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Full text of "Sacred Books East Various Oriental Scholars with Index. 50 vols Max Muller Oxford 1879.1910."

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THE 



SACRED BOOKS OF THE EAST 



[13] a 

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Honfcon 
HENRY FROWDE 




OXPOBD TTHTVEBSITY PBESS WAREHOUSE 
7 PATERNOSTER BOW 



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THE 



SACRED BOOKS OF THE EAST 



TRANSLATED 



BY VARIOUS ORIENTAL SCHOLARS 



AND EDITED BY 



F. MAX MULLER 



VOL. XIII 



0jrfi>rfc 

AT THE CLARENDON PRESS 
1881 

[ A II rights reserved 1 



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,c 



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VINAYA TEXTS 



TRANSLATED FROM THE PALI 



BY 



T. W. RHYS DAVIDS 



HERMANN OLDENBERG 



PART I 



THE PATIMOKKHA 
THE MAHAVAGGA, I— IV 

, JiTIVERSITS:) 

AT THE CLARENDON PRESS 
1881 



[ /i// rights reserved ] 



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CONTENTS. 

PAGE 

Introduction to the Vinaya Texts from the Pali . ix 

The Patimokkha i 

Nid&na ■ . i 

The Para^ika Rules • • 3 

The Sawgh&disesa Rules 7 

The Aniyata Rules 16 

The Nissaggiya Paiittiya Rules . . . .18 

The Pa^ittiya Rules 32 

The Pa/idesaniya Rules 56 

The Sekhiya Rules 59 

The Adhikarawa-samatha Rules .... 68 

The Mahavagga 71 

First Khandhaka (The Admission to the Order of 

Bhikkhus) 73 

Second Khandhaka (The Uposatha Ceremony, and 

the Pitimokkha) 239 

Third Khandhaka (Residence during the Rainy Season) 298 

Fourth Khandhaka (The Pav&rawa" Ceremony) . .325 



Transliteration of Oriental Alphabets adopted for the 

Translations of the Sacred Books of the East . . 357 



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INTRODUCTION 



TO THE 

VINAYA TEXTS FROM THE PALI. 



In the present MSS. the Vinaya Piteka is divided into 
the following books : 

*p.,.f.. ' (.called collectively the Sutta-vibhanga. 

7^ a ,t vag * ' \ called collectively the Khandhakas. 

4. Aullavagga, J 

5. Parivara-pa^a. 

These books constitute that part of the sacred literature of 
the Buddhists which contains the regulations for the out- 
ward life of the members of the Buddhist Sawzgha — nearly 
the oldest, and probably the most influential, of all Fra- 
ternities of monks. 

It is impossible to frame any narrower definition of the 
Vinaya than this, since the gradual change of circumstances 
in the Fraternity resulted in a gradual change also in the 
Vinaya itself. To give any more detailed account of what 
the Vinaya is, it will be necessary to trace what can be at 
present ascertained of its history; to show — that is, so far 
as it is yet possible to do so — the causes which led to the 
establishment of the oldest Rules and Ceremonies of the 
Order, and to follow step by step the accretions of new 
literary work around this older nucleus. 

For this purpose we propose to consider first the Rules 
of the work called the Patimokkha; for the later texts 
presuppose its existence. It is one of the oldest, if not 
the oldest, of all Buddhist text-books ; and it has been 



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VINAYA TEXTS FROM THE PALI. 



inserted in its entirety into the first part of the 
Vinaya, the Vibhanga 1 . 



The Patimokkha — the meaning of the name will be dis- 
cussed later on — seems to have owed its existence to the 
ancient Indian custom of holding sacred two periods in 
each month, the times of the Full Moon and of the New 
Moon. 

The Vedic ceremonies of the Darjapflrwamasa sacri- 
fice, and of the feast or sacred day (Upavasatha) con- 
nected with it, are known to have been very old, and the 
custom of celebrating these days would naturally be handed 
on from the Brahmans to the different Sama#as, and be 
modified and simplified (though, as it seems, sometimes 
increased in number) by them, in accordance with their 
creeds and their views of religious duty. According to 
Buddhist tradition 2 — and we see no sufficient reason for 
doubting the correctness of the account — the monks of 
other, that is, of non-Buddhistic sects, used to meet together 
at the middle and at the close of every half-month, and 
were accustomed then to proclaim their new teaching in 
public. At such times the people would crowd together ; 
and the different sects found an opportunity of increasing 
their numbers and their influence. 

The Buddhists also adopted the custom of these period- 
ical meetings, but confined themselves to meeting twice in 
each month 3 . And the peculiarity which gave to these 
meetings among the Buddhists their distinguishing cha- 
racter seems to have been borrowed by them neither from 
the Brahmans nor from other dissenters, but to have been 
an original invention of the Buddhists themselves. The 
Brethren and Sisters made use of these half-monthly gather- 
ings to confess to the assembled Order the sins and faults 
which each of them had committed ; and to take upon him- 
self, or herself, the penance which the transgressor had 
thereby incurred. It would be unnecessary to dwell here 
upon the details of these penitential meetings, as we can 

1 The opening sentence only is found in the Mahavagga. See below, p. xv. 
1 Mahfivagga II, i, i. » Ibid. II, 4, 2. 



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INTRODUCTION. XI 



refer the reader to the second book of the Mahavagga, 
where he will find them fully set out. 

It was for use at such penitential gatherings that the 
text, now known as the Patimokkha, was composed. A list 
was drawn up — which of course it would be necessary from 
time to time to complete, and rectify — of those offences 
which ought to be confessed and atoned for ; this list was 
read out in the half-monthly meetings of the Order ; and 
the Brethren and Sisters who were present were asked if 
they were innocent of each one of the offences therein 
mentioned. 

The use of such a list must have already begun in very 
early times. Tradition even ascribes the first laying down 
of each clause to the Buddha himself. This tradition is of 
course very far from being conclusive ; but neither should 
we hold it impossible that the Patimokkha, either in its 
present shape, or at least in its most essential parts, can 
reach back to the Buddha's own time, or to that of his 
personal disciples. 

It is no doubt natural, through the influence of the his- 
tory of early Christianity, or perhaps of the school of 
Socrates, to imagine that early Buddhism was far removed 
from all fixed and absolute forms, either of creed or of 
liturgy; and to represent the intercourse of Gotama and 
his disciples as purely and simply an interchange of 
spiritual edification, where the spirit was all in all, and the 
letter was nothing. But it should be remembered that 
Gotama continued to live for many years, almost for two 
generations, after he had formulated the essential points of 
his system, and after he had founded the brotherhood of 
his Order. And at that time the stream of scholastic and 
legal ideas which emanated from the earlier Brahmanism 
was flowing in full force through the religious circles of 
India. A rich phraseology of sacred and ecclesiastical 
expressions, an armoury of technical terms in philosophy 
and in theology (still preserved in the Brahma«as and Upani- 
shads), had been developed and made ready for the use of 
the Buddhists, and Camas, and other reforming schools. 
And earlier speculation had raised a whole series of pro- 



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Xll VINAYA TEXTS FROM THE PALI. 

blems, and long-continued custom had elaborated a multi- 
farious system of ecclesiastical observances, which the newly 
risen sects, orthodox or heretical, could grapple with, or 
could adopt. It seems to us that Gotama's disciples, from 
the very beginning, were much more than a free and un- 
formal union of men held together merely through their 
common reverence for their Master, and through a common 
spiritual aim. They formed rather, and from the first, an 
organised Brotherhood. 

But if we look upon the Sakyaputtiya Samaras — 
for that is the name which the people in the earliest times 
gave to the community — as from the first an organised 
body, it is highly probable that the earliest formularies, 
both of their creeds and of their liturgies, arose in a time, if 
not during the life of Gotama, yet at most not long after 
his decease. Now among the oldest expressions of belief 
we may with certainty rank the four sentences known as 
the Four Noble Truths and the summary of the so-called 
Noble Eightfold Path : and the oldest liturgical formularies 
preserved to us are, without any doubt, the Patimokkha 
and the various Kammava^as. It is true that these litur- 
gical formularies, being so much more extensive, may 
possibly have been modified or added to before they 
reached the form in which we now possess them ; but there 
is not the slightest trace of any other liturgies having ever 
been in use in the Buddhist fraternity. 



It is of course impossible to attempt to draw a line 
between the part which Gotama himself may have had in 
the settlement of the list of offences contained in the Pati- 
mokkha, and the part that may have been taken by his 
disciples. Nor indeed, considering the limited character of 
our knowledge, is that a point of much importance. But it 
should perhaps be noticed in this connection that Buddhist 
tradition does ascribe to one among Gotama's disciples — to 
Upali — an especial connection with the Vinaya. This tra- 
dition reaches back at least as far as the time when the 
existing recension of the Pali Pi/akas was made, for we 
find it both in the Sutta- and in the Vinaya-Pi/akas. 



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INTRODUCTION. X1U 



Thus in the /Cullavagga (VI, 13, i) we find the passage — 
'At that time the Blessed One proclaimed the Vinaya in 
many a way to the Bhikkhus, exalted the Vinaya, exalted 
the learning of the Vinaya, exalted again and again the 
venerable Upali. Then thought the Bhikkhus, "The 
Blessed One hath proclaimed the Vinaya in many a way, 
hath exalted the Vinaya, hath exalted the learning of the 
Vinaya, hath exalted again and again the venerable Upali. 
Come now let us learn the Vinaya from the venerable 
Upali." And so many Bhikkhus, old and middle-aged 
and young, learnt the Vinaya from the venerable Upali.' 

And again in a Sutta of the Anguttara Nikaya 1 , 
where those Bhikkhus are enumerated who, in any par- 
ticular respect, are the first and foremost in the Brother- 
hood, Upali is mentioned as the first among the custodians 
of the Vinaya (the Vinaya-dhara). And further, as is 
well known, it is Upali who, according to the tradition, 
plays, at the First Council, the same part of propounder 
with regard to the Vinaya Texts which Ananda does with 
regard to the Dhamma Texts 2 . There may well be some 
truth in this very ancient tradition that Upali was specially 
conversant with the Rules of the Order ; but it would be 
hazardous on that account to ascribe to Upali a share, not 
only in the handing down of existing Rules, but in the 
composition of the Patimokkha itself 3 . 



As regards the order in which the various offences are 
arranged in the Patimokkha, the principal division cor- 
responds to the division of the Order into Brethren and 
Sisters: there is a Bhikkhu-patimokkha and a Bhik- 
khuni-patimokkha. In each of these two chief divisions 
the offences are divided into various classes, beginning with 
the heaviest — with those, that is, that result in the exclu- 

1 Phayre MS., vol. i. fol. kau. * JMIavagga XII. 

* In the Ceylon Chroniclers (Dtpavamsa, Bhanavaras 4 and 5) UpSIi even 
becomes the first in a series of Vinayapamokkha, or 'Chiefs of the Vinaya;' 
but no such office is known to the older tradition ; and had it existed it would 
certainly have been mentioned in connection with the dispute about the so- 
called Ten Points of the Vinaya at the Council of Vesall. 



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XIV VINAYA TEXTS FROM THE PALI. 

sion of the offender from the Order. Inside each class the 
sequence of the clauses follows no invariable rule. Some- 
times offences of a related character are placed together in 
groups 1 , but sometimes those which would naturally come 
together are found scattered in quite different parts of the 
same class 2 . It is perhaps worthy of notice that there 
sometimes seems, as in the two cases first mentioned in the 
last note, to be an effort to arrange the offences in groups 
(vagga) of ten : and in three cases we find regulations for- 
mulated with the utmost brevity (the offences being merely 
expressed by a locative case dependent upon pa^ittiyaw) 
at the commencement of such a vagga. It seems to us, at 
least in the present state of our knowledge, quite impossible 
to draw any conclusions from such peculiarities as to the 
comparative age of any different parts of the Patimokkha. 
The irregularities in arrangement may very well be due to 
want of literary clearness in the compilers of the present 
Form of Confession, and it would be hazardous to attempt 
to trace in it any historical argument. 

The various points in regard to the Patimokkha dealt 
with in the foregoing paragraphs do not of themselves 
show that it was at all older than the rest of the Vinaya 
Pi/aka ; and indeed the work, as a separate work, is not 
considered among Buddhists to belong to the Pifokas at 
all, and is therefore not included in the list of works of 
which the Pifokas consist. But every single Rule or Clause 
in the Patimokkha is in fact found word for word in the 
Sutta-vibhanga, the quotations being so complete that the 
Patimokkha might be entirely put together again by piecing 
together extracts from the Vinaya Pitfaka. And it is not 
possible that the Patimokkha originated merely by such a 
process of dovetailing ; for the quotations in the Vinaya 
Pi/aka, though not actually called quotations, bear the un- 
mistakable stamp of being taken from some pre-existing 
work. The cause which led to the Patimokkha, and the 

1 For instance, regulations as to the conduct of Brethren towards Sisters 
come together in Patittiya 21-30; those about meal-times in PaWttiya 31-40 ; 
about conduct in relation to armies in PaWttiya 48-50. 

1 For instance, Paiittiya 5, 6, and 43-45 ; and again, Paiittiya 20 and 62, &c. 



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INTRODUCTION. XV 



Upasampada-kammava£a, being separately preserved at 
all, is the same as the cause which led to their exclusion 
from the lists of the Pi/aka texts — the fact, that is, of 
their being liturgical compositions. 



We turn now to the consideration of the question how a 
series of further literary productions were gradually de- 
veloped out of, or added to the Patimokkha 1 . 

Whoever reads through the Mahavagga will at once be 
struck by one section of it which differs completely both in 
contents and in form from the rest of the work. This is the 
section in the Second Book, Chapter III, paragraphs 4-8. 

This passage is preceded by the opening words of the 
Patimokkha; and in the passage itself those words are 
separately paraphrased or explained. But the explanation 
does not appear to be put into the mouth of the Buddha ; it 
bears rather, without any historical or conversational form, 
the impersonal shape of a simple commentary: and it only 
differs from the later commentaries by peculiar solemn 
diffuseness and rhetorical tautology. 

If we were to consider the Mahavagga only, the sudden 
and unexplained appearance in this connection, and in this 
connection only, of an isolated passage of this kind, would 
have to remain an insoluble puzzle. But when we look 
further into the other parts of the Vinaya Pifaka, an answer 
immediately suggests itself. In the portion of that Pirfaka 
which is better called the Sutta-vibhanga, but is divided in 
the MSS. into two divisions, under the somewhat misleading 
titles of Para^ika and Pa&ttiya, we find, at regularly recur- 
ring intervals, passages of an exactly similar character, and 
without any doubt of the same origin, as the isolated 
passage in the Mahavagga. 

The Sutta-vibhanga is occupied with laying down and 
explaining all the Rules which are contained in the Pati- 
mokkha. Now, immediately after the text of each of these 
Rules, there is found a word for word commentary upon 

1 With the following paragraphs should be compared H. Oldenberg in the 
Introduction to his edition of the Pali text of the Vinaya, vol. i. pp. xvi and 
following. 



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XVI VINAYA TEXTS FROM THE PALI. 

them — precisely as a word for word commentary follows, 
in the passage above cited in the Mahavagga, upon the 
quoted words of the Introductory Formular of the Pati- 
mokkha service. Here then lies the explanation. This 
Introductory Formular is the only passage contained in the 
Patimokkha which is not found also in the Sutta-vibhanga. 
And with the explanation of the curiously isolated passage 
in the Mahavagga we have also a new fact of very great im- 
portance. Not only does the Vinaya Pi/aka contain, word 
for word, the whole of the Patimokkha, but it contains 
also, and again word for word, the whole of an 
ancient Commentary on the Patimokkha. 

This commentary no longer exists as a separate work, 
and it would indeed be strange if it did. It was not re- 
quired in the simple liturgical services of Ordination and 
Confession in use in the Order : and if any one wished to 
refer to it, in order to refresh his memory as to the ex- 
planation of any passage in the Patimokkha, he had only 
to repeat, or to get repeated over to him, the corresponding 
passage from the Sutta-vibhanga. There he would find the 
Old Commentary (as we shall hereafter call it) word for 
word, together with the additional commentary by which 
it had been supplemented in later times. 

A question may then possibly occur to the reader whether 
we can be really sure that the Old Commentary has been 
preserved complete, or whether what we have is a frag- 
ment only. We think there can be but little doubt as to 
the right answer. The Patimokkha, which the Old Com- 
mentary deals with word by word, has been separately 
preserved to us, and we know that no one phrase of it 
remains uncommented upon. And further it is clear from 
several passages that the words of the old commentator 
were considered so sacred or authoritative that they have 
been kept intact even in cases where they are in contra- 
diction to the later parts of the Vinaya Pi/aka '. It should 
however be noted that this Old Commentary is philological 

1 See, for instance, the comparison made by Oldenberg in the Introduction to 
his edition of the text, vol. i. p. xviii. The Old Commentary follows of course 
the passage there referred to in the Patimokkha. 



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INTRODUCTION. XVU 



) 



and exegetical throughout, containing nothing of a le- 
gendary or quasi-historical nature. It is just possible to 
suggest that it may have originally contained not only such 
an explanation of the meaning of each Rule, but an account 
also of the occasion on which the Rule was laid down. 
But it is difficult to see why greater sacredness should 
have been attached to one part of the work than to 
another ; or to explain how it was that, if any part was 
changed, the contradictory passages above referred to were 
not also altered. Every probability therefore points to the 
conclusion that we have the complete work still before us, 
and not fragments of it only. 



It seems to us to have been precisely the absence of any 
such historical account in the older Commentary which 
probably led to the formation of what was practically 
the new edition of the Patimokkha which now lies before 
us in the first part of the Vinaya Pi/aka. 

In the earliest books of the Sutta Pi/aka, which contains 
the statement of Buddhist belief, we find — just as in the 
Gospels and in the Socratic dialogues — that that belief is 
not stated directly. The books profess to give, not simply 
the belief itself, but the belief as the Buddha uttered it, 
with an account of the time when, and the place at which, 
he uttered it. The Buddha's new method of salvation, his 
new doctrine of what salvation was, did not present itself 
to the consciousness of the early Buddhist community as 
an idea, a doctrine, standing alone, and merely on its own 
merits. In their minds it was indissolubly bound up with the 
memory of the revered and striking personality of him who 
had proclaimed it. So in the Sutta Pi/aka the actor and 
speaker is almost throughout the Buddha himself : (occa- 
sionally, but very seldom, one of his disciples.) Introduc- 
tions — often indeed short and tending in later times to 
disappear — give a full account of where, and when, he 
spoke ; what was the occasion which led to his uttering 
that particular speech ; and to whom he uttered it. But, 
throughout, the principal thing is what the Buddha said. 

It is only natural that this distinguishing mark of the 
[13] b 



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XV111 VINAYA TEXTS FROM THE PALI. 

literature of the Buddhist Dhamma — much of which was 
no doubt in existence at a very early date — should have 
reacted upon the literature of the Buddhist Vinaya. The 
members of the Order were no longer contented to learn, 
and to understand the meaning of, the various Rules of the 
Patimokkha. A desire sprang up to have, for each one of 
them also, a kind of historical basis ; to know the story of 
how the Buddha himself came to lay down the Rule to his 
disciples. And it was only the Brother who was properly 
acquainted with all this who was accounted a real ' Doctor 
of the Law.' 

So it is said in the /sTullavagga (IX, 5, i): — 'If a Brother, 
Upali, has not received gladly both the Patimokkhas in 
their full extent, has not well divided them, well established 
them, well investigated them, both sutta by sutta, and in 
every detail; if when asked," Where was this spoken by the 
Blessed One?" he fail to solve the question: then there 
will be some who will say to him, " But then, let the 
venerable one still devote himself to learning the Vinaya ! " 
thus will they say 1 .' 

It is evident from this passage that, at the time when it 
was written, such a tradition regarding each Rule was in 
existence ; and that the knowledge of these traditions was 
held in high esteem. It is therefore a reasonable con- 
jecture that steps were taken to amalgamate these tradi- 
tions with the Text and the Old Commentary in a complete 
work, which should also contain what we may call Notes 
on the Rules — that is, decisions on points of Law involved, 
though not expressed in so many words, in the Rules ; 
discussions on what cases were really included and what 
were not, in particular regulations ; enumeration of excep- 
tions to the Rules ; and so on. 

Whether this conjecture be right or not, it is precisely 
such a work that we have now before us in that part of the 
Vinaya Piteka called the Sutta-vibhanga, and divided 

1 No ie Upali bhikkhuno ubhayani Pitimokkhani vittharena svagatani honti 
suvibhattSni suppavatttni suvihiMAitani suttato anuvyang'anaso, idam pan' fivuso 
kattha vuttam BhagavatS 'ti iti pu#Ao na sampayati, tassa bhavanti vattaro : 
Irigha tava ayasma Vinayam pariyapunassfl 'ti : iti 'ssa bhavanti vattSro. 



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INTRODUCTION. XIX 



in the present MSS., as above pointed out, into two books 
called respectively — after the class of Rules with which they 
begin — Para^ika and Pa/fcittiya. And it is possible through- 
out, without the possibility of mistake, to distinguish between 
the three portions of which the present work is built up. 
The historical basis conies first, leading up to the extract 
from the Patimokkha, which is always placed in the 
Buddha's own mouth ; then comes the Old Commentary, 
with its verbal explanations ; and then, finally, the Notes 
giving the exceptions to, and the extensions of, the Rule 
in the Pitimokkha. 



The foregoing paragraphs show the way in which the 
Sutta-vibhanga grew up on the basis of the Patimokkha. 
The following books — the Khandhakas — give a detailed and 
connected account of the admission into the Sawgha ; of 
the ceremony of the Uposatha ; of the annually recurring 
observances connected with the beginning and the end of 
the rainy season ; of the principal disciplinary proceedings ; 
and of miscellaneous details regarding the medicine, food, 
dwelling-places, and daily life of the members of the Order 
(Bhikkhus). As in the Sutta-vibhanga, so here also, the 
outward form is arranged in such a way that in the case of 
every regulation a history was given of the occasion upon 
which the Buddha was supposed to have made it. These 
histories again lead up, in most cases, to a liturgical formu- 
lary by which the regulation was to be carried out. 

While, however, in the case of the Sutta-vibhanga the 
liturgy on which it has been founded has been preserved in 
a separate shape, the formularies in the Khandhakas have 
not as yet, except in some instances, been found in exist- 
ence apart from the Khandhakas. The principal exception 
is the Upasampada-kammava^a (The Words of the 
Act of Ordination), which recurs in its entirety in the First 
Khandhaka of the Mahavagga (I, 76, 3 to I, 78, 5). It is 
impossible therefore as yet to trace the history of the gra- 
dual formation of the Khandhakas as we think it already 
possible to do in the case of the Sutta-vibhanga. 

In the Khandhakas too, no doubt, the introductory 

b 2 

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XX VINAYA TEXTS FROM THE PALI. 

histories are the latest part. But while some of the formu- 
laries and regulations to which they lead up may well be very 
old, others are probably additions to, or modifications of, 
those older ones ; and it is difficult to attempt to show, 
even with regard to the exceptions above mentioned, which 
are the older and which are the later. The misfortune that 
these forms are not all now separately extant 1 is probably 
simply due to the fact that the formularies separately pre- 
served (including the Patimokkha) are the only ones which 
continued to be used in actual services among the mem- 
bers of the Order. 

Such being the nature and contents, and such — so far 
as it can be traced — being the origin of the Sutta-vibhanga 
and of the Khandhakas respectively, it follows that in all 
probability they were composed, or put into their present 
shape, at about the same period in the development of 
early Buddhism — it is even possible that both works arose 
in immediate connection. 

The kind of narrative setting with which, in both cases, 
the older material has been surrounded is alike in both. 
Here and there in both works are included real fragments 
of ancient legend or tradition — as, for instance, the account 
of the events from the attainment of Buddhahood down to 
the conversion of Sariputta and Moggallana (Mahavagga I, 
1-24), the story of Devadatta (^Tullavagga VII), the story 
of the conversion and the sin of Sudinna (Vibhanga, First 
Pari^ika). But the greater number of these narratives are 
of the most meagre description, and have altogether the 
appearance of being mere inventions. 

There is little doubt that this is what they, in fact, 
were. Actual remembrance of the Buddha, and of his 
time, could have sufficed only in the rarest instances to 
give a correct historical basis for the Rules or Ceremonies, 
which had to be explained. We find a precisely similar 

1 Mr. Dickson has given us an excellent text of the UpasampadSkammava#& ; 
and it were much to be wished that the rest of them should also be published. 
Mr. Clough has given a translation of six others in 'Miscellaneous Translations 
from Oriental Languages,' London, 1834; and the Liverpool Free Library has 
MSS. of others. 



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INTRODUCTION. XXI 



state of things leading, in the Introductions to the Cataka 
Stories, to what were unquestionably inventions : and it 
must be acknowledged that the compilers have not taken 
the slightest trouble to conceal the evidently unsubstantial 
character of most of these summary introductions. But it 
does not follow that they were invented at the time when 
the Sutta-vibhahga and the Khandhakas were compiled. 
They may possibly have formed part of the traditional 
explanatory teaching of the schools. 



As to the time when the Sutta-vibhanga and the 
Khandhakas were compiled, we have important evidence 
in their silence regarding the well-known Ten Points. 

The long-continued struggle on that question — as im- 
portant for the history of Buddhism as the Arian contro- 
versy for that of Christianity — agitated the whole Buddhist 
world to its very centre ; and the attempted settlement of 
it, at the Council of Vesali, led to a most serious schism in 
the Buddhist Church. Now the ten expressions in which 
the question was summarised or catalogued 1 are (as was 
pointed out in the Introduction to the Pali Text of the 
Mahavagga) conspicuous by their absence from the 
Vibhanga, and from all, except the last, of the Khan- 
dhakas 2 . The first mention of most of them, and the first 
use of any one of them as a distinctive war-cry, is found in 
those last books, which are evidently an appendix to the 
rest of the Khandhakas, and of an entirely different nature 
from the earlier ones ; for they contain a regular historical 
account of the two Councils, that of Ra^agaha, and that of 
Vesali 3 . 

1 Singilona, dvangula, &c. (JTulIavagga XII, i, 10). 

1 That is, as war-cries; g-atarflparag'ata occurs in the sense of the precious 
metals. 

* In the present division of the Khandhakas into two parts, called the Larger 
and Smaller Divisions (Maha- and Xulla-vagga), there are ten Khandhakas in 
the first Division, and ten, apart from this appendix, in the second Division. 
Without the appended two last Khandhakas the so-called smaller Division is 
really considerably smaller than the larger Division ; and there is therefore a 
good reason for the name which was given to it. With the two last Khan- 
dhakas the difference in length of the two Divisions as a whole is not sufficiently 
striking to account satisfactorily for the choice of their names ; and the smaller 



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XXU VINAYA TEXTS FROM THE PALI. 

But the Ten Points in dispute were all matters of ecclesi- 
astical law, they all related to observances of the brother- 
hood, they were in fact questions as to whether or not the 
ancient Rules should be relaxed or not in these ten re- 
spects. Is it possible that in a collection of works like the 
Vibhanga and the Khandhakas, which seek to set forth, 
down to the minutest detail, and even with hair-splitting 
diffuseness, all that has any relation to the daily life of the 
Brethren, and the regulations of the Buddhist Order — is it 
possible that in such a collection, if, when it was compiled, 
the struggle on the Ten Points had already burst into flame, 
there should be no reference at all, even in interpolations, 
to any one of these ten disputes ? That the difference of 
opinion on the Ten Points remains altogether unnoticed in 
those parts of the collection where, in the natural order of 
things, it would be obviously referred to, and that it is only 
mentioned in an appendix where the Council held on its 
account is described, shows clearly, in our opinion, that the 
Vibhanga and the Khandhakas (save the two last) are 
older than the Council of Vesall — and, of course, a for- 
tiori that the Patimokkha and the Kammava^as are 
so too. 

The Council of Vesalt is said in the Xllth Khandhaka 
of the /sTullavagga to have taken place a hundred years 
after the Buddha's death. This is no doubt a round 
number ; and the exact year of the date of the Buddha's 
death is open to question. If it be placed, according to 
the Ceylon chronicles, at exactly 218 years before Asoka's 
coronation, it will fall in or about 483 B.C. 

But the expression 'a 18 years' can in no case be re- 
garded as an absolutely reliable statement of actual fact, 
and the date of 483 B.C. must therefore be taken subject to 
a marginal allowance of some decades. And it appears to 
one of us, for various reasons which he has elsewhere stated 
at length, that the balance of probability leads to the con- 
clusion that the date of the Buddha's Parinibbana must be 

Division actually contains two more Khandhakas than the larger. We lay no 
stress upon these facts, but it confirms the general argument to find little points 
of this kind tending in the same direction. 



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INTRODUCTION. XX111 



brought down to the period from 420-400 B. c. 1 We do not 
enter upon that question here, as the details are intricate, 
and the result uncertain ; and it is sufficient for our present 
purpose to be able to fix the Council of Vesali, even after 
making allowance for all possibilities, at within thirty years 
of 350 B.C. 

We would only point out that there is really no ground 
for discontent with a result which can be fixed, after all, 
within a few decades. For what difference does that make 
in this case ? If we had to deal with Grecian history, such 
a result might well be deemed unsatisfactory. There are 
differences, both personal and political, between Greece in 
480, in 440, and in 400 — differences well known to us. But 
whether we fix the date of an event in India in 480, or in 
440, what does it, at present, matter ? Who would be bold 
enough to say that the mention of India in 480 B.C. calls 
up to his mind a condition of things different from that 
suggested by the mention of India in 440 B. c, or even in 
400 B.C.? We need not therefore take too much to heart 
the uncertainty of this chronological result; though we 
may regret that our comfort is drawn from no better 
source than our want of knowledge. 

The Vibhanga and the Twenty Khandhakas were at that 
time (circa 350 B.C.) already held in such high repute that 
no one ventured to alter them ; a sanctity of this kind is 
not acquired without the lapse of a considerable time : and 
we think it is not going too far to say, Firstly, that these 
books must have been in existence, as we now have them, 
within thirty years, earlier or later, of, at least, 360 or 370 
B.C. ; Secondly, that the Old Commentary they have pre- 
served must be considerably, perhaps fifty years, older ; 
and Thirdly, that the Kammava^as and the Patimokkha 
must be older still. 



The reader will notice that in the foregoing discussion no 
mention has been made of the Fifth Book in the present 

1 See the dissertation on this subject in Rhys Davids's ' Ancient Coins and 
Measures of Ceylon;' and, more shortly, the close of the Introduction to his 
' Buddhist Suttas from the Pali.' 



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XXIV VINAYA TEXTS FROM THE PALI. 

division of the Vinaya Pi&ka — the Pariv£ra-pa£/*a. The 
reason is that this work, an abstract of the other parts of the 
Vinaya, is in fact a very much later compilation, and pro- 
bably the work of a Ceylonese Thera. In some stanzas, 
which are found at the end of the Parivara-pa£#a, it is 
stated to have been composed by ' the highly wise, learned, 
and skilful Dipa, after he had inquired here and there 
into the methods (literally, the way) followed by former 
teachers 1 .' 

We have every hope that the foregoing argument will 
commend itself to our fellow workers as being, in the main, 
well founded. We now propose to test it by applying it 
in explanation of several difficult terms and phrases found 
in the Vinaya Pifeka, which seem to have been hitherto 
incorrectly interpreted. 

It has been pointed out that, in the Pcttimokkha, the 
offences are arranged in certain classes, called, with refer- 
ence to the heinousness of the act committed, Pdra^ika, 
Sawghadisesa, Pa^ittiya, Pafidesaniya, and Se- 
khiya. In other parts of the Vinaya, other offences are 
called Thulla££aya and Dukka^a. On this nomen- 
clature the Rev. S. Coles has founded a trenchant attack 
upon Buddhist morality. He says : 

' Beside the Parajikas there are lesser faults, the nature 
of which is determined by various causes, as will subse- 
quently appear. These are Sanghadisesa, Thullaccaya, 
and Dukka^a faults, and can all be easily remedied, the 
two latter especially ; as, after a fault of this kind has been 
committed, the culprit has only to confess to his Upaj- 
jhaya (ordaining priest) without much delay, and is then 
exempted from all evil consequences ; but the Sangha- 
disesa being more serious (about half a Pcirajika), a course 
of penance has to be submitted to, and confession without 
delay made to twenty-five superior Bhikkhus. The nature 

1 Pubbaiariyamaggan ia puMAitva ia tahim tahim 
Dlpo nSma maMpareMO sutadharo viiakkhano 
Imam vittharasamkhepam sa^Aamaggena maggiime 
j&Tintayitva likhapesi sissakanam sukhavaham. 



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INTRODUCTION. XXV 



and extent of these penances are not denned in the first 
book of the Vinaya Pitaka, but in others, to which reference 
will be made when these books are brought under con- 
sideration. Suffice it to say, that they can possibly have no 
deterring effect on crime, but rather form loop-holes through 
which most enormous and disgusting misdeeds may be 
committed, and yet the perpetrator may remain not only 
as a Buddhist, but as a BhikkhuV 

Mr. Coles then applies this argument to show that many 
offences against morality, being only called Dukka/a and 
not Para^ika, must have been looked upon very leniently, 
not only by the Buddhists, but by Gotama himself ; and 
that therefore his system of morality was not of the lofty 
kind it has usually been supposed to be, but was, in fact, 
a mere cloak and encouragement to wickedness and 
crime ! 

If Mr. Coles had looked at the Pitaka he was discussing 
from a historical, instead of from a controversial, point of 
view, he would scarcely have advanced this argument. The 
use of the term Dukka/a does not arise from, nor is it 
evidence of, a weakness in moral feeling ; but merely of 
a difference in point of time. It occurs only in what we 
have ventured above to call the Notes :' that is to say, in 
the latest portion of the Pitaka. When the author or 
authors of the final recension of the Vinaya had to speak of 
an offence not actually mentioned, though implied, in the 
text before them, they did not presume to call it by any of 
the names applied in the Patimokkha itself to the classifi- 
cation of offences. They no more dared to add to the 
number of Para^ikas, for instance, than a clergyman would 
now venture seriously to propose an addition to the Ten 
Commandments. They made use of two technical terms 
(both entirely new ones), namely, Thulla^aya and Duk- 
kafo (literally, Serious Transgression and Bad-deed), using 
the former more sparingly, and for graver misdemeanours. 
No argument based on passages where the word Dukkata. 
occurs can therefore have any force as to the teaching 
of Gotama himself; and the Bhikkhus, who did use the 

1 Journal of the Ceylon Asiatic Society, 1867-1870, p. 155. 



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XXVI VINAYA TEXTS FROM THE PALI. 

word, were restrained from using the older term Pdra^ika 
by a feeling of reverence towards their sacred books — a 
feeling surely deserving, not of censure, but of sympathy. 



Again, there are certain terms applied to various parts of 
the Vinaya itself on which the above historical analysis 
may throw some light. When Asoka, in the Edict of 
Bhabra, addressed to the Buddhist Order, exhorted them 
to take as their authority, among other works, the Vinaya - 
Samukase, or Abstract of the Vinaya, he may fairly be 
supposed to have referred to the Patimokkha, which that 
epithet would very appropriately describe. If it be asked 
why he did not then call it the Patimokkha, the ex- 
planation may be either that that word is more especially 
a term for the act to be performed, than for the liturgy 
which shows the way to perform it (though it was also 
undoubtedly used as a name of the liturgy), or else that 
the work was known under both designations. 

We would just add, in passing, that, in the passage in 
question, the reading samukase (samutkarsha), instead 
of the formerly accepted samakase, is quite clear in 
General Cunningham's lithograph 1 ; and the generally 
accepted view that the Edict was addressed to a council, 
and is therefore an authoritative confirmation of the Ceylon 
traditions regarding the Council of Patna, ought to be re- 
considered. The Edict merely says : ' King Devanampiya 
of Magadha salutes the Sawgha' (that is, the Order, or 
the Community, of Bhikkhus) 2 . Without desiring to throw 
any doubt upon the reality of the Council of Patna, we are 
driven to the conclusion that such an expression as ' the 
Sawzgha ' could not have been meant to describe a formal 



1 ' Corpus Inscriptionum Indicarum,' pi. xv. 

» Burnouf translated ' a l'assemblee du Magadha,' and Wilson, ' to the vener- 
able assembly of Magadha' (see 'Corpus,' &c, p. 131); but the reading is 
clearly MSgadhe in the ' Corpus,' while the older facsimile in the Journal of 
the Bengal Asiatic Society (ix. 618) had the impossible form Magdhem. 
Even if we could read Magadham samgham (an expression for which we 
know no parallel), the above remarks would still hold good. Compare further 
Professor Kern in the 'Jaartelling der Zuidelijke Buddhisten,' pp. 30-35. 



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INTRODUCTION. XXV11 



council. Surely, if the Edict had been addressed to such 
a council, the fact would have been plainly intimated. 



It is just possible that Vinaya-Samukase may refer to the 
Old Commentary as well as to the Patimokkha ; but this 
is not probable, for there is no reason to believe that in 
Asoka's time the Old Commentary any longer existed 
apart from its setting in the Vibhanga. And Vinaya- 
Samukase cannot for the reasons above stated mean, as 
has been supposed, the Parivara-pa^a. 



As regards the meaning of the word Patimokkha we 
have the explanation of the Old Commentator in that 
single passage of his work found, as above pointed out, 
in the Khandhakas 1 . He there describes it as 'the origin, 
the front (mukha), the chief of the good Dhammas ;' where 
the word Dhamma means ' qualities,' and where the evident 
inference is that the commentator 2 derived Patimokkha 
from mukha. But, on the other hand, the tradition of the 
Northern Buddhists, in whose Sanskrit works the word is 
replaced byPratimoksha, points to a derivation from the 
root mu£. 

It seems scarcely open to doubt that we must, in ac- 
cordance with this last interpretation, connect the word 
with mu£, and not with mukha. 'Pratimukha' means in 
Sanskrit ' over against, standing close in front' How is it 
possible to derive from that any meaning appropriate as a 
title for the liturgy of confession called Patimokkha ? On 
the other hand, the derivation from mu£ is straightforward 
and simple. Prati-mu£ (atmanep.) means 'to free one- 
self, to get rid of;' and it is precisely through the recitation of 
this formular, and the answering of the questions contained 
in it, that the conscience of the member of the Brotherhood 



1 Patimokkhan ti adim etam mukliam etam pamukham etam JcusalSnam 
dhammanam, tena vuiiati patimokkhan ti. Mahavagga II, 3, 4. 

a We use the phrase ' Old Commentator ' for convenience only. The com- 
mentary was, no doubt, handed down by tradition in the Buddhist schools ; 
and there is no reason to believe that it was the work of any one mind. 



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XXV111 VINAYA TEXTS FROM THE PALI. 

was set free from the sense of the offence he had incurred 1 . 
Patimokkha or Pratimoksha means therefore 'Dis- 
burdening, Getting free.' The lengthening of the first 
vowel in the Pali word is not without analogies which have 
been already adduced by Childers. It is certain that the 
word is older than the present shape of the Formulary now 
so called ; for it is used several times in the Formulary 
itself, as well as in many of the oldest Suttas. 



The Old Commentator makes the Patimokkha ' the 
head of the good Dhammas.' There is a curious passage 
in the Patimokkha where the Dhammas are said to be 
included in the Suttas : 

' If a Bhikkhu at the half-monthly recitation of the Pati- 
mokkha should say, "Now for the first time do I notice 
that this Dhamma, as one handed down in the Suttas, 
embraced in the Suttas, gets recited every half-month!" 
then' &c. 2 

It is plain here that neither Dhamma nor Sutta is used 
in the sense to which we are accustomed from the later 
books. The Dhammas recited half-monthly are those con- 
tained in the scheme of offences given in the Patimokkha, 
and the Suttas must therefore mean the separate clauses of 
that Formulary. 

The fact is that the use of the word Sutta is by no 
means confined in the oldest Pali to the texts of what was 
afterwards the Sutta Pifoka, nor is it exclusively used 
either in earlier or later times s in opposition to Vinaya. 
Thus we find it used again, as we think, of the Rules of the 
Patimokkha ; and in contrast, as in the rule above quoted, 
to Dhamma, in Afullavagga IV, 14, 22, 23 : 

' This Bhikkhu, of such and such a name, is a preacher 

1 Compare MahSvagga II, 3, 3. 

2 Yo pana bhikkhu anvaddhamisam Patimokkhe uddissamane evam vadeyya ; 
idan' eva kho aham ^anSmi, ayam pi kira dhammo suttSgato suttapariyS- 
panno anvaddhamisam uddesam agaWAattti, tail ie . . . (the 73rd Paiittiya, 
quoted in .Kullavagga III, 34, 3). 

s Though more especially concerned here with the earlier use of the word 
Sutta, it may be well to remind our readers of the name SuttadharS applied 
in the Sumaiigala Vilasini to secular lawyers (see Alwis, ' Introd.' &c, p 100). 



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INTRODUCTION. XXIX 



of the D ham ma; but the Suttas have not been handed 
down to him, nor the Sutta-Vibhahga.' 

' This Bhikkhu, of such and such a name, is a preacher 
of the D ha mm a, and the Suttas have been handed down 
to him, but not the Sutta-VibhahgaV 

So again in the constantly repeated phrase above re- 
ferred to — 

' If the two Patimokkhas are (or are not, as the connection 
requires) thoroughly known to a Bhikkhu in their entirety 
with all their divisions and explanations, if he have (or 
have not) thoroughly mastered them Sutta by Sutta, and 
Detail by Detail ; then' &c. 2 

— the word Sutta evidently refers to the clauses of the 
two Patimokkhas ; and we find also in the immediate 
context the mention of Dhamma or of Vinaya, or of both. 
. It is no doubt true that in one passage of the Mahi- 
parinibbana Sutta (IV, 8-11= pp. 39, 40), Sutta is opposed 
to Vinaya in much the same way as Sutta Pi/aka was 
afterwards opposed to Vinaya Piteka ; yet the contrast 
between these two ideas is usually expressed by the appo- 
sition of Dhamma to Vinaya 3 , and the passage in the 
Maha-parinibbina Sutta stands, so far as we yet know, 
quite alone. Indeed in the oldest tradition the discourses 
or conversations now called Suttas seem not to have been 
called by that name, but are referred to as Suttantas. 

So in the Mahavagga III, 5, 9, 12 mention is made of 
devout men, or of devout women, who may have been 
accustomed to recite some well-known Suttanta 4 ; and 
in the next Khandhaka (IV, 15, 4) we find Suttanta, 
Dhamma, and Vinaya all occurring in one context : 

' It may happen, Brethren, that in some district on the 
day of Pavara«a the night may have become far spent 

1 Suttam tassa Sgatam na Suttavibhangam. On the latter term see below. 

* UbhaySni nu kho Patimokkhani vittharena svagatani suvibhattani suppa- 
vattfni suviniWAitani suttato anuvyaff^anaso (Mahavagga I, 36, 14 ; I, 37, 14 ; 
JCullavagga IV, 14, 19 ; IX, 5, 1). Anuvya»#ana may perhaps refer here to 
the Old Commentary. 

* Compare H. Oldenberg's Introduction to his edition of the Mahavagga, 
pp. 7 and following. 

4 Abhi»jiatam va Suttantam bhanati. 



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XXX VINAYA TEXTS FROM THE PALI. 

while the Brethren are in confusion — some reciting the 
Dhamma, those versed in the Suttantas intoning some Sut- 
tanta together, the custodians of the Vinaya discussing the 
Vinaya, and the preachers of the Dhamma discoursing 
about the Dhamma.' 

The whole of these expressions recur in iSTullavagga IV, 
4, 4 ; and are found again, with others of a similar character, 
in isfullavagga VI, 6, 2. This last passage is in the Intro- 
duction to a fable which of course recurs, as a £ataka, in the 
£ataka collection, and with an introduction in almost the 
same words. We should therefore expect to find there also 
the epithet suttantika ('versed in the Suttantas'), if that 
expression had remained in use as late as the fifth century 
A.D.; but it is omitted, the Suttantikas having been then 
long since replaced by those entrusted, not with the whole, 
but with special portions only, of the Dhamma literature. 
The word Suttanta was however still in common use at the 
time when the presumably later books now contained in 
the Pi/akas were composed ; for it occurs in the Ahguttara 
Nikaya 1 , and in a constantly recurring verse in the Buddha- 
vamsa. in which it is opposed to Vinaya 2 , and the word is 
still used in the MSS. as the title of the more important 
Suttas. 

In the passage quoted above from the -ffullavagga IV, 14, 
aa, 23 there is a term Sutta-vibhanga used as the name 
of some part of the Vinaya literature apparently distinct 



1 The Anguttara Nikaya, Paniaka Nipata (Phayre MS. vol. ii. fol. gaA) : 
Ye te Suttanta Tathagatassa bhSvita' gambhtra gambhfrattha lokuttarS sun- 
»ataparisamyutta tesu bha»namanesu na sussissanti no sotam odahissanti na 
afina.Utia.rn upatfAapessanti na Aa te dhamme uggahetabbam pariyapunitabbam 
mannissanti ; ye pana te suttanli kathita kaveyya Aittakkhara Wttabya»g"an& 
bahiraka savakabhasita tesu bha»iiamanesu sussissanti sotam odahissanti ; &c. 

Ibid. fol. nai: Ye tebhikkhu bahussutS. Sgatagam4 dhammadhara vinayadharS 
matikadharS te na sakkaiiam suttantam param vaienti, tesam aiiayena iAin- 
namulako suttanto hoti apa<isarano. 

On the form compare the Sanskrit dn'sh/anta, vritt&nta, and siddhanta. 

* Suttantam VinayaS iapi navangam SatthusSsanara 

Sabbam pariyapunitvana sobhayi Ginasasanam. 

The phrase is used of various Buddhas in verses 317, 348, 594, 627, and 786 
of the Buddhavamsa. This reference we owe to Dr. Morris. 



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INTRODUCTION. XXXI 



from the Suttas of the Patimokkha. 'The Suttas have 
been handed down to him, but not the Suttavibhanga.' 

The word recurs only in one other passage \ and that is 
in the appended Khandhakas of the .Sullavagga, in the 
account of the Council of Vesalt 2 . Seven passages are 
there quoted from the Patimokkha in condemnation of 
seven out of the Ten Points raised by the heretics ; and in 
answer to the question, ' Where was it condemned ?' and 
before the passages are quoted, the place where the passage 
was uttered is mentioned, and condemnation is stated to be 
'in the Suttavibhanga.' Thus 

Revata says, ' Is it right, Lord, to drink ^alogi?' 
Sabbakami replies, ' What, Friend, is this,§alogi ? ' 
Revata : ' Is it right, Lord, to drink strong drink which 
not being fermented, is not yet intoxicating ? ' 
Sabbakami : ' No, my friend, it is not right.' 
Revata : ' Where has it been condemned ? ' 
Sabbakami : ' At Kosambi in the Suttavibhanga.' 
Revata: 'What does he (who drinks ,§alogi) commit?' 
Sabbakami : ' He commits the P&£ittiya offence of drink- 
ing strong drink and of drinking intoxicating liquors.' 

This is a quotation of the Pa&ttiya Rule, No. 51 ; but 
the words quoted do not in fact condemn the drinking of 
toddy, and neither the Patimokkha nor the Old Com- 
mentary contains any reference to the place, Kosambi, 
where the words are here said to have been uttered. 

It is only in the introduction afterwards appended (in 
what is now called the Vibhanga) to the two older works, 
that Kosambi is mentioned ; and in the appendix following 
the Rule 51 in the Vibhanga there are no exceptions which 
would include ^alogi. But Kosambi is mentioned in the 
Introductory History. It is therefore most probable that 
the term Sutta-vibhahga refers to what is now called the 
Vibhanga ; or, if not, at least to that body of traditional 
teaching (including the Patimokkha and the Old Com- 
mentary) out of which the present Vibhanga was composed. 

1 That is, of the Vinaya Pi/aka. We are not certain that it may not be 
found in the Sutta Piiaka. 
» JCullavagga XII, 2, 8. 



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XXX11 VINAYA TEXTS FROM THE PALI. 

It may be convenient to make some reference here to 
the question whether the literature above discussed was 
handed down by memory only, or by writing. We are 
justified in expecting to find, in texts dealing in such minute 
detail with the daily life of the members of the Buddhist 
Order, some distinct evidence — and it will be equally dis- 
tinct whether it consists in actual statement, or in silence — 
as to writing, and the use of written books. And this 
expectation is not disappointed. 

In the first place, there are several passages which con- 
firm in an indisputable manner the existence of the art of 
writing at the time when the Vinaya texts were put into 
their present shape. 

' A certain man, who had committed a theft, ran away, 
and got ordained among the Bhikkhus. Now he was 
written up in the king's palace with an injunction that he 
should be slain wheresoever he should be found 1 .' — 

' But there occurred to the parents of Upali this con- 
sideration : " If Upali should learn writing 2 , Upali might 
thus after our decease live at ease, and not be troubled." ' 

And in the Vibhanga we find an interesting explanation 
of the Third Para^ika Rule, which lays down that whoso- 
ever wilfully kills a man, or brings about his death, must 
be expelled from the Order. 

In the Notes on this Rule the Sutta-vibhanga discusses 
the case of some one causing the death of another by per- 
suading him that suicide is glorious, or that it results in 
salvation.. And in this connection the possibility is con- 
sidered of these representations being made to the proposed 
victim, not by word of mouth, and not by a messenger, but 
by writing. 

'He engraves a writing to this effect: "Who so dies, 
he acquires wealth, or acquires fame, or goes to heaven." 
By that writing he is guilty of a Dukka/a offence. The 
other sees the writing, and, determining to die, is filled 

1 Aiiiiataro puriso iorikam katva palayitva bhikkhusu pabba^ito hoti. So 
Ira. raiit'o antepure likhito hoti yattha passitabbo tattha hantabbo 'ti (Maha- 
vagga I, 4.1). 

" Safe kho Upali lekham sikkheyya (Mahavagga I, 49, 1). 



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INTRODUCTION. XXX1U 



with painful feelings. (The writer is) guilty of a Thul- 
la&6aya offence. He does die. (The writer is) guilty of a 
Para^-ika offence 1 .' 

And again, with respect to the injunction addressed to 
the Sisters of the Order not to devote themselves to worldly 
wisdom (tira^Mana-vi^a), the Vibhahga makes an 
exception in favour of learning to write 2 . 

It is evident therefore that writing was in vogue in the 
time when the Notes on the Rules were put into their 
present form, that it was made use of for the publication of 
official announcements, and for the drawing up of written 
communications in private life ; and that while the know- 
ledge of the art was a possible source of livelihood, it was 
not confined to 'clerks/ but was acquired by ordinary 
persons, and even by women. 

But it is a long step from the use of writing for such 
public or private notifications to the adoption of it for the 
purpose of recording an extensive and sacred literature : 
and our texts show — and show, as it seems to us, in an 
equally indisputable manner — that for this latter purpose 
writing, however well known, had not yet come into use. 

Had the sacred texts been written down and read, books, 
manuscripts, and the whole activity therewith connected, 
must have necessarily played a very important part in the 
daily life of the members of the Buddhist Order. Now the 
texts of the Vinaya place clearly enough before our eyes 
the whole of the 'personal property,' so to speak, of the 
Buddhist A ram as and Viharas. Every movable thing, 
down to the smallest and least important domestic utensils, 
is in some way or other referred to, and its use pointed out ; 
while the use of other articles, not usually found in the 
Viharas, is mentioned, and condemned. But nowhere do 
we find the least trace of any reference to manuscripts; 



1 Lekham Windati yo evam maratl so dhanam va labhati yasam va labhati 
saggam va gaiMatiti. Akkharakkharaya apatti dukkatessa. Lekhanj passitvi 
marissamiti dukkhant vedanam uppadeti. Apatti thullaMayassa. Marati. 
Apatti paragikassa. 

* Anapatti lekham pariyapunati (Bhikkhunt-Patimokkha, PSiittiya 49). 

[13] c 



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XXXIV VINAYA TEXTS FROM THE PALI. 

much less of inks, or pens, or styles, or leaves, or other 
writing materials. 

And we do find, on the contrary, passages which show 
the difficulties which arose every time that the memorial 
tradition by word of mouth of any of the sacred texts was 
interrupted, or threatened to be interrupted. 

So, for instance, we find the case discussed of no one 
Bhikkhu, among all the Brethren dwelling in some par- 
ticular place, knowing the Patimokkha. There was no 
other way out of the difficulty, save that of one of the 
Bhikkhus being sent out to some neighbouring fraternity, 
with the commission there to learn the Patimokkha by 
heart, either in its full extent (that is, as we take it, all the 
rules being learnt in full) or at least in abstract 1 . 

And again, in a passage already quoted, we hear of the 
case of an Upasaka, who knows some important Suttanta, 
and is afraid that the knowledge of it will fade away. So 
he sends to a fraternity of Bhikkhus, and invites the 
Brethren to come over to him ; and in that case an ex- 
ception is made to the Rule forbidding the Brethren to 
travel in the rainy season, provided only that they do not 
stay away from home longer than seven days 2 . 

We may quote in this connection a passage of the same 
tendency from the Anguttara Nikaya, in which, among the 
circumstances hurtful to the security and the propagation 
of the Buddhist faith, the possibility is mentioned of the 
well-instructed Bhikkhus neglecting to take pains to hand 
on to others the Suttantas which they know. Then, when 
they have passed away, ' the root of that Suttanta is cut 
off, and it finds no place of refuge 3 .' 

It is very plain from these last passages that the Bud- 
dhist community in its earliest days did not think of the 



1 MaMvagga II, 17, 5. 6. On this meaning of vittharena and samkhit- 
tena see also MahSvagga II, 15, 1. 2. 

' Mahavagga III, 5, 9. 

3 Xatukka-Nipata (Phayre MS. vol. i. fol. «£) ; and repeated in the PaSiaka- 
Nipata (jbid. vol. ii. fol. naA) : Ye te bhikkhfi bahussutS agatigami dham- 
madhara vinayadharS matik&dharS te na sakkaiiam suttantam param vaienti 
tesam aWayena Minnamftlako suttanto hoti apatisarano. 



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INTRODUCTION. XXXV 



possibility of using writing as a means of guarding against 
such painful accidents. Can this have arisen from any 
belief that writing the books would have been an irreverent 
treatment of them ? We cannot think that among such a 
community as that of the Buddhists — who were so ad- 
vanced in their views that they deliberately adopted the 
language of the people, and even took no thought, within 
the ranks of their community, of caste — any such con- 
sideration would have prevailed. It seems much more 
probable that, at the date referred to, the art of writing 
had not been taken advantage of for the purposes of any 
kind of literature ; but that its use was wholly confined to 
recording short messages or notes, or private letters, or 
advertisements of a public character — a result which may 
well have been due to the want of any practical material 
on which to engrave the letters that were nevertheless 
evidently known 1 . 

On the texts above quoted, and the inferences which 
may fairly be drawn from them, we would base two re- 
marks. Firstly, that there can be no reasonable ground 
for doubting the correctness of the ancient tradition pre- 
served in the well-known verse of the Ceylon Chroniclers, 
when, speaking of the time of Va#a Gama«i, who began to 
reign 88 B. c, they say, 

• The text of the Three Pifakas, and the Commentary too 

thereon, 
The wise Bhikkhus of former time had handed down by 

word of mouth': 
The then Bhikkhus, perceiving how all beings do decay, 
Meeting together, wrote them in books, that the Dhamma 

might last long V 

But, secondly, though we must therefore believe that the 



* Compare Bumell, 'Elements of South Indian Palaeography,' p. 10. 

s Dlpavawisa XX, 20, 21 ; Mahavamsa, p. 207. As the stanza is common to 
both works it is taken in all probability, word for word, from the Old Com- 
mentary in Simhalese, the Sthalaif-Aakatha, preserved in the Mahavihara in 
Anuradhapura. See H. Oldenberg's Introduction to his edition of the Dipa- 
vamsa. 

C 2 



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XXXVI VINAYA TEXTS FROM THE PALI. 

Vinaya, before it was reduced to writing, was handed down 
for about three hundred years solely by memory, and that 
it lived only in the minds of the Vi n aya d h a r 4, the Bhikkhus 
' who were versed in the Vinaya,' we do not think it is at all 
necessary, or even possible, to impugn the substantial accu- 
racy of the texts handed down in a manner that seems, to 
moderns, so unsafe. The Text, as it lies before us, stands 
so well against all proofs, whether we compare its different 
parts one with another, or with the little that is yet known 
of its northern counterparts 1 , that we are justified in regard- 
ing these Pali books as in fact the authentic mirror of the 
old Magadhi text as fixed in the central schools of the 
most ancient Buddhist Church. That text, in the dialect 
of Magadha, may have been lost to us, once for all ; and 
we can scarcely hope, unless some isolated sentences may 
hereafter be found preserved here and there in Inscriptions, 
that this loss will ever be, even partially, made good. But 
we may well be thankful that the faithful zeal and industry 
of these old monks has preserved for us a translation, in a 
dialect so nearly allied to the original, and in so perfect and 
trustworthy a state as the Pali version of the Vinaya still 
undoubtedly presents. 



We trust that the choice we have made from the litera- 
ture of the Vinaya Pi/aka for insertion in this Collection of 
Translations from the Sacred Books of the East will be 
considered to need little justification. As the oldest and 
in many respects most important material of the Vinaya 
literature we have included a version of the Patimokkha ; 
though confining ourselves to trie Bhikkhu- Patimokkha, 



1 How little this is, is apparent from the fact that Bumouf, who had studied 
all those that were then accessible, did not even find the words pSrag-ika 
and samghadisesa (Introduction, &c, p. 301). To the Tibetan texts Csoma 
Korosi has devoted a few pages (' Analysis of the Dulva ' in Asiatic Researches, 
vol. xx. pp. 45 and foil.) Of the Chinese we have only the brief notices of M. 
Remusat (Foe Koue Ki, pp. 104 and foil.) and of Mr. Beal (in H. Oldenberg's 
Introduction to the Vinaya, vol. i. pp. xliv, xlv). The last scholar also men- 
tions several Vinaya works, of the contents of which however nothing further 
is known, in his Catalogue of Chinese Buddhist Works now in the India Office 
Library (pp. 67-71). 



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INTRODUCTION. XXXV11 



as our predecessors, Mr. Dickson and Professor Minayeff, 
have done before us. We could not consider, even after 
their labours, that a new translation of this difficult text 
would be superfluous. And of the younger literature we 
have confined ourselves to the Khandhakas, both because 
these books, in their variety, and in the fulness of their con- 
tents, are better calculated to afford a correct view of the 
conditions, and the life, of that oldest and most influential 
of the many monkish orders, the Buddhist Sawgha ; and 
also because the Sutta-vibhanga is little more than an 
expajision of the Patimokkha, which we have already, for 
the reasons just stated, determined to include 1 . 

T. W. RHYS DAVIDS. 

H. OLDENBERG. 

November, 1880. 



1 For the Upasampada-kammavaia see the passages recurring in the 
Khandhakas as pointed out above, p. xix. 



Additional Note on Mahavagga III, 2, 2 (vassupaniyika). 

As entering upon Vassa is called vassaw upaga^ati or vassaw 
upeti, we believe that upan&yik&, the final member of the com- 
pound vassupan&yikl (entrance upon Vassa), must not be derived 
from upa-ni, but from upa-i (upan-i). Comp. .Satapatha-Brahmawa 
II, 3, 2, 2 : ahar-ahar vai Na<fo Naishidho Yama« ri^Snaw dakshi- 
»ata upanayati (Siyawa : upaga£&4ati). The preposition upan 
contained in upan-ayati will be treated of by Professor Joh. Schmidt 
in the 26th volume of Kuhn's Zeitschrift. 



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PATIMOKKHA. 



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THE PATIMOKKHA. 

THE WORDS OF DISBURDENMENT. 



Reverence to the Blessed One, the Holy One, 
the Fully Enlightened One. 

v^ ,,). Tin: 'r 

NIDANA 1 . 

Introduction. X^*Z IFOB.^1^' 

May the Chapter 2 , reverend Sirs, hear me ! 

To-day is the sacred day (of the full, or 'new, 

moon), the fifteenth day of the half-month 8 . If it be 

convenient to the Chapter, let the Chapter hold Upo- 

satha, let it repeat the Patimokkha. How is it with 

respect to the necessary preliminaries to a meeting 

of the Order? Let the reverend brethren announce 

their purity 4 , and I will rehearse the Patimokkha ! 

We all gladly give ear and do attend 6 ! 

1 The whole of this Introduction, with the ancient commentary 
upon it (referred to above, in the Introduction), recurs in the Mah&- 
vagga II,' 3, where further notes will be found. The previous 
chapter in Dickson entitled the Pu^^ASvissa^ana is not part 
of the ancient text of the Patimokkha. 

* Sawgho: of course not the whole Order, but those members 
then present, spoken of collectively. 

* Uposatho pa»»araso. See below, MaMvagga, Book II, 
and especially chap. 14. 

4 That is, their freedom from any of those disabilities which 
are declared below, Book II, to incapacitate a member of the Order 
from assembling at a formal meeting on the Uposatha day. 

* On sabbe 'va santa compare ubho 'va santa in the ninth 
Nissaggiya, and the Old Commentary loc. cit. 

'- C'3] B 



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PATIMOKKHA. 



Whosoever have incurred a fault, let him de- 
clare it ! If no fault have been incurred it is meet 
to keep silence ! 

Now, venerable Sirs, it is by your silence, that I 
shall know whether you are pure. As to each one 
question put there must be an answer, so, in such a 
meeting as this, each question is put 1 as many as 
three times. Then if any Bhikkhu, when it has been 
three times put, knowingly omit to declare a fault 
incurred, he is guilty of uttering a conscious lie. 
Venerable Sirs, the uttering of a deliberate lie has 
been declared by the Blessed One to be a condition 
hurtful (to spiritual progress) 2 . Therefore a fault, 
if there be one, should be declared by that Bhikkhu 
who remembers it, and desires to be cleansed there- 
from. For a fault, when declared, shall be light 
to him. 

Venerable Sirs, the Introduction is now recited. 

Thus do I question you, venerable Sirs, 'Are 
you pure in this matter ? ' 

A second time do I question you, 'Are you pure 
in this matter?' 

A third time do I question you, 'Are you pure 
in this matter ? ' 

The venerable ones are pure herein. Therefore 
do they keep silence. Thus I understand. 



Here endeth the recitation of the Introduction. 

1 The spelling of the Pali word in the text should be anus- 
sSvitawi, and so below, anussdviyamane. By 'the text' we 
refer throughout to Mr. Dickson's very careful edition, all the 
necessary corrections in which — they are mostly only misprints — 
will be noticed in the following notes. 

s See Mahavagga II, 3, 7. 



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PARAGIKA DHAMMA. 



pArAgikA dhammA. 

The ParAgika Rules 1 . 

Here these four Rules, concerning those acts 
which bring about Defeat s , come into recitation, 
i. Whatsoever Bhikkhu who has taken upon 

1 The whole of the following portion of the Patimokkha, together 
with the ancient commentary upon it, is contained in the first book 
of the Vibhahga, also called the Y&r&gikam. 

Dickson translates throughout Dhamma' by ' offences.' He is 
no doubt right in taking the word, not in its ordinary sense of 
condition or quality, but in a more strictly technical, legal, sense. 
' Offences ' is however not the right direction in which to limit the 
general sense. Dhammi must here be 'Rules,' in accordance 
with the passages quoted in our Introduction, pp. xxviii-xxx. 

* Childers (sub voce) follows Burnouf (Introduction, &c, 
p. 301) in deriving the word P&ra^ika from AG with par£ pre- 
fixed, taking that compound in the sense of ' to expel.' Dickson's 
translation ' deadly sin ' rests upon the same basis. The Buddhist 
commentators refer the word to the passive of Gl with part pre- 
fixed, in the sense of ' to suffer defeat' So the Samanta-Pisddika" : 
Paragiko hottti para^ito para^ayam apanno. Now the root AG 
belongs to the Vedic dialect only, and is not met with in any 
Buddhist expressions, and even in the Vedas it does not occur 
with parS prefixed. The Buddhist forms of speech have quite 
different and settled terms with which to convey the idea of ex- 
pulsion. On the other hand, there was a considerable group of 
words in use in the Buddhist community with which p&ra^ika 
stands in close connection: para^i, 'to suffer defeat;' partita, 
'defeated;' par&^aya, 'defeat' We cannot therefore but think that 
the native commentators are right in associating pSra^ika also 
with this group, and that the word really means ' involving defeat' 
This may mean specifically defeat in the struggle with M&ra the 
Evil One; but more probably defeat in the struggle against evil 
generally, defeat in the effort to accomplish the object for which 
the Bhikkhu entered the Order, in the effort to reach the * supreme 
goal' of Arahatship. 

B 2 



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pAtimokkha. 



himself the Bhikkhus' system of self-training and 
rule of life, and has not thereafter withdrawn from 
the ^training, or declared his weakness, shall have 
carnal knowledge of any one, down even to an 
animal, he has fallen into defeat, he is no longer 
in communion *. 
y 2. Whatsoever Bhikkhu shall take, from village 
or from wood, anything not given — what men call 
' theft 2 ' — in such manner of taking as kings would 
seize the thief for, and slay, or bind, or banish him, 
saying, ' Thou art a thief, thou art stupid, thou art 
a fool, thou art dishonest,' — the Bhikkhu who in 
that manner takes the thing not given, he, too, has 
fallen into defeat, he is no longer in communion. 
3. Whatsoever Bhikkhu shall knowingly deprive 
v of life a human being, or shall seek out an assassin 
against a human being, or shall utter the praises of 
death, or incite another to self-destruction, saying, 
* Ho ! my friend ! what good do you get from this 
sinful, wretched life ? death is better to thee than 
life!' — if, so thinking, and with such an aim, he, by 
various argument, utter the praises of death or incite 
another to self-destruction — he, too, is fallen into 
defeat, he is no longer in communion s . 

1 'Declared his weakness' refers to the permission (on the 
ground that it was better to leave the Order than to burn) for 
a Bhikkhu to acknowledge himself unfit for the discipline, and 
throw off the robe. ' Withdrawn from the training ' is the formal 
expression for thus throwing off the Robes. See below, Maht- 
vagga II, 22, 3. 

On sikkhisdg-tvafl*, which is by no means only 'Rules of the 
Order,' see the Vibhahga (Pir. I, 8, 1). 

2 The Vibhanga (P&r. II, 3) takes theyya-saOTkh£tafl* as 
meaning ' with dishonest intent.' 

8 The deviations here from Mr. Dickson's version will, we hope, 
justify themselves. There is no commentary on haraka, though 



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pArAgikA dhammA. 



y 4. Whatsoever Bhikkhu, without being clearly 
conscious of extraordinary qualities, shall give out 
regarding himself that insight into the knowledge 
of the noble ones has been accomplished, saying, 
'Thus do I know,' 'Thus do I perceive:' and at 
some subsequent time whether on being pressed, 
or without being pressed, he, feeling guilty, shall 
be desirous of being cleansed from his fault, and 
shall say, ' Brethren ! when I knew not, I said that 
I knew ; when I saw not, I said that I saw — telling a 
fruitless falsehood ;' then, unless he so spake through 
undue confidence he, too, has fallen into defeat, he 
is no longer in communion \ 

Venerable Sirs, the four Conditions of Defeat 
have been recited, of which when a Bhikkhu has 
fallen into one or other, he is no longer allowed to 
be in co-residence with the Bhikkhus. As before, so 
afterwards, he is defeated, he is not in communion 2 . 

the Vibhanga (P&r. Ill, 3, 1) explains the different kinds of Sattha. 
Pdpaka must be 'sinful,' not merely 'poor;' the suggestion is 
'by destroying your life you will escape from the possibility of 
sinning.' 

1 The extraordinary qualities (literally, 'superhuman qualities') are 
denned to be the Vimokkhas, Sam&dhis, the Samdpattis, the i^S«a- 
dassana, the having experienced the Noble Path, and having realised 
the Fruit thereof; that is to say, Arahatship and the highest forms of 
spiritual emotion and intelligence which can accompany Arahatship. 
They are in fact, therefore, superhuman only in the sense of extra- 
ordinary; as it is precisely human beings, and only human beings, 
who were supposed to be able to acquire these qualities. 

Uddha££a, ' Self-righteousness,' is also the last but one of the 
ten SaOTyo^anas, or 'Fetters,' which the Arahat has to break. 

1 The sentences which follow in the text, but are not here trans- 
lated, and in which it is declared that all the following portions 
of the Patimokkha have already been heard, do not occur in the 
Vibhanga, They are not part of the Pdtimokkha ; but only the 



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PATIMOKKHA. 



In respect of them I ask the venerable ones, 
' Are you pure in this matter ? ' 

A second time I ask, 'Are you pure in this 
matter ? ' 

A third time I ask, 'Are you pure in this 
matter?' 

The venerable ones are pure herein. Therefore 
do they keep silence. Thus I understand. 



Here endeth the recitation of the Par&fikas. 

form to be used, when the Patimokkha cannot be recited in full, 
and all the remaining Rules are to be omitted. According to Maha- 
vagga II, 15, i, 4 this abridged recital may be used in certain cases 
of danger. 

On YathS pure tatha pa££M there is no explanation in the 
Old Commentary. The phrase probably means that the Bhikkhu 
is irrevocably defeated. He must remain for ever in the condi- 
tion (of permanent exclusion from the Order) into which he has 
brought himself. 



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SAMGHADISESA DHAMMA. 



sajj/ghAdisesA DHAMMA. 

Rules which require, as well in their earlier 
as in their later stages, formal meetings 
of the Order 1 . 

Here, venerable Sirs, the thirteen matters, which, 
as well in their earlier as in their later stages, require 
formal meetings of the Order, come into recitation. 

i. The emission of semen by design, except by 
a person sleeping, is a Sa/»gh£disesa. 
S 2. Whatsoever Bhikkhu, being degraded 2 , shall, 
with perverted 3 mind, come into bodily contact with 
a woman, by taking hold of her hand, or by taking 
hold of her hair, or by touching any part of her body — 
that is a Sa/»gh£disesa. 

, 3. Whatsoever Bhikkhu, being degraded, shall, 
with perverted mind, address a woman with wicked 
words, exciting to passion as those of a young man 
to a maid — that is a Sa*»ghadisesa*. 

1 The expression is curious, but the authorities given by Childers 
(sub voce) are decisive as to its meaning. Whereas the Para^ika 
offences were dealt with in one meeting of the Order, these thirteen 
offences gave rise to the various Sawghakammas (formal resolu- 
tions or proceedings at meetings of the Order), which are explained 
in detail in the third Khandhaka of the .Xullavagga. 

The text of, and the ancient commentary on this portion of the 
Pdtimokkha will be found in the Vibhahga in the Book on the 
Sawghadisesas. 

* Oti«»o, literally, ' having gone down,' which the old commen- 
tator in the Vibhanga explains as 'lustfully, or with a mind bound by 
desire.' Our word 'degraded' has often a very similar connotation. 

s Vipariwatena, literally, 'changed;' here 'changed for the 
worse.' Compare Maha-sudassana Sutta II, 39, and the Old Com- 
ment at Minayeff, p. 64. 

* Compare the second Aniyata. 



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8 PATIMOKKHA. 



4. Whatsoever Bhikkhu, being degraded, shall, 
with perverted mind, magnify, in the hearing of a 
woman, ministration to himself 1 (by saying), 'This, 
Sister, would be the noblest of ministrations, that 
to so righteous and exalted a religious person as 
myself you should ministrate by that act,' (meaning) 
sexual intercourse — that isaSawghadisesa. 

5. Whatsoever Bhikkhu shall act as a go-between 
for a woman to a man, or for a man to a woman, or 
for a wife, or for a paramour, or even for a harlot — 
that is a Sawghadisesa. 

6. A Bhikkhu who, begging (the materials) to- 
gether, is having a hut put up for his own use, to 
belong to no one (else), must have it made of due 
measurement And herein this is the measurement — 
in length twelve spans according to the accepted 
span 2 , in breadth seven spans (measured) inside. 



1 Attak&map£ri£ariy&, perhaps *to his lusts;' but we follow 
the old commentator. 

8 Sugata-vidatthiya\ Dickson translates 'of the span of 
Buddha,' Sugata being one of the many epithets applied to the 
Buddha in poetry, or poetical prose. Mr. James D'Alwis in the 
Ceylon Asiatic Society's Journal for 1874 has a long article to 
show that this cannot be the correct meaning of the word ' Sugata' 
in this connection ; and we think he is right, though his discussion 
as to what it does mean (evidently more than a simple span) seems 
to lead to no certain conclusion. The older Ceylon commentators 
take the expression as being equal to one and a half carpenter's 
cubits, a 'carpenter's cubit' (Sinhalese Wa<fu-riyana) being two 
ordinary cubits, so that ' the Buddha's span ' (as they translate it) 
would be four feet and a half 1 But the Bhikkhus of the present 
day in Ceylon take it to be equal to the length of the supposed 
foot-print of the Buddha on Adam's Peak ; that is, four ordinary 
cubits, or six feet. See Dickson's note ; and compare Nissaggiya 
15, and Pd&ttiya 87-92. 

There is no comment on the phrase in the Old Commentary, 



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SAATGHADISESA DHAMMA. 



The Bhikkhus must be brought to the place to 
approve the site ; and those Bhikkhus shall approve 
a site free from danger 1 , and with an open space 
around it 2 . If a Bhikkhu shall, at his own request, 
have a hut put up on a dangerous site, without the 
open space around it, or shall not bring the Bhik- 
khus to approve the site, or shall exceed the (due) 
measure — that is a Sa/wghadisesa. 

7. A Bhikkhu who is having a large 8 residence 
made for his own use, and to belong (also) to others, 
shall bring the Bhikkhus to the place to approve 
the site ; and those Bhikkhus shall approve a site 
free from danger, and with an open space around 
it. If a Bhikkhu shall have a large residence made 
on a dangerous site, without the open space around 
it, or shall not bring the Bhikkhus to the place to 
approve the site — that is a Sawghadisesa. 

8. Whatsoever Bhikkhu 4 , in harshness, malice, 
or anger, shall harass (another) Bhikkhu by a ground- 
less (charge of having committed) a P&ra^ika offence, 
thinking to himself, ' Perchance I may (thus) get him 
to fall from this religious life 6 ' — and then at some 
later time, either when he is pressed, or without his 
being pressed, the case turns out to be groundless, 



which is especially curious if the word Sugata meant 'the Bud- 
dha's,' that is to say, the Buddha's span, when that work was 
composed. 

1 That is, either to living creatures (birds, ants, and so on) by 
clearing the site ; or to the future resident after it is built. See the 
old commentator's note on Sdrambha at Minayeff, p. 71. 

2 ' Sufficient for a cart drawn by a yoke of oxen to pass round 
it,' according to the old commentator. 

3 Mahallaka. Compare A'ullavagga VI, n, 1. 

4 In the text read, of course, Bhikkhu, not Bhikkhu. 

5 I. e. to throw off the robes, to leave the Order. 



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IO PATIMOKKHA. 



and the Bhikkhu confesses his malice 1 — that is a 
Sawghadisesa. 

9. Whatsoever Bhikkhu, in harshness, malice, or 
anger, shall harass another Bhikkhu by a groundless 
charge of having committed a Par&gika offence, sup- 
porting himself by some point or other of no im- 
portance in a case that really rests on something 
of a different kind ; thinking to himself, ' Perchance 
I may thus get him to fall from this religious life ' 
— and then at some later time, either when he is 
pressed, or without his being pressed, the case turns 
out to rest on something of a different kind, and 
that Bhikkhu confesses his malice — that is a Sa*«- 
ghadisesa 2 . 

10. Whatsoever Bhikkhu shall go about to cause 
division in a community s that is at union, or shall 
persist in calling attention to some matter calculated 
to cause division, that Bhikkhu should thus be ad- 
dressed by the Bhikkhus: 'Sir, go not about to 
cause division in a community that is at union;' 
or, ' Persist not in calling attention to a matter 
calculated to cause division ;' ' Be, Sir, at one with 
the community, for the community, being at unity, 
in harmony, without dispute, dwells pleasantly under 



1 Do saw was probably meant here to refer to the do so at the 
beginning of the rule. 

* For instance, the Bhikkhu has seen that A, who is a Khattiya, 
has committed some offence. He says either that he has seen a 
Khattiya commit that offence, and thus harasses an innocent 
person; or he says that A has committed a Para^ika offence, 
whereas the offence is of a lesser nature. 

For ^aveyyan in the text read Mveyyan. 

8 Sa/ngha; that is, the company of the Brethren dwelling in one 
place, or in one district. 



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SAAfGHADISESA DHAMMA. II 

one authority V If that Bhikkhu, when he has thus 
been spoken to by the Bhikkhus, should persist as 
before, then let that Bhikkhu be (formally) admo- 
nished about it by the Bhikkhus as a body 2 , even 
to the third time, to the intent that he abandon that 
course. If, while being so admonished up to the 
third time, he abandon that course, it is well : if he 
abandon it not — that is a Sa/»ghadisesa, 

ii. Now if other Bhikkhus, one, or two, or three, 
become adherents of that Bhikkhu, and raise their 
voices on his side ; if they should say thus : ' Say 
not, Sirs, anything against that Bhikkhu! That 
Bhikkhu both speaks according to the Dhamma, 
and- he speaks according to the Vinaya; it is our 
wish, too, and desire, that he adopts, and gives 
expression to; and he speaks, knowing that what 
he says appears to us also to be right : ' — then let 
those Bhikkhus be addressed by the Bhikkhus thus: 
' Say not so, Sirs! That Bhikkhu speaks not according 
to the Dhamma, neither does he speak according to 
the Vinaya. Let not, Sirs, the causing of division 
in the community be pleasing to you ! Be, Sirs, at 
one with the community ! for the community, being at 
unity, in harmony, without dispute, dwells pleasantly 
under one discipline.' If those Bhikkhus, when 
they have thus been spoken to by the Bhikkhus, 
should persist as before, those Bhikkhus should be 

1 Ekuddeso; that is, the authority of the rules recited in the 
Patimokkha. 

s Samanubhdsitabbo. We think ' admonish' is not too strong 
a rendering of this term ; and not inconsistent with the equality of 
the fraternity, as the admonition comes from the united body. The 
preposition sam need not imply a Sawghakamma, which appears 
to have been necessary only after the Sawghadisesa offence had 
been completed. We occasionally render the word by ' adjure.' 



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1 2 PATIMOKKHA. 



(formally) adjured by the Bhikkhus, as a body, 
even to the third time, to the end that they 
abandon that course. If, while being so adjured, 
up to the third time, they abandon that course, it 
is well : if they abandon it not — that is a Sa/»gha- 
disesa. 

a/ i 2. Should a Bhikkhu refuse to listen to what 
is said to him l ; and when spoken to by the Bhikkhus, 
in accordance with the Dhamma 2 , touching the pre- 
cepts handed down in the body of recited law 8 , will 
allow nothing to be said to him (objecting), 'Say 
nothing to me, Sirs, either good or bad : and I will 
say nothing, either good or bad, to you. Be good 
enough, Sirs, to refrain from speaking to me !' — then 
let that Bhikkhu be addressed by the Bhikkhus 
thus : ' Do not, Sir, make yourself a person who 
cannot be spoken to : make yourself rather, Sir, a 
person to whom we can speak. Speak to the 
Bhikkhus, Sir, in accordance with the Dhamma ; and 
the Bhikkhus, Sir, will speak in accordance with the 
Dhamma to you. For thus has the church * of the 
Blessed One grown large ; that is to say, by mutual 
converse, and by mutual help 6 .' If that Bhikkhu, 
when he has thus been spoken to by the Bhikkhus, 
should persist as before, then let that Bhikkhu be 

1 Dubba^ois not 'unruly,' as Dickson has, following Childers, 
who gives ' abusive, unruly, violent.' It means rather ' difficult to 
reason with, averse to instruction.' Compare (Jataka 1, 151, 152. 

