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Full text of "Sacred Books East Various Oriental Scholars with Index. 50 vols Max Muller Oxford 1879.1910."

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THE 



SACRED BOOKS OF THE EAST 



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Uon&on 
HENRY FROWDE 




OXFOBD UITITBBBITT PBEBS -WAEEHOUSE 
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THE 



SACRED BOOKS OF THE EAST 



TRANSLATED 



BY VARIOUS ORIENTAL SCHOLARS 



AND EDITED BT 



F. MAX Mt^LLER 



VOL. XVI 



AT THE CLARENDON PRESS 
i88a 

[All rights ratrved] 



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THE 



SACRED BOOKS OF CHINA 



THE TEXTS OF CONFUCIANISM 



TRANSLATED BY 



JAMES LEGGE 



PART II 



THE Yl KING 




AT THE CLARENDON PRESS 
i88a 



[A/i rights reserved ] 



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V, I 



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CONTENTS. 



PACK 

PREFACE xiii 



INTRODUCTION. 

CHAP. 

I. The Y1 King from the Twelfth Century b.c. to 

THE Commencement of the Christian Era . . i 

There was a Yt in the time of Confucius. The Yi is now 
made up of the Text which Confucius saw, and the Appen- 
dixes ascribed to him. The Yt escaped the fires of Shin. The 
Yi before Confucius, and when it was made : — mentioned in 
the Official Book of ATiu ; in the So ATiiwan ; testimony of 
the Appendixes. Not the most ancient of the Chinese books. 
The Text much older than the Appendixes. Labours of native 
scholars on the Yi imperfectly described. Erroneous account 
of the labours of sinologists. 

II. The Subject-matter of the Text. The Lineal 

Figures and the explanation of them ... 9 

The Yi consists of essays based on lineal fig^es. Origin of 
the lineal figures. Who first multiplied them to sixty-four ? 
Why they were not continued after sixty-four. The form of 
the River Map. State of the country in the time of king 
WSn. Character of the last king of Sbang. The lords of 
K%M ; and especially king Wto. W&n in prison occupied 
with the lineal figures. The seventh hexagram. 

III. The Appendixes 26 

Subjects oftfae chapter. Number and nature of the Appen- 
dixes. Their authorship. No superscription of Confucius 
on any of them. The third and fourth evidently not from 
him. Bearing of this conclusion on the others. The first 
Appendix. Ffi-hsi's trigrams. King WJUi's. The name 
Kwei-sh&n. The second Appendix. The Great Symbolism. 
The third Appendix. Harmony between the lines of the 
figures ever changing, and the changes in external pheno- 
mena. Divination ; ancient, and its object Formation of 



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Vlll CONTENTS. 



the lineal figures by the divining stalks. The names Yin and 
Yang. The name Kwei-sh&n. ShSn alone. Tlie fourth 
Appendix. The fifth. First paragraph. Mythology of the 
Yt. Operation of God in nature throughout the year. Con- 
cluding paragraphs. The sixth Appendix. The seventh. 

Plates I, II, III, exhibiting the hexagrams and trigrams. 



THE TEXT. 
Section I. 

REXACRAH PAC.B 

I. AT^ien 57 

II. Khw&n 59 

III. A^un 62 

IV. MSng 64 

V. Hsu 67 

VI. Sung 69 

VII. Sze >i 

VIII. PI . . 73 

IX. HsiaoATM 76 

X. Li 78 

XI, Thii 81 

XII. Phi 83 

XIII. ThungZSn 86 

XIV. T4Y(i 88 

XV. ATAien 89 

XVI. Yu 91 

XVII. Suj 93 

XVIII. Kft . . 95 

XIX. Un 97 

XX. Kwin 99 

XXI. Shih Ho • . .101 

XXII. Pi 103 

XXIII. Po 105 

XXIV. Ffl 107 

XXV, WaWang 109 

XXVI. TSl/CM 112 

XXVII. ! 114 

XXVIII. T4Kwo 116 



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CONTENTS. IX 



HEXAGRAM TAC.R 

XXIX. Khan ii8 

XXX. U I20 

» 

Section II. 

XXXI. Hsien 123 

XXXII. H5ng 125 

XXXIII. Thun 127 

XXXIV. TAATwang 129 

XXXV. Sin 131 

XXXVI. Ming! 134 

XXXVII. ^i4 Zan 136 

XXXVIII. Khwei 139 

XXXIX. A^en 141 

XL. A!ieh 144 

XLI. Sun 146 

XLII. Yt 149 

XLIII. Kwai 151 

XLIV. K4u 154 

XLV. Shui 156 

XLVI. ShSng 159 

XLVII. KhwSn 161 

XLVIII. Sing 164 

XLIX. Ko 167 

L. Ting 169 

LI. ICim 172 

LII. Kan 17s 

LIII. Alen 178 

LIV. KweiMei 180 

LV. FSng 183 

LVI. Lti 187 

LVII. Sun 189 

LVIII. Tui 192 

LIX. Hwin 194 

LX. Kieh 197 

LXI. Aung Fft 199 

LXII. Hsiio Kwo 201 

LXIII. A^3t 204 

LXIV. Wei3i 207 



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CONTENTS. 



THE APPENDIXES. 

I. Treatise on the Thwan, that is, on king WXn's 

Explanations of the entire Hexagrams. 

PACB 

Section I. 
Khien to Lt 213-237 

Section II. 
Hsien to Wei 3t 238-266 

II. Treatise on the Symbolism of the Hexagrams, 

AND OF the duke OF ATAU'S EXPLANATIONS OF 
THE SEVERAL LINES. 

Section I. 
A'Aien to Lt 267-305 

Section II. 
Hsien to Wei St 305-347 

-- % '.",-, 

III. The Great Appendix. -, \ m 

Section I. 
Chapters I-XI I 348 

Section IL 
Chapters I-XII 379 



IV. Supplementary to the Thwan and YAo on the 

FIRST AND SECOND HEXAGRAMS, AND SHOWING 
how THEY MAY BE INTERPRETED OF MAN'S NA- 
TURE AND DOINGS. 

Section I. 
OnAT/iien 408 

Section II. 
On KhwSn 418 

V. Treatise of Remarks on the Trigrams. 

Chapters I-XI . 422 



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CONTENTS. XI 



VI. The Orderly Seqitencb of the Hexagrams. 

PACB 

Section I. 
ATAientoLt ; . . 433 

Section II. 
HsientoWeiSt 435 

VII. Treatise on the Hexagrams taken promis- 

cuously, ACCORDING TO THE OPPOSITION OR 
DIVERSITY OF THEIR MEANING .... 441 



Transliteration of Oriental Alphabets adopted for the Trans- 
lations of the Sacred Books of the East ... 445 



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PREFACE. 



I wrote out a translation of the Yt King, embracing both 
the Text and the Appendixes, in 1854 and 1855 ; and have 
to acknowledge that when the manuscript was completed, 
I knew very little about the scope and method of the book. 
I laid the volumes containing the result of my labour aside, 
and hoped, believed indeed, that the light would by and 
by dawn, and that I should one day get hold of a clue that 
would guide me to a knowledge of the mysterious classic. 

Before that day came, the translation was soaked, in 
1870, for more than a month in water of the Red Sea. By 
dint of careful manipulation it was recovered so as to be still 
legible ; but it was not till 1874 that I began to be able to 
give to the book the prolonged attention ^necessary to make 
it reveal its secrets. Then for the first time I got hold, as 
I believe, of the clue, and found that my toil of twenty 
years before was of no service at all. 

What had tended more than anything else to hide the 
nature of the book from my earlier studies was the way in 
which, with the Text, ordinarily and, as I think, correctly 
ascribed to king Wan and his son Tan, there are inter- 
spersed, under each hexagram, the portions of the Appen- 
dixes I, II, and IV relating to it. The student at first 
thinks this an advantage. He believes that all the Appen- 
dixes were written by Confucius, and combine with the 
text to form one harmonious work ; and he is glad to have 
the sentiments of ' the three s^es ' brought together. But 
I now perceived that the composition of the Text and of 
the Appendixes, allowing the Confucian authorship of the 
latter, was separated by about 700 years, and that their 
subject-matter was often incongruous. My first step 
towards a right understanding of the Yl was to study the 
Text by itself and as complete in itself. It was easy to 



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XIV PREFACE. 



do this because the imperial edition of 17 15, with all its 
critical apparatus, keeps the Text and the Appendixes 
separate. 

The wisdom of the course thus adopted became more 
apparent by the formation of eight different concordances, 
one for the Text, and one for each of the Appendixes. 
They showed that many characters in the Appendixes, 
and those especially which most readily occur to sino- 
logists as characteristic of the Yl, are not to be found 
in the Text at all. A fuller acquaintance, moreover, with 
the tone and style of the Appendixes satisfied me that 
while we had sufficient evidence that the greater part of 
them was not from Confucius, we had no evidence that 
any part was his, unless it might be the paragraphs intro- 
duced by the compiler or compilers as sayings of 'the 
Master.' 

Studying the Text in the manner thus described, I soon 
arrived at the view of the meaning and object of the Yt, 
which I have described in the second chapter of the Intro- 
duction ; and I was delighted to find that there was a 
substantial agreement between my interpretations of the 
hexagrams and their several lines and those given by the 
most noted commentators from the Han dyn2isty down to 
the present. They have not formulated the scheme so con- 
cisely as I have done, and they were fettered by their belief 
in the Confucian authorship of the Appendixes ; but they 
held the same general opinion, and were similarly controlled 
by it in construing the Text. Any sinologist who will 
examine the Yii Kih Zah ^iang Yl King ATieh t, prepared 
by one of the departments of the Han Lin college, and 
published in 168a, and which I have called the 'Daily 
Lessons,' or ' Lectures,' will see the agreement between my 
views and those underlying its paraphrase. 

After the clue to the meaning of the Y! was discovered, 
there remained the difficulty of translating. The pecu- 
liarity of its style makes it the most difficult of all the 
Confucian classics to present in an intelligible version. 
I suppose that there are sinologists who will continue, for 
a time at least, to maintain that it was intended by its 



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PREFACE. XV 



author or authors, whoever they were, merely as a book of 
divination ; and of course the oracles of divination were 
designedly wrapped up in mysterious phraseology. But 
notwithstanding the account of the origin of the book and 
its composition by king Wan and his son, which I have 
seen reason to adopt, they, its authors, had to write after 
the manner of diviners. There is hardly another work in 
the ancient literature of China that presents the same 
difficulties to the translator. 

When I made my first translation of it in 1854, I endea- 
voured to be as concise in my English as the original 
Chinese was. Much of what I wrote was made up, in 
consequence, of so many English words, with little or no 
mark of syntactical connexion. I followed in this the 
example of P. Regis and his coadjutors (Introduction, 
page 9) in their Latin version. But their version is all but 
unintelligible, and mine was not less so. How to surmount 
this difficulty occurred to me after I had found the clue 
to the interpretation ; — in a fact which I had unconsciously 
acted on in all my translations of other classics, namely, 
that the written characters of the Chinese are not repre- 
sentations of words, but symbols of ideas, and that the 
combination of them in composition is not a representation 
of what the writer would say, but of what he thinks. It is 
vain therefore for a translator to attempt a literal version. 
When the symbolic characters have brought his mind en 
rapport with that of his author, he is free to render the 
ideas in his own or any other speech in the best manner 
that he can attain to. This is the rule which Mencius 
followed in interpreting the old poems of his country : — 
'We must try with our thoughts to meet the scope of 
a sentence, and then we shall apprehend it.' In the study 
of a Chinese classical book there is not so much an inter- 
pretation of the characters employed by the writer as a 
participation of his thoughts ; — there is the seeing of mind 
to mind. The canon hence derived for a translator is not 
one of license. It will be his object to express the meaning 
of the original as exactly and concisely as possible. But 
it will be necessary for him to introduce a word or two 



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XVI PREFACE. 



now and then to indicate what the mind of the writer 
supplied for itself. What I have done in this way will 
generally be seen enclosed in parentheses, though I 
queried whether I might not dispense with them, as there 
is nothing in the English version which was not, I believe, 
present in the writer's thought. I hope, however, that I 
have been able in this way to make the translation intel- 
ligible to readers. If, after all, they shall conclude that 
in what is said on the hexagrams there is often 'much 
ado about nothing,' it is not the translator who should be 
deemed accountable for that, but his original. 

I had intended to append to the volume translations of 
certain chapters from Kit Hst and other writers of the Sung 
dynasty ; but this purpose could not be carried into effect 
for want of space. It w£is found necessary to accompany 
the version with a running commentary, illustrating the 
way in which the teachings of king Wan and his son are 
supposed to be drawn from the figures and their several 
lines ; and my difficulty was to keep the single Yl within 
the limits of one volume. Those intended translations 
therefore are reserved for another opportunity ; and indeed, 
the Sung philosophy did not grow out of the Yt proper, 
but from the Appendixes to it, and especially from the third 
of them. It is more T&oistic than Confucian. 

When I first took the Yt in hand, there existed no trans- 
lation of it in any western language but that of P. Regis 
and his coadjutors, which I have mentioned above and in 
various places of the Introduction. The authors were all 
sinologists of great attainments ; and their view of the Text 
as relating to the transactions between the founders of the 
Kku dynasty and the last sovereign of the Shang or Yin, 
and capable of being illustrated historically, though too 
narrow, w£is an approximation to the truth. The late 
M. Mohl, who had edited the work in 1834, said to me 
once, ' I like it ; for I come to it out of a sea of mist, and 
find solid ground.' No sufficient distinction was made in it, 
however, between the Text and the Appendixes ; and in dis- 
cussing the third and following Appendixes the translators 



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PREFACE. XVn 



\ 



were haunted by the name and shade of Confucius. To 
the excessive literalness of the version I have referred 
above. 

In 1876 the Rev. Canon McClatchie, M. A., published a 
version at Shanghai with the title, ' A Translation of the 
Confucian Yi King, or the " Classic of Changes," with 
Notes and Appendix.' . This embraces both the Text 
and the Appendixes, the first, second, and fourth of the 
latter being interspersed along with the Text, as in the 
ordinary school editions of the classic. So far as I can 
judge from his language, he does not appear to be aware 
that the first and second Appendixes were not the work 
of king Win and the duke of K&u, but of a subsequent 
writer — he would say of Confucius — explaining their expla- 
nations of the entire hexagrams and their several lines. 
His own special object was ' to open the mysteries of the 
Y! by applying to it the key of Comparative Mythology.' 
Such a key was not necessary ; and the author, by the 
application of it, has found sundry things to which I have 
occasionally referred in my notes. They are not pleasant 
to look at or dwell upon ; and happily it has never entered 
into the minds of Chinese scholars to conceive of them. I 
have followed Canon McClatchie's translation from para- 
graph to paragraph and from sentence to sentence, but 
found nothing which I could employ with advantsige in 
my own. 

Long after my translation had been completed, and that 
of the Text indeed was printed, I received from Shanghai 
the third volume of P. Angelo Zottoli's ' Cursus Littera- 
turae Sinicae,' which had appeared in 1880, About 100 
pages of it are occupied with the Yt. The Latin version is 
a great improvement on that in the work of Regis ; but 
P. Zottoli translates only the Text of the first two hexagrams, 
with the portions of the first, second, and fourth Appendixes 
relating to them ; and other six hexagrams with the expla- 
nations of king W5n's Thwan and of the Great Symbolism. 
Of the remaining fifty-six hexagrams only the briefest 
summary is given ; and then follow the Appendixes III, V, 
VI, and VII at length. The author has done his work well. 
[16] ' b 



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XVIU PREFACE. 



His general view of the YJ is stated in the following sen- 
tences: — 'Ex Ffl-hsi figuriSjWSn regis definitionibus, ATAu 
ducis symbolis, et Confucii commentariis, Liber conficitur, 
qui a mutationibus, quas duo elementa in hexagrammatum 
compositione inducunt, Yi (Mutator) vel Y! King (Muta- 
tionum Liber) appellatur. Quid igitur tandem famosus 
iste Yt King? Paucis accipe: .ex linearum qualitate 
continua vel intercisa ; earumque situ, imo, medio, vel 
supremo; mutuaque ipsarum relatione, occursu, dissidio, 
convenientia ; ex ipso scilicet trigrammatum corpore seu 
forma, tum ex trigrammatum symbolo seu imagine, tum ex 
trigrammatum proprietate seu virtute, tum etiam aliquando 
ex unius ad alterum hexagramma varietate, eruitur aliqua 
imago, deducitur aliqua sententia, quoddam veluti ora- 
culum continens, quod sorte etiam consulere possis ad 
documentum obtinendum, moderandae vitae solvendove 
dubio consentaneum. Ita liber juxta Confucii explica- 
tionem in scholis tradi solitam. Nil igitur sublime aut 
mysteriosum, nil foedum aut vile hie quaeras; argutulum 
potius lusum ibi video ad instructiones morales politicas- 
que eliciendas, ut ad satietatem usque in Sinicis passim 
classicis, obvias, planas, naturales ; tantum, cum liber iste, 
ut integrum legenti textum facile patebit, ad sortilegii usum 
deductus fuerit, per ipsum jam summum homo obtinebit 
vitae beneficium, arcanam cum spiritibus communicationem 
secretamque futurorum eventuum cognitionem; theurgus 
igitur visus est iste liber, totus lux, totus spiritus, hominis- 
que vitae accommodatissimus ; indeque laudes a Confucio 
ei tributas, prorsus exaggeratas, in hujus libri praesertim 
appendice videre erit, si vere tamen, ut communis fert 
opinio, ipse sit hujus appendicis auctor.' 

There has been a report for two or three years of a new 
translation of the Yl, or at least of a part of it, as being in 
preparation by M. Terrien de Lacouperie, and Professor R. 
K. Douglas of the British Museum and King's College, 
London. I have alluded on pages 8, 9 of the Introduction 
to some inaccurate statements about native commentaries 
on the Yi and translations of it by foreigners, made in con- 
nexion with this contemplated version. But I did not know 



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PREFACE, XIX 



what the projected undertaking really was, till I read a letter 
from M.Terrien in the 'Athenaeum' of the aist January 
of this year. He there says that the joint translation ' deals 
only with the oldest part of the book, the short lists of 
characters which follow each of the sixty-four headings, 
•and leaves entirely aside the explanations and commen- 
taries attributed to Wen Wang, ATAu Kung, Confucius, and 
others, from 1200 B. C. downwards, which are commonly 
embodied as an integral part of the classic ; ' adding, ' The 
proportion of the primitive text to these additions is about 
one-sixth of the whole,' But if we take away these expla- 
nations and commentaries attributed to king WSn, the duke 
of KSiU, and Confucius, we take away the whole Yl. There 
remain only the linear figures attributed to Ffl-hst, without 
any lists of characters, long or short, without a single 
written character of any kind whatever. The 
projectors have been misled somehow about the contents 
of the Yl ; and unless they can overthrow all the traditions 
and beliefs about them, whether Chinese or foreign, their 
undertaking is more hopeless than the task laid on the 
children of Israel by Pharaoh, that they should make bricks 
without straw. 

I do not express myself thus in any spirit of hostility. 
If, by discoveries in Accadian or any other long-buried and 
forgotten language, M. Terrien de Lacouperie can throw new 
light on the written characters of China or on its speech, 
no one will rejoice more than myself ; but his ignorance of 
how the contents of the classic are made up does not give 
much prospect of success in his promised translation. 

In the preface to the third volume of these 'Sacred 
Books of the East,' containing the ShO King, Shi h King, 
and Hsi4o King, I have spoken of the Chinese terms Tl 
and Shang Ti, and shown how I felt it necessary to con- 
tinue to render them by our word God, as I had done in 
all my translations of the Chinese classics since 1861. My 
doing so gave offence to some of the missionaries in China 
and others ; and in June, 1880, twenty-three gentlemen 
addressed a letter to Professor F. Max Muller, complaining 

b 2 



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XX PREFACE. 

that, in such a work edited by him, he should allow me to 
give my own private interpretation of the name or names in 
question instead of translating them or transferring them. 
Professor Miiller published the letter which he had received, 
with his reply to it, in the 'Times' newspaper of Dec. 30, 
1880, Since then the matter has rested, and I introduce it 
again here in this preface, because, though we do not meet 
with the name in the Yt so frequently as in the Sh(i and 
Shih, I have, as before, wherever it does occur, translated 
it by God. Those who object to that term say that 
Shang Ti might be rendered by 'Supreme Ruler' or 
' Supreme Emperor,' or by ' Ruler (or Emperor) on high ;' 
but when I examined the question, more than thirty years 
ago, with all possible interest and all the resources at my 
command, I came to the conclusions that Ti, on its first "^ 
employment by the Chinese fathers, was intended to ex- ^ 
press the same concept which our fathers expressed by God,' 
and that such has been its highest and proper application ^ 
ever since. There would be little if any difference in the 
meaning conveyed to readers by 'Supreme Ruler' and 
'God ;' but when I render Tt by God and Shang Tt by 
the Supreme God, or, for the sake of brevity, simply by 
God, I am translating, and not giving a private inter- 
pretation of my own. I do it not in the interests of con- 
troversy, but as the simple expression of what to me is 
truth ; and I am glad to know that a great majority of 
the Protestant missionaries in China use Ti and Shang 
Ti as the nearest analogue for God. 

It would be tedious to mention the many critical editions 
and commentaries that I have used in preparing the trans- 
lation. I have not had the help of able native scholars, 
which saved time and was otherwise valuable when I was 
working in the East on other classics. The want of this, 
however, has been more than compensated in some respects 
by my copy of the ' Daily Lectures on the Yi,' the full title 
of which is given on page xiv. The friend who purchased 
it for me five years ago in Canton was obliged to content 
himself with a second-hand copy; but I found that the 



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PREFACE. XXI 

previous owner had been a ripe scholar who freely used his 
pencil in pursuing his studies. It was possible, from his 
punctuation, interlineations, and many marginal notes, to 
follow the exercises of his mind, patiently pursuing his 
search for the meaning of the most difficult passages. I am 
under great obligations to him ; and also to the Kku Yt 
Keh Kang, the great imperial edition of the present 
dynasty, first published in 1715. I have generally spoken 
of its authors as the Khang-hsl editors. Their numerous 
discussions of the meaning, and ingenious decisions, go far 
to raise the interpretation of the Yl to a science. 

J. L. 

Oxford, 
i6th March, 1883. 



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THE Yl KING 

OR 

BOOK OF CHANGES. 



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THE Yl KING 

OR 

BOOK OF CHANGES. 



INTRODUCTION. 

Chapter I. 

The Yt King from the Twelfth Century b.c. to 
THE Commencement of the Christian Era. 

I. Confucius is reported to have said on one occasion, ' If 

some years were added to my life, I would give fifty to the 

study of the Yi, and might then escape falling 

lacrc W3.S a _ rw^i • 

VI in the time mto great errors'. The utterance is re- 
of Confucius, fen-ed ^y ^^e best critics to the closing period 
of Confucius' life, when he had returned from his long and 
painful wanderings among the States, and was settled 
again in his native Lfi. By this time he was nearly seventy, 
and it seems strange, if he spoke seriously, that he should have 
thought it possible for his life to be prolonged other fifty years. 
So far as that specification is concerned, a corruption of the 
text is generally admitted. My reason for adducing the 
passage has simply been to prove from it the existence of 
a Yi King in the time of Confucius. In the history of him 
by Sze-m4 Khxtn it is stated that, in the closing years of his 
life, he became fond of the Yi, and wrote various appendixes 
to it, that he read his copy of it so much that the leathern 
thongs (by which the tablets containing it were bound 
together) were thrice worn out, and that he said, 'Give 
me several years (more), and I should be master of the 
YJ V The ancient books on which Confucius had delighted 

' Confucian Analects, VII, xvi. 
' The Historical Records; Life of Confucius, p. 12. 
[16] B 



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THE Vt KING. CH, I. 



to discourse with his disciples were those of History, 
Poetry, and Rites and Ceremonies * ; but ere he passed 
away from among them, his attention was much occupied 
' also by the Yi as a monument of antiquity, which in the 
prime of his days he had too much neglected. 

2. A'^ien says that Confucius wrote various appendixes 

to the Yt, specifying all but two of the treatises, which go 

r^^ ,r.. by the name of 'the Ten Appendixes,' and 

The YI IS now ■' ,. . '^. 

made np of are. With hardly a dissentient voice, attributed 

ConfaSw t° *e sage. They are published along with 

and the Ap- the older Text, which is based on still older 

crTbed'to^him, lineal figures, and are received by most Chinese 

readers, as well as by foreign Chinese scholars, 

as an integral portion of the Yt King. The two portions 

should, however, be carefully distinguished. I will speak of 

them as the Text and the Appendixes. 

3. The Yt happily escaped the fires of 3hin, which proved 
so disastrous to most of the ancient literature of China in 

The Yt ^'^' *'3' ^" *^® memorial which the premier 

caped the fires LI Sze addressed to his sovereign, advising 

ofShui. ^^^^ ^i^g qJj books should be consigned to 

the flames, an exception was made of those which treated 

of 'medicine, divination, and husbandry*.' The Yl was 

held to be a book of divination, and so was preserved. 

In the catalogue of works in the imperial library, pre- 
pared by LiCl Hin about the beginning of our era, there 
is an enumeration of those on the Yi and its Appendixes, — 
the books of thirteen different authors or schools, com- 
prehended in 294 portions of larger or smaller dimensions'. 
I need not follow the history and study of the Yl into the 
line of the centuries since the time of Lift Hin. The imperial 
Khang-hsi edition of it, which appeared in 1715, contains 
quotations from the commentaries of a 18 scholars, covering, 
more or less closely, the time from the second century B. c. 
to our seventeenth century. I may venture to say that 

' Analects, VII, xvii. 

• Liegge'i Chinese Classics, I, prolegomena, pp. 6-9. 

' Books of the Earlier Han; History of Literature, pp. l, a. 



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CH. I. INTRODUCTION. 



those ai8 are hardly a tenth of the men who have tried 

to interpret the remarkable book, and solve the many 

problems to which it gives rise. 

4. It may be assumed then that the Yi King, properly 

so called, existed before Confucius, and has 
The Y! before , ^ , . 

Confucius, come down to us as correctly as any other 

and when it ^f t^e ancient books of China ; and it might , 

was made. ° / 

also be said, as correctly as any of the old^ 
monuments of Hebrew, Sanskrit, Greek, or Latin literature. 
The question arises of how far before Confucius we can 
trace its existence. Of course an inquiry into this point 
will not include the portions or appendixes attributed to 
the sage himself. Attention will be called to them by and 
by, when I shall consider how far we are entitled, or whether 
we are at all entitled, to ascribe them to him. I do not 
doubt, however, that they belong to what may be called 
the Confucian period, and were produced some time after 
his death, probably between B.C. 450 and 350. By whom- 
soever they were written, they may be legitimately em- 
ployed in illustration of what were the prevailing views in 
that age on various points connected with the Yi. Indeed, 
but for the guidance and hints derived from them as to the 
meaning of the text, and the relation between its statements 
and the linear figures, there would be great difficulty in 
making out any consistent interpretation of it. 

(i) The earliest mention of the classic is found in the 
The V! men- Official Book of the AT&u dynasty, where it 
Offidll's^k '5 ^'^ *^*' among the duties of ' the Grand 
of JTiu. Diviner,' 'he had charge of the rules for the 
three Yl (systems of Changes), called the Lien-shan, the 
Kwet-jhang,and the Yt oiKka ; that in each of them the 
regular (or primary) lineal figures were 8, which were mul- 
tiplied, in each, till they amounted to 64.' The date of the 
Official Book has not been exactly ascertained. The above 
passage can hardly be reconciled with the opinion of the 
majority of Chinese critics that it was the work of the duke of 
AT&u, the consolidatorand legislator of the dynasty so called ; 
but I think there must have been the groundwork of it at a 
very early date. When that was composed or compiled, there 

B 2 



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THE yJ king. CH. I. 



was existing, among the archives of the kingdom, under the 
charge of a high officer, 'the Yl of ATdu,' — what constitutes 
the Text of the present Yt; the Text, that is, as distinguished 
from the Appendixes. There were two other Yt, known 
as the Lien-shanand the Kwei-jhang. It would be 
a waste of time to try to discover the meaning of these 
designations. They are found in this and another passage 
of the Official Book ; and nowhere else. Not a single trace 
of what they denoted remains, while we possess ' the Yi 
of Kku ' complete ', 

(ii) In the Supplement of 3° K/ii(\-ming to ' the Spring 
The Yl men- ^^'^ Autumn,' there is abundant evidence that 
tioned in the divination by the Yt was frequent, throughout 
wan. ^j^^ states of China, before the time of Con- 
fucius. There are at least eight narratives of such a 
practice, between the years B.C. 672 and 564, before he 
was born ; and five times during his life-time the divining 
stalks and the book were had recourse to on occasions with 
which he had nothing to do. In all these cases the text 
of the Yt, as we have it now, is freely quoted. The 'Spring 
and Autumn' commences in B.C. 722. If it extended back 
to the rise of the Kku dynasty, we should, no doubt, find 



' See the Kkn Kwan (or Lt), Book XXIV, parr. 3, 4, and 27. Biot (Le 
Tcheou Lt, vol. ii, pp. 70, 71) translates the former two paragraphs thus: — 
' 11 (Le Grand Augure) est pr^pos^ aux trois methodes pour les changements 
(des lignes .divinatoires). La premiere est appeMe Liaison des montagnes 
(Lien-shan) ; la seconde, Retour et Conservation (Kwei-jhang) ; la troisi^me, 
Changements des Kin. Pour toutes il y a huit lignes symboliques sacrto, et 
soixante-quatre combinaisons de ces lignes.' 

Some tell us that by Lien-shan was intended Ffl-hst, and by Kwei-jhang 
Hwang T1-; others, that the former was the Yt of the Hsi4 dynasty, and the 
latter that of Shang or Yin. A third set will have it that Lien-shan was a 
designation of Shin Ning, between Ffl-hst and Hwang Tt. I should say myself, 
as many Chinese critics do say, that Lien-shan was an arrangement of the lineal 

symbols in which the first figure was the present 5ind hexagram, Kin —~ . 

consisting of the trigram representing mountains doubled ; and that Kwei- 
jhang was an arrangement where the first figure was the present 2nd hexagram, 

Khw&n z^ ^3 , consisting of the trigram representing the earth doubled, — 

with reference to the disappearance and safe keeping of plants in the bosom of 
the earth in winter. All this, however, is only conjecture. 



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CH. I. INTRODUCTION. 



accounts of divination by the Yt interspersed over the long 
intervening period. For centuries before Confucius appeared 
on the stage of his country, the Yt was well known among 
the various feudal states, which then constituted the Middle 
Kingdom '. 

(iii) We may now look into one of the Appendixes for 
its testimony to the age and authorship of the Text. The 
third Appendix is the longest, and the most important*. In 
the 49th paragraph of the second Section of it it is said : — 

' Was it not in the middle period of antiquity that the Yl began 
to flourish ? Was not he who made it (or were not they who made 
it) familiar with anxiety and calamity?' 

The highest antiquity commences, according to Chinese 
writers, with FO-hst, B.C. 332a; and the lowest with Con- 
fucius in the middle of the sixth century B.C. Between 
these is the period of middle antiquity, extending a com- 
paratively short time, from the rise of the A'clu dynasty, 
towards the close of the twelfth century B.C., to the Con- 
fucian era. According to this paragraph it was in this 
period that our Yt was made. 

The 69th paragraph is still more definite in its testimony: — 

' Was it not in the last age of the Yin (dynasty), when the virtue 
of A'au had reached its highest point, and during the troubles be- 
tween king Win and (the tyrant) Aau, that (the study of) the Yl 
began to flourish ? On this account the explanations (in the book) 
express (a feeling of) anxious apprehension, (and teach) how peril 
may be turned into security, and easy carelessness is sure to meet 
with overthrow.' 

The dynasty of Yin was superseded by that of Kk\x in 
B.C. II aa. The founder of KAu was he whom we call king 
Win, though he himself never occupied the throne. The 

' See in the 3o if*wan, under the ajnd year of duke X^wang (b.c. 672) ; the 
1st year of Min (661); and in his 2nd year (660) ; twice in the 15th year of 
Hs{ (64s) ; his 25th year (635) ; the 1 2th year of Hsiian (597) ; the l6th year 
of Kkiag (575) ; the 9th year of Hsiang (564) ; his 25th year (548) ; the fth 
year ol K)iio (537) ; his 7th year (535) ; his 12th year (530) ; and the 9th year 
of Ai(486). 

* That is, the third as it appears farther on in this volume in two Sections. 
With the Chinese critics it forms the fifth and sixth Appendixes, or ■ Wings,' 
as they are termed. 



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THE y{ king. CH. I. 



troubles between him and the last sovereign of Yin reached 
their height in B. c. 1 143, when the tyrant threw him 
into prison in a place called YUl-U, identified as having 
been in the present district of Thang-yin, department of 
/Tang-teh, province of Ho-nan. WSn was not kept long in 
confinement. His friends succeeded in appeasing the 
jealousy of his enemy, and securing his liberation in the 
following year. It follows that the Yi, so far as we owe 
it to king WSn, was made in the year B.C. 1143 or 1142, 
or perhaps that it was begun in the former year and finished 
in the latter '. 

But the part which is thus ascribed to king WSn is only 
a small portion of the Yt. A larger share is attributed to 
his son Tan, known as the duke of ATAu, and in it we have 
allusions to king Wfl, who succeeded his father WSn, and 
was really the first sovereign of the dynasty of ATdu*. 
There are passages, moreover, which must be understood 
of events in the early years of the next reign. But the 
duke of /sTiu died in the year B. C. 1 105, the i ith of 
king KA&ng. A few years then before that time, in the 
last decade of the twelfth century B.C., the Yl King, as it 
has come down to us, was complete '. 

5. We have thus traced the text of the YJ to its authors, 
the famous king W5n in the year 1143 B. c, and his 
equally famous son, the duke of Kku, in between thirty and 

The Yt is not forty years later. It can thus boast of a 
the most great antiquity; but a general opinion has 

the Chinese prevailed that it belonged to a period still 
books. more distant. Only two translations of it have 
been made by European scholars. The first was executed by 
Regis and other Roman Catholic missionaries in the ban- 
ning of last century, though it was given to the public only 

• Sze-m& KUtn (History of the KStn Dynasty, p. 3) relates that, ' when he was 
confined in YQ-lt,Win increased the 8 trigrams to 64 hexagtams.' 

' E.g., hexagrams XVII, 1. 6; XLVI, 1. 4. Tan's authorship of the symbolism 
is recognised in the 3o Khytan, B.C. 540. 

' P. Regis (vol. ii, p. 379) says : ' Vel nihil vel param errabit qui dicet opus 
Yt King fuisse perfectum anno quinto JTAingWang, seu anno 1109 aut non 
ultra annum 1108, ante aerae Christianae initinm; quod satis in rebus ncm 
omnino certis.' But the fifth year of king Kking was b. c. 1 1 1 1 . 



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CH. I, INTRODUCTION. 



in 1834 by the late Jules Mohl, with a title commencing ' Y- 
King, antiquissimus Sinarum liber'.' The language of the 
other European translator of it, the Rev. Canon McClatchie 
of ShanghcLi, whose work appeared in 1876, is still more 
decided. The first sentence of his Introduction contains 
two very serious misstatements, but I have at present 
to do only with the former of them ; — that ' the Yi King 
is regarded by the Chinese with peculiar veneration, .... as 
being the most ancient of their classical writings.' The 
ShQ is the oldest of the Chinese classics, and contains 
documents more than a thousand years earlier than king 
Wan. Several pieces of the Shih King are also older than 
anything in the Yt ; to which there can thus be assigned only 
the third place in point of age among the monuments of 
Chinese literature. Existing, however, about 3000 years ago, 
it cannot be called modem. Unless it be the books of the 
Pentateuch, Joshua, and Judges, an equal antiquity cannot 
be claimed for any portion of our Sacred Scriptures. 

It will be well to observe here also how much older the 
The Text Text is than the Appendixes. Supposing 

"th^tht" t^^*" t° ^ ^^^ ^^'"'^ °f ConAicius, though 
Appendixes, it will appear by and by that this assumption 

' It has been suggested that 'Antiquissimus Sinarum liber' may mean only 
' A very ancient book of the Chinese,' but the first sentence of the Preface to 
the work commences : — ' Inter omnes constat librorum Sinicorum, quos classicos 
vocant, primnm et antiquissimum esse Y-King.' 

At the end of M. De Gnignes' edition of P. Gaubil's translation of the Shfi, there 
is a notice of the Yl King sent in 1 738 to the Cardinals of the Congregation d e 
Propaganda Fide by M. Claude Visdelon, Bishop of Claudiopolis. M. De 
Guignes says himself, 'L' Y-King est le premier des Livres Canoniques des 
Chinois.' But P. Visdelou writes more guardedly and correctly : — ' Pour son 
anciennet^. s'il en faut croire les Annates des Chinois, il a ^t^ commence 
quarantc-six siicles avant celui-ci. Si cela est vrai, comme toute la nation 
Tavoue onanimement, on pent ^ juste titre I'appeler le plus ancien des livres.' 
But he adds, 'Ce n'^toit pas proprement un livre, ni quelqne chose d'approchant ; 
c'^toit une ^nigme tr^ obscure, et plus difficile cent Ibis k expliqner que celle 
du sphinx.' 

P. Couplet expresses himself much to the same effect in the prolegomena 
(p. xviii) to the work called 'Confucius Sinarum PhUosophus,' published at 
Paris in 1687 by himself and three other fathers of the Society of Jesus (Inter- 
cetta, Herdritch, and Rougemont). Both they and P. Visdelou give an example 
of a portion of the text and its interpretation, having singularly selected the 
came hexagram, — the 15th, on Humility. 



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8 THE Vt KING. 



CH. I. 



can be received as only partially correct, if indeed it be 
received at all, the sage could not have entered on their 
composition earlier than B.C. 483, 660 years later than the 
portion of the text that came from king Wan, and nearly 630 
later than what we owe to the duke of ATiu. But during 
that long period of between six and seven centuries changes 
may have arisen in the views taken by thinking men of 
the method and manner of the Yt ; and I cannot accept 
the Text and the Appendixes as forming one work in any 
proper sense of the term. Nothing has prevented the full 
understanding of both, so far as parts of the latter can be 
understood, so much sis the blending of them together, which 
originated with PI Kih of the first Han dynasty. The 
common editions of the book have five of the Appendixes 
(as they are ordinarily reckoned) broken up and printed 
side by side with the Text; and the confusion thence 
arising has made it difficult, through the intermixture of 
incongruous ideas, for foreign students to lay hold of the 
meaning. 

6. Native scholars have of course been well aware of the 
difference in time between the appearance of the Text and 
Labours of the Appendixes; and in the Khang-hst edition 
schoUre'on °^ them the two are printed separately, 
the Yt. Only now and then, however, has any critic 
ventured to doubt that the two parts formed one homo- 
geneous whole, or that all the appendixes were from the 
style or pencil of Confucius. Hundreds of them have 
brought a wonderful and consistent meaning out of the 
Text ; but to find in it or in the Appendixes what is un- 
reasonable, or any inconsistency between them, would be 
to impeach the infallibility of Confucius, and stamp on 
themselves the brand of heterodoxy. 
At the same time it is an unfair description of what 
AnimDerfect ^^^^ have accomplished to say, as has 
description of been done lately, that since the fires of 
t eir a ours, ^j^j^^ <(.jjg foremost scholars of each gene- 
ration have edited the Text (meaning both the Text and 
the Appendixes), and heaped commentary after commen- 
tary upon it ; and one and all have arrived at the somewhat 



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CH. II. INTRODUCTION. 



lame conclusion that its full significance is past finding out\' 
A multitude of the native commentaries are of the highest 
value, and have left little to be done for the elucidation 
of the Text ; and if they say that a passage in an Appendix 
is 'unfathomable' or 'incalculable,' it is because their authors 
shrink from allowing, even to themselves, that the ancient 
sages intermeddled, and intermeddled unwisely, with things 
too high for them. 

When the same writer who thus speaks of native 

scholars goes on to say that 'in the same way a host 

Erroneous of European Chinese scholars have made 

labours of translations of the YJ, and have, if possible, 

European made confusion worse confounded,' he only 

Chinese ' 

scholars. shows how imperfectly he had made himself 
acquainted with the subject. 'The host of European 
Chinese scholars who have made translations of the Yl' 
amount to two, — the same two mentioned by me above 
on pp. 6, 7. The translation of Regis and his coadjutors * 
is indeed capable of improvement ; but their work as a 
whole, and especially the prolegomena, dissertations, and 
notes, supply a mass of correct and valuable information. 
They had nearly succeeded in unravelling the confusion, 
and solving the enigma of the Yi. 

Chapter II. 

The Subject-matter of the Text. The Lineal 
Figures and the Explanation of them. 

I. Having described the Yl King as consisting of a text 
in explanation of certain lineal figures, and of appendixes 
to it, and having traced the composition of the former to 

■ See a communication on certain new views about the Y! in the 'Times' of 
April 30, 1880; reprinted in Triibner's American, European, and Oriental 
Literary Record, New Series, vol. i, pp. 125-137. 

• Regis' coadjutors in the work were the Fathers Joseph de Mailla, who 
turned the Chinese into Latin word for word, and compared the result with the 
ManHu version of theYt; and Peter du Tartre, whose principal business was 
to supply the historical illustrations. Regis himself revised all their work and 
enlarged it, adding his own dissertations and notes. See Prospectus Operis, 
immediately after M. Mohl's Preface. 



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lO THE y! king. 



CH. II. 



its authors in the ^welftb -^i«rtuty-B>C.. and that of the latter 

to between six and seven centuries later at least, I proceed 

to give an account of what we find in the Text, and how it 

is deduced from the figures. 

The subject-matter of the Text may be briefly repre- 

^ ,„ sented as consisting of sixty-four short essays, 

The Yt con- . . „ ..,.,. , 

sists of essays enigmatically and symbolically expressed, on 

based onhneal important themes, mostly of a moral, social, 
and political character, and based on the same 
number of lineal figures, each made up of six lines, some 
of which are whole and the others divided. 

The first two and the last two may serve for the present 

as a specimen of those figures : . = = j and . 

— — ^ The Text says nothing about their origin and 

formation. There they are. King Wan takes them up, 
one after another, in the order that suits himself, deter- 
mined, evidently, by the contrast in the lines of each 
successive pair of hexagrams, and gives" their significance, 
as a whole, with some indication, perhaps, of the action 
to be taken in the circumstances which he supposes 
them to symbolise, and whether that action will be 
lucky or unlucky. Then the duke of ATiLu, beginning 
with the first or bottom line, expresses, by means of a 
symbolical or emblematical illustration, the significance of 
each line, with a similar indication of the good or bad 
fortune of action taken in connexion with it. The king's 
interpretation of the whole hexagram will be found to be 
in harmony with the combined significance of the six lines 
as interpreted by his son. 

Both of them, no doubt, were familiar with the practice 
of divination which had prevailed in China for more than 
a thousand years, and would copy closely its methods and 
style. They were not divining themselves, but their words 
became oracles to subsequent ages, when men divined by 
the hexagrams, and sought by means of what was said 
under them to ascertain how it would be with them in the 

■ See Plate I at the end of the Introductioa. 



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CH. II. INTRODUCTION, 1 1 

future, and learn whether they should persevere in or with- 
draw from the courses they were intending to pursue. 

3. I will give an instance of the lessons which the lineal 
figures are made to teach, but before I do so, it will be 

The origin of necessary to relate what is said of their origin, 
the lineal and of the rules observed in studying and 
^'^*' interpreting them. For information on these 
points we must have recourse to the Appendixes ; and in reply 
to the question by whom and in what way the figures were 
formed, the third, of which we made use in the last chapter, 
supplies us with three different answers. 

(i) The I ith paragraph of Section ii says : — 

'Anciently, when the rule of all under heaven was in the hands 
of Pio-hsl, looking up, he contemplated the brilliant forms exhibited 
in the sky ; and looking down, he surveyed the patterns shown on 
the earth. He marked the ornamental appearances on birds and 
beasts, and the (different) suitabilities of the soil. Near at hand, in 
his own person, he found things for consideration, and the same 
at a distance, in things in general. On this he devised the eight 
lineal figures of three lines each, to exhibit fully the spirit-like and 
intelligent operations (in nature), and to classify the qualities of the 
myriads of tfiings.' . 

Pdo-hsl is another name for Fd-hsi, the most ancient 
personage who is mentioned with any definiteness in Chinese 
history, while much that is fabulous is current about him. 
His place in chronology begins in B.C. 332a, 5203 years 
ago. He appears in this paragraph as the deviser of the 
eight kwd or trigrams. The processes by which he was 
led to form them, and the purposes which he intended 
them to serve, are described, but in vague and general 
terms that do not satisfy our, curiosity. The ej^t figures,^ 
hmvever, were ' — '^ , — — '■ ='^ ' ^?- -^ • 
=-=, — = . and = =5 called >feAien, tui, II, ifeaH, 
si^, khlin, k|n, and khwSn; and representing heaven 
or the sky ; watet especially a collection oTwater as in a 
marsh or lake ; fire, the sun, lightning ; thunder ; wind and 
wood ; water, especially as in rain,^he clouds, springs, 
streams in defiles, and the moon ; a hill or mountain ; and 
the earth. To each of these figures is assigned a certain 
attribute or quality which should be suggested by the 



u^ 



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12 THE y{ king. 



CH. II. 



natural object it symbolises ; but on those attributes we 
need not enter at present. 

(ii) The 70th and 71st paragraphs of Section i give another 
account of the origin of the trigrams : — 

' In (the system of) the Yi there is the Great Extreme, which 
produced the Jwo 1 (Elementary Forms). These two Forms pro- 
duced the four^Hsiang (Emblematic Symbols); which again 
produced the eight KwS (or Trigrams). The eight. Kw4 served 
to determine the good and evil (issues of events), and from this 
determination there ensued the (prosecution of the) great business 
of life.' 

The two elementary Forms, the four emblematic Symbols, 
and the eight Trigrams can all be exhibited with what 

may be deemed certainty. A whole line ( ) and a 

divided ( ) were the two 1. These two lines placed 

over themselves, and each of them over the other, formed 

the four Htiiang! ; ; • -^^^ ^. The 

same two lines placed successively over these Hsiang, 
formed the eight Kw4, exhibited above. 

Who will undertake to say what is meant by ' the Great 
Extreme* which produced the two elementary Forms? 
Nowhere else does the name occur in the old Confucian 
literature. I have no doubt myself that it found its way into 
this Appendix in the fifth (? or fourth) century B.C. from 
a TAoist source. KCl Hst, in his ' Lessons on the Yt for the 
Young,' gives for it the figure of a circle, — thus, Q ; observing 
that he does so from the philosopher AT^u (a.D.ioi7-io73)S 
\ and cautioning his readers against thinking that such a 
(representation came from F(i-hsJ himself. To me the cir- 
cular symbol appears very unsuccessful. ' The Great Ex- 
treme,' it is said, ' divided and produced two lines, — a whole 
line and a divided line.' But I do not understand how this 
could be. Suppose it possible for the circle to unroll itself; 



' f Su-)ze, called Kku Tun-t and Jtan MSn-shuh, and, still more commonly, 
from the rivulet near which was his favourite residence, KSm Lien-Mt. Majreis 
(Chinese Reader's Manual, p. 33) says : — ' He held various offices of state, and 
was for many years at the head of a galaxy of scholars who sought for instruc- 
tion in matters of philosophy and research : — second only to K& Hsi in literary 
repute.' 



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CH. II. INTRODUCTION. 1 3 

— we shall have one long line, . If this divide 

itself, we have two whole lines ; and another division of one 
of them is necessary to give us the whole and the divided 
lines of the lineal figures. The attempt to fashion the 
Great Extreme as a circle must be pronounced a failure. 

But when we start from the two lines as bases, the 
formation of all the diagrams by a repetition of the process 
indicated above is easy. The addition to each of the 
trigrams of each of the two fundamental lines produces 
16 figures of four lines; dealt with in the same way, 
these produce 32 figjures of five lines; and a similar 
operation with these produces the 64 hexagrams, each 
of which forms the subject of an essay in the text of the 
Yl. The lines increase in an arithmetical progression whose v 
common difference is i, and the figures in a geometrical \f 
progression whose common ratio is a. This is all the • 
mystery in the formation of the lineal figures ; this, I believe, / 
was the process by which they were first formed ; and it is 
hardly necessary to imagine them to have come from a 
sage like F(i-hst. The endowments of an ordinary man 
were sufificient for such a work. It was possible even to 
shorten the operation by proceeding at once from the 
trigrams to the hexagrams, according to what we find in 
Section i, paragraph 3 : — 

'A strong and a weak line were manipulated together (till there 
were the 8 trigrams), and those 8 trigrams were added each to 
itself and to all the others (till the 64 hexagrams were formed).' 

It is a moot question who first multiplied the figures 
Who first from the trigrams universally ascribed to 

Se'S ^^-^^^ '° ^^ ^^ hexagrams of the Yl. The 
to 64? more common view is that it was king Wan ; 
but K^ Hs!, when he was questioned on the subject, rather 
inclined to hold that F{k-hst had multiplied them himself, 
but declined to say whether he thought that their names 
were as old as the figures themselves, or only dated from 
the twelfth century B.C.' I will not venture to controvert 

' fA-jze JtAwan shfl, or Digest of Works of fd-jze, chap. a6 (the first chapter 
00 the Yt), art. 16. 



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14 THE yI king. 



CH. II. 



his opinion about the multiplication of the figures, but I 
must think that the names, as we have them now, were 
from king Wan. 

No Chinese writer has tried to explain why the framers 

stopped with the 64 hexagrams, instead of going on to 

Why the 1 38 figures of 7 lines, 256 of 8, 51a of 9, and 

noTcontimiiMl ^ °^ indefinitely. No reason can be given 
after 64, for it, but the cumbrousness of fhe result, and 
the impossibility of dealing, after the manner of king W5n, 
with such a mass of figures. 

(iii) The 73rd paragraph of Section i, with but qne para- 
graph between it and the two others which we have been 
considering, gives what may be considered a third account 
of the origin of the lineal figures : — 

'Heaven produced the spirit-like things (the tortoise and the 
divining plant), and the sages took advantage of them. (The 
operations of) heaven and earth are marked by so many changes 
and transformations, and the sages imitated them (by means of the 
Yl). Heaven hangs out its (brilliant) figures, from which are seen 
good fortune and bad, and the sages made their emblematic inter- 
pretations accordingly. The Ho gave forth the scheme or map, 
and the Lo gave forth the writing, of (both of) which the sages 
took advantage.' 

The words with which we have at present to do are — 
'The Ho (that is, the Yellow River) gave forth the Map.' 
This map, according to tradition and popular belief, con- 
tained a scheme which served as a model to FCi-hsl in 
making his 8 trigrams. Apart from this passage in the 
Yi King, we know that Confucius believed in such 
a map, or spoke at least as if he did ^. In the ' Record of 
Rites' it is said that 'the map was borne by a horse*;' and 
the thing, whatever it was, is mentioned in the Shfl as still 
preserved at court, among other curiosities, in B.C. 1079". 

J The story of it, as now current, is this, that ' a dragon- 
horse ' issued from the Yellow River, bearing on its back 

■ an arrangement of marks, from which FO-hsJ got the idea 
of the trigrams. 

> Analects IX. viii. » LI Ki VIII, iv, 16. » Shfl V, xxii, 19. 



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CH. II. INTRODUCTION. 1 5 

All this is so evidently fabulous that it seems a waste 
of time to enter into any details about it. My reason for 
doing so is a wish to take advantage of the map in giving 
such a statement of the rules observed in interpreting the 
figures as is necessary in this Introduction. 

The map that was preserved, it has been seen, in the 
eleventh century B.C., afterwards perished, and though there 

The form of was much speculation about its form from the 
the River Map. tj^^e t},at the restoration of the ancient classics 
was undertaken in the Han dynasty, the first delineation 
of it given to the public was in the reign of Hui ^ung of 
the Sung dynasty (A.D. 1101-1x25)^ The most approved 
scheme of it is the following : — 

0000000 



O O 

o 000 

O O 



O 

O 

O 

O 

O 

O. 

O 

O 

O 



It will be observed that the markings, in this scheme are 
small circles, pretty nearly equally divided into dark and 
light. All of them whose numbers are odd are light circles, — 
ii3»5.7>9> and all of them whose numbers are even are 
dark, — 2,4,6, 8, 10. This is given as the origin of what is 
said in paragraphs 49 and 50 of Section i about the numbers 
of heaven and earth. The difference in the colour of the 
circles occasioned the distinction of them and of what they 

' See Mayers' Chinese Reader's Manual, pp. 56, 57. 



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1 6 THE y! king. 



CH. II. 



signify into Yin and Yang, the dark and the bright, the 
moon-like and the sun-like ; for the sun is called the Great 
Brightness (Thai Yang), and the moon the Great Ob- 
scurity (Thii Yin). I shall have more to say in the next 
chapter on the application of these names. F(i-hsl in making 
the trigrams, and king Wan, if it was he who first mul- 
tiplied them to the 64 hexagrams, found it convenient to 

use lines instead of the circles : — the whole line ( ) 

for the bright circle (O). and the divided line ( — — ) for 
the dark (#). The first, the third, and the fifth lines 
in a hexagram, if they are 'correct' as it is called, 
should all be whole, and the second, fourth, and sixth lines 
should all be divided. Yang lines are strong (or hard), 
and Yin lines are weak (or soft). The former indicate 
vigour and authority; the latter, feebleness and submis- 
sion. It is the part of the former to command ; of the 
latter to obey. 

The lines, moreover, in the two trigrams that make up 
the hexagrams, and characterise the subjects which they 
represent, are related to one another by their position, and 
have their significance modified accordingly. The first line 
and the fourth, the second and the fifth, the third and the 
sixth are all correlates ; and to make the correlation perfect 
the two members of it should be lines of different qualities, 
one whole and the other divided. And, finally, the middle 
lines of the trigrams, the second and fifth, that is, of the 
hexagrams, have a peculiar value and force. If we have 

a whole line ( ) in the fifth place, and a divided line 

(^ —) in the second, or vice versd, the correlation is com- 
plete. Let the subject of the fifth be the sovereign or a 
commander-in-chief, according to the name and meaning of 
the hexagram, then the subject of the second will be an able 
minister or a skilful officer, and the result of their mutual 
action will be most beneficial and successful. It is specially 
important to have a clear idea of the name of the hexa- 
gram, and of the subject or state which it is intended 
to denote. The significance of all the lines comes thus 
to be of various application, and will differ in different 
hexagrams. 



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CH. II. INTRODUCTION. 1 7 

I have thus endeavoured to indicate how the lineal figures 
were formed, and the principal rules laid down for the in- 
terpretation of them. The details are wearying, but my 
position is like that of one who is called on to explain an 
important monument of architecture, very bizarre in its 
conception and execution. A plainer, simpler structure 
might have answered the purpose better, but the architect 
had his reasons for the plan and style which he adopted. 
If the result of his labours be worth expounding, we must 
not grudge the study necessary to detect his processes of 
thought, nor the effort and time required to bring the minds 
of others into sympathy with his. 

My own opinion, as I have intimated, is, that the second 
account of the origin of the trigrams and hexagrams is the 
true one. However the idea of the whole and divided lines 
arose in the mind of the first framer, we must start from 
them ; and then, manipulating them in the manner de- 
scribed, we arrive, very easily, at all the lineal figures, and 
might proceed to multiply them to billions. We cannot 
tell who devised 'the third account of their formation from 
the map or scheme on the dragon-horse of the Yellow . 
River '. Its object, no doubt, was to impart a supernatural 
character to the trigrams and produce a religious veneration 
for them. It may be doubted whether the scheme as it 
is now fashioned be the correct one, — such as it was in the 
AT&u dynasty. The paragraph where it is mentioned, goes 
on to say — ' The Lo produced the writing.' This writing 
was a scheme of the same character as the Ho map, but 
on the back of a tortoise, which emerged from the river 
Lo, and showed it to the Great Yu, when he was engaged 
in his celebrated work of draining off the waters of the 
Hood, as related in the Shfl. To the hero sage it sug- 
gested 'the Great Plan,' an interesting but mystical 
document of the same classic, 'a Treatise,' according to 
Gaubil, ' of Physics, Astrology, Divination, Morals, Politics, 
and Religion,' the great model for the government of the 

' Certainly it was not Conliicius. See on the authorship of the Appen- 
dixes, and especially of Appendix III, in the next chapter. 

[i6] C 



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1 8 THE Vi KING. 



CH. II. 



kingdom. The accepted representation of this writing is 
the following : — 



OOOOOOOOO 



O 
O O O 

O 
O O O O O 

O 
O O O 

O 



o 



But substituting numbers for the number of marks, we 
have 

492 



8 I 6 

This is nothing but the arithmetical puzzle, in which 
the numbers from i to 9 are arranged so as to make 15 
in whatever way we add them ', If we had the original 
form of 'the River Map,' we should probably find it a 
numerical trifle, not more difficult, not more supernatural, 
than this magic square. 

3. Let us return to the Yt of Kiu, which, as I have said 
above on p. 10, contains, under each of the 64 hexagrams, 
a brief essay of a moral, social, or political character, sym- 
bolically expressed. 

' For this dissection, which may also be called reductio ad absurdum, of 
the Lo writing, I, was indebted first to P. Regis. See his Y-King I, p. 60. 
But KH Hst also has got it in the Appendix to his 'Lessons on the Y! for 
the Young.* 



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CH. 11. INTRODUCTION. I9 

To understand it, it will be necessary to keep in mind 

the circumstances in which king Wan addressed himself 

to the study of the lineal figures. The kingdom, under 

the sovereigns of the Yin or Shang dynasty, 
State of the .. 1 j- • j j j r j 

country in was Utterly disorganised and demoralised. 

""win''''^ A brother of the reigning king thus described 
its condition : — 

' The house of Yin can no longer exercise rule over the land. 
The great deeds of our founder were displayed in a former age, but 
through mad addiction to drink we have destroyed the effects of 
bis virtue. The people, small and great, are given to highway 
robberies, villainies, and treachery. The nobles and officers imitate 
one another in violating the laws. There is no certainty that 
criminals will be apprehended. The lesser people rise up and 
commit violent outrages on one another. The dynasty of Yin is 
sinking in ruin ; its condition is like that of one crossing a large 
stream, who can find neither ford nor bank '.' 

This miserable state of the nation was due very much to 

The character ^^^ character and tyranny of the monarch. 

of the When the son of W5n took the field against 

him, he thus denounced him in 'a Solemn 

Declaration ' addressed to all the states : — 

' ShSu, the king of Shang, treats all virtue with contemptuous 
slight, and abandons himself to wild idleness and irreverence. He 
has cut himself off from Heaven, and brought enmity between him- 
self and the people. He cut through the leg-bones of those who 
were wading in a (winter-)morning ; he cut out the heart of the 
good man '. His power has been shown in killing and murdering. 
His honours and confidence are given to the villainous and bad. 
He has driven from him his instructors and guardians. He has 
thrown to the winds the statutes and penal laws. He neglects the 
sacrifices to Heaven and Earth. He has discontinued the offerings 

' The ShO IV, xi, 1, t. 

• These were well-known instances of ShSu's wanton cruelty. Observing 
some people one winter's day wading through a stream, he ordered their legs 
to be cut through at the shank-bone, that he might see the marrow which 
could so endure the cold, 'The good roan' was a relative of his own, called 
Pi-kao. Having enraged Sh&u by the sternness of his rebukes, the tyrant 
ordered his heart to be cut out, that he might see the structure of a sage's 
heart. 

C 2 



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20 THE Vt KING. 



CH. II. 



in the ancestral temple. He makes (cruel) contrivances of won- 
derful device and extraordinary ingenuity to please his wife'. — 
God will no longer bear with him, but with a curse is sending down 
his ruin*.' 

Such wras the condition of the nation, such the character 
of the sovereign. Meanwrhile in the west of the kingdom. 

The lords of in a part of what is now the province of Shen- 
especialiy ^^st, lay the principality of ATiu, the lords of 
king Wan. which had long been distinguished for their 
ability and virtue. Its present chief, now known to us as 
king Wan, was .^^ang, who had succeeded to his father 
in B.C. 1185. He was not only lord of .^iu, but had come 
to be a sort of viceroy over a great part of the kingdom. 
Equally distinguished in peace and war, a model of all that 
was good and attractive, he conducted himself with re- 
markable wisdom and self-restraint. Princes and people 
would have rejoiced to follow him to attack the tyrant, but 
he shrank from exposing himself to the charge of being 
disloyal. At last the jealous suspicion of Shiu was aroused. 
Wan, as has been already stated, was thrown into prison in 
B.C. 1143, ^^^ the order for his death might arrive at any 
moment. Then it was that he occupied himself with the 
lineal figures. 

The use of those figures — of the trigrams at least — had 
long been practised for the purposes of divination. The 
employment of the divining stalks is indicated in 'the 
Counsels of the Great Yii,' one of the earliest Books of 
the ShO ^ and a whole section in ' the Great Plan,' also a 
Book of the ShO, and referred to the times of the Hsicl 
dynasty, describes how 'doubts were to be examined' 
by means of the tortoise-shell and the stalks *. Wan could 
not but be familiar with divination as an institution of his 



> We do not know what these contrivances were. But to please his wife, 
the infamous T4-it, ShSu had made 'the Heater' and 'the Roaster,' two 
instruments of torture. The latter was a copper pillar laid above a pit of 
burning charcoal, and made slippery ; culprits were forced to walk along it. 

' The Shu V, i. Sect, iii, 2, 3. 

» Sha H, ii. 18. • Sha V, iv, 20-31. 



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CH. II. INTRODUCTION. 2 1 

country'. Possibly it occurred to him that nothing was 
King Win more likely to lull the suspicions of his 

in prison, dangerous enemy than the study of the 
occupied with ° , .^, . , , ... 

the lineal figures ; and if his keepers took notice of what 
tigores. jjg ^^g doing, they would smile at his lines, 
and the sentences which he appended to them. 

I like to think of the lord of K§m, when incarcerated in 
YO-li, with the 64 figures arranged before him. Each hexa- 
gram assumed a mystic meaning, and glowed with a deep 
significance. He made it tell him of the qualities of various 
objects of nature, or of the principles.of human society, 
or of the condition, actual and possible, of the kingdom. He 
named the figures, each by a term descriptive of the idea ^ 
with which he had connected it in his mind, and then he pro- 
ceeded to set that idea forth, now with a note of exhortation, 
now with a note of warning. Jt w as an attempt to restrict »^ 
th£^ follies of divination within the bounds of reason. The 
last but one of the Appendixes bears the name of ' Sequence 
of the Diagrams.' I shall have to speak of it more at 
length in the next chapter. I only remark at present that 
it deals, feebly indeed, with the names of the hexagrams in 
harmony with what I have said about them, and tries to 
account for the order in which they follow one another. It 
does all this, not critically as if it needed to be established, 
but in the way of expository statement, relating that about 
which there was no doubt in the mind of the author. 

But all the work of prince ATAang or king Wan in the 
Yi thus amounts to no more than 64 short paragraphs. 

Work of the We do not know what led his son Tan to 

on°ieM!p^ate ^^^^^ '"*° ^''^ work and complete it as he 
lines. did. Tan was a patriot, a hero, a legislator, 
and a philosopher. Perhaps he took the lineal figures 
in hand as a tribute of filial duty. What had been done 
for the whole hexagram he would do for each line, and 
make it clear that all the six lines ' bent one way their 
precious influence,' and blended their rays in the globe 
of light which his father had made each figure give forth. 

• In the Book of Poetry we have VVSn's grandfather (Than-ftt, III, i, ode 3. 3) 
divining, and his son (king WQ, III, i, ode 10. 7) doing the same. 



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22 THE \i KING. 



CH. II. 



vBut his method strikes us as singular. Each line seemed 
to become living, and suggested some phenomenon in nature 
or some case of human experience, from which the wisdom 
or folly, the luckiness or unluckiness, indicated by it could 
be inferred. It cannot be said that the duke carried out 
his plan in a way likely to interest any one but a hsien 
shang who is a votary of divination, and admires the 
style of its oracles. According to our notions, a framer of 
emblems should be a good deal of a poet, but those of 
the Yt only make us think of a dryasdust. Out of more 
than 350, the greater number are only grotesque. We do 
not recover from the feeling of disappointment till we 
remember that both father and son had to write 'according 
to the trick,' after the manner of diviners, as if this lineal 
augury had been their profession. 

4. At length I come to illustrate what I have said on the 
subject-matter of the Yi by an example. It shall be the 

The seventh treatment of the seventh hexagram (=_=), 
exagram. ^j^jj.jj j^jj^g ^j„ named Sze, meaning Hosts. 
The character is also explained as meaning ' multitudes ; ' 
and in fact, in a feudal kingdom, the multitudes of the 
people were all liable to become its army, when occasion 
required, and the 'host' and the 'population' might be 
interchangeable terms. As Froude expresses it in the 
introductory chapter to his History of England, ' Every man 
w£is regimented somewhere.' 

The hexagram Sze is composed of the two trigrams 

Khan ( ) and Khwan (= =), exhibiting waters 

collected on the earth ; and in other symbolisms besides 
that of the Yt, waters indicate assembled multitudes of 
men. The waters on which the mystical Babylon sits in 
the Apocalypse are explained as ' peoples and multitudes 
and nations and tongues.' I do not positively affirm 
that it was by this interpretation of the trigrams that 

king Wan saw in = = the feudal hosts of his country 

collected, for neither from him nor his son do we learn, by 
their direct affirmation, that they had any acquaintance 
with the trigrams of Fu-hsi. The name which he gave 



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CH. II. INTRODUCTION. 



the figure shows, however, that he saw in it the feudal 
hosts in the field. How shall their expedition be conducted 
that it may come to a successful issue ? 

Looking again at the figure, we see that it is made up of 
five divided lines, and of one undivided. The undivided 
line occupies the central place in the lower trigram, — the 
most important place, next to the fifth, in the whole 
hexagram. It will represent, in the language of the com- 
mentators, ' the lord of the whole figure ; ' and the parties 
represented by the other lines may be expected to be of 
one mind with him or obedient to him. He must be the 
leader of the hosts. If he were on high, in the fifth place, 
he would be the sovereign of the kingdom. This is what 
king Wan says : — 

' Sze indicates how (in the case which it supposes), with firmness 
and correctness, and (a leader of) age and experience, there will 
be good fortune and no error.' 

This is a good auspice. Let us see how the duke of 
Kku expands it. 
He says : — 

'The first line, divided, shows the host going forth according 
to the rules (for such a movement). If those (rules) be not good, 
there will be evil.' 

We are not told what the rules for a military expedition 
were. Some commentators understand them of the reasons 
justifying the movement, — that it should be to repress and 
punish disorder and rebellion. Others, with more likelihood, 
take them to be the discipline or rules laid down to be 
observed by the troops. The line is divided, a weak line 
in a strong place, 'not correct:' this justifies the caution 
given in the duke's second sentence. 

The Text goes on :■'— 

' The second line, undivided, shows (the leader) in the midst of 
the hosts. There will be good fortune and no error. The king 
has thrice conveyed to him his charge.' 

This does not need any amplification. The duke saw 
in the strong line the symbol of the leader, who enjoyed 



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24 THE yJ king. 



CH. II. 



the full confidence of his sovereign, and whose authority 
admitted of no opposition. 

On the third line it is said : — 

' The third line, divided, shows how the hosts may possibly have 
many commanders : — (in such a case) there will be evil.' 

The third place is odd, and should be occupied by a strong 
line, instead of which we have a weak line in it. But it is 
at the top of the lower trigram, and its subject should 
be in office or activity. There is suggested the idea that its 
subject has vaulted over the second line, and wishes to share 
in the command and honour of him who has been appointed 
sole commander-in-chief. The lesson in the previous line 
is made of none effect. We have a divided authority in the 
expedition. The result can only be evil. 

On the fourth line the duke wrote : — 

' The fourth line, divided, shows the hosts in retreat : there is 
no error.' 

The line is also weak, and victory cannot be expected ; 
but in the fourth place a weak line is in its correct position, 
and its subject will do what is right in his circumstances. 
He will retreat, and a retreat is for him the part of wisdom. 
When safely affected, where advance would be disastrous, 
a retreat is as glorious as victory. 

Under the fifth line we read : — 

' The fifth line, divided, shows birds in the fields which it is 
advantageous to seize (and destroy). There will be no error. If 
the oldest son lead the host, and younger men be (also) in com- 
mand, however firm and correct he may be, there will be evil.' 

We have an intimation in this passage that only defensive 
war, or war waged by the rightful authority to put down 
rebellion and lawlessness, is right. The 'birds in the fields ' 
are emblematic of plunderers and invaders, whom it will 
be well to destroy. The fifth line symbolises the chief 
authority, but here he is weak or humble, and has given 
all power and authority to execute judgment into the hands 
of the commander-in-chief, who is the oldest son ; and in 
the subject of line 3 we have an example of the younger 
men who would cause evil if allowed to share his power. 



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CH. II. INTRODUCTION. 25 

Finally, on the sixth line the duke wrote : — 
' The topmost line, divided, shows the great ruler delivering his 
charges (to the men who have distinguished themselves), appointing 
some to be rulers of states, and others to be chiefs of clans. But 
small men should not be employed (in such positions).' 

The action of the hexagram has been gone through. The 
expedition hjis been conducted to a successful end. The 
enemy has been subdued. His territories are at the disposal 
of the conqueror. The commander-in-chief has done his 
part well. His sovereign, ' the great ruler,' comes upon the 
scene, and rewards the officers who have been conspicuous 
by their bravery and skill, conferring on them rank and 
lands. But he is warned to have respect in doing so to 
their moral character. Small men, of ordinary or less than 
ordinary character, may be rewarded with riches and certain 
honours ; but land and the welfare of its population should 
not be given into the hands of any who are not equal to 
the responsibility of such a trust. 

The above is a specimen of what I have called the essays 
that make up the Yt of AT&u. So would king Wan and 
his son have had all military expeditions conducted in their* 
country 3000 years ago. It seems to me that the princi- 
ples which they lay down might find a suitable application 
in the modem warfare of our civilised and Christian 
Europe. The inculcation of such lessons cannot have been , 
without good effect in China during the long course of its ^ 
history. 

S z e is a fair specimen of its class. From the other 63 
hexagrams lessons are deduced, for the most part equally 
good and striking. But why, it may be asked, why should 
they be conveyed to us by such an array of lineal figures, 
and in such a farrago of emblematic representations? It 
is not for the foreigner to insist on such a question. The 
Chinese have not valued them the less because of the 
antiquated dress in which their lessons are arrayed. Hun- 
dreds of their commentators have evolved and developed 
their meaning with a minuteness of detail and felicity of 
illustration that leave nothing to be desired. It is for 
foreign students of Chinese to gird up their loins for the 



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26 THE Vi KING." 



CH. ni. 



mastery of the book instead of talking about it as mysterious 
and all but inexplicable. 

Granting, however, that the subject-matter of the Yt is 
H what has been described, very valuable for its practical 
^ wisdom, but not drawn up from an abysmal deep of 
philosophical speculation, it may still be urged, ' But in all 
this we find nothing to justify the name of the book as Yl 
King, the " Classic of Changes." Is there not something 
more, higher or deeper, in the Appendixes that have been 
ascribed to Confucius, whose authority is certainly not in- 
ferior to that of king W5n, or the duke of KS^u ?' To reply 
fully to this question will require another chapter. 



Chapter III. 

The Appendixes. 

I. Two things have to be considered in this chapter: — 
the authorship of the Appendixes, and their contents. The 
Subjects of Text is ascribed, without dissentient voice, to 
the chapter, j^jng wSn, the founder of the ATiu dynasty, 
and his sonJTan, better known as the duke of K&u ; and 
I have, in the preceding chapters, given reasons for accept- 
ing that view. As regards the portion ascribed to king 
Wan, the evidence of the third of the Appendixes and the 
statement of Sze-mS A'//ien are as positive as could be 
desired ; and as regards that ascribed to his son, there is no 
ground for calling in question the received tradition. The 
Appendixes have all been ascribed to Confucius, though not 
with entirely the same unanimity. Perhaps I have rather 
intimated my own opinion that this view cannot be sustained. 
I have pointed out that, even if it be true, between six and 
seven centuries elapsed after the Text of the classic appeared 
before the Appendixes were written ; and I have said that, 
considering this fact, I cannot regard its two parts as a homo- 
geneous whole, or as constituting one book in the ordinary 
acceptation of that name. Before entering on the question 
of the authorship, a very brief statement of the nature and 
number of the Appendixes will be advantageous. 



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l^ 



CH. in. INTRODUCTION. 2/ 

2. They are reckoned to be ten, and called the Shih Yl 
,or_' Ten Wings.' They are in reality not so many ; but the 

Number and '^^^^ '^ divided into two sections, called the 

nature of the Upper and Lower, or, as we should say, the 

ppen ixes. ^.^^ ^^^ second, and then the commentary on 

each section is made to form a separate Appendix. I have 

found it more convenient in the translation which follows 

to adopt a somewhat different arrangement. 

My first Appendix, in two sections, embraces the first and 
second ' wings,' consisting of remarks on the paragraphs by 
king Wan in the two parts of the Text. 

My second Appendix, in two sections, embraces the third 
and fourth ' wings,' consisting of remarks on the symbolism 
of the duke of KSlu in his explanation of the individual 
lines of the hexagrams. 

My third Appendix, in two sections, embraces the fifth and 
six^hjwii^s,' which bear the name in Chinese of 'Appended 
Sentences,' and constitute what is called by many 'the 
Great Treatise.' Each wing has been divided into twelve 
chapters of very different length, and I have followed this 
arrangement in my sections. This is the most important 
Appendix. It has less of the nature of commentary than 
the previous four wings. While explaining much of what 
is found in the Text, it diverges to the origin of the 
trigrams, the methods pursued in the practice of divination, 
the rise of many arts in the prepress of civilisation, and 
other subjects. 

My fourth Appendix, also in two sections, forms the 
seventlx,' wing.' It is confined to an amplification of the 
expositions of the first and second hexagrams by king 
Wan and his son, purporting to show how they may be 
interpreted of man's nature and doings. 

My fifth Appendix is the eighth ' wing,' called ' Dis- 
courses on the Trigrams.' It treats of the different arrange- 
ment of these in respect of the seasons of the year and 
the cardinal points by FCl-hsl and king Win. It contains 
also one paragraph, which might seem to justify the view 
that there is a mythology in the YJ. 

My sixth Appendix, in two sections, is the ninth 'wing,' — 



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28 THE Vt KING. 



CH. III. 



' a Treatise on the Sequence of the Hexagrams,' intended 
to trace the connexion of meaning between them in the 
order in which they follow one another in the Text of 
king WSn. 

My seventh Appendix is the tenth ' wing,' an exhibition 
of the meaning of the 64 hexagrams, not taken in succession, 
but promiscuously and at random, as they approximate to 
or are opposed to one another in meaning. 

3. Such are the Appendixes of the Yt King. We have 
The author- to enquire next who wrote them, and espe- 

shipofthe cially whether it be possible to accept the 
Appendixes. ' .1 . . .-. 

dictum that they were all written by Con- 
fucius. If they have come down to us, bearing unmistake- 
ably the stamp of the mind and pencil of the great sage, we 
cannot but receive them with deference, not to say with 
reverence. If, on the contrary, it shall appear that with 
great part of them he had nothing to do, and that it is 
not certain that any part of them is from him, we shall feel 
entirely at liberty to exercise our own judgment on their 
contents, and weigh them in the balances of our reason. 
None of the Appendixes, it is to be observed, bear the 
There is no superscription of Confucius. There is not a 
superscription single sentence in any one of them ascribing 

of Confucius . ^ , . , . . ^ , ° 

on any of the it to him. I gave in the first chapter, on 
Appendixes, p ^^ the earliest testimony that these treatises 
were produced by him. It is that of Sze-m^ KAien, whose 
' Historical Records ' must have appeared about the year 
100 before our era. He ascribes all the Appendixes, except 
the last two of them, which he does not mention at all, 
expressly to Confucius ; and this, no doubt, was the common 
belief in the fourth century after the sage's death. 

