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Full text of "Sacred Books East Various Oriental Scholars with Index. 50 vols Max Muller Oxford 1879.1910."

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at jhttp : //books . qooqle . com/ 



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THE 



SACRED BOOKS OF THE EAST 




[15] 



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Uontoon 

HENRY FROWDE 




OXFORD TTNIVEBSITY PHESS WABEHOTTSE 
AMEN CORNER 



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THE 



Aft/fa 
SACRED BOOKS OF THE EAST 



TRANSLATED 



BY VARIOUS ORIENTAL SCHOLARS 

•/jr. 



AND EDITED BY 



F. MAX MULLER 



vol. xv 




0rforH 

AT THE CLARENDON PRESS 
1884 

[All rights reserved] 

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^o /rJ' 



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THE UPANISHADS 



TRANSLATED BY 



F. MAX MOLLER 



PART II 

the k;at»a-upanishad 

the muiv-daka-upanishad 

the taittirlyaka-upanishad 

THE B-ff/HADiRAiVYAKA-UPANISHAD 

THE .SVETASVATARA-UPANISHAD 

THE PRASitfA-UPANISHAD 

THE MAITRAYAiVA-BRAHMAiVA-UPANISHAD 



[ INJVKKSITY 7) 

0rforfc 

AT THE CLARENDON PRESS 

1884 

[All rights reserved'] 



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CONTENTS. 



Introduction . 


ix If 


Ka/Aa-upanisbad 


xxi +- 


Muwtfaka-upanishad 


. xxvi 


Taittirlyaka-upanishad 


. xxvii S 


Brzhadara»yaka-upanishad ..... 


xxx -V 


.Svetiuvatara-upanishad 


. xxxi 


Prama-upanishad 


xlii «^* 


Maitr&ya«a-brahma«a-upanishad 


. xliii ^~ 


Translation of the Katoa-upanishad . 


. ifc/ 


Translation of the Miwzjaka-upanishad 


• 3 7 / 


Translation of the TaittirJyaka-upanishad . 


• 45 


Translation of the Bie/HAD^RAiVYAKA-uPANisHAD 


• 73 u- 


Translation of the .SvetA^vatara-upanishad . 


. 231 


Translation of the Pra^a-upanishad . 


. 271 v 


Translation of the MAiTRAYA^A-BRAHMAiVA-uPANiSHj 


iD . 287 



Transliteration of Oriental Alphabets adopted for the Trans- 
lations of the Sacred Books of the East . . .347 



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INTRODUCTION. 




This second volume completes the translation of the 
principal Upanishads to which .Sankara appeals in his 
great commentary on the Vedanta-Sutras 1 , viz. : 

i. .Oandogya-upanishad, 
_ 2. Talavakara or Kena-upanishad, 

3. Aitareya-upanishad, 

4. Kaushitaki-upanishad, 

_ 5- Va^asaneyi or fja-upanishad, 

6. Ka^a-upanishad r -*' ""y- 
— 7. MuWaka-upanishacV 

8. Taittirtyaka-upanishacV 

9. Br*had4ra«yaka-upanishad, ^ 

10. .Svetlrvatara-upanishad, 

11. Prajwa-upanishad. 

These eleven have sometimes 2 been called the old and 
genuine Upanishads, though I should be satisfied to call 
them the eleven classical Upanishads, or the fundamental 
Upanishads of the Vedanta philosophy. 

Vidy&rawya 3 , in his ' Elucidation of the meaning of all 
the Upanishads,' Sarvopanishadarthanubhuti-praklya, con- 
fines himself likewise to those treatises, dropping, however, 
the 1st, and adding the Maitrayawa-upanishad, of which 
I have given a translation in this volume, and the NW- 
siwhottara-tapaniya-upanishad, the translation of which 
had to be reserved for the next volume. 



1 See Deussen.Vedinta, Einleitung, p. 38. 6'ankara occasionally refers also 
to the Paingi, Agnirahasya, Gabala, and N&rayanfya Upanishads. 

* Deossen, loc. cit. p. 8a. 

5 I state this on the authority of Professor Cowell. See also Fitzedward 
Hall, Index to the Bibliography of the Indian Philosophical Systems, pp. 116 
and 236. 



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UPANISHADS. 



It is more difficult to determine which of the Upanishads 
were chosen by 5arikara or deserving the honour of a special 
commentary. We possess his commentaries on the eleven 
Upanishads mentioned before 1 , with the exception of the 
Kaushitaki 2 -upanishad. We likewise possess his commen- 
tary on the Mawdukya-upanishad, but we do not know for 
certain whether he left commentaries on any of the other 
Upanishads. Some more or less authoritative statements 
have been made that he wrote commentaries on some of the 
minor Upanishads, such as the Atharvariras, Atharva-jikha, 
and the NWsiwhatapani 3 . But as, besides Sankara^arya, the 
disciple of Govinda, there is .Sankarananda, the disciple of 
Anandatman, another writer of commentaries on the Upa- 
nishads, it is possible that the two names may have been 
confounded by less careful copyists *. 

With regard to the Nnsiwshatapani all uncertainty might 
seem to be removed, after Professor Ramamaya Tarka- 
ratna has actually published its text with the commentary 
of .Sankara^arya in the Bibliotheca Indica, Calcutta, 1871. 
But some uncertainty still remains. While at the end of 
each Khanda of the N^siwha-purvatapani we read that 
the Bhashya was the work of the Paramahawsa-parivra- 
,g-aka£arya .S'rl-.S'ahkara, the pupil of Govinda, we have no 
such information for the N^zsiwha-uttaratapani, but are 
told on the contrary that the words .Sri-Govindabhagavat 
&c. have been added at the end by the editor, because he 
thought fit to do so. This is, to say the least, very suspicious, 
and we must wait for further confirmation. There is another 
commentary on this Upanishad by Naraya«abha#a, the son 
of Bha#a Ratnakara 6 , who is well known as the author of 
Dipikas on several Upanishads. 



* They have been published by Dr. Roer in the Bibliotheca Indica. 

a Dr. Weber's statement that Sankara wrote a commentary on the Kaushitaki- 
upanishad has been corrected by Deussen, loc. cit. p. 39. 
3 See Deussen, loc. cit. p. 39. 

* A long list of works ascribed to Sankara may be seen in Regnaud, Philo- 
sophic de l'lnde, p. 34, chiefly taken from Fitzedward Hall's Index of Indian 
Philosophical Systems. 

5 See Tarkaratna's Vi^dpana, p. 3, 1. 5. 



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INTRODUCTION. 



XI 



> v 



I subjoin a list of thirty of the smaller Upanishads, pub- 
lished by Professor Ramamaya Tarkaratna in the Biblio- 
theca Indica, with the commentaries of Naraya«abha//a. 
i. Sira-upanishad,pp.i-io; Dipika by Naraya«a,pp.42-6o. 

2. Garbha-upanishad, pp. 11-15 ; „ pp. 60-73. 

3. Nadavindu-upanishad, pp. 15-17; „ pp. 73-78. 

4. Brahmavindu-upanishad, pp. 18-20 ; „ pp. 78-82. 

5. Amrz'tavindu-upanishad, pp. 21-25; „ PP- 83-101. 

6. Dhyanavindu-upanishad, pp. 26-28; „ pp. 102-114. 

7. Te^fovindu-upanishad, pp. 29-30 ; „ pp. 1 14-118. 

8. Yogarikha-upanishad, pp. 31-32 ; „ pp. 1 18-122. 

9. Yogatattva-upanishad, pp. 33-34 ; „ pp. 122-127. 

10. Sannyasa-upanishad, pp. 35-39 ; „ pp. 128-184. 

11. Aru«eya-upanishad, pp. 39-41; „ pp. 184-196. 

12. Brahmavidya-upanishad, pp. 197-203; „ ibidem. 

13. Kshurika-upanishad, pp. 203-218; „ „ 

14. .ATulika-upanishad, pp. 219-228 ; „ „ 

15. Atharva-rikha-upanishad, pp. 229-238; „ „ 

16. Brahma-upanishad, pp. 239-259 ; „ „ 

17. Prawagnihotra-upanishad, pp. 260-271; „ „ 

18. Nilarudra-upanishad, pp. 272-280; „ „ 

19. Ka#/$ajruti-upanishad, pp. 281-294; „ „ 

20. Pi«d?a-upanishad, pp. 295-298 ; „ „ 
3i. Atma-upanishad, pp. 299—303 ; „ „ 

22. Ramapurvatapaniya-upanishad, 

PP- 304-358 5 » 

23. Ramottaratapaniya-upanishad, 

PP- 359-3 8 4 » „ >, 

24. Hanumadukta-Rama-upanishad, 

PP- 385-393; 

35. Sarvopanishat-sara^, pp. 394-404 ; „ „ 

26. Hawsa-upanishad, pp. 404-416; „ „ 

27. Paramahawsa-upanishad, pp. 41 7-436 ; „ „ 

28. Gabala-upanishad, pp. 437-455 ; » „ 

29. Kaivalya-upanishad, pp. 456-464 ; „ „ 
Kaivalya-upanishad, pp. 465-479 ; Dipika by 

Sankarananda, „ 

30. Garuda-upanishad, pp. 480 seq. ; Dipika by 

Narayawa, „ 



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Xll UPANISHADS. 



We owe to the same editor in the earlier numbers of the 
Bibliotheca the following editions : 

Nmiwzhapurvatapani-upanishad, with commentary. 

NWsi»mottaratapant-upanishad, with commentary. 

Sha^akra-upanishad, with commentary by N4raya«a. 

Lastly, Hara£andraVidyabhusha#a and Vi^vanatha Sastri 
have published in the Bibliotheca Indica an edition of the 
Gopalatapanf-upanishad, with commentary by VLrvervara. 

These editions of the text and commentaries of the 
Upanishads are no doubt very useful, yet there are many 
passages where the text is doubtful, still more where the 
commentaries leave us without any help. 

Whatever other scholars may think of the difficulty 
of translating the Upanishads, I can only repeat what I 
have said before, that I know of few Sanskrit texts pre- 
senting more formidable problems to the translator than 
these philosophical treatises. It may be said that most of 
them had been translated before. No doubt they have 
been, and a careful comparison of my own translation with 
those of my predecessors will show, I believe, that a small 
advance, at all events, has now been made towards a truer 
understanding of these ancient texts. But I know full well 
how much still remains to be done, both in restoring a cor- 
rect text, and in discovering the original meaning of the 
Upanishads ; and I have again and again had to translate 
certain passages tentatively only, or following the com- 
mentators, though conscious all the time that the meaning 
which they extract from the text cannot be the right one. 

As to the text, I explained in my preface to the first 
volume that I attempted no more than to restore the text, 
such as it must have existed at the time when .Sankara 
wrote his commentaries. As Sankara lived during the 
ninth century A.D. 1 , and as we possess no MSS. of so early 
a date, all reasonable demands of textual criticism would 
thereby seem to be satisfied. Yet, this is not quite so. 
We may draw such a line, and for the present keep within 
it, but scholars who hereafter take up the study of the 

1 India, What can it teach us ? p. 360. 

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INTRODUCTION. Xlll 



Upanishads will probably have to go beyond. Where I had 
an opportunity of comparing other commentaries, besides 
those of .Sankara, it became quite clear that they often 
followed a different text, and when, as in the case of the 
Maitraya«a-brahma«a-upanishad, I was enabled to collate 
copies which came from the South of India, the opinion 
which I have often expressed of the great value of Southern 
MSS. received fresh confirmation. The study of Grantha 
and other Southern MSS. will inaugurate, I believe, a new 
period in the critical treatment of Sanskrit texts, and the 
text of the Upanishads will, I hope, benefit quite as much 
as later texts by the treasures still concealed in the libraries 
of the Dekhan. 

The rule which I have followed myself, and which I have 
asked my fellow translators to follow, has been adhered to 
in this new volume also, viz. whenever a choice has to be 
made between what is not quite faithful and what is not 
quite English, to surrender without hesitation the idiom 
rather than the accuracy of the translation. I know that 
all true scholars have approved of this, and if some of our 
critics have been offended by certain unidiomatic expres- 
sions occurring in our translations, all I can say is, that we 
shall always be most grateful if they would suggest trans- 
lations which are not only faithful, but also idiomatic. For 
the purpose we have in view, a rugged but faithful trans- 
lation seems to us more useful than a smooth but mis- 
leading one. 

However, we have laid ourselves open to another kind 
of censure also, namely, of having occasionally not been 
literal enough. It is impossible to argue these questions 
in general, but every translator knows that in many cases 
a literal translation may convey an entirely wrong meaning. 
I shall give at least one instance. 

My old friend, Mr. Nehemiah Goreh — at least I hope he 
will still allow me to call him so — in the 'Occasional 
Papers on Missionary Subjects/ First Series, No. 6, quotes, 
on p. 39, a passage from the .ffMndogya-upanishad, trans- 
lates it into English, and then remarks that I had not 
translated it accurately. But the fault seems to me to lie 



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XIV UPANISHADS. 



entirely with him, in attempting to translate a passage 
without considering the whole chapter of which it forms 
a part. Mr. Nehemiah Goreh states the beginning of the 
story rightly when he says that a youth by name .Sveta- 
ketu went, by the advice of his father, to a teacher to 
study under him. After spending twelve years, as was 
customary, with the teacher, when he returned home he 
appeared rather elated. Then the father asked him: 

Uta tam ade-ra m aprak sho 1 yenajruta^ jrutam bhavaty 
amatam matani~avi§-#ata*« vi^-watam iti ? 

I translated this : ' Have you ever asked for that instruc- 
tion by which we hear what cannot be heard, by which we 
perceive what cannot be perceived, by which we know what 
cannot be known ? ' 

Mr. Nehemiah Goreh translates: 'Hast thou asked (of 
thy teacher) for that instruction by which what is not heard 
becomes heard, what is not comprehended becomes com- 
prehended, what is not known becomes known?' 

I shall not quarrel with my friend for translating man by 
to comprehend rather than by to perceive. I prefer my 
own translation, because manas is one side of the common 
sensory (anta^karawa), buddhi, the other ; the original differ- 
ence between the two being, so far as I can see, that the 
manas originally dealt with percepts, the buddhi with con- 
cepts 2 . But the chief difference on which my critic lays 
stress is that I translated ajrutam, amatam, and avi^watam 
not by ' not heard, not comprehended, not known,' but by 
' what cannot be heard, what cannot be perceived, what 
cannot be known.' 

Now, before finding fault, why did he not ask himself 
what possible reason I could have had for deviating from 
the original, and for translating avi^wata by unknowable or 

1 Mr. Nehemiah Goreh writes apralcshyo, and this is no doubt the reading 
adopted by Roer in his edition of the iSTAandogya-upanishad in the Bibliotheca 
Indica, p. 384. In Sankara's commentary also the same form is given. Still 
grammar requires apraksho. 

* The Pa^adasi (I, 20) distinguishes between manas and buddhi, by saying, 
mano vimarsarupam syfid buddhi* syan nis£ayatmika, which places the difference 
between the two rather in the degree of certainty, ascribing deliberation to 
manas, decision to buddhi. 



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INTRODUCTION. XV 



what cannot be known, rather than by unknown, as every one 
would be inclined to translate these words at first sight ? If 
he had done so, he would have seen in a moment, that with- 
out the change which I introduced in the idiom, the trans- 
lation would not have conveyed the sense of the original, nay, 
would have conveyed no sense at all. What could .Sveta- 
ketu have answered, if his father had asked him, whether 
he had not asked for that instruction by which what is not 
heard becomes heard, what is not comprehended becomes 
comprehended, what is not known becomes known? He 
would have answered, ' Yes, I have asked for it ; and from 
the first day on which I learnt the .Slksha, the ABC, 
I have every day heard something which I had not heard 
before, I have comprehended something which I had not 
comprehended before, I have known something which I had 
not known before.' Then why does he say in reply, 'What 
is that instruction?' Surely Mr. Nehemiah Goreh knew 
that the instruction which the father refers to, is the instruc- 
tion regarding Brahman, and that in all which follows the 
father tries to lead his son by slow degrees to a knowledge 
of Brahman 1 . Now that Brahman is called again and again 
' that which cannot be seen, cannot be heard, cannot be per- 
ceived, cannot be conceived,' in the ordinary sense of these 
words ; can be learnt, in fact, from the Veda only 2 . It was 
in order to bring out this meaning that I translated arrutam 
not by • not heard,' but by ' not hearable,' or, in better English, 
by ' what cannot be heard V 



1 In the Vedanta-Sara, Sadananda lays great stress on the fact that in this very 
chapter of the iTAandogya-upanishad, the principal subject of the whole chapter 
is mentioned both in the beginning and in the end. Tatra prakaranaprati- 
padyasyarthasya tadadyantayor upadanam upakramasamharam. Yatha KAan- 
dogyashash'AaprapaMake prakaranapratipidyagyadvittyavastmia ekam eva- 
dvitiyam (VI, a, i) ityadav aitadatmyam idam sarvam (VI, 16, 3) ity ante *a 
pratipadanam. ' The beginning with and ending with ' imply that the matter 
to be declared in any given section is declared both at the beginning and at the 
end thereof: — as, for instance, in the sixth section of the JSTAandogya-upanishad, 
•the Real, besides which there is nought else' — which is to be explained in 
that section — is declared at the outset in the terms, 'One only, without a second,' 
and at the end in the terms ' All this consists of That.' 

' Vedanta-Sara, No. 118, tatraivadvitiyavastuno manantaravishayfkaranam. 

" See Muni. Up. 1, 1,6, adresyam agrahyam. 



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XVI UPANISHADS. 



Any classical scholar knows how often we must translate 
invictus by invincible, and how Latin tolerates even 
invictissimus, which we could never render in English by 
' the most unconquered,' but ' the unconquerable.' English 
idiom, therefore, and common sense required that av^"«ata 
should be translated, not by inconceived, but by inconceiv- 
able, if the translation was to be faithful, and was to give 
to the reader a correct idea of the original. 

Let us now examine some other translations, to see whether 
the translators were satisfied with translating literally, or 
whether they attempted to translate thoughtfully. 

Anquetil Duperron's translation, being in Latin, cannot 
help us much. He translates : ' Non auditum, auditum fiat ; 
et non scitum, scitum ; et non cognitum, cognitum/ 
=" Rajendralal Mjtra translates : 'Have you enquired of your 
tutor about that subject which makes the unheard-of heard, 
the unconsidered considered, and the unsettled settled?' 

He evidently knew that Brahman was intended, but his 
rendering of the three verbs is not exact. 

Mr. Gough (p. 43) translates : ' Hast thou asked for that 
instruction by which the unheard becomes heard, the un- 
thought thought, the unknown known?' 

But now let us consult a scholar who, in a very marked 
degree, always was a thoughtful translator, who felt a real 
interest in the subject, and therefore was never satisfied with 
mere words, however plausible. The late Dr. Ballantyne, in 
his translation of the Vedanta-Sara 1 , had occasion to trans- 
late this passage from the .O&ndogya-upanishad, and how 
did he translate it? 'The eulogizing of the subject is the 
glorifying of what is set forth in this or that section (of the 
Veda) ; as, for example, in that same section, the sixth 
chapter of the iOandogya-upanishad, the glorifying of the 
Real, besides whom there is nought else, in the following 
terms : " Thou, O disciple, hast asked for that instruction 
whereby the unheard-of becomes heard, the inconceiv- 

1 Lecture on the VedSnta, embracing the text of the Vedinta-SSra, Alla- 
habad, 1851, p. 69. VedSntasata, with Nn'simha-Sarasvati's Subodhint, and 
Ramatirtha's Vidvanmanora%ini, Calcutta, 1860, p. 89. Here we find the 
right reading, aprakshai. 



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INTRODUCTION. XVU 



able becomes conceived, and the unknowable becomes 
thoroughly known."' 

Dr. Ballantyne therefore felt exactly what I felt, that in 
our passage a strictly literal translation would be wrong, 
would convey no meaning, or a wrong meaning ; and 
Mr. Nehemiah Goreh will see that he ought not to express 
blame, without trying to find out whether those whom he 
blames for want of exactness, were not in reality more 
scrupulously exact in their translation than he has proved 
himself to be. 

Mr. Nehemiah Goreh has, no doubt, great advantages in 
interpreting the Upanishads, and when he writes without 
any theological bias, his remarks are often very useful. 
Thus he objects rightly, I think, to my translation of a 
sentence in the same chapter of the ATAandogya-upanishad, 
where the father, in answer to his son's question, replies : 
'Sad eva, Somya, idam agra astd ekam evadvitlyam.' I 
had tried several translations of these words, and yet I see 
now that the one I proposed in the end is liable to be mis- 
understood. I had translated : ' In the beginning, my dear, 
there was that only which is, one only, without a second.' 
The more faithful translation would have been : ' The being 
alone was this in the beginning.' But ' the being' does not , 
mean in English that which is, to oi>, and therefore, to avoid 
any misunderstanding, I translated ' that which is.' I might 
have said, however, 'The existent, the real, the true (satyam) 
was this in the beginning,' just as in the Aitareya-upani- 
shad we read : ' The Self was all this, one alone, in the 
beginning 1 .' But in that case I should have sacrificed the 
gender, and this in our passage is of great importance, 
being neuter, and not masculine. 

What, however, is far more important, and where Mr. 
Nehemiah Goreh seems to me to have quite misapprehended 
the original Sanskrit, is this, that sat, to op, and atma, the 
Self, are the subjects in these sentences, and not predicates. 
Now Mr. Nehemiah Goreh translates: 'This was the ex- 
istent one itself before, one only without a second ; ' and he 



1 Atma v& idam eka ev&gra astt 
[15] b 



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XVU1 UPANISHADS. 



explains : ' This universe, before it was developed in the 
present form, was the existent one, Brahma, itself.' This 
cannot be. If ' idam,' this, i. e. the visible world, were the 
subject, how could the Upanishad go on and say, tad 
aikshata bahu syam pra^-ayeyeti tat te^-o 's^^ata, ' that 
thought, may I be many, may I grow forth. It sent forth 
fire.' This can be said of the Sat only, that is, the 
Brahman 1 . Sat, therefore, is the subject, not idam, for 
a Vedantist may well say that Brahman is the world, or 
sent forth the world, but not that the world, which is a 
mere illusion, was, in the beginning, Brahman. 

This becomes clearer still in another passage, Maitr. Up. 
VI, 17, where we read : Brahma ha va idam agra asid eko 
'nanta^, ' In the beginning Brahman was all this. He was 
one, and infinite.' Here the transition from the neuter to 
the masculine gender shows that Brahman only can be the 
subject, both in the first and in the second sentence. 

In English it may seem to make little difference whether 
we say, ' Brahman was this,' or ' this was Brahman.' In 
Sanskrit too we find, Brahma khalv idam vava sarvam, 
' Brahman indeed is all this' (Maitr. Up. IV, 6), and Sarvaw 
khalv idam Brahma, ' all this is Brahman indeed ' (KA&nd. 
Up. Ill, 14, 1). But the logical meaning is always that 
Brahman was all this, i. e. all that we see now, Brahman 
being the subject, idam the predicate. Brahman becomes 
idam, not idam Brahman. 

Thus the Pa«£ada$i, 1, 1 8, says : 

Ekadajendriyair yuktya jastre«apy avagamyate 
Yavat \dmkid bhaved etad ida»«abdodita#z .fagat, 
which Mr. A. Venis (Pandit, V, p. 667) translates : ' What- 
ever may be apprehended through the eleven organs, by 
argument and revelation, i. e. the world of phenomena, is 
expressed by the word idam, this.' The Pa«£adaji then 
goes on : 

Idawz sarvam pura srishter ekam evadvitlyakam 
Sad evastn namarupe nastam ity Aruwer v&kaA. 
This Mr. Venis translates : • Previous to creation, all this 

1 Sankara says (p. 398, 1. 5) : ekam evadvittyam paramarthata idam buddhi- 
kale 'pi tat sad aikshata. 



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INTRODUCTION. XIX 



was the existent (sat), one only without a second : name and 
form were not : — this is the declaration of the son of Aru«a.' 

This is no doubt a translation grammatically correct, but 
from the philosophical standpoint of the Vedanta, what is 
really meant is that, before the smhri (which is not crea- 
tion, but the sending forth of the world, and the sending 
forth of it, not as something real, but as a mere illusion), 
the Real alone, i.e. the Brahman, was, instead of this, i.e. 
instead of this illusory world. The illusion was not, but the 
Real, i.e. Brahman, was. What became, or what seemed to 
change, was Brahman, and therefore the only possible 
subject, logically, is Brahman, everything else being a pre- 
dicate, and a phenomenal predicate only. 

If I were arguing with a European, not with an Indian 
scholar, I should venture to go even a step further, and try to 
prove that the idam, in this and similar sentences, does not 
mean this, i. e. this world, but that originally it was intended 
as an adverb, meaning now, or here. This use of idam, 
unsuspected by native scholars, is very frequent in Vedic 
literature, and instances may be seen in Boehtlingk's Dic- 
tionary. In that case the translation would be : ' The real 
(to oi>), O friend, was here in the beginning.' This meaning 
of idam, however, would apply only to the earliest utterances 
of ancient Brahmavadins, while in later times idam was used 
and understood in the sense of all that is seen, the visible uni- 
verse, just as iyam by itself is used in the sense of the earth. 

However, difficulties of this kind may be overcome, if 
once we have arrived at a clear conception of the general 
drift of the Upanishads. The real difficulties are of a very 
different character. They consist in the extraordinary 
number of passages which seem to us utterly meaningless 
and irrational, or, at all events, so far-fetched that we can 
hardly believe that the same authors who can express the 
deepest thoughts on religion and philosophy with clearness, 
nay, with a kind of poetical eloquence, could have uttered in 
the same breath such utter rubbish. Some of the sacrificial 
technicalities, and their philosophical interpretations with 
which the Upanishads abound, may perhaps in time assume 
a clearer meaning, when we shall have more fully mastered 

b 2 



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XX UPANISHADS. 



the intricacies of the Vedic ceremonial. But there will 
always remain in the Upanishads a vast amount of what 
we can only call meaningless jargon, and for the presence 
of which in these ancient mines of thought I, for my own 
part, feel quite unable to account. ' Yes,' a friend of mine 
wrote to me, after reading some of the Sacred Books of 
the East, ' you are right, how tremendously ahead of other 
sacred books is the Bible. The difference strikes one as 
almost unfairly great.' So it does, no doubt. But some 
of the most honest believers and admirers of the Bible 
have expressed a similar disappointment, because they had 
formed their ideas of what a Sacred Book ought to be, 
theoretically, not historically. The Rev. J. M. Wilson, in 
his excellent Lectures on the Theory of Inspiration, p. 32, 
writes : ' The Bible is so unlike what you would expect ; 
it does not consist of golden sayings and rules of life ; give 
explanations of the philosophical and social problems of 
the past, the present, and the future ; contain teachings 
immeasurably unlike those of any other book ; but it con- 
tains history, ritual, legislation, poetry, dialogue, prophecy, 
memoirs, and letters; it contains much that is foreign to 
your idea of what a revelation ought to be. But this is not 
all. There is not only much that is foreign, but much that 
is opposed, to your preconceptions. The Jews tolerated 
slavery, polygamy, and other customs and cruelties of 
imperfect civilisation. There are the vindictive psalms, too, 
with their bitter hatred against enemies, — psalms which 
we chant in our churches. How can we do so ? There are 
stories of immorality, of treachery, of crime. How can we 
read them?' Still the Bible has been and is a truly sacred, 
because a truly historical book, for there is nothing more 
sacred in this world than the history of man, in his search 
after his highest ideals. All ancient books which have once 
been called sacred by man, will have their lasting place in 
the history of mankind, and those who possess the courage, 
the perseverance, and the self-denial of the true miner, and 
of the true scholar, will find even in the darkest and dustiest 
shafts what they are seeking for, — real nuggets of thought, 
and precious jewels of faith and hope. 



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INTRODUCTION. XXI 



I. 

THE KA777A-UPANISHAD. 

The KaA&a-upanishad is probably more widely known 
than any other Upanishad. It formed part of the Persian 
translation, was rendered into English by Rammohun Roy, 
and has since been frequently quoted by English, French, 
and German writers as one of the most perfect specimens 
of the mystic philosophy and poetry of the ancient Hindus. 

It was in the year 1845 that I first copied at Berlin the 
text of this Upanishad, the commentary of Sankara(MS. 127 
Chambers 1 ), and the gloss of Gopalayogin (MS. 224 Cham- 
bers). The text and commentary of Sankara and the gloss 
of Anandagiri have since been edited by Dr. Roer in the 
Bibliotheca Indica, with translation and notes. There are 
other translations, more or less perfect, by Rammohun Roy, 
Windischmann, Poley, Weber, Muir, Regnaud, Gough, and 
others. But there still remained many difficult and obscure 
portions, and I hope that in some at least of the passages 
where I differ from my predecessors, not excepting 6'ankara, 
I may have succeeded in rendering the original meaning of 
the author more intelligible than it has hitherto been. 

The text of theJCa^a-upanishad is in some MSS. ascribed 
to the Ya.g-ur-veda. In the Chambers MS. of the com- 
mentary also it is said to belong to that Veda 2 , and in the 
Muktikopanishad it stands first among the Upanishads of 
the Black Ya^ur-veda. According to Colebrooke (Miscel- 
laneous Essays, I, 96, note) it is referred to the Sama-veda 
also. Generally, however, it -is counted as one of the 
Atharva»a Upanishads. 

The reason why it is ascribed to the Ya^ur-veda, is 
probably because the legend of Na&ketas occurs in the 
Brahmawa of the Taittiriya Ya^ur-veda. Here we read 
(HI,* 8): > 

Va^a^ravasa, wishing for rewards, sacrificed all his 



MS. 133 is a mere copy of MS. 127. 
Ya^urvede Ka/AavallJbhash) am. 



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XX11 UPANISHADS. 



wealth. He had a son, called Na&ketas. While he was 
still a boy, faith entered into him at the time when the 
cows that were to be given (by his father) as presents to 
the priests, were brought in. He said: 'Father, to whom 
wilt thou give me?' He said so a second and third time. 
The father turned round and said to him: 'To Death, I 
give thee.' 

Then a voice said to the young Gautama, as he stood 
up : ' He (thy father) said, Go away to the house of Death, 
I give thee to Death.' Go therefore to Death when he is 
not at home, and dwell in his house for three nights with- 
out eating. If he should ask thee, 'Boy, how many nights 
hast thou been here ? ' say, ' Three.' When he asks thee, 
'What didst thou eat the first night?' say, 'Thy off- 
spring.' 'What didst thou eat the second night?' say, 
'Thy cattle.' 'What didst thou eat the third night?' 
say, 'Thy good works.' 

He went to Dea^h, while he was away from home, and 
he dwelt in his house forthree nights without eating. When 
Death returned, he asked : ' Boy, how many nights hast 
thou been here?' He answered: 'Three.' 'What didst 
thou eat the first night ?' ' Thy offspring.' ' What didst thou 
eat the second night?' 'Thy cattle.' 'What didst thou eat 
the third night ? ' ' Thy good works.' 

Then he said: 'My respect to thee, O venerable sir! 
Choose a boon.' 

' May I return living to my father,' he said. 

' Choose a second boon.' 

' Tell me how my good works may never perish.' 
--. Then he explained to him this Na^iketa fire (sacrifice), 
and hence his good works do not perish. 

' Choose a third boon.' 

' Tell me the conquest of death again.' 

Then he explained to him this (chief) Na^iketa fire 
(sacrifice), and hence he conquered death again x . 

This story, which in the Brahmawa is told in order to 
explain the name of a certain sacrificial ceremony called 

1 The commentator explains punar-mrityu as the death that follows after 
the present inevitable death. 



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INTRODUCTION. XXUl 



Na&keta. was used as a peg ^onwhkh_toJiang the doctrines 
o ftheUpanishad . In its original form it may have constituted 
one Adhyaya only, and the very fact of its division into two 
Adhyayas may show that the compilers of the Upanishad 
were still aware of its gradual origin. We have no means, 
however, of determining its original form, nor should we even 
be justified in maintaining that the first Adhyaya ever existed 
by itself, and that the second was added at a much later 
time. Whatever its component elements may have been 
before it was an Upanishad, when it was an Upanishad it 
consisted of six Vallis, neither more nor less. 

The name of vaUt,_lit . creepe r, as a subd ivision o f a 
Vedic work, is im port ant. It occurs again in the Taittirtya 
Upanishads. Professor Weber thinks that valli, creeper, in 
the sense of chapter, is based on a modern metaphor, and 
was primarily intended for a creeper, attached to the jakhas 
or branches of the Veda 1 . More likely, however, it was 
used in the same sense as par van, a joint, a shoot, a 
branch, i. e. a division. 

Various attempts have been made to distinguish the 
more modern from the more ancient portions of our Upani- 
shad 2 . No doubt there are peculiarities of metre, gram- 
mar, language, and thought which indicate the more 
primitive or the more modern character of certain verses. 
There are repetitions which offend us, and there are 
several passages which are clearly taken over from other 
Upanishads, where they seem to have had their original 
place. Thirty-five years ago, when I first worked at this 
Upanishad, I saw no difficulty in re-establishing what I 
thought the original text of the Upanishad must have 
been. I now feel that we know so little of the time and 
the circumstances when these half-prose and half-metrical 
Upanishads were first put together, that I should hesitate 



1 History of Indian Literature, p. 93, note ; p. 157. 

s Though it would be unfair to hold Professor Weber responsible for his 
remarks on this and other questions connected with the Upanishads published 
many years ago (Indische Studien, 1853, p. 197), and though I have hardly ever 
thought it necessary to criticise them, some of his remarks are not without their 
value even now. 



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XXIV UPANISHADS. 



before expunging even the most modern-sounding lines 
from the original context of these Ved&ntic essays 1 . 

The mention of Dhatrz, creator, for instance (KatA. Up. 
II, 20), is certainly startling, and seems to have given rise 
to a very early conjectural emendation. But dhat?7 and 
vidh&tr/ occur in the hymns of the Rig-veda (X, 82, 2), 
and in the Upanishads (Maitr. Up. VI, 8) ; and Dhitrz', 
as almost a personal deity, is invoked with Pra^apati in 
Rig-veda X, 184, 1. Deva, in the sense of God (Kat/i. Up. 
II, 12), is equally strange, but occurs in other Upanishads 
also (Maitr. Up. VI, 23 ; .SVetlrv. Up. I, 3). Much might 
be said about setu, bridge (KatA. Up. Ill, 2 ; Mund. Up. 
II, 2, 5), adar^a, mirror (KatA. Up. VI, 5), as being character- 
istic of a later age. But setu is not a bridge, in our sense of 
the word, but rather a wall, a bank, a barrier, and occurs 
frequently in other Upanishads (Maitr. Up. VII, 7 ; AT^and. 
Up. VIII, 4 ; Brih. Up. IV, 4, 22, &c), while adarras, or 
mirrors, are mentioned in the B«Tiadara«yaka and the 
.Srauta-sutras. Till we know something more about the 
date of the first and the last composition or compilation of 
the Upanishads, how are we to tell what subjects and what 
ideas the first author or the last collector was familiar with ? 
To attempt the impossible may seem courageous, but it is 
hardly scholarlike. 

With regard to faulty or irregular readings, we can never 
know whether they are due to the original composers, the 
compilers, the repeaters, or lastly the writers of the Upani- 
shads. It is easy to say that adrejya (Mund. Up. 1, 1, 6) 
ought to be admya ; but who would venture to correct that 
form? Whenever that verse is quoted, it is quoted with 
adr&rya, not adraya. The commentators themselves tell 
us sometimes that certain forms are either Vedic or due to 
carelessness (pramadapa/^a) ; but that very fact shows that 
such a form, for instance, as samiyata ( Af^and. Up. 1, 1 2, 3) 
rests on an old authority. 

No doubt, if we have the original text of an author, and 
can prove that his text was corrupted by later compilers 

1 See Regnaud, Le Pessimisme Brahmanique, Annates du Musee Guimet, 
1880 ; torn, i, p. 101. 



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INTRODUCTION. XXV 



or copyists or printers, we have a right to remove those 
later alterations, whether they be improvements or corrup- 
tions. But where, as in our case, we can never hope to gain 
access to original documents, and where we can only hope, 
by pointing out what is clearly more modern than the rest 
or, it may be, faulty, to gain an approximate conception 
of what the original composer may have had in his mind, 
before handing his composition over to the safe keeping 
of oral tradition, it is almost a duty to discourage, as 
much as lies in our power, the work of reconstructing an 
old text by so-called conjectural emendations or critical 
omissions. 

I have little doubt, for instance, that the three verses 
16-18 in the first ValU of the KaA&a-upanishad are later 
additions, but I should not therefore venture to remove 
them. Death had granted three boons to Na£iketas, and 
no more. In a later portion, however, of the Upanishad 
(II, 3), the expression srmka vittamayt occurs, which I have 
translated by ' the road which leads to wealth.' As it is 
said that Na^iketas did not choose that srmka, some reader 
must have supposed that a srmka was offered him by Death. 
Srmka, however, meant commonly a string or necklace, and 
hence arose the idea that Death must have offered a neck- 
lace as an additional gift to Na/ftketas. Besides this, there 
was another honour done to Na&ketas by Mrz'tyu, namely, 
his allowing the sacrifice which he had taught him, to be 
called by his name. This also, it was supposed, ought to have 
been distinctly mentioned before, and hence the insertion 
of the three verses 16-18. They are clumsily put in, for 
after punar evaha,'he said again,' verse 16 ought not to have 
commenced by tam abravit, ' he said to him.' They contain 
nothing new, for the fact that the sacrifice is to be called 
after Naftketas was sufficiently indicated by verse 19, 'This, 
O Na£iketas, is thy fire which leads to heaven, which thou 
hast chosen as thy second boon.' But so anxious was the 
interpolator to impress upon his hearers the fact that the 
sacrifice should in future go by that name, that, in spite 
of the metre, he inserted tavaiva, 'of thee alone,' in 
verse 19. 



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XXVI UPANISHADS. 



II. 

THE MU7\rZ?AKA-UPANISHAD. 

THIS is an Upanishad of the Atharva-veda. It is a 
Mantra-upanishad, i. e. it has the form of a Mantra. But, 
as the commentators observe, though it is written in 
verse, it is not, like other Mantras, to be used for sacri- 
ficial purposes. Its only object is to teach the highest 
knowledge, the knowledge of Brahman, which cannot 
be obtained either by sacrifices or by worship (upasana), 
but by such teaching only as is imparted in the 
Upanishad. A man may a hundred times restrain his 
breath, &c, but without the Upanishad his ignorance 
does not cease. Nor is it right to continue for ever in the 
performance of sacrificial and other good works, if one 
wishes to obtain the highest knowledge of Brahman. The 
Sannyasin alone, who has given up everything, is qualified 
to know and to become Brahman. And though it might 
seem from Vedic legends that Grzhasthas also who con- 
tinued to live with their families, performing all the duties 
required of them by law, had been in possession of the highest 
knowledge, this, we are told, is a mistake. Works and know- 
ledge can be as little together as darkness and light. 

This Upanishad too has been often translated since it 
first appeared in the Persian translation of Dara Shukoh. 
My own copy of the text and Ankara's commentary from 
the MS. in the Chambers Collection was made in October 
1844. Both are now best accessible in the Bibliotheca 
Indica, where Dr. Roer has published the text, the com- 
commentary by Sankara, a gloss by Ananda^«ana, and an 
English translation with notes. 

The title of the Upanishad, Mundaka, has not yet been 
explained. The Upanishad is called Muwdaka-upanishad, 
and its three chapters are each called Mundakam. Native 
commentators explain it as the shaving Upanishad, that is, 
as the Upanishad which cuts off the errors of the mind, like 
a razor. Another Upanishad also is called Kshurika, the 
razor, a name which is explained in the text itself as 



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INTRODUCTION. XX VII 



meaning an instrument for removing illusion and error. 
The title is all the more strange because Muwrfaka, in its 
commonest acceptation, is used as a term of reproach for 
Buddhist mendicants, who are called ' Shavelings,' in oppo- 
sition to the Brahmans, who dress their hair carefully, and 
often display by its peculiar arrangement either their family 
or their rank. Many doctrines of the Upanishads are, no 
doubt, pure Buddhism, or rather Buddhism is on many points 
the consistent carrying out of the principles laid down in 
the Upanishads. Yet, for that very reason, it seems im- 
possible that this should be the origin of the name, unless 
we suppose that it was the work of a man who was, in one 
sense, a Mundaka, and yet faithful to the Brahmanic law. 



III. 

THE TAITTIRlYAKA-UPANISHAD. 

The Taittiriyaka-upanishad seems to have had its original 
place in the Taittiriya-Ara«yaka. This Ara«yaka consists, 
as Rajendralal Mitra has shown in the Introduction to his 
edition of the work in the Bibliotheca Indica, of three por- 
tions. Out of its ten Prapa/^akas, the first six form the 
Arawyaka proper, or the Karma-ka#</a, as Sayawa writes. 
Then follow Prapa//;akas VII, VIII, and IX, forming the 
Taittiriyaka-upanishad ; and lastly, the tenth Prapa/^aka, 
the Ya^-ftiki or Mahanarayawa - upanishad, which is called 
a Khila, and was therefore considered by the Brahmans 
themselves as a later and supplementary work. 

.Sankara, in his commentary on the Taittiriyaka-upani- 
shad, divides his work into three Adhyayas, and calls the 
first Siksha-valli, the second the Brahmananda-vallJ, while 
he gives no special name to the Upanishad explained in the 
third Adhyaya. This, however, may be due to a mere 
accident, for whenever the division of the Taittiriyaka-upani- 
shad into Vallis is mentioned, we always have three 1 , the 

1 .Sankara (ed. Roer, p. 14 1) himself speaks of two Vallts, teaching the 
paramatmaf »ana (the SikshS-valif has nothing to do with this), and Anquetil 
has Anandbli=Ananda-vallt, and Bharkbli=Bhr/gtt-vallJ. 



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XXVU1 UPANISHADS. 



«Siksha-valli, the Brahmananda-vallt, and the Blw'gu-valli 1 . 
Properly, however, it is only the second Anuvaka of the 
seventh PrapaAfcaka which deserves and receives in the text 
itself the name of Sikshadhyaya, while the rest of the first 
Valli ought to go by the name of Sawhita-upanishad 2 , or 
Sawhiti-upanishad. 

Sayawa 3 , in his commentary on the Taittiriya-arawyaka, 
explains the seventh chapter, the .Sikshadhyaya (twelve 
anuvakas), as Sawzhiti-upanishad. His commentary, how- 
ever, is called Siksha-bhashya. The same Sayawa treats the 
eighth and ninth Prapa/Aakas as the Viruwy-upanishad 4 . 

The Ananda-valli and Bhr/gu-vallt are quoted among the 
Upanishads of the Atharvawa 6 . 

At the end of each Valli there is an index of the Anu- 
vakas which it contains. That at the end of the first Valli 
is intelligible. It gives the Pratikas, i. e the initial words, 
of each Anuvaka, and states their number as twelve. At the 
end of the first Anuvaka, we have the final words ' satyam 
vadishyami,' and panka. ka, i. e. five short paragraphs at the 
end. At the end of the second Anuvaka, where we expect 
the final words, we have the initial, i. e. .rfksham, and then 
panka, i. e. five sections in the Anuvaka. At the end of the 
third Anuvaka, we have the final words, but no number of 
sections. At the end of the fourth Anuvaka, we have the 
final words of the three sections, followed by one para- 
graph ; at the end of the fifth Anuvaka, three final words, 
and two paragraphs, though the first paragraph belongs 
clearly to the third section. In the sixth Anuvaka, we 
have the final words of the two Anuvakas, and one para- 
graph. In the seventh Anuvaka, there is the final word 

1 The third Vallf ends with Bhrigur ity upanishat. 

* See Taittirtyaka-upanishad, ed. Roer, p. 12. 

8 See M. M., Alphabetisches Verzeichniss der Upanishads, p. 144. 

4 The Anukramail of the Atreyt school (see Weber, Indische Stndien, II, 
p. 208) of the Taittirtyaka gives likewise the name of Varun! to the eighth and 
ninth PrapaMaka, while it calls the seventh Prapa/Aaka the Samhitt, and the 
tenth PrapaMaka the Yag-tfiki-upanishad. That Anukramant presupposes, bow- 
ever, a different text, as may be seen both from the number of Anuvakas, and 
from the position assigned to the Ya^nikt as between the Samhitt and Varuni 
Upanishads. 

5 See M. M., Alphabetisches Verzeichniss der Upanishads. 



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INTRODUCTION. XXIX 



sarvam, and one paragraph added. In the eighth Anuvaka, 
we have the initial word, and the number of sections, viz. 
ten. In the ninth Anuvaka, there are the final words of one 
section, and six paragraphs. In the tenth Anuvaka, there 
is the initial word, and the number of paragraphs, viz. six. 
In the eleventh Anuvaka, we have the final words of four 
sections, and seven paragraphs, the first again forming an 
integral portion of the last section. The twelfth Anuvaka 
has one section, and five paragraphs. If five, then the sknti 
would here have to be included, while, from what is said 
afterwards, it is clear that as the first word of the Valli is 
jam na^, so the last is vaktaram. 

In the second Valli the index to each Anuvaka is given 
at the end of the Valli. 
ist Anuvaka : pratika : brahmavid, and some other catch- 
words, idam, ayam, idam. Number of sections, ai. 
2nd Anuvaka: pratika: annad, and other catchwords; 

last word, pu£Ma. Sections, 26. 
3rd Anuvaka: pratika: pra«am, and other catchwords; 

last word, pukk/ta.. Sections, 2a. 
4th Anuvaka: pratika: yata/*, and other catchwords; 

last word, p\ikk/t&. Sections, 1 8. 
5th Anuvaka : pratika : vi.g-wanam, and other catchwords ; 

last word, pukMa. Sections, 23. 
6th Anuvaka: pratika: asanneva, then atha (deest in 

Taitt. Ar. 7). Sections, a8. 
7th Anuvaka: pratika: asat. Sections, 16. 
8th Anuvaka: pratika: bhishasmat, and other catch- 
words; last word, upasankramati. Sections, 51. 
9th Anuvaka : pratika: yataA — kutar£ana; then tam 
(deest in Taitt. Ar.). Sections, 11. 
In the third Valli the Anukramawi stands at the end. 

1. The first word, bhriguA, and some other catchwords. 

Sections, 13. 

2. The first word, annam. Sections, 1a. 

3. The first word, prawam. Sections, ia. 

4. The first word, mana^. Sections, 1 a. 

5. The first word, v\g wanam, and some other words. Sec- 

tions, 1 a. 



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XXX UPANISHADS. 



6. The first word, ananda, and some other words. Sec- 

tions, 10. 

7. The first words, anma.m na nindyat, prawa^, ^ariram. 

Sections, 11. 

8. The first words, annam na pari£akshita, apo gyotih. 

Sections, 11. 

9. The first words, annam bahu kurvita p^'thivim aklra. 

Sections, 11. 
10. The first words, na ka«£ana. Sections 61. The last 
words of each section are given for the tenth Anu- 
vaka. 

IV. 
THE Bie/HADARAiVYAKA-UPANISHAD. 

This Upanishad has been so often edited and discussed 
that it calls for no special remarks. It forms paxt_j2f_the 
6atapathaj2rihma»a. In the Madhyandina-jikha of that 
Brlfimawa, which has been edited by Professor Weber, 
the Upanishad, consisting of six adhyayas, begins with 
the fourth adhyaya (or third prapaA&aka) of the fourteenth 
book. 

There is a commentary on the Brzhadarawyaka-upanishad 
by Dviveda^rinarayawasunu Dvivedaganga, which has been 
carefully edited by Weber in his great edition of the 
.Satapatha-brahmawa from a MS. in the Bodleian Library, 
formerly belonging to Dr. Mill, in which the Upanishad is 
called Madhyandiniya-brahmawa-upanishad. 

In the Ka«va-.rakha the Brz"hadara«yaka-upanishad forms 
the seventeenth book of the Satapatha-brahmawa, consisting 
of six adhyayas. 

As Ankara's commentary and the gloss of Anandatirtha, 
edited by Dr. Roer in the Bibliotheca Indica, follow the 
Ka#va-.rakha, I have followed the same text in my trans- 
lation. 

Besides Dr. Roer's edition of the text, commentary, and 
gloss of this Upanishad, there is Poley's edition of the text. 
There is also a translation of it by Dr. Roer, with large 
extracts from Sankara's commentary. 1 



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INTRODUCTION. XXXI 




V. 

the svetAsvatara-upan! 

The 6Vetajvatara-upanishad has been handed down as 
one of the thirty-three Upanishads of the Taittiriyas, and 
though this has been doubted, no real argument has ever 
been brought forward to invalidate the tradition which 
represents it as belonging to the Taittiriya or Black Ya^ur- 
veda. 

It is sometimes called .Svetajvatarawam Mantropanishad 
(p. 274), and is frequently spoken of in the plural, as Sveta- 
jvataropanishada^. At the end of the last Adhyaya we read 
that Svetajvatara told it to the best among the hermits, 
and that it should be kept secret, and not be taught to any 
one except to a son or a regular pupil. It is also called 
.Svetlrva 1 , though, it would seem, for the sake of the metre 
only. The .SVetcLrvataras are mentioned as a Sakha 2 , 
subordinate to the /farakas ; but of the literature belonging 
to them in particular, nothing is ever mentioned beyond 
this Upanishad. 

Svetajvatara means a white mule, and as mules were 
known and prized in India from the earliest times, .Sveta- 
jvatara, as the name of a person, is no more startling than 
.Svetajva, white horse, an epithet of Ar^f una. Now as no 
one would be likely to conclude from the name of one of 
the celebrated Vedic .fo'shis, Syavajva, i.e. black horse, 
that negro influences might be discovered in his hymns, it 
is hardly necessary to say that all speculations as to Chris- 
tian influences, or the teaching of white Syro-Christian 
missionaries, being indicated by the name of .Svetajvatara, 
are groundless 3 . 

The .SVetlrvatara-upanishad holds a very high rank 
among the Upanishads. Though we cannot say that it 
is quoted by name by Badarayawa in the Vedanta-sfltras, 

1 V&iaspatyam, p. 1222. 

3 Catal. Bodl. p. 271 a ; p. 222 a. 

' See Weber, Ind. Stud. I, pp. 400, 421. 



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XXXU UPANISHADS. 



it is distinctly referred to as jruta or revealed 1 . It is one 
of the twelve Upanishads chosen by Vidyarawya in his 
Sarvopanishad-arthanabhutipraklra, and it was singled out 
by .Sankara as worthy of a special commentary. 

The >SVetajvatara-upanishad seems to me one of the 
most difficult, and at the same time one of the most 
interesting works of its kind. Whether on that and on 
other grounds it should be assigned to a more ancient or to 
a more modern period is what, in the present state of our 
knowledge, or, to be honest, of our ignorance of minute 
chronology during the Vedic period, no true scholar would 
venture to assert. We must be satisfied to know that, as 
a class, the Upanishads are presupposed by the Kalpa- 
sutras, that some of them, called Mantra-upanishads, form 
part of the more modern Sawhitas, and that there are 
portions even in the Rig-veda-sawhita 2 for which the 
name of Upanishad is claimed by the Anukramawis. We 
find them most frequent, however, during the Brahma#a- 
period, in the Brahma«as themselves, and, more especially, 
in those portions which are called Arawyakas, while a large 
number of them is referred to the Atharva-veda. That, 
in imitation of older Upanishads, similar treatises were 
composed to a comparatively recent time, has, of course, 
long been known 3 . 

But when we approach the question whether among the 
ancient and genuine Upanishads one may be older than 
the other, we find that, though we may guess much, we 
can prove nothing. The Upanishads belonged to Parishads 
or settlements spread all over India. There is a stock of 
ideas, even of expressions, common to most of them. Yet, 
the ideas collected in the Upanishads cannot all have grown 
up in one and the same place, still less in regular succes- 
sion. They must have had an independent growth, deter- 
mined by individual and local influences, and opinions 
which in one village might seem far advanced, would in 
another be looked upon as behind the world. We may 

1 See Deussen, Vedanta, p. 24; Ved. Stea I, 1, 11; I, 4, 8; II, 3, 22. 
* See Sacred Books of the East, vol. i, p. lxvi. 
8 Loc. cit. p. lxvii. 



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INTRODUCTION. XXX1U 



admire the ingeniousness of those who sometimes in this, 
sometimes in that peculiarity see a clear indication of the 
modern date of an Upanishad, but to a conscientious 
scholar such arguments are really distasteful for the very 
sake of their ingeniousness. He knows that they will 
convince many who do not know the real difficulties ; he 
knows they will have to be got out of the way with no 
small trouble, and he knows that, even if they should prove 
true in the end, they will require very different support 
from what they have hitherto received, before they can be 
admitted to the narrow circle of scientific facts. 

While fully admitting therefore that the Svetajvatara- 
upanishad has its peculiar features and its peculiar difficul- 
ties, I must most strongly maintain that no argument that 
has as yet been brought forward, seems to me to prove, in 
any sense of the word, its modern character. 

It has been said, for instance, that the .Svetlrvatara- 
upanishad is a sectarian Upanishad, because, when speak- 
ing of the Highest Self or the Highest Brahman, it applies 
such names to him as Hara (1, 10), Rudra (II, 17; III, 2 ; 4 ; 
IV, 12; 21; 22), Siva (III, 14; IV, 10), Bhagavat (III, 14), 
Agni, Aditya, Vayu, &c. (IV, 2). But here it is simply 
taken for granted that the idea of the Highest Self was 
developed first, and, after it had reached its highest purity, 
was lowered again by an identification with mythological and 
personal deities. The questions whether the conception of 
the Highest Self was formed once and once only, whether 
it was formed after all the personal and mythological deities 
had first been merged into one Lord (Pra^apati), or whether 
it was discovered behind the veil of any other name in the 
mythological pantheon of the past, have never been mooted. 
Why should not an ancient Rtshi have said : What we 
have hitherto called Rudra, and what we worship as Agni, 
or Siva, is in reality the Highest Self, thus leaving much of 
the ancient mythological phraseology to be used with a 
new meaning ? Why should we at once conclude that late 
sectarian worshippers of mythological gods replaced again 
the Highest Self, after their fathers had discovered it, 
by their own sectarian names? If we adopt the former 
C'53* c 



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XXXIV UPANISHADS. 



view, the Upanishads, which still show these rudera of 
the ancient temples, would have to be considered as more 
primitive even than those in which the idea of the Brah- 
man or the Highest Self has reached its utmost purity. . 

It has been considered a very strong argument in sup- 
port of the modern and sectarian character of the 5veta- 
jvatara-upanishad, that 'it inculcates what is called Bhakti 1 , 
or implicit reliance on the favour of the deity worshipped." 
Now it is quite true that this Upanishad possesses a very 
distinct character of its own, by the stress which it lays on 
the personal, and sometimes almost mythical character of 
the Supreme Spirit ; but, so far from inculcating bhakti, 
in the modern sense of the word, it never mentions that 
word, except in the very last verse, a verse which, if neces- 
sary, certain critics would soon dispose of as a palpable 
addition. But that verse says no more than this : ' If these 
truths (of the Upanishad) have been told to a high-minded 
man, who feels the highest devotion for God, and for his 
Guru as for God, then they will shine forth indeed.' Does 
that prove the existence of Bhakti as we find it in the 
.SawaTilya-sutras 2 ? 

Again, it has been said that the .Svetarvatara-upanishad 
is sectarian in a philosophical sense, that it is in fact an 
Upanishad of the Sankhya system of philosophy, and not 
of the Vedanta. Now I am quite willing to admit that, in 
its origin, the Vedanta philosophy is nearer to the Vedic 
literature than any other of the six systems of philosophy, 
and that if we really found doctrines, peculiar to the San- 
khya, and opposed to the Vedanta, in the Svetajvatara- 
upanishad, we might feel inclined to assign to our Upani- 
shad a later date. But where is the proof of this ? 

No doubt there are expressions in this Upanishad which 
remind us of technical terms used at a later time in the 
Sankhya system of philosophy, but of Sankhya doctrines, 
which I had myself formerly suspected in this Upanishad, 



1 Weber, Ind. Stud. I, 422; and History of Indian Literature, p. 238. 
1 The Aphorisms of SiWilya, or the Hindu Doctrine of Faith, translated by 
E. B. Cowell, Calcutta, 1878. 



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INTRODUCTION. XXXV 



I can on closer study find very little. I think it was 
Mr. Gough who, in his Philosophy of the Upanishads, for 
the first time made it quite clear that the teaching of our 
Upanishad is, in the main, the same as that of the other 
Upanishads. ' The Svetlyvatara-upanishad teaches,' as he 
says, 'the unity of souls in the one and only Self; the 
unreality of the world as a series of figments of the self- 
feigning world-fiction ; and as the first of the fictitious 
emanations, the existence of the Demiurgos or universal 
soul present in every individual soul, the deity that projects 
the world out of himself, that the migrating souls may find 
the recompense of their works in former lives.' 

I do not quite agree with this view of the Ijvara, whom 
Mr. Gough calls the Demiurgos, but he seems to me per- 
fectly right when he says that the Svetajvatara-upanishad 
propounds in Sankhya terms the very principles that the 
Sankhya philosophers make it their business to subvert. 
One might doubt as to the propriety of calling certain 
terms 'Sankhya terms' in a work written at a time when 
a Sankhya philosophy, such as we know it as a system, 
had as yet no existence, and when the very name sankhya 
meant something quite different from the Sankhya system 
of Kapila. Sankhya is derived from sankhya, and that 
meant counting, number, name, corresponding very nearly 
to the Greek \6yos, Sankhya, as derived from it, meant 
originally no more than theoretic philosophy, as opposed 
to yoga, which meant originally practical religious exer- 
cises and penances, to restrain the passions and the senses 
in general. All other interpretations of these words, when 
they had become technical names, are of later date. 

But even in their later forms, whatever we may think of 
the coincidences and differences between the Sankhya and 
Vedanta systems of philosophy, there is one point on which 
they are diametrically opposed. Whatever else the San- 
khya may be, it is dualistic ; whatever else the Vedanta 
may be, it is monistic. In the Sankhya, nature, or whatever 
else we may call it, is independent of the purusha ; in the 
Vedanta it is not. Now the Svetlsvatara-upanishad states 
distinctly that nature, or what in the Sankhya philosophy 

c 2 



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XXXVI UPANISHADS. 



is intended by Pradhlna, is not an independent power, but 
a power (jakti) forming the very self of the Deva. ' Sages,' 
we read, 'devoted to meditation and concentration, have 
seen the power belonging to God himself, hidden in its own 
qualities.' 

What is really peculiar in the .SvetiLrvatara-upanishad is 
the strong stress which it lays on the personality of the 
Lord, the i^vara. Deva, in the passage quoted, is perhaps 
the nearest approach to our own idea of a personal God, 
though without the background which the Vedanta always 
retains for it. It is God as creator and ruler of the world, 
as ijvara, lord, but not as Paramatman, or the Highest Self. 
The Paramatman constitutes, no doubt, his real essence, 
but creation and creator have a phenomenal character 
only \ The creation is maya, in its original sense of work, 
then of phenomenal work, then of illusion. The creator 
is mayin, in its original sense of worker or maker, but 
again, in that character, phenomenal only 2 . The Guwas 
or qualities arise, according to the Vedanta, from prakn'ti 
or maya, within, not beside, the Highest Self, and this 
is the very idea which is here expressed by ' the Self-power 
of God, hidden in the guwas or determining qualities.' How 
easily that sakti or power may become an independent 
being, as Maya, we see in such verses as : 

Sarvabhuteshu sarvatman ya jaktir aparabhava 
Guwa^raya namas tasyai jajvatayai parejvara 3 . 

But the important point is this, that in the .Svetajvatara- 
upanishad this change has not taken place. Throughout 
the whole of it we have one Being only, as the cause of 
everything, never two. Whatever Sankhya philosophers 
of a later date may have imagined that they could discover 
in that Upanishad in support of their theories 4 , there is not 
one passage in it which, if rightly interpreted, not by itself, 
but in connection with the whole text, could be quoted in 



1 Prathamam tsvaratmana mayirflpenavatishfiate brahma ; see p. 280, 1. 5. 

8 M&y! srigate sarvam etat. 

8 See p. 279, 1. 5. Sarvfitman seems a vocative, like pareivara. 

* .See Sarvadarsanasangraha, p. 152. 



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INTRODUCTION. XXXV11 



support of a dualistic philosophy such as the Sankhya, as 
a system, decidedly is. 

If we want to understand, what seems at first sight contra- 
dictory, the existence of a God, a Lord, a Creator, a Ruler, 
and at the same time the existence of the super-personal 
Brahman, we must remember that the orthodox view of 
the Vedanta 1 is not what we should call Evolution, but 
Illusion. Evolution of the Brahman, or Pariwama, is hete- 
rodox, illusion or Vivarta is orthodox Vedanta. Brahman 
is a concept involving such complete perfection that with it 
evolution, or a tendency towards higher perfection, is im- 
possible. If therefore there is change, that change can 
only be illusion, and can never claim the same reality as 
Brahman. To put it metaphorically, the world, according 
to the orthodox Vedantin, does not proceed from Brahman 
as a tree from a germ, but as a mirage from the rays of the 
sun. The world is, as we express it, phenomenal only, but 
whatever objective reality there is in it, is Brahman, 'das 
Ding an sich/ as Kant might call it. 

Then what is Ijvara or Deva, the Lord or God ? The 
answers given to this question are not very explicit. His- 
torically, no doubt, the idea of the t^vara, the personal 
God, the creator and ruler, the omniscient and omnipotent, 
existed before the idea of the absolute Brahman, and 
after the idea of the Brahman had been elaborated, the 
difficulty of effecting a compromise between the two ideas, 
had to be overcome, Isvara, the Lord, is Brahman, for what 
else could he be ? But he is Brahman under a semblance, 
the semblance, namely, of a personal creating and govern- 
ing God. He is not created, but is the creator, an office 
too low, it was supposed, for Brahman. The power which 
enabled t^vara to create, was a power within him, not inde- 
pendent of him, whether we call it Devatmajakti, Maya, 
or Yrakriti. That power is really inconceivable, and it 
has assumed such different forms in the mind of different 
Vedantists, that in the end Maya herself is represented as 
the creating power, nay, as having created l^vara himself. 

1 Vedantaparibhasha, in the Pandit, vol. iv, p. 496. 

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XXXV111 UPANISHADS. 



In our Upanishad, however, f jvara is the creator, and 
though, philosophically speaking, we should say that he was 
conceived as phenomenal, yet we must never forget that 
the phenomenal is the form of the real, and l^vara there- 
fore an aspect of Brahman 1 . 'This God,' says Pramada 
Dasa Mitra 2 , 'is the spirit conscious of the universe. 
Whilst an extremely limited portion, and that only of the 
material universe, enters into my consciousness, the whole 
of the conscious universe, together, of course, with the 
material one that hangs upon it, enters into the conscious- 
ness of God.' And again, 'Whilst we (the ^-ivatmans) 
are subject to Maya, Maya is subject to l^vara. If we 
truly know I^vara, we know him as Brahman ; if we truly 
know ourselves, we know ourselves as Brahman. This 
being so, we must not be surprised if sometimes we find 
fjvara sharply distinguished from Brahman, whilst at other 
times Ijvara and Brahman are interchanged.' 

Another argument in support of the sectarian character 
of the .SVetajvatara-upanishad is brought forward, not by 
European students only, but by native scholars, namely, 
that the very name of Kapila, the reputed founder of the 
Sankhya philosophy, occurs in it. Now it is quite true 
that if we read the second verse of the fifth Adhyaya by 
itself, the occurrence of the word Kapila may seem startling. 
But if we read it in connection with what precedes and fol- 
lows, we shall see hardly anything unusual in it. It says : 

'It is he who, being one only, rules over every germ 
(cause), over all forms, and over all germs ; it is he who, 
in the beginning, bears in his thoughts the wise son, the 
fiery, whom he wished to look on while he was born.' 

Now it is quite clear to me that the subject in this verse 
is the same as in IV, 1 1, where the same words are used, 
and where yo yoniwz yonim adhitish/Aaty eka^ refers clearly 
to Brahman. It is equally clear that the prasuta, the son, 
the offspring of Brahman, in the Vedanta sense, can only 
be the same person who is elsewhere called Hirawyagarbha, 



1 Savisesham Brahma, or sabalam Brahma. 

a Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society, 1878, p. 40. 



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INTRODUCTION. XXXIX 



the personified Brahman. Thus we read before, III, 4, 
' He the creator and supporter of the gods, Rudra, the great 
seer (maharshi), the lord of all, formerly gave birth to 
Hirawyagarbha;' and in IV, 11, we have the very expres- 
sion which is used here, namely, 'that he saw Hirawya- 
garbha being born.' Unfortunately, a new adjective is 
applied in our verse to Hirawyagarbha, namely, kapila, 
and this has called forth interpretations totally at variance 
with the general tenor of the Upanishad. If, instead of 
kapilam, reddish, fiery 1 , any other epithet had been used 
of Hirawyagarbha, no one, I believe, would have hesitated 
for a moment to recognise the fact that our text simply 
repeats the description of Hira«yagarbha in his relation 
to Brahman, for the other epithet rishim, like maharshim, 
is too often applied to Brahman himself and to Hira«ya- 
garbha to require any explanation. 

But it is a well known fact that the Hindus, even as early 
as the Brahma#a-period, were fond of tracing their various 
branches of knowledge back to Brahman or to Brahman 
Svayambhu and then through Pra.fapati, who even in the 
Rig-veda (X, 121, 10) replaces Hirawyagarbha, and some- 
times through the Devas, such as Mrityu, Vayu, Indra, 
Agni 2 , &c, to the various ancestors of their ancient families. 

In the beginning of the Muwrfakopanishad we are told 
that Brahman told it to Atharvan, Atharvan to Angir, 
Ahgir to Satyavaha Bharadva^a, Bharadva^a to Angiras, 
Ahgiras to .Saunaka. Manu, the ancient lawgiver, is called 
both Hairawyagarbha and Svayambhuva, as descended from 
Svayambhu or from Hirawyagarbha 3 . Nothing therefore 
was more natural than that the same tendency should have 
led some one to assign the authorship of a great philoso- 
phical system like the Sankhya to Hirawyagarbha, if not 
to Brahman Svayambhu. And if the name of Hirawya- 
garbha had been used already for the ancestors of other 
sages, and the inspirers of other systems, what could be 
more natural than that another name of the same Hirawya- 

1 Other colours, instead of kapila, are ntla, harita, lohitaksha ; see IV, 1; 4. 
' See Vanua-brahmana, ed. Burnell, p. 10; Brihadaranyaka-up. pp. 185, 324. 
8 See M. M., India, p. 372. 



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xl UPANISHADS. 



garbha should be chosen, such as Kapila. If we are told 
that Kapila handed his knowledge to Asuri, Asuri to Pan- 
£&rikha, this again is in perfect keeping with the character 
of literary tradition in India. Asuri occurs in the Vamsas 
of the .Satapatha-brahmawa (see above, pp. 187, 336) ; Tanka- 
jikha 1 , having five tufts, might be either a general name or 
a proper name of an ascetic, Buddhist or otherwise. He is 
quoted in the Sankhya-sutras, V, 32 ; VI, 68. 

But after all this was settled, after Kapila had been 
accepted, like Hirawyagarbha, as the founder of a great 
system of philosophy, there came a reaction. People had 
now learnt to believe in a real Kapila, and when looking out 
for credentials for him, they found them wherever the word 
Kapila occurred in old writings. The question whether 
there ever was a real historical person who took the name 
of Kapila and taught the Sankhya-sutras, does not concern 
us here. I see no evidence for it. What is instructive is 
this, that our very passage, which may have suggested at 
first the name of Kapila, as distinct from Hirawyagarbha 
Kapila, was later on appealed to to prove the primordial 
existence of a Kapila, the founder of the Sankhya philo- 
sophy. However, it requires but a very slight acquaintance 
with Sanskrit literature and very little reflection in order 
to see that the author of our verse could never have dreamt 
of elevating a certain Kapila, known to him as a great 
philosopher, if there ever was such a man, to a divine rank 2 . 
Hira«yagarbha kapila may have given birth to Kapila, the 
hero of the Sankhya philosophers, but Kapila, a real human 
person, was never changed into Hirawyagarbha kapila. 

Let us see now what the commentators say. .Sankara 
first explains kapilam by kanakas 3 kapilavar«am . . . . 
Hira«yagarbham. Kapilo 'gra^a iti pura»ava£anat. Ka- 
pilo Hirawyagarbho va nirdijyate. But he afterwards quotes 
some verses in support of the theory that Kapila was a 



1 For fuller information on Pa££ankha, Kapila, &c, see F. Hall's Preface 
to Sankhya-pravafana-bhashya, p. 9 seq. ; Weber, Ind. Stud. I, p. 433. 

1 Weber, Hist, of Indian Literature, p. 236. 

* This ought to be Kanakavarnam, and I hope will not be identified with the 
name of Buddha in a former existence. 



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INTRODUCTION. xli 



Paramarshi, a portion of Vish«u, intended to destroy error 
in the Krrta Yuga, a teacher of the Sankhya philosophy. 

Vig«anatman explains the verse rightly, and without any 
reference to Kapila, the Sankhya teacher. 

•Sankarananda goes a step further, and being evidently 
fully aware of the misuse that had been made of this 
passage, even in certain passages of the Mahabharata 
(XII, 13254, 13703), and elsewhere, declares distinctly that 
kapila cannot be meant for the teacher of the Sankhya 
(na tu sankhyapraweta kapila^, namamatrasamyena tad- 
graha«e syad atiprasangaA). He is fully aware of the true 
interpretation, viz. avyakrztasya prathamakaryabhutaw 
kapilaw vi£itravar«a/# g «anakriya.raktyatmaka/« Hirawya- 
garbham ityarthaA, but he yields to another temptation, 
and seems to prefer another view which makes Kapila 
Vasudevasyavatarabhutaw* Sagaraputrawaw/ dagdharam, an 
Avatara of Vasudeva, the burner of the sons of Sagara. 
What vast conclusions may be drawn from no facts, may 
be seen in Weber's Indische Studien, vol. i, p. 430, and even 
in his History of Indian Literature, published in 1878. 

Far more difficult to explain than these supposed allu- 
sions to the authors and to the teaching of the Sankhya 
philosophy are the frequent references in the .Svetlsvatara- 
upanishad to definite numbers, which are supposed to point 
to certain classes of subjects as arranged in the Sankhya 
and other systems of philosophy. The Sankhya philosophy 
is fond of counting and arranging, and its very name is 
sometimes supposed to have been chosen because it num- 
bers (sankhya) the subjects of which it treats. It is certainly 
true that if we meet, as we do in the .SVetlrvatara-upani- 
shad, with classes of things 1 , numbered as one, two, three, 
five, eight, sixteen, twenty, forty-eight, fifty and more, and 
if some of these numbers agree with those recognised in 
the later Sankhya and Yoga systems, we feel doubtful as to 
whether these coincidences are accidental, or whether, if not 
accidental, they are due to borrowing on the part of those 
later systems, or on the part of the Upanishads. I feel 



1 See 1,4; 5; VI, 3. 

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xlii UPANISHADS. 



it impossible to come to a decision on this point. Even so 
early as the hymns of the Rig-veda we meet with these 
numbers assigned to days and months and seasons, rivers 
and countries, sacrifices and deities. They clearly prove the 
existence of a considerable amount of intellectual labour 
which had become fixed and traditional before the com- 
position of certain hymns, and they prove the same in the 
case of certain Upanishads. But beyond this, for the 
present, I should not like to go ; and I must say that 
the attempts of most of the Indian commentators at ex- 
plaining such numbers by a reference to later systems of 
philosophy or cosmology, are generally very forced and 
unsatisfactory. 

One more point I ought to mention as indicating the age 
of the .Sveta\yvatara-upanishad, and that is the obscurity of 
many of its verses, which may be due to a corruption of the 
text, and the number of various readings, recognised as 
such, by the commentators. Some of them have been 
mentioned in the notes to my translation. 

The text of this Upanishad was printed by Dr. Roer in 
the Bibliotheca Indica, with Sankara's commentary. I have 
consulted besides, the commentary of Vj^nanatman, the 
pupil of Paramahawsa-parivra^akaMrya-jrfma^-Gnanotta- 
ma£arya, MS. I. O. 1133; and a third commentary, by 
.Sankarananda, the pupil of Paramaha/«sa-parivra£-aka£ar- 
yanandatman, MS. I. 0. 1878. These were kindly lent me 
by Dr. Rost, the learned and liberal librarian of the India 
Office. 

VI. 

PRAS^A-UPANISHAD. 

This Upanishad is called the Pra-rwa or Sha^-prarna- 
upanishad, and at the end of a chapter we find occasionally 
iti prajrtaprativa^anam, i.e. thus ends the answer to the 
question. It is ascribed to the Atharva-veda, and occa- 
sionally to the Pippalada-jakha, one of the most important 
jakhas of that Veda. Pippalada is mentioned in the 
Upanishad as the name of the principal teacher. 

.Sahkara, in the beginning of his commentary, says: 



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INTRODUCTION. xliii 



Mantroktasyarthasya vistaranuvadidam Brahmawam ara- 
bhyate, which would mean 'this Brahma«a is commenced 
as more fully repeating what has been declared in the 
Mantra.' This, however, does not, I believe, refer to a 
Mantra or hymn in the Atharva-veda-sawhita, but to the 
Mu»*/aka-upanishad, which, as written in verse, is some- 
times spoken of as a Mantra, or Mantropanishad. This 
is also the opinion of Anandagiri, who says, ' one might 
think that it was mere repetition (punarukti), if the 
essence of the Self, which has been explained by the 
Mantras, were to be taught here again by the Brahmawa.' 
For he adds, ' by the Mantras " Brahma devanam," &c.,' 
and this is evidently meant for the beginning of the 
Mu«*/aka-upanishad, ' Brahma devanam.' Anandagiri refers 
again to the Mu«</aka in order to show that the Pray^a is 
not a mere repetition, and if 6ankara calls the beginning 
of it a Brahma«a, this must be taken in the more general 
sense of 'what is not Mantra 1 .' Mantropanishad is a name 
used of several Upanishads which are written in verse, and 
some of which, like the ls&, have kept their place in the 
Sazwhitas. 

VII. 

MAITRAYAiVA-BRAHMA^A-UPANISHAD. 

In the case of this Upanishad we must first of all attempt 
to settle its right title. Professor Cowell, in his edition and 
translation of it, calls it Maitri or Maitrayawiya-upanishad, 
and states that i^ belongs to the Maitraya«iya-jakha of the 
Black Yagur-veda, and that it formed the concluding por- 
tion of a lost Brahma#a of that .Sakha, being preceded by 
the sacrificial (karma) portion, which consisted of four books. 

In his MSS. the title varied between Maitry-upanishad 
and Maitrt-jakha-upanishad. A Poona MS. calls it Maitra- 
yawiya-jakha-upanishad, and a MS. copied for Baron von 
Eckstein, Maitraya«iyopanishad. I myself in the Alpha- 
betical List of the Upanishads, published in the Journal of 

1 Mantravyatiriktabhfige tu brahmanasabdaA, Rig-veda, Sayana's Introduction, 
vol. i, p. 23. 



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xllV UPANISHADS. 



the German Oriental Society, called it, No. 104, Maitraya#a 
or Maitri-upanishad, i. e. either the Upanishad of the Maitra- 
yawas, or the Upanishad of Maitri, the principal teacher. 

In a MS. which I received from Dr. Burnell, the title of 
our Upanishad is Maitrayawi-brahmawa-upanishad, varying 
with Maitraya»i-brdhma«a-upanishad, and Sriya^u.rsakha- 
yam Maitraya#iya-brahma«a-upanishad. 

The next question is by what name this Upanishad is 
quoted by native authorities. Vidydrawya, in his Sarvo- 
panishad-artMnubhutipraklfa 1 , v. 1, speaks of the Maitra- 
yawiyan&mnt ya^usht jakha, and he mentions Maitra (not 
Maitri) as the author of that Sakha (w. 55, 150). 

In the Muktika-upanishad 2 we meet with the name of 
Maitr&yawi as the twenty-fourth Upanishad, with the 
name of Maitreyi as the twenty-ninth ; and again, in the 
list of the sixteen Upanishads of the Sama-veda, we find 
Maitraya#i and Maitreyf as the fourth and fifth. 

Looking at all this evidence, I think we should come to 
the conclusion that our Upanishad derives its name from 
the Sakha of the Maitrayawas, and may therefore be called 
Maitr&ya«a-upanishad or Maitrdyawl Upanishad. Maitra- 
ya»a-brahma«a-upanishad seems likewise correct, and 
Maitraya#i-brahma#a- upanishad, like Kaushitaki-brah- 
ma«a-upanishad and Va^asaneyi-sawhitopanishad, might 
be defended, if Maitrayanin were known as a further deri- 
vative of Maitrayawa. If the name is formed from the 
teacher Maitri or Maitra, the title of Maitri-upanishad 
would also be correct, but I doubt whether Maitri-upani- 
shad would admit of any grammatical justification 3 . 

Besides this Maitraya«a-brahma«a-upanishad, however, 
I possess a MS. of what is called the Maitreyopanishad, 
sent to me likewise by the late Dr. Burnell. It is very 
short, and contains no more than the substance of the first 
Prapa/^aka of the Maitrayawa-brahmawa-upanishad. I give 



1 See Cowell, Maitr. Up. pref. p. iv. 

* Calcutta, 1 791 (1869), p. 4; also as quoted in the Mahav&kya-ratnival!, p. 2*. 

» Dr. Burnell, in his Tanjore Catalogue, mentions, p. 35*, a Maitr&yant- 
brahmaaopanishad, which can hardly be a right title, and p. 36* a Maitra- 
ya«iya and Maitreyibrahmana. 



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INTRODUCTION. xlv 



the text of it, as far as it can be restored from the one MS. 
in my possession : 

HariA Om. Brchadratho vai nama ra^a vairkgye putraw 
nidhapayitvedam arlrvatam manyamana^ sariram vaira- 
gyam upeto 'ra«ya*« nir^agama. Sa tatra paramam tapa 1 
adityam udikshama«a tirdhvas tish/Aaty. Ante sahasrasya 
muner antikam a^agama 2 . Atha Brzhadratho brahmavit- 
pravaram munindraw samp(\fya stutva bahujaA prawimam 
akarot. So 'bravtd agnir ivadhtimakas te^asa nirdahann 
ivatmavid Bhagavan &&akayanya, uttish^ottishAfca vara*« 
vr&rfshveti ra^anam abravit 3 . Sa tasmai punar namaskri- 
tyova£a, Bhagavan na(ha)matmavit tvaw tattvavi£ khx- 
jrumo vayam ; sa tva»z no brtihity etad vratam purastad 
arakyam ma prikMa prasnam Aikshvakanyan kaman 
vrwishveti .SakayanyaA. .Sartrasya jartre (sic) £ara«av 
abhimmyamano ra^emawz githa»z ^agada. i 

Bhagavann, asthi^armasnayuma^famawsajuklajomta- 
$reshmlmidashikavi#mfltrapittakaphasa*«ghate d urgandhe 
ni^sare 'smira Marire kim kamabhogaiA. % 

Kamakrodhalobhamohabhayavishadershesh/aviyoganish- 
/asamprayogakshutpipasa^ramr&yurogarokadyair abhiha- 
te 'smin dartre ki*« kamabhogaiA. 3 

Sarvaw ke&am kshayish«u pajyimo yatheme dawuama- 
jakadayas tr/»avan 4 naryata yodbhfltapradhva/«sinaA. 4 

Atha kim etair va pare 'nye dhamartharlr (sic) £akra- 
vartinaA Sudyumnabhtiridyumnakuvalaylsvayauvanlyva- 
vaddh/TyajVclrvapatiA jarabindur harij^andro 'wbarisho 
nanukastvayatir yayatir a«ara«yokshasenadayo maruta- 
bharataprabhrz'tayo ra^ano mishato bandhuvargasya ma- 
hatiw jriyaM tyaktvasmal lokad amwm lokam prayanti. 5. 

Atha kim etair va pare 'nye gandharvasurayaksharaksha- 
sabhtitagawapLra^oragrahadinaw nirodhanam p&jyama^. 6 

Atha kim etair vanyana/« soshatiatn mahar«avanaw 

1 One expects asthaya. 

* This seems better than the Maitrayana text. He went near a Muni, viz. 
Sakayanya. 

* This seems unnecessary. 

4 There may be an older reading hidden in this, from which arose the 
reading of the Maitrayana B. U. trinavanaspatayodbhutapradhvamsinaA, or yo 
bhutapradhvamsinaA. 



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xlvi UPANISHADS. 



.rikhari/zam prapatanaw dhruvasya pra^alanaw vataru»i*« 
nima^yanam prithivy&A sthanapasarawaw surawam. So 
'ham ity etadvidhe 'smin sawsare kim kamopabhogair yair 
evlrritasya sakrz'd avartana/« dmyata ity uddhartum arhasi 
tyandodapanabheka ivaham asmin saw Bhagavas tvaw gatis 
tvaw* no gatir iti. 7 

Ayam 1 agnir valrvanaro yo 'yam anta/* purushe yenedam 
annam pa^yate yad idam adyate tasyaisha ghosho bhavati 
yam etat karwav apidhaya srinoti, sa yadotkramishyan 2 
bhavati naina/« ghosha/« srinoti. 8 

Yatha 3 nirindhano vahni^ svayonav upajamyati. 9* 
Sa sivaA so 'nte vauvanaro bhutva sa dagdhva sarvawi 
bhutani p/Ythivyapsu praltyate 8 , apas te^asi liyante 6 , te^-o 
vayau praltyate 7 , vayur akare viliyate 8 , aklram indriyeshv, 
indriya«i tanmatreshu, tanmatra«i bhutadau viliyante 9 , 
bhutadi mahati viliyate 10 , mahan avyakte viliyate 11 , avyak- 
tam akshare viliyate 12 , aksharam tamasi viliyate 13 , tama 
ekibhavati parasmin, parastan na w san nasan na sad ityetan 
nirva«am amuasanam iti vedanurasanam. 

We should distinguish therefore between the large Maitra- 
ya«a-brahma«a-upanishad and the smaller Maitreyopani- 
shad. The title of Maitreyl-brahmawa has, of course, a 
totally different origin, and simply means the Brahmawa 
which tells the story of Maitreyi 15 . 

As Professor Cowell, in the Preface to his edition and 
translation of the Maitraya«a-brahma«a-upanishad, has 
discussed its peculiar character, I have little to add on that 
subject. I agree with him in thinking that this Upanishad 
has grown, and contains several accretions. The Sanskrit 
commentator himself declares the sixth and seventh chap- 
ters to be Khilas or supplementary. Possibly the Mai- 
treya-upanishad, as printed above, contains the earliest 
framework. Then we have traces of various recensions. 
Professor Cowell (Preface, p. vi) mentions a MS., copied 

1 Maitr. Up. II, 6 ; p. 32. a kramishyan, m. » Yadhfi, m. 

4 Maitr. Up. VI, 34;p. 178. « lipyate. • lipyante. T liyyate. 

• ltyyate. » liyante. 10 liyyate. u lipyate. u liyyate. 

liyyate. " t&nasanna. u See JSTAand. Up. p. 6*3. 



