 
potsherds 3 for Savitr*. Savitri indeed is the im- 
peller (pra-savitrz) of the gods ; he is Prafipati, 
the intermediate* progenitor : hence the cake to 
SavitW. 

1 1. Then follows a potful of boiled rice for Sara- 
svat! ; and another for Pushan. Sarasvatt doubtless 
is a woman, and Pushan is a man : thus there is 
again a productive union. Through that twofold pro- 
ductive union Pra^-apati created the living beings, — 

1 ?Or, Pra^apati, the real, the existent, ' Pra^apatim bhutam.' 

* Instead of the preliminary AnvSrambhawiya-ish/i (see p. 7), a 
special ish/i may be performed on this occasion, with a cake on 
twelve potsherds to Agni Vauvanara, and a potful of boiled rice 
(£aru) to Par^anya, for oblations. Katy. V, 1, 2-4. 

5 According to Taitt. S. 1, 8, 2, it is one on twelve potsherds. 

* MadhyataA, lit. * from the middle.' 



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ii kXnda, 5 adhyAya, i brahmaya, 14. 387 

through the one (he created) the upright, and through 
the other those looking to the ground. This is why 
there are these five oblations *. 

12. After that (follows), as a foundation for the 
curds, a cake on seven potsherds for the Maruts. 
The Maruts indeed are the people (visa/i), the people 
of the gods. They roamed about here entirely unim- 
peded. Having approached Pra^apati, when he was 
sacrificing, they said, ' We shall destroy those crea- 
tures of thine which thou art about to create by 
means of this offering 2 .' 

1 3. Pra^apati reflected, ' My former creatures have 
passed away; and if those (Maruts) destroy these 
(creatures), then nothing will be left.' He accord- 
ingly set aside for them that share, the Maruts' cake 
on seven potsherds ; and that is this same cake on 
seven potsherds for the Maruts. The reason why 
it is one of seven potsherds, is that the host of the 
Maruts is (distributed in troops) of seven each 3 . 
This is why there is a cake on seven potsherds for 
the Maruts. 

14. Let him offer it to the ' self-strong' (Maruts); 
since they gained that share for themselves. [If], 
however, they (the priests) do not find an invitatory 
and an offering prayer (addressed) to the 'self- 
strong' (Maruts) 4 , let it be (offered) simply to the 

1 While the five preceding oblations are common to all the 
seasonal offerings (K&ty. V, 1, 15), the succeeding ones are peculiar 
to the Vawvadeva. 

8 The KS»va text adds, ' if thou wilt not assign a share to us.' 

* In Rig-veda VIII, 96, 8, the Maruts are said to be sixty-three 
in number, divided into nine troops of seven each. 

* The Kawva text has : Tad uta ya^yanuvakye svatavatyau na 
vindanti; yadi ySgyanuvakye svatavatyau na vinded api marutyav 
eva syatam. 

C C 2 



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388 satapatha-brAhmajva. 

Maruts. It is offered for the safety of creatures : 
hence it is offered to the Maruts. 

15. Thereupon follows the oblation of curds 
(payasyi). Now it is on milk that the creatures 
subsist, it was by means of milk that they were pre- 
served : hence he now offers to them that by which 
they were preserved, and whereon they subsist ; and 
the beings whom he creates by means of the fore- 
going offerings, subsist on that milk, on that oblation 
of curds. 

1 6. Therein a union takes place : the curdled 
milk (payasya, fern.) is female, and the whey is seed. 
From that union the infinite All was gradually 
generated ; and since the infinite All was gradually 
generated from that union, therefore it (the offering 
of curds) belongs to the All-gods. 

17. Then follows a cake on one potsherd for 
Heaven and Earth. Now when Pra^apati had 
created the living beings by those offerings, he en- 
closed them within heaven and earth ; and so they 
are now enclosed within heaven and earth. And in 
like manner he, who by means of those oblations 
creates living beings, thereby encloses them within 
heaven and earth : this is why there is a cake on 
one potsherd for Heaven and Earth. 

18. Now as to the course of proceeding. They 
do not raise an uttara-vedi 1 in order that it (the 
sacred work) may be unobstructed, that it may be 
entire, that it may be (worthy) of the All-gods. — 
The barhis is tied up in three (bunches), and then 



1 The uttara-vedi, or northern (or upper) altar, is not required 
at the performance of the Vauvadeva, but at that of the Vanwa- 
praghasa/i ; see II, 5, 2, 5 seq. 



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ii kXnda, 5 adhyAya, i brAhmajva, 19. 389 

again in one 1 ; for such is the characteristic form of 
generation, since father and mother are a produc- 
tive (pair), and what is born forms a third element: 
hence that which is threefold is again (made) one. 
Thereto flowering shoots (of sacrificial grass) are 
tied : these he uses for the prastara 2 ; for this is a 
productive union, and productive indeed are flower- 
ing shoots : this is why he takes flowering shoots 
for the prastara. 

19. On putting the sacrificial dishes in their place, 
they churn the fire 8 - For it was after Agni was 
born that Pra^ apati's offspring was born ; and so for 
this (sacrificer) also offspring is born after Agni (the 
fire) has been produced : this is why they churn the 
fire, after they have deposited the sacrificial dishes 
in their place. 

1 Three bunches of sacrificial grass are tied together with one 
band. Katy. V, 1, 25. 

* For the prastara, or bunch of grass representing the sacrificer, 
see I, 3, 3, 5 seq. ; I, 8, 3, 1 1 seq. 

* Katy.V, 1, 27 seq. supplies the following details: — With the 
text (Va^-. V, 2 a, &c), ' Agni's birth-place art thou,' the Adhvaryu 
takes up a piece of wood and puts it on the altar. With ' the two 
testicles are ye ' he lays on it two stalks of sacrificial grass. With 
'Urvarf thou art' he places the lower ara«i (see p. 294,note3)thereon. 
With ' Ayus (old age, or the son of Purftravas and Urvarf) thou art' 
he touches the butter in the pot with the upper arawi ; and with 
* Purftravas thou art' he puts it down on the lower arawi. He then 
calls on the Hotri to recite ' to the fire being churned out.' With 
the three formulas 'with the gSyatrt (trishAibh,^agati) metre I churn 
thee!' he churns thrice from left to right, and then alternately both 
ways until fire is produced. He then calls on the Hotr/to recite 'to 
the born fire' (Sankh. Ill, 13, 21); and in carrying the fire towards 
the Ahavanlya he makes him recite ' to (the fire) being carried for- 
ward.' With the text V, 3, he throws it down on the Ahavanfya 
hearth ; and (having put a kindling-stick on it) he makes two liba- 
tions of butter thereon with V, 4. 



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390 SATAPATHA-BRAHMAivA. 

20. [At the Vaisvadeva-offering] there are nine 
fore-offerings and nine after-offerings 1 . Now the 
viri^ metre consists of ten syllables : hence he ob- 
tains both times an inferior (incomplete) viri^ for 
the sake of production, because it was from that 
inferior (lower) source of production 2 that Pra^apati 
twice produced creatures — both the upright and 
those looking to the ground. This is why (the 
Vaisvadeva) has nine fore-offerings and nine after- 
offerings. 

21. There are three Samish/ayaf us 3 ; for this 
(offering) is decidedly greater than an (ordinary) 
havir-ya^wa *, since it has nine fore-offerings and 
nine after-offerings. However, there may also be 
only a single Samish^aya^us, since this is a havir- 
yagna. The priest's fee for it (consists of) the first- 
born calf (of the season). 

22. And what race, what prosperity accrued to 
Pra^apati from his offering this sacrifice, that same 
race he produces, that same prosperity he attains 



1 The same number of praya^as and anuya^as are prescribed for 
the VarunapraghasaA (see II, 5, 2, 30 and 41, with notes) and for the 
Mahahavis of the SakamedhaA. Katy.V, 2, 8. 

2 Or rather, from that productive nyuna (womb, lit defective, 
lower); see II, 1, 1, 13. 

* See 1, 9, 2, 25 seq. The formula used, if there be only one 
Samish/aya^Tis, is the same as at the Darrapurwamasa, viz. II, 21 b 
(VIII, 21). If there are three, they are offered to the wind (vita), 
the sacrifice, and the lord of sacrifice respectively; the formulas 
V&g. S. VIII, 22 a b being used with the second and third. Katy. 
V, 2, 9. For the VaruwapraghasaA and SakamedhaA three Samish/a- 
yagus are prescribed, and for the .Sunasirlya only one. 

* Viz. such as the new and full-moon sacrifice, which serves as 
the model sacrifice, and at which there are only five fore-offerings 
and three after-offerings. See I, 5, 3, 1 seq.; I, 8, 2, 7 seq. 



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II KAXDA, 5 ADHYAYA, 2 BRAHMAtfA, 4. 39 1 

whosoever, knowing this, offers this sacrifice : let 
him therefore perform this sacrifice. 

Second BrAhmaata. 

B. The Variwapraghasa Offerings. 

i. Now it was by means of the Vawvadeva that 
Pra^apati produced living beings. The beings pro- 
duced by him ate (ghas) Varu«a's barley corn ; for 
originally the barley belonged to Vanma. And from 
their eating Varuwa's barley corn the name Varu»a- 
praghasa^ (is derived). 

2. Varu»a seized them ; and on being seized by 
Varu»a, they became rent all over * ; and they lay 
and sat them down breathing in and breathing out. 
The out-breathing and in-breathing forsook them 
not, but all the other deities 2 forsook them ; and 
owing to these two, the creatures did not perish. 

3. Pra^apati healed them by means of that obla- 
tion : both the creatures that were born and those 
that were unborn he delivered from Varu»a's noose ; 
and his creatures were born without disease and 
blemish. 

4. Now when this (sacrificer) performs these 
offerings in the fourth month (after the Vawvadeva), 
he does so either because thus Varuwa does not 
seize his offspring, or because the gods performed 
(the same offering); and both the children that have 
been born to him and those that are yet unborn he 
thereby delivers from Varu»a's noose, and his chil- 
dren are born without disease and blemish. This is 
why he performs these offerings in the fourth month. 

1 Paridirwa, i. e. swollen, dropsical. 

a In the St. Petersb. Diet, devata is here taken as 'organ of sense.' 



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^92 SATAPATHA-BRAHMAiVA. 

5. At this (sacrifice) there are two altars and two 
fires l . The reason why there are two altars and two 

1 For the performance oftheVaru»apraghSs£A the Adhvaryu 
and his assistant, the Pratiprasthatrjj have to prepare, — to the east 
of the Ahavantya, and at the distance of at least three steps (pra- 
krama) from it, — two altars, separate from each other by about 
a span (of thumb and fore-finger), one south of the other. The 
northern one, belonging to the Adhvaryu, is to measure between 
four and five cubits along the west side, and between three and 
four cubits along the east side; the two sides being between sue 
and eight cubits distant from each other. The southern altar, 
reserved for the Pratiprasthatr*, is to be of the usual size of the 
altar at the havirya^fUL The ceremonies, detailed in I, 2, Brih- 
ma«as 4 and 5, have to be performed also on the present occasion. 
In the middle of the east side of the northern altar a stake is fixed 
in the ground. On the north side of the northern altar, and con- 
tiguous with it, a pit (Htvala), ij cubits (the length of the wedge) 
square, is dug, so as to be separated on the west from the utkara 
(heap of rubbish) by a narrow passage. With the mould dug up 
from the pit, the so-called uttara-vedi (upper or north altar) is 
raised on the northern altar, either of the same dimensions as the 
pit (1 J cubits square) or one third of the area of the northern altar, 
and so that the stake marks the middle of its east side. In the 
centre of this mound he makes a hollow (or 'navel'), a span square ; 
and the whole mound is then bestrewed with fine gravel. The texts 
used while tracing the sides of the pit, thrice throwing the wooden 
sword within the marked-off space, and raising the uttara-vedi, are 
given VS^. S. V, 9-10. During the night the uttara-vedi remains 
covered with udumbara or plaksha branches or with sacrificial 
grass. Next morning the two fires for the newly-constructed fire- 
places are taken from the Ahavantya, either by dividing the latter 
into two equal parts, or by means of two bundles of firewood 
(threefold bound, see p. 389, note 1), lighted at it, and carried 
eastwards in a pan covered with sand or mould. While the fires, 
together with the lustral water and a spoonful of ghee, taken from 
the pot by five ladlings with the sruva, are taken eastward, the Hotri 
thrice recites the verse 'Pra devyam deva,*&c; and the Pratipras- 
thaW draws, with the wooden sword, a line from the Ahavantya to 
the south-west corner (or ' right hip') of the northern altar, or to 
the uttara-vedi. The Adhvaryu, standing between the two altars, 
then besprinkles the uttara-vedi with water, while muttering the 



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ii kXnda, 5 adhyAya, 2 brAhmajva, 8. 393 

fires, is that thereby one frees the creatures from 
Varuwa's noose both ways, — on the one side (he 
frees) the upright, and on the other those looking 
to the ground : this is why there are two altars and 
two fires. 

6. On the northern (uttara) altar he raises the 
uttara-vedi (upper or north altar), not on the 
southern one. Varu«a, doubtless, is the nobility, 
and the Maruts are the people : he thus makes the 
nobility superior (uttara) to the people ; and hence 
people here serve the Kshatriya, placed above them. 
This is why he raises the uttara-vedi on the northern, 
not on the southern altar. 

7. In the first place there are those five obla- 
tions \ For by means of those five oblations Pra^a- 
pati produced the creatures, with them he freed the 
creatures both ways from Varuwa's noose, — on the 
one side (he freed) the upright, and on the other 
those that tend to the ground : this is why there are 
those five oblations. 

8. Then follows a cake on twelve potsherds* for 
Indra and Agni. Indra and Agni indeed are the 
out-breathing and in-breathing: thus this is like 

texts VSg'. S. V, 1 x ; whereupon he pours out on it crosswise the 
spoonful of clarified butter, with the texts V, 1 2 ; and lays, with 
the mantras V, 13, three enclosing-sticks (paridhi) of pttadaru wood 
round the ' navel' (see I, 3, 4, 2 seq.), and puts bdellium, fragrant 
reed-grass, and the front-hair of a ram on the ' navel' as a foundation 
(sambhara, see II, 1, 1, 1 seq.) for the fire, which is then laid down 
thereon. On a hearth-mound (khara), a cubit square, formed on 
the southern altar, the PratiprasthStr;' also lays down his fire, after 
performing the usual fivefold lustration (see p. 2). Thereupon the 
prawita- water is brought forward in the way set forth at I, i, i, 1 2 seq. 
Katy. V, 3, 9-4, 21. For a different mode of transferring the fire 
to the special fire-places, see p. 396, note 1. 
1 See II, 5, 1, 11, with note. 



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394 SATAPATHA-BRAHMAJVA. 

doing a good turn to one who has done him a 
good turn ; for it is owing to these two that his 
creatures 1 did not perish. Hence he now restores 
his creatures by means of the out-breathing and in- 
breathing, bestows out-breathing and in-breathing 
on them : this is why there is a cake on twelve pot- 
sherds for Indra and Agni. 

9. On both (fires) there is an oblation of curds. 
It is on milk that the creatures subsist and by means 
of milk that they were preserved : hence it is with 
that by which they were preserved and whereon 
they subsist, that he delivers them both ways from 
Varuwa's noose, — on the one side (he delivers) the 
upright and on the other those looking to the 
ground. This is why there is an oblation of curds 
on both (fires). 

10. The northern one is offered to Varu«a, since 
it was Varu«a who seized his (Pra^apati's) creatures: 
hence he thereby directly delivers them from Va- 
ru»a's noose. The southern one is offered to the 
Maruts. It is for the sake of diversity that it is. 
offered to the Maruts ; for a repetition he would un- 
doubtedly commit, were he to offer both to Varu«a. 
Moreover, it was from the south that the Maruts 
intended to slay his (Pra^apati's) creatures, and with 
that share he propitiated them : for this reason the 
southern (oblation of curds) belongs to the Maruts. 

n. Upon both (dishes of curds) he scatters 
karlra-fruits 2 ; for with karira-fruits Pra^apati 

1 That is, his offspring and cattle. 

2 The fruit of Capparis Aphylla. According to Sayawa, on Taitt. 
1, 8, 3, it is kartra-shoots — which he says resemble the Soma-creeper 
(somavalli) — that are so used; but he also mentions that some 
authorities take karira to mean the fruit. According to a sutra he 



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II KkNDA, 5 ADHYAYA, 2 BRAHMAJVA, 1 6. 395 

bestowed happiness (ka) on the creatures, and so 
does he (the sacrificer) thereby bestow happiness on 
the creatures. 