But when we look for ourselves into the third and fourth 
Appendixes — the fifth, sixth, and seventh 'wings' — both 
The third ^^ which are specified by A'^ien, we find 
and fourth it impossible to receive his statement about 
evWent'iy* them. What is remarkable in both parts 
not from ^f the third is, the frequent occurrence of 

Confucius. 

the formula, ' The Master said, familiar to 
all readers of the Confucian Analects. Of course, the 



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CH. lU. INTRODUCTION. 29 

sentence following that formula, or the paragraph covered 
by it, was, in the judgment of the writer, in the language of 
Confucius ; but what shall we say of the portions preceding 
and following ? If he were the author of them, he would 
not thus be distinguishing himself from himself. The formula 
occurs in the third Appendix at least twenty-three times. 
Where we first meet with it, Kd Hst has a note to the effect 
that ' the Appendixes having been all made by Confucius, 
he ought not to be himself introducing the formula, " The 
Master said;" and that it maybe presumed, wherever it 
occurs, that it is a subsequent addition to the Master's 
text.' One instance will show the futility of this attempt 
to solve the difficulty. The tenth chapter of Section i com- 
mences with the 59th paragraph : — 

'In the Yi there are four things characteristic of the way of the. 
sages. We should set the highest value on its explanations, to 
guide us in speaking ; on its changes, for the initiation of our move- 
ments ; on its emblematic figures, for definite action, as in the ^ 
construction of implements ; and on its prognostications, for our V 
practice of divination.' 

This is followed by seven paragraphs expanding its 
statements, and we come to the last one of the chapter 
which says, — 'The Master said, "Such is the import of 
the statement that there are four things in the Yl, character- 
istic of the way of the sages." ' I cannot understand how 
it could be more fully conveyed to us that the compiler 
or compilers of this Appendix were distinct from the Master 
whose words they quoted, as it suited them, to confirm or 
illustrate their views. 

In the fourth Appendix, again, we find a similar occurrence 
of the formula of quotation. It is much shorter than the 
third, and the phrase, 'The Master said,' does not come 
before us so frequently; but in the thirty-six paragraphs 
that compose the first section we meet with it six times. 

Moreover, the first three paragraphs of this Appendix 
are older than its compilation, which could not have taken 
place till after the death of Confucius, seeing it professes 
to quote his words. They are taken in fact from a narrative 
of the 3o Kwan, as having been spoken by a marchioness- 



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30 THE \i KING. CH. III. 

dowager of Lfl fourteen years before Confucius was born. To 
account for this is a difficult task for the orthodox critics 
among the Chinese literati. Kd Hsi attempts to perform 
it in this way: — that anciently there was the explanation 
given in these paragraphs of the four adjectives employed 
by king Wan to give the significance of the first hexa- 
gram ; that it was employed by M6 ^iang of Lft ; and that 
Confucius also availed himself of it, while the chronicler 
used, as he does below, the phraseology of ' The Master 
said,' to distinguish the real words of the sage from such 
ancient sayings. But who was 'the chronicler?' No one 
can tell. The legitimate conclusion from A'fl's criticism is, 
that so much of the Appendix as is preceded by 'The 
Master said ' is from Confucius, — so much and no more. 

J I am thus obliged to come to the conclusion that Confucius 
had nothing to do with the composition of these_two^Ap- 

^ pendixes, and that they were not put together till after 
his death. I have no pleasure in differing from the all 
but unanimous opinion of Chinese critics and commentators. 
What is called ' the destructive criticism * has no attractions 
for me; but when an opinion depends on the argument 
adduced to support it, and that argument turns out to be 
of no weight, you can no longer set your seal to this, that 
the opinion is true. This is the position in which an 
examination of the internal evidence as to the authorship 
of the third and fourth Appendixes has placed me. Confu- 
cius could not be their author. This conclusion weakens the 
„ . - confidence which we have been accustomed 

Beanng of 

the conclusion to place in the view that ' the ten wings were 

^d°fourth on t° ^« ascribed to him unhesitatingly. The 

the other view has broken down in the case of three 

ppen ui • qJ- ^jjgjjj . — possibly there is no sound reason 

for holding the Confucian origin of the other seven. 

I cannot henceforth maintain that origin save with bated 
breath. This, however, can be said for the first two 
Appendixes in my arrangement, that there is no evidence 
against their being Confucian like the fatal formula, ' The 
Master said.' So it is with a good part of my fifth Appendix ; 
but the concluding paragraphs of it, as well as the seventh 



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CH. III. INTRODUCTION. 3 1 

Appendix, and the sixth also in a less degree, seem too 
trivial to be the production of the great man. As a translator 
of every sentence both in the Text and the Appendixes, 
I confess my sympathy with P. Regis, when he condenses 
the fifth Appendix into small space, holding that the 
8th and following paragraphs are not worthy to be 
translated. ' They contain,' he says, ' nothing but the 
mere enumeration of things, some of which may be called 
Yang, and others Yin, without any other cause for so 
thinking being given. Such a method of procedure would 
be unbecoming any philosopher, and it cannot be denied to 
be unworthy of Confucius, the chief of philosophers '.' 

I could not characterise Confucius as ' the chief of phi- 
losophers,' though he was a great moral philosopher, and 
has been since he went out and in among his disciples, 
the best teacher of the Chinese nation. But from the 
first time my attention was directed to the Yl, I regretted 
that he had stooped to write the parts of the Appendixes 
now under remark. It is a relief not to be obliged to 
receive them as his. Even the better treatises have no 
other claim to that character besides the voice of tradition, ^ 
first heard nearly 400 years after his death. 

4. I return to the Appendixes, and will endeavour to 
give a brief, but sufficient, account of their contents. 

The first bears in Chinese the name ofThwan ATwan, 

'Treatise on the Thwan,' thwan being the name given 

The first ^^ *^^ paragraphs in which WSn expresses 

Appendix, hls Sense of the significance of the hexagrams. 
He does not tell us why he attaches to each hexagram 
such and such a meaning, nor why he predicates good 
fortune or bad fortune in connexion with it, for he speaks 
oracularly, after the manner of a diviner, it is the object 
of the writer of this Appendix to show the processes of 
king Wan's thoughts in these operations, how he looked 
at the component trigrams with their symbolic intimations, 
their attributes and qualities, and their linear composition, 
till he could not think otherwise of the figures than he did. 
All these considerations are sometimes taken into account, 

' Regis' Y-King. vol. ii, p. 576. 

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32 



THE Vi KING. 



CH. III. 



and sometimes even one of them is deemed sufficient. In 
this way some technical characters appear which are not 
found in the Text. The lines, for instance, and even whole 
trigrams are distinguished as kang and ^4u, 'hard or strong' 
and 'weak or soft.' The phrase Kwei-shan, 'spirits,' or 
'spiritual beings,' occurs, but has not its physical signification 
of 'the contracting and expanding energies or operations of 
•nature.' The names Yin and Yang, mentioned above on 
pp. 15, 16, do not present themselves. 

I delineated, on p. 1 1, the eight trigrams of F(i-hst, and 
gave their names, with the natural objects they are said to 
represent, but did not mention the attributes, the virtu tes, 
ascribed to them. Let me submit here a table of them, 
with those qualities, and the points of the compass to which 
they are referred. I must do this because king Wan made 
a change in the geographical arrangement of them, to which 
reference is made perhaps in his text and certainly in this 
treatise. He also is said to have formed an entirely different 
theory as to the things represented by the trigrams, which it 
will be well to give now, though it belongs properly to the 
fifth Appendix. 

fC-hsI's trigrams. 



I 


2 


3 


4 


5 


6 


7 


8 
khwSn 


ihiea 


tui 


It 


iin 


sun 


khdn 


kin 




-J 

1° 


B 

3 


i 


i 


II a 

•3 3 


4 

a 


1 


s. 


S.E. 


E. 


N.E. 


S.W. 


w. 


N.W. 


N. 


Jj 






^ 






ts 


.. 


C 0, 


yU 


ii 


Mo 


.^1 


3 


It 


i§ 


if 






•e '^ 


2 2 

II 


1 


"1 




go 






s 




a. 


Oi 


U 



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CH. III. 



INTRODUCTION. 



33 



The natural objects and phenomena thus represented are 
found up and down in the Appendixes. It is impossible 
to believe that the several objects were assigned to the^ 
several figures on any principles of science, for there is , 
no indication of science in the matter : it is difficult even , 
to suppose that they were assigned on any comprehensive 
scheme of thought. Why are tui and khin used to 
represent water in different conditions, while kh&n, more- 
over, represents the moon? How is sun set apart to 
represent things so different as wind and wood? At a 
very early time the Chinese spoke of ' the five elements,' 
meaning water, fire, wood, metal, and earth ; but the tri- 
grams were not made to indicate them,and it is the general 
opinion that there is no reference to them in the Yi '. 

Again, the attributes assigned to the trigrams are learned 
mainly from this Appendix and the fifth. We do not readily 
get familiar with them, nor easily accept them all. It is im- 
possible for us to tell whether they were a part of the jargon 
of divination before king Wan, or had grown up between 
his time and that of the author of the Appendixes. 

King Win altered the arrangement of the trigrams so 
that not one of them should stand at the same point of 
the compass as in the ancient plan. He made them also 
representative of certain relations among themselves, as if 
they composed a family of parents and children. It will 
be sufficient at present to give a table of his scheme. 

KING wXn's trigrams. 



I 


2 


3 


4 


5 


6 


7 


8 
khwin 


It 


snn 


Hn 


kin 


khSn 


ihien 


tui 




si 


O 


j2° 


1 


i 


^1. 


1 


S. 


S.E. 


E. 


N.E. 


N. 


N.W. 


w. 


S.W. 



[i6] 



See Kao Yt's H&i Yu Shung Khio. Book I, art. 3 (1790). 
O 



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34 THE yI king. CH. hi. 

There is thus before us the apparatus with which the 
writer of the Appendix accomplishes his task. Let me 
select one of the shortest instances of his work. The 

fourteenth hexagram is . called Ti Y£», and meaning 

'Possessing in great abundance.' King W5n saw in it 
the symbol of a government prosperous and realising all 
its proper objects; but all that he wrote on it was 'Ti Yd 
(indicates) great progress and success.' Unfolding that 
view of its significance, the Appendix says : — 

' In T& Ya the weak (line) has the place of honour, is grandly 
central, and (the strong lines) above and below respond to it 
Hence comes its name of " Possession of what is great." The 
attributes (of its constituent trigrams, kh'iea and 11) are strength 
and vigour, elegance and brightness. (The ruling line in it) re- 
sponds to (the ruling line in the symbol of) heaven, and its actings 
are (consequently all) at the proper times. Thus it is that it is said 
to indicate great progress and success.' 

In a similar way the paragraphs on all the other 6^ 
hexagrams are gone through ; and, for the most part, with 
success. The conviction grows upon the student that the 
writer has on the whole apprehended the mind of king Wan. 
I stated, on p. 3a, that the name kwei-shSn occurs 
The name i" t^is Appendix. It has not yet, however, 
Kwei-shan. received the semi-physical, semi-metaphysical 
signification which the comparatively modem scholars of 
the Sung dynasty give to it. There are two passages 
where it is found; — the second paragraph on KAien, the 
fifteenth hexagram, and the third on Fang, the fifty-fifth. 
By consulting them the reader will be able to form an 
opinion for himself. The term kwei denotes specially 
the human spirit disembodied, and shan is used for spirits 
whose seat is in heaven. I do not see my way to translate 
them, when used binomially together, otherwise than by 
spiritual beings or spiritual agents. 

ATfl Hst once had the following question suggested by 
the second of these passages put to him: — 'Kwei-shan is 
a name for the traces of making and transformation ; but 
when it is said that (the interaction of) heaven and earth 



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CH. III. INTRODUCTION. 35 

is now vigorous and abundant, and now dull and void, 
growing and diminishing according to the seasons, that 
constitutes the traces of making and transformation ; why 
should the writer further speak of the Kwei-sh3n?' He 
replied, 'When he uses the style of "heaven and earth," 
he is speaking of the result generally ; but in ascribing it 
to the Kwei-shSn, he is representing the traces of their 
effective interaction, as if there were men (that is, some 
personal agency) bringing it about K' This solution merely 
explains the language away. When we come to the fifth 
Appendix, we shall understand better the views of the 
period when these treatises were produced. 

The single character s h S n is used in explaining the t h w a n 
on Kw&n,the twentieth hexagram, where we read : — 

'In KwSn we see the spirit-like way of heaven, through which 
the four seasons proceed without error. The sages, in accordance 
with (this) spirit-like way, laid down their instructions, and all under 
heaven yield submission to them.' 

The author of the Appendix delights to dwell on the 
changing phenomena taking place between heaven and 
earth, and which he attributes to their interaction ; and he 
was penetrated evidently with a sense of the harmony 
between the natural and spiritual worlds. It is this sense, 
indeed, which vivifies both the thwan and the explanation 
of them. 

5. We proceed to the second Appendix, which professes 
to do for the duke of A'Au's symbolical exposition of the 
several hnes what the Thwan A'wan does for the entire 

The second figures. The work here, however, is accom- 

Appendix. pHshed with less trouble and more briefly. 

The whole bears the name of Hsiang AT wan, 'Treatise 

on the Symbols ' or ' Treatise on the Symbolism (of the YJ).' 

' See the ' Collected Comments ' on hexagram 55 in the Khang-hst edition of 
theYt (App. I). 'The traces of making and transformation* mean the ever- 
changing phenomena of growth and decay. Our phrase 'Vestiges of Creation * 
might be used to translate the Chinese characters. See the remarks of the late 
Dr. Medhurst on the hexagrams 15 and 55 in his ' Dissertation on the Theology 
of the Chinese,' pp. 107-iia. In hexagram 15, Canon McClatchie for kwei- 
thin gives ' gods and demons ; ' in hexagram 55, ' the Demon-gods.' 

1) 2 



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36 THE y! king. 



CH. III. 



If there were reason to think that it came in any way from 
Confucius, I should fancy that I saw him sitting with a 
select class of his disciples around him. They read the 
duke's Text column after column, and the master drops now 
a word or two, and now a sentence or two, that illuminate 
the meaning. The disciples take notes on their tablets, or 
store his remarks in their memories, and by and by they 
write them out with the whole of the Text or only so much 
of it as is necessary. Whoever was the original lecturer, 
the Appendix, I think, must have grown up in this way. 

It would not be necessary to speak of it at greater length, 
if it were not that the six paragraphs on the symbols of 
the duke of KAu are always preceded by one which is 
called 'the Great Symbolism,' and treats of the trigrams 
composing the hexagram, how they go tc^ether to form 
the six-lined figure, and how their blended meaning 
appears in the institutions and proceedings of the great 
men and kings of former days, and of the superior men 
of all time. The paragraph is for the most part, but by no 
means always, in harmony with the explanation of the 
hexagram bykingWSn, and a place in theThwan ATwan 
would be more appropriate to it. I suppose that, because 
it always begins with the mention of the two symbolical 
trigrams, it is made, for the sake of the symmetry, to form 
a part of the treatise on the Symbolism of the Yt. 

I will give a few examples of the paragraphs of the 
Great Symbolism. The first hexagram ^^^= is formed 

The Great by a repetition of the trigram A'Aien , 

S)inboUsin. representing heaven, and it is said on it : — 
' Heaven in its motion (gives) the idea of strength. The 
superior man, in accordance with this, nerves himself to 
ceaseless activity.' 

The second hexagram = = is formed by a repetition 
of the trigram KhwSn = =, representing the earth, and 
it is said on it : — ' The capacious receptivity of the earth 
is what is denoted by KhwSn. The superior man, in 
accordance with this, with his lai^e virtue, supports men 
and things.' 



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CH. III. INTRODUCTION. 37 



The forty-fourth hexagram, called Kku ■ . is formed 

by the trigrams Sun _ __ , representing wind, and 
A'Aien , representing heaven or the sky, and it is 

said on it : — '(The symbol of) wind, beneath that of the 
sky, forms K4u. In accordance with this, the sovereign 
distributes his charges, and promulgates his announce- 
ments throughout the four quarters (of the kingdom).' 



The fifty-ninth hexagram, called Hwdn =_=, is formed 

by the trigrams Khin =-=, representing water, and 
Sun __ ^ , representing wind, and it is said on it: — 
•(The symbol of) water and (that of wind) above it form 
Hw4n. The ancient kings, in accordance with this, pre- 
sented offerings to God, and established the ancestral 
temple.' The union of the two trigrams suggested to 
king WSn the idea of dissipation in the alienation of men 
from the Supreme Power, and of the minds of parents 
from their children ; a condition which the wisdom of the 
ancient kings saw could best be met by the influences of 
religion. 

One more example. The twenty-sixth hexagram, called 
T4 KAti =::=, is formed of the trigrams A'Aien, repre- 
senting heaven or the sky, and Kin = =, representing a 
mountain, and it is said on it : — ' (The symbol of) heaven in 
the midst of a mountain forms T4 KAd. The superior man, 
in accordance with this, stores largely in his memory the 
words of former men and their conduct, to subserve the 
accumulation of his virtue.' We are ready to exclaim and 
ask, * Heaven, the sky, in the midst of a mountain ! Can 
there be such a thing ? ' and ATQ Hsl will tell us in reply, 
' No, there cannot be such a thing in reality ; but you can 
conceive it for the purpose of the symbolism.' 

From this and the other examples adduced from the 
Great Symbolism, it is clear that, so far as its testimony 
bears on the subject, the trigrams of FO-hsi did not receive 
their form and meaning with a deep intention that they 
should serve as the basis of a philosophical scheme con- 
cerning the constitution of heaven and earth and all that 



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38 THE Vt KING. CH. III. 

is in them. In this Appendix they are used popularly, just 
as one 

' Finds tonnes in trees, books in the running brooks, 
Sermons in stones, and good in everything.' 

The writer moralises from them in an edifying manner. 
There is ingenuity, and sometimes instruction also, in what 
he says, but there is no mystery. Chinese scholars and 
gentlemen, however, who have got some little acquaintance 
with western science, are fond of saying that all the truths 
of electricity, heat, light, and other branches of European 
physics, are in the eight trigrams. When asked how then 
they and their countrymen have been and are ignorant of 
those truths, they say that they have to learn them first 
from western books, and then, looking into the Yt, they see 
that they were all known to Confucius more than 2000 years 
ago. The vain assumption thus manifested is childish ; 
and until the Chinese drop their hallucination about the 
Yt as containing all things that have ever been dreamt of 
in all philosophies, it will prove a stumbling-block to them, 
and keep them from entering on the true path of science. 

6. We go on to the third Appendix in two sections, being 
the fifth and sixth ' wings,' and forming what is called 'The 
The third Great Treatise.' It will appear singular to the 
Appendix, reader, as it has always done to myself, that 
neither in the Text, nor in the first two Appendixes, does 
the character called Yt, which gives its name to the classic, 
once appear. It is the symbol of ' change,' and is formed 
from the character for * the sun ' placed over that for ' the 
moon^.' As the sun gives place to the moon, and the 
moon to the sun, so is change always proceeding in the 
phenomena of nature and the experiences of society. We 
meet with the character nearly fifty times in this Appendix ; 
— applied most commonly to the Text of our classic, so that 
Yl King or Yt Shfl is 'the Classic or Book of Changes.' 
It is also applied often to the changes in the lines of the 

' Mt = H . the son, placed over ^, a form of the old JT) (= H), the 



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CH. III. INTRODUCTION. 39 

figures, made by the manipulations of divination, apart 
from any sentence or ^oracle concerning them delivered 
by king WSn or his sori.'^ There is therefore the system 
of the Yl as well as the book of the Yt. The definition 
of the name which is given in one paragraph will suit them 
both : — ' Production and reproduction is what is called (the 
process of) change\' In nature there is no vacuum. When 
an3^hing is displaced, what displaces it takes the empty 
room. And in the lineal figures, the strong and the weak 
lines push each other out. 

Now the remarkable thing asserted is, that the 
Harmony be- changes in the lines of the figures and 

tween the lines . i . r .. i i ■ 

ever changing the Changes of external phenomena show 
and the changes a wonderful harmony and concurrence. We 

in external ' 

phenomena. read '• — 

' The Yl was made on a principle of accordance with heaven 
and earth, and shows us therefore, without rent or confusion, the 
course (of things) in heaven and earth '.' 

' There is a similarity between the sage and heaven and earth ; 
and hence there is no contrariety in him to them. His knowledge 
embraces all things, and his course is intended to be helpful to 
all under the sky ; and therefore he falls into no error. He acts 
according to the exigency of circumstances, without being carried 
away by their current ; he rejoices in Heaven, and knows its ordi- 
nations; and hence he has no anxieties. He rests in his own 
(present) position, and cherishes the spirit of generous benevolence ; 
and hence he can love (without reserve)'.' 

' (Through the Yi) he embraces, as in a mould or enclosure, the 
transformations of heaven and earth without any error ; by an ever- 
varying adaptation he completes (the nature of) all things without 
exception ; he penetrates to a knowledge of the course of day and 
night (and all other correlated phenomena). It is thus that his 
operation is spirit-like, unconditioned by place, while the changes 
(which he produces) are not restricted to any form.' 

One more quotation : — 

' The sage was able to survey all the complex phenomena under 
the sky. Heathen considered in his mind how they could be 

> III, i, 39 (chap. 5. 6). * III, i, 30 (chap. 4. i). 

• III, i. 22. 



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40 THE Vt KING. CH. in. 

figured, and (by means of the diagrams) represented their material 
forms and their character '.' 

All that is thus predicated of the sage, or ancient sages, 
though the writer probably had Fil-hsi in his mind, is more 
than sufficiently extravagant, and reminds us of the language 
in ' the Doctrine of the Mean,' that ' the sage, able to assist 
the transforming and nourishing powers of heaven and 
earth, may with heaven and earth form a ternion ^* 

I quoted largely, in the second chapter, from this Ap- 
pendix the accounts which it gives of the formation of the 
lineal figures. There is no occasion to return to that subject. 
Let us suppose the figures formed. They seem to have 

„ . . the significance, when looked at from certain 

Divmatioo. .,. ,.,, , • ., 

' — pomts of view, which have been determined 

for us by king WSn and the duke of K&m. But this does 
not amount to divination. How can the lines be made to 
serve this purpose ? The Appendix professes to tell us. 

Before touching on the method which it describes, let 

me observe that divination was practised in China from 

a very early time. I will not say 5,aoo years 

"* dwSia^on. ago. in the days of Ffl-hsi, for I cannot 

repress doubts of his historical personality; 

but as soon as we tread the borders of something like 

credible history, we find it existing. In the Sh(l King, in 

a document that purports to be of the twenty-third century 

B.C.*, divination by means of the tortoise-shell is mentioned ; 

and somewhat later we find that method continuing, and 

also divination by the lineal figures, manipulated by means 

of the stalks of a plant*, the Ptarmica Sibirica*, which 

is still cultivated on and about the grave of Confucius, where 

I have myself seen it growing. 

The object of the divination, it should be acknowledged, 

Object of the was not to discover future events absolutely, 

divination. ^ jf jjjgy ^^^^^ ^e known beforehand •, but 

' III, i. 38 (chap. 8, i). * Doctrine of the Mean, chap. xxii. 

» The Sha II, ii, 18. ♦ The Shfl V, ir, ao.ji. 

* See Williams' Syllabic Dicticmaiy 00 the character Mr- 

• Canon McClatchie (first paragraph of his Introdaction) says: — 'The Y! is 
<,arded by the Chinese with peculiar veneration .... as containing a mine of 



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CH. in. INTRODUCTION. 4 1 

to ascertain whether certain schemes, and conditions of 
events contemplated by the consulter, would turn out luckily 
or unluckily. But for the actual practice the stalks of the 
plant were necessary ; and I am almost afraid to write that 
this Appendix teaches that they were produced by Heaven 
of such a nature as to be fit for the purpose. ' Heaven,' 
it says, in the 73rd paragraph of Section i, quoted above 
on p. 14, 'Heaven produced the spirit-like things.' The 
things were the tortoise and the plant, and in paragraph 
68, the same quality of being shan, or 'spirit-like,' is 
ascribed to them. Occasionally, in the field of Chinese 
literature, we meet with doubts as to the efficacy of divina- 
tion, and the folly of expecting any revelation of the 
character of the future from an old tortoise-shell and a 
handful of withered twigs ^ ; but when this Appendix was 
made, the writer had not attained to so much common 
sense. The stalks were to him 'spirit-like,' possessed of 

knowledge, which, if it were possible to fathom it thorotighly, would, in their 
estimation, enable the fortunate possessor to foretell all future events.' This 
misstatement does not surprise me so much as thatMorrison, generally accurate on 
such points, should say (Dictionary, Part II, i, p. loao, on the character >&) :— 

'Of the odd and even numbers, the kw& or lines of FQ-hst are the visible signs; 
and it being assumed that these signs answer to the things signified, and from a 
knowledge of all the various combinations of numbers, a knowledge of all 
possible occurrences in nature may be previously known.' The whole article 
from which I take this sentence is inaccurately written. The language of the 
Appendix on the knowledge of the future given by the use of the Yi is often 
incautious, and a cursory reader may be misled ; to a careful student, however, 
the meaning is plain. The second passage of the ShQ, referred to above, 
treats of 'the Examination of Doubts,' and concludes thus: — 'When the 
tortoise-shell and the stalks are both opposed to the views of men, there will 
be good fortune in stillness, and active operations will be unlucky.' 

' A remarkable instance is given by LiQ Kt (of the Ming dynasty, in the 
fifteenth century) in a story about ShSo Phing, who had been marquis of Tung- 
ling in the time of S^in, but was degraded under Han. Having gone once 
to Sze-mi Ki-m, one of the most skilful diviners of the country, and wishing 
to know whether there would be a brighter future for him, Sze-m& said, ' Ah t 
is it the way of Heaven to love any (partially)? Heaven loves only the 
virtuous. What intelligence is possessed by spirits? They are intelligent 
(only) by their connexion with men. The divining stalks are so much withered ' 
grass ; the tortoise-shell is a withered bone. They are but things, and man is v 
more intelligent than things. Why not listen to yourself instead of seeking (to 
learn) from things?' The whole piece is in many of the collections of Kil 
wan, or Elegant Writing. j,-_^ 



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42 THE y! king. 



CH. III. 



a subtle and invisible virtue that fitted them for use in 
divining. 

Given the stalks with such virtue, the process of mani- 
Formation pulating them so as to form the lineal figures 
of the lineal is described (Section i, chap. 9, parr. 49-58), 
divining but it will take the student much time and 
stalks. thought to master the various operations. 
Forty-nine stalks were employed, which were thrice ma- 
nipulated for each line, so that it took eighteen manipu- 
lations to form a hexagram. The lines were determined 
by means of the numbers derived from the River Map 
or scheme. Odd numbers gave strong or undivided 
lines, and even numbers gave the weak or divided. 
An important part was played in combining the lines, and 
forming the hexagrams by the four emblematic symbols, 
to which the numbers 9, 8, 7, 6 were appropriated \ The 
figures having been formed, recourse was had for their 
interpretation to the thwan of king Wan, and the em- 
blematic sentences of the duke of ATiu. This was all the 
part which numbers played in the divination by the Yi, 
helping the operator to make up his lineal figure. An 
analogy has often been asserted between the numbers of 
the Yt and the numbers of Pythagoras ; and certainly we 
might make ten, and more than ten, antinomies from these 
Appendixes in startling agreement with the ten principia 
of the Pythagoreans. But if Aristotle was correct in holding 
that Pythagoras regarded numbers as entities, and main- 
tained that Number was the Beginning (Principle, apxri) of 
things, the cause of their material existence, and of their 



• These numbers are commonly derived from the River Scheme, in the outer 
sides of which are the corresponding marks : — ••••••, opposite to • • ; 

o o o o o o o, opposite too; ••••••••, opposite to ••••; and 000000000, 

opposite to o o o. Hence the number 6 is assigned to SS Z^, 7 to __ ^^, 
8 to ^~ — and 9 to ^rzi^^ Hence also, in connexion with the formation 
of the figures by manipulation of the stalks, 9 becomes the number symbolical 
of the undivided line, as representing Khiea — and 6 of the divided 

line, as representing Khwan ^s ^E- But the late delineation of the map, 
as given on p. 15, renders all this imcertain, so far as the scheme is concerned. 
The numbers of the bsiang, however, may have been fixed, must have been 
fixed indeed, at an early period. 



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CH. III. INTRODUCTION. 43 

modifications and different states, then the doctrine of the 
philosopher of Samos was different from that of the Yi *, 
in which numbers come in only as aids in divining to 
form the hexs^rams. Of course all divination is vain, ^ 
nor is the method of the Yt less absurd than any other. " 
The Chinese themselves have given it up in all circles 'j 
above those of the professional quacks, and yet their "^ 
scholars continue to maintain the unfathomable science >' 
and wisdom of these appended treatises ! 

It is in this Appendix that we first meet with the ' 
The names names yin and yang*, of which I have 
Yin and spoken briefly on pp. 15, 16, Up to this point, 
"'^' instead of them, the names for the two 
elementary forms of the lines have been kang and z&u, 
which I have translated by 'strong and weak,' and which 
also occur here ten times. The following attempt to 
explain these different names appears in the fifth Appen- 
dix, paragraph 4 : — 

' Anciently when the sages made the YI, it was with the design 
that its figures should be in conformity with the principles under- 
lying the natures (of men and things), and the ordinances appointed 
(for them by Heaven). With this view they exhibited in them the '^ 
way of heaven, calling (the lines) yin and yang; the way of 
earth, calling them the strong (or hard) and the weak (or soft) ; 
and the way of man, under the names of benevolence and righteous- 
ness. Each (trigram) embraced those three Powers, and being X- 
repeated, its full form consisted of six lines.' 

However difficult it may be to make what is said here 
intelligible, it confirms what I have affirmed of the signi- 
ficance of the names yin and yang, as meaning bright 
and dark, derived from the properties of the sun and 
moon. We may use for these adjectives a variety of others, 
such as active and inactive, masculine and feminine, hot 
and cold, more or less analogous to them ; but there arise 
the important questions, — Do we find yang and yin not 
merely used to indicate the quality of what they are applied 

' See the account of Pythagoras and his philosophy in Lewes' Hbtory of 
Philosophy, pp. 18-38 (1871). 
* See Section i, 24, 33, 35 ; Section ii, 38, 29, 30, 35. 



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44 THE y! king. 



CH. III. 



to, but at the same time with substantival force, denoting 
what has the quality which the name denotes ? Had the 
doctrine of a primary matter of an ethereal nature, now 
expanding and showing itself full of activity and power 
as yang, now contracting and becoming weak and inactive 
as yin: — had this doctrine become matter of speculation 
when this Appendix was written? The Chinese critics 
and commentators for the most part assume that it had. 
P. Regis, Dr. Medhurst, and other foreign Chinese scholars 
repeat their statements without question. I have sought 
in vain for proof of what is asserted. It took more them 
a thousand years after the closing of the Yi to fashion in 
the Confucian school the doctrine of a primary matter. We 
do not find it fully developed till the era of the Sung 
dynasty, and in our eleventh and twelfth centuries \ To 
find it in the Yl is the logical, or rather illogical, error of 
putting ' the last first.' Neither creation nor cosmc^ony 
was before the mind of the author whose work I am 
analysing. His theme is the Yt, — the ever-changing phe- 
nomena of nature and experience. There is nothing but 
this in the 'Great Treatise' to task our powers; — nothing 
deeper or more abstruse. 

' As a specimeD of what the ablest Sung scholats teach, I may give the 
remarks (from the 'Collected Comments') of JCfl Kin (of the same century as 
JSrfl Hst, rather earlier) on the 4th paragraph of Appendix V : — ' In the Yt there 
is the Great Extreme. When we speak of the yin and yang, we mean the air 
(or ether) collected in the Great Void. When we speak of the Hard and Soft, 
we mean that ether collected, and formed into substance. Benevolence and 
righteousness have their origin in the great void, are seen in the ether sab- 
stantiated, and move imder the influence of conscious intelligence. Looking at 
the one origin of all things we speak of their nature ; looking at the endowments 
given to them, we speak of the ordinations appointed (for them). Looking at 
them as (divided into) heaven, earth, and men, we speak of their principle. 
The three are one and the same. The sages wishing that (their figures) 
should be in conformity with the principles underlying the natures (of men and 
things) and the ordinances appointed (for them), called them (now) yin and 
yang, (now) the hard and the soft, (now) benevolence and righteousness, in 
order thereby to exhibit the ways of heaven, earth, and men ; it is a view of them 
; as related together. The trigrams of the Yt contain the three Powers ; and 
when they are doubled into hexagrams, there the three Powers unite and are 
one. But there are the changes and movements of their (several) ways, and 
therefore there are separate places for the yin and yang, and reciprocal uses 
of the hard and the soft.' 



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CH. III. INTRODUCTION. 45 

As in the first Appendix, so in this, the name kwei-shSn 
occurs twice ; in paragraghs ai and 50 of Section i. In the 

The Dame former instance, each part of the name has 

Kwei-shin. j^g significance. Kwei denotes the animal 
soul or nature, and ShSn, the intellectual soul, the union 
of which constitutes the living rational man. I have trans- 
lated them, it will be seen, by ' the a n i m a and the animus.' 
Canon McClatchie gives for them ' demons and gods ; ' and 
Dr. Medhurst said on the passage, 'The kwei-shSns are 
evidently the expanding and contracting principles of human 
life. .... The kwei-shSns are brought about by the dis- 
solution of the human frame, and consist of the expanding 
and ascending shan, which rambles about in space, and 
of the contracted and shrivelled kwei, which reverts to 
earth and nonentity K' 

This is pretty much the same view as my own, though 
I would not here use the phraseol(^y of 'expanding and 
contracting.' Canon McClatchie is consistent with himself, 
and renders the characters by 'demons and gods.' 

In the latter passage it is more difficult to determine 
the exact meaning. The writer says, that 'by the odd 
numbers assigned to heaven and the even numbers assigned 
to earth, the changes and transformations are efTected, and 
the spirit-like agencies kept in movement ; ' meaning that 
by means of the numbers the spirit-like lines might be 
formed on a scale sufficient to give a picture of all the 
changing phenomena, taking place, as if by a spiritual 
agency, in nature. Medhurst contents himself on it with 
giving the explanation of A'fl Hst, that 'the kwei-shSns 
refer to the contractions and expandings, the recedings and 
approachings of the productive and completing powers 
of the even and odd numbers*.' Canon McClatchie does 
not follow his translation of the former passage and give 
here 'demons and gods,' but we have 'the Demon-god (i.e. 
Shang Tl) '.' I shall refer to this version when considering 
the fifth Appendix. 

' Dissertation on the Theology of the Chinese, pp. 1 1 1 , 1 1 a. 
' Theology of the Chinese, p. la^ 
' Translation of the Yt King, p. 31a. 



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46 THE y! king. 



CH. III. 



The single character shSn occurs more than twenty 

times; — used now as a substantive, now as an adjective, 

and again as a verb. I must refer the reader 
Shan alone. . ., . , . , , '. 

to the translation and notes for its various 

significance, subjoining in a note a list of the places where 

it occurs ^ 

Much more might be said on the third Appendix, for 
the writer touches on many other topics, antiquarian and 
speculative, but a review of them would help us little in 
the study of the leading subject of the Yi. In passing on 
to the next treatise, I would only further say that the 
style of this and the author's manner of presenting his 
thoughts often remind the reader of ' the Doctrine of the 
Mean.' I am surprised that 'the Great Treatise' has 
never been ascribed to the author of that Doctrine, 3ze- 
sze, the grandson of Confucius, whose death must have 
taken place between B. c. 400 and 450. 

7. The fourth Appendix, the seventh ' wing ' of the Yi, 
need not detain us long. As I stated on p. 37, it is con- 

The fourth fined to an exposition of the Text on the first 

Appendix, g^^j second hexagrams, being an attempt to 
show that what is there affirmed of heaven and earth may 
also be applied to man, and that there is an essential 
agreement between the qualities ascribed to them, and the 
benevolence, righteousness, propriety, and wisdom, which are 
the four constituents of his moral and intellectual nature. 

It is said by some of the critics that Confucius would 
have treated all the other hexagrams in a similar way, if 
his life had been prolonged, but we found special grounds 
for denying that Confucius had anything to do with the 
composition of this Appendix ; and, moreover, I cannot 
think of any other figure that would have afforded to the 
author the same opportunity of discoursing about man. 
The style and method are after the manner of 'the Doctrine 
of the Mean ' quite as much as those of 'the Great Treatise.' 
Several paragraphs, moreover, suggest to us the ms^ilo- 
quence of Mencius. It is said, for instance, by 3ze-sze, of 

> Section i, 23, 32, 57, 58, 6j, 64? 67, 68, 69, 73, 76, 81; Section ii, 11, 15, 
35. J4. 4'. 45- 



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CH. in. INTRODUCTION. 47 

the sage, that ' he is the equal or correlate of Heaven ',* and 
in this Appendix we have the sentiment expanded into the 
following : — 

' The great man is he who is in harmony in his attributes with 
heaten and earth ; in his brightness with the sun and moon ; in 
bis orderly procedure with the four seasons ; and in his relation 
to what is fortunate and what is calamitous with the spiritual 
agents. He may precede Heaven, and Heaven will not act in 
opposition to him ; he may follow Heaven, but will act only as 
Heaven at the time would do. If Heaven will not act in opposition 
to him, how much less will man ! how much less will the spiritual 
agents'!' 

One other passage may receive our consideration : — 

' The family that accumulates goodness is sure to have super- 
abundant happiness, and the family that accumulates evil is sure 
to have superabundant misery '.' 

The language makes us think of the retribution of good 
and evil as taking place in the family, and not in the in- 
dividual ; the judgment is long deferred, but it is inflicted 
at last, lighting, however, not on the head or heads that 
most deserved it. Confucianism never falters in its affirma- 
tion of the difference between good and evil, and that each 
shall have its appropriate recompense; but it has little 
to say of the where and when and how that recompense 
will be given. The old classics are silent on the subject 
of any other retribution besides what takes place in time. 
About the era of Confucius the view took definite shape 
that, if the issues of good and evil, virtue and vice, did 
not take effect in the experience of the individual, they 
would certainly do so in that of his posterity. This is the 
prevailing doctrine among the Chinese at the present day ; 
and one of the earliest expressions, perhaps the earliest 
expression, of it was in the sentence under our notice that 
has been copied from this Appendix into almost every moral 
treatise that circulates in China. A wholesome and an 
important truth it is, that 'the sins of parents are visited 

' X'ong-ynng xxxi, 4. 

• Section i, 34. This is the only paragraph where kwei-shln occurs. 

' Section ii, 5. 



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48 THE Vt KING. CH. m. 

on their children;' but do the parents themselves escape 
the curse? It is to be regretted that this short treatise, 
the only ' wing ' of the Yt professing to set forth its teach- 
ings concerning man as man, does not attempt any definite 
reply to this question. I leave it, merely observing that 
it has always struck me as the result of an after-thought, 
and a wish to give to man, as the last of 'the Three Powers,' 
a suitable place in connexion with the Yt. The doctrine 
of ' the Three Powers ' is as much out of place in Con- 
fucianism as that of 'the Great Extreme.' The treatise 
contains several paragraphs interesting in themselves, but 
it adds nothing to our understanding of the Text, or even 
of the object of the appended treatises, when we try to 
look at them as a whole. 

8. It is very different with the fifth of the Appendixes, 
The fifth which is made up of 'Remarks on the 
Appendix. Trigrams.' It is shorter than the fourth, 
consisting of only 4a paragraphs, in some of which the 
author rises to a height of thought reached nowhere else 
in these treatises, while several of the others are so silly 
and trivial, that it is difficult, not to say impossible, to believe 
that they are the production of the same man. We find in 
it the earlier and later arrangement of the trigrams, — the 
former, that of Fil-hsi, and the latter, that of king Wan ; their 
names and attributes; the work of God in nature, described 
as a progress through the trigrams ; and finally a distinctive, 
but by no means exhaustive, list of the natural objects, 
symbolised by them. 

It commences with the enigmatic declaration that 

' Anciently, when the sages made the Yi,' (that is, the lineal 

First figures, and the system of divination by 

paragraph, them), ' in Order to give mysterious assistance 
to the spiritual Intelligences, they produced (the rules for 
the use of) the divining plant' Perhaps this means no 
more than that the lineal figures were made to ' hold the 
mirror up to nature,' so that men by the study of them 
would understand more of the unseen and spiritual opera- 
tions, to which the phenomena around them were owing, 
than they could otherwise do. 



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CH. in. INTRODUCTION. 49 

The author goes on to speak of the Ffl-hst trigrams, and 
passes from them to those of king WSn in paragraph 8. 
That and the following two are very remarkable ; but 
before saying anything of them, I will go on to the 14th, 
which is the only passage that affords any ground for 
saying that there is a mythology in the Yi. It says : — 

'^^ien is (the symbol of) heaven, and hence is styled father. 
Khw&n is (the symbol of) earth, and hence is 

**^e'^ °^ ^^y^^^ mother. A'in (shows) the first application 
(of khw&n to ^^ien), resulting in getting (the 
first of) its male (or undivided lines), and hence we call it the 
oldest son. Sun (shows) a first application (of ^^ien to khw&n), 
resulting in getting (the first of) its female (or divided Imes), and 
hence we call it the oldest daughter. Khdn (shows) a second 
application (of kbw&n to /i^ien), and Lt a second (of ^^ien 
to khw^n), resulting in the second son and second daughter. In 
iTiln and Tui we have a third application (ofkhw&n to ^^ien 
and of ^jiien to khwih), resulting in the youngest son and 
youngest daughter.' 

From this language has come the fable of a marriage 
between KAien and KhwSn, from which resulted the six 
other trigrams, considered as their three sons and three 
daughters ; and it is not to be wondered at, if some men 
of active and. ill-regulated imaginations should see Noah 
and his wife in those two primary trigrams, and in the 
others their three sons and the three sons' wives. Have 
we not in both cases an ogdoad ? But I have looked in 
the paragraph in vain for the notion of a marriage-union 
between heaven and earth. 

It does not treat of the genesis of the other six trigrams by 
the union of the two, but is a rude attempt to explain their 
forms when they were once existing \ According to the 
idea of changes, KAien and KhwSn are continually vary- 
ing their forms by their interaction. As here represented, the 

' This view seems to be in accoidance with that of Wd KAang (of the Yiian 
djmasty), as given in the 'Collected Comments' of the Khang-hst edition. The 
editors express their approval of it in preference to the interpretation of £0 
Hst, who understood the whole to refer to the formation of the lineal figures, 
the ' application' being 'the manipulation of the stalks to find the proper line.' 

[16] E 



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50 THE Vi KING. CH. III. 

other trigrams are not ' produced ^' by a marriage-union, but 
from the application, literally the s e e k i n g, of one of them — 
of KhwSn as much as of ^Aien — addressed to the other'. 

This way of speaking of the trigrams, moreover, as father 
and mother, sons and daughters, is not so old as Ffi-hst ; 
nor have we any real proof that it originated with king 
Wan. It is not of 'the highest antiquity.* It arose some 
time in ' middle antiquity,' and was known in the era of the 
Appendixes ; but it had not prevailed then, nor has it prevailed 
since, to discredit and supersede the older nomenclature. 
We are startled when we come on it in the place which 
it occupies. And there it stands alone. It is not entitled 
to more attention than the two paragraphs that precede 
it, or the eight that follow it, none of which were thought 
by P. Regis worthy to be translated. I have just said that 
it stands ' alone.' Its existence, however, seems to me to 
be supposed in the fourth chapter, paragraphs 28-30, of 
the third Appendix, Section ii ; but there only the trigrams 
of ' the six children ' are mentioned, and nothing is said of 
'the parents.' ATSn, kh&n, and kan are referred to as 
being yang, and sun. It, and tui as" being yin. What 
is said about them is trifling and fanciful. 

Leaving the question of the mythology of the Yt, of 

which I am myself unable to discover a trace, I now call 

attention to paragraphs 8-10, where the author speaks of 

the work of God in nature in all the year as a progress 

through the trigrams, and as being effected 

God in nature by His Spirit. The description assumes the 

^e"yw"' peculiar arrangement of the trigrams, ascribed 

to king Wan, and which I have exhibited 

above, on page 33 '. Father Regis adopts the general vifew 

• But the Chinese term Sbing ^T*. . often rendered * produced,' must not be 
pressed, so as to determine the method of production, or the way in which 
one thing comes from another. 

' The significance of the mythological paragraph is altogether lost in Canon 
McCIatchie's version: — 'Khien is Heaven, and hence he is called Father; 
KhwSn is Earth, and hence she is called Mother; Kin is the first male, and 
hence he is called the eldest son,' &c. &c. 

• The reader will understand the difference in the two arrangements better 
by a reference to the drcular representations of them on Plate IIL 



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CH. III. INTRODUCTION. 5 1 

of Chinese critics that WSn purposely altered the earlier and 
establiMied arrangement, as a symbol of the disorganisation 
and disorder into which the kingdom had fallen '. But it 
is hard to say why a man did something more than 3000 
years ago, when he has not himself said anything about 
it. So far as we can judge from this Appendix, the author 
thought that king WSn altered the existing order and 
position of the trigrams with regard to the cardinal points, 
simply for the occasion, — that he might set forth vividly his 
ideas about the springing, growth, and maturity in the 
vegetable kingdom from the labours of spring to the 
cessation from toil in winter. The marvel is that in doing 
this he brings God upon the scene, and makes Him in the 
various processes of nature the ' all and in all.' 
The 8th paragraph says : — 

'God comes forth in Klkn (to his producing work) ; He brings 
(His processes) into full and equal action in Sun; they are mani- 
fested to one another in Lt ; the greatest service is done for Him in 
Khw&n; He rejoices in Tui; He struggles in II kien; He is 
comforted and enters into rest in Kh&n; and he completes (the 
work of) the year in K&n.' 

God is here named Tl, for which P. Regis gives the 
Latin ' Supremus Imperator,' and Canon McClatchie, after 
him, 'the Supreme Emperor.' I contend that 'God' is really 
the correct translation in English of Tt ; but to render it 
here by ' Emperor' would not affect the meaning of the 
paragraph. Kt Hst says that 'by Tl is intended the Lord 
and Governor of heaven;' and Khung Ying-t4, about five 
centuries earlier than Kd, quotes Wang PI, who died A.D. 

' E.g. I, 23, 24 : — ' Observant etiam philosophi (lib. 15 Sinicae philosophiae 
Sing-It) principem Win-wang antiquum octo symbolonim, unde aliae figniae 
omnes pendent, ordinem invertisse ; quo ipsa imperii suis temporibns subversio 
giaphice exprimi poterat, mutatis e natural! loco, quern genesis dederat, iis 
quatuor figuris, quae rerum naturalium pugnis ac dissociationibus, quas pos- 
terior labentis anni pars aflerre solet, velut in antecessum, repraesentandis 
idoneae videbantur; t. g. si symbolum ^— —— Lt, ignis, supponatur loco 
Kymbnli ^~ KhSn. aqii ap. iitriiisqiie elementi inordinatio principi visa 

est non minus apta ad signilicandas ruinas et clades reipublicae male ordinatae, 
qnam naturales ab bieme aut imminente aut saevieute rerum generatarum cor- 
niptiones.' See also pp. 67, 68. 

E 2 



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52 THE Vt KING, 



CH. in. 



249, to the effect that ' Tl is the lord who produces (all) 
things, the author of prosperity and increase.' 

I must refer the reader to the translation in the body of 
the volume for the 9th paragraph, which is too long to be 
introduced here. As the 8th speaks directly of God, the 
9th, we are told, ' speaks of all things following Him, from 
spring to winter, from the east to the north, in His progress 
throughout the year.' In words strikingly like those of the 
apostle Paul, when writing his Epistle to the Romans, Wan 
AT^ung-jung (of the Khang-hsi period) and his son, in their 
admirable work called, ' A New Digest of Collected Expla- 
nations of the Yl King,' say: — 'God (Himself) cannot be 
seen ; we see Him in the things (which He produces).' The 
first time I read these paragraphs with some understanding, 
I thought of Thomson's Hymn on the Seasons, and I have 
thought of it in connexion with them a hundred times since. 
Our English poet wrote : — 

'These, as they change. Almighty Father, these 
Are but the varied God. The rolling year 
Is full of Thee. Forth in the pleasing spring 
Thy beauty walks, Thy tenderness and love. 
Then comes Thy glory in the summer months, 
With light and heat refulgent. Then Thy sun 
Shoots full perfection through the swelling year. 
Thy bounty shines in autumn unconfined, 
And spreads a common feast for all that lives. 
In winter awful Thou!' 

Prudish readers have found fault with some of Thomson's 
expressions, as if they savoured of pantheism. The language 
of the Chinese writer is not open to the same captious 
objection. Without poetic ornament, or swelling phrase 
of any kind, he gives emphatic testimony to God as re- 
newing the face of the earth in spring, and not resting till 
He has crowned the year with His goodness. 

And there is in the passage another thing equally 
wonderful. The loth paragraph commences: — 'When we 
speak of Spirit, we mean the subtle presence (and operation 
of God) with all things ;' and the writer goes on to illustrate 
this sentiment from the action and influences symbolised 



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CH. in. INTRODUCTION. 53 

by the six 'children,' or minor trigrams, — water and fire, 
thunder and wind, mountains and collections of water. Kti 
Hsi says, that there is that in the paragraph which he does 
not understand. Some Chinese scholars, however, have 
not been far from descrying the light that is in it. Let 
Liang Yin, of our fourteenth century, be adduced as an 
example of them. He says: — 'The spirit here simply 
means God. God is the personality (literally, the body 
or substantiality) of the Spirit ; the Spirit is God in opera- 
tion. He who is lord over and rules all things is God ; 
the subtle presence and operation of God with all things 
is by His Spirit.' The language is in fine accord with the 
definition of sh^n or spirit, given in the 3rd Appendix, 
Section i, 3 a. 

I wish that the Treatise on the Trigrams had ended with the 
loth paragraph. The writer had gradually risen to a noble 
Concluding elevation of thought from which he plunges 
paragraphs, j^j-q ^ slough of nonsensical remarks which 
it would be difficult elsewhere to parallel. I have referred 
on p. 31 to the judgment of P. Regis about them. He could 
not receive them as from Confucius, and did not take the 
trouble to translate them, and transfer them to his own pages. 
My plan required me to translate everything published in 
China as a part of the Yi King ; but I have given my rea- 
sons for doubting whether any portion of these Appendixes 
be really from Confucius. There is nothing that could 
better justify the supercilious disregard with which the 
classical literature of China is frequently treated than to 
insist on the concluding portion of this treatise as being 
from the pencil of its greatest sage. I have dwelt at some 
length on the r4th paragraph, because of its mythological 
semblance ; but among the eight paragraphs that follow it, 
it would be difficult to award the palm for silliness. They 
are descriptive of the eight trigrams, and each one enu- 
merates a dozen or more objects of which its subject is 
symbolical. The writer must have been fond of and familiar 
with horses. KAien, the symbol properly of heaven, suggests 
to him the idea of a good horse ; an old horse ; a lean horse ; 
and a piebald. ATSn, the symbol of thunder, suggests the 



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54 THE Vi KING, CH. in. 

idea of a good neigher ; of the horse with white hind-legs ; 
of the prancing horse ; and of one with a white star in his 
forehead. Khdn, the symbol of water, suggests the idea 
of the horse with an elegant spine; of one with a high 
spirit ; of one with a drooping head ; and of one with a 
shambling step. The reader will think he has had enough 
of these symbolisings of the trigrams. I cannot believe 
that the earlier portions and this concluding portion of 
the treatise were by the same author. If there were any 
evidence that paragraphs 8 to lo were by Confucius, I 
should say that they were worthy, even more than worthy, 
of him ; what follows is mere drivel. Horace's picture 
faintly pourtrays the inconsistency between the parts : — 
'Desinit in piscem mulier formosa supeme.' 

In reviewing the second of these Appendixes, I was led 
to speak of the original significance of the trigrams, in 
opposition to the views of some Chinese who pretend that 
they can find in them the physical truths discovered by the 
researches of western science. May I not say now, after 
viewing the phase of them presented in these paragraphs, 
that they were devised simply as aids to divination, and 
partook of the unreasonableness and uncertainty belonging 
to that? 

9. The sixth Appendix is the Treatise on the Sequence 
of the Hexagrams, to which allusion has been made more 
The sixth than once. It is not necessary to dwell on 
Appendix, jj ^t length. King Wan, it has been seen, 
gave a name to each hexagram, expressive of the idea — 
some moral, social, or political truth — which he wished 
to set forth by means of it ; and this name enters very 
closely into its interpretation. The author of this treatise 
endeavours to explain the meaning of the name, and also 
the sequence of the figures, or how it is that the idea of 
the one leads on to that of the next. Yet the reader must 
not expect to find in the 64 a chain ' of linked sweetness 
long drawn out.' The connexion between any two is 
generally sufficiently close; but on the whole the essays, 
which I have said they form, resemble ' a heap of orient 
pearls at random strung.' The changeableness of human 



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CH. HI. INTRODUCTION. 55 

affairs is a topic never long absent from the writer's mind. 
He is firmly persuaded that 'the fashion of the world 
passeth away.' Union is sure to give place to separation, 
and by and by that separation will issue in re-union. 

There is nothing in the treatise to suggest anything 
about its authorship ; and as the reader will see from the 
notes, we are perplexed occasionally by meanings given 
to the names that differ from the meanings in the Text, 
lo. The last and least Appendix is the seventh, called 
The seventh 3^ Kw4 AT wan, or 'Treatise on the Lineal 
Appendix. Figures taken promiscuously,' — not with re- 
gard to any sequence, but as they approximate, or are 
opposed, to one another in meaning. It is in rhyme, more- 
over, and this, as much as the meaning, determined, no 
doubt, the grouping of the hexagrams. The student will 
learn nothing of value from it ; it is more a ' jeu d'esprit ' 
than anything else. 



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THE YI KING. 



TEXT. SECTION I. 
I. The AjffiEN Hexagram. 



Explanation of the entire figure by king W5n. 
KAien (represents) what is great and originating, 
penetrating, advantageous, correct and firm. 

Explanation of the separate lines by the duke of ^au. 

1. In the first (or lowest) line, undivided, (we see 
its subject as) the dragon lying hid (in the deep). 
It is not the time for active doing. 

2. In the second line, undivided, (we see its sub- 
ject as) the dragon appearing in the field. It will 
be advantageous to meet with the great man. 

3. In the third line, undivided, (we see its subject 
as) the superior man active and vigilant all the day, 
and in the evening still careful and apprehensive. 
(The position is) dangerous, but there will be no 
mistake. 

4. In the fourth line, undivided, (we see its sub- 
ject as the dragon looking) as if he were leaping up, 
but still in the deep. There will be no mistake. 

5. In the fifth line, undivided, (we see its subject 
as) the dragon on the wing in the sky. It will be 
advantageous to meet with the great man. 



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58 . ,, THE Yt KING. , >- TEXT. 

'"^^ ,6. In the sixth (or topmost) line, undivided, (we 
W-v'.^* '"'' '"see its subject as) the dragon exceeding the proper 
limits. There will be occasion for repentance. 

7. (The lines of this hexagram are all strong and 
undivided, as appears from) the use of the number 
nine. If the host of dragons (thus) appearing were 
to divest themselves of their heads, there would be 
good fortune. 

The Text under each hexagram consists of one paragraph by 
king W^n, explaining the figure as a whole, and of six (in the 
case of hexagrams i and 2, of seven) paragraphs by the duke of 
Kh\, explaining the individual lines. The explanatory notices 
introduced above to this effect will not be repeated. A double 
space will be used to mark off the portion of king W&n from that 
of his son. 

Each hexagram consists of two of the trigrams of Ffi-hst, the 
lower being called 'the inner,' and the one above ' the outer.' The 
lines, however, are numbered from one to six, commencing with 
the lowest. To denote the number of it and of the sixth line, the 
terms for 'commencing' and 'topmost' are used. The inter- 
mediate lines are simply ' second,' ' third,' &c. As the lines must 
be either whole or divided, technically called strong and weak, 
yang and yin, this distinction is indicated by the application to 
them of the numbers nine and six. All whole lines are nine, all 
divided lines, six. 

Two explanations have been proposed of this application of 
these numbers. The AT^ien trigram, it is said, contains 3 strokes 
( ■ V and the Khwiin 6 (^ =). But the yang contains 
the yin in itself, and its representative number will be 3 + 6=9, 
while the yin, not containing the yang, will only have its own 
number or 6. This explanation, entirely arbitrary, is now deservedly 
abandoned. The other is based on the use of the ' four Hsiang,' 
or emblematic figures ( the great or old yang, T^ "^ 

the young yang, = =: the old yin, and — - the young 

yin). To these are assigned (by what process is unimportant for 
oiu- present purpose) the numbers 9, 8, 7, 6. They were 'the old 
yang,' represented by 9, and 'the old yin,' represented by 6, that, 
in the manipulation of the stalks to form new diagrams, determined 
the changes of figure; and so 9 and 6 came to be used as the 



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SECT. I. THE KHWAN hexagram. 59 



II. The KhwAn Hexagram. 




Khwin (represents) what is great and originating, 
penetrating, advantageous, correct and having the 
firmness of a mare. When the superior man (here 

names ofa yangline and a yin line respectively. This explana- 
tion is now universally acquiesced in. The nomenclature of first 
nine, nine two, &c., or first six, six two, &c., however, is merely a 
jargon ; and I have preferred to use, instead of it, in the translation, 
in order to describe the lines, the names 'undivided' and 'divided.' 

I. Does king Win ascribe four attributes here to A'^ien, or 
only two ? According to Appendix IV, always by Chinese writers 
assigned to Confucius, he assigns four, corresponding to the princi- 
ples of benevolence, righteousness, propriety, and knowledge in 
man's nature. Kt Hs! held that he assigned only two, and that 
we should translate, ' greatly penetrating,' and 'requires to be correct 
and firm/ two responses in divination. Up and down throughout 
the Text of the 64 hexagrams, we often find the characters thus 
coupled together. Both interpretations are possible. I have 
followed what is accepted as the view of Confucius. It would take 
pages to give a tithe of what has been written in justification of it, 
and to reconcile it with the other. 

'The dragon' is the symbol employed by the duke of A!Uu 
to represent 'the superior man' and especially 'the great man,' 
exhibiting the virtues or attributes characteristic of heaven. The 
creature's proper home is in the water, but it can disport itself on 
the land, and also fly and soar aloft. It has been from the earliest 
time the emblem with the Chinese of the highest dignity and wis- 
dom, of sovereignty and sagehood, the combination of which con- 
stitutes ' the great man.' One emblem runs through the lines of 
many of the hexagrams as here. 

But the dragon appears in the sixth line as going beyond the 
proper limits. The ruling-sage has gone through all the sphere 
in which he is called on to display his attributes ; it is time for 
him to relax. The line should not be always pulled tight ; the 
bow should not be always kept drawn. The unchanging use 



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6o THE \i KING. 



TEXT. 



intended) has to make any movement, if he take the 
initiative, he will go astray ; if he follow, he will find 
his (proper) lord. The advantageousness will be 
seen in his getting friends in the south-west, and 
losing friends in the north-east. If he rest in cor- 
rectness and firmness, there will be good fortune. 

1. In the first line, divided, (we see its subject) 
treading on hoarfrost The strong ice will come 
(by and by). 

2. The second line, divided, (shows the attribute 
of) being straight, square j and great. (Its opera- 
tion), without repeated efforts, will be in every 
respect advantageous. 

3. The third line, divided, (shows its subject) 
keeping his excellence under restraint, but firmly 
maintaining it. If he should have occasion to en- 
gage in the king's service, though he will not claim 
the success (for himself), he will bring affairs to a 
good issue. 

4. The fourth line, divided, (shows the symbol 
of) a sack tied up. There will be no ground for 
blame or for praise. 

5. The fifth line, divided, (shows) the yellow 
lower garment. There will be great good fortune. 

of force will give occasion for repentance. The moral meaning 
found in the line is that ' the high shall be abased.' 

The meaning given to the supernumerary paragraph is the opposite 
of that of paragraph 6. The ' host of dragons without their heads ' 
would give us the next hexagram, or Kh win, made up of six divided 
lines. Force would have given place to submission,, and haughtiness 
to humility ; and the result would be good fortune. Such at least 
is the interpretation of the paragraph given in a narrative of the 
3o--^wan under b.c. 513. For further explanation of the duke of 
ATiu's meaning, see Appendixes II and IV. 



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SECT. I. .THE khwXn hexagram. 6 1 

6. The sixth line, divided, (shows) dragons fight- 
ing in the wild. Their blood is purple and yellow. 

7. (The lines of this hexagram are all weak and 
divided, as appears from) the use of the number 
six. If those (who are thus represented) be per- 
petually correct and firm, advantage will arise. 

II. The same attributes are here ascribed to Khw^n, as in the 
former hexagram to ^Men ; — but with a difference. The figure,^ 
made up of six divided lines, expresses the ideal of subordination *- 
and docility. The superior man, represented by it, must not take 
the initiative ; and by follow ing he will find his lord, — the subject^ 
that is of KAien. Again, the correctness and firmness is defined to 
be that of ' a mare,' ' docile and strong,' but a creature for the 
service of man. That it is not the sex of the animal which the 
writer has chiefly in mind is plain from the immediate mention 
of the superior man, and his lord. 

That superior man will seek to bring his friends along with him- 
self to serve his ruler. But according to the arrangement of the 
trigrams by king Wan, the place of Khw^n is in the south-west, 
while the opposite quarter is occupied by the yang trigram Kin, 
as in Figure 2, Plate III. All that this portion of the Th wan says 
is an instruction to the subject of the hexagram to seek for others 
of the same principles and tendencies with himself to serve their 
common lord. But in quietness and firmness will be his strength. 

The symbolism of the lines is various. Paragraph 2 presents to 
us the earth itself, according to the Chinese conception of it, as a 
great cube. To keep his excellence under restraint, as in para- 
graph 3, is the part of a minister or officer, seeking not his own 
glory, but that of his ruler. Paragraph 4 shows its subject exer- 
cising a still greater restraint on himself than in paragraph 3. 
There is an interpretation of the symbolism of paragraph 5 in 
a narrative of the 3° .^wan, under the 1 2th year of duke A'^io, 
B.C. 530. 'Yellow' is one of the five 'correct' colours, and the 
colour of the earth. ' The lower garment ' is a symbol of humility. 
N The fifthjine is the_seat of Jtumour. If its occupant possess the 
qualities indicated, he will be greatly fortunate. 

See the note on the sixth line of hexagram i. What is there 
said to be 'beyond the proper limits' takes place here 'in the wild.' 
The humble subject of the divided line is transformed into a 



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62 THE y! king. 



TEXT. 



III. The A'un Hexagram. 



A'un (indicates that in the case which it pre- 
supposes) there will be great progress and success, 
and the advantage will come from being correct and 
firm. (But) any movement in advance should not 
be (lightly) undertaken. There will be advantage 
in appointing feudal princes. 

1. The first line, undivided, shows the difficulty 
(its subject has) in advancing. It will be advanta- 
geous for him to abide correct and firm; advan- 
tageous (also) to be made a feudjil ruler. 

2. The second line, divided, shows (its subject) 
distressed and obliged to return ; (even) the horses 
of her chariot (also) seem to be retreating. (But) 
not by a spoiler (is she assailed), but by one who 
seeks her to be his wife. The young lady maintains 
her firm correctness, and declines a union. After 
ten years she will be united, and have children. 

3. The third line, divided, shows one following 
the deer without (the guidance of) the forester, and 
only finding himself in the midst of the forest. The 
superior man, acquainted with the secret risks, 
thinks it better to give up the chase. If he went 
forward, he would regret it. 

dragon, and fights with the true dragon, the subject of the undivided 
line. They fight and bleed, and their blood is of the colour proper to 
heaven or the sky, and the colour proper to the earth. Paragraph 7 
supposes that the hexagram Khw^n should become changed into 
KAien ; — the result of which would be good. 



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SECT. 1. THE JTUN HEXAGRAM. 6^ 

4. The fourth line, divided, shows (its subject 
as a lady), the horses of whose chariot appear in 
retreat. She seeks, however, (the help of) him who 
seeks her to be his wife. Advance will be fortu- 
nate ; all will turn out advantageously. 

5. The fifth line, undivided, shows the difficulties 
in the way of (its subject's) dispensing the rich 
favours that might be expected from him. With firm- 
ness and correctness there will be good fortune in 
small things ; (even) with them in great things there 
will be evil. 

6. The topmost line, divided, shows (its subject) 
with the horses of his chariot obliged to retreat, and 
weeping tears of blood in streams. 

III. The character called .ATun is pictorial, and was intended 
to show us how a plant struggles with difficulty out of the earth, 
rising gradually above the surface. This difficulty, marking the 
first stages in the growth of a plant, is used to symbolise the 
struggles that mark the rise of a state out of a condition of disorder, 
consequent on a great revolution. The same thing is denoted by 
the combination of the trigrams that form the figure ; — as will be 
seen in the notes on it under Appendix II. 

I have introduced within parentheses, in the translation, the words 
'in the case which the hexagram presupposes.' It is necessary to 
introduce them. King Win and his son wrote, as they did in every 
hexagram, with reference ta a particular state of affairs which they 
had in mind. This was the unspoken text which controlled and ^ 
directed all their writing ; and the student must try to get hold of 
this, if he would make his way with comfort and success through 
the Yt. Win saw the social and political world around him in 
great disorder, hard to be remedied. But he had faith in himself * 
and the destinies of his House. Let there be prudence and caution, 
with unswerving adherence to the right ; let the government of the ' 
different states be entrusted to good and able men: — then all 
would be well. 

The first line is undivided, showing the strength of its subject. 
He will be capable of action, and his place in the trigrara of 
mobility will the more dispose him to it. But above him is the 



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64 THE Vi KING. 



TEXT. 



IV. The MXng Hexagram, 



Ming (indicates that in the case which it pre- 
supposes) there will be progress and success. I do 
not (go and) seek' the youthful and inexperienced, 

trigram of peril ; and the lowest line of that, to which especially he 
must look for response and co-operation, is divided and weak. 
Hence arise the ideas of diflSculty in advancing, the necessity of 
caution, and the advantage of his being clothed with authority. 

To the subject of the second line, divided, advance is still more 

difficult. He is weak in himself; he is pressed by the subject of 

the strong line below him. But happily that subject, though strong, 

is correct ; and above in the fifth line, in the place of authority, is 

the strong one, union with whom and the service of whom should 

be the objects pursued. All these circumstances suggested to the 

duke of ATdu the idea of a young lady, sought in marriage by a 

'strong wooer, when marriage was unsuitable, rejecting him, and 

' finally, after ten years, marrying a more suitable, the only suitable, 

' match for her. 

The third line is divided, not central, and the number of its 
place is appropriate to the occupancy of a strong line. All these 
things should aff'ect the symbolism of the line. But the outcome 
of the whole hexagram being good, the superior man sees the imme- 
diate danger and avoids it. 

The subject of the fourth line, the first of the upper trigram, has 
recourse to the strong suitor of line i, the first of the lower trigram ; 
and with his help is able to cope with the difficulties of the position, 
and go forward. 

The subject of the fifth line is in the place of authority, and 
should show himself a ruler, dispensing benefits on a great scale. 
But he is in the very centre of the trigram denoting perilousness, 
and Une a, which responds to 5, is weak. Hence arises the sym- 
bolism, and great things should not be attempted. 

The sixth line is weak ; the third responding to it is also weak ; 
it is at the extremity of peril ; the game is up. What can remain 
for its subject in such a case but terror and abject weeping ? 



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SECT. I. THE mXnG hexagram. 65 

but he comes and seeks me. When he shows (the 
sincerity that marks) the first recourse to divination, 
I instruct him. If he apply a second and third time, 
that is troublesome ; and I do not instruct the 
troublesome. There will be advantage in being firm 
and correct. 

1. The first line, divided, (has respect to) the 
dispelling of ignorance. It will be advantageous 
to use punishment (for that purpose), and to re- 
move the shackles (from the mind). But going 
on in that way (of punishment) will give occasion 
for regret. 

2. The second line, undivided, (shows its subject) 
exercising forbearance with the ignorant, in which 
there will be good fortune; and admitting (even 
the goodness of women, which will also be fortunate. 
(He may be described also as) a son able to (sustain 
the burden of) his family. 

3. The third line, divided, (seems to say) that 
one should not marry a woman whose emblem it 
might be, for that, when she sees a man of wealth, 
she will not keep her person from him, and in no 
wise will advantage come from her. 

4. The fourth line, divided, (shows its subject as 
if) bound in chains of ignorance. There will be 
occasion for regret. 

5. The fifth line, divided, shows its subject as 
a simple lad without experience. There will be 
good fortune. 

6. In the topmost line, undivided, we see one 
smiting the ignorant (youth). But no advantage 

[16] F 



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66 THE vi KING. 



TEXT. 



will come from doing him an injury. Advantage 
would come from warding off injury from him. 



IV. As ATun shows us plants struggling from beneath the sur- 
face, M&ng suggests to us the small and undeveloped appearance 
which they then present ; and hence it came to be the symbol of 
youthful inexperience and ignorance. The object of the hexagram 
is to show how such a condition should be dealt with by the parent 
and ruler, whose authority and duty are represented by the second 
and sixth, the two undivided lines. All between the first and last 
sentences of the Thwan must be taken as an oracular response 
received by the party divining on the subject of enlightening the 
youthful ignorant This accounts for its being more than usually 
enigmatical, and for its being partly rhythmical. See Appendix I, 
in loc. 

The subject of the first line, weak, and at the bottom of the 
figure, is in the grossest ignorance. Let him be punished. If 
punishment avail to loosen the shackles and manacles from the 
mind, well ; if not, and punishment be persevered with, the effect 
will be bad. 

On the subject of the second line, strong, and in the central 
place, devolves the task of enlightening the ignorant ; and we have 
him discharging it with forbearance and humility. In proof of his 
generosity, it is said that ' he receives,' or learns from, even weak 
and ignorant women. He appears also as 'a son' taking the place 
of his father. 

The third line is weak, and occupies an odd place belonging 
properly to an undivided line ; nor is its place in the centre. All 
these things give the subject of it so bad a character. 

The fourth line is far from both the second and sixth, and can 
get no help from its correlate, — the first line, weak as itself. What 
good can be done with or by the subject of it ? 

The fifih line is in the place of honour, and has for its correlate 
the strong line in the second place. Being weak in itself, it is 
taken as the symbol of a simple lad, willing to be taught. 

The topmost line is strong, and in the highest place. It is 
natural, but unwise, in him to use violence in carrying on his 
educational measures. A better course is suggested to him. 



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SECT. I. THE HSO HEXAGRAM. 67 



V. The HsC Hexagram. 



Hsii intimates that, with the sincerity which is 
declared in it, there will be brilliant success. With 
firmness there will be good fortune; and it will be 
advantageous to cross the great stream. 

1. The first line, undivided, shows its subject 
waiting in the distant border. It will be well for 
him constantly to maintain (the purpose thus shown), 
in which case there will be no error. 

2. The second line, undivided, shows its subject 
waiting on the sand (of the mountain stream). He 
will (suffer) the small (injury of) being spoken 
(against), but in the end there will be good fortune. 

3. The third line, undivided, shows its subject in 
the mud (close by the stream). He thereby invites 
the approach of injury. 

4. The fourth line, divided, shows its subject 
waiting in (the place of) blood. But he will get 
out of the cavern. 

5. The fifth line, undivided, shows its subject 
waiting amidst the appliances of a feast. Through 
his firmness and correctness there will be good 
fortune. 

6. The topmost line, divided, shows its subject 
entered into the cavern. (But) there are three 
guests coming, without being urged, (to his help). 

F 2 



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68 THE y! king. 



TEXT. 



p^ 



If he receive them respectfully, there will be good 
fortune in the end, 

V. Hsii means waiting. Strength confronted by peril might be 
I expected to advance boldly and at once to struggle with it ; but it 
takes the wiser plan of waiting till success is sure. This is the 
i lesson of the hexagram. That ' sincerity is declared in it' is proved 
from the fifth line in the position of honour and authority, central, 
itself undivided and in an odd place. In such a case, nothing but 
firm correctness is necessary to great success. 
N, ' Going through a great stream,' an expression frequent in the Yi, 
may mean undertaking hazardous enterprises, or encountering 
great difficulties, without any special reference ; but more natural 
is it to understand by 'the great stream' the Yellow river, which the 
lords of A'au must cross in a revolutionary movement against the 
dynasty of Yin and its tyrant. The passage of it by king Wfl, the 
son of Win in b.c. i 122, was certainly one of the greatest deeds in 
the history of China. It was preceded also by long ' waiting,' till 
the time of assured success came. 

' The border ' under Une i means the frontier territory of the 
state. There seems no necessity for such a symbolism. 'The sand' 
and ' the mud ' are appropriate with reference to the watery defile ; 
but it is different with ' the border.' The subject of the line appears 
at work in his distant fields, not thinking of anything but his daily 
work ; and he is advised to abide in that state and mind. 

' The sand ' of paragraph 2 suggests a nearer approach to the 
defile, but its subject is still self-restrained and waiting. I do 
not see what suggests the idea of his suffering from ' the strife of 
tongues.' 

In paragraph 3 the subject is on the brink of the stream. His 
advance to that position has provoked resistance, which may result 
in his injury. 

Line 4 has passed from the inner to the upper trigram, and 
entered on the scene of danger and strife ; — 'into the place of blood.' 
Its subject is 'weak and in the correct place for him;' he therefore 
retreats and escapes from the cavern, where he was engaged with 
his enemy. 

Line 5 is strong and central, and in its correct place, being that 
of honour. All good qualities therefore belong to the subject of 
it, who has triumphed, and with firmness will triumph still more. 

Line 6 is weak, and has entered deeply into the defile and its 
caverns. What will become of its subject? His correlate is the 



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SECT. I. THE SUNG HEXAGRAM. 69 



VI. The Sung Hexagram. 



Sung intimates how, though there is sincerity in 
one's contention, he will yet meet with opposition 
and obstruction ; but if he cherish an apprehensive 
caution, there will be good fortune, while, if he must 
prosecute the contention to the (bitter) end, there 
will be evil. It will be advantageous to see the 
great man ; it will not be advantageous to cross the 
great stream. 

1. The first line, divided, shows its subject not 
perpetuating the matter about which (the contention 
is). He will suffer the small (injury) of being spoken 
against, but the end will be fortunate. 

2. The second line, undivided, shows its subject 
unequal to the contention. If he retire and keep 
concealed (where) the inhabitants of his city are 
(only) three hundred families, he will fall into no 
mistake. 

3. The third line, divided, shows its subject 
keeping in the old place assigned for his support, 
and firmly correct. Perilous as the position is, there 
will be good fortune in the end. Should he per- 

strong line 3 below, which comes with its two companions to his 
help. If they are respectfully received, that help will prove effectual. 
P. Regis tries to find out a reference in these ' three guests ' to 
three princes who distinguished themselves by taking part with ^au 
in its struggle with Yin or Shang; see vol. i, pp. 279-282. I dare 
not be so confident of any historical reference. 



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yo THE y! king. 



TEXT. 



chance engage in the king's business, he will' not 
(claim the merit of) achievement. 

4. The fourth line, undivided, shows its subject 
unequal to the contention. He returns to (the 
study of Heaven's) ordinances, changes (his wish to 
contend), and rests in being firm and correct. There 
will be good fortune. 

5. The fifth line, undivided, shows its subject 
contending ; — and with great good fortune. 

6. The topmost line, undivided, shows how its 
subject may have the leathern belt conferred on 
him (by the sovereign), and thrice it shall be taken 
from him in a morning. 



VI, We have strength in the upper trigram, as if to regulate and 
control the lower, and peril in that lower as if looking out for an 
opportunity to assail the upper ; or, as it may be represented, we 
have one's self in a state of peril matched against strength from 
without. All this is supposed to give the idea of contention or 
strife. But the undivided line in the centre of Kbin is emblematic 
of sincerity, and gives a character to the whole figure. An individual, 
so represented, will be very wary, and have good fortune ; but 
strife is bad, and if persevered in even by such a one, the eflfect will 
be evil. The fifth line, undivided, in an odd place, and central, 
serves as a representative of ' the great man,' whose agency is sure 
to be good ; but the topmost line being also strong, and with its 
two companions, riding as it were, on the trigram of peril, its action 
is likely to be too rash for a great enterprise. See the treatise on 
the Thwan, in loc. 