* Sahadhammikaw, which is here adverbial; and where the 
Dhamma refers to the Rules, as is pointed out in the Introduction. 

8 Uddesa-pariyapannesu; uddesa being here practically 
the same as Patimokkha. 

4 Parish, 'the retinue, the followers, the adherents,' referring 
here to the Sawgha only. 

8 In the text read vu/Mapanena. 



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SAMGHADISESA DHAMMA. 1 3 

(formally) adjured by the Bhikkhus as a body, even 
to the third time, to the end that he abandon that 
course. If, while being so adjured, up to the third 
time, he abandon that course, it is well : if he abandon 
it not — that is a Sa/#ghadisesa. 
»/ 13. Should a Bhikkhu dwell near a certain village 
or town, leading a life hurtful to the laity, and 
devoted to evil, (so that) his evil deeds are seen 
and heard, and the families led astray by him are 
seen and heard, let that Bhikkhu be spoken to by 
the Bhikkhus thus: 'Your life, Sir, is hurtful to 
the laity, and evil; your evil deeds, Sir, are seen 
and heard ; and families are seen and heard to be 
led astray by you. Be so good, Sir, as to depart 
from this residence ; you have dwelt here, Sir, long 
enough.' If, when that Bhikkhu is thus addressed 
by the Bhikkhus he should answer the Bhikkhus 
thus : ' The Bhikkhus are walking in longing, the 
Bhikkhus are walking in malice, the Bhikkhus are 
walking in delusion, the Bhikkhus are walking in 
fear; and, for a fault of a like nature, they send some 
away, and some they send not away 1 :' — then that 
Bhikkhu should be spoken to by the Bhikkhus thus : 
' Say not so, Sir ! The Bhikkhus walk not in longing, 
the Bhikkhus walk not in malice, the Bhikkhus walk 
not in delusion, the Bhikkhus walk not in fear ; and 
they send not some away, for a fault of a like nature, 
while they send others not away. Your life, Sir, 
is hurtful to the laity, and evil ; your evil deeds, 
Sir, are seen and heard, and families are seen and 
heard, Sir, to be led astray by you. Be so good, 
Sir, as to depart from this residence ; you have dwelt 

1 On the use of Pabba^eti in this sense comp. the 2nd P&r. 



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14 PATIMOKKHA. 



here, Sir, long enough.' If that Bhikkhu, when thus 
spoken to by the Bhikkhus should persist as before, 
that Bhikkhu should be (formally) adjured by the 
Bhikkhus as a body, even to the third time, to the 
end that he abandon that course. If, while being 
so adjured, up to the third time, he abandon that 
course, it is well : if he abandon it not — that is a 
Sa?»ghadisesa. 



Venerable Sirs, the thirteen matters which require, 
as well in their earlier as in their later stages, formal 
meetings of the Order, have been recited; nine 
which become offences at once, and four which are 
not completed until the third admonition. 

If a Bhikkhu have committed either one or other 
of these 1 , for as many days as he knowingly con- 
ceals his sin, for so many days must that Bhikkhu, 
even against his will, remain in probation *. When 
the probation is over, that Bhikkhu must, for six 
further days, undergo the Manatta discipline 3 
(Penance). When the Penance has been removed, 
that Bhikkhu must be reinstated in some place where 
the community of the Bhikkhus forms a body of 
twenty. If a community of Bhikkhus forming a 
body of less than twenty, even by one, should rein- 
state that Bhikkhu, he is not reinstated, and that 
community is blameworthy. This is the proper 
course in that case. 

1 Literally, ' of which.' In the text there should be no fuH stop 
after y£vatatiyak&. 

8 On the regulations respecting Parivasa (Probation), see ATulla- 
vagga II, 1-3. 

8 On the regulations respecting M&natta (Penance), see Aulla- 
vagga II, 6-8. 



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SAilfGHADISESA DHAMMA. 1 5 

In respect of them I ask the venerable ones, 
' Are you pure in this matter ?' 

A second time I ask the venerable ones, 'Are 
you pure in this matter ?' 

A third time I ask the venerable ones, 'Are 
you pure in this matter ?' 

The venerable ones are pure herein. Therefore 
do they keep silence. Thus I understand. 



Here endeth the recitation of the Sawghadisesas. 



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1 6 PATIMOKKHA. 



ANIYATA DHAMMA 1 . 

Rules regarding Undetermined Matters. 

Here, venerable Sirs, the two Rules regarding 
undetermined matters come into recitation. 
J i. Whatsoever Bhikkhu shall take a seat with 
a woman, one man with one woman, in secret, on a 
secluded seat, suitable 2 (for sexual intercourse); and 
if a believing woman, trustworthy of speech, who 
has seen (them so), shall lay it to his charge under 
one or other of three Rules, either under the Para- 
£ika s , or under the Sazwghadisesa *, or under the Pa- 
^ittiya 6 Rules : — let then that Bhikkhu, if he acknow- 
ledge that he has so sat, be dealt with (according to 
the circumstances reported) for a Para^ika, or for a 
Sawghadisesa, or for a Pa^ittiya ; or let that Bhikkhu 
be dealt with under that one of those three Rules 
under which the believing woman, trustworthy in 
speech, shall lay it to his charge. 

This rule relates to a matter undetermined. 

2. And furthermore, even if the seat be not se- 
cluded, and not convenient (for sexual intercourse), 
but be convenient for addressing a woman with 
wicked words 6 , then whatsoever Bhikkhu shall take 

1 The whole of the following portion of the Patimokkha, to- 
gether with the Old Commentary on it, recurs in the Vibhahga, 
Book III. 

* Alawkammaniye, an expression found only in this passage. 
The Vibhahga interprets it as above (Aniyata I, 2, 1). 

8 The 1st P&ra^ika. * The 2nd Sawghadisesa. 

8 Pa£ittiya 44, 45 ; and compare also 7, 27. 

* Compare the 3rd Sawghadisesa, and probably the 4th is also 
referred to. 



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ANIYATA DHAMMA. I 7 

a seat with a woman, one man with one woman, in 
secret, on such a seat, and a believing woman, trust- 
worthy in speech, who has seen (them so), shall lay 
it to his charge under one or other of two Rules, 
either under the Sawghadisesa, or under the Pa&t- 
tiya Rule — let then that Bhikkhu, if he acknowledge 
that he has so sat, be dealt with (according to the 
circumstances reported) for a Sawghadisesa, or for 
a Pa&ttiya ; or let that Bhikkhu be dealt with under 
that one of those two Rules under which the believing 
woman, trustworthy in speech, shall lay it to his 
charge. 

This rule relates to a matter undetermined. 



Venerable Sirs, the two Rules regarding uncertain 
matters have been recited. 

In respect of them I ask the venerable ones, 'Are 
you pure in this matter ?' 

A second time I ask the venerable ones, 'Are 
you pure in this matter ?' 

A third time I ask the venerable ones, ' Are you 
pure in this matter ?' 

The venerable ones are pure herein. Therefore 
do they keep silence. Thus I understand. 



Here endeth the recitation of the Aniyatas. 



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1 8 PATIMOKKHA. 



NISSAGGIYA PA^ITTIYA DHAMMA. 

Pajcittiya Rules involving Forfeiture. 

Here, venerable Sirs, the thirty Pa^ittiya Rules 
involving forfeiture come into recitation. 

i. When the robes have been settled, when the 
Ka/^ina has been taken up by the Bhikkhu, an extra 
robe may be kept up to the end of a period of ten 
days. To him who goes beyond that there is a 
Pa&ttiya offence involving forfeiture 1 . 

1 The following Rules, most of which have long ago fallen into 
abeyance, depend in great measure upon communistic customs of 
the ancient Fraternity, which are now somewhat difficult to under- 
stand. The following explanation of this rule, and more especially 
of the first few words of it, is therefore submitted with diffidence. At 
the end of the Vassa period (see below, Mah&vagga, Books III and 
VII) the Saragha, or community of brethren in any place, was accus- 
tomed to give over to some one of the Bhikkhus such store of robes 
(KaMina-dussa) as it possessed ; and it should here be observed 
that no Bhikkhu had a separate personal ownership over his robes, 
though nominally given to him for his own use, and really his own 
subject to the rules, they were, technically speaking, the pro- 
perty of the whole Samgha, (that is, here, of the Order as a whole, 
not of the community residing together at that place). The Bhikkhu 
above referred to then spread the store of robes out to dry (suriye 
attharati); and afterwards satisfied out of it the wants of any 
brother whose robes, through the dampness of the season or other 
causes, had become spoiled. Meanwhile, each of the Bhikkhus 
had, of course, to wear something — it being one of the points 
most frequently insisted upon that a Bhikkhu should be decently 
clad, in direct contradiction to certain then popular views as to the 
sanctity of nakedness — but, during the interval, some of the rules 
about the robes were temporarily relaxed. 

Now the Mahavagga (VII, i, 7) gives eight reasons by which the 
Ka/Aina license would be extinguished for any one particular 
Bhikkhu alone — as it would be for the community at that place 



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NISSAGGIYA PAJnTTIYA DHAMMA. 1 9 

2. When the robes have been settled, after the 
taking up of the Ka/z&ina by the Bhikkhu, if a 
Bhikkhu be without his three robes, even for a 
single night, unless with the permission of the 
Bhikkhus — that is a Pa&ttiya offence involving 
forfeiture 1 . 



by the formal 'taking up of the store of robes' (KaMinuddh&ra 
or KaMinassa ubbh&ra); — and with it that Bhikkhu's claim to 
a share in the common store. These eight reasons are merely eight 
ways in which that particular Bhikkhu's wants are already amply 
supplied; and the necessity, in his case, for a relaxation of the 
rules no longer exists. 

One of these reasons is that his set of robes is settled or done 
for (£ivara/» mUAita.m) ; which, according to the old commen- 
tator on our rule here, means that his set has been made, or spoiled, 
or destroyed, or burnt, or that his hope of receiving one from the 
laity has been disappointed (ni//^ita£ivarasmin ti ilvaraw katawz vi 
hoti raJlfizm vS. v'maJ/Aam v£ fa.ddha.rn v& -Kvarasa \& upa££Ainn£, ac- 
cording to which the Scholion in Dickson's note must be corrected). 
In each of these cases his wants are already supplied by the set of 
robes he has retained for wear during the process of drying : only 
the case of those Bhikkhus remains to be settled who have not 
had new robes made, and whose old ones were still good enough 
to wear during that process. 

After the Ka/Ainuddh&ra, either particular or general, no 
Bhikkhu can retain for his own use an atireka-^ivara, a spare 
robe. He must give it up to any brother who has need of it. 

As to the ' ten days,' the Sutta Vibhanga has the following story. 
Ananda, after the Ka/&nuddMra, has a spare robe. He wants to 
give it to Sariputta ; but the latter is in Siketa, and is not expected 
back till the ninth or tenth day. So the Buddha, to meet such 
cases, establishes the rule that the spare robe may be kept up to the 
tenth day. 

The words ' a PSiittiya offence involving forfeiture,' repeated at 
the end of each of the Nissaggiyas, are intended to mean that that 
offence involves, firstly, all that a Pa&ttiya involves ; and secondly, 
forfeiture. 

1 To this Rule there is the following story in the Sutta Vibhanga. 
Certain Bhikkhus left their robes in charge of the other Bhikkhus, 

C 2 



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20 PATIMOKKHA. 



3. When the robes have been settled, when the 
KaMina has been taken up by the Bhikkhu, if a 
set of robes should be offered to a Bhikkhu out of 
season, it may be accepted by that Bhikkhu, should 
he so wish. But when, he has accepted it, it must 
be made up at once ; and if it be not sufficient for 
him, it may be kept up to the end of a month by that 
Bhikkhu should he have any hope that the deficiency 
may be supplied. If he keep it beyond that time, even 
if there be hope of (the deficiency) being supplied — 
that is a Paiittiya offence requiring forfeiture. 

4. Whatsoever Bhikkhu shall have his soiled robe * 
washed, or dyed, or beaten by a Bhikkhunl (sister) 2 
who is not related to him — that is a Pa^ittiya offence 
involving forfeiture 3 . 

5. Whatsoever Bhikkhu shall receive a robe from 
the hands of a Bhikkhunl not related to him, except 
in exchange — that is a Pa&ttiya offence involving 
forfeiture. 

6. Whatsoever Bhikkhu shall ask a householder, 
or a householder's wife 4 , not being related to him, 

and went on a journey. The robes, being laid by for a long time, 
became spoilt. The Buddha thereupon forbad a Bhikkhu, under 
the circumstances stated in this Rule, to separate himself from his 
robes (ti-^lvara). 

As regards the permission we have the story that a sick Bhikkhu 
was invited home that his friends might nurse him. He answers, 
' The Blessed One has forbidden us to separate ourselves from our 
robes. I am sick, and unable to travel in my robes.' Then the 
Blessed One allows a sick brother to obtain leave to dispense with 
the Rule. 

1 Literally, 'an old robe,' which the Vibhanga (Nissaggiya IV, 2, 1) 
explains as one that has been once worn. 

a And so, frequently, below. 

8 Compare the 17th Nissaggiya. 

« Householder is here gahapati; that is, pater familias. See 
Rh. D.'s note on Maha-sudassana Sutta I, 41. 



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NISSAGGIYA PAJSTITTIYA DHAMMA. 21 

for a robe, except at the right season — that is a 
Paiittiya offence involving forfeiture. 

Here the right season means when the Bhikkhu 
has been robbed of his robe, or when his robe has 
been destroyed. This is the right season in this 
connection. 

7. If the householder, or the householder's wife, 
should offer him a choice 1 from (the materials for) many 
robes, that Bhikkhu may have robes made out of it 
up to the (due portion of) inner and outer robes. If 
he has robes made beyond this limit — that is a 
Pa&ttiya offence involving forfeiture. 

8. In case the value in barter of a set of robes 
has been laid by, for a particular Bhikkhu, by a 
householder who is not a relative of his, or a house- 
holder's lady, with the intention ' I will get a set of 
robes in exchange for this robe-fund, and so provide 
a dress for such and such a Bhikkhu :' — in that case, 



1 One MS. of the Vibhanga reads abhiha/u/n; but another 
reads abhiha//£u«, as does Minayeff; while the Samanta-Pa^idiki 
makes it equal to abhiharituw. The right reading is probably 
abhiha//Au*«. In any case, the unusual form and grammatical 
construction throw some doubt on the exact meaning of the phrase. 
The Samanta-P&s&dikS, which explains it philologically as just men- 
tioned, goes on in the next words to explain it syntactically as 
abhiharitvd, which it refers to the subject of pav&reyya, and 
states could be done either actually, or by words. Dickson's ren- 
dering, ' arrange to supply him,' does not accurately convey the 
force of pavareyya; but the right rendering may be 'should offer 
to bring forth for him (whatever he chose) from (amongst the 
material for) many robes.' The only possible alternative is ' should 
make him an offer to take whatever he chose from amongst the 
material for many robes.' Compare the 34th Pi&ttiya. 

Santar-uttara-paramaw is meant, according to the Vibhanga, 
to imply ' to the extent of one inner, and one outer robe ;' but we 
preserve the ambiguity of the text. 



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22 PATIMOKKHA. 



if that Bhikkhu, before the offer has been made to 
him, go and give directions as to the make of the 
robe, saying, ' It would be well, Sir, to get in ex- 
change such and such a sort of robe with that robe- 
fund to clothe me with ; ' desiring something fine — 
that is a Pa&ttiya offence involving forfeiture 1 . 

9. In case two persons, householders or house- 
holders' ladies, have each laid by for a particular 
Bhikkhu the value in barter of a set of robes, with 
the intention, ' We will each get a set of robes in 
exchange for this robe-fund, and so provide a dress 
for such and such a Bhikkhu :' — in that case, if that 
Bhikkhu, before the offer has been made to him, 
go and give directions as to the make of the robe, 
saying, ' It would be well, Sirs, to get in exchange, 
with the value in barter you have each laid by, such 
and such a sort of robe to clothe me with, the two 
becoming one :' desiring something fine — that is a 
Pa&ttiya offence involving forfeiture. 

10. In case a R&^a, or a Khattiya, or a Brahman, 
or a Gahapati should send by messenger, for a 
particular Bhikkhu, the value in barter of a set of 
robes, saying, ' Get a set of robes in exchange for 
this robe-fund, and provide a dress for such and such 
a Bhikkhu !' if then that messenger should go to 
that Bhikkhu and say, ' I have brought, Sir, this 
robe-fund for your reverence. May your reverence 

1 Both Dickson and Childers have gone too far in rendering 
£et&petv& by 'purchase.' The Samanta-Pis&dika' (Minayeff, 78) 
explains it by parivattetva\ So Rh. D., 'Ancient Coins and 
Measures of Ceylon,' p. 6. 

In the text read iTettpanaw (compare Ka^ayana, p. 322 of 
Senart's edition); and it should not be rendered 'money;' see 
Rh. D., loc. cit. The ' Robe-fund' consisted of things for barter. 

In the text the v& after anwitakassa should be omitted. 



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NISSAGGIYA PAJTITTIYA DHAMMA. 23 

accept the robe-fund!' let then that monk answer 
that messenger thus : ' We do not, my friend, accept 
the value in barter for a set of robes ; but we may 
accept a set of robes, at the right time, and of the 
suitable kind.' If then that messenger shall answer 
that Bhikkhu thus : ' Has then your reverence a 
person who attends (to such matters for you)?' 
then, Bhikkhus 1 > let the Bhikkhu, to whom the robes 
are to belong, point out, as his agent, the man who 
keeps the a ram a in order 2 , or some believer, saying, 
' This man, my friend, is the Bhikkhus' agent.' If 
then that messenger, when he has made an appoint- 
ment with that agent, shall come to that Bhikkhu, 
and say, ' I have made an appointment, Sir, with 
that agent whom your reverence pointed out. Let 
your reverence come, and he will clothe you with 
the set of robes betimes !' then, Bhikkhus \ let 
that Bhikkhu, to whom the set of robes is to belong, 
go to the agent and warn him and remind him two 
or three times, saying, ' Sir, I have need of a set 
of robes!' If, while so warning and reminding 3 
two or three times, he should succeed in obtaining 

1 This word of address is most noteworthy as standing quite 
isolated in the Patimokkha. It must be meant as an address by 
the Buddha himself to the Brethren ; for, if it were the address of 
the Bhikkhu reciting the Patimokkha, the expression used would 
necessarily be ayasmanto, as in the closing words of each chapter, 
or other words to that effect. That it should have been left in is 
a striking proof of the faithfulness with which the PStimokkha has 
been preserved. Is it a survival of some form of words older even 
than the Patimokkha ? or is it merely an ancient blunder ? 

2 The a ram a is, literally, the grove or pleasure-ground in which 
the monks' residence stood ; but it had probably before this already 
come to include the residence, or vihira, itself. 

s In the text read Aodayamano, sarayamano; the medial 
participle with active sense, as often. 



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24 PATIMOKKHA. 



the robes, it is well. Should he not succeed in 
obtaining them, let him up to the fourth, fifth, or 
sixth time go and stand silently on that matter 1 . 
If, while so standing silently on that matter up to 
the fourth, fifth, or sixth time, he should succeed 
in obtaining the set of robes, it is well. Should 
he not succeed in obtaining them (so), and then, 
exerting himself beyond that point succeed in obtain- 
ing them — that is a Pa&ttiya offence involving for- 
feiture. (But) if he should not succeed in obtaining 
them, let him either go himself, or send a messenger 
(to the place) whence the robe-fund was brought 
to him, and say, ' The robe-fund which your 
reverences sent for a Bhikkhu, that has in no wise 
advantaged that Bhikkhu. Take heed, your reve- 
rences, of your own, that your own go not to ruin !' 
This is the proper course in that case 2 . 



Here ends the first section, 
the ' Robe-section.' 



ii. Whatsoever Bhikkhu shall have a rug or 
mat made with silk in it — that is a Pa&ttiya offence 
involving forfeiture 3 . 



1 In the text read i^akkhattuparamaw. This silent standing 
is the only mode of asking for food permitted to a Bhikkhu. 

2 Both here, and in the Conclusion of the Sa«gh&disesa, and 
further below in the 22nd Nissaggiya, where the same phrase 
occurs, Mr. Dickson takes it to mean, ' This is the way to Nirvawa.' 
We are unable to see any foundation for such a rendering. 

3 The following rules were for use in a tropical climate, and 
refer not to bed coverings, but to materials spread over a hard 
seat or couch. The word translated 'rug or mat* is a more 
general term, meaning 'a thing spread;' but there is no corres- 



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NISSAGGIYA PAXITTIYA DHAMMA. 2$ 

12. Whatsoever Bhikkhu shall have a rug or 
mat made of pure black wool of goats' hair 1 — that 
is a Paiittiya offence involving forfeiture. 

13. In case a Bhikkhu is having a new rug made, 
two parts should be taken of pure black wool of 
goats' hair, the third part of white wool, and the 
fourth of the colour of oxen (reddish brown). If a 
Bhikkhu should have a new rug made without taking 
two parts of pure black wool, the third of white, and 
the fourth of tawny — that is a Pa^ittiya offence 
involving forfeiture 2 . 

14. When a Bhikkhu has had a new rug made, 
he should use it for six years. If he should have 
another new rug made within the six years, whether 
he has got rid, or has not got rid of the former one, 
unless with the permission of the Bhikkhus 3 — that is 
a Pa^ittiya offence involving forfeiture. 

15. When a Bhikkhu is having a new rug made 
to sit upon, a piece of the breadth of the accepted 
span * must be taken from all round the old one in 



ponding word in English, as 'coverlet' or 'counterpane' would 
imply a different state of things. 

1 The Sutta Vibhanga says that ka7aka is of two kinds, either 
^dtiyi ki/aka or ra^-ana-kd/aka; that is, that the wool is either 
naturally black, or dyed of that colour. Elaka is a goat, not 
a sheep. 

2 This is deliberately chosen as an ugly mixture, which would 
lessen the commercial value of the rug, by making it unfashion- 
able. 

8 Regarding this permission the Vibhanga gives the following 
story. A sick monk was asked by his relatives to come home, 
that they might nurse him. He answered that he was too ill to 
carry his rug, could not get on without one, and could not have 'a 
new one made within six years. Then the Blessed One established 
this exception to the general Rule. 

4 See the note on the 6th Sa^ghadisesa. 



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26 pAtimokkha. 



order to disfigure it. If a Bhikkhu should have a 
new seat-rug made without taking a span's width 
from all round the old one — that is a Pa^ittiya offence 
involving forfeiture. 

1 6. In case a Bhikkhu should get some goats' 
wool whilst he is on a journey \ let him accept it, if 
he likes ; and when he has accepted it, he may carry 
it in his own hand, if there are no porters, for the 
distance of three leagues 2 . Should he carry it further 
than that, even if there are no porters — that is a 
Pa^ittiya offence involving forfeiture. 

17. Whatsoever Bhikkhu shall get goats' wool 
washed, or dyed, or combed out by a Bhikkhuni who 
is not related to him — that is a Pa&ttiya offence 
involving forfeiture 3 . 

18. Whatsoever Bhikkhu shall receive gold or 
silver, or get some one to receive it for him, or allow 
it to be kept in deposit for him * — that is a Pa&ttiya 
offence involving forfeiture. 

1 Addh&na-magga-pa/ipanno; which the Kankhd Vita- 
rawl (Minayeff, p. 80) explains as being on a long road, called 
addhana (high-road). But one may be on a high-road without 
going a long journey. 

2 Yo^-anas; a yo^ana being a trifle under eight miles. See 
Rh. D., 'Ancient Coins and Measures' &c, pp. 16, 17. 

8 Compare the 4th Nissaggiya. 

4 Upanikkhittazrc vi sadiyeyya; which cannot possibly mean 
' if he thinks to appropriate money entrusted to him,' as Mr. Dick- 
son translates. See Rh. D., ' Ancient Coins ' &c, p. 7. 

The method of procedure on a breach of this rule, or of the 
next, is thus described in the Vibhanga. The guilty Bhikkhu has to 
give up the gold or silver to the community (Sawgha, not here, as 
elsewhere in sentences concerning forfeiture, 'or to a ga»a or to a 
puggala'). Then when an Sramika or an up&saka comes, it is 
to be given to him, to buy ghee or oil with it for the Sa/wgha ; and 
whatever is bought is the common property of all the Saragha, save 
the guilty Bhikkhu. Should the layman object to undertake the 



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NISSAGGIYA PAJHTTIYA DHAMMA. 2 "J 

19. Whatsoever Bhikkhu shall engage in any one 
of the various transactions in which silver is used — 
that is a Paiittiya offence involving forfeiture. 

20. Whatsoever Bhikkhu shall engage in any one 
of the various kinds of buying and selling — that is 
a Pa&ttiya offence involving forfeiture. 

End of the second section, 
the ' Silk-section.' 



2i. A spare bowl maybe kept up to the limit 
of ten days. To him who exceeds that there is a 
Pa&ttiya offence involving forfeiture. 

22. Whatsoever Bhikkhu shall get another new 
bowl in exchange for an (old) one broken in less 
than five places — that is a Pa^ittiya offence involving 
forfeiture. 

That bowl must be forfeited by that Bhikkhu 
to the company of Bhikkhus ; and whichever in that 
company of Bhikkhus shall be the worst bowl, that 
shall be given to that Bhikkhu with the words, 
' This, Bhikkhu, is thy bowl ; it must be kept until 
it breaks.' This is the right course in that case. 

23. Now those medicines which may be used by 
the sick Bhikkhus — to wit, ghee, butter, oil, honey, 
molasses — when they have received them, they may 
enjoy them, storing them up to the seventh day. 
To him who exceeds that there is a Pa^ittiya 
offence involving forfeiture. 

spending of the gold or silver, he is to be asked to throw it away. 
Or, if this cannot be managed, then, as a last resource, some 
Bhikkhu is to be formally appointed 'Bullion-remover' (Rupiya- 
kkAaddaka.), and he is to go and throw it away somewhere, 'ani- 
mittaw katvaV (without making any mark at the place !) 



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28 PATIMOKKHA. 



24. When he sees that a month of the hot days 
has yet to run, let a Bhikkhu provide himself with 
the materials for robes for the rainy season : when 
he sees that half a month of the hot days has yet 
to run, let him make them, and wear them. Should 
he provide himself with the materials for robes for 
the rainy season when more than a month of the hot 
days has yet to run ; or should he make them, and 
wear them, when more than half a month of the 
hot days has yet to run — that is a Pa&ttiya offence 
involving forfeiture. 

25. Whatsoever Bhikkhu, when he has himself 
given a set of robes to another Bhikkhu, shall there- 
after, being angry or displeased with him, take them 
away, or get them taken away — that is a Pa&ttiya 
offence involving forfeiture. 

26. Whatsoever Bhikkhu shall himself ask for 
yarn, and have it woven up by weavers into* cloth 
for a set of robes — that is a Pa^ittiya offence in- 
volving forfeiture. 

27. In case a householder, who is not related 
to him, or a householder's lady, shall have the cloth 
for a set of robes woven for a particular Bhikkhu 
by weavers ; in that case, if that Bhikkhu, before the 
offer has been made to him, shall go to the weavers, 
and give directions as to the make of the robe, saying, 
' This robe-cloth, my friends, is being woven for 
me. Make it long and broad, and make it thick, 
and well woven, and evenly woven ', and with even 
lines, and well carded. If you do so, ourselves will 

1 Suppavdyitazra, literally, 'well woven forth.' We follow the 
Samanta-P&sadika' in its explanation of this word, but with con- 
siderable hesitation. Compare the relation between Sanskrit ota 
and prota; and between English 'web' and 'woof.' 



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NISSAGGIYA PA.KITTIYA DHAMMA. 2Q 

make it up to you, friends, in some way or other ! ' 
If that Bhikkhu \ having thus spoken, should make 
it up 2 to them in any way, even by the contents 
of a begging bowl — that is a Paiittiya offence in- 
volving forfeiture. 

28. In case a robe should fall to the lot of a 
Bhikkhu, as a special gift 3 , ten days before the 
Kattika-temasa 3 full moon, that Bhikkhu may 
take it, considering it as a special gift : and when 
he has it, he may keep it up till the robe time 3 . 

1 In the text read Evaw ka. so bhikkhu. 

s Anupada^eyya is a double potential. Da^g&ma would be 
equal to Sanskrit dadyima; and to that a second potential ter- 
mination has been added. 

3 The expression in the PSli is literally ' should a special robe 
come to a Bhikkhu,' &c. ; where 'special robe' is a££eka-£iva- 
raw, explained in the Samanta-PSsadika' (Minayeff, 83) as equal 
to a£Hyika-kivara«. The Vibhanga says, 'If a man wants to 
join the army or to emigrate, or if a man has fallen sick, or a woman 
is with child, or an unbeliever has come to believe, or a believer is 
edified (pas£do uppanno hoti); then, if such a one send a 
messenger to the Bhikkhus, saying, "Let their reverences come 
hither, I will give a gift for the rainy season " (vassivisikaw* ; per- 
haps, " such a gift as the laity are wont to give to the Bhikkhus who 
have spent the vassa among them") — that is an a££eka-£ivara«' 
(Minayeff, 82, 83). A££ay a is an immediate, threatening, danger : 
compare the expression ' donatio mortis causa\' ' Special robe ' is, 
no doubt, an inadequate rendering ; but we have chosen it in refer- 
ence to the special circumstances under which the donation is 
made, and in default of a better translation. Compare the 85th 
Pa&ttiya. 

The Kattika-temasi-pu/zwama' is, according to the Vibhanga 
(Minayeff, p. 82), the close of the Pavira«S, the ceremony at the 
end of Vassa (see below, Book IV). 

The robe time is the time when the robes were settled. The 
Vibhanga says, ' Robe time is, if the robes have not been laid out 
to dry (see the note to the first rule in this division of the Pati- 
mokkha), the last month of the rains; if they have, it is five 
months.' 



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30 PATIMOKKHA. 



Should he keep it beyond that — that is a Pa&ttiya 
offence involving forfeiture. 

29. When vassa is completed up to the full 
moon in Kattika 1 in case a Bhikkhu, who is dwell- 
ing in a place belonging to the class of those forest 
dwellings which are held to be insecure and 
dangerous, should desire to do so, he may leave 
one or other of his three robes in a hut inside a 
village, and if there is any ground for that Bhikkhu 
being separated from that robe, he may be separated 
from it up to the sixth night. Should he separate 
himself from it more than that, except by permission 
from the Bhikkhus — that is a Paiittiya offence in- 
volving forfeiture. 

30. Whatsoever Bhikkhu shall cause to be diverted 
to himself any benefit already dedicated to the Sam- 
gha — that is a Paiittiya offence involving forfeiture. 



Here ends the third section, 
the ' Bowl-section.' 



Venerable Sirs, the thirty Pa^ittiya Rules involving 
forfeiture have been recited. 

In respect of them I ask the venerable ones, 'Are 
you pure in this matter ?' 

1 This is a different date from that mentioned in the last rule, 
and one month later. The Vibhanga explains the date here as 
Kattika-Mtum&sinf, whereas the date in Rule 28 is temSsinf, 
and is called by the Samanta-P&s£dik& (Minayeff,p. 82) paMama- 
kattika-pu»«ama\ 

The same distinction is evident, from Mahivagga IV, 14, 7-1 1, 
between Pav&ra«& and the ^Tdtumdsint. But how both these 
full moons came to be called Kattika is not clear. 



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NISSAGGIYA PAKTTTIYA DHAMMA. 3 1 

A second time I ask the venerable ones, 'Are 
you pure in this matter ?' 

A third time I ask the venerable ones, 'Are you 
pure in this matter?' 

The venerable ones are pure herein. Therefore 
do they keep silence. Thus I understand. 



Here ends the recitation of the Nissaggiyas. 



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32 PATIMOKKHA. 



PAATITTIYA DHAMMA. 

The Pa^ittiya 1 Rules. 

Now here, venerable Sirs, the ninety-two Pa^ittiya 
Rules (Rules regarding matters requiring expiation) 
come into recitation. 

i. There is Pa£ittiya in a deliberate lie. 

2. There is Paiittiya in abusive language. 

3. There is Pa^ittiya in slander of a Bhikkhu. 

4. Whatsoever Bhikkhu shall cause one not re- 
ceived into the higher grade (of the Order 2 ) to recite 
the Dhamma clause by clause 3 — that is a Pa^ittiya. 

5. Whatsoever Bhikkhu shall, for more than two 
or three nights, lie down (to sleep) in the same place 
with one not received into the higher grade (of the 
Order) — that is a Paiittiya. 

6. Whatsoever Bhikkhu shall lie down (to sleep) 
in the same place with a woman — that is a Pa&ttiya 4 . 

7. Whatsoever Bhikkhu shall preach the Dham- 
ma, in more than five or six words, to a woman, 



1 That is, ' requiring repentance.' Compare the Sanskrit terms 
Vi&yas £ittika and Pr&ya$£ittiya. 

8 Literally, 'one who has not received the upasampadaV 

8 Anupasampannajw padaso dhamma« va^eyya. This 
rule is directed against a wrong method of teaching the Dhamma 
to a S&mawera. See the extracts from the Old Commentary, and 
from the Samanta-Pisddikd, given by Minayeff on p. 84. Read 
however in the second line osSpenti for isApenti ; and then go 
on anvakkharaw nama, rfipam anii^an ti vu^amSno ruppan ti 
opSteti: anuvyan^anaOT nama, rupam ani^an ti vu££amano vedanS 
ani££a ti saddam ni&Wareti, &c. 

4 For the text read m&tugamena. 



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PAJHTTIYA DHAMMA. 33 

without a man arrived at years of discretion 1 (being 
present) — that is a Pa^ittiya. 

8. Whatsoever Bhikkhu shall tell one not re- 
ceived into the higher grade (of the Order) that 
the (speaker or any other Bhikkhu) has extraordi- 
nary spiritual gifts, even when such is the case 2 — 
that is a Pa&ttiya. 

9. Whatsoever Bhikkhu shall tell one not re- ,, 
ceived into the higher grade (of the Order) of a 
Bhikkhu having fallen into any grave offence — that 

is a Pa&ttiya. 

10. Whatsoever Bhikkhu shall dig the ground or 
have it dug 3 — that is a Pa^ittiya. 



Here ends the first section, 
the 'Falsehood-section.' 



1 1. There is Paiittiya in destroying any vegetable. 

1 2. There is Pa&ttiya in prevarication, or in wor- 
rying (the assembled Bhikkhus ; for instance, by 
refusing to answer 4 ). 

1 3. There is Paiittiya in stirring up ill-will against, 
in speaking disrespectfully of (any Bhikkhu deputed 
to any official duty 6 ). 

1 Viwwu. The Vibhanga says, ' a man able to understand what 
is well said, and what is wrongly said ; what is wicked, and what is 
not wicked.' Compare the use of vinwutd at G&taka I, 231. 

2 To do so when it was not the case, would be a Para^ika. 
See the 4th Pdrtgika, and our note there on the meaning of utta- 
rimanussa-dhammaw. The 'even 'here means that the truth 
of the averment makes no excuse for it. 

s Because doing so might bring some living thing into danger. 

* Vihesake; which must be understood as being done in a 
formal meeting of the Sawgha during an official enquiry. 

8 The words in parentheses are supplied from the explanations 
in the Vibhanga. 

C'3] » 



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34 PATIMOKKHA. 



14. Whatsoever Bhikkhu who has put out, or 
got another to put out to air, a bedstead, or a chair, 
or a mat, or a stool 1 , the common property of the 
Sawgha ; and when going away shall not put it back, 
or have it put back, but shall depart without saying 
anything to anybody — that is a Paiittiya. 

15. Whatsoever Bhikkhu has put out, or got 
another to put out, a bedstead in a dwelling-place 
common to a Sa/«gha ; and when going away shall 
not put it back, or have it put back, but shall de- 
part without saying anything to anybody — that is a 
Pa&ttiya. 

16. Whatsoever Bhikkhu, in a dwelling-place com- 
mon to a Samgha, shall lie down where he knows 
that he is encroaching on (the space occupied by) a 
Bhikkhu who arrived before him, thinking, ' If he 
become inconvenienced he may go away' — if he 
does it for that object, and for no other 2 — that is 
a Pa&ttiya. 

17. Whatsoever Bhikkhu, being angry or dis- 
pleased with another Bhikkhu, shall drive him out, 
or get him driven out of a dwelling-place common 
to a Sawzgha — that is a Pa&ttiya. 

18. Whatsoever Bhikkhu shall hurriedly sit down, 
or lie down, in the upper story of a dwelling-place 
common to a Sa#zgha 3 , on a bedstead or chair with 
removable legs — that is a Pa&ttiya. 

1 KoiAAam, the meaning of which is not quite clear. The 
Vibhahga says there are four kinds, made of bark, of ustra roots, 
ofmuw^a grass, and of bulrushes. It is apparently therefore of 
wickerwork. 

s That is, according to the Vibhahga, the rule does not apply 
to an invalid, or to one suffering from the heat, or the cold ; and 
so on. 

* Because if he does so, he might unwittingly upset the furniture, 



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pAiCITTIYA DHAMMA. 35 



19. In case a Bhikkhu is having a large dwelling- 
place put up, he may have the work rectified, in a 
place where straw is scarce, round the doors, and 
where the bolts are put in, and the openings for 
light are set, and till the roof has been twice or 
thrice covered in 1 . Should he go beyond that, even 
in such a place — that is a Pa&ttiya. 

20. Whatsoever Bhikkhu shall sprinkle water 
with living creatures in it, or shall cause such to be 
sprinkled on grass or on clay — that is a Pa&ttiya. 



H? 



Here ends the second section, 
the ' Bhutaga ma-section.' 



Whatsoever Bhikkhu, not thereto deputed, 
shall exhort the Bhikkhunl's 2 — that is a Pa&ttiya. 

or fall himself, to the injury of some one who was rightfully on the 
ground floor. 

1 In the text read dvittLiiMadanassa: Mite pi. This rule, 
directed against too great luxury in the matter of a perfectly 
finished dwelling, is somewhat obscure, owing to our want of 
information as to the mode in which such dwellings should be 
put up. It refers probably to a hut, albeit a large one, of 
wattel and daub (ku<Wa: comp. Rh. D.'s note on the Maha- 
parinibbana Sutta V, 41). The Samanta-Pasidika divides dvara- 
kosa into dvara-okasa, and quotes various estimates from the 
old Sinhalese commentaries as to the proper extent of this space 
(see MinayefF, p. 87). 

2 Ovadeyya; that is, shall preach to them the eight Garu- 
dhammi. On these see the passages mentioned in the Index 
appended to the text of the Aullavagga; and on the ovSda see 
JSTullavagga X, 9, 2, and following. The mode of procedure is 
laid down in the Vibhahga as follows : ' The Bhikkhu asks the 
Bhikkhuni's, "Are you all present, sisters, and do none raise 
objections (that is, are you samagga)?" If they say, " That is so, 
Sir 1 " he asks, "Are the eight Garu-dhammk being kept up?" 
If they say, " They are, Sir ! " he is to say, " That, sisters, is the 
exhortation 1 " and so deliver it to them. If they say, " They are 

D 2 



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36 pAtimokkha. 



22. If a Bhikkhu, even when thereto deputed, 
exhort the Bhikkhuni's after the sun has set — that is 
a Pa/6ittiya. 

23. Whatsoever Bhikkhu shall go to the dwell- 
ing-place of Bhikkhuni's, and there exhort the Bhik- 
khunt's 1 , except on the (right) occasion — that is a 
Pa&ttiya. 

Herein this is the right occasion : (to wit), when 
a Bhikkhunl is ill. This is the right occasion in this 
passage. 

24. Whatsoever Bhikkhu shall speak thus : ' The 
Bhikkhus exhort the Bhikkhuni's for the sake of 
gain 2 !' — that is a Pa^ittiya. 

25. Whatsoever Bhikkhu shall give a robe to a 
Bhikkhunl who is not related to him, except in 
exchange — that is a Pa&ttiya. 

26. Whatsoever Bhikkhu shall make up a robe, 
or have it made up, for a Bhikkhunl who is not 
related to him — that is a Piiittiya. 

27. Whatsoever Bhikkhu, by appointment, shall 
travel along a high road in company with a Bhik- 
khunl, even to go as far as the village, except on the 
right occasion — that is a Pa&ttiya. 

not, Sir ! " he should go all through them, saying, " A sister who 
has been received into the higher grade even one hundred years, 
&c. (and so on to the end of the Garu-dhamma)." 

' If he preach any other Dhamma to those who say, " We, Sir, 
are all present, and none raise objections ! " he is guilty of a Duk- 
ka/a. If he preach the eight Garu-dhammi to those who say, 
"No, Sir, that is not sol" (vagg' amh' ayya ti, where vagga 
is vyagra, the opposite of samagga), he is guilty of a Dukka/a. 
If he preach another Dhamma, when the eight Garu-dhamm& 
have not committed to their charge, he is guilty of a Dukka/a.' 

1 Compare .Xullavagga X, 6, 1. 

a Amisa-hetu; that is, in order that the sisters may be induced 
to supply the preachers with food, medicine, &c. 



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PAKTTTIYA DHAMMA. 37 

Herein this is the right occasion : (to wit), when 
the road is so insecure and dangerous that travellers 
on it have to carry arms. This is the right occasion 
in this passage. 

28. Whatsoever Bhikkhu, by appointment, shall 
go on board the same boat, whether going up stream 
or down stream, in company with a Bhikkhuni, ex- 
cept for the purpose of crossing over to the other 
side — that is a Paiittiya. 

29. Whatsoever Bhikkhu, knowing it to be so, 
shall eat food procured by the intervention of a 
Bhikkhuni, unless the laity (who give the food) had 
already undertaken (to give it to him) 1 — that is a 
Pa&ttiya. 

30. Whatsoever Bhikkhu shall take a seat, one 
man with one woman, in company with a Bhikkhuni, 
in a secret place 2 — that is a Paiittiya. 



Here ends the third section,, 
the 'Bhikkhunovad a-section.' 



31. A Bhikkhu who is not sick may take one 
meal at a public rest-house 3 . Should he take more 
than that — that is a P&iittiya. 

1 The introductory story in the Vibhahga is of a Bhikkhu born 
in Ra^agaha, who went to a relative's house, and a meal was 
there being prepared for him by his relatives. A kulupika" 
bhikkhuni then arrives, and says, ' My friends, give the gentle- 
man a meal !' Then the Bhikkhu was in doubt whether he ought 
not to refuse it as being Bhikkhuni -parip&^itaxit. 

2 Compare the Aniyata Dhamma\ 

3 Eko avasatha-pi«</o bhuw^itabbo. An Svasatha is one 
of those 'chaultries,' or public resting-places, which good Buddhists 
were wont to put up in the villages or at cross roads. At some of 



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38 pAtimokkha. 



32. There is Pa&ttiya in going in a body to 
receive a meal \ except on the right occasion. 

Herein the right occasion is this : (to wit), when 
there is sickness, when robes are being given, when 
robes are being made, when on a journey (on foot), 
when on board a boat, when (the influx of Bhikkhus) 
is great 2 , when a general invitation is given to Sa- 
maras 3 . This is right occasion in this passage. 

33. There is Pa^ittiya in taking food in turn 4 , 
except on the right occasion. 

Herein the right occasion is this: (to wit), when 
there is sickness, when robes are being given, when 



these a constant supply of rice was provided for travellers. See 
the Maha-parinibbana Sutta I, 10; II, 5 (pp. 10, 16); GStaka, 
No. 31 ('Buddhist Birth Stories,' pp. 280-285) > Mahi-sudassana 
Sutta I, 63; Dhammapada Commentary apud Fausboll, 185. The 
Samanta-Pasaxtikd on this rule (Minayeff, p. 88) says that dvasatha- 
pi«</o is a meal in such an avasatha. 

1 On this rule compare ^Tullavagga VII, 3, 13. 'In a body' 
means four or more Bhikkhus going together to the same house. 

4 Mahd-samayo. The Vibhanga relates how, when vassa 
was over, the Bhikkhus repaired in great numbers to visit the 
Buddha. On such occasions it was difficult or impossible for them 
all, if they adhered to the strict rule, to obtain their meals. 

3 Sama«a-bhatta-samayo. See the Vibhanga, and the Sa- 
manta-PasadiM, quoted by Minayeff, pp. 88, 89. ' Sama«as,' of 
course, includes others besides Buddhists. 

4 Parampara-bho^ane; that is, in picking and choosing 
with regard to food, or in regard to different invitations. The 
Bhikkhus were to eat straight on whatever was given, and to 
accept invitations in the order in which they were received. But 
a sick Bhikkhu might choose one morsel rather than another; and 
Bhikkhus in health might accept an invitation to a house where 
robes are going to be given, or made, rather than to a house where 
only a meal was offered. The last exception was simply to guard 
against the stock of robes falling short (Bhikkhu . . . nadhivasenti : 
£ivara*B paritta»? uppa^g-ati, says the Vibhanga). 



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PAJmTIYA DHAMMA. 39 

robes are being made. This is right occasion in this 
passage. 

34. In case people should offer a Bhikkhu, who 
has gone to some house, to take as much as he chose 
of their sweetmeats and cakes, that Bhikkhu, should 
he so wish, may accept two or three bowls full 1 . If he 
should accept more than that — that is a Paiittiya. 

When he has accepted two or three bowls full 1 , he 
must take them away, and divide them up among the 
Bhikkhus. That is the proper course in this case. 

35. Whatsoever Bhikkhu, when he has once 
finished his meal, though still invited (to continue 
eating 2 ), shall eat or partake of 3 food that has not 
been left over 4 , whether hard or soft 6 — that is a 
Piiittiya. 



1 In the text read dvittipattapurS. 

The word for sweetmeats, puva, includes all those sweetmeats 
which it was then (as it is now) the custom to send as presents from 
one house to another at weddings, funerals, and such occasions. 

'Cakes' (man t ha) refers to those rice-cakes, &c, which were 
usually prepared as provision for a journey. Compare Gataka 
I, 80. 

'Should offer to take as much as he chose' is the phrase referred 
to above in our note on the 7 th Nissaggiya. The Vibhahga 
says here, Abhiha/uz» pav&reyya' 'ti y&vatakaw i££^asi tavatakaw 
ga«hahiti. 

2 Pavarito. The Vibhanga says, Pavarito nima asanas paw- 
wayati bho^anaw panwdyati hatthapise //5ito abhiharati pa/ikkhepo 
paww&yati, which means, we think, ' A seat for him is there, food is 
there, (the host) standing near him still makes invitation, but there 
takes place a refusal (of the proferred food).' 

3 Khideyya v& bhuw^-eyya v&. 

* The ' not left over' refers only to the case of a sick Bhikkhu. 
A Bhikkhu in health, when he has once finished his meal, ought 
not to eat what he has left. 

6 Kh&daniyazB vd bho^aniyaw vL The former term is used 
of hard food, such as biscuits, cakes, meats, fruits, &c. ; the latter 



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40 PATIMOKKHA. 



36. Whatsoever Bhikkhu shall offer a Bhikkhu 
who has finished his meal, though still invited to 
continue eating, his choice of food, whether hard or 
soft, that has not been left over, saying, 'Come, 
now, Bhikkhu; take and eat!' deliberately desiring 
to stir up longing (in that Bhikkhu) ; then if that 
Bhikkhu eats 1 — that is a Piiittiya. 

37. Whatsoever Bhikkhu shall take or eat any 
food, whether hard or soft, at the wrong time * — 
that is a Pa^ittiya. 

38. Whatsoever Bhikkhu shall eat food, whether 
hard or soft, that has been put by — that is a Pa^ittiya. 

39. Whatsoever Bhikkhu, when he is not sick, 
shall request, for his own use, and shall partake of 
delicacies — to wit, ghee, butter, oil, honey, molasses, 
fish, flesh, milk, curds 3 — that is a Paiittiya. 

40. Whatsoever Bhikkhu shall place, as food, 
within the door of his mouth, anything not given to 
him, save only water and a tooth-cleaner * — that is a 
Paiittiya. 

Here ends the fourth section^ 
the 'Bho^ana-section.' 



41. Whatsoever Bhikkhu shall, with his own 

term of soft foods, such as boiled rice, curries, &c. The two words 
for eating correspond to these two ideas. 

1 Bhuttasmiw pa^ittiya; that is, the offence is completed 
when the eating has taken place ; but the offer alone is not a 
PS&ttiya. So the Vibhahga. 

2 After sun-turn. 

3 In the text read tani ; madhu phiwitaw. 

4 Dantapowa ; doubtless the same, perhaps an older expression 
for, the dantaka/Ma referred to in Aullavagga V, 31. It is a piece 
of fragrant root (cinnamon, betel, &c.) about eight inches .long. 



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PAiHTTIYA DHAMMA. 4 1 

hand, give food, whether hard or soft, to an A^elaka 
or to a Paribba^aka or to a Paribbdfika 1 — that 
is a Pa&ttiya. 

42. Whatsoever Bhikkhu shall address a Bhikkhu 
thus : ' Come, brother ; let us go, for a meal, to the 
village, or the town!' and then, whether after he 
has got an alms for him, or without having got an 
alms for him, shall send him away, saying, ' Go 
away, brother! Talking with you, or sitting with 
you, is not pleasant to me. Talking, or sitting each 
one by himself, is more pleasant to me !' — if he does 
this for this cause, and for no other 2 — that is a 
Paiittiya. 

43. Whatsoever Bhikkhu shall force his way into 
a house where a meal is going on 3 , and take a seat 
there — that is a Paiittiya. 



1 These are the various non-Buddhist religious teachers or 
devotees, most of whom rejected theVedas. The Paribb&^akas 
were mostly, though not always, wandering logicians, willing to 
maintain theses against all the world. Paribba^ik^ is merely the 
feminine of the last A^elaka, which naturally has no feminine, 
were the naked ascetics. 

The sect now called Gains are divided into two classes, Svetam- 
baras and Digambaras, the latter of which eat naked. They are 
known to be the successors of the school called Niga«Mas in the 
P&li Pi/akas; and it is not certain whether the Niga«/Aas are 
included in the A^elakas. It is probable that the BrShman ascetics, 
the V&naprasthas, were not included under the term Paribbi- 
^-akas; but our information on the exact meaning of these terms 
is, as yet, very imperfect. 

2 That is merely to get rid of him, in order to gain any purpose 
of his own. The Vibhanga gives as examples that the Bhikkhu 
sees some valuable things, and wants to get them ; or sees some 
woman, and wants to speak to her. 

8 Sabho^ane kule; the meaning of which is not quite clear. 
The Old Commentary says, 'A sabho^ana kula is one where 



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42 PATIMOKKHA. 



44. Whatsoever Bhikkhu shall take a seat, in 
secret, with a woman, in a concealed place x — that is 
a Pa<6ittiya. 

45. Whatsoever Bhikkhu shall take a seat, in 
secret, with a woman, one man with one woman — 
that is a Pa&ttiya. 

46. Whatsoever Bhikkhu, who has been invited 
(to a house), and has been (thus already) provided 
with a meal, shall, without having previously spoken 
about it to a Bhikkhu, if there is one there, go on 
his (begging) rounds among the families, either before 
meal-time or after meal-time 2 , except on the right 
occasion — that is a PcL£ittiya. 

there is a husband and a wife ; and they both, husband and wife, 
are not gone forth from, are not devoid of lust ' (Minayeff, p. 89, 
under P.; but for anatikkant£ read anikkhanta). Then the 
Samanta-Pasadika, doubtless to justify this suggested implication, 
makes sabho^anaw* equal to saha ubhohi ^anehi (!); or, in 
the alternative, to sabhoga/w, since 'the wife is the bhoga of a 
man still given to passion, and the husband the bhoga of a wife.' 
The use of Bho^ana in any such sense is extremely forced, and 
was perhaps only suggested by the following rules ; but it is just 
possible we should translate, ' a household still given to pleasure ' 
(compare .Xullavagga VIII, 5, 1), or 'fond of good food' (compare 
Milinda Pawha 76). 

On anupakha^a compare the 16th Paftttiya. 

1 Compare the 30th Pa&ttiya, and the two AniyatS Dhamma. 

a The Vibhanga has the following stories in regard to these two 
particulars. A family devoted to Upananda invited him and 
another Bhikkhu. Before meal-time he went to attend on other 
families (purebhatta« kulSni payirupasati). The people delayed 
giving his meal to the other Bhikkhu till Upananda should 
arrive. He came late ; and the other Bhikkhu was thereby dis- 
comforted. 

The family devoted to Upananda sent him food for his use; 
saying it was to be given to the Sawgha, with special reference to 
him. He had gone for an alms to the village. The messengers 
delivered the food and the message, and asked where Upananda was. 



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PAKITTIYA DHAMMA. 43 

Herein the right occasion is this: (to wit), a time 
of giving of robes, a time of making of robes. That 
is right occasion in this passage. 

47. A Bhikkhu who is not sick may accept a 
(standing) invitation with regard to the requisites 1 
for four months. If he accept it for a period longer 
than that — unless there be a second invitation, or a 
perpetual invitation — that is a P<L£ittiya. 

48. Whatsoever Bhikkhu shall go to see an army 
drawn up in battle-array, except for a cause thereto 
sufficient — that is a Pa&ttiya. 

49. And if there be any reason for that Bhikkhu's 
going to the army, that Bhikkhu may remain there 
for two or three nights. If he remain longer than 
that — that is a Paiittiya. 

50. And if while remaining there for two or 
three nights he should go to the battle-array, or to 
the numbering of the forces, or to the drawing up 
of the forces, or to a review 2 — that is a Paiittiya. 



End of the fifth section, 
the 'Aielaka-section.' 



The Bhikkhus told the matter to the Blessed One. He directed the 
present to be accepted, and laid by till Upananda should return. 
After Upananda returned, he nevertheless went out again to attend 
on other families, and the food so sent went bad. 

The Bhikkhu is to tell a resident Bhikkhu before, on account of 
this rule, giving up his usual rounds, in order that he may still go if 
a sick Bhikkhu wants medicine. 

The exceptions are, as above, to prevent the stock of robes 
falling short. 

1 These are usually four — clothing, food, residence, and medicine. 
This rule refers more especially to medicine, as appears from the 
explanation in the Vibhanga. 

a On this rule compare the third section of the Ma^ima-Sila, 



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44 PATIMOKKHA. 



51. There is Pa&ttiya in the drinking of fer- 
mented liquors, or strong drinks x . 

52. There is Paiittiya in poking (another person) 
with the finger. 

53. There is Pa&ttiya in sporting in the water 2 . 

54. There is Pa&ttiya in disrespect 8 . 

55. Whatsoever Bhikkhu shall frighten a Bhik- 
khu i — that is a Paiittiya. 

56. Whatsoever Bhikkhu, who is not sick, shall, 
desiring to warm himself 5 , kindle a fire, or have a 
fire kindled, without cause sufficient thereto — that 
is a Paiittiya. 

57. Whatsoever Bhikkhu shall bathe at intervals 
of less than half a month, except on the proper 
occasion — that is a Pa>6ittiya. 

Herein this is' proper occasion : (to wit), the two 
and a half months during which there is hot weather, 
and during which there is fever ; namely, the last 
month and a half of the heats, and the first month 

and the third section of the Mahd-Sila (translated in Rh. D.'s 'Bud- 
dhist Suttas from the Pali,' pp. 192, 1 98). We follow the Vibhanga 
in the interpretation of the various terms. 

1 The Old Commentary (quoted by Minayeff, p. 90) distinguishes 
between surd and meraya by the former being derived from flour, 
water, &c, and the latter from flowers, fruits, &c. 

s Throwing water over one another, and chasing one another, 
were common amusements at the public and private bathing-places. 
Our MSS. read throughout h&sa-dhamme. 

* AnSdariye. That is, according to the Vibhanga, paying no 
heed, when one's attention is drawn by an upasampanna to the 
fact that this or that action is against the rule laid down (paraiat- 
taz»). But compare also .ffullavagga VIII, 8, 1. 

* In the text read bhiwsipeyya. 

5 H. O.'s MS. reads visibban&pekho. At Mahavagga I, 20, 15, 
visibbesuw occurs in the sense of 'they warmed themselves.' 
Trenckner at p. 47 of the Milinda Pawha reads aggizra ^aletva" 
vistvetvS; and at p. 102, sawsibbitavisibbitattS sSkhSnaw. 



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PAJTITTIYA DHAMMA. 45 

of the rains x : when sick ; when there is work ; when 
on a journey ; when there has been wind and rain. 
This is right occasion in this connection. 

58. A Bhikkhu who receives a new robe must 
choose one or other mode of disfigurement out of 
the three modes of disfigurement; either (making 
part of it) dark blue, or (marking part of it with) 
mud, or (making part of it) black. If a Bhikkhu 
should make use of a new robe without choosing 
one or other mode of disfigurement out of the three 
modes of disfigurement 2 — that is a P4£ittiya. 

59. Whatsoever Bhikkhu who has made over 3 
his robe to a Bhikkhu, or to a Bhikkhuni, or to a 
probationer, or to a Samawera, or to a Sama#erl, 
shall continue to make use of it as a thing not 
(formally) given — that is a Pa&ttiya. 

1 The Vibhanga refers the first of these periods to the hot 
weather, and the second to the fever weather. 

2 In the text insert a full stop after kila.sima.rn va\ The 
object of this rule, according to the Vibhanga, is to enable a 
Bhikkhu to trace his robe should it get lost by being mixed up 
with others. Compare the 15th Nissaggiya. 

s The Vibhanga says, 'There are two ways of appointment 
(in making over, vikappani), promising in the presence, and 
promising in the absence (of the person to whom the appointment 
is made). Promise in the presence is by the words, " I make over 
this robe to you, or to such and such a one (then present)!" 
Promising in the absence is by the words, " I give this robe to you 
for you to appoint (to some one else)." Then the person spoken 
to should say, " Who is your friend, or intimate acquaintance ? " 
" Such a one, or such a one." Then the other should say, " I 
give this to them. This is their property. Wear it, or part with 
it, or do with it as you like 1" ' 

These last are the formal words used on presenting a robe ; and 
by their use the property in the robe is transferred. After that the 
original owner, in spite of the formal words, may not, according to 
our rule, continue to use the robe. 

On apa^/iuddharakaw see Childers, sub voce pa££uddh£ro. 



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46 PATIMOKKHA. 



60. Whatsoever Bhikkhu shall hide, or cause 
another to hide, a Bhikkhu's bowl, or his robe, or 
the mat on which he sits, or his needle-case \ or his 
girdle, even though in fun — that is a Pa&ttiya. 



End of the sixth section, 
the 'Surapana-section.' 



61. Whatsoever Bhikkhu shall deliberately de- 
prive any living thing of life — that is a Paiittiya. 

62. Whatsoever Bhikkhu shall, knowingly, drink 
water with living things in it — that is a Paiittiya. 

63. Whatsoever Bhikkhu shall stir up for de- 
cision again a .matter which he knows to have 
been settled according to the Dhamma 2 — that is 
a Pa&ttiya. 

64. Whatsoever Bhikkhu, who knows of it, shall 
conceal a serious offence 3 committed by a Bhikkhu — 
that is a Pa&ttiya. 

65. Whatsoever Bhikkhu shall admit a person 
under twenty years of age to the higher grade in 
the Order, knowing him (or her) to be so — (while) 
the person is not admitted to the higher grade, and 
the other Bhikkhus (who assist) are blameworthy — 
this is in him * a Pa&ttiya. 

66. Whatsoever Bhikkhu shall, by appointment, 
journey along the same route with a caravan of 



1 In the text read su£igharaa». 

2 Compare the 79th Pa&ttiya, and A'ullavagga IV, 14 passim. 

3 That is, a P&ra^ika, or a Sawghadisesa. 

* The upa^Mya is guilty of a PSftttiya; the aJariya, and 
the gawa, of a Dukka/a, says the Vibhanga. 



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PAKITTIYA DHAMMA. 47 

robbers, knowing it to be such, even as far as the 
next village 1 — that is a Pa^ittiya. 

67. Whatsoever Bhikkhu shall, by appointment, 
journey along the same route with a woman 2 , even 
as far as the next village — that is a Paiittiya. 

68. Whatsoever Bhikkhu shall speak thus: 'In 
this wise do I understand that the Dhamma has 
been proclaimed by the Blessed One : that to him 
who cultivates those Qualities which have been 
called " dangerous " by the Blessed One, there is not 
sufficient danger (to prevent his acquiring spiritual 
gifts) 3 ;' then that Bhikkhu should be addressed by 
the Bhikkhus thus: 'Say not so, brother! bear not 
false witness against the Blessed One ! For neither 
is it seemly to bring a false accusation against the 
Blessed One, nor could the Blessed One speak so. 
By many a figure *, brother, have the Dangerous 
Qualities been declared by the Blessed One to be 
full of danger 5 , and also to be sufficient to prevent 
him who cultivates them (from attaining spiritual 
gifts) 3 .' If that Bhikkhu, when he has thus been 
spoken to by the Bhikkhus, should persist as before, 
then let that Bhikkhu be (formally) admonished 
about it by the Bhikkhus as a body, even to the 
third time, to the intent that he abandon that course. 

1 Compare the 27 th Pa£ittiya. A caravan that sets out with 
intent to steal or rob on the way is meant. 

2 Compare the 27th and 28th Pa&ttiyas. 

s These are specified in detail in Mahavagga II, 3, 7. 

* Pariydya; fulness, extent, of illustration and explanation. Not 
merely manner, or method, of statement. Much of this pariy&ya 
will be found in the various similes used in the A'ullavagga loc. cit. 

5 In the text here, and in the corresponding clause of No. 70, 
read anekapariyayena avuso antarayika dhamma antarayika vutta' 
bhagavata, as in ATullavagga I, 32. 



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48 PATIMOKKHA. 



If, while being so admonished, up to the third time, 
he abandon that course, it is well. If he abandon 
it not — that is a Paiittiya 1 . 

69. Whatsoever Bhikkhu, knowing him to be so, 
shall eat in company with, or dwell together with 2 , 
or sleep in one place with a Bhikkhu who talks thus 
(as in 68), and has not been dealt with according to 
the law 3 , and has not laid aside his delusion — that 
is a Pa^ittiya. 

70. If a Sama#era 4 even should say thus: 'In 
this wise do I understand that the Dhamma has 
been proclaimed by the Blessed One : that to him 
who cultivates those Qualities which have been 
called " dangerous " by the Blessed One there is not 
sufficient danger (to prevent his attaining to spiritual 
gifts);' then that Sama«era should be addressed by 
the Bhikkhus thus : ' Say not so, good Sama^era ! 
Bear not false witness against the Blessed One. For 
neither is it seemly to bring a false accusation against 
the Blessed One, nor could the Blessed One speak 
so. By many a figure, good Samawera, have the 

1 This rule is directed against the delusion that sin, to a very 
holy man, loses its danger and its sinfulness. Compare the 4th 
Sawgh&disesa ; and, on the method of procedure here laid down, 
the 10th to the 13th Sa«gMdisesas. At .ffullavagga I, 32 lust is 
declared to be an antardyiko dhammo; and falsehood another 
at Mah&vagga II, 3, 3. The Samanta-Pasadiki (quoted by Mina- 
yeff, p. 92) gives five divisions of these ' dangerous qualities.' 

2 This the Vibhanga explains as holding Uposatha, or PavS- 
ra«a, or a Sawghakamma with him. 

3 Ukkhitto anosdrito, says the Vibhanga. Compare Mahd- 
vagga IX, 4, 10, n. 

* Samawuddeso; which is explained by the Old Commentary 
as equal to Samawera. Why, in the P&timokkha, now one and 
now the other expression should be used, is not clear. In the 
later texts S&mawera is the usual form, but samawuddeso is 
found also in a few passages. 



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PAtflTTIYA DHAMMA. 49 

Dangerous Qualities been declared by the Blessed 
One to be full of danger, and also to be sufficient to 
prevent him who cultivates them (from attaining to 
spiritual gifts).' And if that Sama#era, when so 
addressed by the Bhikkhus, shall persist in that 
course, that Sama#era should be addressed by the 
Bhikkhus thus : ' From this day forth, good Sama- 
#era, neither can that Blessed One be referred to x 
by you as your Teacher, nor can the privilege, which 
the other Samaweras enjoy, of sleeping in the same 
place with the Bhikkhus for two or three nights 2 , 
any longer be yours ! Depart! away with you 3 !' 

Whatsoever Bhikkhu shall encourage *, .or sup- 
port 5 , or eat with, or sleep in the same place with, a 
Sama»era thus expelled — that is a Paiittiya. 



End of the seventh section, 
the 'Sappa»aka 9 -section.' 



1 Apadisitabbo. Compare the four Mahdpadesa - in the 
Mahi-parinibbana Sutta IV, 7-1 1. 

2 Compare the 5th PSiittiya. 

3 In the text read £ara pi re; that is, £ara api re, instead of 
£ara pare. On vinassa compare Mah&vagga I, 61, x. 

4 Upal&peyya. Compare MaMvagga I, 59, and Mahi-parinib- 
bdna Sutta I, 5, and the passages quoted in Rh. D.'s version of 
the latter passage. The Old Commentary says, 'Flatters him (talks 
him over, tassa upalapeti) by saying, " I will give you a bowl, or a 
robe, or hear you repeat, or answer your questions." ' 

6 Upa/Mdpeyya. The Old Commentary says, 'by providing 
him with chunam, or clay, or a tooth-cleanser, or water to wash his 
face with.' No doubt upa/M&peti is used in the sense of showing 
such personal attentions to another, as the upziiAiki did to the 
Buddha ; and such services would very rightly come under this rule. 
Yet here, as often, the comment is rather a scholastic exegesis <5f 
the sentence, than a philologically exact explanation of the word. 

• This title is taken from the second, not, as in ail the other 
cases, from the first rule in the section. 

[13] E 



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5<D PATIMOKKHA. 



71. Whatsoever Bhikkhu, when admonished by 
the Bhikkhus in respect of some precept in accord- 
ance with the Dhamma, shall speak thus: ' I cannot 
submit myself to that precept, brother, until I shall 
have enquired touching it of another Bhikkhu, an ex- 
perienced master of theVinaya' — that is a Pa^ittiya. 

A Bhikkhu desirous of training, Bhikkhus 1 , should 
learn, and enquire, and settle in his own mind. This 
is the right rule in this connection. 

72. Whatsoever Bhikkhu, when the Patimokkha 
is being recited, shall speak thus: 'What comes of 
these minor 2 precepts being here recited, save only 
that they tend to misgiving, and worry, and per- 
plexity!' — there is Pi^ittiya in thus throwing con- 
tempt on the precepts 3 . 

73. Whatsoever Bhikkhu, when at the half 
month the Patimokkhl is being recited, should say 
thus : ' Now for the first time do I notice that this 
rule, they say, is handed down in the Suttas, is 
embraced in the Suttas !' — then, if the other Bhikkhus 
shall know concerning that Bhikkhu thus : ' This 
Bhikkhu has taken his place at the recitation of the 
Patimokkha once, or twice, not to say oftener*' — 
that Bhikkhu is not only not made free on account of 
his ignorance 5 , but he is to be dealt with according 
to the Dhamma for the offence into which he has 
fallen, and furthermore he is to be charged with 
foolishness (in the words), ' This is loss to thee, 



1 On this strange allocution see the note to the 10th Nissaggiya. 

2 Khuddanukhuddakehi. Compare the Maha-parinibbana 
Sutta VI, 3, and the passages quoted there in Rh. D.'s note. 

8 In the text read vivawwake. 

* In the text read ko pana vado bhiyyo. 

B In the text read annanakena. 



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PAjnTTIYA DHAMMA. 5 1 

brother, this is an evil to thee, in that when the 
Pitimokkha is being recited you fail to take it to 
your heart, and attend to it with care.' There is 
Pa^ittiya in such foolish conduct. 

74. Whatsoever Bhikkhu, being angry or dis- 
pleased with another Bhikkhu, shall give a blow — 
that is a Pa^ittiya. 

75. Whatsoever Bhikkhu, being angry or dis- 
pleased with another Bhikkhu, shall make use of 
any threatening gesture l — that is a Pa&ttiya. 

76. Whatsoever Bhikkhu shall harass a Bhikkhu 
with a (charge of) Sawghadisesa without ground — 
that is a Piiittiya. 

77. Whatsoever Bhikkhu shall intentionally 
suggest difficulties of conscience to a Bhikkhu, with 
the idea of causing him uneasiness, even for a 
moment ; if he does it to that end alone — that is 
a Pa^ittiya. 

78. Whatsoever Bhikkhu shall stand by over- 
hearing when Bhikkhus are quarrelling, or making 
a disturbance, or engaged in a dispute, hoping to 
hear what they shall utter ; if he does it to that 
end alone — that is a Pa&ttiya. 

79. Whatsoever Bhikkhu, when he has declared 
his consent to formal proceedings conducted accord- 
ing to the Dhamma, shall thereafter grumble (about 
those proceedings) 2 — that is a Pa^ittiya. 

1 Talasattikawz uggireyya. The Old Commentary says, 
Kiyam vi kiyapa/ibaddha/n v£ antamaso uppalapattazw pi u^dreti. 
Compare dvudh&ni uggiritvd at Gataka 1, 150. 

2 If he should raise any formal objections so as to re-open the 
question, that would fall under the 63rd Pa&ttiya. On ' declaring 
one's consent' in this and the following rule, see below, Mahavagga 
II, 23. The whole rule, as well as on No. 63, is repeatedly referred 
to in ^ullavagga IV, 14. 

£ 2 



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52 PATIMOKKHA. 



80. Whatsoever Bhikkhu, when the Samgha is 
engaged in conducting a (formal) enquiry, shall rise 
from his seat, and go away, without having declared 
his consent — that is a Pdiittiya. 

81. Whatsoever Bhikkhu, when, in a regularly 
constituted Sawgha 1 > he has given away a robe, shall 
thereafter grumble about it, saying, ' The Bhikkhus 
appropriate the property of the Sawzgha according to 
friendship ' — that is a Pa&ttiya. 

82. Whatsoever Bhikkhu shall divert to the use 
of any individual property dedicated to the Samgha, 
knowing it to be so — that is a Pa&ttiya. 



Here ends the eighth section, 
the ' Sahadhammika-section.' 



83. Whatsoever Bhikkhu shall cross the threshold 
of an anointed Khattiya king, when the king has not 
gone forth, and the queen has not withdrawn, with- 
out first having had himself announced 2 — that is a 
Pa&ttiya. 

1 Samaggena samghena. See the note to the 21st Pa&ttiya. 

2 Indakhtla, the word translated ' threshold/ is explained in the 
Old Commentary by sayani-ghara, 'sleeping chamber;' but this 
is rather a didactic gloss on the rule. Compare the note above on 
the 43rd Pa&ttiya. The phrase ' when the queen has not gone in' 
is somewhat doubtful. H. O.'s MS. of the Vibhanga reads (as 
Minayeff does) aniggata-ratanake, instead of Dickson's anfha- 
ta-ratanake. The former is the better reading; nihata is impos- 
sible, it must be either nihata or nlha/a. But ratanaka, though 
the queen is one of the seven Ratanas of a king, is not found 
elsewhere used absolutely for a queen : the use of ra^ake, too, 
immediately after rawwo, instead of ramwe or r&gini, is curious. 
A possible alternative rendering would be 'when the court has 
not departed, and the regalia not laid aside :' but we prefer on 



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paxittiyA dhammA. 53 

84. Whatsoever Bhikkhu shall pick up, or cause 
another to pick up, except in a grove or in a 
dwelling-place, a jewel, or anything deemed a jewel 1 — 
that is a Paiittiya. 

Should a Bhikkhu have picked up, either in a 
grove or in a dwelling-place, a jewel, or anything 
deemed a jewel, it is to be laid aside, that he to whom 
it may belong may take it away. This is the right 
course in such a case. 

85. Whatsoever Bhikkhu shall, out of hours 2 , 
enter a village, without having informed a Bhikkhu 
if one is present 3 , except on account of business 
of a special nature 4 thereto sufficient — that is a 
Pa&ttiya. 

86. Whatsoever Bhikkhu shall have a needle- 
case made of bone, or ivory, or horn, it shall be 
broken up — and that is a Paiittiya. 

87. When a Bhikkhu is having a new bedstead 
or chair made, it should be made with legs eight 
inches in height, according to the accepted inch 6 , 
exclusive of the lowermost piece of the bed frame 6 . 
To him who exceeds that limit- there is a Pa^ittiya, 



the whole the Old Commentator's explanation of ra^aka and 
ratanaka. 

1 Ratanasammataw; that is, a thing made of one of those 
substances ranked with gems, such as jade, coral, &c. 

2 Vikale; that is, says the Old Commentary, from sun-turn in 
one day till sun-rise in the next. 

* Santas bhikkhu/w. If one is not present, he may go with- 
out. The Old Commentary gives no such definition of being 
present, as Mr. Dickson has supplied. 

4 A££ayika. Compare the note on the 28th Nissaggiya. 
6 Sugatahgulena. See the note on the 6th Sawghadisesa. 

• A/ani. There is no explanation of this term, either in the 
Old Commentary, or in the Samanta-PasadiM. 



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54 PATIMOKKHA. 



and (the legs of the piece of furniture) shall be cut 
down (to the proper size). 

88. Whatsoever Bhikkhu shall have a bedstead 
or a chair made, stuffed with cotton 1 , the stuffing 
shall be torn out — and that is a Pa&ttiya. 

89. When a Bhikkhu is having a rug or mat 
to sit upon made, it must be made of the right 
measure. Herein this is the measure : in length 
two spans, according to the accepted span ; in breadth 
one span ; the border one span. To him who 
exceeds that limit there is a Pi^ittiya, and (the 
article) shall be cut down (to the proper size). 

90. When a Bhikkhu is having an itch-cloth 2 
made, it must be made of the right measure. Herein 
this is the measure : in length four spans, according 
to the accepted span ; in width two spans. To him 
who exceeds that limit there is a Pa&ttiya, and (the 
cloth) shall be cut (down to the proper size). 

91. When a Bhikkhu is having a garment made 
for the rainy season, it must be made of the right 
measure. Herein this is the right measure : in 
length six spans, according to the accepted span ; 
in breadth two spans and a half. To him who 
exceeds that limit there is a Paiittiya, and (the 
garment) shall be cut (down to the proper size). 

92. Whatsoever Bhikkhu shall have a robe made 
of the dimensions of a Sugata's robe 3 , or larger — 

1 Tfilaw; which the Old Commentary expands into three 
kinds — tulaw from a tree, tulaw from a creeper, and tulaw from 
a young fowl. 

2 When a Bhikkhu had a boil, or running sore, or any such 
disease, the use of an itch-cloth (so called from the first in the list 
of skin complaints there mentioned) is laid down in Mah&vagga 
VIII, 17. 

8 On the doubtful meaning of Sugata, see the note above on 



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pajtittiya dhamma. 55 

that is a Paiittiya, and (the robe) shall be cut down 
to the proper size. 

Herein this is the measure of the Sugata robe 
of a Sugata : in length nine spans, according to the 
accepted span ; in breadth six spans. This is the 
measure of the Sugata robe of a Sugata. 

End of the ninth section, 
the 'Ratana-section.' 



Venerable Sirs, the ninety-two rules regarding 
matters requiring expiation have been recited. 

In respect of them I ask the venerable ones, 'Are 
you pure in this matter ?' 

A second time I ask the venerable ones, ' Are 
you pure in this matter?' 

A third time I ask the venerable ones, 'Are you 
pure in this matter?' 

The venerable ones are pure herein. Therefore 
do they keep silence. Thus I understand. 



Here endeth the recitation of the Pa^ittiyas. 



the 28th Nissaggiya. There is no reason whatever to believe that 
Gotama's robe was larger, in proportion, than those worn by the 
other members of his order. He exchanged robes with Maha" 
Kassapa. Of the two sets of robes brought by Pukkusa, one was 
given to Ananda, and one was reserved for the Buddha himself; 
and no one can read the account in the Mahd-parinibbina Sutta 
without feeling that both are supposed to be of the same size. 



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56 PATIMOKKHA. 



PA71DESANIYA dhammA. 

Rules regarding Matters which ought to be 
Confessed. 

Here, venerable Sirs, the four rules regarding 
matters which ought to be confessed come into 
recitation. 

i. Whatsoever Bhikkhu, when a Bhikkhunt not 
related to him has entered within the houses \ shall, 
with his own hand, accept at her hands food, either 
hard or soft, and eat or enjoy it — that is a matter 
which ought to be confessed by that Bhikkhu, saying, 
' I have fallen, Brethren, into a blameworthy offence, 
unbecoming, which ought to be confessed ; and I 
confess it!' 

2. Now Bhikkhus, when they have been invited 
to laymen's houses, eat. If the Bhikkhunl stay there 
giving directions, saying, ' Here give curry, give rice 
here !' the Bhikkhunl ought to be rebuked by those 
Bhikkhus, saying, ' Stand aside, Sister, as long as 
the Bhikkhus are eating!' If it should not occur 
to a single Bhikkhu to rebuke the Bhikkhunt, saying, 
' Stand aside, Sister, as long as the Bhikkhus are 
eating !' — that is a matter that ought to be confessed 
by those Bhikkhus, saying, 'We have fallen, Brethren, 
into a blameworthy offence, unbecoming, which ought 
to be confessed ; and we confess it !' 

3. Whatsoever Bhikkhu shall accept, with his 

1 Antaragharaw pavi//M; that is, during her alms-visit to 
the village. Compare the 3rd Sekhiya; Mahavagga I, 23, 3; and 
.ffullavagga VIII, 5, 2. 



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PAriDESANIYA DHAMMA. 57 

own hand, food, either hard or soft, in such house- 
holds as have been (by a formal sammuti) declared 
to be households, under discipline \ without having 
been previously invited, and without being sick, and 
eat it or enjoy it — that is a matter that ought to be 
confessed by that Bhikkhu, saying, ' I have fallen, 
Brethren, into a blameworthy offence, unbecoming, 
which ought to be confessed; and I confess it!' 

4. Whatsoever Bhikkhu, while he is dwelling in 
a place belonging to the class of those forest dwell- 
ings which are held to be insecure and dangerous 2 , 
shall accept, with his own hand, at his home, food, 
either hard or soft, without having previously given 
notice (of the danger incurred by people that enter 
that forest), unless he is sick, and shall eat it or enjoy 
it — that is a matter that ought to be confessed by 
that Bhikkhu, saying, ' I have fallen, Brethren, into 
a blameworthy offence, unbecoming, which ought to 
be confessed; and I confess it!' 



Here end the Pa^idesaniyas. 



Venerable Sirs, the four rules regarding matters 
which require confession have been recited. 

In respect of them I ask the venerable ones, 'Are 
you pure in this matter?' 

1 Sekha-sammatani kulani; which the Vibhahga explains 
as a household grown rich in faith, but poor in goods; where 
whatever they get is given away to the Order, though the family 
may be some days in want of it. Compare what is said of Anatha- 
pi«<fika in the Introduction to the 40th Gataka (Gataka I, 228); 
though his lot had not reached the very lowest limit. 

a Compare the 29th Nissaggiya. 



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58 PATIMOKKHA. 



A second time I ask the venerable ones, ' Are you 
pure in this matter ?' 

A third time I ask the venerable ones, 'Are you 
pure in this matter ?' 

The venerable ones are pure herein. Therefore 
do they keep silence. Thus I understand. 



Here endeth the recitation of the Pa/idesaniyas. 



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SEKHIYA DHAMMA. 59 



sekhiyA dhammA. 