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INTRODUCTION. xlvii 



for Baron Eckstein, apparently from a Telugu original, 
which contains the first five chapters only, numbered as 
four. The verses given in VI, 34 (p. 177), beginning with 
atreme jloka bhavanti, are placed after IV, 3. In my own 
MS. these verses are inserted at the beginning of the fifth 
chapter 1 . Then follows in Baron Eckstein's MS. as IV, 5, 
what is given in the printed text as V, 1, a (pp. 69-76). In 
my own MS., which likewise comes from the South, the 
Upanishad does not go beyond VI, 8, which is called the 
sixth chapter and the end of the Upanishad. 

We have in fact in our Upanishad the first specimen of 
that peculiar Indian style, so common in the later fables 
and stories, which delights in enclosing one story within 
another. The kernel of our Upanishad is really the dialogue 
between the Valakhilyas and Pra^ipati Kratu. This is 
called by the commentator (see p. 331, note) a Vyakhyana, 
i. e. a fuller explanation of the Sutra which comes before, 
and which expresses in the few words, ' He is the Self, this 
is the immortal, the fearless, this is Brahman,' the gist of 
the whole Upanishad. 

This dialogue, or at all events the doctrine which it was 
meant to illustrate, was communicated by Maitri (or Maitra) 
to Sakayanya, and by .Sakayanya to King Bnhadratha 
Aikshvaka, also called Marut (II, 1 ; VI, 30). This dialogue 
might seem to come to an end in VI, 29, and likewise the 
dialogue between Sakayanya and Brz'hadratha ; but it is 
carried on again to the end of VI, 30, and followed after- 
wards by a number of paragraphs which may probably be 
considered as later additions. 

But though admitting all this, I cannot bring myself to 
follow Professor Cowell in considering, as he does, even 
the earlier portion of the Upanishad as dating from a late 
period, while the latter portions are called by him com- 
paratively modern, on account of frequent Vaishwava quo- 
tations. What imparts to this Upanishad, according to my 
opinion, an exceptionally genuine and ancient character, 
is the preservation in it of that peculiar Sandhi which, 

1 See p. 303, note 1 ; p. 305, note 1 ; p. 312, note 1. 

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xlviii UPANISHADS. 



thanks to the labours of Dr. von Schroeder, we now know 
to be characteristic of the Maitrlyawa-jakha. In that Sakha 
final unaccented as and e are changed into a, if the next word 
begins with an accented vowel, except a. Before initial a, 
however, e remains unchanged, and as becomes o, and the 
initial a is sometimes elided, sometimes not. Some of these 
rules, it must be remembered, run counter to Pawini, and 
we may safely conclude therefore that texts in which they 
are observed, date from the time before Pawini. In some 
MSS., as, for instance, in my own MS. of the Maitraya«a- 
brahmawa-upanishad, these rules are not observed, but this 
makes their strict observation in other MSS. all the more 
important. Besides, though to Dr. von Schroeder belongs, 
no doubt, the credit of having, in his edition of the 
Maitrayawi Sawzhita, first pointed out these phonetic pecu- 
liarities, they were known as such to the commentators, 
who expressly point out these irregular Sandhis as dis- 
tinctive of the Maitrayawt jakha. Thus we read Maitr. Up. 
II, 3 (p. 1 8), that tigmate^asa Grdhvaretaso, instead of 
tigmate^asa, is evawwidha eta£&fcakhasanketapa/Aay kkka- 
dasaA sarvatra, i. e. is throughout the Vedic reading indica- 
tory of that particular Sakha, namely, the Maitraya«t. 

A still stranger peculiarity of our Sakha is the change of 
a final t before initial s into H. This also occurs in our 
Upanishad. In VI, 8, we read svin jarirad ; in VI, 27, ya« 
jarirasya. Such a change seems phonetically so unnatural, 
that the tradition must have been very strong to perpetuate 
it among the Maitraya«as. 

Now what is important for our purposes is this, that these 
phonetic peculiarities run through all the seven chapters of 
our Upanishad. This will be seen from the following list : 

I. Final as changed into a before initial vowel 1 : 

II, 3, tigmategaja urdhvaretaso (Comm. eta^Makha- 

sanketapa/^aj MandasaA sarvatra). 
II, 5, vibodha evam. II, 7, avasthita iti. 



1 I have left out the restriction as to the accent of the vowels, because 
they are disregarded in the Upanishad. It should be observed that this peculiar 
Sandhi occurs in the Upanishad chiefly before iti. 



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INTRODUCTION. xl 



IX 



III, 5, etair abhibhuta iti. IV, i, vidyata iti. 

VI, 4, pra«ava iti ; bhumyadaya eko. 

VI, 6, aditya iti ; ahavaniya iti ; surya iti ; ahankara 

iti ; vyana iti. VI, 7, bharga iti. 

VI, 7, sannivish/a iti. VI, 23, deva orikaro. 
VI, 30, prayata iti. VI, 30, vinirgata iti. 

II. Final e before initial vowels becomes a. For 
instance : 

I, 4, dmyata iti. II, 2, nishpadyata iti. 

III, 2, apadyata iti. Ill, 2, pushkara iti. 

IV, 1, vidyata iti. VI, 10, bhunkta iti. 
VI, 20, amuta iti. VI, 30, eka ahur. 

Even pragnhya e is changed to a in — 

VI, 23, eta upasita, i. e. ete uktalakshawe brahma«t. 
In VI, 31, instead of te etasya, the commentator seems to 
have read te va etasya. 

III. Final as before a, u, and au becomes a, and is then 
contracted. For instance : 

I, 4, vanaspatayodbhuta, instead of vanaspataya 
udbhuta. (Comm. SandhLr Mandaso va, ukaro 
vatra lupto drash/avyaA.) 

II, 6, devaushwyam, instead of deva aushwyam. 
(Comm. Sandhu MandasaA.) 

VI, 24, atamavish/am, instead of atama-avish/am 
(Comm. SandhLr Mandasa^); cf. KhknA. Up. 
VI, 8, 3, aranayeti (Comm. visar^ntyalopa^). 

IV. Final e before i becomes a, and is then contracted. 
For instance : 

VI, 7, atma ^aniteti for ^anita iti. (Comm. ^anlte, 

^anati.) 
VI, 28, ava/aiva for avata iva. (Comm. Sandhi- 

vmldhi Mandase.) 

V. Final au before initial vowels becomes a. For in- 
stance: 

II, 6, yena va eta anug^hita iti. 
VI, 22, asa abhidhyata. 
On abhibhuyamanay iva, see p. 295, note 2. 

V, 2, asa atma (var. lect. asav atma). 

C'5] d 



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1 UPANISHADS. 



VI. Final o of atho produces elision of initial a. For 
instance : 

III, 2, atho 'bhibhutatvat. (Comm. SandhLr kkkn- 

dasaA.) Various reading, ato 'bhibhutatvat. 
VI, i, so antar is explained as sa u. 

VII. Other irregularities : 

VI, 7, apo pyayanat, explained by pyayanat and 
apyayanat. Might it be, apo 'py ayanat ? 

VI, 7, atmano tma neta. 

II, 6, so tmanam abhidhyatva. 

VI, 35, dvidharmondham for dvidharmandham. 
(Comm. ^andasa.) 

VI, 35, tefasendham, i.e. te^asa-iddhan. (In explain- 
ing other irregular compounds, too, as in I, 4, the 
commentator has recourse to a ^andasa or pra- 
madika licence.) 

VI, 1, hira/zyavasthat for hirawyavasthat. Here 
the dropping of a in avasthat is explained by 
a reference to Bhaguri (vashri Bhagurir allopam 
avapyor upasargayo^). See Vopadeva III, 171. 

VIII. Virlishtepatha : 

VII, 2, brahmadhiyalambana. (Comm. vLrlishta- 
patha-f Mandasa/z.) 

VI, 35, apyay ahkura for apy ankura. (Comm. 
yakaraA pramadapa;/&ita/z.) 
On the contrary VI, ^^, vltyante for viltyante. 

If on the grounds which we have hitherto examined there 
seems good reason to ascribe the Maitraya/za-brahma«a- 
upanishad to an early rather than to i. late period, possibly 
to an ante-Pa«inean period, we shall hardly be persuaded to 
change this opinion on account of supposed references to 
Vaish«ava or to Bauddha doctrines which some scholars 
have tried to discover in it. 

As to the worship of Vish/zu, as one of the many mani- 
festations of the Highest Spirit, we have seen it alluded to 
in other Upanishads, and we know from the Brahmawas 
that the name of Vishwu was connected with many of the 
earliest Vedic sacrifices. 



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INTRODUCTION. li 



As to Bauddha doctrines, including the very name of 
Nirvawa (p. xlvi, 1. 19), we must remember, as I have often 
remarked, that there were Bauddhas before Buddha. Bn'ha- 
spati, who is frequently quoted in later philosophical writings 
as the author of an heretical philosophy, denying the au- 
thority of the Vedas, is mentioned by name in our Upanishad 
(VII, 9), but we are told that this Bn'haspati, having become 
6ukra, promulgated his erroneous doctrines in order to mis- 
lead the Asuras, and thus to insure the safety of Indra, i.e. of 
the old faith. 

The fact that the teacher of King Bn'hadratha in our 
Upanishad is called .Sakayanya, can never be used in sup- 
port of the idea that, being a descendant of Saka 1 , he must 
have been, like Sakyamuni, a teacher of Buddhist doctrines. 
He is the very opposite in our Upanishad, and warns his 
hearers against such doctrines as we should identify with 
the doctrines of Buddha. As I have pointed out on several 
occasions, the breaking through the law of the Ajramas is . 
the chief complaint which orthodox Brahmans make against 
Buddhists and their predecessors, and this is what .Saka- 
yanya condemns. A Brahman may become a Sannyasin, 
which is much the same as a Buddhist Bhikshu, if he has 
first passed through the three stages of a student, a house- 
holder, and a Vanaprastha. But to become a Bhikshu 
without that previous discipline, was heresy in the eyes of 
the Brahmans, and it was exactly that heresy which the 
Bauddhas preached and practised. That this social laxity 
was gaining ground at the time when our Upanishad was 
written is clear (see VII, 8). We hear of people who wear red 
dresses (like the Buddhists) without having a right to them ; 
we even hear of books, different from the Vedas, against 
which the true Brahmans are warned. All this points to 
times when what we call Buddhism "was in the air, say the 
sixth century B. c, the very time to which I have always 
assigned the origin of the genuine and classical Upanishads. 

The Upanishads are to my mind the germs of Buddhism, 

1 Sakayanya means a grandson or further descendant of Saka; see Ganaratnli- 
vall (Baroda, 1874), p. 57". 

d2 



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Hi UPANISHADS. 



while Buddhism is in many respects the doctrine of the 
Upanishads carried out to its last consequences, and, what is 
important, employed as the foundation of a new social 
system. In doctrine the highest goal of the Vedanta, the 
knowledge of the true Self, is no more than the Buddhist 
Samyaksambodhi ; in practice the Sannyasin is the Bhikshu, 
the friar, only emancipated alike from the tedious discipline 
of the Brahmanic student, the duties of the Brahmanic 
householder, and the yoke of useless penances imposed on 
the Brahmanic dweller in the forest. The spiritual freedom 
of the Sannyasin becomes in Buddhism the common pro- 
perty of the Sangha, the Fraternity, and that Fraternity is 
open alike to the young and the old, to the Brahman and 
the Sudra, to the rich and the poor, to the wise and the 
foolish. In fact there is no break between the India of 
the Veda and the India of the Tripi/aka, but there is an 
historical continuity between the two, and the connecting 
link between extremes that seem widely separated must 
be sought in the Upanishads 1 . 

F. MAX MULLER. 
Oxford, February, 1884. 



1 As there is room left on this page, I subjoin a passage from the Abhi- 
dharma-kosha-vyakhyl, ascribed to the Bhagavat, but which, as far as style and 
thonght are concerned, might be taken from an Upanishad : Uktant hi Bhaga- 
vata : Prithivt bho Gautama kutra pratishMita ? Pn'thivi Brahmana abmanrfale 
pratishrtita. Abmanrfalam bho Gautama kva pratish'Aitam ? Vayau pratish- 
Mitam. Vayur bho Gautama kva pratishlAitaA ? Akase pratish/AitaA. Akasam 
bho Gautama kutra pratishfAitam? Atisarasi Mahabrahmana, atisarasi Maha- 
brahmana. Akasam Brahmanapratish/Aitam, analambanam iti vistaraA. Tas- 
mad asty akasam iti VaibhashikaA. (See B«had-Ar. Up. Ill, 6, 1. Burnouf, 
Introduction a l'histoire du Buddhisme, p. 449O 

' For it is said by the Bhagavat : " O Gautama, on what does the earth rest?" 
"The earth, O Brahmana, rests on the sphere of water." "O Gautama, on 
what does the sphere of water rest?" "It rests on the air." "O Gautama, on 
what does the air rest?" "It rests on the ether (akasa)." "O Gautama, on 
what does the ether rest?" "Thou goest too far, great Brahmana; thou 
goest too far, great Brahmana. The ether, O Brahmana, does not rest. It 
has no support" Therefore the Vaibh£shikas hold that there is an ether,' &c. 



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KA77£A-UPANISHAD. 



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KA77/A-UPANISHAD. 



FIRST ADHYAYA. 

First VallJ. 
i. VAgasravasa 1 , desirous (of heavenly rewards), 
surrendered (at a sacrifice) all that he possessed. He 
had a son of the name of Na&ketas. 

2. When the (promised) presents were being given 
(to the priests), faith entered into the heart of Naii- 
ketas, who was still a boy, and he thought : 

3. 'Unblessed 2 , surely, are the worlds to which 
a man goes by giving (as his promised present at a 
sacrifice) cows which have drunk water, eaten hay, 
given their milk 3 , and are barren.' 

4. He (knowing that his father had promised 
to give up all that he possessed, and therefore his 
son also)>said to his father : ' Dear father, to whom 
wilt thou give me ?' 

1 VS^ajravasa is called Arum Auddalaki Gautama, the father of 
Na&ketas. The father of -Svetaketu, another enlightened pupil 
(see A'Aand. Up. VI, 1, 1), is also called Arum (Udd&laka, comm. 
Kaush. Up. 1, 1) Gautama. Svetaketu himself is called Arcweya, 
i. e. the son of Arum, the grandson of Aru«a; and likewise Audda- 
laki. Auddalaki is a son of Uddalaka, but .Sahkara (Ka/A.Up. 1, 1 1) 
takes Auddalaki as possibly the same as Uddalaka. See Brih. kx. 
Up. Ill, «, 1. 

* As to ananda, unblessed, see Brih. Ar. Up. IV, 4, 1 1 ; Va^as. 
Sawh. Up. 3 (Sacred Books of the East, vol. i, p. 311). 

9 Anandagiri explains that the cows meant here are cows no 
longer able to drink, to eat, to give milk, and to calve. 



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KArffA-UPANISHAD. 



He said it a second and a third time. Then the 
father replied (angrily) : 

' I shall give thee * unto Death.' 

(The father, having once said so, though in haste, 
had to be true to his word and to sacrifice his son.) 

5. The son said : ' I go as the first, at the head 
of many (who have still to die) ; I go in the midst 
of many (who are now dying). What will be the 
work of Yama (the ruler of the departed) which 
to-day he has to do unto me' 2 ? 

1 Dad&mi, I give, with the meaning of the future. Some MSS. 
write dasyami. 

2 I translate these verses freely, i. e. independently of the commen- 
tator, not that I ever despise the traditional interpretation which the 
commentators have preserved to us, but because I think that, after 
having examined it, we have a right to judge for ourselves. .Sankara 
says that the son, having been addressed by his father full of anger, 
was sad, and said to himself: 'Among many pupils I am the first, 
among many middling pupils I am the middlemost, but nowhere am 
I the last. Yet though I am such a good pupil, my father has said 
that he will consign me unto death. What duty has he to fulfil toward 
Yama which he means to fulfil to-day by giving me to him ? There 
may be no duty, he may only have spoken in haste. Yet a father's 
word must not be broken.' Having considered this, the son com- 
forted his father, and exhorted him to behave like his forefathers, and 
to keep his word. I do not think this view of .Sankara' s could have 
been the view of the old poet. He might have made the son say that 
he was the best or one of the best of his father's pupils, but hardly 
that he was also one of his middling pupils, thus implying that he 
never was among the worst. That would be out of keeping with the 
character of Na&ketas, as drawn by the poet himself. Na£iketas is 
full of faith and wishes to die, he would be the last to think of 
excuses why he should not die. The second half of the verse may 
be more doubtful. It may mean what .Sankara thinks it means, only 
that we should get thus again an implied complaint of Na/Jiketas 
against his father, and this is not in keeping with his character. The 
mind of Naftketas is bent on what is to come, on what he will see 
after death, and on what Yama will do unto him. ' What has Yama 
to do,' he asks, 'what can he do, what is it that he will to-day do unto 



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i adhyAya, i vallI, 9. 3 

6. ' Look back how it was with those who came 
before, look forward how it will be with those' who 
come hereafter. A mortal ripens like corn, like 
corn he springs up again V 

(Na&ketas enters into the abode of Yama Vai- 
vasvata, and there is no one to receive him. 
Thereupon one of the attendants of Yama is sup- 
posed to say :) 

7. ' Fire enters into the houses, when a Brahma»a 
enters as a guest 2 . That fire is quenched by this 
peace-offering ; — bring water, O Vaivasvata H 

8. 'A Brahmawa that dwells in the house of a 
foolish man without receiving food to eat, destroys 
his hopes and expectations, his possessions, his 
righteousness, his sacred and his JK»od deeds, and 
all his sons and cattle *.' 

(Yama, returning to his house aftST an absence 
of three nights, during which time Na&ketas had 
received no hospitality from him, says :) 

9. ' O Brahmawa, as thou, a venerable guest, hast 
dwelt in my house three nights without eating, 

me ?' This seems to me consistent with the tfl Bcthe ancient story, 
while .Sankara's interpretations and interpolates savour too much 
of the middle ages of India. 

1 Sasya, corn rather than grass ; tta, ifiov, Benfey ; Welsh haidd, 
according to Rhys ; different from .rash-pa, ces-pes, Benfey. 

* Cf. Vasish/Aa XI, 13 ; Sacred Books of the East, vol. xiv, p. 51. 

3 Vaivasvata, a name of Yama, the ruler of the departed. Water 
is the first gift to be offered to a" stranger who claims hospitality. 

* Here again some words are translated differently from Saftkara. 
He explains &r & as asking for a wished-for object, pratikshi as look- 
ing forward with a view to obtaining an unknown object. Sahgata 
he takes as reward for intercourse with good people; sun/7'ta, as 
usual, as good and kind speech; ish/a as rewards for sacrifices; 
purta as rewards for public benefits. 

B 2 



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KA7WA-UPANISHAD. 



ft 



therefore choose now three boons. Hail to thee! 
and welfare to me!' 

10. Na&ketas said : ' O Death, as the first of the 
three boons I choose that Gautama, my father, be. 
^) pacified, kind, and free from anger towards me ; and . 
v thctt*he may'-knaw-fa* and-. greet me* when* I shaft* 
have been dismissed by thee.' 

ii. Yama said: 'Through my favour Auddalaki 
Arum, thy father, will know thee, and be again towards 
thee as he was before. He shall sleep peacefully 
through the night, and free from anger, after having ^ 
seen thee freed from the'mouth of death.' |J 

1 2. Na&ketas said : ' In the heaven-world there is 
no fear ; thou art not there, O Death, and no one is 

L. afraid on account of old age. Leaving behind both 
hunger and thirst, and out of the reach of sorrow, all 
rejoice in the world of heaven.' 

13. 'Thou knowest, O Death, the fire-sacrificef *) 
which lead* us to heaven ; tell it to me, for I am 
full of faitfc^Those who live in the heaven-world 
reach immortality ,-+- this I ask as my second boon.' 

14. YantaNtiid : ' I tell it thee, learn it from me, *! 
and when thou understandest that fire-sacrifice which < 1 
leads to heaven, know, O Naiiketas, that it is the 
attainment of the endless worlds, and their firm sup- 
port, hidden in darkness V 

15. Yama then told him that .fire-sacrifice, the 

beginning of all the worlds 2 , and what bricks are 

* 1 . 

1 The commentator translates: *I tell it thee, attend to me who 
knows the heavenly fire.' Here the nom. sing, of the participle 
would be very irregular, as we can hardly refer it to bravimi. Then^;> 
' Know this fire as a means of obtaining the heavenly world, knAspii 
that fire as the rest or support of the world, when it assumes ;the^ '■>'-. 
form of Vira^, and as hidden in the heart of men.' 

2 .Sankara : the first embodied, in the shape of Vira^. 



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I ADHYAYA, I VALLf, 21. 



required for the altar, and how many, and how they 
are to be placed. And Na&ketas repeated all as it 
had been told to him. Then MWtyu, being pleased 
with him, said again : 

1 6, The generous 1 ^ being satisfied, said to him : > 
' I give thee now another boon ; that fire-sacrifice 
shall be named after thee, take also this many- 
coloured chain 2 .' ♦ 

17. ' -He who has three times performed this Na& - 
Jceta-rite.^and has been united with the three (father, j 
mother, and teacher), and has performed the tHree 
dutie^J^sjtudy^^sacnfic^^ljnj^iy^ Jnrth 
and j ieath. When he has learnt and understood J' 
•this fire, which knows (or makes us know) all/that is 
born of Brahman 8 , which is venerable andi divinej, 
then he obtains everlasting peace,' 

18/ ' He w,ho knows the three Na&keta fires, and 
knowingthe jhree, piles up the Na&keta sacrifice, he, 
having first. thrown off the chains of death, rejoices 
in the Wj9rld of heaven, beyond the reach of grief.' 

19. 'jjFhis, O Na^iketas, is thy fire which leads 
to heaveii, and which thou hast chosen as thy second 
boon. That fire all men will proclaim 4 . Choose now, 
O' Na^iketas, thy third boon.' 

20. Na^iketafe said : ' There is that doubt, when a 
man is dead, — some saying, he is ; others, he is not. 
This I should like to know, taught by thee ; this is 

the third of my boons.' 1 > -^ 

21. Death said: 'On this point even the gods (jj 

1 Verses 16-18 seem a later addition. 

8 This arises probably from a misunderstanding of verse II, 3. 
8 G&tavedas. 

* Tavaiva is a later addition, caused by the interpolation of 
verses 15-18. 



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KAFffA-UPANISHAD. 



have doubted 'formerly ; it is not easy to understand. 
That subject is subtle. Choose another boon, O 
Na^iketas, do not press me, and let me off that 
boon.' 

22. Naiiketas said: 'On this point even the gods 
have doubted indeed, and thou, Death, hast declared- 
it to be not easy to understand, and another teacher 
like thee is not to be found : — surely no other boon* • 
is like unto this.' 

23. Death said : 'Choose sons and grandsons who 
shall live a hundred years, herds of cattle, elephants, 
gold, and horses. Choose the wide abode of the 
earth, and live thyself as many harvests as thou 
desirest.' 

24. 'If you can think of any boon equal to that, 
choose wealth, and long life. Be (king), Naiiketas, 
on the wide earth 1 . I make thee the enjoyer of 
all desires.' 

25. ' Whatever desires are difficult to attain among 
mortals, ask for them according to thy wish ; — these 
fair maidens with their chariots and musical instru- 
ments, — such are indeed not to be obtained by 
men, — be waited on by them whom I give to thee, 
but do not ask me about dying.' 

26. Naiiketas said : ' These things last till to- 
morrow, O Death, for they wear out this vigour of 
all the senses. Even the whole of life is short. Keep 
thou thy horses, keep dance and song for thyself.' 

27. ' No man can be made happy by wealth. Shall < 
we possess wealth, when we see thee ? Shall we live, * 

1 Mablbhumau, on the great earth, has been explained also by 
mah& bhumau, be great on the earth. It is doubtful, however, 
whether mahsl for mahin could be admitted in the Upanishads, and 
whether it would not be easier to write mah&n bhumau. 



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I ADHYAYA, I VALLf, 29. 



as long as thou rulest ? Only that boon (which I 
have chosen) is to be chosen by me.' 

28. • What mortal, slowly decaying here below, and 
knowing, after having approached them, the freedom 
from decay enjoyed by the immortals, would delight 
in a long life, after he has pondered on the pleasures 
which arise from beauty and love 1 ?' 
. 29. ' No, that on which there is this doubt, O Death, 
tell us what the re is in tha t great Herea fter. Na£i- 
•ketas does not choose another boon but that which 
enters into the hidden wprld.' 



1 A very obscure verse. .Sankara gives a various reading kva 
tad&sthaA for kvadha^sthaA,in the sense of 'given to these pleasures,' 
which looks like an emendation. I have changed a^iryatam into 
ag&ryatam, and take it for an ace. sing., instead of a gen. plur., 
which could hardly be governed by upetya. 



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KArffA-UPANISHAD. 



Second VallJ. 

i . Death said : ' The goo d is one thing, the pleasant 
/another ; these two, having different objects, chain 
a man. It is well with him who clings to the good ; 
\he who chooses the pleasant, misses his end.' " • 

2. ' The good and the pleasant approach man :• 
the wise goes round about them and distinguishes 
them. Yea, the wise prefers the good to the 
pleasant, but the fool chooses the pleasant through 
greed and avarice.' 

3. ' Thou, O Na&ketas, after pondering all plea- 
sures that are or seem delightful, hast dismissed 
them all. Thou hast not gone into, the road 1 that 
leadeth to wealth, in which" many men perish.' 

4. 'Wide apart and leading to different points are 
these two, ignorance, and what is known as wisdom. 
I believe Na&ketas to be one who desires know- 
ledge, for even many pleasures did not tear thee 
away 2 .' 

<A 5- ' Fools dwelling in darkness, wise in their own 
conceit, and puffed up with vain knowledge, go 
round and round, staggering to and fro, like blind 
men led by the blind *.'. . _; 

/ 6. ' The H ereafter never rises before the eyes of 
/the careless child, deluded by the delusion of wealth. 
"This is the world," he thinks, "there is no other ;" — 
thus he falls again and again under my sway.' 

7. ' He (the Self) of whom many are not even able 

r - » Cf. 1, 16. 

* The commentator explains lolupantaA by vtttkedam kr/'tavan- 
taA. Some MSS. read lolupante and lolupanti, but one expects 
either lolupyante or lolupati 

3 Cf. Mum* Up. II, 8." 



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i adhyAya, 2 VALLt, II. 



tq hear, •whom many, even when they hear of him, 
do not comprehend ; wonderful is a man, when found, 
who is able to teach him (the Self) ; wonderful is 
he who comprehends him, when taught by an able 
teacher V 

8. ' That (Self), when taught by an inferior man, 
is not easy to be known, even though often thought 
upon 2 ; unless it be taught by another, there is no 
way to it, for it is inconceivably smaller than what / 
is small 3 .' 

9. ' That doctrine is not to be obtained 4 by argu- 
ment, but when it is declared by another, then, O 
dearest, it is easy to understand. Thou hast obtained 
it now 5 ; thou art truly a man of true resolve. May 
We have always an inquirer like thee'! ' 

10. Na&ketas said : ' I know that what is called a 
treasure' is transient,\ior that eternal is not obtained 
by "things which are not eternal^ Hence the Na&- 
keta fire(-sacrifice) has been laidJsy me (first) ; then-, 
by means of transient things, I have obtained what 
is not transient (the teaching of Yama) 7 .' 

1 1. Yama said : ' Though thou hadst seen the 
fulfilment of all desires, the foundation of the world, 
the endless rewards of good deeds, the shore where 

1 Cf. Bhag?GM II, 29. a Cf. Mmd. Up. II, 4. 

1$ » 1 rea( i awupramawat. Other interpretations: If it is taught by 
*■ one who is identified with the Self, then there is no uncertainty. If 
it has been taught as identical with ourselves, then there is no per- 
ception of anything else. If it has been taught by one who is 
identified with it, then there is no failure in understanding it (agati). 

* Apaneyt; should it be ipanaya, as afterwards su^wSnaya? 
8 Because you insist on my teaching it to thee. 

• Unless no is negative, for Yama, at first, does not like to com- 
municate his knowledge. 

7 The words in parentheses have been added in order to remove 
the otherwise contradictory character of the two lines. 



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' / 



IO KArffA-UPANISHAD. * 

there is no fear, that which «> magnified by prai§e, 
the wide abode, the rest \ yet being wise thou hast 
with firm resolve dismissed it all.' 

12.' The wise who, by means of meditation on his 

•Self, recognises the Ancient, who is difficult to be 

seen, who has entered into the dark, who is hidden 

in the cave, who dwells in the abyss, as God, he 

indeed leaves joy and sorrow far behind 2 .' 

13. 'A mortal who has heard this and embraced 
it, who has separated from it all qualities, and has 
thus reached the subtle Being, rejoices, because he 
has obtained what is a cause for rejoicing. The 
house (of Brahman) is open, I believe, O Na&ketas.' 

14. Na&ketas said: 'That which thou seest as 
neither this nor that, as neither effect nor cause, as 
neither past nor future, tell me that.' . 

1 5. Yama said : ' That word (or place) which all - 
the Vedas record, which all penances proclaim, which 
men desire when they live as religious students, that 
word I tell ttiee briefly, it is QmJL' 

16. 'That (imperishable) syllable means Brahman, 
that syllable means the highest (Brahman); he who 
knows that syllable, whatever he desires/is his.' 

1 7. ' This is the best support, thte is the highest 
support; he who knows that support is magnified 
in the world of Brahma.' 

18. ' The knowing (Self) is not born, it dies not; 
it sprang from nothing, nothing sprang from it. The 



1 Cf. .ffMnd. Up. VII, 12, 2. 

2 Yama seems here to propound the lower Brahman only, not yet 
the highest. Deva, God, can only be that as what the Old, i. e. the 
Self in the heart, is to be recognised. It would therefore mean, he 
who finds God or the Self in his heart. See afterwards, verse 21. 

8 Cf. Svet. Up. IV, 9; Bhag. GitS VIII, n. 



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I ADHYAYA, 2 VALLl, 25. II 

Ancient is unborn, eternal, everlasting ; he is not 
killed, though the body is killed V 

19. ' If the killer thinks that he kills, if the killed 
thinks that he is killed, they do not understand ; for 
this one does not kill, nor is that one killed.' 

20. 'The Self 2 , smaller than small, greater than 
great, is hidden ,m the heart of that creature. A 
man who is free from desires and free from grief, sees 
the majesty of the Self by the grace of the Creator V 

21.' Though sitting stilj, he walks far; though lying t 
down, he_goes everywhere *. Who, save myself, is able j 
to know thatXiod who rejoices and rejoices' not ? ' 

22. ' The wise who knows the Self as bodiless 
within the bodjes^ as unchanging among changing 
things, as great and omnipresent, does never grieve.' 

^' ' Tfe W?5 J! L? / a nnot 6eIgainMZ&y_the, Yfida, 
nor_J?y ^^^^^^^^g, nor by much learning. He 
w hom the Self chooses, J byJ]Km^"th e~5elf can be ; 
gained. The Self chooses him (his body) as his own.' 

2,4. ' But he "who has not first turned away from 
his wickedness, who is not tranquil, and subdued, 
or whose mind is not at rest, he can never obtain 
the Self- ( e ven) by Jcnowledge.' 

25. 'Who then knows where He is, He to whom 
the Brahmans and Ksbatriyas are (as it were) but 

food 6 , and death itself a condiment ?' 

•> 

1 As to verses 18 and 19, see Bhag. GM II, 19, 20. 

8 Cf. Svet. Up. Ill, 20; Taitt. Ar. X, 12, 1. 

s The commentator translates 'through the tranquillity of the 
senses,' i. e. dhatuprasdddt, taking prasdda in the technical sense 
of samprasSda. As to kratu, desire, or rather, will, 'see Bn"h. Ar. 
IV, 4, 6- 

4 Cf. Tal. Up. 5. 

• Cf. I, 7-9 ; Mund. Up. Ill, 2, 3 ; Bhag. Giti I, 53. 

6 In whom all disappears, and in whom even death is swallowed up. 




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)/ 



12 KArHA-UPANISHAD. 

Third VallI. 

i . ' There are the two \ drinking their reward in 
the world of their own works, entered into the cave 
(of the heart), dwelling on the highest summit (the 
ether in the heart). Those who know Brahman call 
them shade and light ; likewise, those householders 
^ who perform the Tri«aiiketa sacrifice.' 

2. ' May we be able to master that Ni^iketa rite 

which is a bridge for sacrificers ; also that which is 

the highest, imperishable Brahman for those who 

wish to cross over to the fearless shore V 

5 3. ' Know the Self to be sitting in the chariot, 

I iffy the body to be the chariot, the intellect (buddhi) 

', \r the charioteer, and the mind the reins V 

4. ' The senses they call the horses, the objects of 
the senses their roads. When he (the Highest Self) 
is in union with the body, the senses, and the mind, 

..then wise people call him the Enjoyert' 

5. 'He who has no understanding and whose mind 

1 The two are explainedaj fhrhifhrr and log er Brahman, the 
former being the lighr^tfielatter the shadow<*?/ta is explained 
as reward, and connected with sukrz'ta, lit. good deeds, but fre- 
quently used in the sense of svakn'ta, one's own good and evil 
deeds. The difficulty is, how the highest Brahman can be said to 
drink the reward (rjtapa) of former deeds, as it is above all works and 
above all rewards. The commentator explains it away as a meta- . 
phorical expression, as we often speak of many, when we mean one. * 
(Cf. Mund. Up. Ill, 1, 1.) I have joined sukr/tasya with loke, loka 
meaning the world, i. e. the state, the environment, which we made 
to ourselves by our former deeds. 

2 These two verses may be later additions. 
* The simile of the chariot has some points of similarity with the 

well-known passage in Plato's Phsedros, but Plato did not borrow 
this simile from the Brahmans, as little as Xenophon need have 
consulted our Upanishad (II, 2) in writing his prologue of Prodikos. 



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i adhyAya, 3 vallI, 14. 13 

(the reins) is never firmly held, his senses (horses) are 
unmanageable, like vicious horses of a charioteer.' 

6. ' But he who has understanding and whose mind 1 
is always firmly held, his senses are under control, ' 
like good horses of a charioteer.' 

7. ' He who has no understanding, who is unmind- / 
ful and always impure, never reaches that place, but 
enters into the round of births.' 

8. ' But he who has understanding, who is mindful 1 
and always pure, reaches indeed that place; from 1 
whence he is not born again.' 

9. ' But he^ who- has understanding for his cha- . 
rioteer, and who holds the reins of the mind, he-' 
reaches the end of his journey, and that is the/ 
highest place of V ishmi / / 

v 10.' Beyond the senses there are thejahjects, beyond. - 
the objects there is thejnind, beyond the mind there, 
is the intellect, the Great Self is beyond the intellect/ 

i\. ' Beypnd the Great there is the Undeveloped, 
beyond thi Undeveloped there is the Person 
(purusha). ^evond. t he^S yson there is nothing — 
thisjgjhe giklniie Iugnest road.' 

i2/^*hat>elf is hidden in all beings and does not 
shine forth, but it is seen by subtle seers through 
their sharp and subtle^ intellect.' 

13* 'A wiseTnan should keep down speech and 
mind 1 ; he should keep- them within the Self which 
is knowledge ; he should keep knowledge witftuh* 
Sel f which is i he-Great ; and he should keep that 
(the Great) within the Self which is the Quiet.' 
i^-v ^.J 14. 'Rise, awake! having obtained your boons 2 , 

1 .Sankara interprets, he should keep down speech in the mind. 
* Comm., excellent teachers. 



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14 KATffA-UPANISHAD. 



/ 



understand them ! The sharp edge of a razor is 
difficult to pass over ; thus the wise say the path (to 
the Self) is hard.' 

15. 'He who has perceived that which is without 
sound, without touch, without form, without decay, 
without taste, eternal, without smell, without begin- 
ning, without end, beyond the Great, .and unchange- 
able, is freed from the jaws of death.' 

16. 'A wise man who has repeated or heard the 
ancient story of Na&ketas told by Death, is magni- 
fied in the world of Brahman.' 

17. ' And he who repeats this greatest mystery in 
an assembly of Brahmans, or full of devotion at the 
time of the .Sraddha sacrifice, obtains thereby infinite 
rewards.' 



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ii adhyAya, 4 vallI, 6. 15 



SECOND ADHYAYA; 

Fourth Valli". 

4 

1. Death said: 'The Self-existent pierced the 
openings (of the senses) so that they turn forward: 
therefore matr looks forward, not backward into 
himself. > Some^ wise man, however, with his eyes 
closed and wishing for immortality, saw the Self 
behind.' 

2. ' Children follow after outward pleasures, and \ 
fall into the snare of wide-spread death. Wise men / 
only, knowing the nature of what is immortal, do 
not. look for anything stable here among things 
unstable.' 

3. ' That by which we know form, taste, smell, 
sounds, and loving touches, by that also we know 
what exists besides^ This -is that (which thou hast 
asked for).' *" 

4. ' The wise, when he knows that that by which ^ 
he perceives all objects in sleep or in waking is the 
great omnipresent Self, grieves no more.' 

5. 'He who knows this living soul, which eafs- 
honey (perceives objects) as being the Self, always , 
near, the Lord of the past and the future, hence- 
fqrward fears no more. This is that.' 

6. ' He who (knows) him 1 who was born first from 

1 The first manifestation of Brahman, commonly called Hirawya- 
garbha, which springs from the tapas of Brahman. Afterwards only 
water and the rest of the elements become manifested. The text of 
these verses is abrupt, possibly corrupt. The two accusatives, 
tish/6antam and tish/Aantim, seem to me to require veda to be 
supplied from verse 4. 



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V 



1 6 KAJ-ffA-UPANISHAD. 

the brooding heat 1 (for he was born before the water), 
who, entering into the heart, abides therein, and was 
perceived from the elements. This is that.' 

7. '(He who knows) Aditi also, who is one with 
all deities, who arises with Pra«a (breath or Hira«ya-. 
garbha), who, entering into the heart, abides therein, 
and was born from the elements. This is that.' 

8. ' There is Agni (fire), the all-seeing, hidden in 
thle two fire-sticks, well-guarded like a child (in the 
womb) by_the mother, day after day to be adored by 
men when they awake and bring oblations. This 
is that.' 

9. 'And that whence the sun rises, and whither 
it goes to set, there all the Devas are contained, and 
no one goes beyond. This is that 2 .' 

f 10. ' What is here (visible in the world), the same 
is there (invisible in Brahman) ; and .what is there,* 
the same is here. He who sees any. difference here 
(between Brahman and the world), goes from death 
to death.' 

11. 'lyven by the mind this (Brahman) is to be 
obtained, and then there is rio difference whatsoever. 
He goes from death to death who sees any difference 
here.' 

12.' The person (purusha), of the size of. a thumb 8 , 
stands in the middle of the Self (body?), as lord 6f 
the past and the future, and henceforward fears 
no more. This is that' 

1 3. ' That person, of the size of a thumb, is like 
a light without smoke, lord of the past and the 
future, he is the same to-day and to-morrow. This 
is that.' 

1 Cf. sr/sh/ikraraa. » Cf. V, 8. 

8 <SVet. Up. Ill, 13. 



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ii adhyAya, 4 vall!, 15. 17 

14. 'As rain-water that has fallen on a mountain- 
ridge runs down the rocks on all sides, thus does he, 
who sees a difference between, qualities, run after 
them on all sides.' 

15. ' As pure water poured into pu re water remains 
thj^sa^m^lluisjQ^ajitajna^is the Self of_a thinker 
who knows.' 




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1 8 Y.ATH A-UPANISHAD. 



Fifth Vall!. 

i. ' There is a town with eleven x gates belonging 
to the Unborn (Brahman), whose thoughts are never 
crooked. He who approaches it, grieves no more, 
and liberated (from all bonds of ignorance) becomes 
free. This is that.' 

2. ' He (Brahman) 2 is the swan (sun), dwelling in the- 
bright heaven ; he is the Vasu (air), dwelling in the / 
sky ; he is the sacrificer (fire), dwelling on the hearth/ 
he is the guest (Soma), dwelling in the sacrificial jar,; 
he dwells in men, in gods (vara), in the sacrifice (rz'ta), 
in heaven ; he is born in the water, on earth, in the 
sacrifice {rite), on the mountains ^ he is the True 
and the Great.' 

3. ' He (Brahman) it is who sends up the breath 
(pra«a), and who throws back the breath (apana). 
All the Devas (senses) worship him, the adorable (or 
the dwarf), who sits in the centre.' 

4. 'When that incorporated (Brahman), who dwells 
\ in the body, is torn away and freed from the body, 

what remains then ? This is that.' 

5. 'No mortal lives by the breath that goes up and 
by the breath that goes down. We live. by another, 
in whom these twtf* repose.' 

6. ' Well then, O Gautama, I shall tell thee this 
' mystery, the old Brahman, and what happens to the 

Self, after reaching death.' 

1 Seven apertures in the head, the navel, two below, and the one 
at the top of the head through which the Self escapes. Cf. Svet. 
Up. Ill, 18; Bhag. GitaV,i 3 . 

4 Cf. Rig-veda IV, 40, 5. 






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ii adhyAya, 5 vallI, 13. 19 

7. ' Some enter the womb in order to have a body, 
as organic beings, others go into inorganic matter, 
according to their work and according to their 
knowledge V * > 

8. £j-Ie, the highest Person, who is awake in us 
while we are asleep, shaping one lovely sight after 
another, that indeed is the Bright, that is Brahman, 
that alone is called the Immortal.} All worlds are 
contained in it, and no one goes beyond. This 
is that V 

9. ' As the one fire, after it has entered the world, 
though one, becomes different according to whateyer 1 
it burns, thus the one Self within all things becomes),' 
different, according to whatever Jt enters, and existsv 
also without V 

10. ' As the one air, after it has entered the world, 
though, one, becomes different according to whatever *<" 
it enters, thus the one Self within all things becomes 
different, according to whatever it enters, and exists 
also without.' 

11. ' As the sun, the eye of the whole world, is not 
contaminated by the external impurities seen by the 
eyes, thus the one Self within all things is never ( 
contaminated by the misery of the world, being 
himself without V 

12. ' There is one ruler, the Self within all things, 
who makes the one form manifold. The wise who 
perceive him within their Self, to them belongs | 
eternaj happiness, not to others V * • 

1 3. ' There is one eternal thinker, thinking non- \S 

1 Cf. Brch. Ar. II, 2, 13. " Cf. IV, 9; VI, 1. 

• Cf. Brih. Ax. H, 5, 19. * Cf. Bhag. Gitd XIII, 54. 

6 Cf. <Svet. Up.VI, 12. 

C 2 



V 



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20 KA2*HA-UPANISHAD. 

eternal thoughts, who, though one, fulfils the desires p 
of many. The wise who perceive him within their 
Self, to them belongs eternal peace, not to others V 

14. ' They perceive that highest indescribable x 
pleasure, saying, This is that. How then can 1,1} \ 
understand it ? a Has it its own light, or does it \- 
reflect light ? ' 

15. ' The sun does not shine there, nor the moon 
and the stars, nor these lightnings, and much less 
this fire. When he shines, everything shines after 
him; ]jyhis lightall this is lighted 2 .' 

1 Cf. Svet. Up. VI, 13. 

2 Cf.^Vet.Up.VI,i4; MuW. Up. II, 2, 10 ; Bhag. Glti XV, 6. 



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II ADHYAYA, 6 VALL?, 4. 21 



Sixth Vall!. 

1. ' There is that ancient tree 1 , whose roots grow 
upward and whose branches grow downward ; — that* 
indeed is called the Bright* that is called Brahman,' 
that alone is called the Immortal 4 . All worlds are 
contained in it, and no one goes beyond. This > 
is that.' 

2. * Whatever there is, the whole world, when gone 
forth (from the Brahman), trembles in its breath 6 . 
That Brahman is a great terror, like a drawn sword. 
Those who know it become immortal.' 

3. ' From terror of Brahman fire burns, from terror 
the sun burns, from terror Indra and Vayu, and 
Death, as the fifth, run away 6 .' 

4. ' If a man could not understand it before the 
falling asunder of his body, then he has to take body ts^ 
again in the worlds of creation V 



1 The fig-tree which sends down its branches so that they strike 
root and form new stems, one tree growing into a complete forest. 
8 Cf. Bhag. GM XV, 1-3. » Cf.V, 8, 

4 The commentator says that the tree is the world, and its root 
is Brahman, but there is nothing to support this view in the original, 
where tree, roots, and branches are taken together as representing 
the Brahman in its various manifestations. 

5 According to the commentator, in the highest Brahman. 
• Cf. Taitt. Up. II, 8, 1. 

7 The commentator translates: 'If a man is able to understand 
(Brahman), then even before the decay of his body, he is liberated. 
If he is not able to understand it, then he has to take body again 
in the created worlds.' I doubt whether it is possible to supply so 
much, and should prefer to read iha £en nlrakad, though I find it 
difficult to explain how so simple a text should have been mis- 
understood and corrupted. 



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22 KATOA-UPANISHAD. 



* 



5. ' As in a mirror, so (Brahman may be seen clearly) 
here in this body ; as in a dream, in the world of 
the Fathers j as in the water, he is seen about in the 
world of the Gandharvas ; as in light and shade \ in 
the world of Brahma.' 

6. ' Having understood that the senses are distinct 2 

» (from the Atman), and that their rising and setting 

I (their waking and sleeping) belongs to them in their 

I distinct existence (and not to the Atman), a wise 

\ man grieves no more.' 

7. ' Beyond the senses is the mind, beyond the 
mind is the highest (created) Being 8 , higher than 
that Being is the Great Self, higher than the Great, 
the highest Undeveloped.' 

8. ' Beyond the Undeveloped is the Person, the 
all-pervading and entirely imperceptible. Every 
creature that knows him is liberated, and obtains 
immortality.' 

9. 'His form is not to be'seen, no one beholds 
him with the eye. He is imagined by the heart, 

I by wisdom, by the mind. Those who know this, are 

' immortal 4 .' 
f~* 10. ' When the five instruments of knowledge stand 

/stilL together with the mind, and when the intellect 

Idoes not move, that is called the highest state.*' 

1 1. ' This, the firm holding back of the senses, is 
what is called Yoga. He must be free from thought- 
lessness then, for Yoga comes and goes 6 .' 

I Roer : 'As in a picture and in the sunshine.' 

II They arise from the elements, ether, &c. 
3 Buddhi or intellect, cf. Ill, 10. 

* Much better in <Svet.Up. IV, 20: 'Those who know him by the 
heart as being in the heart, and by the mind, are immortal.' 
6 .Sahkara explains apyaya by apaya. 



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ii adhyAya, 6 vallI, 17. 23 

12. 'He (the Self) cannot be reached by speech, ^^j 

by mind, or by the eye. How can it be apprehended 

except by him who says : " He is ? " ' 

13. 'By the words " He is," is he to be apprehended, 
and by (admitting) the reality of both (the invisible 
Brahman and the visible world, as coming from 
Brahman). When he has been apprehe nded b y the \ 
word s " He i s." the n his reality re veals itself.' L^ 

14. 'When all desires that dwell mtris heart cease, • l^ 
then^the mortal becomes immortal, and obtains 
Brahman.' 

\ 5. * Wheiuall. the ties 1 of the heart are severecjL. in- 
here on earth, then the mortal becomes immortal— f 
here ends the teaching V '*■ 

16. ' There are a hundred and one arteries of the 
heart 8 , one of them penetrates the^ crown of the head 4 ^ 
Moving upwards by it, a 'man (at his death) reaches 
the Immortal * ; the other arteries serve for departing 
in different directions.' 

1 7. ' The Person not larger than a thumb, the inner.. 
Self, is always. settled in the heart of men*. Let a 
man draw that Self forth from his body with steadi- 

1 : 

1 Ignorance, passion, &c. Cf. Mund. Up. II, 1, 10; II, 2, 9. 
s The teaching of the Ved&nta extends so far and no farther. 
(Cf. Prama Up. VI, 7.) What follows has reference, according to the 
commentator, not to him who knows the highest Brahman) for he 
becomes Brahman at once and migrates no more ; but to him who 
does not know the highest Brahman fully, and therefore migrates to 
the Brahmaloka, receiving there the reward for his par#al knowledge 
and for his good works. 
» Cf..ffMnd.Up.VIII,6,6. 

* It passes out by the head. 

8 The commentator says: He rises through the sun (Mund. Up. 
I, 2, 1 1) to a world in which he enjoys some kind of immortality. 

• .Svet.Up.III, 13. 



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24 KAr/TA-UPANISHAD. 



ness, as one draws the pith from a reed 1 . Let 
him know that Self as the Bright, as the Immortal ; 
yes, as the Bright, as the Immortal 2 .' 

1 8. Having received this knowledge taught by^-^ 
Death and the whole rule of Yoga (meditation$^ 

-a Naiiketa became free from passion 8 and death, and 
obtained Brahman. Thus it will be with another 
also who knows thus what relates to the Self. 

19. May He protect us both! May He enjoy us 
both ! May we acquire strength together ! May our 
knowledge become bright! May we never quarrel 4 ! 
Om ! Peace ! peace ! peace ! Hari^, Om ! 

1 Roer : ' As from a painter's brush a fibre.' 
* This repetition marks, as usual, the end of a chapter, 
v.- 8 Virata, free from vice and virtue. It may have been v^ara, 
Wr&f&em old age. See, however, Mvwd. Up. I, 2, 1 1. 

^*^"r*f To, - t+ TTrw TTT T- TTT »/■» nr,t» 



Cf. Taitt. Up. Ill, 1; III, 10, note. 



i 



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MIWZ7AKA-UPANISHAD. 




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MU;VZ>AKA-UPANISHAD. 




FIRST MU-TOAKA. 

First Khanda. 

i. Br^jimA was the first of the Devas, the maker 
of jjig^ unive rse, the preserver of the worl d. He I 
tojdthejcnowledge of Brahman, the fou ndation of [ 
all knowledg e, to h is eldest son Atharya 1 . 

2. Whatever Brahma told Atharvan, that know- 
ledge of Brahman Atharvan formerly told to Angir; / 
he told it to Satyavaha Bharadva^a, and Bharadva^a j 
told it in succession to Angiras. 

3. <5aunaka, the great householder, approached 
Angiras respectfully and asked : ' Sir, whaX|sjtha£. 
through which, if it is known, everything else becomes 
known ? * ~^~^ ~~. ~~ 

4. He said to him : ' Two kinds of knowledg e must 
be known, this is what all who know Brahman tell us, 
the higher flnHjjie lower knowledge.' 

5. ' The lower knowledge is the .tfzg-veda, Ya^ur- 
veda, Sama-veda, Atharva-veda, .Siksha (phonetics), 
Kalpa (ceremonial), Vyakarawa (grammar), Nirukta 
(etymology), A^andas (metre), ^yotisha (astronomy) 2 ; 

1 The change between Atharva and Atharvan, like that between 
Na&ketas and Niiiketa, shows the freedom of the phraseology of 
the Upanishad, and cannot be used for fixing the date of the con- 
stituent elements of the Upanishad. 

a Other MSS. add here ihTiasa-pura»a-nyaya-mima»Jsa-dharrna- 
jastrawi. 



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y 



28 MUiVDAKA-UPANISHAD. 

but the hi gher knowled ge is that_^_whicll_the 
Ind estructible (Brahman) is apprehende d.' 

6. ' That which cannot be seen, nor seized, which 
has no family and no caste \ no eyes nor ears, no 
hands nor feet, the eternal, the omnipresent (all- 
pervading), infinitesimal, that which is imperishable, 
that it is which the wise regard as the source of 
all beings.' 

7. 'As the spider sends forth and draws in its 
thread, as plants grow on the earth, as from every 
man hairs spring forth on the head and the body, thus 
does everything arise here from the Indestructible.' 

\ 8. ' The Brahman swells by means of brooding 
1 (penance) 2 ; hence is produced matter (food) ; from 
matter breath 3 , mind, the true*, the worlds (seven), 
and from the works (performed by men in the 
worlds), the immortal (the eternal effects, rewards, 
and punishments of works).' 

1 I translate varwa by caste on account of its conjunction with 
gotra. The commentator translates, ' without origin and without 
qualities.' We should say that which belongs to no genus or 
species. 

2 I have translated tapas by brooding, because this is the only 
word in English which combines the two meanings of warmth and 
thought. Native authorities actually admit two roots, one tap, 
to burn, the other tap, to meditate; see commentary on Para- 
jara-smn'tij p. 39b (MS. Bodl.), TapaA kr/£Mra£andraya«adiru- 
pewaharavarg-anam. Nanu Vy£sena tapo 'nyatha smaryate, tapaA 
svadharma-vartitvazn sz.uka.rn sanganibarhawam iti ; nayaw doshaA, 
kn%££rader'api svadharmavueshat. Tapa sawtapa ity asmad dhator 
utpannasya tapaA-fabdasya dehafoshawe vnttir mukhya. . . . Yat 
tu tatraivoktaira, ko 'yam mokshaA kathaw tena sawsaram prati- 
pannavan ity alo£anam arthagwas tapaA rawsanti pawrfita iti so 'nya 
eva tapafaabdaA, tapa aloiana ity asmad dhator utpannaA. 

3 Hira«yagarbha, the living world as a whole. Comm. 

4 Satya, if we compare Ka/ft. VI, 7 and III, 10, seems to mean 
buddhi. Here it is explained by the five elements. 



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I MUiVDAKA, I KHAJVDA, 9. 29 

9. ' From him who perceives all and who knows 
all, whose brooding (penance) consists of knowledge, 
from him (the highest Brahman) is born that Brah- 
man 1 , name, form 2 , and matter (food).' 

1 Hira»yagarbha. Comm. 

2 Namarupam, a very frequent concept in Buddhistic literature. 



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30 MUJV.DAKA-UPANISHAD. 



Second Khanda. 

i. This is the truth x : the sa crificial work s which 
they (the poets) saw in the hymns (of the Veda) 
have been performed in many ways in the Treta 
age 2 . Practise 3 them diligently, ye lovers of tr uth, 
this is your pa th that leads to the world of g ood 
works 4 ! 

2. When the fire is lighted and the flame flickers, 
let a man offer his oblations between the two por- 
tions of melted butter, as an offering with faith. 

3. If a man's Agnihotra sacrifice 6 is not followed 

1 In the beginning of the second Khwda the lower knowledge 
is first described, referring to the performance of sacrifices and 
other good deeds. The reward of them is perishable, and therefore 
a desire is awakened after the higher knowledge. 

* The Tret& age is frequently mentioned as the age of sacrifices. 
I should prefer, however, to take treta" in the sense of trayi 
vidyi, and santata as developed, because the idea that the Treta" 
age was distinguished by its sacrifices, seems to me of later origin. 
Even the theory of the four ages or yugas, though known in the Ait. 
BrShmawa, is not frequently alluded to in' the older Upanishads. 
See Weber, Ind. Stud. I, p. 283. 

8 The termination tha for ta looks suspiciously Buddhistic ; see 
' Sanskrit Texts discovered in Japan,' J. R. A. S. 1880, p. 180. 

4 Svaknla and sukn'ta are constantly interchanged. They mean 
the same, good deeds, or deeds performed by oneself and believed 
to be good. 

B At the Agnihotra, the first of all sacrifices, and the type of 
many others, two portions of Sgya are sacrificed on the right and 
left side of the Ahavanfya altar. The place between the two is 
called the Av&pasth&na, and here the oblations to the gods are to 
be offered. There are two oblations in the morning to Surya and 
Pra^tpati, two in the evening to Agni and Pr^pati. Other sacri- 
fices, such as the Dar^a and Purwamisa, and those mentioned in 
verse 3, are connected with the Agnihotra. 



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( I MUiW>AKA, 2 KHANDA, 7 A 



by the new-moon and full-moon sacrifices, by the 
four-months' sacrifices, and by the harvest sacrifice, 
if it is unattended by guests, not offered at all, or 
without the Valrvadeva ceremony, or not offered 
according to rule, then it destroys his seven worlds K 

4. Kali (black), Karall (terrific), Mano^ava (swift 
as thought), Sulohita (very red), Sudh<imravar»a 
(purple), Sphulinginl (sparkling), and the brilliant 
VLsvarupi 2 (having all forms), all these playing about 
are called the seven tongues (of fire). 

5. If a man performs his sacred works when these 
flames are shining, and the oblations follow at the 
right time, then they lead him as sun-rays to where 
the one Lord of the Devas dwells. 

6. Come hither, come hither ! the brilliant obla- 
tions say to him, and carry the sacrificer on the rays 
of the sun, while they utter pleasant speech and 
praise him, saying : ' Tins is thy holy B rahma-world 
(Svarga), ga ined by thy go od, wor ks.' 

7. But frail, in truth, are those boats, the sacri^ 
fjces^ the eighteen, in which this lower ceremonial 
has been told 3 . Fools who praise this as the highes t 
good , a re subject again a nd again t o old ag e and 
death. 

1 The seven worlds form the rewards of a pious sacrificer, the 
fii'st is BhuA, the last Satya. The seven worlds may also be ex- 
plained as the worlds of the father, grandfather, and great-grand- 
father, of the son, 'the grandson, and great-grandson, and of the 
sacrificer himself. 

* Or Vijvaru^, if there is any authority for this reading in Mahi- 
dhara's commentary to the Va^as. Sa«hM XVII, 79. The Rajah 
of Besmah's edition has vuvaruki, which is also the reading adopted 
by Rammohun Roy, see Complete Works, vol. i, p. 579. 

8 The commentator takes the eighteen for the sixteen priests, 
the sacrificer, and his wife. But such an explanation hardly yields 
a satisfactory meaning, nor does plava mean perishable. 



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32 MUJVBAKA-UPANISHAD. 

8. Fools dwelling in darkness, wise in their own 
conceit, and puffed up with vain knowledge, go round 
and round staggering to and fro, like blind men led 
by the blind \ 

9. Children, when they have long lived in igno- 
rance, consider themselves happy. Because those 
who depend on their good works are, owing to their 
passions, improvident, they fall and become miserable 
when their life (in the world which they had gained 
by their good works) is finished. 

10. Considering sacrifice and good works as the 
best, th ese fools know no higher good, and having 
enjoyed (their reward) on the height of heaven, 
gained by good works, they enter again t^fa wr*r 1rl 
or a lower one. 

11. But those 2 who practise- penance and faith 
in the forest, tranquil, wise, and living on alms, 
depart free fr om pas sion through the sun to where 
that immortal Person dwells whose nature fs impe- 
rishable 8 . 

12. Let-a— Bx4hma»a, after he has examined all 
these worlds which are gained by works, acq uire 
freed om fr om all desires. Nothing that is eternal 
(not made) can be gained by what is not eternal 
(made). Let him, in order to understand this, take 

1 Cf. KaJA. Up. II, 5. 

* According to the commentator, t his ve r se refers to those who 
know the nselessness of sacrifices and have at tained to a knowledge 
of the qualifie d Brahman. They live in the forest as Vanaprasthas 
and Sawnyisins, practising tapas, i.e. whatever is proper for their 
state, and jraddM, i.e. a knowledge of Hirawyagarbha. The wise 
are the learned GrAasthas, while those who live on alms are those 
who have forsaken their family. 

8 That person is Hirawyagarbha. His immortality is relative 
only, it lasts no longer than the world (sarasara). 



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I UVNDAKA, 2 KHAJVDA, 1 3. 33 

fuel in his hand and approach a Guru who is learned 
and dwells entirely in Brahman. 

13. Toth at pupil who has approached him re- 
spectfully, w hose thoughts are not troubled by any 
d esires, and who has obtained perfect peace, the 
wise teacher truly told that knowledge of Brah- 
man through which he knows the eternal and true , 
Person. 



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34 MUWDAKA-UPANISHAD. 



SECOND MUiVZ>AKA. 

First Khajvda. 

i. This is the truth. As from a blazing fire sparks, 
being like unto fire 1 , fly forth a thousandfold, thus are 
various beings brought forth from the Imperishable, 
my friend, and return thither also. 

2. That heavenly Person is without body, he is 
both without and within, not produced, without 
breath and without mind, pure, higher than the high 
Imperishable 2 . 

3. From him (when entering on creation) is born 
breath, mind, and all organs of sense, ether, air, light, 
water, and the earth, the support of all. 

4. Fire (the sky) is his head, his eyes the sun and 
the moon, the quarters his ears, his speech the Vedas 
disclosed, the wind his breath, his heart the universe; 
from his feet came the earth ; he is indeed the inner 
Se]fofaU_things s . ' ^ 

^Tromhim comes Agni (fire) 4 , the sun being the 
fuel ; from the moon (Soma) comes rain (Par^anya) ; 
from the earth herbs ; and man gives seed unto the 
woman. Thus manybeui gs are begotten jrom the 
Person (purusha). 
6. From him come the Rik, the Saman, the 

1 Cf. Brih. At. II, 1, 20. 

2 The high Imperishable is here the creative, the higher the non- 
creative Brahman. 

' Called Vishwu and Vira£ by the commentators. 
4 There are five fires, those of heaven, rain, earth, man, and 
woman. Comm. 



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II MVNDAKA, I KHANDA, IO. 35 

Yafush, the Dlksha (initiatory rites), all sacrifices 
and offerings of animals, and the fees bestowed on 
priests, the year too, the sacrificer, and the worlds, 
in which the moon shines brightly and the sun. ' 

7. From him the many Devas too are begotten, 
the Sadhyas (genii), men, cattle, birds, the up and 
down breathings, rice and corn (for sacrifices), penance, 
faith, truth, abstinence, and law. 

8. The seven senses (prawa) also spring from him, 
the seven lights (acts of sensation), the seven kinds 
of fuel (objects by which the senses are lighted), the 
seven sacrifices (results of sensation), these seven 
worlds (the places of the senses, the worlds deter- 
mined by the senses) in which the senses move, 
which rest in the cave (of the heart), and are placed 
there seven and seven. 

9. Hence come the seas and all the mountains, 
from him flow the rivers of every kind ; hence come 
all herbs and the juice through which the inner Self 
subsists with the elements. 

10. The Person is all this, sacrifice, penance, Brah- 
man, the highest immortal ; he who knows this hidden 
in the cave (of the heart), he, O friend, scatters the 
knot of ignorance here on earth. 



D 2 



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36 MIWOAKA-UPANISHAD. 



Second Khanda. 

i. Manifest, near, moving in the cave (of the heart) 
is the great Being. In it everything is centred which 
ye know as moving, breathing, and blinking, as being 
and not-being, as adorable, as the best, that is beyond 
the linrWg t^nrling- of creatures . 

^ 2. That which is brilliant, smaller than small, that 
on which the worlds are founded and their inhabit- 
ants, that is the indestructible Brahman, that is the 
breath, speech, mind; that is the true, that is the 
immortal. That is to be hit Hit it, O friend ! 

3. Having taken the Upanishad as the bow, as 
the great weapon, let him place on it the arrow, 
sharpened by devotion ! Then having drawn it with 
a thought directed to that which is, hit the mark, O 
friend, viz. that which is the Indestructible! 

4. Om |s_th£_hcw, the Sel f is the arrow . Brahjnan_ 

is call ed its a im. It is to be hit by a man who is 

iotth"oughtless ; and then, as the arrow (becomes one 

irith the target), he will become one with Brahman. 

^5. In him_ the heaven, the earth, and the sky are 

w oven, the mj nd_also ^ withjiHj jie senses . Know 
him alone as thLfe_SeIf, and leave off other words ! 
He is the bridge of the Immortal. 

6. He moves about becoming manifold within 
the heart where the arteries meet, like spokes 
fastened to the nave. Meditate on the Self as 
Om ! Hail to you, that you may cross beyond (the 
sea of) darkness ! 

■o 7. He who understands all and who knows all, he 
to whom all this glory in the world belongs, the 



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II MUiVDAKA, 2 KHAJVDA, II. 37 

Self, is placed in the ether, in the heavenly city of 
Brahman (the heart). He assumes the nature of 
mind; and becomes the guide of the body of the 
senses. He subsists in food, in close proximity to 
the heart. The wise who understand this, bphold 
the Immortal which shines forth full of bliss. 

8. The fetter of the heart is broken, all doubts 
are solved, all his works (and their effects) perish 
when He has been beheld who is high and low (cause 
and effect) \ 

9. In the highest golden sheath there is the 
Br ahman without pa ssio ns and without pa rts. That 
is pure, that is the li gEt"of lights, that is it which they 
kno w~who know the Sel f. 

10. The 2 sun does not shine there, nor the moon 
and the stars, nor these lightnings, and much less 
this fire. When he shines, everything shines after 
him ; by his light all this is lighted 3 . 

11. That immortal Brahman is before, that Brah- 
man is behind, that Brahman is right and left. It 
has gone forth below and above ; Brahman alone is 
all this, it is the best. 



1 Cf. Ka/fl. Up. VI, 15. 2 Katf . Up. V, 15. 

• 5vet.Up.VI, 14; Bhag. GMIX, 15, 6. 



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38 MUJVDAKA-UPANISHAD. 



THIRD MVNDAKA. 

. First Khanda. 

c h 
1 ' ? J f) i. Two birds, inseparable friends, cling to the same 

^ t,f tree One of them eats the sweet fruit, the other 1 

looks on without eating K 

2. On the same tree man sits grieving, immersed, 
bewildered by his own impotence (an-lsa). But when 
he sees the other lord (tra) contented and knows his 
glory, then his grief passes away 2 . 

3. When the seer sees the brilliant maker and 
lord (of the world) as the Person who has his source 
in Brahman, then he is wise, and shaking off good 
and evil, he reaches the highest oneness, free from 
passions ; 

4. For he is the Breath shining forth in all beings, 
and he who understands this becomes truly wise, 
not a talker only. He revels in the Self, he delights 
in the Self, and having performed his works (truth- 
fulness, penance, meditation, &c.) he rests, firmly 
established in Brahman, the best of those who know 
Brahman 8 . 

1 Cf. Rv. 1, 164, 20; Nir. XIV, 30; SvetUp. IV, 6; Rati. Up. 
Ill, 1. 

2 Cf. Svet. Up. IV, 7. 

8 The commentator states that, besides atmaratiA kriyavin, there 
was another reading, viz. atmaratikriyavan. This probably owed 
its origin to a difficulty felt in reconciling kriyav&n, performing 
acts, with the brahmavidaw varish/5a5, the best of those who know 
Brahman, works being utterly incompatible with a true knowledge 
of Brahman. Kriyavan, however, as Aankara points out, may 
mean here simply, having performed meditation and other acts 
conducive to a knowledge of Brahman. Probably truthfulness, 



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Ill MVNDAKA, I KHAiVDA, IO. 39 

fcO. />.-.-? • 

5. By truthfulness, indeed, by penance, right know- y ' ! '^ '•■ 3° 
ledge, and abstinence must that Self be gained ; the ( ** ~f 
Self whom spotless anchorites gain is pure, and like ;| 

a light within the body. 

6. The true prevails, not the untrue ; by the true 
the path is laid out, the way of the gods (devayana^), 
on which the old sages, satisfied in their desires, 
proceed to where there is that highest place of the 
True One. 

7. That (true Brahman) shines forth grand, divine, 
inconceivable, smaller than small ; it is far beyond 
what is far and yet near here, it is hidden in the 
cave (of the heart) among those who see it even 
here. 

8. He is not apprehended by the eye, nor by\ 
speech, nor by the other senses, not by penance or 
good works 1 . When a man's nature has become 
purified by the serene light ot know ledge, then he ' 
sees him, meditating on him as without part s. 

9. That subtle Self is to be known by thought 
(ietas) there where breath has entered fivefold; 
for every thought of men is interwoven with the 
senses, and when thought is purified, then the Self 
arises. 

10. Whatever state a man whose nature is puri- 
fied imagines, and whatever desires he desires (for 
himself or for others) 5 , that state he conquers and 

penance, &c, mentioned in the next following verse, are the kriyas 
or works intended. For grammatical reasons also this reading is 
preferable. But the last foot esha brahmavidSw varish/^aA is 
clearly defective. If we examine the commentary, we see that 
.Sahkara read brahmanish/Aa^, and that he did not read esha, which 
would give us the correct metre, brahmanish/Ao brahmavidS/w 
varish/AaA. 

1 Cf. Kzfi. Up. VI, 12. a Cf. Brih. Ar. I, 4, 15. 



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4Q 



MUtfflAKA-UPANISHAD. 



those desires he obtains. Therefore let ■ every rnaji 
wh o desires h appiness-worship the man who knows 
the Self 1 . " " 




Second Khanda. 

i. He (the knower of the Self) knows that high- 
est home of Brahman 2 , in which all is contained and 
shines brightly. The wise who, without desiring 
happiness, worship that Person 3 , transcend this seed, 
(they are not born again.) 

2. He who forms desires in his mind, is born again 
through his desires here and there. But to him 
whose desires are fulfilled and who is conscious of 
the true Self (within himself) all desires vanish, even 
here on earth. 

3. That Self* cannot be gained by the Veda, nor 
by understanding, nor by much learning. He whom 
the Self chooses, by him the Self can be gained. 
The Self chooses him (his body) as his own. 

/ 4. Nor is that Self to be gained by one who is 

( i destitute of strength, or without earnestness, or 

Y without right meditation. But if a wise man strives 

J after it by those means (by strength, earnestness, 

\ and right meditation), then his Self enters the home 

\>f Brahman. 

5. When they have reached him (the Self), the 
sages become satisfied through knowledge, they are 
conscious of their Self, their passions have passed 



1 All this is said by the commentator to refer to a knowledge of 
the conditioned Brahman only. 

2 See verse 4. 

" The commentator refers purusha to the knower of the Self. 
4 Ka/i*. Up. II, 23. 



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Ill MUJVDAKA, 2 KHANDA, IO. 41 

away, and they are tranquil. The wise, having 
reached Him who is omnipresent everywhere, de- 
voted to the Self, enter into him wholly. 

6. Having well ascertained the object of the know- \ 
ledge oftheVed anta 1 . and having p urified their natu re \ 
by the Yoga 2 of renunciation , al l anchorites, enjoy ing / 
th e highest im mortality, become fre e at the time of 
the great end (deatlj) in the worlds of Brahma. 

7. Their fifteen parts 3 enter into their elements, 
their Devas (the senses) into their (corresponding) 
Devas 4 . Their deeds and their Self with all h is 
kno wledge become all one in the highest Imp erish- 
able. 

8. As the flowing rivers disappear in the sea 5 , 
losing their name and their form, thus a wise man, 
freed from name and form, goes to the divine Person, 
who is greater than the great 6 . 

9. He who knows that highest Brahman, becomes 
even Brahman. In his race no one is born ignorant 
of Brahman. He overcomes grief, he overcomes 
evil ; free from the fetters of the heart, he becomes 
immortal. 

10. And this is declared by the following Re- 
verse : ' Let a man tell this science of Brahman tov^ 
those only who have performed all (necessary) acts, I y 
who are versed in the Vedas, and firmly established \J\ 
in (the lower) Brahman, who themselves offer as A/ 



1 Cf. Taitt. Ar. X, 12, 3; .SVet. Up. VI, 22 ; Kaiv. Up. 3; see 
Weber, Ind. Stud. I, p. 288. 

2 By the Yoga system, which, through restraint (yoga), leads a 
man to true knowledge. 

8 Cf. Prajna Up. VI, 4. * The eye into the sun, &c. 

5 Cf. PraraaUp.VI, 5. 

6 Greater than the conditioned Brahman. Comm. 



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MUATBAKA-UPAN ISHAD. 



an oblation the one ^/shi (Agni), full of faith, and 
[by whom the rite of (carrying fire on) the head 
lhas been performed, according to the rule (of the 
Atharva«as).' 

n. The Rishi Angiras formerly told this true 
(science 1 ); a man w_hn h^ c not performed the 
(proper) rites , does not read it. Adoration to the 
highest ,/?zshis ! Adoration to the highest ^z'shis ! 



1 To Saunaka, cf. I, i, 3. 



f> 



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TAITTIRfYAKA- 
UPANISHAD. 



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9* 



TAITTIRIYAKA-UPANISHAD. 



FIRST VALLt, 

Or, the Chapter on 5^kshA (pronunciation). 

First Anuvaka 1 . 

i. HARiff, Om! M ay Mitra be propitious to us, 
and V aruga JL Aryaman also, Indira/ Brzhaspati. and 
the wide-striding Vishmi *.f?efr 

Adoration to Brahman ! Adoration to thee, O 
Vayu (air)! Thou indeed art the visible Brahman. 
I shall proclaim thee alone as the visible Brahman. 
I shall proclaim the right. I shall proclaim the true 
(scil. Brahman). 

(1-5) 3 May it protect me! May it protect the 
teacher ! yes, may it protect me, and may it protect 
the teacher ! Om ! Peace ! peace ! peace ! 

1 This invocation is here counted as an Anuv&ka; see Taitt. 
Ar., ed. Rajendralal Mitra, p. 725. 

2 This verse is taken from Rig-veda-saz»hit£ 1, 90, 9. The deities 
are variously explained by the commentators : Mitra as god of the 
Pra«a (forth-breathing) and of the day ; Varu«a as god of the 
Apana (off-breathing) and of the night. Aryaman is supposed to 
represent the eye or the sun ; Indra, strength ; Brihaspati, speech 
or intellect ; Vish«u, the feet. Their favour is invoked, because 
it is only if they grant health that the study of the highest wisdom 
can proceed without fail. 

3 Five short sentences, in addition to the one paragraph. Such 
sentences occur at the end of other Anuvakas also, and are counted 
separately. 



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46 taittiriyaka-upanishad. 

Second AnuvAka. 
i. Om 1 ! Let us explain .Siksha, the doctrine of 
pronunciation, viz. letter, accent, quantity, effort (in 
the formation of letters), modulation, and union of 
letters (sandhi). This is the lecture on .SIksha. 

Third AnuvAka. 

i. May glory come to both of us (teacher and pupil) 
together ! May Vedic light belong to both of us ! 

Now let us explain the Upanishadj^the, secret 
meani ng) of the union (sawhita) 2 , under five heads, 
with regard to the wo rlds, the heavenly l ights, know- 
ledge, o ffspring , and self (body). People call these 
the great Sawhitas. 

/ First, with regard to the worlds. The e arth is 
/yie_jorp«f-^lejnenl > _l ieay en the latter, ether their 
Vunion ; 

2. That union takes place through Vayu (air). So 
much with regard to the worlds. ^ ~~~ 

Next, with regard to the heavenly lights. Agn i 
( fire) is the former ^ element, Aditya (the sun) the 
latter, water their m iion. That union takes place 
through lightning. So much with regard to the 
heavenly lights. 

j Next, with regard to knowledge. T he teache r is 

I the former element, 

3. The pupil the la tter, knowledge __th£JE-ttnion. 
That union takes place through the recitation of the 
Veda. So much with regard to knowledge. 

Next, with regard to offspring. The mother is 

1 Cf. Rig-veda-prStuakhya, ed. M. M., p. iv seq. 

s Cf. Aitareya-drawyaka III, 1, 1 (Sacred Books, vol. i, p. 247). 



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i vAixi, 4 anuvAka, 2. 47 

the former elem ent, t he father the latter, offspring 
their union. That union takes place through pro- 
creation. Sojnuch_with regard to offspring. 

4. Next, with regard to the self (body). The 
lower j aw is the former elem ent, the upper jaw the 
latter, speech their unio n. "That union takes place 
through speech^ So much with regard to the Self. 
These are the great Sa*#hitas. He who knows 
these Sawhitas ( unions), as here explained, becomes 
united with offspring, cattle, Vedic light, food, and 
with the heavenly world. 

Fourth Anuvaka. 

1. May he 1 who is the strong bull of the Vedas, 
assuming all forms, who has risen from the Vedas, 
from the Immortal, may that Indra (lord) strengthen 
me with wisdom ! May 1,0 God, become an upholder 
of the Immortal ! 

May my body he able, my to"^"^ swppt, may 
I hear much with my ears! Thou (Om) art the 
shrft rt: ( u f Brahm an), covered by wisdom. Guard 
what I have learnt 2 . 

She (Sri, happiness) brings near and spreads, 

2. And makes, without delay, garments for herself, 
cows, food, and drink at all times; therefore bring 
that Sri (happiness) hither to me, the woolly, with 

1 The next verses form the prayer and oblation of those who 
wish for wisdom and happiness. In the first verse it is supposed 
that the Om is invoked, the most powerful syllable of the Vedas, 
the essence extracted from all the Vedas, and in the end a name 
of Brahman. See .ffMnd. Up. p. 1 seq. 

a Here end the prayers for the attainment of wisdom, to be fol- 
lowed by oblations for the attainment of happiness. 



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48 TAITTIRiYAKA-UPANISHAD. 

her cattle * ! Svaha 2 ! May the Brahman-students 
come to me, Svaha! May they come from all 
sides, Svaha ! May they come forth to me, Svaha ! 
May they practise restraint, Svaha ! May they enjoy 
peace, S_v4ha ! 

3. May I be a glory among men, Svaha! May 
I be better than the richest, Svaha! May I enter 
into thee, O treasure (Om), Svaha! Thou, O 
treasur e 3 . enter^into me, Svaha! In thee, con- 
sisting of a thousand branches, in thee, O treasure, 
I am cleansed,, Svaha ! As water runs downward, as 
the months go to the year, so, O preserver of the 
world, may Brahma n-stud ents always come to me 
from all sidesTSvaha ! 

(1) Thou ar t a refuge ! Enli ghte n me ! Take pos- 
session of me ! 

Fifth Anuvaka. 

1. Bhu, Bhuvas, Suvas*, these are the three sacred 
i nterjectio ns (vyahWti). MahcL£amasya taught a 
fourth, viz. Ma has, w t"fh ,,c R ra,k ™an, which is th e 
Self. The others (devatas) are its members. 

BTiu_is_lhia_3sa3rld > Bhuvas is the sky, Suvas is 
th e other j ^prld. 

2. Mahas is the sun. All the worlds are increased 
by the sun. Bhu is Agni (fire), Bhuvas is Vayu 
(air), Suvas is Aditya (sun). Mahas is the moon. All 
the heavenly lights are increased by the moon. 

1 The construction is not right. Woolly, lomasi, is explained 
as ' possessed of woolly sheep.' 

s With the interjection Sv&ha - each oblation is offered. 

* Bhaga, here explained as bhagavat. 

4 The text varies between Bhu, Bhuvas, Suvas, Mahas, and Bhu, 
Bhuvar, Suvar, Mahar. 



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i vallI, 6 anuvaka, 2. 49 

Bhu is the i&'i-verses, Bhuvas is the Saman-verses, 
Suvas is the Ya^ms-verses. 

3. Mahas is Brah man. All the Vedas are increased 
by the Brahman. 

(1-2) Bhu is Pra«a (up-breathing), Bhuvas is 
Apana (down-breathing), Suvas is Vyana (back- 
breathing). Mahas is food. All breathings are 
increased by food. 

Thus there are these four times four, the four and 
four sacred interjections. He who knows these, 

(i-2)_Kqqws the Brahman. All Devas bring 
offerings to him. 

Sixth Anuvaka. 

1. There is the eth er within the heart, and in it 
there is the Person (purusha) consisting of mind, 
immortaCgolden. 

Between the two palates there hangs the uvula, 
like a nipple — that is the starting-point of Indra (the 
lord) 1 . Where the root of the hair divides, there 
he opens the two sides of the head, and saying Bhu, 
he enters Agni (the fire); saying Bhuvas, he enters 
Vayu (air) ; 

2. Saying Suvas, he enters Aditya (sun) ; saying 
Mahas, he enters Brahman. He there obtains lord- 
ship, he reaches the lord of the mind. He becomes 
lord of speech, lord of sight, lord of hearing, lord of 
knowledge. Nay, more than this. There is the 
Brahman whose body is ether, whose nature is true, 
rejoicing in the senses (pra»a), delighted in the mind, 
perfect in peace, and immortal. 

(1) Worship thus, O Prailnayogya ! 

1 Cf. I, 4, 1. 

[15] E 



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5<D TAITTIRtYAKA-UPANISHAD. 



Seventh AnuvAka. 

i. ' The eg r 1 ^, thfi g Ky. heaven, the four quarters, 
and the intermed iate qua rters/ — ' Agni (fire), Vayu 
(air), Aditya (sun), -ffandramas (moon), and the 
stars,' — 'Water, herbs, trees, ether, the universal Self 
(vir&f),' — so much with reference to material objects 
(bhuta). 

Now with reference to the self (the body) : ' Pra«a 
(up-breathing), Apina (down-breathing), Vyana (back- 
breathing), Udana (out-breathing), and Sama#a (on- 
breathing),' — 'The eye, the ear, mind, speech, and 
touch,' — ' The skin, flesh, muscle, bone, and marrow.' 
Having dwelt on this (fivefold arrangement of the 
worlds, the_goda^_beings, breathings, senses, and 
elements__o£_the body), a Rishi said: 'Whatever 
exists is fivef old (pankt a) 1 .' 

(i) By means of the one fivefold set (that referring 
to the body) he completes the other fivefold set. 

Eighth Anuvaka. 
i. Om means Brahman. 2. Om means all this. 



3. Om means obedience. When they have been 
told, ' Om, speak,' they speak. 4. After Om they 
sing Samans. 5. After Om they recite ' hymns. 

6. After Om the Adhvaryu gives the response. 

7. After Om the Brahman-priest gives orders. 

8. After Om he (the sacrificer) allows the perform- 
ance of the Agnihotra. 9. When a Brahma#a is 
going to begin his lecture, he says, 10. ' O m. may 
I acquire Brahman^the^Vfida).' He thus acquires 
the Veda: 

1 Cf.Br/Ti.Ar. Up. I, 4, 17. 

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I VALLf, 10 ANUVAKA, 3. 51 



Ninth AnuvAka 1 . 

1. (What is necessary ?) The right, and learning 
and practising the Veda. The true^a nd learni ng and 
practising the Veda. Penanrp, and learning a nd prac- 
tising the Veda, Re straint, and learning and prac tising 
t he Veda . Tra nquillity, an djearning and practising 
the Veda. T he fire s (to be consecrated), and learning 
and practising the Veda. The A gnihotra sacrifice, 
and learning and practising the Veda. Gijests (to 
be entertained), and learning and practising the Veda. 
Man's duty, and learning and practising the Veda, 
Children, and learning and practising the Veda. 
"^(1-6) Marriage, and learning and practising the 
Veda. Children's children, and learning and prac- 
tising the Veda, 

Satyava^as Rfithitara thinks that the true only 
is necessary. Taponitya Paurarishrt thinks that 
penance only is necessary. Naka Maudgalya thinks 
that learning and practising the Veda only are neces- 
sary, — for that is penance, that is penance. 

Tenth AnuvAka. 

1. ' I am he who shakes the tree (i.e. the tree of 
the world, which has to be cut down by knowledge). 
2. My glory is like the top of a mountain. 3. I, whose 
pure light (of knowledge) has risen high, am that 
which is truly immortal, as it resides in the sun. 