12. Upon both of them he also scatters .ramt- 
leaves ; for with ^ami-leaves Pra^apati bestowed 
bliss (.jam) on the creatures, and so does he now 
thereby bestow bliss on the creatures. 

1 3. Then follows a cake on one potsherd for K a 
(Pra^apati) ; for by that cake on one potsherd to Ka 
Pra^apati indeed bestowed happiness (ka) on the 
creatures, and so does he (the sacrificer) now bestow 
happiness on the creatures by that one-cup cake : 
this is why there is a cake on one potsherd for Ka. 

14. And on the first day, after husking and 
slightly roasting barley on the Dakshi«agni, they 
prepare therewith as many dishes of karambha 1 as 
there are members of the (sacrificer s) family, 
exceeded by one. 

15. At the same time they also prepare a ram 
and a ewe ; and if he be able to procure wool other 
than from eafeka sheep, let him wash it and stick it 
on both the ram and the ewe ; but should he not be 
able to procure wool other than from e^aka sheep, 
tufts of kusa grass may also be (used). 

1 6. The reason why there are a ram and a ewe 
is that the ram manifestly is Varu«a's victim, so that 
he thereby manifestly delivers the creatures from 
Varu»a's noose. They are made of barley, because 
it was when they (the creatures) had eaten barley that 
Varuwa seized them. A pair they form, so that he 

quotes, above a hundred faml-leaves and above a thousand kariras 
should be strewn over the two dishes of curds. Cf. Taitt Br. 1, 

6, 5. 5- 

1 A kind of porridge prepared with roasted barley, coarsely 
ground, and sour curds. 



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396 satapatha-brAhmaa'a. 

delivers the creatures from Varu»a's noose through 
conjugal union. 

1 7. The ewe he places on the southern, and the 
ram on the northern dish of curds ; for in this way 
alone a proper union is effected, since the woman 
lies on the left (or north) side of the man. 

18. The Adhvaryu places all the (other) sacrificial 
dishes upon the northern altar; and the Pratipras- 
thatrz places on the southern altar that dish of 
curds (belonging to the Maruts). 

19. Having thus placed the sacrificial dishes, he 
churns the fire ; and having churned it and placed it 
on (the hearth) 1 , he offers thereon. The Adhvaryu 
in the first place says (to the Hotri) 3 , ' Recite to the 
fire that is being kindled!' Both (the Adhvaryu and 
the Pratiprasthatrz) then put firewood on (the fire) 
and both reserve one kindling-stick each ; and they 
both pour out the first libation (ighira). There- 
upon the Adhvaryu says, 'Agntdh, trim the fire!' 
Although the summons is given, the trimming does 
not take place (immediately) 8 . 

20. Thereupon the Pratiprasthatr? returns (to 
where the sacrificer's wife is seated). When he is 
about to lead the wife away, he asks her, 'With 

1 The author here apparently alludes to a different way of trans- 
ferring the fire to the new fire-places from that detailed by Katya- 
yana (see p. 392, note 1). The same mode seems to be referred to 
by the Paddhati on Katy. V, 4 (p. 467). According to this mode 
(called samaropawa, or mounting of the fire), the old fires are 
' taken up' by means of the two arams being lighted, or rather 
heated, at them, and then ' churned out' and placed on the newly- 
prepared hearth-mounds. 

4 For the detailed course of procedure, see I, 3, 5, 1 seq. 

' Asawsr/'sh/am eva bhavati sampreshitam. The Kanva recen- 
sion reads, asa»?sr/'sh/a evagnir bhavati sampreshita^. Cf. par. 30. 



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n kXnda, 5 adhyAya, 2 brahmajva, 22. 397 

whom holdest thou intercourse?' Now when a 
woman who belongs to one (man) carries on inter- 
course with another, she undoubtedly commits (a sin) 
against Varu«a. He therefore thus asks her, lest 
she should sacrifice with a secret pang in her mind; 
for when confessed the sin becomes less, since it 
becomes truth ; this is why he thus asks her. And 
whatever (connection) she confesses 1 not, that indeed 
will turn out injurious to her relatives. 

21. He then makes her say the text (III, 44), 
' We invoke the Maruts, the voracious consumers of 
enemies, delighting in their porridge.' This (verse) 
is (of like import) as the invitatory prayer: she 
therewith invites them to these dishes 2 . 

22. Of these (dishes) there is one for each de- 
scendant; as many (children) as there are in the 
(sacrificer's) family, so many (dishes) there are, ex- 
ceeded by one. There being one for each descendant, 
he thereby delivers from Varu»a's noose one by 
one the children born to him ; and there being an 
additional one, he thereby delivers from Varu»a's 



1 According to Katy. V, 5, 7-9, she is either to give the total 
number or the names of her lovers, or to hold up as many stalks 
of grass. [If she have none, she is to reply, ' with no one else.' 
Comm.] — ' He makes the wife speak (confess) : (thereby) he renders 
her pure, and then he leads her to penance. Were she not to reveal 
(the name of) a paramour she has, she would harm a dear relative. 
Let her declare " N. N. is my paramour," by thus declaring (any one) 
she causes him to be seized by Vanwa.' Taitt. Br. I, 6, 5, 2. 

* According to the Black Ya^us, the Pratiprasthatn mutters this 
formula, while leading the mistress to the place of offering. The 
sacrificer then recites as the invitatory prayer the verse given in 
par. 38 (Va^. S. Ill, 46) ; while the offering-prayer (V%. S. Ill, 45) 
and the text III, 47 (par. 29) are muttered by both the husband and 
wife. Taitt L 6, 5, 3 argues against the practice of the wife being 
made to pronounce the anuvakya. 



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398 SATAPATHA-BRAHMAWA. 

noose those children of his that are as yet unborn : 
this is why there are (the same number of dishes) 
exceeded by one. 

23. (In the form of) dishes they are, because it 
is from dishes that food is eaten ; and of barley 
they are prepared, because it was when they (the 
creatures) had eaten the barley corn that Varuwa 
seized them. From the winnowing basket she 
offers, because food is prepared by means of the 
winnowing basket. The wife offers (together with 
her husband) : thus he delivers his offspring from 
Varu»a's noose through conjugal union. 

24. She offers previously to the sacrifice, pre- 
viously to the oblations, since the people do not 
eat offerings, and the Maruts are the people. Now 
when Pra^-apati's creatures, being seized by Varuwa, 
became rent all over, and sat and lay them down, 
breathing in and breathing out, then the Maruts 
destroyed their sin ; and so do the Maruts now 
destroy the sin of his (the sacrificer's) offspring. 
This is why she offers previously to the sacrifice, 
previously to the oblations. 

25. He 1 offers in the southern fire, with the text 
(III, 45), 'Whatever (sin we have committed) in 
the village and forest,' — for both in the village and 
in the forest sin is committed; — 'whatever in society 
and in our own self,' — by ' whatever (we have com- 
mitted) in society,' he means to say 'against man;' 
and by 'whatever in our own self (indriya), he 
means to say 'against the gods;' — 'whatever sin 

1 According to KSty. V, 5,11, either the mistress alone offers, 
or she together with her husband. In the latter case, the offering- 
formula (as well as the dedicatory formula, 'This to the Maruts') 
is pronounced by both. 



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II KANDA, 5 ADHYAYA, 2 BRAHMAJVA, 29. 2)99 

we have here committed, that we expiate by offering, 
Svaha !' — whereby he says ' whatsoever sin we have 
committed, from all that we rid ourselves.' 

26. Thereupon he mutters the (verse) addressed 
to Indra and referring to the Maruts. — Now when 
the Maruts destroyed the sin of Pra^ipati's crea- 
tures, he thought within himself, ' I hope they will 
not destroy my creatures.' 

27. He muttered that (verse) addressed to Indra 
and referring to the Maruts. Indra indeed is the 
nobility, and the Maruts are the people ; and the 
nobility are the controllers of the people : ' They 
shall be controlled,' he thought ; and therefore (that 
verse, Va^. S. Ill, 46) is addressed to Indra. 

28. ' Let there not, O Indra, be (fight) for us here 
in battles with the gods, since there is a share for 
thee in the sacrifice, O fiery one! — for thee, the 
mighty showerer of gifts, whose Maruts the song 
of the offerer stream-like celebrates.' 

29. He then makes her say the text (V&f. S. Ill, 
47), ' The men skilled in the work have done the 
work,' — those skilled in the work have indeed done 
the work ; — ' with pleasing song ;' — for with song 
they have done it. ' Having done the work for the 
gods;' — for the gods indeed they have done the 
work; — 'go home, ye companions!' — they are now 
together with her while she is led thither from an- 
other place : hence she says, ' ye companions' (saia- 
bhu, ' being together'). ' Go home,' she says, because 
that wife doubtless is the hind part of the sacrifice, 
and he has just now made her take her seat to the east 
of the sacrifice. ' Home' doubtless means the house, 
and the house is a resting-place : hence he thereby 
makes her rest in that resting-place, the house. 



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400 SATAPATHA-BRAHMAJVA. 

30. Having led her back (to her seat) the Prati- 
prasthatn returns (to his place by the side of 
the southern altar). They now trim the fire 1 . When 
the fire has been trimmed, both (the Adhvaryu and 
Pratiprasthatre) make the second libation (of butter). 
Thereupon the Adhvaryu, having called (on the 
Agnidhra) for the '.Srausha/,' chooses the Hotri. 
The chosen Hotri then seats himself on the 
Hotri's seat beside the northern altar ; and having 
seated himself, he urges (the Adhvaryu and Prati- 
prasthatrz) to proceed. Being thus urged to proceed, 
they both take up the spoons and step across (to 
the south side of the fires). After stepping across 
and calling for the ' .Srausha/,' the Adhvaryu says 
(to the Hotri), 'Pronounce the offering-prayer on 
the kindling-sticks!' and 'Pronounce the offering- 
prayer !' at each (subsequent fore-offering). Pouring 
(the butter in the spoons) together (into the ^uhu) 
at the fourth 2 , they both proceed with the nine 
fore-offerings 3 . 

31. Thereupon the Adhvaryu says (to the Hot??), 

1 The Kanva text has more correctly, 'He trims both fires;' 
since it is the Agnidhra who has to trim both the northern and 
southern fires. See par. 19. 

* The recipients of the first four fore-offerings are the same as 
at the normal havirya^na (cf. p. 146 note), viz. 1. the kindling-sticks 
(samidhs); 2. Tanunapat (or Nar&rcussa) ; 3. the Ids; 4. the 
Barhis. The remaining ones are — 5. the doors (of heaven); 
6. dawn and night; 7. the two divine Hotri's; 8. the three god- 
desses (Sarasvatf, Ida., and Bharati); 9. all the deities to whom 
offering is made during the sacrifice (see I, 5, 3, 22 seq.). The 
objects of the first eight offerings are identical with those of the 
first eight verses of the Apr! hymns. 

' Or, 'at every fourth (fore-offering)?' According to the Pad- 
dhati on Katy. V, 5, the butter is poured together at the fourth and 
seventh praya^as. See also I, 5, 3, 16. 



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II KAiVDA, 5 ADHYAYA, 2 BRAHMAJVA, 35. 40I 

' Pronounce the invitatory prayer to Agni!' referring 
to Agni's butter-portion '. Both (the Adhvaryu and 
Pratiprasthatrz) having taken four ' cuttings ' of 
butter, they step across (to the north side of their 
respective fires). Having stepped across and called 
for the ' .Srausha/,' the Adhvaryu says (to the 
Hotrt), 'Pronounce the offering-formula to Agni!' 
After the 'Vasha/' has been uttered, they both 
pour out the oblation. 

32. The Adhvaryu then says, ' Pronounce (the 
invitatory prayer) to Soma!' referring to Soma's 
butter-portion. Both having taken four cuttings 
of butter, they step across. Having stepped across 
and called for the '.Srausha/,' the Adhvaryu says 
(to the Hotri), ' Pronounce the offering-prayer to 
Soma ! ' After the ' Vasha/ ' has been uttered, they 
both pour out the oblation. 

33. Thus whatever has to be done by speech, that 
the Adhvaryu does, and not the Pratiprasthatrz. Now 
as to why the Adhvaryu alone calls for the 'iSrausha/.' 
Here indeed when the 'Vasha/' is pronounced, — 

34. The Pratiprasthatr* is merely the imitator of 
what is done (by the Adhvaryu). For Varuwa is the 
nobility, and the Maruts are the people : hence he 
thereby makes the people the imitators, the followers 
of the nobility. But were the Pratiprasthatrz also 
to call for the '.Srausha/,' he would doubtless make 
the people equal in power to the nobility : for this 
reason the Pratiprasthitn does not call for the 
'»Srausha/.' 

35. The Pratiprasthatrz sits down, after taking the 
two offering-spoons in his hand. The Adhvaryu then 

1 See I, 6, 1, 20 seq. 
[12] D d 



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402 SATAPATHA-BRAHMANA. 

proceeds with those oblations, — viz. Agni's cake 
on eight potsherds, Soma's pap, SavitWs cake on 
twelve or eight potsherds, Sarasvatl's pap, Pushan's 
pap, and Indra and Agni's cake on twelve potsherds. 

36. Thereupon, being about to proceed with 
those two oblations of curds, (the Adhvaryu and 
PratiprasthatW) exchange (the ram and ewe) : the 
ram which was on the Maruts' (dish of curds) he 
(the Adhvaryu) places on that of Varu»a ; and the 
ewe which was on Vanma's (dish of curds) he (the 
PratiprasthatW) places on that of the Maruts. Now 
the reason why they make this exchange, is this, — 
Varu»a is the nobility, and the male represents 
energy : hence they thereby bestow energy on the 
nobility. The female, on the other hand, is without 
energy ; and the Maruts are the people : hence they 
thereby cause the people to be without energy. 
This is why they make this exchange. 

37. The Adhvaryu now says (to the Hotri), 'Pro- 
nounce the invitatory prayer to Varu»a ! ' He then 
pours an ' under-layer ' of butter (into the ^uhu), 
takes two cuttings from Varu«a's curds, and with 
either of the two cuttings puts the ram (in the 
spoon). He then pours butter thereon, replenishes 
(the place whence) the two cuttings (have been 
made), and steps across (to the south side of the 
fire). After stepping across and calling for the 
' •Srausha/,' he says (to the Hotri), ' Pronounce the 
offering-prayer to Varu«a!' and, on the 'Vasha/' 
being uttered, he pours out the oblation. 

38. Thereupon the Adhvaryu takes both spoons 
in his left hand; and taking hold of the Prati- 
prasthatrzs garment, says (to the Hotri), ' Pro- 
nounce the invitatory prayer to the Maruts ! ' The 



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II KANDA, 5 ADHYAYA, 2 BRAHMAATA, 4 1. 403 

PratiprasthatW then makes an 'under-layer' of butter 
(in his £uhu), and two cuttings from the curds of 
the Maruts, and with either of the two cuttings puts 
the ewe (in the spoon). He then pours butter 
thereon, replenishes (the place of) the two cuttings, 
and steps across (to the south of the fire). The 
Adhvaryu, having called for the '6rausha/,'says (to 
the Hotrt), ' Pronounce the offering-prayer to the 
Maruts ! ' and on the ' Vasha/ ' being uttered, (the 
Pratiprasthatr?) he pours out the oblation. 

39. The Adhvaryu then proceeds with the cake 
on eleven potsherds for Ka ; and having made that 
offering, he says, ' Pronounce the invitatory prayer 
to Agni Svish/akm (" the maker of good offering") ! ' 
The Adhvaryu then takes cuttings from all (his) 
oblations, one from each ; and the Pratiprasthatr? 
also takes one cutting from that oblation of curds 
(to the Maruts). They then pour twice butter upon 
(the portions), and step across (to the south side of 
the fires). On stepping across and calling for the 
'•Srausha/,' the Adhvaryu says, ' Pronounce the offer- 
ing-prayer to Agni Svish/akWt ; and after the (con- 
cluding) ' Vasha/,' they both pour out the oblation. 

