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2.2 3>^S 

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Introduction to Vasish7v/a X1 

Introduction to BaudhSyana .... • xxix 


General Rules r 

.. Four Castes 9 

, Lawful Occupations IX 

Duty of Studying the Veda 1 7 

Definitions '9 

Purification 2I 

■* Origin of Castes .....••• 2 5 

Impurity 2 7 

Women 3 1 

Rule of Conduct 34 

Studentship 4° 

Householder 4 2 

Hermit 45 

Ascetic 46 

Guests 49 

Sraddhas 5i 

Sacrifices 5<> 

Initiation 57 

Snataka 59 

Study of the Veda 63 

Saluting 67 

Lawful and Forbidden Food 69 

" Adoption 75 

-• Excommunication 77 

Legal Procedure 79- 

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Inheritance ......... 84 

Mixed Castes .93 

Duties of a King 96 

Penances 102 

Secret Penances 124 

Gifts 136 


Sources of the Law 143 

Different Customs . . . . . . .146 

Studentship . .149 

Snataka 158 

Waterpot . . 160 

Purification 164 

Lawful Livelihood 175 

Impurity 177 

Inheritance 178 

Impurity 180 

Forbidden Food 184 

Sacrifices 186 

s Castes 196 

The King 199 

— Criminal Law . 201 

Witnesses 202 

Marriage 205 

Veda-Study 208 

Penances 211 

- Inheritance 224 

Women 231 

Householder 237 

Snataka 238 

The Twilight Devotions 245 

Bathing 249 

Tarpa«a 252 

Mahaya^las 256 

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The Four Orders 258 

The Offering to the Vital Airs 262 

Eating 264 

■Sr&ddhas 266 

The Procreation of Sons 271 

Ascetic 273 

Ways of Living for Householders . . . . .284 

Hermits ..." 291 

Penances for a Student 294 

Aghamarshawa 296 

Prasr/'tiy&vaka ' 297 

KfishmaWas . 300 

.ffandrayawa 303 

Anajnatparayawa 307 

Penances 310 

Secret Penances 320 

Rites securing Success 322 

Parirish/a on Adoption 334 

Index to Parts I and II (Vols. II and XIV) . . 337 

Additions and Corrections 355 

Transliteration of Oriental Alphabets adopted for the Trans- 
lations of the Sacred Books of the East . . -357 

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The Vasish//fca Dharmasastra is, like that of Gautama, 
the last remnant of the Sutras of a Vedic school, which, as 
far as our knowledge goes at present, has perished, together 
with the greater part of its writings. We owe the preserva- 
tion of its Dharma-sutra probably to the special law schools 
of India, which, attracted as it would seem by its title and 
the legend connecting it with Vasish/fo Maitravaru«i, one of 
the most famous i?/shis of the Rig-veda and a redoubtable 
champion of Brahmanism, made it one of their standard 
authorities. The early existence of a legend according to 
which the Vasish/^a Dharma-sutra was considered either 
to be a work composed by the JZishi Vasish/^a, or at least 
to contain the sum of his teaching on the duty of man, is 
indicated by several passages of the work itself. For the 
Dharma-sutra names Vasish^a, or appeals to his authority 
on no less than three occasions. First, we find a rule on 
lawful interest, which is emphatically ascribed toVasishA&a 1 . i 
'Learn the interest for a money lender,' the Sutra says, 
c declared by the word of Vasish//*a ; five mashas (may be 
taken) for twenty (karshapa«as every month).' Again, at the 
end of a long string of rules 2 which contain the observances 
to be kept by sinners who undergo KrtkMra. penances, Va- 
sish^a's name is brought forward as the authority for them, 
and the last words are, ' Thus speaks the divine Vasish^a.' 
Finally, the concluding Sutra of the whole work 3 gives 

1 Vlsishtta DharmasSstra II, 51. 

* Vasishrta Dharmasastra XXIV, 5. 

s VSsishfAa Dharmasastra XXX, II. Similar invocations of teachers at the 
end of Sutras occur frequently, e.g. Asvalayana 5rauta-sutra XII, 15, 14; Rig- 
vidhanaV, 3, 4; Yaska, Nirukta, Roth, p. 216. 

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Xll VASISHrffA. 

expression to the devotion felt by the author for the JZishi, 
'Adoration to Vasish/^a, Satayatu, the son of Mitra and 
Varu«a and of Urvaii.' The epithets used in this last pas- 
sage conclusively show that the Vasish/^a after whom the 
Dharma-sutra is named, is the individual who, according to 
the Brahmanical tradition, is the Rishi of a large portion of 
the seventh Ma#dala of the Rig-veda and the progenitor of 
the Vasish^a clan of Brahmans, and who in some hymns 
of the Rig-veda appears as the purohita or domestic priest 
of king Sudas and the rival of Vi^vamitra, and in other 
Suktas as a half mythical being. For the verses Rig-veda 
VII, 33, 11-14 trace the origin of this Vasish^a to the two 
sons of Aditi, Mitra and Varu«a, and to theApsaras Urvarl, 
and contain the outline of the curious, but disgusting story 
of his marvellous birth, which Sayawa narrates more cir- 
cumstantially in the commentary on verse 11. Moreover, 
the word Satayatu, which in the Dharma-sutra is used as an 
epithet of Vasish^a, occurs Rig-veda VII, 18, 31 in close 
connexion with the i?zshi's name. Sayawa explains it in 
his commentary on the latter passage as ' the destroyer of 
many demons,' or, ' he whom many demons seek to destroy,' 
and takes it as an epithet of the sage Parajara, who is named 
together with Vasish/^a. It would, however, seem that, if 
the verse is construed on strictly philological principles, 
neither Sayawa's interpretation, nor that suggested by the 
Dharma-sutra can be accepted, and that Satayatu has to 
be taken as a proper name *. But, however that may be, it 
is not doubtful that we may safely infer from the expressions 
used in the last sentence of the Dharma-sutra, that the 
Vasish^a to whom the invocation is addressed and the 
composition of the work is ascribed, either immediately or 
through the medium of pupils, is the individual named in 
the Rig-veda. The connexion of the Dharma-sutra with 
one of the i?/shis of the Rig-veda which is thus established, 
possesses a particular interest and importance, because it 
corroborates the statement of Govindasvamin, the commen- 
tator of Baudhayana, that the Institutes of VasishA&a were 

1 See Petersburg Dictionary, s. v. satayitu. 

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originally studied by and authoritative for the Bahvrika.s, 
the i?zgvedins alone, and afterwards became an authority 
for all Brahmans K In the introduction to Gautama it has 
been shown that a similar assertion which Govinda makes 
with regard to the Gautama Dharma-sutra can be corrobo- 
rated by a considerable amount of external and internal 
evidence. It has been pointed out that not only the fact 
that the spiritual pedigrees of the .Oandoga schools enu- 
merate several Gautamas, but also the partiality for texts 
of the Sama-veda, which the Institutes of Gautama show 
on several occasions, strongly support the tradition that 
the Gautamtya Dharmajastra originally was the exclusive 
property of a school of Samavedins. In the case of the 
Vasish/>&a Dharmarastra indications of the latter kind are, 
if not entirely wanting, at least very faint. The number of 
Vedic passages quoted is, no doubt, large ; but few among 
them belong to the class of Mantras which are recited 
during the performance of grzhya rites, and must be taken 
from the particular recension of the Veda to which the per- 
former belongs. Besides, the texts of this description which 
actually occur, do not bear the mark of a particular Veda or 
5akha. The numerous texts, on the other hand, which are 
quoted in support or explanation of the rules, are taken im- 
partially from all the three ancient Vedas. For this reason it 
would be dangerous to use the references to a dozen JZikas 
in chapters XVII and XXVI, as well as to the legend of 
Suna^sepa, which is told only in works belonging to the Rig- 

1 See Sacred Books of the East, vol. ii, p. xlix, note 2. As Govindasvamin's 
statements possess a considerable importance, I give here the whole com- 
mentary on Bandhayana I, I, 2, 6, according to my two MSS., C.I. and C.T. : 

^ fafafa *&m mmt\ ij^fiiwwfa^j vsnr^ vm sNVMi i- 
^t«rf *p*rr ^t t^vprH vStsn^j ^ftj^ m<whw ^r#Tfv^rrt n^frT rrar 
nftmfamtfWcFi'i ■s^^ifo M*rt [<4*ft c. i. •, visnt c. t.] ^rffrs 3 
<*?%: [1] wn 1 q 3 i r*HTOP ig[i]iTOT *r ^snj gi ftu ^trftwrnftr 
Hrf«;>jM«ft1i«T ?r? »fl»Hi<ft««ifa wwHifH [wmrftr C. I.; wmifW 

C. T.] mtflrMlfl^lii II K& rT3 ^IHIHUl'W Wi^ lit, II *3 *0&fm- 

Trf^N jjra'^frT: 1 ftj frtRPrgtrtrf^ ^ sjrgr'nftwfwiTPt: i «tcrt^ 

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veda, as a proof that the Vasish/$a Dharmarastra is the work 
of a Rtgvedin. Under these circumstances the three pas- 
sages, mentioning Vasish^a's name, and especially the last 
which identifies him with the i?/shi of the Rig-veda, have a 
particularly great importance, as they are the only pieces of 
internal evidence which can be brought forward in favour 
of Govindasvamin's valuable statement. But the latter is, 
even without any further corroboration, credible enough, 
because no reason is apparent why Govinda should have 
invented such a story, and because his assertion fully 
agrees with the well-established facts known about the 
other existing Dharma-sutras, which all were composed 
not for the benefit of the Aryans in general, but in order 
to regulate the conduct of particular sections of the Brah- 
manical community. 

There is, however, one point in Govindasvamin's state- 
ment which requires further elucidation. He says that the 
Bahw*£as, i.e. the i?*gvedins in general, formerly studied 
the Vasish/^a Dharmajastra. It might, therefore, be in- 
ferred that the work possessed equal authority among the 
Ayvalayanlyas, the Sankhayaniyas, the Ma#*/ukayanas, and 
all the other schools of the Rig-veda, and that it belonged 
to the most ancient heirlooms of its adherents. That is, 
however, improbable for several reasons. For, first, neither 
the A.svalayanfyas nor the Sankhayaniyas of the present 
day study or attach any special importance to the Vasish- 
tks. Dharmayastra. Secondly, if the Vasish&4a Dharma- 
jastra had ever been the common authority on Dharma in 
all the different schools of the Rig-veda, it would be neces- 
sary to ascribe to it an antiquity which it clearly does not 
possess. All Sutras were originally composed for a single 
school only. Where we find that the same Sutra is adopted 
by several ./sTarawas, as is the case with the Dharma-sutra, 
which both the Apastambtyas and the Haira«yakeras study, 
and with the ./sTayana-sutra, which the Bharadva^as and the 
Haira#yake.ras have in common, it is evident that the later 
school did not care to compose a treatise of its own on 
a certain subject, but preferred to take over the composi- 
tion of an earlier teacher. If, now, a Sutra on a certain 

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subject were acknowledged by all the schools of one Veda, 
it would follow that it must belong to the most ancient 
books of that Veda, and must have been adopted succes- 
sively by all its later schools. In such a case the Sutra 
must certainly show signs of its great antiquity. But if 
we look for the latter in the VasishA&a Dharma-sutra, the 
trouble will be in vain. Though that work contains a 
good deal that is archaic, yet, as will be shown presently, 
its numerous quotations from Vedic writings and older 
Dharma-sutras clearly prove that it does not belong to 
the oldest productions of its class, but takes even among 
the still existing Institutes of the Sacred Law only a 
secondary rank. Under these circumstances the correct 
interpretation of Govindasvamin's words will be, that ac- 
cording to the Brahmanical tradition, known to him, some 
school of i?*gvedins,. the name of which he did not know, 
or did not care to give, originally possessed the Vasish^a 
Dharmarastra as its exclusive property, and that the work 
later, through the action of the special law schools, acquired 
general authority for all Brahmans. It is a pity that no 
authentic information regarding the name of that school 
of Rigvedins has been handed down. But, considering the 
fact that Vedic schools are frequently named after Vedic 
.ftishis, it seems not improbable that it was called after the 
Vasish/^a whose authority the Dharma-sutra invokes, and 
that we may assume the former existence of a Vasish^a 
school, a Sutra-^arawa, of the Rig-veda *, founded perhaps 
by a teacher of the Vasish/^a gotra. This conjecture, 
which, it must be confessed, is not supported by any cor- 
roborative evidence from the Brahmanical tradition, will 
explain why the title-pages of this and of the first part 
speak of a school of VasishMa. 

The position of the Vasish/^a Dharma-sutra in Vedic 
literature can be defined, to a certain extent, by an analysis 

1 A school of Vasishttas, belonging to the Sfima-veda, certainly existed in 
ancient times. I have formerly put forward a conjecture that the Vasishtfa 
Dharmasastra might belong to that school (Digest of Hindu Law Cases, p. xxii, 
first edition). But Govindasvamin's explicit statement makes it evident that 
it has to be abandoned. 

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of its numerous quotations from the Sawhitas, Brahmawas, 
and the older Sutras. By this means it will become 
evident that the work belongs to a period when the chief 
schools of the three ancient Vedas had been formed and 
some of the still existing Dharma-sutras had been composed. 
Faint indications will be found which make it probable 
that the home of the school to which it belonged, lay in 
the northern half of India, north of the Narmada and of the 
Vindhyas. As regards the quotations from the Sruti, the 
revealed texts of the Hindus, they are chiefly taken from 
the Rig-veda and from three recensions of the Ya^ur-veda. 
Passages from the Rig-veda-sawhita are quoted IV, ai ; 
XVII, 3-4 ; and XXVI, 5-7. With respect to the quota- 
tions in the latter chapter it must, however, be noted that 
its genuineness is, as will be shown in the sequel, not above 
suspicion. A Brahma«a of the Rig-veda seems to be 
referred to in XVII, a, 32, 35. But the extracts, given 
there, agree only in part with the text of the Aitareya, and 
it is probable that they are taken from some lost composi- 
tion of the same class. A curious Sutra, II, 35, shows a 
great resemblance to the explanations of Vedic passages 
given by Yaska in the Nirukta 1 . The passage points 
either to a connexion of the author with the school of the 
Nairuktas or, at least, to an acquaintance with its princi- 
ples. Among the schools of the Ya^ur-veda, that of the 
Ka/^as is twice referred to by name, XII, 39 ; XXX, 5. 
But Professor Weber, who kindly looked for the quotations 
in the Berlin MS. of the Kanaka, has not been able to find 
them. A third passage, I, 37, said to be taken from the 
iTaturmasyas, i.e. the portion of a Sawzhita which treats of 
the TsTaturmasya sacrifices, actually occurs in the Kanaka. 
But, as it is likewise found in the ^Taturmasya-ka«^a of the 
Maitrayawtyas, it must remain uncertain from which of the 
two recensions of the Black Ya^ur-veda it has been quoted. 
The chapter on the duties of women, vers. 6-8, contains a 

1 This resemblance has not escaped Krishnapantfita, who says in his com- 
mentary, fH^-*HUW*j H^CW S^NfW II cS lfrrtfa iqTf^ II ^flflthHfll fif^- 

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long quotation which, in spite of some small discrepancies, 
V>j» seems to have been taken from the Taittirfya-sawmita of 
the Black Ya^ur-veda. Passages of the Taittiriya Arawyaka 
are quoted or referred to X, 35 and XXIII, 23. The 
White Ya^ur-veda is mentioned several times as the Va^a- 
saneyi-jakha or the Va^asaneyaka. The former expression 
occurs III, 19 and XXIII, 13. The quotations, marked 
as taken from the Va^asaneyaka, XII, 31, XIV, 46 are 
found in the 5atapatha-brahma«a, and another passage 
of the same work is quoted I, 45, without a specification of 
the source. A very clear proof that the author of the 
Dharma-sutra knew the Va^asaneyi-sawhita is furnished 
by the Mantra, given II, 34. The text, quoted there, 
occurs in three different Sakhas, that of the Va,gasaneyins, 
that of the Taittirtyas and the Atharva-veda, and in each 
shows a few variae lectiones. Its wording in the VaVgasaneyi- 
sawhita literally agrees with the version, given in the 
Sfitra. The Sama-veda is referred to III, 19, and par- 
ticular Samans are mentioned in the borrowed chapter 
XXII, 9. A passage from the Nidana, probably a work on 
Stomas and metres, which belonged to the Bhallavinsy an 
ancient school of Samavedins, occurs 1, 14-16. An Upani- 
shad, connected with the Atharva-veda, the Atharvariras, is 
mentioned in the borrowed chapter XXII, 9, and the 
existence of the Atharva-veda is pre-supposed, also, by ' the 
vows called Siras,' which are alluded to in the suspicious 
chapter XXVI, 11, and are said to be peculiar to the 
Atharvavedins 1 . The chapters, which are undoubtedly 
genuine, contain no allusion to the fourth Veda. 

As regards the older works on Dharma, the author of the 
Institutes of VasishA&a certainly knew and used a treatise, ^ 
attributed to Yama, the Dharma-sutras of Manu, Harita 
and Gautama, and perhaps that of Baudhayana. With 
respect to two verses, which, as the Sutra says, were pro- 
claimed by Pra^-apati, XIV, 24, 30, it is somewhat doubtful, 
if it is meant that they have been taken from a work, 
attributed to Pra^apati, or that they are merely utterances, 
supposed to have been made by that deity for the benefit 

1 See BaudhSyana Dharma-sutra II, 8, 14, 2, note. 

[14] b 

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of mankind. The latter view seems, however, the more 
likely one, as it is customary in the Snm'tis to ascribe the 
revelation of social institutions, ceremonies, and penances to 
Pra^apati, who, in the older works, occupies much the same 
position as Brahma, the creator, in the later religious systems. 
It is not impossible that some of the references to Yama, 
e.g. XI, 20, have to be explained in the same manner. 
But other passages, attributed to Yama, e.g. XVIII, 13-16, 
seem to have been taken from a work which was considered 
the production of the Of course, none of the 
YamasmT-z'tis, which exist in the present day, can be meant. 
The quotations from Manu are numerous 1 . They have 
all been taken from a book attributed to a Manu, and 
possess a very high interest for the history of the present 
metrical Manusmn'ti. For the prose passage from the 
Manava, given IV, 5, furnishes the proof that the author of 
the VasishA&a Dharmarastra quotes from a Dharma-sutra 
attributed to a Manu, while other quotations show that the 
Manava Dharma-sutra contained, also, verses, some of which, 
e. g. XIX, 37, were TrishAibhs, and that a large proportion 
of these verses has been embodied in Bh«gu's version of 
the Manusnm'ti. Fifteen years ago 2 I first called attention 
to VasishA&a's prose quotation from the Manava, and 
pointed out that, if the MSS. of the Vasish/yfca Dharma- 
.rastra were to be trusted, a small piece of the lost Manava 
Dharma-sutra, on which the present Manusmf iti is based, 
had been found. The incorrectness and the defective state of 
the materials which I then had at my disposal did not allow 
me to go further. Since that time several, comparatively 
speaking, good MSS. of the Institutes of VasishAfca and 
many inferior ones have been found, and all, at least all 
those which I have examined, give the quotation in prose 
exactly in the same form. The fact that Vasish^a gives, 
in IV, 5, a prose quotation from Manu may, therefore, be 
considered as certain 8 . Moreover several of the best MSS. 

1 They occur Vasishtta Dharmasastra 1, 17; III, 2 ; IV, 5-8; XI, 23; XII, 
16; XIII, 16; XIX, 37; XX, 18; XXIII, 43; XXVI, 8. 
1 Digest of Hindu Law Cases, p. xxxi, note, first edition. 
3 Such, I suppose, will be the opinion of all European scholars. Those Hindus 

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show, by adding the particle ' iti ' at the end of Sutra 8, 
that the quotation from the Manava is not finished with 
Sutra 5, but includes the two verses given in Sutras 6 and 
7 and the second prose passage in Sutra 8. Among the 
verses the first is found entire in the metrical Manusmn'ti, 
and the second has likewise a representative in that work, 
though its concluding portion has been altered in such a 
manner that the permission to slaughter animals at sacri- 
fices has been converted into an absolute prohibition to 
take animal life. Sutra 8, which again is in prose, has no 
counterpart in the metrical Manusnv/ti, as might be ex- 
pected from its allowing 'a full-grown ox' or 'a full-grown 
he-goat' to be killed in honour of a distinguished Brah- 
ma«a or Kshatriya guest. A closely corresponding passage 
is found in the -Satapatha-brahma^a, and a verse expressing 
the same opinion in the Ya^navalkya Stariti, the versifica- 
tion of a Dharma-sutra of the White Ya^ur-veda. As 
the last part of the quotation resembles the text of the 
Brahmawa and its language is very archaic, it is quite 
possible that, though belonging to the passage from the 
Manava-sutra, it contains a Vedic text, taken from some 
hitherto unknown Brahmawa which Manu adduced in 
support of his opinion. On this supposition the arrange- 
ment of the whole quotation would be as follows. Sutra 5 
would give the original rule of the author of the Manava 
in an aphoristic form ; Sutras 6-J would repeat the same 
opinion in verse, the latter being probably 6"lokas current 
among the Brahmanical community ; and Sutra 8 would 
give the Vedic authority for the preceding sentences. This 
arrangement would be in strict conformity with the plan 
usually followed by the authors of Dharma-sutras. But 
whether Sutra 8 contains a second original aphorism of the 
Manava Dharma-sutra or a Vedic passage, it seems in- 
disputable that the author of the Vasish^a Dharma-sutra 
knew a treatise attributed to a teacher called Manu, which, 
like all other Dharma-sutras, was partly written in apho- 

who allow their religious convictions to get the better of their reason, will 
perhaps prefer KWshnapamfita's ingenious, but unsound explanation of the 
words iti manavam, by iti manumatam, ' such is the opinion of Manu.' 


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ristic prose and partly in verse. The passage furnishes, 
therefore, the proof for Professor Max Miiller's conjecture 
that our metrical Manusmr/ti, like all the older works of 
the same class, is based on the Dharma-sutra of a Vedic 
Sutra-£ara#a. In connexion with this subject it may be men- 
tioned that the Institutes of VasishA&a contain, besides the 
above-mentioned passages, no less than thirty-nine verses 1 , 
which are not marked as quotations, but occur in Bhrzgu's 
metrical Manusa#zhita. Some of them present more or less 
important variae lectiones. Moreover, there are four verses 
which, though Vasish/^a attributes them to Harita and 
Yama 2 , are included in our Manusnm'ti and treated as 
utterances of the father of mankind. The bearing of both 
these facts on the history of the Manusmrzti is obvious. 
But the frequency of the references to or quotations from 
Manu which VasishAfca makes, teaches another important 
lesson. Like the fact that Manu is the only individual 
author to whom Gautama refers 3 , it shows that in ancient 
times Manu's name had as great a charm for the Brahman 
teachers as it has for those of the present day, and that 
the old Manava Dharma-sutra was one of the leading 
works on the subject, or, perhaps, even held that dominant 
position which the metrical Manusmrzti actually occupied 
in the Middle Ages and theoretically occupies in our days. 
It is interesting to observe that precisely the same inference 
can be drawn from the early Sanskrit inscriptions. If these 
speak of individual authors of SnWtis, they invariably place 
Manu's name first *. 

Vasish/^a gives only one quotation from Harita, II, 6. 
Harita was one of the ancient Sutrakaras of the Black 
Ya^ur-veda, who is known also to Baudhayana. From a 
passage which K*7sh#apa«rfita quotes in elucidation of 

1 Vasishtta Dharmasastral, 21; II, 3, 10, 27, 48 ; III, 5, 11, 60 ; V, 2 ; VI, 6, 
8,11,13,19; VIII, 7, 15; X, 21-22; XI, 27-28,32, 35; Xllf, 48; XIV, 13, 
16, 18; XVI, 18, 33-34; XVII, 5, 8; XVIII, 14, 15; XIX, 48; XX, 18; 
XXV, 4-5, 7; XXVII, 3. 

> VasishMa Dharmasastra II, 6; XVIII, 14-15; XIX, 48. 

* Sacred Books of the East, vol. ii, p. Ivii. 

* See e.g. the grant of Dhruvasena I, dated Samvat, i.e. Guptasamvat 207, 
PI. i, 1. 7; Ind. Ant., vol. iv, p. 105. 

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Vasish//fca XXIV, 6, I conclude that Harita was a Maitra- 
yawiya 1 . The relation of the Vasish/£a Dharma-sutra to 
Gautama and Baudhayana has already been discussed in the 
introduction to the translation of the former work 2 . To the 
remarks on its connexion with Baudhayana it must be added 
that the third Prama of the Baudhayana Dharma-sfitra, 
from which Vasish/zfca's twenty-second chapter seems to have 
been borrowed, perhaps does not belong to the original work, 
but is a later, though presumably a very ancient, addition to 
the composition of the founder of the Baudhayana school. 
The reasons for this opinion will be given below. If 
Baudhayana's third Prajna is not genuine, but has been 
added by a later teacher of that school, the interval be- 
tween Baudhayana and the author of the Vasish^a Dharma- 
jastra must be a very considerable one. I have, however, 
to point out that the inference regarding the priority of 
Baudhayana to VasishAfca is permissible only on the sup- 
position that Vasish^a's twenty-second chapter is not a 
later addition to the latter work, and that, though it is 
found in all our MSS., this fact is not sufficient to silence 
all doubts which might be raised with respect to its genuine- 
ness ; for we shall see presently that other chapters in the 
section on penances have been tampered with by a later 
hand. It will, therefore, be advisable not to insist too 
strongly on the certainty of the conclusion that Vasish/Aa 
knew and used Baudhayana's work. 

In the introduction to his translation of the Vishwusmn'ti 3 , 
Professor Jolly has pointed out two passages of VasishMa 
which, as he thinks, have been borrowed from Vish«u, and 
prove the posteriority of the VasishAfo Dharmasastra, if not 
to the Vishtfusnm'ti, at least to its original, the Kanaka 
Dharma-sutra. He contends that the passage Vasish^a 
XXVIII, 10-15 is a versification of the Sutras of Vish«u 
LVI, which, besides being clumsy, shows a number of 

1 He says : inn ^ ^rtfti: i n^BficHu: ^n»[°5ft Tg^ra?] fll(>l«IUI 
vn*ftr«i*ft tf$H«ntft f*M^ift [?] HgTirfarftfit 11 

* Sacred Books of the East, vol. ii, pp. liii-lv. 

* Sacred Books of the East, vol. vii, p. xviii. 

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corruptions and grammatical mistakes, and that Vasish/^a 
XXVIII, 18-22 has been borrowed from Vish«u LXXXVIL 
Professor Jolly's assertion regarding the second passage in- 
volves, however, a little mistake. For the. first two Slokas, 
Vasish^a XXVIII, 18-19, describe not the gift of the skin 
of a black antelope, which is mentioned in the first six 
Sutras of Vish«u LXXXVII, but the rite of feeding 
Brahmans with honey and sesamum grains, which occurs 
Vish/ra XC, 10. The three verses, Vasish^a XXVIII, 
20-22, on the other hand, really are the same as those 
given by Vishwu LXXXVII, 8-10. It is, however, expressly 
stated in the Vish«usmr/ti that they contain a quotation, 
and are not the original composition of the author of 
the Dharma-sutra. Hence no inference can be drawn 
from the recurrence of the same stanzas in the VasishAfca 
Dharma-sutra. As regards the other passage, VasishAfca 
XXVIII, 10-15, Professor Jolly is quite right in saying that 
it is a clumsy versification of Vishwu's Sutras, and it is not 
at all improbable that Vasish/^a's verses may have been im- 
mediately derived from the Kanaka. The further inference 
as to the priority of the ancient KaA&aka-sutra to Vasish££a, 
which Professor Jolly draws from the comparison of the two 
passages, would also be unimpeachable, if the genuineness of 
Vasish/Aa's twenty-eighth chapter were certain. But that 
is unfortunately not the case. Not only that chapter, but 
the preceding ones, XXV-XXVII, in fact the whole section 
on secret penances, are, in my opinion, not only suspicious, 
but certainly betray the hand of a later restorer and cor- 
rector. Everybody who carefully reads the Sanskrit text of 
the Dharma-stitra will be struck by the change of the style and 
the difference in the language which the four chapters on 
secret penances show, as compared with the preceding and 
following sections. Throughout the whole of the first 
twenty-four chapters and in the last two chapters we find 
a mixture of prose and verse. With one exception in the 
sixth chapter, where thirty-one verses form the beginning 
of the section on the rule of conduct, the author follows 
always one and the same plan in arranging his materials. His 
own rules are given first in the form of aphorisms, and after 

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these follow the authorities for his doctrines, which consist 
either ofVedic passages or of verses, the latter being partly 
quotations taken from individual authors or works, partly 
specimens of the versified maxims current among the 
Brahmans, and sometimes memorial verses composed by 
the author himself. But chapters XXV-XXVIII contain 
not a single Sutra. They are made up entirely of Anush/ubh 
61okas, and the phrases x ' I will now declare,' ' Listen to my 
words,' which are so characteristic of the style of the later 
metrical Smrjtis and of the Purawas, occur more frequently 
than is absolutely necessary. Again, in the first twenty-four 
and the last two chapters the language is archaic Sanskrit, 
interspersed here and there with Vedic anomalous forms. 
But in the four chapters on secret penances we have the 
common Sanskrit of the metrical Smn'tis and Pura«as, with 
its incorrect forms, adopted in order to fit inconvenient 
words into the metre. Nor is this all. The contents of a 
portion of this suspicious section are merely useless repe- 
titions of matters dealt with already in the preceding 
chapters, while some verses contain fragmentary rules on 
a subject which is treated more fully further on. Thus the 
description of the "^.rikkhxz. and ^Tandraya«a penances, 
which has been given XXI, 30 and XXIV, 45, is repeated 
XXVII, 16, 31. Further, the enumeration of the purificatory 
texts XXVIII, 10-15 ,s merely an enlargement of XXII, 9. 
Finally, the verses XXVIII, 16-33 contain detached rules 
on gifts, and in the next chapter, XXIX, the subject is 
begun once more and treated at considerable length. 
Though it would be unwise to assume that all genuine 
productions of the old Sutrakaras must, throughout, show 
regularity and consistency, the differences between the four 
chapters and the remainder of the work, just pointed out, 
are, it seems to me, sufficient to warrant the conclusion that 
they do not belong to the author of the Institutes. Under 
these circumstances it might be assumed that the whole 
section is simply an interpolation. But that would be going 
too far. For, as other Dharma-sutras show, one or even 
several chapters on secret penances belonged to such works. 

1 See XXV, 1 ; XXVII, 10 ; XXVIII, 10, 20. 

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xxiv VASiSHrarA. 

Moreover, in the section on women, Vasish/Z/a V, 3-4, the 
author makes a cross-reference to the rahasyas, the section 
on secret penances, and quotes by anticipation half a .Sloka 
which is actually found in chapter XXVIII. The inference 
to be drawn from these facts is, that the section on secret 
penances is not simply a later addition intended to supply 
an omission of the first writer, but that, for some reason or 
other, it has been remodelled. The answer to the question 
why this was done is suggested, it seems to me, partly by 
the state of the MSS. of the Vasish^a Dharma^astra, and 
partly by the facts connected with the treatment of ancient 
works by the Pandits, which my examination of the libraries 
of Northern India has brought to light 1 . MSS. of the 
VasishA&a Dharma^astra are very rare, and among those 
found only three are complete. Some stop with chapter X, 
others with chapter XXI, and a few in the middle of the 
thirtieth Adhyaya. Moreover, most of them are very cor- 
rupt, and even the best exhibit some Sutras which are 
hopeless. These circumstances show clearly that after the 
extinction of the Vedic school, with which the work origi- 
nated, the Sutra was for some time neglected, and existed 
in a few copies only, perhaps even in a single MS. The 
materials on which the ancient Hindus wrote, the birch bark 
and the palm leaves, are so frail that especially the first and 
last leaves of a Pothi are easily lost or badly damaged. 
Instances of this kind are common enough in the Caina and 
Ka^mir libraries, where the beginning and still more fre- . 
quently the end of many works have been irretrievably lost. 
The fate of the Vasish^a Dharma^astra, it would seem, has 
been similar. The facts related above make it probable 
that the MS. or MSS. which came into the hands of the 
Paw^its of the special law schools, who revived the study of 
the work, was defective. Pieces of the last leaves which 
remained, probably showed the extent of the damage done, 
and the "Pandits set to work at the restoration of the lost 
portions, just as the Kajmirian Sahebram Pandit restored 
the Nilamata-pura«a for Maharaja Rarcavirajiwrna. They, 

1 See Report on a Tour in Kasmtr, Journal of the Bombay Branch of the 
Royal Asiatic Society, vol. xii, p. 33. 

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of course, used the verses which they still found on the 
fragments, and cleverly supplied the remainder from their 
knowledge of Manu and other Sm^'tis, of the Mahabharata 
and the Pura«as. This theory, I think, explains all the 
difficulties which the present state of the section on secret 
penances raises. Perhaps it may be used also to account for 
some incongruities observable in chapter XXX. The last two 
verses, XXX, 9-10, are common-places which are frequently 
quoted in the Mahabharata, the Hariva#wa, the Pa«£atantra, 
and modern anthologies. With their baldness of expression 
and sentiment they present a strong contrast to the pre- 
ceding solemn passages from the Veda, and look very much 
like an unlucky attempt at filling up a break at the end of 
the MS. In connexion with this subject it ought, however, 
to be mentioned that this restoration of the last part of the 
Vasish//5a Dharmajastra must have happened in early times, 
at least more than a thousand years ago. For the oldest 
commentators and compilers of digests on law, such as 
Vigwaneyvara 1 , who lived at the end of the eleventh century 
A. D., quote passages from the section on secret penances 
as the genuine utterances of Vasish/$a. These details 
will suffice to show why I differ from Professor Jolly with 
respect to his conclusion from the agreement of the verses 
of VasishMa XXVIII, 10-15 with the Sutras of Vishwu LVI. 
With the exception of the quotations, the Vasish/$a 
Dharma-rastra contains no data which could be used either 
to define its relative position in Sanskrit literature or to 
connect it with the historical period of India. The occur- 
rence of the word Romaka, XVIII, 4, in some MSS., 
as the name of a degraded caste of mixed origin, proves 
nothing, as other MSS. read Ramaka, and tribes called 
Rama and Rama/^a are mentioned in the Purawas. It 
would be wrong to assert on such evidence that the Sutra 
belonged to the time when the Romans, or rather the 
Byzantines (Rdmaioi), had political relations with India. 
Nor will it be advisable to adduce the fact that VasishAfca 

1 Thus VasishMa XXVIII, 7 is quoted in the Mitakshara on Yag-»avalkya 
III, 298; XXVIII, 10-15 on Yag-navalkya III, 309; and XXVIII, 18-19, 12 
on Ya^navalkya III, 310. 

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XVI, io, 14, 15 mentions written documents as a means of 
legal proof, in order to establish the ' comparatively late ' 
date of the Sutra. For though the other Dharma-sfttras 
do not give any hint that the art of writing was known or 
in common use in their times, still the state of society which 
they describe is so advanced that people could not have got 
on without writing, and the proofs for the antiquity of the 
Indian alphabets are now much stronger than they were 
even a short time ago. The silence of Apastamba and the 
other Sfttrakaras regarding written documents is probably 
due to their strict adherence to a general principle under- 
lying the composition of the Dharma-sutras. Those points 
only fall primarily within the scope of the Dharma-sutras 
which have some immediate, close connexion with the 
Dharma, the acquisition of spiritual merit. Hence it suf- 
ficed for them to give some general maxims for the fulfil- 
ment of the guwadharma of kings, the impartial adminis- 
tration of justice, and to give fuller rules regarding the 
half-religious ceremony of the swearing in and the examin- 
ation of witnesses. Judicial technicalities, like the deter- 
mination of the legal value of written documents, had 
less importance in their eyes, and were left either to the 
deskkkra., the custom of the country, or to the Niti and 
Artha-jastras, the Institutes of Polity and of the Arts of 
common life. It would, also, be easy to rebut attempts 
at assigning the Vasish/Aa Dharma-sutra to what is 
usually ' a comparatively late period ' by other pieces 
of so-called internal evidence tending to show that it is 
an ancient work. Some of the doctrines of the Sutra 
undoubtedly belong to an ancient order of ideas. This is 
particularly observable in the rules regarding the subsidiary 
sons, which place the offspring even of illicit unions in the 
class of heirs and members of the family, while adopted 
sons are relegated to the division of members of the family 
excluded from inheritance. The same remark applies to 
the exclusion of all females, with the exception of putrikas 
or appointed daughters, from the succession to the property 
of males, to the permission to re-marry infant widows, and 
to the law of the Niyoga or the appointment of adult 

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___... — ^sntixi^ y 

widows, which Vasish/Aa allows without hesitation, anc 
even extends to the wives of emigrants. But as most of 
these opinions occur also in some of the decidedly later 
metrical Sm^'tis, and disputes on these subjects seem to 
have existed among the various Brahmanical schools down 
to a late period, it would be hazardous to use them as 
arguments for the antiquity of the Sutra. 

The following points bear on the question where the 
original home of the Vedic school, which produced the 
Dharma-sutra, was situated. First, the author declares 
India north of the Vindhyas, and especially those portions 
now included in the North-western Provinces, to be the 
country where holy men and pure customs are to be found, 
I, 8-16. Secondly, he shows a predilection for those redac- 
tions of the Veda and those Stitras which belong to the 
northern half of India, viz. for the Kanaka, the Va^asaneyi- 
jakha, and the Sutras of Manu and Harita. Faint as these 
indications are, I think, they permit us to conclude that the 
Sutra belongs to a ATarawa settled in the north. 

As regards the materials on which the subjoined 
translation is based, I have chiefly relied on the Benares 
edition of the text, with the commentary of Kr*sh#a- 
pawrfita Dharmadhikart, and on a rough edition with the 
varietas lectionum from the two MSS. of the Bombay 
Government Collection of 1 8 74-7 5 \ B. no. 29 and Bh. no. 
30, a MS. of the Elphinstone College Collection of 1867-68, 
E. no. 23 of Class VI, and an imperfect apograph F. in 
my own collection, which was made in 1 864 at Bombay. 
The rough edition was prepared under my superintendence 
by VamanaMrya G^alkikaf, now teacher of Sanskrit in the 
Dekhan College, Pu«a. When I wrote the translation, the 
Bombay Government MSS. were not accessible to me. I 
could only use my own MS. and, thanks to the kindness of 
Dr. Rost, Colebrooke's MS., I. O. no. 913, from which the 
now worthless Calcutta editions have been derived either 
immediately or mediately. These materials belong to two 
groups. The Bombay MS. B., which comes from Benares, 
closely agrees with Krishnapandita's text ; and E., though 

1 See Report on Sanskrit MSS. 1874-75, p. 11. 

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XXV111 VASlSHrtfA. 

purchased at Pu«a, does not differ much from the two. Bh., 
which comes from Bhuj in KaM, and my own MS. F. form 
a second group, towards which Colebrooke's MS., I. O. 
no. 913, also leans. Ultimately both groups are derived 
from one codex archetypus. 

The first group of MSS. gives a fuller and in general a 
correcter text than the second. But it seems to me that 
the text of B., and still more's, has in many 
places been conjecturally restored, and that the real diffi- 
culties have been rather veiled than solved. I have, there- 
fore, frequently preferred the readings offered by the second 
group, or based on them my conjectural emendations, which 
have all been given in the notes. To give a translation 
without having recourse to conjectural emendations was im- 
possible, as a European philologist is unable to avail himself 
of those wonderful tricks of interpretation which permit an 
Indian F&ndit to extract some kind of meaning from the 
most desperate passages. In a few cases, where even the 
best MSS. contain nothing but a conglomerate of meaning- 
less syllables or unconnected words, I have thought it 
advisable to refrain from all attempts at a restoration of 
the text, and at a translation. A critical edition of the 
Vasish^a Dharmarastra is very desirable, and I trust that 
Dr. A. Fiihrer, of St. Xavier's College, Bombay, will soon 
supply this want. Krzshwapawafita's commentary, for which 
he had not the aid of older vrittis, shows considerable 
learning, and has been of great value to me. I have 
followed him mostly in the division of the Sutras, and have 
frequently given his opinions in the notes, both in cases 
where I agree with him and in those where I differ from 
him, but think his opinion worthy of consideration. 

In conclusion, I have to thank Professors R. von Roth, 
Weber, and Jolly, as well as Dr. L. von Schroder, for the 
verification of a number of Vedic quotations, which they 
kindly undertook for me, as I was unable to use my own 
books of reference during the translation of the work. 

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The case of the Baudhayana Dharma-sutra is in many 
respects analogous to that of the Institutes of the Sacred 
Law, current in the schools of Apastamba and Hira«ya- 
k&rin. Like the latter, it is the work of a teacher of the 
Black Ya^nr-veda, who composed manuals on all the various 
subdivisions of the Kalpa, and founded a Sutra -£ara«a, 
which is said to exist to the present day 1 . The Brahma- 
nical tradition, too, acknowledges these facts, and, instead 
of surrounding Baudhayana's work with a halo of myths, 
simply states that it was originally studied by and autho- 
ritative for the followers of the Taittiriya-veda alone, and 
later only became one of the sources of the Sacred Law 
for all Brahmans 2 . Moreover, the position of Baudhayana 
among the teachers of the Ya^-ur-veda is well denned, and 
his home, or at least the home of his school, is known. 
But here the resemblance stops. For while the Sutras of 
Apastamba and Hirawyak&yin have been preserved in care- 
fully and methodically arranged collections, where a certain 
place is assigned to each section of the Kalpa, no complete 
set of the Sutras of Baudhayana's school has, as yet, been 
found, and the original position of the detached portions 
which are obtainable is not quite certain. Again, while the 
works of Apastamba and Hirawyakerin seem to have been 
kept free from extensive interpolations, several parts of 

1 I must here state that during my residence in India I have never met with 
a follower of Baudhayana's school, and cannot personally vouch for its existence. 
But many Pandits have assured me that many Baudhayantyas are to be found 
among the Telingana and KarnaYaka Brahmans. 

a See Govinda's statement, quoted above, p. xiii. 

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xxx baudhAyana. 

Baudhayana's Sutras have clearly received considerable 
additions from later hands. 

According to the researches of Dr. A. Burnell 1 , whose 
long residence in Southern India and intimate acquaint- 
ance with its Brahmanical libraries have made him the 
first authority on the literature of the schools of the Tait- 
tiriya-veda, the Sutras of Baudhayana consist of six 
sections, viz. i. the .Srauta-sutras, probably in nineteen 
Pramas ; 2. The Karmanta-sutra in twenty Adhyayas ; 3. 
The Dvaidha-sutra in four Pra^nas ; 4. The Gr/hya-sutra 
in four Pramas ; 5. The Dharma-sutra in four Pramas ; 
6. The Sulva-sutra in three Adhyayas. The results of 
the search for Sanskrit MSS. in other parts of India, and 
especially in Western India, do not differ materially from 
those obtained by Dr. Burnell. The Grzhya-sutra, which 
in Western India occasionally bears the title Smarta-sutra 2 , 
contains, however, nine instead of four Pramas. The MSS. 
of the Baudhayana-sutras, which contain the text alone, 
are all incomplete, mostly very corrupt and in bad order, 
and rarely give more than a small number of Pramas on 
detached subjects. The copies in which the text is accom- 
panied by a commentary are in a better condition. Thus 
the Kalpavivarawa of Bhavasvamin 3 extends over the whole 
of the Srauta-sutra, and over the Karmanta and the Dvaidha- 
sutras. It shows the proper sequence of the Pramas on 
.Srauta sacrifices, and that probably the Karmanta and the 
Dvaidha immediately followed the .SVauta-sutra. But there 
is no hint in the MSS. or in the commentaries how the 
G^'hya, Dharma, and »Sulva-sutras were originally placed. 
With respect to these sections, it is only possible to judge 
from the analogy of the other extant sets of Kalpa-sutras 

1 See Burnell, Catalogue of a Collection of Sanskrit MS., pp. 24-26, 28, 34- 
35„andTanjore Catalogue, pp. i8a-2ob, and especially bis remarks at pp. 18b 
and 20 a. 

* This title is found in the best copy known to me, Elphinstone College Col- 
lection of 1867-68, Class B. I, no. 5, which has been prepared from the MS. of 
Mr. Limaye at Ashte. The other copies of the work, found in Western India, 
e. g. no. 4 of the same collection and my own copy, are in a bad state, as they 
are derived from a MS. the leaves of which were out of order. 

8 Burnell, Catalogue of a Collection of Sanskrit MSS., no. LXXXVIII, and 
Tanjore Catalogue, no. CXV1I. 

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and from internal evidence. On these grounds it may be 
shown that the order, adopted by Dr. Burnell, is probably 
the correct one. For the beginning of the Grchya-sutra 1 
shows by its wording that it was not a separate treatise, 
but was immediately connected with some preceding Prama. 
The analogy of the collections of the Apastambtyas, the 
Hairawyakeyas, the Ka/Aas, and other schools permits us 
to infer that it stood after the .Srauta-sutra. It is further 
clear that, in its turn, it was succeeded by the Dharma- 
sutra. For two passages of the latter work, I, a, 3, 15, 
and II, 8, 15, 9, clearly contain references to the Grihya.- 
stitra. In the former, the author gives the rule regarding 
the length of the staff to be carried by a student, as well as 
the general principle that the staff must be cut from a tree 
fit for sacrificial purposes. With respect to the latter clause 
he adds that ' the details have been given above.' As the 
Dharma-sutra contains nothing more on this subject, it 
follows that the expression 'above' must refer to Grthya- 
sutra II, 7, where the usual detailed rules regarding the 
employment of particular woods for the several varwas are 
given. In the second passage Baudhayana says that the 
rules for the performance of funeral sacrifices have been 
fully explained in the section on the Ash/akahoma, which 
occurs Gnhya-sutra II, 17-18. It is, therefore, perfectly 
certain that Baudhayana, just like Apastamba, placed the 
Pramas on the Sacred Law after those on the domestic 
ceremonies, and that the Dharma-sutra was not a separate 
work. Under these circumstances it becomes highly pro- 
bable that the .Sulva-sutra formed, as is the case in other 
sets of Kalpa-sutras, the conclusion of the whole. Thus 
the only treatise, whose position remains doubtful, is the 
Pravarakha#</a, the list of the Brahmanical gotras and of 
their deified ancestors 2 . Possibly it may have stood at the 
end of the .Srauta-sutra. 

1 According to the Elph. Coll. MS., CI. I, B. 5, and my copy, it runs thus: 

TTR MI*UyS^IT ^ffi II 111 rTT W-J^HWIWW: II ^ II 
» Burnell, Catalogue of a Collection of Sanskrit MSS., no. CXVIII. 

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The destruction of the continuity of Baudhayana's Kalpa- 
sutra has had the consequence which is commonly ob- 
servable in other dismembered works, that several of its 
detached portions have received considerable additions 
from later and, as it would seem, from several hands. 
There can be no doubt that a small portion only of the 
nine Pramas, found in the Western copies of the Grihya.- 
sutra, really belongs to Baudhayana. For the description 
of the Grihya. rites, which strictly follows the general plan 
laid down in the first Sutra, is completed in two or three 
Pra^nas 1 . Next follows a Prama on the anukntis, rites 
resembling those comprised in the subdivisions treated 
before, and then a Prama on prayaj&ttas, or expiations 
of mistakes committed during, and of the neglect of, the 
performance of the Grzhya-karmawi. The remaining Pra- 
jnas are filled with a medley of paribhSshas, general rules, 
and of full descriptions of ceremonies, some of which have 
been given before, while others are added afresh. Many 
of the newly-added rites do not belong to the ancient 
Brahmanical worship, but to the Pauranic religions, .the 
service of Siva, Skanda, Narayawa, and other deities, and 
some show an admixture of Tantric elements. In some of 
the later Pramas, especially IV and V, the language closely 
resembles that of the first three, and shows the same stereo- 
typed phrases and the same Vedic anomalous forms. But 
in other sections, particularly VI-IX, we find, instead of 
Sutras, the common AnushAibh >Sloka throughout, and ex- 
pressions peculiar to the metrical Smr/tis and the Purawas. 
At the end of most Adhyayas we read the phrase, ity aha 
Baudhayana^, or bhagavan Baudhayana^, 'thus speaks Bau- 
dhayana, or the divine Baudhayana.' Finally, while the first 
three Pramas are divided into Ka«</ikas or Khandas, the fol- 
lowing ones consist of Adhyayas or chapters. These differ- 
ences, as well as the fact that the most important Grmya 
rites,arranged according to a special plan, are done with in the 

1 Elphinstone College Collection, no. 5, according to which all quotations 
have been made, gives three Prasnas, my own MS. two Prasnas. The number 
of the Khanrfas is, however, the same. , 

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first three Pramas, necessarily lead to the conclusion that 
the whole remainder does not belong to Baudhayana, but 
consists of so-called ParLrish/as, which were composed by 
the adherents of his school. Further, the fact that the last 
six Praraas do not show everywhere the same style and 
language, makes it probable that the additions were made 
at different times and by different persons. 

The Dharma-sutra seems to have undergone exactly the 
same fate as the Grmya-sutra. It will be obvious even to 
the readers of the translation that Its fourth Prania is a later 
addition. It consists of two parts. The first, which ends 
with the fourth Adhyaya, treats of penances, both public and 
secret ones. The second, Adhyayas 5-8, describes the 
means of obtaining siddhi, the fulfilment of one's desires, 
and recommends for this purpose the offering of the 
Ga»ahomas after a previous sanctification of the wor- 
shipper by means of a course of austerities. The first part 
is perfectly superfluous, as the subject of penances has 
already been discussed in the first sections of the second 
Prania, and again in chapters 4-10 of the third Prania. 
Its rules sometimes contradict those given before, and in 
other cases, e.g. IV, a, 10-12, are mere repetitions of pre- 
vious statements. The introduction of the means of gain- 
ing siddhi, on the other hand, is without a parallel in 
other Dharma-sutras, and the subject is entirely foreign to 
the scope of such works. Its treatment, too, shows that 
chapters 5-8 do not belong to the author of the bulk of 
the Dharma-sutra. For the description of the preparatory 
'restraints' or austerities contains somewhat more detailed 
rules for a number of penances, e.g. the Krikkkras and 
the .A'andrayawa, which have already been described in the 
preceding Pramas. Moreover, the style and the language 
of the whole fourth Prania are very different from those of 
the three preceding ones, and the differences observable are 
exactly the same as those between the first five and the last 
four Pramas of the Grjhya-sutra. The epic Sloka nearly 
throughout replaces the aphoristic prose, and the common 
slipshod Sanskrit of the Purawas appears instead of the 
archaic forms. Finally, the fourth Prania is divided into 
[14] c 

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Adhyayas, not into the Kawrfikas or Khandas and Adhyayas 
which are found in the first two Pramas. 

This latter peculiarity is also observable in the third 
Prarna, and raises a suspicion against the genuineness of 
that part also. For, though the third Prama in style and 
language resembles the first two, it is hard to believe that 
the author should, for no apparent reason, suddenly have 
changed the manner of dividing his work towards its end. 
This suspicion is further strengthened by two other circum- 
stances. First, Pramas I— II really exhaust the discussion 
of the whole Dharma, and the third offers supplementary 
information only on some points which have been touched 
upon previously. Secondly, several Adhyayas of Prama 
III seem to have been borrowed from other works, or to 
be abstracts from them. Thus the tenth chapter has cer- 
tainly been taken from the Gautamtya Dharmarastra, the 
sixth bears a very close and suspicious resemblance to 
Vish«u XL VIII 1 , and the third looks very much like a 
short summary of the doctrine of Vikhanas, whose lost 
Sutra contained the original rule of the order of the 
Vaikhanasas or hermits, living in the forest. These cir- 
cumstances justify, it seems to me, the assumption that 
Baudhayana's original Dharma-sutra consisted, like Apa- 
stamba's, of two Pramas only, and that it received, through 
followers of his school, two separate additions, first in 
very ancient times Prama III, where the style of the 
master is strictly followed, and later Prarna IV, where the 
language and phraseology of the metrical Smrz'tis are 
adopted. It ought to be noted that Govindasvamin, too, 
does not take the whole of the four Pramas for Baudha« 
yana's composition. With respect to several passages 2 
where Baudhayana's name is introduced in order to give 
weight to the rules, he says that the Sutras may belong to 
' a pupil.' I do not think that the criterion which he uses 
can be relied on in every case, because oriental authors 
without doubt occasionally speak of themselves as of third 

1 See also Jolly, Sacred Books of the East, vol. vii, p. xix. 
* E.g. Dhanna-sfltra III, 5, 7. 

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persons. But the fact that the commentator, though an 
orthodox Hindu", had misgivings as to the genuineness of 
portions of the work, is not without significance. It seems 
also that even the first two Pramas are not quite free from 
interpolations. Thus the Ka.ndik&s on the Tarpawa 1 are cer- 
tainly much enlarged by additions, the verse at 1, 5, n, $6, 
a repetition of I, 5, 9, 5, and some prose quotations which 
are introduced by the words athapy udaharanti, ' now they 
quote also,' standing usually before verses only, are at least 
suspicious. That the genuineness of many single passages 
should be doubtful, is no more than might be expected, not 
only on account of the separation of the Dharma-sutra 
from the other parts of the Kalpa, but also because the 
work, as we shall see further on, remained for a long time 
without the protection of a commentary. The practical 
conclusion to be drawn from this state of things is that 
the greatest caution must be observed in using the Baudha- 
yana Dharma-sutra for historical purposes, and that it will 
be advisable to draw no inferences regarding Baudhayana's 
relation to other teachers and schools from the last two 
Pramas, and not to trust too much to historical inferences 
drawn from single passages of the first two. 

The position which Baudhayana occupies among the 
teachers of the Taittiriya-veda has already been discussed 
in the Introduction to Apastamba. It has been shown 
that according to the Brahmanical tradition preserved by 
Mahadeva, the commentator of the Hira«yak&ri-sutras, he 
composed the first Sutra for the followers of his Sakha. 
Internal and external evidence has also been adduced, 
proving that he certainly was more ancient than Apa- 
stamba and Hirawyakerin. It is now possible to bring 
forward some further facts bearing on these points. First, 
in the section on the Tarpa«a, the libations of water offered 
to various deities, Z?*shis, and the manes, II, 5, 9, 14, Ka«va 
Baudhayana receives his share immediately after the Risbis 
of the Veda and before Apastamba, the Sutrakara, and 

1 Baudhayana Dharma-sfitra II, 5, 8-9. 
C 2 

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Satyashad^a Hirawyakejin. The same order is observed in 
the distribution of the offerings at the Sarpabali, described in 
the GWhya-sutra 1 , where the following teachers of the Ya^nir- 
veda are specially named, viz. Vauampayana, Phulingu, 
Tittiri, Ukha, Aukhya, Atreya the author of the Pada-text, 
Kau#d?inya the author of the commentary, Ka«va Baudha- 
yana the author of the Prava/fena, Apastamba the author 
of the Sutra, and Satyasha^a Hirawyakerin. Neither of 
these two passages belongs to Baudhayana. They are both 
clearly interpolations. But they show that Mahadeva's 
statement, which makes Baudhdyana the first expounder 
of the Kalpa among the Taittiriyavedins, agrees with the 
tradition of the Baudhayanlyas themselves. For not only 
the place allotted to Baudhayana's name, but still more the 
title Prava£anakara which he receives, show that the fol- 
lowers of his school placed him before and above all other 
teachers of the ritual. The term prava£ana, which literally 
means ' proclaiming or recitation,' has frequently the technical 
sense of ' oral instruction,' and is applied both to the tradi- 
tional lore contained in the Brahmawas, and to the more 
systematic teaching of the Angas *. If, therefore, a teacher 
is called the author of the Prava£ana of a Sakha, that can 
only mean that he is something more than a common 
Sutrakara, and is considered to be the originator of the 
whole system of instruction among its followers. The 
epithet Ka«va, which Baudhayana receives in both the 
passages quoted above, indicates that he belonged to the 
Vedic Gotra of the Kawvas. It deserves to be noted that 
Govindasvamin, too, on I, 3, 5, 13, explains the name 
Baudhayana by Ka#vayana s . 

1 Baudhayana Gnhya-6Utra IV, 8 (fol. 29, B. 5, Elph. Coll. copy, no. 5), ^f5| 

^ftspBTr: nr^hr^rhrt «ft (?) ^pthhijj ■gfss^ fHfw*:i wiIot- 
?Nto v<*H.m wftB^rnr ^ftratrcTT ^rnpnr «rrvifl«im in*H«(ircT- 
imrer^TTj ^pntra vwwwm fftw^rrn (?) <*rww ■wUri^ 

*fi|l^wr *!<*»lg|1*<i: irann*ftfW ll See also Weber, Hist. Ind. Lit, p. 91 
note; Max Miiller, Hist. Anc. Sanslc. Lit., p. 323; Bumell, Catalogue of a 
Collection of Sanskrit MSS., p. 14, no. LIII. 

* See Max Miiller, Hist. Anc. Sansk. Lit., p. 109. 

• The discovery that Baudhayana bore also the name Kanva makes it possible 

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The style of Baudhayana's works furnishes, as Dr. 
Burnell has pointed out 1 , another argument for their high 
antiquity. Compared with the Sutras of Apastamba and 
Hirawyakerin they are much simpler in their arrangement, 
and the complete absence of that anxiety to save ' half a 
vowel ' which characterises the fully developed Sutra-style 
is very remarkable. The last point has been noticed by 
Govindasvamin also. In commenting on I, a, 3, 17-18, 
where Baudhayana first permits students to beg food of 
men of all castes, and afterwards explains that he means 
Aryans who follow their lawful occupations, he says 2 , '(If 
anybody should ask), "Why give two Sutras, while one 
Sutra, ('A student shall ask) Aryans who follow their 
lawful occupations,' would have sufficed?" (his objection 
will be) correct. For this teacher is not particularly 
anxious to make his book short.' In other cases we find 
a certain awkwardness in the distribution of the subject 
matter, which probably finds its explanation through the 
fact that Baudhayana first attempted to bring the teaching 
of the Taittirtyas on the Dharma into a systematic form. 
Thus the rules on the law of inheritance are given without 
any apparent necessity and against the custom of the other 
Sutrakaras in two different chapters, I, 5, 11, 9-16 and II, 
a, 3, 1-44. The section on purification, too, is divided into 
two separate portions, I, 4, 6—10 and I, 6, 13-15, and the 
second, which treats of the purification of the vessels at 
sacrifices, properly ought to have been placed into the 
•Srauta-sutra, not into the Dharma-sutra. Again, the dis- 
cussion of several topics is repeatedly interrupted by the 
introduction of rules belonging to different subjects, and 
Govindasvamin's ingenuity is often taxed to the utmost in 
order to find the reason why certain Sutras which appa- 

to refer Apastamba' s quotation of an opinion of a K&nva, 1, 6, 19, 7, to Baudha- 
yana, instead of to a teacher of the White Yajiir-veda, Sacred Books of the 
East, vol. ii, p. xxvi. 

1 Tanjore Catalogue, p. aob. 

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rently are unconnected with the main subject have been 
inserted. A third argument for the great antiquity of 
Baudhayana's Stitras, derived from the archaic character 
of some of his doctrines, has been discussed in the Intro- 
duction to Apastamba \ The number of instances where 
Baudhayana's rules are based on a more ancient order of 
ideas than Apastamba's might be increased very con- 
siderably. But, as now the comparison of the two works 
is open to all students, I omit the cases contained in the 
two Dharma-sutras, and content myself with adducing one 
more from the less accessible Gnhya-sutras. It is a well- 
known fact that the ancient Vedic ritual in certain cases 
admitted .Sudras, and particularly the Rathakara or car- 
penter, who, according to all accounts, has .Sudra blood in 
his veins, to a participation in the .Srauta rites. The 
Taittirfya-brahmawa even gives certain Mantras to be re- 
cited by the Rathakara at the Agnyadhana sacrifice 2 . 
Now Baudhayana, who, Dh. S. I, 9, 17, 6, derives the 
origin of the Rathakaras from a VaLrya male and .SGdra 
female, apparently reckons him amongst the twice-born, 
and explicitly allows him to receive the sacrament of the 
initiation. He says, Gnhya-sutra II, 5, 8-9, 'Let him 
initiate a Brahmawa in spring, a Kshatriya in summer, a 
VaLrya in autumn, a Rathakara in the rainy season ; or all 
of them in spring 3 .' But Apastamba, who shows great 
hostility against the mixed castes, and emphatically denies 
the right of Sudras to be initiated, gives the same rule 
regarding the seasons for the initiation both in his G^hya 
and Dharma-sutras *. He, however, omits the Rathakara in 
both cases. There can be no doubt that Apastamba's 
exclusion of the carpenter, which agrees with the senti- 
ments prevailing in modern Brahmanical society, is an off- 
shoot of a later doctrine, and as both he and Baudhayana 

1 Sacred Books of the East, vol. ii, pp. xviii-xx. 

* See Weber, Indische Studien X, ia. 

' ^^ efUHUyMHiTtrl ?fV^ TT*P«i ?Itf^ *N*T ^^TW CTOT(f*ffr lit II 

* Grihya-staa II, 4, 10, 5 ; Dharma-sCtra 1, 1, 1, 18. 

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belong to the same vidyavawwa, or spiritual family, this 
difference may be used as an argument for his posteriority 
to Baudhayana. In connexion with this rule of Baudhayana's 
it ought to be mentioned that even in the present day certain 
subdivisions of the modern Sutars or carpenters actually 
wear the Brahmanical thread, and, in spite of the adverse 
teaching of the Sastras, find Brahmans willing to perform 
the ceremony of investiture for them. 

While it thus appears not incredible that Baudhayana 
really was the first Sutrakara of the Taittiriyas, the 
numerous quotations which his works contain, permit us 
to form an idea of the extent of the Vedic and profane 
literature known to him. Among the Vedic works which 
he adduces as authorities, or otherwise refers to, the three 
sections of the Taittirlya-veda, the Sawhita, the Brahmawa, 
and the Ara#yaka, naturally take the first place. For the 
Arawyaka he seems to have used the Andhra version, as 
Dh. S. II, 10, 1 8, 7, ii references to the seventy-first 
Anuvaka of the tenth Prapa^aka occur. Two long pas- 
sages, Dh. S. I, a, 4, 3-8 ; II, 6, 1 1, 1-8, which apparently 
have been taken from the .Satapatha-brahmawa, testify to his 
acquaintance with the White Ya^ur-veda. Baudhayana does 
not say expressly that he quotes from the Brahma«a of the 
Va^asaneyins, but Govinda has no hesitation in pointing to 
the Satapatha as their source. It is remarkable that the 
fact noticeable in Apastamba's quotation from the Sata- 
patha reappears here, and that the wording of the two 
quotations does not fully agree with the printed text of 
the Brahmawa. The differences in the first passage are, 
no doubt, partly owing to corruptions and interpolations 
in Baudhayana's text; but that cannot be said of the 
second 1 . References to the Sama-veda and the Samans 
occur repeatedly, and the passage from the Nidana of 
Bhallavins regarding the geographical extent of true Brah- 

1 Professor Eggeling has lately discussed the question of the discrepancies 
between Apastamba's quotations from the Brahmana of the Vag-asaneyins and 
the existing text. I can only agree with him that we must wait for a comparison 
of all those quoted, with both the recensions of the 5atapatha, before we draw 
further inferences from the fact. See Sacred Books of the East, vol. xii, p. xl. 

Digitized by 


xl baudhAyana. 

manical learning, which Vasish/Aa adduces, is given I, i, a, 
11-13. From the Rig-veda a few expiatory hymns and 
verses, such as the Aghamarshawa and the Taratsamandis, 
are quoted. The Atharva-veda is not referred to by name, 
but the existence of Atharva#a schools may be inferred 
from the mention made of the vows called Siras, II, 8, 14, a. 
Among the authorities on the Sacred Law, mentioned in 
the Dharma-sutra, Katya I, a, 3, 46, Maudgalya II, a, 4, 8, 
and Aupa^andhani II, 2, 3, 33, do not occur in other works 
of the same class 1 . Hartta, who is mentioned II, 1, a, 21, 
and who probably was a teacher of the Maitraya«iya 
school, is named by VasishA&a and Apastamba also. The 
Gautama who is quoted I, 1, a, 7 and II, a, 4, 17, is, as has 
been shown in the Introduction to Gautama, most probably 
the author of the still existing Institutes of Gautama. To 
the arguments for the latter view, adduced there, I may 
add that two other passages of the Dharma-sutra, II, 6, 1 1, 
15 and 36, point to a close connexion between Baudhayana's 
and Gautama's works. The former of the two Sutras 
contains, with the exception of one small clause in the 
beginning, exactly the same description of the duties of a 
hermit in the forest as that given by Gautama III, 36-35. 
The second Sutra states, just as Gautama's rule III, 36, 
that the venerable teacher (a£Aryl^) prescribes one order 
only, that of the householders. The reason given for this 
opinion differs, however, according to Baudhayana, from that 
adduced in Gautama's text. The almost literal identity 
of the first long passage makes it not improbable that 
Baudhayana borrowed in this instance also from Gautama 
without noting the source from which he drew. On the 
other hand, the argument drawn from the fact that the 
tenth Adhyaya of Prajna III has been taken from Gautama's 
Sutra loses its force since, as I have shown above, it is 
improbable that the third Prama formed part of Baudha- 

1 Possibly Kasyapa, whose name occurs in a 51 oka, I, n, 21, a, may also be 
an ancient teacher to whom Baudhayana refers. In the Grthya-sutra a teacher 
called Saliki is repeatedly quoted, and once, 1, 11 (end), his opinion is contrasted 
with that of Baudhayana and of Aiarya, i.e. Baudhayana's teacher. The 
Grihya-sutra refers also to Atreya, KasakWtsna, and Badari. 

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yana's original work. A metrical work on the Sacred Law 
seems to be quoted II, 2, 4, 14-15. For, as the second 
verse, adduced there, says that the penance for one who 
violated his Guru's bed ha3 been declared above, it seems 
impossible to assume that the two .Slokas belonged to the 
versified maxims of the Dharma current among the learned 
Brahmans. If this quotation is not an interpolation, it 
proves that, side by side with the Dharma-sutras, metrical 
treatises on the Sacred Law existed in very early times \ 
One quotation, finally, which gives averse from the dialogue 
of the daughters of ILranas and VWshaparvan seems to 
have been taken from an epic poem. The verse is actually 
found in the Mahabharata I, 78, 10, and again 34, where 
the altercation between 6armish/^a and Devayant forms 
part of the Yayatyupakhyana. Considering what has been 
said above regarding the state of the text of the Dharma- 
sutra, and our imperfect knowledge of the history of the 
Mahabharata, it would be hazardous to assert that the 
verse proves Baudhayana's acquaintance with Vyasa's great 
epic. It will be safer to wait for further proofs that it was 
known to the Sutraklras, before one bases far-going specu- 
lations on this hitherto solitary quotation. 

The arguments which maybe brought forward to show that 
Baudhayana's home lay in Southern India are not as strong 
as those which permit us to determine the native country 
of Apastamba. The portions of the Sutras, known to me, 
contain no direct mention of the south except in the dera- 
nir«aya or disquisition on the countries, Dharma-sutra I, i,a, 
where certain peculiar customs of the southern Brahmans 
are enumerated, and some districts of Southern India, e.g. 
Kalinga, are referred to as barbarous countries which must 
not be visited by Aryans. These utterances show an 
acquaintance with the south, but by no means prove that 
Baudhayana lived there. A more significant fact is that 
Baudhayana declares, I, 1, a, 4, 'going to sea' to be a 
custom prevailing among the northern Br&hmans, and after- 
wards, II, 1, 32, places that act at the head of the Pata- 

1 See also West and Buhler, Digest of Hindu Law Cases, p. xxvii, 2nd ed. 

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xlii baudhAyana. 

niyas, the more serious offences causing loss of caste. It is 
probable that by the latter rule he wished to show his stand- 
point as a southerner. But the most conclusive argument 
in favour of the southern origin of the Baudhayaniyas is 
that they, like the Apastambiyas and all other adherents 
of the Taittiriya schools, are entirely confined to the Dekhan, 
and are not found among the indigenous subdivisions of the 
Brahmans in Central and Northern India. This fact is, if not 
explicitly stated, at least implied by the passage of the 
Mahar«ava quoted in the Introduction to Apastamba 1 . It 
is proved by the present state of things, and by the evidence 
of the land grants of the southern dynasties, several of which 
have been made in favour of Baudhayaniyas. Thus we find 
a grant of Bukkaraya, the well-known ruler of V^ayana- 
gara 2 , dated Sakasa*«vat 1276 or 1354-5 A.D., in which a 
Brahmawa, studying the Baudhayantya-sfttra, is mentioned 
as the donee of a village in Maisur. Again, in an inscrip- 
tion of Nandivarman Pallavamalla, which its editor, the 
Rev. Mr. Foulkes, places in the ninth century A.D. 3 , a con- 
siderable number of Brihma«as of the Prava^ana-sfttra 
are named as recipients of the royal bounty, together with 
some followers of the Apastambha 4 school. As we have 
seen that Baudhayana is called in the Grs'hya-stitra the 
Prava£anakara, it is not doubtful that the Pravafcana- 
sCltra of this inscription is the Sfitra of his school. The 
villages which the grantees received from Nandivarman 
were situated on the Palar river in the Kitt&t districts 
of the Madras Presidency. Besides, the interesting tradi- 
tion which asserts that Madhava-Sayawa, the great com- 
mentator of the Vedas, was a Baudhayanlya 6 is another 
point which may be brought forward as evidence for 
the location of the school in Southern India. Further, 

1 Sacred Books of the East, vol. ii, p. xxx ; see also L. von Schroder, Maitra- 
yantya Samhitd, p. xxvii. 

* Journal of the Bombay Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society, XII, 349-351. 

* Indian Antiquary, VIII, 273-384. 

* As all the older inscriptions hitherto published give Apastambha instead of 
Apastamba, I am now inclined to consider the former as the original form 
of the name. 

8 Bumell, Tanjore Catalogue, p. 20 b, remarks on no. CCXXVI. 

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it must not be forgotten that most and the best MSS. of 
Baudhayana's Sutras are found in Southern India. There 
are also some faint indications that the Andhra country is 
the particular district to which Baudhayana belonged. For 
his repeated references to voyages by sea and his rule 
regarding the duty payable on goods imported by sea 
show that he must have lived in a coast district where 
sea-borne trade nourished, and the fact that he uses the 
Andhra recension of the Taittirtya Arawyaka makes it 
probable that he was an inhabitant of the eastern coast. 

My estimate of the distance between Baudhayana and 
Apastamba and of that between the latter and the historical 
period of India has been given in the Introduction to Apa- 
stamba, pp. xxii and xliii, and I have nothing further to 
add on that subject. The oldest witness for the existence 
of the Srauta-sutra of Baudhayana is its commentator Bha- 
vasvamin, whom Dr. Burnell places in the eighth century 
A. D. The Dharma-sutra is first quoted by V^anervara, 
circiter 1080 -noo A.D. Several of the passages adduced 
by him are, however, not traceable in the MSS. 

As regards the materials on which the translation is based, 
I had at my disposal six MSS. of the text and two copies 
of Govindasvamin's commentary, the Bodhayantya-dhar- 
mavivarawa 1 , one of which (C. I.) gives the text also. These 
MSS. belong to two chief groups, a northern and a southern 
one. The northern group contains two subdivisions. The 
first comprises (1) D., a MS. bought by me for the Govern- 
ment of Bombay at Ahmadabad (no. 6 of the Dekhan Col- 
lege collection of 1868-69), and about one hundred or one 
hundred and fifty years old ; (a) P., an old MS. of my own 
collection, bought in 1865 at Pu«a; (3, 4) B. and Bh., two 
modern transcripts, made for me in Baroda and Bombay. 
Among these, D. alone is of real value, as P., B., and Bh. 
faithfully reproduce all its clerical errors and add a good 
many new ones. The second subdivision of the northern 
group is represented by K., a modern transcript, made for 

1 It ought to be noted that in the south of India the forms Bodhayana and 
Bodhayantya are invariably used for Baudhayana and Baudhayanlya. But it 
seems to me that the southerners are in error, as the affix ayana requires 
vriddhi in the first syllable. 

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xliv baudhAyana. 

the Government of Bombay at Kolhapur in the southern 
MaraAfca country (Elphinstone College collection of 1867- 
68, Class VI, no. 3). The MSS. of the northern group, which 
give the vulgata current since the times of Nilakaw/Aa (1650 
A.D.) and MitramLrra (circiter 1700 A.D.) in Western and 
Central India, can be easily recognised by the omission of 
the third Adhyaya of Prama IV, and by their placing IV, 
5, 1 b-35 after IV, 7, 7. One of the chief differences between 
K. and the other MSS. of the northern group is the omis- 
sion of II, 5, 8, 4-II, 6, 11, 15 in the latter. The southern 
group of MSS. is formed by M., a slovenly Devanagari tran- 
script of a Grantha MS., no. T V*V of the Madras Government 
collection 1 , and by the text of C. I., a Devanagari copy of 
the MS. of Govindasvamin's commentary, presented by 
Dr. Burnell to the India Office library 2 . The second copy of 
the commentary, C. T., a Telugu paper MS. from Tanjore, 
I owe to the kindness of Dr. Burnell. 

As might be expected, on account of the southern origin 
of the Baudhayaniya school, M. gives on the whole the best 
form of the text. It also carefully marks the Ka«</ikas s in 
the first two Pramas, ignoring the Adhyayas altogether, and 
contains at the end of each Prama the first words of each 
Ka«<#ka, beginning with the last and ending with the first, 
after the fashion which prevails in the MSS. of the Taittiriya 
Sawhita, Brahmawa, and Arawyaka. Very close to M. comes 
Govinda's copy, where, however, as in most northern MSS., 
the Adhyayas alone are marked. It is, however, perfectly cer- 
tain that in some very difficult passages, which are disfigured 
by ancient corruptions, he corrected the text conjecturally*. 
In a certain number of cases the northern MSS. present 
better and older readings than M. and C. I. 6 Under these 

1 Taylor, Catalogue Raisonnee (!), I, p. 190. The clerical errors in my tran- 
script are exceedingly numerous, and mostly owing to the faulty rendering of 
the value of the Grantha characters, which seem not to have been familiar to 
the copyist. There are also some small lacunae, and the last leaf has been lost. 

* See Burnell, Catalogue of a Collection of MSS., p. 35, no. CXVII. 

* I alone am responsible for the title Kanaka, given to the small sections. 
M. marks only the figures. D. and the better northern MSS. show only breaks 
at the end of the Kanakas and their first words at the end of the Prasnas. 

4 See e.g. Dharma-sutra I, 2, 3, 35, note. 

* See e. g. Dharma-sutra I, 5, II, 35 ; II, 1, a, 36; II, a, 3, 3 ; II, a, 4, 10; 
II, 3, 6, 3; II, 7, 1 a, 5; III.9, a - 

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circumstances it has not been possible to follow the commen- 
tary or M. throughout. Though they had to be made the 
basis, they had in many passages to be set aside in favour of 
readings of the northern group. In some cases I have also 
been obliged to make conjectural emendations, which have 
all been mentioned in the notes. Three Sutras, I, 8, \6, 
13-15, have been left untranslated, because the MSS. offer no 
safe basis for a conjectural restoration, and the commentary 
is defective. 

Govinda, who, as Dr. Burnell informs me, is said to be a 
modern writer, seems to have composed his vivarawa with- 
out the aid of older vre'ttis. Though he apparently was 
well acquainted with the writings belonging to the Taitti- 
rtya-veda, with the ritual and with the common law-books, 
he has not succeeded in explaining all the really difficult pas- 
sages. Sometimes he is clearly mistaken, and frequently 
he passes by in silence words or whole Sutras, the sense or 
the general bearing of which is by no means certain. Though 
it would be ungrateful on my part to underrate the import- 
ance of his work for my translation, I cannot place him in 
the same rank with Haradatta, the commentator of Apa- 
stamba and Gautama, and can only regret that no older 
commentary based on the living tradition of the Baudha- 
yantyas has been available. If such a work were found, 
better readings and better explanations of many difficult 
passages would probably come to light. With the materials 
at my disposal the translation has been a work of some 
difficulty, and in trying to settle the text I have often expe- 
rienced the feeling of insecurity which comes over the 
decipherer of a difficult inscription when the facsimiles are 
bad. The short Adhyaya on adoption, given in the appendix 
to the Dharma-sutra, has been taken from the Smarta or 
Gr«hya-sutra. It does not belong to Baudhayana, but is 
frequently quoted by the writers on civil law, who wrote in 
the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries of our era. 

Digitized by 


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Digitized by VjOOQlC 

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Chapter I. 

i. Now, therefore, the desire to know the sacred 
law for their welfare (should arise) in (initiated) men. 

2. He who knows and follows the (sacred law is 
called) a righteous man. 

3. He becomes most worthy of praise in this 
world and after death gains heaven. 

4. The sacred law has been settled by the re- 
vealed texts and by the tradition (of the sages). 

5. On failure of (rules given in) these (two 
sources) the practice of the .Sish/as (has) authority. 

6. But he whose heart is free from desire (is 
called) a vSlshfo. 

7. (Acts sanctioned by) the sacred law (are those) 
for which no (worldly) cause is perceptible. 

I. 1. The word 'now' serves, in this as in analogous cases, 
various purposes. It marks the beginning of the book, serves as 
an auspicious invocation (mangala), and indicates that something 
else, the initiation, must precede the study of the sacred law. 
'Therefore' means 'because, after initiation, the neophyte is to be 
taught the prescribed rules regarding personal purification.' — 
Kr«sh»apa«<iita. For the wording of the Sutra compare the be- 
ginning of Gaimini's MtmSwsi-sutras. 

3-6. Gautama I, 1-4 ; XXVIII, 48. 

7. The Sutra contains a limitation of Sutra 5. It indicates that 
the customs of the .Sish/as, for which worldly motives are per- 
ceptible, have no authority, and are not to be followed. The 
principle enunciated is one inculcated by the Mimawsakas (P. M. S. 

[14] B 

Digitized by 


VASISH7WA. 1, 8. 

8. The country of the Aryas (Aryavarta) lies to 
the east of the region where (the river Sarasvat!) 
disappears, to the west of the Black-forest, to the 
north of the Paripatra (mountains), to the south of 
the Himalaya. 

9. (According to others it lies to the south of the 
Himalaya) and to the north of the Vindhya range 
(being limited east and west by the two oceans). 

10. Acts productive of spiritual merit, and customs 
which (are approved of) in that country, must be 
everywhere acknowledged (as authoritative) ; 

1 1 . But not different ones, (i.e. those) of (countries 
where) laws opposed (to those of Aryavarta prevail). 

I, 3, 3-4). See also Apastamba I, 1, 4, 5-10; I, 4, 12, 8; and 
Introduction, p. xxvii. Kr*'sh«apa»<fita has misunderstood the 
Sutra. He reads, against the MSS., agr/'hyaml«ak&ra»o 'dharmaA, 
' unlawful acts are those for which no motive, i. e. no sacred source 
such as the Vedas, is perceptible.' 

8. The region where the river Sarasvatf disappears is the Pat- 
tiilS district in the The ParipStra mountains belong to 
the great Vindhya range, and are probably the hills in Malva. The 
position of the K&lakavana or Black-forest is not accurately known. 
But it must probably be sought in BiMr. All the MSS. as well as 
Kr/'sh»apa«<fita read in this Sutra prSgSdarran&t instead of pri- 
gadawan&t, 'to the east of the region where the river Sarasvati 
disappears.' This circumstance gains some importance by the fact 
that the Mah&bhlshya on PSwini II, 4, 10, quotes the same defini- 
tion of the Aryivarta, giving, however, instead of adamn&t pr&- 
g£darr&t, 'to the east of Adam, i.e. the Adawa mountains.' It seems 
to me not improbable that our Sutra, too, had originally prag&dardt, 
and that some Pandit who knew nothing about the Adawa hills, 
but remembered Manu II, 21, and Baudhayana 1, 1, 25, where the 
word vinafan&t, ' the disappearance of the Sarasvati,' undoubtedly 
occurs, added the syllable na and forgot to correct the a, after 

9. The translation follows Kr/'sh«apa»</ita's commentary, which 
recommends itself on account of the analogous definition of Arya- 
varta given by Manu II, 22. 

1 1. My translation follows the text given by Kr/'sh«apa»</ita and 

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1 2. Some (declare the country of the Aryas to be 
situated) between the (rivers) Gariga and Yamuna. 

13. Others (state as) an alternative, that spiritual 
pre-eminence (is found) as far as the black antelope 

14. Now the Bhallavins quote also (the following) 
verse in the Nidana : 

15. 'In the west the boundary-river, in the east 

B., and the explanation of the former, because it seems to me 
that the general sense which they give, is the correct one. I feel, 
however, not certain that the word pratilomakadharmaw&m, 'of 
those countries where opposite laws prevail,' is more than a care- 
less correction. The majority of the MSS. read pratilomakaksha- 
dharmawaA (kalpadharma»a^), which by itself is difficult of expla- 
nation. But, as the text of the next Sutra contains an apparently 
superfluous phrase, I fear, we shall have to admit that the text is 
here disfigured by corruptions, which with our present MSS. it 
is impossible to remove with certainty. 

12. Knsh»apa«</ita reads this Sutra 'etad ary&vartam ityS£a- 
kshate gangayamunayor antarelyeke,' and takes it as one sentence, 
the subject of which is ' eke.' I feel no doubt that this explanation 
is utterly untenable, and that the first four words have nothing to do 
with this Sutra, the second part of which occurs also in the Bau- 
dhayana Dharma-sutra I, 1, 27. My opinion is that they originally 
belonged to Sutra n, though the state of the MSS. at my disposal 
does not allow me to say how Sutra 1 1 has to be corrected. The 
general sense of Sutra 12 is, however, perfectly certain. 

13. Manu II, 23 ; Yi^wavalkya I, 2. It deserves to be noted 
that the black antelope (black-buck), Oryx cervicapra, selects for 
its home the well-cultivated, rich plains of India only, and is entirely 
wanting in the sandy, mountainous or forest districts, which are now, 
just as in ancient times, the portion of the aboriginal tribes. 

14. Regarding the Bhallavins, see Max M tiller, History of 
Ancient Sanskrit Literature, pp. 193, 364. Krj'shwapanaTita thinks 
that Nidana means dejanir«aya, ' the disquisition on the countries,' 
which is the title of a section which occurs in most modern com- 
pilations on law. But it will be safer to take it as the name of a 
Vedic work, identical with or similar to that quoted in .Saunaka's 
Bri haddevata, Weber, Hist. Ind. Lit., p. 81. 

15. Sindhur vidhararci or vidhara«i, as B. reads, cannot be 

B 2 

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VASISH7V7A. I, 16. 

the region where the sun rises, — as far as the black 
antelope wanders (between these two limits), so far 
spiritual pre-eminence (is found).' 

16. ' Those religious acts which men, deeply 
versed in the knowledge of the three Vedas and 
acquainted with the sacred law, declare to be lawful, 
(are efficient) for purifying oneself and others.' 

1 7. Manu has declared that the (peculiar) laws of 
countries, castes, and families (may be followed) in 
the absence of (rules of) the revealed texts. 

18. Sinful men are, he who sleeps at sunrise or 
at sunset, he who has deformed nails or black teeth, 
he whose younger brother was married first, he who 
married before his elder brother, the husband of a 
younger sister married before the elder, the husband 
of an elder sister whose younger sister was married 
first, he who extinguishes the sacred fires, (and) he 
who forgets the Veda through neglect of the daily 

taken with Kn'sh»apa«<fita, as ' the ocean,' because in the latter 
sense sindhu is a masculine. It must be a boundary-river, pro- 
bably the Sarasvatf. By suryasyodana, 'the region where the 
sun rises,' the udayagiri or 'mountain of the east' may possibly 
be meant. 

16. This verse, too, is marked as a quotation by the concluding 
word iti, though it is not necessary that it should be taken as a 
quotation from the Nid&na. Here, and in the sequel verses ending 
in iti are marked as quotations by hyphens. 

17. Manu VII, 203 ; VIII, 41 ; Gautama XI, 20. GM, ' castes,' 
which sometimes, and perhaps as appropriately, has been translated 
by ' tribes,' denotes in my opinion those numerous subdivisions of 
the four great varwas, which we now find all over India, and which 
can be shown to have existed for a very long time. Usually the 
word 'caste' is also applied to them. 

18. Kr*'sh»apa«</ita explains viraha, 'he who extinguishes the 
sacred fires,' by ' the destroyer of his sons or of his spiritual clients ' 

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19. They state that there are five mortal sins 

20. (Viz. violating) a Guru's bed, drinking (the 
spirituous liquor called) sura, slaying a learned 
Brahmawa, stealing the gold of a Brahma#a, and 
associating with outcasts, 

21. Either by (entering into) spiritual or matri- 
monial (connexion with them). 

2 2. Now they quote also (the following verse) : ' He 
who during a year associates with an outcast becomes 
(likewise) an outcast ; not by sacrificing for him, by 
teaching him or by (forming) a matrimonial (alliance 
with him), but by using the same carriage or seat." 

23. A minor offence causing loss of caste (upa- 
pataka, is committed by him) who (after beginning 
an Agnihotra sacrifice) forsakes the sacred fires, and 
by him who offends a Guru, by an atheist, by him 
who takes his livelihood from atheists, and by him 
who sells the Soma (plant). 

24. Three wives (are permitted) to a Brahma»a 
according to the order of the castes, two to a 
Kshatriya, one to a Vawya and to a .Sudra. 

(ya^umana) ; but the rules given below, XX, n, and XXI, 27, in the 
section on penances, confirm the explanation given above. 

20. Vishmi XXXV, 1-2. Guru means here the father, see 
below, XX, 15. 

21. Vishwu XXXV, 3-5. Spiritual connexion, i.e. becoming 
the teacher or priest of an outcast, or his pupil or spiritual client 

22. Identical with Manu XI, 181. It must be understood that 
spiritual or matrimonial connexion with an outcast causes immediate 
degradation, as Vishmi states expressly. 

23. Vish«u XXXVII, 6, 31; Gautama XXI, 11. Regarding the 
precise meaning of prati^ahnuyat, 'offends,' see below, XXI, 27. 

24-25. Manu III,i3; Ya^wavalkya I, 57 ; P&raskara Gnhya- 
sutral, 4, 8-1 1. 

Digitized by 


VASISHFffA. I, 25. 

25. Some declare (that twice-born men may 
j marry) even a female of the .Sudra caste, like 
J j those (other wives), without (the recitation of) 
' Vedic texts. 
/ 26. Let him not act thus. 

2 7. For in consequence of such (a marriage) the 
degradation of the family certainly ensues, and after 
death the loss of heaven. 

28. There are six marriage-rites, 

29. (Viz.) that of Brahman (brahma), that of the 
gods (daiva), that of the .tf/shis (arsha), that of the 
Gandharvas (gandharva), that of the Kshatriyas 
(kshatra), and that of men (manusha). 

30. If the father, pouring out a libation of water, 
gives his (daughter) to a suitor, that (is called) the 

31. If (the father) gives his daughter, decking her 
with ornaments, to an officiating priest, whilst a sacri- 
fice is being performed, that is called the Daiva-rite. 

32. And (if the father gives his daughter) for a 
cow and a bull, (that is called) the Arsha-rite. 

33. If a lover takes a loving female of equal 
caste, that (is called) the Gandharva-rite. 

34. If they forcibly abduct (a damsel), destroying 
(her relatives) by strength (of arms), that (is called) 
the Kshatra-rite. 

35. If, after making a bargain (with the father, a 

26-27. Manu III, 14-19. 28. Apastamba II, 5, 11, 17-20. 

30. Vishzm XXIV, 19; A^valayana G/Vhya-sfitra I, 6, i. 

31. Vish«u XXIV, 20; Asvalayana Gr/'hya-sfltra I, 6, 2. 

32. Vish«u XXIV, 21; Afvalayana Gri'hya-sfltra I, 6, 3. 

33. Vish«u XXIV, 23 ; Arvalayana Gnhya-sfttra I, 6, 5. 

34. Vish»u XXIV, 25 ; Axvalayana Grj'hya-sfltra I, 6, 8. 

35. Vish/m XXIV, 24 ; Arvalayana Gr**hya-sfitra I, 6, 6. 

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suitor) marries (a damsel) purchased for money, that 
(is called) the Manusha-rite. 

36. The purchase (of a wife) is mentioned in the 
following passage of the Veda, ' Therefore one 
hundred (cows) besides a chariot should be given 
to the father of the bride.' 

37. (It is stated) in (the following passage of) the 
-ATaturmasyas, 'She (forsooth) who has been bought 
by her husband (commits sin, as) afterwards she 
unites herself with strangers.' 

38. Now they quote also (the following verse): 
' Lost learning comes back ; when the family is lost 
all is lost. Even a horse becomes estimable on 
account of its pedigree ; therefore men marry wives 
descended from an (unblemished) family. 

39. The three (lower) castes shall live according 
to the teaching of the Brahmawa. 

36. .Sinkhayana G/7hya-sutra I, 14; Paraskara Grihya-sutra 
1, 8, 18 ; Apastamba II, 6, 13, 12. Though Vasish/fta's quotation is 
less complete than Apastamba's, still the following Sutras show 
that he knew the conclusion of the passage, and does not take it as 
an authority for the sale of a daughter. 

37. Kr«'sh«apa«rfita makes a mistake by connecting the word 
' Hturmasyeshu ' with the next Sutra. He is right in saying that 
' the .tf'aturmasyas ' is the name of a book. It is, however, not a 
separate work, but the ka»<fa or section of a Vedic work treating 
of the A'aturmisya sacrifices (see Max Mttller, Hist Anc. Sansk. 
Lit., p. 355). The particular work from which our quotation has 
been taken, is either the Maitrayawiya Sawhitt, or the Kanaka. 
For, as Dr. von Schroeder informs me, Maitr£ya«iya Sajwhita 1 I, 
10, 1 1 reads ' anritaw va esha karoti yi patyuA krita satyatMnyaif 
£arati,' and the title of the ka«</a is A'aturmasyani. Professor 
Weber, Ind. Stud. V, 407, has found the same words in the A£tur- 
masya section of the KiMaka XXXVI, 5. In the translation I have 
added the beginning of the passage which VasishMa omits, accord- 
ing to the Maitrayawiya Sawhiti. 

39-41. Gautama XI, 25-27. 

Digitized by 


8 VASISHrff A. 1, 40. 

40. The Brahma»a shall declare their duties, 

41. And the king shall govern them accordingly. 

42. But a king who rules in accordance with the 
sacred law, may take the sixth part of the wealth (of 
his subjects), 

43. Except from Brahmawas. 

44. It has been declared in the Veda, ' But he 
obtains the sixth part of (the merit which Brahmawas 
gain by) sacrifices and charitable works.' 

45. (It is further stated in the Veda), ' The Brah- 
ma«a makes the Veda rich ; the Brahmawa saves 
from misfortune ; therefore the Brahma»a shall not 
be made a source of subsistence. Soma is his king.' 

46. Further (another passage says), 'After death 
bliss (awaits the king who does not oppress Br&h- 

42. Vish«u III, 22-25. Though the ambiguous word dhana, 
' wealth,' is used in the text, it seems not doubtful that Vasish/Aa 
alludes to the land-tax, which generally consists of one sixth of the 

43. Vishmi III, 26. 

44. Vish«u III, 27-28. Purta,'the merit gained by charitable 
works,' i. e. by planting trees, digging wells, and so forth. The 
words ' iti ha,' placed at the end of the Sutra, indicate that it is a 
quotation, and that vi^Myate, ' it is declared in the Veda,' has to 
be understood from Sutra 46. Gautama XI, 11, too, alleges that 
the rule is based on a Vedic passage. 

45. .Satapatha-brahmawa V, 4, 2, 3. Kri'sh»apa«<fita's division 
of the quotation into several Sutras is unnecessary. His explana- 
tion of anadya, which he takes to mean ' the first of all,' is wrong. 
He asserts that the Br£hma«a is said 'to make the Veda rich,' 
because by sacrificing and so forth he fulfils its object and protects 
it. But the phrase is probably corrupt. If it is said that Soma is 
the king of the Brahmawas, the object is to indicate that an earthly 
king is not their master, see Gautama XI, 1. 

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Chapter II. 

.[I i. There are four castes (varwa), Brahma»as, 
^ jKshatriyas, Vaisyas, and Sudras. 

2. Three castes, Brahma#as, Kshatriyas, and 
i Vaisyas, (are called) twice-born. 

3. Their first birth is from their mother; the 
second from the investiture with the sacred girdle. 
In that (second birth) the Savitri is the mother, but 
the teacher is said to be the father. 

4. They call the teacher father, because he gives 
instruction in the Veda. 

5. They quote also (the following passage from 
the Veda) to the same (effect) : ' Of two kinds, 
forsooth, is the virile energy of a man learned in 
the Vedas, that which (resides) above the navel and 
the other which below (the navel) descends down- 
wards. Through that which (resides) above the 
navel, his offspring is produced, when he initiates 
Brahma#as, when he teaches them, when he causes 
them to offer oblations, when he makes them holy. 
By that which resides below the navel the children 
of his body are produced. Therefore they never 
say to a .Srotriya, who teaches the Veda, "Thou art 
destitute of offspring." ' 

II. 1-2. Vishwu II, 1-2 ; Manu X, 4. 

3. Identical with Manu II, 169 s1 , 170*, and Vishwu XXVIII, 37- 
38. The Savitri or the verse addressed to Savitr* is found Rig-veda 
III, 62, 10. 