1 This chapter is meant to show that knowledge alone, though 
it secures the highest object, is not sufficient by itself, but must be 
preceded by works. The learning of the Veda by heart and the 
practising of it so as not to forget it again, these two must always 
have been previously performed. 

E 2 



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52 taittirIyaka-upanishad. 

4. I am the brightest treasure. 5. I amjyise, im- 
mortal, imperishable 1 .' 6. Thi s, is \ hp teaching of 
rhp Vpda hy f-Vip poet Tri.ra iiku. 



Eleventh AnuvAka. 

1. After having taught the Veda, the teacher in- 
^ structs the pupil : ' Say what is true ! Do thy duty ! 

Do not neglect the study of the Veda! After 
having brought to thy teacher his proper reward, 
do not cut off the line of children ! Do not swerve 
from the truth ! Do not swerve from duty! Do not 
neglect what is useful! Do not neglect greatness! 
Do not neglect the learning and teaching of the 
Veda! 

2. ' Do not neglect the (sacrificial) works due to the 
Gods and Fathers !( Let thy mother be to thee like 
unto a god ! Let thy father be to thee like unto a 

— god! Let thy teacher be to thee like unto a god! 
Let thy guest be to thee like unto a god! 
Whatever_jacti©ns__are blamel ess, th ose-- gh ould. be 
regarded, notpjhers. Whate ver goo d works have 
been perform ed by us. those should be, phgfjryprl by 

3. ' Not others. And there are some Brahma«as 
better than we. They should be comforted by thee by 
giving them a seat. Whatever is given should be 
given with faith, not without faith, — with joy, with 
modesty, with fear, with kindness. If there should 

1 This verse has been translated as the commentator wishes it 
to be understood, in praise of that knowledge of Self which is only 
to be obtained after all other duties, and, more particularly, the 
study of the Veda, have been performed. The text is probably 
corrupt, and the interpretation fanciful. 



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I VALLi, 12 ANUVAKA, 5. 53 

be any doubt in thy mind with regard to any sacred 
act or with regard to conduct, — 

4. 'In that case conduct thyself as Brahma«as who 
possess good judgment conduct themselves therein, 
whether they be appointed or not 1 , as long as they 
are not too severe, but devoted to duty. And with 
regard to things that have been spoken against, 
as Brahma»as who possess good judgment conduct 
themselvestherein, whether they be appointed or 
not, as longas they are num ioJseXtere, buE devoted 
to duty . 

(1-7) Thus co nduct thyse lf. 'This is the rule. 
This is the teaching! This is the true__purport 
(Upanishad) oilthe Veda^ This is the command. 
Thus should you observe. Thus should this be 
observed.' 

Twelfth AnuvAka. 

1. May Mitra be propitious to us, and Varu«a, 
Aryaman also, Indra, Brzhaspati, and the wide- 
striding Vishmi! Adoration to Brahman! Adora- 
tion to thee, O Vayu ! Thou indeed art the visible 
Brahman. I proclaimed thee alone as the visible 
Brahman. 

(1-5) I proclaimed the right. I proclaimed the 
true. It protected me. It protected the teacher. 
Yes, it protected me, it protected the teacher. Om ! 
Peace! peace! peace! 

1 AparaprayuktS iti svatantrdA. For other renderings, see Weber, 
Ind. Stud. II, p. 2 1 6. 



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54 taittirIyaka-upanishad. 



SECOND VALLl, 

Or, the Chapter on Ananda (bliss). 

Hari^, Om! May it (the Brahman) protect us 
both (teacher and pupil)! May it enjoy us both! 
May we acquire strength together ! May our know- 
ledge become bright! May we never quarrel! Peace! 
peace! peace 1 ! 

First AnuvAka. 

He who knows the Brahman attains the highest 
(Brahman). On this the following verse is recorded : 

'He who knows Brahman, which is (i.e. cause, 
not effect), which is conscious, which is without 
end, as h jdden in the depth (of the heart), in the 
highest ether, he enjoy s all blessings, at one with 
the omnisc ient Bra hman.' 

^ From that Self 2 (Brahman) c pr an g ether (alcana, 
that through which we hear); f rom ether_ air (that 
through which we hear and feel); from air fire (that 
through which we hear, feel, and see); from fire water 
(that through which we hear, feel, see, and taste); 
from water earth (that through which we hear, feel, 
see, taste, and smell). From earth herbs, from herbs 
food, from food seed, from seed man. Man thus 
consists of the essence of food. This is his head, 



1 Not counted here as an Anuvdka. The other Anuv&kas are 
divided into a number of small sentences. 

* Compare with this sn'sh/ikrama, ATMnd. Up. VI, 2 j Ait. Ar. 
II, 4, i. 



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II VALli, 2 ANUVAKA. 55 

this his right arm, this his left arm, this his trunk 
(atman), this the seat (the support) \ 

On this there is also the following .Sloka : 

Second Anuvaka, 
* ' From fo o d 2 * nrf* produced nil rrpa rurf". which 
dwell on earth. Then they live by foo d, and in the 
end they return to food. For food is the oldest of 
all beings, and therefore it is called panacea (sar- 
vaushadha, i.e. consisting of all herbs, or quieting 
the heat of the body of all beings).' 
\ They who worship food as Brahman 3 , obtain all 
food! J? or foo d is il io . u Tdest of all beings, and 
the refore it is called panac ea. From food all crea- 
tures are produced ; by food, when born, they grow. 
Because it is fed on, or because it feeds on beings, 
therefore it is called food (anna). 
^ Different from this, which consists of the essence 
of food, is t he other, t he inner Self, which consists 
of breath. The former is niled by this. It also 
has the shape of man. Like the human shape 
of the former is the human shape of the latter. 
Pra#a (up-breathing) is its head. Vyana (back- 
breathing) is its right arm. Apana (down-breathing) 
is its left arm. Ether is its trunk. The earth 
the seat (the support). 
■^ On this there is also the following .Sloka : 

1 The text has ' the tail, which is his support.' But pratishM 
seems to have been added, the Anuvdka ending originally with 
puktfia, which is explained by n£bher adhastdd yad angam. In the 
Persian translation the different members are taken for members 
of a bird, which is not unlikely. 

2 Anna is sometimes used in the more general sense of matter. 

8 Worship consisting in the knowledge that they are born of 
food, live by food, and end in food, which food is Brahman. 



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56 taittir!yaka-upanishad. 

Third Anuvaka. 

'The Devas breathe after breath (pra»a), so do 
men and cattle. B reath is the life of b eings, there- 
fore it is called sarviyusha (alFenlivening).' 
^ They who worship br eath ju^jjahjnan, obtain 
the lull lite, b or breatlLJ g'EheKfe of^ alLbeings, and 
therefore it is called sarv&yusha. The embodied 
Self of this (consisting of breath) is the same as that 
of the former (consisting of food). 
^ Differen t from this, which consists of breath, is the 
other, the~inner^Se lf which c oasists^of^mind. The 
former is filled by this. It also has the shape of 
man. Like the human shape of the former is the 
human shape of the latter. Ya^us is its head. Rik 
is its right arm. Saman is its left arm. The doctrine 
(adera, i.e. the Brahma^a) is its trunk. The Athar- 
vangiras (Atharva-hymns) the seat (the support). 

On this there is also the following 61oka : 

Fourth Anuvaka 1 . 

^' He who knows the bliss of that Brahman, from 
whence all speech, with th e mind , turns away unable 
to reach it, he never feajsi. Th e emb odied Self of 
this (consisting of min d) is t he same as that of the 
former (consisting ofT5reath)T 
\ Different from this, which consists of mind, is the 
other, the inner S elf, whic h consists of understanding. 
The former is filled_by_ihis. It also has the shape 
of man. Like the human shape of the former is the 
human shape of the latter. Faith is its head. What 
is right is its right arm. What is true is its left arm. 

1 Cf. II, 9. 

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ii VAixi, 6 anuvAka. 57 

Absorption (yoga) is its trunk. The great (intellect?) 
is the seat (the support). 

On this there is also the following Sloka : 

Fifth AnuvAka. 

' Understanding performs the sacrifice, it performs 
all sacred acts. AH Devas worship unders tanding 
_as Brahman, as the old est. If a man knows 
understanding as Brahman, and if he does not 
swerve from it. he leaves all p vflg K»hinri in tno 
body, and attains all his wishes.' The embodied Self 
of this (consisting of understanding) is the same as 
that of the former (consisting of mind). 
^ Different from this, which consists of understand- 
ing, is the other inner Self, which consists of bliss. 
The former is filled by this. It also has the shape 
of man. Like the human shape of the former is the 
human shape of the latter. Joy is its head. Satisfac- 
tion its right arm. Great satisfaction is its left arm. 
Bliss is its trunk. Brahman is the seat (the support). 

On this there is also the following .Sloka : 

Sixth AnuvAka. 

' He who knows the Brahman a s non-evicting 

becomes h imself non-existing. He who knows the 
Brahman as existin g, h'™ we Vnnw himself as exist- 
ing.'- The embodied Self of this (bliss) is the same 
as that of the former (understanding). 

Thereupon follow the questions of the pupil : 
' Does any one who knows not, after he has departed 
this life, ever go to that world ? Or does he who 
knows, after he has departed, go to that world 1 ?' 

1 As he who knows and he who knows not, are both sprung 
from Brahman, the question is supposed to be asked by the pupil, 
whether both will equally attain Brahman. 



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58 TAITTIRtYAKA-UPANISHAD. 

The answer is : He wished, may I be many 1 , 
may I grow forth. He brooded over himself (like 
a man performing penance). After he had thus 
brooded, he sent forth (created) all, whatever there 
is. Having sent forth, he entered into it. Having 
entered it, he became sat (what is manifest) and 
tyat (what is not manifest), denned and undefined, 
supported and not supported, (endowed with) know- 
ledge and without knowledge (as stones), real and 
unreal 2 . The Sattya (true) became all this what- 
soever, and therefore the wise call it (the Brahman) 
Sat-tya (the true). 

On this there is also this .Sloka : 



Seventh Anuvaka. 

' In the beginning this was non-existent (not yet 
defined by form and name). From it was born what 
exists. That made itself its Self, therefore it is 
called th e Self-ma de V That which is Self-made is 
a flavour 4 (can be tasted), for only after perceiving a 
flavour can any one perceive pleasure. Who could 
breathe, who could breathe forth, if that bliss (Brah- 

1 In the .ffMndogya-upanishadVT, 2, 1, where a similar account 
of the creation is given, the subject is spoken of as tad, neuter. It 
is said there : 'In the beginning there was that only which is, one 
only, without a second. It willed, may I be many,' &c. (Cf. Brih. 
Ar. Up. vol. ii, p. 52.) 

2 What appears as real and unreal to the senses, not the really 
real and unreal. 

* 8 Cf. Ait. Up. I, 2, 3. 

* As flavour is the cause of pleasure, so Brahman is the cause 
of all things. The wise taste the flavour of existence, and know 
that it proceeds from Brahman, the Self-made. See Kaushitaki- 
upanishad I, 5 ; Sacred Books, vol. i, p. 277. 



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II VAIxi, 8 ANUVAKA, 2. 59 

man) existed not in the ether (in the heart) ? For 
he alone causes blessedness. 

When he finds freedom from fear and rest in that 
which is invisible, incorporeal, undefined, unsup- 
ported, then he has obtained the fearless. For if 
he makes but the smallest distinction in it, there 
is fear for him 1 . But that fear exists only for 
one who thinks himself wise 2 , (not for the true 
sage.) 

On this there is also this .Sloka : 



Eighth AnuvAka. 

(1) ' From terror of it (Brahman) the wind blows, 
from terror the sun rises ; from terror of it Agni 
and Indra, yea Death runs as the fifth 3 .' 

Now this is a n examination of (what is meant by ) 
BitssJ^nanda) : ~" 

Let there be a noble young man, who is well 
read (in the Veda), very swift, firm, and strong, and 
let the whole world be full of wealth for him, that is 
one measure of human bliss. 

pOne hundred times that human bliss (2) is one 
measure of the bliss of human Gandharvas (genii), 



1 Fear arises only from what is not ourselves. Therefore, as 
soon as there is even the smallest distinction made between our Self 
and the real Self, there is a possibility of fear. The explanation 
ud=api, aram=alpam is very doubtful, but recognised in the 
schools. It could hardly be a proverbial expression, ' if he makes 
another stomach* meaning as much as, 'if he admits another person.' 
According to the commentator, we should translate, ' for one who 
knows (a difference), and does not know the oneness.' 

2 I read manvanasya, the commentator amanv£nasya. a 
8 Ka//5. Up. VI, 3. 



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60 TAITTIRiYAKA-UPANISHAD. 

and likewise of a great sage (learned in the Vedas) 
who is free from desires. 

t One hundred times that bliss of human Gan- 
dharvas is one measure of the bliss of divine 
Gandharvas (genii), and likewise of a great sage 
who is free from desires. 

\| One hundred times that bliss of divine Gandharvas 
is one measure of the bliss of the Fathers, enjoying 
their long estate, and likewise of a great sage who is 
free from desires. 

$ One hundred times that bliss of the Fathers is 
one measure of the bliss of the Devas, born in the 
A^ina heaven (through the merit of their lawful 
works), (3) and likewise of a great sage who is free 
from desires. 

^ One hundred times that bliss of the Devas born 
in the A^ana heaven is one measure of the bliss of 
the sacrificial Devas, who go to the Devas by means 
of their Vaidik sacrifices, and likewise of a great 
sage who is free from desires. 

\One hundred times that bliss of the sacrificial 
Devas is one measure of the bliss of the (thirty-three) 
Devas, and likewise of a great sage who is free from 
desires. 

•One hundred times that bliss of the (thirty-three) 
Devas is one measure of the bliss of Indra, (4) and 
likewise of a great sage who is free from desires. 

^One hundred times that bliss of Indra is one 
measure of the bliss of BHhaspati, and likewise of 
a great sage who is free from desires. 

*One hundred times that bliss of IWhaspati is one 
measure of the bliss of Pra^apati, and likewise of 
a great sage who is free from desires. 

< One hundred times that bliss of Pra^ipati is one 



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ii vall!, 8 anuvAka, 5. 



61 



measure of the bliss of Brahman, and likewise of 
a great sage who is free from desires. 
\ (5) He 1 who is this (Brahman) in man, and he who 
is that (Brahman) in the sun, both are one 2 . 



i 



1 Cf. Ill, 10, 4. 

8 In giving the various degrees of happiness, the author of the 
Upanishad gives us at the same time the various classes of human 
and divine beings which we must suppose were recognised in his 
time. We have Men, hunjaji Gan dharvas^ div ine Gandjiarvas, 
Fathers (pitaraj £iralokaloka^), b orn Gods (a^ana^a" dev&A), Gods 
by merit. (karmadeva>4) , Gods, Indra, Br?haspati, Pra^lpati, Brah- 
man. Such a list would seem to be the invention of an individual 
rather than the result of an old tradition, if it did not occur in a very 
similar form in the «Satapatha-br£hma»a, MSdhyandina-f akM XIV, 
7, 1,31, K£«va-.rakha(Br»h. Ar.Up. IV, 3,32). Here, too, the highest 
measure of happiness is asrriheri to the ' R rt i h r nnl"kn ) nnd ptr i °r 
beings are supposed to share a certain measure only of its sup reme 
ha ppiness. The scale begins in the M&dhyandina-.rakha' with men, 
who are followed by the Fathers (pitaro ^italoka^), the Gods by 
merit (karmadeva^), the Gods by birth (a^SnadevSA, with whom 
the .Srotriya is joined), the world of Gods, the world of Gandharvas, 
the world of Pra^&pati, the world of Brahman. In the Bnhad- 
£ra»yaka-upanishad we have Men, Fathers, Gandharvas, Gods by 
merit, Gods by birth, Pra^&pati, and Brahman. If we place the 
three lists side by side, we find — 



TAITTIRlYA-UPAN. 


5ATAPATHA-BRAH. 


B/JJHADARAAT.-UPAN. 


Men 


Men 


Men 


Human Gandharvas 
(and .Srotriya) 
Divine Gandharvas 






Fathers (£iraloka) 


Fathers (gitaloka) 


Fathers (^italoka) 
Gandharvas 


Gods by birth 


Gods by merit 


Gods by merit 


Gods by merit 
Gods 


Gods by birth 
(and .Srotriya) 
Gods 


Gods by birth 
(and .Srotriya) 


Indra 


Gandharvas 


— 


Briliaspati 

Pra^dpati 

Brahman 


Pra^ipati 
Brahman 


Pra^&pati 
Brahman. 



The commentators do not help us much. *$ankara on the Taitti- 



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62 TAlTTIRiYAKA-UPANISHAD. 

He who knows this, when he has departed this 
world, reaches and comprehends the Self which con- 
sists of food, the Self which consists of breath, the 
Self which consists of mind, the Self which consists 
of understanding, the Self which consists of bliss. 

On this there is also this .Sloka : 

riyaka-upanishad explains the human Gandharvas as men who 
have become Gandharvas, a kind of fairies ; divine Gandharvas, as 
Gandharvas by birth. The Fathers or Manes are called ^"iraloka, 
because they remain long, though not for ever, in their world. The 
a^ana^-a Gods are explained as born in the world of the Devas 
through their good works (smarta), while the Karmadevas are ex- 
plained as born there through their sacred works (vaidika). The 
Gods are the thirty-three, whose lord is Indra, and whose teacher 
Bnhaspati. Pra^&pati is Vira#, Brahman Hirawyagarbha. Dyive 
dagahga, in his commentary on the Satapatha-brahmawa, ex 
the Fathers as those who, proceeding on the Southern path, 
conquered their world, more particularly by having themselves 
offered in their life sacrifices to their Fathers. The Karmadevas, 
according to him, are those who have become Devas by sacred 
works (jrauta), the A^dnadevas those who were gods before there 
were men. The Gods are Indra and the rest, while the Gandharvas 
are not explained. Pra^apati is Vira#, Brahman is Hirawyagarbha. 
Lastly, .Sankara, in his commentary on the B«hadara»yaka- 
upanishad, gives nearly the same explanation as before; only that 
he makes a^&nadevaA still clearer, by explaining them as gods 
a^anataA, i. e. utpattitaA, from their birth. 

The arrangement of these beings and their worlds, one rising 
above the other, reminds us of the cosmography of the Buddhists, 
but the elements, though in a less systematic form, existed evidently 
before. Thus we find in the so-called Gargt-brahma«a (Satapatha- 
brShmawa XIV, 6, 6, i) the following succession : Water, air, ether a , 
the worlds of the sky b , heaven, sun, moon, stars, gods, Gandharvas , 
Pra^ipati, Brahman. In the Kaushltaki-upanishad I, 3 (Sacred 
Books of the East, vol. i, p. 275) there is another series, the worlds 
of Agni, Vayu,Varu«a, Indra, Prag-apati, and Brahman. See Weber, 
Ind. Stud. II, p. 224. 

» Deest in Ka«va-sakha. 

* Between sky and sun, the KSava-salcha' places the Gandharvaloka (Bnh. Ar. 
Up. Ill, 6, 1, p. 609). 

• Instead of Gandharvas, the Brih. Ar. Up. places Indra. « 



Dvive- 

selves ^^t 

rl At ro e ^ 



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II VALLi, 9 ANUVAKA. 63 



Ninth Anuvaka 1 . 

' He who knows the bliss of that Brahman, from 
whence all speech, with the mind, turns away unable 
to reach it, he fears nothing V 

He does not distress himself with the thought, 
Why did I not do what is good ? Why did I do 
what is bad ? He who thu s knows these two (good 
and bad), freesjjjmself. He w ho knows both, frees 
himself 3 . This is the Upanishad 4 . 



2 E 
ofjej 

^^^PJmiss: 
fF added 



Cf. II, 4. 

2 Even if there is no fear from anything else, after the knowledge 

of^elf and Brahman has been obtained, it might be thought that 

might still arise from the commission of evil deeds, and the 

mission of good works. Therefore the next paragraphs have been 

added. 

The construction of these two sentences is not clear to me. 
4 Here follows the Anukramawi, and in some MSS. the same 
invocation with which the next Vallt begins. 



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64 TaittirIyaka-upanishad. 



THIRD VALLl, 
Or, the Chapter of Bhrigv. 

HariA, Om ! May it (the Brahman) protect us 
both ! May it enjoy us both ! May we acquire strength 
together ! May our knowledge become bright t May 
we never quarrel ! Peace ! peace ! peace 1 ! 

First AnuvAka. 

BhgTgu y &mni went to his father Varu^a, saying: 
' Sir, teach me Brahman.' He told him this, viz. 
Flood, br eath, the .eye^jhe earjcnind^speech. 

TKen he said again to him : ' Th^jJJcojnjwhence 
i the je bei ngs, are born, that-by which, when born, 
they live, that into which they enter at their death, 
try to know that. That is Brahman.' 

He performer penance. Having performed 
penance — , 

Second AnuvAka. 

He perceived that food is Brahman, for from food 
these beings are produced ; by food, when born, they 
live ; and into food they enter at their death. 

Having perceived this, he went again to his father 
Varu«a, saying : ' Sir, teach me Brahman.' He said 
to him: 'Try to know Brahman by penance, for 
penance is (the means of knowing) Brahman.' 

He performed penance. Having performed 
penance — 

1 The same paragraph, as before (II, i), occurs at the end of the 
Ka/4a-upanishad, and elsewhere. 



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in vallI, 5 anuvAka. 65 



Third AnuvAka. 

He perceived that b reath, * is Brahman, for from 
breath thesebeingsTare born ; by breath, when born, 
they live ; into brea jhj jiey enter at their dea th. 

Having perceived this, he went again to his father 
Varu»a, saying : ' Sir, teach me Brahman.' He said 
to him : ' Try to know Brahman by penance, for 
penance is (the means of knowing) Brahman.' 

He performed penance. Having performed 
penance — 

Fourth AnuvAka. 

He perceived that mind (ma^ia^) is B rahma n, for 
from mind these beings are born ; by mind, when 
born, they live ; into mind the y enter at their death._ 

Having perceivecTthis, he went again to his father 
Varu»a, saying : ' Sir, teach me Brahman.' He said 
to him : ' Try to know Brahman by penance, for 
penance is (the means of knowing) Brahman.' 

He performed penance. Having performed 
penance — 

Fifth AnuvAka. 

He perceived that understanding (vif«ana) was 
BxaE55aH7 JoF from understanding these beings are 
born ; by understanding, when born, they live ; into 
understanding they enter at their death. 

Having perceived this, he went again to his father 
Vanwa, saying : ' Sir, teach me Brahman.' He said 
to him : ' Try to know Brahman by penance, for 
penance is (the means of knowing) Brahman.' 

1 Or life j see Brth. kr. Up. IV, 1, 3. 

[15] r 



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66 taittirSyaka-upanishad. 

He performed penance. Having performed 
penance — " " ' 

Sixth AnuvAka. 

^He perceived that bliss is Bra hman , for from bliss 
these beings~are born"T"by bliss, when born, they 
live ; into bliss they enter at their death. 

This is the knowledge of Bhrzgu and Varurca 1 , 
exalted in the highest heaven (in the heart). He 
who knows this becomes exalted, becomes rich in 
food, and able to eat food (healthy), becomes great 
by offspring, cattle, and the splendour of his know- 
ledge (of Brahman), great by fame. 

Seventh AnuvAka. 

Let hi m never abuse fo od, that is the rule. 

Breaj^is_j&Qd 2 , the body eats the food. The 
body rests on breath, breath rests on the body. This 
is the food resting on food. He who knows this 
food resting on food 3 , rests exalted, becomes rich 
in food, and able to eat food (healthy), becomes 
great by offspring, cattle, and the splendour of his 
knowledge (of Brahman), great by fame. 

Eighth AnuvAka. 

• Let himjieyer shun food, that is the rule. Water 
is food, the light~eats the food. The light rests on 
water, water rests on light. This is the food resting 

1 Taught by Varuwa, learnt by Bhrc'gu Varu«i. 

2 Because, like food, it is inside the body. 

3 The interdependence of food and breath. The object of this 
discussion is to show (see .Sahkara's commentary, p. 135) that the 
world owes its origin to there being an enjoyer (subject) and what is 
enjoyed (object), but that this distinction does not exist in the Self. 



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Ill VALLi, IO ANUVAKA, 2. 67 

on food x . He who knows this food resting on food, 
rests exalted, becomes rich in food, and able to eat 
food (healthy), becomes great by offspring, cattle, and 
the splendour of his knowledge (of Brahman), great 
by fame. 

Ninth Anuvaka. 

Let him acquire much food, that is the rule. Earth 
is food, the ether eats th~e tood. The ether rests 
on the earth, the earth rests on the ether. /This is 
the food resting on food. He who knows this food 
resting on food, rests exalted, becomes rich in food, 
and able to eat food (healthy), becomes great by 
offspring, cattle, and the splendour of his knowledge 
(of Brahman), great by fame. % 

Tenth Anuvaka. 

1. Let him never turn away (a stranger) from his 
Ji guse, th~at~ is the rule. Therefore a man should 
by all means acquire much food, for (good) people 
say (to the stranger) : ' There is food ready for him.' 
If he gives food amply, food is given to him amply. 
If he gives food fairly, food is given to him fairly. 
If he gives food meanly, food is given to him 
meanly. 

2. He who knows this, (recognises and worships 
Brahman 2 ) as possession in speech, as acquisition 
and possession in up-breathing (pra«a) and down- 
breathing (apana) ; as action in the hands ; as walking 
in the feet ; as voiding in the anus. These are the 
human recognitions (of Brahman as manifested in 
human actions). Next follow the recognitions (of 

1 The interdependence of water and light. 

2 Brahma«a updsanaprakara/^. 

F 2 



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68 taittirIyaka-upanishad. 

Brahman) with reference to the Devas, viz. as satis- 
faction in rain ; as power in lightning ; 

3. As glory in cattle ; as light in the stars ; as 
procreation, immortality, and bliss in the member ; 
as everything in the ether. Let him worship that 
(Brahman) as support, and he becomes supported. 
Let him worship that (Brahman) as greatness (maha^), 
and he becomes great. Let him worship that (Brah- 
man) as mind, and he becomes endowed with mind. 

4. Let him wors hjpj& at (Brah m an) as adoratio n, 
and all desires ™N djiwn^fjnrf him in nrlnrntinn 
Let him WOTSh~ip that (Brahma n ) as JEkahman, and 
he will become~"poss^sed of Br? hrnan Let him 
worship lfris~as~The~ absorption of the gods 1 in Brah- 
man, and the enemies who hate him will die all 
around him, all around him will die the foes whom 
he does not love. 

He 2 who is this j[Brahman^in man, and he who is 
that (Brahman) in the sun, both are one. 

5. He who knows this, when he has departedjhis 
world, after reaching and co mprehending the Self 
which consists of food, the -Seh°"which consists of 
breath, the Self which consists of mind, the Self 
which consists of understanding, the Self which con- 
sists of bliss, enters and takes possession of these 
worlds, and having as much food as he likes, and 
assuming as many forms as he likes, he sits down 
singing this Saman (of Brahman) : ' Havu, havu, 
havu! 

1 Cf. Kaush. Up. II, 1 2. Here the absorption of the gods of fire, 
sun, moon, and lightning in the god of the air (v&yu) is described. 
£ankara adds the god of rain, and shows that air is identical with 
ether. 

2 Cf. II, 8. 



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Ill VALLi, IO ANUVAKA, 6. 69 

6. ' I am food (object), I am food, I am food ! I am 
the eater of food (subject), I am the eater of food, 
I am the eater of food ! I am the poet (who joins 
the two together), I am the poet, I am the poet! 
I am the first-born of the Right (rz'ta). Before the 
Devas I was in the centre of all that is immortal. 
He who gives me away, he alone preserves me: him 
who eats food, I eat as food. 

' I overcome the whole world, I, endowed with 
golden light 1 . He who knows this, (attains all this).' 
This is the Upanishad 2 . 

1 If we read suvan/a^yoti^. The commentator reads suvar »a 
^yoti^, i. e. the light is like the sun. 

2 After the Anukrama«i follows the same invocation as in the 
beginning of the third Valli, ' May it protect us both,' &c. 




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Bi?/HADARAiVYAKA- 
UPANISHAD. 



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B/?/HADARAA^YAKA- 
UPANISHAD. 



FIRST ADHYAYA 1 . 

First BrAhmaata. 

i. Verily 2 the dawn is the head of the horse which 
is fit for sacrifice, the sun its eye, the wind its breath, 
the mouth the Vaisvanara 3 fire, the year the body 
of the sacrificial horse. Heaven is the back, the sky 
the belly, the earth the chest 4 , the quarters the two 
sides, the intermediate quarters the ribs, the members 
the seasons, the joints the months and half-months, 
the feet days and nights, the bones the stars, the 

1 It is the third Adhyaya of the A^ra«yaka, but the first of the 
Upanishad. 

a This Brahmawa is found in the Madhyandina text of the Sata- 
patha, ed. Weber, X, 6, 4. Its object is there explained by the 
commentary to be the meditative worship of V ira^, as represente d 
metaphorically in the members nf thp Vi nrsp Saya«a dispenses with 
its explanation, because, as part of the Bnhadarawyaka-upanishad, 
according to the Ka»va-.rakha, it had been enlarged on by the 
Varttikakara and explained. 

8 Agni or fire, as pervading everything, as universally present 
in nature. 

* Pa^asya is doubtful. The commentator suggests pad-asya, the 
place of the feet, i. e. the hoof The Greek Pegasos, or Wot jnryof, 
throws no light on the word. The meaning of hoof would hardly 
be appropriate here, and I prefer chest on account of uras in 
I, 2, 3. Deussen (Vedanta, p. 8) translates, die Erde seiner Fttsse 
Schemel ; but we want some part of the horse. 



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74 BR/HADARAiVYAKA-UPANISHAD. 

flesh the clouds. The half-digested food is the sand, 
the rivers the bowels 1 , the liver and the lungs 2 the 
mountains, the hairs the herbs and trees. As the 
sun rises, it is the forepart, as it sets, the hindpart of 
the horse. When the horse shakes itself 3 , then it 
lightens ; when it kicks, it thunders ; when it makes 
water, it rains ; voice* is its voice. 

2. Verily Day arose after the horse as the (golden) 
vessel 5 , called Mahiman (greatness), which (at the 
sacrifice) is placed before the horse. Its place is in 
the Eastern sea. The Night arose after the horse 
as the (silver) vessel, called Mahiman, which (at the 
sacrifice) is placed behind the horse. Its place is in 
the Western sea. Verily, these two vessels (or great- 
nesses) arose to be on each side of the horse. 

As a racer he carried the Devas, as a stallion the 
Gandharvas, as a runner the Asuras, as a horse men. 
The sea is its kin, the sea is its birthplace. 

Second BrAhma^a*. 
i. In the beginning„there was nothing (to be per- 

1 Guda, being in the plural, is explained by n&di, channel, and 
siraA; for we ought to read siri or hirSgrahawe for siri, p. 22, 1. 16. 

2 KlomSnaA is explained as a plurale tantum (nityam bahuva- 
£anam ekasmin), and being described as a lump below the heart, 
on the opposite side of the liver, it is supposed to be the lungs. 

s ' When it yawns.' Anandagiri. 

4 Voice is sometimes used as a personified power of thunder 
and other aerial sounds, and this is identified with the voice of the 
horse. 

s Two vessels, to hold the sacrificial libations, are placed at the 
Afvamedha before and behind the horse, the former made of gold, 
the latter made of silver. They are called Mahiman in the technical 
language of the ceremonial. The place in which these vessels are 
set, is called their yoni. Cf. V&gas. Szmhh& XXIII, 2. 

8 Called the Agni-brahmawa, and intended to teach the origin of 



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I ADHYAYA, 2 BRAHMAJVA, 3. 75 

ceived) here whatsoever. By Death indeed all this 
was concealed, — by hunger; for death is hunger. 
Death (the first being) thought, ' Let me have a 
body.' Then he moved about, worshipping. From 
him thus worshipping water was produced. And he 
said : ' Verily, there appeared to me, while I wor- 
shipped (ar£ate), water (ka).' This is why water is 
called ar-ka 1 . Surely there is water (or pleasure) 
for him who thus knows the reason why water is 
called arka. 

2. Verily water is arka. And what was there as 
the froth of the water, that was hardened, and became 
the earth. On that earth he (Death) rested, and from 
him, thus resting and heated, Agni (Vira/) proceeded, 
full of light. 

3. That being divided itself threefold, Aditya (the 
sun) as the third, and Vayu (the air) as the third 2 . 
That spirit (pra«a) 3 became threefold. The head was 
the Eastern quarter, and the arms this and that quarter 

Agni, the fire, which is here used for the Horse-sacrifice. It is 
found in the .Satapatha-brahmawa, Madhyandina-jakha X, 6, 5, and 
there explained as a description of Hirawyagarbha. 

1 We ought to read arkasyarkatvam, as in Poley's edition, or 
ark-kasyarkkatvam, to make the etymology still clearer. The com- 
mentator takes arka in the sense of fire, more especially the sacri- 
ficial fire employed at the Horse-sacrifice. It may be so, but the 
more natural interpretation seems to me to take arka here as water, 
from which indirectly fire is produced. From water springs the 
earth; on that earth he (MWtyu or Pra^ipati) rested, and from 
him, while resting there, fire (Vira^) was produced. That fire 
assumed three forms, fire, sun, and air, and in that threefold form 
it is called prawa, spirit. 

2 As Agni, Vayu, and Aditya. 

8 Here Agni (Vira^-) is taken as representing the fire of the altar 
at the Horse-sacrifice, which is called Arka. The object of the 
whole Brahmawa was to show the origin and true character of that 
fire (arka). 



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j6 br/hadAraatvaka-upanishad. 

(i.e. the N. E. and S. E., on the left and right sides). 
Then the tail was the Western quarter, and the two 
legs this and that quarter (i.e. the N.W. and S.W.) 
The sides were the Southern and Northern quarters, 
the back heaven, the belly the sky, the dust the 
earth. Thus he (Mn'tyu, as arka) stands firm in 
the water, and he who knows this stands firm wher- 
ever he goes. 

4. He desired 1 , ' Let a second body be born of 
me,' and he (Death or Hunger), embraced Speech 
in his mind. Then the seed became the year. ' 
Before that time there was no year. Speech 2 bore 
him so long as a year, and after that time sent 
him forth. Then when he was born, he (Death) 
opened his mouth, as if to swallow him. He cried 
Bha#! and that became speech 3 . 

5. He thought, ' If I kill him, I shall have but little 
food.' He therefore brought forth by that speech 
and by that body (the year) all whatsoever exists, 
the Rik, the Ya^us, the Saman, the metres, the 
sacrifices, men, and animals. 

And whatever he (Death) brought forth, that 
he resolved to eat (ad). Verily because he eats 
everything, therefore is Aditi (Death) called Aditi. 
He who thus knows why Aditi is called Aditi, 
becomes an eater of everything, and everything 
becomes his food*. 

1 He is the same as what was before called mntyu, death, who, 
after becoming self-conscious, produced water, earth, fire, &c. He 
now wishes for a second body, which is the year, or the annual 
sacrifice, the year being dependent on the sun (Aditya). 

a The commentator understands the father, instead of Speech, the 
mother. 

3 The interjectional theory. 

4 All these are merely fanciful etymologies of awamedha and arka. 



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I ADHYAYA, 2 BRAHMAYA, 7. 77 

6. He desired to sacrifice again with a greater 
sacrifice. He toiled and performed penance. And 
while he toiled and performed penance, glorious 
power 1 went out of him. Verily glorious power 
means the senses (pra«a). Then when the senses 
had gone out, the body took to swelling (.rva-yitum), 
and mind was in the body. 

7. He desired that this body should be fit for sacri- 
fice (medhya), and that he should be embodied by it. 
Then he became a horse (asva), because it swelled 
(asvat), and was fit for sacrifice (medhya) ; and this 
is why the horse-sacrifice is called Asva-medha. 

Verily he who knows him thus, knows the Asva- 
medha. Then, letting the horse free, he thought 2 , 
and at the end of a year he offered it up for himself, 
while he gave up the (other) animals to the deities. 
Therefore the sacrificers offered up the purified 
horse belonging to Pra^apati, (as dedicated) to all 
the deities. 

Verily the shining sun is the A^vamedha-sacri- 
fice, and his body is the year ; Agni is the sacrificial 
fire (arka), and these worlds are his bodies. These 
two are the sacrificial fire and the Asvamedha-sacri- 
fice, and they are again one deity, viz. Death. He 
(who knows this) overcomes another death, death 
does not reach him, death is his Self, he becomes 
one of those deities. 



1 Or glory (senses) and power. Comm. 
* He considered himself as the horse. Roer. 



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78 B.R/HADARAiVYAKA-UPANISHAD. 



Third BrAhmaata 1 . 

1. There were two kinds of descendants of Pra^i- 
pati, the Devas and the Asuras 2 . Now the Devas 
were indeed the younger, the Asuras the elder ones 3 . 
The Devas, who were struggling in these worlds, 
said : 'Well, let us overcome the Asuras at the sacri- 
fices (the Gyotish/oma) by means of the udgltha.' 

2. They said to speech (Va£) : ' Do thou sing out 
for us (the udgltha).' ' Yes,' said speech, and sang 
(the udgltha). Whatever delight there is in speech, 
that she obtained for the Devas by singing (the three 
pavamanas) ; but that she pronounced well (in the 
other nine pavamanas), that was for herself. The 
Asuras knew: 'Verily, through this singer they will 
overcome us.' They therefore rushed at the singer 
and pierced her with evil. That evil which consists 
in saying what is bad, that is that evil. 

3. Then they (the Devas) said to breath (scent) : 
' Do thou sing out for us.' ' Yes,' said breath, and 
sang. Whatever delight there is in breath (smell), 
that he obtained for the Devas by singing ; but that 
he smelled well, that was for himself. The Asuras 
knew : ' Verily, through this singer they will over- 
come us.' They therefore rushed at the singer, and 

1 Called the Udgitha-brahma«a. In the Madhyandina-.rakh£, 
the Upanishad, which consists of six adhyayas, begins with this 
Brahma»a (cf. Weber's edition, p. 1047 ; Commentary, p. 1109). 

2 The Devas and Asuras are explained by the commentator 
as the senses, inclining either to sacred or to worldly objects, to 
good or evil. 

8 According to the commentator, the Devas were the less 
numerous and less strong, the Asuras the more numerous and 
more powerful. 



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I ADHYAYA, 3 BRAHMAtfA, 7. 79 

pierced him with evil. That evil which consists in 
smelling what is bad, that is that evil. 

4. Then they said to the eye : ' Do thou sing out 
for us.' ' Yes,' said the eye, and sang. Whatever 
delight there is in the eye, that he obtained for the 
Devas by singing ; but that he saw well, that was 
for himself. The Asuras knew : ' Verily, through this 
singer they will overcome us.' They therefore rushed 
at the singer, and pierced him with evil. That evil 
which consists in seeing what is bad, that is that evil. 

5. Then they said to the ear : ' Do thou sing out 
for us.' ' Yes,' said the ear, and sang. Whatever 
delight there is in the ear, that he obtained for the 
Devas by singing ; but that he heard well, that was 
for himself. The Asuras knew : 'Verily, through this 
singer they will overcome us.' They therefore rushed 
at the singer, and pierced him with evil. That evil 
which consists in hearing what is bad, that is that evil. 

6. Then they said to the mind : ' Do thou sing out 
for us.' ' Yes,' said the mind, and sang. Whatever 
delight there is in the mind, that he obtained for the 
Devas by singing; but that he thought well, that 
was for himself. The Asuras knew : ' Verily, through 
this singer they will overcome us.' They therefore 
rushed at the singer, and pierced him with evil. That 
evil which consists in thinking what is bad, that is 
that evil. 

Thus they overwhelmed these deities with evils, 
thus they pierced them with evil. 

7. Then they said to the breath in the mouth 1 : 
' Do thou sing for us.' ' Yes,' said the breath, and 
sang. The Asuras knew : 'Verily, through this singer 

1 This is the chief or vital breath, sometimes called mukhya. 



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80 BR/HADARANYAKA-UPANISHAD. 

they will overcome us.' They therefore rushed at 
him and pierced him with evil. Now as a ball of 
earth will be scattered when hitting a stone, thus 
they perished, scattered in all directions. Hence 
the Devas rose, the Asuras fell. He who knows 
this, rises by his self, and the enemy who hates 
him falls. 

8. Then they (the Devas) said : ' Where was he 
then who thus stuck to us 1 ?' It was (the breath) 
within the mouth (asye 'ntar 2 ), and therefore called 
Ayasya; he was the sap (rasa) of the limbs (anga), 
and therefore called Angirasa. 

9. That deity was called Dur, because Death was 
far (duran) from it. From him who knows this, 
Death is far off. 

10. That deity, after having taken away the evil 
of those deities, viz. death, sent it to where the 
end of the quarters of the earth is. There he 
deposited their sins. Therefore let no one go to 
a man, let no one go to the end (of the quarters 
of the earth 3 ), that he may not meet there with 
evil, with death. 

11. That deity, after having taken away the evil of 
those deities, viz. death, carried them beyond death. 

12. He carried speech across first. When speech 
had become freed from death, it became (what it 
had been before) Agni (fire). That Agni, after 
having stepped beyond death, shines. 

13. Then he carried breath (scent) across. When 
breath had become freed from death, it became 

1 Asakta from sa.rig, to embrace ; cf. Rig-veda I, 33, 3. Here 
it corresponds to the German anhanglich. 

2 See Deussen, Vedanta, p. 359. 
* To distant people. 



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i adhyAya, 3 brAhmajva, 18. 8i 

Vayu (air). That Vayu, after having stepped beyond 
death, blows. 

14. Then he carried the eye across. When the 
eye had become freed from death, it became Aditya 
(the sun). That Aditya, after having stepped beyond 
death, burns. 

15. Then he carried the ear across. When the 
ear had become freed from death, it became the 
quarters (space). These are our quarters (space), 
which have stepped beyond death. 

16. Then he carried the mind across. When the 
mind had become freed from death, it became the 
moon (Aandramas). That moon, after having stepped 
beyond death, shines. Thus does that deity carry 
him, who knows this, across death. 

17. Then breath (vital), by singing, obtained for 
himself eatable food. For whatever food is eaten, 
is eaten by breath alone, and in it breath rests 1 . 

The Devas said : ' Verily, thus far, whatever food 
there is, thou hast by singing acquired it for thyself. 
Now therefore give us a share in that food.' He 
said : ' You there, enter into me.' They said Yes, and 
entered all into him. Therefore whatever food is 
eaten by breath, by it the other senses are satisfied. 

18. If a man knows this, then his own relations 
come to him in the same manner ; he becomes their 
supporter, their chief leader, their strong ruler 2 . And 
if ever any one tries to oppose 3 one who is possessed 
of such knowledge among his own relatives, then he 

1 This is done by the last nine Pavam&nas, while the first three 
were used for obtaining the reward common to all the prd«as. 

a Here ann&da is well explained by anamaySvin, and vy&dhirahita, 
free from sickness, strong. 

8 Read pratipratLi ; see Poley, and Weber, p. n 80. 

[i5] G 



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82 Bii/HADARAJVYAKA-UPANISHAD. 

will not be able to support his own belongings. But 
he who follows the man who is possessed of such 
knowledge, and who with his permission wishes to 
support those whom he has to support, he indeed 
will be able to support his own belongings. 

19. He was called Ayasya Angirasa, for he is the 
sap (rasa) of the limbs (anga). Verily, breath is 
the sap of the limbs. Yes, breath is the sap of the 
limbs. Therefore from whatever limb breath goes 
away, that limb withers, for breath verily is the sap 
of the limbs. 

20. He (breath) is* also Brzhaspati, for speech is 
BWhati (Rig-veda), and he is her lord; therefore he 
is BWhaspati. 

21. He (breath) is also Brahma«aspati, for speech 
is Brahman (Ya^ur-veda), and he is her lord ; there- 
fore he is Brahma#aspati. 

He (breath) is also Saman (the Udgitha), for 
speech, is Saman (Sama-veda), and that is both 
speech (sa) and breath (ama) 1 . This is why Saman 
is called Saman. 

22. Or because he is equal (sama) to a grub, equal 
to a gnat, equal to an elephant, equal to these three 
worlds, nay, equal to this universe, therefore he is 
Saman. He who thus knows this Saman, obtains 
union and oneness with Saman. 

23. He (breath) is Udgitha 2 . Breath verily is Ut, 
for by breath this universe is upheld (uttabdha) ; and 
speech is Githa, song. And because he is ut and 
gltha, therefore he (breath) is Udgitha. 



1 Cf.^Mnd. Up.V, 2,6. 

* Not used here in the sense of song or hymn, but as an act of 
worship connected with the S&tnan. Comm. 



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I ADHYAYA, 3 BRAHMAiVA, 2 J. 83 

24. And thus Brahmadatta ^Taikitaneya (the 
grandson of Alkitana), while taking Soma (rifan), 
said : ' May this Soma strike my head off, if Ayasya 
Arigirasa sang another Udgitha than this. He sang 
it indeed as speech and breath.' 

25. He who knows what is the property of this 
Saman, obtains property. Now verily its property 
is tone only. Therefore let a priest, who is going to 
perform the sacrificial work of a Sama-singer, desire 
that his voice may have a good tone, and let him 
perform the sacrifice with a voice that is in good 
tone. Therefore people (who want a priest) for a 
sacrifice, look out for one who possesses a good 
voice, as for one who possesses property. He who 
thus knows what is the property of that Saman, 
obtains property. 

26. He who knows what is the gold of that 
Saman, obtains gold. Now verily its gold is tone 
only. He who thus knows what is the gold of that 
Saman, obtains gold. 

27. He who knows what is the support of that 
Saman, he is supported. Now verily its support 
is speech only. For, as supported in speech, that 
breath is sung as that Saman. Some say the 
support is in food. 

Next follows the Abhyaroha x (the ascension) of 
the Pavamana verses. Verily the Prastotre begins 
to sing the Saman, and when he begins, then let him 
(the sacrificer) recite these (three Ya^us- verses) : 

' Lead me from the unreal to the real ! Lead me 

1 The ascension is a ceremony by which the performer reaches 
the gods, or becomes a god. It consists in the recitation of three 
Ya^Tis, and is here enjoined to take place when the Prastotr* priest 
begins to sing his hymn. 

G 2 



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84 BK/HADARAyYAKA-UPANISHAD. 

from darkness to light! Lead me from death to 
immortality!' 

Now when he says, ' Lead me from the unreal to 
the real,' the unreal is verily death, the real immor- 
tality. He therefore says, ' Lead me from death to 
immortality, make me immortal.' 

When he says, ' Lead me from darkness to light,' 
darkness is verily death, light immortality. He 
therefore says, 'Lead me from death to immortality, 
make me immortal.' 

When he says, ' Lead me from death to immor- 
tality/ there is nothing there, as it were, hidden 
(obscure, requiring explanation) 1 . 

28. Next come the other Stotras with which the 
priest may obtain food for himself by singing them. 
Therefore let the sacrificer, while these Stotras are 
being sung, ask for a boon, whatever desire he may 
desire. An UdgatW priest who knows this obtains 
by his singing whatever desire he may desire either 
for himself or for the sacrificer. This (knowledge) in- 
deed is called the conqueror of the worlds. He who 
thus knows this Siman 2 , for him- there is no fear of 
his pot being admitted to the worlds 3 . 

1 See Deussen, Ved&nta, p. 86. 
. s He knows that he is the Prawa, which Pra«a is the Saman. 
That Pra«a cannot be defeated by the Asuras, i. e. by the senses 
which are addicted to evil ; it is pure, and the five senses finding 
refuge hi him, recover there their original nature, fire, &c. The 
Prd«a is the Self of all things, also of speech (i?«g-ya,fuA-s4modgftha), 
and of the Saman that has to be sung and well sung. The Pra«a 
pervades all creatures, and he who identifies himself with that 
Pra»a, obtains the rewards mentioned in the Brahmawa. Corrim. 

3 In connection with loka^it, lokyata is here explained, and 
may probably have been intended, as worthiness to be admitted to 
the highest world. Originally lokyata and alokyata meant right 
and wrong. See also I, 5, 17. 



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I ADHYAYA, 4 BRAHMAJVA, 3. 85 



Fourth BrAhmam. 1 . 

1 . In the beginning this was Self alone, in the shape 
of a person (purusha). He looking round saw nothing 
but his Self. He first said, 'This is I;' therefore 
he became I by name. Therefore even now, if a 
man is asked, he first says, ' This is I,' and then 
pronounces the other name which he may have. And 
because before (purva) all this, he (the Self) burnt 
down (ush) all evils, therefore he was a person 
(pur-usha). Verily he who knows this, burns down 
every one who tries to be before him. 

2. He feared, and therefore any one who is lonely 
fears. He thought, 'As there is nothing but myself, 
why should I fear?' Thence his fear passed away. 
For what should he have feared ? Verily fear arises 
from a second only. 

3. But he felt no delight. Therefore a man who 
is lonely feels no delight. He wished for a second. 
He was so large as man and wife together. He then 
made this his Self to fall in two (pat), and thence 
arose husband (pati) and wife (patni). Therefore 
Yi^wavalkya said: 'We two 2 are thus (each of us) 
like half a shell V Therefore the void which was 

1 Called Purushavidhabrahma«a (Madhyandina-jakhl, p. 1050). 
See Muir, Original Sanskrit Texts, vol. i, p. 24. 

2 The Comm. explains svaA by atmana^, of himself. But see 
Boehtlingk, Sanskrit Chrestomathie, p. 357. 

3 Roer translates : ' Therefore was this only one half of himself, as 
a split pea is of a whole.' Bn'gala is a half of anything. Muir 
(Orig. Sansk. Texts, vol. i, p. 25) translates : ' Ya^wavalkya has said 
that this one's self is like the half of a split pea.' I have translated 
the sentence according to Professor Boehtlingk's conjecture (Chres- 
tomathie, 2nd ed. p. 357), though the. singular after the dual (svaA) 
is irregular. 



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86 bk/hadArajvyaka-upanishad. 

there, is filled by the wife. He embraced her, and 
men were born. 

4. She thought, ' How can he embrace me, after 
having produced me from himself? I shall hide 
myself.' 

She then became a cow, the other became a 
bull and embraced her, and hence cows were born. 
The one became a mare, the other a stallion ; the 
one a male ass, the other a female ass. He em- 
braced her, and hence one-hoofed animals were born. 
The one became a she-goat, the other a he-goat ; 
the one became a ewe 1 , the other a ram. He em- 
braced her, and hence goats and sheep were born. 
And thus he created everything that exists in pairs, 
down to the ants. 

5. He knew, ' I indeed am this creation, for I 
created all this.' Hence he became the creation, 
and he who knows this lives in this his creation. 

6. Next he thus produced fire by rubbing. From 
the mouth, as from the fire-hole, and from the hands 
he created fire 2 . Therefore both the mouth and the 
hands are inside without hair, for the fire-hole is 
inside without hair. 

And when they say, 'Sacrifice to this or sacrifice to 
that god,' each god is but his manifestation, for he 
is all gods. 

Now, whatever there is moist, that he created 
from seed ; this is Soma. So far verily is this uni- 
verse either food or eater. Soma indeed is food, 
Agni eater. This is the highest creation of Brah- 

1 The reading avir itaro, i. e. itara u, is not found in the Ka«va 
text. See Boehtlingk, Chrestomathie, p. 357. 
a He blew with the mouth while he rubbed with the hands. 



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I ADHYAYA, 4 BRAIIMA2VA, 7. 87 

man, when he created the gods from his better part 1 , 
and when he, who was (then) mortal 2 , created the im- 
mortals. Therefore it was the highest creation. And 
he who knows this, lives in this his highest creation. 

7. Now all this was then undeveloped. It became 
developed by form and name, so that one could say, 
' He, called so and so, is such a one 3 .' Therefore at 
present also all this is developed by name and form, so 
that one can say, ' He, called so and so, is such a one.' 

He (Brahman or the Self) entered thither, to the 
very tips of the finger-nails, as a razor might be 
fitted in a razor-case, or as fire in a fire-place *. 

He cannot be seen, for, in part only, when breath- 
ing, he is breath by name; when speaking, speech 
by name ; when seeing, eye by name ; when hearing, 
ear by name ; when thinking, mind by name. All 
these are but the names of his acts. And he who 
worships (regards) him as the one or the other, does 
not know him, for he is apart from this (when quali- 
fied) by the one or the other (predicate). Let men 
worship him as Self, for in the Self all these are one. 
T his Self is the footstep of everything, for through 
i t one knows everythin g 5 . And as one can find 
again by footsteps what was lost, thus he who knows 
this finds glory and praise. 

1 Or, when he created the best gods. 

4 As man and sacrificer. Comm. 

8 The Comm. takes asau-nama as a compound, instead of idaz«- 
nama. I read asau nama, he is this by name, viz. Devadatta, &c. 
Dr. Boehtlingk, who in his Chrestomathie (2nd ed. p. 31) had 
accepted the views of the Commentator, informs me that he has 
changed his view, and thinks that we should read asati nama. 

4 Cf. Kaush. Br. Up. VI, 19. 

6 'As one finds lost cattle again by following their footsteps, thus 
one finds everything, if one has found out the Self.' Comm. 



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88 BWHADARAAYAKA-UPANISHAD. 

8. This, which is nearer to us than anything, this 
Self, is dearer than a son, dearer than wealth, dearer 
than all else. 

And if one were to say to one who declares an- 
other than the Self dear, that he will lose what is dear 
to him, very likely it would be so. Let him worship 
the Self alone as dear. He who worships the Self 
alone as dear, the object of his love will never perish 1 . 

9. Here they say: 'If men think that by know- 
ledge of Brahman they will become everything, what 
then did that Brahman know, from whence all this 
sprang ? ' 

10. Verily in the beginning this was Brahman, that 
Brahman knew (its) Self only, saying, ' I am Brah- 
man.' From it all this sprang. Thus, whatever 
Deva was awakened (so as to know Brahman), he 
indeed became that (Brahman) ; and the same with 
./fr'shis and men. The i?z'shi Vimadeva saw and 
understood it, singing, ' I was Manu (moon), I was the 
sun.' Therefore now also he who thus knows that 
he is Brahman, becomes all this, and even the Devas 
cannot prevent it, for he himself is their Self. 

Now if a man worships another deity, thinking 
the deity is one and he another, he does not know. 
He is like a beast for the Devas. For verily, as 
many beasts nourish a man, thus does every man 
nourish the Devas. If only one beast is taken 
away, it is not pleasant ; how much more when many 
are taken! Therefore it is not pleasant to the 
Devas that men should know this. 

1 1. Verily in the beginning this was Brahman, one 

1 On rudh, to lose, see Taitt. Sawn. II, 6, 8, 5, pp. 765, 771, as 
pointed out by Dr. Boehtlingk. On favaro (yat) tathaiva syat, see 
Boehtlingk, s.v. 



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I ADHYAYA, 4 BRAHMAJVA, 1 4. 89 

only. That being one, was not strong enough. It 
created still further the most excellent Kshatra 
(power), viz. those Kshatras (powers) among the 
Devas, — Indra, Varuwa, Soma, Rudra, Par^anya, 
Yama, Mrztyu, Isana. Therefore there is nothing 
beyond the Kshatra, and therefore at the Ra^asuya 
sacrifice theBrahma«a sits down below the Kshatriya. 
He confers that glory on the Kshatra alone. But Brah- 
man is (nevertheless) the birth-place of the Kshatra. 
Therefore though a king is exalted, he sits down at 
the end (of the sacrifice) below the Brahman, as his 
birth-place. He who injures him, injures his own 
birth-place. He becomes worse, because he has 
injured one better than himself. 

12. He 1 was not strong enough. He created the 
Vis (people), the classes of Devas which in their 
different orders are called Vasus, Rudras, Adityas, 
Vi^ve Devas, Maruts. 

13. He was not strong enough. He created the 
.Sudra colour (caste), as Pushan (as nourisher). This 
earth verily is Pushan (the nourisher) ; for the earth 
nourishes all this whatsoever. 

14. He was not strong enough. He created still 
further the most excellent Law (dharma). Law is 
the Kshatra (power) of the Kshatra 2 , therefore there 
is nothing higher than the Law. Thenceforth even 
a weak man rules a stronger with the help of the 
Law, as with the help of a king. Thus the Law is 
what is called the true. And if a man declares what 
is true, they say he declares the Law; and if he 
declares the Law, they say he declares what is true. 
Thus both are the same. 

1 Observe the change from tad, it, to sa, he. 

2 More powerful than the Kshatra or warrior, caste. Comm. 



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90 Bi?/HADARA2VYAKA-UPANISHAD. 

15. There are then this Brahman, Kshatra, Vis, 
and .Sudra. Among the Devas that Brahman existed 
as Agni (fire) only, among men as Brahma#a, as 
Kshatriya through the (divine) Kshatriya, as Vaisya 
through the (divine) Vaisya, as .Sudra through the 
(divine) Sudra. Therefore people wish for their 
future state among the Devas through Agni (the 
sacrificial fire) only; and among men through the 
Brahma»a, for in these two forms did Brahman 
exist. 

Now if a man departs this life without having 
seen his true future life (in the Self), then that 
Self, not being known, does not receive and bless 
him, as if the Veda had not been read, or as if a 
good work had not been done. Nay, even if one 
who does not know that (Self), should perform here 
on earth some great holy work, it will perish for 
him in the end. Let a man worship the Self only 
as his true state. _If a man worships the Self only a s 
his true state, his work does not perish, for whatever 
he desires that he ffets from I* 13 * ^If 

16. Now verily this Self (of the ignorant man) is 
the world 1 of all creatures. In so far as man sacri- 
fices and pours out libations, he is the world of the 
Devas ; in so far as he repeats the hymns, &c, he is 
the world of the .tfzshis ; in so far as he offers cakes 
to the Fathers and tries to obtain offspring, he is the 
world of the Fathers ; in so far as he gives shelter and 
food to men, he is the world of men ; in so far as he 
finds fodder and water for the animals, he is the world 
of the animals ; in so far as quadrupeds, birds, and 
even ants live in his houses, he is their world. And 
as every one wishes his own world not to be injured, 

1 Is enjoyed by them all. Comm. 

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I ADHYAYA, 5 BRAHMAiVA, I. 9 1 

thus all beings wish that he who knows this should 
not be injured. Verily this is known and has been 
well reasoned. 

1 7. In the beginning this was Self alone, one only. 
He desired, ' Let there be a wife for me that I may 
have offspring, and let there be wealth for me that I 
may offer sacrifices.' Verily this is the whole desire, 
and, even if wishing for more, he would not find it. 
Therefore now also a lonely person desires, 'Let 
there be a wife for me that I may have offspring, and 
let there be wealth for me that I may offer sacrifices.' 
And so long as he does not obtain either of these 
things, he thinks he is incomplete. Now his com- 
pleteness (is made up as follows): mind is his self 
(husband); speech the wife ; breath the child ; the 
eye all worldly wealth, for he finds it with the eye ; 
the ear his divine wealth, for he hears it with the 
ear. The body (atman) is his work, for with the 
body he works. This is the fivefold 1 sacrifice, for 
fivefold is the animal, fivefold man, fivefold all this 
whatsoever. He who knows this, obtains all this. 

Fifth BrAhmaya 2 . 

1. 'When the father (of creation) had produced by 
knowledge and penance (work) the seven kinds of 
food, one of his (foods) was common to all beings, 
two he assigned to the Devas, (i) 

' Three he made for himself, one he gave to the 
animals. In it all rests, whatsoever breathes and 
breathes not. (2) 

1 Fivefold, as consisting of mind, speech, breath, eye, and ear. 
See Taitt. Up. I, 7, 1. 
* M&dhyandina text, p. 1054. 



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92 B-R/HADARAJVYAKA-UPANISHAD. 

' Why then do these not perish, though they are 
always eaten ? He who knows this imperishable 
one, he eats food with his face. (3) 

' He goes even to the Devas, he lives on 
strength.' (4) 

2. When it is said, that ' the father produced by 
knowledge and penance the seven kinds of food,' it 
is clear that (it was he who) did so. When it is 
said, that ' one of his (foods) was common,' then that 
is that common food of his which is eaten. He who 
worships (eats) that (common food), is not removed 
from evil, for verily that food is mixed (property) 1 . 
When it is- said, that 'two he assigned to the Devas,' 
that is the hut a, which is sacrificed in fire, and the 
prahuta, which is given away at a sacrifice. But 
they also say, the new-moon and full-moon sacrifices 
are here intended, and therefore one should not offer 
them as an ish/i or with a wish. 

When it is said, that 'one he gave to animals,' 
that is milk. For in the beginning (in their infancy) 
both men and animals live on milk. And therefore 
they either make a, new-born child lick ghrtta. 
(butter), or they make it take the breast And 
they call a new-born creature 'arrmada,' i. e. not 
eating herbs. When it is said, that 'in it all rests, 
whatsoever breathes and breathes not,' we see that 
all this, whatsoever breathes and breathes not, rests 
and depends on milk. 

And when it is said (in another Brahmarca), that 
a man who sacrifices with milk a whole year 2 , over- 
comes death again, let him not think so. No, on 

1 It belongs to all beings. 

2 This would imply 360 sacrificial days, each with two oblations, 
i.e. 720 oblations. 



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I ADHYAYA, 5 BRAHMAtfA, 3. 93 

the very day on which he sacrifices, on that day he 
overcomes death again; for he who knows this, 
offers to the gods the entire food (viz. milk). 

When it is said, ' Why do these not perish, though 
they are always eaten,' we answer, Verily, the Person 
is the imperishable, and he produces that food again 
and again 1 . 

When it is said, 'He who knows this imperishable 
one/ then, verily, the Person is the imperishable 
one, for he produces this food by repeated thought, 
and whatever he does not work by his works, that 
perishes. 

When it is said, that ' he eats food with his face,' 
then face means the mouth, he eats it with his 
mouth. 

When it is said, that 'he goes even to the Devas, 
he lives on strength,' that is meant as praise. 

3. When it is said, that 'he made three for him- 
self,' that means that he made mind, speech, and 
breath for himself. As people say, ' My mind was 
elsewhere, I did not see ; my mind was elsewhere, 
I did not hear,' it is clear that a man sees with his 
mind and hears with his mind 2 . Desire, representa- 
tion, doubt, faith, want of faith, memory 3 , forgetful- 
ness, shame, reflexion, fear, all this is mind. There- 
fore even if a man is touched on the back, he knows 
it through the mind. 

Whatever sound there is, that is speech. Speech 
indeed is intended for an end or object, it is nothing 
by itself. 

1 Those who enjoy the food, become themselves creators. Comm. 
8 See Deussen, Ved£nta, p. 358. 
3 Firmness, strength. Comm. 



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94 BK7HADARAZVYAKA-UPANISHAD. 

-* The up-breathing, the down-breathing, the back- 

breathing, the out-breathing, the on-breathing, all 
that is breathing is breath (pra«a) only. Verily 
that Self consists of it ; that Self consists of speech, 
mind, and breath. 

4. These are the three worlds : earth is speech, 
sky mind, heaven breath. 

5. These are the three Vedas : the Rig-veda is 
speech, the Ya^ur-veda mind, the Sama-veda breath. 

6. These are the Devas, Fathers, and men : the 
Devas are speech, the Fathers mind, men breath. 

7. These are father, mother, and child : the father 
is mind, the mother speech, the child breath. 

8. These are what is known, what is to be known, 
and what is unknown. 

What is known, has the form of speech, for speech 
is known. Speech, having become this, protects 
man 1 . 

9. What is to be known, has the form of mind, 
for mind is what is to be known. Mind, having 
become this, protects man. 

10. What is unknown, has the form of breath, for 
breath is unknown. Breath, having become this, 
protects man 2 . 

11. Of that speech (which is the food of Pra^a- 
pati) earth is the body, light the form, viz. this fire. 
And so far as speech extends, so far extends the 
earth, so far extends fire. 

12. Next, of this mind heaven is the body, light 
the form, viz. this sun. And so far as this mind 

1 ' The food (speech), having become known, can be consumed.' 
Comm. 

8 This was adhibhautika, with reference to bhutas, beings. Next 
follows the adhidaivika,with reference to the devas, gods. Comm. 



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i adhyAya, 5 brAhma^a, 16. 95 

extends, so far extends heaven, so far extends the 
sun. If they (fire and sun) embrace each other, then 
wind is born, and that is Indra, and he is without a 
rival. Verily a second is a rival, and he who knows 
this, has no rival. 

13. Next, of this breath water is the body, light 
the form, viz. this moon. And so far as this breath 
extends, so far extends water, so far extends the 
moon. 

These are all alike, all endless. And he who wor- 
ships them as finite, obtains a finite world, but he who 
worships them as infinite, obtains an infinite world. 

14. That Pra££pati is the year, and he consists of 
sixteen digits. The nights 1 indeed are his fifteen 
digits, the fixed point 2 his sixteenth digit. He is 
increased and decreased by the nights. Having on 
the new-moon night entered with the sixteenth part 
into everything that has life, he is thence born again 
in the morning. Therefore let no one cut off the life 
of any living thing on that night, not even of a lizard, 
in honour (ptifartham) of that deity. 

15. Now verily that Pra^apati, consisting of six- 
teen digits, who is the year, is the same as a man 
who knows this. His wealth constitutes the fifteen 
digits, his Self the sixteenth digit. He is increased 
and decreased by that wealth. His Self is the nave, 
his wealth the felly. Therefore even if he loses 
everything, if he lives but with his Self, people say, 
he lost the felly (which can be restored again). 

16. Next there are verily three worlds, the world 
of men, the world of the Fathers, the world of the 
Devas. The world of men can be gained by a son 

1 Meant for nychthemera. 

2 When he is just invisible at the new moon. 



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96 bk/hadArajvyaka-upanishad. 

only, not by any other work. By sacrifice the world 
of the Fathers, by knowledge the world of the Devas 
is gained. The world of the Devas is the best of 
worlds, therefore they praise knowledge. 

1 7. Next follows the handing over. When a man 
thinks he is going to depart, he says to his son : 
' Thou art Brahman (the Veda, so far as acquired by 
the father); thou art the sacrifice (so far as performed 
by the father); thou art the world.' The son answers: 
' I am Brahman, I am the sacrifice, I am the world.' 
Whatever has been learnt (by the father) that, taken 
as one, is Brahman. Whatever sacrifices there are, 
they, taken as one, are the sacrifice. Whatever 
worlds there are, they, taken as one, are the world. 
Verily here ends this (what has to be done by a 
father, viz. study, sacrifice, &c.) * He (the son), being 
all this, preserved me from this world 1 ,' thus he 
thinks. Therefore they call a son who is instructed 
(to do all this), a world-son (lokya), and therefore 
they instruct him. 

When a father who knows this, departs this world, 
then he enters into his son together with his own 
spirits (with speech, mind, and breath). If there is 
anything done amiss by the father, of all that the son 
delivers him, and therefore he is called Putra, son 2 . 
By help of his son the father stands firm in this 
world 3 . Then these divine immortal spirits (speech, 
mind, and breath) enter into him. 

1 Roer seems to have read sa»maya, ' all this multitude.' I read, 
etan mi sarvawz sann ayam ito 'bhuna^ad iti. 

s The Comm. derives putra from pu (pur), to fill, and tra (tr£), to 
deliver, a deliverer who fills the holes left by the father, a stop- 
gap. Others derive it from put, a hell, and tr&, to protect; cf. 
Manu IX, 138. 

* ' The manushya-loka, not the pitn-loka and deva-loka.' Comm. 



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I ADHYAYA, 5 BRAHMAtfA, 21. 97 

18. From the earth and from fire, divine speech 
enters into him. And verily that is divine speech 
whereby, whatever he says, comes to be. 

19. From heaven and the sun, divine mind enters 
into him. And verily that is divine mind whereby 
he becomes joyful, and grieves no more. 

20. From water and the moon, divine breath 
(spirit) enters into him. And verily that is divine 
breath which, whether moving or not moving, does 
not tire, and therefore does not perish. He who 
knows this, becomes the Self of all beings. As that 
deity (Hira#yagarbha) is, so does he become. And 
as all beings honour that deity (with sacrifice, &c), 
so do all beings honour him who knows this. 

Whatever grief these creatures suffer, that is 
all one 1 (and therefore disappears). Only what is 
good approaches him ; verily, evil does not approach 
the Devas. 

21. Next follows the consideration of the observ- 
ances 2 (acts). Pra^apati created the actions (active 
senses). When they had been created, they strove 
among themselves. Voice held, I shall speak ; the 
eye held, I shall see; the ear held, I shall hear; 
and thus the other actions too, each according to its 
own act. Death, having become weariness, took 
them and seized them. Having seized them, death 
held them back (from their work). Therefore 
speech grows weary, the eye grows weary, the ear 
grows weary. But death did not seize the central 
breath. Then the others tried to know him, and 

1 ' Individuals suffer, because one causes grief to another. But 
in the universal soul, where all individuals are one, their sufferings 
are neutralised.' Comm. 

* The upasana or meditative worship. 

[15] H 



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98 br/hadArajvyaka-upanishad. 

said : ' Verily, he is the best of us, he who, whether 
moving or not, does not tire and does not perish. 
Well, let all of us assume his form.' Thereupon 
they all assumed his form, and therefore they are 
called after him ' breaths ' (spirits). 

In whatever family there is a man who knows 
this, they call that family after his name. And he 
who strives with one who knows this, withers away 
and finally dies. So far with regard to the body. 

22. Now with regard to the deities. 

Agni (fire) held, I shall burn ; Aditya (the sun) 
held, I shall warm; Aandramas (the moon) held, 
I shall shine ; and thus also the other deities, each 
according to the deity. And as it was with the 
central breath among the breaths, so it was. with 
Vayu, the wind among those deities. The other 
deities fade, not Vayu. Vayu is the deity that 
never sets. 

23. And here there is this 6"loka : 

' He from whom the sun rises, and into whom it 
sets' (he verily rises from the breath, and sets in 
the breath) 

' Him the Devas made the law, he only is to-day, 
and he to-morrow also' (whatever these Devas de- 
termined then, that they perform to-day also 1 ). 

Therefore let a man perform one. observance only, 
let him breathe up and let him breathe down, that 
the evil death may not reach him. And when he 
performs it, let him try to finish it. Then he ob- 
tains through it union and oneness with that deity 
(with pra«a). 

1 The pr£«a-vrata and v&yu-vrata. Comm. 



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I ADHYAYA, 6 BRAHMAATA, 3. 99 



Sixth Brahmana 1 . 

1. Verily this is a triad, name, form, and work. 
Of these names, that which is called Speech is the 
Uktha (hymn, supposed to mean also origin), for 
from it all names arise. It is their Saman (song, 
supposed to mean also sameness), for it is the same 
as all names. It is their Brahman (prayer, supposed 
to mean also support), for it supports all names. 

2. Next, of the forms, that which is called Eye is 
the Uktha (hymn), for from it all forms arise. It is 
their Saman (song), for it is the same as all forms. It 
is their Brahman (prayer), for it supports all forms. 

3. Next, of the works, that which is called Body is 
the Uktha (hymn), for from it all works arise. It is 
their Saman (song), for it is the same as all works. It 
is their Brahman (prayer), for it supports all works. 

That being a triad is one, viz. this Self; and the 
Self, being one, is that triad. This is the immortal, 
covered by the true. Verily breath is the immortal, 
name and form are the true, and by them the im- 
mortal is covered. 



1 Madhyandina text, p. 1058. 



H 2 

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IOO BU/HADARAiVYAKA-UPANISHAD. 

SECOND ADHYAYA 1 . 

• First BrAhmajva 2 . 

i. There 3 was formerly the proud Gargya Baliki 4 , 
a man of great reading. He said to A^ata^atru of 
Klfi, 'Shall I tell you Brahman ?' A^at&ratru said: 
'We give a thousand (cows) for that speech (of 
yours), for verily all people run away, saying, kanaka 
(the king of Mithila) is our father (patron) 6 .' 

2. Gargya said : ' The person that is in the sun 6 , 
that I adore as Brahman.' A^atasatru said to him : 
'No, no ! Do not speak to me on this. I adore him 

1 Madhyandina text, p. 1058. , 

s Whatever has been taught to the end of the third (according 
to the counting of the Upanishad, the first) Adhyaya, refers to 
avidya, ignorance. Now, however, vidya, the highest knowledge, 
is to be taught, and this is done, first of all, by a dialogue between 
Gargya Dnptabalaki and king A^-ataratru, the former, though a 
Brahmawa, representing the imperfect, the latter, though a Kshatriya, 
the perfect knowledge of Brahman. While Gargya worships the 
Brahman as the sun, the moon, &c, as limited, as active and passive, 
A^ataratru knows the Brahman as the Self. 

" Compare with this the fourth AdhySya of the Kaushttaki- 
upanishad, Sacred Books of the East, vol. i, p. 300; Gough, 
Philosophy of the Upanishads, p. 144. 

4 Son of Balaka, of the race of the Gdrgyas. 

6 Ganaka, known as a wise and liberal king. There is a play 
on his name, which means father, and is understood in the sense 
of patron, or of teacher of wisdom. The meaning is obscure ; and 
in the Kaush. Up. IV. i, the construction is still more difficult 
What is intended seems to be that A^atajatru is willing to offer 
any reward to a really wise man, because all the wise men are 
running after <7anaka and settling at his court. 

6 The commentator expatiates on all these answers and brings 
them more into harmony with Vedanta doctrines. Thus he adds 
that the person in the sun is at the same time the person in the eye, 
who is both active and passive in the heart, &c. 



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,11 ADHYAYA, I BRAhMAJVA, 6. IOI 

verily as the s upreme , the head of all beings, the 
king. Whoso adores him thus, becomes supreme, 
the head of all beings, a king.' 

3. Gargya said : ' The person that is in the moon 
(and in the mind), that I adore as Brahman.' A^a- 
tayatru said to him : ' No, no ! Do not speak to me 
on this. I adore him verily as t he grea t, clad in 
white raiment, as Soma, the king.' Whoso adores 
him thus, Soma is poured out and poured forth for 
him day by day, and his food does not fail '. 

4. Gargya said : ' The person that is in the light- 
ning (and in the heart), that I adore as Brahman.' 
A^ata^atru said to him : ' No, no ! Do not speak to 
me on this. I adore him verily as the l uminou s.' 
Whoso adores him thus, becomes luminous, and his 
offspring becomes luminous. 

5. Gargya said: 'The person that is in the ether 
(and in the ether of the heart), that I adore as Brah- 
man.' A^atayatru said to him : ' No, no ! Do not 
speak to me on this. I adore him as w hat is__ fu_ll, 
a nd quiescen t.' Whoso adores him thus, becomes 
filled with offspring and cattle, and his offspring does 
not cease from this world. 

6. Gargya said : ' The person that is in the wind 
(and in the breath), that I adore as Brahman.' hgk- 
tayatru said to him : ' No, no ! Do not speak to me 
on this. I adore him as Indra VaikuwMa, as $ie 
unconquerable arm y (nf the M a ruts).' Whoso adores 
him thus, becomes victorious, unconquerable, con- 
quering his enemies. 

1 We miss the annasydtma, the Self of food, mentioned in the 
Kaush. Up., and evidently referred to in the last sentence of our 
paragraph. Suta and prasuta, poured out and poured forth, are 
explained as referring to the principal and the secondary sacrifices. 



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102 B-RfHADARAJVYAKA-UPANISHAD. 

7. Gargya said : 'The person that is in the fire (and 
in the heart), that I adore as Brahman.' A^atasatru 
said to him : ' No, no ! Do not speak to me on this. I 
adore him as powerful.' Whoso adores him thus, be- 
comes powerful, and his offspring becomes powerful. 

8. Gargya said ; ' The person that is in the water 
(in seed, and in the heart), that I adore as Brahman.' 
Afatasatru said to him : ' No, no ! Do not speak 
to me on this. I adore him as li kenes s.' Whoso 
adores him thus, to him comes what is likely (or 
proper), not what is improper; what is born from 
him, is like unto him 1 . 

9. Gargya said : ' The person that is in the 
mirror, that I adore as Brahman.' A^atasatru said 
to him : 'No, no ! Do not speak to me on this. 
I adore him verily as t he brill iant.' Whoso adores 
him thus, he becomes brilliant, his offspring becomes 
brilliant, and with whomsoever he comes together, 
he outshines them. 

10. Gargya said : ' The sound that follows a man 
while he moves, that I adore as Brahman.' A^uta- 
^atru said to him : ' No, no ! Do not speak to me 
on this. I adore him verilyasjife.' Whoso adores 
him thus, he reaches his full age in this world, breath 
does not leave him before the time. 

11. Gargya said: 'The person that is in space, 
that I adore as Brahman.' A^atasatru said to him : 
' No, no ! Do not speak to me on this. I adore 
him verily as the sec ond w ho rip-up r leay^ us/ 

1 Here the Kaush. Up. has the Self of the name, instead of 
pratirupa, likeness. The commentator thinks that they both mean 
the same thing, because a name is the likeness of a thing. Another 
text of the Kaush. Up. gives here the Self of light. Pratirupa in 
the sense of likeness comes in later in the Kaush. Up., § n. 



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II ADHYAYA, I BRAHMAJVA, 1 5. I03 

Whoso adores him thus, becomes possessed of a 
second, his party is not cut off from him. 

12. Gargya said : 'The person that consists of the 
shadow, that I adore as Brahman.' A^ataratru said 
to him : ' No, no ! Do not speak to me on this. 
I adore him verily as death,' Whoso adores him 
thus, he reaches his whole age in this world, death 
does not approach him before the time. 

13. Gargya said: 'The person that is in the body 1 , 
that I adore as Brahman/ A^atasatru said to him : 
'No, no ! Do not speak to me on this, I adore him 
verily as embodied/ Whoso adores him thus, becomes 
embodied, and his offspring becomes embodied 2 . 

Then Gargya became silent. 

14. A^ata-satru said : 'Thus far only?' 'Thus Tar 
only,' he replied. A^atayatru said : ' This does not 
suffice to know it (the true Brahman).' Gargya 
replied : ' Then let me come to you, as a pupil.' 

15. A^atasatru said: 'Verily, it is unnatural that 
a Brahma«a should come to a Kshatriya, hoping 
that he should tell him the Brahman. However, I 
shall make you know him clearly,' thus saying he 
took him by the hand and rose. 

And the two together came to a person who was 
asleep. He called him by these names, ' Thou, 
great one, clad in white raiment, Soma, King 3 .' He 

1 ' In the Atman, in Pra^apati, in the Buddhi, and in the heart.' 
Comm. 

2 It is difficult to know what is meant here by Atman and atman- 
vin. In the Kaush. Up. A^atasatru refers to Pragapati, and the 
commentator here does the same, adding, however, buddhi and 
hral. Gough translates Stmanvin by 'having peace of mind.' 
Deussen, p. 195, passes it over. 

8 These names are given here as they occur in the Kaushftaki- 
upanishad, not. as in the Br/Tiadara«yaka-upanishad, where the 



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104 BRrHADARAiVYAKA-UPANISHAD. 

did not rise. Then rubbing him with his hand, he 
woke him, and he arose. 

1 6. A^atasatru said ; ' When this man was thus 
asleep, where was then the person (purusha), the in- 
telligent ? and from whence did he thus come back?' 
Gargya did not know this ? 

1 7. A^atasatru said : ' When this man was thus 
asleep, then the intelligent person (purusha), having 
through the intelligence of the senses (pri«as) ab- 
sorbed within himself all intelligence, lies in the 
ether, which is in the hearth, When he takes in 
these different kinds of intelligence, then it is said 
that the man sleeps (svapiti)& Then the breath 
is kept in, speech is kept in, the ear is kept in, the 
eye is kept in, the mind is kept in. 

18. But when he moves about in sleep (and 
dream), then these are his worlds. He is, as it were, 
a great king; he is, as it were, a great Brahma«a ; he 
rises, as it were, and he falls. And as a great king 
might keep in his own subjects, and move about, 
•according to his pleasure, within his own domain, 
thus does that person (who is endowed with intel- 
ligence) keep in the various senses (pra/zas) and move 
about, according to his pleasure, within his own body 
(while dreaming). 

1 9. Next, when he is in profound sleep, and knows 

first name was atish/AaA sarvesham bhMnam murdha ra^-a. This 
throws an important light on the composition of the Upanishads. 

1 The ether in the heart is meant for the real Self. He has 
come to himself, to his Self, i.e. to the true Brahman. 

1 Svapiti, he sleeps, is explained as sva, his own Self, and 
apiti for apyeti, he goes towards, so that 'he sleeps' must be 
interpreted as meaning ' he comes to his Self.' In another passage 
it is explained by svam apito bhavati. See -Saftkara's Commentary 
on the Brih. Ar. Up. vol. i, p. 372. 



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II ADHYAYA, 2 BRAHMAiVA, 2. I05 

nothing, there are the seventy-two thousand arteries 
called Hita, which from the heart spread through 
the body 1 . Through them he moves forth and rests 
in the surrounding body. And as a young man, or a 
great king, or a great Brahma^a, having reached the 
summit of happiness, might rest, so does he then rest. 
20. As the spider comes out with its thread, or as 
small sparks come forth from fire, thus do all senses, 
all worlds, all Devas, all beings come forth from that 
Self. The Upanishad (the true name and doctrine) 
of that Self is ' the True of the True.' Verily the 
senses are the true, and he is the true of the true. 

Second BrAhmaya 2 . 

1, Verily he who knows the babe 3 with his place 4 , 
his chamber 6 , his post 6 , and his rope 7 , he keeps off 
the seven relatives 8 who hate him. Verily by the 
young is meant the inner life, by his place this 
(body) 9 , by his chamber this (head), by his post the 
vital breath, by his rope the food. 

2. Then the seven imperishable ones 10 approach 
him. There are the red lines in the eye, and by 
them Rudra clings to him. There is the water 

1 ' Not the pericardium only, but the whole body.' Comm. 

2 Madhyandina text, p. 1061. 

8 The lingatman, or subtle body which has entered this body in 
five ways. Comm. 

4 The body. 5 The head. ' • The vital breath. 

7 Food, which binds the subtle to the coarse body. 

8 The seven organs of the head through which man perceives 
and becomes attached to the world. 

9 The commentator remarks that while saying this, the body 
and the head are pointed out by touching them with the hand 
(pa»ipeshapratibodhanena). 

10 See before, I, 5, 1, 2. They are called imperishable, because 
they produce imperishableness by supplying food for the pra«a, 
here called the babe. 



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106 brjhadArajvyaka-upanishad. 

in the eye, and by it Par^anya clings to him. There 
is the pupil, and by it Aditya (sun) clings to him. 
There is the dark iris, and by it Agni clings to him. 
There is the white eye-ball, and by it Indra clings to 
him. With the lower eye-lash the earth, with the 
upper eye-lash the heaven clings to him. He who 
knows this, his food does never perish. 