Rules regarding Matters connected with 
Discipline. 

Here, venerable Sirs, the rules regarding matters 
connected with discipline come into recitation. 

1. 'I will put on my under garment all around 
me 1 .' This is a discipline which ought to be observed. 

2. ' I will put on my robe all around me.' This 
is a discipline which ought to be observed. 

3. ' Properly clad will I go amidst the houses V 
This is a discipline which ought to be observed. 

4. ' Properly clad will I take my seat amidst the 
houses.' This is a discipline which ought to be 
observed. 

5. '(With my body) under proper control 3 will I 
go amidst the houses.' This is a discipline which 
ought to be observed. 

6. '(With my body) under proper control will I 
take my seat amidst the houses.' This is a discipline 
which ought to be observed. 

7. ' With downcast eye * will I go amidst the 

1 Parima«</ala« : 'so as to cover the navel-ma«</ala, and the 
knee-ma«</ala,' says the Old Commentary. Compare Childers 
sub voce Tima.nda.lzm; and Atillavagga VIII, 5, 2. 

8 Antaraghare. The antaragharaw is the space in a village 
between the huts; not exactly the same, and yet in the following 
rules practically the same, as the village (gima). 

3 Not, for instance, with dirty hands or feet, according to the 
Vibhanga. 

* The practical rule is for a Bhikkhu to look at a spot in the 
ground about a plough's length in front of him. 



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6o pAtimokkha. 



houses.' This is a discipline which ought to be 
observed. 

8. 'With downcast eye will I take my seat amidst 
the houses.' This is a discipline which ought to be 
observed. 

9. ' With robes not pulled up 1 will I go amidst 
the houses.' This is a discipline which ought to be 
observed. 

10. 'With robes not pulled up will I take my 
seat amidst the houses.' This is a discipline which 
ought to be observed. 



End of the first section. 



11. ' Not with loud laughter will I go amidst the 
houses.' This is a discipline which ought to be 
observed. 

1 2. ' Not with loud laughter will I take my seat 
amidst the houses.' This is a discipline which ought 
to be observed. 

13. 'Making but a little sound will I go amidst 
the houses.' This is a discipline which ought to be 
observed. 

14. ' Making but a little sound will I take my seat 
amidst the houses.' This is a discipline which ought 
to be observed. 

15. 'Without swaying my body about will I go 
amidst the houses.' This is a discipline which ought 
to be observed. 

16. 'Without swaying my body about will I take 

1 Or perhaps ' thrown off.' He is to be fully dressed as laid 
down in the 1st and 2nd Sekhiyas. 



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SEKHIYA DHAMMA. 6 1 

my seat amidst the houses.' This is a discipline 
which ought to be observed. 

17. 'Without swaying my arms about will I go 
amidst the houses.' This is a discipline which ought 
to be observed. 

18. ' Without swaying my arms about will I take 
my seat amidst the houses.' This is a discipline 
which ought to be observed. 

19. ' Without swaying my head about will I go 
amidst the houses.' This is a discipline which ought 
to be observed. 

20. 'Without swaying my head about will I take 
my seat amidst the houses.' This is a discipline 
which ought to be observed. 



End of the second section. 



21. ' With my arms not akimbo l will I go amidst 
the houses.' This is a discipline which ought to be 
observed. 

22. ' With my arms not akimbo will I take my seat 
amidst the houses.' This is a discipline which ought 
to be observed. 

23. 'With my head uncovered 2 will I go amidst 
the houses.' This is a discipline which ought to be 
observed. 

24. ' With my head uncovered will I take my seat 
amidst the houses.' This is a discipline which ought 
to be observed. 

1 Nakkhambhakato: 'putting the hands on the hips/ says 
the Old Commentary. 

2 Na oguwMito: which the Old Commentary applies to the 
head. 



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62 PATIMOKKHA. 



25. 'Without walking on my heels or my toes 1 
will I go amidst the houses.' This is a discipline 
which ought to be observed. 

26. 'Without lolling 2 will I take my seat amidst 
the houses.' This is a discipline which ought to be 
observed. 

27. 'With mind alert 3 will I receive an alms.' 
This is a discipline which ought to be observed. 

28. ' Paying attention to my bowl will I receive 
an alms.' This is a discipline which ought to be 
observed. 

29. ' With equal curry 4 will I receive an alms.' 
This is a discipline which ought to be observed. 

30. ' Equally full 5 will I receive an alms.' This 
is a discipline which ought to be observed. 



End of the third section. 



31. ' With mind alert will I eat the alms placed 
in my bowl.' This is a discipline which ought to 
be observed. 

32. ' Paying attention to my bowl will I eat the 



1 Na ukku/ikaya; an unusual sense of the word; but it is so 
explained here by the Old Commentary. 

2 Na pallatthikaya. 'Without making a rest with his hands, 
or with a cloth,' according to the Old Commentary. Compare the 
Tipallattha-miga <?ataka, and No. 65 below. 

8 Sakka££a«. Satim upa/Mipetva, says the Samanta-Pasd- 
dika. See also No. 31. 

* Samasupakaa*. 'When the curry is in quantity one-fourth 
of the rice ' explains the Samanta-Pasadika. See No. 34. 

5 Samatittikaw. 'Equally full, equally heaped up (samabha- 
ritaw)' explains the Samanta-P&sadika. Compare the several 
passages quoted in Rh. D.'s note on Tevigg-a Sutta I, 24. 



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SEKHIYA DHAMMA. 63 

alms placed in my bowl.' This is a discipline which 
ought to be observed. 

33. ' Begging straight on from house to house l 
will I eat the alms placed in my bowl.' This is a 
discipline which ought to be observed. 

34. ' With equal curry will I eat the alms placed 
in my bowl.' This is a discipline which ought to 
be observed. 

35. 'Without pressing down from the top 2 will I 
eat the alms placed in my bowl.' This is a discipline 
which ought to be observed. 

36. ' Neither the curry nor the condiment will 
I cover up with the rice, desiring to make it nicer V 
This is a discipline which ought to be observed. 

37. ' Neither curry nor rice will I ask for, for my 
own particular use, unless I am sick.' This is a 
discipline which ought to be observed. 

38. ' Not with envious thoughts will I look at 
others' bowls.' This is a discipline which ought to 
be observed. 

39. ' Not into too large balls will I make (up 
my food).' This is a discipline which ought to be 
observed. 

40. ' Into round mouthfuls will I make up my 
food.' This is a discipline which ought to be 
observed. 

End of the fourth section. 

1 Sapad£na/w. See Childers sub voce. The Vibhanga says, 
■fftabbaggiya - bhikkhu tahaw taha»« omadditva" pi«</ap£ta»» bhuw- 
^anti. The Samanta-PasadiM says, Sapadanan ti tattha tattha 
odhiw akatva 1 anupa/ipaTiya. 

8 Na thupato omadditvi; on which the Samanta-P&s&dika' 
has ' matthakato vema^^ato ti.' He is not to pick and choose 
what morsel he takes. 

8 Compare the 8th Nissaggiya. In the text read updddya. 



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64 pAtimokkha. 



41. ' Not till the ball is brought close will I open 
the door of my mouth.' This is a discipline which 
ought to be observed. 

42. ' Not the whole hand, when eating, will I put 
into my mouth.' This is a discipline which ought 
to be observed. 

43. 'When the food is in my mouth will I not 
talk.' This is a discipline which ought to be 
observed. 

44. 'Without tossing the food into my mouth 
will I eat 1 .' This is a discipline which ought to 
be observed. 

45. ' Without nibbling at the balls of food will 
I eat.' This is a discipline which ought to be 
observed. 

46. ' Without stuffing my cheeks out will I eat V 
This is a discipline which ought to be observed. 

47. ' Without shaking my hands about 3 will I eat.' 
This is a discipline which ought to be observed. 

48. ' Without scattering the lumps of boiled rice 
will I eat.' This is a discipline which ought to be 
observed. 

49. ' Without putting out my tongue will I eat' 
This is a discipline which ought to be observed. 

50. ' Without smacking my lips 4 will I eat' This 
is a discipline which ought to be observed. 



End of the fifth section. 



1 Pi»</ukkhepakan ti pi»</a/w ukkhipitva ukkhipitva, says the 
Samanta-P&sadiki. 

2 Avaga»</ak&rakan ti makka/b viya ga»</e katvi, says the Sa- 
manta-PSsMM (Minayeff, p. 93). 

s That is, to disengage particles of the rice, to shake them off on 
to the ground. 

* Literally, without making the sound '.fiTapu-^apu.' 



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sekhiyA dhammA. 65 

51. ' Without making a hissing sound will I eat 1 .' 
This is a discipline which ought to be observed. 

52. ' Without licking my fingers will I eat' This 
is a discipline which ought to be observed. 

53. 'Without licking my bowl will I eat' This 
is a discipline which ought to be observed. 

54. ' Without licking my lips will I eat.' This is 
a discipline which ought to be observed. 

55. ' Not with a hand soiled with food will I take 
hold of the water-jar.' This is a discipline which 
ought to be observed. 

56. ' The rinsings of the bowl mixed with lumps 
of boiled rice will I not throw into the inner court V 
This is a discipline which ought to be observed. 

57. ' Not to a person with a sunshade in his hand, 
unless he is sick, will I preach the Dhamma.' This 
is a discipline which ought to be observed. 

58. ' Not to a person with a staff in his hand, 
unless he is sick, will I preach the Dhamma.' This 
is a discipline which ought to be observed. 

59. ' Not to a person with a sword in his hand, 
unless he is sick, will I preach the Dhamma.' This 
is a discipline which ought to be observed. 

60. ' Not to a person with a weapon in his hand, 
unless he is sick, will I preach the Dhamma.' This 
is a discipline which ought to be observed. 



End of the sixth section. 



61. ' Not to a person wearing slippers, unless he 

1 Literally, without making the sound ' Suru-suru.' 
a Antaraghare, which here means the space, or small open 
square in the middle of the house. 

[13] F 

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66 pAtimokkha. 



is sick, will I preach the Dhamma.' This is a 
discipline which ought to be observed. 

62. ' Not to a person wearing sandals, unless he 
is sick, will I preach the Dhamma.' This is a 
discipline which ought to be observed. 

63. ' Not to a person seated in a cart, unless he 
is sick, will I preach the Dhamma.' This is a disci- 
pline which ought to be observed. 

64. ' Not to a person lying on a couch, unless he 
is sick, will I preach the Dhamma.' This is a disci- 
pline which ought to be observed. 

65. ' Not to a person lolling, unless he is sick, 
will I preach the Dhamma.' This is a discipline 
which ought to be observed. 

66. ' Not to a person with a turban on his head, 
unless he is sick, will I preach the Dhamma.' This 
is a discipline which ought to be observed. 

6j. ' Not to a person with his head covered, 
unless he is sick, will I preach the Dhamma.' This 
is a discipline which ought to be observed. 

68. ' Not to a person seated on a seat, unless he 
is sick, will I, seated on the earth, preach the 
Dhamma.' This is a discipline which ought to be 
observed. 

69. 'Not to a person seated on a high seat, unless 
he is sick, will I, seated on a low seat, preach the 
Dhamma.' This is a discipline which ought to be 
observed. 

70. ' Not to a person sitting, unless he is sick, 
will I, standing, preach the Dhamma.' This is a 
discipline which ought to be observed. 



End of the seventh section. 



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sekhiyA dhammA. 67 

71. ' Not to a person walking in front of me, 
unless he is sick, will I, walking behind, preach the 
Dhamma.' This is a discipline which ought to be 
observed. 

72. ' Not to a person walking on a path, unless he 
is sick, will I, walking by the side of the path, preach 
the Dhamma.' This is a discipline which ought to 
be observed. 

73. ' Not standing will I ease myself, unless I 
am sick.' This is a discipline which ought to be 
observed. 

74. ' Not on growing grass will I ease myself, or 
spit.' This is a discipline which ought to be 
observed. 

75. ' Not into water will I ease myself, or spit.' 
This is a discipline which ought to be observed. 



Venerable Sirs, the rules regarding matters of 
discipline have been recited. 

In respect of them I ask the venerable ones, 'Are 
you pure in this matter?' 

A second time I ask the venerable ones, ' Are you 
pure in this matter ? ' 

A third time I ask the venerable ones, 'Are you 
pure in this matter?' 

The venerable ones are pure herein. Therefore 
do they keep silence. Thus I understand. 



Here endeth the recitation of the Sekhiyas. 



F 2 



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68 pAtimokkha. 



THE ADHIKARAJVA-SAMATHA 
DHAMMA. 

The Rules regarding the Settlement of Cases. 

Here, venerable Sirs, the seven rules regarding 
the settlement of cases come into recitation. 

For the decision and settlement of cases as they 
from time to time arise, the Proceeding in presence 1 
must be performed, or the Proceeding for the con- 
sciously innocent 2 , or the Proceeding in the case 
of those who are no longer out of their mind 3 , or 
the Proceeding on confession of guilt *, or the Pro- 
ceeding by majority of the chapter 5 , or the Pro- 
ceeding for the obstinate 6 , or the Proceeding by 
covering over as with grass 7 . 

Venerable Sirs, the seven rules regarding the 
settlement of cases have been recited. 

In respect of them I ask the venerable ones, ' Are 
you pure in this matter ?' 

A second time I ask the venerable ones, 'Are you 
pure in this matter?' 

A third time I ask the venerable ones, ' Are you 
pure in this matter ?' 

1 Sammukha-vinaya. See .ATullavagga IV, 14, 16, and fol- 
lowingi 

2 Sati-vinaya. See -ffiillavagga IV, 14, 27. 

8 Amu/Aa-vinaya. See A'ullavagga IV, 5, and following, and 
IV, 14, 28. 

* Pa/iwwaya. See Aullavagga IV, 7, 8. 

6 Yebhuyyasika. See .Afullavagga IV, 9, and IV, 14, 24. 

* Tassapapiyyasika. See ATullavagga IV, 11. 

7 Tiwavattharaka. See ^Tullavagga IV, 13. 



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adhikarajva-samathA dhamma. 69 

The venerable ones are pure herein. Therefore 
do they keep silence. Thus I understand. 



Here endeth the recitation of the 
Adhikara«a-samathas. 



Venerable Sirs ! Recited is the Introduction. 

Recited are the four Pari^ika Rules. 

Recited are the thirteen Sawghadisesa Rules. 

Recited are the two Aniyata Rules. 

Recited are the thirty Nissaggiya-Pa^ittiya 
Rules. 

Recited are the ninety-two Paiittiya Rules. 

Recited are the four Pa/idesaniya Rules. 

Recited are the Sekhiya Rules. 

Recited are the seven Adhikara«a-samatha 
Rules. 

So much (of the words) of the Blessed One, 
handed down in the Suttas, embraced in the Suttas, 
comes into recitation every half month. It behoveth 
all to train themselves according thereto in concord, 
in pleasantness, without dispute ! 



Here endeth the recitation of the Patimokkha 
for the use of the Bhikkhus. 



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MAHAVAGGA. 



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THE MAHAVAGGA. 



Reverence to the Blessed One, the Holy One, 
the Fully Enlightened One. 



FIRST KHANDHAKA. 

(the admission to the order of bhikkhus.) 

I 1 . 

i. At that time the blessed Buddha dwelt at 

1 To this book is prefixed, as introduction, an- account of the 
first events after Gotama's attaining Buddhahood, down to the con- 
version of his two chief disciples, Siriputta and Moggallana (chaps. 
1-24). Among the elements of historical or legendary character 
with which, in the Vinaya Pi/aka, the discussion of the monastic 
discipline is interwoven, this account occupies by far the first place, 
both in extent and in importance. For it contains the oldest ver- 
sion accessible to us now and, most probably, for ever, of what the 
Buddhist fraternity deemed to be the history of their Master's life 
in its most important period. 

The connection in which this legendary narration stands with the 
main subject of the first Khandhaka is not difficult to account for. 
The regulations regarding, the admission to the fraternity, which 
are discussed in this Khandhaka, could not but present themselves 
to the redactors of the Pi/aka as being the very basis of their 
religious discipline and monastic life. It was possible to fancy the 
existence of the Sawgha without the Pitimokkha rules, or without 
the regulations about the Pavarawa festival, but it was impossible to 
realise the idea of a Sa/»gha without rules showing who was to be 
regarded as a duly admitted member of the fraternity, and who was 
not. It is quite natural, therefore, that the stories or legends con- 
cerning the ordination of Bhikkhus were put in connection with the 
record of the very first events of the history of the Samgha. 

Nor is it difficult to account for the theory formulated by the 



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74 MAHAVAGGA. I, I, i. 

Uruvela, on the bank of the river Nera^ara 1 , 
at the foot of the Bodhi tree (tree of wisdom), just 
after he had become Sambuddha. And the blessed 
Buddha sat cross-legged at the foot of the Bodhi 
tree uninterruptedly during seven days, enjoying the 
bliss of emancipation 2 . 

historians of the Buddhist ecclesiastical law, of different successive 
forms in which the ordination of Bhikkhus had been performed. 
In the beginning, of course, there was nobody but the Buddha him- 
self who could ordain Bhikkhus ; to him those who desired to be 
received, expressed their wish, and he conferred on them the 
pabba^a" and upasampadd ordinations by the formula: 'Ehi 
bhikkhu,' &c. (see I, 6, 32, 34, &c.) It was a very natural concep- 
tion that afterwards, as the Sawigha grew larger, the Buddha should 
have transferred the power of admitting new members to the Bhik- 
khus themselves, and should have instituted that form of ordination 
which the redactors of the Pi/aka found valid at their own time. 

The transition, however, from the supposed oldest form of ordi- 
nation (the so-called ehi-bhikkhu-upasampadd) to that latter 
form is in the Vinaya legends not represented as immediate. There 
is described an intermediate stage between the two, the ordination 
by the three sarawagamanas, or by the candidate's three times 
repeated declaration of his taking refuge in the Buddha, the 
Dhamma, and the Sa/ngha (see Mah&vagga 1, 12). The reason 
which has led the redactors of the Vinaya Pi/aka to this construc- 
tion, was most probably the important part which in the upasam- 
padi service of the later time devolved upon the preceptor (upaf- 
gh&ya) of the candidate. As only learned Bhikkhus, who had 
completed the tenth year after their own upasampada, could per- 
form the function of upa^Mya at the upasampada' ordination 
of other Bhikkhus (Mahavagga I, 31, 8), it was natural that the 
redactors of the Vinaya found it impossible to ascribe this form of 
upasampadi service to the first times of Buddha's teaching. For 
these times, therefore, they recorded another form, the upasam- 
pada by the three sarawagamanas, the introduction of which they 
assigned, very naturally, to the time soon after the conversion of 
Yasa's friends, by which event the number of Bhikkhus had been 
augmented at once from seven to sixty-one. 

1 The Lilayan or Phalgu river in Behar ; see General Cunning- 
ham's map, Archaeological Reports, vol. i. plate iii. 

* After having reached the sambo dhi and before preaching to 



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1,1,2. ADMISSION TO THE ORDER OF BHIKKHUS. 75 

2. Then the Blessed One (at the end of these 
seven days) during the first watch of the night fixed 
his mind upon the Chain of Causation 1 , in direct and 
in reverse order: ' From Ignorance 2 spring the sam- 

the world the truth he has acquired, the Euddha remains, according 
to the tradition, during some weeks at Uruveld, ' enjoying the bliss 
of emancipation.' The Mah&vagga, which contains these legends 
in their oldest forms, assigns to this stay a period of four times 
seven days; the later tradition is unanimous in extending it to 
seven times seven days (Buddhaghosa in the commentary on the 
Mahavagga; Gataka Atthav. vol. i. p. 77 seq.; Dtpavawsa I, 29, 
30; Lalita Vistara, p. 488 seq.; Beal, Romantic Legend, p. 236 
seq., &c.) 

1 The Chain of Causation, or the doctrine of the twelve nidanas 
(causes of existence), contains, as has often been observed, in a more 
developed form an answer to the same problem to which the 
second and third of the four Noble Truths (ariyasa££a) also try 
to give a solution, viz. the problem of the origin and destruction of 
suffering. The Noble Truths simply reduce the origin of suffer- 
ing to Thirst, or Desire (Tawha), in its threefold form, thirst for 
pleasure, thirst for existence, thirst for prosperity (see I, 6, 20). In 
the system of the twelve nid&nas Thirst also has found its place 
among the causes of suffering, but it is not considered as the im- 
mediate cause. A concatenation of other categories is inserted 
between ta»h£ and its ultimate effect; and on the other hand, the 
investigation of causes is carried on further beyond ta«ha. The 
question is here asked, What does tawha come from ? and thus the 
series of causes and effects is led back to a.viggi (Ignorance), as its 
deepest root. We may add that the redactors of the Pi/akas, who 
of course could not but observe this parallelity between the second 
and third ariyasa^as and the system of the twelve nidanas, go so 
far, in one instance (Anguttara-Nikaya, Tika-Nip&ta, fol. &e of the 
Phayre MS.), as to directly replace, in giving the text of the four 
ariyasa&fcas, the second and third of them by the twelve nidanas, in 
direct and reverse order respectively. Professor Childers has fur- 
nished a valuable note on the nidanas ; see Colebrooke, Miscel- 
laneous Essays (second edition), II, 453 seq. 

* In the Sammadi/ttisuttanta (Mag^Aima-Nikaya, fol. khu of 
Tumour's MS.) we find the following explanation of what Ignor- 
ance is : ' Not to know Suffering, not to know the Cause of suffering, 



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76 mahAvagga. i, i, a. 

kharas \ from the sawkharas springs Consciousness, 
from Consciousness spring Name-and-Form, from 
Name-and-Form spring the six Provinces (of the 

not to know the Cessation of suffering, not to know the Path which 
leads to the cessation of suffering, this is called Ignorance.' The 
same is repeated in the explanation of the nidana formula, which 
is given in the Vibhanga (Abhidhamma-Pi/aka, Pa/i££asamupp&da- 
vibhahga, fol. & of the Phayre MS.), and we must accept it, there- 
fore, as the authentic expression of Buddhistical belief. It is 
obvious, however, that this explanation leaves room for another 
question. Ignorance, we are told, is the source of all evil and of 
all suffering, and the subject ignored is stated to be the four 
Truths. But who is the subject that ignores them? All attri- 
butes (as the vi»»a«a, &c), that constitute sentient beings and 
enable them to know or to ignore, are said to be first produced by 
Ignorance, and we should conclude, therefore, that they cannot 
exist before Ignorance has begun to act. Or are we to understand 
that it is the Ignorance incurred by a sentient being in a preceding 
existence, that causes the sawkharas and Consciousness, the con- 
necting links between the different existences, to act and to bring 
about the birth of a new being ? 

As is well known, this Ignorance (Avidya) plays a great part 
also in the Brahmanical philosophy of the Upanishads ; and the 
Buddhist belief is, no doubt, founded to a considerable extent on 
older theories. But we cannot venture in a note to touch upon one 
of the most difficult and interesting questions which await the 
research of Indianists. 

1 It is very frequently stated that there are three sawkharas or 
productions: kayasawzkhara, va£fsamkh£ra, and littasam- 
kh&ra, or, productions of body, of speech, and of thought (see, for 
instance, the Sammadi/Misuttanta, Ma^Aima-Nikaya, fol. khu of 
Tumour's MS.) The kayasa#zkhara consists, according to the 
Sawkhara-Yamaka (Abhidhamma-Pi/aka), in inhalation and expira- 
tion (assasapassasa); the va£isa»ikhara in attention and in- 
vestigation (vitakkaviiara); the £ittasa»?khara in ideas, sen- 
sations, and all attributes of mind except attention and investigation 
(sawwa kz vedana ka. /Aapetva vitakkavi£are sabbe pi 
£ittasampayuttak& dhamma). The Vibhanga (Abhidhamma- 
Pi/aka, PaA^asamuppadavibhanga, 1.1.) gives, when discussing the 
sa/wkharas, six categories instead of the three : ' Now which are 



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I, I, 2. ADMISSION TO THE ORDER OF BHIKKHUS. J "J 

six senses 1 ), from the six Provinces springs Contact, 
from Contact springs Sensation, from Sensation 
springs Thirst (or Desire), from Thirst springs At- 
tachment, from Attachment springs Existence, from 
Existence springs Birth, from Birth spring Old Age 
and Death, grief, lamentation, suffering, dejection, 
and despair. Such is the origination of this whole 
mass of suffering. Again, by the destruction of Igno- 
rance, which consists in the complete absence of lust, 
the sawkhdras are destroyed, by the destruction of 
the sawkh&ras Consciousness is destroyed, by the 
destruction of Consciousness Name-and-Form are 
destroyed, by the destruction of Name-and-Form the 
six Provinces are destroyed, by the destruction of 
the six Provinces Contact is destroyed, by the de- 
struction of Contact Sensation is destroyed, by the 
destruction of Sensation Thirst is destroyed, by the 
destruction of Thirst Attachment is destroyed, by 
the destruction of Attachment Existence is destroyed, 
by the destruction of Existence Birth is destroyed, 
by the destruction of Birth Old Age and Death, grief, 
lamentation, suffering, dejection, and despair are 

the sawkh&ras that are produced by Ignorance ? Sawzkh&ras (or, 
productions) that lead to righteousness, sazrckh&ras that lead to 
sinfulness, sawikhSras that lead to immovability, productions of 
body, of speech, and of thought.' The Pali words are : ' Tattha 
katame avi^g&pa^&iya" sawkhird? puwi&bhisaTwkh&ro apuwwibhi- 
sawzkharo araamg-abhisawkhiro kayasa/nkharo valisamkhiro £itta- 
sawkh&ro.' The list of fifty-five categories belonging to the 
samkhSra-khandha, which Sp. Hardy gives in his Manual 
(p. 404 seq.; comp. also Rh. D., 'Buddhism,' p. 91 seq., and 
' Buddhist Suttas from the Pali,' p. 242), is not founded, as far as 
we know, on the authority of the Pi/akas themselves, but on later 
compendia and commentaries. 

1 I. e. eye, ear, nose, tongue, body (or the faculty of touch), and 
mind. 



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78 mahAvagga. I, i, 3. 



destroyed. Such is the cessation of this whole mass 
of suffering.' 

3. Knowing this the Blessed One then on that 
occasion pronounced this solemn utterance : ' When 
the real nature of things becomes clear to the ardent, 
meditating Brahma#a, then all his doubts fade away, 
since he realises what is that nature and what its 
cause.' 

4. Then the Blessed One during the middle watch 
of the night fixed his mind upon the Chain of Causa- 
tion, in direct and reverse order: 'From Ignorance 
spring the sawkharas, &c Such is the origi- 
nation of this whole mass of suffering, &c 

Such is the cessation of this whole mass of suffering.' 

5. Knowing this the Blessed One then on that 
occasion pronounced this solemn utterance: 'When 
the real nature of things becomes clear to the ardent, 
meditating Brahmawa, then all his doubts fade away, 
since he has understood the cessation of causation.' 

6. Then the Blessed One during the third watch 
of the night fixed his mind, &c. 

7. Knowing this the Blessed One then on that 
occasion pronounced this solemn utterance: 'When 
the real nature of things becomes clear to the ardent, 
meditating Brahmarca, he stands, dispelling the hosts 
of Mara, like the sun that illuminates the sky.' 



Here ends the account of what passed 
under the Bodhi tree. 



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1,2,3- ADMISSION TO THE ORDER OF BHIKKHUS. 79 

2. 

1. Then the Blessed One, at the end of those 
seven days, arose from that state of meditation, and 
went from the foot of the Bodhi tree to the A^apala 
banyan tree (banyan tree of the goat-herds 1 ). And 
when he had reached it, he sat cross-legged at the foot 
of the A^apala banyan tree uninterruptedly during 
seven days, enjoying the bliss of emancipation. 

2. Now a certain Brahma#a, who was of a haughty 
disposition 2 , went to the place where the Blessed 
One was ; having approached him, he exchanged 
greeting with the Blessed One ; having exchanged 
with him greeting and complaisant words, he stationed 
himself near him ; then standing near him that Brah- 
ma»a thus spoke to the Blessed One : ' By what, 
Gotama, does one become a Br&hmawa, and what are 
the characteristics that make a man a Brahmawa?' 

3. And the Blessed One, having heard that, on 
this occasion pronounced this solemn utterance : 'That 
Brahmawa who has removed (from himself) all sin- 
fulness, who is free from haughtiness, free from 
impurity, self-restrained, who is an accomplished 
master of knowledge (or, of the Veda), who has 
fulfilled the duties of holiness, such a Brahma#a may 

1 Buddhaghosa : ' The goat-herds used to go to the shadow of 
that banyan tree and to sit there; therefore it was called the 
banyan tree of the goat-herds.' The northern Buddhists say that 
this tree had been planted by a shepherd boy, during the Bodhi- 
satta's six years' penance, in order to shelter him ; see Beal, Rom. 
Legend, pp, 192, 238, and the MaMvastu. 

2 ' Huhuhka^-^tiko.' Buddhaghosa: 'Because he was dif/Aa.- 
mangalika, he became filled with haughtiness and wrath, and 
went about uttering the sound "huhuw."' Di/Mamahgalika 
(having seen something auspicious ?) is obscure to us. 



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80 MAHAVAGGA. I, 3, 1. 

justly call himself a Bra'hma«a, whose behaviour is 
uneven to nothing in the world.' 



Here ends the account of what passed 
under the Afapala tree. 



3. 

1. Then the Blessed One, at the end of those 
seven days, arose from that state of meditation, and 
went from the foot of the A^apala banyan tree to the 
Muialinda tree. And when he had reached it, he sat 
cross-legged at the foot of the Muialinda tree unin- 
terruptedly during seven days, enjoying the bliss of 
emancipation. 

2. At that time a great cloud appeared out 
of season, rainy weather which lasted seven days, 
cold weather, storms, and darkness. And the Niga 
(or Serpent) king Mu^alinda came out from his 
abode, and seven times encircled the body of the 
Blessed One with his windings, and kept extending 
his large hood over the Blessed One's head, thinking 
to himself: 'May no coldness (touch) the Blessed 
One ! May no heat (touch) the Blessed One ! May 
no vexation by gadflies and gnats, by storms and 
sunheat and reptiles (touch) the Blessed One !' 

3. And at the end of those seven days, when the 
Naga king Muialinda saw the open, cloudless sky, he 
loosened his windings from the body of the Blessed 
One, made his own appearance disappear, created 
the appearance of a youth, and stationed himself in 
front of the Blessed One, raising his clasped hands, 
and paying reverence to the Blessed One. 



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I, 4, 2. ADMISSION TO THE ORDER OF BHIKKHUS. 8 1 



4. And the Blessed One, perceiving that, on this 
occasion, pronounced this solemn utterance: 'Happy 
is the solitude of him who is full of joy, who has 
learnt the Truth, who sees (the Truth). Happy is 
freedom from malice in this world, (self-) restraint 
towards all beings that have life. Happy is freedom 
from lust in this world, getting beyond all desires ; the 
putting away of that pride which comes from the 
thought " I am ! " This truly is the highest happiness ! ' 



Here ends the account of what passed 
under the Muialinda tree. 



1. Then the Blessed One, at the end of those 
seven days, arose from that state of meditation, and 
went from the foot of the Muialinda tree to the 
Ra^ayatana (tree 1 ); when he had reached it, he 
sat cross-legged at the foot of the Ra^ayatana tree 
uninterruptedly during seven days, enjoying the bliss 
of emancipation. 

2. At that time Tapussa and Bhallika, two mer- 
chants, came travelling on the road from Ukkala 
(Orissa) to that place. Then a deity who had been 
(in a former life) a blood-relation of the merchants 
Tapussa and Bhallika, thus spoke to the merchants 

1 Buddhaghosa says that R&^ayatana (lit. a royal apartment) 
was the name of a tree. It is the same tree which in the Lalita 
Vistara (p. 493, ed. Calcutta) is called T&r£ya«a, and in the 
Dtpavawsa (II, 50) Khtrapala. The place where the two mer- 
chants met Buddha, is thus described in the Mahavastu: kshiri- 
kavanasha«<fe bahudevatake £etiye. 

[13] « 



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82 MAHAVAGGA. 1,4.3- 

Tapussa and Bhallika : ' Here, my noble friends, 
at the foot of the Ra^ayatana tree, is staying the 
Blessed One, who has just become Sambuddha. 
Go and show your reverence to him, the Blessed 
One, by (offering him) rice-cakes and lumps of 
honey. Long will this be to you for a good and 
for a blessing.' 

3. And the merchants Tapussa and Bhallika took 
rice-cakes and lumps of honey, and went to the 
place where the Blessed One was ; having approached 
him and respectfully saluted the Blessed One, they 
stationed themselves near him ; standing near him, 
the merchants Tapussa and Bhallika thus addressed 
the Blessed One : ' May, O Lord, the Blessed One 
accept from us these rice-cakes and lumps of honey, 
that that may long be to us for a good and for a 
blessing!' 

4. Then the Blessed One thought : ' The Tathi- 
gatas 1 do not accept (food) with their hands. Now 



1 The term TatMgata is, in the Buddhistical literature, exclu- 
sively applied to Sammdsambuddhas, and it is more especially 
used in the Pi/akas when the Buddha is represented as speaking of 
himself in the third person as 'the Tath&gata.' The meaning 
' sentient being,' which is given to the word in the Abhidhanap- 
padipika, and in Childers's Dictionary, is not confirmed, as far as 
we know, by any passage of the Pi/akas. This translation of the 
word is very possibly based merely on a misunderstanding of the 
phrase often repeated in the Sutta Pi/aka: hoti tathagato param 
mara«a, which means, of course, 'does a Buddha exist after 
death?' In the (7aina books we sometimes find the term tattha- 
gaya (tatragata), ' he who has attained that world, Le. emancipa- 
tion,' applied to the Ginas as opposed to other beings who are 
called ihagaya (idhagata), 'living in this world.' See, for instance, 
the Gina&iritra, § 16. Considering the close relation in which 
most of the dogmatical terms of the Gainas stand to those of the 
Bauddhas, it is difficult to believe that tathagata and tatthagaya 



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1,4,5. ADMISSION TO THE ORDER OF BHIKKHUS. 83 

with what shall I accept the rice-cakes and lumps 
of honey?' Then the four Maharaja gods 1 , under- 
standing by the power of their minds the reflection 
which had arisen in the mind of the Blessed One, 
offered to the Blessed One from the four quarters 
(of the horizon) four bowls made of stone (saying), 
' May, O Lord, the Blessed One accept herewith the 
rice-cakes and the lumps of honey!' The Blessed 
One accepted those new stone bowls ; and therein 
he received the rice-cakes and honey lumps, and 
those, when he had received, he ate. 

5. And Tapussa and Bhallika, the merchants, 
when they saw that the Blessed One had cleansed 2 
his bowl and his hands, bowed down in reverence 



should not originally have conveyed very similar ideas. We think 
that on the long way from the original Mdgadhi to the P&li and 
Sanskrit, the term tatthagata or tatth&gata (tatra + igata), 'he 
who has arrived there, i. e. at emancipation,' may very easily have 
undergone the change into tathdgata, which would have made it 
unintelligible, were we not able to compare its unaltered form as 
preserved by the Gainas. 

1 The four guardian gods of the quarters of the world; see 
Hardy's Manual, p. 24. Their Pili names, as given in the Abhi- 
dhSnappadlpiM, w. 31, 32, the Dtpavawisa XVI, 12, &c, were, 
DhataratfAa, ViruZiaka, Virupakkha, and Vessava«a or Kuvera. 

s OnitapattapS«i, which is said very frequently of a person 
who has finished his meal, is translated by Childers, ' whose hand 
is removed from the bowl ' (comp. also Trenckner, Pali Miscellany, 
p. 66). We do not think this explanation right, though it agrees 
with, or probably is based on, a note of Buddhaghosa ('pattato 
ka. apanttap£#i*»'). Onita, i.e. avantta, is not apaniia, and 
the end of the dinner was marked, not by the Bhikkhu's removing 
his hand from the bowl, but by his washing the bowl (see iTulla- 
vagga VIII, 4, 6), and, of course, his hands. In Sanskrit the 
meaning of ava-nl is, to pour (water) upon something; see the 
Petersburg Dictionary. We have translated, therefore, onita- 
pattapSwi accordingly. 

G 2 



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84 mahAvagga. 1, 5, i. 

at the feet of the Blessed One and thus addressed 
the Blessed One: 'We take our refuge, Lord, in 
the Blessed One and in the Dhamma ; may the 
Blessed One receive us as disciples who, from this day 
forth while our life lasts, have taken their refuge (in 
him).' These were the first in the world to become 
lay-disciples (of the Buddha) by the formula which 
contained (only) the dyad 1 . 



Here ends the account of what passed 
under the Ra^ayatana tree. 



i. Then the Blessed One, at the end of those 
seven days, arose from that state of meditation, and 
went from the foot of the Ra/ayatana tree to the 
A^apala banyan tree. And when he had reached 
it, the Blessed One stayed there at the foot of the 
Afapala banyan tree. 

2. Then in the mind of the Blessed One, who 
was alone, and had retired into solitude, the 
following thought arose : ' I have penetrated this 
doctrine which is profound, difficult to perceive and 
to understand, which brings quietude of heart, which 
is exalted, which is unattainable by reasoning, ab- 
struse, intelligible (only) to the wise. This people, on 
the other hand, is given to desire, intent upon desire, 
delighting in desire. To this people, therefore, who 

1 Because there was no Sawgha at that time, their declaration of 
taking refuge, by which they became up&sakas, could refer only 
to the dyad (the Buddha and the Dhamma), instead of to the triad 
of the Buddha, the Dhamma, and the Sa»«gha. 



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1,5,4- ADMISSION TO THE ORDER OF BHIKKHUS. 85 

are given to desire, intent upon desire, delighting 
in desire, the law of causality and the chain of 
causation will be a matter difficult to understand ; 
most difficult for them to understand will be also 
the extinction of all sawkharas, the getting rid of 
all the substrata (of existence 1 ), the destruction of 
desire, the absence of passion, quietude ,of heart, 
Nirvawa! Now if I proclaim the doctrine, and other 
men are not able to understand my preaching, there 
would result but weariness and annoyance to me.' 

3. And then the following . . . . 2 stanzas, unheard 
before, occurred to the Blessed One : ' With great 
pains have I acquired it. Enough ! why should I 
now proclaim it ? This doctrine will not be easy to 
understand to beings that are lost in lust and hatred. 

'Given to lust, surrounded with thick darkness, 
they will not see what is repugnant (to their minds), 
abstruse, profound, difficult to perceive, and subtle.' 

4. When the Blessed One pondered over this 
matter, his mind became inclined to remain in quiet, 
and not to preach the doctrine. Then Brahma 

1 The u pad his (substrata of existence) are specified in the com- 
mentary on the Sutta-Nipata, ap. Dhammapada, p.433: 'sabbupadhi- 
na.m parikkhaya 'ti sabbesaw? khandhakamagu«akilesabhisa»zkhara- 
bhedana»s upadhina/B parikkhi«atta.' Probably abhisawzkhara is 
not co-ordinate with the other members of the compound, but is 
determined by them, comp. pabbagg-abhisawkhara, iddhabhisaw- 
kh&ra, gamikabhisawkhara. The upadhis, therefore, according to 
this passage, consist : firstly, in the actions of mind that are directed 
towards the khan d has (i. e. that have the effect of propagating 
and augmenting the dominion of the khandhas); secondly, in 
the actions tending to the fivefold pleasures of sense ; and thirdly, 
in those. connected with kilesa (evil passion). 

2 Buddhaghosa explains ana££Aariya by anuaMAariya, which 
is alike unintelligible to us. The Lalita Vistara (p. 515, ed. Calcutta) 
has abhlkshwam ('repeatedly'). 



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86 MAHAVAGGA. 1, 5, 5. 

Sahampati 1 , understanding by the power of his 
mind the reflection which had arisen in the mind 
of the Blessed One, thought : ' Alas ! the world 
perishes ! Alas ! the world is destroyed ! if the mind 
of the Tathagata, of the holy, of the absolute 
Sambuddha inclines itself to remain in quiet, and 
not to preach the doctrine.' 

5. Then Brahma Sahampati disappeared from 
Brahma's world, and appeared before the Blessed 
One (as quickly) as a strong man might stretch his 
bent arm out, or draw back his out-stretched arm. 

6. And Brahma Sahampati adjusted his upper 
robe so as to cover one shoulder, and putting his 
right knee on the ground, raised his joined hands 
towards the Blessed One, and said to the Blessed 
One: 'Lord, may the Blessed One preach the 
doctrine ! may the perfect One preach the doctrine ! 
there are beings whose mental eyes are darkened 
by scarcely any dust ; but if they do not hear the 
doctrine, they cannot attain salvation. These will 
understand the doctrine.' 

7. Thus spoke Brahma Sahampati ; and when he 
had thus spoken, he further said : ' The Dhamma 
hitherto manifested in the country of Magadha has 
been impure, thought out by contaminated men. But 
do thou now open the door of the Immortal 2 ; let them 
hear the doctrine discovered by the spotless One ! 

' As a man standing on a rock, on mountain's 

1 It is difficult to believe that the Pali name of Brahma Saham- 
pati, the ruler of the Brahma worlds (see Spence Hardy's Manual, 
PP- 43> 56)> is not connected with the Brahman svayambhu 
of the Brahmanical literature. Perhaps the Sanskrit equivalent of 
sahampati might be svayampati. 

3 Amata, an epithet of Arahatship, which may perhaps mean 
simply ambrosia. See Rh. D., Buddhism, pp. 60, hi, 184. 



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1,5, 10. ADMISSION TO THE ORDER OF BHIKKHUS. 87 

top, might overlook the people all around, thus, O 
wise One, ascending to the highest palace of Truth, 
look down, all-seeing One, upon the people lost in 
suffering, overcome by birth and decay, — thou, who 
hast freed thyself from suffering ! 

' Arise, O hero ; O victorious One ! Wander 
through the world, O leader of the pilgrim band, 
who thyself art free from debt. May the Blessed 
One preach the doctrine ; there will 'be people who 
can understand it!' 

8. When he had spoken thus, the Blessed One 
said to Brahma Sahampati : ' The following thought, 
Brahma, has occurred to me : "I have penetrated 
this doctrine, .... (&c, down to end of § 2)." And 
also, Brahma, the following . . . . * stanzas have pre- 
sented themselves to my mind, which had not been 
heard (by me) before: " With great pains, .... (&c, 
down to end of § 3)." When I pondered over this 
matter, Brahmd, my mind became inclined to remain 
in quiet, and not to preach the doctrine.' 

9. And a second time Brahma Sahampati said to 
the Blessed One : ' Lord, may the Blessed One preach 
the doctrine, .... (&c, as in §§ 6, 7).' And for the 
second time the Blessed One said to Brahma Saham- 
pati : ' The following thought .... (&c, as before).' 

10. And a third time Brahma Sahampati said 
to the Blessed One : ' Lord, may the Blessed One 
preach the doctrine, .... (&c, as before).' 

Then the Blessed One, when he had heard Brah- 
ma's solicitation, looked, full of compassion towards 
sentient beings, over the world, with his (all-per- 
ceiving) eye of a Buddha. And the Blessed One, 
looking over the world with his eye of a Buddha, 
1 See § 3 with our note for this omitted word. 



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88 mahAvagga. 1,5, ii. 

saw beings whose mental eyes were darkened by 
scarcely any dust, and beings whose eyes were 
covered by much dust, beings sharp of sense and 
blunt of sense, of good disposition and of bad dis- 
position, easy to instruct and difficult to instruct, some 
of them seeing the dangers of future life and of sin. 

n. As, in a pond of blue lotuses, or water-roses, 
or white lotuses, some blue lotuses, or water-roses, 
or white lotuses, born in the water, grown up in 
the water, do not emerge over the water, but thrive 
hidden under the water ; and other blue lotuses, or 
water-roses, or white lotuses, born in the water, 
grown up in the water, reach to the surface of the 
water; and other blue lotuses, or water-roses, or 
white lotuses, born in the water, grown up in the 
water, stand emerging out of the water, and the 
water does not touch them, — 

12. Thus the Blessed One, looking over the world 
with his eye of a Buddha, saw beings whose mental 
eyes were darkened, .... (&c, the text repeats § io) ; 
and when he had thus seen them, he addressed 
Brahma Sahampati in the following stanza : ' Wide 
opened is the door of the Immortal to all who have 
ears to hear; let them send forth faith to meet it. 
The Dhamma sweet and good I spake not, Brahma, 
despairing of the weary task, to men.' 

T3. Then Brahma Sahampati understood: 'The 
Blessed One grants my request that He should 
preach the doctrine.' And he bowed down before 
the Blessed One, and passed round him with his 
right side towards him ; and then he straightway 
disappeared. 

Here ends the story of Brahma's request 



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I, 6, 4. - ADMISSION TO THE ORDER OF BHIKKHUS. 89 



1. Now the Blessed One thought : 'To whom shall 
I preach the doctrine first ? Who will understand 
this doctrine easily?' And the Blessed One thought: 
'There is A/ara Kalama 1 ; he is clever, wise, and 
learned ; long since have the eye of his mind been 
darkened by scarcely any dust. What if I were to 
preach the doctrine first to A/ara Kalama? He will 
easily understand this doctrine.' 

2. Then an invisible deity said to the Blessed 
One: 'A/ara Kalama has died, Lord, seven days 
ago.' And knowledge sprang up in the Blessed 
One's mind that A/ara Kalama had died seven days 
ago. And the Blessed One thought: ''Highly noble 
was A/ara Kalama. If he had heard my doctrine, 
he would easily have understood it.' 

3. Then the Blessed One thought: 'To whom 
shall I preach the doctrine first? Who will under- 
stand this doctrine easily?' And the Blessed One 
thought: 'There is Uddaka Ramaputta 1 ; he is 
clever, wise, and learned ; long since have the eye of 
his mind been darkened by scarcely any dust. What 
if I were to preach the doctrine first to Uddaka Rama- 
putta ? He will easily understand this doctrine.' 

4. Then an invisible deity said to the Blessed 
One: 'Uddaka Ramaputta has died, Lord, yesterday 
evening.' And knowledge arose in the Blessed 
One's mind that Uddaka Ramaputta had died the 
previous evening. And the Blessed One thought: 

1 A/ara Kalama and Uddaka Rlmaputta were the two teachers 
to whom Gotama had attached himself first after his pabbagg'a. 
See Fausboll's Gateka, vol. i. p. 66 ; Rh. D., Buddhism, p. 34. 



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90 MAHAVAGGA. 1, 6, g. 

' Highly noble was Uddaka Ramaputta. If he had 
heard my doctrine, he would easily have under- 
stood it.' 

5. Then the Blessed One thought: 'To whom 
shall I preach the doctrine first? Who will under- 
stand this doctrine easily?' And the Blessed One 
thought: 'The five Bhikkhus 1 have done many ser- 
vices to me 2 ; they attended on me during the time 
of my exertions (to attain sanctification by under- 
going austerities). What if I were to preach the 
doctrine first to the five Bhikkhus?' 

6. . Now the Blessed One thought: 'Where do the 
five Bhikkhus dwell now ?' And the Blessed One 
saw by the power of his divine, clear vision, surpass- 
ing that of men, that the five Bhikkhus were living 
at Benares, in the deer park Isipatana 3 . And the 
Blessed One, after having remained at Uruvela as 
long as he thought fit, went forth to Benares. 

7. Now Upaka, a man belonging to the A^tvaka 
sect (i. e. the sect of naked ascetics), saw the Blessed 
One travelling on the road, between Gayi and the 
Bodhi tree ; and when he saw him, he said to the 
Blessed One: 'Your countenance, friend, is serene; 
your complexion is pure and bright. In whose 

1 See about the five companions of Buddha's self-mortification, 
in the time before the sambodhi, the Gataka, vol. i. p. 67 ; Hardy, 
Manual, p. 165 ; Rh. D., Buddhism, p. 35. The names of the five 
Bhikkhus were, Konda.nna, Vappa, Bhaddiya, Mahanama, 
Assa^i. 

* Perhaps instead of kho 'me (=kho ime) we should read 
kho me. 

8 ' The Mrigadawa, or Deer Park, is represented by a fine wood, 
which still covers an area of about half a mile, and extends from 
the great tower of Dhamek on the north, to the Chaukundi mound 
on the south.' Cunningham, Arch. Reports, I, p. 107. 



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I,6,i6. ADMISSION TO THE ORDER OF BHIKKHUS. C;t 

name, friend, have you retired from the world? 
Who is your teacher? Whose doctrine do you 
profess?' 

8. When Upaka the A^ivaka had spoken thus, 
the Blessed One addressed him in the following 
stanzas : ' I have overcome all foes ; I am all-wise ; 
I am free from stains in every way ; I have left 
everything ; and have obtained emancipation by the 
destruction of desire. Having myself gained know- 
ledge, whom should I call my master? I have no 
teacher ; no one is equal to me ; in the world of men 
and of gods no being is like me. I am the holy One 
in this world, I am the highest teacher, I alone am 
the absolute Sambuddha ; I have gained coolness (by 
the extinction of all passion) and have obtained Nir- 
vana. To found the Kingdom of Truth I go to the 
city of the Kasls (Benares); I will beat the drum of 
the Immortal in the darkness of this world.' 

9. (Upaka replied): 'You profess then, friend, to 
be the holy, absolute Gina. 1 .' 

(Buddha said): 'Like me are all Ginas who have 
reached extinction of the Asavas 2 ; I have overcome 
(^ita me) all states of sinfulness ; therefore, Upaka, 
am I the Gina.' 

When he had spoken thus, Upaka the Kg ivaka 
replied: 'It may be so, friend ;' shook his head, took 
another road, and went away. 

10. And the Blessed One, wandering from place 
to place, came to Benares, to the deer park Isipatana, 
to the place where the five Bhikkhus were. And 

1 G in a, or the victorious One, is one of the many appellations 
common to the founders of the Bauddha and Gaina sects. 

2 Sensuality, individuality, delusion, and ignorance (Kama, 
Bhava, T>\tlh\, and Avigg-a). 



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92 MAHAVAGGA. 1, 6, it. 

the five Bhikkhus saw the Blessed One coming from 
afar ; when they saw him, they concerted with each 
other, saying, 'Friends, there comes the sama»a 
Gotama, who lives in abundance, who has given up 
his exertions, and who has turned to an abundant 
life. Let us not salute him ; nor rise from our seats 
when he approaches ; nor take his bowl and his 
robe from his hands. But let us put there a seat; 
if he likes, let him sit down.' 

11. But when the Blessed One gradually ap- 
proached near unto those five Bhikkhus, the five 
Bhikkhus kept not their agreement. They went 
forth to meet the Blessed One ; one took his bowl 
and his robe, another prepared a seat, a third one 
brought water for the washing of the feet, a foot-stool, 
and a towel 1 . Then the Blessed One sat down 
on the seat they had prepared ; and when he was 
seated, the Blessed One washed his feet. Now they 
addressed the Blessed One by his name, and with 
the appellation ' Friend.' 

12. When they spoke to him thus, the Blessed 
One said to the five Bhikkhus : ' Do not address, O 
Bhikkhus, the Tathagata by his name, and with the 
appellation " Friend." The Tathagata, O Bhikkhus, 
is the holy, absolute Sambuddha. Give ear, O 
Bhikkhus! The immortal (Amata) has been won 
(by me) ; I will teach you ; to you I preach the doc- 
trine. If you walk in the way I show you, you will, 
ere long, have penetrated to the truth, having your- 
selves known it and seen it face to face ; and you 

1 Buddhaghosa, in a note on .ATullavagga II, i, i, says that 
pidapt/Aa is a stool to put the washed foot on, padakathalika 
(or padakathalika?), a stool to put the unwashed foot on, or a 
cloth to rub the feet with (padaghawsana). 



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1, 6, 16. ADMISSION TO THE ORDER OF BHIKKHUS. 93 

^ 

will live in the possession of that highest goal of the 
holy life, for the sake of which noble youths fully 
give up the world and go forth into the houseless 
state.' 

13. When he had spoken thus, the five monks 
said to the Blessed One : ' By those observances, 
friend Gotama, by those practices, by those austeri- 
ties, you have not been able to obtain power surpass- 
ing that of men, nor the superiority of full and holy 
knowledge and insight. How will you now, living 
in abundance, having given up your exertions, having 
turned to an abundant life, be able to obtain power 
surpassing that of men, and the superiority of full 
and holy knowledge and insight?' 

14. When they had spoken thus, the Blessed One 
said to the five Bhikkhus : ' The Tath&gata, O Bhik- 
khus, does not live in abundance, he has not given 
up exertion, he has not turned to an abundant life. 
The Tathagata, O Bhikkhus, is the holy, absolute 
Sambuddha. Give ear, O Bhikkhus ; the immortal 
has been won (by me); I will teach you, to you I 
will preach the doctrine. If you walk in the way 
I show you, you will, ere long, have penetrated to the 
truth, having yourselves known it and seen it face to 
face ; and you will live in the possession of that 
highest goal of the holy life, for the sake of which 
noble youths fully give up the world and go forth 
into the houseless state.' 

15. And the five Bhikkhus said to the Blessed 
One a second time (as above). And the Blessed 
One said to the five Bhikkhus a second time (as 
above). And the five Bhikkhus said to the Blessed 
One a third time (as above). 

16. When they had spoken thus, the Blessed One 



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$4 MAHAVAGGA. I, 6, 17. 

said to the five Bhikkhus : ' Do you admit, O Bhik- 
khus, that I have never spoken to you in this way 
before this day?' 

' You have never spoken so, Lord.' 
' ' The Tathagata, O Bhikkhus, is the holy, abso- 
lute Sambuddha. Give ear, O Bhikkhus, &c. (as 
above).' 

And the Blessed One was able to convince the 
five Bhikkhus ; and the five Bhikkhus again 1 listened 
willingly to the Blessed One ; they gave ear, and 
fixed their mind on the knowledge (which the Buddha 
imparted to them). 

1 7. And the Blessed One thus addressed the five 
Bhikkhus 2 : 'There are two extremes, O Bhikkhus, 
which he who has given up the world, ought to 
avoid. What are these two extremes ? A life given 
to pleasures, devoted to pleasures and lusts : this is 
degrading, sensual, vulgar, ignoble, and profitless; 
and a life given to mortifications : this is painful, 
ignoble, and profitless. By avoiding these two ex- 
tremes, O Bhikkhus, the Tathagata has gained the 
knowledge of the Middle Path which leads to insight, 
which leads to wisdom, which conduces to calm, to 
knowledge, to the Sambodhi, to Nirvawa. 

18. 'Which, O Bhikkhus, is this Middle Path the 
knowledge of which the Tathagata has gained, which 
leads to insight, which leads to wisdom, which con- 



1 As they had done before when they underwent austerities 
together with the Bodhisatta at Uruvela. 

* Of the literature that exists referring to the discourse which 
follows now (the Dhamma£akkappavattana Sutta), it will suffice to 
quote M. Feer's Etudes Bouddhiques, I, p. 189 seq., and Rh. D., 
'Buddhist Suttas from the Pali,' pp. 137-155, and in the Fort- 
nightly Review for December 1879. 



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1,6,22. ADMISSION TO THE ORDER OF BHIKKHUS. 95 

duces to calm, to knowledge, to the Sambodhi, to 
Nirva»a? It is the holy eightfold Path, namely, 
Right Belief, Right Aspiration, Right Speech, Right 
Conduct, Right Means of Livelihood, Right Endea- 
vour, Right Memory, Right Meditation. This, O 
Bhikkhus, is the Middle Path the knowledge of 
which the Tathagata has gained, which leads to in- 
sight, which leads to wisdom, which conduces to 
calm, to knowledge, to the Sambodhi, to Nirvawa. 

19. 'This, O Bhikkhus, is the Noble Truth of 
Suffering: Birth is suffering; decay is suffering; 
illness is suffering ; death is suffering. Presence of 
objects we hate, is suffering ; Separation from objects 
we love, is suffering ; not to obtain what we desire, 
is suffering. Briefly, the fivefold clinging to exist- 
ence 1 is suffering. 

20. 'This, O Bhikkhus, is the Noble Truth of the 
Cause of suffering : Thirst, that leads to re-birth, 
accompanied by pleasure and lust, finding its delight 
here and there. (This thirst is threefold), namely, 
thirst for pleasure, thirst for existence, thirst for 
prosperity. 

21. 'This, O Bhikkhus, is the Noble Truth of 
the Cessation of suffering: (it ceases with) the com- 
plete cessation of this thirst, — a cessation which 
consists in the absence of every passion, — with the 
abandoning of this thirst, with the doing away with 
it, with the deliverance from it, with the destruction 
of desire. 

22. 'This, O Bhikkhus, is the Noble Truth of 
the Path which leads to the cessation of suffering: 



1 Clinging to the five elements of existence, rupa, vedanS, 
• saniii, sumkhiifr, v'mMna,. See § 38 seq. 



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96 MAHAVAGGA. I, 6, 23. 

that holy eightfold Path, that is to say, Right Belief, 
Right Aspiration, Right Speech, Right Conduct, 
Right Means of Livelihood, Right Endeavour, Right 
Memory, Right Meditation. 

23. "'This is the Noble Truth of Suffering;" — 
thus, O Bhikkhus, of this doctrine, which formerly 
had not been heard of, have I obtained insight, 
knowledge, understanding, wisdom, intuition. " This 
Noble Truth of Suffering must be understood," thus, 
O Bhikkhus, of this doctrine, .... (&c, down to in- 
tuition). " This Noble Truth of Suffering I have 
understood," thus, O Bhikkhus, of this doctrine, 
.... (&c, down to intuition). 

24. '"This is the Noble Truth of the Cause of 
suffering," thus, O Bhikkhus, (&c.) "This Noble 
Truth of the Cause of suffering must be abandoned 1 . 
.... has been abandoned by me," thus, O Bhikkhus, 
(&c.) 

25. '" This is the Noble Truth of the Cessation of 
suffering," thus, O Bhikkhus, (&c.) "This Noble 
Truth of the Cessation of suffering must be seen 
face to face .... has been seen by me face to face," 
thus, O Bhikkhus, (&c.) 

26. '" This is the Noble Truth of the Path which 
leads to the cessation of suffering," thus, O Bhikkhus, 
(&c.) "This Noble Truth of the Path which leads 
to the cessation of suffering, must be realised .... 
has been realised by me," thus, O Bhikkhus, (&c.) 

27. 'As long, O Bhikkhus, as I did not possess 
with perfect purity this true knowledge and insight 
into these four Noble Truths, with its three modifi- 



1 I. e. the thirst (ta«ha), which is declared in this Noble Truth 
to be the cause of suffering, must be abandoned. 



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I, 6, 30. ADMISSION TO THE ORDER OF BHIKKHUS. 97 

cations and its twelve constituent parts 1 ; so long, O 
Bhikkhus, I knew that I had not yet obtained the 
highest, absolute Sambodhi in the world of men and 
gods, in Mara's and Brahma's world, among all 
beings, Samawas and Brahma#as, gods and men. 

28. 'But since I possessed, O Bhikkhus, with per- 
fect purity this true knowledge and insight into these 
four Noble Truths, with its three modifications and 
its twelve constituent parts, then I knew, O Bhikkhus, 
that I had obtained the highest, universal Sambodhi in 
the world of men and gods, .... (&c, as in § 27). 

29. 'And this knowledge and insight arose in my 
mind : " The emancipation of my mind cannot be 
lost ; this is my last birth ; hence I shall not be born 
again ! 

Thus the Blessed One spoke. The five Bhikkhus 
were delighted, and they rejoiced at the words of 
the Blessed One. And ' when this exposition was 
propounded, the venerable Kondanna. obtained the 
pure and spotless Eye of the Truth (that is to say, 
the following knowledge): 'Whatsoever is subject 
to the condition of origination, is subject also to the 
condition of cessation.' 

30. And as the Blessed One had founded the 
Kingdom of Truth (by propounding the four Noble 
Truths), the earth-inhabiting devas shouted : ' Truly 
the Blessed One has founded at Benares, in the deer 
park Isipatana, the highest kingdom of Truth, which 
may be opposed neither by a Sama»a nor by a Brah- 
mawa, neither by a deva, nor by Mara, nor by Brahma, 
nor by any being in the world.' 

1 The three modifications and twelve constituent parts are those 
specified in §§ 23-26. 

[13] H 

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98 mahAvagga. i, 6, 31. 

Hearing the shout of the earth- inhabiting devas, 
the i'atumahara/ika devas (gods belonging to 
the world of the four divine mahara^as) shouted, 

(&c, as above). Hearing the shout of the iatu- 

mahara^ika devas, the tavati#zsa devas 1 , .... 

the yama devas, .... the tusita devas the 

nimmanarati devas, .... the paranimmita- 
vasavatti devas, .... the brahmakayika devas 
shouted: 'Truly the Blessed One, ' (&c.,as above). 

31. Thus in that moment, in that instant, in that 
second the shout reached the Brahma world ; and 
this whole system of ten thousand worlds quaked, 
was shaken, and trembled ; and an infinite, mighty 
light was seen through the world, which surpassed 
the light that can be produced by the divine power 
of the devas. 

And the Blessed One pronounced this solemn 
utterance: ' Truly Kondanna has perceived it (" an- 
nasi"), truly Kondanna has perceived it!' Hence 
the venerable Kondanna. received the name Anna- 
takondanna (Kondanna who has perceived the doc- 
trine). 

32. And the venerable Annatakondanna, having 
seen the Truth, having mastered the Truth, having 
understood the Truth, having penetrated the Truth, 
having overcome uncertainty, having dispelled all 
doubts, having gained full knowledge, dependent on 
nobody else for knowledge of the doctrine of the 
Teacher, thus spoke to the Blessed One: 'Lord, let 

1 The thirty-three devas of the Vedic mythology. This enumera- 
tion gives the gods who reside in the different worlds, beginning 
from the lowest (the bhummd deva, who inhabit the earth), and 
gradually ascending to the higher devalokas. See Hardy, Manual, 
p. 25. 



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I, 6, 35. ADMISSION TO THE ORDER OF BHIKKHUS. 99 

me receive the pabba^a and upasampada ordi- 
nations from the Blessed One.' 

' Come, O Bhikkhu,' said the Blessed One, ' well 
taught is the doctrine ; lead a holy life for the sake 
of the complete extinction of suffering.' Thus this 
venerable person received the upasampada ordi- 
nation. 

33. And the Blessed One administered to the 
other Bhikkhus exhortation and instruction by dis- 
courses relating to the Dhamma. And the venerable 
Vappa, and the venerable Bhaddiya, when they 
received from the Blessed One such exhortation and 
instruction by discourses relating to the Dhamma, 
obtained the pure and spotless Eye of the Truth 
(that is to say, the following knowledge) : ' Whatso- 
ever is subject to the condition of origination is 
subject also to the condition of cessation.' 

34. And having seen the Truth, having mastered 
the Truth, .... (&c, as in § 32), they thus spoke to 
the Blessed One : ' Lord, let us receive the pabba^a 
and upasampada ordinations from the Blessed One.' 

'Come, O Bhikkhus,' said the Blessed One, 'well 
taught is the doctrine ; lead a holy life for the sake 
of the complete extinction of suffering.' Thus these 
venerable persons received the upasampada ordi- 
nation. 

35. And the Blessed One, living on what the 
Bhikkhus brought him, administered to the other 
Bhikkhus exhortation and instruction by discourse 
relating to the Dhamma ; in this way the six persons 
lived on what .the three Bhikkhus 1 brought home 
from their alms pilgrimage. 

1 Those three Bhikkhus of the five, who had been converted, 

H 2 

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XOO MAHAVAGGA. I, 6, 36. 

36, 37. And the venerable Mahanama and the 
venerable Assafi, when they received from the Blessed 

One, (&c, as in §§ 33, 34, down to :). Thus these 

venerable persons received the upasampada ordi- 
nation. 

38. And the Blessed One thus spoke to the five 
Bhikkhus : ' The body (Rupa), O Bhikkhus, is not 
the self. If the body, O Bhikkhus, were the self, 
the body would not be subject to disease, and we 
should be able to say : " Let my body be such and 
such a one, let my body not be such and such a one." 
But since the body, O Bhikkhus, is not the self, 
therefore the body is subject to disease, and we are 
not able to say : " Let my body be such and such a 
one, let my body not be such and such a one." 

39-41. 'Sensation (Vedana), O Bhikkhus, is not 
the self, .... (&C. 1 ) Perception (Sa«»a) is not the 
self, .... The Sawkharas 2 are not the self, .... 
Consciousness (Vi#»a#a) is not the self, .... (&C 1 ) 

42. ' Now what do you think, O Bhikkhus, is the 
body permanent or perishable ? ' 

went about for alms; while the Buddha remained with their two 
companions, and instructed them. 

1 This is shown exactly in the same way and with the same 
words that are used in § 38 with regard to the body. Body, 
sensations, perceptions, sawkh&ras, and consciousness are the well- 
known five classes (khandha) of bodily and mental parts and 
powers ; see Rh. D., ' Buddhism,' p. 90 seq. The self (atta), 
which, if it exists at all, must be permanent and imperishable, is 
not to be found in any one of these five classes, which are all 
subject to origin and decay. This discourse of the Buddha's, which 
is frequently called the Anattalakkha«a Sutta (Sutta of the not having 
the signs of self), shows the perishable nature of the five khandhas, 
and that the khandhas are not the self. But it does not deal with 
the question, whether the self exists or not, in any other way. 

2 See the note on chap. 1.2. 



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1,6,47- ADMISSION TO THE ORDER OF BHIKKHUS. IOI 

' It is perishable, Lord/ 

'And that which is perishable, does that cause pain 
or joy?' 

' It causes pain, Lord.' 

'And that which is perishable, painful, subject to 
change, is it possible to regard that in this way: 
' This is mine, this am I, this is my self?' 

' That is impossible, Lord.' 

43. 'Is sensation permanent or perishable ?'.... 

(&C. 1 ) 

44. ' Therefore, O Bhikkhus, whatever body has 
been, will be, and is now, belonging or not belonging 
to sentient beings, gross or subtle, inferior or superior, 
distant or near, all that body is not mine, is not me, 
is not my self : thus it should be considered by right 
knowledge according to the truth. 

45. ' Whatever sensation, .... (&c. 2 ) 

46. 'Considering this, O Bhikkhus, a learned, 
noble hearer of the word becomes weary of body, 
weary of sensation, weary of perception, weary of the 
Sawzkharas, weary of consciousness. Becoming 
weary of all that, he divests himself of passion ; by 
absence of passion he is made free ; when he is free, 
he becomes aware that he is free; and he realises 
that re-birth is exhausted ; that holiness is completed ; 
that duty is fulfilled; and that there is no further 
return to this world 3 .' 

47. Thus the Blessed One spoke ; the five Bhik- 
khus were delighted, and rejoiced at the words of the 
Blessed One. And when this exposition had been 

1 Here follow the same questions, answers, and rejoinders, with 
regard to sensation, perception, the sa/rakharas, and consciousness. 
1 The same with regard to the other four khandhas. 
8 Compare Burnouf, ' Lotus de la bonne Loi,' p. 481. 



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102 MAHAVAGGA. I, 7, r. 

propounded, the minds of the five Bhikkhus became 
free from attachment to the world, and were released 
from the Asavas 1 . 

At that time there were six Arahats (persons who 
had reached absolute holiness) in the world. 



End of the first Bhi#avara. 



7 2 . 
1. At that time there was in Benares a noble 
youth, Yasa by name, the son of a sett hi (or 
treasurer 3 ) and delicately nurtured. He had three 
palaces, one for winter, one for summer, one for the 
rainy season. In the palace for the rainy season 
he lived during the four months (of that season), 
surrounded with female musicians among whom no 

1 See the note on § 9. 

2 A well-known scene in the life of the Bodhisatta has evidently 
been represented after the model of this story. See Gitaka I, 
p. 61; Lalita Vistara, p. 251; Bigandet, Life of Gaudama, p. 55. 
Nowhere in the Pali Pi/akas is the story told about the Bodhisatta 
himself. 

* This was a position of honour among the merchants. In the 
later literature we hear of an office of se/Mi (se/Mi-//Mna) in a 
city, to which any one with the requisite wealth and talent was 
eligible (Gataka I, 120-122); and, according to the Mahavawsa, 
the king appointed to an office called se/Mita, apparently at his 
court (Mah. p. 69). The Gahapati, or Treasurer, one of the seven 
jewels of a king, is explained by Buddhaghosa to be se/Mi- 
gahapati (see Rh. D.'s note on Maha-sudassana Sutta I, 41). 
'The Se/Mi,' standing alone, or 'the Maha-se/Mi,' means 
Anatha Pi«<fika (Gataka I, 95, 227-230; Dhammapada Com- 
mentary, p. 395). Below, in chapter 9, § i, it would seem that 
the rank of se/Mi was hereditary, and this is confirmed by the later 
literature ; but this applies to the social rank only, and not to the 
office. 



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I, 7, 3. ADMISSION TO THE ORDER OF BHIKKHUS. IO3 

man was, and he did not descend from that palace 
(all that time). Now one day Yasa, the noble youth, 
who was endowed with, and possessed of the five 
pleasures of sense \ while he was attended (by those 
female musicians), fell asleep sooner than usual ; 
and after him his attendants also fell asleep. Now 
an oil !amp was burning through the whole night. 

2. And Yasa, the noble youth, awoke sooner than 
usual ; and he saw his attendants sleeping ; one had 
her lute leaning against her arm-pit ; one had her 
tabor leaning against her neck ; one had her drum 
leaning against her arm-pit ; one had dishevelled 
hair ; one had saliva flowing from her mouth ; and 
they were muttering in their sleep. One would 
think it was a cemetery one had fallen into 2 . When 
he saw that, the evils (of the life he led) manifested 
themselves to him ; his mind became weary (of 
worldly pleasures). And Yasa, the noble youth, 
gave utterance to this solemn exclamation: 'Alas! 
what distress ; alas ! what danger!' 

3. And Yasa, the noble youth, put on his gilt 
slippers, and went to the gate of his house. Non- 
human beings opened the gate, in order that no 
being might prevent Yasa the noble youth's leaving 
the world, and going forth into the houseless state. 
And Yasa, the noble youth, went to the gate of 
the city. Non-human beings opened the gate, in 
order that no being might prevent Yasa the noble 
youth's leaving the world, and going forth into the 
houseless state. And Yasa, the noble youth, went 
to the deer park Isipatana. 

1 Pleasures of the eye, ear, nose, tongue, and touch. 

2 Hatthappattaw susanaw ma««e, literally, 'one would 
think a cemetery had (suddenly) come to one's hand.' 



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104 MAHAVAGGA. I, 7, 4. 

4. At that time the Blessed One, having arisen 
in the night, at dawn was walking up and down in 
the open air. And the Blessed One saw Yasa, the 
noble youth, coming from afar. And when he saw 
him, he left the place where he was walking, and 
sat down on a seat laid out (for him). And Yasa, 
the noble youth, gave utterance near the Blessed 
One to that solemn exclamation: 'Alas! what dis- 
tress; alas! what danger!' And the Blessed One 
said to Yasa, the noble youth : ' Here is no distress, 
Yasa, here is no danger. Come here, Yasa, sit 
down ; I will teach you the Truth (Dhamma).' 

5. And Yasa, the noble youth, when he heard 
that there was no distress, and that there was no 
danger, became glad and joyful ; and he put off his 
gilt slippers, and went to the place where the 
Blessed One was ; having approached him and 
having respectfully saluted the Blessed One, he sat 
down near him. When Yasa, the noble youth, was 
sitting near him, the Blessed One preached to him 
in due course : that is to say, he talked about the 
merits obtained by alms-giving, about the duties of 
morality, about heaven, about the evils, the vanity, 
and the sinfulness of desires, and about the blessings 
of the abandonment of desire \ 

6. When the Blessed One saw that the mind of 
Yasa, the noble youth, was prepared, impressible, 
free from obstacles (to understanding the Truth), 
elated, and believing, then he preached what is the 
principal doctrine of the Buddhas, namely, Suffering, 

1 Nekkhamma is neither naishkramya nor naishkarmya, but 
naishkamya. Itivuttaka, fol. khi (Phayre MS.) : kamanam etam 
nissara«a/» yad ida»» nekkhamma»i, rupSnam etaw nissarawaw yad 
idawz aruppaw. 



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I, 7, 9. ADMISSION TO THE ORDER OF BHIKKHUS. IO5 

the Cause of suffering, the Cessation of suffering, 
the Path. Just as a clean cloth free from black 
specks properly takes the dye, thus Yasa, the noble 
youth, even while sitting there, obtained the pure 
and spotless Eye of the Truth (that is, the know- 
ledge) : ' Whatsoever is subject to the condition 
of origination is subject also to the condition of 
cessation.' 

7. Now the mother of Yasa, the noble youth, 
having gone up to his palace, did not see Yasa, the 
noble youth, and she went to the s&tthi, the house- 
holder (her husband), and having approached him, 
she said to the sztthi, the householder : ' Your son 
Yasa, O householder, has disappeared.' Then the 
sztthi, the householder, sent messengers on horse- 
back to the four quarters of the horizon; and he 
went himself to the deer park Isipatana. Then the 
s>e(tk\, the householder, saw on the ground the marks 
of the gilt slippers; and when he saw them, he 
followed them up. 

8. And the Blessed One saw the s&tthi, the house- 
holder, coming from afar. On seeing him, he 
thought : 'What if I were to effect such an exercise 
of miraculous power, that the sztthi, the householder, 
sitting here, should not see Yasa, the noble youth, 
who is sitting here also.' And the Blessed One 
effected such an exercise of his miraculous power. 

9. And the sztthi, the householder, went to the 
place where the Blessed One was; having approached 
him, he said to the Blessed One : ' Pray, Lord, has 
the Blessed One seen Yasa, the noble youth?' 

'Well, householder, sit down. Perhaps, sitting 
here, you may see Yasa, the noble youth, sitting 
here also.' 



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106 MAHAVAGGA. I, 7, 10. 

And the szithi, the householder, who thought : 
' Indeed, sitting here I shall see Yasa.the noble youth, 
sitting here also !' became glad and joyful, and having 
respectfully saluted the Blessed One, he sat down 
near him. 

10. When the se/Afci, the householder, was sitting 
near him, the Blessed One preached to him in due 
course ; that is to say, he talked about the merits 
obtained by alms-giving, .... (&c, as at end of § 5). 
And the szithi, the householder, having seen the 
Truth, having mastered the Truth, having penetrated 
the Truth, having overcome uncertainty, having dis- 
pelled all doubts, having gained full knowledge, 
dependent on nobody else for the knowledge of the 
doctrine of the Teacher, said to the Blessed One : 
'Glorious, Lord ! glorious, Lord ! Just as if one should 
set up, Lord, what had been overturned, or should 
reveal what had been hidden, or should point out 
the way to one who had lost his way, or should 
bring a lamp into the darkness, in order that those 
who had eyes might see visible things, thus has the 
Blessed One preached the doctrine in many ways. 
I take my refuge, Lord, in the Blessed One, and in 
the Dhamma, and in the fraternity of Bhikkhus ; 
may the Blessed One receive me from this day forth 
while my life lasts as a disciple who has taken his 
refuge in Him.' 

This was the first person in the world who became 
a lay-disciple by the formula of the holy triad. 

11. And Yasa, the noble youth, while instruction 
was administered (by the Buddha) to his father, con- 
templated the stage of knowledge which he had 
seen with his mind and understood ; and his mind 
became free from attachment to the world, and was 



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I, 7, 13. ADMISSION TO THE ORDER OF BHIKKHUS. 107 

released from the Asavas. Then the Blessed One 
thought : ' Yasa, the noble youth, while instruction 
was administered to his father, has contemplated the 
stage of knowledge which he had seen with his mind 
and understood ; and his mind has become free from 
attachment to the world, and has become released 
from the Asavas. It is impossible that Yasa, the noble 
youth, should return to the world and enjoy pleasures, 
as he did before, when he lived in his house. What 
if I were now to put an end to that exertion of my 
miraculous power.' And the Blessed One put an 
end to that exertion of his miraculous power. 

12. Then the se#Ai, the householder, saw Yasa, 
the noble youth, sitting there. On seeing him he 
said to Yasa, the noble youth : ' My son Yasa, your 
mother is absorbed in lamentation and grief; restore 
your mother to life.' 

13. Then Yasa, the noble youth, lpoked at the 
Blessed One. And the Blessed One said to the 
setthi, the householder : ' What do you think then, 
O householder ? That Yasa has (first) won only an 
imperfect * degree of knowledge and insight into the 
Truth, as you have yourself? Or that rather he 
was contemplating the stage of knowledge which 
he had seen with his mind and understood ; and that 
his mind has thus become free from attachment to 
the world, and has become released from the Asavas ? 
Now would it then be possible, O householder, that 
Yasa should return to the world and enjoy pleasures 
as he did before, when he lived in his house ?' 

' Not so, Lord.' 

1 The stage of a sekha, i. e. a person who has attained to any 
stage in the Noble Eightfold Path (such as sot&pattiphala, &c.) 
inferior to the highest (Arahatship). 



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108 mahAvagga. 1, 7, 14. 

' Yasa, the noble youth, O householder, had (first) 
won, like yourself, an imperfect degree of knowledge 
and insight into the Truth. But when he was con- 
templating the stage of knowledge which he had 
seen with his mind and understood, his mind has 
become free from attachment to the world, and has 
become released from the Asavas. It is impossible, 
O householder, that Yasa, the noble youth, should 
return to the world and enjoy pleasures as he did 
before, when he lived in his house.' 

14. ' It is all gain, Lord, to Yasa, the noble youth, 
it is high bliss, Lord, for Yasa, the noble youth, that 
the mind of Yasa, the noble youth, has become free 
from attachment to the world, and has become re- 
leased from the Asavas. Might, Lord, the Blessed 
One consent to take his meal with me to-day together 
with Yasa, the noble youth, as his attendant ? ' 

The Blessed One expressed his consent by remain- 
ing silent. Then the setth\, the householder, when he 
understood that the Blessed One had accepted his 
invitation, rose from his seat, respectfully saluted the 
Blessed One, and passing round him with his right 
side towards him, departed thence. 

15. And Yasa, the noble youth, soon after the 
se#>6i, the householder, was gone, said to the Blessed 
One: 'Lord, let me receive the pabba^a and 
upasampada ordinations from the Blessed One.' 

' Come, O Bhikkhu,' said the Blessed One, ' well 
taught is the doctrine ; lead a holy life for the sake 
of the complete extinction of suffering.' 

Thus this venerable person received the upasam- 
pada ordination. At that time there were seven 
Arahats in the world. 

End of the story of Yasa's pabba^a. 



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I, 8, 3. ADMISSION TO THE ORDER OF BHIKKHUS. 109 



8. 

1. And in the forenoon the blessed One, having 
put on his under-robes 1 , took his alms-bowl, and, 
with his ilvara on, went with the venerable Yasa 
as his attendant to the house of the se/Afci, the house- 
holder. When he had arrived there, he sat down 
on a seat laid out for him. Then the mother and 
the former wife of the venerable Yasa went to the 
place where the Blessed One was ; having approached 
him and having respectfully saluted the Blessed One, 
they sat down near him. 

2. Then the Blessed One preached to them in due 
course ; that is to say, he talked about the merits ob- 
tained by alms-giving (&c, as in chap. 7. 5, 6, down 

to :) ; thus they obtained, while sitting there, the pure 
and spotless Eye of the Truth (that is, the knowledge) : 
' Whatsoever is subject to the condition of origina- 
tion is subject also to the condition of cessation.' 