4. Gautama 1, 10; Manu II, 171. 

5. The reading tath&pyudaharanti, which several of my MSS. 
give, seems to me preferable to Kr/sh«apa»a?ita's udaharati. 
Krcsh»apa«<fita explains s&dhu karoti, 'makes them holy,' by 
adhyatmam upadirati, 'teaches them transcendental knowledge.' 

Digitized by 


lO VASISH77/A. II, 6. 

6. Harita also quotes (the following verse): ' No 
religious rite can be performed by a (child) before 
he has been girt with the sacred girdle, since he is 
on a level with a .Sudra before his (new) birth from 
the Veda.' • 

7. (The above prohibition refers to all rites) except 
those connected with libations of water, (the excla- 
mation) Svadha, and the manes. 

8. Sacred learning approached a Brahmawa (and 
said to him), ' Preserve me, I am thy treasure, reveal 
me not to a scorner, nor to a wicked man, nor to one 
of uncontrolled passions : so (preserved) I shall be- 
come strong.' 

9. ' Reveal me, O Brahma«a, as to the keeper of 
thy treasure, to him whom thou shalt know to be 
pure, attentive, intelligent, and chaste, who will not 
offend thee nor revile thee.' 

10. '(That man) who fills his ears with truth, who 
frees him from pain and confers immortality upon 
him, (the pupil) shall consider as his father and mother; 
him he must never grieve nor revile.' 

11. 'As those Brahmawas who, after receiving in- 
struction, do not honour their teacher by their speech, 
in their hearts or by their acts, will not be profitable 
to their teacher, even so that sacred learning (which 
they acquired) will not profit them.' 

6. Vishwu XXVIII, 40. Instead of Krzshwapa/wfita's'y&vadvedo 
na ^iyate,' 'y&vadvede na ^-iyate,' which occurs in several 
MSS. and in the parallel passages of Manu II, 17a and other 
Smr/tis, must be read. 

7. Gautama II, 5. The rites referred to are the funeral rites. 
8-9. Vishwu XXIX, 9-10, and introduction, p. xxiii ; Nirukta 

II, 4. 

10. Vishwu XXX, 47. 

Digitized by 



12. 'As fire consumes dry grass, even so the 
Veda, asked for, (but) not honoured, (destroys the en- 
quirer). Let him not proclaim the Veda to that man, 
who does not show him honour according to his 
*. 13. The (lawful) occupations of a Brahma#a are six, 

14. Studying the Veda, teaching, sacrificing for 
himself, sacrificing for others, giving alms, and ac- 
cepting gifts. 

15. (The lawful occupations) of a Kshatriya are 

:' 16. Studying, sacrificing for himself, and bestow- 
ing gifts ; 

17. And his peculiar duty is to protect the people 
with his weapons ; let him gain his livelihood thereby. 

18. (The lawful occupations) of a Vaisya are the 
» same (as those mentioned above, Sutra 16), 

1 9. Besides, agriculture, trading, tending cattle, and 
{ lending money at interest, 

20. To serve those (superior castes) has been fixed 
f( as the means of livelihood for a .Sudra. 

21. (Men of) all (castes) may wear their hair 
arranged according to the customs fixed (for their 
family), or allow it to hang down excepting the lock 
on the crown of the head. 

13. Kn'sh«apa»<fita wrongly connects the word brahmawasya 
with the next Sutra. For this and the next seven Sutras, compare 
Vish«u 11,4-14. 

14. Kr*sh«apa»dita by mistake leaves out the word 'd&nam.' 
20. I read 'tesham pariiaryaV with the majority of the MSS., 

instead of Kr?sh»apa«rfita's ' teshim ka pari£arya7 

a 1. In illustration of this Sutra Kri'sh«apa»</ita quotes a verse 
of Laug&kshi, which states that Brihmawas belonging to the 
Vasish/Aa family wore the top-lock on the right side of the head, 
and the members of the Atri family allowed it to hang down on 

Digitized by 


12 VASISH7WA. II, as. 

22. Those who are unable to live by their own 
lawful occupation may adopt (that of) the next in- 
ferior (caste), 
j 23. But never (that of a) higher (caste). 

24. (A Brahma#a and a Kshatriya) who have re- 
sorted to a Vaiyya's mode of living and maintain 
themselves by trade (shall not sell) stones, salt, 
hempen (cloth), silk, linen (cloth), and skins, 

25. Nor any kind of dyed cloth, 

26. Nor prepared food, flowers, fruit, roots, per- 
fumes, substances (used for) flavouring (food) ; nor 
water, the juice extracted from plants ; nor Soma, 
weapons, poison ; nor flesh, nor milk, nor prepara- 
tions from it, iron, tin, lac, and lead, 

27. Now they quote also (the following verse): 
' By (selling) flesh, lac, and salt a Brahma#a at once 
"becomes an outcast; by selling milk he becomes 
(equal to) a 6udra after three days.' 

28. Among tame animals those with uncloven 
hoofs, and those that have an abundance of hair, 
(must not be sold), nor any wild animals, (nor) birds, 
nor beasts that have tusks (or fangs). 

29. Among the various kinds of grain they men- 
tion sesamum (as forbidden). 

both sides, while the Bhr»'gus shaved their heads, and the Angi- 
rasas wore five locks (Audi) on the crown of the head. Cf. Max 
Mtiller, Hist. Anc. Sansk. Lit, p. 53. 

22. Vishmi II, 15. 

24. For this and the following four Sutras, see Gautama VII, 8-2 1 . 

26. Rasa A, 'substances used for flavouring,' i.e. 'molasses, 
sugar-cane, sugar, and the like.' — K>/'sh»apa»</ita. See also note 
on Gautama VII, 9. 

27. Identical with Manu X, 92. 

29. Vishmi LIV, 18; Apastamba I, 7, 20, 13. Kr/sh«apa«rfita 
wrongly connects this Sutra with the preceding one. 

Digitized by 



30. Now they quote also (the following verse) : 
' If he applies sesamum to any other purpose, but 
food, anointing, and charitable gifts, he will be born 
again as a worm and, together with his ancestors, 
be plunged into his own ordure.' 

31. Or, at pleasure, they may sell (sesamum), if 
they themselves have produced it by tillage. 

32. For that purpose he shall plough before 
breakfast with two bulls whose noses have not 
been pierced. 

33. (If he ploughs) in the hot season, he shall 
water (his beasts even in the morning). 

34. The plough is attended by strong males, pro- 
vided with a useful share and with a handle (to be 
held) by the drinker of Soma ; that raises (for him) 
a cow, a sheep, a stout damsel, and a swift horse for 
the chariot. 

35. The plough is attended by strong males, i.e. 
is attended by strong men and bullocks, provided 
with a useful share — for its share is useful (because) 
with the share it raises, i. e. pierces deep — and pro- 
vided with a handle for the drinker of Soma, — for 
Soma reaches him, — possessing a handle for him. 
That raises a cow, a sheep, goats, horses, mules, 
donkeys and camels, and a stout damsel, i. e. a beau- 
tiful, useful maiden in the flower of her youth. 

36. For how could the plough raise (anything for 
him) if he did not sell grain ? 

30. Manu X, 91. 3*. Manu X, 90. 

34. Va^asaneyi-sarahita" XII, 71. The translation follows the 
explanation given in the next Sutra as closely as possible, though 
the latter is without doubt erroneous. The purpose for which 
Vasish/4a introduces it, is to show that a Vedic text permits agri- 
culture to a Brdhmawa who offers Soma-sacrinces. 

Digitized by 



14 VASiSHrwA. 11,37. 

37. Substances used for flavouring may be bar- 
tered for (other) substances of the same kind, be it 
for one more valuable or for one worth less. 

38. But salt must never (be exchanged) for (other) 
substances used for flavouring (food). 

39. It is permitted to barter sesamum, rice, cooked 
food, learning, and slaves (each for its own kind and 
the one for the other). 

40. A Brahma«a and a Kshatriya shall not lend 
(anything at interest acting like) usurers. 

41. Now they quote also (the following verses): 
' He who acquiring property cheap, gives it for a 
high price, is called a usurer and blamed among 
those who recite the Veda.' 

42. ' (Brahman) weighed in the scales the crime 
of killing a learned Brahmawa against (the crime of) 
usury ; the slayer of the Brahmawa remained at the 
top, the usurer sank downwards.' 

43. Or, at pleasure, they may lend to a person 
who entirely neglects his sacred duties, and is ex- 
ceedingly wicked, 

44. Gold (taking) double (its value on repayment, 
and) grain trebling (the original price). 

37-39. Gautama VII, 16-21. 

,40. Manu X, 117. Knsh«apa»<fita reads with MS. B., vardhu- 
shim na dadyatim, and explains it by vr/ddhiw naiva prayq^a- 
yetSm, ' they shall not take interest.' I read with the other MSS. 
virdhushf, and translate that term by ' usurers.' Below, Sutra 42, 
vardhushi is used likewise in this its usual sense. 

43. Manu X, 117. 

44-47. Vish«u VI, 11-17; Colebrooke I, Dig. LXVI, where 
' silver and gems ' have been added after gold, and rasa^, 'flavour- 
ing substances,' been translated by ' fluids.' The translation differs 
also in other respects, because there the Sutras stand by them- 
selves, while here the nouns in Sutras 44 and 47 are governed by 
the preceding dadyatam, ' they may lend.' They, i. e. a Brahma«a 

Digitized by 



45. (The case of) flavouring substances has been 
explained by (the rule regarding) grain, 

46. As well-as (the case of) flowers, roots, and fruit. 

47. (They may lend) what is sold by weight, (taking) 
eight times (the original value on repayment). 

48. Now they quote also (the following verses) : 
' Two in the hundred, three and four and five, as has 
been declared in the Smn'ti, he may take as interest 
by the month according to the order of the castes.' 

49. ' But the king's death shall stop the interest 
on money (lent) ; ' 

50. ' And after the coronation of (a new) king the 
capital grows again.' 

and a Kshatriya. The rule, of course, refers to other castes also, 
and to those cases where no periodical interest is taken, but the 
loan returned in kind. 

47. The Ratnakara quoted by Colebrooke loc. cit. takes ' what 
is sold by weight ' to be ' camphor and the like.' Kmh»apa«<fita 
thinks that ' clarified butter, honey, spirituous liquor, oil, molasses, 
and salt ' are meant. But most of these substances fall under the 
term ras&A, 'flavouring substances.' The proper explanation of 
the words seems to be, ' any other substance not included among 
those mentioned previously, which is sold by weight.' 

48. Vishwu VI, 2, and especially ManuVIII, 142. The lowest 
rate of interest is to be taken from the highest caste, and it becomes 
greater with decreasing respectability. According to Krz'shwa- 
pa«<iita and the commentators on the parallel passage of Vishnu, 
Manu, and other Smruis, this rule applies only to loans for which 
no security is given— a statement which is doubtlessly correct. 

49-50. Both the reading and the sense of this verse, which in 
some MSS. is wanting, are somewhat doubtful. I read with my 
best MSS., 

i&gi tu mr/tabhivena dravyavriddhiw vinlfayet 1 
puna" ra^abhisheke«a dravyamulam £a vardhate 11 
and consider that it gives a rule, ordering all money transactions 
to be stopped during the period which intervenes between the 
death of a king and the coronation of his successor. I am, how- 
ever, unable to point out any parallel passages confirming this 

Digitized by 


1 6 VASisurffA. II, gr. 

51. ' Hear the interest for a money-lender declared 
by the words of Vasish/^a, five mashas for twenty 
(karshaparcas may be taken every month) ; thus the 
law is not violated.' 

Chapter III. 

1. (Brahmawas) who neither study nor teach the 
Veda nor keep sacred fires become equal to .Stodras ; 

2. And they quote a verse of Manu on this (sub- 
ject), 'A twice-born man, who not having studied the 
Veda applies himself to other (and worldly study), 
soon falls, even while living, to the condition of a 
k 9udra, and his descendants after him.' 

3. ' (A twice-born man) who does not know the 

view. Kr/'sh«apa«dita's text shows two important various readings, 
' bbrriibhavena ' and ' ra^abhishikena,' which I think are merely 
conjectures, unsupported by the authority of MSS. He explains 
the verse as follows : ' The king shall destroy, i. e. himself not take, 
the interest on money by giving [it away] as a salary. But, after 
thus giving away interest received, he may increase his capital by 
[an extra tax imposed on] the cultivators, i. e. take from them the 
highest rate, consisting of one-fourth of the produce.' 

51. Gautama XII, 29; Colebrooke I, Dig. XXIV. The rule 
given in this Sutra refers, as Kr«sh»apa»<fita correctly states, to 
loans, for which security is given. The rate is i£ per cent for the 
month, or 15 per annum ; see the note to Gautama loc. cit. Manu, 
VIII, 140, especially mentions that this rate is prescribed by 

III. 1. I read .SudrasadharmawaA, 'equal to Sudras,' instead 
of judrakarmawa^, which occurs in MS. B. only. Krish«apa«<fita 
explains the latter reading by ffldravatkarma yeshu te judravatte- 
shvsWara»fyamityartha4 'shall be treated like Sudras.' But the 
verses quoted in the following Sutras show that the former reading 
is the better one. 

2. Identical with Manu II, 168. 

3. This and the following nine verses are, as the word 'iti,' 
which the best MSS. give at the end of Sutra 12, quotations, 

Digitized by 



Veda (can)not be (called) a Brahmawa, nor he who 
lives by trade, nor he who (lives as) an actor, .nor he 
who obeys a .Sudra's commands, nor (he who like) a 
thief (takes the property of others), nor he who makes 
his living by the practice of medicine.' 

4. 'The king shall punish that village where 
Brahma«as, unobservant of their sacred duties and 
ignorant of the Veda, subsist by begging; for it 
feeds robbers.' 

5. ' Many thousands (of Brahma«as) cannot form 
a (legal) assembly (for declaring the sacred law), if 
they have not fulfilled their sacred duties, are unac- 
quainted with the Veda, and subsist only by the name 
of their caste.' 

6. ' That sin which dunces, perplexed by ignorance 
and unacquainted with the sacred law, declare (to be 
duty) shall fall, increased a hundredfold, on those 
who propound it.' 

7. ' What four or (even) three (Brahma«as) who 
have completely studied the Vedas proclaim, that 
must be distinctly recognised as the sacred law, not 
(the decision) of a thousand fools.' 

8. ' Offerings to the gods and to the manes must 
always be given to a .Srotriya alone. For gifts 

Annie, 'who does not know the Veda,' means, literally, 'unac- 
quainted with the Hig-veda..' 

5. This verse, which is identical with Manu XII, 114, and 
the next two are intended to show that a Brahmawa who neglects 
the study of the Veda, is unfit to decide points of the sacred law, 
which are not settled either by the SnWti or the .Sruti, and become 
a member of a parishad or ' Paw£.' 

6. The verse contains a better version of Manu XII, 115. 

7. Regarding the term Vedaparaga, see Gautama V, 20, note. 
Itaresham, 'fools,' means literally, 'different from (those who 
have mastered the Vedas).' 

[14] C 

Digitized by 


1 8 vASisimrA. 111,9. 

bestowed on a man unacquainted with the Veda, 
reach neither the ancestors nor the gods' 

9. ' If a fool lives even in one's house and a (Brah- 
ma»a) deeply learned in the Veda lives at a great 
distance, the learned man shall receive the gift. The 
sin of neglecting (a Brahmawa is not incurred) in (the 
case of) a fool.' 

10. ' The offence of neglecting a Brahma«a cannot 
be committed against a twice-born man who is igno- 
rant of the Veda. For (in offering sacrifices) one 
does not pass by a brilliant fire and throw the obla- 
tions into ashes.' 

11. ' An elephant made of wood, an antelope made 
of leather, and a Brahma«a ignorant of the Veda, those 
three have nothing but the name (of their kind).' 

12. 'Those kingdoms, where ignorant men eat 
the food of the learned, will be visited by drought ; 
or (some other) great evil will befall (them).' 

13. If anybody finds treasure (the owner of) which 
is not known, the king shall take it, giving one sixth 
to the finder. 

14. If a Brahma«a who follows the six (lawful) 
occupations, finds it, the king shall not take it. 

9-10. Regarding the crime of ' neglecting a Brahmawa,' see 
Manu VIII, 392-393, where fines are prescribed for neglecting 
to invite to dinner worthy neighbours and .Srotriyas. 

10. A learned Brihmawa resembles a sacrificial fire, see e.g. 
below, XXX, 2-3 ; Apastamba I, 1,3, 44. 

11. Manu II, 157. Krwhwapa/wSta and MS. B. give the un- 
grammatical construction which occurs in Manu and other Dhar- 
rruwistras, while the other MSS. read more correctly, 'yaj£a 
kdsh/ftamayo h. yzsiz iarmamayo m.' &c. 

13-14. This rule agrees exactly with Gautama X, 45; see also 
Vish«u III, 56-61. The matter is introduced here in order to show 
the prerogative of a learned Brahma«a. Regarding the six lawful 
occupations, see above, II, 13-14. 

Digitized by 


Ill, 19. DEFINITIONS. 1 9 

15. They declare that the slayer commits no 
crime by killing an assassin. 

16. Now they quote also (the following verses) : 
' An incendiary, likewise a poisoner, one who holds a 
weapon in his hand (ready to kill), a robber, he who 
takes away land, and he who abducts (another man's) 
wife, these six are called assassins (atatayin).' 

17. ' He may slay an assassin who comes with the 
intention of slaying, even though he knows the whole 
Veda together with the Upanishads ; by that (act) 
he (does) not (incur the guilt of) the slayer of a 

18. ' He who slays an assassin learned in the Veda 
and belonging to a noble family, does not incur by 
that act the guilt of the murderer of a learned Brah- 
ma»a; (in) that (case) fury recoils upon fury' 

19. Persons who sanctify the company are, a Tri- 
wa^iketa, one who keeps five fires, a Trisuparwa, one 
who (knows the texts required for) the four sacrifices 
(called A^vamedha, Purushamedha, Sarvamedha, and 
Pitmnedha), one who knows the Va^asaneyi-^akhd 
of the White Ya^ur-veda, one who knows the six 
Angas, the son of a female married according to the 
Brahma-rite, one who knows the first part of the 
Sama-veda Sawhita, one who sings the Gyesht/ia.- 
saman, one who knows the Sawhita and the Brah- 
ma«a, one who studies (the treatises on) the sacred 
law, one whose ancestors to the ninth degree, both 

15. Vish«uV, 189-192. The connexion of this subject with 
the main topic consists therein that it furnishes an instance where 
learning does not protect a Brahmawa. 

1 7. I read with the majority of the MSS., ' api ved&ntapdragam,' 
instead of ' vedintagam ra«e,' as Kr*'sh»apa«iita has. 

19. For the explanations of the terms left untranslated, see the 

C 2 

Digitized by 


20 VASISHrtfA. Ill, 20. 

on the mother's and on the father's side, are dis- 
tinctly known to have been .SVotriyas, and learned 
men and Snatakas. 

20. (Four students of) the four Vedas, one who 
knows the Mimawsa, one who knows the Angas, 
a teacher of the sacred law, and three eminent men 
who are in three (different) orders, (compose) a (legal) 
assembly consisting at least of .ten (members). 

21. He who initiates (a pupil) and teaches him 
the whole Veda is called the teacher (a^arya). 

22. But he who (teaches) a portion (of the Veda 
only is called) the sub-teacher (upadhyaya) ; 

23. So is he who (teaches) the Angas of the Veda. 

24. A Brahma»a and a Vaiiya may take up arms 
in self-defence, and in (order to prevent) a confusion 
of the castes. 

25. But that (trade of arms) is the constant (duty)' 
of a Kshatriya, because he is appointed to protect 
(the people). 

26. Having washed his feet and his hands up to 

note on Apastamba II, 8, 17, 22 ; Gautama XV, 28; and the notes 
on Vishmi LXXXIII, 2-21. Regarding the meaning of .A'Aandoga, 
'one who knows the first part of the S&ma-veda Samhita,' see 
Weber, Hist. Ind. Lit., p. 63, note 59. ' One who knows the 
Sawhiti and the Brabma«a, i. e. of the Rig-veda.' — Kr/sh«apa«rfita. 
Regarding the various classes of Snatakas, see Apastamba 1, 1 1, 

30, i-3- 

20. Manu XII, in, Krzshwapawiita reads £aturvidyas 
trikalpt ka, 'one who knows the four Vedas and one who knows 
three different Kalpa-sutras.' My translation follows the reading 
of the MSS., Hturvidyaw* vikalpt ka, which is corroborated 
by the parallel passage of Baudh&yana I, 1, 8, 'Hturvaidyaw 
vikalpt ka.' The explanation of the latter word is derived from 
Govindasvamin. ' Men who are in three orders, i. e. a student, 
a householder, and ascetic,' see Gautama XXVIII, 49. 

21-23. Vishnu XXIX, 1-2. 24. Gautama VII, 25. 

25. Vishmi II, 6. 26-34. Vishmi LXII, 1-9. 

Digitized by 


III, 36. PURIFICATION. xSO* l '^^S r 

the wrist, and sitting with his face turned towar^s^jTlA. \s 
the east or towards the north, he shall thrice sip —— ~ " 
water out of the Tirtha sacred to Brahman, (i.e.) 
the part of the hand above the root of the thumb, 
without uttering any sound ; 

27. He shall twice wipe (his mouth with the root 
of the thumb); 

28. He shall touch the cavities (of the head) 
with water ; 

29. He shall pour water on his head and on the 
left hand ; 

30. He shall not sip water while walking, standing, 
lying down or bending forward. 

31. A Brahma»a (becomes pure) by (sipping) water, 
free from bubbles and foam, that reaches his heart, 

32. But a Kshatriya by (sipping water) that reaches 
his throat, 

33. A Vaisya by (sipping water) that wets his 

34. A woman and a .Sudra by merely touching 
water (with the lips). 

35. Water (for sipping may) even (be taken) out 
of a hole in the ground, if it is fit to slake the thirst 
of cows. 

36. (He shall not purify himself with water) which 
has been defiled with colours, perfumes, or flavouring 
substances, nor with such as is collected in unclean 

30. Kr*sh»apa«<Sta is probably right in thinking that the word 
vS, ' or,' inserted before ' bending forward,' is intended to forbid 
other improper acts, gestures or postures, which are reprehended in 
other Smrj'tis. 

35. Vishwu XXIII, 43; Manu V, 128. 

36. 'Collected in unclean places, e.g. in a burial-ground.' — 

Digitized by 


22 VASISHTVTA. Ill, 37. 

37. Drops (of saliva) falling from the mouth, which 
do not touch a limb of the body, do not make (a man) 

38. If, after having sipped water, he sleeps, eats, 
sneezes, drinks, weeps or bathes, or puts on a dress, 
he must again sip water, 

39. Likewise, if he touches (that part of) the lips 
on which no hair grows. 

40. No defilement is caused by the hair of the 
moustache (entering the mouth). 

41. If (remnants of food) adhere to the teeth, (they 
are pure) like the teeth, and he is purified by 
swallowing those which (become detached) in the 

42. He is not defiled by the drops which fall on 
his feet, while somebody gives to others water for 
sipping; they are stated to be equally (clean) as 
the ground. 

43. If, while occupied with eatables, he touches 
any impure substance, then he shall place that thing 
(which he holds in his hand) on the ground, sip 
water and afterwards again use it 

44. Let him sprinkle with water all objects (the 
purity of) which may be doubtful. 

45. ' Both wild animals killed by dogs, and fruit 
thrown by birds (from the tree), what has been spoilt 
by children, and what has been handled by women,' 

37. Gautama I, 41. 38. Gautama I, 37. 

39. Apastamba I, 5, 16, 10. 40. Apastamba I, 5, 16, 11. 

41. Gautama I, 38-40. 42. Manu V, 142. 

43. Vish«u XXIII, 55. ' Occupied with eatables,' i. e. ' eating.' — 

45. Vishwu XXIII, 50. This and the following two Sutras are 
a quotation, as appears from the use of the particle iti at the end 
of Sutra 47. 

Digitized by 


111,55' PURIFICATION. 23 

46. 'A vendible commodity tendered for sale 
and what is not dirtied by gnats and flies that have 
settled on it,' 

47. ' Likewise water collected on the ground that 
quenches the thirst of cows, — enumerating all these 
things, the Lord of created beings has declared them 
to be pure.' 

48. Anything defiled by unclean (substances) be- 
comes pure when the stains and the smell have 
been removed by water and earth. 

49. (Objects) made of metal must be scoured 
with ashes, those made of clay should be thoroughly 
heated by fire, those made of wood should be planed, 
and (cloth) made of thread should be washed. 

50. Stones and gems (should be treated) like ob- 
jects made of metal, 

51. Conch-shells and pearl-shells like gems, 

52. (Objects made of) bone like wood, 

53. Ropes, chips (of bamboo), and leather be- 
come pure (if treated) like clothes, 

54. (Objects) made .of fruits, (if rubbed) with (a 
brush of) cow-hair, 

55. Linen cloth, (if smeared) with a paste of yellow 
mustard (and washed afterwards with water). 

46. ManuV, 129. 47. Vishnu XXIII, 43. 

48. Gautama I, 42. For the explanation of the term amedhya, 
'unclean substances,' see Manu V, 135, and the passage from 
Devala translated in Professor Jolly's note on Vishnu XXIII, 38. 

49. Gautama I, 29; Vishnu XXIII, 26, 33, 27, 18. 
50-51. Gautama I, 30. 

52. Gautama I, 31 and note; Vishnu XXIII, 4. 

53. Gautama I, 33. 

54. Vishnu XXIII, 28. Cups and bottles made of the shell of the 
cocoa-nut or of the Bilva (Bel) fruit and of bottle-gourds are meant. 

55. Vishnu XXIII, 22. 

Digitized by 


24 VASISH77/A. Ill, 56. 

56. But land becomes pure, according to the de- 
gree of defilement, by sweeping (the defiled spot), by 
smearing, it with cowdung, by scraping it, by sprink- 
ling (water) or by heaping (pure earth) on (it). 

57. Now they quote also (the following verses) : 
' Land is purified by these four methods, by digging, 
burning, scraping, being trodden on by cows, and 
fifthly by being smeared with cowdung.' 

58. ' A woman is purified by her monthly dis- 
charge, a river by its current, brass by (being 
scoured with) ashes, and an earthen pot by another 

59. ' But an earthen vessel which has been de- 
filed by spirituous liquor, urine, ordure, phlegm, pus, 
tears, or blood cannot be purified even by another 

60. ' The body is purified by water, the internal 
organ by truth, the soul by sacred learning and 
austerities, and the understanding by knowledge.' 

61. Gold is purified by water alone, 
6.2. Likewise silver, . 

56. Vishwu XXIII, 56-57. Kmh«apa«<fita takes upakarawa, 
' heaping (pure earth) on (the defiled spot),' to. mean ' lighting a 
fire on it ' or ' digging it up.' The translation given above rests on 
the parallel passages of Gautama I, 32, and of Baudhayana I, 5, 52, 
bhumes tu saflzmarj-anaprokshawopalepanavastarawopalekhanair- 
yathasthanaw* doshavweshat prayatyam, 'land becomes pure, ac- 
cording to the degree of the defilement, by sweeping the (defiled) 
spot, by sprinkling it, by smearing it with cowdung, by scattering 
(pure earth) on it, or by scraping it' Bhumi, ' land,' includes also 
the mud-floor of a house or of a verandah. 

57. Some MSS. have instead of gharshat, ' by scraping,' varshat, 
'by rain;' see also note on Gautama I, 32. 

58. Vish«u XXII, 91. 59. Vish«u XXIII, 5. 
60. Identical with ManuV,. 109, and Vishwu XXII, 92. 
61-62. Vish«u XXIII, 7. Knsh«apaHd!ita points out that these 

Digitized by 




63. Copper is cleansed by acids. 

64. The Tfrtha sacred to the Gods lies at the 
root of the little finger, 

65. That sacred to the Jitsbis in the middle of 
the fingers, 

66. That sacred to Men at the tips of the fingers, 

67. That sacred to Agni (fire) in the middle of 
the hand, 

68. That sacred to the Manes between the fore- 
finger and the thumb. 

69. He shall honour (his food at) the evening 
and morning meals (saying), ' It pleases me,' 

70. At meals in honour of the Manes (saying), 
' I have dined well,' 

71. At (a dinner given on the occasion of) rites 
procuring prosperity (saying), ' It is perfect.' 

Chapter IV. 

1. The four castes are distinguished by their 
origin and by particular sacraments. 
f 2. There is also the following passage of the 
Veda, ' The Brahma«a was his mouth, the Ksha- 
triya formed his arms, the Vaisya his thighs ; the 
.Sudra was born from his feet.' 

3. It has been declared in (the following passage 

two rules and that given in the next Sutra refer to cases in which gold, 
silver, and copper have not been stained by impure substances. 

63. Vish«u XXIII, 25. 

64-68. Vishwu LXII, 1-4; Apastamba II, a, 3, 11. 

69. Vislwm LXVIII, 42. The Sutra is also intended to prescribe 
that the number of the daily meals is two only. 

70. Manu III, 251. 

71. The rites referred to are, according to Kr?'sh«apa«a5ta, 
marriages, feeding Brahma«as, Nanduraddhas, and the like. 

IV. 1. Manu I, 87. 2. Rig-veda X, 90, 12. 

Digitized by 


26 VASISH7V7A. IV, 4- 

of) the Veda that (a .Sudra) shall not receive the 
I sacraments, ' He created the Brahma«a with the 
i Gayatrl (metre), the Kshatriya with the TrishAibh, 
j the VaLyya with the Gagatt, the .Sudra without any 
' metre.' 

4. Truthfulness, suppression of anger, liberality, 
abstention from injuring living beings, and the pro- 
creation of offspring (are duties common to) all 

5. The Manava (Sutra states), ^Only when he 
worships the manes and the gods, or honours guests, 
he may certainly do injury to animals.' 

d. ' On offering a Madhuparka (to a guest), at a 
sacrifice, and at the rites in honour of the manes, 
but on these occasions only may an animal be slain ; 
that (rule) Manu proclaimed.' 

4. Vishwu II, 17. 

5. Minavam, ' the Minava (Sutra),' means literally ' a work pro- 
claimed by Manu' (manuna proktam). It is probable that the 
work referred to by Vasish/fla is the lost Dharma-sutra of the 
Minava Sakha, which is a subdivision of the Maitriyawfyas, and 
on which the famous metrical Manava Dharmaristra is based. 
The words of the Sutra may either be a direct quotation or 
a summary of the opinion given in the Minava-sutra. I think 
the former supposition the more probable one, and believe that 
not only Sutra 5, but also Sutras 6-8 have been taken bodily 
from the ancient Dharma-sutra. For Sutra 6 agrees literally with 
a verse of the metrical Manusmrc'ti, and at the end of Sutra 8 
several MSS. have the word iti, the characteristic mark that a 
quotation is finished, while the language of Sutra 8 is more anti- 
quated than Vasish/Aa's usual style. If my view is correct, it 
follows that the lost Minava Dharma-sutra consisted, like nearly all 
the known works of this class, partly of prose and partly of verse. 

6. Identical with Manu V, 41 ; Vishmi LI, 64; and .Sankhi- 
yana Gn'hya-sutra II, 16, 1. I take pitn'daivata, against Kul- 
Wka's and Kr?'sh«apa«dita's view, as a bahuvrihi compound, and 
dissolve it by pitaro daivata« yarnii»?stat, literally ' such (a rite) 
where the manes are the deities.' The other explanation, ' (rites) 

Digitized by 


IV, 12. IMPURITY. 27 

7. ' Meat can never be obtained without injuring 
living beings, and to injure living beings does not 
procure heavenly bliss ; therefore the (sages declare) 
the slaughter (of beasts) at a sacrifice not to be 
slaughter (in the ordinary sense of the word).' 

8. ' Now he may also cook a full-grown ox or 
a full-grown he-goat for a Brahma«a or Kshatriya 
guest ; in this manner they offer hospitality to such 
(a man).' 

9. Libations of water (must be poured out) for 
all (deceased relatives) who completed the second 
year and (their death causes) impurity. 

10. Some declare that (this rule applies also to 
children) that died after teething. 

1 1. After having burnt the body (of the deceased, 
the relatives) enter the water without looking at (the 
place of cremation), 

1 2. Facing the south, they shall pour out water 
with both hands on (those days of the period of 
impurity) which are marked by odd numbers. 

to the manes or to the gods,' which is also grammatically correct, 
recommends itself less, because the rites to the gods are already 
included by the word yag-me, ' at a sacrifice.' As to the Madhu- 
parka, see Apastamba II, 4, 8, 8-9, and below XI, 1. 

7. Manu V, 48, and Vishnu LI, 71, where, however, the conclu- 
sion of the verse has been altered to suit the ahiwsS-doctrines of the 
compilers of the metrical Smn'tis. The reason why slaughter at a 
sacrifice is not slaughter in the ordinary sense may be gathered 
from Vishwu LI, 61, 63. 

8. 5*atapatha-brdhma»a III, 4, 1, t ; Ya^navalkya 1, 109. 
9-10. Vishmi XIX, 7 ; Manu V, 58. Regarding the length of 

the period of impurity, see below, Sutras 16, 26-29. 

11. Vishwu XIX, 6. 

12. Vish«u XIX, 7; Gautama XIV, 40. ' On those days of the 
period of impurity which are marked by odd numbers,' i. e. 'on the 
first, third, fifth, seventh, and ninth, as has been declared by Gau- 
tama.' — Krzsh»apa«<flta. 

Digitized by 


28 VASISHTHA. IV, 13. 

13. The south, forsooth, is the region sacred to 
the manes. 

14. After they have gone home, they shall sit 
during three days on mats, fasting. 

15. If they are unable (to fast so long), they shall 
subsist on food bought in the market or given 

16. It is ordered that impurity caused by a death 
shall last ten days in the case of Sapiwda relations. 

17. It has been declared in the Veda that Sa- 
pi#</a relationship extends to the seventh person (in 
the ascending or descending line). 

18. It has been declared in the Veda that for 
married females it extends to the third person (in 
the ascending or descending line). 

19. Others (than the blood-relations) shall per- 
form (the obsequies) of married females, 

20. (The rule regarding impurity) should be 
exactly the same on the birth of a child for those 
men who desire complete purity, 

21. Or for the mother and the father (of the 
child alone) ; some (declare that it applies) to the 

14. Vishwu XIX, 16; Gautama XIV, 37. 

15. Vishwu XIX, 14. 17. Vishwu XXII, 5. 

19. Gautama XIV, 36; Paraskara Grehya-sutra III, 10,42. 
' Others than the blood-relations,' i. e. ' the husband and his rela- 
tives.' The MSS. have another Sutra following this, which Krtsh- 
«apa«<fita leaves out. Tiska. tesham, 'and they (the married 
females shall perform the obsequies) of those (i. e. their husbands 
and his Sapwwfes).' It seems to me very probable that the passage 
is genuine, especially as Paraskara, Gnhya-sutra III, 10, 43, has the 
same words. 

20. Vishwu XXII, 1. 

21. Gautama XIV, 15-16. The Sutra ought to have been 
divided into two. 

Digitized by 


IV, 30. IMPURITY. 29 

mother (only), because she is the immediate cause 
of that (event). 

22. Now they quote also (the following verse) : 
' On the birth (of a child) the male does not become 
impure if he does not touch (the female) ; on that 
(occasion) the menstrual excretion must be known 
to be impure, and that is not found in males.' 

23. If during (a period of impurity) another 
(death or birth) happens, (the relatives) shall be 
pure after (the expiration of) the remainder of that 
(first period) ; 

24. (But) if one night (and day only of the first 
period of impurity) remain, (they shall be pure) after 
two (days and nights) ; 

25. (If the second death or birth happens) on the 
morning (of the day on which the first period of 
impurity expires, they shall be purified) after three 
(days and nights). 

26. A Brahma»a is freed from impurity (caused 
by a death or a birth) after ten days, 

27. A Kshatriya after fifteen days, 

28. A VaLyya after twenty days, 

29. A vSudra after a month. 

30. Now they quote also (the following verses) : 
' But (a twice-born man) who has eaten (the food) 
of a vSudra during impurity caused by a death or a 

23. Vishmi XXII, 35. 24. Vishmi XXII, 36. 

25. Vishmi XXII, 37. Knshwapazxfita explains prahMte, ' on 
the morning (of the day on which the first period of impurity 
expires),' in accordance with Nandapanrfita's explanation of Vishmi' s 
text by 'during the last watch (of the last night of the period 
of impurity).' See also the slightly different explanation of the 
identical words by Haradatta, Gautama XIV, 8. 

26. Vishmi XXII, 1. 29. Vishmi XXII, 4. 

Digitized by 


30 VASISHITffA. IV, 31. 

birth, will suffer dreadful (punishment in) hell and 
be born again in the womb of an animal.' 

31. 'A twice-born man who eats by appointment 
in the house of a stranger whose ten days of impurity, 
caused by a death, have not expired, after death will 
become a worm and feed on the ordure of that (man 
who fed him).' 

32. It has been declared in the Veda, ' (Such a 
sinner) becomes pure by reciting the Sawmita of 
the Veda for twelve months or for twelve half- 
months while fasting.' 

33. On the death of a child of less than two years 
or on a miscarriage, the impurity of the Sapi#das 
lasts three (days and) nights. 

34. Gautama (declares that on the former occa- 
sion they become) pure at once. 

35. If (a person) dies in a foreign country and (his 
Sapmaas) hear (of his death) after ten days (or a longer 
period), the impurity lasts for one (day and) night. 

36. Gautama (declares that) if a person who has 
kindled the sacred fire dies on a journey, (his Sa- 
pindas shall) again celebrate his obsequies, (burning 
a dummy made of leaves or straw), and remain im- 
pure (during ten days) as if (they had actually buried) 
his corpse. 

37. When he has touched a sacrificial post, a pyre, 
a burial-ground, a menstruating or a lately confined 
woman, impure men or (.#'a#dalas and so forth), he 
shall bathe, submerging both his body and his head. 

32. Regarding the penance prescribed here, the so-called ana- 
raatp&r&yawa, see below XX, 46, and Baudhayana III, 9. 

33. Vish«u XXII, 27-30. 

34. Gautama XIV, 44, and introduction to Gautama, p. liii. 

36. Introduction to Gautama, pp. liii and liv. 

37. Vishmi XXII, 69. Kmh»apa»<flta and MS. B. read puya, 

Digitized by 


V, 3- WOMEN. 31 

Chapter V. 

1. A woman is not independent, the males are 
her masters. It has been declared in the Veda, ' A 
female who neither goes naked nor is temporarily 
unclean is paradise.' 

2. Now they quote also (the following verse) : 

' Their fathers protect them in childhood, their hus- I 
bands protect them in youth, and their sons protect j 
them in age ; a woman is never fit for independence.' 

3. The penance (to be performed) by a (wife) for 
being unfaithful to her husband has been declared in 
the (section on) secret penances. 

' pus,' instead of yupa, ' a sacrificial post.' The reading is, how- 
ever, wrong, because the parallel passages of most Smrriis enjoin 
that a man who has touched a sacrificial post shall bathe. The 
cause of the mistake is probably a mere clerical error. The MSS. 
repeat the last word of this chapter, apa ityapaA. The reason 
is not, as Krzsh«apa«</ita imagines, that the author wishes to indi- 
cate the necessity of bathing when one touches a person who has 
touched some impure thing or person. It is the universal practice 
of the ancient authors to repeat the last word of a chapter in order 
to mark its end, see e.g. Gautama note on I, 61. If it is neg- 
lected in the earlier chapters of the V£sish/>4a Dharma-sutra, the 
badness of the MSS. is the cause. 

V. 1. Vishwu XXV, 12. The second clause ought to have been 
given as a separate Sutra. 'A female who no longer goes naked,' 
i. e. one who has reached the age of puberty. Amn'tam, ' is para- 
dise,' i. e. procures bliss in this life and heaven after death through 
her children. 

2. Vishwu XXV, 13. Identical with Manu IX, 3. 

3. 'The penance which has been ordained in case a wife is 
unfaithful to her husband, i. e. goes to a lover and so forth, must be 
performed in secret, i. e. in solitary places.' — Kmhwapa«<fita. The 
explanation is clearly erroneous. Rahasyeshu cannot mean 'in 
secret' or 'in secret places.' It might refer either to a work 
or works called Rahasyani or to the rahasyani pray&r&ttani. As 

Digitized by 


32 VASISHTffA. V, 4. 

4. For month by month the menstrual excretion 
takes away her sins. 

5. A woman in her courses is impure during three 
(days and) nights. 

6. (During that period) she shall not apply colly- 
rium to her eyes, nor anoint (her body), nor bathe in 
water ; she shall sleep on the ground ; she shall not 
sleep in the day-time, nor touch the fire, nor make a 
rope, nor clean her teeth, nor eat meat, nor look at 
the planets, nor smile, nor busy herself with (house- 
hold affairs), nor run ; she shall drink out of a large 
vessel, or out of her joined hands, or out of a copper 

7. For it has been declared in the Veda, ' When 
Indra had slain (VWtra) the three-headed son of 
Tvash/^e, he was seized by Sin, and he considered 
himself to be tainted with exceedingly great guilt. 
All beings cried out against him (saying to him), 

the next Sutra contains a half-verse taken from the section on secret 
penances, XXVIII, 4, it is evident that Vasish/Aa here makes a 
cross-reference. Similar cross-references occur further on. 

4. Ya^wavalkya I, 72, and below, XXVIII, 4. 

5. Vish«u XXII, 72. 

6. Taitt. Sawh. II, 5, 1, 6-7. I read with the majority of the 
MSS., grahanna nirlksheta instead of gr*han na niriksheta, 
which latter phrase Kn'shwapawaSta renders by * she shall not look 
out of the house.' My reading is confirmed by his quotation from 
the Smr/'timaj^arl, where graha«a«? nirikshawam, ' looking at the 
planets, i. e. the sun, moon,' &c, is forbidden. 'A large vessel,' i. e. 
an earthen jar. — Krz'sh«apa»<fita. 

7. Taitt. Sawh. II, 5, 1, 2-5. The name 'slayer of a learned 
Brahma«a' is applied to Indra, because Vrz'tra is said to have been 
deeply versed in the Vedas. Regarding the 'proper season of 
women,' see Manu III, 46-48. In the clause 'That guilt of 
Brahma«a-murder appears,' &c, I read avir bhavati with the 
majority of the MSS. For the prohibition to accept food from 
a ra^asvala, see Vish«u LI, 16-17. 

Digitized by 


V, p. WOMEN. 33 

' O thou slayer of a learned Brahma»a ! O thou 
-slayer of a learned Brahma#a!' He ran to the wo- 
men for protection (and said to them), ' Take upon 
yourselves the third part of this my guilt (caused by) 
the murder of a learned Brahma#a.' They answered, 
' What shall we have (for doing thy wish) ?' He re- 
plied, ' Choose a boon/ They said, ' Let us obtain off- 
spring (if our husbands approach us) during the proper 
season, at pleasure let us dwell (with our husbands) 
until (our children) are born.' He answered, ' So be 
it.' (Then) they took upon themselves (the third 
part of his guilt). That guilt of Brahma#a-murder 
appears every month as the menstrual flow. There- 
fore let him not eat the food of a woman in her 
courses; (for) such a one has put on the shape of 
the guilt of Brahma«a-murder. 

8. (Those who recite the Veda) proclaim the fol- 
lowing (rule) : ' Collyrium and ointment must not be 
accepted from her ; for that is the food of women. 
Therefore they feel a loathing for her (while she is) 
in that (condition, saying), " She shall not approach." ' 

9. 'Those (Brahma»as in) whose (houses) men- 
struating women sit, those who keep no sacred fire, 

8. Taitt. Szmh. II, 5, 1, 6. I read the text of this Sutra as 
follows: 'TadaliuA — an^anabhyarag-anam evasyd na pratigr&hya»i 
taddhi striyd annam iti — tasmat tasyai £a tatra £a bibhatsante me- 
yam upSg&d iti.' The MSS. give the following readings in the 
second clause : tasmSt tasmai ka, (B. Bh. E. F.), tatra na (F.), me- 
dhamup&gid (Bh. F.), medha up&g&d (E.), seyamupagdd (B.) 
Kr/sh«apaMta follows as usually MS. B. His explanation of the 
whole Sutra is erroneous. ' That is the food of women,' i. e. that is 
as necessary to women as their food, because to beautify themselves 
is one of their duties. 

9. The meaning of the Sutra is that a Brahmanical beggar must 
not accept any alms from Brahmanas whose wives are in their 

[14] D 

Digitized by 



and those in whose family there is no .Srotriya, — all 
these are equal to .Sudras.' 

Chapter VI. 

i. (To live according to) the rule of conduct is 
doubtlessly the highest duty of all men. He whose 
soul is defiled by vile conduct perishes in this world 
and in the next. 

2. Neither austerities, nor (the study of) the Veda, 
nor (the performance of) the Agnihotra, nor lavish 
liberality can ever save him whose conduct is vile 
and who has strayed from this (path of duty). 

3. The Vedas do not purify him who is deficient 
in good conduct, though he may have learnt them 
all together with the six Angas ; the sacred texts de- 
part from such a man at death, even as birds, when 
full-fledged, leave their nest. 

4. As the beauty of a wife causes no joy to a 
blind man, even so all the four Vedas together with 
the six Angas and sacrifices give no happiness to 
him who is deficient in good conduct. 

courses, who keep no sacred fire, and do not attend to the duty of 
Veda-study. Regarding sinners of the latter two kinds, see also 
Apastamba I, 6, 18, 32-33. 

VI. 1. Manu IV, 155. The word a^ara, which has been vari- 
ously translated by ' conduct,' ' rule of conduct,' and ' good con- 
duct,' includes the observance of all the various rules for every-day 
life, taught in the Smretis, and the performance of the prescribed 
ceremonies and rites. 

4. I read with MSS. Bh. and E., shaiahgastvakhildA sayagniA. 
The reading of MS. B., which Kr*'sh»apa«<fita adopts, shaaahg&A 
sakhilaA means, 'together with the six Angas, (and) the Khila 
(spurious) portions of the Veda.' 

Digitized by 



5. The sacred texts do not save from sin the 
deceitful man who behaves deceitfully. But that 
Veda, two syllables of which are studied in the 
right manner, purines, just as the clouds (give be- 
neficent rain) in the month of Isha. 

6. A man of bad conduct is blamed among men, 
evils befal him constantly, he is afflicted with disease 
and short-lived. 

7. Through good conduct man gains spiritual merit, 
through good conduct he gains wealth, through good 
conduct he obtains beauty, good conduct obviates the 
effect of evil marks. 

8. A man who follows the rule of conduct esta- 
blished among the virtuous, who has faith and is 
free from envy, lives a hundred years, though he 
be destitute of all auspicious marks. 

5. Isha is another name for Arvina, the month September- 
October. Though the rainy season, properly so called, is over in 
September, still heavy rain falls in many parts of India, chiefly 
under the influence of the beginning north-east monsoon, and is 
particularly important for the Rabi or winter crops. I think, 
therefore, that it is not advisable to take, as Kn'sh»apa»<fita does, 
yatha ishe 'bdsW both with the first and the second halves of the 
verse, and to translate, ' As the clouds (in general remain barren) 
in the month of Isha, even so the texts of the Veda do not save 
from evil the deceitful man who behaves deceitfully. But that 
Veda, two syllables of which have been studied in the right manner, 
sanctifies, just as the clouds in the month of Isha, (which shed a 
few drops of rain on the day of the Svati conjunction, produce 
pearls).' ' In the right manner,' i. e. with the due observance of 
the rules of studentship. 

6. Identical with Manu IV, 157. 

7. Manu IV, 156. By the ' inauspicious marks ' mentioned in 
this verse, and the ' auspicious marks ' occurring in the next, the 
various lines on the hands and feet &c. are meant, the explanation 
of which forms the subject of the Samudrika SSstra. 

8. Identical with Manu IV, 158; Vishwu LXXI, 92. 

D 2 

Digitized by 


36 VASISH7T7A. VI, g. 

9. But a man who knows the sacred law shall 
perform in secrat all acts connected with eating, the 
natural evacuations and dalliance with (his wife) ; 
business to be accomplished by speech or intellect, 
likewise austerities, wealth, and age, must be most 
carefully concealed. 

10. And a man shall void both urine and faeces, 
facing the north, in the day-time, but at night he 
shall do it turning towards the south; for (if he 
acts) thus, his life will not be injured. 

1 1. The intellect of that man perishes who voids 
urine against a fire, the sun, a cow, a Brahma»a, the 
moon, water, and the morning or evening twilights. 

12. Let him not void urine in a river, nor on 
a path, nor on ashes, nor on cowdung, nor on a 
ploughed field, nor on one which has been sown, 
nor on a grass-plot, nor in the shade (of trees) that 
afford protection (to travellers). 

1 3. Standing in the shade (of houses, clouds, and 
so forth), when it is quite dark, and when he fears 
for his life, a Brahmawa may void urine, by day and 
by night, in any position he pleases. 

14. (Afterwards) he shall perform the necessary 
(purification) with water fetched for the purpose 
(from a tank or river, and with earth). 

1 5. For a bath water not fetched for the purpose 
(may also be used). 

16. (For the purpose of purification) a Brahma»a 

10. Vish»u LX, 2. I read with the majority of the MSS., na 

11. Identical with Manu IV, 5a. 

12. Vislvra LX, 3-22. 

13. Identical with Manu IV, 51. 14. Vishwu LX, 24. 
15. I. e. one may bathe also in a tank or river. 

Digitized by 




shall take earth that is mixed with gravel, from the 
bank (of a river). 

i 7. Five kinds of earth must not he used, viz. 
such as is covered by water, such as lies in a temple, 
on an ant-hill, on a hillock thrown up by rats, and that 
which has been left by one who cleaned himself. 

18. The organ (must be cleaned by) one (appli- 
cation of) earth, the (right) hand by three, bat 
both (feet) by two, the anus by five, the one (i.e. the 
left hand) by ten, and both (hands and feet) by seven 
(applications of earth). 

19. Such is the purification ordained for house- 
holders ; it is double for students, treble for hermits, 
but quadruple for ascetics. 

20. Eight mouthfuls are the meal of an ascetic, 
sixteen that of a hermit, but thirty-two that of a 
householder, and an unlimited quantity that of a 

2i. An Agnihotrin, a draught-ox, and a student, 
those three can do their work only if they eat (well) ; 
without eating (much), they cannot do it. 

22. (The above rule regarding limited allowances 
of food holds good) in the case of penances, of self- 
imposed restraint, of sacrifices, of the recitation of 
the Veda, and of (the performance of other) sacred 

18. Vish»u LX, 2g. 

19. Identical with Vish«u LX, 26, and Manu V, 137. 

20-21. Identical with Apastamba II, 5, 9, 13, and rS. 21, with 
•Sankhayana Grihya-sulra II, J 6, 5. 

22. 'Penances (vrata), i. e. the TLrikMras and the rest; self- 
imposed restraint (niyama), i. e. eating certain food in accordance 
with a vow, and so forth, during a month or any other fixed period 
.... sacred duties (dharma), i. e. giving gifts and the like;' — 

Digitized by 


38 VASISHTT? A. VI, 23. 

23. The qualities by which a (true) Brahmawa 
may be recognised are, the concentration of the 
mind, austerities, the subjugation of the senses, libe- 
rality, truthfulness, purity, sacred learning, compas- 
sion, worldly learning, intelligence, and the belief (in 
the existence of the deity and of a future life). 

24. One may know that bearing grudges, envy, 
speaking untruths, speaking evil of Brahma«as, 
backbiting, and cruelty are the characteristics of a 

25. Those Brahma#as can save (from evil) who 
are free from passion, and patient of austerities, 
whose ears have been filled with the texts of the 
Veda, who have subdued the organs of sensation 
and action, who have ceased to injure animated 
beings, and who close their hands when gifts are 

26. Some become worthy receptacles of gifts 
through sacred learning, and some through the 
practice of austerities. But that Brahma#a whose 
stomach does not contain the food of a .Sudra, is even 
the worthiest receptacle of all. 

27. If a Brahmatta dies with the food of a .Sudra 
in his stomach, he will become a village pig (in his 
next life) or be born in the family of that (.Sudra). 

28. For though a (Brahma#a) whose body is 
nourished by the essence of a Sudra's food may 

24. Krz"sh»apa»dta connects brabma«adusha»am, translated 
above by ' speaking evil of Br£hma«as,' with judralaksha«am, and 
renders the two words thus, ' the characteristics of a Sudra which 
degrade a Brahma»a.' 

25. ' Close their hands,' i. e. are reluctant to> accept. 

»6. Kr*'sh»apa»dita takes kimkit, translated by 'some,' to mean 
' somewhat,' ' to a certain degree,' i. e. neither very distinguished nor 
very despicable. 

Digitized by 



daily recite the Veda, though he may offer (an 
Agnihotra) or mutter (prayers, nevertheless) he will 
not find the path that leads upwards. 

29. But if, after eating the food of a .Sudra, he 
has conjugal intercourse, his sons will belong to the 
giver of the food, and he shall not ascend to heaven. 

30. They declare that he is worthy to receive 
gifts, who (daily) rises to recite the Veda, who is 
of good family, and perfectly free from passion, who 
constantly offers sacrifices in the three sacred fires, 
who fears sin, and knows much, who is beloved among 
the females (of his family), who is righteous, protects 
cows, and reduces himself by austerities. 

31. Just as milk, sour milk, clarified butter, and 
honey poured into an unburnt earthen vessel, perish, 
owing to the weakness of the vessel, and neither the 
vessel nor those liquids (remain); 

32. Even so a man destitute of sacred learning, 
who accepts cows or gold, clothes, a horse, land, (or) 
sesamum, becomes ashes, as (if he were dry) wood. 

33. He shall not make his joints or his nails crack, 

34. Nor shall he make a vessel ring with his nails. 

35. Let him not drink water out of his joined hands. 

36. Let him not strike the water with his foot 
or his hand, 

37. Nor (pour) water into (other) water. 

38. Let him not gather fruit by throwing brick- 

39. Nor by throwing another fruit at it. 

40. He shall not become a hypocrite or deceitful. 

32. Manu IV, 188. Read in the text 'eva/» g& vi' instead of 
'eva»» gavo.' 

33. Gautama IX, 51. 35. Gautama IX, 9. 
40. Manu IV, 177. 

Digitized by 


40 VASISHTffA. VI, 41. 

41. Let him not learn a language spoken by bar- 

42. Now they quote also (the following verses): 
' The opinion of the .Sish/as is, that a man shall 
not be uselessly active, neither with his hands and 
his feet, nor with his eyes, nor with his tongue and 
his body.' 

43. 'Those Brahma«as, in whose families the 
study of the Veda and of its supplements is heredi- 
tary, and who are able to adduce proofs perceptible 
by the senses from the revealed texts, must be known 
to be .Sish/as.' 

44. ' He is a (true) Brahma«a regarding whom no 
one knows if he be good or bad, if he be ignorant 
or deeply learned, if he be of good or of bad conduct' 

Chapter VII. 

1. There are four orders, 

2. Viz. (that of) the student, (that of) the house- 
holder, (that of) the hermit, and (that of) the ascetic. 

3. A man who has studied one, two, or three 
Vedas without violating the rules of studentship, 
may enter any of these (orders), whichsoever he 

4. A (professed) student shall serve his teacher 
until death ; 

5. And in case the teacher dies, he shall serve the 
sacred fire. 

42. Manu IV, 177 ; Gautama IX, 50-51. 

43. Manu XII, 109. 

VII. 1-2. Gautama III, 2. 3. Gautama III, 1. 

4. Vishwu XXVIII, 43. 

5. Vishmi XXVIII, 46. I agree with Kf7sh»apa»</ita in thinking 
that the apparently purposeless particle 'and,' which is used in 

Digitized by 



6. For it has been declared in the Veda, ' The 
fire is thy teacher.' 

7. (A student, whether professed or temporary), 
shall bridle his tongue ; 

8. He shall eat in the fourth, sixth, or eighth 
hour of the day. 

9. He shall go out in order to beg. 

10. He shall obey his teacher. 

11. He either (may wear all his hair) tied in a 
knot or (keep merely) a lock on the crown of his 
head tied in a knot, (shaving the other parts of the 

12. If the teacher walks, he shall attend him 
walking after him ; if the teacher is seated, standing ; 
if the teacher lies down, seated. 

13. He shall study after having been called (by 
the teacher, and not request the latter to begin the 

14. Let him announce (to the teacher) all that he 
has received (when begging), and eat after permission 
(has been given to him). 

this Sutra, indicates Vasishifta's approval of the rules given in 
other Smntis, according to which the student, on the death of 
the teacher, shall serve the "teacher's son, a fellow-student, or the 
teacher's wife, and the service of the sacred fire is the last resource 
only. See Vish«u XXVIII, 44-45 ; Gautama III, ^-8. 

6. These words form part of one of the Mantras which the 
teacher recites at the initiation of the student ; see e. g. >S&hkhi- 
yana Gnhya-sutra. 

7. Gautama II, 13, 22. 

8. According to Knsh«apa»<fita a ldla, 'hour,' is the eighth 
part of a day. 

9. Vishmi XXVIII, 9. no. Vish«u XXVIII, 7. 

11. Gautama 1,27; Visbra XXVIII, 41. 

12. Vishsu XXVIII, 18-22. 13. Vistora XXVIII, 6. 
14. Vish«u XXVIII, 10; Apastamba I, 1, 3, 25. 

Digitized by 


42 VASISHTffA. VII, 15. 

15. Let him avoid to sleep on a cot, to clean 
his teeth, to wash (his body for pleasure), to apply 
collyrium (to his eyes), to anoint (his body), and to 
wear shoes or a parasol. 

16. (While reciting his prayers) he shall stand in 
the day-time and sit down at night. 

1 7. Let him bathe three times a day. 

Chapter VIII. 

1. (A student who desires to become) a house- 
holder shall bathe, free from anger and elation, 
with the permission of his teacher, and take for a 
wife a young female of his own caste, who does 
neither belong to the same Gotra nor has the 
same Pravara, who has not had intercourse (with 
another man), 

2. Who is not related within four degrees on the 
mother's side, nor within six degrees on the father's 

3. Let him kindle the nuptial fire. 

15. Gautama II, 13. 

16. Vishziu XXVIII, 2-3. The prayers intended are the so- 
called Sandhy&s, which are recited at daybreak and in the evening. 

17. Gautama II, 8. 'Three times a day,' i. e. morning, noon, 
and evening. Krz'shwapaw^ita thinks that he shall perform three 
ablutions at midday. 

VIII. 1. Vishwu XXIV, 9 ; Gautama IV, 1-2. Regarding the 
bath at the end of the studentship, see Vish«u XXVIII, 42, and 
Professor Jolly's note. 

2. Vishwu XXIV, 10 ; Gautama IV, 2. 

3. Vishmi LIX, 1, and Professor Jolly's note. The fire intended 
is the grihya. or smarta, the sacred household fire, which according 
to this Sutra must be kindled on the occasion of the marriage cere- 
mony, while other Smn'tis permit of its being lighted on the division 
of the paternal estate. 

Digitized by 



4. Let him not turn away a guest who comes in 
the evening. 

5. (A guest) shall not dwell in his house without 
receiving food. 

6. If a Brahma»a who has come for shelter to 
the house of a (householder) receives no food, on 
departure he will take with him all the spiritual 
merit of that (churlish host), 

7. But a Brahma#a who stays for one night only 
is called a guest. For (the etymological import of 
the word) atithi (a guest) is ' he who stays for a 
short while only.' 

8. A Brahma#a who lives in the same village 
(with his host) and a visitor on business or pleasure 
(are) not (called guests. But a- guest), whether he 
arrives at the moment (of dinner)- or at an inop- 
portune time, must not stay in the house of a 
(householder) without receiving food. 

9. (A householder) who has faith, is free from 
covetousness, and (possesses wealth) sufficient for 
(performing) the Agnyadheya-sacrifice, must become 
an Agnihotrin. 

10. He (who possesses wealth) sufficient for (the 
expenses of) a Soma-sacrifice shall not abstain from 
offering it. 

4. VishmiLXVII, 28-29-. 5. Vishwu LXVTI, 30. 

6. Vishwu LXVII, 33. 

7. Identical with Vishwu LXVII, 34 ; Manu III, 102. 

8. Vishwu LXVII, 35 ; Manu III, 105. 

9. Vishwu LIX, 2. The Agnihotra which is here intended is, of 
course, the .Srauta Agnihotra, to be performed with three fires. The 
Agny&dheya is one of the Havirya^nas with which the 5rautSgni- 
hotrin has to begin his rites. 

10. Vishwu LIX, 8. 

Digitized by 



ii. (A householder) shall be industrious in reciting 
the Veda, offering sacrifices, begetting children, and 
(performing his other duties). 

12. Let him honour visitors (who come) to his 
house by rising to meet them, by (offering them) 
seats, by speaking to them kindly and extolling 
their virtues, 

13. And all creatures by (giving them) food ac- 
cording to his ability. 

14. A householder alone performs sacrifices, a 
householder alone performs austerities, and (there- 
fore) the order of householders is the most distin- 
guished among the four. 

15. As all rivers, both great and small, find a 
resting-place in the ocean, even so men of all orders 
find protection with householders. 

16. As all creatures exist through the protection 
afforded by their mothers, even so all mendicants sub- 
sist through the protection afforded by householders. 

1 7. A Brahma»a who always carries water (in his 
gourd), who always wears the sacred thread, who 
daily recites the Veda, who avoids the food of 
outcasts, who approaches (his wife) in the proper 
season, and offers sacrifices in accordance with the 

11. I agree with Kr/'sh«apa«<Sta that the word 'and' used in 
this enumeration serves the purpose of calling to mind that there 
are other minor duties. The three named specially are the so- 
called 'three debts ;' see below, XI, 48. 

12. Vishmi LXVII, 45 ; Gautama V, 38-41. 

13. Vish«u LXVIL 26. 

14-17. Vishwu LIX, 27-30; ManuVI, 89. 
• 15. Identical with Manu VI, 90. 

17. 'Who always carries water (in his gourd)' (nityodakt) may 
also be translated, 'who always keeps water (in his house);' see 
Apastamba II, 1, 1, 15. 'Who always wears the sacred thread' 

Digitized by 



rules (of the Veda, after death) never falls from 
Brahman's heaven. 

Chapter IX. 

i. A hermit shall wear (his hair in) braids, and 
dress (in garments made of) bark and skins ; 

2. And he shall not enter a village. 

3. He shall not step on ploughed (land). 

4. He shall gather wild growing roots and fruit 

5. He shall remain chaste. 

6. His heart shall be full of meekness. 

7. He shall honour guests coming to his hermi- 
tage with alms (consisting of) roots and fruit. 

8. He shall only give, not receive (presents). 

9. He shall bathe at morn, noon, and eve. 

10. Kindling a fire according to the (rule of the) 
•Sramawaka (Sutra), he shall offer the Agnihotra. 

1 1 . After (living in this manner during) six months, 

may also mean ' who always wears his upper in the manner re- 
quired at a sacrifice,' i. e. passes it over the left and under the 
right arm. 

IX. 1. Vishwu XCIV, 8-9; Gautama III, 34. Kmh«apa»<iita 
takes #ra, ' bark,' to mean ' (made of) grass,' e. g. of Mu%a or 

2. Gautama III, 33. The particle 'and' probably indicates 
that the hermit is not to enter any other inhabited place. 

3. Gautama III, 32. 4. Vishwu XCV, 5. 
5. Vish«uXCV, 7. 6. ManuVI, 8. 

7. Gautama III, 30. 9. Vishiwi XCV, 10. 

10. Gautama III, 27. Kn'shnapaodita and MSS. B. F. read 
jravawakcna, and the rest &var«akena. I read fr&ma»akena, 'ac- 
cording to the rule of the .Sramawaka Sutra,' in accordance with 
Gautama's text Baudhayana, too, uses the same word. 

11. Manu VI, 25. 

Digitized by 


46 VASISHTffA. IX, 12. 

he shall dwell at the root of a tree, keeping no fire 
and having no house. 

12. He (who in this manner) gives (their due) to 
gods, manes, and men, will attain endless (bliss in) 

Chapter X. 

1. Let an ascetic depart from his house, giving a 
promise of safety from injury to all animated beings. 

2. Now they quote also (the following verses) : 
' That ascetic who wanders about at peace with all 
creatures, forsooth, has nothing to fear from any 
living being.' 

3. ' But he who becomes an ascetic and does not 
promise safety from injury to all beings, destroys the 
born and the unborn ; and (so does an ascetic) who 
accepts presents.' 

4. ' Let him discontinue the performance of all 
religious ceremonies, but let him never discontinue the 
recitation of the Veda. By neglecting the Veda he 
becomes a .Sudra ; therefore he shall not neglect it.' 

5. '(To pronounce) the one syllable (Om) is the 
best (mode of reciting the) Veda, to suppress the 
breath is the highest (form of) austerity ; (to subsist 
on) alms is better than fasting ; compassion is pre- 
ferable to liberality.' 

6. (Let the ascetic) shave (his head); let him have 
no property and no home. 

X. 1. ManuVI, 39; Ya^wavalkya III, 61. 

2. Manu VI, 40. 

3. 'The born and the unborn,* i. e. his ancestors who lose 
heaven, and his descendants who lose their caste. 

4. Manu VI, 39. 5. Manu II, 83. 

6. Gautama III, 11, 22. The term parigraha, ' home,' includes 
the wife, the family, attendants, and a house. 

Digitized by 


X, 20. ascetic. 47 

7. Let him beg food at seven houses which he 
has not selected (beforehand), 

8. (At the time) when the smoke (of the kitchen- 
fire) has ceased and the pestle lies motionless. 

9. Let him wear a single garment, 

10. Or cover his body with a skin or with grass 
that has been nibbled at by a cow. 

11. Let him sleep on the bare ground. 

1 2. Let him frequently change his residence, 

13. (Dwelling) at the extremity of the village, in a 
temple, or in an empty house, or at the root of a tree. 

14. Let him (constantly) seek in his heart the 
knowledge (of the universal soul). 

15. (An ascetic) who lives constantly in the forest, 

16. Shall not wander about within sight of the 

1 7. ' Freedom from future births is certain for 
him who constantly dwells in the forest, who has 
subdued his organs of sensation and action, who has 
renounced all sensual gratification, whose mind is 
fixed in meditation on the Supreme Spirit, and who 
is (wholly) indifferent (to pleasure and pain).' 

18. (Let him) not (wear) any visible mark (of his 
order), nor (follow) any visible rule of conduct. 

19. Let him, though not mad, appear like one out 
of his mind. 

20. Now they quote also (the following verses) : 
' There is no salvation for him who is addicted to 

7. Vish«u XCVI, 3. 

8. Vishmi XCVI, 6 ; Manu VI, 56. 

9. Vishmi XCVI, 13. It is very probable that the single gar- 
ment mentioned in the Sfttra is, as Kn'shwapawfita thinks, a small 
strip of cloth to cover the ascetic's nakedness. 

12-13. Vishwu XCVI, 10-12. 14- ManuVI, 43, 6g. 

20. I read 'ramy&vasathapriyasya,' with the majority of the MSS. 

Digitized by 


48 VASISH7W A. X, 21. 

the pursuit of the science of words, nor for him who 
rejoices in captivating men, nor for him who is fond 
of (good) eating and (fine) clothing, nor for him who 
loves a pleasant dwelling.' 

21. ' Neither by (explaining) prodigies and omens, 
nor by skill in astrology and palmistry, nor by casuistry 
and expositions (of the .Sastras), let him ever seek to 
obtain alms.' 

22. 'Let him not be dejected when he obtains 
nothing, nor glad when he receives something. Let 
him only seek as much as will sustain life, without 
caring for household property.' 

23. ' But he, forsooth, knows (the road to) salva- 
tion who cares neither for a hut, nor for water, nor 
for clothes, nor for the three Pushkaras' (holy tanks), 
nor for a house, nor for a seat, nor for food.' 

24. In the morning and in the evening he may 
eat as much (food) as he obtains in the house of one 
Brahmawa, excepting honey and meat, 

25. And he shall not (eat so much that he is 
quite) satiated. 

26. At his option (an ascetic) may (also) dwell in 
a village. 

27. Let him not be crooked (in his ways); (let 
him) not (observe the rules of) impurity on account 

21. Identical with Manu VI, 50. 

22. Vishzra XCVI, 4. Identical with Manu VI, 57. 

23. There are three Tirthas called Pushkara; see Professor 
Jolly's note on Vish«u LXXXV, 1. 

24. Kr*'sh«apa»dita thinks that this rule is a concession to those 
ascetics who are unable to subsist on one meal a day, as Manu 
VI, 55 prescribes. 

25. Manu VI, 59. 26. Manu VI, 94-95. 

27. The text is here probably corrupt. But I follow Kn'sh«a- 
pa«a5ta. Several MSS. read axa/4o, ' he shall not be a rogue,' for 
aiavo, ' he shall not observe the rules of impurity.' 

Digitized by 



of deaths (or births) ; let him not have a house ; let 
him be of concentrated mind. 

28. Let him not enjoy any object of sensual 

29. Let him be (utterly) indifferent, avoiding to 
do injury or to show kindness to any living being. 

30. To avoid backbiting, jealousy, pride, self-con- 
sciousness, unbelief, dishonesty, self-praise, blaming 
others, deceit, covetousness, delusion, anger, and envy 
is considered to be the duty of (men of) all orders. 

31. A Brahma«a who wears the sacred thread, 
who holds in his hand a gourd filled with water, 
who is pure and avoids the food of .Sudras will not 
fail (to gain) the world of Brahman. 

Chapter XI. 

1. Six persons are (particularly) worthy to receive 
the honey-mixture (madhuparka), 

2. (Viz.) an officiating priest, the bridegroom of one's 
daughter, a king, a paternal uncle, a Snitaka, a mater- 
nal uncle, as well as (others enumerated elsewhere). 

3. (A householder) shall offer, both at the morning 
and the evening (meals, a portion) of the prepared 
(food) to the Visve Devas in the (sacred) domestic fire. 

30. Vishwu II, 16-17. 

31. Kr»'sh«apa»dita believes that this Sutra again refers to ascetics. 
But that is hardly possible, as ascetics are not allowed to wear a 
sacrificial thread (see above, Sutra 18). I think that it is meant to 
emphatically assert that a Brahma»a who is free from the short- 
comings enumerated in the preceding Sutra, and who -follows the 
rule of conduct, will obtain salvation, whether he passes through 
the order of Samny&sins or not. 

XI. 1-2. Gautama V, 27-30. The persons enumerated else- 
where are the teacher, the father-in-law, and so forth. Regarding 
the Snitaka, see Apastamba I, n, 30, 1-4. 

3. Vishwu LXVII, 1-3. 

[14] E 

Digitized by 


50 VASISH7"ffA. XI, 4. 

4. Let him give a Bali-offering to the (guardian) 
deities of the house, 

5. (Thereafter) let him give a portion, one Pala 
in weight, to a .Srotriya or to a student, (and after- 
wards an offering) to the manes. 

6. Next let him feed his guests in due order, the 
worthiest first, 

7. (Thereafter) the maidens, the infants, the aged, 
the half-grown members of his family, and pradatas, 

8. Then the other members of his family. 

9. (Outside the house) he shall throw (some food) 
on the ground for the dogs, K&nd&\as, outcasts, and 

10. He may give to a .Sudra either the fragments 
(of the meal) or (a portion of) fresh (food). 

11. The master of the house and his wife may 
eat what remains. 

4. Vishmi LXVII, 4-22. 

5. Vishmi LIX, 14; LXVII, 23, 27. Knsh»apa«<fita does not 
take 'agrabblga' as a technical term, but explains it by 'a first por- 
tion, sufficient for a dinner, or as much as one is able to spare.' 

6. Vishau LXVII, 28, 36-38. 

7. Vishmi LXVII, 39. The majority of the MSS. read balavr/d- 
dhataruwapradatas [tato]. Kr*sh»apa«<fita corrects the last word 
to pradata, while the editor of the Calcutta edition writes prabhri- 
tims [tato]. Both conjectures are inadmissible. As the same 
phrase occurs once more, below, XIX, 23 (where Kr«sh«apa«<fita 
writes pradataraA), I think that it is not permissible to change the 
text. Prad&t&A must be the correct reading, and a technical 
name for a class of female relatives. Etymologically it may mean 
' those who have been perfectly cleansed.' But I am unable to 
trace its precise technical import, and have left it untranslated. 

8. Vishmi LXVII, 41. 9. Vishmi LXVII, 26. 
io. Gautama V, 25, and note. 'A 5udra, i.e. one who is his 

servant.' — Krz'sh«apa«^ita. It is, however, possible, that a visitor 
of the Sudra caste is meant; see Apastamba II, 2, 4, 19-20. 
11. Vishmi LXVII, 41. 

Digitized by 


XI, 19. RECEPTION OF GUESTS. \%% '^/), 

— : ^%5jfIA '"' 

12. A fresh meal for which all (the same mate-^*-ki_l£2".-^' 
rials as for the first) are used (may be prepared), if 

a guest comes after the Vai.svadeva has been offered. 
For such a (guest) he shall cause to be prepared 
food (of a) particularly (good quality). 

1 3. For it has been declared in the Veda, ' A 
Brahma#a guest enters the house resembling the 
Vai^vinara fire. Through him they obtain rain, 
and food through rain. Therefore people know 
that the (hospitable reception of a guest) is a 
ceremony averting evil.' 

14. Having fed the (guest), he shall honour him. 

1 5. He shall accompany him to the boundary (of the 
village) or until he receives permission (to return). 

.16. Let him present (funeral offerings) to the 
manes during the dark half of the month (on any 
day) after the fourth. 

17. After issuing an invitation on the day pre- 
ceding (the .Sraddha, he shall feed on that occasion) 
three ascetics or three virtuous householders, who are 
•Srotriyas, who are not very aged, who do not follow 
forbidden occupations, and neither (have been his) 
pupils, nor are (living as) pupils in his house. 

18. He may also feed pupils who are endowed 
with good qualities. 

19. Let him avoid men neglecting their duties, 

12. Apastamba II, 3, 6, 16; Gautama V, 32, 33. A guest, i. e. 
one to whom the definition given above, VIII, 6, 7, applies. I read 
according to my MSS. puna^p&ko instead of punaApike. 

14-15. Gautama V, 38. 

16. Vishwu LXXVI, 1-2 ; Gautama XV, 3. 

17. Vishnu LXXIII, 1 ; LXXXII, 2-4 ; LXXXIII, 5, 19; Gau- 
tama XV, 10; Apastamba II, 7, 17, 4. 

18. Apastamba II, 7, 17, 6. 

19. Gautama XV, 16, 18. The explanation of the word nagna, 

E 2 

Digitized by 


52 VASISHrffA. XI, 20. 

those afflicted with white leprosy, eunuchs, blind men, 
those who have black teeth, those who suffer from 
black leprosy, (and) those who have deformed nails. 

20. Now they quote also (the following verses) : 
' Now, if a (Brihmawa) versed in the Vedas is 
afflicted with bodily (defects) which exclude him 
from the company, Yama declares him to be irre- 
proachable. Such (a man) sanctifies the company.' 

2i. 'At a funeral sacrifice the fragments (of the 
meal) must not be swept away until the end of the 
day. For streams of nectar flow (from them, and 
the manes of) those who have received no libations 
of water drink (them).' 

22. ' But let him not sweep up the fragments (of 
the meal) before the sun has set. Thence issue rich 
streams of milk for those who obtain a share with 

23. 'Manu declares that both the remainder (in 
the vessels) and the fragments (of the meal) cer- 
tainly are the portion of those members of the 
family who died before receiving the sacraments.' 

24. ' Let him give the fragments that have fallen 
on the ground and the portion scattered (on the 
blades of Kuya grass), which consists of the wipings 

'neglecting their duties,' is doubtful. I have followed Kr«'sh»a- 
pa»(Sta, who quotes the Markawrfeya Purawa in support of his view. 
The word occurs in the same connexion, Vishmi LXXXII, 27, 
where it is rendered by ' naked.' Possibly it may refer to ascetics 
who go entirely naked. 

20. The Sutra gives an exception to the preceding rule. 

a 1. I read '^yotante hi' instead of 'j^yotante vai.' 

22. ' Those who receive a share with difficulty,' i. e. the manes 
of uninitiated children, mentioned in the next verses. 

23-24. Vishmi LXXXII, 22; Manu III, 245-246. These rules, 
however, do not fully agree with the teaching of our Manu-smr/ti, 

Digitized by 


XI, 29. SRADDHAS. 53 

and water, as their food, to the manes of those who 
died without offspring and of those who died young.' 

25. ' The malevolent Asuras seek an opportunity 
(to snatch away) that food intended for the manes, 
which is not supported with both hands;' 

26. ' Therefore let him not offer it (to the Brah- 
manas) without holding (a spoon) in his hand ; or 
let him stand, holding the dish (with both hands, 
until) leavings of both kinds (have been produced).' 

27. ' He shall feed two (Brahma#as) at the 
offering to the gods, and three at the offering to 
the manes, or a single man on either occasion ; even 
a very wealthy man shall not be anxious (to enter- 
tain) a large company.' 

28. 'A large company destroys these five (advan- 
tages), the respectful treatment (of the invited 
guests, the propriety of) time and place, purity and 
(the selection of) virtuous Brahma«a (guests) ; there- 
fore he shall not (invite a large number).' 

29. ' Or he may entertain (at a .SVaddha) even a 
single Brahmawa who has studied the whole Veda, 
who is distinguished by learning and virtue, and is 
free from all evil marks (on his body).' 

as the latter assigns the fragments on the ground to honest and 
upright servants. Sutra 24 I read with the majority of the 
MSS. ' lepanodakam ' for ' lepamodakam,' and 'annaw preteshu' 
for ' anupreteshu.' 

25. Manu III, 225. 

26. Manu III, 224. The meaning of the last clause seems to 
be that the sacrificer shall stand before the Br&hma»as until they 
have done eating. 

27. Identical with Manu III, 125; see also Vishwu LXXIII, 3. 
The offering to the gods is the Vauvadeva offering which pre- 
cedes the .Sraddha. 

28. Identical with Manu III, 126. 29. Manu III, 129. 

Digitized by 


54 VASISHrHA. XI, 30. 

30. ' (But) how can the oblation to the gods be 
made if he feeds a single Brahma«a at a funeral 
sacrifice ? -Let him take (a portion) of each (kind 
of) food that has been prepared (and put it) into a 
vessel ; ' 

31. 'Let him place it in the sanctuary of a god 
and afterwards continue (the performance of) the 
funeral sacrifice. Let him offer that food in the 
fire or give it (as alms) to a student.' 

32. 'As long as the food continues warm, as long 
as they eat in silence, as long as the qualities of the 
food are not declared (by them), so long the manes 
feast on it.' 

33. ' The qualities of the food must not be de- 
clared as long as the (Brahma#as who represent the) 
manes are not satiated. Afterwards when they are 
satisfied, they may say, " Beautiful is the sacrificial 

34. ' But an ascetic who, invited to dine at a 
sacrifice of the manes or of the gods, rejects meat, 
shall go to hell for as many years as the slaughtered 
beast has hairs.' 

35. ' Three (things are held to) sanctify a funeral 
sacrifice, a daughter's son, the midday, and sesamum 
grains ; and they recommend three (other things) for 
it, purity, freedom from anger and from precipitation.' 

36. ' The eighth division of the day, during which 
the sun's (progress in the heavens) becomes slow, 
one must know to be midday ; what is (then) given 
to the manes lasts (them) for a very long time.' 

37. ' The ancestors of that man who has inter- 

32. Identical with Vish«u LXXXII. 20, and Manu III, 237. 
34. Manu V, 35. 35. Identical with Manu III, 235. 

37. Vishau LXIX, 2-4. 

Digitized by 



course with a woman after offering or having dined 
at a ^raddha, feed during a month from that (day) 
on his semen.' 

38. 'A child that is born from (intercourse im- 
mediately) after offering a .Sraddha or partaking of 
a funeral repast, is unable to acquire sacred learning 
and becomes short-lived.' 

39. ' The father and the grandfather, likewise the 
great-grandfather, beset a descendant who is born to 
them, just as birds (fly to) a fig tree ;' 

40. ' (Saying), "He will offer to us funeral repasts 
with honey and meat, with vegetables, with milk 
and with messes made of milk, both in the rainy 
season and under the constellation Magha^." ' 

41. ' The ancestors always rejoice at a descendant 
who lengthens the line, who is zealous in performing 
funeral sacrifices, and who is rich in (images of the) 
gods and (virtuous) Brahma«a (guests).' 

42. ' The manes consider him to be their (true) 
descendant who offers (to them) food at Gaya, and 
(by the virtue of that gift) they grant him (blessings), 
just as husbandmen (produce grain) on well-ploughed 

43. He shall offer (a Sraddha) both on the full 
moon days of the months .Sravawa and Agrahaya«a 
and on the Anvash/aki. 

39-40. Vishwu LXXVIII, 51-53. 

41. ' Who lengthens the line,' i. e. who himself begets sons. 
Read instead of nuyantaw pitrekarma»i (v. I. muyantaw and tri- 
pantaA), ' udyata/H.' 

42. Vish«u LXXXV, 4, 66-67. 

43. <Srava«a, i.e. July-August; Agrahaya«a, i.e. Margarfrsha 
or November-December. Anvash/aki means the day following 
the Ash/aka, or eighth day, i. e. the ninth day of the dark halves of 
Maxgafirsha, Pausha, Magha, and Phalguna. The form of the 
word is usually anvash/aka. 

Digitized by 


56 VASiSHraA. xi, 44. 

44. There is no restriction as to time, if (par- 
ticularly suitable) materials and (particularly holy) 
Brahmawas are at hand, or (if the sacrificer is) near 
(a particularly sacred) place. 

45. A Brahma«a must necessarily kindle the three 
sacred fires. 

46. He shall offer (in them) the full and new 
moon sacrifices, the (half-yearly) Agraya#a Ish/i, 
the A'aturmasya-sacrifice, the (half-yearly) sacrifices 
at which animals are slain, and the (annual) Soma- 

47. For all this is (particularly) enjoined (in the 
Veda), and called by way of laudation ' a debt.' 

48. For it is declared in the Veda, ' A Brahma«a 
is born, loaded with three debts,' (and further, 'He 
owes) sacrifices to the gods, a son to the manes, the 
study of the Veda to the ^'shis ; therefore he is free 
from debt who has offered sacrifices, who has be- 
gotten a son, and who has lived as a student (with a 

49. Let him (ordinarily) initiate a Brahma»a in 
the eighth (year) after conception, 

50. A Kshatriya in the eleventh year after con- 

51. A Vai.sya in the twelfth year after conception. 

52. The staff of a Brahma«a (student may) option- 
ally (be made) of Pala^a wood, 

44. Gautama XV, 5. 45. Vishwu LIX, 2. 

46. Vish«u LIX, 4-9. 

47. Manu IV, 257. I read rc'«asa/»stuta»? with MS. E. 

48. Taitt. Sazwh.VI, 3, 10, 5 ; £atapatha-brahma»a I, 7, 2, 11. 
49-51. Vish/m XXVII, 15-17. 

52-54. Vishwu XXVII, 29. Regarding other kinds of sticks, 
see Gautama I, 22-24. 

Digitized by 



53. (That) of a Kshatriya optionally of the wood 
of the Banyan tree, 

54. (That) of a Vaisya optionally of Udumbara 

55. (The staff) of a Brahmaraa shall (be of such 
a length as to) reach the hair, 

56. (That) of a Kshatriya the forehead, 

57. (That) of a Vaisya the (tip of the) nose. 

58. The girdle of a Brahmaraa shall be made of 
Mui^a grass, 

59. A bowstring (shall be that) of a Kshatriya, 

60. (That) of a Vawya shall be made of hempen 

61. The upper garment of a Brahma«a (shall be) 
the skin of a black antelope, 

62. (That) of a Kshatriya the skin of a spotted 

63. (That) of a Vaiyya a cow-skin or the hide of 
a he-goat. 

64. The (lower) garment of a Brahma^a (shall be) 
white (and) unblemished, 

65. (That) of a Kshatriya dyed with madder, 

66. (That) of a Vaisya dyed with turmeric, or 
made of (raw) silk ; 

67. Or (a dress made of) undyed (cotton) cloth 
may be worn by (students of) all (castes). 

68. A Brahma«a shall ask for alms placing (the 
word) ' Lady ' first, 

55-57. Vishwu XXVII, 22. 58-60. Vishwu XXVII, 18. 

61-63. Vishwu XXVII, 20. 

64-67. Vishwu XXVII, 19 ; Gautama I, 17-21. 'Unblemished,' 
i. e. new, without holes and seams. 

68-70. Vishwu XXVII, 25. Le. 'Lady, give alms;' 'Give, 
lady, alms;' and ' Give alms, lady.' 

Digitized by 


58 VASisHrffA. xi, 69. 

69. A Kshatriya placing (the word) ' Lady ' in the 

70. A Vawya placing (the word) ' Lady ' at the 
end (of the formula). 

7 1 . The time (for the initiation) of a Brahma«a has 
not passed until the completion of the sixteenth year, 

72. (For that) of a Kshatriya until the completion 
of the twenty-second, 

73. (For that) of a Vaisya until the completion of 
the twenty-fourth. 

74. After that they become ' men whose Savitrl 
has been neglected.' 

75. Let him not initiate such men, nor teach 
them, nor sacrifice for them ; let them not form 
matrimonial alliances (with such outcasts). 

76. A man whose Savitri has not been performed, 
may undergo the Uddalaka-penance. 

77. Let him subsist during two months on barley- 
gruel, during one month on milk, during half a 
month on curds of two-milk whey, during eight days 
on clarified butter, during six days on alms given 
without asking, (and) during three days on water, 
and let him fast for one day and one night. 

78. (Or) he may go to bathe (with the priests) at 
the end of an A^vamedha (horse-sacrifice). 

79. Or he may offer a Vritya-stoma. 

71-73. Vishmi XXVII, 26. 

74. Vishmi XXVII, 27. SSvitrt, literally 'the Rik sacred to 
Savitn - ' (Rig-veda III, 62, 10), means here 'the initiation,' see 
Gautama 1, 12 note. 

75. Apastamba 1, 1, 1, 28. The plural viv&hayeyuA, 'let them 
(not) form matrimonial alliances,' indicates that orthodox Br&h- 
mawas must neither give their daughters to Patitas£vitrtkas nor 
take the daughters of such persons. 

78. Gautama XIX, 9. 79. Gautama XIX, 8. 

Digitized by 



Chapter XII. 

1. Now, therefore, the duties of a Snataka (will 
be explained). 

2. Let him not beg from anybody except from a 
king and a pupil. 

3. But let him ask, if pressed by hunger, for 
some (small gift) only, a cultivated or uncultivated 
field, a cow, a goat or a sheep, (or) at the last 
extremity, for gold, grain or food. 

4. But the injunction (given by those who know 
the law) is, 'A Snataka shall not be faint with 

5. Let him not dwell together with a person 
whose clothes are foul ; 

6. (Let him not cohabit) with a woman during 
her courses, 

7. Nor with an unfit one. 

8. Let him not be a stay-at-home. 

XII. 1. ' Now ' marks the beginning of a new topic. * There- 
fore,' i. e. because the duties of a Snitaka have to be taught after 
those of a student. 

2. Manu IV, 33 ; Gautama IX, 63. 

3. Manu X, 1 1 3-1 14. 4. Manu IV, 34 ; Vishwu III, 79. 

5. K/7'sh«apa«<fita, whom I have followed in the translation of 
this Sutra, thinks that it indicates the obligation of wearing clean 
clothes, see e. g. Vishwu LXXI, 9. It seems to me, however, 
probable that its real sense is, ' Let him not cohabit with a woman 
during her courses,' and that the next Sutra has to be read n&ra^a- 
svalayt, ' Nor with one of immature age.' 

7. 'An unfit one,' i. e. ' one of low caste ' (hind). — Kmhwapaw- 
tflta. Probably a sick wife is meant, Gautama IX, 28. 

8. Gautama IX, 53. Kr*'sh»apa»</ita gives besides the above 
interpretation of the Sutra from Haradatta's Gautamiya' MitaksharS, 
another one, according to which it means, ' Let him not forsake his 
own family and enter another one (by adoption and so forth).' A third 

Digitized by 


60 VASISHrtfA. XII, 9. 

9. Let him not step over a stretched rope to 
which a calf (or cow) is tied. 

10. Let him not look at the sun when he rises or 

11. Let him not void excrements or urine in 

12. Nor spit into it. 

13. Let him ease himself, after wrapping up his 
head and covering the ground with grass that is not 
fit to be used at a sacrifice, and turning towards the 
north in the day-time, turning towards the south at 
night, sitting with his face towards the north in the 

14. Now they quote also (the following verses): 
' But Snatakas shall always wear a lower garment 
and an upper one, two sacrificial threads, (shall carry) 
a staff and a vessel filled with water.' 

15. ' It is declared, that (a vessel becomes) pure 
(if cleaned) with water, or with the hand, or with a 
stick, or with fire. Therefore he shall clean (his) 
vessel with water and with his (right) hand.' 

16. ' For Manu, the lord of created beings, calls 
(this mode of cleaning) encircling it with fire.' 

17. 'He who is perfectly acquainted with (the 
rules of) purification shall sip water (out of this 
vessel), after he has relieved the necessities of 

18. Let him eat his food facing the east. 

explanation is given by N£r£ya»a on .Sankhayana Gnhya-sutra IV, 
12, 11, who takes it to mean, 'Let him not go from one house 
to the other.' 

9. Gautama IX, 52 ; Vishmi LXIII, 42. 

10. Vishmi LXXI, 17-18. 11-12. Vishmi LXXI, 35. 

13. Gautama IX, 37-38, 41-43; Vishmi LX, 2-3. 

14. Vishmi LXXI, 13-15. 18. Vishmi LXVIII, 40. 

Digitized by 



19. Silently let him swallow the entire mouthful, 
(introducing it into the mouth) with the four fingers 
and with the thumb ; 

20. And let him not make a noise (while eating). 

21. Let him approach his wife in the proper 
season, except on the Parva days. 

22. Let him not commit a crime against nature 
(with her). 

23. Now they quote also (the following verse): 
' The ancestors of a man who commits an unnatural 
crime with a wedded wife, feed during that month 
on his semen. All unnatural intercourse is against 
the sacred law.' 

24. It is also declared in the Kanaka, ' (When) 
the women (asked) Indra, " May even those among 
us, who are soon to be mothers, (be allowed to) 
cohabit with their husbands," he granted that wish.' 

25. Let him not ascend a tree. 

26. Let him not descend into a well. 

2 7. Let him not blow the fire with his mouth. 

28. Let him not pass between a fire and a Brah- 

29. Nor between two fires ; 

30. Nor between two Brahma#as ; or (he may do 
it) after having asked for permission. 

31. Let him not dine together with his wife. For 
it is declared in the Va^asaneyaka, ' His children 
will be destitute of manly vigour.' 

19. Kr*'sh«apa«<fita thinks that this rule refers to the first five 
mouthfuls only. 

21. Vishwu LXIX, 1. The Parva days are the eighth, four- 
teenth, and fifteenth of each half-month. 

25-27. Gautama IX, 32. 28. Apastamba II, 5, 12, 6. 

30. Apastamba II, 5, 12, 7-8. 

31. .Satapatha-brdhmawa X, 5, 2, 9; Vishwu LXVIII, 46. 

Digitized by 



32. Let him not point out (a rainbow calling it) 
by (its proper) name, ' Indra's bow.' 

33. Let him call it 'the jewelled bow' (ma«i- 

34. Let him avoid seats, clogs, sticks for cleaning 
the teeth, (and other implements) made of Pali^a 

35. Let him not eat (food placed) in his lap. 

36. Let him not eat (food placed) on a chair. 
$7. Let him carry a staff of bamboo, 

38. And (wear) two golden earrings. 

39. Let him not wear any visible wreath except- 
ing a golden one; 

40. And let him disdain assemblies and crowds. 

41. Now they quote also (the following verse) : 
' To deny the authority of the Vedas, to carp at the 
teaching of the .tfzshis, to waver with respect to any 
(matter of duty), that is to destroy one's soul.' 

42. Let him not go to a sacrifice except if he is 
chosen (to be an officiating priest. But) if he goes, 
he must, on returning home, turn his right hand 
(towards the place). 

43. Let him not set out on a journey when the 
sun stands over the trees. 

32-33. Gautama IX, 22. 34. Gautama IX, 44. 

35. Vishwu LXVIII, 21. 36. Gautama IX, 32. 

37. Vishwu LXXI, 13. 38. Vish/m LXXI, 16. 

39. Gautama IX, 32. 

40. I read sabhisamavSy&w.r&lvagayeta. The corrupt read- 
ings of Bh. samavaya.r£a ^aviyan and of F. samaviyim^a vakshi- 
yanna point to this version, the sense of which agrees with the 
parallel passages of other Smr/tis, see e. g. Apastamba 1, 1 1, 32, 19. 

41. Vishwu LXXI, 83. 42. Gautama IX, 54-55, 66. 
43. Vishwu LXIII, 9. According to Kr*shwapa»<tfta the time 

intended is midday. 

Digitized by 



44. Let him not ascend an unsafe boat, or (any 
unsafe conveyance). 

45. Let him not cross a river, swimming. 

46. When he has risen in the last watch (of the 
night) and has recited (the Veda) he shall not lie 
down again. 

47. In the Muhurta sacred to Pra^apati a 
Brahma«a shall fulfil some sacred duties. 

Chapter XIII. 

1. Now, therefore, the Upakarman (or the rite 
preparatory to the study) of the Veda (must be per- 
formed) on the full moon day of the month .Srava^a 
or PraushAfcapada. 