The subject of line i is weak and at the bottom of the figure. 
He may suffer a little in the nascent strife, but will let it drop ; 
and the effect will be good. 

Line a represents one who is strong, and has the rule of the 
lower trigram ; — he has the mind for strife, and might be expected 
to engage in it. But his strength is weakened by being in an even 
place, and he is no match for his correlate in line 5, and therefore 
retreats. A town or city with only three hundred families is said 



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SECT. I. THE SZE HEXAGRAM. 7 1 



VII. The Sze Hexagram. 



Sze indicates how, in the case which it supposes, 
with firmness and correctness, and (a leader of) age 

to be very small. That the subject of the line should retire to so 
insignificant a place is further proof of his humility. 

Line 3 is weak and in an odd place. Its subject therefore is not 
equal to strive, but withdraws from the arena. Even if forced into 
it, he will keep himself in the background; — and be safe. 'He 
keeps in the old place assigned for his support' is, literally, 
'He eats his old virtue;' meaning that he lives in and on the 
appanage assigned to him for his services. 

Line 4 is strong, and not in the centre ; so that we are to con- 
ceive of its subject as having a mind to strive. But immediately 
above it is line 5, the symbol of the ruler, and with him it is hope- 
less to strive ; immediately below is 3, weak, and out of its proper 
place, incapable of maintaining a contention. Its proper correlate 
is the lowest line, weak, and out of its proper place, from whom 
Uttle help can come. Hence its subject takes the course indicated, 
which leads to good fortune. 
Line 5 has every circumstance in favour of its subject. 
Line 6 is strong and able to contend successfully ; but is there 
to be no end of striving? Persistence in it is sure to end in defeat 
and disgrace. The contender here might receive a reward from the 
king for his success; but if he received it thrice in a morning, 
thrice it would be taken from him again. As to the nature of the 
reward here given, see on the Li Xi, X, ii, 32. 

P. Regis explains several of the expressions in the Text, both in 
the Thwan and the Hsiang, from the history of king Win and his 
son king WQ. Possibly his own circumstances may have suggested to 
Win some of the Thwan; and his course in avoiding a direct colli- 
sion with the tyrant ShSu, and Wfi's subsequent exploits may have 
been in the mind of the duke of A'au. Some of the sentiments, 
however, cannot be historically explained. They are general pro- 
tests against all contention and strife. 



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72 THE y} king. 



TEXT. 



and experience, there will be good fortune and no 
error. 

1. The first line, divided, shows the host going 
forth according to the rules (for such a movement). 
If these be not good, there will be evil. 

2. The second line, undivided, shows (the leader) 
in the midst of the host. There will be good for- 
tune and no error. The king has thrice conveyed 
to him the orders (of his favour). 

3. The third line, divided, shows how the host 
may, possibly, have many inefficient leaders. There 
will be evil. 

4. The fourth line, divided, shows the host in 
retreat. There is no error. 

5. The fifth line, divided, shows birds in the fields, 
which it will be advantageous to seize (and destroy). 
In that case there will be no error. If the oldest 
son leads the host, and younger men (idly occupy 
offices assigned to them), however firm and correct 
he may be, there will be evil, 

6. The topmost line, divided, shows the great 
ruler delivering his charges, (appointing some) to be 
rulers of states, and others to undertake the head- 
ship of clans ; but small men should not be employed 
(in such positions). 

VII. The conduct of military expeditions in a feudal kingdom, 
and we may say, generally, is denoted by the hexagram Sze. 
Referring to Appendixes I and II for an explanation of the way in 
which the combination of lines in it is made out to suggest the idea 
of an army, and that idea being assumed, it is easy to see how the 
undivided line in the second place should be interpreted of the 
general, who is responded to by the divided line in the fifth and 
royal place. Thus entire trust is reposed in him. He is strong 



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SECT. I. 



THE Pt HEXAGRAM. 73 



VIII. The Pi Hexagram. 



Pi indicates that (under the conditions which it 
supposes) there is good fortune. But -let (the prin- 
cipal party intended in it) re-examine himself, (as if) 

and correct, and his enterprises will be successful. He is denomi- 
nated ^ang z&n, ' an old, experienced man.' 

' The rules,' it is said, ' are twofold ; — first, that the war be for a V 
righteous end ; and second, that the manner of conducting it, v 
especially at the outset, be right.' But how this and the warning 
in the conclusion should both follow from the divided line being 
in the first place, has not been sufficiently explained. 

How line 2 comes to be the symbol of the general in command 
of the army has been shown above on the Thwan, The orders of 
the king thrice conveyed to him are to be understood of his appoint- 
ment to the command, and not of any rewards conferred on him 
as a tribute to his merit. Nor is stress to be laid on the ' thrice.' 
'It does not mean that the appointment came to him three 
times ; but that it was to him exclusively, and with the entire con- 
fidence of the king.' 

The symbolism of line 3 is very perplexing. P. Regis translates 
it: — 'Milites videntur deponere sarcinas in curribus. 
Male.' Canon McClatchie has: — 'Third-six represents soldiers as it 
were lying dead in their baggage carts, and is unlucky.' To the same 
effect was my own translation of the paragraph, nearly thirty years 
ago. But the third line, divided, cannot be forced to have such an 
indication. The meaning I have now given is more legitimate, 
taken character by character, and more in harmony with the scope of 
the hexagram. The subject of line 2 is the one proper leader of the 
host. But line 3 is divided and weak, and occupies the place of a 
strong line, as if its subject had perversely jumped over two, and 
perched himself above it to take the command. This interpretation 
also suits better in the 5th paragraph. 

Line 4 is weak and not centrsd ; and therefore ' to retreat ' is 



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74 THE Vi KING. 



TEXT. 



by divination, whether his virtue be great, uninter- 
mitting, and firm. If it be so, there will be no 
error. Those who have not rest will then come to 
him ; and with those who are (too) late in coming it 
will be ill. 

1. The first line, divided, shows its subject seek- 
ing by his sincerity to win the attachment of his 
object. There will be no error. Let (the breast) 
be full of sincerity as an earthenware vessel is of 
its contents, and it will in the end bring other 
advantages. 

2. In the second line, divided, we see the move- 
ment towards union and attachment proceeding 
from the inward (mind). With firm correctness 
there will be good fortune. 

3. In the third line, divided, we see its subject 
seeking for union with such as ought not to be 
associated with. 

4. In the fourth line, divided, we see its subject 



natural for its subject. But its place is even, and proper for a 
divided line ; and the retreat will be right in the circumstances. 

In line 5 we seem to have an intimation of the important truth 
that only defensive war, or war waged by the rightful authority to 
put down rebellion and lawlessness, is right. ' The birds in the 
fields' symbolise parties attacking for plunder. The fifth line 
symbolises the chief authority, — the king, who is weak, or 
humble, and in the centre, and cedes the use of all his power to 
the general symbolised by line 2. The subject of 2 is ' the oldest 
son.' Those of three and four are supposed to be ' the younger 
brother and son,' that is, the younger men, who would cause evil if 
admitted to share the command. 

The lesson on the topmost line is true and important, but the 
critics seem unable to deduce it from the nature of the line, as 
divided and in the sixth place. 



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SECT. I. THE Pt HEXAGRAM. 75 

seeking for union with the one beyond himself. With 
firm correctness there will be good fortune. 

5. The fifth line, undivided, affords the most illus- 
trious instance of seeking union and attachment. 
(We seem to see in it) the king urging his pursuit 
of the game (only) in three directions, and allowing 
the escape of all the animals before him, while the 
people of his towns do not warn one another (to 
prevent it). There will be good fortune. 

6. In the topmost line, divided, we see one seek- 
ing union and attachment without having taken the 
first step (to such an end). There will be evil. 

VIII. The idea of union between the different members and 
classes of a state, and how it can be secured, is the subject of the 
hexagram PI. The whole line occupying the fifth place, or that of 
authority, in the hexagram, represents the ruler to whom the subjects 
of all the other lines offer a ready submission. According to the 
general rules for the symbolism of the lines, the second line is the 
correlate of the fifth ; but all the other lines are here made subject 
to that fifth ; — which is also a law of the Yt, according to the ' Daily 
Lecture.' To me it has the suspicious look of being made for the 
occasion. The harmony of union, therefore, is to be secured by 
the sovereign authority of one ; but he is warned to see to it that 
his virtue be what will beseem his place, and subjects are warned 
not to delay to submit to him. 

Where does the ' sincerity ' predicated of the subject of line i 
come from ? The ' earthenware vessel ' is supposed to indicate its 
plain, unadorned character ; but there is nothing in the position 
and nature of the line, beyond the general idea in the figure, to 
suggest the attribute. 

Line a is the proper correlate of 5. Its position in the centre 
of the inner or lower trigram agrees with the movement of its 
subject as proceeding from the inward mind. 

Line 3 is weak, not in the centre, nor in its correct place. The 
lines above and below it are both weak. All these things are sup- 
posed to account for what is said on it 

'The one beyond himself in line 4 is the ruler or king, who is 



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76 THE Vf KING. 



TEXT. 



IX. The HsiAo Knt Hexagram. 



HsidoA'^ti indicates that (under its conditions) 
there will be progress and success. (We see) dense 
clouds, but no rain coming from our borders in the 
west. 

1. The first line, undivided, shows its subject re- 
turning and pursuing his own course. What mistake 
should he fall into ? There will be good fortune. 

2. The second line, undivided, shows its subject, 
by the attraction (of the former line), returning (to 
the proper course). There will be good fortune. 

the subject of 5, and with whom union ought to be soughL The 
divided line, moreover, is in a place proper to it. If its subject be 
firm and correct, there will be good fortune. 

The subject of line 5 is the king, who must be the centre of 
union. The ancient kings had their great hunting expeditions 
in the different seasons ; and that of each season had its peculiar 
rules. But what is stated here was common to all. When the 
beating was completed, and the shooting was ready to commence, 
one side of the enclosure into which the game had been driven was 
left open and unguarded; — a proof of the royal benevolence, which 
did not want to make an end of all the game. So well known and 
understood is this benevolence of the model king of the hexagram, 
that all his people try to give it effect. Thus the union contemplated 
is shown to be characterised by mutual confidence and appreciation 
in virtue and benevolence. 

A weak line being in the 6th place, which is appropriate to it, its 
subject is supposed to be trying to promote union among and with 
the subjects of the lines below. It is too late. The time is past. 
Hence it is symbolised as ' without a head,' that is, as not having 
taken the first step, from which its acdon should begin, and go 
on to the end. 



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SECT. I. THE HSiAo Knt HEXAGRAM, yj 

3. The third line, undivided, suggests the idea 
of a carriage, the strap beneath which has been 
removed, or of a husband and wife looking on each 
other with averted eyes. 

4. The fourth line, divided, shows its subject 
possessed of sincerity. The danger of bloodshed is 
thereby averted, and his (ground for) apprehension 
dismissed. There will be no mistake. 

5. The fifth line, undivided, shows its subject 
possessed of sincerity, and drawing others to unite 
with him. Rich in resources, he employs his neigh- 
bours (in the same cause with himself). 

6. The topmost line, undivided, shows how the 
rain has fallen, and the (onward progress) is stayed ; 
— (so) must we value the full accumulation of the 
virtue (represented by the upper trigram). But a 
wife (exercising restraint), however firm and correct 
she may be, is in a position of peril, (and like) the 
moon approaching to the full. If the superior man 
prosecute his measures (in such circumstances), there 
will be evil. 

IX. The name Hsito £'M is interpreted as meaning 'small 
restraint' The idea of ' restraint ' having once been determined 
on as that to be conveyed by the figure, it is easily made out that 
the restraint must be small, for its representative is the divided line 
in the fourth place ; and the check given by that to all the undivided 
lines cannot be great. Even if we suppose, as many critics do, 
that all the virtue of that upper trigram Sun is concentrated in its 
first line, the attribute ascribed to Sun is that of docile flexibility, 
which cannot long be successful against the strength emblemed by 
the lower trigram Ajiien. The restraint therefore is small, and in 
the end there will be ' progress and success.' 

The second sentence of the Thwan contains indications of the 
place, time, and personality of the writer which it seems possible 
to ascertain. The fief of A'au was the western portion of the 



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78 THE Vt KING. 



TEXT. 



/ 



X. The Lt Hexagram. 



1 (Ll suggests the idea of) one treading on the tail 

V ; of a tiger, which does not bite him. There will be 
/) progress and success. 

kingdom of Yin or Shang, the China of the twelfth century b. c, the 
era of king Win. Rain coming and moistening the ground is the 
cause of the beauty and luxuriance of the vegetable world, and 
the emblem of the blessings flowing from good training and good 
government. Here therefore in the west, the hereditary territory 
of the house of ifiu, are blessings which might enrich the whole 
kingdom ; but they are somehow restrained. The dense clouds do 
not empty their stores. 

P. Regis says : — ' To declare openly that no rain fell from the 
heavens long covered with dense clouds over the great tract of 
country, which stretched from the western border to the court and 
on to the eastern sea, was nothing else but leaving it to all thought- 
ful minds to draw the conclusion that the family of W3ii was 
as worthy of the supreme seat as that of Shiu, the tyrant, however 
ancient, was unworthy of it (vol. i, p. 356).' The intimation is not 
put in the Text, however, so clearly as by P. Regis. 

Line i is undivided, the first line of A'Aien, occupying its proper 
place. Its subject, therefore, notwithstandmg the check of line 4, 
resumes his movement, and will act according to his strong nature, 
, and go forward. 

Line 3 is also strong, and though an even place is not appropriate 
to it, that place being central, its subject will make common cause 
with the subject of line i ; and there will be good fortune. 

Line 3, though strong, and in a proper place, yet not being 
in the centre, is supposed to be less able to resist the restraint 
of line 4 ; and hence it has the ill omens that are given. 

The subject of line 4, one weak line against all the strong lines 
of the hexagram, might well expect wounds, and feel apprehension 
in trying to restrain the others ; but it is in its proper place ; it 
is the first line also of Sun, whose attribute is docile flexibility. 



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SECT. I. THE hi HEXAGRAM. 79 

1. The first line, undivided, shows its subject 
treading his accustomed path. If he go forward, 
there will be no error. 

2. The second line, undivided, shows its subject 
treading the path that is level and easy; — a quiet 
and solitary man, to whom, if he be firm and correct, 
there will be good fortune. 

3. The third line, divided, shows a one-eyed man 
(who thinks he) can see; a lame man (who thinks 
he) can walk well; one who treads on the tail of 
a tiger and is bitten. (All this indicates) ill fortune. 
We have a (mere) bravo acting the part of a great 
ruler. 

4. The fourth line, undivided, shows its subject 
treading on the tail of a tiger. He becomes full of 
apprehensive caution, and in the end there will be 
good fortune. 

5. The fifth line, undivided, shows the resolute 
tread of its subject. Though he be firm and correct, 
there will be peril. 

6. The sixth line, undivided, tells us to look at 
(the whole course) that is trodden, and examine the 

The strong lines are moved to sympathy and help, and 'there 
is no mistake.' 

Line 5 occupies the central place of Sun, and converts, by the 
sincerity of its subject, 4 and 6 into its neighbours, who suffer 
themselves to be used by it, and effect their common object. 

In line 6, the idea of the hexagram has run its course. The 
harmony of nature is restored. The rain falls, and the onward 
march of the strong lines should now stop. But weakness that 
has achieved such a result, if it plume itself on it, will be in a 
position of peril ; and like the full moon, which must henceforth 
wane. Let the superior man, when he has attained his end, remain 
in quiet 



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8o THE Vt KING. 



TEXT. 



presage which that gives. If it be complete and 
without failure, there will be great good fortune. 

X. The character giving its name to the hexagram plays an im- 
portant part also in the symbolism ; and this may be the reason 
why it does not, as the name, occupy the first place in the Thwan. 
Looking at the figure; we see it is made up of the trigrams Tui, 
representing a marsh, and A'Aien, representing the sky. Tui is 
a yin trigram, and its top line is divided. Below if/iien, the great 
symbol of strength, it may readily suggest the idea of treading 
on a tiger's tail, which was an old way of expressing what was 
hazardous (Shfl V, xxv, 2). But what suggests the statement that 
'the tiger does not bite the treader?' The attribute of Tui is 
pleased satisfaction. Of course such an attribute could not be 
predicated of one who was in the fangs of a tiger. The coming 
scatheless out of such danger further suggests the idea of ' progress 
and success' in the course which king Win had in his mind. 
And according to Appendix VI, that course was 'propriety,' the 
observance of all the rules of courtesy. On these, as so many 
stepping-stones, one may tread safely amid scenes of disorder and 
peril. 

Line i is an undivided line in an odd place ; giving us the ideas 
of activity, firmness, and correctness. One so characterised will 
act rightly. 

Line 2 occupies the middle place of the trigram, which is sup- 
.posed to symbolise a path cut straight and level along the hill-side, 
or over difficult ground. Line 5 is not a proper correlate, and hence 
the idea of the subject of 2 being ' a quiet and solitary man.' 

Line 3 is neither central nor in an even place, which would 
be proper to it. But with the strength of will which the occupant 
of an odd place should possess, he goes forward with the evil results 
so variously emblemed. The editors of the im{>erial edition, in 
illustration of the closing sentence, refer to Analects VII, x. 

Line 4 is in contiguity with 5, whose subject is in the place of 
authority ; but he occupies the place proper to a weak or divided 
line, and hence he bethinks himself, and goes softly. 

Beneath the symbolism under line 5, lies the principle that the 
most excellent thing in ' propriety ' is humility. And the subject of 
the line, which is strong and central, will not be lacking in this, 
but bear in mind that the higher he is exalted, the greater may be 
his faU. 



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SECT. I. THE ThAi hexagram. 8 1 



XI. The ThAi Hexagram. 



In Thdi (we see) the little gone and the great 
come. (It indicates that) there will be good fortune, 
with progress and success. 

1. The first line, undivided, suggests the idea of 
grass pulled up, and bringing with it other stalks 
with whose roots it is connected. Advance (on the 
part of its subject) will be fortunate. 

2. The second line, undivided, shows one who can 
bear with the uncultivated, will cross the Ho without 
a boat, does not forget the distant, and has no (selfish) 
friendships. Thus does he prove himself acting in 
accordance with the course of the due Mean. 

3. The third line, undivided, shows that, while 
there is no state of peace that is not liable to be 
disturbed, and no departure (of evil men) so that 
they shall not return, yet when one is firm and 
correct, as he realises the distresses that may arise, 
he will commit no error. There is no occasion for 
sadness at the certainty (of such recurring changes) ; 
and in this mood the happiness (of the present) may 
be (long) enjoyed. 

4. The fourth line, divided, shows its subject 
fluttering (down); — not relying on his own rich 

What is said on line 6 is good, but is only a truism. The 
whole course has been shown; if every step has been right and 
appropriate, the issue will be very good. 
[16] G 



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82 THE yJ king. 



TEXT. 



resources, but calling in his neighbours. (They all 
come) not as having received warning, but in the 
sincerity (of their hearts). 

5. The fifth line, divided, reminds us of (king) 
Tl-yl*s (rule about the) marriage of his younger 
sister. By such a course there is happiness and 
there, will be great good fortune. 

6. The sixth line, divided, shows us the city wall 
returned into the moat It is not the time to use 
the army. (The subject of the line) may, indeed, 
announce his orders to the people of his own city ; 
but however correct and firm he may be, he will 
have cause for regret. 

XI. The language of the Thwan has reference to the form of 
Thai, with the three strong lines of A'Aien below, and the three 
weak lines of Khwin above. The former are 'the great,' active 
and vigorous ; the latter are ' the small,' inactive and submissive. 
But where have the former ' come ' from, and whither are the latter 
' gone ?' In many editions of the Yl beneath the hexagram of Th&i 

here, there appears that of Kwei Mei, the 54th in order ( — ZH ) 

which becomes Thii, if the third and fourth lines exchange places. 
But in the notes on the Thwan, in the first Appendix, on hexa- 
gram 6, I have spoken of the doctrine of ' changing figures,' and 
intimated my disbelief of it. The different hexagrams arose 
necessarily by the continued manipulation of the undivided and 
divided lines, and placing them each over itself and over the other. 
When king Win wrote these Thwan, he was taking the 64 hexa- 
grams, as they were ready to his hand, and not forming one from 
another by any process of divination. The ' gone ' and ' come ' 
are merely equivalent to ' below ' and ' above,' in the lower trigram 
or in the upper. 

A course in which the motive forces are represented by the three 
strong, and the opposing by the three weak lines, must be pro- 
gressive and successful. Th&i is called the hexagram of the 
first month of the year, the first month of the natural spring, when 
for six months, through the fostering sun and genial skies, the pro- 
cesses of growth will be going on. 



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SECT. I. THE PHi HEXAGRAM. 



XII. The PhI Hexagram. 



In Phi there is the want of good understanding 
between the (different classes of) men, and its in- 
dication is unfavourable to the firm and correct 

The symbolism of paragraph i is suggested by the three strong 
lines of ^Aien all together, and all possessed by the same instinct 
to advance. The movement of the first will be supported by that 
. of the others, and be fortunate. 

The second line is strong, but in an even place. This is sup- 
posed to temper the strength of its subject ; which is expressed by the 
first of his characteristics. But the even place is the central ; and 
it is responded to by a proper correlate in the fifth line above. 
Hence come all the symbolism of the paragraph and the auspice 
of good fortune implied in it. 

Beneath the symbolism in paragraph 3 there lies the persuasion 
of the constant change that is taking place in nature and in human 
affairs. As night succeeds to day, and winter to summer, so 
calamity may be expected to follow prosperity, and decay the 
flourishing of a state. The third is the last of the lines of AT^ien, 
by whose strength and activity the happy state of Thii has been 
produced. Another aspect of things may be looked for; but by 
firmness and correctness the good estate of the present may be 
long continued. 

According to the treatise on the Thwan, the subjects of the 
fourth and other upper lines are not 'the small returning' as 
opponents of the strong lines below, as is generally supposed ; but 
as the correlates of those lines, of one heart and mind with them to 
maintain the state of Thdi, and giving them, humbly but readily, 
all the help in their power. 

Tl-yi, the last sovereign but one of the Yin dynasty, reigned 
from B.C. 1 191 to 1 155; but what was the history of him and his 
sister here referred to we do not know. P. Regis assumes that 
be gave his sister in marriage to the lord of A'au, known in subse- 

G 2 



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84 THE yI king. 



TEXT. 



course of the superior man. We see in it the great 
gone and the little come. 

1. The first line, divided, suggests the idea of 
grass pulled up, and bringing with it other stalks 
with whose roots it is connected. With firm cor- 
rectness (on the part of its subject), there will be 
good fortune and progress. 

2. The second line, divided, shows its subject 
patient and obedient. To the small man (comport- 
ing himself so) there will be good fortune. If the 
great man (comport himself) as the distress and ob- 
struction require, he will have success. 

3. The third line, divided, shows its subject 
ashamed of the purpose folded (in his breast). 

4. The fourth line, undivided, shows its subject 
acting in accordance with the ordination (of Heaven), 
and committing no error. His companions will come 
and share in his happiness. 

5. In the fifth line, undivided, we see him who 

quent time as king WJin, and that she was the famous Thal-sze ; — 
contrary to all the evidence I have been able to find on the subject. 
According to ^Aing-jze, Ti-yt was the first to enact a law that 
daughters of the royal house, in marrying princes of the states, should 
be in subjection to them, as if they were not superior to them in 
rank. Here line 5, while occupying the place of dignity and au- 
thority in the hexagram, is yet a weak line in the place of a strong 
one; and its subject, accordingly, humbly condescends to his 
strong and proper correlate in line 2. 

The course denoted by ThSi has been run ; and will be fol- 
lowed by one of a different and unhappy character. The earth dug 
from the moat had been built up to form a protecting wall ; but it 
is now again fallen into the ditch. War will only aggravate the 
evil ; and however the ruler may address good proclamations to 
himself and the people of his capital, the coming evil cannot be 
altogether averted. 



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SECT. I. 



THE PHt HEXAGRAM. 85 



brings the distress and obstruction to a close, — the 
great man and fortunate. (But let him say), ' We 
may perish ! We may perish ! ' (so shall the state of 
things become firm, as if) bound to a clump of bushy 
mulberry trees. 

6. The sixth line, undivided, shows the overthrow 
(and removal of) the condition of distress and ob- 
struction. Before this there was that condition. 
Hereafter there will be joy. 

XII. The form of Phi, it will be seen, is exactly the opposite of 
that of ThdL Much of what has been said on the interpretation 
of that will apply to this, or at least assist the student in making 
out the meaning of its symbolism. Pht is the hexagram of the 
seventh month. Genial influences have done their work, the pro- 
cesses of growth are at an end. Henceforth increasing decay must 
be looked for. 

Naturally we should expect the advance of the subject of the first 
of the three weak Unes to lead to evil ; but if he set himself to be 
firm and correct, be will bring about a dififerent issue. 

Patience and obedience are proper for the small man in all 
circumstances. If the great man in diflSculty yet cherish these 
attributes, he will soon have a happy issue out of the distress. 

The third line is weak. Its place is odd, and therefore for it 
incorrect. Its subject would vent his evil purpose, but has not 
strength to do so. He is left therefore to the shame which he 
ought to feel without a word of warning. Does the ming of the 
fourth line mean ' the ordination of Heaven,' as Kt Hst thinks ; or 
the orders of the ruler, as A'Aing-jze says ? Whichever interpre- 
tation be taken (and some critics unite the two), the action of the 
subject of the line, whose strength is tempered by the even posi- 
tion, will be good and correct, and issue in success and happiness. 

The strong line in the fifth, (its correct), place, brings the distress 
and obstruction to a close. Yet its subject — the ruler in the hexa- 
gram — is warned to continue to be cautious in two lines of rhyme : — 
'And let hun say, "I die! I diel" 
So to a bushy clump his fortune he shall tie.' 

There b an end of the condition of distress. It was necessary that 
condition should give place to its opposite; and the strong line 
in the topmost place fitly represents the consequent joy. 



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86 THB y! king. text. 



V 



XIII. The Thung ZAn Hexagram. 



Thung ZS.n (or 'Union of men') appears here (as 
we find it) in the (remote districts of the) country, 
indicating progress and success. It will be advan- 
tageous to cross the great stream. It will be ad- 
vantageous to maintain the firm correctness of the 
superior man. 

1. The first line, undivided, (shows the repre- 
sentative of) the union of men just issuing from his 
gate. There will be no error. 

2. The second line, divided, (shows the repre- 
sentative of) the union of men in relation with his 
kindred. There will be occasion for regret. 

3. The third line, undivided, (shows its subject) 
with his arms hidden in the thick grass, and at the 
top of a high mound. (But) for three years he 
makes no demonstration. 

4. The fourth line, undivided, (shows its subject) 
mounted on the city wall ; but he does not proceed 
to make the attack (he contemplates). There will 
be good fortune. 

5. In the fifth liae, undivided, (the representative 
of) the union of men first wails and cries out, and 
then laughs. His g^eat host conquers, and he (and 
the subject of the second line) meet together. 

6. The topmost line, undivided, (shows the repre- 



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SKCT. I. THE THUNG zXN HEXAGRAM. 87 

sentative of) the union of men in the suburbs. There 
will be no occasion for repentance. 

XIII. Thung Zia describes a condition of nature and of the 
state opposite to that of Pht. There was distress and obstruction; 
here is union. But the union must be based entirely on public 
considerations, without taint of selfishniess. 

The strong line in the fifth, its correct, place, occupies the most 
important position, and has for its correlate the weak second line, 
also in its correct place. The one divided line is naturally sought 
after by all the strong lines. The upper Ingram is that of heaven, 
which is above ; the lower is that of fire, whose tendency is to mount 
upwards. All these things are in harmony with the idea of union. 
But the union must be free from all selfish motives, and this is 
indicated by its being in the remote districts of the country, where 
people are unsophisticated, and free from the depraving effects 
incident to large societies. A union from such motives will cope 
with the greatest difiBculties ; and yet a word of caution is added. 

Line t emblems the first attempts at union. It is strong, but in 
the lowest place ; and it has no proper correlate above. There is, 
however, no intermixture of selfishness in it. 

lines 3 and 5 are proper correlates, which fact suggests in this 
hexagram the idea of their union being limited and partial, and 
such as may afford ground for blame. 

Line 3 is strong, and in an odd place ; but it has not a proper cor- 
relate in 6. This makes its subject more anxious to unite with 2 ; 
but 2 is devoted to its proper correlate in 5, of whose strength 3 is 
afraid, and takes the measures described. His abstaining so long, 
however, fi-om any active attempt, will save him from misfortune. 

Line 4 is strong, but in an even place, which weakens its subject. 
He also would fain make an attempt on 2 ; but he is afraid, and 
does not carry his purpose into effect. 

Line 5 is strong, in an odd, and the central place ; and would fain 
unite with 2, which indeed is the proper correlate of its subject. 
But 3 and 4 are powerful foes that oppose the union. Their 
opposition makes him weep; but he tfftllects his forces, defeats 
them, and effects his purpose. 

The union reaches to all within the suburbs, and is not yet uni- 
versal ; but still there is no cause for repentance. ' 



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88 THE y! king. 



TEXT. 



XIV. The TA YO Hexagram. 



T4 Yd indicates that, (under the circumstances 
which it implies), there will be great progress and 
success. 

1. In the first line, undivided, there is no ap- 
proach to what is injurious, and there is no error. 
Let there be a realisation of the difficulty (and 
danger of the position), and there will be no error 
(to the end). 

2. In the second line, undivided, we have a large 
waggon with its load. In whatever direction advance 
is made, there will be no error. 

3. The third line, undivided, shows us a feudal 
prince presenting his offerings to the Son of Heaven. 
A small man would be unequal (to such a duty). 

4. The fourth line, undivided, shows its subject 
keeping his great resources under restraint. There 
will be no error. 

5. The fifth line, divided, shows the sincerity of 
its subject reciprocated by that of all the others 
(represented in the hexagram). Let him display a 
proper majesty, and there will be good fortune. 

6. The topmost line, undivided, shows its subject 
with help accorded to him from Heaven. There 
will be good fortune, advantage in every respect. 

XIV. T& Yfl means 'Great Havings;' denoting in a kingdom 
a state of prosperity and abundance, and in a family or individual, a 



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SECT. I. THE JTHIEN HEXAGRAM. 89 



XV. The Khieu Hexagram. 



A'^ien indicates progress and success. The su- 
perior man, (being humble as it implies), will have 
a (good) issue (to his undertakings). 

I. The first line, divided, shows us the superior 
man who adds humility to humility. (Even) the great 

state of opulence. The danger threatening such a condition arises 
from the pride which it is likely to engender. But everything here 
is against that issue. Apart from the symbolism of the trigrams, 
we have the place of honour occupied by a weak line, so that its 
subject will be humble ; and all the other lines, strong as they are, 
will act in obedient sympathy. There will be great progress and 
success. 

Line i, though strong, is at the lowest part of the figure, and 
has no correlate above. No external influences have as yet acted 
injuriously on its subject. Let him do as directed, and no hurtful 
influence will ever affect him. 

The strong line 3 has its proper correlate in line 5, the ruler of 
the figure, and will use its strength in subordination to his humility. 
Hence the symbolism. 

Line 3 is strong, and in the right (an odd) place. The top- 
most line of the lower trigram is the proper place for a feudal lord. 
The subject of this will humbly serve the condescending ruler in 
line 5. A small man, having the place without the virtue, would 
give himself airs. 

Line 4 is strong, but the strength is tempered by the position, 
which is that of a weak line. Hence he will do no injury to the 
mild ruler, to whom he is so near. 

Line 5 symbolises the ruler. Mild sincerity is good in him, and 
affects his ministers and others. But a ruler must not be without 
an awe-inspiring majesty. 

Even the topmost line takes its character from 5. The strength 
of its subject is still tempered, and Heaven gives its approval. 



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90 THE yI king. 



TEXT. 



stream may be crossed with this, and there will be 
good fortune. 

2. The second line, divided, shows us humility 
that has made itself recogjnised. With firm correct- 
ness there will be good fortune. 

3. The third line, undivided, shows the superior 
man of (acknowledged) merit. He will maintain his 
success to the end, and have good fortune. 

4. The fourth line, divided, shows one, whose 
action would be in every way advantageous, stirring 
up (the more) his humility. 

5. The fifth line, divided, shows one who, without 
being rich, is able to employ his neighbours. He 
may advantageously use the force of arms. All 
his movements will be advantageous, 

6. The sixth line, divided, shows us humility that 
has made itself recognised. The subject of it will 
with advantage put his hosts in motion ; but (he will 
only) punish his own towns and state. 

XV. An essay on humility rightly follows that on abundant 
possessions. The third line, which is a whole line amid five others 
divided, occupying the topmost place in the lower trigram, is 
held by the Khang-hst editors and many others to be ' the lord 
of the hexagram,' the representative of humility, strong, but 
abasing itself. There is nothing here in the text to make us enter 
farther on the symbolism of the figure. Humility is the way to 
permanent success. 

A weak line, at the lowest place of the figure, is the fitting symbol 
of the superior man adding humility to humility. 

Line 2 is weak, central, and in its proper place, representing 
a humility that has 'crowed;' that is, has proclaimed itself. 

Line 3 is strong, and occupies an odd (its proper) place. It is 
' the lord of the hexagram,' to whom all represented by the lines 
above and below turn. 

Line 4 is weak and in its proper position. Its subject is sure to 



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SECT. I. THE YO hexagram. 9 1 



XVI. The Yu Hexagram^^T^E MS. ;?,}/,> 

L:i:r;i;ESiTY^ 

Yu indicates that, (in the state which it implies), 
feudal princes may be set up, and the hosts put in 
motion, with advantage, 

1. The first line, divided, shows its subject pro- 
claiming his pleasure and satisfaction. There will 
be evil. 

2. The second line, divided, shows one who is 
firm as a rock. (He sees a thing) without waiting - 
till it has come to pass; with his firm correctness 
there will be good fortune. 

3. The third line, divided, shows one looking up 
(for favours), while he indulges the feeling of plea- 
sure and satisfaction. If he would understand! — 
If he be late in doing so, there will indeed be occa- 
sion for repentance. 

4. The fourth line, undivided, shows him from 
whom the harmony and satisfaction come. Great 

be successful and prosperous, but being so near the fifth line, he 
should still use the greatest precaution. 

All men love and honour humility, in itself and without the ad- 
juncts which usually command obedience and respect. Hence his 
neighbours follow the ruler in the fifth line, though he may not be . 
very rich or powerful. His humility need not keep him from assert- 
ing the right, even by force of arms. 

The subject of the sixth line, which is weak, is outside the game, 
so to speak, that has been played out. He will use force, but only 
within his own sphere and to assert what is right. He will not be 
aggressive. 



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92 THE Vi KING. 



TEXT. 



is the success which he obtains. Let him not allow 
suspicions to enter his mind, and thus friends will 
gather around him. 

■^ 5. The fifth line, divided, shows one with a chronic 
complaint, but who lives on without dying. 

6. The topmost line, divided, shows its subject 
with darkened mind devoted to the pleasure and 
satisfaction (of the time) ; but if he change his course 
even when (it may be considered as) completed, 
there will be no error. 



XVI. The YU hexagram denoted to king Win a condition of 
harmony and happy contentment throughout the kingdom, when 
the people rejoiced in and readily obeyed their sovereign. At such 
a time his appointments and any military undertakings would be 
hailed and supported. The fourth line, undivided, is the lord of the 
figure, and being close to the fifth or place of dignity, is to be 
looked on as the minister or chief oflScer of the ruler. The ruler 
gives to him his confidence ; and all represented by the other lines 
yield their obedience. 

Line i is weak, and has for its correlate the strong 4. Its subject 
may well enjoy the happiness of the time. But he cannot contain 
himself, and proclaims, or boasts of, his satisfaction ; — which is evil. 

Line 2, though weak, is in its correct position, the centre, more- 
over, of the lower trigram. Quietly and firmly its subject is able to 
abide in his place, and exercise a far-seeing discrimination. All is 
indicative of good fortune. 

Line 3 is weak, and in an odd place. Immediately below line 4, 
its subject keeps looking up to the lord of the figure, and depends 
on him, thinking of doing nothing, but how to enjoy himself. The 
consequence will be as described, unless he speedily change. 

The strong subject of line 4 is the agent to whom the happy 
condition is owing ; and it is only necessary to caution him to main- 
tain his confidence in himself and his purpose, and his adherents 
and success will continue. 

Line 5 is in the ruler's place ; but it is weak, and he is in danger 
of being carried away by the lust of pleasure. Moreover, proximity 
to the powerful minister represented by 4 is a source of danger. 



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SICT. I. THE SUI HEXAGRAM. 93 



XVII. The Sui Hexagram. 



Sui indicates that (under its conditions) there will 
be gfreat progress and success. But it will be advan- 
tageous to be firm and correct There will (then) 
be no error. 

1. The first line, undivided, shows us one chang- 
ing the object of his pursuit ; but if he be firm and 
correct, there will be good fortune. Going beyond 
(his own) gate to find associates, he will achieve 
merit. 

2. The second line, divided, shows us one who 
cleaves to the little boy, and lets go the man of age 
and experience. 

3. The third line, divided, shows us one who 
cleaves to the man of age and experience, and lets go 
the little boy. Such following will get what it seeks ; 
but it will be advantageous to adhere to what is 
firm and correct. 

4. The fourth line, undivided, shows us one 
followed and obtaining (adherents). Though he 
be firm and correct, there will be evil. If he be 
sincere (however) in his course, and make that 
evident, into what error will he fall ? 

Hence he is represented as suffering from a chronic complaint, but 
nevertheless he does not die. See Appendix II on the line. 

Line 6, at the very top or end of the hexagram, is weak, and its 
subject is all but lost. Still even for him there is a chance of safety, 
if he will but change. 



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94 THE vt KING. 



TKXT. 



5. The fifth line, undivided, shows us (the ruler) 
sincere in (fostering all) that is excellent. There 
will be good fortune. 

6. The topmost line, divided, shows us (that sin- 
cerity) firmly held and clung to, yea, and bound fast. 
(We see) the king with it presenting his offerings 
on the western mountain. 

XVII. Sui symbolises the idea of following. It is said to 
follow Yd, the symbol of harmony and satisfaction. Where there 
are these conditions men are sure to follow ; nor will they follow 
those in whom they have no complacency. The hexagram includes 
the cases where one follows others, and where others follow him ; 
and the auspice of great progress and success is due to this flexi- 
bility and applicability of it But in both cases the following must 
be guided by a reference to what is proper and correct See the 
notes on the Th wan and the Great Symbolism. 

Line i is strong, and lord of the lower trigram. The weak lines 
ought to follow it ; but here it is below them, in the lowest place of 
the figure. This gives rise to the representation of one changing 
his pursuit Still through the native vigour indicated by the line 
being strong, and in its correct place, its subject will be fortunate. 
Going beyond his gate to find associates indicates his public spirit, 
and superiority to selfish considerations. 

Line 2 is weak. Its proper correlate is the strong 5; but it 
prefers to cleave to the line below, instead of waiting to follow 5. 
Hence the symbolism of the text, the bad omen of which needs not 
to be mentioned. 

Line 3 is also weak, but it follows the strong line above it and 
leaves line i, reversing the course of 2 ; — ^with a different issue. It 
is weak, however, and 4 is not its proper correlate ; hence the con- 
clusion of the paragraph is equivalent to a caution. 

Line 4 is strong, and in the place of a great minister next the 
ruler in 5. But his having adherents may be injurious to the supreme 
and sole authority of that ruler, and only a sincere loyalty will save 
him from error and misfortune. 

Line 5 is strong, and in its correct place, with 2 as its proper 
correlate ; thus producing the auspicious symbolism. 

The issue of the hexagram is seen in line 6 ; which represents 
the ideal of following, directed by the most sincere adherence to 



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SECT. I. THE kO hexagram. 95 



XVIII. The Kt Hexagram. 



KO indicates g^reat progress and success (to him 
who deals properly with the condition represented 
by it). There will be advantage in (efforts like that 
of) crossing the great stream. (He should weigh 
well, however, the events of) three days before the 
turning point, and those (to be done) three days 
after it 

1. The first line, divided, shows (a son) dealing 
with the troubles caused by his father. If he be an 
(able) son, the father will escape the blame of having 
erred. The position is perilous, but there will be 
good fortune in the end. 

2. The second line, undivided, shows (a son) 
dealing with the troubles caused by his mother. 
He should not (carry) his firm correctness (to the 
utmost). 

3. The third line, undivided, shows (a son) dealing 
with the troubles caused by his father. There may 
be some small occasion for repentance, but there will 
not be any gp*eat error. 

4. The fourth line, divided, shows (a son) viewing 

what is right. This influence not only extends to men, but also to 
spiritual beings. 'The western hill' is mount I^M, at the foot 
of which was the original settlement of the house of ^iu, in 
B.C.1325. The use of the name 'king' here brings us down 
from W^n into the time of king Wft at least. 



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96 THE y! king. TBXT. 

indulgently the troubles caused by his father. If he 
go forward, he will find cause to regret it. 

5. The fifth line, divided, shows (a son) dealing 
with the troubles caused by his father. He obtains 
the praise of using (the fit instrument for his work). 

6. The sixth line, undivided, shows us one who 
does not serve either king or feudal lord, but in a 
lofty spirit prefers (to attend to) his own affairs. 

XVIII. In the 6th Appendix it is said, 'They who follow another 
are sure to have services (to perform), and hence Sui is followed 
by K(i.' But Kt means the having painful or troublesome services 
to do. It denotes here a state in which things are going to ruin, 
as if through poison or venomous worms ; and the figure is sup- 
posed to describe the arrest of the decay and the restoration to 
soundness and vigour, so as to justify its auspice of great progress 
and success. To realise such a result, however, great efforts will 
be required, as in crossing the great stream; and a careful con- 
sideration of the events that have brought on the state of decay, 
and the measures to be taken to remedy it is also necessary. See 
Appendix I on the ' three days.' 

The subject of hne i, and of all the other lines, excepting per- 
haps 6, appears as a son. Yet the line itself is of the yin nature, 
and the trigram in which it plays the principal part is also yin. 
Line 2 is strong, and of the yang nature, with the yin line 5 as 
its proper correlate. In line 2, 5 appears as the mother; but its sub- 
ject there is again a son, and the upper trigram altogether is yang. 
I am unable to account for these things. As is said in the note of 
Regis on line 2 : — ' Haec matris filiique denominatio ad has lineas 
mere translatitia est, et, ut ait commentaiius vulgaris, ad explicatio- 
nem sententiarum eas pro matre et filio supponere dicendum 
est. Nee ratio reddetur si quis in utroque hoc nomine mysterium 
quaerat Cur enim aliis in figuris lineae nunc regem, nunc vasal - 
lum, jam imperii administrum, mox summum armorum 
praefectum referre dicantur? Accommodantur scilicet lineae ad 
verba sententiae et verba sententiae ad sensum, quemadmodum faci- 
endum de methodis libri Shih King docet Mencius, V, i, ode 4. 2.' 

We must leave this diflSculty. Line i is weak, and its correlate 
4 is also weak. What can its subject do to remedy the state of 
decay? But the line is the first of the figure, and the decay is not 



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SICT. I. THE LIN HEXAGRAM. 97 



XIX. The Lin Hexagram. 



Lin (indicates that under the conditions supposed 
in it) there will be g^eat progress and success, while 
it will be. advantageous to be firmly correct. In the 
eighth month there will be evil. 

I. The first line, undivided, shows its subject 
advancing in company (with the subject of the 

yet great By giving heed to the cautions in the Text, he will 
accomplbh what is promised. 

The ruler in line 5 is represented by a weak line, while a is 
strong. Thus the symbolism takes the form of a son dealing with 
the prevailing decay induced somehow by his mother. But a son 
must be very gentle in all his intercourse with his mother, and espe- 
cially so, when constrained by a sense of duty to oppose her course. 
I do not think there is anything more or better to be said here. 
The historical interpretation adopted by Regis and his friends, that 
the father here is king WSin, the mother Thdi-sze, and the son king 
Wil, cannot be maintained. I have searched, but in vain, for the 
slightest Chinese sanction of it, and it would give to K<i the mean- 
ing of misfortunes endured, instead of troubles caused. 

Line 3 is strong, and not central, so that its subject might well 
go to excess in his efiforts. But this tendency is counteracted by the 
line's place in the trigram Sun, often denoting lowly submission. 

Line 4 is weak, and in an even place, which intensifies that 
weakness. Hence comes the caution against going forward. 

The weak line 5, as has been said, is the seat of the ruler ; but 
its proper correlate is the strong 2, the strong siding champion 
minister, to whom the work of the hexagram is delegated. 

Line 6 is strong, and has no proper correlate below. Hence it 
suggests the idea of one outside the sphere of action, and taking no 
part in public afifairs, but occupied with the culture of himself. 

C16] H 



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98 THE Vi KING. TEXT. 

second line). Through his firm correctness there 
will be good fortune. 

2. The second line, undivided, shows its subject 
advancing in company (with the subject of the first 
line). There will be good fortune ; (advancing) will 
be in every way advantageous. 

3. The third line, divided, shows one well pleased 
(indeed) to advance, (but whose action) will be in 
no way advantageous. If he become anxious about 
it (however), there will be no error. 

4. The fourth line, divided, shows one advancing 
in the highest mode. There will be no error. 

5. The fifth line, divided, shows the advance of 
wisdom, such as befits the great ruler. There will 
be good fortune. 

6. The sixth line, divided, shows the advance of 
honesty and generosity. There will be good fortune, 
and no error. 

XIX. In Appendix VI Lin is explained as meaning ' great' The 
writer, having misunderstood the meaning of the previous Kfl, sub- 
joins — ' He who performs such services may become " great" ' But 
Lin denotes the approach of authority, — to inspect, to comfort, or 
to rule. When we look at the figure, we see two strong undivided 
lines advancing on the four weak lines above them, and thence 
follows the assurance that their action will be powerful and suc- 
cessful. That action must be governed by rectitude, however, and 
by caution grounded on the changing character of all conditions 
and events. The meaning of the concluding sentence is given in 
Appendix I as simply being — that, ' the advancing power will decay 
in no long time.' Lfl iLkn-Mi (Ming dynasty) says : — ' The sun 
(or the day) is the symbol of what is Yang ; and the moon is the 
symbol of what is Yi n. Eight is the number of the second of the 
four ehiblematic figures (the smaller Yin), and seven is the num- 
ber of the third of them (the smaller Yang). Hence to indicate 
the period of the coming of what is Yin, we use the phrase, " the 
eighth month;" and to indicate the period of the coming of what is 



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SECT. I. THE kwAn hexagram. 99 



XX. The KwAn Hexagram. 



Kwin shows (how he whom it represents should 
be like) the worshipper who has washed his hands, 
but not (yet) presented his offerings ; — ^with sincerity 

Yang, we use the phrase, "the seventh day."' The Khang-hsl 
editors say that this is the best explanation of the language of the 
Text that can be given : — 'The Yang numbers culminate in 9, the 
influence then receding and producing the 8 of the smaller Yin. 
The Yin numbers culminate in 6, and the next advance produces the 
7 of the smaller Yang ; so that 7 and 8 are the numbers indicating 
the first birth of what is Yin and what is Yang.' ' If we go to seek,' 
they add, 'any other explanation of the phraseology of the Text, and 
such expressions as " 3 days," " 3 years," " 10 years," &c., we make 
them unintelligible.' Lin is the hexagram of the twelfth month. 

Line i is a strong line in its proper place. The danger is that 
its subject may be more strong than prudent, hence the caution in 
requiring firm correctness. 

Line 2, as strong, should be in an odd place ; but this is more than 
counterbalanced by the central position, and its correlate in line 5. 

Line 3 is weak, and neither central, nor in its correct position. 
Hence its action will not be advantageous ; but being at the top 
of the trigram Tui, which means being pleased, its subject is repre- 
sented as ' well pleased to advance.' Anxious reflection will save 
him from error. 

Line 4, though weak, is in its proper place, and has for its cor- 
relate the strong i. Hence its advance is ' in the highest style.' 

Line 5 is the position of the ruler. It is weak, but being central, 
and having for its correlate the strong and central 2, we have in it 
a symbol of authority distrustful of itself, and employing fit agents;— 
characteristic of the wise ruler. 

Line 6 is the last of the trigram KhwSn, the height therefore 
of docility. Line 2 is not its correlate, but it belongs to the Yin 
to seek for the Yang ; and it is so emphatically in this case. Hence 
the characteristic and issue as assigned. 

H 2 



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lOO THE y! king. 



TEXT. 



and an appearance of dignity (commanding reverent 
regard). 

1. The first line, divided, shows the looking of 
a lad; — not blamable in men of inferior rank, but 
matter for regret in superior men. 

2. The second line, divided, shows one peeping 
out from a door. It would be advantageous if it 
were (merely) the firm correctness of a female. 

3. The third line, divided, shows one looking at 
(the course of) his own life, to advance or recede 
(accordingly). 

4. The fourth line, divided, shows one contem- 
plating the glory of the kingdom. It will be ad- 
vantageous for him, being such as he is, (to seek) 
to be a guest of the king. 

5. The fifth line, undivided, shows its subject 
contemplating his own life(-course), A superior 
man, he will (thus) fall into no error. 

6. The sixth line, undivided, shows its subject 
contemplating his character to see if it be indeed that 
of a superior man. He will not fall into error. 

XX. The Chinese character Kvin, from which this hexagram 
is named, is used in it in two senses. In the Thwan, the first 
paragraph of the treatise on the Thwan, and the paragraph on 
the Great Symbolism, it denotes showing, manifesting; in all 
other places it denotes contemplating, looking at. The sub- 
ject of the hexagram is the sovereign and his subjects, how he 
manifests himself to them, and how they contemplate him. The 
two upper, undivided, lines belong to the sovereign ; the four weak 
lines below them are his subjects, — ministers and others who look 
up at him. Kwin is the hexagram of the eighth month. 

In the Thwan king Win symbolises the sovereign by a wor- 
shipper when he is most solemn in his religious service, at the 
commencement of it, full of sincerity and with a dignified carriage. 

Line i is weak, and in the lowest place, improper also for it; — 



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SECT. I. THE SHIH HO HEXAGRAM. 10 1 



XXI. The Shih Ho Hexagram. 



Shih Ho indicates successful progress (in the con- 
dition of things which it supposes). It will be 
advantageous to use legal constraints. 

1. The first line, undivided, shows one with his 
feet in the stocks and deprived of his toes. There 
will be no error. 

2. The second line, divided, shows one biting 
through the soft flesh, and (going on to) bite off 
the nose. There will be no error. 

the symbol of a thoughtless lad, who cannot see far, and takes only 
superficial views. 

Line 2 is also weak, but in its proper place, showing a woman, 
living retired, and only able to peep as from her door at the subject 
of the fifth line. But ignorance and retirement are proper in a 
woman. 

Line 3, at the top of the lower trigram Khw&n, and weak, must 
belong to a subject of the utmost docility, and will wish to act only 
according to the exigency of time and circumstances. 

Line 4, in the place proper to its weakness, is yet in immediate 
proximity to 5, representing the sovereign. Its subject is moved 
accordingly, and stirred to ambition. 

Line 5 is strong, and in the place of the ruler. He is a superior 
man, but this does not relieve him from the duty of self-contempla- 
tion or examination. 

There is a slight difference in the 6th paragraph from the 5th, 
which can hardly be expressed in a translation. By making a 
change in the punctuation, however, the different significance may 
be brought out Line 6 is strong, and should be considered out 
of the work of the hexagram, but its subject is still possessed by the 
spirit of its idea, and is led to self-examination. 



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I02 THE Vt KING. 



TEXT. 



3. The third line, divided, shows one gnawing 
dried flesh, and meeting with what is disagreeable. 
There will be occasion for some small regret, but no 
(great) error. 

4. The fourth line, undivided, shows one gpiawing 
the flesh dried on the bone, and getting the pledges 
of money and arrows. It will be advantageous to 
him to realise the difficulty of his task and be firm, — 
in which case there will be good fortune. 

5. The fifth line, divided, shows one gnawing at 
dried flesh, and finding the yellow gold. Let him 
be firm and correct, realising the peril (of his posi- 
tion). There will be no error. 

6. The sixth line, undivided, shows one wearing 
the cangue, and deprived of his ears. There will 
be evil. 

XXI. Shih Ho means literally 'Union by gnawing.' We see in 
the figure two strong lines in the first and last places, while all the 
others, with the exception of the fourth, are divided. This suggests 
the idea of the jaws and the mouth between them kept open by some- 
thing in it. Let that be gnawed through and the mouth will close 
and the jaws come together. So in the body politic. Remove the 
obstacles to union, and high and low will come together with a 
good understanding. And how are those obstacles to be removed ? 
By force, emblemed by. the gifawing ; that is, by legal constraints. 
And these are sure to be successful. The auspice of the figure is 
favourable. There will be success. 

Lines i and 6 are much out of the game or action described in 
the figure. Hence they are held to represent parties receiving 
punishment, while the other lines represent parties inflicting it 
The punishment in line i is that of the stocks, administered for 
a small offence, and before crime has made much way. But if 
the ' depriving' of the toes is not merely keeping them in restraint, 
but cutting them ofif, as the Chinese character suggests, the punish- 
ment appears to a western reader too severe. 

Line 2 is weak, appropriately therefore in an even place, and 
it is central besides. The action therefore of its subject should 



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SECT. I. THE A HEXAGRAM. IO3 



XXII. The P! Hexagram. 



Pi indicates that there should be free course (in 
what it denotes). There will be little advantage 
(however) if it be allowed to advance (and take 
the lead). 

be efifective; and this is shown by the 'biting through the soft 
flesh,' an easy thing. Immediately below, however, is a strong 
offender represented by the strong line, and before he will submit 
it is necessary to ' bite off his nose ;' for punishment is the rule ; — 
it must be continued and increased till the end is secured. 

Line 3 is weak, and in an even place. The action of its subject 
will be ineffective ; and is emblemed by the hard task of g^nawing 
through dried flesh, and encountering, besides, what is distasteful 
and injurious in it. But again comes in the consideration that here 
punishment is the rule, and the auspice is not all bad. 

Of old, in a civil case, both parties, before they were heard, 
brought to the court an arrow (or a bundle of arrows), in testimony 
of their rectitude, after which they were heard ; in a criminal case, 
they in the same way deposited each thirty pounds of gold, or 
some other metal. See the OflBcial Book of ^au, 27. 14, 15. The 
subject of the fourth line's getting those pledges indicates his 
exercising his judicial functions ; and what he gnaws through indi- 
cates their diflSculty. Moreover, though the line is strong, it is in 
an even place ; and hence comes the lesson of caution. 

The fifth line represents ' the lord of judgment.' As it is a weak 
line, he will be disposed to leniency ; and his judgments will be 
correct. This is declared by his finding the 'yellow metal;' for 
yellow is one of the five 'correct' colours. The position is in the 
centre and that of rule ; but the line being weak, a caution is given, 
as under the previous line. 

The action of the figure has passed, and still we have, in the sub- 
ject of line 6, one persisting in wrong, a strong criminal, wearing 
the cangue, and deaf to counsel. Of course the auspice is evil. 



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104 THE Vt KING. TEXT. 

1. The first line, undivided, shows one adorning 
(the way of) his feet. He can discard a carriage 
and walk on foot. 

2. The second line, divided, shows one adorning 
his beard. 

3. The third line, undivided, shows its subject 
with the appearance of being adorned and bedewed 
(with rich favours). But let him ever maintain his 
firm correctness, and there will be good fortune. 

4. The fourth line, divided, shows one looking as 
if adorned, but only in white. As if (mounted on) 
a white horse, and furnished with wings, (he seeks 
union with the subject of the first line), while (the 
intervening third pursues), not as a robber, but in- 
tent on a matrimonial alliance. 

5. The fifth line, divided, shows its subject 
adorned by (the occupants of) the heights and gar- 
dens. He bears his roll of silk, small and slight. 
He may appear stingy; but there will be good 
fortune in the end. 

6. The sixth line, undivided, shows one with 
white as his (only) ornament. There will be no 
error. 



XXII. The character PI is the symbol of what is ornamental 
and of the act of adorning. As there is ornament in nature, so 
should there be in society ; but its place is secondary to that of 
what is substantial. This is the view of king Win in his Thwan. 
The symbolism of the separate lines is sometimes fantastic. 

Line i is strong, and in an odd place. It is at the very bottom 
of the hexagram, and is the first line of LI, the trigram for fire or 
light, and suggesting what is elegant and bright. Its subject has 
nothing to do but to attend to himself. Thus he cultivates — 
adorns — himself in his humble position ; but if need be, righteous- 
ness requiring it, he can give up every luxury and indulgence. 



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SECT. I. THE PO HEXAGRAM. I05 



XXIII. The Po Hexagram. 




Po indicates that (in the state which it symbolises) 
it will not be advantageous to make a movement in 
any direction whatever. 

Line 2 is weak and in its proper place, but with no proper cor- 
relate above. The strong line 3 is similarly situated. These two 
lines therefore keep together, and are as the beard and the chin. 
Line i follows 2. What is substantial commands and rules what 
is merely ornamental. 

Line 3 is strong, and between two weak lines, which adorn it, 
and bestow their favours on it. But this happy condition is from 
the accident of place. The subject of the line must be always 
correct and firm to ensure its continuance. 

Line 4 has its proper correlate in i, from whose strength it 
should receive ornament, but 2 and the strong 3 intervene and 
keep them apart, so that the ornament is only white, and of no 
bright colour. Line 4, however, is faithful to i, and earnest for their 
union. And finally line 3 appears in a good character, and not 
with the purpose to injure, so that the union of i and 4 takes 
place. All this is intended to indicate how ornament recognises 
the superiority of solidity. Compare the symbolism of the second 
line of ATun (3), and that of the topmost line of Kh wei (38). 

Line 5 is in the place of honour, and has no proper correlate in 2. 
It therefore associates with the strong 6, which is symbolised by 
the heights and gardens round a city, and serving both to protect 
and to beautify it. Thus the subject of the line receives adorning 
from without, and does not of itself try to manifest it. Moreover, 
in his weakness, his offerings of ceremony are poor and mean. 
But, as Confucius said, ' In ceremonies it is better to be sparing 
than extravagant.' Hence that stinginess does not prevent a good 
auspice. 

Line 6 is at the top of the hexagram. Ornament has had its 
course, and here there is a return to pure, 'white,' simplicity. 
Substantiality is better than ornament. 



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I06 THE Vt KING. 



TKXT. 



1. The first line, divided, shows one overturning 
the couch by injuring its legs. (The injury will go 
on to) the destruction of (all) firm correctness, and 
there will be evil. 

2. The second line, divided, shows one over- 
throwing the couch by injuring its frame. (The 
injury will go on to) the destruction of (all) firm 
correctness, and there will be evil. 

3. The third line, divided, shows its subject among 
the overthrowers ; but there will be no error. 

4. The fourth line, divided, shows its subject 
having overthrown the couch, and (going to injure) 
the skin (of him who lies on it). There will be evil. 

5. The fifth line, divided, shows (its subject lead- 
ing on the others like) a string of fishes, and (ob- 
taining for them) the favour that lights on the 
inmates of the palace. There will be advantage in 
every way. 

6. The topmost line, undivided, shows its subject 
(as) a great fruit which has not been eaten. The 
superior man finds (the people again) as a chariot 
carrying him. The small men (by their course) 
overthrow their own dwellings. 

XXIII. Po is the symbol of falling or of causing to fall, and 
may be applied, both in the natural and political world, to the 
process of decay, or that of overthrow. The figure consists of 
five divided lines, and one undivided, which last thus becomes the 
prominent and principal line in the figure. Decay or overthrow 
has begun at the bottom of it, and crept up to the top. The 
hexagram is that of the ninth month, when the beauty and glory of 
summer have disappeared, and the year is ready to fall into the 
arms of sterile winter. In the political world, small men have 
gradually displaced good men and great, till but one remains ; and 
the lesson for him is to wait. The power operating against him is 



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SECT. I. THE Ft HEXAGRAM. IO7 



XXIV. The FO Hexagram. 




Fd indicates that there will be free course and 
progress (in what it denotes). (The subject of it) 
finds no one to distress him in his exits and 

too strong; but the fashion of political life passes away. If he wait, 
a change for the better will shortly appear. 

The lesser symbolism is chiefly that of a bed or couch with its 
occupant. The idea of the hexagram requires this occupant to be 
overthrown, or at least that an attempt be made to overthrow him. 
Accordingly the attempt in line i is made by commencing with the 
legs of the couch. The symbolism goes on to explain itself. The 
object of the evil worker is the overthrow of all firm correctness. 
Of course there will be evil. 

Line 2 is to the same effect as i ; only the foe has advanced 
from the legs to the frame of the couch. 

Line 3 also represents an overthrower; but it differs from the 
others in being the correlate of 6. The subject of it will take part 
with him. His association is with the subject of 6, and not, as in 
the other weak lines, with one of its own kind. 

From line 4 the danger is imminent. The couch has been 
overthrown. The person of the occupant is at the mercy of the 
destroyers. 

With line 5 the symbolism changes. The subject of 5 is ' lord 
of all the other weak lines,' and their subjects are at his disposal. 
He and they are represented as fishes, following one another as if 
strung together. All fishes come under the category of yin. 
Then the symbolism changes again. The subject of 5, representing 
and controlling all the yin lines, is loyal to the subject of the 
yang sixth line. He is the rightful sovereign in his palace, and 5 
leads all the others there to enjoy the sovereign's favours. 

We have still different symbolism under line 6. Its strong 
subject, notwithstanding the attempts against him, survives, and 
acquires fresh vigour. The people again cherish their sovereign, 
and the plotters have wrought to their own overthrow. 



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I08 THE yJ king. 



TEXT. 



entrances; friends come to him, and no error is 
committed. He will return and repeat his (proper) 
course. In seven days comes his return. There will 
be advantage in whatever direction movement is 
made. 

1. The first line, undivided, shows its subject re- 
turning (from an error) of no great extent, which 
would not proceed to anything requiring repentance. 
There will be great good fortune. 

2. The second line, divided, shows the admirable 
return (of its subject). There will be good fortune. 

3. The third line, divided, shows one who has 
made repeated returns. The position is perilous, 
but there will be no error. 

4. The fourth line, divided, shows its subject 
moving right in the centre (among those represented 
by the other divided lines), and yet returning alone 
(to his proper path). 

5. The fifth line, divided, shows the noble return of 
its subject. There will be no ground for repentance. 

6. The topmost line, divided, shows its subject 
all astray on the subject of returning. There will 
be evil. There will be calamities and errors. If 
with his views he put the hosts in motion, the end 
will be a g^eat defeat, whose issues will extend to 
the ruler of the state. Even in ten years he will 
not be able to repair the disaster. 

XXIV. Ffl symbolises the idea of returning, coming back or 
over again. The last hexagram showed us inferior prevailing over 
superior men, all that is good in nature and society yielding before 
what is bad. But change is the law of nature and society. When 
decay has reached its climax, recovery will begin to take place. 
In Po we had one strong topmost line, and five weak lines below 



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SECT. I. THE Vit WANG HEXAGRAM. IO9 



XXV. The WO Wang Hexagram. 



Wd Wang indicates great progress and success, 
while there will be advantage in being firm and 

it ; here we have one strong line, and five weak lines above it. To 
illustrate the subject from what we see in nature, — Po is the hexa- 
gram of the ninth month, in which the triumph of cold and 
decay in the year is nearly complete. It is complete in the tenth 

month, whose hexagram is Khwin = =; then follows our hex- 
agram Yd, belonging to the eleventh month, in which was the 
winter solstice when the sun turned back in his course, and moved 
with a constant regular progress towards the summer solstice. 
In harmony with these changes of nature are the changes in the 
political and social state of a nation. There is nothing in the Yl 
to suggest the hope of a perfect society or kingdom that cannot 
be moved. 

The strong bottom line is the first of A'in, the trigram of move- 
ment, and the upper trigram is Khw&n, denoting dociUty and capa- 
city. The strong returning line will meet with no distressing 
obstacle, and the weak lines will change before it into strong, and 
be as friends. The bright quality will be developed brighter and 
brighter from day to day, and month to month. 

The sentence, ' In seven days comes his return,' occasions some 
perplexity. If the reader will refer to hexagrams 44, 33, 12, 20, 
23, and 2, he will see that during the months denoted by those 
figures, the 5th, 6th, 7th, 8th, 9th, and loth, the yin lines have 
gradually been prevailing over the yang, until in KhwEn (2) they 
have extruded them entirely from the lineal figure. Then comes 
our Ffl, as a seventh figure, in which the yang line begins to 
reassert itself, and from which it goes on to extrude the yin lines 
in their turn. Explained therefore of the months of the year, we 
have to take a day for a month. And something analogous — we 
cannot say exactly what — must have place in society and the 
state. 



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no THE Vi KING. 



TEXT, 



correct. If (its subject and his action) be not 
correct, he will fall into errors, and it will not be 
advantageous for him to move in any direction. 

1. The first line, undivided, shows its subject free 
from all insincerity. His advance will be accom- 
panied with good fortune. 

2. The second line, divided, shows one who reaps 
without having ploughed (that he might reap), and 
gathers the produce of his third year's fields without 
having cultivated them the first year for that end. 
To such a one there will be advantage in whatever 
direction he may move. 

3. The third line, divided, shows calamity hap- 
pening to one who is free from insincerity; — as in 

The concluding auspice or oracle to him who finds this Ftl 
by divination is what we might expect. 

The subject of line i is of course the imdivided line, meaning 
here, says AOting-jze, ' the way of the superior man.' There must 
have been some deviation from that, or ' returning ' could not be 
spoken of. 

Line 2 is in its proper place, and'central ; but it is weak. This 
is more than compensated for, however, by its adherence to line i, 
the fifth line not being a proper correlate. Hence the return of 
its subject is called excellent or admirable. 

Line 3 is weak, and in the uneven place of a strong line. It is 
the top line, moreover, of the trigram whose attribute is move- 
ment. Hence the symbolism ; but any evil issue may be prevented 
by a realisation of danger and by caution. 

Line 4 has its proper correlate in i ; different from all the other 
weak lines ; and its course is different accordingly. 

Line 5 is in the central place of honour, and the middle line of 
Khw&n, denoting docility. Hence its auspice. 

Line 6 is weak ; and being at the top of the hexagram, when its 
action of returning is all concluded, action on the part of its subject 
will lead to evils such as are mentioned. ' Ten years ' seems to be 
a round number, signifying a long time, as in hexagram 3. 2. 



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SECT. I. THE Wt WANG HEXAGRAM. Ill 

the case of an ox that has been tied up. A passer 
by finds it (and carries it off), while the people in the 
neighbourhood have the calamity (of being accused 
and apprehended). 

4. The fourth line, undivided, shows (a case) in 
which, if its subject can remain firm and correct, 
there will be no error. 

5. The fifth line, undivided, shows one who is 
free from insincerity, and yet has fallen ill. Let 
him not use medicine, and he will have occasion for 
joy (in his recovery). 

6. The topmost line, undivided, shows its subject 
free from insincerity, yet sure to fall into error, if 
he take action. (His action) will not be advan- 
tageous in any way. 

XXV. Wang is the symbol of being reckless, and often of being 
insincere; Wfi Wang is descriptive of a state of entire freedom from 
such a condition ; its subject is one who is entirely simple and sin- 
cere. The quality is characteristic of the action of Heaven, and of 
the highest style of humanity. In this hexagram we have an essay 
on this noble attribute. An absolute rectitude is essential to it. The 
nearer one comes to the ideal of the quality, the more powerful 
will be his influence, the greater his success. But let him see to it 
that he never swerve from being correct. 

The first line is strong; at the commencement of the inner 
trigram denoting movement, the action of its subject will very much 
characterise all the action set forth, and will itself be fortunate. 

Line 2 is weak, central, and in its correct place. The quality 
may be predicated of it in its highest degree. There is an entire 
freedom in its subject from selfish or mercenary motive. He is 
good simply for goodness' sake. And things are so constituted 
that his action will be successful. 

But calamity may also sometimes befal the best, and where there 
is this freedom from insincerity ; and line 3 being weak, and in the 
place of an even line, lays its subject open to this misfortune. 'The 
people of the neighbourhood ' are of course entirely innocent. 

Line 4 is the lowest in the trigram of strength, and i is not a 



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112 THE yI king. 



TEXT. 



XXVI. The Ta Knt Hexagram. 



Under the conditions of Td Khil it will be advan- 
tageous to be firm and correct, (If its subject do 
not seek to) enjoy his revenues in his own family 
(without taking service at court), there will be good 
fortune. It will be advantageous for him to cross 
the great stream. 

1. The first line, undivided, shows its subject in a 
position of peril. It will be advantageous for him 
to stop his advance. 

2. The second line, undivided, shows a carriage 
with the strap under it removed. 

3. The third line, undivided, shows its subject 
urging his way with good horses. It will be ad- 
vantageous for him to realise the difficulty (of his 
course), and to be firm and correct, exercising him- 
self daily in his charioteering and methods of defence; 

proper correlate, nor is the fourth the place for a strong line. 
Hence the paragraph must be understood as a caution. 

Line 5 is strong, in the central place of honour, and has its 
proper correlate in 2. Hence its subject must possess the quality 
of the hexagram in perfection. And yet he shall be sick or in 
distress. But he need not be anxious. Without bis efforts a way of 
escape for him will be opened. 

Line 6 is at the top of the hexagram, and comes into the field 
when the action has run its course. He should be still, and not 
initiate any fresh movement. 



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SECT. I. THE tA KHt HEXAGRAM. 1 1 3 

then there will be advantage in whatever direction 
he may advance. 

4. The fourth line, divided, shows the young bull, 
(and yet) having the piece of wood over his horns. 
There will be great good fortune. 

5. The fifth line, divided, shows the teeth of a 
castrated hog. There will be good fortune. 

6. The sixth line, undivided, shows its subject 
(as) in command of the firmament of heaven. There 
will be progress. 

XXVI. iST^fl has two meanings. It is the symbol of restraint, 
and of accumulation. What is repressed and restrained accumu- 
lates its strength and increases its volume. Both these meanings 
are found in the treatise on the Thwan ; the exposition of the 
Great Symbolism has for its subject the accumulation of virtue. The 
different lines are occupied with the repression or restraint of move- 
ment. The first three lines receive that repression, the upper three 
exercise it. The accumulation to which all tends is that of virtue ; 
and hence the name of Ta ^^ft, 'the Great Accumulation.' 

What the Thwan teaches, is that he who goes about to 
accumulate his virtue must be firm and correct, and may then, 
engaging in the public service, enjoy the king's grace, and under- 
take the most difficult enterprises. 

Line i is subject to the repression of 4, which will be increased 
if he try to advance. It is better for him to halt. 

Line 2 is liable to the repression of 5, and stops its advance of 
itself, its subject having the wisdom to do so through its position in 
the central place. The strap below, when attached to the axle, 
made the carriage stop ; he himself acts that part. 

Line 3 is the last of JTAien, and responds to the sixth line, the 
last of K&n, above. But as they are both strong, the latter does 
not exert its repressive force. They advance rapidly together; 
but the position is perilous for 3. By firmness and caution, how- 
ever, its subject will escape the peril, and the issue will be good. 

The young bull in line 4 has not yet got horns. The attaching 
to their rudiments the piece of wood to prevent him from goring is 
an instance of extraordinary precaution ; and precaution is always 
good. 

[16] I 



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114 "^^'E y' king. 



TEXT. 



XXVII. The 1 Hexagram. 



1 indicates that with firm correctness there will be 
good fortune (in what is denoted by it). We must 
look at what we are seeking to nourish, and by the 
exercise of our thoughts seek for the proper aliment. 

1. The first line, undivided, (seems to be thus 
addressed), ' You leave your efficacious tortoise, and 
look at me till your lower jaw hangs down.' There 
will be evil. 

2. The second line, divided, shows one looking 
downwards for nourishment, which is contrary to 
what is proper ; or seeking it from the height (above), 
advance towards which will lead to evil. 

3. The third line, divided, shows one acting con- 
trary to the method of nourishing. However firm 
he may be, there will be evil. For ten years let him 
not take any action, (for) it will not be in any way 
advantageous. 

A boar is a powerful and dangerous animal. Let him be cas- 
trated, and though his tusks remain, he cares little to use them. 
Here line 5 represents the ruler in the hexagram, whose work is 
to repress the advance of evil. A conflict with the subject of the 
strong second line in its advance would be perilous ; but 5, taking 
early precaution, reduces it to the condition of the castrated pig. 
Not only is there no evil, but there is good fortune. 

The work of repression is over, and the strong subject of line 6 
has now the amplest scope to carry out the idea of the hexagram 
in ^le accumulation of virtue. 



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SECT. I. THE i HEXAGRAM. II5 

4. The fourth line, divided, shows one looking 
downwards for (the power to) nourish. There will 
be good fortune. Looking with a tiger's downward 
unwavering glare, and with his desire that impels 
him to spring after spring, he will fall into no error. 

5. The fifth line, divided, shows one acting con- 
trary to what is regular and proper ; but if he abide 
in firmness, there will be good fortune. He should 
not, (however, try to) cross the great stream. 

6. The sixth line, undivided, shows him from 
whom comes the nourishing. His position is 
perilous, but there will be good fortune. It will 
be advantageous to cross the great stream. 

XXVII. t is the symbol of the upper jaw, and gives name to 
the hexagram; but the whole figure suggests the appearance of 
the mouth. There are the two undivided lines at the bottom and 
top, and the four divided lines between them. The first line is the 
first in the trigram Kin, denoting movement; and the sixth is the 
third in KUn, denoting what is solid. The former is the lower 
jaw, part of the mobile chin ; and the other the more fixed upper 
jaw. The open lines are the cavity of the mouth. As the name 
of the hexagram, 1 denotes nourishing, — one's body or mind, one's 
self or others. The nourishment in both the matter and method 
will differ according to the object of it ; and every one must deter- 
mine what to.employ and do in every case by exercising his own 
thoughts, only one thing being premised, — that in both respects the 
nourishing must be correct, and in harmony with what is right. The 
auspice of the whole hexagram is good. 

The first line is strong, and in its proper place ; its subject might 
suffice for the nourishing of himself, like a tortoise, which is sup- 
posed to live on air, without more solid nourishment. But he is 
drawn out of himself by desire for the weak 4, his proper correlate, 
at whom he looks till his jaw hangs down, or, as we say, his mouth 
waters. Hence the auspice is bad. The symbolism takes the 
form of an expostulation addressed, we must suppose, by the 
fourth line to the first. 

The weak 2, insufficient for itself, seeks nourishment first from 

I 2 



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Il6 THE Vt KING. 



TEXT. 



XXVIII. The Ta Kwo Hexagram. 



Td Kwo suggests to us a beam that is weak. 
There will be advantage in moving (under its con- 
ditions) in any direction whatever; there will be 
success. 

1. The first line, divided, shows one placing mats 
of the white m5.o grass under things set on the 
ground. There will be no error. 

2. The second line, undivided, shows a decayed 

the strong line below, which is not proper, and then from the 
strong 6, not its proper correlate, and too far removed. In either 
case the thing is evil. 

Line 3 is weak, in an odd place; and as it occupies the last 
place in the trigram of movement, all that quality culminates in its 
subject. Hence he considers himself sufficient for himself, without 
any help from without, and the issue is bad. 

With line 4 we pass into the upper trigram. It is next to the 
ruler's place in 5 moreover, and bent on nourishing and training 
all below. Its proper correlate is the strong i ; and though weak 
in himself, its subject looks with intense desire to the subject of 
that for help ; and there is no error. 

The subject of line 5 is not equal to the requirements of his 
position ; but with a firm reliance on the strong 6, there will be 
good fortune. Let him not, however, engage in the most diflScult 
undertakings. 

The topmost line is strong, and 5 relies on its subject; but 
being penetrated with the idea of the hexagram, he feels himself in 
the position of master or tutor to all under heaven. The task is 
hard and the responsibility great; but realising these things, he 
will prove himself equal to them. 



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SECT. I. THE TA KWO HEXAGRAM. 1 1 7 

willow producing shoots, or an old husband in pos- 
session of his young wife. There will be advantage 
in every way. 