40. The Adhvaryu now cuts off the fore-portion. 
Having then cut off the Ida piece by piece, he hands 
it to the Pratiprasthatn ; and the Pratiprasthatr? 
puts thereon two cuttings from the Maruts' curds. 
He (the Adhvaryu) then pours twice butter thereon. 
After invoking (the Ida), they cleanse themselves \ 

41. Thereupon the Adhvaryu says, ' O Brahman, 
shall I step forward?' Having put on the (remain- 
ing) kindling-stick 2 , he says, ' Agnfdh, trim the fire ! ' 

1 See 1, 8, 1, 18-43. * See II, 5, 2, 19, and 1, 8, 2, 3. 

D d 2 



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404 SATAPATHA-BRAHMAi^A. 

He, the Adhvaryu, then pours the clotted butter 1 
(in the przshada^ya-upabhrrt) into the two spoons 
(the gvhb and upabhrzt) ; and the Pratiprasthatr? 
also, if he have any clotted butter, divides it into 
two parts and pours it (into the two spoons) ; but 
if there is no clotted butter, he divides the butter 
in the upabhrzt in two parts and pours them out 
separately. Then both step across (to the south 
side of the fires). The Adhvaryu, having stepped 
across and called for the '.SraushaA' says (to the 
Hotri), ' Pronounce the offering-formula to the 
gods !' and, ' Pronounce the offering-formula ! ' at each 
(subsequent after-offering). Thus they both perform 
the nine after-offerings 2 , pouring together (the butter 
from the spoons) at the (or at every) fourth after- 
offering. The reason why there are nine fore- 
offerings and nine after-offerings, is that he thereby 
delivers the creatures both times from Vanwa's 
noose, — by the former (he delivers) the upright and 
by the latter those looking to the ground : for this 
reason there are nine fore-offerings and nine after- 
offerings. 

42. They both then separate the spoons 3 , after 
laying them (on the altars). Having separated the 
spoons, and anointed the enclosing-sticks ; and hav- 
ing thereupon taken hold of the (middle) enclosing- 

1 Prt'shad-S^ya (lit. mottled butter) is clarified butter mixed 
with sour milk. 

' The recipients of the nine after-offerings are as follows : 1. The 
divine Barhis ; 2. the divine doors ; 3. the divine dawn and night ; 
4. the two divine benefactresses (g'osh/ri) ; 5. the two goddesses 
of potent sacrifice (ur^&huti); 6. the two divine Hotrzs; 7. the three 
goddesses; 8. the divine Narlrawsa; 9. the divine Agni Svish- 
/akrrt. Cf. p. 400, note 2. 

5 See I, 8, 3, 1 seq. 



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II KANDA, 5 ADHYAYA, 2 BRAHMAJVA, 45. 405 

stick, and called for the (Agnldhra's) '.Srausha/,' the 
Adhvaryu thus addresses (the Hot*-*) 1 , ' The divine 
Hotrz's are summoned for the proclamation of suc- 
cess ; the human is called upon for the song of 
praise!' The HotW then intones the song of praise 
(suktavaka). Thereupon both seize their prastara- 
bunches and throw them (into the fires) ; both take 
a single straw each therefrom and remain sitting 
by (the fires) ; when the Hotri recites the song of 
praise, — 

43. The Agnidhra says, 'Throw after!' Both (the 
Adhvaryu and Pratiprasthatr* ) throw (the stalk) after 
(the prastara) ; and both touch themselves. 

44. He (the Agnidhra) then says 2 , ' Discourse 
(with me)!' [The Adhvaryu asks,] 'Has he gone 
(to the gods), Agnldh?' — 'He has gone!'— r' Bid 
(the gods) hear!' — 'Yea, may (one) hear!' — 'Good- 
speed to the divine Hotrisl Success to the human!' 
— The Adhvaryu also (afterwards) 8 says (to the 
Hotri), 'Pronounce the "All-hail and blessing!"' 
They both throw the enclosing-sticks (into the fire) ; 
and after taking up the spoons together, they both 
place them on the wooden sword*. 

45. Thereupon the Adhvaryu returns (to the 
Garhapatya fire) and performs the Patntsa/«- 
ya^as 6 . The Pratiprasthatrz, in the meantime, 

1 See 1, 8, 3, 10 seq. " See 1, 8, 3, 20 seq. 

* In thus briefly recapitulating the chief points of the course of 
sacrificial performance, the author's object is merely to assign to 
each officiating priest— especially to the Adhvaryu and his assist- 
ant, the PratiprasthStr* — his special share of business. In the 
actual performance, the pronunciation of the formula of ' All-hail 
and blessing' (see 1, 9, 1, 26), of course, comes after the throwing 
of the enclosing-sticks into the fire (see I, 8, 3, 22). 

* See 1, 8, 3, 26. e See 1, 9, 2, 1. 



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406 SATAPATHA-BRAHMA.WA. 

remains waiting. After performing the Patntsazw- 
ya^as, the Adhvaryu steps up (to the northern 
fire). 

46. He (the Adhvaryu) performs the three Sami- 
sh/aya^us (with the respective texts) 1 ; the Prati- 
prasthatre takes up his spoon (and performs those 
oblations) silently. — The same garments, worn by the 
sacrificer and his wife at the Vawvadeva, should be 
put on also on this occasion. They now take (the 
havis) mixed with the burnt scrapings of the Varu«a 
curds, and betake themselves to (the place of) the 
expiatory bath (avabhrztha). This (ablution) stands 
in relation to Varuwa, (being performed) with a view 
to deliverance from Varuwa's power. No Saman- 
hymn is sung on this occasion, for at this (sacrifice) 
nothing whatever is performed with a Saman-hymn. 
Having silently walked thither and entered (the 
water), he (die Adhvaryu) immerses (the vessel 
containing the scrapings). 

47. With the text (Vaf. S. Ill, 48), 'O laving 
bath, laving thou glidest along: with the help of 
the gods may I wipe out the sin committed against 
the gods, and with the help of mortals the sin 
committed against mortals ! Preserve me, O God, 
from injury from the fiercely-howling (demon)!' 
Those (garments worn while bathing) 2 he may give 

1 See p. 390, note 3. 

2 KSty. V, 5, 30-33, and the scholiasts supply the following par- 
ticulars : The sacrificer and his wife, accompanied by the priests, 
are to repair to some quiet part of flowing water. The Adhvaryu 
then takes the sacrificer by the arm and makes him enter the 
water. Thereupon he himself enters, strews sacrificial grass on the 
water, puts a stick on it, and thereon offers a spoonful of butter 
to Agni. Then follow six oblations, viz. four fore-offerings, 
performed in the usual way (the one to the Barhis being omitted) ; 



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ii kAjvda, 5 adhyAya, 2 brAhmaya, 48. 407 

to whichever (priest) he chooses, since they are not 
the garments of an initiated person. Even as a snake 
casts its skin, so does he cast away all his sin. 

48. Thereupon they shave (the sacrificer's) hair 
and beard; and take up the two fires 1 , — for only 
after changing his place (to the ordinary sacrificial 
ground) he performs that (other) sacrifice 2 , since it is 
not proper that he should perform the Agnihotra on 
the uttaravedi : for this reason he changes his place. 
Having gone to the house 3 and ' churned out ' the 
fires, he performs the full-moon offering. These 
seasonal offerings doubtless are detached sacrifices; 
whereas the full-moon offering is a regular, esta- 
blished sacrifice : hence he finally establishes him- 
self by means of that regular sacrifice ; and therefore 
he changes his place (to the ordinary sacrificial 
ground). 



an oblation of butter to Varuwa, and another of the scrapings of 
curds to Agni and Varu«a. Other authorities offer ten oblations 
instead of six, viz. four fore-offerings, two 'butter-portions' to Agni 
and Soma, the two oblations to Varvwa and Agni-Varuna, and two 
after-offerings. The Adhvaryu then immerses the butter-pot, with 
the text "V&g. S. Ill, 48. Thereupon the sacrificer and his wife 
bathe without diving, but wash each other's back. They then come 
out of the water and put on fresh clothes. 

1 Viz. by lighting (or heating) at them two arams or churning- 
sticks, by means of which the fires are transferred to the old hearths. 
According to the Paddhati, the remaining ceremonies of the ish/i, 
from the offering of the Barhis (see I, 9, 2, 29) to the end, are 
performed previously to the lifting of the fires. 

2 Viz. the full-moon sacrifice, see II, 6, 2, 19, where, however, 
agnau instead of agni. The construction here is quite irregular. 
The Ka/iva text has : k&raxmanuptvagn? samarohayata udavasaya 
hy etena ya^ate. 

* That is, to the ordinary sacrificial ground. 



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408 satapatha-brAhmava. 

Third BrAhmajva. 
C. Thb Sakamkdha Offerings 1 . 

i. Verily, by means of the Vanwapraghasa^ 
Pra^apati delivered the creatures from Varu«a's 
noose ; and those creatures of his were born without 
disease and blemish. Now with these Sakamedha 
offerings, — therewith indeed the gods slew VWtra, 
therewith they gained that supreme authority which 
they now wield ; and so does he now therewith slay 
his wicked, spiteful enemy and gain the victory: 
this is why he performs these offerings in the fourth 
month (after the Varu»apraghasa^). He performs 
them on two successive days. 

2. On the first day he offers a cake on eight 
potsherds to Agni Anlkavat 2 . For it was after 

1 The performance of the Sakamedha offerings requires two 
days. In the first place — after the Ahavantya has been 'taken out' 
from the Garhapatya — both fires are taken up by means of (or 
'made to mount') the two kindling-sticks, and transferred (by 
'churning out') to another altar (the uttaravedi). On the first 
day oblations are then made to Agni Anikavat, the MarutaA 
SantapanaA and the Maruto GrihamedhinaA, these being 
completed on the next morning by a Darvihoma to Indra, and 
an oblation of cake to the MarutaA Kri</inaA. Then follows the 
Mahahavis, consisting — besides the five constant oblations — of 
oblations to Indra-Agni, Mahendra, and VLrvakarman. In the 
afternoon takes place the Mahapitri'ya^jia, or (Great) sacrifice 
to the Manes (performed on a special altar and fire-place, south 
of the Dakshiwagni) ; which is succeeded by the Traiyambaka- 
homa, or offering to Rudra Tryambaka, performed on a cross-way 
somewhere north of the sacrificial ground. 

" That is, Agni, the 'sharp-pointed' or 'sharp-edged;' an epi- 
thet apparently referring to the pointed flames or tongues of Agni. 
The St. Petersburg Diet, takes it to mean 'Agni, possessed of a 
face.' Perhaps it may mean, 'Agni, constituting the front or van 
of the army.' In .Sat. Br. Ill, 4, 4, 14, Agni is likened to the point 
(anika) of the thunderbolt, Soma to its shaft (salya), and Vishwu 



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II KAiVDA, 5 ADHYAYA, 3 BRAHMAJVA, 4. 409 

shaping Agni into a sharp point 1 , that the gods 
rushed forward, intent on slaying Vn'tra; and that 
sharp point, Agni, swerved not. And so does he 
(the Sacrificer) now rush forward, after shaping Agni 
into a sharp point, intent on slaying his wicked, 
spiteful enemy ; and that sharp point, Agni, swerves 
not : this is why he sacrifices to Agni Anikavat. 

3. Thereupon, at midday, he offers a potful of 
boiled grain (£aru) to the Maruts, the Scorchers 
(Santapana^), for at midday indeed the scorching 
winds scorched Vr/tra ; and thus scorched he lay 
panting and gasping, being rent all over. And so 
do the scorching winds scorch his (the Sacrificer' s) 
wicked, spiteful enemy : hence (he sacrifices) to the 
Maruts, the Scorchers. 

4. Thereupon, (in the evening, he offers a potful of 
boiled grain) to the Maruts, the Householders (Gri- 
hamedhina^). That pap he cooks after driving 

to the part where the point is fixed on the shaft (kulmala). 
Compare the corresponding passage in Taitt. Br. I, 6, 6 : ' The 
gods and Asuras were contending. Agni spake, "My body is 
anikavat (possessed of an army, ace. to Saya«a): satisfy it and 
you will overcome the Asuras !" The gods prepared a cake on 
eight potsherds for Agni Anikavat. Agni Anikavat, being pleased 
with his share, produced for himself four anikas; and thereby 
the gods prevailed and the Asuras were defeated. . . . Now Agni 
Anikavat is yonder sun: his rays are the anikas.' Here anika 
would rather seem to mean either • dart ' or ' face.' [In Taitt. Br. 
1, 6, 2, 5, in the battle between the gods and Asuras, Agni is repre- 
sented as the mukham of the gods, which Say ana takes to mean 
the 'van-guard' or 'the champion' of the gods. Compare also 
•Sat. Br. II, 6, 4, 2 ; XI, 5, 2, 4.] Ace. to the Black Ya^us, the cake 
to Agni Anikavat is to be prepared (or offered) simultaneously 
(sakam) with the rising of the sun; whence is probably derived 
the term ' Sakam-edha.' 

1 I. e. into a sharp-pointed weapon ; or, perhaps, ' after appoint- 
ing Agni their leader.' Cf. p. 449 note; and Sat. Br.V, 3, 1, 1. 



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4IO tfATAPATHA-BRAHMA^A. 

away the calves (from the cows) with the (pali^a-) 
branch, and having (all the cows) milked into the 
pot containing the strainers. Now, whenever (in 
preparing the pap) they use (whole) rice-grains, then 
that is a £aru: this nourishment 1 the gods took 
when they were about to slay VWtra on the morrow ; 
and so does he (the Sacrificer) now take that 
nourishment, being about to slay his wicked, spiteful 
enemy. The reason, then, why it is milk-pap, is that 
milk is nourishment, and rice-grains are nourishment, 
and that he thus puts into him (atman) that twofold 
nourishment. For this reason it is a rice-pap 
(prepared) with milk. 

5. The practice, in regard to this (pap, is as 
follows). The same altar covered (with sacrificial 
grass) which served for the (oblation to) the Maruts, 
the Scorchers, is (now used) 2 . Near this covered 
altar they lay down the enclosing-sticks and pieces 
of wood. Having had (the cows) milked in the 
same way (as before), he (the Adhvaryu) cooks the 
pap ; and having cooked it and basted it with butter, 
he removes it from the fire. 

6. They then rinse either two plates or two 
dishes, and put that (pap) thereon in two equal 

1 That is, strengthening food. Instead of medhas, the K£»va 
recension has throughout medham (as once in our text). 

2 At the preceding offering, that to the MarutaA Sintapani^, 
the ish/i is either to be interrupted at the end of the Samish/aya^us 
(see 1, 9, 2, 25-28), or only the offering of the Barhis (1, 9, 2, 29- 
31) is to be omitted. The concluding ceremonies are to be per- 
formed either on the same day, after the offering to the Maruto 
Gr/hamedhinaA — which itself concludes with the L&, and (ace. 
to Taitt. Br. I, 6, 6, 6) has neither fore-offerings nor after-offerings — 
or the following morning after the Darvihoma (see par. 17). KSty. 
V,6,3-5; 32-33. 



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ii kAjvda, 5 adhyAya, 3 brAhmawa, 9. 411 

parts. Having then made a hollow in each (pap), he 
(the Adhvaryu) pours clarified butter therein, and 
wipes both the dipping-spoon and the offering- 
spoon. Thereupon he takes the two dishes of pap, 
and walks up (to the altar); and again, he takes 
the dipping and offering spoons, and walks up ; and 
having touched 1 the covered altar, and laid the 
enclosing-sticks round (the fire) 2 , he puts on as 
many pieces of firewood as he thinks fit He then 
deposits those two dishes of pap, and the dipping and 
offering spoons, in their places (outside the altar). 
The Hotri sits down on the Hotri's seat. Taking the 
dipping and offering spoons, he (the Adhvaryu) says, — 

7. ' Pronounce the invitatory prayer to Agni ! ' 
with reference to Agni's butter-portion. He then 
takes four 'cuttings' of butter from the hollow 
of the southern pap, and steps over (to the south 
side of the fire). Having stepped over, and called 
for the (Agnldhra's) '6rausha/,'he says (to the Hotri), 
' Pronounce the offering-prayer to Agni !' and pours 
out the oblation, as soon as the Vasha/ has been 
uttered. 