2. Having kindled the sacred fire, he offers 
(therein) unground (rice) grains, 

3. To- the gods, to the ^?/shis, and to the 

4. Let them begin to study the Vedas, after 
having made Brahma«as (invited for the purpose) 
wish 'welfare' (svasti), and after having fed them 
with sour milk, 

5. (And continue the Veda -study) during four 

44. Vishwu LXIII, 47. 

45. Vishwu LXIII, 46. Kr*'sh»apaw<fita omits this Sutra which 
is found in the majority of the'MSS. 

46. Apastamba 1, 11, 32, 15; Vishwu XXX, 27. 

47. Manu IV, 92 ; Vishwu LX, 1. The Muhurta sacred to 
Pra^ipati is the same as the Brahma-muhurta, and falls in the last 
watch of the night. 

XIII. 1. Vishwu XXX, 1. .Sravawa, July-August. PraushMa- 
pada, i. e. Bhadrapada, August-September. Krc'shwapawfita im- 
properly combines this Sutra with the next. 

5. Gautama XVI, 2. 

Digitized by 


64 VASISHrff A. XIII, 6. 

months and a half or during five months and a 

6. After (the expiration of) that (period), he may 
study (the Vedas) during the bright half of each 

7. But the supplementary treatises (Angas) of 
the Veda at pleasure (both during the bright and 
the dark halves of each month). 

8. Interruptions of the (Veda-study shall take 

9. If it thunders during the twilight, 

10. During (both) the twilights (of each day), 

11. In towns where a corpse (lies) or Aa»^alas 

12. At pleasure (he may study seated) in (a place) 
which has been smeared with cowdung and around 
which a line has been drawn. 

1 3. (Let him not study) near a burial-ground, 

14. (Nor) lying down, 

15. Nor when he has eaten or received a gift at 
a funeral sacrifice ; 

16. And with reference to this (subject) they 
quote a verse of Manu, ' Be it fruit, or water, or 

6-7. Manu IV, 98. 

9. Apastamba I, 3, 9, 20. 10. Gautama XVI, 12. 

ii. Gautama XVI, 19; Vish«u XXX, 10. The above transla- 
tion follows Kr/sh«apa«<fita's gloss. But the Sutra may also be 
taken differently : ' In (villages) where a corpse lies or a K&nd&\& 
stays (and) in towns.' For the prohibition to study in towns is 
mentioned by Gautama XVI, 45 ; Manu IV, 1 16 ; and Apastamba 

I, .3. 9. 4- 

12. Apastamba 1,3, 9, 5. The rule refers to places, such as 
high-roads, where studying is ordinarily forbidden. 

13. Vishwu XXX, 15; Apastamba I, 3, 9, 6. 

14. Gautama XVI, 17. 15. Gautama XVI, 34. 
16. Manu IV, 117 somewhat resembles the verse quoted. But 

Digitized by 



sesamum, or food, or whatever be the (gift) at a 
•Sraddha, let him not, having just accepted it, recite 
the Veda ; for it is declared in the Smrzti, that the 
hand of a Brahma#a is his mouth.' 

1 7. (Let him not recite the Veda) while he runs, 
(nor) while a foul smell and the like (are perceptible, 
nor) on barren ground, 

18. (Nor) when he has ascended a tree, 

19. (Nor) in a boat or in a camp, 

20. Nor after meals while his hands are moist, 

21. (Nor) while the sound of a Va»a (is heard), 

22. (Nor) on the fourteenth day (of each half- 
month, no*r) on the new moon day, (nor) on the eighth 
day (of each half-month, nor) on an Ashfeka, 

23. (Nor) while he stretches his feet out, (nor) 
while he makes a lap, (nor) while he leans against 
(something), nor (in any other unbecoming posture), 

24. (Nor) close to his Gurus, 

25. (Nor) during that night in which he has had 
conjugal intercourse, 

26. (Nor) dressed in that garment which he had 
on during conjugal intercourse, except if it has been 

its altered form shows clearly that the MSnava Dharma*4stra 
known to Vasish/Aa differed from the work which at present goes 
by that name. Compare also .Sankhayana Gr/hya-sutra IV, 7, 55. 

17. Ya^wavalkya 1, 150; Gautama XVI, 19; ManuIV, 120. 

18. Apastamba I, 3, 11, 16. 

19. Vishwu XXX, 18; Manu IV, 121. 

20. Apastamba I, 3, 10, 25. 

21. Gautama XVI, 7, and note. 

22. Vish«u XXX, 4 ; Gautama XVI, 37-38. The Ash/akSs are 
the eighth days of the dark halves of the winter months, M&rga- 
jrirsha, Pausha, Magha, and Ph&lgu«a. 

23. Vishwu XXX, 17; ManuIV, 112. 26. ManuIV, 116. 

[14] F 

Digitized by 


66 vASiSHrffA. xiii, 27. 

27. (Nor) at the extremity of a village, 

28. (Nor) after (an attack of) vomiting, 

29. (Nor) while voiding urine or faeces. 

30. (Let him not recite) the Rig-veda, the Ya^ur- 
veda, and (the Atharva-veda) while the sound of the 
Saman melodies (is audible), nor (the Saman while 
the other Vedas are being recited). 

31. (Let him not study) before (his food is) 

32. (Nor) when a thunderbolt falls, 

33. (Nor) when an earthquake happens, 

34. Nor when the sun and the moon are eclipsed. 

35. When a preternaturally loud sound is heard 
in the sky, when a mountain falls, (and) when showers 
of stones, blood or sand (fall from the sky, the Veda 
must not be read) during the twenty-four hours (im- 
mediately succeeding the event). 

36. If meteors and lightning appear together, (the 
interruption shall last) three (days and) nights. 

37. A meteor (alone and) a flash of lightning 
(alone cause an interruption lasting) as long as the 
sun shines (on that or the next day). 

38. (If rain or other celestial phenomena come) 
out of season, (the Veda must not be read) during 
the twenty-four hours (immediately succeeding the 

27. Gautama XVI, 18. 28. Vish«u XXX, 19. 

29. Gautama XVI, 11. Kr*'sh»apa«<fita improperly divides the 
Sutra into two. 

30. Vishmi XXX, 26. 31. Vishmi XXX, 21. 
32-34. Vishmi XXX, 5 ; Gautama XVI, 22. 

35. Gautama XVI, 22; Manu IV, 105, 115. Kr**sh«apa»<fita 
mentions digd&ha, ' when the sky appears preternaturally red/ as 
a various reading for ' dign&da.' 

38. Apastamba I, 3, 11, 29. 

Digitized by 



39. If the teacher has died, (he shall not study 
the Veda) during three (days and) nights. 

40. If the teacher's son, a pupil, or a wife (have 
died, he shall not study) during a day and a night. 

41. Let him honour an officiating priest, a father- 
in-law, paternal and maternal uncles, (though they 
may be) younger than himself, by rising and saluting 

42. Likewise the wives of those persons whose 
feet must be embraced, and the teacher's (wives), 

43. And his parents. 

44. Let him say to one acquainted with (the 
meaning of) a salute, 'I N. N. ho! (salute thee);' 

45. But him who does not know it (he shall 
address with the same formula, omitting his name). 

46. When a salute is returned, the last vowel (of 
the noun standing) in the vocative is produced to 
the length of three moras, and if it is a diphthong 
(e or o) changeable according to the Sandhi rules, it 
becomes ay or av, e. g. bho, bhav. 

47. A father who has committed a crime causing 
loss of caste must be cast off. But a mother does 
not become an outcast for her son. 

48. Now they quote also (the following verses) : 

39. Apastamba I, 3, 10, 2-4. 40. Vish»u XXXII, 4. 

42. The persons intended are, the teacher and so forth. See 
Apastamba I, 4, 14, 7, note. 

44. Gautama VI, 5. 

45. Apastamba I, 4, 14, 23. Kmh«apa«<fita combines this 
Sutra with the preceding. 

46. Apastamba I, 2, 5, 18. In returning a salute, the name of 
the person addressed is pronounced, and if it ends in a, the vowel 
is made pluta, while e and o are changed to aya and &va, e. g. Hare 
to Ilaraya. 

47. Gautama XX, 1 ; XXI, 15 ; Apastamba 1, 10, 28, 9. 

48. Manu II, 145. 

F 2 

Digitized by 


68 VASISHrHA. XIII, 49. 

• The teacher (a^arya) is ten times more venerable 
than a sub-teacher (upadhyaya), the father a hundred 
times more than the teacher, and the mother a 
thousand times more than the father.' 

49. ' A wife, sons, and pupils who are denied by 
sinful deeds, must first be reproved, and (if they do not 
amend, then) be cast off. He who forsakes them 
in any other way, becomes (himself) an outcast.' 

50. An officiating priest and a teacher who neglect 
to teach the recitation of the Veda, or to sacrifice, 
shall be cast off. If he does not forsake them, he 
becomes an outcast. 

51. They declare that the male offspring of out- 
casts are (also) outcasts, but not the females. 

52. For a female enters (the family of) a stranger. 

53. He may marry such a (female) without a 

54. 'If the teacher's teacher is near, he must be 
treated like the teacher (himself). The Veda declares 
that one must behave towards the teacher's son just 
as towards the teacher.' 

55. A Brahmawa shall not accept (as gifts) 
weapons, poison, and spirituous liquor. 

56. Learning, wealth, age, relationship, and occupa- 
tion must be honoured. 

57. (But) each earlier named (quality) is more 
venerable than (the succeeding ones). 

58. If he meets aged men, infants, sick men, load- 
carriers, women, and persons riding in chariots, he 

49. Apastamba I, 2, 8, 29-30. 50. Gautama XXI, 12. 

51. Apastamba 1, 10, 29, 14. 

53. Manu II, 238; Ya^roavalkya III, 261. 

54. Vishwu XXVIII, 29, 31. 56. Vishnu XXXII, 16. 
58-59. Vish«u LXIII, 51. 

Digitized by 



must make way (for them, i.e.) for each later (named 
before those enumerated earlier). 

59. If a king and a Snitaka meet, the king must 
make (way) for the Snataka. 

60. All (must make way) for a bride who is being 
conveyed (to her husband's house). 

6 1 . Grass, room (for resting), fire, water, a welcome, 
and kind words never fail in the houses of good men. 

Chapter XIV. 

1. Now, therefore, we will declare what may be 
eaten and what may not be eaten. 

2. Food given by a physician, a hunter, a woman 
of bad character, a mace-bearer, a thief, an Abhisasta, 
a eunuch, (or) an outcast must not be eaten, 

3. (Nor that given) by a miser, one who has per- 
formed the initiatory ceremony of a .Srauta-sacrifice, 
a prisoner, a sick person, a seller of the Soma-plant, a 
carpenter, a washerman, a dealer in spirituous liquor, 
a spy, a usurer, (or) a cobbler, 

4. Nor (that given) by a -Stodra, 

5. Nor (that given) by one who lives by his 

6. Nor (that given) by the (kept) paramour of a 

61. Apastamba II, 2, 4, 14; Gautama V, 35-36. 

XIV. 2. Vish#u LI, 7, io-ii. Da»</ika, 'a mace-bearer,' may 
mean ' a police officer ' or ' a messenger.' I read with MSS. Bh. 
and F. sha«dia, ' a eunuch,' instead of .ra/^a, ' a rogue,' the reading 
of the other MSS. and of K«'sh«apa»</ita. 

3. Vishwu LI, 8-9, 12, 19 ; Gautama XVII, 17. I write suiaka, 
' a spy,' instead of su&ka, ' a tailor,' according to the other Smn'tis, 
e. g. Vish«u LI, 12 ; Apastamba I, 6, 18, 30 

4. Apastamba I, 6, 18, 13. 5. Apastamba I, 6, 1 8, 19. 
6. Vishwu LI, 16 ; Gautama XVII, 18. I read with the majority 

Digitized by 


?0 VASISHTffA. XIV, 7. 

married woman, or by a husband who allows a 
paramour (to his wife), 

7. Nor (that given) by an incendiary, 

8. Nor (that given) by (a ruler) who does not slay 
those worthy of capital punishment, 

9. Nor (food) offered publicly with these words, 
' Who is willing to eat?' 

10. Nor food given by a multitude of givers, or 
by harlots, and so forth. 

ti. Now they quote also (the following verse): 
' The gods do not eat (the offerings) of a man who 
keeps dogs, nor of him whose (only) wife is of the 
.Sudra caste, nor of him who lives in subjection to 
his wife, nor of (a husband) who (permits) a paramour 
(of his wife to reside) in his house.' 

12. He may accept (the following presents even) 
from such (people, viz.) firewood, water, fodder, 
Kosa grass, parched grain, (food) given without 
asking, a vehicle, (shelter in) the house, small fish, 
millet, a garland, perfumes, honey, and meat. 

13. Now they quote also (the following verse): 
' For the sake of a Guru, when he desires to save 
his wife (and family from starvation), when he wishes 
to honour the gods or guests, he may accept (presents) 
from anybody; but let him not satisfy his (own hunger) 
with such (gifts).' 

of the MSS. yaf£opapati/w [pattiw F.] manyate, instead of B.'s and 
Kr/'sh«apa«<flta's yaj^opari manyate. 

9. Apastamba I, 6, 18, 17. 

10. Vishmi LI, 7. 'And so forth (iti), i.e. by cruel men and 
the like.' — Kr»sh«apa»rfita. 

11. Vishmi LI, 15. 

12. Gautama XVII, 3; Vishmi LVII, 10. 

13. Vishmi LVII, 133 Manu IV, 251. 

Digitized by 



14. Food given by a hunter who uses the bow 
must not be rejected. 

15. For it is declared in the Veda, ' At a sacrificial 
session (sattra), which lasted one thousand years, 
Agastya went out to hunt. He had sacrificial cakes 
prepared with the meat of beasts and fowls good 
(to eat).' 

16. With reference to this (subject) they quote 
also some verses proclaimed by Pra^apati, ' Pra^a- 
pati (the Lord of created beings) has declared that 
food freely offered and brought (by the giver himself) 
may be eaten, though (the giver) be a sinful man, pro- 
vided the gift has not been asked for beforehand.' 

1 7. ' Food offered by a man who has faith must 
certainly be eaten, even though (the giver) be a 
thief, but not that given by (a Brahmawa) who sacri- 
fices for many and who initiates many.' 

18. 'The manes do not eat during fifteen years 
(the food) of that man who disdains a (freely offered 
gift), nor does the fire carry his offerings (to the 

1 9. ' But alms, though offered without asking, must 
not be accepted from a physician, from a hunter, from 
a surgeon or a (very) wicked man, from a eunuch, and 
from a faithless wife.' 

20. Fragments of food left by other persons than 
the teacher must not be eaten, 

21. Nor remnants of one's own (meal) and food 
touched by leavings, 

15. Manu V, 22-23. I connect vi^Myate with this Sutra, instead 
of with the preceding one, as Kn'shwapawrfita does. 

16. Vish/m LVII, 11 ; Manu IV, 248; Apastamba I, 6, 19, 14. 

18. Vishmi LVII, 12 ; Manu IV, 249 ; Apastamba I, 6, 19, 14. 

19. Apastamba I, 6, 19, 15. 20. Vishwu XXVIII, 11. 

Digitized by 


72 VASISHT-ffA. XIV, 22. 

22. Nor (food) defiled by contact with a garment, 
hair, or insects. 

23. But at pleasure he may use (such food) after 
taking out the hair and the insects, sprinkling it with 
water, dropping ashes on it, and (after it has been 
declared) fit for use by the word (of a Brahma»a). 

24. With reference to this (subject) they quote 
also some verses proclaimed by Pra^apati, ' The gods 
created for Brahma#as three means of purifying 
(defiled substances), viz. ignorance (of defilement), 
sprinkling (them) with water, and commending (them) 
by word of mouth.' 

25. ' Let him not throw away that food which, at a 
procession with images of the gods, at weddings, and 
at sacrifices, is touched by crows or dogs.' 

26. 'After the (defiled) portion has been removed, 
the remainder shall be purified, liquids by straining 
them, but solid food by sprinkling it with water.' 

2 7. ' What has been touched by the mouth of a 
cat is even pure.' 

28. (Cooked food which has become) stale (by 
being kept), what is naturally bad, what has been 
placed once only in the dish, what has been cooked 
more than once, raw (food), and (food) insufficiently 
cooked (must not be eaten). 

29. But at pleasure he may use (such food) after 
pouring over it sour milk or clarified butter. 

22. Apastamba I, 5, 16, 28 ; Gautama XVII, 9. 

23. Vishwu XXIII, 38; Ya^wavalkya 1, 189. 

24. Y&^wavalkya 1, 191. 

26. Vishmi XXIII, 30. Kr*'sh«apa«<fita thinks that pllvanena, 
' by straining them (through a cloth),' may also mean ' by heating 
them on the fire.' 

28. Gautama XVII, 13, and note, 15-16. 

29. Manu V, 24. 

Digitized by 



30. With reference to this (subject) they quote 
also some verses proclaimed by Prafapati, 'A Brah- 
ma«a shall not eat clarified butter or oil which drips 
from the nails (of the giver). Yama has declared 
such (food to be) impure ; (to eat it is as sinful) as 
to partake of cow's flesh.' 

31. 'But fatty substances, salt, and condiments 
proffered with the hand do not benefit the giver, and 
he who partakes of them will eat sin.' 

32. ' Let him give, therefore, such substances 
placed on a leaf or on grass, but never with his 
hands or in an iron vessel.' 

33. For eating garlic, onions, mushrooms, turnips, 
•Sleshmantaka, exudations from trees, the red sap flow- 
ing from incisions(in trees or plants), food pecked at by 
crows or worried by dogs, or the leavings of a .Sudra, 
an Mkrikkkxa. (penance must be performed). 

34. (Let him not drink) the milk of a cow that is 
in heat, nor of one whose calf has died, 

35. Nor that which cows, buffalo-cows, and goats 
give during the first ten days (after giving birth to 
young ones), 

36. Nor water collected at the bottom of a boat. 

37. Let him avoid wheat-cakes, (fried) grain, 
porridge, barley-meal, pulse -cakes, oil, rice boiled 
in milk, and vegetables that have turned sour (by 

33. Vishwu LI, 34, 36; Gautama XVII, 32-33. Regarding 
the Ktikrikkhxa. penance, see below, XXIV, 1. 

34. Vish/m LI, 40. For other explanations of the term san- 
dhini, ' a cow that is in heat,' see Apastamba I, 5, 17, 23 ; Vishmi 
LI, 40. 

35. Vishmi LI, 39. The Sutra implies that the milk of other 
animals must not be drunk under any circumstances. 

37~3 8 - Vishmi LI, 35, 42. 

Digitized by 


74 VASISHFff A. XIV, 38. 

38. Likewise other kinds of (sour) food prepared 
with milk and barley-flour. 

39. Among five-toed animals, the porcupine, the 
hedgehog, the hare, the tortoise, and the iguana may 
be eaten, 

40. Among (domestic) animals those having teeth 
in one jaw only, excepting camels. 

41. And among fishes, the long-nosed crocodile, 
the Gavaya, the porpoise, the alligator, and the crab 
(must not be eaten), 

42. Nor those which are misshaped or have heads 
like snakes, 

43. Nor the bos Gaurus, the Gayal, and the 

44. Nor those that have not been (specially men- 
tioned (as fit for food), 

45. Nor milch-cows, draught-oxen, and animals 
whose milk teeth have not dropped out. 

46. It is declared in the Va,£asaneyaka, that (the 
flesh of) milch-cows and oxen is fit for offerings. 

47. But regarding the rhinoceros and the wild 
boar they make conflicting statements. 

48. And among birds, those who seek their food 
.by scratching with their feet, the web-footed ones, 

the Kalavinka, the water-hen, the flamingo, the 

39. Gautama XVII, 27. Haradatta on Apastamba and Gau- 
tama explain fvavidh, ' the porcupine,' to be a kind of boar, and 
s alyaka, ' the hedgehog,' to be ' the porcupine.' 

40. Vish»u LI, 30 ; Manu V, 18. 

41-42. Gautama XVII, 36 ; Apastamba 1, 5, 17, 38-39. 
43. Apastamba I, 5, 17, 29. 44. Manu V, 11,17. 

45. Gautama XVII, 30-31. 46. Apastamba I, 5, 17, 31. 
48. Gautama XVII, 34-35 ; Vishwu LI, 28-31. I read man- 
dhala, 'the flying fox,' while Kmh«apa«<flta gives maghara, a 

Digitized by 


XV, 6. ADOPTION. 75 

Brahmawl duck, the Bhasa, the crow, the blue pigeon, 
the osprey, the A'ataka, the dove, the crane, the 
black partridge, the grey heron, the vulture, the 
falcon, the white egret, the ibis, the cormorant, the 
peewit, the flying-fox, those flying about at night, 
the woodpecker, the sparrow, the Railataka, the 
green pigeon, the wagtail, the village-cock, the parrot, 
the starling, the cuckoo, those feeding on flesh, and 
those living about villages (must not be eaten). 

Chapter XV. 

i. Man formed of uterine blood and virile seed 
proceeds from his mother and his father (as an effect) 
from its cause. 

2. (Therefore) the father and the mother have 
power to give, to sell, and to abandon their (son). 

3. But let him not give or receive (in adoption) 
an only son ; 

4. For he (must remain) to continue the line of 
the ancestors. 

5. Let a woman neither give nor receive a son 
except with her husband's permission. 

6. He who desires to adopt a son, shall assemble! \^ 

reading which he cannot explain. The MSS. read as follows: 
B. E. m&ghSra, Bh. F. m&dhaa?, I. O. 913 (/i#ibh)&ndha (naktaaw). 
Haradatta on Apastamba I, 5, 17, 33 explains plava, 'the water- 
hen,' to be a kind of heron, called also jaka/abila. 

XV. 1-9. VyavaMramayukha IV, 5, 16; Colebrooke V, Digest 
CCLXXIII; Dattakamlmawsi IV, 14; V, 31-40. 

3. Colebrooke, Mitikshara 1, 1 1, 1 1 ; Dattakam!m4/»sa' IV, 2-3. 

4. DattakamimS/Bsa IV, 4. I. e. to offer funeral sacrifices to 
his ancestors and to have sons who do it after him. 

5. Dattakamim&»s& 1, 15 ; IV, 9. 

6. Colebrooke, Mit£kshar& I, 11, 13, and note; Dattakami- 

Digitized by 


76 VASISH77/A. XV, •j. 

his kinsmen, announce his intention to the king, make 
burnt-offerings in the middle of the house, reciting 
the Vyahrz'tis, and take (as a son) a not remote kins- 
man, just the nearest among his relatives. 

7. But if a doubt arises (with respect to an adopted 
son who is) a remote kinsman, (the adopter) shall set 
him apart like a .Sftdra. 

8. For it is declared in the Veda, ' Through one 
he saves many.' 

9. If, after an adoption has been made, a legiti- 
mate son be born, (the adopted son) shall obtain a 
fourth part, 

10. Provided he be not engaged in (rites) pro- 
curing prosperity. 

mawsa II, 51 ; Dattaka^andrika II, 11. 'To the king,' i.e. to the 
person who holds the village, either to the king of the country or 
to the feudal chief (Thakor) who holds it under the sovereign. 
' Reciting the Vyahrrtis,' i. e. saying with the first oblation Om 
bhM svahd, with the second Om bhuvaA svaha, with the third Om 
svaA svihd, and with the fourth Om bh., bh., sv. svaha; see 
VyavaMramayukha IV, 5, 42. 'A not remote kinsman, just the 
nearest among his relatives/ i. e. a boy as nearly related as possible, 
in the first instance a Sapi«</a, on failure of such a one, a Saml- 
nodaka or a Sagotra. 

7. Dattakamimamsa II, 18; Dattaka£andrik& II, 11. 'If a doubt 
arises,' i. e. if the adopter afterwards feels uncertain regarding the 
caste or other qualifications of his adopted son. ' Set him apart 
like a Sudra,' i. e. shall neither have him initiated nor employ him 
for any sacred rites. 

8. Dattaka&indrika II, 11. 

9. Colebrooke, Mitakshard I, 11, 24. Dattakamim&Hsa X, 1; 
Dattakaiandrika II, 11 ; V, 17. For the explanation of the term 
' a fourth part,' see Colebrooke, Mitakshara I, 77. 

10. 'Rites procuring prosperity,' i. e. Sraddhas, expiatory rites, 
&c. See also above, III, 71, and Gautama XI, 17. According to 
Kr*'sh»apa»rfita the estate is in this case to be divided equally 
between the legitimate son and the adopted son. An entirely 

Digitized by 



ii. He who divulges the Veda (to persons not 

^authorised to study it), he who sacrifices for ^udras, 

(and all those) who have fallen from the rank of 

the highest caste (shall be excommunicated by the 

ceremony of) emptying the water-vessel. 

1 2. A slave or the son of a wife of a lower caste, - 
or a relative not belonging to the same caste, who 
is destitute of good qualities, shall fetch a broken 
pot from a heap of vessels unfit for use, place Kma 
grass, the tops of which have been cut off, or Lohita 
grass (on the ground), and empty the pot for the 
(outcast, overturning it) with his left foot ; 

13. And the relatives of the (outcast), allowing 
their hair to hang down, shall touch him who 
empties (the pot). 

14. Turning (when they leave) their left hands 
towards (that spot), they may go home at pleasure. 

15. Let them not afterwards admit the (excom- 
municated person) to sacred rites. 

16. Those who admit him to sacred rites become 
his equals. 

17. But outcasts who have performed (the pre- 
scribed) penance (may be) readmitted. 

18. Now they quote also (the following verse): 

different explanation, 'Provided (the estate) may not have been 
expended in acts of merit,' is given DattakaAandrika V, 17-18. 
It is doubtlessly erroneous, for ' the estate' is nowhere mentioned in 
the preceding Sutras. 

11. Gautama XX, 1. 

1 2. Gautama XX, 4. ' For the (outcast),' i. e. pronouncing his 
name, and saying, ' I deprive N. N. of water.' 

13. Gautama XX, 5. K>«'sh«apa«rfita takes the Sutra differently, 
but his explanation is refuted by the parallel passage of Gautama 
and Haradatta's commentary thereon. 

14. Gautama XX, 7. 15. Gautama XX, 8-9. 

Digitized by 


78 VASISHTffA. XV, 19. 

' Let him walk before those who readmit him, like 
one gamboling and laughing. Let him walk behind 
those who excommunicate him, like one weeping 
and sorrowing.' 

19. Those who strike their teacher, their mother, 
or their father may be readmitted in the following 
manner, either after being pardoned by the (persons 
offended) or after expiating their sin. 

20. Having filled a golden or an earthen vessel 
(with water taken) from a sacred lake or river, they 
pour (the water) over him, (reciting the three verses) 
' Ye waters are ' &c. 

21. All the (other ceremonies to be performed on 
the) readmission of one who has bathed (in this 
manner) have been explained by (those ordained on) 
the birth of a son. 

Chapter XVI. 

1. Now (follow the rules regarding) legal pro- 

2. Let the king (or) his minister transact the 
business on the bench. 

3. When two (parties) have a dispute, let him 
not be partial to one of them. 

20. Gautama XX, 10-14. I read ' puwyahrad&t,' instead of 
' purw&hradaV as the MSS. and Krj'sh«apa«<fita have. The passage 
of the Veda referred to occurs Rig-veda X, 9, 1. 

21. I.e. the person readmitted shall receive all the various 
sacraments just like a new-born child. 

XVI. 2. Vistomlll, 72-73. Krishmpandiu gives a second expla- 
nation of the Sutra, which also appears admissible, ' Let the king 
transact the business on the bench, taking counsel (with learned 
Brahmawas as assessors);' see Vishmi III, 72. 

3. Translated as above the Sutra is nearly equivalent to Gautama 

Digitized by 



4. Let him reason properly regarding an offence ; 
finally the offence (will become evident thereby). 

5. He who properly reasons regarding an offence, 
in accordance with the sum of the science of the 
first two castes, is equitable towards all created 

6. And let him protect what has been gained ; 

7. (Likewise) the property of infants (of the) royal 

XI, 5. But the phrase 'when two parties have a dispute' may 
also indicate, as Kr«sh»apa«<fita suggests, that the king or judge 
shall not promote litigation, see Gautama XIII, 27. As Kn'shwa- 
pa«<flta states, the Sutra may, however, mean also, ' When one case 
is being argued, let him not begin another (without finishing the 
first);' see Manu VIII, 43. Owing to the particular nature of the 
Sutra style and the inclination of the Brahmanical mind to double- 
entendres, I do not think it improbable that the author may have 
intended, both in this and in the preceding Sutras, that his words 
should be interpreted in two ways. 

4. Gautama XI, 23-24. I divide the words of the text, as 
follows, 'yathasanam (i. e. yatha-dsanam) aparidhoht; antena 
aparadhaA,' and interpolate syat at the end of the first clause. 

5. Kr*'sh»apa«<fita wrongly divides this Sutra into two, and 
wrongly adopts the reading of MSS. B. and E., consequently he 
obtains a sense only by the most astonishing tricks of interpreta- 
tion. I read with MSS. Bh. and F., yathasanam aparadhohy£dya- 
varwayor vidyantataA, to which the reading of I. O. 913 Sdya- 
varwayor vidMnataA points also. The meaning of the expression, 
' according to the sum of the science of the first two castes,' I take 
to be according to the rules of sacred learning and of the mhn&wsS, 
which is peculiar to the Brahma«as and of logic (anvtkshiki) and 
polity (da»</aniti), which are peculiar to or at least recommended 
to the particular attention of the Kshatriyas. 

6. I read with MSS. Bh. and F., sawpannaw fa rakshayet. I con- 
sider this Sutra to contain an admonition addressed to the king for 
himself; see Manu VII, 99. Kr*sh«apawoTita and B. read sapattrawz 
fa rakshayet, ' Let him protect that which is attested by writings,' 
i. e. the donations of former kings, attested by writings ; see Vishnu 
III, 83. 

7. Kmh»apa»<iita thinks that the rule refers to the property of 

Digitized by 


80 VASISH27/A. XVI, 8. 

8. (Likewise the property) of persons unfit to 
transact legal business (minors, widows, and so 

9. But if (a minor) comes of age, his property 
must be made over to him. 

10. ' It is declared in the Smriti that there are 
three kinds of proof which give a title to (property, 
viz.) documents, witnesses, and possession ; (thereby) 
an owner may recover property which formerly be- 
longed to him (but was lost).' 

11. From fields through which (there is a right 
of) road (a space sufficient for the road) must be set 
apart, likewise a space for turning (a cart). 

12. Near new-built houses (and) other things (of 
the same description there shall be) a passage three 
feet broad. 

13. In a dispute about a house or a field, reliance 
(may be placed on the depositions of) neighbours. 

14.' If the statements of the neighbours disagree, 
documents (may be taken as) proof. 

the infant children of a hostile king who has been conquered and 
slain. It is, however, not improbable that it has a wider sense, and 
exhorts the king to look after the property of the children of his 
predecessor and of deceased feudal barons. 
8-9. Gautama X, 48 ; Vishwu III, 65. 

10. Yi^wavalkya II, 22. 

11. Kri'sh«apa»dita quotes in illustration of this Sutra the follow- 
ing passage of Sankha and Likhita : ' In a field through which 
(there is a right of) road, (space) for the road must be set apart, and 
on the king's high-road a space sufficient for turning a chariot.' 

12. Arthintareshu, 'near other things (of the same descrip- 
tion),' means, according to K«'sh»apa»a5ta, ' near pleasure-gardens 
and the like.' No doubt, buildings of all kinds, fenced or walled 
gardens, and so forth are meant I read tripidam&tram. 

13. Manu VIII, 258, 262 \ Ya^wavalkya II, 150, 152, 154. 

Digitized by 



15. If conflicting documents are produced, reliance 
(may be placed) on (the statements of) aged (inhabi- 
tants) of the village or town, and on (those of) guilds 
and corporations (of artisans or traders). 

16. Now they quote also (the following verse) : 
' Property inherited from a father, a thing bought, 
a pledge, property given to a wife after marriage by 
her husband's family,' a gift, property obtained for 
performing a sacrifice, the property of reunited co- 
parceners, and wages as the eighth.' 

1 7. Whatever belonging to these (eight kinds of 
property) has been enjoyed (by another person) for 
ten years continuously (is lost to the owner). 

1 8. They quote also (a verse) on the other side : 
'A pledge, a boundary, and the property of minors, an 
(open) deposit, a sealed deposit, women, the property 
of a king, (and) the wealth of a .Srotriya are not lost 
by being enjoyed (by others).' 

19. Property entirely given up (by its owner) goes 
to the king. 

20. If it be otherwise, the king with his ministers 
and the citizens shall administer it. 

15. Manu VIII, 259. 

16. In translating anv&dheya by 'property given to a wife by 
her husband or his family after marriage,' I have followed Kreshwa- 
pawfita's explanation. It may, however, mean also 'a deposit to be 
delivered to a third person' (anvahita or anvadhi). Pratigraha, 
'a gift,' is elsewhere explained as 'property promised, but not 
actually given.' 

17. YSg-raavalkya II, 24; seealso VishwuV, 187; ManuVIII,i48. 

18. Identical with Manu VIII, 149 ; Ya^wavalkya II, 25. 

19. Manu VIII, 30. 

20. ' If it be otherwise,' i. e. if the owner gave his property 
up temporarily only, e. g. went on a journey or a pilgrimage, leaving 
it without anybody to take care of. 

[ I4 ] G 

Digitized by 




21. A king will be superior even to Brahman if 
he lives surrounded by servants (who are keen-eyed) 
like vultures. 

22. But a king will not be exalted if he lives sur- 
/ rounded by servants (who are greedy) like vultures. 

23. Let him live surrounded by servants (who are 
keen-eyed) like vultures, let him not be a vulture 
surrounded by vultures. 

24. For through his servants blemishes become 
manifest (in his kingdom), 

25. (Such as) theft, robbery, oppression, and (so 

26. Therefore let him question his servants before- 

2 7. Now (follow the rules regarding) witnesses : 

28. vSrotriyas, men of unblemished form, of good 
character, men who are holy and love truth (are fit 
to be) witnesses, 

29. Or (men of) any (caste may give evidence) 
regarding (men of) any (other caste). 

30. Let him make women witnesses regarding 
women ; for twice-born men twice-born men of the 
same caste (shall be witnesses), and good .Sudras for 
vSudras, and men of low birth for low-caste men. 

31. Now they quote also (the following verse): 
'A son need not pay money due by a surety, any- 
thing idly promised, money due for losses at play 
or for spirituous liquor, nor what remains unpaid of 
a fine or a toll.' 

32. 'Depose, O witness, according to the truth; 
expecting thy answer, thy ancestors hang in suspense; 

28. Vishmi VIII, 8 ; YSgwavalkya II, 68 ; Manu VIII, 62-63. 

29. Y%»iavalkya II, 69. 30. Manu VIII, 68. 
31. Vishwu VI, 41; Manu VIII, 159; Ya^wavalkya II, 47. 

Digitized by 


XVI, 36. LEGAL PROCEDURE. >v«#>)>> 5 

(in accordance with its truth or falsehood) they will 
rise (to heaven) or fall (into hell).' 

33. ' Naked and shorn, tormented with hunger 
and thirst, and deprived of sight shall the man who 
gives false evidence go with a potsherd to beg food 
at the door of his enemy.' 

34. 'He kills five by false testimony regarding a 
maiden; he kills ten by false testimony regarding 
kine ; he kills a hundred by false evidence regarding 
a horse, and a thousand by false evidence regarding 
a man.' 

35. (Men) may speak an untruth at the time of 
marriage, during dalliance, when their lives are in 
danger or the loss of their whole property is immi- 
nent, and for the sake of a Brahma»a ; they declare 
that an untruth spoken in these five cases does not 
make (the speaker) an outcast. 

36. Those who give partial evidence in a judicial 
proceeding for the sake of a relative or for money, 
deprive the ancestors of their spiritual family and 
those of their natural family of their place in heaven. 

33. Identical with Manu VIII, 93. 

34. Identical with Manu VIII, 98. Regarding the explanation 
of the words 'he kills,' see Manu VIII, 97, and Haradatta on 
Gautama XIII, 14. 

35. Gautama XXIII, 29. Between this and the preceding 
Sutras the MSS. as well as Kri'sh«apa«<fita insert another one, 
which is so corrupt that I am unable to translate it. Kr*'sh»apa«- 
dita's explanation is opposed to all rules of interpretation, and not 
worth giving. 

36. This verse, too, is corrupt, though the general sense is not 
doubtful. I read sva^anasy&rthe yadi v&rthahetoA paksh£\rraye«aiva 
vadanti k&ryam — te fabdavaawasya kulasya purv£n svargasthit£»»- 
stSnapi p&tayanti. « The ancestors of their spiritual family,' i. e. the 
teacher, the teacher's teacher, and so forth. 

G 2 

Digitized by 


84 VASISHrffA. XVII, T. 

Chapter XVII. 

i. The father throws his debts on the (son) and 
^ f obtains immortality if he sees the face of a living 

2. It is declared in the Veda, ' Endless are the 
ty worlds of those who have sons ; there is no place for 

the man who is destitute of male offspring.' 

3. There is a curse (in the Veda), 'May our 
• enemies be destitute of offspring.' 

4. There is also (the following) passage of the 
Veda, ' May I obtain, O Agni, immortality by 

5. ' Through a son he conquers the worlds, through 
a grandson he obtains immortality, but through his 
son's grandson he gains the world of the sun/ 

6. There is a dispute (among the wise; some 
say), 'The son belongs to the husband of the wife;' 
(and some say), ' The son belongs to the begetter.' 

7. With respect to this (matter) they quote also 
on both sides verses like the following : 

8. (Some say), ' If (one man's) bull were to beget 
a hundred calves on another man's cows, they would 
belong to the owner of the cows ; in vain would the 
bull have spent his strength.' 

XVII. 1. Identical with Vish»u XV, 45 ; Manu IX, 107 ; Cole- 
brooke V, Dig. CCCIV. 

2. The latter part of the quotation occurs Aitareya-brahmawa 

VII, 3, 9- 

3. Rig-veda I, 21, 5. 

4. Rig-veda V, 4, 10; Taittirtya-sa»»hit& I, 4, 46, 1. 

5. Identical with Manu IX, 137, and Vishwu XV, 46. 

6. The same point is argued Manu IX, 31-56. 
8. Identical with Manu IX, 50. 

Digitized by 



9. (Others say), 'Carefully watch the procreation 
of your offspring, lest strangers sow seed on your 
soil; in the next world the son belongs to the 
begetter; (by carelessness) a husband makes (the 
possession of) offspring in vain.' 

10. If amongst many brothers who are begotten 
by one father, one have a son, they all have offspring 
through that son ; thus says the Veda. 

11. If among many wives of one husband, one 
have a son, they all have offspring through that son; 
thus says the Veda. 

12. Twelve (kinds of) sons only are noticed by 
the ancients. 

13. The first (among these is the son) begotten 
by the husband himself on his legally married wife. 

14. The second is the son of a wife (who is be- 
gotten) on failure of the (first) on a (wife or widow 
duly) authorised (thereto, by a kinsman). 

15. The third is an appointed daughter. 

9. Apastamba II, 6, 13, 7. 

10. Vish«u XV, 42. n. Vistwm XV, 41. 

12. Colebrooke V, Dig. CXCIII; Vishwu XV, 1. Elsewhere 
the expression purSwadrish/aA, ' noticed by the ancients,' has been 
taken to mean ' seen in the Purd«a ' (' the holy writ,' Colebrooke). 

13. Colebrooke V, Dig. CXCIII ; Vish«u XV, 2. 

14. Colebrooke V, Dig. CCXXX; Vish«u XV, 3. 

15. Colebrooke V, Dig. CCIII ; MitaksharS I, 11, 3; Vyava- 
hlra Mayukha IV, 4, 43. The curious fact that Vasish/Aa here 
calls the appointed daughter a son may perhaps be explained by 
a custom which, though rarely practised, still occurs in K&rmir, 
and by which a brotherless maiden is given a male name. A his- 
torical instance of this kind is mentioned in the Ra^-atarangwri, 
where it is stated that Kalyawadevf, princess of Gau</a and wife 
of king (?ayapt</a, was called by her father Kalyawamalla. When 
I collated this passage with the help of a Kawnirian, I was told 
that a certain Brahmaaa, still living in Srinagar, had changed the 

Digitized by 


86 vASiSHrffA. xvii, i<5. 

1 6. It is declared in the Veda, 'A maiden who 
has no brothers comes back to the male ancestors 
(of her own family) ; returning she becomes their son.' 

1 7. With reference to this (matter there is) a verse 
(to be spoken by the father when appointing his 
daughter), ' I shall give thee a brotherless damsel, 
decked with ornaments ; the son whom she may 
bear, shall be my son.' 

1 8. The fourth is the son of a remarried woman. 

19. She is called remarried (punarbhu)who leaving 
the husband of her youth, and having lived with 
others, re-enters his family; 

20. And she is called remarried who leaving an 
impotent, outcast or mad husband, or after the death 
of her husband takes another lord. 

21. The fifth is the son of an unmarried damsel. 

22. They declare that the son whom an unmarried 
damsel produces through lust in her father's house, 
is the son of his maternal grandfather. 

name of his only child, a daughter called Amri, to the corresponding 
masculine form, Amar^u, in order to secure to himself through her 
the same spiritual benefits as if he had a son. It seems to me not 
improbable that Vasish/4a's Sutra alludes to the same legal fiction, 
and that he recommends in the first instance that the father is to 
make his daughter a son by changing her name, and next to secure 
for himself her son, by the verse quoted Sutra 1 7. 

16. ColebrookeV, Dig. CCIII, where the preceding Sutra has 
been placed after this. Compare Rig-veda 1, 124, 5. 

17. ColebrookeV, Dig. CCXVI; MitiksharS. I, 11, 3; D£ya- 
bhlga X, 4 ; Vyavah&ra Mayukha IV, 4, 43 ; Vishwu XV, 5. 

18. VishmiXV, 7. 

19. Nirada XII, 48 (Jolly), where, however, kaum&raw patim 
has been wrongly translated by ' an infant husband.' 

20. Manu IX, 175. 

21. ColebrookeV, Dig. CCLIX; Vish«u XV, 10. 

22. ColebrookeV, Dig. CCLIX; Vishwu XV, it. 

Digitized by 



23. Now they quote also (the following verse) : 
' If an unmarried daughter bear a son begotten by 
a man of equal caste, the maternal grandfather has 
a son through him ; he shall offer the funeral cake, 
and take the wealth (of his grandfather).' 

24. (A male child) secretly born in the house is 
the sixth. 

25. They declare that these (six) are heirs and 
kinsmen, preservers from a great danger. 

26. Now among those (sons) who are not heirs, 
but kinsmen, the first is he who is received with 
a pregnant bride. 

2 7. (The son of a damsel) who is married pregnant 
(is called) a son received with the bride (sahod/ta). 

28. The second is the adopted son, 

29. (He) whom his father and his mother give 
(in adoption). 

30. (The son) bought is the third. 

31. That is explained by (the story of) .Suna^- 

32. ' Hari&fcandra, forsooth, was a king. He 
bought the son of Afigarta Sauyavasi. 

33. The fourth is (the son) self-given. 

24. Vishmi XV, 13. 

25. 'From a great danger,' i.e. 'from the danger of losing 
heaven through failure of the funeral oblations.' 

26. Vish»uXV,i5. 28. Vishmi XV, 18. 
29. Vishwu XV, 19. 30. Vishwu XV, 20. 

32. The MSS. and editions read the last word of the Sutra as 
follows : B. vikriyya ; Ben. ed. vikriya ; Bh. E. F. vikdidya ; Calc. 
ed. and I. O. 913 vikrayya svaya»» krttav&n. I believe that, as 
the letters £a and va are constantly mistaken by the copyists the 
one for the other, the original reading was £ikr£ya. Regarding 
the story told in this Sutra and continued below, Sutra 35, see 
Max Miiller, History of Ancient Sanskrit Literature, pp. 408-416 
and 573-588. 

33. Vishwu XV, 22. 

Digitized by 


88 vASisHrffA. xvn, 34. 

34. That is (likewise) explained by (the story of) 

35. ' SunaAsepa, forsooth, when tied to the sacri- 
ficial stake, praised the gods ; there the gods loosened 
his bonds. To him spoke (each of) the officiating 
priests, " He shall be my son." He did not agree 
to their (request. Then) they made him make (this) 
agreement, "He shall be the son of him whom he 
chooses." Vlyvamitra was the Hotrt priest at that 
(sacrifice). He became his son.' 

36. The son cast off is the fifth. 

37. (He is called so) who, cast off by his father 
and his mother, is received (as a son). 

38. They declare that the son of a woman of the 
vSudra caste is the sixth. These (six) are kinsmen, 
not heirs. 

39. Now they quote also (the following rule) : 
' These (last-mentioned) six (sons) shall take the 
heritage of him who has no heir belonging to the 
first-mentioned six (classes). 

40. Now (follow the rules regarding) the partition 
of the (paternal) estate among brothers : 

41. And (let it be delayed) until those (widows) 
who have no offspring, (but are supposed to be 
pregnant), bear sons. 

42. Let the eldest take a double share, 

43. And a tithe of the kine and horses. 

36-37. ColebrookeV, Dig. CCXC; Vishwu XV, 24-25. 
38. Colebrooke V, Dig. CCXCII; Dattaka&indrika V, 14 ; Vistom 
XVII, 27; Manu IX, 178-179; Gautama XXVIII, 39. 

40. ColebrookeV, Dig. L; Vyavah&ra Mayukha IV, 4, 37. 

41. Colebrooke V, Dig. CXVII ; Vyavahara Mayukha IV, 4, 37. 
42-45. ColebrookeV, Dig. L; D£yabh&ga II, 41; Gautama 

XXVIII, 9 and 5-7. 

Digitized by 



44. The goats, the sheep, and the house belong 
to the youngest, 

45. Black iron, the utensils, and the furniture to 
the middlemost. 

46. Let the daughters divide the nuptial present 
of their mother. 

47. If a Brahmawa has issue by wives belonging 
to the Brahmatta, Kshatriya, and Vaisya classes 

48. The son of the Brahma»a wife shall receive 
three shares, 

49. The son of the Kshatriya wife two shares, 

50. The other (sons) shall inherit equal shares. 

51. And if one of the (brothers) has gained 
something by his own (effort), he shall receive a 
double share. 

52. But those who have entered a different order 
receive no share, 

53. Nor (those who are) eunuchs, madmen, or 

54. Eunuchs and madmen (have a claim to) 

55. The widow of a deceased person shall sleep 

46. Colebrooke V, Dig. CCCCXCII; Diyabhiga IV, 2, 15; 
VishwuXVII, a 1. 

47-50. Colebrooke V, Dig. CLIV; Vishwu XVIII, 1-5. 

51. Colebrooke V, Dig. LXXV, CXXXVIII, CCCLVI; Diya- 
bhiga II, 41 ; Vyavahira Mayukha IV, 7, 8. ' By his own effort,' i.e. 
by learning or disputations with learned men, by bravery in battle, &c. 

52. Colebrooke V, Dig. CCCXXXVIII ; Mitikshari II, 8, 7; 
'Oj 3 > Vyavahira Mayukha IV, n, 5. The persons intended are 
a perpetual student, a hermit, and ascetic. 

53. Vyavahira Mayukha IV, 11, 10. 

54. Vyavahira Mayukha IV, 11,10; Vishmi XV, 33. 

55. 'Practising religious vows,' i.e. 'eating only once a day, 
and so forth.' — Knsh»apa»<fita. 

Digitized by 


90 VASISHrffA. XVII, 56. 

on the ground during six months, practising religious 
vows and abstaining from pungent condiments and 

56. After the completion of six months she shall 
bathe, and offer a funeral oblation to her husband. 
(Then) her father or her brother shall assemble the 
Gurus who taught or sacrificed (for the deceased) 
and his relatives, and shall appoint her (to raise issue 
to her deceased husband). 

57. Let him not appoint a (widow who is) mad, 
ill-conducted, or diseased, 

58. Nor one who is very aged. 

59. Sixteen years (after maturity is the period 
for appointing a widow) ; 

60. Nor (shall an appointment be made) if the 
(male entitled to approach the widow) is sickly. 

61. Let him approach (the widow) in the muhurta 
sacred to Pra^apati, (behaving) like a husband, without 
(amorously) dallying with her, and without abusing 
or ill-treating her. 

62. Let her obtain (the expenses for) food, raiment, 
baths, and unguents from (the estate of) her former 

63. They declare that a son begotten on (a widow 
who has) not been (duly) appointed, belongs to the 

56. Gautama XVIII, 4-7. The Gurus intended are the teacher, 
sub-teachers (upadhyaya), and officiating priests. 

57. Av&ram, 'ill-conducted,' may also mean 'out of her mind 
through grief or any other passion.' The former explanation has 
been adopted by Kr»'sh»apa«<Sta, whom I have followed above. 

61. Manu IX, 60. Regarding the muhurta sacred to Pra^apati, 
see above, XII, 47. 

63. Gautama XVIII, 9-12. 

Digitized by 



64. If she was (appointed, the child belongs) to 
both the males connected with the appointment. 

65. No appointment (shall be made) through a 
desire to obtain the estate. 

66. Some say, 'Or, one may appoint (a widow out 
of covetousness), after imposing a penance.' 

67. A maiden who has attained puberty shall 
wait for three years. 

68. After three years (have passed), she may take 
a husband of equal caste. 

69. Now they quote also (the following verses) : 
' But if through a father's negligence a maiden is 
here given away after the suitable age has passed, 
she who was waiting (for a husband) destroys him 
who gives her away, just as the fee which is paid 
too late to the teacher (destroys the pupil).' 

70. ' Out of fear of the appearance of the menses 
let the father marry his daughter while she still runs 
about naked. For if she stays (in the house) after 
the age of puberty, sin falls on the father.' 

64. Gautama XVIII, 13. 'To both the males connected with 
the appointment,' i.e. to the deceased husband for whose sake 
the appointment is made, and to the natural father of the child, to 
whom the widow is made over. 

65. Colebrooke, Mitakshara II, 1, 11. Kr?'sh«apa«<5ta thinks 
that the Sutra forbids an appointment which is made with the inten- 
tion to secure the estate or a share of the estate of the natural 
father, from whom the kshetra^a son inherits also (Y&^wavalkya 
II, 127). But it seems equally probable that it is intended to pre- 
vent a widow from agreeing to an appointment in order to obtain 
control over her husband's estate. 

66. Krz'shwapaTwfita thinks that the rule refers to all cases of 

67-68. Vish»u XXIV, 40, and note. 
70. Gautama XVIII, 23. 

Digitized by 



71. 'As often as the courses of a maiden, who is 
filled with desire, and demanded in marriage by men 
of equal caste, recur, so often her father and her 
mother are guilty of (the crime of) slaying an embryo; 
that is a rule of the sacred law.' 

72. 'If the betrothed of a maiden die after she 
has been promised to him verbally, and by (a libation 
of) water, but before she was married with (the reci- 
tation of) sacred texts, she belongs to her father 

73. ' If a damsel has been abducted by force, and 
not been wedded with sacred texts, she may lawfully 
be given to another man ; she is even like a maiden.' 

74. ' If a damsel at the death of her husband had 
been merely wedded by (the recitation of) sacred 
texts, and if the marriage had not been consummated, 
she may be married again.' 

75. The wife of an emigrant shall waitfor five years. 

76. After five years (have passed), she may go 
(to seek) her husband. 

•jy. If for reasons connected with spiritual or with 
money matters she be unwilling to leave her home, 
she must act in the same manner as if (her husband 
were) dead. 

78. In this manner a wife of the Brahma#a caste 
who has issue (shall wait) five years, and one who 
has no issue, four years ; a wife of the Kshatriya 
caste who has issue, five years, and one who has no 
issue, three years ; a wife of the Vaisya caste who 

71. Colebrooke IV, Dig. XVI; Dayabhaga XI, 2, 6; Ya^wa- 
valkya I, 64. 

72. Colebrooke IV, Dig. CLXXIV. 

75-76. Colebrooke IV, Dig. CLVI, where the Sutras have been 
altered intentionally; Gautama XVIII, 15-12. 

Digitized by 



has issue, four years, and one who has no issue, two 
years ; a wife of the .Sudra caste who has issue, three 
years, and one who has no issue, one year. 

79. After that among those who are united (with 
her husband) in interest, or by birth, or by the 
funeral cake, or by libations of water, or by descent 
from the same family, each earlier named person is 
more venerable than the following ones. 

80. But while a member of her family is living, 
she shall certainly not go to a stranger. 

8 1 . Let the Sap'mdas or the subsidiary sons divide 
the heritage of him who has no heir of the first- 
mentioned six kinds. 

82. On failure of them the spiritual teacher and 
a pupil shall take the inheritance. 

83. On failure of those two the king inherits. 

84. But let the king not take (the estate) of a 

85. For the property of a Brahma«a is a terrible 

86. ' Poison they do not call the (worst) poison ; 
the property of a Brahma#a is said to be the (most 
destructive) poison. Poison destroys only one person, 
but the property of a Brahma^a (him who takes it) 
together with sons and grandsons.' 

79. The persons intended are, (1) brothers united in interest 
with her husband and other coparceners, (2) separated brothers of 
the husband, (3) separated blood-relations of the husband within 
six degrees, (4) separated blood-relations of the husband within 
fourteen degrees, and (5) persons bearing the same family name 
or, in the case of Brahmawas, descended from the same Rishi. 

81. Gautama XXVIII, 21 ; Vishwu XVII, 10. The subsidiary 
sons are those mentioned above, 26-38, who under ordinary cir- 
cumstances do not inherit ; see also above, Sutra 39, and Gautama 
XXVIII, 34. 

82. Apastamba II, 6, 14, 3. 83-84. Vishwu XVII, 13. 

Digitized by 


94 VASISHTffA. XVII, 87. 

87. He should give it to men who are well versed 
in the three Vedas. 

Chapter XVIII. 

1 . They declare that the offspring of a .Sudra and of 
^/ a female of the Brahma#a caste becomes a AT4«^ala, 

2. (That of a .Sudra and) of a female of the Ksha- 
triya caste, a Vai#a, 

3. (That of a .Sudra and) of a female of the Vaisya 
/ caste, an Antyavasayin. 

4. They declare that the (son) begotten by a 
Vaisya on a female of the Brahmawa caste becomes 
a Ramaka, 

5. (The son begotten by the same) on a female of 
the Kshatriya caste, a Pulkasa. 

6. They declare that the (son) begotten by a 
Kshatriya on a female of the Brahma^a caste becomes 
a Suta. 

7. Now they quote also (the following verse) : 
' One may know by their deeds those who have been 
begotten secretly, and to whom the stigma of springing 
from unions in the inverse order of the castes attaches, 
because they are destitute of virtue and good conduct.' 

87. Vishau XVII, 14. 

XVIII. 1. Vishmi XVI, 6. 

4. Krcshttapamfita reads Romaka, 'a Roman,' for Ramaka, 
and the B. MS. supports him. The other MSS., including I. O. 
913, give the reading adopted above. I prefer it, as there is no 
reason to assume that the V&sish/Aa Dharmajastra belongs to the 
late period when the Hindus had become aware of the existence of 
the Roman empire. On the other hand, it may be urged that 
Romaka is a correction which would easily suggest itself to a 
Pandit, who was unable to find a parallel passage in which the 
word Ramaka occurs. 

6. Vishwu XVI, 6. 7. Manu X, 40. 

Digitized by 



8. (Children) begotten by Brahma»as, Kshatriyas, 
and Vaisyas on females of the next lower, second 
lower, and third lower castes become (respectively) 
Ambash/^as, Ugras, and Nishadas. 

9. (The son of a Brahmawa and) of a .Sudra 
woman (is) a Parasava. 

10. They declare that the condition of a Pararava 
is that of one who, though living, is (as impure) as 
a corpse. 

J| 11. Some call that .Sudra race a burial-ground. 
• 12. Therefore (the Veda) must not be recited in 
the presence of a Sudra. 

13. Now they quote also the (following) verses, 
which Yama proclaimed : 

'The wicked .Sudra-race is manifestly a burial- 
ground. Therefore (the Veda) must never be recited 
in the presence of a .Sudra.' 

14. ' Let him not give advice to a .Sudra, nor what 
remains from his table, nor (remnants of) offerings 
(to the gods) ; nor let him explain the holy law to 
such a man, nor order him (to perform) a penance.' 

15. 'He who declares the law to such a man, and 
he who instructs him in (the mode of) expiating (sin), 
sinks together with that very man into the dreadful 
hell, (called) Asa#zw*ta.' 

16. 'If ever a worm is produced in an open wound 
(on his body), he shall purify himself by the Pri^a- 
patya penance, and give gold, a cow, (and) a garment 
as presents (to Brahma»as).' 

8. Gautama IV, 16. 

10. I omit the words Java iti mntakhya, 'a corpse is another 
name for one who has died/ as an interpolation. 

11. Apastamba I, 3, 9, 9. 12. Vishmi XXX, 14. 
14-15. Identical with Manu IV, 80-81. 

16. A Pra^apatya penance, i. e. a KriikAia, see below, XXI, 20. 

Digitized by 


96 VASISHrffA. XVIII, 17. 

17. Let him not approach a wife of the .Sudra 
caste after he has built the fire-altar for a .Srauta- 

18. For a kSudra-wife who belongs to the black 
race, (is espoused) for pleasure, not in order to fulfil 
the law. 

Chapter XIX. 

1. The particular duty of a king is to protect (all) 
beings ; by fulfilling it (he obtains) success (in this 
world and in the next). 

2. Those learned (in the sacred law) declare that 
to be free from fear and pity is, indeed, a life-long 
sacrificial session (sattra, to be performed by the 

3. Therefore let him appoint a domestic priest 
to (perform the rites) obligatory on the order of 

4. It is declared in the Veda, ' A realm where a 
Brahma»a is appointed domestic priest, prospers ; ' 

5. For thus both (the special duties of a king and 
those of a householder) will be fulfilled, 

6. And (the king alone is) unable (to do both). 

7. Let the king, paying attention to all the laws 
of countries, (subdivisions of) castes (£&ti) and 
families, make the four castes (var«a) fulfil their 
(respective) particular duties. 

The verse belongs rather to the section on penances, and seems to 
have been entered here merely because it stood in Yama's text 
with the other two, and the author, to use a homely Indian com- 
parison, ' did not disdain to catch a fish, though he went to fetch 

XIX. 1. Vish»u III, 2. 2. Manu VIII, 306. 

3. Vishwu III, 70. 4. Gautama XI, 14. 

7. Vish»u III, 3; Gautama XI, 20. 

Digitized by 



8. Let him punish those who stray from (the path 
of duty). 

9. But punishment must be awarded in cases of 
assault and abuse after (due consideration of) the 
particular place and time (where and when the 
offence was committed), of the duties, age, learning 
(of the parties), and the seat (of the injury), 

10. In accordance with (the precepts of) the 
(sacred) records and with precedents. 

11. Let him not injure trees that bear fruit or 

12. (But) he may injure them in order to extend 
cultivation and (for sacrifices). 

1 3. The measures and weights of objects necessary 
for households must be guarded (against falsification). 

14. Let him not take property for his own use 
from (the inhabitants of) his realm. 

15. The measures and price (of such property) 
only shall be liable to deductions (in the shape of 

8. Vish«u III, 37. 

9. Gautama XII, 51. Kn'sh»apa»rfita has two Sutras instead of 
one, and reads the second hiwsakrarayoA kalpaA. The majority of 
the MSS. have, however, kalp£(A), which I consider to be a mistake 
for kalpyaA, 'must be awarded.' 

1 1. Vish«u V, 55-56. The meaning of the Sutra is that the 
king is to punish those who commit such acts. 

12. The explicit permission to cut down trees for sacrificial 
purposes is given Vishwu LI, 63. 

13. Manu VIII, 403. 

14-15. The translation of these two Sutras is not certain, 
because the words nihlra and naih&rika are not found elsewhere in 
the sense which has been attributed to them here. Still I think it 
very probable that Kr*'sh»apaWita's explanation nirhara and nuMre 
sldhu is right, and that the king is exhorted not to take the property 
of his subjects by force, but to levy taxes according to the value or 
the measure of the articles sold. 
['4] H 

Digitized by 


98 VASISHrffA. XIX, 16. 


17. On the march against the enemy the army 
which consists of companies of ten, shall be able to 
perform a double (duty). 

18. In every (camp) there shall be places where 
water is distributed. 

19. Let him make one hundred men at the least 
engage in battle. 

20. The wives (of slain soldiers) shall be pro- 
vided for. 


22. A ferry shall be taken away (from a river) in 
which there is no water. 

23. A .Srotriya is free from taxes, (and so are) 
a servant of the king, one who has no protector, 

16. The Sutra has been left out, as the text is corrupt, and I am 
unable to suggest any emendation. Kn'sh»apa«dfita's explanation 
is not worth giving. 

17. 'The army which consists of companies of ten,' i.e. the 
lowest subdivision of which consists of ten parts, viz. one elephant, 
one chariot, two horsemen, and three foot soldiers. Such a body is 
called a patti. The larger divisions, like the senamukha,' battalion,' 
&c, are formed by three, nine, or twenty-seven pattis. Though I 
am unable to adduce any positive proof for it, viha must, according 
to the connexion in which it stands, be a synonym of patti. ' The 
double duty ' of the army is, according to K*7'sh«apa»<fita, marching 
and fighting. 

21. The Sutra is utterly corrupt, and cannot be restored with the 
help of the MSS. at my disposal. It probably referred to the 
amount of duties to be levied on goods sold in the market. 

22. The meaning of the Sutra seems to be, that on those rivers, 
where the water either runs off or is very low during the dry season, 
the ferrymen must not be allowed to exact a toll from people cross- 
ing without their help. Such a rule would not be superfluous, as 
most Indian rivers are perfectly fordable between December and 
June, but impassable without boats in the other five months. 

23. Apastamball, 10, 26, 10, 12-17; Manu VIII, 394. Kn'sh«a- 

Digitized by 



one who has left (the order of householders), an 
infant, a very aged man, a young man (who studies), 
and pradatas ; 

24. (Moreover widows) who return to their 
former (family), unmarried maidens, and the wives 
of servants, 

25. He who swims with his arms (across a river 
in order to escape payment of a toll at a ferry) shall 
pay one hundred times (the amount due). 

26. No taxes (shall be paid) on the usufruct of 
rivers, dry grass, forests, (places of) combustion, and 
mountains ; 

27. Or those who draw their subsistence from 
them may pay (something), 

28. But he shall take a monthly tax from artisans. 

29. And when a king has died, let him give what 
is required for the occasion. 

pawdita correctly points out that, though according to I, 43, all Brah- 
mawas are to be free from taxes, the .Srotriya or Vaidik is mentioned 
once more in order to show that a king, however distressed, must 
not take anything from him (Manu VII, 133). Kr«'sh«apa«<fita 
reads instead of pradatSs, prad&taraA, ' very liberal men.' Manu 
loc. cit exempts 'those who confer great benefits on priests of 
eminent learning' from paying taxes. His emendation would, there- 
fore, be acceptable if the word pradata^ did not occur in the same 
connexion above, XI, 7. 

24. Apastamba II, 10, 26, 11. 

25. I read with the majority of the MSS. bahubhySmuttara&Ma- 
tagunam dadyat. 

26. Kmh«apa«<fita explains daha, ' (places of) combustion,' by 
agni, ' fire.' I am not certain what he means thereby. To me it 
seems most probable that Vasish/Aa intends ' a place of cremation ' 
(dahasthala), though it is just possible to refer the expression to the 
jungle fires, which the aboriginal tribes light in the forests, in order 
to sow their Nagll in the ground manured by the ashes. 

28. Gautama X, 31. 

29. K/-i'sh»apa«<fita refers this and the following five Sutras to 

H 2 

Digitized by 



30. It is hereby explained that (his) mother (must 
receive) maintenance. 

31. Let the king maintain the paternal and 
maternal uncles of the chief-queen, 

32. As well as her other relatives. 

33. The wives of the (deceased) king shall receive 
food and raiment, 

34. Or if they are unwilling, they may depart. 

35. Let the king maintain eunuchs and madmeji, 

36. Since their property goes to him. 

37. Now they quote also a verse proclaimed by 
Manu, which refers to duties and taxes, ' No duty 
(is paid) on a sum less than a Karshapa#a, there 
is no tax on a livelihood gained by art, nor on an 
infant, nor on a messenger, nor on what has been 
received as alms, nor on the remnants of property 
left after a robbery, nor on a .Srotriya, nor on an 
ascetic, nor on a sacrifice.' 

the case where a king has conquered a foreign country ; compare 
also Vish»u III, 47-48. I think that Sutras 30-31 conclusively 
show that these rules are intended to regulate the conduct of a 
king on the death of his predecessor and his own accession to the 

34. K/7sh»apa»iita thinks that the queens unwilling to accept a 
bare subsistence may go wherever they like. I think the word used 
in the text points rather to their becoming ascetics. 

35. This rule refers apparendy to eunuchs and insane persons 
left with money, but without near relatives, with whom they are 
united in interest Vishwu III, 65. 

37. I translate the one word julka by ' duties and taxes.' The 
term has a great many different meanings in the law books, and is in 
this verse apparently used in two senses. K«°sh«apa«<fita is of a 
different opinion, and thinks that the persons named are free from 
paying a julka in case they trade. The chief objection is that 
trading ascetics and .Srotriyas are not known to the ancient writers, 
though they are common enough in modern India. 

Digitized by 



38. A thief becomes free from guilt by entering 
(the royal presence) after (his deed and asking to be 

39. But according to some (lawyers) he (who is 
caught) with weapons in his hands, with stolen goods 
in his possession, or covered with wounds is proved 
(to be a criminal). 

40. In case (a criminal) worthy of punishment is 
allowed to go free, the king shall fast during one 
(day and one) night ; 

41. (And) his domestic priest during three (days 
and) nights. 

42. If an innocent man is punished, the domestic 
priest (shall perform) a "Krikkhra. penance ; 

43. (And) the king (shall fast) during three (days 
and) nights. 

44. Now they quote also (the following verses) : 
'The slayer of a learned Brahmawa casts his guilt 
on him who eats his food; an adulterous wife on 
her (negligent) husband ; a student and a sacrificer 
on an (ignorant) teacher (and officiating priest); and 
a thief on the king (who pardons him).' 

45. ' But men who have committed offences and 
have received from kings the punishment (due to 
them), go pure to heaven, and (become) as holy as 
the virtuous.' 

46. ' The guilt falls on the king who pardons an 

38. This Sutra apparently alludes to a penitent thief who con- 
fesses his crime and asks for punishment; see below, XX, 41. 

39. Manu IX, 270; NaradaV, 29-33 (J°ty)- As given in the 
MSS. and by Kn'shwapawflta, the Sutra is doubdessly corrupt. 
I read vrawasampanno vyapadish/aA. 

44. Identical with Manu VIII, 317. 

45. Identical with Manu VIII, 318. 

Digitized by 


102 VASISHTT/A. XIX, 47. 

offender. If he causes him to be slain, he destroys 
sin in accordance with the sacred law.' 

47. ' It is ordained that kings become at once 
pure (by bathing) when they have done acts causing 
death. They are likewise (pure while engaged in 
business) not causing death. Time is the reason 
for that.' 

48. And with reference to this (matter) they 
quote a verse proclaimed by Yama, ' No taint of 
impurity, forsooth, falls on kings, on those engaged 
in practising vows, or on those engaged in the per- 
formance of sacrificial session (sattra) ; for (the first) 
are seated on the throne of Indra, (and the others) 
are always equal to Brahman.' 

Chapter XX. 

1. A penance (shall be performed) for an offence 
committed unintentionally. 

2. Some (declare that it shall be performed) also 
for (a fault) committed intentionally. 

3. ' The spiritual teacher corrects the learned ; 
the king corrects the evil-minded ; but Yama, the 
son of Vivasvat, forsooth, punishes those who offend 

4. And among those (sinful persons), let him who 
slept at sunrise stand during the (following) day and 
recite the verse sacred to Savitrz. 

47. Vishmi XXII, 48 ; Manu V, 94. 

48. Identical with Manu V, 93. ' Those engaged in practising 
vows' are, according to Kulluka and Kn°sh«apa»dita, students 
learning the Veda. 

XX. 1-2. Manu XI, 45; Ya^wavalkya III, 226. 
4. ' Among those,' i. e. the sinful men (enasvinaA) enumerated 
above, 1, 18 ; Vishmi LIV, 11. 

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5. Let him who slept at sunset remain in a sitting 
posture during the (next) night, likewise (reciting 
the Gayatrl). 

6. But let a man with deformed nails or black 
teeth perform a Kri&Mra. penance of twelve days' 

7. He whose younger brother married first shall 
perform a Kri&Mra. penance during twelve days, 
marry and take to himself even that (woman whom 
his brother wedded). 

8. Now he who has taken a wife before his elder 
brother shall perform a Krt^Ara. penance and an 
Atik^'i^ra penance, give (his wife) to that (elder 
brother), marry again, and take (back) the same 
(woman whom he wedded first). 

9. The husband of a younger sister married 
before her elder sister shall perform a Y^rikkhxz. 
penance during twelve days, marry and take to him 
that (elder sister). 

10. The husband of an elder sister married after 
the younger one shall perform a Krikkhra. penance 
and an AtikrzM&ra penance, give (his wife) to that 
(husband of the younger sister and marry again). 

5-10. Manu XI, 201. 

6. Regarding the 'K.rikkhxa. penance, see below, XXI, 20. 

7-8. Vish«u LIV, 16. According to Kr*'sh»apa«d5ta both brothers 
shall perform penances. The elder brother shall marry after his 
penance is finished. The younger one shall offer his wife to the 
elder, in order to atone for the slur put upon the elder. The latter 
shall accept her for form's sake and return her to the younger 
brother, who must once more wed her. Regarding the Atikr/MAra 
penance, see below, XXIV, 2. 

10. Vish»u LIV, 16. Kr*'sh«apa»<fita thinks that he should marry 
another wife, but adds that others say that, after offering his wife 
to the husband of the younger sister and receiving his permission, 
he should wed her once more. 

Digitized by 


104 VASISHTffA. XX, II. 

ii. We shall declare below (the penance pre- 
scribed for) him who extinguishes the sacred fire. 

12. He who has forgot the Veda (by neglecting 
to recite it daily), shall perform a "Krikkhra. penance 
of twelve days' duration, and again learn it from his 

13. He who violates a Guru's bed shall cut off 
his organ, together with the testicles, take them 
into his joined hands and walk towards the south ; 
wherever he meets with an obstacle (to further pro- 
gress), there he shall stand until he dies. 

14. Or, having shaved all his hair and smeared 
his body with clarified butter, he shall embrace the 
heated (iron) image (of a woman). It is declared in 
the Veda that he is purified after death. 

15. The same (expiation is prescribed if the 
offence was committed) with the wife of the teacher, 
of a son, and of a pupil. 

16. If he has had intercourse with a female (who 
is considered) venerable in the family, with a female 
friend, with the female friend of a Guru, with an 
Apapatra female, or with an outcast, he shall per- 
form a ~Krikkhra. penance during three months. 

17. The same (penance must be performed) for 
eating food given by a .A'awdala or by an outcast. 
Afterwards the initiation (must be performed) once 
more; but the tonsure and the rest may be omitted. 

11. See below, XXI, 27. 12. Vishwu LIV, 13. 

13. Gautama XXIII, 10. 14. Gautama XXIII, 9, 11. 

15-16. Gautama XXIII, 12. 

16. Kmh«apa«aTita explains sakhim, 'a female friend,' by 
' a woman who has affection (for the offender), i. e. a sister and 
so forth.' ApapStras are low-caste people, whose vessels must not 
be used ; see Apastamba 1, 1, 3, 25, note. 

Digitized by 


XX, 24« PENANCES. 105 

1 8. And with reference to this (matter) they quote 
a verse proclaimed by Manu, 'The tonsure, (the 
tying on of) the sacred girdle, (the wearing of) a staff, 
and the begging of alms, these acts may be omitted 
on a second initiation.' 

19. If (a Brihma«a) intentionally (drinks) other 
spirituous liquor than that distilled from rice, or if 
he unintentionally (drinks) spirituous liquor extracted 
from rice (sura), he (must perform) a K.rikkhra. and 
an Atiikrikkhra., and, after eating clarified butter, be 
initiated again. 

20. The same (expiation is prescribed) for swal- 
lowing ordure, urine, and semen. 

21. If a Brahma#a drinks water which has stood 
in a vessel used for (keeping) spirituous liquor, he 
becomes pure by drinking, during three days, water 
(mixed with a decoction) of lotus, Udumbara, Bilva, 
and Pallra (leaves). 

22. But a Brahma#a who repeatedly (and in- 
tentionally partakes) of liquor extracted from rice, 
shall drink (liquor of) the same (kind) boiling hot. 
' He becomes pure after death.' 

23. We will declare (who must be considered) the 
slayer of a learned Brahma»a (bhru«ahan). He is 
called Bhruwahan who kills a Brahma»a or destroys 
an embryo (the sex of) which is unknown. 

24. ' For embryos (the sex of) which is unknown 

18. Identical with Manu XI, 152, and Vishwu LI, 5. 
19-20. Manu XI, 151 ; Vishmi LI, 2. Regarding the other of 
liquors, see Manu XI, 95-96. 

21. Manu XI, 148. 22. Gautama XXIII, 1. 

23. Gautama XXII, 13. It must be understood a real Brah- 
ma«a who knows the Veda is meant 

24. ' Therefore they offer burnt-oblations for the production of 
males/ i. e. they perform the Puwsavana, one of the sacraments ; 

Digitized by 


106 VASISH777A. XX, 25. 

become males ; therefore thev offer burnt-oblations 
for the production of males.' 

25. Let the slayer of a learned Brahma«a kindle 
a fire and offer (therein the following eight oblations, 
consisting of portions of his own body), 

26. The first (saying), ' I offer my hair to Death, 
I feed Death with my hair;' the second (saying), 
' I offer my skin to Death, I feed Death with my 
skin ;' the third (saying), ' I offer my blood to Death, 
I feed Death with my blood ; ' the fourth (saying), 
' I offer my flesh to Death, I feed Death with my 
flesh ;' the fifth (saying), ' I offer my sinews to 
Death, I feed Death with my sinews ;' the sixth 
(saying), ' I offer my fat to Death, I feed Death with 
my fat ; ' the seventh (saying), ' I offer my bones to 
Death, I feed Death with my bones;' the eighth 
(saying), ' I offer my marrow to Death, I feed Death 
with my marrow.' 

27. (Or) let him (fight) for the sake of the king, 
or for the sake of Brahma«as, and let him die in 
battle with his face turned (to the foe). 

28. It is declared in the Veda, '(A murderer) who 
remains thrice unvanquished or is thrice defeated 
(in battle) becomes pure.' 

29. 'A sin which is openly proclaimed becomes 

see e.g. Afval&yana 1, 13. The Sutra is marked as a quotation, 
and probably belongs to some Vedic work. 

25. Apastamba I, 9, 25, 12. 27. Gautama XXII, 8. 

28. Apastamba I, 9, 24, 21. 

29. Taken by itself the Sutra would seem to refer to the maxim 
that a free confession reduces the guilt of the offender (Manu XI, 
228). But on account of the next Sutra it is necessary to assume, 
with Kr*'sh»apa»<fita, that half the guilt of a crime, of which another 
man justly accuses an offender, falls on the accuser, while the 

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30. To this (effect) they quote also (the following 
verse): ' By saying to an outcast, "O thou outcast!" 
or to a thief, "O thou thief!" a man incurs a guilt 
as great as (that of the offender). (If he) falsely 
(accuses anybody of such offences), his guilt will be 
twice as great.' 

31. In like manner having slain a Kshatriya, he 
shall perform (a penance) during eight years, 

32. For (killing) a VaLrya during six (years), 

33. For (killing) a .Sudra, during three (years), 

34. For killing a female of the Brahmawa caste 
who is an Atreyl, and a Kshatriya or a VaLrya, 
engaged in a sacrifice (the same penance must be 
performed as for killing a learned Brahmawa). 

35. We will explain (the term) Atreyl. They 
declare that she who has bathed after temporary 
uncleanness is an Atreyl. 

36. ' For if (the husband) approaches her at that 
(time), he will have offspring.' 

offender's guilt becomes less by the publication of his misdeed. 
It is, however, not improbable that the text is here defective, and 
one or several Sutras have been left out 

30. Gautama XXI, 17-18. 

31. Vish»u L, 12. The text is here evidently defective. The 
Sutra or Sutras left out must have contained the description of 
another penance for the murder of a Br&hma»a, which is mentioned 
in nearly all the Smr/tis (see Vishwu L, 1-6, 15, and the parallel 
passages). Its chief conditions are, that the murderer is to live 
separate for twelve years, and to subsist on alms given by people 
who are acquainted with his crime. Without such an additional 
rule this and the following Sutras are utterly unintelligible. 

32. VislwraL, 13. 33. Vishwu L, 14. 
34. Vishwu L, 7, 9. 

36. The author means to say that the word itreyf is derived 
from atra, ' at that time,' and the verb i, ' to approach.' The ety- 
mology is worthy of the Nirukta. 

Digitized by 



37. (For killing a female of the Brahmawa caste) 
who is not an Atreyt, (the penance prescribed) for 
the murder of a Kshatriya (must be performed), 

38. (For killing) a female of the Kshatriya caste, 
(the penance prescribed) for the murder of a Vaijya, 

39. (For killing) a female of the Vai^ya caste, (the 
penance prescribed) for the murder of a .Sudra. 

40. (For killing) a female of the .Sudra caste (let 
him perform) during one year (the penance prescribed 
for the murder of a Brahma»a). 

41. If a man has stolen gold belonging to a 
Brahma#a, he shall run, with flying hair, to the 
king, (exclaiming) 'Ho, I am a thief; sir, punish 
me ! ' The king shall give him a weapon made of 
Udumbara wood; with that he shall kill himself. 
It is declared in the Veda that he becomes pure 
after death. 

42. Or (such a thief) may shave off all his hair, 
anoint his body with clarified butter, and cause 
himself to be burnt from the feet upwards, in a fire 
of dry cowdung. It is declared in the Veda that he 
becomes pure after death. 

43. Now they quote also (the following verses) : 
' Hear, (how) the bodies of those who having com- 
mitted various crimes died a long time ago, and 
were (afterwards) born again, are (marked);' 

37-40. Gautama XXII, 17. 

41. Vishwu LII, 1-2. Kr*sh«apa«<fita remarks that Sulapam 
explains audumbaram, ' made of Udumbara wood,' by ' made of 
copper,' and that the weapon intended is a club. The last remark 
is probably true, as the parallel passages of the other Smr*'tis 
state that the thief is to take a club to the king, with which he is 
to be struck. 

42. Apastamba I, 9, 25, 6. 

Digitized by 


[ f Ji Tf <: .;-^X 

XXI, I. PENANCES. \?-C_?£& ?? > 

^OTttiA y 

44. ' A thief will have deformed nails, the mtti«*t^j|l*J^ / 
derer of a Brahmawa will be afflicted with white 
leprosy, but he who has drunk spirituous liquor will 

have black teeth, and the violator of his Guru's bed 
will suffer from skin diseases.' 

45. Property received from outcasts, after forming 
alliances with them either by (teaching) the Veda 
(and by sacrificing) or by marriage, must be relin- 
quished. Let him not associate with such (men). 

46. It is declared in the Veda that (he who has 
associated with outcasts) becomes pure by reciting 
the Sawhita (of his Veda), proceeding in a northerly 
direction and fasting. 

47. They quote also (a verse) to this (effect), 'A 
sinner is liberated from guilt by tormenting his body, 
by austerities, and by reciting the Veda ; he becomes 
also free by bestowing gifts. That has been declared 
in the Veda.' 

Chapter XXI. 

f 1. If a .Sudra approaches a female of the Brah- 
ma«a caste, (the king) shall cause the .Sudra to be 
tied up in Vlra«a grass and shall throw him into a 
fire. He shall cause the head of the Brahma»l to be 

\ shaved, and her body to be anointed with butter ; 

I placing her naked on a black donkey, he shall cause 

( , her to be conducted along the highroad. It is de- 

! clared that she becomes pure (thereby). 

44. Manu XI, 49 ; Vislwm XLV, 4, 5, 6. 

45. Vishmi LIV, 28. 46. Manu XI, 194. 

XXI. 1-5. Gautama XXIII, 15. Kn - sh«apa»dita reads, instead 
of prasyet, ' he shall throw,' praxyet, and explains it by dahayet, 
' he shall cause to be burnt.' It must be understood that these 

Digitized by 



2. If a Vawya approaches a female of the Brah- 
ma«a caste, (the king) shall cause the VaLsya to be 
tied up in Lohita grass and shall throw him into a 
fire. He shall cause the head of the Brahmaw! to be 
shaved, and her body to be anointed with butter; 
placing her naked on a yellowish donkey, he shall 
cause her to be conducted along the highroad. It 
is declared in the Veda that she becomes pure 

3. If a Kshatriya approaches a female of the 
Brahma»a caste, (the king) shall cause the Ksha- 
triya to be tied up in leaves of .Sara grass and shall 
throw him into a fire. He shall cause the head of 
the Brahma»t to be shaved, and her body to be 
anointed with butter ; placing her naked on a white 
donkey, he shall cause her to be conducted along 
the highroad. It is declared in the Veda that she 
becomes pure (thereby). 

4. A Vaisya who offends) with a female of the Ksha- 
triya class (shall be treated) in the same manner, 

5. And a S'udra (who offends) with females of the 
Kshatriya or Vaisya castes. 

6. If (a wife) has been mentally unfaithful to 
her husband, she shall live on barley or rice boiled 
in milk during three days, and sleep on the bare 
ground. After the three days (have expired), the 
(husband) shall offer eight hundred burnt-oblations, 
(reciting) the Savitrl (and the Mantra called) .Siras, 
while she is immersed in water. It is declared in 
the Veda that she becomes pure (thereby). 

extreme punishments are to be inflicted in particularly bad cases 

6. ' Afterwards in order to purify her who is immersed in water, 
i. e. has plunged into water, he shall offer eight hundred, i. e. (such) 

Digitized by 



7. If (a wife) has held an (improper) conversation 
(with another man), she must perform the same 
penance during a month. After (the expiration of) 
the month, (the husband) shall offer four times eight 
hundred burnt-oblations, (reciting) the Savitrl (and 
the Mantra called) .Siras, while she is immersed in 
water. It is declared in the Veda that she becomes 
pure (thereby). 

8. But if (a wife) has actually committed adultery, 
she shall wear during a year a garment smeared 
with clarified butter, and sleep on a mat of Kuya 
grass, or in a pit filled with cowdung. After (the ex- 
piration of) the year, (the husband) shall offer eight 
hundred burnt-oblations, (reciting) the Savitrl (and 
the Mantra called) .Siras, while she is immersed in 
water. It is declared in the Veda that she becomes 
pure (thereby). 

9. But if she commits adultery with a Guru, she 
is forbidden (to assist her husband) in (the fulfil- 
ment of) his sacred duties. 

10. But (these) four (wives) must be abandoned, 
(viz.) one who yields herself to (her husband's) pupil 
or to (his) Guru, and especially one who attempts 

a number of burnt-oblations with the .Siras, i. e. (the words) " Om, 
ye waters, who are splendour, juice, and ambrosia," &c, which 
are joined to the Gayatrt.' — Kr*'sh»apa«<flta. The .Siras, or 'head,' 
is again mentioned below, XXV, 13; see also Vishwu LV, 9. This 
and the following two rules refer to offences committed with 
males of equal caste. 

9. Ya^wavalkya 1, 70. Colebrooke IV, Dig. LXXVI, where 
a different reading, vyavayatirthagamanadharmebhyaA, has 
been adopted, and the Sutra has been combined with the next. The 
first clause may also be translated, ' If she actually commits adul- 
tery, (and especially) if she converses with a Guru.' 

10. Colebrooke loc. cit. ; ManuIX, 80; Ya^wavalkya I, 72. 

Digitized by 


112 VASISHITffA. XXI, i r. 

the life of her lord, or who commits adultery with 
a man of a degraded caste. 

n. That woman of the Brahma«a caste who 
drinks spirituous liquor, the gods will not admit 
(after death) to the same abode with her husband ; 
losing all spiritual merit she wanders about in this 
world and is born again as a leech or a pearl-oyster. 
f 12. The wives of Brahma«as, Kshatriyas, and 
Vaisyas who commit adultery with a 6"udra may be 
purified by a penance in case no child is born (from 
their adulterous intercourse), not otherwise. 

1 3. (Those who have committed adultery) with a 
man of lower caste shall perform a Krt&Mra. penance, 
succeeded by one, two, or three A'andrayawas. 

14. Faithful wives who are constantly pure and 
truthful (reside after death) in the same abodes with 
their husbands ; those who are unfaithful are born as 

15. Half the body of the husband falls if his wife 

11. Colebrooke IV, Dig. CXIII, where sukarf, 'a sow,' is read 
instead of juktika, ' a pearl-oyster.' 

13. Manu XI, 178. Kn'shwapamfita states correctly that A&n- 
drayawottaram, 'succeeded by one, two, or three -ffandrayawas,' 
may also mean ' following one, two, or three iSTindriya«as,' and 
that the number of iSTandriya«as to be performed depends on the 
caste of the person with whom the adultery was committed. Thus 
a Br£hma«i must perform one KrikkAra. and one A"andraya»a for 
adultery with a Kshatriya, one Krikkkra. and two .ffandrayawas for 
adultery with a Vawya, and one Krikkhn. and three ATandrayawas 
for adultery with a .Sudra. His view that the rule refers to wives 
who commit the sin without intent or against their will, is open to 
doubt. It is probably an alternative, to be adopted in lighter cases, 
for the public punishment prescribed above, XXI, 1-3. Regarding 
the .ATandrayawa, see below, XXIV, 44. 

14. Colebrooke IV, Dig. CVIII ; Manu V, 164-165. 

15. Manu IX, 80; Ya^navalkya 1, 73. 

Digitized by 


XXI, 23. PENANCES. 113 

drinks spirituous liquor. No purification is pre- 
scribed for the half which has fallen. 

16. If a Brahma«a unintentionally commits adul- 
tery with the wife of a Brahma#a, (he shall perform) 
a Y^rikkhxz. penance in case (the husband) fulfils the 
religious duties (of his caste), and an AtikrtMAra. 
penance in case (the husband) does not fulfil his 
religious duties. 

17. The same (penances are prescribed) for 
Kshatriyas and Vaisyas (for adultery with women 
of their respective castes). 

18. If he kills a cow, let him perform, during six 
months, a Kri&Mra. or a Ta.ptakrt£Mra., dressed in 
the raw hide of that (cow). 

1 9. The rule for these two (penances is as follows) : 

20. ' During three days he eats in the day-time 
(only), and during the (next) three days at night 
(only), he subsists during (another) period of three 
days on food offered without asking, and (finally) he 
fasts during three days.' That is a Krt&Mra. penance. 

21. ' Let him drink hot water during three days ; 
let him drink hot milk during the (next) three days ; 
after drinking during (another) period of three days 
hot clarified butter, he shall subsist on air during 
the (last) three days.' That is a Taptdkri&Mra. 

22. And he shall give (to a Brahma«a) a bull 
and a cow. 

23. Now they quote also (the following verse) : 
' Through killing a spotted deer, a he-goat, and 

16. Vish«u LIII, 2. 

18. Vishwu L, 16-24; Gautama XXII, 18. 

20. Vish«u XL VI, 10. 21. Vishwu XL VI, 11. 

23. The above translation follows the commentary of Krishna- 

M I 

Digitized by 


114 VASISHrffA. XXI, 24. 

a bird three maladies (befal men), viz. jealousy, 
hunger, and old age; (therefore) let him (who is 
guilty of such an offence) perform (a penance) during 
ninety-eight (days).' 

24. Having slain a dog, a cat, an ichneumon, 
a snake, a frog, or a rat, let him perform a Kri&Mra. 
penance of twelve days' duration, and give something 
(to a Brahma#a). 

25. But having slain a quantity of boneless ani- 
mals, equal to the weight of a cow, let him perform 
a Krt&Mra, penance of twelve days' duration, and 
give something (to a Brahmawa). 

26. But (the same penance must be performed) for 
each single (slain animal) that possesses bones. 

27. He who extinguishes the (sacred) fires shall 
perform a Kri&Mra penance of twelve days, and 
cause them to be kindled again (by priests engaged 
for the occasion). 

28. He who falsely accuses a Guru shall bathe, 
dressed in his clothes, and ask his Guru's pardon. 
It is declared in the Veda that he becomes pure by 
the Guru's forgiving him. 

29. An atheist shall perform a Y^rikkhxa, penance 
of twelve days' duration, and give up his infidelity. 

pa«<fita, who further states that the penance to be performed shall 
consist of a diet of barley gruel. I feel by no means certain that 
his interpretation, especially that of the last clause, is correct. 
Possibly ash/dnavatim dharet may mean 'he shall offer ninety-eight 

24. Vishwu L, 30, 31. 

25. Gautama XXII, 21. 'Something' means eight handfuls of 
grain. 26. Gautama XXII, 22. 

27. Vishwu LIV, 13 ; Gautama XXII, 34. 

28. Vishwu LIV, 14; Ya^-navalkya III, 283. 
29-30. VishHU LIV, 15. 

Digitized by 



30. But he who receives subsistence from infidels 
(shall perform) an hxkrikkhta. penance (and not 
repeat his offence). 

31. (The rule applicable to) a seller of Soma has 
been explained hereby. 

32. A hermit, on violating the rules of his order, 
shall perform a K.rikkkra. penance of twelve days' 
duration, and continue (the observances obligatory 
on him) in a great forest. 

33. Ascetics, (offending in the same manner) as 
hermits, shall perform for a protracted period (the 
vow of regulating the quantity of their food according 
to) the growth of the moon, and shall again be 
initiated, in accordance with (the rules of) the Insti- 
tutes applicable to them. 

Chapter XXII. 

1. Now, indeed, man (in) this (world) speaks an 
untruth, or sacrifices for men unworthy to offer a 
sacrifice, or accepts what ought not to be accepted, 
or eats forbidden food, or practises what ought not 
to be practised. 

31. Vish/m LIV, 17. 

33. The penance prescribed appears to be similar to the Kin- 
drayawa. The offender must eat one mouthful- on the first lunar 
day, two on the second, and so forth. But it is not clear for how 
long a period the rule is to be observed. The Sutra is interesting 
as it furnishes corroborative evidence for Pa/ani's statement (IV, 
3, no) that Bhikshu-sutras which contained the rules applicable to 
Bhikshus formerly existed. 

XXII. 1. As this chapter is almost identical with and probably 
copied from Baudhiyana III, 10, and Gautama XIX, the division 
of the Sutras has not been made in accordance with Kr*sh»a- 
pa«</ita's commentary, but agrees with that of the chapter in 
Gautama's Dharmafastra. The notes to the translation of the 

I 2 

Digitized by 



2. They are in doubt if he shall perform a penance 
for such (a deed), or if he shall not do it. 

3. (Some) declare that he shall not do it, 

4. Because the deed does not perish. 

5. (The correct view is, that) he shall perform 
(a penance), because it is enjoined in the revealed 

6. 'He who offers a horse-sacrifice conquers all 
sin, he destroys the guilt of the murder of a 

7. (Moreover), ' Let an Ablmasta offer a Gosava 
or an AgnishAit-sacrifice.' 

8. Reciting the Veda, austerity, a sacrifice, fasting, 
giving gifts are the means for expiating such a 
(blamable act). 

9. (The purificatory texts are) the Upanishads, 
the Vedantas, the Sawhita-text of all the Vedas, the 
(Anuvakas called) Madhu, the (hymn of) Aghamar- 

latter work must be consulted for the explanation of the more 
difficult passages. 

5-7. The text appears here to be corrupt. After Sfltra 5, 
Baudhayana III, 10, 6 (Gautama XIX, 7), PunaA stomena ya^-eta 
punaA savanamayantfti vi^wayate, ' It is declared in the Veda, " Let 
him offer a PunaAstoma-sacrifice, (those who offer it) again come 
to partake of (the libations of) Soma," ' has been left out. This 
omission caused the insertion of the words tasma£Wrutinidar.?anat 
[dawandt, Bh. F.], (' because it is enjoined in the revealed texts,') 
at the end of Sfttra 5. The proof that the sixth Sutra of Baudha- 
yana has been accidentally omitted is furnished by the fact that 
several MSS. of Vasish//4a read iti kz. after yo Vvamedhena ya^ate 
(Vas. XXII, 6). This ka. has no meaning, except if another Vedic 
passage preceded Sutra 6. In order to escape this difficulty, 
Kr*sh«apa«<fita writes yo 'wamedhena ya^ata iti, and begins the 
next Sutra with iti ia, which he explains by 'moreover.' 

9. Kr«'sh»apa«<fita gives before ' Vedantas' another word veda- 
dayaA, which he explains by ' the Vedas, Smn'tis, and Pura«as.' 

Digitized by 



sha«a,the Atharva.riras,the (Anuvakas called) Rudras, 
the Purusha-hymn, the two Samans called Ra^a»a 
and Rauhi#eya, the Kushmawdas, the Pavamanls, 
and the Savitri. 

10. Now they quote also (the following verse) : 
' He who performs once in each season the offerings 
to VaLsvanara and Vratapati and the Pavitresh/i 
sanctifies ten ancestors.' 

1 1. To live on milk alone, as if one were fasting, 
to eat fruit only, (to live on) barley gruel prepared 
of a handful of grain, to eat gold, to drink Soma (are 
modes of subsistence which) purify. 