3. On this there is this 61oka ; 

' There 1 is a cup having its mouth below and its 
bottom above. Manifold glory has been placed into 
it. On its lip sit the seven 7?z'shis, the tongue as 
the eighth communicates with Brahman.' What is 
called the cup having its mouth below and its bottom 
above is this head, for its mouth (the mouth) is 
below, its bottom (the skull) is above. When it is 
said that manifold glory has been placed into it, 
the senses verily are manifold glory, and he there- 
fore means the senses. When he says that the 
seven ,/foshis sit on its lip, the /?zshis are verily the 
(active) senses, and he means the senses. And 
when he says that the tongue as the eighth com- 
municates with Brahman, it is because the tongue, 
as the eighth, does communicate with Brahman. 

4. These two (the two ears) are the ifo'shis Gau- 
tama and Bharadva^a ; the right Gautama, the left 
BhaVadva^a. These two (the eyes) are the ^?z'shis 
Vi^vamitra and 6amadagni ; the right Visvamitra, 
the left Gamadagni. These two (the nostrils) are 
the ,/?zshis Vasish^a and Kasyapa ; the right Va- 
sish/^a, the left Katyapa. The tongue is Atri, for 
with the tongue food is eaten, and Atri is meant for 
Atti, eating. He who knows this, becomes an eater 
of everything, and everything becomes his food. 

1 Cf. Atharva-veda-sawh. X, 8, 9. 



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n adiiyAya, 3 brAhmaya, 6. 107 



Third BrAhmawa 1 . 

1. There are two forms of Brahman, the material 
and the immaterial, the mortal and the immortal, the 
solid and the fluid, sat (being) and tya (that), (i.e. 
sat-tya, true) 2 . 

2. Everything except air and sky is material, is 
mortal, is solid, fs definite. The essence of that 
which is material, which is mortal, which is solid, 
which is definite is the sun that shines, for he is the 
essence of sat (the definite). 

3. But air and sky are immaterial, are immortal, 
are fluid, are indefinite. The essence of that which 
is immaterial, which is immortal, which is fluid, which 
is indefinite is the person in the disk of the sun, for 
he is the essence of tyad (the indefinite). So far with 
regard to the Devas. 

4. Now with regard to the body. Everything 
except the breath and the ether within the body is 
material, is mortal, is solid, is definite. The essence 
of that which is material, which is mortal, which is 
solid, which is definite is the Eye, for it is the essence 
of sat (the definite). 

5. But breath and the ether within the body are 
immaterial, are immortal, are fluid, are indefinite. 
The essence of that which is immaterial, which is 
immortal, which is fluid, which is indefinite is the 
person in the right eye, for he is the essence of tyad 
(the indefinite). 

6. And what is the appearance of that person ? 
Like a saffron-coloured raiment, like white wool, 

1 Madhyandina text, p. 1062. 

2 Sat is explained by definite, tya or tyad by indefinite. 



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108 BU/HADARAiVYAKA-UPANISHAD. 

like cochineal, like the flame of fire, like the white 
lotus, like sudden lightning. He who knows this, 
his glory is like unto sudden lightning. 

Next follows the teaching (of Brahman) by No, 
no 1 ! for there is nothing else higher than this (if 
one says) : ' It is not so.' Then comes the name 
' the True of the True,' the senses being the True, 
and he (the Brahman) the True of them. 

Fourth Brahmajva 2 . 

i. Now when Ya^avalkya was going to enter 
upon another state, he said : ' Maitreyi 3 , verily I am 
going away from this my house (into the forest 4 )* 
Forsooth, let me make a settlement between thee 
and that Katyayani (my other wife).' 

2. Maitreyi said : ' My Lord, if this whole earth, 
full of wealth, belonged to me, tell me, should I be 
immortal by it 5 V 

1 See III, 9, 26 ; IV, 2, 4 ; IV, 4, 22 ; IV, 5, 15. 

2 Madhyandina text, p. 1062. To the end of the third Br&hmawa 
of the second Adhyaya, all that has been taught does not yet impart 
the highest knowledge, the identity of the personal and the true Self, 
the Brahman. In the fourth Bralimawa, in which the knowledge 
of the true Brahman is to be set forth, the Sawmyasa, the retiring 
from the world, is enjoined, when all desires cease, and no duties 
are to be performed (Sawnyasa, parivra^ya). The story is told again 
with slight variations in the Br?hadara«yaka-upanishad IV, 5. The 
more important variations, occurring in IV, 5, are added here, marked 
with B. There are besides the various readings of the Madhyandina- 
jakha of the Satapatha-brahmarca. See also Deussen, Vedanta, p. 1 85. 

8 In Briti. Up. IV, 5, the story begins : Ya^wavalkya had two wives, 
Maitreyi and Katyayani. Of these Maitreyi was conversant with 
Brahman, but K&ty&yani possessed such knowledge only as women 
possess. 

4 Instead of udyasyan, B. gives pravra^-ishyan, the more 
technical term. 

8 Should I be immortal by it, or no ? B. 



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ii adhyaya, 4 brAhmajva, 5. V r , 109 

'No,' replied Y^wavalkya; 'like the life of rich 
people will be thy life. But there is no hope of 
immortality by wealth.' 

3. And Maitreyi said: 'What should I do with 
that by which I do not become immortal ? What my 
Lord knoweth (of immortality), tell that to me 1 .' 

4. Ya^avalkya replied : ' Thou who art truly dear 
to me, thou speakest dear words 2 . Come, sit down, 
I will explain it to thee, and mark well what I say.' 

5. And he said : 'Verily, a husband is not dear, that 
you may love the husband ; but that you may love 
the Self, therefore a husband is dear. 

' Verily, a wife is not dear, that you may love the 
wife; but that you may love the Self, therefore a 
wife is dear. 

'Verily, sons are not dear, that you may love 
the sons ; but that you may love the Self, therefore 
sons are dear. 

'Verily, wealth is not dear, that you may love 
wealth ; but that you may love the Self, therefore 
wealth is dear 3 . 

' Verily, the Brahman-class is not dear, that you 
may love the Brahman-class ; but that you may love 
the Self, therefore the Brahman-class is dear. 

' Verily, the Kshatra-class is not dear, that you 
may love the Kshatra-class ; but that you may love 
the Self, therefore the Kshatra-class is dear. 

' Verily, the worlds are not dear, that you may 
love the worlds ; but that you may love the Self, 
therefore the worlds are dear. 

1 Tell that clearly to me. B. 

2 Thou who art dear to me, thou hast increased what is dear (to 
•me in this). B. 

3 B. adds, Verily, cattle are not dear, &c. 



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IIO B-R/HADARAiVYAKA-UPANISHAD. 

'Verily, the Devas are not dear, that you may 
love the Devas; but that you may love the Self, 
therefore the Devas are dear 1 . 

' Verily, creatures are not dear, that you may love 
the creatures ; but that you may love the Self, there- 
fore are creatures dear. 

' Verily, everything is not dear that you may love 
everything ; but that you may love the Self, there- 
fore everything is dear. 

'Verily, the Self is to be seen, to be heard, to 
be perceived, to be marked, O Maitreyi! When 
we see, hear, perceive, and know the Self 2 , then 
all this is known. 

6. 'Whosoever looks for the Brahman-class else- 
where than in the Self, was 3 abandoned by the 
Brahman-class. Whosoever looks for the Kshatra- 
class elsewhere than in the Self, was abandoned by 
the Kshatra-class. Whosoever looks for the worlds 
elsewhere than in the Self, was abandoned by the 
worlds. Whosoever looks for the Devas elsewhere 
than in the Self, was abandoned by the Devas*. 
Whosoever looks for creatures elsewhere than in the 
Self, was abandoned by the creatures. Whosoever 
looks for anything elsewhere than in the Self, was 
abandoned by everything. This Brahman-class, this 
Kshatra-class, these worlds, these Devas 6 , these 6 
creatures, this everything, all is that Self. 

7. ' Now as 7 the sounds of a drum, when beaten, 

1 B. inserts, Verily, the Vedas are not dear, &c. 

2 When the Self has been seen, heard, perceived, and known. B. 
8 The commentator translates, ' should be abandoned.' 

4 B. inserts, Whosoever looks for the Vedas, &c. 

6 B. adds, these Vedas. 6 B. has, all these creatures. 

7 I construe sa yatha" with evam vai in § 12, looking upon 



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II ADHYAYA, 4 BRAHMAtf A, 12. Ill 

cannot be seized externally (by themselves), but the 
sound is seized, when the drum is seized or the beater 
of the drum ; 

8. 'And as the sounds of a conch-shell, when 
blown, cannot be seized externally (by themselves), 
but the sound is seized, when the shell is seized or 
the blower of the shell ; 

9. ' And as the sounds of a lute, when played, 
cannot be seized externally (by themselves), but the 
sound is seized, when the lute is seized or the 
player of the lute ; 

S 10. 'As clouds of smoke proceed by themselves 
out of a lighted fire kindled with damp fuel, thus, 
verily, O Maitreyl, has been breathed forth from 
this great Being what we have as I&g-veda, Ya^iir^ 
veda, Sama-veda, Atharvangirasas, Itihasa (legends), 
Purawa (cosmogonies), Vidya (knowledge), the Upa- 
nishads, Slokas (verses), Sutras (prose rules), Anu- 
vyakhyanas (glosses), Vyakhyanas (commentaries) 1 . 
From him alone all these were breathed forth. 

f 11. 'As all waters find their centre in the sea, 
all touches in the skin, all tastes in the tongue, all 
smells in the nose, all colours in the eye, all sounds 
in the ear, all percepts in the mind, all knowledge in 
the heart, all actions in the hands, all movements in 
the feet, and all the Vedas in speech, — 
* 12. ' As a lump of salt 2 , when thrown into water, 
becomes dissolved into water, and could not be taken 



§ 1 1 as probably a later insertion. The sa is not the pronoun, but 
a particle, as in sa yadi, sa £et, &c, 

1 B. adds, what is sacrificed, what is poured out, food, drink, this 
world and the other wOrld, and all creatures. 

2 SeeA r Hnd.Up.VI,i 3 . 



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112 B-R/HADARAiVTAKA-UPANISHAD. 

out again, but wherever we taste (the water) it is 
salt, — thus verily, O Maitreyi, does this great Being, 
endless, unlimited, consisting of nothing but know- 
ledge 1 , rise from out these elements, and vanish again 
in them. When he has departed, there is no more 
knowledge (name), I say, O Maitreyi.' Thus spoke 
Ya^wavalkya. 

1 3. Then Maitreyi said : ' Here thou hast be- 
wildered me, Sir, when thou sayest that having 
departed, there is no more knowledge 2 .' 

ButYa^»avalkya replied: 'O Maitreyi, I say nothing 
that is bewildering. This is enough, O beloved, for 
? wisdom 3 . 
5 ' For when there is as it were duality, then one. 
sees the other, one smells the other, one hears the 
other 4 , one salutes the other 6 , one perceives the 
other 6 , one knows the other; but when the Self only 
is all this, how should he smell another 7 , how should 
he see 8 another 9 , how should he hear 10 another, how 
should he salute n another, how should he perceive 
another 12 , how should he know another ? How 
should he know Him by whom he knows all this ? 



1 As a mass of salt has neither inside nor outside, but is altogether 
a mass of taste, thus indeed has that Self neither inside nor outside, 
but is altogether a mass of knowledge. B. 

2 ' Here, Sir, thou hast landed me in utter bewilderment. Indeed, 
I do not understand him.' B. 

? 8 Verily, beloved, that Self is imperishable, and of an inde- 
structible nature. B. 
* B. inserts, one tastes the other. 

5 B. inserts, one hears the other. 

6 B. inserts, one touches the other. 7 See, B. 
8 Smell, B. 9 B. inserts taste. 

10 Salute, B. " Hear, B. 

18 B. inserts, how should he touch another ? 



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II ADHYAYA, 5 BRAHMAiVA, 2. II3 

How, O beloved, should he know (himself), the 
Knower 1 ?' 

Fifth Brahmaiva 2 . 

1. This earth is the honey 3 (madhu, the effect) of 
all beings, and all beings are the honey (madhu, the 
effect) of this earth. Likewise this bright, immortal 
person in this earth, and that bright immortal person 
incorporated in the body (both are madhu). He 
indeed is the same as that Self, that Immortal, that 
Brahman, that AIL 

2. This water is the honey of all beings, and all 
beings are the honey of this water. Likewise this 
bright, immortal person in this water, and that 
bright, immortal person, existing as seed in the body 
(both are madhu). He indeed is the same as that 
Self, that Immortal, that Brahman, that All. 

■ 

1 Instead of the last line, B. adds (IV, 5, 15): 'That Self is to 
be described by No, no ! He is incomprehensible, for he cannot 
be comprehended ; he is imperishable, for he cannot perish ; he is 
unattached, for he does not attach himself ; unfettered, he does 
not suffer, he does not fail. How, O beloved, should he know the 
Knower? Thus, O Maitreyi, thou hast been instructed. Thus 
far goes immortality.' Having said so, Y&gwavalkya went away 
(into the forest). 15. See also .Oand. Up. VII, 24, 1. 

3 Madhyandina text, p. 1064. 

s Madhu, honey, seems to be taken here as an instance of some- 
thing which is both cause and effect, or rather of things which are 
mutually dependent on each other, or cannot exist without one 
other. As the bees make the honey, and the honey makes or 
supports the bees, bees and honey are both cause and effect, 
or at all events are mutually dependent on one other. In the same 
way the earth and all living beings are looked upon as mutually 
dependent, living beings presupposing the earth, and the earth 
presupposing living beings. This at all events seems to be the 
general idea of what is called the Madhuvidya, the science of honey, 
which Dadhya£ communicated to the A^vins. 

C'5] I 



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114 BUJHADARAiVYAKA-UPANISHAD. 

3. This fire is the honey of all beings, and all 
beings are the honey of this fire. Likewise this 
bright, immortal person in this fire, and that bright, 
immortal person, existing as speech in the body (both 
are madhu). He indeed is the same as that Self, 
that Immortal, that Brahman, that All. 

4.. This air is the honey of all beings, and all 
beings are the honey of this air. Likewise this 
bright, immortal person in this air, and that bright, 
immortal person existing as breath in the body (both 
are madhu). He indeed is the same as that Self, 
that Immortal, that Brahman, that All. 

5. This sun is the honey of all beings, and all 
beings are the honey of this sun. Likewise this 
bright, immortal person in this sun, and that bright, 
immortal person existing as the eye in the body 
(both are madhu). He indeed is the same as that 
Self, that Immortal, that Brahman, that All. 

6. This space (disafi, the quarters) is the honey of 
all beings, and all beings are the honey of this 
space. Likewise this bright, immortal person in this 
space, and that bright, immortal person existing as 
the ear in the body (both are madhu). He indeed 
is the same as that Self, that Immortal, that Brah- 
man, that All. 

7. This moon is the honey of all beings, and all 
beings are the honey of this moon. Likewise this 
bright, immortal person in this moon, and that bright, 
immortal person existing as mind in the body (both 
are madhu). He indeed is the same as that Self, 
that Immortal, that Brahman, that All. 

8. This lightning is the honey of all beings, and 
all beings are the honey of this lightning. Likewise 
this bright, immortal person in this lightning, and 



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II ADHYAYA, 5 BRAHMAiVA, 1 3. II5 

that bright, immortal person existing as light in the 
body (both are madhu). He indeed is the same as 
that Self, that Immortal, that Brahman, that All. 

9. This thunder 1 is the honey of all beings, and all 
beings are the honey of this thunder. Likewise this 
bright, immortal person in this thunder, and that 
bright, immortal person existing as sound and voice 
in the body (both are madhu). He indeed is the 
same as that Self, that Immortal, that Brahman, 
that All. 

10. This ether is the honey of all beings, and all 
beings are the honey of this ether. Likewise this 
bright, immortal person in this ether, and that bright, 
immortal person existing as heart-ether in the body 
(both are madhu). He indeed is the same as that 
Self, that Immortal, that Brahman, that All. 

11. This law (dharma^) is the honey of all beings, 
and all beings are the honey of this law. Likewise 
this bright, immortal person in this law, and that 
bright, immortal person existing as law in the body 
(both are madhu). He indeed is the same as that 
Self, that Immortal, that Brahman, that All. 

12. This true 2 (satyam) is the honey of all beings, 
and all beings are the honey of this true. Likewise 
this bright, immortal person in what is true, and that 
bright, immortal person existing as the true in the 
body (both are madhu). He indeed is the same as 
that Self, that Immortal, that Brahman, that All. 

1 3. This mankind is the honey of all beings, and 
all beings are the honey of this mankind. Likewise 

1 Stanayitnu, thunder, is explained by the commentator as 
Par^anya. 

* Satyam, the true, the real, not, as it is generally translated, the 
truth. 

I 2 



s 



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Il6 BKJHADARAiVYAKA-UPANISHAD. 

this bright, immortal person in mankind, and that 
bright, immortal person existing as man in the body 
(both are madhu). He indeed is the same as that 
Self, that Immortal, that Brahman, that All. 

14. This Self is the honey of all beings, and all 
beings are the honey of this Self. Likewise this 
bright, immortal person in this Self, and that bright, 
immortal person, the Self (both are madhu). He 
indeed is the same as that Self, that Immortal, that 
Brahman, that All. 

15. And verily this Self is the lord of all beings, 
the king of all beings. And as all spokes are con- 
tained in the axle and in the felly of a wheel, all 
beings, and all those selfs (of the earth, water, &c.) 
are contained in that Self. 

16. Verily Dadhya^ Atharvawa proclaimed this 
honey (the madhu-vidya) to the two Asvins, and a 
Rishi, seeing this, said (Rv. 1, 116, 12) : 

' O ye two heroes ( Asvins), I make manifest that 
fearful deed of yours (which you performed) for the 
sake of gain \ like as thunder 2 makes manifest the 
rain. The honey (madhu-vidya) which Dadhya£ 
Atharvawa proclaimed to you through the head of 
a horse,' ... 

17. Verily Dadhya^ Atharva«a 3 proclaimed this 
honey to the two Axvins, and a Rishi, seeing this, 
said (Rv. 1, 117, 22); 

' O A.svins, you fixed a horse's head on Atharva»a 
Dadhyai, and he, wishing to be true (to his promise), 



1 The translation here follows the commentary. 
9 Tanyatu, here explained as Par^anya. 

s .Sankara distinguishes here between Atharvawa and Atharvawa, 
if the text is correct. 



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II ADHYAYA, 5 BRAHMAJVA, 1 9. 117 

proclaimed to you the honey, both that of Tvashtri 1 
and that which is to be your secret, O ye strong 
ones.' 

18. Verily Dadhya^ Atharva«a proclaimed this 
honey to the two A^vins, and a ./frshi, seeing this, 
said: 

'He (the Lord) made bodies with two feet, he 
made bodies with four feet. Having first become 
a bird, he entered the bodies as purusha (as the 
person).' This Very purusha is in all bodies the puri- 
.raya, i. e. he who lies in the body (and is therefore 
called purusha). There is nothing that is not 
covered by him, nothing that is not filled by him. 

19. Verily Dadhya^ Atharva#a proclaimed this 
honey to the two Asvins, and a ^?2shi, seeing this, 
said (Rv. VI, 47, 18): 

' He (the Lord) became like unto every form 2 , and 
this is meant to reveal the (true) form of him (the 
Atman). Indra (the Lord) appears multiform through 
the Mayas (appearances), for his horses (senses) are 
yoked, hundreds and ten.' 

This (Atman) is the horses, this (Atman) is the 
ten, and the thousands, many and endless. This is 
the Brahman, without cause and without effect, with- 
out anything inside or outside ; this Self is Brahman, 
omnipresent and omniscient. This is the teaching 
(of the Upanishads). 

1 .Sahkara explains Tvash/n as the sun, and the sun as the head 
of the sacrifice which, having been cut off, was to be replaced by 
the pravargya rite. The knowledge of this rite forms the honey 
of Tvash/n". The other honey which is to be kept secret is the 
knowledge of the Self, as taught before in the Madhu-brahma«a. 

' He assumed all forms, and such forms, as two-footed or four- 
footed animals, remained permanent. Comm. 



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Il8 BR/HADARAiVYAKA-UPANISHAD. 



Sixth BrAhmaata. 

i. Now follows the stem l : 

i . Pautimashya from Gaupavana, 

2. Gaupavana from Pautimashya, 

3. Pautimashya from Gaupavana, 

4. Gaupavana from Kausika, 

5. Kaurika from Kau#dfinya, 

6. Kau#afinya from SkncHlya, 

7. SAndilya from Kaurika and Gautama, 

8. Gautama 

. 2. from Agniverya, 

9. Agniveyya from .Sa/zdfilya and Anabhimlata, 

10. S&ndilya. and Anabhimlata from Anabhimlata, 

11. Anabhimlata from Anabhimlata, 

12. Anabhimlata from Gautama, 

13. Gautama from Saitava and Praiinayogya, 

14. Saitava and Pra^fnayogya from Parararya, 

1 5. Parasarya from Bharadva^a, 

16. Bharadva^a from Bharadva^a and Gautama, 

1 7. Gautama from Bharadva^a, 

1 The line of teachers and pupils by whom the MadhukS«& 
(the fourth Brahmawa) was handed down. The Madhyandina-.?&kh£ 
begins with ourselves, then 1. SaurpaHayya, 2. Gautama, 3. Vitsya, 
4. V&tsya and PSr^Uarya, 5. Siftkrrtya and Bharadva^-a, 6. Auda- 
vahi and S&ndilya, 7. Vai^avSpa and Gautama, 8. Vaigavapayana 
and Vaish/apureya, 9. «S"&H</ilya andRauhi«ayana, 10. Saunaka, 
Atreya, and Raibhya, 11. Pautimashyaya«a and Kau««?iny &yana, 
12. KauWinya, 13. Kau/afinya, 14. Kau«rfinya and Agnivesya, 
15. Saitava, 16. P£rlrarya, 17. Gatukarwya, 18. Bharadva^a, 19. Bh£- 
radva^a, Asuraya«a, and Gautama, 20. Bh&radva^a, 2i.Vai^avapa- 
yana. Then the same as the Kawvas to G&tukarwya, who leams 
from Bharadva^a, who learns from Bh&radva^a, Asur&ya«a, and 
Yaska. Then Traivawi &c. as in the K&»va-vara.ra. 



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ii adhyaya/6 brAhmajva, 3. 119 

18. Bharadva^a from Parlsarya, 

19. Parasarya from Vaifavapayana, 

20. Vai/avapayana from Kausikayani, 
2 1 1 . Kaoyikayani 

3. from Ghmakaurika, 

12. Ghntakaimka from Par&saryaya«a, 

23. Parararyayawa from Parasarya, 

24. Parasarya from Catukaraya 2 , 

25. Gatukaraya from Asurayawa and Yaska 3 , 

26. Asuraya«a and Yaska from Traiva^i, 

27. Traivawi from Aupa^andhani, 

28. Aupa^andhani from Asuri, 

29. Asuri from Bharadva^a, 

30. Bharadva/a from Atreya, 

31. Atreya from Ma#/i, 

32. Ma»/i from Gautama, 

33. Gautama from Gautama, 

34. Gautama from Vatsya, 

35. Vatsya from StLndilya, 

36. S&ndilya. from Kaisorya Kapya, 

37. Kairorya Kapya from Kumaraharita, 

38. Kumaraharita from Galava, 

39. Galava from Vidarbhl-kau»</inya, 

40. Vidarbh! - kauwrfinya from Vatsanapat Ba- 

bhrava, 

41. Vatsanapat Babhrava from Pathi Saubhara, 

42. Pathi Saubhara from Ayasya Angirasa, 

43. Ayasya Angirasa from Abhuti Tvash/ra, 

44. Abhuti Tvash/ra from VLrvarupa Tvash/ra, 

45. Visvarupa Tvash/ra from Asvinau, 

1 From here the Vama agrees with the Vamsa at the end of 
IV, 6. 

2 BMradva^a, in M&dhyandina text. 

3 Bharadv%a, Asuraya»a, and Yaska, in M&dhyandina text. 



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1 20 BK/HADARAYYAKA-UPANISHAD. 

46. A.rvinau from Dadhya^ Atharva«a, 

47. Dadhya£ Atharvawa from Atharvan Daiva, 

48. Atharvan Daiva from Mn'tyu Pradhva#zsana, 

49. Mr/tyu Pradhvawsana from Pradhvaflssana, 

50. Pradhvawsana from Ekarshi, 

51. Ekarshi from Vipraiitti 1 , 

52. Vipraiitti from Vyash/i, 

53. Vyash/i from Sanaru, 

54. Sanaru from Sanatana, 

55. Sanatana from Sanaga, 

56. Sanaga from Paramesh/^in, 

57. Paramesh/^in from Brahman, 

58. Brahman is Svayambhu, self-existent. 
Adoration to Brahman 2 . 

1 Vipra^itti, in Mstdhyandina text. 

* Similar genealogies are found BrA. Ar. Up. IV, 6, and VI, 5. 



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Ill ADHYAYA, I BRAHMAJVA, 2. 121 



THIRD ADHYAYA, 

First BrAhma#a *. 

Adoration to the Highest Self (Paramatman) ! 

i. kanaka Vaideha (the king of the Videhas) sacri- 
ficed with a sacrifice at which many presents were | 
offered to the priests of (the Arvamedha). Brahma»as 1 
of the Kurus and the PM^alas had come thither, 
and (Janaka Vaideha wished to know, which of those 
Brahma«as was the best read. So he enclosed a 
thousand cows, and ten padas (of gold) 2 were fastened 
to each pair of horns. 

2. And Ganaka spoke to them : ' Ye venerable 
Brahma#as, he who among you is the wisest, let 
him drive away these cows.' 

Then those Brahma«as durst not, but Ya^«avalkya 
said to his pupil : ' Drive them away, my dear.' 

He replied : ' O glory of the Saman V and drove 
them away. 

The Brahmawas became angry and said : ' How 
could he call himself the wisest among us ?' 

Now there was A^vala, the Hotrt priest of kanaka 
Vaideha. He asked him : ' Are you indeed the 

1 Madhyandina text, p. 1067. 

2 Pala^aturbhagaA padaA suvarwasya. Comm. 

8 One expects iti after uda^a, but Sanmravas is applied to 
Ya^wavalkya, and not to the pupil. Yi^wavalkya, as the com- 
mentator observes, was properly a teacher of the Ya^ur-veda, but 
as the pupil calls him Samarravas, he shows that Ya^iavalkya 
knew all the four Vedas, because the Samans are taken from the 
Rig-veda, and the Atharva-veda is contained in the other three 
Vedas. Regnaud, however, refers it to the pupil, and translates, 
' 6 toi qui apprends le Sama-veda.' 



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122 BR/HADARAtfYAKA-UPANISHAD. 

wisest among us, O Yi^»avalkya ?' He replied : ' I 
bow before the wisest (the best knower of Brahman), 
but I wish indeed to have these cows.' 

Then A-rvala, the Hotri priest, undertook to 
question him. 

3. ' Ya^wavalkya,' he said, ' everything here (con- 
nected with the sacrifice) is reached by death, every- 
thing is overcome by death. By what means then 
is the sacrificer freed beyond the reach of death ?' 

Ya^avalkya said : ' By the Hotri priest, who is 
. v Agni (fire), who is speech. For speech is the Hotri 
^ of the sacrifice (or the sacrificer), and speech is 

Agni, and he is the Hotri. This constitutes free- 
dom, and perfect freedom (from death).' 

4. ' Ya^avalkya,' he said, ' everything here is 
reached by day and night, everything is overcome by 
day and night. By what means then is the sacrificer 
freed beyond the reach of day and night ?' 

Ya/«avalkya said : ' By the Adhvaryu priest, who 

£■ is the eye, who is Aditya (the sun) 1 . For the eye is 

c£ the Adhvaryu of the sacrifice, and the eye is the sun, 

and he is the Adhvaryu. This constitutes freedom, 

and perfect freedom.' 

5. ' Ydf^avalkya/ he said, ' everything here is 
reached by the waxing and waning of the moon, 
everything is overcome by the waxing and waning 
of the moon. By what means then is the sacrificer 
freed beyond the reach of the waxing and waning 
of the moon?' 

z x Ya^wavalkya said ; ' By the Udgatri priest, who 

is Vayu (the wind), who is the breath. For the 



1 One expects adityena £akshusha, instead of ^akshushadityena, 
but see § 6. 



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m adhyaya, i brAhmajva, 8. 123 

breath is the Udgiitri of the sacrifice, and the breath 
is the wind, and he is the UdgatW. This constitutes 
freedom, and perfect freedom/ 

6. ' Ya^wavalkya,' he said, ' this sky is, as it were, 
without an ascent (staircase.) By what approach 
does the sacrificer approach the Svarga world ? ' 

Ya^wavalkya said : ' By the Brahman priest, who ' u, v f /■ V^ 
is the mind (manas), who is the moon. For the 
mind is the Brahman of the sacrifice, and the mind 
is the moon, and he is the Brahman. This consti- 
tutes freedom, and perfect freedom. These are the 
complete deliverances (from death).' 

Next follow the achievements. 

7. ' Ya^avalkya,' he said, ' how many Rik verses 
will the HotW priest employ to-day at this sacrifice?' 

' Three/ replied Ya^»avalkya. 
' And what are these three?' 
' Those which are called Puronuvakya, Ya^ya, and, 
thirdly, .Sasya V 

' What does he gain by them ?' 
' All whatsoever has breath.' 

8. ' Ya^wavalkya,' he said, ' how many oblations 
(ahuti) will the Adhvaryu priest employ to-day at 
this sacrifice?' 

' Three,' replied Ydf»avalkya. 

' And what are these three ? ' 

'Those which, when offered, flame up ; those which, 
when offered, make an excessive noise ; and those 
which, when offered, sink down 2 / 

1 The Puronuv&kyas are hymns employed before the actual 
sacrifice, the Y&gyas accompany the sacrifice, the Sasy&s are used 
for the Sastra. All three are called StotriySs. 

8 These oblations are explained as consisting of wood and oil, 
of flesh, and of milk and Soma. The first, when thrown on the 



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124 BR/HADARAiVYAKA-UPANISHAD. 

' What does he gain by them ?' 

' By those which, when offered, flame up, he gains 
the Deva (god) world, for the Deva world flames 
up, as it were. By those which, when offered, make 
an excessive noise, he gains the Fitrt (father) world, 
for the Fitri world is excessively (noisy) 1 . By those 
which, when offered, sink down, he gains the Manu- 
shya (man) world, for the Manushya world is, as it 
were, down below.' 

9. ' Y&g- wavalkya,' he said, ' with how many deities 
does the Brahman priest on the right protect to-day 
this sacrifice ? ' 

' By one,' replied Ya^avalkya. 

'And which is it?' 

' The mind alone ; for the mind is endless, and the 
Visvedevas are endless, and he thereby gains the 
endless world.' 

10. ' YcLf?£avalkya,' he said, 'how many Stotriya 
hymns will the Udgatr? priest employ to-day at this 
sacrifice ? ' 

' Three,' replied Ya^avalkya. 

' And what are these three ?' 

' Those which are called Puronuvakya, Ya^ya, and, 
thirdly, •Sasya.' 

'And what are these with regard to the body 
(adhyatmam) ?' 

' The Puronuvakya is Pri#a (up-breathing), the 
Ya^ya the Apana (down-breathing), the .Sasya the 
Vyana (back-breathing)/ 

fire, flame up. The second, when thrown on the fire, make a 
loud hissing noise. The third, consisting of milk, Soma, &c, sink 
down into the earth. 

1 On account of the cries of those who wish to be delivered out 
of it. Comm. 



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in adhyAya, 2 brAhmajva, 7. 125 

' What does he gain by them ?' 
' He gains the earth by the Puronuvaky&, the sky 
by the Ya^ya, heaven by the 6asya.' 
After that Asvala held his peace. 

Second BrAhmajva 1 . 

/ i. Then 6&ratkarava Artabhaga 2 asked. 'Ya^'^a- 
valkya,' he said, ' how many Grahas are there, and 
how many Atigrahas 3 ? ' 

' Eight Grahas,' he replied, ' and eight Atigrahas.' 
'And what are these eight Grahas and eight 
Atigrahas ? ' 

2. ' Pra«a (breath) is one Graha, and that is seized *• 
by Apana (down-breathing) as the Atigraha 4 , for one 
smells with the Apana.' 

3. ' Speech (va£) is one Graha, and that is seized -^ 
by name (naman) as the Atigraha, for with speech 
one pronounces names.' 

4. ' The tongue is one Graha, and that is seized 3 
by taste as the Atigraha, for with the tongue one 
perceives tastes.' 

5. ' The eye is one Graha, and that is seized by form i\ 
as the Atigraha, for with the eye one sees forms.' 

6. 'The ear is one Graha, and that is seized by sound 
as the Atigraha, for with the ear one hears sounds.' 

7. ' The mind is one Graha, and that is seized by r 

1 Madhyandina text, p. 1069. 

8 A descendant of i?*tabhaga of the family of (raratkaru. 

' Graha is probably meant originally in its usual sacrificial sense, 
as a vessel for offering oblations. But its secondary meaning, 
in which it is here taken, is a taker, a grasper, i. e. an organ of 
sense, while atigraha is intended for that which is grasped, i. e. an 
object of sense. 

4 Here the a is long, £Mndasatvat. 



f 



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126 BK/HADARAiVYAKA-UPANISHAD. 

desire as the Atigraha, for with the mind one desires 
desires.' 

*7 8. ' The arms are one Graha, and these are seized 
by work as the Atigraha, for with the arms one 
works work.' 

V 9. ' The skin is one Graha, and that is seized by_ 
touch as the Atigraha, for with the skin one per- 
ceives touch. These are the eight Grahas and the 
eight Atigrahas.' 

10. ' Ya^wavalkya,' he said, ' everything is the food 
of death. What then is the deity to whom death is 
food ?' 

' Fire (agni) is death, and that is the food of water. 
Death is conquered again.' 

11. ' Ydf #avalkya,' he said, 'when such a person 
(a sage) dies, do the vital breaths (pra«as) move out 
of him or no ?' 

' No,' replied Ya^vfevalkya ; ' they are gathered up 
in him, he swells, he is inflated, and thus inflated the 
dead lies at rest.' 

12. ' Ya^vSfavalkya,' he said, 'when such a man 
dies, what does not leave him ?' 

^ ' The name,' he replied ; ' for the name is endless, 
the Virvedevas are endless, and by it he gains the 
endless world.' 

1 3. ' Ya^wavalkya,' he said, ' when the speech of 
this dead person enters into the fire 1 , breath into the 
air, the eye into the sun, the mind into the moon, 
the hearing into space, into the earth the body, into 
the ether the self, into the shrubs the hairs of the 
body, into the trees the hairs of the head, when the 

1 The commentator explains purusha here by asamyagdawin, 
one who does not know the whole truth. See also Deussen, 
Vedanta, p. 405, and p. 399, note. 



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Ill ADHYAYA, 3 BRAHMAtfA, 2. 1 27 

blood and the seed are deposited in the water, where 
is then that person ?' 

Ya^avalkya said : ' Take my hand, my friend. 
We two alone shall know of this ; let this question 
of ours not be (discussed) in public' Then these 
two went out and argued, and what they said was 
karman (work), what they praised was karman 1 , 
viz. that a man becomes good by good work, and 
bad by bad work. After that Garatkarava Arta- 
bhaga held his peace. 

Third BrAhmawa 2 . 

1. Then Bhu^yu Lahyayani asked. ' Ya^wavalkya,' 
he said, 'we wandered about as students 3 , and came to 
the house of Pata«^ala Kapya. He had a daughter 
who was possessed by a Gandharva. We asked 
him, 'Who art thou ?' and he (the Gandharva) replied : 
' I am Sudhanvan, the Angirasa.' And when we 
asked him about the ends of the world, we said to 
him, 'Where were the Parikshitas 4 ? Where then 
were the Parikshitas, I ask thee, Ya^wavalkya, where 
were the Parikshitas ?' 

2. Ya^»avalkya said : ' He said to thee, I suppose, 
that they went where those go who have performed 
a horse-sacrifice.' 

He said : 'And where do they go who have per- 
formed a horse-sacrifice ?' ' 

1 What is intended is that the sawsara continues by means of 
karman, while karman by itself never leads to moksha. 

2 Madhyandina text, p.' 1070. 

3 The commentator explains £arak&A as adhyayandrthaw vrata- 
kzrzn&k forakaA, adhvaryavo va\ See Professor R. G. Bhandarkar, 
in Indian Antiquary, 1883, p. 145. 

4 An old royal race, supposed to have vanished from the earth. 



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128 BKZHADARAiVYAKA-UPANISHAD. 

Ya^avalkya replied : ' Thirty-two journeys of the 
car of the sun is this world. The earth surrounds 
it on every side, twice as large, and the ocean 
surrounds this earth on every side, twice as large. 
Now there is between 1 them a space as large as the 
edge of a razor or the wing of a mosquito. Indra, 
having become a bird, handed them (through the 
space) to Vayu (the air), and Vayu (the air), holding 
them within himself, conveyed them to where they 
dwell who have performed a horse-sacrifice. Some- 
what in this way did he praise Vayu indeed. There- 
fore Vayu (air) is everything by itself, and Vayu is 
all things together. He who knows this, conquers 
death.' After that Bhu^yu Lahyayani held his 
peace. 

Fourth Brahmaata 2 . 

"i. Then Ushasta isTakrayatfa asked. 'Ya^aval- 
kya,' he said, ' tell me the Brahman which is visible, 
not invisible 3 , the Self (atman), who is within all.' 

YA^avalkya replied: 'This, thy Self, who is 
within all.' 

'Which Self, O Ya^avalkya, is within all ?' 
Ya^«avalkya replied : ' He who breathes in the 
up-breathing, he is thy Self, and within all. He who 
breathes in the down-breathing, he is thy Self, and 
within all. He who breathes in the on-breathing, 
he is thy Self, and within all. He who breathes in 

1 The commentator explains that this small space or hole is 
between the two halves of the mundane egg. 

2 Madhyandina text, p. 1071. It follows after what is here 
the fifth Brahma«a, treating of Kaho</a Kaushitakeya. 

s Deussen, Vedanta, p. 163, translates, 'das immanente, nicht 
transcendente Brahman,' which is right, but too modern. 



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Ill ADHYAYA, 5 BRAHMAVA, I. 12 9 

the out-breathing, he is thy Self, and within all. 
This is thy Self, who is within all.' 

2. Ushasta isfakraya#a said : 'As one might say, 
this is a cow, this is a horse, thus has this been 
explained by thee. Tell me the Brahman which is 
visible, not invisible, the Self, who is within all.' 

Y4f»avalkya replied: 'This, thy Self, who is | 
within all.' 

'Which Self, O Y£f«avalkya, is within all ?' 

Ya^wavalkya replied : ' Thou couldst not see the 
(true) seer of sight, thou couldst not hear the (true) 
hearer of hearing, nor perceive the perceiver of per- 
ception, nor know the knower of knowledge. This 
is thy Self, who is within all. Everything also is of '""' 
evil' After that Ushasta isfakraya»a held his peace. 

"Fifth BrAhmajva 1 . 

l Then Kahola Kaushltakeya asked. 'Y£f«a- 
valkya,' he said, 'tell me the Brahman which is visible, 
not invisible, the Self (atman), who is within all.' 

Ya^»avalkya replied: 'This, thy Self, who is 
within all.' 

' Which Self, O Ya^#avalkya, is within all ?' 

Ya^»avalkya replied : ' He who overcomes hunger 
and thirst, sorrow, passion, old age, and death. 
When Brahmawas know that Self, and have risen 
above the desire for sons 2 , wealth, and (new) worlds s , 
they wander about as mendicants. For a desire for 
sons is desire for wealth, a desire for wealth is desire 
for worlds. Both these are indeed desires. There- 
fore let a Brahma^a, after he has done with learning, 

1 Mddhyandinatext,p. 1071, standing before the fourth Brahmawa. 

9 See Brih. Ar. Up. IV, 4, 22. 

' Life in the world of the Fathers, or in the world of the Gods. 

[15] K 



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1 30 BK7HADARAJVYAKA-UPANISHAD. 

wish to stand by real strength * ; after he has done 
with that strength and learning, he becomes a Muni 
(a Yogin) ; and after he has done with what is not 
the knowledge of a Muni, and with what is the 
knowledge of a Muni, he is a Brahma«a. By what- 
ever means he has become a Brahma#a, he is such 
indeed 2 . Everything else is of evil.' After that 
Kahola Kaushitakeya held his peace. 

Sixth BrAhmajva 8 . 

1. Then Gargl Va^aknavl asked. ' Ya^avalkya,' 
she said, ' everything here is woven, like warp and 
woof, in water. What then is that in which water is 
woven, like warp and woof?' 

' In air, O Gargl,' he replied. 

' In what then is air woven, like warp and woof?' 

' In the worlds of the sky, O Gargl,' he replied. 

' In what then are the worlds of the sky woven, 
like warp and woof ? ' 

' In the worlds of the Gandharvas, O Gargl,' he 
replied. 

1 Knowledge of the Self, which enables us to dispense with all 
other knowledge. 

8 Mr. Gough proposes as an alternative rendering: 'Let a 
Brahmawa renounce learning and become as a child; and after 
renouncing learning and a childlike mind, let him become a 
quietist; and when he has made an end of quietism and non- 
quietism, he shall become a Brihmana, a Br£hma»a indeed.' 
Deussen takes a similar view, but I doubt whether 'the knowledge 
of babes' is not a Christian rather than an Indian idea, in spite of 
•Sankara's remarks on Ved. Sfitra, III, 4, 50, which are strangely at 
variance with his commentary here. Possibly the text may be cor- 
rupt, for tish/Mset too is a very peculiar form. We might conjecture 
balyena, as we have abalyam, in IV, 4, 1. In Kaush. Up. Ill, 3, 
Sbalyam stands for abalyam, possibly for abalyam. The construc- 
tion of kena syad yena syit tenedrwa eva, however, is well known. 

8 M&dhyandina text, p. 1072. 



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in adhyAya, 6 brAhmawa, i. 131 

' In what then are the worlds of the Gandharvas 
woven, like warp and woof?' 

'In the worlds of Aditya (sun), O Gargt,' he replied. 

'In what then are the worlds of Aditya (sun) 
woven, like warp and woof?' 

' In the worlds of Xandra (moon), O Gargt,' he 
replied. / #£ 

' In what then are the worlds of Aandra (moon) 
woven, like warp and woof?' 

' In the worlds of the Nakshatras (stars), O Gargt,' 
he replied. 

' In what then are the worlds of the Nakshatras 
(stars) woven, like warp and woof?' ** 

' In the worlds of the Devas (gods), O Gargt,' he 
replied. 

' In what then are the worlds of the Devas (gods) 
woven, like warp and woof ? ' 

' In the worlds of Indra, O Gargt,' he replied. 

' In what then are the worlds of Indra woven, like 
warp and woof?' 

' In the worlds of Pra^apati, O Gargt,' he replied. 

' In what then are the worlds of Pra^apati woven, 
like warp and woof?' 

' In the worlds of Brahman, O Gargt,' he replied. 

' In what then are the worlds of Brahman woven, 
like warp and woof?' 

Ya^"«avalkya said : ' O Gargt, Do not ask too 
much, lest thy head should fall off. Thou askest 
too much about a deity about which we are not to 
ask too much \ Do not ask too much, O Gargt.' 
After that Gargt Va^aknavi held her peace. 

1 According to the commentator questions about Brahman are 
to be answered from the Scriptures only, and not to be settled by 
argument. 

K 2 



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1 3 2 b&/iiadArajvyaka-upanishad. 



Seventh BrAhmana 1 . 

i. Then Uddalaka Aru»i 2 asked. ' Ya^avalkya,' 
he said, ' we dwelt among the Madras in the houses 
of Pata»iala Kapya, studying the sacrifice. His 
wife was possessed of a Gandharva, and we asked 
him : " Who art thou ?" He answered : " I am 
Kabandha Atharva^a." And he said to Pata«iala 
Kapya and to (us) students : " Dost thou know, Kapya, 
that thread by which this world and the other world, 
and all beings are strung together?" And Pata»iala 
Kapya replied : " I do not know it, Sir." He said 
again to Pata»iala Kapya and to (us) students: 
" Dost thou know, Kapya, that puller (ruler) within 
(antaryamin), who within pulls (rules) this world and 
the other world and all beings ? " And Pata&6ala 
Kapya replied : " I do not know it, Sir." He said 
again to Pata^ala Kapya . and to (us) students : 
' " He, O Kapya, who knows that thread and him who 
'^ pulls (it) within, he knows Brahman, he knows the 
worlds, he knows the Devas, he knows the Vedas, 
he knows the Bhutas (creatures), he knows the Self, 
he knows everything"! Thus did he (the Gandharva) 
say to them, and I know it. If thou, O Y4f#avalkya, 
without knowing that string and the puller within, 
drivest away those Brahma-cows (the cows offered 
as a prize to him who best knows Brahman), thy 
head will fall off.' 

Ya^»avalkya said : ' O Gautama, I believe I know 
that thread and the puller within.' 

1 Madhyandina text, p. 1072. 

* Afterwards addressed as Gautama ; see before, p. 1, note. 



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IH ADHYAYA, 7 BRAHMAJVA, 7. 1 33 

The other said : ' Anybody may say, I know, I 
know. Tell what thou knowest' 

2. Ya^Tzavalkya said : ' Vayu (air) is that thread, 
O Gautama. By air, as by a thread, O Gautama, 
this world and the other world, and all creatures are 
strung together. Therefore, O Gautama, people say 
of a dead person that his limbs have become unstrung; 
for by air, as by a thread, O Gautama, they were 
strung together.' 

The other said : ' So it is, O Ya^wavalkya. Tell 
now (who is) the puller within.' 

3. Ya^avalkya said : ' He who dwells in the earth, 
and within the earth \ whom the earth does not 
know, whose body the earth is, and who pulls (rules) 
the earth within, he is thy Self, the puller (ruler) 
within, the immortal.' 

4. ' He who dwells in the water, and within the 
water, whom the water does not know, whose body 
the water is, and who pulls (rules) the water within, 
he is thy Self, the puller (ruler) within, the immortal.' 

5. ' He who dwells in the fire, and within the fire, 
whom the fire does not know, whose body the fire 
is, and who pulls (rules) the fire within, he is thy 
Self, the puller (ruler) within, the immortal.' 

6. ' He who dwells in the sky, and within the 
sky, whom the sky does not know, whose body the 
sky is, and who pulls (rules) the sky within, he is thy 
Self, the puller (ruler) within, the immortal.' 

7. ' He who dwells in the air (vayu), and within the 
air, whom the air does not know, whose body the 

1 I translate antara by 'within,' according to the commentator, 
who explains it by abhyantara, but I must confess that I should 
prefer to translate it by ' different from,' as Deussen does, 1. c. p. 160, 
particularly as it governs an ablative. 



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134 BK/HADARA2VYAKA-UPANISHAD. 

air is, and who pulls (rules) the air within, he is thy 
Self, the puller (ruler) within, the immortal.' 

8. ' He who dwells in the heaven (dyu), and within 
the heaven, whom the heaven does not know, whose 
body the heaven is, and who pulls (rules) the heaven 
within, he is thy Self, the puller (ruler) within, the 
immortal.' 

9. ' He who dwells in the sun (aditya), and within 
the sun, whom the sun does not know, whose body 
the sun is, and who pulls (rules) the sun within, he 
is thy Self, the puller (ruler) within, the immortal.' 

10. 'He who dwells in the space (di$a^), and 
within the space, whom the space does not know, 
whose body the space is, and who pulls (rules) the 
space within, he is thy Self, the puller (ruler) within, 
the immortal.' 

11. 'He who dwells in the moon and stars (£an- 
dra-tarakam), and within the moon and stars, whom 
the moon and stars do not know, whose body the 
moon and stars are, and who pulls (rules) the moon 
and stars within, he is thy Self, the puller (ruler) 
within, the immortal.' 

12. 'He who dwells in the ether (ak&ya), and 
within the ether, whom the ether does riot know, 
whose body the ether is, .and who pulls (rules) the 
ether within, he is thy Self, the puller (ruler) within, 
the immortal.' 

13. 'He who dwells in the darkness (tamas), and 
within the darkness, whom the darkness does not 
know, whose body the darkness is, and who pulls 
(rules) the darkness within, he is thy Self, the puller 
(ruler) within, the immortal.' 

14. ' He who dwells in the light (te^as), and within 
the light, whom the light does not know, whose 



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Ill ADHYAYA, 7 BRAhMAWA, 21. 1 35 

body the light is, and who pulls (rules) the light 
within, he is thy Self, the puller (ruler) within, the 
immortal.' 

So far with respect to the gods (adhidaivatam) ; 
now with respect to beings (adhibhutam). 

15. Y&f»avalkya said: 'He who dwells in all 
beings, and within all beings, whom all beings do 
not know, whose body all beings are, and who pulls 
(rules) all beings within, he is thy Self, the puller 
(ruler) within, the immortal.' 

16. 'He who dwells in the breath (pra«a), and 
within the breath, whom the breath does not know, 
whose body the breath is, and who pulls (rules) the 
breath within, he is thy Self, the puller (ruler) within, 
the immortal.' 

17. 'He who dwells in the tongue (va£), and 
within the tongue, whom the tongue does not know, 
whose body the tongue is, and who pulls (rules) the 
tongue within, he is thy Self, the puller (ruler) within, 
the immortal.' 

18. 'He who dwells in the eye, and within the 
eye, whom the eye does not know, whose body the 
eye is, and who pulls (rules) the eye within, he is thy 
Self, the puller (ruler) within, the immortal.' 

19. 'He who dwells in the ear, and within the 
ear, whom the ear does not know, whose body the 
ear is, and who pulls (rules) the ear within, he is thy 
Self, the puller (ruler) within, the immortal.' 

20. 'He who dwells in the mind, and within the 
mind, whom the mind does not know, whose body 
the mind is, and who pulls (rules) the mind within, 
he is thy Self, the puller (ruler) within, the immortal.' 

2i. ' He who dwells in the skin, and within the 
skin, whom the skin does not know, whose body the 



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136 bkthadAraatyaka-upanishad. 

skin is, and who pulls (rules) the skin within, he is 
thy Self, the puller (ruler) within, the immortal.' 

22. 'He who dwells in knowledge 1 , and within 
knowledge, whom knowledge does not know, whose 
body knowledge is, and who pulls (rules) knowledge 
within, he is thy Self, the puller (ruler) within, the 
immortal.' 

23. ■ He who dwells in the seed, and within 
the seed, whom the seed does not know, whose 
body the seed is, and who pulls (rules) the seed 
within, he is thy Self, the puller (ruler) within, 
the immortal ; unseen, but seeing ; unheard, but 
hearing ; unperceived, but perceiving ; unknown, but 
knowing. There is no other seer but he, there 
is no other hearer but he, there is no other per- 
ceiver but he, there is no other knower but he. 
This is thy Self, the ruler within, the immortal. 
Everything else is of evil.' After that Uddalaka 
Arum held his peace. 

Eighth BrAhmajva 2 . 

1. Then Vaiaknav! 8 said: 'Venerable Brahmawas, 
I shall ask him two questions. If he will answer 
them, none of you, I think, will defeat him in any 
argument concerning Brahman.' 

Ya^#avalkya said : ' Ask, O Gargi.' 

2. She said : ' O Ya^-»avalkya, as the son of a 
warrior from the K&sls or Videhas might string his 
loosened bow, take two pointed foe-piercing arrows 
in his hand and rise to do battle, I have risen to 

1 Self, i.e. the individual Self, according to the Madhyandina 
school; see Deussen, p. 161. 
* M&dhyandina text, p. 1075. 
3 G&rgf, not the wife of Ya^navalkya. 



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Ill ADHYAYA, 8 BRAHMAJVA, 8. 1 37 

fight thee with two questions. Answer me these 
questions/ 

Ya^avalkya said : ' Ask, O Gargl.' 

3. She said : ' O Ya^wavalkya, that of which they 
say that it is above the heavens, beneath the earth, 
embracing heaven and earth *, past, present; and future, 
tell me in what is it woven, like warp and woof ? ' 

4. YcLf#avalkya said : ' That of which they say 
that it is above the heavens, beneath the earth, 
embracing heaven and earth, past, present, and 
future, that is woven, like warp and woof, in the 
ether (akara).' 

5. She said : ' I bow to thee, O Ya^avalkya, who 
hast solved me that question. Get thee ready for 
the second.' 

Y&£-»avalkya said 2 : ' Ask, O Gargl.' 

6. She said : ' O Ya^»avalkya, that of which they 
say that it is above the heavens, beneath the earth, 
embracing heaven and earth, past, present, and future, 
tell me in what is it woven, like warp and woof?' 

7. Ya^»avalkya said : ' That of which they say 
that it is above the heavens, beneath the earth, 
embracing heaven and earth, past, present, and future, 
that is woven, like warp and woof, in the ether.' 

Gargl said : ' In what then is the ether woven, like 
warp and woof?' 

8. He said : ' O Gargl, the Brahma»as call this 
the Akshara (the imperishable). It is neither coarse 
nor fine, neither short nor long, neither red (like fire) 
nor fluid (like water) ; it is without shadow, with- 
out darkness, without air, without ether, without 

1 Deussen, p. 143, translates, ' between heaven and earth,' but 
that would be the antariksha. 

8 This repetition does not occur in the Madhyandina text. 



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138 brthadAraa'Yaka-upanishad. 

attachment 1 , without taste, without smell, without 
eyes, without ears, without speech, without mind, 
without light (vigour), without breath, without a 
mouth (or door), without measure, having no within 
and no without, it devours nothing, and no one 
devours it.' 

9. ' By the command of that Akshara (the im- 
perishable), O Gargi, sun and moon stand apart 2 . 
By the command of that Akshara, O Gargi, 
heaven and earth stand apart. By the command of 
that Akshara, O Gargi, what are called moments 
(nimesha), hours (muhurta), days and nights, half- 
months, months, seasons, years, all stand apart. 
By the command of that Akshara, O Gargi, some 
rivers flow to the East from the white mountains, 
others to the West, or to any other quarter. By 
the command of that Akshara, O Gargi, men praise 
those who give, the gods follow the sacrificer, the 
fathers the Darvi-offering.' 

10. 'Whosoever, O Gargi, without knowing that 
Akshara (the imperishable), offers oblations in this 
world, sacrifices, and performs penance for a thou- 
sand years, his work will have an end. Whosoever, 
O Gargi, without knowing this Akshara, departs this 
world, he is miserable (like a slave) 3 . But he, O 
Gargi, who departs this world, knowing this Akshara, 
he is a Brahma«a.' 

11. 'That Brahman,' O Gargi, 'is unseen, but 
seeing ; unheard, but hearing ; unperceived, but per- 
ceiving ; unknown, but knowing. There is nothing 

1 Not adhering to anything, like lac or gum. 
* Each follows its own course. 

8 ' He stores up the effects from work, like a miser his riches/ 
Roer. ' He is helpless,' Gough. 



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Ill ADHYAYA, 9 BRAHMA7VA, I. 1 39 

that sees but it, nothing that hears but it, nothing 
that perceives but it, nothing that knows but it. In 
that Akshara then, O Gargl, the ether is woven, 
like warp and woof.' 

1 2. Then said Garg! : ' Venerable Brahmans, you 
may consider it a great thing, if you get off by bowing 
before him. No one, I believe, will defeat him in 
any argument concerning Brahman.' After that 
Vaiaknavl held her peace. 

Ninth BrAhmaata 1 . 

1 . Then Vidagdha .Sakalya asked him 2 : ' How many 
gods are there, O Ya^avalkya ?' He replied with 
this very Nivid 3 : 'As many as are mentioned in the 
Nivid of the hymn of praise addressed to the Vw- 
vedevas, viz. three and three hundred, three and 
three thousand 4 .' 

' Yes,' he said, and asked again : ' How many gods 
are there really, O Ya^»avalkya ?' 

' Thirty-three,' he said. 

1 Madhyandina text, p. 1076. 

* This disputation between Ya^-wavalkya and Vidagdha Sakalya 
occurs in a simpler form in the 5atapatha-brahma«a, XI, p. 873. 
He is here represented as the first who defies Ya^-wavalkya, and 
whom Ya^wavalkya asks at once, whether the other Brahmans 
had made him the ulmuk&vakshayana, the cat's paw, literally one 
who has to take a burning piece of wood out of the fire (ardha- 
dagdhakash//4am ulmukam; tasya vahirnirasanam avakshaya»a»* 
vinasaA). The end, however, is different, for on asking the nature 
of the one god, the PrS«a, he is told by Ya^wavalkya that he has 
asked for what he ought not to ask, and that therefore he will die 
and thieves will carry away his bones. 

' Nivid, old and short invocations of the gods ; devatasankhyt- 
v&fcakani mantrapadani kanL&d valr vadeve $ astre jasyante. Sankara 
and Dvivedaganga. 

4 This would make 3306 devatas. 



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I40 B/i/HADARAiVYAKA-UPANISHAD. 

' Yes,' he said, and asked again : ' How many gods 
are there really, O Ya^avalkya?' 

' Six,' he said. 

' Yes,' he said, and asked again : ' How many gods 
are there really, O Ya^wavalkya?' 

' Three,' he said. 

' Yes,' he said, and asked again : ' How many gods 
are there really, O Ya^»avalkya?' 

' Two,' he said. 

' Yes,' he said, and asked again : ' How many gods 
are there really, O Ya^avalkya?' 

' One and a half (adhyardha),' he said. 

'Yes,' he said, and asked again : 'How many gods 
are there really, O Ya^avalkya?' 

' One,' he said. 

'Yes,' he said, and asked: 'Who are these three 
and three hundred, three and three thousand?' 

2. Ya/»avalkya replied : ' They are only the 
various powers of them, in reality there are only 
thirty-three gods V 

He asked : ' Who are those thirty-three?' 
Ya^avalkya replied : 'The eight Vasus, the eleven 
Rudras, the twelve Adityas. They make thirty-one, 
and Indra and Pra^apati make the thirty-three V 

3. He asked : ' Who are the Vasus.' 
Ya^avalkya replied : ' Agni (fire), Pmhivt 

(earth), Vayu (air), Antariksha (sky), Aditya (sun), 
Dyu (heaven), Aandramas (moon), the Nakshatras 
(stars), these are the Vasus, for in them all that 
dwells (this world) 3 rests; and therefore they are 
called Vasus.' 

1 ' The glories of these are three and thirty.' Gough, p. 172. 

4 Trayastriwwau, i. e. trayastriwataA purawau. 

* The etymological explanation of Vasu is not quite clear, and 



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in adhyAya, 9 brAhmawa, 8. \ ' v ' ^ 14J- 

4. He asked : 'Who are the Rudras ?' 
Y&f»avalkya replied: 'These ten vital breaths 

(prawas, the senses, i. e. the five ^wanendriyas, and 
the five karmendriyas), and Atman 1 , as the eleventh. 
When they depart from this mortal body, they make 
us cry (rodayanti), and because they make us cry, 
they are called Rudras.' 

5. He asked : ' Who are the Adityas ?' 
Ya^»avalkya replied : ' The twelve months of the 

year, and they are Adityas, because they move along 
(yanti), taking up everything 2 (adadana^). Because 
they move along, taking up everything, therefore 
they are called Adityas.' 

6. He asked: 'And who is Indra, and who is 
Pra^apati?' 

Ya^^Eavalkya replied : ' Indra is thunder, Pra^apati 
is the sacrifice.' 

He asked : 'And what is the thunder?' 
Ya^wavalkya replied : 'The thunderbolt.' 
He asked : 'And what is the sacrifice?' 
Ya^wavalkya replied : ' The (sacrificial) animals.' 

7. He asked : 'Who are the six ?' 
Ya^avalkya replied : ' Agni (fire), Prithivt (earth), 

Vayu (air), Antariksha (sky), Aditya (sun), Dyu 
(heaven), they are the six, for they are all 8 this, 
the six.' 

8. He asked : 'Who are the three gods?' 

the commentator hardly explains our text. Perhaps vasu is meant 
for the world or the dwellers therein. The more usual explanation 
occurs in the jatap. Brali. p. 1077, ete hida*» sarvawz v&sayante 
tadyad ida« sarvaw vasayante tasmad vasava iti; or on p. 874, 
where we read te yad idaw sarvam &c. 

1 Atman is here explained as manas, the common sensory. 

a The life of men, and the fruits of their work. 

* They are the thirty-three gods.. 



'I V 



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142 BK/HADARA2VYAKA-UPANISHAD. 

Ya^rcavalkya replied : ' These three worlds, for in 
them all these gods exist.' 

He asked : 'Who are the two gods?' 
Ya^#avalkya replied : ' Food and breath.' 
He asked : 'Who is the one god and a half?' 
Ya^»avalkya replied : ' He that blows.' 

9. Here they say : ' How is it that he who blows 
like one only, should be called one and a half (adhyar- 
dha)?' And the answer is : 'Because, when the wind 
was blowing, everything grew (adhyardhnot).' 

- He asked : 'Who is the one god ?' 

Ya/»avalkya replied: 'Breath (prawa), and he is 
Brahman (the Sutra tman), and they call him That 
(tyad).' 

10. .Sakalya said 1 : 'Whosoever knows that person 
(or god) whose dwelling (body) is the earth, whose 
sight (world) is fire 2 , whose mind is light, — the prin- 

1 I prefer to attribute this to .Sakalya, who is still the questioner, 
and not Ya^wavalkya ; but I am not quite satisfied that I am right 
in this, or in the subsequent distribution of the parts, assigned to 
each speaker. If .Sakalya is the questioner, then the sentence, veda 
vS ah&m tam purusha« sarvasyatmana^ paraya«awz yam attha, must 
belong to Ya^iiavalkya, because he refers to the words of another 
speaker. Lastly, the sentence vadaiva has to be taken as addressed 
to .SUkalya. The commentator remarks that, he being the ques- 
tioner, one expects prikkAa. instead of vada. But Yi^wavalkya 
may also be supposed to turn round on iSUkalya and ask him a 
question in turn, more difficult than the question addressed- by 
.Sakalya to Ya^wavalkya, and in that case the last sentence must 
be taken as an answer, though an imperfect one, of .SUkalya's. 
The commentator seems to think that after Ya^wavalkya told 
SSkalya to ask this question, .Sakalya was frightened and asked 
it, and that then Ya^wavalkya answered in turn. 

2 The Madhyandina text varies considerably. It has the first 
time, foshur lokaA for agnir loka^. I keep to the same construc- 
tion throughout, taking mano gyotih, not as a compound, but like 
agnir loko yasya, as a sentence, i. e. mano ^yotir yasya. 



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in adhyAya, g brAHmAjva, 1 3. 143 

ciple of every (living) self, he indeed is a teacher, 
O Ya^avalkya.' 

Ya^avalkya said : ' I know that person, the prin- 
ciple of every self, of whom thou speakest. This 
corporeal (material, earthy) person, " he is he." But 
tell me 1 , Sakalya, who is his devata* (deity)?' 

.Sakalya replied : 'The Immortal 3 .' 

1 1. .Sakalya said : 'Whosoever knows that person 
whose dwelling is love (a body capable of sensual 
love), whose sight is the heart, whose mind is light, — 
the principle of every self, he indeed is a teacher, 
O Ya^wavalkya.' 

Ya^»avalkya replied : ' I know that person, the 
principle of every self, of whom thou speakest. This 
love-made (loving) person, " he is he." But tell me, 
.Sakalya, who is his devata ? ' 

.Sakalya replied : ' The women *.' 

1 2. .Sakalya said : ' Whosoever knows that person 
whose dwelling are the colours, whose sight is the 
eye, whose mind is light, — the principle of every self, 
he indeed is a teacher, O Y&^avalkya.' 

Y£f#avalkya replied : ' I know that person, the 
principle of every self, of whom thou speakest. That 
person in the sun, " he is he." But tell me, .Sakalya, 
who is his devata ?' 

•Sakalya replied : ' The True s .' 

13. Sakalya said : 'Whosoever knows that person 

1 Ask me. Comm. 

* That from which he is produced, that is his devati. Comm. 

3 According to the commentator, the essence of food, which 
produces blood, from which the germ receives life and becomes an 
embryo and a living being. 

4 Because they excite the fire of love. Comm. 

6 The commentator explains satya, the true, by the eye, because 
the sun owes its origin to the eye. 



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144 BltfHADARAiVYAKA-UPANISHAD. 

whose dwelling is ether, whose sight is the ear, whose 
mind is light, — the principle of every self, he indeed 
is a teacher, O Ya^avalkya.' 

Y^fwavalkya replied : ' I know that person, the 
principle of every self, of whom thou speakest. The 
person who hears * and answers, " he is he." But 
tell me, .Sakalya, who is his devata?' 

.Sakalya replied : 'Space.' 

14. .Sakalya said : ' Whosoever knows that person 
whose dwelling is darkness, whose sight is the heart, 
whose mind is light, — the principle of every self, he 
indeed is a teacher, O Ya^avalkya.' 

Ya^avalkya replied: 'I know that person, the 
principle of every self, of whom thou speakest The 
shadowy 2 person, " he is he." But tell me, .Sakalya, 
who is his devata ? ' 

•Sakalya replied : ' Death.' 

15. Sakalya said : ' Whosoever knows that person 
whose dwelling are (bright) colours, whose sight is 
the eye, whose mind is light, — the principle of every 
self, he indeed is a teacher, O Yi^«avalkya.' 

Ya^avalkya replied : ' I know that person, the 
principle of every self, of whom thou speakest The 
person in the looking-glass, "he is he." But tell 
me, .Sakalya, who is his devata?' 

.Sakalya replied : 'Vital breath' (asu). 

16. .Sakalya said: 'Whosoever knows that person 
whose dwelling is water, whose sight is the heart 
whose mind is light, — the principle of every self, he 
indeed is a teacher, O Ya^wavalkya/ 



1 Read frautra instead of jrotra ; see Brih. Ar. Up. II, 5, 6. 

2 Shadow, £Mya, is explained here by a^wana, ignorance, not 
by gMna., knowledge. 



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Ill ADHVAYA, 9 BRAHMAJVA, 1 9. 1 45 

Y&f»avalkya replied : ' I know that person, the 
principle of every self, of whom thou speakest. The 
person in the water, " he is he." But tell me, .Sakalya, 
who is his devata?' 

.Sakalya replied : ' Varuwa.' 

17. .Sakalya said : 'Whosoever knows that person 
whose dwelling is seed, whose sight is the heart, 
whose mind is light, — the principle of every self, he 
indeed is a teacher, O Ya^wavalkya.' 

Y£f»avalkya replied ; ' I know that person, the 
principle of every self, of whom thou speakest. The 
filial person, "he is he." But tell me, .Sakalya, who 
is his devata?' 

•Sakalya replied : ' Pra^apati.' 

18. Ya^»avalkya said: '.Sakalya, did those Brah- 
ma»as (who themselves shrank from the contest) 
make thee the victim 1 ?' 

•Sakalya said : ' Ya^avalkya, because thou hast 
decried the Brahma»as of the Kuru-Pa»/£alas, what 2 
Brahman dost thou know?' 

19. Yif»avalkya said : ' I know the quarters with 
their deities and their abodes.' 



1 AngSiivakshayawa is explained as a vessel in which coals are 
extinguished, and Anandagiri adds that Yif wavalkya, in saying that 
.SSkalya was made an ahgSrSvakshaya«a by his fellow Brihmans, 
meant that he was given up by them as a victim, in' fact that 
he was being burnt or consumed by Ya^wavalkya. I should prefer 
to take angaravakshaya/za in the sense of ulmukavakshayawa, an 
instrument with which one takes burning coals from the fire to 
extinguish them, a pair of tongs. Read saxidamsa, instead of sandesa. 
Kshi with ava means to remove, to take away. We should call 
an ahgar&vakshayawa a cat's paw. The Brahmanas used .Sakalya 
as a cat's paw. 

* It seems better to take kim as the interrogative pronoun than 
as an interrogative particle. 

['51 L 



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146 biuhadArajwaka-upanishad. 

•Sakalya said : ' If thou knowest the quarters with 
their deities and their abodes, 

20. 'Which is thy deity in the Eastern quarter?' 
Ya£-»avalkya said : ' Aditya (the sun).' 
.Sakalya said : ' In what does that Aditya abide?' 
YcLf #avalkya said : ' In the eye.' 

•Sakalya said : ' In what does the eye abide?' 

Ya^wavalkya said: 'In the colours, for with the 
eye he sees the colours.' 

.Sakalya said: 'And in what then do the colours 
abide?' 

Ya^wavalkya said: 'In the heart 1 , for we know 
colours by the heart, for colours abide in the heart 2 .' 

•Sakalya said : ' So it is indeed, O Ya^avalkya.' 

21. .Sakalya said: 'Which is thy deity in the 
Southern quarter ?' 

Ya^asavalkya said : ' Yama.' 

.Sakalya said: ' In what does that Yama abide?' 

Y4f»avalkya said : ' In the sacrifice.' 

■Sakalya said : ' In what does the sacrifice abide?' 

Ya^rcavalkya said: 'In the Dakshiwa (the gifts to 

be given to the priests).' 

■Sakalya said : ' In what does the Dakshi»a abide ?' 
Y&£-«avalkya said : 'In .Sraddha (faith), for if a 

man believes, then he gives Dakshi»a, and Dakshirca 

truly abides in faith.' 

•Sakalya said : 'And in what then does faith abide?' 
Y4f«avalkya said: 'In the heart, for by the heart 

faith knows, and therefore faith abides in the heart.' 
•Sakalya said : 'So it is indeed, O Ya^"«avalkya.' 

1 Heart stands here for buddhi and manas together. Comm. 

2 In the text, published by Dr. Roer in the Bibliotheca Indica, a 
sentence is left out, viz. hrtdaya ity uva£a, hn'dayena hi rupa»i 
^anati, hrtdaye hy eva rupawi pratish/ftit&ni bhavantlty. 



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Ill ADHYAYA, 9 BRAHMAiVA, 24. 1 47 

22. Sakalya said: 'Which is thy deity in the 
Western quarter ?' 

Y&f»avalkya said : ' Varu»a.' 

.Sakalya said : ' In what does that Vanma abide?' 

Yif»avalkya said : ' In the water.' 

.Sakalya said : ' In what does the water abide ?' 

Y&f»avalkya said : ' In the seed.' 

Sakalya said: 'And in what does the seed abide?' 

Ya^avalkya said : ' In the heart And therefore 
also they say of a son who is like his father, that he 
seems as if slipt from his heart, or made from his 
heart ; for the seed abides in the heart.' 

Sakalya said : ' So it is indeed, O Ya^-»avalkya.' 

23. .Sakalya said: 'Which is thy deity in the 
Northern quarter?' 

Yi^wavalkya said : ' Soma.' 

Sakalya said : ' In what does that Soma abide?' 

Ya^avalkya said : ' In the Dlksha V 

.Sakalya said : 'In what does the Dlksha abide?' 

Y&f»avalkya said: 'In the True; and therefore 

they say to one who has performed the Dlksha, 

Speak what is true, for in the True indeed the 

Dlksha abides.' 

Sakalya said : 'And in what does the True abide?' 
Ya^-»avalkya said : ' In the heart, for with the heart 

do we know what is true, and in the heart indeed 

the True abides.' 

.Sakalya said : 'So it is indeed, O Ya^avalkya.' 

24. Sakalya said: 'Which is thy deity in the 
zenith?' 

1 Dlksha is the initiatory rite for the Soma sacrifice. Having 
sacrificed with Soma which has to be bought, the sacrificer becomes 
endowed with wisdom, and wanders to the North, which is the 
quarter of Soma. 

L 2 



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148 bk/hadArayyaka-upanishad. 

Y&f#avalkya said: 'Agni.' 
.Sakalya said : 'In what does that Agni abide.' 
Yif#avalkya said : 'In speech.' 
.Sakalya said : 'And in what does speech abide ?' 
Ya^avalkya said : ' In the heart.' 
.Sakalya said : 'And in what does the heart abide?' 
25. Ya^»avalkya said: 'O Ahallika 1 , when you 
think the heart could be anywhere else away from 
us, if it were away from us, the dogs might eat it, 
or the birds tear it.' 

2$. .Sakalya said : 'And in what dost thou (thy 
body) and the Self (thy heart) abide?' 

Ya^-wavalkya said : ' In the Pra/za (breath).' 
.Sakalya said : ' In what does the Pra#a abide ?' 
Ya^avalkya said : 'In the Apana (down- 
breathing) 2 .' 

.Sakalya said : 'In what does the Apina abide?' 
Ya^avalkya said: ' In theVyana (back-breathing) 3 .' 
•Sakalya said: 'In what does the Vyana abide ?' 
Ya^wavalkya said: ' In the Udana (the out-breath- 
ing)V 

.Sakalya said : 'In what does the Udana abide ?' 
Ya^rcavalkya said : ' In the Samana 6 . That Self 



1 A term of reproach, it may be a ghost or preta, because ahani 
liyate, it disappears by day. 

8 Because the pra»a would run away, if it were not held back by 
the apana. 

8 Because the apana would run down, and the prd«a up, if they 
were not held back by the vy&na. 

4 Because all three, the pra«a, apana, and vyana, would run 
away in all directions, if they were not fastened to the udana. 

6 The Samana can hardly be meant here for one of the five 
pra^ias, generally mentioned before the udana, but, as explained by 
Dvivedagahga, stands for the Sutrdtman. This Sutritman abides 
in the Antaryamin, and this in the Brahman (Ku/astha), which is 



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Ill ADHYAYA, 9 BRAHMAtfA, 28. 1 49 

(atman) is to be described by No, no * ! He is in- 
comprehensible, for he cannot be (is not) compre- 
hended ; he is imperishable, for he cannot perish ; he 
is unattached, for he does not attach himself; unfet- 
tered, he does not suffer, he does not fail.' 

' These are the ei ght abode s (th e ear th, &c), the 
eight worlds (fire, &c), the eight gods (the immortal 
food, &c), the eight persons (the corporeal, &c.) 
He who after dividing and uniting these persons 2 , 
went beyond (the Samana), that person, taught in 
the Upanishads, I now ask thee (to teach me). 
If thou shalt not explain him to me, thy head 
will fall.' 

.Sakalya did not know him, and his head fell, nay, 
thieves took away his bones, mistaking them for 
something else. 

27. Then Ya^»avalkya said: 'Reverend Brah- 
mawas, whosoever among you desires to do so, may 
now question me. Or question me, all of you. Or 
whosoever among you desires it, I shall question 
him, or I shall question all of you. 

But those Brahma«as durst not (say anything). 

28. Then Ya^wavalkya questioned them with 
these .Slokas: 

1. 'Aj_a_jmighty_Jree_jn_the_for£s^ so in truth is 
man, his hairs are the leaves, his outer skin is 
the bark. 

2. ' From his skin flows forth blood, sap from 
the skin (of the tree) ; and thus from the wounded 

therefore described next. Could Samdna be here the same as in 

IV, 3, 7? 

1 See before, II, 3, 6 ; also IV, 2, 4 ; IV, 4, 22 ; IV, 5, 15. 

2 Dividing them according to the different abodes, worlds, and 
persons, and uniting them at last in the heart. 



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1 50 • BJVHADARAJVYAKA-UPANISHAD. 

man 1 comes forth blood, as from a tree that is 
struck. 

3. ' The lumps of his flesh are (in the tree) the 
layers of wood, the fibre is strong like the ten- 
dons 2 . The bones are the (hard) wood within, the 
marrow is made like the marrow of the tree. 

4. ' But, while the tree, when felled, grows up 
again more young from the root, from what root, 
tell me, does a mortal grow up, after he has been 
felled by death ? 

5. ' Do not say, "from seed," for seed is produced 
from the living 8 ; but a tree, springing from a grain, 
clearly 4 rises again after death s . 

6. ' If a tree is pulled up with the root, it will not 
grow again ; from what root then, tell me, does a 
mortal grow up, after he has been felled by death ? 

7. ' Once born, he is not born (again) ; for who 
should create him again 8 ?' 

1 In the Madhyandina-.sakha, p. 1080, tasmat tadatunnat, instead 
of tasmat tadatrz'wzat. 

2 .Sankara seems to have read snavavat, instead of sndva tat 
sthiram, as we read in both Sakhas. 

* Here the Madhyandinas (p. 1080) add, g&ta. eva na^&yate, ko 
nv enaw ^anayet punaA, which the Kib*vas place later. 

4 Instead of ar^asi, the M&dhyandinas have ariyata^. 

5 The Madhyandinas have dh&n&ruha u vai, which is better than 
iva vai, the iva being, according to .Sankara's own confession, use- 
less. The thread of the argument does not seem to have been 
clearly perceived by the commentators. What the poet wants to 
say is, that a man, struck down by death, does not come to life 
again from seed, because human seed comes from the living only, 
while trees, springing from grain, are seen to come to life after the 
tree (which yielded the grain or the seed) is dead. Pretya-sam- 
bhava, like pretya-bhiva, means life after death, and pretyasam- 
bhava, as an adjective, means coming to life after death. 

• This line too is taken in a different sense by the commentator. 
According to him, it would mean : * If you say, He has been born 



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in adhyAya, 9 brAhmajva, 28. 151 

-■ ' ■ 1 1 1 i. 

'Brahman, who is knowledge and bliss, he is the 
principle, both to him who gives gifts 1 , and also to 
him who stands firm, and knows.' 

(and there is an end of all questioning), I say, No; he is born 
again, and the question is, How ? ' This is much too artificial. The 
order of the verses in the M&dhyandina-.rtkha' is better on the 
whole, leading up more naturally to the question, ' From what root 
then does a mortal grow up, after he has been felled by death ?' 
When the Br&hmans cannot answer, Ya^navalkya answers, or the 
•Sruti declares, that the root from whence a mortal springs again, 
after death, is Brahman. 

1 .Sankara explains ratir d&tuA as r&ter datuA, a reading adopted 
by the Midhyandinas. He then arrives at the statement that 
Brahman is the principle or the last source, also the root of a new 
life, both for those who practise works and for those who, having 
relinquished works, stand firm in knowledge. Regnaud (II, p. 138) 
translates: 'C'est Brahma (qui est) l'intelligence, le bonheur, la 
richesse, le but supreme de celui qui offre (des sacrifices), et de 
celui qui reside (en lui), de celui qui connait.' 



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152 BK/HADARAiVYAKA-UPANISHAD. 



FOURTH ADHYAYA. 

First Brahmaya. 

1. When (kanaka Vaideha was sitting (to give 
audience), Ya^wavalkya approached, and Ganaka 
Vaideha said : ' Ya^favalkya, for what object did 
you come, wishing for cattle, or for subtle ques- 
tions 1 ?' 

Ya^avalkya replied : ' For both, Your Majesty ; 

2. 'Let us hear what anybody may have told you.' 
Canaka Vaideha replied : ' (Pitvan .Sailini told me 

that speech (va/§) is Brahman.' 

Ya^wavalkya said : 'As one who had (the benefit 
of a good) father, mother, and teacher might tell, so 
did .Sailini 2 tell you, that speech is Brahman; for 
what is the use of a dumb person ? But did he tell 
you the body (ayatana) and the resting-place (pra- 
tishMa) of that Brahman ?' 

kanaka Vaideha said : ' He did not tell me.' 

Y%$avalkya said : ' Your Majesty, this (Brahman) 
stands on one leg only 3 .' 

Ganaka Vaideha said: 'Then tell me, Ya^avalkya.' 

1 A»v-anta, formed like Sutranta, Siddhanta, and probably Ve- 
danta, means subtle questions. 

4 Roer and Poley give here .Sailina ; Weber also (pp. 1080 and 
1 081) has twice Sailina (.Silinasyapatyam). 

* This seems to mean that Gitvan's explanation of Brahman is 
lame or imperfect, because there are four padas of that Brahman, 
and he taught one only. The other three are its body, its place, 
and its form of worship (pra^wetiyam upanishad brahma»ar £atur- 
thaA padaA). See also Maitr. Up. VII, p. 22 1. 



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IV ADHYAYA, I BRAHMAtfA, 3. 1 53 

Y4^#avalkya said: ' The tongue is its body, ether 
its place, and one should worship it as knowledge/ I 

(kanaka Vaideha said: ' What is the nature of that 
knowledge?' 

Y&f#avalkya replied: 'Your Majesty, speech itself— 
(is knowledge). For through speech, Your Majesty, 
a friend is known (to be a friend), and likewise the 
J&g-veda., Ya^ur-veda, Sama-veda, the Atharvangi- 
rasas, the Itihasa (tradition), Purawa-vidya (know- 
ledge of the past), the Upanishads, .Slokas (verses), 
Sutras (rules), Anuvyakhyanas and Vyakhyanas' 
(commentaries 1 , &c); what is sacrificed, what is 
poured out, what is (to be) eaten and drunk, this 
world and the other world, and all creatures. By 
speech alone,Your Majesty, Brahman is known, speech 
indeed, O King, is the Highest Brahman. Speech 
does not desert him who worships that (Brahman) 
with such knowledge, all creatures approach him, 
and having become a god, he goes to the gods.' 

(kanaka Vaideha said : ' I shall give you (for 
this) a thousand cows with a bull as big as an 
elephant.' 

Ydf»avalkya said : ' My father was of opinion that 
one should not accept a reward without having fully 
instructed a pupil.' 

3. Ya^wavalkya said : ' Let us hear what anybody 
may have told you.' 

6anaka Vaideha replied : ' Udanka .Saulbayana 
told me that life (pra«a) 2 is Brahman.' — 

Ya^wavalkya said: 'As one who had (the benefit of 
a good) father, mother, and teacher might tell, so did 

1 See before, II, 4, 10; and afterwards, IV, 5, 11. 
s See Taitt. Up. Ill, 3. 



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»p 



154 brih adArajvyak a-upanishad. 

Udanka £aulbayana tell you that life is Brahman ; 
for what is the use of a person without life ? But 
did he tell you the body and the resting-place of 
that Brahman?' 

Ganaka Vaideha said : ' He did not tell me.' 

Y£f#avalkya said : ' Your Majesty, this (Brahman) 
stands on one leg only.' 

Ganaka Vaideha said; 'Then tell me, Y&f»a- 
valkya.' 

Y£f«avalkya said : ' Breath is its body, ether its 
lace, and one should worship it as what is dear.' 

Ganaka Vaideha said: 'What is the nature of that 
which is dear ? ' 

Ya^^avalkya replied : ' Your Majesty, life itself 
(is that which is dear);' because for the sake of life, 
Your Majesty, a man sacrifices even for him who is 
unworthy of sacrifice, he accepts presents from him 
who is not worthy to bestow presents, nay, he goes 
to a country, even when there is fear of being hurt 1 , 
for the sake of life. Life, O King, is the Highest 
Brahman. Life does not desert him who worships 
that (Brahman) with such knowledge, all creatures 
approach him, and having become a god, he goes to 
the gods.' 

Ganaka Vaideha said : ' I shall give you (for this) 
a thousand cows with a bull as big as an elephant' 

Ya^wavalkya said : ' My father was of opinion that 
one should not accept a reward without having fully 
instructed a pupil.' 

4. Ya^avalkya said : ' Let us hear what anybody 
may have told you.' 



1 Or it may mean, he is afraid of being hurt, to whatever country 
he goes, for the sake of a livelihood. 



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IV ADHYAYA, I BRAHMAJVA, 5. I 55 

Ganaka Vaideha replied : ' Barku V4rsh»a told me 
that sight (iakshus) is Brahman.' 