8. He then says, ' Pronounce the invitatory prayer 
to Soma!' with reference to Soma's butter-portion. He 
then takes four cuttings of butter from the hollow of 
the northern pap, and steps over. Having stepped 
over and called for the ' .Srausha/,' he says, ' Pro- 
nounce the offering-prayer to Soma !' and pours out 
the oblation, as soon as the Vasha/ has been uttered. 

9. He then says, ' Pronounce the invitatory prayer 

1 According to Katy. V, 6, 14, he is to do so either silently, or 
with the text (Va^. S. II, 2) used in spreading the sacrificial grass 
on the altar. See I, 3, 3, n. 

s Seel, 3,3, 13; 3, 4, iseq. 



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4 1 2 JATAPATHA-BRA HMAJVA. 

to the Maruts, the Householders!' He makes an 
' under-layer' of butter (in the offering-spoon) from 
the hollow of the southern pap, takes two cuttings 
from the latter, pours some butter thereon, and steps 
across. Having stepped across and called for the 
' .Srausha/,' he says, ' Pronounce the offering-prayer to 
the Maruts, the Householders!' and pours out the 
oblation as soon as the Vasha/ has been uttered. 

10. He then says, ' Pronounce the invitatory prayer 
to Agni Svish/akr/t 1 ! ' He makes an under-layer of 
butter from the hollow of the northern pap, takes two 
cuttings from the latter, pours some butter thereon, 
and steps across. Having stepped across and called 
for the ' .Srausha/,' he says, ' Pronounce the offering- 
prayer to Agni Svish/akWt!' and pours out the 
oblation as soon as the Vasha/ has been uttered. 
Thereupon he cuts off the Ida 2 , but no fore-portion 3 . 
Having invoked (the Ida), they cleanse themselves. 
This is one mode of performance. 

ii. Then there is this other. The same altar 
covered (with sacrificial grass) which has served for 
the Maruts, the Scorchers, is (used now). Near 
this covered altar they lay down the enclosing-sticks 
and pieces of firewood ; and having had (the cows) 
milked in the same way (as before) he cooks the rice- 
pap. The butter he puts on so as to be no mere 
accessory 4 . Having cooked (the pap) and basted 



1 See I, 7, 3, i seq. * See I, 8, i, i seq. 

3 See I, i, 4, 6 seq. 

4 Ned eva prativcram a^yam adhwrayati. There seems to be 
some mistake here. The commentary on Katy. V, 6, 6 has ' tad 
eva ' instead of ' ned eva.' Saya«a says that the butter is put on 
the Dakshinagni ; but according to Katy. V, 6, 24, it is put on the 
fire together with the pap. The Kanva text has, abhyardha Zgyam 



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II KANDA, 5 ADHYAyA, 3 BRAHMAJVA, 1 3. 413 

it, and removed it (from the fire), he anoints it. He 
then removes the butter in the pot (from the fire), 
and wipes the dipping and offering spoons. There- 
upon, taking the dish with the pap, he walks up (to 
the altar) ; and again, taking the butter in the pot, he 
walks up ; and again, taking the dipping and offering 
spoons, he walks up (to the altar). He then touches 
that covered altar, lays the enclosing-sticks round 
(the Ahavanlya fire), and puts on as many pieces of 
wood as he thinks fit. He then deposits successively l 
(in their respective places) the dish with the pap, 
the pot with butter, and the dipping and offering 
spoons. The Hotrt sits down in the HotWs seat. 
Taking the dipping and offering spoons, he (the 
Adhvaryu) says, — 

12. 'Pronounce the invitatory prayer to Agni!' 
with a view to (offering) Agni's butter-portion. He 
then takes four 'cuttings' of butter from the pot 
and steps across (to the offering-place on the south 
side of the fire). Having stepped across and called 
for the (Agnidhra's) ^Srausha/, he says (to the HotW), 
' Pronounce the offering-prayer to Agni!' and pours 
out the oblation, as soon as the Vasha/ has been 
uttered. 

13. He then says, 'Pronounce the invitatory 
prayer to Soma!' with a view to Soma's butter- 
portion. He then takes four cuttings of butter 
from the pot, and steps across. Having stepped 

sthalyam adhirrayati, 'he puts on the butter in the pot on the 
near side.' 

1 In the original this is expressed by repetition of the verb, as 
was the case in the last sentence but one, where the original con- 
struction is retained. The Kawva text has merely, • Having taken 
(the pap) with the dish, he hastes up (udadravati).' 



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414 DATAPATH A-BRAHMAJVA. 

across, and called for the *SVausha/, he says, ' Pro- 
nounce the offering-formula to Soma ! ' and pours out 
the oblation, as soon as the Vasha/ has been uttered. 

14. Thereupon he says, ' Pronounce the invita- 
tory prayer to the Maruts, the Householders ! ' He 
then makes an ' under-layer ' of butter (in the ^uhu), 
takes two cuttings from that pap, pours some butter 
thereon, re-anoints (replenishes with butter the parts 
of the sacrificial dish from which he has made) 1 the 
two cuttings, and steps across (to the offering-place). 
Having stepped across and called for the *Srausha/, 
he says,' Pronounce the offering-prayer to the Maruts, 
the Householders!' and pours out the oblation, as 
soon as the Vasha/ has been uttered. 

15. Thereupon he says, ' Pronounce the invitatory 
prayer to Agni Svish/akm!' He then makes an 
under-layer of butter, takes one cutting from the 
pap, pours twice butter thereon, without, however, 
re-anointing the (place of the) cutting ; and steps 
across. Having stepped across, and called for the 
.Srausha/, he says, ' Pronounce the offering-prayer 
to Agni Svish/akWt!' and pours out the oblation, 
as soon as the Vasha/ has been uttered. 

16. He then cuts off the Ida, but no fore-portion. 
Having invoked (the Ida), they (the priests) eat it 
As many members of (the sacrificer's) household as 
are entitled to partake of the remains of sacrificial 

1 ' Pratyanakti ' is probably the same as ' pratyabhighdrayati,' 
generally applied to the basting of the avadana-sthana, or that 
part of the havis from whence the cuttings have been made (K&ty. 
1, 9, 1 1 ; the ' replenishing ' of the havis in -Sat. Br. I, 7, 3, 6 refers to 
the same thing). See, however, KSty. V, 6, 22, where it is ruled that 
no pratyabhighiraaa is to take place at the present sacrifice. The 
Kd»va MS., on the other hand, reads, 'he does not re-anoint the two 
cuttings.' Perhaps he is to anoint separately the two cut-off pieces. 



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ii kXnda, 5 adhyAya, 3 brAhmaya, 17. 415 

food * may eat (of the pap) ; or the officiating priests 
may eat it; or, if there be abundant pap, other 
Brahmans also may eat of it. The pot having then 
been covered, before it is quite emptied, they put 
it away in a safe place, for the ' full-spoon ceremony.' 
Thereupon they let the calves together with their 
mothers ; and thus the cattle take that nourishment. 
That night he performs the Agnihotra with rice- 
gruel. In the morning they milk a cow, which 
suckles an adopted calf 2 , for the purpose of the 
offering to the fathers. 

17. Thereupon, in the morning, either after or 
before the performance of the Agnihotra — which- 
ever he pleases — he cuts out (the remaining 
rice-pap) with the darvi-spoon 8 from the un- 
emptied pot, with the text (Vif. S. Ill, 49), ' Full, 
O spoon, fly away, well filled fly back to us! 

1 That is, those who have been invested with the sacrificial cord. 
According to Taitt. Br. I, 6, 7, 1 the mistress of the house is not to 
eat of it, but an additional (prativtra) pap is to be cooked specially 
for her on the Dakshiwa fire. 

* ' In the morning they tie up the (adopted) calf of a niv&nyS 
(cow suckling a strange calf),' Kinva text 

9 The Darvi-homa, or oblation of a darvi-spoonful of boiled 
rice to Indra, the associate of the Maruts, may be considered as 
part of the Grthamedhfyi ish/i, being, as it were, an offering of 
remains (or scrapings, nishklsa, Taitt. Br. I, 6, 7, 3) ; cf. KSty. y, 
6, 33. Like all (ruhoti-offerings, the darvi-homa is performed by 
the Adhvaryu while seated on the north side of the fire. According 
to Taitt. Br. I, 6, 7, 3, it is to be offered in the Girhapatya, but 
according to Kity.V, 6, 38 (comm.) in the Ahavanlya. If the 
concluding ceremonies of the Sdntapanfyi ish/i (from the offering 
of the Barhis) have not already been performed on the previous 
night, they have to be performed after the conclusion of the darvi- 
homa. If, however, only the offering of the Barhis was then 
omitted, the darvi-homa, if performed before the Agnihotra, is 
followed immediately by that oblation. 



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416 satapatha-brAhmaata. 

O thou (Indra), of a hundredfold powers, let us two 
barter food and drink, like wares!' In like manner 
as an invitatory prayer (is used at offerings) so 
does he by this (verse) invite him (Indra) to that 
share. 

18. Let him then tell (the Sacrificer) to make 
a bull roar. 'If it roars,' say some, 'then that 
(sound) is the Vasha/; let him offer after that 
Vasha/.' And in this way indeed he calls Indra 
in his own form to the slaying of VWtra 1 ; for the 
bull is indeed Indra's form : hence he thereby 
calls Indra in his own form to the slaying of 
Vritra.. If it roars, then one may know that 
Indra has come to his sacrifice, that his sacrifice 
is with Indra. And should it not roar, let the priest, 
seated on the south side (viz. the Brahman), say, 
'Sacrifice!' — this, indeed, is Indra's voice. 

19. He offers with the text (Va^-. S. Ill, 50), 
' Give unto me, (and) I give unto thee. Bestow 
(gifts) on me, (and) I bestow on thee 2 ! And mayest 
thou give me guerdon, (and) I will give thee 
guerdon! Svaha!' 

20. He then offers a cake on seven potsherds 
to the sportive (Kridina^) Maruts. For when 
Indra went forward in order to slay VWtra, the 
sportive Maruts were sporting around him singing 
his praises ; and even so do they sport around 
this (Sacrificer), singing his praises, now that he 
is about to slay his wicked, spiteful enemy : this 

1 On the symbolic connection of the seasonal offerings, especi- 
ally the SakamedhaA, with the slaying of Vrrtra, the evil spirit of 
drought, see II, 6, 4, 1. 

* According to Mahtdhara, this first line is spoken by Indra to 
his worshipper ; the second line containing the latter's reply. 



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II KANDA, 5 ADHYAYA, 4 BRAHMAJVA, 2. 417 

is why (he sacrifices) to the sportive Maruts '. 
Thereupon (follows the performance) of the Great 
Oblation (Mahi-havis) : this (performance) is in 
accordance with that of the great (seasonable) 
oblation 2 . 

Fourth BrAhmajva. 

1. Verily, by means of the Great Oblation the 
gods slew VWtra 3 ; by means of it they gained that 
supreme authority which they now wield ; and so 
does he (the Sacrificer) thereby now slay his wicked, 
spiteful enemy, and gain the victory : this is why 
he performs this sacrifice. 

2. The mode of its performance (is as follows) : 
They raise an uttara-vedi * ; they use clotted 
butter*; and they churn the fire. There are nine 

1 Comp. Taitt Br. I, 6,1,4: When Indra had slain VWira (with 
the thunderbolt) he went to the farthest distances, thinking that he 
had missed (his aim). He said, ' Who will know this ' [viz. whether 
Vr/'tra is really dead or not, comm.] ? The Maruts said, ' We will 
choose a boon, then we will know (find it out) : let the first obla- 
tion be prepared for us ! They sported (danced about) on him 
(Vritra, and thereby found out that he was dead). 

* That is to say, the Mahi-havis, or Great Oblation, though 
apparently only an integral part of the SikamedhiA, is in reality 
its chief ceremony, and may therefore be considered as being itself 
on a par with the other seasonal offerings ; hence it requires the 
five oblations common to all the A'iturmisyas ; see II, 5, 1, 8-1 1. 
The Black Ya^us it seems does not use the term Mahi-havis, but 
assigns more importance to the Maha-pitr/'ya^na (see II, 6, i, 1 seq.). 
See Apastamba's Paribhishis, 80, 81 (M. Mtiller, Zeitschrift der 
Deutschen Morg. Ges. IX), according to which the sacrifice to the 
Manes belongs to the Mahiya^nas. 

* See p. 416, note 1. 

* See p. 392, note 1. The southern altar is not required at 
the present ceremony. 

* See p. 404, note 1. 

[is] e e 



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41 8 DATAPATH A-BRAHMAW A. 

fore-offerings and nine after-offerings 1 , and three 
Samish/aya^us. In the first place there are those 
five oblations ". 

3. Now as to why there is a cake on eight pot- 
sherds for Agni. With Agni, (shaped into) a sharp 
point (te^as) 3 , indeed, they (the gods) slew him 
( VWtra) ; and Agni, that sharp point, swerved not : 
hence there is (a cake) for Agni. 

4. Then as to why there is a rice-pap for Soma. 
With the aid of Soma, the king, indeed they slew 
him, they who have Soma for their king: hence 
there is a pap for Soma. 

5. Then as to why there is a cake on twelve, 
or eight 4 , potsherds for Savitri. Savitrz, indeed, 
is the impeller (prasavitrz) of the gods ; and impelled 
by Savitrz they slew him : hence there is (a cake) 
for Savitrz. 

6. Then as to why there is a rice-pap for 
Sarasvatt. Sarasvati in truth is Speech; and 
Speech indeed it was that cheered them up, saying, 
'Strike! slay 6 !' Hence there is a pap for Sara- 
svati. 

7. Then as to why there is a rice-pap for 
Pushan. Pushan doubtless is this earth 6 , and this 

1 See II, 5, 2, 30 and 41. 
1 See II, 5, 1, ii, with note 9. 

* See II, 5, 3, 2. This cake, again, is to be prepared (or offered) 
simultaneously with the rising of the sun ; see p. 409 note. 

4 According to Taitt. S. I, 8, 4 it is to be one on twelve 
potsherds. 
The Ka/»va text has, 'Attack (abhipadyasva)! strike! slay!' 

• This identification of Pushan with the earth is very strange, 
the more so as, at II, 5, 1, 11, special stress is laid on the male 
nature of Pushan. Perhaps it is in his character of bountiful 
bestower of food and cattle, or as the tutelary god of travellers, 
that he is so identified. 



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II KANDA, 5 ADHYAYA, 4 BRAHMAtfA, II. 4 1 9 

earth, indeed, gave him (Vn'tra) up to slaughter; 
and they slew him, thus given up by her : hence 
there is a rice-pap for Pushan. 

8. Then follows a cake on twelve potsherds 
for Indra and Agni; for by means of that they 
slew him, since Agni means fiery glow (te^as), 
and Indra means manly power, and by means of 
these two powers they did indeed slay him. More- 
over, Agni is the priesthood, and Indra is the 
nobility; having allied these two, having closely 
united the priesthood with the nobility, they (the 
gods) slew him by means of these two powers : 
hence there is a cake on twelve potsherds for 
Indra and Agni. 

9. Then follows a rice-pap for Mahendra. For 
before the slaying of VWtra he was indeed Indra; 
but after slaying Vr/tra he became Mahendra (the 
great Indra), even as (a king becomes) a mahara^a, 
after obtaining the victory : hence there is a rice-pap 
for Mahendra. And thereby indeed he renders him 
great (strong) for the slaying of "Wz'tra : for this 
reason also there is a rice-pap for Mahendra. 

10. Then follows a cake on one potsherd for 
Visvakarman. To the gods, indeed, on perform- 
ing the Sakamedha-sacrifice and obtaining the victory 
(over Vrz'tra), that sacred work (karman) was made 
complete (vis va), and all was conquered ; and so 
is that sacred work made complete, and all is con- 
quered, by him who has performed the Sakamedha- 
sacrifice and obtained the victory : hence there is a 
cake on one potsherd for Visvakarman. 

11. And, verily, by performing this sacrifice the 
gods became what race, what prosperity of the gods 
there now is; and that same race he propagates, 

E e 2 



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420 DATAPATH A-BRAHMAJVA. 

that same prosperity he attains, whosoever, knowing 
this, performs this sacrifice. Let him therefore 
perform this sacrifice. 