3. The third line, undivided, shows a beam that 
is weak. There will be evil. 

4. The fourth line, undivided, shows a beam 
curving upwards. There will be good fortune. If 
(the subject of it) looks for other (help but that of 
line one), there will be cause for regret. 

5. The fifth line, undivided, shows a decayed 
willow producing flowers, or an old wife in posses- 
sion of her young husband. There will be occasion 
neither for blame nor for praise. 

6. The topmost line, divided, shows its subject 
with extraordinary (boldness) wading through a 
stream, till the water hides the crown of his head. 
There will be evil, but no ground for blame. 



XXVIII. Very extraordinary times require very extraordinary 
gifts in the conduct of affairs in them. This is the text on which 
king WSin and his son discourse after their fashion in tliis hexa- 
gram. What goes, in their view, to constitute anything extraor- 
dinary is its greatness and difiSculty. There need not be about it 
what is not right. 

Looking at the figure we see two weak lines at the top and 
bottom, and four strong lines between them, giving us the idea of 
a great beam unable to sustain its own weight. But the second 
and fifth lines are both strong and in the centre ; and from this 
and the attributes of the component trigrams a good auspice is 
obtained. 

Line i being weak, and at the bottom of the figure, and of the 
trigram Sun, which denotes flexibility and humility, its subject is 
distinguished by his carefulness, as in the matter mentioned ; and 
there is a good auspice. 

Line 2 has no proper correlate above. Hence he inclines to the 
weak I below him ; and we have the symbolism of the line. An 



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Il8 THE \i KING. 



TEXT. 



XXIX. The Khan Hexagram. 



Khan, here repeated, shows the possession of 
sincerity, through which the mind is penetrating. 
Action (in accordance with this) will be of high 
value. 

1. The first line, divided, shows its subject in the 
double defile, and (yet) entering a cavern within it. 
There will be evil. 

2. The second line, undivided, shows its subject 

old husband with a young wife will yet have children ; the action 
of the subject of 2 will be successful. 

Line 3 is strong, and in an odd place. Its subject is confident 
in his own strength, but his correlate in 6 is weak. Alone, he is 
unequal to the extraordinary strain on him, and has for his symbol 
the weak beam. 

Line 4 is near 5, the ruler's place. On its subject devolves the 
duty of meeting the extraordinary exigency of the time ; but he is 
strong ; and, the line being in an even place, his strength is tem- 
pered. He will be equal to his task. Should he look out for the 
help of the subject of i, that would affect him with another element 
of weakness ; and his action would give cause for regret. 

Line 5 is strong and central. Its subject should be equal to 
achieve extraordinary merit. But he has no proper correlate below, 
and as 2 inclined to i, so does this to 6. But here the willow 
only produces flowers, not shoots ; — its decay will soon reappear. 
An old wife will have no children. If the subject of the line is not 
to be condemned as that of 3, his action does not deserve praise. 

The subject of 6 pursues bis daring course, with a view to 
satisfy the extraordinary exigency of the time, and benefit all under 
the sky. He is unequal to the task, and sinks beneath it ; but his 
motive modifies the judgment on his conduct. 



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SECT. I. THE KHAN HEXAGRAM. II9 

in all the peril of the defile. He will, however, get 
a little (of the deliverance) that he seeks. 

3. The third line, divided, shows its subject, 
whether he comes or goes ( = descends or ascends), 
confronted by a defile. All is peril to him and 
unrest. (His endeavours) will lead him into the 
cavern of the pit. There should be no action (in 
such a case). 

4. The fourth line, divided, shows its subject (at 
a feast), with (simply) a bottle of spirits, and a sub- 
sidiary basket of rice, while (the cups and bowls) 
are (only) of earthenware. He introduces his im- 
portant lessons (as his ruler's) intelligence admits. 
There will in the end be no error. 

5. The fifth line, undivided, shows the water of 
the defile not yet full, (so that it might flow away) ; 
but order will (soon) be brought about. There will 
be no error. 

6. The topmost line, divided, shows its subject 
bound with cords of three strands or two strands, 
and placed in the thicket of thorns. But in three 
years he does not learn the course for him to pursue. 
There will be evil. 



XXIX. The trig^am Khan, which is doubled to form this hexa- 
gram, is the lineal symbol of water. Its meaning, as a character, 
is ' a pit,' ' a perilous cavity, or defile ;' and here and elsewhere in 
the Yf it leads the reader to think of a dangerous defile, with water 
flowing through it. It becomes symbolic of danger, and what the 
authors of the Text had in mind was to show how danger should 
be encountered, its effect on the mind, and how to get out of it. 

The irigram exhibits a strong central line, between two divided 
lines. The central represented to king Win the sincere honesty 
and goodness of the subject of the hexagram, whose mind was 
sharpened and made penetrating by contact with danger, and who 



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I20 THE vt KING. TEXT. 



XXX. The Li Hexagram, 



Li indicates that, (in regard to what it denotes), 
it will be advantageous to be firm and correct, and 
that thus there will be free course and success. 

acted in a manner worthy of his character. It is implied, though 
the Thwan does not say it, that he would get out of the danger. 

Line i is weak, at the bottom of the figure, and has no correlate 
above, no helper, that is, beyond itself. All these things render 
the case of its subject hopeless. He will by his efforts only involve 
himself more deeply in danger. 

Line 2 is strong, and in the centre. Its subject is unable, 
indeed, to escape altogether from the danger ; but he does not 
involve himself more deeply in it like the subject of i, and obtains 
some ease. 

Line 3 is weak, and occupies the place of a strong line. Its 
subject is in an evil case. 

Line 4 is weak, and will get no help from its correlate in i. lis 
subject is not one who can avert the danger threatening himself 
and others. But his position is close to that of the ruler in 5, 
whose intimacy he cultivates with an unostentatious sincerity, sym- 
boUed by the appointments of the simple feast, and whose intelli- 
gence he cautiously enlightens. In consequence, there will be no 
error. 

The subject of line 5 is on the eve of extrication and deliverance. 
The waters of the defile will ere long have free vent and disappear, 
and the ground will be levelled and made smooth. The line is 
strong, in a proper place, and in the place of honour. 

The case of the subject of line 6 is hopeless. When danger 
has reached its highest point, there he is, represented by a weak 
line, and with no proper correlate below. The ' thicket of thorns' 
is taken as a metaphor for a prison; but if the expression has 
a history, I have been unable to find it. 



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SECT. I. THE Li HEXAGRAM. 121 

Let (its subject) also nourish (a docility like that of) 
the cow, and there will be good fortune. 

1. The first line, undivided, shows one ready to 
move with confused steps. But he treads at the 
same time reverently, and there will be no mistake. 

2. The second line, divided, shows its subject 
in his place in yellow. There will be great good 
fortune. 

3. The third line, undivided, shows its subject in 
a position like that of the declining sun. Instead 
of playing on his instrument of earthenware, and 
singing to it, he utters the groans of an old man 
of eighty. There will be evil. 

4. The fourth line, undivided, shows the manner 
of its subject's coming. How abrupt it is, as with 
fire, with death, to be rejected (by all) ! 

5. The fifth line, divided, shows its subject as 
one with tears flowing in torrents, and groaning in 
sorrow. There will be good fortune. 



XXX. Lt is the name of the trigram representing fire and light, 
and the sun as the source of both of these. Its virtue or attribute 
is brightness, and by a natural metaphor intelligence. But Li has 
also the meaning of inhering in, or adhering to, being attached to. 
Both these significations occur in connexion with the hexagram, 
and make it diflScuIt to determine what was the subject of it in the 
minds of the authors. If we take the whole figure as expressing the 
subject, we have, as in the treatise on the Thwan, ' a double bright- 
ness,' a phrase which is understood to denominate the ruler. If we 
take the two central lines as indicating the subject, we have weakness, 
dwelling with strength above and below. In either case there are 
required from the subject a strict adherence to what is correct, and 
a docile humility. On the second member of the Thwan Ajiing- 
jze says : — ' The nature of the ox is docile, and that of the cow is 
much more so. The subject of the hexagram adhering closely to 



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122 THE vt KING. 



TEXT. 



6. The topmost line, undivided, shows the king 
employing its subject in his punitive expeditions. 
Achieving admirable (merit), he breaks (only) the 
chiefs (of the rebels). Where his prisoners were 
not their associates, he does not punish. There 
will be no error. 



what is correct, he must be able to act in obedience to it, as docile 
as a cow, and then there will be good fortune.' 

Line i is strong, and at the bottom of the trigram for fire, the 
nature of which is to ascend. Its subject therefore will move 
upwards, and is in danger of doing so coarsely and vehemently. 
But the lowest line has hardly entered into the action of the figure, 
and this consideration operates to make him reverently careful of 
his movements ; and there is no error. 

Line 2 is weak, and occupies the centre. Yellow is one of the 
five correct colours, and here symbolises the correct course to 
which the subject of the line adheres. 

Line 3 is at the top of the lower trigram, whose light may be 
considered exhausted, and suggests the symbol of the declining 
sun. The subject of the line should accept the position, and resign 
himself to the ordinary amusements which are mentioned, but 
he groans and mourns instead. His strength interferes with the 
lowly contentment which he should cherish. 

The strength of line 4, and its being in an even place, make its 
subject appear in this unseemly manner, disastrous to himself. 

Line 5 is in the place of honour, and central. But it is weak, 
as is its correlate. Its position between the strong 4 and 6 fills its 
subject with anxiety and apprehension, that express themselves as 
is described. But such demonstrations are a proof of his inward 
adherence to right and his humility. There will be good fortune. 

Line 6, strong and at the top of the figure, has the intelligence 
denoted by its trigrams in the highest degree, and his own proper 
vigour. Through these his achievements are great, but his generous 
consideration is equally conspicuous, and he falls into no error. 



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SECT. :r. THE HSIEN HEXAGRAM. 12' 



TEXT. SECTION II. 
XXXI. The Hsien Hexagram. 



Hsien indicates that, (on the fulfilment of the 
conditions implied in it), there will be free course 
and success. Its advantageousness will depend on 
the being firm and correct, (as) in marrying a young 
lady. There will be good fortune. 

1. The first line, divided, shows one moving his 
great toes. 

2. The second line, divided, shows one moving 
the calves of his leg. There will be evil. If he 
abide (quiet in his place), there will be good fortune. 

3. The third line, undivided, shows one moving 
his thighs, and keeping close hold of those whom 
he follows. Going forward (in this way) will cause 
regret. 

4. The fourth line, undivided, shows that firm 
correctness which will lead to good fortune, and 
prevent all occasion for repentance. If its subject 
be unsettled in his movements, (only) his friends 
will follow his purpose. 

5. The fifth line, undivided, shows one moving 
the flesh along the spine above the heart. There 
will be no occasion for repentance. 



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124 THE Vi KING. 



TEXT. 



6. The sixth line, divided, shows one moving his 
jaws and tongue. 

XXXI. With the 3 1 St hexagram commences the Second Section 
of the Text. It is difficult to say why any division of the hexagrams 
should be made here, for the student tries in vain to discover any con- 
tinuity in the thoughts of the author that is now broken. The First 
Section does not contain a class of subjects different from those 
which we find in the Second. That the division was made, how- 
ever, at a very early time, appears from the sixth Appendix on the 
Sequence of the Hexagrams, where the writer sets forth an analogy 
between the first and second figures, representing heaven and earth, 
as the originators of all things, and this figure and the next, repre- 
senting (each of them) husband and wife, as the originators of all 
the social relations. This, however, is far from carrying conviction 
to my mind. The division of the Text of the Yi into two sections 
is a fact of which I am unable to give a satisfactory account. 

Hsien, as explained in the treatise on the Thwan, has here the 
meaning of mutual influence, and the duke of ^au, on the various 
lines, always uses Kan for it in the sense of ' moving ' or ' irifluenc- 
ing to movement or action.' This is to my mind the subject of 
the hexagram considered as an essay, — 'Influence; the different 
ways of bringing it to bear, and their issues.' 

The Chinese character called hsien is ^,the graphic symbol 
for ' all, together, jointly.' Kan, the symbol for ' influencing,' has 
hsien in it as its phonetic constituent (though the changes in pro- 
nunciation make it hard for an English reader to appreciate this), 
with the addition of hsin, the symbol for 'the heart.' Thus j^ 
kan, 'to afifector influence,' = j^ -|- f(^; and it may have been 
that while the name or word was used with the significance of 
' influencing,' the f(^ was purposely dropt from it, to indicate the 
most important element in the thing, — the absence of all purpose 
or motive. I venture to think that this would have been a device 
worthy of a diviner. 

. With regard to the idea of husband and wife being in the teach- 
ing of the hexagram, it is derived from the more recent symbolism 
of the eight trigrams ascribed to king Win, and exhibited on p. 33 
and plate III. The more ancient usage of them is given in the 
paragraph on the Great Symbolism of Appendix II. The figure 
consists of Kin (^E~^=), 'the youngest son,' and over it Tui 
( V ' the youngest daughter.' These are in ' happy union.' 



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SECT. 11. THE hXnG hexagram. 1 25 



XXXII. The HAng Hexagram. 



HSng indicates successful progress and no error 
(in what it denotes). But the advantage will come 
from iseing firm and correct ; and movement in any 
direction whatever v/iW be advantageous. 

I. The first line, divided, shows its subject deeply 
(desirous) of long continuance. Even with firm 

No influence, it is said, is so powerful and constant as that between 
husband and Mrife; and where these are young, it is especially 
active. Hence it is that Hsien is made up of Kin and Tui. All 
this is to me very doubtful. I can dimly apprehend why the whole 
line ( ) was assumed as the S3Tnbol of strength and authority, 

and the broken line as that of weakness and submission. Beyond 
this I cannot follow Ffi-hsi in his formation of the trigrams ; and 
still less can I assent to the more recent symbolism of them ascribed 
to king wan. 

Coming now to the figure, and its lines, the subject is that of 
mutual influence ; and the author teaches that that influence, correct 
in itself, and for correct ends, is sure to be efiective. He gives an 
instance, — the case of a man marrying a young lady, the regulations 
for which have been laid down in China from the earliest times with 
great strictness and particularity. Such influence will be effective 
and fortunate. 

Line i is weak, and at the bottom of the hexagram. Though 
4 be a proper correlate, yet the influence indicated by it must be 
ineffective. However much a man's great toes may be moved, that 
will not enable him to walk. 

The calves cannot move of themselves. They follow the moving 
of the feet. The moving of them indicates too much anxiety to 
move. Line 2, moreover, is weak. But it is also the central line, and 
if its subject abide quiet, till he is acted on from above, there will 
be good fortune. 

Neither can the thighs move of themselves. The attempt to 



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126 THE yJ king. 



TEXT. 



correctness there will be evil ; there will be no 
advantage in any way. 

2. The second line, undivided, shows all occasion 
for repentance disappearing. 

3. The third line, undivided, shows one who does 
not continuously maintain his virtue. There are 
those who will impute this to him as a disgrace. 
However firm he may be, there will be ground for 
regret. 

4. The fourth line, undivided, shows a field where 
there is no game. 

5. The fifth line, divided, shows its subject con- 
tinuously maintaining the virtue indicated by it. In 
a wife this will be fortunate ; in a husband, evil. 

6. The topmost line, divided, shows its subject 
exciting himself to long continuance. There will 
be evil. 

move them is inauspicious. Its subject, however, the line being 
strong, and in an odd place, will wish to move, and follows the sub- 
ject of 4, which is understood to be the seat of the mind. He 
exercises his influence therefore with a mind and purpose, which is 
not good. 

Line 4 is strong, but in an even place. It is the seat of the mind. 
Its subject ^erefore is warned to be firm and correct in order to a 
good issue. If he be wavering and uncertain, his influence will 
not extend beyond the circle of his friends. 

The symbolism of line 5 refers to a part of the body behind the 
heart, and is supposed therefore to indicate an influence, inefiec- 
tive indeed, but free from selfish motive, and not needing to be 
repented of 

Line 6 is weak, and in an even place. It is the topmost line also 
of the trigram of satisfaction. Its influence by means of speech 
will only be that of loquacity and flattery, the evil of which needs 
not to be pointed out. 

XXXII. The subject of this hexagram may be given as persever- 
ance in well doing, or in continuously acting out the law of one's 



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SECT. II. THE THUN HEXAGRAM. I27 



XXXIIl. The Thun Hexagram. 



Thun indicates successful progress (in its circum- 
stances). To a small extent it will (still) be advan- 
tageous to be firm and correct. 

I. The first line, divided, shows a retiring tail. 
The position is perilous. No movement in any 
direction should be made. 

being. The sixth Appendix makes it a sequel of the previous 
figure. As that treats, it is said, of the relation between husband 
and wife, so this treats of the continuous observance of their 
respective duties. Hsien, we saw, is made up of KSn, the symbol 
of the youngest son, and Tui, the symbol of the youngest daughter, 
attraction and influence between the sexes being strongest in 
youth. Hing consists of Sun, 'the oldest daughter,' and A'Sn. 
the oldest son. The couple are more staid. The wife occupies 
the lower place ; and the relation between them is marked by her 
submission. This is sound doctrine, especially from a Chinese 
point of view ; but I doubt whether such application of his teaching 
was in the mind of king Win. Given two parties, an inferior and 
superior in correlation. If both be continuously observant of what 
is correct, the inferior being also submissive, and the superior firm, 
good fortune and progress may be predicated of their course. 

Line i has a proper correlate in 4 ; but between them are two 
strong lines; and it is itself weak. These two conditions are 
against its subject receiving much help from the subject of 4. He 
should be quiet, and not forward for action. 

Line 2 is strong, but in the place of a weak line. Its position, 
however, being central, and its subject holding fast to the due 
mean, the unfavourable condition of an even place is more than 
counteracted. 

Line 3 is strong, and in its proper place ; but being beyond the 
centre of the trigram, its subject is too strong, and coming under 



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128 THE Vt KING. 



TEXT. 



2. The second line, divided, shows its subject 
holding (his purpose) fast as if by a (thong made 
from the) hide of a yellow ox, which cannot be 
broken. 

3. The third line, undivided, shows one retiring 
but bound, — to his distress and peril. (If he were 
to deal with his binders as in) nourishing a servant 
or concubine, it would be fortunate for him. 

4. The fourth line, undivided, shows its subject 
retiring notwithstanding his likings. In a superior 
man this will lead to good fortune; a small man 
cannot attain to this. 

5. The fifth line, undivided, shows its subject 
retiring in an admirable way. With firm correctness 
there will be good fortune. 

6. The sixth line, undivided, shows its subject 
retiring in a noble way. It will be advantageous 
in every respect 

the attraction of his correlate in 6, he is supposed to be ready 
to abandon his place and virtue. He may try to be firm and cor- 
rect, but circumstances are adverse to him. 

Line 4 is strong in the place of a weak line, and suggests the 
symbolism of the duke of IC&u. 

The weak 5th line responds to the strong 2nd, and may be sup- 
posed to represent a wife conscious of her weakness, and docilely 
submissive ; which is good. A husband, however, and a man gene- 
rally, has to assert himself, and lay down the rule of what is right. 

In line 6 the principle of perseverance has run its course; the 
motive power of IT^n is exhausted. The line itself is weak. The 
violent efforts of its subject can only lead to evil. 

XXXIII. Thun is the hexagram of the sixth month; the y in 
influence is represented by two weak lines, and has made good its 
footing in the year. The figure thus suggested to king Win the 
growth of small and unprincipled men in the state, before whose 
advance superior men were obliged to retire. This is the theme of 
his essay, — how, ' when small men multiply and increase in power, 



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SECT. II. THE tA ^WANG hexagram. 129 



XXXIV. The TA ATwang Hexagram. 



Ti A'v/ang indicates that (under the conditions 
which it symbolises) it will be advantageous to be 
firm and correct. 

the necessity of the time requires superior men to withdraw before 
them.' Yet the auspice of Thun is not all bad. By firm correct- 
ness the threatened evil may be arrested to a small extent. 

'A retiring tail ' seems to suggest the idea of the subject of the 
lines hurrying away, which would only aggravate the evil and 
danger of the time. 

' His purpose ' in line 2 is the purpose to withdraw. The weak 2 
responds correctly to the strong 5, and both are central. The 
purpose therefore is symboUed as in the text. The ' yellow ' colour 
of the ox is introduced because of its being ' correct,' and of a piece 
with the central place of the line. 

Line 3 has no proper correlate in 6; and its subject allows 
himself to be entangled and impeded by the subjects of i and a. ^ 
He is too familiar with them, and they presume, and fetter his 
movements ; — compare Analects, 17. i;5. He should keep them at 
a distance. 

Line 4 has a correlate in i, and is free to exercise the decision 
belonging to its subject. The line is the first in ATA i en, symbolic 
of strength. 

In the Shfi IV, v, Section a. 9, the worthy 1 Yin is made to say, 
' The minister will not for favour or gain continue in an oflice 
whose work is done;' and the Khang-hst editors refer to his 
words as an illustration of what is said on line 5. It has its 
correlate in 2, and its subject carries out the purpose to retire 'in 
an admirable way.' 

Line 6 is strong, and with no correlate to detain it in 3. 
Its subject vigorously and happily carries out the idea of the 
hexagram. 

[.6] K 



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130 THE YI KING. TEXT. 

1. The first line, undivided, shows its subject 
manifesting his strength in his toes. But advance 
will lead to evil, — most certainly. 

2. The second line, undivided, shows that with 
firm correctness there will be good fortune. 

3. The third line, undivided, shows, in the case of 
a small man, one using all his strength ; and in the 
case of a superior man, one whose rule is not to 
do so. Even with firm correctness the position 
would be perilous. (The exercise of strength in it 
might be compared to the case of) a ram butting 
against a fence, and getting his horns entangled. 

4. The fourth line, undivided, shows (a case in 
which) firm correctness leads to good fortune, and 
occasion for repentance disappears. (We see) the 
fence opened without the horns being entangled. 
The strength is like that in the wheel-spokes of 
a large waggon. 

5. The fifth line, divided, shows one who loses 
his ram(-like strength) in the ease of his position. 
(But) there will be no occasion for repentance. 

6. The sixth line, divided, shows (one who may 
be compared to) the ram butting against the fence, 
and unable either to retreat, or to advance as he 
world fain do. There will not be advantage in 
any respect ; but if he realise the difficulty (of his 
position), there will be good fortune, 

XXXIV. The strong lines predominate in T5 ^wang. It 
suggested to king Wan a state or condition of things in which 
there was abundance of strength and vigour. Was strength alone 
enough for the conduct of affairs ? No. He saw also in the figure 
that which suggested to him that strength should be held in subor- 
dination to the idea of right, and exerted only in harmony with it. 



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SECT. II. THE 3IN HEXAGRAM. 13! 



XXXV. The 3in Hexagram. 



In 3in we see a prince who secures the tranquil- 
lity (of the people) presented on that account with 
numerous horses (by the king), and three times in 
a day received at interviews. 



This is the lesson of the hexagram, as sententiously expressed 
in the Thwan. 

Line i is strong, in its correct place, and also the first line in 
I^hien, the hexagram of strength, and the first line in Tt ^wang. 
The idea of the figure might seem to be concentrated in it ; and 
hence we have it symbolised by 'strength in the toes,' or 'advancing.' 
But such a measure is too bold to be undertaken by one in the 
lowest place, and moreover there is no proper correlate in 4. 
Hence comes the evil auspice. 

Line 2 is strong, but the strength is tempered by its being in an 
even place, instead of being excited by it, as might be feared. Then 
the place is that in the centre. With firm correctness there will be 
good fortune. 

Line 3 is strong, and in its proper place. It is at the top more- 
over of A'Aien. A small man so symboUed will use his strength to 
the utmost; but not so the superior man. For him the position 
is beyond the safe middle, and he will be cautious ; and not injure 
himself, like the ram, by exerting his strength. 

Line 4 is still strong, but in the place of a weak line ; and this 
gives occasion to the cautions with which the symbolism com- 
mences. The subject of the line going forward thus cautiously, 
his strength will produce good effects, such as are described. 

Line 5 is weak, and occupies a central place. Its subject will 
cease therefore to exert his strength ; but this hexagram does not 
forbid the employment of strength, but would only control and 
ik K 2 



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132 THE yJ king. 



TEXT. 



1. The first line, divided, shows one wishing to 
advance, and (at the same time) kept back. Let him 
be firm and correct, and there will be good fortune. 
If trust be not reposed in him, let him maintain 
a large and generous mind, and there will be no 
error. 

2. The second line, divided, shows its subject 
with the appearance of advancing, and yet of being 
sorrowful. If he be firm and correct, there will be 
good fortune. He will receive this great blessing 
from his grandmother. 

3. The third line, divided, shows its subject 
trusted by all (around him). All occasion for re- 
pentance will disappear. 

4. The fourth line, undivided, shows its subject 
with the appearance of advancing, but like a marmot. 
However firm and correct he may be, the position is 
one of peril. 

5. The fifth line, divided, shows hdw all occasion 
for repentance disappears (from its subject). (But) 
let him not concern himself about whether he shall 
fail or succeed. To advance will be fortunate, and 
in every way advantageous. 

6. The topmost line, undivided, shows one ad- 
vancing his horns. But he only uses them to punish 
the (rebellious people of his own) city. The position 

direct it. All that is said about him is that he will give no occasion 
for repentance. 

Line 6 being at the top of .^in, the symbol of movement, and at 
the top of Ti .^wang, its subject may be expected to be active in 
exerting his strength ; and through his weakness, the result would 
be as described. But he becomes conscious of his weakness, re- 
flects and rests, and good fortune results, as he desists from the 
prosecution of his unwise efforts. 



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SECT. II. THE 3lN HEXAGRAM. 1 33 

is perilous, but there will be good fortune. (Yet) 
however firm and correct he may be, there will be 
occasion for regret 

XXXV. The Thwan of this hexagram expresses its subject 
more fully and plainly than that of any of the previous thirty-four. 
It is about a feudal prince whose services to the country have 
made him acceptable to his king. The king's favour has been 
shown to him by gifts and personal attentions such as form the 
theme of more than one ode in the Shi h ; see especially III, iii, 7. 
The symbolism of the lines dimly indicates the qualities of such 
a prince. 3in means 'to advance.' Hexagrams 46 and 53 agree 
with this in being called by names that indicate progress and ad- 
vance. The advance in 3iii is like that of the sun, 'the shining 
light, shining more and more to the perfect day.' 

Line i is weak, and in the lowest place, and its correlate in 4 is 
neither central nor in its correct position. This indicates the small 
and obstructed beginnings of his subject. But by his firm correct- 
ness he pursues the way to good fortune ; and though the king 
does not yet believe in him, he the more pursues his noble course. 

Line 2 is weak, and its correlate in 5 is also weak. Its subject 
therefore has still to mourn in obscurity. But his position is 
central and correct, and he holds on his way, till success comes 
ere long. The symbolism says he receives it 'from his grand- 
mother;' and readers will be startled by the extraordinary state- 
ment, as I was when I first read it. Literally the Text says ' the 
king's mother,' as P. Regis rendered it, — ' Isum magnam felicitatem 
a matre regis recipit.' He also tries to give the name a historical 
reference ; — to Thdi-^ang, the grandmother of king Win ; Thdi- 
^n, his mother ; or to Thdi-sze, his wife, and the mother of king 
W(i and the duke of A'Su, all famous in Chinese history, and cele- 
brated in the Shih. But 'king's father' and 'king's mother' are 
well-known Chinese appellations for ' grandfather * and ' grand- 
mother.' This is the view given on the passage, by ^Aing-jze, 
.ffft Hsl, and the Khang-hs! editors, the latter of whom, indeed, 
account for the use of the name, instead of ' deceased mother,' 
which we find in hexagrain 62, by the regulations observed in the 
ancestral temple. These authorities, moreover, all agree in saying 
that the name points us to line 5, the correlate of 2, and ' the lord 
of the hexagram.' Now the subject of line 5 is the sovereign, who 
at length acknowledges the worth of the feudal lord, and gives him 



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134 THE y! king. 



TEXT. 



XXXVI. The Ming t Hexagram. 



Ming I indicates that (in the circumstances which 
it denotes) it will be advantageous to realise the 

the great blessing. The ' New Digest of Comments on the Yi 
(1686),' in its paraphrase of the line, has, ' He receives at last this 
great blessing from the mild and compliant ruler.' I am not sure 
that ' motherly king' would not be the best and fairest translation 
of the phrase. 

Canon McClatchie has a very astonishing note on the name, 
which he renders 'Imperial Mother' (p. 164): — 'That is, the wife 
of Imperial Heaven (Juno), who occupies the " throne of the dia- 
gram," viz. the fifth stroke, which is soft and therefore feminine. 
She is the Great Ancestress of the human race. See Imp. Ed. 
vol. iv, Sect, v, p. 25, Com.' Why such additions to the written 
word? 

Line 3 is weak, and in an odd place ; but the subjects of i and 
2 are possessed by the same desire to advance as the subject of 
this. A common trust and aim possess them ; and hence the not 
unfavourable auspice. 

Line 4 is strong, but it is in an even place, nor is it central. 
It suggests the idea of a marmot (? or rat), stealthily advancing. 
Nothing could be more opposed to the ideal of the feudal lord in 
the hexagram. 

In line 5 that lord and his intelligent sovereign meet happily. 
He holds on his right course, indifferent as to results, but things 
are so ordered that he is, and will continue to be, crowned with 
success. 

Line 6 is strong, and suggests the idea of its subject to the last 
continuing his advance, and that not only with firm correctness, 
but with strong force. The ' horns' are an emblem of threatening 
strength, and though he uses them only in his own state, and 
against the rebellious there, that such a prince should have any 
occasion to use force is matter for regret. 



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SECT. 11. THE MING f HEXAGRAM. 135 

difficulty (of the position), and maintain firm cor- 
rectness. 

1. The first line, undivided, shows its subject, (in 
the condition indicated by) Ming 1, flying, but with 
drooping wings. When the superior man (is re- 
volving) his going away, he may be for three days 
without eating. Wherever he goes, the people 
there may speak (derisively of him). 

2. The second line, divided, shows its subject, 
(in the condition indicated by) Ming 1, wounded in 
the left thigh. He saves himself by the strength of 
a (swift) horse ; and is fortunate. 

3. The third line, undivided, shows its subject, 
(in the condition indicated by) Ming I, hunting in 
the south, and taking the g^eat chief (of the dark- 
ness). He should not be eager to make (all) correct 
(at once), 

4. The fourth line, divided, shows its subject (just) 
entered into the left side of the belly (of the dark 
land). (But) he is able to carry out the mind appro- 
priate (in the condition indicated by) Ming 1, quitting 
the gate and courtyard (of the lord of darkness). 

5. The fifth line, divided, shows how the count of 
Ki fulfilled the condition indicated by Ming 1. It 
will be advantageous to be firm and correct 

6. The sixth line, divided, shows the case where 
there is no light, but (only) obscurity. (Its subject) 
had at first ascended to (the top of) the sky ; his 
future shall be to go into the earth. 

XXXVI. In this hexagram we have the representation of a good 
and intelligent minister or oflBcer going forward in the service of 
his country, notwithstanding the occupancy of the throne by a weak 



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136 THE yJ king. text. 



XXXVII. The Kik ZXn Hexagram. 



For (the realisation of what is taught in) A'ii 
Z&n, (or for the regulation of the family), what is 

and unsympathising sovereign. Hence comes its name of Ming t, 
or ' Intelligence Wounded,' that is, injured and repressed. Tiie 
treatment of the subject shows how such an officer will conduct 
himself, and maintain his purpose. The symbolism of the figure 
is treated of in the same way in the first and second Appendixes. 
Appendix VI merely says that the advance set forth in 35 is sure 
to meet with wounding, and hence 3 in is followed by Ming t. 

Line i is strong, and in its right place ; — its subject should be 
going forward. But the general signification of the hexagram 
supposes him to be wounded. The wound, however, being re- 
ceived at the very commencement of its action, is but slight. And 
hence comes the emblem of a bird hurt so as to be obliged to 
droop its wings. The subject then appears directly as ' the supe- 
rior man.' He sees it to be his course to desist from the struggle 
for a time, and is so rapt in the thought that he can fast for three 
days and not think of it. When he does withdraw, opposition 
follows him ; but it is implied that he holds on to his own good 
purpose. 

Line 2 is weak, but also in its right place, and central ; giving 
us the idea of an officer, obedient to duty and the right. His 
wound in the left thigh may impede his movements, but does not 
disable him. He finds means to save himself, and maintains his 
good purpose. 

Line 3, strong and in a strong place, is the topmost line of the 
lower trigram. It responds also to line 6, in which the idea of 
the sovereign, emblemed by the upper trigram, is concentrated. 
The lower trigram is the emblem of light or brightness, the idea of 
which again is expressed by the south, to which we turn when we 
look at the sun in its meridian height. Hence the subject of the 



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SECT. 11. THE A'lA ^Xn hexagram. I37 

most advantageous is that the wife be firm and 
correct. 

1. The first line, undivided, shows its subject 
establishing restrictive regulations in his household. 
Occasion for repentance will disappear. 

2. The second line, divided, shows its subject 
taking nothing on herself, but in her central place 
attending to the preparation of the food. Through 
her firm correctness there will be good fortune. 

3. The third line, undivided, shows its subject 
(treating) the members of the household with stern 
severity. There will be occasion for repentance, 
there will be peril, (but) there will (also) be good 
fortune. If the wife and children were to be smirk- 
ing and chattering, in the end there would be occa- 
sion for regret. 

4. The fourth line, divided, shows its subject 



line becomes a hunter pursuing his game, and successfully. The 
good officer will be successful in his struggle ; but let him not be 
over eager to put all things right at once. 

Line 4 is weak, but in its right place. A'(i Hsi says he does not 
understand the symbolism, as given in the Text. The translation 
indicates the view of it commonly accepted. The subject of the 
line evidently escapes from his position of danger with little 
damage. 

Line 5 should be the place of the ruler or sovereign in the hex- 
agram; but 6 is assigned as that place in Ming t. The officer 
occupying 5, the centre of the upper trigram, and near to the 
sovereign, has his ideal in the count of JH, whose action appears 
in the Shfl, III, pp. 123, 127, 128. He is a historical personage. 

Line 6 sets forth the fate of the ruler, who opposes himself to 
the officer who would do him good and intelligent service. Instead 
of becoming as the sun, enlightening all from the height of the 
sky, he is as the sun hidden below the earth. I' can well believe 
that the writer had the last king of Shang in his mind. 



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138 THE Vi KING. TEXT. 

enriching the family. There will be great good 
fortune. 

5. The fifth line, undivided, shows the influence 
of the king extending to his family. There need 
be no anxiety ; there will be good fortune. 

6. The topmost line, undivided, shows its subject 
possessed of sincerity and arrayed in majesty. In 
the end there will be good fortune. 

XXXVII. ^la ZJLn, the name of the hexagram, simply means 
' a household,' or ' the members of a family.' The subject of the 
essay based on the figure, however, is the regulation of the family, 
effected mainly by the co-operation of husband and wife in their 
several spheres, and only needing to become universal to secure 
the good order of the kingdom. The important place occupied 
by the wife in the family is seen in the short sentence of the Thwan. 
That she be firm and correct, and do her part well, is the first thing 
necessary to its regfulation. 

Line i is strong, and in a strong place. It suggests the necessity 
of strict rule in governing the family. Regulations must be estab- 
lished, and their observance strictly insisted on. 

Line 2 is weak, and in the proper place for it, — the centre, more- 
over, of the lower trigram. It fitly represents the wife, and what is 
said on it tells us of her special sphere and duty; and that she 
should be unassuming in regard to all beyond her sphere ; always 
being firm and correct. See the Shih, III, 350. 

Line 3 is strong, and in an odd place. If the place were central, 
the strength would be tempered ; but the subject of the line, in the 
topmost place of the trigram, may be expected to exceed in severity. 
But severity is not a bad thing in regulating a family ; — it is better 
than laxity and indulgence. 

Line 4 is weak, and in its proper place. The wife is again 
suggested to us, and we are told, that notwithstanding her being 
confined to the internal affairs of the household, she can do much 
to enrich the family. 

The subject of the strong fifth line appears as the king. This 
may be the husband spoken of as also a king ; or the real king 
whose merit is revealed first in his family, as often in the Shih, 
where king Win is the theme. The central place here tempers 
the display of the strength and power. 



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SECT. II. THE KHWEI HEXAGRAM. 1 59 



XXXVIII. The Khwei Hexagram. 



Khwei indicates that, (notwithstanding the con- 
dition of things which it denotes), in small matters 
there will (still) be good success. 

1. The first line, undivided, shows that (to its 
subject) occasion for repentance will disappear. He 
has lost his horses, but let him not seek for them ; 
— they will return of themselves. Should he meet 
with bad men, he will not err (in communicating 
with them). 

2. The second line, undivided, shows its subject 
happening to meet with his lord in a bye-passage. 
There will be no error. 

3. In the third line, divided, we see one whose 
carriage is dragged back, while the oxen in it are 
pushed back, and he is himself subjected to the 
shaving of his head and the cutting off of his nose. 
There is no good beginning, but there will be a 
good end. 

4. The fourth line, undivided, shows its subject 
solitary amidst the (prevailing) disunion. (But) he 
meets with the good man (represented by the first 

Line 6 is also strong, and being in an even place, the subject of 
it might degenerate into stem severity, but he is supposed to be 
sincere, complete in his personal character and self-culture, and 
hence his action will only lead to good fortune. 



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I40 THE Vt KING. 



TEXT. 



line), and they blend their sincere desires together. 
The position is one of peril, but there will be no 
mistake. 

5. The* fifth line, divided, shows that (to its sub- 
ject) occasion for repentance will disappear. With 
his relative (and minister he unites closely and 
readily) as if he were biting through a piece of skin. 
When he goes forward (with this help), what error 
can there be ? 

6. The topmost line, undivided, shows its subject 
solitary amidst the (prevailing) disunion. (In the 
subject of the third line, he seems to) see a pig 
bearing on its back a load of mud, (or fancies) there 
is a carriage full of ghosts. He first bends his bow 
against him, and afterwards unbends it, (for he 
discovers) that he is not an assailant to injure, but 
a near relative. Going forward, he shall meet with 
(genial) rain, and there will be good fortune. 

XXXVIII. Khwei denotes a social state in which division and 
mutual alienation prevail, and the hexagram teaches how in small 
matters this condition may be healed, and the way prepared for the 
cure of the whole system. The writer or writers of Appendixes 
I and II point out the indication in the figure of division and dis- 
union according to their views. In Appendix VI those things appear 
as a necessary sequel to the regulation of the family ; while it is 
impossible to discover any allusion to the family in the Text. 

Line i is strong, and in an odd place. A successful course 
might be auspiced for its subject ; but the correlate in line 4 is also 
strong; and therefore disappointment and repentance are likely 
to ensue. In the condition, however, indicated by Khwei, 
where people have a common virtue, they will help one another. 
Through the good services of 4, the other will not have to repent. 
His condition may be emblemed by a traveller's loss of his horses, 
which return to him of themselves. 

Should he meet with bad men, however, let him not shrink from 
them. Communication with them will be of benefit. His good 



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SECT. 11. THE ^lEN HEXAGRAM. I41 



XXXIX. The A'ien Hexagram. 



In (the state indicated by) /iTien advantage will 
be found in the south-west, and the contrary in the 
north-east. It will be advantageous (also) to meet 

may overcome their evil, and at least it will help to silence their 
slanderous tongues. 

Line 5 is weak, and its subject is the proper correlate of the 
strong 2. They might meet openly; but for the separation and 
disimion that mark the time. A casual, as it were a stolen, inter- 
view, as in a bye-lane or passage, however will be useful, and may 
lead on to a better understanding. 

Line 3 is weak, where it ought to be strong. Its correlate, how- 
ever, in 6 is strong, and the relation between them might seem 
what it ought to be. But the weak 3 is between the strong lines in 
3 and 4 ; and in a time of disunion there ensue the checking and 
repulsion emblemed in the Text At the same time the subject of 
line 6 inflicts on that of 3 the punishments which are mentioned. 
It is thus bad for 3 at first, but we are told that in the end it will be 
well with him ; and this will be due to the strength of the sixth line. 
The conclusion grows out of a conviction in the mind of the author 
that what is right and good is destined to triumph over what is 
wrong and bad. Disorder shall in the long nm give place to order, 
and disunion to union. 

Line 4 has no proper correlate, and might seem to be solitary. 
But, as we saw on line i, in this hexagram, correlates of the same 
class help each other. Hence the subjects of 4 and i, meeting 
together, work with good will and success. 

The place of 5 is odd, but the line itself is weak, so that there 
might arise occasion for repentance. But the strong 2 is a proper 
correlate to the weak 5. Five being the sovereign's place, the sub- 
ject of a is styled the sovereign's relative, of the same surname 



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142 THE y1 king. 



TEXT. 



with the gp-eat man. (In these circumstances), with 
firmness and correctness, there will be good fortune. 

1. From the first line, divided, we learn that 
advance (on the part of its subject) will lead to 
(greater) difficulties, while remaining stationary will 
afford ground for praise. 

2. The second line, divided, shows the minister 
of the king struggling with difficulty on difficulty, 
and not with a view to his own advantage. 

3. The third line, undivided, shows its subject 
advancing, (but only) to (greater) difficulties. He 
remains stationary, and returns (to his former 
associates). 

4. The fourth line, divided, shows its subject 
advancing, (but only) to (greater) difficulties. He 
remains stationary, and unites (with the subject of 
the line above). 

5. The fifth line, undivided, shows its subject 
struggling with the greatest difficulties, while friends 
are coming to help him. 

6. The topmost line, divided, shows its subject 
going forward, (only to increase) the difficulties. 



with him, and head of some branch of the descendants of the royal 
house. It is as easy for 5, so supported, to deal with the disunion 
of the time, as to bite through a piece of skin. 

Line 6 is an even place, and yet the line is strong ; — what can its 
subject effect? He looks at 3, which, as weak, is a proper correlate; 
but he looks with the evil eye of disunion. The subject of 3 appears 
no better than a filthy pig, nor more real than an impossible 
carriage-load of ghosts. He bends his bow against him, but he 
unbends it, discovering a friend in 3, as i did in 4, and 5 in 2. He 
acts and with good luck, comparable to the falling rain, which 
results from the happy union of the yang and y in in nature. 



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SECT. II. THE jriEN HEXAGRAM. ] 43 

while his remaining stationary will be (productive 
of) great (merit). There will be good fortune, and it 
will be advantageous to meet with the great man. 

XXXIX. ^ien is the symbol for incompetency in the feet and 
legs, involving difficulty in walking ; hence it is used in this hexa- 
gram to indicate a state of the kingdom which makes the government 
of it an arduous task. How this task may be successfully performed, 
now by activity on the part of the ruler, and now by a discreet 
inactivity : — ^this is what the figure teaches, or at least gives hints 
about For the development of the meaning of the symbolic 
character from the structure of the lineal figure, see Appendixes 
I and II. 

The Thwan seems to require three things — attention to place, 
the presence of the great man, and the firm observance of cor- 
rectness — in order to cope successfully with the difficulties of the 
situation. The first thing is enigmatically expressed, and the lan- 
guage should be compared with what we find in the Thwan of 
hexagrams 2 and 40. Referring to Figure 2, in Plate III, we find 
that, according to Win's arrangement of the trigrams, the south- 
west is occupied by KhwSn ( )- and the north-east by A!ln 
(ss ^). The former represents the champaign country; the 
latter, the mountainous region. The former is easily traversed and 
held; the latter, with difficulty. The attention to place thus 
becomes transformed into a calculation of circumstances; those 
that promise success in an enterprise, which should be taken advan- 
tage of, and those that threaten difficulty and failure, which should 
be shunned. 

This is the generally accepted view of this difficult passage. 
The Khang-hst editors have a view of their own. I have been 
myself inclined to find less symbolism in it, and to take the south- 
west as the regions in the south and west of the kingdom, which we 
know from the Shih were more especially devoted to Win and his 
house, while the strength of the kings of Shang lay in the north 
and east. 

' The idea of" the great man," Mencius's " minister of Heaven," ' 
is illustrated by the strong line in the fifth place, having for its cor- 
relate the weak line in a. But favourableness of circumstances and 
place, and the presence of the great man do not dispense from 
the observance of firm correctness. Throughout these essays of 
the Yi this is always insisted on. 



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144 THE Vi KING. TEXT. 



XL. The A'ieh Hexagram. 



In (the state indicated by) A'ieh advantage will 
be found in the south-wesL If no (further) opera- 
tions be called for, there will be good fortune in 
coming back (to the old conditions). If some opera- 
tions be called for, there will be good fortune in the 
early conducting of them. 

I. The first line, divided, shows that its subject 
will commit no error. 

Line i is weak, whereas it ought to be strong as being in an odd 
place. If its subject advance, he will not be able to cope with the 
difficulties of the situation, but be overwhelmed by them. Let him 
wait for a more favourable time. 

Line a is weak, but in its proper place. Its correlation with the 
strong 5, and consequent significance, are well set forth. 

Line 3 is strong, and in a place of strength ; but its correlate in 
6 is weak, so that the advance of its subject would be unsupported. 
He waits therefore for a better time, and cherishes the subjects of 
the two lines below, who naturally cling to him. 

Line 4 is weak, and, though in its proper place, its subject could 
do little of himself. He is immediately below the king or great 
man, however, and cultivates his loyal attachment to him, waiting 
for the time when he shall be required to act 

Line 5 is the king, the man great and strong. He can cope 
with the difficulties, and the subjects of 2 and the other lines of the 
lower trigram give their help. 

The action of the hexagram is over; where can the weak 6 go 
forward to ? Let him abide where he is, and serve the great man 
immediately below him. So shall he also be great ; — in meritorious 
action at least. 



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SECT. II. THE ^lEH HEXAGRAM. 1 45 

2. The second line, undivided, shows its subject 
catch, in hunting, three foxes, and obtain the yellow 
{= golden) arrows. With firm correctness there will 
be good fortune. 

3. The third line, divided, shows a porter with 
his burden, (yet) riding in a carriage. He will (only) 
tempt robbers to attack him. However firm and 
correct he may (try to) be, there will be cause for 
regret 

4. (To the subject of) the fourth line, undivided, 
(it is said), ' Remove your toes. Friends will (then) 
come, between you and whom there will be mutual 
confidence.' 

5. The fifth line, divided, shows (its subject), the 
superior man ( = the ruler), executing his function 
of removing (whatever is injurious to the idea of 
the hexagram), in which case there will be good 
fortune, and confidence in him will be shown even 
by the small men. 

6. In the sixth line, divided, we see a feudal 
prince (with his bow) shooting at a falcon on the top 
of a high wall, and hitting it. (The effect of his 
action) will be in every way advantageous. 

XL. ^ieh is the symbol of loosing, — untying a knot or unravel- 
ling a complication ; and as the name of this hexagram, it denotes 
a condition in which the obstruction and difficulty indicated by the 
preceding A'ien have been removed. The object of the author is 
to show, as if from the lines of the figure, how this new and better 
state of the kingdom is to be dealt with. See what is said on the 
Th wan of A'ien for ' the advantage to be found in the south-west.' 
If further active operations be not necessary to complete the subju- 
gation of the country, the sooner things fall into their old channels 
the better. The new masters of the kingdom should not be anxious 
to change all the old manners and ways. Let them do, as the duke 
of A'au actually did do with the subjugated people of Shang. If 
[16] L 



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146 THE Vt KING. TEXT. 



XLI. The Sun Hexagram. 



In (what is denoted by) Sun, if there be sincerity 
(in him who employs it), there will be great good 
fortune : — freedom from error ; firmness and correct- 
ness that can be maintained ; and advantage in every 

further operations be necessary, let them be carried through with- 
out delay. Nothing is said in the Thwan about the discountenancing 
and removal of small men, — unworthy ministers or oflScers ; but 
that subject appears in more than one of the lines. 

There is a weak line, instead of a strong, in the first place ; but 
this is compensated for by its strong correlate in 4. 

I^t Hsi says he does not understand the symbolism under line 2. 
The place is even, but the line itself is strong ; the strength there- 
fore is modified or tempered. And 2 is the correlate of the ruler 
in 5. We are to look to its subject therefore for a minister striving 
to realise the idea of the hexagram, and pacify the subdued king- 
dom. He becomes a hunter, and disposes of unworthy men, 
represented by ' the three foxes.' He also gets the yellow arrows, — 
the instruments used in war or in hunting, whose colour is ' correct,' 
and whose form is ' straight.' His firm correctness will be good. 

Line 3 is weak, when it should be strong; and occupying, as 
it does, the topmost place of the lower trigram, it suggests the 
symbohsm of a porter in a carriage. People will say, ' How did 
he get there ? The things cannot be his own.' And robbers will 
attack and plunder him. The subject of the line cannot protect 
himself, nor accomplish anything good. 

What is said on the fourth line appears in the form of an address 
to its subject. The line is strong in an even place, and i, its corre- 
late, is weak in an odd place. Such a union will not be productive 
of good. In the symbolism i becomes the toe of the subject of 4. 
How the friend or friends, who are to come to him on the removal 
of this toe, are represented, I do not perceive. 

Line 5 is weak in an odd place; but the place is that of the 
ruler, to whom it belongs to perfect the idea of the hexagram by 



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SECT. II. THE SUN HEXAGRAM. I47 



movement that shall be made. In what shall this 
(sincerity in the exercise of Sun) be employed ? 
(Even) in sacrifice two baskets of grain, (though there 
be nothing else), may be presented. 

1. The first line, undivided, shows its subject 
suspending his own affairs, and hurrying away (to 
help the subject of the fourth line). He will commit 
no error, but let him consider how far he should 
contribute of what is his (for the other). 

2. The second line, undivided, shows that it will 
be advantageous for its subject to maintain a firm 
correctness, and that action on his part will be evil. 
He can give increase (to his correlate) without taking 
from himself. 

3. The third line, divided, shows how of three 
men walking together, the number is diminished by 
one ; and how one, walking, finds his friend. 

4. The fourth line, divided, shows its, subject 
diminishing the ailment under which he labours by 
making (the subject of the first line) hasten (to his 
help), and make him glad. There will be no error. 

5. The fifth line, divided, shows parties adding to 
(the stores of) its subject ten pairs of tortoise shells, 
and accepting no refusal. There will be great good 
fortune. 

removing all that is contrary to the peace and good order of the 
kingdom. It will be his duty to remove especially all the small men 
represented by the divided lines, which he can do with the help of 
his strong correlate in 2. Then even the small men will change 
their .ways, and repair to him. 

Line 6 is the highest line in the figure, but not the place of the 
ruler. Hence it appears as occupied by a feudal duke, who carries 
out the idea of the figure against small men, according to the 
symbolism employed, 

L 2 



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148 THE YI KING. TEXT. 

6. The topmost line, undivided, shows its subject 
giving increase to others without taking from him- 
self. There will be no error. With firm correct- 
ness there will be good fortune. There will be 
advantage in every movement that shall be made. 
He will find ministers more than can be counted by 
their clans. 

XLI. The interpretation of this hexagram is encompassed with 
great diflSculties. Sun is the symbol for the idea of diminishing 
or diminution; and what is said in Appendix I has made it to 
be accepted as teaching the duty of the subject to take of what 
is his and contribute to his ruler, or the expenses of the govern- 
ment under which he lives ; in other words, readily and cheerfully 
to pay his taxes. P. Regis says, 'Sun seu (vectigalis causa) 
minuere .... est valde utile ; ' and Canon McClatchie in translating 
Appendix I has : — ' Diminishing (by taxation for instance) .... is 
very lucky.' Possibly, king W^n may have seen in the figures the 
subject of taxation ; but the symbolism of his son takes a much 
wider range. My own reading of the figure and Text comes near 
to the view of A'.i^ng-jze, that ' every diminution and repression of 
what we have in excess to bring it into accordance with right and 
reason is comprehended under Sun.' 

Let there be sincerity in doing this, and it will lead to the 
happiest results. It will lead to great success in great things ; and 
if the correction, or it may be a contribution towards it, appear to 
be very small, yet it will be accepted; — as in the most solemn 
religious service. This is substantially the view of the hexagram 
approved by the Khang-hsi editors. 

Line i is strong, and its correlate in 4 is weak. Its subject will 
wish to help the subject of 4 ; but will not leave anything of his 
own undone in doing so. Nor will he diminish of his own for the 
other without due deliberation. 

Line 2 is strong, and in the central place. But it is in the place 
of a weak line, and its subject should maintain his position without 
moving to help his correlate in 5. Maintaining his own firm cor- 
rectness is the best way to help him. 

Paragraph 3 is to my mind full of obscurity. Kh Hst, adopting 
the view in Appendix I, says that the lower trigram was originally 
Khicn, three undivided lines, like 'three men walking together,' 



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SECT. II. THE yJ hexagram. I49 



XLII. The Y! Hexagram. 



Yl indicates that (in the state which it denotes) 
there will be advantage in every movement which 
shall be undertaken, that it will be advantageous 
(even) to cross the great stream. 

I. The first line, undivided, shows that it will be 
advantageous for its subject in his position to make 

and that the third line, taken away and made to be the topmost 
line, or the third, in what was originally Khwin, three divided lines, 
was 'the putting away of one man;' and that then the change of 
place by 3 and 6, while they continued their proper correlation, was, 
one going away, and finding his friend. I cannot lay hold of any 
thread of reason in this. 

Line 4 is weak, and in an even place ; like an individual ailing 
and unable to perform his proper work. But the correlate in i is 
strong ; and is made to hasten to its relief. The ' joy ' of the line 
shows the desire of its subject to do his part in the work of the 
hexagram. 

Line 5 is the seat of the ruler, who is here humble, and welcomes 
the assistance of his correlate, the subject of 2. He is a ruler 
whom all his subjects of ability will rejoice to serve in every pos- 
sible way; and the result will be great good fortune. 

Line 6 has been changed from a weak into a strong line from 
line 3 ; has received therefore the greatest increase, and will carry 
out the idea of the hexagram in the highest degree and style. 
But he can give increase to others without diminishing his own 
resources, and of course the benefit he will confer will be incalcula- 
ble. Ministers will come to serve him ; and not one from each clan 
merely, but many. Such is the substance of what is said on this 
last paragraph. I confess that I only discern the meaning darkly. 



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i;o THE y! king. 



TEXT. 



a great movement. If it be greatly fortunate, no 
blame will be imputed to him. 

2. The second line, divided, shows parties adding 
to the stores of its subject ten pairs of tortoise shells 
whose oracles cannot be opposed. Let him per- 
severe in being firm and correct, and there will be 
good fortune. Let the king, (having the virtues thus 
distinguished), employ them in presenting his offer- 
ings to God, and there will be good fortune. 

3. The third line, divided, shows increase given 
to its subject by means of what is evil, so that he 
shall (be led to good), and be without blame. Let 
him be sincere and pursue the path of the Mean, 
(so shall he secure the recognition of the ruler, like) 
an officer who announces himself to his prince by 
the symbol of his rank. 

4. The fourth line, divided, shows its subject 
pursuing the due course. His advice to his prince 
is followed. He can with advantage be relied on in 
such a movement as that of removing the capital. 

5. The fifth line, undivided, shows its subject 
with sincere heart seeking to benefit (all below). 
There need be no question about it ; the result will 
be great good fortune. (All below) will with sincere 
heart acknowledge his goodness. 

6. In the sixth line, undivided, we see one to 
whose increase none will contribute, while many 
will seek to assail him. He observes no regular 
rule in the ordering of his heart. There will be 
evil. 

XLII. Yi has the opposite meaning to Sun, and is the symbol 
of addition or increasing. What king Win had in his mind, in con- 
nexion with the hexagram, was a ruler or a government operating 



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SECT. II. THE KWAI HEXAGRAM. 151 



XLIII. The KwAi Hexagram. 



Kwii requires (in him who would fulfil its mean- 
ing) the exhibition (of the culprit's g^ilt) in the royal 
court, and a sincere and earnest appeal (for sym- 

so as to dispense benefits to, and increase the resources of all 
the people. Two indications are evident in the lines ; — the strong 
line in the ruler's seat, or the fifth line, and the weak line in the 
correlative place of 2. Whether there be other indications in 
the figure or its component trigrams will be considered in dealing 
with the Appendixes. The writer might well say, on general 
grounds, of the ruler whom he had in mind, that he would be suc- 
cessful in his enterprises and overcome the greatest difiiculties. 

Line i is strong, but its low position might seem to debar its sub- 
ject from any great enterprise. Favoured as he is, however, according 
to the general idea of the hexagram, and specially responding to the 
proper correlate in 4, it is natural that he should make a movement ; 
and great success will make his rashness be forgotten. 

With paragraph 2 compare paragraph 5 of the preceding hexa- 
gram. Line 2 is weak, but in the centre, and is the correlate of 5. 
Friends give its subject the valuable gifts mentioned; 'that is,' says 
Kwo Yung (Sung dynasty), ' men benefit him ; the oracles of 
the divination are in his favour, — spirits, that is, benefit him ; and 
finally, when the king sacrifices to God, He accepts. Heaven 
confers benefit from above.' 

Line 3 is weak, neither central, nor in its correct position. It 
would seem therefore that its subject should have no increase given 
to him. But it is the time for giving increase, and the idea of his 
receiving it by means of evil things is put into the line. That such 
things serve for reproof and correction is well known to Chinese 
moralists. But the paragraph goes on also to caution and admonish. 

Line 4 is the place for a minister, near to that of the ruler. Its 
subject is weak, but his place is appropriate, and as he follows the 



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152 THE Vi KING. TEXT. 

pathy and support), with a consciousness of the peril 
(involved in cutting off the criminal). He should 
(also) make announcement in his own city, and show 
that it will not be well to have recourse at once to 
arms. (In this way) there will be advantage in 
whatever he shall go forward to. 

1. The first line, undivided, shows its subject in 
(the pride of) strength advancing with his toes. 
He goes forward, but will not succeed. There will 
be ground for blame. 

2. The second line, undivided, shows its subject 
full of apprehension and appealing (for sympathy 
and help). Late at night hostile measures may be 
(taken against him), but he need not be anxious 
about them. 

3. The third line, undivided, shows its subject 
(about to advance) with strong (and determined) 
looks. There will be evil. (But) the superior man, 
bent on cutting off (the criminal), will walk alone 
and encounter the rain, (till he be hated by his 
proper associates) as if he were contaminated (by the 
others). (In the end) there will be no blame against 
him. 

due course, his ruler will listen to him, and he will be a support in 
the most critical movements. Changing the capital from place to 
place was frequent in the feudal times of China. That of Shang, 
which preceded A'du, was changed five times. 

Line 5 is strong, in its fitting position, and central. It is the seat 
of the ruler, who has his proper correlate in 2. Everything good, 
according to the conditions of the hexagram, therefore, may be said 
of him ; — as is done. 

Line 6 is also strong ; but it should be weak. Occupying the 
topmost place of the figure, its subject will concentrate his powers 
in the increase of himself, and not think of benefiting those below 
him ; and the consequence will be as described. 



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SECT. II. THE KWAI HEXAGRAM. I 53 

4. The fourth line, undivided, shows one from 
whose buttocks the skin has been stripped, and who 
walks slowly and with difficulty. (If he could act) 
like a sheep led (after its companions), occasion for 
repentance would disappear. But though he hear 
these words, he will not believe them. 

5. The fifth line, undivided, shows (the small 
men like) a bed of purslain, which ought to be 
uprooted with the utmost determination. (The 
subject of the line having such determination), his 
action, in harmony with his central position, will lead 
to no error or blame. 

6. The sixth line, divided, shows its subject with- 
out any (helpers) on whom to call. His end will 
be evil. 

XLIII. In Kwii we have the hexagram of the third month, when 
the last remnant, cold and dark, of winter, represented by the sixth 
line, is about to disappear before the advance of the warm and 
bright days of the approaching summer. In the yin line at the 
top king wan saw the symbol of a small or bad man, a feudal 
prince or high minister, lending his power to maintain a corrupt 
government, or, it might be, a dynasty that was waxen old and 
ready to vanish away ; and in the five undivided lines he saw the 
representatives of good order, or, it might be, the dynasty which 
was to supersede the other. This then is the subject of the hexa- 
gram, — how bad men, statesmen corrupt and yet powerful, are to 
be put out of the way. And he who would accomplish the task 
must do so by the force of his character more than by force of 
arms, and by producing a general sympathy on his side. 

The Th wan says that he must openly denounce the criminal in 
the court, seek to awaken general sympathy, and at the same time 
go about his enterprise, conscious of its difficulty and danger. 
Among his own adherents, moreover, as if it were in his own city, 
he must make it understood how unwillingly he takes up arms. 
Then let him go forward, and success will attend him. 

Line i is strong, the first line of that trigram, which expresses 
the idea of strength. But it is in the lowest place. The stage of 



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154 THE Vt KING. TKXT. 



XLIV. The KAu Hexagram. 



Kiu shows a female who is bold and strong. It 
will not be good to many (such) a female. 

the enteqjrise is too early, and the preparation too small to make 
victory certain. Its subject had better not take the field. 

Line 2 is strong, and central, and its subject is possessed with 
the determination to do his part in the work of removal. But his 
eagerness is tempered by his occupancy of an even place ; and he 
is cautious, and no attempts, however artiiil, to harm him will take 
effect. 

Line 3 is strong, and its subject displays his purpose too eagerly. 
Being beyond the central position, moreover, gives an indication of 
evil. Lines 3 and 6 are also proper correlates; and, as elsewhere in 
the Yi, the meeting of yin and yang lines is associated with falling 
rain. The subject of 3, therefore, communicates with 6, in a way 
that annoys his associates ; but nevertheless he commits no error, 
and, in the end, incurs no blame. 

Line 4 is not in the centre, nor in an odd place, appropriate to it 
as undivided. Its subject therefore will not be at rest, nor able to 
do anything to accomplish the idea of the hexagram. He is sym- 
bolised by a culprit, who, according to the ancient and modem 
custom of Chinese courts, has been bastinadoed till he presents the 
appearance in the Text. Alone he can do nothing; if he could 
follow others, like a sheep led along, he might accomplish some- 
thing, but he will not listen to advice. 

Purslain grows in shady places, and hence we find it here in 
close contiguity to the topmost line, which is yin. As 5 is the 
ruler's seat, evil may come to him from such contiguity, and 
strenuous efforts must be made to prevent such an evil. The 
subject of the line, the ruler in the central place, will commit no 
error. It must be allowed that the symbolism in this line is 
not easily managed. 

The subject of the 6th line, standing alone, may be easily dis- 
posed of. 



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SECT. II. THE KAU HEXAGRAM. I55 

1. The first line, divided, shows how its subject 
should be kept (like a carriage) tied and fastened 
to a metal drag, in which case with firm correctness 
there will be good fortune. (But) if he move in 
any direction, evil will appear. He will be (like) 
a lean pig, which is sure to keep jumping about. 

2. The second line, undivided, shows its subject 
with a wallet of fish. There will be no error. But 
it will not be well to let (the subject of the first line) 
go forward to the guests. 

3. The third line, undivided, shows one from 
whose buttocks the skin has been stripped so that 
he walks with difficulty. The position is perilous, 
but there will be no great error. 

4. The fourth line, undivided, shows its subject 
with his wallet, but no fish in it. This will give rise 
to evil. 

5. The fifth line, undivided, (shows its subject as) 
a medlar tree overspreading the gourd (beneath it). 
If he keep his brilliant qualities concealed, (a good 
issue) will descend (as) from Heaven. 

6. The sixth line, undivided, shows its subject 
receiving others on his horns. There will be occa- 
sion for regret, but there will be no error. 



XLIV. The single, divided, line at the top of KwSi, the hexa- 
gram of the third month, has been displaced, and KAien has ruled 
over the fourth month of the year. But the innings of the divided 
line commence again; and here we have in Kau the hexagram of 
the fifth month, when light and heat are supposed both to begin 
to be less. 

In that divided line Win saw the symbol of the small or un- 
worthy man, beginning to insinuate himself into the government 



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156 THE Vi KING. 



TEXT. 



XLV. The 3hui Hexagram. 



In (the state denoted by) 3hui, the king will 
repair to his ancestral temple. It will be advan- 

of the country. His influence, if unchecked, would go on to grow, 
and he would displace one good man after another, and fill the 
vacant seats with others like-minded with himself. The object of 
Wan in his Thwan, therefore, was to enjoin resistance to the 
encroachment of this bad man. 

Kiu is defined as giving the idea of suddenly and casually 
encountering or meeting with. So does the divided line appear 
all at once in the figure. And this significance of the name rules 
in the ihterpretation of the lines, so as to set on one side the more 
common interpretation of them according to the correlation; 
showing how the meaning of the figures was put into them from the 
minds of Wan and Tan in the first place. The sentiments of the 
Text are not learned from them ; but they are forced and twisted, 
often fantastically, and made to appear to give those sentiments 
forth of themselves. 

Here the first line, divided, where it ought to be the contrary, 
becomes the symbol of a bold, bad woman, who appears unex- 
pectedly on the scene, and wishes to subdue or win all the five 
strong lines to herself. No one would contract a marriage with such 
a female ; and every good servant of his country will try to repel 
the entrance into the government of every oflScer who can be so 
symbolised. 

Line i represents the b6te noire of the figure. If its subject 
can be kept back, the method of firm government and order will 
proceed. If he cannot be restrained, he will become disgfusting 
and dangerous. It is not enough for the carriage to be stopt 
by the metal drag; it is also tied or bound to some steadfast 
object. Internal and external restraints should be opposed to the 
bad man. 

The ' wallet of fish ' under line 2 is supposed to symbolise the 



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SECT. 11. THE 3HUI HEXAGRAM. 157 

tageous (also) to meet with the great man ; and then 
there will be progress and success, though the advan- 
tage must come through firm correctness. The 
use of great victims will conduce to good fortune ; 
and in whatever direction movement is made, it will 
be advantageous. 

I. The first line, divided, shows its subject with 
a sincere desire (for union), but unable to carry it 
out, so that disorder is brought into the sphere of 
his union. If he cry out (for help to his proper 
correlate), all at once (his tears) will give place 

subject of line i. It has come into the possession of the subject of 
2, by virtue of the meaning of the name K&u, which I have pointed 
out With his strength therefore he can repress the advance of i. 
He becomes in fact ' the lord of the hexagram,' and all the other 
strong lines are merely guests ; and especially is it important that 
he should prevent i from approaching them. This is a common 
explanation of what is said under this second line. It seems far- 
fetched ; but I can neither find nor devise anything better. 

With what is said on line 3, compare the fourth paragraph of 
the duke's Text on the preceding hexagram. Line 3 is strong, 
but has gone beyond the central place ; has no correlate above ; 
and is cut off from i by the intervening 2. It cannot do much 
therefore against i ; but its aim being to repress that, there will be 
no great error. 

Line i is the proper correlate of 4 ; but it has already met and 
ass6ciated with 2. The subject of 4 therefore stands alone ; and 
evil to him may be looked for. 

Line 5 is strong, and in the ruler's place. Its relation to i is 
like that of a forest tree to the spreading gourd. But let not its 
subject use force to destroy or repress the growth of i ; but let 
him restrain himself and keep his excellence concealed, and Heaven 
will set its seal to his virtue. 

The symbolism of line 6 is diflBcult to understand, though the 
meaning of what is said is pretty clear. The Khang-hsi editors 
observe : — ' The subject of this line is like an officer who has with- 
drawn from the world. He can accomplish no service for the 
time ; but his person is removed from the workers of disorder.' 



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158 THE vi KING. TEXT. 

to smiles. He need not mind (the temporary diffi- 
culty); as he goes forward, there will be no error. 

2. The second line, divided, shows its subject led 
forward (by his correlate). There will be good 
fortune, and freedom from error. There is entire 
sincerity, and in that case (even the small offerings 
of) the vernal sacrifice are acceptable. 

3. The third line, divided, shows its subject 
striving after union and seeming to sigh, yet no- 
where finding any advantage. If he go forward, he 
will not err, though there may be some small cause 
for regret. 

4. The fourth line, undivided, shows its subject 
in such a state that, if he be greatly fortunate, he 
will receive no blame. 

5. The fifth line, undivided, shows the union (of 
all) under its subject in the place of dignity. There 
will be no error. If any do not have confidence in 
him, let him see to it that (his virtue) be great, long- 
continued, and firmly correct, and all occasion for 
repentance will disappear. 

6. The topmost line, divided, shows its subject 
sighing and weeping ; but there will be no error. 



XLV. 3hui denotes collecting together, or things so collected; 
and hence this hexagram concerns the state of the kingdom when 
a happy union prevails between the sovereign and his ministers, 
between high and low ; and replies in a vague way to the question 
how this state is to be preserved ; by the influence of religion, and 
the great man, who is a sage upon the throne. 

He, ' the king,' will repair to his ancestral temple, and meet in 
spirit there with the spirits of his ancestors. Whatever he does, 
being correct and right, will succeed. His religious services will 
be distinguished by their dignity and splendour. His victims will 



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SECT. II. THE ShXnG hexagram. 159 



XLVI. The Shang Hexagram. 



ShSng indicates that (under its conditions) there 
will be great progress and success. Seeking by 

be the best that can be obtained, and other things will be in har- 
mony with them. 

Line i is weak, and in the place of a strong line. It has a 
proper correlate in 4, but is separated from him by the intervention 
of two weak lines. The consequence of these things is supp>osed to 
be expressed in the first part of the symbolism ; but the subject of 
the line is possessed by the desire for union, which is the theme 
of the hexagram. Calling out to his correlate for help, he obtains 
it, and his sorrow is turned into joy. 

Line 2 is in its proper place, and responds to the strong ruler 
in 5, who encourages and helps the advance of its subject. He 
possesses also the sincerity, proper to him in his central position ; 
and though he were able to offer only the sacrifice of the spring, 
small compared with the fulness of the sacrifices in summer and 
autumn, it would be accepted. 

Line 3 is weak, in the place of a strong line, and advanced from 
the central place. The topmost line, moreover, is no proper 
correlate. But its subject is possessed by the desire for union ; 
and though 2 and 4 decline to associate with him, he presses on 
to 6, which is also desirous of union. That common desire brings 
them together, notwithstanding 3 and 6 are both divided lines ; and 
with difficulty the subject of 3 accomplishes his object. 

[But that an ordinary rule for interpreting the lineal indications 
may be thus overruled by extraordinary considerations shows how 
much of fancy there is in the symbolism or in the commentaries 
on it.] 

Line 4 has its correlate in i, and is near to the ruling line in 5. 
We may expect a good auspice for it ; but its being strong in an 
odd place, calls for the caution which is insinuated. 

Line 5 is strong, central, and in its correct position. Through 



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l6o THE Vt KING. 



TEXT. 



(the qualities implied in it) to meet with the great 
man, its subject need have no anxiety. Advance to 
the south will be fortunate. 

1. The first line, divided, shows its subject ad- 
vancing upwards with the welcome (of those above 
him). There will be great good fortune. 

2. The second line, undivided, shows its subject 
with that sincerity which will make even the (small) 
offerings of the vernal sacrifice acceptable. There 
will be no error. 

3. The third line, undivided, shows its^ subject 
ascending upwards (as into) an empty city. 

4. The fourth line, divided, shows its subject 
employed by the king to present his offerings on 
mount Kh\. There will be good fortune ; there will 
be no mistake. 

5. The fifth line, divided, shows its subject firmly 
correct, and therefore enjoying good fortune. He 
ascends the stairs (with all due ceremony). 

6. The sixth line, divided, shows its subject ad- 
vancing upwards blindly. Advantage will be found 
in a ceaseless maintenance of firm correctness. 

its subject there may be expected the full realisation of the idea of 
the hexagram. * 

Line 6, weak, and at the extremity of the figure, is still anxious 
for union ; but he has no proper correlate, and all below are united 
in 5. Its subject mourns his solitary condition ; and his good 
feeling will preserve him from error and blame. 

XL VI. The character Shing is used of advancing in an upward 
direction, 'advancing and ascending.' And here, as the name 
of the hexagram, it denotes the advance of a good oflScer to the 
highest pinnacle of distinction. The second line, in the centre 
of the lower trigram, is strong, but the strength is tempered by its 
being in an even place. As the representative of the subject of the 



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SECT. II. THE KHWAn hexagram. i6i 



XLVII. The Khwan Hexagram. 



In (the condition denoted by) Khwin there may 
(yet be) progress and success. For the firm and 

hexagram, it shows him to be possessed of modesty and force. Then 
the ruler's seat, the fifth place, is occupied by a divided line, indi- 
cating that he will welcome the advance of 2. The officer therefore 
both has the qualities that fit him to advance, and a favourable 
opportunity to do so. The result of his advance will be fortunate. 
It is said that after he has met with the ruler,.' the great man' 
in 5, ' advance to the south will be fortunate.' I^d Hsi and other 
critics say that 'advancing to the south' is equivalent simply to 
' advancing forwards.' The south is the region of brightness and 
warmth; advance towards it will be a joyful progress. As P. Regis 
explains the phrase, the traveller will proceed ' via recta simiUima 
illi qua itur ad austrates felicesque plagas.' 

Line i is weak, where it should be strong ; its subject, that is, is 
humble and docile. Those above him, therefore, welcome his 
advance. Another interpretation of the line is suggested by Appen- 
dix I; which deserves consideration. As the first line of Sun, 
moreover, it may be supposed to concentrate in itself its attribute 
of docility, and be the lord of the trigram. 

See on the second line of 3hui. Line 2 is strong, and the weak 
5 is its proper correlate. We have a strong officer serving a weak 
ruler ; he could not do so unless he were penetrated with a sincere 
and devoted loyalty. 

Paragraph 3 describes the boldness and fearlessness of the 
advance of the third line. According to the Khang-hsi editors, 
who, I think, are right, there is a shade of condemnation in the 
line. Its subject is too bold. 

Line 4 occupies the place of a great minister, in immediate con- 
tiguity to his ruler, who confides in him, and raises him to the 
highest distinction as a feudal prince. The mention of mount 
[16] M 



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l62 THE Yi KING. 



TEXT. 



correct, the (really) great man, there will be good 
fortune. He will fall into no error. If he make 
speeches, his words cannot be made good. 

1. The first line, divided, shows its subject with 
bare buttocks straitened under the stump of a tree. 
He enters a dark valley, and for three years has 
no prospect (of deliverance). 

2. The second line, undivided, shows its subject 
straitened amidst his wine and viands. There come 
to him anon the red knee-covers (of the ruler). 
It will be well for him (to maintain his sincerity as) 
in sacrificing. Active operations (on his part) will 
lead to evil, but he will be free from blame, 

3. The third line, divided, shows its subject 
straitened before a (frowning) rock. He lays hold of 
thorns. He enters his palace, and does not see his 
wife. There will be evil, 

4. The fourth line, undivided, shows its subject 
proceeding very slowly (to help the subject of the 
first line), who is straitened by the carriage adorned 
with metal in front of him. There will be occasion 
for regret, but the end will be good. 

Khi, at the foot of which was the capital of the lords oiK&a, seems 
to take the paragraph out of the sphere of symbolism into that of 
history. 'The king' in it is the last sovereign of Shang; the 
feudal prince in it is Win. 

In line 5 the advance has reached the highest point of dignity, 
and firm correctness is specially called for. 'Ascending the steps 
of a stair ' may intimate, as Kii Hsl says, the ease of the advance ; 
or according to others (the Khang-hst editors among them), its 
ceremonious manner. 

What can the subject of the hexagram want more? He has 
gained all his wishes, and still he is for going onwards. His 
advance is blind and foolish ; and only the most exact correctness 
will save him from the consequences. 



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SECT. II. THE KHWAN HEXAGRAM. 1 63 

5. The fifth line, undivided, shows its subject with 
his nose and feet cut off. He is straitened by (his 
ministers in their) scarlet aprons. He is leisurely 
in his movements, however, and is satisfied. It will 
be well for him to be (as sincere) as in sacrificing (to 
spiritual beings). 

6. The sixth line, divided, shows its subject strait- 
ened, as if bound with creepers ; or in a high and 
dangerous position, and saying (to himself), ' If I 
move, I shall repent it.' If he do repent of former 
errors, there will be good fortune in his going 
forward. 