3. And having seen the Truth, .... (<fec, as above, 
§§ 5,6, down to :), dependent on nobody else for know- 
ledge of the Teacher's doctrine, they thus spoke to the 
Blessed One: 'Glorious, Lord! glorious Lord! Just 
as if one should set up'(&c, as in chap. 7. 10, down to :). 
We take our refuge, Lord, in the Blessed One, and in 
the Dhamma, and in the fraternity of Bhikkhus ; 
may the Blessed One receive us from this day forth, 
while our life lasts, as disciples who have taken their 
refuge in Him.' 

These were the first females in the world who 
became lay-disciples by the formula of the holy triad. 

1 The rules about the dress of a Bhikkhu who is going to the 
village are given in the .ffullavagga VIII, 4, 3 ; 5, 2. Compare 
Rh. D.'s note on the Maha-parinibMna Sutta V, 45. 



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no mahAvagga. 1,8,4. 

4. And the mother and the father and the former 
wife of the venerable Yasa with their own hands 
served and offered 1 excellent food, both hard and 
soft, to the Blessed One and to the venerable Yasa ; 
and when the Blessed One had finished his meal, 
and cleansed his bowl and his hands, they sat down 
near him. Then the Blessed One taught, incited, 
animated, and gladdened the mother, and father, and 
the former wife of the venerable Yasa by religious 
discourse ; and then he rose from his seat and went 
away. 



1. Now four lay persons, friends of the venerable 
Yasa, belonging to the settM families of Benares, 
and to the highest after the se/Mi families, by name 
Vimala, Subahu, Punnagi, and Gavampati, heard : 
' Yasa, the noble youth, has cut off his hair and beard, 
and has put on yellow robes, and has given up the 
world, and gone forth into the houseless state.' When 
they had heard that, they thought : ' Surely that 
cannot be a common doctrine and discipline, that 
cannot be a common renunciation of the world, if 
Yasa, the noble youth, has cut off his hair and beard, 
and has put on yellow robes, and has given up the 
world, and gone forth into the houseless state/ 

1 According to Subhuti (in Childers's Dictionary) sampavareti 
means that the host hands dishes to the guest until the latter says, 
'I have had enough.' Childers accordingly translates sampavS- 
reti, 'to cause to refuse.' But as pavSreti means, 'to cause to 
accept,' it is impossible that sampavareti should have exactly the 
opposite meaning. We prefer, therefore, to take it as an emphatic 
synonym of pavSreti. 



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I, 9, 4. ADMISSION TO THE ORDER OF BHIKKHUS. 1 1 1 

2. Those four persons went to the place where 
the venerable Yasa was; having approached him 
and having respectfully saluted the venerable Yasa, 
they stood by his side. And the venerable Yasa 
went with his four lay-friends to the place where 
the Blessed One was ; having approached him and 
having respectfully saluted the Blessed One, he sat 
down near him. Sitting near him the venerable 
Yasa said to the Blessed One : ' Lord, here are 
four lay -friends of mine, belonging to the sztthi 
families of Benares and to the highest after the 
se/Mi families ; their names are Vimala, Subahu, 
Punnagi, and Gavampati. May the Blessed One 
administer exhortation and instruction to these four 
persons.' 

3. Then the Blessed One preached to them, .... 
(&c, as in chap. 8. 2). 

4. And having seen the Truth, .... (&c, down to :) 
dependent on nobody else for the knowledge of 
the Teacher's doctrine, they thus spoke to the 
Blessed One : ' Lord, let us receive the pabba^a 
and upasampada ordinations from the Blessed 
One.' 

' Come, O Bhikkhus,' said the Blessed One, ' well 
taught is the doctrine ; lead a holy life for the sake 
of the complete extinction of suffering.' 

Thus these venerable persons received the upa- 
sampada ordination. And the Blessed One admi- 
nistered to these Bhikkhus exhortation and instruc- 
tion by discourse relating to the Dhamma. While 
they received exhortation and instruction from the 
Blessed One by discourse relating to the Dhamma, 
their minds became free from attachment to the 
world, and were released from the Asavas. 



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112 mahAvagga. I,io. 

At that time there were eleven Arahats in the 
world. 

Here ends the story of the ordination of 
the four laymen. 



10. 

Now fifty lay persons, friends of the venerable 
Yasa, belonging to the highest families in the country 
and to those next to the highest, heard, .... (&c, 
as in chap. 9, §§ 1, 2, 3, 4, down to:). While they 
received exhortation and instruction from the Blessed 
One by discourse relating to the Dhamma, their 
minds became free from attachment to the world, 
and were released from the Asavas. • 

At that time there were sixty-one Arahats in the 
world. 



11. 

1. And the Blessed One said to the Bhikkhus : 
' I am delivered, O Bhikkhus, from all fetters, human 
and divine. You, O Bhikkhus, are also delivered 
from all fetters, human and divine. Go ye now, 
O Bhikkhus, and wander, for the gain of the many, 
for the welfare of the many, out of compassion for 
the world, for the good, for the gain, and for the 
welfare of gods and men. Let not two of you go 
the same way \ Preach, O Bhikkhus, the doctrine 

1 This cannot be understood as a general rule, for it is repeated 
nowhere where precepts for wandering Bhikkhus are given, and, 
on the contrary, numerous instances occur in the Sacred Texts 



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I, 11,2. ADMISSION TO THE ORDER OF BHIKKHUS. H3 

which is glorious in the beginning, glorious in the 
middle, glorious at the end, in the spirit and in the 
letter; proclaim a consummate, perfect, and pure 
life of holiness. There are beings whose mental 
eyes are covered by scarcely any dust, but if the 
doctrine is not preached to them, they cannot attain 
salvation. They will understand the doctrine. And 
I will go also, O Bhikkhus, to Uruvela, to Senini- 
nigama 1 , in order to preach the doctrine.' 

2. And Mara the wicked One went to the place 
where the Blessed One was; having approached 
him, he addressed the Blessed One in the following 
stanza : ' Thou art bound by all fetters, human 
and divine. Thou art bound by strong fetters. 
Thou wilt not be delivered from me, O Samara.' 

Buddha replied : ' I am delivered from all fetters, 
human and divine. I am delivered from the strong 
fetters. Thou art struck down, O Death.' 

(Mara said) : ' The fetter which pervades the sky, 
with which mind is bound, with that fetter I will 
bind thee. Thou wilt not be delivered from me, 
O Sama«a.' 

(Buddha replied): 'Whatever forms, sounds, odours, 
flavours, or contacts there are which please the 

in which two or more Bhikkhus are mentioned as wandering 
together, without any expression of disapproval being added. The 
precept given here evidently is intended to refer only to the earliest 
period in the spread of the new doctrine; just as in chap. 12 
a form of upasampada' is introduced by Buddha which was re- 
garded as inadmissible in later times. 

1 The correct spelling of this name appears to be Sendnini- 
gama('the General's Town'), and not Sendnigama ('the Army's 
Town ') ; the G&taka Atthava»»an& (vol. i. p. 68) and the Paris MS. 
of the MahSvagga (manu secunda) read Sendninigama. The 
Lalita Vistara has SenSpatigrama. 

[13] I 



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1 14 MAHAVAGGA. I, 12, I. 

senses, in me desire for them has ceased. Thou art 
struck down, O Death.' 

Then Mara the wicked One understood : ' The 
Blessed One knows me, the perfect One knows me,' 
and, sad and afflicted, he vanished away. 



Here ends the story of Mara. 



12. 

1. At that time the Bhikkhus brought (to Buddha), 
from different regions and different countries, persons 
who desired to obtain the pabba^a and upasam- 
pada ordinations, thinking: 'The Blessed One will 
confer on them the pabba^f a and upasampada ordi- 
nations.' Thus both the Bhikkhus became tired (from 
the journey), and also those who desired to obtain 
the pabba^a and upasampada ordinations. Now 
when the Blessed One was alone and had retired 
into solitude, the following consideration presented 
itself to his mind : ' The Bhikkhus now bring to me 
from different regions and different countries persons 
who desire to obtain the pabba^a and upasam- 
pada ordinations, thinking : " The Blessed One will 
confer on them the pabba^/a and upasampada 
ordinations." Now both the Bhikkhus become tired, 
and also those who desire to obtain the pabba^a 
and upasampada ordinations. What if I were to 
grant permission to the Bhikkhus, saying: "Confer 
henceforth, O Bhikkhus, in the different regions, 
and in the different countries, the pabba^a and 
upasampada ordinations yourselves (on those who 
desire to receive them).'" 

2. And the Blessed One, having left the solitude 



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I, 12, 4. ADMISSION TO THE ORDER OK BHIKKHUS. 1 1 5 

in the evening, in consequence of that, and on this 
occasion, after having delivered a religious discourse, 
thus addressed the Bhikkhus : 'When I was alone, 
O Bhikkhus, and had retired into solitude, the follow- 
ing consideration, &c. What if I were to permit, 
. . . .' (&c, as in § i). 

3. ' I grant you, O Bhikkhus, this permission : 
Confer henceforth in the different regions and in the 
different countries the pabba^a and upasampadi 
ordinations yourselves (on those who desire to receive 
them). And you ought, O Bhikkhus, to confer the 
pabba^a and upasampada ordinations in this 
way : Let him (who desires to receive the ordina- 
tion), first have his hair and beard cut off; let him 
put on yellow robes, adjust his upper robe so as to 
cover one shoulder, salute the feet of the Bhikkhus 
(with his head), and sit down squatting ; then let him 
raise his joined hands and tell him to say : 

4. '"I take my refuge in the Buddha, I take my 
refuge in the Dhamma, I take my refuge in the 

Samgha. And for the second time I take (&c 

Samgha). And for the third time I take my refuge 
in the Buddha, and for the third time I take my 
refuge in the Dhamma, and for the third time I take 
my refuge in the Samgha." 

' I prescribe, O Bhikkhus, the pabba^a and 
upasampada ordinations consisting in the three 
times repeated declaration of taking refuge (in the 
holy triad).' 

End of the account of the upasampada ordination 
by the threefold declaration of taking refuge 1 . 

1 On this ceremony, which is still gone through before the regular 
ordination, see the remarks in the note on chapter 1, § 1. 

I 2 



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1 1 6 MAHAVAGGA. I, 13, I. 



13. 

1. And the Blessed One, after having kept the 
vassa residence 1 , thus addressed the Bhikkhus : ' By 
wise contemplation, O Bhikkhus, and by wise firm- 
ness of exertion have I attained the highest emanci- 
pation, have I realised the highest emancipation. 
Attain ye also, O Bhikkhus, the highest emancipation, 
realise the highest emancipation, by wise contempla- 
tion and by wise firmness of exertion.' 

2. And Mara the wicked One went to the place 
where the Blessed One was; having approached 
him, he addressed the Blessed One by the following 
stanza : ' Thou art bound by Mara's fetters, human 
and divine. Thou art bound by strong fetters. 
Thou wilt not be delivered from me, O Samawa.' 

(Buddha replied): ' I am delivered from Mara's 
fetters, human and divine. I am delivered from the 
strong fetters. Thou art struck down, O Death.' 

Then Mara the wicked One understood : ' The 
Blessed One knows me, the perfect One knows me ;' 
and, sad and afflicted, he vanished away. 



14. 

1. And the Blessed One, after having dwelt at 
Benares as long as he thought fit, went forth to 
Uruvela. And the Blessed One left the road and 
went to a certain grove; having gone there, and 
having entered it, he sat down at the foot of a tree. 
At that time there was a party of thirty friends, rich 
young men, who were sporting in that same grove 

1 See about the vassa residence the rules given in Book III. 



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I, 14, 3. ADMISSION TO THE ORDER OF BHIKKHUS. 1 1 7 

together with their wives. One of them had no wife ; 
for him they had procured a harlot. Now while they 
did not pay attention, and were indulging in their 
sports, that harlot took up the articles belonging to 
them, and ran away. 

2. Then those companions, doing service to their 
friend, went in search of that woman ; and, roaming 
about that grove, they saw the Blessed One sitting 
at the foot of a tree. Seeing him they went to the 
place where the Blessed One was ; having^approached 
him, they said to the Blessed One : ' Pray, Lord, has 
the Blessed One seen a woman passing by?' 

'What have you to do, young men, with the 
woman?' 

'We were sporting, Lord, in this grove, thirty 
friends, rich young men, together with our wives. 
One of us had no wife; for him we had procured a 
harlot. Now, Lord, while we did not pay attention, 
and were indulging in our sports, that harlot has 
taken up the articles belonging to us, and has run 
away. Therefore, Lord, we companions, doing ser- 
vice to our friend, go in search of that woman, and 
roam about this grove.' 

3. ' Now what think you, young men ? Which 
would be the better for you ; that you should go in 
search of a woman, or that you should go in search 
of yourselves?' 

* That, Lord, would be the better for us, that we 
should go in search of ourselves.' 

' If so, young men, sit down, I will preach to you 
the Truth (Dhamma).' 

The rich young companions replied: 'Yes, Lord,' 
and respectfully saluted the Blessed One, and sat 
down near him. 



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1 1 8 MAHAVAGGA. I, 14, 4. 

4. Then the Blessed One preached to them, .... 
(&c, as in chap. 8. 2, or 9. 3). 

5. And having seen the Truth (&c, as in 

chap. 9. 4 down to :). Thus these venerable persons 
received the upasampada ordination. 

Here ends the story of the thirty rich young 
companions. 



End of the second Bha#avara. 



15. 

1. And the Blessed One, wandering from place to 
place, came to Uruvela. At that time there lived 
in Uruvela three GWilas 1 , Uruvela Kassapa, Nad! 
Kassapa (Kassapa of the River, i. e. the Nerangara), 
and Gaya Kassapa (Kassapa of the village Gaya). 
Of these the GatWa Uruvela Kassapa was chief, 
leader, foremost, first, and highest over five hundred 
Gatilas ; Nad! Kassapa was chief .... (&c, down to 
highest over) three hundred Ga/ilas, Gaya Kassapa 
was chief .... (&c, down to highest over) two 
hundred GatWas. 

2. And the Blessed One went to the hermitage of 

1 The GaAhs (i.e. ascetics wearing matted hair) are Brah- 
manical vanaprasthas. The description of their ascetic life given 
in many passages of the Gataka Atthava»«ana and of the Apad&na 
exactly agrees with the picture of the forest life of the uXd/3«oi which 
so frequently occurs in the Mahabh&rata. In the Mahdvagga (VI, 
35, 2) it is expressly stated that the (ra/ilas recognised the authority 
of the Veda, and it is in keeping with this that the usual term for 
adopting the state of a (ra/ila is 'isipabba^am pabba^ati' 
(frequently in the (rat. Atth.), i. e. leaving the world and becoming 
a i?»'shi. 



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I, 15, 3. ADMISSION TO THE ORDER OF BHIKKHUS. II9 

the 6Wila Uruvela Kassapa ; having gone there, he 
said to the Ga/ila Uruvela Kassapa : ' If it is not 
disagreeable to you, Kassapa, let me spend one 
night in the room where your (sacred) fire is kept' 

' It is not disagreeable to me, great Sama«a, but 
there is a savage Naga (or Serpent) king of great 
magical power 1 , a dreadfully venomous serpent; let 
him do no harm to you.' 

And a second time the Blessed One said to the 
Ga/ila Uruvela Kassapa : ' If it is not disagreeable,' 

&C ' y^"\s"\ '?■> 

' It is not disagreeable,' &c. /v^ , ,'f * ^ 

And a third time the Blessed Ons $>fd/r '.If it is^ , 

not disagreeable,' &c 

' It is not disagreeable,' &c 

' He is not likely to do any harm to me. Pray7 
Kassapa, allow me a place in the room where your 
fire is kept.' 

' Stay there, great Samawa, as you wish it.' 
3. Then the Blessed One entered the room where 
the fire was kept, made himself a couch of grass, and 
sat down cross-legged, keeping the body erect and 
surrounding himself with watchfulness of mind 2 . 
And the Naga saw that the Blessed One had entered ; 
when he saw that, he became annoyed, and irritated, 
and sent forth a cloud of smoke. Then the Blessed 
One thought: 'What if I were to leave intact the 
skin, and hide, and flesh, and ligaments, and bones, 



1 Iddhi. Compare the passages referred to by Rh. D. in ' Bud- 
dhist Suttas from the Pali,' pp. 2, 40, 259 ; and further Mahavagga 
VI, 15, 8, and Aullavagga VII, 1, 4, and VII, 2, 1. 

1 Sati*» upa//Mpetva\ Sati is here a more precise idea than 
memory. 



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120 MAHAVAGGA. 1,15,4. 

and marrow of this Naga ; but were to conquer the 
fire, which he will send forth, by my fire.' 

4. And the Blessed One effected the appropriate 
exercise of miraculous power and sent forth a cloud 
of smoke. Then the Naga, who could not master 
his rage 1 , sent forth flames. And the Blessed One, 
converting his body into fire 2 , sent forth flames. 
When they both shone forth with their flames, the 
fire room looked as if it were burning and blazing, 
as if it were all in flames. And the 6a/ilas, sur- 
rounding the fire room, said : ' Truly the countenance 
of the great Samawa is beautiful, but the Naga will 
do harm to him 3 .' 

5. That night having elapsed, the Blessed One, 
leaving intact the skin and hide and flesh and liga- 
ments and bones and marrow of that Naga, and con- 
quering the Naga's fire by his fire, threw him into 
his alms-bowl, and showed him to the Ga/ila Uru- 
vela Kassapa (saying), ' Here you see the Naga, 
Kassapa ; his fire has been conquered by my fire.' 

Then the GWila Uruvela Kassapa thought: 'Truly 
the great Samawa possesses high magical powers and 
great faculties, in that he is able to conquer by his 
fire the fire of that savage Naga king, who is pos- 
sessed of magical power, that dreadfully venomous 
serpent. He is not, however, holy (a rah a) as I am.' 

6 4 . Near the Nerara^ara river the Blessed One 



1 Buddhaghosa explains makkha by kodha. 

s Compare .ffiillavagga IV, 4, 4, where Dabba also te^odhStuw 
sam&pa^ati, that is, his ringer is on fire. 

8 Compare the Editor's corrections at .ffullavagga, p. 363. 

* In §§ 6, 7 (excepting the last clause of § 7) the story related in 
§§ 1-5 is repeated in a more popular style. This appears to us to 
be a more archaic redaction than the preceding. We do not know 



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I, 15, 7. ADMISSION TO THE ORDER OF BHIKKHUS. 121 

said to the Gatila Uruvela Kassapa : ' If it is not 
disagreeable to you, Kassapa, let me dwell this moon- 
light night in your fire room.' 

' It is not disagreeable to me, great Samara, but 
in your own behalf I warn you .off. There is a 
savage Snake king there possessed of magical power, 
a dreadfully venomous serpent ; let him do no harm 
to you.' 

' He is not likely to do any harm to me ; pray, 
Kassapa, allow me a place in your fire room.' 

When he saw that Kassapa had given his per- 
mission, fearlessly He, who had overcome all fear, 
entered. When the chief of Serpents saw that the 
Sage had entered, he became irritated, and sent forth 
a cloud of smoke. Then the chief of men 1 , joyful 
and unperplexed, also sent forth a cloud of smoke. 
Unable to master his rage, the chief of Serpents sent 
forth flames like a burning fire. Then the chief of 
men 1 , the perfect master of the element of fire, also 
sent forth flames. When they shone forth both with 
their flames, the GWilas looked at the fire room (say- 
ing), ' Truly the countenance of the great Sama»a is 
beautiful, but the Naga will do harm to him.' 

7. And when that night had elapsed, the flames 
of the Naga were extinguished, but the various- 
coloured flames of Him who is possessed of magical 
powers remained. Dark blue and red, light red, 
yellow, and crystal-coloured flames of various colours 



any other instance in the Pali Pi/akas of a similar repetition, ex- 
cepting a short passage at the end of chap. 24. 3 ; and one other 
in the Maha-padhana Sutta. 

1 Literally, ' the Snake among men,' or ' the Elephant among 
men' (manussanago). 



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122 MAHAVAGGA. I, 16, i. 

appeared on the Angirasa's 1 body. Having put 
the chief of Serpents into his alms-bowl, he showed 
him to the Brahma^a (saying), ' Here you see the 
Naga, Kassapa; his fire has been conquered by 
my fire.' 

And the Gat'ila. Uruvela Kassapa, having con- 
ceived an affection for the Blessed One in con- 
sequence of this wonder, said to the Blessed One : 
' Stay with me, great Samara, I will daily provide 
you with food.' 

End of the first Wonder. 



16. 

1. And the Blessed One resided in a certain 
grove near the hermitage of the 6a/ila Uruvela 
Kassapa. And on a beautiful night the four 
Maharajas 2 , filling the whole grove with light by 
the brilliancy of their complexion, went to the place 
where the Blessed One was ; having approached 
him and respectfully saluted the Blessed One, they 
stood in the four directions like great firebrands. 

2. And when that night had elapsed, the GWila 
Uruvela Kassapa went to the place where the 
Blessed One was ; having approached him, he said 
to the Blessed One : ' It is time, great Sama«a, the 
meal is ready. Who were they, great Sama«a, who 
came, this beautiful night, filling the whole grove 
with light by the brilliancy of their complexion, to 

1 According to Vedic tradition the Gautamas, as is well known, 
belong to the Angirasa tribe. 

2 See chap. 4. 4. 



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I, 17, 2. ADMISSION TO THE ORDER OF BHIKKHUS. 1 23 

the place where you were, and having approached 
you and respectfully saluted you, stood in the four 
directions like great firebrands ?' 

' They were the four Maharajas, Kassapa, who 
came to me in order to hear my preaching.' 

Then the Ga/ila Uruvela Kassapa thought : ' Truly 
the great Sama«a possesses high magical powers 
and great faculties, since even the four Maharajas 
come to hear his preaching. He is not, however, 
holy like me.' 

And the Blessed One ate the food offered by the 
Gatila. Uruvela Kassapa, and continued to stay in 
that same grove. 



End of the second Wonder. 



17. 

1. And on a beautiful night Sakka (6akra or 
Indra) the king of the devas, filling the whole grove 
with light by the brilliancy of his complexion, went 
to the place where the Blessed One was; having 
approached him and respectfully saluted the Blessed 
One, he stood near him like a great firebrand, sur- 
passing in beauty and brilliancy the splendour of the 
former appearances. 

2. And when that night had elapsed (&c, as in 
chap. 16. 2). 

End of the third Wonder. 



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124 MAHAVAGGA. I, 18. 

18. 

And on a beautiful night Brahma Sahampati (&c, 
as in chap. 17). 

End of the fourth Wonder. 



19. 

1. At that time a great sacrifice which the £a/ila 
Uruvela Kassapa used to celebrate was approaching, 
and all the people of Anga and Magadha wished 
to go to that sacrifice carrying abundant food, both 
hard and soft. Now the £a/ila Uruvela Kassapa 
thought : ' Presently my great sacrifice is approaching, 
and all the people of Anga and Magadha will come 
and bring with them abundant food, both hard and 
soft. If the great Samawa should perform a wonder 
before that great assembly, gain and honour would 
increase to the great Sama#a, and my gain and 
honour would diminish. Well, the great Sama«a 
shall not appear here to-morrow.' 

2. Then the Blessed One, understanding by the 
power of his mind this reflection which had arisen 
in the mind of the Gatila. Uruvela Kassapa, went 
to Uttara Kuru ; having begged alms there, he took 
the food (he had received) to the Anotatta lake 1 ; 
there he took his meal and rested during the heat 
of the day at the same place. 

And when the night had elapsed, the <7a/ila 
Uruvela Kassapa went to the place where the Blessed 
One was ; having approached him, he said to the 

1 One of the supposed seven great lakes in the Himavant. 



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I, 20, 1. ADMISSION TO THE ORDER OF BHIKKHUS. 1 2 5. 

Blessed One : ' It is time, great Samara, the meal 
is ready. Why did you not come yesterday, great 
Sama«a ? We have thought of you : "Why does 
the great Samara not come ?" and your portions of 
food, both hard and soft, were served up for you.' 

3. (Buddha replied) : ' Did you not think, Kassapa: 
" Presently my great sacrifice (&c, as above down to :). 
Well, the great Sama«a shall not appear here to- 
morrow ?" 

4. ' Now I understood, Kassapa, by the power of 
my mind this reflection which had arisen in your 
mind, and I went to Uttara Kuru; having begged 
alms there, I took the food to the Anotatta lake ; 
there I took my meal and rested during the heat 
of the day at the same place.' 

Then the <7a/ila Uruvela Kassapa thought: 
' Truly the great Sama«a possesses high magical 
powers and great faculties, since he is able to under- 
stand by the power of his mind the thoughts of other 
people. He is not, however, holy like me.' 

And the Blessed One ate (&c, as in chap. 16. 2). 



End of the fifth Wonder. 



20. 

1. At that time the Blessed One had rags 
taken from a dust heap (of which he was going to 
make himself a dress). Now the Blessed One 
thought: 'Where shall I wash these rags?' Then 
Sakka the king of the devas, understanding in his 
mind the thought which had arisen in the mind of 
the Blessed One, dug a tank with his own hand, 



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126 MAHAVAGGA. I, 20, 2. 

and said to the Blessed One : ' Lord, might the 
Blessed One wash the rags here.' 

And the Blessed One thought: 'What shall I rub 
the rags upon ?' Then Sakka the king of the devas, 
understanding, &c, put there a great stone and said: 
' Lord, might the Blessed One rub the rags upon 
this stone.' 

2. And the Blessed One thought: 'What shall 
I take hold of when going up (from the tank)?' 
Then a deity that resided in a Kakudha tree, under- 
standing, &c, bent down a branch and said : ' Lord, 
might the Blessed One take hold of this branch when 
going up (from the tank).' 

And the Blessed One thought: 'What shall I 
lay the rags upon (in order to dry them)?' Then 
Sakka the king of the devas, understanding, &c, 
put there a great stone and said : ' Lord, might the 
Blessed One lay the rags upon this stone.' 

3. And when that night had elapsed, the Gatila. 
Uruvela Kassapa went to the place where the 
Blessed One was ; having approached him, he said 
to the Blessed One : 'It is time, great Sama«a, 
the meal is ready. What is this, great Sama«a ? 
Formerly there was here no tank, and now here 
is this tank. Formerly no stone was put here; by 
whom has this stone been put here ? Formerly this 
Kakudha tree did not bend down its branch, and 
now this branch is bent down.' 

4. ' I had rags, Kassapa, taken from a dust heap; 
and I thought, Kassapa : " Where shall I wash these 
rags ?" Then, Kassapa, Sakka the king of the devas, 
understanding in his mind the thought which had 
arisen in my mind, dug a tank with his hand and 
said to me : " Lord, might the Blessed One wash the 



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I, 20, 7. ADMISSION TO THE ORDER OF BHIKKHUS. 12 1 / 

rags here." Thus this tank has been dug by the 
hand of a non-human being. 

' And I thought, Kassapa : " What shall I rub the 
rags upon ?" Then, Kassapa, Sakka, &c. Thus this 
stone has been put here by a non-human being. 

5. ' And I thought, Kassapa : "What shall I take 
hold of when going up (from the tank)?" Then, 
Kassapa, a deity, &c. Thus this Kakudha tree has 
served me as a hold for my hand. 

' And I thought, Kassapa : " Where shall I lay the 
rags upon (in order to dry them) ?" Then, Kassapa, 
Sakka, &c. Thus this stone has been put here by 
a non-human being.' 

6. Then the GWila Uruvela Kassapa thought : 
' Truly the great Sama«a possesses high magical 
powers and great faculties, since Sakka the king of 
the devas does service to him. He is not, however, 
holy like me.' 

And the Blessed One ate (&c, as in chap. 16. 2). 

7. And when that night had elapsed, the £a/ila 
Uruvela Kassapa went to the place where the 
Blessed One was ; having approached him, he 
announced to the Blessed One that it was time, 
by saying, ' It is time, great Sama«a, the meal is 
ready.' 

(Buddha replied) : ' Go you, Kassapa ; I will follow 
you.' 

Having thus sent away the Gafila, Uruvela Kas- 
sapa, he went to pluck a fruit from the ^ambu tree 
after which this continent of £ambudlpa (the Gambu 
Island, or India) is named 1 ; then arriving before 

1 See about this ^ambu tree, which grows in the forest of Hima- 
vant, Hardy's Manual, p. 18 seq. 



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128 MAHAVAGGA. 1,20,8. 

Kassapa he sat down in the room where Kassapa's 
(sacred) fire was kept x . 

8. Then the Gu/ila Uruvela Kassapa saw the 
Blessed One sitting in the fire room; seeing him 
he said to the Blessed One : ' By what way have 
you come, great Sama»a ? I have departed before 
you, and you have arrived before me and are sitting 
in the fire room.' 

9. ' When I had sent you away, Kassapa, I went 
to pluck a fruit from the ^ambu tree after which 
this continent of Gambudtpa is named ; then I arrived 
before you and sat down in the fire room. Here 
is the ^ambu fruit, Kassapa, it is beautiful, fragrant, 
and full of flavour ; you may eat it, if you like.' 

' Nay, great Sama»a, to you alone it is becoming 
to eat it ; eat it yourself.' 

And the Ga/ila Uruvela Kassapa thought : 'Truly 
the great Samawa possesses high magical powers 
and great faculties, since he is able, having sent 
me away before him, to go and pluck a fruit from 
the ^lambu tree after which this continent of 
Gambudlpa is named, and then to arrive before 
me and to sit down in the fire room. He is not, 
however, holy like me.' 

And the Blessed One ate (&c, as in chap. 16. 2). 

10. And when that night had elapsed (&c, as in 
§ 7, down to:). Having thus sent away the £a/ila 
Uruvela Kassapa, he went to pluck a fruit from a 
mango tree growing near the^ambu tree after which 
this continent of Gambudlpa is named, &c. He 



1 Very probably it is this story in which a similar legend has 
originated that the Ceylonese tell about Mahinda, the converter of 
their island ; see Dipavawsa XII, 75. 



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I, 20, 12. ADMISSION TO THE ORDER OF BHIKKHUS. 1 29 

went to pluck a fruit from an emblic myrobalan 
tree, &c, from a yellow myrobalan tree growing 
near the ^ambu tree, &c. He went to the Tava- 
tiwsa heaven to pluck a pari^/6^attaka (or pari- 
£"ataka) flower; then arriving before Kassapa he 
sat down in the fire room. Then the Gatila. Uru- 
vela Kassapa saw (&c, as in § 8). 

ii. ' When I had sent you away, Kassapa, I went 
to the Tavatiwsa heaven to pluck a pari£/£^attaka 
flower; then I arrived before you and sat down in 
the fire room. Here is the pari^i^attaka flower, 
Kassapa ; it is beautiful and fragrant ; you may take 
it, if you like.' 

' Nay, great Sama«a, to you alone it is becoming 
to keep it ; keep it yourself.' 

And the GWila (&c, as in § 9). ' He is not, 
however, holy as I am.' 



1 2. At that time one day the 6a/ilas, who wished 
to attend on their sacred fires, could not succeed 
in splitting fire-wood. Now these (Pa/ilas thought: 
' Doubtless this is the magical power and the high 
faculty of the great Sama«a that we cannot succeed 
in splitting fire-wood.' Then the Blessed One said 
to the GWila Uruvela Kassapa : ' Shall the fire-wood 
be split, Kassapa ?' 

' Let it be split, great Sama«a.' 

Then in a moment the five hundred pieces of 
fire-wood 1 were split. And the GWila Uruvela 

1 Bigandet (Life of Gaudama, p. 135) translates this passage 
from the Burmese version ; ' Gaudama split it in a moment, in five 
hundred pieces.' Doubtless the true meaning is, that there were 
five hundred pieces of wood, one for each of the five hundred 
(xa/ilas over whom was Kassapa chief. In the following two 
stories (§§ 13, 14) we have five hundred sacred fires. 

['3] K. 

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1 30 mahAvagga. I, 20, 13. 

Kassapa thought : ' Truly the great Sama»a pos- 
sesses high magical powers and great faculties, since 
even the fire-wood splits itself (at his command). He 
is not, however, holy like me.' 

1 3. At that time the Ga/ilas who wished to attend 
on their sacred fires, could not succeed in lighting 
up the fires (&c, as in the preceding story). 

14. At that time the GWilas, after having attended 
on their sacred fires, could not succeed in extinguish- 
ing the fires (&c, as above). 

1 5. At that time in the cold winter nights, in the 
time between the ash/aka festivals 1 , when snow falls, 
the Gatilas plunged into the river Nera#£ara, and 
emerged again, and repeatedly plunged into the 
water and emerged. And the Blessed One created 
five hundred vessels with burning fire 2 ; at those 
the GWilas coming out of the river warmed them- 
selves. And the 6Wilas thought : ' Doubtless this 
is the magical power and the high faculty of the 
great 6ama»a that these vessels with fire have been 
caused to appear here.' And the 6arila Uruvela 
Kassapa thought : ' Truly the great Sama«a pos- 
sesses high magical powers and great faculties, since 
he can create such great vessels with fire. He is 
not, however, holy like me.' 

16. At that time a great rain fell out of season; 
and a great inundation arose. The place where the 
Blessed One lived was covered with water. Then 

1 The ash/ak& festivals, about which accurate details are given 
in the Grihya Sutras, were celebrated about the wane of the moon 
of the winter months margadrsha, taisha, and magna; see Weber, 
Die vedischen Nachrichten von den Naxatra, II, p. 337, and 
H. O.'s note on the .SankMyana Gr/hya, 3, 12, ap. Indische 
Studien, XV, p. 145. 

2 Buddhaghosa explains mandamukhiyo by aggibha^anSni. 



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I, 20, 17. ADMISSION TO THE ORDER OF BHIKKHUS. I31 

the Blessed One thought : ' What if I were to cause 
the water to recede round about, and if I were to 
walk up and down in the midst of the water on 
a dust-covered spot.' And the Blessed One caused 
the water to recede round about, and he walked 
up and down in the midst of the water on a dust- 
covered spot. 

And the 6Wila Uruvela Kassapa, who was afraid 
that the water might have carried away the great 
Samara, went with a boat together with many 
GWilas to the place where the Blessed One lived. 
Then the GWila UruvelA Kassapa saw the Blessed 
One, who had caused the water to recede round 
about, walking up and down in the midst of the 
water on a dust-covered spot. Seeing him, he said to 
the Blessed One : 'Are you there, great Sama#a?' 

' Here I am, Kassapa,' replied the Blessed One, 
and he rose in the air and stationed himself in the 
boat. 

And the 6arila Uruvela Kassapa thought : 'Truly 
the great Sama»a possesses high magical powers 
and great faculties, since the water does not carry 
him away. He is not, however, holy like me.' 

17. Then the Blessed One thought : 'This foolish 
man will still for a long time think thus : " Truly the 
great Sama#a possesses high magical powers and 
great faculties; he is not, however, holy like me." 
What if I were to move the mind of this 6artla (in 
order to show him my superiority).' 

And the Blessed One said to the Gatila. Uruvela 
Kassapa : ' You are not holy (araha), Kassapa, nor 
have you entered the path of Arahatship, nor do you 
walk in such a practice as will lead you to Arahatship, 
or to entering the path of Arahatship.' 

K 2 



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132 mahAvagga. I,20,i8. 

Then the <7arila Uruvela Kassapa prostrated 
himself, inclining his head to the feet of the Blessed 
One, and said to the Blessed One : ' Lord, let me 
receive the pabba^a and upasampada ordina- 
tions from the Blessed One.' 

1 8. (Buddha replied): 'You, Kassapa, are chief, 
leader, foremost, first, and highest of five hundred 
GWilas ; go first and inform them of your intention, 
and let them do what they think fit/ 

Then the GWila Uruvela Kassapa went to those 
Garilas; having gone to them, he said to those 
6Wilas : ' I wish, Sirs, to lead a religious life under 
the direction of the great Samawa; you may do, 
Sirs, what you think fit.' 

(The GWilas replied) : 'We have conceived, Sir, 
an affection for the great Sama#a long since ; if you 
will lead, Sir, a religious life under the great Samara's 
direction, we will all lead a religious life under the 
great Samara's direction.' 

19. Then the Ga/ilas flung their hair 1 , their 
braids, their provisions 2 , and the things for the 
agnihotra sacrifice into the river, and went to the 
place where the Blessed One was ; having approached 
him and prostrated themselves before him, inclining 
their heads to the feet of the Blessed One, they 
said to the Blessed One : ' Lord, let us receive the 
pabba^a and upasampada ordinations from the 
Blessed One.' 

1 Which they had cut off in order to receive the pabbzggi 
ordination, see chap. 12. 3. 

2 We are extremely doubtful about the meaning of khSrika^a, 
which Buddhaghosa explains by khiribhira. Perhaps it may 
mean provisions of any description of which each (?a/ila used to 
keep one kh&ri (a certain dry measure). 



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I, 20, 24. ADMISSION TO THE ORDER OF BHIKKHUS. T33 

' Come, O Bhikkhus,' said the Blessed One, ' well 
taught is the doctrine ; lead a holy life for the sake 
of the complete extinction of suffering.' 

Thus these venerable persons received the upa- 
sampada ordination. 

20. And the 6Wila Nadl Kassapa saw the hair, 
the braids, the provisions, the things for the agni- 
hotra sacrifice, which were carried down by the 
river; when he saw that, he became afraid that 
some misfortune might have befallen his brother. 
He sent some GWilas, saying, ' Go and look after 
my brother,' and went himself with his three hundred 
Ga/ilas to the venerable Uruvela Kassapa ; having 
approached him, he said to the venerable Uruvela 
Kassapa : ' Now, Kassapa, is this bliss ?' 

(Uruvel& Kassapa replied) : ' Yes, friend, this is 
bliss.' 

21. And the GWilas (who had come with Nadl 
Kassapa (&c, as in § 19). 

22. And the G^ila Gaya Kassapa saw (&c, as 
in § 20) ; when he saw that, he became afraid that 
some misfortune might have befallen his brothers. 
He sent some Ga.ti\as, saying, ' Go and look after 
my brothers,' and went himself with his two hundred 
Gatilas to the venerable Uruvela Kassapa (&c, as 
above). 

23. And the 6Wilas (who had come with Gaya 
Kassapa (&c, as in § 19). 

24. x At the command of the Blessed One the 
five hundred pieces of fire-wood could not be split 
and were split, the fires could not be lit up and 



1 This is evidently a remark added to the text by a reader or 
commentator. 



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134 MAHAVAGGA. I, 21, I. 

were lit up, could not be extinguished and were ex- 
tinguished ; besides he created five hundred vessels 
with fire. Thus the number of these miracles 
amounts to three thousand five hundred. 



21. 

i. And the Blessed One, after having dwelt at 
Uruvela as long as he thought fit, went forth to 
Gayasisa 1 , accompanied by a great number of Bhik- 
khus, by one thousand Bhikkhus who all had been 
Gatilas before. There near Gaya, at Gayasisa, the 
Blessed One dwelt together with those thousand 
Bhikkhus. 

2. There the Blessed One thus addressed the 
Bhikkhus: 'Everything, O Bhikkhus, is burning. 
And how, O Bhikkhus, is everything burning ? 

' The eye, O Bhikkhus, is burning ; visible things 
are burning ; the mental impressions based on the 
eye are burning ; the contact of the eye (with visible 
things) is burning; the sensation produced by the 
contact of the eye (with visible things), be it pleasant, 
be it painful, be it neither pleasant nor painful, that 
also is burning. With what fire is it burning? I 
declare unto you that it is burning with the fire of 
lust, with the fire of anger, with the fire of ignorance ; 
it is burning with (the anxieties of) birth, decay, 
death, grief, lamentation, suffering, dejection, and 
despair. 

3. ' The ear is burning, sounds are burning, &c. 
.... The nose is burning, odours are burning, &c. 

1 According to General Cunningham, Gay&sisa ('the head of 
Gaya') is the mountain of Brahmayoni near Gayi. Arch. Rep. 
Ill, 107. 



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1,21,4- ADMISSION TO THE ORDER OF BHIKKHUS. I35 

.... The tongue is burning, tastes are burning, 

&c The body is burning, objects of contact are 

burning, &c The mind is burning, thoughts 

are burning, &c * 

4. ' Considering this, O Bhikkhus, a disciple 
learned (in the scriptures), walking in the Noble 
Path, becomes weary of the eye, weary of visible 
things, weary of the mental impressions based on 
the eye, weary of the contact of the eye (with visible 
things), weary also of the sensation produced by the 
contact of the eye (with visible things), be it pleasant, 
be it painful, be it neither pleasant nor painful. He 

becomes weary of the ear (&c , down to ... . 

thoughts 1 ). Becoming weary of all that, he divests 
himself of passion ; by absence of passion he is made 
free ; when he is free, he becomes aware that he 
is free ; and he realises that re-birth is exhausted ; 
that holiness is completed; that duty is fulfilled; 
and that there is no further return to this world.' 

When this exposition was propounded, the minds 
of those thousand Bhikkhus became free from at- 
tachment to the world, and were released from the 
Asavas. 

Here ends the sermon on ' The Burning.' 



End of the third Bharcavara concerning the 
Wonders done at Uruvela. 



1 Here the same exposition which has been given relating to 
the eye, its objects, the sensations produced by its contact with 
objects, &c, is repeated with reference to the ear and the other 
organs of sense. 



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1 36 MAHAVAGGA. I, 22, 1. 



22. 

1. And the Blessed One, after having dwelt at 
Gayasisa as long as he thought fit, went forth to 
Ra^agaha, accompanied by a great number of Bhik- 
khus, by one thousand Bhikkhus who all had been 
6Wilas before. And the Blessed One, wandering 
from place to place, came to Ra^agaha. There the 
Blessed One dwelt near Ra^agaha, in the La^Mi- 
vana pleasure garden, near the sacred shrine of 
Supati^a 1 . 

2. Then the Magadha king Seniya Bimbisara 
heard : ' The Samawa Gotama Sakyaputta, an ascetic 
of the Sakya tribe, has just arrived at Ra^agaha and 
is staying near Ra^agaha, in the La^ivana pleasure 
garden, near the sacred shrine of Supati/^a. Of 
Him the blessed Gotama such a glorious fame is 
spread abroad : " Truly he is the blessed, holy, abso- 
lute Sambuddha, endowed with knowledge and con- 
duct, the most happy One, who understands all 
worlds, the highest One, who guides men as a driver 
curbs a bullock, the teacher of gods and men, the 
blessed Buddha. He makes known the Truth, which 
he has understood himself and seen face to face, to 
this world system with its devas, its Maras, and its 
Brahmas; to all beings, Samawas and Brahmawas, 

1 La/Mivana (Sansk. yasMvana), literally, ' stick forest,' means a 
forest consisting of bambus. General Cunningham has the following 
note about this bambu forest: 'In 1862, when I was at Rijgir 
(i. e. Ra^agaha), I heard the bambu forest always spoken of as 
Jaktiban; ... I fixed the position of the bambu forest to the 
south-west of Rajgir on the hill lying between the hot-springs of 
Tapoban and old Ra^agrjha.' Reports, III, 140. 

The word we have rendered sacred shrine is JSTetiya. 



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1,22,4. ADMISSION TO THE ORDER OF BHIKKHUS. 1 37 

gods and men ; he preaches that Truth (Dhamma) 
which is glorious in the beginning, glorious in the 
middle, glorious at the end, in the spirit and in the 
letter ; he proclaims a consummate, perfect, and pure 
life." It is good to obtain the sight of holy men 
(Arahats) like that.' 

3. And the Magadha king Seniya Bimbisara, sur- 
rounded by twelve myriads of Magadha Brahmawas 
and householders 1 , went to the place where the 
Blessed One was ; having approached him and 
respectfully saluted the Blessed One, he sat down 
near him. And of those twelve myriads of Magadha 
Brahma»as and householders some also respectfully 
saluted the Blessed One and sat down near him ; 
some exchanged greeting with the Blessed One, 
having exchanged with him greeting and complaisant 
words, they sat down near him ; some bent their 
clasped hands towards the Blessed One and sat 
down near him ; some shouted out their name and 
their family name before the Blessed One and sat 
down near him ; some silently sat down near him. 

4. Now those twelve myriads of Magadha Brah- 
raa«as and householders thought : 'How now is 
this? has the great Samawa placed himself under 
the spiritual direction of Uruvela Kassapa, or has 
Uruvela Kassapa placed himself under the spiritual 
direction of the great Samara ?' 

And the Blessed One, who understood in his mind 
the reflection which had arisen in the minds of those 
twelve myriads of Magadha Brahmawas and house- 
holders, addressed the venerable Uruvela Kassapa 

1 The word householder (gahapati) is used here, as is the case 
not unfrequently, to denote householders of the third caste. Com- 
pare Rh. D.'s note on Maha-sudassana Sutta, p. 260. 



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138 mahAvagga. 1,22,5. 

in this stanza : ' What knowledge have you gained, 
O inhabitant of Uruvela, that has induced you, who 
were renowned for your penances 1 , to forsake your 
sacred fire? I ask you, Kassapa, this question: How 
is it that your fire sacrifice has become deserted?' 

(Kassapa replied) : ' It is visible things and sounds, 
and also tastes, pleasures and woman that the sacri- 
fices speak of 2 ; because I understood that whatever 
belongs to existence 3 is filth, therefore I took no 
more delight in sacrifices and offerings 4 .' 

5. ' But if your mind, Kassapa (said the Blessed 
One 5 ), found there no more delight, — either in visible 
things, or sounds, or tastes, — what is it in the world 
of men or gods in which 6 your mind, Kassapa, now 
finds delight? Tell me that.' 

(Kassapa replied) : ' I have seen the state of peace 
(i. e. Nirvana) in which the basis of existence 
(upadhi 3 ) and the obstacles to perfection (ki»- 

1 Literally, 'who is known as emaciate.' This is said with 
reference to the mortifications practised by the <?a/ilas or V&na- 
prasthas. The Mahabh&rata (III, 1499) uses the same adjective 
(krisa) of a <?a/ila. Vadino we take for a participle, but it is 
possible also to read vad& no, ' tell us,' which Professor Jacobi 
(Zeitschrift der Deutschen Morg. Ges., XXXIV, p. 187) prefers. 
Buddhaghosa takes kisakovad&no for a compound of kisaka and 
ovadana : tSpasanaw ovadako anusasako. 

2 The meaning is: The mantras which are recited at the 
sacrifices contain praises of visible things, &c, and the rewards 
that are promised to him who offers such sacrifices do not extend 
beyond that same sphere. 

3 The Pali word is upadhi, which is translated by Childers, 
'substratum of being.' See our note on chap. 5. 2. In this 
passage upadhi is said to refer to the Khandhas (Buddhaghosa). 

4 Here we have the Vedic distinction of greater and smaller 
sacrifices (ya^atayas and^uhotayas). 

8 The words 'said the Blessed One' (ti Bhagava' avoia) are 
probably interpolated from a gloss, as they destroy the metre. 
' Doubtless Buddhaghosa is right in explaining ko by kva. 



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I, 22, 8. ADMISSION TO THE OKDER OF BHIKKHUS. 1 39 

/fana 1 ) have ceased, which is free from attachment 
to sensual existence, which cannot pass over into 
another state, which cannot be led to another state ; 
therefore I took no more delight in sacrifices and 
offerings.' 

6. Then the venerable Uruvela Kassapa rose from 
his seat, adjusted his upper robe so as to cover one 
shoulder, prostrated himself, inclining his head to the 
feet of the Blessed One, and said to the Blessed One: 
' My teacher, Lord, is the Blessed One, I am his pupil ; 
my teacher, Lord, is the Blessed One, I am his 
pupil.' Then those twelve myriads of Magadha 
Brahma»as and householders understood : ' Uruvela 
Kassapa has placed himself under the spiritual direc- 
tion of the great Sama»a.' 

7, 8. And the Blessed One, who understood in 
his mind the reflection that had arisen in the minds 
of those twelve myriads of Magadha Brahmawas 
and householders, preached to them in due course 
(&c, as in chap. 7, §§ 5, 6, down to:). Just as a clean 
cloth free from black specks properly takes the dye, 
thus eleven myriads of those Magadha Brahmawas 
and householders with Bimbisara at their head, while 
sitting there, obtained the pure and spotless Eye 
of the Truth (that is, the knowledge) : ' Whatsoever 
is subject to the condition of origination is subject 



1 Aki«£ana here, and elsewhere, used as an epithet of 
Arahatship, refers to the state of mind in which the kin^anas, 
that is, lust, malice, and delusion (so in the Sawgid Sutta of the 
Digha Nikaya), have ceased to be. It is literally 'being without the 
somethings,' which are the things that stand in the way, the 
obstacles to Buddhist perfection; and Buddhaghosa (in the Su- 
maftgala Vilasint on the passage in the Sawgtti Sutta) explains 
accordingly kin^ana by pa/ibodha. 



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I40 mahAvagga. i, 22, 9. 

also to the condition of cessation.' One myriad 
announced their having become lay-pupils. 

9. Then the Magadha king Seniya Bimbisara, 
having seen the Truth (&c down to) de- 
pendent on nobody else for the knowledge of the 
Teacher's doctrine, said to the Blessed One : ' In 
former days, Lord, when I was a prince, I entertained 
five wishes ; these are fulfilled now. In former days, 
Lord, when I was a prince, I wished : " O that I might 
be inaugurated as king." This was my first wish, 
Lord ; this is fulfilled now. " And might then the holy, 
absolute Sambuddha come into my kingdom." This 
was my second wish, Lord ; this is fulfilled now. 

10. ' "And might I pay my respects to Him, the 
Blessed One." This was my third wish, Lord ; this 
is fulfilled now. "And might He the Blessed One 
preach his doctrine (Dhamma) to me." This was my 
fourth wish, Lord ; this is fulfilled now. " And might I 
understand His, the Blessed One's doctrine." This was 
my fifth wish, Lord ; this is fulfilled now. These were 
the five wishes, Lord, which I entertained in former 
days when I was a prince ; these are fulfilled now. 

11. ' Glorious, Lord ! (&c, as in chap. 7. 10, down 
to :) who has taken his refuge in Him. And might 
the Blessed One, Lord, consent to take his meal 
with me to-morrow together with the fraternity of 
Bhikkhus.' 

The Blessed One expressed his consent by re- 
maining silent. 

12. Then the Magadha king Seniya Bimbisara, 
when he understood that the Blessed One had 
accepted his invitation, rose from his seat, respect- 
fully saluted the Blessed One, and, passing round 
him with his right side towards him, went away. 



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I, 22, 13. ADMISSION TO THE ORDER OF BHIKKHUS. 141 

And when the night had elapsed, the Magadha king 
Seniya Bimbisara ordered excellent food, both hard 
and soft, to be prepared, and had dinner-time an- 
nounced to the Blessed One in the words : ' It is 
time, Lord, the meal is ready.' And in the forenoon 
the Blessed One, having put on his under-robes, 
took his alms-bowl, and with his iivara on entered 
the city of Ra^agaha accompanied by a great number 
of Bhikkhus, by one thousand Bhikkhus who all had 
been GWilas before. 

13. At that time Sakka the king of the devas, 
assuming the appearance of a young Brdhman, walked 
in front of the Bhikkhu fraternity with Buddha 
at its head, singing the following stanzas : ' The 
self-controlled One with the self-controlled, with the 
former (jWilas, the released One with the released, 
the Blessed One, gold-coloured like an ornament 
of singl gold l , has entered Ra^agaha. 

' The emancipated One with the emancipated, with 
the former GWilas, &c. 

' He who has crossed (the ocean of passion) with 
them who have crossed (it), with the former Garilas, 
the released One with the released, the Blessed 
One, gold-coloured like an ornament of singi gold, 
has entered Ra^agaha. 

' He who is possessed of the ten Noble States 2 

1 Gold colour is one (the 17th) of the thirty-two lakkhawa 
which form the characteristics of Buddha as a mahapurisa. 

2 The ten ariyavisas. Buddhaghosa says : dasasu ariyavd- 
sesu vutthavdso. The Sawgiti Sutta gives the ten Noble States, 
as follows: 1. being free from the five bad qualities (paw^aftga), 
2. being possessed of the six good qualities (kka.ia.hga.), 3. being 
guarded in the one thing (ekarakkha), 4. observing four things 
(£aturapassena), 5. rejecting each of the four false truths (pa- 
nunna pa££eka-sa££a), 6. seeking right things (samavayasa- 



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142 MAHAVAGGA. I, 22, 14. 

and of the ten Powers 1 , who understands the ten 
Paths of Kamma 2 and possesses the ten (attributes 
of Arahatship) s , the Blessed One, surrounded by 
ten hundred of followers, has entered Ri^agaha.' 

14. The people when they saw Sakka the king 
of the devas, said : ' This youth indeed is handsome ; 
this youth indeed has a lovely appearance ; this 
youth indeed is pleasing. Whose attendant may 
this youth be?' 

When they talked thus, Sakka the king of the 
devas addressed those people in this stanza : 'He 
who is wise, entirely self-controlled, the unrivalled 
Buddha, the Arahat, the most happy upon earth : 
his attendant am I.' 

15. And the Blessed One went to the palace 
of the Magadha king Seniya Bimbisara. Having 
gone there, he sat down with the Bhikkhus who 
followed him, on seats laid out for them. Then the 
Magadha king Seniya Bimbisara with his own hands 
served and offered excellent food, both hard and soft, 
to the fraternity of Bhikkhus with the Buddha at 

dhesana), 7. having pure aims (anavila-samkappa), 8. being 
full of ease (passaddhak&ya-sawkhdra), 9. being emancipated 
in heart (suvimutta^itta), 10. being emancipated in ideas (suvi- 
muttapawna). The Sawgiti then further enlarges on the meaning 
of each of these ten. 

1 The ten Balas, which are ten kinds of knowledge (na«a); see 
Burnouf, Lotus, p. 781 and following, and compare Gataka 1, 78. 

* Buddhaghosa explains dasadhammavidu by dasakammapatha- 
vidu. 

3 Buddhaghosa explains dasabhi £'upeto by supplying ase- 
khehi dhammehi. The first eight of the ten asekh£ dhammi 
consist in the full perfection of sammadi/Mi (right belief) and the 
other categories enumerated in the formula of the Noble Eightfold 
Path; the ninth and tenth are the perfection of samminawa (right 
knowledge) and sammlvimutti (right emancipation). 



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I, 22, 18. ADMISSION TO THE ORDER OF BHIKKHUS. 1 43 

its head ; and when the Blessed One had finished 
his meal and cleansed his bowl and his hands, he 
sat down near him. 

16. Sitting near him the Magadha king Seniya 
Bimbisara thought : ' Where may I find a place for 
the Blessed One to live in, not too far from the 
town and not too near, suitable for going and coming, 
easily accessible for all people who want (to see 
him), by day not too crowded, at night not exposed 
to much noise and alarm, clean of the smell of 
people, hidden from men, well fitted for a retired 
life V 

17. And the Magadha king Seniya Bimbisara 
thought: 'There is the Ve/uvana 1 , my pleasure 
garden, which is not too far from the town and not. 
too near, suitable for going and coming, .... (&c, 
down to a retired life). What if I were to make 
an offering of the Ve/uvana pleasure garden to 
the fraternity of Bhikkhus with the Buddha at its 
head?' 

18. And the Magadha king Seniya Bimbisara 
took a golden vessel (with water in it, to be poured 
over the Buddha's hand); and dedicated (the garden) 
to the Blessed One (by saying), 'I give up this 
Ve/uvana pleasure garden, Lord, to the fraternity 
of Bhikkhus with the Buddha at its head.' The 
Blessed One accepted the arama (park). Then 
the Blessed One, after having taught, incited, 
animated, and gladdened the Magadha king Seniya 

1 The site of the Ve/uvana ('bambu forest') near Ra^agaha has 
not yet been discovered. ' It must have occupied about the position 
where the ancient basements, marked K. K.K. and G. in Cunning- 
ham's map of Ra^agrAa (pi. xiv, Reports, vol. i), were found by 
him ' (Rh. D., ' Buddhism,' p. 62 note). 



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144 MAHAVAGGA. I, 23, I. 

Bimbisara by religious discourse, rose from his seat 
and went away. 

And in consequence of this event the Blessed 
One, after having delivered a religious discourse, 
thus addressed the Bhikkhus : ' I allow you, O Bhik- 
khus, to receive the donation of an arama (a park).' 



23. 

1. At that' time Sa«^aya, a paribba^aka (wan- 
dering ascetic), resided at Ra^agaha with a great 
retinue of paribba^akas, with two hundred and 
fifty paribba^akas. At that time Sariputta and 
Moggallana (two young Brahmawas) led a religious 
life as followers of Saw^aya the paribba^aka ; these 
had given their word to each other : 'He who first 
attains to the immortal (amata, i.e. Nirvawa) shall 
tell the other one.' 

2. Now one day the venerable Assa^i in the fore- 
noon, having put on his under-robes, and having 
taken his alms-bowl, and with his ^Ivara on, entered 
the city of Ra^agaha for alms ; his walking, turning 
back, regarding, looking, drawing (his arms) back, 
and stretching (them) out was decorous ; he turned 
his eyes to the ground, and was dignified in deport- 
ment. Now the paribbi^aka Sariputta saw the 
venerable Assa^i, who went through Ra^agaha for 
alms, whose walking, &c, was decorous, who kept his 
eyes on the ground, and was dignified in deportment. 
Seeing him he thought : ' Indeed this person is one 
of those Bhikkhus who are the worthy ones (Arahats) 
in the world, or who have entered the path of Arahat- 
ship. What if I were to approach this Bhikkhu and 



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I, 23, 4. ADMISSION TO THE ORDER OF BHIKKHUS. 1 45 

to ask him: "In whose name, friend, have you retired 
from the world? Who is your teacher? Whose 
doctrine do you profess?"' 

3. Now the paribba^aka Sariputta thought : 'This 
is not the time to ask this Bhikkhu ; he has entered 
the interior yard of a house, walking for alms. What 
if I were to follow this Bhikkhu step by step, accord- 
ing to the course recognised by those who want 
something V 

And the venerable Assa^i, having finished his 
alms-pilgrimage through Ra^agaha, went back with 
the food he had received. Then the paribba^aka 
Sariputta went to the place where the venerable 
Assa^i was ; having approached him, he exchanged 
greeting with the venerable Assail ; having ex- 
changed with him greeting and complaisant words, 
he stationed himself at his side ; standing at his side 
the paribba^aka Sariputta said to the venerable 
Assail : ' Your countenance, friend, is serene ; your 
complexion is pure and bright. In whose name, 
friend, have you retired from the world? Who is 
your teacher? Whose doctrine do you profess 2 ?' 

4. (Assa^i replied): 'There is, friend, the great 
Samara Sakyaputta, an ascetic of the Sakya tribe ; 
in His, the Blessed One's, name have I retired from 
the world ; He, the Blessed One, is my teacher ; and 
His, the Blessed One's, doctrine do I profess.' 



1 This seems to us the meaning of atthikehi upanwataw 
maggaw. Sariputta followed Assa^i as suppliants are accustomed 
to follow their proposed benefactor till a convenient season arrives 
for preferring their request. 

a The same words as are put in the mouth of Upaka, when 
addressing the Buddha, above, chap. 6, § 7 (and see below, § 6). 

[13] L 



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146 MAHAVAGGA. 1,33,5- 

'And what is the doctrine, Sir, which your teacher 
holds, and preaches to you?' 

' I am only a young disciple, friend ; I have but 
recently received the ordination ; and I have newly 
adopted this doctrine and discipline. I cannot explain 
to you the doctrine in detail ; but I will tell you in 
short what it means.' 

Then the paribba^uka Sariputta said to the vener- 
able Assa^i : ' Well, friend, tell me much or little as 
you like, but be sure to tell me the spirit (of the doc- 
trine) ; I want but the spirit ; why do you make so 
much of the letter ?' 

5. Then the venerable Assa^i pronounced to the 
paribbi^aka Sariputta the following text of. the 
Dhamma : ' Of all objects which proceed from a 
cause, the Tathagata has explained the cause, and 
He has explained their cessation also; this is the 
doctrine of the great Sama»aV 

And the paribbi^aka Sariputta after having heard 
this text obtained the pure and spotless Eye of the 
Truth (that is, the following knowledge) : ' Whatso- 
ever is subject to the condition of origination is subject 
also to the condition of cessation.' (And he said) : ' If 
this alone be the Doctrine (the Dhamma), now you 
have reached up to the state where all sorrow ceases 
(i. e. Nirvawa), (the state) which has remained unseen 

1 This famous stanza doubtless alludes to the formula of the 
twelve Nid&nas (see chap. 1. 2) which explains the origination 
and cessation of what are called here 'dhamma" hetuppabhavaV 
Hetu and papaya (the word so frequently used in the formula 
of the Nidanas) are nearly synonymous. Colebrooke (Life and 
Essays, vol. ii. p. 419) says that the Bauddhas distinguish between 
hetu, 'proximate cause,' and papaya (pratyaya), 'concurrent 
occasion;' but, in practical use, this slight difference of meaning, if 
it really existed, has but little weight attached to it. 



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I, 24, I. ADMISSION TO THE ORDER OF BHIKKHUS. I47 

through many myriads of Kappas (world-ages) of the 
past.' 

6. Then the paribba^aka Sariputta went to the 
place where the paribba^aka Moggallana was. And 
the paribba^aka Moggallana saw the paribba^aka 
Sariputta coming from afar ; seeing him he said 
to the paribba^aka Sariputta : ' Your countenance, 
friend, is serene ; your complexion is pure and bright. 
Have you then really reached the immortal, friend ?' 

' Yes, friend, I have attained to the immortal.' 

'And how, friend, have you done so ?' 

7-9. ' I saw, friend, the Bhikkhu Assa^i who went 
through Ra^agaha for alms (&c.\ down to:); "But 
I will tell you in short what it means." 

' " Tell me much or little as you like, but be sure 
to tell me the spirit (of the doctrine); I want but the 
spirit ; why do you make so much of the letter ?" 

10. ' Then, friend, the Bhikkhu Assafi pronounced 
the following Dhamma sentence : " Of all objects 
which proceed from a cause, the Tathagata has ex- 
plained the cause, and He has explained their cessa- 
tion also ; this is the doctrine of the great Samarca."' 

And the paribba^aka Moggallana, after having 
heard (&c, as in § 5, down to the end). 



24. 

1. Then the paribbi^aka Moggallana said to the 
paribba^aka Sariputta : ' Let us go, friend, and join 

1 See §§ 2-4. Instead of ' The paribba^aka Sariputta,' of course, 
the pronoun of the first person is to be read ; instead of ' The 
venerable Assagi' read, 'The Bhikkhu Assa^i;' and further, the 
vocative 'Friend' (avuso), addressed to Moggallana, is inserted 
three or four times in the course of this narration. 

L 2 



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148 MAHAVAGGA. I, 24, 2. 

the Blessed One ; that He, the Blessed One, may 
be our teacher.' 

(Sariputta replied): 'It is on our account, friend, 
that these two hundred and fifty paribba^akas live 
here (as followers of Sa»f aya), and it is we whom 
they regard ; let us first inform them also of our 
intention ; then they may do what they think fit.' 

Then Sariputta and Moggallana went to the place 
where those paribba^akas were ; having approached 
them, they said to the paribba^iakas : ' Friends, we 
are going to join the Blessed One; that He, the 
Blessed One, may be our teacher.' 

(The paribba^akas replied) : ' It is on your account, 
Sirs, that we live here, and it is you whom we regard ; 
if you, Sirs, are about to place yourselves under the 
spiritual direction of the great Samawa, we all will 
place ourselves also under the spiritual direction of 
the great Samawa.' 

2. Then Sariputta and Moggallana went to the 
place where the paribba^aka Sa«^iaya was ; having 
approached him, they said to the paribbi^aka Sa»- 
^aya : ' Friend, we are going to join the Blessed One ; 
that He, the Blessed One, may be our teacher.' 

(Sa#£ctya replied) : ' Nay, friends, do not go ; let 
us all three share in the leadership of this body (of 
disciples).' 

And a second time Sariputta and Moggallana said, 
&c. And a third time Sariputta and Moggallana 
said, &c. (And a third time he replied) : ' Nay, 
friends, do not go ; let us all three share in the 
leadership of this body (of disciples).' 

3. But Sariputta and Moggallana took with them 
those two hundred and fifty paribba^akas and went 
to the Ve/uvana. But the paribba^aka Sa»^aya 



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I, 34, 3. ADMISSION TO THE ORDER OF BHIKKHUS. 1 49 

began, on the spot, to vomit hot blood from his 
mouth 1 . 

And the Blessed One saw them, Sariputta and 
Moggallana, coming from afar ; on seeing them he 
thus addressed the Bhikkhus : ' There, O Bhikkhus, 
two companions arrive, Kolita and Upatissa 2 ; these 
will be a pair of (true) pupils, a most distinguished, 
auspicious pair.' 

When 8 (Sariputta and Moggallana), who had 
reached emancipation in the perfect destruction of 
the substrata (of existence), which is a profound 
subject accessible only to knowledge, came to the 
Ve/uvana, the Teacher, who saw them, foretold about 



1 The later Burmese and Chinese works translated by Bigandet 
(Life of Gaudama, p. 152) and by Beal (Romantic Legend, 
p. 330) add that he died. This is not in the Pali text, and the 
Sinhalese account given by Hardy (Manual, p. 197) is directly 
opposed to that statement. 

2 Upatissa was called Sariputta after his mother ('The Son 
of Sdri ') ; Kolita had the family name Moggall&na (compare Beal, 
Romantic Legend, pp. 324, 331). The name Upatissa occurs in 
Asoka's well-known edict which has been found at Bairdt. The 
king there quotes ' The Question of Upatissa ' among the texts, 
the study of which he recommends to the brethren and sisters 
of the fraternity and to the laymen of either sex. This very 
probably refers to the dialogue between Assa^i and Sariputta. 

8 As to this repetition of what had been related before, comp. 
the note on chap. 15. 6, 7. The words from gambhlre down to 
upadhisawkhaye form a doka. This is one of several instances 
where an older passage in verse, and probably first composed in 
some nearly related dialect, appears in the Pali Pi/akas in prose. 
It is this which explains the extraordinary grammatical construction 
of the first seven words. Compare Rh. D.'s note on the similar 
instance at Mah&-parinibb£na Sutta V, 62. The exclamation put 
into the mouth of S&riputta, and afterwards of Moggallana (above, 
chap. 23, §§ 5, 10), ought also, perhaps, to be included in the 
same category. 



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1 50 mahAvagga. I, 24, 4. 

them : ' These two companions who are now coming — 
Kolita and Upatissa — these will be a pair of (true) 
pupils, a most distinguished, auspicious pair.' 

4. Then Sariputta and Moggallana went to the 
place where the Blessed One was; having approached 
him, they prostrated themselves, inclining their heads 
to the feet of the Blessed One, and said to the 
Blessed One: 'Lord, let us receive the pabba^a 
and upasampada ordinations from the Blessed 
One.' 

' Come, O Bhikkhus,' said the Blessed One, ' well 
taught is the doctrine ; lead a holy life for the sake 
of the complete extinction of suffering.' Thus these 
venerable persons received the upasampada ordi- 
nation. 

5. At that time many distinguished young Maga- 
dha noblemen led a religious life under the direction 
of the Blessed One. The people were annoyed, 
murmured, and became angry (saying), 'The Sa- 
mara Gotama causes fathers to beget no sons ; the 
Samara Gotama causes wives to become widows; 
the Samawa Gotama causes families to become 
extinct. Now he has ordained one thousand Garilas, 
and he has ordained these two hundred and fifty 
paribba^akas who were followers of Sa»^aya ; and 
these many distinguished young Magadha noblemen 
are now leading a religious life under the direction 
of the Sama»a Gotama.' And moreover, when they 
saw the Bhikkhus, they reviled them in the following 
stanza : ' The great Sama»a has come to Giribba^a 
(i. e. Ra^agaha) of the Magadha people, leading with 
him all the followers of Sa%aya ; who will be the 
next to be led by him?' 

6. Some Bhikkhus heard those people that were 



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I, 25,1. ADMISSION TO THE ORDER OF BHIKKHUS. 151 

annoyed, murmured, and had become angry ; these 
Bhikkhus told this thing to the Blessed One. (He 
replied) : ' This noise, O Bhikkhus, will not last 
long ; it will last only seven days ; after seven days 
it will be over. And if they revile you, O Bhikkhus, 
in this stanza : " The great Samara has come, &c," 
you should reply to the revilers in the following 
stanza : " It is by means of the true doctrine that the 
great heroes, the Tathagatas, lead men. Who will 
murmur at the wise, who lead men by the power of 
the Truth?"' 

7. At that time the people, when seeing the Bhik- 
khus, reviled them in the following stanza : ' The 
great Sama«a has come, &c.' 

Then the Bhikkhus replied to the revilers in the 
following stanza : ' It is by means of the true doc- 
trine, &c.' 

Then the people understood: ' It is by truth, and 
not by wrong, that the Sakyaputtiya Samaras lead 
men;' and thus that noise lasted only seven days, 
and after seven days it was over. 



Here ends the narration of the ordination of 
Sariputta and Moggallana. 



End of the fourth Bha«avara. 



25 \ 

1. At that time some Bhikkhus, as they had no 
upa^^ayas (preceptors) and received no exhorta- 

1 The chief object of the first book being to discuss the regu- 
lations for the upasampadi ordination, at which the preceptor 



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152 mahAvagga. 1,35,2. 

tion and instruction, went on their rounds for alms 
wearing improper under and upper garments (or, 
wearing their under and upper garments improperly), 
and in an improper attire. While people were 
eating, they held out their alms-bowls in which were 
leavings of food \ over the hard food (which the 
people were eating), and held them out over soft 
food, and held them out over savoury food, and 
held them out over drinks. They asked for soup 
and boiled rice themselves, and ate it ; in the dining 
halls they made a great and loud noise. 

2. The people were annoyed, murmured, and 
became angry (saying), ' How can the Sakyaputtiya 
Samaras go on their rounds for alms wearing im- 
proper under and upper garments, .... (&c, as in 
§ 1, down to drinks)? How can they make so great 
and loud a noise in the dining halls ? They behave 
like Brahmawas at the dinners given to them.' 

3. Some Bhikkhus heard those people that were 
annoyed, murmured, and had become angry. Those 
Bhikkhus who were moderate, frugal, modest, con- 

(upa^Mya) of the candidate has a principal part, the text now 
goes on to relate the institution of the office and upa^Myas, 
and to explain the mutual duties incumbent on upa^Myas and 
pupils (saddhivihSrikas). 

1 Buddhaghosa has the following note on utti//iapatta: 'utnV/Aa- 
pattan ti pi«</aya £ara«akapattaw, tasmiw? hi manussa uM/Masaw- 
wino (this word is spelt so in the Paris MS. as well as in the Berlin 
MS. of the Samanta P&s£dik$ ; the usual spelling is \xkkhittha), 
tasma utti/Mapattan ti vuttaw. athava u/Mahitva pattaw upana- 
menttti evam ettha attho da///&abbo.' We take the word, as the 
former of Buddhaghosa's two explanations implies, for a com- 
position of ukkhUthz. For the conversion of palatal consonants 
into dentals, see E. Kuhn, Beitrage zur Pali-Grammatik, p. 36, 
and on the use of the word compare Trenckner's Milinda Panho, 
pp. 213, 214. 



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I, 25, 6. ADMISSION TO THE ORDER OF BHIKKHUS. 1 53 

scientious, anxious for training, were annoyed, mur- 
mured, and became angry : ' How can the Bhikkhus 
go on their rounds for alms wearing improper under 
and upper garments, &c. ? How can they make so 
great and loud a noise in the dining halls ? ' 

4. These Bhikkhus told this thing to the Blessed 
One. 

In consequence of that and on this occasion the 
Blessed One, having ordered the fraternity of Bhik- 
khus to assemble, questioned the Bhikkhus : ' Is it 
true, O Bhikkhus, that some Bhikkhus go on their 

rounds (&c, down to), that they make a great 

and loud noise in the dining halls ?' 

' It is true, Lord.' 

5. Then the Blessed Buddha rebuked those Bhik- 
khus: 'It is improper, O Bhikkhus, what these 
foolish persons are doing, it is unbecoming, indecent, 
unworthy of Sama#as, unallowable, and to be avoided. 
How can these foolish persons, O Bhikkhus, go on 
their rounds, &c ? How can they make so great and 
loud a noise in the dining halls? This will not 
do, O Bhikkhus, for .converting the unconverted, and 
for augmenting the number of the converted ; but 
it will result, O Bhikkhus, in the unconverted being 
repulsed (from the faith), and in many of the con- 
verted being estranged.' 

6. And the Blessed One rebuked those Bhikkhus 
in many ways, spoke against unfrugality, ill-nature, 
immoderation, insatiableness, delighting in society, 
and indolence; spoke in many ways in praise of 
frugality, good-nature, of the moderate, contented, 
who have eradicated (sin), who have shaken off (sin), 
of the gracious, of the reverent, and of the energetic. 
And having delivered before the Bhikkhus a religious 



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154 MAHAVAGGA. I, 25, 7. 

discourse in accordance to, and in conformity with 
these subjects, he thus addressed the Bhikkhus: 
' I prescribe, O Bhikkhus, (that young Bhikkhus 
choose) an upaggAaya (or preceptor). 

' The upagg haya, O Bhikkhus, ought to con- 
sider the saddhiviharika (i.e. pupil) as a son; 
the saddhiviharika ought to consider the upa^ - - 
ghaya as a father. Thus these two, united by 
mutual reverence, confidence, and communion of 
life, will progress, advance, and reach a high stage 
in this doctrine and discipline. 

7. 'And let them choose, O Bhikkhus, an wpag- 
ghaya in this way : Let him (who is going to choose 
an upa.ggvfcaya) adjust his upper robe so as to cover 
one shoulder, salute the feet (of the intended upa^- 
ghaya), sit down squatting, raise his joined hands, 
and say: "Venerable Sir, be my upa^^aya; vene- 
rable Sir, be my upaggkaya; venerable Sir, be 
my upa/^aya." (If the other answer) : " Well," or, 
"Certainly," or, "Good," or, "All right," or, "Carry 
on (your work) with friendliness (towards me)," or 
should he express this by gesture (lit. by his body), 
or by word, or by gesture and word, then the upag- 
ghaya has been chosen. If he does not express 
this by gesture, nor by word, nor by gesture and 
word, the upa^^aya has not been chosen. 

8. ' The saddhiviharika, O Bhikkhus, ought to 
observe a strict conduct towards his upagg/tkya.. 
And these are the rules for his conduct : Let him 
arise betimes, and having taken off his shoes x and 
adjusted his upper robe so as to cover one shoulder, 

1 If he had put on shoes for having a walk early in the morning 
or for keeping his feet clean (Buddhaghosa). 



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I, 25, 10. ADMISSION TO THE ORDER OF BHIKKHUS. I55 

let him give (to the upajg-^aya) the teeth-cleanser 
and water to rinse his mouth with. Then let him 
prepare a seat (for the upa^^aya). If there is rice- 
milk, let him rinse the jug and offer the rice-milk 
(to the upag^aya). When he has drunk it, let him 
give water (to the upajg^aya), take the jug, hold 
it down, rinse it properly without (damaging it by) 
rubbing, and put it away. When the upa/^aya 
has risen, let him take away the seat. If the place 
is dirty, let him sweep the place. 

9. 'If the upa/^aya wishes to go into the 
village, let (the saddhiviharika) give (to the upa/- 
^aya) his under garment, take (from him) his 
second under garment (i. e. his house-dress ?), give 
him his girdle, lay the two upper garments upon 
each other 1 and give them (to the upa^fMya), rinse 
the alms-bowl, and give it him with some water 
in it. If the upa^^aya wishes (to go with) an 
attendant Bhikkhu, let him put on his under garment 
so as to conceal the three circles (viz. the navel and 
the two knees) and as to cover the body all around ; 
then let him put on his girdle, lay the two upper 
garments upon each other and put them on, tie the 
knots, take his alms-bowl, after having it rinsed, and 
follow the upa^f^aya as his attendant. Let him 
not go too far (from the upajg^aya) nor too near. 
Let him take (from the upag^iaya) what has been 
put into his alms-bowl 2 . 

10. 'When the upa^Mya speaks, let (the sad- 

1 Buddhaghosa explains saguwaw katvi by ekato katva\ 

2 According to Buddhaghosa the meaning of these words is: 
If the alms-bowl of the upa^Aiya has become too heavy or hot 
by the food put into it, the saddhivihirika ought to take it and 
give his own bowl to the upa^Mya. 



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156 mahAvagga. 1,25,11. 

dhiviharika) not interrupt him. If the upa^"- 
gh&yz. is in danger of committing an offence by the 
words he says, let (the saddhiviharika) keep him 
back. When (the upa^Aaya) turns back (from his 
alms-pilgrimage), let the saddhiviharika go back 
(to the Vihara) before (the upagfMya), prepare a seat, 
get water for the washing of his feet, a foot-stool, 
and a towel 1 ; then let him go to meet the upa^ - - 
gkkya., take his bowl and his robe, give him his 
second under garment (his house-dress ?), and take 
his under garment If the robe (of the upa^fMya) 
is wet with perspiration, let him dry it a while in 
a hot place, but let him not leave the robe in a hot 
place. Let him fold up the robe. When folding 
up the robe, let him fold it up so as to leave (every 
day) four inches (more than the day before) hanging 
over at the corners, in order that no fold may arise 
in the middle of it 2 . Let him .... the girdle 3 . If 
there is any food received in the alms-bowl, and the 
upa^Mya desires to eat it, let him give water (to 
the upa^f^aya) and then offer him the food. 

11. ' Let him offer to the upa^^aya (water) to 
drink. When the upa^^aya has finished his 
meal, let (the saddhiviharika) give him water, take 
his alms-bowl, hold it down, rinse it properly without 
(damaging it by) rubbing, pour the water out, and 
dry (the bowl) a while in some hot place, but let 

1 See Chap. 6. r 1, with the note. 

2 I. e. in order that the folds might not fall upon the same place 
every day, and the robe might be worn out at that place (Buddha- 
ghosa). 

3 The Pali text is : ' Obhoge kayabandhanara Idtabbaw.' Bud- 
dhaghosa's note runs as follows: ' K&yabandhanara sawzgharitvS 
(read sawharitva) £ivarabhoge pakkhipitva /Aapetabbaw.' We do not 
venture to offer any conjectures as to the meaning of this passage. 



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I, 25, 13. ADMISSION TO THE ORDER OF BHIKKHUS. 157 

him not leave the bowl in the hot place. Let him 
put away the alms-bowl and the robe. When he 
puts away the alms-bowl, let him do so holding 
the alms-bowl with one hand, and first feeling with 
the other hand under the bed or under the chair 
(where he is going to put the bowl), and let him 
not put the bowl on the bare ground. When he 
hangs up the robe, let him take the robe with one 
hand and stroke with the other hand along the 
bambu peg or rope on which the robe is to be 
hung up, and hang up the robe so that the border 
is turned away from him (and turned to the wall), 
and the fold is turned towards him. When the 
upa^^aya has risen, let him take away the seat 
and put away the water for the washing of the feet, 
the foot-stool, and the towel \ If the place is dirty, 
let him sweep the place. 

12. ' If the upa^^aya wishes to bathe, let him 
prepare a bath. If he wants cold water, let him 
get cold water ; if he wants hot water, let him get 
hot water. If the upa^^aya wishes to go to the 
^antaghara 2 , let (the saddhiviharika) knead the 
powder 3 , moisten the clay 4 , take up the chair 
belonging to the ^antaghara, follow the upajr- 
ghkyz. from behind, give him the chair, take his 

1 See Chap. 6. 11, with the note. 

3 A ^-ant&ghara (Sansk. yantragr/ha, according to Dr.Bfihler's 
conjecture) is a bathing-place for hot sitting baths. See Aullavagga 
V, 14, 3 ; VIII, 8; Kuhn's Zeitschrift filr vergleichende Sprachf., 
XXV, 325. 