Sixth AdhyAya. First BrAhmawa. 

i. Verily, by means of the Great Oblation the 
gods slew VWtra, and gained that supreme autho- 
rity which they now wield. And by means of the 
sacrifice to the fathers they then recalled to life 
those of them that had been slain in this battle ; 
and they, indeed, were the fathers : hence the 
name Vitriysignz} (sacrifice to the Manes). 

2. Now the spring, the summer, and the rainy 
season, — they are those who vanquished (Vn'tra); 
and the autumn, the winter, and the dewy season, — 
they are those whom they (the gods) recalled to 
life 2 . 

3. Now when he performs that sacrifice, he does 
so, hoping that thus they (the Asuras) will not slay 
any of his, or because the gods did so (perform it). 
Moreover he thereby offers to those (fathers) the 
share which the gods assigned to them ; and thus 
he gratifies those whom the gods recalled to life, and 
leads his own fathers up to a better world ; and 
whatever injury or loss he suffers through his own 
unrighteous conduct (or wrong sacrificial perform- 
ance) 3 that is thereby made good to him : that is 
why he performs this sacrifice (to the fathers). 

1 This is generally called the Mahipitr/ya^na, as distinguished 
from the ordinary monthly Pitrj'ya^wa of the new-moon sacrifice ; 
for which see II, 4, 2, 1 seq. 

g See II, 1, 3, 1 seq. 

* Instead of ' a£ara*ena,' the Kiwva MS. has ' £ara«ena(!).' Cf. 
SSyawa's interpretation ' anu£ara»ena anugamanena ka..' 



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II KANDA, 6 ADHYAYA, I BRAHMAiVA, 8. 42 I 

4. He offers a cake on six potsherds to the 
Pitara^ Somavanta^, or to Soma Pitrimat 1 . 
Six doubtless are the seasons, and the fathers are 
the seasons : hence it is one of six potsherds. 

5. Thereupon they parch barley-grain on the 
Anvaharyapa&ina (or Dakshi»agni) for the Pitaro 
Barhishada^ 2 . They then grind one half of it; 
and (the other) half remains thus unground, — this 
is the parched grain for the Barhis-seated fathers. 

6. Then a porridge is (prepared) for the Pitaro 
'gnishvatta^ 3 (by the ground half of the parched 
grain) being mixed with the milk of a cow suckling 
an adopted calf, by stirring it once with a single 
splinter. It is indeed once for all that the fathers 
have departed, and hence it is stirred but once. 
These are the oblations. 

7. Now those (fathers) who have sacrificed with 
Soma are the Pitara^ Somavanta^ ; and those 
who gain the world (of the gods) by means of 
cooked (sacrificial food) offered by them are the 
Pitaro Barhishada^; and they who (have offered) 
neither the one nor the other, and whom Agni 
consumes by burning, they are the Pitaro 'gnishvat- 
ta/z. These, then, are the fathers *. 

8. He takes out [the rice for] that cake of six 
potsherds, while seated behind the Garhapatya, and 
looking southwards, with the sacrificial cord over 
his right shoulder. From thence he rises and 

1 That is, either to ' the fathers, accompanied by Soma (or 
possessed of Soma),' or to ' Soma, accompanied by the fathers.' 
The Black Ya^us assigns the oblation to Soma Pitrraiat. 

2 That is, ' the fathers seated on the barhis.' 

* That is, ' the fathers consumed by the fire.' 

* ' These, then, are the three kinds of fathers,' Kawva recension. 



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422 SATAPATHA-BRAHMAiVA. 

threshes (the rice), while standing north of the 
Dakshi#a-fire, with his face towards the south. He 
cleans it but once ' ; since it is once for all that the 
fathers have departed. 

9. He places the two mill-stones on (the black 
antelope skin, so as to be inclined) towards the 
south 2 ; and puts the six potsherds on the south 
part of the Garhapatya hearth. The reason why 
they keep the southern direction is because that 
is the region of the fathers : this is why they keep 
the southern direction. 

10. Thereupon he raises a square altar south 
of the Dakshi»4gni 3 . He makes the corners point 
towards the intermediate quarters. There are doubt- 
less four intermediate quarters, and the fathers are 
the intermediate quarters : this is why he makes the 
corners point towards the intermediate quarters. 

11. In the centre of this (altar) he lays down the 
fire. From the east, indeed, the gods came westwards 
to the men : hence one offers to them while standing 

1 Not thrice, as at an ordinary ish/i; see 1, 1, 4, 23. 

* Not towards the east, as at the Darrapur/jamasa ; cf. p. 38, 
note 3. At offerings to the Manes the south, as a rule, takes the 
place of the east, the west that of the south, &c. 

3 At the conclusion of the Aptya ceremony (cf. I, 2, 2, 18-3, 5) 
he erects south of the (ordinary) Dakshina-fire a (quadrangular) 
shed (see further on, paragraph 20) with a door on the north side. 
Inside it he prepares a quadrangular altar (of the same size as at 
the Darfapurwamasa ; cf. I, 2, 5, 14) with the corners towards the 
intermediate quarters, in the centre of which he makes the (new) 
Dakshiwagni hearth. [According to Taitt. Br. I, 6, 8, 5-6 no 
digging takes place in preparing the altar (which is to be square) 
at the Pitr;'yag7la.] When the Dakshina-fire is transferred to the 
new fire-place, the Pra»ha-water (see p. 9, note) is carried after it, 
followed by the Brahman and Sacrificer, and placed east (not north) 
of the hearth. The laying down of the 'fire is preceded by the 
usual fivefold lustration of the hearth (see p. 2). 



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II KXND\, 6 ADHYAYA, I BRAHMAiVA, 12. 423 

with his face towards the east. On all sides are the 
fathers, for the fathers are the intermediate regions, 
and the intermediate regions are indeed on all sides : 
this is why he lays down the fire in the centre. 

12. From thence he throws the grass-bush (stam- 
baya^us) eastwards 1 . Having thrown away the grass- 
bush, he first encloses (the altar) thus (viz. on the 
west side), then thus (viz. on the north side), then 
thus (on the east side). Having enclosed it with 
the first line of enclosure, he (the Adhvaryu) draws 
(three) lines (across the altar) 2 and [the Agnldhra] 
removes (from them the dust) which has to be 
removed. In the same way he encloses it with the 
second line of enclosure; and having enclosed it with 
the second line of enclosure, and smoothed it down, 
he says, ' Place the sprinkling water on (the altar) ! ' 
They accordingly place the sprinkling water on (the 
altar) ; and the firewood and barhis they lay down 
beside it 3 . He (the Agnldhra) wipes the spoons. 
He then walks up (to the altar) with the butter (and 

1 Instead of northwards, as is done at the normal ish/i ; see I, 
2, 4, 12 seq. 

* After tracing the first line of enclosure, the Adhvaryu draws 
three lines across the altar, either from west to east or from south 
to north; and says to the Agnldhra, 'Take thrice I' The latter 
then takes the dust from the lines and throws it on the utkara (the 
heap of rubbish, formed north of the altar in preparing the latter), 
and thereupon again obliterates them. According to Katy. II, 
6, 29, the same ceremony may be performed at the Danrapurwa- 
mSsa ; but there no mention is made of it by our author (see I, 

2, 5. «)• 

s Viz. the Agnldhra lays them down between the altar and the 
pramt&A (see p. 422, note 3); the firewood behind (west of) the 
sacrificial grass (barhis), and both with the tops towards the south. 
The wooden sword also has been previously put down by the 
Adhvaryu close behind the prawltaA. 



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424 SATAPATHA-BRAHMAJVA. 

puts it down thereon 1 , north of the sprinkling water). 
He (the Adhvaryu) takes butter, while ' sacrificially- 
invested 2 .' 

13. Here now they say, ' Let him take butter in 
the upabhm (by) twice (ladling with the dipping 
spoon); since there are two after-offerings 3 at this 
(sacrifice).' Let him, nevertheless, ladle eight times 
into the upabhrz't : let him do so, lest he should 
depart from the manner of the sacrifice. After 
ladling out butter, and shifting his cord back to 
the right shoulder, — 

14. The Adhvaryu takes the lustral water, and 
sprinkles first the firewood, and then the altar*. 
Thereupon they hand the sacrificial grass 6 to him, 
and he puts it down (on the altar) with the knot 
to the east. Having thereupon sprinkled it and 

1 The lady of the house not being present at the sacrifice to the 
Manes, neither the ceremony of girding (I, 3, 1, 12 seq.), nor that 
of her looking at the butter — while it is taken from the Girhapatya 
fire, along the east side of the Ahavanfya to the altar — takes place 
on this occasion. According to the commentators on Katy. V, 8, 
25 (Paddh. p. 519), however, the Adhvaryu has to look down on 
the butter, with the same text (Va^. S. I, 30) which was used by 
the sacrificer's wife. For some details to be supplied here, see I, 
3, 1, 22-28. 

1 He has hitherto worn his sacrificial cord on the right shoulder 
and under the left arm (' eastward-invested '), and now shifts it so as 
to be on the left shoulder and under the right arm (' sacrificially- 
invested'). As to the taking or ladling of butter into the oflfering- 
spoons, see I, 3, 2, 1 seq. 

8 See I, 3, 2, 9. 

4 See I, 3, 3, 1 seq. 

5 The barhis, on this occasion, must have been cut close to the 
root (upamulam, II, 4, 2, 17 ; upamule ditam, KS«va rec.). Accord- 
ing to Taitt. Br. I, 6, 8, 6-7, on the other hand, it has apparently 
to be torn up with the roots (yat parushi dinaw tad devanam, yad 
antara tan manushyawam, yat samulam tat pitrfwaro). 



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II KAiVDA, 6 ADHYAYA, I BRAHMAJVA, t6. 425 

poured out (the lustral water on the lower ends 
of the grass-stalks), and untied the knot, he (at 
once) seizes the knot, not the prastara 1 ; — it is once 
for all that the fathers have departed: hence he 
does not take the prastara. 

15. After undoing the band, he moves thrice 2 
round from right to left, spreading the sacrificial 
grass all over (the altar); while spreading it all 
over from right to left in three layers, he reserves 
as much as may serve for the prastara-bunch. He 
then moves again thrice round (the altar) from left 
to right. The reason why he again moves thrice 
round from left to right, is that, while the first time 
he went away from here after those three ancestors 
of his, he now comes back again from them to this, 
his own world : that is why he again moves thrice 
round from left to right. 

16. He lays the enclosing-sticks along (the fire, 
with their tops) towards the south 3 ; and the pra- 
stara also he spreads (with the grass-tops) towards 
the south ; nor does he lay down the two vidhr/tis 
between (the barhis and the prastara). Once for 
all the fathers have departed from hence : therefore 
he lays no vidhrz'tis between. 

' As he did on the former occasion, I, 3, 3, 5. 

2 According to Taitt. Br. I,. 6, 8, 7, because the fathers abide in 
the third world from here (tr/'ttye va ito loke pitaraA). 

' Viz. he is to lay down the enclosing-sticks along the north, 
west, and east sides, the last two with their tops towards the south. 
The third text (cf. I, 3, 4, 4) has, of course, to be changed to ' May 
Mitra-Varuna lay thee around in the east,' &c. ; as has also the one 
he mutters after putting the two sticks on the fire, to ' May the sun 
guard thee from the south against any imprecation!' (I, 3, 4, 8.) 
According to Taitt. Br. I, 6, 8, 8-9, on the other hand, he is to lay 
down only two enclosing-sticks (viz. the middle or western, and the 
northern one, cf. Sayawa on Taitt. S. II, p. 7 2). 



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426 DATAPATH A-BRAHMAJV A. 

1 7. Thereon he lays the /uhu, and east of it (on 
the barhis) the upabhm. Having then put down 
the dhruva, the cake, the parched grain, and the por- 
ridge (each east of the preceding one), he touches 
the oblations. 

18. All of them having now become ' sacrificially- 
invested,' the Sacrificer and Brahman (being) thus 
(invested) walk round (from the east, along the 
south) to the west side; and the Agnidhra (from 
the west) to the east side (of the fire) 1 . 

19. They perform this (sacrifice) in a low voice. 
Secret, indeed, are the fathers, and secret also is 
(what is spoken) in a low voice : hence they perform 
(the offering) in a low voice. 

20. They perform it in an enclosed place. Secret, 
indeed, are the fathers, and secret also is that which 
is enclosed : hence they perform in an enclosed place. 

21. While putting firewood (on the fire), he then 
says (to the Hotri), ' Recite to the fire, as it is being 
kindled!' Only (this) one kindling-verse the Hotrz 
recites 2 , (and that) thrice; — the fathers have departed 
once for all: hence the Hotri recites thrice only 
one kindling- verse. 

22. He recites, ' Loving we deposit thee (O 
Agni), loving we enkindle thee : O loving one, bring 

1 Here he remains standing, while the Sacrificer and Brahman 
sit down facing the east. 

a Instead of the ordinary eleven verses, the first and last of which 
are recited thrice ; see I, 3, 5, 6. According to Taitt. Br. I, 6, 9, 1, 
the Adhvaryu summons the Hotri' with ' Recite to the fire, as it is 
being kindled for the gods (and) fathers ! ' The bunch of firewood, 
with the exception of one stick, which is reserved for the after- 
offerings, is divided into three parts, one of which is thrown on the 
fire at the same time when the syllable ' om' is pronounced by the 
Hotr*' at the end of the kindling-verse. 



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II KANDA, 6 ADHYAYA, I BRAHMAiVA, 23. 427 

hither the loving fathers to eat their oblation !' 
Thereupon he says, ' Bring Agni hither 1 ! bring 
Soma hither ! bring hither the fathers, accompa- 
nied by Soma ! bring hither the fathers, seated on 
the barhis! bring hither the fathers, consumed by 
Agni ! bring hither the butter-drinking gods ! bring 
hither Agni for the HotWship ! bring hither (thine) 
own greatness 2 !' Having thus called on (Agni) to 
bring hither (the fathers and gods), he sits down. 

23. Having then called 3 for the (Agnldhra's) 
' *SVausha/,' he does not elect the Hotri; for this 
being a sacrifice to the Manes, he does not elect 
the Hotri*, lest he should consign the HotW to 
the Manes. He says, ' Hotri, seat thyself!' and 
takes his seat. The Hotri, having sat down on 
the HotWs seat, urges (the Adhvaryu) to proceed ; 
and thus urged, the Adhvaryu takes the two spoons 
and steps across to the west (of the fire) ; and 
having stepped across and called for the '.Srausha/,' 
he says, ' Pronounce the offering-prayer to the 
kindling-sticks!' He performs four fore-offerings 6 , 

1 The K4»va MS. reads, ' Bring Agni hither, O Agni ! ' Before 
this, Arval. II, 19, 7 inserts, ' Bring hither the gods (and) fathers 
for the sacrificer I ' See I, 4, 2, 16. 

2 According to the KS«va text he adds here the same formula 
as at ordinary ish/is (I, 4, 2, 17), ' Bring (them) hither, O Gitavedas, 
and offer up a good offering I ' For the formulas ' Bring hither 
Agni for the Hotr/ship ! bring hither thine own greatness I ' Arval. 
II, 19, 8 apparently substitutes 'Bring hither Agni Kavyavahana ! ' 
cf. further on, par. 30. 

3 ' The Adhvaryu, having offered the two libations of butter, and 
called for the Srausha/,' Kawva recension. 

4 On the pravara, or election of the (divine and human) Hotri, 
see I, 4, 2, 1 seq., 5, 1, 1 seq. The call 'Hotn, seat thyself!' here 
takes the place of the formulas given I, 5, 1, 5 seq. 

6 See I, 5, 3, 1 seq. 



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428 satapatha-brAhmava. 

omitting the one to the Barhis; for the barhis 
means offspring, and he therefore performs the 
four fore-offerings without the one to the barhis, 
lest he should consign his offspring to the fathers. 
Thereupon they proceed with the two butter-por- 
tions ; and having offered the two butter-portions, — 

24. They all shift their sacrificial cord over to 
the right shoulder, being now about to proceed with 
those (chief) oblations. The Sacrificer and Brahman, 
(being) thus (invested), step across (from the west) 
to the east side, and the Agnldhra (from the east) 
to the west side (of the fire). And furthermore, 
the (Adhvaryu's) call for the ' .Srausha^' is ' Ow 
svadha!' and the (Agnidhra's) response is ' Astu 
svadha 1 !' and the Vasha/-call is ' Svadha naraa^!' 