XL VII. The character Khw^n presents us with the picture of a 
tree within an enclosure ; ' a plant,' according to Williams, ' fading 
for want of room ; ' ' a tree,' according to Tai Tung, ' not allowed 
to spread its branches.' However this be, the term conveys the 
idea of being straitened and distressed ; and this hexagram indicates 
a state of things in which the order and government that would 
conduce to the well-being of the country can hardly get the develop- 
ment, which, by skilful management on the part of ' the great man ' 
and others, is finally secured for them. 

Looking at the figure we see that the two central places are 
occupied by strong lines ; but 2 is confined between i and 3, both 
of which are weak, and 5 (the ruler), as well as 4 (his minister), is 
covered by the weak 6 ; all which peculiarities are held to indicate 
the repression or straitening of good men by bad. For the way in 
which the same view is derived from the great symbolism, see 
Appendix II, in loc. 

The concluding sentence of the Thwan is literally,' If he speak, 
he will not be believed;' but the Khang-hsS editors give suflScient 
reasons for changing one character so as to give the meaning in 
the translation. 'Actions,' not words, are what are required in 
the case. 

The symbolism of ' buttocks ' is rather a favourite with the duke 
of JTSu ; — ' chacun h. son goiit.' The poor subject of line i sitting 
on a mere stump, which affords him no shelter, is indeed badly off. 
The line is at the bottom of the trigram indicating peril, and 4, 
which is its proper correlate, is so circumstanced as not to be able 

.M 2 



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1 64 THE Vi KING. 



TEXT. 



XLVIII. The Sing Hexagram. 



(Looking at) Sing, (we think of) how (the site of) 
a town may be changed, while (the fashion of) its 

to render it help; hence comes the unfavourable auspice. 'Three 
years ' is used, as often, for a long time. 

The three strong lines in the figure (2, 4, and 5) are all held to 
represent 'superior men ;' and their being straitened is not in their 
persons or estates, but in their principles which are denied develop- 
ment. Hence the subject of 2 is straitened while he fares sumptu- 
ously. His correlate in 5, though not quite proper, occupies the 
ruler's place, and comes to his help. That it is the ruler who 
comes appears from his red or Vermillion knee-covers, different 
from the scarlet knee-covers worn by nobles, as in paragraph. 5. 
Let 2 cultivate his sincerity and do the work of the hexagram as if 
he were sacrificing to spiritual beings ; and then, if he keep quiet, 
all will be well. 

For ' a full explanation ' of paragraph 3 AITft Hsi refers his readers 
to what Confucius is made to say on it in Appendix III, ii, 35. 
The reader, however, will probably not find much light in that 
passage. The Khang-hsi editors say here: — 'The subjects of the 
three divided lines (i, 3, and 6) are all unable to deal aright with 
the straitened stale indicated by the figure. The first is at the 
bottom, sitting and distressed. The second, occupies the third 
place, where he may either advance or retreat; and he advances 
and is distressed. Wounded abroad, he returns to his family, and 
finds none to receive him ; so graphically is there set forth the 
distress which reckless action brings.' 

Line 4 is the proper correlate of 1, but it is a strong line in an 
even place, and its assistance is given dilatorily. Then i is over- 
ridden by 2, which is represented by 'a chariot of metal.' It is 
difficult for the subjects of i and 4 to come together, and effect 
much; but 4 is near 5, which is also a strong line. Through a 



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SECT. II. THE Sing hexagram. 165 

wells undergoes no change. (The water of a well) 
never disappears and never receives (any great) in- 
crease, and those who come and those who go can 
draw and enjoy the benefit. If (the drawing) have 
nearly been accomplished, but, before the rope has 
quite reached the water, the bucket is broken, this 
is evil. 

1. The first line, divided, shows a well so muddy 
that men will not drink of it ; or an old well to 
which neither birds (nor other creatures) resort. 

2. The second line, undivided, shows a well from 
which by a hole the water escapes and flows away 
to the shrimps (and such small creatures among the 
grass), or one the water of which leaks away from 
a broken basket. 

3. The third line, undivided, shows a well, which 
has been cleared out, but is not used. Our hearts 
are sorry for this, for the water might be drawn 
out and used. If the king were (only) intelligent, 
both he and we might receive the benefit of it. 



common sympathy, the subject of 5 will have a measure of suc- 
cess. So the symbolism of this line has been explained, — not 
very satisfactorily. 

Line 5 is repressed by 6, and pressed on by 4. Above and 
below its subject is wounded. Especially is he straitened by the 
minister in 4, with his scarlet knee-covers. But the upper trigram 
is Tui, with the quality of complacent satisfaction. And this indi- 
cates, it is said, that the subject of 5 gets on notwithstanding his 
straits, especially by his sincerity. This explanation is not more 
satisfactory than the last. 

Line 6 is at t)ie top of the figure, where the distress may be 
supposed to reach its height. Its subject appears bound and on a 
perilous summit. But his extremity is also his opportunity. He is 
moved to think of repenting ; and if he do repent, and go forward, 
his doing so will be fortunate. 



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1 66 THE yJ king. 



TEXT. 



4. The fourth line, divided, shows a well, the lining 
of which is well laid. There will be no error. 

5. The fifth line, undivided, shows a clear, limpid 
well, (the waters from) whose cold spring are (freely) 
drunk. 

6. The topmost line, divided, shows (the water 
from) the well brought to the top, which is not 
allowed to be covered. This suggests the idea of 
sincerity. There will be great good fortune. 



XLVIII. 3ing, which gives its name to this hexagram, is the 
symbol of a well. The character originally was pictorial (4t), 
intended to represent a portion of land, divided into nine parts, 
the central portion belonging to the government, and being culti- 
vated by the joint labour of the eight families settled on the other 
divisions. In the centre of it, moreover, was a well, which was the 
joint property of all the occupants. 

What is said onSing might be styled 'Moralisings on a well,' 
or 'Lessons to be learned from a well for the good order and 
government of a country.' What a well is to those in its neighbour- 
hood, and indeed to men in general, that is government to a people. 
If rulers would only rightly appreciate the principles of government 
handed down from the good ages of the past, and faithfully apply 
them to the regulation of the present, they would be blessed them- 
selves and their people with them. 

In the Thwan we have the well, substantially the same through 
many changes of society ; a sure source of dependance to men, for 
their refreshment and for use in their cultivation of the ground. Its 
form is what I have seen in the plains of northern China ; what may 
be seen among ourselves in many places in Europe. It is deep, and 
the water is drawn up by a vessel let down from the top ; and the 
value of the well depends on the water being actually raised. And 
so the principles of government must be actually carried out. 

Line i , being weak, and at the very bottom of the figure, suggests, 
or is made to suggest, the symbolism of it. Many men in authority 
are like such a well ; corrupt, useless, unregarded. 

Line 2 is strong, and might very well symbolise an active spring, 
ever feeding the well and, through it, the ground and its cultivators ; 
but it is in an inappropriate place, and has no proper correlate. 



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SECT. II. THE KO HEXAGRAM. 167 



XLIX. The Ko Hexagram. 



(What takes place as indicated by) Ko is believed 
in only after it has been accomplished. There will 
be great progress and success. Advantage will come 
from being firm and correct. (In that case) occasion 
for repentance will disappear. 

I. The first line, undivided, shows its subject (as 
if he were) bound with the skin of a yellow ox. 

Its cool waters cannot be brought to the top. So important is it 
that the ministers of a oountry should be able and willing rightly to 
administer its government. In the account of the ancient Shun it 
is stated that he once saved his life by an opening in the lining of 
a well. 

Line 3 is a strong line, in its proper place ; and must represent 
an able minister or officer. But though the well is clear, no use is 
made of it. I do not find anything in the figure that can be con- 
nected with this fact. The author was wise beyond his lines. After 
the first sentence of the paragraph, the duke of Alu ceases from 
his function of making emblems ; reflects and moralises. 

Line 4 is weak, but in its proper place. Its subject is not to 
be condemned, but neither is he to be praised. He takes care 
of himself, but does nothing for others. 

Line 5 is strong, and in its right place. The place is that of the 
ruler, and suggests the well, full of clear water, which is drawn 
up, and performs its useful work. Such is the good Head of 
government to his people. 

Line 6 is in its proper place, but weak. If the general idea of 
the figure was different, a bad auspice might be drawn from it. 
But here we see in it the symbol of the water drawn up, and the 
top uncovered so that the use of the well is free to all. Then 
the mention of ' sincerity ' suggests the inexhaustibleness of the 
elemental supply. 



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l68 THE Vi KING. 



TEXT. 



2. The second line, divided, shows its subject 
making his changes after some time has passed. 
Action taken will be fortunate. There will be 
no error. 

3. The third line, undivided, shows that action 
taken by its subject will be evil. Though he be 
firm and correct, his position is perilous. If the 
change (he contemplates) have been three times 
fully discussed, he will be believed in. 

4. The fourth line, undivided, shows occasion for 
repentance disappearing (from its subject). Let him 
be believed in ; and though he change (existing) 
ordinances, there will be good fortune. 

5. The fifth line, undivided, shows the great 
man (producing his changes) as the tiger (does 
when he) changes (his stripes). Before he divines 
(and proceeds to action), faith has been reposed 
in him. 

6. The sixth line, divided, shows the superior 
man producing his changes as the leopard (does 
when he) changes (his spots), while small men 
change their faces (and show their obedience). To 
go forward (now) would lead to evil, but there will 
be good fortune in abiding firm and correct. 



XLIX. The character called Ko or Keh is used here in the sense 
of changing. Originally used for the skin of an animal or bird, 
alive or dead, it received the significance of changing at a very 
early time. Its earliest appearance, indeed, in the first Book of the 
Shfi, is in that sense. How the transition was made from the idea 
of a skin or hide to that of change is a subject that need not be 
entered on here. The author has before him the subject of changes 
occurring— called for — in the state of the country; it may be on the 
greatest scale. The necessity of them is recognised, and hints are 



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SECT. II. THE TING HEXAGRAM. 169 



L. The Ting Hexagram. 



Ting gives the intimation of great progress and 
success. 

I. The first line, divided, shows the caldron over- 
thrown and its feet turned up. (But) there will be 

given as to the spirit and manner in which they should be brought 
about 

For the way in which the notion of change is brought out of 
the trigrams of the figure, see Appendixes I and II. It is assumed 
in the Thwan that change is viewed by people generally with 
suspicion and dislike, and should not be made hastily. When 
made as a necessity, and its good effects appear, the issues will be 
great and good. A proved necessity for them beforehand ; and a 
firm correctness in the conduct of them : — these are the conditions 
by which changes should be regulated. 

Line i, at the bottom of the figure, may be taken as denoting 
change made at too early a period. It has no proper correlate or 
helper, moreover, above. Hence its subject is represented as lied 
up, unable to take any action. 

Line a, though weak, is in its correct place. It is in the centre 
also of the trigram Lt, signifying brightness and intelligence, and 
has a proper correlate in the strong 5. Let its subject take action 
in the way of change. 

The symbolism of paragraph 3 is twofold. The line is strong, 
and in the correct position, but it has passed the centre of Sun 
and is on its outward verge. These conditions may dispose its 
'subject to reckless and violent changing which would be bad. But 
if he act cautiously and with due deliberation, he may take action, 
and he will be believed in. 

Line 4 is strong, but in the place of a weak line. This might 
vitiate any action of its subject in the way of change, and give 
occasion for repentance. But other conditions are intimated that 



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I70 THE Vt KING. TEXT. 

advantage in its getting rid of what was bad in it. 
(Or it shows us) the concubine (whose position is 
improved) by means of her son. There will be 
no error. 

2. The second line, undivided, shows the caldron 
with the things (to be cooked) in it. (If its subject 
can say), ' My enSmy dislikes me, but he cannot 
approach me,' there will be good fortune. 

3. The third line, undivided, shows the caldron 
with (the places of) its ears changed. The progress 
(of its subject) is (thus) stopped. The fat flesh of 
the pheasant (which is jn the caldron) will not be 
eaten. But the (genial) rain will come, and the 
grounds for repentance will disappear. There will 
be good fortune in the end, 

4. The fourth line, undivided, shows the caldron 
with its feet broken ; and its contents, designed for 
the ruler's use, overturned and spilt. Its subject will 
be made to blush for shame. There will be evil. 

will have a contrary eflfect ; and if he have further secured general 
confidence, he may proceed to the greatest changes, even to change 
the dynasty, — 'with good fortune.' The conditions favourable to 
his action are said to be such as these : — The line has passed from 
the lower trigram into the upper ; water and fire come in it into 
contact ; the fourth place is that of the minister immediately below 
the ruler's seat. All these considerations demand action from the 
subject of 4 in harmony with the idea of the hexagram. 

Line 5 has every quality proper to ' the lord of the hexagram,' 
and his action will be in every way beneficial. He is symbolled by 
the tiger ; and the changes which he makes by the bright stripes 
of the tiger when he has changed his coat. 

Line 6 is weak, but its subject is penetrated with the spirit of the 
hexagram. If its subject be a superior man, only inferior to 
' the great man,' immediately below, the changes he makes will be 
inferior only to his. If he be a small man, he will be compliant and 
submissive. The lesson for him, however, is to abide firm and 
correct without taking any action of his own. 



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SECT. II. THE TING HEXAGRAM. I71 

5. The fifth line, divided, shows the caldron with 
yellow ears and rings of metal in them. There will 
be advantage through being firm and correct. 

6. The sixth line, undivided, shows the caldron 
with rings of jade. There will be great good for- 
tune, and all action taken will be in every way 
advantageous. 

L. Ting was originally a pictorial character^represehting a caldron 
with three feet and two ears, used for cooking and preparing food 
for the table (the mat in old times) and the altar. The picture 
has disappeared from the character, but it is said that in the hexa- 
gram we have an outline from which fancy may construct the 
vessel. The lower line, divided, represents its feet ; lines 2, 3, 4, 
all undivided, represent the body of it; line 5, divided, represents 
its two ears ; and line 6, undivided, the handle by which it was 
carried, or suspended from a hook. Appendix VI makes Ting 
follow Ko in the order of the hexagrams, because there is no ' 
changer of the appearance and character of things equal to the 
furnace and caldron ! 

Ting and 3'ng {48) are the only two hexagrams named from 
things in ordinary use with men ; and they are both descriptive of 
the government's work of nourishing. There are three hexagrams 
of which that is the theme, t (27), under which we are told in Ap- 
pendix I that ' the sages nourished men of worth, by means of them 
to reach to the myriads of the people.' 3 i n g treats of the nourish- 
ment of the people generally by the government through its agri- 
cultural and other methods; Ting treats of the nourishment of 
men of talents and virtue; and that being understood, it is said, 
without more ado, that it ' intimates great progress and success.' 
The Text that follows, however, is more difficult to interpret than 
that of 3ing. 

Line i is weak, and little or nothing can be expected from its 
subject. But it has a proper correlate in the strong 4 ; and the 
disastrous overthrow, causing the feet to be directed towards 4, is 
understood to be lucky, as accelerating the co-operation of their 
two lines I The overturned caldron is thereby emptied of bad stuff 
that had accumulated in itl! The writer uses another illustration, 
which comes to the same thing. A concubine is less honourable 
than a wife, — like the overthrown caldron. But if she have a son. 



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172 



THE y{ king. text. 



LI. The A'Xn Hexagram. 



A'an gives the intimation of ease and develop- 
ment. When (the time of) movement (which it 
indicates) comes, (the subject of the hexagram) will 
be found looking out with apprehension, and yet 

while the proper wife has none, he will be his father's heir, and the 
mother, the concubine, will share in the honour of his position. 
Thus the issue of what was so unpromising is good. At least 
'there is no mistake.' The above is what is found in the best 
commentaries on the paragraph. I give it, but am myself dissa- 
tisfied with it. 

Line 2 is strong. ' The enemy ' is the first line, which solicits i. 
One, however, is able to resist the solicitation; and the whole 
paragraph gives a good auspice. The personal pronoun seems to 
show that the whole was, or was intended to be, understood as an 
oracular response in divination. This paragraph is rhymed, more- 
over, as are also 1,3, and 4 : — 

'In the caldron is good fare, 
See my foe with angry glare; 
But touch me he does not dare.' 

Line 3 is also strong, and in the proper place ; and if its corre- 
late were the divided 5, its auspice would be entirely good. But 
instead of 5, its correlate is the strong 6. The place of the ears at 
5 has been changed. Things promise badly. The advance of 3 is 
stopped. The good meat in the caldron which it symbolises will 
not be eaten. But 3 keeping firm 5 will by and by seek its 
society ! The yin and the yang will mingle, and their union will 
be followed by genial rain. The issue will be good. 

Line 4 is in the place of a great minister, who is charged with 
the most difficult duties, which no single man can sustain. Then the 
strength of 4 is weakened by being in an even place, and its corre- 
late is the weak i in the lowest place. Its subject is insufficient of 



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SECT. II. THE JSTXn hexagram. I 73 

smiling and talking cheerfully. When the move- 
ment (like a crash of thunder) terrifies all within 
a hundred 11, he will be (like the sincere worshipper) 
who is not (startled into) letting go his ladle and 
(cup of) sacrificial spirits. 

1. The first line, undivided, shows its subject, 
when the movement approaches, looking out and 
around with apprehension, and afterwards smiling 
and talking cheerfully. There will be good fortune. 

2. The second line, divided, shows its subject, 
when the movement approaches, in a position of 
peril. He judges it better to let go the articles 
(in his possession), and to ascend a very lofty 
height. There is no occasion for him to pursue 
after (the things he has let go) ; in seven days he 
will find them. 

3. The third line, divided, shows its subject dis- 
traught amid the startling movements going on. If 
those movements excite him to (right) action, there 
will be no mistake. 

himself for his work, and he has no su£Scient help ; and the result 
will be evil. 

' Paragraph 5,' says the Daily Lecture, ' praises the ruler as con- 
descending to the worthy with his humble virtue.' 'Yellow' has 
occurred repeatedly as 'a correct colour;' and here 'the yellow 
ears and strong rings of metal' are intended to intensify our appre- 
ciation of the occupant of 5. As the line is divided, a caution is 
added about being firm and correct. 

Line 6 is strong, but the strength is tempered by its being in an 
even place. It is this which makes the handle to be of jade, which, 
though very hard, is supposed to have a peculiar and rich softness 
of its own. The auspice of the line is very good. 'The great 
minister,' it is said, ' the subject of 6,' performs for the ruler, the 
subject of 5, in helping his government and nourishing the worthy, 
the part which the handle does for the caldron. 



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174 THE Vt KING. 



TEXT. 



4. The fourth line, undivided, shows its subject, 
amid the starth'ng movements, supinely sinking 
(deeper) in the mud. 

5. The fifth line, divided, shows its subject going 
and coming amidst the startling movements (of 
the time), and always in peril ; but perhaps he 
will not incur loss, and find business (which he can 
accomplish). 

6. The topmost line, divided, shows its subject, 
amidst the startling movements (of the time), in 
breathless dismay and looking round him with 
trembling apprehension. If he take action, there will 
be evil. If, while the startling movements have not 
reached his own person and his neighbourhood, (he 
were to take precautions), there would be no error, 
though his relatives might (still) speak against him. 

LI. A'Sn among the trigrams represents thunder, and, according 
to W5n's arrangement and significance of them, ' the oldest son.' 
It is a phonetic character in which the significant constituent is YU, 
meaning rain, and with which are formed most characters that 
denote atmospherical phenomena. The hexagram is formed of the 
trigram A'an redoubled, and may be taken as representing the crash 
or peal of thunder; but we have seen that the attribute or virtue 
of the trigram is ' moving, exciting power;' and thence, symbolically, 
the character is indicative of movement taking place in society or 
in the kingdom. This is the meaning of the hexagram ; and the 
subject is the conduct tp be pursued in a time of movement — such 
as insurrection or revolution — by the party promoting, and most 
interested in, the situation. It is shown how he ought to be aware 
of the dangers of the time, and how by precaution and the regula- 
tion of himself he may overcome them. 

The indication of a successful issue given by the figure is sup- 
posed to be given by the undivided line at the bottom of the 
trigram. The subject of it must be superior to the subjects of the 
two divided lines above. It is in the idea of the hexagram that 
he should be moving and advanchig ; — and what can his movement 
be but successful ? 



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SECT. II. THE KAN HEXAGRAM. 1 75 



LI I. The Kan Hexagram. 



/ When one's resting is like that of the backl and 
he loses all consciousness of self; when he walks 

The next sentence shows him sensible of the danger of the 
occasion, but confident and self-possessed. The concluding sen- 
tence shows him rapt in his own important affairs, like a sincere 
worshipper, thinking only of the service in which he is engaged. 
Such a symbol is said to be suggested by Win's significance of 
iCUn as 'the oldest son (page 33).' It is his to succeed to his 
father, and the hexagram, as following Ting, shows him presiding 
over the sacrifices that have been prepared in the caldron. This 
is too fanciful. 

What is said on line i is little more than a repetition of the 
principal part of the Th wan. The line is undivided, and gives the 
auspice of good fortune. 

' The position of peril' to the subject of line 2 is suggested, as 
Appendix II says, by its position, immediately above i. But the 
rest of the symbolism is obscure, and Xd Hsi says he does not 
understand it. The common interpretation appears in the version. 
The subject of the line does what he can to get out of danger ; and 
finally, as is signified by the central position of the line, the issue is 
better than could have been expected. On the specification of 
'seven days,' see what is said in the treatise on the Thwan of 
hexagram 24. On its use here ^ASng-jze says : — ' The places of 
a diagram amount to 6. The number 7 is the first of another. 
When the movement symbolised by A'in is gone by, things will be 
as they were before.' 

Line 3 is divided, and where an undivided line should be ; but if 
its subject move on to the fourth place, which would be right for 
bim, the issue will not be bad. 

The 4th line, however, has a bad auspice of its own. It is tmdi- 
vided in an even place, and it is pressed by the divided line on 



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176 TIJE \i KING. TEXT. 

in his courtyard, and does not see any (of the per- 
sons) in it, — there will be no error. 

1. The first line, divided, shows its subject keep- 
ing his toes at rest. There will be no error; but 
it will be advantageous for him to be persistently 
firm and correct. 

2. The second line, divided, shows its subject 
keeping the calves of his legs at rest. He cannot 
help (the subject of the line above) whom he fol- 
lows, and is dissatisfied in his mind. 

3. The third line, undivided, shows its subject 
keeping his loins at rest, and separating the ribs 
(from the body below). The situation is perilous, 
and the heart glows with suppressed excitement. 

4. The fourth line, divided, shows its subject 
keeping his tnmk at rest. There will be no error. 

5. The fifth line, divided, shows its subject keep- 
ing his jawbones at rest, so that his words are (all) 
orderly. Occasion for repentance will disappear. 

6. The sixth line, undivided, shows its subject 



either side, hence its subject is represented as supinely sinking 
in the mud. 

Line 5 is divided, in an odd place, and that in which the action 
of the hexagram may be supposed to be concentrated. Hence its 
subject is always in peril ; but his central position indicates safety 
in the end. 

Line 6 is weak, and has to abide the concluding terrors of the 
movement. Action on the part of its subject is sure to be evil. 
If, however, he were to take precautions, he might escape with 
only the censures of his relatives. But I do not see anything in 
the figure to indicate this final symbolism. The writer, probably, 
had a case in his mind, which it suited ; but what that was we do 
not know. 



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SECT. II. THE kXn hexagram. I77 

devotedly maintaining his restfulness. There will 
be good fortune. 

LII. The trigram K&n represents a mountain. Mountains rise 
up grandly from the surface of the earth, and their masses rest on it 
in quiet and solemn majesty ; and they serve also to arrest the on- 
ward progress of the traveller. Hence the attribute ascribed to Kin 
is twofold ; it is both active and passive — resting and arresting. 
The character is used in this hexagram with both of those signifi- 
cations. As the name of the figure, it denotes the mental charac- 
teristic of resting in what is right; especially resting, as it is 
expressed by Chinese critics, ' in principle,' — that which is right, 
on the widest scale, and in the absolute conception of the mind ; 
and that which is right in every different position in which a man 
can be placed. We find this treated of in the Great Learning 
(Commentary, chapter 3), and in the Doctrine of the Mean, 
chapter 14, and other places. This is the theme of the hexa- 
gram; and the symbolism of it is all taken from different parts 
of the human body, as in hexagram 31, and the way in which 
they are dealt with. Several of the paragraphs are certainly not 
easy to translate and interpret. 

The other parts of the body, such as the mouth, eyes, and ears, 
have their appetencies, which lead them to what is without them- 
selves. The back alone has nothing to do with anything beyond 
itself — hardly with itself even ; all that it has to do is to stand 
straight and strong. So should it be with us, resting in principle, 
free from the intnision of selfish though s and external objects. 
Amidst society, he who realises the idea of the hexagram is still 
alone, and does not allow himself to be distracted from the con- 
templation and following of principle. He is not a recluse, how- 
ever, who keeps aloof fi°om social life ; but his distinction is that 
he maintains a supreme regard to principle, when alone, and when 
mingling with others. 

In the symbolism the author rises from one part of the body to 
the other. The first line at the bottom of the figure fitly suggests 
' the toes.' The lesson is that from the first men should rest in, 
and be anxious to do, what is right in all their affairs. The 
weakness of the line and its being in an odd place give occasion 
for the caution, with which the paragraph concludes. 

Above the toes are the calves, represented by the second line, 
weak, but in its proper place. Above this, again, are the loins, 
represented by 3, strong, and in danger of being violent. Line a 
[16] N 



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178 THE y{ KING. 



TEXT. 



LI 1 1. The A'ien Hexagram. 



A'ien suggests to us the marriage of a young 
lady, and the good fortune (attending it). There 
will be advantage in being firm and correct. 

I. The first line, divided, shows the wild geese 
gradually approaching the shore. A young officer 
(in similar circumstances) will be in a position of 
danger, and be spoken against; but there will be 
no error. 



follows 3, and should help it ; but is unable to do so ; and there 
results dissatisfaction. 

When the calves are kept at rest, advance is stopped, but no other 
harm ensues. Not so when the loins are kept at rest, and unable 
to bend, for the connexion between the upper and lower parts of 
the body is then broken. The dissatisfaction increases to an angry 
heat. Paragraph 3 is unusually difficult. For ' loins ' P. Regis has 
scapulae, and for ribs renes ; Canon McClatchie says : — ' Third 
Nine is stopping at a limit, and separating what is in continued 
succession (i. e. the backbone) ; thus the mind,' &c. 

Line 4 is a weak line resting in a proper place ; hence it gives 
a good auspice. The Khang-hst editors, however, call attention 
to the resting of the trunk as being inferior to the resting of the 
back in the Thwan. 

The place of the weak fifth line is not proper for it ; and this 
accounts for the mention of its subject ' repenting,' for which, 
however, there is not occasion. 

The third line of the trigrams, and the sixth of the hexagram, is 
what makes Kin what it is, — the symbol of a mountain. The 
subject of it therefore will carry out the resting required by the 
whole figure in the highest style. 



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SECT. 11. THE JTIEN HEXAGRAM. 1 79 

2. The second line, divided, shows the geese 
gradually approaching the large rocks, where they 
eat and drink joyfully and at ease. There will be 
good fortune. 

3. The third line, undivided, shows them gradu- 
ally advanced to the dry plains. (It suggests also 
the idea of) a husband who goes on an expedition 
from which he does not return, and of a wife who 
is pregnant, but will not nourish her child. There 
will be evil. (The case symbolised) might be advan- 
tageous in resisting plunderers. 

4. The fourth line, divided, shows the geese 
gfradually advanced to the trees. They may light 
on the flat branches. There will be no error. 

5. The fifth line, undivided, shows the geese 
gradually advanced to the high mound. (It sug- 
gests the idea of) a wife who for three years does 
not become pregnant; but in the end the natural 
issue cannot be prevented. There will be good 
fortune. 

6. The sixth line, undivided, shows the geese 
gradually advanced to the large heights (beyond). 
Their feathers can be used as ornaments. There 
will be good fortune. 

LIII. ^en is ordinarily used in the sense of gradually; but 
there is connected with that the idea also of progress or advance. 
The element of meaning in the character is the symbol of water ; 
and the whole of it denotes gradual advance, like the soaking in 
of water. Three hexagrams contain in them the idea of advance, — 
Bin (35), Sh&ng (46), and this ATien ; but each has its peculiarity 
of meaning, and that of A'ien is the gradual manner in which the 
advance takes place. The subject then of the hexagram is the 
advance of men to offices in the state, how it shoul 1 take place 
gradually and by successive steps, as well as on certain other 

N 2 



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l80 THE y1 king. text. 



LIV. The Kwei Mei Hexagram. 



Kwei Mei indicates that (under the conditions 
which it denotes) action will be evil, and in no wise 
advantageous. 

conditions that may be gathered from the Text. P. Regis gives this 
exposition of the subject, as taken by him from the symbolism, 
which he ascribes to Confucius : — ' Viri probi, seu republica digni, 
in virtutis soliditate instituendi sunt a sapiente, bonisque regulis 
ut altis radicibus firmandi, nee alii ad rempublicam tractandam 
promovendi, nisi qui paulatim per varios minoresque gradus ad 
magnum hoc regimen periculo facto ascendere digni sint.' He 
then illustrates this sentiment by the words of Phny : — ' Eligetur 
multis experimentis eruditus, et qui futura possit ex praeteritis 
praevidere.' 

But how does the lineal figure give the idea of a gradual 
advance? We shall see how it is attempted in the Great Sym- 
bolism to get this from the component trigrams. The account 
there is not satisfactory ; and still less so is what else I have been 
able to find on the subject. E.g., the trigrams were originally 
KhwSn and ITAien; but the third line of Khwin and the first of 
JTAien have changed places; and the trigrams now denote 'the 
youngest son,' and ' the eldest daughter.' If all this, which is a 
mere farrago, were admitted, it would not help us to the idea of 
an advance. 

Again, the lines 2, 3, 4, 5 are all in the places proper to them 
as strong or weak ; we ascend by them as by regular steps to the 
top of the hexagram ; and this, it is said, gives the notion of the 
gradual steps of the advance. But neither does this carry con- 
viction with it to the mind. We must leave the question. King 
Wan, for reasons which we cannot discover, or without such 
reasons, determined that the hexagram A'ien should denote the 
gradual advance of men to positions of influence and oflSce. 

The marriage of a young lady is mentioned in the Thwan as 
an illustration of an important event taking place with various 



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SECT. n. THE KWEI MEI HEXAGRAM. iSl 

1. The first line, undivided, shows the younger 
sister married off in a position ancillary to the real 
wife. (It suggests the idea of) a person lame on 

preliminary steps, continued from its initiation to its consummation. 
But all must be done in an orderly and correct manner. And so 
must it be with the rise of a man in the service of the state. 

The goose from the most ancient times played an important 
part in the marriage ceremonies of the Chinese; and this may 
have suggested the use of it in the symbolism of the different lines. 
Its habits as a bird of passage, and flying in processional order, 
admirably suited the writer's purpose. In paragraph i it appears 
for the first time in the season approaching the shore. Then comes 
the real subject of the line ; and the facts of its being weak, and 
without a proper correlate, agree with, if they do not suggest, what 
is said about him, and the caudon added. 

The geese have advanced in line 3, and so has the ofiScer, 
though he is not mentioned. The line is weak or humble, and 
central, and has a proper correlate in 5. Hence comes the good 
auspice. 

Line 3 is strong, and has passed the central place, to the top of 
the lower trigram, and has not a proper correlate in 6. Its subject 
is likely to be violent and at the same time unsuccessful in his 
movements. He is like a husband who does not care for his wife, 
or a wife who does not care for her child. But in the case supposed, 
his strength in the end would be useful. 

The web-footed goose is not suited for taking hold on the 
branches ; but on flat branches it can rest. Line 4, weak, but in 
an even place, does not promise a good auspice for its subject ; but 
it is the first line in the trigram of humility, and it is concluded 
that he will not fall into error. 

Line 5 is a strong line in the ruler's seat ; and yet it appears 
here as the symbol of a wife. Somehow its subject has been at 
variance with, and kept in disgrace by, calumniating enemies such 
as the plunderers of paragraph 3; but things come right in the end. 
The wife, childless for three years, becomes at last a mother ; and 
there is good fortune. 

The subject of line 6 has reached the top of the hexagram. 
There is no more advance for him ; and he has no correlate. But 
he may still do some good work for the state, and verify the auspice 
derived from the ornamental plumes of the geese. 



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l8a THE vi KING. 



TIXT. 



one leg who yet manages to tramp along. Going 
forward will be fortunate. 

2. The second line, undivided, shows her blind 
of one eye, and yet able to see. There will be 
advantage in her maintaining the firm correctness 
of a solitary widow, 

3. The third line, divided, shows the younger 
sister who was to be married off in a mean position. 
She returns and accepts an ancillary position. 

4. The fourth line, undivided, shows the younger 
sister who is to be married off protracting the time. 
She may be late in being married, but the time will 
come. 

5. The fifth line, divided, reminds us of the 
marrying of the younger sister of (king) Tt-yl, 
when the sleeves of her the princess were not 
equal to those of the (still) younger sister who 
accompanied her in an inferior capacity. (The 
case suggests the thought of) the moon almost full. 
There will be good fortune. 

6. The sixth line, divided, shows the young lady 
bearing the basket, but without anything in it, and 
the gentleman slaughtering the sheep, but without 
blood flowing from it. There will be no advantage 
in any way. 

LIV. Mei Kwei is a common way of saying that a young lady 
is married, or, literally, 'is going home.' If the order of the 
characters be reversed, the verb kwei will be transitive, and the 
phrase will signify 'the marrying away of a daughter,' or 'the 
giving the young lady in marriage.' In the name of this hexagram, 
Kwei is used with this transitive force. But Mei means ' a younger 
sister,' and not merely a young lady or a daughter. Kwei Mei 
might be equivalent to our 'giving in marriage;' but we shall find 



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SECT. II. THE FAnG hexagram. 183 



LV. The FAng Hexagram. 



Fing intimates progress and development. When 
a king has reached the point (which the name denotes) 

that the special term has a special appropriateness. The Thwan 
makes the hexagram give a bad auspice concerning its subject; 
and for this the following reasons are given : — According to Win's 
symbolism of the trigrams, Tui, the lower trigram here, denotes 
the youngest daughter, and A'in, the upper trigram, the oldest 
son. And as the action of the hexagram begins with that of the 
lower trigram, we have in the figure two violations of propriety. 
First, the marriage represented is initiated by the lady and her 
friends. She goes to her future home instead of the bridegroom 
coming to fetch her. Second, the parties are unequally matched. 
There ought not to be such disparity of age between them. Another 
reason assigned for the bad auspice is that lines 2, 3, 4, and 5 are 
all in places not suited to them, quite different from the corres- 
ponding lines in the preceding hexagram. 

Is then such a marriage as the above, or marriage in general, 
the theme of the hexagram ? I think not. The marriage comes in, 
as in the preceding essay, by way of illustration. With all the 
abuses belonging to it as an institution of his country, as will imme- 
diately appear, the writer acknowledged it without saying a word 
in deprecation or correction of those abuses ; but from the case 
he selected he wanted to set forth some principles which should 
obtain in the relation between a ruler and his ministers. This 
view is insisted on in Wan ITmg's ' New Collection of Comments 
onthe Yi(A.D. 1686).' 

A feudal prince was said to marry nine ladies at once. The 
principal of them was the bride who was to be the proper wife, 
and she was attended by two others, virgins from her father's 
harem ; a cousin, and a half-sister, a daughter of her father by 
another mother of inferior rank. Under line i the younger sister 



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l84 THE Vt KING. TEXT. 

there is no occasion to be anxious (through fear of 
a change). Let him be as the sun at noon. 

of the hexagram appears in the inferior position of this half-sister. 
But the line is strong, indicative in a female of firm virtue. The 
mean condition and its duties are to be deplored, and give the 
auspice of lameness ; but notwithstanding, the secondary wife will 
in a measure discharge her service. There will be good fortune. 
Notwithstanding apparent disadvantages, an able ofiScer may do 
his ruler good service. 

Line 2 is strong, and in the centre. The proper correlate is 5, 
which, however, is weak, and in the place of a strong line. With 
such a correlate, the able lady in 2 cannot do much in the dis- 
charge of her proper work. But if she think only of her husband, 
like the widow who will die rather than marry again, such devo- 
tion will have its effect and its reward. Though blind of one eye, 
she yet manages to see. And so devoted loyalty in an officer will 
compensate for many disadvantages. 

Line 3 is weak, where it should be strong ; and the attribute of 
pleased satisfaction belonging to Tui culminates in its subject. 
She turns out to be of so mean a character and such a slave of 
passion that no one will marry her. She returns and accepts the 
position of a concubine. 

Line 4 is strong, where it should be weak ; but in the case of 
a female the indication is not bad. The subject of the line, how- 
ever, is in no haste. She waits, and the good time will come. 

King T!-yi has been already mentioned under the fifth line of 
hexagram 11, and in connexion with some regulation which he 
made about the marriage of daughters of the royal house. His 
sister here is honotu'ably mentioned, so as to suggest that the 
adorning which she preferred was 'the ornament of the hidden 
man of the heart.' The comparison of her to ' the moon almost 
full ' I am ready to hail as an instance where the duke of A'du is 
for once poetical. ATiiing-gze, however, did not see poetry, but a 
symbol in it. ' The moon is not full,' he says, ' but only nearly 
full. A wife ought not to eclipse her husband I' However, the 
sister of Tt-yt gets happily married, as she deserved to do, being 
represented by the line in the place of honour, having its proper 
correlate in 2. 

Line 6 is weak, at the top of the hexagram, and without a proper 
correlate. Hence its auspice is evil. The marriage-contract is 
broken, according to AHl Hst, and does not take efi°ect. The 



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SECT. II. THE FANG HEXAGRAM. 1 85 

1. The first line, undivided, shows its subject 
meeting with his mate. Though they are both of 
the same character, there will be no error. Advance 
will call forth approval. 

2. The second line, divided, shows its subject 
surrounded by screens so large and thick that at 
midday he can see from them the constellation of 
the Bushel. If he go (and try to enlighten his 
ruler who is thus emblemed), he will make himself 
to be viewed with suspicion and dislike. Let him 
cherish his feeling of sincere devotion that he may 
thereby move (his ruler's mind), and there will be 
good fortune. 

3. The third line, undivided, shows its subject 
with an (additional) screen of a large and thick 
banner, through which at midday he can see (the 
small) Mei star. (In the darkness) he breaks his 
right arm; but there will be no error, 

4- The fourth line, undivided, shows its subject 
in a tent so large and thick that at midday he can 
see from it the constellation of the Bushel. But he 
meets with the subject of the (first) line, undivided 
like himself. There will be good fortune. 

5. The fifth line, divided, shows its subject bring- 
ing around him the men of brilliant ability. There 
will be occasion for congratulation and praise. There 
will be good fortune. 

6. The topmost line, divided, shows its subject 

parties mentioned in the paragraph appear engaged in the temple, 
offering or sacrificing to the spirits of their ancestors. But the 
voman's basket vhich should contain her offerings (The Shih, I, 
ii, ode 4) is empty, and the man attempts to perform his part in 
slaying the victim (The Shih, II, vi, ode 6. 5) without effect. 



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i86 THE y1 king. 



TKXT. 



with his house made large, but only serving as a 
screen to his household. When he looks at his door, 
it is still, and there is nobody about it. For three 
years no one is to be seen. There will be evil. 

LV. The character FSng is the symbol of being large and 
abundant, and, as the name of this hexagram, denotes a condition of 
abundant prosperity. In the changes of human affairs a condition 
of prosperity has often given place to one of an opposite character. 
The lesson of the hexagram is to show to rulers how they may 
preserve the prosperity of their state and people. The component 
trigrams have the attributes of intelligence and of motive force, and 
the second is under the direction of the first. A ruler with these 
attributes is not likely to fail in maintaining his crown and pros- 
perity, and it may well be said that the figure intimates progress 
and development. The king is told not to be anxious, but to study 
how he may always be like the sun in his meridian height, cheering 
and enlightening all. 

The explanation of the Thwan is thus natural and easy. It will 
be found that a change is introduced in explaining the symbolism 
of the lines, which it is as well to point out here. Thus far 
we have found that to constitute a proper correlation between two 
lines, one of them must be whole, and the other divided. Here 
two undivided lines make a correlation. The law, evidently 
made for the occasion, goes far to upset altogether the doctrine of 
correlated lines. I have been surprised that the rules about the 
lines stated in the Introduction, pp. 15, 1 6, have held good so often. 
There have been various deviations from them, but none so gross 
as that in this hexagram. 

Line i is strong, and in an odd place. Its correlate is 4, which 
would in other figures be deemed unfortunate. But here even the 
Text calls 4 (for the reference must be to it) the mate of i, and 
makes their belonging to different categories of no account. The 
lesson taught is that mutual helpfulness is the great instrument for 
the maintenance of prosperity. The subject of line i is encouraged 
to go forward. 

Line 2 is divided, and in its proper place. Occupying the centre 
of the trigram of brightness, the intelligence of it should be con- 
centrated in its subject ; but his correlate is the weak 5, weak and 
in an improper place, so tiiat he becomes the benighted ruler, and 
darkness is shed from him down on a, which is strangely symbolised. 



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SECT. II. THE LO hexagram. 1 87 



LVI, The Lu Hexagram. 



Lii intimates that (in the condition which it 
denotes) there may be some little attainment and 
progress. If the stranger or traveller be firm and 
correct as he ought to be, there will be good fortune. 

I. The first line, divided, shows the stranger 
mean and meanly occupied. It is thus that he 
brings on himself (further) calamity. 

The subject of 2 therefore, if he advance, will not be acceptable to 
his ruler, and will not be employed. The only way in which he can 
be useful by developing the light that is in him is pointed out in the 
conclusion. The constellation of the Bushel corresponds to our 
Ursa Major, or perhaps part of Sagittarius. 

Line 3 is strong, in its proper place. It is the last line more- 
over of the trigram of Brightness. All these conditions are 
favourable to the employment of its subject; but its correlate is 
the weak 6, which is at the extremity of the trigram of movement. 
There is no more power therefore in 6, and the subject of 3 has no 
one to co-operate with him. His symbolism and auspice are worse 
than those of 2 ; but his own proper goodness and capacity will 
save him from error. Mei is a small star in or near the Bushel. 

The symbolism of line 4 is the same as that of 2, till we come to 
the last sentence. Then there is the strange correlation of the two 
strong lines in 4 and i; and the issue is good. 

The subject of line 5 is in the ruler's place, himself weak, but 
' the lord ' of the trigram of movement. He can do little unhelped, 
but if he can bring into the work and employ in his service the 
talents of i, 3, and 4, and even of 2, his correlate, the results will 
be admirable. Nothing consolidates the prosperity of a country so 
much as the co-operation of the ruler and able ministers. 

All the conditions of line 6 are unfavourable, and its subject is 
left to himself without any helpers. He is isolated for long, and 
undone. The issue is only evil. 



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1 88 THE Vi KING. 



TEXT. 



2. The second line, divided, shows the stranger, 
occupying his lodging-house, carrying with him his 
means of livelihood, and provided with good and 
trusty servants. 

3. The third line, undivided, shows the stranger, 
burning his lodging-house, and having lost his ser- 
vants. However firm and correct he (try to) be, 
he will be in peril. 

4. The fourth line, undivided, shows the traveller 
in a resting-place, having (also) the means of liveli- 
hood and the axe, (but still saying),'! am not at ease 
in my mind.' 

5. The fifth line, divided, shows its subject shoot- 
ing a pheasant. He will lose his arrow, but in the 
end he will obtain praise and a (high) charge. 

6. The sixth line, undivided, suggests the idea 
of a bird burning its nest. The stranger, (thus 
represented), first laughs and then cries out. He 
has lost his ox(-like docility) too readily and easily. 
There will be evil. 

LVI. The name Ltl denotes people travelling abroad, and is often 
translated by ' strangers.' As early as the time of king Win, there 
was a class of men who went about from one state to another, pur- 
suing their business as pedlars or travelling merchants; but in 
Mencius II, i, chap. 5. 3, it is used for travellers generally, whatever 
it was that took them out of their own states. Confucius himself 
is adduced as a travelling stranger ; and in this hexagram king Win 
is supposed to have addressed himself to the class of such men, 
and told them how they ought to comport themselves. They ought 
to cultivate two qualities, — those of humility and integrity (firm 
correctness). By means of these they would escape harm, and 
would make some little attainment and progress. Their rank was 
too low to speak of great things in connexion with them. It is 
interesting to find travellers, strangers in a strange land, having 
thus a place in the Yt. 

For the manner in which the component trigrams are supposed 



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SECT, 11. THE SUN HEXAGRAM. 1 89 



LVII. The Sun Hexagram. 



Sun intimates that (under the conditions which 
it denotes) there will be some little attainment and 
progress. There will be advantage in movement 

to give the idea that is in Ltt, see Appendix II. In Appendix I there 
is an endeavour to explain the Th wan by means of the lines and 
their relation to one another. 

Line i is weak, in an odd place, and at the very bottom or 
commencement of the hexagram. These conditions are supposed 
to account for the unfavourable symbolism and auspice. 

Line a is weak, but in its proper place. That place, moreover, 
is the central Hence the traveller — and he might here very well be 
a travelling merchant — is represented in the symbolism as provided 
with everything he can require ; and though the auspice is not 
mentioned, we must understand it as being good. 

Line 3 is strong, and in an even place. But it occupies the 
topmost place in the lower trigram; and its strength may be 
expected to appear as violence. So it does in the symbolism, and 
extraordinary violence as well. It seems unreasonable to suppose, 
as in the conclusion, that one so described could be in any way 
correct. The Khang-hst editors remark that the subjects of 2 and 3 
are represented as having ' lodging-houses,' and not any of those 
of the other lines, because these are the only two lines in the places 
proper to them 1 

Line 4 is strong, but in an even place. Hence its subject has not 
'a lodging-house;* but has found a situation where he has shelter, 
though he is exposed to perils. Hence he is represented as having 
an axe, which may be available for defence. Still he is not at 
peace in his mind. The Khang-hsl editors observe well that the 
mention of an axe makes us think of caution as a quality desirable 
in a traveller. 

Line 5, though weak, is in the centre of the upper trigram, \\ hich 



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190 THE Vi KING. 



TEXT. 



onward in whatever direction. It will be advanta- 
geous (also) to see the great man. 

1. The first line, divided, shows its subject (now) 
advancing, (now) receding. It would be advanta- 
geous for him to have the firm correctness of a 
brave soldier. 

2. The second line, undivided, shows the repre- 
sentative of Sun beneath a couch, and employing 
diviners and exorcists in a way bordering on confu- 
sion. There will be good fortune and no error. 

3. The third line, undivided, shows its subject 
penetrating (only) by violent and repeated efforts. 
There will be occasion for regret 

4. The fourth line, divided, shows all occasion 
for repentance (in its subject) passed away. He 
takes g^me for its threefold use in his hunting. 

5. The fifth line, undivided, shows that with 
firm correctness there will be good fortune (to its 



has the quality of brightness and elegance. It is held to be the lord 
of the trigram Lt ; and lines 4 and 6 are on either side in loyal duty 
to defend and help. Then the shooting a pheasant is supposed to 
be suggested ; an elegant bird, — by the trigram of elegance. When 
an ofBcer was travelling abroad in ancient times, his gift of intro- 
duction at any feudal court was a pheasant The traveller here 
emblemed is praised by his attached friends, and exalted to a place 
of dignity by the ruler to whom he is acceptable. It will be seen 
how the idea of the fifth line being the ruler's seat is dropt here as 
being alien from the idea of the hexagram, so arbitrary is the 
interpretation of the symbolism. 

Line 6 is strong, in an even place, at the extremity of Lt and of 
the whole hexagram. Its subject will be arrogant and violent ; the 
opposite of what a traveller should be ; and the issue will be evil. 
The symbolism must be allowed to be extravagant. What bird ever 
burned its nest? And the character for ' ox ' is strangely used for 
* ox-like docility.' 



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SECT. II. THE SUN HEXAGRAM. I9I 

subject). All occasion for repentance will disap- 
pear, and all his movements will be advantageous. 
There may have been no (good) beginning, but 
there will be a (good) end. Three days before 
making any changes, (let him give notice of them) ; 
and three days after, (let him reconsider them). 
There will (thus) be good fortune. 

6. The sixth line, undivided, shows the repre- 
sentative of penetration beneath a couch, and having 
lost the axe with which he executed his decisions. 
However firm and correct he may (try to) be, there 
will be evil, 

LVII. With Sun as the fifth of the Fft-hsi trigrams we have 
become familiar. It symbolises both wind and wood; and has 
the attributes of flexibility (nearly allied to docility) and pene- 
tration. In this hexagram we are to think of it as representing 
wind with its penetrating power, finding its way into every corner 
and cranny. 

Confucius once said (Analects 12. 19) : — ' The relation between 
superiors and inferiors is like that between the wind and the grass. 
The grass must bend when the wind blows upon it.' In accordance 
with this, the subject of the hexagram must be understood as the 
influence and orders of government designed to remedy what is 
wrong in the people. The ' Daily Lecture ' says that the upper 
trigram denotes the orders issuing from the ruler, and the lower 
the obedience rendered to them by the people; but this view is 
hardly borne out by the Text 

But how is it that the figure represents merely ' some little attain- 
ment ?' This is generally explained by taking the first line of the 
trigram as indicating what the subject of it can do. But over the 
weak first line are two strong lines, so that its subject can accom- 
plish but little. The Khang-hsl editors, rejecting this view, contend 
that, the idea of the whole figure being penetration, line i, the 
symbol of weakness and what is bad, will not be able to ofier much 
resistance to the subjects of the other lines, which will enter and 
dispel its influence. They illustrate this from processes of nature, 
education, and politics ; the efi°ect they say is described as small, 
because the process is not to revolutionise or renew, but only to 



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192 THE Vi KING. text. 



LVIII. The Tui Hexagram. 



Tui intimates that (under its conditions) there 
will be progress and attainment. (But) it will be 
advantageous to be firm and correct 

correct and improve. Such as it is, however, it requires the 
operation of the strong and virtuous,' the great man.' Even all this 
criticism is not entirely satisfactory. 

Line i is weak, where it should be strong. The movements of 
its subject are expressive of perplexity. He wants vigour and 
decision. 

Line 2 is strong, and in the right place, and has a good auspice. 
Things are placed or hidden beneath a couch or bed; and the 
subject of the line appears as searching for them. He calls in divi- 
nation to assist his judgment, and exorcists to expel for him what is 
bad. The work is great and difficult, so that he appears almost 
distracted by it ; but the issue is good. For this successful expla- 
nadon of the line, I am indebted to the Khang-hst editors. The 
writer of the Text believed of course in divination and exorcism ; 
which was his misfortune rather than his fault or folly. 

Line 3 is in the right place for a strong line. But its posidon at 
the top of the lower trigram is supposed to indicate the restlessness, 
and here the vehemence, of its subject. And 6 is no proper 
correlate. All the striving is ineffective, and there is occasion for 
regret. 

Line 4 is weak, as is its correlate in i. But 4 is a proper place 
for a weak line, and it rests under the shadow of the strong 
and central 5. Hence the omens of evil are counteracted ; and a 
good auspice is obtained. The game caught in hunting was divided 
into three portions : — the first for use in sacrifices ; the second for 
the entertainment of visitors ; and the third for the kitchen generally. 
A hunt which yielded enough for all these purposes was deemed 
very successful. 

On line 5 A7/ing-jze says : — ' It is the seat of honour, and the 



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SECT. II. THE TUI HEXAGRAM. I93 

1. The first line, undivided, shows the pleasure 
of (inward) harmony. There will be good fortune. 

2. The second line, undivided, shows the pleasure 
arising from (inward) sincerity. There will be good 
fortune. Occasion for repentance will disappear. 

3. The third line, divided, shows its subject 
bringing round himself whatever can give pleasure. 
There will be evil. 

4. The fourth line, undivided, shows its subject 
deliberating about what to seek his pleasure in, and 
not at rest. He borders on what would be injurious, 
but there will be cause for joy. 

5. The fifth line, undivided, shows its subject 
trusting in one who would injure him. The situa- 
tion is perilous. 

6. The topmost line, divided, shows the pleasure 
of its subject in leading and attracting others. 

place for the lord of Sun, from whom there issue all charges and 
commands. It is central and correct ; we must find in its subject 
the qualities denoted by Sun in their greatest excellence. But 
those qualities are docility and accordance with what is right; 
and the advantage of firm correctness is insisted on. With this all 
will be right.' With the concluding sentence compare the conclusion 
of the Th wan of hexagram 18. 

The evil that paragraph 6 concludes with would arise from the 
quality of Sun being carried to excess. I have followed the 
Khang-hst editors in adopting a change of one character in the 
received Text 

LVIII. The trigram Tui symbolises water as collected in a 
marsh or lake; and its attribute or virtus is pleasure or com- 
placent satisfaction. It is a matter of some diflSculty to determine 
in one's mind how this attribute came to be connected with the 
trigram. The Khang-hsl editors say : — ' When the airs of spring 
begin to blow, from the collections of water on the earth the 
moistening vapours rise up (and descend again); so, when the 
breath of health is vigorous in a man's person, the hue of it is 
[16] o 



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194 THE y{ king. 



TEXT. 



LIX. The HwAn Hexagram. 



HwAn intimates that (under its conditions) there 
will be progress and success. The king goes to 
his ancestral temple ; and it will be advantageous to 

displayed in his complexion. Akin to this is the significance of 
the hexagram Tui representing a marsh, as denoting pleasure. 
Although the yin lines give it its special character they owe their 
power and eflfect to the yang; so when the qualities of mildness 
and harmony prevail in a man, without true-heartedness and in- 
tegrity to control and direct them, they will fail to be correct, and 
may degenerate into what is evil. Hence it is said that it will be 
advantageous to be firm and correct I' 

The feeling then of pleasure is the subject of this hexagram. 
The above quotation sufficiently explains the concluding characters 
of the Thwan ; but where is the intimation in Tui of progress and 
attainments? It is supposed to be in the one weak line surmount- 
ing each trigram and supported by the two strong lines. Fancy 
sees in that mildness and benignity energised by a double portion 
of strength. 

Line i, strong in the place of strength, with no proper correlate 
above, is thus confined to itself. But its subject b sufficient for 
himself. There will be good fortune. 

Line 2, by the rule of place, should be weak, but it is strong. 
Without any proper correlate, and contiguous to the weak 3, the 
subject of it might be injuriously affected, and there would be cause 
for repentance. But the sincerity natural in his central position 
counteracts all this. 

The view of the third paragraph that appears in the translation 
is derived from the Khang-hst editors. The evil threatened in it 
would be a consequence of the excessive devotion of its subject to 
pleasure. 

' The bordering on what is injurious ' in paragraph 4 has refer- 
ence to the contiguity of line 4 to the weak 3. That might have 



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SECT. II. THE HWAN HEXAGRAM. I95 

cross the great stream. It will be advantageous to 
be firm and correct. 

1. The first line, divided, shows its subject en- 
gaged in rescuing (from the impending evil) and 
having (the assistance of) a strong horse. There 
will be good fortune. 

2. The second line, undivided, shows its subject, 
amid the dispersion, hurrying to his contrivance 
(for security). All occasion for repentance will 
disappear. 

3. The third line, divided, shows its subject 
discarding any regard to his own person. There 
will be no occasion for repentance. 

4. The fourth line, divided, shows its subject 
scattering the (different) parties (in the state); which 
leads to great good fortune. From the dispersion 
(he collects again good men standing out, a crowd) 
like a mound, which is what ordinary men would 
not have thought of. 

5. The fifth line, undivided, shows its subject 
amidst the dispersion issuing his great announce- 
ments as the perspiration (flows from his body). 



an injurious effect ; but the subject of 4 reflects and deliberates 
before iie will yield to the seduction of pleasure, and there is cause 
for joy. 

The danger to the subject of line 5 is from the weak 6 above, in 
whom he is represented as ' trusting.' Possibly his own strength 
and sincerity of mind may be perverted into instruments of evil; 
but possibly, they may operate beneficially. 

The symbolism of paragraph 6 is akin to that of 3, though no 
positive auspice is expressed. The subject of line 3 attracts others 
roimd itself for the sake of pleasure ; the subject of this leads them 
to follow himself in quest of it. 

O 2 



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196 THE Vt KING. TEXT. 

He scatters abroad (also) the accumulations in the 
royal granaries. There will be no error. 

6. The topmost line, undivided, shows its subject 
disposing of (what may be called) its bloody wounds, 
and going and separating himself from its anxious 
fears. There will be no error. . 



LIX. Hwin, the name of this hexagram, denotes a state of 
dissipation or dispersion. It is descriptive primarily of men's 
minds alienated from what is right and good. This alienation 
is sure to go on to disorder in the commonwealth ; and an attempt 
is made to show how it should be dealt with and remedied. 

The figure is made up of one of the trigrams for water and over 
it that for wind. Wind moving over water seems to disperse it, and 
awakes naturally in the beholder the idea of dissipation. 

The intimation of progress and success is supposed to be given 
by the strong lines occupying the central places. The king goes 
to the ancestral temple, there to meet with the spirits of his 
ancestors. His filial piety moves them by the sincerity of its 
manifestation. Those spirits come and are present. Let filial 
piety — in our language, let sincere religion — rule in men's minds, 
and there will be no alienation in them from what is right and good 
or from one another. And if the state of the country demand a 
great or hazardous enterprise, let it be undertaken. But whatever 
is done, must be done with due attention to what is right, firmly 
and correctly. 

Line i, at the commencement of the hexagram, tells us that the 
evil has not yet made great progress, and that dealing with it will 
be easy. But the subject of the line is weak, and in an odd place. 
He cannot cope with the evil himself. He must have help, and he 
finds that in a strong horse, which description is understood to be 
symbolical of the subject of the strong second line. 

Line 2 is strong, but in an even place. That place is, indeed, 
the central, but the attribute of the lower trigram Khan is peril 
These conditions indicate evil, and action will be dangerous ; but 
the subject of 2 looks to i below him, and takes shelter in union 
with its subject. Since the commentary of A'ii&ng-jze, this has 
been the interpretation of the line. 

Line 3 is weak, and in an odd place. A regard for himself that 
would unfit its subject for contributing any service to the work of 



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SECT. II. THE jriEH HEXAGRAM. I97 



LX. The ^ieh Hexagram. 



A'ieh intimates that (under its conditions) there 
will be progress and attainment. (But) if the regu- 
lations (which it prescribes) be severe and difficult, 
they cannot be permanent. 

I. The first line, undivided, shows its subject not 

the hexagram might be feared; but he discards that regard, and 
will do nothing to be repented of. There is a change of style in 
the Chinese text at this point As Wang Shin-jze (Yilan dynasty) 
says : — ' Here and henceforth the scattering is of what should be 
scattered, that what should not be scattered may be collected.' 

Line 4, though weak, is in its correct place, and adjoins the 
strong 5, which is in the ruler's seat The subject of 4, therefore, 
will fitly represent the minister, to whom it belongs to do a great 
part in remedying the evil of dispersion. And this he does. He 
brings dissentient partizanship to an end; and not satisfied with 
that, he collects multitudes of those who had been divided into 
a great body so that they stand out conspicuous like a hill. 

Line 5 gives us the action of the ruler himself; — by his proclama- 
tions, and by his benevolence. A'fl Hst and other critics enlarge 
on the symbolism of the perspiration, which they think much to 
the point P. Regis avoids it, translating — ' lUe, magnas leges 
dissipans, facit ut penetrent(ur ?).' Canon McClatchie has an 
ingenious and original, so far as my Chinese reading goes, note 
upon it: — *As sweat cures fevers, so do proclamations cure rebel- 
lions.' Both of these translators miss the meaning of the other 
instance of the king's work. 

Line 6 is occupied by a strong line, which has a proper correlate 
in 3; but 3 is at the top of the Ingram of peril. The subject 
of 6 hurries away from association with the subject of it, but does 
so in the spirit of the hexagram, so that there is no error or blame 
attaching to him. * 



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198 THE y! king. text. 

quitting the courtyard outside his door. There will 
be no error. 

2. The second line, undivided, shows its subject 
not quitting the courtyard inside his gate. There 
will be evil. 

3. The third line, divided, shows its subject with 
no appearance of observing the (proper) regulations, 
in which case we shall see him lamenting. But 
there will be no one to blame (but himself). 

4. The fourth line, divided, shows its subject 
quietly and naturally (attentive to all) regulations. 
There will be progress and success, 

5. The fifth line, undivided, shows its subject 
sweetly and acceptably enacting his regulations. 
There will be good fortune. The onward progress 
with them will afford ground for admiration. 

6. The topmost line, divided, shows its subject 
enacting regulations severe and difficult Even with 
firmness and correctness there will be evil. But 
though there will be cause for repentance, it will 
(by and by) disappear. 

LX. The primary application of the character ^eh was to 
denote the joints of the bamboo ; it is used also for the joints of the 
human frame; and for the solar and other terms of the year. 
Whatever makes regular division may be denominated a ATieh; 
there enter into it the ideas of regulating and restraining ; and the 
subject of this hexagram is the regulations of government enacted 
for the guidance and control of the people. How the constituent 
trigrams are supposed to suggest or indicate this meaning will be 
seen in Appendix II. 

if& Hsl anticipates that symbolism in trying to account for the 
statement that the figure g^ves the promise of success and attain- 
ment; but the ground of this is generally made out by referring 
to the equal division of the undivided and divided lines and our 
having in 2 and 5, the central places, two undivided lines. An 



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SECT. 11. THE rUNG rt HEXAGRAM. 1 99 



LXI. The A'ung FO Hexagram. 



A'ung Fd (moves even) pigs and fish, and leads 
to good fortune. There will be advantage in cross- 
important point concerning ' regulations ' is brought out in the con- 
clusion of the Th wan, — that they must be adapted to circumstances, 
and not made too strict and severe. 

Line i is strong, and in its correct place. Its subject therefore 
would not be wanting in power to make his way. But he is sup- 
posed to be kept in check by the strong 2, and the correlate 4 is 
the first line in the trigram of periL The course of wisdom there- 
fore is to keep still. The character here rendered door is that 
belonging to the inner apartments, leading from the hall into which 
entrance is found by the outer gate, mentioned under line 3. 
The courtyard outside the door and that inside the gate is one and 
the same. The ' Daily Lecture ' says that the paragraph tells an 
officer not to take office rashly, but to exercise a cautious judgment 
in his measures. 

Line 2 is strong, in the wrong place; nor has it a proper 
correlate. Its subject keeps still, when he ought to be up and 
doing. There will be evil. 

Line 3 should be strong, but it is weak. It is neither central 
nor correct. It has no proper correlate, and it is the topmost line 
in the trigram of complacent satisfaction. Its subject will not 
receive the yoke of regulations ; and he will find out his mistake, 
when it is too late. 

Line 4 is weak, as it ought to be, and its subject has respect to 
the authority of the strong ruler in 5. Hence its good symbolism 
and auspice. 

Line 5 is strong, and in its correct place. Its subject regulates 
himself, having no correlate ; but he is lord of the hexagram, and 
his influence is everywhere beneficially felt. 



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200 THE yI king. 



TEXT. 



ing the great stream. There will be advantage in 
being firm and correct. 

1. The first line, undivided, shows its subject 
resting (in himself). There will be good fortune. 
If he sought to any other, he would not find rest. 

2. The second line, undivided, shows its subject 
(like) the crane crying out in her hidden retirement, 
and her young ones responding to her. (It is as if 
it were said), ' I have a cup of good spirits,' (and 
the response were), ' I will partake of it with you.' 

3. The third line, divided, shows its subject 
having met with his mate. Now he beats his drum, 
and now he leaves off. Now he weeps, and now 
he sings. 

4. The fourth line, divided, shows its subject 
(like) the moon nearly full, and (like) a horse (in a 
chariot) whose fellow disappears. There will be 
no error. 

5. The fifth line, undivided, shows its subject 
perfectly sincere, and linking (others) to him in 
closest union. There will be no error. 

6. The topmost line, undivided, shows its subject 
in chanticleer (trying to) mount to heaven. Even 
with firm correctness there will be evil. 

Line 6 is weak, in its proper place. The subject of the top- 
most line must be supposed to possess an exaggerated desire for 
enacting regulations. They will be too severe, and the eflfect will 
be evil But as Confucius (Analects 3. 3) says, that is not so great 
a fault as to be easy and remiss. It may be remedied, and cause 
for repentance will disappear. 

LXI. ^ung Fft, the name of this hexagram, may be represented 
in English by ' Inmost Sincerity.' It denotes the highest quality of 
man, and gives its possessor power so that he prevails with spiritual 
beings, with other men, and with the lower creatures. It is the 



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SICT. n. THE HSIAO KWO HEXAGRAM. 20I 



LXII. The Hsiao Kwo Hexagram. 



Hsiio Kwo indicates that (in the^-circumstancfes- 
which it implies) there will be progress and attain- 

subject of the 'Doctrine of the Mean' from the a ist chapter onwards, 
where Remusat rendered it by 'la perfection,' 'la perfection 
morale,' and Intorcetta and his coadjutors by 'vera solidaque 
perfectio.' The lineal figure has suggested to the Chinese com- 
mentators, from the author of the first Appendix, two ideas in it 
which deserve to be pointed out There are two divided lines in 
the centre and two undivided below them and above them. The 
divided lines in the centre are held to represent the heart or mind 
free from all pre-occupation, without any consciousness of self; and 
the undivided lines, on each side of it, in the centre of the con- 
stituent trigrams are held to denote the solidity of the virtue of one 
so free from selfishness. There is no unreality in it, not a single 
flaw. 

The ' Daily Lecture ' at the conclusion of its paraphrase of the 
Thwan refers to the history of the ancient Shun, and the wonder- 
fiil achievements of his virtue. The authors give no instance of 
the affecting of ' pigs and fishes ' by sincerity, and say that these 
names are symbolical of men, the rudest and most unsusceptible of 
being acted on. The Text says that the man thus gifted with sin- 
cerity will succeed in the most difficult enterprises. Remarkable is 
the concluding sentence that he must be firm and correct. Here, as 
elsewhere throughout the Yi, there comes out the practical character 
which has distinguished the Chinese people and their best teaching 
all along the line of history. 

The translation of paragraph i is according to the view approved 
by the Khang-hst editors. The ordinary view makes the other to 
whom the subject of line i looks or might look to be the subject 
of 4 ; but they contend that, excepting in the case of 3 and 6, the 
force of correlation should be discarded from the study of this 




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/ 



202 THE y! king. TEXT. 

ment. But it will be advantageous to be firm and 
correct. (What the name denotes) may be done in 
small affairs, but not in great affairs. (It is like) the 
notes that come down from a bird on the wing ; — to 
descend is better than to ascend. There will (in 
this way) be great good fortune. 

1. The first line, divided, suggests (the idea of) 
a bird flying, (and ascending) till the issue is evil. 

2, The second line, divided, shows its subject 
passing by his grandfather, and meeting with his 

hexagram ; for the virtue of sincerity is all centred in itself, thence 
derived and thereby powerful. 

For paragraph a, see Appendix III, Section i, 42. It is in 
rhyme, and I have there rendered it in rhyme. The ' young ones 
of the crane' are represented by line i. In the third and fourth 
sentences we have the symbolism of two men brought together by 
their sympathy in virtue. The subject of the paragraph is the 
effect of sincerity. 

The ' mate ' of line 3 is 6. The principle of correlation comes 
in. Sincerity, not left to itself, is influenced from without, and hence 
come the changes and uncertain^ in the state and moods of the 
subject of the line. 

Line 4 is weak, and in its correct place. The subject of it has 
discarded the correlate in i, and hastens on to the confidence of 
the ruler in 5, being symbolised as the moon nearly full. The 
other symbol of the horse whose fellow has disappeared has refer- 
ence to the discarding of the subject of i. Anciently chariots and 
carriages were drawn by four horses, two outsides and two insides. 
Lines i and 4 were a pair of these ; but i disappears here from the 
team, and 4 goes on and joins 5. 

Line 5 is strong and central, in the ruler's place. Its subject 
must be the sage on the throne, whose sincerity will go forth and 
bind all in union with himself. 

Line 6 should be divided, but is undivided ; and coming after 5, 
what can the subject of it do ? His efforts will be ineffectual, and 
injurious to himself. He is symbolised by a cock — literally, ' the 
plumaged voice.' But a cock is not fitted to fly high, and in 
attempting to do so will only suffer hurt 



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SECT. 11. THE HSIAO KWO HEXAGRAM. 203 

grandmother; not attempting anything against his 
ruler, but meeting him as his minister. There will 
be no error. 

3. The third line, undivided, shows its subject 
taking no extraordinary precautions against danger ; 
and some in consequence finding opportunity to 
assail and injure him. There will be evil. 

4. The fourth line, undivided, shows its subject 
falling into no error, but meeting (the exigency of 
his situation), without exceeding (in his natural 
course). If he go forward, there will be peril, and 
he must be cautious. There is no occasion to be 
using firmness perpetually. 

5. The fifth line, c ivided, (suggests the idea) of 
dense clouds, but no rain, coming from our borders 
in the west. It also (shows) the prince shooting his 
arrow, and taking the bird in a cave. 

6. The sixth line, divided, shows its subject not 
meeting (the exigency of his situation), and ex- 
ceeding (his proper course). (It suggests the idea 
of) a bird flying far aloft. There will be evil. The 
case is what is called one of calamity and self- 
produced injury. 

LXII. The name Hsiio Kwo is explained both by reference 
to the lines of the hexagram, and to the meaning of the characters. 
The explanation from the lines appears immediately on comparing 
them with those of TS Kwo, the 28th hexagram. There the first 
and sixth lines are divided, and between are four undivided lines ; 
here the third and fourth lines are undivided, and outside each of 
them are two divided lines. The undivided or yang lines are 
great, the divided or yin lines are called small. In Hsido Kwo 
the divided or small lines predominate. But this peculiar structure 
of the figure could be of no interest to the student, if it were not 
for the meaning of the name, which is ' small excesses ' or ' exceed- 
ing in what is small.' The author, accepted by us as king W^n, 



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204 THE Vi KING. TEXT. 



LXIII. The m 3i Hexagram. 



Kl 31 intimates progress and success in small 
matters. There will be advantage in being firm 

had in his mind our distinction ofessentials and non-essentials. 
Is it ever good to deviate from what is recognised as the established, 
course of procedure? The reply is — never in the matter of right ; 
but in what is conventional and ceremonial — in what is non- 
essential — the deviation may be made, and will be productive of 
good. The form may be given up, but not the substance. But 
the thing must be done very carefully, — humbly and reverently, 
and in small matters. 

The symbolism of the bird is rather obscure. The whole of it 
is intended to teach humility. It is better for the bird to descend, 
keeping near to where it can perch and rest, than to hold on 
ascending into the homeless regions of the air. 

Line i is weak, in an odd place, and possessed by the ' idea of 
exceeding,' which belongs to the hexagram. Its correlate is the 
strong 4, belonging to the trigram A'in, the attribute of which is 
movement There is nothing to repress the tendency of i ; rather 
it is stimulated ; and hence the symbolism. 

Line 2 is weak, but in its proper place, and in the centre. Its 
correlate is 5, which is also a weak line. The lines 3 and 4 between 
them are both strong ; and are supposed to represent the father and 
grandfather of the subject of 2 ; but he or she goes past them, and 
meets with the grandmother in 5. Again, 5 is the ruler's seat. The 
subject of 2 moves on to him, but not as an enemy ; but humbly 
and loyally, as his minister according to the attributes of a weak 
line in the central place. It must be allowed that this view of the 
symbolism and its interpretation is obscure and strained. 

The subject of line 3 is too confident in his own strength, and 
too defiant of the weak and small enemies that seek his hurt 



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SECT. II. THE kI 3l HEXAGRAM. 20$ 

and correct. There has been good fortune in the 
beginning ; there may be disorder in the end. 

1. The first line, undivided, (shows its subject as 
a driver) who drags back his wheel, (or as a fox) 
which has wet his tail. There will be no error. 

2. The second line, divided, (shows its subject as) 
a wife who has lost her (carriage-)screen. There is 
no occasion to go in pursuit of it. In seven days 
she will find it. 

3. The third line, undivided, (suggests the case 
of) Kio 3ung who attacked the Demon region, but 
was three years in subduing it. Small men should 
not be employed (in such enterprises). 

Line 4 is also strong, but the exercise of his strength by its 
subject is tempered by the position in an even place. He is 
warned, however, to continue quiet and restrain himself. 

Line 5, though in the ruler's seat, is weak, and incapable of 
doing anything great. Its subject is called king or duke because 
of the ruler's seat ; and the one whom in the concluding sentence 
he is said to capture is supposed to be the subject of 2. 

The first part of the symbolism is the same as that of the 
Thwan under hexagram 9, q. v. I said there that it probably 
gave a testimony of the merit of the house of^iu, as deserving 
the throne rather than the kings of Shang. That was because the 
Thwan contained the sentiments of Wan, while he was yet only 
lord of Aau. But the symbolism here was the work of the duke 
of A'4u, after his brother king Wfl had obtained the throne. How 
did the symbolism then occur to him ? May we not conclude that 
at least the hsiang of this hexagram was written during the 
troubled period of his regency, after the accession of WH's son, 
king J^Aingf 

The Khang-hs! editors find in the concluding symbolism an 
incentive to humility : — ' The duke, leaving birds on the wing, is 
content to use his arrows against those in a cave I' 

Line 6 is weak, and is at the top of the trigram of movement. 
He is possessed by the idea of the hexagram in an extreme degree, 
and is incapable of keeping himself under restraint. 



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206 THE Vt KING. 



TEXT. 



4. The fourth line, divided, shows its subject with 
rags provided against any leak (in his boat), and on 
his guard all day long. 

5. The fifth line, undivided, shows its subject (as) 
the neighbour in the east who slaughters an ox (for 
his sacrifice); but this is not equal to the (small) 
spring sacrifice of the neighbour in the west, whose 
sincerity receives the blessing. 

6. The topmost line, divided, shows its subject 
with (even) his head immersed. The position is 
perilous. 

LXIII. The character called J^i is used as a symbol of being 
past or completed. 3^ denotes primarily crossing a stream, 
and has the secondary meaning of helping and completing. 
The two characters, combined, will express the successful accom- 
plishment of whatever the writer has in his mind. In dealing with 
this lineal figure, king Win was thinking of the condition of the 
kingdom, at length at rest and quiet. The vessel of the state has 
been brought safely across the great and dangerous stream. The 
distresses of the kingdom have been relieved, and its disorders 
have been repressed. Does anything remain to be done still? 
Yes, in small things. The new government has to be consolidated. 
Its ruler must, without noise or clamour, go on to perfect what has 
been wrought, with firmness and correctness, and ever keeping in 
mind the instability of all human affairs. That every line of the 
hexagram is in its correct place, and has its proper correlate is 
also supposed to harmonize with the intimation of progress and 
success. 

Line i, the first of the hexagram, represents the time im- 
mediately after the successful achievement of the enterprise it 
denotes ; — the time for resting and being quiet For a season, at 
least, all movement should be hushed. Hence we have the sym- 
bolism of a driver trying to stop his carriage, and a fox who has 
wet his tail, and will not tempt the stream again. 

Line 2 is weak, and in its proper place. It also has the strong 
correlate 5 ; and might be expected to be forward to act. But it 
occupies its correct and central place, and suggests the symbol of 
a lady whose carriage has lost its screen. She will not advance 



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SECT. n. THE WEI si HEXAGRAM. 207 



LXIV. The Wei 3t Hexagram. 



Wei 31 intimates progress and success (in the cir- 
cumstances which it implies). (We see) a young 
fox that has nearly crossed (the stream), when its 
tail gets immersed. There will be no advantage in 
any way. 

further so soon after success has been achieved ; but keep herself 
hidden and retired. Let her not try to find the screen. When it is 
said that she will find this 'after seven days,' the meaning seems 
to be simply this, that the period of ift 3^ will then have been 
exhausted, the six lines having been gone through, and a new 
period, when action will be proper, shall have commenced 

The strong line 3, at the top of the lower trigram, suggests for 
its subject one undertaking a vigorous enterprise. The writer 
thinks of KSo 3ung, the sacrificial title of Wft Ting, one of the 
ablest sovereigns of the Shang dynasty (b. c. 1364-1324), who 
undertook an expedition against the barbarous hordes of the cold 
and bleak regions north of the Middle States. He is mentioned 
again under the next hexagram. He appears also in the Shfi, IV, ix, 
and in the Shih, IV, iii, ode 5. His enterprise may have been 
good, and successful, but it was tedious, and the paragraph con- 
cludes with a caution. 