12. All mountains, all rivers, holy lakes, places 
of pilgrimage, the dwellings of Az'shis, cowpens, and 
temples of the gods (are) places (which destroy sin). 

13. A year, a month, twenty-four days, twelve 
days, six days, three days, a day and a night are the 
periods (for penances). 

14. These (acts) may be optionally performed 
when no (particular penance) has been prescribed, 

15. (Viz.) for great sins difficult (penances), and 
for trivial faults easy ones. 

1 6. The KriMkra. and the Atlkrt&Mra. (as well as) 
the A^ndraya^a are penances for all (offences). 

Chapter XXIII. 

I. If a student has approached a woman, he shall 
slay in the forest, in a place where four roads meet, 

10. Kn'shwapawfita takes the last word darttpurusham to mean 
ten ancestors and ten descendants. 

II. 'As if one were fasting,' i.e. in small quantities. — Kmhwa- 

XXIII. 1. Gautama XXIII, ij. 

Digitized by 


Il8 VASISHrffA. XXIII, 2. 

(kindling) a common fire, an ass for the Rakshas 
(the goblins), 

2. Or he may offer an oblation of rice (£aru) to 
Nim'ti (the goddess of hell). 

3. Let him throw into the fire (four oblations 
consisting) of that (sacrificial food, saying), ' To Lust 
svaha; to him who follows his lust svaha; to Ni'r- 
rhi svaha ; to the divine Rakshas svaha.' 

4. If, before returning home (from his teacher, 
a student) voluntarily defiles himself, sleeps in the 
day-time, or practises any other vow (than that of 
studentship), the same (penance must be performed). 

5. If he has committed a bestial crime, he shall 
give a white bull (to a Brahmawa). 

6. The guilt incurred by a bestial crime with a 
cow, has been explained by the (rule regarding) the 
killing of a female of the 6"udra caste. 

7. A student breaks his vow by performing 
funeral rites, 

8. Excepting those of his mother and his father. 

9. If a (student) is sick, he may eat, at his pleasure, 
all that is left by his teacher as medicine. 

10. If (a student) who is employed by his teacher 
(to perform some duty), meets with his death, (the 
teacher) shall perform three Krt&Mra. penances. 

4. Manu XI, 121. 

5. Vish*m LIII, 7 ; Gautama XXII, 36. 

6. Vishwu LIII, 3 ; Gautama XXIII, 1 2. 

7. Manu V, 88. 8. Manu V, 91. 

9. The object of the Sfltra is to permit during sickness a relax- 
ation of the rules regarding forbidden food. Hence a sick student 
may eat honey, meat, &c. 

10. Ya^fiavalkya III, 283. 'Meets with his death,' e.g. is 
killed by a wild animal or a snake, while collecting fuel in the 

Digitized by 



11. If a student eats meat which has been given 
to him as leavings (by his teacher), he shall perform 
a Krt&Mra. penance of twelve days' duration, and 
afterwards finish his vow. 

12. The same (penance must be performed) if he 
eats food given at a .Sraddha or by a person who is 
impure on account of a recent death or birth. 

13. It is declared in the Veda, that honey given 
without asking does not defile (a student) of the 

14. For him who committing suicide becomes an 
Abhisasta, his blood-relations (sapi«^a) shall not 
perform the funeral rites. 

15. He is called a suicide who destroys himself 
by means of wood, water, clods of earth, stones, 
weapons, poison, or a rope. 

16. Now they quote also (the following verse): 
' The twice-born man who out of affection performs 
the last rites for a suicide, shall perform a -ffandra- 
ya«a penance together with a Taptakrz^^ra.' 

1 7. We shall describe the Aandrayawa below. 

18. A fast of three days (must be performed) for 
resolving to die by one's own hand. 

ix. Manu XI, 159 ; Ya^Tavalkya III, 282 ; see also Apastamba's 
discussion on the subject, 1, 1, 4, 5. 

12. Manu XI, 158. 

13. This Sutra may also mean, 'It is declared that, according 
to the Va^asaneyaka, honey given (to a student) without his asking 
for it does not defile him.' But a parallel passage of Devala, which 
K/7 - sh»apa«rfita quotes, makes, I think, the version given above 
appear preferable. In either case the passage is explained by the 
fact that, according to the Satapatha-brahmaraa, Svetaketu> one of 
the great teachers of the White Ya^ur-veda, strongly pleaded for the 
use of honey; see Weber, Indische Studien X, 123 seq. 

14. Vishwu XXII, 56 ; Gautama XIV, 12. 

16. Vishwu XXII, 58-59. 17. See below, Sutra 45. 

Digitized by 


120 VASISHTffA. XXIII, 19. 

19. 'He who attempts suicide, but remains alive, 
shall perform a ¥L.rikkhra. penance during twelve 
days. (Afterwards) he shall fast for three (days and) 
nights, being dressed constantly in a garment smeared 
(with clarified butter), and suppressing his breath, he 
shall thrice recite the Aghamarsha»a;' 

20. Or, following the same rule, he may also 
frequently recite the Gayatrl ; 

2 1 . Or, having kindled a fire, he may offer clarified 
butter with the KushmaWas. 

22. 'And the guilt (of) all (offences) excepting 
mortal sins is removed thereby.' 

23. Now he may also sip water in the morning, 
thinking of (the Mantra), * May fire and wrath and 
the lords of wrath protect me,' &c, and meditating 
on his sin ; (then) he may mutter the Vyahrztis that 
end with satya (truth), prefixing (the syllable) Om 
(to each), or he may recite the Aghamarsha^a. 

24. If he touches a human bone to which fat still 
adheres, he becomes impure during three (days and) 
nights ; 

25. But (on touching a bone) to which no fat 
adheres, a day and a night, 

26. Likewise if he has followed a corpse (to the 

27. If he passes between men reciting the Veda, 
he shall fast during a day and a night. 

28. (Those who recite the Veda) shall sprinkle 
each other with water and stay away (from their 
houses) during three (days and) nights. 

22. Regarding the efficacy of the Kfishmawak texts, see above, 
XXII, 9. 

23. The text occurs Taitt. Ar. X, 24, 1. 
24-25. ManuV, 87; Vishmi XXII, 75. 

26. ManuV, 101. 28. Gautama I, 58. 

Digitized by 



29. (The same penance must be performed) for 
a day and night, if a dog, a cat, or an ichneumon 
pass quickly (between those who recite the Veda). 

30. If he has swallowed the flesh of a dog, a cock, 
a village pig, a grey heron, a vulture, a Bhasa, a 
pigeon, a man, a crow or an owl, (he must) fast 
during seven days, (and thus) empty his entrails ; 
(afterwards he must) eat clarified butter, and be 
initiated again. 

31. 'But a Brahma«a who has been bitten by a 
dog, becomes pure, if he goes to a river that flows 
into the ocean, (bathes there), suppresses his breath 
one hundred times, and eats clarified butter.' 

32. ' Time, fire, purity of mind, water, looking at 
the sun, and ignorance (of defilement) are the six 
means by which created beings are purified.' 

33. It is declared in the Veda that, on touching 
a dog, a K&nd§\di, or an Outcast, he becomes at once 
pure, if he bathes, dressed in his clothes. 

34. If (while reciting the Veda) they hear noises 

29. Gautama I, 59. 

30. Vishwu LI, 3-4; Gautama XXIII, 4-5; Manu XI, 157. 
The Sutra is badly corrupted in Kr/sh»apa«aTita's edition. I read 
kahka instead of vanka, leave out vSyasa after bhisa, and change 
kakolukanaw sadane to kSkolukamS/nsddane. The latter change 
is absolutely necessary ; firstly, because the penances for killing dogs 
and men have been given above ; secondly, because the word minu- 
sha requires a noun which it qualifies at the end of the compound ; 
thirdly, because the penance which is prescribed, fasting until the 
entrails are empty, is absurd for murder, but appropriate for eating 
forbidden food; and fourthly, because the parallel passages of other 
Smr/tis actually do prescribe it for eating the flesh of excessively 
impure animals and for cannibalism. The change of ami to Sna 
is a very common mistake in Devan&gari MSS. 

31. Vish»u LIV, 12. 32. Vishwu XXII, 88. 
33. Apastamba I, 5, 15, 16. 

Digitized by 


122 VASISH7WA. XXIII, 35- 

made by outcasts or JC<Lndk\as, they shall sit silent 
and fasting during three days ; 

35. Or if they repeat that (text of the Gayatri) 
at least one thousand times, they become pure ; thus 
it is stated in the Veda. 

36. By this rule (the penance to be performed by) 
those who teach or sacrifice for vile men has been 
explained. It is declared in the Veda that they 
become pure by also relinquishing the fees (which 
they received). 

37. By this same (rule the penance prescribed 
for) an Abhijasta, (one accused of a heinous crime,) 
has been explained. 

38. (If he has been accused of) killing a learned 
Brahma#a, let him subsist during twelve days on 
water (only), and fast during (another) twelve days. 

39. If he has falsely accused a Brahma/za of a 
crime which causes loss of caste, or of a minor 
offence which does not cause loss of caste, he shall 
subsist during a month on water (only), and con- 
stantly repeat the (Rik&s called) .Suddhavatis ; 

40. Or he may go to bathe (with the priests) at 
(the conclusion of) a horse-sacrifice. 

41. By this (rule the penance for) intercourse with 
a female of the KkndSXa. caste has been declared. 

42. Now (follows the description of) another 
Y^rikkhxz. penance, applicable to all (men), where (the 
rule given above) has been altered. 

43. On one day (let him eat) in the morning (only), 
on the (following) day at night (only), on the (next) 
day food given without asking, and on the (fourth) 
day (let him) fast ; the succeeding (three) periods of 

36. Vishwu LIV, 25, 28. 38. YSgTiavalkya III, 287. 

39. Ya^lavalkya HI, 286. 41. Vishmi LIII, 5, 6. 

Digitized by 


XXIV, 2. PENANCES. 1 23 

four days (must be passed) in the same manner. 
Wishing to show favour to the Brahmawas, Manu, 
the chief among the pillars of the law, has thus 
described the Sisvkrikkhra. (the hard penance of 
children) for infants, aged, and sick men. 

44. Now follows the rule for (the performance of) 
the -ATandraya#a (lunar penance). 

45. On the first day of the dark half (of the month) 
let him eat fourteen (mouthfuls), let him diminish the 
(number of) mouthfuls (each day by one), and conti- 
nue in this manner until the end of the fortnight. In 
like manner let him eat one mouthful on the first day 
of the bright half, and (daily) increasing (the number 
of) mouthfuls, continue until the end of the fortnight. 

46. Meanwhile let him sing Samans, or mutter 
the Vyahrztis. 

47. A month during which he thus performs a 
A";andraya#a, the Rishxs have called by way of 
laudation, ' a means of purification ' (pavitra). It is 
prescribed as an expiation of all (offences) for which 
no (special penance) has been mentioned. 

Chapter XXIV. 

1. Now (follows the description of) an Atikrt'6- 
Mra. penance. 

2. Let him eat as much as he can take at one 
(mouthful, and follow the rules given) above for a 
KrtfcMra, (viz.) to eat during three days in the 
morning, (during another three days) in the evening, 
(during further three days) food given without 

44-47. Vishwu XL VII. It must be understood that during the 
bright half of the month the number of mouthfuls must be increased 
every day by one. 

XXIV. 1-2. Gautama XXVI, 18-19. ' Above,' i. e. XXI, 20. 

Digitized by 


124 VASISH7WA. XXIV, 3- 

asking, and to fast during the last three days. That 
is an Atikrz'/£^ra. 

3. A Krikkhra. penance (during the performance 
of which one) subsists on water (only is called) a 

4. The peculiar observances (prescribed during the 
performance) of Kri&Mra penances (are as follows) : 

5. ' Having cut his nails, (the performer) shall 
cause his beard and all his hair to be shaved off, 
excepting the eyebrows, the eyelashes, and the lock 
at the top of the head ; (wear) one garment only ; he 
shall eat blameless food ; what one obtains by going 
to beg once (is called) blameless food ; he shall bathe 
in the morning, at noon, and in the evening ; he shall 
carry a stick (and) a waterpot ; he shall avoid to 
speak to women and .Sudras ; carefully keeping 
himself in an upright or sitting posture, he shall 
stand during the day, and remain seated during 
the night.' Thus speaks the divine Vasish^a. 

6. Let him not instruct in these Institutes of the 
sacred law anybody but his son or a pupil who 
stays (in his house at least) for a year. 

7. The fee (for teaching it) is one thousand (pa»as), 
(or) ten cows and a bull, or the worship of the teacher. 

Chapter XXV. 
1. I will completely explain the purification of 
those whose guilt has not been made public, both 
from great crimes and for minor offences. 

3. Gautama XXVI, 20; see also Vishwu XLVI, 13-14. 

4-5. Gautama XXVI, 6, 8 ; Vishwu XLVII, 24-25. 

6. The MSS. read in the beginning of this Sutra, satayinudeti 
or satay&tudeta, while Kr*'sh»apa»<fita, probably as a guess, writes 
satapa nudati. I do not think that his correction is satisfactory, 
and propose in its stead, sa tadyadetad (dharmarastram). 

Digitized by 



2. A penance prescribed in (the section on) secret 
(penances) is for an Agnihotrin, an aged and a learned 
man, who have subdued their senses ; but other men 
(must perform the expiations) described above. 

3. Those constantly engaged in suppressing their 
breath, reciting purificatory texts, giving gifts, making 
burnt-oblations, and muttering (sacred texts) will, 
undoubtedly, be freed from (the guilt of) crimes 
causing loss of caste. 

4. Seated with Kusa grass in his hands, let him 
repeatedly suppress his breath, and again and again 
recite purificatory texts, the Vyahrz'tis, the syllable 
Om, and the daily portion of the Veda. 

5. Always intent on the practice of Yoga, let him 
again and again suppress his breath. Up to the 
ends of his hair and up to the ends of his nails let 
him perform highest austerity. 

6. Through the obstruction (of the expiration) 
air is generated, through air fire is produced, then 
through heat water is formed ; hence he is internally 
purified by (these) three. 

7. Neither through severe austerities, nor through 
the daily recitation of the Veda, nor through offering 
sacrifices can the twice-born reach that condition 
which they attain by the practice of Yoga. 

8. Through the practice of Yoga (true) knowledge 
is obtained, Yoga is the sum of the sacred law, the 
practice of Yoga is the highest and eternal austerity; 
therefore let him always be absorbed in the practice 
of Yoga. 

XXV. 4. Read pra»ay&m£n in the text. 

5. The MSS. read at the end of this verse, tapas tapyatam utta- 
mam, while Kmh«apa»<fita gives tapas tapy&t tu uttamam. The 
correct reading is probably tapas tapyatu uttamam. 

Digitized by 


126 VASISH277A. XXV, g. 

9. For him who is constantly engaged in (reciting 
the syllable) Om, the seven Vyahmis, and the three- 
footed Gayatri no danger exists anywhere. 

10. The Vedas likewise begin with the syllable 
Om, and they end with the syllable Om, the syllable 
Om is the sum of all speech ; therefore let him 
repeat it constantly. 

11. The most excellent (portion of the) Veda, 
which consists of one syllable, is declared to be the 
best purificatory text. 

12. If the guilt of all sins did fall on one man, 
to repeat the Gayatri ten thousand times (would be) 
an efficient means of purification. 

13. If, suppressing his breath, he thrice recites 
the Gayatri together with the Vyahmis together 
with the syllable Om and with the (text called) .Siras, 
that is called one suppression of breath. 

Chapter XXVI. 

1. If, untired, he performs three suppressions of 
his breath according to the rule, the sins which he 
committed during a day and a night are instantly 

2. Seated during the evening prayer, he removes 
by (three) suppressions of his breath all guilt which 

9. I read with the MSS. bhayaw for bhave. 

10. Manu II, 74. 

13. Identical withVishwu LV, 9. Regarding the text called 
.Siras, see above, XXI, 6. 

XXVI. 1. The verb dhirayet, 'performs,' seems to be used in 
order to indicate that, according to the Yogaristra, three PrSwS- 
yamas make one Dharawa; see Yi^wavalkya III, 201. 

2-3. Regarding the position at the SandhyS prayers, see also 

Digitized by 



he incurred during the day by deeds, thoughts, or 

3. But standing during the morning prayer, he re- 
moves by (three) suppressions of his breath all guilt 
which he incurred during the night by deeds, thoughts, 
or speeches. 

4. But sixteen suppressions of breath, accompanied 
by (the recitation of) the Vyahrztis and the syllable 
Om, repeated daily, purify after a month even the 
slayer of a learned Brahma«a. 

5. Even a drinker of spirituous liquor becomes 
pure, if he mutters the (hymn seen) by Kutsa, ' Apa 
na^ sosukad agham,' and (the hymn seen) by Vasish- 
tha (which begins with the word) ' Prati,' the Mahitra 
(hymn), and the .Suddhavatls. 

6. Even he who has stolen gold becomes instantly 
free from guilt, if he once mutters (the hymn begin- 
ning with the words) 'Asya vamasya' and the 

7. The violator of a Guru's bed is freed (from sin) 
if he repeatedly recites the (hymn beginning) ' Havish 
pantam a^aram ' and that (beginning) ' Na tarn amhaA' 
and mutters the hymn addressed to Purusha. 

8. Or plunging into water he may thrice mutter 
the Aghamarsha«a. Manu has declared that the 
(effect is the) same as if he had gone to bathe at 
a horse-sacrifice. 

4. Identical with Manu XI, 249 ; see also Vishnu LV, 2. 

5. Identical with Manu XI, 250. The Vedic texts mentioned 
are Rig-veda I, 97, 1 ; VII, 80; X, 185; VIII, 84, 7-9. 

6. Manu LI, 251. The Vedic texts alluded to are Rig-veda I, 
164 ; and an Upanishad. 

7. Identical with Manu XI, 252. The Vedic texts mentioned 
are Rig-veda X, 88 ; X, 126 ; X, 90. 

8. Manu XI, 260-261 ; Vishwu LV, 7. 

Digitized by 


128 VASISHTffA. XXVI, 9. 

9. An offering consisting of muttered prayers is 
ten times more efficacious than a sacrifice at which 
animals are killed ; a (prayer) which is inaudible (to 
others) surpasses it a hundred times, and the mental 
(recitation of sacred texts) one thousand times. 

10. The four Pakaya^lfas and those sacrifices 
which are enjoined by the rules of the Veda are all 
together not equal in value to the sixteenth part of 
a sacrifice consisting of muttered prayers. 

11. But, undoubtedly, a Brahma#a reaches the 
highest goal by muttering prayers only ; whether he 
perform other (rites) or neglect them, he is called a 
Brahma»a who befriends all creatures (maitra). 

1 2. The sins of those who are intent on muttering 
prayers, of those who offer burnt-oblations, of those 
who are given to meditation, of those who reside in 
sacred places, and of those who have bathed after 
performing the vows called 6iras, do not remain. 

13. As a fire, fanned by wind, burns brighter, and 
(as its flame grows) through offerings (of butter), 
even so a Brahma«a who is daily engaged in 

9. Manu II, 85; Vishwu LV, 19. The term Srambhaya^na, 
translated by ' an offering at which animals are slain/ is taken by 
Kr/sh«apa«<tfita to mean paV^aya^fia, ' an offering consisting of 
Vedic mantras recited aloud.' The word may be taken in several 
ways, but the various reading vidhiya^wa in Manu's verse induces 
me to adopt the translation given above. 

10. Identical with Manu II, 86, and Vishwu LV, 20. Regarding 
the four P&kaya^-nas, see Professor Jolly's note on Vish«u. In 
my opinion the four classes of rites huta, ahuta, prahuta, and pra- 
sita are meant. 

1 1. Identical with Manu II, 87. 

12. 'After performing the vows (called) .Siras,' i. e. those which 
are known in the Upanishads, which are called agnidh&rawa and 
so forth, and whose head (firas) consists in the worship of the 
teacher. — Kr*'sh«apa«<fita. Mu/afeka Upanishad III, 2, 10. 

Digitized by 



muttering sacred texts shines with a brilliant 

14. The destruction of those who fulfil the duty 
of daily study, who constantly restrain themselves, 
who mutter prayers and offer sacrifices has never 
been known (to happen). 

15. Let him who is desirous of purification repeat, 
though he be charged with all sins, the divine (Gaya- 
trl), at the most one thousand times, or one hundred 
times as a medium (penance), or at least ten times 
(for trivial faults). 

16. A Kshatriya shall pass through misfortunes 
which have befallen him by the strength of his arms, 
a VaLrya and .Sudra by their wealth, the highest 
among twice-born men by muttered prayers and 

1 7. As horses (are useless) without a chariot, as 
chariots (are useless) without horses, even so austerity 
(is useless) to him who is destitute of sacred learn- 
ing, and sacred learning to him who practises no 

18. As food mixed with honey, or honey mixed 
with food, even so are austerities and learning, joined 
together, a powerful medicine. 

19. No guilt taints a Br&hma#a who possesses 
learning, practises austerities, and daily mutters sacred 
texts, though he may constantly commit sinful acts. 

Chapter XXVII. 

1. If a hundred improper acts, and even more, 
have been committed, and the (knowledge of the) 

14. Manu IV, 146. 

XXVII. 1-2. Manu XI, 247. 

[14] K 

Digitized by 


1 30 VASISHri? A. XXVII, 3. 

Veda is retained, the fire of the Veda destroys all 
(the guilt) of that man just as a (common) fire con- 
sumes fuel. 

2. As a fire that burns strongly consumes even 
green trees, even so the fire of the Veda destroys 
one's guilt caused by (evil) deeds. 

3. A Brahma#a who remembers the Rig-veda is 
not tainted by any guilt, though he has destroyed 
these (three) worlds and has eaten the food of all, 
(even of the most sinful) men. 

4. If (a Brahma#a) relies on the power of the 
Veda, he cannot find pleasure in sinful acts. Guilt 
(incurred) through ignorance and negligence is de- 
stroyed, not (that of) other (intentional offences). 

5. If a hermit subsisting on roots and fruit prac- 
tises austerities in a forest, and (a householder) 
recites a single Rik, the merit of the acts of the one 
and of the other is equal. 

6. Let him strengthen the Veda by (studying) 
the Itihasas and Pura#as. For the Veda fears a man 
of little learning, (thinking) ' He will destroy me.' 

7. The daily recitation of the Veda and the per- 
formance, according to one's ability, of the series 
of Mahaya£"#as quickly destroy guilt, even that of 
mortal sins. 

8. Let him daily perform, without tiring, his par- 
ticular rites which the Veda enjoins. For if he does 
that according to his ability, he will reach the most 
blessed state. 

9. Through sacrificing for wicked people, through 
teaching them, through intermarrying with them, 
and through receiving gifts from them, (learned) 

3. Identical with Manu XI, 262. 

8. ' The most blessed state,' i. e. final liberation, or moksha. 

Digitized by 



Brahma»as do not contract guilt, for (a learned 
Brahma#a) resembles a fire and the sun. 

10. I will now declare the purification prescribed 
for (eating) food, regarding which doubts have arisen, 
whether it may be called fit to be eaten or not. 
Listen to my words ! 

1 1. Let a Brahma#a drink during three days the 
astringent decoction of the Brahmasuvar&ila plant, 
unmixed with salt or pungent condiments, and (a de- 
coction of)the.Sankhapushpl plant, together with milk. 

12. Let him drink water, after boiling in it PaleUa 
and Bilva leaves, Kma grass, and (leaves of) lotuses 
and Udumbara trees ; after three days and no more 
he becomes pure. 

13. (Subsisting) during one day on each (of the 
following substances), cow's urine, cowdung, milk, 
sour milk, butter, and water in which Kusa. grass has 
been boiled, and fasting on the seventh day purify 
even (him who fears that he has partaken of the 
food of) a .SVapaka. 

14. He who lives during five days on cow's urine, 
cowdung, milk, sour milk, and clarified butter, is 
purified by means of (that) Paw^agavya, (the five 
products of the cow.) 

15. He who, in accordance with the rule, uses 
barley (for his food), becomes pure even by ocular 
proof. (For) if he is pure, those (barley grains) will 
be white, if he is impure they will be discoloured. 

16. (If he makes) three morning meals of food 

12. Vishwu XLVI, 23. I read abhqgyabho^yasaOTg-Make. 

13. Vishmi XLVI, 19. 

15. The rule is described by Vish»u XLVIII. 

16. The meaning of the Sutra is that each mode of subsistence 
is to be continued during three days. 

K 2 

Digitized by 



fit for a sacrifice and three evening meals in like 
manner, and if food given without asking (is his 
subsistence) in the same manner, (he will thus per- 
form) three fasts. 

1 7. Now if he is in haste to make (himself pure), 
(let him) subsist on air during a day, and pass the 
night standing in water ; (that penance) is equal to 
a Pra^apatya {KriMAra). 

18. But if at sunrise he mutters the Gayatrl eight 
thousand times, he will be freed from all mortal sins, 
provided he be not the slayer of a Brahma»a. 

19. He, forsooth, who has stolen (the gold of 
a Brahma»a), has drunk spirituous liquor, has slain 
a learned Brahmawa, or has violated his Guru's 
bed, will become free from all (these) mortal sins 
if he studies the Institutes of the sacred law. 

20. For unlawful acts, for unlawful sacrifices, and 
for great sins (let him perform) a Kri&Mra. and 
a ^T4ndraya»a, which destroy all guilt. 

21. Let him add daily one mouthful (to his food) 
during the bright (half of the month), let him dimi- 
nish it (daily by one mouthful) during the dark (half), 
and let him fast on the new-moon day ; that is the 
rule for the .ffandrayawa (or lunar penance). 

Chapter XXVIII. 
1. A woman is not defiled by a lover, nor a Brah- 
ma»a by Vedic rites, nor water by urine and ordure, 
nor fire by consuming (impure substances). 

18. Ash/asahasram, ' eight thousand times,' may also mean ' one 
thousand and eight times.' 

21. See above, XXIII, 44-47. 

XXVIIL i. 'Is not defiled by a lover,' i.e. does not become 
irrevocably an outcast, but may be restored to her position after 

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2-3. A wife, (though) tainted by sin, whether she 
be quarrelsome, or have left the house, or have suf- 
fered criminal force, or have fallen into the hands of 
thieves, must not be abandoned ; to forsake her is 
not prescribed (by the sacred law). Let him wait 
for the time of her courses; by her temporary 
uncleanness she becomes pure. 

4. Women (possess) an unequalled means of 
purification; they never become (entirely) foul. 
For month by month their temporary uncleanness 
removes their sins. 

5. Women belong first to three gods, Soma (the 
moon), the Gandharva, and Fire, and come after- 
wards into the possession of men ; according to the 
law they cannot be contaminated. 

6. Soma gave them cleanliness, the Gandharva 
their melodious voice, and Fire purity of all (limbs); 
therefore women are free from stains. 

7. Those versed in the sacred law state that there 
are three acts (only) which make women outcasts, (viz.) 
the murder of the husband, slaying a learned Brah- 
ma»a, and the destruction of the fruit of their womb. 

8. A calf is pure when the milk flows, a bird when 
it causes fruit to fall, women during dalliance, and 
a dog when he catches a deer. 

9. Pure is the mouth of a goat and of a horse, 
pure is the back of a cow, pure are the feet of a Brah- 
ma«a, but women are pure in all (limbs). 

performing a penance, provided her lover was a man of equal 
caste. — Kr*sh»apa«<flta. 

2-3. For the last clause compare Ya^navalkya I, 72. 

4. See above, V, 3-4. 

5. Paraskara Grrhya-sutra I, 4, 16. 

6. Y%navalkya I, 71. 7. YSg^avalkya I, 72. 
8. Vish«u XXIII, 49. 9. Vishmi XXIII, 40. 

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1 34 VASISHrtf A. XXVIII, 10. 

i o. I will now declare the purificatory texts (which 
are found) in each Veda ; by muttering them or re- 
citing them at a burnt-oblation (men) are doubtlessly 
cleansed (from sin). 

ii. (They are) the Aghamarsha#a, the Devakma, 
the .Suddhavatls, the Taratsamas, the Kushma#das, 
the Pavamanis, and the Durgasavitrl ; 

12. The Attshangas, the Padastobhas, and the 
Samans (called) Vyalmti, the Bh&ninda. Samans, 
the Gayatra (Saman), and the Raivata ; 

13. The Purushavrata and the Bhasa, and like- 
wise the Devavrata (Samans), the Ablihga, the Bar- 
haspatya, the hymn addressed to Va£, likewise the 
Rikas (called) Madhu ; 

14. The .Satarudriya, the Atharva-riras, the Tri- 
suparwa, the Mahavrata, the Gosukta, and the A^va- 
sukta, and the two Samans (called) .SuddhcLruddhiya. 

15. The three (Samans called) Afyadohas, the 
Rathantara, the Agnervrata, the Vamadevya, and 
the Brz'hat, being muttered, purify (all) living beings. 
(He who sings them) may obtain the recollection of 
former existences, if he desires it. 

16. Gold is the firstborn of Fire, through Vish»u 
exists the earth, and the cows are children of the 

10-15. Vishmi LVI, and preface, p. xviii. The explanation of 
the various terms used will be found in the notes to Professor 
Jolly's translation of Vish«u. 

12. MSS. and Kr*'sh»apa»<fita, AbhishangaA. Knsh«apa«<iita 
and MS. B. bharadaw^ni; E. bh&fani; Bh. and F. omit w. 12 
and 13 a. 

13. Knshwapaw^ta and B. artvigam ; Bh. E. F. as above. The 
Bhasa begins, according to Kn'shwapawifita, agne vratapate. 

14. Kr*'sh«apa«<flta and B. indraruddhe ; Bh. E. F. .raddhaw- 

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XXVIII, 22. GIFTS. 135 

Sun ; he who bestows as gifts gold, a cow, and land 
will obtain rewards without end for them. 

17. A cow, a horse, gold, (and) land, bestowed 
on an unlearned Brahma»a who neglects his sacred 
duties, prevent the giver (from attaining heaven). 

18-19. (If he presents), on the full moon of the 
month of Vauakha, (to) seven or five Brahma#as, 
black or white sesamum grains (mixed) with honey, 
(saying), ' May the king of justice (Yama) rejoice!' 
or (expressing) some other (wish) which he may have 
in his mind, the guilt which he has incurred during 
his (whole) life will instantly vanish. 

20. But hear (now) the reward of the merit 
acquired by that man who gives the skin of a black 
antelope, to which the hoofs are (still) attached and 
the navel of which is adorned with gold, covering it 
with sesamum grains. 

21. 'Without doubt he has bestowed (through 
that gift) the four-faced earth, together with its 
caves filled with gold, and together with its moun- 
tains, groves, and forests.' 

22. 'He who, placing on the skin of a black ante- 
lope, sesamum, gold, honey, and butter, gives it to 
a Brahma»a, overcomes all sin.' 

17. Manu IV, 190, 193-194. Kn'sh»apa«^ita and MSS. B. and 
E. read uparudanti d&tara/ra, MSS. Bh. and F. uparundanti. Ichange 
the latter reading to uparundhanti. 

18-19. Vishwu XC, 10. 

20-22. Vishwu LXXXVII, 8-10, and Professor Jolly's preface, 
p. xviii. 

21. 'The four-faced earth,' i.e. the earth which is surrounded 
by the four oceans. 

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Chapter XXIX. 

1 . Through liberality (man) obtains all his desires, 

2. (Even) longevity, (and he is born again as) 
a student of the Veda, possessed of beauty. 

3. He who abstains from injuring (sentient beings) 
obtains heaven. 

4. By entering a fire the world of Brahman (is 

5. By (a vow of) silence (he obtains) happiness. 

6. By staying (constantly) in water he becomes 
a lord of elephants. 

7. He who expends his hoard (in gifts) becomes 
free from disease. 

8. A giver of water (becomes) rich by (the fulfil- 
ment of) all his desires. 

9. A giver of food (will have) beautiful eyes and 
a good memory. 

10. He who gives a promise to protect (some- 
body) from all dangers (becomes) wise. 

1 1. (To bestow gifts) for the use of cows (is equal 
to) bathing at all sacred places. 

12. By giving a couch and a seat (the giver 
becomes) master of a harem. 

13. By giving an umbrella (the giver) obtains 
a house. 

XXIX. 4. This Sutra, which recommends self-cremation, is of 
some importance, as it confirms the teaching of the Purdwas and 
explains the accounts of the Greeks regarding the self-immolation 
of Brihmawas who visited Europe. 

9. Vishwu XCII, a 1. 

12. Vishwu XCII, 27; Manu IV, 232. 'Master of a harem,' 
i. e. the possessor of many beautiful wives and concubines. 

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XXIX, 21. GIFTS. 137 

14. He who gives a house obtains a town. 

15. He who gives a pair of shoes obtains a vehicle. 

16. Now they quote also (the following verses) : 
' Whatever sin a man distressed for livelihood com- 
mits, (from that) he is purified by giving land, (be 
it) even " a bull's hide." ' 

17. 'He who gives to a Brahma»a a vessel filled 
with water for sipping, will obtain after death com- 
plete freedom from thirst and be born again as a 
drinker of Soma.' 

18. ' If a gift of one thousand oxen fit to draw 
a carriage (has been bestowed) according to the rule 
on a perfectly worthy man, that is equal to giving 
a maiden.' 

19. ' They declare that cows, land, and learning 
are the three most excellent gifts. For to give 
learning is (to bestow) the greatest of all gifts, and 
it surpasses those (other gifts).' 

20. ' A learned man who, free from envy, follows 
this rule of conduct which procures endless rewards, 
and which through final liberation frees him from 
transmigration ;' 

21. 'Or who, full of faith, pure, and subduing his 

14. Vishnu XCII, 31. 15. Vishnu XCII, 28. 

16. Vishnu XCII, 4. Kr/sh»apa»<flta quotes a passage of the 
Matsya-purawa according to which ' a bull's hide ' is a measure 
equal to 140 square hastas; see, however, notes to Vishnu loc. cit. 
and V, 183. 

17. Manu IV, 229. 

18. Read in the text vidhivaddanam kanyadanena tatsamam. 

19. Kn'shnapawrfita wrongly makes two Sutras out of this verse. 

20. Krcshnapanrfita and MS. B. read, against the metre and 
sense, yoginaw sampuritani vidvan, another reading yoginint sant- 
matam vidvan. F. reads yonasajnyurimaw vidvan. I read yo 'na- 
suyurimam vidvan. 

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senses, remembers or even hears it, will, freed from 
all sin, be exalted in the highest heaven.' 

Chapter XXX. 

1. Practise righteousness, not unrighteousness; 
speak truth, not untruth ; look far, not near ; look 
towards the Highest, not towards that which is not 
the Highest. 

2. A Brahma»a is a fire. 

3. For the Veda (says), ' Agni, forsooth, is a 

4. And how is that ? 

5. And it is also declared in the Kanaka, 'On 
that (occasion) the body of the Brahma«a who repre- 
sents the sacrificial seat is the altar, the vow to per- 
form the rite is the sacrifice, the soul is the animal 
to be slain, the intellect the rope (with which the 
animal is bound), the mouth of (the Brahma»a) who 
represents the seat is the Ahavanlya fire, in his 
navel (is the Dakshi»a fire), the fire in his abdomen 
is the Garhapatya fire, the Prawa is the Adhvaryu 
priest, the Apana the Hotri priest, the Vyana the 
Brahman, the Samina the UdgatW priest, the organs 
of sensation the sacrificial vessels. He who knowing 
this offers a sacrifice to the organs through the 
organs.' . . . 

6. Now they quote also (the following verses): 
' An offering placed in the mouth-fire of a Brah- 

XXX. 2. See above, III, 10. 

3. iSatapatha-brahmawa I, 4, 22. 

5. Kr*'sh«apa»rfita divides the passage into thirteen Sutras, and 
connects tatra, ' on that occasion,' with the preceding Sutra. ' On 
that (occasion),' i. e. if a Brahma«a is fed. 

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XXX, p. GIFTS. 139 

ma»a which is rich in Veda-fuel, protects and saves 
the giver and (the eater) himself from sin.' 

7. ' But the offering made through the mouth of a 
Brahma#a, which is. neither spilt nor causes pain (to 
sentient creatures), nor assails him (who makes it), is 
far more excellent than an Agnihotra.' 

8. After performing a mental sacrifice at which 
meditation (takes the place of the sacred) fire, truth- 
fulness (the place of) the sacred fuel, patience (the 
place of) the oblation, modesty (the place of) the 
sacrificial spoon, abstention from injuring living 
beings (the place of the) sacrificial cake, contentment 
(the place of) the sacrificial post, (and a promise 
of) safety given to all beings which is hard to keep 
(the place of) the reward given to the priests, a wise 
man goes to his (eternal) home. 

9. The hair of an aging man shows signs of age, 
(and) the teeth of an aging man show signs of age, 
(but) the desire to live and the desire for wealth do 
not decay even in an aging man. 

7. ManuVII, 84; Ydg'mavalkya I, 315. Kr*'sh»apa«<fita's read- 
ing, nainam adhya^ate ka. yaA, which occurs also in B., is nonsense. 
I read with Bh. nainamadhyipate^a yat, and take adhyapatet, 
' assails (the giver),' in the sense of ' troubles him by causing the 
performance of penances, on account of mistakes committed.' 
Manu's version, na vinajyati karhi&t, ' and never perishes,' is of 
course an easier one, but it seems to me doubtful whether it is 
older than Vasish/Aa's. 

8. The passage, which is probably a quotation from an Upani- 
shad, is very corrupt in the MSS. and Kn'sh«apa»<fita's text. I cor- 
rect it as follows : 

DhyanagniA satyopa^ayanaw kshantyahuti^ 
sruvawmriA puro^asamahiwsa samtosho 
yupaA ]s.rikkhxim bhutebhyo 'bhayadakshiwyam iti 
kr/'tva kratum manasanz yati kshayam budhaA. 
But I am not confident that all the difficulties have been removed. 

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140 VASISH^ffA. XXX, 16. 

10. Happiness (is the portion) of that man who 
relinquishes (all) desire, which fools give up with 
difficulty, which does not diminish with age, and 
which is a life-long disease. 

1 1. Adoration to Vasish/^a .Satayatu, the son of 
Mitra and Varu»a and Urvad ! 

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i. The sacred law is taught in each Veda. 

2. We will explain (it) in accordance with that. 

3. (The sacred law), taught in the Tradition 
(Smmi, stands) second. 

4. The practice of the 5ish&s (stands) third. 

5. .Sish/as, forsooth, (are those) who are free 
from envy, free from pride, contented with a store 
of grain sufficient for ten days, free from covetous- 
ness, and free from hypocrisy, arrogance, greed, 
perplexity, and anger. 

6. '(Those are called) .Sish/'as who, in accordance 
with the sacred law, have studied the Veda together 

1. 1. Vasish/Aa I, 4. Each Veda, i.e. each jakhd or redaction 
of the Veda. — Govinda. 

3. Vasish/Aa I, 4. Govinda takes smn'ti, ' the tradition,' in the 
sense of works (grantha) explaining the recollections of the 
JUishis, and is no doubt right in doing so. 

4. Vasish/^a I, 5. The explanation of &gama by ' practice' rests 
on the authority of Govinda and the parallel passages where site 
and ai&ra, ' conduct,' are used. 

5. Apastamba 1, 7, 20, 8; Gautama XXVIII, 48. Kumbhldh&nya, 
translated according to Govinda by ' contented with a store of grain 
sufficient for ten days,' means, according to others, ' contented with 
a store of grain sufficient for six days or for a year.' 

6. Vasish/#a VI, 43. Govinda omits the word 'iti,' given by the 

Digitized by 


144 BAUDHAYANA. I, I, i. 

with its appendages, know how to draw inferences 
from that, (and) are able to adduce proofs perceptible 
by the senses from the revealed texts.' 

7. On failure of them, an assembly consisting at 
least of ten members (shall decide disputed points 
of law). 

8. Now they quote also (the following verses): 
' Four men, who each know one of the four Vedas, 
a Mlmaz#saka, one who knows the Aiigas, one who 
recites (the works on) the sacred law, and three 
Brahma»as belonging to (three different) orders, 
(constitute) an assembly consisting, at least, of ten 

9. 'There may be five, or there may be three, or 
there may be one blameless man, who decides (ques- 
tions regarding) the sacred law. But a thousand 
fools (can)not (do it).' 

10. 'As an elephant made of wood, as an antelope 
made of leather, such is an unlearned Brahmawa : 
those three having nothing but the name (of their 

MSS. after the verse, whereby it is marked as a quotation. ' The 
appendages,' i. e. the Itihasas and Purawas. — Govinda. 

8. VasishMa III, 20. Govinda, quoting Gautama XXVIII, 49, 
says that Vanaprasthas cannot serve as members of Parishads, be- 
cause they live in the forest. He also notices a different reading, 
not found in my MSS., 'Awamasthas trayo mukhyaA.' He asserts 
that thereby professed students are intended, because professed 
students are declared to be particularly holy in the Dharmaskandha- 

9. Vasish/Aa III, 7. Itare, translated by ' fools,' means literally, 
'those different from the persons enumerated in the preceding 
verse.' Govinda remarks that according to Sutra 12 one learned 
Brahmawa must be taken only in cases of the most pressing 

10. Vasish/ia III, 11. 

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11. 'That sin which dunces, perplexed by ignor- 
ance and unacquainted with the sacred law, declare 
(to be duty), falls, increased a hundredfold, on those 
who propound it.' 

12. ' Narrow and difficult to find is the path of the 
sacred law, towards which many gates lead. Hence, 
if there is a doubt, it must not be propounded by 
one man (only), however learned he may be.' 

13. 'What Brahmawas, riding in the chariot of 
the law (and) wielding the sword of the Veda, pro- 
pound even in jest, that is declared to be the highest 

14. 'As wind and sun will make water, collected 
on a stone, disappear, even so the sin that (cleaves) 
to an offender completely vanishes like water.' 

1 5. ' He who knows the sacred law shall fix the 
penances with discernment, taking into consideration 
the constitution, the strength, the knowledge, and the 
age (of the offender), as well as the time and the 

11. Vasish/fta 111,6. 

12. The ' gates' of the sacred law are the Vedas, the Smr/tis, and 
the practice of the Sish/as. They are many, because the redactions 
of the Vedas and Smntis are numerous and the practices vary in 
different countries. 

14. I. e. provided the offender performs the penance imposed by 
learned and virtuous Brahmawas. Prawarayet, ' will make disappear,' 
is ungrammatical, as the subject stands in the dual. Grammatical 
accuracy has probably been sacrificed to the exigencies of the 

15. Vasish/Aa XIX, 9. .Sariram, literally 'the body,' means here 
the constitution, which may be bilious, ' windy,' and so forth. AyuA, 
literally ' life ' or * long life,' has been translated by ' knowledge,' 
in accordance with Govinda's explanation, £»anam. As the word 
vayaA, ' age,' also occurs in this verse, it is clear that &yuA cannot 
have its usual meaning. 

[14] L 

Digitized by 


146 baudhAyana. I, i, 1. 

16. ' Many thousands (of Brahma«as) cannot form 
a (legal) assembly (for declaring the sacred law), if 
they have not fulfilled their sacred duties, are unac- 
quainted with the Veda, and subsist only by the 
name of their caste.' 

Prasna I, AdhyAya 1, KaathkA 2. 

1. There is a dispute regarding five (practices) 
both in the south and in the north. 

2. We will explain those (peculiar) to the south. 

3. They are, to eat in the company of an uniniti- 
ated person, to eat in the company of one's wife, to 
eat stale food, to marry the daughter of a maternal 
uncle or of a paternal aunt. 

4. Now (the customs peculiar) to the north are, 
to deal in wool, to drink rum, to sell animals that 
have teeth in the upper and in the lower jaws, to 
follow the trade of arms, to go to sea. 

16. Vasish/fta III, 5. The two copies of the commentary omit 
this Sutra, though it is quoted in the explanation of Sutra 9. The 
best MSS. repeat the last words of the Sutra in order to show that 
the KattdikS. ends here. The same practice is observed, .though 
not quite regularly, in the sequel. 

2. 1. The boundary between the north and south of India is, as 
Govinda also points out, the river Narmadd. 

3. Some of the customs mentioned here still prevail in parts of 
southern India. Thus the marriages between cousins occur among 
the Dejastha and Karh&& Brahmawas of the Dekhan. 

4. The first two customs mentioned still prevail in the north, 
especially in Kannfr, where Br&hmawas commonly deal in wool 
and woollen cloth. Spirituous liquor is not now drunk openly, but 
its use is sanctioned in the Kajmirian Nilamata-purawa. Many 
Br&hmanical families in the north, especially in the North-western 
Provinces, subsist by enlisting as soldiers in the British and native 

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5. He who follows (these practices) in any other 
country than where they prevail, commits sin. 

6. For each (of these customs) the (rule of the) 
country should be (considered) the authority. 

7. Gautama declares that that is false. 

8. And one should not take heed of either (set of 
practices) because they are opposed to the tradition 
of the iSish/as. 

9. The country of the Aryas (Aryavarta) lies to 
the east of the region where (the river Sarasvatl) 
disappears, to the west of the Black-forest (Kala- 
kavana), to the north of the Paripatra (mountains), 
to the south of the Himalaya. The rule of conduct 
which (prevails) there, is authoritative. 

10. Some (declare) the country between the 
(rivers) Yamuna and Ganges (to be the Aryavarta). 

11. Now the Bhallavins quote also the (following) 
verse : 

12. 'In the west the boundary-river, in the east 
the region where the sun rises, — as far as the black 
antelopes wander (between these two limits), so far 
spiritual pre-eminence (is found).' 

5-6. A similar argument is given by the Kawnfrians for the 
lawfulness of the consumption of meat, which they justify by a 
dejagu»a or ' virtue of their country.' 

7. Gautama XI, 20. 

9. Vasish/fla 1, 8, 10. Many MSS., and among them the Telugu 
copy of the commentary, read Pariyatra instead of Panpatra, which 
latter I consider to be the correct form of the word. 

10. Vasish/fta 1, 12. 

11. Vasish/Aa 1, 14. Govinda remarks that the Bhallavins are 
a school studying the Sama-veda. See also Max Mttller, Hist. 
Anc. Sansk. Lit., pp. 193, 364. 

12. Vasishrta 1, 15. There is a great uncertainty in the MSS. 
about the word following sindhui. I have adopted the reading of 

L 2 

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148 baudhAyana. I, 1, 3. 

13. The inhabitants of Avanti, of Anga, of Maga- 
dha, of Surash/ra, of the Dekhan, of Upawrt, of 
Sindh, and the Sauviris are of mixed origin. 

14. He who has visited the (countries of .the) 
Ara#as, Karaskaras, Pu#dras, Sauviras.Vangas, Ka- 
lingas, (or) Pranunas shall offer a Punastoma or a 
Sarvaprzsh/v&a (ish/i). 

15. Now they quote also (the following verses): 
' He commits sin through his feet, who travels to 
the (country of* the) Kalingas. The sages declare 
the Vawvanari ishtf to be a purification for him.' 

M., sindhur vidharawi, ' the boundary-river,' which occurs also in 
the parallel passage of Vasish/Aa. The Dekhan and Gujarat MSS. 
read viiarant or vi£ara«£, and the two copies of the commentary 
visarawl. The sense of these various readings appears to be ' the 
river that vanishes or looses itself,' i. e. the Sarasvatf. 

^13. This and the following two Sutras are intended to show 
that the customs prevailing in the countries named have no autho- 
rity and must not be followed. Avanti corresponds to western 
MalvS, Anga to western Bengal, Magadha to Bihar, and Surash/ra 
to southern Ki/4fava</. The Sauviras, who are always associated 
with the Sindhians, probably dwelt in the south-west of the Paw^ab, 
near MuMn. The UpSvr/ts probably are the same as the Up£- 
vrrttas mentioned MahlbhdrataVI, 49. But I am unable to deter- 
mine their seats. 

14. The Ara//as dwelt in the Pa/^ab (Lassen, Ind. Alth. I, p. 973, 
sec. ed.), and are greatly blamed, Mahibharata VIII, 44, 36 seq. 
The Karaskaras are named in the same chapter of the Maha- 
bharata as a degraded tribe, but seem to belong to the south of 
India. The Kalingas are the inhabitants of the eastern coast of 
India, between Orissa and the mouth of the Kr*sh«a river. The 
Pu«<fras, who are mentioned as a degraded tribe in the Aitareya- 
brahmawaVH, 18, and occur frequently in the Mahabharata, and 
the Vangas belong to Bengal (see Lassen, Ind. Alth. I, 669, sec. 
ed. ; Cunningham, Anc. Geog. p. 480). Regarding the Puna- 
stoma, see Gautama XIX, 7 note ; and regarding the Sarvapn'sh/M 
ish/i, Taittir!ya-sawhit& II, 3, 7, 1-2. 

15. Apastamba 1, 11, 32, 18. 

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: ^fe * T ~ " T * . 

16. 'Even if many offences have been commiftedf^ I A-^ 
they recommend for the removal of the sin the 
Pavitreshtf. For that (sacrifice) is a most excellent 

means of purification.' 

17. Now they quote also (the following verse): 
'He who performs (by turns) in each season the 
Vaisvanari (ish/i), the Vratapati (ish/i), and the 
Pavitresh/i is freed from (all) sins.' 

Prasna I, AdhyAya 2, KajvdikA 3. 

1. The (term of the) studentship for (learning 
the) Veda, as kept by the ancients, (is) forty-eight 

2. (Or) twenty-four (years), or twelve for each 

3. Or at the least one year for each K&nda, 

4. Or until (the Veda has been) learned ; for life 
is uncertain. 

5. A passage of the revealed texts declares, ' Let 
him kindle the sacred fires while his hair is (still) 

17. Vasish/j4a XXII, 10. The meaning is that in each of the 
three seasons of the year, Grishma, Varsha, Hemanta, one of the 
three sacrifices is to be offered. 

3. 1. Apastamba 1, 1, 2, 12. Govindasvamin gives four explana- 
tions of the adjective pauribam, ' kept by the ancients,' viz. 1. old, 
i. e. kept by the men of the Krtta, or Golden age ; 2. revealed to 
and kept by the ancients, such as Manu ; 3. found in the ancient, 
i.e. eternal Veda; 4. found in the known Itihasas and Purawas. 

2. Apastamba 1, 1, 2, 14-16. 

3. Each Kinda, i. e. each of the seven books of the Taittirfya- 

4. Manu III, 1. 

5. The object of the Sutra is to prove that the period of student- 
ship must not be protracted too long, lest the duty of offering the 
.Srauta Agnihotra be neglected. 

Digitized by 


1 50 BAUDHAYANA. I, 2, 3. 

6. They do not put any (religious) restrictions on 
the acts of a (child) before the investiture with the 
girdle (is performed). For he is on a level with a 
.Sudra before (his second) birth through the Veda. 

7. The number of years (must be calculated) from 
the conception. Let him initiate a Brahmawa in the 
eighth (year) after that, 

8. A Kshatriya three (years) later (than a Brah- 

9. A VaLrya one year later than a (Kshatriya). 

10. Spring, summer, and autumn are the seasons 
(for the initiation) according to the order of the 

11. (Let him perform the initiation reciting), ac- 
cording to the order (of the castes), a Gayatrt, a 
TrishAibh, (or) a Gagati (verse). 

12. Up to the sixteenth, the twenty-second, and 
the twenty-fourth (years) respectively (the time for 
the initiation) has not passed. 

13. The girdles (shall consist of a rope) made of 
Mu#£a grass, a bow-string, (or a rope) made of 

14. The skins (shall be) those of a black antelope, 
of a spotted deer, (or) of a he-goat. 

15. The staff shall reach the crown of the head, 
the forehead, (or) the tip of the nose, (and be made) 
of a tree fit for a sacrifice. The details have been 
stated above. 

6. Vasish/£a II, 6; Gautama II, 1. 

7-9. Vasish/£a XI, 49-51. 

10. Apastamba 1, 1, 1, 18. 12. Vasish/4a XI, 71-73. 

13. Vasish/Aa XI, 58-60. With this and the next two Sutras 
the words ' according to the order of the castes' must be understood. 

14. Vasish/Aa XI, 61-63. 

15. Vasish/Aa XI, 55-57. The details referred to are to be 

Digitized by 


I, 2, 3. STUDENTSHIP. 1 5 I 

1 6. Let him beg, (employing a formula) consisting 
of seven syllables, with the word bhavat in the 
beginning, with the word bhiksha in the middle, 
and with the (verb expressing) the request at the 
end; and let him not pronounce loudly (the sylla- 
bles) ksha and hi. 

17. A Brahma«a (student) shall ask for alms, 
placing (the word) ' Lady ' first, a Kshatriya placing 

found in the Baudhayana Gnhya-sutra II, 7, where the various 
kinds of trees from which the staff may be taken are specified. 
The Sutra shows that the Gnhya-sutra preceded the Dharma-sutra 
in the collection. 

16. The text of this Sutra is corrupt. I read, ' bhavatpurv&w 
bhikshamadhyaw yaiwantaw £aret saptakshariw bhiksh&ra kshim 
fa him fa na vardhayet' The various readings of the MSS. are, 
bhiksha« madhydw y&kkh&m&m £aret saptakshartw bhim fa na 
vardhayet, C. T. ; — y&kn&m\&m fasti saptaksharawwi ksh&wi fa bhim 
fa narvyayet, D. ; — y&Ari&mt&m £aret saptSkshara/wsti/rc rksM ba him 
na vardhayet, K.; — yikri&mtim tikshaw faret saptikshardn ksha»z fa 
him fa na vardhayan, M. ; — y&fan&sA&mt&m faiet saptaksharan bhik-? 
shim fa him fa na vardhayet, C. I. The most serious corruption lies 
in the syllables following saptakshadbrc, and I am not certain that 
my emendation bhikshdw is correct. The commentary on the 
first half of the Sutra runs as follows : bhikshamantraw vyaktam 
evo&faret bhava££Aabdapurviim bhikshlrabdamadhy&w ya£«Sprati- 
pa[pa]dakajabdawt&»» *abd£kshara>» [saptiksharaw] fa evaw hi 
bhavati bhiksMw dehi sampanno bhavati, ' let him pronounce dis- 
tinctly the formula employed in begging, beginning with the word 
bhavat, having the word bhikshi in the middle, and ending with 
the word conveying the sense of giving, and containing seven 
syllables. For thus (the formula), " Lady, give alms," becomes com- 
plete.' It is curious that Govinda says nothing about the form 
saptaksharam and the feminine terminations of the other adjectives, 
which do not agree with mantra m, a masculine. 

17. Vasish/fta XI, 68-70; Gautama II, 35. Govinda thinks 
that a student should, if possible, beg from people of his own 
caste. Three castes only are intended by the term 'from all 
castes.' But see^ipastamba 1, 1, 3, 25 ; Gautama VII, 1 seqq. 

Digitized by 


152 baudhAyana. 1,2,3. 


it in the middle, (and) a Vaisya placing it at the 
end (of the formula), from (men of) all castes. 

18. The (persons fit to be asked) are Brahmawas 
and so forth, who follow (their lawful) occupations. 

1 9. Let him daily fetch fuel out of the forest and 
offer (it in the sacred fire). 

20. (A student shall be) truthful, modest, and 
devoid of pride. 

21. He shall rise before (his teacher in the 
morning) and go to rest after (him in the evening). 

22. He shall never disobey the words of his 
teacher except (when he is ordered to commit) a 
crime causing loss of caste. 

23. Let him converse with women so much (only) 
as his purpose requires. 

24. Let him avoid dancing, singing, playing 
musical instruments, the use of perfumes, garlands, 
shoes, (or) a parasol, applying collyrium (to his 
eyes), and anointing (his body). 

25. Let him take hold (of his teacher's) right 
(foot) with the right (hand), and of the left (foot) 
with the left hand. 

26. If he desires long life and (bliss in) heaven, 

. 19. Vishmi XXVIII, 4. 

20. Gautama II, 8 ; Apastamba 1, 1, 3, 20. 

21. Vishwu XXVIII, 13. 

22. Apastamba I, 1, 2, 19; Vasish/fla VII, 10. 

23. Apastamba 1, 1, 3, 16. 

24. Vishwu XXVIII, 11 ; Vasish/zfoVII, I5 . 

25. Vish#u XXVIII, 15. The details regarding' the times when 
this kind of salutation is to be performed are found Apastamba I, 
2, 5, 2iseqq. 

26. The two copies of the commentary connect the clause, 'if 
he is desirous of long life and (bliss in) heaven,' with the preceding 
Sutra. But see Apastamba I, 2, 5, 15, where tfie identical words 

Digitized by 


I, 2, 3. STUDENTSHIP. 1 53 

(he may act) at his pleasure (in the same manner) 
towards other holy (men), after having received 
permission from his teacher. 

27. (Let him say), 'I N. N., ho! (salute thee),' 
touching his ears, in order to compose the internal 

28. (Let him embrace his teacher's leg) below the 
knee down to the feet. 

29. (A student shall not embrace his teacher) 
when he (himself) is seated, or lying down, or im- 
pure, nor when (his teacher) is seated, lying down, 
or impure. 

30. If he can (find water to sip), he shall not 
remain impure even during a muhurta. 

31. If he carries a load of fuel or holds a pot, 
flowers, or food in his hands, he shall not salute ; 
nor (shall he do it) on similar occasions. 

32. Let him not salute (the teacher) standing too 

33. Nor, if he has reached the age of puberty, 
the young wives of brothers and the young wives 
of the teacher. 

occur. The commentary omits the remainder of the Sutra, which 
all my MSS. give here, and inserts it below, after Sutra 29. 

27. Apastamba I, 2, 5, 12 ; Vasish/Aa XIII, 44. Regarding the 
phrase, ' in order to compose his internal organ,' see Manu II, 120. 

28. Apastamba I, 2, 5, 22. The meaning seems to be that the 
pupil is first to stroke his teacher's legs from the knee downwards, 
and then to take hold of it at the ankle. 

29. Apastamba I, 4, 14, 14-20. 30. Apastamba I, 5, 15, 8. 
31. Apastamba I, 4, 14, 22. 'On similar occasions,' i.e. when 

he himself is engaged in the worship of the manes, of the gods, or 
of the fire, or when his teacher is occupied in that way. 

33. The salutation which is meant, is probably the embrace of 
the feet; see also Gautama II, 32. Govinda thinks that the words 
samav&ye 'tyantyswa^, ' standing too close,' must be understood. 

Digitized by 


154 baudhAyana. 1,2,3. 

34. To sit together with (these persons) in a boat, 
on a rock, on a plank, on an elephant, on the roof of a 
house, on a mat, or in wheeled vehicles is permissible. 

35. (The pupil) must assist his teacher in making 
his toilet, shampoo him, attend him while bathing, 
eat his leavings, and so forth. 

36. (But he) should avoid the remnants of food 
left by his (teacher's) son, though he may know the 
Veda together with the Angas, 

37. And to assist at the toilet of, to shampoo, to 
attend in the bath, and to eat the remnants of food 
left by a young wife of his (teacher). 

38. Let him run after (his teacher) when he runs, 
walk after him when he walks, attend him standing 
when he stands. 

39. Let him not sport in the water while bathing. 

40. Let him swim (motionless) like a stick. 

41. To study under a non-Brahmanical teacher 
(is permitted) in times of distress. 

34. Govinda adds that to sit with young wives of his teachers 
on other occasions is sinful. 

35. I read utsidana, ' to shampoo,' while the MSS. have either 
a lacuna or read u&4Mdana, and the commentary a-WAadana, which 
is explained by Mattradh&rawa, 'to hold a parasol,' or malipa- 
karsha»a, ' to clean.' The kkhz. is, however, merely owing to a very 
common faulty pronunciation of tsa. Govinda remarks correctly 
that the word ' iti,' which follows the enumeration of the services to 
be performed by the pupil, has the force of ' and so forth.' 

36-37. The meaning of the two Sutras is that the pupil shall 
serve the son of his teacher, especially if he is learned, and aged 
wives of his teacher, but not eat their leavings. The explanation 
of anuHna, 'who knows the Angas,' is given by Baudh&yana, 
Gnbya-sutra 1, 11, 4. 

38. Apastamba I, 2, 6, 7-9; Vasish/^aVII, 12. 

39-40. Apastamba 1, 1, 2, 30 ; Vishwu XXVIII, 5. 

41. Apastamba II, 2, 4, 25. Govinda combines this Sutra with 
the next two and makes one of the three. 

Digitized by 


I, a, 4. STUDENTSHIP. 1 55 

42. (The pupil shall) obey and walk after him as 
long as the instruction (lasts). 

43. (According to some this is improper, because) 
just that (mutual relation) sanctifies both of them. 

44. And (the behaviour) towards brothers, sons, 
and (other) pupils (of the teacher shall be regulated) 
in the same manner. 

45. But officiating priests, a father-in-law, paternal 
and maternal uncles who are younger than (oneself 
must be honoured by) rising and (by being) addressed. 

46. Katya (declares that) the salutation shall be 

47. For (the propriety of that rule) is apparent 
(from the story) about .Sim Angirasa. 

Prasna I, AdhyAya 2, KandikH 4. 

i. If merit and wealth are not (obtained by teach- 
ing), nor (at least) the due obedience, one should 
die with one's learning; one should not sow it on 
barren soil. 

42. Apastamba II, 2, 4, 26 ; Gautama VII, 2-3. 

43. The words between brackets belong to Govinda. 

44. I. e. if they are younger than oneself. 

45. Instead of pratyutthaytbhibblshawam, ' (shall be honoured 
by) rising and being addressed,' which is the reading of the two 
copies of the commentary and of M., the MSS. from the Dekhan 
and Gugarit read, pratyutthayibhivadanam. The latter reading 
might be translated by 'shall be saluted by rising;' see Gautama 
VI, 9. Govinda says, in explanation of this rule : ' This restrictive 
rule also (refers) to teachers only, officiating priests, and the rest ; 
to address (means) to use words such as "welcome."' 

46. ' Kitya, i. e. a descendant of the 7?*shi Kata. He was of 
opinion that officiating priests and the rest must return the salute. 
As the return of a salute is prescribed for them, it is understood 
that the other (party) must salute.' — Govinda. 

47. The story of Sisu Angirasa is told, Manu II, 151-153. 
4. 1. Manu II, 112. 

Digitized by 


156 baudhAyana. 1,2,4. 

2. As fire consumes dry grass, even so the Veda, 
asked for, (but) not honoured, (destroys the en- 
quirer). Therefore let him not proclaim the Veda 
to those who do not show him honour according 
to their ability. 

3. They proclaim to him a command to the fol- 
lowing effect; 

4. ' Brahman, forsooth, made the created beings 
over to Death. The student alone it did not make 
over to him.' He (Death) spake, ' Let me have 
a share in him.' (Brahman answered), ' That night 
in which he may neglect to offer a piece of sacred 
fuel (shall belong to thee).' 

5. ' Therefore a student who passes a night with- 
out offering a piece of sacred fuel, cuts it off from 
the length of his life. Therefore let the student 
offer a piece of sacred fuel, lest he spend a night, 
shortening his life.' 

6. ' A long sacrificial session begins he who com- 
mences his studentship. That (night) in which, 
after being initiated, he (first) offers a piece of sacred 
fuel corresponds to the Prayawlya (Atiratra of a 
sacrificial session) ; that night in which (he offers it 
last), intending to take the final bath, corresponds 
to the Udayaniya (Atiratra). Those nights which 
(lie) between (these two terms correspond) just to 
the nights of his sacrificial session.' 

2. Vasish/ia II, 12. 

3. ' They, i. e. the Va^asaneyins ; to him, i. e. to the student.' — 

4. The quotation, which begins here and ends with the end of 
the section, is taken from .Satapatha-brahmawa XI, 2, 6. In the 
text the word Brahman is a neuter. 

6. MSS. M. and K., as well as the commentary, read dirghasat- 

Digitized by 


1,2,4- STUDENTSHIP. 1 57 

7. 'A Brahma#a who becomes a student of the 
Veda, enters existent beings in a fourfold manner, 
(viz.) with one quarter (he enters) Fire, with one 
quarter Death, with one quarter the Teacher, the 
fourth quarter remains in the Soul. When he offers 
to Fire a piece of sacred fuel, he thereby buys back 
even that quarter which (resides) in Fire, hallowing 
it, he places it in himself; that enters into him. 
Now when making himself poor and, becoming 
shameless, he asks for alms (and) lives as a student 
of the Veda, he thereby buys back the quarter 
which (resides) in Death ; hallowing it, he places it 
in himself; that enters into him. Now when he 
obeys the orders of his Teacher, he thereby buys 
back that quarter which (resides) in the Teacher ; 
hallowing it, he places it in himself; that enters into 
him. [Now when he recites the Veda, he thereby 
buys back the quarter which resides in the Soul. 
Hallowing it, he places it in himself; that enters 
into him.] Let him not go to beg, after he has 
bathed (on finishing his studentship). ... If he does 
not find another woman whom he can ask for alms, 
let him beg even from his own teacher's, wife or 
from his own mother. The seventh (night) shall 
not pass without his asking for alms. [(He com- 
mits) sin if he does not go out to ask for alms and 
does not place fuel on the fire. If he neglects that 
during seven (days and) nights, he must perform the 

tram ha vS esha upaiti, while the MSS. from the Dekhan and Gu^arit, 
like thejDrinted edition of the .Sat. Br., omit the particle 'ha.' Pr&- 
ya»fya means, literally, 'initial,' and udayaniya, ' final.' Each sattra 
or sacrificial session begins and ends with an Atiratra sacrifice. 

7. This portion of the quotation shows, besides some minor 
deviations from the published text of the Madhyandinas, several 

Digitized by 


158 baudhayana. 1,2,4. 

penance prescribed for one who has broken the 
vow of studentship.] All the Vedas come to him 
who knows that and acts thus.' 

8. 'As a blazing fire shines, even so shines he 
who, knowing this, thus fulfils the duties of student- 
ship, after he has bathed (on leaving his teacher).' 
Thus speaks the Brahma#a. 

Prasna I, AdhyAya 3, KandikA 5. 
1. Now (follow the duties) of a Snataka. 

interpolations and corruptions. The minor discrepancies are, 
' brahma»o vai brahma&iryam upayan ' (upaya&Man, C. I. and T.) ; 
padatmanyeva £aturtha£ padaA; yadagnaye samidham £dadh£ti; 
atha yad atmanaw daridrikrj'tyahrir bhutva bhikshate brahmaforyaw 
£arati ; atha yad a£aryava£a^ karoti ya evasyaiarye. In the sacond 
passage the Dekhan MSS. read, however, like the printed text 
The interpolations are, * Now when he recites the Veda,' &c, and 
the verse, ' He commits sin if he neglects,' &c The former 
passage entirely destroys the sense of the whole and the con- 
nexion of the parts. Both have, however, been retained, as they 
occur in all the MSS. and the two copies of the commentary, and 
have been enclosed in brackets. The corrupt passage is so bad 
that it makes no sense at all. The best MSS. read as follows : 
'api hi vai snatva bhikshaw foratyavig'nananajanayaya pitri«a- 
manyabhyaA kriyabhyaA' sa yadanyam, &c.,D. ; 'api ha vai snatva 
bhish/a*» £arasapi gnini niranaya ya [va sec. m.] pitrfo&m anyS- 
bhyaA kriyabhya^,' K. ; api ha vai snatva bhiksharo iarati — pa^wati 
— na« jan&yapi pitr««am anyabhyaA kriyasas, M. ; api ha vai 
snatva bhikshaw foratyavi^Matinamaranayapi pitri«am anyabhya 
kriyabhya^, C. I. As it is by no means certain that Baudhiyana's 
reading agreed with that of the printed text, I have left the 
passage out. 

5. 1. Regarding the term Snataka, see Apastamba I, n, 30, 1-4. 
Govinda thinks that the following rules are intended to apply in 
the first instance to a student who has performed the Samavartana 
on completion of his studentship and lives unmarried at home. 
For though the Smn'ti declares it necessary for a student to enter, 
on completing his term, at once into one of the remaining three 

Digitized by 



2. He shall wear a lower garment and upper 

3. Let him carry a staff made of bamboo, 

4. And a pot filled with water. 

5. Let him wear two sacrificial threads. 

6. (He shall possess) a turban, an upper garment 
(consisting of) a skin, shoes, and a parasol. (He 
shall keep) a sacred fire and (offer) the new and 
full moon (Sthalipakas). 

7. He shall cause the hair of his head, of his 
beard, and of his body, and his nails to be cut 
on the Parva days. 

8. His livelihood (he shall obtain in the following 
manner) : 

9. Let him beg uncooked (food) from Brahma»as, 
.Kshatriyas, Vai^yas, or carpenters, 

10. Or (cooked) food (even from many). 

11. Let him remain silent (when he goes to beg). 

12. Let him perform with that all Pakaya^»as, 
offered to the gods and manes, and the rites, 
securing welfare. 

orders, it may happen, as the commentator observes, that the Sni- 
taka's marriage cannot take place immediately. The correctness of 
this view is proved by Apastamba 1, 2, 8, and by the fact that below, 
II, 3, 5, the rules for a married Snataka are given separately. 
2-5. Vasish/^a XII, 14. 6. Apastamba I, 2, 8, 2. 

7. Regarding the Parva days, see Vasish/Aa XII, 21 note. 

8. Vasish/fca XII, 2-4. ' Though the Snataka is the subject of 
the discussion, the word " his " is used (in this Sutra) in order to 
introduce the remaining duties of a householder also.' — Govinda. 

9. The carpenter (rathakara) is a Sudra, but connected with the 
Vedic sacrifices. 

10. ' " Food" (bhaiksham), i. e. a quantity of begged food. The 
meaning is that in times of distress he may beg from many.' — 

1 2 . With that, i. e. with the food obtained by begging. Regarding 

Digitized by 


i6o baudhAyana. 1,3, 5. 

1 3. BaudhAyana declares that by (following) this 
rule the most excellent sages reach the highest 
abode of Pra^apati Paramesh/^in. 

Prasna I, AdhyAya 4, KandikA 6. 

1. Now (those who know the law) prescribe the 
carrying of a waterpot. 

2. It is declared (in the Vedas) that fire (resides) 
in the right ear of a goat, in the right hand of a 
Brahma#a, likewise in water (and) in a bundle of 
Ku?a grass. Therefore after personal purification 
let him wipe (his water-vessel) on all sides with his 
(right) hand, (reciting the mantra), ' Blaze up, O 
fire;' for that (is called) encircling it with fire and 
is preferable to heating (the pot on the fire). 

3. With reference to this matter they prescribe 
also (the following rules) : ' If he thinks in his 
heart that (the pot) has been slightly defiled, let him 
light Kara, or (other) grass and heat (the pot) on all 
sides, keeping his right hand turned towards it.' 

4. 'If (pots) have been touched by crows, dogs, or 

the Pakayagwas, see Gautama VIII, 18. Govinda gives as an 
instance of the rites securing welfare (bhutikarmawi) the ayushya- 
£aru, a rice-offering intended to procure long life. 

13. Govinda explains Baudh&yana by Kiwvayana, and adds 
that either the author speaks of himself in the third person or 
a pupil must have compiled the book. 

6. 1. As Govinda observes, the rules regarding the waterpot (ka- 
ma«</alu) are introduced here in connexion with I, 3, 5, 4. 

2. Vasish/^a XII, 15-16. The mantra is found, Taittiriya-Ara- 
wyaka X, 1, 4. 

3. The word upadifanti, ' they prescribe,' stands at the end of 
Sutra 4, as it refers to both rules. 

4. Vasish/fta III, 59. The paryagnikarawa is the rite prescribed 
in Sutra 2. 

Digitized by 


1,4,6. THE WATERPOT. l6l 

other (unclean animals, they shall be heated, until 
they are of) the colour of fire, after the (paryagni- 
kara«a has been performed).' 

5. (Pots) which have been denied by urine, 
ordure, blood, semen, and the like must be thrown 

6. If his waterpot has been broken, let him offer 
one hundred (oblations) reciting the Vyahrztis, or 
mutter (the VyahWtis as often). 

7. (Reciting the text), ' Earth went to earth, the 
mother joined the mother ; may we have sons and 
cattle ; may he who hates us be destroyed,' he shall 
collect the fragments, throw them into water, repeat 
the Gayatri at least ten times and take again another 

8. Taking refuge with Vanwa, (he shall recite 
the mantra), ' That (belongs) to thee, Varu«a ; again 
to me, Om,' (and) meditate on the indestructible. 

5. Vasish/Aa III, 59. 

6. Regarding the Vy4hr»tis, see Gautama I, 51. 

7. Govinda says that Vamadeva is the i?tshi of the mantra. 
The fragments of the pot are to be thrown into a river or tank, 
in order to preserve them from defilement. See also Journ. Bo. 
Br. Roy. As. Soc., No. XXXIV A, p. 55 note. 

8. ' Taking refuge with Varu«a, i. e. saying, " I flee for safety to 
Varu«a." (The words), " That for thee, Varu»a, again to me, Om," 
(are) the mantras (to be recited) on taking (a new vessel). Its 
meaning is this : " Those fragments which I have thrown into the 
water shall belong to thee, Vanwa." (Saying), " Come, thou (who 
art) a lord of water-vessels, again to me, Om," he shall meditate on 
another visible pot as indestructible, i. e. at the end of the Vedic 
(word) " Om," let him meditate, (i. e.) recollect, that not everything 
will be turned topsy-turvy, (but that some things are) also inde- 
structible, i. e. that that is not destroyed, does not perish.' — Go- 
vinda. The explanation of the last clause of our Sutra seems to 
be that, on pronouncing the syllable (akshara) Om, the reciter is 

C'4l M 

Digitized by 


1 62 baudhayana. 1,4,6. 

9. ' If he has received (the new vessel) from a 
.Sudra, let him recite (the Gayatrt) one hundred 
(times). (If he has received it) from a VaLrya, fifty 
(repetitions of the Gayatrt) are prescribed, but (on 
receiving it) from a Kshatriya twenty-five, (and on 
taking it) from a Brahma»a ten.' 

10. Those who recite the Veda are doubtful 
whether he shall fetch water after the sun has set 
or shall not fetch it. 

n. The most excellent (opinion is) that he may 
fetch it. 

12. Let him restrain his breath, while he fetches 

13. Fire, forsooth, takes up water. 

14. It is declared (in the Veda), 'When he has 
washed his hands and feet with water from his 
water-vessel, he is impure for others, as long as the 
moisture (remains). He purifies himself only. Let 
him not perform other religious rites (with water 
from his pot).' 

to recollect the etymological import of the word akshara, ' inde- 
structible,' and thus to guard the new vessel against the mishap 
which befell the old one. 

9. According to Govinda, either the pra«ava, the syllable Om, 
or the GSyatrl are the mantras to be recited, and the recitation is 
a penance to be performed when the vessel is received. The 
MSS. of the text mark the verse as a quotation by adding the 
word * iti,' which the commentary omits. 

13. According to Govinda, a Brdhmawa who goes to fetch 
water at night, which he may want for personal purification, is 
ordered to restrain his breath, because thereby the air in the body 
becomes strong, and fire or heat (agni) is produced. Now as at 
night the sun is stated to enter the fire and to become subject to 
it, a Brihmana, who by restraining his breath has produced fire, 
ha* secured the presence of the sun, when he goes to fetch water. 
14. Govinda expressly states that the word vi^«ayate,'it is declared,' 

Digitized by 


1,4,?. THE WATERPOT. 1 63 

15. Baudhayana (says), 'Or if on the occasion 
of each personal purification (he washes himself 
with other water) up to the wrist, (he will become) 

16. Now they quote also (the following verses): 

Prasna I, Adhyaya 4, Kamjika 7. 

i. ' Formerly (the use of) a waterpot has been 
prescribed by Brahman and the chief sages for the 
purification of twice-born men. Therefore he shall 
always . carry one.' 

' He who desires his own welfare, shall use it 
without hesitation, for purifying (his person), for 
drinking, and for performing his twilight devotions.' 

2. Let him do it with a believing heart ; a wise 
man must not corrupt his mind. The self-existent 

literally, ' it is distinctly known,' always indicates that the passage 
quoted is taken from the Veda. The rites for which water from 
the waterpot is not to be used, are libations to the manes, the 
gods, and the fire. See also below, I, 4, 7, 5. 

15. The words enclosed between parentheses are Govinda's. 

7. 1. The division of this chapter into two sections occurs 
in the M. manuscript only. The Dekhan MSS., which give the 
division into Kawfikas, do not note it, and have at the end of the 
Prarna the figure 20, while M. has 2 1 and in words ekavi»watiA 
after the enumeration of the Pratikas. 

2. ' A wise man must not corrupt his mind,' i. e. must not doubt 
or adopt erroneous views regarding the teaching of the .SSstras 
with respect to the waterpot. It seems to me that this passage 
indicates the existence of an opposition to the constant Carrying 
of the waterpot in Baudhayana's times. This is so much more 
probable, as the custom is now obsolete, and is mentioned in 
some Puranas and versified Smntis as one of the practices for- 
bidden in the Kali age ; see e.g. the general note appended to 
Sir W. Jones' translation of Manu. 

M 2 

Digitized by 


1 64 baudhAyana. 1,4,7. 

(Brahman) came into existence with a water-vessel. 
Therefore let him perform (his rites) with a water- 

3. Let him hold it in his right hand when he 
voids urine and excrements, in the left when 
he sips water. That is (a) settled (rule) for all good 

4. For as the sacrificial cup (&amasa) is declared 
to be pure on account of its contact with the Soma- 
juice, even so the water-vessel is constantly pure 
through its contact with water. 

5. Therefore let him avoid (to use) it for the 
worship of the manes, the gods, and the fire. 

6. Therefore let him not go on a journey without 
a waterpot, nor to the boundary of the village, nor 
from one house to the other. 

7. Some (declare that he must not go without it) 
a step further than the length of an arrow. 

8. Baudhayana (says that he shall not go without 
it) if he wishes to fulfil his duties constantly. 

9. (The divine) Word declares that (this is con- 
firmed) by a i?*k-shaped (passage). 

Prasna I, Adhyaya 5, KandikX 8. 

1. Now (follows the description of) the means of 

5. According to Govinda the word ' therefore ' refers back to 
Sutra I, 4, 6, 14. 

9. 'i?i'gvidham, " a iJ/Tc -shaped (passage)," means i?»'gvidhanam, 
"a prescription consisting of a JRik." The Brahmawa is indi- 
cated by (the word) vak, (" the goddess of) speech." The meaning 
is, " The Brahmawa says that there is also a J?*k-verse to this 
effect. That is as follows, tasyaisha bhavati yat te .rilpam ityadi' 
(Taittirlya-Arawyaka I, 7, 1). — Govinda. 

Digitized by 



2. The body is purified by water, the understand- 
ing by knowledge, the soul by abstention from 
injuring living beings, the internal organ by truth. 

3. Purifying the internal organ (is called) internal 

4. We will explain (the rules of) external purifi- 

5. The sacrificial thread (shall be made) of 
Kma grass, or cotton, (and consist) of thrice three 

6. (It shall hang down) to the navel. 

7. (In putting it on) he shall raise the right arm, 
lower the left, and lower the head. 

8. The contrary (is done at sacrifices) to the 

9. (If the thread is) suspended round the neck, 
(it is called) nivlta. 

10. (If it is) suspended below (the navel, it is 
called) adhopavita. 

11. Let him perform (the rite of personal) puri- 
fication, facing the east or the north, (and) seated 
in a pure place ; (let him) place his right arm be- 
tween his knees and wash both hands up to the 
wrist and both feet (up to the ankles). 

12. Let him not use for sipping the remainder 
of the water with which he has washed his feet. 

13. But if he uses (that) for sipping, let him do 
it, after pouring (a portion of it) on the ground. 

8. 2. Vasish/Aa III, 60. 7-9. Manu II, 63. 

11. Vasish//4a III, 26. Govinda points out that the word jau- 
£am, '(rite of) purification/ has here the meaning of a^amanam, 
' sipping water.' He thinks that the fa, ' and,' which stands after 
padau, ' both feet,' indicates that other portions of the body which 
have been defiled must be washed also. 

Digitized by 


1 66 baudhAyana. 1,5,8: 

14. He shall sip out of the Tlrtha sacred to 

15. The part (of the hand) at the root of the 
thumb (is called) the Tlrtha sacred to Brahman. 

16. The part above the thumb (is called the 
Tlrtha) sacred to the manes, the part at the tips 
of the fingers that sacred to the gods, the part at 
the root of the fingers that sacred to the i&'shis. 

1 7. (Let him not use for sipping water that has 
trickled) from the fingers, nor (water) that is 
covered with bubbles or foam, nor (water that is) 
hot, or alkaline, or salt, or muddy, or discoloured, 
or has a bad smell or taste. 

18. (Let him not sip water) laughing, nor talking, 
nor standing, nor looking about, nor bending his 
head or his body forward, nor while the lock on 
his crown is untied, nor while his throat is wrapped 
up, nor while his head is covered, nor when he is 
in a hurry, nor without wearing the sacrificial thread, 
nor stretching his feet out, nor while his loins are 
girt (with a cloth), nor without holding his right 
arm between his knees, nor making a sound. 

19. Let him thrice drink water that reaches his 

20. Let him wipe (his lips) thrice. 

21. Some (declare that he shall do it) twice. 

14. Vasish/iia III, 26. 

16. Vish»u LXII, 3-4. All the MSS. except M. place the 
Ttrtha sacred to the gods at the root of the fingers, and that sacred 
to the jfoshis at the tips of the fingers, and Govinda has the same 
erroneous reading. 

17. Vasish/fta III, 36. 18. Vasish/fta III, 30. 
19-20. VasishMa III, 26; Apastamba I, 5, 16, 3. 

21. VasishMa III, 27 ; Apastamba I, 5, 16, 4. 

Digitized by 


1,5,8. PURIFICATION. 1 67 

22. A woman and a .Sudra (shall perform) both 
(acts) once (only). 

23. Now they quote also (the following T^rse): 
' A Brahma«a is purified by water that reaches his 
heart, a Kshatriya by (water) reaching his throat, 
a Vaifya by (water barely) taken into the mouth, 
a woman and a .Sudra by touching (it) with the 
extremity (of the lips). 

24. ' If (drops) adhere to his teeth, (they must 
be considered pure) like the teeth, because they are 
fixed (in the mouth) like the teeth. Let him not 
sip water on their account in case they fall. If they 
flow out, he will be pure.' 

25. Now they quote also (the following verse): 
' If anything adheres to the teeth, (it is pure) like 
the teeth ; and if he swallows (it or) whatever else 
may be in the mouth (or) may remain after sipping 
water, (he will become) pure.' 

26. (After sipping) he shall touch the cavities (of 
the head) with water, the feet, the navel, the head, 
(and) lastly the left hand. 

27. If he becomes impure while holding (a vessel) 
made of metal, he shall put it down, sip water and 
sprinkle it, when he is going to take it up. 

28. Now if he becomes impure (while he is 
occupied) with food, he shall put it down, sip water 
and sprinkle it, when he is going to take it up. 

29. Now if he becomes impure (while occupied) 

23. Vasish/fta III, 31-34. 

24. The MSS. read in the last pida of this verse, teshaw sum- 
sraye [ya or va]-££u£i/iti. I think samsravafti£££u£ir iti is the 
correct reading. 

25. VasishMa III, 41. 26. Vasish/£a III, 28-29. 
28. Vasish/Aa III, 43-44. 

Digitized by 


1 68 baudhAyana. i, 5, 8. 

with water, he shall put . it down, sip water and 
sprinkle it, when he is going to take it up. 

30.* That is contrary (to the rule) in (the case of 
an earthen) vessel. 

31. In (the case of a vessel) made of wood there 
is an option. 

32. Denied (objects) made of metal must be 
scoured with cowdung, earth, and ashes, or with one 
of these (three). 

33. Copper, silver, and gold (must be cleaned) 
with acids. 

34. Earthen vessels must he heated. 

35. (Objects) made of wood must be planed. 

36. (Objects) made of bamboo (must be cleaned) 
with cowdung, 

37. (Objects) made of fruits with a rope of cow- 

38. Skins of black deer with (ground) Bel nut 
and rice, 

39. Blankets (of the hair of the mountain goat) 
with Areka nuts, 

40. (Cloth) made of (sheep's) wool by the (rays of 
the) sun, 

41. Linen (cloth) with a paste of yellow mustard, 

30. * (The word) amatram, literally " a vessel," denotes here an 
earthen vessel. The meaning is that such a one, if it is very 
much denied, shall only be put down and not be taken back. 
Any other (earthen vessel) shall be heated.' — Govinda. 

32. Vasish/^a III, 49. 

33. ManuV, 114; Vasish/l4a III, 63. 

34-35. Vasish/Aa III, 49. 36. Vasish/fta III, 53. 

37. Vasish/Aa III, 54. Govinda thinks that the word ragg-u, 
' a rope,' is used here in the sense of ' a conglomeration,' and 
merely indicates that a quantity of cowhair must be used. 

39. ManuV, 120. 41. Vasish/Aa III, 55. 

Digitized by 


1,5,8. PURIFICATION. 1 69 

42. Cotton cloth with earth, 

43. Skins (other than deer-skins shall be treated) 
like cotton cloth, 

44. Stones and gems like (objects) made of metal, 

45. Bones like wood, 

46. Conch-shells, horn, pearl-shells, and ivory like 
linen cloth# 

47. Or (they may be cleaned) with milk. 

48. (Objects) which have been defiled by urine, 
ordure, blood, semen, or a dead body, (but) are 
agreeable to the eye and the nose, shall be rubbed 
seven times with one of the substances mentioned 

49. (Objects) not made of metal which are in the 
same condition must be thrown away. 

50. The cups and vessels (used) at a sacrifice 
(must be cleaned) according to the injunction (of 
the Veda). 

51. The Veda (declares), 'They do not become 
impure through Soma.' 

52. ' Time, fire, purity of mind, water and the like 
(fluids), smearing with cowdung and ignorance (of 
defilement) are declared to be the sixfold (means of) 
purification for created beings.' 

53. Now they quote also (the following verse): 

42. Vasish/^a III, 49. 43. Vasish/Aa III, 53. 

44. VasishMa III, 50. 45. Vasish/^a HI, 52. 

46. Vasish/^a III, 51. 49. Vasish/fta III, 59. 

50. Govinda explains this Sutra differently. He says : ' The fault 
of defilement by remnants does not affect sacrificial cups and 
vessels. This must be understood. If they are defiled by urine 
and the like, they must be thrown away.' My explanation is 
based on the parallel passage of Apastamba I, 5, 17, 13. See also 
below, I, 6, 13, 11 seq. 

52. Vish«u XXII, 88. 

Digitized by 


1 70 BAUDHAYANA. I, 5, 9. 

' A clever man, who knows (the rules of) purification 
and is desirous of righteousness, shall perform (the 
rites of) purification, after having fully considered 
the time, and the place (of the defilement), likewise 
himself, (as well as) the object (to be cleaned) and 
the substance (to be employed), the purpose of the 
object, the cause (of the defilement), and the con- 
dition (of the thing or person defiled).' 

Prasna I, AdhyAya 5, KandikK 9. 

i. The Veda declares that the hand of an artisan 
is always pure, so is every vendible commodity 
exposed for sale and food obtained by begging, 
which a student holds in his hand. 

2. A calf is pure on the flowing (of the milk), 
a bird on the fall of the fruit, women at the time 
of dalliance, and a dog when he catches a deer. 

3. All mines and places of manufacture are pure 
excepting distilleries of spirituous liquor; con- 
tinuously flowing streams of water and dust raised 
by the wind cannot be contaminated. 

4. The flowers and fruit of flowering and fruit- 
bearing trees which grow in unclean places are 
likewise not impure. 

9. 1. Vish«u XXIII, 48. 

2. Vishmi XXIII, 49. 

'3. Vish«u XXIII, 48. The term Skara, translated by 'mines 
and places of manufacture,' is explained in the commentary by 
' places of production, i. e. of sugar and honey.' It is no doubt 
intended to apply to any place where articles of consumption or 
use are produced. Govinda adds that as ' continuous streams of 
water' are always pure, one must take care that the water for 
sipping flows out of the vessel in an unbroken stream. 

Digitized by 


1,5, 9". PURIFICATION. 171 

5. On touching a tree standing on a sacred spot, 
a funeral pile, a sacrificial post, a ICand&ia. or a 
person who sells the Veda, a Brahma»a shall bathe 
dressed in his clothes. 

6. One's own couch, seat, clothes, wife, child, and 
waterpot are pure for oneself; but for strangers 
they are impure. 

7. A seat, a couch, a vehicle, ships (and boats), 
the road and grass are purified by the wind, if they 
have been touched by Aaod&las or outcasts. 

8. Grain on the threshing-floor, water in wells 
and reservoirs, and milk in the cowpen are fit for 
use even (if they come) from a person whose food 
must not be eaten. 

9. The gods created for Brahmawas three means 
of purification, (viz.) ignorance of defilement, sprink- 
ling with water, and commending by word of mouth. 

10. Water collected on the ground with which 

5. Vasish/Aa IV, 37. iSTaityavn'ksha, ' a tree standing on sacred 
ground,' means literally, ' a memorial-tree.' 

7. Govinda points out that couches and seats and the like, on 
which JCandalas and outcasts have lain or sat down, must be 

8. ' That must be referred to grain on a threshing-floor, and so 
forth, which has been produced by men whose food must not be 
eaten, and again is considered to be common to all. In this case, 
too, what has been received from outcasts and Katid§\as, that is 
defiled. Milk which has been received just at milking-time may 
be drunk out of a vessel that stands in the cowpen.' — Govinda. 
As regards the grain produced by low-caste people, the rule 
probably refers to cases where the land of an AgraMra or other 
village is cultivated by men of the lowest castes. The author 
means to say that in such cases a Brahmawa may take his share 
from the threshing-floor, where the whole produce of the village- 
land is stored, without hesitation. 

9. Vasish/Aa XTV, 24; Manu V, 127. 

10. Vasish/Aa III, 35-36. 

Digitized by 


1 72 BAUDHAYANA. I, 5, 9, 

cows slake their thirst is a means of purification, 
provided it is not strongly mixed with unclean 
(substances), nor has a (bad) smell, nor is dis- 
coloured, nor has a (bad) taste. 

11. But land becomes pure, according to the 
degree of the defilement, by sweeping the (defiled) 
spot, by sprinkling it with water, by smearing it 
with cowdung, by scattering (pure earth) on it, or 
by scraping it. 

1 2. Now they quote also (the following verse) : 

Prajna I, AdhyAya 5, KaydikA 10. 

i. 'A drop of water which is allowed to fall (on 
the ground) purifies a bull's hide of land, whether 
(the land) has been (previously) swept or not, pro- 
vided no impure substance is visible on it.' 

2. Food which is cooked out of sight must be 
illuminated (with fire) and be sprinkled with water, 

3. Likewise eatables bought in the market. 

4. For the Veda (declares), ' For the gods who 
are (easily) disgusted and desirous of purity do not 

11. Vasish/fta III, 56. 

10. 1. Regarding the term 'a bull's hide' of land, see Vishsu 
V, 181-183, XCII, 4. 

2. Apastamba II, 2, 3, 9. ' Out of sight,' i. e. not before the 
eyes of him who eats it' — Govinda. It would, however, seem that 
this rule refers to food prepared by Sudras, without the super- 
visions of Aryans. For Apastamba's Sutra, which contains the 
same word, paroksham, ' out of sight,' certainly has reference to 
that case only, and there is no reason why food prepared by 
Brahman cooks' should be purified before it is eaten. 

3. Apastamba I, 5, 17, 19. The eatables here intended are, 
according to Govinda, L&das and other sweet-meats which are 
frequently bought ready made. 

Digitized by 


1, 5, io, PURIFICATION. 1 73 

enjoy the offerings made by a man destitute of 

5. After reflecting (for a long time on the re- 
spective value of) the (food) of a pure man destitute 
of faith and of an impure person who has faith, 
the gods declared both to be equal. But the Lord 
of created beings said to them, ' That is not equal, 
it is unequal. The food of a man destitute of faith 
is worthless, that which is purified by faith is 

6. Now they quote also (the following verses) : 
' Want of faith is the greatest sin ; for faith is the 
highest austerity. Therefore the gods do not eat 
offerings given without faith.' 

7. ' A foolish man does not reach heaven, though 
he may offer (sacrifices) or give (gifts).' 

8. 'He is called a foolish man whose conduct 
is blemished by doubts, and who, clinging to 
his own fancies, transgresses (the rules of) the 
iS&stras, because he opposes the fulfilment of the 
sacred law.' 

9. But pot-herbs, flowers, fruit, roots, and annual 
plants (must be) sprinkled (with water). 

10. Having placed dry grass, wood of trees unfit 
for sacrifices or a clod of earth (on the ground), let 
him void faeces or urine, turning his face during the 
day towards the north and at night towards the 
south and wrapping up his head. 

8. Dharmatantra, translated ' the fulfilment of the sacred law,' 
is explained in the commentary by dharmasya tantram anush/ftanam, 
by ' the performance of the sacred duties.' It may also mean ' the 
doctrine of or the treatises on the sacred law.' The Sastras are 
the Vedas and the whole body of the sacred literature. 

9. Vishwu XXIII, 15. 10. Vasish/AaVI, 10. 

Digitized by 


1 74 baudhAyana. I, 5, 10. 

11. (After voiding) urine he shall clean (the 
organ once) with earth and water, 

12. The hand three times. 

13. In like manner (he shall clean himself with 
earth and water after voiding) faeces. 

14. The number (of the applications of both is) 
thrice three for both feet and the hand. 

15. After an effusion of semen (he shall purify 
himself) in the same manner as after voiding urine. 

16. He shall wash himself, after he has untied 
or put on the cloth round his loins, 

17. Or he may touch moist grass, cowdung, or 

18. While he is engaged in (the performance of) 
religious rites, he shall avoid to touch (the part of 
his body) below the navel. 