25. As to this, Asuri said, 'Let them call for 
the *Srausha/ (by " O *Sravaya"), and let them respond 
with the " (Astu) *Srausha/," and let them pronounce 
the " Vasha/," lest we should depart from the manner 
of the sacrifice.' 

26. [The Adhvaryu] then says, ' Pronounce the in- 
vitatory prayer to the fathers, accompanied by Soma !' 
or ' — to Soma, accompanied by the fathers!' — Two 
invitatory prayers he (the Hotrt) pronounces (at the 
offerings), because it is with one that one moves the 
gods, and with two the fathers, since the fathers have 
departed once (for all) 2 : hence he pronounces two 
invitatory prayers. 

1 At the sacrifice to the Manes, the Agnfdhra, when uttering his 
response, stands south of the Adhvaryu. See p. 132, note. The 
first syllable of 'svadha' is protracted. According to the comm. 
on Katy. V, 9, 1 2, the offering formulas also begin with ' Y§ svadha- 
mahe,' instead of ' Y§ ya^imahe' (see I, 5, 2, 16 and note). 

* I do not quite see the pertinency of the reason here alleged, 
unless it be that the author means to say that once (by the first 



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II KANDA, 6 ADHYAYA, I BRAHMAivA, 2"J. 429 

27. [The Adhvaryu] makes an 'under-layer' of 
butter (in the guhh or offering-spoon). He then 
cuts a piece from the cake, and together therewith 
some of the parched grain and the porridge 1 . This 
he puts down at the same time (in the £"uhu) ; makes 
two sprinklings of butter thereon ; and re-anoints 
(replenishes with butter, the parts of the sacrificial 
dishes from which he has made) the cuttings. He 
does not walk over (to the south side of the fire) ; 
but having risen and stepped up (to the fire) on the 
same side (where he was seated), and called (on the 
Agnidhra) for the ' .Srausha/,' he says (to the Hotri), 
' Pronounce the offering-prayer to the fathers, accom- 
panied by Soma!' and pours the oblation (into the 
fire) as soon as the Vasha^ 2 has been uttered. 

act) the fathers have departed, and by a second act they return 
hither. According to Ajval. II, 19, 22, the two invitatory prayers 
to the PitaraA SomavantaA are Rig-v. X, 15, 1 ; IX, 96, n ; to 
SomaPitrnnat, Rig-v. 1, 91,1; 20; to the Pitaro BarhishadaA, 
Rig-v. X, 15, 4; 3; to the Pitaro 'gnishv&ttSA, Rig-v. X, 15, 11; 
13 ; [to Yama X, 14, 4; 5.] — The offering-prayers being respectively, 
Rig-v. X, 15, 5; VIII, 48, 13; X, 15, 2 ; X, 15, 14 ; [X, 14, 1.] 

Somewhat different the Black Ya^us; viz. Soma Pitr/mat, 
anuvalcySs Rig-v. I, 91, 1; IX, 96, 11; y&gyi VIII, 48, 13; Pitaro 
BarhishadaA, anuvakySs X, 15, 4 ; 3; ya^yi X, 15, 5; Pitaro 
'gnishvStta^, anuvSkyds X, 15, 11; 14 (ye 'gnishvattaA, &c. !); 
ySgyi ' va^yayai dugdhe,' &c. [Then either upahoma with the 
formulas X, 15, 1; 2 ; IV, 2, 16 ; or] an oblation to Agni Kavya- 
vahana(anuvakySs,i.'yad agne kavyav&hana,' 2. X, 15, 12; yigyi 
X, 14, 3) [and another to Yama Ahgirasvat Pitn'mat (anuv. 
X, 14, 4 ; 5 ; yagyi X, 14, 6).] Taitt. S. I, 8, 5 ; II, 6, 12 ; Taitt. 
Br. I, 6, 9. 

1 From the centre of each sacrificial dish he makes one 'cutting ' 
with the jrttavadina, shaped like a cow's ear. Kdty. V, 9, 2, and 
SchoL 

* Or rather the ' SvadhS nama/4,' cf. par. 24. The Adhvaryu 
makes the oblation with his left hand, while looking towards the 
south. Paddh. on Katy.V, 9. 



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430 SATAPATHA-BRAHMAWA. 

28. Thereupon he says, ' Pronounce the invita- 
tory prayer to the fathers, seated on the barhis!' 
He then makes an under-layer of butter, takes a 
' cutting' from (the north part of) the parched grain, 
and together therewith some of the porridge and 
the cake ; puts down all this at the same time (in 
the ^uhu) ; makes two sprinklings of butter thereon, 
and re-anoints (the places of) the cuttings. He does 
not walk across ; but having stepped up (to the fire) 
on the same side and called for the ' -Srausha/,' he 
says, ' Pronounce the offering-prayer to the fathers, 
seated on the barhis!' and pours out the oblation 
as soon as the Vasha^ has been uttered. 

29. Thereupon he says, ' Pronounce the invita- 
tory prayer to the fathers, consumed by the fire!' 
He then makes an under-layer of butter, takes a cut- 
ting from (the south part of) the porridge, and there- 
with some of the cake and the parched grains ; puts 
down all this at the same time (in the £"uhu) ; makes 
two sprinklings of butter thereon, and re-anoints 
(the places of) the cuttings. He does not walk 
across ; but having stepped up (to the fire) on the 
same side, and called for the ' .Srausha/,' he says, 
' Pronounce the offering-prayer to the fathers, con- 
sumed by the fire!' and pours out the oblation as 
soon as the Vasha^ has been uttered. 

30. Thereupon he says, ' Pronounce the invita- 
tory prayer to Agni Kavyavihana!' that being 
for (Agni as) the Svish/akm (' maker of good offer- 
ing'). For to the gods indeed he is h a vy ava- 
il ana ('bearer of oblations '), and to the fathers he 
is kavyavihana ('the bearer of what is meet for 
the wise') : hence he says, ' Pronounce the invita- 
tory prayer to Agni Kavyavihana ! ' 



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II KANDA, 6 ADHYAYA, I BRAHMAYA, 33. 43 1 

31. He makes an under-layer of butter (in the 
offering-spoon) ; then cuts a piece from (the front 
part of) the cake, and therewith some of the parched 
grain and the porridge ; puts down all this at the 
same time; and makes two sprinklings of butter 
thereon. The (places from which he has made the) 
cuttings he does not replenish with butter, nor does 
he walk across ; but having stepped up (to the fire) 
on the same side (where he was seated), and called 
for the ' .Srausha/,' he says, ' Pronounce the offering- 
prayer to Agni Kavyavahana!' and pours out the 
oblation, as soon as the Vasha/ has been uttered. 

32. Now the reason why he does not walk across 
(to the ordinary place of offering), but pours out the 
oblation after stepping up (to the fire) on the same 
side, is that the fathers have departed once for all; 
and the reason also, why he cuts but once from 
each of the sacrificial dishes, is that the fathers 
have departed once for all. And the reason why 
in making the cuttings, he keeps them together, is 
that the fathers are the seasons; — he thus keeps 
the seasons together, joins them to one another : 
that is why in making the cuttings, he keeps them 
together. 

33. Here now some hand over that entire 
(remaining) porridge to the Hotri; and the Hotri, 
having invoked it 1 , smells it and hands it to the 

1 According to the comm. on Katy. V, 9, 13,' manthaA ' is, in 
that case, substituted for ' kft ' in the invocation, see 1, 8, 1, 19 seq. 
The Ka»va MS. has as follows : Thereupon, by way of idi, they 
place that same porridge into the hand of the Hotr*. The Hotri', 
having invoked it, smells it. They hand it to the Agntdhra. The 
Agnfdhra smells it. They hand it to the Brahman. The Brahman 
smells it. As to this Asuri said, ' As from any other oblation they 
cut off the "i</a" and the fore-portion, so let them cut off and smell, 



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432 SATAPATHA-BRAHMAtfA. 

Brahman. The Brahman smells it and hands 
it to the Agnidhra; and the Agnidhra also smells 
it. And so indeed they do this. But, as from any 
other oblation they cut off the Idk and the fore- 
portion, so let them cut from this also ; and having 
invoked it (the Irfa) they smell it, but do not eat it. 
'But,' said Asuri, 'we think that some should be 
eaten, of whatever is offered up in the fire.' 

34. Now he who is about to present (the obse- 
quial cakes to the fathers), — either the Adhvaryu 
or the Sacrificer, — takes the vessel of water and 
walks thrice round (the altar) from right to left 
sprinkling all about (the altar). He then, with the 
text, ' N. N., wash thyself 1 !' pours out water (in 
the north-west corner of the altar) for the Sacri- 
ficer's father 2 to wash himself; and (in the south- 
west corner), with ' N. N., wash thyself!' for the 
grandfather; and (in the south-east corner), with 
' N. N., wash thyself!' for the great-grandfather. 



but not eat : some indeed must be eaten of that of which offering 
is made in the fire.' 

1 See II, 4, 2, 16 seq. According to the comm. on Kity. V, 9, 
1 7, some sprinkle three times round the altar for each of the three 
ancestors. But according to the Paddhati, he sprinkles once round 
the altar, beginning from the north-west corner ; then he sits down 
and pours out water in that corner for the father. Thereupon, 
after walking round in the opposite direction (from left to right) to 
the south-west corner, he again sprinkles all round, and in the same 
way pours out water in that corner for the grandfather ; and after 
retracing his steps as far as the south-east corner, he performs the 
same circumambulation, and pours out water in that corner for the 
great-grandfather ; whereupon he again retraces his steps up to the 
west of the altar. 

3 In the case of a sacrificer whose father is still alive, these cere- 
monies are performed in honour of the father's father, grandfather, 
and great-grandfather. 



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II KANDA, 6 ADHYAYA, I BRAhMAJVA, 37. 433 

As one would pour out water for (a guest) who is 
to take food with him, so in this case. 

35. Thereupon he takes one ' cutting' from the 
cake and puts it in his left hand; from the parched 
grain also he takes one cutting and puts it in his 
left hand ; and from the porridge also he takes 
one cutting and puts it in his left hand. 

36. And in the corner (of the altar) opposite this 
intermediate quarter (viz. the north-west), he then 
presents (an obsequial cake 1 ) to the Sacrificer's 
father, with the formula, ' N. N., this for thee!' 
And in the corner opposite this intermediate quarter 
(the south-west), he presents one to the Sacrificer's 
grandfather, with ' N. N., this for thee !' And in the 
corner opposite this intermediate quarter (the south- 
east), he presents one to the Sacrificer's great-grand- 
father, with ' N. N., this for thee!' And in the 
corner opposite this intermediate quarter (the north- 
east), he cleanses (his hands), with the text (Va^ - . S. 
II, 31), 'Here, O Fathers, regale yourselves! Like 
bulls come hither, each to his own share!' whereby 
he means to say, 'Eat ye each his share!' And the 
reason why he thus presents (food) to the Fathers 
is that in this way he does not exclude his own 
fathers from this sacrifice. 

37. Thereupon they all, being sacrificially invested, 
walk out (of the shed) on the north side, (pass along 
the east side of, and) stand by the (north) side of, 
the Ahavantya fire. For he who has established his 
fires, and performs the New and Full-moon sacri- 
fices, approaches the gods ; but they have just been 

1 He mixes the three pieces (about as much as a thumb's joint 
each) cut from the sacrificial dishes, and forms them into three 
pimfas or round cakes. 

[ 13 ] - F f 



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434 SATAPATHA-BRAHMAJVA. 

performing the sacrifice to the Manes, and therefore 
they now propitiate the gods. 

38. They stand by the Ahavanlya fire (wor- 
shipping) with two (verses) addressed to Indra [viz. 
Rig-veda I, 82, 2-3; VAf. S. Ill, 51-52], since the 
Ahavanlya is Indra. 'The friends have eaten, and 
regaled themselves, and have shaken off (the ene- 
mies) ' ; the self-shining bards have extolled (thee) 
with their newest hymn: yoke, then, thy pair of bay 
steeds, O Indra! — To thee, the splendid, we will 
sing praises, O bountiful one ! Thus praised, do thou 
now issue forth, with well-filled car, agreeably to our 
desire! yoke, then, thy pair of bay steeds, O Indra !' 

39. Thereupon they return to the GArhapatya 
and stand by it worshipping with the verses (Rig- 
veda X, 57, 3-5; V4f. S. Ill, 53-55). 'We invoke 
the Mind with man-lauding strain 2 , and with the 
hymns of the fathers. — May the Mind come back 
to us for (us to obtain) wisdom, vigour, and life, and 
that we may long see the sun! — May the divine race 
restore to us the Mind, O Fathers, that we may 
abide with the living kind !' They have indeed been 
performing the sacrifice to the Manes ; but now they 
return to the (land of the) living : hence he says, 
' That we may abide with the living kind !' 

40. Thereupon he who has presented (the obse- 
quial cakes) again shifts his sacrificial cord to 
the right shoulder and betakes himself (to the fire 
in the shed), and mutters (V&f. S. II, 31), 'The 

1 ' — the friends have shaken off (their intoxication),' Ludwig; 
' — they showered down upon us c'elightful gifts,' Grassmann ; ' they 
shook their dear (bodies),' Sayawa; ' — have trembled through their 
precious (bodies),' Wilson. 

* The Rig-veda has ' somena ' instead of ' stomena.' 



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II KANDA, 6 ADHYAYA, I BRAHMA2VA, 42. 435 

Fathers have regaled themselves : like bulls they 
came each to his share :' whereby he means to say, 
' they have eaten each his own share.' 

41. He now takes the vessel of water and again, 
while sprinkling, walks thrice round (the altar) from 
left to right (sunwise). With ' N. N., wash thyself!' 
he pours out water (in the respective corner) for 
the Sacrificer's father to wash himself; with 'N. N., 
wash thyself!' for the grandfather; with ' N. N., 
wash thyself!' for the great-grandfather. As one 
would pour out water for (a guest) who has taken 
food with him, so in this case. And as to his again 
walking thrice round from left to right, while sprink- 
ling, — they think, 'This holy work of ours shall be 
accomplished sunwise V and hence he walks thrice 
round from left to right, while sprinkling. 

42. He then pulls down the tuck (of the nether 
garment) 2 and makes obeisance (to the Fathers). The 
tuck, doubtless, is sacred to the Fathers : hence he 
makes obeisance to them after pulling down the 
tuck; and obeisance means worship: hence he thereby 
recognises them as entitled to worship. Six times 
he makes obeisance to them, since there are six 
seasons, and the Fathers are the seasons : hence he 
thereby establishes his sacrifice in the seasons, — that 
is why he makes obeisance six times 3 . 'Give houses 

1 The Kawva text has, ' The reason why he moves thrice round, 
sprinkling from left to right, is that, after going after those three 
ancestors of his, he thereby leaves them, and returns to this, his 
own, world.' See II, 6, 1, 15. 

* On the ntvi, or unwoven end of the waist-cloth (Hindi dhoti, 
Mahr. dhotar), which had to be passed under and tucked up be- 
hind^ at the beginning of the present ceremony, see p. 368, note 2. 
Cf. Apast. Dharmas. I, 2, 6, 19. 

8 For the six formulas used for this purpose; see p. 368, note 2. 
. F f 2 



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436 satapatha-brAiimajva. 

unto us, O Fathers !' he (further) says, because the 
Fathers are the guardians of houses; — and this is 
the prayer for blessing at this sacred performance. 

43. Being now about to proceed with the after- 
offerings, they all invest themselves sacrificially (by 
shifting the cord over to the left shoulder); and thus 
(invested) the Sacrificer and Brahman walk round to 
the west, and the Agnidhra to the east, side ; and 
the Hotri sits down on the Hotrz's seat. 

44. He (the Adhvaryu) then says, ' Brahman, I 
shall step forward.' Thereupon he puts the stick 
(reserved at the time of kindling) on (the fire), and 
says, 'Agnidh, trim the fire!' He then takes the 
two spoons and crosses over to the west side. After 
crossing over and calling for the '.Srausha/,' he says 
(to the Hotri), 'Pronounce the offering-prayer to 
the gods!' He performs two after-offerings, omit- 
ting the one to the Barhis; for the Barhis means 
offspring : hence he performs two after-offerings, 
omitting the one to the Barhis, lest he should 
consign his offspring to the Fathers. 