8 It is first moistened by water and then kneaded into lumps 
(Buddhaghosa), — no doubt to be rubbed over the person who is 
bathing. 

4 The face was besmeared with moistened clay in order to pro- 
tect it from the heat. See .ffullavagga V, 14, 3. 



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1 58 mahAvagga. I, 25, 13. 

robe and put it aside, give him the powder and the 
clay. If he is able 1 , let him also enter the^anta- 
ghara. When he is going to enter the ganta- 
ghara, let him besmear his face with clay, cover 
himself from before and behind, and thus enter the 
^•antaghara. 

1 3. ' Let him not sit down so as to encroach on 
senior Bhikkhus, nor let him dislodge junior Bhik- 
khus from their seats. Let him wait upon the 
upa/^aya in the g ant&ghara. When he is going 
to leave the ^antAghara, let him take up the chair 
belonging to the ^antighara, cover himself from 
before and behind, and thus leave the ^antaghara. 
Let him wait upon the upa^^aya also in the water. 
When he has bathed, let (the saddhiviharika) go out 
of the water first, let him dry his own body, put on 
his dress, then wipe off the water from his upa.f- 
gAaya.'s body, give him his under garment and his 
upper garment, take the chair belonging to the^fan- 
taghara, go before the upa^^aya, prepare a seat 
for him, and get water for the washing of his feet, a 
foot-stool, and a towel 2 . Let him offer to the upa^- 
gh&ya. (water) to drink. 

14. 'If (the upagg^aya) likes being called upon to 
deliver a discourse, let him call upon (the upaggkaya. 
to do so). If (the upaggteya) likes questions being 
put to him, let him put questions (to the upagg/iaya). 

'If the Vihara, in which the upagghaya dwells, 
is dirty, let him clean that Vihara, if he is able to do 
so. When cleaning the Vihara, let him first take 
away the alms-bowl and the robe (of the upa^f^aya) 



1 I. e. if he is not prevented by indisposition (Buddhaghosa). 
a See Chap. 6. ii, with the note. 



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I, 25, 16. ADMISSION TO THE ORDER OF BHIKKHUS. 1 59 

and lay them aside. Let him take away the mat and 
the sheet 1 and lay them aside. Let him take away 
the mattress and the pillow and lay them aside. 

1 5. ' Let him turn down the ' bed, take it away 
properly without rubbing it (against the floor) and 
without knocking it against door or doorpost, and 
put it aside. Let him turn down the chair, take it 
away properly without rubbing it (against the floor) 
and without knocking it against door or doorpost, 
and put it aside. Let him take away the supporters 
of the bed 2 and put them aside. Let him take away 
the spitting-box and put it aside. Let him take away 
the board to recline on 3 and put it aside. Let him 
take away the carpet, after having noticed how it 
was spread out, and put it aside. If there are cob- 
webs in the Vihara, let him remove them as soon as 
he sees them. Let him wipe off the casements 4 and 
the corners of the room. If a wall which is coated 
with red chalk, is dirty, let him moisten the mop, 
wring it out, and scour the wall. If the floor is 
coated black and is dirty, let him moisten the mop, 
wring it out, and scour the floor. If the floor is not 
blacked, let him sprinkle it with water and scrub it in 
order that the Vihara may not become dusty. Let 
him heap up the sweepings and cast them aside. 

16. 'Let him bask the carpet in the sunshine, 
clean it, dust it by beating, take it back, and spread 
it out as it was spread before. Let him put the 
supporters of the bed in the sunshine, wipe them, 

1 See VIII, 16, 3. 4. 

2 TJie bedstead rested on movable supporters. See .ffullavagga 
VI, 2, 5 . 

8 See AMavagga VI, 20, 2. 

4 See the Samanta PasadM, ap. Minayeff, Pr&timoksha, p. 87. 



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l6o MAHAVAGGA. I, 25, 17. 

take them back, and put them in their place. Let 
him put the bed in the sunshine, clean it, dust it 
by beating, turn it down, take it back properly with- 
out rubbing it (against the floor) and without knock- 
ing it against door and doorpost, and put it in its 
place. Let him put the chair in the sunshine, &C 1 
Let him put mattress and pillow in the sunshine, 
clean them, dust them by beating, take them back, 
and lay them out as they were laid out before. Let 
him put the mat and sheet in the sunshine, &c. J 
Let him put the spittoon in the sunshine, wipe it, 
take it back, and put it in its place. Let him put 
in the sunshine the board to recline on, &C. 1 

1 7. ' Let him put away the alms-bowl and the robe. 
When he puts them away (&c, as in § 1 1, down to :), 
and hang up the robe so that the border is turned 
away from him and the fold is turned towards him. 

18. 'If dusty winds blow from the East, let him 
shut the windows on the East. If dusty winds blow 
from the West, let him shut the windows on the 
West, &c. 2 If it is cold weather, let him open the 
windows by day and shut them at night. If it is hot 
weather, let him shut the windows by day and open 
them at night. 

19. 'If the cell is dirty, let him sweep the cell. 
If the store-room is dirty, let him sweep the store- 
room. If the refectory, &c. If the fire -room, &c. 
If the privy is dirty, let him sweep the privy. If 
there is no drinkable water, let him provide drinkable 
water. If there is no food, let him provide food. 
If there is no water in the waterpot for rinsing the 
mouth with, let him pour water into the pot. 

1 As in the preceding clause. 
8 The same for North and South. 



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I, 25, 21. ADMISSION TO THE ORDER OF BHIKKHUS. l6l 

— 1 1 1 - — - ■ ■ _ _ — y .I,,, 

20. ' If discontent has arisen within the upa,f- 
^aya's heart, let the saddhiviharika appease 
him 1 , or cause him to be appeased (by another), or 
compose him by religious conversation. If indecision 
has arisen in the upa^^aya's mind, let the saddhi- 
viharika dispel it, or cause it to be dispelled, or 
compose him by religious conversation. If the 
upa^Mya takes to a false doctrine, let the sad- 
dhiviharika discuss it, or cause another to discuss 
it, or compose (the upa^^aya) by religious con- 
versation. 

2 1. ' If the upa^f Mya is guilty of a grave offence, 
and ought to be sentenced to parivasa discipline 2 , 
let the saddhiviharika take care that the Sawgha 
sentence the wp&gghkya. to parivasa discipline. 
If the upa^f^aya ought to be sentenced to recom- 
mence his penal discipline, let the saddhiviharika 
take care that the Sawgha may order the upa^ - - 
gk&ya. to recommence his penal discipline. If the 
manatta discipline ought to be imposed on the 
upa^^aya, let the saddhiviharika take care 
that the Sawgha impose the manatta discipline 
on the upa^/fcaya. If the upa^^aya is to be 
rehabilitated (when his penal discipline has been 
duly undergone), let the saddhiviharika take care 
that the Sawgha rehabilitate the upa/^aya. 



1 Literally, make it (the discontentedness) clear. Buddhaghosa 
reads vupakisetabbo vupakasapetabbo, which he explains 
thus : ' vupakdsetabbo means, " Let (the saddhiviharika) lead him 
to another place;" vupakasapetabbo means, "Let him tell another 
Bhikkhu to take the Thera and go with him elsewhere." ' 

* The second and third books of the Aullavagga contain a de- 
tailed explanation of parivasa and of the other technical terms 
contained in this paragraph. 

[13] M 



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l62 MAHAVAGGA. 1,25,22. 

22. 'If the Sa/wgha wishes to proceed against 
the upa^^aya by the ta^aniyakamma 1 , or 
the nissaya, or the pabba.faniyakamma, or the 
pa/isara#iyakamma, or the ukkhepaniyakam- 
ma, let the saddhiviharika do what he can in 
order that the Sa/wgha may not proceed against the 
upa^g^aya or may mitigate the proceeding. Or if 
the Sawgha has instituted a proceeding against 
him, the tagganiyakamma, &c, or the ukkhepaniya- 
kamma, let the saddhiviharika do what he can 
in order that the upa^Mya may behave himself 
properly, live modestly, and aspire to get clear of 
his penance, and that the Sawgha may revoke its 
sentence. 

23. 'If the robe of the upa^^aya must be 
washed, let the saddhiviharika wash it or take 
care that the upa^^aya's robe is washed. If a 
robe must be made for the upa^Mya, let the 
saddhiviharika make it or take care that the 
upa^Mya's robe is made. If dye must be boiled 
for the upa^/^aya, &c. If the robe of the upa^ - - 
gh&ya. must be dyed, &c. When he dyes the robe, 
let him dye it properly and turn it whenever required, 
and let him not go away before the dye has ceased 
to drop. 

24. ' Let him not give his alms-bowl to any one 
without the permission of his upa^^aya. Let him 
not accept an alms-bowl from any one else without 
the permission of his upa^-^aya. Let him not give 
his robe to any one else, &c. Let him not accept 
a robe from any one else ; let him not give articles 

1 The discussion about the ta^aniyakamma and the other 
disciplinary proceedings alluded to in this paragraph is given in 
the first book of the Aullavagga. 



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I, 26, I. ADMISSION TO THE ORDER OF BHIKKHUS. 1 63 

(required for a Bhikkhu) to any one else ; let him 
not receive (such) articles from any one else ; let him 
not shave the hair of any one else ; let him not have 
his hair shaven by any one else; let him not wait 
upon any one else ; let him not have done service by 
any one else ; let him not execute commissions for 
any one else ; let him not have commissions executed 
by any one else ; let him not go with any one else as 
his attendant; let him not take any one else with 
him as his attendant; let him not carry any one's 
food received by him in alms (to the Vihara); let 
him not have the food received by himself in alms 
carried by any one (to the Vihara) without the per- 
mission of his upa^g^aya. Let him not enter the 
village, or go to a cemetery, or go abroad on journeys 
without the permission of his upagg^aya. If his 
upaggAaya is sick, let him nurse him as long as his 
life lasts, and wait until he has recovered.' 



End of the duties towards an upaggMya. 



26. 

1. 'The upagg^aya, O Bhikkhus, ought to ob- 
serve a strict conduct towards his saddhiviharika. 
And these are the rules ;fbr his conduct: Let the 
upagg^aya, O Bhikkhus, afford (spiritual) help and 
furtherance to the saddhiviharika by teaching, by 
putting questions to him, by exhortation, by instruc- 
tion. If the upagg^aya has an alms-bowl and the 
saddhiviharika has not, let the upagg^aya give 
the alms-bowl to the saddhiviharika or take care 

m 2 



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1 64 MAHAVAGGA. 1, 36, 2. 

that the saddhiviharika gets an alms-bowl. If the 
upa^^aya has a robe and the saddhiviharika 
has not, let the upa^g^aya give the robe, &c. If 
the upaggMya has the articles (required for a 
Bhikkhu) and the saddhiviharika has not, &c. 

2-6. 'If the saddhiviharika is sick, let (the 
upag£"-£aya) arise betimes and give him the teeth- 
cleanser and water to rinse his mouth with. Then let 
him prepare a seat (for the saddhiviharika). If there 
is rice-milk (&c, as in chap. 25. 8, 9, down to :), and 
give it him with some water in it. When he expects: 
" Now he must be about to return," let him prepare 
a seat, get water for the washing of his feet (&c, 
as in chap. 25. 10-13 \ down to :). Let him offer to 
the saddhiviharika water to drink. 

7-10. 'If the Vihara in which the saddhiviha- 
rika dwells, is dirty (&c, as in chap. 25. 14-22). 

n. 'If the robe of the saddhiviharika must 
be washed, let the upaggMya tell the saddhi- 
viharika: "Thus must you wash your robe," or 
let him take care that the saddhi vih&rika's robe 
is washed. If a robe must be made for the saddhi- 
viharika, let the upagg-^aya tell the saddhivi- 
harika: "Thus must you make the robe," or let 
him take care that the saddhivih&rika's robe is 
made. If dye must be boiled for the saddhivi- 
harika, &c. If the robe of the saddhiviharika 
must be dyed, let the upagg^&ya tell, &c. When 
he dyes the robe, let him dye it properly, and turn 
it whenever required, and let him not go away before 
the dye has ceased to drop. If the saddhiviharika 

1 Instead of, ' Follow the upa^Mya from behind' (chap. 25. 12), 
read here, ' Go (with the saddhiviharika).' 



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I, 27, I. ADMISSION TO THE ORDER OF BHIKKHUS. 1 65 

is sick, let him nurse him as long as his life lasts, 
and wait until he has recovered.' 



End of the duties towards a saddhiviharika. 



27. 

1. At that time the saddhiviharikas did not 
observe a proper conduct towards their upa^^ ay as. 
The moderate Bhikkhus x were annoyed, murmured, 
and became angry, saying, ' How can the saddhi- 
viharikas not observe a proper conduct towards 
their upa^fMyas?' These Bhikkhus told this 
thing to the Blessed One. 

(Then Buddha questioned the Bhikkhus) : ' Is it 
true, O Bhikkhus, that the saddhiviharikas do 
not observe a proper conduct towards their upa^ - - 
^ayas ?' 

(They replied) : ' It is true, Lord.' 

Then the blessed Buddha rebuked those Bhik- 
khus: 'How can the saddhiviharikas, O Bhik- 
khus, not observe a proper conduct towards their 
upa^Myas?' Having rebuked them and deli- 
vered a religious discourse, he thus addressed the 
Bhikkhus 2 : 'Let a saddhiviharika, O Bhikkhus, 
not forbear to observe a proper conduct towards 



1 We believe that the words 'The moderate Bhikkhus' are in- 
tended here and throughout the whole work as an abbreviation of 
the fuller phrase, 'Those Bhikkhus who were moderate, frugal, 
modest, conscientious, anxious for training' (chap. 25. 3). 

2 All this is an abbreviation of what has been given at full 
length in chap. 25. 4-6. 



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1 66 mahAvagga. 1, 27, 2. 

his upa^f^aya. He who does not observe it, is 
guilty of a dukka/a 1 offence.' 

2. Notwithstanding this, they did not observe 
a proper conduct. They told this thing to the 
Blessed One. 

'I ordain, O Bhikkhus, to turn away (a saddhi- 
viharika) who does not observe a proper conduct. 
And he ought, O Bhikkhus, to be turned away in 
this way : (The upa^Mya is to say) : " I turn you 
away," or, " Do not come back hither," or, " Take 
away your alms-bowl and robe," or, " I am not to 
be attended by you any more." Whether he ex- 
press this by gesture, or by word, or by gesture 
and word, the saddhiviharika has then been 
turned away. If he does not express this by gesture, 
nor by word, nor by gesture and word, the saddhi- 
viharika has not been turned away.' 

3. At that time saddhiviharikas who had been 
turned away did not beg pardon (of their upa^f^a- 
yas). They told this thing to the Blessed One. 

' I prescribe, O Bhikkhus, that (a saddhivi- 
harika who has been turned away) should beg 
pardon (of his upa^Mya).' 

They did not beg pardon notwithstanding. They 
told, &c. 

'I prescribe, O Bhikkhus, that (a saddhiviha- 
rika) who has been turned away shall not forbear 
to beg pardon (of his upa^^aya). If he does not 
beg pardon, it is a dukka/a offence.' 

1 Those slight offences which were not embodied in the P«iti- 
mokkha are called dukka/a offences. They range, as to their 
gravity, with the p&£ittiya offences of the Patimokkha. For him 
who had committed a dukka/a offence, no further penance was 
required than a simple confession of his fault. See ATullavagga 
XI, 1, 10. 



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I, 27, 7. ADMISSION TO THE ORDER OF BHIKKHUS. 167 

4. At that time upaf^ayas, when the saddhi- 
viharika s begged their pardon, would not forgive 
them. They told, &c. 

' I prescribe, O Bhikkhus, forgiving.' 

Notwithstanding this they did not forgive. The 
saddhiviharikas went away, or returned to the 
world, or went over to other schools. They told, &c. 

' Let him who is asked for his pardon, not with- 
hold it. He who does not forgive, is guilty of a 
dukka/a offence.' 

5. At that time upa^^ayas turned away (a sad- 
dhiviharika) who observed a proper conduct, and 
did not turn away one who did not observe it. They 
told, &c. 

' Let no one, O Bhikkhus, who observes a proper 
conduct, be turned away. He who turns him away 
is guilty of a dukka/a offence. And let no one, 
O Bhikkhus, who does not observe a proper conduct, 
not be turned away. (An upa^^aya) who does 
not turn him away is guilty of a dukka/a offence. 

6. 'In five cases, O Bhikkhus, a saddhiviharika 
ought to be turned away: when he does not feel 
great affection for his upa^g^aya, nor great incli- 
nation (towards him), nor much shame, nor great 
reverence, nor great devotion (towards the upa^"- 
gh&ya). In these five cases, O Bhikkhus, a sad- 
dhiviharika ought to be turned away. 

' In five cases, O Bhikkhus, a saddhiviharika 
ought not to be turned away : when he feels great 
affection for his upa^Mya, great inclination (to- 
wards him), &c. In these five cases, O Bhikkhus, 
a saddhiviharika ought not to be turned away. 

7. 'In five cases, O Bhikkhus, it is right to turn 
away a saddhiviharika: when he does not feel 



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1 68 mahAvagga. i, 27, 8. 

great affection, &c. In these five cases, O Bhikkhus, 
it is right to turn away a saddhiviharika. 

' In five cases, O Bhikkhus, it is not right, &c. 

8. 'In five cases, O Bhikkhus, an upa^^aya 
who does not turn away a saddhiviharika, tres- 
passes (against the law), and an upa^f^aya who 
turns him away, does not trespass : when he does 
not feel great affection, &c. In these five cases, &c. 

'In five cases, O Bhikkhus, an upa^^aya who 
turns away a saddhiviharika, trespasses (against 
the law), and an upa^^aya who does not turn him 
away, does not trespass, &c.' 



28. 

1. At that time a certain Brahma»a came to the 
Bhikkhus and asked them for the pabba^a ordi- 
nation. The Bhikkhus were not willing to ordain 
him. As he did not obtain the pabba^a ordina- 
tion from the Bhikkhus, he became emaciated, lean, 
discoloured, more and more livid, and the veins be- 
came visible all over his body. 

And the Blessed One saw this Brahma«a, who 
had become emaciated, &c. When he had seen him, 
he said to the Bhikkhus : ' How is it, O Bhikkhus, 
that this Brahma»a has become emaciated, &c. ?' 

' This Brahma«a, Lord, came to the Bhikkhus and 
asked them for the pabba^a ordination (&c, as 
above, down to :), and the veins became visible all 
over his body.' 

2. Then the Blessed One said to the Bhikkhus : 
' Now, O Bhikkhus, who remembers anything about 
this Brahma»a ?' 



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I, 28, 4. ADMISSION TO THE ORDER OF BHIKKHUS. 1 69 

When he had spoken thus, the venerable Sariputta 
said to the Blessed One : ' I remember something, 
Lord, about this Brahma«a.' 

' And what is it you remember, Sariputta, about 
this Brahma«a ? ' 

'This Brahma#a, Lord, one day, when I went 
through Ra^agaha for alms, ordered a spoonful of 
food to be given to me ; this is what I remember, 
Lord, about this Brahma«a.' 

3. ' Good, good, Sariputta ; pious men, Sariputta, 
are grateful and remember what has been done to 
them. Therefore, Sariputta, confer you the pab- 
h&ggk and upasampada ordinations on that 
Brahma#a.' 

'Lord, how shall I confer the pabba^a and 
upasampada ordinations on this Brahma#a?' 

Then the Blessed One on this occasion, after 
having delivered a religious discourse, thus addressed 
the Bhikkhus : ' I abolish, O Bhikkhus, from this 
day the upasampada ordination by the threefold 
declaration of taking refuge \ which I had prescribed. 
I prescribe, O Bhikkhus, that you confer the upa- 
sampada ordination by a formal act of the Order 
in which the announcement (»atti) is followed by 
three questions 2 . 

4. 'And you ought, O Bhikkhus, to confer the 

1 See chap. 12 and the note on chap. 1. 1. 

2 The form for bringing a formal motion before the Order is the 
following : The mover first announces to the assembled Bhikkhus 
what resolution he is going to propose; this announcement is 
called matti (see, for instance, § 4). After the matti follows the 
question put to the Bhikkhus present if they approve the resolution. 
This question is put either once or three times ; in the first case we 
have a «attidutiya kamma(see, for instance, II, chap. 6); in the 
second case, a natti£atuttha kamma (as in this chapter). 



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1 70 MAHAVAGGA. 1, 28, 5. 

upasampada ordination in this way: Let a learned, 
competent Bhikkhu proclaim the following »atti 
before the Sa/wgha : 

' Let the Sawrgha, reverend Sirs, hear me. This 
person N. N. desires to receive the upasampada 
ordination from the venerable N. N. (i. e. with the 
venerable N. N. as his upa^Mya). If the Sawgha 
is ready, let the Sawzgha confer on N. N. the upa- 
sampada ordination with N. N. as upa^^aya. 
This is the »atti. 

5, 6. ' Let the Sawgha, reverend Sirs, hear me. 
This person N. N. desires to receive the upasam- 
pada ordination from the venerable N. N. The 
Sawzgha confers on N. N. the upasampada ordi- 
nation with N. N. as upa^^aya. Let any one of 
the venerable brethren who is in favour of the upa- 
sampada ordination of N. N. with N. N. as upa^- 
^aya, be silent, and any one who is not in favour 
of it, speak. 

'And for the second time I thus speak to you: 
Let the Sawgha (&c, as before). 

' And for the third time I thus speak to you : Let 
the Samgha., &c. 

' N. N. has received the upasampada ordination 
from the Sawgha with N. N. as upa^Mya. The 
Sawgha is in favour of it, therefore it is silent. 
Thus I understand 1 .' 



29. 
1. At that time a certain Bhikkhu shortly after 
having received the upasampada ordination, aban- 

1 With this and the following chapters should be compared the 
corresponding ordinance laid down in chapters 74-76. 



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I, 29, 3. ADMISSION TO THE ORDER OF BHIKKHUS. 171 

doned himself to bad conduct. The Bhikkhus said 
to him : ' You ought not to do so, friend ; it is not 
becoming.' 

He replied : ' I never asked you, Sirs, saying, 
"Confer on me the upasampada ordination." Why 
have you ordained me without your being asked ?' 

They told this thing to the Blessed One. 

' Let no one, O Bhikkhus, ordain a person unless 
he has been asked to do so. He who does, commits 
a dukka/a offence. I prescribe, O Bhikkhus, that 
you ordain only after having been asked. 

2. 'And (a Bhikkhu) ought to be asked in this 
way: Let him who desires to receive the upasam- 
pada ordination, go to the Sawgha, adjust his upper 
robe so as to cover one shoulder, salute the feet of 
the Bhikkhus with his head, sit down squatting, raise 
his joined hands, and say : " I ask the Sa#zgha, 
reverend Sirs, for the upasampada ordination; 
might the Sawgha, reverend Sirs, draw me out (of 
the sinful world) out of compassion towards me." 
And for the second time, &c. ; and for the third time 
let him ask, &c. 

3. ' Then let a learned, competent Bhikkhu pro- 
claim the following watti before the Sawgha: "Let 
the Samgha, reverend Sirs, hear me. This person 
N. N. desires to receive the upasampada ordina- 
tion from the venerable N. N. ; N. N. asks the Sa*»- 
gha for the upasampada ordination with N. N. 
as upa^f ^aya. If the Samgha. is ready, &C 1 "' 

1 Here follows the complete formula of a watti^atuttha 
kamma, as in chap. 28. 4-6. The only difference is, that here 
in the watti, as well as in the three questions, the words ' N. N. 
asks the Sazsgha for the upasampada ordination with N. N. as 
upa^Mya' are inserted after the words 'desires to receive the 
upasampada ordination from the venerable N. N.' 



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172 mahAvagga. I, 30, I. 



30. 

1. At that time an arrangement had been made 
at Ra^agaha that the Bhikkhus were to receive 
excellent meals successively (in the houses of different 
rich upasakas). Now (one day) a certain Br&h- 
ma»a thought: 'Indeed the precepts which these 
Sakyaputtiya Samaras keep and the life they live are 
commodious ; they have good meals and lie down on 
beds protected from the wind 1 . What if I were to 
embrace the religious life among the Sakyaputtiya 
Sama«as?' Then this Brahma#a went to the Bhik- 
khus and asked them for the pabba^i ordination ; 
the Bhikkhus conferred the pabba^a and upa- 
sampada ordinations on him. 

2. When he had been ordained, the arrangement 
of successive meals (with the rich upasakas) came to 
an end. The Bhikkhus said to him : ' Come, friend, 
let us now go on our rounds for alms.' 

He replied : ' I have not embraced the religious 
life for that purpose — to going about for alms; if 
you give me (food), I will eat ; if you do not, I will 
return to the world.' 

(The Bhikkhus said): 'What, friend! have you 
indeed embraced the religious life for your belly's 
sake ?' 

' Yes, friends.' 

3. The moderate Bhikkhus were annoyed, mur- 
mured, and became angry : ' How can a Bhikkhu 
embrace the religious life in so well-taught a doctrine 
and discipline for his belly's sake ?' 

1 On this curious expression, compare jffullavagga IV, 4, 8. It 
is frequently repeated below. 



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I, 30, 4. ADMISSION TO THE ORDER OF BHIKKHUS. 1 73 

These Bhikkhus told this thing to the Blessed One. 

(The Buddha said): ' Is it true, O Bhikkhu, that 
you have embraced the religious life for your belly's 
sake ?' 

(He replied) : ' It is true, Lord.' 

Then the blessed Buddha rebuked that Bhikkhu : 
' How can you, foolish person that you are, embrace 
the religious life in so well-taught a doctrine and 
discipline for your belly's sake ? This will not do, 
O foolish one, for converting the unconverted and 
for augmenting the number of the converted.' 

Having rebuked him and delivered a religious 
discourse, he thus addressed the Bhikkhus : 

4. ' I prescribe, O Bhikkhus, that he who confers 
the upasampada ordination (on a Bhikkhu), tell 
him the four Resources : 

'The religious life has morsels of food given 
in alms for its resource. Thus you must endeavour 
to live all your life. Meals given to the Sa#zgha, to 
certain persons, invitations, food distributed by ticket, 
meals given each fortnight, each uposatha day (i. e. 
the last day of each fortnight), or the first day of 
each fortnight, are extra allowances. 

'The religious life has the robe made of rags 
taken from a dust heap for its resource. Thus 
you must endeavour to live all your life. Linen, 
cotton, silk, woollen garments, coarse cloth, hempen 
cloth are extra allowances. 

'The religious life has dwelling at the foot 
of a tree for its resource. Thus you must endea- 
vour to live all your life. Viharas, aafo^ayogas, 
storied dwellings, attics, caves 1 are extra allowances. 

1 These are the five kinds of dwellings (pa«£a lendni) which are 
declared to be allowable, iifullavagga VI, 1, 2. The single expres- 



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174 MAHAVAGGA. 1, 31, i. 

'The religious life has decomposing urine as 
medicine 1 for its resource. Thus you must endea- 
vour to live all your life. Ghee, butter, oil, honey, 
and molasses are extra allowances.' 



Here ends the fifth Bha#avira, which contains 
the duties towards upa^^ayas. 



31. 

i. At that time a certain youth came to the Bhik- 
khus and asked them to be ordained. The Bhikkhus 
told him the (four) Resources before his ordination. 
Then he said : ' If you had told me the Resources, 
venerable Sirs, after my ordination, I should have 
persisted (in the religious life) ; but now, venerable 
Sirs, I will not be ordained ; the Resources are 
repulsive and loathsome to me.' 

The Bhikkhus told this thing to the Blessed One. 

' You ought not, O Bhikkhus, to tell the Resources 
(to the candidates) before their ordination. He who 
does, is guilty of a dukka/a offence. I prescribe, 
O Bhikkhus, that you tell the Resources (to the 
newly-ordained Bhikkhus) immediately after their 
upasampada.' 

sions are explained by Buddhaghosa in his note on .tfullavagga 1.1. 
as follows : ' addfayogo 'ti suva«»avangageha»», pasSdo 'ti digha- 
pasado, hammiyan ti upariakSsatale pati/Mitaku/agaro pasido yeva, 
guhi 'ti i//Aakaguh£ silaguM daruguha pawsuguhi,' i. e. 'Kddhz- 
yoga is a gold-coloured Bengal house. Pisada is a long storied 
mansion (or, the whole of an upper storey). Hammiya is a 
Pasada, which has an upper chamber placed on the topmost 
storey. Guh£ is a hut made of bricks, or in a rock, or of wood.' 
1 Compare Mah&vagga VI, 14, 6. 



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I, 31, 4. ADMISSION TO THE ORDER OF BHIKKHUS. I 75 

2. At that time some Bhikkhus performed the 
upasampada service with a chapter of two or 
three Bhikkhus. 

They told this thing to the Blessed One. 

'Let no one, O Bhikkhus, receive the upasam- 
pada.ordination before a chapter of less than ten 
Bhikkhus. He who performs the upasampada 
service (with a smaller number of Bhikkhus), is 
guilty of a dukka/a offence. I prescribe you, O 
Bhikkhus, the holding of upasampada services 
with a chapter of ten Bhikkhus or more than ten.' 

3. At that time some Bhikkhus conferred the 
upasampada ordination on their saddhiviha- 
rikas one or two years after their own upasam- 
pada. 'Thus also the venerable Upasena Van- 
gantaputta conferred the upasampada ordination 
on a saddhiviharika of his one year after his own 
upasampada. When he had concluded the vassa 
residence, after two years from his own upasam- 
pada had elapsed, he went with his saddhiviha- 
rika, who had completed the first year after his 
upasampada, to the place where the Blessed One 
was ; having approached him and respectfully saluted 
the Blessed One, he sat down near him. 

4. Now it is the custom of the blessed Buddhas 
to exchange greeting with incoming Bhikkhus. And 
the Blessed One said to the venerable Upasena 
Vangantaputta : ' Do things go well with you, Bhik- 
khu ? Do you get enough to support your life ? 
Have you made your journey with not too great 
fatigue ?' 

'Things go pretty well with us, Lord; we get 

1 This story recurs in the G&taka, Commentary II, 449. 



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1 76 MAHAVAGGA. 1, 31, 5. 

enough, Lord, to support our life, and we have made 
our journey, Lord, with not too great fatigue.' 

The Tathagatas sometimes ask about what they 
know ; sometimes they do not ask about what they 
know. They understand the right time when to 
ask, and they understand the right time when not 
to ask. The Tathagatas put questions full of sense, 
not void of sense ; to what is void of sense the bridge 
is pulled down for the Tathagatas. For two pur- 
poses the blessed Buddhas put questions to the 
Bhikkhus, when they intend to preach the doctrine 
or when they intend to institute a rule of conduct to 
their disciples. 

5. And the Blessed One said to the venerable 
Upananda Vangantaputta : ' How many years have 
you completed, O Bhikkhu, since your upasam- 
pada?' 

' Two years, Lord.' 

'And how many years has this Bhikkhu com- 
pleted?' 

' One year, Lord.' 

' In what relation does this Bhikkhu stand to you?' 

' He is my saddhiviharika, Lord.' 

Then the blessed Buddha rebuked him : * This 
is improper, O foolish one, unbecoming, unsuitable, 
unworthy of a Samawa, unallowable, and to be 
avoided. How can you, O foolish one, who ought 
to receive exhortation and instruction from others, 
think yourself fit for administering exhortation and 
instruction to another Bhikkhu ? Too quickly, O 
foolish one, have you abandoned yourself to the 
ambition of collecting followers. This will not do 
(&c, as in chap. 30. 3). Let no one, O Bhikkhus, 
confer the upasampada ordination who has not 



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r, 31,8. ADMISSION TO THE ORDER OF BHIKKHUS. I 77 

completed ten years. He who does, is guilty of a 
dukka/a offence. I prescribe, O Bhikkhus, that 
only he who has completed ten years, or more than 
ten years, may confer the upasampada ordination.' 

6. At that time ignorant, unlearned Bhikkhus 
(who said), 'We have completed ten years (since 
our upasampada), we have completed ten years,' 
conferred the upasampada ordination; (thus) igno- 
rant upa^^ayas were found and clever saddhi- 
viharikas; unlearned upa^^ayas were found 
and learned saddhiviharikas; upa^f^ayas were 
found who had small knowledge, and saddhivi- 
harikas who had great knowledge; foolish upa^ - - 
^ayas were found and wise saddhiviharikas. 
And a certain Bhikkhu who had formerly belonged to 
a Titthiya school, when his upa^f^iya remonstrated 
with him (on certain offences) according to the 
Dhamma, brought his upa^^aya (by reasoning) to 
silence and went back to that same Titthiya school 1 . 

7. The moderate Bhikkhus were annoyed, mur- 
mured, and became angry : ' How can those ignorant, 
unlearned Bhikkhus confer the upasampada ordi- 
nation (saying), "We have completed ten years, we 
have completed ten years ?" (Thus) ignorant upa^- 
^ayas are found and clever saddhiviharikas 
(&c, down to:), foolish upa^Myas are found and 
wise saddhiviharikas.' 

These Bhikkhus told, &c. 

' Is it true, O Bhikkhus, &c. ?' 

' It is true, Lord.' 

8. Then the blessed Buddha rebuked those Bhik- 
khus : ' How can these foolish persons, O Bhikkhus, 

1 See the conclusion of this in chapter 38. 
[13] N 



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178 mahAvagga. 1,32,1. 

confer the upasampada ordination (saying), "We 
have, &c ?" (Thus) ignorant upa^Myas are found, 
&c. This will not do, O Bhikkhus, for converting 
the unconverted and for augmenting the number 
of the converted.' 

Having rebuked those Bhikkhus and delivered 
a religious discourse, he thus addressed the Bhik- 
khus : ' Let no ignorant, unlearned Bhikkhu, O 
Bhikkhus, confer the upasampada ordination. If 
he does, he is guilty of a dukka/a offence. I pre- 
scribe, O Bhikkhus, that only a learned, competent 
Bhikkhu who has completed ten years, or more than 
ten years, may confer the upasampada ordination.' 



32. 

1. At that time some Bhikkhus whose upa^-- 
gh&ydiS were gone away, or had returned to the 
world, or had died, or were gone over to a (schismatic) 
faction 1 , as they had no aiariyas and received no 
exhortation and instruction, went on their rounds 
for alms wearing improper under and upper gar- 
ments (&c, as in chap. 25. 1-6, down to:), he thus 
addressed the Bhikkhus : ' I prescribe, O Bhikkhus, 
(that young Bhikkhus choose) an aiariya 2 . 

1 Buddhaghosa can scarcely be right in explaining pakkha- 
samkanta by titthiyapakkhasawkanta. 
. 2 A^ariya as well as upa^Mya means 'teacher,' or 'pre- 
ceptor.' It is very difficult or rather impossible to draw a sharp 
line of distinction between &£ariya and-upa^Mya. The duties 
of an a^ariya towards his antevisika, and of an antevSsika 
towards his sUariya, as indicated in chaps. 32, 33 (=.ffullavag£ra 
VIII, 13, 14), are exactly the same as those of an upa^Mya 



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I, 32, 1. ADMISSION TO THE ORDER OF BHIKKHUS. I 79 

' The a^ariya, O Bhikkhus, ought to consider the 
antevasika (i.e. disciple) as a son; the anteva- 
sika ought to consider the a^ariya as a father. 
Thus these two, united by mutual reverence, con- 
fidence, and communion of life, will progress, advance, 
and reach a high stage in this doctrine and discipline. 

' I prescribe, O Bhikkhus, that you live (the first) 
ten years in dependence (on an aiariya) ; he who 
has completed his tenth year may give a nissaya 1 
himself. 



towards his saddhiviharika and vice versa (chaps. 25, 26=iiul- 
lavagga VIII, 11, 12). The position of an up z.ggh ay a, however, 
was considered as the more important of the two; at the upa- 
sampada service the upa^Mya had a more prominent part 
than the a^ariya, as we may infer from chaps. 28, 29, and from 
the explanations on the 65th pa^ittiya rule which are given in 
the Sutta Vibhanga. There it is said that, if the upasampada 
ordination had been conferred, against the rule, on a person that 
has not yet attained his twentieth year, the upa^Mya has made 
himself guilty of a pa^ittiya offence, the a^ariya and the other 
present Bhikkhus only of a dukka/a offence. We may add that 
the succession of Vinaya teachers from Upali down to Mahinda, 
which is given in the Dfpavawsa (Bha«avaras IV and V), is a suc- 
cession of upa^Aayas and saddhiviharikas (see IV, 36, 42, 
43, &c), not of aiariyas and antevisikas; the duty of instruct- 
ing the young Bhikkhus in the holy doctrines and ordinances 
seems, therefore, to belong to the upa^Mya rather than to 
the a^ariya; compare also Dfpavawsa VII, 26. So among the 
Brahma»as, on the contrary, the a£arya is estimated higher than 
the upadhyaya; see Manu 11,145; Ya#«avalkya I, 35. Com- 
pare also chap. 36. 1 (end of the paragraph), and Buddhaghosa's 
explanation of that passage. 

1 Nissaya (i.e. dependence) is the relation between a^ariya and 
antevasika. The antevasika lives 'nissaya' with regard to 
the a^ariya, i.e. dependent on him; the a^ariya gives his nis- 
saya to the antevasika, i.e. he receives him into his protection 
and care. At chap. 36. 1, 'nissaya' is said also of the relation 
between upa^Mya and saddhiviharika. 

N 2 



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180 mahAvagga. 1,32,2- 

2. ' And let (the antevasika), O Bhikkhus, 
choose his aiariya in this way: Let him adjust 
his upper robe so as to cover one shoulder, salute 
the feet (of the a^ariya), sit down squatting, raise 
his joined hands, and say : " Venerable Sir, be rrty 
a^ariya, I will live in dependence on you, Sir."' 
(This formula is repeated thrice.) 

'(If the other answers) : "Well"(&c., as in chap. 

25- 7)- 

3. 'The antevasika, O Bhikkhus, ought to 

observe a strict conduct towards his a^ariya' (&c, 
as in chap. 25. 8-24). 



End of the duties towards an aiariya. 



33. 

' The a>6ariya, O Bhikkhus, ought to observe a 
strict conduct towards his antevasika' (&c, as in 
chap. 26). 

End of the duties towards an antevasika. 



End of the sixth Bhawavara. 



34. 

At that time the antevasikas did not observe 
a proper conduct towards their a£ariyas (&c, as 
in chap. 27. 1-8). 



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I, 36, 1. ADMISSION TO THE ORDER OF BHIKKHUS. l8l 

35. 

1,2. At that time ignorant, unlearned Bhikkhus 
(who said), ' We have completed ten years (since our 
upasampada), we have completed ten years,' gave 
a nissaya (i.e. they received young Bhikkhus as 
their antevasikas) ; (thus) ignorant aiariyas were 
found and clever antevasikas; unlearned a^ariy as 
were found and learned antevasikas; a^ariyas 
were found who had small knowledge, and ante- 
vasikas who had great knowledge; foolish aiari- 
yas were found and wise antevasikas. The 
moderate Bhikkhus were annoyed (&c, as in chap. 

3i. 7, 8)- 

' Let no ignorant, unlearned Bhikkhu, O Bhikkhus, 
give a nissaya. If he does, he is guilty of a duk- 
ka/a offence. I prescribe, O Bhikkhus, that only 
a learned, competent Bhikkhu who has completed 
ten years, or more than ten years, may give a 
nissaya.' 



36. 

1. At that time the Bhikkhus whose a/£ariyas 
and upa^Aayas were gone away, or had returned 
to the world, or had died, or were gone over to a 
(schismatic) faction, were not acquainted with (the 
rules about) the cessation of their nissayas 1 . 

They told this thing to the Blessed One. 

'There are five cases of cessation of a nissaya, 
O Bhikkhus, between (saddhiviharika and) upa,f- 

1 That is, ' did not know how to decide whether their nissaya 
was destroyed, or not.' 



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182 mahAvagga. I, 36, 2. 

^iya : When the upa^^aya is gone away, or he 
has returned to the world, or has died, or is gone 
over to a (schismatic) faction ; the fifth case is that 
of order (given by the upa^f^aya to the saddhivi- 
harika 1 ). These, Q Bhikkhus, are the five cases of 
the cessation of a nissaya between (saddhiviha- 
rika and) upa^^aya. 

'There are six cases of cessation of a nissaya, 
O Bhikkhus, between (antevasika and) a^ariya: 
When the a^ariya is gone away, &c. ; the fifth case 
is that of order (given by the a^ariya to the ante- 
vasika); or (sixthly) when the a^ariya and the 
upa^^aya have come together at the same place 2 . 
These, O Bhikkhus, are the six cases of cessation of 
a nissaya between (antevasika and) a^ariya. 

2. 'In five cases, O Bhikkhus, a Bhikkhu should 
not confer the upasampada ordination, nor give 
a nissaya, nor ordain a novice 8 : When he does not 
possess full perfection in what belongs to moral 
practices ; or does not possess full perfection in what 
belongs to self-concentration ; or does not possess 
full perfection in what belongs to wisdom ; or does 



1 This refers, according to Buddhaghosa, to the paw&mana' 
(turning away of the saddhiviharika); see chap. 27. 2. 

2 Buddhaghosa : ' Coming together may be understood either by 
seeing or by hearing. IfasaddhivihSrika who lives in depend- 
ence (niss&ya) on his a^ariya sees his wp&ggh&ya. paying 
homage to a sacred shrine in the same Vihara, or going on his 
rounds in the same village, cessation of the nissaya (towards the 
&£ariya) is the consequence. If he hears the voice of his upa#- 
gteya,, who preaches the Dhamma or gladdens (lay-people by reli- 
gious discourse), in the Vihara or in the interior of a house, and if 
he recognises that it is his upa,ggA£ya.'s voice, cessation of the 
nissaya (towards the a^ariya) is the consequence.' 

s About the ordination of novices, see chap. 54. 3. 



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I, 36,-8. ADMISSION TO THE ORDER OF BHIKKHUS. 1 83 

not possess full perfection in what belongs to eman- 
cipation ; or does not possess full perfection in what 
belongs to knowledge and insight into emancipation. 
In these five cases, O Bhikkhus, a Bhikkhu should 
not confer the upasampada ordination, nor give 
a nissaya, nor ordain a novice. 

3. 'In five cases, O Bhikkhus, a Bhikkhu may 
confer the upasampada ordination, give a nissaya, 
and ordain a novice : When he possesses full per- 
fection in what belongs to moral practices, &c. In 
these five cases, O Bhikkhus, a Bhikkhu may, &c. 

4. 'And also in other five cases, O Bhikkhus, a 
Bhikkhu should not confer, &c. : When he does not 
possess for himself full perfection in what belongs to 
moral practices, and is not able to help others to full 
perfection in what belongs to moral practices; or 
does not possess for himself full perfection in what 
belongs to self-concentration, and is not able to help 
others to full perfection in what belongs to self-con- 
centration, &c. 

5. 'In five cases, O Bhikkhus, a Bhikkhu may 
confer, &c. : When he possesses for himself full per- 
fection in what belongs to moral practices, and is 
able to help others to full perfection, &c. 

6. 'And also in other five cases, O Bhikkhus, a 
Bhikkhu should not confer, &c. : When he is unbe- 
lieving, shameless, fearless of sinning, indolent, for- 
getful. In these five cases, &c. 

7. 'In five cases, O Bhikkhus, a Bhikkhu may 
confer, &c. : When he is believing, modest, fearful of 
sinning, strenuous, of ready memory. In these five 
cases, &c. 

8. 'And also in other five cases, O Bhikkhus, a 
Bhikkhu should not confer, &c. : When as regards 



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184 mahAvagga. 1,36,9- 

moral practices he is guilty of moral transgressions ; 
or when as regards the rules of conduct 1 he is guilty 
of transgressions in his conduct ; or when as regards 
belief he is guilty of heresy ; or when he is unlearned ; 
or when he is foolish. In these five cases, &c. 

9. 'In five cases, O Bhikkhus, a Bhikkhu may 
confer, &c: When as regards moral practices he is 
not guilty of 'moral transgressions, &c. ; when he 
is learned; and when he is wise. In these five 
cases, &c. 

10. 'And also in other five cases, O Bhikkhus, a 
Bhikkhu should not confer, &c: When he is not 
able to nurse or to get nursed an antevasika or a 
saddhiviharika when he is sick, to appease him or 
to cause him to be appeased when discontent with 
religious life has sprung up within him, to dispel or 
to cause to be dispelled according to the Dhamma 
doubts of conscience which have arisen in his mind ; 
when he does not know what is an offence ; or does 
not know how to atone for an offence. In these five 
cases, &c. 

11. 'In five cases, O Bhikkhus, a Bhikkhu may 
confer, &c: When he is able (&c, down to:); when 
he knows what is an offence ; and knows how to 
atone for an offence. In these five cases, &c. 

12. 'And also in other five cases, O Bhikkhus, a 
Bhikkhu should not confer, &c: When he is not 
able to train an antevasika or a saddhiviharika 
in the precepts of proper conduct 2 , to educate him 

1 According to Buddhaghosa, moral transgression (adhisila) is 
said with regard to offences against the p£ra^ika and saraghS- 
disesa rules, while transgressions in conduct (&gg AkA&r a) consist 
in offences against the minor rules of the P&timokkha. Buddha- 
ghosa's explanation is confirmed by the Mahavagga IV, 16, 12. 

1 According to Buddhaghosa, this refers to instruction in the 



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I, 36, 16. ADMISSION TO THE ORDER OF BHIKKHUS. 1 85 

in the elements of morality 1 , to instruct him in what 
pertains to the Dhamma, to instruct him in what 
pertains to the Vinaya, to discuss or to make another 
discuss according to the Dhamma a false doctrine 
that might arise. In these five cases, &c. 

13. 'In five cases, O Bhikkhus, a Bhikkhu may 
confer, &c: When he is able, &c. 

14. 'And also in other five cases, O Bhikkhus, a 
Bhikkhu should not confer, &c. : When he does not 
know what is an offence ; or does not know what is 
no offence ; or does not know what is a light offence ; 
or does not know what is a grave offence ; when the 
two Patimokkhas are not perfectly known to him in 
their entirety, with all their divisions and their whole 
course, and with the entire discussion according to 
the single rules and to the single parts of each rule. 
In these five cases, &c. 

15. 'In five cases, O Bhikkhus, a Bhikkhu may 
confer, &c. : When he knows, &c. 

16. 'And also in other five cases, O Bhikkhus, 
a Bhikkhu should not confer, &c: When he does 
not know what is an offence ; or does not know what 
is no offence; or does not know what is a light 
offence ; or does not know what is a grave offence ; 

khandhakavatta (i.e. in the rules contained in the Khandhaka 
texts, Mah&vagga and Aullavagga ?). See also Spence Hardy, 
Manual, p. 492. 

1 This means instructing him in the sekhapawwatti (Buddha- 
ghosa). We cannot say what is the accurate meaning of the last 
term, which apparently, as its verbal meaning seems to imply, refers 
to ordinances for those Bhikkhus who have entered the path of 
sanctification, but have not yet attained Arahatship. Spence Hardy 
(Manual, p. 493) gives the term sekha-sila, which he explains 
as the observance of precepts in order to become a sekha. See 
also Hardy's note on ddibrahma^ariya-slla, 1. 1. p. 492. 



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1 86 MAHAVAGGA. 1,36,17. 

or when he has not completed the tenth year (after 
his upasampada). In these five cases, &c. 

17. 'In five cases, O Bhikkhus, a Bhikkhu may 
confer, &c: When he knows (&c, down to:); when 
he has completed ten years or more than ten years 
(after his upasampada). In these five cases, &c.' 

End of the sixteen times five cases concerning 
the admissibility of upasampada. 



37. 

'In six cases, O Bhikkhus, a Bhikkhu should not 
confer, &C. 1 ' 

End of the sixteen times 2 six cases concerning 
the admissibility of upasampada. 



38. 

1 . At that time that Bhikkhu who, having formerly 
belonged to a Titthiya school, had (by reasoning) 
put to silence his upa^^aya, when he remonstrated 
with him according to the Dhamma, and had returned 
to that same Titthiya school 3 , came back again and 
asked the Bhikkhus for the upasampada ordination. 
The Bhikkhus told, &c. 

' That Bhikkhu, O Bhikkhus, who having formerly 

1 Chap. 37 is exactly identical with chap. 36. 2-15, but for the 
sixth case, which, throughout chap. 37, is added each time at the 
end of the five cases given in chap. 36, ' When he has not com- 
pleted the tenth year (after his upasampada);' and respectively, 
' When he has completed ten years or more than ten years (after 
his upasampada).' 

2 It should be, 'Fourteen times.' * See chap. 31, § 6. 



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I, 38,3. ADMISSION TO THE ORDER OF BHIKKHUS. 1 87 

belonged to a Titthiya school, has put to silence his 
upa_£fMya when he remonstrated with him accord- 
ing to the Dhamma, and has returned to that same 
Titthiya school, must not receive the upasampada 
ordination, if he comes back. On other persons, 
O Bhikkhus, who have formerly belonged to Titthiya 
schools and desire to receive the pabba^a and 
upasampada ordinations in this doctrine and disci- 
pline, you ought to impose a parivasa (a probation- 
time) of four months. 

2. 'And you ought, O Bhikkhus, to impose it in 
this way: Let him (who desires to receive the ordi- 
nation) first cut off his hair and beard ; let him put on 
yellow robes, adjust his upper robe so as to cover 
one shoulder, salute the feet of the Bhikkhus (with 
his head), and sit down squatting ; then let him raise 
his joined hands, and tell him to say: " I take my 
refuge in the Buddha, I take my refuge in the 
Dhamma, I take my refuge in the Sawgha. And 
for the second time, &c. And for the third time 
take I my refuge in the Buddha, and for the third 
time take I my refuge in the Dhamma, and for the 
third time take I my refuge in the Sawgha." 

3. ' Let that person, O Bhikkhus, who has formerly 
belonged to a Titthiya school, approach the Samgha., 
adjust his upper robe so as to cover one shoulder, 
salute the feet of the Bhikkhus (with his head), sit 
down squatting, raise his joined hands, and say: " I, 
N. N., reverend Sirs, who have formerly belonged to 
a Titthiya school, desire to receive the upasam- 
pada ordination in this doctrine and discipline, and 
ask the Sa#zgha, reverend Sirs, for a parivasa of 
four months." Let him ask thus a second time. Let 
him ask thus a third time. 



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1 88 mahAvagga. 1,38,4. 

'Then let a learned, competent Bhikkhu proclaim 
the following »atti before the Sa/tfgha: "Let the Sa.m- 
gha, reverend Sirs, hear me. This person N. N., who 
has formerly belonged to a Titthiya school, desires to 
receive the upasampada ordination in this doctrine 
and discipline. He asks the Sa/wgha for a parivasa 
of four months. If the Sawgha is ready, let the 
Sawgha impose on N. N., who has formerly belonged 
to a Titthiya school, a parivasa of four months. 
This is the watti. 

4. ' " Let the Sawgha, reverend Sirs, hear me. 
This person N. N., who has, &c He asks the 
Sawgha for a parivasa of four months. The 
Samgha imposes on N. N., who has formerly be- 
longed to a Titthiya school, a parivasa of four 
months. Let any one of the venerable brethren 
who is in favour of imposing a parivasa of four 
months on N. N., who has formerly belonged to a 
Titthiya school, be silent, and any one who is not 
in favour of it, speak. A parivasa of four months 
has been imposed by the Samgha on N. N., who 
has formerly belonged to a Titthiya school. The 
Sazwgha is in favour of it, therefore it is silent. Thus 
I understand." 

5. ' And this, O Bhikkhus, is the way in which 
a person that has formerly belonged to a Titthiya 
school, succeeds or fails in satisfying (the Bhikkhus 
and obtaining upasampada when the probation- 
time is over). 

' What is the way, O Bhikkhus, in which a person 
that has formerly belonged to a Titthiya school, 
fails in satisfying (the Bhikkhus)? 

' In case, O Bhikkhus, the person that has formerly 
belonged to a Titthiya school, enters the village 



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I, 38, 7. ADMISSION TO THE ORDER OF BHIKKHUS. 1 89 

too early, and comes back (to the Vihara) too late, 
thus, O Bhikkhus, a person that has formerly be- 
longed to a Titthiya school, fails in satisfying (the 
Bhikkhus). 

'And further, O Bhikkhus, in case the person 
that has formerly belonged to a Titthiya school, 
frequents the society of harlots, or of widows, or of 
adult girls, or of eunuchs, or of Bhikkhunis, thus also, 
O Bhikkhus, a person that has formerly belonged to 
a Titthiya school, fails in satisfying (the Bhikkhus). 

6. 'And further, O Bhikkhus, in case the person 
that has formerly belonged to a Titthiya school, does 
not show himself skilled in the various things his 
fellow Bhikkhus have to do, not diligent, not able to 
consider how those things are to be done, not able 
to do things himself, not able to give directions to 
others, thus also, O Bhikkhus, &c. 

' And further, O Bhikkhus, in case the person that 
has formerly belonged to a Titthiya school, does not 
show keen zeal, when the doctrine is preached to 
him or when questions are put, in what belongs to 
morality, to contemplation, and to wisdom, thus 
also, O Bhikkhus, &c. 

7. 'And further, O Bhikkhus, in case the person 
that has formerly belonged to a Titthiya school, 
becomes angry, displeased, and dissatisfied, when 
people speak against the teacher, the belief, the 
opinions, the persuasion, the creed of the school he 
formerly belonged to ; and is pleased, glad, and satis- 
fied, when people speak against the Buddha, the 
Dhamma, and the Sawgha ; or he is pleased, glad, 
and satisfied, when people speak in praise of the 
teacher, &c. ; and becomes angry, displeased, dissatis- 
fied, when people speak in praise of the Buddha, the 



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190 MAHAVAGGA. 1,38,8. 

Dhamma, and the Sawgha ; this, O Bhikkhus, is a 
decisive moment for the failure of a person that has 
formerly belonged to a Titthiya school (in obtaining 
admission to the Sawgha). 

' Thus, O Bhikkhus, a person that has formerly 
belonged to a Titthiya school, fails in satisfying (the 
Bhikkhus). When a person comes, O Bhikkhus, that 
has formerly belonged to a Titthiya school, and has 
thus failed in satisfying (the Bhikkhus), the upasam- 
pada ordination should not be conferred on him. 

8-10. 'And what is the way, O Bhikkhus, in which 
a person that has formerly belonged to a Titthiya 
school, succeeds in satisfying (the Bhikkhus)? 

' In case, O Bhikkhus, the person that has formerly 
belonged to a Titthiya school, does not enter the 
village too early (&c, point by point the contrary of 
the preceding). 

'When a person comes, O Bhikkhus, that has 
formerly belonged to a Titthiya school, and has thus 
succeeded in satisfying (the Bhikkhus), the upasam- 
pada ordination ought to be conferred on him. 

ii. ' If a person, O Bhikkhus, that has formerly 
belonged to a Titthiya school, comes (to the Bhik- 
khus) naked, it is incumbent on his upa^^aya to 
get a robe for him. If he comes with unshaven hair, 
the Sawgha's permission ought to be asked for having 
his hair shaved 1 . 

' If fire-worshippers and <7a/ilas come to you, O 
Bhikkhus, they are to receive the upasampada 
ordination (directly), and no parivasa is to be im- 
posed on them. And for what reason ? These, O 
Bhikkhus, hold the doctrine that actions receive their 

1 Compare chap. 48. 



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I, 39, 2. ADMISSION TO THE ORDER OF BHIKKHUS. I9I 

reward, and that our deeds have their result (accord- 
ing to their moral merit). 

' If a Sakya by birth, O Bhikkhus, who has be- 
longed to a Titthiya school, comes to you, he is to 
receive the upasampada ordination (directly), and 
no parivasa is to be imposed on him. This ex- 
ceptional privilege, O Bhikkhus, I grant to my 
kinsmen.' 

Here ends the exposition on the ordination of persons 
that have formerly belonged to Titthiya schools. 



End of the seventh Bhawavara. 



39. 

1. At that time these five diseases prevailed 
among the people of Magadha : — leprosy, boils, dry 
leprosy, consumption, and fits. The people who 
were affected with these five diseases went to Givaka 
Komarabha/^a 1 and said: ' Pray, doctor, cure us.' 

' I have too many duties, Sirs, and am too occu- 
pied. I have to treat the Magadha king Seniya 
Bimbisara, and the royal seraglio, and the fraternity 
of Bhikkhus with the Buddha at their head. I 
cannot cure you.' 

'All that we possess shall be yours, doctor, and 
we will be your slaves ; pray, doctor, cure us.' 

' I have too many duties, Sirs,&c. ; I cannot cure you.' 

2. Now those people thought : ' Indeed the pre- 
cepts which these Sakyaputtiya Sama»as keep and 

1 (rivaka was physician to king Bimbisara, and one of the chief 
partisans of Buddha at the court of Ra^agaha. See VIII, 1, the 
introduction of the Samamwaphala Sutta, &c. 



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192 MAHAVAGGA. 1,39,3- 

the life they live are commodious ; they have good 
meals and lie down on beds protected from the wind. 
What if we were to embrace the religious life among 
the Sakyaputtiya Sama»as : then the Bhikkhus will 
nurse us, and £!vaka Komarabhai^a will cure us.' 

Thus these persons went to the Bhikkhus and 
asked them for the pabba^a ordination ; the Bhik- 
khus conferred on them the pabba^a and upa- 
sampada ordinations; and the Bhikkhus nursed 
them, and Civaka Komarabhai^a cured them. 

3. At that time the Bhikkhus, who had to nurse 
many sick Bhikkhus, began to solicit (lay people) 
with many demands and many requests : ' Give us 
food for the sick; give us food for the tenders of 
the sick ; give us medicine for the sick.' And also 
Gtvaka. Komarabhaiia, who had to treat many sick 
Bhikkhus, neglected some of his duties to the king. 

4. Now one day a man who was affected with the 
five diseases went to Givaka Komarabha£/6a and 
said : ' Pray, doctor, cure me.' 

' I have too many duties, Sir, and am too occupied ; 
I have to treat the Magadha king Seniya Bimbisara, 
and the royal seraglio, and the fraternity of Bhikkhus 
with the Buddha at their head ; I cannot cure you.' 

'All that I possess shall be yours, doctor, and 
I will be your slave ; pray doctor, cure me.' 

' I have too many duties, Sir, &c. ; I cannot cure you.' 

5. Now that man thought : ' Indeed the precepts 
which these Sakyaputtiya Sama»as keep (&c, down 
to :) : then the Bhikkhus will nurse me, and £tvaka 
Komarabha/66a will cure me. When I have become 
free from sickness, then I will return to the world.' 

Thus that man went to the Bhikkhus and asked 
them for the pabba^a ordination; the Bhikkhus 



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1,39.7- ADMISSION TO THE ORDER OF BHIKKHUS. I93 

conferred on him the pabba^a and upasampada 
ordinations; and the Bhikkhus nursed him, and 
^ivaka Komarabha&£a cured him. When he had 
become free from sickness, he returned tp the world. 
Now Glvaka, Komarabhai^a saw this person that 
had returned to the world ; and when he saw him he 
asked that person : 'Had you not embraced the 
religious life, Sir, among the Bhikkhus?' 
' Yes, doctor.' 

'And why have you adopted such a course, Sir?' 
Then that man told Glvaka, Komarabhaiia the 
whole matter. 

6. Then Glvaka. Komarabha^^a was annoyed, 
murmured, and became angry : ' How can the vener- 
able brethren confer the pabba^a ordination on a 
person affected with the five diseases ?' 

And Glvaka. Komarabhai^a went to the place 
where the Blessed One was ; having approached 
him arid having respectfully saluted the Blessed One, 
he sat down near him. Sitting near him, £ivaka 
Komarabha&fca said to the Blessed One : ' Pray, 
Lord, let their reverences not confer the pabba^a 
ordination on persons affected with the five diseases.' 

7. Then the Blessed One taught, incited, ani- 
mated, and gladdened Clvaka Komarabhai^a by 
religious discourse ; and Glvaka. Komarabhaiia, 
having been taught .... and gladdened by the 
Blessed One by religious discourse, rose from his 
seat, respectfully saluted the Blessed One, and pass- 
ing round him with his right side towards him, went 
away. 

In consequence of that and on this occasion the 
Blessed One, after having delivered a religious dis- 
course, thus addressed the Bhikkhus : ' Let no one, 
[13] o 



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194 MAHAVAGGA. 1, 40, 1. 

O Bhikkhus, who is affected with the five diseases, 
receive the pabba^f a ordination. He who confers 
the pabba^a ordination (on such a person), is 
guilty of a dukka/a offence.' 



40. 

1. At that time the border provinces (of the king- 
dom) of the Magadha king Seniya Bimbisara were 
agitated. Then the Magadha king Seniya Bimbisara 
gave order to the officers who were at the head of 
the army: 'Well now, go and search through the 
border provinces 1 .' The officers who were at the 
head of the army accepted the order of the Maga- 
dha king Seniya Bimbisara (by saying), ' Yes, Your 
Majesty.' 

2. Now many distinguished warriors thought : 
' We who go (to war) and find our delight in fight- 
ing, do evil and produce great demerit. Now what 
shall we do that we may desist from evil-doing and 
may do good ?' 

Then these warriors thought : ' These Sakyaput- 
tiya Sama»as lead indeed a virtuous, tranquil, holy 
life ; . they speak the truth ; they keep the precepts 
of morality, and are endowed with all virtues. If 
we could obtain pabba^a with the Sakyaputtiya 
Samawas, we should desist from evil-doing and do 
good.' 

Thus these warriors went to the Bhikkhus and 

1 On u££inatha, compare the use of u£Me££Mmi at Mah&- 
parinibbana Sutta 1, 1 (p. 1), which Buddhaghosa rightly explains 
by u^Mindissami. But we think it better to adhere here to the 
reading u££inatha, in accordance with the MSS. 



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I, 40, 4. ADMISSION TO THE ORDER OF BHIKKHUS. 1 95 

asked them for the pabba^a ordination; the 
Bhikkhus conferred on them the pabba^a and 
upasampada ordinations. 

3. The officers at the head of the army asked 
the royal soldiers : 'Why, how is it that the war- 
riors N. N. and N. N. are nowhere to be seen ?' 

' The warriors N. N. and N. N., Lords, have em- 
braced religious life among the Bhikkhus.' 

Then the officers at the head of the army were 
annoyed, murmured, and became angry : 'How can 
the Sakyaputtiya Sama«as ordain persons in the 
royal service ?' 

The officers who were at the head of the army 
told the thing to the Magadha king Seniya Bim- 
bisara. And the Magadha king Seniya Bimbisara 
asked the officers of justice : ' Tell me, my good 
Sirs, what punishment does he deserve who ordains 
a person in the royal service ?' 

'The upa^-^aya, Your Majesty, should be be- 
headed; to him who recites (the kammavaia), the 
tongue should be torn out ; to those who form the 
chapter, half of their ribs should be broken.' 

4. Then the Magadha king Seniya Bimbisara 
went to the place where the Blessed One was; 
having approached him and having respectfully 
saluted the Blessed One, he sat down near him. 
Sitting near him the Magadha king Seniya Bim- 
bisara said to the Blessed One : ' Lord, there are 
unbelieving kings who are disinclined (to the faith) ; 
these might harass the Bhikkhus even on trifling 
occasions. Pray, Lord, let their reverences not 
confer the pabba^a ordination on persons in 
royal service.' 

Then the Blessed One taught (&c, see chap. 39. 7, 

o 2 



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1 96 MAHAVAGGA. I, 41. 

down to :), thus addressed the Bhikkhus : ' Let no 
one, O Bhikkhus, who is in the royal service, re- 
ceive the pabba^a ordination. He who confers 
the pabba^a ordination (on such a person), is 
guilty of a dukka/a offence.' 



41. 

At that time the robber Angulimala 1 had em- 
braced religious life among the Bhikkhus. When 
the people saw that, they became alarmed and terri- 
fied; they fled away, went elsewhere, turned away 
their heads, and shut their doors. The people were 
annoyed, murmured, and became angry: 'How can 
the Sakyaputtiya Sama#as ordain a robber who 
openly wears the emblems (of his deeds)?' 

Some Bhikkhus heard those people that were 
annoyed, murmured, and had become angry; these 
Bhikkhus told the thing to the Blessed One. 

The Blessed One thus addressed the Bhikkhus: 
' Let no robber, O Bhikkhus, who wears the emblems 
(of his deeds), receive the pabba^a ordination. He 
who confers the pabba^a ordination (on such a 
person), is guilty of a dukkafe. offence.' 



1 The robber Angulimala (i. e. he who wears a necklace of 
fingers), whose original name was Ahiwsaka, had received this 
surname from his habit of cutting off the fingers of his victims 
and wearing them as a necklace. See Spence Hardy, Manual, 
p. 249 seq. 



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I, 42, 2. ADMISSION TO THE ORDER OF BHIKKHUS. IQ7 



42. 

1. At that time the Magadha king Seniya Bim- 
bisara had issued the following decree : ' No one is 
to do any harm to those who are ordained among 
the Sakyaputtiya Sama»as ; well taught is their doc- 
trine ; let them lead a holy life for the sake of the 
complete extinction of suffering.' 

Now at that time a certain person who had com- 
mitted robbery was imprisoned in the jail. He 
broke out of the jail, ran away, and received the 
pabba^a ordination with the Bhikkhus. 

2. The people who saw him, said : ' Here is the 
robber who has broken out of jail ; come, let us bring 
him (before the authorities).' 

But some people replied : ' Do not say so, Sirs. 
A decree has been issued by the Magadha king 
Seniya Bimbisara : ' No one is to do any harm to 
those who are ordained, &c.' 

People were annoyed, murmured, and became 
angry, thinking : ' Indeed these Sakyaputtiya Sama- 
»as are secure from anything; it is not allowed 
to do any harm to them. How can they ordain 
a robber who has broken out of jail ?' 

They told this thing to the Blessed One. 

' Let no robber, O Bhikkhus, who has broken out 
of jail, receive the pabba^a ordination. He who 
confers the pabba^a ordination (on such a person), 
is guilty of a dukka/a offence.' 



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I98 MAHAVAGGA. I, 43. 

43. 

At that time a certain person who had committed 
robbery had run away and had become ordained 
with the Bhikkhus. At the royal palace a proclama- 
tion was written : ' Wherever he is seen, he is to 
be killed.' 

The people who saw him, said : ' Here is the pro- 
claimed robber; come, let us kill him' (&c, as in 
chap. 42). 

' Let no proclaimed robber, O Bhikkhus, receive 
the pabba^a ordination. He who confers the 
pabba^a ordination (on such a robber), is guilty 
of a dukka/a offence.' 



44. 

At that time a certain person who had been 
punished by scourging had been ordained with the 
Bhikkhus. People were annoyed, &c. : ' How can 
these Sakyaputtiya Samawas ordain a person that 
has been punished by scourging ?' 

They told this thing ,to the Blessed One. 

' Let no one, O Bhikkhus, who has been punished 
by scourging, receive the pabba^a ordination. He 
who confers the pabba^a ordination (on such a 
person), is guilty of a dukka/a offence.' 



45. 

At that time a certain person who had been 
punished by branding (&c, as in chap. 44, down to 
the end). 



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1,47- ADMISSION TO THE ORDER OF BHIKKHUS. 1 99 



46. 

At that time a certain person who was in debt, 
ran away and was ordained with the Bhikkhus. 
When his creditors saw him, they said : ' There is 
our debtor ; come, let us lead him (to prison).' But 
some people replied : ' Do not say so, Sirs. A decree 
has been issued by the Magadha king Seniya Bim- 
bisara : ' No one is to do any harm to those who are 
ordained with the Sakyaputtiya Sama«as; well taught 
is their doctrine ; let them lead a holy life for the 
sake of the complete extinction of suffering.' 

People were annoyed, murmured, and became 
angry : ' Indeed these Sakyaputtiya Samaras are 
secure from anything; it is not allowed to do any- 
thing to them. How can they ordain a debtor ?' 

They told this thing to the Blessed One. 

' Let no debtor, O Bhikkhus, receive the pabba^a 
ordination. He who confers the pabba^a ordina- 
tion (on a debtor), is guilty of a dukka^a offence.' 



47. 

At that time a slave ran away and was ordained 
with the Bhikkhus. When his masters saw him, they 
said : ' There is our slave ; come, let us lead him 
away (back to our house),' (&c, as in chap. 46). 

' Let no slave, O Bhikkhus, receive the pabba^a 
ordination. He who confers the pabba^a ordina- 
tion (on a slave), is guilty of a dukka/a offence.' 



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20O MAHAVAGGA. I, 48, I. 



48. 

1. At that time a certain smith 1 who was bald- 
headed, having had a quarrel with his father and 
mother, had gone to the Arama and received pab- 
ba^a with the Bhikkhus. Now the father and 
mother of that bald-headed smith, searching after 
that bald-headed smith, came to the Arama and 
asked the Bhikkhus : ' Pray, reverend Sirs, have you 
seen such and such a boy ?' 

The Bhikkhus, who did not know him, said : ' We 
do not know him ;' having not seen him, they said : 
' We have not seen him.' 

2. Now the father and mother of that bald-headed 
smith, searching after that bald-headed smith, found 
him ordained with the Bhikkhus ; they were annoyed, 
&c. : ' These Sakyaputtiya Samawas are shameless, 
wicked, and liars. They knew him and said : " We 
do not know him;" they had seen him and said: 
" We have not seen him." This boy has been or- 
dained with the Bhikkhus.' 

Now some Bhikkhus heard the father and mother 
of that bald-headed smith, who were annoyed, &c. 
Those Bhikkhus told the thing to the Blessed One. 

' I prescribe, O Bhikkhus, that the Sawzgha's per- 
mission is asked for having (the new coming Bhik- 
khus) shaved.' 



1 Buddhaghosa explains kammarabha»</u by tulataramun- 
</ako (read tuladharam.) suva««akaraputto. At Dhammapada, 
v. 239, kammara is said of a silversmith. There was probably 
no distinction in these early times between gold, silver, copper, 
and iron smiths; the same man being an artificer in all kinds 
of metal. 



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I, 49, 2. ADMISSION TO THE ORDER OF BHIKKHUS. 201 



49. 

1. At that time there was in Ra^agaha a company 
of seventeen boys, friends of each other; young 
Upali 1 was first among them. Now Upali's father 
and mother thought: 'How will Upali after our 
death live a life of ease and without pain ?' Then 
Upali's father and mother said to themselves : ' If 
Upali could learn writing, he would after our death 
live a life of ease and without pain.' But then Upali's 
father and mother thought again : ' If Upali learns 
writing, his fingers will become sore. But if Upali 
could learn arithmetic, he would after our death live 
a life of ease and without pain.' 

2. But then Upali's father and mother thought 
again : ' If Upali learns arithmetic, his breast will 
become diseased 2 . But if Upali could learn money- 
changing 3 , he would after our death live a life of 
ease and comfort, and without pain.' But then 
Upali's father and mother said to themselves : ' If 
Upali learns money-changing, his eyes will suffer. 
Now here are the Sakyaputtiya Samaras, who keep 
commodious precepts and live a commodious life ; 
they have good meals and lie down on beds protected 
from the wind. If Upali could be ordained with the 

1 This Upali is different from the famous Upali who belonged 
to the chief disciples of Buddha ; the latter came not from R%a- 
gaha, but from the Sakya country. 

* Buddhaghosa : ' He who learns arithmetic, must think much ; 
therefore his breast will become diseased.' 

* We prefer this translation of rupa to translating it by 'paint- 
ing,' on account of Buddhaghosa's note : ' He who learns the 
rupa-sutta must turn over and over many k&rshapawas and 
look at them.' 



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202 MAHAVAGGA. 1, 49, 3. 

Sakyaputtiya Samawas, he would after our death live 
a life of ease and without pain.' 

3. Now young Upali heard his father and mother 
talking thus. Then young Upali went to the other 
boys; having approached them, he said to those 
boys : ' Come, Sirs, let us get ordained with the 
Sakyaputtiya Samawas/ (They replied) : 'If you 
will get ordained, Sir, we will be ordained also.' 
Then those boys went each to his father and mother 
and said to them : ' Give me your consent for leaving 
the world and going forth into the houseless state.' 
Then the parents of those boys, who thought, 'It is a 
good thing what all these boys are wishing so unani- 
mously for,' gave their consent. They went to the 
Bhikkhus and asked them for the pabba^a ordi- 
nation. The Bhikkhus conferred the pabba^a 
and upasampada ordinations on them. 

4. In the night, at dawn, they rose and began to 
cry : ' Give us rice-milk, give us soft food, give us 
hard food ! ' The Bhikkhus said : ' Wait, friends, till 
day-time. If there is rice-milk, you shall drink ; if 
there is food, soft or hard, you shall eat; if there 
is no rice-milk and no food, soft or hard, you must 
go out for alms, and then you will eat.' 

But those Bhikkhus, when they were thus spoken 
to by the other Bhikkhus, threw their bedding about 
and made it wet, calling out : ' Give us rice-milk, give 
us soft food, give us hard food!' 

5. Then the Blessed One, having arisen in the 
night, at dawn, heard the noise which those boys 
made ; hearing it he said to the venerable Ananda : 
' Now, Ananda, what noise of boys is that ?' 

Then the venerable Ananda told the thing to the 
Blessed One. 



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I, 49, 6. ADMISSION TO THE ORDER OF BHIKKHUS. 203 

' Is it true, O Bhikkhus, that the Bhikkhus know- 
ingly confer the upasampada ordination on persons 
under twenty years of age ?' 

' It-is true, Lord.' 

Then the Blessed One rebuked those Bhikkhus : 
' How can those foolish persons, O Bhikkhus, know- 
ingly confer the upasampada ordination on persons 
under twenty years of age ? 

6. 'A person under twenty years, O Bhikkhus, 
cannot endure coldness and heat, hunger and thirst, 
vexation by gadflies and gnats, by storms and sun- 
heat, and by reptiles; (he cannot endure) abusive, 
offensive language; he is not able to bear bodily 
pains which are severe, sharp, grievous, disagreeable, 
unpleasant, and destructive to life ; whilst a person 
that has twenty years of age, O Bhikkhus, can en- 
dure coldness, &c. This will not do, O Bhikkhus, 
for converting the unconverted and for augmenting 
the number of the converted.' 

Having rebuked those Bhikkhus and delivered a 
religious discourse, he thus addressed the Bhikkhus : 
'Let no one, O Bhikkhus, knowingly confer the 
upasampada ordination on a person under twenty 
years of age. He who does, is to be treated accord- 
ing to the law 1 .' 

1 The law alluded to is the 65th pS/iittiya rule. Generally in 
the Khandhakas, which presuppose, as we have stated in our pre- 
face, the existence of the P&timokkha, direct repetition of the rules 
laid down there has been avoided. If, nevertheless, in the Khan- 
dhakas a transgression alluded to in the P&timokkha had to be men- 
tioned again, then in most cases the Khandhakas, instead of directly 
indicating the penance incurred thereby, use of the guilty Bhikkhu 
the expression, 'yath&dhammo k&retabbo,' i.e. 'he is to be 
treated according to the law.' See H. O.'s Introduction to his 
edition of the Mahdvagga, p. xx note. 



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204 mahAvagga. I, 50. 

50. 

At that time a certain family had died of pesti- 
lence 1 ; only a father and his son were left ; they 
received the pabba^a ordination with the Bhikkhus 
and went together on their rounds for alms. Now 
that boy, when food was given to his father, ran up 
to him and said: 'Give some to me too, father; 
give some to me too, father.' 

People were annoyed, &c. : ' These Sakyaputtiya 
Samawas live an impure life ; this boy is a Bhik- 
khuni's son.' 

Some Bhikkhus heard, &c. 

They told this thing to the Blessed One, &c. 

' Let no one, O Bhikkhus, confer the pabba^fi 
ordination on a boy under fifteen years of age. He 
who does, is guilty of a dukka/a offence.' 



61. 

At that time a believing, pious family, who de- 
voted themselves to the (especial) service of the 
venerable Ananda, had died of pestilence. Only 
two boys were left; these, when seeing Bhikkhus, 
ran up to them according to their old custom, but 
the Bhikkhus turned them away. When they were 
turned away by the Bhikkhus, they cried. Now 
the venerable Ananda thought : ' The Blessed One 
has forbidden us to confer the pabba^a ordination 

1 Buddhaghosa explains ahivatakaroga by maribyadhi, and 
says : ' When this plague befalls a house, men and beasts in that 
house die ; but he who breaks through wall or roof, or is " roga 
madigato(?)," may be saved.' 



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I, 53, i. ADMISSION TO THE ORDER OF BHIKKHUS. 205 

on a boy under fifteen years of age, and these boys 
are under fifteen years of age. What can be done in 
order that these boys may not perish ?' And the vene- 
rable Ananda told this thing to the Blessed One. 

' Are these boys able, Ananda, to scare crows ?' 

' They are, Lord.' 

In consequence of that and on this occasion the 
Blessed One, after having delivered a religious dis- 
course, thus addressed the Bhikkhus : ' I allow you, 
O Bhikkhus, to confer the pabba^a ordination on 
crow-keeper boys even under fifteen years of age.' 



52. 

At that time the venerable Upananda, of the 
Sakya tribe, had two novices, Kanaka and Ma- 
haka; these committed sodomy with each other. 
The Bhikkhus were annoyed, &c. : ' How can 
novices abandon themselves to such bad conduct ?' 

They told this thing to the Blessed One, &c. 

' Let no one, O Bhikkhus, ordain two novices. He 
who does, is guilty of a dukka/a offence 1 .' 



53. 

1. At that time the Blessed One dwelt at Ra^gaha 
during the rainy season, and remained at the same 
place during winter and summer. The people were 
annoyed, &c. : 'The (four) regions are 2 .... and 

1 This seems very unpractical : and the rule is accordingly prac- 
tically abrogated again by chapter 55. 

a We must leave ' ahundarild ' untranslated ; Buddhaghosa says 
nothing about this obscure word. 



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206 MAHAVAGGA. I, 53, 2. 

covered by darkness to the Sakyaputtiya Samawas ; 
they cannot discern the (four) regions.' Some Bhik- 
khus heard, &c. 

2. Then the Blessed One said to the venerable 
Ananda : ' Go, Ananda, take a key and tell the 
Bhikkhus in every cell : " Friends, the Blessed One 
wishes to go forth to Dakkhiwagiri. Let any one 
of the venerable brethren who thinks fit, come to 
him." ' 

The venerable Ananda accepted this order of the 
Blessed One (by saying), 'Yes, Lord,' took a key, 
and said to the Bhikkhus in every cell : ' Friends, 
the Blessed One,' &c. 

A 

3. The Bhikkhus replied : ' Friend Ananda, the 
Blessed One has prescribed 1 that Bhikkhus are to 
live (the first) ten years in dependence (on their 
a^ariyas and upa^^iyas), and that he who has 
completed his tenth year, may give a nissaya him- 
self. Now if we go there, we shall be obliged to 
take a nissaya there; then we shall stay there for 
a short time, then we must go back again and take 
a new nissaya. If our a^ariyas and upa^ - - 
^ayas go, we will go also; if our aiariyas and 
upa^-^ayas do not go, we will not go either. 
Otherwise our light-mindedness, friend Ananda, will 
become manifest/ 

4. Thus the Blessed One went forth toJDakkhi- 
»agiri followed only by a few Bhikkhus. And the 
Blessed One, after having dwelt at Dakkhiwagiri as 
long as he thought fit, went back to Ra^gaha again. 

Then the Blessed One said to the venerable 

* A 

Ananda : ' How is it, Ananda, that the perfect 
1 See chap. 32. 1. 