Line 4 is weak, and has advanced into the trigram for water. 
Its subject will be cautious, and prepare for evil, as in the sym- 
bolism, suggested probably by the nature of the trigram. 

•The neighbour in the East' is the subject of line 5, and 'the 
neighbour in the West ' is the subject of the correlate 2, the former 
quarter being yang and the latter yin. Line 5 is strong, and 2 is 
weak; but weakness is more likely to be patient and cautious than 
strength. They are compared to two men sacrificing. The one 
presents valuable offerings; the other very poor ones. But the 



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208 THE Vi KING. TEXT. 

1. The first line, divided, shows its subject (like 
a fox) whose tail gets immersed. There will be 
occasion for regret 

2. The second line, undivided, shows its subject 
dragging back his (carriage-)wheel. With firmness 
and correctness there will be good fortune. 

3. The third line, divided, shows its subject, with 
(the state of things) not yet remedied, advancing on; 
which will lead to evil. But there will be advantage 
in (trying to) cross the great stream. 

4. The fourth line, undivided, shows its subject 
by firm correctness obtaining good fortune, so that 
all occasion for repentance disappears. Let him 
stir himself up, as if he were invading the Demon 
region, where for three years rewards will come to 
him (and his troops) from the great kingdom. 

5. The fifth line, divided, shows its subject by 
firm correctness obtaining good fortune, and having 
no occasion for repentance. (We see in him) the 
brightness of a superior man, and the possession of 
sincerity. There will be good fortune. 

6. The topmost line, undivided, shows its subject 

second excels in sincerity, and his small offering is the more 
acceptable. 

The topmost line is weak, and on the outmost edge of Khin, 
the trigram of peril. His action is violent and perilous, like that 
one attempting to cross a ford, and being plunged overhead into 
the water. 

LXIV. Wei 3t is the reverse of ^t 3t. The name tells us that 
the successful accomplishment of whatever the writer had in his 
mind had not yet been realised. The vessel of the state has not 
been brought across the great and dangerous stream. Some have 
wished that the Yl might have concluded with Kt 3t and the last 
hexagram have left us with the picture of human affairs all brought 
to good order. But this would not have been in harmony with the 



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SECT. II. THE WEI 3! HEXAGRAM. 209 

full of confidence and therefore feasting (quietly). 
There will be no error. (If he) cherish this con- 
idea of the Yt, as the book of change. Again and again it has 
been pointed out that we find in it no idea of a perfect and abiding 
state. Just as the seasons of the year change and pursue an ever- 
recurring round, so is it with the phases of society. The reign of 
order has been, and has terminated ; and this hexagram calls us to 
see the struggle for its realisation recommenced. It treats of how 
those engaged in that struggle should conduct themselves with a 
view to secure the happy consummation. 

How the figure sets forth the state of things by its constituent 
trigrams will appear in Appendix II. A similar indication is 
supposed to be given by the lines, not one of which is in the cor- 
rect place ; the strong lines being all in even places, and the weak 
lines in odd. At the same time each of them has a proper corre- 
late ; and so the figure gives an intimation of some successful 
progress. See also Appendix I. 

The symbolism of the young fox suggests a want of caution on 
the part of those, in the time and condition denoted by the hexa- 
gram, who try to remedy prevailing disorders. Their attempt is 
not successful, and they get themselves into trouble and danger. 
Whatever can be done must be undertaken in another way. 

I suppose a fox to be intended by the symbolism of line i, 
brmging that animal on from the Thwan. Some of the com- 
mentators understand it of any animal. The line is weak, at the 
bottom^ of the trigram of peril, and responds to the strong 4, which 
is not in its correct place. Its subject attempts to be doing, but 
finds cause to regret his course. 

The subject of line 2, strong, and in the centre, is able to repress 
himself, and keep back his carriage from advancing ; and there is 
good fortune. 

The Khang-hsi editors say that it is very difficult to understand 
what is said under line 3 ; and many critics suppose that a negative 
has dropt out, and that we should really read that ' it will not be 
advantageous to try and cross the great stream.' 

Line 4, though strong, is in an even place ; and this might 
vitiate the endeavours of its subject to bring about a better state of 
things. But he is firm and correct. He is in the fourth place more- 
over, and immediately above there is his ruler, represented by a weak 
line, humble therefore, and prepared to welcome his endeavours. 
Let him exert himself vigorously and long, as Kdo 3ui>g <}id in his 
[.6] P 



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2IO THE yI king. 



TIXT. 



fidence, till he (is like the fox who) gets his head 
immersed, it will fail of what is right. 

famous expedition (see last hexagram, line 3), and he will make 
progress and have success. Expeditions beyond the frontiers in 
those days were not very remote. Intercourse was kept up between 
the army and the court. Rewards, distinctions, and whatever was 
necessary to encourage the army, were often sent to it. 

Line 5 is weak, in an odd place. But its subject is the ruler, 
humble and supported by the subject of the strong 2 ; and hence 
the auspice is very good. 

The subject of line 6, when the work of the hexagram has been 
done, appears disposed to remain quiet in the confidence of his own 
power, but enjoying himself; and thereby he will do right. If, on 
the contrary, he will go on to exert his powers, and play with the 
peril of the situation, the issue will be bad. 



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THE APPENDIXES. 



P 2 



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THE APPENDIXES. 



APPENDIX I. 

Treatise on the Thwan, or king Win's Explanations of the ^^ 
entire Hexagrams. 

Section I. 

1. I. Vast is the 'great and originating (power)' 
indicated by A'^ien ! All things owe to it their 
beginning: — it contains all the meaning belonging 
to (the name) heaven. 

2. The clouds move and the rain is distributed ; 
the various things appear in their developed forms. 

3. (The sages) gprandly understand (the con- 
nexion between) the end and the beginning, and how 
(the indications of) the six lines (in the hexagram) 
are accomplished, (each) in its season. (Accord- 
ingly) they mount (the carriage) drawn by those six 
dragons at the proper times, and drive through 
the sky. 

4. The method of Kh'x^n is to change and trans- 
form, so that everything obtains its correct nature 
as appointed (by the mind of Heaven); and (there- 
after the conditions of) great harmony are preserved 
in union. The result is ' what is advantageous, and 
correct and firm.' 

5. (The sage) appears aloft, high above all things, 
and the myriad states all enjoy repose. 

The name Thwan, and the meaning of the character so-called, '/ 
are suflSciently established. The Thwan are king Win's expla- 
nations of the entire hexagrams. It seems impossible now to 



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214 THE APPENDIXES. SECT. I. 

II. I. Complete is the 'great and originating 
(capacity)' indicated by KhwSn ! All things owe to 
it their birth ; — it receives obediently the influences 
of Heaven. 

2. KhwS.n, in its largeness, supports and contains 
all things. Its excellent capacity matches the un- 
limited power (of KMen). Its comprehension is 
wide, and its brightness great. The various things 
obtain (by it) their full development. 

3. The mare is a creature of earthly kind. Its 
(power of) moving on the earth is without limit ; it 
is mild and docile, advantageous and firm : — such is 
the course of the superior man. 

ascertain how the character arose, and how it was named Thwan. 
The treatise on the Thwan is ascribed to Confucius; and I have 
considered in the Introduction, p. 30, whether the tradition to this 
effect may to any extent be admitted. 

I. The hexagram ^Aien is made up of six undivided lines, or 
of the Ingram A'Aien, Ffi-hsf s symbol for heaven, repeated. The 
Thwan does not dwell upon this, but starts, in its exposition, from 
the word 'heaven,' supposing that the hexagram represented all 
the meaning which had ever been intended by that term. In para- 
graphs I, a, 4 the four attributes in Win's Text (a being occupied 
with the second, though it is not expressly named) are Dlustrated 
by the phenomena taking place in the physical world. 

In paragraphs 3 and 5, the subject is the sage. He is not 
named indeed; and Khung Ying-ta (a. d. 574-648) does not 
introduce him till paragraph 5, when the meaning necessitates the 
presence of a human agent, who rules in the world of men as 
heaven does in that of nature. The ' connexion between the end 
and the beginning,' which he sees, is that of cause and effect in the 
operations of nature and the course of human affairs. The various 
steps in that course are symbolised by the lines of the hexagram ; 
and the ideal sage, conducting his ideal government, taking his 
measures accordingly, is represented as driving through the sky in 
a carriage drawn by six dragons. A'fi Hst extravagandy says that 
'the sage is Heaven, and Heaven is the sage;' but there is nothing 
like this in the text 



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HEX. 3. APPENDIX I. 215 

4. ' If he take the initiative, he goes astray :' — he 
misses, that is, his proper course. ' If he follow,' he 
is docile, and gets into his regular (course). ' In the 
south-west he will get friends :' — he will be walking 
with those of his own class. ' In the north-east he 
will lose friends :' — but in the end there will be 
ground for congratulation. 

5. ' The good fortune arising from resting in firm- 
ness' corresponds to the unlimited capacity of the 
earth. 

III. 1. In Kun we have the strong (A'^ien) and 
the weak (KhwSn) commencing their intercourse, 
and difficulties arising. 

2. Movement in the midst of peril gives rise to 
'great progress and success, (through) firm cor- 
rectness.' 

3. By the action of the thunder and rain, (which 

II. As the writer in expounding the Th wan of hexagram r starts 
from the word ' heaven,' so here he does so from the symbolic mean- 
ing attached to ' earth.' What I have said on the Text about the 
difference with which the same attributes are ascribed to II Men 
and KhwSln, appears clearly in paragraph i. It is the difference ex- 
pressed by the words that I have supplied, — 'power ' and 'capacity.' 
KAien originates; Khw&n produces, or gives birth to what has 
been originated. 

The ' penetrating,' or developing ability of Khw&n, as displayed 
in the processes of growth, is the subject of paragraph 2. ' The 
brightness ' refers to the beauty that shines forth in the vegetable 
and animal worlds. 

Paragraph 3 treats of the symbol of the ' mare,' to lead the mind 
to the course of ' the superior man,' the good and faithful minister 
and servant. 

See the note, corresponding to paragraph 4, on the Text. ' Rest- 
ing in firmness' is the normal course of KhwJln. Where it is 
pursued, the good effect will be great, great as the unlimited 
capacity of the earth. 



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2l6 THE APPENDIXES. SECT. I. 

are symbols of A'S.n and Khan), all (between heaven 
and earth) is filled up. But the condition of the 
time is full of irregularity and obscurity. Feudal 
princes should be established, but the feeling that 
rest and peace have been secured should not be 
indulged (even then). 

IV. I. In Mang we have (the trigram for) a 
mountain, and below it that of a rugged defile with 
a stream in it. The conditions of peril and arrest 

III. ATun is made up of the trigrams ATSln and Khan; but 
according to the views on king Win's arrangement of the trigrams, 
as set forth especially in Appendix V, chap. 14, the six others come 
from A'^ien and Khw&n, and are said to be their children. On 
the ^rst application of KhwSn to A'Aien, there results A'Sn, the 
first line of ^^i«n taking the place of the last of Khwin; and on 
the second application, there results Khan, the middle line of 
JCMen taking the place of that of KhwSn. McClatchie renders 
here : — ' The Thun (^un) diagram represents the hard and the 
soft (air) beginning to have sexual intercourse, and bringing forth 
with suffering 1' But there is nothing in the Yt, from the beginning 
to the end, to justify such an interpretation. Nor do I see how, 
from any account of the genesis by the component trigrams, the 
idea of the result as signifying a state of difiBculty and distress can 
be readily made out. 

In paragraph 2 there is an attempt from the virtues or attributes 
assigned to the trigrams to make out the result indicated in the 
Thwan. To move and excite is the quality of A'Sn; perilous- 
ness is the quality of Khan. The power to move is likely to 
produce great effects; to do this in perilous and difficult circum- 
stances requires firmness and correctness. But neither is this 
explanation very satisfactory. 

The first part of paragraph 3 depicts a condition of trouble and 
disorder in the natural world occasioned by the phenomena that 
are symbols of the significance of A'in and Khan; but this is 
symbolical again of the disorder and distress, political and social, 
characteristic of the time. Good princes throughout the nation 
would help to remedy that ; but the supreme authority should not 
resign itself to indifference, trusting to them. 



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HEX, 4. APPENDIX I. 217 

of progress (suggested by these) give (the idea in) 
Ming. 

2. ' MSng indicates that there will be progress and 
success:' — for there is development at work in it, 
and its time of action is exactly what is right. ' I do 
not seek the youthful and inexperienced ; he seeks 
me :' — so does will respond to will. ' When he 
shows (the sincerity that marks) the first recourse 
to divination, I instruct him :' — for possessing the 
qualities of the undivided line and being in the 
central place, (the subject of the second line thus 
speaks). 'A second and third application create 
annoyance, and I do not instruct so as to create 
annoyance:' — annoyance (he means) to the ignorant. 

(The method of dealing with) the young and igno- 
rant is to nourish the correct (nature belonging to 
them); — this accomplishes the service of the sage. 



IV. The trigram KSn has for its symbol in the natural world a 
mountain, which stands up frowningly, and stops or arrests the 
progress of the traveller. Stoppage, understood sometimes actively, 
and sometimes passively, is called the virtue or attribute indicated 
by it. Khan, as I said on p. 32, has water for its symbol, and 
especially in the form of rain. Here, however, the water appears 
as a stream in a difficult defile, such as ordinarily appears on an 
approach to a mountain, and suggesting perilousness as the attri- 
bute of such a position. From the combination of these symbols 
and their attributes the writer thinks that he gets the idea of the 
character (not the entire hexagram) Ming, as symbolical of igno- 
rance and inexperience. See on 'the Great Symbolism' below. 

Down to the last sentence of paragraph a, all that is said is 
intended to show how it is that the figure indicates progress and 
success. The whole representation is grounded on the undivided 
line's being in the central place. It is the symbol of active effort 
for the teaching of the ignorant in the proper place and time ; 
this being responded to by the divided fifth line, representing the 
ignorance to be taught as docile, ' will responds to will' But the 



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2l8 THE APPENDIXES. SECT. I. 

V. I. Hsii denotes waiting. (The figure) shows 
peril in front ; but notwithstanding the firmness and 
strength (indicated by the inner trigram), its subject 
does not allow himself to be involved (in the danger- 
ous defile); — it is right he should not be straitened 
or reduced to extremity. 

2. When it is said that, ' with the sincerity de- 
clared in Hsii, there will be brilliant success, and 
with firmness there will be good fortune,' this is 
shown by the position (of the fifth line) in the place 
assigned by Heaven, and its being the correct posi- 
tion for it, and in the centre. ' It will be advan- 
tageous to go through the great stream ;' — that is, 
going forward will be followed by meritorious 
achievement. 



subject of line 2 requires sincerity in the applicant for instruction, 
and feels that he must make his own teaching acceptable and 
agreeable. All this serves to bring out the idea of progress and 
success. 

Then finally in the young and ignorant there is ' a correct nature,' 
a moral state made for goodness. The eflScient teacher directing 
his efforts to bring out and nourish that, the progress and success 
will be ' great ;' the service done will be worthy of ' a sage.' 

V. Hsfl is composed of iTAien, having the quality of strength, 
and of Khan, having the quality of perilousness. The strong one 
might readily dare the peril, but he restrains himself and waits. 
This is the lesson of the hexagram, — the benefit of action well 
considered, of plans well matured. 

The fifth line, as we have observed more than once already, is 
the place of honour, that due to the ruler or king. It is here called 
' the Heavenly or Heaven-given seat,' the meaning of which expres- 
sion is clear from its occurrence in the Shih, III, i, ode 2. i. Five 
is an odd number, and the fifth is therefore the ' correct ' place for 
an undivided line ; it is also the central place of the trigram, indi- 
cating how its occupant is sure to walk in the due mean. See 
further the notes on the Text, p. 68. 



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HEX. 6. APPENDIX I, 219 

VI. I. The upper portion of Sung is (the tri- 
g^am representing) strength, and the lower (that 
representing) peril. (The coming together of) 
strength and peril gives (the idea in) Sung. 

2. 'Sung intimates how, though there is sin- 
cerity in one's contention, he will yet meet with 
opposition and obstruction ; but if he cherish an ' 
apprehensive caution, there will be good fortune :' — 
a strong (line) has come and got the central place 
(in the lower trigram). 

' If he must prosecute the contention to the (bitter) 
end, there will be evil:' — contention is not a thing to 
be carried on to extremity. 

' It will be advantageous to meet with the great 
man :' — what he sets a value on is the due mean, 
and the correct place. 

' It will not be advantageous to cross the great 
stream :' — one (attempting to do so) would find 
himself in an abyss. 

VI. Paragraph i here is much to the same effect as the first 
sentence in the notes on the Thwan of the Text. It is said, 
' Strength without peril would not produce contention ; peril with- 
out strength would not be able to contend.' 

2. ' A strong line has come and got the central place : ' — this 
sentence has given rise to a doctrine about the changes of trigrams 
and hexagrams, which has obscured more than anything else the 
interpretation of the Yt. Where has the strong second line come 
from? From a hundred critics we receive the answer, — 'From 

Tun ( ).' The reader will see that if the second and third 

lines of the lower trigram there be made to change places, there 

results — — . or Sung. The doctrine of changing the figures by 

the manipulation of the stalks did spring up between the time of 
Win and his son and that of the composition of the Appendixes ; 
but there is no trace of it in the real Text of the Yt ; and it renders 
any scheme for the interpretation of the figures impossible. The 



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220 THE APPENDIXES. SECT. I. 

VII. I. (The name) Sze describes the multitude 
(of the* host). The ' firmness and correctness' (which 
the hexagram indicates) refer to (moral) correct- 
ness (of aim). When (the mover) is able to use the 
multitude with such correctness, he may attain to the 
royal sway. 

2. There is (the symbol of) strength in the centre 
(of the trigram below), and it is responded to (by its 
proper correlate above). The action gives rise to 
perils, but is in accordance (with the best sentiments 
of men). (Its mover) may by such action distress 
all the country, but the people will follow him; — 
there will be good fortune, and what error should 
there be ? 

VIII. I. ' Pt indicates that there is good for- 
tune:' — (the name) Pi denotes help; (and we see 
in the figure) inferiors docilely following (their 
superior). 

editors of the imperial Yt allow this, and on the present passage dis- 
card the doctrine entirely, referring to the language of the Th w an on 
hexagrams ii and 12 as fatal to it. See the notes there, and the 
Introduction, pp. 1 1-16. 'A strong line has come ' is to be taken as 
equivalent simply to ' a strong line is there.' 

What ' the great man sets a value on being the due mean and 
the correct place,' his decision in any matter of contention is sure 
to be right. 

VII. That ' multitude' is given here as if it were the meaning of 
the name Sze arose, probably, from there being but one undivided 
line in the figure. That is the symbol of the general, all the other 
lines, divided, suggest the idea of a multitude obedient to his orders. 
The general's place in the centre of the lower trigram, with the 
proper correlate in line 5, suggests the idea of firmness and cor- 
rectness that dominates in the hexagram. But in the last sentence 
it is the ruler, and not the general of the host, who is the subject. 
Compare what is said of him with Mencius, I, i, chap. 3 ; ii, chap. 
5, &c. 



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HEX. 9- APPENDIX I. 221 

2. ' Let (the principal party intended in it) re- 
examine himself, (as if) by divination, whether his 
virtue be g^eat, unintermitting, and firm ; — if it be 
so, there will be no error: — all this follows from 
the position of the strong line in the centre (of the 
upper trigram). ' Those who have not rest will come 
to him : ' — high and low will respond to its subject. 
' With those who are (too) late in coming it will be 
ill :' — (for them) the way (of good fortune here indi- 
cated) has been exhausted. 

IX. I. In Hsi4o Kk^ii the .weak line occupies 
its (proper) position, and (the lines) above and below 
respond to it Hence comes the name of Hsido 
Khii (Small Restraint). 

2. (It presents the symbols of) strength and 
flexibility. Strong lines are in the central places, 
and the will (of their subjects) will have free course. 
Thus it indicates that there will be progress and 
success. 

3. ' Dense clouds but no rain' indicate the move- 
ment (of the strong lines) still going forward. The 

' Perilousness' is the attribute of Khan, the lower trigram, and 
'docility,' or 'accordance with others,' that of KhwXn, the upper. 
War is like ' poison ' to a country, injurious, and threatening ruin 
to it, and yet the people will endure and encounter it in behalf of 
the sovereign whom they esteem and love. 

VIII, There is some error in the text here, — as all the critics 
acknowledge. I have adopted the decision of A'fl Hst, which by 
a vety small change makes the whole read consistently, and in 
harmony with other explanations of the Thwan. 'The inferiors' 
are the subjects of all the other lines gathering round* their supe- 
rior, represented in the fifth line. 

'The way has been exhausted:' — ^they do not seek to promote 
and enjoy union till it is too late. The sentiment is the same as thaf 
in the tines of Shakespeare about the tide in the affairs of men. 



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222 THE APPENDIXES. SKCT. I. . 

' Commencing at our western border' indicates that 
the (beneficial) influence has not yet been widely 
displayed. 

X. I. In L! we have (the symbol of) weakness 
treading on (that of) strength. 

2, (The lower trigram) indicates pleasure and 
satisfaction, and responds to (the upper) indicating 
strength. Hence (it is said), ' He treads on the 
tail of a tiger, which does not bite him ; there will 
be progress and success.' * 

3. (The fifth line is) strong, in the centre, and in 



IX. 'The weak line' is said to occupy 'its proper position,' 
because it is in the fourth, — an even place. The 'responding' on 
the part of all the other lines above and below is their submitting 
to be restrained by it ; and this arises simply from the meaning 
which king Win chose to attach to the hexagram. 

But the restraint can only be small. The attributes of the two 
parts of the figure do not indicate anything else. The undivided 
line represents vigour and activity, and such a line is in the middle 
of each trigram. There cannot but be progress and success. 

It is not easy to explain the symbolism of the last paragraph in 
harmony with the appended explanations. What ^ii^g-jze, 
Wang Fing, and other scholars say is to this effect : — ^Dense clouds 
ought to give rain. That they exist without doing so, shows the 
restraining influence of the hexagram to be still at work. But the 
other and active influence is, according to the general idea of the 
figure, .continuing in operation ; — there will be rain ere long. And 
this was taking place in the western regions subject to the House 
of A'Su, which still was only a fief of Shang. It was not for the 
inferior House to rule the superior. ^Su was for a time restrained 
by Shang. Let their positions be reversed by Alu superseding 
Shang, and the rain of beneficent government would descend on 
all the kingdom. This seems to be the meaning of the paragraph. 
This is the answer to the riddle of it. Confucius, in his treatise on 
the Thwan, hints at it, but no Chinese critic has the boldness to 
declare it fully. 



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HEX. II. APPENDIX I. 223 

its correct place. (Its subject) occupies the God- 
(given) position, and falls into no distress or failure ; — 
(his) action will be brilliant. 

XI. 'The little come and the g^eat gone in 
Thii, and its indication that there will be good 
fortune with progress and success' show to us 
heaven and earth in communication with each 
other, and all things in consequence having free 
course, and (also) the high and the low, (superiors 
and inferiors), in communication with one another, 
and possessed by the same aim. The inner (tri- 
gram) is made up of the strong and undivided 
lines, and the outer of the weak and divided ; the 
inner is (the symbol of) strength, and the outer 
of docility ; the inner (represents) the superior man, 
and the outer the small man. (Thus) the way of 



X. '(The symbol of) weakness' in paragraph i, according to 
Wang Shin-jze (Yflan dynasty), is line 3, urged by the two strong 
lines below, and having to encounter the three strong lines above. 
Hfl Ping-wan (also of the Yflan dynasty) says that the whole of 
the lower trigram, Tui, partaking of the y in nature, is the symbol 
of weakness, and the whole of Kh ien that of strength. The Aeh- 
^ung editors say that, to get the full meaning, we must hold both 
views. 

Paragraph 3 has been sufficiently explained on the Thwan itself. 

Paragraph 3 has also been explained ; but there remains some- 
thing to be said on the Chinese text for 'occupies the God- 
given position,' or, literally, ' treads on the seat of Tl.' Canon 
McClatchie has — ' The imperial throne is now occupied.' I think 
that ' the seat of Ti ' is synonymous with ' the seat of Heaven,' in 
paragraph a of this treatise on hexagram 5. If Confucius, or who- 
ever was the writer, had before him the phrase as it occurs in the 
Shft, 1, 1 3, the force of Tt will depend on the meaning assigned to 
it in that part of the Shfl. That die fifth line occupies the place of 
authority is here the only important point. 



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224 THE APPENDIXES. SECT. I. 

the superior man appears increasing, and that of the 
small man decreasing. 

XII. 'The want of good understanding between 
the (different classes of) men in Phi, and its indica- 
tion as unfavourable to the firm and correct course 
of the superior man ; with the intimation that the 
great are gone and the little come ;' — all this 
springs from the fact that in it heaven and earth 
are not in communication with each other, and all 
things in consequence do not have free course ; and 
that the high and the low (superiors and inferiors) 
are not in communication with one another, and 
there are no (well-regulated) states under the sky. 
The inner (trigram) is made up of the weak and 
divided lines, and the outer of the strong and 
undivided : the inner is (the symbol of) weakness, 
and the outer of strength; the inner (represents) 
the small man, and the outer the superior man. 
Thus the way of the small man appears increasing, 
and that of the superior man decreasing. 

XI. There is nothing to be said on the explanation of the 
Thwan here beyond what has been noticed on the different para- 
graphs of the Text Canon McClatchie translates : — ' The Thwan 
means that Heaven and Earth have now conjugal intercourse with 
each other .... and the upper and lower (classes) unite together.' 
But in both clauses the Chinese characters are the same. Why did 
he not go on to say — ' the upper and lower classes have conjugal 
intercourse together;' or rather, why did he not dismiss the idea of 
such intercourse from his mind altogether? Why make the Yt 
appear to be gross, when there is not the shadow of grossness in 
it? The paragraph here well illustrates how the ruling idea in all 
the antinomies of the Yt is that of authority and strength on the 
one side, and of inferiority and weakness on the other. 

XII. All the symbolism here springs from the trigram Khw&n 
occupying in the figure the inner or lower place, and A'Aien the 
outer or upper. It is for the inner trigram to take the initiative ; 



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HEX. 14. APPENDIX I. 225 

XIII. I. In Thung ZS,n the weak (line) has 
the place (of influence), the central place, and 
responds to (the corresponding line in) ^^ien 
(above); hence conies its name of Thung Zan (or 
' Union of men'). 

2. Thung ZSn says : — 

3. The language, 'Thung Z3.n appears here (as 
we find it) in (the remote districts of) the country, 
indicating progress and success, and that it will be 
advantageous to cross the great stream,' is moulded 
by its containing the strength (symbolled) inA'^ien. 
(Then) we have (the trigram indicating) elegance 
and intelligence, supported by (that indicating) 
strength; with the line in the central, and its 
correct, position, and responding (to the corres- 
ponding line above) : — (all representing) the correct 
course of the superior man. It is only the superior 
man who can comprehend and affect the minds of 
all under the sky. 

XIV. I. In T4 YA the weak (line) has the 
place of honour, is grandly central, and (the strong 
lines) above and below respond to it. Hence comes 
its name of TS. Yd (Having what is Great). 

but how can earth (symbolised by Kh win) take the place of heaven 
(symbolised by A'Aien) ? As in nature it is heaven that originates 
and not earth, so in a state the upper classes must take the initiative, 
and not the lower. 

XIII. To understand the various points in this commentary, it 
is only necessary to refer to the Text of the hexagram. The proper 
correlate of line 2 is line 5, and I have said therefore that it ' re- 
sponds to (the corresponding line in) A'Aien.' The editors of the 
Khang-hst edition, however, would make the correlate to it all the 
lines of ^Men, as being more agreeable to the idea of union. 

I do not think that a second paragraph has been lost. The 

[16] Q 



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226 THE APPENDIXES, SECT. I. 

2. The attributes (of its component trigpiams) are 
strength and vigour with elegance and brightness. 
(The ruling line in it) responds to (the ruling line 
in the symbol of) heaven, and (consequently) its 
action is (all) at the proper times. In this way (it is 
said to) indicate great progress and success. 

XV. I. AT^ien indicates progress and success. 
It is the way of heaven to send down its bene- 
ficial influences below, where they are brilliantly 
displayed. It is the way of earth, lying low, to 
send its influences upwards and (there) to act. 

2. It is the way of heaven to diminish the full 
and augment the humble. It is the way of earth 
to overthrow the full and replenish the humble. 
Spiritual Beings inflict calamity on the full and 
bless the humble. It is the way of men to hate 
the full and love the humble. Humility in a posi- 
tion of honour makes that still more brilliant ; and 
in a low position men will not (seek to) pass beyond 
it. Thus it is that 'the superior man will have a 
(good) issue (to his undertakings).' 

'Thung Z^n says 'is merely a careless repetition of the three 
concluding characters of paragraph i. 

XIV. The position in the fifth place indicates the dignity, and 
its being central, in the centre of the upper trigram, indicates the 
virtue, of the lord of the figure. 

The strength of the lord, moreover, is directed by intelligence ; 
and his actions are always at the proper time, like the seasons 
of heaven. 

XV. The Thwan on this hexagram was so brief, that the writer 
here deals generally with the subject of humility, showing how it is 
valued by heaven and earth, by spirits and by men. The descent 
of the heavenly influences, and the low position of the earth in 
paragraph i, are both emblematic of humility. The heavenly influ- 
ences have their ' display' in the beauty and fertility of the earth. 



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HEX, 1(5. APPENDIX I. 227 

XVI. I. In Yu we see the strong (line) re- 
sponded to by all the others, and the will (of him 
whom Lt represents) being carried out; and (also) 
docile obedience employing movement (for its pur- 
poses). (From these things comes) YU (the Condi- 
tion of harmony and satisfaction). 

2. In this condition we have docile obedience 
employing movement (for its purposes), and there- 
fore it is so as between heaven and earth ; — how 
much more will it be so (among men) in 'the 
setting up of feudal princes and putting the hosts 
in motion I' 

3. Heaven and earth show that docile obedience 
in connexion with movement, and hence the sun and 
moon make no error (in time), and the four seasons 
do not deviate (from their order). The sages show 
such docile obedience in connexion with their move- 
ments, and hence their punishments and penalties 
are entirely just, and the people acknowledge it by 
their submission. Great indeed are the time and 
significance indicated in Yii ! 

The way of heaven is seen, e.g. in the daily declining of the sun, 
and the waning of the moon after it is full ; the way of earth in the 
fall of the year. On the meaning of 'Spiritual Beings (Kwei 
Shin),' see the Introduction, pp. 34, 35. It is diflScult to say what 
idea the writer attached to the name. What he says of man's 
appreciation of humility is striking, and, I believe, correct. 

XVI. What is said in paragraph i about the lines has been 
pointed out in the notes on the Text ' Obedience' is the attribute 
of Khwiln, the lower trigram, which takes the initiative in the 
action of the figure ; and here makes use of the movement, which 
is the attribute of X'lka, the upper trigram. 

I can hardly trace the connexion between the different parts of 
paragraph 2. Does it not proceed on the harmony produced by 
the thunderous explosion between heaven and earth, as declared 

Q 2 



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2 28 THE APPENDIXES. 



SICT. r. 



XVII. I. In Sui we see the strong (trigram) 
come and place itself under the weak; we see (in 
the two) the attributes of movement and pleasure : — 
this gives (the idea of) Sui. 

2. ' There will be great progress and success ; and 
through firm correctness no error:' — all under heaven 
will be found following at such a time. 

3. Great indeed are the time and sigjnificance 
indicated in Sui. 

XVIII. I. In K 6 we have the strong (trigram) 
above, and the weak one below ; we have (below) 
pliancy, and (above) stopping: — these give the 
idea of Kii (a Troublous Condition of affairs verg- 
ing to ruin). 

2. ' K6 indicates great progress and success:' — 
(through the course shown in it), all under heaven, 
there will be good order. ' There will be advantage 
in crossing the great stream:' — he who advances 
will encounter the business to be done. '(He should 

in Appendix II ? Then the analogy between natural phenomena 
and human and social experiences comes into play. 

Paragraph 3 is also tantalising. Why does the writer introduce 
the subject of punishments and penalties ? Are they a consequence 
of putting the hosts in motion ? 

XVII. The trigrams Ji'in and Tui are distinguished as strong 
and weak, ^Sn representing, on king Win's scheme, 'the eldest 
son,' and Tui, 'the youngest daughter.' But ' the strong' here may 
mean the strong line, the lowest in the hexagram. As Wang 
3ung-^an (Sung dynasty) says: — 'The yang and strong line 
should not be below a yin and weak line, as we find it here. That 
is, in Sui the high places himself below the low, and the noble 
below the mean:' — esteeming others higher than himself, and 
giving the idea of following. Then ^in denotes the production 
or excitement of motion, and Tui denotes pleasure ; and the union 
of these things suggests the same idea. 



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HEX. 20. APPENDIX I. 229 

weigh well, however, the events of) three days be- 
fore (the turning-point), and those (to be done) three 
days after it:' — the end (of confusion) is the begin- 
ning (of order) ; such is the procedure of Heaven. 

XIX. I. In Lin (we see) the strong (lines) 
gradually increasing and advancing. 

2. (The lower trigram is the symbol of) being 
pleased, and (the upper of) being compliant. The 
strong (line) is in the central position, and is pro- 
perly responded to. 

3. ' There is great progress and success, along with 
firm correctness :' — this is the way of Heaven. 

4. ' In the eighth month there will be evil :' — (the 
advancing power) will decay after no long time. 

XX. I. The great Manifester occupies an upper 
place (in the figure), which consists of (the trigrams 

XVIII. The sjinbolism here is the opposite of that in Sui. The 
upper trigram A'in is strong, denoting, according to king Win, 
' the youngest son ; ' and the lower, S un, is weak, denoting ' the eldest 
daughter.' For the eldest daughter to be below the youngest son 
is eminently correct, and helps to indicate the auspice of great 
success. The attribute of Sun is pliancy, and that of A^n stoppage 
or arrest. The feeble pliancy confronted by the arresting moun- 
tain gives an idea of the evil state implied in Kfi. 

'Three days before and after the turning-point' is, literally, 
' three days before and after ^ii,' Hi being the name of the first of 
the ' earthly stems' among the cyclical characters. Hence it has' 
the meaning of ' beginning,' and here denotes the turning-point, at 
which disorder gives place to order. According to ' the procedure 
of Heaven,' history is a narrative of change, one condition of affairs 
constantly giving place to another and opposite. 'A kingdom that 
cannot be moved' does not enter into the circle of Chinese ideas. 

XIX. See what has been said on the fourth paragraph in pp. 98, 99 
on the Text. The other paragraphs need no explanation beyond 
what appears in the supplemented translation. 



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230 THE APPENDIXES. SECT. t. 

whose attributes are) docility and flexibility. He is 
in the central position and his correct place, and thus 
exhibits (his lessons) to all under heaven. 

2. ' Kwan shows its subject like a worshipper 
who has washed his hands, but not (yet) presented 
his offerings ; — with sincerity and an appearance of 
dignity (commanding reverent regard) :' — (all) beneath 
look to him and are transformed. 

3. When we contemplate the spirit-like way of 
Heaven, we see how the four seasons proceed with- 
out error. The sages, in accordance with (this) 
spirit-like way, laid down their instructions, and all 
under heaven yield submission to them. 

XXI. I. The existence of something between 
the jaws gives rise to the name Shih Ho (Union 
by means of biting through the intervening article). 

2. The Union by means of biting through the 
intervening article indicates ' the successful progress 
(denoted by the hexagram).' 

The strong and weak (lines) are equally divided 
(in the figure). Movement is denoted (by the lower 
trigram), and bright intelligence (by the upper); 
thunder and lightning uniting in them, and having 
brilliant manifestation. The weak (fifth) line is in 

XX. ' The great Manifester' is the ruler, the principal subject of 
the hexagram, and represented by line 5, near the top of the figure. 
In that figure the lower trigram is Khw&n, representing the earth, 
with the attribute of docility, and the upper is Sun, representing 
wind, with the attributes of flexibility and penetration. As is the 
place of line 5, so are the virtues of the ruler. 

' The spirit-like way of Heaven ' is the invisible and unfathomable 
agency ever ojjerating. by general laws, and with invariable regu- 
larity, in what we call nature. Compare with this paragraph, the 
definition of Shin or Spirit in Appendix III, i, 32; and the doctrine 
of the agency of God, taught in Appendix VI, 8, 9. 



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HEX. 23. APPENDIX I. 231 

the centre, and acts in its high position. Although 
it is not in its proper position, this is advantageous 
for the use of leg^l constraints. 

XXII. I. (When it is said that) Pi indicates that 
there should be free course (in what it denotes): — 

2. (We see) the weak line coming and ornament- 
ing the strong lines (of the lower trigram), and 
hence (it is said that ornament) 'should have free 
course.' On the other hand, the strong line above 
ornaments the weak ones (of the upper trigram), 
and hence (it is said) that ' there will be little advan- 
tage, if (ornament) be allowed to advance (and take 
the lead).' (This is illustrated in the) appearances 
that ornament the sky. 

3. Elegance and intelligence (denoted by the 
lower trigram) regulated by the arrest (denoted by 
the upper) suggest the observances that adorn 
human (society). 

4. We look at the ornamental figures of the sky, 
and thereby ascertain the changes of the seasons. 
We look at the ornamental observances of society, 
and understand how the processes of transformation 
are accomplished all under heaven. 

XXI. The ' equal division of the strong and weak lines ' is seen 
by taking them in pairs, though the order in the first pair is different 
from that in the two others. This is supposed to indicate the in- 
telligence of the judgments in the action of the hexagram. iCSn, 
the lower trigram, symbolises movement; L{, the upper, intelli- 
gence. The fifth line's acting in its high position does not intimate 
the formation of the figure from Yi, the 42nd hexagram, but calls 
attention to the fact that a weak line is here ' lord of judgment.' 
This does not seem natural, but the effect is good ; — ^judgment is 
tempered by leniency. 

XXII. The first paragraph is either superfluous or incomplete. 
The language of paragraph 2 has naturally been pressed into the 



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232 THE APPENDIXES. SECT, I. 

XXIII. I. Po denotes overthrowing or being 
overthrown. We see (in the figure) the weak lines 
(threatening to) change the (last) strong line (into 
one of themselves). 

2. That 'it will not be advantageous to make 
a movement in any direction whatever' appears 
from the fact that the small men are (now) growing 
and increasing. The superior man acts according 
to (the exigency of the time), and stops all forward 
movement, looking at the (significance of the) 
symbolic figures (in the hexagram). He values the 
processes of decrease and increase, of fulness and 
decadence, (as seen) in the movements of the 
heavenly bodies. 

service of the doctrine of changing the figures by divining manipu- 
lation; see p. ?i9, on paragraph 2 of the Th wan of hexagram 6. 
But as the Khang-hsl editors point out, ' the weak line coming and 
ornamenting the two strong lines ' simply indicates how substan- 
tiality should have the help of ornament, and 'the strong line 
above (or ascending) and ornamenting the two weak lines ' indicates 
that ornament should be restrained by substantiality. Ornament 
has its use, but it must be kept in check. — The closing sentence 
has no connexion with what precedes. Some characters are 
wanting, to show how the writer passes on to speak of ' the orna- 
mental figures of the sky.' The whole should then be joined on 
to paragraph 3. The ' figures of the sky ' are all the heavenly 
bodies in their relative positions and various movements, producing 
day and night, heat and cold, &c. The observances of society are 
the ceremonies and performances which regulate and beautify the 
intercourse of men, and constitute the transforming lessons of 
sagely wisdom. 

XXIII. 'The symbolic figures in the hexagram' are Khw&n, 
below, the representative of docility, acting as circumstances 
require; and K&n, the representative of a mountain, which 
arrests the progress of the traveller. The superior man of the 
topmost line thus interprets them, and acts accordingly. Yet he 
is not left without hope. Winter is followed by spring; night is 



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HEX. ag. APPENDIX I. 233 

XXIV. I. 'Fd indicates the free course and pro- 
gress (of what it denotes):' — it is the coming back 
of what is intended by the undivided line. 

2. (Its subject's) actions show movement directed 
by accordance with natural order. Hence 'he finds no 
one to distress him in his exits and entrances,* and 
' friends come to him, and no error is committed.' 

3. 'He will return and repeat his proper course ; 
in seven days comes his return : ' — such is the move- 
ment of the heavenly (revolution). 

4. ' There will be advantage in whatever direction 
movement is made:' — the strong lines are growing 
and increasing. 

5. Do we not see in Fd the mind of heaven 
and earth ? 

XXV. In Wd Wang we have the strong (first) 
line come from the outer (trigram), and become in 
the inner trigram lord (of the whole figure); we 
have (the attributes of) motive power and strength ; 
we have the strong line (of the fifth place) in the 

succeeded by day; the moon wanes, and then begins to wax again. 
So will it be in political life. As we read in the Hebrew prophet 
Isaiah, ' In returning and rest shall ye be saved ; in quietness and 
in confidence shall be your strength.' 

XXIV. ' The movement of the heavenly revolution ' in paragraph 
3 has reference to the regular alternations of darkness and light, and 
of cold and heat, as seen in the different months of the year. Hiu 
Hsing-kwo (of the Thang dynasty) refers to the expressions in the 
Shih, I, XV, ode i, ' the days of (our) first (month), second (month),' 
&a, as illustrating the use of day for month, as we have it here ; 
but that is to explain what is obscure by what is more so ; though 
I believe, as stated on the Text, that 'seven days' is here equivalent 
to ' seven months.' 

'The mind of heaven and earth' is the love of Ufe and of all 
goodness that rules in the course of nature and providence. 



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234 THE APPENDIXES. SECT. I. 

central position, and responded to (by the weak 
second) : — there will be ' great progress proceeding 
from correctness ; such is the appointment of Heaven. 
'If (its subject and his action) be not correct, he 
will fall into errors, and it will not be advantageous 
for him to move in any direction : ' — whither can 
he (who thinks he is) free from all insincerity, (and 
yet is as here described) proceed ? Can anything be 
done (advantageously) by him whom the (will and) 
appointment of Heaven do not help ? 

XXVI. I. In (the trigrams composing) Ti Kh<\. 
we have (the attributes) of the greatest strength 
and of substantial solidity, which emit a brilliant 
light ; and indicate a daily renewal of his virtue (by 
the subject of it). 

2. The strong line is in the highest place, and 
suggests the value set on talents and virtue ; there 
is power (in the upper trigram) to keep the strongest 
in restraint : — all this shows ' the great correctness ' 
(required in the hexagram). 

3. 'The good fortune attached to the subject's 
not seeking to enjoy his revenues in his own family' 
shows how talents and virtue are nourished. 

XXV. The advocates of one trigram's changing into another, 
which ought not to be admitted, we have seen, into the interpretation 
of the Yt, make Wfl Wang to be derived from Sung (No. 6), the 
second line there being manipulated into the first of this ; but this 
representation is contrary to the words of the text, which make the 
strong first line come from the outer trigram, i.e. from A'^ien. 
And so it does, as related, not very intelligibly, in Appendix V, 10, 
Kkn, the lower trigram here, being ' the eldest son,' resulting from 
the first application of KhwSn to JTAien. The three peculiarities 
in the structure of the figure afford the auspice of progress and 
success; and very striking is the brief and emphatic declaration, 
that such progress is ' the appointment of Heaven.' 



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HEX. 37. APPENDIX I. 235 

4. 'It will be advantageous to cross the great 
stream:' — (the fifth line, representing the ruler,) is 
responded to by (the second, the central line of 
^^ien, representing) Heaven. 

XXVII. I. '1 indicates that with firm correctness 
there will be good fortune : ' — when the nourishing 
is correct, there will be good fortune. 'We must 
look at what we are seeking to nourish :' — we must 
look at those whom we wish to nourish. 'We must 
by the exercise of our thoughts seek the proper 
aliment:' — we must look to our awn nourishing 
of ourselves. 

2. Heaven and earth nourish all things. The 
sages nourish men of talents and virtue, by them 
to reach to the myriads of the people. Great is 
(the work intended by this) nourishing in its time ! 

XXVI. In paragraph i, TS Kkii evidently means the 'grand 
accumulation ' of virtue, indicated by the attributes of its compo- 
nent trigrams. 'Substantial solidity' may very well be given as 
the attribute of mountains. 

' The strong line in the highest place ' of paragraph 2 is line 6, 
whose subject is thus above the ruler represented by 5, and has the 
open firmament for his range in doing his work. This, and his 
ability to repress the strongest opposition, show how he is sup- 
ported by all that is correct »nd right 

In a kingdom where the object of the government is the accumu- 
lation of virtue, good and able men will not be left in obscurity. 

What will not a high and good purpose, supported by the 
greatest strength, be able to do ? 

XXVII. Many of the critics, in illustration of paragraph i, refer 
appropriately to Mencius, VI, i, chap. 14. 

In illustration of paragraph 2 they refer to the times and court of 
YSo and Shun, sage rulers, from whose cherishing and nourishing 
came Ytt to assuage the waters of the deluge, %\ to teach the people 
agriculture, Hsieh as minister of instruction, KSo Ydo as minister of 
crime, and others ; — all to do the work of nourishing the people. 



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236 THE APPENDIXES. SECT. I. 

XXVIII. I. Ti Kwo shows the great ones 
( = the undivided lines) in excess. 

2. In 'the beam that is weak' we see weakness 
both in the lowest and the topmost (lines). 

3. The strong lines are in excess, but (two of 
them) are in the central positions. The action (of 
the hexagram is represented by the symbols of) 
flexibility and satisfaction. (Hence it is said), 
' There will be advantage in moving in any direction 
whatever ; yea, there will be success.' 

4. Great indeed is (the work to be done in) this 
very extraordinary time. 

XXIX. I. Khan repeated shows us one defile 
succeeding another. 

2. This is the nature of water; — it flows on, 
without accumulating its volume (so as to overflow); 
it pursues its way through a dangerous defile, with- 
out losing its true (nature). 

3. That 'the mind is penetrating' is indicated by 
the strong (line) in the centre. That 'action (in 
accordance with this) will be of high value' tells us 
that advance will be followed by achievement. 

4. The dangerous (height)^ of heaven cannot be 
ascended ; the difficult places of the earth are moun- 

XXVIII. Paragraph 3. In the Great Symbolism ' wood ' appears 
as the natural object symbolised by Sun, and not ' wind,' which we 
find more commonly. The attribute of 'flexibility,' however, is 
the quality of Sun, whether used of wind or of wood. 

Paragraph 4. Such a time, it is said, was that of Yto and Shun, 
of Thang the Successful, and of king Wa. What these heroes did, 
however, was all called for by the exigency of their times, and not 
by whim or principle of their own, which they wished to make 
prominent. 



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HEX. 30. APPENDIX I, 237 

tains, rivers, hills, and mounds. Kings and princes 
arrange, by means of such strengths, to maintain 
their territories. Great indeed is the use of (what 
is here) taught about seasons of peril. 

XXX. I. Ll means being attached to. The sun 
and moon have their place in the sky. All the 
grains, grass, and trees have their place on the 
earth. The double brightness (of the two tri- 
grams) adheres to what is correct, and the result is 
the transforming and perfecting all under the sky. 

2. The weak (second line) occupies the middle 
and correct position, and gives the indication of ' a 
free and successful course ;' and, moreover, ' nourish- 
ing (docility like that of) the cow' will lead to good 
fortune. 



XXIX. On paragraph 2 Liang Yin says : — * Water stops at the 
proper time, and moves at the proper time. Is not this an emblem 
of the course of the superior man in dealing with danger?' 

On paragraph 4 the Khang-hsi editors say that to exercise one's 
self in meeting difficulty and peril is the way to establish and 
strengthen the character, and that the use of such experience is 
seen in all measures for self-defence, there being no helmet and 
mail like leal-heartedness and good faith, and no shield and tower 
like propriety and righteousness. 

XXX. » The double brightness ' in paragraph i has been much 
discussed. Some say that it means ' the ruler,' becoming brighter 
and brighter. Others say that it means both the ruler and his 
ministers, combining their brightness. The former view seems to 
me the better. The analogy between the natural objects and a 
transforming and perfecting rule is far fetched. 

' The central and correct position ' in paragraph 2 can be said 
only of the second line, and not of the fifth, where an undivided line 
would be more correct. The ' and moreover ' of the translation 
is ' therefore ' in the original ; but I cannot make out the force and 
suitability of that conjunction. 



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2 38 THE APPENDIXES. SECT. II. 



Section II. 

XXXI. I. Hsien is here used in the sense of 
Kan, meaning (mutually) influencing. 

2. The weak (trigram) above, and the strong 
one below ; their two influences moving and respond- 
ing to each other, and thereby forming a union ; the 
repression (of the one) and the satisfaction (of the 
other) ; (with their relative position), where the 
male is placed below the female: — all these 
things convey the notion of ' a free and successful 
course (on the fulfilment of the conditions), while 
the advantage will depend on being firm and correct, 
as in marrying a young lady, and there will be good 
fortune.' 

3. Heaven and earth exert their influences, and 
there ensue the transformation and production of 
all things. The sages influence the minds of men, 
and the result is harmony and peace all under the 
sky. If we look at (the method and issues) of those 
influences, the true character of heaven and earth 
and of all things can be seen. 

XXXII. I. HSng denotes long continuance. 
The strong (trigram) is above, and the weak one 
below ; (they are the symbols of) thunder and wind, 

XXXI. Paragraph 2. Tui, the upper trigram, is weak and 
yin; and KSn, the lower, is strong and yang; see Appendixes III, 
ii, 4, and V, 10. Kin is below Tui; whereas the subject of the 
lower trigram should always take the initiative in these figures. 



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HEX. 3a. APPENDIX I. 239 

which are in mutual communication ; (they have the 
qualities of) docility and motive force ; their strong 
and weak (lines) all respond, each to the other : — 
these things are all found in HSng. 

2. (When it is said that) ' HSng indicates success- 
ful progress and no error (in what it denotes) ; but 
the advantage will come from being firm and correct,' 
this indicates that there must be long continuance 
in its way of operation. The way of heaven and 
earth is to be long continued in their operation with- 
out stopping. 

3. (When it is said that) 'Movement in any 
direction whatever will be advantageous,' this im- 
plies that when (the moving power) is spent, it will 
begin again. 

4. The sun and moon, realising in themselves 
(the course of Heaven), can perpetuate their shining. 
The four seasons, by their changing and trans- 
forming, can perpetuate their production (of things). 
The sages persevere long in their course, and all 
under the sky are transformed and perfect. When 
we look at what they contfhue doing long, the 
natural tendencies of heaven, earth, and all things 
can be seen. 



XXXII. All the conditions in paragraph i must be understood 
as leading to the indication of progress and success, which is 
explained in paragraph 2, and illustrated by the analogy of the 
course of heaven and earth, 

' Movement in any direction,' as explained in paragraph 3, indi- 
cates the ever-occurring new modes and spheres of activity, to 
which he who is firm and correct is called. 

Paragraph 4, and especially its concluding sentence, are of a 
meditative and reflective character not uncommon in the treatise 
on the Thwan. 



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240 THE APPENDIXES. SKCT. 11. 

XXXIII. I. 'Thun indicates successful pro- 
gress:' — that is, in the very retiring which Thun 
denotes there is such progress. The strong (line) 
is in the ruling place, (the fifth), and is properly 
responded to (by the second line). The action takes 
place according to (the requirement of) the time. 

2. ' To a small extent it will (still) be advan- 
tageous to be firm and correct : ' — (the small men) 
are gradually encroaching and advancing. 

3. Great indeed is the significance of (what is 
required to be done in) the time that necessitates 
retiring. 

XXXIV. I. In Ta A'wang we see that which 
is great becoming strong. We have the (trig^m) 
denoting strength directing that which denotes 
movement, and hence (the whole) is expressive of 
vigour. 

2. 'TiA'wang indicates that it will be advan- 
tageous to be firm and correct :' — that which is great 
(should be) correct. Given correctness and great- 
ness (in their highest degree), and the character and 
tendencies of heaven and earth can be seen. 

XXXIII. 'The superior man,' it is said, ' advances or withdraws 
according to the character of the time. The strength and correct 
position of the fifth line show that he is able to maintain himself; 
and as it is responded to by the weak second line, no opposition to 
what is correct in him would come from any others. He might 
therefore keep his place ; but looking at the two weak lines, i and 
a, he recognises in them the advance and irrepressible progress 
of small men, and that for a time it is better for him to give way 
and withdraw from the field. Thus there is successful progress 
even in his retiring.' 

XXXIV. Paragraph i. 'That which is great' denotes, in the 
first place, the group of four strong lines which strikes us on 



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HEX. 36. APPENDIX I. 241 

XXXV. I. Bin denotes advancing. 

2. (In 3in we have) the bright (sun) appearing 
above the earth ; (the symbol of) docile submission 
cleaving to that of the Great brightness ; and the 
weak line advanced and moving above: — all these 
things give us the idea of ' a prince who secures the 
tranquillity (of the people), presented on that ac- 
count with numerous horses (by the king), and three 
times in a day received at interviews.' 

XXXVI. I. (The symbol of) the Earth and that 
of Brightness entering into the midst of it give the 
idea of Ming I (Brightness wounded or obscured). 

2. The inner (trigram) denotes being accom- 
plished and bright ; the outer, being pliant and sub- 
missive. The case of king W3.n was that of one 

looking at the figure, and then the superior man, or the strong 
men in positions of power, of whom these are the representatives. 
A'^ien is the trigram of strength, and A'&n that of movement. 

Paragraph 2. 'That which is great (should be) correct:' — that 
the ' should be' must be supplied in the translation appears from 
this, that the paragraph is intended to illustrate the text that ' it 
will be advantageous to be firm and correct.' The power of man 
becomes then a reflexion of the great power which we see working 
in nature, ' impartially,' ' unselfishly.' 

XXXV. To those who advocate the view that the hexagrams of 
the Yt have been formed by changes of the lines in manipulating 
with the divining stalks, the words of paragraph 2, that we have in 
the figure ' the weak line advanced and moving above,' suggest the 
derivation of 3>n from K wan, whose 4th and 5th lines are made 
to change places (= ^)- But we have seen that that view is 
inadmissible in the interpretation of the Yt And a simple explana- 
tion of the language at once presents itself. As Hsiang An-shih 
(Sung dynasty) says, 'Of the three " daughter" trigrams it is only 
LI which has its divided line occupying the central place of honour, 
when it is the upper trigram in a hexagram.' 
[16] R 



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242 THE APPENDIXES. SECT. 11. 

who with these qualities was yet involved in great 
difficulties. 

3. ' It will be advantageous to realise the difficulty 
(of the position), and maintain firm correctness :* — 
that is, (the individual concerned) should obscure 
his brightness. The case of the count of Kt was 
that of one who, amidst the difficulties of his House, 
was able (thus) to maintain his aim and mind 
correct. 

XXXVII. I. In A'id Zan the wife has her 
correct place in the inner (trigram), and the man 
his correct place in the outer. That man and 
woman occupy their correct places is the great 
righteousness shown (in the relation and positions 
of) heaven and earth. 

2. In A'ii ZSn we have the idea of an authori- 
tative ruler; — that, namely, represented by the 
parental authority. 

3. Let the father be indeed father, and the son 
son ; let the elder brother be indeed elder brother, 
and the younger brother younger brother; let the 
husband be indeed husband, and the wife wife : — 
then will the family be in its normal state. Bring 
the family to that state, and all under heaven will 
be established. 

XXXVI. The sun disappearing, as we say, ' below the earth,' or, 
as the Chinese writer conceives it, ' into the midst of, or within the 
earth,' sufficiently indicates the obscuration or wounding of bright- 
ness, — the repression and resistance of the good and bright. 

King Win was not of the line of Shang. Though opposed and 
persecuted by its sovereign, he could pursue his own course, till 
his line came in the end to supersede the other. It could not be 
so with the count of AT}, who was a member of the House of Shang. 
He could do nothing that would help on its downfall. 

XXXVII. Paragraph i first explains the statement of the 



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HEX. 38. APPENDIX 1. 243 

XXXVIII. I. InKhweiwehave(thesymborof) 
Fire, which, when moved, tends upwards, and that 
of a Marsh, whose waters, when moved, tend down- 
wards. We have (also the symbols of) two sisters 
living together, but whose wills do not move in the 
same direction. 

2. (We see how the inner trigram expressive of) 
harmonious satisfaction is attached to (the outer 
expressive of) bright intelligence ; (we see) the 
weak line advanced and acting above, and how it 
occupies the central place, and is responded to by 
the strong (line below). These indications show 
that 'in small matters there will (still) be good 
fortune.' 

3. Heaven and earth are separate and apart, but 
the work which they do is the same. Male and 
female are separate and apart, but with a common 
will they seek the same object. There is diversity 
between the myriad classes of beings, but there is 
an analogy between their several operations. Great 
indeed are the phenomena and the results of this 
condition of disunion and separation. 

Thwan, about the wife, represented by line 2 ; and then proceeds 
to the husband, represented by line 5. The two trigrams become 
representative of the family circle, and the wide world without it. 
In the reference to heaven and earth it is not supposed that they 
are really husband and wife; but in their relation and positions 
they symbolise that social relation and the individuals in it. 

Paragraph 2, more closely rendered, would be — ' That in JSTia 
ZHn there is an authoritative ruler is a way of naming father and 
mother.' Does the writer mean to say that while the assertion of 
authoriQr was indispensable in a family, that authority must have 
combined in it both force and gentleness 7 

XXXVIII. In paragraph i we have first an explanation of the 
meaning of Khwei from the symbolism of Ffl-hst. Then follows 

R 2 



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244 THE APPENDIXES. SECT. II. 

XXXIX. I. A'ien denotes difficulty. There is 
(the trigram expressive of) perilousness in front. 
When one, seeing the peril, can arrest his steps (in 
accordance with the significance of the lower tri- 
gram), is he not wise ? 

2. (The language of) ATien, that 'advantage will 
be found in the south-west,' refers to the (strong 
fifth line) advanced and in the central place. That 
' there will be no advantage in the north-east,' 
intimates that the way (of dealing with the A'ien 
state) is exhausted. That ' it will be advantageous 
to see the great man,' intimates that advance will 
lead to achievement. That the places (of the 
different lines after the first) are those appropriate 
to them indicates firm correctness and good fortune, 
with which the regions (of the kingdom) are brought 
to their normal state. Great indeed is the work to 
be done in the time of ^ien ! 

an explanation from that ascribed to king W2Ln, where Tui repre- 
sents the youngest daughter and Lt the second. The Khang-hsi 
editors observe that in many hexagrams we have two daughters 
dwelling together, but that only in this and 49 is attention called to 
it. The reason, they say, is that in those two diagrams the sisters 
are the second and third daughters, while in the others one of them 
is the eldest, whose place and superiority are fixed, so that between 
her and either of the others there can be no division or collision. 

About what is said, in paragraph 2, on the weak line, as ad- 
vanced and acting above, see the note on hexagram 35. 

The lesson of paragraph 3 is not imity in diversity, but union 
with diversity. 

XXXIX. The upper or front trigram is Khin, the attribute of 
which is perilousness; the lower is Kin, of which the arresting, 
actively or passively, of movement or advance is the attribute. We 
can understand how the union of these attributes gives the ideas of 
difiScuIty and prudent caution. 

The explanations in paragraph 2 of the phraseology of the Thwan 



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HKX. 40. APPENDIX I. 245 

XL. I. In A!*! eh we have (the trigram expressive 
of) peril going on to that expressive of movement. 
By movement there is an escape from the peril : — 
(this is the meaning of) A'ieh. 

2, 'In (the state indicated by) A'ieh, advantage 
will be found in the south-west:' — ^the movement 
(thus) intimated will win all. That ' there will be 
good fortune in coming back (to the old condi- 
tions)' shows that such action is that of the due 
medium. That ' if some operations be necessary, 
there will be good fortune in the early conducting of 
them' shows that such operations will be successful. 

3. When heaven and earth are freed (from the 
grasp of winter), we have thunder and rain. When 
these come, the buds of the plants and trees that 
produce the various fruits begin to burst. Great 
indeed are the phenomena in the time intimated 
by ATieh. 

are not all easily followed. It is said that the advantageousness 
of the south-west is due to the central line in 5 ; but if we are to 
look for the meaning of south-west in Khwiln, as in the diagram 
of king W&n's trigrams, there is no strong central line in it. May 
Khin, as a yang trigram, be used for Khw&n? 

XL. I. The meaning of the hexagram is brought out 8u£Sciently 
well in paragraph i by means of the attributes of the constituent 
trigrams. 

2. How it is that the movement indicated in the first condition 
will ' win' all does not immediately appear. The Khang-hsl editors 
say that 'moving to the south and west' is the same as ' returning 
back to the old conditions,' and that 'winning all' and acting 'accord- 
ing to the due medium ' are descriptive of the effect and method 
without reference to the symbolism. Another explanation might 
be devised ; but I prefer to leave the matter in doubt. 

3. Paragraph 3 shows the analogy of what takes place in nature 
to the beneficent social and political changes described in the text, 
as is done very frequently in this Appendix. 



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246 THE APPENDIXES. SECT. U. 

XLI. I. In Sun (we see) the lower (trigram) 
diminished, and the upper added to. (But) the 
method (of action) implied in this operates also 
above (or, mounts upwards (also) and operates). 

2. ' If there be sincerity in this method of dimi- 
nution, there will be great good fortune; freedom 
from error; firmness and correctness that can be 
maintained; and advantage in every movement 
that shall be made. In what shall this (sincerity 
in the exercise of Sun) be employed ? (Even) in 
sacrifice, two baskets of gfrain, (though there be 
nothing else), may be presented:' — for these two 
baskets there ought to be the fitting time. There 
is a time when the strong should be diminished, and 
the weak should be strengthened. Diminution and 
increase, overflowing and emptiness : — these take 
place in harmony with the conditions of the time. 



XLI. I. All that we see is two un(]ivided lines in the lower trigram, 
and then a divided one, and exactly the opposite in the upper. But 
the whole figure could not but have this fonn from the process of 
its formation, whether by the gradual addition of the two primitive 
lines, or by the imposition of the whole trigrams on one another. 
To say that the upper lines of ATAien and Khwin changed places 
to express the idea of subjects contributing in taxes to the main- 
tenance of their ruler is absurd ; and if that thought were in the 
mind of king Win (which I very much doubt), it would only show 
how he projected his own idea, formed independently of the figure, 
into its lines. 

On the second sentence, the Khang-hst editors say: — ' When a 
minister devotes his Ufe in the service of his lord, or the people 
undertake their various labours in behalf of their government, these 
are instances of the ministering of those below to increase those 
above. But in this way the intercourse of the two becomes close 
and their aims become the same ; — does not the method of action 
of those below communicate itself to those above ?' 

In paragraph 2 the subject of contribution, such as the payment of 



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HEX. 43. APPENDIX I. 247 

XLII. I. In Yl we see the upper (trigram) 
diminished, and the lower added to. The satis- 
faction of the people (in consequence of this) is 
without limit What descends from above reaches 
to all below, so great and brilliant is the course (of 
its operation). 

2. That ' there will be advantage in every move- 
ment which shall be undertaken' appears from the 
central and correct (positions of the second and fifth 
lines), and the (general) blessing (the dispensing of 
which they imply). 

That 'it will be advantageous (even) to cross 
the great stream' appears from the action of wood 
(shown in the figure). 

3. Yl is made up- of (the trigrams expressive 
of) movement and docility, (through which) there 
is daily advancement to an unlimited extent We 
haVe (also) in it heaven dispensing and earth pro- 
ducing, leading to an increase without restriction 



taxes, passes into the background. The Khang-hsl editors say : — 
'What is meant by diminishing in this hexagram is the regu- 
lation of expenditure or contribution according to the time. This 
would vary in a family according to its poverty or wealth ; and in a 
state according to the abundance or scantiness of its resources. 
When it is said that there must be sincerity along with a diminu- 
tion, it means that though such a diminution cannot be helped, yet 
what is given should be given sincerely. A small sacrifice sincerely 
offered is accepted. In the language, " There is a time when the 
strong should be diminished and the weak be strengthened," we are 
not to find the two baskets in the diminution of the strong. " The 
strong " is what is essential, — ^in this case sincerity ; " The weak" 
is what is unimportant, — the amount and manner of the offering. 
If one supplement the insufficiency of his oflFering with the abun- 
dance of his sincerity, the insignificance of his two baskets will not 
be despised.' 



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248 THE APPENDIXES. SECT. 11. 

of place. Everything in the method of this increase 
proceeds according to the requirements of the time. 

XLII. I. The process of the formation of the trigrams here is 
the reverse of that in the preceding hexagram ; and is open to the 
remarks I have made on that. Of course the people are ftJl of 
complacency and pleasure in the labours of their ruler for their 
good. 

2. The mention of 'the action of wood' has reference to the 
upper Ingram Sun, which is the symbol both of wind and wood. 
From wood boats and ships are made, on which the great stream 
may be crossed. In three hexagrams, this, 59, and 61, of which 
Sun is a part, we find mention made of crossing the great stream. 
It is generally said that the lower trigram A^n also svmboKses 
wood; but that is obtained by a roundabout process. A!ln occu- 
pies the place of the east in. Wan's arrangement of the trigrams ; 
but the east symbolises spring, when the growth of vegetation 
begins ; and therefore ^in may symbolise wood ! It was stated 
on p. 33, that the doctrine of ' the five elements ' does not appear 
in the Yt. A'^ing-jze takes wood (^ mfl), 'as a misprint for 
increase (:^yt).' 

3. The words 'heaven dispensing and earth producing' are 
based on the fancied genesis of the figure from AT^ien and 

Khw&n ( — ~—)' ^^^ ^""^^ 'i"**^ •'* ^^^^ changing places. It 
was the author of this Appendix, probably, who first introduced 
that absurd notion in connexion with the formation of Sun 
and Yt. 

One rhyme runs through and connects these three paragraphs 

thus: — 

'Yt spoils the high, gives to the low; 
The people feel intense delight. 
Down from above to all below, 
The blessing goes, so large and bright 
Success will every movement mark, 
Central its source, its course aright. 
The great stream even may be crossed, 
When planks of wood their strength unite. 
Y! movement shows and docile feet, 
Which progress day by day invite. 
Heaven gives; productive earth responds; 
Increase crowns every vale and height; 



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HEX. 43- APPENDIX I. 249 

XLIII, I. Kwii is the symbol of displacing or 
removing. We see (in the figure) the strong 
(lines) displacing the weak. (We have in it the 
attributes of) strength and complacency. There is 
displacement, but harmony (continues). 

2. ' The exhibition (of the criminal's guilt) in the 
royal courtyard' is suggested by the (one) weak 
(line) mounted on the five strong lines. 

There ' is an earnest and sincere appeal (for sym- 
pathy and support), and" a consciousness of the peril 
(involved in the undertaking) :' — it is the realisation 
of this danger, which makes the method (of compass- 
ing the object) brilliant. 

' He should make an announcement in his own 
city, and show that it will not be well to have 
recourse at once to arms :' — (if he have recourse to 
arms), what he prefers will (soon) be exhausted. 

'There will be advantage in whatever he shall 
go forward to :' — when the growth of the strong 
(lines) has been completed, there will be an end 
(of the displacement). 



And ceaselessly it hastens on, 
Each season's gifts quick to requite.' 

XLIII. I. The last clause of paragraph i is good in itself, show- 
ing that the strong and worthy statesman in removing a bad man 
from the state is not actuated by any private feelings. The senti- 
ment, however, as it is expressed, can hardly be said to follow from 
the symbolism. 

Paragraph 2. The same may be said of all the notes appended 
to the different clauses of this second paragraph. Hii Ping-w^n 
(Yuan dynasty) says : — ' If but a single small man be left, he is 
sufficient to make the superior man anxious ; if but a single inordi- 
nate desire be left in the mind, that is sufficient to disturb the 
harmony of heavenly principles. The eradication in both cases 
must be complete, before the labour is ended.' 



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250 THE APPENDIXES. SECT. II. 

XLIV. I. K4u has the significance of unex- 
pectedly coming on. (We see in it) the weak 
(line) coming unexpectedly on the strong ones. 

2. 'It will not be good to marry (such) a 
female:' — one (so symbolised) should not be long 
associated with. 

3. Heaven and earth meeting together (as here 
represented), all the variety of natural things become 
fully displayed. 

4. When a strong (line) finds itself in the central 
and correct position, (good government) will gp-eatly 
prevail all under the sky. 

5. Great indeed is the significance of what has to 
be done at the time indicated by Kiu ! 

XLV. I. 3hui indicates (the condition of union, 
or) being collected. We have in it (the symbol of) 
docile obedience going on to (what is expressed by 
that of) satisfaction. There is the strong line in 
the central place, and rightly responded to. Hence 
comes the (idea of) union. 

2. ' The king will repair to his ancestral temple :' — 

XLIV. On paragraph i the Khang-hsl editors say : — ' "The weak 
line meets with (or comes unexpectedly on) the strong ones;" — 
the weak line, that is, plays the principal part. The case is like 
that of the minister who assumes the power of deciding for himself 
on all measures, or of a hen's announcing the morning ; — is not the 
name of (shameless) boldness rightly applied to it ? Hence nothing 
more is said about the symbol of the bold female ; but attention is 
called to the second part of the Thwan.' 

Paragraph 2 needs no remark. Paragraphs 3, 4, and 5 all speak 
of the importance of powers and parties meeting together, — in the 
world of nature, and in the sphere of human aflfairs. But I do not 
see how this sentiment is a natural sequel to that in i and 2, nor 
that it has any connexion with the teaching of the Thwan and 
Symbolism. 



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HEX. 46. APPENDIX I. 251 

■"■ —■■■ II ■ 111.. I .p laiBB ■_ I I ■ ■ 11 ■ « I B^^B-^i I 

with the utmost filial piety he presents his offerings 
(to the spirits of his ancestors). 

' It will be advantageous to meet the g^eat man, 
and there will then be prosperity and success:' — 
the union effected by him will be on and through 
what is correct. 

' The use of great victims will conduce to good 
fortune ; and in whatsoever direction movement is 
made, it will be advantageous:' — all is done in 
accordance with the ordinances of Heaven. 

3. When we look at the way in which the gather- 
ings (here shown) take place, the natural tendencies 
(in the outward action) of heaven and earth and of 
all things can be seen. 

XLVI. I. (We find) the weak (line), as it finds 
the opportunity, ascending upwards. 

2. We have (the attribute) of flexibility and that 
of obedience; we have the strong line (below) and 
its proper correlate above: — these things indicate that 
there will be ' g^eat progfress and success.' 

XLV. The lower trigram in 3hui is Khw&n, whose attribute 
is docile obedience; and the upper is Tui, whose attribute is 
pleased satisfaction. Then we have the strong line in 5, and 
its proper correlate in 2. These things may give the idea of union. 
They might also give the idea of other good things. 

The Khang-hst editors say that though ' all is done in accord- 
ance with the ordinances of Heaven ' follows the concluding clauses 
of the Thwan, yet the sentiment of the words must be extended 
to the other clauses as well. ITA^ng-^ze says that ' the ordinances of 
Heaven * are simply the natural and practical outcome of ' heavenly 
principle;' — in this case what should and may be done according 
to the conditions and requirements of the time. So do the critics 
of China try to shirk the idea of personality in ' Heaven.' 

With paragraph 3, compare the concluding paragraphs of the 
Thwan ATwan on hexagrams 31, 3a. 



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252 THE APPENDIXES. SECT. 11. 

3. 'Seeking (by the qualities implied in ShSng) 
to meet with the great man, its subject need have no 
anxiety :' — there will be ground for congp^tulation. 

' Advance to the south will be fortunate :' — his 
aim will be carried out 

XLVII. I. In KhwSn (we see) the strong (lines) 
covered and obscured (by the weak). 

2. We have in it (the attribute of) perilousness 
going on to that of satisfaction. Who is it but the 
superior man that, though straitened, still does not 
fail in making progress to his proper end ? 

' For the firm and correct, the (really) great man, 
there will be good fortune ; ' — this is shown by the 
central positions of the strong (lines). 

' If he make speeches, his words cannot be made 
good :' — to be fond of arguing or pleading is the way 
to be reduced to extren^ity. 



XLVI. The explanation of the first paragraph has given occasion 
to much difference of opinion. Some will have ' the weak (line)' to 
be 4 ; some 5 ; and some the whole of Kh wJln, the upper trigram. 
The advocates of 4, make it come from hexagram 40, the weak 3 
of which ascends to the strong 4, displaces it, and takes its place ; 
but we have seen repeatedly the folly of the doctrine of changing 
lines and figures. The great symbolism of Appendix II suggests 
the proper explanation. The lower trigram. Sun, represents here 
not wind but wood. The first line, weak, is the root of a tree 
planted beneath the earth. Its gradual growth symbolises the 
advance upwards of the subject of the hexagram, fostered, that 
is, by the circumstances of the time. 

XLVII. I. One sees the relative position of the strong and weak 
lines in the figure ; but to deduce from that the idea expressed by 
Khw^n requires a painful straining of the imagination. That idea 
was in the mind, and then the lines were interpreted accordingly. 

2. ' Perilousness' is the attribute of the lower trigram, and ' satis- 
faction' that of the upper. The superior man, however straitened, 



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HBX. 49. APPENDIX I. 253 

XLVIII. I. (We have the symbol of) wood in 
the water and the raising of the water ; which (gives 
us the idea of) a well. A well supplies nourishment 
and is not (itself) exhausted. 

2. ' The site of a town may be changed, while 
the fashion of its wells undergoes no change :' — 
this is indicated by the central position of the strong 
lines (in the second and fifth places). 

'The drawing is nearly accomplished, but the 
rope has not yet reached the water of the well :' — 
its service has not yet been accomplished. 

'The bucket is broken:' — it is this that occa- 
sions evil. 

XLIX. I. In Ko (we see) water and fire extin- 
guishing each other; (we see also) two daughters 
dwelling together, but with their minds directed to 

remains master of himself, and pursues the proper end of principle 
settled in his mind. 

Why should the subject of Khw&n make speeches, be fond of 
arguing or pleading, — as the characters say, if we could translate 
them literally, ' setting a value on the mouth ?' The reply to this 
is found in the trigram denoting ' satisfaction,' or ' being pleased.' 
The party in the extremity of Khw^n yet wishes and tries to make 
men pleased with him. 

XLVIII. A^ng Khang-^jiSlng says : — ' K hdn, the upper trigram, 
represents water, and Sun, the lower, wood. This wood denotes 
the water-wheel or pulley with its bucket, which descends into the 
mouth of the spring, and brings the water up to the top.' This 
may be a correct explanation of the figure, though the reading of 
it from bottom to top seems at first to be strange. 

Paragraph a. That the fashion of the well does not undergo 
any (great) change is dwelt upon as illustrating the unchangeable- 
ness of the great principles of human natvue and of government. 
But that this trudi may be learned from the strong and central 
lines only produces a smile. So do the remarks on the other two 
sentences of the Thwan. 



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254 THE APPENDIXES. SECT. 11. 

different objects : — (on account of these things) it 
is called (the hexagram of) Change. 

2. ' It is believed in (only) after it has been 
accomplished:' — when the change has been made, 
faith is accorded to it 

(We have) cultivated intelligence (as the basis of) 
pleased satisfaction, (suggesting) ' g^eat progress and 
success,' coming from what is Correct. 

When change thus takes place in the proper way, 
' occasion for repentance disappears.' 

3. Heaven and earth undergo their changes, and 
the four seasons complete their functions. Thang 
changed the appointment (of the line of Hsi4 to 
the throne), and W6 (that of the line of Shang), in 
accordance with (the will of) Heaven, and in response 
to (the wishes of) men. Great indeed is what takes 
place in a time of change. 

L. I. In Ting we. have (symbolically) the figure 
of a caldron. (We see) the (symbol of) wood enter- 
ing into that of fire, which suggests the idea of cook- 

XLIX. Paragraph i. LI, the lower trigram, represents fire, and 
Tui, the upper, represents water. Water will extinguish fire, and 
fire again will dry up water. Each, to all appearance, produces a 
change in the other. Again, according to king Win's scheme of 
the trigrams, as shown on p. 33, and in Figure i, Plate III, LI is the 
second, and Tui the youngest daughter. Their wills are likely to 
differ in love and other things; but this symbolism does not so 
readily suggest the idea of change. 