Y£f ^avalkya said : ' As one who had (the benefit 
of a good) father, mother, and teacher might tell, so 
did Barku V4rsh«a tell you that sight is Brahman ; 
for what is the use of a person who cannot see ? 
But did he tell you the body and the resting-place 
of that Brahman ? ' 

(kanaka Vaideha said : ' He did not tell me.' 

Ya^wavalkya said : ' Your Majesty, this (Brahman) 
stands on one leg only.' 

kanaka Vaideha said : ' Then tell me, Y&gna.- 
valkya.' 

Ya^wavalkya said : ' The eye is its body, ether its 
place, and one should worship it as what is true.' 

kanaka Vaideha said: ' What is the nature of that 
which is true ? ' 

Ya^»avalkya replied : ' Your Majesty, sight itself 
(is that which is true) ; for if they say to a man who 
sees with his eye, " Didst thou see ?" and he says, " I 
saw," then it is true. Sight, O King, is the Highest 
Brahman. Sight does not desert him who worships 
that (Brahman) with such knowledge, all creatures 
approach him, and having become a god, he goes to 
the gods.' 

(kanaka Vaideha said : ' I shall give you (for this) 
a thousand cows with a bull as big as an elephant.' 

Ya£-»avalkya said : 'My father was of opinion that 
one should not accept a reward without having fully 
instructed a pupil.' 

5. Y&f #avalkya said : ' Let us hear what anybody 
may have told you.' 

kanaka Vaideha replied : ' Gardabhtvibhita Bha- 
radva^a told me that hearing (srotra) is Brahman.' 



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156 bjwhadArajvyaka-upanishad. 

Y£f»avalkya said : ' As one who had (the benefit 
of a good) father, mother, and teacher might tell, so 
did Gardabhtvibhita Bharadvi^a tell you that hear- 
ing i s Brahman; for what is the use of a person who 
cannot hear ? But did he tell you the body and the 
resting-place of that Brahman?' 

Ganaka Vaideha said : ' He did not tell me.' 

Ya^iwavalkya said : ' Your Majesty, this (Brahman) 
stands on one leg only.' 

kanaka Vaideha said: 'Then tell me, Yi^»a- 
valkya.' 

• Ya/wavalkya said : ' The ear is its body, ether its 
place, and we should worship it as what is endless.' 

6anaka Vaideha said : 'What is the nature of that 
which is endless ?' 

Ya^vzavalkya replied : ' Your Majesty, space 
(disak) itself (is that which is endless), and therefore 
to whatever space (quarter) he goes, he never comes 
to the end of it. For space is endless. Space indeed, 
O King, is hearing \ and hearing indeed, O King, is 
the Highest Brahman. Hearing does not desert 
him who worships that (Brahman) with such know- 
ledge, all creatures approach him, and having become 
a god, he goes to the gods.' 

kanaka Vaideha said : ' I shall give you (for this) 
a thousand cows with a bull as big as an elephant' 

Y&g «avalkya said : ' My father was of opinion that 
one should not accept a reward without having fully 
instructed a pupil.' 

6. Ya^»avalkya said : ' Let us hear what anybody 
may have told you.' 

1 Dvivedagahga states, digbh&go hi p&thiv&dhish/ftSnivaiMin- 
na£ frotram ity ufyate, atas tayor ekatvam. 



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IV ADHYAYA, I BRAHMAtfA, 7. 157 

kanaka Vaideha replied : ' Satyakama GSbala told 
me that mind * (manas) is Brahman.' 

Y&£$avalkya said : ' As one who had (the benefit 
of a good) father, mother, and teacher might tell, so 
did Satyakama 6&bala tell you that mind is Brah- 
man ; for what is the use of a person without mind ? 
But did he tell you the body and the resting-place of 
that Brahman ?' 

(kanaka Vaideha said : ' He did not tell me/ 

Ya^avalkya said : 'Your Majesty, this (Brahman) 
stands on one leg only.' 

kanaka Vaideha said: 'Then tell me, Ya^-^avalkya.' 

Ya^avalkya said : ' Mind itself is its body, ether 
its place, and we should worship it as bliss.' 

kanaka Vaideha said : 'What is the nature of bliss ?' 

Ya^^avalkya replied: ' Your Majesty, mind itself; 
for with the mind does a man desire a woman, and 
a like son is born of her, and he is bliss. Mind 
indeed, O King, is the Highest Brahman. Mind 
does not desert him who worships that (Brahman) 
with such knowledge, all creatures approach him, and 
having become a god, he goes to the gods.' 

kanaka Vaideha said : ' I shall give you (for this) 
a thousand cows with a bull as big as an elephant.' 

Y&£$avalkya said: 'My father was of opinion that 
one should not accept a reward without having fully 
instructed a pupil.' 

7. Ya^wavalkya said : ' Let us hear what anybody 
may have told you.' 

(kanaka Vaideha replied: 'Vidagdha .Sakalya told 
me that the heart (hrzdaya) is Brahman.' 

Ya^wavalkya said : ' As one who had (the benefit 

1 See also Taitt. Up. Ill, 4. 

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• 



1 58 bk/hadArajvyaka-upanishad. 

of a good) father, mother, and teacher might tell, so 
did Vidagdha .Sakalya tell you that the heart is 
Brahman ; for what is the use of a person without a 
heart ? But did he tell you the body and the resting- 
place of that Brahman ?' 

kanaka Vaideha said : ' He did not tell me/ 

Ya^wavalkya said : ' Your Majesty, this (Brahman) 
stands on one leg only.' 

(kanaka Vaideha said : ' Then tell me, Ya^wavalkya.' 

Ya < f «avalkya said : ' The heart itself is its body, 
ether its place, and we should worship it as certainty 
(sthiti).' 

6anaka Vaideha said : ' What is the nature of 
certainty ? ' 

Ya^»avalkya replied : ' Your Majesty, the heart 
itself; for the heart indeed, O King, is the body of 
all things, the heart is the resting-place of all things, 
for in the heart, O King, all things rest The heart 
indeed, O King, is the Highest Brahman. The 
heart does not desert him who worships that (Brah- 
man) with such knowledge, all creatures approach 
him, and having become a god, he goes to the gods.' 

(kanaka Vaideha said : ' I shall give you (for this) 
a thousand cows with a bull as big as an elephant.' 

Ya^wavalkya said: 'My father was of opinion 
that one should not accept a reward without having 
fully instructed a pupil.' 

Second BrAhmaata. 

1. Ganaka Vaideha, descending from his throne, 
said: ' I bow to you, O Ya^^avalkya, teach me.' 

Ya^"»avalkya said : ' Your Majesty, as a man who 
wishes to make a long journey, would furnish him- 
self with a chariot or a ship, thus is your mind well 



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IV ADHYAYA, 2 BrAhMAJVA, 3. 1 59 

furnished by these Upanishads 1 . You are honour- 
able, and wealthy, you have learnt the Vedas and 
been told the Upanishads. Whither then will you 
go when departing hence ?' 

(kanaka Vaideha said: 'Sir, I do not know whither 
I shall go/ 

Y&fwavalkya said: 'Then I shall tell you this, 
whither you will go.' 

kanaka Vaideha said : ' Tell it, Sir.' 

2. Ya^»avalkya said : ' That person who is in the 
right eye 2 , he is called Indha, and him who is Indha 
they call indeed 3 Indra mysteriously, for the gods love 
what is mysterious, and dislike what is evident. 

3. ' Now that which in the shape of a person is in 
the right eye, is his wife, Vir&f *. Their meeting- 
place 6 is the ether within the heart, and their food 
the red lump within the heart. Again, their 
covering 8 is that which is like net-work within the 
heart, and the road on which they move (from sleep 
to waking) is the artery that rises upwards from the 
heart. Like a hair divided into a thousand parts, so 
are the veins of it, which are called Hita 7 , placed 

1 This refers to the preceding doctrines which had been commu- 
nicated to Ganaka by other teachers, and particularly to the up&sanas 
of Brahman as knowledge, dear, true, endless, bliss, and certainty. 

* See also Maitr. Up. VII, p. 216. 

* The M&dhyandinas read paroksheweva, but the commentator 
explains iva by eva. See also Ait. Up. I, 3, 14. 

4 Indra is called by the commentator Vau vanara, and his wife 
Vira^\ This couple, in a waking state, is Vuva ; in sleep, Ta^asa. 

* Sawstava, lit. the place where they sing praises together, that 
is, where they meet. » 

* Pravarawa may also mean hiding-place, retreat. 

T Hita, a name frequently given to these na<fis ; see IV, 3, 20 ; 
iSTMnd. Up. VI, 5, 3, comm.; Kaush. Up. IV, 20. See also Ka/<4a 
Up. VI, 16. 



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160 bk/hadArajvyaka-upanishad. 

firmly within the heart. Through these indeed that 
(food) flows on flowing, and he (the Tai^asa) receives 
as it were purer food 1 than the corporeal Self (the 
VaLrvanara). 

4. 'His (the Tai^asa's) Eastern quarter are the 
pra#as (breath) which go to the East; 

' His Southern quarter are the pra#as which go 
to the South ; 

' His Western quarter are the pra»as which go to 
the West ; 

' His Northern quarter are the pra»as which go to 
the North ; 

' His Upper (Zenith) quarter are the pra#as which 
go upward; 

' His Lower (Nadir) quarter are the pra#as which 
go downward ; 

' All the quarters are all the prawas. And he (the 
Atman in that state) can only be described by No 2 , 
no ! He is incomprehensible, for he cannot be com- 
prehended ; he is undecaying, for he cannot decay ; 
he is not attached, for he does not attach himself; 
he is unbound, he does not suffer, he does not perish. 
O Ganaka, you have indeed reached fearlessness,' — 
thus said Ya^wavalkya. 

Then kanaka said : ' May that fearlessness come 
to you also who teachest us fearlessness. I bow to 
you. Here are the Videhas, and here am I (thy 
slave).' 

1 Dvivedaganga explains that food, when it is eaten, is first of 
all changed inio the coarse food, which goes away downward, and 
into the subtler food. This subtler food is again divided into the 
middle juice that feeds the body, and the finest, which is called 
the red lump. 

2 See Br/h. Up. II, 3, 6; IV, 9, 26. 



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IV ADHYAYA, 3 BRAHMAiVA, I 




Third BrAhma^a. °^ 



1. Ya^rcavalkya came to Ganaka Vaideha, and he 
did not mean to speak with him 1 . But when formerly 



1 The introduction to this Brahmawa has a very peculiar interest, 
as showing the close coherence of the different portions which 
together form the historical groundwork of the Upanishads. Ganaka 
Vaideha and Yi^navalkya are leading characters in the BrtTiadi- 
ra»yaka-upanishad, and whenever they meet they seem to converse 
quite freely, though each retains his own character, and Ya^wa- 
valkya honours Canaka as king quite as much as Ganaka honours 
Y£§"wavalkya as a BrShmawa. Now in our chapter we read that 
Y^-navalkya did not wish to enter on a discussion, but that kanaka 
was the first to address him (purvam papraH^a). This was evi- 
dently considered not quite correct, and an explanation is given, 
that Ganaka took this liberty because on a former occasion Ya^wa- 
valkya had granted him permission to address questions to him, 
whenever he liked. It might be objected that such an explanation 
looks very much like an after-thought, and we find indeed that in 
India itself some of the later commentators tried to avoid the diffi- 
culty by dividing the words sa mene na vadishya iti, into sam enena 
vadishya iti, so that we should have to translate, ' Ya^wavalkya came 
to Ganaka intending to speak with him.' (See Dvivedaganga's 
Comm. p. 1 141.) This is, no doubt, a very ingenious conjecture, 
which might well rouse the envy of European scholars. But it is 
no more. The accents decide nothing, because they are changed 
by different writers, according to their different views of what the 
Pada text ought to be. What made me prefer the reading which 
is supported by .Sankara and Dvivedaganga, though the latter 
alludes to the other pada££Aeda, is that the tmesis, sam enena 
vadishye, does not occur again, while sa mene is a common phrase. 
But the most interesting point, as I remarked before, is that this 
former disputation between (kanaka and Ya^wavalkya and the per- 
mission granted to the King to ask any question he liked, is not a 
mere invention to account for the apparent rudeness by which 
Ya^jtavalkya is forced to enter on a discussion against his will, 
but actually occurs in a former chapter. In .Satap. Br. XI, 6, 2, 10, 
we read : tasmai ha Ya^ilavalkyo vara»» dadau; sa hova/ta, kama- 

[iS] M 



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1 62 bk/hadArajvyaka-upanishad. 

Ganaka Vaideha and Ya^avalkya had a disputation 
on the Agnihotra, YcLfwavalkya had granted him a 
boon, and he chose (for a boon) that he might be 
free to ask him any question he liked. Ya^wa- 
valkya granted it, and thus the King was the first to 
ask him a question. 

2. ' Y4f«avalkya,' he said, 'what is the light of 
man 1 ?' 

Ya^avalkya replied : ' The sun, O King ; for, 
having the sun alone for his light, man sits, moves 
about, does his work, and returns.' 

(kanaka Vaideha said : ' So indeed it is, O Ya^wa- 
valkya.' 

3. (kanaka Vaideha said : ' When the sun has set, 
O Yif^avalkya, what is then the light of man?' 

Y£f#avalkya replied : ' The moon indeed is his 
light ; for, having the moon alone for his light, man 
sits, moves about, does his work, and returns.' 

(kanaka Vaideha said : ' So indeed it is, O Y&gna.- 
valkya.' 

4. kanaka Vaideha said : ' When the sun has set, 

Ya^»avalkya, and the moon has set, what is the 
light of man ?' 

Y&^avalkya replied : ' Fire indeed is his light ; 

praj-wa eva me tvayi Ya^navalkydsad iti, tato brahma (kanaka dsa. 
This would show that kanaka was considered almost like a Brah- 
mawa, or at all events enjoyed certain privileges which were sup- 
posed to belong to the first caste only. See, for a different view, 
Deussen, VedSnta, p. 203 ; Regnaud (Materiaux pour servir a l'his- 
toire de la philosophic de l'lnde), Errata; and Sacred Books of 
the East, vol. i, p. lxxiii. 

1 Read ki/agyotir as a Bahuvrfhi. Purusha is difficult to trans- 
late. It means man, but also the true essence of man, the soul, 
as we should say, or something more abstract still, the person, as 

1 generally translate it, though a person beyond the Ego. 



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iv adhyAya, 3 brShmaata, 8. 163 

for, having fire alone for his light, man sits, moves 
about, does his work, and returns.' 

5. <7anaka Vaideha said : ' When the sun has set, 
O Ya^wavalkya, and the moon has set, and the fire 
is gone out, what is then the light of man?' 

Ya^»avalkya replied : ' Sound indeed is his light ; 
for, having sound alone for his light, man sits, moves 
about, does his work, and returns. Therefore, O 
King, when one cannot see even one's own hand, 
yet when a sound is raised, one goes towards it.' 

kanaka Vaideha said : ' So indeed it is, O Ya^»a- 
valkya.' 

6. (kanaka Vaideha said : ' When the sun has set, 
O Ya^avalkya, and the moon has set, and the fire 
is gone out, and the sound hushed, what is then the 
light of man ?' 

Ya^wavalkya said : ' The Self indeed is his light; 
for, having the Self alone as his light, man sits, 
moves about, does his work, and returns.' 

7. (kanaka Vaideha said : ' Who is that Self?' 
Ya£$avalkya replied : 'He who is within the 

heart, surrounded by the Pra»as x (senses), the person 
of light, consisting of knowledge. He, remaining the \ )S 
same, wanders along the two worlds 2 , as if 3 thinking, 
as if moving. During sleep (in dream) he tran- 
scends this world and all the forms of death (all that 
falls under the sway of death, all that is perishable). 

8. ' On being born that person, assuming his body, 

1 Samipyalaksha»a saptami, Dvivedaganga. See Brih. Up. IV, 
4, 22. 

* In this world, while awake or dreaming; in the other wo Id, 
while in deep sleep. 

* The world thinks that he thinks, but in reality he does not, he 
only witnesses the acts of buddhi, or thought 

M 2 



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A 



164 BK/HADARA1VYAKA-UPANISHAD. 

becomes united with all evils ; when he departs and 
dies, he leaves all evils behind. 

9. ' And there are two states for that person, the 
, one here in this world, the other in the other world, 
/ and as a third ' an intermediate state, the state of 

sleep. When in that intermediate state, he sees 

both those states together, the one here in this 

>.' world, and the other in the other world. Now what- 

*~> ever his admission to the other world may be, 

having gained that admission, he sees both the evils 

and the blessings 2 . 

i 'And when he falls asleep, then after having 

taken away with him the material from the whole 

world, destroying 3 and building it up again, he 

sleeps (dreams) by his own light In that state the 

person is self-illuminated. 

10. ' There are no (real) chariots in that state, no 
horses, no roads, but he himself sends forth (creates) 
chariots, horses, and roads. There are no blessings 
there, no happiness, no joys, but he himself sends 
forth (creates) blessings, happiness, and joys. There 

1 There are really two sthanas or states only ; the place where 
they meet, like the place where two villages meet, belongs to both, 
but it may be distinguished as a third. Dvivedagahga (p. 1141) 
uses a curious argument in support of the existence of another 
world. In early childhood, he says, our dreams consist of the 
impressions of a former world, later on they are filled with the 
impressions of our senses, and in old age they contain visions of a 
world to come. 

s By works, by knowledge, and by remembrance of former 
things ; see Brih. Up. IV, 4, 2. 

* Dividing and separating the material, i. e. the impressions 
received from this world. The commentator explains mStrS as a 
portion of the impressions which are taken away into sleep. 
' Destroying ' he refers to the body, which in sleep becomes sense- 
less, and ' building up ' to the imaginations of dreams. 



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IV ADHYAYA, 3 BRAHMAA'A, 1 4. 1 65 

are no tanks there, no lakes, no rivers, but he him- 
self sends forth (creates) tanks, lakes, and rivers. 
He indeed is the maker. 

11. ' On this there are these verses : 

'After having subdued by sleep all that belongs 
to the body, he, not asleep himself, looks down 
upon the sleeping (senses). Having assumed light, 
he goes again to his place, the golden person 1 , the 
lonely bird, (i) 

12. 'Guarding with the breath (pra«a, life) the 
lower nest, the immortal moves away from the nest ; 
that immortal one goes wherever he likes, the golden 
person, the lonely bird. (2) 

1 3. ' Going up and down in his dream, the god 
makes manifold shapes for himself, either rejoicing 
together with women, or laughing (with his friends), 
or seeing terrible sights. (3) 

14. ' People may see his playground 2 , but himself 
no one ever sees. Therefore they say, " Let no one 
wake a man suddenly, for it is not easy to remedy, 
if he does not get back (rightly to his body)." 

' Here some people (object and) say : " No, this 
(sleep) is the same as the place of waking, for what 
he sees while awake, that only he sees when asleep 3 ." 

1 The Madhyandinas read paurusha, as an adjective to ekahawsa, 
but Dvivedagahga explains paurusha as a synonym of purusha, 
which is the reading of the Ka«vas. 

2 Cf. Sufrutalll, 7,1. 

3 I have translated this according to the commentator, who says : 
* Therefore the Self is self-illuminated during sleep. But others 
say the state of waking is indeed the same for him as sleep ; there 
is no other intermediate place, different from this and from the 
other world. . . . And if sleep is the same as the state of waking, 
then is this Self not separate, not cause and effect, but mixed with 
them, and the Self therefore not self-illuminated. What he means 



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1 66 bu/hadArajvyaka-upanishad. 

No, here (in sleep) the person is self-illuminated (as 
we explained before).' 

kanaka Vaideha said : 'I give you, Sir, a thousand. 
Speak on for the sake of (my) emancipation.' 

15. Ya^»avalkya said : ' That (person) having en- 
joyed himself in that state of bliss (samprasada, deep 
sleep), having moved about and seen both good and 
evil, hastens back again as he came, to the place 
from which he started (the place of sleep), to dream l . 
And whatever he may have seen there, he is not 
followed (affected) by it, for that person is not 
attached to anything.' 

kanaka Vaideha said : ' So it is indeed, Ya^«a- 

is that others, in order to disprove the self-illumination, say that this 
sleep is the same as the state of waking, giving as their reason that 
we see in sleep or in dreams exactly what we see in waking. But 
this is wrong, because the senses have stopped, and only when the 
senses have stopped does one see dreams. Therefore there is no 
necessity for admitting another light in sleep, but only the light 
inherent in the Self. This has been proved by all that went before.' 
Dr. Roer takes the same view in his translation, but Deussen (Ve- 
dSnta, p. 205) takes an independent view, and translates : 'There- 
fore it is said : It (sleep) is to him a place of waking only, for 
what he sees waking, the same he sees in sleep. Thus this spirit 
serves there for his own light.' Though the interpretations of 
.Sankara and Dvivedaganga sound artificial, still Dr. Deussen's 
version does not remove all difficulties. If the purusha saw in 
sleep no more than what he had seen before in waking, then the 
whole argument in favour of the independent action, or the inde- 
pendent light of the purusha, would go ; anyhow it would be no 
argument on Ya^wavalkya's side. See also note to paragraph 9, 
before. 

1 The M&dhyandinas speak only of his return from svapnanta 
to buddhanta, from sleep to waking, instead of his going from 
samprasada (deep sleep) to svapna (dream), from svapna to bud- 
dhanta, and from buddhanta again to svapnanta, as- the Ka«vas 
have it. In § 1 8 the Kawvas also mention svapnanta and buddhanta 
only, but the next paragraph refers to sushupti. 



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IV ADHYAYA, 3 BRAhMAJVA, 20. 1 67 

valkya. I give you, Sir, a thousand. Speak on for 
the sake of emancipation.' 

16. Yct^avalkya said : ' That (person) having en- 
joyed himself in that sleep (dream), having moved 
about and seen both good and evil, hastens back 
again as he came, to the place from which he started, 
to be awake. And whatever he may have seen/ 
there, he is not followed (affected) by it, for that 
person is not attached to anything.' 

kanaka Vaideha said : 'So it is indeed, Y£f»a- 
valkya. I give you, Sir, a thousand. Speak on for 
the sake of emancipation.' 

17. Y&f»avalkya said: 'That (person) having en- 
joyed himself in that state of waking, having moved 
about and seen both good and evil, hastens back 
again as he came, to the place from which he started, 
to the state of sleeping (dream). 

18. 'In fact, as a large fish moves along the two 
banks of a river, the right and the left, so does that 
person move along these two states, the state of 
sleeping and the state of waking. 

19. 'And as a falcon, or any other (swift) bird, 
after he has roamed about here in the air, becomes 
tired, and folding his wings is carried to his nest, so 
does that person hasten to that state where, when 
asleep, he desires no more desires, and dreams no 
more dreams. 

20. ' There are in his body the veins called Hita, 
which are as small as a hair divided a thousandfold, 
full of white, blue, yellow, green, and red 1 . Now 

1 Dvivedaganga explains that if phlegm predominates, qualified 
by wind and bile, the juice in the veins is white ; if wind predomi- 
nates, qualified by phlegm and bile, it is blue ; if bile predominates, 
qualified by wind and phlegm, it is yellow ; if wind and phlegm 



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1 68 b/uhadArajvyaka-upanishad. 

when, as it were, they kill him, when, as it were, 
they overcome him, when, as it were, an elephant 
chases him, when, as it were, he falls into a well, 
he fancies, through ignorance, that danger which he 
(commonly) sees in waking. But when he fancies 
that he is, as it were, a god, or that he is, as it 
were, a king 1 , or " I am this altogether," that is his 
highest world 2 . 

21. 'This indeed is his (true) form, free from 
desires, free from evil, free from fear 3 . Now as a 
man, when embraced by a beloved wife, knows 
nothing that is without, nothing that is within, thus 
this person, when embraced by the intelligent (pra^wa) 
Self, knows nothing that is without, nothing that is 
within. This indeed is his (true) form, in which 
his wishes are fulfilled, in which the Self (only) is 

predominate, with little bile only, it is green ; and if the three ele- 
ments are equal, it is red. See also Anandagiri's gloss, where 
Surruta is quoted. Why this should be inserted here, is not quite 
clear, except that in sleep the purusha is supposed to move about 
in the veins. 

1 Here, again, the commentator seems to be right, but his inter- 
pretation does violence to the context. The dangers which a man 
sees in his sleep are represented as mere imaginations, so is his 
idea of being of god or a king, while the idea that he is all this 
(aham eveda»« sarvaA, i. e. idaz» sarvam, see •Sahkara, p. 873, 1. 11) 
is represented as the highest and real state. But it is impossible to 
begin a new sentence with aham evedaw sarvam, and though it is 
true that all the preceding fancies are qualified by iva, I prefer to 
take deva and rag-an as steps leading to the sarv&tmatva. 

2 The Madhyandinas repeat here the sentence from yatra supto 
to pa^yati, from the end of § 19. 

s The KS«va text reads ati^Manda apahatapapml .Sankara 
explains atii^anda by ati^andam, and excuses it as svidhyaya- 
dharmaA v&thzh. The Midhyandinas read ati&fcfondo, but place 
the whole sentence where the Kawvas put aptak&mam &c, at the 
end of § 21. 



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IV ADHYAYA, 3 BRAHMAiVA, 23. 169 

his wish, in which no wish is left, — free from any 
sorrow x . 

22. ' Then a father is not a father, a mother not 
a mother, the worlds not worlds, the gods not gods, 
the Vedas not Vedas. Then a thief is not a thief, a 
murderer not a murderer 2 , a Jffandiila. 3 not a JCarca&la, 
a Paulkasa* not a Paulkasa, a .Sramawa 6 not a Sra.- 
ma«a, a Tapasa 6 not a Tapasa. He is not followed 
by good, not followed by evil, for he has then over- 
come all the sorrows of the heart 7 . 

23. 'And when (it is said that) there (in the 
Sushupti) he does not see, yet he is seeing, though 
he does not see 8 . For sight is inseparable from the 

1 The Ka«vas read fokantaram, the Madhyandinas arokantaram, 
but the commentators arrive at the same result, namely, that it 
means fokarunyam, free from grief. •Sahkara says: rokantaraw 
soba&Midram rokarunyam ityeta£, ^okamadhyaman iti va; sar- 
vathapy arokam. Dvivedaganga says : na vidyate joko 'ntare 
madhye yasya tad arokantaraw (ra, Weber) fokarunyam. 

2 Bhruwahan, varish/tfabrahmahanta. 

8 The son of a Sudra father and a Brahmawa mother. 
4 The son of a .Sudra father and a Kshatriya mother. 
6 A mendicant. 

6 A Vanaprastha, who performs penances. 

7 I have translated as if the text were ananvSgataA pu»yena 
ananvlgataA papena. We find anvagata used in a similar way in 
§§ 15, 1 6, &c. But the KSravas read ananvagatam pu»yena anan- 
vagatam papena, and .Sankara explains the neuter by referring it 
to rupam (rupaparatvan napuwsakalihgam). The Madhyandinas, if 
we may trust Weber's edition, read ananvagataA puwyenanvaga- 
taA pipena. The second anvagata^ may be a mere misprint, but 
Dvivedaganga seems to have read ananvagatam, like the Kdnvas, 
for he says : ananvagatam iti rupavishayo napuwsakanirdera^. 

8 This is the old Upanishad argument that the true sense is the 
Self, and not the eye. Although therefore in the state of profound 
sleep, where the eye and the other senses rest, it might be said 
that the purusha does not see, yet he is a seer all the time, though 
he does not see with the eye. The seer cannot lose his character 



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1 70 BK/HADARAiVYAKA-UPANISHAD. 

seer, because it cannot perish. But there is then 
no second, nothing else different from him that he 
could see. 

24. 'And when (it is said that) there (in the 
Sushupti) he does not smell, yet he is smelling, though 
he does not smell. For smelling is inseparable from 
the smeller, because it cannot perish. But there is 
then no second, nothing else different from him that 
he could smell. 

25. 'And when (it is said that) there (in the 
Sushupti) he does not taste, yet he is tasting, though 
he does not taste. For tasting is inseparable from 
the taster, because it cannot perish. But there is 
then no second, nothing else different from him that 
he could taste. 

26. 'And when (it is said that) there (in the 
Sushupti) he does not speak, yet he is speaking, 
though he does not speak. For speaking is inse- 
parable from the speaker, because it cannot perish. 
But there is then no second, nothing else different 
from him that he could speak. 

27. 'And when (it is said that) there (in the 
Sushupti) he does not hear, yet he is hearing, though 
he does not hear. For hearing is inseparable from 
the hearer, because it cannot perish. But there is 
then no second, nothing else different from him that 
he could hear. 

28. 'And when (it is said that) there (in the 
Sushupti) he does not think, yet he is thinking, 
though he does not think. For thinking is inse- 
parable from the thinker, because it cannot perish. 

of seeing, as little as the fire can lose its character of burning, so 
long as it is fire. The Self sees by its own light, like the sun, even 
where there is no second, no object but the Self, that could be seen. 



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IV ADHYAYA, 3 BRAHMAJVA, 3$. 171 

But there is then no second, nothing else different 
from him that he could think. 

29. 'And when (it is said that) there (in the 
Sushupti) he does not touch, yet he is touching, 
though he does not touch. For touching is inse- 
parable from the toucher, because it cannot perish. 
But there is then no second, nothing else different 
from him that he could think. 

30. 'And when (it is said that) there (in the 
Sushupti) he does not know, yet he is knowing, 
though he does not know. For knowing is inse- 
parable from the knower, because it cannot perish. 
But there is then no second, nothing else different 
from him that he could know. 

31. 'When (in waking and dreaming) there is, as 
it were, another, then can one see the other, then 
can one smell the other, then can one speak to the 
other, then can one hear the other, then can one 
think the other, then can one touch the other, then 
can one know the other. -» 

32. 'An ocean 1 is that one seer, without any 
duality ; this is the Brahma-world 2 , O King.' Thus 
did Ya^-^avalkya teach him. This is his highest 
goal, this is his highest success, this is his highest 
world, this is his highest bliss. All other creatures 
live on a small portion of that bliss. 

SS' 'If a man is healthy, wealthy, and lord of 
others, surrounded by all human enjoyments, that 

1 Salila is explained as salilavat, like the ocean, the seer being 
one like the ocean, which is one only. Dr. Deussen takes salila as 
a locative, and translates it ' In dem Gewoge,' referring to Sveti- 
jvatara-upanishad VI, 15. 

2 Or this seer is the Brahma-world, dwells in Brahman, or is 
Brahman. 



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172 BR/HADARAJVTAKA-UPANISHAD. 

is the highest blessing of men. Now a hundred 
of these human blessings make one blessing of the 
fathers who have conquered the world (of the fathers). 
A hundred blessings of the fathers who have con- 
quered this world make one blessing in the Gan- 
dharva world. A hundred blessings in the Gandharva 
world make one blessing of the Devas by merit 
(work, sacrifice), who obtain their godhead by merit. 
A hundred blessings of the Devas by merit make 
one blessing of the Devas by birth, also (of) a 
.Srotriya 1 who is without sin, and not overcome by 
desire. A hundred blessings of the Devas by birth 
make one blessing in the world of Pra^apati, also 
(of) a .Srotriya who is without sin, and not overcome 
by desire. A hundred blessings in the world of 
Pra^apati make one blessing in the world of Brah- 
man, also (of) a Srotriya who is without sin, and 
not overcome by desire. And this is the highest 
blessing 2 . 

' This is the Brahma-world, O king,' thus spake 
Y&fttavalkya. 

kanaka Vaideha said : ' I give you, Sir, a thousand. 
Speak on for the sake of (my) emancipation.' 

Then Ya^avalkya was afraid lest the King, 
having become full of understanding, should drive 
him from all his positions 3 . 

34. And Ya^ wavalkya said : ' That (person), having 
enjoyed himself in that state of sleeping (dream), 

1 An accomplished student of the Veda. 

2 See Taitt. Up. II, 8, p. 59; Kh&nA. Up. VIII, 2, 1-10 ; Kaush. 
Up. I, 3-5 ; Regnaud, II, p. 33 seq. 

3 .Sankara explains that Ya^wavalkya was not afraid that his 
own knowledge might prove imperfect, but that the king, having 
the right to ask him any question he liked, might get all his know- 
ledge from him. 



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IV ADHYAYA, 4 BRAHMAiVA, I. I 73 

having moved about and seen both good and bad, 
hastens back again as he came, to the place from 
which he started, to the state of waking \ 

35. ' Now as a heavy-laden carriage moves along 
groaning, thus does this corporeal Self, mounted by 
the intelligent , Self, move along groaning, when a 
man is thus going to expire 2 . 

36. 'And when (the body) grows weak through 
old age, or becomes weak through illness, at that 
time that person, after separating himself from his 
members, as an Amra (mango), or Udumbara (fig), 
or Pippala-fruit is separated from the stalk, hastens 
back again as he came, to the place from which he 
started, to (new) life. 

37. 'And as policemen, magistrates, equerries, 
and governors wait for a king who is coming back, 
with food and drink, saying, " He comes back, he 
approaches," thus do all the elements wait on him 
who knows this, saying, " That Brahman comes, that 
Brahman approaches." 

38. 'And as policemen, magistrates, equerries, and 
governors gather round a king who is departing, 
thus do all the senses (pra#as) gather round the Self 
at the time of death, when a man is thus going to 
expire.' 

(/'•• > J-" Fourth Brahma^a. 

1. Ya/»avalkya continued : ' Now when that Self, 
having sunk into weakness 8 , sinks, as it were, into 

1 See § 17, before. 

8 5ahkara seems to take ukk/ivisi as a noun. He writes: 
yatraitad bhavati; etad iti kriyavLreshawam urdhv6£jWv£st yatror- 
dhvoAWvasitvam asya bhavatttyarthaA. 

8 In the Kaush. Up. Ill, 3, we read yatraitat purusha arto 



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174 BR/HADARAtfYAKA-UPANISHAD. 

unconsciousness, then gather those senses (pra#as) 
around him, and he, taking with him those elements 
of light, descends into the heart When that person 
in the eye ' turns away, then he ceases to know any 
forms. 

2. '" He has become one," they say, " he does not 
see 2 ." " He has become one," they say, "he does 
not smell." " He has become one," they say, " he 
does not taste." "He has become one," they say, 
" he does not speak." "He has become one," they 
say, " he does not hear." "He has become one," they 
say, " he does not think." " He has become one," 
they say, " he does not touch." " He has become 
one," they say, " he does not know." The point of his 
heart 3 becomes lighted up, and by that light the Self 
^ departs, either through the eye 4 , or through the 
skull 6 , or through other places of the body. And 
when he thus departs, life (the chief prawa) departs 
after him, and when life thus departs, all the other 



marishyan Sbalyam etya sammohati. Here SMlyam should cer- 
tainly be dbalyam, as in the commentary; but should it not be 
abalyam, as here. See also Brih. Up. Ill, 5, 1, note. 

1 Alkshusha purusha is explained as that portion of the sun 
which is in the eye, while it is active, but which, at the time of 
death, returns to the sun. 

2 Ekibhavati is probably a familiar expression for dying, but it 
is here explained by .Sankara, and probably was so intended, as 
meaning that the organs of the body have become one" with the 
Self (lingStman). The same thoughts are found in the Kaush. Up. 
Ill, 3, pra«a ekadhd bhavati. 

* The point where the narfis or veins go out from the heart. 

4 When his knowledge and deeds qualify him to proceed to the 
sun. .Sankara. 

6 When his knowledge and deeds qualify him to proceed to the 
Brahma-world. 



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IV ADHYAYA, 4 BRAHMA7VA, 4- 175 

vital spirits (pra»as) depart after it. He is conscious, 
and being conscious he follows 1 and departs. 

' Then both his knowledge and his work take hold 
of him, and his acquaintance with former things V 

3. 'And as a caterpillar, after having reached the 
end of a blade of grass, and after having made another 
approach (to another blade) s , draws itself together 
towards it, thus does this Self, after having thrown 
off this body 4 and dispelled all ignorance, and after 
making another approach (to another body), draw 
himself together towards it. 

4. 'And as a goldsmith, taking a piece of gold, 
turns it into another, newer and more beautiful shape, 
so does this Self, after having thrown off this body 

1 This is an obscure passage, and the different text of the 
Madhyandinas shows that the obscurity was felt at an early time. 
The M&dhyandinas read : Szmgnimm anvavakr&mati sa esha gniJi 
sxvignino bhavati. This would mean, 'Consciousness departs 
after. He the knowing (Self) is self-conscious.' The Kdwvas read : 
Savi^w&no bhavati, savi^wanam ev&nvavakr&mati. Roer translates : 
'It is endowed with knowledge, endowed with knowledge it departs ;' 
and he explains, with .Sankara, that the knowledge here intended is 
such knowledge as one has in a dream, a knowledge of impressions 
referring to their respective objects, a knowledge which is the 
effect of actions, and not inherent in the self. Deussen translates : 
'Sie (die Seele) ist von Erkenntnissart, und was von Erkenntnissart 
ist, ziehet ihr nach.' The Persian translator evidently thought that 
self-consciousness was implied, for he writes : ' Cum quovis corpore 
addictionem sumat .... in illo corpore a ham est, id est, ego sum.' 

2 This acquaintance with former things is necessary to explain 
the peculiar talents or deficiencies which we observe in children. 
The three words vidyi, karman, and purvapra^-M often go toge- 
ther (see .Sankara on Brth. Up. IV, 3, 9). Deussen's conjecture, 
apurvapra^wi, is not called for. 

8 See Brih. Up. IV, 3, 9, a passage which shows how, difficult 
it would be always to translate the same Sanskrit words by the 
same words in English ; see also Brahmopanishad, p. 245. 

* See Brih. Up. IV, 3, 9, and IV, 3, 13. 



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1 76 bij/hadArajvyaka-upanishad. 

and dispelled all ignorance, make unto himself an- 
other, newer and more beautiful shape, whether it be 
like the Fathers, or like the Gandharvas, or like the 
Devas, or like Pra^apati, or like Brahman, or like 
other beings. 

5. ' That Self is indeed Brahman, consisting of 
knowledge, mind, life, sight, hearing, earth, water, 
wind, ether, light and no light, desire and no desire, 
anger and no anger, right or wrong, and all things. 
Now as a man is like this or like that 1 , according as 
he acts and according as he behaves, so will he be : — 
a man of good acts will become good, a man of bad 
acts, bad. He becomes pure by pure deeds, bad by 
bad deeds. 

' And here they say that a person consists of 
desires. And as is his desire, so is his will ; and as is 
his will, so is his deed ; and whatever deed he does, 
that he will reap. 

6. 'And here there is this verse: "To whatever 
object a man's own mind is attached, to that he goes 
strenuously together with his deed ; and having 
obtained the end (the last results) of whatever deed 
he does here on earth, he returns again from that 
world (which is the temporary reward of his deed) to 
this world of action." 

' So much for the man who desires. But as to 
the man who does not desire, who, not desiring, 
freed from desires, is satisfied in his desires, or 
desires the Self only, his vital spirits do not depart 
elsewhere, — being Brahman, he goes to Brahman. 

7. ' On this there is this verse : " When all desires 

1 The iti after adomaya is not clear to me, but it is quite clear 
that a new sentence begins with tadyadetat, which Regnaud, II, 
p. 101 and p. 139, has not observed. 



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IV ADHYAYA, \ BRAHMAtfA, II. 1 77 

which once entered his heart are undone, then does 
the mortal become immortal, then he obtains Brah- 
man." 

' And as the slough of a snake lies on an ant-hill, 
dead and cast away, thus lies this body ; but that dis- 
embodied immortal spirit (pra«a, life) is Brahman 
only, is only light' 

Ganaka Vaideha said: 'Sir, I give you a thousand.' 

8 \ ' On this there are these verses : 

'The small, old path stretching far away 2 has been 
found by me. On it sages who know Brahman move 
on to the Svarga-loka (heaven), and thence higher 
on, as entirely free 3 . 

9. ' On that path they say that there is white, or 
blue, or yellow, or green, or red * ; that path was found 
by Brahman, and on it goes whoever knows Brahman, 
and who has done good, and obtained splendour. 

10. 'AH who worship what is not knowledge 
(avidyS.) enter into blind darkness : those who delight 
in knowledge, enter, as it were, into greater darkness 6 . 

11. 'There are 6 indeed those unblessed worlds, 

1 This may be independent matter, or may be placed again into 
the mouth of Ya^wavalkya. 

a Instead of vitata^, which perhaps seemed to be in contradiction 
with a«u, there is a MSdhyandina reading vitara, probably intended 
originally to mean leading across. The other adjective m&m- 
spn'sh/a I cannot explain. Sahkara explains it by mim sprishtafi, 
maya labdha^. 

8 That this is the true meaning, is indicated by the various 
readings of the Mddhyandinas, tena dhM apiyanti brahmavida 
utkramya svargaw lokam ito vimukt&A. The road is not to lead 
to Svarga only, but beyond. 

4 See the colours of the veins as given before, IV, 3, 20. 

6 See Va£\ Up. 9. .Sahkara in our place explains avidyd by 
works, and vidyd by the Veda, excepting the Upanishads. 

• See V&#. Up. 3 ; Ka/fla Up. I, 3. 

[•53 N 



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178 bk/hadAraatyaka-upanishad. 

covered with blind darkness. Men who are ignorant 
and not enlightened go after death to those worlds. 

12. ' If a man understands the Self, saying, " I am 
He," what could he wish or desire that he should 
pine after the body 1 . 

13. 'Whoever has found and understood the Self 
that has entered into this patched-together hiding- 
place 2 , he indeed is the creator, for he is the maker 
of everything, his is the world, and he is the world 
itself 3 . 

14. ' While we are here, we may know this ; if not, 
I am ignorant 4 , and there is great destruction. Those 
who know it, become immortal, but others suffer pain 
indeed. 

15. ' If a man clearly beholds this Self as God, 
and as the lord of all that is and will be, then he is 
no more afraid. 

16. ' He behind whom the year revolves with the 
days, him the gods worship as the light of lights, as 
immortal time. 

1 7. ' He in whom the five beings 6 and the ether 
rest, him alone I believe to be the Self, — I who 

1 That he should be willing to suffer once more the pains 
inherent in the body. The M&dhyandinas read jarrram anu 
saw^aret, instead of sa%varet. 

2 The body is meant, and is called deha from the root dih, to 
knead together. Roer gives sawdehye gahane, which Sahkara 
explains by sazsdehe. Poley has sa*sdeghe, which is the right 
Ka«va reading. The Midhyandinas read sawdehe. Gahane might 
be taken as an adjective also, referring to sawdehe. 

8 .Sankara takes loka, world, for atma, self. 

* I have followed Sankara in translating avediA by ignorant, but 
the text seems corrupt. 

* The five ^anas, i. e. the Gandharvas, Pitr*'s, Devas, Asuras, and 
Rakshas; or the four castes with the Nish£das; or breath, eye, 
ear, food, and mind. 



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IV ADHYAYA, 4 BRAHMA2VA, 22. I 79 

know, believe him to be Brahman ; I who am im- 
mortal, believe him to be immortal. 

18. 'They who know the life of life, the eye of the 
eye, the ear of the ear, the mind of the mind, they 
have comprehended the ancient, primeval Brahman 1 . 

19. 'By the mind alone it is to be perceived 2 , 
there is in it no diversity. He who perceives therein 
any diversity, goes from death to death. 

20. ' This eternal being that can never be proved, 
is to be perceived in one way only ; it is spotless, 
beyond the ether, the unborn Self, great and eternal. 

21.' Let a wise Brahmarca, after he has discovered 
him, practise wisdom 3 . Let him not seek after many 
words, for that is mere weariness of the tongue. 

22. 'And he is that great unborn Self, who consists 
of knowledge, is surrounded by the Pr4»as, the ether 
within the heart*. In it there reposes the ruler of all, 
the lord of all, the king of all. He does not become 
greater by good works, nor smaller by evil works. 
He is the lord of all, the king of all things, the pro- 
tector of all things. He is a bank 6 and a boundary, 
so that these worlds may not be confounded. Brah- 
ma«as seek to know him by the study of the Veda, by 
sacrifice, by gifts, by penance, by fasting, and he who 
knows him, becomes a Muni. Wishing for that 
world (for Brahman) only, mendicants leave their 
homes. 

' Knowing this, the people of old did not wish for 
offspring. What shall we do with offspring, they said, 

1 See Talavak. Up. I, 2. 

* See Ka/fla Up. IV, 10-n. 

* Let him practise abstinence, patience, &c, which are the means 
of knowledge. 

4 See Br/n. Up. IV, 3, 7. • See ATMnd. Up. VIII, 4. 

N 2 



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l80 B/i/HADARA2VYAKA-UPANISHAD. 

we who have this Self and this world (of Brahman) 1 ? 
And they, having risen above the desire for sons, 
wealth, and new worlds, wander about as mendicants. 
For desire for sons is desire for wealth, and desire 
for wealth is desire for worlds. Both these are indeed 
desires only. He, the Self, is to be described by No, 
no 2 ! He is incomprehensible, for he cannot be com- 
prehended; he is imperishable, for he cannot perish ; 
he is unattached, for he does not attach himself; 
unfettered, he does not suffer, he does not fail. Him 
(who knows), these two do not overcome, whether 
he says that for some reason he has done evil, or for 
some reason he has done good — he overcomes both, 
and neither what he has done, nor what he has 
omitted to do, burns (affects) him. 

23. ' This has been told by a verse (Rik) : " This 
eternal greatness of the Brahma#a does not grow 
larger by work, nor does it grow smaller. Let man 
try to find (know) its trace, for having found (known) 
it, he is not sullied by any evil deed." 

' He therefore that knows it, after having become 
quiet, subdued, satisfied, patient, and collected 8 , sees 
self in Self, sees all as Self. Evil does not overcome 
him, he overcomes all evil. Evil does not burn him, 
he burns all evil. Free from evil, free from spots, 
free from doubt, he becomes a (true) Brahma»a ; this 
is the Brahma-world, O King,' — thus spoke Y£f»a- 
valkya. 

Ganaka Vaideha said : ' Sir, I give you the Videhas, 
and also myself, to be together your slaves.' 

24. This * indeed is the great, the unborn Self, the 

1 Cf. Brih. Up. Ill, 5,1. "See Brih. Up. Ill, 9, 26 ; IV, 2, 4. 

3 See Deussen, Vedanta, p. 85. 

4 As described in the dialogue between (?anaka and Ya£»avalkya. 



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iv adhyAya, 5 brAhmaya, 5. 181 

strong 1 , the giver of wealth. He who knows this 
obtains wealth. 

25. This great, unborn Self, undecaying, undying, 
immortal, fearless, is indeed Brahman. Fearless is 
Brahman, and he who knows this becomes verily the 
fearless Brahman. 

Fifth BrAhmajva 2 . 

1. Ya^-»avalkya had two wives, Mai trey 1 and , 
Kityayani. Of these Maitreyl was conversant with v 'i^X ' 
Brahman, but Katyiyanl possessed such knowledge Se.#4- > 
only as women possess. And Ya^»avalkya, when f.tf '••> v 
he wished to get ready for another state of life (when 

he wished to give up the state of a householder, and 
retire into the forest), 

2. Said, 'Maitreyl, verily I am going away from 
this my house (into the forest). Forsooth, let me 
make a settlement between thee and that Katyayani.' 

3. Maitreyl said : ' My Lord, if this whole earth, 
full of wealth, belonged to me, tell me, should I be 
immortal by it, or no ?' 

' No,' replied Ya^«avalkya, ' like the life of rich 
people will be thy life. But there is no hope of 
immortal ity by wealth.' 

4. And Maitreyl said: 'What should I do with 
that by which I do not become immortal? What 
my Lord knoweth 3 (of immortality), tell that clearly 
to me.' 

5. Y&^wavalkya replied: 'Thou who art truly dear 
to me, thou hast increased what is dear (to me in 

1 Annada is here explained as ' dwelling in all beings, and eating 
all food which they eat.' 

2 See before, II, 4. 

3 The Kawva text has vettha instead of veda. 



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1 82 BK/HADARAiVYAKA-UPANISHAD. 

thee) 1 . Therefore, if you like, Lady, I will explain it 
to thee, and mark well what I say.' 

6. And he said : ' Verily, a husband is not dear, 
that you may love the husband ; but that you may 
love the Self, therefore a husband is dear. 

' Verily, a wife is not dear, that you may love the 
wife; but that you may love the Self, therefore a 
wife is dear. 

' Verily, sons are not dear, that you may love the 
sons; but that you may love the Self, therefore sons 
are dear. 

'Verily, wealth is not dear, that you may love 
wealth ; but that you may love the Self, therefore 
wealth is dear. 

' Verily, cattle 2 are not dear, that you may love 
cattle; but that you may love the Self, therefore 
cattle are dear. 

' Verily, the Brahman-class is not dear, that you 
may love the Brahman-class ; but that you may love 
the Self, therefore the Brahman-class is dear. 

'Verily, the Kshatra-class is not dear, that you 
may love the Kshatra-class ; but that you may love 
the Self, therefore the Kshatra-class is dear. 

'Verily, the worlds are not dear, that you may 
love the worlds; but that you may love the Self, 
therefore the worlds are dear. 

'Verily, the Devas are not dear, that you may 
love the Devas; but that you may love the Self, 
therefore the Devas are dear. 

1 The Ka«va text has avn'dhat, which Sankara explains by 
vardhitavati nirdhiritavaty asi. The Madhyandinas read avritat, 
which the commentator explains by avartayat, vartitavaty asi. 

9 Though this is added here, it is not included in the summing 
up in § 6. 



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IV ADHYAYA, 5 BRAhMAJVA, 8. 1 83 

' Verily, the Vedas are not dear, that you may / 
love the Vedas ; but that you may love the Self, 
therefore the Vedas are dear. 

' Verily, creatures are not dear, that you may love 
the creatures ; but that you may love the Self, there- 
fore are creatures dear. 

' Verily, everything is not dear, that you may love 
everything ; but that you may love the Self, there- 
fore everything is dear. 

' Verily, the Self is to be seen, to be heard, to be 
perceived, to be marked, O Maitreyi ! When the 
Self has been seen, heard, perceived, and known, 
then all this is known.' 

7. ' Whosoever looks for the Brahman-class else- 
where than in the Self, was abandoned by the 
Brahman-class. Whosoever looks for the Kshatra- 
class elsewhere than in the Self, was abandoned by 
the Kshatra-class. Whosoever looks for the worlds 
elsewhere than in the Self, was abandoned by the 
worlds. Whosoever looks for the Devas elsewhere 
than in the Self, was abandoned by the Devas. 
Whosoever looks for the Vedas elsewhere than in 
the Self, was abandoned by the Vedas. Whosoever 
looks for the creatures elsewhere than in the Self, 
was abandoned by the creatures. Whosoever looks 
for anything elsewhere than in the Self, was aban- 
doned by anything. 

' This Brahman-class, this Kshatra-class, these 
worlds, these Devas, these Vedas, all these beings, 
this everything, all is that Self. 

8. ' Now as the sounds of a drum, when beaten, 
cannot be seized externally (by themselves), but the 
sound is seized, when the drum is seized, or the 
beater of the drum ; 



<w <-■ 



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184 BK/HADARAtfYAKA-UPANISHAD. 

9. 'And as the sounds of a conch-shell, when blown, 
cannot be seized externally (by themselves), but the 
sound is seized, when the shell is seized, or the blower 
of the shell ; 

10. 'And as the sounds of a lute, when played, 
cannot be seized externally (by themselves), but the 
sound is seized, when the lute is seized, or the player 
of the lute ; 

11. 'As clouds of smoke proceed by themselves 
out of lighted fire kindled with damp fuel, thus 
verily, O Maitreyl, has been breathed forth from 
this great Being what we have as Rig-veda., Ya^nr- 
veda, Sama-veda, Atharvingirasas, Itihasa, Pura«a, 
Vidya, the Upanishads, Slokas, Sutras, Anuvya- 
khyanas, Vyakhyanas, what is sacrificed, what is 
poured out, food, drink 1 , this world and the other 
world, and all creatures. From him alone all these 
were breathed forth. 

12. 'As all waters find their centre in the sea, 
all touches in the skin, all tastes in the tongue, all 
smells in the nose, all colours in the eye, all sounds 
in the ear, all percepts in the mind, all knowledge in 
the heart, all actions in the hands, all movements in 
the feet, and all the Vedas in speech, — 

13. 'As a mass of salt has neither inside nor 
outside, but is altogether a mass of taste, thus indeed 
has that Self neither inside nor outside, but is alto- 
gether a mass of knowledge ; and having risen from 
out these elements, vanishes again in them. When 
he has departed, there is no more knowledge (name), 
I say, O Maitreyl,' — thus spoke Ya^»avalkya. 



1 Explained by annadananimittam and peyadananimittaw dhar- 
magitam. See before, IV, 1, 2. 



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IV ADHYAYA, 6 BRAHMAYA, I. 1 85 

14. Then Maitrey! said: 'Here, Sir, thou hast 
landed me in utter bewilderment. Indeed, I do not 
understand him.' 

But he replied : ' O Maitrey!, I say nothing that is 
bewildering. Verily, beloved, that Self is imperish- 
able, and of an indestructible nature. 

15. 'For when there is as it were duality, then 
one sees the other, one smells the other, one tastes 
the other, one salutes the other, one hears the other, 
one perceives the other, one touches the other, one 
knows the other ; but when the Self only is all this, 
how should he see another, how should he smell 
another, how should he taste another, how should 
he salute another, how should he hear another, how 
should he touch another, how should he know 
another ? How should he know Him by whom he 
knows all this ? That Self is to be described by No, 
no 1 ! He is incomprehensible, for he cannot be 
comprehended; he is imperishable, for he cannot 
perish ; he is unattached, for he does not attach 
himself; unfettered, he does not suffer, he does not 
fail. How, O beloved, should he know the Knower ? 
Thus, O Maitreyl, thou hast been instructed. Thus 
far goes immortality.' Having said so, Ya^wavalkya 
went away (into the forest). 

Sixth Brahmaya. 

1. Now follows the stem 2 : 

1. (We) from Pautimashya, 

2. Pautimashya from Gaupavana, 

3. Gaupavana from Pautimashya, 

1 See Brih. Up. Ill, 9, 26; IV, 2, 4 ; IV, 4, 22. 

* The line of teachers and pupils by whom the Ya^wavalkya- 



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1 86 B/t/HADARAtfYAKA-UPANISHAD. 

4. Pautimashya from Gaupavana, 

5. Gaupavana from Kausika, 

6. Kaurika from Kau/wTinya, 

7. Kau«dfinya from 5a«afilya, 

8. S&ndi\ya. from Kaurika and Gautama, 

9. Gautama 

2. from Agniverya, 

10. Agniveyya from Gargya, 

11. Gargya from Gargya, 

12. Gargya from Gautama, 

13. Gautama from Saitava, 

14. Saitava from Para^aryaya»a, 

15. Para.raryaya#a from Gargyaya#a, 

16. Gargyaya#a from Uddalakayana, 

17. Uddalakayana from G&balayana, 

18. (S&bilayana from Madhyandinayana, 

19. Madhyandinayana from Saukarayawa, 

20. Saukarayawa from Kashaya#a, 

21. Kashiya»a from S&yakayana, 

22. Sayakayana from Kaurikayani l , 

23. Kaurikayani 

3. from Ghr/takaurika, 

24. GhWtakau.rika from Parasaryaya#a, 

ka«<fe was handed down. From 1-10 the Vzmsa, agrees with the 
Va«fa at the end of II, 6. 

The Madhyandina text begins with vayam, we, and proceeds to 
1. 5"aurpa«ayya, 2. Gautama, 3. Vdtsya, 4. Pshurarya, &c, as in the 
Madhukawrfa, p. 118, except in ro, where it gives (Jaivantayana for 
Atreya. Then after 13. KauWinyayana, it gives 13. 14. the two 
Kau«</inyas, 15. the Aur«avabhas, 16. Kaundinya, 17. Kauwiinya, 
18. Kau«<finya and Agnivcrya, 19. Saitava, 20. Parifarya, 21. Gita- 
karwya, 22. Bh&radva^a, 23. Bharadv&^a, Asurayawa, and Gautama, 
24. Bharadva^a, 25. Valakakaiwika, 26. Kashayawa, 27. Saukara- 
ya«a, 28. Traiva/ri, 29. Aupa^-andhani, 30. SayakSyana, 31. Kau«- 
kayani, &c, as in the Ka»va text, from No. 22 to Brahman. 

1 From here the Va»m agrees again with that given at the end 
of II, 6. 



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iv adhyAya, 6 brAhmajva, 3. 187 

25. Parasaryayarca from Para^arya, 

26. Parararya from <7atukaraya, 

27. £atukar»ya from Asuraya#a and Yaska 1 , 

28. Asuraya»a from Trava#i, 

29. Trava»i from Aupa^andhani, 

30. Aupa^andhani from Asuri, 

31. Asuri from Bharadvi^a, 

32. Bharadva^a from Atreya, 

33. Atreya from M&nti, 

34. Ma#tf from Gautama, 

35. Gautama from Gautama, 

36. Gautama from Vatsya, 

37. Vatsya from SkndMya., 

38. SiLndilya. from Kauorya Kapya, 

39. Kaisorya Kapya from Kumaraharita, 

40. Kumaraharita from Galava, 

41. Galava from Vidarbht-kau^dfinya, 

42. Vidarbhl - kau«<aTinya from Vatsanapat Ba- 

bhrava, 

43. Vatsanapit Babhrava from Pathi Saubhara, 

44. Pathi Saubhara from Ayasya Angirasa, 

45. Ayasya Angirasa from Abhuti Tvashfra, 

46. Abhuti Tvash/ra from Vi^varupa Tvash/ra, 

47. Visvarupa Tvashfra from Asvinau, 

48. Arvinau from Dadhya^ Atharva«a, 

49. Dadhya^ Atharvawa from Atharvan Daiva, 

50. Atharvan Daiva from Mn'tyu Pradhvawsana, 

51. Mrz'tyu Pradhva/#sana from Pradhvawsana, 

52. Pradhva*»sana from Ekarshi, 

53. Ekarshi from Vipra&tti 2 , 

54. Vipraiitti from Vyashtf, 

1 The Mddhyandina text has, 1. Bharadva^a, 2. Bharadva^-a, 
Asuraya«a, and Yaska. 

* Vipragitti, M&dhyandina text. 



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1 88 BK/HADARAtfYAKA-UPANISHAD. 

55. Vyash/i from Sanaru, 

56. Sanaru from Sanatana, 

57. Sanatana from Sanaga, 

58. Sanaga from Paramesh^in, 

59. Paramesh/^in from Brahman, 

60. Brahman is Svayambhu, self-existent. 
Adoration to Brahman. 



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V ADHYAYA, 2 BRAHMANA, 2. 1 89 



FIFTH ADHYAYA. 

First BrAhmaya 1 . 

1. That (the invisible Brahman) is full, this (the 
visible Brahman) is full 2 . This full (visible Brah- 
man) proceeds from that full (invisible Brahman). 
On grasping the fulness of this full (visible Brah- 
man) there is left that full (invisible Brahman) 3 . 

Om (is) ether, (is) Brahman *. ' There is the old 
ether (the invisible), and the (visible) ether of the 
atmosphere,' thus said Kauravyaya»lputra. This 
(the Om) is the Veda (the means of knowledge), 
thus the Brahma«as know. One knows through it 
all that has to be known. 

Second BrAhmawa. 

1. The threefold descendants of Pra^apati, gods, 
men, and Asuras (evil spirits), dwelt as Brahma^a- 
rins (students) with their father Pra^apati. Having 
finished their studentship the gods said: 'Tell us 
(something), Sir.' He told them the syllable Da. 
Then he said : ' Did you understand ?' They said : 
' We did understand. You told us " Damyata," Be 
subdued.' ' Yes,' he said, 'you have understood.' 

2. Then the men said to him : 'Tell us something, 

w 

1 This is called a Khila, or supplementary chapter, treating of 
various auxiliary means of arriving at a knowledge of Brahman. 

2 Full and filling, infinite. 

8 On perceiving the true nature of the visible world, there remains, 
i.e. there is perceived at once, as underlying it, or as being it, the 
invisible world or Brahman. This and the following paragraph 
are called Mantras. 

* This is explained by Sankara as meaning, Brahman is Kha, the 
ether, and called Om, i.e. Om and Kha are predicates of Brahman. 



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1 90 B.R7HADARAtfYAKA-UPAN ISHAD. 

Sir.' He told them the same syllable Da. Then he 
said : 'Did you understand ?' They said : 'We did 
understand. You told us, " Datta," Give/ ' Yes/ he 
said, ' you have understood/ 

3. Then the Asuras said to him : ' Tell us some- 
thing, Sir/ He told them the same syllable Da. 
Then he said : ' Did you understand ?' They said : 
'We did understand. You told us, "Dayadham," Be 
merciful/ ' Yes/ he said, ' you have understood.' 

The divine voice of thunder repeats the same, 
Da Da Da, that is, Be subdued, Give, Be merciful. 
Therefore let that triad be taught, Subduing, Giving, 
and Mercy. 

Third BrAhma^a. 

1. Pra^apati is the heart, is this Brahman, is all this. 
The heart, hrt'daya, consists of three syllables. One 
syllable is hrt, and to him who knows this, his own 
people and others bring offerings 1 . One syllable is 
da, and to him who knows this, his own people and 
others bring gifts. One syllable is yam, and he who 
knows this, goes to heaven (svarga) as his world. 

Fourth BrAhmajva. 
1. This (heart) indeed is even that, it was indeed 
the true 2 (Brahman). And whosoever knows this 
great glorious first-born as the true Brahman, he 
conquers these worlds, and conquered likewise may 
that (enemy) be 3 ! yes, whosoever knows this great 

1 «S"ahkara explains that with regard to the heart, i.e. buddhi, the 
senses are 'its own people,' and the objects of the senses 'the others.' 

2 The true, not the truth ; the truly existing. The commentator 
explains it as it was explained in II, 3, 1, as sat and tya, containing 
both sides of the Brahman. 

8 An elliptical expression, as explained by the commentator: 
'May that one (his enemy) be conquered, just as that one was 



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V ADHYAYA, 5 BRAHMAJVA, 2. 191 

glorious first-born as the true Brahman; for Brahman 
is the true. 

Fifth BrAhmajva. 

1. In the beginning this (world) was water. 
Water produced the true \ and the true is Brah man. 

'^Brahman produced Pra^apati 2 , Pra^apati the Devas 
(gods). The Devas adore the true (satyam) alone. 
This satyam consists of three syllables. One syl- 
lable is sa, another t(i), the third 3 yam. The first 
and last syllables are true, in the middle there is the 
untrue *. This untrue is on both sides enclosed by 
the true, and thus the true preponderates. The 
untrue does not hurt him who knows this. 

2. Now what is the true, that is the Aditya (the 
sun), the person that dwells in yonder orb, and the 
person in the right eye. These two rest on each 
other, the former resting with his rays in the latter, 
the latter with his pra«as (senses) in the former. 
When the latter is on the point of departing this life, 
he sees that orb as white only, and those rays (of the 
sun) do not return to him. 

conquered by Brahman. If he conquers the world, how much 
more his enemy I' It would be better, however, if we could take 
gita. in the sense of vadkn'ta or danta, because we could then go 
on with ya evaw veda. 

1 Here explained by the commentator asPutr&tmaka Hirawyagarbha. 

* Here explained as Virag'. 

s Satyam is often pronounced satiam, as trisyllabic. iSankara, how- 
ever, takes the second syllable as t only, and explains the i after it as 
an anubandha. The Ka»va text gives the three syllables as sa, ti, am, 
which seems preferable; cf.^TAand. Up.VIII, 3, 5; Taitt. Up. II, 6. 

4 This is explained by a mere play on the letters, sa and ya 
having nothing in common with mntyu, death, whereas t occurs in 
mn'tyu and annlta. Dvivedaganga takes sa and am as true, be- 
cause they occur in satya and amn'ta, and not in mn'tyu, while ti 
is untrue, because the t occurs in mntyu and anrrta. 



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1 92 B/J/HADARAivTAKA-UPANISHAD. 

3. Now of the person in that (solar) orb BhM is 
the head, for the head is one, and that syllable is 
one; Bhuva^ the two arms, for the arms are two, 
and these syllables are two ; Svar the foot, for the 
feet are two, and these syllables are two 1 . Its 
secret name is Ahar (day), and he who knows this, 
destroys (hanti) evil and leaves (^ahati) it. 

4. Of the person in the right eye BhM is the head, 
for the head is one, and that syllable is one; Bhuva^ 
the two arms, for the arms are two, and these sylla- 
bles are two; Svar the foot, for the feet are two, and 
these syllables are two. Its secret name is Aham 
(ego), and he who knows this, destroys (hanti) evil 
and leaves (^ahati) it. 

Sixth Brahmajva. 

1. That person, under the form of mind (manas), 
being light indeed 2 , is within the heart, small like a 
grain of rice or barley. He is the ruler of all, the 
lord of all — he rules all this, whatsoever exists. 

Seventh BrAhmaya. 

1. They say that lightning is Brahman, because 
lightning (vidyut) is called so from cutting off 
(vidanat) 3 . Whosoever knows this, that lightning 
is Brahman, him (that Brahman) cuts off from evil, 
for lightning indeed is Brahman. 

1 Svar has to be pronounced suvar. 

2 Bh&featya must be taken as one word, as the commentator 
says, bha eva satyaw sadbhava/4 svarupaw yasya so 'yam bhi^satyo 
bhasvara^. 

3 From do, avakhawdane, to cut ; the lightning cutting through the 
darkness of the clouds, as Brahman, when known, cuts through 
the darkness of ignorance. 



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V ADHYAYA, IO BRAHMAivA, I. 1 93 

Eighth BrAhmawa. 

1. Let him meditate on speech as a cow. Her 
four udders are the words Svahi, Vasha/, Hanta, 
and Svadha \ The gods live on two of her udders, 
the Svaha and the Vasha/, men on the Hanta, the 
fathers on the Svadha. The bull of that cow is 
breath (pra«a), the calf the mind. 

Ninth BrAhmajva. 

1. Agni Vai.rvanara is the fire within man by 
which the food that is eaten is cooked, i.e. digested. 
Its noise is that which one hears, if one covers one's 
ears. When he is on the point of departing this 
life, he does not hear that noise. 

Tenth Brahmaata. 

1. When the person goes away from this world, 
he comes to the wind. Then the wind makes room 
for him, like the hole of a carriage wheel, and 
through it he mounts higher. He comes to the sun. 
Then the sun makes room for him, like the hole 
of a Lambara 2 , and through it he mounts higher. 
He comes to the moon. Then the moon makes 
room for him, like the hole of a drum, and through 
it he mounts higher, and arrives at the world where 
there is no sorrow, no snow 8 . There he dwells 
eternal years. 

1 There are two udders, the Svaha and Vasha/, on which the 
gods feed, i. e. words with which oblations are given to the gods. 
With Hanta they are given to men, with Svadha to the fathers. 

8 A musical instrument. 

* The commentator explains hima by bodily pain, but snow is 
much more characteristic. 

[15] O 



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194 b-r/hadAranyaka-upanishad. 



Eleventh BrAhmana. 

i. This is indeed the highest penance, if a man, 
laid up with sickness, suffers pain 1 . He who knows 
this, conquers the highest world. 

This is indeed the highest penance, if they carry 
a dead person into the forest 2 . He who knows this, 
conquers the highest world. 

This is indeed the highest penance, if they place a 
dead person on the fire 3 . He who knows this, con- 
quers the highest world. 

Twelfth BrAhmaata. 

i. Some say that food is Brahman, but this is not 
so, for food decays without life (pra#a). Others say 
that life (pra«a) is Brahman, but this is not so, for life 
dries up without food. Then these two deities (food 
and life), when they have become one, reach that 
highest state (i.e. are Brahman). Thereupon Pra- 
trtda. said to his father : ' Shall I be able to do any 
good to one who knows this, or shall I be able to do 
him any harm 4 ?' The father said to him, beckoning 
with his hand : ' Not so, O Pratrzda ; for who could 
reach the highest state, if he has only got to the 
oneness of these two ?' He then said to him : ' Vi ; 

1 The meaning is that, while he is suffering pain from illness, he 
should think that he was performing penance. If he does that, 
he obtains the same reward for his sickness which he would have 
obtained for similar pain inflicted on himself for the sake of per- 
forming penance. 

2 This is like the penance of leaving the village and living in 
the forest. 

8 This is like the penance of entering into the fire. 
* That is, is he not so perfect in knowledge that nothing can 
harm him? 



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V ADHYAYA, 1 3 BRAHMAJVA, 4. 195 

verily, food is Vi, for all these beings rest (vish^ani) 
on food.' He then said : ' Ram ; verily, life is Ram, 
for all these beings delight (ramante) in life. All 
beings rest on him, all beings delight in him wh o 
knows this.' 

Thirteenth Brahma^a. 

1 . Next follows the Uktha 1 . Verily, breatt 
is Uktha, for breath raises up (utthapayati) all this. 
From him who knows this, there is raised a wise son, 
knowing the Uktha ; he obtains union and oneness 
with the Uktha. 

2. Next follows the Ya^us. Verily, breath is 
Ya^ois, for all these beings are joined in breath 2 . 
For him who knows this, all beings are joined to 
procure his excellence; he obtains union and one- 
ness with the Ya^Tis. 

3. Next follows the Saman. Verily, breath is the 
Saman, for all these beings meet in breath. For him 
who knows this, all beings meet to procure his excel- 
lence ; he obtains union and oneness with the Saman. 

4. Next follows the Kshatra. Verily, breath is 
the Kshatra, for breath is Kshatra, i.e. breath pro- 
tects (trayate) him from being hurt (kshawito^). 
He who knows this, obtains Kshatra (power), which 
requires no protection ; he obtains union and one- 
ness with Kshatra 3 . 

1 Meditation on the hymn called uktha. On the uktha, as the 
principal part in the Mahavrata, see Kaush.Up. Ill, 3 ; Ait. Ar. II, 1, 2. 
The uktha, yajns, sanian, &c. are here represented as forms under 
which pra«a or life, and indirectly Brahman, is to be meditated on. 

4 Without life or breath nothing can join anything else ; there- 
fore life is called ya^us, as it were yugns. 

8 Instead of Kshatram atram, another -Sakha, i. e. the Madhyan- 
dina, reads Kshatramatram, which Dvivedaganga explains as, he 

O 2 



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I96 B/i/HADARAiVYAKA-UPANISHAD. 



Fourteenth Brahmajva. 

1. The words Bhumi (earth), Antariksha (sky), and 
Dyu 1 (heaven) form eight syllables. One foot of the 
Gayatri consists of eight syllables. This (one foot) 
of it is that (i. e. the three worlds). And he who thus 
knows that foot of it, conquers as far as the three 
worlds extend. 

2. The JZtkas, the Ya^uwshi, and the Samani form 
eight syllables. One foot (the second) of the Gayatri 
consists of eight syllables. This (one foot) of it is 
that (i. e. the three Vedas, the ./v%-veda, Ya^tir-veda, 
and Sama-veda). And he who thus knows that foot 
of it, conquers as far as that threefold knowledge 
extends. 

3. The Pra«a (the up-breathing), the Apana (the 
down-breathing), and the Vyina (the back-breathing) 
form eight syllables. One foot (the third) of the 
Gayatri consists of eight syllables. This (one foot) 
of it is that (i.e. the three vital breaths). And he who 
thus knows that foot of it, conquers as far as there 
is anything that breathes. And of that (Gayatri, 
or speech) this indeed is the fourth (turiya), the 
bright (darcata) foot, shining high above the skies 2 . 
What is here called turiya (the fourth) is meant for 
^aturtha (the fourth); what is called darsatam 
pad am (the bright foot) is meant for him who is 
as it were seen (the person in the sun) ; and what 
is called parora/as (he who shines high above the 

obtains the nature of the Kshatra, or he obtains the Kshatra which 
protects (Kshatram Strain). 

1 Dyu, nom. Dyaus, must be pronounced Diyaus. 

a Parora^as, masc, should be taken as one word, like paroksha, 
viz. he who is beyond all ra^as, all visible skies. 

<^ 

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V ADHYAYA, 1 4 BRAHMAJVA, 5. 1 97 

skies) is meant for him who shines higher and higher 
above every sky. And he who thus knows that foot 
of the Gayatrl, shines thus himself also with hap- 
piness and glory. 

4. That Gayatrl (as described before with its three 
feet) rests on that fourth foot, the bright one, high 
above the sky. And that again rests on the True (sa- 
tyam), and the True is the eye, for the eye is (known 
to be) true. And therefore even now, if two persons 
come disputing, the one saying, I saw, the other, 
I heard, then we should trust the one who says, I 
saw. And the True again rests on force (balam), 
and force is life (pra#a), and that (the True) rests on 
life 1 . Therefore they say, force is stronger than the 
True. Thus does that Gayatrl rest with respect to 
the self (as life). That Gayatrl protects (tatre) the 
vital breaths (gayas) ; the gayas are the pra«as 
(vital breaths), and it protects them. And because 
it protects (tatre) the vital breaths (gayas), therefore 
it is called Gayatrl. And that Savitrl verse which 
the teacher teaches 2 , that is it (the life, the priwa, and 
indirectly the Gayatrl) ; and whomsoever he teaches, 
he protects his vital breaths. 

5. Some teach that Savitrl as an Anush/ubh 8 verse, 
saying that speech is Anush/ubh, and that we teach 

. ' Sankara understood the True (satyam) by tad, not the balam, 
the force. 

2 The teacher teaches his pupil, who is brought to him when 
eight years old, the Sdvitrl verse, making him repeat each word, 
and each half verse, till he knows the whole, and by teaching him 
that Savitri, he is supposed to teach him really the prd«a, the life, 
as the self of the world. 

8 The verse would be, Rig-veda V, 82, 1 : 

Tat savitur vrmimahe vaya« devasya bhqganam 
Sitsh/Aam sarvadhitamaw turam bhagasya dhfmahi. 



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198 bk/hadArayyaka-upanishad: 

that speech. Let no one do this, but let him teach 
the Gayatri as Savitrl 1 . And even if one who knows 
this receives what seems to be much as his reward 
(as a teacher), yet this is not equal to one foot of the 
Gayatri. 

6. If a man (a teacher) were to receive as his fee 
these three worlds full of all things, he would obtain 
that first foot of the Gayatri. And if a man were to 
receive as his fee everything as far as this threefold 
knowledge extends, he would obtain that second 
foot of the Gayatri. And if a man were to receive 
as his fee everything whatsoever breathes, he would 
obtain that third foot of the Gayatri. But 'that fourth 
bright foot, shining high above the skies 2 ', cannot 
be obtained by anybody — whence then could one 
receive such a fee ? 

7. The adoration 3 of that (Gayatri) : 

' O Gayatri, thou hast one foot, two feet, three 
feet, four feet 4 . Thou art footless, for thou art not 
known. Worship to thy fourth bright foot above 
the skies.' If 6 one (who knows this) hates some 

1 Because Gayatri represents life, and the pupil receives life when 
he learns the Gayatri. 

2 See before, § 2. 

* Upasthana is the act of approaching the gods, irpo<rKvvt)<ns, 
Angehen.withaview of obtaining a request. Here the application 
is of two kinds, abhi&irika, imprecatory against another, and. 
abhyudayika, auspicious for oneself. The former has two formulas, 
the latter one. An upasthana is here represented as effective, if 
connected with the G&yatri. 

4 Consisting of the three worlds, the threefold knowledge, the 
threefold vital breaths, and the fourth foot, as described before. 

5 I have translated this paragraph very freely, and differently 
from »Sahkara. The question is, whether dvishy&t with iti can be 
used in the sense of abhiHra, or imprecation. If not, I do not see 
how the words should be construed. The expression yasmS upa- 



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V ADHYAYA, 1 5 BRAHMAiVA, 2. 199 

one and says, ' May he not obtain this,' or ' May this 
wish not be accomplished to him,' then that wish is 
not accomplished to him against whom he thus prays, 
or if he says, ' May I obtain this.' 

8. And thus Ganaka Vaideha spoke on this point 
to Buafila A.rvatara.rvi l : 'How is it that thou who 
spokest thus as knowing the Gayatrf, hast become 
an elephant and earnest me ?' He answered : 'Your 
Majesty, I did not know its mouth. Agni, fire, is 
indeed its mouth ; and if people pile even what seems 
much (wood) on the fire, it consumes it all. And 
thus a man who knows this, even if he commits what 
seems much evil, consumes it all and becomes pure, 
clean, and free from decay and death.' 

Fifteenth Brahmajva. 

1. 2 The face of the True (the Brahman) is covered 
with a golden disk 3 . Open that, O Pushan 4 , that we 
may see the nature of the True 6 . 

2. O Pushan, only seer, Yama (judge), Surya (sun), 
son of Pra^apati 6 , spread thy rays and gather them ! 

tish/Aate is rightly explained by Dvivedagahga, yadartham evam 
upatish/iate. 

1 AjvatarasySfvasytpatyam, -Sankara. 

2 These verses, which are omitted here in the Madhyandina 
text, are found at the end of the Va^asaneyi-upanishad 15-18. 
They are supposed to be a prayer addressed to Aditya by a dying 
person. 

8 Mahtdhara on verse 17 : 'The face of the true (purusha in the 
sun) is covered by a golden disk.' .Sankara explains here mukha, 
face, by mukhyaw svarupam, the principal form or nature. 

4 Pushan is here explained as a name of Savitr;', the sun ; like- 
wise all the names in the next verse. 

• Cf. Maitr. Up. VI, 35. 

• Of Ifvara or Hirawyagarbha. 



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200 Bil/HADARAJVYAKA-UPANISHAD. 

The light which is thy fairest form, I see it. I am 
what he is (viz. the person in the sun). 

3. Breath to air and to the immortal ! Then this 
my body ends in ashes. Om ! Mind, remember ! 
Remember thy deeds ! Mind, remember ! Remem- 
ber thy deeds x ! 

4. Agni, lead us on to wealth (beatitude) by a good 
path 2 , thou, O God, who knowest all things! Keep 
far from us crooked evil, and we shall offer thee the 
fullest praise ! (Rv. I, 189, 1.) 

1 The Vi^asaneyi-sawhita' reads : Om, krato smara, k/*be smara, 
kr*taw smara. Uva/a holds that Agni, fire, who has been wor- 
shipped in youth and manhood, is here invoked in the form of 
mind, or that kratu is meant for sacrifice. 'Agni, remember me! 
Think of the world! Remember my deeds!' K/»be is explained 
by Mahfdhara as a dative of k/t'p, k/z'p meaning loka, world, what 
is made to be enjoyed (kalpyate bhogiya). 

2 Not by the Southern path, the dark, from which there is a 
fresh return to life. 



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VI ADHYAYA, I BRAHMAATA, 5. 201 



SIXTH ADHYAYA. 

First BrAhmajva 1 . 

1. Hari^, Om. He who knows the first and 
the best, becomes himself the first and the best 
among his people. Breath is indeed the first and 
the best. He who knows this, becomes the first 
and the best among his people, and among whom- 
soever he wishes to be so. 

2. He who knows the richest 2 , becomes himself 
the richest among his people. Speech is the richest. 
He who knows this, becomes the richest among his 
people, and among whomsoever he wishes to be so. 

3. He who knows the firm rest, becomes himself 
firm on even and uneven ground. The eye indeed 
is the firm rest, for by means of the eye a man 
stands firm on even and uneven ground. He who 
knows this, stands firm on even and uneven ground. 

4. He who knows success, whatever desire he 
desires, it succeeds to him. The ear indeed is suc- 
cess. For in the ear are all these Vedas successful. 
He who knows this, whatever desire he desires, it 
succeeds to him. 

5. He who knows the home, becomes a home 
of his own people, a home of all men. The mind 

1 This Brahma«a, also called a Khila (p. 10 10, 1. 8 ; p. 1029, 
1. 8), occurs in the M&dhyandina-.rakha XIV, 9, 2. It should be 
compared with the A'Mndogya-upanishad V, 1 (Sacred Books of 
the East, vol. i, p. 72) ; also with the Ait. Ar. II, 4 ; Kaush. Up. 
Ill, 3 ; and the Pr&rwa Up. II, 3. 

* Here used as a feminine, while in the Khini. Up. V, 1, it is 
vasish/Aa. 



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202 BK/HADARAJvYAKA-UPANISHAD. 

indeed is the home. He who knows this, becomes 
a home of his own people and a home of all men. 

6. He who knows generation 1 , becomes rich in 
offspring and cattle. Seed indeed is generation. He 
who knows this, becomes rich in offspring and cattle. 

7. These Pra#as (senses), when quarrelling toge- 
ther as to who was the best, went to Brahman 2 
and said : ' Who is the richest of us ?' He replied : 
' He by whose departure this body seems worst, he 
is the richest.' 

8. The tongue (speech) departed, and having 
been absent for a year, it came back and said : 
' How have you been able to live without me ?' 
They replied : ' Like, unto people, not speaking with 
the tongue, but breathing with breath, seeing with 
the eye, hearing with the ear, knowing with the 
mind, generating with seed. Thus we have lived.' 
Then speech entered in. 

9. The eye (sight) departed, and having been 
absent for a year, it came back and said : ' How 
have you been able to live without me ?' They re- 
plied : ' Like blind people, not seeing with the eye, 
but breathing with the breath, speaking with the 
tongue, hearing with the ear, knowing with the 
mind, generating with seed. Thus we have lived.' 
Then the eye entered in. 

10. The ear (hearing) departed, and having been 
absent for a year, it came back and said : ' How 
have you been able to live without me ? ' They re- 
plied : ' Like deaf people, not hearing with the ear, 

1 This is wanting in thcATMnd. Up. Roer and Poley read Prag-apati 
for pra^ati. MS. 1. 0. 375 has pra^ati.MS. 1. 0. 1973 pra^apati. 

8 Here we have Pra^apati, instead of Brahman, in the KAiad. 
Up. ; also wesh/Aa instead of vasish/>ia. 



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VI ADHYAYA, I BRAHMAJVA, 1 4. 203 

but breathing with the breath, speaking with the 
tongue, seeing with the eye, knowing with the mind, 
generating with seed. Thus we have lived.' Then 
the ear entered in. 

11. The mind departed, and having been absent 
for a year, it came back and said : ' How have you 
been able to live without me ?' They replied : 'Like 
fools, not knowing with their mind, but breathing 
with the breath, seeing with the eye, hearing with 
the ear, generating with seed. Thus we have lived.' 
Then the mind entered in. 

12. The seed departed, and having been absent 
for a year, it came back and said : ' How have you 
been able to live without me ? ' They replied : 
'Like impotent people, not generating with seed, 
but breathing with the breath, seeing with the eye, 
hearing with the ear, knowing with the mind. Thus 
we have lived.' Then the seed entered in. 

13. The (vital) breath, when on the point of de- 
parting, tore up these senses, as a great, excellent 
horse of the Sindhu country might tare up the pegs 
to which he is tethered. They said to him : ' Sir, 
do not depart. We shall not be able to live without 
thee.' He said : ' Then make me an offering/ 
They said : ' Let it be so.' 