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I, 54, I. ADMISSION TO TI^! ORDER OF BHIKKHUS. 207 

One has gone forth to Dakkhi«agiri with so few 
Bhikkhus ?' 

Then the venerable Ananda told the thing to the 
Blessed One. 

In consequence of that and on this occasion the 
Blessed One, after having delivered a religious dis- 
course, thus addressed the Bhikkhus : ' I prescribe, 
O Bhikkhus, that a learned, competent Bhikkhu lives 
five years in dependence (on his a^ariya and upa^ - - 
^aya), an unlearned one all his life. 

5. 'In five cases, O Bhikkhus, a Bhikkhu should 
not live without a nissaya (i.e. independent of 
aiariya and upa^^aya): when he does not pos- 
sess full perfection in what belongs to moral prac- 
tices (&c, as in chap. 36. 2). In these five cases, 
O Bhikkhus, a Bhikkhu should not live without a 
nissaya. 

'In five cases, O Bhikkhus, a Bhikkhu may live 
without a nissaya: when he possesses full perfection 
in what belongs to moral practices (&c, as in chap. 36. 
3). I n these five cases, O Bhikkhus, a Bhikkhu may 
live without a nissaya. 

6-13. 'And also in other five cases, &C. 1 ' 



End of the eighth Bha»avara, which is called the 
Abhayuvara Bha#avara 2 . 



54. 

1. Then the Blessed One, after having resided at 
Ra^agaha as long as he thought fit, went forth to 

1 Supply these pentads and hexads, respectively, from chaps. 36. 
6, 7; 8, 9; 14, 15; 16, 17; 37. 1, 2; 5, 6; 7, 8; 13,14- 

2 Abhayuvara means, ' secure from anything.' This refers to 
the expression used in chap. 42, § 2. 



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208 MAHAVA,GGA. I, 54, 3, 

Kapilavatthu. Wandering from place to place he 
came to Kapilavatthu. There the Blessed One 
dwelt in the Sakka country, near Kapilavatthu, in 
the Nigrodharama (Banyan Grove). 

And in the forenoon the Blessed One, having 
put on his under-robes, took his alms-bowl and with 
his ilvara on went to the residence of the Sakka 
Suddhodana (his father). Having gone there, he 
sat down on a seat laid out for him. 

Then the princess, who was the mother of Rahula 1 , 
said to young Rahula : ' This is your father, Rahula ; 
go and ask him for your inheritance.' 

2. Then young Rahula went to the place where 
the Blessed One was ; having approached him, he 
stationed himself before the Blessed One (and said) : 
' Your shadow, Samara, is a place of bliss/ 

Then the Blessed One rose from his seat and 
went away, and young Rahula followed the Blessed 
One from behind and said : ' Give me my inherit- 
ance, Samawa ; give me my inheritance, Sama#a.' 

Then the Blessed One said to the venerable 
Sariputta: 'Well, Sariputta, confer the pabba^S. 
ordination on young Rahula.' 

(Sariputta replied) : ' How shall I confer, Lord, 
the pabba^a ordination on young R&hula?' 

3. In consequence of that and on this occasion the 
Blessed One, after having delivered a religious dis- 
course, thus addressed the Bhikkhus : ' I prescribe, 

1 The Buddha's former wife. This is, as far as we know, the 
only passage in the Pali Pi/akas which mentions this lady, and 
it deserves notice that her name is not mentioned. Probably this 
name was unknown to the Buddhists in early times, and thus we 
may best account for the difference of the simply invented names 
given to this lady by later writers. Compare Rh. D., Buddhism, 
p. 50 seq. 



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I, 54, 5. ADMISSION TO THE ORDER OF BHIKKHUS. 209 

Bhikkhus, the pabba^f a ordination of novices 
by the threefold declaration of taking refuge. 

' And you ought, O Bhikkhus, to confer the pab- 
ba/^a ordination (on a novice) in this way: Let him 
first have his hair and beard cut off; let him put on 
yellow robes, adjust his upper robe so as to cover 
one shoulder, salute the feet of the Bhikkhus (with his 
head), and sit down squatting ; then let him raise his 
joined hands and tell him to say: " I take my refuge 
in the Buddha, I take my refuge in the Dhamma, I 
take my refuge in the Sa/«gha. And for the second 
time, &c. And for the third time, &c." 

4 1 prescribe, O Bhikkhus, the pabba^a ordi- 
nation of novices by this threefold declaration of 
taking refuge.' 

Thus the venerable Sariputta conferred the pab- 
ba.gjr£ ordination on young Rahula. 

4. Then the Sakka Suddhodana went to the place 
where the Blessed One was; having approached 
him and having respectfully saluted the Blessed 
One, he sat down near him. Sitting near him the 
Sakka Suddhodana said to the Blessed One : ' Lord, 

1 ask one boon of the Blessed One.' (The Buddha 
replied): 'The perfect Ones, Gotama, are above 
granting boons (before they know what they are *).' 
(Suddhodana said) : ' Lord, it is a proper and unob- 
jectionable demand.' ' Speak, Gotama.' 

5. 'Lord, when the Blessed One gave up the 

1 Granting a boon (vara) is a constant phrase used of princes 
when making an open promise to give to any one whatever they 
should ask. See, for instance, the G&taka. Story, No. 9, where the 
person to whom the boon was given laid it by for a convenient 
season ; and then asked the king to make her son heir-apparent, 
in violation of all ancient law and custom. 

C»33 * 



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210 mahavagga. 1,55. 

world, it was a great pain to me ; so it was when 
Nanda 1 did the same ; my pain was excessive when 
Rahula too did so. The love for a son, Lord, cuts 
into the skin ; having cut into the skin, it cuts into 
the hide ; having cut into the hide, it cuts into the 
flesh, .... the ligaments, .... the bones ; having 
cut into the bones, it reaches the marrow and dwells 
in the marrow. Pray, Lord, let their reverences not 
confer the pabba^a ordination on a son without 
his father's and mother's permission.' 

Then the Blessed One taught the Sakka Suddho- 
dana (&c, see chap. 39. 7). 

' Let no son, O Bhikkhus, receive the pabba^a 
ordination without his father's and mother's per- 
mission. He who confers the pabba^a ordination 
(on a son without that permission), is guilty of a 
dukka/a offence.' 



55. 

Then the Blessed One, after having resided at 
Kapilavatthu as long as he thought fit, went forth 
to Savatthi. Wandering from place to place he 
came to Savatthi. There the Blessed One dwelt 
at Savatthi, in the £etavana, the Arama of Ana- 
thapi«dfika. 

At that time a family who devoted themselves to 
the (especial) service of the venerable Sariputta sent 
a boy to the venerable Sariputta (with this message) : 

1 Nanda was a son of Mahapa^apatt, a half-brother of the 
Buddha. See the story of his conversion in Rh. D.'s Buddhist 
Birth Stories, p. 128 (later and fuller accounts can be seen in 
Hardy, Manual, p. 204 seq. ; Beal, Romantic Legend, p. 369 seq.) 



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I, 56. ADMISSION TO THE ORDER OF BHIKKHUS. 2 1 1 

' Might the Thera confer the pabba^a ordination 
on this boy.' Now the venerable Sariputta thought : 
' The Blessed One has established the rule 1 that 
no one may ordain two novices, and I have already 
one novice, Rahula. Now what am I to do ?' 

He told the thing to the Blessed One. 

' I allow, O Bhikkhus, a learned, competent 
Bhikkhu to ordain two novices, or to ordain as 
many novices as he is able to administer exhorta- 
tion and instruction to.' 



66. 

Now the novices thought : ' How many precepts 2 
are there for us, and in what (precepts) are we to 
exercise ourselves ?' 

They told this thing to the Blessed One. 

' I prescribe, O Bhikkhus, ten precepts for the 
novices, and the exercise of the novices in these 
(ten precepts), viz. abstinence from destroying life ; 
abstinence from stealing; abstinence from impu- 
rity; abstinence from lying ; abstinence from 
arrack and strong drink and intoxicating 
liquors, which cause indifference (to religion); 
abstinence from eating at forbidden times; 
abstinence from dancing, singing, music, and 
seeing spectacles; abstinence from garlands, 
scents, unguents, ornaments, and finery ; absti- 
nence from (the use of) high or broad beds; 
abstinence from accepting gold or silver. I pre- 

1 See chap. 52. 

* Sikkhapadini, literally, ' Paths of Training.' ( Compare chap. 60. 

P 2 



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2 1 2 MAHAVAGGA. I, 57, i. 

scribe, O Bhikkhus, these ten precepts for the 
novices, and the exercise of the novices in these 
(ten precepts).' 



57. 

i. At that time novices did not show reverence 
and confidence towards the Bhikkhus, and did not 
live in harmony with them. The Bhikkhus were 
annoyed, murmured, and became angry : ' How can 
the novices not show reverence and confidence 
towards the Bhikkhus, and not live in harmony 
with them ? ' 

They told this thing to the Blessed One. 

' I prescribe, O Bhikkhus, that you inflict punish- 
ment upon a novice in five cases : When he is 
intent on the Bhikkhus' receiving no alms ; when he 
is intent on the Bhikkhus' meeting with misfortune ; 
when he is intent on the Bhikkhus' finding no resi- 
dence; when he abuses and reviles the Bhikkhus; 
when he causes divisions between Bhikkhus and 
Bhikkhus. I prescribe, O Bhikkhus, that in these 
five cases you inflict punishment upon a novice.' 

2. Now the Bhikkhus thought : ' What punish- 
ment are we to inflict ?' 

They told this thing to the Blessed One. 

' I prescribe, O Bhikkhus, that you forbid them 
(certain places, for instance, their own residences).' 

At that time Bhikkhus forbad novices the whole 
Sawgharama. The novices, who were not admitted 
to the Sawzgharama, went away, or returned to the 
world, or went over to Titthiya schools. 

They told this thing to the Blessed One. 



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I, 58. ADMISSION TO THE ORDER OF BHIKKHUS. 2 I 3 

' Let them not, O Bhikkhus, forbid (novices) the 
whole Sawgharama. He who does so, commits 
a dukka/a offence. I prescribe, O Bhikkhus, that 
(the Bhikkhus) forbid (a novice) the place where he 
lives or which he uses to frequent.' 

3. At that time Bhikkhus forbad the novices the 
use of (certain kinds of) food that is taken with the 
mouth. People, when they prepared rice-milk to 
drink or meals for the Samgha., said to the novices : 
' Come, reverend Sirs, drink rice-milk ; come, reve- 
rend Sirs, take food.' The novices replied : ' It is 
impossible, friends; the Bhikkhus have issued a> fore- 
warning (against us).' The people were annoyed, 
murmured, and became angry, thinking : ' How can 
their reverences forbid novices the use of all food 
that is taken with the mouth ?' 

They told this thing to the Blessed One. 

' Let them not, O Bhikkhus, forbid (novices) food 
that is taken with the mouth. He who does so, 
commits a dukka/a offence.' 



End of the section about punishment (of novices). 



58. 

At that time the .Oabbaggiya 1 Bhikkhus laid 
a ban upon novices without the consent of the 
upa^g^ayas (of those novices). The upa^Myas 

1 Here first appear the .fffobbaggiya Bhikkhus (the company of 
the ' six Bhikkhus', with their attendants), the constant and indefati- 
gable evil-doers throughout the whole Vinaya-Pi/aka. Buddhaghosa 
(on Aullavagga 1, 1) says that Pa»<ftika and Lohitaka belonged to 
this company, and also Assagi and Punabbasu are mentioned as 
.Oabbaggiyas (see Childers s.v. £Aabbaggiyo). 



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214 mahAvagga. 1,59. 

searched after them, thinking : 'How is it that our 
novices have disappeared?' The Bhikkhus said: 
' The A^abbaggiya Bhikkhus, friends, have laid a ban 
upon them.' The upa^^ayas were annoyed, &c: 
' How can the A'^abbaggiya Bhikkhus lay a ban 
upon our novices without having obtained our 
consent ? ' 

They told this thing to the Blessed One. 

' Let no one, O Bhikkhus, lay a ban (upon novices) 
without consent of the upag^ayas. He who does, 
commits a dukka/a offence.' 



59. 

At that time the A^abbaggiya Bhikkhus drew the 
novices of senior Bhikkhus over (to themselves). 
The Theras, who were obliged to get themselves 
teeth-cleansers and water to rinse their mouths with, 
became tired. 

They told this thing to the Blessed One. 

' Let no one, O Bhikkhus, draw the followers of 
another Bhikkhu over to himself. He who does, 
commits a dukka/a offence.' 



60. 

At that time a novice, Kandaka. by name, who 
was a follower of the venerable Upananda Sakya- 
putta, had sexual intercourse with a Bhikkhunt, 
Kawdaka by name. The Bhikkhus were annoyed, 
&c. : ' How can a novice abandon himself to such 
conduct ? ' 



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I, <5i. ADMISSION TO THE ORDER OF BHIKKHUS. 2 1 5 

They told this thing to the Blessed One. 

' I prescribe, O Bhikkhus, that you expel a novice 
(from the fraternity) in the following ten cases : 
When he destroys life ; when he commits theft ; 
when he commits impurity; when he is a liar; when 
he drinks strong drinks; when he speaks against 
the Buddha ; when he speaks against the Dhamma ; 
when he speaks against the Sa*»gha ; when he holds 
false doctrines ; when he has sexual intercourse with 
Bhikkhunis 1 . In these ten cases I prescribe, O 
Bhikkhus, that you expel the novice (from the 
fraternity).' 



61. 

At that time, &c. 2 

' Let a eunuch, O Bhikkhus, who has not received 
the upasampada ordination, not receive it; if he 
has received it, let him be expelled (from the fra- 
ternity).' 

1 The case of the novice's committing sexual intercourse with 
a Bhikkhuni can have found its place here only by a negligence of 
the redactor, as it is comprised already in the third of the ten 
cases (the novice's committing impurity). Buddhaghosa (who of 
course never admits anything like an inadvertence of the holy 
Theras by whom the Vinaya is compiled) says that the third case 
and the tenth are distinguished here, because a person that has 
simply committed an impurity may receive the ordination, if he is 
willing to refrain himself in future; whilst a bhikkhuntdusaka 
cannot be ordained in any case (see chap. 67). 

* Tena kho pana samayena awnataro pa«dako bhikkhusu pab- 
ba^ito hoti, so dahare dahare bhikkhu upasamkamitva evara 
vadeti : etha mam ayasmanto dusetha 'ti. Bhikkhu apasadenti : 
nassa pa«rfaka, vinassa pawaaka, ko taya attho 'ti. So bhikkhuhi 
apasadito mahante mahante moligalle (Buddhaghosa : thulasartre) 
samawere upasawkamitva evaw vadeti: etha maw avuso dusethd 



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216 mahAvagga. 1,62,1. 



62. 

1. At that time there was a certain person of an 
old family, whose kinsmen had died away ; he was 
delicately nurtured. Now this person of an old 
family, whose kinsmen had died away, thought: 
' I am delicately nurtured ; I am not able to acquire 
new riches or to augment the riches which I possess. 
What shall I do in order that I may live a life of 
ease and without pain?' 

Then this person of an old family, whose kinsmen 
had died away, gave himself the following answer : 
'There are the Sakyaputtiya Sama«as, who keep 
commodious precepts and live a commodious life ; 
they have good meals and lie down on beds pro- 
tected from wind. What if I were to procure myself 
an alms-bowl and robes on my own account, and 
were to have my hair and beard cut off, to put on 
yellow robes, to go to the Arama, and to live there 
with the Bhikkhus.' 

2. Then that person of an old family, whose 
kinsmen had died away, procured himself an alms- 
bowl and robes on his own account, had his hair and 
beard cut off, put on yellow robes, went to the 
Arama, and respectfully saluted the Bhikkhus. The 



'ti. S£ma«er& apasadenti: nassa pa.nda.ka, vinassa pa«</aka, ko 
tayi attho'ti. So simawerehi apasMto hatthibha»</e assabha«</e 
upasawkamitva" evaw vadeti : etha maw Svuso dusethi 'ti. Hatthi- 
bhanda assabha«<& dusesu/w. Te uggA&yaxiti khfyanti vipa^enti : 
pamfoka' ime samawa Sakyaputtiya, ye pi imesam na pandaka te pi 
pa«</ake dusenti, evam ime sabbeva abrahmaMrino 'ti. Assosim 
kho bhikkhu hatthibhawrfinaw assa.bhanda.nam u^g^ayantanam khi- 
yantanaw vipa^entdnaw. Atha kho te bhikkhu bhagavato etam 
atthaw aro^esuw. 



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I, 63, 1. ADMISSION TO THE ORDER OF BHIKKHUS. 21 7 

Bhikkhus said to him : ' How many years, friend, 
have elapsed since your upasampada ?' 

'What does that mean, friends, "years elapsed 
since the upasampada?'" 

'And who is your upa^^aya, friend?' 

' What does that word u \>&ggh aya mean,friends ?' 

The Bhikkhus said to the venerable Upali : ' Pray, 
friend Upali, examine this ascetic' 

3. Then that person of an old family, whose 
kinsmen had died away, when being examined by 
the venerable Upali, told him the whole matter. 
The venerable Upali told this thing to the Bhikkhus ; 
the Bhikkhus told this thing to the Blessed One. 

'Let a person, O Bhikkhus, who has furtively 
attached himself to the Sa*#gha, if he has not re- 
ceived the upasampada ordination, not receive it ; 
if he has received it, let him be expelled (from the 
fraternity). 

' Let a person, O Bhikkhus, who has gone over to 
the Titthiyas' (&c, as in chap. 61). 



63. 

1. At that time there was a serpent who was 
aggrieved at, ashamed of, and conceived aversion 
for his having been born as a serpent. Now this 
serpent thought: 'What am I to do in order to 
become released from being a serpent, and quickly 
to obtain human nature ?' Then this serpent gave 
himself the following answer : ' These Sakyaputtiya 
Sama#as lead indeed a virtuous, tranquil, holy life ; 
they speak the truth ; they keep the precepts of 
morality, and are endowed with all virtues. If 



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218 mahAvagga. 1,63,2- 

I could obtain pabba^a with the Sakyaputtiya 
Sama#as, I should be released from being a ser- 
pent and quickly obtain human nature.' 

2. Then that serpent, in the shape of a youth, 
went to the Bhikkhus, and asked them for the 
pabba^f a ordination ; the Bhikkhus conferred on 
him the pabba^a and upasampada ordinations. 

At that time that serpent dwelt together with 
a certain Bhikkhu in the last Vihara (near the boun- 
dary wall of the (^etavana). Now that Bhikkhu, 
having arisen in the night, at dawn, was walking 
up and down in the open air. When that Bhikkhu 
had left (the Vihara), that serpent, who thought 
himself safe (from discovery), fell asleep (in his 
natural shape). The whole Vihara was filled with 
the snake's body; his windings jutted out of the 
window. 

3. Then that Bhikkhu thought: ' I will go back 
to the Vihara,' opened the door, and saw the whole 
Vihara filled with the snake's body, the windings 
jutting out of the window. Seeing that he was 
terrified and cried out. The Bhikkhus ran up, and 
said to that Bhikkhu : ' Why did you cry out, 
friend ?' ' This whole Vihara, friends, is filled with a 
snake's body ; the windings jut out of the window.' 

Then that serpent awoke from that noise and sat 
down on his seat. The Bhikkhus said to him : 
' Who are you, friend ?' ' I am a serpent, reverend 
Sirs.' ' And why have you done such a thing, 
friend ?' Then that Naga told the whole matter 
to the Bhikkhus ; the Bhikkhus told it to the 
Blessed One. 

4. In consequence of that and on this occasion 
the Blessed One, having ordered the fraternity of 



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I, 64, 1. ADMISSION TO THE ORDER OF BHIKKHUS. 2ig 

Bhikkhus to assemble, said to that serpent : ' You 
serpents are not capable of (spiritual) growth in 
this doctrine and discipline. However, serpent, go 
and observe fast on the fourteenth, fifteenth, and 
eighth day of each half month ; thus will you be 
released from being a serpent and quickly obtain 
human nature.' 

Then that serpent, who thought, ' I am not 
capable of (spiritual) growth in this doctrine and 
discipline,' became sad and sorrowful, shed tears, 
made an outcry, and went away. 

5. Then the Blessed One said to the Bhikkhus : 
' There are two occasions, O Bhikkhus, on which 
a serpent (who has assumed human shape) manifests 
his true nature : when he has sexual intercourse with 
a female of his species, and if he thinks himself 
safe (from discovery) and falls asleep. These, O 
Bhikkhus, are the two occasions on which a serpent 
manifests his true nature. 

' Let an animal, O Bhikkhus, that has not received 
the upasampada ordination, not receive it; if it 
has received it, let it be expelled (from the fra- 
ternity).' 



64. 

1. At that time a certain young man deprived his 
mother of life. He was grieved, ashamed, and 
loathed this sinful deed. Now this young man 
thought : ' What am I to do to get rid of my sinful 
deed V Then this young man gave himself this 
answer : ' These Sakyaputtiya Sama«as lead indeed 
a virtuous, tranquil, holy life, &c. If I could obtain 



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220 MAHAVAGGA. 1, 64, 2. 

pabba^a with the Sakyaputtiya Sama»as, I might 
get rid of my sinful deed.' 

2. Then that young man went to the Bhikkhus 
and asked them for the pabba^a ordination. The 
Bhikkhus said to the venerable Upali : ' Formerly, 
friend Upali, a serpent in the shape of a youth 
received the pabba^a ordination with the Bhik- 
khus ; pray, friend Upali, examine this young man.' 
Then that young man, when examined by the 
venerable Upali, told him the whole matter. The 
venerable Upali told it to the Bhikkhus ; the 
Bhikkhus told it to the Blessed One. 

' Let a person, O Bhikkhus, that is guilty of matri- 
cide, if he has not received the upasampadd ordi- 
nation, not receive it ; if he has received it, let him 
be expelled (from the fraternity).' 



65. 

At that time a certain young man deprived his 
father of life (&c, as in chap. 64). 

' Let a person, O Bhikkhus, that is guilty of par- 
ricide, &c.' 



66. 

1. At that time a number of Bhikkhus were travel- 
ling on the road from Saketa to Sivatthi. On the 
road robbers broke forth, robbed some of the Bhik- 
khus, and killed some of them. Then royal soldiers 
came from Savatthi and caught some of the robbers; 
others of them escaped. Those who had escaped, 
received pabba^d with the Bhikkhus ; those who 
had been caught, were led to death. 



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I, 67. ADMISSION TO THE ORDER OF BHIKKHUS. 221 

2. Then those who had been ordained, saw those 
robbers who were being led to death ; seeing them 
they said : ' It is well that we have escaped ; had we 
been caught, we should also be killed thus.' The 
Bhikkhus said to them : ' Why, what have you 
done, friends ?' Then those (robbers) who had 
been ordained, told the whole matter to the Bhik- 
khus. The Bhikkhus told this thing to the Blessed 
One. 

'Those Bhikkhus, O Bhikkhus, were Arahats. 
Let a person, O Bhikkhus, that has murdered an 
Arahat, if this person has not received the upa- 
sampada ordination, not receive it; if he has re- 
ceived it, let him be expelled (from the fraternity).' 



67. 

At that time a number of Bhikkhunis were tra- 
velling on the road from Saketa to Savatthi. On 
the road robbers broke forth, robbed some of the 
Bhikkhunis, and violated some of them. Then royal 
soldiers (&c, as in chap. 66). 

The Bhikkhus told this thing to the Blessed One. 

' Let a person, O Bhikkhus, that has violated a 
Bhikkhunl (or, that has had sexual intercourse with 
a Bhikkhunl), (&c, as in chap. 66). 

' Let a person, O Bhikkhus, that has caused a 
schism among the Sawgha, &c. 

' Let a person, O Bhikkhus, that has shed (a 
Buddha's) blood,' &c. 



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222 MAHAVAGGA. 1,68. 



68. 

At that time a certain hermaphrodite had received 
pabba^a with the Bhikkhus; so karoti pi kara- 
peti pi. 

They told this thing to the Blessed One. 

' Let a hermaphrodite, O Bhikkhus,' &c. 



69. 

i. At that time the Bhikkhus conferred the 
upasampada ordination on a person that had no 
upa^^aya. 

They told this thing to the Blessed One. 

' Let no one, O Bhikkhus, who has no upa^g^aya, 
receive the upasampada ordination. He who con- 
fers the upasampada ordination (on such a person), 
commits a dukka/a offence.' 

2. At that time the Bhikkhus conferred the upa- 
sampada ordination with the Sawgha as upa^ - - 
ghtydi. 

They told this thing to the Blessed One. 

' Let no one receive the upasampada ordination 
with the Sawgha as upa^f^aya. He who confers 
the upasampada ordination (in such a way), com- 
mits a dukka/a offence.' 

3. At that time the Bhikkhus conferred the upa- 
sampada ordination with a number of Bhikkhus 1 
as upa^^aya (&c, as before). 

4. At that time the Bhikkhus conferred the upa- 

1 I. e. not with the whole fraternity residing at that place, but 
with a part of it. 



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I, 70, 3. ADMISSION TO THE ORDER OF BHIKKHUS. 223 

sampada ordination with a eunuch as upa^^aya, 
&c. ; with a person that had furtively attached him- 
self (to the Samgha) as upa^fMya; with a person 
that was gone over to the Titthiyas as upa^^aya; 
with an animal as upa/^aya; with a person that 
was guilty of matricide as upa^^aya; with a per- 
son that was guilty of parricide as upa^^aya ; with 
a person that had murdered an Arahat as upa^-- 
^aya; with a person that had violated a Bhikkhunt 
as upa^f^aya; with a person that had caused a 
schism among the Sa»zgha as upa^^aya; with a 
person that had shed (a Buddha's) blood as upa^-- 
gh&ya. ; with a hermaphrodite as upa£g*^aya. 

They told this thing to the Blessed One. 

' Let no one/ &c. (as in the first clause). 



70. 

1. At that time the Bhikkhus conferred the upa- 
sampada ordination on persons that had no alms- 
bowl. They received alms with their hands. People 
were annoyed, murmured, and became angry, saying, 
' Like the Titthiyas.' 

They told this thing to the Blessed One. 

'Let no one, O Bhikkhus, receive the upasam- 
pada ordination without having an alms-bowl. He 
who confers the upasampada ordination (on a per- 
son that has not), commits a dukka/a offence.' 

2. At that time the Bhikkhus conferred the upa- 
sampada ordination on persons that had no robes. 
They went out for alms naked. People were an- 
noyed (&c, as in § i). 

3. At that time the Bhikkhus conferred the U pa- 



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224 mahAvagga. I, 70, 4. 

sampada ordination on persons that had neither 
alms-bowl nor robes. They went out for alms naked 
and (received alms) with their hands. People were 
annoyed (&c, as in $1). 

4. At that time the Bhikkhus conferred the upa- 
sampada ordination on persons that had borrowed 
alms-bowls. After the ordination (the owners) took 
their alms-bowls back ; (the Bhikkhus) received alms 

with their hands. People were annoyed (&c 

down to) : ' Like the Titthiyas.' 

They told this thing to the Blessed One. 

'Let no. one, O Bhikkhus, receive the upasam- 
pada ordination who has borrowed the alms-bowl. 
He who confers,' &c. (as in the first clause). 

5. At that time the Bhikkhus conferred the upa- 
sampada ordination on persons that had borrowed 
robes. After the ordination (the owners) took their 
robes back ; (the Bhikkhus) went out for alms naked. 
People were annoyed (&c, as in § 1 to the end). 

6. At that time the Bhikkhus conferred the upa- 
sampada ordination on persons that had borrowed 
alms-bowls and robes, &c. 



Here end the twenty cases in which upasampadi 
is forbidden. 



71. 

1. At that time the Bhikkhus conferred the 
pabba^a ordination on a person whose hands 
were cut off, on a person whose feet were cut off, 
whose hands and feet were cut off, whose ears 
were cut off, whose nose was cut off, whose ears and 
nose were cut off, whose fingers were cut off, whose 



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I, 71. ADMISSION TO THE ORDER OF BHIKKHUS. 225 

thumbs were cut off, whose tendons (of the feet) 
were cut, who had hands like a snake's hood 1 , who 
was a hump-back, or a dwarf, or a person that had 
a goitre, that had been branded, that had been 
scourged, on a proclaimed robber, on a person that 
had elephantiasis, that was afflicted with bad illness, 
that gave offence (by any deformity) to those who 
saw him, on a one-eyed person, on a person with 
a crooked limb, on a lame person, on a person that 
was paralysed on one side, on a cripple 2 , on a person 
weak from age, on a blind man, on a dumb man, on 
a deaf man, on a blind and dumb man, on a blind 
and deaf man, on a deaf and dumb man, on a blind, 
deaf and dumb man. 

They told this thing to the Blessed One. 

' Let no person, O Bhikkhus, whose hands are cut 
off, receive the pabba^a ordination. Let no person 
whose feet are cut off, receive the pabba^a ordi- 
nation, &c. (each of the above cases being here 
repeated). He who Confers the pabba^a ordina- 
tion (on such persons), is guilty of a dukka/a 
offence.' 

Here end the thirty-two cases in which pabba^^a 
is forbidden. 



End of the ninth Bha«avara. 



1 ' Whose fingers are grown together, like bats' wings ' (Buddha- 
ghosa). 

* Buddhaghosa (Berlin MS.) explains 'iAinniriyapatha' by 
' pidhasappi.' We ought to read, no doubt, piMasappi, which 
is Sanskrit piMasarpin, a cripple that is moved on in a rolling 
chair. 



[•3] 



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226 MAHAVAGGA. I, 72, 1. 



72. 

i. At that time the A^abbaggiya Bhikkhus gave 
a nissaya to shameless Bhikkhus. 

They told this thing to the Blessed One. 

' Let no one, O Bhikkhus, give a nissaya to 
shameless Bhikkhus. He who does, is guilty of a 
dukka/a offence.' 

At that time some Bhikkhus lived in dependence 
on shameless Bhikkhus (i.e. they received a nis- 
saya from them, they chose them for their upa^ - - 
^ayas or aiariyas); ere long they became also 
shameless, bad Bhikkhus. 

They told this thing to the Blessed One. 

' Let no one, O Bhikkhus, live in dependence on 
shameless Bhikkhus. He who does, is guilty of 
a dukka/a offence.' 

2. Now the Bhikkhus thought: 'The Blessed 
One has prescribed that we shall not give a nissaya 
to shameless Bhikkhus, nor live in dependence on 
shameless Bhikkhus. Now how are we to discern 
modest and shameless persons ?' 

They told this thing to the Blessed One. 

' I prescribe, O Bhikkhus, that you wait first four 
or five days until you have seen how a Bhikkhu 
behaves to the other Bhikkhus.' 



73. 

1 . At that time a certain Bhikkhu was travelling on 
the road in the Kosala country. Now this Bhikkhu 
thought : ' The Blessed One has prescribed that we 
shall not live without a nissaya (of an aiariya and 



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I, 73, 4. ADMISSION TO THE ORDER OF BHIKKHUS. 227 

an upa^^aya) ; now I want a nissaya, but I am 
travelling. What am I to do ?' 

They told this thing to the Blessed One. 

' I allow, O Bhikkhus, a travelling Bhikkhu who 
can get no nissaya, to live without a nissaya.' 

2. At that time two Bhikkhus were travelling on 
the road in the Kosala country. They came to 
a certain residence ; there one of the two Bhikkhus 
was taken ill. Now that sick Bhikkhu thought: 
' The Blessed One has prescribed that we shall not 
live without a nissaya ; now I want a nissaya, but 
I am sick. What am I to do ?' 

They told this thing to the Blessed One. 
' I allow, O Bhikkhus, a sick Bhikkhu who can 
get no nissaya, to live without a nissaya.' 

3. Now the other Bhikkhu, who nursed that sick 
Bhikkhu, thought : ' The Blessed One has pre- 
scribed, &c. ; now I want a nissaya, but this 
Bhikkhu is sick. What am I to do ?' 

They told this thing to the Blessed One. 

' I allow, O Bhikkhus, a Bhikkhu who is nursing 
a sick Bhikkhu, if he can get no nissaya and the 
sick asks him (to remain with him), to live without 
a nissaya.' 

4. At that time a certain Bhikkhu lived in the 
forest ; he had a dwelling-place where he lived 
pleasantly. Now this Bhikkhu thought : ' The 
Blessed One has prescribed, &c; now I want 
a nissaya, but I live in the forest and have a 
dwelling-place where I live pleasantly. What am 
I to do V 

They told this thing to the Blessed One. 
' I allow, O Bhikkhus, a Bhikkhu living in the 
forest who finds a place where he may live pleasantly, 

Q 2 



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228 mahAvagga. I,74,i. 

and who can get (there) no nissaya, to live without 
a nissaya (saying to himself) : " If a proper person 
to give me nissaya comes hither, I will take nis- 
saya of that person." ' 



74. 

i. At that time there was a person that desired 
to receive the upasampada ordination from the 
venerable Mahakassapa. Then the venerable Maha- 
kassapa sent a messenger to the venerable Ananda : 
' Come, Ananda, and recite the upasampada pro- 
clamation for this person.' The venerable Ananda 
said : ' I cannot pronounce the Thera's (i. e. Maha- 
kassapa's) name ; the Thera is too venerable com- 
pared with me.' 

They told this thing to the Blessed One. 

' I allow you, O Bhikkhus, to use also the family 
name (of the upa/^aya, instead of his proper 
name) in the proclamation.' 

2. At that time there were two persons that 
desired to receive the upasampada ordination from 
the venerable Mahakassapa. They quarrelled with 
each other. (One said) : ' I will receive the upa- 
sampada ordination first.' (The other said): ' Nay, 
I will receive it first.' 

They told this thing to the Blessed One. 
' I allow you, O Bhikkhus, to ordain two persons 
by one proclamation.' 

3. At that time there were persons who desired 
to receive the upasampada ordination from dif- 
ferent Theras. They quarrelled with each other. 
(One said): ' I will receive the upasampada ordina- 



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I, 75. ADMISSION TO THE ORDER OF BHIKKHUS. 229 

tion first.' (The other said): ' Nay, I will receive 
it first' The Theras said : ' Well, friends, let us 
ordain them altogether by one proclamation.' 

They told this thing to the Blessed One. 

' I allow you, O Bhikkhus, to ordain two or three 
persons by one proclamation, provided they have 
the same upa^/zaya, but not if they have dif- 
ferent upa^/zayas.' 



75. 

At that time the venerable Kumirakassapa had 
received the upasampada ordination when he had 
completed the twentieth year from his conception 
(but not from his birth). Now the venerable Kumi- 
rakassapa thought : ' The Blessed One has forbidden 
us to confer the upasampada ordination on persons 
under twenty years of age 1 , and I have completed 
my twentieth year (only) from my conception. Have 
I, therefore, received the upasampada ordination, 
or have I not received it ?' 

They told this thing to the Blessed One. 

' When, O Bhikkhus, in the womb the first thought 
rises up (in the nascent being), the first conscious- 
ness manifests itself, according to this the (true) 
birth should be reckoned. I allow you, O Bhikkhus, 
to confer the upasampada ordination on persons 
that have completed the twentieth year from their 
conception (only).' 

1 See chap. 49. 6. 



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230 mahAvagga. 1,76,1. 



76. 

1. At that time ordained Bhikkhus were seen who 
were afflicted with leprosy, boils, dry leprosy, con- 
sumption, and fits. 

They told this thing to the Blessed One. 

' I prescribe, O Bhikkhus, that he who confers 
the upasampada ordination, ask (the person to be 
ordained) about the Disqualifications (for receiving 
the ordination). And let him ask, O Bhikkhus, in 
this way : 

'Are you afflicted with the following diseases, 
leprosy, boils, dry leprosy, consumption, and fits ? 

' Are you a man ? 

' Are you a male ? 

' Are you a freeman ? 

' Have you no debts ? 

' Are you not in the royal service ? 

' Have your father and mother given their consent? 

' Are you full twenty years old ? 

' Are your alms-bowl and your robes in due state ? 

' What is your name ? 

' What is your upa^^aya's name ?' 

2. At that time the Bhikkhus asked the persons 
who desired to receive the upasampada ordination 
about the Disqualifications, without having them in- 
structed beforehand (how to answer). The persons 
that desired to be ordained, became disconcerted, 
perplexed, and could not answer. 

They told this thing to the Blessed One. 

' I prescribe, O Bhikkhus, that you first instruct 
(the persons desirous of being ordained), and then 
ask them about the Disqualifications.' 



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1,76, 5- ADMISSION TO THE ORDER OF BHIKKHUS. 23 1 

3. Then they instructed (the candidates) in the 
midst of the assembly; the persons desirous of being 
ordained became disconcerted, perplexed, and could 
not answer nevertheless. 

They told this thing to the Blessed One. 

' I prescribe, O Bhikkhus, that you instruct them 
aside, and ask them about the Disqualifications be- 
fore the assembly. And you ought, O Bhikkhus, 
to instruct them in this way : You ought first to 
cause them to choose an upa^^aya; when they 
have chosen an upa/^aya, their alms-bowl and 
robes must be shown to them, " This is your alms- 
bowl, this is your sa#*gha/i, this is your upper 
robe, this is your under garment ; come and place 
yourself here." ' 

4. Ignorant, unlearned Bhikkhus instructed them ; 
the persons desirous of being ordained, though they 
had been instructed, became disconcerted, perplexed, 
and could not answer. 

They told this thing to the Blessed One. 

' Let no ignorant, unlearned Bhikkhus) O Bhik- 
khus, instruct them. If they do, they commit a 
dukka/a offence. I prescribe, O Bhikkhus, that 
a learned, competent Bhikkhu instruct them.' 

5. At that time persons instructed them who 
were not appointed thereto. 

They told this thing to the Blessed One. 

' Let no one, O Bhikkhus, instruct them without 
being appointed thereto. He who so instructs, com- 
mits a dukka/a offence. I prescribe, O Bhikkhus, 
that an appointed Bhikkhu is to instruct them. And 
(this Bhikkhu), O Bhikkhus, is to be appointed in this 
way : One may either appoint himself, or one may 
appoint another person. And how is (a Bhikkhu) to 



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232 MAHAVAGGA. 1,76,6. 

appoint himself? Let a learned, competent Bhikkhu 
proclaim the following natti before the Sawgha: 
" Let the Sawgha, reverend Sirs, hear me. N. N. de- 
sires to receive the upasampada ordination from 
the venerable N.N. If the Sawgha is ready, I will 
instruct N. N." Thus one may appoint himself. 

6. ' And how is (a Bhikkhu) to appoint another 
person ? Let a learned, competent Bhikkhu pro- 
claim the following watti before the Sawgha : " Let 
the Sawgha, &c. N. N. desires to receive the upa- 
sampada ordination from the. venerable N. N. If 
the Sawgha is ready, let N. N. instruct N. N." Thus 
one may appoint another person. 

7. 'Then let that appointed Bhikkhu go to the 
person who desires to be ordained, and thus address 
him : " Do you hear, N. N. ? This is the time for 
you to speak the truth, and to say that which is. 
When I ask you before the assembly about that 
which is, you ought, if it is so, to answer: ' It is ;' if it 
is not so, you ought to answer: 'It is not.' Be not 
disconcerted, be not perplexed. I shall ask you thus : 
' Are you afflicted with the following diseases, &c?"" 

8. (After the instruction, the instructor and the 
candidate) appeared together before the assembly. 

' Let them not appear together. Let the instructor 
come first and proclaim the following «atti before 
the Sa/wgha : " Let the Sa/wgha, reverend Sirs, hear 
me. N. N. desires to receive the upasampada 
ordination from the venerable N. N.; he has been 
instructed by me. If the Sawgha is ready, let N. N. 
come." Then let him be told : " Come on." Let 
him be told to adjust his upper robe (&c, see chap. 
29. 2), to raise his joined hands, and to ask (the 
Sawgha) for the upasampada ordination (by Say- 



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1,76, io. ADMISSION TO THE ORDER OF BHIKKHUS. 233 

ing), " I ask the Sawgha, reverend Sirs, for the upa- 
sampada ordination; might the Sawgha, reverend 
Sirs, draw me out (of the sinful world) out of compas- 
sion towards me. And for the second time, reverend 
Sirs, I ask, &c. And for -the third time, reverend 
Sirs, I ask, &c." 

9. ' Then let a learned, competent Bhikkhu proclaim 
the following »atti before the Samgha : " Let the 
Samgha, reverend Sirs, hear me. This person N.N. 
desires to receive the upasampada ordination from 
the venerable N. N. If the Samgha is ready, let me 
ask N. N. about the Disqualifications. 

' " Do you hear, N. N.? This is the time for you 
(&c, see § 7, down to :) you ought to answer : 'It 
is not."' 

"'Are you afflicted with the followingdiseases,&c?" 
10. ' Then let a learned, competent Bhikkhu pro- 
claim the following »atti before the Sawgha : " Let 
the Samgha, reverend Sirs, hear me. This person 
N. N. desires to receive the upasampada ordi- 
nation from the venerable N.N.; he is free from 
the Disqualifications ; his alms-bowl and robes are 
in due state. N. N. asks the Samgha for the upa- 
sampada ordination with N. N. as upa^^aya. If 
the Sawzgha is ready, &C 1 "' 



End of the regulations for the upasampada 
ordination 2 . 



1 Here follows the usual complete formula of a wattiiatuttha 
kamma; see chaps. 28. 4-6; 29. 3, &c. 

* With these sections compare the previous chapters 12, 28 and 
following, 36 and following. The wattis prescribed in this chapter, 
together with the Three Refuges Formula prescribed in chap. 12, 
§ 4, the whole of chap. 77, and the Four Interdictions form together 



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234 MAHAVAGGA. 1,77. 

77. 
' Then let them measure the shadow, tell (the 
newly-ordained Bhikkhu) what season and what 
date it is, tell him what part of the day it is, tell 
him the whole formula 1 , and tell him the four Re- 
sources : " The religious life has the morsels of food 
given in alms for its resource (&c, as in chap. 30. 4)." ' 



End of the four Resources. 



78. 
1. At that time the Bhikkhus, after having conferred 
the upasampada ordination on a certain Bhikkhu, 
left Jiim alone and went away. Afterwards, as he 
went alone (to the Arama), he met on the way his 
former wife. She said to him : ' Have you now em- 
braced the religious life?' (He replied): 'Yes, I 
have embraced the religious life.' ' It is difficult to 
persons who have embraced religious life, to obtain 
sexual intercourse ; come, let us have intercourse.' 
He practised intercourse with her, and, in conse- 
quence, came late (to the Arama). The Bhikkhus 
said: ' How is it, friend, that you are so late?' 

2. Then that Bhikkhu told the whole matter 
to the Bhikkhus. The Bhikkhus told it to the 
Blessed One. 

the current ceremony of ordination (the upasampada-kamma- 
vaM) as now still in use in the Order. See the Journal of the 
Royal Asiatic Society, New Series, VII, p. 1. 

1 I.e., according to Buddhaghosa, repeat to him all the data 
specified before together, in order that he might be able to give a 
correct answer when asked about his spiritual age. 



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1,78,5- ADMISSION TO THE ORDER OF BHIKKHUS. 235 

' I prescribe, O Bhikkhus, that you give a com- 
panion to a newly-ordained Bhikkhu, and that you 
tell him the four Interdictions : 

'" A Bhikkhu who has received the upasampada 
ordination, ought to abstain from all sexual 
intercourse even with an animal. A Bhikkhu 
who practises sexual intercourse is no Samara and 
no follower of the Sakyaputta. As a man whose 
head is cut off, cannot live any longer with his trunk 
alone, thus a Bhikkhu who practises sexual inter- 
course is no Sama«a and no follower of the Sakya- 
putta. Abstain from doing so as long as your life lasts. 

3. ' " A Bhikkhu who has received the upasam- 
pada ordination, ought to abstain from taking 
what is not given to him, and from theft, even 
of a blade of grass. A Bhikkhu who takes what is 
not given to him, or steals it, if it is a pada (i. e. a 
quarter of a karshapawa), or of the value of a 
pada, or worth more than a pada, is no Sama«a and 
no follower of the Sakyaputta. As a sear leaf loosed 
from its stalk cannot become green again, thus a 
Bhikkhu who takes, &c. Abstain from doing so as 
long as your life lasts. 

4. ' " A Bhikkhu who has received the upasam- 
pada ordination, ought not intentionally to 
destroy the life of any being down to a worm 
or an ant. A Bhikkhu who intentionally kills a 
human being, down to procuring abortion, is no 
Sama«a and no follower of the Sakyaputta. As a 
great stone which is broken in two, cannot be re- 
united, thus a Bhikkhu who intentionally, &c. Abstain 
from doing so as long as your life lasts. 

5. '"A Bhikkhu who has received the upa- 
sampada ordination, ought not to attribute to 



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236 mahAvagga. 1,79,1. 

himself any superhuman condition, and not to 
say even : ' I find delight in sojourning in an empty 
place.' A Bhikkhu who with bad intention and out 
of covetousness attributes to himself a superhuman 
condition, which he has not, and which he is not pos- 
sessed of, a state of g-A&na. (mystic meditation), or 
One of the vimokkhas 1 , or one of the samadhis 
(states of self-concentration), or one of the sama- 
pattis (the attainment of the four^anas and four 
of the eight vimokkhas), or one of the Paths 
(of sanctification), or one of the Fruits thereof, is no 
Sama»a and no follower of the Sakyaputta. As a 
palm tree of which the top sprout has been cut off, 
cannot grow again, thus a Bhikkhu who with bad 
intention, &c. Abstain from doing so as long as 
your life lasts." ' 

End of the four Interdicts. 



79. 

1. At that time a certain Bhikkhu against whom 
expulsion 2 had been pronounced for his refusal to 
see an offence (committed by himself), returned to 

1 The vimokkhas (literally, deliverances) are eight stages of 
meditation different from the four ^Aanas. The characteristics of 
the different vimokkhas are specified by Childers s. v. 

2 This temporary expulsion (ukkhepaniyakamma), which is 
pronounced against Bhikkhus who refuse to see an offence com- 
mitted by themselves (apattiy a adassane), or to atone for such an 
offence (apattiya appa/ikamme), or to renounce a false doc- 
trine (papikaya di//Aiya appa/inissagge), must be distin- 
guished from the definitive and permanent expulsion (nasana) 
which is pronounced against Bhikkhus who have committed a para- 
^ika offence, or in cases like those treated of in chapters 61 seq. 



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I, 79,3. ADMISSION TO THE ORDER OF BHIKKHUS. 237 

the world. Afterwards he came back to the Bhikkhus 
and asked them for the upasampada ordination. 

They told this thing to the Blessed One. 

' In case, O Bhikkhus, that a Bhikkhu against 
whom expulsion has been pronounced for his refusal 
to see an offence (committed by himself), returns to 
the world, and afterwards comes back to the Bhikkhus 
and asks them for the upasampada ordination, 
let them say to him : " Will you see that offence ?" 
If he replies : " I will see it," let him be admitted to 
the pabba^a. ordination ; if he replies : " I will 
not see it," let him not be admitted to the pab- 
hdiggS. ordination. 

2. ' When he has received the pabba^a ordina- 
tion let them say to him : "Will you see that offence?" 
If he says : " I will see it," let him be admitted to 
the upasampada ordination; if he says: "I will 
not see it," let him not be admitted to the upasam- 
pada ordination. 

' When he has received the upasampada ordina- 
tion (&c, as before). If he says : " I will see it," 
let him be restored 1 ; if he says : " I will not see it," 
let him not be restored. 

' When he has been restored, let them say to 
him : " Do you see that offence ?" If he sees it, 
well and good ; if he does not see it, let them expel 
him again, if it is possible to bring about unanimity 
(of the fraternity for the sentence of expulsion) ; if 
that is impossible, it is no offence to live and to 
dwell together (with such a Bhikkhu). 

3. ' In case, O Bhikkhus, that a Bhikkhu against 
whom expulsion has been pronounced for his refusal 

1 I. e. the sentence of expulsion is abolished ; compare the 
Samanta Pasadika, ap. Minayeff, Pratimoksha, p. 92. 



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238 mahAvagga. 1,79,4. 

to atone for an offence (committed by himself), &C. 1 
When he has been restored, let them say to him : 
" Atone now for that offence." If he atones for it, 
well and good, &c. 

4. ' In case, O Bhikkhus, that a Bhikkhu against 
whom expulsion has been pronounced for his refusal 
to renounce a false doctrine, &c. 2 When he has 
been restored, let them say to him : " Renounce now 
that false doctrine." If he renounces it, well and 
good, &c.' 

End of the first Khandhaka, which is called the 
Great Khandhaka 3 . 



1 As in §§ i, 2. Instead of 'Will you see that offence?' and, 
'I will see it,' read here: 'Will you atone for that offence?' and, 
' I will atone for it.' 

1 As above. Read here : ' Will you renounce that false doc- 
trine ?' and, ' I will renounce it.' 

8 Here follow some .Slokas, probably written in Ceylon, and an 
elaborate Table of Contents, both of which we leave untranslated. 
The .Slokas are introductory to the Table of Contents (uddSna) 
and belong to it. A similar Table of Contents is found in the MSS. 
nearly after all the other Khandhakas. 



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II, I, 2. UPOSATHA CEREMONY, AND PATIMOKKHA. 239 

SECOND KHANDHAKA. 

(THE UPOSATHA CEREMONY, AND THE PATIMOKKHA.) 



i. At that time the blessed Buddha dwelt near 
Ra^agaha, on the Gif^aku/a mountain (' the Vul- 
ture's Peak'). At that time the Paribba^akas 
belonging to Titthiya schools assembled on the 
fourteenth, fifteenth, and eighth day of each half 
month 1 and recited their Dhamma. The people 
went to them in order to hear the Dhamma. They 
were filled with favour towards, and were filled with 
faith in, the Paribba^akas belonging to Titthiya 
schools ; the Paribba^akas belonging to Titthiya 
schools gained adherents. 

2. Now when the Magadha king Seniya Bimbi- 
sira was alone, and had retired into solitude, the 
following consideration presented itself to his mind : 
' The Paribba^akas belonging to Titthiya schools 
assemble now on the fourteenth, fifteenth, and eighth 
day of each half month and recite their Dhamma. 
The people go to them in order to hear the Dhamma. 
They are filled with favour towards, and are filled with 
faith in, the Paribbi^akas who belong to Titthiya 

1 One should be inclined to understand that the Paribba^akas 
assembled twice each half month, on the eighth day of the pakkha 
and on the fourteenth or fifteenth day, according to the different 
length of the pakkha. However, chap. 4 makes it probable that 
not two days in each pakkha are to be understood, but three. 
Compare, however, the remark of Buddhaghosa, quoted in the 
note on chap. 34. 1. 



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240 mahAvagga. II, 1, 3. 

schools ; the Paribbifakas who belong to Titthiya 
schools gain adherents. What if the reverend ones 
(the Buddhist Bhikkhus) were to assemble also on 
the fourteenth, fifteenth, and eighth day of each half 
month.' 

3. Then the Magadha king Seniya Bimbisara went 
to the place where the Blessed One was ; having 
approached him and having respectfully saluted the 
Blessed One, he sat down near him. Sitting near 
him the Magadha king Seniya Bimbisara said to the 
Blessed One : ' Lord, when I was alone and had 
retired into solitude, the following consideration pre- 
sented itself to my mind : " The Paribb&fakas, &c. ; 
what if the reverend ones were to assemble also on 
the fourteenth, fifteenth, and eighth day of each half 
month." Well, Lord, let the reverend ones assemble 
also on the fourteenth, fifteenth, and eighth day of 
each half month.' 

4. Then the Blessed One taught, incited, animated, 
and gladdened the Magadha king Seniya Bimbisara 
by religious discourse ; and the Magadha king Seniya 
Bimbisira, having been taught .... and gladdened 
by the Blessed One by religious discourse, rose from 
his seat, respectfully saluted the Blessed One, passed 
round him with his right side towards him, and went 
away. 

In consequence of that and on this occasion the 
Blessed One, after having delivered a religious dis- 
course, thus addressed the Bhikkhus : ' I prescribe, 
O Bhikkhus, that you assemble on the fourteenth, 
fifteenth, and eighth day of each month.' 



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11,3,1. UPOSATHA CEREMONY, AND pAtIMOKKHA. 24I 



At that time the Bhikkhus, considering that the 
Blessed One had ordered them to assemble on the 
fourteenth &c. day of each half month, assembled 
on the fourteenth &c. day of each half month and 
sat there silent The people went to them in order 
to hear the Dhamma. They were annoyed, mur- 
mured, and became angry: 'How can the Sakya- 
puttiya Sama»as, when they have assembled on the 
fourteenth &c. day of each half month, sit there 
silent, like the dumb, or like hogs ? Ought they 
not to recite the Dhamma, when they have assem- 
bled?' Some Bhikkhus heard those people that 
were annoyed, murmured, and had become angry ; 
these Bhikkhus told this thing to the Blessed One. 
In consequence of that and on this occasion the 
Blessed One, after having delivered a religious dis- 
course, thus addressed the Bhikkhus : ' I prescribe, 
O Bhikkhus, that you recite the Dhamma, when 
you have assembled on the fourteenth &c. day of 
each half month.' 



3. 

1. Now when the Blessed One was alone and had 
retired into solitude, the following consideration pre- 
sented itself to his mind: 'What if I were to 
prescribe that the Bhikkhus recite as the Pati- 
mokkha 1 the precepts which I have promulgated to 

1 On the origin and the meaning of the title ' P&timokkha,' see 
our Introduction, p. xxvii. 

[13] R 



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242 MAHAVAGGA. II, 3, 2. 

them ; this will be their Uposatha service (service 
of the fast- day).' 

2. And the Blessed One, having left the solitude 
in the evening, in consequence of that and on this 
occasion, after having delivered a religious discourse, 
thus addressed the Bhikkhus : 'When I was alone, 
O Bhikkhus, and had retired into solitude, the fol- 
lowing consideration, &c, this will be their Upo- 
satha service. I prescribe you, O Bhikkhus, to 
recite the Patimokkha. 

3. 'And you ought, O Bhikkhus, to recite it in 
this way: Let a learned, competent Bhikkhu pro- 
claim the following »atti before the Samgha. : " Let 
the Sa*»gha, reverend Sirs, hear me. To-day it is 
Uposatha, the fifteenth (of the half month). If the 
Sa#zgha is ready, let the Sawgha hold the Upo- 
satha service and recite the Patimokkha. What 
ought to be first done by the Sazwgha ? Proclaim 
the parisuddhi 1 , Sirs. I will recite the Pati- 
mokkha." 

' "We hear it well and fix well the mind on it all 
of us 8 ." 

' " He who has committed an offence, may con- 
fess it ; if there is no offence, you should remain 
silent; from your being silent I shall understand 
that the reverend brethen are pure (from offences). 
As a single person that has been asked a question, 
answers it, the same is the matter if before an 

1 See chap. 22. If a Bhikkhu is prevented by disease from 
assisting to the Patimokkha ceremony, he is to charge another 
Bhikkhu with his p Sri sudd hi, i.e. with the solemn declaration 
that he is pure from the offences specified in the Patimokkha. 

2 These words are evidently the answer of the Bhikkhus then 
present to the proclamation of the p&timokkhuddesaka. 



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II, 3. 4- UPOSATHA CEREMONY, AND PATIMOKKHA. 243 

assembly like this a question has been solemnly 
proclaimed three times : if a Bhikkhu, after a three- 
fold proclamation, does not confess an existing 
offence which he remembers, he commits an inten- 
tional falsehood. Now, reverend brethren, an 
intentional falsehood has been declared an impedi- 
ment 1 by the Blessed One. Therefore, by a 
Bhikkhu who has committed (an offence), and 
remembers it, and desires to become pure, an 
existing offence should be confessed ; for if it has 
been confessed, it is treated duly." ' 

4. 2 ' Patimokkhaw:' it is the beginning, it is 
the face (mukhaw), it is the principal (pamu- 
kha#z) of good qualities; therefore it is called 
'patimokkhaw 3 .' 

'Ayasmanto:' this word 'ayasmanto' is an 
expression of friendliness, an expression of re- 
spect, an appellation that infers respectfulness and 
reverence. 

' Uddisissami :' I will pronounce, I will show, 
I will proclaim, I will establish, I will unveil, I will 
distinguish, I will make evident, I will declare. 

' Taw' (it) : this refers to the Pa.imokkha. 

' Sabbe va santa' (all of us): as many as are pre- 
sent in that assembly, aged, young, and middle-aged 
(Bhikkhus), are denoted by ' sabbe va santa*.' 

' Sidhukaw su»oma' (we hear it well): admit- 

1 See § 7. 

a §§ 4 - 8 contain an explanation, word by word, of the formula 
given in § 3. This explanation is a portion of the ancient com- 
mentary on the P&timokkha which at the time of the redaction of 
the Vinaya Pi/aka has been admitted into it in its full extent (see 
the Introduction, p. xv seq.). 

8 See p. 241, note 1. 



* See p. 1, note 5. 



R 2 



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244 mahAvagga. II, 3, s. 

ting its authority, fixing our minds on it, we repeat 
the whole of it in our thoughts. 

' Manasikaroma' (we fix our minds on it) : we 
listen to it with concentrated, not perplexed, not 
confused thoughts. 

5. ' Yassa siya apatti' (he who has committed 
an offence) : he who, whether an aged or young or 
middle-aged Bhikkhu, has committed some offence 
belonging to the five classes of offences or to the 
seven classes of offences \ 

'So avikareyya:' he may show it, unveil it, 
make it evident, declare it before the Sawgha (the 
full chapter of Bhikkhus), or before a small number, 
or before one person. 

'Asantl apatti' (a non-existing offence): an 
offence which has not been committed, or which has 
been committed and atoned for. 

'Tu»hi bhavitabbaw' (he ought to remain 
silent): he ought to accept (the recitation of the 
Patimokkha without any answer), he ought not to 
utter anything. 

' Parisuddha 'ti vedissami ' (I shall understand 
that they are pure) : I shall infer, I shall know. 

6. ' Yatha kho pana pa^ekapu/Massa vey- 
yakara»aw hoti' (as a single person that has been 
asked a question answers it) : as a single person 
that has been asked a question by another one, 
would answer it, thus (those who are present) in 
that assembly ought to understand : ' He asks me.' 

1 The five classes of offences are, the p&ra^ika, sa«ghadi- 
sesa, p££ittiya, paVidesaniya, dukka/a offences; the seven 
classes, the para^ika, samghddisesa, thulla££aya, p££ittiya, 
pS/idesaniya, dukka/a, dubbhasita offences. See, for instance, 
ATullavagga IX, 3, 3. 



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II, 3, 7- UPOSATHA CEREMONY, AND PATIMOKKHA. 245 

' Evarupa parisa' (an assembly like this): this 
refers to the assembly of Bhikkhus. 

' Yavatatiyaw anussavitaw hoti' (it has been 
solemnly proclaimed three times) : it has been 
solemnly proclaimed once, and the second time, 
and the third time. 

' Saramano ' (remembering it): knowing it, being 
conscious of it. 

' Santi apatti' (an existing offence) : an offence 
which has been committed, or which has been com- 
mitted and not been atoned for. 

' Navikareyya:' he does not show it, he does 
not unveil it, he does not make it evident, he does 
not declare it before the Samgha, or before a small 
chapter, or before one person. 

7. ' Sampa^anamusivad' assa hoti' (he com- 
mits an intentional falsehood) : what is intentional 
falsehood ? It is a sin \ 

'Antarayiko dhammo vutto bhagavata' (it 
has been declared an impediment by the Blessed 
One) : an impediment to what ? An impediment to 
the attainment of the first Ghana, an impediment to 
the attainment of the second . . . third . . . fourth 
Ghana, an impediment to the attainment of the 
Ghanas, Vimokkhas 2 , Samadhis (states of self-con- 
centration), Samipattis (the eight attainments of 
the four Ghanas and four of the eight Vimokkhas), 



1 The PMi text has 'dukka/a.' We cannot interpret here 
dukka/a in the technical sense of a dukka/a offence (see the 
Introduction, p. xxiv), for intentional falsehood belongs to the 
class of the piUittiya offences, among which it occupies the first 
place. 

* See the note on I, 78, 5. 



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246 . MAHAVAGGA. II, 3, 8. 

the states of renunciation, of escape (from the world), 
of seclusion, of (all) good qualities. 

' Tasmd :' for that reason. 

' Saram&nena' (by him who remembers it): by 
him who knows it and is conscious of it. 

' Visuddh&pekkhena' (by him who desires to 
become pure) : by him who wishes to atone for it 
and to make himself pure of it. 

8. ' Santt ipatti' . . . (see § 6). 

'Avikitabba' (it is to be confessed): it is to 
be confessed before the Sawgha, or before a small 
chapter, or before one person.'' 

' Avikati hi 'ssa phasu hoti' (for if it has been 
confessed, it is treated duly) : duly for what pur- 
pose? In the due way for the attainment of the 
first G/i&na. (and so on, as in $ 7, down to :) of (all) 
good qualities. 



1. At that time the Bhikkhus, considering that 
the P&timokkha recitation had been instituted by the 
Blessed One, recited the P&timokkha every day. 

They told this thing to the Blessed One. 

' The Patimokkha, O Bhikkhus, is not to be recited 
every day. He who recites it (every day), commits 
a dukka/a offence. I ordain, O Bhikkhus, to recite 
the Pdtimokkha on the Uposatha day.' 

2. At that time the Bhikkhus, considering that 
it had been prescribed by the Blessed One to recite 
the P&timokkha on the Uposatha day, recited the Pclti- 
mokkha three times each half month, on the four- 
teenth, fifteenth, and eighth day of each half month. 

They told this thing to the Blessed One. 



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II, 5, 3« UPOSATHA CEREMONY, AND PATIMOKKHA. 247 

' The Patimokkha, O Bhikkhus, is not to be recited 
three times each half month. He who recites it (three 
times), commits a dukka/a offence. I prescribe, O 
Bhikkhus, that you recite the Patimokkha once each 
half month, on the fourteenth or on the fifteenth day.' 



5. 

1. At that time the A!^abbaggiya Bhikkhus 
recited the Patimokkha according as they lived 
together, every one before his own companions. 

They told this thing to the Blessed One. 

' The Patimokkha, O Bhikkhus, is not to be recited 
according as (the Bhikkhus) live together, by every 
one before his own companions. He who recites it 
(in that way), commits a dukka/a offence. I pre- 
scribe, O Bhikkhus, that the Uposatha service is to 
be held by the complete fraternity.' 

2. Now the Bhikkhus thought: 'The Blessed 
One has prescribed that the Uposatha service is to 
be held by the complete fraternity. How far does 
completeness extend, as far as one residence (or one 
district), or all over the earth ?' 

They told this thing to the Blessed One. 
1 1 prescribe, O Bhikkhus, that completeness is to 
extend as far as one residence.' 

3. At that time the reverend Maha Kappina 
dwelt near Ra/agaha, in the deer park of Madda- 
\i\xkkh\. Now (one day) when the reverend Maha 
Kappina was alone and had retired into solitude, 
the following consideration presented itself to his 
mind : ' Shall I go to the Uposatha service or shall 
I not go ? Shall I go to the functions of the Order 



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248 mahAvagga. II, 5, 4. 

or shall I not go ? Indeed I have become pure by 
the highest purity (i. e. I have reached Arahatship 
or Nirva»a).' 

4. Then the Blessed One, understanding by the 
power of his mind the reflection which had arisen in 
Maha Kappina's mind, disappeared from the Qt\ggkx- 
ku/a mountain and appeared in the deer park of 
Maddaku/£Mi, before the reverend Maha Kappina 
(as quickly) as a strong man might stretch his bent 
arm out, or draw his outstretched arm back. The 
Blessed One sat down on a seat laid out for him, 
and the reverend Maha Kappina, after having re- 
spectfully saluted the Blessed One, sat down also 
near him. 

5. When the reverend Maha Kappina was seated 
near him, the Blessed One said to him : 'When you 
were alone, Kappina, and had retired into solitude, 
has not the following consideration presented itself 
to your mind: " Shall I go (&c, as in § 3 down to:) 
by the highest purity?"' 

' Even so, Lord.' 

' If you Brahma#as do not honour, do not regard, 
do not revere, do not pay reverence to the Upo- 
satha, who will then honour, regard, revere, pay 
reverence to the Uposatha ? Go to the Uposatha, 
O Brahma»a, do not neglect to go; go to the func- 
tions of the Order, do not neglect to go.' The 
reverend Maha Kappina promised the Blessed One 
to do so (by saying), ' Even so, Lord.' 

6. Then, having taught, incited, animated, and 
gladdened the reverend Maha Kappina by a reli- 
gious discourse, the Blessed One disappeared from 
the deer park of Maddaku£6>fci, from the presence of 
the reverend Maha Kappina, and appeared on the 



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II, 1, i. UPOSATHA CEREMONY, AND PATIMOKKHA. 249 

Gi^g^aku/a mountain (as quickly) as a strong man 
might stretch his bent arm out, or draw his out- 
stretched arm back. 



6. 

Now the Bhikkhus thought : ' The Blessed One 
has prescribed that completeness (of the assembled 
fraternity) is to extend as far as one residence 1 . Now 
how far does one residence extend ?' 

They told this thing to the Blessed One. 

' I prescribe, O Bhikkhus, that you determine a 
boundary. And it ought to be determined, O Bhik- 
khus, in this way: First the landmarks are to be 
proclaimed : a landmark consisting in a mountain, 
in a rock, in a wood, in a tree, in a path, in an ant- 
hill, in a river, in a piece of water. The landmarks 
having been proclaimed, let a learned, competent 
Bhikkhu proclaim the following »atti before the 
Sawgha : " Let the Sawgha, reverend Sirs, hear me. 
If the Sawgha is ready, let the Sa/wgha, as the 
landmarks have been proclaimed all around, by 
these landmarks determine the boundary for com- 
mon residence and communion of Uposatha. This 
is the «atti. Let the Sawgha, reverend Sirs, hear 
me. The Sawgha determines the boundary (&c, as 
above). Thus I understand." ' 



7. 

1. At that time the A^abbaggiya Bhikkhus, 
considering that fixing of boundaries had been 

1 See chap. 5. 2. 



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250 MAHAVAGGA. II, 7, 2. 

prescribed by the Blessed One, fixed boundaries of 
excessive extension, of four yq^anas, five yq^anas, 
six yo^anas. The Bhikkhus who came to the 
Uposatha, arrived when the Patimokkha was being 
recited, or when it had just been recited, or they 
were obliged to stay the night on the way. 

They told this thing to the Blessed One. 

' Let no one, O Bhikkhus, determine a boundary 
of excessive extension, of four, five, or six yq^anas. 
He who determines (such a boundary), commits a 
dukka/a offence. I prescribe, O Bhikkhus, that 
you determine boundaries of three yq^anas' extent 
at most.' 

2. At that time the A^abbaggiya Bhikkhus deter- 
mined a boundary which extended to the opposite 
side of a river. The Bhikkhus who came to the 
Uposatha, were carried down (by the river), and 
their alms-bowls and robes were carried away. 

They told this thing to the Blessed One. 
' Let no one, O Bhikkhus, determine a boundary 
which extends to the opposite side of a river. He 
who determines (such a boundary), commits a duk- 
ka/a offence. I allow you, O Bhikkhus, if there is a 
regular communication by a ferry boat or a dike, at 
such places to determine a boundary which extends 
also to the opposite side of the river.' 



8. 

1. At that time the Bhikkhus recited the Pati- 
mokkha in their successive cells without appointing 
(a certain place for doing so). The Bhikkhus who 



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II, 8, 4- UPOSATHA CEREMONY, AND PATIMOKKHA. 25 1 

arrived (from distant places), did not know where 
the Uposatha was to be held that day. 

They told this thing to the Blessed One. 

' Let no one, O Bhikkhus, recite the Patimokkha 
in the successive cells without appointing a certain 
place for it. He who recites it (in this way), com- 
mits a dukka/a offence. I prescribe, O Bhikkhus, 
the holding of Uposatha after having fixed upon an 
Uposatha hall, wherever the Sawgha likes, a Vihara, 
or an Aafe^ayoga, or a storied building, or a house, 
or a cave 1 . And you ought to appoint it in this way: 

2. ' Let a learned, competent Bhikkhu proclaim 
the following »atti before the Samgha : " Let the 
Sawgha, reverend Sirs, hear me. If the Sawgha 
is ready, let the Sawgha appoint the Vihara called 
N. N. to be our Uposatha hall. This is the »atti. 
Let the Sawgha, reverend Sirs, hear me. The 
Sawgha appoints, &c. Thus I understand."' 

3. At that time there were in a certain residence 
(or district) two Uposatha halls fixed upon. The 
Bhikkhus assembled in both places, because (some 
of them) thought, 'The Uposatha will be held here;' 
(and some), ' It will be held there.' 

They told this thing to the Blessed One. 

' Let no one, O Bhikkhus, fix upon two Uposatha 
halls in one district. He who does so, commits a 
dukka/a offence. I ordain, O Bhikkhus, the abolish- 
ing of one of them 2 , and the holding of Uposatha 
(only) in one place. 

4. ' And you ought to abolish it, O Bhikkhus, in 
this way : Let a learned, competent Bhikkhu pro- 

1 See the note on I, 30, 4. 

2 I.e. to abolish the character of uposathSgSra, conferred on 
the Vihara &c. by the act of sammuti. 



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252 MAHAVAGGA. II, 9, I. 

claim the following #atti before the Sa*»gha : " Let 
the Sa/»gha, reverend Sirs, hear me. If the Sazwgha 
is ready, the Saawgha may abolish the Uposatha 
hall called N.N. This is the »atti. Let the Saw- 
gha, &c. Thus I understand.'" 



1. At that time in a certain district too small an 
Uposatha hall had been appointed. On the day 
of Uposatha a great assembly of Bhikkhus met 
together. The Bhikkhus heard the Patimokkha 
sitting outside the site fixed upon. Now those 
Bhikkhus thought : ' The Blessed One has promul- 
gated the precept that Uposatha is to be held after 
an Uposatha hall has been fixed upon, and we have 
heard the Patimokkha sitting outside the site fixed 
upon. Have we therefore (duly) held Uposatha or 
have we not held it ?' 

They told this thing to the Blessed One. 

' Whether (a Bhikkhu) be seated inside or outside 
the site fixed upon, provided he hears the Pati- 
mokkha, Uposatha has been duly held by him. 

2. ' Therefore, O Bhikkhus, let the Sawgha deter- 
mine as large an uposatha-pamukha 1 as it desires. 
And it ought to be determined, O Bhikkhus, in this 
way : First the landmarks are to be proclaimed. 
The landmarks having been proclaimed, let a learned, 
competent Bhikkhu proclaim the following watti 

1 Uposatha-pamukha (literally, that which has the Uposatha 
at its head, or, that which is situated in front of the Uposatha) 
evidently means the place around the uposathagara, in which 
the Patimokkha recitation may be heard as well as in the uposa- 
thagara itself. 



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II, II. UPOSATHA CEREMONY, AND PATIMOKKHA. 253 

before the Sawgha : " Let the Sa/»gha, reverend 
Sirs, hear me. If the Sazwgha is ready, let the 
Sawgha, as the landmarks have been proclaimed all 
around, determine an uposathapamukha by these 
landmarks. This is the #atti. Let the Sa#zgha, 
&c. Thus I understand."' 



10. 

At that time in a certain district on the day of 
Uposatha the young Bhikkhus, who. had assembled 
first, thought : ' The Theras do not come yet,' and 
went away. The Uposatha service was held after 
the right time. 

They told this thing to the Blessed One. 

' I prescribe, O Bhikkhus, that on the Uposatha 
day the Theras ought to assemble first.' 



11. 

At that time there were at Ra^agaha several 
residences (of Bhikkhus) within the same boundary. 
Now the Bhikkhus quarrelled : (some of them said), 
' The Uposatha shall be held in our residence ;' 
(others said), ' It shall be held in our residence.' 

They told this thing to the Blessed One. 

' There are, O Bhikkhus, several (Bhikkhu) resi- 
dences within the same boundary; now the Bhik- 
khus quarrel : (some of them say), " The Uposatha 
shall be held in our residence ;" (others say), " It 
shall be held in our residence." Let those Bhikkhus, 
O Bhikkhus, assemble in one place all of them and 
hold Uposatha there, or let them assemble where 



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254 MAHAVAGGA. II, 12, 1. 

the senior Bhikkhu dwells and hold Uposatha there. 
But in no case is Uposatha to be held by an incom- 
plete congregation. He who holds it (in that way), 
commits a dukka/a offence.' 



12. 

1. At that time the reverend Maha Kassapa, 
when going to the Uposatha from Andhakavinda to 
Reifagaha, and crossing a river on his way, was 
nearly 1 being carried away (by the river) 2 ; and his 
robes got wet. The Bhikkhus said to the reverend 
Maha Kassapa : ' How have your robes got wet, 
friend ?' (He replied) : ' As I was going, friends, to 
the Uposatha from Andhakavinda to Ra^agaha, and 
crossing a river on my way, I was nearly being 
carried away (by the river); thus my robes have 
become wet.' 

They told this thing to the Blessed One. 

' Let the Sa/wgha, O Bhikkhus, confer on the 
boundary which it has determined for common 



1 'Manam vuMo ahosi.' Buddhaghosa : 'fsakam appatta- 
vu/Aabh&vo ahosi.' Manawz is evidently the equivalent of 
Sanskrit manak. 

2 Buddhaghosa's note on this passage contains some details 
regarding the way which Maha Kassapa went. Andhakavinda is 
three g&vuta distant from Ra^agaha. There were eighteen (?the 
MS. reads: a/Mara mahavih&ra) great Viharas around Ra^a- 
gaha included by the same boundary which Buddha himself had 
consecrated. The Uposatha service for this whole district was 
performed in the Ve/uvana monastery. The river* which Maha 
Kassapa crossed on his way to the VeAivana was the Sappini, 
which rises in the GiggAakH/a. mountain. 



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II, 12,3- UPOSATHA CEREMONY, AND PATIMOKKHA. 255 

residence and for communion of Uposatha, the 
character of ti^lvarena avippavasa 1 . 

2. ' And you ought, O Bhikkhus, to confer on it 
this character in this way : Let a learned, compe- 
tent Bhikkhu proclaim the following »atti before 
the Sawzgha : " Let the Samgha, reverend Sirs, hear 
me. If the Sawzgha is ready, let the Sawgha confer 
on the boundary which the Sa#zgha has determined 
for common residence and for communion of Upo- 
satha, the character of tiilvarena avippavasa. 
This is the #atti. Let the Samgha (&c.,as above). 
Thus I understand."' 

3. At that time the Bhikkhus, considering that 
the Blessed One had ordained the conferring of the 
character of ti/61 varena avippavasa (on the boun- 
daries), deposited their robes in a house. Those 
robes were lost, burnt, or eaten by rats ; the 
Bhikkhus were badly dressed and had coarse robes. 
(Other) Bhikkhus said : ' How comes it that you 
are badly dressed, friends, and that you have coarse 
robes?' (They replied) : 'Considering, friends, that 
the Blessed One had ordained the conferring (on 
the boundaries) of the character of ti^ivarena 
avippavasa, we deposited our robes in a house; 
the robes have been lost, burnt, or eaten by rats ; 

1 Ti^ivarena avippavasa means not parting with the three 
robes which belong to the usual 'parikkhSri' (requisites) of a 
Bhikkhu. Bhikkhus were not allowed to part with their £ivaras, 
excepting under special circumstances and for a limited time (see 
the Patimokkha, 29th nissaggiya dhamma). Conferring the 
character of ti^ivarena avippavasa on a boundary means, we 
believe, to determine that it should be free to Bhikkhus residing 
within this boundary, to keep a set of robes wherever they liked 
within the same boundary (excepting in a village, § 3), and that 
such an act should not be considered as parting with the robes. 



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256 mahAvagga. II, 12, 4. 

therefore we are badly dressed and have coarse 
robes.' 

They told this thing to the Blessed One. 

' Let * the Sawgha, O Bhikkhus, confer on the 
boundary which it has determined for common resi- 
dence and for communion of Uposatha, the character 
of ti^ivarena avippavasa, excepting villages and 
the neighbourhood of villages 2 . 

4. 'And you ought, O Bhikkhus, to confer on it 
this character in this way, &c. s 

5. ' Let him who determines a boundary, O 
Bhikkhus, first determine the boundary for common 
residence and for communion of Uposatha, and 
afterwards decree about the tiilvarena avippa- 
vasa. Let him who abolishes a boundary, O 
Bhikkhus, first abolish the decree about the tikt- 
varena avippavasa, and afterwards abolish the 
boundary for common residence and for communion 
of Uposatha. 

' And you ought, O Bhikkhus, to abolish the 

1 Buddhaghosa observes that this rule applies to Bhikkhus only, 
and not to Bhikkhunts. For Bhikkhunts reside only in villages ; 
there would be no £ivaraparih£ra at all for Bhikkhunts, if they 
were to use the kammav£M given in § 4. Buddhaghosa also 
observes at this occasion that the boundaries of the Bhikkhusamgha 
and of the Bhikkhunisa/ngha are quite independent from each 
other, and that the rules given in chap. 13 do not refer to boun- 
daries the one of which belongs to the Bhikkhusawgha, the other 
to the Bhikkhuntsawgha. 

8 As to the extent attributed tothe'gSmupaMra' (neighbour- 
hood of the village), see the Vibhahga, quoted by Minayeff, Pritim. 
p. 66, 1. 1. 

* This formula is identical with that given in § 2. The only dif- 
ference is that after the words 'the character of tiiivarena avip- 
pavasa,' the words 'excepting villages and the neighbourhood of 
villages ' are inserted. 



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II, 12,7- UPOSATHA CEREMONY, AND PATIMOKKHA. 257 

tiiivarena avippavasa in this way: Let a learned, 
competent Bhikkhu proclaim the following »atti 
before the Sa#zgha : " Let the Sawzgha, reverend 
Sirs, hear me. If the Sawgha is ready, let the 
Sa#zgha abolish the ti/6tvarena avippavasa, which 
the Sawgha has decreed. This is the »atti. Let 
the Sawzgha, &c." 

6. 'And you ought, O Bhikkhus, to abolish the 
boundary in this way: Let a learned, competent 
Bhikkhu proclaim the following «atti before the 
Sa#zgha : " Let the Sa/wgha, reverend Sirs, hear 
me. If the Samgha. is ready, let the Sawgha 
abolish the boundary for common residence and for 
communion of Uposatha which it has determined. 
This is the »atti. Let the Sawgha, &c." 

7. ' If there is no boundary determined nor fixed, 
O Bhikkhus, the village boundary of that village, or 
the nigama boundary of that nigama (market town) 
near which village or nigama (a Bhikkhu) dwells, 
is to be considered as boundary for common resi- 
dence and for the communion of Uposatha. If (he 
lives), O Bhikkhus, in a forest where no villages 
are, community of residence and Uposatha extends 
to a distance of seven abbhantaras 1 all around. 
A river, O Bhikkhus, cannot be a boundary, a sea 
cannot be a boundary, a natural lake cannot be a 
boundary. In a river, O Bhikkhus, or in a sea, or 
in a natural lake, community of residence and Upo- 
satha extends as far as an average man can spirt 
water all around.' 



1 1 abbhantara=28 hattha (Buddhaghosa and Abhidhinappadi- 
pika, v. 197). See Rh. D., 'Coins and Measures,' &c, p. 15. 



[13] 



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258 MAHAVAGGA. II, 13, 1. 

13. 

1. At that time the A^abbaggiya Bhikkhus made 
one boundary overlap another one (which had been 
determined before by other Bhikkhus). 

They told this thing to the Blessed One. 