45. He then separates the two spoons 1 , after 
laying them down (in their respective places on the 
altar); and having separated them, and anointed the 
enclosing-sticks, he takes one enclosing-stick, calls 
for the '.Srausha/,' and says, ' The divine Hotris are 
summoned for the proclamation of success, the 
human is called upon for the song of praise ! ' The 
Hotri intones the ' song of praise (suktavaka).' 
The Adhvaryu, on the other hand, does not seize 
the prastara-bunch, but watches while the Hotri 
recites the song of praise. 

1 See 1, 8, 3, 1 seq. 



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II KAJVDA, 6 ADHYAYA, 2 BRAhMAA'A, 2. 437 

46. Thereupon the Agnldhra says, 'Throw it 
after 1 !' He (the Adhvaryu) throws nothing after, 
but silently touches himself. 

47. He (the Agnidhra) then says, ' Discourse 
together!' [The Adhvaryu asks], ' Has he gone (to 
the gods), Agnidh?' — *He has gone!'— 'Bid (the 
gods) hear!' — 'May one (or, they) hear!' — 'Good- 
speed to the divine Hotm ! Success to the human! — 
Pronounce the All-hail and blessing!' Thus saying, 
he merely touches the enclosing-sticks, but does 
not (now) throw them (into the fire). The Barhis 
and enclosing-sticks he throws in afterwards 2 . 

48. And here some throw also the remaining 
sacrificial food into the fire ; but let him not do so ; 
for that (remaining havis) is the residue of an offer- 
ing; and lest he should offer the residue of an 
offering, let them (the priests) rather throw it into 
the water or eat it. 

Second Brahmajva. 

1. Verily, by means of the Great Oblation the 
gods slew VWtra ; by it they gained that supreme 
authority which they now wield. Now whichever of 
them were hit by (the Asuras') arrows in that battle, 
those same darts they extracted, those they pulled 
out, by performing the Tryambaka-offerings. 

2. And, accordingly, when he performs those offer- 
ings, he either does so hoping that thus no arrow 



1 See I, 8, 3, 19 seq. 

a Viz. after the strewing of the Veda, — see 1, 9, a, 84, the formulas 
being pronounced by the Hotr* on this occasion, — at the time when 
the Samish/aya^Tis, which is here omitted, would have to be per- 
formed in an ordinary ish/i. 



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438 .SATAPATHA-BRAHMAJVA. 

(misfortune) will hit any of his, or because the gods 
did so. And thereby he delivers from Rudra's 
power both the descendants that are born unto him 
and those that are unborn ; and his offspring is 
brought forth without disease and blemish. This is 
why he performs these offerings. 

3. They are (offered) to Rudra : Rudra's, indeed, 
is the dart; and hence (these offerings) belong to 
Rudra. They consist of (cakes) on one potsherd: 
' To one deity they shall belong!' so (he thinks, and) 
therefore they consist of (cakes) on one potsherd. 

4. There is one for each individual, — as many as 
he has descendants, — exceeded by one. (There 
being) one for each individual, he thereby delivers 
from Rudra's power the descendants that are born 
unto him ; and there being an additional one, he 
thereby delivers from Rudra's power the descen- 
dants that are not yet born to him : this is why 
there are (as many cakes as there are descendants) 
exceeded by one. 

5. He takes out (the rice for) those (cakes), while 
seated behind the Garhapatya, sacrificially invested 
and facing the north. From thence he rises and 
threshes (the rice), while standing with his face 
towards the north. He places the two mill-stones on 
(the black antelope skin, so as to incline) towards 
the north ; and puts the potsherds on the north 
side of the Girhapatya hearth. As to why they 
keep the northern quarter, — that indeed is the 
quarter of that god (Rudra), and hence they keep 
the northern quarter. 

6. They (the cakes) maybe anointed (with ghee), — 
for the havis is anointed 1 ; — but let them rather be 

1 This refers to the so-called prawadana, or 'bestowal of life 

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II KANDA, 6 ADHYAYA, 2 BRAHMAJVA, 8. 439 

unanointed ; for, indeed, Rudra would be hankering 
after the (sacrificer's) cattle, if he were to anoint (the 
cakes): let them therefore be unanointed. 

7. Having removed all (the cakes from the pot- 
sherds) into one dish, and taken a fire-brand from 
the Dakshi»a-fire," he walks aside towards the north 
— for that is the region of that god — and offers. 
He offers on a road, — for on roads that god roves ; 
he offers on a cross-road, — for the cross-road, indeed, 
is known to be his (Rudra's) favourite haunt 1 . 
This is why he offers on a cross-road. 

8. He offers with the central leaflet of a pala^a- 
leaf. The palasa-leaf, truly, is the Brahman (priest- 
hood) 2 : with the Brahman, therefore, he offers. He 
takes a cutting from (the northern part of) all the 
cakes ; from the additional one alone he takes no 
cutting. 

(or soul),' that is, the anointing of the sacrificial dishes with ghee, 
previously to their being placed on the altar. The anointing takes 
place with the text (Va^. S. ed. p. 35), 'That life (or soul, priwa) of 
thine which has entered into the cattle, and becomes diffused through 
the various forms of the gods, — endowed with (that) life (atman- 
van) — for thou art laden with ghee — go to Agni, O Soma I and ob- 
tain bliss (svar) for the Sacrificerl' Katy. II, 8, 14. At the new 
and full-moon sacrifice, this ceremony is not even alluded to in 
our Brahmawa, either in this or the Kawva recension. See I, 3, 4, 16. 
The K4«va text reads, ' They may be anointed/ so they say, &c. 

1 ' He offers on a cross-road, for such is the halting-place (pa</- 
bfra) of the Agnis,' Taitt. Br. I, 6, 10, 3. 

* ' The central leaflet of the pal&ya-leaf is the Brahman,' Ka«va 
text. The leaf of the palaxa (Butea Frondosa) consists of three leaf- 
lets, — leathery, above shining and pretty smooth, and below slightly 
hoary ; the central (or terminal) one being obovate and consider- 
ably larger than the lateral ones (which, according to Roxburgh, 
Flora Ind., Ill, p. 244, are from 4 to 6 inches long, and from 3 to 
4| broad). ' Pal&rarakhayam yani trim par»ani tatra madhyamam 
parwam prarastay£ srugrupam,' Say. on Taitt. S. I, 8, 6. 



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440 SATAPATHA-BRAHMAJVA. 

9. He offers 1 , with the text (Va^. S. Ill, 57 a), 
' This is thy share, Rudra! graciously accept it to- 
gether with thy sister Ambiki ! Svaha ! ' Ambika 2 , 
indeed, is the name of his (Rudra's) sister ; and this 
share belongs to him conjointly with her ; and be- 
cause that share belongs to him conjointly with a 
woman (strl), therefore (these oblations) are called 
Tryambaka-4. Thereby, then, he delivers from 
Rudra's power the descendants that have been born 
unto him. 

10. Now as to that additional (cake), — he buries 
it in a mole-hill 8 , with the text (V4f. S. Ill, 57b), 
'This is thy share, O Rudra! the mole is thy 
animal (victim).' He thus assigns to him the 
mole as the only animal *, and he (Rudra) does 
not therefore injure any other animal. Then 
as to why he buries (the cake) : concealed, indeed, 
are embryos, and concealed also is what is buried, — 
that is why he buries it. By this (offering) he 
delivers from the power of Rudra those descendants 
of his, that are not yet born. 

1 He consecrates, by the usual fivefold lustration, some spot on 
a cross-way, to the north of the sacrificial ground, and after laying 
down the fire-brand taken from the Dakshiwagni, he offers thereon, 
using the central leaflet of a pallra-leaf as the offering-spoon. 

2 In Taitt. Br. I, 6, 10, 4, this sister of Rudra is identified with 
the autumn, wherewith the god is wont to kill (viz. by means of 
catarrh, fever, &c, Say.). See also Weber, Ind. Stud. 1, 183 ; Muir, 
Original Sanskrit Texts, vol. iv. p. 321. 

8 'Akhutkara;' ' akhukarisha,' Ki«va text Possibly a mouse- 
hole, or the earth thrown up by a mouse, is meant. See p. 278, 
note 3. Cf. Taitt. Br. I, 6, 10, 2 : ' N. N. is thy victim,' thus saying, 
let him indicate the one he (the Sacrificer) hates ; thereby he delivers 
over to him (Rudra) the one he hates. If he hate no one, let him 
say, ' the mole (mouse) is thy victim.' 

* ' Thus he makes over to him only the mole as victim, and puts 
it into his mouth,' Ka»va text. 



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II KAiVDA, 6 ADHYAYA, 2 BRAHMAJVA, 1 4. 441- 

11. Thereupon they return (to the fire) and mut- 
ter (Vi^-.S. Ill, 58, 59), 'We have satisfied the claims 
of Rudra, satisfied the divine Tryambaka, that he 
may make us richer, that he may make us more pros- 
perous, that he may render us steady in our purpose. 
— Thou (O Rudra) art a remedy for the cow, a 
remedy for the horse, a remedy for man ; a blessing 
for the ram and the ewe.' This is the prayer for 
blessing at this performance. 

1 2. They then walk thrice round the altar not sun- 
wise, beating their left thighs (with the right hand), 
with the text (Va^ - . S. Ill, 60 a), 'We worship Tryam- 
baka, the fragrant increaser of prosperity. Even as a 
gourd (is severed) from its stem, so may I be severed 
from death, not from immortality!' This is the 
prayer for blessing at this performance : thereby they 
invoke a blessing (upon the Sacrificer), for verily 
blessed is he who shall be severed from death, not 
from immortality. That is why he says, ' May I be 
severed from death, not from immortality.' 

13. Let the maidens then also walk round, 
thinking, 'May we enjoy prosperity!' That sister 
of Rudra, named Ambika, indeed is the dispenser of 
happiness : hence the maidens also should walk 
round, thinking, 'May we enjoy prosperity!' 

14. The text (prescribed) for them is (Va^\ S. Ill, 
60 b), ' We worship Tryambaka, the fragrant be- 
stower of husbands. Even as a gourd (is severed) 
from its stem, so may I be severed from this (world), 
not from thence (yonder world)!' By saying 'from 
this,' she means to say 'from my relatives;' and by 
saying 'not from thence,' she means to say 'not 
from husbands.' Husbands, doubtless, are the sup- 
port of woman : hence she says ' not from thence.' 



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442 SATAPATHA-BRAHMAYA. 

1 5. Then they (the Sacrificer and priests) again 
walk round thrice sunwise, beating their right thighs, 
with the same text. As to why they again walk 
round thrice sunwise, — they think, 'Sunwise this 
sacred work of ours shall be accomplished,' and 
therefore they again walk thrice round sunwise. 

16. The Sacrificer now takes those (remains of 
the cakes) into his joined palms and throws them 
upwards higher than a cow can reach 1 . Thereby 
they cut out his (Rudra's) darts from their 
bodies. If they fail to catch them 2 , they touch 
(those that have fallen to the ground). Thereby 
they make them medicine, and hence, if they fail to 
catch them, they touch them. 

17. Having then packed them into two net-work 
baskets and tied them to the two ends of either a 
bamboo staff or the beam of a balance, he steps 

1 'Yatha gaur nodSpnuy&t.' 'Yavad gaur nodipnuy&t tavat,' 
Kawva text. Saya«a takes go to mean ' earth/ and interprets, 'in 
such a way that the earth does not obtain it (i. e. that they do not 
fall to the ground).' Katy. prescribes, V, 10, 18, The Sacrificer, 
with his joined open hands, throws the Rudra-cakes upwards as 
high as not to be reachable by a cow (ago£priipa»am); 19, He 
catches them ; 20, If they cannot be (caught), then touching (of 
those that have fallen on the ground). 

8 I adopt (not without reluctance) Saya»a's interpretation of 
vilipsantaA (= labdhum ajaktaA), which seems to be that of 
KdtySyana also. The St. Petersburg Diet, takes it in the sense 
of ' (if they are) desirous of distributing them.' Taitt. Br. I, 6, 10, 5 
has merely ' utkiranti bhagasya lipsante,' ' they throw (them) up, 
(whereby) they desire to obtain prosperity.' Apastamba, as quoted by 
Say. on Taitt. S. 1, 8, 6, says, — Having thrown up the cakes and caught 
them again (pratilabhya), and having, with ' We worship Tryam- 
baka,' put them into the Sacrificer's joined palms; and having 
taken them up separately (?ap&d£ya), with (or thinking) ' We desire 
to obtain you of (?from) Bhaga;' let them put them together 
(samavapeyuA) thrice in this way. 



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II KANDA, 6 ADHYAYA, 2 BRAHMAJVA, 19. 443 

aside towards the north; and if he meets with 
a tree or a stake or a bamboo or an ant-hill, he 
fastens them thereon, with the text (Va^f. S. Ill, 61), 
' These, O Rudra, are thy provisions ; therewith 
depart beyond the Mu^avatsl' — (supplied) with pro- 
visions people indeed set out on a journey : hence 
he thereby dismisses him supplied with provisions 
whithersoever he is bound. Now in this case his 
journey is beyond the MCl^avats : hence he says, ' De- 
part beyond the Mu^avats!' — 'with thy bow unstrung 
and muffled up — ,' whereby he means to say, ' De- 
part propitious, not injuring us 1 ;' ' Clad in a skin,' — 
whereby he lulls him to sleep 2 ; for while sleeping he 
injures no one : hence he says, ' Clad in a skin.' 

18. They then turn to the right about, and return 
(to the uttaravedi) without looking back. Having 
returned thither, they touch water; for they have 
been performing a ceremony relating to Rudra 3 , 
and water is (a means of) purification : with water, 
that (means of) purification, they accordingly purify 
themselves. 

19. Thereupon he shaves his hair and beard, and 
takes up the fire (of the uttaravedi), — for only after 
changing his place (to the ordinary sacrificial ground) 
he performs the (Full-moon) sacrifice on that fire, 
since it is not proper that he should perform the 

' In the Va£. Sawhita' this forms part of the text, but it is clearly 
a gloss taken from the Brihmawa. The Kanva recension of the 
Brdhma>sa has ' — pinakdvasa ity ahimsan naA «va^ .ranto 'tihily 
evaitad alia,' which has likewise found its way into the Sawhita of 
that school. On the M(\favats, see Muir, Orig. Sanskrit Texts, 
vol. ii. p. 352. 

1 According to KSty. V, 10, 22, he mutters the word 'skin-clad' 
while steadying the two baskets. 

' See p. 2, note 2. 



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444 SATAPATHA-BRAHMAtfA. 

Agnihotra on the uttaravedi : for this reason he 
changes his place. Having gone to the house, 
and 'churned out' the fires 1 , he performs the Full- 
moon offering. The Seasonal offerings, doubtless, 
are detached sacrifices ; whereas the Full-moon 
offering is a regular, established sacrifice : hence 
he finally establishes himself by means of that 
regular sacrifice, and therefore changes his place 
(to the ordinary sacrificial ground). 

Third Brahmawa. 

i. Verily, imperishable is the righteousness of 
him that offers the Seasonal sacrifices ; for such a 
one gains the year, and hence there is no cessation 
for him. He gains it (the year) in three divisions, 
he conquers it in three divisions. The year means 
the whole, and the whole is imperishable (without 
end) : hence his righteousness is indeed imperish- 
able. Moreover, he thereby becomes a Season, 
and as such goes to the gods ; but there is no 
perishableness in the gods, and hence there is 
imperishable righteousness for him. This, then, is 
why he offers the Seasonal sacrifices. 

2. Then as to why he should perform the Su ni- 
si rya offering. The prosperity (srl) that accrued to 
the gods on performing the Sakamedha offerings, 
and gaining the victory (over VWtra), is suna; and 
the essence (rasa) that belonged to the year gained 
by them is sira 2 . Now that same prosperity which 

1 See II, 5, 2, 48. 

* The author identifies sira (plough) with sira, 'essence, sap;' 
and takes sunn, ploughshare (?), as identical with junam, ' success- 
fully, prosperously.' See next page, note 3. 