19. The Veda (declares), ' A man's (body) is pure 
above the navel, it is impure below the navel.' 

20. .Sudras living in the service of Aryans shall 
trim (their hair and nails) every month ; their mode 

11-12. Vasish/^a VI, 14, 18. According to Govinda one 
application of water suffices for the left hand and two for both 

13-14. Vasish/^a VI, 18. Govinda reads in Sutra 14, against 
the authority of all the MSS., payoA, 'for the anus,' instead of 
pldayoA, ' for both feet' 

15. Apastamba 1, 5, 15, 23. 

16. Apastamba 1, 5, 16, 14. 17. Apastamba 1, 5, 16, 15. 

18. Vish«u XXIII, 51. 

19. Taittirfya SawzhitS. VI, 1, 3, 4. 

20. Apastamba II, 1, 2, 4-5. The above translation follows 
Govinda' s explanation. But &ry$dhish/&ita^, ' living in the service 
of Aryans,' may also mean 'superintended by Aryans,' and the 
rule be taken to refer to the special case of <Sudra cooks, as in the 
parallel passage of Apastamba. 

Digitized by 


I, 5, io. LAWFUL LIVELIHOOD. 1 75 

of sipping water (shall be) the same as that of 

21. A VaLyya may live by usury. 

22. But (a sum of) twenty-five (karshapa#as shall 
bear an interest) of five mashas (per mensem). 

23. Now they quote also (the following verses) : 
1 He who, acquiring property cheap, employs (it so 
that it yields) a higher price, is called a usurer, and 
blamed in all (treatises on) the sacred law.' ' (Brah- 
man) weighed in the scales the crime of killing a 
learned Brahma«a against (the crime of) usury ; the 
slayer of the Brahma»a remained at the top, the 
usurer sank downwards.' 

24. 'Let him treat Brahma»as who tend cattle, 
those who live by trade, (and) those who are artisans, 
actors (and bards), servants or usurers, like ■Sudras.' 

25. But men of the first two castes may, at their 
pleasure, lend (money at interest) to one who 
neglects his sacred duties, to a miser, to an atheist, 
or to a very wicked man. 

26. Through the neglect of sacrifices, of (lawful) 
marriages, of the study of the Veda, and of (learned) 
Brahmawas, (noble) families (even) are degraded. 

27. The offence of neglecting a Brahma«a cannot 
be committed against a fool who is unacquainted 

21. Vasish/fo II, 19. 22. Vasish/Aa II, 51. 

23. Vasish/fta II, 41-42. 24. Vasish/Aa III, 3. 

25. Vasish/fta II, 43. M. reads na dadyitim, ' shall not lend.' 
According to Govinda, 'a very wicked man' is equivalent to 'a 

26. Manu III, 63. Govinda says that this Sutra is introduced 
in connexion with the expression, ' one who neglects his sacred 
duties,' which occurs in Sutra 25. 

27. Vasish/fta III, 9 note, 10. This Sutra is added in explana- 
tion of the term ' the offence of neglecting a Bra1ima«a.' 

Digitized by 


1 76 baudhAyana. i, s, 10. 

with the Veda. For (in offering sacrifices) one does 
not pass by a brilliant fire and throw the oblations 
into ashes. 

28. Families which are deficient in (the know- 
ledge of) the Veda, are degraded by (keeping) cows, 
horses and vehicles, by agriculture and by serving 
the king. 

29. But even poor families which are rich in (the 
knowledge of) the Veda obtain rank among the 
(noble) families and gain great fame. 

30. The (study of) the Veda impedes (the pursuit 
of) agriculture, (the pursuit of) agriculture impedes 
(the study of) the Veda. He who is able (to do 
it), may attend to both ; but he who is unable (to 
attend to both), shall give up agriculture. 

31. A fat, bellowing, raging humped bull, who 
does not restrain himself, who hurts living creatures 
and speaks according to his pleasure, forsooth, does 
not reach the (abode of) the gods ; (but) those who 
are small like atoms, (being) emaciated (by austerities 
and fasts), go thither. 

32. If, erring, in his youth he commits at any 
time good or evil acts of any kind, (they will all 
remain without result). (For) if in his later age he 
lives righteously, he will obtain (the. reward of) that 
(virtuous conduct) alone, not (the punishments of 
his former) crimes. 

33. Let him always be sorrowing in his heart, 
when he thinks of his sins, (let him) practise 
austerities and be careful; thus he will be freed 
from sin. 

34. ' Where drops of water touch the feet of a 

28-29. Manu III, 64, 66. 34. Vasish/Aa III, 42. 

Digitized by 


1,5.1 1- IMPURITY. 177 

man who offers water for sipping to others, no 
defilement is caused by them. They are equally 
(pure) as (water) collected on the ground.' 

Prasna I, AdhyAya 5, KaatdikA 11. 

1. Referring to deaths and births, they declare 
that the impurity of Sapmafas lasts ten days; ex- 
cepting officiating priests, men who have performed 
the initiatory ceremony of a Soma-sacrifice, and 
students of the Veda. 

2. But amongst Sapmdas Sapwda-relationship 
(extends) to the seventh person. 

3. (If children die) before the completion of the 
seventh month or before teething, (the relatives) 
shall bathe. 

4. In (the case of a child) that dies before the 
completion of its third year or before teething, offer- 
ings of funeral cakes and water are not prescribed, 
and one should not burn its (body) ; 

5. Nor when unmarried maidens die. 

6. Some do it in the case of married daughters. 

7. That (is done) in order to gain the good-will 

11. 1. Vasish/Aa IV, 16. Officiating priests, Soma-sacrificers, 
and students do not become impure by deaths or births occurring 
among their relatives; see Vasish/4a XIX, 48 ; Gautama XIV, 1. 

2. Vasish/^a IV, 17. For the specification of the extent of the 
Sapi»rfa-relationship, see below, Sutra 9. 

3. Vishwu XXII, 27. 

4. Visbra XXII, 28 ; Gautama XIV, 34, 43. 

6. Gautama XIV, 36. 'That refers to the Sapiwrfas on the 
father's side.' — Govinda. 

7. Manu IX, 18. 

[14] N 

Digitized by 


178 baudhAyana. 1,5, 11. 

of the people. Women are considered to have no 
business with the sacred texts. 

8. ' The relatives of unmarried women become 
pure after three 'days. But the uterine brothers 
become pure by (following) the rule mentioned 

9. Moreover, the great-grandfather, the grand- 
father, the father, oneself, the uterine brothers, the 
son by a wife of equal caste, the grandson, (and) the 
great-grandson — these they call Sapmdas, but not 
the (great-grandson's) son; — and amongst these a 
son and a son's son (together with their father are) 
sharers of an undivided oblation. 

10. The sharers of divided oblations they call 

8. This verse, which occurs in all my MSS. of the text, is left 
out in the two copies of Govinda's commentary. 

9. Colebrooke, DiyabMga XI, 1, 37 ; V. Digest CCCXCVII. 
The text on which Colebrooke's two versions are based differs from 
that of my MSS. and of Govinda by reading avibhaktadSy&d£n 
instead of teshdw £a putrapautram [v. 1. "pautrakam] avibhakta- 
diyam. The meaning of the latter clause, which is placed paren- 
thetically before sapiwfan a^akshate, ' (these) they call Sapi«</as,' 
seems to be that a father with his son and grandson share the 
cakes offered at one funeral sacrifice by the fourth descendant. 
Its object is to show that the group called Sapinrfas consists of two 
such subdivisions, between whom the middlemost forms the con- 
necting link. For the middlemost, the svayam, ' oneself/ of the 
text, first offers the cakes to his three ancestors and later receives 
the cakes, together with his first two descendants, from his great- 
grandson. Govinda gives no help. He merely remarks that the 
Sutra contains a paribhishS or technical rule of interpretation, and 
that the words api ka., ' moreover,' indicate that it is an expansion 
of Sutra 2. 

10. Colebrooke, loc. cit According to Graiutavahana the Saku- 
lyas are the three ascendants beyond the great-grandfather and the 
three descendants beyond the great-grandson. Others, among 

Digitized by 


I, Si ii. INHERITANCE. 1 79 

ii. If no other (relations) are living, the property 
(of a deceased male) descends to them (the Sa- 

1 2. On failure of Sapi#das, the Sakulyas (inherit). 

13. On failure of them, the teacher who (holds 
the place of a spiritual) father, a pupil, or an 
officiating priest shall take it, 

14. On failure of them, the king. Let him give 
that property to persons well-versed in the three 

15. But the king should never take for himself 
the property of a Brahma#a. 

16. Now they quote also (the following verse): 
'The property of a Brahma/za destroys (him who 

whom Govinda takes his place, explain the word sakulya to mean 
' members of one family ' in general. Govinda says, sambandha- 
vi.reshag'nane sati sapi«</£ u^yante I sambandhamdtra^nSne sakulyliii 
A tax ka. sapiw^a api sakulyaAll 'If a particular relationship is known, 
they are called Sapiwdas; and if (the fact) only is known that 
relationship exists, Sakulyas. Hence the Sapi«</as are also 

11. Colebrooke, loc. cit. Both the DSyabh&ga and the Digest 
read satsvanga^eshu, 'when there is male issue,' and the Vtrami- 
trodaya, fol. 218, p. 2, 1. 7, agrees with them. The MSS. read all 
satsv anyeshu, which may, however, be taken with Govinda for 
asatsv anyeshu, because the preceding word ends in e. Govinda 
explains anyeshu, ' others,' by aurasddishu, ' legitimate sons of the 
body, and so forth.' 

12. Colebrooke, DSyabhiga, loc. cit. The digest omits this 

13. Colebrooke, loc. cit. Gfrnutavaliana wrongly reads pita' 
k&k&ryzh, ' the father and the teacher.' Govinda gives the expla- 
nation adopted above. Regarding the spiritual fatherhood of the 
teacher, see e. g. Vasish/^a II, 4. 

14. Colebrooke, loc. cit. Govinda reads satsvam, 'the property 
of a holy man,' instead of tatsvam, ' that property.' 

15. Colebrooke V, Dig. CCCCXLIV; Vasish^a XVII, 86. 

N 2 

Digitized by 


180 baudhAyana. i, 5, ii. 

takes it), together with sons and grandsons ; poison 
kills one man only. (Therefore) they do not declare 
poison to be (the worst) poison. The property of 
a Brahma»a is called (the worst) poison.' 

17. If a birth and a death occur together, one 
and the same period of ten (days and) nights (shall 
serve for both). 

18. Now if (other deaths or births) happen be- 
fore the completion of the ten (days and) nights (of 
impurity), the first period of ten (days and) nights 
(shall suffice, provided the new cause of impurity 
occurs) before the end of the ninth day. 

19. On a birth, indeed, the parents (alone) become 
impure during ten days. 

20. Some (declare that) the mother (alone be- 
comes impure), because (people) avoid (lying-in 
women alone). 

21. Others (say that) the father (alone becomes 
impure) because the semen is the chief cause (of 
the generation). 

22. For sons who were born without mothers, 
are mentioned in the revealed texts. 

23. But (the correct opinion is that) both the 
parents (become impureV- because they are equally 
connected (with the event). 

18. Vasish/Aa IV, 23-25. Gpvinda points out that in case the 
second birth or death happens after the completion of the ninth 
day, the rule given (Gautama XIV, 7) applies. 

19. Vasish/fta IV, 20-21. 

20. Vasish/£a IV, 21-22. Tatparihara«at, literally, 'because 
she is avoided, i.e. because people avoid newly-confined women 
(not their husbands).' — Govinda. 

21. E. g. Agastya and Vasish/Aa. See Rig-veda VII, 33, 1 1, and 
Sayana's commentary thereon. 

Digitized by 


I,5,ii. IMPURITY. l8l 

24. But when a death (has happened, the relatives 
of the deceased), allowing the youngest to begin, 
shall pass their sacrificial threads over the right 
shoulder and under the left arm, descend into the 
water at a bathing-place, submerge (their bodies), 
emerge (out of the water), ascend the bank, sip 
water, pour out libations for the (deceased, repeat- 
ing the last four acts) severally three times there- 
after, ascend the bank, sip water, touch a coal, water 
or the like at the door of their house, and sit during 
ten days on mats, eating food that does not contain 
pungent condiments or salt. 

25. (Let him perform) a funeral sacrifice on the 
eleventh or the twelfth (day). 

26. In (performing) the remaining rites (one 
should) conform to (the customs of) the people. 

27. In case of a (death) let him also keep (a 
period of impurity) for (persons who are) not (his) 
Sapi«das, according to the degree of nearness, 
three (days and) nights, a day and a night, One day 
and so forth, 

24. Vasish/4a IV, 9-15. When the libations of water are 
poured out, the name of the deceased must be pronounced. 
Govinda correctly states that iti, ' or the like,' which stands after 
'a coal, water,' is intended to include 'cowdung, and yellow 
mustard seed,' which are mentioned by Ya^wavalkya III, 13. 
Regarding the clause sakrAtri^, '(repeating these last four acts) 
severally three times,' see Apastamba II, 6, 15, 10. 

25. Vish«u XXI, 2 seq., and especially 19. 

26. Govinda, in explanation of this Sutra, refers to the last 
words of Apastamba II, 6, 15, 10, where it is said that relatives 
' shall perform those rites for the dead which the women declare 
to be necessary,' and to Apastamba II, n, 29, 15. 

27. Gautama XIV, 20. Govinda is of opinion that the duration 
of the impurity shall depend on the good qualities, learning, &c. of 
the deceased. 

Digitized by 


1 82 baudhAyana. 1,5,11". 

28. For a teacher, a sub-teacher (upadhyaya), and 
their sons, three (days and) nights, 

29. Likewise for officiating priests, 

30. Let him keep on account of a pupil, for one 
who has the same spiritual guide, for a fellow-student 
(sabrahmaiarin) three (days and) nights, one day 
and a night, one day and so forth (as periods of 

31. On a miscarriage females (remain impure) as 
many (days and) nights as months (elapsed after 

32. If he unintentionally touches the corpse of 
a stranger, he becomes at once pure after bathing 
dressed in his clothes. 

33. (If he does it) intentionally, (he will remain 
impure) during three (days and) nights. 

34. And (the same rules apply if he touches a 
woman) during her courses. 

35. A son who is born from (intercourse with a 
temporarily unclean woman) becomes an Abhuasta. 
Thereby the penances (to be performed) by him 
have been explained. 

28. Vish«u XXII, 42, 44. Govinda asserts that the impurity 
on account of an Upadhyaya lasts one night, together with the 
preceding and following days, and on account of a teacher's or 
Upadhyaya's sons one day only. It looks as if he had read the 
words pakshi/tyekaham in his text 

29. Govinda asserts that £a, 'likewise,' indicates that the rule 
applies also on the death of persons for whom one sacrifices. 

30. Vishwu XXII, 44. Govinda explains satirthya to mean ' one 
who has the same guru or spiritual guide,' while according to 
others it means 'one who studies under the same sub-teacher' 
(upadhyaya). See also the Kirika on Pawini IV, 4, 117, and note. 

31. Vishmi XXII, 25. 32-33. Gautama XIV, 27. 
34. Vishmi XXII, 69. 

Digitized by 


1,5,11- IMPURITY. 183 

36. On touching one who sells the Veda, a sacri- 
ficial post, an outcast, a funeral pile, a dog, or a 
A!aWala he shall bathe. 

37. Now if a worm is produced in an open wound 
that is filled with pus and sanies, how shall, in that 
case, a penance be performed ? 

38. He who is bitten by a worm will become pure 
on bathing (daily) during three days and drinking (a 
mixture of) cow's urine, cowdung, milk, sour milk, 
butter, and water boiled with Ku^a grass. 

39. He who has been touched by a dog shall 
bathe dressed in his clothes; 

40. Or he becomes pure by washing that spot 
(where he has been touched), by touching it with 
fire, by (afterwards) again washing it and his feet, 
and by sipping water. 

41. Now they quote also (the following verses): 
' But a Brahma»a who has been bitten by a dog, is 
purified if he goes to a river that flows into the 
ocean, (bathes there and) suppresses his breath one 
hundred times and (afterwards) eats clarified butter. 
He will (also) become pure at once on bathing (in 
water brought) in golden or silver (vessels), or in 
a cow's horn, or in new (earthen pots).' 

36. This verse, which is another version of I, 5, 9, 5, is left 
out in the Dekhan and Gujarat MSS.; I consider its genuineness 
very doubtful. 

37. Vasish/^a XVIII, 16. 

39-40. Apastamba I, 5, 15, 16-17. Govinda, too, states that 
the second mode of purification is to be adopted, if the dog touches 
any part of the body below the navel. 

41. Vasish/tfa XXIII, 31. 

Digitized by 


184 baudhAyana. 1, 5, 12. 

Prasna I, AdhyAya 5, KandikX 12. 

1. Tame animals must not be eaten, 

2. Nor carnivorous and (tame) birds, 

3. Nor (tame) cocks and pigs ; 

4. Goats and sheep (are) excepted (from the 
above prohibition). 

5. Five five-toed animals may be eaten, (viz.) 
the porcupine, the iguana, the hare, the hedgehog, 
the tortoise and the rhinoceros, excepting the rhi- 

6. Likewise five animals with cloven hoofs, (viz.) 
the white-footed antelope (Nil-gai), the (common 
ravine) deer, the spotted deer, the buffalo, the (wild) 
boar and the black antelope, excepting the black 

7. (Likewise) five (kinds of) birds that feed scratch- 
ing with their feet, (viz.) the partridge, the blue rock- 
pigeon, the francoline partridge, the (crane called) 
Vardhra«asa, the peacock and the Vara»a, except- 
ing the Vara#a, 

12. 1. Vasish/Aa XIV, 40. 

2. Vasish/Aa XIV, 48. Govinda says that the particle kz, ' and,' 
is used in order to indicate that the word ' tame ' must be understood. 

3. Apastamba I, 5, 17, 29, 32. 

5. VasishAia XIV, 39. Another explanation of the word fvavi/, 
' the porcupine' (see also Gautama XVII, 27), is given in the com- 
mentary, which says that it is a wild animal resembling a dog, and 
belonging to the boar species. Govinda points out that there is 
a dispute among the learned regarding the rhinoceros (Vasish/Aa 
XV, 47), and that the peculiar wording of the Sfttra is intended to 
indicate that. 

6. The permissibility of the last-named animal is again doubtful. 

7. Gautama XVII, 35. The case of the last-mentioned bird, 
the Varawa, is again doubtful. From the first rock-edict of Aroka 

Digitized by 



8. (And the following) fishes, (viz.) the 
Pelorius (Sahasradawshfrin), the .ATili^ima, the Var- 
mi, the BWhaM&iras, the Masakari(?), the Cyprinus 
Rohita, and the Ra^i. 

9. The milk of a (female animal) whose offspring 
is not ten days old, and of one that gives milk while 
big with a young one, must not be drunk,- 

10. Nor that of a (cow) that has no calf or that 
(suckles) a strange calf. 

11. (The milk) of sheep, camels, and one-hoofed 
animals must not be drunk. 

12. If (he has) drunk (milk) which ought not to 
be drunk, excepting cow's milk, (he must perform) a 
Krt&Mra. (penance). 

1 3. But if (he has drunk) cow's milk (that is unfit 
for use, he shall) fast during three (days and) nights. 

14. Stale (food must not be eaten or drunk) 
excepting pot-herbs, broths, meat, clarified butter, 
cooked grain, molasses, sour milk, and barley-meal, 

15. Nor (substances) which have turned sour, nor 
molasses which have come into that state. 

16. After performing the ceremony preparatory 

it appears that peacocks, now considered inviolable, were actually 
eaten in the third century a. d. 

8. Vasish/Aa XIV, 41-42. The names are much corrupted in the 
MSS., and for Marakari, which I do not find in the dictionaries, 
Samajakari or Samasakari is also read. The Brjha^Miras is 
probably the Indian salmon, the Mahsir. 

9-10. Vasish/iSa XIV, 34-35; Gautama XVII, 22. The meaning 
of sandhini, ' a female animal that gives milk while big with young,' 
is uncertain. See also Vishwu LI, 40; Apastamba 1, 5, 17, 23. 

11. Gautama XVII, 24. 12. Vishwu LI, 38-41. 

14. Gautama XVII, 16. 15. VasishMa XIV, 37-38. 

16. Vasish/Aa XIII, 1-5. Govinda states that this Sutra has 
been introduced here, because the purity of one's food ensures 

Digitized by 


1 86 BAUDHAYANA. 1, 6, 13. 

to the beginning of the Veda-study (upakarman) on 
the (full moon of the month) of .Sravawa or of 
Ashio^a, they shall close the term on the full moon 
of Taisha or Magha. 

Prajna I, Adhyaya 6, KaatdikA 13. 

i. The gods enjoy a pure sacrifice (only) ; 

2. For the gods are desirous of purity and (them- 
selves) pure. 

3. The following (Rik) declares that, 'To you, O 
Maruts, the pure ones, pure viands ; to you, the pure 
ones, I offer a pure sacrifice. They who love the 
pious rites, who are of pure origin, (themselves) pure 
and purifiers (of others), came duly to the truthful 

4. (He will be) pure (if there is) no blemish on 
his clothes, therefore let him perform all (acts) that 
are connected with sacrificing, (dressed) in unblem- 
ished clothes. 

5. The sacrificer and his wife as well as the officiat- 
ing priests shall put on dresses which have been 
washed, and dried by the wind, and which are not 
in a bad condition. 

purity of one's soul, and purity of soul gives strength of memory, 
and thereby makes one fit to study the Veda. 

13. 1-2. See also above, I, 5, 10, 4. This Adhytya and the next 
ought to have been given in the Srauta Sutra. 

3. Rig-vedaVII, 56, 12; Taittiriya-br&hmawa II, 8, 5,5. The 
meaning of the last portion of the verse is somewhat doubtful. 
S£ya«a gives two different explanations and Govinda a third. 

4. Govinda points out that the dresses of the sacrificer and of 
his priests must be white, because farther on (Sutras 9-10) other 
colours are specially prescribed. 

5. Govinda thinks that the word in, ' as well as,' is intended to 
include the lookers-on. 

Digitized by 



6. (It shall be) thus from the (beginning of the) 

7. And thus at the long Soma-sacrifices and the 
Sattras ; 

8. And (on other occasions other dresses must 
be used) in accftrdance with the injunction (of the 

9. Thus at (all) Ish/is, animal sacrifices, and 
Soma-sacrifices which may be used as spells (against 
enemies), the priests shall perform (the sacred 
rites), wearing red turbans and red dresses ; (when 
reciting the hymn seen by) VWshakapi (he shall) 
wear a dress and a mantle of many colours and 
so forth. 

10. At the Agnyadhana (sacrifice) the clothes 
(shall be made) of flax ; on failure of such, (dresses) 
made of cotton or of wool are used. 

11. Clothes defiled by urine, ordure, blood, semen 
and the like (shall be) cleaned with earth, water 
and the like. 

12. (Dresses) made of T>/pa-bark and wzkala 
(shall be treated) like cotton-cloth, 

6. Regarding the ceremony called Prakrama, literally ' stepping 
forward from the Garhapatya fire,' see Siyawa on Taitt. Br. 1, 1, 
4, 1. It opens the AgnySdhina rite. 

9. Govinda states that the wqrds iti kz, ' and so forth,' are in- 
tended to include other incantations. The VWsh&kapi hymn is 
found Rig-veda X, 86. 

11. Govinda states that the word iti, 'and the like,' is intended 
to include cowdung, cow's urine, and other substances used for 

12. Govinda states that there is a tree called Tr»'pa, the bark of 
which is used for dresses. Vr/kala, which has been left untrans- 
lated, is explained by jakama, a word which is not found in our 

Digitized by 


1 88 baudhAyana. 1,6,13. 

1 3. Deer-skins like (dresses) made of bark. 

14. (Let him) not (use) a mantle which has been 
wrapped (round the loins, or) on which he has been 
lying (in his bed), without washing it. 

15. Let him not employ for the gods anything 
used by men without beating it <5n a stone. 

16. If solid earth is denied, (it must be) smeared 
with cowdung. 

1 7. Loose (earth must be cleansed by) ploughing, 

18. Moist (earth) by bringing pure (earth) and 
covering (it with that). 

19. Land is purified in four (ways), by being trod 
on by cows, by digging, by lighting a fire on it, by 
rain falling on it, 

20. Fifthly by smearing it with cowdung, and 
sixthly through (the lapse of) time. 

21. Grass placed on unconsecrated ground (must 
be) washed. 

22. (Grass) defiled out of one's sight, (shall be) 
sprinkled (with water). 

23. Small pieces of sacred fuel (shall be purified) 
in the same manner. 

24. Large pieces of wood (must be) washed and 

1 3. Govinda says that, as the treatment of valkala, ' bark-dresses,' 
has not been prescribed, the meaning of the Sutra can only be, 
that bark-dresses and black-buck skins are to be treated alike, 
i. e. that they are to be cleaned with Bel-nut and rice ; see above. 

15. Govinda explains apalpulitam by 'without beating it with 
the hand on a stone.' He mentions as an instance the skin which 
is used in preparing the Soma. 

16. According to Govinda, solid earth is such on which the fire- 
altars are built. 

21. E. g. grass intended for the barhis, if it has been placed on 
a spot which has not been sprinkled with water. 

22. 'Defiled out of one's sight,' i.e. brought by Sudras. 

Digitized by 



25. But a great quantity (of wood shall be) 
sprinkled (with water). 

26. Wooden vessels which have been touched by 
impure men (shall be) scraped ; 

27. (And) those which are denied by stains of 
remnants (shall be) planed. 

28. (Wooden vessels) defiled by urine, ordure, 
blood, semen, and the like (very impure substances 
shall be) thrown away. 

29. These (rules must be followed) except in case 
a (special) injunction (is given) ; 

30. Thus, for instance, (purification by) washing 
with Kusa. grass and water (is prescribed) on all the 
following (occasions, viz.) at the Agnihotra, the 
Gharmo£&fcish/a, the Dadhigharma, the Kundapk- 
yinam Ayana, the Utsargi«am Ayana, the Diksha- 
ya»a sacrifice, the Ardhodaya, the A!atu.ft6akra, and 
the Brahmaudanas, 

31. (Again) at all Soma-sacrifices (the cups must 
be) cleaned with water only on (the heap of earth 
called) the Mar^aliya ; 

32. If these same (cups are defiled) by urine, ordure, 

27. Govinda says that this rule is optional. 

28. Govinda adds that fuel, Kura grass, and the like, which have 
been defiled in this manner, must also be thrown away. 

30. Regarding the Dadhigharma, a homa, see Vaitana Sutra 
21,18; regarding the Kmx/apayinam Ayana, Ajvalayana Srauta 
Sutra XII, 4 ; and regarding the Dakshayawa sacrifice, a variety of 
the new and full-moon offering, Afvalayana II, 14. The Ardho- 
daya is possibly the vrata of that name mentioned in the Purawas. 
According to Govinda, the Aatu.r£akra, which is otherwise known 
as a Tantric rite, is a sacrifice, ish/akakosh/a (?) madhyavasanto 
ya^ante tathetaradayaA (?). Regarding the Brahmaudana, see Ajva- 
layana .Srauta Sutra 1, 4. 

32. Govinda says that the injunction to throw away defiled 

Digitized by 


190 baudhAyana. 1,6,14. 

blood, semen, and the like (they must be) thrown 

Prasna I, AdhyAya 6, KandikA 14. 

1. Earthen vessels that have been touched by 
impure persons (must be) exposed to (the flame of) 
a fire of Kuya grass. 

2. Those which have been defiled by stains of 
remnants (of food must be) exposed to another 

3. Those which have been defiled by urine, 
ordure, blood, semen, and the like (must be) thrown 

4. (Vessels) made of metal (must be) washed, 
after having been scrubbed as (directed) above. 

5. The materials (to be used) for scrubbing (are) 
cowdung, earth, ashes, and so forth. 

6. Those which have been defiled by urine, 
ordure, blood, semen, and the like (must be) recast, 

7. Or (they must) be kept during seven (days 
and) nights completely immersed in cow's urine, 

8. Or in a great river for as long (a period). 

9. (Vessels) made of stone or of fruits, (i. e.) 
gourds, Bel-fruit, and Vina/as, (shall be) brushed 
with (a brush of) cow's hair. 

vessels has been repeated, in order to prevent a misconception. 
For as Soma is said to be a great means of purification, it might 
be supposed that it was powerful enough to prevent the defile- 
ment of vessels into which it is poured at a sacrifice. But com- 
pare the next Sutras. 

14. 8. A great river, i. e. one which directly flows into the 
ocean.— Govinda. 

9. A Vina/a, i. e. (a vessel) made of bamboo or Vidagdha»a/a; it 
is called a ' long vessel' (dirghabha^anam), and is used for carrying 
the Prawrta water and the like purposes. — Govinda, The vessel 

Digitized by 



10. (Sacrificial implements made of) plaited Na/a- 
reeds, bamboo, or .Sara-reeds (shall be) washed with 
cowdung, water, and the like. 

11. If unhusked rice has been defiled, (it must 
be) washed (and afterwards be) dried. 

12. But a great quantity (of unhusked rice must 
be) sprinkled. 

13. Husked rice (which has been defiled must be) 
thrown away. 

14. The same (rule applies) to cooked sacrificial 

15. But if a great quantity has been defiled by 
(the touch of) dogs, crows, and the like (unclean 
beings), one must throw away that portion (as) food 
for men, and sprinkle (the rest with water), reciting 
the Anuvaka, ' Pavamana^ suvar^anaA' 

16. Hydromel and preparations of milk (are) 
purified by pouring them from one vessel into 

intended is no doubt the flask made of a bamboo which is cut 
below the joint, and is commonly used as a bottle for oil. Govinda 
adds that this mode of purification is to be adopted in case the 
vessels have been touched by impure persons. 

10. Na/a-reeds, i. e. Amphidonax Karka ; Sara, i.e. Saccharum 
Sara. Govinda says that the rule applies to cases where such 
implements have been defiled by remnants of food (u££Aish/a- 

11. 'Defiled, i.e. touched by a K&nd&Xz.' (The rule) refers to 
a quantity less than a Dro»a (66 or 132 lbs.). — Govinda. 

13. 'If it has been defiled by urine and the like and the quan- 
tity is small;' this must be understood, because he will declare 
(below, Sutra 15) that if there is a great quantity (the defiled) 
portion only shall be thrown away. — Govinda. 

14. This, too, refers to small quantities only. 

15. The Anuvaka referred to is Taittirfya-brahmawa I, 4, 8. 

16. ' Hydromel, i.e. sour milk, honey, clarified butter, water, and 

Digitized by 


192 BAUDHAYANA. 1,6,14. 

1 7. In like manner let him pour oil and clarified 
butter which have been touched by an impure 
(person) into water, and (afterwards) use them. 

18. If (any) impure (substance) is thrown (into 
the sacrificial fire) let him place (the two Ara#is 
one) on (the other), produce fire by friction, (and 
offer) a Pavamanesh/i. 

19. If (the rules regarding) purity, the proper 
place, the mantras, the series of actions, .the object, 
the materials, (their) consecration, and the proper 
time are conflicting, each earlier-named (point) is 
more important (than the following ones). 

Prasna I, AdhyAya 7, KandikX 15. 

i. The sacred fires (shall be) approached from 
the north, 

2. (And be) left in the same manner. 

3. The contrary (proceeding should be adopted 
at sacrifices offered) to the manes. 

grain ; a preparation of milk, i. e. curd of two-milk whey (imiksha), 
if these are blemished by the fault of men, and that (blemish must 
have been caused by) the touch of an impure (person, ukkhishta) 
only.' — Govinda. 

17. 'And that must be done in such a manner that the oil and 
the clarified butter are not lost' — Govinda. 

18. 'Any impure substance, i.e. urine, ordure, and the like.' — 

19. Avr*t,'the series of actions,' i.e. the growth (pdtamibhava) 
of the ceremonial (prayoga). — Govinda. 

15. 1. Manava .Srauta Sutra I, x, i, and Kumirila thereon in 
Professor Goldstttcker's lithographed copy and KSty&yana .Srauta 
Sutra I, 8, 24. See also Professor Haug's map of 'the sacrificial 
compound,' Aitareya-bra1ima«a, vol. i. 

3. I. e. the entrance and exit are to be made to the south of the 

Digitized by 



4. Let him wash that which has been touched with 
(his) foot. 

5. Let him touch water, in case he touches his 
body or the hem (of his garment). 

6. Likewise (let him touch water) after cutting, 
splitting, digging or removing (anything, or offering 
oblations) to the manes, to the Rakshasas, to 
Nirrzti, to Rudra, (and after performing sacrifices) 
intended as spells (against enemies). 

7. Let him not turn round himself a sacrificial 
implement (the use of) which is accompanied by the 
recitation of mantras. 

8. (For) the sacrificial implements (are) more 
nearly (connected with the sacrifice), 

9. The priests, more remotely. 

10. The sacrificer and his wife are even nearer 
than the priests. 

11. After the sacrificial implements (follows) the 
clarified butter, after the clarified butter the sacri- 
ficial viands, after the sacrificial viands the animal 
to be slain, after the animal the Soma, after the 
Soma the sacred fires. 

5. Govinda explains si£, 'the hem of the garment,' by the 
garment wrapped round the loins (parihitaw vasaA). 

7. The meaning is that the priest must hold the sacrificial imple- 
ments, such as the sru£ and sruva ladles, between himself and the 
fires, and not place himself between them and the fires (atmano 
bahir na kuryit agner antaraA svayaw na bhaved iti yavat). 

8. 'He gives the reason for that (rule), "For the sacrificial 
implements (are) nearer" than the priests, that must be under- 
stood.' — Govinda. 

10. ' For they obtain the reward of the sacrifice. The instances 
(referring) to those two are the Vaisarg'anas and the Dakshi»as.'— 

11. Katyayana Srauta Sutra I, 8, 31. 'If the space on the 

[14] O 

Digitized by 


194 BAUDHAYANA. 1, 7, 15. 

12. If there is work for them, the priests shall 
not turn away from the sacred fires. 

13. If he faces the east, let him turn towards his 
right shoulder, 

14. If he faces the west, towards the left. 

1 5. The entrance to the sacrificial (enclosure lies) 
between the isfatvala and the Utkara, 

16. (When one comes) from the A'atvala, (it lies 
between) the Ahavanlya fire and the Utkara. 

1 7. The officiating (priests), the sacrificer, and his 
wife shall enter by that (road), 

18. As long as the sacrificial rite is not completed. 

19. When it has been finished (they shall) pass to 
and fro on the side where there is no Utkara (i.e. 
on the western side of the enclosure). 

Uttaravedi and the rest is confined, the Soma is made ready imme- 
diately after the fire, after that the meat and so forth, after that the 
grain for the sacrificial cakes, then the clarified butter, and after 
that the spoons called sruva, sru£, and so forth.' — Govinda. 

12. 'It is indicated hereby that, if there is work (to be done) 
there, they shall not turn away from the sacred fires except in 
cases of absolute necessity.' — Govinda. 

13. 'This rule (refers to the case) when he walks with the 
sacred fires. It must be understood that he shall not turn his 
back on the fires.' — Govinda. 

14. 'This rule (is to be interpreted) in the same manner (as 
the preceding one). Or it is prescribed by these two Sutras that 
the men engaged (in the sacrifice) shall go out, turning their right 
hand towards (the fires).' — Govinda. 

15. Katyayana Srauta Sutra V, 1, 11. 

16. I read with the MSS. of the text '/fcatvalad ahavantyotkarau.' 
The two copies of the commentary give #UvalaA ahavantyotkarau. 
Govinda says that the words antarewa ttrtham must be understood. 
For the position of the A'atvala and the Utkara, see Professor 
Haug's map, where the road of the priests is also marked, though 
somewhat differently. 

Digitized by 



20. Let him not put on the fire logs or Samidhs 
which have not been sprinkled (with water), 

21. The Brahman (priest) and the sacrificer shall 
enter in front of the Ahavanlya fire. 

22. Some (declare that they shall enter) behind 
the Ahavanlya fire. 

23. The seat of the Brahman (priest is situated) 
to the south of the Ahavanlya fire, (that) of the 
sacrificer to the west of him. 

24. (The seat) of the Hotfi (priest is situated) to 
the north of the northern Srom (of the Vedi), 

25. (That) of the Agnldhra priest near the 

26. (That) of the (sacrificer's) wife behind the 
Garhapatya fire. 

27. He scatters Darbha grass on these (seats) 
as often as (they are used). 

28. A vessel filled with water, for the purpose of 
sipping, shall be appropriated to (the use of) each 

29. He who has been initiated (to the performance 
of a sacrifice shall) keep the (following) vows : 

30. Let him not proclaim the guilt of other men ; 
let him not become angry ; let him not weep ; let 
him not look at urine and ordure. 

31. If he has looked at any unclean (substance), 
he mutters (the verse), ' Unrestrained is the internal 

23. For the seats of the priests and the other persons named 
in this and the following rules, see Professor Haug's plan, and 
Dr. Hillebrandt's Altindische Neu und Vollmondopfer, p. 190. 

24. ' The northern .Sro»i of the Vedi, i. e. the north-western 
comer of the Vedi.' — Govinda. 

31. Taittirfya Sawhita III, 1, 1,2, where the rule also is given. 
M. alone adds another Sutra, the text of which is corrupt But it 
ended with the mantra undatir bala« dhatta, &c. Taitt. S. ibid. 3. . 

- O 2 

Digitized by 


I96 BAUDHAYANA. 1,8,1(5. 

organ, wretched (my) eye-sight ; the sun is the chief 
of the (heavenly) lights ; O Dlksha, do not forsake 

Prasna I, AdhyAya 8, KandikA 16. 

i\ 1. There are four castes (var»a, viz.) Brahma»as, 
Kshatriyas, VaLyyas, and .Sudras. 

2. (Males) belonging to them (may take) wives 
I according to the order of the castes, (viz.) a Brah- 
j ma»a four, 
J 3. A Kshatriya three, 

4. A Vai^ya two, 

5. A .Sudra one. 

6. Sons begotten on (wives) of equal or of the 
next lower castes (are called) Savar«as (of equal 

7. (Those born) of (wives) of the second or third 
lower castes (become) Ambash/^as, Ugras, and 

8. Of females wedded in the inverse order of the 
castes (are born) Ayogavas, Magadhas, Vaiwas, 
Kshattrzs, Pulkasas, Kukku/akas, Vaidehakas, and 

9. An AmbashA&a (begets) on a female of the 
first (caste) a .SVapaka, 

10. An Ugra on a female of the second (caste) 
a Varna, 

11. A Nishada on a female of the third (caste) 
a Pulkasa. 

16. 1. Vasish/£a II, 1. 2-5. Vasish/fta I, 24-25. 

6. Gautama IV, 16. 7. VasishMa XVIII, 8. 

8-12. Vasish/*a XVIII, 1-6 ; Gautama IV, 17-21. In the I. O. 
copy of the commentary there is a break, which extends from 
Sutra 8 to the beginning of Adhyiya 10. 

Digitized by 


T,9.i7« CASTES. I97 

12. In the contrary case a Kukku/aka (is pro- 



15- • • • 

16. Now they quote also (the following verse): 
'But those sons whom an uninitiated man begets, 
the wise call Vratyas, who are excluded from the 
Savitri; (that is a rule which refers) in an equal 
manner to the three (highest) castes.' 

Prasna I, AdhyAya 9, KajvdikA 17. 

1. The Rathakara (carpenter), the Ambash/>&a, 
the Suta (charioteer), the Ugra, the Magadha, the 
Ayogava, the Vai#a, the Kshattr*, the Pulkasa, the 
Kukku/a, the Vaidehaka, the JCand&la, and so forth, 

2. Among these, sons of equal caste (spring) from 
women of equal caste. 

3. A Brahma»a (begets) on a female of the Ksha- 
triya caste a Brahma»a, on a female of the Vaisya 
caste an Ambash/ia, on a female of the .Sudra caste 
a Nishada, 

4. (According to) some a Pararava. 

13-15. The text of the three Sutras is exceedingly corrupt, and 
the Telugu copy of the commentary affords no help. It is, how- 
ever, clear that the passage left out contained something which 
corresponded to Gautama IV, 22-23, and treated of the possibility 
of raising persons of a lower caste to a higher one by intermarriages 
continued for five or seven generations. The reading of K., which 
perhaps is the best, will show this : ' nishadena nishSdyad & pan- 
k&m&gg£t& bhavanti tarn upanayet shash/4aw ya^ayet saptamo 'vi- 
liritigisamzmgito saptamau%isama ity ekeshaw? samgii& krame»a 

16. Manu X, 20. 

17. 1-2. Manu X, 26-27. 3~ 6 - See above, I, 8, 16, 6-7. 

Digitized by 


198 batjdhayana. 1,9,17. 

5. A Kshatriya (begets) on a female of the Vaiyya 
caste a Kshatriya, on a female of the .Sudra caste an 

6. A Vaisya (begets) on a female of the Sudra 
caste a Rathakara. 

7. A .Sudra begets on a female of the Vaiyya caste 
a Magadha, on a female of the Kshatriya caste a 
Kshattrzj but on a female of the Brahmawa caste 
a Ka.nd&fo.. 

8. A Vaiyya begets on a female of the Kshatriya 
caste an Ayogava, on a female of the Brahma»a 
caste a Suta. 

9. If among these an Ambash^a (male) and an 
Ugra (female) unite, (their son) will be born in the 
direct order of the castes (Anuloma). 

10. If a Kshattn (male) and a'Vaidehaka (female) 
unite, (their son will be) born against the order of 
the castes (Pratiloma). 

1 1. An Ugra (begets) on a female of the Kshattrz 
caste a .SVapaka, 

12. A Vaidehaka on a female of the AmbashMa 
caste a Vai«a, 

13. A Nishada on a female of the .Sudra caste 
a Pulkasa, 

14. A .Sudra on a female of the Nishada caste 
a Kukkufeka. 

15. The wise declare those sprung from an inter- 
mixture of the castes to be Vratyas. 

7-8. See above, I, 8, 16, 8. 

9-10. I.e. the offspring of individuals of different Anuloma 
castes again become Anulomas, and the offspring of individuals of 
different Pratiloma castes, Pratilomas. 

n-12. Manu X, 19. 

13-14. See above, I, 8, 16, 11-12. 15. Gautama IV, 25. 

Digitized by 


I, io, 18. THE KING. 1 99 

Prasna I, AdhyAya 10, KawdikA 18. 

i. Let the king protect (his) subjects, receiving as 
his pay a sixth part (of their incomes or spiritual 

2. Brahman, forsooth, placed its majesty in the 
Brihma»as, together with (the duties and privileges 

; of) studying, teaching, sacrificing for themselves, 
. sacrificing for others, liberality, and accepting (gifts), 
for the protection of the Vedas ; 

3. In the Kshatriyas (it placed) strength, together 
with (the duties and privileges of) studying, sacri- 

,' ficing, liberality, (using) weapons, and protecting the 
treasure (and the life of) created beings, for the 
growth of (good) government ; 

4. In the Vaisyas (it placed the power of work), 
together with (the duties of) studying, sacrificing, 
liberality, cultivating (the soil), trading, and tending 

, cattle, for the growth of (productive) labour. 
t 5. On the .Sudras (it imposed the duty of) serving 
( the three higher (castes). 

\ 6. For (the Veda states), ' they were created from 
j the feet (of Brahman).' 

18. 1. VasishMa I, 42-44. Learned Brahma«as do not pay 
taxes, but the king obtains a sixth part of the spiritual merit which 
they acquire. Hence Baudhayana uses the general term, ' a sixth 

2. Vasisli/4a II, 13-14. 3. Vasish/Aa II, 15-17. 

4. VasishMa II, 18-19. The words 'the power of work' are 
inserted by Govinda. 

5. Vasish/Aa II, 20. 

6. Rig-veda X, 90, 12 ; Taittiriya Arawyaka III, 12, 6. 


Digitized by 


2oo baudhAyana. I, io, i8. 

7. Let (the king) choose a domestic priest (who 
shall be) foremost in all (transactions). 

8. Let him act according to his instructions. 

9. Let him not turn back in battle. 

10. Let him not strike with barbed or poisoned 

1 1. Let him not fight with those who are in fear, 
intoxicated, insane or out of their minds, (nor with 
those) who have lost their armour, (nor with) women, 
infants, aged men, and Brihma«as, 

1 2. Excepting assassins (atatayin). 

13. Now they quote also (the following verse): 
' He who slays an assassin, able to teach (the Veda) 
and born in a (noble) family, does not (incur) by 
that (act the guilt of) the murderer of a learned 
Brahma#a ; (in) that (case) fury recoils upon fury.' 

14. The duty on goods imported by sea is, after 
deducting a choice article, ten Pawas in the hundred. 

15. Let him also lay just (duties) on other 
(marketable goods) according to their intrinsic value 
without oppressing (the traders). 

7. Vasish/Aa XIX, 3-6. Govinda explains sarvatodhuram, 'fore- 
most in all,' by sarva^wam, ' omniscient.' 

8. Vasish/ia I, 40-41. The rule, of course, refers primarily to 
advice in spiritual matters. 

9. Gautama X, 16. 10. ManuVII.po. 
11. Gautama X, 18. The meaning is that such persons shall 

not be slain in battle. 
12-13. Vasish/Aa III, 18. 

14. I take this to mean that the king may take one article which 
particularly pleases him out of each consignment, and impose on 
the rest an ad valorem duty of ten per cent. Regarding the tribute 
in kind to be paid to Indian kings by foreign merchants, see Peri- 
plus maris Erythraei, par. 49. 

15. VishmiHI, 29-30. Govinda interprets anupahatya, 'without 

Digitized by 


I, to, 19. THE KING ; CRIMINAL LAW. 20I 

16. Let the king guard the property of men 
belonging to a non-Brahmanical caste, the owner 
of which has disappeared, during a year, and after- 
wards take it (for himself). 

17. A Brahma#a, forsooth, shall not suffer cor- 
poral punishment for any offence. 

18. In case (a Brahma«a) has slain a Brahma#a, 
has violated his Guru's bed, has stolen the gold 
(of a Brahma»a), or has drunk (the spirituous liquor 
called) Surd, (the king) shall cause to be impressed 
with a heated iron the mark of a headless trunk, 
a female part, a jackal, (or) the sign of a tavern 
on the forehead (of the offender) and banish him / 
from his realm. 

19. If a Kshatriya or (a man of any) other (lower 
caste) has murdered a Brahmawa, death and the 
confiscation of all his property (shall be his punish- 

20. If those same (persons) slay men of equal or 
lower castes, (the king) shall fix suitable punishments 
in accordance with their ability. 

Prasna I, AdhyAya 10, Kajvbika 19. 
I. For slaying a Kshatriya (the offender) shall 

oppressing the traders,' by 'without deducting (anuddhrAya) a 
choice article.' 

16. Vasish/Aa XVI, 19-20. As stated above, I, 5, 11, 15, the 
king must not take the property of a Brahmaaa. 

17. VishwuV, a. 'Corporal punishment,' i.e. capital punish- 
ment, mutilation, &c, except branding. 

18. Vish/mV, 3-7. 19. Apastamba II, 10, 27, 16. 
20. Vasish/Aa XIX, 9. ' Those same persons,' i. e. Kshatriyas, 

Vawyas, or Sudras. 

19. 1. Apastamba I, 9, 24, 1. Govinda explains vairaniryita- 


Digitized by 



•202 BAUDHAYANA. I, io, 10. 

give to the king one thousand cows and besides 
a bull in expiation of his sin, 

2. For (slaying) a Vaisya one hundred cows, for 
(slaying) a .Sudra ten ; and a bull (must be) added 
(in each case). 

3. (The punishment for) the murder of a woman 
— excepting a (Brahmawl) who had bathed after 
temporary uncleanness — and for the destruction of 
a cow have been explained by the (rule regarding 
the) murder of a .Sudra. 

4. If he has slain a milch-cow or a draught-ox, 
he shall perform a Aandraya#a (lunar penance) after 
(paying the prescribed fine). 

5. The (punishment for the) murder of a (Brah- 
ma»l) who had bathed after temporary uncleanness 
has been explained by (the rule regarding) the 
murder of a Kshatriya. 

6. For killing a flamingo, a Bhasa, a peacock, 
a Brahma»l duck, a Pra^alaka, a crow, an owl, a 
frog, a musk-rat, a dog, (the large ichneumon called) 
Babhru, a common ichneumon, and so forth, (the 
offender shall pay) the same (fine) as (for the murder 
of) a .Sudra. 

7. In order to gain the good opinion of men, 
a witness shall give evidence in accordance with 
what he has seen or heard. 

nartham in two ways: 1. in expiation of his sin; 2. in order to 
remove the enmity of the relatives of the murdered man. He adds 
all these punishments are Teally penances (prayar&ttas) to be 
imposed by the king. Apastamba has these Sutras in the section 
on penances. 

2. Apastamba I, 9, 24, 2-4. 

3. Apastamba I, 9, 24, 5 ; I, 9, 26, 1. 

5. Vasish/yfca XX, 34, 37. 6. Apastamba I, 9, 25, 13. 

7. VishwuVIII, 13-14. 

Digitized by 


T, 10, 19. WITNESSES. 203 

8. Of injustice (in decisions) one quarter falls on 
the party in the cause, one quarter on his witnesses, 
one quarter on all the judges, and one quarter on 
the king. 

But where he who deserves condemnation is con- 
demned, the king is guiltless and the judges free 
from blame ; the guilt falls on the offender (alone). 

9. (Therefore) a wise man should ask an appointed 
witness in the following manner : 

10. ' The merit which thou hast acquired in the 
interval between the night in which thou wast born 
and that in which thou wilt die, all that will go to 
the king, if thou speakest an untruth.' 

11. 'A witness who speaks falsely, slays three 
fathers and three grandfathers and seven (descend- 
ants), both the born and the unborn.' 

12. 'By false testimony concerning gold he kills 
three ancestors ; by false testimony regarding (small) 
cattle he kills five; by false testimony concerning 
kine he kills ten/ 

' He kills a hundred by false evidence regarding 
horses, (and) a thousand by false evidence con- 
cerning a man. A witness who speaks falsely, 
destroys the whole (world) by false evidence con- 
cerning land.' 

8. Manu VIII, 18-19. 

9. I read, with the Telugu copy of the commentary, s&kshiwaw 
tvevam uddish/am. All the MSS. of the text and C. I. read sak- 
shwa.m daivam uddish/am. Govinda's explanation, adhunS nir- 
dish/an sdkshi»a evam prikMed iti padtnvayaA, ' the construction 
of the words is, " let him now ask the appointed witnesses in the 
following manner," ' agrees with the reading adopted. 

10. Vasish/Aa XVI, 32-33. 

11. ' Three fathers and three grandfathers/ i. e. seven ancestors. 

12. Vasish/Aa XVI, 34. Regarding the explanation of the 

Digitized by 


204 baudhAyana. I, 10, 19. 

13. (Men of) the four castes (varwa) who have 
sons may be witnesses excepting .Srotriyas, the king, 
ascetics, and those who are destitute of human 

14. If (the witness rightly) recollects (the facts of) 
the case (he will receive) commendation from the 
most eminent men. 

15. In the contrary case (he will) fall into hell. 

16. Let him (who has given false evidence), drink 
hot milk during twelve (days and) nights or offer 
burnt oblations (reciting) the Kushmaw^a (texts). 

words 'he kills,' see ManuVIII, 97, and Haradatta on Gautama 
XIII, 14. 

13. VasishMa XVI, 28-30. The text has i%anya, 'members 
of the royal family.' But the parallel passages of other Dharma- 
sutras, e. g. Vishwu VIII, 2, make it probable that the king is 

14. Apastamba II, 11, 29, 10. Govinda takes the Sutra dif- 
ferently. His commentary runs as follows : sakshidvaye sati r&gn& 
tatpurushaw H kirn kartavyam ity ata aha 11 smr?'tau pradhanataA 
pratipattiA ll pradhanyatas taponirdish/avidyadibhM I tadva^anat pra- 
tipattir mskay&h karya ityadhyaharaA kSrya^ II 'What shall the 
king and his officers do, if there are two witnesses i In order to 
answer this question he says : " On recollection, according to pre- 
eminence, reliance." According to pre-eminence, i. e. on account 
of austerities, (being) appointed (as a witness), learning and the 
like ; in accordance with the evidence of such person's conviction, 
i. e. the decision must be made. The latter word has to be under- 
stood.' Govinda then goes on to quote ManuVIII, 73. 

1 5. Apastamba II, 1 1, 29, 9. Govinda and M. read kartnpatyam 
for kartapatyam, the reading of the Dekhan and Gujarat MSS. 
The explanation of the former term is said to be doshaA, ' sin.' 
Regarding the ancient word kartapatya, which Govinda and the 
writer of M. have not understood, see Haradatta on Apastamba 

I, 2, 5. 3- 

16. In accordance with his explanation of Sutra 14, Govinda 
thinks that this penance is to be performed by the king and the 
judges in case they fail to weigh the evidence properly. But 

Digitized by 


I, ii, ao. MARRIAGE. 205 

Prasna I, AdhyAya 11, KandikA. 20. 

i. (There are) eight marriage-rites. 

2. If (the father) gives (his daughter) to a student 
(who has not broken his vow of chastity and) who 
asks for her, after fully enquiring into his learn- 
ing and character, that (is) the rite of Brahman 

3. If (the father gives his daughter away) after 
clothing her and decking her with ornaments, (say- 
ing) ' That (is thy wife), fulfil the law (with her),' 
that (is) the rite of Pra^apati (pra^apatya). 

4. If (the bridegroom) after offering the first burnt 
oblation of parched grain (receives the maiden) 
for a bull and a cow, that is the rite of the ./fo'shis 

5. If (a maiden is given) to an officiating priest 
within the sacrificial enclosure, while the presents 
are being taken away, that (is) the rite of the gods 

according to Manu VIII, 106, VishmiVIII, 16, the oblations with 
the KushmaWas (Taitt. Ar. X, 3-5) are to be offered for uttering 
in evidence a venial falsehood. That is, no doubt, here, too, the 
real meaning. 

20. 1. VishmiXXIV, 17. 

2. Vasish/#a 1, 30. The word brahma&trin has, no doubt, as 
Govinda too contends, been used in the double sense of ' a student 
of the Veda ' and ' chaste.' 

3. Vish»u XXIV, 22. 

4. Vasish/Aa I, 32. * After the first of the burnt oblations of 
parched grain, which are prescribed for weddings, has been offered, 
the bridegroom shall give to him who has power over the maiden 
a bull and a cow, and receive them back together with the (bride).' — 

5. Vasish/fta I, 31. According to this rule the damsel is given 

Digitized by 


206 baudhAyana. I, ii, 20. 

6. The union of a lover with a loving damsel (is 
called) the rite of the Gandharvas (gandharva). 

7. (If the bridegroom receives the maiden) after 
gladdening (the parents) by money, (that is) the rite 
of the Asuras (asura). 

8. (If the maiden is wedded) after being forcibly 
abducted, (that is) the rite of the R&kshasas 

9. If one has intercourse with (a maiden) who is 
sleeping, intoxicated, or out of her senses (with fear 
or passion and weds her afterwards, that is) the rite 
of the Pi^a^as (pai^a^a). 

10. Among these (eight rites) the four first (named) 
are (lawful) for a Brahmawa. Among these also each 
earlier named is preferable. 

ix. Among the (four) later (named rites) each 
succeeding one is more sinful (than the preceding 

12. Among these the sixth and the seventh agree 
with the law of the Kshatriyas. For power is their 

as part of the sacrificial fee (dakshiwi) to one of the priests after 
a sacrifice has been completed. Govinda adds that the recipient 
has to accept the gift with the six mantras, 'pra^dpati striy&»i 
yaraA,' Taitt. Brihmawa II, 4, 6, 5. In his commentary on the 
passage Siya«a makes the same statement. Govinda adds that in 
this case as well as in those mentioned in the following Sutras the 
regular marriage ceremony must be performed later. 

6. VasishMa 1, 33. 7. Vasishrta 1, 35. 

8. Vasish/Aa I, 34. 9. Vishmi XXIV, 26. 

10. Vish«u XXIV, 27. 

12. Vishmi XXIV, 28; Vasish/Aa I, 29, 34. The meaning of 
the last clause is that as, according to 1, 10, 18, 3, Brahman placed 
power in the Kshatriyas, they may adopt marriage rites by which 
a disregard of conventionalities or strength is displayed. 

Digitized by 


I, ii, 21. MARRIAGE. 20/ 

13. The fifth and the eighth (are lawful) for 
Vaijyas and .Sudras. 

14. For VaLyyas and .Sudras are not particular 
about their wives, 

15. Because they are allowed (to subsist by such 
low occupations as) husbandry and service. 

16. Some recommend the Gandharva rite for all 
(castes), because it is based on (mutual) affection. 

Prasna I, Adhyaya 11, KawdikA 21. 

i. The Veda declares, ' The quality of the offspring 
depends on the quality of the marriage rite.' 

2. Now they quote also (the following verses) : 
' It is declared that a female who has been pur- 
chased for money is not a wife. She cannot (assist) 
at sacrifices offered to the gods or the manes. 
Ka^yapa has stated that she is a slave.' 

13. 'I.e. the fifth for Vawyas and the eighth for .Sudras.' — 

14. 'Those whose spouse, i.e. wife, is not restrained, i.e. not 
fixed by rule, are called not particular about their wives. The 
meaning is that there is oneness (d&reshvaikyam) with respect to 
wives, that fixed rules regarding them there are none (niyamas 
teshaw na bhavati).'— Govinda. 

15. '"Husbandry" includes also trade and the like. Because 
those two (castes) are permitted to pursue low occupations, there- 
fore their marriage rites are of the same description. That is 
what the author intends to say.' — Govinda. 

21. 1. Apastamba II, 5, 12, 4. 

2. Vasish/Aa 1,-36-38. Govinda inserts after the words ' Now 
they quote also,' two Sutras in prose: 1. 'Ten virtuous sons and 
daughters (spring) from a Daiva marriage, ten from a Pri^ipatya 
marriage. It is declared in the Veda that the son of a wife wedded 
according to the Brahma rite (sanctifies) ten ancestors, ten de- 
scendants, and oneself.' 2. ' The power of learning the Veda also 

Digitized by 


2o8 baudhAyana. I, ii, 21. 

3. ' Those wicked men who, seduced by greed, 
give away a daughter for a fee, who (thus) sell 
themselves and commit a great crime, fall (after 
death) into a dreadful place of punishment and 
destroy their family down to the seventh (genera- 
tion). Moreover they will repeatedly die and be 
born again. All (this) is declared (to happen), if 
a fee (is taken).' 

4. On the day of the full moon, on the eighth day 
(of each half month), on the day of the new moon, 
on the appearance of a meteor, on the occasion of 
an earthquake, on visiting a burial-ground, and on 
the death of the king of the. country, of a .Srotriya 
or of one who has the same Guru (satlrthya), the 
study of the Veda must be discontinued for a day 
and a night. 

5. (The study of the Veda must be interrupted) 
while (a strong) wind (blows), a foul smell (is per- 
ceptible), or hoar-frost (lies on the ground), when 
dancing (is going on), and while the sounds of 
singing, musical instruments, weeping, or of the 
Saman (melodies are audible). 

6. When thunder, lightning, and rain come toge- 
ther, (the interruption shall last) three days except 
in the rainy season. 

belongs to such sons.' None of my MSS. of the text has these 
words, and they are suspicious, because the phrase 'Now they 
quote also' usually precedes verses only. The Dekhan and 
Gigar&t MSS., except K., omit these and the next Sutra too. 

4. Vasish//4a XIII, 22, 32-35 ; Vishwu XXX, 23. Govinda ex- 
plains agnyutpata, ' on the appearance of meteor,' by ' if a fire 
breaks out in the village.' 

5. Vasish/Aa XIII, 17, 30; Vishmi XXX, 7, 13 ; Apastamba I, 
3,11,31; I, 3, io, 17. 

6. Gautama XVI, 41. 

Digitized by 




7. In the rainy season, too, (the reading must 6e~ 
interrupted) until the same hour of the (next) day 
or night, (if thunder and lightning come together), 
not on account of rain. 

8. If (he has) received anything or dined on the 
occasion of a sacrifice in honour of the manes, (he 
shall not read) during the remainder of the day, 

9. (Nor) after meals until (the food) has been 

10. For the hand of a Brahma«a is his mouth. 

11. Now they quote also (the following verse): 
' According to the revealed texts there is no differ- 
ence whether one has eaten or received (a present 
at a Sraddha).' 

12. (A student shall discontinue the study of the 
Veda) during three days in case his father has died. 

13. 'Of two kinds, forsooth, is the virile energy 
of a famous Br£hma#a who is learned in the Vedas, 
(that which resides) above the navel and the other 
(that resides) below the navel. Through that which 

7. Govinda takes ahoratrayoj ka. tatkalam to mean until the end 
of the day or night. 

8. Vasish/Aa XIII, 15. Govinda adds that the recitation must 
be stopped as soon as the invitation to a .Sraddha is received. 

9. VasishMa XIII, 31. 

10. VasishMa XIII, 16. The word 'for' used in this Sutra 
gives the reason for the rule in Sutra 8. 

12. ' This (rule) refers to a student who has not returned home. 
But on one who has returned home it is obligatory to interrupt 
the Veda-study until he becomes pure. Here he calls the sub- 
teacher (upadhy&ya) " father," because he gives the Veda. For (an 
interruption of) twelve days' duration is prescribed on (the death of) 
a real father (by the Sutra); " on the death of the mother, the father, 
and the teacher twelve days." ' — Govinda. 

13. Vasish/fta II, 5. This Sutra is intended to show how the 

[i4] P 

Digitized by 



(resides) above the navel, his offspring is produced 
when he initiates Brahma#as, when he teaches them, 
when he causes them to offer sacrifices, when he 
makes them holy. All these are his children. But 
through that which resides below the navel the 
children of his body are produced. Therefore they 
never say to a -Srotriya who is versed in the Vedas, 
' Thou art destitute of offspring.' 

14. ' Therefore a Brahma#a has two names, two 
mouths, two kinds of virile energy, and two births.' 

15. (Let him discontinue the recitation of the 
Veda) as long as he is within hearing or sight of 
.Sudras and Apapatras. 

16. When at night the howl of a solitary jackal 
is heard, he shall not study until he has slept. 

1 7. Let him not study in the evening and morn- 
ing twilights nor on the Parva-days. 

18. He shall not eat meat nor approach his wife 
(on those days). 

19. It is declared in the Veda, ' For on the 
Parva-days the Rakshasas and the PLya&is roam 
about (in order to injure men).' 

20. And on (the appearance of) other omens and 
portents (he shall not repeat the Veda), except 
mentally, during a day and a night. 

Up&dhySya can be called a father. Govinda states that the pre- 
cise meaning of anu££na, ' versed or learned in the Veda,' is ' one 
who knows the Veda, its meaning, and the.Aiigas.' See also 
Baudh&yana Gnhya-sutra 1, 10, 5. 

15. Vasish/Aa XVIII, 12. Regarding the term Apapitras, see 
Apastamba 1, 1, 3, 25 note. 

16. Apastamba I, 3, 10, 17. 

17. Vasish//ia XIII, 22. The explanation of the term Parva- 
day is given below, Sutra 22. 

18. Vishwu LXIX, 1. 

Digitized by 


II, i, I. PENANCES. 2 1 1 

21. The mental recitation of the Veda must also 
be interrupted on births and deaths (occurring in 
the family). 

22. Now they quote also (the following verse) : 
'The eighth day destroys the teacher, the four- 
teenth destroys the pupil, the fifteenth destroys 
learning ; therefore let him avoid (studying the Veda) 
on the Parva-days.' 


i. Now, therefore, the penances (will be de- 

2. The murderer of a learned Brahma#a (shall 
practise the following vow) during twelve years : 

3. Carrying a skull (instead of a dish) and the 
foot of a bedstead (instead of a staff), dressed in the 
hide of an ass, staying in the forest, making a dead 
man's skull his flag, he shall cause a hut to be built 
in a burial-ground and reside there ; going to seven 
houses in order to beg food, while proclaiming his 
deed, he shall support life with what (he gets there), 
and shall fast if he obtains nothing ; 

4. Or he may offer a horse-sacrifice, a Gosava, or 
an Agnish/ut ; 

22. Vishwu XXX, 29-30. In accordance with the practice 
usual in Vedic works the best MSS. of the text repeat the begin- 
ning of each KatuRki at the end of the Prama, giving the last first. 

1. 2-3. Gautama XXII, 4-6; Vishwu L, 1-3, 15. The ex- 
pression 'staying in the forest' means that the sinner shall not 
stop in the village or the fields during the day-time, but live in some 
uncultivated tract in the neighbourhood. 

4. Gautama XIX, 9-10. The Gosava sacrifice is an Ekaha; 
see Katyayana Srauta Sutra XXII, n, 3. 

P 2 

Digitized by 


212 BAUDHAYANA. 11,1,1. 

5. Or he may bathe (with the priests) on the 
completion of a horse-sacrifice (offered by somebody 

6. Now they quote also (the following verses) : ' He 
who unintentionally slays a Brahmawa becomes sinful 
according to the sacred law. The sages declare 
that he may be purified (if he did it) unintentionally. 
But no expiation is found for a wilful murderer.' 

7. ' He who has raised his hand (against a Brah- 
ma»a), shall perform a YLrikkhxz. penance, an Atikri&- 
khra. penance if he strikes, a Krtkkhra. and a Aan- 
drayawa if blood flows. Therefore let him neither 
raise his hand nor cause blood to flow.' 

8. (For killing) a Kshatriya (he shall keep the 
normal vow of continence) during nine years, 

9. (For killing) a VaLyya during three (years), 

10. (For killing) a .Sudra during one year, 

11. Likewise for killing a woman. 

12. (The penance for killing) a woman who has 
bathed after temporary uncleanness (is) the same 
(as that) for (the murder of) a Brahma»a. 

5. Gautama XXII, 9. 6. Manu XI, 90. 

7. Ya^wavalkya III, 293. Regarding the penances named, see 
Vasish/fta XXI, 20, XXIV, 1-2, XXIII, 45, and below, II, 1, 2, 38, 
IV, 5, 6. 

8-10. Vasish/^a XX, 31-33. The words ' shall keep the normal 
vow of continence' have been inserted in accordance with Go- 
vinda's explanation, which apparently is based on Gautama XXII, 
14. But it is also possible that Baudhayana, like Vishmi (L, 15) 
and others, may have intended murderers of Kshatriyas, Vauyas, 
&c, too, to perform the penance prescribed above, Sutra 4, only 
for shorter periods. 

11. Gautama XXII, 17. Govinda is of opinion that the word 
£a, 'likewise,' is intended to include 'worthless' Kshatriyas and 

12. Vasish/Aa XX, 34-35. 

Digitized by 


11,1,1. PENANCES. 213 

13. He who has defiled the bed of a Guru shall 
place himself on a heated iron bed, 

14. Or embrace a red hot image (of a woman), 

15. Or cutting off his organ together with the 
testicles and holding them in his joined hands, he 
shall walk towards the south-west until he falls down 

16. A thief shall go to the king with flying hair, 
carrying on his shoulder a club of Sindhraka wood 
(and say), 'Strike me with that' (Then the king) 
shall strike him. 

1 7. Now they quote also (the following verses) : 
' A thief shall go to the king carrying a club on his 
shoulder (and say to him), ' Punish me with that, 
O king, remembering the duty of Kshatriyas.' 

' Whether he be punished or be pardoned, the 
thief is freed from his guilt. But if the king does 
not punish him, that guilt of the thief falls on him.' 

18. If he has drunk (the spirituous liquor called) 
Sura, he shall scald himself to death with hot 
(liquor of the) same (kind). 

19. For unintentionally drinking (Sura), he shall 
perform Krt&Mra penances during three months and 
be initiated again, 

20. And (on this second initiation) the cutting (of 

13-15. Gautama XXIII, 8-10 ; Vasish/Aa XX, 13, 14. 

16. Vasish/Aa XX, 41. 'A thief,' i. e. one who has stolen gold 
from a Brahma«a. 

17. Apastamba I, 9, 25, 4-5. 

18. Vasish/tfa XX, 22. Sura, i. e. the spirituous liquor extracted 
from rice, to drink which is considered a particularly heinous 
crime. Vasish/Aa XX, 19, and loc. cit 

19. Vasish/Aa XX, 19. 

20. Vishwu LI, 5. The vows and restrictive rules, i. e. the 
Savitrya vow, begging, &c. 

Digitized by 



the hair and nails), the vows, and (the observance 
of the) restrictive rules may be omitted. 

21. Now they quote also (the following verses): 
' A Brahmawa, Kshatriya, or Vaijya who has un- 
intentionally drunk (the spirituous liquor called) 
Varu»t or has swallowed urine or faeces must be 
initiated a second time.' 

22. ' But he who drinks water which has stood 
in a vessel, used for keeping Sura, shall live six 
days on milk in which (leaves of) the .Sankhapushpl 
plant have been boiled.' 

23. If (a pupil) who is employed by his teacher 
(on some errand) meets with his death, (the teacher) 
shall perform three "Krikkhrz. penances. 

24. The same (penance) is prescribed for not 
finishing (the education of the pupil). 

25. If a student assists at the burial of anybody 
except (at that of his) mother, of his father, or of 
his teacher, he must begin his vow afresh. 

26. If a (student) is sick, he may, at his pleasure, 
eat all the fragments of his teacher's meal as 

27. He may physic himself with any (medicine) 
which he may desire. 

21. Vishflu LI, 2-4. 22. Vishwu LI, 23. 

23. Vasish/Aa XXIII, 10. 

24. 'Finishing (the education of the pupil, sawskrrtam), i.e. 
teaching him the rules of purification, of conduct, and so forth ; 
failing (to do) that (is called) not finishing (the education of the 
pupil). For that (omission) the same (penance), i. e. three KrikMias 
(are to be) performed.' — Govinda. 

25. Vasish/Aa XXIII, 7-8. ' Assists at a burial (savakarma), i. e. 
lays out a corpse, and so forth (alas»kara»£di), or carries it out, 
and so forth.' — Govinda. 

26. Vasish/Aa XXIII, 9, and note. 

27. ' The meaning is that he may cure himself even with such 

Digitized by 


II, I, I. PENANCES. 2 1 5 

28. When he is unable to move, he may worship 
the sun, after he has risen, reciting this (Jtik verse) : 
' A swan, dwelling in purity.' 

29. When he has spent his manly strength in the 
day-time, let him thrice drink water that reaches his 
heart, reciting the verses which contain the word 

30. A student who approaches a woman (is called) 
an Avakirain, 

31. Let him offer an ass (in the place of) a sacri- 
ficial animal. 

32. The sacrificial meat-cake (puroa&ya shall be 
offered) to Nirrzti, or to the Rakshasas, or to 

33. It is declared in the Veda, ' The piece to be 
eaten by the sacrificer (prasitra, shall be taken) 
from the organ (of the animal) ; and the (other) por- 
tions shall be offered in water.' 

34. ' Or he may also heap (fuel) on the fire in the 
night of the new moon, perform the preparatory 
rites required for the Darvihoma, and offer two 

(substances) which are forbidden even to his teacher, e. g. garlic, 
and so forth.' For a Smr/'ti declares, ' He shall protect himself by 
every means.' — Govinda. 

28. 'Unable to move,' i.e. sick. This is a penance to be per- 
formed by a sick student when he is unable to fulfil the rules 
enjoining the morning and evening prayers, and the like ; and it 
applies to other men also because there is no objection. Regarding 
the Mantra, see Taittirtya Sawhita I, 8, 15, 2. 

29. The rule refers to intercourse with a wife in the day-time ; see 
Vishwu LIII, 4. The Retasyas occur Taittirtya Ara»yaka I, 30. 

30. Vasish/Aa XXIII, 1. 

33. Weber, Ind. Stud. X, 102 ; Kityayana Srauta Sutra 1, 1, 15. 

34. Taitt.Ara»yakaII,i8. TheArawyaka has, more appropriately, 
prawfya, ' having taken out,' before upasamadhaya, ' may heap (fuel) 
upon.' The Dekhan and Gujarat MSS. insert the words ' amn'taw 

Digitized by 


216 baudhAyana. II, I, I. 

oblations of clarified butter (reciting these two sacred 
texts) : " O Lust, I have broken my vow ; my vow 
have I broken, O Lust; to Lust Svaha;" " O Lust, 
I have done evil ; evil have I done, O Lust ; to 
Lust Svaha.'" 

35. 'After he has made the offering, he shall 
address the fire, closely joining his hands, turning 
sideways (with the following texts) : " May the Maruts 
grant me, may Indra, may Brzhaspati, may this fire 
grant me long life and strength, may it make me 
long-lived ! " ' 

36. Now the relatives shall empty (the water-pot) 
of a (grievous offender) at a (solemn) meeting (and 
he shall confess), 'I N. N. am (the perpetrator of) 
such and such (a deed).' After (the outcast) has 
performed (his penance) the Brahmawas shall ask 
him who has touched water, milk, clarified butter, 
honey, and salt,' Hast thou performed (thy penance)?' 
The other (person) shall answer, ' Om ' (yes) ! They 
shall admit him who has performed (a penance) to all 
sacrificial rites, making no difference (between him 
and others). 

37. If he unintentionally marries a female who 
belongs to his . own family (gotra), he shall support 
her, (treating her) like his mother. 

v& a^yam amn'tam evatman dhatte,' which occur also in the Ara- 
wyaka, after the Mantra. According to Govinda pari^esh/a, ' pre- 
paratory rites,' refers to the consecration of the clarified butter, 
and so forth. The special rules regarding the Darvlhomas are 
given Katyayana .Srauta Sutra VI, ro, 17 seq. 

36. Vasish/4a XV, 12-21. Govinda thinks that nirvi.resha/» 
savaniyam kuryu£, 'they shall admit him to all sacrificial rites, 
making no difference,' may also be interpreted by 'they shall 
perform for him the sacraments just as for a new-born child.' 

37. ColebrookeV, Dig. CCCXL. 

Digitized by 


II, 1, a. PENANCES. 2 I 7 

38. If (such a woman) has borne a child, he shall 
perform Krt&Mra. penances during three months and 
offer (two burnt oblations reciting) the two (Mantras), 
' That which is the blemish of my soul ' (and) ' Fire 
restored my sight.' 

39. 'An elder brother whose younger brother 
marries first, the younger brother who marries first, 
the damsel wedded (by the latter), he who gives her 
away, and fifthly he who sacrifices for them (at the 
wedding), all sink to a region of torment.' 

40. ' The unmarried elder brother and the married 
younger brother, the giver (of the maiden) and the 
performer of the sacrifices become pure by under- 
going a Krt&Mra. penance of twelve days, the female 
(who has been wedded to the younger brother) by 
(fasting during) three days.' 

Prasna II, Adhyaya 1, KandikX 2. 

1. Now (follow the offences) causing loss of caste 

2. (Viz.) making voyages by sea, 

38. The Mantras are found, Taittirlya SawhitS III, 2, 5, 4. 

39. Vasish//4a XX, 7-8. The MSS. read parivittiA parivettd 
yar £ain&w [nam] parivindati. But it is absolutely necessary to 
adopt either the various reading given Manu III, 172, yay£ kz 
parividyate, or to read ya kaixi&m parivindati. 

40. The MSS. all read at the end of the verse, tristrirStrewa or 
dvistriratre»a. The correct reading appears, however, to be strl 
triratre«a ; for Govinda says, yay£ saha parivetta bhutas [bhuttasya 
C. I., bhutassastri C. T] tasySs trir&trewopavasena fuddhiA, ' the 
purification of that female with whom he has become a parivettrt 
takes place through three days, i. e. through fasting (three days).' 

2. 1. Apastamba I, 7, 21, 7-1 1. 

2. Govinda explains samudrasawyinam, 'making voyages by 
sea,' by 'voyaging by means of ships to another continent (dvlpa).' 

Digitized by 


2 1 8 baudhAyana. n, i, 2. 

3. Stealing the property of a Brahmawa or a 

4. Giving false evidence regarding land, 

. 5. Trading with merchandise of any description 
' (whether forbidden or not), 

|/ v 6. Serving .Sudras, 

i 7. Begetting a son on a female of the .Sudra caste, 

1 8. And becoming thereby her son. 

9. (For those who have) committed one of these 
(offences the following penance is prescribed) : 

10. ' They shall eat every fourth meal-time a little 
food, bathe at the time of the three libations (morn- 
ing, noon, and evening), passing (the day) standing 
and (the night) sitting. After the lapse of three 
years they throw off their guilt.' 

11. 'A Brahma»a removes the sin which he com- 
mitted by serving the black race during one day and 

j one night, if he bathes during three years at every 
j fourth meal-time.' 

7. The MSS. from Gujarat and the Dekhan read instead of 
this and the next Sutras, yar&t judrayam abhipra^ayate tadapatya/n 
kz bhavati, ' and he who begets (offspring) on a Sudra female, and 
thereby becomes her son.' 

8. Govinda explains the Sutra as a prohibition against allowing 
oneself to be adopted by a Sudra (fudraputrabh&vaA I tavaham 
putro 'smity upa^ivanam). 

9. The Dekhan and Gujarat MSS. again have a different 
reading, teshSw tu nisveshaA, ' but the atonement of these offences 
(is as follows).' 

10. Apastamba I, 9, 25, 10. All the MSS. read in the last 
pada ' tribhir varshais tad apahanti papam.' The correct reading 
is that given by Apastamba loc. cit, ' tribhir varshair apa papam 

n. Apastamba I, 9, 27, 11. Govinda explains the Sutra as 
referring to CQhabitation with a female of the * black race.' By 
the latter term he understands a KindiW, adding that others believe 

Digitized by 


11,1,3. PENANCES. 219 

12. Now (follow) the minor offences, entailing 
loss of caste (upapataka), 

1 3. (Viz.) intercourse with females who must not 
be approached (agamya, e. g.) cohabitation with the 
female friend of a female Guru, with the female 
friend of a male Guru, with an Apapatra woman, and 

|a female outcast, following the profession of medi- 
Jcine, sacrificing for many, living by (performances 
: on) the stage, following the profession of a teacher 
;of dancing, singing and acting, tending cows and 
i buffalos, and similar (low occupations, as well as) 
* fornication. 

14. The expiation (prescribed) for these (offences 
is) to live as an outcast during two years. 

a .Sudra female to be intended. It is, however, more probable 
that Baudhayana took the verse to forbid twice-born men to serve 

12. Apastamba I, 7, 21, 9. 

13. Gautama XXI, n. In explanation of the term agamya\ 
' a female who must not be approached,' Govinda quotes N£rada 
XII, 73-74, and he takes the four classes of females, who are 
specially mentioned, not as examples illustrating the term agamyS, 
but as not included in and additional to the latter. Physicians and 
the other professional men enumerated are usually not mentioned 
among the upapatakins, but occur in the lists of those whose gifts 
must not be accepted, and of those who defile the company at 
a funeral dinner, e.g. Vasish/Aa III, 3; XIV, 2, 3, 11. The ex- 
pression 'sacrificing for many' (grdmaya^anam) appears to be 
a description of the so-called Ya^amana VWtti, by which the 
modern Bha/Za^ts, or priests who officiate for hire, subsist. In 
explanation of the term naVydMryati, ' following the profession of 
teaching dancing, music, and acting,' Govinda says that ' instruc- 
tion in the works of Bharata, VMkhila, and others' is intended. 
Baudhiyana no doubt intends to forbid the instruction of profes- 
sional dancers and actors in actual works on their art, such as 
the n£/ya-sutras mentioned by Pacini. 

14. 'To live as an outcast, i.e. to subsist by begging.' — Govinda. 

Digitized by 



220 BAUDHAYANA. II, I, i. 

15. Now (follow the offences) which make men 
impure (amiikara), 

16. (Viz.) gambling, performing incantations, sub- 
sisting by gleaning corn though one does not per- 
form an Agnihotra, subsisting by alms after one has 
finished one's studentship, living, after that has been 
finished, longer than four months in the house of 
one's teacher, and teaching such a (person who has 
finished his studentship), gaining one's livelihood by 
astrology and so forth. 

17. But the expiation of these (offences is to per- 
form penances) during twelve months, during twelve 
fortnights, during twelve times ten days, during 
twelve se'nnights, during twelve times three days, 
during twelve days, during six days, during three 
days, during a day and a night, during one day, in 
proportion to the offence committed. 

r 18. Now outcasts shall live together and (toge- 
ther) fulfil their duties, sacrificing for each other, teach- 
ing each other, and marrying amongst each other. If 
they have begot sons, they shall say to them, ' Depart 
from among us ; thus you will again reach the Aryas.' 

19. For the organs do not become impure toge- 
ther with the man. 

20. (The truth of) that may be learned from this 
(parallel case); a man deficient in limbs begets a son 
who has the full number of limbs. 

21. Harlta declares that this is wrong. 

22. For wives may be (considered) similar to the 

15. Apastamba I, 7, 21, 12-19 > I» 10 > 2 9> r 5- 

16. Govinda is probably right in asserting that the word £a, ' and 
(so forth),' is intended to include other not-named offences. 

17. Apastamba 1, 10, 29, 17-18. 
18-23. Apastamba 1, 10, 29, 8-14. 

Digitized by 


11,1,2, PENANCES. 221 

vessel which contains the curds (for the sacrifice). 
If one makes impure milk curdle in a milk- vessel 
and stirs it, the .Sish/as do not use the (curds thus 
produced) for sacred rites. 

23. In like manner no intercourse can be held 
with that (offspring) which is produced from impure 

24. If they desire it, (they may perform) a penance, 

25. (Viz. in the case of males) the third part (of 
the penance prescribed) for crimes causing loss of 
caste (pataniya); for females the third part (of that). 

26. Now they quote also (the following verse): 
' If he applies sesamum to any other purpose, but 
food, anointing, and charitable gifts, he will be born 
again as a worm and, together with his ancestors, 
be plunged into the ordure of dogs.' 

27. He who sells sesamum, forsooth, sells his 
ancestors ; he who sells rice, forsooth, sells his life ; 
he who gives away his daughter, making a bargain, 
forsooth, sells portions of his spiritual merit. 

28. Grass and wood, in its natural state, may 
be sold. 

29. Now they quote also (the following verse): 
'Animals that have teeth in one jaw only, as well as 
minerals excepting salt, and undyed thread, these, 
O Brahma#a, are the goods which thou art permitted 
to sell.' 

30. (If he has committed) any offence excepting a 

25. I. e. males shall live, according to the rules given above in 
Sfitras io-n, during one year, and females during four months. 

26. Vasish/fta II, 30. 28. Apastamba I, 7, 21, 2. 

29. The permission to sell 'stones' or minerals contradicts 
Vasish/jia II, 24. 

30. Regarding the definition of the term 'anui&na,' see above, 

Digitized by 


222 BAUDHAVANA. 11,1,2. 

mortal sin (pataka) he may either give to a learned 
Brahma»a (anft^ana) a hairy cow of brown or red- 
dish colour, after sprinkling her with clarified butter 
and scattering black sesamum seeds over her ; 

31. Or (he may offer burnt oblations), reciting 
the Kushma»das, during twelve days. 

32. '(Thus) he will be freed from the guilt (of 
any crime that is) less (heinous) than the murder 
of a learned Brahma«a.' 

33. If one is accused of a mortal sin (pataka), 
a Y^rikkhra. (penance must be performed by the 

34. The accuser (shall perform) that (YLrikkkrz 
penance during) a year. 

35. 'He who during a year associates with an 
outcast, becomes (likewise) an outcast ; not by sacri- 
ficing for him, by teaching him or by (forming) a 
matrimonial (alliance with him), but by using the 
same carriage or seat' 

36. The penance for eating impure substances 
is to fast until the entrails are empty. That is 
attained in seven (days and) nights. 

31. Regarding the efficacy of the Ktishma«<fa texts, see e.g. 
Gautama XIX, 12 ; XXII, 36. 

33. Vasishtfa XXIII, 37-38. 34. Vasishtfa XXIII, 39. 

35. VasishMa I, 22. 

36. Apastamba I, 9, 27, 3-4; Vasish/Aa XXIII, 30. I follow 
here the Gujarat and Dekhan MSS., which read amedhyaprlrane 
prayar&ttir naishpurfshyaw tat saptaratre«avapyate. M. and the 
two MSS. of the commentary give amedhyaprlrane prayariittam 
and leave the remainder out. The commentary states that the 
penance intended is the TaptakrzX^ra, described in the next 
Sutra. The parallel passages of Apastamba and others leave no 
doubt that the northern MSS. in this case have preserved the 
older form of the text 

Digitized by 


11,1,2. PENANCES. 223 

37. (Subsisting on) water, milk, clarified butter, 
(and) fasting, — each for three days, — (and taking the 
three fluids) hot, that is a Taptaikri&Mra. penance. 

38. (Eating) during three days in the morning 
only, during the (next) three days in the evening 
only, (subsisting) during (another) three days (on) 
food given unasked, and fasting during three days, 
(that is) a KriMAra. penance. 

39. (If the period of twelve days is divided into) 
three (periods of) four days, that is the Kri&Mra. 
penance of women, children, and aged men. 

40. If (observing the rule given) above one eats 
(at each meal) so much only as one can take at one 
(mouthful), that is an AtikWiiAra penance. 

41. (If one) subsists on water only, that is a 
Krikkhrktikrikkhra., the third (in the order of the 
"Krikkkra. penances). 

42. During a YLrikkhra. penance (the following 
rules must be followed, viz.) to bathe at morn, 
noon, and evening, 

43. To sleep on the ground, 

44. To wear one garment only, to shave the hair 
of the head, of the beard, and of the body, and to 
clip the nails. 

45. The same (rules apply) to women except 
(that referring to) shaving the head. 

37. Vasish/Aa XXI, 21. 

38. Vasish/Aa XXI, 20. M. and the two MSS. of the com- 
mentary omit the word ' l&rikkhrzh' at the end of the Sutra. 

39. Vasishtfa XXIII, 43. 40. Vasish/fla XXIV, 2. 
41. Vasish/Aa XXIV, 3. Govinda gives another explanation of 

the word tn'ttyaA, ' the third,' according to which it is to refer to 
the third tryahaA, or ' period of three days.' 
42-44. Vasish/fa XXIV, 4-5. 

Digitized by 


224 baudhAyana. II, 2, 3, 

Prasna II, AdhyAya 2, KanbikA 3. 

1. A Brihma«a who always carries water (in his 
pot), who always wears the sacred thread, who daily 
recites the Veda, who avoids the food of .Sudras, who 
approaches (his wife) in the proper season, and offers 
sacrifices in accordance with the rules (of the Veda, 
after death) never falls from Brahman's heaven. 

2. The Veda (says), ' Manu divided his estate 
/among his sons.' 

3. (A father may, therefore, divide his property) 
equally among all, without (making any) difference ; 

4. Or the eldest may receive the most excellent 
! chattel. 

5. (For) the Veda says, 'Therefore, they dis- 
tinguish the eldest by (an additional share of the) 

6. Or the eldest may receive (in excess) one part 
out of ten ; 

7. (And) the other (sons) shall receive equal 

8. While the father lives, the division of the 
estate takes place (only) with the permission of the 

3. 1. Vasish/ftaVIII, 17. 

2. Taittirtya Sawhiti III, 1, 9, 4. 

3. Colebrooke V, Dig. XL. Govinda points out that this rule 
refers to sons equal by caste, origin, "and virtue. 

4. Colebrooke, loc. cit. ; Vishmi XVIII, 37. 

5. Taittirtya Sawhiti II, 5, 2, 7. See also the discussion on 
this text, Apastamba II, 6, 14, 10-13. 

6. Colebrooke, loc. cit. ; Vasish/Aa XVII, 43. 

7. Colebrooke, loc. cit. ; Gautama XXVIII, 8. 

8. Colebrooke V, Dig. XXII ; Diyabhiga II, 8. In C.'s Digest 

Digitized by 


11,2,3- INHERITANCE. 225 

9. The (additional) share of the eldest is, (accord- 
ing to the order) of the four castes, a cow, a horse, 
a goat, and a sheep. 

10. If there are sons born of wives of different 
castes (varaa), they should make ten portions of the 
ancestral property and take four (shares), three, two, 
(and) one, according to the order (of the castes). 

11. But if a legitimate son of the body (aurasa) 
is born, the (other) sons of equal caste shall obtain 
one third share (of the estate). 

12. If there is a son of equal caste and a son of 

the first clause is omitted and connected with the following Sutra. 
Govinda agrees with (rimutav&hana. 

9. Colebrooke V, Dig. XLIX. The rule is an explanation of 
the term vara/w rupam, ' the most excellent chattel,' in Sutra 4. 
The meaning probably is, as the Digest states, that among Br&h- 
ma»as it is usual to give to the eldest a bull, among Kshatriyas a 
horse, and so forth. 

10. Vasish/fla XVII, 48-go; Vish«u XVIII, 2-40; where the 
several cases that can arise have been fully worked out. 

11. I translate according to the reading of K., M., and the two 
MSS. of the commentary, aurase tutpanne savar«3s [°«as, M., K.] 
tritiy&msa.h&r&A ^y&ms&m haret, K.] The other MSS. omit the 
last two words of the Sutra. The sense of the Sutra seems to be, 
that subsidiary sons of equal caste obtain a third of the estate 
when a legitimate son of the body is born to their father ; see also 
Kityiyana V, Dig. CCXVIII. Govinda gives the following expla- 
nation : aurasaA savar«aputra\? Aa. vakshyante 1 aurasaA savar«ayiw? 
sawskrj'taySw svayam utpMtai [Sutra 14] 1 tasminnutpanne savar- 
«&s tn'tiyi/H.rahara' bhaveyuA 1 sarvaw dhana^itaw tredhi vibha^ya 
tesham ekaw sho<fara sawpSdya trln dv&vekam iti kalpayet 11 ' The 
legitimate son and the sons of equal caste will be described (below). 
He is called a legitimate son who is begotten by the husband him- 
self on a wedded wife of equal caste. When such a one is born, 
the (other) sons of equal caste shall obtain one third share. Divid- 
ing the whole property into three parts, and making one of them 
sixteen (?), he shall give three, two, one.' — Govinda. 

12. Colebrooke V, Dig. CLVII; Dayabhlga IX, 15. 

Cm] Q 

Digitized by 


226 baudhAyana. n, a, 3. 

a wife of the next lower caste, the son born of the 
wife of the next lower caste may take the share 
of the eldest, provided he be endowed with good 

13. (A son) who possesses good qualities becomes 
the protector of the rest. 

14. One must know a son begotten by (the hus- 
band) himself on a wedded wife of equal caste (to be) 
a legitimate son of the body (aurasa). 

Now they quote also (the following verse) : ' From 
the several limbs (of my body) art thou pro- 
duced, from my heart art thou born; thou art 
"self" called a son; mayest thou live a hundred 

15. The (male child) born of a daughter, after an 
agreement has been made, (one must know to be) 
the son of an appointed daughter (putrikaputra) ; 
any other (male offspring of a daughter they call) 
a daughter's son (dauhitra). 

16. Now they quote also (the following verse): 
' The son of an appointed daughter should offer the 
first funeral cake to his mother, the second to her 
father, and the third to his father's father.' 

17. He who is begotten, by another man, on the 
wife of a deceased man, of a eunuch, or of one 
(incurably) diseased, after permission (has been 
given), is called the son begotten on a wife 

13. Colebrooke, loc. cit. 

14. Colebrooke V, Dig. CXCVI; Vasish/Aa XVII, 13. The 
verse is found in the Mahabharata and elsewhere. 

15. Colebrooke V, Dig. CCXIII ; Vasish/tfa XVII, 15-17. 

17. Colebrooke V, Dig. CCXXXVII; Dayabhaga II, 60; Va- 
sish/tfa XVII, 14. 

Digitized by 


11,2,3' INHERITANCE. 227 

1 8. Such a (son begotten on a wife) has two 
fathers and belongs to two families ; he has a right 
to perform the funeral oblations, and to inherit the 
property of (his) two (fathers). 

19. Now they quote also (the following verse) : 
' The son of two fathers shall give the funeral cakes 
(to his two fathers, and pronounce) two names with 
each oblation, and three cakes shall serve for six 
persons ; he who acts thus will not err.' 

20. He (is called) an adopted son (datta) who, 
being given by his father and his mother, or by 
either, of the two, is received in the place of a 

21. He (is called) a son made (kmrima) whom 
(a man) himself makes (his son), with the (adoptee's) 
consent (only), and who belongs to the same caste 
(as the adopter). 

22. He is called a son born secretly { 
who is secretly born in the house and whose (origin 
is) afterwards (only) recognised. 

23. He is called a son cast off (apaviddha) who, 
being cast off by his father and his mother, or 
by either (of them), is received in the place of 
a child. 

24. If anybody approaches an unmarried girl 
without the permission (of her father or guardian), 
the son born by such (a woman is called) the son of 
an unmarried damsel (kanlna). 

18. Colebrooke Dig., loc. cit. 20. Vasish/$a XVII, 28. 

. 21. Colebrooke V, Dig. CCLXXXIV; Gautama XXVIII, 32. 

22. Vasish//5a XVII, 24. 23. Vishwu XV, 24-25. 

24. Colebrooke V, Dig. CCLXI; Vasish/Aa XVII, 21-23. It 
must be understood that the father must belong to the same caste 
as the girl. 


Digitized by 


228 BAUDHAYANA. 11,2,3- 

25. If one marries either knowingly or unknow- 
ingly a pregnant bride, the child which is born of 
her is called (a son) taken with the bride (sahod^a). 