2. The first sentence suggests how the dislike to change on the 
part of people generally is overcome. 

The second suggests how change proceeding firom intelligence 
and giving general satisfaction will be successfuL 

Paragraph 3 tells us how the greatest natural and the greatest 
political changes are equally successful and admirable when con- 
ducted aright. 



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HEX. 51. APPENDIX I. 255 

ing. The sages cooked their offerings in order to 
present them to God, and made great feasts to nourish 
their wise and able (ministers). 

2. We have the symbol of) flexible obedience, 
and that (which denotes) ears quick of hearing and 
eyes clear-sighted. (We have also) the weak (line) 
advanced and acting above, in the central place, and 
responded to by the strong (line below). All these 
things give the idea of ' gp-eat progjress and success.' 

LI. I. Klin (gives the intimation of) ease and 
development. 

2. 'When the (time of) movement (which it 
indicates) comes, (its subject) will be found looking 
out with apprehension :' — that feeling of dread leads 
to happiness. ' And yet smiling and talking cheer- 
fully:' — the issue (of his dread) is that he adopts 
(proper) laws (for his course). 

' The movement (like a crash of thunder) terrifies 

L. I. See the notes on the Text of the Thwan about the 
figure of a caldron in Ting. Its component trigrams are Sun 
representing wood, and LI representing fire ; which may very well 
suggest the idea of cooking. The last sentence of the paragraph 
is entirely after the style of ' the Great Symbolism.' The Khang- 
hst editors say that the distinction between 3ii>g ^^^ Ting appears 
here very clearly, the former relating to the nourishment of the 
people, and the latter to the nourishing men of worth. They add 
that the reality of the offerings to God is such nourishing. ' God ' 
is here Shang Tt, which Canon McClatchie translates * the First 
Emperor,' adding in a note, ' The Chinese Jupiter, the Emperor of 
gods and men I' 

2. The first sentence deduces the sentiment of the Thwan fi-om 
the attributes or virtues of the trigrams with considerable amplifica- 
tion of the virtue of LI. The second line of Li, as being divided, 
calls forth in other hexagrams the same notice as here. It is the 
most important line in the figure, and being responded to by the 
strong 2, gives an indication of the ' great progress and success.' 



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256 THE APPENDIXES. SECT. II. 

all within a hundred li : ' — it startles the distant and 
frightens the near. 

*He will be like the sinoere worshipper, who is not 
startled into letting go his ladle and oup of saoriflcial 
spirits:' — he makes his appearance, and maintains 
his ancestral temple and the altars of the spirits of 
the land and grain, as presiding at all sacrifices. 

LI I. I. Kin denotes stopping or resting; — 
resting when it is the time to rest, and acting when 
it is the time to act. When one's movements and 
restings all take place at the proper time for them, 
his way (of proceeding) is brilliant and intelligent. 

2. Resting in one's resting-point is resting in 
one's proper place. The upper and lower (lines of 
the hexagram) exactly correspond to each other, but 
are without any interaction; hence it is said that 
' (the subject of the hexagram) has no consciousness 
of self; that when he walks in his courtyard, he 
does not see (any of) the persons in it ; . and that 
there will be no error.' 



LI. Paragraph 1. See what is said on the Text. 

a. The explanations of the Thwan here are good; but in no 
way deduced from the figure. 

3. The portion of the text printed in a different type is supposed 
to have dropt out of the Chinese copies. The explanation of it 
that follows is based on WJln's view of £&a as representing the 
oldest son. See on the Text 

LII. I. The Khang-hst editors give their opinion that what is 
said in the first sentence of this paragraph, after the explanation of 
the name, illustrates the first sentence of the Thwan, and that the 
other sentence illustrates the rest of the Thwan. It may be so, 
but the whole of the Thwan appears in paragraph 2. 

2. The hexagram being made up of K&n repeated, lines i, 3, 3 
are of course the same as 4, 5, and 6. But it will be seen that 
there is not a proper correlation among them all. I do not see, 



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HEX. 54. APPENDIX I. 257 

LI II. I. The advance indicated by A'i en is (like) 
the marrying of a young lady which is attended 
by good fortune. 

2. (The lines) as they advance get into their 
correct places : — this indicates the achievements of 
a successful progp'ess. 

The advance is made according to correctness : — 
(the subject of the hexagram) might rectify his 
country. 

3. Among the places (of the hexagram) we see 
the strong undivided line in the centre. 

4. * In (the attributes of) restfulness and flexible 
penetration we have (the assurance of) an (onward) 
movement that is inexhaustible. 

LIV. I. By Kwei Mei (the marrying away of 
a younger sister) the great and righteous relation 
between heaven and earth (is suggested to us). If 
heaven and earth were to have no intercommunica- 
tion, things would not grow and flourish as they do. 
The marriage of a younger sister is the end (of 
her maidenhood) and the beginning (of her mother- 
hood). 

2. We have (in the hexagram the desire of) 

however, that this furnishes any ground for the entire obliviousness 
of self, which the Thwan makes out to be in the figure. 

LIII. The first sentence of paragraph 2 describes the lines from 
3 to 5 all getting into their proper places, as has been pointed out 
on the Text, and that sentence is symbolical of what is said in the 
second. ' The rectification of the country ' is the reality of ' the 
successful progress.' 

' The strong undivided line ' in paragraph 3 is the fifth of the 
figure. 

Out of rest comes movement to go on for an indefinite time, and 
be succeeded by rest again ; — as says paragraph 4. 
[16] S 



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258 THE APPENDIXES. SECT. 11. 

pleasure and, on the ground of that, movement 
following. The marrying away is of a younger 
sister. 

3. ' Any action will be evil :' — the places (of the 
lines) are not those appropriate to them. 

' It will be in no wise advantageous :' — the weak 
(third and fifth lines) are mounted on strong lines. 

LV. I. Fang has the signification of being 
great. It is made up of the trigrams (representing) 



LIV. I. Kwei Mei in this Appendix has the meaning simply 
of marriage, and for Mei we might substitute Nti, 'daughter' 
or ' young lady.' This appears from the writer's going on to point 
out, as elsewhere, the analogy between the growth of things in 
nature from the interaction of heaven and earth and the increase 
of mankind through marriage. He does this* with a delicate touch. 
There is no grossness in the original any more than there is in the 
translation. 

But how are we to reconcile this reference to the action of 
heaven and earth with the bad auspice of the Thwan? The 
Khang-hsi editors felt the pressure of this difficulty, and they adduce 
a similar inconsistency in the account of hexagram 44 in this 
treatise, adding, ' From this we may say that the interaction of 
the yin and yang cannot be dispensed with, but that we ought to 
be careful about it in the beginning in order to prevent mischief in 
the end. This is the doctrine of the Y!.' This is very well, but 
it is no solution of the difficulty. The editors could not admit 
that the author of the Appendix did not understand or did not 
deal fairly with the Test; for that author, they thought, was 
Confucius. 

2. The same editors say that paragraph 2 implies both that the 
desire for the marriage originated with the lady, and that she was 
aware that the gentleman was older than herself. 

3. The position of a divided line above an undivided is always 
represented as an evil omen ; it is difficult to understand why. 
There is less of an appearance of reason about it than in some 
other things which are said about the lines. The lines are where 
they cannot but be from the way in which the figures were formed. 



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HEX. 56- APPENDIX I. 259 

intelligence and movement directed by that intel- 
ligence. It is thus that it has that signification. 

2. * The king has reached the condition (denoted 
by F3.ng):' — he has still to make it gjreater. 

' There is no occasion to be anxious. Let him be 
as the sun at noon :' — it is for him to cause his light 
to shine on all under the sky. 

3. When the sun has reached the meridian height, it 
begjins to decline. When the moon has become full, 
it begins to wane. The (interaction of) heaven and 
earth is now vigorous and abundant, now dull and 
scanty, growing and diminishing according to the 
seasons. How much more must it be so with (the 
operations of) men! How much more also with 
the spiritual agency! 

LVI. I. ' LU indicates that there may be some 
small attainment and progress :' — the weak (line) 
occupies the central place in the outer (trigram), 
and is obedient to the strong (lines on either side 
of it). (We have also the attributes of quiet) 
resting closely attached to intelligence (in the com- 



LV. The Khang-hsl editors remark that paragraph i is not so 
much explaining the meaning of the name Fing, as accounting for 
the hexagram, composed of Lt and ATin, having such a meaning. 

Paragraph 3 seems rather contrary to the lesson of the hexa- 
gram. According to it, prosperity cannot be maintained, any more 
than we can have the other seasons without winter or perpetual 
day without night ; but the object of the essay is to exhort to the 
maintenance of prosperity. Is it the case that the rise of every 
commonwealth and cause must be followed by its decay and fall ? 
The mind refuses to admit the changes of the seasons, &c., as 
a true analogy for all moral and intellectual movements. See an 
important remark on the concluding sentence in the Introduction, 
PP- 34. 35- 

S 2 



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260 THE APPENDIXES. SECT. ir. 

ponent trigrams). Hence it is said, ' There may 
be some small attainment and progress. If the 
stranger or traveller be firm and correct as he ought 
to be, there will be good fortune.' 

2. Great is the time and great is the right course 
to be taken as intimated in LU ! 

LVII. I. The double Sun shows how, in accord- 
ance with it, (governmental) orders are reiterated. 

2. (We see that) the strong (fifth line) has pene- 
trated into the central and correct place, and the 
will (of its subject) is being carried into effect ; (we 
see also) the weak (first and fourth lines) both 
obedient to the strong lines (above them). It is 
hence said, 'There will be some little attainment 
and progress. There will be advantage in move- 
ment onward in whatever direction. It will be 
advantageous also to see the great man.' 



LVI. What is said in paragraph i is intended to explain the 
Thwan, and not to account for the meaning of the name La. It 
is assumed that Ltt means a stranger ; and the writer from the 
position of the fifth line, and from the attributes of the component 
trigrams, derives the ideas of humility, docility, a quiet restfulness, 
and intelligence as the characteristics proper to a stranger, and 
which are likely to lead to his attaining what be desires, and 
then advancing. 

LVII. I. The language of this paragraph has often occurred to 
me in reading commands and addresses issued by the emperors of 
China, such as the essays on the precepts in what is called the 
Sacred Edict, the reiteration employed in many of which is re- 
markable. 

Paragraph 2. The ' obedience of the weak lines to the strong 
ones ' grows, in a way not very perceptible, from the idea of the 
hexagram, and the quality of the trigram as denoting penetration 
and flexibility. 



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HEX. 59- APPENDIX I. 261 

LVIII. I. Tui has the meaning of pleased satis- 
faction. 

2. (We have) the strong (lines) in the centre, and 
the weak (lines) on the outer edge (of the two tri- 
grams), (indicating that) in pleasure what is most 
advantageous is the maintenance of firm correctness. 
Through this there will be found an accordance with 
(the will of) heaven, and a correspondence with (the 
feelings of) men. When (such) pleasure goes before 
the people, (and leads them on), they forget their 
toils ; when it animates them in encountering diffi- 
culties, they forget (the risk of) death. How great 
is (the power of) this pleased satisfaction, stimulating 
in such a way the people ! 

LIX. I. 'Hwan intimates that there will be 
progress and success :' — (we see) the strong line (in 
the second place) of the lower trigram, and not 
suffering any extinction there ; and (also) the 
weak line occupying its place in the outer trigram, 
and uniting (its action) with that of the line above. 

2. ' The king goes to his ancestral temple :' — the 
king's (mind) is without any deflection. 

3. 'It will be advantageous to cross the great 
stream:' — (the subject of the hexagram) rides in 



LVIII. The feeling of pleasure going before the people and 
leading them on to endure toil and encounter death must be sup- 
posed to be produced in them by the example and lessons of their 
ruler. LU Faft-hsien paraphrases this portion of the text thus : — 
'When the sage with this precedes them, he can make them 
endure toil without any wish to decline it, and go with him into 
diflBculty and danger without their having any fear.' I think this 
was intended to be the teaching of the hexagram, but the positive 
expression of it is hardly discernible. 



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262 THE APPENDIXES, SECT. 11. 

(a vessel of) wood (over water), and will do so with 
success. 

LX. I. '^ieh intimates progress and attain- 
ment:' — the strong and weak (lines) are equally 
divided, and the strong lines occupy the central 
places. 

2. 'If the regulations (which ATieh prescribes) 
be severe and difficult, they cannot be perma- 
nent:' — its course (of action) will in that case come 
to ah end. 

3. (We have the feeling of) pleasure and satis- 
faction directing the course amidst peril. (We have) 
all regulations controlled (by authority) in its proper 
place. (We have) free action proceeding from the 
central and correct position. 

4. Heaven and earth observe their regular terms, 
and we have the four seasons complete. (If rulers) 
frame their measures according to (the due) regula- 
tions, the resources (of the state) suffer no injury, 
and the people receive no hurt. 

LIX. I. This paragraph has been partially anticipated in the 
notes on the Thwan. The second line is said to suflfer'no 
extinction,' because the lower trigram is that of peril. The Khang- 
hsl editors say that the former part of this paragraph shows how 
the root of the work of the hexagram is strengthened, and the 
latter part how the execution of that work is secured. 

The conclusion of paragraph 2 is, literally, ' The king indeed is 
in the middle.' This does not mean, as some say, that the king is 
in the middle of the temple, but that his mind or heart is exactly 
set on the central truth of what is right and good. 

The upper trigram Sun represents both wind and wood. To 
explain the meaning of Hwan, the significance of wind is taken ; 
the writer here seizes on that of wood, as furnishing materials for 
a boat in which the great stream can be crossed. 

LX. Paragraph i. See what is said on the Text of the Thwan. 



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HEX. 6l. APPENDIX I. 263 

LXI. I. In Aung FA we have the (two) weak 
lines in the innermost part (of the figure), and 
strong lines occupying the central places (in the 
trigrams). (We have the attributes) of pleased 
satisfaction and flexible penetration. Sincerity (thus 
symboUed) will transform a country. 

2. ' Pigs and fish (are moved), and there will be 
good fortune:' — sincerity reaches to (and affects 
even) pigs and fishes. 

' There will be advantage in crossing the great 
stream :' — (we see in the figure) one riding on (the 
emblem of) wood, which forms an empty boat 

3. In (the exercise of the virtue denoted by) 
A'ung Fft, (it is said that) 'there will be advantage 
in being firm and correct:' — in that virtue indeed 
we have the response (of man) to Heaven. 

' Its course will come to an end' is the opposite of the intima- 
tion in j?ieh of progress and attainment 

In paragraph 3 the writer returns to this intimation of the 
figure : — by the attributes of the trigrams ; by the appropriate 
positions of lines 4 and 5 ; and by the central and correct place 
of 5. 

Paragraph 4 illustrates the importance of doing things according 
to rule by reference to the operations of nature and the enactments 
and institutions of sage rulers. 

LXI. I. The structure of the lineal figure which is here insisted 
on has been pointed out in explaining the Thwan. On what is 
further said as to the attributes of the trigrams and their effect, 
JKing-jze observes: — 'We have in the sincerity shown in the 
upper trigram superiors condescending to those below them in 
accordance with their peculiarities, and we have in that of the 
lower those below delighted to follow their superiors. The com- 
bination of these two things leads to the transformation of the 
country and state.' 

Paragraph 2. The two divided lines in the middle of the figure 
are supposed to give the semblance of an empty boat, and an 



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264 THE APPENDIXES. SECT. II. 

LXII. 1. In Hsiio Kwo (we see) the small 
(lines) exceeding the others, and (giving the intima- 
tion of) progress and attainment. 

2. Such ' exceeding, in order to its being advanta- 
geous, must be associated with firmness and correct- 
ness:' — that is, it must take place (only) according 
to (the requirements of) the time. 

3. The weak (lines) are in the central places, and 
hence (it is said that what the name denotes) may 
be done in small affairs, and there will be good 
fortune., 

4. Of the strong (lines one) is not in its proper 
place, and (the other) is not central, hence it is said 
that (what the name denotes) ' should not be done 
in great affairs.' 

5. (In the hexagram) we have 'the symbol of 
a bird on the wing, and of the notes that come down 
from such a bird, for which it is better to descend 
than to ascend, thereby leading to great good 
fortune:' — to ascend is contrary to what is reason- 
able in the case, while to descend is natural and 
right 



empty boat, it is said (with doubtful truth), is not liable to be upset 
The trigram Sun symbolises both wind and wood. 

A good commentary on paragraph 3 is supplied in many pas- 
sages of ' the Doctrine of the Mean,' e. g. chap. 20. 1 8 : — ' Sincerity 
is the way of Heaven. The attainment of sincerity is the way 
of men.' 

LXII. Paragraph i. That the small lines exceed the others 
appears at a glance. The intimation of progress and attain- 
ment is less clear. Compare the first paragraph of Appendix I to 
hexagram 33. 

' The requirements of the time ' in paragraph 2 cannot make 



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HEX. 64. APPENDIX I. 265 

LXIII. I. 'A'l 3i intimates progress and suc- 
cess:' — in small matters, that is, there will be that 
progress and success. 

2. 'There will be advantage in being firm and 
correct:' — the strong and weak (lines) are correctly- 
arranged, each in its appropriate place. 

3. 'There has been good fortune in the begin- 
ning:' — the weak (second line) is in the centre. 

4. 'In the end' there is a cessation (of effort), 
and 'disorder arises:' — the course (that led to rule 
and order) is (now) exhausted. 

LXIV. I. 'Wei 3l intimates progress and suc- 
cess (in the circumstances which it implies):' — the 
weak (fifth) line is in the centre. 

2. ' The young fox has nearly crossed the 
stream :' — but he has not yet escaped from the 
midst (of the danger and calamity). 



right wrong or wrong right ; but they may modify the conventional 
course to be taken in any particular case. 

It is easy to explain paragraphs 3 and 4, but what is said in them 
carries no conviction to the mind. 

The sentiment of paragraph 5 is good, apart from the symbolism, 
which is only perplexing. 

LXIII. For paragraphs i and 2, see the note on the Text of the 
Thwan. 

It is difficult to see the concatenation in paragraph 3 between 
the sentiment of the Thwan and the nature of the second line. 
The Khang-hst editors compare this hexagram and the next with 
II and 12, observing that the goodness of ThSi (11) is concen- 
trated, as here, in the second line. 

The sentiment of paragraph 4 is that which we have often met 
with, — that thmgs move on with a constant process of change. 
Disorder succeeds to order, and again order to disorder. 



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266 THE APPENDIXES. SECT. II. 

' Its tail gets immersed. There will be no 
advantage in any way:' — there is not at the end 
a continuance (of the purpose) at the beginning. 
Although the places (of the different lines) are not 
those appropriate to them, yet a strong (line) and 
a weak (line always) respond to each other. 



LXIV. Paragraph i. The indication is derived from the fifth 
line, divided, which is in the ruler's place. It occupies a strong 
place, has for its correlate the strong a, and is itself in the centre of 
the yin trigram LI. 

Paragraph 2. Line 2 represents 'the young fox.' A strong 
line in the midst of the trigram of peril, its subject will be restless ; 
and responding to the ruler in 5, he will be forward and incautious 
in taking action. The issue will be evil, and the latter end different 
from the beginning. What is said in the last sentence shows 
further how Wei Qt indicates progress. 



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APPENDIX II. 

Treatise ou_tlj£_Symbplism o£.the Hexagrams, and of the duke t 
of iiTSu's Explanations of the several Lines. 

Section I. 

I. Heaven, in its motion, (gives the idea of) 
strength. The superior man, in accordance with 
this, nerves himself to ceaseless activity. 

1. 'The dragon lies hid in the deep; — it is not 
the time for active doing :' — (this appears from) the 
strong and undivided line's being in the lowest place. 

2. 'The dragon appears in the field :' — the diffu- 
sion of virtuous influence has been wide. 

3. 'Active and vigilant all the day :' — (this refers 
to) the treading of the (proper) path over and over 
again. 

4. 'He seems to be leaping up, but is still in the 
deep :' — if he advance, there will be no error. 

5. ' The dragon is on the wing in the sky:' — the 
great man rouses himself to his work. 

6. 'The dragon exceeds the proper limits; — 
there will be occasion for repentance:' — a state of 
fulness, that is, should not be indulged in long. 

7. 'The same undivided line is used' (in all the 
places of this hexagram), but the attribute of 
heaven (thereby denoted) should not (always) take 
the foremost place. 

Like the Text under each hexagram, what is said under each in 
this treatise on its symbolism is divided into two portions. The 



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268 THE APPENDIXES. SECT.!. 

II. The (capacity and sustaining) power of the 
earth is what is denoted by KhwSn. The superior 
man, in accordance with this, with his large virtue 
supports (men and) things. 

1. 'He is treading on hoarfrost; — the strong 
ice will come (by and by):' — the cold (air) has begun 
to take form. Allow it to go on quietly according to 
its nature, and (the hoarfrost) will come to strong ice. 

2. The movement indicated by the second line, 
divided, is 'from the straight (line) to the square.' 
'(Its operation), without repeated effort, in every 
way advantageous,' shows the brilliant result of the 
way of earth. 

3. ' He keeps his excellence under restraint, but 
firmly maintains it :' — at the proper time he will 
manifest it * He may have occasion to engage in 
the king's service:' — great is the glory of his 
wisdom. 

first is called ' the Great Symbolism,' and is occupied with the tri- 
grammatic composition of the hexagram, to the statement of which 
is always subjoined an exhibition of the use which should be, or has 
been, made of the lesson suggested by the meaning of the whole 
figure in the administration of affairs, or in self-government. If 
the treatise be rightly ascribed to Confucius, this practical applica- 
tion of the teaching of the symbols is eminently characteristic of 
his method in inculcating truth and duty ; though we often find it 
difficult to trace the connexion between his premiss and conclusion. 
This portion of the treatise will be separated by a double space 
from what follows, — ' the Lesser Symbolism,' in the explanations of 
the several lines. 

I. ATAien is formed by redoubling the trigram of the same 
name. In the case of other hexagrams of similar formation, the 
repetition of the trigram is pointed out. That is not done here, 
according to Kti Hst, ' because there is but one heaven.' But the 
motion of heaven is a complete revolution every day, resumed 
again the next ; so moves ' the unwearied sun from day to day/ 
making it a good symbol of renewed, untiring effort 



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HEX. 2. APPENDIX II. 269 

4. 'A sack tied up; — there will be no error:' — 
this shows how, through carefulness, no injury will 
be received. 

5. ' The yellow lower-garment ; — there will be 
great good fortune:' — this follows from that orna- 
mental (colour's) being in the right and central place. 

6. ' The dragons fight in the wild : ' — the (on- 
ward) course (indicated by KhwSn) is pursued to 
extremity. 

7. '(The lines are all weak and divided, as 
appears from) the use of the number six:' — but 
(those who are thus represented) becoming per- 
petually correct and firm, there will thereby be a 
great consummation. 

II. Khwin is formed by redoubling the trigram of the same 
name and having ' the earth for its symbol.' As in the former 
hexagram, the repetition is emphatic, not otherwise affecting the 
meaning of the hexagram. ' As there is but one heaven,' says 
J^d Hst, ' so there is but one earth.' The first part of ' the Great 
Symbolism' appears in Canon McClatchie's version as — 'KhwEn 
is the generative part of earth.' By ' generative part' he probably 
means ' the productive or prolific faculty.' If he mean anything 
else, there comes out a conclusion antagonistic to his own view of 
the ' mythology' of the Yt. The character Sht, which he trans- 
lates by ' generative part,' is defined in Dr. Williams' dictionary as 
' the virility of males.' Such is the special significance of it. If it 
were so used here, the earth would be masculine. 

It is difiScult to say exactly what the writer meant by — ' The 
superior man, in accordance with this, and with his large nature, 
supports (men and) things.' Lin Hst-yflan (Ming dynasty) says : — 
' The superior man, in his single person, sustains the burden of all 
under the sky. The common people depend on him for their rest 
and enjoyment Birds and beasts and creeping things, and the 
tribes of the vegetable kingdom, depend on him for the fulfilment 
of their destined being. If he be of a narrow mind and cold virtue, 
how can he help them ? Their hope in him would be in vain.* 

' The Smaller Symbolism ' is sufficiently dealt with in the notes 
on the Text. 



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270 



THE APPENDIXES. SECT. I. 



III. (The trigram representing) clouds and (that 
representing) thunder form A'un. The superior 
man, in accordance with this, (adjusts his measures 
of government) as in sorting the threads of the warp 
and woof. 

1. Ahhough 'there is a difficulty in advancing,' 
the mind (of the subject of the line) is set on doing 
what is correct While noble, he humbles himself to 
the mean, and g^ndly gains the people. 

2. The difficulty (to the subject of) the second 
line, divided, arises from its place over the un- 
divided line below it. 'The union and children 
after ten years' shows things resuming their regular 
course. 

3. ' One pursues the deer without the (guidance 
of the) forester:' — (he does so) in (his eagerness 
to) follow the game. ' The superior man g^ves up 
the chase, (knowing that) if he go forward he will 
regret it :' — he would be reduced to extremity. 

4. ' Going forward after such a search (for a 
helper)' shows intelligence. 

5. ' Difficulty is experienced (by the subject of 
the fifth line) in bestowing his rich favours :' — the 
extent to which they reach will not yet be con- 
spicuous. 

6. 'He weeps tears of blood in streams:' — how 
can the state (thus emblemed) continue long ? 

III. Khan represents water, especially in the form of rain. 
Here its symbol is a cloud. The whole hexagram seems to place 
us in the atmosphere of a thunderous sky overhung with thick and 
gloomy clouds, when we feel oppressed and distressed. This is 
not a bad emblem of the political state in the mind of the writer. 
When the thunder has pealed, and the clouds have discharged their 



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HK. 4. APPENDIX 11. 271 

IV. (The trigram representing) a mountain, and 
beneath it that for a spring issuing forth form M3,ng. 
The superior man, in accordance with this, strives 
to be resolute in his conduct and nourishes his 
virtue. 

1. 'It will be advantageous to use punishment:' — 
the object being to bring under the influence of 
correcting law. 

2. 'A son able to (sustain the burden of) his 
family:' — as appears from the reciprocation between 
this strong line and the weak (fifth line). 

3. 'A woman (such as is here represented) should 
not be taken in marriage:' — her conduct is not 
agreeable to what is right. 

4. 'The regret arising from ignorance bound in 
chains ' is due to the special distance of (the subject 
of this line) from the solidity (shown in lines 2 and 6). 

5. 'The good fortune belonging to the simple lad 
without experience' comes from his docility going 
on to humility. 

burden of rain, the atmosphere is cleared, and there is a feeling of 
relief. But I fail again to discern clearly the connexion between 
the symbolism and the lesson about the superior man's admini- 
stration of affairs. 

The subject of the first Une of the Smaller Symbolism is repre- 
sented by the undivided line, and therefore is firm and correct. 
He is noble, but his place is below the divided lines, symbols of 
the weak and mean (see Appendix IV, i, i). 

Line 2. 'Things resume their regular course:' — the subject is 
now at liberty to seek a union with the subject of line 5, according 
to the rules of the symbolism. Lines i and 4, 2 and 5, 3 and 6, 
the corresponding lines of the trigrams, are correlates. 

The subject of line 4 naturally recurs to the correlate in line i. 
He is the natural helper in the case, and he has the ability. 



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272 THE APPENDIXES. SECT. I. 

6. 'Advantage will come from warding off in- 
jury:' — (the subject of this line) above and (the 
ignorant) below, all do and are done to in accord- 
ance with their nature. 

V. (The trigram for) clouds ascending over that 

IV. 'The spring here issuing forth' is diflferent from the defile 
with a stream in it, in the explanation of the Th wan; different 
moreover from ' rain,' mentioned also as the phenomenon which is 
the natural symbol of Khan. The presence of water, however, is 
common to the three. But the water of the spring, or of the 
stream, would flow away from the hill, and not be stopped by it ; 
as an emblem therefore of the ignorance and inexperience denoted 
by Ming it is not suitable. K^ Hst says that 'the water of a 
spring is sure to move on and gradually advance.' This may serve 
as a symbol of the general process and progress of education, 
though it gives no account of the symbolism of the hill. It serves 
also to explain in part the transition of the writer to the subject of 
the superior man, and his dealing apparently with himself. 

Does line i set forth the use of punishment as the dernier resort, 
undesirable, but possibly unavoidable, to bring men in subjection 
to law? 

The force of line 2 comes out fully in the Thwan. 

That a woman such as is represented in line 3 should not be 
taken in marriage is clear enough ; but I do not see the bearing of 
the illustration on the proper lesson in the hexagram. 

Line 3 separates 4 from 2, and 5 separates it from 6. Weak in 
itself, it is farther removed than any other from the two strong lines 
in the hexagram, and is represented as ' cribbed' in its ignorance. 

The fifth is the most honourable place in the figure, and here is 
occupied by a weak line. This looks, however, to the occupant of 
line 2, less honourable than itself, and is marked by the two attri- 
butes that are named. Compare what is said on line 2. 

A strong line in the topmost place must represent, according -to 
the scheme of the hexagram, one who uses force in the cause of 
education ; but the force is put forth not on the ignorant, but on 
those who would keep them ignorant, or increase their ignorance. 
The subject of this line, therefore, acts according to his nature, 
and the subjects of all the weak lines below are cared for as is best 
for them. 



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HEX. 5. APPENDIX II. 273 

for the sky forms HsU. The superior man, in 
accordance with this, eats and drinks, feasts and 
enjoys himself (as if there were nothing else to 
employ him). 

1. 'He is waiting in the (distant) border:' — he 
makes no movement to encounter rashly the diffi- 
culties (of the situation). ' It will be advantageous 
for him constantly to maintain (the purpose thus 
shown), in which case there will be no error :' — he 
will not fail to pursue that regular course. 

2. 'He is waiting on the sand:' — he occupies his 
position in the centre with a generous forbearance. 
Though ' he suffer the small injury of being spoken 
(against),' he will bring things to a good issue. 

3. 'He is waiting in the mud :' — calamity is (close 
at hand, and as it were) in the outer (trigram). ' He 
himself invites the approach of injury:' — if he be 
reverent and careful, he will not be worsted. 

4. 'He is waiting in (the place of) blood:' — he 
accommodates himself (to the circumstances of the 
time), and hearkens to (its requirements). 

5. ' The appliances of a feast, and the good for- 
tune through being firm and correct,' are indicated 
by (the position in) the central and correct place. 

6. 'Guests come unurged (to give their help), and 
if (the subject of the line) receive them respectfully, 
there will be good fortune in the end:' — though the 
occupant and the place are not suited to each other, 
there has been no great failure (in what has been 
done). 

V. ' The cloud,' it is said, ' that has risen to the top of the sky, 
has nothing more to do till it is called on, in the harmony of heaven 
[16] T 



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274 THE APPENDIXES. spCT. I. 

VI. (The trigram representing) heaven and (that 
representing) water, moving away from each other, 
form Sung. The superior man, in accordance with 
this, in the transaction of affairs takes good counsel 
about his first steps. 

1. 'He does not perpetuate the matter about 
which (the contention is):' — contention should not 
be prolonged. Although ' he may suffer the small 
(injury) of being spoken agjainst,' his argument is 
clear. 

2. ' He is unequal to the contention ; he retires 
and keeps concealed, stealthily withdrawing from 
it;' — for him from his lower place to contend with 
(the stronger one) above, would be to (invite) cala- 
mity, as if he brought it with his hand to himself. 

3. ' He confines himself to the support assigned 

and earth, to discharge its store of rain.' This gives to the writer 
the idea of waiting ; and the superior man is supposed to be taught 
by this symbolism to enjoy his idle time, while he is waiting for the 
approach of danger and occasion for action. 

'The regular course' of the subject of line i seems to be the 
determination to wait, at a distance from danger, the proper time 
to act. 

The subject of line 2, which is undivided and in the centre, 
is thereby shown to be possessed of a large and generous for- 
bearance. 

The recognition of the circumstances of the time, and hearken- 
ing to its requirements, explain, in paragraph 4, ' the retreat from 
the cavern,' which is not here repeated from the Text The line 
being weak and divided, its subject knows his own incompetency, 
and takes this prudent step. 

Kti says that he does not understand what is said under line 6, — 
that the occupant and the place are not suited to each other, for 
the yin line being in the sixth, an even place, seems to be where it 
ought to be. We are only surprised that cases of inconsistency in 
these explanations are not more mmierous. 



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HEX. 7. APPENDIX IL 275 

to him of old:* — (thus) following those above him, 
he will have good fortune. 

4. 'He returns to (the study of Heaven's) ordi- 
nances, changes (his wish to contend), and rests in 
being firm and correct:' — ^he does not fail (in doing 
what is right). 

5. 'He contends; — and with great fortune:' — 
this is shown by his holding the due mean and 
being in the correct place. 

6. 'He receives the robe through his conten- 
tion:' — but still he is not deserving of respect. 

VII. (The trigram representing) the earth and in 
the midst of it that representing water, form Sze. 
The superior man, in accordance with this, nourishes 
and educates the people, and collects (from among 
them) the multitudes (of the hosts). 

I. 'The host goes forth according to the rules 
(for) such a movement :' — if those rules be not ob- 
served, there will be evil. 

VI. The symbolism here is different from that in the Text of 
the Thwan. We have the visible sky ascending and water or rain 
descending, which indicate, one hardly sees how, opposition and 
contention. The lesson as to the coarse of the superior man is a 
good one, but might with equal propriety be deduced from many 
other hexagrams. 

Hsiang An-shih (Stmg dynasty) says that the first part of para- 
graph 2 is all to be taken as the language of the duke of A'iu, the 
characters being varied ; the rest is the remark of the writer of this 
treatise. 

It is observed that the returning to (the study of Heaven's) ordi- 
nances, and changing the wish to contend, in paragraph 4, are 
not two things, but only one; 'the ordinances (ming) meaning 
what is right in principle.' The wish to contend was wrong in 
principle, and is now abandoned. 

'The robe' takes the place of 'the leathern sash' in paragraph 6; 
but the sash was merely an appendage of the robe. 

T 2 



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2 76 THE APPENDIXES. SECT. I. 

2. ' He is in the midst of the host, and there will 
be good fortune:' — he has received the favour of 
Heaven. 'The king has thrice conveyed to him the 
orders (of) his favour:' — (the king) cherishes the 
myriad regions in his heart 

3. 'The host with the possibility of its having 
many idle leaders : ' — great will be its want of 
success. 

4. 'The host is in retreat; but there is no error:' 
— there has been no failure in the regular course. 

5. 'The oldest son leads the host:' — its move- 
ments are directed by him in accordance with his 
position in the centre. 'Younger men idly occupy 
their positions;* — the employment of such men is 
improper. 

6. 'The great ruler delivers his charges:' — 
thereby he rightly apportions merit. 'Small men 
should not be employed:' — they are sure to throw 
the states into confusion. 

VII. ' The Great Symbolism ' here is not more satisfactory than 
in other paragraphs of it which have already come before us. Kti 
Hst says : — ' As the water is not outside the earth, so soldiers are not 
outside the people. Therefore if (a ruler) be able to nourish the 
people, he can get the multitudes (of his hosts).' Is the meaning 
this, — that originally the people and soldiers are one body ; that 
a portion of the people are taken out from among the mass, as 
occasion requires, to do the duty of soldiers; and that the nourish- 
ment and education of the people is the best way to have good 
soldiers ready for use on any emergency? Compare the saying 
of Confucius in Analects XIII, xxx. 

What is said on the second line, that the general ' has received 
the favour of Heaven,' refers of course to the entire confidence 
reposed in him by the ruler or king, the subject of line 5. In this 
way Thien here is equal to Thien wang, so frequent in the 
'Spring and Autumn,' and meaning — 'King by the grace of 



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HEX. 8. APPENDIX II. 277 

VIII. (The trigram representing) the earth, and 
over it (that representing) water, form Pi. The 
ancient kings, in accordance with this, established 
the various states and maintained an affectionate 
relation to their princes. 

1. From 'the seeking union with its object' 
shown in the first line, divided, there will be other 
advantages. 

2. 'The movement towards union and attachment 
proceeds from the inward (mind):' — (the party con- 
cerned) does not fail in what is proper to himself. 

3. ' Union is sought with such as ought not to be 
associated with:' — but will not injury be the result ? 

4. ' Union is sought (by the party intended here) 
with one beyond himself, and (in this case) with a 
worthy object:' — ^he is following (the ruler) above 
him. 

5. 'The good fortune belonging to the most illus- 
trious instance of seeking union and attachment' 
appears in the correct and central position (of the 
fifth line, undivided). 

(The king's) neglecting (the animals) confronting 
him (and then fleeing), and (only) taking those who 
present themselves as it were obediently, is seen in 

Heaven.' But the great powers given to the general are from the 
king's wish through him to promote the good of all the nation. 

In military operations there must be one ruling will and mind. 
A divided authority is sure to be a failure. But ' a retreat ' is no 
evidence of failure in a campaign. When advance would lead 
to disaster, retreat is the regular course to pursue. 

Other ways can be found to reward small men. They ought 
not to be placed in situations where the condition of others will 
depend on them. 



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278 THE APPENDIXES. SICT. I. 

'his allowing the escape of those in front of him.' 
'That the people of his towns do not warn one 
another (to prevent such escape),' shows how he, in 
his high eminence, has made them pursue the due 
course. 

6. ' He seeks union and attachment without taking 
the first (step to such an end) :' — there is no possi- 
bility of a (good) issue. 

IX. (The trigram representing) the sky, and that 
representing wind moving above it, form Hsiio 
Khiii. The superior man, in accordance with this, 
adorns the outward manifestation of his virtue. 

1. 'He returns and pursues his own path :' — it is 
right that there should be good fortuhe. 

2. ' By the attraction (of the subject of the former 
line) he returns (to its own course),' and is in the 
central place : — neither will he err in what is due 
from him. 

3. ' Husband and wife look on each other with 
averted eyes :* — (the subject of line three is like a 

VIII. ' Water upon the face of the earth ' is supposed to be an 
emblem of close union. Of the mere fact of close union this may 
be accepted as a fair illustration, and of its completeness. Some 
other symbolism might set forth better the tendency of parties to 
union, and their seeking it. What is said about the ancient kings 
is more pertinent to the meaning of the hexagram than in many 
other applications in ' the Great Symbolism.' The king appears in 
it not only as the centre, but as the cause, of union. 

' The other advantages ' under line i refer to all the benefits that 
will result from sincerity and union, which are in themselves good. 

It is hardly possible to make what is said under line 5, on the 
royal huntings, agree with the account of them given on the same 
line in the duke of A'du's text. I suspect that there is some 
corruption of the text. The two verbs ' neglecting ' and ' taking ' 
seem to be used, the one for the other. 



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HEX. 9- APPENDIX 11. 279 

husband who) cannot maintain correctly his relations 
with his wife. 

4. ' He is possessed of sincerity ; his (ground for) 
apprehension is dismissed :' — (the subjects of the 
lines) above agree in aim with him. 

5. ' He is possessed of sincerity, and draws others 
to unite with him :' — he does not use only his own 
rich resources. 

6. ' The rain has fallen and (the onward progress) 
is stayed:' — the power (denoted in the figure) has 
accumulated to the full. ' If the superior man prose- 
cute his measures, there will be evil :' — he will find 
himself obstructed. 



IX. The suitability of the symbolism here is made all to turn on 
the wind. ' Wind,' says IlH, ' is simply the air, without solid sub- 
stance ; it can restrain, but not for long.' The wind moves in the 
sky for a time, and then ceases. The process of thought from the 
symbol to the lesson is not easily traced. Is it meant to say that 
virtue manifesting itself outwardly — in the carriage and speech — is, 
however good, but a small matter, admirable in an officer, or even 
a feudal lord, but that we look for more in a king, the Head of a 
nation ? 

iiTAing-jze calls attention to the addition to the duke of A'Su's 
explanation in the notice on line 2, that < it is in the central place,' 
adding that this explains, how the subject of the line restrains him- 
self, and does not go beyond what is due from him. 

Only half of the symbolism in the Text of line 3 is taken up 
here. Line i, it is said, is far from line 4, the mauvais sujet of 
the hexagram, and little affected by it; line 2 is nearer, but, being in 
the centre, suffers little ; line 3 is close on it, and, not being in the 
centre, comes under its evil influence ; while line 6 gives no help. 

Line 4 is weak, and in an even place, appropriate to it ; and 
hence its subject is said to ' have sincerity.' Being the first line, 
moreover, of Sun, the two others take their character from it. 

Line 5, being undivided, and occupying the most important place 
in the figure, according to the value usually attached to the lines, is 



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28o THE APPENDIXES, SECT. I. 

X. (The trigfram representing) the sky above, and 
below it (that representing the waters of) a marsh, 
form Lt. The superior man, in accordance with 
this, discriminates between high and low, and g^ves 
settlement to the aims of the people. 

1. 'He treads his accustomed path and goes for- 
ward:' — singly and exclusively he carries out his 
(long-cherished) wishes. 

2. ' A quiet and solitary man, to whom, being firm 
and correct, there will be good fortune :' — holding 
the due mean, he will not allow himself to be thrown 
into disorder. 

3. 'A one-eyed man (who thinks that he) can 
see:' — he is not fit to see clearly. 'A lame man 
(who thinks that he can) tread well : ' — one cannot 
walk along with him. ' The ill fortune of being 
bitten' arises from the place not being the proper 
one for him. ' A (mere) bravo acting the part of a 
great ruler :' — this is owing to his aims being (too) 
violent 

4. ' He becomes full of apprehensive caution, and 
in the end there will be good fortune:' — his aim 
takes effect, 

5. ' He treads resolutely; and though he be firm 
and correct, there is peril :' — this is due to his being 
in the position that is correct and appropriate to him, 

said ' to be rich,' or ' to have rich resources.' With these he unites 
with the ' subjects ' of line 4 to effect their common object 

Under line 6 we are told that the restraint is at its height, and 
the restrained should keep still for a time. The paragraph is 
metrical. The paragraphs to lines i, 2, 3, all rhyme together. So 
do those to 4, 5 ; and now under 6, we have a couplet : — 
'Lol rain, lol rest, the power is full! 
Good man! hold hard. Obstructions rule.' 



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HEX. II. 



APPENDIX II. 281 



6. ' There will be great good fortune,' and that 
in the occupancy of the topmost line : — this is great 
matter for congratulation. 

XI. (The trig^ms for) heaven and earth in com- 
munication together form Thii. The (sage) sove- 
reign, in harmony with this, fashions and completes 
(his regulations) after the courses of heaven and 
earth, and assists the application of the adaptations 
furnished by them, — in order to benefit the people. 

1. ' The good fortune of advance, (as suggested 
by the emblem of) the grass pulled up,' arises from 
the will (of the party intended) being set on what is 
external to himself 

2. 'He bears with the uncultivated, and proves 
himself acting in accordance with the due mean:' — 
for (his intelligence is) bright and (his capacity is) 
great 

3. 'There is no going away so that there shall 
not be a return' refers to this as the point where 
the interaction of heaven and earth takes place. 

4. 'He comes fluttering (down), not relying on 



X. ' The sky above and a marsh lying below it is true,' says 
iTA&ng-jze, ' in nature and reason ; and so should be the rules of 
propriety on which men tread.' This symbolism is far-fetched; 
and so is the application of it, if in any ^way drawn from it. But it 
is true that the members of a community or nation must keep their 
several places and duties in order to its being in a state of good 
order. 

For lines i, 3, 3, and 4, see notes on the Text 

If we might translate the conclusion of what is said on line 5, 
by — 'in the position that is correctly appropriate to him,' the 
meaning would be more clear, though still the assumption which 
I have pointed out on the Text would underlie the statement ; and 
as evidently as there, what is said under line 6 is but a truism. 



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282 THE APPENDIXES. SECT. r. 

his own rich resources :' — both he and his neigh- 
bours are out of their real (place where they are). 
' They have not received warning, but (come) in the 
sincerity (of their hearts) :' — this is what they have 
desired in the core of their hearts. 

5. ' By such a course there is happiness, and there 
will be great good fortune :' — (the subject of the 
line) employs the virtue proper to his central posi- 
tion to carry his wishes into effect. 

6. ' The city wall returned back into the moat ' 
shows how the (governmental) orders have (long) 
been in disorder. 

XII. (The trigp:ams of) heaven and earth, not in 
intercommunication, form Phi. The superior man, 
in accordance with this, restrains (the manifestation) 
of) his virtue, and avoids the calamities (that threaten 
him). There is no opportunity of conferring on him 
the glory of emolument. 



XI. It is di£5cult to translate the application of ' the Great Sym- 
bolism' here, so that it shall be intelligible to a reader. JT^i&ng-jze 
says : — 'A mler should frame his laws and regulations so that the 
people may avail themselves of the seasons of heaven, and of the 
advantages afforded by the earth, assisting their transforming and 
nourishing services, and completing their abundant and admirable 
benefits. Thus the breath of spring, calling forth all vegetable life, 
gives the law for sowing and planting; the breath of autumn, 
completing and solidifying all things, gives the law for ingathering 
and storing,' &c. 

The subject of line i has ' his will on what is external to him- 
self :' — he is bent on going forward. 

Ikd Hsi explains what is said on paragraph 4, that the upper 
lines ' are out of their real place where they are,' or, literally, ' have 
lost their substantiality,' by the remark that ' their proper place, as 
being weak lines, is below.' The editors of the imperial edition 
prefer another explanation, on which I need not enter. 



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BKX. 13. APPENDIX II. 283 

1. 'The good fortune through firm goodness, 
(suggested by) the pulling up of the grass,' arises 
from the will (of the parties intended) being bent on 
(serving) the ruler. 

2. ' The great man, comporting himself as the 
distress and obstruction require, will have success:' — 
he does not allow himself to be disordered by the 
herd (of small men). 

3. That 'his shame is folded in his breast' is owing 
to the inappropriateness of his position. 

4. ' He acts in accordance with the ordination (of 
Heaven), and commits no error:' — the purpose of 
his mind can be carried into effect. 

5. 'The good fortune of the great man' arises 
from the correctness of his position. 

6. ' The distress and obstruction having reached 
its end, it is overthrown and removed :' — how could 
it be prolonged ? 

XII. 'The Great Symbolism ' here is suflSciently explained in the 
first Appendix. The application, however, is here again difficult, 
though we may try to find in it a particular instance of the inter- 
ruption of communication, — in great merit not meeting with its 
reward. 

The subject of the first line is one of the cluster of small men 
who are able to change their mind, and set their hearts to love 
their ruler. 

The subject of the second line is a 'great man,' and occupies 
the place in the centre. 

The subject of the third line is weak, and does not occupy his 
correct position ; — hence the symbolism. 

The fourth line is near the fifth, the ruler's place. It is a strong 
line in an even place ; but acting according to the will of Heaven 
or of the ruler, its subject gets his purpose carried out 

The subject of the fifth line is the great man, the ruler in his 
right place. Hence he is successful, and in the last line, we see 



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284 THE APPENDIXES. SECT. I. 

XIII. (The trig^ms for) heaven and fire form 
Thung Z3.n. The superior man, in accordance with 
this), distinguishes things according to their kinds 
and classes. 

1. ' (The representative of) the union of men is 
just issuing from his gate :' — ^who will blame him ? 

2. ' (The representative of) the union of men 
appears in relation with his kindred :' — that is the 
path to regret 

3. ' He hides his arms in the thick grass :' — ■ 
because of the strength of his opponent. ' For 
three years he makes no demonstration :' — how can 
he do anything ? 

4. ' He is mounted on his city-wall;' but yielding 
to the right, 'he does not proceed to make the 
attack (he contemplated).' (Where it is said), 'There 
will be good fortune,' (that shows how) he feels the 
strait he is in, and returns to the rule of law. 

5. The first action of (the representative of) the 
union of men (here described) arises from his central 
position and straightforward character. ' The meet- 
ing secured by his great host' intimates that the 
opponents of it have been overcome. 

6. '(The representative of) the union of men 
appears in the suburbs:' — his object has not yet 
been attained. 

how the distress and obstruction are come to an end. It was in 
the order of change that they should do so. 

XIII. The style of ' heaven and fire form Thung Zin' is such 
as to suggest the appearance of fire ascending up, blazing to the 
sky, and uniting with it. The application of the symbolism is again 
perplexing. 

In line i, the party just issuing from his gate has all the world 



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HEX. 14. APPENDIX II, 285 

XIV. (The trigSam for) heaven and (that of) 
fire above it form Ti Y<i. The superior man, in 
accordance with this, represses what is evil and 
gives distinction to what is good, in sympathy with 
the excellent Heaven-conferred (nature). 

1. This first line, undivided, of T4 Y6 shows no 
approach to what is injurious. 

2. 'A large waggon with its load' refers to the 
(virtue) accumulated (in the subject of the line), so 
that he will suffer no loss (in the conduct of affairs). 

3. 'A feudal prince presents his offerings to the 
son of Heaven :' — a small man (in such a position) 
does (himself) harm. 

4. ' He keeps his great resources under restraint : ' — 
his wisdom discriminates clearly (what he ought to do). 

5. ' His sincerity is reciprocated byall the others :' — 
his sincerity serves to stir and call out what is in their 
minds. ' The good fortune springing from a display 
of proper majesty' shows how they might (other- 
wise) feel too easy, and make no preparation (to 
serve him). 

before him, with which to unite. Selfish thoughts disposing to 
union have no place in him. 

In line 2, union (only) with kindred implies narrowness of mind. 

For line 3, see note on the Text. 

In line 4, stress should be laid on 'yielding to the right.' 

For line 5, see note on the Text. 

The Khang-hst editors append the following note to the last 
paragraph : — ' Under line i it is said that " union in the open 
country indicates progress and success," while here it is only said 
that " with union in the suburbs there is no cause for repentance." 
Beyond the suburbs was the open country, and till the union 
reached so far, the object of the hexagram was not attained. We 
may truly say that G^nfucius was a skilful reader of the duke of 
iCau.' Of course the editors did not doubt Confucius' authorship 
of all the Appendixes. 



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286 THE APPENDIXES. SBCT. I. 

6, 'The good fortune attached to the topmost 
line of T 4 Yd' arises from the help of Heaven. 

XV. (The trigram for) the earth and (that of) 
a mountain in the midst of it form Kh'i&n. The 
superior man, in accordance with this, diminishes 
what is excessive (in himself), and increases where 
there is any defect, bringing about an equality, ac- 
cording to the nature of the case, in his treatment 
(of himself and others). 

;. ' The superior man who adds humility to humi- 
lity* is one who nourishes his (virtue) in lowliness. 

2. 'The good fortune consequent on being firm 
and correct, where the humility has made itself 
recognised,' is owing to the possessor's having (the 
virtue) in the core of his heart. 

3. ' The superior man of (acknowledged) merit, 
and yet humble :' — the myriads of the people will 
submit to him. 

4. ' One, whose action would be in every way 
advantageous, stirs up his humility the more:' — 
(but in doing so) he does not act contrary to the 
(proper) rule. 

5. 'He may advantageously use the force of 
arms :' — correcting, that is, those who do not submit 



XIV. ' Fire above the sky ' will shine far ; and this is supposed 
to symbolise the vastness of the territoiy or of the wealth implied in 
the possession of what is great The superior man, in governing 
men, especially in a time of prosperity and wealth, must set himself 
to develope what is good in them, and repress what is evil. And 
this will be in accordance with the will of Heaven, which has given 
to all men a nature fitted for goodness. 

All the comment that is necessary on the symbolism of the 
several lines may be gathered from the comments on the Text 



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HEX. l6. APPENDIX II. 287 

6. 'His humility has made itself recognised:' — 
(but) all his aims have not yet been attained. ' He 
may employ the force of arms, (but only) in correct- 
ing (his own) towns and state.' 

XVI. (The trigrams for) the. earth and thunder 
issuing from it with its crashing noise form YU. 
The ancient kings, in accordance with this, com- 
posed their music and did honour to virtue, pre- 
senting it especially and most grandly to God, 



XV. The earth is low, and in the midst of it is a high mountain; 
but I fail to see how this can symbolise humility. Nor does Regis' 
representation of it much improve the case: — 'Monte '(ait glossa) 
' nihil est altius in terra, quae est summe abjecta. At cum is de- 
clivis sit, imago esse potest humilis modestiae.' I find the following 
note on the paragraph in my copy of the 'Daily Lessons ' (see Pre- 
face): — 'The five yin lines above and below symbolise the earth j 
the one yang line in the centre is "the mountain in the midst of 
the earth." The many yin lines represent men's desires; the 
one yang line, heavenly principle. The superior man, looking at 
this symbolism, diminishes the multitude of human desires within 
him, and increases the single shoot of heavenly principle; so does he 
become grandly just, and can deal with all things evenly according 
to the nature of each. In whatever circumstances or place he is, he 
will do what is right.' This is certainly very ingenious, but one 
shrinks from accepting a view that is not based on the component 
trigrams. 

Under line i, 'nourishes his (virtue)' is, literally, 'pastures him- 
self.' He is all humility. That makes him what he is. 

Under line 4, ' the (proper) rule' is the rule proper for the subject 
of the line in his circumstances so near the place of the ruler. 

Under line 5, ' the refusal to submit ' makes an appeal to force 
necessary. Even the best and humblest ruler bears the sword, and 
must not bear it in vain. 

JTii Hst bases all that is said under line 6 on its being a weak 
line; so that the htmible ruler is unable even at the close of the 
action described in the figure to accomplish all his objects, and 
must limit his field even in appealing to arms. 



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288 THE APPENDIXES. SECT. I. 

when they associated with Him (at the service) 
their highest ancestor and their father. 

1. 'The (subject of the) first line proclaims his 
pleasure and satisfaction :' — there will be evil ; his 
wishes have been satisfied to overflowing. 

2. ' (He sees a thing) without waiting till it has 
come to pass; with his firm correctness there will 
be good fortune :' — this is shown by the central and 
correct position (of the line). 

3. ' He looks up (for favours), while he indulges 
the feeling of satisfaction ; there will be occasion for 
repentance : ' — this is intimated by the position not 
being the appropriate one. 

4. ' From him the harmony and satisfaction come ; 
great is the success which he obtains :' — his aims 
take effect on a grand scale. 

5. '(The subject of) the fifth line has a chronic 
complaint :' — this is shown by his being mounted on 
the strong (line). ' He still lives on without dying:' — 
he is in the central position, (and its memories of the 
past) have not yet perished. 

6. ' With darkened mind devoted to the harmony 
and satisfaction (of the time),' as shown in the top- 
most (line) : — ^how can one in such a condition con- 
tinue long ? 

XVI. *The Great Symbolism' here is more obscure than usual A 
thunderstorm clears the air and removes the feeling of oppression, 
of which one is conscious before its occurrence. Is this all that is 
meant by making the trigrams of the earth and thunder form Yfl, 
the hexagram of harmony and satisfaction? What is meant, 
moreover, by making the thunder ' issue,' as the Chinese text says, 
from the earth ? Then as to the application of this symbolism, I 
can trace the author's idea but imperfectly. To say that the 
thunder crash suggested the use of music, as some critics do, is 



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HEX. 17. APPENDIX n. 289 

XVII. (The trigram for the waters of) a marsh 
and (that for) thunder (hidden) in the midst of it 
form Sui. The superior man in accordance with 
this, when it is getting towards dark, enters (his 
house) and rests. 

1. * He is changing the object of his pursuit:' — 
but if he follow what is correct, there will be good 
fortune. ' He goes beyond (his own) gate to find asso- 
ciates :' — he will not fail (in the method he pursues). 

2. 'He cleaves to the little boy:' — he cannot be 
with the two at the same time. 

3. 'He cleaves to the man of age and experi- 
ence:' — ^by the decision of his will, he abandons 
(the youth) below. 

4. 'He is followed and obtains adherents:' — 
according to the idea (of the hexagp"am), this is evil. 
'He is sincere in his course:' — showing his intelli- 
gence, and leading to achievement. 

5. ' He is sincere in fostering what is excellent :' — 
his position is correct and in the centre. 

absurd. The use of music at sacrifices, however, as assisting the 
union produced by those services between God and his wor- 
shippers, and the present and past generations, agrees with the 
general idea of the figure. I inust suppose that the writer had in 
mind the sacrifices instituted by the duke of ITSnx, as related in the 
HsiSo King, chap. ix. 

Pleasure has operated injuriously on the subject of line i. He 
calls attention to himself. 

Only a part of the symbolism of line a is referred to here. Such 
an omission is not uncommon ; — as in lines 3 and 4 also. 

With 'the memories of the past not perishing' compare Mencius, 
II, Section i, chap. i. 6-13. 

In line 6 the action of the hexagram is over. If one puts off 
changing his evil way any longer, there remains no more hope for 
him. 

[16] U 



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290 THE APPENDIXES. SKCT. I. 

6. ' The sincerity is firmly held and clung to, as 
shown in the topmost line:' — (the idea of the hexa- 
gram) has reached its extreme development. 

XVIII. (The trigram for) a mountain, and below 
it that for wind, form K(L The superior man, in 
accordance with this, (addresses himself to) help the 
people and nourish his own virtue. 

1. 'He deals with the troubles .caused by his 
father:' — he feels that he has entered into the 
work of his father. 

2. 'He deals with the troubles caused by his 
mother:' — he holds to the course of the due mean. 

3. 'He deals with the troubles caused by his 
father:' — in the end there will be no error. 

4. 'He views indulgently the troubles caused by 
his father :' — if he go forward, he will not succeed. 

5. 'He deals with the troubles caused by his 
father, and obtains praise :' — he is responded to (by 
the subject of line two) with all his virtue. 

XVII. An explosion of thunder amidst the waters of a marsh 
would be succeeded by a tremulous agitation of those waters ; so 
far there would be a following of the movement of the lower tri- 
gram by the upper. Then in the application of the symbolism we 
have an illustration of action following the time, that is, according 
to the time ; which is a common use of the Chinese character Sui. 
Neither the symbolism, however, nor its application adds much to 
our understanding of the text 

Paragraph i consists of two lines that rhyme; and paragraphs 4 
(two lines), 5, and 6 do the same. According to Kt Yen-wii, 
paragraphs 2 and 3 also rhyme ; but this appears to me doubtful 
The symbolism of these paragraphs is sufficiently explained in the 
notes on the Text Some peculiarities in their style (in Chinese) 
are owing to the bonds of the rhyme. 



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BEX, rp. APPENDIX II. 29 1 

6. ' He does not serve either king or feudal lord :' — 
but his aim may be a model (to others). 

XIX. (The trigram for) the waters of a marsh 
and that for the earth above it form Lin. The 
superior man, in accordance with this, has his pur- 
poses of instruction that are inexhaustible, and 
nourishes and supports the people without limit. 

1. 'The good fortune through the firm correct- 
ness of (the subject of the first line) advancing in 
company (with the subject of the second)' is due to 
his will being set on doing what is right. 

2. * The good fortune and every possible advan- 
tage attending the advance (of the subject of the 
second line), in company (with the subject of the 
first),' arises from the fact that those (to whom the 
advance is made) are not yet obedient to the ordi- 
nances (of Heaven). 

3. ' He (shows himself) well pleased to advance :' — 
his position is not that appropriate to him. ' If he 
become anxious, however, about his action,' his error 
will not be continued. 

4. 'The freedom from error consequent on the 



XVIII. ' When the wind,' says ^/iSng-jze, ' encounters the 
mountain, it is driven back, and the things about are all scattered 
in disorder ; such is the emblem of the state denoted by Kfi.' 
'The nourishing of virtue' appears especially in line 6; all the 
other lines belong to the ' helping of the people.' 

The subject of line i has entered into the work of his father, 
and brings it about that his father is looked on as blameless. The 
' due mean ' of line a is according to the caution in the Text. 
The Khang-hst editors interpret the explanation of line 5 as = ' he 
takes up (the course of his father) with all his virtue.' I think they 
are wrong. 

U 2 



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292 THE APPENDIXES. SECT. I. 

advance in the highest mode' is due to the (various) 
appropriateness of the position, 

5. 'What befits the great ruler' means the pur- 
suing the course of the due mean. 

6. * The good fortune consequent on the advance 
of honesty and generosity' is due to the will (of the 
subject of the line) being set on the subjects of (the 
first two lines of) the inner (trig^am). 

XX. (The trig^am representing) the earth, and 
that for wind moving above it, form Kwan. The 
ancient kings, in accordance with this, examined the 
(different) regions (of the kingdom), to see the (ways 
of the) people, and set forth their instructions. 

I. * The looking of a lad shown by the first line, 
divided,' indicates the way of the inferior people. 

XIX. ' The earth descending or approaching the marsh ' is, 
according to ATd Hsi, symbolical of the approach of superiors to 
the inferior people, and then the two predicates about the superior 
man are descriptive of him in that approach, the instruction being 
symbolised by Tui, and the supporting by Kh win. The Khang- 
hsi editors, wishing to defend the explanation of 1 in by 'great,' in 
Appendix VI, which they ascribe to Confucius, say : — ' Lin means 
" great" The earth above the waters of the marsh shows how full 
those waters are, rising to the level of the earth, and thus expressing 
the idea of greatness.' This representation is lame and impotent. 

IlH Hst says he does not understand what is said on line 2. 
The interpretation in my version is the ordinary one, but I am not 
satisfied with it. The Khang-hst editors try to solve the difficulty ; 
but I am not able to follow them. 

The same editors compare the conclusion of paragraph 6 in the 
symbolism of hexagram 11. 'What is external' there, and 'what 
is internal here,' have, they say, the same reference, — the state, 
namely, of the whole kingdom, the expressions differing according 
to the dififerent standpoints from which they are made. The view 
in the translation is that of ^^ Hsi. It is difficult to hold the 
balance between them. The newer view, perhaps, is the preferable. 



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HEX. 21. APPENDIX II. 293 

2. ' The firm correctness of a woman, in peeping 
out from a door ' is also a thing to be ashamed of 
(in a superior man). 

3. * He looks at (the course of) his own life, to 
advance or recede (accordingly):' — he will not err 
in the path (to be pursued). 

4. ' He contemplates the glory of the kingdom:' — 
(thence) arises the wish to be a guest (at court). 

5. 'He contemplates his own life(-course):' — he 
should (for this purpose) contemplate (the condi- 
tion of) the people. 

6. 'He contemplates his own character:' — he 
cannot even yet let his mind be at rest, 

XXI. (The trigrams representing) thunder and 
lightning form Shih Ho. The ancient kings, in 
accordance with this, framed their penalties with 
intelligence, and promulgated their laws. 

1. 'His feet are in the stocks, and he is deprived 
of his toes :' — there is no walking (to do evil). 

2. ' He bites through the soft flesh, and (goes on) 

XX. Wind moving above the earth has the widest sweep, and 
nothing escapes its influence; it penetrates everywhere. This 
symbolism is more appropriate to the subject in hand than that of 
many other hexagrams. Personal influence in a ruler effects much ; 
but the ancient kings wished to add to that the power of published 
instructions, specially adapted to the character and circumstances 
of the people. Sun, representing the wind, is well adapted to 
denote this influence ; — see the Analects, XII, xix. 

The looking in line i is superficial, and does not reach far. 

Line 3. ' He will not err in the path to be pursued ;' — advancing 
or receding as is best. 

Line 4. ' The glory of the kingdom' is the virtue of the sovereign 
and the character of his administration. With the sentiment com- 
pare Mencius, VII, i, chap. 21. 3. 



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294 THE APPENDIXES. SECT. t. 

to bite off the nose :* — (the subject of the line) is 
mounted on the strong (first line). 

3. ' He meets with what is disagreeable and hurt- 
ful :' — his position is not the proper one for him. 

4. ' It will be advantageous to him to realise the 
difficulty of his task and be firm, in which case there 
will be good fortune :' — his light has not yet been 
sufficiently displayed. 

5. ' Let him be firm and correct, realising the peril 
(of his position), and there will be no error : ' — he 
will possess every quality appropriate (to his posi- 
tion and task). 

6. ' He wears the cangue and is deprived of his 
ears :' — he hears, but will not understand. 

XXn. (The trigram representing) a mountain 
and that for fire under it form Pi. The superior, 
man, in accordance with this, throws a brilliancy 
around his various processes of government, but 
does not dare (in a similar way) to decide cases of 
criminal litigation. 



XXI. AT/iing-jze says that thunder and lightning are always 
found together, and hence their trigrams go together to give the 
idea of union intended in Shi h Ho. The one trigram symbol- 
ising majesty and the other brightness or intelligence, the applica- 
'tion of the hexagram here is easier and more natural than in many 
other cases. 

1. 'There is no walking:' — that is, the subject of the line will 
not dare to offend any more. 

2. ' " Being mounted on the strong first line " means,' says 
A'ASng-jze, ' punishing a strong and vehement man, when severity 
is required, as is denoted by the central position of the line.' 

4. 'His light has not been sufficiently displayed;' that is, there 
is still something for him to do : — he has to realise the difficulty 
of his position and be firm. 



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HEX. aa. APPENDIX II. ^95 

1. 'He can discard a carriage and walk on foot :' — 
righteousness requires that he should not ride. 

2. ' He adorns his beard:' — he rouses himself to 
action (only) along with the (subject of the) line 
above. 

3. ' The good fortune consequent on his ever 
maintaining firm correctness' is due to this, — that 
to the end no one will insult him. 

4. 'The place occupied by the fourth line, divided,' 
affords ground for doubt (as to its subject) ; but '(as 
the subject of the third pursues) not as a robber, 
but as intent on a matrimonial alliance,' he will in 
the end have no grudge against him. 

5. 'The good fortune falling to the fifth line, 
divided,' affords occasion for joy. 

6. ' The freedom from error attached to (the sub- 
ject of) the topmost line, with no ornament but the 
(simple white),' shows how he has attained his aim. 



XXII. ' A mountain,' says ^ii&ng-jze, 'is a place where we find 
grass, trees, and a hundred other things. A fire burning below it 
throws up its light, and brings them all out in beauty ; and this 
gives the idea of ornament, or being ornamented. The various 
processes of government are small matters, and elegance and orna- 
ment help their course ; but great matters of judgment demand 
the simple, unornamented truth.' 

The subject of line i does not care for and does not need orna- 
ment. He will walk in the way of righteousness without it. 

Paragraph 3 tells us that it is not ornament, but correct firmness, 
which secures the respect of others. 

In the fourth place, and cut oflf from line 1 by 2 and 3, we 
might doubt how far the subject of 4 would continue loyal to the 
subject of I. But he does continue loyal, through the character 
and object of the subject of 3. 

The Khang-hsl editors say ; — ' Line 5 occupies the place of 
honour, and yet prefers simplicity and exalts economy ; its subject 



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296 THE APPENDIXES. SECT. I. 

XXIII. (The trigrams representing) the earth, 
and (above it) that for a mountain, which adheres 
to the earth, form Po. Superiors, in accordance 
with this, seek to strengthen those below them, to 
secure the peace and stability of their own position. 

1. 'He overthrows the couch by injuring its legs : ' 
— thus (he commences) his work of ruin with what 
is lowest (in the superior man). 

2. ' He destroys the couch by injuring its frame :' — 
(the superior man) has as yet no associates. 

3. That 'there will be no error on the part of 
this one among the overthrowers' arises from the 
difference between him and the others above and 
below. 

4. ' He has overthrown the couch, and (proceeds 
to injure) the skin (of him who lies on it):' — calamity 
is very near at hand. 

5. 'He obtains for them the favour that lights on 
the inmates of the palace :' — in the end there will 
be no grudge against him. 

6. ' The superior man finds himself in a car- 
riage:' — he is carried along by the people. 'The 
small men (by their course) overthrow their own 
dwellings:' — they can never again be of use to 
them, 

might change and transform manners and customs;' — it is a small 
matter to say of him that he affords occasion for joy. 

The subject of line 6 has more of the spirit of the hexagram 
than in most hexagrams. His being clothed in simple white 
crowns the lesson that ornament must be kept in a secondary 
place. 

XXIII. ' A mountain,' says Yfl Fan (lowards the end of the 
Han dynasty), ' stands out high above the earth ; here it appears 
as lying on the earth v. — plainly it has been overturned.' On the 



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HEX. 34. APPENDIX n. 297 

XXIV. (The trigram representing) the earth 
and that for thunder in the midst of it form FA. 
The ancient kings, in accordance with this, on the 
day of the (winter) solstice, shut the gates of the 
pjisses (from one state to another), so that the 
travelling merchants could not (then) pursue their 
journeys, nor the princes go on with the inspection 
of their states. 

1. ' Returning (from an error) of no great extent* 
is the prelude to the cultivation of the person. 

2. ' The good fortune attendant on the admirable 
return (of the subject of the second line)' is due to 
his condescension to the virtuous (subject of the 
line) below. 

3. Notwithstanding ' the perilous position of him 



other hand, Lifi Mft (early in the Sung dynasty) says : — ' A moun- 
tain has the earth for its foundation. If the earth be thick, the 
mountain preserves its height. So it is with the sovereign and 
people.' The application might be deduced from either view. 

It is hard to tell whether ' the lowest' in paragraph 1 should be 
supplemented as I have done. If not, then the explanation is a 
mere truism. 

.A'Mng-jze is precise and decisive in supplementing the explana- 
tion of paragraph 2 as in the translation. 

See on the Text of lines 3 and 4. 

On paragraph 5, the Khang-hst editors say admirably : — ' The 
fifth line is weak, and yet occupies the most honourable place in 
the figure, — emblematic of a queen ; and as its subject leads on 
the subjects of the other lines to obtain the favours given to the 
inmates of the palace, she, it is plain> has neither jealousy nor any 
other injurious temper that might incur blame for tending to 
overthrow the ruler.' 

Paragraph 6 shows the ruler restored to the favour of the 
people, and the restoration of concord in the state. The small 
men have done their worst, and there is an end of their attempts — 
for a time. 



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298 THE APPENDIXES. SECT. r. 

who has made many returns,' there will be no error 
through (his aiming after righteousness). 

4. ' He moves right in the centre (among those re- 
presented by the other divided lines), and yet returns 
alone :' — his object is to pursue the (proper) path. 

5. 'The noble return, giving no ground for 
repentance,' is due to (the subject of the line) 
striving to perfect himself in accordance with his 
Central position. 

6. ' The evil consequent on being all astray on the 
subject of returning' is because the course pursued is 
contrary to the proper course for a ruler. 



XXIV. ' Thunder in the midst of the earth ' is thunder shut up 
and silent, just able to make its presence felt. So is it with the 
first genial stirrings of life after the winter solstice ; so is it with 
the first retiuming steps of the wanderer to virtue. As the spring 
of life has to be nursed in quietness, so also has the purpose of 
good. The ancient statutes here referred to must have been like 
the present cessation from public and private business at the time 
of the new year, when all the Chinese people are for a time 
dissolved in festivity and joy. 

Canon McClatchie translates here: — 'The ancient kings on this 
culminating day (i. e. the seventh) closed their gates,' &c. ' Cul- 
minating day 'does not give us the meaning so well as ' the day of 
the solstice;' but where does the translator find the explanatory 
' the seventh,' which he puts in parentheses ? In my own ' salad ' 
days of Chinese knowledge I fancied there might be in paragraph i 
of the Text some allusion to a primitive sabbath ; but there is no 
ground for introducing 'seven days,' or 'the seventh day,' into 
this paragraph of the Great Symbolism. 

' The virtuous subject of the first line ' is in paragraph 2 called 
ain, 'the benevolent' or 'loving.' It is the only case in all 
the symbolism of the Yt where we find that term used as an 
adjective. It is emphatic here for ' humanity,' man in his ideal. 

The other paragraphs present nothing for remark beyond what 
has been said on the Text of the duke of Eiu, 



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HEX. 25. APPENDIX II, 299 

XXV. The thunder rolls all under the sky, and 
to (every)thing there is given (its nature), free from 
all insincerity. The ancient kings, in accordance with 
this, (made their regulations) in complete accordance 
with the seasons, thereby nourishing all things. 

1. When 'he who is free from insincerity makes 
any movement,' he will get what he desires. 

2. 'He reaps- without having ploughed :'^the 
thought of) riches to be got had not risen (in his 
mind). 

3. 'The passer-by gets the ox:' — this proves a 
calamity to the people of the neighbourhood. 

4. ' If he can remain firm and correct there will be 
no error :' — he firmly holds fast (his correctness). 

5. ' Medicine in the case of one who is free from 
insincerity!' — it should not be tried (at all). 

6. ' The action (in this case) of one who is free 
from insincerity' will occasion the calamity arising 
from action (when the time for it is) exhausted. 

XXV. The composition of the hexagram is given here in a 
manner different from what we have met with in the account of 
any of the preceding figures ; and as the text is not called in ques- 
tion, I have made the best I could in the translation of the two 
commencing clauses. The application of the symbolism to what 
the ancient kings did is also hard to comprehend. 

The paragraph on line i is another way of saying that in the 
course of things real goodness may be expected to be fortunate, — 
' by the appointment of Heaven.' 

Paragraph 2. 'The thought of getting rich had not risen in 
his mind:' — he did what he did, because it was right, not because 
of the gain it would bring him. 

On paragraph 3, it is said, ' The superior man seeks simply to 
be free from insincerity, and leaves the questions of happiness and 
calamity to Heaven.' 

Paragraph 5. ' Sickness ought not to happen to one who 



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300 THE APPENDIXES. SECT. r. 

XXVI. (The trigram representing) a mountain, 
and in the midst of it that (representing) heaven, 
form T4 Kh^. The superior man, in accordance 
with this, stores largely in his memory the words and 
deeds of former men, to subserve the accumulation 
of his virtue. 

1. ' He is in a position of peril ; it will be advan- 
tageous for him to stop his advance :' — he should not 
rashly expose himself to calamity. 

2. '(He is as) a carriage from which the strap 
under it has been removed:' — being in the central 
position, he will incur no blame. 

3. ' There will be advantage in whatever direction 
he may advance :' — (the subject of) the topmost line 
is of the same mind with him. 

4. ' The great good fortune indicated by the 
fourth line, divided,' shows that there is occasion 
for joy. 

5. ' The good fortune indicated by the fifth line, 
divided,' shows that there is occasion for congratu- 
lation. 

6. * In command of the firmament of heaven :' — the 
way is grandly open for movement. 



is perfectly sincere. If it do happen, he must refer it to some inex- 
plicable will of Heaven. As that has afHicted, so it will cure.' 

Paragraph 6. ' When a thing is over and done, submission and 
acquiescence are what are required, and not renewed attempts at 
action.' 

XXVI. I have quoted, in the Introduction, p. 37, K^ Hsfs 
remark on the Great Symbolism here. A'ASng-jze says : — 'Heaven 
is the greatest of all things, and its being in the midst of a moun- 
tain gives us the idea of a very large accumulation. And so great 



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HEX. 37. APPENDIX 11, 301 

XXVII. (The trigram representing) a mountain 
and under it that for thunder form 1. The superior 
man, in accordance with this, (enjoins) watchfulness 
over our words, and the temperate regulation of our 
eating and drinking. 

1. ' You look at me till your (lower) jaw hangs 
down :' — (the subject of the line) is thus shown unfit 
to be thought noble. 

2. 'The evil of advance by the subject of the 
second line, divided,' is owing to his leaving in his 
movements his proper associates. 

3. ' For ten years let him not take any action :' — 
his course is greatly opposed (to what is right). 

4. * The good fortune attached to looking down- 
wards for (the power to) nourish,* shows how brilliant 
will be the diffusion (of that power) from (the subject 
of the line's) superior position. 

5. 'The good fortune from abiding in firmness' is 
due to the docility (of the subject of the line) in 
following (the subject of the line) above. 

6. 'The good fortune, notwithstanding the peril 

is the labour of the superior inan in learning, acquiring, and remem- 
bering, to accumtilate his virtue.' 

Paragraph i. The 'calamity' is that of opposition from, or re- 
pression by, the subject of line 4. 

Paragraph 3. When the action of the hexagram has reached 
line 6, its work is done. The subject of 6 will no longer exercise 
repression, but join with that of 3, assisting him to advance. 

Paragraph 4. The subject of line 4 has indeed occasion for joy. 
Without the use of punishment for crimes committed, by precau- 
tion anticipating them, without any trouble he has repressed evil. 
The 'joy' gives place in paragraph 5 to ' congratulation,' the people 
being all interested in the action of the ruler. 