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ii kXnda, 6 adhvAya, 3 brAhmava, 5. 445 

accrued to the gods on performing the Sakamedha 
offerings, and that same essence which belonged to 
the year gained by them, — both these he takes 
possession of and makes his own : that is why he 
performs the .Sunaslrya. 

3. The mode of its performance (is as follows) : 
They prepare no uttaravedi ; they do not use clotted 
butter ; nor do they churn the fire 1 . There are five 
fore-offerings, three after-offerings, and one Samish- 
/aya^ms. 

4. Then, in the first place, there are those five 
(regular) oblations 2 . By means of these oblations, 
indeed, Pra^apati produced creatures ; with them he 
delivered the creatures both ways from Varuwa's 
noose ; with them the gods slew VWtra and gained 
that victory which was gained by them. And so 
does he, by means of them, obtain and make his 
own, both that prosperity which accrued to the gods 
from performing the Sakamedha offerings, and that 
essence of the year which was gained by them. This 
is why those five oblations are (offered). 

5. Then follows a .Sundslrya 3 cake on twelve 

1 But see XI, 5, 2, 8, 'At all four of these (ATSturmSsya offerings) 
they churn the fire.' On account of this contradiction, the com- 
mentators, on Katy. V, 11, 3, consider the churning of the fire as 
optional. But, if the fires were produced by ' churning,' nine fore- 
offerings and after-offerings would have to be performed, as at the 
other Seasonal sacrifices, which is expressly forbidden in the above 
passage. According to Katy. himself, the Sunasirya is to be treated 
like an ordinary ish/i, except that the barhis is to be tied together 
in the way prescribed for the Seasonal offerings; see II, 5, 1, 18. 

* See II, s,i, 8-1 1. 

' That is, according to Kdty. V, 1 1, 5, to .Sun a and Stra, — pro- 
bably the ploughshare and plough, considered as two tutelary 
deities of agricultural pursuits (Rig-veda IV, 57, 5-8); but by Yaska 
identified with Vayu and Aditya; — or, according to Taitt. S.I, 8, 



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446 satapatha-brAhmajva. 

potsherds. The import of this .Sunastrya oblation 
is what we have stated before. 

6. After that there is an (oblation of) milk 1 to 
Vayu. Now it is to milk that living beings readily 
take, when they are born : ' May the creatures readily 
take to me — now that I have gained the victory (by 
means of the Sakamedha offerings) — for my pros- 
perity, glory, and support ! ' so he thinks, and hence 
that (oblation of) milk. 

7. Then as to why it is (offered) to Vayu. Now 
Vayu, indeed, is yonder blowing (wind) ; it is he that 
makes swell whatever rain falls here. But it is by 
the rain that plants grow ; and on the plants being 
eaten and the water drunk, milk is produced out of 
that water. Hence it is he (Viyu) that produces it ; 
and for this reason it is (offered) to Vayu. 

8. Then follows a cake on one potsherd for 
Surya. Now Surya, indeed, is yonder scorching 
(sun) ; it is he that governs all this (world), now 
by means of a good, now by a bad (king) 2 ; he 
assigns its place to everything here, now under a 
good, now under a bad (king) : ' Now that I have 
obtained the victory, may he, in his pleasure, govern 
me through a good (king), may he assign to me a 
place under a good (king) !' thus he thinks ; and for 
this reason there is a cake on one potsherd for 
Surya. 

9. The priests' fee for this (oblation to Surya) 

7, 1, Taitt. Br. I, 7, 1, 1, to Indra .Sun&sfra (i.e. Indra, accom- 
panied by Sun a and Stra, Say.). 

1 According to Kity. V, 11, 6-10, the milk, in this case, is to be 
offered quite fresh (and warm) from the cow, without having been 
put on the fire. Rice-gruel may, however, be offered instead. 

* Or, ' now by good, now by bad (means).' 



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it kXnda, 6 adhyAya, 3 brAhmajva, 12. 447 

is a white horse 1 ; whereby it is made of the 
characteristic form of yonder scorching (sun). If 
he be unable to procure a white horse, it may be 
a white bull ; whereby it is likewise made of the 
characteristic form of yonder scorching (sun). 

10. He may offer the -Sunaslrya at the same time 
when he performs the Sakamedha offerings. By offer- 
ing (Seasonal sacrifices) three times in the year, he 
indeed obtains the (whole) year : he may therefore 
offer (the .Sunaslrya) at any time 2 . 

11. Here now some wish to take possession of 
the nights ; and should he wish to take possession 
of the nights, let him offer the .Sunaslrya (on the 
day) when, previously to the full-moon of Phalguna, 
(the new moon) becomes visible in yonder sky. 

1 2. Let him then get consecrated (for the Soma- 
sacrifice), lest the Phalguna full-moon again pass by 
without his offering (Soma). For were the Phalguna 
full-moon again to pass by without his having 

x According to Taitt. S. I, 8, 7, Taitt. Br. 1, 7, 1, 2, the Dakshiaa 
consists of a plough yoked with twelve oxen. 

* That is to say, he may perform the Sunaslrya, either immedi- 
ately after the SakamedhiA, or at any time within four months after 
that sacrifice (comm. on Katy. V, 1 1, 3). Our author, however, evi- 
dently favours the views set forth in the succeeding paragraphs. 
According to these, the householder who wishes to discontinue the 
Seasonal offerings after the first round, and to become a Soma- 
sacrificer, is to perform the Sunaslrya on the first day of the waxing 
moon of Phalguna, and then to undergo the diksha, or rite of 
consecration for the Soma-sacrifice (see III, 1, 2, 1 seq.), either 
immediately or before the approaching full-moon, when he is to 
perform the Agnish/oma (or an animal offering to Agni and Soma 
or an Agneyl ish/i, KSty. V, 11, 15). If, on the other hand, he in- 
tends to continue the ATaturmasyas for another year (or more), he 
is to perform the Sunastrya on the upavasatha, or day preceding 
the full-moon. 



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448 satapatha-brAhma#a. 

offered (Soma), he would certainly have to begin 
anew (to perform the Seasonal offerings) : hence 
the Phalguna full-moon should not again pass by 
without his offering Soma. Such (is the rule) for 
him who discontinues (the Seasonal offerings). 

13. And in the case of one who recommences 
(the Seasonal offerings), — let him perform the .Suni- 
slrya on the day preceding the Ph&lguna full-moon, 
and on the following day the Vai^vadeva, and after 
that the Full-moon offering. This, then, (is the rule) 
for him who recommences (the Seasonal offerings). 

14. Then as to (the Sacrificer) shaving his head 
all round 1 . Now yonder sun, indeed, faces every 
quarter; it drinks up whatever (moisture) it dries 
up here : hence this (Sacrificer) thereby faces every 
quarter and becomes a consumer of food. 

15. This fire also faces every quarter, since it 
burns all they put into it from whatsoever quarter : 
hence this (Sacrificer) thereby faces every quarter 
and becomes a consumer of food. 

16. This man, on the other hand, faces but one 
quarter ; but by shaving his head all round he 
comes to face every quarter ; and whosoever, knowing 
this, has his head shaved all round, becomes just 
such a consumer of food as those two : let him 
therefore have his head shaved all round. 

17. And on this point Asuri said, 'What in the 
world has it to do with his face, even if he were to 
shave off all the hair of his head ! It is by offering 



1 ' Parivartayate ' (' nivartayate,' KS«va), lit. ' he causes himself 
to be turned round,' is the technical expression for having one's 
head shaved all round (the jikha, or lock of hair on the crown of 
the head). 



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ii kAjvda, 6 adhyAya, 4 brAhmajva, 4. 449 

thrice in the year that he comes to face all the quar- 
ters and becomes a consumer of food : let him there- 
fore not trouble himself about shaving his head.' 

Fourth BrAhmawa. 

1. Now when it is said, that the gods, by means 
of the Sakamedha offerings, slew VWtra and gained 
that supreme authority which they now wield, — it 
is rather by means of all the Seasonal sacrifices 
that the gods slew VWtra; it is by all of them 
that they gained that supreme authority which 
they now wield. 

2. They spake, 'With what king, with what 
leader 1 shall we fight?' Agni spake, ' With me for 
your king, with me for your leader!' With Agni 
for their king, with Agni for their leader, they 
gained four months ; and with the Brahman (sacer- 
dotium) and the threefold science they encompassed 
them. 

3. They spake, ' With what king, with what leader 
shall we fight?' Varuwa spake, 'With me for your 
king, with me for your leader!' With Varu«a for 
their king, with Varu«a for their leader, they gained 
other four months ; and with the Brahman and the 
threefold science they encompassed them. 

4. They spake, ' With what king, with what leader 
shall we fight?' Indra spake, 'With me for your 
king, with me for your leader!' With Indra for their 
king, with Indra for their leader, they gained other 
four months ; and with the Brahman and the three- 
fold science they encompassed them. 

1 Anika (? ' van-guard'), cf. V, 3, 1, 1 ' senSySA senanfr anikam ;' 
II, 5. 3- 2 - 

M G g 



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450 SATAPATHA-BRAHMAJVA. 

5. And, accordingly, when he performs the Vaisva- 
deva, he thereby gains four months, with Agni for 
his king, with Agni for his leader. Then (in shaving) 
are used a porcupine's quill spotted in three places, 
and a copper razor; that three-spotted porcupine's 
quill resembles the threefold science, and the copper 
razor resembles the Brahman ; for the Brahman is 
fire, and fire is of reddish (lohita) colour : hence a 
copper (loha) razor is used. Therewith he has 
(his head) shaved all round 1 ; and thus he (the 
Adhvaryu) encompasses him with the Brahman and 
the threefold science. 

6. And when he performs the Varuwapraghasa 
offerings, he thereby gains other four months, with 
Varuwa for his king, with Vanwa for his leader. 
Then a three-spotted quill of a porcupine and a 
copper razor are used, wherewith he has himself 
shaved all round; and thus he (the priest) encom- 
passes him with the Brahman and the threefold 
science. 

7. And when he performs the Sakamedha offer- 
ings, he thereby gains other four months, with Indra 
for his king, with Indra for his leader. Then a 
three-spotted quill of a porcupine and a copper 
razor are used, wherewith he has himself shaved ; 
and thus he (the priest) encompasses him with the 
Brahman and the threefold science. 

8. And when he performs the Vaisvadeva, then 
he becomes Agni, and attains to union with Agni 
and to co-existence in his world. And when he 
performs the Varu«apraghasa offerings, then he 
becomes Varuwa, and attains to union with Varu«a 

1 See p. 448, note 1. 



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ii kXnda, 6 adhyAya, 4 brahmajva, 9. 45 1 

and to co-existence in his world. And when he 
performs the Sakamedha offerings, then he becomes 
Indra, and attains to union with Indra and to co- 
existence in his world 1 . 

9. And in whatever season he goes to yonder 
world, that season passes him on to the next sea- 
son, and that season again passes him on to the next 
season, — he who performs the Seasonal sacrifices 
reaches the highest place, the supreme goal. 
Wherefore it is said, 'They find not him that 
offereth the Seasonal offerings, for verily he goeth 
unto the highest place, to the supreme goal 2 .' 

1 The Kawva text adds : And when he performs the Sunasiriya, 
then he becomes Vayu, and attains to union with Vayu and to 
co-existence in his world. 

* The Ka«va text has: In whatever season the performer of 
Seasonal offerings goes to yonder world, that season passes him 
on to the next season, and that next one to the next one, — him 
the seasons, by transmission, make thus attain to the highest 
station, to the highest world. Wherefore is it said, ' They find not 
him that offereth the Seasonal offerings, for he conquereth the 
highest world, the highest conquest (paramaw hy eva lokam 
paramibj ^itim ^ayatlti).' 



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ADDITIONS AND CORRECTIONS. 

Page 15, note f. The pole of Indian carts is itself firmly bound with thongs. 
P. 27, paragraph 10. Read, — Vig. S. 1, 15 b ; 1, 15 c. 

P. 28, par. 12, and note 2. The Kanva text has the correct order of castes: 
' tany etani iatvari vaia ehtti brahma»asyagahy adraveti ra^anyasya 
ia vaisyasya ladhaveti sfidrasya.' 
P. 47, par. 1. The Taitt. S. (II, 6, 6) has a somewhat different version of this 
legend : — Agni had three elder brothers. While carrying the oblations to 
the gods, they perished. Agni was afraid, ' In like manner this one will 
meet with destruction (irtim Irishyati).' He concealed himself. He entered 
the waters. The gods wished to find him. A fish betrayed him. He cursed 
it, ' May (people) kill thee by whatever means they can devise (dhiya-dhiya), 
who hast betrayed me ! ' Hence they kill the fish by whatever means they 
can devise, for he is accursed. They found him, and said to him, ' Come 
back to us and carry our oblation !' He said, ' I will ask a boon : whatever 
portion of the taken (ghee) shall fall outside the enclosing-sticks, before it 
is offered, that shall be my brothers' portion I ' Hence whatever portion of 
the taken (ghee) falls outside the enclosing-sticks, that is their portion: 
with that he satisfies them. 
P. 47, par. 2. The Kanva text reads, — *They followed Indra even as now-a-days 

also a Brahman follows a Kshatriya blessing him (fbamsamilno 'nutarati).' 
P. 85, par. 6. Read, — for this represents the fringe (of the Sacrificer's nether 
garment), and it is on the right side that the fringe (is tucked in) ... . for 
the fringe also is covered (by being tucked in). Cf. below to p. 368. 
P. 118, line 18. Read, — 'Thine' instead of 'Your.' 

P. 164, par. 2. Professor Delbriick, Syntaktische Forschungen II, p. 118, trans- 
lates, 'And from the mouth which had been drinking surS, the sparrow 
sprang : hence the latter sings so merrily, for indeed he sings so merrily as 
if it had drank suraV Differently, however, ibid. Ill, p. 64. 
P. 1 75, par. 1. Compare also the corresponding legend in Taitt. Br. 1, 6, 7, 4 : — 
Indra, having slain Vn'tra, went to the farthest distance, thinking ' I have 
committed a sin (aparitdham, ? I have missed him).' He said, ' Who will 
find this out?' TheMaruts said,'We will choose a boon, then we shall know: 
let the first offering be made to us!' They sported on him (Vn'tra). &c. 
(According to Sayana, on Taitt. S. 1, 8, 4, Indra flees from fear and says, within 
the Marat's hearing, ' Is Vn'tra dead or not ? Who will go near him and 
find it outV'&c.) 
P. 183, par. 1. According to SSyana, on Taitt. Br. 1, 1, 3, 10, it was the Soma- 
plant (soma-vallt) that was carried off by Gayatri devata, and one of its leaves 
(parna) was broken off, and on falling to the ground became a palasa tree. See 
also Taitt. S.VI, 1,6; Sat. Br. Ill, 2, 4, 1 seq. ; Weber, Ind. Stud. II, 312 seq. 
P. 184, note 4. Add, — Compare Max Miiller, Hist, of Anc. Sansk. Lit., p. 352. 
P. 206, par. 19. Correct, — ' Bhallaveya' (also II, 1, 4, 6). 
P. 288, note 2. On the etymology of nakshatra, see also Max Miiller, Rig-veda- 

Samhitl IV, p. lxvi note. 
P. 310, pars. 8-9. Correct, — 'And whichever (of the Asuras) they (the gods) 
slew, he indeed remained the same (viz. alive). In consequence of this the 
gods were left inferior.' 
P. 313, par. 20. The paragraph should have been rendered thus: — To Aru/ia 
Aupaveii his kinsmen said, ' Thou art advanced in years : establish thou the 
fires I' He replied, ' Thereby ye tell me, "keep silence I" he who has estab- 
lished his fires must not speak an untruth, and only by not speaking at all 
one speaks no untruth : to that extent the service (of the consecrated fire) 
consists in truth.' Similarly the Kanva text, — arunam haupaverim ^iiataya 
tJnxh sthaviro v& asy agni adhatsveti. — sa hovaia tan maitad brutha vaiam- 
yama evaidhiti m& brutheti na hy agni fidMya mn'sha vaden no vaH vadato 
mn'shodyam asti tasm&d u satyam eva vivadishet See Delbriick, Syntak- 
tische Forschungen III, p. 29. 
P. 368, par. 24. Read, — He (the Sacrificer) then pulls down the tuck of his 
(nether garment) and performs obeisance. Cf. p. 435, note 2. 



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