'The act of those who have determined their 
boundary first is lawful, unobjectionable, and valid. 
The act of those who have determined their boun- 
dary afterwards is unlawful, objectionable, and invalid. 
Let no one, O Bhikkhus, make one boundary overlap 
another one. He who does, commits a dukka/a 
offence.' 

2. At that time the A*]&abbaggiya Bhikkhus made 
one boundary encompass another one (which had 
been determined before by other Bhikkhus). 

They told this thing to the Blessed One. 

' The act of those, &c. (see § i). Let no one, 

Bhikkhus, make one boundary encompass another 
one. He who does, commits a dukka/a offence. 

1 prescribe, O Bhikkhus, that he who determines 
a boundary, is to determine it so as to leave an 
interstice 1 between the boundaries.' 



14. 

1. Now the Bhikkhus thought : ' How many Upo- 
satha (days) are* there?' 

They told this thing to the Blessed One. 

1 Buddhaghosa prescribes to leave an interstice of one hattha, 
and he adds that the ancient Sinhalese commentaries differ as to 
the measure required for this interstice : the Kurundt requires one 
vidatthi, the Mah&pa££arl four ahgula. 



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II, 14,3- UPOSATHA CEREMONY, AND PATIMOKKHA. 259 

'There are the following two Uposatha (days), 
O Bhikkhus, the fourteenth and the fifteenth (of the 
half month) ; these are the two Uposatha (days), 
O Bhikkhus.' 

2. Now the Bhikkhus thought : ' How many 
Uposatha services are there ? ' 

They told this thing to the Blessed One. 

' There are the following four Uposatha services, 
O Bhikkhus: the Uposatha service which is held 
unlawfully (by an) incomplete (congregation) 1 , the 
Uposatha service which is held unlawfully (by a) 
complete (congregation), the Uposatha service which 
is held lawfully (by an) incomplete (congregation), 
the Uposatha service which is held lawfully (by a) 
complete (congregation). 

3. ' Now, O Bhikkhus, the Uposatha service 
which is held unlawfully (by an) incomplete (con- 
gregation), such an Uposatha service, O Bhikkhus, 
ought not to be held, nor is such an Uposatha service 
allowed by me. Now, O Bhikkhus, the Uposatha 
service which is held unlawfully (by a) complete 
(congregation), such an Uposatha service, O Bhik- 
khus, ought not to be held, nor is such an Uposatha 
service allowed by me. Now, O Bhikkhus, the 
Uposatha service which is held lawfully (by an) 
incomplete (congregation), such an Uposatha service, 
O Bhikkhus, ought not to be held, nor is such an 
Uposatha service allowed by me. Now, O Bhikkhus, 
the Uposatha service which is held lawfully (by a) 
complete (congregation), such an Uposatha service, 
O Bhikkhus, ought to be held, and such an Upo- 

* For a definition of lawfulness and unlawfulness of the official 
functions of the Order as well as of completeness and incompleteness 
of the congregation by which such acts are performed, see IX, 3. 

S 2 



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260 mahAvagga. II, 15, 1. 

satha service is allowed by me. Therefore, O 
Bhikkhus, you ought to train yourselves thus : " The 
Uposatha service which is held lawfully (by a) com- 
plete (congregation), such an Uposatha service will 
we hold."' 



15. 

1. Now the Bhikkhus thought : ' How many ways 
are there of reciting the Patimokkha ? ' 

They told this thing to the Blessed One. 

' There are the following five ways of reciting the 
Patimokkha : The introduction * having been recited, 
as to the rest, it may be proclaimed : " Such and 
such rules are known (to the fraternity 2 )." This is 
the first way of reciting the Patimokkha. The 
introduction having been recited, the four para- 
^•ika dhamma having been recited, as to the rest, 
it may be proclaimed : " Such and such rules are 
known (to the fraternity)." This is the second way 
of reciting the Patimokkha. The introduction having 
been recited, the four para/ika dhamma having 
been recited, the thirteen sawghadisesa dhamma 
having been recited, . . . the introduction having 
been recited, the four para^ika dhamma having 
been recited, the thirteen sawghadisesa dhamma 
having been recited, the two aniyata dhammS. 
having been recited, as to the rest, it may be pro- 

1 The introduction (nid&na) of the Patimokkha is the formula 
given above, chap. 3. 3. 

2 'Avasesaw sutena savetabbaw,' i.e. it is to be pro- 
claimed: 'The four pSra^ika" dhamma, &c, are known to the 
reverend brethren (literally, have been heard by the reverend 
brethren).' 



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11,15,4. UPOSATHA CEREMONY, AND PATIMOKKHA. 26 1 

claimed : " Such and such rules are known (to the 
fraternity)." This is the fourth way of reciting the 
Patimokkha. The fifth way is (to recite it) in its 
full extent. These, O Bhikkhus, are the five ways 
of reciting the Patimokkha.' 

2. At that time the Bhikkhus, considering that 
the Blessed One had allowed to recite the Pati- 
mokkha abridged, always recited the Patimokkha 
abridged. 

They told this thing to the Blessed One. 

' You ought not, O Bhikkhus, to recite the Pati- 
mokkha abridged. He who does, commits a duk- 
ka^a offence.' 

3. At that time a certain residence (of Bhikkhus) 
in the Kosala country was menaced on the day of 
Uposatha by savage people. The Bhikkhus were 
not able to recite the Patimokkha in its full extent. 

They told this thing to the Blessed One. 
' I allow you, O Bhikkhus, in the case of danger 
to recite the Patimokkha abridged.' 

4. At that time the A^abbaggiya Bhikkhus recited 
the Patimokkha abridged also when there was no 
danger. 

They told this thing to the Blessed One. 

' You ought not to recite the Patimokkha abridged, 
O Bhikkhus, if there is no danger. He who does, 
commits a dukka/a offence. I allow you, O 
Bhikkhus, in the case of danger only to recite the 
Patimokkha abridged. The cases of danger are the 
following : danger from kings, from robbers, from fire, 
from water, from human beings, from non-human 
beings, from beasts of prey, from creeping things, 
danger of life, danger against chastity. I ordain, 
O Bhikkhus, the recitation in such cases of danger 



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Google 



262 mahAvagga. II, 15, 5. 

of the Patimokkha abridged ; if there is no danger, 
in its full extent.' 

5. At that time the A^abbaggiya Bhikkhus 
preached the Dhamma before the Sawgha without 
being called upon (by the Thera). 

They told this thing to the Blessed One. 

' Let no one, O Bhikkhus, preach the Dhamma 
before the Sawgha without being called upon. He 
who does, commits adukka^a offence. I prescribe, 

Bhikkhus, that the Thera is either to preach the 
Dhamma himself or to call upon another (Bhikkhu 
to do so).' 

6. At that time the .Oabbaggiya Bhikkhus put 
questions about the Vinaya before the Sawgha 
without being appointed thereto. 

They told this thing to the Blessed One. 

' Let no one, O Bhikkhus, put questions about 
the Vinaya before the Samgha. without being ap- 
pointed thereto. He who so questions, commits 
a dukka^a offence. I prescribe, O Bhikkhus, that 
an appointed (Bhikkhu) is to put questions about 
the Vinaya before the Sa/#gha. And (this Bhikkhu) 
is to be appointed, O Bhikkhus, in this way : One 
may either appoint himself, or one may appoint 
another person. 

7. 'And how is (a Bhikkhu) to appoint himself? 
Let a learned, competent Bhikkhu proclaim the fol- 
lowing »atti before the Sa/#gha : " Let the Sawgha, 
reverend Sirs, hear me. If the Sa/wgha is ready, 

1 will question N. N. about the Vinaya." Thus one 
may appoint himself. And how is (a Bhikkhu) to 
appoint another person ? Let a learned, competent 
Bhikkhu proclaim the following «atti before the 
Sa#zgha : " Let the Sawgha, &c. If the Sawgha is 



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II, ig, II. UPOSATHA CEREMONY, AND PATIMOKKHA. 263 

ready, let N. N. question N. N. about the Vinaya." 
Thus one may appoint another person.' 

8. At that time appointed, clever Bhikkhus put 
questions about the Vinaya before the Sawgha. The 
.A^abbaggiya Bhikkhus conceived anger (towards 
those Bhikkhus), conceived discontent, and threat- 
ened them with blows. 

They told this thing to the Blessed One. 

' I prescribe you, O Bhikkhus, that even he who 
has been appointed shall (not) put questions about 
the Vinaya before the Sa#zgha (without) having 
looked at the assembly and weighed (with the mind 
each) person (present).' 

9, 10. At that time the .Oabbaggiya Bhikkhus 
answered questions about the Vinaya before the 
Sa/»gha without being appointed thereto. 

They told this thing to the Blessed One. 

' Let no one, O Bhikkhus, answer questions about 
the Vinaya before the Sa#*gha without being ap- 
pointed thereto. He who does, commits a dukka/a 
offence. I prescribe, O Bhikkhus, that questions 
about the Vinaya are to be answered before the 
Sawgha (only) by an appointed (Bhikkhu). And 
(this Bhikkhu) is to be appointed \ &c.' 

11. At that time appointed, clever Bhikkhus 
answered questions about the Vinaya before the 
Sawgha. The A^abbaggiya Bhikkhus 2 , &c. 

1 See §§ 6, 7. Read: ' ... I will answer the questions of N. N. 
about the Vinaya.' And, ' ... let N. N. answer the questions of 
N. N. about the Vinaya.' 

2 See § 8. Read : ' . . . shall (not) answer questions about the 
Vinaya . . .' 



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264 mahAvagga. II, 16,1. 

16. 

1. At that time the Al&abbaggiya Bhikkhus 
reproved for an offence a Bhikkhu who had not 
given them leave. 

They told this thing to the Blessed One. 

' No Bhikkhu, O Bhikkhus, who has not given 
leave, may be reproved for an offence. He who 
reproves (such a Bhikkhu), commits a dukkafe 
offence. I prescribe, O Bhikkhus, that you reprove 
(Bhikkhus) for an offence (only) after having asked 
for leave (by saying), " Give me leave, reverend 
brother, I wish to speak to you." ' 

2. At that time clever Bhikkhus reproved the 
A^abbaggiya Bhikkhus for an offence after having 
asked for leave. The AT&ibbaggiya Bhikkhus con- 
ceived anger (towards those Bhikkhus), conceived 
discontent, and threatened them with blows. 

They told this thing to the Blessed One. 

' I prescribe, O Bhikkhus, that you are (not) to 
reprove (a Bhikkhu) for an offence, even if he has 
given leave, (without) having weighed (with your 
mind) the person (concerned).' 

3. At that time the A^abbaggiya Bhikkhus, who 
thought : ' Otherwise clever Bhikkhus might ask us 
for leave (and reprove us for an offence),' themselves 
asked beforehand pure Bhikkhus who had com- 
mitted no offence, for leave without object and 
reason. 

They told this thing to the Blessed One. 

' Let no pure Bhikkhus, O Bhikkhus, who have 
committed no offence, be asked for leave without 
object and reason. He who does, commits a duk- 
ka/a offence. I prescribe, O Bhikkhus, that you 



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II, i6, 6. UPOSATHA CEREMONY, AND PATIMOKKHA. 265 

are (not) to ask for leave (without) having weighed 
(with your mind) the person (concerned).' 

4. At that time the .Oabbaggiya Bhikkhus per- 
formed an unlawful official act before the Samgha. 

They told this thing to the Blessed One. 

' Let no one, O Bhikkhus, perform unlawful acts 
before the Samgha. He who does, commits a duk- 
ka^a offence.' 

They performed an unlawful act nevertheless. 

They told this thing to the Blessed One. 

' I prescribe, O Bhikkhus, that you should protest, 
if an unlawful act is being performed.' 

5. At that time clever Bhikkhus protested at an 
unlawful act being performed by the ^T^abbaggiya 
Bhikkhus. The -Oabbaggiya Bhikkhus conceived 
anger, conceived discontent, and threatened (those 
Bhikkhus) with blows. 

They told this thing to the Blessed One. 

' I allow you, O Bhikkhus, to express your opinion 
only (instead of protesting formally)/ 

They expressed their opinion in the presence of 
the said (Bhikkhus). The .Oabbaggiya Bhikkhus 
conceived anger, conceived discontent, and threat- 
ened (them) with blows. 

They told this thing to the Blessed One. 

' I prescribe, O Bhikkhus, that four or five persons 
may protest, that two or three may express their 
opinion, and that one person may determine (in his 
mind) : " I do not think this right." ' 

6. At that time the A^abbaggiya Bhikkhus, when 
reciting the Patimokkha before the Sawgha, inten- 
tionally recited it so that it could not be heard. 

They told this thing to the Blessed One. 

' Let not him who is to recite the Patimokkha, 



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266 mahAvagga. II, i6, j. 

O Bhikkhus, intentionally recite it so that it cannot 
be heard. He who does, commits a dukka^a 
offence.' 

7. At that time the reverend Udayi, who had 
a crow's voice, had the duty to recite the Pati- 
mokkha before the Sazwgha. Now the reverend 
Udayi thought : ' It has been prescribed by the 
Blessed One that he who is to recite the Pati- 
mokkha, ought to recite it so that it may be heard ; 
but I have a crow's voice. Well, how am I to act ?' 

They told this thing to the Blessed One. 

' I prescribe, O Bhikkhus, that he who is to recite 
the Patimokkha may endeavour to make it audible. 
If he endeavours (to do so), he is free from offence.' 

8. At that time Devadatta recited the Patimokkha 
before an assembly in which laymen were present. 

They told this thing to the Blessed One. 

' Let no one, O Bhikkhus, recite the Patimokkha 
before an assembly in which laymen are present. He 
who does, commits a dukka/a offence.' 

9. At that time the ./Oabbaggiya Bhikkhus re- 
cited the Patimokkha before the Sa#zgha without 
being called upon (by the Thera). 

They told this thing to the Blessed One. 

' Let no one, O Bhikkhus, recite the Patimokkha 
before the Sawzgha without being called upon. He 
who does, commits a dukka^a offence. I prescribe, 
O Bhikkhus, that the Thera is master of the Pati- 
mokkha 1 .' 

End of the Bharcavara of the A»«atitthiyas 2 . 

1 I. e. of reciting the Patimokkha himself or causing another 
Bhikkhu to do so. 
4 I.e. Sama«as belonging to other schools. See chap. 1. 



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11,17,3- UPOSATHA CEREMONY, AND PATIMOKKHA. 267 



17. 

i. Then the Blessed One, after having dwelt near 
Ra/agaha as long as he thought fit, went forth 
on his pilgrimage to Abdanavatthu. Going from 
place to place on his pilgrimage, he came to Aoda- 
navatthu. At that time there dwelt in a certain 
residence many Bhikkhus, the eldest of whom was 
an ignorant, unlearned person : he neither knew 
Uposatha, nor the Uposatha service, nor the Pati- 
mokkha, nor the recital of the Patimokkha. 

2. Now those Bhikkhus thought : ' It has been 
prescribed by the Blessed One that the eldest Bhik- 
khu is master of the Patimokkha, and here the eldest 
of us is an ignorant, unlearned person : he neither 
knows Uposatha . . . nor the recital of the Pati- 
mokkha. Well, how are we to act ?' 

They told this thing to the Blessed One. 

' I prescribe, O Bhikkhus, that (in such a case) 
that Bhikkhu who is (most) learned and competent, 
is to be made master of the Patimokkha.' 

3. At that time there dwelt in a certain residence 
on the day of Uposatha many ignorant, unlearned 
Bhikkhus : they neither knew Uposatha . . . nor the 
recital of the Patimokkha. They called upon the 
Thera : ' May it please the Thera, reverend Sir, to 
recite the Patimokkha.' He replied : ' I am not 
competent to do so.' They called upon the next 
eldest, &c. He also replied, &c. They called upon 
the third eldest, &c. In this manner they called 
upon (all Bhikkhus) down to the youngest one : 
'May it please the reverend brother to recite the 
Patimokkha.' He also replied : ' I am not compe- 
tent, venerable Sirs, to do so.' 



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268 MAHAVAGGA. II, 17, 4. 

They told this thing to the Blessed One. 

4, 5. ' When, O Bhikkhus, in a certain residence, 
&C. 1 ; in that case, O Bhikkhus, these Bhikkhus are 
instantly to send one Bhikkhu to the neighbouring 
residence (of Bhikkhus): "Go, friend, and come back 
when you have learnt the Patimokkha abridged or in 
its full extent." ' 

6. Now the Bhikkhus thought : ' By whom is (this 
Bhikkhu) to be sent?' 

They told this thing to the Blessed One. 

' I prescribe, O Bhikkhus, that the Thera is to 
give order to a young Bhikkhu.' 

The young Bhikkhus, having received that order 
from the Thera, did not go. 

They told this thing to the Blessed One. 

' Let no one who has been ordered by the Thera 
forbear to go, unless he be sick. He who does not 
go, commits a dukka/a offence.' 



18. 

1. Then the Blessed One, after having dwelt at 
Aodanavatthu as long as he thought fit, went back 
again to Ra^agaha. At that time the people asked 
the Bhikkhus who went about for alms : ' What day 
of the half month is this, reverend Sirs ?' The Bhik- 
khus replied : ' We do not know, friends.' The people 
were annoyed, murmured, and became angry : ' Those 
Sakyaputtiya Samawas do not even know how to 
count (the days of) the half month ; what good things 
else will they know?' 

1 Here follows an exact repetition of the story told in § 3, which 
is given here, of course, in the present tense. 



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II, 19- UPOSATHA CEREMONY, AND pAtIMOKKHA. 269 

They told this thing to the Blessed One. 
' I prescribe, O Bhikkhus, that you learn how to 
count (the days of) the half month.' 

2. Now the Bhikkhus thought: 'Who ought to 
learn to count (the days of) the half month ?' 

They told this thing to the Blessed One. 
' I prescribe, O Bhikkhus, that you learn all of you 
to count (the days of) the half month.' 

3. At that time the people asked the Bhikkhus 
who went about for alms : ' How many Bhikkhus 
are there, reverend Sirs?' The Bhikkhus replied: 
' We do not know, friends.' The people were annoyed, 
murmured, and became angry : ' Those Sakyaputtiya 
Sama#as do not even know each other ; what good 
things else will they know V 

They told this thing to the Blessed One. 
' I prescribe, O Bhikkhus, that you count the 
Bhikkhus.' 

4. Now the Bhikkhus thought : ' At what time 
ought we to count the Bhikkhus?' 

They told this thing to the Blessed One. 

' I prescribe, O Bhikkhus, that you count (the 
Bhikkhus) on the day of Uposatha, either by way 
of (counting the single) troops (of which the as- 
sembly is composed) 1 , or that you take (each of 
you) a ticket (and count those tickets).' 



19. 

At that time Bhikkhus who did not know that it 
was Uposatha day, went for alms to a distant village. 

1 This appears to be the meaning of gawamaggena ga«etu»» ; 
Buddhaghosa has no note on this passage. 



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27O MAHAVAGGA. II, 30, I. 

They came back when the Patimokkha was being 
recited, or when it just had been recited. 

They told this thing to the Blessed One. 

' I prescribe, O Bhikkhus, that you proclaim : " To- 
day is Uposatha." ' 

Now the Bhikkhus thought: 'Who is to pro- 
claim so?' 

They told this thing to the Blessed One. 

' I prescribe, O Bhikkhus, that the Thera is to 
proclaim (the day of Uposatha) in due time.' 

At that time a certain Thera did not think of it 
in due time. 

They told this thing to the Blessed One. 

' I allow you, O Bhikkhus, to proclaim it also at 
meal time.' 

(The Thera) did not think of it at meal time either. 

They told this thing to the Blessed One. 

' I allow, O Bhikkhus, to proclaim it whenever 
(the Thera) thinks of it.' 



20. 

1. At that time the Uposatha hall in a certain 
residence was full of sweepings. The Bhikkhus 
who arrived there were annoyed, murmured, and 
became angry: 'How can the Bhikkhus neglect to 
sweep the Uposatha hall?' 

They told this thing to the Blessed One. 
' I prescribe, O Bhikkhus, that you sweep the 
Uposatha hall.' 

2. Now the Bhikkhus thought: 'Well, who is to 
sweep the Uposatha hall?' 

They told this thing to the Blessed One. 



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11,20,5- UPOSATHA CEREMONY, AND PATIMOKKHA. 271 

' I prescribe, O Bhikkhus, that the Thera is to order 
a young Bhikkhu (to sweep the Uposatha hall).' 

The young Bhikkhus, having received that order 
from the Thera, did not sweep it. 

They told this thing to the Blessed One. 

' He who has been ordered by the Thera, ought 
not to forbear to sweep it, unless he be sick. He who 
does not sweep it, commits a dukka^a offence.' 

3. At that time there were no seats prepared in 
the Uposatha hall. The Bhikkhus sat down on the 
ground. Their bodies and their robes became full 
of dust. 

They told this thing to the Blessed One. 

' I prescribe, O Bhikkhus, that you prepare seats 
in the Uposatha hall.' 

Now the Bhikkhus thought, &c. (see § 2). 

'He who does not prepare (seats), commits a duk- 
ka^a offence.' 

4. At that time there was no lamp in the Upo- 
satha hall. The Bhikkhus in the darkness trod upon 
(each other's) bodies and robes. 

They told this thing to the Blessed One. 

' I prescribe, O Bhikkhus, that you light a lamp 
in the Uposatha hall.' 

Now the Bhikkhus thought, &c. (see § 2). 

' He who does not light (the lamp), commits a 
dukka^a offence.' 

5. At that time the resident Bhikkhus in a certain 
residence did not provide drink (i.e. water), nor did 
they provide food. The incoming Bhikkhus were 
annoyed, murmured, and became angry: 'How can 
the resident Bhikkhus neglect to provide for drink 
and to provide for food?' 

They told this thing to the Blessed One. 



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272 MAHAVAGGA. 11,31,1. 

' I prescribe, O Bhikkhus, that you provide drink 
and food.' 

Now the Bhikkhus thought, &c. (see § 2). 

'He who does not provide for it, commits a duk- 
ka/a offence.' 



21. 

1. At that time many ignorant, unlearned Bhik- 
khus who travelled to the (four) quarters (of the 
world) did not ask leave of their a^ariyas and 
upa^^ayas (when going away). 

They told this thing to the Blessed One. 

' In case, O Bhikkhus, there are many ignorant, 
unlearned Bhikkhus who travel to the (four) quarters 
without asking leave of their a^ariyas and upa^-- 
^ayas ; such Bhikkhus ought to be asked by 
their aiariyas and upa^^ayas: "Where will 
you go? with whom will you go?" If those ignorant, 
unlearned Bhikkhus name other ignorant, unlearned 
Bhikkhus, their aiariyas and upa^^ayas ought 
not to allow them (to go) ; if they allow them, they 
commit a dukka/a offence. If those ignorant, un- 
learned Bhikkhus go without the permission of their 
a^ariyas and upa^^ayas, they commit a duk- 
ka^a offence. 

2. ' In case, O Bhikkhus, there dwell in a certain 
residence many ignorant, unlearned Bhikkhus who 
neither know Uposatha, nor the Uposatha service, 
nor the Patimokkha, nor the recital of the Pati- 
mokkha : now there arrives (at that place) another 
Bhikkhu who is erudite, who has studied the 
agamas (i. e. the collections of Suttas), who knows 



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11,21,3- UPOSATHA CEREMONY, AND PATIMOKKHA. 273 

the Dhamma, the Vinaya, the matika 1 , who is 
wise, learned, intelligent, modest, conscientious 2 , 
anxious for training ; let those Bhikkhus, O Bhik- 
khus, kindly receive that Bhikkhu, let them show 
attention to him, exchange (friendly) words with him, 
provide him with powder, clay 3 , a tooth-cleanser, 
and water to rinse his mouth with. If they do not 
receive him kindly, or show no attention to him, or 
do not exchange (friendly) words with him, or do 
not provide him with powder, clay, a tooth-cleanser, 
and water to rinse his mouth with, they commit 
a dukka/a offence. 

3. ' In case, O Bhikkhus, there dwell in a certain 
residence on the day of Uposatha many ignorant, 
unlearned Bhikkhus who neither know Uposatha 
. . . nor the recital of the Patimokkha ; let those 
Bhikkhus, O Bhikkhus, instantly send one Bhikkhu 
to the neighbouring residence (of Bhikkhus, saying), 
" Go, friend, and come back when you have learnt 
the Patimokkha abridged or in its full extent." If 
they succeed in this way, well and good. If they 
do not succeed, those Bhikkhus, O Bhikkhus, ought 
all to go to a residence where they (the Bhikkhus 
there) know Uposatha or the Uposatha service or 
the Patimokkha or the recital of the Patimokkha. 

1 Enumerations of terms indicating the different cases that come 
under a Vinaya rule or a dogmatical proposition are called m£tik& ; 
for instance, in discussing the first pira^ika rule theVibhanga 
gives the following matikapadini : tisso itthiyo manussitthi ama- 
nussitthi tirai^anagatitthi, tayo ubhatovyan^anaksl manussubha- 
tovyaw^anako amanussubh. tira&Wanagatubh., &c. Most of the 
works belonging to the Abhidhamma Pi/aka are based on and 
opened by such matika lists. 

4 Or 'scrupulous,' in good sense. 

3 See I, 25, 12, with our note. 

[13] T 



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2 74 MAH A VAGG A. II, 2 r , 4 . 

If they do not go, they commit a dukka/a 
offence. 

4. ' In case, O Bhikkhus, many ignorant, un- 
learned Bhikkhus keep vassa 1 in a certain resi- 
dence who neither know, &c. 2 If they succeed in 
this way, well and good. If they do not succeed, 
they ought to send away one Bhikkhu for seven 
days' time (saying), " Go, friend, and come back 
when you have learnt the Patimokkha abridged or 
in its full extent." If they succeed in this way, well 
and good. If they do not succeed, those Bhikkhus, 
O Bhikkhus, ought not to keep vassa in that resi- 
dence. If they do, they commit a dukka/a offence.' 



22. 

1. Then the Blessed One thus addressed the 
Bhikkhus : ' Assemble, O Bhikkhus, the Samgha. 
will hold Uposatha.' When he had spoken thus, 
a certain Bhikkhu said to the Blessed One : ' There 
is a sick Bhikkhu, Lord, who is not present.' 

' I prescribe, O Bhikkhus, that a sick Bhikkhu is 
to declare (lit. to give) his parisuddhi 3 . And let it 
be declared, O Bhikkhus, in this way : Let that sick 
Bhikkhu go to one Bhikkhu, adjust his upper robe 
so as to cover one shoulder, sit down squatting, 
raise his joined hands, and say : " I declare my 
parisuddhi, take my parisuddhi, proclaim my 
pirisuddhi (before the fraternity)." Whether he 

1 See III, 1 seq. 2 See § 3. 

8 Pirisuddhi, literally, means purity. He declares that he is 
pure from the offences specified in the P&timokkha, and charges 
another Bhikkhu with proclaiming his declaration before the 
assembled chapter. 



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11,22,3- UPOSATHA CEREMONY, AND PATIMOKKHA. 275 

express this by gesture (lit. by his body), or by 
word, or by gesture and word, the parisuddhi has 
been declared. If he does not express this by ges- 
ture, &c, the parisuddhi has not been declared. 

2. ' If (the sick Bhikkhu) succeeds in doing so, 
well and good. If he does not succeed, let them 
take that sick Bhikkhu, O Bhikkhus, on his bed or 
his chair to the assembly, and (then) let them hold 
Uposatha. If, O Bhikkhus, the Bhikkhus who are 
nursing the sick, think : " If we move this sick 
person from his place, the sickness will increase, or 
he will die," let them not move the sick, O Bhik- 
khus, from his place ; let the Sawgha go there and 
hold there Uposatha. But in no case are they to 
hold Uposatha with an incomplete congregation. 
If (a Bhikkhu) does so, he commits a dukka/a 
offence. 

3. ' If he who has been charged with the pari- 
suddhi, O Bhikkhus, leaves the place at once 1 , 
after the parisuddhi has been entrusted (to him), 
the parisuddhi ought to be declared to another. 
If he who has been charged with the parisuddhi, 
O Bhikkhus, after the parisuddhi has been en- 
trusted to him, returns to the world 2 at once * ; or 
dies; or admits that he is a samawera; or that he 
has abandoned the precepts 3 ; or that he has become 

1 Literally, on the spot, i. e. without setting out on his way to 
the assembly. 

a We have no doubt that this is the correct translation of vib- 
bhamati (see I, 39, 5). The difference between vibbhamati (he 
returns to the world) and sikkhaw pa££akkh£ti (he abandons 
the precepts) seems to be that the former is an informal, and the 
latter a formal, renunciation of the Order. 

* The precepts are abandoned (sikkhi pa^akkh&ta' hoti) 
by declaring that one abandons the Buddha, or the Dhamma, or the 

T 2 



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2 j6 MAHAVAGGA. II, 22, 4. 

guilty of an extreme offence 1 ; or that he is mad; 
or that his mind is unhinged ; or that he suffers 
(bodily) pain ; or that expulsion has been pro- 
nounced against him for his refusal to see an offence 
(committed by himself) ; or to atone for such an 
offence ; or to renounce a false doctrine ; or that he 
is a eunuch ; or that he has furtively attached him- 
self (to the Sa*»gha) ; or that he is gone over to 
the Titthiyas; or that he is an animal 2 ; or that 
he is guilty of matricide; or that he is guilty of 
parricide ; or that he has murdered an Arahat ; or 
that he has violated a Bhikkhuni ; or that he has 
caused a schism among the Samgha. ; or that he has 
shed (a Buddha's) blood ; or that he is a hermaphro- 
dite : (in these cases) the parisuddhi ought to be 
entrusted to another one. 

4. ' If he who has been charged with the pari- 
suddhi, O Bhikkhus, after the parisuddhi has 
been entrusted to him, and whilst he is on his way 
(to the assembly), leaves the place, or returns to the 
world, or dies, or admits that he is a sama#era, &c, 
or admits that he is a hermaphrodite, the pari- 
suddhi has not been conveyed (to the Sa»zgha). 
If he who has been charged with the parisuddhi, 
O Bhikkhus, after the parisuddhi has been en- 
trusted to him, having arrived with the fraternity, 
leaves the place, or dies, &c, the parisuddhi has 

Sawgha, or the Vinaya, &c. By such a declaration a Bhikkhu who 
wishes to return to a layman's life, or to go over to a Titthiya sect, 
gives up his character as a member of the Buddhist fraternity. The 
rules about the sikkh£pa££akkhana are given in the Vibhanga, 
in the explanation of the first para^ika rule (chap. 8, § 2). 

1 Most probably antimavatthu refers to the ptra^ika offences 
which require excommunication. 

2 See the story given in I, 63. 



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II, 23. UPOSATHA CEREMONY, AND PATIMOKKHA. 277 

been conveyed. If he who has been charged with 
the parisuddhi, O Bhikkhus, after the parisuddhi 
has been entrusted to him, though he reaches the 
assembly, does not proclaim (the parisuddhi he is 
charged with) because he falls asleep, or by careless- 
ness, or because he attains (meditation), the pari- 
suddhi has been conveyed, and there is no offence 
on the part of him who has been charged with the 
parisuddhi. If he who has been charged, &c, 
intentionally omits to proclaim (the parisuddhi), 
the parisuddhi has been conveyed, but he who 
has been charged with the parisuddhi is guilty of 
a dukka/a offence.' 



23. 

Then the Blessed One thus addressed the Bhik- 
khus : ' Assemble, O Bhikkhus, the Sa»zgha will per- 
form an (official) act.' When he had spoken thus, a 
certain Bhikkhu said to the Blessed One : ' There is 
a sick Bhikkhu, Lord, who is not present.' 

' I prescribe, O Bhikkhus, that a sick Bhikkhu is 
to declare (lit. to give) his consent (to the act to 
be performed), &C. 1 I prescribe, O Bhikkhus, that 
on the day of Uposatha he who declares his pari- 
suddhi is to declare his consent (to official acts to 
be performed eventually) also, for (both declarations) 
are required for the Samgha. (and for the validity of 
its acts). 

1 The rules given here regarding the £^anda (declaration of con- 
sent of an absentee) that is required for the performance of official 
acts are word for word the same as those set out in chap. 22. 1-4, 
regarding the parisuddhi required at the Uposatha service. 



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278 MAHAVAGGA. II, 24, 1. 



24. 

1. At that time relations of a certain Bhikkhu 
seized him on the day of Uposatha. 

They told this thing to the Blessed One. 

' In case, O Bhikkhus, a certain Bhikkhu is seized 
on the day of Uposatha by relations of his, let the 
Bhikkhus say to those relations : " Pray, friends, let 
this Bhikkhu free for a moment until this Bhikkhu 
has held Uposatha." 

2. 'If they succeed in this way, well and good. 
If they do not succeed, let the Bhikkhus say to 
those relations : " Pray, friends, stand apart for a 
moment, until this Bhikkhu has declared his pari- 
suddhi." If they succeed, well and good. If they 
do not succeed, let the Bhikkhus say to those rela- 
tions : " Pray, friends, take this Bhikkhu for a mo- 
ment outside the boundary, until the Sa/wgha has 
held Uposatha." If they succeed, well and good. 
If they do not succeed, in no case is Uposatha to be 
held by an assembly that is incomplete. Should it 
be so held, (each Bhikkhu in the assembly) is guilty 
of a dukka^a offence. 

3. ' In case, O Bhikkhus, a certain Bhikkhu is 
seized on the day of Uposatha by kings, by robbers, 
by rascals, by hostile Bhikkhus, &C. 1 ' 



25. 

1. Then the Blessed One thus addressed the 
Bhikkhus : ' Assemble, O Bhikkhus, the Sazwgha 

1 See §§ 1, 2. 



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II, 25, 4- UPOSATHA CEREMONY, AND PATIMOKKHA. 2 79 

has duties (official acts) to perform.' When he had 
spoken thus, a certain Bhikkhu said to the Blessed 
One: 'There is a mad Bhikkhu, Lord, called Gagga, 
who is not present.' ' There are, O Bhikkhus, two 
sorts of madmen : There is one mad Bhikkhu who 
now remembers the Uposatha, now does not re- 
member it, who now remembers official acts (of the 
Order), now does not remember them, (and) there 
is (another mad Bhikkhu) who does not remember 
them; one who now goes to Uposatha, now does 
not go, who now goes to official acts, now does not 
go, (and another) who does not go. 

2. ' Now, O Bhikkhus, that madman that now 
remembers, &c, that now goes to, &c, to such a 
madman I prescribe that you grant ummattaka- 
sammuti (i.e. the madman's leave). 

3. ' And you ought, O Bhikkhus, to grant it in 
this way : Let a learned, competent Bhikkhu pro- 
claim the following watti before the Sa»zgha : " Let 
the Sawgha, reverend Sirs, hear me. Gagga, a mad 
Bhikkhu, now remembers the Uposatha, now does 
not remember, &c, now goes to, &c. ; if the Sawgha 
is ready, let the Sawgha grant ummattakasam- 
muti to the mad Bhikkhu Gagga : let the Bhikkhu 
Gagga remember or not remember Uposatha, re- 
member or not remember official acts (of the Order), 
let him go to Uposatha or not go, let him go to 
official acts or not go : (in every case) it may be free 
to the Samgha. to hold Uposatha and to perform 
official acts with Gagga as well as without Gagga. 
This is the «atti. 

4. ' " Let the Sawgha, &c. Gagga, a mad Bhikkhu, 
&c. ; the Sawgha grants, &c. Thus I understand." ' 



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280 mahAvagga. II, 26, 1. 



26. 

1. At that time four Bhikkhus dwelt in a certain 
residence (of Bhikkhus) on the day of Uposatha. 
Now these Bhikkhus thought : ' The- Blessed One 
has prescribed the holding of Uposatha, and we are 
(only) four persons 1 . Well, how are we to hold 
Uposatha?' 

They told this thing to the Blessed One. 
' I prescribe, O Bhikkhus, that four (Bhikkhus) 
may recite the Patimokkha.' 

2. At that time three Bhikkhus dwelt in a certain 
residence (of Bhikkhus) at the day of Uposatha. 
Now these Bhikkhus thought : ' The Blessed One 
has prescribed to four (Bhikkhus) the reciting of the 
Patimokkha, and we are (only) three persons,' &c. 

' I prescribe, O Bhikkhus, that three Bhikkhus 
may hold parisuddhi-uposatha 2 . 

3. ' And it ought to be held in this way : Let a 
learned, competent Bhikkhu proclaim the following 
watti before those Bhikkhus : " Let the reverend 
brethren hear me. To-day is Uposatha, the fifteenth 
(day of the half month). If the reverend brethren are 
ready, let us hold parisuddhi-uposatha with each 
other." Let the senior Bhikkhu adjust his upper 
robe so as to cover one shoulder, sit down squatting, 
raise his joined hands, and say to those Bhikkhus : 
" I am pure, friends, understand that I am pure, &c. s " 

4. ' Let (each) younger Bhikkhu (in his turn) adjust 

1 The quorum for several official acts of the Order was five or 
more Bhikkhus ; see IX, 4. 

2 Uposatha by mutual declaration of purity from»the offences 
specified in the Pitimokkha ; see § 3 seq. 

3 The same phrase is repeated twice more. 



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11,26,10. UPOSATHA CEREMONY, AND PATIMOKKHA. 28 1 

his upper robe so as to cover one shoulder, sit down 
squatting, raise his joined hands, and say to those 
Bhikkhus : " I am pure, reverend Sirs, &c." ' 

5. At that time two Bhikkhus dwelt in a certain 
residence on the day of Uposatha. Now these Bhik- 
khus thought : ' The Blessed One has prescribed to 
four (Bhikkhus) the reciting of the Patimokkha, to 
three (Bhikkhus) the holding of pirisuddhi-upo- 
satha, and we are (only) two persons,' &c. 

' I prescribe, O Bhikkhus, that two persons may 
hold parisuddhi-uposatha.' 

6, 7. ' And it ought to be held in this way : Let 
the senior Bhikkhu, &C. 1 ' 

8. At that time there dwelt a single Bhikkhu in a 
certain residence on the day of Uposatha. Now this 
Bhikkhu thought, &c. 

9. 'In case there dwell, O Bhikkhus, in a certain 
residence on the day of Uposatha a single Bhikkhu ; 
let that Bhikkhu, O Bhikkhus, sweep the place which 
the Bhikkhus used to frequent, the refectory, or hall, 
or place at the foot of a tree ; let him (then) provide 
water and food, prepare seats, put a lamp there, and 
sit down. If other Bhikkhus come, let him hold 
Uposatha with them ; if they do not come, let him 
fix his mind upon the thought : " To-day is my Upo- 
satha." If he does not fix his mind upon this thought, 
he commits a dukka/a offence. 

10. ' Now, O Bhikkhus, where four Bhikkhus 
dwell (together), they must not convey the pari- 
suddhi 2 of one (to their assembly), and recite the 



1 See §§ 3, 4. The watti prescribed in the preceding case does 
not apply to this case. 

2 See chap. 22. 



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282 MAHAVACGA. II, 27, 1. 

Patimokkha by three. If they do, they commit 
a dukka/a offence. 

' Now, O Bhikkhus, where three ,Bhikkhus dwell 
(together), they must not convey the parisuddhi 
of one (to their assembly), and hold parisuddhi- 
uposatha by two. If they do, they commit a 
dukka/a offence. 

1 Now, O Bhikkhus, where two Bhikkhus dwell, 
one of them must not convey the parisuddhi of the 
other one, and fix (only) his thoughts (upon the Upo- 
satha). If he does, he commits a dukka/a offence.' 



27. 

1. At that time a certain Bhikkhu was guilty of 
an offence on the day of Uposatha. Now this Bhik- 
khu thought : ' The Blessed One has prescribed : 
" Uposatha is not to be held by a Bhikkhu who is 
guilty of an offence 1 ." Now I am guilty of an offence. 
What am I to do?' 

They told this thing to the Blessed One. 

' In case, O Bhikkhus, a certain Bhikkhu be guilty 
of an offence on the day of Uposatha ; let that Bhik- 
khu, O Bhikkhus, go to one Bhikkhu, adjust his 
upper robe so as to cover one shoulder, sit down 
squatting, raise his joined hands, and say : " I have 
committed, friend, such and such an offence ; I con- 
fess that offence." Let the other say : " Do you see 
it?" " Yes, I see it." " Refrain from it in future." 

2. ' In case, O Bhikkhus, there be a Bhikkhu on 
the day of Uposatha who feels doubt with regard 

1 See .ffullavagga IX, 2. 



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II, 27, 4- UPOSATHA CEREMONY, AND pAtIMOKKHA. 283 

to an offence ; let this Bhikkhu, O Bhikkhus, go to 
one Bhikkhu, &c. (§ i), and say : " I feel doubt, friend, 
with regard to such and such an offence. When I 
shall feel no doubt, then I will atone for that offence." 
Having spoken thus, let him hold Uposatha and hear 
the Patimokkha. But in no case must there be any 
hindrance to holding Uposatha from such a cause.' 

3. At that time the -Oabbaggiya Bhikkhus con- 
fessed in common an offence (shared by them all). 

They told this thing to the Blessed One. 

' You ought not, O Bhikkhus, to confess an offence 
in common. He who does so, commits a dukka/a 
offence.' 

At that time the A^abbaggiya Bhikkhus accepted 
the common confession of an offence (shared by 
several Bhikkhus). 

They told this thing to the Blessed One. 

' You ought not, O Bhikkhus, to accept the com- 
mon confession of an offence. He who does so, 
commits a dukka/a offence.' 

4. At that time a certain Bhikkhu remembered 
an offence, while Patimokkha was being recited. 
Now this Bhikkhu thought: 'The Blessed One 
has prescribed : " Uposatha is not to be held by (a 
Bhikkhu) who is guilty of an offence." Now I am 
guilty of an offence. What am I to do?' 

They told this thing to the Blessed One. 

1 In case, O Bhikkhus, there be a Bhikkhu who 
remembers an offence, while Patimokkha is being 
recited ; let this Bhikkhu, O Bhikkhus, say to his 
neighbour Bhikkhu : " I have committed such and 
such an offence, friend; when I have arisen from 
this (assembly), I will atone for that offence." Having 
spoken thus, &c. (§ 2). 



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284 mahAvagga. II, 27, 5. 

5. ' In case, O Bhikkhus, there be a Bhikkhu 
who feels doubt with regard to an offence, while 
Patimokkha is being recited, &c. (§§ 2, 4).' 

6. At that time the whole Sawgha in a certain 
residence was guilty of a common offence on the 
day of Uposatha. Now these Bhikkhus thought : 
' The Blessed One has prescribed that offences 
(shared by many Bhikkhus) are not to be confessed 
in common, and that the common confession of such 
offences is not to be accepted. Now this whole 
Samgha is guilty of a common offence. What are 
we to do ?' 

They told this thing to the Blessed One. 

' In case, O Bhikkhus, the whole Sawgha in a 
certain residence is guilty of a common offence on 
the day of Uposatha ; let those Bhikkhus, O Bhik- 
khus, send instantly one Bhikkhu to the neigh- 
bouring residence of Bhikkhus (saying), " Go, friend, 
and come back when you have atoned for that 
offence (for yourself) ; we will (then) atone for the 
offence before you." 

7. ' If they succeed in this way, well and good. 
If they do not succeed, let a learned, competent 
Bhikkhu proclaim the following »atti before the 
Samgha. : " Let the Samgha, reverend Sirs, hear 
me. This whole Samgha is guilty of a common 
offence. When it shall see another pure, guiltless 
Bhikkhu, it will atone for the offence before him." 
(One of the Bhikkhus) having spoken thus, let them 
hold Uposatha and recite the Patimokkha. But in 
no case must there be any hindrance to holding 
Uposatha from such a cause. 

8. ' In case, O Bhikkhus, the whole Sawgha in 
a certain residence feels doubt with regard to a 



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11,27,12. UP0SATH A CEREMONY, AND pATIMOKKH A. 285 

common offence on the day of Uposatha ; (in this 
case) let a learned, competent Bhikkhu proclaim the 
following «atti before the Sawgha: "Let the 
Sawzgha, reverend Sirs, hear me. This whole 
Sawgha feels doubt with regard to a common 
offence. When it will feel no doubt, it will atone 
for that offence." (One of the Bhikkhus) having 
spoken thus, &c. 

9. ' In case, O Bhikkhus, in a certain residence 
the Sawgha that has entered (there) upon vassa is 
guilty of a common offence. Those Bhikkhus, O 
Bhikkhus, are instantly, &c. (§§ 6, 7). If they do 
not succeed, let them send away one Bhikkhu for 
seven days' time : " Go, friend, and come back when 
you have atoned for that offence (for yourself) ; we 
will (then) atone for the offence before you." ' 

10. At that time the whole Samgha. in a certain 
residence was guilty of a common offence, and did 
not know the name nor the class to which that 
offence belonged. Now there arrived (at that place) 
another Bhikkhu, &c. (see chap. 21. 2), anxious for 
training. To that Bhikkhu one of the Bhikkhus 
went, and having gone to him, he said to him : ' He 
who does such and such a thing, friend, what sort 
of offence does he commit ?' 

11. He replied: 'He who does such and such 
a thing, friend, commits such and such an offence. 
If you have committed such an offence, friend, atone 
for that offence.' The other replied : ' Not I myself 
alone, friend, am guilty of that offence ; this whole 
Sa#zgha is guilty of that offence.' He said : ' What 
is it to you, friend, whether another is guilty or guilt- 
less? Come, friend, atone for your own offence.' 

12. Now this Bhikkhu, after having atoned for 



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286 MAHAVAGGA. II, 27, 13. 

that offence by the advice of that Bhikkhu, went to 
those Bhikkhus (to his brethren who shared in the 
same offence) ; having gone to them, he said to those 
Bhikkhus : ' He who does such and such a thing, 
friends, commits such and such an offence. As you 
have committed such an offence, friends, atone for 
that offence.' Now those Bhikkhus refused to atone 
for that offence by that Bhikkhu's advice. 

They told this thing to the Blessed One. 

13, 14. ' In case, O Bhikkhus, the whole Sawzgha 
in a certain residence is guilty of a common offence, 
&c. (§§ 10, 11)— 

15. 'If this Bhikkhu, O Bhikkhus, after having 
atoned for that offence by the advice of that 
Bhikkhu, goes to those Bhikkhus, and having gone 
to them, says to those Bhikkhus : " He who does, 
&c.," and if those Bhikkhus, O Bhikkhus, atone for 
that offence by that Bhikkhu's advice, well and 
good ; if they do not atone for it, that Bhikkhu, O 
Bhikkhus, need not say anything (further) to those 
Bhikkhus, if he does not like.' 



End of the Bhi«avara on Abdanavatthu. 



28. 

1. At that time there assembled in a certain 
residence (of Bhikkhus) at the day of Uposatha a 
number of resident Bhikkhus, four or more. They 
did not know that there were other resident Bhik- 
khus absent. Intending to act according to Dhamma 
and Vinaya, thinking themselves to be complete 
while (really) incomplete, they held Uposatha and 



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11,28,4- UPOSATHA CEREMONY, AND PATIMOKKHA. 287 

recited the Pitimokkha. While they were reciting 
the Patimokkha, other resident Bhikkhus, a greater 
number (than the first ones), arrived. 
They told this thing to the Blessed One. 

2. ' In case, O Bhikkhus, there assemble in a 
certain residence at the day of Uposatha, &c. (§ i); 
while they are reciting the Patimokkha, other resi- 
dent Bhikkhus, a greater number, arrive ; let those 
Bhikkhus, O Bhikkhus, recite the Pitimokkha again ; 
they who have recited it, are free from guilt. 

3. ' In case, O Bhikkhus, there assemble, &c. ; 
while they are reciting the Patimokkha, other resi- 
dent Bhikkhus, exactly the same number (as the 
first ones), arrive ; in that case (the part of the 
Patimokkha) that has been recited, has been cor- 
rectly-recited ; let those (who have arrived late), 
hear the rest ; they who have recited it, are free 
from guilt. 

' In case, O Bhikkhus, there assemble, &c. ; while 
they are reciting the Patimokkha, other resident 
Bhikkhus, a smaller number, arrive, &C. 1 

4. 'In case, O Bhikkhus, there assemble, &c. ; 
when they have just finished the recital of the Piti- 
mokkha, other resident Bhikkhus, &c. 2 

1 The decision given for the case of a smaller number of Bhik- 
khus arriving late, is here, and invariably throughout the following 
exposition, identical with the decision of the case of the number of 
Bhikkhus being equal on the two sides. 

a The same three cases are distinguished here as in §§ 2, 3, accord- 
ing as the number of Bhikkhus who are late, is greater, the same, 
or smaller than that of the other Bhikkhus. The first case is decided 
by Buddha as above ; in the decision of the second and third cases, 
instead of ' let those (who have arrived late) hear the rest,' read : 
'let those (who have arrived late) proclaim their p&risuddhi in 
the presence (of the other brethren).' 



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288 MAHAVAGGA. II, 28, 5. 

5. ' In case, O Bhikkhus, there assemble, &c. ; 
when they have just finished the recital of the Pati- 
mokkha, and the assembly has not yet risen, other 
resident Bhikkhus, &C. 1 

6. ' In case, O Bhikkhus, there assemble, &c. ; 
when they have just finished the recital of the Pati- 
mokkha, and a part of the assembly has risen, &C 1 

7. ' In case, O Bhikkhus, there assemble, &c. ; 
when they have just finished the recital of the Pati- 
mokkha, and the whole assembly has risen, &C. 1 ' 



End of the fifteen cases in which there is no offence. 



29. 

'In case, O Bhikkhus, there assemble in a certain 
residence on the day of Uposatha a number of resi- 
dent Bhikkhus, four or more ; they know that there 
are other resident Bhikkhus absent; intending to 
act according to Dhamma and Vinaya, incomplete, 
conscious of their incompleteness, they hold Upo- 
satha and recite the Patimokkha, &c. 2 ' 



End of the fifteen cases of the incompletely 

assembled Bhikkhus who are conscious 

of their incompleteness. 



1 The three triads of §§ 5, 6, 7 agree exactly with the triad 
of §4. 

? Here follow fifteen cases which are arranged exactly as in 
chap. 28. Instead of 'they who have recited it, are free from 
guilt/ read: 'they who have recited it, have committed a dukka/a 
offence.' 



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11,32- UPOSATHA CEREMONY, AND pAtIMOKKHA. 289 



30. 

4 In case, O Bhikkhus, there assemble, &c. ; they 
know that there are other resident Bhikkhus absent. 
Feeling doubt as to whether they are competent to 
hold Uposatha or not competent, they hold Upo- 
satha and recite the Patimokkha, &C. 1 ' 



End of the fifteen cases of the Bhikkhus who 
feel doubt. 



31. 

' In case, O Bhikkhus, there assemble, &c. ; they 
know that there are other resident Bhikkhus absent. 
(Thinking) : " We are competent to hold Uposatha, 
we are not incompetent," they abandon themselves 
to misbehaviour, hold Uposatha, and recite the Pati- 
mokkha, &C. 1 ' 



End of the fifteen cases of the Bhikkhus abandoning 
themselves to misbehaviour. 



32. 

' In case, O Bhikkhus, there assemble, &c. ; they 
know that there are other resident Bhikkhus absent. 
They perish and become ruined 2 , saying, "What 
are those people to us ?" and risking a schism 

1 The decision of these fifteen cases is the same as in chap. 29. 
8 I. e. they destroy their own welfare by their wickedness. 

[13] U 



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29O MAHAVAGGA. II, 33. 

(among the fraternity), they hold Uposatha and 
recite the Patimokkha, &C. 1 ' 



End of the fifteen cases of the Bhikkhus risking 
a schism. 



End of the seventy-five 2 cases. 



33. 

' In case, O Bhikkhus, there assemble in a certain 
residence on the day of Uposatha a number of resi- 
dent Bhikkhus, four or more ; they know that other 
resident Bhikkhus are about to enter the boundary. 
They know that other resident Bhikkhus have 
entered within the boundary. They see other resi- 
dent Bhikkhus who are about to enter, &c, who have 
entered within the boundary. They hear that other 
resident Bhikkhus are about to enter, &c, have 
entered within the boundary.' 

Thus 3 a hundred and seventy-five systems of triads 
are produced which refer to resident and resident 

1 The decisions as in chap. 29; only read instead of 'dukka/a 
offence,' 'thulla££aya offence' (grave sin). 

2 Five times fifteen cases, in chaps. 28—32. 

* Remarks like this, which indicate the rules for supplying abbre- 
viated passages, do not belong, strictly speaking, to the text of the 
Vinaya itself, but form a posterior addition, as is shown also by 
grammatical peculiarities. In chaps. 28-32 we have seventy-five 
cases, or twenty-five triads ; all of these triads contain the words : 
' They know that there are other resident Bhikkhus absent.' By 
successively varying these words six times, as is indicated in chap. 
33, we obtain a hundred and seventy-five triads. 



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II, 34. 2- UPOSATHA CEREMONY, AND pAtIMOKKHA. 29 1 

Bhikkhus 1 . (Then follow the same cases with re- 
gard to) resident and incoming Bhikkhus, incoming 
and resident Bhikkhus, incoming and incoming Bhik- 
khus. By putting these words (successively) into 
the peyyala 2 , seven hundred triads are produced. 



34. 

1. 'In case, O Bhikkhus, the resident Bhikkhus 
count the day as the fourteenth (of the pakkha), 
the incoming Bhikkhus as the fifteenth 3 ; if the 
number of the resident Bhikkhus is greater, the 
incoming Bhikkhus ought to accommodate them- 
selves to the resident Bhikkhus. If their number 
is equal, the incoming Bhikkhus ought to accommo- 
date themselves to the resident Bhikkhus. If the 
number of the incoming Bhikkhus is greater, the 
resident Bhikkhus ought to accommodate themselves 
to the incoming Bhikkhus. 

2. ' In case, O Bhikkhus, the resident Bhikkhus 
count the day as the fifteenth, the incoming Bhik- 
khus as the fourteenth ; if, &c. (§ i). 

1 I. e. the assembled Bhikkhus as well as the incoming reside in 
the same avasa. 

1 'PeyySla' is identical in meaning and, we believe, etymolo- 
gically with 'pariy&ya.' See Childers s.v. ; H. O.'s remarks in 
Kuhn's Zeitschrift fur vergleichende Sprachforschung, vol. xxv, 324; 
Trenckner, Pali Miscellany, p. 66. 

* Buddhaghosa: 'They who count the day as the fifteenth, 
arrive from a distant kingdom, or they have held the preceding 
Uposatha on the fourteenth.' It seems to follow from this remark 
of Buddhaghosa that after an Uposatha on the fourteenth invariably 
an Uposatha on the fifteenth must follow, i. e. the Uposatha may 
not be held on the fourteenth ad libitum, but only in the second 
pakkha of the short months. Compare chap. 4 and the note on 
chap. 1. 1. 

U 2 



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292 MAHAVAGGA. II, 34, 3. 

3. 'In case, O Bhikkhus, the resident Bhikkhus 
count the day as the first (of the pakkha), the in- 
coming Bhikkhus as the fifteenth (of the preceding 
pakkha) ; if the number of the resident Bhikkhus 
is greater, the resident Bhikkhus need not, if they 
do not like, admit the incoming ones to their com- 
munion ; let the incoming Bhikkhus go outside the 
boundary and hold (there) Uposatha. If their num- 
ber is equal, &c. (as in the preceding case). If the 
number of the incoming Bhikkhus is greater, let the 
resident Bhikkhus either admit the incoming ones 
to their communion or go outside the boundary. 

4. 'In case, O Bhikkhus, the resident Bhikkhus 
count the day as the fifteenth, the incoming Bhik- 
khus as the first (of the following pakkha) ; if the 
number of the resident Bhikkhus is greater, let the 
incoming Bhikkhus either admit the resident Bhik- 
khus to their communion or go outside the boundary. 
If their number is equal, &c. (as in the preceding 
case). If the number of the incoming Bhikkhus is 
greater, the incoming Bhikkhus need not, if they do 
not like, admit the resident Bhikkhus to their com- 
munion; let the resident Bhikkhus go outside the 
boundary and hold Uposatha (there). 

5. ' In case, O Bhikkhus, the incoming Bhikkhus 
see the signs, the tokens, the marks, the character- 
istics of (the presence of) resident Bhikkhus, well 
prepared beds and chairs and mats and pillows, food 
and water well provided for, well swept cells ; seeing 
this, they begin to doubt : " Are there here any 
resident Bhikkhus or are there not?" — 

6. ' Being doubtful they do not search, having not 
searched they hold Uposatha: this is a dukka/a 
offence. Being doubtful they search, searching they 



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II, 34. »©• UPOSATHA CEREMONY, AND PATIMOKKHA. 293 

do not see them, not seeing them they hold Uposatha : 
(in this case) they are free from offence. Being doubt- 
ful they search, searching they see them, seeing them 
they hold Uposatha together : (in this case) they are 
free from offence. Being doubtful they search, search- 
ing they see them, seeing them they hold Uposatha 
apart: this is a dukka/a offence. Being doubtful 
they search, searching they see them, seeing them 
they perish and become ruined 1 , saying, "What are 
those people to us ?" and risking a schism, they hold 
Uposatha : this is a thulla^^aya (grave) offence. 

7. ' In case, O Bhikkhus, the incoming Bhikkhus 
hear the signs &c. of (the presence of) resident 
Bhikkhus, the sound of their footsteps when they 
are walking, the sound of their rehearsal (of the 
Dhamma), of their clearing the throat and sneezing ; 
hearing this they begin to doubt, &c. (§§ 5, 6). 

8. 'In case, O Bhikkhus, the resident Bhikkhus 
see the signs &c. of (the presence of) incoming 
Bhikkhus, unknown bowls, unknown robes, unknown 
seats, (the traces of) foot-washing, water sprinkled 
about ; seeing this they begin to doubt, &c. 

9. 'In case, O Bhikkhus, the resident Bhikkhus 
hear the signs &c. of (the presence of) incoming 
Bhikkhus, the sound of their footsteps when they 
are arriving, the sound of their shaking out their 
shoes, clearing the throat, and sneezing; hearing 
this, &c. 

10. 'In case, O Bhikkhus, the incoming Bhikkhus 
see resident Bhikkhus belonging to a different dis- 
trict ; they take them as belonging to the same dis- 
trict ; taking them as belonging to the same district 

1 See chap. 32. 



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294 MAHAVAGGA. II, 34, 11. 

they do not ask ; having not asked, they hold Upo- 
satha together: (in this case) they are free from 
offence. They ask ; having asked, they do not go 
through the matter; having not gone through the 
matter, they hold Uposatha together : this is a duk- 
ka/a offence. They ask, &c. (as in the last case), 
they hold Uposatha apart : (in this case) they are 
free from offence. 

11. 'In case, O Bhikkhus, the incoming Bhikkhus 
see resident Bhikkhus belonging to the same district. 
They take them as belonging to a different district ; 
taking them, &c. they do not ask ; having not asked, 
they hold Uposatha together : this is a dukka/a 
offence. They ask ; having asked, they go through 
the matter; having gone through the matter, they hold 
Uposatha apart: this is a dukka/a offence. They 
ask, &c. (as in the last case), they hold Uposatha 
together : (in this case) they are free from offence. 

12. 'In case, O Bhikkhus, the resident Bhikkhus 
see incoming Bhikkhus belonging to a different dis- 
trict, &c. (see § 10). 

13. 'In case, O Bhikkhus, the resident Bhikkhus 
see incoming Bhikkhus belonging to the same dis- 
trict, &c. (see § 11).' 



35. 

1 . ' You ought not, O Bhikkhus, to go on the day 
of Uposatha from a residence in which Bhikkhus are, 
to a residence in which no Bhikkhus are, except with 
a Sawgha 1 or in a case of danger 2 . You ought not, 

1 I.e. with a number of Bhikkhus sufficient for holding Uposatha. 
* See chap. 15. 4. 



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II, 36, 1. UPOSATHA CEREMONY, AND PATIMOKKHA. 295 

O Bhikkhus, to go on the day of Uposatha from a 
residence in which Bhikkhus are, to a non-residence 
in which no Bhikkhus are, except, &c. You ought 
not, O Bhikkhus, to go on the day of Uposatha from 
a residence in which Bhikkhus are, to a residence or 
non-residence 1 in which no Bhikkhus are, except, &c. 

2. ' You ought not, O Bhikkhus, to go on the day 
of Uposatha from a non-residence in which Bhikkhus 
are, to a residence, &c, to a non-residence, &c, to a 
residence or non-residence in which no Bhikkhus are, 
except, &c. 

3. ' You ought not, O Bhikkhus, to go on the day 
of Uposatha from a residence or non-residence in 
which Bhikkhus are, to a residence, &c, to a non- 
residence, &c, to a residence or non-residence in 
which no Bhikkhus are, except, &c. 

4. ' You ought not, O Bhikkhus, to go on the day 
of Uposatha from a residence in which Bhikkhus are, 
to a residence in which Bhikkhus are, if these Bhik- 
khus belong to a different district, except, &c. 2 

5. 'You may go, O Bhikkhus, on the day of 
Uposatha from a residence in which Bhikkhus are, 
to a residence in which Bhikkhus are, if these Bhik- 
khus belong to the same district, and if you know : 
" I can attain that place to-day." You may, &c. 2 ' 



36. 

1. ' Let no one, O Bhikkhus, recite the Pati- 
mokkha in a seated assembly (of Bhikkhus) before 
a Bhikkhunt. He who does, commits a dukka/a 

1 Probably this means a place the quality of which, whether 
residence or non-residence, is doubtful. 

* Nine cases are distinguished here quite as in §§ 1-3. 



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296 MAHAVAGGA. II, 36, 2. 

offence. Let no one, O Bhikkhus, recite the Pati- 
mokkha in a seated assembly (of Bhikkhus) before 
a sikkhamana 1 , a sama»era, a sama«erl, one 
who has abandoned the precepts 2 , one who is guilty 
of an extreme offence 2 . He who does, commits a 
dukka/a offence. 

2. ' Let no one, O Bhikkhus, recite the P&ti- 
mokkha in a seated assembly (of Bhikkhus) before 
a (Bhikkhu) against whom expulsion has been 
pronounced for his refusal to see an offence (com- 
mitted by himself), before a (Bhikkhu) against whom 
expulsion has been pronounced for his refusal to 
atone for such an offence, or for his refusal to 
renounce a false doctrine. He who does, is to be 
treated according to the law 3 . 

3. ' Let no one, O Bhikkhus, recite the Pati- 
mokkha in a seated assembly (of Bhikkhus) before 
a eunuch, before one who has furtively attached 
himself (to the Sawgha), &c. (see chap. 22. 3), before 
a hermaphrodite. He who does, commits a duk- 
ka/a offence. 

1 In the Bhikkhunikhandhaka (A'ullav. X, 1, 4) we are told that 
Buddha, when admitting women to the Order of mendicants, pre- 
scribed for them a probationary course of instruction, which should 
last two years, after which time they were to ask for the upasam- 
padd ordination. During these two years the candidates were 
called sikkhamaw&s. Childers (Diet. s.v. sikkhati) has misunder- 
stood the Mahdvawsa (p. 37), when he states that in the case of 
Asoka's daughter Saraghamitta' the training prescribed for the sik- 
khaman&s was absolved in a single day. 

* See the note on chap. 22. 3. 

8 The law alluded to most probably is the 69th Pi^ittiya rule, 
which expressly treats only of the conduct towards Bhikkhus re- 
fusing to renounce false doctrines, but it may be extended by 
analogy also to the two other categories of Bhikkhus mentioned 
in our passage. 



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II, 36, 4- UPOSATHA CEREMONY, AND PATIMOKKHA. 297 

4. ' Let no one, O Bhikkhus, hold Uposatha by 
(accepting) the parisuddhi declaration 1 of a pari- 
vasika 2 , except if the assembly has not yet risen 
(at the time when the parisuddhi is declared). 
And let no one, O Bhikkhus, hold Uposatha on 
another day than the Uposatha day, except for the 
sake of (declaring the re-establishment of) concord 
among the Samgha. V 



End of the third Bha«avara in the Uposatha- 
khandhaka. 



1 See chap. 22. 

a I.e. a Bhikkhu subject to the penal discipline of parivasa, 
the rules of which are discussed at length in the second and third 
books of the .Kullavagga. 

* If a schism among the fraternity has been composed, the 
reconciled parties hold Uposatha together (X, 5, 14). 



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298 mahAvagga. Ill, 1, 1. 



THIRD KHANDHAKA. 

(residence during the rainy season, vassa.) 



1. At that time the Blessed One dwelt at Ra^a- 
gaha, in the Ve/uvana, in the Kalandakanivapa \ 
At that time the retreat during the rainy season 
had not yet been instituted by the Blessed One for 
the Bhikkhus. Thus the Bhikkhus went on their 
travels alike during winter, summer, and the rainy 
season. 

2. People were annoyed, murmured, and became 
angry, saying, ' How can the Sakyaputtiya Samawas 
go on their travels alike during winter, summer, and 
the rainy season ? They crush the green herbs, they 
hurt vegetable life 2 , they destroy the life of many 
small living things. Shall the ascetics who belong 
to Titthiya schools, whose doctrine is ill preached, 
retire during the rainy season and arrange places 
for themselves to live in 3 ? shall the birds make their 
nests on the summits of the trees, and retire during 

1 See the note on I, 22, 17. About the name of Kalandaka- 
niv&pa (seeds of Kalandaka? feeding ground for squirrels?), see 
the story related in Beal, Romantic Legend, &c, p. 315, where this 
place is said to be the gift of a merchant named Kalandaka. A dif- 
ferent account is given by Spence Hardy, Manual, p. 194. 

2 Literally, living creatures which have but one organ of sense ; 
that is, which have only the organ of feeling, viz. the outward 
form (k&ya). 

* SawkSpayissanti = sawkappayissanti? Buddhaghosa: 
appossukka-nibaddha-visajw vasissanti. 



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Ill, 2, 2. RESIDENCE DURING THE RAINY SEASON. 299 

the rainy season, and arrange themselves places to 
live in ; and yet the Sakyaputtiya Samaras go on 
their travels alike during winter, summer, and the 
rainy season, crushing the green herbs, hurting 
vegetable life, and destroying the life of many small 
things ?' 

3. Now some Bhikkhus heard those people that 
were annoyed, murmured, and had become angry. 

These Bhikkhus told this thing to the Blessed One. 

In consequence of that and on this occasion the 
Blessed One, after having delivered a religious dis- 
course, thus addressed the Bhikkhus : 

' I prescribe, O Bhikkhus, that you enter upon 
Vassa 1 .' 



2. 

1. Now the Bhikkhus thought: 'When are we 
to enter upon Vassa ?' 

They told this thing to the Blessed One. 
' I prescribe, O Bhikkhus, that you enter upon 
Vassa in the rainy season.' 

2. Then the Bhikkhus thought : ' How many 
periods are there for entering upon Vassa ?' 

They told this thing to the Blessed One. 

' There are two periods, O Bhikkhus, for entering 
upon Vassa, the earlier and the later. The earlier 
time for entering (upon Vassa) is the day after the 

1 I.e. enter upon the retreat prescribed for the rainy season. 
Buddhaghosa : ' They are to look after their Vihara (if it is in a 
proper state), to provide food and water for themselves, to fulfil all 
due ceremonies, such as paying reverence to sacred shrines, &c, 
and to say loudly once, or twice, or thrice : ' I enter upon Vassa in 
this Vihara for these three months." Thus they are to enter upon 
Vassa.' 



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300 MAHAVAGGA. Ill, 3, 1. 

full moon of Asa/%a (June-July) ; the later, a month 
after the full moon of AsaZ&a *. These, O Bhikkhus, 
are the two periods for entering upon Vassa.' 



1 . At that time the A^abbaggiya Bhikkhus, having 
entered upon Vassa, went on their travels during 
the period of Vassa. People were annoyed, mur- 
mured, and became angry (saying), ' How can the 
Sakyaputtiya Samaras go on their travels alike 
during winter, summer, and the rainy season, .... 
(&c, as in chap. 1.2, down to :) and destroy the life 
of many small living things?' 

2. Now some Bhikkhus heard those people that 
were annoyed, murmured, and had become angry. 
The moderate Bhikkhus were annoyed, murmured, 
and became angry (saying), ' How can the A^ab- 
baggiya Bhikkhus, having entered upon Vassa, go 
on their travels during the period of Vassa ?' 

These Bhikkhus told this thing to the Blessed One. 

1 Very probably this double period stands in connection -with 
the double period prescribed in the Brahmawas and Sutras for 
most of the Vedic festivals. Thus the sacrifice of the varuwapra- 
ghasas, with which the Brahmans began the rainy season, was to 
be held either on the full moon day of Asha^Aa or on the full 
moon day of the following month, Sriva.no., quite in accordance 
with the Buddhistical rules about the vassupanayiki. The 
Brahma«a texts begin the year with the full moon day of the 
(uttara) Ph&lgunl; the Sutras mention, besides the Phalgunl, 
another new-year's day, the -ATaitrt paurwamasi, which falls one 
month later. It was in connection with this dislocation of the be- 
ginning of the year that the annual festivals could be postponed 
accordingly. See Weber, Die vedischen Nachrichten von den 
Naxatra, II, p. 329 seq. 



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111,4, 3- RESIDENCE DURING THE RAINY SEASON. 3OI 

In consequence of that and on this occasion the 
Blessed One, after having delivered a religious dis- 
course, thus addressed the Bhikkhus : 

' Let no one, O Bhikkhus, who has entered upon 
Vassa, go on his travels before he has kept Vassa 
during the earlier or during the later three months. 
He who does so, commits a dukka/a offer 




4. 

1. At that time the A^abbaggiya Bfif 
not willing to enter upon Vassa. 

They told this thing to the Blessed One. 

' Let no one, O Bhikkhus, forbear to enter upon 
Vassa. He who does not enter upon Vassa, com- 
mits a dukka/a offence.' 

2. At that time the .Oabbaggiya Bhikkhus, who 
were not willing to enter upon Vassa on the pre- 
scribed day, purposely left the district (where they 
were living). 

They told this thing to the Blessed One. 

' Let no one, O Bhikkhus, purposely leave the dis- 
trict (where he is living), because he is not willing 
to enter upon Vassa on the prescribed day. He 
who does, commits a dukka/a offence.' 

3. At that time the Magadha king Seniya Bimbi- 
sara, who wished that the Vassa period might be 
postponed, sent a messenger to the Bhikkhus: 'What 
if their reverences were to enter upon Vassa on the 
next full moon day ? ' 

They told this thing to the Blessed One. 

' I prescribe, O Bhikkhus, that you obey kings.' 



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302 MAHAVAGGA. Ill, 5, 1. 



i. And the Blessed One, after having resided at 
Ra^ugaha as long as he thought fit, went forth to 
Savatthi. Wandering from place to place he came 
to Savatthi. There, at Savatthi, the Blessed One 
dwelt in the (7etavana, the garden of Anathapi»^ka. 

At that time an upasaka (lay devotee) named 
Udena, in the Kosala country, had a Vihara built 
for the Sa*#gha. He sent a messenger to the 
Bhikkhus (saying), ' Might their reverences come 
hither ; I desire to bestow gifts (on the Sa#zgha) and 
to hear the Dhamma and to see the Bhikkhus.' 

2. The Bhikkhus replied: 'The Blessed One has 
prescribed, friend, that no one who has entered upon 
Vassa, may go on a journey before he has kept 
Vassa during the earlier or during the later three 
months. Let the upasaka Udena wait so long as 
the Bhikkhus keep their Vassa residence ; when 
they have finished Vassa, they will go. But if 
there is any urgent necessity, let him dedicate the 
Vihara in presence of the Bhikkhus who reside 
there.' 

3. The upasaka Udena was annoyed, murmured, 
and became angry (saying), ' How can their reve- 
rences, when I send for them, refuse to come ? I am 
a giver and a doer (of good works), and do service 
to the fraternity.' Some Bhikkhus heard the upa- 
saka Udena, who was annoyed, &c. 

These Bhikkhus told the thing to the Blessed One. 

4. In consequence of that the Blessed One, after 
having delivered a religious discourse, thus addressed 
the Bhikkhus : 

' I allow you, O Bhikkhus, to go (even during 



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Ill, 5, 6. RESIDENCE DURING THE RAINY SEASON. 303 

the rainy season), if the affair for which you go can 
be accomplished in seven days, and if you are sent 
for, but not if you are not sent for, by a person of 
one of the following seven classes : Bhikkhus, Bhik- 
khunts, sikkhamanas 1 , samaweras, sama#eris, 
lay devotees, female lay devotees. I allow you, O 
Bhikkhus, to go, if the thing (you go for) can be 
accomplished in seven days, and if you are sent for, 
but not if you are not sent for, by a person of one 
of these seven classes. Within seven days you 
ought to return. 

5. 'In case, O Bhikkhus, an upasaka has built 
a Vihara for the Sawgha. If he sends a mes- 
senger to the Bhikkhus (saying), " Might their 
reverences come hither; I desire to bestow gifts 
(on them) and to hear the Dhamma and to see 
the Bhikkhus," you ought to go, O Bhikkhus, if the 
affair for which you go can be accomplished in 
seven days, and if he sends for you, but not if he 
does not send for you. Within seven days you 
ought to return. 

6. 'In case, O Bhikkhus, an upasaka has built 
for the Samgha. an addhayoga 2 , has built a storied 
house, has built an attic, has constructed a cave, 
a cell, a store-room, a refectory, a fire-room, a ware- 
house 3 , a privy, a place to walk in, a house to walk 
in, a well, a well house, a ^antaghara 4 , a ^anta- 
ghara room 6 , a lotus-pond, a pavilion, a park, or 



1 See the note on II, 36, 1. 
* See the note on I, 30, 4. 

8 This translation of kappiyaku/f is merely conjectural; 
comp. kappiyabhuml VI, 33. 
4 See the note on I, 25, 1 2. 
' See ATullavagga V, 16, i. 



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304 MAHAVAGGA. HI, 5, 7. 

has prepared the site for a park. If he sends a 

messenger to the Bhikkhus (&c., as in § 5, 

down to the end of the section). 

7. ' In case, O Bhikkhus, an upasaka has built 
for a number of Bhikkhus an aafoJ&ayoga .... (&c, 
as in § 6 to the end of the section), .... for 
one Bhikkhu a Vihara, an aafo^ayoga, a storied 
house .... (&c, as in § 6 to the end). 

8. 'In case, O Bhikkhus, an upasaka has built 
for the sisterhood of Bhikkhunts, &c, for a number 
of Bhikkhunts, for one Bhikkhunl, for a number of 
sikkhamanas, for one sikkhamana, for a number 
of samaweras, for one sama^era, for a number of 
samaweris, for one samawerl a Vihara, &C 1 If 
he sends a messenger to the Bhikkhus, &c. 

9. 'In case, O Bhikkhus, an upasaka has built 
for his own use a residence, a sleeping room, a 
stable 2 , a tower, a one-peaked building 3 , a shop, 
a boutique, a storied house, an attic, a cave, a cell, 
a store-room, a refectory, a fire-room, a kitchen, a 
privy, a place to walk in, a house to walk in, a 
well, a well house, a ^antaghara, a g antaghara 
room, a lotus-pond, a pavilion, a park, or has pre- 
pared the site for a park; or that his son is to 
choose a consort ; or that his daughter is to choose 
a consort ; or that he is sick ; or that he knows how 

1 The enumeration of edifices is identical with that given in § 6, 
but in the cases beginning with that of the sisterhood of Bhikkhunts 
(according to Buddhaghosa; we believe that the two cases referring 
to s&maweras ought to be excepted) three of the edifices are left 
out, viz. the privy, the £-ant£ghara, and the ^antighara room, 
the use of which is forbidden to nuns; see Aullavagga X, 27, 3, 4. 

2 See Abhidhanapp. v. 213, and compare assabha«</a, hatthi- 
bhznda, (Mahivagga I, 61, 1). 

* See Abhidhlnapp. v. 209. 



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III,6,i. RESIDENCE DURING THE RAINY SEASON. 305 

to recite a celebrated suttanta. If he sends a 
messenger to the Bhikkhus (saying), " Might their 
reverences come and learn this suttanta; other- 
wise this suttanta will fall into oblivion;" — or if 
he has any other business or any work to be done ; 
and if he sends a messenger to the Bhikkhus 
(saying), " Might their reverences come hither " 
(&c.) .... then you ought to go (&c, as in § 5, 
down to :) . . . . you ought to return. 

10-12. 'In case, O Bhikkhus, an upasika has 
built a Vihira for the Sawgha (&c, as in §§ 5-9 1 ). 

13. 'In case, O Bhikkhus, a Bhikkhu has built, 
&c, a Bhikkhunl, a sikkhamana, a samawera, a 
sama^erl has built for the Sa#zgha, for a number 
of Bhikkhus, for one Bhikkhu, for the sisterhood of 

Bhikkhunls for one samawerl, for his own 

use, a Vihara (&c, as in § 8).' 



6. 

1. At that time a certain Bhikkhu was sick. 
He sent a messenger to the Bhikkhus (saying), 
' I am sick ; might the Bhikkhus come to me ; 
I long for the Bhikkhus' coming.' 

They told this thing to the Blessed One. 

' I allow you, O Bhikkhus, to go (even during the 
rainy season), if the affair for which you go can 
be accomplished in seven days, even if you are not 
sent for, and much more if you are sent for, by a 

1 Only it is said here of the Bhikkhus, ayya, 'the noble ones,' 
instead of bhaddanta, ' their reverences.' 

[13] x 



'V 



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306 mahAvagga. hi, 6, 2. 

person of one of the following five classes : Bhik- 
khus, Bhikkhunis, sikkhamanas, sama#eras, and 
samawerls. I allow you, O Bhikkhus, to go, if 
the affair for which you go can be accomplished in 
seven days, even if you are not sent for, and much 
more if you are sent for, by a person of one of 
these five classes. Within seven days you ought 
to return. 

2. ' In case, O Bhikkhus, a Bhikkhu is sick. If 
he sends a messenger to the Bhikkhus (saying), 
" I am sick ; might the Bhikkhus come to me ; 
I long for the Bhikkhus' coming," you ought to go, 
O Bhikkhus, if the thing can be accomplished in 
seven days, even if he had not sent for you, much 
more when he has sent (saying to yourselves) : 
" I will try to get food for the sick, or food for the 
tender of the sick, or medicine for the sick, or I will 
ask him (questions referring to the Dhamma), or 
nurse him." Within seven days you ought to 
return. 

3. ' In case, O Bhikkhus, inward struggles have 
befallen a Bhikkhu. If he sends a messenger to 
the Bhikkhus : " Inward struggles have befallen me ; 
might the Bhikkhus come to me ; I long for the 
Bhikkhus' coming," you ought to go ... . (&c, as 
in $ 2, down to) : (saying to yourselves) : " I will 
try to appease those struggles, or cause them 
to be appeased (by another), or compose him by 
religious conversation." Within seven days you 
ought to return. 

4. ' In case, O Bhikkhus, a Bhikkhu in whose 
mind doubts of conscience have arisen sends 
.... (&c, as in $ 3, down to) : (saying to your- 
selves) : " I will try to dispel those doubts, or cause 



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Ill, 6, 10. RESIDENCE DURING THE RAINY SEASON. 307 

them to be dispelled, or compose him by religious con- 
versation." Within seven days you ought to return. 

5. ' In case, O Bhikkhus, a Bhikkhu takes to a 
false doctrine. If he sends .... (&c, down to): 
(saying to yourselves) : " I will discuss that false 
doctrine, or cause another to discuss it, or compose 
(that Bhikkhu) by religious conversation." Within 
seven days you ought to return. 