26. He (is called a son) bought (krtta) who, being 
purchased from his father and his mother, or from 
either of them, is received in the place of a child. 

27. He (is called the son) of a twice-married 
woman (paunarbhava) who is born of a re-married 
female, (i. e.) of one who, having left an impotent 
man, has taken a second husband. 

28. He (is called) a self-given (son, svaya*»- 
datta) who, abandoned by his father and his mother, 
gives himself (to a stranger). 

29. He who is begotten by (a man of) the first 
twice-born (caste) on a female of the *S"udra caste 
(is called) a Nishada. 

30. (He who was begotten by the same parents) 
through lust (is called) a Pararava. Thus (the 
various kinds of) sons (have been enumerated). 

31. Now they quote also (the following verses): 
'They declare the legitimate son, the son of an 
appointed daughter, the son begotten on a wife, the 
adopted son and the son made, the son born secretly 
and the son cast off, (to be entitled) to share the 

32. ' They declare the son of an unmarried damsel 
and the son received with the bride, the son bought, 

25. Vasish//&a XVII, 27. 

26. ColebrookeV, Dig. CCLXXXI; Vasish/fo XVII, 30-32. 

27. Vasish/Aa XVII, 18-20. 28. Vasish/Aa XVII, 33-35. 

30. Colebrooke V, Dig. CCXCIII. Govinda points out that the 
P&rarava is, according to Baudhayana, the offspring of a 5udra 
concubine, not of a .Sudrd wife. But see also above, I, 9, 17, 4. 

31. ColebrookeV, Dig. CLXXX; Vasish/Aa XVII, 25. 

32. ColebrookeV, Dig. CLXXIX; Vasish/Aa XVII, 26. 

Digitized by 


IT, l, 3. INHERITANCE. 229 

likewise the son of a twice-married female, the son 
self-given and the Nishada, to be members of the 

33. Aupa^andhani (declares that) the first among 
them alone (is entitled to inherit, and a member of 
his father's family). 

34. ' Now, O kanaka, I jealously watch my wives, 
(though I did) not (do it) formerly; for they have 
declared in Yama's court that the son belongs to 
the begetter. The giver of the seed carries off the 
son, after death, in Yama's hall. Therefore they 
carefully protect their wives, fearing the seed of 

35. ' Carefully watch (the procreation of your) 
offspring, lest strange seed fall on your soil. After 
death the son belongs to the begetter ; through 
carelessness, a husband makes (the procreation of) 
a son useless.' 

36. Let them carefully protect the shares of 

33-34. Aupag'andhani is one of the ancient teachers of the 
White Ya^ur-veda, mentioned in the lists incorporated in the Sata- 
patha-brahma»a XIV, 5, 5, 21; •j, 3, 26. The legends of the White 
Ya^ur-veda frequently mention king <?anaka of Videha, and assert 
that that philosopher king had frequent and intimate intercourse 
with YSg'Mavalkya and other teachers of the Veda which Aditya 
revealed. It seems to me, therefore, highly probable that Govinda 
is right in taking the vocative ^anaka in Sutra 34 as a proper 
name, and in asserting that the verse belongs to a conversation 
between Aupa^andhani and (ranaka. This explanation, which pos- 
sibly may be based on an ancient tradition of Baudhiyana's school, 
is certainly preferable to Haradatta's statement on Apastamba II, 
6, 13, 7, that these verses express the sentiments of a husband who 
had neglected to watch his wives, and later learned that he would 
not derive any spiritual benefit from their offspring. In the text of 
Sutra 34 I read with the Dekhan MSS. and Apastamba, loc. cit., 
trshyami, instead of ishySmi, which M. and the commentary give. 

36. Colebrooke V, Dig. CCCCLII ; Vasish//5a XVI, 8, 9. ' The 

Digitized by 


23O BAUDHAYANA. II, 2, 3. 

those who are minors, as well as the increments 

37. Granting food, clothes, (and shelter), they 
shall support those who are incapable of transacting 
legal business, 

38. (Viz.) the blind, idiots, those immersed in vice, 
the incurably diseased, and so forth, 

39. Those who neglect their duties and occu- 
pations ; 

40. But not the outcast nor his offspring. 

41. Intercourse with outcasts shall not take 

42. But he shall support an outcast mother, with- 
out speaking to her. 

43. The daughters shall obtain the ornaments 
of their mother, (as many as are) presented accord- 
ing to the custom (of the caste), or anything else 
(that may be given according to custom). 

increments, i. e. the proper interest. Thus the money of minors 
shall bear interest.' — Govinda. 

37. ColebrookeV, Dig. CCCXXVIII; DayabhagaV, 12; Vya- 
vah&ramayukha IV, n, 10; Vasish/Aa XVII, 52-54. 

38. Colebrooke and Mayukha, loc. cit. ' The expression " and 
so forth " includes hunchbacks and other (disabled) persons.' — Go- 
vinda. Vyasanin, ' immersed in vice,' may also mean ' afflicted by 
calamities,' and is perhaps intended to be taken both ways. 

39. Colebrooke and Mayukha, loc. cit. Akarmi«as, ' those who 
neglect their duties and occupations,' i. e. those who though able 
(to fulfil their duties are) indolent — Govinda. 

40. Colebrooke and Mayukha, loc. cit. ; Burnell, Ddyabhiga 49. 

42. Gautama XXI, 15, and note. 

43. ColebrookeV, Dig. CXXX; Vasish/Aa XVII, 46. 'Sira- 
prad&yikam (literally " customary") qualifies (the word) ornaments ; 
s&mpradayikam (means) what is obtained according to custom; 
what is given to their mother by the maternal grandfather and 
grandmother, that (is called) sampradayikam. " Or anything else," 
(viz.) presented according to custom, (e.g.) a bedstead and the 

Digitized by 



44. Women do not possess independence. 

45. Now they quote also (the following verse): 
'Their father protects (them) in childhood, their 
husband protects (them) in youth, and their sons 
protect (them) in old age; a woman is never fit 
for independence.' 

46. The Veda declares, 'Therefore women are 
considered to be destitute of strength and of a 

like, a couch, and an outer garment, and the like. So much and 
nothing else shall the daughters receive.' — Govinda. 

44. VasishMaV, 1. All the MSS. of the text read na strisva- 
tantryam vidyate, while the text given by the two copies of the 
commentary has na stri svatantryaw vindate. Govinda asserts that 
the Sutra is intended to forbid the independent action of women 
with respect to things inherited. The correct view probably is 
that with this Sutra the topic of the duties and rights of women 
begins, and that the rule contains a general maxim. 

45. Vasish/Aa V, 2. 

46. Colebrooke V, Dig. CXXXI. The text is in great confusion. 
The Dekhan and Gujarat MSS., except K., read, na daya»? ni- 
rindriya hyadaylr ka. striyo mata iti srutW; K. has, tasmat[n]- 
nirindriya hy. st. m. i. sru. II tasmat striyo nirindriya adayadir api 
papat ; while M. and the I.O. copy of the commentary have, tasman- 
nirindriya adayax ka. striyo mata iti smM [sutW, M.] The Telugu 
copy is mutilated, and reads n&dayantiriti siutiA. Though the 
reading of the Dekhan MSS. is supported by Mitramwra Vlrami- 
trodaya, fol. 209, p. 1, 1. 3, it is certainly not the original one, for 
there is no verb by which the accusative ' dayam' is governed. 
Mitramura's attempt to make it depend on ' arhati' in the verse 
quoted in Sutra 45 is futile, because, according to the usage of 
the Sutrakaras, a Sutra may be completed by a verb taken from 
another original aphorism of the author, but cannot be connected 
with a portion of a quotation taken from some other work. This 
same principle, of course, applies not only to Sutras, but to the 
writings of all other authors, whether Indian or European. The 
reading of K., M., and of the I. O. copy of die commentary is 
not open to the objection just mentioned, and therefore preferable. 
But it seems to me highly probable that, nevertheless, it is not 

Digitized by 


232 baudhayana. II, 2, 3. 

47. Those (women) who strive (to do what is) 
agreeable to their husbands will gain heaven. 

48. But for a violation (of their duty towards the 
husband) a Kri&&/ira penance (must be performed). 

49. (For violating it) with a 6udra (a woman) 
shall perform a lunar penance (£andraya#a) ; 

50. (For violating it) against the order of the 
castes with a Vaisya and so forth, she shall per- 
form a Krt&Mra. or an (Atikr?^^ra) penance. 

51. For male (offenders, i.e.) Brahma#as and so 
forth, a year's chastity (is prescribed). 

quite genuine ; for the word ' tasmat,' with which it begins, is not 
required, because its sense is already expressed by the following 
' hi,' and because the Sutra apparenuy contains half an AnushAibh 
•Sloka, which the insertion of tasmat destroys. It is also easy to 
see how it came to be inserted. Every Ya^nrvedr who read the 
passage would be reminded of the analogous passage of the Taitti- 
riya Sawhita VI, 5, 8, 2, ' tasmat striyo nirindriyi adayadtr api pipit 
puwsaA upastitaram,' which in K. has actually been inserted after 
our Sutra. In the Vedic Mantra ' tasmat ' is required, and is cer- 
tainly the genuine reading. Hence it seems to have been trans- 
ferred into Baudhiyana's text, possibly by the mistake of some 
scribe who, according to the habit of his kind, took a marginal 
reference to the beginning of the Vedic passage for a correction of 
the text. In my opinion it must be thrown out. The sense of 
the half verse remains exactly the same. It corresponds to Manu 
IX, 18. According to Govindasvimin and others its object is to 
show that women are incapable of inheriting, and the word diya, 
' portion,' must be taken in the sense of ' a share of the inheritance.' 
For a full discussion of this point, I refer to the Introductory Note 
on Book I, Chapter II, Sect. 14 of West and Btlhler's Digest of 
H. L. C, third edition. 

47. Vishmi XXV, 15, 17; Vasish/Aa XXI, 14. 

48-50. Vasish/Aa XXI, 6-13. 

51. Govinda points out that this rule refers to adultery with 
women of equal caste, and thinks that the word ' chastity' indi- 
cates that Krikkkra penances are to be performed ; Vasish/^a XXI, 
16, 17 ; Vishmi LIII, 2. But see Gautama XXII, 29. 

Digitized by 


H, 2,4. WOMEN. 2$3 

52. Let him burn a •Sudra (who commits adultery 
with an Aryan) in a straw-fire. 

53. Now they quote also (the following verses): 

Prasna II, Adhyaya 2, KajvdikA 4. 

1. ' Anybody but a Brahmawa shall suffer corporal 
punishment for adultery.' 

2. 'The wives (of men) of all castes must be 
guarded more carefully than wealth.' 

3. ' But corporal punishment (shall) not (be in- • 
flicted) for (adultery with) the wives of minstrels 
and with those who appear on the stage. For (the 
husbands) carry them (to other men), or, lying 
concealed (at home), permit them to hold culpable 

4. 'Women (possess) an unrivalled means of 
purification ; they never become (entirely) foul. For 
month by month their temporary uncleanness re- 
moves their sins.' 

5. 'Soma gave them cleanliness, the Gandharva 
their melodious voice, and Fire purity of all (limbs) ; 
therefore women are free from stains.' 

52. Vasish/fta XXI, 1, 5. 

4. 1. Apastamba II, 10, 26, 20; 10, 27, 11. Govinda thinks that 
non-Br&hmanical offenders should be burned, in accordance with 
Vasish/fta XXI, 2-3. But mutilation may also be intended. Sa«?- 
grahawa, 'adultery,' probably includes all those acts mentioned 
Manu VIII, 354-35^ 

2. Manu VIII, 359. 

3. Manu VIII, 362. I read conjecturally, ' sawisar^ayanti te hyet£ 
nigupta^ Mlayantyapi,' basing my emendations on Manu's text. 
The MSS. and Govinda have, sawsar^ayahti ta hyetan niguptawj 
^alayanty api, which gives no good sense. Govinda explains iara«a- 
A&r&A, ' the wives of minstrels,' by devadasyaA, ' temple-slaves.' 

4. Vasishtfa XXVIII, 4. ' 5. Vasish/Aa XXVIII, 6. 



234 BAUDHAYANA. II, 2, 4. 

6. ' Let him abandon a barren (wife) in the tenth 
year, one who bears daughters (only) in the twelfth, 
one whose children (all) die in the fifteenth, but her 
who is quarrelsome without delay.' 

7. A widow shall avoid during a year (the use of) 
honey, meat, spirituous liquor, and salt, and sleep on 
the ground. 

8. Maudgalya (declares that she shall do so) 
during six months. 

9. After (the expiration of) that (time) she may, 
with the permission of her Gurus, bear a son to her 
brother-in-law, in case she has no son. 

10. Now they quote also (the following verse) : 
' One whose appointment can have no result, (viz.) 
a barren woman, one who has borne . sons, one who 
is past child-bearing, one whose children are (all) 
dead, and one who is unwilling must not be 

11. The sister of a maternal uncle and of the 
father, a sister, a sister's daughter, a daughter-in- 
law, a maternal uncle's wife, and the wife of a 

6. ManuIX, 81. 

7-8. Vasish/fta XVII, 55. The word madya, 'spirituous liquor,' 
occurs in M. and the I. O. copy of the commentary. The MSS. 
from the Dekhan and Gujarat, including K., read maggana or 
madWana, the compound letter being very indistinct. 

9. Vasish/Aa XVII, 56, where the term 'Gurus' is fully ex- 

10. Vasish/Aa XVII, 57-59. M. and the two copies of the 
commentary read puaiotpannaputra in instead of vasi £otpanna- 
putra kz, ' a barren woman and one who has borne sons.' I follow 
the Dekhan and Gujarat MSS., which undoubtedly give the genuine 
reading. Perhaps the term avaram, Vasish/Aa XVII, 57, should be 
corrected to vatam. 

11-12. These two Sutras are additions to II, 1, 2, 13. See also 
Narada XII, 73-74 ; Vasish/Aa XXI, 16. 

Digitized by 


11,2,4' WOMEN. 235 

friend are females who must never be approached 

12. For intercourse with females who must not 
be approached (agamya), a Krikkkrz. and an Ati- 
Vrikkhrz. (and) a Aandraya»a are the penances 
prescribed for all. 

1 3. Thereby (the rule regarding) intercourse with 
a female of the Aa»dala caste has been declared. 

14. Now they quote also (the following verses) : 
'A Brahma»a who unintentionally approaches a 
female of the Aa«^ala caste, eats (food given by 
a Kanclila) or receives (presents from him), becomes 
an outcast; but (if he does it) intentionally, he 
becomes equal (to a Aa»a&la). 

15. ' He who approaches his father's, his teacher's, 
or a king's wife, is guilty of the crime of violating a 
Guru's bed ; the penance ordained for him has been 
declared above.' 

16. (A Brahma^a) who is unable (to subsist) by 
teaching, sacrificing for others, or the acceptance of 
gifts, shall maintain himself by following the duties 
of Kshatriyas, because that is the next following 

13. Vasish/^a XXIII, 41 ; Vishwu LIII, 5-6. 

14. Manu XI, 176. 

15. Govinda thinks that the penance intended is that mentioned 
in Sutra 12. Probably a severer one is meant. The verseis inter- 
esting, as it clearly is a quotation from some metrical work on law, 
not merely of traditional detached dokas. 

16. VasishAia II, 22. The Sutra ' adhySpanaya^anapratigra- 
hair atakta^ kshatradharmewa givet pratyanantaratvat ' occurs in the 
two copies of the commentary only. The I. O. copy of the commen- 
tary has, however, before it the following words : [dharmya] sv&dhyi- 
yaprava£ane evety adhikSndw [kdraw] dawayati pratigr»hM tadrik 
pratigrahitSraw grcdhnuvanti [tSra r»dhnu°] ritvigyagamini ya^inau 

Digitized by 


236 baudhAyana. n, 2, 4. 

17. Gautama (declares that one shall) not (act 
thus). For the duties of Kshatriyas are too cruel 
for a Brahma#a. 

18. Now they quote also (the following verse): 
' Out of regard for the sacred law a Brahmawa and 
a Vai^ya may take up arms for (the protection of) 
cows or Brahma#as, or when a confusion of the 
castes (threatens to take place). 

19. (Or) the livelihood of a Vaisya should be 
adopted, because that is the one following (next). 

20. (If he lives by agriculture) he shall plough 
before breakfast, 

21. With two bulls whose noses have not been 
pierced, not striking them with the goad, (but) 
frequently coaxing them. 

22. The (sacred domestic) fire (shall be kindled) 
at the wedding ; the religious ceremonies up to the 
Agnyadheya (shall be) performed in that 

[°^ane] tadaraktau kshatradharmau. M. reads, dharmanasv&dhyd- 
yaprava^ana [ne] ityadhikdraw dawayati pratigrahft&drrk pratigra- 
httara r/'dhnuvanti ri'tvigya^amSna ya^anau tad&raktau svSdhya- 
yadhyil [°ySdhy&] panaya^naya^anapratigrahair aiaklama [taA] 
kshatradharmme«a ^tvet. The Dekhan and Gugur&t MSS. read, 
dh&rmye sv£dhyayaprava£ane ityadhikaraw darrayati I pratigrahe 
datS pratigrahrt&[ra] r/'dhnuvanti 1 rztvigyag'am&na ya^ane 1 tadarak- 
tau kshatradharme»a g'iyayet, or have corruptions of this passage. 
I cannot come to any other conclusion than that the passage 
which precedes the words translated by me are a very ancient 
interpolation, caused by the embodiment of a portion of an old 
Bh&shya with the text, and that all our MSS., however much they 
may differ, go back to one codex archetypus. 

17. Gautama Introduction, p. lii. 

18. Gautama VII, 25. 19. Vasish/ta II, 24. 
20-21. VasishMa II, 32. 

22. Vasish^a VIII, 3. The religious ceremonies to be performed 
with the sacred domestic fire, which, according to Baudhdyana, 

Digitized by 


II, a, 4. HOUSEHOLDER. 237 

23. Now, beginning with the Agnyadheya, follow 
these (rites in an) uninterrupted (series), as, for 
instance, the Agnyadheya, the Agnihotra, the new 
and full moon sacrifices, the Agrayawa at the winter 
and summer solstices, the animal sacrifice, the 
A'aturmasyas at the beginning of each season, the 
Shadd/iotri in spring, the Agnishfoma. Thus the 
attainment of bliss (is secured). 

24. Now they quote also (the following verse) : 
' Neither he who is accustomed to sleep in the day- 
time, nor he who eats the food of anybody, nor 
he who falls from a height to which he has climbed, 
can reach heaven as he desires.' 

25. Let him avoid meanness, hard-heartedness, 
and crookedness. 

26. Now they quote also with reference to this 
(subject the following) verse in the dialogue between 
the daughters of Uranas and VWshaparvan : ' Thou, 
forsooth, art the daughter of one who praises 
(others), who begs and accepts (gifts); but I am 
the child of one who is praised, who gives gifts and 
does not accept them.' 

should be kindled at the wedding, not on the division of the paternal 
estate (Gautama V, 7), are the so-called Grihya, ceremonies (Gau- 
tama V, 8-9). 

23. Vasish/ta XI, 46. The sacrifices enumerated in this Sutra 
require three fires, and belong to the jrauta or vaitSnika ya^was. 
The Shaddhotri mentioned here seems to be the animal sacrifice 
mentioned in the commentary on Kityiyana-SYauta-sutra VI, 1,36. 

24. An Sru^apatita, ' he who falls from a height to which he 
has climbed,' is, according to Govinda, an ascetic who slides back 
into civil life. 

25. VasishMa VI, 40; X, 30. Govinda explains si/Ayam, ' hard- 
heartedness,' by j aktau satydm api paropakarakaranam, ' not doing 
a kindness to others though one is able to do so.' 

26. The dialogue mentioned is that between .Sarmish/M and 

Digitized by 


238 baudhAyana. 11,3,5. 

Prasna II, AdhyAya 3, KandikH 5. 

1. Bathing is suitable for (the practice of) au- 

2. The libation to the manes (is offered) after the 
gods have been satisfied (with water). 

3. They pour out water which gives strength, 
from one Ttrtha after the other. 

4. Now they quote also (the following verses): 
' With flowing, unconfined water twice-born men of 
the three castes shall satisfy the gods, ifo'shis, and 
manes, when they have risen in the morning.' 

5. ' They shall not offer (libations of water) con- 
fined (in tanks and wells). (If they do it), he who 
made the embankment, will obtain a share (of the 
merit of their devotion).' 

6. ' Therefore let him avoid embankments (around 
tanks) and wells made by others.' 

7. Now they quote also (the following verse) : 
• Or, in times of distress — not as a rule — he may 
bathe in (water) confined (in tanks), after taking out 
three lumps (of earth) ; from a well (let him take 
three) lumps of clay and three jars of water.' 

Devayani, which occurs Mahabharata I, 78. The verse quoted is 
the tenth of that Adhy&ya, and agrees with ours, except that 
sutaham is read for athlham in the beginning of the second half 

5. 3. As to the Tirthas, see above, I, 5, 8, 15-16. 

5. Manu IV, 201. 6. Vishwu LXIV, 1. 

7. Vishwu LXIV, 2. I read the verse as follows: uddhr/'tya 
vapi trtn pindin kuryad Spatsu no sada 1 niruddhasu ka. mritpWan 
kupat trtn abgha/£*»statheti 11 The Dekhan MSS. read at the end 
of the second half verse, kupawstrinava/awstatha ; M. has kup&- 
trinabapa/anstatha ; while C. I. gives kupat trtn gha/a»»statha. 
Nandapa«<fita on Vishnu, loc. tit., seems to have had the latter 

Digitized by 


11,3.5' DUTIES OF A SNATAKA. 239 

8. If he has accepted presents from one who is 
able to give presents to many, or from one whose 
presents ought not to be accepted, or if he has 
sacrificed for one for whom he ought not to have 
sacrificed, or if he has eaten food (given by a person) 
whose food must not be eaten, he shall mutter the 

9. Now they quote also (the following verse) : 
' Those who improperly associate with (an outcast) 
teacher, those who improperly associate with (out- 
cast) pupils, and those who improperly associate (with 
outcasts) by (accepting their) food or by (reciting) 
Mantras (for them), enter into deep darkness.' 

10. Now (follow) the duties of a Snataka. 

11. After offering at the morning and at the 
evening (meals) with (a portion of) the food which 
he may have, the Vaisvadeva and the Bali-offerings, 
he shall honour, according to his ability, Brahma»as, 
Kshatriyas, Vaiyyas, and 6udras:(who may come to 
his house as) guests. 

12. If he cannot (afford to give food) to many, let 
him give (something) to one who possesses good 

1 3. Or to him who has come first. 

14. If a 6"udra (has come as) a guest, he shall 
order him (to do some) work, (and feed him after- 
wards) ; 

reading, and to have changed it to ' kupit tu trin gha/awstatha,' in 
order to save the metre. The sense remains the same. 

8. Manu XI, 254. The text is found Rig-veda IX, 58. Govinda 
explains bahupratigrihya, ' one who is able to give presents to 
many,' by bahubhr/'tyabharawakshama, ' one who is able to support 
many servants.' 

10. Vasish/^a XII, 1. 11. Vasish/fta XI, 3-9. 

14. Apastamba II, 2, 4, 19. 

Digitized by 


24O BAUDHAYANA. II, 3, 5. 

15. Or (if he cannot spare much), he may give a 
first portion (agrya) to a .Srotriya. 

16. It is prescribed that the division (of the food) 
shall be made without detriment to (the interests 
of) those who daily receive a portion. 

1 7. But he shall never eat without having given 
away (some small portion of the food). 

18. Now they quote also two verses which have 
been proclaimed by (the goddess of) food : ' Him 
who, without giving me to the gods, the manes, his 
servants, his guests and friends, consumes what has 
been prepared and (thus), in his exceeding folly, 
swallows poison, I consume, and I am his death. 
But for him who, offering the Agnihotra, performing 
the VaLrvadeva, and honouring guests, eats, full of 
contentment, purity, and faith, what remains after 
feeding those whom he must support, I become 
ambrosia, and he (really) enjoys me.' 

19. Presents of money must be given, according 
to one's ability, to good Brahmawas, .Srotriyas, and 
Vedaparagas, when they beg outside the Vedi, for the 
sake of Gurus, in order to defray (the expenses of) 
their marriages, or of medicine, or when they are 
distressed for a livelihood, or desirous to offer a 
sacrifice, or engaged in studying, or on a journey, 
or have performed a Vuvafit sacrifice. 

15. Vasish/Aa XI, 5. Govinda quotes a verse, according to 
which an agrya, ' first portion,' is equal to sixteen mouthfuls, each 
of the size of a peahen's egg. 

16. Apastamba II, 4, 9,10-11. 'Those who daily receive a 
portion' (nityabhiktika), i.e. sons, wives, and so forth. — Govinda. 
But see also Apastamba, loc. cit. 

19. Gautama V, 20-2 r, and notes. ' A good Brahmawa, i. e. one 
who follows the rule of conduct.' — Govinda. 

Digitized by 


II, 3»<5. DUTIES OF A SnAtAKA. 24 1 

20. Cooked food (must be given) to other 

21. Let him eat (seated) in a pure, enclosed place, 
after having well washed his hands and feet and 
after having sipped water, respectfully receiving the 
food which is brought to him, keeping himself free 
from lust, anger, hatred, greed, and perplexity, (con- 
veying the food into his mouth) with all his fingers 
and making no noise (during mastication). 

Prastja II, AdhyAya 3, KajvdikA 6. 

i. Let him not put back into the dish a remnant 
of food. 

2. If he eats (food), containing meat, fish, or sesa- 
mum, he shall (afterwards) wash and touch fire, 

3. And bathe after sunset." 

4. Let him avoid a seat, clogs, sticks for cleaning 
the teeth, and other (implements) made of Palaia 

20. Gautama V, 22. 

21. VasishMa XII, 19-20; Vish/ro LXVIII, 46. 'This is the 
rule for him who makes an offering to Atman (i. e. performs the 
Pra«agnihotra at his meal).' — Govinda. See also below, II, 7, 12. 

6. 1. 'I.e. he shall take up as much food only as he can 
swallow at one mouthful.' — Govinda. 

2. The Dekhan and Gujarat MSS., including K., add madhu, 
' honey,' after sesamum. 

3. This and the following six Sutras are left out in M. and the 
two copies of the commentary. If they have, nevertheless, been 
received into the text, the reason is that similar rules occur in all 
Dharmasutras, and that Sutra 3 begins with astamite, while asta- 
maye occurs in Sutra 10. It seems therefore probable that the 
writer of the MS. from which M. and Govinda's copies are derived, 
skipped over a line by mistake. 

4-7. Vasish/fta XII, 34-38. 

[14] R 

Digitized by 


242 BAUDHAYANA. 11,3,6. 

5. Let him not eat (food placed) in his lap, 

6. Nor on a chair. 

7. He shall carry a staff, made of bamboo, and 
golden earrings. 

8. Let him not rub one foot with the other while 
bathing, nor place the one on the other while 

9. Let him not wear a visible garland. 

10. Let him not look at the sun when he rises or 

11. Let him not announce (the appearance of a 
rainbow) to another (man, saying), 'There is Indra's 

1 2. If he points it out, he shall call it 'the jewelled 

1 3. Let him not pass between the prakilaka and 
the beam at the town gate, 

14. Nor let him pass between the two posts of a 

1 5. Let him not step over a rope to which a calf 
is tied. 

16. Let him not step on ashes, bones, hair, chaff, 
potsherds, nor on a bathing-place (moist with) 

8. Vish«u LXXI, 40. 9. Vasish/Aa XII, 39. 

10. Vasish/fta XII, 10. 
11-12. Vasish/Aa XII, 32-33. 

13. Govinda explains prakilaka by 'a piece of wood fastened at 
the town gate.' Etymologically it would mean ' a strong bolt.' 
Possibly the rule may be equivalent to Apastamba 1, 1 1, 31, 23, and 
mean that a SnStaka is not to creep through the small door 
which is found in all Indian town gates, and left open after the 
gates have been shut. 

14. Apastamba 1, 11, 31, 16. 15. Vasish/ta XII, 9. 
16. Gautama IX, 15; Manu IV, 132. 

Digitized by 


11,3,6. DUTIES OF A SNATAKA. 243 

1 7. Let him not announce it to another (man if) a 
cow suckles (her calf). 

18. Let him not say of (a cow which is) not a 
milch-cow, ' She is not a milch-cow.' 

19. If he speaks (of such a one), let him say, 'It is 
one which will become a milch-cow.' 

20. Let him not make empty, ill-sounding, or 
harsh speeches. 

21. Let him not go alone on a journey, 

22. Nor with outcasts, nor with a woman, nor 
with a 6"udra. 

23. Let him not set out (on a journey) towards 

24. Let him not bathe (entirely) naked. 

25. Let him not bathe at night 

26. Let him not cross a river swimming. 
2f. Let him not look down into a well. 

28. Let him not look down into a pit. 

29. Let him not sit down -there, where another 
person may order him to rise. 

30. Way must be made for a Brahma^a, a cow, a 
king, a blind man, an aged man, one who is suffering 
under a burden, a pregnant woman, and a weak 

31. A righteous man shall seek to dwell in a 
village where fuel, water, fodder, sacred fuel, Ku^a 
grass, and garlands are plentiful, access to which is 

17. Vishmi LXXI, 62. 18-19. Gautama IX, 19. 

20. Manu IV, 177 ; Vish«u LXXI, 57, 72, 74. 
21-23. Manu IV, 140. 24. Gautama IX, 61. 

26. Vasish/ia XII, 45. 

29. E. g. in the palace of a king, whence the attendants may 
drive him. 

30. Vasish/iia XIII, 58. 31. Gautama IX, 65. 

R 2 

Digitized by 


244 BAUDHAYANA. H, 3, 6. 

easy, where many rich people dwell, which abounds in 
industrious people, where Aryans form the majority, 
and which is not easily entered by robbers. 

32. ' A Brihmawa who, having wedded a wife of 
the .Sudra caste and dwells during twelve years in a 
village where water (is obtainable) from wells only, 
becomes equal to a •Sudra.' 

33. (If you say that) he who lives in a town and 
whose body is covered with the dust, (raised) by 
others, and whose eyes and mouth are filled with it, 
will obtain salvation, if he restrains himself, (I de- 
clare that) that is impossible. 

34. ' The dust raised by carriages, horses, "ele- 
phants, and cows, and (that which comes) from grain 
is pure, blamed is (that raised) by a broom, goats, 
sheep, donkeys, and garments.' 

35. Let him honour those who are worthy of 

36. 'A J&shi, a learned man, a king, a bride- 
groom, a maternal uncle, a father-in-law, and an 
officiating priest are mentioned in the SmWti as 
worthy of the honey-mixture at certain times and 

37. 'A J&shi, a learned man, and a king must be 

33. Apastamba 1, 11, 32, 21. 

36. VasishMa XI, 1-2. A 2?/'shi is, according to Govinda, a 
man who knows not only the text of the Mantras, but also their 
sense. But Baudhayana, Gr/hya-sutra I, 11, 4, says that a man 
who knows, besides the .Sakha and its Angas, the Kalpa also, is 
called jfo'shikalpa, i. e. one almost a 2?/shi. See also Apastamba 
I, 2, 5, 5. A learned man (vidvas) is probably a student who has 
finished not only his vow, but learned the Veda, a so-called vidya- 
snataka, Apastamba I, n, 30, 3. Regarding the arghya or madhu- 
parka, the honey-mixture, see Apastamba II, 4, 8, 7-9. 

37. Gautama V, 27-30. I read kriyarambhe varartv^au. The 

Digitized by 



honoured whenever they come, a bridegroom and 
a priest at the beginning of the religious rites, a 
maternal uncle and a father-in-law when a year has 
elapsed since their last visit' 

38. ' Let him raise his right arm on (entering) the 
place where the sacred fire is kept, in the midst of a 
herd of cows, in the presence of Brahma#as, at the 
daily recitation of the Veda, and at dinner.' 

39. ' An upper garment must be worn on the fol- 
lowing five occasions : during the daily study, during 
the evacuation (of excrements), when one bestows 
gifts, at dinner, and while one sips water.' 

40. ' While one offers oblations in the fire, while 
one dines, bestows gifts, offers (food to deities or 
Gurus), and accepts presents, (the right hand) must 
be placed between the knees,' , 

41. 'The revealed texts declare, that the creatures 
depend on food, food is life; therefore gifts of 
food must be made. Food is the most excellent of 
sacrificial viands.' 

42. 'Sin is removed by burnt offerings, burnt 
oblations are surpassed by (gifts of) food, and gifts 
of food by kind speeches. That (is declared) to us 
in the revealed texts.' 

Prasna II, AdhyAya 4, KandikX 7. 

i. Now, therefore, we will declare the rule for 
(performing) the twilight devotions. 

meaning is that a bridegroom is to receive the honey-mixture when 
he comes to his father-in-law's house for his wedding, and an offi- 
ciating priest when he comes to perform a- sacrifice. 

38. Vishmi LXXI, 60. Govinda adds that the act is performed 
as a salutation. 

41. See e.g. Taittirlya Ara»yaka VIII, 2. 

Digitized by 


246 baudhAyana. II, 4, 7. 

2. Going to a (sacred) bathing-place, he shall 
bathe, in case he is impure ; in case he is pure, he 
may, optionally, omit the bath. (But in either case) 
he shall wash his feet and hands. Sipping water 
and sprinkling himself, while he recites the (jRzk- 
verses) containing the word Surabhi, the Ablingas, 
those addressed to Varu»a, the Hira»yavar«as, the 
Pavamanis, the (sacred syllables called) Vyahmis, 
and other purificatory (texts), he becomes pure (and 
fit to perform the twilight devotions). 

3. Now they quote also (the following verse) : 
' Submersion in water (and) bathing are prescribed for 
all the (four) castes. But sprinkling (water over the 
body), while Mantras (are being recited), is the par- 
ticular (duty) of the twice-born.' 

4. He who sprinkles himself (with water) at the 
beginning of any sacred rite, — before the time of 
the twilight devotions, — while reciting that same 
collection of purificatory (texts), becomes pure. 

5. Now they quote also (the following rules) : 
Seated, with his face to the west, on Darbha grass 
and holding Darbha blades in his (right) hand, which 

7. 2. 'A sacred bathing-place, i. e. a river or pond outside the 
village.' — Govinda. The same author adds that the hands must 
be washed as far as the wrist, that while sipping water the wor- 
shipper is to repeat in the evening, Taittirtya Arawyaka X, 31, and 
in the morning X, 32, and that if he bathes, Taittirtya Ara«yaka 
X, 1, 12, and other texts must be recited. The Jtik containing 
the word Surabhi is found Taittirtya Sawhita I, 5, 11,4,7 »' the three 
Ablingas, Taittirtya Arawyaka X, 1, 1 1 ; the four verses addressed 
to Varuwa, Taittirtya Saamita III, 4, 11,4, and Taittirtya Arawyaka 
II, 4, 4. By the term Pdvam&nis the Pavamdnanuvaka, Taittirtya 
Brahma»a I, 4, 8, is meant 

5. The injunction to turn the face to the west refers to the 
evening prayer ; see also below, Sutra 10. 

Digitized by 



;>. ' ''3, 

■~ ^~ '^ ■-/,*, 

11,4,7. THE TWILIGHT DEVOTIONS." v " >2 4$,,^$/^ 

; ; X%Vh ... . PP 

is filled with water, he shall repeat the Savitrl 

thousand times ; 

6. Or (he may recite the verse) one hundred 
times, suppressing his breath ; 

7. Or mentally ten times, adding the syllable 
Om at the beginning and at the end and the seven 

8. And if he is tired by three suppressions of 
his breath (performed) with (the recitation of) the 
(Anuvaka called) Brahmahrwlaya (the heart of 
Brahman, then let him repeat the Savitrl). 

9. In the evening he worships (the sun) with the 
two (verses) addressed to Varu»a, ' Hear this my 
call, O Varu»a,' and ' Therefore I go to thee/ 

10. The same (rules apply to the twilight devo- 
tion) in the morning, (but the worshipper) shall face 
the east and stand upright 

11. In the day-time he worships (the sun) with the 
two (verses) addressed to Mitra, 'The glory of Mitra, 
who supports men,' and ' Mitra causes men to join.' 

12. Let him begin (the twilight devotion) in the 

6. Govinda states that pra«ayama$a/&, ' suppressing his breath,' 
has in this Sutra no technical meaning. 

7. Govinda says that the order to be observed in this case is as 
follows : First the syllable Om is to be recited, next the seven 
Vyahn'tis, beginning with BhM and ending with Satyam, then the 
Savitrt, and finally again the syllable Om. 

8. The Brahmahndaya is Taittirlya Arawyaka X, 28. This 
Anuvaka may be repeated three times for each Pra«ayama (see 
Vasish/Aa XXV, 13), or altogether nine times, and, if the wor- 
shipper is then tired, he may go on repeating the Savitri without 
suppressing his breath. 

9. Taittiriya Saz»hita II, 1, 11, 6. 10. Gautama II, n. 
11. Taittiriya Sawhita III, 4, 11, 5. 
1 a. Very early, i.e. when the stars are still visible; see also 

Gautama II, 1 r, and note. 

Digitized by 


248 baudhAyana. 11,4,7- 

morning very early, and finish it when the sun has 

13. Let him begin (the twilight devotion) in the 
evening, when (the sun) has set, (and finish it) very 
soon after (the appearance of the stars) ; 

14. And the complete observance of the twilight 
devotions (produces as its reward) an uninterrupted 
succession of days and nights. 

15. Now they quote with reference to this (sub- 
ject) also the following two verses, which have been 
proclaimed by the Lord of created beings (Pra^a- 
pati): 'How can those twice-born men be called 
Brahma#as who do not perform their twilight devo- 
tions, in the morning and in the evening at the 
proper time ? At his pleasure a righteous king may 
appoint those Brahma#as who neglect to daily per- 
form the twilight devotions, both at morn and at 
eve, to do the work of •Sudras/ 

16. If the time for the (twilight devotion) is 
allowed to pass in the evening, (the offender shall) 
fast during the night ; and if it is neglected in the 
morning, he shall fast during the (next) day. 

17. He obtains (thereby) the (same) reward as 
if he had remained standing and sitting (in the 

18. Now they quote also (the following verses) : 
' Whatever sin (a man) may have committed with 
his organ, with his feet, with his arms, by thoughts 
or by speech, from (all) that he is freed by per- 
forming the twilight devotion in the evening' 

19. (The worshipper) becomes also connected 

14. The day and night will not be cut off from his existence. 
16. Vasish/tta XX, 4-5. 18. VasishMa XXVI, 2. 

Digitized by 


II, 5, 8' BATHING. 249 

(thereby) with the (next) night, and Varu»a will 
not seize him. 

20. In like manner he becomes free from the sin 
committed during the night by worshipping in the 

21. He is also connected with the (next) day, 
Mitra protects him and Aditya leads him up to 

22. It is declared in the Veda, 'A Brahma«a 
who in this same manner daily worships in the twi- 
light, both at morn and at eve and, being sanctified 
by the Brahman, becoming one with the Brahman, 
and resplendent through the Brahman, follows the 
rules of the .Sastra, gains the heaven of Brahman.' 

Prasna II, Adhyaya 5, KandikA. 8. 

1. Now, after washing his hands, he shall take 
his waterpot and a clod of earth, go to a (sacred) 
bathing-place and thrice clean his feet (with earth 
and water) and thrice his body. 

2. Now some say, ' One must not enter a burial- 
ground, water, a temple, a cowpen, nor a place 
where Brahma#as (sit) without having cleaned 
one's fee:/ 

20. Vasish//5a XXVI, 3. 

22. Brahman means here the Veda, the Savitrf, and the uni- 
versal soul. 

8. 1. Vish«u LXIV, 18. This Adhyaya contains the rules for 
bathing, and the subject is introduced, as Govinda observes, 
because in the preceding chapter II, 4, 7, 2, it has been said that 
an impure person must bathe before he performs the twilight devo- 
tions. Govinda also states that the word k&, ' and,' which stands 
after mritpindam, * a clod,' indicates that gomaya, ' cowdung,' must 
also be employed. 

Digitized by 


25O BAUDHAYANA. 11,5,8. 

3. Then he enters the water, (reciting the follow- 
ing verse) : ' I take refuge with gold-horned Varu»a, 
give me at my request (O Varu»a) a purifying bathing- 
place. May Indra, Varuwa, BWhaspati, and Sa vitro' 
again and again cleanse me from all sin which I have 
committed by eating the food of unholy men, by 
receiving gifts from the wicked, and from all evil 
which I have done by thoughts, speeches, or deeds.' 

4. Then he takes up water in his joined hands, 
(saying), ' May the waters and the herbs be pro- 
pitious to us.' 

5. (Next) he pours (the water) out in that direc- 
tion in which an enemy of his dwells, (saying), 
' May they work woe to him who hates us and 
whom we hate.' 

6. Then he sips water, and thrice makes the water 
eddy around himself turning from the left to the 
right (and saying), 'May that which is hurtful, which 
is impure, and which is inauspicious in the water be 

7. After having submerged himself and having 
emerged from the water, 

8. (Acts of) personal purification, washing the 
clothes by beating them on a stone and sipping 

3. The verse is found Taittiriya Arawyaka X, 1, 12. 

4. Taittiriya Arawyaka X, 1, 11. 

5. Taittiriya Arawyaka, loc. cit. This and the following Sutras, 
down to II, 6, 1 1, 15, are wanting in the Gujarat and Dekhan MSS. 
except in K. 

6. Taittiriya Arawyaka X, 1, 13. 

7. Govinda points out that the completion of this Sutra is to be 
found in Sutra 10. He adds that Baudh&yana inserted Sutras 8-9 
in the middle, because he was afraid to forget the rules contained 
in them. 

8. VishmiLXIV, 10, n. 

Digitized by 


11,5,8. BATHING. 25 1 

water are not (permitted to the worshipper) as 
long as he is in the water. 

9. If (the water used for bathing) has been (taken 
from a) confined (place, such as a well), he worships 
it with the following (Mantra): 'Adoration to Agni, 
the lord of the waters ; adoration to Indra ; adora- 
tion to Varuwa ; adoration to Varu«l ; adoration to 
the waters.' 

10. After having ascended the bank and having 
sipped water, let him again sip water, though he has 
done so before, (and recite the following Mantras) : 
' May water purify the earth, may the purified earth 
purify me, may Brahma«aspati (and) Brahman purify, 
may the purified (earth) purify me. May water purify 
me, (taking away) all (the guilt which I incurred by 
eating) remnants of food, and forbidden food, (by 
committing) evil deeds, (by) receiving gifts from 
wicked men, Svaha!' 

1 1. Making two Pavitras he rubs (his body) with 
water. Haying rubbed himself, (reciting the) three 
(verses), ' Ye waters are,' &c, the four (verses), ' The 
golden-coloured, pure, purifying,' &c, (and) the Anu- 
vaka, ' He who purifies,' &c, he performs, stepping 
back into the water, three Pra#ayamas with the 
Aghamarsha«a (hymn) ; then he ascends the bank, 
squeezes (the water) out of his dress, puts on gar- 
ments which have been washed and dried in the air 
and which are not the worse for wear, sips water, 

9. Taittirfya Arawyaka X, 1, 1 2. 

10. Taittiriya Arawyaka X, 23. Govinda says that the rule is 
intended to indicate also that a person who recites sacred texts 
while sipping water, must do so only after having taken water once 
before. K. inserts before this Mantra, also Anuvaka 22. 

1 1 . Vishmi LXI V, 13-14; 18-19. The Vedic passages intended 

Digitized by 


252 BAUDHAYANA. 11,5,8. 

sits down on Darbha grass, and, holding Darbha 
grass (in his hands), recites, facing the east, the 
Gayatrt one thousand times, (or) one hundred times, 
or any number of times, or at least twelve times. 

12. Then he worships the sun (reciting the follow- 
ing Mantras): 'Out of darkness we,' &c, 'Up that 
bright,' &c, 'That eye which is beneficial to the gods,' 
&c, (and) ' He who rose,' &c. 

1 3. Now they quote also (the following maxim) : 
' The syllable Om, the Vyahrztis, and the Savitri, 
these five Veda-offerings daily cleanse the Brahmawa 
from guilt/ 

14. Being purified by the five Veda-offerings, he 
next satiates the gods (with water, saying), 

Prasna II, AdhyAya 5, KandikX 9. 

i . 'I satiate the deities of the eastern gate, Agni, 
Pra^apati, Soma, Rudra, Aditi, Brz'haspati, together 
with the lunar mansions, with the planets, with the 
days and nights, and with the Muhurtas ; Om, I also 
satiate the Vasus ; 

are found Taitt. Sa/rchita" IV, i, 5, 1 ; V, 6, 1, 1 ; and Taitt Brah- 
mawa I, 4, 8. Pa vitras, i.e. blades of Em» grass. 'He performs 
three Prawaystmas with the A hamarsha«a hymn (Rig-veda X, 190),' 
i. e. he thrice suppresses his breath (pr£«ay£ma) and recites during 
each suppression the Aghamarsha«a three times, just as on other 
occasions the GSyatri is recited three times. 

12. The first Mantra is found Taitt. Sawhita IV, 1, 7, 4; the 
third and the fourth Taitt. Ara»yaka IV, 42, 32-33. 

14. Vish«u XLIV, 24. The ceremony is the so-called Tarpawa, 
which is usually described in the Gnhya-sutras, e. g. -SSnkMyana 
IV, 9-10, and the quotations in Professor Oldenberg's notes, 
Indische Studien XV, 152. 

9. 1. This and the next Ka»dik£s are given in full by K. only. 
M. gives the first and last words of both, the commentary the 

Digitized by 


11,5,9* TARPAATA. 253 

2. ' Om, I satiate the deities of the southern gate, 
the Pitt's, Yama, Bhaga, Savitrz, Tvash/rz, Vayu, 
Indragni, together with the lunar mansions, with 
the planets, with the days and nights, and with the 
Muhurtas ; Om, I also satiate the Rudras. 

3. ' Om, I satiate the deities of the western gate, 
Mitra, Indra, the Mahapitrzs, the Waters, all the gods, 
Brahman, Vishwu, together with the lunar mansions, 
with the planets, with the days and nights, and with 
the Muhurtas ; Om, I also satiate the Adityas. 

4. ' Om, I satiate the deities of the northern gate, 
the Vasus, Varuwa, A^u-ekapad, Ahibudhnya, Ushas, 
the two Asvins, Yama, together with 

5. ' Om, I satiate all the gods ; the Sadhyas ; Brah- 
man ; Pra^apati; the four-faced god; Hira»yagarbha; 
Svayambhu ; the male attendants of Brahman ; Para- 
mesh/^in ; the female attendants of Brahman ; Agni ; 
Vayu ; Varu«a ; Surya ; the moon ; the lunar man- 
sions ; Sadyo/ata ; BhM-piirusha ; Bhuva^-purusha ; 
Suva^-purusha ; Bhu^ ; Bhuva^ ; Suva^ ; MahaA ; 
GanaA; Tapa^; Satya. 

6. ' Om, I satiate the god Bhava ; .Sarva ; liana ; 
Paiupati ; Rudra ; Ugra ; Bhlmadeva ; Mahadeva ; 
the wife of the god Bhava ; of the god .Sarva ; of the 
god t lana ; of the god Pampati ; of the god Rudra ; 
of the god Ugra ; of Bhlmadeva ; of Mahadeva ; the 
son of Bhava ; of S%rva ; of liana ; of Paiupati ; of 

beginning of 9 and the end of 10 only. The text of K. is probably 
interpolated, as it seems impossible that BaudMyana could have 
mentioned his successors, Apastamba and Saty£sM<$a Hirawya- 
kerin, whose names occur below, II, 5, 9, 14. On the other hand, 
it is not doubtful that the number of Mantras must nevertheless 
have been very large, as the numeration in M. shows that they 
filled two entire Kandik&s, 

Digitized by 


254 BAUDHAYANA. II, 5, 9. 

Rudra ; of Ugra ; of Bhimadeva ; of Mahadeva ; Om, 
I also satiate the Rudras ; the attendants of Rudra. 

7. 'Om, I satiate Vighna; Vinayaka ; Vlra ; Sthula ; 
Varada ; Hastimukha ; Vakratunda. ; Ekadanta ; 
Lambodara; the male attendants of Vighna; the 
female attendants of Vighna. 

8. 'Om, I satiate Sanatkumara ; Skanda; Indra ; 
Shash^l; Shawmukha; Vwakha; Mahasena; Su- 
brahma#ya ; the male attendants of Skanda ; the 
female attendants of Skanda. 

9. ' Om, I satiate Aditya ; Soma ; Angaraka ; 
Budha ; Brzhaspati ; .Sukra ; ^anai^ara ; Rahu ; 

10. 'Om, I satiate Kerava; Naraya»a; Madhava; 
Govinda ; Vish#u ; Madhusudana ; Trivikrama ; 
Vamana ; .Srldhara ; Hrzshlkesa ; Padmanabha ; 
Damodara ; the goddess Sri ; the goddess Sara- 
svati ; Push/i ; Tush/i ; Vish«u ; Garutmat ; the male 
attendants of Vish»u ; the female attendants of 

11. 'Om, I satiate Yama ; Yamara^a ; Dharma; 
Dharmara^a ; Kala ; Nlla ; Mrz'tyu ; Mrztyutt^aya ; 
Vaivasvata ; A'itragupta ; Audumbara ; the male 
attendants of Vaivasvata ; the female attendants of 

12. 'Om, I satiate the gods of the earth ; Kasyapa; 
Antariksha ; Vidya ; Dhanvantari ; the male atten- 
dants of Dhanvantari; the female attendants of 

1 3. Next, passing the sacrificial thread round the 
neck, (he offers the following libations) : 

14. 'Om, I satiate the J??shis; the great /?zshis; 
the best/?zshis; the Brahmarshis; the divine ^?«shis; 
the royal J??'shis ; the .Srutarshis ; the Seven J?«shis ; 

Digitized by 


II, 5, io. TARPAJVA. 255 

the Jitshis of the K&ndas (of the Yafur-veda) ; the 
/frshikas ; the wives of the .tfzshis ; the sons of the 
./?zshis; Ka»va Baudhayana; Apastamba, the author 
of the Sutra ; Satyashaa^a Hira»yakesin ; V&^asa- 
neyin Ya^"»avalkya ; Awalayana .Saunaka ; Vyasa ; 
the syllable Om ; the Vyahmis ; the Savitri ; the 
Gayatrl ; the A^andas ; the J&g-veda. ; the Ya^ur- 
veda; the Sama-veda; the Ath'arvangirasa ; the 
Itihasa and Pura»a ; all the Vedas ; the servants of 
all gods ; all beings.' 

15. Then, passing the sacrificial string over the 
right shoulder, (he offers the following libations) : 

Prasna II, Adhaya 5, KandikA. 10. 

1. 'Om, I satiate the fathers, Svadha, adoration! 
the grandfathers ; the great-grandfathers ; the 
mothers ; the grandmothers ; the great - grand- 
mothers; the maternal grandfathers; the maternal 
grandmother ; the mother's grandmother ; the 
mother's great-grandmother. 

2. 'Om, I satiate the teacher (aiarya), Svadha, 
adoration ! the wife of the teacher ; the friends ; the 
wives of the friends ; the relatives ; the wives of the 
relatives ; the inmates of the house (amatya) ; the 
wives of the inmates of the house ; all ; the wives 
of all' 

3. He pours the water out from the several 
Tlrthas (of the hand sacred to the several deities). 

4. (He recites at the end of the rite the following 

3. I. e. the water must be poured out in accordance with the 
rule given above. 

4. Va^asaneyi SawhitS II, 34. The translation of the Mantra 
follows Govinda's explanation. 

Digitized by 


256 baudhAyana. II, 5, to. 

Mantra) : ' (Ye waters), who bring food, ambrosia, 
clarified butter, milk, and barley-gruel, are food for 
the manes ; satiate my ancestors ! May you be 
satiated, may you be satiated ! ' 

5. Let him not perform ceremonies in honour of 
the gods while his clothes are wet, or while he is 
dressed in one garment only ; 

6. Nor those connected with the manes. That ^is 
the opinion) of some (teachers). 

Prasna II, AdhyAya 6, KandikX 11. 

1 . Now these five great sacrifices, which are also 
called the great sacrificial sessions, are the sacrifice 
to be offered to the gods, the sacrifice to be offered 
to the manes, the sacrifice to be offered to all beings, 
the sacrifice to be offered to men, (and) the sacrifice 
to be offered to Brahman, 

2. Let him daily offer (something to the gods 
with the exclamation) Svaha, be it only a piece of 
fuel. Thereby he performs that sacrifice to the 

3. Let him daily offer (something to the manes 
with the exclamation) Svadha, be it only a vessel 
filled with water. Thereby he performs that sacrifice 
to the manes. 

4. Let him daily pay reverence to (all beings) 
endowed with life. Thereby he performs that 
sacrifice to the beings. 

11. 1. This and the next four Sutras agree almost literally with 
Satapatha-brahmawa XI, 5,6,1. See also Taitt. Aranyaka II, 10; 
Apastamba I, 4, 12, 15-13, 1. 

4. Govinda says that the Mantra is to be ' bhutebhyo namaA, 
adoration to all beings/ and adds that some consider the first three 

Digitized by 


Il,6,n. mahAyag#as. 257 

5. Let him daily give food to Brahma«as, be it 
only roots, fruit, or vegetables. Thereby he per- 
forms that sacrifice to men. 

6. Let him daily recite the Veda privately, be it 
only the syllable Om or the Vyahmis. Thereby he 
performs that sacrifice to be offered to Brahman. 

7. ' The private recitation of the Veda is, indeed, 
the sacrifice to Brahman. At that sacrifice to Brah- 
man speech, forsooth, (takes the place of) the 
<9uhu, the internal organ (that of) the Upabhrz't, 
the eye (that of) the Dhruva, the understanding 
(that of) the Sruva, truth (that of) the final bath, 
heaven (is) the conclusion of the sacrifice. He who, 
knowing this, daily recites the Veda to himself, gains 
as much heavenly bliss as, and more than, he who 
gives away this whole earth that is filled with 
wealth, and imperishable (beatitude), and conquers 
death. Therefore the Veda should be recited in 
private. Thus speaks the Brahma«a.' 

8. Now they quote also (the following passage) : 
' If, well anointed, well fed, and lying on a comfortable 
couch, one recites (the portion of the Veda referring 
to) any sacrifice, one has offered it thereby.' 

Mah&yagnas to be performed by the Vairvadeva and the Bali- 
offering, while others enjoin their separate performance. 

7. 5atapatha-brShma«a XI, 5, 6, 2. See also Taitt. Ara«yaka 
II, 17. K. reads dhntir dhruvd, ' the firm resolve (takes the place 
of) the Dhruva,' which is apparently a correction made according 
to the Arawyaka. According to the commentary the text of the 
last portion of the quotation runs thus, 'ydvantaw ha vi im&»i 
vittasya purwdw dadat svarga»» lokawz ^ayati tdvantaw lokaw ^ayati 
bhuy&OTsaw ££kshayyaw £apa mn'tyum g-ayati ya eva« vidvin,' &c. 
M. and K. do not give the whole passage. The published text of 
the .Satapatha-brahma«a slightly differs from Govinda's version. 

8. Satapatha-brShmawa XI, 5, 7, 3-4. 

[14] s 

Digitized by 


258 baudhAyana. n, 6, u. 

9. Some (teachers) declare (that there is a text) 
which teaches a fourfold division of these sacred 
duties. (But) as no (other meaning is) perceptible, 
(the text) ' Four paths,' &c, refers to sacrificial rites. 

10. (Viz.) to Ish/is, animal sacrifices, Soma sacri- 
fices, and Darvihomas. 

1 1. The following (IUk) declares that, ' Four 
paths, leading to the world of the gods, go severally 
from the earth to heaven. All ye gods, place us on 
that among them which will gain us undecaying 

12. The student, the householder, the hermit in 
the woods, the ascetic (constitute the four orders). 

13. A student (shall) obey his teacher until death. 

9. I read the text as follows, ' tasya ha va etasya dharmasya 
Jaturdha bhedam eka ihuA.' M. has bhedakam, the I. O. copy 
of the commentary bhedarankim, and K. tasya ha va etasya 
ya^nasyafoturdha bhfttam eka ahuA. Below in the commentary 
on Sutra 27, Govinda repeats the latter part of this Sutra in the 
form which I have adopted. The discussion which begins here is 
the same as that which occurs Apastamba II, 9, 23, 3-24, 15. 

11. Taittiriya Sawhita V, 7, 2, 3. 

12. K. omits this Sutra. After it Mk and K. have the following 
passage : ' brahma£Sri«o 'tyantam atmanam upasawgr/TiyS '£iryan 
bruvate vane jramyantyeke [yawtyete, K.] savaneshvapa upaspr?'- 
ranto vanyenannenaikagniw [nyenannena naikagni/n, K. ; vanye- 
naikanaw, M.] ^uhvanaA {jguhvas, M.] satyasyaike karmam 
[karmam, M.] anagnayo 'niketanaA [tv&h kaa», K.] kaupfnai^Aa- 
dana varshasv ekastha uddhr/'taparipfltabhir adbhiA karyaw [apa- 
kiryam, M.] kurvawaA [kurva/jas tatrodaharanti, K.] sannamusale 
vyangare nivnUajraravasampate bhikshantaA sarvataA parimoksham 
[parimeke, M.] apavidhya vaidikani karmawy abhayataA pari££/tinna 
madhyamam padam uparlishyamaha iti vadanto.' The commentary 
gives a few portions of this passage further on. Irrespective of 
minor corruptions, it gives no sense in the place where it stands, 
and it seems probable that we have to deal with a confused and 
badly corrupted text, which Govinda arranged either as seemed 
good to him, or on the authority of better MSS. 

Digitized by 



14. A hermit is he who regulates his conduct 
entirely according to the Institutes proclaimed by 

1 5. A Vaikhinasa (shall live) in the forest, sub- 
sisting on roots and fruit, practising austerities and 
bathing at morn, noon, and eve ; he shall kindle a 
fire according to the .Sramawaka (rule) ; he shall eat 
wild-growing (vegetables and grain) only; he shall 
worship gods, manes, Bhutas, men, and /?/shis ; he 
shall receive hospitably (men of) all (castes) except 
those (with whom intercourse is) forbidden ; he may 
even use the flesh of animals killed by carnivorous 
beasts ; he shall not step on ploughed (land) ; and 
he shall not enter a village ; he shall wear his hair 
in braids, and dress in (garments made of) bark or 
skins; he shall not eat anything that has been 
hoarded for more than a year. 

16. An ascetic shall leave his relatives and, not 
attended by any one nor procuring any property, 
depart (from his house performing the customary 
ceremony) according to the rule. 

17. He shall go into the forest (and live there). 

18. He shall shave his hair excepting the top-lock. 

15. This passage, which Govinda gives as one Sutra, agrees 
word for word with Gautama III, 26-35, except in the beginning, 
where Gautama omits 'bathing at mom, noon, and eve.' The 
MSS. all read bhaiksham, 'begged food,' instead of baishkam, 
' the flesh of animals slain by carnivorous beasts.' But Govinda's 
explanation leaves no doubt as to the correctness of the latter 
reading. The Dekhan and Giig-ar&t MSS., including K., read 
agr&myabhcgi II agr&myabhqgl 

16. I adopt the readings of the Dekhan MSS., aparigrahaA (for 
apratigraha>4) and pravra^-et (for parivra^et). The rule for the cere- 
mony is given below, II, 10, 17. 

18. This is Govinda's explanation of .?ikh£mu»</aA, the reading 

S 2 

Digitized by 


260 baudhAyana. II, 6, II. 

19. He shall wear a cloth to cover his nakedness. 

20. He shall reside in one place during the rainy 

21. He shall wear a dress dyed yellowish-red. 
.22. He shall go to beg when the pestle lies 

motionless, when the embers have been extin- 
guished, and when the cleaning of the dishes has 
been finished. 

23. With the three means of punishment, (viz.) 
words, thoughts, and acts, he shall not injure created 

24. He shall carry a cloth for straining water for 
the sake of purification. 

25. He shall perform the necessary purifications 
with water which has been taken out (of a well or 
tank) and has been strained. 

26. (Ascetics shall) say, ' Renouncing the works 
taught in the Veda, cut off from both (worlds), we 
attach ourselves to the central sphere (Brahman).' 

27. But the venerable teacher (declares) that 
there is one order only, because the others do not 
beget offspring. 

' 28. With reference to this matter they quote also 
(the following passage) : ' There was, forsooth, an 
Asura, Kapila by name, the son of Prahlada. 

20 and 22. These two Sutras are omitted in K. and M., which 
give them in the passage following Sutra 12, as well as in the 
Dekhan and Gqg-arat MSS. 

24. See below, II, 10, 17, 11. Govinda explains pavitra, ' a cloth 
for straining water,' by 'a bunch of Kiua grass for removing 
insects from the road.' 

25. According to Govinda such water is to be used for washing 
off the stains of urine &c, not for drinking. 

26. This Sutra is again omitted in the MSS. of the text M. and 
K. give it in the passage following Sutra 12. 

27. Gautama III, 36. 

Digitized by 



Striving with the gods, he made these divisions. 
A wise man should not take heed of them.' 

29. Because no (other meaning is) perceptible, 
(the text) ' Four paths,' &c, refers to sacrificial rites, 
(viz.) to Ish/is, animal sacrifices, Soma sacrifices, 

30. With respect to this (question the following 
verse also) is quoted : 'That eternal greatness of the 
Brahma«a is neither increased by works, nor dimi- 
nished. The soul knows the nature of that (great- 
ness); knowing that, he is not stained by evil deeds.' 

31. If he says that, (let him reflect on the fol- 
lowing verse): ' He who knows not the Veda, does 
not at death think of that great, all-perceiving soul, 
through which the sun, resplendent with brilliancy, 
gives warmth, and the father has a father through 
the son at his birth from the womb.' 

32. (Moreover), 'Those who, being neither true 
Brahma#as nor performers of Soma sacrifices, work 
not for that which is near, nor for that which is far, 
take hold of the word and with sinful (speech) 
ignorantly perform the rites.' 

33. There are innumerable (passages in the 
Veda) which refer to the debts (to be paid by a 
Brahmawa), such as, ' May I obtain, O Agni, immor- 

30-31. Taitt. Bralimawa III, 12, 9, 7. 

32. Rig-veda X, 71, 9. My rendering of the difficult verse is 
merely tentative, and I have left out the word siriA, for which I 
am as little able as other Sanskritists to offer a safe explanation. 
The general meaning of the verse, I think, has been rightly under- 
stood by Siya«a and Govinda. who both say that it contains a 
reproach, addressed to those Brahma«as who, contented with the 
letter of the Veda, do not master its meaning. 

33~34- The commentary omits these two Sutras, which, how- 
ever, seem necessary for the completion of the discussion. The 

Digitized by 


262 BAUDhAyANA. 11,6, ir. 

tality through offspring;' 'A Brihmawa on being 
born, (owes) a son to his ancestors/ &c. 

34. ' Those dwell with us, who fulfil the following 
(duties), the study of the three Vedas, the student- 
ship, the procreation of offspring, faith, austerity, 
sacrificing, and giving gifts; he who praises other 
(duties) becomes dust and perishes.' 

Prajna II, AdhyAya 7, Kajvz>ikA 12. 

1 . Now we will explain the oblations (offered) to 
the vital air (pri»a) by .Salinas (householders) and 
Yayavaras (vagrants), who sacrifice to the soul. 

2. At the end of all the necessary (daily rites), let 
him sit down, facing the east, in a place that has 
been well cleaned and smeared with cowdung ; next 
let him worship that prepared (food) which is being 
brought, (saying), ' BhM, Bhuva^, Sva^, Om,' (and 
then) remain silent. 

3. (Next) he pours water round the food which 
has been placed (before him), turning his right hand 
towards it, and reciting the MahavyahWtis ; (after- 
wards), continuing to hold (the dish) with his left 
hand, he first drinks water, (saying), ' Thou art a 
substratum for ambrosia,' and (finally) offers five 
oblations of food to the vital airs, (reciting the 

second occurs also Apastamba II, 9, 24, 8. Though Baudha- 
yana does not express himself as clearly as Apastamba, he dis- 
approves, as it would seem, like the latter, of the opinion of those 
who gave an undue preference to asceticism at the expense of 
married life, the order of the householders. 

12. 1. The Praw&gnihotra is alluded to by Apastamba II, 7, 1 7, 16. 
Regarding the terms .Salina and Yayivara, see below, HI, 1, 3-4. 

3. The Mahavyahr/tis are the Mantras given Taittirtya Aranyaka 
X, 2. The second Mantra is found Taittirtya Arawyaka X, 32, and 

Digitized by 



texts), 'Full of reverence, I offer ambrosia to Pra#a; 
mayest thou propitiously enter me, not in order to 
burn me. To Pra«a, Svaha !' &c. 

4. After offering the 'five oblations of food to the 
vital airs, let him finish his meal silently. Medi- 
tating in his heart on the lord of created beings, let 
him not emit speech while (eating). 

5. If he emits speech, he shall mutter ' BhM, 
Bhuva^, Sva^, Om/ and afterwards continue to eat. 

6. Now they quote also (the following rule) : ' If he 
sees (bits of) skin, hair, nail-(parings), insects, or the 
dung of rats (in his food), he shall take out a lump, 
sprinkle that spot with water, scatter ashes on it, again 
sprinkle it with water, and use (the remainder of the 
food), after it has been declared fit (for use).' 

7. Now they quote also (the following verse) : 'He 
shall eat, seated with his face towards the east, silent, 
not despising his food, not scattering (fragments on 
the ground), and solely attend (to his dinner) ; and, 
after he has eaten, he shall touch fire.' 

8. He shall not cut off with his teeth (pieces 
from) eatables (that must be swallowed) entire, (such 
as) cakes, bulbs, roots, fruit, and flesh. 

9. (Let him) not (eat) to repletion. 

10. After (dinner) he shall drink water, (reciting 
the text), ' Thou art a covering for ambrosia,' and 
stroke (the region of) the heart, (saying), ' Thou art 
the bond that connects the vital airs ; (thou art) 

the third ibid. X, 34. The translation of the Mantras follows 
Govinda, who somewhat differs from Saya«a. 

6. Vasish/fo XIV, 23. 7, Vishwu LXVIII, 40-43- 

9. Vishmi LXVIII, 47. 

10. The first text is found Taittiriya Ara«yaka X, 35, and the 
second ibid. X, 37. I translate the first according to Govinda. 

Digitized by 


264 baudhAyana. II, 7, 12. 

Rudra and Death ; enter me ; mayest thou grow 
through this food.' 

1 1 . After sipping water a second time, he allows 
(the drops from) the hand to flow on the big toe 
of his right foot (and recites the following text) : 
' May the male be pleased, he who is of the size 
of a thumb, who occupies (a space of the size of) a 
thumb, who is the lord of the whole world, masterful, 
and the enjoyer of the universe.' 

12. Let him perform the subsequent consecration 
(anumantra«a) of the (food which has been) offered, 
with raised arms, (and let him recite) the five (texts 
beginning), ' With faith, worshipping Pra«a, (I have) 
offered ambrosia ; mayest thou increase Prawa 
through this food/ 

13. (And let him address the soul with the last 
text of the Anuvaka), ' (May) my soul (gain) immor- 
tality in the universal soul/ 

14. And let him (meditate on his) soul (as) united 
with the imperishable (syllable Om). 

15. He who sacrifices to the soul, surpasses him 
who offers all sacrifices. 

Pra^na II, Adhyaya 7, KandikK 13. 

I. Now they quote also (the following verse): 
'As cotton and reeds, thrown into a fire, blaze up, 
even so all the guilt of him who sacrifices to the 
soul is consumed ;' 

II. Taittiriya Arawyaka X, 38. The individual soul which re- 
sides in the heart is here identified with the universal soul; see 
also Kanaka Upanishad IV, 12. 

12-13. Taittirrya Ara«yaka X, 36. 

14. The syllable Om is Brahman, the universal soul. 

Digitized by 


n, 7, 13. EATING. 265 

2. (Moreover), ' He who eats merely (in order to 
satisfy his own hunger) reaps only guilt. In vain 
(the fool) takes food.' 

3. Let him daily, both in the morning and in the 
evening, sacrifice in this manner; 

4. Or (he may offer) water in the evening. 

5. Now they quote also (the following verses) : 
' Let him first feed his guests, next the pregnant 
women, then the infants and the aged, thereafter the 
distressed and particularly the diseased. But he 
who eats first, without having given (food) to those 
(persons) according to the rule, does not know that 
he is being eaten. He does not eat, (but) he is 

6. ' Let him eat silently what remains, (after he 
has given their portions) to the manes, the gods, the 
servants, his parents, and his Gurus; that is declared 
to be the rule of the sacred law.' 

7. Now they quote also (the following verses) : 
' Eight mouthfuls are the meal of an ascetic, sixteen 
that of a hermit in the woods, thirty-two that of a 
householder, and an unlimited (quantity) that of a 

8. ' An Agnihotrin, a draught-ox, and a student, 
those three can do their work only if they eat 
(much) ; without eating (much) they cannot do it.' 

9. 'A householder, or a student who practises 

13. 2. Rig-veda X, 117, 6, and Taittirfya Brahmawa II, 8, 8, 3. 
The words have been transposed. 

5. VasishMa XI, 6-8; Manu III, n 4-1 15. I write, with the 
Dekhan and Gujarat MSS., na sa bhunkte, sa bhu^gyate, instead of 
the senseless reading of M. and the commentary, na sa bhunkte na 

6. Vasish/fca XI, 11. 7-8. Apastamba II, 4, 9, 13. 
9-10. Apastamba II, 4, 9, 12, and note on II, 1, 1, 2. 

Digitized by 


266 BAUDHAYANA. II, 7, 13. 

austerity by fasting, becomes an Avaklr»in through 
the omission of the sacrifice to the vital airs ;' 

10. Except when he performs a penance. In the 
case of a penance that (fasting) is the rule. 

11. Now they quote also (the following verses) : 
' He who never eats between the morning and the 
evening meals, (obtains the same reward as he who) 
constantly fasts.' 

12. 'As in case one obtains no materials (for the 
sacrifice), one must mutter the sacred texts to be 
recited at the Agnihotra, offered in the three fires, 
even so one should mutter the texts to be recited 
at the Pr&wignihotra, when one is prevented from 

13. 'He who acts thus, will become one with 
Brahman.' Thus spake Pra^apati (the lord of 
created beings). 

Prasna II, AdhyAya 8, Kandika 14. 

1. The offering to the manes secures long life 
and heaven, is worthy of praise and a rite ensuring 

2. Persons who sanctify the company are, a Tri- 
madhu, a Tri#a£iketa, a Trisupar«a, one who keeps 
five fires, and one who knows the six Angas, one 
who performs the vow called 5"iras, one who knows 
the Gyesh/^asaman, (and) a Snataka ; 

3. On failure of these, one who knows the (texts 
called) Rahasya. 

14. 1. Apastamba II, 7, 16, 1-2. 

2. Apastamba II, 7, 17, 22 ; Vasish/fca III, 19. Govinda states 
that the Atharvavedins know the vow called .Siras; see also 
VasishMa XXVI, 12, and note. 

3. Govinda says that persons acquainted with the Rahasyas or 

Digitized by 


II,8,i4. SRADDHAS. -267 

4. The Rik-verses, the Ya^us-formulas, and the 
Samans (give) lustre to a funeral offering. There- 
fore he may feed (on that occasion) even a Sapi»</a 
relation who (knows) those (texts). 

5. Let him who feeds (Brahma»as at a funeral 
sacrifice) cause them to hear successively the Raksho- 
ghna Samans, the Ya^ns-formulas (called) Svadha- 
vat, the Rik-verses (called) Madhu, and the (texts 
called) Pavitras. 

6. Having invited on the day before (the .Sraddha), 
or just in the morning, virtuous, pure (men), such as 
Trimadhus, who know the Vedarigas and the sacred 
texts, who are not related by marriage, nor members 
of the same family, nor connected through the Veda, 
at least three, (but always) an odd number, the (sa- 
crificer) makes them sit down on prepared seats, 
covered with Darbha grass, facing the east or the 

7. Then he offers to them water mixed with sesa- 
mum seed, adorns them with scents and garlands 
(and says), * I wish to offer oblations in the fire.' 

Arawyakas are preferable to those mentioned in the preceding 
Sutra, and thus the order must be reversed. 

4. Apastamba II, 7, 17, 5. 

5. The texts on which the Rakshoghna Sfonans are based 
occur Sama-veda I, i, 1, 3, 4-6 ; the Svadhivat Ya^us, Taitt. Br&h- 
ma«a I, 3, 10, 2 ; the Madhu JZifas, Rig-veda I, 90, 6 ; and the 
three Pavitras, Taitt. Brihmawa I, 4, 8, 2. 

6. Apastamba II, 7, 1 4, 5. All the MSS., including those of 
the commentary, read yonigotramantrasambandhan instead of yoni- 
gotramantrasambandhan. But the explanation of gotrasambandhSA 
by asagotrdA shows still a faint trace of the former existence of 
the reading which I have restored conjecturally and translated. 
Its correctness is proved by the parallel passage of Apastamba. 

7. Vishwu LXXIII, 12-13; Manu III, 208-2 1 1 . The Agnimukha 

Digitized by 


268 baudhAyana. II, 8, 14. 

When he has received permission (to do so), he 
heaps fuel on the sacred fire, scatters Kusa grass 
around it, performs (all the ceremonies) up to 
the end of the Agnimukha, and offers three burnt 
oblations of food only, (reciting the following texts) : 
'To Soma, accompanied by the manes, Svaha!' ' To 
Yama, accompanied by the Angiras and. by the 
manes, Svaha !' 'To Agni, who carries the offerings 
to the manes, who causes sacrifices to be well per- 
formed, Svaha !' 

8. He shall make these three oblations with food 
only which has been sprinkled with the remainder 
of the (clarified butter). 

9. Let him give a cake of food to the birds. 

10. For it is declared in the Veda, 'The manes 
roam about in the shape of birds.' 

11. Next he touches the (other food) with his 
hand and with the thumb, 

12. (And recites the following texts): 'Fire sees 
thee, who art co-extensive with the earth, the Rik.- 
verses are thy greatness, lest the gift be in vain ; the 
earth is the vessel for thee, the sky the cover ; I 
offer thee in the mouth of Brahman, I offer thee in 
the Prawa and the Apana of learned Brahma«as; thou 
art imperishable, mayest thou never fail to (the manes 
of our) fathers yonder, in the other world.' 'Air hears 
thee, who art co-extensive with the middle sphere, 

is a term denoting all the preliminaries which precede the Pra- 
dhanahoma of a ceremony. The Dekhan and Gugur^t MSS. 
read a^yasya instead of annasyaiva. 

8. Clarified butter is necessary for the rites included in the 

12. The Mantras are addressed to the food which is to be 

Digitized by 


II, 8, is. jrAddhas. 269 

the Ya^us-formulas are thy greatness, lest the gift 
be in vain ; the earth is the vessel for thee, the sky 
the cover; .... mayest thou never fail to the 
(manes of our) grandfathers yonder, in the other 
world.' 'The sun reveals thee, who art co-extensive 
with the sky, the Samans are thy greatness, lest the 
gift be in vain ; . . . . mayest thou never fail to 
the (manes of our) great-grandfathers yonder, in the 
other world.' 

Prasna II, AdhyAya 8, KandikK 15. 

1. Now indeed (that) happens (also which the fol- 
lowing verses teach) : 

2. ' Let him sprinkle that food with the remainder 
of the burnt oblations. But what is given without 
(touching it with) the thumb does not gladden the 

3. ' The malevolent Asuras seek an opportunity 
(to snatch away) that food intended for the manes, 
which is not supported with both hands.' 

4. ' The Yatudhanas and Pba^as, who receive no 
share, steal the food if sesamum grains are not 
scattered (on the seats of the guests), and the Asuras 
(take it) if (the host) is under the sway of anger.' 

5. ' If a person dressed in reddish clothes mutters 
prayers, offers burnt oblations, or receives gifts, the 
sacrificial viands, offered at sacrifices to the gods or 
to the manes, do not reach the deities.' 

.. 1 — - ■ ■- -■ — ■ — ■ - 

15. 2. Manu III, 215. See also above, II, 8, 14, 10. 

3. Vasish/Aa XI, 25. 

4. Vish«u LXXIII, 11 ; Manu III, 229. 

5. Govinda states that the rule is intended to teach that the 
sacrificer and the guests at a iSr&ddha must be dressed in white, 

Digitized by 


270 baudhAyana. 11,8,15. 

6. ' If gifts are given or received without (touch- 
ing them with) the thumb and, if one sips water 
standing, (the performer of the act) is not benefited 

7. At the beginning and at the end (of a .Sraddha) 
water must be given (to the guests). 

8. In every case the muttering (of sacred texts) 
and the other (necessary acts must be performed) 
according to the rule. 

9. The remaining (rules) have been prescribed 
(in the section) on the burnt oblations on Ashfoka 

10. 'He shall feed two (Brahma#as) at the offering 
to the gods and three at the offering to the manes, 
or a single man on either occasion. Even a very 
wealthy man shall not be anxious (to entertain) a 
large company.' 

11. 'A large company destroys these five (advan- 
tages), the respectful treatment (of the invited guests, 
the propriety of) time and place, purity and (the 
selection of) virtuous Brahma#a (guests) ; therefore 
he shall not invite (a large number)/ 

12. 'In front (feed) the fathers of the (sacrificer), 
to the left the grandfathers, to the right the great- 
grandfathers, and at the back those who pare off 
(portions) from the cakes.' 

and that ascetics are not to be invited. But see VasishMa XI, 

17, 34- 

7. Vishwu LXXIII, 12, 27, and above, II, 8, 14, 6. 

9. Baudhiyana Gr/hya-sutra II, 17,18. 

io-n. Vasish/Aa XI, 27-28. 

12. In the beginning of the verse I read with M. and the I. 0. 
copy of the commentary urastaA pitaras tasya, and in the end with 
the Dekhan and Gujarat MSS. pi«<fatakshak£A. M. reads piWa- 
tarkyS, and the copies of the commentary pi«rfodaka^. Both these 

Digitized by 



Prasna II, AdhyAya 9, KanjjikA 16. 

i. (Now follows some) advice for him who is 
desirous of offspring. 

2. The two A.svins have declared, that fame is 
gained by the procreation (of sons); 

3. ' Performing acts which tend to prolong life 
and austerities, intent on the performance of the 
private recitation, and of sacrifices, and keeping his 
organs in subjection, let him carefully beget offspring 
in his own caste.' 

4. ' From his birth a Brahma»a is loaded with 
three debts ; these let him pay. A prudent man is 
free from doubts regarding the sacred law.' 

5. ' If he worships the sages through the study of 
the Veda, Indra with Soma sacrifices, and the manes 
of his ancestors through (the procreation of) children,, 
he will rejoice in heaven, free from debt.' 

6. ' Through a son he conquers the worlds, through ; 
a grandson he obtains immortality, but through his ' 
son's grandson he ascends to the (highest) heaven.' < 
(All that) has been declared in the Veda. 

7. The Veda shows the existence of the three 
debts in the following (passage): 'A Brahmawa is 
born loaded with three debts; (he owes) the 
studentship to the sages, sacrifices to the gods, 
and a son to the manes;' 

readings are clearly corrupt, and so is the var. lect. of the Gr»hya- 
sawgraha, quoted in the Petersburg Dictionary, pi«<fatarkukaA. 
Pi«rfatakshaklA, ' the cutters or parers of the cakes,' is appropriate, 
because the remoter ancestors, who, as Govinda too declares, are 
meant by the term, obtain the fragments of the funeral cakes. 

6. Vasish/Aa XVII, 5. 

7. VasishMa XI, 48. After this Sutra the MSS. of the text 

Digitized by 


2 72 BAUDHAVANA. II, 9, 1(5; 

8. Through the procreation of a virtuous son he 
saves himself. 

9. He who obtains a virtuous son saves from the 
fear of sin seven in the descending line and seven 
in the ascending line, (viz.) six others (in each), 
himself being the seventh. 

10. Therefore he obtains a reward if he begets 

11. Therefore he should sedulously beget off- 

insert the following corrupt passage : bandham ri«amoksham pra- 
g&y&s £ayattam pifrfn&m £anukarsharabdar ka, prag&y&m dawayati I 
anutsanna^ pra^avan bhavati 1 ya vad enaw pra^Snugrchwite tavad 
akshayaw loka»» ^ayati. The commentary does not notice it, and 
it seems to me that it needlessly interrupts the context. 

11. M. and K. add to this Sutra, atmanaA phalalabhaya, 'in 
order to gain a reward for himself.' The same two MSS., further, 
insert the following Sutras : tasmat putraw /Jotpadyatmanam evot- 
padayatfti 1 vi^nayate £atma vai putranamasiti I evaw dvitfya atm£ 
^ivata drash/avyo yaA putram utpadayati I sa tatha bhavati I tas- 
man natma kvaftd akshetra utsrash/avyaA 1 atmanam avamanyate hi I 
yathatmanam utpadayati sa tatha bhavati I tasmad adita eva kshetram 
anvi^Aet sarvavarwe saraskr/'tam upaderena l tasmin darasawyoge 
pra^Sm utpSdayed II ' Therefore (they say) that he who begets a 
son produces even his own self; and it is declared in the Veda, 
" Thou art self, called a son." Thus he who begets a son will 
see, during his lifetime, a second self. He becomes like him. 
Therefore one's own self must not be begotten on an unworthy 
female. For (he who does that) despises himself. He becomes 
even so, as he produces himself. Therefore (every man), each in 
his own caste, should first look out for a female who has been 
sanctified according to the injunction (of the sacred texts). Taking 
her to be his wedded wife, he shall beget a son.' It is possible 
that this passage really belongs to Baudhayana, for it is written 
in the usual style of our Sutra, and the last word of this passage as 
well as of Sutra 11, as given in the Dekhan MSS., is utpadayet. 
But it is not absolutely required by the context, and the com- 
mentary too omits it. 

Digitized by 



12. Through the application of medicines and 
sacred texts. 

13. The advice to him (who is intent on the 
procreation of children) is given in agreement with 
the revealed texts. 

14. For it produces results in the case of all 
the castes. 

Prasna II, AdhyAya 10, KaatdikA 17. 

i: Now we will explain the rule for entering the 
order of ascetics (sawnyasa). 

2. Some (teachers say), ' He who has finished his 
studentship may become an ascetic immediately on 
(the completion of) that.' 

3. But (according to others, asceticism is befitting) 
for .Salinas and Yayavaras who are childless ; 

4. Or a widower (may become an ascetic). 

5. (In general) they prescribe the profession of 
asceticism after the completion of the seventieth 
year and after the children have been firmly settled 
in (the performance of) their sacred duties. 

6. Or a hermit in the woods (may become an 

13. I read with M., whose reading is confirmed by the explana- 
tion given in the commentary, tasyopaderaA s rutis&manyenopadi- 
jyate. The other MS. reads tasyopade* ena, and in the text of the 
commentary the first word is left out. 

17. 2. Gautama III, 1. 

3. Regarding the two terms «Sallna and Yayavara, see below, 

4. Vidhura, translated, according to Govinda's explanation, by 
' widower,' perhaps includes all persons who have been separated 
from their families. 

6. Regarding the ceremonies to be performed by hermits in the 
wood, see above, II, 6, 11, 15, and below, III, 3. 

[14] T 

Digitized by 


274 BAUDHAYANA. II, 10, X-J. 

ascetic) on finishing the (special) ceremonies (pre- 
scribed for him). 

7. ' That eternal greatness of the Brahmawa is 
neither increased nor diminished by works. The 
soul knows the nature of that (greatness). He who 
knows that, is not stained by evil deeds.' 

8. 'It leads to the cessation of births.' 

9. ' The eternal one leads (him) to glory.' The 
greatness (of asceticism is declared by these pas- 

10. After having caused the hair of his head, his 
beard, the hair on his body, and his nails to be cut, 
he prepares 

11. Sticks, a rope, a cloth for straining water, a 
water vessel, and an alms-bowl. 

12. Taking these (implements, let him go) to the 
extremity of the village, or to the extremity of the 
boundary (of the village), o" to the house where the 
sacred fires are kept, partake of a threefold (mixture 
of) clarified butter, milk, (and) sour milk, and (after- 
wards) fast; 

13. Or (he may partake of) water. 

14. (Saying), ' Om, BhM, I enter the Savitri, tat 
savitur varewyam ; Om, Bhuva^, I enter the Savitri, 
bhargo devasya dhlmahi; Om, I enter the Savitri, 
dhiyo yo na^ pra^odayat;' (he shall recite the 
Savitri) foot by foot, half-verse by half-verse, (and 
finish by repeating) the whole or the parts (of the 

7. See above, II, 6, 11, 30. 11. Yi^navalkya III, 58-60. 

14. This part of the ceremony is called Sivitrtpravesa, ' entering 
the Savitri.' According to the Dharmasindhu, fol. 84 a, 1. 8, the 
last Mantra is ' Om, Bh(L£, BhuvaA, Sva^, I enter the Savitri ; we 
meditate on that adorable light of divine Savitri, who may impel 
our thoughts.' 

Digitized by 



15. It is declared in the Veda, ' Entering order tytfl a 
after order, (man) becomes (one with) Brahman.' ^-11 

16. Now they quote also (the following verse) : 
' He who has passed from order to order, has offered 
burnt oblations and kept his organs in subjection, 
becomes afterwards, tired with (giving) alms and 
(making) offerings, an ascetic' 

17. Such an ascetic (becomes one with) the in- 
finite (Brahman). 

18. Before the sun sets, he heaps fuel on the 
Garhapatya fire, brings the Anvaharyapa£ana fire (to 
the spot), takes the flaming Ahavantya fire out (of 
the Garhapatya), melts butter on the Garhapatya fire, 
cleanses it (with 'Kara grass), takes four times (por- 
tions of it) in the sacrificial spoon (called Srui), and 
offers in the Ahavanlya fire on which sacred fuel 
has been heaped, (four times) a full oblation, (say- 
ing), ' Om, Svaha !' 

19. It is declared in the Veda that this (offering 
is) the Brahmanvadhana (putting fuel on the sacred 
fires for the sake of the universal soul). 

20. Now in the evening, after the Agnihotra has 
been offered, he scatters grass to the north of the 
Garhapatya fire, places the sacrificial vessels in pairs, 
the upper part turned downwards, on it, strews 
Darbha grass to the south of the Ahavanlya fire 
on the seat destined for the Brahman priest, covers 

16. ManuVI, 34. 

18. Anv&haryapa&ina is another name of the so-called Dakshi- 
«Sgni, in which the sacrificial viands are cooked. The cleansing 
of the butter (utpavana) is performed by taking hold of the ends of 
blades of Kura grass and dipping the bent middle part into the 
melted butter and then drawing it upwards. A full burnt oblation 
(purnShuti) consists of a whole spoonful. As four spoonfuls are to 
be taken out, it follows that four oblations are to be offered. 

T 2 

Digitized by 


276 baudhAyana. 11,10,17. 

it with the skin of a black antelope, and remains 
awake during that night. 

21. A Brahmawa who, knowing this, dies after 
fasting during the night of Brahman and repositing 
within himself the sacred fires, conquers all guilt, 
even (that of) killing a Brahmawa. 

22. Then he rises in the muhurta sacred to 
Brahman, and offers the early Agnihotra just at the 
(appointed) time. 

23. Next, after covering the (part of the altar 
called) Przsh^ya and bringing water, he prepares 
(an offering) to (Agni) Vaisvanara (which is cooked) 
in twelve potsherds. That (well-)known Ish/i is 
the last (which he performs). 

24. Afterwards he throws the sacrificial vessels, 
which are neither made of earth nor of stone, into 
the Ahavaniya fire, 

25. (And) throwing the two Ara«is into the 
G&rhapatya fire (with the words), ' May ye be of 
one mind with us,' he reposits the sacred fires in 

26. (Reciting the sacred text), ' O Fire, that body 
of thine, which is fit for the sacrifice,' he inhales 
the smell of (the smoke of) each fire thrice three 

27. Then, standing within the sacrificial enclosure, 
(he says) thrice in a low voice and thrice aloud, 'Om, 
Bhu^, Bhuva^, Sva^, I have entered the order of 
ascetics, I have entered the order of ascetics, I have 
entered the order of ascetics.' 

21. The night during which the ascetic keeps watch near the 
fires is called ' the night of Brahman.' 

25. The Ara«is are the two pieces of wood used for producing 
fire by friction, Taittirfya Samhita I, 3, 7, 1-2, 

Digitized by 



28. It is declared in the Veda, ' The gods are 
trebly true.' 

29. (Finally) he pours out as much water as will 
fill his joined hands, (saying), ' I promise not to 
injure any living being.' 

30. Now they quote also (the following verse) : 
' An ascetic who roams about after having given a 
promise of safety to all living beings, is not threat- 
ened with danger by any creature.' 

31. (Henceforth) he must restrain his speech. 

32. He grasps his staff, (saying), ' (Thou art my) 
friend, protect me.' 

33. He takes the rope, (reciting the verse), ' The 
brilliant light,' &c. 

34. He takes the cloth for straining water, (re- 
citing the text), 'With which means of purification 
the gods,' &c. 

35. He takes the waterpot, (reciting the verse), 
'Through that light, by which the gods rose on 
high,' &c. 

36. He takes the alms-bowl, (reciting the Vya- 

37. Taking with him the staves, the rope, the 

28. Taittiriya Ara»yaka II, 18, 6. 

29. All gifts must be confirmed by a libation of water, which in 
other cases is poured into the hand of the recipient. The cere- 
mony proves more clearly even than the numerous other passages 
of the Smntis, in which ascetics are exhorted to abstain from 
injuring living beings, that the so-called ahiwsa doctrine is not of 
Buddhistic, but of Brahmanical origin. 

30. Vasish/Aa X, 1-2. 31. Gautama III, 17. 
33. Taittiriya Brahma«a III, 7, 8, 1. 

35. Taittiriya Sawhita V, 7, 2, 2. 

37. The Surabhimati occurs Taittiriya Brahmawa III, 9, 7, 5. 
For the other texts named, see above, II, 4, 7, 2. The Tarpa»a 
has been fully described above, II, 5, 9-10. 

Digitized by 


278 baudhAyana. 11,10,17. 

cloth for straining water, the waterpot, (and) the 
alms-bowl, he goes where water (is to be obtained), 
bathes, sips water, (and) washes himself, (reciting the 
verses called) Surabhimatl, Ablingas, Variwls, Hira- 
«yavar«as, and Pavamanis. Entering the water, he 
performs sixteen suppressions of the breath, (mentally 
repeating) the Aghamarsha«a hymn, ascends the 
bank, wrings out his dress, puts on another pure 
dress, sips water, takes the cloth for straining, 
(saying), ' Om, BhM, Bhuva/fc, SvaJi,' and performs 
the Tarpa«a (with the following texts), ' Om, BhM, 
I satiate,' ' Om, Bhuva^ — , Om, Sva^ — , Om, 
Maha^ — , Om, GanaA — , Om, Tapa^ — , Om, 
Satyam — .' 

38. He takes up as much water as his joined 
hands will hold for the manes, (and satiates them 
with it) exactly in the same manner as the gods, 
(saying), ' Om, BhM Svadha, Om, Bhuva/i Sva- 
dha,' &c. 

39. Then he worships the sun, (reciting) the two 
verses (which begin), ' Ud u tya*» iitram,' &c. 

40. (Saying), ' Om, this (syllable Om), forsooth, is 
Brahman ; this (syllable) which sheds warmth is 
light ; this which gives warmth is the Veda ; this 
must be known as that which sheds warmth;' he 
thus satiates the soul (and afterwards) worships 
the soul (with these texts), ' The soul (is) Brahman, 
(is) light.' 

38. ' In the same manner as the gods,' i. e. without passing the 
sacred string over the right shoulder. — Govinda. 

40. The Gu^ar&t and Dekhan MSS., including K., place after the 
first Om two additional Mantras, 'Brahman (is) Om; this universe 
(is) Om.' The object of the Mantras given in the Madras MSS. is to 
identify the Prawava with the Brahman, the sun, and the Veda. 

Digitized by 


II, 10, 18. RULES FOR AN ASCETIC. 279 

41. Let him repeat the Savitri one thousand 
times, or one hundred times, or an unlimited number 
of times. 

42. (Saying), ' Bhu/fc, Bhuva^, Suvavfc,' he takes up 
the cloth for straining, (and) fetches water, 

43. Let him not, (at any period) after that 
(moment), sip water which has not been drawn up 
(from a well and the like), which has not been 
strained, and which has not been completely 

44. Let him not wear any longer a white dress. 

45. (He may carry) one staff or three staves. 

Pras-na II, AdhyAya 10, Kawdika 18. 

i. Now the following vows are (to be kept by 
an ascetic) : 

2. Abstention from injuring living beings, truth- 
fulness, abstention from appropriating the property 
of others, continence, (and) liberality. 

3. There are five minor vows, (viz.) abstention 
from anger, obedience towards the Guru, avoidance 
of rashness, cleanliness and purity in eating. 

4. Now (follows the rule for) begging. Let him 

43. ManuVI, 46. Apariput&bhiA, ' which has not been com- 
pletely cleansed,' probably refers to the so-called dmh/ya' pari- 
pavana, ' carefully looking at it in order to see if any living being 
remains in it.' 

18. 2. The five vows (vratas) named here are the principal ones. 
As to the vow of ' liberality ' Govinda remarks that though the 
ascetic possesses no • store ' and no property in the ordinary sense 
of the word, still he can have books and give those away. 