14. Then the tongue said : ' If I am the richest, 
then thou art the richest by it.' The eye said : 
' If I am the firm rest, then thou art possessed of 
firm rest by it.' The ear said : ' If I am success, 
then thou art possessed of success by it.' The mind 
said : ' If I am the home, thou art the home by 
it.' The seed said : ' If I am generation, thou art 
possessed of generation by it.' He said : ' What shall 
be food, what shall be dress for me ?' 



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204 BK/HADARAiVYAKA-UPANISHAD. 

They replied: ' Whatever there is, even unto dogs, 
worms, insects, and birds 1 , that is thy food, and water 
thy dress. He who thus knows the food of Ana (the 
breath) 2 , by him nothing is eaten that is not (proper) 
food, nothing is received that is not (proper) food. 
•Srotriyas (Vedic theologians) who know this, rinse 
the mouth with water when they are going to eat, and 
rinse the mouth with water after they have eaten, 
thinking that thereby they make the breath dressed 
(with water).' 

Second BrAhmajva 8 . 

i. .Svetaketu Aru«eya went to the settlement of 
the Pa#£alas. He came near to Pravaha«a Cai- 
vali *, who was walking about (surrounded by his 
men). As soon as he (the king) saw him, he said : 
' My boy !' Svetaketu replied : ' Sir !' 

Then the king said : ' Have you been taught by 
your father ! ' ' Yes,' he replied. 

2. The king said : ' Do you know how men, when 
they depart from here, separate from each other?' 
' No,' he replied. 

' Do you know how they come back to this 
world?' ' No,' he replied 6 . 

1 It may mean, every kind of food, such as is eaten by dogs, 
worms, insects, and birds. 

2 We must read, with MS. I.0. 375, anasyannam, not annasyan- 
nam, as MS. I.0. 1973, Roer, and Poley read Weber has the right 
reading, which is clearly suggested by .Oand. Up. V, 2, 1. 

* See JOand. Up.V, 3 ; Muir, Original Sanskrit Texts, I, 433; 
Deussen,Vedanta, p. 390. The commentator treats this chapter as 
a supplement, to explain the ways that lead to the pitr«loka and 
the devaloka. 

4 The MSS. I. O. 375 and 1973 give Gaivali, others (raibali. 
He is a Kshatriya sage, who appears also in iTMnd. Up. I, 8, 1, as 
silencing Brahma«as. 

6 The same question is repeated in Roer's edition, only substi- 



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VI ADHYAYA, 2 BRAHMAiVA, 4. 205 

' Do you know how that world does never become 
full with the many who again and again depart 
thither ?' ' No,' he replied. 

' Do you know at the offering of which libation 
the waters become endowed with a human voice 
and rise and speak ?' ' No,' he replied. 

' Do you know the access to the path leading to 
the Devas and to the path leading to the Fathers, 
i. e. by what deeds men gain access to the path lead- 
ing to the Devas or to that leading to the Fathers ? 
For we have heard even the saying of a ifo'shi : " I 
heard of two paths for men, one leading to the 
Fathers, the other leading to the Devas. On those 
paths all that lives moves on, whatever there is be- 
tween father (sky) and mother (earth)." ' 

►SVetaketu said : ' I do not know even one of all 
these questions.' 

3. Then the king invited him to stay and accept 
his hospitality. But the boy, not caring for hospi- 
tality, ran away, went back to his father, and said : 
' Thus then you called me formerly well-instructed !' 
The father said : ' What then, you sage ?' The son 
replied : ' That fellow of a Ra^anya asked me five 
questions, and I did not know one of them.' 

' What were they ? ' said the father. 
' These were they,' the son replied, mentioning 
the different heads. 

4. The father said : ' You know me, child, that 
whatever I know, I told you. But come, we shall 
go thither, and dwell there as students.' 

' You may go, Sir,' the son replied. 



tuting sampadyante for Spadyante. The MSS. I. O. 375 and 1973 
do not support this. 



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206 bk/hadArajvyaka-upanishad. 

Then Gautama went where (the place of) Prava- 
ha#a Gaivali was, and the king offered him a seat, 
ordered water for him, and gave him the proper 
offerings. Then he said to him : ' Sir, we offer a 
boon to Gautama.' 

5. Gautama said : ' That boon is promised to 
me; tell me the same speech which you made in 
the presence of my boy.' 

6. He said : 'That belongs to divine boons, name 
one of the human boons.' 

7. He said : ' You know well that I have plenty of 
gold, plenty of cows, horses, slaves, attendants, and 
apparel ; do not heap on me 1 what I have already in 
plenty, in abundance, and superabundance.' 

The king said : ' Gautama, do you wish (for in- 
struction from me) in the proper way ? ' 

Gautama replied : ' I come to you as a pupil.' 
In word only have former sages (though Brah- 
mans) come as pupils (to people of lower rank), but 
Gautama actually dwelt as a pupil (of Praviha«a, 
who was a Ra^anya) in order to obtain the fame of 
having respectfully served his master 2 . 

1 Abhyavadanya is explained as niggardly, or unwilling to give, 
and derived from vadanya, liberal, a-vadanya, illiberal, and abhi, 
towards. This, however, is an impossible form in Sanskrit 
VadSnya means liberal, and stands for avadanya, this being 
derived from avadina, lit. what is cut off, then a morsel, a gift. In 
abhyavadanya the original a reappears, so that abhyavadanya 
means, not niggardly, but on the contrary, liberal, i. e. giving more 
than is required. Avadinya has never been met with in the sense 
of niggardly, and though a rule of Pawini sanctions the formation of 
a-vad&nya, it does not say in what sense. Abhyavada in the sense 
of cutting off in addition occurs in Satap. Br. II, 5, 2, 40 ; avadanaw 
karoti, in the sense of making a present, occurs Maitr. Up.VI, 33. 

2 The commentator takes the opposite view. In times of 
distress, he says, former sages, belonging to a higher caste, have 



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VI ADHYAYA, 2 BRAHMAATA, II. 207 

8. The king said : ' Do not be offended with us, 
neither you nor your forefathers, because this know- 
ledge has before now never dwelt with any Brah- 
ma«a'. But I shall tell it to you, for who could 
refuse you when you speak thus ? 

9. ' The altar (fire), O Gautama, is that world 
(heaven) 2 ; the fuel is the sun itself, the smoke his 
rays, the light the day, the coals the quarters, the 
sparks the intermediate quarters. On that altar 
the Devas offer the .sraddha libation (consisting of 
water 3 ). From that oblation rises Soma, the king 
(the moon). 

10. ' The altar, O Gautama, is Par^anya (the god 
of rain) ; the fuel is the year itself, the smoke the 
clouds, the light the lightning, the coals the thunder- 
bolt, the sparks the thunderings. On that altar the 
Devas offer Soma, the king (the moon). From that 
oblation rises rain. 

1 1. ' The altar, O Gautama, is this world 4 ; the 
fuel is the earth itself, the smoke the fire, the light 
the night, the coals the moon, the sparks the stars. 
On that altar the Devas offer rain. From that 
oblation rises food. 

submitted to become pupils to teachers of a lower caste, not, how- 
ever, in order to learn, but simply in order to live. Therefore 
Gautama also becomes a pupil in name only, for it would be 
against all law to act otherwise. See Gautama, Dharma-sutras 
VII, 1, ed. Stenzler; translated by Btthler, p. 209. 

1 Here, too, my. translation is hypothetical, and differs widely 
from .Sankara. 

2 Cf. Z/iand. Up.V, 4. 

8 Deussen translates : ' In diesem Feuer opfern die Gotter den 
Glauben.' 

4 Here a distinction is made between aya*» loka, this world, and 
pn'thivt, earth, while in the Kh&nA. Up. aya** loka is the earth, 
asau loka the heaven. 



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208 b«/hadAraayaka-upanishad. 

12. 'The altar, O Gautama, is man; the fuel the 
opened mouth, the smoke the breath, the light the 
tongue, the coals the eye, the sparks the ear. On 
that altar the Devas offer food. From that oblation 
rises seed. 

13. ' The altar, O Gautama, is woman 1 . On that 
altar the Devas offer seed. From that oblation 
rises man. He lives so long as he lives, and then 
when he dies, 

14. ' They take him to the fire (the funeral pile), 
and then the altar-fire is indeed fire, the fuel fuel, 
the smoke smoke, the light light, the coals coals, the 
sparks sparks. In that very altar-fire the Devas 
offer man, and from that oblation man rises, brilliant 
in colour. 

1 5. ' Those who thus know this (even GWhasthas), 
and those who in the forest worship faith and the 
True 2 (Brahman Hira«yagarbha), go to light (ar- 
i£is), from light to day, from day to the increasing 
half, from the increasing half to the six months 
when the sun goes to the north, from those six 
months to the world of the Devas (Devaloka), from 
the world of the Devas to the sun, from the sun to the 
place of lightning. When they have thus reached the 
place of lightning a spirit 8 comes near them, and leads 
them to the worlds of the (conditioned) Brahman. 
In these worlds of Brahman they dwell exalted for 
ages. There is no returning for them. 

1 Tasyd upastha eva samil, lomani dhumo, yonir ar£ir, yad 
anta^karoti te 'ngara, abhinancUl visphulihga^. 

2 Sahkara translates, ' those who with faith worship the True,' 
and this seems better. 

3 ' A person living in the Brahma-world, sent forth, i. e. created, 
by Brahman, by the mind,' Ankara. 'Der ist nicht wie ein 
Mensch,' Deussen, p. 392. 



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VI ADHYAYA, 3 BRAHMAiVA, I. 209 

1 6. ' But they who conquer the worlds (future ^ 
states) by means of sacrifice, charity, and austerity, 
go to smoke, from smoke to night, from night to the 
decreasing half of the moon, from the decreasing 
half of the moon to the six months when the sun 
goes to the south, from these months to the world 
of the fathers, from the world of the fathers to the 
moon. Having reached the moon, they become food, 
and then the Devas feed on them there, as sacrificers 
feed on Soma, as it increases and decreases 1 . But 
when this (the result of their good works on earth) 
ceases, they return again to that ether, from ether 
to the air, from the air to rain, from rain to the 
earth. And when they have reached the earth, they 
become food, they are offered again in the altar-fire, 
which is man (see \ 1 1), and thence are born in the 
fire of woman. Thus they rise up towards the worlds, 
and go the same round as before. 

' Those, however, who know neither of these two 
paths, become worms, birds, and creeping things.' 

Third BrAhmajva 2 . 

1. If a man wishes to reach greatness (wealth for 
performing sacrifices), he performs the upasad rule 
during twelve days 3 (i. e. he lives on small quantities 
of milk), beginning on an auspicious day of the light 
half of the moon during the northern progress of the 
sun, collecting at the same time in a cup or a dish 

1 See note 4 on .ffMnd. Up.V, 10, andDeussen,Vedanta,p. 393. 
.Sahkara guards against taking apyayasv£pakshfyasva as a Mantra. 
A similar construction is^iyasva mr/yasva, see ATMnd. Up. V, io, 8. 

2 Madhyandina text, p. 1 103 ; cf. KhinA. Up.V, 2, 4-8 ; Kaush. 
Up. II, 3. 

3 Yasmin pu«ye 'nukufe 'hni karma £ikirshati tata/4 prak puwya- 
ham evarabhya dvad&raham upasadvratt. 

[i5] P 



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2 1 BK/HADARAiVYAKA-UPANISHAD. 

made of Udumbara wood all sorts of herbs, includ- 
ing fruits. He sweeps the floor (near the house- 
altar, avasathya), sprinkles it, lays the fire, spreads 
grass round it according to rule \ prepares the clari- 
fied butter (a^ya), and on a day, presided over by a 
male star (nakshatra), after having properly mixed 
the Mantha 2 (the herbs, fruits, milk, honey, &c), 
he sacrifices (he pours a^ya into the fire), saying 3 : 
' O <7atavedas, whatever adverse gods there are in 
thee, who defeat the desires of men, to them I offer 
this portion ; may they, being pleased, please me 
with all desires.' Svaha ! 

' That cross deity who lies down 4 , thinking that 
all things are kept asunder by her, I worship thee 
as propitious with this stream of ghee.' Svaha ! 

2. He then says, Svaha to the First, Svaha to 
the Best, pours ghee into the fire, and, throws what 
remains into the Mantha (mortar). 

He then says, Svaha to Breath, Svaha to her who 
is the richest, pours ghee into the fire, and throws 
what remains into the Mantha (mortar). 

He then says, Svaha to Speech, Svaha to the 
Support, pours ghee into the fire, and throws what 
remains into the Mantha (mortar). 

He then says, Svaha to the Eye, Svaha to Success, 
pours ghee into the fire, and throws what remains 
into the Mantha (mortar). 

He then says, Svaha to the Ear, Svaha to the 

1 As the whole act is considered sm&rta, not jrauta, the order to 
be observed (ivrit) is that of the sthalfpdka. 

2 Dravadravye prakshipta mathitSA saktava^ is the explanation 
of Mantha, given in Gaimin. N. M.V. p. 406. 

3 These verses are not explained by .Sahkara, and they are 
absent in the -fiTMnd. Up. V, 2, 6, 4. 

4 The Madhyandinas read nipadyase. 



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VI ADHYAYA, 3 BRAHMANA, 3. 211 

Home, pours ghee into the fire, and throws what 
remains into the Mantha (mortar). 

He then says, Svaha to the Mind, Svaha to Off- 
spring, pours ghee into the fire, and throws what 
remains into the Mantha (mortar). 

He then says, Svaha to Seed, pours ghee into the fire, 
and throws what remains into the Mantha (mortar). 

3. He then says, Svaha to Agni (fire), pours ghee 
into the fire, and throws what remains into the 
Mantha (mortar). 

He then says, Svaha to Soma, pours ghee into 
the fire, and throws what remains into the Mantha 
(mortar). 

He then says, BhM (earth), Svaha, pours ghee 
into the fire, and throws what remains into the 
Mantha (mortar). 

He then says, Bhuva^ (sky), Svaha, pours ghee 
into the fire, and throws what remains into the 
Mantha (mortar). 

He then says, Sva^ (heaven), Svaha, pours ghee 
into the fire, and throws what remains into the 
Mantha (mortar). 

He then says, Bhur, Bhuva^, Sva^, Svaha, pours 
ghee into the fire, and throws what remains into the 
Mantha (mortar). 

He then says, Svaha to Brahman (the priesthood), 
pours ghee into the fire, and throws what remains 
into the Mantha (mortar). 

He then says, Svaha to Kshatra (the knighthood), 
pours ghee into the fire, and throws what remains 
into the Mantha (mortar). 

He then says, Svaha to the Past, pours ghee into 
the fire, and throws what remains into the Mantha 
(mortar). 

p 2 



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2 I 2 B-R/IIADARAJVYAKA-UPANISHAD. 

He then says, Svaha to the Future, pours ghee 
into the fire, and throws what remains into the 
Mantha (mortar). 

He then says, Svahi to the Universe, pours ghee 
into the fire, and throws what remains into the 
Mantha (mortar). 

He then says, Svaha to all things, pours ghee into 
the fire, and throws what remains into the Mantha 
(mortar). 

He then says, Svaha to Prafipati, pours ghee 
into the fire, and throws what remains into the 
Mantha (mortar). 

4. Then he touches it (the Mantha, which is dedi- 
cated to Pra«a, breath), saying : ' Thou art fleet (as 
breath). Thou art burning (as fire). Thou art full 
(as Brahman). Thou art firm (as the sky). Thou 
art the abode of all (as the earth). Thou hast been 
saluted with Hin (at the beginning of the sacrifice 
by the prastotrz). Thou art saluted with Hih (in 
the middle of the sacrifice by the prastotrz). Thou 
hast been sung (by the udgatrz at the beginning of 
the sacrifice). Thou art sung (by the udgatrz in the 
middle of the sacrifice). Thou hast been celebrated 
(by the adhvaryu at the beginning of the sacrifice). 
Thou art celebrated again (by the agnldhra in the 
middle of the sacrifice). Thou art bright in the wet 
(cloud). Thou art great. Thou art powerful. Thou 
art food (as Soma). Thou art light (as Agni, fire, 
the eater). Thou art the end. Thou art the ab- 
sorption (of all things).' 

5. Then he holds it (the Mantha) forth, saying : 
' Thou 1 knowest all, we know thy greatness. He is 

1 These curious words a - marasi a" mawhi te mahi are not 
explained by Sankara. Anandagiri explains them as I have trans- 



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VI ADHYAYA, 3 BRAHMAtfA, 7. 213 

indeed a king, a ruler, the highest lord. May that 
king, that ruler make me the highest lord.' 

6. Then he eats it, saying: 'Tat savitur vare- 
wyam 1 (We meditate on that adorable light) — The 
winds drop honey for the righteous, the rivers drop 
honey, may our plants be sweet as honey! BhM 
(earth) Svaha ! 

' Bhargo devasya dhimahi (of the divine 
Savitrz) — May the night be honey in the morning, 
may the air above the earth, may heaven, our father, 
be honey ! Bhuva^ (sky) Svaha ! 

'Dhiyo yo naA pro^odayat (who should rouse 
our thoughts) — May the tree be full of honey, may 
the sun be full of honey, may our cows be sweet like 
honey ! Sva^ (heaven) Svaha ! ' 

He repeats the whole Savitri verse, and all the 
verses about the honey, thinking, May I be all this ! 
Bhur, Bhuva^, Sva^, Svaha ! Having thus swal- 
lowed all, he washes his hands, and sits down behind 
the altar, turning his head to the East. In the 
morning he worships Aditya (the sun), with the 
hymn, ' Thou art the best lotus of the four quarters, 
may I become the best lotus among men.' Then 
returning as he came, he sits down behind the altar 
and recites the genealogical list 2 . 

7. Uddalaka Aru«i told this (Mantha-doctrine) to 
his pupil VcLfasaneya Ya^wavalkya, and said : ' If 
a man were to pour it on a dry stick, branches would 
grow, and leaves spring forth.' 

lated them. They correspond to ' amo namasy ami hi te sarvam 
idam' in the KhinA. Up. V, 2, 6, 6. The Madhyandinas read : 
£mo 'sy imaw hi te mayi, sa hi ra^-d, &c. Dvivedagahga translates : 
' thou art the knower, thy knowledge extends to me.' 

1 Rv. Ill, 62, 10. 

8 This probably refers to the list immediately following. 



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2 1 4 B/tfHADAR AATY AK A-U PANISH AD. 

8. Va/asaneya Y&^wavalkya told the same to his 
pupil Madhuka Paingya, and said : ' If a man were to 
pour it on a dry stick, branches would grow, and 
leaves spring forth.' 

9. Madhuka Paingya told the same to his pupil 
A'ula Bhagavitti, and said: 'If a man were to pour 
it on a dry stick, branches would grow, and leaves 
spring forth.' 

10. ./Tula Bhagavitti told the same to his pupil 
Canaki Ayasthu#a, and said : ' If a man were to 
pour it on a dry stick, branches would grow, and 
leaves spring forth.' 

11. Canaki Ayasthu«a told the same to his pupil 
Satyakama (Cabala, and said : ' If a man were to 
pour it on a dry stick, branches would grow, and 
leaves spring forth.' 

1 2. Satyakama Cabala told the same to his pupils, 
and said : ' If a man were to pour it on a dry stick, 
branches would grow, and leaves spring forth.' 

Let no one tell this * to any one, except to a son 
or to a pupil 2 . 

13. Four things are made of the wood of the 
Udumbara tree, the sacrificial ladle (sruva), the cup 
(^amasa), the fuel, and the two churning sticks. 

There are ten kinds of village (cultivated) seeds, 
viz. rice and barley (brihiyavas), sesamum and kidney- 
beans (tilamashas), millet and panic seed (a^upriyan- 
gavas), wheat (godhumas), lentils (masuras), pulse 
(khalvas), and vetches (khalakulas 3 ). After having 

1 The Mantha-doctrine with the prawadanrana. Comm. 

2 It probably means to no one except to one's own son and 
to one's own disciple. Cf. .Svet. Up. VI, 22. 

8 I have given the English names after Roer, who, living in India, 
had the best opportunity of identifying the various kinds of plants 
here mentioned. The commentators do not help us much. .Sankara 



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VI ADHYAYA, \ BRAHMAiVA, 2. 2 1 5 

ground these he sprinkles them with curds (dadhi), 
honey, and ghee, and then offers (the proper por- 
tions) of clarified butter x (&£ya). 

Fourth Brahma^a*. 

i. The earth is the essence of all these things, 
water is the essence of the earth, plants of water, 
flowers of plants, fruits of flowers, man of fruits, 
seed of man. 

2. And Pra^apati thought, let me make an abode 
for him, and he created a woman (.Satarupa). 

Ta#z 3 snshAradha upista, tasmat striyam adha 
upaslta. Sa etam pra«^aw grava^am atmana eva 
samudaparayat, tenainim abhyasre^at 

says that in some places Priyangu (panic seed or millet) is called 
Kaftgu ; that Khalva, pulse, is also called Nishpava and Valla, and 
Khalakula, vetches, commonly Kulattha. Dvivedagahga adds that 
A«u is called in Guzerat Moriya, Priyangu Kahgu, Khalva, as 
nishpava, Valla, and Khalakula Kulattha. 

1 According to the rules laid down in the proper Gn'hya-sutras. 

2 This Brahma»a is inserted here because there is supposed 
to be some similarity between the preparation of the .Srrmantha 
and the Putramantha, or because a person who has performed the 
•SWmantha is fit to perform the Putramantha. Thus .Sankara 
says: Pr&wadawinaA jrimanthaw karma kn'tavataA putramanthe 
'dhikaraA. Yada putramanthaw £ikirshati tada" .rrimanthaOT kr/'tva 
r/tukalaw? patnya^ (brahmaiaryewa) pratikshata iti. 

3 I have given those portions of the text which did not admit of 
translation into English, in Sanskrit. It was not easy, however, to 
determine always the text of the Ka«va-s&kM. Poley's text is not 
always correct, and Roer seems simply to repeat it. -Sankara's com- 
mentary, which is meant for the Ka«va text, becomes very short 
towards the end of the Upanishad. It is quite sufficient for the pur- 
pose of a translation, but by no means always for restoring a correct 
text. MS. Wilson 369, which has been assigned to theKawva-jakha, 
and which our Catalogue attributes to the same school, gives the 
MSdhyandina text, and so does MS. Mill 108. I have therefore col- 
lated two MSS. of the India Office, which Dr. Rost had the kindness 
to select for me, MS. 375 and MS. 1973, which I call A. and B. 



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2 1 6 b-r/hadArajvyaka-upanishad; 

3. Tasya vedir upastho, lomani barlm, £arm&- 
dhishavawe, samiddho 1 madhyatas, tau mushkau. 
Sa yavan ha vai va^apeyena ya^amanasya loko 
bhavati tavan asya loko bhavati ya eva#z vidvan 
adhopahasaw iaraty a sa 2 strln&m sukrzta#z vrmkte 
'tha ya idam avidvan adhopahasa#z iaraty asya 
striya^ sukrz'taw vringate. 

4. Etad dha sma vai tadvidvan Uddalaka Aruwir 
ahaitad dha sma vai tadvidvan Nako Maudgalya ahai- 
tad dha sma vai tadvidvan Kumaraharita aha, bahavo 
marya brahma«ayana 3 nirindriya visukfz'to'smal lokat 
prayanti 4 ya idam avidvawzso 'dhopahasaw ^arantiti. 
Bahu va 5 idam suptasya va^agrato va reta^ skandati, 

5. Tad abhimrzVed anu va mantrayeta yan me 
'dya reta^ przthivim askantsld yad oshadhir apy 
asarad yad apa^, idam aham tad reta adade punar 
mam aitv indriyam punas te^a^ punar bhaga^, punar 
agnayo 6 dhishwya yathasthanaw kalpantam, ity 
anamikangushAfcabhyam adayantarewa stanau v& 
bhruvau va nimrm^yat 7 . 

6. If a man see himself in the water 8 , he should 

1 Roer reads samidho, but -Sankara and Dvivedagahga clearly 
presuppose samiddho, which is in A. and B. 

2 Roer has &sim sa stri«Sm, Poley, A. and B. have asiw strtwSm. 
•Sahkara (MS. Mill 64) read £ sa stri«am, and later on asya striyaA, 
though both Roer and Poley leave out the a here too (a asyeti Medzh). 

3 Brahma«ayanaA, the same as brahmabandhavaA, i. e. Brahmans 
by descent only, not by knowledge. 

4 Narakaw ga^MantityarthaA. Dvivedagahga. 
6 Bahu va svalpaw va. 

6 The Madhyandina text has agnayo, and Dvivedagahga explains 
it by dhishwyi agnayaA .rarlrasthita^. Poley and Roer have punar 
agnir dhishwya, and so have A. and B. 

7 Nirmrzgyat, A. ; mmringy&t, B. 

8 Dvivedagahga adds, retoyonav udake reta^si^as tatra svaMAi- 
yidarrane prayaj&ttam aha. 



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VI ADHYAYA, 4 BRAHMAiVA, IO. 1TJ 

recite the following verse : ' May there be in me 
splendour, strength, glory, wealth, virtue.' 

She is the best of women whose garments are 
pure \ Therefore let him approach a woman whose 
garments are pure, and whose fame is pure, and 
address her. 

7. If she do not give in 2 , let him, as he likes, bribe 
her (with presents). And if she then do not give in, 
let him, as he likes, beat her with a stick or with his 
hand, and overcome her 8 , saying: 'With manly 
strength and glory I take away thy glory,' — and 
thus she becomes unglorious *. 

8. If she give in, he says : ' With manly strength 
and glory I give thee glory,' — and thus they both 
become glorious. 

9. Sa yam i&Met kamayeta meti tasyam arthaw 
nish/aya 5 mukhena mukhaw sandhayopastham asya 
abhimrwya ^aped angadangat sambhavasi hrzdayad 
adhi ^yase, sa tvam angakashayo 6 'si digdhavid- 
dham 7 iva madayemam amum maylti 8 . 

10. Atha yam i/&6^en na garbha^ dadhtteti 9 tas- 
yam arthaw nish&ya mukhena mukhaw sandhaya- 
bhiprawyapanyad indriye«a te retasa reta adada ity 
areta 10 eva bhavati. 

1 Triratravrata/» kr/tva £aturtha 'hni snatam. 

2 Instead of connecting kamam with dady&t, Dvivedaganga 
explains it by yath&sakti. 

3 Atikram, scil. maithunaya. * BandhyS durbhaga\ 
8 Nish/aya, A. B.; nish/Mya, Roer, Poley; the same in § 10. 
8 Sa tvam angana/ra kashayo raso 'si. 

7 Vishaliptataraviddham mr/'glm iva. 

8 Madayeti is the reading of the Mddhyandina text. Poley, Roer, 
A. and B. read midayem&m amum mayiti. Anandagiri has mrz'gim 
ivamum m&diy&m striyam me madaya madvaja/H kurv ityarthaA. 
Dvivedaganga explains madayeti. 

Rupabhraawayauvanahanibhayat. J0 Agarbhiwi. 



9 



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2 i 8 b/s/hadarawyaka-upanishad. 

ii. Atha yam \&Med garbha#* dadhlteti tasyam 
arthaw nish/aya mukhena mukha/# sandhayapa- 
nyabhipra#yad indriye#a te retasa reta adadhamlti 
garbhi«y eva bhavati. 

12. Now again, if a man's wife has a lover and 
the husband hates 'him, let him (according to rule) 1 
place fire by an unbaked jar, spread a layer of arrows 
in inverse order 2 , anoint these three arrow-heads 3 
with butter in inverse order, and sacrifice, saying : 
' Thou hast sacrificed in my fire, I take away thy up 
and down breathing, I here *.' 

' Thou hast sacrificed in my fire, I take away thy 
sons and cattle, I here.' 

' Thou hast sacrificed in my fire, I take away thy 
sacred and thy good works, I here.' 

' Thou hast sacrificed in my fire, I take away thy 
hope and expectation, I here.' 

He whom a Brahma»a who knows this curses, de- 
parts from this world without strength and without 
good works. Therefore let no one wish even for 
sport with the wife of a .Srotriya 6 who knows this, for 
he who knows this, is a dangerous enemy. 

1 3. When the monthly illness seizes his wife, she 

1 AvasathySgnim eva pra^valya. 

2 Yasfomigram dakshi«agra/» va yatha syat tatha. 

8 Tisra^ is left out by Roer and Poley, by A. and B. 

4 I have translated according to the Ka«va text, as far as it could 
be made out. As there are four imprecations, it is but natural that 
tisra^ should be left out in the Kl»va text. It is found in the 
Madhyandina text, because there the imprecations are only three in 
number, viz. the taking away of hope and expectation, of sons and 
cattle, and of up and down breathing. Instead of asav iti, which is 
sufficient, the Midhyandina text has as&v iti nama gr*h#ati, and both 
Anandagiri and Dvivedaganga allow the alternative, atmanaA jatror 
va nama grihniti, though asau can really refer to the speaker only. 

5 Roer reads dvarewa * Poley, A. and B. dare«a; the Madhyan- 



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VI ADHYAYA, 4 BRAHMAtfA, 1 8. 2^0. 

should for three days not drink from a metal vessel, 
and wear a fresh dress. Let no VWshala or VWshali 
(a 6"udra man or woman) touch her. At the end of 
the three days, when she has bathed, the husband 
should make her pound rice \ 

14. And if a man wishes that a white son should 
be born to him, and that he should know one Veda, 
and live to his full age, then, after having prepared 
boiled rice with milk and butter, they should both 
eat, being fit to have offspring. 

15. And if a man wishes that a reddish 2 son with 
tawny eyes should be born to him, and that he 
should know two Vedas, and live to his full age, 
then, after having prepared boiled rice with coagu- 
lated milk and butter, they should both eat, being 
fit to have offspring. 

16. And if a man wishes that a dark son should 
be born to him with red eyes, and that he should 
know three Vedas, and live to his full age, then, after 
having prepared boiled rice with water and butter, 
they should both eat, being fit to have offspring. 

1 7. And if a man wishes that a learned daughter 
should be born to him, and that she should live to 
her full age, then, after having prepared boiled rice 
with sesamum and butter, they should both eat, 
being fit to have offspring. 

18. And if a man wishes that a learned son should 
be born to him, famous, a public man, a popular 
speaker, that he should know all the Vedas, and that 

dinas g&y&yL .Sankara, according to Roer, interprets dvarewa, but 
it seems that darewa is used here in the singular, instead of the 
plural. See PSraskara Gnhya-sutras I, 1 1. 

1 To be used for the ceremony described in § 1 4 seq. 

2 Kapilo var«ataA pihgalaA pingaksha^. 



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2 20 B/JJHADARAiVYAKA-UPANISHAD. 

he should live to his full age, then, after having pre- 
pared boiled rice with meat and butter, they should 
both eat, being fit to have offspring. The meat 
should be of a young or of an old bull. 

19. And then toward morning, after having, ac- 
cording to the rule of the Sthalipaka (pot-boiling), 
performed the preparation of the A^ya (clarified 
butter 1 ), he sacrifices from the Sthalipaka bit by bit, 
saying : ' This is for Agni, Svaha ! This is for Anu- 
mati, Svaha ! This is for the divine Savitri, the true 
creator, Svaha !' Having sacrificed, he takes out the 
rest of the rice and eats it, and after having eaten, 
he gives it to his wife. Then he washes his hands, 
fills a water-jar, and sprinkles her thrice with it, 
saying : ' Rise hence, O Visvavasu 2 , seek another 
blooming girl, a wife with her husband.' 

20. Then he embraces her, and says : 'I am Ama 
(breath), thou art Sa (speech) 3 . Thou art Si (speech), 
I am Ama (breath). I am the Saman, thou art the 
Rik \ I am the sky, thou art the earth. Come, let 
us strive together, that a male child may be 
begotten V 

1 Kaxxxm .rrapayitvi. 

2 Name of a Gandharva, as god of love. See Rig-veda X, 85, 22. 
Dvivedaganga explains the verse differently, so that the last words 
imply, I come together with my own wife. 

3 Because speech is dependent on breath, as the wife is on the 
husband. See #Mnd. Up. I, 6, 1. 

* Because the S&ma-veda rests on the Rig-veda. 

5 This is a verse which is often quoted and explained. It occurs 
in the Atharva-veda XIV, 71, as 'amo 'ham asmi si tvaw*, samd- 
ham asmy rik tvam, dyaur aham pr/thivi tvam; tdv iha sam 
bhaviva pra^im i ^anayivahai.' 

Here we have the opposition between amaA and si, while in 
the Ait. Brihmawa VIII, 27, we have amo 'ham asmi sa tvam, 
giving amaA in opposition to sa. It seems not unlikely that this 



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VI ADHYAYA, 4 BRAHMAiVA, 23. 221 

21. Athasya tirti vihapayati, vifihithatf* dyavaprz- 
thivi iti tasyam arthaw nish^aya mukhena mukhaw 
sandhaya trir enam anulomam 1 anumarshri, Vishmir 
yoniw kalpayatu, Tvash/a rupa#i pimsatu, asiw^atu 
Pra^apatir Dhata garbhaw dadhatu te. Ga.tbb.am 
dhehi Sintvali, garbhaw dhehi pmhushAike, garbhaw 
te A$vinau devav adhattam pushkarasra^au. 

22. Hirawmayl ara»l yabhya*# nirmanthatam 2 arvi- 
nau 8 , tarn te garbha#2 havamahe* dasame masi 
sutave. Yathagnigarbha pmhivi, yatha dyaur in- 
dre»a garbhi«t, vayur disam yatha garbha evaw 
garbhaw dadhami te 'sav iti 6 . 

23. Soshyant!m 6 adbhirabhyukshati. Yatha vayu^ 7 
pushkari«!w sami^ayati sarvata^, eva te garbha 
e^atu sahavaitu ^arayu«4. Indrasyayaw vra^a/i 
krztaA sarga/a^ 8 sapariiraya^ 9 , tarn indra nir^ahi 
garbhe«a savaraw 10 saheti. 

was an old proverbial formula, and that it meant originally no more 
than ' I am he, and thou art she.' But this meaning was soon for- 
gotten. In the A'Mnd. Up. I, 6, i, we find si explained as earth, 
ama as fire (Sacred Books of the East, vol. i, p. 13). In the Ait. 
Brahmawa s£ is explained as Rik, ama as Saman. I have therefore 
in our passage also followed the interpretation of the commentary, 
instead of rendering it, ' I am he, and thou art she ; thou art she, 
and I am he.' 

1 Anulomam, murdhanam arabhya pSdantam. 

2 Nirmathitavantau. 8 Arvinau devau, Madhyandina text. 

* Dadhamahe, Madhyandina text Instead of sutave, A. has 
suyate, B. sutaye. 

6 Iti nama gr«h«ati, Madhyandina text. .Sankara says, asav iti 
tasya^. Anandagiri says, asav iti patyur vi nirdejaA ; tasyi nama 
gn'hwatiti purve«a sambandhaA. Dvivedaganga says, ante bharta- 
sav aham iti sv&tmano nima gnhwdti, bhirydyi v&. 

* See Paraskara Gr»"hya-sutra 1, 16 seq. 7 V&tah, M. 

8 Arga</aya nirodhena saha vartamanaA s£rga</aA, Dvivedaganga. 

* SaparurayaA, parorayewa parivesh/anena ^arayuwa sahitaA, 
Dvivedaganga. 

10 Savaram is the reading given by Poley, Roer, A. and B. 



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I 



222 B/lTHADARAiVYAKA-UPANISHAD. 

24 1 . When the child is born, he prepares the fire, 
places the child on his lap, and having poured pn- 
shada^ya, i. e. dadhi (thick milk) mixed with ghrita. 
(clarified butter) into a metal jug, he sacrifices bit by 
bit of that pr/shada^ya, saying : ' May I, as I in- 
crease in this my house, nourish a thousand ! May 
fortune never fail in his race, with offspring and 
cattle, Svaha!' 

' I offer to thee in my mind the vital breaths which 
are in me, Svaha ! ' 

' Whatever 2 in my work I have done too much, 
or whatever I have here done too little, may the wise 
Agni Svishtakrh make this right and proper for us, 
Svaha!' 

25. Then putting his mouth near the child's 
right ear, he says thrice, Speech, speech 3 ! After 

Anandagiri explains : garbhanL$sarareanantara« yd miwzsapejt 
nirga£A5ati s&vara, tint fa nirgamayety arthaA. Dvivedagaftga (ed. 
Weber) writes: nirgamyamSnamSwsapejl sS-avarajabdaviiyi, turn 
savaraw ka. nirgamaya. 

1 These as well as the preceding rules refer to matters generally 
treated in the Gr«hya-sutras ; see Arvaliyana, Gn'hya-sutras I, 
13 seq.; Paraskara, Gn'hya-sutras 1, 11 seq. ; .SSnkhiyana, Gnhya- 
sutras I, 19 seq. It is curious, however, that Arval&yana I, 13, 1, 
refers distinctly to the Upanishad as the place where the puwsavana 
and similar matters were treated. This shows that the Upanishads 
were known before the composition of the Gr«hya-sutras, and 
explains perhaps, at least partially, why the Upanishads were con- 
sidered as rahasya. Afvalayana says, ' Conception, begetting of a 
boy, and guarding the embryo are to be found in the Upanishad. 
But if a man does not read the Upanishad, let him know that he 
should feed his wife,' &c. N&raya«a explains that Awaldyana here 
refers to an Upanishad which does not exist in his own 5dkM, but 
he objects to the conclusion that therefore the garbhidh&na and 
other ceremonies need not be performed, and adds that some hold 
it should be performed, as prescribed by -Saunaka and others. 

a Awalayana, Gr/hya-sutra 1, 10, 23. 

* Trayilaksha«& vak tvayi pravwatv iti ^apato 'bhipriyaA. 



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VI ADHYAYA, 4 BRAHMAJVA, 28. 223 

that he pours together thick milk, honey, and clari- 
fied butter, and feeds the child with (a ladle of) 
pure gold 1 , saying : ' I give thee Bhfi^, I give thee 
Bhuva^, I give thee Sva^ 2 . Bhur, BhuvaA, Sva^, I 
give thee all V 

26 4 . Then he gives him his name, saying: 'Thou 
art Veda ;' but this is his secret name 8 . 

27. Then he hands the boy to his mother and 
gives him her breast, saying : ' O Sarasvatl, that 
breast of thine which is inexhaustible, delightful, 
abundant, wealthy, generous, by which thou cherish- 
est all blessings, make that to flow here 6 .' 

28 7 . Then he addresses the mother of the boy : 

1 Cf. Paraskara Gr/hya-sfitras I, 16, 4, an&mikaya' suvarwlntar- 
hitaya; Saftkhayana, Grchya-sfitras I, 24, pra^aye^ ^Starupe«a. 

* Bhur bhuvaA svaA are explained by Dvivedaganga as the Hi'g- 
veda, Ya^-ur-veda, and S&ma-veda. They might also be earth, air, 
and heaven. See Sankhiyana, Gnhya-sfttras I, 24; Bhur r/gveda»» 
tvayi dadhami, &c. 

* The Madhyandinas add here another verse, which the father 
recites while he strokes his boy : ' Be a stone, be an axe, be pure 
gold. Thou art my Self, called my son ; live a hundred harvests.' 
The same verse occurs in the Arvalayana Gr»hya-s<itras 1, 15, 3. 

4 The two ceremonies, here described, are the dyushya-karman 
and the medha^anana. They are here treated rather confusedly. 
Piraskara (Gnhya-sutras I, 16, 3) distinguishes the medha^anana 
and the Syushya. He treats the medha^anana first, which consists 
in feeding the boy with honey and clarified butter, and saying to 
him bhus tvayi dadhimi, &c. The ayushya consists in repeating 
certain verses in the boy's ear, wishing him a long life, &c. In 
Afvalayana's Gr/nya-sutras, 1, 15, 1 contains the dyushya, 1, 15, 2 
the medha^-anana. .SSnkhiyana also (1, 24) treats the ayushya first, 
and the medha^anana afterwards, and the same order prevails in 
the Madhyandina text of the Br*hadara»yaka-upanishad. 

6 In the Madhyandina text these acts are differently arranged. 

* Rig-veda 1, 164, 49. 

7 These verses are differently explained by various commentators. 
Anandagiri explains Hi as stutyi, bhogyl He derives Maitr&vanwi 



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224 B/J/HADARAJVYAKA-UPANISHAD. 

' Thou art I /a Maitravariml : thou strong woman 
hast born a strong boy. Be thou blessed with 
strong children thou who hast blessed me with a 
strong child.' 

And they say of such a boy : ' Ah, thou art better 
than thy father ; ah, thou art better than thy grand- 
father. Truly he has reached the highest point in 
happiness, praise, and Vedic glory who is born as 
the son of a Brahma#a that knows this.' 

Fifth BrAhmawa. 

i. Now follows the stem 1 : 

i. Pautimashiputra from Katyayaniputra, 

from Maitrivaruwa, i. e. Vasish//4a, the son of Mitravaru»au, and 
identifies her with Arundhat!. Dvivedagahga takes ida as bhogya, 
or irfap&trt, or pr*"thivirup&, and admits that she may be called 
Maitravaruwt, because born of Mitr&varu«au. Vfre is rightly taken 
as a vocative by Dvivedagahga, while Anandagiri explains it as a 
locative, mayi nimittabhute. One expects agtganah instead of 
a^iganat, which is the reading of A. and B. The reading of the 
Madhyandinas, a^-igunatha^, is right grammatically, but it offends 
against the metre, and is a theoretical rather than a real form. 
If we read a^ana^, we must also read akaraA, unless we are 
prepared to follow the commentator, who supplies bhavati. 

1 The Madhyandinas begin with vayam,we, then i. Bharadva^f- 
putra, 2. Vatsima«</aviputra, 3. PaYarariputra, 4. Gargiputra, 5. Pd- 
rirarl-kauWiniputra, 6. Gargiputra, 7.Gdrgiputra, 8. Bsufeyiputra, 
9. Maushiklputra, 10. Harikar«iputra, n. Bhiradva^iputra, 12. 
Paiftgiputra, 13. .Saunakiputra, 14. KSjyapf-bilakyd-ma/Aariputra, 
15. Kautsiputra, 16. Baudhiputra, 1 7. Salahkayaniputra, i8.Varsha- 
gamputra, 19. Gautamiputra, 20. Atreyfputra, 21. Gautamtputra, 
22. VStsiputra, 23. Bharadva^iputra, 24. PadLrariputra, 25. Vdrkd- 
ruwiputra ; then from No. 20 as in the Kiwva text. 

This stem is called by .Sahkara, Samastaprava^anavawwa^, and 
Anandagiri adds, purvau vamsan purushavLreshitau, tr/tiyas tu 
striviseshitaA, stripradhanyit. Dvivedagahga writes, putramantha- 
barmanah strisa/raskararthatvenoktatv&t tatsannidhanad ayam vamsah 
stripWidh&nyeno^yate. 



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VI ADHYAYA, 5 BRAHMAiVA, 2. 225 

1* 1 1 . ■ ■ ... 

2. Katyayanlputra from Gotamtputra, 

3. Gotamtputra from Bharadv&fiputra, 

4. Bharadva^iputra from Parasarlputra, 

5. Parasarlputra from Aupasvattputra, 

6. Aupasvattputra from Parasariputra, 

7. Parasarlputra from Katyayanlputra, 

8. Katyayanlputra from Kau.sikiputra, 

9. Kau-fiklputra from Alambiputra and Vaiya- 

ghrapadtputra, 

10. Alambiputra and Vaiyaghrapadtputra from 

Ka«viputra, 

11. Ka#vlputra from Kaplputra, 

12. Kaptputra 
from Atreylputra, 

1 3. Atreylputra from Gautamtputra, 

14. Gautamtputra from Bharadv&fiputra, 

15. Bharadva^lputra from Parasariputra, 

16. Parasarlputra from Vatslputra, 

1 7. Vatslputra from Pararariputra, 

18 1 . Parasartputra from Varkaruwlputra, 

19. Varkaru«iputra from Virkaruwlputra, 

20. Varkaru#iputra from Artabhagiputra, 

21. Artabhagiputra from 5aunglputra, 

22. .Saunglputra from Sankmlputra, 

23 2 . Sankrztiputra from Alambayanlputra, 

24. Alambayanlputra from Alambtputra, 

25. Alambiputra from <7ayantlputra, 

26. ^ayantlputra from Ma»^ukayantputra, 

27. Mawofakayanlputra from Ma«afaktputra, 

28. Ma»^uklputra from -SaTzaTillputra, 

29. -SatfrtTiliputra from Rathltarlputra, 
30 3 . Rathltarlputra from Bhaluklputra, 

1 M. has only one. 2 M. inverts 23 and 24. 

8 Deest in M. 

[15] Q 



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2 26 BK/HADARAiVYAKA-UPANISHAD. 

31. Bhalukiputra from Krauw&klputrau, 

32. Kraiwiiktputrau from Vai//abhatlputra \ 

33. Vai^abhattputra from Karcakeyiputra 2 , 

34. Karrakeytputra from Pra/£inayogtputra, 

35. Pra^inayoglputra from Sa#fiv!putra s , 

36. Sa«glviputra from Praj«tputra Asurivasin, 

37. Praraiputra Asurivasin from Asurayawa, 

38. Asuraya«a from Asuri, 

39. Asuri 

3. from YcL^wavalkya, 

40. Ya,f»avalkya from Uddalaka, 

41. Uddalaka from Anma, 

42. Aruwa from Upavesi, 

43. Upavesi from Karri, 

44. Ku^ri from Va^a^ravas, 

45. Va^asravas from Cihvavat Vadhyoga, 

46. Cihvavat Vadhyoga from Asita Varshaga«a, 

47. Asita Varshaga«a from Harita Kasyapa, 

48. Harita Kasyapa from 6*ilpa Kasyapa, 

49. .Silpa Kasyapa from Kasyapa Naidhruvi, 

50. Kasyapa Naidhruvi from Vai,- 

5 1 . Vai from Ambhwi, 

52. Ambhi«l from Aditya, the Sun. 

As coming from Aditya, the Sun, these pure* 
Ya^us verses have been proclaimed by Yagtia.- 
valkya Va^asaneya. 



1 Vaidabhn'ttputra, M. * Bhalukiputra, M. 

* K&nrakeyiputra after 35 in M. 

4 They are called .ruklani, white or pure, because they are not 
mixed with Brahmawas, avy&mura»i bralima«ena (doshair asankir- 
wani, paurusheyatvadoshadvar£bhav&d ityarthaA). Or they are ayS- 
tayamani, unimpaired. Anandagiri adds, Pra^apatim &rabhya 
Saw^iviputraparyantaw (No. 36) Va£asaneyu£kh£su sarv£sv eko 
vamsa. ity&ha sam&nam iti. Dvivedaganga says : Va£wakhava^//in- 



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VI ADHYAYA, 5 BRAHMAWA, 4. 227 

4 \ The same as far as SMfivlputra (No. 36), then 

36. Sa»^iv!putra from Ma»afakayani, 

37. Ma#dukayani from Ma«davya, 

38. Ma#davya from Kautsa, 

39. Kautsa from Mahitthi, 

40. Mahitthi from Vamakakshaya#a, 

41. Vamakakshaya#a from SkncTilya., 

42. S&ndilya. from Vatsya, 

43. Vatsya from Kmri, 

44. Ku^ri from Ya^ava/fcas Ra^astambayana, 

45. Ya£$avaias Ra^astambayana from Tura 

Kavasheya, 

46. Tura Kavasheya from Pra^apati, 

47. Pra^apati from Brahman, 

48. Brahman is Svayambhu, self-existent. 
Adoration to Brahman ! 

n&na7& yagush&m Suryewopadish/atvaw Ya^liavalkyena prSptatvam 
ka. pur&weshu prasiddham. 

1 This last paragraph is wanting in the M&dhyandina text, but a 
very similar paragraph occurs in &tapatha-brahma»a X, 6, 5, 9, 
where, however, Vatsya comes before .SaWilya. 



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SVETASVATARA- 
UPANISHAD. 



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SVETASVATARA- 
UPANISHAD. 



V 



FIRST ADHYAYA. 

i. The Brahma-students say : Is Brahman the 
cause * ? Whence are we born ? Whereby do we 
live, and whither do we go ? O ye who know 
Brahman, (tell us) at whose command we abide, 
whether in pain or in pleasure ? 

1 This translation seems the one which Sankara himself prefers, 
for on p. 277, when recapitulating, he says, kirn brahma karawam 
ahosvit kaladi. In comparing former translations, whether by 
Weber, Roer, Gough, and others, it will be seen that my own differs 
considerably from every one of them, and differs equally from 
.Sankara's interpretation. It would occupy too much space to criti- 
cise former translations, nor would it seem fair, considering how 
long ago they were made, and how imperfect were the materials 
which were then accessible. All I wish my readers to understand 
is that, if I differ from my predecessors, I do so after having care- 
fully examined their renderings. Unfortunately, Roer's edition of 
both the text and the commentary is often far from correct. 
Thus in the very first verse of the -SVetarvatara-upanishad, I think 
we ought to read sampratish/£a£, instead of sampratish/Aita^. In 
the commentary the reading is right. Vyavasyam is a misprint for 
vyavastham. In the second verse we must separate kala/5 and 
svabhavaA. YzdrikkM, no very unusual word, meaning chance, 
was formerly taken for a name of the moon! Instead of na tvatma- 
bhavat, both sense and metre require that we should read 
anatmabhavat, though the commentators take a different view. 
They say, because, there is a self, and then go on to say that even 
that would not suffice. Such matters, however, belong to a critical 
commentary on the Upanishads rather than to a translation, and I 
can refer to them in cases of absolute necessity only, and where the 
readings of the two MSS., A. and B, seem to offer some help. 



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232 SVETASVATARA-UPANISHAD. 

2. Should time, or nature 1 , or necessity, or chance, 
or the elements be considered as the cause, or he 
who is called the person (purusha, vi^wanatma) ? It 
cannot be their union either, because that is not self- 
dependent 2 , and the self also is powerless, because 
there is (independent of him) a cause of good and 
evil 3 . 

3. The sages, devoted to meditation and concen- 
tration, have seen the power belonging to God 
himself*, hidden in its own qualities (gu«a). He, 
being one, superintends all those causes, time, self, 
and the rest 6 . 

4 6 . We meditate on him who (like a wheel) has 
one felly with three tires, sixteen ends, fifty spokes, 
with twenty counter-spokes, and six sets of eight; 

1 Svabhiva, their own nature or independent character. 
* Union presupposes a uniter. 

3 AtmS is explained by Sankara as the glv&h, the living self, and 
as that living self is in his present state determined by karman, 
work belonging to a former existence, it cannot be thought of as 
an independent cause. 

4 Devdtmarakti is a very important term, differently explained 
by the commentators, but meaning a power belonging to the Deva, 
the L-vara, the Lord, not independent of him, as the Sankhyas 
represent Prakr/ti or nature. Herein lies the important distinction 
between VedSnta and Sdnkhya. 

8 K£l&tmabhy£ta» yukt&ni, kalapurushasaflzyukt&ni svabh&vSdini. 
Atman is here taken as synonymous with purusha in verse 2. 

6 It is difficult to say whether this verse was written as a summing 
up of certain technicalities recognised in systems of philosophy exist- 
ing at the time, or whether it is a mere play of fancy. I prefer the 
former view, and subjoin the explanation given by .Sankara, though 
it is quite possible that on certain points he may be mistaken. The 
trvara or deva is represented as a wheel with one felly, which 
would seem to be the phenomenal world. It is called trivri't, three- 
fold, or rather having three tires, three bands or hoops to bind the 
felly, these tires being intended for the three gu«as of the praknli, 
the Sattva, Ra^as, and Tamas. In the Brahmopanishad (Bibl. Ind. 



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I ADHYAYA, 4. 233 



whose one rope is manifold, who proceeds on three 
different roads, and whose illusion arises from two 
causes. 

p. 251) the trivr/t sutram is mentioned. Next follows shodas&atam, 
ending in the sixteen. These sixteen are differently explained. 
They may be meant for the five elements and the eleven indriyas 
or organs (the five receptive and the five active senses, together with 
manas, the common sensory) ; or for the sixteen kal&s, mentioned 
in the Pramopanishad, VI, 1, p. 283. Then follows a new inter- 
pretation. The one felly may be meant for the chaos, the unde- 
veloped state of things, and the sixteen would then be the two 
products in a general form, the Vira£ and the Sutrltman, while the 
remaining fourteen would be the individual products, the bhuvanas 
or worlds beginning with BhM. 

Next follows jatSrdh&ram, having fifty spokes. These fifty 
spokes are supposed to produce the motion of the mundane wheel, 
and are explained by Sankara as follows : 

1. The five Viparyayas, misconceptions, different kinds of igno- 
rance or doubt, viz. Tamas, Moha, MahSmoha, TSmisra, Andhata"- 
misra, or, according to Pata%ali, ignorance, self-love, love, hatred, 
and fear (Yoga-sutras I, 8 ; II, 2 ; S&hkhya-sutras III, 37). 

2. The twenty-eight Afaktis, disabilities, causes of misconception. 
(See S&nkhya-sutras III, 38.) 

3. The nine inversions of the Tush/is, satisfactions. (S&nkhya- 
sutras III, 39.) 

4. The eight inversions of the Siddhis, perfections. (Sdhkhya- 
sutras III, 40.) 

These are afterwards explained singly. There are 8 kinds of 
Tamas, 8 kinds of Moha, 10 kinds of Mah&moha, 18 kinds of 
Tdmisra, and 18 kinds of Andhatamisra, making 62 in all. More 
information on the Araktis, the Tush/is, and Siddhis may be found 
in the Sahkhya-sutras III, 37-45; Sahkhya-kdriM 47 seq.; Yoga- 
sutras II, 2 seq. 

Then follow the 20 pratyaras, the counter-spokes, or wedges to 
strengthen the spokes, viz. the 10 senses and their 10 objects. 

The six ash/akas or ogdoads are explained as the ogdoads of 
Prakr*ti, of substances (dhdtu), of powers (auvarya), of states 
(bh&va), of gods (deva), of virtues (&tmagu«a). 

The one, though manifold cord, is love or desire, Kdma, whether 
of food, children, heaven or anything else. 

The three paths are explained as righteousness, unrighteousness, 



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/"" 



234 SVETASVATARA-UPANISHAD. 

5 1 . We meditate on the river whose water con- 
sists of the five streams, which is wild and winding 
with its five springs, whose waves are the five vital 
breaths, whose fountain head is the mind, the course 
of the five kinds of perceptions. It has five whirl- 
pools, its rapids are the five pains ; it has fifty kinds 
of suffering, and five branches. 

6. In that vast Brahma-wheel, in which all things 
live and rest, the bird flutters about, so long as he 
thinks that the self (in him) is different from the 
mover (the god, the lord). When he has been 
blessed by him, then he gains immortality 2 . 

7. But what is praised (in the Upanishads) is the 

and knowledge, and the one deception arising from two causes is 
ignorance of self, produced by good or bad works. 

1 Here again, where the favara is likened to a stream, the 
minute coincidences are explained by Sankara in accordance with 
certain systems of philosophy. The five streams are the five recep- 
tive organs, the five springs are the five elements, the five waves 
are the five active organs. The head is the manas, the mind, or . 
common sensory, from which the perceptions of the five senses 
spring. The five whirlpools are the objects of the five senses, the 
five rapids are the five pains of being in the womb, being born, 
growing old, growing ill, and dying. The next adjective pam£&- 
■radbhed&m is not fully explained by .Sankara. He only mentions 
the five divisions of the kl&ra (see Yoga-sutras II, 2), but does not 
show how their number is raised to fifty. Dr. Roer proposes to 

.read paw£aklera-bhed£m, but that would not agree with the metre. 
The five parvans or branches are not explained, and niay refer to 
the fifty kinds of suffering (klera). The whole river, like the 
wheel in the preceding verse, is meant for the Brahman askirya- 
k&rawatmaka, in the form of cause and effect, as the phenomenal, 
not the absolutely real world. 

2 If he has been blessed by the tfvara, i. e. when he has been 
accepted by the Lord, when he has discovered his own true self in 
the Lord. It must be remembered, however, that both the Is vara, the 
Lord, and the purusha, the individual soul, are phenomenal only, 
and that the Brahma-wheel is meant for the prapa»Ua, the manifest, 
but unreal world. 



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I ADHYAYA, IO. 235 



Highest Brahman, and in it there is the triad 1 . The 
Highest Brahman is the safe support, it is imperish- 
able. The Brahma-students 2 , when they have known 
what is within this (world), are devoted and merged 
in the Brahman, free from birth 3 . 
. 8. The Lord (tsa) supports all this together, the 
perishable and the imperishable, the developed and 
the undeveloped. The (living) self, not being a lord, 
is bound 4 , because he has to enjoy (the fruits of 
works) ; but when he has known the god (deva), he 
is freed from all fetters. 

9. There are two, one knowing (trvara), the other 
not-knowing (fiva), both unborn, one strong, the 
other weak 6 ; there is she, the unborn, through 
whom each man receives the recompense of his 
works 6 ; and there is the infinite Self (appearing) 
under all forms, but himself inactive. When a man 
finds out these three, that is Brahma 7 . 

10. That which is perishable 8 is the Pradh&na 9 
(the first), the immortal and imperishable is Hara 10 . 

1 The subject (bhoktn), the object (bhogya), and the mover 
(preritr/), see verse 12. 
8 B. has Vedavido, those who know the Vedas. 
8 Tasmin praliyate tv atma" samSdhW sa udahn'taA. 

4 Read badhyate for budhyate. 

5 The form faantrau is explained as ^dndasa ; likewise brah- 
mam for brahma. 

• Cf. .SVet. Up. IV, 5, bhuktabhogyara. 

* The three are (1) the lord, the personal god, the creator and 
ruler ; (2) the individual soul or souls ; and (3) the power of creation, 
the devatmarakti of verse 3. AU three are contained in Brahman ; 
see verses 7, 12. So 'pi may! paramewaro mSyopidhisannidhes 
tadvan iva. 

8 See verse 8. 

8 The recognised name for Prakrc'ti, or here Devatmarakti, in 
the later S&ftkhya philosophy. 

'* Hara, one of the names of .Siva or Rudra, is here explained as 



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236 svetasvatara-upanishad. 

The one god rules the perishable (the pradhana) and 
the (living) self 1 . From meditating on him, from 
joining him, from becoming one with him there is 
further cessation of all illusion in the end. 

1 1. When that god is known, all fetters fall off, 
sufferings are destroyed, and birth and death cease. 
From meditating on him there arises, on the disso- 
lution of the body, the third state, that of universal 
lordship 2 ; but he only who is alone, is satisfied 3 . 

12. This, which rests eternally within the self, 
should be known ; and beyond this not anything has 
to be known. By knowing the enjoyer*, the enjoyed, 
and the ruler, everything has been declared to be 
threefold, and this is Brahman. 

13. As the form of fire, while it exists in the 
under-wood 5 , is not seen, nor is its seed destroyed, 

avidyader harawat, taking away ignorance. He would seem to be 
meant for the trvara or deva, the one god, though immediately after- 
wards he is taken for the true Brahman, and not for its phenomenal 
divine personification only. 

1 The self, atman, used here, as before, for purusha, the indi- 
vidual soul, or rather the individual souls. 

2 A blissful state in the Brahma-world, which, however, is not 
yet perfect freedom, but may lead on to it. Thus it is said in the 
•Slvadharmottara : 

Dhyanad awvaryam atulam auvaryat sukham uttamam, 
(rwanena tat paritya^ya videho muktim Spnuyat. 

8 This alone-ness, kevalatvam, is produced by the knowledge 
that the individual self is one with the divine self, and that both the 
individual and the divine self are only phenomenal forms of the 
true Self, the Brahman. 

4 BhoktS, possibly for bhoktrit, unless it is a A!Mndasa form. 
It was quoted before, Bibl. Ind. p. 292, 1. 5. The enjoyer is the 
purusha, the individual soul, the subject ; the enjoyed is prakre'ti, 
nature, the object ; and the ruler is the fevara, that is, Brahman, as 
god. I take brahmam etat in the same sense here as in verse 9. 

' This metaphor, like most philosophical metaphors in Sanskrit, 



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I adhyAya, i 6. 237 



but it has to be seized again and again by means of 
the stick and the under-wood, so it is in both cases, 
and the Self has to be seized in the body by means 
of the pra#ava (the syllable Om). 

14. By making his body the under-wood, and the 
syllable Om the upper-wood, man, after repeating 
the drill of meditation, will perceive the bright god, 
like the spark hidden in the wood '. 

1 5. As oil in seeds, as butter in cream, as water 
in (dry) river-beds 2 , as fire in wood, so is the Self 
seized within the self, if man looks for him by truth- 
fulness and penance 3 ; 

16. (If he looks) for the Self that pervades every- 
thing, as butter is contained in milk, and the roots 
whereof are self-knowledge and penance- That is 
the Brahman taught by the Upanishad. 

is rather obscure at first sight, but very exact when once under- 
stood. Fire, as produced by a fire drill, is compared to the Self. 
It is not seen at first, yet it must be there all the time ; its linga 
or subtle body cannot have been destroyed, because as soon as the 
stick, the indhana, is drilled in the under-wood, the yoni, the fire 
becomes visible. In the same way the Self, though invisible during 
a state of ignorance, is there all the time, and is perceived when 
the body has been drilled by the Prawava, that is, after, by a con- 
stant repetition of the sacred syllable Om, the body has been sub- 
dued, and the ecstatic vision of the Self has been achieved. 

Indhana, the stick used for drilling, and yoni, the under-wood, in 
which the stick is drilled, are the two arawis, the fire-sticks used for 
kindling fire. See Tylor, Anthropology, p. 260. 

1 Cf. Dhyanavindupan. verse 20; Brahmopanishad, p. 256. 

2 Srotas, a stream, seems to mean here the dry bed of a stream, 
which, if dug into, will yield water. 

8 The construction is correct, if we remember that he who is 
seized is the same as he who looks for the hidden Self. But the 
metre would be much improved if we accepted the reading of the 
Brahmopanishad, evam £tma dtmani gnhyate 'sau, which is con- 
firmed by B. The last line would be improved by reading, satye- 
nainaw ye 'nupajyanti dhiraA. 



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238 SVETA.SVATARA-UPANISHAD. 



SECOND ADHYAYA. 

i 1 . Savhri (the sun), having first collected his 
mind and expanded his thoughts, brought Agni (fire), 
when he had discovered his light, above the earth. 

2 2 . With collected minds we are at the command of 
the divine Savitr?, that we may obtain blessedness. . 

1 The seven introductory verses are taken from hymns addressed 
to Savitr* as the rising sun. They have been so twisted by .Sankara, 
in order to make them applicable -to the teachings of the Yoga 
philosophy, as to become almost nonsensical. I have given a few 
specimens of <Saftkara's renderings in the notes, but have translated 
the verses, as much as possible, in their original character. As 
they are merely introductory, 1 do not understand why the collector 
of the Upanishad should have seen in them anything but an invo- 
cation of Savitn. 

These verses are taken from various Saznhitas. The first yuw^anaA 
prathamam is from Taitt. Sa»m. IV, 1, r, 1, 1 ; Va^. Sawh. XI, 1; 
see also Sat. Br. VI, 3, 1, 12. The Taittiriya-text agrees with the 
Upanishad, the Vag'asaneyi-text has dhiyam for dhiya^, and agneA 
for agnim. Both texts take tatvaya as a participle of tan, while the 
Upanishad reads tattvaya, as a dative of tattva, truth. I have 
translated the verse in its natural sense. .Sankara, in explaining 
the Upanishad, translates : ' At the beginning of our meditation, 
joining the mind with the Highest Self, also the other prawas, or 
the knowledge of outward things, for the sake of truth, Savitn, 
out of the knowledge of outward things, brought Agni, after 
having discovered his brightness, above the earth, in this body.' He 
explains it : ' May Savitri, taking our thoughts away from outward 
things, in order to concentrate them on the Highest Self, produce 
in our speech and in our other senses that power which can lighten 
all objects, which proceeds from Agni and from the other favour- 
able deities.' He adds that ' by the favour of Savitr*', Yoga may 
be obtained.' 

2 The second verse is from Taitt. Sawh. IV, 1,1,1,3; v ^fi , > Sa/nh. 
XI, 2. TheVa^asaneyi-texthassvargyayaforsvargeyaya,andjaktya 
for s aktyai. .Sankara explains : ' With a mind that has been joined 



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II ADHYAYA, 4. 239 



3 1 . May SavitW, after he has reached with his 
mind the gods as they rise up to the sky, and with 
his thoughts (has reached) heaven, grant these gods 
to make a great light to shine. 

4 2 . The wise sages of the great sage collect their 
mind and collect their thoughts. He who alone 
knows the law (Savitrz) has ordered the invocations ; 
great is the praise of the divine SavitW. 

by Savitr/ to the Highest Self, we, with the sanction of that Savitr? - , 
devote ourselves to the work of meditation, which leads to the 
obtainment of Svarga, according to our power.' He explains 
Svarga by Paramatman. Sayawa in his commentary on the Taitti- 
rtya-sarahita explains svargeyaya by svargaloke gfyam&nasyagneA 
sampadanaya; Sahkara, by svargapraptihetubhutaya dhyanakar- 
mawe. Saktyai is explained by .Sahkara by yathasamarthyam ; by 
Saya«a, by rakta bhuyasma. Mahldhara explains jaktya by svasd- 
marthyena. I believe that the original reading was svargyaya 
jaktyai, and that we must take jaktyai as an infinitive, like ityai, 
construed with a dative, like dmaye suryaya, for the seeing of the 
sun. The two attracted datives would be governed by save, 'we 
are under the command of Savitn',' svargyaya saktyai, 'that we 
may obtain svargya, life in Svarga or blessedness.' 

1 The third verse is from Taitt. Sarah. IV, 1,1,1,2; Va^. Sarah. 
XI, 3. The Taittiriyas read yuktvaya manasa ; the Vi^asaneyins, 
yuktvaya savitd. .Sahkara translates : ' Again he prays that Savitre - , 
having directed the devas, i. e. the senses, which are moving towards 
Brahman, and which by knowledge are going to brighten up the 
heavenly light of Brahman, may order them to do so ; that is, he 
prays that, by the favour of Savit/7, our senses should be turned 
away from outward things to Brahman or the Self.' Taking the 
hymn as addressed to Savitr/', I have translated deva by gods, not 
by senses, suvaryata^ by rising to the sky, namely, in the morning. 
The opposition between manasa and dhiyS is the same here as in 
verse 1, and again in verse 4. 

2 This verse is from Taitt. Sarah. IV, 1, 1, 1, 4; 1, 2, 13, 1, 1 ; 
Va^. Sarah. V, I4 ; XI, 4; XXXVII, 2; Rig-veda V,8i, 1; Sat. 
Br. Ill, 5, 3, 11; VI, 3, 1,16. Sahkara explains this verse again in 
the same manner as he did the former verses, while the Satapatha- 
brahmawa supplies two different ritual explanations. 



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24O SVETASVATARA-UPANISHAD. 

5 1 . Your old prayer has to be joined 2 with praises. 
Let my song go forth like the path of the sun ! May 
all the sons of the Immortal listen, they who have 
reached their heavenly homes. 

6. Where the fire is rubbed 3 , where the wind is 
checked, where the Soma flows over, there the mind 
is born. 

1 For this verse, see Taitt. Sarah. IV, 1, i, 2, 1 ; VSg-. Sarah. XI, 5; 
Atharva-veda XVIII, 3, 39 ; Rig-vedaX, 13, 1. The Va^asaneyins 
read vi j loka etu for vi f loka yanti ; sureA for suriA ; srinvantii for 
jri'«vanti ; and the Rig-veda agrees with them. The dual vam is 
accounted for by the verse belonging to a hymn celebrating the 
two fakatas, carts, bearing the offerings (havirdhane) ; most likely, 
however, the dual referred originally to the dual deities of heaven 
and earth. 1 prefer the text of the Rig-veda and the Va^asaneyins 
to that of the Taittirfyas, and have translated the verse accordingly. 
In the Atharva-veda XVIII, 39, if we may trust the edition, the 
verse begins with svasasthe bhavatam indave naA, which is really 
the end of the next verse (Rv. X, 13, 2), while the second line is, 
vi floka eti pathyeva suriA srinvanta virve amr/tasa etat. I see no 
sense in pathyeva suraA. Saftkara explains pathyeva by pathi san- 
marge, athava pathyS kirtLfc, while his later commentary, giving 
w*'«vantu and putraA suratmano hira«yagarbhasya, leads one to sup- 
pose that he read sureA srinvuntu. Sayawa (Taitt. Sarah. IV, 1, 1, 
2) explains pathya sura iva by gfrva»amarga antarikshe suryara- 
wnayo yatha prasaranti tadvat. The same, when commenting on 
the Rig-veda (X, 13, 1), says: pathya-iva sureA, yatha stotuA sva- 
bhuta pathya pariwamasukhavahahutir vuvan dev&n prati vividhara 
ga£Mati tadvat. Mahtdhara (V&g. Sarah. XI, 5) refers sureA 
(pa»rfitasya) to slokaA, and explains pathyeva by patho 'napeta 
pathya yagwamargapravn'ttahutiA. 

8 Yu^e" cannot stand for yuiige, as all commentators and trans- 
lators suppose, but is a datival infinitive. Neither can yu%ate in 
the following verse stand for yuhkte (see Boehtlingk, s. v.), or be 
explained as a subjunctive form. A. reads adhirudhyate, B. abhi- 
rudhyate, with a marginal note abhinudyate. It is difficult to say 
whether in lighting the fire the wind should be directed towards it, 
or kept from it. 

8 That is, at the Soma sacrifice, after the fire has been kindled 
and stirred by the wind, the poets, on partaking of the juice, are 



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II ADHYAYA, IO. 24 1 



7. Let us love the old Brahman by the grace of 
Savitrz ; if thou make thy dwelling there, the path 
will not hurt thee \ 

8. If a wise man hold his body with its three erect 
parts (chest, neck, and head) even 2 , and turn his 
senses with the mind towards the heart, he will then 
in the boat of Brahman 3 cross all the torrents which 
cause fear. 

9. Compressing his breathings let him, who has 
subdued all motions, breathe, forth through the nose 
with gentle breath * Let the wise man without fail 
restrain his mind, that chariot yoked with vicious 
horses 5 . 

10. Let him perform his exercises in a place 6 

inspirited for new songs. Sankara, however, suggests another expla- 
nation as more appropriate for the Upanishad, namely, 'Where the 
fire, i.e. the Highest Self, which burns all ignorance, has been kindled 
(in the body, where it has been rubbed with the syllable Om), and 
where the breath has acted, i. e. has made the sound peculiar to the 
initial stages of Yoga, there Brahman is produced.' In fact, what 
was intended to be taught was this, that we must begin with sacri- 
ficial acts, then practise yoga, then reach samadhi, perfect know- 
ledge, and lastly bliss. 

1 We must read kr»«avase, in the sense of ' do this and nothing 
will hurt thee,' or, if thou do this, thy former deeds will no longer 
hurt thee. 

a Cf. Bhagavadgitd VI, 13. Samaw kSyafirogrivaw dh&rayan. 
Sankara says: tri«y unnat&ny urogrivafirSwsy unnatani yasmin 
rarire. 

8 Explained by Sankara as the syllable Om. 

4 Cf. Bhagavadgfta V, 27. PfSwipdnau samau kn'tva nisibhyan- 
tara £ari»au. See Telang's notes, Sacred Books of the East, vol. viii, 
p. 68 seq. 

6 A similar metaphor in Ka/4. Up. Ill, 4-6 ; Sacred Books of 
the East, vol. xv, p. 13. 

* The question is whether jabda^alifrayadibhiA should be referred 
to mano 'nukule, as I have translated it, or to vivar^ite, as Sankara 
seems to take it, because he renders rabda, sound, by noise, and 

[15] R 



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242 ■SVETA.SVATARA-UPANISHAD. 

level, pure, free from pebbles, fire, and dust, delightful 
by its sounds, its water, and bowers, not painful to 
the eye, and full of shelters and caves. 

ii. When Yoga is being performed, the forms 
which come first, producing apparitions in Brahman, 
are those of misty smoke, sun, fire, wind, fire-flies, 
lightnings, and a crystal moon 1 . 

12. When, as earth, water, light, heat, and ether 
arise, the fivefold quality of Yoga takes place 2 , 
then there is no longer illness, old age, or pain 3 for 
him who has obtained a body, produced by the fire 
of Yoga. 

1 3. The first results of Yoga they call lightness, 
healthiness, steadiness, a good complexion, an easy 
pronunciation, a sweet odour, and slight excretions. 

14. As a metal disk (mirror), tarnished by dust, 
shines bright again after it has been cleaned, so 
is the one incarnate person satisfied and free from 
grief, after he has seen the real nature of the 
self 4 . 

irraya by maWapa, a booth. See Bhagavadgfta VI, 11. In the 
Maitr. Up. VI, 30, R&matirtha explains sukaa. dese by girinadl- 
pulinaguMduuddhasthane. See also Afv. GnTiya-sfttras III, 2, 2. 

1 Or, it may be, a crystal and the moon. 

8 The Yogaguwa is described as the quality of each element, 
i. e. smell of the earth, taste of water, &c. It seems that the per- 
ception of these guwas is called yogapravntti. Thus by fixing the 
thought on the tip of the nose, a perception of heavenly scent is 
produced ; by fixing it on the tip of the tongue, a perception of 
heavenly taste ; by fixing it on the point of the palate, a heavenly 
colour ; by fixing it on the middle of the tongue, a heavenly touch ; 
by fixing it on the roof of the tongue, a heavenly sound. By means 
of these perceptions the mind is supposed to be steadied, because 
it is no longer attracted by the outward objects themselves. See 
Yoga-sutras I, 35. 

8 Or no death, na mrityuh, B. 

* Paresham pa/fe tadvat sa tattvam prasamikshya dehtti. 



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II ADHYAYA, 1 7. 243 



15. And when by means of the real nature of his 
self he sees, as by a lamp, the real nature of Brah- 
man, then having known the unborn, eternal god, 
who is beyond all natures 1 , he is freed from all 
fetters. 

16. He indeed is the god who pervades all regions : 
he is the first-born (as Hirawyagarbha), and he is in 
the womb. He has been born, and he will be born 2 . 
He stands behind all persons, looking everywhere. 

1 7. The god s who is in the fire, the god who is 
in the water, the god who has entered into the whole 
world, the god who is in plants, the god who is in 
trees, adoration be to that god, adoration ! 

x Sarvatattvair avidyatatkaryair vmiddham asa»»spnsh/am. 

• This verse is found in the V&g. Sarah. XXXII, 4 ; Taitt. Ar. X, 
1, 3, with slight modifications. The Va^asaneyins read esho ha (so 
do A. B.) for esha hi ; sa eva gatah (A. B.) for sa vig&tah ; ganis 
(A.B.) for^anaws. The Arawyaka has sa vig&ya.m&naA for sa vig&taA, 
pratyanmukhas for pratyamg-anaras, and vwvatomukhaA for sarvato- 
mukhaA. Colebrooke (Essays, I, 57) gives a translation of it. 
If we read gan&fi, we must take it as a vocative. 

8 B. (not A.) reads yo rudro yo 'gnau. 



R 2 

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244 SVETASVATARA-UPANISHAD. 



THIRD ADHYAYA 1 . 

i. The snarer 2 who rules alone by his powers, 
who rules all the worlds by his powers, who is one 
and the same, while things arise and exist 3 , — they 
who know this are immortal. 

2. For there is one Rudra only, they do not. allow 
a second, who rules all the worlds by his powers. 
He stands behind all persons*, and after having 
created all worlds he, the protector, rolls it up 5 at 
the end of time. 

3 6 . That one god, having his eyes, his face, his 
arms, and his feet in every place, when producing 
heaven and earth, forges them together with his 
arms and his wings 7 . 

1 This Adhyaya represents the Highest Self as the personified 
deity, as the lord, isa., or Rudra, under the sway of his own creative 
power, prakr/'ti or maya. 

2 .Sankara explains ^ala, snare, by m&ya\ The verse must be 
corrected, according to Ankara's commentary: 

ya eko ^alavan trata faantbhiA 
sarvaS Uokan irata UanlbhiA. 

8 Sambhava, in the sense of Vergehen, perishing, rests on no 
authority. 

4 Here again the MSS. A. B. read ^-anas, as a vocative. 

6 1 prefer samiukofta. to sawz^ukopa, which gives us the meaning 
that Rudra, after having created all things, draws together, i. e. 
takes them all back into himself, at the end of time. I have trans- 
lated szmsngya, by having created, because Boehtlingk and Roth 
give other instances of samsrig with that sense. Otherwise, ' having 
mixed them together again,' would seem more appropriate. A. and 
B. read saw^uko^a. 

• This is a very popular verse, and occurs Rig-veda X, 8i, 3; 
Va£\ Sawh. XVII, 19 ; Ath.-veda XIII, 2, 26 ; Taitt. Sa**h. IV, 6, 
2, 4; Taitt. Ar. X, 1, 3. 

7 .Sahkara takes dhamati in the sense of sawyo^ayati, i. e. he 
joins men with arms, birds with wings. 



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Ill ADHYAYA, 9. 245 



4. He 1 , the creator and supporter of the gods, 
Rudra, the great seer, the lord of all, he who 
formerly gave birth to Hira#yagarbha, may he 
endow us with good thoughts. 

5 2 . O Rudra, thou dweller in the mountains, look 
upon us with that most blessed form of thine which 
is auspicious, not terrible, and reveals no evil ! 

6 3 .. O lord of the mountains, make lucky that arrow 
which thou, a dweller in the mountains, holdest in 
thy hand to shoot. Do not hurt man or beast ! 

7. Those who know beyond this the High Brah- 
man, the vast, hidden in the bodies of all creatures, 
and alone enveloping everything, as the Lord, they 
become immortal 4 . 

8 5 . I know that great person (purusha) of sunlike 
lustre beyond the darkness 6 . A man who knows him 
truly, passes over death; there is no other path 
to go 7 . 

9. This whole universe is filled by this person 
(purusha), to whom there is nothing superior, from 
whom there is nothing different, than whom there is 

1 See IV, 12. 

* See Va^. Sarah. XVI, 2 ; Taitt. Sarah. IV, 5, r, 1. 

s See V&g. Sarah. XVI, 3 ; Taitt. Sarah. IV, 5, 1, 1; Nilarudropan. 
p. 274. 

4 The knowledge consists in knowing either that Brahman is 
If a or that Ira is Brahman. But in either case the gender of the 
adjectives is difficult. The -SVetib vatara-upanishad seems to use bri- 
hanta as an adjective, instead of bnhat. I should prefer to translate : 
Beyond this is the High Brahman, the vast. Those who know Ira, 
the Lord, hidden in all things and embracing all things to be this 
(Brahman), become immortal. See also Muir, Metrical Transla- 
tions, p. 196, whose translation of these verses I have adopted with 
few exceptions. 

6 Cf. V&g. Sarah. XXX, 18 ; Taitt. ir. Ill, 12, 7; III, 13, 1. 

• Cf. Bhagavadgita VIII, 9. T Cf. .SVet. Up. VI, 15. 



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246 JVETASVATARA-UPANISHAD. 

nothing smaller or larger, who stands alone, fixed 
like a tree in the sky 1 . 

10. That which is beyond this world is without 
form and without suffering. They who know it, 
become immortal, but others suffer pain indeed 2 . 

11. That Bhagavat 8 exists in the faces, the heads, 
the necks of all, he dwells in the cave (of the heart) 
of all beings, he is all-pervading, therefore he is the 
omnipresent .Siva. . 

12. That person (purusha) is the great lord; he 
is the mover of existence 4 , he possesses that purest 
power of reaching everything 6 , he is light, he is 
undecaying. 

1 3 6 . The person (purusha), not larger than a thumb, 

1 Divi, the sky, is explained by Sankara as dyotanatmani sva- 
mahimni. 

2 The pain of sawsara, or transmigration. See Br/had. Up. IV, 
3, 20 (p. 178). 

s I feel doubtful whether the two names Bhagavat and Siva should 
here be preserved, or whether the former should be rendered by 
holy, the latter by happy. The commentator explains Bhagavat by 
awvaryasya samagrasya vfryasya yasaszA jriyaA 
GMnavair&gyayof £aiva sha««dm bhaga itirawS. 
Wilson, in his Essay on the Religious Sects of the Hindus, 
published in 1828, in the Asiatic Researches, XVI, p. n, pointed 
out that this verse and another (Svet. Up. II, 2) were cited by the 
Saivas as Vedic authorities for their teaching. He remarked that 
these citations would scarcely have been made, if not authentic, and 
that they probably did occur in the Vedas. In the new edition of 
this Essay by Dr. Rost, 1862, the references should have been added. 

4 Sahkara explains sattvasya by anta^karawasya. 

8 I take prapti, like other terms occurring in this Upanishad, in 
its technical sense. Prapti is one of the vibhutis or auvaryas, viz. 
the power of touching anything at will, as touching the moon with 
the tip of one's finger. See Yoga-sutras, ed. Rajendralal Mitra, 
p. 121. 

6 Cf. Taitt. Ar. X, 71 (Anuv. 38, p. 858). Katf. Up. IV, 12-13; 
above, p. 16. 



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in adhyAya, i 8. 247 



dwelling within, always dwelling in the heart of man, 
is perceived by the heart, the thought 1 , the mind ; 
they who know it become immortal. 

14 2 . The person (purusha) with a thousand heads, 
a thousand eyes, a thousand feet, having compassed 
the earth on every side, extends beyond it by ten 
fingers' breadth. 

15. That person alone (purusha) is all this, what 
has been and what will be ; he is also the lord of 
immortality ; he is whatever grows by food s . 

16. Its 4 hands and feet are everywhere, its eyes 
and head are everywhere, its ears are everywhere, 
it stands encompassing all in the world 6 . 

17. Separate from all the senses, yet reflecting 
the qualities of all the senses, it is the lord and ruler 
of all, it is the great refuge of all. 

18. The embodied spirit within the town with 
nine gates 6 , the bird, flutters outwards, the ruler of 



1 The text has manvisa, which Sankara explains by gn&nesa. 
But Weber has conjectured rightly, I believe, that the original text 
must have been manishd. The difficulty is to understand how so 
common a word as mantshi could have been changed into so un- 
usual a word as manvua. See IV, 20. 

2 This is a famous verse of the Rig-veda, X, 90, 1 ; repeated in 
the Atharva-veda, XIX, 6, 1; Va£. Sa«h. XXXI, 1; Taitt. Ar. Ill, 
12, 1. .Sankara explains ten fingers' breadth by endless; or, he 
says, it may be meant for the heart, which is ten fingers above 
the navel. 

8 Saya«a, in his commentary on the Rig-veda and the Taitt. Ar., 
gives another explanation, viz. he is also the lord of all the im- 
mortals, i. e. the gods, because they grow to their exceeding state 
by means of food, or for the sake of food. 

* The gender changes frequently, according as the author thinks 
either of the Brahman, or of its impersonation as isz, Lord. 

8 .Sankara explains loka by nikaya, body. 

• Cf. Katf. Up. V, 1. 



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248 svetasvatara-upanishad. 

the whole world, of all that rests and of all that 
moves. 