6. 'In case, O Bhikkhus, a Bhikkhu is guilty of 
a grave offence and ought to be sentenced to pari- 
vasa discipline. If he sends .... (&c, down to): 
(saying to yourselves) : " I will take care that he 
may be sentenced to parivasa discipline, or I will 
propose the resolution (to the assembly), or I will 
help to complete the quorum (required for passing 
the sentence of parivasa)." Within seven days 
you ought to return. 

7. ' In case, O Bhikkhus, a Bhikkhu ought to be 
sentenced to recommence penal discipline. If he 
sends .... (&c, as in § 6, down to the end of the 
section). 

8. ' In case, O] Bhikkhus, a Bhikkhu ought to 
have the manatta discipline imposed upon him. 
If he sends .... (&c., as in § 6, down to the end 
of the section). 

9. ' In case, O Bhikkhus, a Bhikkhu (having duly 
undergone penal discipline) ought to be rehabilitated. 
If he sends .... (&c, as in § 6). 

10. 'In case, O Bhikkhus, the Sawgha is going 
to proceed against a Bhikkhu by the ta^aniya- 
kamma, or the nissaya, or the pabb&^aniya- 
kamma, or the pa/isara#iyakamma, or the 
ukkhepaniyakamma. If that Bhikkhu sends a 
messenger to the Bhikkhus (saying), " The Sawgha 

x 2 



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308 MAHAVAGGA. Ill, 6, 1 1. 

is going to proceed against me ; might the Bhikkhus 
come to me ; I long for the Bhikkhus' coming," you 
ought to go ... . (&c, as in £ 2, down to): (saying 
to yourselves): "What can be done in order that 
the Sawgha may not proceed (against that Bhikkhu) 
or may mitigate the proceeding?" Within seven 
days you ought to return. 

11. 'Or the Sawgha has instituted a proceeding 
against him, the ta^aniyakamma .... (&c, down 
to) : .... or the ukkhepaniyakamma ; if he sends 
a messenger to the Bhikkhus : " The Sawgha has 
instituted a proceeding against me ; might the Bhik- 
khus come to me ; I long for the Bhikkhus' coming," 
you ought to go ... . (&c, as in § 3, down to): 
(saying to yourselves) : " What can be done in order 
that this Bhikkhu may behave himself properly, live 
modestly, and aspire to get clear of his penance, and 
that the Sawgha may revoke its sentence ?" Within 
seven days you ought to return. 

12-15. 'I n case, O Bhikkhus, a Bhikkhunl is 
sick, &C. 1 

16. 'In case, O Bhikkhus, a Bhikkhunt is guilty 
of a grave offence and ought to be sentenced to 
manatt a discipline 2 . If she sends. . . . (as in § 3, 
down to) : .... (saying to yourselves) : " I will take 
care that she may be sentenced to manatta disci- 
pline 3 ." Within seven days you ought to return. 

1 See §§ 2-5. Read here and in all cases where the messenger 
is sent by a woman : 'Might the noble ones (ayy&) come to me; 
I long for the noble ones' coming.' 

8 There is no parivisa discipline for the Bhikkhunis. When 
a Bhikkhunt has committed a Sa/wgh&disesa offence, no matter 
whether she has concealed it or not, she is sentenced to manatta 
discipline for a fortnight See .Xullavagga X, 1, 4 ; 25, 3. 

3 The phrases, ' Or I will propose the resolution to the assembly, 



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Ill, 6, 25. RESIDENCE DURING THE RAINY SEASON. 309 

17. 'In case, O Bhikkhus, a Bhikkhunt ought to 
be sentenced to recommence penal discipline . . . .' 
(&c, as in § 7). 

18. 'In case, O Bhikkhus, a Bhikkhunt who is to 
be rehabilitated .... (&c, as in § 9). 

19. 'In case, O Bhikkhus, the Sawgha is going 
to proceed against a Bhikkhunl by the ta^ani- 
yakamma .... (&c, as in § 10). 

20. ' Or the Sawgha has instituted a proceeding 
against her .... (&c, as in § 11). 

21. 22. ' In case, O Bhikkhus, a sikkhamana is 
sick (&c, see §§ 2-5). 

' In case, O Bhikkhus, a sikkhamana has vio- 
lated 1 the precepts (in which she is trained). If 
she sends .... (&c, as in J 3, down to): (saying 
to yourselves) : " I will take care that she may take 
upon herself the precepts (again)." Within seven 
days you ought to return. 

23. ' In case, O Bhikkhus, a sikkhamana desires 
to receive the upasampada ordination. If she 
sends, &c, .... you ought to go (saying to your- 
selves) : "I will take care that she may receive 
the upasampada ordination, or I will proclaim 
the formula (of ordination before the assembly), 
or I will help to complete the quorum." Within 
seven days you ought to return. 

24, 25. ' In case, O Bhikkhus, a sama»era is 
sick (&c, as in §§ 2-5) ..... a samawera desires 

or I will help to complete the quorum ' (see § 6 seq.), of course are 
omitted here, because, if the proceeding is directed against a Bhik- 
khunt, this is to be done by a Bhikkhunt and not by a Bhikkhu. 
See -ffiillavagga X, 6, 3. 

1 This translation of sikkha kupita hoti is merely conjectural; 
Buddhaghosa has no note here. Comp. kuppa and akuppa. 



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3IO MAHAVAGGA. 111,6,26. 

to ask concerning Vassa 1 . If he sends .... (say- 
ing to yourselves) : " I will ask him or I will tell 
it to him." Within seven days you ought to return. 

26. ' In case, O Bhikkhus, a samawera who de- 
sires to receive the upasampada ordination (&c, 
see § 23). 

27, 28. 'In case, O Bhikkhus, a sama^er! is sick 
(&c, see jj 24-25). 

29. ' In case, O Bhikkhus, a sama«erl desires to 
take upon herself the precepts. If she sends .... 
&c, you should go (saying to yourselves) : " I will 
take care that she may take upon herself the pre- 
cepts." Within seven days you ought to return.' 



1. At that time the mother of a Bhikkhu was 
sick. She sent a messenger to her son (saying), 
' I am sick ; might my son come to me; I long for 
my son's coming.' Now that Bhikkhu thought : 
' The Blessed One has allowed (a Bhikkhu) to go, if 
the affair for which he goes can be accomplished 
within seven days, and if he is sent for, but not if 
he is not sent for, by a person of any one of the 
seven classes ; (and he has also allowed to go), if the 
thing he goes for can be accomplished within seven 
days, even if he is not sent for, and much more if he 
is sent for, by a person of any one of the five classes. 
Now my mother is sick ; she is not a lay-devotee 
(upasika). What am I, therefore, to do ?' 

1 The technical meaning of vassazs pukkAitam (to ask after 
Vassa ?) is unknown to us. 



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HI, 7, 8. RESIDENCE DURING THE RAINY SEASON. 3 1 1 

They told this thing to the Blessed One. 

2. ' I allow you, O Bhikkhus, to go (even during 
the rainy season), if the thing you go for can be 
accomplished within seven days, even if you are not 
sent for, and much more if you are sent for, by a 
person of any one of the following seven classes : 
Bhikkhus, Bhikkhunis, sikkhamanas, samaweras, 
samaweris, the mother, and the father. I allow 
you, O Bhikkhus, to go, if the thing you go for can 
be accomplished within seven days, even if you are 
not sent for, and much more if you are sent for, by 
a person of any one of these seven classes. Within 
seven days you ought to return. 

3. 'In case, O Bhikkhus, a Bhikkhu's mother is 
sick. If she sends a messenger to her son (saying), 
" I am sick ; might my son come to me ; I long for 
my son's coming (&c, see chap. 6. 2)." 

4. ' In case, O Bhikkhus, a Bhikkhu's father is 
sick .... (&c, as in § 3). 

5. ' In case, O Bhikkhus, a Bhikkhu's brother is 
sick. If he sends a messenger to his brother (saying), 
" I am sick ; might my brother come to me ; I long 
for my brother's coming," he ought to go, O Bhik- 
khus, if the affair can be accomplished within seven 
days, and if he sends for him, but not if he does 
not send for him. Within seven days he ought to 
return. 

6. ' In case, O Bhikkhus, a Bhikkhu's sister is 
sick .... (&c, see § 5). 

7. ' In case, O Bhikkhus, a relation of a Bhikkhu 
is sick. If he sends a messenger to that Bhikkhu 
(saying), "I am sick; might his reverence come to 
me " . . . . (&c, as in § 5). 

8. ' In case, O Bhikkhus, a person that used to 



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312 MAHAVAGGA. 111,8. 

live with the Bhikkhus 1 is sick. If he sends a mes- 
senger to the Bhikkhus (saying), " I am sick ; 
might the Bhikkhus come to me "... . (&c, as in 
§ 5)-' 



8. 

At that time a Vihara belonging to the Sawgha 
went to ruin. A certain upasaka had a quantity of 
wood cut in the forest. He sent a messenger to 
the Bhikkhus (saying), 'If their reverences will 
fetch that wood, I will give it to them.' 

They told this thing to the Blessed One. 

' I allow you, O Bhikkhus, to go out on the Sam- 
gha's business. Within seven days you ought to 
return.' 

End of the first Bha^avara about the Vassa 
residence. 



9. 

i. At that time the Bhikkhus of a certain dis- 
trict in the Kosala country who had entered upon 
Vassa, were troubled 2 by beasts of prey ; the beasts 
carried them off and killed them. 

They told this thing to the Blessed One. 

' In case, O Bhikkhus, the Bhikkhus who have 
entered upon Vassa, are troubled by beasts of prey, 
and the beasts carry them off and kill them : this is 

1 Buddhaghosa: bhikkhugatika is a person that dwells in the 
same Vihara with the Bhikkhus. 

2 Compare Gataka I, 300. 



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Ill, 9, 4. RESIDENCE DURING THE RAINY SEASON. 3 1 3 

to be considered as a case of danger, and they ought 
to leave that residence. They are not guilty of 
interruption of Vassa. 

' In case, O Bhikkhus, the Bhikkhus who have 
entered upon Vassa, are infested by snakes; they 
bite them and kill them. This is to be considered 

as a case of danger, (&c, as in § i down to) ... . 

Vassa. 

2. ' In case, O Bhikkhus, the Bhikkhus who have 
entered upon Vassa, are troubled by robbers; the 
robbers plunder them and beat them. This is to be 
considered .... (&c, as in § i) ... . Vassa. 

' In case, O Bhikkhus, the Bhikkhus who have 
entered upon Vassa, are troubled by demons ; the 
demons enter into them and take their power from 
them. This is to be considered .... (&c, as in § i) 
.... Vassa. 

3. 'In case, O Bhikkhus, the village near which 
the Bhikkhus have entered upon Vassa, is destroyed 
by fire ; the Bhikkhus suffer from want of food. This 
is to be considered .... (&c.,as in § i) '. . . . Vassa. 

' In case, O Bhikkhus, the places of rest of the 
Bhikkhus who have entered upon Vassa, are de- 
stroyed by fire; the Bhikkhus suffer from having 
no place of rest. This is to be considered .... (&c, 
as in § i) . . . . Vassa. 

4. 'In case, O Bhikkhus, the village near which 
the Bhikkhus have entered upon Vassa, is destroyed 
by water; the Bhikkhus suffer from want of food, 
.... (&c, as in § i) ... . Vassa. 

' In case, O Bhikkhus, the places of rest of the 
Bhikkhus who have entered upon Vassa, are de- 
stroyed by water ; the Bhikkhus suffer from having 
no place of rest, .... (&c, as in J i) ... . Vassa.' 



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314 MAHAVAGGA. 111,10. 

10. 

At that time the village near which the Bhikkhus 
of a certain district had entered upon Vassa, was 
transferred to another place through (fear of) robbers. 

They told this thing to the Blessed One. 

' I prescribe, O Bhikkhus, that you go where the 
village is.' 

The village (people) divided themselves in two parts. 

They told this thing to the Blessed One. 

' I prescribe, O Bhikkhus, that you go where the 
greater part is.' 

The greater part were unbelieving, unconverted 
people. 

They told this thing to the Blessed One. 

' I prescribe, O Bhikkhus, that you go where the 
believing, converted people are.' 



11. 

I. At that time the Bhikkhus of a certain district 
in the Kosala country who had entered upon Vassa, 
could get (there) neither coarse nor fine food suffi- 
ciently as required. 

They told this thing to the Blessed One. 

' In case, O Bhikkhus, the Bhikkhus who have 
entered upon Vassa, can get neither coarse nor fine 
food sufficiently as required.. This is to be con- 
sidered as a case of danger, and they ought to leave 
that residence. They are not guilty of interruption 
of Vassa. 

' In case, O Bhikkhus, the Bhikkhus who have 
entered upon Vassa, get food coarse or fine suffi- 



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Ill, 11,4. RESIDENCE DURING THE RAINY SEASON. 315 

ciently as required, but they cannot get sustaining 
food. This is to be considered .... (&c, as in § 1) 
.... Vassa. 

2. ' In case, O Bhikkhus, the Bhikkhus who have 
entered upon Vassa, get food coarse or fine suffi- 
ciently as required, they get sustaining food, but 
they cannot get proper medicine. This is to be 
considered .... (&c, as in § 1) . . . . Vassa. 

' In case, O Bhikkhus, the Bhikkhus .... (&c, as 
§ 1, down to) ... . sustaining food, and they can get 
profitable medicine, but they cannot find suitable lay- 
men to do service to them. This is to be considered 
.... (&c, as in § 1) ... . Vassa. 

3. ' In case, O Bhikkhus, to a Bhikkhu who has 
entered upon Vassa, a woman makes an offer (in 
these words) : " Come, venerable Sir, I give you 
gold, or I give you bullion 1 , or I give you a field, 
or I give you a site (for a house or a garden), or I 
give you an ox, or I give you a cow, or I give you 
a slave, or I give you a female slave, or I give you 
my daughter as your wife, or I will be your wife, or 
I get another wife for you." In that case, if the 
Bhikkhu thinks : " The Blessed One has said that 
the mind of men is easily changeable ; danger might 
arise to the purity of my life," he ought to go away 
from that place. He is not guilty of interruption 
of Vassa. 

4. * In case, O Bhikkhus, to a Bhikkhu who has 
entered upon Vassa, a harlot makes an offer, &c, an 
adult girl makes an offer, &c, a eunuch makes an 
offer, &c, relations make an offer, &c, kings make 



1 See Rh. D.'s ' Ancient Coins and Measures of Ceylon,' p. 5 
(' Numismata Orientalia,' vol. i). 



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o 



l6 MAHAVAGGA. Ill, II, g. 



an offer, &c, robbers make an offer, &c, rascals 
make an offer (in these words) : " Come, venerable 
Sir, we give you gold, .... (&c, down to) .... or 
we give you our daughter as your wife, or we get 
another wife for you." In that case, .... (&c, as in 
§ 3) ... . Vassa. 

'In case, O Bhikkhus, a Bhikkhu who has en- 
tered upon Vassa, finds an ownerless treasure. In 
that case, (&c, as in § 3, down to) Vassa. 

5. 'In case, O Bhikkhus, a Bhikkhu who has 
entered upon Vassa, sees a number of Bhikkhus 
who strive to cause divisions in the Sawgha. In 
that case, if that Bhikkhu thinks: "The Blessed 
One has said that it is a grievous sin to cause divi- 
sions in the Samgha ; may no division arise in the 
Sa/wgha in my presence," let him go away. He is 
not guilty of interruption of Vassa. 

' In case, O Bhikkhus, a Bhikkhu who has en- 
tered upon Vassa, hears: "A number of Bhikkhus 
are striving to cause divisions in the Sawgha." In 
that case, .... (&c, as in § 5, down to) ... . Vassa. 

6. 'In case, O Bhikkhus, a Bhikkhu who has 
entered upon Vassa, hears: "In such and such a 
district a number of Bhikkhus are striving to cause 
divisions in the Sa#zgha." If that Bhikkhu thinks : 
" Those Bhikkhus are friends of mine ; I will say 
to them : ' The Blessed One, my friends, has said 
that it is a grievous sin to cause divisions in the 
Samgha. ; let not divisions in the Sawgha please you, 
Sirs ;' then they will do what I say, they will obey 
me and give ear," in that case let him go (to that 
place). He is not guilty of interruption of Vassa. 

7. 'In case, O Bhikkhus, a Bhikkhu who has 
entered upon Vassa, hears : "In such and such a 



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Ill, 12, I. RESIDENCE DURING THE RAINY SEASON. 2) l 7 

district a number of Bhikkhus are striving to cause 
divisions in the Sawgha." If that Bhikkhu thinks : 
" Those Bhikkhus are not friends of mine, but their 
friends are friends of mine ; to these I will say, and 
they will say to their friends : ' The Blessed One, 
.... (&c.,' as in § 6, down to) Vassa. 

8. 'In case, O Bhikkhus, a Bhikkhu who has 
entered upon Vassa, hears : " In such and such a 
district divisions in the Sawgha have been caused 
by a number of Bhikkhus." If that Bhikkhu .... 
(&c, as in § 6, down to) ... . Vassa. 

9. 'In case, O Bhikkhus, a Bhikkhu who has 
entered upon Vassa, hears: "In such and such a 
district divisions in the Sawgha have been caused 
by a number of Bhikkhus." If that Bhikkhu .... 
(&c, as in § 7) ... . Vassa. 

10-13. ' In case, O Bhikkhus, a Bhikkhu who has 
entered upon Vassa, hears: "In such and such a 
district a number of Bhikkhunis strive to cause divi- 
sions in the Sa/wgha .... (&C. 1 )'" 



12. 

1. At that time a Bhikkhu desired to enter upon 
Vassa in a cattle-pen. 

They told this thing to the Blessed One. 

' I allow you, O Bhikkhus, to enter upon Vassa 
in a cattle-pen.' 

The cattle-pen was moved from its place. 

1 See §§ 6-9. Instead of ' A number of Bhikkhus ' in these 
paragraphs, the subject is ' A number of Bhikkhunis.' Instead of 
'Friends' or 'Sirs,' the address is 'Sisters.' In §§ 11, 13 read: 
'Those Bhikkhunis are not friends of mine, but their (female) 
friends are friends of mine, &c.' 



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318 mahAvagga. hi, 12, 2. 

They told this thing to the Blessed One. 

' I allow you, O Bhikkhus, to go with the cattle-pen.' 

2. At that time a Bhikkhu, when the time for 
entering upon Vassa approached, desired to go on 
a journey with a caravan. 

They told this thing to the Blessed One. 

' I allow you, O Bhikkhus, to enter upon Vassa 
in a caravan.' 

At that time a Bhikkhu, when the time for enter- 
ing upon Vassa approached, desired to go on a 
journey in a ship. 

They told this thing to the Blessed One. 

' I allow you, O Bhikkhus, to enter upon Vassa 
in a ship.' 

3. At that time some Bhikkhus entered upon 
Vassa in a hollow tree. People were annoyed, 
murmured, and became angry : ' (These Bhikkhus 
behave) like goblins 1 .' 

They told this thing to the Blessed One. 

' Let no one, O Bhikkhus, enter upon Vassa in a 
hollow tree. He who does, commits a dukka^a 
offence.' 

4. At that time some Bhikkhus entered upon 
Vassa on a branch of a tree. People were annoyed, 
&c. : ' (These Bhikkhus behave) like huntsmen.' 

They told this thing to the Blessed One. 

' Let no one, O Bhikkhus, enter upon Vassa on a 
branch of a tree. He who does, commits a dukka/a 
offence.' 

5. At that time some Bhikkhus entered upon 
Vassa in the open air. When it began to rain, 

1 This must be about the sense of pisa^illika (comp. Aulla- 
vagga V, 10, 2; 27, 5), although we are not sure how -illika 
ought to be explained. 



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Ill, 12, 9. RESIDENCE DURING THE RAINY SEASON. 319 

they ran up to the foot of a tree, or to the hollow 
of a Nimba tree. 

They told this thing to the Blessed One. 

' Let no one, O Bhikkhus, enter upon Vassa in the 
open air. He who does, commits a dukka/a offence.' 

6. At that time some Bhikkhus entered upon 
Vassa without having a place of rest. They 
suffered from coldness and heat. 

They told this thing to the Blessed One. 

' Let no one, O Bhikkhus, enter upon Vassa 
without having a place of rest. He who does, 
commits a dukka/a offence.' 

7. At that time some Bhikkhus entered upon 
Vassa in a house for keeping dead bodies in. 
People were annoyed, &c. : ' (These Bhikkhus are) 
like those who burn corpses.' 

They told this thing to the Blessed One. 

'Let no one, O Bhikkhus, enter upon Vassa in 
a house for keeping dead bodies. He who does, 
commits a dukka/a offence.' 

8. At that time some Bhikkhus entered upon 
Vassa under a sun-shade. People were annoyed, 
&c. : ' Like cowherds.' 

They told this thing to the Blessed One. 

' Let no one, O Bhikkhus, enter upon Vassa 
under a sun-shade. He who does, commits a duk- 
ka/a offence.' 

9. At that time some Bhikkhus entered upon 
Vassa under an earthenware vessel. People were 
annoyed, &c. : ' Like Titthiyas.' 

They told this thing to the Blessed One. 

' Let no one, O Bhikkhus, enter upon Vassa 
under an earthenware vessel. He who does, com- 
mits a dukka/a offence.' 



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320 MAHAVAGGA. Ill, 13,1. 



13. 

i . At that time the Saawgha at Savatthi had made 
an agreement that nobody should receive the pab- 
ba^a ordination during the rainy season. A grand- 
son of Visakha Migaramata 1 went to the Bhikkhus 
and asked them for the pabba^a ordination. The 
Bhikkhus said to him : ' The Sa#zgha, friend, has 
made an agreement that nobody shall receive the 
pabba^a ordination during the rainy season. 
Wait, friend, as long as the Bhikkhus keep Vassa; 
when they have concluded the Vassa residence, 
they will confer on you the pabba^a ordination/ 

When those Bhikkhus had concluded the Vassa 
residence, they said to the grandson of Visakha Mi- 
garamata : ' Come now, friend, you may receive the 
pabba/^a ordination.' He replied: ' If I had re- 
ceived the pabba^a ordination before, reverend 
Sirs, I should remain (in the religious life), but now, 
reverend Sirs, I will not receive the pabba^a 
ordination.' 

2. Visakha Migaramata was annoyed, murmured, 
and became angry (saying), ' How can the noble 
ones make such an agreement that nobody shall re- 
ceive the pabba^a ordination during the rainy 
season? At what time ought the duties of the 
Dhamma not to be performed?' 

Some Bhikkhus heard Visakha Migaramata, who 
was annoyed, murmured, and had become angry. 

1 Visakha was the most distinguished among the upisikis, and 
occupied a place among them similar to that which AnathapiMka, 
with whom she is frequently mentioned together, did among the 
upasakas. See Dhammapada A/Mak p. 78, &c. 



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Ill, 14, 3. RESIDENCE DURING THE RAINY SEASON. 32 1 

Those Bhikkhus told the thing to the Blessed One. 

' Such an agreement, O Bhikkhus, ought not to 
be made — that nobody shall receive the pabba^a 
ordination during the rainy season. He who makes (an 
agreement like this), commits a dukka/a offence.' 



14. 

1. At that time the venerable Upananda Sakya- 
putta had promised to king Pasenadi of Kosala to 
take up his Vassa residence (with him) at the earlier 
period \ When he was going to the district (where 
he had consented to go to), he saw on his way two 
districts in which there were plenty of robes, and he 
thought: 'What if I were to keep Vassa in these 
two districts ; thus shall I obtain many robes.' And 
he kept Vassa in those two districts. 

King Pasenadi of Kosala was annoyed, murmured, 
and became angry (saying), ' How can the noble 
Upananda Sakyaputta, after he has promised us to 
take up his Vassa residence (with us), break his word ? 
Has not falsehood been reproved, and abstinence 
from falsehood been praised by the Blessed One in 
many ways ?' 

2. Some Bhikkhus heard king Pasenadi of Kosala, 
who was annoyed, &c. The moderate Bhikkhus were 
annoyed, murmured, and became angry (saying), 
' How can the venerable Upananda Sakyaputta, after 
he has promised to king Pasenadi of Kosala, &c. ? 
Has not falsehood .... (&c, as in § i)?' 

3. Those Bhikkhus told the thing to the Blessed 
One. 

1 See chap. 2, § 2. 
[13] Y 

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322 MAHAVAGGA. 111,14,4. 

In consequence of that, the Blessed One, after 
having ordered the fraternity of Bhikkhus to assem- 
ble, asked the venerable Upananda Sakyaputta : 
' Is it true, Upananda, that you have broken your 
word, having promised to king Pasenadi of Kosala 
to take up your Vassa residence (with him)?' 

'It is true, Lord?' 

Then the blessed Buddha rebuked him : ' How 
can you, O foolish one, break your word, having 
promised, &c. ? Has not falsehood, O foolish one, 
been reproved, and abstinence from falsehood been 
praised by me in many ways ? This will not do, O 
foolish one, for converting the unconverted, and for 
augmenting the number of the converted, but it will 
result, O foolish one, in the unconverted being re- 
pulsed (from the faith) and many of the converted 
being estranged.' 

Having reproved him and delivered a religious 
discourse, he thus addressed the Bhikkhus : 

4. ' In case, O Bhikkhus, a Bhikkhu has promised 
(to a lay-devotee) to take up his Vassa residence 
(with him) at the earlier period, and when he goes 
to that district, he sees on his way two districts in 
which there are plenty of robes, and he thinks: 
"What if I were to keep Vassa in these two dis- 
tricts ; thus shall I obtain many robes ;" and he keeps 
Vassa in those two districts. This Bhikkhu's (enter- 
ing upon Vassa), O Bhikkhus, (at the) earlier period 
is not valid, and as to his promise he has committed 
a dukka/a offence. 

5. ' In case, O Bhikkhus, a Bhikkhu has promised 
(to a lay-devotee) to take up his Vassa residence 
(with him) at the earlier period, and when going to 
that district, he holds Uposatha outside (on the last 



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Ill, 14, 7. RESIDENCE DURING THE RAINY SEASON. 323 

day of the half month), and on the first day (of the 
next half month) he goes to the Vihara, prepares 
himself a place of rest, gets (water to) drink and food, 
sweeps the cell, and goes away that same day with- 
out having any business. This Bhikkhu's (entering 
upon Vassa) .... (&c, as in § 4, down to) ... . 
offence. 

' In case, O Bhikkhus, a Bhikkhu has promised 
(&c, as in the preceding case, down to :) and goes 
away that same day having business. This Bhik- 
khu's (entering upon Vassa) .... (&c, as in § 4, 
down to) ... . offence. 

6. ' In case, O Bhikkhus, a Bhikkhu has promised, 
&c, and having resided there two or three days, he 
goes away without having any business, &c. ; he goes 
away having business. This Bhikkhu's (entering 
upon Vassa) (&c, as in § 4, down to) ... . offence. 

' In case, O Bhikkhus, a Bhikkhu has promised, 
&c, and having resided there two or three days, he 
goes away having a business which can be accom- 
plished within seven days 1 ; he is absent above those 
seven days. This Bhikkhu's (entering upon Va s s a) . . . . 
(&c, as in § 4, down to) ... . offence. 

' In case, O Bhikkhus, &c, he returns within those 
seven days. This Bhikkhu's (entering upon Vassa), 
O Bhikkhus, (at the) earlier period is valid, and as 
to his promise he has committed no offence. 

7. ' In case, O Bhikkhus, a Bhikkhu has promised, 
&c, and goes away seven days before the Pava- 
rawa 2 having business. No matter, O Bhikkhus, 
whether that Bhikkhu comes back to that district or 

1 See chap. 5 seq. 

8 I.e. before the concluding ceremony of Vassa; see IV, 1, 13. 

Y 2 



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324 MAHAVAGGA. Ill, 14, 8. 

does not come back, this Bhikkhu's entering, &c, is 
valid, and as to his promise he has committed no 
offence. 

8-10. 'In case, O Bhikkhus, a Bhikkhu has 
promised, &c, and having gone to that district, he 
holds Uposatha there (on the last day of the half 
month), and on the first day (of the next half month) 
he goes to the Vihara, &C 1 

ii. 'In case, O Bhikkhus, a Bhikkhu has promised 
(to a lay-devotee) to take up his Vassa residence 
(with him) at the later period, and when going to 
that district, he holds Uposatha outside, &c. 2 ' 



End of the third Khandhaka, which treats of 
entering upon Vassa. 

1 Here follows an exact repetition of all the cases given in 
§§ 5~7 > tne on ty difference is, that in the former cases it was said : 
'When going to that district, he holds Uposatha outside,' instead 
of which it is said now : ' Having gone to that district, he holds 
Uposatha there.' 

2 The cases given in §§ 5-10 are repeated here ; instead of 
' Earlier period,' it is said here ' Later period ; ' instead of 'Before 
the Pavarawa' (§ 7), 'Before the komudt MtumSsint.' The 
komudi Htumasint is the full moon day in the month Kat- 
tika, which is frequently called Kaumuda in the Epic literature; 
the epithet Mtumasinl refers to the Vedic ^"aturm^sya festival, 
which falls upon that day (Kityayana, .Srautasutra V, 6, 1). For 
those who entered upon Vassa at the later period (in the .SrSvawa 
month), the end of Vassa fell on the Komudt day. 



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IV, I, 3- THE PAVARAJvA CEREMONY. 325 



FOURTH KHANDHAKA. 

(THE PAVARA2VA CEREMONY AT THE END OF THE 
RAINY SEASON, VASSA). 



i. At that time the blessed Buddha dwelt at 
Savatthi, in the £etavana, the garden of Anatha- 
piWika. At that time a number of Bhikkhus, com- 
panions and friends of each other, entered upon 
Vassa in a certain district of the Kosala country. 
Now those Bhikkhus thought : ' What shall we do 
in order that we may keep Vassa well, in unity, and 
in concord, and without quarrel, and that we may 
not suffer from want of food ?' 

2. Then those Bhikkhus thought : ' If we do not 
speak to or converse with each other, if he who 
comes back first from the village, from his alms- 
pilgrimage, prepares seats, gets water for washing 
the feet, a foot-stool, and a towel \ cleans the slop- 
basin and gets it ready, and puts there (water to) 
drink and food, — 

3. ' And if he who comes back last from the village, 
from his alms-pilgrimage, eats, if there is any food 
left (from the dinner of the other Bhikkhus) and if 
he desires to do so ; and if he does not desire (to 
eat), throws it away at a place free from grass, or 
pours it away into water in which no living things 
are ; puts away the water for washing the feet, the 
foot-stool, and the towel * ; cleans the slop-basin and 

1 See the note on I, 6, n. 



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326 MAHAVAGGA. IV, 1, 4. 

puts it away, puts the water and the food away, and 
sweeps the dining-room, — 

4. ' And if he who sees a water-pot, or a bowl for 
food, or a vessel for evacuations, empty and void, 
puts it (into its proper place), and if he is not able 
to do so single-handed, calls some one else and puts 
it away with their united effort 1 without uttering a 
word on that account, — thus shall we keep Vassa 
well, in unity, and in concord, and without quarrel, 
and not suffer from want of food V 

5-7. And those Bhikkhus did not speak to or 
converse with each other. He who came back from 
the village from his alms-pilgrimage first, prepared 
seats (&c, as above, § 4, down to) ... . without utter- 
ing a word on that account. 

8. Now it is the custom of the Bhikkhus who 
have finished their Vassa residence, to go to see 
the Blessed One. Thus those Bhikkhus, when they 
had finished their Vassa residence, and when the 
three months (of Vassa) had elapsed, set their 
places of rest in order, took their alms-bowls and 
robes, and went on their way to Savatthi. Wandering 
from place to place, they came to Savatthi, to the 
£etavana, the garden of Anathapi#dfika, to the Blessed 
One ; having approached the Blessed One and re- 
spectfully saluted him, they sat down near him. 

9. Now it is the custom of the blessed Buddhas 

1 We are not quite sure of the meaning of the compounds 
hattha-vikarena and hattha-vilahghakena. Buddhaghosa 
says merely hatthavilanghakena 'ti hatthukkhepakena. 

2 For this whole passage, compare ^STullavagga VIII, 5, 3. The 
single actions which these Bhikkhus do, are quite correct, except 
that they keep silence during the whole time of Vassa, and espe- 
cially at the end of it, for which time Buddha, on this occasion, 
prescribes the PavarawS, ceremony. 



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IV, I, II. THE PAVARAJVA CEREMONY. 327 

to exchange greeting with incoming Bhikkhus. And 
the Blessed One said to those Bhikkhus : ' Do things 
go well with you, O Bhikkhus ? Do you get enough 
to support yourselves with ? Have you kept Vassa 
well, in unity, and in concord, and without quarrel ? 
and have you not suffered from want of food ?' 

' Things go tolerably well with us, Lord ; we get 
enough, Lord, wherewith to support ourselves ; we 
have kept Vassa well, in unity, in concord, and 
without quarrel ; and have not suffered from want 
of food.' 

10. The Tathagatas sometimes ask about what 
they know ; sometimes they do not ask about what 
they know. They understand the right time when 
to ask, and they understand the right time when 
not to ask. The Tathagatas put questions full 
of sense, not void of sense ; to what is void of sense 
the bridge is pulled down for the Tathagatas. For 
two purposes the blessed Buddhas put questions to 
the Bhikkhus, when they intend to preach the doctrine, 
or when they intend to institute a rule of conduct to 
their disciples. 

1 1. And the Blessed One said to those Bhikkhus : 
' In what way, O Bhikkhus, have you kept Vassa 
well, in unity, and in concord, and without quarrel, 
and not suffered from want of food ?' 

'We have entered upon Vassa, Lord, a number 
of Bhikkhus, companions and friends of each other, 
in a certain district of the Kosala country. Now, 
Lord, we thought : " What shall we do (&c, as in 
§ 1)?" Then we thought, Lord: "If we do not 
speak (&c, as in §§ 2-4)." Thus, Lord, we did not 
speak to or converse with each other (&c, down to :) 
without uttering a word on that account. In that 



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328 MAHAVAGGA. IV, I, 12. 

way, Lord, we have kept Vassa well, in unity, and 
in concord, and without quarrel; and have not suffered 
from want of food.' 

12. Then the Blessed One thus addressed the 
Bhikkhus : ' Indeed, O Bhikkhus, these foolish men 
who profess to have kept Vassa well, have kept it 
badly ; indeed, O Bhikkhus, these foolish men who 
profess to have kept Vassa well, have kept it 
like a herd of cattle ; indeed .... have kept it like 
a herd of rams ; indeed .... have kept it like a 
company of indolent people. How can these foolish 
persons, O Bhikkhus, take upon themselves the vow 
of silence, as the Titthiyas do? 

1 3. ' This will not do, O Bhikkhus, for converting 
the unconverted (&c, as in Book III, chapter 14, § 3).' 

And when he had rebuked them and delivered a 
religious discourse, he thus addressed the Bhikkhus : 

' Let no one, O Bhikkhus, take upon himself the 
vow of silence, as the T itthiyas do. He who does, 
commits a dukka/a offence. 

' I prescribe, O Bhikkhus, that the Bhikkhus, when 
they have finished their Vassa residence, hold 
Pavara#a with each other 1 in these three ways: 
by what has been seen, or by what has been heard, 
or by what is suspected. Hence it will result that 
you live in accord with each other, that you atone 
for the offences (you have committed), and that you 
keep the rules of discipline before your eyes. 

14. ' And you ought, O Bhikkhus, to hold Pava- 
ra»a in this way : 



1 Literally, invite each other ; i. e. every Bhikkhu present invites 
his companions to tell him if they believe him guilty of an offence, 
having seen that offence, or having heard of it, or suspecting it. 



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IV, 2, I. THE PAVARAJVA CEREMONY. 329 

' Let a learned, competent Bhikkhu proclaim the 
following #atti before the Samgha : " Let the Sam- 
gha, reverend Sirs, hear me. To-day is the Pava- 
ra»a day. If the Sawgha is ready, let the Samgha 
hold Pavarawa." 

' Then let the senior Bhikkhu adjust his upper 
robe so as to cover one shoulder, sit down squatting, 
raise his joined hands, and say : " I pronounce my 
Pavarawa, friends, before the Sawzgha, by what has 
been seen, or by what has been heard, or by what 
is suspected x ; may you speak to me, Sirs, out 
of compassion towards me ; if I see (an offence), I 
will atone for it. And for the second time, &c. 
And for the third time Ipronounce my Pavarawi.... 
(&c, down to) .... if I see (an offence), I will atone 
for it." 

' Then let (each) younger Bhikkhu adjust his 
upper robe .... (&c.) 2 ' 



1. At that time the .Oabbaggiya Bhikkhus, while 
the senior Bhikkhus were crouching down and were 
performing their Pa vara #4, remained on their seats. 
The moderate Bhikkhus were annoyed, murmured, 
and became angry : ' How can the A^abbaggiya 
Bhikkhus remain on their seats, while the senior 

1 I. e. I invite the Sa/sgha to charge me with any offence they 
think me guilty of, which they have seen, or heard of, or which 
they suspect. 

2 As in the preceding sentence, except that the younger 
Bhikkhus do not address the Sa/sgha, ' Friends,' but, ' Reverend 
Sirs.' 



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33° MAHAVAGGA. IV, 2, 2. 

Bhikkhus crouch down, and perform their Pava- 
rawa ?' 

Those Bhikkhus told the thing to the Blessed 
One. 

' Is it true, O Bhikkhus, that the .Oabbaggiya 
Bhikkhus, &c.?' 

' It is true, O Lord.' 

Then the blessed Buddha rebuked them : ' How can 
these foolish men, O Bhikkhus, remain on their seats 
(&c, as above)? This will not do, O Bhikkhus, for 
converting the unconverted (&c, as in chap, i, § 13).' 

Having rebuked them and delivered a religious 
discourse, he thus addressed the Bhikkhus : ' Let 
no one, O Bhikkhus, remain on his seat, while the 
senior Bhikkhus crouch down, and perform their 
Pavara#a. He who does, commits a dukka^a 
offence. I prescribe, O Bhikkhus, that all of you 
crouch down while Pavara»a is being performed.' 

2. At that time a certain Bhikkhu weak from 
age, who waited crouching till all had finished their 
Pavara#a, fell down fainting. 

They told this thing to the Blessed One. 

' I prescribe, O Bhikkhus, that (every Bhikkhu) 
crouches down the whole while till he has performed 
his Pavara«a, and sits down on his seat when he 
has performed it.' 



3. 

1 . Now the Bhikkhus thought : ' How many 
Pavarawa (days) are there ?' 
They told this thing to the Blessed One. 
' There are the two following Pavara»a (days), 



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IV, 3, 5- THE PAVARAJVA CEREMONY. 33 1 

O Bhikkhus: the fourteenth and the fifteenth (of 
the half month) 1 ; these are the two Pavara»a 
(days), O Bhikkhus.' 

2. Now the Bhikkhus thought: 'How many 
Pavarawa services are there ?' 

They told this thing to the Blessed One. 
'There are the four following Pavara#a services, 
O Bhikkhus, &c. 2 ' 

3. Then the Blessed One thus addressed the 
Bhikkhus : ' Assemble, O Bhikkhus, the Sawgha 
will hold Pavara#a.' When he had spoken thus, 
a certain Bhikkhu said to the Blessed One : ' There 
is a sick Bhikkhu, Lord, who is not present.' 

' I prescribe, O Bhikkhus, that a sick Bhikkhu 
shall declare (lit. give) his Pavarawa. And let 
him declare it, O Bhikkhus, in this way : Let that 
sick Bhikkhu go to some Bhikkhu, adjust his upper 
robe so as to cover one shoulder, sit down squatting, 
raise his joined hands, and say : " I declare my 
Pavara«a, take my Pavara«a, perform the Pava- 
ra«a for me." If he expresses this by gesture, or 
by word, or by gesture and word, the Pavara»a 
has been declared. If he does not express this by 
gesture, &c, the Pavara«a has not been declared. 

4-5. ' If (the sick Bhikkhu) succeeds in doing so, 
well and good. If he does not succeed, let them 
take that sick Bhikkhu, O Bhikkhus, on his bed or 
his chair to the assembly, &c. 3 



1 Comp. II, 14, 1, and the note on II, 34, 1. 

2 This passage is exactly identical with II, 14, 2. 3, replacing 
' Uposatha service' by ' Pavarawa service.' 

3 This passage is a repetition of II, 22, 2-4, the words, 'Hold 
Uposatha,' 'Declare the Parisuddhi,' &c, being replaced respec- 
tively by 'Hold Pavarawa,' 'Declare the Pavarawa,' &c. 



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332 MAHAVAGGA. IV, 4. 

' I prescribe, O Bhikkhus, that on the day of 
Pavara«a he who declares his Pavara#a, is to 
declare also his consent 1 (to acts to be performed 
eventually by the Order), for (both declarations) 
are required for the Sa#zgha (and for the validity 
of its acts) 2 .' 



4. 

At that time relations of a certain Bhikkhu kept 
him back on the day of Pavararca, &c. 3 



5. 

1. At that time five Bhikkhus dwelt in a certain 
district (or, in a certain residence of Bhikkhus) on 
the day of Pavara#a. 

Now these Bhikkhus thought : ' The Blessed One 
has prescribed the holding of Pavara#a by the 
Sawgha, and we are (only) five persons*. Well, how 
are we to hold Pavara«a ?' 

They told this thing to the Blessed One. 

' I prescribe, O Bhikkhus, that five Bhikkhus should 
hold Pavara#aina (regular) chapter 8 .' 

2. At that time four Bhikkhus dwelt in a certain 



1 See II, 23. 

2 Comp. the finishing clause of II, 23. 

" This is a repetition of II, 24, but instead of 'Uposatha' and 
' Parisuddhi ' read ' Pavarawa.' 

* As a general rule five Bhikkhus were sufficient to form the 
quorum ; but for the performance of several among the official 
acts of the Order the presence of more than five members was 
required ; see IX, 4, 1 seq. 

5 See IX, 4, 1. 



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IV, 5. 5- THE PAVARAJVA CEREMONY. 333 

district on the day of Pavarawa. Now these Bhik- 
khus thought : ' The Blessed One has prescribed that 
five Bhikkhus shall hold Pavara»a in a (regular) 
chapter, and we are (only) four persons. Well, how 
are we to hold Pavara«a ?' 

They told this thing to the Blessed One. 

' I prescribe, O Bhikkhus, that four Bhikkhus 
should hold Pavarawa with each other. 

3. 'And let them hold Pavara«a, O Bhikkhus, 
in this way : Let a learned, competent Bhikkhu pro- 
claim the following »atti before those Bhikkhus: 
" Hear me, Sirs. To-day is Pavara#a day. If you 
are ready, Sirs, let us hold Pavarawa with each 
other." 

' Then let the senior Bhikkhu adjust his upper 
robe, &c, and say to those Bhikkhus : " I pronounce 
my Pavararca, friends, before you, by what has 
been seen, or by what has been heard, or by what 
is suspected ; may you speak to me, Sirs, out of com- 
passion towards me ; if I see (an offence), I will atone 
for it. And for the second time, &c; and for the 
third time, &c." 

' Then let each younger Bhikkhu, &c.' 

4. At that time three Bhikkhus dwelt in a certain 
district on the day of Pavara«a. Now these Bhik- 
khus thought : ' The Blessed One has prescribed that 
five Bhikkhus shall hold Pavarawa in a (regular) 
chapter, that four Bhikkhus shall hold Pavara«a 
with each other, and we are (only) three persons. 
Well, how are we to hold Pavara»a ?' 

' I prescribe, O Bhikkhus, that three Bhikkhus 
should hold Pavarawa with each other. And let 
them hold Pavara»a (&c, see § 3)/ 

5. At that time two Bhikkhus dwelt in a certain 



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334 MAHAVAGGA. IV, 5, 6. 

district on the day of Pavarawa. Now these Bhik- 
khus thought : ' The Blessed One has prescribed that 
five Bhikkhus, &c, that four Bhikkhus, &c, that three 
Bhikkhus, &c, and we are (only) two persons. Well, 
how are we to hold Pavarawa ?' 

' I prescribe, O Bhikkhus, that two Bhikkhus should 
hold Pav£ra«a with each other. 

6. ' And let them hold Pavara«a, O Bhikkhus, 
in this way : Let the senior Bhikkhu adjust his upper 
robe, &c, and say to the junior Bhikkhu : " I pro- 
nounce my Pavara»i, friend, &c." 

' Then let the junior Bhikkhu, &c.' 

7. At that time there dwelt a single Bhikkhu in 
a certain district on the day of Pav£ra#£. Now 
this Bhikkhu thought : ' The Blessed One has pre- 
scribed that five Bhikkhus, &c, &c, and I am only 
one person. Well, how am I to hold Pavara»a ?' 

8. ' In case there dwell, O Bhikkhus, in a certain 
district on the day of Pavira»a, a single Bhikkhu : 
Let that Bhikkhu* O Bhikkhus, sweep the place 
which the Bhikkhus use to frequent, — the refectory, 
or hall, or place at the foot of a tree ; let him (then) 
provide water and food, prepare seats, put a lamp 
there, and sit down. If other Bhikkhus come, let 
him hold Pavara#a with them ; if they do not 
come, let him fix his mind upon the thought : 
"To-day is my Pavarawa." If he does not fix his 
mind upon this thought, he commits a dukka/a 
offence. 

9. ' Now, O Bhikkhus, where five Bhikkhus dwell 
(together), they must not convey the Pavarawa 1 
of one (to their assembly) and hold Pavara«4 by 

1 See chap. 3, § 3. Compare II, chap. 22, and chap. 26, § 10. 



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IV, 6, 3. THE PAVARAATA CEREMONY. 335 

four (as) in a (regular) chapter. If they do, they 
commit a dukka^a offence. 

' Now, O Bhikkhus, where four Bhikkhus dwell 
(together), they must not convey the Pavara«a of 
one (to their assembly) and hold Pavarawa with 
each other by three. If they do, they commit a 
dukka^a offence. 

' Now, O Bhikkhus, where three Bhikkhus (&c, as 
in the last clause). 

' Now, O Bhikkhus, where two Bhikkhus dwell, 
one of them must not convey the Pavara«a of the 
other one, and fix (only) his thoughts (upon the 
Pavara»a). If he does, he commits a dukka/a 
offence.' 



6. 

1. At that time a certain Bhikkhu was guilty of 
an offence on the day of Pavara^a. Now this 
Bhikkhu thought : 'The Blessed One has prescribed: 
"Pavara#a is not to be held by a Bhikkhu who 
is guilty of an offence 1 ." Now I am guilty of an 
offence. What am I to do ?' 

They told this thing to the Blessed One. 

' In case, O Bhikkhus, a certain Bhikkhu be guilty 
of an offence on the day of Pavarawa (&c, as in 
II, 27. 1, 2, down to:) "When I shall feel no doubt, 
then I will atone for that offence." Having spoken 
thus, let him hold Pavara#a. But in no case must 
there any hindrance arise to holding Pa vara#a from 
such a cause.' 

2-3. At that time a certain Bhikkhu remembered 

1 See chap. 16, § 1. 



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336 mahAvagga. iv,7, i. 

an offence, while Pavara#a was being held (&c, 
see II, 27. 4-8). 

End of the first Bhawavara. 



7-13. 

7. 1. At that time there assembled in a certain 
residence (or district) on the day of Pavara#a a 
number of resident Bhikkhus, five or more. They 
did not know that there were other resident Bhikkhus 
absent. Intending to act according to Dhamma and 
Vinaya, thinking themselves to be complete while 
(really) incomplete, they held Pavarawa. While they 
were holding Pavira«a, other resident Bhikkhus, a 
greater number (than the first ones), arrived. 

They told this thing to the Blessed One. 

2. ' In case there assemble, O Bhikkhus, in a 
certain residence on the day of Pavara^a (&c, as 
in § 1, down to) ... . they hold Pavarawa. While 
they are holding Pa varawa, other resident Bhikkhus, 
a greater number, arrive. Let (all) those Bhikkhus, 
O Bhikkhus, hold Pavara«a again; they who have 
held Pavarawa, are free from guilt. 

3. 'In case there assemble, &c While they 

are holding Pavara«a, other resident Bhikkhus, 
exactly the same number (as the first ones), arrive. 
Those who have held Pavara«a, have held it cor- 
rectly; let the other ones hold Pavara«a; they 
who have held Pavara«a, are free from guilt.' 



1 The following paragraphs and chapters exactly follow the 
course indicated by II, 28-35. The alterations to be made are 



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IV, 15, 1. THE PAVARAJVA CEREMONY. 337 



14. 

1-3. ' Let no one, O Bhikkhus, hold Pavara#a 
in a seated assembly (of Bhikkhus) before a Bhik- 
khuni, (&C 1 ) 

4. ' Let no one, O Bhikkhus, hold Pavara#a by 
(accepting) the Pavara»a declaration of a pariva- 
sika 2 , except if the assembly has not yet risen (at 
the time when the Pavara«a is declared). And 
let no one, O Bhikkhus, hold Pavara#a on another 
day than the Pa vara #a day, except for the sake of 
(preserving) concord among the Sawgha V 



15. 

1. At that time a certain residence (of Bhikkhus) 
in the Kosala country was menaced on the day of 
Pavara«a by savage people. The Bhikkhus were 
not able to perform Pavara«a with the threefold 
formula. 

They told this thing to the Blessed One. 

obvious and sufficiently indicated by §§ 1-3; instead of, 'Let them 
proclaim their Parisuddhi ' (II, 28, 4, &c), read here, 'Let them 
pronounce their Pav&rawa.' 

1 See II, 36, 1-3. 

1 Comp. II, 36, 4, with the note. 

8 See, for instance, the cases in chap. 17. Buddhaghosa's 
explanation is different ; he says : ' Concord among the Sawgha is 
to be understood of such cases as that of Kosambi.' It is said 
in the account of the schism of Kosambi that, if concord has been 
re-established, the reconciled parties hold Uposatha together 
(X, 5, 14 ; comp. II, 36, 4); Buddhaghosa apparently extends this 
to holding PavSrawa also. 

[13] z 



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338 mahAvagga. iv, 15, a. 

' I allow you, O Bhikkhus, to perform Pavarawa 
with the twofold formula 1 .' 

The danger from savage people became still more 
urgent. The Bhikkhus were not able to perform 
Pavara#a with the twofold formula. 

They told this thing to the Blessed One. 

' I allow you, O Bhikkhus, to perform Pavara«a 
with the onefold formula V 

The danger from savage people became still more 
urgent. The Bhikkhus were not able to perform 
Pavararca with the onefold formula. 

They told this thing to the Blessed One. 

' I allow, O Bhikkhus, that all the Bhikkhus who 
have kept Vassa together, perform Pavara«a (by 
one common declaration).' 

2. At that time in a certain district on the day 
of Pavara#a the greater part of the night had 
passed away while (lay-) people were offering gifts 
(to the Bhikkhus). Now the Bhikkhus thought: 
'The greater part of the night has passed away 
while the people were offering gifts. If the Sawzgha 
performs Pavara«a with the threefold formula, it 
will not have finished the Pavarawa when day 
breaks. Well, what are we to do ?' 

They told this thing to the Blessed One. 

3. 'In case, O Bhikkhus, in a certain district on 
the day of Pavara»a the greater part of the night 
has passed away while people were offering gifts 
(to the Bhikkhus). Now if those Bhikkhus think : 
" The greater part (&c, down to :) when day breaks," 



1 This means apparently that the Bhikkhus were not obliged to 
pronounce the formula of Pav&rawa' (chap. 1, 14) thrice, but twice 
or once respectively. 



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IV, IS, g. THE PAVARAiVA CEREMONY. 339 

let a learned, competent Bhikkhu proclaim the 
following »atti before the Samgha : " Let the Sam- 
gha, reverend Sirs, hear me. While people were 
offering gifts, the greater part of the night has passed 
away. If the Sa#zgha performs Pavara#a with 
the threefold formula, it will not have finished the 
Pavara»a when day breaks. If the Sawgha is 
ready, let the Samgha hold Pavara#4 with the 
twofold formula, or with the onefold formula, or by 
common declaration of all the Bhikkhus who have 
kept Vassa together." 

4. ' In case, O Bhikkhus, in a certain district on the 
day of Pavara^a the greater part of the night has 
passed away while the Bhikkhus were in confusion : 
the Bhikkhus were reciting the Dhamma, those 
versed in the Suttantas were propounding the Sut- 
tantas, those versed in the Vinaya were discussing 
the Vinaya, the Dhamma preachers were talking 
about the Dhamma. Now if those Bhikkhus think : 
"The greater part of the night has passed away 
while the Bhikkhus were in confusion. If the Sam- 
gha. performs Pavara#a with the threefold formula, 
it will not have finished the Pavarawa when day 
breaks," let a learned, competent Bhikkhu proclaim 
the following #atti before the Sawgha : " Let the 
Sawgha, &c. The greater part of the night has 
passed away while the Bhikkhus were in confusion. 
If the Sawgha performs Pavara^a (&c. as in § 3).'" 

5. At that time in a certain district in the Kosala 
country a great assembly of Bhikkhus had come 
together on the day of Pavara#a, and there was 
but a small place protected from rain, and a great 
cloud was in the sky. Now the Bhikkhus thought : 
' A great assembly of Bhikkhus has come together 

z 2 

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34-0 MAHAVAGGA. IV, 15, 6. 

here, and there is but a small place protected from 
rain, and a great cloud is in the sky. If the Sawgha 
performs Pavara»a with the threefold formula, it 
will not have finished the Pavarawa when this cloud 
will begin to rain. Well, what are we to do ?' 
They told this thing to the Blessed One. 

6. 'In case, O Bhikkhus, in a certain district a 
great assembly of Bhikkhus has come together on 
the day of Pavara#a, and there is but a small place 
protected from rain, and a great cloud is in the sky. 
Now if those Bhikkhus think .... (&c, as in § 3 
to the end). 

7. 'In case, O Bhikkhus, in a certain district on 
the day of Pavara#a danger arises from kings, 
danger from robbers, danger from fire, danger from 
water, danger from human beings, danger from non- 
human beings, danger from beasts of prey, danger 
from creeping things, danger of life, danger against 
chastity. Now if those Bhikkhus think : " Here is 
danger for our chastity. If the Sawgha performs 
Pavara«a with the threefold formula, it will not 
have finished the Pavararca when this danger for 
chastity will arise," let a learned, competent Bhik- 
khu . . . .' (&c, as in § 3 to the end). 



16. 

1. At that time the .Oabbaggiya Bhikkhus held 
Pavarawa bemg guilty of an offence. 

They told this thing to the Blessed One. 

' Let no one, O Bhikkhus, hold Pavarawa who 
is guilty of an offence. He who does, commits a 



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IV, i6,3- THE PAVARAJVA CEREMONY. 34 1 

dukka/a offence. I prescribe, O Bhikkhus, that 
you ask a Bhikkhu who holds Pavara«a being 
guilty of an offence, for his leave 1 and reprove him 
for that offence.' 

2. At that time the A^abbaggiya Bhikkhus, when 
asked for leave, were not willing to give leave (to 
Bhikkhus who were going to reprove them for an 
offence). 

They told this thing to the Blessed One. 

' I prescribe, O Bhikkhus, that you inhibit the 
Pavara#a of a Bhikkhu who does not give leave. 
And you ought to inhibit it, O Bhikkhus, in this 
way : Let (a Bhikkhu) say on the day of Pava- 
ra«a, on the fourteenth or on the fifteenth day (of 
the half month), in presence of that person, before 
the assembled Samgha : " Let the Sa#zgha, reverend 
Sirs, hear me. Such and such a person is guilty of 
an offence; I inhibit his Pavara«4; Pavarawa 
must not be held in his presence." Thus his Pava- 
ra»4 is inhibited.' 

3. At that time the A^abbaggiya Bhikkhus, who 
thought : ' Otherwise good Bhikkhus might inhibit 
our Pavara#a,' themselves inhibited beforehand, 
without object and reason, the Pavara#a of pure 
Bhikkhus who had committed no offence, and they 
also inhibited the Pavarawa of Bhikkhus who had 
already performed their Pavara«a. 

They told this thing to the Blessed One. 

' Let no one, O Bhikkhus, inhibit, without object 
and reason, the Pavara»a of pure Bhikkhus who 
have committed no offence. He who does, commits a 
dukka^a offence. And further, O Bhikkhus, let no 

1 Comp. II, 16, 1. 



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342 mahAvagga. IV, 16, 4. 

one inhibit the Pavara#a of Bhikkhus who have 
already performed their Pavarawa, He who does, 
commits a dukka/a offence. 

4. ' And thus, O Bhikkhus, (you may discern 
whether) the Pavara#a is (duly) inhibited or not 
inhibited. 

' In what cases is the Pavara#a, O Bhikkhus, 
not inhibited? When Pavara#a, O Bhikkhus, 
is pronounced, declared, and finished with the 
threefold formula, and if (a Bhikkhu then) in- 
hibits the Pavara«a (of another Bhikkhu), the 
Pavarawa is not inhibited. When Pavara«a, O 
Bhikkhus, is pronounced, declared, and finished 
with the twofold formula, with the onefold formula, 
by common declaration of all Bhikkhus who have 
kept Vassa together, and if (a Bhikkhu then) in- 
hibits, .... (&c, as before). In these cases, O 
Bhikkhus, the Pavarawa is not inhibited. 

5. ' And in what cases, O Bhikkhus, is the Pava- 
ra#a inhibited? When Pavarawa, O Bhikkhus, 
is pronounced, declared, but not finished 1 with the 
threefold formula, and if (a Bhikkhu then) inhibits 
the Pavarawa (of another Bhikkhu), the Pava- 

ra«a is inhibited (&c. 2 ). In these cases, O 

Bhikkhus, the Pavarawa is inhibited. 

6. 'In case, O Bhikkhus, one Bhikkhu, on the day 
of Pavara«a, inhibits the Pavarawa of another 
Bhikkhu : then if the other Bhikkhus know with 
regard to that (inhibiting) Bhikkhu : " This vene- 

1 Correct in the Pali text pariyositaya into apariyositaya. 

2 The paragraph is repeated with the phrases, ' With the two- 
fold formula,' 'with the onefold formula,' and 'by common 
declaration of all the Bhikkhus who have kept Vassa together,' 
respectively, instead of ' with the threefold formula.' 



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IV, l6, II. THE PAVARAtfA CEREMONY. 343 

rable brother is not of a pure conduct in his deeds, 
nor iii his words, nor as regards his means of live- 
lihood, he is ignorant, unlearned, unable to give 
explanation when he is questioned," (let them say 
to him) : "Nay, friend, let not quarrel arise, nor strife, 
nor discord, nor dispute," and having thus put him 
to silence, let the Sawgha hold Pavarawa. 
7-9. ' In case, O Bhikkhus, &C 1 

10. 'In case, O Bhikkhus, one Bhikkhu on the 
day of Pavara»a inhibits the Pavara#a of another 
Bhikkhu : then if the other Bhikkhus know with re- 
gard to that (inhibiting) Bhikkhu : " This venerable 
brother is of a pure conduct in his deeds and in his 
words and with regard to his means of livelihood, he 
is clever, learned, and able to give explanation when 
he is questioned," let them say to him : " If you in- 
hibit, friend, the Pavara»a of this Bhikkhu, on what 
account do you inhibit it, on account of a moral trans- 
gression, or on account of a transgression against the 
rules of conduct, or on account of heresy?" 

11. ' If he replies : " I inhibit it on account of a 
moral transgression, I inhibit it on account of a 
transgression against the rules of conduct, I inhibit 
it on account of heresy," let them say to him : 
"Well, do you know, Sir, what a moral transgres- 
sion is, what a transgression against the rules of 
conduct is, what heresy is?" If he replies, "I 

1 As in § 6. But instead of 'Not of a pure conduct in his deeds, 
nor in his words, nor as regards his means of livelihood,' read 
respectively, 'Of a pure conduct in his deeds, but not in his 
words, nor as regards his means of livelihood' (§7); 'Of a pure 
conduct in his deeds and in his words, but not with regard to 
his means of livelihood' (§8); 'Of a pure conduct in his deeds 
and in his words and with regard to his means of livelihood' (§ 9). 



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344 MAHAVAGGA. IV, l6, 12. 

know, friends, what a moral transgression is, &c," 
let them say to him : " And what is, friend, a moral 
transgression, &c. ?" 

12. 'If he replies : " The four para.fi ka offences 
and the thirteen sawghadisesa offences are the 
moral transgressions; thulla^^aya offences, pa- 
£ittiya offences, pa/idesaniya offences, dukka^a 
offences, and wicked language are the transgres- 
sions against the rules of conduct ; false doctrine 
and .... doctrine 1 are heresy," let them say to 
him: "If you inhibit, friend, the Pavara#a of 
this Bhikkhu, do you inhibit it on account of what 
you have seen, or of what you have heard, or of 
what you suspect?" 

13. ' If he replies: "I inhibit it on account of 
what I have seen, or on account of what I have 
heard, or on account of what I suspect," let them 
say to him : " If you inhibit, friend, the Pavara»a 
of this Bhikkhu on account of what you have seen, 
what have you seen? What is it that you have 
seen? When have you seen it? Where have you 
seen it ? Have you seen him committing a para- 
£"ika offence? Have you seen him committing a 
sawgh&disesa offence? Have you seen him 
committing a thulla^aya offence, a pa^ittiya 
offence, a pa^idesaniya offence, a dukka^a offence, 
or making himself guilty of wicked language ? And 
where were you? And where was this Bhikkhu? 
And what did you do? And what did this Bhik- 
khu do ?" 

1 The meaning of antaggahika' di/Mi (Sanskrit Sntargra- 
hik& dri'sh/i? Sntagrahiki dri'sh/i?) is unknown to us; Bud- 
dhaghosa gives no explanation. Perhaps it may mean doctrine 
partly false and partly correct (eclectic). 



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IV, l6, 16. THE PAVARAiVA CEREMONY. 345 

14. 'If he then replies : " I do not inhibit, friends, 
the Pavara#aof this Bhikkhu on account of what I 
have seen, but I inhibit it on account of what I have 
heard," let them say to him: " If you inhibit, friend, 
the Pavara#a of this Bhikkhu on account of what 
you have heard, what have you heard? What is it 
that you have heard? When have you heard it? 
Where have you heard it? Have you heard that he 
has committed a para^ika offence, .... (&c, down 
to) .... or that he has made himself guilty of wicked 
language? Have you heard it from a Bhikkhu? 
Have you heard it from a Bhikkhuni ? Have you 
heard it from a sikkhamana, from a samawera, 
from a sama#eri, from an upasaka, from an upa- 
sika, from kings, from royal officers, from Titthiyas, 
from Titthiya disciples ?" 

15. ' If he then replies : " I do not inhibit, friends, 
the Pavara/za of this Bhikkhu on account of what 
I have heard, but I inhibit it on account of what I 
suspect," let them say to him : " If you inhibit, friend, 
the Pavara«a of this Bhikkhu on account of what 
you suspect, what do you suspect ? What is it that you 
suspect? When do you suspect it? Where do you 
suspect it ? Do you suspect that he has committed 

a para^ika offence, (&c, down to) ... . wicked 

language ? Does your suspicion come from what 
you have heard from a Bhikkhu, .... (&c, down 
to) ... . from Titthiya disciples ?" 

16. 'If he then replies: " I do not inhibit, friends, 
the Pavara«a of this Bhikkhu on account of what 
I suspect; I do not know the reason why I inhibit 
the Pavarawa of this Bhikkhu," and if that Bhikkhu, 
O Bhikkhus, who reproves (the other one), being 
questioned by intelligent fellow Bhikkhus, is not able 



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346 mahAvagga. iv, 16, 17. 

to convince their minds, you are right in saying that 
in such case the Bhikkhu who has been reproved is 
blameless. But if that Bhikkhu, O Bhikkhus, who 
reproves (the other one), being questioned by intel- 
ligent fellow Bhikkhus, is able to convince their 
minds, you are right in saying that in such case 
the Bhikkhu who has been reproved is blamable. 

17. ' If that Bhikkhu, O Bhikkhus, who reproves 
(another one), admits that he has charged him un- 
foundedly with a para^ika offence, let the Samgha 
enter upon the sawghadisesa proceedings 1 (against 
the accuser) and then hold Pavarawa. 

' If that Bhikkhu, O Bhikkhus, who reproves (an- 
other one), admits that he has charged him un- 
foundedly with a sawghadisesa offence, let the 
Samgha. treat (the accuser) according to the law 2 
and then hold Pavarawa. 

' If that Bhikkhu, O Bhikkhus, who reproves (an- 
other one), admits that he has charged him un- 
foundedly with a thulla£/£aya offence, or with a 
pa^ittiya offence, or with a pa/idesaniya offence, 
or with a dukka/a offence, or with having used 
wicked language, let the Sawgha treat (the accuser) 
according to the law 3 and then hold Pavara«a. 

18. ' If that Bhikkhu, O Bhikkhus, who has been 
reproved, admits that he has committed a para^ika 
offence, let the Sawgha expel him and then hold 
Pavara»a. 

' If that Bhikkhu, &c, admits that he has com- 



' See the 8th Sawghadisesa rule. 

2 See the 76th Pa^ittiya rule. 

3 According to Buddhaghosa, the Bhikkhu who brings such an 
unfounded charge against a fellow Bhikkhu, is guilty of a dukka/a 
offence. 



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IV, l6, 22. THE PAVARAtfA CEREMONY. 347 

mitted a sawghadisesa offence, let the Samgha. 
enter upon the sawghadisesa proceedings (against 
him) and then hold Pavara#a. 

' If that Bhikkhu, &c, admits that he has com- 
mitted a thulla/6/6aya offence, or a pa^ittiya 
offence, .... (&c, down to) ... . wicked language, 
let the Sawgha treat him according to the law 
and then hold Pavarawa. 

19. 'In case, O Bhikkhus, a Bhikkhu on the day 
of Pavara«a is guilty of a thulla££aya offence. 
Some Bhikkhus believe that it is a thulla/6£aya 
offence, other Bhikkhus believe that it is a sam- 
ghadisesa offence. In that case, O Bhikkhus, let 
those Bhikkhus who take it for a thulla^aya 
offence, take that Bhikkhu, O Bhikkhus, aside, treat 
him according to the law, go back to the Samgha, 
and say: "The offence, friends, which this Bhikkhu 
has committed, he has atoned for according to the 
law. If the Sawgha is ready, let the Sa#zgha hold 
Pavarawa." 

20. ' In case, O Bhikkhus, a Bhikkhu on the day 
of Pavara«a is guilty of a thulla^^aya offence. 
Some Bhikkhus believe that it is a thulla^/£aya 
offence, other Bhikkhus believe that it is a pa^it- 
tiya offence. Some Bhikkhus believe that it is a 
thulla^aya offence, other Bhikkhus believe that it 
is a pa^idesanlya offence ; a thulla^^aya offence ; 
a dukka/a offence; a thulla^^aya offence, an 
offence by wicked language. In that case (&c, as 
in § 19, down to the end). 

21. 22. 'In case, O Bhikkhus, a Bhikkhu on the 
day of Pavarawa is guilty of a pa^ittiya offence, of 
a pa/idesaniya offence, of a dukka/a offence, of an 
offence by wicked language. Some Bhikkhus believe 



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348 mahAvagga. IV, 16,23. 

that it is an offence by wicked language, other Bhik- 
khus believe that it is a sawghadisesa offence, &c. 
Some Bhikkhus believe that it is an offence by 
wicked language, other Bhikkhus believe that it is 
a dukka^a offence. In that case, O Bhikkhus, let 
those Bhikkhus who take it for an offence by wicked 
language, take that Bhikkhu, O Bhikkhus, aside 
(&c, see § 19). 

23. ' If, O Bhikkhus, a Bhikkhu speaks thus before 
the assembly on the day of Pavara«a: "Let the 
Samgha, reverend Sirs, hear me. Here this deed 
is known (to me), but not the (guilty) person. If 
the Sa#zgha is ready, let the Sawgha hold Pavi- 
ra«4 excluding this deed," (the Bhikkhus) ought to 
reply : " The Blessed One, friend, has prescribed 
that they who hold Pavara^a, ought to be pure. 
If a deed is known, but not the (guilty) person, 
report it (to us) now." 

24. ' If, O Bhikkhus, a Bhikkhu speaks thus before 
the assembly on the day of Pavarawa : " Let the 
Sa#zgha, reverend Sirs, hear me. Here a person 
is known (to me as guilty), but not his deed. If 
the Samgha is ready, let the Samgha hold Pava- 
ra»a excluding this person," (the Bhikkhus) ought 
to reply : " The Blessed One, friend, has prescribed 
that they who hold Pavara#a, ought to be com- 
plete. If a person is known to you (as guilty), but 
not his deed, report it (to us) now." 

25. ' If, O Bhikkhus, a Bhikkhu speaks thus before 
the assembly on the day of Pavara»a: "Let the 
Sawgha, reverend Sirs, hear me. Here a deed is 
known (to me) as well as the (guilty) person. If 
the Sa#zgha is ready, let the Samgha hold Pava- 
rana excluding this deed and this person," (the 



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IV, 17, 1. THE PAVARAiVA CEREMONY. 349 

Bhikkhus) ought to reply : " The Blessed One, 
friend, has prescribed that they who hold Pava- 
ra«a, ought to be pure as well as complete. If 
the deed and the (guilty) person are known to you, 
report it (to us) now." 

26. ' If, O Bhikkhus, a deed becomes known be- 
fore the Pavara#a, and the (guilty) person after- 
wards (i. e. after the Pavarawa), it is right to bring 
it forward (then) \ 

' If, O Bhikkhus, the (guilty) person becomes 
known before the Pavara«a, and his deed after- 
wards, it is right to bring it forward (then). 

' If, O Bhikkhus, the deed as well as the (guilty) 
person becomes known before the Pavara#a, and if 
(a Bhikkhu)»raises up that matter again after the Pavd- 
ra#a, he makes himself guilty of a pa^ittiya offence 
for raising up (a matter that has been settled) 2 .' 



17. 

1. At that time a number of Bhikkhus, companions 
and friends of each other, entered upon Vassa in a 
certain district of the Kosala country. In their 
neighbourhood other Bhikkhus, litigious, conten- 
tious, quarrelsome, disputatious persons, who used 
to raise questions before the Sawgha, entered upon 
Vassa with the intention of inhibiting, on the Pava- 
ra«a day, the Pavara^a of those Bhikkhus when 

1 ' Because it had not been possible to decide the matter at the 
Pavara«a' (Buddhaghosa). 

2 See the 63rd Pa£ittiya rule. 



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350 mahAvagga. IV, 17, 2. 

they should have finished their Vassa residence. 
Now those Bhikkhus heard : ' In our neighbour- 
hood other Bhikkhus, &c. Well, what are we 
to do?' 

They told this thing to the Blessed One. 

2. 'In case, O Bhikkhus, a number of Bhikkhus, 
companions and friends of each other, enter upon 
Vassa in a certain district. In their neighbourhood 
other Bhikkhus, .... (&c, § 1). I prescribe, O Bhik- 
khus, that those Bhikkhus hold Uposatha twice or 
thrice on the fourteenth day (of the half-month) * in 
order that they may be able to hold Pavara«a before 
those (other) Bhikkhus. If those litigious, conten- 
tious, .... (&c, § 1) Bhikkhus approach that district, 
let the resident Bhikkhus, O Bhikkhus, quickly as- 
semble and hold Pavara«a; having held Pava- 
ra«a, let them say to them: "We have held 
our Pavarawa, friends ; do you do, Sirs, as you 
think fit." 

3. ' If those litigious, .... (&c, § 1) Bhikkhus 
come to that residence unexpectedly, let the resi- 
dent Bhikkhus, O Bhikkhus, prepare seats (for 
them), get water for the washing of their feet, 
foot-stools, and towels 2 , then let them go to meet 
them, take their bowls and their robes, and offer 
them (water) to drink; having thus looked after 
those Bhikkhus, let them go outside the boundary 
and hold Pavarawa; having held Pavara«a, let 

1 In this way, when the inimical Bhikkhus are arriving about 
the time of Pavarawa, the resident Bhikkhus count the day which is 
the thirteenth or fourteenth to the other Bhikkhus, as the fifteenth, 
and thus they are enabled to finish their Pav&ra«a before they can 
be prevented. 

8 See I, 6, u. 



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IV, 17, 7- THE PAVARAJVA CEREMONY. 35 1 

them say : " We have held our Pavarawa, friends, 
do you do, Sirs, as you think fit." 

4. ' If they succeed in this way, well and good ; 
if they do not succeed, let a learned, competent, 
resident Bhikkhu proclaim the following «atti be- 
fore the resident ' Bhikkhus : " Let the resident 
Bhikkhus hear me, Sirs. If you are ready, Sirs, 
let us now hpld Uposatha and recite the Pati- 
mokkha, and let us hold Pavara«a on the next 
new-moon day." If, O Bhikkhus, the litigious, .... 
(&c, § 1) Bhikkhus say to those Bhikkhus : " Well, 
friends, hold Pavararca with us now," let them 
reply: "You are not masters, friends, of our Pava- 
ra»a; we will not hold Pavara»a now." 

5. ' If, O Bhikkhus, those litigious, .... (&c, § i) 
Bhikkhus stay there till that new-moon day, let a 
learned, competent, resident Bhikkhu, . . . . * 

6. ' If, O Bhikkhus, those litigious, .... (&c, § i) 
Bhikkhus stay there still till that full-moon day, 
those Bhikkhus, O Bhikkhus, ought to hold Pava- 
ra»a all of them, no matter whether they like it or 
not, on the next full-moon day, on the day of the 
komud! ^atumasini 2 . 

7. ' If those Bhikkhus, O Bhikkhus, hold Pava- 
ra»a, and a sick Bhikkhu inhibits the Pavara»a of 
a healthy Bhikkhu, let them say (to the inhibiting 
Bhikkhu) : " You are sick, Sir, and the Blessed One 
has said that a sick person cannot endure being 
questioned. Wait, friend, until you have recovered ; 



1 As in § 4, down to the end of the paragraph ; instead of, ' On 
the next new-moon day,' it is to be read here, ' On the next 
full-moon day.' 

3 See the note on III, 14, n. 



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352 mahAvagga. iv, 17,8. 

having recovered, you may reprove him, if you like." 
If they speak to him thus, and he reproves (that 
Bhikkhu) notwithstanding, he makes himself guilty 
of the pa^ittiya offence of disregard 1 . 

8. ' If those Bhikkhus, O Bhikkhus, hold Pava- 
ra«a, and a healthy Bhikkhu inhibits the Pava- 
ra«a of a sick Bhikkhu, let them say (to the 
inhibiting Bhikkhu) : " This Bhikkhu is sick, friend, 
and the Blessed One has said that a sick person 
cannot endure being questioned. Wait, friend^ until 
this Bhikkhu has recovered ; when he has recovered 
you may reprove him, if you like." If they speak 
to him thus, (&c, as in § 7). 

9. 'If those Bhikkhus, O Bhikkhus, hold Pava- 
ra»a, and a sick Bhikkhu inhibits the Pavarawa 
of another sick Bhikkhu, let them say (to the in- 
hibiting Bhikkhu) : " You are sick, Sirs, and the 
Blessed One has said that a sick person cannot 
endure being questioned. Wait, friend, until you 
have recovered ; when he has recovered 2 you may 
reprove him, if you like." If they speak to him 
thus, .... (&c, as in $ 7). 

10. ' If those Bhikkhus, O Bhikkhus, hold Pava- 
ra»a, and a healthy Bhikkhu inhibits the Pavara#a 
of another healthy Bhikkhu, let the Sawgha question 
and examine them both and treat them according to 
the law, and then hold Pavarawa.' 



1 See the 54th Pi^ittiya rule. 

2 Probably we should read in the Pali text, 'Saogo irogam 
SkankhamSno fodessasiti.' Then the translation would be : ' When 
you have recovered and he has recovered, &c.' 



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IV, l8, 3. THE PAVARAiVA CEREMONY. 353 



18. 

i. At that time a number of Bhikkhus, companions 
and friends of each other, entered upon Vassa in a 
certain district of the Kosala country. These Bhik- 
khus, living in unity, and concord, and without quarrel, 
had found a comfortable place to dwell in. Now those 
Bhikkhus thought : ' Living in unity, &c, we have 
found a comfortable place to dwell in. If we hold 
Pavara»& now, (other Bhikkhus) might come on a 
journey, having held their Pavarawa, (and might 
occupy this place); thus we should lose this place 
which is comfortable to dwell in. Well, what are 
we to do?' 

They told this thing to the Blessed One. 

2. ' In case, O Bhikkhus, a number of Bhikkhus, 
companions and friends of each other, have entered 
upon Vassa in a certain district. These Bhikkhus, 
.... (&c, § 1). 

' If these Bhikkhus think : " Living in unity, .... 
(&c, § 1, down to:) thus we should lose this place 
which is comfortable to dwell in," I allow, O Bhik- 
khus, these Bhikkhus to agree upon pavara»a- 
sawgaha 1 . 

3. ' And you ought, O Bhikkhus, to agree upon 
it in this way: Let them all assemble together. When 



1 Literally this word means, we believe, ' Keeping back one's 
own Pavdrawi.' Buddhaghosa says: 'When the decree of pavi- 
ra«£sa«gaha has been issued, the Bhikkhus (who have issued 
it) ought to live as in the rainy season. Incoming Bhikkhus are 
not allowed to take possession of their places of rest. On the 
other side, they ought not to interrupt their Vassa residence.' 
[13] A a 



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354 MAHAVAGGA. IV, 18, 4. 

they have assembled, let a learned, competent Bhik- 
khu proclaim the following »atti before the Sa/»- 
gha: "Let the Sawgha, reverend Sirs, hear me. 

Living in unity (&c, § I, down to :) thus we 

should lose this place which is comfortable to dwell 
in. If the Sa/#gha is ready, let the Sawgha agree 
upon pavara»asa»zgaha; let it now hold Upo- 
satha and recite the Patimokkha, and let the 
Sawgha hold Pavarawa on the next komudi 
^atumasinl day. This is the »atti." 

4. « " Let the Sawgha, &C. 1 " 

5. ' If, O Bhikkhus, after those Bhikkhus have 
agreed upon pavara/zasawgaha, a Bhikkhu should 
say : " I wish, friends, to go on my travels through 
the country; I have a business in the country," let 
them reply to him: "Good, friend, hold Pavara»a 
and go." If that Bhikkhu, O Bhikkhus, when hold- 
ing Pavara»a inhibits the Pavara#a of another 
Bhikkhu, let (that other Bhikkhu) say to him : " You 
are not master of my Pavara#a, friend ; I will not 
hold Pavarawa now." 

• If, O Bhikkhus, when that Bhikkhu holds Pava- 
ra#a, another Bhikkhu inhibits his Pavara»a, let 
the Sawgha question and examine them both and 
treat them according to the law. 

6. ' If that Bhikkhu, O Bhikkhus, has finished 
that business in the country and comes back to that 
district before the day of komudi £atumasini, 
and if a Bhikkhu, O Bhikkhus, when the Bhikkhus 
hold Pavarawa, inhibits the Pavara«a of that 
Bhikkhu (who has been absent), let him say (to the 



1 Here follows the usual formula of a wattidutiya kamma as 
in Book II, chap. 6. Comp. the note on Book I, chap. 28, § 3. 



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IV, 18,6. THE PAVARAtfA CEREMONY. 355 

inhibiting Bhikkhu): "You are not master of my 
Pavarawa, friend; I have held my Pavara»a." 

« If, O Bhikkhus, when the Bhikkhus hold Pava- 
ra«a, this Bhikkhu inhibits the Pavara»a of an- 
other Bhikkhu, let the Sawzgha question and examine 
them both and treat them according to the law, and 
then hold Pavarawa.' 



End of the Pavara«a-Khandhaka. 



a a 2 



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