3. ' Avoidance of rashness/ i. e. committing any act which might 
destroy life. 

4. ' When the Vauvadeva offering has been finished,' i. e. when 
people have had their dinner ; see also Vasish/Aa X, 7. 

Digitized by 


280 baudhAyana. II, io, 18. 

ask Brahma«as, both those who have houses (yalina) 
and those who lead a wandering life (yayavara), 
for alms, when the VaLrvadeva offering has been 

5. Let him ask (for it), prefacing (his request with 
the word) Bhavat 

6. Let him stand begging no longer than the 
time required for milking a cow. 

7. When he returns from begging, he lays (the 
alms) down in a pure place, washes his hands and 
feet, and announces (what he obtained) to the sun, 
(reciting the text), ' Ud u tya.m iitram,' &c. He 
(also) announces it to Brahman (with the text), ' The 
first-born Brahman,' &c. 

8. It is declared in the Veda, ' After the Brah- 
madhana the sacrificer himself (contains) the sacri- 
ficial fires. His respiration (pra«a, represents) the 
Garhapatya fire, the air that goes downwards 
(apana, represents) the Anvaharyapaiana (or Dak- 
shi«a) fire, the circulation in the body (vyana, repre- 
sents) the Ahavaniya fire, the cerebral circulation 
(udana) and the abdominal circulation (samana, 
represent) the Sabhya and Avasathya fires. These 
five fires are abiding in the soul. He (therefore) 
offers" (the oblations) in the soul alone.' 

9. ' This sacrifice, offered in the soul, which is 
located in and based on the soul, leads the soul to 

10. Giving, compassionately, portions (of his 
food) to the living beings, and sprinkling the re- 

7. The second text occurs repeatedly in the Taittiriya-veda, 
e.g. TaittMya Ara#yaka X, 1, 10. 

8. Regarding the Brahm&dMna, see above, II, 10, 17, 19. 

Digitized by 



mainder with water, he shall eat it as if it were 
a medicine. 

11. After he has eaten and sipped water, he 
mutters (the texts), ' Out of darkness we,' &c, (and), 
' My speech resides in the mouth,' &c, and worships 
the sun with the (verse called) Gyotishmati. 

12. Let him eat food, given without asking, 
regarding which nothing has been settled before- 
hand and which has reached him accidentally, so 
much only as is sufficient to sustain life. 

13. Now they quote also (the following verses): 
' Eight mouthfuls (make) the meal of an ascetic, 
sixteen (that) of a hermit in the woods, thirty-two 
(that) of a householder, an unlimited (quantity that) 
of a student.' 

14. 'Alms (may) either (be obtained) from (men 
of) the three castes, or the food (given) by a single 
Brahma«a (may be eaten) ; or (he may obtain food) 
from (men of) all castes, and not (eat) that given by 
a single Brahma«a.' 

15. Now they quote (the following special rules) 
for the case that the teachers explain (the doctrine) 
of the Upanishads : ' Diligently standing (in the 
day-time), keeping silence, sitting (at night) with 
crossed legs, bathing three times a day, and eating 

11. The first text occurs frequently in the Taittiriya-veda, e.g. 
Taittirfya SawhM IV, 1, 7, 4; the second, Taittiriya Aranyaka X, 
72. The Gyotishmati is, according to Govinda, the first of the 
two Mantras quoted. 

12. According to Govinda this verse gives the opinion of ' some' 
teachers, not the author's. Asawk/iptam,' regarding which nothing 
has been settled beforehand,' indicates, according to Govinda, that 
the ascetic must not even mentally determine what he is going 
to eat. 

13. See above, II, 7, 13, 7. 

Digitized by 


282 baudhAyana. II, ro, 18. 

at the fourth, sixth, or eighth (meal-time only), he 
shall subsist entirely on (rice) grains, oil-cake, food 
prepared from barley, sour milk, (and) milk.' 

16. It is declared in the Veda, 'On that (occasion) 
he shall rigidly keep silence; pressing the teeth 
together he may converse, without opening his 
mouth, as much as is necessary with teachers deeply 
versed in the three Vedas (and) with ascetics pos- 
sessing a great knowledge of the scriptures, not with 
women, nor when he would break (his vow).' 

1 7. (Let him keep) only one of (the rules which 
enjoin) standing (in the day-time), rigid silence, and 
sitting (at night) with crossed legs ; let him not keep 
all three together. 

18. It is declared in the Veda, ' And he who has 
gone there may eat, in times of distress, a small 
quantity of the food prescribed by his vow after 
(having partaken of other dishes), provided he does 
not break (his vow).' 

19. ' Eight (things) do not cause him who is intent 
on standing (in the day-time), keeping rigid silence, 
sitting (at night) with crossed legs, bathing three 
times a day, and (eating) at the fourth, sixth, or 
eighth meal-time only, to break his vow, (viz.) 
water, roots, clarified butter, milk, sacrificial food, 
the wish of a Brahma#a, an order of his teacher, 
and medicine.' 

20. Let him mutter the (Mantras which must be 

18. 'The meaning is, that in times of distress, having partaken 
at his pleasure (of other food), he may afterwards eat of one (of 
the substances mentioned above, viz.) rice-grains and the rest.' — 

19. All the MSS. except M. have snana, ' bathing,' instead of 
sthana, ' standing (in the day-time),' though the reading is clearly 

Digitized by 


11,10, 18. RULES FOR "AN ASCETIC. 283 

recited at the) Agnihotra, in the evening and in the 

21. After performing his evening devotions by 
(reciting the verses called) Varuwis, and his morning 
devotions by (reciting the verses called) Maitrls. 

22. ' An ascetic shall keep no fire, have no house, 
no home, and no protector. He may enter a village 
in order to collect alms, and emit speech at the 
private recitation of the Veda.' 

23. It is declared in the Veda, ' Limited in number 
are the Rik- verses, limited in number are the Samans, 
limited is the answer (of the Adhvaryu priest).' 

24. ' Thus (an ascetic) shall not give up the Veda, 
(but live), until he is liberated from the body, at the 
root of the tree.' 

25. 'The tree (is) the Veda; the syllable Om is 
its root ; the syllable Om is the essence of the 

26. ' Meditating on the syllable Om, he becomes 

2i. The Maitris occur Taitt. Sa«mita" III, 4, 11, 5, and the 
Varuwis follow them immediately. 

22. Apastamba II, 9, 21, 10. 

23. This and the next Sutras are intended to teach that ascetics 
may limit their private recitation to the repetition of the pra«ava, 
' the syllable Om.' According to Govinda the passage of the Veda 
quoted refers originally to the AaturhotSraA, which the Taittiriya 
IMhmawa II, 2, 1, 4, and III, 12, 5, 1 identifies with the Brahman, 
and where the pratigara, the answer of the Adhvaryu priest, is ' Om 
hotaA' (Aitareya BrahmawaV, 25). 

24. I have taken vrikshamulikovedasa/snydsf to stand for vri- 
kshamuliko avedasawnyasi. For the vedasawnySsa, 'giving up 
the Veda,' is not permitted to an ascetic ; see e. g. VasishMa X, 4. 
But even without the negative particle vedasaranyisi may convey 
a sense not opposed to the general teaching of the Smn'tis. For 
it may be taken to mean ' abandoning (the recitation of other 
portions of) the Veda.' 

Digitized by 


284 baudhAyana. in, 1. 

fit (to be united with) Brahman.' Thus spake the 
lord of created beings. 

27. Let him cleanse the vessel of Brahman with 
the seven Vyahrztis. 

Prasna III, AdhyAya 1. 

1. Now, therefore, (we will speak) of those who 
desire (to fulfil) the duties of .Salinas (dwellers in 
houses), Yayavaras (wanderers), and Aakraiaras 
(circle-goers), who subsist by nine (different) means 
of livelihood. 

2. The term 'livelihood' (yritti) is used because 
they subsist thereby (tadvartanat). 

3. The word Sallna (is used) because they dwell 
in houses (yala). 

4. To be a Yayavara (means that one) goes on 
by means of a most excellent livelihood (vrzttya 
varaya yati). 

5. The term Aakraiara is derived from going by 
turns (to the houses of rich men). 

6. We will explain those (above-mentioned means 
, of livelihood) in their proper order. 

7. They are nine, (viz.) Sha««ivartanl, Kauddali, 
Dhruva, Samprakshalani, Samuha, Palanl, S\\onkk&, 
Kapota, and Siddho«£&a. 

27. Govinda is uncertain if the term brahmabha^ana, ' the vessel 
of Brahman,' refers to the alms-bowl or to the body of the ascetic. 
Probably both are meant, and the Sutra is intended to. prescribe 
the frequent recitation of the Vyahn'tis in addition to the syl- 
lable Om. 

1. 5. Govinda says that Aakra^ara is another name for Yayavara, 
and that anukrama£ara«a,' going by turns,' means going successively 
to the houses of Brahma»as, Kshatriyas, and VaLryas. 

7. The terms left untranslated are fully explained in the next 

Digitized by 



8. (In addition) to these there is a tenth way of 
living, viz. forest-life. 

9. (If he desires to adopt) any of the nine ways 
of living, 

10. He causes the hair of his head, his beard, the 
hair on his body, and his nails to be cut, and besides 
gets ready (the following objects), 

11. (Viz.) the skin of a black antelope, a water- 
pot, a staff, a yoke for carrying burdens, (and) 
a sickle. 

12. He desires to go forth, after having offered 
a Traidhataviya (offering) or a Vaisvanari (ish/i). 

13. Now on the (following) morning, after the 
sun has risen, he makes the sacred fires burn 
brightly, melts butter on the Garhapatya fire, 
cleanses it (with Kma grass), heats the (spoons 
called) Sru£ and Sruva, cleans (them), takes out 
four (spoonfuls of butter) in the Sru/6, and offers 
the Vastoshpatlya (oblation) in the Ahavaniya fire 
according to (the rules of his) Sutra. 

chapter. All the MSS. read kauntal! for kauddalf, which occurs 
in the commentary alone. 

11. The vtvadha, 'a yoke for carrying burdens,' consists usually 
of a bamboo pole, to the ends of which two ropes are attached for 
fastening the loads. Kuthah&ri, ' a sickle,' seems to be the name 
of a particular kind of sickle, since Govinda explains it by vasa- 
vasasanadatram. He adds that the term includes ' a spade ' (kud- 
dala) and other implements. 

12. The meaning is that on the evening before his departure 
from the old home he is to offer the Traidhataviya-homa. Accord- 
ing to the .Srauta-sutras (see the Petersb. Diet. s. v. traidhatavl) the 
latter offering always occurs at the end of a great sacrifice. Hence 
it is appropriate for a person who wishes to begin a new mode 
of life. 

13. This is the leave-taking from the old dwelling. 

Digitized by 


286 baudhAyana. m, i. 

14. Having recited the Puronuvakya (verse), ' O 
lord of the dwelling, permit us,' &c, he offers (the 
oblation) with the Y&fya verse, 'O lord of the 
dwelling, with thy kind company,' &c. 

15. Some (declare that) every person who has 
kindled the sacred fires (shall offer these Homas). 

16. Others (say that) a Yayavara alone (shall 
do it). 

1 7. After departing (from his house), he stops at 
the extremity of the village, or at the extremity of 
the boundary of the village, builds there a hut or 
a cottage, and enters that. 

18. Let him use the skin of the black antelope 
and the other (objects) which he has prepared for 
the several purposes which they are intended to 

19. Known (is) the (duty of) serving the fires; 
known (is) the (duty of) offering the new and full 
moon sacrifices ; known (is) the successive perform- 
ance of the five Mahaya£"«as; it is seen that the 
vegetables, which have been produced, are offered. 

20. He hallows those (vegetables), either (reciting 
the text),' I offer what is agreeable to all the gods,' 
or silently, and cooks (them). 

14. The two verses occur Taittirtya Sawhita III, 4, 10, 1. It is 
specially mentioned by Sayawa that the two verses have to be 
recited by an Agnihotrin on departing from his home. 

17. Ma/Aa, ' a cottage,' is, according to Govinda, a house resting 
on many posts or pillars, while ku/t is the simple shed with four 
posts and a roof of leaves. 

19. The last clause, probably, is meant to prescribe a simpler 
form of the Vauvadeva. 

20. Govinda adds that the meaning is that the sacrificer shall 
eat the boiled rice in silence. 

Digitized by 



21. For such (a man the duty of) teaching, sacri- 
ficing for others, accepting gifts, and (performing) 
other sacrifices (than those mentioned) ceases. 

22. (The use of) sacrificial food fit to be eaten 
during the performance of a vow is seen ; 

23. That is as follows: (his food may be) mixed 
with clarified butter or sour milk, (it must) not 
(contain) pungent condiments or salt, nor meat, 
nor (be) stale. 

24. (He shall remain) chaste, or approach (his 
wife) in season. 

25. (It is necessary) to have the hair of his head, 
his beard, the hair on his body, and his nails cut on 
each Parva day, and the rules of purification (are 
obligatory on him). 

26. Now they quote also (the following verses) : 
' Two kinds of purification, which the .Sish&LS reve- 
rentially practise, are mentioned in the Veda, — 
external (purification), which consists in the removal 
of impure stains and foul smells, and internal (purifi- 
cation), which consists in the abstention from injuring 
live creatures.' 

27. 'The body is purified by water, the under- 
standing by knowledge, the soul of beings by ab- 
stention from injuring, (and) the internal organ by 

Prasna III, AdhyAya 2. 

1. As regards (the mode of subsistence called) 
Shawmvartanl, (that) is (as follows) : 

2 1 . Govinda adds that the obligation of performing other merito- 
rious deeds, such as digging wells and tanks (purta), also ceases. 
27. Vasish/Aa III, 60. 

Digitized by 


288 baudhAyana. in, a. 

2. He cultivates six Nivartanas (of) fallow (land) ; 
he gives a share to the owner (of the soil), or solicits 
his permission (to keep the whole produce). 

3. Let him plough before breakfast with two 
bulls whose noses have not been pierced, not 
striking (them) with the goad, (but) frequently 
coaxing (them). 

4. If he cultivates six Nivartanas in this manner 
(and subsists thereby), that is (the mode of living 
called) Sha««ivartant (subsistence on six Nivar- 

5. (As regards the mode of subsistence called) 
Kauddall, he digs up (the soil) near a water(-course 
or tank) with a spade, a ploughshare, or a pointed 
piece of wood, sows seed, (and) grows bulbs, roots, 
fruit, pot-herbs, and vegetables. 

6. (If he thus) cultivates (land) with a spade (and 
lives on its produce), that is the (mode of life called) 
Kauddall (subsistence by the spade). 

7. He who lives by the (mode of subsistence 
called) Dhruva, wraps up his head in a white dress 
(saying), ' For the sake of welfare I wrap thee up, 
O head,' (and) takes the skin of a black antelope 
(with the words), ' (Thou art) spiritual pre-eminence, 
(I take thee) for the sake of spiritual pre-eminence ; ' 
the Pavitra (reciting) the Ablinga texts ; the water- 
pot (saying), ' Thou art strength, (I take) thee for 

2. 2. A Nivartana is a measure of 4000 square hastas, the ancient 
equivalent of the modern Bight. 

3. Identical with II, 2, 4, 21. 

6. Govinda says that according to some the following cere- 
monies need only be performed when one goes out begging for 
the first time, while others insist on their being performed daily. 

7. The MSnastokiya, i. e. the text beginning ' m& nas toke,' 

Digitized by 



the sake of strength;' the yoke for carrying burdens 
(saying), ' Thou art grain, (I take) thee for the sake 
of prosperity;' the staff (saying), ' (Thou art) a friend, 
protect me.' 

8. On leaving (his hut), he mutters the Vyahmis, 
and (afterwards the verse used for) hallowing the 
quarters of the horizon, ' May the earth, the middle 
sphere, the sky, the constellations, and all the 
quarters of the horizon, fire, air, and sun, (may all 
these) deities protect me on my road.' 

9. Because, after muttering the Manastoklya (text) 
and entering the village, he shows himself with the 
yoke (on his shoulder) at the door of each house, 
they call it ' showing oneself.' 

10. Because, if every (other) livelihood fails, he 
persistently (dhruvam) supports himself by this 
(mode of living), it is called Dhruva (the un- 

11. (As regards the mode of life called) Sampra- 
kshalanl, (if, in order to show that) there is no 
waste of the vegetable (substances) obtained nor 

occurs repeatedly in the Taittirtya-veda, e. g. iTaitt. Sa«hita III, 4, 
11, 2. Govinda adds that the beggar must remain silent, and not 
stop longer at each door than the time required for milking a cow. 

10. Both the text and the scanty commentary on this Sutra are 
corrupt K. reads, writer writair avSrtiyS« tayaiva tasya dhruvaw 
varttayatiti dhruveti parikirtM; D. write writair avarttathd, &c; 
M. write writer awritaySm awrit&yaw tathaiva tasy&A ddhr/vaw 
varttamSnad iti, &c. ; C. I. Witter witter dvartSySm ivartayim 
tathaiva tasyS/s dhruvaw vartan&d iti, &c. The Telugu copy omits 
the text. From the commentary it is clear that Govinda read at 
the beginning of the Sutra ' writer witter,' and the TelHgu copy 
proves that ' tayaiva ' is the correct reading. I restore the Sutra 
conjecturally, as follows, writer writer avdrttSySm tayaiva tasya 
dhruvaaj vartanad iti dhruveti pariktrtitS. 

1 1. I read, samprakshalaniti I utpannanam oshadhinam prakshe- 

[i 4 ] V 

Digitized by 


290 baudhAyana. Ill, 3. 

any hoarding, he turns the dishes, after washing 
them, upside down, (that is the livelihood called) 
Sampraksh&lant (living by washing). 

12. As to the (mode of subsistence called) Sa- 
rnuhi, (if) he sweeps up (grain) with a broom in 
permitted places where (grain-bearing) plants are 
found, either on a road or in fields the access to 
which is not obstructed (by hedges), and lives on 
(what he has thus obtained), that (livelihood is called) 
Samuha (living by sweeping). 

13. As to the (mode of life called) Palant, it is 
also named Ahiwsaka (not hurting), and the follow- 
ing (definition) is given. (If) he tries to obtain 
from virtuous men husked rice or seeds, and main- 
tains (himself) thereby, that (is the mode of subsist- 
ence called) Palant. 

14. As to the (mode of life called) SilonMii, (if) 
he gleans single ears in permitted places where 
(grain-bearing) plants grow, on a road or in fields 
the access to which is not obstructed, and supports 
himself by (these) gleanings, (collected) from time 

panam nasttti ni£ay© va bhig-anani sawprakshalya nyutguyatfti 
samprakshalani 11 M. has nasti ni£ayo va, and C. I. reads also 
ni^ayo and omits ' va.' The Dekhan MSS. have nastiti ka.yo va. 
The description is not very clear; but it seems that a person who 
lives by the Samprakshalant vr/'tti must obtain grain and vegetables 
by begging in such quantities as will suffice for one meal, and 
prove by the way in which he treats his dishes that he has neither 
wasted his food nor any store remaining. 

13. The translation of this Sutra is merely tentative, as the two 
MSS. of the commentary omit the text, and contain only a frag- 
ment of Govinda's explanation. The latter seems to have differed 
from my interpretation. The text, as given by the other MSS., runs 
as follows: palanfty [pali , MSS.] ahiwsakety evedam uktam bhavati 
[°tJti, M.] tushavihtnaws ta«<fulan LWAati sa^anebhyo bikini va 
[kk, D.] palayatiti palant [phala°, phalani, M. ; palind, K. D.] 

Digitized by 


111,3- HERMITS IN THE WOOD. 29 1 

to time, that (is the mode of subsistence called) 
SilonMk (gleaning). 

15. As to the (livelihood called) Kapota, (if) he 
picks up with two fingers single grains in permitted 
places, where (grain-bearing) plants grow, either 
on the road or in fields the access to which is not 
obstructed, that (is called), because he acts like a 
pigeon, Kapota (pigeon-life). 

1 6. As to (the mode of life called) Siddho»i^a, (if) 
tired with the (other) ways of subsistence, he asks, 
because he has become old or diseased, virtuous 
men for cooked food, that (is the livelihood called) 
Siddho»^a (gleaning cooked food). 

17. If (he adopts) the latter, he must reposit (the 
sacred fires) in his soul and behave like an ascetic, 
except (in using) the cloth for straining water and 
(wearing) a reddish-brown dress. 

18. If he subsists on the produce of the forest, 
(the fruits) of trees, creepers, and lianas, and of 
grasses, such as wild millet (.yyamaka) and wild 
sesamum, that (is called) forest-life. 

19. Now they quote also (the following verse) : 
' Moving about with the beasts, dwelling together 
with them, and maintaining oneself in a manner 
similar to theirs, that is clearly the road to heaven.' 

Prasna III, Adhyaya 3. 

1. Now the hermits in the wood belong to two 

15. Govinda mentions a varia lectio not found in our MSS., kapo- 
tavatsa»?da»*.rini, ' because he pecks like a pigeon.' 

16. Here as well as above, III, 1, 7, the Dekhan MSS. read 
siddhe^Mi, ' begging cooked food,' instead of siddhowMl 

3. 1. Compare for the whole Adhy&ya, Apastamba II, 9, 21, 
20-23, 2 - 

U 2 

Digitized by 


292 baudhAyana. Ill, 3. 

2. Those who cook (their food), and those who 
do not cook it. 

3. Among them, those who cook (their food are 
divided) into five subdivisions, (viz.) those who eat 
everything which the forest contains, those who live 
on unhusked (wild-growing grain), those who eat 
bulbs and roots, those who eat fruit, and those who 
eat pot-herbs. 

4. Those who eat everything which the forest 
produces are, again, of two kinds : they either sub- 
sist on forest-produce generated by Indra, or on that 
which has been generated from semen. 

5. Among these, that which has been generated 
by Indra (is the produce) of lianas, shrubs, creepers, 
and trees. Fetching (that) and cooking it, they offer 
the Agnihotra in the evening and in the morning, 
give (food) to ascetics, guests, and students, and eat 
the remainder. 

6. That which is generated from semen is the 
flesh (of animals) slain by tigers, wolves, falcons, 
and other (carnivorous beasts), or by one of them. 
Fetching (that) and cooking it, they offer the Agni- 
hotra in the evening and in the morning, give 
(shares) to ascetics, guests, and students, and eat 
the remainder. 

7. Those who eat unhusked grain only, fetch rice, 
avoiding (husked) corn, boil it, offer the Agnihotra 
both in the evening and in the morning, give 
(food) to ascetics, guests, and students, and eat the 

8. Those who eat bulbs and roots, or fruit, or 
pot-herbs, (act) exactly in the same manner. 

9. Those (hermits) who do not cook (their food 
are divided into) five (classes), Unma^akas, Pra- 

Digitized by 



vrht&s'ms, Mukhenadayins, Toyaharas, and Vayu- 

10. Among these, the Unmaggakas (collect and 
prepare their food), avoiding (the use of) iron and 
stone implements, 

11. The Pravrzttanns take it with the hand, 

12. The Mukhenadayins take it with the mouth 
(only, like beasts), 

13. The Toyaharas subsist on water only, 

14. And the Vayubhakshas (arr- eaters) eat no- 

15. In this manner ten (different) initiations are 
prescribed for hermits who follow the rule of Vi- 
khanas (vaikhanasa). 

16. He who has agreed (to obey) the Institutes 
of his (order, shall wear) a staff, (shall keep) rigid 
silence, and (shall) abstain from rash acts. 

1 7. Hermits following the rule of Vikhanas (vai- 
khanasa) are purified (from sin), and (especially) 
those who abstain from food. 

18. The sum of the rules applicable to all Brahma- 
Vaikhanasas (is as follows) : 

19. ' Let him not injure (even) gadflies or gnats; 
let him bear cold and perform austerities ; let him 
constantly reside in the forest, be contented, and 

1 1. Pravn'ttirin, i. e. he who eats food only which comes to him 

15-17. These three Sutras are omitted in the- commentary, but 
found in all the MSS. of the text. 

18. Govinda proposes two explanations for the term brahma- 
vaikhanasa ; he thinks that it may mean either brahma«a drt'sh/i 
vaikhanasa^, ' hermits seen by Brahman,' i. e. whose duties have 
been revealed by Brahman, or ' hermits who are Brahmawas by 
caste.' The true sense, however, is probably 'a hermit (who 
strives) to (become one with) Brahman' (brahmarthaOT vaikhanasa). 

Digitized by 


294 BAUDHAYANA. Ill, 3. 

delight in (dresses made of) bark and skins, (and in 
carrying) water (in his pot).' 

20. 'A devotee shall first honour the guests 
who have come to his hermitage at (dinner) time ; 
he shall be sedulous in (worshipping) gods and 
Brahma/*as, in (offering) the Agnihotra, and in 
practising austerities.' 

21. 'A Brahmawa who has taken to forest-life, and 
who has adopted this difficult (but) pure mode of 
existence, which keeps him apart from wicked men, 
which must never be given up, which is similar to 
(that of the) beasts and birds, which allows the 
collection of the necessaries of life for one day only, 
and which necessitates the consumption of astringent 
and bitter (food), never sinks low.' 

22. 'Moving about with the beasts, dwelling 
together with them, and maintaining oneself in a 
manner similar to theirs, that is clearly the road to 

Prasna III, Adhyaya 4. 

1. Now if a student commits any act against his 
vow, eats meat, or approaches a woman, whenever 
any evil befals him, 

2. He heaps fuel on the fire in the interior of the 
house, scatters (Kura. grass) around it, and performs 
the ceremonies up to the end of the Agnimukha ; 
then he offers oblations of clarified butter, (reciting 
the following texts) : ' It was done by lust, lust does 

22. See above, III, 2, 19. 

4. 1. The clause striyaw vopeyat, ' or approaches a woman,' is 
omitted by Govinda. The whole chapter is a supplement to the 
rules given above, II, 1, 1, 30-35, where some of the Vedic pas- 
sages mentioned here have already been given. 

Digitized by 



it, to lust (belongs) all this, to him who draws me on, 
Svaha ;' ' It was done by the internal organ, the 
internal organ does it, to the internal organ (belongs) 
all this, to him who draws me on, Svaha;' ' It was 
done by passion, passion does it, to passion (belongs) 
all this, to him who draws me on, Svaha;' 'It was 
done by ignorance, ignorance does it, to ignorance 
(belongs) all this, to him who draws me on, Svaha ;' 
' It was done by sin, sin does it, to sin (belongs) 
all this, to him who draws me on, Svaha ;' ' It was 
done by wrath, wrath does it, to wrath (belongs) all 
this, to him who draws me on, Svaha.' 

3. That which begins with the muttering (of the 
Vedic texts) and ends with the gift of a fee (con- 
sisting of) a cow is known, 

4. (Afterwards) he stays (during the night) behind 
(i. e. to the west of) the fire, wrapping himself in the 
skin of a black antelope, the neck of which is turned 
towards the east and the hair of which is turned 

5. When the day dawns, he drags himself away 
from the hinder part (of the skin), goes to a bathing- 
place, bathes (there) in the manner which is known, 
(but) performs, while in the water, sixteen sup- 
pressions of breath with the Aghamarshawa hymn ; 
next he performs the known (ceremonies) up to the 
worship of the sun, and afterwards goes to the house 
of his teacher. 

6. Let him know for certain that that is equally 
(effective) as bathing (with the priests) at the end of 
a horse-sacrifice. 

5. Govinda says that this manner of crawling out of the'skin is 
symbolical of a new birth. 

Digitized by 


296 baudhAyana. hi, 5. 

Prasna III, AdhyAya 5. 

1. Now we will explain the rule of the most holy 

2. He goes to a bathing-place and bathes (there). 
Dressed in a pure dress let him raise, close to the 
water, an altar, and moistening his clothes by one 
(application of water), and filling his hand once (with 
water), let him recite the Aghamarsha«a hymn (in 
the manner of his daily) private recitation. 

3. (Let him repeat it) one hundred times in the 
morning, one hundred times at midday, and one 
hundred times or an unlimited number of times in 
the afternoon. 

4. When the stars have risen, let him partake of 
gruel prepared of one handful of barley. 

5. After seven (days and) nights he is freed from 
all minor sins (upapataka), whether they have been 
committed intentionally or unintentionally, after 
twelve (days and) nights (from all other sins] ex- 
cepting the murder of a learned Brahma#a, the 
violation of a Guru's bed, stealing gold, and drink- 
ing Sura. 

6. After twenty-one (days and) nights he over- 
comes even those (crimes) and conquers them. 

5. 1. Vasish//5a XXVI, 8. 

2. Stha«rfila, ' an altar/ is a slightly raised mound of earth, 
which, according to Govinda, in this case must have the shape of 
the sun's disc. According to the same authority the hand of the 
performer must remain filled with water as long as the recitation 
lasts, and the performer stands behind the altar facing the east. 

5. Regarding the prasr*tiyivaka, '(subsisting on) gruel prepared 
from a handful of barley,' see below, III, 6. 

Digitized by 


Ill, 6. PRAStf/TIYAVAKA. 297 

7. He overcomes everything, he conquers all, he 
obtains the reward of all sacrifices, he has bathed at 
all sacred bathing-places, he has performed the vows 
required for (the study of) all the Vedas, he becomes 
known to all the gods, he sanctifies a company (of 
Brahma«as) by merely looking (at them), and his 
undertakings are successful. Thus speaks Baudha- 

Prasna III, AdhyAya 6. 

1. Now if a man feels his conscience charged 
with (evil) actions committed by himself, let him boil 
for himself (alone), when the stars have risen, a 
handful of barley, (and prepare) gruel (with that). 

2. Let him not perform the Vaisvadeva oblation 
with (a portion of) that, 

3. Nor (shall) a Bali offering (be performed) on 
that (occasion). 

4. Let him consecrate the barley before it is 
boiled, while it is being boiled, and after it has been 
boiled, with the (following) Mantras : 

5. ' Thou art barley, thou art the king of grains, 
thou art sacred to Varu#a and mixed with honey, 
the sages have proclaimed thee an expeller of all 
guilt and a means of purification.' 

7. Govinda is of opinion that the words, ' thus speaks Baudha- 
yana,' indicate that this part of the work has been composed by 
a pupil or some other person. 

6. 1. For the whole Adhyaya compare Vishmi XL VIII. 

5. According to Govinda, Vamadeva is the Z?z'shi of these Man- 
tras. The phrase, 'Thou art sacred to Varuwa,' is to be explained, 
according to Govinda, by the fact that offerings presented to Varu«a 
frequently consist of barley. ' Honey ' means, according to some, 
' sweet butter,' with which the dish is seasoned. 

Digitized by 


298 baudhAyana. in, 6. 

'Ye barley-grains are clarified butter and honey, 
ye barley-grains are water and ambrosia. May you 
remove my guilt and all my sins : ' 

' Those committed by words, by acts, and by evil 
thoughts ; ill-fortune and the night of all-destroying 
time, — all that avert from me, ye barley-grains.' 

' (From the sin of eating) food which had been 
worried by dogs or pigs, or which had been defiled 
by crows and impure men, from the sin of disobedi- 
ence towards mother and father, — from all that purify 
me, ye barley-grains.' 

' From the dreadful (guilt of) mortal sins and of 
the crime (of serving) a king, from the wrong done 
to infants or aged men, from (the guilt) of stealing 
gold, of breaking my vows, of sacrificing for an un- 
worthy man, of speaking evil of Brahma«as, — from 
all that purify me, ye barley-grains.' 

' From (the sin of eating) the food of many men, 
of harlots and of .Sudras, of (partaking of) funeral 
dinners and of (the food given by) persons who are 
unclean on account of a death or a birth, of that 
given by thieves, or at a funeral sacrifice offered to 
one who lately died, — from all that purify me, ye 

6. (While the barley) is being boiled, he must 
protect it (and recite the text), 'Adoration to Rudra, 
the lord of created beings; pacified is the sky;' 
the Anuvaka (beginning), ' Give strength ; ' the five 
sentences (beginning), ' The gods who are seated in 
front, led by Agni ;' the two (texts), ' Do not hurt 

6. The Anuvaka meant is Taitt. SawhitS I, 2, 14. The five 
sentences are found, ibid. I, 8, 7, 1. Regarding the text mi na- 
stoke, ' do not hurt our offspring,' see above, III, 2, 9. The last 

Digitized by 


Ill, 6. PRASU/TIYAVAKA. 299 

our offspring,' (and) ' The Brahman - priest among 
the gods.' 

7. Having purified himself (by sipping water, &c), 
he shall eat a little of the boiled (mess), after pouring 
it into (another) vessel. 

8. Let him offer it as a sacrifice to the soul, 
(reciting the text), ' May the gods, who are born 
from the internal organ and joined to the internal 
organ, who are very strong, whose father is Daksha, 
protect us (and) guard us ; adoration to them, to 
them Svahi.' 

9. Let him who desires intelligence (subsist on 
such food) during three (days and) nights. 

10. A sinner who drinks it during six (days and) 
nights becomes pure. 

11. He who drinks it during seven (days and) 
nights is purified from (the guilt of) the murder of 
a learned Brahma»a, of violating a Guru's bed, of 
stealing gold, and of drinking Sura. 

12. He who drinks it during eleven (days and) 
nights, removes even the sins committed by his 

1 3. ' But he who during twenty-one days (drinks 
gruel made) of barley-grains which have passed 
through a cow, sees the Ga«as and the lord of the 
Ga»as, sees the goddess of learning and the lord of 
learning.' Thus speaks the venerable Baudhayana. 

Mantra occurs Taitt. Sa»?hit£ III, 4, 11, 1. Govinda says that 
material protection, too, in the shape of an iron platter or cover is 
to be given to the boiling barley. 

8. The text occurs Taitt. Sawhita I, 2, 3, 1. It consists of five 
sentences, and is addressed to the five vital airs, to each of which 
the eater offers one oblation. 

Digitized by 


3oo baudhAyana. hi, 7. 

Prasna III, AdhyAya 7. 

1. 'Let him who considers himself impure offer 
(burnt oblations), reciting the Kushma«das.' 

2. ' He who has had forbidden intercourse, or 
has committed a crime against nature, becomes 
even like a thief, even like the slayer of a learned 

3. ' He is freed from any sin which is less than 
the crime of slaying a learned Brahrna#a.' 

4. If, after wasting his strength except in his 
sleep, he desires to become free from the stain 
and holy, 

5. He causes the hair of his head, his beard, the 
hair on his body, and his nails to be cut on the day 
of the new moon or of the full moon, and takes upon 
himself a vow according to the rule prescribed for 

6. (To be kept) during a year, or a month, or 
twenty-four days, or twelve nights, or six or three 

7. Let him not eat meat, nor approach a woman, 
not sit on (a couch or seat, and) beware of (speaking 
an) untruth. 

8. To subsist on milk (alone is) the most excel- 
lent mode of living ; or, using barley-gruel (as his 
food), he may perform a Kri&Mra. (penance) of 
twelve days, or he may (maintain himself by) 

7. 1-3. Taittiriya Arawyaka II, 8, 1-3. 

6. Taitt. Arawyaka II, 8, 5-6. 7. Taitt. Arawyaka II, 8, 7. 

8. Taitt. Arawyaka II, 8, 8. As the next Sutra shows, these rules 
refer to Brahma»as. Regarding the KrikkAra,, see below, IV, 57. 

Digitized by 


Hi, 7. k6shmAjvdas. 301 

9. On such (occasions) a Kshatriya (shall subsist 
on) barley-gruel, a Valrya on curds of two-milk 

10. Having kindled the sacred fire in the morning 
according to the rule for Pakaya^»as, having scat- 
tered (Kura grass) around it, and having performed 
(the preliminary ceremonies) up to the end of the 
Agnimukha, he next offers in addition burnt obla- 
tions, reciting the three Anuvakas (beginning), 
' What cause of anger to the gods, ye gods,' ' The 
debts . which I contracted,' (and) ' May worshipful 
Agni give thee by every means long life.' 

11. Let him offer with each ^"k- verse a portion 
of clarified butter. 

1 2. After having offered four oblations with (the 
spoon called) Sruva, reciting (the texts), ' That 
strength which lies in the lion, in the tiger, and in 
the panther,' &c, and the four Abhyavartints (i.e. 
the texts), ' Thou, O fire, who turnest back,' &c, 
' O Angiras,' &c, ' Again with strength,' &c, (and) 
1 With wealth,' &c, after having taken his position, 
with sacred fuel in his hands, in the place allotted to 
the sacrificer, he worships (the fire) with the hymn 
which contains twelve verses (and begins), ' To 
Vawvanara we announce.' 

13. Having placed the piece of sacred fuel (on 
the fire with the text), ' Whatever sin I ever com- 

io. For the rule, see Taitt. Arawyaka II, 7, 4. The three 
Anuv&kas mentioned are Taitt. Arawyaka II, 3-5. 

12. Taitt Arawyaka II, 7, 4. The first four texts occur Taitt. 
Br£hma»a II, 7, 7, 1-2, the next four Taitt. Sa/whid IV, 2, 1, 2-3, 
and the hymn Taitt. Ara«yaka II, 6. The place of the sacrificer 
to the south of the fire. 

13. Taitt. Arawyaka II, 6, 2 (13). 

Digitized by 


302 BAUDHAYANA. Ill, 7. 

mitted by thoughts or words, from all that free me 
(O fire, being duly) praised, for thou knowest the 
truth, Svaha,' he gives a fee. 

14. (The ceremonies) which begin with the mut- 
tering (of the texts) and end with the gift of a cow 
as a fee are known. 

15. One (person) only (shall) perform the service 
of the fire. 

16. Now (let him offer) at the Agnyadheya full 
oblations (pur#ahuti, with the texts), ' Whatever 
cause of anger to the gods, ye gods;' 'The debts 
which I contracted;' ' May worshipful Agni give thee 
by every means long life.' 

17. Having offered (it), he who is about to per- 
form the Agnihotra, (worships) with the DasahotW 
(texts) ; having offered (it), he who is about to per- 
form the new and full moon sacrifices (worships) with 
the Katurhotri (texts); having offered (it), he who is 
about to offer the Aaturmasya sacrifices (worships) 
with the Pa»iahotre (texts); having offered it, (he 
worships) at an animal sacrifice with the Shaa5aJ4otW 
(texts), at a Soma-sacrifice with the Saptahotrz 

18. And it is declared in the Veda, ' Let him 
sacrifice (with the Kushmawda texts) at the begin- 
ning of the rites ; purified (thereby) he gains the 
world of the gods.' Thus (speaks) the Brahmawa. 

16. From this and the next Sutras it must be understood that 
the Kushma«</ahoma is not only to be used as a penance, but may 
be offered at the beginning of the great .Srauta sacrifices, in order 
to sanctify the performer and to secure special benefits. 

17. The Saptahotr* and the other texts mentioned occur Taitt. 
Ara«yaka III, 1-5. I understand the verb ' worship ' on account 
of La/yayana X, 12, 10. 

18. Taitt. Ara«yaka II, 7, 5. 

Digitized by 


in, 8. jcandrAyawa. 303 

Prasna III, AdhyAva 8. 

1. Now, therefore, we will explain the rule of the 
Alandrayawa (lunar penance). 

2. Let him fast on the fourteenth day of the 
bright half of the month. 

3. Having had the hair on his head, his beard, 
the hair on his body, and his nails, or his beard 
alone, cut, let him enter, dressed in new clothes and 
speaking the truth, the place where the sacrificial 
fire is preserved. 

4. There a (common) fire, (which may be) fetched 
once (only, shall serve) him ; or (the fire) must be 
produced by friction with the Arawis. 

5. Let a student, who is a friend (of the per- 
former), be ready at hand to (carry out his) direc- 
tions ; 

6. And sacrificial viands (shall be his) food during 
the performance of the vow. 

7. Having heaped fuel on the fire, scattered 
(Kusa grass) around it, and performed (the cere- 
monies) up to the end of the Agnimukha, he offers 
burnt oblations, (cutting off portions) from the 
cooked food, 

8. (The first) to Agni, (the second) to the lunar 
day whichever it may be, (the third and the fourth) 

8. 1. For this chapter compare Gautama XXVII. 

4. The meaning of the Sutra is that the fire which has been 
carried into the avasatha must be kept burning during the whole 
month which the .ffandrayawa lasts. For a burnt oblation has to 
be performed at the end of the penance. Should it be extinguished, 
it must be rekindled by friction. 

8. The text quoted occurs Taitt. Brahmawa I, 5, 8, 1. 

Digitized by 


304 baudhAyana. Ill, 8. 

to the lunar mansion together with its guardian 
deity, the fifth to the moon (with the verse), ' Atraha 
gor amanvata,' the sixth to the sky and the earth, the 
seventh to day and night, the eighth to Rudra, the 
ninth to the sun, the tenth to Varu«a, the eleventh 
to Indra, and the twelfth to all the gods. 

9. Now they mention (the following) other (obla- 
tions which are to be offered) to the points of the 
horizon and to their (guardian) deities, to the wide 
middle sphere and to its (guardian) deity. 

10. Having offered (the oblation) to Agni Svi- 
shtakrit (with the verse), ' Ever new,' &c, he then 
places the remainder of the sacrificial viands into a 
goblet (kawsa) or a cup (iamasa), pours seasoning, 
that is fit for sacrifices, over them, and eats fifteen 
morsels of ordinary size, 

1 1 . The first (saying, ' I offer) thee to Pra»a,' the 
second (saying, ' I offer) thee to Apana,' the third 
(saying, ' I offer) thee to Vyana,' the fourth (saying, 
I offer) thee to Udana,' the fifth (saying, 'I offer) 
thee to Samana.' If there are only four (mouthfuls, 
he eats) the first reciting two (texts) ; if there are 
three, (he eats) the first two reciting two (texts) with 
each ; if there are two, (he eats) the first reciting 
two (texts and) the second reciting three texts; (if 
there is only) one, (he recites) all (the five texts) 

. together. 

12. Having drunk water (with the text), 'Thou 

10. Taitt. Sawhita II, 3, 5, 3. 

ir. This is an imitation of the Prawagnihotra described above, 
II, 1, 12. 

12. Taitt. Sawhita III, 1,8, 1. The seven Anuvakas are Taitt. 
Ara«yaka X, 51-57. One oblation is to be offered with each 

Digitized by 


Hi, 8. jcAndrAyana. 305 

art water used for moistening Soma/ &c., he then 
offers the (following) additional oblations of clarified 
butter, with the seven Anuvakas (beginning), ' May 
my Pra»a, Apana, Vyana, Udana, and Samana be 
purified;' 'May my voice, mind, eye, ear/ &c; 'May 
my head, hands, feet;' 'May my skin;' 'May the 
sense of hearing, touch ;' ' May earth, water ,-' 'May 
that which consists of food.' 

13. (The ceremonies) beginning with the mut- 
tering (of sacred texts) and ending with the gift of a 
cow as a fee are known. 

14. He worships the sun with (three verses) ad- 
dressed to Surya and the moon with (three verses) 
addressed to .Afandramas. 

15. When he goes to rest, he mutters (the verse), 
' O fire, keep thou good watch/ 

16. When he awakes (in the morning, the verse), 
'O fire, thou art the protector of vows.' 

17. Let him not talk with women and .Sudras 
addressing them first ; let him not look at urine and 

18. If he has seen any impure substance, he 
mutters (the text), 'Unrestrained (was) the internal 
organ, wretched my eye ; the sun is the most 

13. Govinda here mentions that the whole of the ceremonies 
alluded to are the uttaram dirvihomikam tantram. 

14. As Govinda states, the former verses are 'ud vayam tamasas 
pari,' Taitt. SawhitS IV, 1, 7, 4 ; 'ud u ty&m ^tavedasaw,' ibid. I, 
1, 8, 4; 'fttram devanam,' ibid. I, 4, 43, 1; while the verses 
addressed to the moon are ' navo navo,' ibid. II, 4, 14, 1 ; ' sa $tra- 
fttram,' Rig-veda VI, 6, 7 j and * atralia gor,' Taitt Bralimana 
I, 5, 8, 1. 

15. Taitt. SajshitS I, 2, 3, 1. 16. Taitt. Sawhitt, loc. cit. 
18. Taitt. Sawhita III, 1, 1, 2. 

C'4] X 

Digitized by 


306 baudhAyana. tii, 8. 

excellent among the lights of heaven; O initiation, 
mayest thou not forsake me.' 

19. On the first day of the latter half (of the 
month he eats) fourteen mouthfuls. 

20. Thus (he takes every day) one (mouthful) 
less up to the day of the new moon. 

21. On the day of the new moon there is not 
(even) one mouthful (left to take). 

22. On the first day of the first half (of the 
month) one (mouthful may be eaten), on the second 

23. Thus he daily increases (his meal) by one 
(mouthful) up to the day of the full moon. 

24. On the day of the full moon he offers a 
Sthalipaka to Agni, to the lunar day whichever it 
may be, and to the lunar mansions as well as to 
their (guardian) deities. 

25. Having offered a burnt oblation to (the lunar 
mansion) Abhifit (which stands) before Sronk, and 
to its (guardian) deity, he must give a cow to the 

26. That is the ant-shaped lunar penance; (that 
which is performed in the) inverted (order is called) 
the barleycorn-shaped (lunar penance). 

2 7. A sinner who has performed either of these 
two (penances) becomes free from all mortal sins 

28. They declare that the (-ATandraya#a) shall be 
performed for the sake of the fulfilment of wishes of 
all kinds. 

29. ' Thereby man obtains every wish which he 
may conceive.' 

26. Vishwu XL VII, 3-5. 

Digitized by 


111,9. anasnatparAyajva. 307 

30. ' Thereby the sages formerly purified them- 
selves and accomplished their objects. That (rite) 
procures wealth, spiritual merit, sons, cattle, long 
life, heavenly bliss, and fame ; it secures the fulfil- 
ment of all desires.' 

31. 'He who studies this, becomes the companion 
of the lunar constellations, of sun and moon, and 
dwells in their world.' 

Prasna III, AdhyAya 9. 

1. Now, therefore, we will explain the rule of 
the Ana.matparaya#a (recitation of the whole Veda 
during a fast). 

2. Let him wear a clean garment or a dress made 
of bark (or grass). 

3. Let him desire food, fit for a sacrifice, or water 
and fruit. 

4. Going forth from the village in an easterly 
or northerly direction, smearing a quadrangular 
sthawnftla, ' a bull's hide ' in size, with cowdung, 
sprinkling it, drawing the marks on it, sprinkling it 
with water, heaping fuel on the fire and scattering 
(Kuya grass) around it, he offers burnt oblations to 
the following deities, to Agni Svaha, to Pra^apati 

9. 2. M. and the MSS. of the commentary read £iravasi£ instead 
of ^iravSsaA, ' clad with a garment of bark or grass,' and Govinda 
explains the var. Iect. by ' dressed in old clothes.' 

3. This rule refers to the case only where the performer of the 
vow is unable to bear the prolonged fasting. 

4. A stha«<fila is the raised mound, four fingers high, which is 
used as the altar for the Gr*hya ceremonies. Regarding the term, 
* a bull's hide,' see Vish»u XCII, 2. The marks (lakshawa) are 
the lines which must be drawn on the altar; see e.g. Amlayana 
Grihya-sutra I, 3, 1. 

X 2 

Digitized by 


308 baudhAyana. 111,9. 

Svaha, to Soma Svaha, to all the gods Svaha, to 
Svayawbhu, to the Rikas, to the Ya^us, to the Sa- 
mans, to the Atharvans, to faith, to right knowledge, 
to wisdom, to fortune, to modesty, to Savitrz", to the 
Savitrt (verse), to Sadasaspati, and to Anumati. 

5. Having offered (these oblations), he must 
begin with the beginning of the Veda and continu- 
ously recite (it). 

6. Let him not interrupt (the recitation) by 
talking, nor by stopping. 

7. Now if he converses in between or stops, let 
him thrice suppress his breath, and begin just 
there where he left off. 

8. If he has forgotten (a passage), he shall recite 
for as long a time as he does not recollect it, what 
(he may know, ifok-verses) for ./?zk-verses, (Ya^us- 
formulas) for Ya^us-formulas, (Samans) for S&mans. 

9. He may (also) recite the Brahma»a of that 
(forgotten passage) or (the passage from the Anu- 
krama»i regarding) its metre and its deities. 

10. Let him recite the Sawhita of (his) Veda 
twelve (times). He thereby removes (faults com- 
mitted by) studying on forbidden (days, by) anger- 
ing his teacher, (and through) improper acts. His 
(knowledge of the) Veda is sanctified, is purified. 

11. (If he reads) more than that, a cumulation (of 
rewards will be the result). 

12. If he recites the Sawhita of the Veda another 
twelve (times), he gains thereby the world of 

13. If he recites the Sawhita of the Veda another 

6. ' By talking, i. e. by uttering words not connected with the 
Veda.' — Govinda. 

Digitized by 


ni, 9. anasnatpArAyajva. 309 

twelve (times), he gains thereby the world of Brz- 

14. If he recites the Sa#mita of the Veda another 
twelve (times), he gains thereby the world of Pra- 

15. If, fasting, he recites the Sawhita one thou- 
sand (times), he becomes one with Brahman, re- 
splendent like Brahman (and) Brahman (itself). 

16. If he subsists during a year on food obtained 
by begging, he gains (the power of) supernatural 

17. If during six months he subsists on barley- 
gruel, during four months on water and barley-flour, 
during two months on fruit, (and) during one month 
on water, or performs KrtkAAra. penances of twelve 
days, he (obtains the power of) suddenly disap- 
pearing, and sanctifies seven descendants, seven 
ancestors, and himself as the fifteenth, and (any) 
company (of Brahma#as) which he may enter. 

18. They call that the ladder of the gods. 

19. By means of that the gods reached their 
divine station and the sages the position of Jitshis. 

20. The periods for beginning this sacrifice, for- 
sooth, are three, the time of the morning libation, 
the time of the midday libation, and the last part of 
the night, (the Muhurta) sacred to Brahman. 

21. Pra^apati, forsooth, proclaimed this (rite) to 
the seven /??'shis, the seven i?zshis to Mah&gagnu, 
and Maha^a^wu to the Brahmawas. 

18. Govinda explains nW«e»tm, 'the ladder,' by niforeyasa- 
hetum, ' a cause of supreme bliss.' 

ai. The name of the JRishi who proclaimed it to the Brahmans 
is not certain. The Dekhan MSS. read MahSg-agru and Mahl- 
#agnu, M. Maha^ag-mu, the I. O. copy of the commentary MahS- 
yagnu and Maha^a^wu, and the Telugu copy MahSgagnu. 

Digitized by 


3io baudhAyana. m, io. 

Prasna III, AdhyAya 10. 

i. The law of castes and of orders has been 

2. Now, indeed, man (in) this (world is polluted) 
by a vile action or acts wrongly, (e. g.) sacrifices for 
men unworthy to offer a sacrifice, accepts presents 
from those whose gifts ought not to be accepted, 
eats the food of those whose food ought not to be 
eaten, (and) practises what is forbidden. 

3. They are in doubt if he shall perform a penance 
for such (a deed) or if he shall not do it. 

4. (They declare that he shall not do it) because 
the deed does not perish. 

5. (The correct opinion is) that he shall perform 
(a penance). 

6. It is declared in the Veda, ' Let him offer a 
Punastoma ; (those who offer it, may) again come to 
(partake of) the libations of Soma.' 

7. ' He who offers a horse-sacrifice conquers all sin, 
he effaces the guilt of the murder of a Brahma«a.' 

10. 1. As stated formerly, Sacred Books of the East, vol. ii, p. li, 
this chapter is borrowed from Gautama XIX. I have therefore 
adopted the same division of the Sutras as in the translation of 
the latter work. 

2. I read, with the MSS. of the commentary, atha khalvayaw 
purusho yipyena karmawi mithyS va^araty ayigyaw v£ ya^ayaty 
apratigrahyasya va pratigr*h«aty anSfySnnasya vannam arndty a£a- 
rawtyena va^arati. M. reads yi^ayitvd, and the Dekhan MSS. 
ya^ayitvd and pratignhya. 

5. The Dekhan MSS. read kury&d ity eva, M. kurySd eva, and 
Govinda kury&t tv eva. 

6. All the MSS. of the text omit the word vi^wayate, 'it is 
declared in the Veda,' which is given by Govinda. 

7. All the MSS. of the text give at the beginning of this Sutra 

Digitized by 


Ill, io. PENANCES. 

8. Moreover, ' He who is being accuse 
heinous crime) shall perform an Agnish/ut sacrilicel^ 

9. Reciting the Veda, austerity, a sacrifice, fast- 
ing, giving gifts are the means for expiating such 
(a blamable act). 

10. The purificatory (texts are), the Upanishads, 
the initial (verses) of the Vedas, the ends of the 
Vedas (vedantas), the Sawhitas of all the Vedas, 
(the Anuvakas called) Madhu, (the hymn of) Agha- 
marshawa, the Atharva^iras, (the Anuvakas called 
the) Rudras, the Purusha hymn, the two Samans 
(called) R&fina and Rauhmeya, the Brzhat (Saman) 
and the Rathantara, the Purushagati (Saman), the 
Mahanamnis, the Mahavairi^a (Saman), the Maha- 
divaktrtya (Saman), any of the GyeshtAa. Samans, the 
Bahishpavamana Saman, the Kushma#dis, the Pava- 
mahts, and the Savitrl. 

11. To live on milk alone, as if one were fasting, 
to eat vegetables only, to eat fruit only, (to live on) 
gruel prepared of a handful of barley-grains, to eat 
gold, to eat clarified butter (are the modes of subsist- 
ence) which purify. 

12. All mountains, all rivers, holy lakes, bathing- 
places, the dwellings of ^cYshis, cowpens, (holy) plains 
and temples of the gods (are) places (which destroy 

atMpy udaharanti, ' now they quote also,' which Govinda omits, 
and which is inappropriate, because the following passages are 
taken from the Veda. 

10. The word ved&dayaA, which occurs also in some MSS. of 
Vasish/^a (XXII, 9), must be explained, according to the analogy 
of karmddi, 'the beginning of the sacrifices' (S^ya«a on Taitt. Ar. 
II, 7, 5), by ' the initial verses of the Vedas.' The Pdvaminls are 
added on the authority of Govinda alone. 

12. 'Kshetra, (holy) plains, e.g. the Kurukshetra.' — Govinda. 

Digitized by 


312 baudhAvana. 111,10. 

13. Abstention from injuring living beings, truth- 
fulness, abstention from theft (or unrighteously ap- 
propriating anything), bathing in the morning, at 
noon, and in the evening, obedience towards Gurus, 
continence, sleeping on the ground, dressing in one 
garment only, and abstaining from food (are the 
various kinds of) austerity. 

14. Gold, a cow, a dress, a horse, land, sesamum, 
clarified butter, and food (are) the gifts. 

15. A year, six months, four (months), three 
(months), two (months), one (month), twenty-four 
days, twelve days, six days, three days, a day and a 
night, (and) one day are the periods (for penances). 

16. These (acts) may be optionally performed if 
no (particular penance) has been prescribed, 

1 7. (Viz.) for great crimes difficult (penances) and 
for trivial faults easy ones. 

18. The KriMAra. and the Atikri&Mra., as well as 
the -/sTandraya«a, are penances for all (offences). 

Prasna IV, AdhyAya 1. 

1. We will separately explain the various penances 
for the several offences, both heavier and lighter ones. 

2. Let him prescribe whatever may be befitting 
for each (case), — heavier (penances) for great (crimes) 
and easier ones for trivial (faults). 

3. Let him perform the penances according to 
the rule given in the Institutes (of the Sacred Law in 
cases) where an offence has been committed with 
the organ or with the feet (and) the arms, through 

3. The construction is certainly elliptical. I understand tatra 
with the first half-verse. Govinda separates the two half-verses, 
yad upasthakr/tam papain, &c, from the first, and reads at the end 

Digitized by 



thoughts or speech, through the ear, the skin, the 
nose or the eye. 

4. Or, in (the case of) transgressions committed 
through the organ of vision, of hearing, of sensation, 
of smelling, and through thoughts, he also becomes 
pure by three suppressions of the breath. 

5. In case (he commits the offences) of eating the 
food of a 6udra or of cohabiting with a 6udra female, 
severally, he must perform, during seven days, seven 
suppressions of the breath on each day. 

6. For partaking of food unfit for eating or 
drinking, and for selling forbidden merchandise, ex- 
cepting honey, meat, clarified butter, oil, pungent 
condiments and bad food, and for similar (offences), 
he must perform, during twelve days, twelve sup- 
pressions of the breath on each day. 

7. For other transgressions excepting mortal sins 
(pataka), crimes causing loss of caste (patanlya), and 
the minor faults (called upap&taka), he must perform, 
during half a month, twelve suppressions of the 
breath on each day. 

8. For other transgressions excepting mortal sins 

of the half-verse priwiyimSn sama£aret, 'one should perform sup- 
pressions of the breath (in even or equal numbers).' 

5. Govinda tries to reconcile this rule with the one given above, 
1, 1, 2, 7, by assuming that the word .Sudra denotes here a Brah- 
ma«a who lives like a .Sudra and neglects his sacred duties. 

6. I read, conjecturally, dvadaraham, 'twelve days.' The MSS. 
of the text have dv£da?a dvadaj&ham, or corruptions pointing to 
this reading, and C. I. reads ardhamasam. Regarding avaranna, 
' bad food,' see note on Apastamba II, 6, 15, 16. 

7. I read, conjecturally, ardhamSsaw, 'half a month;' D. has 
ardhamSsan; K. dvadajahaw ; M. dvadarardham&sam ; C. I. dvdda- 
fdrdhamasSn, which is explained by shawmasan. 

8. I read with M. dvadara dvadajlhin. D. K. have dvadaj&ham. 
The commentary omits the Sutra altogether. 

Digitized by 


314 baudhAyana. iv, r. 

and crimes causing loss of caste, he must perform, 
during twelve periods of twelve days, twelve sup- 
pressions of the breath on each day. 

9. For other transgressions excepting mortal sins 
he must perform, during twelve half-months, twelve 
suppressions of the breath on each day. 

10. But for mortal sins he must perform, during a 
year, twelve suppressions of the breath on each day. 

11. Let him give his daughter, while she still 
goes naked, to a man who has not broken the vow 
of chastity and who possesses good qualities, or even 
to one destitute of good qualities ; let him not keep 
(the maiden) in (his house) after she has reached the 
age of puberty. 

12. He who does not give away a marriageable 
daughter during three years doubtlessly contracts 
a guilt equal to (that of) destroying an embryo. 

1 3. Such will be the case if anybody asks her in 
marriage, and also if nobody demands her. Manu 
has declared that at each appearance of the menses 
(the father incurs the guilt of) a mortal sin. 

14. Three years let a marriageable damsel wait 
for the order of her father. But after (that) time let 
her choose for herself in the fourth year a husband 
(of) equal (rank). If no man (of) equal (rank) be found, 
she may take even one destitute of good qualities. 

15. If a damsel has been abducted by force, and 
has not been wedded with sacred texts, she may 
lawfully be given to another man ; she is even like 
a maiden. 

9. I read with D., K., and M., dvadarardhamasan. The com- 
mentary omits also this Sfttra. 

11. Vasish/fta XVII, 67-71, and above. 
15. VasishMa XVII, 73. 

Digitized by 



16. If, after (a damsel) has been given away, or 
even after (the nuptial sacrifices) have been offered, 
the husband dies, she who (thus) has left (her father's 
house) and has returned, may be again wedded 
according to the rule applicable to second weddings, 
provided the marriage had not been consummated. 

17. He who does not approach, during three 
years, a wife who is marriageable, incurs, without 
doubt, a guilt equal to that of destroying an 

18. But the ancestors of that man who does not 
approach his wife who bathed after her temporary 
uncleanness, though he dwells near her, lie during 
that month in the menstrual excretions (of the 

19. They declare that the guilt of the husband 
who does not approach his wife in due season, of 
him who approaches her during her temporary un- 
cleanness, and of him who commits an unnatural 
crime (with her), is equally (great). 

20. Let him proclaim in the village a wife who, 
being obdurate against her husband, makes herself 
sterile, as one who destroys embryos, and drive her 
from his house. 

21. But for the transgression of that husband 
who does not approach a wife who bathed after 
temporary uncleanness, (the performance of) one 
hundred suppressions of the breath is prescribed 
(as a penance). 

16. VasishMa XVII, 74. 

21. The MSS. of the text read, ntusnatdw tu yo bharydw niya- 
\&m brahmaHnVim 1 niyamatikrame tasya praȣy$mafatam smrttam. 
The commentary omits the first half of the verse altogether. The 
latter, as read in the MSS., gives no sense. It seems to me that 

Digitized by 


316 baudhAyana. iv, i. 

22. Seated with Kusa. grass in his hands, let him 
repeatedly suppress his breath, and again and again 
recite purificatory texts, the Vyahr/tis, the syllable 
Om, and the daily portion of the Veda. 

23. Always intent on the practice of Yoga, let 
him again and again suppress his breath. (Thus) 
he performs the highest austerity up to the ends of 
his hair and up to the ends of his nails. 

24. Through the obstruction (of the respiration) 
air is generated, through air fire is produced, then 
through heat water is formed ; hence he is internally 
purified by (those) three. 

25. Through the practice of Yoga (true) know- 
ledge is obtained, Yoga is the sum of the sacred 
law, all good qualities are gained through Yoga; 
therefore let him always be absorbed in the practice 
of Yoga. 

26. The Vedas likewise begin with the syllable 
Om, and they end with the syllable Om. The 
syllable Om and the VyahWtis are the eternal, 
everlasting Brahman. 

27. For him who is constantly engaged in (re- 
citing) the syllable Om, the seven Vyah?7tis, and 
the three-footed Gayatrl, no danger exists anywhere. 

28. If, restraining his breath, he thrice recites the 
Gayatri together with the syllable Om and with the 
(text called) .Siras, that is called one suppression of 

29. But sixteen suppressions of breath, accom- 

either its end must have been saranidhau nopaga£££ati (as in 
Sutra 17), or that a whole half-verse has been lost. 

22-24. Vasishtfa XXV, 4-6. 25. Vasish/fta XXV, 8. 

26. Vasish/fla XXV, 10. 27. Vasish/Aa XXV, 9. 

28. Vasish/tfa XXV, 13. 29. Vasieh//ia XXVI, 4. 

Digitized by 


IV, t. PENANCES. 317 

panied by (the recitation of) the Vyalmtis and of 
the syllable Om, repeated daily, purify after a month 
even the slayer of a learned Brahma#a. 

30. That is the highest austerity, that is the best 
description of the sacred law. That, indeed, is the 
best means of removing all sin. 

Prasna IV, . AdhyAya 2. 

1. We will separately explain the various penances 
for the several offences, both heavier and lighter ones. 

2. Let him prescribe whatever may be befitting for 
each (case), — heavier penances for great (crimes), 
and lighter ones for trivial (faults). 

3. Let him perform the penances according to the 
rule given in the Institutes of the Sacred Law. 

4. He who is about to accept gifts, or he who has 
accepted gifts, must repeatedly recite the four Rik.- 
verses (called) Taratsamandls. 

5. But in case one has eaten any kind of for- 
bidden food, or that given by a person whose food 
must not be eaten, the means of removing the guilt 
is to sprinkle water (over one's head) while one 
recites the Taratsamandl RiVzs. 

6. But we will, hereafter, declare another rule for 
(the expiation of) the murder of a learned Brahma#a, 
whereby (men) are freed also from mortal sins of all 

7. Let him (perform), during twelve nights, sup- 

4. Gautama XXIV, 2. The gift is, of course, one which ought 
not to be accepted. 

5. Rig-veda IX, 58. Mdrg-anam, literally • rubbing,' means 
sprinkling the head with a handful of water. — Govinda. 

Digitized by 


318 baudhAyana. IV, a. 

pressions of the breath (and) mutter purificatory 
texts, the Vyahmis, the syllable Om, (and) the 
Aghamarsha#a hymn, (living) on milk; 

8. Or (he becomes) pure if he bathes, and during 
three (days and) nights subsists on air and (remains 
dressed) in wet clothes. 

9. But if he has repeatedly committed for- 
bidden acts of all kinds, and has (afterwards) 
worshipped reciting the Varu»l (texts), he is freed 
from all sin. 

10. Now a student who has broken his vow 
(avakinzin) shall heap fuel on the fire on the night 
of the new moon, perform the preparatory cere- 
monies required for a Darvlhoma, and offer two 
oblations of clarified butter (reciting the following 
texts) : ' O Lust, I have broken my vow, my vow 
I have broken, O Lust, to Lust Svaha ;' ' O Lust, 
I have done evil, I have done evil, O Lust, to Lust 

1 1. After he has made the offering, he shall 
address the fire, closely joining his hands and 
turning sideways, (with the following texts) : ' May 
the Maruts grant me, may Indra, may Brzhaspati, 
may this fire grant me long life and strength, make 
me long-lived.' The Maruts, forsooth, give back 
to him the vital airs, Indra gives back to him 
strength, Brzhaspati the lustre of Brahman, Fire all 
the remainder. (Thus) his body is made whole, and 
he attains the full length of life. Let him next ad- 
dress (the gods) with three (repetitions of the texts). 

9. ' UpastMna, " worshipping," i. e. sprinkling one's head with 
a handful of water.' — Govinda. 

10. A repetition of the rule given above, II, 1, i, 34 ; see also 
HI, 4- 

Digitized by 


IV, 2. PENANCES. 319 

For the gods are trebly true. (All that) has been 
declared in the Veda. 

12. He who considers himself denied by minor 
offences (upapataka), will be freed from all guilt if 
he offers burnt oblations according to this same 

13. Or if he has partaken of food unfit to be 
eaten or to be drunk or of forbidden food, and if he 
has committed sinful acts or performed sinful rites 
either unintentionally or intentionally, and if he has 
had connexion with a female of the .Sudra caste or 
committed an unnatural crime, he becomes pure by 
bathing (and reciting) the Ablinga (verses) and 
(those called) Varu»is. 

14. Now they quote also (the following verse) : 
' If he has partaken of food unfit to be eaten or to 
be drunk, or of forbidden food, and if he has com- 
mitted forbidden acts or performed forbidden rites, 
he will, nevertheless, be freed from (crimes) com- 
mitted intentionally which -are similar to mortal sins, 
nay, even from mortal sins (pataka).' 

15. Or let him fast during three (days and) nights, 
bathe thrice a day, and, suppressing his breath, thrice 
recite the Aghamarsha»a. Manu has declared that 
that is equal (in efficacy) to the final bath at a 

1 2. Gautama XXV, 6. 

13. Govinda gives, like Haradatta on Gautama XXV, 7, as an 
instance of a doshavat karma, ' a sinful rite,' the abhi£ara or ' magic 
rite in order to harm enemies.' The expression has, however, in 
our Sutra, a wider sense. 

14. I. e. if he performs the penance prescribed in the preceding 

15. Vasish/fca XXVI, 8 ; Gautama XXIV, 10. 

Digitized by 


320 baudhAvana. IV, a. 

1 6. And it is declared in the Veda, '(That is) the 
ancient purificatory rite, which is widely known (in 
the Institutes of the Sacred Law) ; purified thereby 
man conquers sin. May we, sanctified by this holy 
means of purification, conquer our enemy, sin.' 

Prasna IV, AdhyAya 3. 

i. We will explain the (secret) penances which 
are not prescribed (by others, but by the offender 
himself, and) particularly what shall be done in 
(case) faults (have been committed) by men who, 
with concentrated minds, (are) intent (on the per- 
formance of their duties). 

2. (Such a man) may sip water, (in order to atone) 
for all mortal sins, reciting the syllable Om and all 
the Vyahmis. 

3. When he sips water the first time, he gladdens 
the Rig-veda, the second time the Ya^ur-veda, the 
third time the Sama-veda. 

4. When he wipes (his lips) the first time, he 
gladdens the Atharva-veda, the second time the 
Itihasas and Pura»as. 

5. When he sprinkles water on the right hand, 
the feet, the head, the heart, the nostrils, the eyes, 
the ears, and the navel, he gladdens the trees and 
herbs and all deities. Therefore he is freed from all 
sin by sipping water. 

3. 1. Vasish/ta XXV, 1-2. The whole Adhyaya is left out in 
the Dekhan MSS., including K. The omission may have been 
caused by the circumstance that the initial verses of Adhydyas 3 
and 4 are identical. 

2. Gautama XXV, 9 ; Vasish/fla XXV, 4. 

3-5. See the rules for sipping water, given above, 1, 5, 8, 19-26. 

Digitized by 



6. Or let him offef in the fire eight pieces' of 
sacred fuel, reciting (the following) eight (texts) : 
'Thou art the expiation of sin committed by the 
gods, Svaha ;' ' Thou art the expiation of sin com- 
mitted by men, Svaha ;' ' Thou art the expiation of 
sin committed by the manes, Svaha ;' ' Thou art the 
expiation of sin committed by myself, Svaha;' 
' Thou art the expiation of the sin which we have 
committed either by day or by night, Svaha;' 'Thou 
art the expiation of the sin which we have com- 
mitted either sleeping or waking, Svaha;' 'Thou 
art the expiation of the sin which we have com- 
mitted either intentionally or unintentionally, Svaha;' 
' Thou art the expiation of every sin, Svaha.' 

7. When he has offered (these eight oblations) he 
will be freed from all guilt 

8. Now they quote also (the following verse): 
'The Aghamarsha»a, the Devakr^ta, the Suddha- 
vatls, the Taratsamas, the Kushma#afts, the Pava- 
manls, the Vira^as, the Mr/tyulangala, the Durg£ 
(Savitrl), the VyahWtis, and the Rudras (are texts) 
which are very efficacious for effacing sin.' 

Prasna IV, AdhyAya 4. 

1. We will explain the (secret) penances which 
are not prescribed (by others, but by the offender 
himself, and) particularly what shall be done in 
(case) faults (have been committed) by men who, 
with concentrated minds, (are) intent (on the per- 
formance of their duties). 

6. Gautama XXV, 10. The Mantras occur Taitt. Arawyaka 

X > 59- 
8. Vishwu LVI, 3, arid note; Vasish/Aa XXVlfl, 10-15. 

[14] Y 

Digitized by 


322 baudhAyana. IV, 4. 

2. He who, standing in water, thrice recites that 
(hymn of) Aghamarshawa (which begins), ' Both right 
and truth,' will be freed from all guilt. 

3. He who, standing in water, thrice recites the 
verse, ' This spotted bull,' &c, will be freed from 
all guilt ; 

4. He who, standing in water, thrice recites the 
verse, ' Freed from the post as it were,' will be 
freed from all guilt. 

5. He who, standing in water, thrice recites the 
verse, 'A swan dwelling in purity,' will be freed 
from all guilt ; 

6. Or, he who, standing in water, thrice recites 
the Savitrl, foot by foot, half verse by half verse, 
and afterwards entire, will be freed from all guilt ; 

7. Or, he who, standing in water, thrice recites 
the VyahWtis, both separately and altogether, will 
be freed from all guilt ; 

8. Or, he who, standing in water, thrice recites the 
syllable Om alone, will be freed from all guilt. 

9. Let him not teach these Institutes of the 
Sacred Law to one who is neither his son nor his 
pupil, nor has resided (in his house) less than a year. 

10. The fee (for teaching it) is one thousand 
(pa»as, or) ten cows and a bull, or the worship of 
the teacher. 

Prasna IV, AdhyAya 5. 

1. Now, therefore, I will proclaim by what rites, 
connected with the S&man, Rik, Ya^us, and Atharva- 

4. 2. Taitt. Arawyaka X, 1, 13. 3. Taitt Anwyaka 1, 5, 3, 1. 

4. Taitt Brihmawa II, 4, 4, 9. 

5. Taitt Sawhita- 1, 8, 15, 2. 9. Vasish/4a XXIV, 6-7. 
5. 1. All the Dekhan MSS., including K., have been copied from 

Digitized by 



vedas, (man) quickly attains the wishes of his 

2. Having purified his body by muttered prayers, 
burnt oblations, Ishris, restraints, and the like, he 
will accomplish all his objects. He will not attain 
success in any other way. 

3. A Brahmazza, who is going to mutter prayers, 
to offer burnt oblations or Ish/is, or to practise 
restraints, shall, first, during the bright half of the 
month, on a lucky day and under a lucky constella- 
tion, cause his hair and beard to be cut. 

4. Let him bathe in the morning, at noon, and in 
the evening ; let him beware of anger and untruth ; 
let him not address women and .Sudras ; let him be 
continent, and subsist solely on food fit for offerings. 

5. Avoiding to sleep in the day-time, let him wor- 
ship cows, Brahma#as, manes, and gods. As long as 
he is engaged in muttering prayers, offering Homas 
and Ish/is, and practising restraints, let him stand 
during the day and sit during the night. 

6. The Kri&Mra. (penance) revealed by Pra^a- 
pati lasts twelve days, (which are divided into four 
separate) periods of three days; (during the first 
period of three days he eats) in the day-time (only, 
during the second) at night (only, during the third 
he subsists on) food given without asking, (and 
during the fourth) finally (he lives on) air. 

a MS. the leaves of which were out of order. After the first words 
of ver. 1, they have kshiram dadhisarpi/fc kurodakam, which belongs 
to ver. 26, and they go on with the text down to IV, 7, 7, after which 
the end of IV, 5, 1 and 2-25 are given. — 'Yantra, " restraints," i.e. 
KriMhras and the like, (which are called so) on account of the 
restraint of the senses (required for them).' — Govinda. 

3-5. Vasish/AaXXIV,5. 

6. VasishMa XXI, 20. Repeated, see above, II, 1, 2, 38. 

V 2 

Digitized by 



7. (If one eats on) one (day in) the morning 
(only), and (on the following day) at night (only, on 
the next day food) given without asking, (and on 
the fourth day) subsists on air, and repeats this 
three times, that is called the ~Krikkhra. (penance) 
of children. 

8. (If) one eats one mouthful only at each (meal), 
following, during (three) periods of three days, the 
rules given above, and subsists during another 
period of three days on air, that is called the 
Atikrzi£ife4ra penance. 

9. (If) during those (first) three periods of three 
days one partakes of water only, and subsists after- 
wards (during three days) on air, that third (variety) 
must be known to be the most efficacious K.rik- 
khrttAirikkkra. penance. 

10. If one drinks hot milk, (hot) clarified butter, 
(and a hot) decoction of Ku$a grass, each during 
three days, and fasts during another three days, that 
is called the Taptakn^Mra. 

11. (If one lives during one day) on cow's urine, 
(during one day) on cowdung, (during one day) on 
milk, (during one day) on sour milk, (during one day) 
on clarified butter, (during one day) on a decoction 
of Kura grass, and during one (day and) night on 
air, that is called the Saawtapana Kri&Mra.. 

12. Let him take the cow's urine, reciting the 
Gayatrl; the cowdung, (reciting the text), ' Gandha- 

7. Vasish//4a XXIII, 43 ; see above, II, i, 2, 39. 

8. Vasish/Aa XXIV, 2-3 ; see above, II, 1, a, 40. 

9. See above, II, 1, 2, 41. 10. See above, II, 1, 2, 37. 
ii. Vasish/4a XXVII, 13; Vish«u XLVI, 19. 

12. The texts quoted are found, Taitt. Arawyaka X, 1, 10; III, 
17; Taitt SambM I, 5, 11, 4, 7 ; 1, 1, 10, 3 ; VII, 1, 11, 1. 

Digitized by 



dvaram;' the milk, (reciting the verse), 'Apyayasva;' 
the sour milk, reciting (the verse), ' Dadhikrav#a;' 
the clarified butter, (saying), '*Sukram asi;' the decoc- 
tion of Kusa. grass (with the text), 'Devasya tva ;' 

13. (And mix together) one part of cow's urine, 
half as much cowdung, three parts of milk, two of 
sour milk, one part of clarified butter, and one part 
of water boiled with Kwa grass; a Siwtapana 
Krikkkta. (performed) in this manner will purify 
even a •Svapaka. 

14. He who subsists during five (days and) nights 
on cow's urine, cowdung, milk, sour milk, and clari- 
fied butter will be purified by (that) Pawiagavya 
(the five products of the cow). 

1 5. If, self-restrained and attentive, he fasts during 
twelve days, that is called a Parika Krikkkm, which 
destroys all sin. 

16. If he subsists on cow's urine and the other 
(substances named above), one day on each, and con- 
tinues (this mode of life) during thrice seven days, the 
theologians call that a Mahasawtapana 'Krikkkra.. 

17. If he daily adds to his food one mouthful 
during the bright (half of the month) and diminishes 
it daily by one mouthful during the dark (half of the 
month), and keeps two fasts in the two halves of the 
month, that is called a .A'andraya#a. 

18. If, with concentrated mind, a Brahma«a eats 
four mouthfuls in the morning and four mouthfuls 
when the sun has set, he will perform the isfandra- 
ya«a of children. 

13. Vasishtfa XXVII, 13. 14. Vasish/Aa XXVII, 14. 

15. Vish»u XLVI, 18. 16. Vish»u XLVI, 20. 

17. Vasish/4a XXVII, 21; see above, III, 8. 

18. Vishwu XLVII, 8. 

Digitized by 


326 baudhAyana. rv, 5. 

19. If, self-restrained, he daily eats, during a 
month, at midday eight mouthfuls of food, fit for 
a sacrifice, he will perform the Alandrayawa of 

20. But a Brahmawa who eats anyhow, during a 
month, thrice eighty mouthfuls of food, fit for a sacri- 
fice, goes to the world of the moon. 

21. As the rising moon frees the world from the 
fear of darkness, even so a Brahma»a who performs 
a .ffandrayatfa removes the fear of sin. 

22. He who lives one day on (rice)-grains, three 
days on oil-cakes, five days on buttermilk mixed 
with water, seven days on water, and (one day) on 
air, (performs) the guilt-destroying Tulapurusha. 

23. Living on barley-gruel (yavaka) removes the 
guilt of corporeal beings after seven days, and so 
does a fast of seven days ; that has been recognised 
by wise men. 

24. By dressing in wet clothes, by living in the 
open air, and by exposing himself to the sun during 
the light halves of the months Pausha (December- 
January), Bhadrapada (August-September), and 
GyeshMa (May-June), a Brahma#a is freed from 
(all) sin excepting crimes causing loss of caste 

25. (If one swallows) cows' urine, cowdung, milk, 

19. Vishmi XLVII, 7. 

20. Vishwu XLVII, 9. Govinda places this verse before Sutra 19. 
22. Vishwu XLVII, 22. 

24. The meaning is that the performer is to stand in wet clothes 
during the first half of the month Pausha, in the cold season ; to 
live in the open air during the first half of Bhidrapada, in the rainy 
season ; and to allow himself to be broiled by the sun in Gyesh/4a, 
the hottest time of the hot season. 

25. I doubt if the reading of Govinda, yava&lmena (explained 

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sour milk, clarified butter, and a decoction of Kara 
grass, mixed with barley gruel, that is the most 
sanctifying Brahmakuria. 

26. He who fasts on the new moon day and eats 
sesamum grains on the full moon day, will be freed 
in the course of a year from the sins which he com- 
mitted in the bright and the dark halves of the 

27. He who lives on alms obtained from Agni- 
hotrins is purified in one month ; (he who obtains 
his food) from a Yayavara, in ten days; he who re- 
ceives it from a hermit in the forest, in five days ; 

28. (He who lives) on food given by a person 
who has a store sufficient for one day only, will be 
purified in one day ; he who drinks water given by 
a person subsisting by the Kapota-wztti (pigeon- 
life), is purified in three (days). 

29. If one recites the whole i?/g-veda, Yafur- 
veda, and Sama-veda, or thrice reads one of these 
Vedas and fasts, (that is) a most efficient means of 

30. Now if one is in haste to finish, one may live 
on air during a day, and pass the night standing 
in water, that is equal (in efficacy) to a Pra^apatya 

31. He who at sunrise mutters the Gayatrl one 
thousand and eight times, is free from all siri, pro- 
vided h.e has not slain a learned Brahmawa. 

by yavSguA) samyuktam, ' mixed with barley-gruel,' is correct. All 
the MSS. of the text have yavanim ekasawyukto, which I do not 
understand. Govinda has BrahmaknHAraA instead of Brahma- 
kur£a<4. But see the Petersb. Diet. s. v. brahmakurfo. 

28. Regarding the Kapota-vrrtti, see above, III, 2, ig. 

30. Vasish/Aa XXVII, 17. Govinda adds after kartum, ' to 
finish,' ' the rites connected with the Vedas ' (Sutra 1). 

Digitized by 



328 baudhAyana. iv, 5. 

32. He who distributes food, speaks the truth, and 
has compassion on all living beings, is more (holy) 
than all those who have been purified by the 
restraints mentioned above. 

Prasna IV, AdhyAya 6. 

1. The (eleven Anuvakas called) Rudras together 
with (the ten hymns) seen by MadhuiMandas, the 
Gayatri with the syllable Om, and likewise the 
seven Vyahrztis (are the texts) which should be 
muttered (and) which remove guilt. 

2. The Mngaresh/i, the Pavitreshtf, the Trihayis, 
the P£vam£nt are the Ish/is which efface sin, if they 
are (each) combined with the Vaisvanara (Pv&dasa'- 

3-4. Learn, also, the following most excellent 
secret ; he will be freed from all sins of all kinds 
who sprinkles himself with water, reciting the 
Payitras, who mutters the eleven (Anuvakas called) 
Rudras, who offers burnt oblations of butter, reciting 
the Payitras, and gives gold, a cow, and sesamum (to 

5. He who partakes of boiled barley-gruel, mixed 
with cow's urine, liquid cowdung, sour milk, milk, 
and butter, is quickly freed from sin. 

6, Both he who has begotten a child on a .Sudra 
woman and he who has had connexion with a female, 

(J. ?.. The hymns are Rig-veda I, 1-10, 

2. Regarding the Mr«garesh/i, see Taitt. Sawhid JV, 7, 15. In 
explanation of the term Trihavis, Govinda adds the word Savancsh/i. 

5. Y&vajka, translated, as usually, by barley-gruel, can also 
denote, as Govinda points out, other dishes made of barley, 

6. See aboye, II, 1, 2, 7, 10, 13-14. 

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intercourse with whom is forbidden (agamya), are 
purified (if they live) according to this rule during 
seven days. 

7. (That is likewise) die remedy when one has 
swallowed semen, ordure, and urine, or eaten the 
food of persons whose food must not be eaten, (and 
also) when a younger brother has kindled the sacred 
fire, has offered a .Srauta sacrifice, or taken a wife 
before the elder. 

8. He who has committed even a great number 
of (wicked) actions, excepting mortal sins, will be 
freed (by that rule) from all guilt That is the 
statement of the virtuous. 

9. But (this) ordinance, which is based on the 
authority of the sacred texts, is stated (to be that) 
through which Bharadv^a and others became equal 
to Brahman. 

10. Through the performance of these rites a 
Brahmawa, whose heart is full of peace, obtains what- 
ever desires he may have in his heart. 

Prasna IV, AdhyAya 7. 

i. The wishes of a Brahma#a who has left off evil 
deeds and is (ever) engaged in holy works are ful- 
filled even without (the practice of) restraints. 

2. Upright Brahmawas quickly accomplish what- 

7. See above, II, 1, 1, 21, 39-40. I follow the reading of M. 
and of the commentary, pary&dh^ne^yayor etat parivjtte ka, bhe- 
sha^am. The reading of the Dekhan MSS. is etat patite £aiva 
bnqg'anam, • that food must be eaten . . . . , and when one has 
become an outcast/ 

7. 1. Yantrawi, ' restraints,' i. e. Krikkhns, the fasts, and other 
practices described in the preceding chapters. 

Digitized by 



ever they wish in their hearts, if they are purified 
by honest actions. 

3. Thus a wise man should practise those re- 
straints until he has purified his bodily frame. 

4. He who has been purified by those restraints 
should, after fasting three (days and) nights, begin 
the performance of that sacred rite through which 
he wishes to gain the fulfilment of his desires, — 

5. (Reciting) the Kshipavitra, the Sahasraksha, 
the Mrzgara, the two Ganas (called) Awhomu^, the 
Pavamanls, the Ktishmandts, and the Rikas, ad- 
dressed to VaLrvanara, 

6. (And) offering with (each of) these (Mantras) 
boiled rice and clarified butter during seven days, in 
the morning, at midday, and in the evening, keeping 
a rigid silence, living on food fit for a sacrifice, 
restraining his senses and his actions, 

7. He is freed from all crimes, even mortal sins, 
after looking on a cross-road at a pot filled with 
water, (and reciting the text), 'Siwhe me manyu^.' 

8. He is freed from the multitude of sins, com- 
mitted unintentionally in old age, in youth, and in 
infancy, and even from those belonging to former 

9. After feeding at the end (of the seven days) 
Brahma»as with milk and rice, well mixed with 

5. According to Govinda the Kshipavitra, or as the Dekhan 
MSS. read, Kshmipavitra, occurs in the Sutrapa/Aa of the Taitti- 
rtyas, consists of six verses, and begins ' Agne naya.' The text 
meant must be similar to Taitt. Sa«hita' 1, 1, 14, 3. The Saha- 
sr&ksha is the Purushasukta. The Mngara consists of the Ya^yi- 
nuvakyas of the Mr*garesh/i, Taitt. Sawhiti IV, 7, 15. The two 
Gawas called Awhomu^ are found Taitt. Sawhid II, 3, 13, 1, 'ya - 
vdm indrdvaruwau' and 'yo vam indravanwau.' The verses addressed 
to Agni Vaifvdnara are the first eight of Taitt. Sa/whiti 1, 5, 11. 

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butter, and distributing to them after their dinner 
cows, land, sesamum, and gold, 

10. A Brahmawa becomes internally pure, his 
guilt being consumed like fuel, and fit for the per- 
formance of rites which secure the fulfilment of 
wishes and of rites like the kindling of the sacred 

Prasna IV, AdhyAya 8. 

i. He who, through excessive greed or careless- 
ness, performs this rite for others, is tainted by sin, 
and perishes like one who has swallowed poison. 

2. A Brahma#a who performs this rite for his 
teacher, his father, his mother, or for himself is 
resplendent like the sun. Therefore this rite may 
be performed for those (persons). 

3. Ka (Pra^apati) purified by means of this rite 
the god with a thousand eyes (Sahasraksha), Fire, 
Wind, the Sun, Soma, Yama, and other lords of the 

4. Whatever there is in these three worlds, famed 
as possessing a holy name, Brahma#as and the rest, 
(all) that was produced by Ka through this rite of 
sanctifi cation. 

5. This sin-destroying secret of Pra^apati was 
first produced ; thereafter thousands of purificatory 
rites came into existence. 

6. He who performs those eight Ga»ahomas on 
the (first) day of the" year, of a half-year, of a season, 
or of a fortnight, sanctifies ten ancestors and ten 
descendants of his line ; 

7. And, while still on earth, he is known to the 

8. 5. I.e. those mentioned V, 7, 5. 


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33 2 BAUDHAYANA. IV, 8. 

gods in heaven as a holy man, and (after death) 
that virtuous man rejoices for a very long time in 
heaven like a god. 

8. If a Brahma#a is unable to offer those eight 
Ga«ahomas, let him offer one ; thereby his guilt is 

9. He, also, whose sons or pupils offer those eight 
Gawahomas, is freed from his sin which is bought 
off by his having instructed (them). 

10. Through a desire of removing one's guilt one 
even may cause (these oblations) to be offered by 
men who have been engaged for money, in case 
oneself is unable (to do it); a man need not torment 

11. Even among the virtuous a distribution of 
wealth is made (for the success) of holy rites; some- 
times a man who is free from debt is (thereby) freed 
from guilt. 

12. Liberated according to this rule from the 
ocean of guilt and debt, he considers himself pure 
and able to successfully perform the sacred rites. 

13. But in the case of that pure mortal who, freed 
from all sin and debts, begins the sacred rites, they 
will succeed without any effort. 

14. Let him daily (study and) teach this holy 
(rule) of Pra^apati, which the sage has proclaimed, 
let him remember it or hear it. (By doing that) he 
is freed from all guilt and will be exalted in Brah- 
man's world. 

10. The meaning is that in case a wealthy man is unable to bear 
' the restraints,' he may hire others to perform the Homas. Though 
the hired performer will be guilty of a serious offence (Sutra 1), 
the person who causes them to be performed will derive benefit 
from them. 

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15. Let him mutter during twelve days those 
sacred texts through which he wishes to accomplish 
(his desires), eating once (a day) at night boiled 
rice with clarified butter, with milk, or with sour 

16. (Let him offer) ten times a burnt oblation and 
sprinkle clarified butter. (That is) the preliminary 
worship (which must be performed) when one desires 
to accomplish one's objects through those sacred 

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Prasna VII, Adhyaya 5. 

1. We will explain the rule for the adoption of a 

2. Man, formed of virile seed and uterine blood, 
proceeds from his mother and father (as an effect) 
from its cause. 

3. (Therefore) the father and the mother have 
power to give, to abandon, or to sell their (son). 

4. But let him not give nor receive (in adoption) 
an only son ; 

5. For he (must remain) to continue the line of 
the ancestors. 

6. Let a woman neither give nor receive a son 
except with the permission of her husband. 

7. He who is desirous of adopting (a son) pro- 
cures two garments, two earrings, and a finger-ring ; 
a spiritual guide who has studied the whole Veda ; a 
layer of Kusa grass and fuel of Pallya wood and so 

5. 1. This chapter has been translated by Mr. Sutherland, Dattaka 
Mimarasa' V, 42, and Dattaka A'andrika II, 16, and by myself, 
Journal Bengal Br. Roy. As. Soc, vol. XXXV, p. 162. 

2-6. Identical with Vasish/Aa XV, 1-5. The best MS. omits 
the particle tu, ' but,' in Sutra 6, while others have it. 

7-8. Vasish/-4a XV, 7. The translation of madhye by ' in their 
presence ' rests on the authority of the Sazrcskarakaustubha 47 b, 1 1, 
where it is explained madhye [a] iti bandhusamaksham. The other 
explanation ' in the middle (of his dwelling),' to which the interpo- 
lated text of the Dattaka Mima«s£ and Dattaka A'andrika refers, 
is, however, also possible. 

Digitized by 


vn,5. adoption. '335 

8. Then he convenes his relations, informs the 
king (of his intention to adopt) in (their) presence, 
feeds the (invited) Brahmaraas in the assembly or 
in (his) dwelling, and makes them wish him 'an 
auspicious day,' ' hail,' (and) ' prosperity.' 

9. Then he performs the ceremonies which begin 
with the drawing of the lines on the altar and end 
with the placing of the water-vessels, goes to the 
giver (of the child) and should address (this) request 
(to him), ' Give me (thy) son/ 

10. The other answers, ' I give (him).' 

11. He receives (the child with these words), 'I 
take thee for the fulfilment of (my) religious duties ; 
I take thee to continue the line (of my ancestors).' 

12. Then he adorns him with the (above-men- 
tioned) two garments, the two earrings, and the 
finger-ring, performs the rites which begin with the 
placing of the (pieces of wood called) paridhis 
(fences round the altar) and end with the Agni- 
mukha, and offers (a portion) 1 of the cooked (food) 
in the fire. 

13. Having recited the Puronuvakya (verse), 'He 
who thinking of thee with a discerning mind,' &c, 
he offers an oblation, reciting the Ya^ya (verse), ' To 
which performer of good deeds, thou,. O 6&ta- 
vedas,' &c. 

14. Then he offers (oblations, reciting), the Vya- 
hrztis ; — (the ceremonies) which begin the oblation 
to Agni Svishfokrzt and end with the presentation 

8. The ceremony alluded to is the so-called puwyihava^anam. 

12. The correct reading is pakv% ^uhoti. 

13. The two texts are found Taittirfya SawhitS I, 4, 46,. r, 

14. Vasish/fla XV, 7. The parenthetical phrase occurs fre- 
quently in the Dharma-sutra ; see e. g. Ill, 4, 3. 

Digitized by 


336 baudhAyana. vn, 5. 

of a cow as a fee (to the officiating priest are) 
known ; — 

15. And presents (to the spiritual guide) as a 
sacrificial fee those two dresses, those two earrings, 
and that finger-ring (with which he had adorned the 

16. If after the performance of these (rites) a legi- 
timate son of his own body is born (to the adopter, 
then the adopted son) receives a fourth (of the legi- 
timate son's) share. Thus says Baudhayana. 

16. Vasish/fta XV, 9. 

Digitized by 











Digitized by VjOOQlC 

Digitized by 



Ap. = Apastamba ; Ga. = Gautama ; Va. = Vasish/Aa ; Ba. = Baudhayana. 

Abhuasta, Ap. I, 3, 25; 21, 8; 24, 
6-25; 26,6; 29,8-14,17. Ga. 
11, 35; xvn, 17; xix, 10. Va. 
xiv, 2 ; xxii, 7 ; xxm, 14. Ba. 

I, ",35. 

Abortion, Ap. 1, 21, 8; 24, 8. Ga. 

xxi, 9; xxii, 13. Va. xxviii, 7. 

Adoption, Va. xv, 1-10. Ba. Par. 

VII, 4. 

— forbidden, Ap. 11, 13, 11. See 

Son adopted. 
Adultery, Ap. 1, 21, 9-10. 

— penances for, Ap. I, 25, 1-2, 105 

28, 15, 18, 20; 11, 26, 24-27, 1. 
Ga. 1, xxii, 1-17, 23, 26-27, 35. 
Va. v, 3; xx, 13-16; xxi, 1-10, 
12,13,16-17. Ba. 11, 1, 13-15; 

2. 13-14; 3,48-51; 4,15- 

— punishments for, Ap. 11, 26, 18- 

27; 27, 8-13. Ga. xn, 2-3. 
Ba. 1, 18, 18 ; 11, 3, 52-4, 3. See 
Guru, Wife, repudiation of. 
Agamya (females not to be ap- 
proached), enumeration, Ba. 