19. Grasping without hands, hasting without feet, 
he sees without eyes, he hears without ears. He 
knows what can be known, but no one knows him ; 
they call him the first, the great person (purusha). 

20 1 . The Self, smaller than small, greater than 
great, is hidden in the heart of the creature. A man 
who has left all grief behind, sees the majesty, the 
Lord, the passionless, by the grace of the creator 
(the Lord). 

2 1 2 . I know 3 this undecaying, ancient one, the self 
of all things, being infinite and omnipresent. They 
declare that in him all birth is stopped, for the 
Brahma-students proclaim him to be eternal 4 . 

1 Cf. Taitt. Ar. X, 12 (10), p. 800 ; K&ift. Up. II, 20 ; above, 
p. ii. The translation had to be slightly altered, because the 
•SVet&mtaras, as Taittiriyas, read akratum for akratu//, and warn 
for atmana^. 

2 Cf. Taitt. ir. Ill, 13, 1 ; III, 12, 7. 

3 A. reads vedaru<///am, not B. 

* A. and B. read brahmavadino hi pravadanti. 



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IV ADHYAYA, 4. 249 



FOURTH ADHYAYA. 

1. He, the sun, without any colour, who with set 
purpose 1 by means of his power (sakti) produces 
endless colours 2 , in whom all this comes together in 
the beginning, and comes asunder in the end — may 
he, the god, endow us with good thoughts 3 . 

2. That (Self) indeed is Agni (fire), it is Aditya 
(sun), it is Vayu (wind), it is A'andramas (moon) ; the 
same also is the starry firmament 4 , it is Brahman 
(Hira»yagarbha), it is water, it is Pra^apati (Vira^ - ). 

3. Thou art woman, thou art man; thou art youth, 
thou art maiden ; thou, as an old man, totterest 5 
along on thy staff; thou art born with thy face turned 
everywhere. 

4. Thou art the dark-blue bee, thou art the green 

1 Nihitartha, explained by .Sankara as g/Thttaprayo^ana^ svartha- 
nirapeksha^. This may mean with set purpose, but if we read 
agr/'hitaprayqg'anaA it would mean the contrary, namely, without 
any definite object, irrespective of his own objects. This is pos- 
sible, and perhaps more in accordance with the idea of creation as 
propounded by those to whom the devatmarakti is mayd. Nihita 
would then mean hidden. 
"* Colour is intended for qualities, differences, &c. 

8 This verse has been translated very freely. As it stands, vi 
£aiti £ante vijvam adau sa devaA, it does not construe, in spite of 
all attempts to the contrary, made by .Sankara. What is intended 
is yasminn idazra sazrc kz. vi £aiti sarvam (IV, 11); but how so 
simple a line should have been changed into what we read now, is 
difficult to say. 

4 This is the explanation of Sankara, and probably that of the 
Yoga schools in India at his time. But to take jukram for dip- 
timan nakshatradi, brahma for Hirawyagarbha, and Pra^&pati for 
Vira^- seems suggested by this verse only. 

6 Va«£ayasi, an exceptional form, instead of vaw&isi (A. B.) 



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25O SVETASVATARA-UPANISHAD. 

parrot with red eyes, thou art the thunder-cloud, the 
seasons, the seas. Thou art without beginning 1 , 
because thou art infinite, thou from whom all worlds 
are born. 

5 2 . There is one unborn being (female), red, white, 
and black, uniform, but producing manifold offspring. 
There is one unborn being (male) who loves her 
and lies by her ; there is another who leaves her, 
while she is eating what has to be eaten. 

1 We see throughout the constant change from the masculine 
to the neuter gender, in addressing either the lord or his true 
essence. 

3 This is again one of the famous verses of our Upanishad, 
because it formed for a long time a bone of contention between 
Ved&nta and Sankhya philosophers. The S&hkhyas admit two 
principles, the Purusha, the absolute subject, and the Prakr/ti, 
generally translated by nature. The Vedanta philosophers admit 
nothing but the one absolute subject, and look upon nature as due 
to a power inherent in that subject. The later S&nkhyas therefore, 
who are as anxious as the Vedantins to find authoritative passages 
in the Veda, confirming their opinions, appeal to this and other 
passages, to show that their view of Prakn'ti, as an independent 
power, is supported by the Veda. The whole question is fully 
discussed in the Vedanta-sutras I, 4, 8. Here we read rohita- 
k«'sh«a-juklam, which seems preferable to lohita-krz'sh»a-var«am, 
at least from a Vedinta point of view, for the three colours, red, 
black, and white, are explained as signifying either the three gurzas, 
ra^as, sattva, and tamas, or better (ATMnd. Up. VI, 3, 1), the three 
elements, te^as (fire), ap (water), and anna (earth). A. reads 
rohitaraklakr/shw&m ; B. lohitaraklakrishwa" (sic). We also find 
in A. and B. bhuktabhogim for bhuktabhogy&m, but the latter 
seems technically the more correct reading. It would be quite 
wrong to imagine that a^a and ag& are meant here for he-goat 
and she-goat. These words, in the sense of unborn, are recognised 
as early as the hymns of the Rig-veda, and they occurred in our 
Upanishad I, 9, where the two a^as are mentioned in the same 
sense as here. But there is, no doubt, a play on the words, and 
the poet wished to convey the second meaning of he-goat and 
she-goat, only not as the primary, but as the secondary intention. 



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IV ADHYAYA, 9. 25 1 



6 1 . Two birds, inseparable friends, cling to the 
same tree. One of them eats the sweet fruit, the 
other looks on without eating. 

7. On the same tree man sits grieving, immersed, 
bewildered, by his own impotence (an-isa). But 
when he sees the other lord (isa) contented, and 
knows his glory, then his grief passes away. 

8 2 . He who does not know that indestructible 
being of the iv%-veda, that highest ether-like (Self) 
wherein all the gods reside, of what use is the 
Rig-veda. to him? Those only who know it, rest 
contented. 

9. That from which the maker (mayin 3 ) sends 
forth all this — the sacred verses, the offerings, the 
sacrifices, the panaceas, the past, the future, and all 

1 The same verses occur in the Mu»</aka Up. Ill, 1. 

* It is difficult to see how this verse comes in here. In the 
Taitt. Ar.II, 11, 6, it is quoted in connection with the syllable Om, 
the Akshara, in which all the Vedas are comprehended. It is 
similarly used in the Nrj'swma-purva-tapant, IV, 2; V, 2. In our 
passage, however, akshara is referred by £ahkara to the paramat- 
man, and I have translated it accordingly. Rik&h is explained as 
a genitive singular, but it may also be taken as a nom. plur., and in 
that case both the verses of the Veda and the gods are said to 
reside in the Akshara, whether we take it for the Param&tman or 
for the Om. In the latter case, parame vyoman is explained by 
utkr«'sh/e and rakshake. 

8 It is impossible to find terms corresponding to maya and 
mayin. Maya means making, or art, but as all making or creat- 
ing, so far as the Supreme Self is concerned, is phenomenal only 
or mere illusion, may a conveys at the same time the sense of 
illusion. In the same manner mayin is the maker, the artist, but 
also the magician or juggler. What seems intended by our verse is 
that from the akshara, which corresponds to brahman, all proceeds, 
whatever exists or seems to exist, but that the actual creator or the 
author of all emanations is Ira, the Lord, who, as creator, is acting 
through mayi or devitmarakti. Possibly, however, anya, the other, 
may be meant for the individual purusha. 



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252 JVETASVATARA-U PANISHAD. 

that the Vedas declare — in that the other is bound 
up through that maya. 

10. Know then Prakmi (nature) is Maya (art), and 
the great Lord the Mayin (maker) ; the whole world 
is filled with what are his members. 

11. If a man has discerned him, who being one 
only, rules over every germ (cause), in whom all 
this comes together and comes asunder again, who 
is the lord, the bestower of blessing, the adorable 
god, then he passes for ever into that peace. 

1 2 \ He, the creator and supporter of the gods, 
Rudra, the great seer, the lord of all, who saw 2 
Hirawyagarbha being born, may he endow us with 
good thoughts. 

13. He who is the sovereign of the gods, he in 
whom all the worlds 3 rest, he who rules over all two- 
footed and four-footed beings, to that god 4 let us 
sacrifice an oblation. 

14. He who has known him who is more subtile 
than subtile, in the midst of chaos, creating all things, 
having many forms, alone enveloping everything 5 , 
the happy one (.Siva), passes into peace for ever. 

1 See before, III, 4. 

2 .Sankara does not explain this verse again, though it differs 
from III, 4. Vi^nSnsUman explains paryata by aparyata, and quali- 
fies the Atmanepada as irregular. 

8 B. reads yasmin devaA, not A. 

4 I read tasmai instead of kasmai, a various reading mentioned 
by Vi^wanStman. It was easy to change tasmai into kasmai, 
because of the well-known line in the Rig-veda, kasmai devaya 
havisha' vidhema. Those who read kasmai, explain it as a dative 
of Ka, a name of Pra^apati, which in the dative should be kaya, 
and not kasmai. It would be better to take kasmai as the dative 
of the interrogative pronoun. See M. M., History of Ancient 
Sanskrit Literature, p. 433 ; and VMna-sutras IV, 22. 

6 Cf. Ill, 7. 



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IV ADHYAYA, 20. 253 



15. He also was in time 1 the guardian of this 
world, the lord of all, hidden in all beings. In him 
the Brahmarshis and the deities are united 2 , and he 
who knows him cuts the fetters of death asunder. 

16. He who knows .Siva (the blessed) hidden in 
all beings, like the subtile film that rises from out 
the clarified butter 3 , alone enveloping everything, — 
he who knows the god, is freed from all fetters. 

17. That god, the maker of all things, the great 
Self*, always dwelling in the heart of man, is per- 
ceived by the heart, the soul, the mind 6 ; — they who 
know it become immortal. 

18. When the light has risen 6 , there is no day, no 
night, neither existence nor non-existence 7 ; Siva 
(the blessed) alone is there. That is the eternal, 
the adorable light of Savitrz 8 , — and the ancient 
wisdom proceeded thence. 

19. No one has grasped him above, or across, or 
in the middle 9 . There is no image of him whose 
name is Great Glory. 

20. His form cannot be seen, no one perceives 
him with the eye. Those 10 who through heart and 

1 In former ages, 5ankara. 

3 Because both the Brahmarshis, the holy seers, and the deities 
find their true essence in Brahman. 

* We should say, like cream from milk. 

4 Or the high-minded, 
8 See III, 13. 

• Atamas, no darkness, i. e. light of knowledge. 

7 See on the difficulty of translating sat and asat, ro Sv and rb ^ 
8», the remarks in the Preface. 

8 Referring to the Gayatri, Rig-veda III, 62, 10 ; see also Svet 
Up.V, 4 . 

9 See Muir, Metrical Translations, p. 198; Maitr. Up. VI, 17. 

10 B. reads hndd manisha manasabhik//pto, yat tad vidur; 
A. hrzdi hridistham manasaya enam evaw? vidur. 



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254 SVETASVATARA-UPANISHAD. 

mind know him thus abiding in the heart, become 
immortal. 

21. 'Thou art unborn,' with these words some 
one comes near to thee, trembling. O Rudra, let 
thy gracious 1 face protect me for ever ! 

22 2 . O Rudra! hurt us not in our offspring and 
descendants, hurt us not in our own lives, nor in our 
cows, nor in our horses ! Do not slay our men in 
thy wrath, for, holding oblations, we call on thee 
always. 

1 Dakshi«a is explained either as invigorating, exhilarating, or 
turned towards the south. 

4 See Colebrooke, Miscellaneous Essays, I, p. 141; Rig-veda I, 
114, 8; Taitt. Samh. IV, 5, 10, 3; V&g. Samh. XVI, 16. The 
various readings are curious. Ayushi in the <Svet. Up., instead of 
ayau in the Rig-veda, is supported by the Taitt. Samh. and the 
V&g. Samh.; but Vi^wanatman reads iyau. As to bhamito, it seems 
the right reading, being supported by the Rig-veda, the Taitt. Samh., 
and the <Svet. Up., while bh&vito in Roer's edition is a misprint. 
The Vag. Samh. alone reads bhdmino, which Mahidhara refers to 
viran. The last verse in the Rig-veda and Va^. Sa»»h. is havishman- 
taA sadam it tva havamahe ; in the Taitt. Sawn, havishmanto namasi 
vidhema te. In the .Svet. Up. havishmantaA sadasi tvi hav&mahe, as 
printed by Roer, seems to rest on Ankara's authority only. The 
other commentators, Sankarilnanda and Vi^wanatman, read and 
interpret sadam it. 



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V ADHYAYA, 3. 255 



FIFTH ADHYAYA. 

1. In the imperishable and infinite Highest 
Brahman 1 , wherein the two, knowledge and ignorance, 
are hidden 2 , the one, ignorance, perishes 3 , the other, 
knowledge, is immortal ; but he who controls both, 
knowledge and ignorance, is another*. 

2. It is he who, being one only, rules over every 
germ (cause), over all forms, and over all germs ; it 
is he who, in the beginning, bears 5 in his thoughts 
the wise son, the fiery, whom he wishes to look on 6 
while he is born 7 . 

3 8 . In that field 9 in which the god, after spreading 
out one net after another 10 in various ways, draws it 
together again, the Lord, the great Self 11 , having 

I .Sankara explains Brahmapare by brahmawo hirawyagarbh&t 
pare, or by parasmin brahma«i, which comes to the same. Vigni- 
ndtman adds £MndasaA paranipitaA. As the termination e may 
belong to the locative singular or to the nom. dual, commentators 
vary in referring some of the adjectives either to brahman or to 
vidy&vidye. 

a Gudie, lokair^wdtum asakye, .Sankarinanda. 

8 .Sankara explains ksharam by sa»?s«°tikara«am, amr/tam by 
mokshahetuA. 

4 .Sankara explains that he is different from them, being only the 
sakshin, or witness. .Saftkarananda seems to have read Somya, 
i. e. Somavatpriyadarjana, as if .SvetiLrvatvara addressed his pupil. 

' Like a mother, see I, 9. 8 Like a father. 

7 See on this verse the remarks made in the Introduction. 

8 The MSS. read yasmin for asmin, and patayas for yatayas, 
which the commentator explains by patin. 

* The world, or the mulaprakr/ti, the net being the saws&ra. 
10 Sankara explains ekaikam by pratyekam, i. e. for every crea- 
ture, such as gods, men, beasts, &c. 

II I doubt whether mahatmd should be translated by the great 



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256 SVETASVATARA-UPANISHAD. 

further created the lords 1 , thus carries on his lord- 
ship over all. 

4. As the car (of the sun) shines, lighting up all 
quarters, above, below, and across, thus does that 
god, the holy, the adorable, being one, rule over all 
that has the nature of a germ 2 . 

5. He, being one, rules over all and everything, 
so that the universal germ ripens its nature, diversi- 
fies all natures that can be ripened 3 , and determines 
all qualities*. 

6 6 . Brahma (Hirawyagarbha) knows this, which 
is hidden in the Upanishads, which are hidden in 
the Vedas, as the Brahma-germ. The ancient gods 



Self, or whether great would not be sufficient. The whole verse is 
extremely difficult. 

1 From Hirawyagarbha to insects ; or beginning with Mari^i. 

2 Cf. IV, ri ; V, 2. 

8 MS. B. has priiyan, and explains it by purvotpannin. 

4 This is again a very difficult verse. I have taken vwvayoniA 
as a name for Brahman, possessed of that devatmajakti which was 
mentioned before, but I feel by no means satisfied. The com- 
mentators do not help, because they do not see the difficulty of the 
construction. If one might conjecture, I should prefer paiet for 
pa^ati, and should write pari«Smayed yat, and viniycgayed yat, 
unless we changed ya££a into yar ka.. 

• This verse admits of various translations, and requires also 
some metrical emendations. Thus Vi^-wanitman explains vedagu- 
hyopanishatsu very ingeniously by the Veda, i.e. that part of it 
which teaches sacrifices and their rewards; the Guhya, i.e. the 
Arawyaka, which teaches the worship of Brahman under various 
legendary aspects; and theUpanishads, which teach the knowledge 
of Brahman without qualities. These three divisions would corre- 
spond to the karmakaWa, yogakaWa, and gnsoiak&nda. ((raimini, 
Pata^ali, Badarayawa). See Deussen, Vedanta, p. 20. Mr. Gough 
and Dr. Roer take Brahmayoni as ' the source of the Veda,' or as 
the source of Hirawyagarbha. The irregular form vedate may be 
due to a corruption of vedante. 



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V ADHYAYA, II. 257 



and poets who knew it, they became it and were 
immortal. 

7 1 . But he who is endowed with qualities, and 
performs works that are to bear fruit, and enjoys 
the reward of whatever he has done, migrates 
through his own works, the lord of life, assuming 
all forms, led by the three Gu»as, and following the 
three paths 2 . 

8 3 . That lower one also, not larger than a thumb, 
but brilliant like the sun, who is endowed with per- 
sonality and thoughts, with the quality of mind and 
the quality of body, is seen small even like the point 
of a goad. 

9. That living soul is to be known as part of the 
hundredth part of the point of a hair 4 , divided a 
hundred times, and yet it is to be infinite. 

10. It is not woman, it is not man, nor is it 
neuter ; whatever body it takes, with that it is 
joined 6 (only). 

11 6 . By means of thoughts, touching, seeing, and 

1 Here begins the description of what is called the tvam (thou), 
as opposed to the tat (that), i. e. the living soul, as opposed to the 
Highest Brahman. 

2 The paths of vice, virtue, and knowledge. 

8 Both MSS. (A. and B.) read aragramStro hy avaro 'pi dri- 
sh/a^. 

4 An expression of frequent occurrence in Buddhist literature. 

6 A. and B. read yu^yate. A. explains yu^yate by sambadh- 
yate. B. explains adyate bhakshyate tirobhflta^ kriyate. .Saftkara 
explains rakshyate, sawrakshyate, tattaddharman atmany adhyasyd- 
bhimanyate. 

8 The MSS. vary considerably. Instead of mohair, A. and B. 
read homair. They read gr&s&mbuvr*'sh/ya £atma. A. reads 
atmavivr/ddhi^anma, B. atmanivraldha^anmS. A. has abhisam- 
prapadye, B. abhisamprapadyate. My translation follows Saftkara, 
who seems to have read itmavivriddhi^anma, taking the whole line 

[<5] S 



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258 SVETASVATARA-UPANISHAD. 

passions the incarnate Self assumes successively in 
various places various forms 1 , in accordance with his 
deeds, just as the body grows when food and drink 
are poured into it. 

12. That incarnate Self, according to his own 
qualities, chooses (assumes) many shapes, coarse or 
subtile, and having himself caused his union with 
them, he is seen as another and another 2 , through 
the qualities of his acts, and through the qualities of 
his body. 

13 s . He who knows him who has no beginning 
and no end, in the midst of chaos, creating all things, 
having many forms, alone enveloping everything, is 
freed from all fetters. 

14. Those who know him who is to be grasped 
by the mind, who is not to be called the nest (the 
body*), who makes existence and non-existence, the 

as a simile and in an adverbial form. Vi^n&natman, however, differs 
considerably. He reads homaiA, and explains homa as the act of 
throwing oblations into the fire, as in the Agnihotra. This action 
of the hands, he thinks, stands for all actions of the various mem- 
bers of the body. Gr&sSmbiwYsh/i he takes to mean free distri- 
bution of food and drink, and then explains the whole sentence by 
'he whose self is born unto some states or declines from them 
again, namely, according as he has showered food and drink, and 
has used his hands, eyes, feelings, and thoughts.' 5ahkarSnanda 
takes a similar view, only he construes sankalpanam and spanranam 
as two drishAs, te eva dr«'sh/t, tayor dtmdgnau prakshepS. hovn&A ; 
and then goes on, na kevalam etaih, kim tv asmin sthine jarire 
grisimbuvn'sh/yd £a. He seems to read itmavivr/ddha^anmS, bat 
afterwards explains vivr/'ddhi by vividhd vnddhii. 

1 Forms as high as Hira«yagarbha or as low as beasts. 

* Instead of aparo, B. reads avaro, but explains aparo. 

8 Cf. Ill, 7; IV, r 4 , 16. 

4 NWa is explained as the body, but .SankarSnanda reads anild- 
khyam, who is called the wind, as being pr&«asya prSwam, the 
breath of the breath. 



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V ADHYAYA, 14. 259 



happy one (Siva), who also creates the elements 1 , 
they have left the body. 

1 Sankara explains kalasargakaram by he who creates the sixteen 
kalis, mentioned by the Atharva»ikas, beginning with prSwa, and 
ending with naman ; see Prama Up. VI, 4. Vigw&natman suggests 
two other explanations, 'he who creates by means of the kal&, 
i. e. his inherent power; ' or ' he who creates the Vedas and other 
sciences.' The sixteen kalas are, according to .Sankardnanda, 
prawa, waddhd, kha, v&yu, gyo\.\h, ap, pn'thivi, indriya, mana^, anna, 
virya, tapa//, mantra, karman, kala (?), naman. See also before, I, 4. 



S 2 

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260 svetAsvatara-upanishad. 



SIXTH ADHYAYA. 

i 1 . Somewise men, deluded, speak of Nature, and 
others of Time (as the cause of everything 2 ) ; but it 
is the greatness of God by which this Brahma-wheel 
is made to turn. 

2. It is at the command of him who always 
covers this world, the knower, the time of time 3 , 
who assumes qualities and all knowledge 4 , it is at 
his command that this work (creation) unfolds itself, 
which is called earth, water, fire, air, and ether ; 

3 6 . He who, after he has done that work and 
rested again, and after he has brought together one 
essence (the self) with the other (matter), with one, 
two, three, or eight, with time also and with the 
subtile qualities of the mind, j 

4. Who, after starting 6 the works endowed with 
(the three) qualities, can order all things, yet when, 
in the absence of all these, he has caused the de- 
struction of the work, goes on, being in truth 7 
different (from all he has produced) ; 

1 See Muir, Metrical Translations, p. 198. 

2 See before, I, 2. 

' The destroyer of time. Vi^-wanatman reads kalakalo, and ex- 
plains it by kalasya niyantd, upaharta. .Saftkaraiianda explains kalaA 
sarvavinfuakdri, tasyapi vinirakara^. See also verse 16. 

* Or sarvavid ya/4. 
- * Instead of vinivartya, Vig-reimatman and .Saftkarananda read 
vinivr/tya. 

' Aruhya for drabhya, Sahkarananda. 

7 These two verses are again extremely obscure, and the expla- 
nations of the commentators throw little light on their real, original 
meaning. To begin with Sankara, he assumes the subject to be the 
same as he at whose command this work unfolds itself, and explains 



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vi adhyAya, 5. 261 



5. He is the beginning, producing the causes 
which unite (the soul with the body), and, being 

tattvasya tattvena sametya yogam by atmano bhumyadina yoga»» 
sawgamayya. As the eight Tattvas he gives earth, water, fire, air, 
ether, mind, thought, personality, while the Atmaguwas are, according 
to him, the affections of the mind, love, anger, &c. In the second verse, 
however, •Saftkara seems to assume a different subject. ' If a man,' 
he says, ' having done works, infected by qualities, should transfer 
them on Irvara, the Lord, there would be destruction of the works 
formerly done by him, because there would be no more connection 
with the self.' Something is left out, but that this is .Sankara's idea, 
appears from the verses which he quotes in support, and which are 
intended to show that Yogins, transferring all their acts, good, 
bad, or indifferent, on Brahman, are no longer affected by them. 
' That person,' .Sankara continues, « his works being destroyed and 
his nature purified, moves on, different from all things (tattva), from 
all the results of ignorance, knowing himself to be Brahman.' 
' Or,' he adds, ' if we read anyad, it means, he goes to that Brahman 
which is different from all things.' 

.Sahkarananda takes a different view. He says : ' If a man has 
performed sacrifices, and has finished them, or, has turned away 
from them again as vain, and if he has obtained union with that 
which is the real of the (apparently) real, &c.' The commentator 
then asks what is that with which he obtains union, and replies, 
' the one, i. e. ignorance ; the two, i. e. right and wrong ; the three, 
i.e. the three colours, red, white, and black ; and the eight, i. e. the five 
elements, with mind, thought, and personality; also with time, and 
with the subtile affections of the mind.' He then goes on, ' If that 
man, after having begun qualified works, should take on himself 
all states (resulting from ignorance), yet, when these states cease, 
there would be an end of the work, good or bad, done by him, and 
when his work has come to an end, he abides in truth (according to 
the Veda) ; while the other, who differs from the Veda, is wrong.' 
•Sahkarananda, however, evidently feels that this is a doubtful inter- 
pretation, and he suggests another, viz. ' If the Lord himself,' he says, 
' determined these states (bhava), it would seem that there would 
be no end of sawsara. He therefore says, that when these states, 
ignorance &c, cease, the work done by man ceases ; and when the 
work done ceases, the living soul gets free of sawsira, being in 
truth another, i. e. different from ignorance and its products.' 

Vi^nanatman says : ' If a man, having done work, turns away 



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262 .SVETASVATARA-UPANISHAD. 

above the three kinds of time (past, present, future), 
he is seen as without parts \ after we have first wor- 
shipped that adorable god, who has many forms, 
and who is the true source (of all things), as dwelling 
in our own mind. 

6. He is beyond all the forms of the tree 2 (of the 
world) and of time, he is the other, from whom this 
world moves round, when 3 one has known him who 

from it, and obtains union of one tattva (the tvam, or self) with the 
real tattva (the tat, or the Lord) ; — and how ? By means of the one, 
i.e. the teaching of the Guru ; the two, i.e. love of the Guru and of the 
Lord; the three, i.e. hearing, remembering, and meditating ; the eight, 
i. e. restraint, penance, postures, regulation of the breath, abstrac- 
tion, devotion, contemplation, and meditation (Yoga-sutras 11,29); 
by time, i. e. the right time for work ; by the qualities of the self, i. e. 
pity, &c. ; by the subtile ones, i. e. the good dispositions for know- 
ledge, then (we must supply) he becomes free.' And this he ex- 
plains more fully in the next verse. ' If, after having done qualified 
works, i. e. works to please the Lord, a Yati discards all things, 
and recognises the phenomenal character of all, states, and traces 
them back to their real source in Mulaprakr/ti and, in the end, 
in the SaMdananda, he becomes free. If they (the states) cease, 
i. e. are known in their real source, the work done ceases also in its 
effects, and when the work has been annihilated, he goes to free- 
dom, being another in truth ; or, if we read anyat, he goes to what 
is different from all these things, namely, to the Lord ; or, he goes 
to a state of perfect lordship in truth, having discovered the highest 
truth, the oneness of the self with the Highest Self.' 

I think that, judging from the context, the subject is really the same 
in both verses, viz. the Lord, as passing through different states, and 
at last knowing himself to be above them all. Yet, the other explana- 
tions may be defended, and if the subject were taken to be different 
in each verse, some difficulties would disappear. 

1 Vi^wanatman and .Sahkar&nanda read akalo 'pi, without parts, 
and .Sankara, too, presupposes that reading, though the text is 
corrupt in Roer's edition. 

2 Explained as sazwsSravn'ksha, the world-tree, as described in 
theKa/tfaUp.VI, 1. 

8 It seems possible to translate this verse in analogy with the 
former, and without supplying the verb either from yati, in verse 4, 



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VI ADHYAYA, II. 263 



brings good and removes evil, the lord of bliss, as 
dwelling within the self, the immortal, the support 
of all. 

7. Let us know that highest great lord of lords \ 
the highest deity of deities, the master of masters, 
the highest above, as god, the lord of the world, the 
adorable. 

8. There is no effect and no cause known of him, J/' 
no one is seen like unto him or better; his high 
power is revealed as manifold, as inherent, acting 

as force and knowledge. 

9. There is no master of his in the world, no ruler 
of his, not even a sign of him 2 . He is the cause, \ 
the lord of the lords of the organs 3 , and there is of 
him neither parent nor lord. 

10. That only god who spontaneously covered 
himself, like a spider, with threads drawn from 
the first cause (pradhana), grant us entrance into 
Brahman 4 ./' 

11. He is the one God, hidden in all beings, all- 

or from vidama, in verse 7. The poet seems to have said, he is 
that, he is seen as that, when one has worshipped him, or when 
one has known him within oneself. * 

1 .Sahkara thinks that the lords are Vaivasvata &c; the deities, 
Indra &c. ; the masters, the Pra^apatis. Vi^wanatman explains the 
lords as Brahman, Vishwu, Rudra, &c; the deities as Indra, &c. ; 
the masters as Hira»yagarbha, &c. Sahkarananda sees in the lords 
Hira«yagarbha &c, in the deities Agni &c, in the masters the 
Pra^apatis, such as Katyapa. 

2 If he could be inferred from a sign, there would be no neces- 
sity for the Veda to reveal him. 

8 Karawa, instrument, is explained as organ of sense. The lords 
of such organs would be all living beings, and their lord the true 
Lord. 

4 Besides brahmapyayam, i. e. brahma«y apyayam, ektbhavam, 
another reading is brahmavyayam, i. e. brahma £avyaya« ia.. 



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s 



264 svetAsvatara-upanishad. 

pervading, the self within all beings, watching over 
all works, dwelling in all beings, the witness, the 
perceiver *, the only one, free from qualities. 

12 2 . He is the one ruler of many who (seem to 
act, but really do) not act 3 ; he makes the one seed 
manifold. The wise who perceive him within their 
self, to them belongs eternal happiness, not to others. 

13 4 . He is the eternal among eternals, the thinker 
among thinkers, who, though one, fulfils the desires 
of many. He who has known that cause which is 
to be apprehended by .SMkhya (philosophy) and 
Yoga (religious discipline), he is freed from all 
fetters. 

1 All the MSS. seem to read £eta, not Mt&. 

2 See Ka//$a-upanishad V, 12-15. 

3 Sankara explains that the acts of living beings are due to their 
organs, but do not affect the Highest Self, which always remains 
passive (nishkriya). 

4 I have formerly translated this verse, according to the reading 
nityo 'nityanaw /fetanaj <tetan^ndm, the eternal thinker of non- 
eternal thoughts. This would be a true description of the Highest 
Self who, though himself eternal and passive, has to think (glvat- 
man) "non-eternal thoughts. I took the first £etanaA in the sense 
of £ett&, the second in the sense of fotanaw. The commentators, 
however, take a different, and it may be, from their point, a more 
correct view. .Sankara says : ' He is the eternal of the eternals, 
i. e. as he possesses eternity among living souls (^ivas), these living 
souls also may claim eternity. Or the eternals may be meant for 
earth, water, &c. And in the same way he is the thinker among 
thinkers.' 

.Sahkarananda says : 'He is eternal, imperishable, among eternal, 
imperishable things, such as the ether, &c. He is thinking among 
thinkers.' 

Vi^raSnalman says : ' The Highest Lord is the cause of eternity 
in eternal things on earth, and the cause of thought in the thinkers 
on earth.' But he allows another construction, namely, that he is 
the eternal thinker of those who on earth are endowed with eter- 
nity and thought. In the end all these interpretations come to 



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y 

vi adhyAya, i 8. 265 

14. The 1 sun does not shine there, nor the moon 
and the stars, nor these lightnings, and much less 
this fire. When he shines, everything shines after 
him ; by his light all this is lightened. 

15. He is the one bird 2 in the midst of the world ; 
he is also (like) the fire (of the sun) that has set in 
the ocean. A man who knows him truly, passes 
over death 3 ; there is no other path to go. 

16. He makes all, he knows all, the self-caused, 
the knower*, the time of time (destroyer of time), 
who assumes qualities and knows everything, the 
master of nature and of man 6 , the lord of the three 
qualities (guwa), the cause of the bondage, the exist- 
ence, and the liberation of the world 6 . 

17. He who has become that 7 , he is the immortal, 
remaining the lord, the knower, the ever-present 
guardian of this world, who rules this world for ever, 
for no one else is able to rule it. 

18. Seeking for freedom I go for refuge to that 
God who is the light of his own thoughts 8 , he who 

the same, viz. that there is only one eternal, and only one thinker, 
from whom all that is (or seems to be) eternal and all that is 
thought on earth is derived. 

1 See KsJA. Up.V, 15 ; Mand. Up. II, 2, 10; Bhagavadgf ti XV, 6. 

2 Hawsa, frequently used for the Highest Self, is explained here 
as hanty avidySdibandhakara«am iti hawsa^. 

3 Cf. Ill, 8. 

4 Again the MSS. read kalakalo, as in verse 2. They also agree 
in putting gnsh before k&lakalo, as in verse 2. 

5 Pradhdnam avyaktam, kshetra^rao vign&n&tmL 

* He binds, sustains, and dissolves worldly existence. 

7 He who seems to exist for a time in the form of kshetra^wa 
and pradhana. 

8 The MSS. vary between dtmabuddhiprakSf am and atmabuddhi- 
prasadam. The former reading is here explained by 5ahkardnanda 
as svabuddhisakshiwam. 



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266 svetAsvatara-upanishad. 

first creates Brahman (m.) 1 and delivers the Vedas 
to him ; 

19. Who is without parts, without actions, tran- 
quil, without fault, without taint 2 , the highest bridge 
to immortality — like a fire that has consumed its 
fuel. 

20. Only when men shall roll up the sky like 
a hide, will there be an end of misery, unless God 
has first been known 3 . 

21. Through the power of his penance and 
through the grace of God 4 has the wise .SVetasva- 
tara truly 5 proclaimed Brahman, the highest and 
holiest, to the best of ascetics 6 , as approved by 
the company of ^?/shis. 

1 Explained as Hirawyagarbha. 

2 Nira.ngana.rn nirlepam. 

s .Sankarananda reads tada rivam avi^rcaya du^khasyanto bhavi- 
shyati; Vi^nanatman retains devam, but mentions sivam as a various 
reading. Both have anto, not antam, like Roer. .Sankara seems 
to have found na before bhavishyati, or to have read duAkhanto na 
bhavishyati, for he explains that there will be no end of misery, 
unless God has first been known. It is possible, however, that the 
same idea may be expressed in the text as we read it, so that it 
should mean, Only when the impossible shall happen, such as the 
sky being rolled up by men, will misery cease, unless God has been 
discovered in the heart. 

4 The MSS. read devaprasadat, which is more in keeping with 
the character of this Upanishad. 

11 Samyak may be both adverb and adjective in this sentence, 
kaldkshinyayena. 

• Atyajramin is explained by .Sahkara as atyantam pftgyatama- 
jramibhyaA ; and he adds, /Jaturvidha bhikshava? ka bahudakaku/1- 
£akau, HawsaA paramahazwsaj ka yo yah r>ask&t sa uttamaA. Weber 
(Indische Studien, II, 109) has himself corrected his mistake of 
reading antyawamibhya^, and translating it by neighbouring 
hermits. 

These four stages in the life of a Sannyasin are the same to-day as 
they were in the time of the Upanishads, and Dayananda Sarasvati 



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vi adhyAya, 23. 267 



22. This highest mystery in the Vedanta, delivered 
in a former age, should not be given to one whose < 
passions have not been subdued, nor to one who is < 
not a son, or who is not a pupil 1 . 

23. If these truths have been told to a high-minded 
man, who feels the highest devotion for God, and for 
his Guru as for God, then they will shine forth, — then 
they will shine forth indeed. 

describes them in his autobiography, though in a different order : 
1. Ku/Waka, living in a hut, or in a desolate place, and wearing a 
red-ochre coloured garment, carrying a three-knotted bamboo rod, 
and wearing the hair in the centre of the crown of the head, having 
the sacred thread, and devoting oneself to the contemplation of 
Parabrahma. 2. Bahudaka, one who lives quite apart from his family 
and the world, maintains himself on alms collected at seven houses, 
and wears the same kind of reddish garment. 3. Hawsa, the same 
as in the preceding case, except the carrying of only a one-knotted 
bamboo. 4. Paramaha/wsa, the same as the others ; but the ascetic 
wears the sacred thread, and his hair and beard are quite long. 
This is the highest of all orders. A Paramahawsa who shows him- 
self worthy is on the very threshold of becoming a Dikshita. 
1 Cf. Bnh. Up. VI, 3, 12; Maitr. Up. VI, 29. 



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PRASATV-UPANISHAD. 



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PRA579A-UPANISHAD. 



First Question. 

Adoration to the Highest Self! Hari^, Om ! 

i. Sukesas 1 Bharadva^a 2 , and .Saivya Satyakama, 
and Sauryayamn 3 Gargya, and Kausalya* A^vala- 
yana, and Bhargava Vaidarbhi 6 , and Kabandhin 
Katyayana, these were devoted to Brahman, firm in 
Brahman, seeking for the Highest Brahman. They 
thought that the venerable Pippalada could tell them 
all that, and they therefore took fuel in their hands 
(like pupils), and approached him. 

2. That i?*shi said to them: 'Stay here a year 
longer, with penance, abstinence, and faith; then 
you may ask questions according to your pleasure, 
and if we know them, we shall tell you all.' 

3. Then 6 Kabandhin Katyayana approached him 
and asked : ' Sir, from whence may these creatures 
be born ?' 

1 Sukeras seems better than Sukcran, and he is so called in the 
sixth Praw&a, in MS. Mill 74. 

* Bh&radv&ga, Saivya, Girgya, Awal&yana, Bhirgava, and K&tya- 
yana are, according to .Sahkara, names of gotras or families. 

8 Sfiryasyipatyaflj SauryaA, tadapatyaw .Saury&yawW. DtrghaA 
sulopaj ka. Mandasa iti sa eva Sauryayawi. 
4 Kausalyo nSmataA, kosalayam bhavo va. 

* Vaidarbhi is explained as vidarbheA prabhavaA, or Vidarbheshu 
prabhavaA. Vidarbha, a country, south of the Vindhya mountains, 
with Kutfrfina as its capital. Vaidarbha, a king of the Vidarbhas, is 
mentioned in the Ait. Br&hm. VII, 34. Vaidarbhi is a patronymic 
of Vidarbha. See B. R. s. v. 

8 After the year was over. 



K-> ' 



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272 PRASWA-UPANISHAD. 

4. He replied: 'Pra^apati (the lord of creatures) 
was desirous of creatures (pra^a^). He performed 
penance 1 , and having performed penance, he pro- 
duces a pair, matter (rayi) and spirit (pra«a), think- 
ing that they together should produce creatures for 
him in many ways. 

5 2 . The sun is spirit, matter is the moon. All 
this, what has body and what has no body, is matter, 
and therefore body indeed is matter. 

6. Now Aditya, the sun, when he rises, goes 
toward the East, and thus receives the Eastern 
spirits into his rays. And when he illuminates the 
South, the West, the North, the Zenith, the Nadir, 
the intermediate quarters, and everything, he thus 
receives all spirits into his rays. 

7. Thus he rises, as Vai^vinara, (belonging to all 
men,) assuming all forms, as spirit, as fire. This 
has been said in the following verse : 

8 s . (They knew) him who assumes all forms, the 
golden *, who knows all things, who ascends highest, 
alone in his splendour, and warms us ; the thousand- 
rayed, who abides in a hundred places, the spirit of 
all creatures, the Sun, rises. 

9. The year indeed is Pra^ipati, and there are 
two paths thereof, the Southern and the Northern. 
Now those who here believe in sacrifices and pious 
gifts as work done, gain the moon only as their 

1 Or he meditated ; see Upanishads, vol. i, p. 238, n. 3. 

1 Sankara explains, or rather obscures, this by saying that the 
sun is breath, or the eater, or Agni, while matter is the food, 
namely, Soma. 

8 Cf. Maitr. Up.VI, 8. 

4 Hariwam is explained as rajmimantam, or as harati sarvesham 
pr&winam ayuzwshi bhauman vi rasan iti hariwaA. I prefer to take 
it in the sense of yellow, or golden. 



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I QUESTION, 15. 273 



(future) world, and return again. Therefore the 
^?«his who desire offspring, go to the South, and 
that path of the Fathers is matter (rayi). 

10. But those who have sought the Self by 
penance, abstinence, faith, and knowledge, gain by 
the Northern path Aditya, the sun. This is the 
home of the spirits, the immortal, free from danger, 
the highest. From thence they do not return, for 
it is the end. Thus says the .Sloka J : 

11. Some call him the father with five feet (the 
five seasons), and with twelve shapes (the twelve 
months), the giver of rain in the highest half of 
heaven ; others again say that the sage is placed in 
the lower half, in the chariot 2 with seven wheels 
and six spokes. 

12. The month is Pra^Apati; its dark half is 
matter, its bright half spirit. Therefore some ifoshis 
perform sacrifice in the bright half, others in the 
other half. 

13. Day and Night* are Pra^apati; its day is 
spirit, its night matter. Those who unite in love 
by day waste their spirit, but to unite in love by 
night is right. 

14. Food is Pragapati. Hence proceeds seed, 
and from it these creatures are born. 

1 5. Those therefore who observe this rule of 
Pra/apati (as laid down in § 13), produce a pair, 
and to them belongs this Brahma-world here 4 . But 



1 Rig-veda I, 164, 12. We ought to read upare vi£aksha»am. 

8 Sapta^akre, i. e. rathe. The seven wheels are explained as the 
rays or horses of the sun ; or as half-years, seasons, months, half- 
months, days, nights, and muhurtas. 

* Taken as one, as a Nychthemeron. 

* In the moon, reached by the path of the Fathers. 

['51 T 



/ 



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2 74 PR AS#A-UPAN ISH AD. 

those in whom dwell penance, abstinence, and 
truth, 

1 6. To them belongs that pure Brahma- world, 
to them, namely, in whom there is nothing crooked, 
nothing false, and no guile.' 



Second Question. 

i. Then Bhargava Vaidarbhi asked him: 'Sir, 
How many gods 1 keep what has thus been created, 
how many manifest this 2 , and who is the best of 
them ? ' 

2. He replied : 'The ether is that god, the wind, 
fire, water, earth, speech, mind, eye, and ear. These, 
when they have manifested (their power), contend 
and say : We (each of us) support this body and 
keep it 8 . 

3 4 . Then Prawa (breath, spirit, life), as the best, 
said to them : Be not deceived, I alone, dividing 
myself fivefold, support this body and keep it. 

4. They were incredulous ; so he, from pride, did 
as if he were going out from above. Thereupon, 

1 DevaA, powers, organs, senses. 

a Their respective power. 

5 This is .Sankara's explanation, in which b£«a is taken to mean 
the same as farira, body. But there seems to be no authority for 
such a meaning, and Anandagiri tries in vain to find an etymological 
excuse for it. B&wa or V£»a generally means an arrow, or, parti- 
cularly in Brihmawa writings, a harp with many strings. I do not 
see how an arrow could be used as an appropriate simile here, but 
a harp might, if we take avash/abhya in the sense of holding the 
frame of the instrument, and vidh&ray&maA in the sense of stretch- 
ing and thereby modulating it. 

4 On this dispute of the organs of sense, see Bnh. Up. VI, 1, 
p. 2015 Kh&ai. Up. V, 1 (S. B. E.,vol. i, p. 72). 



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II QUESTION, IO. \? 4 ^5^< N 1^. 

X " 
as he went out, all the others went out, and as he" 

returned, all the others returned. As bees go out 

when their queen 1 goes out, and return when she 

returns, thus (did) speech, mind, eye, and ear ; and, 

. being satisfied, they praise Pra#a, saying : 

5. He is Agni (fire), he shines as Surya (sun), 
he is Par^anya (rain), the powerful (Indra), he is 
Vayu (wind), he is the earth, he is matter, he is 
God — he is what is and what is not, and what 
is immortal. 

6. As spokes in the nave of a wheel, everything 
is fixed in Pra#a, the verses of the i?zg-veda, Ya^ur- 
veda, Sama-veda, the sacrifice, the Kshatriyas, and 
the Brahmans. 

7. As Pra^apati (lord of creatures) thou movest 
about in the womb, thou indeed art born again. 
To thee, the Prawa, these creatures bring offerings, 
to thee who dwellest with the other prawas (the 
organs of sense). 

8. Thou art the best carrier for the Gods, thou 
art the first offering 2 to the Fathers. Thou art the 
true work of the ifo'shis 3 , of the Atharvangiras. 

9. O Pra«a, thou art Indra by thy light, thou art 
Rudra, as a protector ; thou movest in the sky, thou 
art the sun, the lord of lights. 

10. When thou showerest down rain, then,0 Pra^a, 
these creatures of thine are delighted *, hoping that 
there will be food, as much as they desire. 

1 In Sanskrit it is madhukarar£g r a, king of the bees. 

B When a irdddha is offered to the Pirn's. 

8 Explained as the eye and the other organs of sense which the 
chief PrS»a supports ; but it is probably an old verse, here applied 
to a special purpose. 

4 Another reading is pra^ate, they breathe. 

T 2 



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276 PRAStfA-UPANISHAD. 

1 1. Thou art a Vr&tya \ O Pra#a, the only .foshi 2 , 
the consumer of everything, the good lord. We are 
the givers of what thou hast to consume, thou, O 
Mataiirva 8 , art our father. 

12. Make propitious that body of thine which 
dwells in speech, in the ear, in the eye, and which 
pervades the mind ; do not go away ! 

13. All this is in the power of Pra#a, whatever 
exists in the three heavens. Protect us like a 
mother her sons, and give us happiness and wisdom.' 



Third Question. 

1. Then Kausalya A.yvalayana asked: 'Sir, whence 
is that Pr&#a (spirit) born? How does it come 
into this body? And how does it abide, after it 
has divided itself? How does it go out? How 
does it support what is without *, and how what is 
within ? ' 

2. He replied : ' You ask questions more difficult, 
but you are very fond of Brahman, therefore I shall 
tell it you. 

3. This Pra«a (spirit) is born of the Self. Like 
the shadow thrown on a man, this (the pr&»a) is 

1 A person for whom the sawsk&ras, the sacramental and initiatory 
rites, have not been performed. Ankara says that, as he was the 
first born, there was no one to perform them for him, and that he 
is called VrStya, because he was pure by nature. This is all very 
doubtful. 

8 Agni is said to be the i?/shi of the Atharvawas. 

* Instead of the irregular vocative M&tarLrva, there is another 
reading, MdtaruvanaA, i.e. thou art the father of M&tarLsvan, the 
wind, and therefore of the whole world. 

* All creatures and the gods. 



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Ill QUESTION, 6. 277 



spread out over it (the Brahman) \ By the work of 
the mind 2 does it come into this body. 

4. As a king commands officials, saying to them : 
Rule these villages or those, so does that Pra«a 
(spirit) dispose the other pra«as, each for their 
separate work. 

5. The Apana (the down-breathing) in the organs 
of excretion and generation; the Pra«a himself 
dwells in eye and ear, passing through mouth and 
nose. In the middle is the Samana 3 (the on- 
breathing); it carries what has been sacrificed as 
food equally (over the body), and the seven lights 
proceed from it. 

6. The Self 4 is in the heart. There are the 10 1 
arteries, and in each of them there are a hundred 
(smaller veins), and for each of these branches 
there are 72,000 5 . In these theVyana(the back- 
breathing) moves. 



1 Over Brahman, i. e. the Self, the parama purusha, the akshara, , 
the satya. The pra»a being called a shadow, is thereby implied to 
be unreal (anr/'ta). .Sankara. 

3 Manokr/'ta is explained as an arsha sandhi. It means the good 
or evil deeds, which are the work of the mind. 

* I keep to the usual translation of Sam&na by on-breathing, though 
it is here explained in a different sense. Samana is here supposed 
to be between prawa and ap&na, and to distribute the food equally, 
samam, over the body. The seven lights are explained as the two 
eyes, the two ears, the two nostrils, and the mouth. 

4 Here the Ling&tma or <ziv&tma\ 

6 A hundred times 101 would give us 10,100, and each multiplied 
by 72,000 would give us a sum total of 727,200,000 veins, or, if we 
add the principal veins, 727,210,201. Anandagiri makes the sum 
total, 72 4o/is, 72 lakshas, six thousands, two hundred and one, 
where the six of the thousands seems to be a mistake for dajrasa- 
hasram. In the Brehadar. Upanishad II, 1, 19, we read of 72,000 
arteries, likewise in Ya^navalkya III, Ite8. See also Brih. Up. IV, 



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278 PRAStfA-UPANISHAD. 

7. Through one of them, the Udana (the out- 
breathing) leads (us) upwards to the good world by 
good work, to the bad world by bad work, to the 
world of men by both. 

8. The sun rises as the external Prawa, for it 
assists the Pra#a in the eye \ The deity that exists 
in the earth, is there in support of man's Apana 
(down-breathing). The ether between (sun and 
earth) is the Samana (on-breathing), the air is Vyana 
(back-breathing). 

9. Light is the Udana (out-breathing), and there- 
fore he whose light has gone out comes to a new 
birth with his senses absorbed in the mind. 

10. Whatever his thought (at the time of death) 
with that he goes back to Pra«a, and the Prawa, 
united with light 2 , together with the self (the ^Ivitmd) 
leads on to the world, as deserved. 

11. He who, thus knowing, knows Pra#a, his 
offspring does not perish, and he becomes immortal. 
Thus says the ►S'loka : 

12. He who has known the origin 8 , the entry, 
the place, the fivefold distribution, and the internal 
state * of the Pra#a, obtains immortality, yes, obtains 
immortality.' 

3, 20 ; Ktend. Up. VI, 5, 3, comm. ; Kaush. Up. IV, 20 ; KaJha. 
Up. VI, 16. 

1 Without the sun the eye could not see. 

2 With Udana, the out-breathing. 

8 This refers to the questions asked in verse 1, and answered in 
the verses which follow. 

4 The adhyatma,as opposed to the vahya, mentioned in verse 1. 
Ayati instead of ayati is explained by M&nd&sam hrasvatvam. 



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IV QUESTION, 3. 279 



Fourth Question. 

1. Then Sauryaya#in Gargya asked :' Sir, What 
are they that sleep in this man, and what are they 
that are awake in him ? What power (deva) is it 
that sees dreams ? Whose is the happiness ? On 
what do all these depend ? ' 

2. He replied : ' O Gargya, As all the rays of the 
sun, when it sets, are gathered up in that disc of 
light, and as they, when the sun rises again and 
again, come forth, so is all this (all the senses) 
gathered up in the highest faculty (deva) \ the mind. 
Therefore at that time that man does not hear, see, 
smell, taste, touch, he does not speak, he does not 
take, does not enjoy, does not evacuate, does not 
move about. He sleeps, that is what people say. 

__^3« The fires of the pra«as are, as it were 2 , awake 
in that town (the body). The Apana is the Garha- 
patya fire, the Vyana the Anvaharyapa^ana fire ; and 
because it is taken out of the Garhapatya fire, which 
is fire for taking out 3 , therefore the Pra»a is the 
Ahavanlya fire*. 

1 See note to verse 5. 2 We ought to read agnaya iva. 

s Pra*ayana, prawiyate 'smSd iti pra«ayano gSrhapatyo 'gaiA. 

* The comparison between the pra«as and the fires or altars is 
not very clear. As to the fires or altars, there is the Garhapatya, 
placed in the South-west, the household fire, which is always kept 
burning, from which the fire is taken to the other altars. The 
Anvdhiryapa^ana, commonly called the Dakshi«a fire, placed in 
the South, used chiefly for oblations to the forefathers. The 
Ahavanlya fire, placed in the East, and used for sacrifices to the 
gods. 

Now the Apina is identified with the GSrhapatya fire, no reason 
being given except afterwards, when it is said that the Pra«a is 
the Ahavaniya fire, being taken out of the Garhapatya, here called 



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280 PRAStfA-UPANISHAD. 

4. Because it carries equally these two oblations, 
the out-breathing and the in-breathing, the Samana 
is he (the Hotri priest) 1 . The mind is the sacri- 
fice^ the Udana is the reward of the sacrifice, and 
it leads the sacrificer every day (in deep sleep) to 
Brahman. 

5. There that god 2 (the mind) enjoys in sleep 
greatness. What has been seen, he 2 sees again ; 
what has been heard, he hears again ; what has been 
enjoyed in different countries and quarters, he enjoys 
again ; what has been seen and not seen, heard and 
not heard, enjoyed and not enjoyed, he sees it all ; 
he, being all, sees. 

6. And when he is overpowered by light 3 , then 
that god sees no dreams, and at that time that 
happiness arises in his body. 

7. And, O friend, as birds go to a tree to roost, 
thus all this rests in the Highest Atman, — 

8. The earth and its subtile elements, the water 
and its subtile elements, the light and its subtile 
elements, the air and its subtile elements, the ether 
and its subtile elements ; the eye and what can be 

prawayana, in the same manner as the prawa proceeds in sleep 
from the apana. The Vy&na is identified with the Dakshiwagni, 
the Southern fire, because it issues from the heart through an 
aperture on the right. 

1 The name of the Hotri priest must be supplied. He is sup- 
posed to carry two oblations equally to the Ahavaniya, and in the 
same way the Vyina combines the two breathings, the in and out 
breathings. 

* The ^iv&tman under the guise of manas. The Sanskrit word 
is deva, god, used in the sense of an invisible power, but as a 
masculine. The commentator uses manodevaA, p. 212, 1. 5. I 
generally translate deva, if used in this sense, by faculty, but the 
context required a masculine. See verse 2. 

* In the state of profound sleep or sushupti. 



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V QUESTION, 2. 28 1 



seen, the ear and what can be heard, the nose and 
what can be smelled, the taste and what can be 
tasted, the skin and what can be touched, the voice 
and what can be spoken, the hands and what can 
be grasped, the feet and what can be walked, the 
mind and what can be perceived, intellect (buddhi) 
and what can be conceived, personality and what 
can be personified, thought and what can be thought, 
light and what can be lighted up, the Prawa and 
what is to be supported by it 

9. For he it is who sees, hears, smells, tastes, 
perceives, conceives, acts, he whose essence is know- 
ledge \ the person, and he dwells in the highest, 
indestructible Self, — 

10. He who knows that indestructible being, obtains 
(what is) the highest and indestructible, he without 
a shadow, without a body, without colour, bright, — 
yes, O friend, he who knows it, becomes all-knowing, 
becomes all. On this there is this .Sloka : 

11. He, O friend, who knows that indestructible 
being wherein the true knower, the vital spirits 
(pra«as), together with all the powers (deva), and 
the elements rest, he, being all-knowing, has pene- 
trated all' 

Fifth Question. 

1. Then .Saivya Satyakama asked him : 'Sir, if some 
one among men should meditate here until death 
on the syllable Om, what would he obtain by it ? ' 

2. He replied: 'O Satyakama, the syllable Om 
(AUM) is the highest and also the other Brahman ; 

1 Buddhi and the rest are the instruments of knowledge, but 
there is the knower, the person, in the Highest Self. 



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282 PRAS#A-UPANISHAD. 



therefore he who knows it arrives by the same 
means 1 at one of the two. 

3. If he meditate on one Matra (the A) 2 , then, 
being enlightened by that only, he arrives quickly 
at the earth 8 . The i?z£-verses lead him to the 
world of men, and being endowed there with penance, 
abstinence, and faith, he enjoys greatness. 

4. If he meditate with * two Matras (A + U) he 
arrives at the Manas 5 , and is led up by the Ya_fus- 
verses to the sky, to the Soma-world. Having enjoyed 
greatness in the Soma-world, he returns again. 

5. Again, he who meditates with this syllable 
AUM of three Matras, on the Highest Person, he 
comes to light and to the sun. And as a snake is 
freed from its skin, so is he freed from evil. He 
is led up by the Saman-verses to the Brahma- 
world 8 ; and from him, full of life (Hira#yagarbha, 
the lord of the Satya-loka 7 ), he learns 8 to see the 
all-pervading, the Highest Person. And there are 
these two .Slokas : 

6. The three Matras (A + U+M), if employed 
separate, and only joined one to another, are mortal 9 ; 

1 Ayatanena, alambanena. 

2 Dipikaya»e Va£aspatinaivakaramatram ityeva vyakhyatam. 

3 Sampadyate prapnoti g-anmeti jeshaA. 

4 .Srutau tri'tiya dvitfyarthe. 

8 Literally the mind, but here meant for the moon, as before. 
It is clear that manasi belongs to sampadyate, not, as the Dtpik£ 
and Roer think, to dhyayita. Some take it for svapnabhimant 
HirawyagarbhaA. 

6 The world of HirawyagarbhaA, called the Satyaloka. 

7 On a later addition, bringing in the Om as consisting of three 
Matras and a half, see Weber, Ind. Stud. I, p. 453; Roer, p. 138. 

8 Tadupadereneti yivat. 

9 Because in their separate form, A, U, M, they do not mean 
the Highest Brahman. 



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VI QUESTION, 4. 283 



but in acts, external, internal, or intermediate, if 
well performed, the sage trembles not \ 

7. Through the J&k-verses he arrives at this 
world, through the Ya^us-verses at the sky, through 
the Saman- verses at that which the poets teach, — he 
arrives at this by means of the Oiikara; the wise 
arrives at that which is at rest, free from decay, from 
death, from fear, — the Highest.' 

Sixth Question. 

1. Then Sukeras Bhlradva^a asked him, saying: 
' Sir, Hira«yanabha, the prince of Kosala 2 , came to 
me and asked this question : Do you know the 
person of sixteen parts, O Bharadva^a ? I said to 
the prince : I do not know him ; if I knew him, 
how should I not tell you ? Surely, he who speaks 
what is untrue withers away to the very root; 
therefore I will not say what is untrue. Then he 
mounted his chariot and went away silently. Now 
I ask you, where is that person ?' 

2. He replied : 'Friend, that person is here within 
the body, he in whom these sixteen parts arise. 

3. He reflected : What is it by whose departure 
I shall depart, and by whose staying I shall stay ? 

4. He sent forth (created) Pra«a (spirit) 3 ; from 

1 The three acts are explained as waking, slumbering, and deep 
sleep; or as three kinds of pronunciation, tdra-mandra-madhyama. 
They are probably meant for Yoga exercises in which the three 
Matris of Om are used as one word, and as an emblem of the 
Highest Brahman. 

2 .Sankara explains Kausalya by Kosal&y&m bhava^. Ananda- 
tirtha gives the same explanation. Kosali is the capital, generally 
called Ayodhya. There is no authority for the palatal s. 

8 Sankara explains pr£«a by sarvapriwo Hirawyagarbha (sarva- 
pra«ikara»&dh&ram antarSlmSnam). 



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284 PRAStfA-UPANISHAD. 

Pra#a .Sraddha (faith) 1 , ether, air, light, water, earth, 
sense, mind, food ; from food came vigour, penance, 
hymns, sacrifice, the worlds, and in the worlds the 
name 2 also. 

5. As these flowing rivers 8 that go towards the 
ocean, when they have reached the ocean, sink into 
it, their name and form are broken, and people speak 
of the ocean only, exactly thus these sixteen parts of 
the spectator that go towards the person (purusha), 
when they have reached the person, sink into him, 
their name and form are broken, and people speak 
of the person only, and he becomes without parts 
and immortal. On this there is this verse : 

6. That person who is to be known, he in whom 
these parts rest, like spokes in the nave of a wheel, 
you know him, lest death should hurt you.' 

7. Then he (Pippalada) said to them : ' So far do 
I know this Highest Brahman, there is nothing 
higher than it' 

8. And they praising him, said : ' You, indeed, are 
our father, you who carry us from our ignorance to 
the other shore.' 

Adoration to the highest ifoshis ! 
Adoration to the highest -ffz'shis ! 
Tat sat. Hari^, Om ! 

1 Faith is supposed to make all beings act rightly. 

2 Nama stands here for n&marupe, name (concept) and form. 
See before, p. 259. 

3 Cf. Mu»«/. Up. IV, 2, 8 ; -Odnd. Up. VIII, 10. 



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MAITR AYAiVA-BRAH MAJVA- 
UPANISHAD. 



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MAITRAYAiVA-BRAH MANA- 
UPANISHAD. 



First PRAPArffAKA. 

i. The laying of the formerly-described sacrificial 
fires x is indeed the sacrifice of Brahman. Therefore 
let the sacrificer, after he has laid those fires, medi- 
tate on the Self. Thus only does the sacrificer 
become complete and faultless. 

But who is to be meditated on ? He who is 
called Pra«a (breath). Of him there is this story : 

2. A King, named Brzhadratha, having established 
his son in his sovereignty 2 , went into the forest, 
because he considered this body as transient, and 
had obtained freedom from all desires. Having 
performed the highest penance, he stands there, with 
uplifted arms, looking up to the sun. At the end 
of a thousand (days) 3 , the Saint .Sakayanya *, who 
knew the Self, came near 6 , burning with splendour, 

1 The performance of all the sacrifices, described in the MaitrS- 
ya»a-brahma»a, is to lead up in the end to a knowledge of Brahman, 
by rendering a man fit for receiving the highest knowledge. See 
Manu VI, 82 : 'All that has been declared (above) depends on medi- 
tation ; for he who is not proficient in the knowledge of the Self 
reaps not the full reward of the performance of rites.' 

* Instead of virigye, a doubtful word, and occurring nowhere 
else, m. reads vair%ye. 

* Or years, if we read sahasrasya instead of sahasr&hasya. 

4 The descendant of .SSkdyana. Saint is perhaps too strong ; it 
means a holy, venerable man, and is frequently applied to a Buddha. 

8 Both M. and m. add muneA before antikam, whereas the com- 
mentary has r&gnzh. 



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288 maitrAyajva-brAhma^a-upanishad. 

like a fire without smoke. He said to the King: 
'Rise, rise! Choose a boon!' 

The King, bowing before him, said : ' O Saint, I 
know not the Self, thou knowest the essence (of the 
Self). We have heard so. Teach it us.' 

.Sak&yanya replied : ' This was achieved of yore ; 
but what thou askest is difficult to obtain 1 . O 
Aikshvaka, choose other pleasures.' 

The King, touching the Saint's feet with his head, 
recited this Gathi : 

3. ' O Saint, What is the use of the enjoyment of 
pleasures in this offensive, pithless body — a mere 
mass of bones, skin, sinews, marrow a , flesh, seed, 
blood, mucus, tears, phlegm, ordure, water 8 , bile, 
and slime ! What is the use of the enjoyment of 
pleasures in this body which is assailed by lust, 
hatred, greed, delusion, fear, anguish, jealousy, sepa- 
ration from what is loved, union with what is not 
loved * hunger, thirst, old age, death, illness, grief, 
and other evils ! 

4. And we see that all this is perishable, as these 
flies, gnats, and other insects, as herbs and trees 6 , 

1 Though the commentator must have read etad vrAtam purastSd 
du&rakyam etat pramam, yet pramam as a neuter is very strange. 
M. reads etad vr/'ttam purast&t, duwakama priAMa pramam ; 
m. reads etad vratam purastad arakyam ma przHa praxnam 
aikshvaka, &c. This suggests the reading, etad wrttam purastad 
dufoakam mi pri&kka. prawiam, i. e. this was settled formerly, do 
not ask a difficult or an impossible question. 

* Read maggL * M. adds vita before pitta ; not m. 

4 An expression that often occurs in Buddhist literature. See 
also Manu VI, 62 : 'On their separation from those whom they 
love, and their union with those whom they hate ; on their strength 
overpowered by old age, and their bodies racked with disease.' 

• The Sandhi vanaspatayodbhuta for vanaspataya udbhuta is 
anomalous. M. reads vanaspatayo bhutapradhvawsinaA. 



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I PRAPArtfAKA, 4. 289 

growing and decaying. And what of these ? There 
are other great ones, mighty wielders of bows, rulers 
of empires, Sudyumna, Bhuridyumna, Indradyumna, 
Kuvalayarva, Yauvanasva, Vadhryasva, A^vapati 1 , 
.Sasabindu, HarLy^andra, Ambarlsha 2 , Nahusha, 
Ananata, .Saryati, Yayati, Anara^ya 3 , Ukshasena *, 
&c, and kings such as Marutta, Bharata (Daush- 
yanti), and others, who before the eyes of their whole 
family surrendered the greatest happiness, and 
passed on from this world to that. And what of 
these ? There are other great ones. We see the 
destruction 5 of Gandharvas, Asuras 6 , Yakshas, Ra- 
kshasas, Bhutas, Ga»as, Visik&as, snakes, and vam- 
pires. And what of these ? There is the drying 
up of other great oceans, the falling of mountains, 
the moving of the pole-star, the cutting of the wind- 
ropes (that hold the stars), the submergence of the 
earth, and the departure of the gods (suras) from 
their place. In such a world as this, what is the 
use of the enjoyment of pleasures, if he who has 
fed 7 on them is seen 8 to return (to this world) again 

1 M. carries on ajvapatimabinduharu&indrSmbarisha. 

2 After Ambarlsha, M. reads NabhushSnanutuf ayyatiyaydtyanara- 
«ya1cshasen&dayo. Nahusha (Naghusha ?) is the father of Sary&ti ; 
N&bhaga, the father of Ambartsha. These names are so care- 
lessly written that even the commentator says that the text is 
either Mindasa, or pr&m&dika. An&nata is a mere conjecture. It 
occurs as the name of a Jiisbi in Rig-veda IX, in. 

3 Anarawya, mentioned in the Mah&bh&rata, I, 230. 

4 M. reads anarawyakshasena. 

8 M. and m. read nirodhanam. • M. adds Apsarasas. 

7 M. and m. read sUritasya, but the commentator explains ari- 
tasya. 

8 Here we have the Maitrdya«a Sandhi, dr/jyata" iti, instead 
of dr/iyata iti ; see von Schroeder, Maitraya«f Sawhitd, p. xxviii. 
M. and m. read dmyata. 

' [15] V 



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29O MAITRAYAiVA-BRAHMAiVA-UPANISHAD. 

and again! Deign therefore to take me out! In 
this world I am like a frog in a dry well. O Saint, 
thou art my way, thou art my way.' 



Second PRAPArffAKA. 

1. Then the Saint .Sakayanya, well pleased, said 
to the King: 'Great King Brz'hadratha, thou banner 
of the race of Ikshvaku, quickly obtaining a know- 
ledge of Self, thou art happy, and art renowned by 
the name of Marut, the wind \ This indeed is thy 
Self 2 .' 

' Which 3 , O Saint,' said the King. 
Then the Saint said to him : 

2. ' He 4 who, without stopping the out-breathing 6 , 
proceeds upwards (from the sthula to the sukshma 
.rarira), and who, modified (by impressions), and yet 
not modified 6 , drives away the darkness (of error), 
he is the Self. Thus said the Saint Maitri V And 
.Sakayanya said to the King Brzhadratha : ' He who 
in perfect rest, rising from this body (both from 
the sthula and sukshma), and reaching the highest 

1 Pn'shada^va in the Veda is another name of the Maruts, the 
storm gods. Afterwards the king is called Marut, VI, 30. 

2 This sentence is called a Sutra by the commentator to VI, 32. 
8 M. reads Kathaya me katamo bhavan iti. 

4 M. leaves out atha. 

8 One might read dvish/ambhanena, in the sense of while pre- 
venting the departure of the vital breath, as in the Brih. Ar. VT, 3, 
priwena rakshann avaram kulayam. 

e M. reads vyathamano 'vyathamSnas. 

7 M. leaves out Maitri^-ity tvam hyaha. The commentator ex- 
plains Maitrir by mitraya apatyam n'shir maitrir maitreya. In a later 
passage (II, 3) M. reads Bhagavatd Maitrewa, likewise the Anubhuti- 
prakira. 



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II PRAPArffAKA, 4. 29I 

light 1 , conies forth in his own form, he is the Self 2 
(thus said 6akayanya); this is the immortal, the 
fearless, this is Brahman.' 

3. ' Now then this is the science of Brahman, and 
the science of all Upanishads, O King, which was 
told us by the Saint Maitri \ I shall tell it to thee : 

' We hear (in the sacred records) that there were 
once the Valakhilyas *, who had left off all evil, who 
were vigorous and passionless. They said to the Pra- 
^apati Kratu : " O Saint, this body is without intel- 
ligence, like a cart. To what supernatural being 
belongs this great power by which such a body has 
been made intelligent ? Or who is the driver ? 
What thou knowest, O Saint, tell us that 6 ." ' Pra^a- 
pati answered and said : 

4. ' He who in the .SVuti is called " Standing 
above," like passionless ascetics 6 amidst the objects 
of the world, he, indeed, the pure, clean, undeveloped, 
tranquil, breathless, bodiless 7 , endless, imperishable, 
firm, everlasting, unborn, independent one, stands in 
his own greatness, and by him has this body been 
made intelligent, and he is also the driver of it' 

1 M. adds svayaw ^yotir upasampadya. 

8 M. reads esha for ity esha, which seems better. 

' M. reads Maitrewa vyakhyatd. 

* M. M., Translation of Rig-veda, Preface, p. xxxiv. 

6 M. adds : bruhfti te hoiur Bhagavan katham anena vasyaw* yat 
Bhagavan vetsy etad asmakaw bruhiti tan hova&ti. 

• The commentator allows urdhvaretasasaA to be taken as a 
vocative also. 

' Niratmi is explained by the commentator as thoughtless, with- 
out volition, &c. But atma is frequently used for body also, and 
this seems more appropriate here. M., however, reads anuatmS, 
and this is the reading explained in the Anubhutiprakira, p. 228, 
ver. 60. This might mean the Atman which has not yet assumed 
the quality of a personal god. See VI, 28 ; VI, 31. 

U 2 



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292 maitrAyaya-brAhmazva-upanishad. 

They said: 'O Saint, How has this been made 
intelligent by such a being as this which has no 
desires 1 , and how is he its driver?' He answered 
them and said : 

5. ' That Self which is very small, invisible, in- 
comprehensible, called Purusha, dwells of his own 
will here in part 2 ; just as a man who is fast asleep 
awakes of his own will 3 . And this part (of the Self) 
which is entirely intelligent, reflected in man (as the 
sun in different vessels of water), knowing the body 
(kshetra^wa), attested by his conceiving, willing, and 
believing 4 , is Pra^apati (lord of creatures), called 
Visva. By him, the intelligent, is this body made 
intelligent, and he is the driver thereof.' 

They said to him : ' O Saint 6 , if this has been 
made intelligent by such a being as this, which has 
no desires, and if he is the driver thereof, how was 
it?' He answered them and said : 

6. ' In the beginning Pra^ apati (the lord of 
creatures) stood alone. He had no happiness, when 
alone. Meditating 6 on himself, he created many 

1 The reading anish/Aena is explained by the commentator as free 
from any local habitation or attachment. He also mentions the 
various readings anish/ena, free from wishes, and awish/ftena, the 
smallest M. reads ani&Wena, and this seems better than anish/ena. 
The Anubhutiprakaja reads likewise ani^^asya. 

* I read buddhipurvam, and again with M. suptasyeva buddhi- 
purvam. I also read aw^ena without id, as in M. The simile seems 
to be that a man, if he likes, can wake himself at any time of 
night, and this ' if he likes ' is expressed by buddhipurvam. See 
Anubhutiprak&ra, w. 67, 68. 

* M. reads vibodhayati, atha. 

4 See Maitr. Up. V, 2; Cowell's Translation, pp. 246, 256; 
Vedlntaparibhsbha, ed. A. Venis, in the Pandit, IV, p. no. 

5 M. adds : bhagavann idmasya katham ams ena vartanam iti tan 
hova/ta. 

f M. reads abhidhyayan. 



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II PRAPArffAKA, 6. 293 



creatures. He looked on them and saw they were, 
like a stone, without understanding, and standing 
like a lifeless post. He had no happiness. He 
thought, I shall enter 1 within, that they may awake. 
Making himself like air (vayu) z he entered within. 
Being one, he could not do it. Then dividing him- 
self fivefold, he is called Pra«a, Apana, Samaria, 
Udana, Vyana. Now that 3 air which rises up- 
wards, is Pra«a. That which moves downwards, 
is Apana. That by which these two are supposed 
to be held, is Vyana. That 4 which carries the 
grosser material of food to the Apana, and brings 
the subtler material to each limb, has the name 
Samana. [After these (Pra«a, Apana, Samana) comes 
the work of the Vyana, and between them (the Prawa, 
Apana, and Samana on one side and the Vyana on 
the other) comes the rising of the Udana.] That 
which brings up or carries down 6 what has been 
drunk and eaten, is the Udana 6 . 

Now the U pa w.m- vessel (or prawa) depends on 
the A ntaryama- vessel (apana) and the Antaryama- 

1 It is better to read with M. vuanid. 

* M. vayum iva. 8 M. Atha yo 'yam. 

4 M. reads : yo 'yaw sthavish/>$am anna»? dhatum annasyapane 
sthapayaty anish/Aam kiage 'nge sawnayati esha vava sa samano 
'tha yo 'yam. Leaving out annam, this seems the right reading. 
The whole sentence from uttaram to udanasya is left out in M. 

■ M. nigirati £aisho vava sa udano 'tha yenaitas sira anuvyapta 
esha vava sa vyana^. 

e The views of these five kinds of wind differ considerably. 
Here the commentator explains that the prawa and apana, the up- 
breathing and down-breathing, keep the bodily warmth alive, as 
bellows keep up a fire. The food cooked in it is distributed by 
the Samana, so that the coarse material becomes ordure, the middle 
flesh, the subtle material mind (manas). The udana brings up 
phlegm, &c, while the Vyana gives strength to the whole body. 



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294 MAITRAYAiVA-BRAHMAJVA-UPANISHAD. 

vessel (apana) on the Upa»wu-vessel 1 (prina), and 
between these two the self-resplendent (Self) pro- 
duced heat 8 . This heat is the purusha (person), 
and this purusha is Agni VaLrvanara. And thus 
it is said elsewhere 3 : " Agni Vai-rvanara is the fire 
within man by which the food that is eaten is cooked, 
i.e. digested. Its noise is that which one hears, if 
one covers one's ears. When a man is on the point 
of departing this life, he does not hear that noise." 

Now he*, having divided himself fivefold, is 
hidden in a secret place (buddhi), assuming the 
nature of mind, having the pra«as as his body, re- 
splendent, having true concepts, and free like ether 5 . 
Feeling even thus that he has not attained his object, 
he thinks from within the interior of the heart 6 , 
" Let me enjoy objects." Therefore, having first 
broken open these five apertures (of the senses), he 
enjoys the objects by means of the five reins. This 
means that these perceptive organs (ear, skin, 
eye, tongue, nose) are his reins ; the active organs 
(tongue (for speaking), hands, feet, anus, generative 
organ) his horses ; the body his chariot, the mind 
the charioteer, the whip being the temperament. 
Driven by that whip, this body goes round like the 

1 Two sacrificial vessels (graha) placed on either side of the stone 
on which the Soma is squeezed, and here compared to the Prana 
and Apana, between which the Self (£aitanyatmi) assumes heat. 

2 M. reads tayor antara/e £aush«yam prasuvat. 

* See Br»Tiacara»yaka Up. V, 9; .ffMnd. Up. Ill, 13, 8. 

4 The Vaif vanara or purusha, according to the commentator, but 
originally the Pra^apati, who had made himself like air, and divided 
himself into five vital airs. 

6 Thus the atma, with his own qualities and those which he 
assumes, becomes a living being. 

6 M. reads esho 'sya hr/'dantare tish/^ann. 



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Ill PRAPA7ffAKA, I. 295 

wheel driven by the potter. This body is made 
intelligent, and he is the driver thereof. 

This * is indeed the Self, who seeming to be filled 
with desires, and seeming to be overcome 2 by bright 
or dark fruits of action, wanders about in every 
body (himself remaining free). Because he is not 
manifest, because he is infinitely small, because he 
is invisible, because he cannot be grasped, because 
he is attached to nothing, therefore he, seeming to 
be changing, an agent in that which is not (prakr/ti), 
is in reality not an agent and unchanging. He is 
pure, firm, stable, undefiled 3 , unmoved, free from 
desire, remaining a spectator, resting in himself. 
Having concealed himself in the cloak of the three 
qualities he appears as the enjoyer of rita, as the 
enjoyer of rtta. (of his good works).' 



Third PRAPArffAKA. 

1. The Valakhilyas said to Prafapati Kratu : 
' O Saint, if thou thus showest the greatness of that 
Self, then who is that other different one, also called 
Self 4 , who really overcome by bright and dark 
fruits of action, enters on a good or bad birth ? 

1 M. reads : Sa va esha atmeti hcrann iva sitasitaM. This seems 
better than iwanti kavaya^, which hardly construes. 

8 M. reads abhibhuyamanay iva, which again is better than ana- 
bhibhuta iva, for he seems to be overcome, but is not, just as he 
seems to be an agent, but is not. See also III, 1. 

' M. has alepo. 

4 The pure Self, called itma, brahma, £inmStram, prag-raSnagha- 
nam, &c, after entering what he had himself created, and no longer 
distinguishing himself from the created things (bhuta), is called 
BhMtml 



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296 maitrAyaya-brAhmazva-upanishad. 

Downward or upward is his course 1 , and overcome 
by the pairs (distinction between hot and cold, plea- 
sure and pain, &c.) he roams about 2 .' 

2. Pra/apati Kratu replied: 'There is indeed that 
other 3 different one, called the elemental Self (Bhu- 
tatma), who, overcome by bright and dark fruits of 
action, enters on a good or bad birth : downward or 
upward is his course, and overcome by the pairs he 
roams about. And this is his explanation : The five 
Tanmitras* (sound, touch, form, taste, smell) are 
called Bhuta; also the five Mahabhutas (gross ele- 
ments) are called Bhuta. Then the aggregate 6 of all 
these is called jarlra, body 6 . And lastly he of whom 
it was said that he dwelt in the body 7 , he is called 
Bhutatma, the elemental Self. Thus his immortal 
Self 8 is like a drop of water on a lotus leaf 9 , and 
he himself is overcome by the qualities of nature. 
Then 10 , because he is thus overcome, he becomes 
bewildered, and because he is bewildered, he saw 
not the creator, the holy Lord, abiding within 
himself. Carried along by the waves of the quali- 
ties u , darkened in his imaginations, unstable, fickle, 

1 M. reads here and afterwards avakam urdhvaw vS gatidvandvaW. 

2 M. adds at the end, paribhramatiti katama esha iti, t&n hova&ti, 
and leaves it out at the end of § 2. 

8 M. here reads avara. * M. reads tanm&tr£«i. 

6 M. reads teshaw samudayas taAWariram. 

• The commentator distinguishes between lihga-farlra, consisting 
of prawas, indriyas, the anta^karawa, and the sukshmabhutas ; and 
the sthula-jarfra, consisting of the five Mah&bhutas. 

7 M. reads jariram ity uktam. 

8 M. reads atMsti tasyaA bindur iva. 

8 It sticks to it, yet it can easily run off again. 

10 M. reads Ato, and the commentator explains atho by ataA 
karawat, adding sandhiA £Mndasa£. 

11 See VI, 30. 



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Ill PRAPATflAKA, 3. 297 

crippled, full of desires, vacillating, he enters into 
belief, believing "I am he," "this is mine 1 ;" he binds 
his Self by his Self, as a bird with a net, and over- 
come afterwards by the fruits of what he has done, 
he enters on a good and bad birth ; downward or 
upward is his course, and overcome by the pairs he 
roams about.' 

They asked : ' Which is it ?' And he answered 
them : 

3. ' This also has elsewhere been said : He v/ho 
acts, is the elemental Self; he who causes to act by 
means of the organs 2 , is the inner man (anta^puru- 
sha). Now as even a ball of iron, pervaded (over- 
come) by fire, and hammered by smiths, becomes 
manifold (assumes different forms, such as crooked, 
round, large, small 3 ), thus the elemental Self, per- 
vaded (overcome) by the inner man, and hammered 
by the qualities, becomes manifold*. And the four 
tribes (mammals, birds, &c), the fourteen worlds 
(Bhur, &c), with all the number of beings, multi- 
plied eighty-four times 6 , all this appears as manifold- 
ness. And those multiplied things are impelled by 
man (purusha) as the wheel by the potter 6 . And as 
when the ball of iron is hammered, the fire is not 
overcome, so the (inner) man is not overcome, but 
the elemental Self is overcome, because it has united 
itself (with the elements). 

1 M. reads ahaw so mamedam. a M. anta^karawaiA. 

3 See commentary, p. 48, 1. 7. 

* M. reads upety atha triguwaw? katmgi\a.m. 

6 M. reads £atura?ftilakshayonipari«atam. See also Anubhuti- 
praksLta, ver. 118. 

6 Mr/'tyava seems an impossible word, though the commentator 
twice explains it as kulaia, potter. M. reads £akri«eti, which seems 
preferable. Weber conjectures mrttpa&u 



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298 maitrayawa-brAhmazva-upanishad. 

4. And it has been said elsewhere 1 : This body 
produced from marriage, and endowed with growth 8 
in darkness, came forth by the urinary passage, was 
built up with bones, bedaubed with flesh, thatched 
with skin, filled with ordure, urine, bile, slime, mar- 
row, fat, oil 3 , and many impurities besides, like a 
treasury full of treasures 4 . 

5. And it has been said elsewhere : Bewilder- 
ment, fear, grief, sleep, sloth, carelessness, decay, 
sorrow, hunger, thirst, niggardliness, wrath, infi- 
delity, ignorance, envy, cruelty 6 , folly, shameless- 
ness, meanness 6 , pride, changeability 7 , these are the 
results of the quality of darkness (tama^) 8 . 



1 Part of this passage has been before the mind of the author of 
the Manava-dhammSstra, when writing, VI, 76, 77 : asthisthu«a« 
snayuyutam mdmsaromtalepanam, /farmavanaddhaw durgandhi pur- 
Mam mutrapurishayoA, ^ara^okasamavish/am rogayatanam dturam 
ra^asvalam anityaw fa. bhutavasam imaw tya^et. The same verses 
occur in the MahabMrata XII, 12463-4, only with tya^a at the 
end, instead of tyag'et. The rendering of asthibhu &tam by asthi- 
sthu«am shows that £ita was understood to mean piled or built up, 
i. e. supported by bones. 

a Instead of sa«v/Yddhyupetam M. reads sawviddhyapetam. 

3 M. adds snayu after vasi, and instead of SmayaW reads malaW. 
This reading, malaM, would seem preferable, though Manu's roga- 
yatanam might be quoted in support of slmayaiA. The exact 
meaning of vasS is given in the Aryavidyasudhakara, p. 82, 1. 9. 

4 Therefore should wise people not identify their true Self with 
the body. M. reads vasuneti. 

5 M. reads vaikaruwyam. 

6 Instead of nirakrrtitvam M. reads nikri'tatvam, which is de- 
cidedly preferable. We may take it to mean either meanness, as 
opposed to uddhatatvam, overbearing, or knavery, the usual 
meaning of nikrj'ti. 

7 M. reads asatvam, possibly for asattvam. 

8 M. reads tamasanvitaW, and afterwards r&^asanvitaiA ; also 
tr/sh»a instead of antastr/'sh«&. 



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IV PRAPArffAKA, 2. 299 

Inward thirst, fondness, passion, covetousness, 
unkindness, love, hatred, deceit 1 , jealousy, vain rest- 
lessness, fickleness 2 , unstableness, emulation, greed, 
patronising of friends, family pride, aversion to dis- 
agreeable objects, devotion to agreeable objects, 
whispering 3 , prodigality, these are the results of the 
quality of passion (ra^as). 

By these he is filled, by these he is overcome, 
and therefore this elemental Self assumes manifold 
forms, yes, manifold forms.' 

Fourth Prapathaka. 

i. The Valakhilyas, whose passions were subdued, 
approached him full of amazement and said : ' O 
Saint, we bow before thee ; teach thou, for thou 
art the way, and there is no other for us. What 
process is there for the elemental Self, by which, 
after leaving this (identity with the elemental body), 
he obtains union 4 with the (true) Self?' Pra^apati 
Kratu said to them : 

2. ' It has been said elsewhere : Like the waves 
in large rivers, that which has been done before, can- 
not be turned back, and, like the tide of the sea, the 
approach of death is hard to stem. Bound 6 by the 
fetters of the fruits of good and evil, like a cripple ; 
without freedom, like a man in prison ; beset by many 
fears, like one standing before Yama (the judge of 

1 M. reads vyavartatvam. * It should be iara^alatvam. 

' M. reads mattasvaro. 

4 Instead of the irregular sdycgyam, M. always reads siyugyam. 

5 It is not quite clear what is the subject to which all these ad- 
jectives refer. M. reads baddho for baddham, but afterwards 
agrees with the text as published by Cowell. 



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300 MAITRAYAJVA-BRAHMAiVA-UPANISHAD. 

the dead) ; intoxicated by the wine of illusion, like 
one intoxicated by wine ; rushing about, like one 
possessed by an evil spirit ; bitten by the world, like 
one bitten by a great serpent ; darkened by passion, 
like the night; illusory, like magic; false, like a 
dream ; pithless, like the inside of the Kadali ; 
changing its dress in a moment, like an actor 1 ; fair 
in appearance, like a painted wall, thus they call 
him ; and therefore it is said : 

Sound 2 , touch, and other things are like nothings; 
if the elemental Self is attached to them, it will not 
remember the Highest Place 3 . 

3. This is indeed the remedy for the elemental 
Self: Acquirement of the knowledge of the Veda, 
performance of one's own duty, therefore conformity 
on the part of each man to the order to which he 
happens to belong. This* is indeed the rule for 
one's own duty, other performances are like the 
mere branches of a stem 6 . Through it one obtains 
the Highest above, otherwise one falls downward 6 . 
Thus is one's own duty declared, which is to be found 
in the Vedas. No one belongs truly to an order (asra- 
ma) who transgresses his own law 7 . And if people 
say, that a man does not belong to any of the orders, 
and that he is an ascetic 8 , this is wrong, though, on 

1 M. reads na/avat. 

8 M. reads ye 'rthS anarthS iva te sthitaA, esham. 

8 M. reads na smaret paramam padam. 

4 M. reads svadharma eva sarvaw dhatte, stambhajakhevetarSm. 

5 The commentator considers the other sacrificial performances 
as hurtful, and to be avoided. 

8 M. reads anyath&dhaA pataty, esha. 

' The rules of the order to which he belongs. 

• A Tapasvin is free from the restrictions of the preceding a\rra- 



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IV PRAPAFffAKA, 4. 30I 

the other hand, no one who is not an ascetic brings 
his sacrificial works to perfection or obtains know- 
ledge of the Highest Self 1 . For thus it is said : 

By ascetic penance goodness is obtained, from 
goodness understanding is reached, from understand- 
ing the Self is obtained, and he who has obtained 
that, does not return 2 . 

4. " Brahman is," thus said one who knew the 
science of Brahman ; and this penance is the door 
to Brahman, thus said one who by penance had- 
cast off all sin. The syllable Om is the mani- 
fest greatness of Brahman, thus said one who 
well grounded (in Brahman) always meditates on 
it. Therefore by knowledge, by penance, and by 
meditation is Brahman gained. Thus one goes 
beyond 3 Brahman (Hira#yagarbha), and to a divinity 
higher than the gods ; nay, he who knows this, and 
worships Brahman by these three (by knowledge, 
penance, and meditation), obtains bliss imperishable, 
infinite, and unchangeable. Then freed from those 
things (the senses of the body, &c.) by which he 
was filled and overcome, a mere charioteer 4 , he 
obtains union with the Self.' 



mas, but he must have obeyed them first, before he can become a 
real Tapasvin. 

1 M. reads a^rameshv evavasthitas tapasvt £ety u£yata ity, etad apy 
uktam, &c. This would mean, ' For it is said that he only who has 
dwelt in the ajramas is also called a Tapasvin, a real ascetic ; and 
this also has been said, that no one obtains self-knowledge except 
an ascetic' This is not impossible, but the commentator follows 
the text as printed by Cowell. M. reads atma^nanenMiigama^, 
karmaraddhi. 

2 M. reads manasa prapyate tv itma hy atmapty& na nivartata iti. 
8 M. reads pura eta, which may be right. 

4 Rathita^ is a very strange word, but, like everything else, it is 



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302 MAITRAYAiVA-BRAHMAiVA-UPANISHAD. 

5. The Valakhilyas said : ' O Saint, thou art the 
teacher, thou art the teacher \ What thou hast said, 
has been properly laid up in our mind. Now answer 
us a further question : Agni, Vayu, Aditya, Time 
(kala) which is Breath (pra#a 2 ), Food (anna), Brahma 3 , 
Rudra, Vishau, thus do some meditate on one, some 
on another. Say which of these is the best for us.' 
He said to them : 

6. ' These are but the chief manifestations of the 
highest, the immortal, the incorporeal Brahman. He 
who is devoted to one, rejoices here in his world 
(presence), thus he said. Brahman indeed is all this, 
and a man may meditate on, worship, or discard also 
those which * are its chief manifestations. With these 
(deities) he proceeds to higher and higher worlds, 
and when all things perish, he becomes one with the 
Purusha, yes, with the Purusha.' 

explained by the commentator, viz. as ratham prapito rathitvaw ka. 
prapita iti yavat. Nevertheless the reading of M. seems to me pre- 
ferable, viz. atha yaxh paripur«o 'bhibhuto 'yaw tathaitaif ia., taiA 
sarvair vimukta svattnany eva sayugyam upaiti. I should prefer 
vimuktas tv atmany eva, and translate, 'But then, freed from all 
those things by which he was filled and likewise was overcome by 
them, he obtains union with the Self.' 

1 M. reads the second time abhiv&dy asmiti, which is no improve- 
ment. It might have been ativadyasiti. 

2 M. reads YamaA pra«o. 

8 This is, of course, the personal BrahmS of the Hindu triad. To 
distinguish this personal Brahmd from the impersonal, I sometimes 
give his name in the nom. masc, Brahma, and not the grammatical 
base, Brahman. 

4 M. reads ya" v& asya. The commentator explains ya vasyiA by 
vasayogyaA; or yi va ysW by b&stit, admitting a Vedic irregularity 
which is not quite clear. 



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V PRAPATTfAKA, 2. 303 



Fifth PravAth aka \ 

1. Next follows Kutsayana's hymn of praise : 

' Thou art Brahma, and thou art Vishmi, thou 
art Rudra, thou Pra^apati 2 , thou art Agni, Varu#a, 
Vayu, thou art Indra, thou the Moon. 

Thou art Anna 3 (the food or the eater), thou art 
Yama, thou art the Earth, thou art All, thou art 
the Imperishable. In thee all things exist in many 
forms, whether for their natural or for their own 
(higher) ends. 

Lord of the Universe, glory to thee ! Thou art 
the Self of All, thou art the maker of All, the 
enjoyer of All ; thou art all life, and the lord of all 
pleasure and joy *. Glory to thee, the tranquil, the 
deeply hidden, the incomprehensible, the immeasur- 
able, without beginning and without end.' 



2. ' In the beginning 5 darkness (tamas) alone was 
this. It was in the Highest, and, moved by the High- 
est, it becomes uneven. Thus it becomes obscurity 

1 At the beginning of the fifth PrapaVfoka my MS. gives the 
.Slokas which in the printed edition are found in VI, 34, p. 178, 
Atreme floka bhavanti, yathS nirindhano vahnir, &c, to nirvishayaw 
smrztam. Then follows as § 2, Atha yathedaw Kautsy&yanistutis, 
tvam, &c. 

2 The commentator explains Brahma" by Hirawyagarbha and 
Pra^apati by Vira£. 

8 M. reads tvam Manus, tvam Yama? ia, tvam, pri'thivl tvam athS- 
£yuta^, which is so clearly the right reading that it is difficult to 
understand how the mistakes arose which are presupposed by the 
commentary. See Taitt. Up. II, 2. 

4 M. reads vuvakrtaaratiA prabhuA, which seems better. 

5 M. reads tamo vi idam ekam asta tat paro sy£t tat pareweritam. 
It may have been tat pare 'sthat. 



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304 MAITRAYAATA-BRAHMANA-UPANISHAD. 

(ra/as) 1 . Then this obscurity, being moved, becomes 
uneven. Thus it becomes goodness (sattva). Then 
this goodness, being moved, the essence flowed forth 2 . 
This is that part (or state of Self) which is entirely 
intelligent, reflected in man (as the sun is in different 
vessels of water) knowing the body (kshetra/wa), 
attested by his conceiving, willing, and believing, it is 
Pra^apati, called VLrva. His manifestations have 
been declared before 3 . Now that part of him which 
belongs to darkness, that, O students *, is he who is 
called Rudra. That part of him which belongs to 
obscurity, that, O students, is he who is called 
Brahma. That part of him which belongs to good- 
ness, that, O students, is he who is called Vish«u. 
He being one, becomes three, becomes eight 5 , be- 
comes eleven 6 , becomes twelve, becomes infinite. 
Because 7 he thus came to be, he is the Being (neut), 
he moves about, having entered all beings, he has 
become the Lord of all beings. He is the Self 
within and without, yes, within and without.' 

1 M. reads etad vai ra^aso rupam, which is better, or, at least, 
more in accordance with what follows. 
* M. reads sattvam everitarasas saw prfismat 

3 A reference to Maitr. Up. II, 5, would have saved the com- 
mentator much trouble. M. has a better text. It leaves out viweti 
or vuvakhyas after pra^^pati, which may be wrong, but then goes 
on : tasya proktd agryas tanavo brahmS rudro vishmir id. In enu- 
merating the three agrySs tanavaA, however, M. is less consistent, 
for it begins with ra^as or Brahma^ then goes on to tamas or 
Rudra, and ends with sattva or Vishmi. The Anubhutipraklra, 
verse 142, has the right succession. 

4 This vocative, brahma^anno, is always left out in M. 
B The five pr&was, the sun, moon, and asterisms. 

6 The eleven organs of sense and action, which, by dividing 
manas and buddhi, become twelve. 

7 M. reads aparimitadhS iodbhutatvad bhuteshu £arati pravish/aA 
sarvabhutanam. 



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VI PRAPArffAKA, I. 305 

Sixth PRAPArflAKA 1 . 

1. He (the Self) bears the Self in two ways 2 , as 
he who is Pra»a (breath), and as he who is Aditya 
(the sun). Therefore there are two paths for him 3 , 
within and without, and they both turn back in a 
day and night. The Sun is the outer Self, the inner 
Self is Breath. Hence the motion of the inner Self 
is inferred from the motion of the outer Self 4 . For 
thus it is said : 

' He who knows, and has thrown off all evil, the 
overseer of the senses 6 , the pure-minded, firmly 

1 The commentator describes the sixth and seventh chapters as 
Khila, supplementary, and does not think that they are closely con- 
nected with the chief object of the Upanishad. This chief object was 
to show that there is only one thinking Self (iidatmS) to be known, 
and that the same is to be meditated on as manifested in the different 
forms of Rudra, Brahma, Vishmi, &c. Thus the highest object of 
those who wish for final liberation has been explained before, as 
well as the proper means of obtaining that liberation. What 
follows are statements of the greatness of the various manifestations 
of the Atman, and advice how to worship them. My MS. gives the 
beginning of the sixth PrapS/^aka, but ends with the end of the 
eighth paragraph. The verses in paragraph 34, as mentioned before, 
are given in my MS. at the end of the fourth Prapa/Aaka. My 
translation deviates considerably from the commentary. The text 
is obscure and not always correct. My rule has been throughout 
to begin a new sentence with eva« hy dha, ' for thus it is said,' 
which introduces proofs of what has been said before. The passages 
thus quoted as proofs from the Veda are often difficult to under- 
stand, nor do they always consist of a complete sentence. My 
translation therefore is often purely tentative. 

a M. reads dvitiyi for dvidhl 

s M. reads dvau va" etdv asya panfodhi n&m&ntar bahu £&hor&tre 
tau vy&vartete. 

4 While the sun goes round Meru in a day and a night, the 
breath performs 21,000 breathings, or, more exactly, 21,600. M. 
reads bahiratmagatya\ 

5 M. reads adhyaksha, not akshadhyaksha. 

[IS] X 



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306 MAITRAYAtfA-BRAHMAiVA-UPANISHAD. 

grounded (in the Self) and looking away (from 
all earthly objects), he is the same.' Likewise the 
motion of the outer Self is inferred from the motion 
of the inner Self. For thus it is said : 

' He who within the sun is the golden person, who 
looks upon this earth from his golden place, he is the 
same who, after entering the inner lotus of the heart 1 , 
devours food (perceives sensuous objects, &c.)' 

2. And he who having entered the inner lotus of 
the heart, devours food, the same, having gone to 
the sky as the fire of the sun, called Time, and being 
invisible, devours all beings as his food. 

What is that lotus and of what is it made ? (the 
Valakhilyas ask 2 .) 

That lotus is the same as the ether; the four 
quarters, and the four intermediate points are its 
leaves s . 

These two, Breath and the Sun, move on near 
to each other (in the heart and in the ether). Let 
him worship these two, with the syllable Om, with 
the Vyahmi words (bhM, bhuva^, svar), and with 
the Savitri hymn. 

3. There are two forms of Brahman *, the material 
(effect) and the immaterial (cause). The material 
is false, the immaterial is true. That which is true 
is Brahman, that which is Brahman is light, and that 
which is light is the Sun 6 . And this Sun became 
the Self of that Om. 

1 M. reads sa esho 'ntaA pushkare hrc'tpushkare v&rrito. 

2 The commentator ascribes the dialogue still to the Valakhilyas 
and Pra^apati Kratu. 

3 M. reads dalasawsthi asur v&gniA parata etaiA pra«adityav eld. 

4 See Brih. Up. II, 3, 1. 

8 Professor Cowell, after giving the various readings of his MSS., 
says, ' the true reading would seem to be yat satyaw tad brahma, 



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VI PRAPArffAKA, 4. 307 



He divided himself threefold, for Om consists of 
three letters, a + u + m. Through them all this 1 is con- 
tained in him as warp and woof. For thus it is said : 

'Meditate on that Sun as Om, join your Self (the 
breath) with the (Self of the) Sun.' 

4. And thus it has been said elsewhere : The 
Udgitha (of the Sama-veda) is the Prawava 2 (of the 
.tfzg-veda), and the Prawava is the Udgitha, and thus 
the Sun is Udgitha, and he is Prawava or Om. For 
thus it is said 3 : 

'The Udgitha, called Pra«ava, the leader (in the 
performance of sacrifices), the bright*, the sleepless, 
free from old age and death, three-footed 6 , consisting 
of three letters (a + u + m), and likewise to be known 
as fivefold (five pra#as) placed in the cave.' And it 
is also said : 

' The three-footed Brahman has its root upward 6 , 
the branches are ether, wind, fire, water, earth, &c. 
This one A^vattha 7 by name, the world, is Brahman, 
and of it that is the light which is called the Sun, 
and it is also the light of that syllable Om. There- 
fore let him for ever worship that (breath and sun, 
as manifestations of Brahman) with the syllable Om.' 

He alone enlightens us. For thus it is said : 

yad brahma ta,j- ^yotir, yad ^yotis sa aditya^.' This is exactly the 
reading of my own MS. 

1 M. reads MvSsminn ity tvam hyaha. 

2 The mystic syllable Om. 

5 See .ffMndogyopanishad I, 5 ; Maitr. Up. VI, 25. 
4 M. reads nimarupam. 

' The three feet of the pr£»a are waking, slumber, and deep 
sleep ; the three feet of the sun, the three worlds, bhM, bhuvaA, 
svar, as in VII, 11. See also ATA&nd. Up. Ill, 12. 

6 Cf. Ka/A.Up.VI.i. 

7 Afvattha, lit fig-tree, then frequently used metaphorically as a 
name of the world. Here explained as 'it will not stand till to-morrow.' 

X 2 



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308 maitrAya^a-brahmajva-upanishad. 

' This alone is the pure syllable, this alone is the 
highest syllable ; he who knows that syllable only, 
whatever he desires, is his 1 .' 

5. And thus it has been said elsewhere : This Om 2 
is the sound-endowed body of him (Pra#adityatman). 
This is his gender-endowed body, viz. feminine, 
masculine, neuter. This is his light-endowed body, 
viz. Agni, Vayu, Aditya. This is his lord-endowed 
body, viz. Brahma, Rudra, Vishmi. This is his mouth- 
endowed body, viz. Garhapatya, Dakshmagni, Ahava- 
nlya 3 . This is his knowledge-endowed body, viz. Rii, 
Ya/us, Saman. This is his world-endowed body, viz. 
BhM, Bhuva^, Svar. This is his time-endowed body, 
viz. Past, Present, Future. This is his heat-endowed 
body, viz. Breath, Fire, Sun. This is his growth- 
endowed body, viz. Food, Water, Moon. This is 
his thought-endowed body, viz. intellect, mind, per- 
sonality. This is his breath-endowed body, viz. Pra»a, 
Apana, Vyana. Therefore by the aforesaid syllable 
Om are all these here enumerated bodies praised and 
identified (with the Pra«adityatman). For thus it 
is said 4 : 

' O Satyakama, the syllable Om is the high and 
the low Brahman.' 

6. This 5 (world) was unuttered 6 . Then forsooth 
Pra/apati, having brooded, uttered it in the words 
BhM, Bhuva^, Svar. This is the grossest body of 
that Pra^apati, consisting of the three worlds 7 . Of 
that body Svar is the head, Bhuva^ the navel, BhM 

1 Ka/A. Up. II, 16. 2 M. reads tanur yom iti. 

s The fires on the three altars. 

4 Prawa Up. V, 2. e M. reads atha vyattam. 

' So far the prawava or Om has been explained; now follows 
the explanation of the Vyahri'tis; cf. VI, 2. Vyahriti is derived 
from vyahar, and means an utterance. 

7 Cf.VI, 5. 



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VI PRAPAFffAKA, 7. 309 

the feet, the sun the eye. For in the eye is fixed 
man's great measure, because with the eye he makes 
all measurements. The eye is truth (satyam), for 
the person (purusha) dwelling in the eye proceeds to 
all things (knows all objects with certainty). There- 
fore let a man worship with the Vyahmis, Bhu/*, 
Bhuva^, Svar, for thus Pra^apati, the Self of All, is 
worshipped as the (sun, the) Eye of All 1 . For 
thus it is said : 

' This (the sun) is Pra^apati's all-supporting body, for 
in it this all 2 is hid (by the light of the sun); and in this 
all it (the light) is hid. Therefore this is worshipped 3 .' 
7. (The Savitri begins* :) Tat Savitur vare#yam, 
i.e. ' this of Savitn, to be chosen.' Here the Aditya 
(sun) is Savitrz, and the same is to be chosen by the 
love(r) of Self, thus say the Brahma-teachers. 

(Then follows the next foot in the Savitri) : Bhargo 
devasya dhlmahi, i.e. 'the splendour of the god we 
meditate on.' Here the god is Savitre, and therefore 
he who is called his splendour, him I meditate on, 
thus say the Brahma-teachers. 

1 M. reads vuvataj^akshur. 

2 Prag'apati, according to the commentator, is identified with 
Satya, the true, because sat means the three worlds, and these (bhuA, 
bhuvaA, svar) are said to be his body. Hence probably the inser- 
tion of Satyam before Pra^-dpati at the beginning of the paragraph. 
Then he argues, as the eye has been called satya, and as the eye 
is Aditya, therefore Pra^dpati also, being Satya, is Aditya, the sun. 
And again, if the sun is worshipped (by the vydhntis) then, like the 
sun, the eye of all, Pra^Spati also, the self of all, is worshipped. 

8 Eshopaslta is impossible. We must either read, with the com- 
mentator, etam upisita, or with M. eshopasiteti. 

* He now proceeds to explain the worship of the Savitri verse, 
which had been mentioned in VI, 2, after the Om and the Vyahr/tis, 
as the third mode of worshipping Pra«a (breath) and Aditya (sun), 
these being two correlative embodiments of the Self. The S&vitri 
is found in Rig-veda III, 62, 10, but it is here explained in a purely 
philosophical sense. See also Br/h. Up. VI, 3, 6. 



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3 1 MAITRAYAtf A-BRAHMAiVA-UPANISH AD. 

(Then follows the last foot) : Dhiyo yo naA pra^o- 
dayat, i.e. 'who should stir up our thoughts.' Here 
the dhiya^ are thoughts, and he should stir these up 
for us, thus say the Brahma-teachers. 

(He now explains the word bhargas). Now he 
who is called bhargas is he who is placed in yonder 
Aditya (sun), or he who is the pupil in the eye 1 . 
And he is so called, because his going (gati) is by 
rays (bhabhi^) ; or because he parches (bhar^ayati) 
and makes the world to shrivel up. Rudra is called 
Bhargas, thus say the Brahma-teachers. Or bha 
means that he lights up these worlds; ra, that he 
delights these beings, ga that these creatures go to 
him and come from him ; therefore being a bha-ra-ga, 
he is called Bhargas. 

Surya 2 (sun) is so called, because Soma is con- 
tinually squeezed out (su). Savitn (sun) is so called, 
because he brings forth (su). Aditya (sun) is so 
called, because he takes up (ada, scil. vapour, or 
the life of man). Pavana 3 is so called, because he 
purines (pu). Apas, water, is so called, because it 
nourishes (pya). 

And it is said : 

' Surely the Self (absorbed in Pra«a, breath), which 
is called Immortal*, is the thinker, the perceiver, the 
goer, the evacuator 6 , the delighter, the doer, the 
speaker, the taster, the smeller, the seer, the hearer, 
and he touches. He is Vibhu (the pervader), who 
has entered into the body.' And it is said : 

1 M. reads t&rake 'kshwi. 

a Surya is considered as the daily performer of the PrSta^savana, 
&c., the sacrifice at which Soma is squeezed out as an offering. 

3 M. reads pavamSnit pavamana/J. 

4 M. reads amri'tilkhya? £et£khya? £et&\ 

5 M. reads ganta sr*sh/a. 



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VI PRAPAFffAKA, 8. 311 

' When the knowledge is twofold (subjective and ob- 
jective), then he hears, sees, smells, tastes, and touches 
(something), for it is the Self that knows everything.' 

But when the knowledge is not twofold (subjective 
only), without effect, cause, and action 1 , without a 
name, without a comparison, without a predicate 2 — 
what is that ? It cannot be told 3 . 

8. And the same Self is also called Isana (lord), 
•Sambhu, Bhava, Rudra (tamasa); Pra^apati (lord 
of creatures), Visvasrig (creator of all), Hira«ya- 
garbha, Satyam (truth), Pra#a (breath), Hamsa. 
(ra^asa); Sastri (ruler), Vish»u, Naraya«a (sat- 
tvika) ; Arka, Savitrz, Dhatr? (supporter), Vidha- 
tri 1 (creator), Samra^" (king), Indra, Indu (moon). 
He is also he who warms, the Sun, hidden by the 
thousand-eyed golden egg, as one fire by another. 
He is to be thought after, he is to be sought after. 
Having said farewell to all living beings, having 
gone to the forest, and having renounced all sen- 
suous objects, let man perceive the Self 6 from his 
own body. 

' (See him) 8 who assumes all forms, the golden, 
who knows all things, who ascends highest, alone in 
his splendour, and warms us; the thousand-rayed, 

1 M. reads kaYyakarawakarmavinirmuktam. 

2 Nirupakhyam, rightly translated by Cowell by 'without a 
predicate,' and rendered by the commentator by apramaya, i. e. not 
to be measured, not to be classed, i. e. without a predicate. 

8 I have translated this in accordance with a well-known passage, 
quoted by the commentator from the Bnhadarawyaka, rather than 
in accordance with his own interpretation. 

4 M. leaves out vidhata. 

5 Instead of the peculiar Maitraya«i reading, svan s&rirad, M. 
reads svif £^arirad. 

• The oneness of the Sun and the Breath is proclaimed in the 
following verse of the Prawia Upanishad I, 8. 



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312 MAITRAYAJVA-BRAHMAJVA-UPANISHAD. 

who abides in a hundred places, the spirit of all 
creatures, the Sun, rises V 

9. Therefore he who by knowing this has become 
the Self of both Breath and Sun, meditates (while 
meditating on them) on his Self, sacrifices (while sacri- 
ficing to them) to his Self — this meditation, the mind 
thus absorbed in these acts, is praised by the wise. 

Then let him purify the contamination of the mind 
by the verse U^^ish/opahatam, &c. 2 : ' Be it food 
left, or food defiled by left food, be it food given by 
a sinner, food coming from a dead person, or from 
one impure from childbirth, may the purifying power 
of Vasu, may Agni, and the rays of Savitrz, purify 
it, and all my sin 3 .' 

First (before eating) he surrounds (the offered 
food) with water (in rincing his mouth 4 ). Then 
saying, Svaha to Prawa, Svaha to Apana, Svaha 
to Vyana, Svaha to Sam&na, Svaha to Udana, he 
offers (the food) with five invocations (in the fire 
of the mouth). What is over, he eats in silence, 
and then he surrounds (the food) once more after- 
wards with water (rincing the mouth after his meal). 
Having washed let him, after sacrificing to himself, 
meditate on his Self with these two verses, Prawo 
'gni^ and Vlrvo 'si, viz. 'May the Highest Self as 
breath, as fire (digestive heat), as consisting of the 

1 Here ends the M. manuscript, with the following title: iti 
■friyaguwakhayam Maitraya«ryabrahma»opanishadi shash/y&aA pra- 
pa//4ak&6. Samdpt&. 

2 In the following paragraphs the taking of food is represented 
as a sacrifice offered by the Self to the Self (atmaya^anarupam 
bhq^anam, p. 106, 1. 13). 

8 Several words have been inserted in this verse, spoiling the 
metre. 
* SeeA^and. Up.V, 2. 



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VI PRAPArffAKA, IO. 313 

five vital airs, having entered (the body), himself 
satisfied, satisfy all, he who protects all.' 'Thou 
art VLrva (all), thou art Vaisvanara (fire), all that is 
born is upheld by thee ; may all offerings enter into 
thee ; creatures live where thou grantest immortality 
to all.' He who eats according to this rule, does 
not in turn become food for others. 

10. There is something else to be known. There 
is a further modification of this Self-sacrifice (the 
eating), namely, the food and the eater thereof. This 
is the explanation. The thinking Purusha (person), 
when he abides within the Pradhana (nature), is the 
feeder who feeds on the food supplied by Prakrzti 
(nature). The elemental Self 1 is truly his food, his 
maker being Pradhana (nature 2 ). Therefore what 
is composed of the three qualities (gu«as) is the food, 
but the person within is the feeder. And for this the 
evidence is supplied by the senses. For animals 
spring from seed, and as the seed is the food, there- 
fore it is clear that what is food is Pradhana (the 
seed or cause of everything). Therefore, as has 
been said, the Purusha (person) is the eater, Pra- 
kriti, the food ; and abiding within it he feeds. All 
that begins with the Mahat 3 (power of intellect) and 
ends with the Vireshas (elements 4 ), being developed 
from the distinction of nature with its three qualities, 
is the sign (that there must be a Purusha, an intel- 

1 See before, III, 3. 

2 This is very doubtful, in fact, unintelligible. The commentator 
says, asya bhutktmanaA karta" pradhdnaA purvokta^, so 'pi bho^ya 
ity artha#. 

8 Technical terms, afterwards adopted by the S&okhya philo- 
sophers. 

4 Professor Cowell observes that the term vuesha, as here applied 
to the five gross elements, occurs in the S&nkhya-kSriki, ver. 38. 



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314 maitrayaata-brAhmazva-upanishad. 

ligent subject). And in this manner the way with 
its fourteen steps has been explained 1 . (This is 
comprehended in the following verse) : ' This world 
is indeed the food, called pleasure, pain, and error 
(the result of the three qualities) ; there is no laying 
hold of the taste of the seed (cause), so long as there 
is no development (in the shape of effect).' And in 
its three stages also it has the character of food, as 
childhood, youth, and old age ; for, because these 
are developed, therefore there is in them the cha- 
racter of food 2 . 

And in the following manner does the perception 
of Pradhana (nature) take place, after it has become 
manifest : — Intellect and the rest, such as determina- 
tion, conception, consciousness, are for the tasting (of 
the effects of Pradhana). Then there are the five 
(perceptive organs) intended for the (five) objects of 
senses, for to taste them. And thus are all acts of 
the five active organs, and the acts of the five Pra«as 
or vital airs (for the tasting of their corresponding 
objects). Thus what is manifest (of nature) is food, 
and what is not manifest is food. The enjoyer of it 
is without qualities, but because he has the quality 
of being an enjoyer, it follows that he possesses 
intelligence. 

As Agni (fire) is the food-eater among the gods, 
and Soma the food, so he who knows this eats food 
by Agni (is not defiled by food, as little as Agni, the 
sacrificial fire). This elemental Self, called Soma 
(food), is also called Agni, as having undeveloped 
nature for its mouth (as enjoying through nature, 
and being independent of it), because it is said, ' The 

1 Five receptive, five active organs, and four kinds of consciousness. 
* Its very development proves it to be food. Cowell. 



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vi prapAtwaka, 13. 315 

Purusha (person) enjoys nature with its three quali- 
ties, by the mouth of undeveloped nature.' He who 
knows this, is an ascetic, a yogin, he is a performer 
of the Self-sacrifice (see before). And he who does 
not touch the objects of the senses when they intrude 
on him, as no one would touch women intruding into 
an empty house, he is an ascetic, a yogin, a performer 
of the Self-sacrifice. 

11. This is the highest form of Self, viz. food, for 
this Pra#a (this body) subsists on food. If it eats 
not, it cannot perceive, hear, touch, see, smell, taste, 
and it loses the vital airs 1 . For thus it is said : 

' If it eats, then in full possession of the vital airs, 
it can perceive, hear, touch, speak, taste, smell, see.' 
And thus it is said : 

' From food are born all creatures that live on 
earth ; afterwards they live on food, and in the end 
(when they die) they return to it 2 .' 

1 2. And thus it is said elsewhere : Surely all these 
creatures run about day and night, wishing to catch 
food. The sun takes food with his rays, and by it 
he shines. These vital airs digest, when sprinkled 
with food. Fire flares up by food, and by Brahma 
(Pra^apati), desirous of food, has all this been made. 
Therefore let a man worship food as his Self. For 
thus it is said : 

' From food creatures are born, by food they grow 
when born ; because it is eaten and because it eats 
creatures, therefore it is called food (annam).' 

1 3. And thus it is said elsewhere : This food is 
the body of the blessed Vishmi, called Visvabhrt't 
(all-sustaining). Breath is the essence of food, mind 
of breath, knowledge of mind, joy of knowledge. He 

1 JTMnd. Up. VII, 9, 1. * Taitt. Up. II, 2. 

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316 maitrayajva-brAhmajva-utanishad. 

who knows this is possessed of food, breath, mind, 
knowledge, and joy. Whatever creatures here on 
earth eat food, abiding in them he, who knows this, 
eats food. Food has been called undecaying, food has 
been called worshipful; food is the breath of animals, 
food is the oldest, food has been called the physician. 
14. And thus it has been said elsewhere : Food 
is the cause of all this, time of food, and the sun is 
the cause of time 1 . The (visible) form of time is 
the year, consisting of twelve months, made up of 
Nimeshas (twinklings) and other measures. Of the 
year one half (when the sun moves northward) 
belongs to Agni, the other to Varuwa (when the 
sun moves southward). That which belongs to 
Agni begins with the asterism of Magha and ends 
with half of the asterism of .SravishMa, the sun 
stepping down northward. That which belongs to 
Soma (instead of Varuwa) begins with the asterism 
(of Adesha), sacred to the Serpents, and ends with 
half of the asterism of SravishtM., the sun stepping 
up southward. And then there (are the months) 
one by one, belonging to the year, each consisting 
of nine-fourths of asterisms (two asterisms and a 
quarter being the twelfth part of the passage of the 
sun through the twenty-seven Nakshatras), each 
determined by the sun moving together with the 
asterisms. Because time is imperceptible by sense, 
therefore this (the progress of the sun, &c.) is its 
evidence, and by it alone is time proved to exist 
Without proof there is no apprehension of what is 
to be proved ; but even what is to be proved can 
become proof, for the sake of making itself known, 

1 As food depends on time, therefore time is praised, which again 
depends on the sun, which is a form of the Self. 



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vi PRApArffAKA, 1 6. 317 

if the parts (the twinklings, &c.) can be distinguished 
from the whole (time 1 ). For thus it is said: 

'As many portions of time as there are, through 
them the sun proceeds : he who worships time as 
Brahman, from him time moves away very far.' And 
thus it is said : 

' From time all beings flow, from time they grow ; 
in time they obtain rest ; time is visible (sun) and 
invisible (moments).' 

15. There are two forms of Brahman, time and 
non-time. That which was before the (existence of 
the) sun is non-time and has no parts. That which 
had its beginning "from the sun is time and has 
parts. Of that which has parts, the year is the 
form, and from the year are born all creatures ; 
when produced by the year they grow, and go again 
to rest in the year. Therefore the year is Pra^a- 
pati, is time, is food, is the nest of Brahman, is Self. 
Thus it is said : 

' Time ripens and dissolves all beings in the great 
Self, but he who knows into what time itself is dis- 
solved, he is the knower of the Veda.' 

16. This manifest time is the great ocean of 
creatures. He who is called Savitrz (the sun, as be- 
getter) dwells in it, from whence the moon, stars, 
planets, the year, and the rest are begotten. From 
them again comes all this, and thus, whatever of 
good or evil is seen in this world, comes from them. 
Therefore Brahman is the Self of the sun, and a 
man should worship the sun under the name of time. 
Some say the sun is Brahman, and thus it is said : 

1 Thus, the commentator says, the existence of the lamp can be 
proved by the light of the lamp, as the existence of time is proved 
by what we see, the rising of the sun. All this is very obscure. 



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318 maitrAyaya-brAhmajva-upanishad. 

' The sacrificer, the deity that enjoys the sacrifice, 
the oblation, the hymn, the sacrifice, Vishmi, Pra^a- 
pati, all this is the Lord, the witness, that shines in 
yonder orb.' 

17. In the beginning Brahman was all this 1 . He 
was one, and infinite ; infinite in the East, infinite in 
the South, infinite in the West, infinite in the North, 
above and below and everywhere infinite. East and 
the other regions do not exist for him, nor across, nor 
below, nor above. The Highest Self is not to be 
fixed, he is unlimited, unborn, not to be reasoned 
about, not to be conceived. He is like the ether 
(everywhere), and at the destruction of the universe, 
he alone is awake. Thus from that ether he wakes 
all this world, which consists of thought only, and 
by him alone is all this meditated on, and in him it 
is dissolved. His is that luminous form which 
shines in the sun, and the manifold light in the 
smokeless fire, and the heat which in the stomach 
digests the food. Thus it is said : 

' He who is in the fire, and he who is in the heart, 
and he who is in the sun, they are one and the 
same.' 

He who knows this becomes one with the one. 

18. This is the rule for achieving it (viz. concen- 
tration of the mind on the object of meditation): 
restraint of the breath, restraint of the senses, medi- 
tation, fixed attention, investigation, absorption, these 
are called the sixfold Yoga 2 . When beholding by 

1 Brahman used as neuter, but immediately followed by eko 
'nantaA, &c. 

* After having explained the form of what is to be meditated on 
and the mode of meditation, the Upanishad now teaches the Yoga 
which serves to keep our thoughts in subjection, and to fix our 
thoughts on the object of meditation. See Yoga-Sutras II, 29. 



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VI PRAPArffAKA, 20. 319 

this Yoga, he beholds the gold-coloured maker, the 
lord, the person, Brahman, the cause, then the sage, 
leaving behind good and evil, makes everything 
(breath, organs of sense, body, &c.) to be one in 
the Highest Indestructible (in the pratyagatman or 
Brahman). And thus it is said : 

'As birds and deer do not approach a burning 
mountain, so sins never approach those who know 
Brahman.' 

19. And thus it is said elsewhere : When he who 
knows has, while he is still Pra»a (breath), restrained 
his mind, and placed all objects of the senses far 
away from himself, then let him remain without any 
conceptions. And because the living person, called 
Pra#a (breath), has been produced here on earth 
from that which is not Pra«a (the thinking Self), 
therefore let this Pra»a merge the Pra»a (himself) 
in what is called the fourth 1 . And thus it is said : 

'What is without thought, though placed in the 
centre of thought, what cannot be thought, the 
hidden, the highest — let a man merge his thought 
there : then will this living being (linga) be without 
attachment V 

20. And thus it has been said elsewhere : There 
is the superior fixed attention (dhara«a) for him, 
viz. if he presses the tip of the tongue down the 
palate and restrains voice, mind, and breath, he sees 

1 The fourth stage is meant for the thinking Self, the earlier 
stages being waking, slumbering, and sleep. 

2 Professor Cowell offers two renderings of this difficult passage : 
' This which is called prixa, i.e. the individual soul as characterised 
by the subtil body, will thus no longer appear in its separate indi- 
viduality from the absence of any conscious subject ; or, this subtil 
body bearing the name of intellect will thus become void of all 
objects.' 



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320 maitrAyajva-brahmawa-upanishad. 

Brahman by discrimination (tarka). And when, 
after the cessation of mind 1 , he sees his own Self, 
smaller than small, and shining, as the Highest Self 2 , 
then having seen his Self as the Self, he becomes 
Self-less, and because he is Self-less, he is without 
limit, without cause, absorbed in thought. This is 
the highest mystery, viz. final liberation. And thus 
it is said : 

' Through the serenity of the thought he kills all 
actions, good or bad ; his Self serene, abiding in the 
Self, obtains imperishable bliss.' 

21. And thus it has been said elsewhere : The 
artery, called Sushumna, going upwards (from the 
heart to the Brahmarandhra), serving as the passage 
of the Pra#a, is divided within the palate. Through 
that artery, when it has been joined by the breath 
(held in subjection), by the sacred syllable Om, and 
by the mind (absorbed in the contemplation of Brah- 
man), let him proceed upwards 3 , and after turning 
the tip of the tongue to the palate, without* using 
any of the organs of sense, let greatness perceive 
greatness 5 . From thence he goes to selflessness, 
and through selflessness he ceases to be an enjoyer 
of pleasure and pain, he obtains aloneness (kevalatva, 
final deliverance). And thus it is said : 

1 The commentator remarks that this process is called Lambikd- 
yoga, and the state produced by it Unmanf or Unmanibhava ; see 
amanibhava, in VI, 34, ver. 7. 

2 I should have preferred to translate atmanam atmana pa^yau" 
by 'he sees his Self by his Self,' but the commentator takes a slightly 
different view, and says : itthambhave truiyd ; paramatmarupewa 
paryati. 

8 Cf. KaMa Up. VI, 16 ; Prama Up. Ill, 6 (p. 277). 
4 If we read sa/raycgya we must follow the commentator in trans- 
lating by ' uniting the senses with the pra«a and the manas.' 
6 Let the Self perceive the Self. 



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VI PRAPAFffAKA, 22. 321 

' Having successively fixed the breath, after it had 
been restrained, in the palate, thence having crossed 
the limit (the life), let him join himself afterwards 
to the limitless (Brahman) in the crown of the 
head.' 

22. And thus it has been said elsewhere : Two 
Brahmans have to be meditated on, the word and 
the non-word. By the word alone is the non-word 
revealed. Now there is the word Om. Moving 
upward by it (where all words and all what is meant 
by them ceases), he arrives at absorption in' the 
non-word (Brahman). This is the way, this is the 
immortal, this is union, and this is bliss. And as 
the spider, moving upward by the thread, gains free 
space, thus also he who meditates, moving upward 
by the syllable Om, gains independence. 

Other teachers of the word (as Brahman) think 
otherwise. They listen to the sound of the ether 
within the heart while they stop the ears with the 
thumbs. They compare it to seven noises, like 
rivers, like a bell, like a brazen vessel, like the. 
wheels of a carriage, like the croaking of frogs, like 
rain, and as if a man speaks in a cavern. Having 
passed beyond this variously apprehended sound, and 
having settled in the supreme, soundless (non-word), 
unmanifested Brahman, they become undistinguished 
and undistinguishable, as various flavours of the 
flowers are lost in the taste of honey. And thus 
it is said'. 

' Two Brahmans are to be known, the word- Brah- 
man and the highest Brahman ; he who is perfect in 
the word-Brahman attains the highest Brahman 1 .' 

1 Cf. MahltMrata XII, 8540; Sarvadamna-saftgraha, p. 147; 
Cowell's Translation, p. 271. 

[15] Y 



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r 



322 MAITRAYAyA-BRAHMAtfA-UPANISHAD. 

23. And thus it has been said elsewhere : The 
syllable Om is what is called the word. And its end 
is the silent, the soundless, fearless, sorrowless, joy- 
ful, satisfied, firm, unwavering, immortal, immovable, 
certain (Brahman), called Vish#u. Let him worship 
these two, that he may obtain what is higher than 
everything (final deliverance). For thus it is said : 

'He who is the high and the highest god 1 , by 
name Om-kara, he is soundless and free from all 
distinctions : therefore let a man dwell on him in 
the crown of his head.' 

24. And thus it has been said elsewhere : The 
body is the bow, the syllable Om is the arrow, its 
point is the mind. Having cut through the dark- 
ness, which consists of ignorance 2 , it approaches that 
which is not covered by darkness 3 . Then having 
cut through that which was covered (the personal 
soul), he saw Brahman, flashing like a wheel on fire, 
bright like the sun, vigorous, beyond all darkness, 
that which shines forth in yonder sun, in the moon, 
in the fire, in the lightning 4 . And having seen 
him, he obtains immortality. And thus it has been 
said: 

' Meditation is directed to the highest Being 
(Brahman) within, and (before) to the objects (body, 
Om, mind) ; thence the indistinct understanding be- 
comes distinct. 

And when the works of the mind are dissolved, 



1 The commentator takes dev& as deva^, though the accent is 
against it ; see Schroeder, Uber die Maitraya«f Sa»»hM, p. 9, 1. 1 1. 

8 Should it not be, ' darkness is the mark ? ' 

8 Atamavish/a, explained as an irregular compound, atama-Svish- 
/am, tama-avcsanarahitam. 

* Cf. BhagavadgM XV, 12. 



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VI PRAPArffAKA, 26. 323 

then that bliss which requires no other witness, that 
is Brahman (Atman), the immortal, the brilliant, that 
is the way, that is the (true) world.' 

25. And thus it has been said elsewhere : He 
who has his senses hidden as in sleep, and who, 
while in the cavern of his senses (his body), but no 
longer ruled by them, sees, as in a dream, with the 
purest intellect, Him who is called Pra»ava (Om), 
the leader J , the bright, the sleepless, free from old 
age, from death, and sorrow, he is ' himself also 
called Prawava, and becomes a leader, bright, sleep- 
less, free from old age, from death, and sorrow. 
And thus it is said : 

' Because in this manner he joins the Pra«a 
(breath), the Om, and this Universe in its manifold 
forms, or because they join themselves (to him), 
therefore this (process of meditation) is called Yoga 
(joining). 

The oneness of breath, mind, and senses, and 
then the surrendering of all conceptions, that is 
called Yoga.' 

26. And thus it has also been said elsewhere : 
As a sportsman, after drawing out the denizens of 
the waters with a net, offers them (as a sacrifice) 
in the fire of his stomach, thus are these Pra»as 
(vital airs), after they have been drawn out with the 
syllable Om, offered in the faultless fire (Brahman) 2 . 

Hence he is like a heated vessel (full of clarified 
butter); for as the clarified butter in the heated 
vessel lights up, when touched with grass and sticks, 
thus does this being which is called Not-breath 
(Atman) light up, when touched by the Pra#as (the 



-1 Cf. VI, 4. a Cf. <SVet£rvatara-upanishad III, 10. 

Y 2 



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324 MAITRAYAWA-BRAHMAtfA-UPANISHAD. 

vital airs) 1 . And that which flares up, that is the 
manifest form of Brahman, that is the highest place 
of Vishmi 2 , that is the essence of Rudra. And this, 
dividing his Self in endless ways, fills all these 
worlds. And thus it is said : 

'As the sparks from the fire, and as the rays from 
the sun, thus do his Pra«as and the rest in proper order 
again and again proceed from him here on earth 3 .' 

27. And thus it has also been said elsewhere : 
This is the heat of the highest, the immortal, the 
incorporeal Brahman, viz. the warmth of the body. 
And this body is the clarified butter (poured on it, 
by which the heat of Brahman, otherwise invisible, is 
lighted up). Then, being manifest, it is placed in 
the ether (of the heart). Then by concentration they 
thus remove that ether which is within the heart, so 
that its light appears, as it were*. Therefore the 
worshipper becomes identified with that light with- 
out much delay. As a ball of iron, if placed in the 
earth, becomes earth without much delay, and as, 
when it has once become a clod of earth, fire and 
smiths have nothing more to do with* that ball of 
iron, thus does thought (without delay) disappear, 
together with its support 6 . And thus ijt is said : 

1 As the fire which exists invisibly in *a heated vessel becomes 
visible when the heated vessel is touched with sticks dipped in 
butter, thus the Atman in the body appears only when the PrSwas 
are diffused in it. Or, as the clarified butter, heated together with 
the vessel, lights up grass that comes in contact with it, so does this 
Atman (called Not-breath), by heating its two bodies which are 
pervaded by the reflections of the thinker, light up everything 
brought in contact with it, viz. the world. 

a See KaJJa Up. Ill, 9. * See VI, 31 ; Br/"h. Up. II, 1, 10. 

4 The light was always there, but it seems then only to appear. 

8 The commentator explains this differently. He says that the 



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VI PRAPAFffAKA, 28. N <li^|#$ J 



'The shrine which consists of the ether in the 
heart, the blissful, the highest retreat, that is our 
own, that is our goal, and that is the heat and bright- 
ness of the fire and the sun.' 

28. And thus it has been said elsewhere : After 
having left behind the body, the organs of sense, and 
the objects of sense (as no longer belonging to us), 
and having seized the bow whose stick is fortitude 
and whose string is asceticism, having struck down 
also with the arrow, which consists in freedom from 
egotism, the first guardian of the door of Brahman — 
(for if man looks at the world egotistically, then, 
taking the diadem of passion, the earrings of greed 
and envy, and the staff of sloth, sleep; and sin, and 
having seized the bow whose string is anger, and 
whose stick is lust, he destroys with the arrow 
which consists of wishes, all beings) — having there- 
fore killed that guardian, he crosses by means of the 
boat Om to the other side of the ether within the 
heart, and when the ether becomes revealed (as 
Brahman), he enters slowly, as a miner seeking 
minerals in a mine, into the Hall of Brahman. 
After that let him, by means of the doctrine of his 
teacher, break through the shrine of Brahman, which 
consists of the four nets (of food, breath, mind, know- 
ledge, till he reaches the last shrine, that of blessed- 
ness and identity with Brahman). Thenceforth pure, 



similes are intended to show how, as soon as the impediment is 
removed, the worshipper obtains his true form, i.e. becomes Brah- 
man. Afterwards he explains £ittam, thought, by the individual 
thinker, and declares that he vanishes together with the thought, 
which forms the ajraya, the place, or the upadhi, the outward form. 
Or again, he says that the iitta, the mind, vanishes with its outward 
sign, viz. the thoughts and imaginations. 



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326 MAITRAYAiVA-BRAHMAiVA-UPANISHAD. 

clean, undeveloped, tranquil, breathless, bodiless, 
endless, imperishable, firm, everlasting, unborn and 
independent, he stands on his own greatness 1 , and 
having seen (the Self), standing in his own greatness, 
he looks on the wheel of the world as one (who has 
alighted from a chariot) looks on its revolving wheel. 
And thus it is said : 

' If a man practises Yoga for six months and is 
thoroughly free (from the outer world), then the 
perfect Yoga (union), which is endless, high, and 
hidden, is accomplished. 

But if a man, though well enlightened (by instruc- 
tion), is still pierced by (the gu«as of) passion and 
darkness, and attached to his children, wife, and 
house, then perfect Yoga is never accomplished 2 .' 

29. After he had thus spoken (to Brzhadratha), 
.Sakayanya, absorbed in thought, bowed before him, 
and said : ' O King, by means of this Brahma-know- 
ledge have the sons of Pra^apati (the Valakhilyas) 
gone to the road of Brahman. Through the practice 
of Yoga a man obtains contentment, power to endure 
good and evil, and tranquillity. Let no man preach 
this most secret doctrine to any one who is not his 
son or his pupil 3 , and who is not of a serene mind. 
To him alone who is devoted to his teacher only, 
and endowed with all necessary qualities, may he 
communicate it 4 . 



1 See Maitr. Up. II, 4 ; VI, 31. 

2 This would seem to have been the end of the dialogue between 
Pra^apati and the Valakhilyas, which, as related by Sakayanya to 
King Br*hadratha, began in II, 3. See, however, VII, 8. 

8 .Svet. Up. VI, 22 (p. 267) ; Brrti.Up.VI, 3, 12. 
4 Here may have been the end of a chapter, but the story of 
•Sakayanya and Brmadratha is continued to VI, 30. 



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VI PRAPArffAKA, 30. 327 

30. Om ! Having settled down in a pure place 
let him, being pure himself, and firm in goodness, 
study the truth, speak the truth, think the truth, 
and offer sacrifice to the truth 1 . Henceforth he has 
become another ; by obtaining the reward of Brah- 
man his fetters are cut asunder, he knows no hope, 
no fear from others as little as from himself, he 
knows no desires ; and having attained imperishable, 
infinite happiness, he stands blessed in the true 
Brahman, who longs for a true man 2 . Freedom 
from desires is, as it were, the highest prize to be 
taken from the best treasure (Brahman). For a 
man full of all desires, being possessed of will, 
imagination, and belief, is a slave ; but he who is 
the opposite, is free. 

Here some say, it is the Gu«a 3 (i. e. the so-called 
Mahat, the principle of intellect which, according to 
the Sankhyas, is the result of the Gu»as or qualities), 
which, through the differences of nature (acquired in 
the former states of existence), goes into bondage to 
the will, and that deliverance takes place (for theGu#a) 
when the fault of the will has been removed. (Butthis 
is not our view), because (call it gu»a, intellect, buddhi, 
manas, mind, ahankara, egotism, it is not the mind 
that acts, but) he sees by the mind (as his instru- 
ment), h e hears by the mind ; and all that we call 

1 The truth or the true are explained by, (1) the book which 
teaches the Highest Self; (2) by Brahman, who is to be spoken 
about ; (3) by Brahman, who is to be meditated on ; (4) by Brah- 
man, who is to be worshipped in thought. 

2 I have translated this according to the commentary, but I should 
prefer to read satyibhilishim. 

3 The passages within brackets had to be added from the com- 
mentary in order to make the text intelligible, at least according to 
Rlmatirtha's views. 



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328 maitrAyajva-brAhmajva-upanishad. 

desire, imagination, doubt, belief, unbelief, certainty, 
uncertainty, shame, thought, fear, all that is but 
mind (manas). Carried along by the waves of die 
qualities, darkened in his imaginations, unstable, 
fickle, crippled, full of desires, vacillating, he enters 
into belief, believing I am he, this is mine, and he 
binds his Self by his Self, as a bird with a net 1 . 
Therefore a man, being possessed of will, imagina- 
tion, and belief, is a slave, but he who is the oppo- 
site is free. For this reason let a man stand free 
from will, imagination, and belief — this is the sign of 
liberty, this is the path that leads to Brahman, this 
is the opening of the door, and through it he will go 
to the other shore of darkness. All desires are there 
fulfilled. And for this they quote a verse : 

" When the five instruments of knowledge stand 
still together with the mind, and when the intellect 
does not move, that is called the highest state 2 .'" 

Having thus said, Sakayanya became absorbed in 
thought. Then Marut (i.e. the King Brzhadratha) 3 , 
having bowed before him and duly worshipped him, 
went full of contentment to the Northern Path 4 , for 
there is no way thither by any side-road. This is 
the path to Brahman. Having burst open the 
solar door, he rose on high and went away. And 
here they quote : 

'There are endless rays (arteries) for the Self 
who, like a lamp, dwells in the heart: white and 
black, brown and blue, tawny and reddish 5 . 

1 See III, 2. a See the same verse in Ka/Aa Up. VI, 10. 

3 See before, II, 1. 

4 See Yrasria, Up. 1, 10, ' But those who have sought the Self by 
penance, abstinence, faith, and knowledge, gain by the Northern 
Path Aditya, the sun.' 

6 See .ffMnd. Up. VIII, 6,1. 



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VI PRAPArJJAKA, 31. 329 

One of them (the Sushumna) leads upwards, 
piercing the solar orb : by it, having stepped beyond 
the world of Brahman, they go to the highest path. 

The other hundred rays 1 rise upwards also, and 
on them the worshipper reaches the mansions be- 
longing to the different bodies of gods. 

But the manifest rays of dim colour which lead 
downwards, by them a man travels on and on help- 
lessly, to enjoy the fruits of his actions here.' 

Therefore it is said that the holy Aditya (sun) is 
the cause of new births (to those who do not worship 
him), of heaven (to those who worship him as a god), 
of liberty (to those who worship him as Brahman) 2 . 

31. Some one asks: 'Of what nature are those 
organs of sense that go forth (towards their ob- 
jects)? Who sends them out here, or who holds 
them back?' 

Another answers : 'Their nature is the Self; the 
Self sends them out, or holds them back ; also the 
Apsaras (enticing objects of sense), and the solar 
rays (and other deities presiding over the senses).' 

Now the Self devours the objects by the five rays 
(the organs of sense) ; then who is the Self ? 

He who has been defined by the terms pure, clean, 
undeveloped, tranquil 3 , &c, who is to be apprehended 
independently by his own peculiar signs. That sign 
of him who has no signs, is like what the pervading 



1 A similar verse, but with characteristic variations, occurs in the 
KhinA. Up. VIII, 6, 6, and in the Katfa Up. VI, 16. 

2 Here ends the story of .SSkayanya, which began I, 2, and was 
carried on through chap. VI, though that chapter and the seventh 
are called Khilas, or supplements, and though the MS. M. also ends, 
as we saw, with the eighth paragraph of the sixth chapter. 

8 See before, II, 4 VI, 1 i 



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330 MAITRAYAJVA-BRAHMAtfA-UPANISHAD. 

heat is of fire, the purest taste of water ; thus say 
some 1 . It is speech, hearing, sight, mind, breath ; 
thus say others 2 . It is intellect, retention, remem- 
bering, knowledge ; thus say others 8 . Now all these 
are signs of the Self in the same sense in which here 
on earth shoots are the signs of seed, or smoke, light, 
and sparks of fire. And for this they quote 4 : 

' As the sparks from the fire, and as the rays from 
the sun, thus do his Pra«as and the rest in proper 
order again and again proceed from him here on 
earth.' 

32. From this very Self, abiding within his Self, 
come forth all Pra«as (speech, &c), all worlds, all 
Vedas, all gods, and all beings ; its Upanishad (revela- 
tion) 6 is that it is 'the true of the true.' Now as from a 
fire of green wood, when kindled, clouds of smoke come 
forth by themselves (though belonging to the fire), 
thus from that great Being has been breathed forth 
all this which is the Rig-veda., the Ya/ur-veda, the 
Sama-veda, the Atharvangirasas (Atharva-veda), the 
Itihasa (legendary stories), the Pura#a (accounts of 
the creation, &c), Vidya (ceremonial doctrines), the 
Upanishads, the 6"lokas (verses interspersed in the 
Upanishads, &c), the Sutras (compendious state- 
ments), the Anuvyakhyanas (explanatory notes), the 
Vyakhyanas (elucidations) 6 — all these things are his. 

1 See Svet. Up. VI, 13. a See Ken. Up. 2. 

8 See Ait. Up. Ill, 2. Here we find dhn'ti (holding), smriM 
(remembering), pra^w&nam (knowledge), but not buddhi. Pra- 
^w&nam seems the right reading, and is supported by M. 

* See before, VI, 26. 

5 Revelation is here the rendering of Upanishad, upanigama- 
yitr?tv&t sSkshadrahasyam, and the true (sattya) is explained first by 
the five elements, and then by that which is their real essence. 

6 See .ffMnd. Up. VI, 1. The explanations given of these literary 



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VI PRAPArtfAKA, $3. 33I 

33. This fire (the Garhapatya-fire) with five 
bricks is the year. And its five bricks are spring, 
summer, rainy season, autumn, winter ; and by them 
the fire has a head, two sides, a centre, and a tail. 
This earth (the Garhapatya-fire) here is the first 
sacrificial pile for Pra^ipati, who knows the Purusha 
(the Vira^). It presented the sacrificer to Vayu 
(the wind) by lifting him with the hands to the sky. 
That Vayu is Pra«a (Hirawyagarbha). 

Pra#a is Agni (the Dakshi«agni-fire), and its bricks 
are the five vital breaths, Prawa, Vy&na, Apana, 
Samana, Ud&na ; and by them the fire has a head, 
two sides, a centre, and a tail. This sky (the 
Dakshi«agni-fire) here is the second sacrificial pile 
for Pra^apati, who knows the Purusha. It pre- 
sented the sacrificer to Indra, by lifting him with 
the hands to heaven. That Indra is Aditya, the 
sun. 

That (Indra) is the Agni (the Ahavaniya-fire), 
and its bricks are the Rik, the Ya^ush, the Saman, 
the Atharvangirasas, the Itihasa, and the Puratfa; 
and by them the fire has a head, two sides, a tail, 
and a centre. This heaven (Ahavanlya-fire) is the 
third sacrificial pile for Pra^apati, who knows the 

titles are on the whole the same as those we had before in similar 
passages. What is peculiar to Ramattrtha is that he explains 
Upanishad by such passages as we had just now, viz. its Upanishad 
is that it is the true of the true. The Slokas are explained as 
verses like those in VI, 19, a&ttaw £ittamadhyastham. The 
Sutras are explained as comprehensive sentences, such as II, 2, 
ayaz» vava khalv atma te. Anuvyakhyanas are taken as explana- 
tions following on the Sutra in II, 2, beginning with atha ya 
esho^Mvasavish/ambhanena. The Vyakhyanas are taken as fuller 
statements of the meaning contained in the Sutra, such as the 
dialogue between the Valakhilyas and Kratu. 



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332 MAITRAYAJVA-BRAHMAZVA-UPANISHAD. 

Purusha. With the hands it makes a present of 
the sacrificer to the Knower of the Self (Pra^apati) ; 
then the Knower of the Self, lifting him up, pre- 
sented him to Brahman. In him he becomes full 
of happiness and joy. 

34. The earth is the Garhapatya-fire, the sky the 
Dakshwa-fire, the heaven the Ahavanlya-fire ; and 
therefore they are also the Pavamana (pure), the 
Pavaka (purifying), and the Su&i (bright) 1 . By this 
(by the three deities, Pavamana, Pavaka, and Su&i) 
the sacrifice (of the three fires, the Garhapatya, 
Dakshi«a, and Ahavaniya) is manifested. And be- 
cause the digestive fire also is a compound of the 
Pavamana, Pavaka, and Su&i, therefore that fire is 
to receive oblations, is to be laid with bricks, is to 
be praised, and to be meditated on. The sacrificer, 
when he has seized the oblation, wishes 2 to perform 
his meditation of the deity : 

' The gold-coloured bird abides in the heart, and 
in the sun — a diver bird, a swan, strong in splendour ; 
him we worship in the fire.' 

Having recited the verse, he discovers its mean- 
ing, viz. the adorable splendour of Savitm' (sun) is to 
be meditated on by him who, abiding within his 
mind, meditates thereon. Here he attains the place 
of rest for the mind, he holds it within his own Self. 
On this there are the following verses : 

(1) As a fire without fuel becomes quiet in its 



1 Epithets of Agni, the sacrificial-fire, pavama«a applying o 
the Garhapatya-fire, pavaka to the Dakshi«a-fire, and suki to the 
Ahavaniya-fire. The construction of the sentence, however, is 
imperfect. 

s This means, he ought to perform it. 



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VI PRAPArtfAKA, 34. 333 

place 1 , thus do the thoughts, when all activity ceases, 

become quiet 2 in their place. 

* (2) Even in a mind which loves the truth 8 and has 

gone to rest in- itself there arise, when it is deluded 

by the objects of sense, wrongs resulting from former 

acts 4 . 

(3) For thoughts alone cause the round of births 6 ; 
let a man strive to purify his thoughts. What a man 
thinks, that he is : this is the old secret 6 . 

(4) By the serenity of his thoughts a man blots out 
all actions, whether good or bad. . Dwelling within 
his Self with serene thoughts, he obtains imperish- 
able happiness. 

(5) If the thoughts of a man were so fixed on 
Brahman as they are on the things of this world, 
who would not then be freed from bondage ? 

(6) The mind, it is said, is of two kinds, pure or 
impure; impure from the contact with lust, pure 
when free from lust 7 . 

(7) When a man, having freed his mind from 
sloth, distraction, and vacillation, becomes as it were 
delivered from his mind 8 , that is the highest point. 

(8) The mind must be restrained in the heart till 
it comes to an end; — that is knowledge, that is 
liberty: all the rest are extensions of the ties 9 (which 
bind us to this life). 

1 Dies in the fireplace. * M. reads upajamyati twice. 

9 M. reads satyakaminai. 

4 The commentator inserts a negative. 

5 M. reads sazns&raA. 

* This is very like the teaching of the Dhammapada, 1, 1. 

7 Cf. Ind. Stud. II, 60. Brahmavindu Up. v. 1, where we read 
kamasankalpam, as in MS. M. 

8 See note to VI, 20. 

9 M. reads mokshar£a and jcshas tu. The commentator says that 



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334 MAITRAYAtfA-BRAHMAJVA-UPANISHAD. 

(9) That happiness which belongs to a mind which 
by deep meditation has been washed 1 clean from all 
impurity and has entered within the Self, cannot be 
described here by words ; it can be felt by the inward 
power only 2 . 

(10) Water in water, fire in fire, ether in ether, no 
one can distinguish them ; likewise a man whose 
mind has entered (till it cannot be distinguished 
from the Self), attains liberty. 

(11) Mind alone is the cause of bondage and 
liberty for men ; if attached to the world, it becomes 
bound; if free from the world, that is liberty 3 . 

Therefore those who do not offer the Agnihotra 
(as described above), who do not lay the fires (with 
the bricks, as described above), who are ignorant (of 
the mind being the cause of the round of births), who 
do not meditate (on the Self in the solar orb) are 
debarred from remembering the ethereal place of 
Brahman. Therefore that fire is to receive obla- 
tions, is to be laid with bricks, is to be praised, to 
be meditated on. 

35*. Adoration to Agni, the dweller on earth, who 
remembers his world. Grant that world to this thy 
worshipper ! 

Adoration to Vayu, the dweller in the sky, who 
remembers his world. Grant that world to this thy 
worshipper ! 

this line is easy, but it is so by no means. Professor Cowell translates 
granthavistari^ by book-prolixity, but this sounds very strange in an 
Upanishad. I am not satisfied with my own translation, but it may 
stand till a better one is found. M. reads grmdhavistarSA. The 
granthis are mentioned in Khini. Up. VII, 26 ; KaJh. Up. VI, 15. 

1 M. reads nirdhuta. * M. reads karaweti. 

8 M. reads vishay&saktam muktyai. 

4 Next follow invocations to be addressed to the deities. 



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VI VRAVATHAKA, 35. 335 

Adoration to Aditya, the dweller in heaven, who 
remembers his world. Grant that world to this thy 
worshipper ! 

Adoration to Brahman, who dwells everywhere, 
who remembers all. Grant all to this thy wor- 
shipper ! 

The mouth of the true (Brahman) is covered with 
a golden lid ; open that, O Pushan (sun), that we may 
go to the true one, who pervades all (Vishnu) 1 . 

He who is the person in the sun, I am he 2 . 

And what is meant by the true one is the essence 
of the sun, that which is bright, personal, sexless 3 ; 
a portion (only) of the light which pervades the 
ether ; which is, as it were, in the midst of the sun, 
and in the eye, and in the fire. That is Brahman, 
that is immortal, that is splendour. 

That is the true one, a portion (only) of the light 
which pervades the ether, which is in the midst of 
the sun, the immortal, of which Soma (the moon) 
and the vital breaths also are offshoots : that is 
Brahman, that is immortal, that is splendour. 

That is the true one, a portion (only) of the light 
which pervades the ether, which in the midst of the 
sun shines as Ya^iis, viz. as Om, as water, light, 
essence, immortal, Brahman, BhM, Bhuva^, Svar, 
Om. 

' The eight-footed 4 , the bright, the swan, bound 



1 The verse occurs in a more original form in Tal. Up. 15. 

* The commentator adds iti after aham. 
' #Mnd. Up. 1,6,6; .SVet. Up. V, 10. 

* The eight feet are explained as the eight regions, or iroga and 
the rest. The swan is the sun. »The three threads are the three 
Vedas; see ZTul. Up. 1, 1; Ind. Stud. IX, 11 — ash/apdda«? juftr 
h&msam trisutram ma/rim avyayam, dvivartam£na»» ta^asaiddham 



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336 maitrayajva-brAhma^a-upanishad. 

with three threads, the infinitely small, the imperish- 
able, blind for good and evil, kindled with light — he 
who sees him, sees everything.' 

A portion (only) of the light which pervades the 
ether, are the two rays rising in the midst of the 
sun. That is the knower 1 (the Sun), the true one. 
That is the Ya^us, that is the heat, that is Agni 
(fire), that is Vayu (wind), that is breath, that is 
water, that is the moon, that is bright, that is im- 
mortal, that is the place of Brahman, that is the ocean 
of light. In that ocean the sacrificers are dissolved 2 
like salt, and that is oneness with Brahman, for all 
desires are there fulfilled. And here they quote : 

' Like a lamp, moved by a gentle wind, he who 
dwells within the gods shines forth. He who knows 
this, he is the knower, he knows the difference (be- 
tween the high and the highest Brahman) ; having 
obtained unity, he becomes identified with it. 

They who rise up in endless number, like spray 
drops (from the sea), like lightnings from the light 
within the clouds in the highest heaven, they, when 
they have entered into the light of glory (Brahman), 
appear like so many flame-crests in the track of fire.' 

36. There are two manifestations of the Brahma- 
light : one is tranquil, the other lively. Of that which 
is tranquil, the ether is the support ; of that which is 
lively, food. Therefore (to the former) sacrifice must 
be offered on the house-altar with hymns, herbs, 
ghee, meat, cakes, sthalipaka, and other things ; to 
the latter, with meat and drinks (belonging to the 
great sacrifices) thrown into the mouth, for the mouth 

sarva^ paryan na paryati. Here-the eight feet are explained as the 
five elements, manas, buddhi, and ahaftk&ra. 

1 Savit for savitr*. * Vlfyante for vilfyante. 



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VI PRAPArflAKA, Z7' 337 

is the Ahavanlya-fire ; and this is done to increase 
our bodily vigour, to gain the world of purity, and 
for the sake of immortality. And here they quote : 

'Let him who longs for heaven, offer an Agni- 
hotra. By an Agnish/oma he wins the kingdom 
of Yama ; by Uktha, the kingdom of Soma ; by 
a Shodasin-sacrifice, the kingdom of Surya ; by an 
Atiratra-sacrifice, the kingdom of Indra ; by the 
sacrifices beginning with the twelve-night sacrifice 
and ending with the thousand years' sacrifice, the 
world of Pra^apati. 

As a lamp burns so long as the vessel that holds 
the wick is filled with oil, these two, the Self and the 
bright Sun, remain so long as the egg (of the world) 
and he who dwells within it hold together.' 

37. Therefore let a man perform all these cere- 
monies with the syllable Om (at the beginning). Its 
splendour is endless, and it is declared to be three- 
fold, in the fire (of the altar), in the sun (the deity), 
in the breath (the sacrificer). Now this is the channel 
to increase the food, which makes what is offered in 
the fire ascend to the sun. The sap which flows 
from thence, rains down as with the sound of a 
hymn. By it there are vital breaths, from them 
there is offspring. And here they quote : 

' The offering which is offered in the fire, goes to 
the sun ; the sun rains it down by his rays ; thus food 
comes, and from food the birth of living beings.' 

And thus he said : 

' The oblation which is properly thrown on the 
fire, goes toward the sun ; from the sun comes rain, 
from rain food, from food living beings 1 .' 

1 See Manu III, 76. 
t'5] z 



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$3% maitrAyajva-brahmajva-upanishad. 

38. He who offers the Agnihotra breaks through the 
net of desire. Then, cutting through bewilderment, 
never approving of anger, meditating on one desire 
(that of liberty), he breaks through the shrine of 
Brahman with its four nets, and proceeds thence to 
the ether. For having there broken through the 
(four) spheres of the Sun, the Moon, the Fire, and 
Goodness, he then, being purified himself, beholds 
dwelling in goodness, immovable, immortal, inde- 
structible, firm, bearing the name of Vish«u, the 
highest abode, endowed with love of truth and om- 
niscience, the self-dependent Intelligence (Brahman), 
standing in its own greatness. And here they quote : 

' In the midst of the sun stands the moon, in 
the midst of the moon the fire, in the midst of fire 
goodness, in the midst of goodness the Eternal.' 

Having meditated on him who has the breadth 
of a thumb within the span (of the heart) in the 
body, who is smaller than small, he obtains the 
nature of the Highest ; there all desires are fulfilled. 
And on this they quote: 

' Having the breadth of a thumb within the span 
(of the heart) in the body, like the flame of a lamp, 
burning twofold or threefold, that glorified Brahman, 
the great God, has entered into all the worlds. Om ! 
Adoration to Brahman ! Adoration ! ' 

Seventh PRAPArffAKA. 

1. Agni, the Giyatra (metre), the Trivrit (hymn), 
the Rathantara (song), the spring, the upward breath 
(pra«a), the Nakshatras, the Vasus (deities) — these 
rise in the East ; they warm, they rain, they praise 1 

1 Other MSS. read sruvanti, which seems better. 

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VII PRAPArffAKA, 4. 339 

(the sun), they enter again into him (the sun), they 
look out from him (the sun). He (the sun) is incon- 
ceivable, without form, deep, covered, blameless, 
solid, unfathomable, without qualities, pure, brilliant, 
enjoying the play of the three qualities, awful, not 
caused, a master-magician 1 , the omniscient, the 
mighty, immeasurable, without beginning or end, 
blissful, unborn, wise, indescribable, the creator of 
all things, the self of all things, the enjoyer of all 
things, the ruler of all things, the centre of the centre 
of all things. 

2. Indra, the TrishAibh (metre), the Pa^ada^a 
(hymn), the Brthat (song), the summer, the through- 
going breath (Vyana), Soma, the Rudras — these rise 
in the South ; they warm, they rain, they praise, they 
enter again into him, they look out from him. He 
(the sun) is without end or beginning, unmeasured, 
unlimited, not to be moved by another, self-depend- 
ent, without sign, without form, of endless power, 
the creator, the maker of light. • 

3. The Maruts, the Cagatt (metre), the Saptadara 
(hymn), the Vairupa (song), the rainy season, the 
downward breath (apana), 6ukra, the Adityas — these 
rise in the West ; they warm, they rain, they praise, 
they enter again into him, they look out from him. 
That is the tranquil, the soundless, fearless, sorrow- 
less, joyful, satisfied, firm, immovable, immortal, 
eternal, true, the highest abode, bearing the name 
of Vishmi. 

4. The Vfove Devas, the Anush/ubh (metre), the 
Ekavimsa. (hymn), the Vair&^a. (song), the autumn, 
the equal breath (samana), Varu»a, the SAdhyas — 
these rise in the North ; they warm, they rain, they 

1 See VII, 1 1, abhidhy&tur vistrftir iva. 

Z 2 



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340 MAITRAYAATA-BRAHMAiVA-UPANISHAD. 

praise, they enter again into him, they look out from 
him. * He is pure within, purifying, undeveloped, 
tranquil, breathless, selfless, endless. 

5. Mitra-Varu»au, the Pankti (metre), the Trma- 
vatrayastriwia (hymns), the .Sakvara-raivata (songs), 
the snowy and dewy seasons, the out-going breath 
(udana), the Angiras, the Moon — these rise above ; 
they warm, they rain, they praise, they enter again 
into him, they look out from him — who is called 
Pra#ava{Om), the leader, consisting of light, without 
sleep, old age, death, and sorrow. 

6. .Sani (Saturn), Rahu and Ketu (the ascending 
and descending nodes), the serpents, Rakshas, Yak- 
shas, men, birds, xarabhas, elephants, &c. — these rise 
below ; they warm, they rain, they praise, they enter 
again into him, they look out from him — he who is 
wise, who keeps things in their right place, the centre 
of all, the imperishable, the pure, the purifier, the 
bright, the patient, the tranquil. 

7. And he is indeed the Self, smaller (than small) 
within the heart, kindled like fire, endowed with 
all forms. Of him is all this food, within him all 
creatures are woven. That Self is free from sin 1 , 
free from old age, from death and grief, from hunger 
and thirst, imagining nothing but what it ought to 
imagine, and desiring nothing but what it ought 
to desire. He is the highest lord, he is the supreme 
master of all beings, the guardian of all beings, a 
boundary keeping all things apart in their right 
places 2 . He the Self, the lord, is indeed vSambhu, 
Bhava, Rudra, Pra^apati, the creator of all, Hirawya- 

1 See.ffMnd.Up.VIII, 7, 1. 

2 See Kh&adi. Up. VIII, 4, 1, where we find setur vidhrj'tir eshaw 
lokanam 



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vii PRApArffAKA, 8. 341 

garbha, the true, breath, the swan, the ruler, the 
eternal, Vishwu, Naraya#a. And he who abides in 
the fire, and he who abides in the heart, and he who 
abides in the sun, they are one and the same. To 
thee who art this, endowed with all forms, settled in 
the true ether, be adoration ! 

8. Now follow the impediments in the way of know- 
ledge, O King 1 ! This is indeed the origin of the net 
of bewilderment, that one who is worthy of heaven 
lives with those who are not worthy of heaven. That 
is it. Though they have been told that there is a 
grove before them, they cling to a small shrub. And 
others also who are always merry, always abroad, 
always begging, always making a living by handi- 
work ; and others who are begging in towns, per- 
forming sacrifices for those who are not allowed to 
offer sacrifices, who make themselves the pupils of 
6udras, and .Sudras who know the sacred books ; 
and others who are malignant, who use bad language, 
dancers, prize-fighters, travelling mendicants, actors, 
those who have been degraded in the king's service ; 
and others who for money pretend that they can lay 
(the evil influences) of Yakshas, Rakshasas, ghosts, 
goblins, devils, serpents, imps, &c. ; and others who 
falsely wear red dresses 2 , earrings, and skulls; and 
others who wish to entice by the jugglery of false 
arguments, mere comparisons and paralogisms, the 
believers in the Veda — with all these he should not 

1 This king is not meant for Br?hadratha. 

2 This refers to people who claim the privileges and licence of 
Sannyasins without having passed through the discipline of the 
preceding ajramas. As this was one of the chief complaints made 
against the followers of .Salcyamuni, it might refer to Buddhists, 
but it ought to be borne in mind that there were Buddhists before 
Buddha. 



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342 MAITRAYAJVA-BRAHMAJVA-UPANISHAD. 

live together. They are clearly thieves, and unworthy 
of heaven. And thus it is said : 

' The world unsettled by the paralogisms of the 
denial of Self, by false comparisons and arguments, 
does not know what is the difference between Veda 
and philosophy 1 .' 

9. BWhaspati, having become .Sukra, brought forth 
that false knowledge for the safety of Indra and for 
the destruction of the Asuras. By it they show that 
good is evil, and that evil is good. They say that we 
ought to ponder on the (new) law, which upsets the 
Veda and the other sacred books 2 . Therefore let no 
one ponder on that false knowledge : it is wrong, it 
is, as it were, barren. Its reward lasts only as long 
as the pleasure lasts, as with one who has fallen from 
his caste. Let that false science not be attempted, 
for thus it is said : 

(1) Widely opposed and divergent are these two, 
the one known as false knowledge, the other as 
knowledge. I (Yama) believe Na&ketas to be 
possessed by a desire of knowledge; even many 
pleasures do not move thee 3 . 

(2) He who knows at the same time both the 
imperfect (sacrifice, &c.) and the perfect knowledge 
(of the Self), he crosses death by means of the 
imperfect, and obtains immortality by means of the 
perfect knowledge 4 . 

(3) Those who are wrapped up 8 in the midst of 

1 If we translate thus, the use of vidya for vrith& vidyd is 
unusual ; if we follow the commentary, we should have to trans- 
late, he does not know the Veda and the other knowledge. 

* All this may refer to Buddhists, but not by necessity, for there 
were heretics, such as Br»haspati, long before .Sakyamuni. 

8 See KaJh. Up. II, 4. 4 See Va£. Up. n. 

6 Vesh/yamana^, instead of vartamana^. 



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VII PRAPATJ/AKA, II. 343 

imperfect knowledge, fancying themselves alone wise 
and learned, they wander about floundering and de- 
ceived, like the blind led by the blind 1 . 

10. The gods and the demons, wishing to know 
the Self, went into the presence of Brahman (their 
father, Prafapati) a . Having bowed before him, they 
said : ' O blessed one, we wish to know the Self, 
do thou tell us.' Then, after having pondered a 
long while, he thought, these demons are not yet 
self-subdued 3 ; therefore a very different Self was 
told to them (from what was told to the gods). On 
that Self these deluded demons take their stand, 
clinging to it, destroying the true means of salva- 
tion (the Veda), preaching untruth. What is untrue 
they see as true, as in jugglery. Therefore, what is 
taught in the Vedas, that is true. What is said in 
the Vedas, on that the wise keep their stand. 
Therefore let a Brahman not read what is not of 
the Veda, or this will be the result. 

1 1. This is indeed the nature of it (the Veda), the 
supreme light of the ether which is within the heart. 
This is taught as threefold, in the fire, in the sun, 
in the breath. This is indeed the nature of it, the 
syllable Om, of the ether which is within the heart. 
By it (by the Om) that (light) starts, rises, breathes 
forth, becomes forever the means of the worship and 
knowledge of Brahman. That (light, in the shape of 

1 See Katf . Up. II, 5. 

* Cf. KAknd. Up. VIII, 8. 

* I prefer ayat&tm&naA, though it is the easier (sugama) reading, 
as compared with anyatitm&naA, those who seek for the Self else- 
where, namely, in the body. It seems to me to refer to those who, 
without having subdued the passions of their body, wish to obtain 
the knowledge of the Highest Self. Possibly, however, the author 
may have intended a climax from aayaXitxainzA to anyatamam. 



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344 MAITRAYAiVA-BRAHMAiVA-UPANlSHAD. 

Om), when there is breathing, takes the place of the 
internal heat, free from all brightness 1 . This is like 
the action of smoke ; for when there is a breath of 
air, the smoke, first rising to the sky in one column, 
follows afterwards every bough, envelopes it and takes 
its shape 2 . It is like throwing salt (into water), like 
heating ghee 3 . The Veda comes and goes like the 
dissolving view of a master-magician 4 . And here 
they quote: 

' Why then is it called " like lightning ?" Because 
as soon as it comes forth (as Om) it lights up the 
whole body. Therefore let a man worship that 
boundless light by the syllable Om.' 

(i) The man in the eye who abides in the right eye, 
he is Indra, and his wife abides in the left eye 5 . 

(2) The union of these two takes place in the cavity 
within the heart, and the ball of blood which is there, 
that is indeed the vigour and life of these two. 

(3) There is a channel going from the heart so far, 
and fixed in that eye ; that is the artery for both of 
them, being one, divided into two. 

1 This seems to be the meaning adopted by the commentator ; 
but may it not be, sending forth brightness ? 

2 The simile is not very clear. The light of Brahman is below 
the sphere of fire in the body. That sphere of fire becoming 
heated, the light of Brahman becomes manifest. When the fire 
has been fanned by the wind of sonant breath, then the light of 
Brahman, embodying itself in the wind and the fire, manifests itself 
first in the mere sound of Om, but afterwards, checked by throat, 
palate, &c, it assumes the form of articulate letters, and ends by 
becoming the Veda in its many branches. 

8 As these are outwardly changed, without losing their nature, 
thus the light of Brahman, though assuming the different forms of 
the Veda, remains itself. 

4 See before, VII, 1. 

8 See Bnh. Up. IV, 2, 2, 3, where Indra is explained as Indha. 



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VII PRAPA777AKA, II. 345 

(4) The mind excites the fire of the body, that fire 
stirs the breath, and the breath, moving in the chest, 
produces the low sound. 

(5) Brought forth by the touch of the fire, as with 
a churning-stick, it is at first a minim, from the 
minim it becomes in the throat a double minim ; 
on the tip of the tongue know that it is a treble 
minim, and, when uttered, they call it the alphabet 

(<tto«x««) *• 

(6) He who sees this, does not see death, nor dis- 
ease, nor misery, for seeing he sees all (objectively, 
not as affecting him subjectively); he becomes all 
everywhere (he becomes Brahman). 

(7) There is the person in the eye, there is he 
who walks as in sleep, he who is sound asleep, and 
he who is above the sleeper : these are the four 
conditions (of the Self), and the fourth is greater 
than all 2 . 

(8) Brahman with one foot moves in the three, 
and Brahman with three feet is in the last. 

1 A comparison of this verse with AT^and. Up. VII, 26, shows 
the great freedom with which the wording of these ancient verses 
was treated. Instead of — 

Na paryan mr/tyum paryati na rogaw nota du^khatam, 
Sarva/» hi pajyan paryati sarvam apnoti sarvaraA, 
the .ATMndogya Up. reads : 

Na p&ryo nWtyum paryati na rogaa? nota du^khat&m, 
Sarvaw ha p&syaA paryati sarvam £pnoti sarvajaA. 

2 The conditions here described are sometimes called the Vwva 
(YauvSnara), Taig-asa, Pra^raa, and Turlya. In the first state the 
Self is awake, and enjoys the world ; in the second he sees every- 
thing as in a dream ; in the third the two former states cease, and 
he is absorbed in sleep ; in the fourth he becomes again the pure 
Self. In the first state the Self has the disguise of a coarse material 
body; in the second of a subtle material body; in the third its 
disguise is potential only; in the fourth it has no disguise, either 
potential or realised. 



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346 maitrayajva-brAhmajva-upanishad. 

It is that both the true (in the fourth condition) 
and the untrue (in the three conditions) may have 
their desert, that the Great Self (seems to) become 
two, yes, that he (seems to) become two \ 

1 ' By reason of the experience of the false and the true, the great 
Soul appears possessed of duality.' Cowell. 



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UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA LIBRARY 
BERKELEY 



Return to desk from which borrowed. 
This book is DUE on the last date stamped below. 



JAN 191948 



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