II, 4, n. 
Aghamarshana penance, Ba. in, 5. 
Agnidhra priest, seat of, Ba. 1, 15, 25. 
Agnihotra sacrifice, Ap. I, 14, 1. 

Va. ix, 10. Ba. 11, 4, 23. 
Agnihotrin, Ap. 11, 7, 13; 9, 13. 

Va. vi, 21; viii, 9; xxv, 2. 

Ba. 11, 13, 8; iv, 5, 27. 
Agnish/oma sacrifice, Ap. n, 7, 4. 

Ga. viii, 20. Ba. 11, 4, 23. 
Agnishftit sacrifice, Ga. xix, 10; 

xxn, 10. Va. xxn, 7. Ba. n, 

1,4; 111,10,8. 
Agnyadheya sacrifice, Ga. viii, 19. 

Va. vin, 20. Ba. 1, 13, 10; n, 

4, 22-23. 
Agrahayanl, Ga.vm, 18. Va. xi, 43. 

Agrayana sacrifice, Ga. vni, 19. Va. 

xi, 46. Ba. 11, 4, 23. 
Agriculture, Ap. 11, 10, 7. Ga. x, 

5, 49. Va. n, 19, 31-36. Ba. 

1, 10, 28-30; n, 4, 20-21. 
Ahimsaka mode of life, Ba. in, 2, 

AMrya, etymology of, Ap. 1, 1, 13. 

See Teacher and Spiritual 

Ambashtfra caste, Ga.rv,i6.Va.xvm, 

18. Ba.1,16,7,9; 17, 3,9,12. 
Anajnatparayana penance, Ap. I, 27, 

9. Va. iv, 32 ; xx, 46. 

— description of, Ba. in, 9. 
Andhra (Andhra), vol. ii, pp. xxv, 

Afiga, country, Ba. I, 2, 13. 
Angas, of Veda, vol. ii, p. xxvi. Ga. 

viii, 5; xi, 19; xv, 28. Va. 

in, 19-20, 23; xiii, 7. Ba. 

11, 14, 2, 6. 

— enumeration of, Ap. n, 8, 10-11. 
Animals, eatable and forbidden, Ap. 

1, 17, 29-39. Ga. xvn, 27-38. 
Va. xiv, 39-48. Ba. 1, 12, 1-8. 

— slaying of, Va. iv, 5-8. 

— penance for slaying, Ap. I, 25, 

13-26, 2. Ga. xxn, 18-22, 24- 
25. Va. xxi, 18, 23-27. Ba. 
1, 19, 6. 

— penance for bite of, Ga. xxm, 7. 

Va. xxm, 31. Ba. 1, 11, 38-41. 
Animal sacrifices, Va. xi, 46. Ba. 

1, 9; 11, 4, 23. See NiriU&a- 

Anvashfaki, Va. xi, 43. 
Apapatra (low-caste), vol. ii, p. ir; 

Ap. 1, 15, 29 ; 21,6; 11, 17, 20. 

Va. xx, 16. Ba. 1, 21, 15; 2, 

13; 11,2,13. 

Z 2 

Digitized by 




Apastamba, vol. ii, pp. ix-xliv. Ba. 
II, 10, 14. 

— age of, vol. ii, pp. xxxvii-xliii. 

— home of, vol. ii, pp. xxxii-xliv. 

— works of, vol. ii, pp. xi-xiv. 
Apastambha, vol. ii, p. xxxiii ; vol. 
A xiv, p. xlii. 

Apastambins (-biya), vol. ii, p. xv. 

Aptoryama sacrifice, Ga. vm, 20. 

Anitas, Ba. 1, 2, 14. 

Arghya, Ga. v, 32. See Honey- 

Arms, trade of, Ap. I, 18, 19; n, io, 
6; 17, 21. Ga. xm, 13-23. Va. 
ill, 25; xiv, 5. Ba. 1, 2, 3;. 

. 18, 3- 

Arsha marriage, Ap. 11, 11, 18. Ga. 
iv, 8, 30. Va. I, 32. Ba. 1, 
ao, 4. 

Arthajastra, vol. ii, p. xxix. 

Artisan, Ga. x, 31; xi, 21; Va.xix, 

Arya (Aryan), Ap. I, 3, 40; ia, 6, 
8-10; 21, 13, 17; »8, 11; 29, 
9; 11,10,11. Ga. vi, 11; ix, 
65,69; x, 61, 67; XII, 2; XXII, 
5. Ba. 1, 10, 20; 11, 2, 18. See 
Caste, three first or twice-born. 

Aryavarta, boundaries of,Va.i, 8-15. 
Ba. 1, 2, 9-12. 

Ascetic, Ap. 11, 9, 13 ; 21, 1 ; 26, 14. 
Ga.m, 2 ; xii, 38. Va. xi, 17, 
345 xix, 37; xxi, 33. Ba.1,19, 

i3 5"» i3»7. 

— duties of, Ap. 11, 21, 9-17. Ga. 

in, 11-25. Va. vi, 19-20; x. 
Ba. 11, 11, 16-26, 18. 

— rites on entering order of, Ba. 

11, 17. 
Ashiaka, Ap. 1, 10, 2. Ga. vm, 18 ; 

xvi, 38-39. Va. xm, 22. Ba. 

Assassin. See Self-defence. 
Assault, Ap. 1, 26, 6. Ga. xxi, 20- 

22. Va. xix, 9. Ba. 11, 1, 7. 
Assault-of-arms, Ap. 11, 25, 14. 
Assembly legal. See Parishad. 
Assessors, Ga. xm, 11. 
Astrologer, Ga. xm, 1. Br3hma»a 

not to be an, Va. x, 21. Ba. 

11, 2, 16. 
Astronomy, a VedSnga, Ap. 11, 8, 11. 
Asura marriage, Ap. 11, 12, 1. Ga. 

iv, 11. Ba. 1, 20, 7, 13; 21, 2-3. 

See MSnusha marriage. 
Ajoka, king, vol. ii, p. xxxiv. 

Aruiikara crimes, Ap. 1, 21, 12-19. 
Ba. 11, 2, 15-16. 

— penances for, Ap. 1, 29, 17-18 ; 11, 

12,22-23. Ba. 11, 2, 17. 
Arva&yana, Ba. 11, 10, 14. 
Aivins, Ba. n, 16, 2. 
Atharvajiras Upanishad, vol. ii, p. lvi. 

Ga.xix,i2. Va. xxii,9;xxviii, 

Atharva-veda, vol. ii, pp. xxiv-xxv, 

xxix. Ap. 11, 29, 12. Ba. iv, 

3,4! 5»i. 
Atheist, Ap. 1, 20, 5. Ga. xv, 16 ; 
xxi, 1. Va. 1, 23; xii, 41. Ba. 
1, 10, 25. 

— penance for, Va. xxi, 29-30. 
AtibriAAbra. penance, Ga. xix, 20; 

xxv, 18-19. Va. xiv, 33; xx, 
8, 10, 19; xxi, 16, 30; xxii, 16. 
Ba. 11, 1, 7 ; 4, 12 ; m, 10, 18. 

— description of,Va. xxiv, 1-2. Ba. 

11,2,40; iv, 5, 8. 
Atiratra sacrifice, Ap. 11, 7, 4. Ga. 

vm, 20. 
Atithi, etymology of, Va. vm, 7. 

See Guest. 
Atman. See Soul. 
Atreya, vol. xiv, p. xl. 
Atreyf, etymology of, Va. xx, 35-36. 

See Murder, penance for. 
Aukheyas, vol. ii, p. xv. 
Aukhya, vol. xiv, p. xxxvi. 
Aupaj-andhani, vol. xiv, p. xl. Ba. 

n, 3, 33. 
Austerity, Ga. xix, 11, 15. Va. xx, 

47; xxii, 8. Ba. 111,9,9, 13. 
Avakirnin. See Student, penances 

Avantt, country, Ba. I, 2, 13. 
Avaras, men of later times, vol. ii, 

pp. xvii, xxxvii. Ap. p. 19 ; 11, 

. 13,10, 

Ayogava caste, Ga. iv, 17. Ba. 1, 
16,8; 17,1,8. 

Bali offering, Ap. I, 12, 16; 11, 3, 
12-15, 18-4, 9. Ga. 11, 4; v, 
9-17. Va. xi, 4. Ba. 11, 5, 1 1 ; 
vol. xiv, p. 257. 

Barbarians, Ap. 1, 32, 18. Ga. ix, 
16. Va. vi, 41. 

Bathing, rule of, Ap. I, 2, 30; 11, 22, 
14. Ga. ix, 2, 61. Va. vi, 15. 
Ba. 1, 3, 39 ; 11, 5, 1-7 ; 6, 3, 

24-25; 7, 3,8. 

— a penance, Ap. 1, 25, 10, &c. Ga. 

Digitized by 




xix, 15, &c. Va. xxm, 33, &c. 
Ba. 111,10, 13, &c. 
Baudhayana, vol. ii, pp. xv-xvi, xviii- 
xxiii ; vol. xiv, pp. xxix-xlv. 

— age of, vol. ii, pp. xlix, li ; vol. 

xiv, p. xliii. 

— home of, vol. xiv, p, xli, 

— works of, vol. xiv, p. xxx. 

— quoted, Ba. I, 5, 13 ; 6, 15 ; 7, 8 ; 

11,10,14; "1,5,7 5 6,13. Ba. 

Par. vii, 4, 16. 
Baudhayanins (-iyas), vol. ii, p. xv ; 

vol. xiv, pp. xli-xlii. 
Begging, Ap. 1, 3, 25-4, 4; 11, 10, 1-3. 

Ga. 11, 35-41 ; in, 14-15. Va. 

vii, 9 ; xi, 68-70 ; xii, 2-3. Ba. 

I, 3,16-1855,8-11; 11,11,22; 
18, 4-6, 14. 

Bestial crime, Ga. xxn, 36; xxm, 
12. Va. xxm, 5-6. 

Bhallavins, Va. 1, 14-15. Ba. I, 2, 

Bharadva^-a, vol. ii, pp. xvi, xxiii. 

Bharadva^ins, vol. ii, p. xv. 

Bhavishyat-purina, vol. ii, p. xxviii. 
Ap. 11, 24, 6. 

Bhiksbu, vol. ii, p. lv. Ga. m, 2. 
Ba. II, 11, is. 

Bhri^yakaw/ii'a caste, Ga. IV, 20. 

Blind man, excluded from inherit- 
ance, Ba. 11, 3, 38. 

Bodhayana, vol. xiv, p. xliii. 

Boundary, Va. xv, 18. See Land. 

Brahmakdnta penance, Ba. iv, 5, 25. 

Brahmaiarin. See Student. 

Brahma marriage, Ap. 11, 11,17. Ga. 
IV > 6, 33. Va. 1, 30. Ba. 1, 20, 2. 

— offspring of, Va. m, 19. 
Brahman, offering to. See Veda- 

— priest, Ba. 1, 15, 21, 23. 

— slayers of, Ap. 1, 1, 27. 
Brahmana, quoted, Ap. I, 9-10 ; 3, 

9, 26; 7, 7, 11, 10, 8; 12, 1-2, 

10, 14; 17,28; 11,7, 15; ij,6. 
Ba. 11, 11, 7. 

Brahmana caste, duties, livelihood, 
and occupations, Ap. 1, 18, 3-8, 
13-15; 20,19-21,4; 29,4. Ga. 

II, 20; vii, 4-23; vm, 1-11; 
ix, 1-6, 40. Va. 11, 13-14, 22- 
47 5 I", i-xi, «4 5 vi, 23, 25, 
33-44; vm,i7; x,3t; xi, 45- 
48. Ba. 1, 10, 24-30; 18, 2 ; 11, 
2,13,16,26-29; 3,154,16-21. 

— special rules for initiation, . stu- 

dentship, impurity, &c, Ap. 1, 
18,21; 2,33,38,40-41; 3,28; 
5, 16; 14, 23, 26. Ga. 1, 5-6, 
15-20, 22, 24, 26. Va. in, 26, 
31; xi, 49, 52, 55, 58,64,67- 
68,71. Ba. 1, 3, 1-15, 17. 
Brahmana caste, rank and preroga- 
tives, Ap. 1, 1, 3-4 ; 14, 25 ; 30, 
20,22; 31,6; 11,4,16; 11,5-6; 
12, 5-8 ; 26, 10. Ga. v, 43-44 ; 
vm, 12-13; ix, 12; x, 44; XI, 
1,7,12-14; xiii, 26; xiv, 46; 
xvm, 24-29. Va. 1, 39-40, 43- 
46; 111,14; vi, 11; xi, 13; XII, 
28-30. Ba. 1, 18, 1-11; 11, 6, 
3°; 7, 38. 

— feeding of and gifts to, Ap. 11, 15, 

12-13; 17,4-22; 18,10; 20, 
2-4, 6 ; 25, 11 ; 26, 1-2. Ga. v, 
20-21; x,9; xv, 5, 7-14; xvm, 
31. Va. vi, 25, 30 ; vm, 6 ; xi, 
17-20,27,29. Ba.11,5, 19; 11, 
5! 14,3-5. 

— property inherited by Brahmanas 

only, Ga. xxvm, 41. Va. 
xvii, 84-86. Ba. 1, 13, 14. 

— punishments of, Ap. 11, 26, 11-13, 

17-19. Ga. xii, 11, 16, 46-47. 
Ba. 1, 18, 17-18; 11, 4, 1. 

— wives of, Va. 1, 24-26. Ba.i, 16, 2. 

— marriages lawful for, Ba. 1, 20, 10. 

— murder of, Ap. 1, 24, 7-25 ; 25, 

11-12; 28, 21-29, '• Ga. xxi, 
1 ; xxn,i-i3; xxiv, 6-12. Va. 
xx, 23-28, 34, 37; xxv, 4. Ba. 
1, 18, 18-19; 19,5; 11, 1, 2-6; 
iv, 1, 29; 2,6-8. 

— other offences against, Ga. xxi, 

17, 20-22; xxn, 28. Ba. 11, 1, 

7. See Srotriya. 
Brahmanvadhana rite, Ba. II, 17, 18- 

Bride, Va. xm, 60. 
Bridegroom, Va. xi, 2. Ba. 11, 6, 30. 
Brother, Ap. 1, 14, 9. Ga. vi, 3, 8. 

Ba. 1, 3, 33. 

— inherits sister's fee, Ga. xxvm, 


— eldest inherits brother's estate, 

Ga. xxvm, 27. 

— younger brother sacrificing, mar- 

rying, &c. before elder, Ap. 11, 
12, 23. Ga. xv, 18; xvm, 20. 
Va. 1, 18; xx, 7-8. Ba. 11, 1, 
39-40; iv, 6, 7. See Sons, 
eldest, &c. 

Digitized by 




Buddhists, vol. ii, p. lv. 
Bukkarlya, king, vol. xiv, p. xlii. 

Caste, four original, Ap. I, i, 3-7. Va. 
11, 1. Ba. 1, 16, 1. 

— three first or twice-born, Ap. 11, 

25. «3? 26 > 4i *7, 8-15. Va. 
11, 2-3. See Arya. 

— mixed, Ga. iv, 16-28. Va. xvm. 

Ba. 1, 16, 6-17, 15. 

— change of, Ga. iv, 33-34. 

— duties of all, Va. iv, 5. 

— exclusion from, Ga. xx, 1-9. Va. 

xv, 11-16. Ba. 11, 1, 36. 

— origin of, Ga. iv, 34. Va. iv, 1-3. 

Ba. 1, 18, 1-6. 

— re-admission into,Ga. xx, 10-16. 

Va. xv, 17-21. 
Central India, vol. ii, p. xxxii. 
Conduct, rule of, Va. vi, 1-9. 

— how settled, Ap. 1, ao, 1-9 ; 11, 

29, 14. 

— penance for violation of, Ga. xxv, 

Connubial intercourse, duty of, Ap. 

1, 32, 1-2; 11, 1,9, 16-2, 1. Ga. 

v, 1-2 ; ix, 28-29. Va. xii, 6-7, 

21. Ba. 1, 21, 18; iv, 1, 16-21. 
Coparcener, acquisition by, Ga. 

xxvhi, 30-31. 
Countries, law of, Ap. 11, 15, 1. Ga. 

XI, 20. Va. 1, 17. Ba. 1,2, 1-8. 
Cows, Ap. 1, 17, 30-31 5 26. 1 5 3°, 

20; 31, 8-12; 11, 8, 5-7. Ga. 

vii, 8; ix, 12, 19, 23; X, 18; 

xvii, 30; xxii, 18; XXIII, 12. 

Va. iv, 8 ; vi, 1 1 ; xn, 9 ; xiv, 

30, 45-46; xxi, 18; xxm, 6. 
Ba. 11, 4, 18 ; 6, 17, 18, 30. 

Crimes, classification of, Ap. I, 21, 

7-19. Ga. xxi. Va. 1, 19-23. 

Ba. 11, 2, 1, 12, 15. 
Cultivator, law affecting, Ap. 11, 28, 

1-2. Ga. x, 24-25; xi, 21. 
Custom, law of, Ap. 11, 15,1. Ga. xi, 

20. Va. 1, 17. Ba. 1, 2, i-i2. 

Daiva marriage, Ap. 11, 1 1, 19. Ga.iv, 

9, 31. Va. 1, 31. Ba. 1, 20, 5. 
Dakshina. See Sacrificial fee. 
Damage, done by cattle, Ap. 11, 38, 

5. Ga. xii, 19-26. 
Dancing, where to take place, Ap. 11, 

25, 4- 
Danrapurnamisa sacrifices, Ga. vm, 

19. Ba. 11, 4, 23. 

Dattaka. See Son adopted. 
Daughter, duty of marrying, Ga. 

xvm, 20-33. Va. xvii, 67-70. 

Ba.rv, 1, 1 1-6. 

— crime of selling, Ap. H, 13, 11. 

Va. 1, 36-38. Ba. 1, 3 1, 2-3 ; 11, 

2, 27. See Asura marriage. 

— inherits from father, Ap. 11, 14, 4. 
from mother, Ga. xxvm, 24. 

Va. xvii, 46. Ba. 11, 3, 43. 

— mother inherits from, Ga. xxvm, 


— appointed, Ga. xxvm, 18-19. Va. 

xvii, 45-46. Ba. 11, 3, 16. 
Daushyanta caste, Ga. iv, 16. 
Deaf man, free from taxes, Ap. 11, 

26, 16. 
Debts, Ga. xii, 40-41. Va. xvi, 31. 

— Brlhmana's three, Va. xi, 47-48. 

Ba. 11, 16, 4-8. 

Defamation, Ap. 1, 26, 3-4, 7 ; II, 
27, 14. Ga. xii, 1, 8-14 ; xxi, 
10,17-18; xxm, 27-28; xxv, 
7. Va. xix, 9; xxm, 38-40. 
Ba. 11, 2, 33-34. 

Dekhan, Ba. 1, 3, 1 3. 

Deposits, Ga. xn, 42. Va. xvi, 18. 
Ba. 11, 3, 3. 

Dejastha Briihmans, vol. ii, p. xxxi. 

Devapala, vol. ii, p. xxxiii. 

Dharmajastra, Ga. XI, 1 9. 

— reading, a penance, Va. xxvn, 19. 

— rule for teaching, Va. xxiv, 6-7. 

Ba. iv, 3, 9-10. 
Dhivara caste, Ga. IV, 19. 
Dhruva' mode of life, Ba. m, 1, 16 ; 

3, 7-10. 

Documents, Va. xv, 10, 14-15. 
Domestic priest, Ap. 11, 10, 14-16. 

Ga. xi, 12-17. Va. xix, 3-6, 

41-43. Ba. 1, 18, 7-8. 
Dowry, Va. xm, 53. 
DravMa, vol. ii, pp. xxv, xxxiv-xxxv. 
Dress, Ap. 1, 3, 39-3, 9 ; 15, 1 ; 30, 

10-14; 11, 4, 21. Ga. 1, 16-21; 

in, 18-19; l*> 3-*» Va. ix, 1 ; 

x, 9-10; xi, 61-67; XII, 14, 

38-39. Ba. 1, 3,14; 5, 6; 13, 

4-10; 11, 6, 39-4°; 6, 39; 11, 

15 5 18,44; i9»". 
Drinking spirituous liquor, Ap. 1, 

21, 8. Ga. 11, 20; xxi, 1. Ba. 

1,3,4; 18,18. 

— penance for, Ap. 1, 35, 3, 10; 37, 

10. Ga. xxm, 10-13. Va. xx, 
19, 22; xxvi, 5. Ba. 11,1,18-23. 

Digitized by 




Dumb man, free from taxes, Ap. n, 

36, 16. 
Duty. See Taxes. 
Dvadajaha sacrifice, Ap. 11, 7, 4. 

Eating, rules of, Ap. 1, 15, 16-30, 
16; 31, 1 ; 11, 1,3-7. Ga.ix, 33, 
56-59. Va. in, 69-70; vi, 20- 
33 ; xii, 18-30, 31, 35. Ba. 1, s, 
3 ; 11, 5, 3 1-6, 3 ; 1 3-1 3 ; 6, 39-40. 

Eka, vol. ii, p. xxvi. Ap. 1, 19, 7. 

Emigrant, property of, Ga. xiv, 44. 
Va. xiv, 19-30. 

— wife of, Ga. xvin, 15-17. Va. 

xvii, 75-80. 

Enasvin. See Sinful men. 

Etymology, a Vedilhga, Ap. 11, 8, 11. 

Eunuch, excluded from inheritance, 
Ap. 11, 14, 1. Ga. xxvin, 43. 
Va. xvii, 53-53 ; xix, 35-36. 

Evidence, threefold, Va. xvi, 10. 
See Documents, Ordeals, Pos- 
session, Witness. 

— venial false, Ga. xxm, 39 ; Va. 

xvi, 33. 
Exclusion from inheritance, Ap. xiv, 

I, 15. Ga. xxvin, 33, 40, 43. 
Va. xvii, 53-53. Ba. 11, 3, 37- 

Excommunication. See Caste. 

Excrements, voiding of, Ap. I, 30, 
i5-3i» 3- Ga. IX, 13, 14, 37- 
43. Va. vi, 10-13; xii, 11, 
13-17. Ba. 1, 10, 10-14. 

Families, law of, Ap. 11, 15, 1. Ga. 

ix, so. Va. 1, 17. 
Fasting, a penance, Ga. xix, 11. 

Va. xxii, 8. Ba. in, 10, 9, &c. 

— a punishment, Ap. I, 8, 30, &c. 

— forbidden, Ba. 11, 13, 8-9. 
Father, Ap. I, 1, 17; 10, 4; 14, 6; 

II, 10, 1. Va. iv, 31 ; xiii, 48. 
Ba. 1, 11, so; 11, 3,45. 

— partition by, Ap. 11, 13, 13-14, 

I, 6-9. Ga. xxvin, 3. Ba. 1, 
31,13; 11, 1,35; 3, 2-8. 

— partition against will of, Ga. xv. 

— power over children, Ap. 11, 13, 

II. Va.xv,2.,4, 3. 
over marriageable daughter 

lost, Ga. xvin, 20. Va. xvn, 

67-68. Ba. iv, 1, 14. 
to be cast off, Ga. xx, 1. Va. 

xm, 47. 
to be maintained though out- 

cast, Ga. xxi, 15-16. See Pa- 
rents, Son. 
Father-in-law, Ap. n, 8, 7. Ga. v, 

37; vi, 9. Va. xm, 41. Ba. 1, 

3, 45 ! "» 6, 30. 
Fellow-student, Ap. 1, 7, 39 ; 10, 1 2 ; 

11, 11. Ga. 11, 40; in, 8 ; xiv, 

30. Ba. 1, 11, 30. 
Food, lawful and forbidden, Ap. 1, 

16, 31-31 ; 17, 5, 14-18, 16; 

11, 15, 14. Ga. ix, 38; xvn. 

Va. iv, 30 ; vi, 27-29 ; xm, 1- 

11, 14-48. Ba. i, 9, 1-8; 10, 

2-9; 12,1-15. 

— penance for eating forbidden, Ap. 

I, 26, 7; 27, 3-6. Ga. xxm, 
45, 33-a6; xxiv, 3; xxv, 7. 
Va. iv, 31; xx, 17, 31 ; xxm, 
30; xxvii, 10-17. Ba. 1, 13, 
13-13; 11, 5,8; iv, i, 5-6; 2, 
5,13-14; 6,7. 

— purifying, Ga. xix, 13. Va. xxn, 

II. Ba. in, 10, 11, &c. 
Fornication, Ap. n, 36, 18, 21. Ba. 

11, 2, 13. 

Funeral ceremonies, Ap. n, 15, 9- 
11. Ga. xiv, 37-43. Va. iv, 
9—15, 36. Ba. 1, 11, 24-36. 

Funeral sacrifices. See ■Srlddhas. 

Gambling, Ap. n, 35, 13-13. Ga. 

xxv, 18. Ba. 11, 3, 16. 
Ganahomas, Ba. iv, 7, 5-7; 8, 1-11. 
Gandharva, Ap. 1, 30, 6. Va. xxvin, 

6. Ba. 11, 4, 5. 
Gandharva marriage, Ap. 11, 11-20. 

Ga. iv, 10. Va. 1, 33. Ba. 1, 

30, 6, 13, 16. 
Ganges, Va. 1, 13. Ba. 1, 2, 10. 
Garbhadhlna, Ga. vm, 4. 
Gautama, vol. ii, pp. xlvi-lvi; vol. 

xiv, pp. xxi, xl. 

— quoted, Va. iv, 34, 36. Ba. 1, 2, 

7 5 n,4,i7. 
Gaya, Va. xi, 43. 
Gayatri. See Savitrt. 
Gifts, Ap. 1, 12, 16; 18, 1-19, 16; 

11, 10, 4 ; 15, 13. Ga. v, 31-23 ; 

x, 1; xix, 11, 16. Va. 11, 14, 

15; vi, 36, 30-32; vm, 13; 

Xiv, 12-13; xx, 47; xxn, 8; 

xxvin, 16-22; xxix. Ba. 1, 

18, 2-4; 11, 5, 19-20; 6, 41- 

43 ; m, 10, 9, 14. 

— manner of making, Ap. n, 9, 8-9. 

Ga. v, 18-33. Ba. 11, 7, 39-40. 

Digitized by 




Gifts, penance for accepting, Ap. i, 

28, 1 1. Ga. xxiv, 2. 6a. 11, 5, 8 ; 

iv, 2, 4. 
Girdle, sacred, Ap. 1,4,33-37. Ga. I, 

15. Va. xi, 58-60. Ba. 1, 3, 13. 
Godina rite, Ga. 11, 9. 
Godavari river, vol. ii, p. xxxi. 
Gods, images of, Ap. I, 30, 20, 22. 

Ga. IX, 12. 
Gosava sacrifice, Va. xxu, 7. Ba. 

11, 1, 4. 
Govindasvamin, vol. ii, p. xlix ; vol. 

xiv, p. xlv\ 
Grammar, a Vedanga, Ap. 11, 8, 11. 

— study of, Va. x, 20. 

Guests, Ap. 1, 15, 1 ; 11, 4, 1, 11 ; 11, 
4, 11, 13-20; 6, 5-9, 4. Ga. 
v, 25-45- Va.vm, 4-5, 11-15. 
Ba. 11, 5, 11-18; 6, 36-37. 

Gujarat, vol. ii, p. xxxii. 

Guru (venerable person), Ap. I, 2, 

29; 6. »9. 31.33! 8. '4-15; io» 
2; 14, 6,15-17; 15,1; 21, 9; 
11,15,8. Ga. 11, 14, 37; v, 21; 
vi, 3; ix, 64; xvii, 4; xx, 2, 
6. Va. xm, 24 ; xiv, 13 ; xvii, 
56; xx, 1, 9-10. Ba. ii, 2, 13 ; 

4. 9 5 5, 19- 

— slaying a, Ap. I, 24, 24-25. 

— adultery with wife of, Ap. 1, 25, 

1-2, 10; 28, 15-18. Ga. xxi, 
1, 8 ; xxiii, 8-12 ; xxiv, 10-12. 
Va. 1, 20; xx, 13-14; xxvi, 7-8. 
Ba. 1, 18, 18; 11, 1, 13-15; 4, 15. 

— other offences against, Ga. xxi, 

10; xxiii, 30-31. Va.i, 23; xxi, 
28. See Teacher, Parents. 

Caiminiya school, vol. ii, p. xlix. 
Ganaka, vol. ii, p. xxxviii; p. 131. 

Ba. 11, 3, 34. 
Gatakarman, Ga.vm, 14. 
Gyesh/Aasaman, he who knows, Ap. 

11, 17, 22. Ga. xv, 28. Va. m, 

19. Ba. 11, 14, 2. 

Hair, arrangement of, Ap. I, 2, 31- 
32. Ga. 1, 27; hi, 11-12, 24. 
Va. 11, 21 ; vii, n ; ix, 1 ; x, 6. 
Ba. 11, 11, 15, 18. 

Haradatta, vol. ii, pp. xliii-xliv, lvii. 

Harihara king, voh ii, p. xxxiii. 

Hlrita, vol. ii, p. xxvi ; vol. xiv, p. xx. 

— quoted, Ap. 1, 13, 10; 18, 2 ; 19, 

12; 28, 1, 6; 29, 12, 16. Va. 
11,6. Ba. 11, 2, 21. 

Herdsman, law affecting, Ap. 11, 28, 

3-9. Ga. xi, 21; xii, 20. 
Hermit, Ap. 1, 18, 31 ; 11, 9, 13 ; 21, 

I. Ga. in, 2. Ba. 11, 11, 12; 
13,75 17,6; "1, 1, 8; IV, 5, 27. 

— classes of, Ba. m, 3, 9-15. 

— duties of, Ap. 11, 21, 18; 23, 2. 

Ga. m, 26-35. Va. vi, 19-20; 
ix. Ba. 11, 11, 14-15; in, 3, 
18-4, 22. 

— penance for, Va. xxi, 3 2. 
Himalaya, Va. 1, 8-9. Ba. 1, 2, 9. 
Hinwyakejin, vol. ii, pp. xiii, xvi, 

xxiii-xxiv; vol. xiv, p. xxxvi. Ba. . 

11, 10, 14. 
Homicide, Ap. I, 21, 8 ; 29, 2-3 ; 11, 

27, 16-17. See Murder. 
Honey-mixture, Ap. 11, 8, 5-9. Ga. 

v, 27-30. Va. xi, 1-2. Ba. 11, 

6, 36-37. 
Horse-sacrifice, Ap. I, 24, 22. Ga. 

xix, 9 ; xxiii, 9. Va. xi, 78 ; 

xxu, 6. Ba. 11, 1, 4-5 ; m, 

10, 7. 
Hotri priest, seat of, Ba. 1, 15, 24. 
House, dispute about, Va. xvi, 12- 

Householder, duties of, Ap. 11, 1, 1- 
13,23; 20,10-20. Ga. iv-v. 
Va. VI, 19-20; vni ; xi. Ba. 

II, 4, 22-5, 9; 13, 7-9. 
Husband and wife, rights of, Ap. 11, 

14, 16-18; 27, 1-7; 29, 3-4. 
Ga. vi, 6; xvm, 1-3. Va. v, 
1-2 ; xxi, 9-10 ; xxviii, 7. Ba. 
«» 3, 44-47 ; 4. 6- See Wife. 

Idiot, excluded from inheritance, 
Ga. xxviii, 43. Ba. 11, 3, 38. 

— son of, inherits, Ga. xxviii, 44. 
Impure substances, penances for 

swallowing, Ga. xxiii, 3. Va. 

xx, 20. Ba. 11, 2, 36 ; iv, 6, 7. 

for touching, Va. xxiii, 24- 

Impurity through births and deaths, 

Ap. 1, 15, 18; 11, 15, 2-8, 20- 

26. Ga. xiv. Va. iv, 16-37. 

Ba. 1, 11, 1-8, 17-23, 27-32. 

See Purification. 
Incest, Ap. 1, 21, 8. Ga. xxi, 1-8 ; 

xxiii, 12. Va. xx, 15. Ba. 11, 

2.13; 4,"-i2. 
Indivisible property, Ga. xxviii, 

Infants, Ap. 11, 15, 20-26. Ga. 11, 

Digitized by 




1-5; xiv, 44. Va.11, 6-7; xix, 
37. Ba. 1, j,6; 11, 3-4. 

Inheritance, Ap. 11, 13, 2, 13-14, 14. 
Ga. xxviii, 1-47. Va. xv, 9 ; 
xvii, 1-54, 81-87. Ba.1,11,11, 
16 ; 11, 32-43. See Brother, 
Daughter, Mother, Sakulya, 
SapWa, Son, Wife, Pupil, 
Teacher, Officiating priest, 
King, Exclusion from inherit- 
ance, Coparcener, Indivisible 
property, Partition, Re-united 

Initiation, Ap.i, 1, 5, 8-21. Ga. I, 5- 
14. Va. II, 3 ; XI, 49-73- Ba. 
1, 3, 7-i2- 

— neglect of, Ap. 1, 1, 22-2, 10. 

Ga. xxi, 11. Va. xi, 74-79. 
Ba. 1, 16, 16. 

— second, Ga. xxn, 2. Va. xx, 17- 

20; xxiii, 30. Ba. 11, 1, 19-21. 
Interest, Ga. xn, 29-36. Va. 11, 
43-51. Ba. 1, 10, 22-25, 

Judge, Ap. 11, 29, 5-6. Ga. xm, 
26-31. Ba. 1, 19, 8-9. 

Judicial procedure, Ap. n, 1 1> 1-3 ; 
29, 6-9. Ga. xi, 19-25 ; xm. 
Va. xvi. Ba. 1, 18, 7-16. 

Kalakavana, Va. I, 8. Ba. I, 2, 9. 
K&leyas (KiUetas), vol. ii, p. xv. 
Kalinga, vol. ii, pp. xxxiv-xxxvi. Ba. 

1, 2,14-15. 
Kalpa, a Vedanga, Ap. 11, 8, 11. 
Kalpa-sfltras, vol. ii, p. xi. Ap. 11, 8, 

Kanara country, vol. ii, p. xxxi. 
Kanva, vol. ii, p. xxvi. Ap. 1, 19, 3; 

28, 1. 
Kanva, vol. ii, p. xxvi; vol. xiv, p. 

xxxvi. Ap.1,19, 7. Ba. 11,10,14. 
Kanvayana, vol. xiv, p. xxxvi. 
Kapila, son of Prahlada, Ba. 11,1 1, 28. 
Kapota mode of life, Ba. in, 1, 16; 

2,15; iv, 5, 28. 
Karana caste, Ga. IV, 21. 
Karaskara country, Ba. I, 2, 14. 
Karna/aka Brahmans, vol. ii, p. xxxi. 
Karshapana, Va. xix, 37. 
Kajakr/tsna, vol. xiv, p. xl. 
Kajyapa, Ba. I, 21, 2. 
Kanaka, vol. ii, p. xxxiii ; vol. xiv, 

p. xvi. 

— quoted, Va. xn, 24 ; xxx, 5. 
KStya, Ba. 1, 3, 46. 

Katyayana, vol. ii, p. xxxv. 
Kauddali mode of life, Ba. Ill, 1, 16; 

2, 5-6. 
Kautsa, vol. ii, p. xxvi. Ap. 1, 19, 4 ; 

28, 1. 
Ketalaputra, vol. ii, p. xxxv. 
KhaWikiya school, vol. ii, pp. xv-xvii. 
King, Ap. 1, 31, 5 ; 8, 23 ; 11, 8, 6-7 ; 

11, 5. Ga. V, 30-31; VI, 13, 

24-25 ; vin, 1-3 ; ix, 63 ; xn, 

2; xm, 11, 13; xiv, 10, 45; 

xxi. Va. 11, 49-50; m, 4, 13; 

xm, 59; xvi, 17. Ba.11,4, 15; 

6, 3°; 7, 15- 

— duties of, Ap. n, 7, 12 ; 10, 14 ; 

11, 1-4; 25, 1-29, 10. Ga. x, 
7-48 ; xi ; xm, 26 ; xvm, 30- 
3 2. Va. 1, 4 1-4 3 ; xvi, 2-9, 21- 
26; xix. Ba. 1, 18-19. 

— takes heirless property, Ap. n, 

14,5. Ga. xxvin, 42. Va. xvii, 
83-86. Ba. 1, 13, 15-16. 

property without owner, Va. 

xix, 19-20. See Domestic priest, 
Minister, Officials, Pardon, Pu- 

KriM&ra penance, Ap. 1, 25, 8 ; 27, 
6, 8; 28, 20. Ga. xix, 20; 
xxm, 32 ; xxvn, 2. Va. xx, 
6-10, 12, 16, 19; xxi, 13, 16, 18, 
24-27,29,32; xn, 16; xxm, 
19; xxvn, 20. Ba. 1, 12, 12; 
11,1,7,19.23,38-40; «,33-345 
3,48, 50; 4, 12; i", 10, 8. 

— description of, Ap. 1, 27, 7 ; Ga. 

xxvi, 1-17. Va. xxi, 20 ; xxm, 

42-43; xxiv, 4-5. Ba. 1, 12, 

12; 11,2,38,42-45; iv, 5,6-7. 
KriiibT&tikrHibra. penance, Ga. 

xxvi, 20. Va. xxiv, 3. Ba. n, 

2,41; iv, 5, 9. 
Krishnala, Ga. x, 18. 
Kr*sh»apa»</ita Dharmadhikarin, vol. 

xiv, pp. xxvii-xxviii. 
Kshatra marriage, Va. I, 34. See 

Rakshasa marriage. 
Kshatriya caste, Ap. 1, 1, 3-4; 14, 

25, 18, 9; 11,4, 18, 25-27. Ga. 

v, 44; vi, 18; vn, 6. Va. 11, 

1-2. Ba. 1, 5, 9; 6, 9; 11, 1,21; 

4, 16-17. 

— duties and occupations, Ap. 11, 

10,6,10-11. Ga. vn, 26; x, 19, 
41. Va. 1, 24; II, 15-17, 24- 
40; 111,25. Ba.i, 16, 3; 18, 3; 
20, 12. 

Digitized by 




Kshatriya caste, special rules for ini- 
tiation, studentship, saluting, 
&c, Ap. I, 1,5, 18, ai ; 2, 34, 

38, 40; 3, 1. 5, 9. »9; 5, 16; 
14,23,87. Ga.i, 11, 13, 15-17, 
23, 26 ; v, 41 ; xiv, 2. Va. ill, 
27, 32 ; xi, 53, 56, 59. 62, 65, 
67, 69. Ba. 1, 3, 8, 10, 15, 17 ; 

— murder of, Ap. 1, 24, 1-9. Ga. 

xxii, 14. Va. xx, 31, 34, 38. 
Ba. 1, 18, 20-19, 1 > 11, 1, 8. 

— punishments of, Ga. XII, 8-9, 14, 

16. Va. xxi, 3. Ba. 1, 18, 19. 
Kshattri caste, Ga. iv, 18. Ba. 1, 16, 

8; 17,1,7, 10-11. 
Kukku/aka caste, Ba. I, 16, 8, 12; 

17, 1, 14. 
Kunika, vol. ii, p. xxvi. Ap. 1, 19, 7. 
KfishmaWa penance, rule of, Ba. 

ill, 6. 
Kutsa, vol. ii, p. xxvi. Ap. 1, 19, 7. 

A!aitrt rite, Ga. m, 18. 
A'akraiara beggars, Ba. ill, 1, i, 5. 
AaWala (A^a^ala) caste, Ap. I, 9, 1 5, 

17 ; 11, 6, 8-9 ; 9, 5-6. Ga. iv, 

17-18, 28; xiv, 30; xv, 24; 

xvi, 19. Va. xi, 9; xiii, 11; 

xvm, 1 ; xxiv, 33-34, 4. Ba. 

1,9, 5,7 5 16,8, 17, 1,7 5 u,4, 

Aandrayana penance, Ga. xix, 20. 

Va. xxi, 13; xxii, 16; xxiii, 16; 

xxvii, 20. Ba. 11, 3, 49 ; 4, 12 ; 

in, 10, 18. 

— description of, Ga. xxvii ; Va, 

xxiv, 45-47; xxvii, 21. Ba. 

m, 8; iv, 5, 17-21. 
ATaranavyQha, vol. ii, pp. xv, xxx- 

xxxi, xlvii. 
ATaturmasya-kaWa quoted, Va. 1, 37. 

— sacrifice, Ap. I, 10, 1. Ga. vm, 

19. Va. xi, 46. Ba. 11, 4, 23. 
ATaula rite, Ga. vm, 14. 
A"olas, vol. ii, pp. xxxv-xxxvi. 

Land, dispute about, Va. xvi, 13. 

Law, sources of the, Ap. I, 1, 1-2 ; 
20,7-8 ; 11, 15, 1 ; 29, 13-15. Ga. 
1, 1-4 ; vi, 22 ; xi, 20 ; xxvin, 
48-52. Va. 1, 1-18. Ba. 1, 1-2. 

— institutes of. See Dharmasastra. 
Lending money. See Usury. 
Limitation, law of, Ga. xxi, 37-39. 

Va. xvi, 16-18. 

Livelihood, various means of, Ba. m, 
1-3. See Occupations. 

Madhava-Sayana, vol. xiv, p. xlii. 
Madhuparka. See Honey-mixture. 
Madhyandina-jakha, vol. ii, pp. xxv, 

Madman, excluded from inherit- 
ance, Ap. 11, 14, 1. Va. xvii, 

54; xix, 35-36. 
Magadha country, Ba. I, 2, 13. 
Magadha caste, Ga. iv, 17-18. Ba. 

16, 8 ; 17, 1, 7. 
Magic rites and incantations, Ap. 1, 

26, 7 ; 29, 15. Ga. xi, 17 ; xxv, 

7. Ba. 11, 2, 16. 
Mahabharata, vol. xiv, p. xli. 
Mahade va, commentator, vol.ii, p.xvi. 
Maha^a^-wu, Ba. Ill, 9, 21. 
Mahapataka crimes, Ga. xxi, 1-10; 

xxvi, 22. Va. 1, 19-22 ; xx, 

Maharoava, vol. ii, pp. xxxi-xxxii. 
Mahasamtapana penance, Ba. iv, 5, 

Mahay a^wa. See Sacrifices great. 
Mahishya caste, Ga. iv, 20. 
Maintenance, Ap. 1, 28, 9 ; 11, 26, 22. 

Ga. xxi, 15; xxvin, 43. Va. 

xvii, 54 ; xix, 30-36. Ba. 11, 1, 

37! 3, 37,42. 
Maitrayanfya school, vol. ii, p. xxxii ; 

vol. xiv, pp. xvi, xxi. 
Minava school, vol. ii, pp. ix-xi, 

xxxii ; vol. xiv, p. xviii. 

— sutra, vol. ii, pp. ix, lvii ; vol. xiv, 

p. xviii. Va. iv, 5-8. 
Manes, libations to. See Tarpana. 

— oblations to. See Sraddha. 
Manu, vol. ii, p. lvii; vol. xiv, pp. 


— quoted, Ga. xxi, 7. Va. 1, 17 ; m, 

2 ; xi, 23 ; xiii, 16 ; xix, 37. 

— referred to, Ap. 11, 14, 11 ; 16, 1. 

Ga. XXIII, 28. Va. XII, 16 ; 
xxm, 43. Ba. 11, 3, 2 ; iv, 1, 

13; 2,15. 

Manusha marriage, Va. I, 35. See 
Asura marriage. 

MaraA&a Brahmans, vol. ii, pp. xxxi- 

Marriage, expenses of, Ap. 11, 10, 1. 
Ga. v, 21 ; xvm, 24-28. Ba. 

II, 5, 19- 

— forbidden degrees and impedi- 

ments, Ap. 11, 11, 15-16. Ga. 

Digitized by 




IV, a. Va. viii, i-a. Ba. I, a, 
2 ; H, i, 37-38- 
Marriage, intermarriage between 
different castes forbidden, Ap. 

"» '3,4-5- 

permitted, Ga. iv, 16. Va. I, 

24-25. Ba. 1, 16, 2-5. 

— rites, Ap. 11, it, 17-12, 4. Ga. 

IV, 6-15. Va. 1, 27-35. Ba. I, 
20, 1-21, 23. 

— second of infant widows, Va. 

xvii, 72-74. Ba. iv, 1, 16. See 
Woman remarried. 

— time of, for females, Ga. xvm, 

20-23. Va. xvii, 69-71. Ba. 
iv, 1, 11-14. 

Masha, Ga. xn, 29. Va. 11, 51. 

Maternal uncle, Ap. 1, 14, 11. Ga. 
v, 27 ; vi, 7, 9. Va. xi, 2 ; xm, 
41. Ba. 1, 3,45; 11,6,30. 

Matr/'datta, vol. ii, p. xxiii. 

Maudgalya, Ba. 11, 4, 8. 

Measures and weights, Va. xix, 13. 

Merchants, to decide their own dis- 
putes, Ga. x, 35. 

Metrics, a VedSnga, Ap. 11, 8, 1 1. 

Mimawsa, vol. ii, pp. xxi, xxvii, pp. 
!5> !34! vol. xiv, p. 1. Ap. 11, 
8,13. Va. in, 20. Ba. 1, 1,8. 

Ministers, royal, Va. xvi, 2. 

Minors, Ga. x, 48. Va. xvi, 7-9, 
16. Ba. 11, 3, 36. 

Mitramura, date of, vol. ii, pp. xliii- 

Mother, Ap. 1, 1, 17; 2, 5, 15-16; 
10, 14; 14, 6 ; 11, 10, 1. Ga. II, 
51 ; vi, 7 ; xiv, 16 ; xxvm, 24. 
Va. iv, 21 ; xm, 48. Ba. 1, 11, 
20, 22 ; 11, 1, 25. 

— inherits from daughter, Ga. 

xxvm, 25-26. 

— outcast, Ap. 1, 28, 9. Ga. xxi, 

15. Va. xm, 47. Ba. 11, 3, 42. 

— power over children, Va. xv, 2, 5. 

Ba. Par. vn, 4, 2, 5. 

— succession to, Ga. xxvm, 24. 

Va. xvii, 46. Ba. II, 3, 43. 
Mukhenadayin hermits, Ba. m, 3, 

Murder, penances and punishments 

for, Ap. 1, 24, 1-25 ; 25, 1 1-12 ; 

28, 21-29, >• G a - xxii, 1-17, 

23, 26-27; xxiv, 6-10. Va. 

xx, 23-40; xxv, 4. Ba. 1, 18, 

18-19,5; 11, 1, 2-12; iv, 1, 29; 

2, 6-8. See Homicide. 

MGrdhjlvasikta caste, Ga. iv, 19. 
Music, Ap. 11, 25, 13. 

Nandivarman,Pallava-malla,vol. xiv, 

p. xlii. 
Narmada river, vol. ii, p. xxxi. 
NiriW/fcipajubandha sacrifice, Ga. 

viii, 19. 
Nishada caste, Ga. iv, 16. Va. xvm, 

8. Ba. 1,16, 7,11; 17, 3,13- 

14; 11, 3, 3°, 32- 
Niyoga (appointment of widows), Ga. 
xvm, 4, 14; xxvm, 22. Va. 
xvii, 58-66. Ba. 11, 4, 9-10. 

— forbidden, vol. ii, pp. xxiv-xxv. 

Ap. 11, 27, 2-7. 
Northern Brahmans, vol. ii, p. xxxiii; 

vol. xiv, p. xli. Ap. 11, 17, 7. 

Ba. 1, 2. 
Nyiya. See Mimamsl. 

Oath of witnesses, Ga. xm, 12-13. 

Occupations of castes, Ap. I, 1, 6; 
20, 10-20 ; II, 10, 4-9. Ga. vii, 
4-26; ix, 1, 7-30; x. Va. 11, 
13-51. Ba. 1, 10, 21-30; 18, 
i-6; 11, 4, 16-21. See Liveli- 

Officials, royal, Ap. 11, 26, 4-8. Ga. 
vi, 1 3 ; xii, 38. Va. x v, 2 1-26. 

Officiating priests, Ap. 11, 8, 6-7 ; 

10, 8-9; 11, 19; 27, 18. Ga. 
v, 27-29; vi, 9; xi, 18; xiv, 
1 ; xv, 14; xxi, 12. Va. xi, 2; 
xm, 50. Ba. 1, 3,45; 11,2,13,. 

29; 13,5-10; 15,9,17; ",6,30. 
Om, syllable, Ap. 1, 1 3, 6-8. Ga. I, 

57. Va. xxv, 9-13. Ba. n, 11, 

6; 18, 25-26; iv, 1, 27-28. 
Ordeals, Ap. 11, 11,3; 29, 6. 
Orders, four, Ap. 11, 21, 1-5. Ga. 

ill, 2. Va. vh, 1-2. Ba. 11, 11, 


— comparison of four, Ap. 11, 23-24. 

Ga, m, 36. Ba. 11, 11, 9-34. 
Outcasts, Ap. 1, 9, 9 ; 11, 2, 7. Ga. 

11, 35; iv, 27; xv, 24. Va. xi, 
9; xm, 51-52; xiv, 2; xvii, 
20. Ba. 11, 1, 20; 6, 22. 

— definition of term, Ga. xxi, 6, 

8-10, 13-14. 

— excluded from inheritance, Ap.n, 

141. Va. xvii, 53. Ba. 11, 3, 

— intercourse with forbidden, Ap. 

1, 21, 5 ; 28, 6-10. Ga. xxi, 3 ; 

Digitized by 




xxn, 33. Va. i, 20-22 ; xx, 45- 
46 ; xxm, 36. Ba. 11, 2, 1 8- j 5, 

35 5 3,4i; 5.8-9- 
Outcasts, marriage with daughter of, 
permitted, Va. xm, 53. See 
Abhbasta caste, exclusion from, 
readmission into. 

Paltaia marriage, vol. ii, p. xxiv. 
Ga. IV, 13 ; Ba. I, 20, 9, 13. 

Pakaya,jflas, Ap. 1, 26, 8. Oa. vm, 
18; x, 65. Va. xxvi, 10. Ba. 
1, 5. u. 

Palani mode of life, Ba. in, I, 16 ; 

Pallavas, vol. ii, p. xxxiii; vol. xiv, 
p. xlii. 

PaWya, vol. ii, pp. xxxiv-xxxv. 

Panini, vol. ii, pp. xxxv, xxxix-xlii. 

Pa%Sb, vol. ii, p. xxxiii. 

Patfiagavya (the five products of the 
cow), Va. xxvn, 14. Ba. iv, 

Panktidfishana (defilers of the com- 
pany), Ap. 11, 17, 2i. Ga. xv, 
16-19, 30-31. 

Panktipavana (sanctifiers of the com- 
pany), Ap. 11, 17, 22. Ga. xv, 
28, 31. Va. in, 19. Ba. 11, 
14, 2. 

Paraka penance, Ba. iv, 5, 15. 

Parajava caste, Ga. iv, 16-21. Va. 
xviii, 9-jo. Ba. 1, 17, 4; 11, 

„ 3. 3°. 

Pardon, right of, Ap. II, 27, 20. 

Ga. xn, 52; xiv, 43. Va. xv, 

19; xix, 40. 
Parents, Ap. 11, 15, 6. Ga. vi, 3; 

xiv, 15. Va. iv, 20-21. Ba. I, 

11,19-23. See Father, Mother. 
Paripalra mountains, Va. 1, 18. Ba. 

1, 2, 9. 
Parishad (legal assembly),Ga.xxvin, 

48-49. Va. in, 5-7, 20. Ba. 

1, 1, 7-16. 
Partition, Ap. n, 13, 13-14, 1, 6-9. 

Ga. xv, 19; xxvm, 1-17. Va. 

xvn, 40-51. Ba. 11, 3, 2-13. 

See Coparcener, Indivisible 

property, Sons. 
Parva days, Ap. I, 26, 14; 11, 1, 4; 

3, 8. Va. xn, 21. Ba. 1, 5, 7; 

21, 17, 19-22. 
Parva^a-sthaiipaka, Ga. Tin, 18. 
Pataka crimes, Ba. IV, 1, 10; 2, 14; 

3. 2. 

Pata#«li, vol. ii, p. xxxix. 

Pataniya crimes, Ap. 1, 2 1, 7-1 1:28, 
14. Ba. 11, 2, i-ii ; iv, 1, 10. 

Paulkasa caste, Ap. 11, 2, 6. 

Pavitresh/i, Va. xxn, 10. Ba. I, 2, 

Penances, Ap. 1, 18, 11-12; 25-29; 
Ii, 2, 9; 12, 15-18. Ga. xix ; 
xxii-xxiii. Va. iv, 32; xiv, 
33; xviii, 16; xix, 40-42; 
xx-xxiv. Ba. 1, s, 14-17 ; 11, 
37-41; 12, "J i9» 16; "» ', 
i-2» 45; 3. 48-4. 15; i"» 4- 
iv, 2. 

— for secret crimes, Ga. xxiv-xxv. 

Va. xxv-xxvm. Ba. iv, 3-4. 

— how imposed, Ap. n, 10, 12-16. 

Va. 1, 16. Ba. 1, 1, 14-15. 
Phonetics, a VedSnga, Ap. n, 8, ir. 
Physician, Ap. I, 18, 21; 19, 15. 

Ga. xvn, 17. Va. in, 3 ; xiv, 

Pledge, Ga. xn, 32, 35, 42. Va 4 

xvi, 16-18. 
Possession, evidence by, Va. xvi, 10. 
Pra,fSpati, the Lord of creatures, 

Ap. 1,19,14; 11,4,4; 7,1; 24, 

7, 13. Ga. v, 10. Va. xiv, 16 

24, 30. Ba. 11, 7, 15; 12, 13; 

18,26; 111,9,20; iv, 8, 3-5. 
Pr%apatya marriage, Ga. iv, 7. Ba. 

1, 20, 3. 

— penance. See Kriiibn. 
Pranagnihotra, description of, Ba. n, 

Pnwayama (suppressing the breath), 

a penance, Ap. n, 12, 15-18. 

Va. xxv, 3-5, 13, &c. Ba. iv, 

1, 4-10, 20-29. 
Pranflna country, Ba. 1, 2, 14. 
Prasr/'tiyavaka penance, Ba. in, 6. 
PravWttlrin hermits, Ba. in, 3, 9, 11. 
Property, acquisition of, Ga. x, 39- 


— given up, Va. xvi, 19-20. 

— lost, Ga. x, 36-48. 

— of persons Unfit for legal business, 

Va. xv, 8. 

— stolen, Ap. n, 26, 8. Ga. x, 46- 

Pulkasa caste, Ga. iv, 19. Va. xvni, 

5. Ba. 1, 16, 8, 11; 17,1,13- 
Pumsavana rite, Ga. xvni, 14. 
Punarbhfi. See Woman remarried. 
Punastoma sacrifice, Ga. xix, 7. 

Ba. j, 2, 14; in, 10, 6. 

Digitized by 




Punishment, king's duty of, Ga. xii, 
45-52. Va. xix, 40-48. Ba. 
11, 1, 17. See Pardon. 

— of sin after death, Ap. 11, 2, 5-7 ; 

11, 11. Ga. xi, 30. Va. xx, 

43-44; xxi, 11. 
Pupil, inherits, Ap. 11, 14, 3. Va. 

xvii, 82. Ba. 1, 11, 13. See 

Student, Teacher. 
Purawa, vol. ii, p. xxviii. Ap. 1, 19, 

13; 28,7; 11,22,24; 23, 3. Ga. 

vm, 6; x, 19. Va. xxvii, 6. 

Ba. 11, 10, 14; IV, 3, 4. 
Purification of persons, Ap. 1, 15, 1- 

16,15. Ga. 1, 28, 35-44 5 "»2; 

xiv, 30. Va. in, 26-43, 58-60 ; 

iv, 37 ; vi, 14-19. Ba. 1, 8, 1- 

31; 9i5 5 10,11-20,34; 11,36; 

15, 4, 6. 

— of things, Ap. 1, 17, 8-13 ; 11, 3, 

9. Ga. 1, 29-34. Va. in, 44- 

57, 59, 61-63; xiv, 23-24, 26. 

Ba. I, 8, 32-53; 9,i-4, 7-«; 

10,1-9; 13,11-14,19. 
Purificatory texts, Ap. 1, 2, 2,&c. Ga. 

xix, 12; Va. xxii, 9; xxviii, 

10-15. Ba. m> ,0 , IO ! IV , 4, 8. 
Purohita. See Domestic priest. 
Pushkarasadi, vol. ii, p. xxvi. Ap. I, 

19,7; 28,1. 

Ra>putSna, vol. ii, p. xxxii. 
Rakshasa marriage, Ap. II, 12, 2. 

Ga. iv, 12. Ba. 1, 20, 8, 12. 

See Kshatra marriage. 
Ramaka caste, vol. xiv, p. xxv. Va. 

XVIII, 4. 

Ranayaniya school, vol. ii, pp. xlvi, 

Rathakara (carpenter) caste, vol. 

xiv, p. xxxviii. Ba. I, 3, 9; 17, 

Re-united coparcener, Ga. xxvm, 

28. Va. xvi, 16. 
Rewards after death, Ap. II, a, 2-4 ; 

11, 10. Ga. xi, 29. 
.Rig-veda, vol. ii, p. xxiv ; vol. xiv, pp. 

xi-xii, xiv, xl. Ga. xvi, 21. Va. 

xiii, 30. Ba. 11, 10, 14 ; IV, 3, 

3 ; 5, 29. 
.R/gvedins, vol. xiv, pp. xiii-xv. 
JUshi, vol. ii, pp. xvii, xxxvii. Ap. 1, 

5,4-5; 13, 1; 11, 23, 4-5; 24, 

13-14. Ga. in, 29; iv, 3; 
xviii, 6; ix, 14. Va. iv, 65; xi, 
48; xii, 51; xxii, 12; XXIII, 

47. Ba. 11,5,4; 6,36; 10,14; 

11-15; ill, 9, 19, 21; 10,12. 
Rishi, persons descended from the 

Rites procuring success, Ba. iv, 5-8. 
Roads near fields and houses, Va. XV, 

Romaka, vol. xiv, p. xxv, p. 94. 

Sacraments, enumeration of, Ga. 

vm, 14-21. 
Sacred fire, duty of kindling, Ga. v, 

7-9. Va. vm, 3 ; xi, 45. Ba. 

1, 5, 6; 11, 4, 22. 

— rule for kindling, Ap. 11, 1, 13. 

— extinguishing or neglecting, Ap. 

1, 18, 32. Ga. xxii, 34. Va. 1, 

18; xxi, 27. 
Sacred learning, goddess of, Va. 11, 

Sacrificer and his wife, Ba. 1, 13, 5 ; 

Sacrifices, great daily, Ap. 1, 12, 15. 

Ga. v, 3-5. Ba. 11, 1 1, 1-8. 

— jrauta, Ap. 11, 10, 1 ; Ga. v, 21 ; 

vm, 19-20 ; ix, 54 ; xvm, 24- 
27. Va. xi, 45-48. Ba. 1, 13- 

15 ! II, 4, 23- 
Sacrificial fee (present), Ap. 11, 9, 9. 

Ga. xxv, 6. Va. xv, 16. Ba. i, 

20, 4; 111,4, 3 5 7,14; 8,13. 
Sacrificial thread (string), Ap. I, 31, 

8; 11, 4, 22. Ga. I, 36. Va. 

xii, 14. Ba. 1, 5, 5; 8,5-10. 
Sages. See R/shis. 
Sagotra relation, Ap. II, n, 15 ; 27, 

2. Ga. xvm, 6. Va. vm, 1. 

— inherits, Ga. xxviii, 21. 

— penance for marrying, Ba. II, 1, 

Sakulya relation, Ba. I, 11, 10, 12. 
Sale of children, forbidden, Ap. 11, 

13, 11-12. 

— permitted, Va. xv, 2. Ba. Par. 

vii, 4, 2. See Daughter, Son 
Saluting, Ap. 1, 5, 12-23 ; 14, 7-30. 
Ga. 11, 30-34; v, 41-42; vi. 
Va. xiii, 41-46. Ba. 1, 3, 25-33, 

44-45 ; 11, 6, 38. 
Samanapravara relation, Ga. IV, 2 ; 

xvm, 1. Va. vm, 1. 
Samans, vol. ii, p. xlvii; vol. xiv, 

pp. xvii, xxxix. Ap. 1, 10, 17-18, 

Ga. xvi, 21. Va. xiii, 30. Ba. 

1, 21, 5. 

Digitized by 




Sama-veda, vol. ii, pp. xlvi-xlix ; vol. 

xiv, pp. xvii, xxxix. Va. m, 19. 

Ba.11, 10,14; iv, 3, 3; 5, f, 
Samavidhana, vol. ii, p. xlvii. 
Samprakshalanf mode of life, Ba. in, 

1,7; a, 11. 

Samskaras. See Sacraments. 
Samtapana penance, Ba. iv, 5, 13. 
Samfiha mode of life, Ba. in, 1, 7 ; 

a, 12. 
Sandhya worship, Ap. I, 30, 8. Ga. 

11,10-11. Ba. U, 7. 
SapiWa relation, Ap. 11, 11, 16; 15, 

a, 11. Ga. xiv, 1, ao, 34,44 5 

xv, 13; xvin, 6. Va.iv,i6,33; 

vin, a. Ba. 1, 11, 1. 

— definition of, Ga. xiv, 13. Va. IV, 

17-19. Ba. 1, 11, a, 9. 

— inherits, Ap. 11, 14, 3. Ga. xxvm, 

a 1. Va. xvii, 81. Ba. 1, 11, 11. 
Saras vati river, Va. I, 8, 15. Ba. I, 


Sarvapr/sh/M sacrifice, Ba. I, 2, 14. 
SatyashaWAa. See Hiranyakerin. 
Satyasha^Ains, vol. ii, p. xvi. 
Sautrimant sacrifice, Ga. vin, 30. 
Sauvira country, Ba. 1, 2, 13-14. 
Savarna caste, Ga. iv, 16. Ba. 1, 

Savitri verse, Ap. 1, i, 9, 23 ; 36, 14 ; 

37, 1. Ga. 1, ia, 55 ; xix, is ; 

xx, 8; 31, 11; 33,31; 34,11. 

Va.n, 3; xi, 74, 76; xxi, 6-8; 

xxii, 9 ; xxni, 30, 35 ; xxv, 9, 

12-13; xxvn, 18. Ba. 1, 16,16; 

n, 7, 5-7 ; 17, 14, 41 ; iv, 1, 27- 

28, &c. 
Saya»a. See Midhava. 
Sea, going to, Ba. I, 2, 4 ; II, 2, 2. 
Self-defence, Ga. vn, 25. Va. in, 

15-18,24. Ba. 1, 18, 13-13. 
Shanni variant mode of life, Ba. in, 1, 

7 5 3, 1-4. 
Sho<£mn sacrifice, Ga. vin, 19. 
Siddho#£M mode of life, Ba. in, 1, 7 ; 

2, 16-17. 
Simantonnayana rite, Ga. vin, 14. 
Simhavarman 1 1 , king, vol. ii, p. xxxiii. 
Sindh country, Ba. 1, 2, 13. 
Sinful men (enasvinaA), Ap. n, 13, 

33. Ga. 1, 18. 
Singing, Ap. n, 35,13. 
Sipping water, Ap. 1, 4, 20-21 ; 15, 

1-16,14. Ga. 1, 28, 36 ; ix, 10- 

11. Va. in, 26-40, 42. Ba. 1, 

7> 3 5 8,12-23, 2 <5, 29- 

Sleeping, rules regarding, Ap. 1, 4, 
23,28; 32,11,15-16. Ga. ix, 

— at sunrise or sunset, Ap. 11, 12, 

13-14. Ga. xxni, 21. Va. 1, 

18; xx, 4-5. 
Smrrti (tradition), Ap. H, 4, 24 ; 15, 

26. Ga. 1, 2. Va. 1,4. Ba. 1,1,3. 
Snitaka (he who has completed his 

studentship), Ap. n, 8, 6 ; 27, 20. 

Ga. vi, 24 ; xv, 28. Va. xi, 2. 

Ba. 11, 14, 2. 

— definition of term, Ap. I, 30, 1-5. 

— duties, Ap. I, 30, 6-32, 29. Ga. 

ix. Va. xn. Ba. 1, 5 ; n, 5, 

10-6, 42. 
Soma-sacritice, Ap. I, 24, 6, 24 ; 27, 

a. Ga. vin, 30. Va. vin, 10; 

XI, 46. Ba. 1, 13,7, 9, 3i. 
Son, adopted, Ga. xxvm, 32. Va. 

xv, 6-10 ; xvn, 28-29. Ba. 11, 

3, 20, 31. Ba. Par. vn, 4, 16. 

— begot on widow or wife, Ap. n, 

13, 6-7. Ga. xvin, 8-14; 
xxvm, 23, 33. Va. xvn, 6-10, 
14, 63-64. Ba. 11, 3, 18-19, 31, 


— born after partition, Ga. xxvm, 


— born secretly, Ga. xxvm, 32. 

Va. xvn, 24. Ba. 11, 3, 22, 31. 

— bought, Ga. xxvm, 33. Va. xvn, 

31-32. Ba. 11, 3, 28, 32. 

— cast off, Ga. xxvm, 32. Va. 

xvn, 36-37. Ba. 11, 3,23, 31. 

— effecting partition against father's 

will, Ga. xv, 19. 

— eldest (share), Ap. 13,13; 14, 5-6, 

10, 12-13. Ga. xxvm, 3, 5-9. 
Va. xvn, 42-43. Ba. 11, 3, 4, 6, 

9, 13. 

— legitimate, Ap. 11, 13, 1-12. Ga, 

xxviii, 32, 34. Va. xvn, 13. 
Ba. 11, 3,11,14-15, 31, 33. 

— made, Ga. xxvm, 32. Ba. n, 3, 

21, 31. 

— middlemost (share), Ga. xxvm, 

6. Va. xvn, 44. 

— not liable for father's debt, Va. 

xvi, 31. 

— of appointed daughter, Ga. xx vin, 

33. Va. xvn, 17. Ba. 11, 3, 
15-16, 31. 

— of pregnant bride, Ga. xxvm, 33. 

Va. xvn, 27. Ba. n, 3, 25, 32. 

— of remarried woman, Ga. xxv,i8; 

Digitized by 




xxviii, 33. Va. xvii, 18-30. 
Ba. 11, 3, 27, 33. 
Son of Sfidii wife, Ga. xxviii, 39, 45. 
Va. xvii, 38. Ba. 11, 3, 38, 33. 

— of unmarried daughter, Ga. 

xxviii, 33. Va. xvii, 32-23. 
Ba. 11, 3, 24, 33. 

— only son not to be adopted, Va. 

xv, 3-4. Ba. Par. vn, 4, 4-5. 

— self-given, Ga. xxviii, 33. Va. 

xvii, 33-35. Ba. 11, 3, 28, 32. 

— youngest (share), Ga. xxviii, 7. 

Va. xvii, 44. 
Sons by several wives of equal caste 
(snares), Ga. xxviii, 14-17. 

— by wives of different castes 

(shares), Ga. xxviii, 35-38. 
Va. xvii, 47-50. Ba. 11, 3, 10, 


— by wives of higher caste, Ga. 

xxviii, 45. 

— inherit equally, Ap. II, 13, 8 ; 14, 

1; 11, 14. Ba. 11, 3, 3. 

— merit and duty of begetting, Ap. 

11, 34, 1-4. Va. xvii, 1-5. Ba. 
11, 11, 33-345 16,3-14. 

— not to take property of outcast 

parents, Ga. xxi, 16. 
Soul, knowledge of, Ap. 1, 22-33. 

Va. x, 13; xxx. 
Spiritual guide (teacher), Ap. 11, 18, 

13-13. Va. xx, 3. 
Spring-festival, Ap. I, 1 1, 20. 
Staff of student, Ap. 1, 2, 38. Ga. 1, 

22. Va.xi,52-57. Ba.i, 3, 15. 
Sthalipaka, Ap. ir, 1, 10; 29, 17. Ba. 

1, 5, 6. 
Student, Ap. 11, 6, r-2, 12-13; 21, 

1, 5 ; 36, 13. Ga. in, 1 ; x, 12 ; 

xiv, 1. Va. vn, 3 ; xi, 5. Ba. 


— duties of, Ap. I, 2, 11-7, 19; 13, 

9-20; 14, 3-55 ii,9, «3- Ga. 
I, 46-54 ; 11, 7-5 1 . Va. VI, 1 9- 
21; vn, 7-17. Ba. 1, 2-4; 11, 

13, 7-9. 

— penances for, Ap. 1, 26, 8-27, 2. 

Ga. 1, 58-61; xxiii, 16-20; 
xxv, 1-6. Va. xxiii, 1-4, 7-9; 
11-13. Ba. 11, 1,25-355111,4; 
iv, 2, 10-11. 

— professed, Ap. 11, 21,6-7. Ga. ill, 

4-9. Va. vn, 4-6. Ba.11, 11, 13. 

— returned home, Ap. 1, 7, 20-8, 3 1 ; 

13,5; i4,7-3«>; 18,9-12. Ba. 

Suicide, Ap. I, 28, 17. Ga. Xiv, 12. 

Va. xxiii, 14-21. 
Surashft-a country, Ba. I, 2, 13. 
Surety, Ga. xii, 41. Va. xv, 31. 
Sflta caste, Ga. iv, 17, 18. Va. 

xviii, 6. Ba. 1, 17, 1, 8. 

■Saliki, vol. xiv, p. xl. 

iSalina (householder), Ba. II, 12, 1; 

17, 3 ! "I, 1, 1-3. 
Sankhayana, vol. ii, p. xiii. 
£atapatha-brahma»a,vol. ii, p.xxxix ; 

vol. xiv, pp. xvii, xxxix. 
Safyayanins, vol. ii, p. xv. 
Saunaka, Ba. 11, 10, 14. 
SilonibS. mode of life, Ba. ill, 1, 16 ; 

Siras, text, Va. xxi, 6-8; xxv, 13. 

Ba. iv, 1, 28. 

— vows, vol. xiv, p. xvii. Va. xxvi, 

12. Ba. 11, 14, 2. 
Sishfas, Va. 1, 5-6 ; vi, 42-43. Ba. 1, 

1, 4-6 ; 2, 8; 11, 2, 22 ; in, 2, 26. 
Situ Angirasa, Ba. 1, 3, 47. 
5ijukr«bt£ra penance, Va. xxm, 42- 

43. Ba.iv, 5, 7. 
Sraddha (sacrifice to the Manes), 

Ap. 1, 10, 26, 28 ; 11, 16, 1-2. 

Ga.vm, 18; xv; xvi, 34. Va. 

xiii, 15-16. Ba. 11, 14-15. 

— daily, Ap. 1, 13, 1 ; 11, 4, 5-6 ; 18, 

4-16. Va. XI, 5. Ba. 11, 11, 


— materials for, Ap. 11, 16, 23-17, 3; 

18, 1-3. Ga. xv, 6, 15. 

— monthly, Ap. 11, 18, 17; 19, 19- 

21 ; 20, 1-2. 

— persons to be fed, Ap. 11, 17,4-23. 

Ga. xv, 5,7-n, 16-30. Va. xi, 
17-20, 27-29. Ba. n, 14, 2-6, 

— special rites, Ap. n, 18, 19-19, 17, 

22 ; 20, 3-20. 

— time for, Ap. 11, 16, 4-22 ; 17, 23- 

25. Ga. xv, 3-5. Va. xi, 16, 

36, 43-44- 
Sramanaka, rule or sfitra,Ga. in, 27. 

Va. xi, 10. Ba. 11, 11, 15. 
Srivant rite, Ga. vm, 18. 
Srotriya (a learned Brahrnana), Ap. 

1, 3,34; 10, "-13; 14,13,30; 

19,33; 24,24511,7,17; 14,13; 

17, 22 ; 26, 10. Ga. v, 20, 30- 

32; vi, 17, 25; x, 9; xii, 38; 

xiv,28; xv,9; xxu,3o; xxviii, 

50-52. Va.m,8, i9;v,9;xi, 

Digitized by 


35 2 


5, 17; XVI, 18, 30; XIX, 23, 
37. Ba. I, 19, 13; 21,4; n, s, 

Srotriya, definition of, Ap. 11, 6, 4. 

— inherits Brahman property, Ga. 

XXVIII, 41. 
Sddra caste : — 

— duties and position, Ap. 1,1, 3- 

7; 3, 4i» 5»i6; 9, 9-n 5 "4, 
29; 17, 1; 26, 9; 11, 3, 4-9; 
4, 19-20; 6, 9-10; 11, 26, 15. 
Ga. v, 42; vi, 10-11; x, 42, 
50-65; xii, 13; xiii, 13; XIV, 
5; xvi, 19; xviii, 24. Va. 11, 

I, 20 ; m, 34 ; iv, 24 ; XI, 10 ; 
xvi, 30; xviii, 12-14; XXVII, 
16. Ba. 1, 8, 22-23; iO) 2o ; 
16, 1, 5; 18, 5-6; 20, 13-15; 
21,15; »» 5,m; in, 8,18. 

— knowledge of, Ap. 11, 29, 11. 

— murder of, Ap. 1, 24, 3. Ga. 

xxii, 16. Va. x, 33, 40. Ba. 
1, 18, 5; 11, 1, 10. 

— penances and punishments for, 

Ap. I, 26, 4 ; 11, 37, 9-16. Ga. 
xii, 1-7, 12, 15. Va. xxi, 1, 5. 
Ba. 1,19, 3; 11, 3, 52. 

— food and gilts of, Ap. 1, 7, 20-2 1 ; 

16, 22; 18, 13-15; 21, 17; 11, 
18, 2. Ga. ix, 11; xvii, 5; 
xx, 1. Va. iv, 26-29; xiv, 4. 
Ba. 11, 3,1; ni,6,5; iv, 1, 5- 

— connexion or marriage of Aryans 

with, females, Ap. 1, 19, 33 ; 11, 

17, 21; 27,8. Ga. xv, 18, 22; 
xxv, 7. Va. 1, 25; xiv, 11; 
xviii, 17-18. Ba. 11, 1,7-8, 11; 

6, 32; IV, 1, 5; 2,13; 6,6. 

. — connexion or marriage of Aryan 
women with, Ap. 1, 21, 13 ; 26, 

7, Va. xxi, 12. 

— sacrificing for, teaching and serv- 

ing, Ga. xx, 1. Va. in, 3 ; xv, 

II. Ba. 11, 1, 6. See Son of 
.SGdra wife. 

Suna&repa, Va. xvii, 31, 34-35. 
Svapaka caste, Va. xxvn, 13. Ba. 1, 

16,9; 17, 11; iv, 5, 13. 
Svetaketu, vol. ii, pp. xxvi, xxxvii- 

xxxix. Ap. I, 5, 6 ; 13, 18. 

Taittirtya-iranyaka, vol. ii, pp. xxv, 
xlviii, lvi ; vol . xiv, pp. xvii, xxxix. 

— brahmana, vol. ii, p. xxv. 

— sawhita, vol. xiv, p. xxxix. 

— veda, vol. ii, p. xxxii. 

Taptakr/iMra penance, Va. xxi, 18 ; 
XXIII, 16. 

— description of, Va. xxi, 20. Ba. 

11, 2, 37 ; iv, 5, 10. 

Tarpaaa, Ga. iv, 5. Ba. n, 9-10. 

Taxes, Ap. n, 26, 9-17. Ga. x, 
24-35. Va. 1, 42-44 ; xix, 15, 
23-24, 26-28, 37. Ba. 1, 18, 1, 

Teacher, Ap. 1, 1, 14-17; 2, 11-7, 31; 

10, 4 5 13, 9-2°; 14, 6; 11, 5, 
2-1 x; 8,6; 37,20. Ga. I, 45- 
61; 11, 18, 21-29, 37-40, 5°; 
111,5-6; v, 27; vi, 3; xi, 31- 
32; xiv, 28. Va. vii, 4-6, 10, 
12-14; xm » 39, 48, 5°- Ba. 1, 
3, 21-22, 25-32, 35-38; 4, 1-2; 

11, 28. 

— definition of term, Ap. 1, 1, 10-1 3. 

Ga.i, 9-10. Va.11, 3-5; hi, 21. 

— duties of, Ap. I, 8, 24-31 ; 32, 

1-15; 11,5, 16-6, 2. Ga. 11, 
42-44; xv, 14; xvi, 3-4. 

— inherits, Ap. n, 14, 3. Va. xvn, 

82. Ba. 1, 11, 13. 

— non-Brahmanical, Ap. 11, 4, 25- 

27. Ga. vii, 1-3. Ba. 1, 3, 


— penance for, Va. xxm, 10. Ba. 

11, 1, 23-24. 
Teacher's fee, Ap. 1, 7, 19-22 ; 11, 
10, 1. Ga. 11, 48. 

— son, Ap. 1, 7, 30, 9 J ". 18, 31-32 ; 

III, 7; xiv, 28. Va. xiii, 40. 
Ba. 1, 3, 36, 44; 11,28. 

— teacher, Ap. 1, 8, 19-21. Va. 

xiii, 54. 

— wives, Ap. 1, 7, 27. Ga. n, 18, 

31-34; xiv, 28. Va. xiii, 40, 
42. Ba. 1, 3, 33-34- 
Theft, definition of, Ap. 1, 28, 1-5. 
Ga. xii, 49-50. 

— penances for, Ap. 1, 25, 4-8, 10. 

Ga. xxiv, 10-12. Va. xx, 41- 
42 ; xxvi, 6. Ba. n, 1, 16-17 ; 
2, 3, 10. 

— punishments for, Ap. 11, 27, 16- 

17528,10-12. Ga. xu, 15-18, 
43-45. Va.x1x.38. Ba.1,18,18. 

Times of distress, Ap. I, 30, 10-21, 
4! 11, 4, »5-27. Ga. vii; ix, 
37. Va. II, 22-39. Ba- 1, 3, 
41-44; 4, 16-21. 

Tirthas, Va. Ill, 26, 64-68. Ba. I, 
8, 14-16. 

Tolls, Va. xix, 25. 

Digitized by 




Toyahara hermits, Ba. in, 3, 9, 

Trade, Ap. i, 20, 10-21, 4. Ga. vn, 
8-21; x, 5, 4, 49. Va. 11, 19, 
24-39. Ba. 1, 2, 4 ; 18, 14-15 ; 
11, 2, 4, 26-29. 

Treasure-trove, Ga. x, 43-45. Va. 
ill, 13-14- 

Trimadhu, ) Ap. 11, 17, 22. Ga. 

Tri»a*iketa, > xv, 28. Va. Ill, 19. 

Trisupar«a, ) Ba. 11, 14, 2. 

TulSpurusha penance, Ba. iv, 5, 22. 

Twilight devotions. See SandhyS 

Uddalaka penance, Va. XI, 76-77. 
Ugra caste, Ap. 1, 7, 20-21; 18, 1. 

Ga. iv, 16. Va. xvin, 8. Ba. 

1,16,7,10; 17,1,5,9,11. 
Ukthya sacrifice, Ap. 11, 7, 4. Ga. 

vin, 20. 
Unmaggaka. hermits, Ba. in, 3, 9-10. 
Unnatural crime, Ap. 1, 26, 7. Ga. 

xxv, 7. Va. xii, 22. Ba. iv, 1, 

19; 2,13. 
UpadhySya (sub-teacher), Ap. I, 9, 

1-2 ; 10, 2. Ga. xvi, 1, 40, 44. 

Va. xm, 1-4. Ba. 1, 12, 16; 

21, 12 (note). 
Upanishad, Ap. n, 5, 1. Ga. xix, 

12. Va. xxii, 9. Ba. Hi 18, 

15; in, 10, 10. 
Upapataka crimes, Ga. xx, 17 ; xxi, 

11; xxii, 34. Va. 1, 23. Ba. 

11, 2, 12-14; iv, 1, 7-8. 
Upavn't country, Ba. 1, 2, 13. 
Utanas, vol. ii, p. xlvi ; vol. xiv, p. xli. 

Ba. 11, 4, 26. 
Usurer, usury, Ap. 1, 18, 22 ; 27, 10 ; 

n, 10, 7. Ga. x, 6, 49 ; xv, 18. 

Va. n, 40-43; xiv, 3. Ba. I, 

10, 21-25. 
Utathya, vol. ii, p. xlvii. 

Va£asaneyaka, vol. ii, p. xxv. Ap. I, 
17, 31. Va. xii, 31 ; xiv, 46. 

Va^-asaneyi-brahmawa, vol. ii, p. xxv; 
vol. xiv, p. xxxix. Ap. 1, 12, 3. 

— jakha, Va. vm, 19 ; xxm, 13. 

Vaidehaka caste, Ga. iv, 17, 20. Ba. 
1, 16, 8; 17, 1, 10, 12. 

Vaikhanasa. See Hermit. 

Vaiwa caste, Ap. n, 2, 6. Va. xvin, 

2. Ba. 1, 16, 8, 10; 17, 1, 12. 
Vauvadeva sacrifice, Ap. 1, 1 3, 1 ; 11, 

3, 1-16; 4, 13; 9,5. Ga. v, 3, 


9-10. Va.xi,3. Ba. II, 3,5,11; 
6, 11, 1-2. 

Vauvanafa offering, Va. xxii, 10. 
Ba. 1, 2, 15, 17. 

Vaijya caste, duties, occupations, 
and position, Ap. 1, 1, 3-5, 
18, 21; 2, 36-38, 4°; 3, 2, 6, 
29; 5, 16; 14, 23, 28; 11,4, 

18, 25-27; 10, 7. Ga. 1, 11, 
14-17, 21, 23-24, 26; x, 1, 42, 
49 ? xiv, 3, 24. Va. 1, 24 ; 11, 

18-19, 22 i HI) *4) »8; XI, 51, 
54> 57, 60, 63, 66-67, 70, 73. 
Ba. 1, 3, 9, 11, 15, 17; 10, 21; 
16,4; 18,4; 20, 13-14; ", 4, 

— murder of, Ap. 1, 24, 2. Ga. xxii, 

15. Va. xx, 32, 34, 39. Ba. 1, 

19, 2 ; 11, 1, 9. 

— punishments for, Ga. xii, 10, 14, 

16. Va. xxi, 2, 4. 
VaOTja-brahmana, vol. ii, p. xlvi. 
Vanga country, Ba. 1, 2, 14. 
VSrshyayam, vol. ii, p. xxvi. Ap. I, 

19,5,8; 28,1. 
VasishA&a, Va. n, 51 ; xxiv, 5 ; xxx, 

VasisluAa DharmatSstra, vol. xiv, 

pp. xi-xxviii. 
Vasso of Buddhists, vol. ii, p. Iv, 

p. 191. 
Vayubhaksha hermits, Ba. ill, 1, 9, 

A 14- 
Vayu-pura»a, vol. ii, p. xxix. 
Veda, authority of, Ap. I, 1, 2, 13, 

21 ; 11, 23, 9. Ga. 1, 1 ; vi, 23. 

Va. 1, 4. Ba. 1, 1, 1. 

— definition of, Ap. n, 8, 13. 

— divulging or selling, Ga. xx, 1. 

Ba. 1, 11, 36. 

— neglect of, Ap. 1, 2 1 , .8. Ga. XXI, 

11; xxii, 34. Va. I, 18; xx, 
12. Ba. I, 10, 26. 

— purifying power of, Ga. xix, 1 1- 

12. Va. xxii, 8-9 ; xxvii, 1-9. 
Ba. in, 10, 9-10. 

— recitation of. See Veda-study. 
VedSnta, vol. ii, p. xxvii. Ga. xix, 

1 2 ; Va. xxn, 9. Ba. in, 10, 10. 
Veda-study, duty of, Ap. 11, 10, 4; 
21,4. Ga. x, 1. Va. 11, 14, 16, 
18 ; in, 1-12 ; xi, 48. Ba. 1, 1, 
10-14; 10,26-30; 11,18,24-25. 

— duration of annual term, Ap. I, 9, 

1-3. Ga. xvi, 1-2. Va. xm, 
1, 5-7. Ba. 1, 12, 16. 

A a 

Digitized by 




Veda-study, interruptions of, Ap. i, 
9,11,11-38. Ga. i, 58-61; xvi, 
5-49., 8-40; i viii, 12- 
13 ; xxiii, 36. Ba. 1, 21, 4-22. 

— private daily, Ap. 1, 1 1, 22-12,16; 
'J. 1; i5» 1; 18, 33; 11,5, 3; 
ai, 10; 22,19. Ga.v,4, 9;ix, 
26. Ba. 11, 11, 1, 6-8. 

Vedotsarga, Ap. I, 10, 2. Ga. xvi, 

Vi^ine/vara, vol. ii, p. xliii; vol. xiv, 
p. xxv. 

Vindbya mountains, Va. I, 9. 

Vinra.g-it sacrifice, Ga. v, 20. Ba. 11, 

Vows for the Veda, Ap. 1, 1 3, 9. Ga. 

vm, 15. 
Vratapatt-ishri, Va. xxn, 10. Ba. 1, 

2, 17. 
Vratya, vol. ii, p. xxv. Ba. 1, 16, 16 ; 

17, 15- 
Vratyastoma, Ga. xix, 8. 

79- ■ 
Voshaparvan, Ba. 11, 4, 26. 
VyShr/tis, vol. ii, p. xlviii. 

3. Ga. 1, 51; xxv, 8. 

6; xxm, 23, 46, &c. 

6; 11, 7, 2; 11, 6,&c. 

Va. XI, 

Ap. 1, 2, 
Va. xv, 
Ba. 1, 6, 

Wages, lost, Va. xvi, 16. 
Waterpot, duty of carrying, Ba. I, 

5, 4 5 6 ; 7. 
Way, right of, Ap. 11, 11, 5-9. Ga. 

vi, 23-25. Va. xm, 58-60. 

Ba. 11, 6, 30. 
Weights. See Measures. 
Widow, Ga. xviii, 4-14; xxxvm, 

22. Va. xvii, 55-56. Ba. 11, 

4, 7-10. See Niyoga, Son 

begotten on. 
Wife, duties and position of, Ap. 11, 

1, 1; 14, 16-18 j 27, 2-7; 29, 

3-4. Ga. xviii, 1-3. 

— duty of guarding, Ap. 11, 1 3, 7. 

Ba. 11, 3, 34-35 ; 4, 2. 

— of emigrant, Ga. xviii, 15-17. 

Va. xvii, 75-80. 

— inherits, Ap. 11, 14, 9. Ga. xxvm, 


Wife, qualifications required, Ap. 11, 
13, 1-9 ; iv, 1-5. Va. vm, 1-2. 

— repudiation and supersession, Ap. 

1, 28, 19; 11, 11, 12-14. Va. 
xm, 49 ; xxi, 9-10. Ba. 11, 4, 
6; iv, 1, 20. 
Wives, all mothers through one son, 
Va. xvii, 11. 

— of several castes, Ga. iv, 16. Va. 

I, 24-25. Ba. 1, 16, 2-5. See 
Adultery,Connubial intercourse, 
Husband, Marriage, Sfidracaste. 

Witnesses, Ap. 11, 11, 3; 29, 7-10. 

Ga. xm, 1-25. Va. xvi, 10, 13- 
, 14, 27-36. Ba. 1, 19, 7-16. 
Woman, duties and position, Ap. 1, 

14,21,23,30; 11,11,7; 15, 10, 

18; 26, n; 29, 11, 15. Ga. 

xviii, 1-3. Va. in, 34; v, 1-2; 

xxvm, 1-9. Ba. 1, 8, 22-23; 

II, 3, 44-47 5 4, 4-5- 

• — menstruating, Ap. I, 9, 13. Ga. 
xiv, 30; xxm, 34; XXIV, 4-5. 
Va. iv, 37 ; v, 5-9 ; xxvm, 1-6. 

Ba. 1,1 1, 34-35; 19, 5! II, 1, « 2- 

— murder of, Ap. 1, 25, 5, 9. Ga. 

xxn, 12, 17, 26-27. Ba. I, 11, 

34-35! 19, 3, 5; », 1, 11. 

— property of, Va. xvi, 16. Ga. 

xxvm, 24. 

— remarried, Va. xvii, 19-20. See 

Son of remarried woman. 

Y%»avalkya, vol. ii, p. xxxviii. Ba. 

11, 9, 14. 
Ya,pur-veda, Ga. xvi, 21. Va. xm, 

30. Ba.n, 10, 14; iv, 3, 3; 5,1. 

— Black, vol. ii, pp. xi, xvi, xxxi. 

— White, vol. ii, p. xxxii. 

Yama, Va. xi, 20 ; xiv, 30 ; xix, 48 ; 

xx, 2. 
Yamuna river, Va. 1, 12.- Ba. I, 2, 

Yavana caste, vol. ii, p. lvi. Ga. iv, 

Yayavaras, Ba. 11, 12, 1 ; 17, 3 ; m, 1, 

1,4, 16; iv, 5, 27. 
Yoga, Ap. 1, 23, 6. Va. xxv, 5-8. 

Ba. iv, 1, 23-25. 

Digitized by 



Vol. II. 

Page xxxii, note i. Maitrayamyas still exist in Gugarit, see Report 
on Sanskrit MSS. for 1879-80; Schroder, Maitrayanl Sa*»hiti, 
pp. xxii-xxiii. 

P. xxxii, 1. 1. Rao Saheb V. N. Manrflik, Vyavahara Mayfikha and 
Ya^avalkya, p. 300, has challenged the accuracy of my statement 
regarding the prevalence of the Apastamba Sakha in Bombay. He, 
however, admits that some Desasthas and DravUas actually follow 
the Sakha. His dissent really refers to the Konkanasthas, the division 
to which he himself belongs. Among the latter those who originally 
were Apastambiyas have partly gone over to the Hairanyakcras. But 
in the old list of the Konkanastha families (see Elph. Coll. collection 
of 1867-68, CI. xii, no. 5) which I procured from Mr. Limaye of 
Ash/e, the families which really are Apastambiyas are carefully enu- 
merated. Both in Pu»a and Bombay I have met with a number of 
Brahmans, who called themselves sometimes Dejasthas and some- 
times Konkanasthas, and were able and willing to recite portions of 
the Apastamba Sfitras for a small consideration. 

P. xxx vii, note 1. The date of the Kajika vritti has been shown by Pro- 
fessor Max Miiller to be about 650 A. d. 

P. xlix, 1. 10, for Baudhayana 1, 1, 21, read Baudhayana I, 1, 2-6. 

P. xlix, 1. 28, for Baudhayana 1, 1, 17-24, read Baudhayana 1, 1, 2, 1-8. 

P. li, note 1, 1. 5 seqq., for Baudhayana III, 5, read Baudhayana III, 10. 

P. 78, 1. 32 (Ap. I, 9, 23, 28, note), for Baudhayana, Pr. I, Adhy. 10, read 
Baudhayana I, 10, 19, 1. 

P. 90, 1. 33 (Ap. 1, 10, 29, 9, note),/or Baudhayana Pr. I, Adhy. 12, read 
Baudhayana 11, 1, 2, 18. 

P. 176, 1. 20 (Ga. I, 28, note), ran/Vasish/Aa ill, 43. 

P. 206, 1. 33 (Ga. VI, 5, note), for Manu III, 123, read Manu 11, 123. 

P. 210, 1. 18 (Ga. vn, 17), for others read for another. 

P. 222, 1. 13 (Ga. IX, 61), ran/ Nor shall he bathe, &c. 

P. 254, 1. 9 (Ga. xv, 17), read Whosoever lives, &c. 

P. 291, 1. 2-1, for Defiled by, &c, read Oh lust, I have been incontinent, 
incontinent, &c. ; oh lust, I have committed evil, I have committed 
evil, oh lust, &c. 

Vol. XIV. 
P. 24, 1. 25 (Va. in, 56, note),/or Baudhayana I, 5, 52, read Baudhayana 

P. 50, 1. 9 (Va. XI, 7). GovindasvSmin on Baudhayana 11, 7, 13, 3 gives 

A a 2 

Digitized by 



for praditaA the reading prag-ataA, '(newly)-confined women,' which 
seems to be the correct one. Owing to the peculiar Indian pro- 
nunciation of ga as ad mouilll, da sometimes occurs by mistake 
for ga in Sanskrit MSS. In Prakrit words da is also sometimes the 
representative of ga. 

P. 99, 1. 3 (Va.xix, 23), for pradata\6 read pra^tSA, '(newly)-confined 

P. 102, I. 12 (Va. xix, 48), read for a sacrificial session. 

P. in, 1. 27 (Va. xxi, 6, note). The Siras text occurs Taitt. Ar. x, 35. 

P. 122, 1. 19 (Va. xxiii, 39), dele which does not cause loss of caste. 

P. 127, 1. 31 (Va. xxvi, 8), for Manu LI, 251, read Manu xi, 251. 

P. 206, 1. 19 (Ba. 1, 11, 20, 12), for the sixth read the fifth. 

P. 207, 1. 1 (Ba. 1, 11, 20, 11), for the fifth read the sixth. 

P. 223, 1. 33 (Ba. 11, 1, 2, 41, note), add at end: But the word refers to 
the numeration of the Kriiibrz penances, given Gautama xxvi, 20, 
and its occurrence shows that Baudhayana simply copied Gautama. 

P. 267-268 (Ba. II, 8, 14, 7, note), dele note and substitute: 'The Agni- 
mukha is a term denoting the last of the offerings which precede the 
Pradhanahoma. See Baudhayana Gnhya-sfkra I, 4, end, and 5.' 

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Return to desk from which borrowed. 
This book is DUE on the last date stamped below. 



* 18 ' 

APR 1 8 1958 , 

fA&M f % Jk-\ 


[MAY 141358 


Ml8 361 






V— i* 

VC 54595 

"5b- **-