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302 THE APPENDIXES. SECT. i. 

of his position, of him from whom comes the 
nourishing,' affords great cause for congratulation. 

XXVIII. (The trig^m representing) trees hid- 
den beneath that for the waters of a marsh forms Tel 
Kwo. The superior man, in accordance with this, 
stands up alone and has no fear, and keeps retired 
from the world without regret. 

1. 'He places mats of the white md^ grass undef 
things set on the ground :' — he feels his weakness 
and his being in the lowest place, (and uses extraor- 
dinary care). 

2. 'An old husband and a young wife :' — such 
association is extraordinary. 

3. ' The evil connected with the beam that is 
weak ' arises from this, that no help can be given 
(to the condition thus represented). 

4. 'The good fortune connected with the beam 
curving upwards ' arises from this, that it does not 
bend towards what is below. 

5. *A decayed willow produces flowers:' — but 
how can this secure its long continuance ? 'An old 



XXVII. I do not think that the Great Symbolism here is any- 
thing but that of a thunderstorm, dispersing the oppression that 
hangs over nature, and followed by genial airs, and the reviving of 
all vegetation. But there is nothing analogous to the thunder in 
the application. 'Words,' it is said, 'nourish virtue; food and 
drink nourish the body.' 

Paragraph i. As Mencius said, 'He that nourishes the little 
belonging to him is a little man.' 

Paragraph 2. Neither the subject of line i, nor of line 6, is the 
proper associate of 2. 

The other paragraphs are sufSciently iUustrated in the notes on 
the Text. 



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HEX. 39. APPENDIX II. 303 

wife and a young husband:* — this also is a thing to 
be ashamed of. 

6. ' Evil follows wading with (extraordinary) bold- 
ness (through the stream) : ' — but (the act) affords no 
ground for blame. 

XXIX. (The representation of) water flowing on 
continuously forms the repeated Khan. The supe- 
rior man, in accordance with this, maintains" con- 
stantly the virtue (of his heart) and (the integrity of) 
his conduct, and practises the business of instruction. 

1. 'In the double defile, he enters a cavern within 
it : ' — he has missed his (proper) way, and there will 
be evil. 

2. 'He will get a little (of the deliverance) that he 
seeks :' — he will not yet escape from his environed 
position. 

3. 'Whether he comes or goes, he is confronted 
by a defile :' — he will never (in such circumstances) 
achieve any success. 

XXVIII. ^Aing-jze says on the Great Symbolism :—' The 
waters of a marsh moisten and nourish the trees. When here it is 
said that they destroy and extinguish the trees, their action is very 
extraordinary.' This explanation is very far-fetched; and so is 
what the same scholar says on the application of it. I need not 
l^ive it here, nor have I found, or myself made out, any other more 
easy and natural. 

Paragraph 2. 'Such an association is extraordinary:' — the 
characters also imply, perhaps, that it is successful. 

Paragraph 3. The beam being broken, any attempt to sustain it 
will have no effect in supporting the roof. 

Paragraph 5. The shoots produced in line 2 will grow into a 
new and vigorous tree. The flowers here will soon decay, and the 
withered trunk continue the same. For what will a young man 
marry an old woman ? There will be no children ;^t can only be 
from some mercenary object. 



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304 THE APPENDIXES. SECT. I. 

4. ' (Nothing but) a bottle of spirits and a sub- 
sidiary basket of rice:' — (these describe) the meeting 
at this point of (those who are represented by) the 
strong and weak lines. 

5 . ' The water in the defile is not full (so as to 
flow away):' — (the virtue indicated by) the central 
situation is not yet (sufficiently) great. 

6. 'The sixth line, divided, shows its subject 
missing his (proper) course:'' — 'there will be evil 
for three years.' 

XXX. (The trigram for) brightness, repeated, 
forms Ll. The great man, in accordance with this, 
cultivates more and more his brilliant (virtue), and 
diffuses its brightness over the four quarters (of the 
land). 

1. ' The reverent attention directed to his con- 
fused steps ' is the way by which error is avoided. 

2. ' The great good fortune (from the subject of 
the second line) occupying his place in yellow' is 
owing to his holding the course of the due mean. 

3. 'A position like that of the declining sun:'— 
how can it continue long ? 

4. ' How abrupt is the manner of his coming ! ' — 
none can bear with him. 

5. 'The good fortune attached to the fifth line, 

XXIX. The application of the Great Symbolism is here more 
perplexing even than usual. What is said of the superior man is 
good, but there is no reference in it to the subject of danger. 

The subject of line 3 goes and comes, moves up and down, 
backwards and forwards ; making no advance. This can be of no 
use in extricating him from the danger. 

Those represented in line 4 by the strong and weak lines are 
the ruler and his minister. 



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HSX. 31. APPENDIX II. 305 

divided,' is due to its occupying the place of a king 
or a prince. 

6. ' The king employs him in his punitive expedi- 
tions :' — ^the object is to bring the regions to a 
correct state. 

Section II. 

XXXI. (The trigram representing) a mountain 
and above it that for (the waters of) a marsh form 
Hsien. The superior man, in accordance with this, 
keeps his mind free from pre-occupation, and open 
to receive (the influences of) others. 

1. 'He moves his great toe:' — his mind is set 
on what is beyond (himself). 

2. Though ' there would be evil ; yet, if he abide 
.(quiet) in his place, there will be good fortune :' — 

through compliance (with the circumstances of his 
condition and place) there will be no injury. 

3. ' He moves his thighs :' — he still does not 
(want to) rest in his place. His will is set on 
'following others:' — what he holds in his grasp is 
low. 

4. 'Firm correctness will lead to good fortune, 

XXX. In the Great Symbolism Lt is used in the sense of bright- 
ness. There was no occasion to refer to its other meaning. ' The 
great man' rather confirms the interpretation of the 'double bright- 
ness' in the treatise on the Thwan as indicating the ruler. 

Paragraph a. As yellow is a 'correct' colour, so is the due 
mean the correct course. 

Paragraph 3. 'The declining sun,' say the Khang-hst editors, 
' is an emblem of the obscuration coming over the virtue of the 
mind.' 

Paragraph 4. ' None can bear with him ' refers to the second 
part of the symbolism of the line, which is not given here. 
[16] X 



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306 THE APPENDIXES. SECT. II- 

and prevent all occasion for repentance :' — there has 
not yet been any harm from (a selfish wish to) 
influence. ' He is unsettled in his movements :' — 
(his power to influence) is not yet either brilliant or 
great. 

5. 'He (tries to) move the flesh along the spine 
above the heart :' — his aim is trivial. 

6. ' He moves his jaws and tongue:' — he (only) 
talks with loquacious mouth. 

XXXI. In various ways the waters of a marsh, placed high 
above the adjacent land, will descend to water and fertilise them. 
This symbolism agrees suflSciently well with the idea of influence 
passing between a superior and inferior party in relation with each 
other. There is nothing in the representation, however, to suggest 
particularly the relation between husband and wife ; and the more 
I think of it, the more doubtful it becomes to me that king Wan 
intended by the trigrams of this figure to give the idea of man and 
wife. The application of the symbolism is sufficiently appropriate. 
The commentators see in it especially the lesson of humility — 
emptiness of self, or poverty of spirit — in order that the influences 
to which we are subjected may have free course. 

Paragraph i. What is beyond one's self is represented by line 4, 
a proper correlate of i. There is the desire to influence; but it is 
ineffectively exhibited. 

Paragraph 2. ' Compliance (with the circumstances of his con- 
dition and place)' is merely another way of 'being firm and 
correct' 

Paragraph 3. The language, ' What he holds in his grasp is low,' 
makes ^t Hst and the older commentators generally understand 
low of lines i and 2, and their weak subjects. But 'following' 
leads the mind to the lines above, as the Khang-hst editors point 
out. ' Low' is to be understood in the sense of ' mean.' 

Paragraph 4. The 'being firm and correct' appears here as 
equivalent to the want of ' a selfish wish to influence.' 

Paragraph 5. The triviality of the aim explains the ineffective- 
ness of the movement, but not its giving no occasion for repent- 
ance. That the mei which are moved are behind and above 
the region of the heart seems too mechanical and trivial an 
explanation. 



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HEX. 32. APPENDIX II. 307 

XXXII. (The trigram representing) thunder 
and that for wind form H3.ng. The superior man, 
in accordance with this, stands firm, and does not 
change his method (of operation). 

I. ' The evil attached to the deep desire for long 
continuance (in the subject of the first line)' arises 
from the deep seeking for it at the commencement 
(of things). 

a. 'AH occasion for repentance on the part of the 
subject of the second line, undivided, disappears :' — 
he can abide long in the due mean. 

3. 'He does not continuously maintain his vir- 
tue :' — nowhere will he be borne with. 

4. (Going) for long to what is not his proper 
place, how can he get game ? 

5. ' Such firm correctness in a wife will be fortu- 
nate :' — it is hers to the end of life to follow with 
an unchanged mind. The husband must decide 
what is right, and lay down the rule accordingly : — 
for him to follow (like) a wife is evil. 

6. ' The subject of the topmost line is exciting 
himself to long continuance:' — far will he be from 
achieving merit. 

XXXII. How the interaction of wind and thunder symbolises 
the lesson of the hexagram, and especially the application in this 
paragraph of that symbolism, is a question I have not been able 
to solve. 

Paragraph i. The stress of what is said under line i is here 
made to lie on its being the first line of the figure. 

Paragraph 2. Line 2 is in the centre of its trigram, and that 
position, here as often elsewhere, symbolises the course of its 
subject 

Paragraph 3. The Khang-hst editors make the application here= 
' nowhere can he bear (to remain).' 

X 2 



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308 THE APPENDIXES. SECT. II. 

XXXIII. (The trigram representing) the sky 
and below it that for a mountain form Thun. The 
superior man, in accordance with this, keeps small 
men af a distance, not by showing that he hates 
them, but by his own dignified gravity. 

1. There is 'the perilousness of the position 
shown by the retiring tail;' — but if 'no movement' 
be made, what disaster can there be ? 

2. 'He holds it as by (a thong from the hide of) 
a yellow ox :' — his purpose is firm. 

3. 'The peril connected with the case of one 
retiring, though bound,' is due to the (consequent) 
distress and exhaustion. ' If he were (to deal as 
in) nourishing a servant or concubine, it would be 
fortunate for him :' — but a great affair cannot be 
dealt with in this way. 

4. 'A superior man retires notwithstanding his 
likings ; a small man cannot attain to this.' 

5. 'He retires in an admirable way, and with 
firm correctness there will be good fortune:' — this 
is due to the rectitude of his purpose. 

6. 'He retires in a noble way, and his doing so 
will be advantageous in every respect:' — he who 
does so has no doubts about his course. 

From paragraph 5 it appears that what is right will vary in 
different cases. The lesson of the hexagram is perseverance in 
what is right in each particular case. 

XXXIII. J^t Hst says : — ' The sky is illimitable ; a mountain is 
high, but has its limits ; the union of these is an emblem of re- 
tiring.' I do not understand such embleming. A'<6^ng-jze says : — 
' Below the sky is a mountain. The mountain rises up below the 
sky, and its height is arrested, while the sky goes up higher and 
higher, till they come to be apart from each other. In this we 
have an emblem of retiring and avoiding.' We feel somewhat as 



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HEX. 34. APPENDIX n. 309 

XXXIV. (The trigram representing) heaven 
and above it that for thunder form T4 A'wang. 
The superior man, in accordance with this, does not 
take a step which is not according to propriety. 

1. ' He manifests his vigour in his toes :' — this 
will certainly lead to exhaustion. 

2. ' The second line, undivided, shows that with 
firm correctness there will be good fortune :' — this 
is due to its being in the centre, (and its subject 
exemplifying the due mean). 

3. ' The small man uses all his strength ; in the 
case of the superior man it is his rule not to do so.' 

4. ' The fence is opened and the horns are not 
entangled :' — (the subject of the line) still advances. 

5. ' He loses his ram and hardly perceives it :' — 
he is not in his appropriate place. 

6. ' He is unable either to retreat or to advance :' — 
this is owing to his want of care. ' If he realise the 
difficulty (of his position), there will be good for- 
tune :' — his error will not be prolonged. 

if there were a meaning in this ; but, as in many other cases, both 
the symbolism and its application are but dimly apprehended. 

The symbolism of the various lines is sufficiently explained on 
the Text Paragraph 5 is but a repetition of the Text without 
additional explanation. 

XXXIV. In illustration of the symbolism of the trigrams here, 
^Aiing-jze says well:— 'Thunder rolling above in the sky and 
making all things shake is the emblem of great power.' In passing 
on to its application he starts with a beautiful saying of antiquity, 
that 'the strong man is he who overcomes himself.' That this 
thought was in the mind of the writer of the paragraph on the 
Great Symbolism I can well believe; but the analogy between 
the natural and the moral and spiritual worlds in passing from the 
phenomenon of thunder to this truth is a thing to be felt, and that 
can hardly be described. 



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3IO THE APPENDIXES. SECT. II. 

XXXV. (The trigram representing) the earth 
and that for the bright (sun) coming forth above it 
form Si''' The superior man, according to this, 
gives himself to make more brilliant his bright 
virtue. 

1. 'He appears wishing to advance, but (at the 
same time) being kept back : ' — all-alone he pursues 
the correct course. ' Let him maintain a large and 
generous mind, and there will be no error :' — he 
has not yet received an official charge. 

2. 'He will receive this great blessing :' — for he 
is in the central place and the correct position for 
him. 

3. ' All (around) trust him :' — their (common) aim 
is to move upwards and act. 

4. '(He advances like) a marmot. However firm 
and correct he may be, his position is one of 
peril :' — his place is not that appropriate for him. 

5. ' Let him not concefn himself whether he fails 
or succeeds :' — his movement in advance will afford 
ground for congratulation. 

6. 'He uses his horns only to punish (the rebel- 
lious people of) his city:' — his course of procedure 
is not yet brilliant. 

Paragraph i. 'This will lead to exhaustion;' and from that will 
follow distress and other evils. 

The central position and the due' moral mean in paragraph 2 is 
another instance of the felt analogy referred to above. 

In paragraph 3 nothing is added to the Text; and on the 
symbolism nothing is said. 

Paragraph 5. ' He is not in his appropriate place :' this is said 
simply because an odd place ought to be filled by a strong line. 

XXXV. The sun rising above the earth, and then travelling up 
to his meridian height, readily suggests the idea of advancing. On 



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HEX. 36. APPENDIX 11. 311 

XXXVI. (The trigram representing) the earth 
and that for the bright (sun) entering within it form 
Ming I. The superior man, in accordance with 
this, conducts his management of men ; — he shows 
his intelligence by keeping it obscured. 

1. 'The superior man (is revolving his) going 
away:' — (in such a case) he feels it right not to eat. 

2. 'The good fortune of (the subject of) the 
second line, divided,' is due to the proper fashion of 
his acting according to his circumstances. 

3. With the aim represented by 'hunting in the 
south ' a great achievement is accomplished. 

4. ' He has (just) entered into the left side of the 
belly (of the dark land):' — he is still -able to carry 
out the idea in his (inner) mind. 

5. 'With the firm correctness of the count of A"!,' 
his brightness could not be (quite) extinguished. 

6. 'He had at first ascended to (the top of) the 
sky:' — he might have enlightened the four quarters 

the application of this symbolism, H& Ping-wlln (Yttan dynasty) 
says : — ' Of strong things there is none so strong as heaven ; and 
hence the superior man after its pattern makes himself strong ; of 
bright things there is none so bright as the sun, and after its 
pattern he makes himself bright' 

If the subject of line i had received an oflScial charge, then 
when unrecognised by his sovereign, and obstructed in his progress, 
his correct course would have been to cease to advance, and retire 
from the ofiBce in which he was not allowed to carry out his 
principles. 

There is nothing said on line 2 to explain particularly the sym- 
bolism of ' the grandmother' in the Text. 

' The course of procedure ' in paragraph 6 has still an element 
of force in it, which is more than 'the firm correctness' that was 
to king W2li\ the ideal character of a feudal lord, and therefore his 
light is not yet that of the full-orbed sun. 



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312 THE APPENDIXES. SECT. II. 

of the kingdom. 'His future shall be to go into 
the earth:' — he has failed to fulfil the model (of a 
ruler). 

XXXVII. (The trigram representing) fire, and 
that for wind coming forth from it, form /Cik Zin. 
The superior man, in accordance with this, orders his 
words according to (the truth of) things, and his 
conduct so that it is uniformly consistent. 

1. 'He establishes restrictive regulations in his 
household:' — (he does so), before any change has 
taken place in their wills. 

2. ' The good fortune attached to the second line, 
divided,' is due to the docility (of its subject), 
operating with humility. 

3. When 'the members of the household are 
treated with stern severity,' there has been no 
(great) failure (in the regulation of the family). 
When 'wife and children are smirking and chat- 
tering,' the (proper) economy of the family has been 
lost. 

4. ' The family is enriched, and there is great 

XXXVI. The application of the Great Symbolism here is in 
itself suflBciently natural ; but this meaning of the hexagram hardly 
appears in the text, till we come to the sixth line. 

Paragraph i. ' He thinks it right not to eat;' — ^he does not pur- 
posely fast ; but when he has nothing to eat, he does not com- 
plain. He thinks it right that it should be so in the case. 

Paragraph 2. ' The proper fashion of acting ' is suggested by 
the weak line's being in the central place. 

Paragraph 3. 'The great achievement is accomplished;' but 
such achievement was not what prompted to action. 

Paragraph 4. ' The idea in his inner mind ' is the idea of with- 
drawing from the position and escaping; but the meaning is 
obscure. See on the Text. 



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HEX. 37» APPENDIX n. 313 

good fortune:' — this is due to the docility (belonging 
to the subject of the line), and its being in its correct 
place. 

5. 'The influence of the king extends to his 
family:' — the intercourse between them is that of 
mutual love. 

6. ' The good fortune connected with the display 
of majesty' describes (the result of) the recovery of 
the true character. 



XXXVII. The Symbolism here is certainly far-fetched. 'As 
wind,' it is said, ' comes first from fire, so does transforming influ- 
ence emanate from the family.' But the subject of the hexagram 
is the regulation and not the influence of the family. Then the 
application is good for the superior man's cultivation of himself; 
but this again is only connected indirectly with the regulation of 
the family. 

The sooner preventive measures are presented to the youthful 
mind the better ; but does not prohibition imply that a change in 
the good will has taken place ? 

In paragraph 2 ' docility' is suggested by the weak line. ' The 
humility' comes out of Sun, the upper trigram, whose attribute is 
pUant flexibility. 

YU Yen (Yflan dynasty) ingeniously observes on paragraph 4 
that the riches of a family are not to be sought in its wealth, but 
in the affection and harmony of its members. Where these pre- 
vail, the family is not likely to be poor, and whatever it has will be 
well preserved. 

The mention ' of mutual love ' is unusual in Chinese writings, 
and must be considered remarkable here. 'The husband,' says 
AT^ing-jze, ' loves his helpmate in the house ; the wife loves him 
who is the pattern for the family.' But however admirable the 
sentiment is, it comes from the mind of the writer, and is not 
drawn from the Text. 

Paragraph 6. It is said on this, that the majesty is not design- 
edly assumed or put on ; but the effect of the character remoulded 
and perfected. The words of Mencius are aptly quoted in illus- 
tration of the lesson : — ' If a man himself do not walk in the (right) 
path, it will not be walked in (even) by his wife and children.' 



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314 THE APPENDIXES. SECT. Ii: 

X X XV III. (The trigfram representing) fire above, 
and that for (the waters of) a marsh below, form 
Khwei. The superior man, in accordance with 
this, where there is a general agreement, yet admits 
diversity. 

1. 'He meets with bad men (and communicates 
with them) :' — (he does so), to avoid the evil of their 
condemnation. 

2. 'He happens to meet with his lord in a bye- 
passage:' — but he has not deviated (for this meet- 
ing) from the (proper) course. 

3. 'We see his carriage dragged back:' — this is 
indicated by the inappropr lateness of the position 
(of the line). 

' There is no (good) beginning, but there will be a 
(good) end:' — this arises from his meeting with the 
strong (subject of the topmost line). 

4. ' They blend their sincere desires together, and 
there will be no error:' — their (common) aim is 
carried into effect. 

5. 'With his hereditary minister (he unites closely 
and easily) as if he were biting through a piece of 
skin:' — his going forward will afford ground for 
congratulation. 

6. 'The good fortune symbolised by meeting with 
(genial) rain' springs from the passing away of all 
doubts. 



XXXVIII. The application here of the Symbolism is correct, 
but neither of them comes up to the idea of disunion which is 
in Khwei. 

The various paragraphs seem to need no illustration beyond 
what may be found in the notes on the Text. 



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HEX. 39- APPENDIX 11. 315 

XXXIX. (The trigram representing) a mountain, 
and above it that for water, form A'ien. The supe- 
rior man, in accordance with this, turns round (and 
examines) himself, and cultivates his virtue. 

1. 'Advancing will conduct to (greater) difficulties, 
while remaining stationary will afford ground for 
praise:' — the proper course is to wait. 

2. ' The minister of the king struggles with diffi- 
culty on difficulty :' — in the end no blame will be 
attached to him. 

3. 'He advances, (but only) to (greater) difficulty; 
he remains stationary, and returns to his former 
associates:' — they, (represented in) the inner (tri- 
gram), rejoice in him. 

4. 'To advance will (only be to) encounter 
(greater) difficulties ; he remains stationary, and 
unites (with the subject of the line above):' — that 
is in its proper place and has the solidity (due to 
it in that position). 

5. ' He struggles with the greatest difficulties, 
while friends are coming (to help him):' — he is in the 
central position, and possesses the requisite virtue. 

6. 'To advance will (only) increase the difficulties, 
while his remaining stationary will (be productive 
of) great (merit):' — his aim is to assist the (subject 
of the line) inside of him. 

* It will be advantageous to meet the great 
man:' — by his course he follows that noble (lord 
of the figfure). 

XXXIX. The Symbolism is described here a little differently 
from the form of it in Appendix I. A'^&ng-jze brings the same 
meaning out of it, however, in the following way: — 'We have here 
a steep and difficult mountain, and again on the top of that there 



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3l6 THE APPENDIXES. SECT. II. 

XL. (The trigjam representing) thunder and that 
for rain, with these phenomena in a state of mani- 
festation, form ATieh. The superior man, in accord- 
ance with this, forgives errors, and deals gently with 
crimes. 

1. The strong (fourth) line and the weak line here 
are in correlation: — we judge rightly in saying that 
' its subject will commit no error.' 

2. ' The good fortune springing from the firm 
correctness of the second line, undivided,' is due to 
its subject holding the due mean. 

3. For ' a porter with his burden to be riding in a 
carriage' is a thing to be ashamed of. ' It is he himself 
that tempts the robbers to come:' — on whom besides 
can we lay the blame? (See Appendix III, i, 48.) 

4. 'Remove your toes:' — the places (of this line 

is water ; each of the two trigrams is an emblem of perilousness. 
There is peril, both above and below, in the figure ; and hence it 
represents the difiSculties of the state.' The application of the 
symbolism is illustrated by the words of Mencius, ' When we do 
not, by what we do, realise (what we desire), we must turn inwards 
and examine ourselves in every point.' 

From the lesson in paragraph 2 we saw that the moral value of 
conduct is independent of failure or success. It is said, ' Though 
the difiQculties be too great for him to overcome, the sage accepts 
his desire, in order to stimulate others to loyal devotedness.' 

On paragraph 3, Khung Ying-ti says : — ' Of the three lines of 
the lower trigram only the third isyang, above the two others 
which are of the yin nature. They cling to it, and are repre- 
sented as if rejoicing in it. 

The view given of paragraph 4 is that of the Khang-hsJ editors. 

' The friends ' in paragraph 5 are the subjects of the second line, 
the correlate of 5, and also of the two other lines of the lower 
trigram. 

Sii Shih (a.d. 1036-1101) remarks on paragraph 6 that by 'the 
inside,' and ' the noble,' we are to understand the subject of line 5. 



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HKX. 41. APPENDIX II. 317 

and of the third and first) are all inappropriate to 
them. 

5. When ' the superior man executes his function 
of removing (whatever is injurious to the idea of the 
hexagram),' small men will of themselves retire. 

6. 'A prince with his bow shoots a falcon:' — 
thus he removes (the promoters of) rebellion. 

XLI. (The trigram representing) a mountain and 
beneath it that for the waters of a marsh form Sun. 
The superior man, in accordance with this, restrains 
his wrath and represses his desires. 

I. ' He suspends his own affairs and hurries away 
(to help the subject of the fourth line) :' — the (sub- 
ject of that) upper (line) mingles his wishes with his. 

XL. It is a common saying that thunder and rain clear the 
atmosphere, and a feeling of oppression is relieved. The last 
paragraph of Appendix I, however, leads us to understand the 
Symbolism of the phenomena of spring. The application seems 
to refer to the gentle policy of a conqueror forward to forgive the 
opposition of those who offer no more resistance. 

The subject of line 2 is a minister or oflBcer; and the Khang-hst 
editors say that while straightforwardness, symbolised by the arrow, 
is the first duty of an oflScer, if he do not temper that quality by 
pursuing the due medium, which is symbolised by the yellow 
colour of the arrow, but proceed by main force, and that only, to 
remove what is evil, he will provoke indignation and rebellion. 
The ' three foxes ' are not alluded to in this second paragraph. 

On paragraph 4 the same editors say : — ' The subject of this 
line is not in the central nor in an odd place; he has for his 
correlate the subject of line i and for his close associate that of 
line 3, both of which lines are weak in strong places. Hence it is 
said, that they are all in places inappropriate to them.' 

What paragraph 5 says, that ' the small men retire,' means that 
believing in the sincerity of the ruler's determination to remove all 
evil men, they retire of themselves, or strive to conform to his 
wishes. 



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3l8 THE APPENDIXES. SBCT. II. 

2. ' It will be advantageous for (the subject of) 
the second line, undivided, to maintain his firm 
correctness :' — his central position gives its character 
to his aim. 

3. ' One man, walking,' (finds his friend) : — when 
three are together, doubts rise among them. 

4. 'He diminishes the ailment under which he 
labours :' — this is matter for joy. 

5. ' The great good fortune attached to the fifth 
line, divided,' is due to the blessing from above. 

6. 'He gives increase to others without taking 
from what is his own:' — he obtains his wish on a 
gp*and scale. 

XLI. ' The waters of a marsh are continually rising up in vapour 
to bedew the hill above it, and thus increase its verdure ; what is 
taken from the marsh gives increase to the hill.' ,This is very 
far-fetched. In the application again the superior man acts only 
on himself, and for himself; — which has nothing to do with those 
of low degree giving to those above them. This application, how- 
ever, agrees with what, as we have seen on the Text, was iTAing- 
gze's view of the meaning of the hexagram. 

The explanation appended to paragraph i seems to be to 
account for the subject of line i hurrying away to the help of 
line 4. 

' His aim ' is to abide where he is, and help the subject of 5 by 
the exhibition of ' firm correctness.' 

The Khang-hst editors observe that paragraph 3 is true indeed 
of three men ; and not of three men only, but of many repetitions 
of thought or action. 

The same editors say on paragraph 5 that ' the blessing from 
above is explained, by many, of the oracles obtained through divining 
with the tortoise-shell ; but that looking at the text on line 2 of 
the next hexagram, and that Tl (spoken of there) is the lord of 
all spirits, the term " above" here is most naturally explained of 
Heaven's mind, whose acceptance cannot be gainsaid by men or 
spirits.' 

if^&ng-jze says on paragraph 6, though I do not see the rele- 



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HEX. 41. APPENDIX II. 319 

XLII. (The trigram representing) wind and that 
for thunder form Yl. The superior man, in accord- 
ance with this, when he sees what is good, moves 
towards it ; and when he sees his errors, he turns 
from them. 

1. 'If the movement be greatly fortunate, no 
blame will be imputed to him :' — though it is not for 
one in so low a position to have to do with great 
affairs. 

2. ' Parties add to his stores :' — they come from 
beyond (his immediate circle) to do so. 

3. * Increase is g^ven by means of what is evil 
and difficult:' — as he has in himself (the qualities 
called forth). 

4. 'His advice to his prince is followed:' — his 
(only) object in it being the increase (of the general 
good). 

5. '(The ruler) with sincere heart seeks to benefit 
(all below) :' — there need be no question (about the 
result). ' (All below) with sincere heart acknowledge 
(his goodness) :' — he gets what he desires on a great 
scale. 

6. 'To his increase none will contribute:' — this 
expresses but' half the result. ' Many will seek to 
assail him :' — they will come from beyond (his 
immediate circle) to do so. 

vancy of his remarks : — ' Dwelling on high, and taking nothing 
from those below him, but on the contrary giving more to them, 
the superior man accomplishes his aim on a grand scale. The 
aim of the superior man is simply to be increasing what others 
have ; — that and nothing else.' 

XLII. The Symbolism here is different from what we gather from 
the former Appendix. Sun no longer symbolises wood, but, as 



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320 THE APPENDIXES. SECT. 11. 

XLIII. (The trigram representing) heaven and 
that for the waters of a marsh mounting above it 
form Kwii. The superior man, in accordance with 
this, bestows emolument on those below him, and 
dislikes allowing his gifts to accumulate (undis- 
pensed). 

1. 'Without (being able to) succeed, he goes 
forward :' — this is an error. 

2. 'Though hostile measures be taken against 
him, he need not be anxious:' — he pursues the 
course of the due mean. 

3. 'The superior man looks bent on cutting off 
the culprit :' — there will in the end be no error. 

4. ' He walks slowly and with difficulty :' — he is 
not in the place appropriate to him. 

' He hears these words, but does not believe 
them :' — he hears, but does not understand. 

5. 'If his action be in harmony with his central 

it more commonly does, wind. Thunder and wind, it is sup- 
posed, increase each the other; and their combination gives the 
idea of increase. Then the application, good in itself, must be 
treated very nicely, as it is by the Khang-hst editors, in order to 
make out any connexion between it and the Symbolism. 

Paragraph i. ' One in a low position should not move in great 
affairs ;' — not a son, it is said, while his father is alive ; nor a min- 
ister, while his ruler governs ; nor a member of an oflScial depart- 
ment, while its head directs its afiiurs. If such a one do initiate 
such an affair, only great success will excuse his rashness. 

Paragraph 2. Line 5 is the proper correlate of 2 ; and its subject 
will be among the contributing parties. But others 'beyond' will 
be won to take part with him. 

Paragraph 3. There is a soul of good even in men who seem 
only evil ; and adversity may quicken it 

Paragraph 6. As in line 2 the attractive power of benevolence 
is shown, so in line 6 we have the repulsive power of selfishness 
exhibited. Mark the ' from beyond ' in both paragraphs. 



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HEX. 44. APPENDIX 11. 321 

position, there will be no error :' — but his standing 
in the due mean is not yet clearly displayed. 

6. ' There is the misery of having none on whom 
to call :' — the end will be that he cannot continue 
any longer. 

XLIV. (The trigram representing) wind and that 
for the sky above it form Kiu. The sovereign, 
in accordance with this, delivers his charges, and 
promulgates his announcements throughout the four 
quarters (of the kingdom). 

I. ' Tied and fastened to a metal drag :' — (this 



XLIII. We can only understand the mounting of the waters of 
a marsh up into the sky of the phenomenon of evaporation ; and 
certainly the waters so formed into clouds will be condensed, and 
come down again as rain. This may be taken as an image of 
dispersion, but not of displacement in the sense of the Text of the 
hexagram. 

The first clause of the application follows naturally enough from 
the above interpretation of the SymboUsm. A'ft Hsl says he does 
not understand the second clause. Many critics adopt the view 
of it which appears in the translation. 

Paragraph 2 does not mention the precautionary measures taken 
in the Text by the subject of the line, from which the conclusion 
would follow quite as naturally as from his central position. The 
Khang-hst editors, however, say that the not having recourse 
lightly to force is itself the due course. 

Line 3 responding, and alone of all the strong lines responding 
to 6, may appear at first irresolute, and not prepared for decided 
measures; but 'in the end' its subject does what is required 
of him. 

The contiguity of line 5 to the divided 6, is supposed to have some 
bad effect on its subject, so that \^hiIe he does what his central 
position requires, it is not without an effort. 'If a man,' says 
jXTAing-jze, * cherish a single illicit desire in his mind, he has left 
the right way. The admonition here conveyed is deep.' 

[16] Y 



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322 THE APPENDIXES. SKCT. ri. 

describes the arrest of) the weak (line) in its ad- 
vancing course. 

2. ' He has a wallet of fish :' — it is right for him 
not to allow (the subject of the first line) to get to 
the guests. 

3. 'He walks with difficulty:' — but his steps 
have not yet been drawn (into the course of the first 
line). 

4. 'The evil' indicated by there being 'no fish 
in the wallet ' is owing to (the subject of the line) 
keeping himself aloof from the people. 

5. ' The subject of the fifth line, undivided, keeps 
his brilliant qualities concealed:' — as is indicated 
by his central and correct position. 

' (The good issue) descends (as) from Heaven :' — 
his aim does not neglect the ordinances (of Heaven). 

6. ' He receives others on his horns :' — he is 
exhausted at his greatest height, and there will be 
cause for regret. 

XLIV. Wind, blowing all-under the sky, penetrates eveiywhere, 
and produces its natural effect; and it is a good application of 
this phenomenon that follows ; but it has nothing to do with the 
meaning of KSu and the interpretation of the hexagram, as taught 
in the Text. The Khang-hsl editors perceive this, and deal with 
the Symbolism after a method of their own, on which it is unne- 
cessary to enter. 

Paragraph i. My supplement, * This describes the arrest of,' is 
a conclusion from the whole of the Text on the line. All the com- 
mentaries have it. 

In the ' Daily Lecture' it is said that the lesson of paragraph 2 
is that ' the subject of the line should make the represaon of i his 
own exclusive work, and not allow it to pass on to the subject of 
any of the other lines.' That view is rather different from the one 
indicated in my supplement 

' His steps have not been drawn into the course of the first 



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HEX. 45. APPENDIX II, 323 

XLV. (The trigram representing the) earth and 
that for the waters of a marsh raised above it form 
3hui. The superior man, in accordance with this, 
has his weapons of war put in good repair, to be 
prepared against unforeseen contingencies. 

1. 'In consequence disorder is brought into the 
sphere of his union :' — his mind and aim are thrown 
into confusion. 

2. ' He is led forward ; there will be good fortune, 
and freedom from error:' — (the virtue proper to) 
his central place has not undergone any change. 

3. ' If he go forward, he will not err:' — in the 
subject of the topmost line there is humility and 
condescension. 

4. ' If he be grandly fortunate, he will receive no 
blame :' — (this condition is necessary, because) his 
position is not the one proper to him. 

5. ' There is the union (of all) under him in the 
place of dignity :' — (but) his mind and aim have not 
yet been brilliantly displayed. 

Kne:' — we have to supply, 'and therefore there will be no great 
error.' 

Paragraph 4. See what is said on the Text. But that the subject 
of the line stands alone is owing, it is here implied, to his own 
impatience. If he could exercise forbearance, he would find a 
proper opportunity to check the advance of the subject of line i. 

The subject of line 5, while mindful of his task in the hexagram,— 
to repress the advance symbolised by i, — ^yet keeps his wise plans 
concealed till the period of carrying them into execution, deter- 
mined by the ordinances of Heaven, has arrived. Then comes 
the successful stroke of his policy as if it were directly from Heaven. 

The subject of line 6 really accomplishes nothing to repress the 
advance of the unworthy ; but he keeps himself from evil commu- 
nication with them. He is not to be charged with blameable error, 
though more and better might have been expected of him. 

Y 2 



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324 THE APPENDIXES. SECT. 11. 

6. ' He sighs and weeps :' — he does not yet rest 
in his topmost position. 

XLVI. (The trigram representing) wood and that 
for the earth with the wood growing in the midst 
of it form Shing. The superior man, in accord- 
ance with this, pays careful attention to his virtue, 
and accumulates the small developments of it till it 
is high and great. 

1. ' He is welcomed in his advance upwards, and 
there will be great good fortune:' — (the subjects 
of) the upper (trigram) are of the same mind with 
him. 

2. ' The sincerity of the subject of the second 
line, undivided,' affords occasion for joy. 

3. * He advances upwards (as into) an empty 
city :' — he has no doubt or hesitation. 

4. ' The king employs him to prevent his offerings 
on mount Kh\ :' — such a service (of spiritual Beings) 
is according to (their mind). 

XLV. What has this Great Symbolism to do with the idea and 
preservation of union ? The question is answered in this way : — 
A marsh whose waters are high up above the earth must be kept 
in by banks and dykes, to keep them together, to preserve them from 
being dispersed. So the union of a people must be preserved by 
precautions against what would disturb and destroy it Of such pre- 
cautions the chief is to be prepared to resist attack from without, 
and to put down internal sedition. 

Paragraph 3. The topmost line is the last in Tui, whose attri- 
bute is complacent satisfaction, appearing in flexibility or docility. 

Paragraph 5. ' His mind and aim have not yet been brilliantly 
displayed :' — this is in explanation of the case that some may 
even still not have confidence in him. 

Paragraph 6. The topmost position is that of the trigram ; the 
subject of the line might bid farewell to all the work of the hexa- 
gram ; but he cannot bear to do so. 



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HEX. 47. APPENDIX II. 325 

5. ' He is firmly correct, and will therefore enjoy 
good fortune. He ascends the stairs (with all due 
ceremony) :' — he grandly succeeds in his aim. 

6. 'He blindly advances upwards/ and is in the 
highest place : — but there is decay in store for him, 
and he will not (preserve) his riches. 

XLVn. (The trigram representing) a marsh, 
and (below it that for a defile, which has drained 
the other dry so that there is) no water in it, form 
KhwSn. The superior man, in accordance with 
this, will sacrifice his life in order to carry out his 
purpose. 

1. 'He enters a dark valley:* — so bemghted is 
he, and without clear vision. 

2. ' He is straitened amidst his wine and 
viands:' — (but) his position is central, and there 
will be ground for congratulation. 

XL VI. See what has been said on the Great Symbolism in 
Appendix I. The application which is made of it here may be 
accepted, though it has nothing to do with the teaching of the 
Text about the gradual rise of a good oflScer to high social distinc- 
tion and influence. 

Paragraph i . Instead of finding in this the three lines of Kh wiln 
and their subjects, if^&ng-jze makes 'the upper' denote only 
line 2. 

Paragraph 2. The subject of line 2 in his loyal devotion to 5, 
will do much good and benefit many ; hence we have the words, 
' affords occasion for joy.' 

Paragraph 3. ' He has no doubt or hesitation :' — but this is pre- 
suming rather on his strength. 

Paragraph 4. The Khang-hsl editors say : — ' Such an employ- 
ment of men of worth to do service to spiritual Beings is serving 
them according to their mind.' 

Paragraph 6. When one has reached the greatest height, he 
should think of retiring. Ambition otherwise may overle:^;) itself. 



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326 THE APPENDIXES. SECT. ir. 

3. • He lays hold of thorns :' — (this is suggested 
by the position of the line) above the strong (line). 

' He enters his palace, and does not see his 
wife :' — this is inauspicious. 

4. ' He proceeds very slowly (to help the subject 
of the first line):' — his aim is directed to (help) that 
lower (line). Although he is not in his appropriate 
place, he and that other will (in the end) be 
together. 

5. ' His nose and feet are cut off:' — his aim has 
not yet been gained. 

' He is leisurely, however, in his movements, and 
is satisfied :' — his position is central and (his virtue) 
is correct. 

' It will be well for him to be (as sincere as) in 
sacrificing:' — so shall he receive blessing. 

6. * He is straitened as if bound with creepers :' — 
(his spirit and action) are unsuitable. 

' (He says), " If I move, I shall repent of it" 
And he does repent (of former errors), which leads 
to good fortune :' — so he (now) goes on. 



XL VII. The first sentence of the Great Symbolism is constructed 
diflferently from any which has presented itself in the previous 46 
hexagrams. Literally translated, it would be ' a marsh with no 
water is Khwin;' and this might certainly suggest to us a con- 
dition of distress. But how does this come out of the trigrams ? 
The upper one is Tui, representing a marsh ; and the lower is 
Khin, representing water in a defile. The collocation of the two 
suggests the running of the water from the marsh or lake into the 
stream, which will soon empty the other. Such is the view which 
occurred to myself; and it is t\\p same as that given by JTft 
Hst : — ' The water descending and leaking away, the marsh above 
will become dry.' The application is good in itself, but the con- 
catenation between it and the Symbolism is hardly discernible. 



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HEX. 48. APPENDIX II. 327 

XLVIII. (The trigram representing) wood and 
above it that for water form 3ing. The superior 
man, in accordance with this, comforts the people, 
and stimulates them to mutual helpfulness. 

1. 'A well so muddy that men will not drink of 
it:' — this is indicated by the low position (of the 
line). 

' An old well to which the birds do not come :' — 
it has been forsaken in the course of time. 

2. ' A well from which by a hole the water 
escapes, and flows away to the shrimps:' — (the 
subject of this second line has) none co-operating 
with him (above). 

3. ' The well has been cleared out, but is not 
used :' — (even) passers-by would be sorry for this. 

A prayer is made ' that the king were intelli- 
gent :' — for then blessing would be received. 

4. ' A well the lining of which is well laid. There 
will be no error :' — the well has been put in good 
repair. 

5. ' The waters from the cold spring are (freely) 
drunk :' — this is indicated by the central and correct 
position (of the line). 

6. ' The great good fortune' at the topmost place 

So stupid is the subject of line i that by his own act he increases 
his diltress. 

The Khang-hst editors say that the ' ground for congratulation 
in paragraph 2 is the banqueting and sacrificing.' I raiher think 
it is the measure of help, which it is intimated the subject will 
give in removing the straitness and distress of the time. 

See the extract from the KLhang-hsi editors on the symbolism of 
the third line of the Text. 

The difficulties attending the symbolism of the Text of lines 4, 
5, and 6 are not lightened by what we find in this Appendix. 



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328 THE APPENDIXES. SECT. ir. 

indicates the grand accomplishment (of the idea 
in the hexagram). 

XLIX. (The trigram representing the waters of) 
a marsh and that for fire in the midst of them form 
Ko. The superior man, in accordance with this, 
regulates his (astronomical) calculations, and makes 
clear the seasons and times. 

1. ' He is bound with (the skin of) a yellow 
ox :' — he should in his circumstances be taking 
action. 

2. ' He makes his changes when some time has 
passed:' — what he does will be matter of admira- 
tion. 

3. ' The change (contemplated) has been three 
times fully discussed:' — to what else should atten- 
tion (now) be directed ? 

4. 'The good fortune consequent on changing 
(existing) ordinances ' is due to the faith reposed in 
his aims. 

5. 'The great man produces his changes as the 
tiger does when he changes his stripes:' — their 
beauty becomes more brilliant. 

KLVIII. The Great Symbolism here may well enough represent 
a well, it being understood that the water which is above the wood 
is that raised by it for irrigation and other uses. What is said, 
moreover, in the application is more akin to the idea of the hexa- 
gram than in most of the other cases. It is certainly one way in 
which the ruler should nourish the people. 

It is said on paragraph i : — ' Those who have a mind to do 
something in the world, when they look at this line, and its sym- 
bolism, will learn how they ought to exert themselves.' 

Rather in opposition to what I have said on the Text of line 4, 
the ' Daily Lecture' observes here : — ' The cultivation of one's self, 
which is represented here,, is fundamental to the government of 
others.' 



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Hex. 50. APPENDIX II. 329 

6. ' The superior man produces his changes as 
the leopard does when he changes his spots :' — their 
beauty becomes more elegant. 

' Small men change their faces :' — they show 
themselves prepared to follow their ruler. 

L. (The trigram representing) wood and above 
it that for fire form Ting. The superior man, in 
accordance with this, keeps his every position correct, 
and maintains secure the appointment (of Heaven). 

1. ' The caldron is overturned, and its feet turned 
upwards:' — but this is not (all) contrary (to what is 
right). 

' There will be advantage in getting rid of what 
was bad:' — thereby (the subject of the line) will 
follow the more noble (subject of the fourth line). 

2. 'There is the caldron with the things (to be 
cooked) in it:' — let (the subject of the line) be 
careful where he goes. 

' My enemy dislikes me :* — but there will in the 
end be no fault (to which he can point). 

3. ' There is the caldron with (the places for) its 



XLIX. Wise men, occupying themselves with the determination 
of the seasons and questions of time, have in all ages based their 
judgments on the observation of the heavenly bodies. We find this 
insisted on in the first book of the Shft, by the ancient Ydo. But 
how this application of the Great Symbolism really flows from it, 
I must confess myself unable to discover. Once, however, when 
I was conversing about the Yt with a high Chinese dignitary, who 
was a well-read scholar also so far as his own literature was con- 
cerned, he referred to this paragraph as proving that all our western 
science had been known to Ffl-hsl and Confucius ! 

What is said on the several lines is sufficiently illustrated in the 
notes on the Text. 



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330 THE APPENDIXES. SECT. 11. 

ears changed :' — (its subject) has failed in what was 
required of him (in his situation). 

4. ' The contents designed for the ruler's use are 
overturned and spilt : ' — how can (the subject of the 
line) be trusted ? 

5. 'The caldron has yellow ears:' — the central 
position (of the line) is taken as (a proof of) the solid 
(virtue of its subject). 

6. ' The rings of jade ' are at the very top : — the 
strong and the weak meet in their due proportions. 

LI. (The trigram representing) thunder, being re- 
peated, forms A'an. The superior man, in accordance 
with this, is fearful and apprehensive, cultivates (his 
virtue), and examines (his faults). 

<i. 'When the (time of) movement comes, he will 
be found looking out with apprehension:' — that 
feeling of dread leads to happiness. 

L. The Great Symbolism here has come before us in the 
treatise on the Thwan. Of the application of that symbolism 
I can only say that, as has been seen in many other hexagrams, 
while good enough in itself, it is far-fetched. 

The same remark may be made on the explanation of the Text 
of the first line. I can myself do Uttle more than guess at its 
meaning. The Khang-hst editors observe that nothing is said 
about the case of the 'concubine' in the Text; but that it is 
covered by the 'following the more noble,' 'so condensed and 
complete are the words of the sage T 

The same editors find a pregnant sense in the conclusion of 
paragraph 2 : — ' There will be no fault in me to which my enemy 
can point, and his disposition to find fault will be diminished.' 

' What was required of the caldron in the third line was that that 
line and line 5, instead of 6, should be correlates;' but there is 
little meaning in such a statement. 

The subject of line 4 cannot be trusted again. He has failed in 
doing what was his proper work. 



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HEX. S3. APPENDIX 11. 331 

'He yet smiles and talks cheerfully:' — the issue 
(of his dread) is that he adopts (proper) laws (for his 
course). 

2. ' When the movement approaches, he is in a 
position of peril:' — (a weak line) is mounted on 
a strong (one). 

3. ' He is distraught amid the startling move- 
ments going on :' — (the third line) is in a position 
unsuitable to it 

4. 'Amid the startling movements, he sinks su- 
pinely in the mud : ' — the light in him has not yet 
been brilliantly developed. 

5. 'He goes and comes amid the startling move- 
ments, and (always) in peril :' — full of risk are his 
doings. 

' What he has to do has to be done in his central 
position : ' — far will he be from incurring any loss. 

6. 'Amid the startling movements he is in breath- 
less dismay :' — he has not found out (the course of) 
the due mean. 

'Though evil (threatens), he will not fall into 
error :' — he is afraid of being warned by his neigh- 
bours, 

LH. (Two trigrams representing) a mountain, one 
over the other, form K5.n. The superior man, in 

LI. The account of the Great Symbolism here calls for no 
remark. Nor does the application of it ; but may it not be too 
late to fear, and order anew one's thoughts and actions when the 
retributions in providence are taking place? Commentators are 
haunted by the shadow of this question'; but they are unable rightly 
to meet it. 

Paragraph i is the same as a in Appendix I. 

Paragraph 4. Compare paragraph 4 of hexagram 2 1, Appendix II. 



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332 THE APPENDIXES. SECT. 11. 

accordance with this, does not go in his thoughts 
beyond the (duties of the) position in which he is. 

1. 'He keeps his toes at rest :' — he does not fail 
in what is correct (according to the idea of the 
figure). 

2. 'He cannot help him whom he follows:' — 
(he whom he follows) will not retreat to listen 
to him. 

3. ' He keeps the loins at rest :' — the danger 
(from his doing so) produces a glowing heat in the 
heart 

4. ' He keeps the trunk of his body at rest :' — he 
keeps himself free (from agitation). 

5. ' He keeps his cheek bones at rest:' — in har- 
mony with his central position he acts correctly. 

6. ' There is good fortune through his devotedly 
maintaining his restfubiess :' — to the end he shows 
himself generous and good. 



LII. According to the view of the Khang-hs! editors, the 
application should be translated : — ' The superior man, in accord- 
ance with this, thinks anxiously how he shall not go beyond the 
duties of his position.' It is difiBcult to decide between this 
shade of the meaning, and the more common one which 1 have 
followed. 

The toes play a great part in walking ; but they are here kept 
at rest, and so do not lose the correct idea of Kin. 

There is no correlation between lines 2 and 3, and thence the sub- 
ject of 3 will hold on its upward way without condescending to 3. 

^ii&ng-jze finds an unsatisfactory auspice in paragraph 4. Line 
4 represents a great minister who should be able to guide all to 
rest where they ought to be ; but he can only keep himself from 
agitation. 

Yu Pin (Ming dynasty) says on paragraph 5 : — ' Words should 
not be uttered rashly. Then, when uttered, they wiU be found 



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HEX, S3. APPENDIX 11. 333 

LI 1 1. (The trigram representing) a mountain and 
above it that for a tree form A'ien. The superior 
man, in accordance with this, attains to and main- 
tains his extraordinary virtue, and makes the man- 
ners of the people good. 

1. ' The danger of a small officer (as represented 
in the first line)' is owing to no fault of his in the 
matter of what is right. 

2. ' They eat and drink joyfully and at ease :' — 
but not without having earned their food. 

3. 'A husband goes and does not return:' — he 
separates himself from his comrades. 

'A wife is pregnant, but will not nourish her 
child :' — she has failed in her (proper) course. 

'It might be advantageous in resisting plun- 
derers:' — by acting as here indicated men would 
preserve one another. 

4. ' They may light on the flat branches :' — there 
is docility (in the line) going on to flexible pene- 
tration. 

5. * In the end the natural issue cannot be pre- 
vented. There will be good fortune :' — (the subject 
of the line) will get what he desires. 

6. ' Their feathers can be used as ornaments. 
There will be good fortune :' — (the object and 
character of the subject of the line) cannot be 
disturbed. 

accordant with principle. But it is only the master of the virtue 
belonging to the due mean who can attain to this.' 

LIII. The Khang-hst editors, to bring out the suitability of 
the Great Symbolism and its application, say : — ' A tree springing 
up on the ground is a tree as it begins to grow. A tree on a hill 
is high and large. Every tree when it begins to grow, shows its 



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334 THE APPENDIXES, SECT. II. 

LIV. (The trigram representing the waters of) a 
marsh and over it that for thunder form Kwei Met 
The superior man, in accordance with this, having 
regard to the far-distant end, knows the mischief 
(that may be done at the beginning), 

1. ' The younger sister is married off in a position 
ancillary to that of the real wife:' — it is the constant 
practice (for such a case). 

' Lame on one leg, she is able to tramp along :' — 
she can render helpful service. 

2. ' There will be advantage in maintaining the 
firm correctness of a solitary widow:' — (the subject of 

branches and twigs gradually becoming long. Every morning and 
every evening show some difference; and when the tree is high and 
great, whether it be of an ordinary or extraordinary size, it has 
taken years to reach its dimensions. This illustrates the difference 
between the advance in Shing (46) and that in A^ien. Then the 
maintenance of extraordinary virtue in the application and the 
improvement of manners is a gradual process. The improve- 
ment of the manners, moreover, flows from the maintenance of 
the extraordinary virtue; which implies also a gradual operation 
and progress.' 

Paragraph i. The danger is the result of circumstances; the 
small officer has not brought it on himself. 

Paragraph 2. Only the geese appear in this paragraph ; but the 
"writer is thinking of the advancing officer. I cannot but think 
that in the language and sentiment also there is an echo of the 
Shih King, I, ix, ode 6. 

The ' separation from his comrades ' has respect to line 3 not 
finding its correlate in 6. ' The wife's failing in her proper course ' 
lias respect to the line being undivided and not in the centre. 

A'^&ng-jze says, on paragraph 4, that humility and right-doing 
will find rest and peace in all places and circumstances. 

Paragraph 5. ' The natural issue caimot be prevented :' — the wife 
will have a child ; minister and ruler will meet happily. 

Paragraph 6. See on the Text But it is difficult to see the 
aptness of the symboUsm. 



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HKX.55- APPENDIX II. 335 

the line) has not changed from the constancy (proper 
to a wife). 

3. ' The younger sister who was to be married off 
is in a mean position :' — this is shown by the impro- 
prieties (indicated in the Hne). 

4. (The purpose in) ' protracting the time ' is that, 
after waiting, the thing may be done (all the better). 

5. ' The sleeves of the younger sister of (king) 
Tf-yl, when she was married away, were not equal 
to those of her (half-) sister, who accompanied her :' — 
such was her noble character, indicated by the cen- 
tral position of the line. 

6. '(What is said in) the sixth line, divided, about 
there being nothing in the basket ' shows that the 
subject of it is carrying an empty basket 

LV. (The trigrams representing) thunder and 
lightning combine to form FSng. The superior 
man, in accordance with this, decides cases of liti- 
gation, and apportions punishments with exactness. 

I. ' Though they are both of the same character, 
there will be no error:' — if the subject of this 

LIV. Thunder rolling above is supposed to produce movement 
in the waters of the marsh below. The combination of this 
symbolism in Kwei Mei is recognised as an evil omen in the 
case which the name denotes. The application of k is not in- 
appropriate. 

Paragraph i. 'It is the constant practice (for such a case)' 
eeems to mean that an ancillary wife has no right to the disposition 
of herself, but must do what she is told. Thus it is that the mean 
position of the younger sister does not interfere with the service 
she can render. 

The addition to the Text of ' the purpose ' in paragraph 4 is to 
show that the putting marriage off is on the part of the lady and 
not on the other side. 



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336 THE APPENDIXES. SECT. 11. 

line seek to overpass that similarity, there will be 
calamity. 

2. ' Let him cherish his feeling of sincere devo- 
tion, that it shall appear being put forth:' — it is by 
sincerity that the mind is affected. 

3. ' There is an (additional) screen of a large 
and thick banner :' — great things should not be 
attempted (in such circumstances). 

' He breaks his right arm :' — in the end he will 
not be fit to be employed. 

4. ' He is surrounded by a screen large and 
thick:' — the position of the line is inappropriate. 

'At midday he sees the constellation of the 
Bushel :' — there is darkness and no light. 

' He meets with the subject of the line, undivided 
like himself There will be good fortune :' — action 
may be taken. 

5. ' The good fortune indicated by the fifth line, 
divided,' is the cong^ratulation (that is sure to arise). 

6. ' He has made his house large :' — he soars (in. 
his pride) to the heavens. 

' He looks at his door, which is still, with no one 
about it:' — he (only) keeps himself withdrawn from 
all others. 

LV. Lightning appears here as the natural phenomenon of 
which Lt is the symbol The virtues attributed to the two trigrams 
are certainly required in the application of them which is subjoined; 
but that application has little or nothing to do with the explanation 
of the hexagram supplied by the Text 

I hardly understand the conclusion of paragraph i. My trans- 
lation of it is according to the view of ATft Hst, if I rightly under- 
stand that. 

Paragraph a. It is by such sincerity that the mind is affected, — 
that is, the mind of the ruler occupying line 5. 



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HEX. 56. APPENDIX 11. 337 

LVI. (The trigram representing) a mountain and 
above it that for fire form Lu. The superior man, 
in accordance with this, exerts his wisdom and 
caution in the use of punishments and not allowing 
litigations to continue. 

1. 'The stranger is mean and meanly occu- 
pied :' — his aim is become of the lowest character, 
and calamity will' ensue. 

2. ' He is provided with good and trusty ser- 
vants:' — he will in the end have nothing of which 
to complain. 

3. ' The stranger burns his lodgfing-house :' — and 
he himself also suffers hurt thereby. When, as a 
stranger, he treats those below him (as the line 
indicates), the right relation between him and them 
is lost 

4. ' The stranger is in a resting-place :' — but he 
has not got his proper position. 

' He has the means of livelihood, and the axe :' — 
but his mind is not at ease. 

5. * In the end he will obtain praise and a (high) 
charge : ' — he has reached a high place. 

6. ' Considering that the stranger is here at the 
very height (of distinction),' with the spirit that 
possesses him, it is right he (should be emblemed 
by a bird) burning (its nest). 

Line 3 has a correlate in 6, which is weak, and as it were out 
of the game. The light in 3 moreover is hidden. Hence the 
symbolism ; and through the blindness of its subject his hurt, which 
unfits him to be employed. 

The line undivided like 4 is i ; perhaps we might translate — 
' He meets with the subject of the parallel line.' 

No one but himself has any confidence in the subject of line 6. He 
holds himself aloof from others, and they leave him to himself. 
[16] Z 



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338 THE APPENDIXES. SECT. II. 

' He loses his ox(-like docility) too readily and 
easily:' — to the end he would not listen to (the 
truth about the course to be pursued). 

LVII. (Two trigrams representing) wind, follow- 
ing each other, form Sun. The superior man, in 
accordance with this, reiterates his orders, and secures 
the practice of his affairs. 

I. ' (Now) he advances, (now) he recedes :' — his 
mind is perplexed. 

' It would be advantageous for him to have the 

LVI. Different attempts are made to bring the idea of a 
travelling stranger out of the trigrams K^n and Lt; but none 
of them is satisfactory. Let Khung Ying-ti's view serve as a 
specimen of them : — ' A fire on a mountain lays hold of the grass, 
and runs with it over the whole space, not stopping anywhere long, 
and soon disappearing ; — such is the emblem of the traveller.' The 
application may be derived well enough from the attributes of the 
trigrams ; but does not fit in with the lessons of the Thwan and 
Hsiang. 

The meanness of the subject of line i does not arise from the 
nature of his occupation ; but from his lAind and aim being emptied 
of all that is good and ennobling. 

Strong and trusty servants are the most important condition for 
the comfort and progress of the traveller ; and therefore ft alone is 
resumed and expanded. 

The subject of line 3 treats those below him with violence and 
arrogance, which of course alienates them from him. 

' He has not got into his proper position' seems to say no more 
than that 4 is a strong line in an even place. 

It is difficult to say what ' he has reached a high place' means. 
The fifth line is not in this hexagram the ruler's seat ; but by his 
qualities and gifts the subject of it attracts the attention and regard 
of his friends and of his ruler. 

The spirit that possesses the subject of line 6 is one of haughty 
arrogance, with which the humility that ought to characterise him 
cannot co-exist His careless self-sufficiency has shut his mind 
against all lessons of wisdom. 



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HEX, 5?. APPENDIX II. 339 

firmness of a brave soldier:' — his mind would in 
that case be well governed. 

2. ' The good fortune springing from what bor- 
ders on confusion' is due to the position (of the 
line) in the centre. 

3. 'The regret arising from die violent and 
repeated efforts to penetrate ' shows the exhaustion 
of the will. 

4. ' He takes game in his hunting, enough for the 
threefold use of it :' — he achieves merit 

5. ' The good fortune of (the subject of) the fifth 
line, undivided,' is owing to its correct position and 
its being in the centre. 

6. ' The representative of penetration is beneath 
a couch :' — though occupying the topmost place, his 
powers are exhausted. 

' He has lost the axe with which he executed his 
decisions :' — though he try to be correct, there will 
be evil. 

LVII. I have said on the Thwan that some commentators make 
the upper trigram symbolical of the ordinances of the ruler and the 
lower symbolical of the obedience of the people. E. g., A'Aing-jze 
says : — ' Superiors, in harmony with the duty of inferiors, issue their 
commands ; inferiors, in harmony with the wishes of their supe- 
riors, follow them. Above and below there are that harmony and 
deference; and this is the significance of the redoubled Sun. When 
governmental commands and business are in accordance with what 
is right, they agree with the tendencies of the minds of the people 
who follow them.' 

Paragraph 2 seems to say that the sincerity of purpose indicated 
by the central position of the second line conducts its subject to 
the right course, despite the many considerations that might dis- 
tract him. 

' The will is exhausted' in paragraph 3 intimates that ' the repeated 
efforts' made by its subject have exhausted him. He can now only 
regret his failures. 

Z 2 



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340 THE APPENDIXES. SECT. n. 

LVIII. (Two symbols representing) the waters 
of a marsh, one over the other, form Tui. The 
superior man, in accordance with this, (encourages) 
the conversation of friends and (the stimulus of) 
their (common) practice. 

1. ' The good fortune attached to the pleasure 
of (inward) harmony ' arises from there being nothing 
in the conduct (of the subject of the line) to awaken 
doubt. 

2. 'The good fortune attached to the pleasure 
arising from (inward sincerity)' is due to the confi- 
dence felt in the object (of the subject of the line). 

3. ' The evil predicated of one's bringing around 
himself whatever can give pleasure' is shown by 
the inappropriateness of the place (of the line). 

4. ' The joy in connexion with (the subject of) 
the fourth line, undivided,' is due to the happiness 
(which he will produce). 

5. 'He trusts in one who would injure him:' — 
his place is that which is correct and appropriate. 

6. ' The topmost line, divided, shows the pleasure 
(of its subject) in leading and attracting others :' — 
his (virtue) is not yet brilliant. 

What is said in paragraph 6 proceeds on a different view of the 
Text from that which I have followed. 

LVIII. The application of the Great Symbolism here will recall 
to many readers the Hebrew maxims in Proverbs xxvii. 17, 19. The 
sentiment of it, however, does not readily fit in to the teaching of 
the hexagram as set forth in the Text. 

There is nothing in the conduct of the subject of line i to awaken 
suspicion. He has as yet taken no action ; but it was not neces- 
sary to say anything like this about the subject of line 3, his central 
position being an assurance that he would never do anything of a 
doubtful character. 



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HEX. 59- APPENDIX II. 341 

LIX. (The trigram representing) water and that 
for wind moving above the water form Hwin. 
The ancient kings, in accordance with this, presented 
offerings to God and established the ancestral temple. 

1. ' The good fortune attached to the first line, 
divided,' is due to the natural course (pursued by its 
subject). 

2. 'Amidst the prevailing dispersion, he hurries 
to his contrivance (for security) :' — he gets what he 
desires. 

3. ' He has no regard to his own person : ' — his 
aim is directed to what is external to himself. 

4. * He scatters the (different) parties (in the 
state), and there is great good fortune:' — brilliant 
and great (are his virtue and service). 

5. ' The accumulations of the royal (granaries) are 
dispersed, and there is no error:' — this is due to 
the correctness of the position. 

6. 'His bloody wounds are gone:' — he is far 
removed from the danger of injury. 

Line 3 should be strong, and the desire of pleasure which is the 
idea of the hexagram leads its weak subject to the course which is 
so emphatically condemned. 

Paragraph 5 is incomplete. Does the correctness and appropri- 
ateness of the position of the subject of the line afiford any expla- 
nation of his trusting the subject of the weak line above, who would 
only injure him ? It ought to keep him on the contrary from doing 
so. The commentators have seen this, and say that the paragraph 
is intended by way of caution. 

The action of the hexagram should culminate and end in line 5. 
But the subject of it has not made brilliant attainment in the 
firmness and correctness by which the love of pleasure should be 
controlled. 

LIX. The 'in accordance with this' must be equivalent to — 'to 
remedy the state of things thus symbolised.' What follows certainly 



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342 THE APPENDIXES. SECT. U. 

LX. (The trigram representing) a lake, and above 
it that for water, form Kieh. The superior man, 
in accordance with this, constructs his (methods of) 
numbering and measurement, and discusses (points 
of) virtue and conduct. 

1. 'He does not quit the courtyard outside his 
door :' — he knows when he has free course and 
when he is obstructed. 

2. ' He does not quit the courtyard inside his 
gate. There will be evil :' — he loses the time (for 
action) to an extreme degree. 

3. In 'the lamentation for not observing the 
(proper) regfulations,' who should there be to blame ? 

4. ' The progress and success of the quiet and 
natural (attention) to all regulations' is due to the 
deference which accepts the ways of (the ruler) 
above. 

5. ' The good fortune arising from the regulations 
enacted sweetly and acceptably ' is due to (the line) 



amounts to this, that the ancient kings considered the services of 
religion, sincerely and earnestly attended to, as calculated to counter- 
act the tendency to mutual alienation and selfishness in the minds 
of men. How they operated to have this beneficial effect we are 
not told. Nor is it easy to account for the extension of what is said 
in the Text about the establishment of the ancestral temple to the 
presentation also of offerings to God. Probably the writer had the 
same idea in his mind as in the Great Symbolism of hexagram 
16, q.v. 

'The natural course' pursued by the subject of line 1 is, pro- 
bably, that required by the time. 

' What the subject of line 2 desired' would be his success in 
counteracting the prevailing tendency to disunion. 

The view given of paragraph 5 is that propounded by ATfl Hsi. 

For paragraph 6 see the note on line 6 under the Text. 



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HEX. 6i. APPENDIX II. 343 

occupying the place (of authority) and being in the 
centre. 

6. 'The regulations are severe and difficult. 
Even with firm correctness there will be evil :' — the 
course (indicated by the hexagpiam) is come to an 
end. 

LXI. (The trigram representing the waters of) 
a marsh and that for wind above it form A'ung FCl. 
The superior man, in accordance with this, deli- 
berates about cases of litigation and delays (the 
infliction of) death. 

1. ' The first line, undivided, shows its subject 
resting (in himself). There will be good fortune : ' — 
no change has yet come over his purpose. 

2. ' Her young ones respond to her:' — from the 
(common) wish of the inmost heart. 

3. ' Now he beats his drum, and now he leaves 
off:' — the position (of the line) is the appropriate 
one for it. 

LX. Various explanations of the Great Symbolism have been 
attempted. E. g., A'^ing-jze says : — ' The water which a lake or 
marsh will contain is limited to a certain quantity. If the water 
flowing in exceed that, it overflows. This gives us the idea of 
A'ieh.' What is found on the application of it is to my mind equally 
unsatisfactory. 

The subject of line i knows when he might have free course and 
when he is obstructed, and acts accordingly. He is regulated by a 
consideration of the time. 

The subject of line i ought not to act, and he is still. The sub- 
ject of line 2 ought to act, and he also is still. The error and the 
effect of it are great. 

The subject of line 3 shows by his lamentation how he blames 
himself. 

The other three paragraphs are sufficiently explained in what is 
said on the Text. 



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344 THE APPENDIXES. SECT. ir. 

4. 'A horse the fellow of which disappears:' — 
he breaks from his (former) companions, and mounts 
upwards. 

5. ' He is perfectly sincere, and links others to 
him in closest union :' — the place (of the line) is the 
correct and appropriate one. 

6. ' Chanticleer (tries to) mount to heaven :' — but 
how can (such an effort) continue long ? 

LXII. (The trigram representing) a hill and that 
for thunder above it form Hsiio Kwo. The 
superior man, in accordance with this, in his conduct 
exceeds in humility, in mourning exceeds in sorrow, 
and in his expenditure exceeds in economy. 

1. ' There is a bird flying (and ascending) till the 
result is evil :' — nothing can be done to avoid this 
issue. 

2. 'He does not attempt to reach his ruler :' — 

LXI. Dissatisfied with previous attempts to explain the Great 
Symbolism, the Khang-hsl editors say: — 'The wind penetrates 
things. The grass and trees of the level ground are shaken and 
tossed by it ; the rocky valleys and caverns in their sides have it 
blowing round about them ; and it acts also on the depths of the 
collected waters, the cold of which disappears and the ice is melted 
before it. This is what makes it the emblem of that perfect sincerity 
which penetrates everywhere. The litigations of the people are like 
the deep and dark places of the earth. The kings examine with 
discrimination into all secret matters connected with them, even 
those which are here mentioned, till there is nothing that is not 
penetrated by their perfect sincerity.' But all this is gready strained. 
The symbolism of the eight trigrams gets pretty well played out in 
the course of the 64 hexagrams. 

1. ' No change has come over the purpose:' — the sincerity, that 
is, perfect in itself and of itself, continues. 

2. One bond of loving regard unites the mother bird and her 
young ; so answers the heart of man to man. 



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HEX. 63. APPENDIX II. 345 

a minister should not overpass the distance (be-- 
tween his ruler and himself). 

3. 'Some in consequence find opportunity to 
assail and injure him. There will be evil:' — how 
great will it be! 

4. 'He meets the exigency (of his situation), with- 
out exceeding (the proper course) :' — (he does so), the 
position being inappropriate (for a strong line). 

' If he go forward, there will be peril, and he must 
be cautious:' — the result would be that his course 
would not be long pursued. 

« 

5. 'There are dense clouds, but no rain:' — (the 
line) is in too high a place. 

6. 'He does not meet the exigency (of his 
situation), and exceeds (his proper course) :' — (the 
position indicates) the habit of domineering. 

LXni. (The trigram representing) fire and that 
for water above it form K{ 3!. The superior 

LXII. The Khang-hst editors endeavour to show the appro- 
priateness of the Great Symbolism in this way: — 'When thunder 
issues from the earth, the sound of it comes with a rush and is loud ; 
but when it reaches the top of a hill it has begun to die away and 
is small.' There is nothing in the Chinese about the hills being 
high ; and readers will only smile at the attempted explanation. The 
application of the symbolism, or rather of the idea of the hexagram, 
is good, and in entire accordance with what I have stated that idea 
to be. 

Nothing can be done to avoid the issue mentioned in paragraph i, 
for the subject of the line brings it on himself. 

Paragraph 2 deals only with the symbolism in the conclusion of 
what is stated under line 2. The writer takes the view which I have 
given on the Text. 

For paragraphs 3 and 4 see the notes on the Text. 

In line 5 the yin line is too high. If the line were yang, the 
auspice would be different. 



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346 THE APPENDIXES. SECT. 11. 

man, in accordance with this, thinks of evil (that 
may come), and beforehand guards j^inst it 

1. 'He drags back his wheel:' — as we may rightly 
judge, there will be no mistake. 

2. 'In seven days she will find it:' — for the course 
pursued is that indicated by the central position (of 
the line). 

3. ' He was three years in subduing it:' — enough 
t» make him weary. 

4. 'He is on his g^ard all the day:' — he is in 
doubt about something. 

5. ' The slaughtering of an ox by the neighbour 
in the east is not equal to (the small sacrifice of) the 
neighbour in the west:' — because the time (in the 
latter case is more important and fit). 

'His sincerity receives the blessing:' — good for- 
tune comes on a great scale. 

6. 'His head is immersed ; the position is peril- 
ous:' — how could such a state continue long ? 

LXIV. (The trigram representing) water and 
that for fire above it form Wei 3l. The superior 
man, in accordance with this, carefully discriminates 
among (the qualities of) things, and the (different) 
positions they (naturally) occupy. 

I. 'His tail gets immersed:' — this is the very 
height of ignorance. 

LXIII. Water and fire coming together as here, fire under the 
water, each element occupies its proper place, and their interaction 
will be beneficial. Such is the common explanation of the Great 
Symbolism ; but the connexion between it and the application of 
it, which also is good in itself, is by no means clear. 

The notes on the different lines present nothing that has not been 
dealt with in the notes on the Text. 



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HEX, 64. APPENDIX n. 347 

2. ' The second line, undivided, shows good for- 
tune arising from being firm and correct:' — it is 
in the central place, and the action of its subject 
thereby becomes correct, 

3. '(The state of things is) not yet remedied. 
Advancing will lead to evil:' — the place (of the line) 
is not that appropriate for it. 

4. ' By firm correctness there is good fortune, and 
cause for repentance disappears:' — the aim (of the 
subject of the line) is carried into effect. 

5. '(We see) the brightness of a superior man:' — 
the diffusion of that brightness tends to good 
fortune, 

6. 'He drinks and gets his head immersed:' — 
he does not know how to submit to the (proper) 
regulations, 

LXIV, In this last hexagram we have water below and fire above, 
so that the two cannot act on each other, and the Symbolism may 
represent the unregulated condition of general affairs, the different 
classes of society not harmonising nor acting together. The appli- 
cation follows naturally. 

A'ft Hst and others suspect an error in the text of paragraph i ; 
yet a tolerable meaning comes from it as it stands. 

The Khang-hst editors observe on paragraph 2 that an undivided 
line in the second place, and a divided line in the fifth place, are 
both incorrect, and yet it is often said of them that with firm cor- 
rectness in their subjects there will be good fortune ; — such is the 
virtue of the central position. This principle is at last clearly enun- 
ciated in this paragraph. 

ATAILng-jze says : — ' The subject of line 4 has the ability which the 
time requires, and possesses also a firm solidity. He can carry out 
therefore his purpose. There will be good fortune, and all cause 
for repentance will disappear. The smiting of the demon region 
was the highest example of firm correctness.' 

Both the symbols in paragraph 6 indicate a want of caution, and 
an unwillingness to submit one's impulses to the regulation of reason 
and prudence. 



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APPENDIX III. 

The Great Appendix. Section I. 

Chapter I. i. Heaven is lofty and honourable; 
earth is low. (Their symbols), A'^ien and Khw3.n, 
(with their respective meanings), were determined 
(in accordance with this). 

Things low and high appear displayed in a similar 
relation. The (upper and lower trigrams, and the 
relative position of individual lines, as) noble and 
mean, had their places assigned accordingly. 

Movement and rest are the regular qualities (of 
their respective subjects). Hence comes the definite 
distinction (of the several lines) as the strong and 
the weak. 

(Affairs) are arranged together according to their 
tendencies, and things are divided according to their 
classes. Hence were produced (the interpretations 
in the Yt, concerning) what is good [or lucky] and 
evil [or unlucky]. 

In the heavens there are the (different) figures 
there completed, and on the earth there are the 
(different) bodies there formed. (Corresponding to 
them) wefi^I~fhe changes and transformations exhi- 
bited (in the Yl). 

2. After this fashion a strong and a weak line 
were manipulated together (till there were the eight 
trigrams), and those eight trigrams were added, each 
to itself and to all the others, (till the sixty-four 
hexagrams were formed). 



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CHAP. I. APPENDIX III. 349 

3. We have the exciting forces of thunder and 
lightning; the fertilising influences of wind and rain; 
and the revolutions of the sun and moon, which give 
rise to cold and warmth. 

4. The attributes expressed by KhiG.n constitute 
the male; those expressed by KhwSn constitute 
the female. 

5. .^^i en (symbolises Heaven, which) directs the 
great beginnings of things ; KhwSn (symbolises 
Earth, which) gives to them their completion. 

6. It is by the ease with which it proceeds that 
^^ien directs (as it does), and by its unhesitating 
response that KhwSn exhibits such ability. 

7. (He who attains to this) ease (of Heaven) will 
be easily understood, and (he who attains to this) 
freedom from laborious effort (of the Earth) will be 
easily followed. He who is easily understood will 
have adherents, and he who is easily followed will 
achieve success. He who ha^ adherents can con- 
tinue long, and he who achieves success can become 
great. To be able to continue long shows the 
virtue of the wise and able man; to be able to 
become great is the heritage he will acquire. 

8. With the attainment of such ease and such 
freedom from laborious effort, the mastery is got of 
all principles under the sky. With the attainment 
of that mastery, (the sage) makes good his position 
in the middle (between heaven and earth). 



Chapter I is an attempt to show the correspondency between the 
phenomena of external nature ever changing, and the figures of the 
Yt King ever varying. The first four paragraphs, it is said, show, 
from the phenomena of production and transformation in external 



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35© THE APPENDIXES. SECT. I. 

Chapter II. 9. The sages set forth the diagrams, 
inspected the emblems contained in them, and 
appended their explanations ; — in this way the good 
fortune and bad (indicated by them) were made 
clear. 

10. The strong and the weak (lines) displace each 
other, and produce the changes and transformations 
(in the figures). 

11. Therefore the good fortune and evil (men- 
tioned in the explanations) are the indications of the 
right and wrong (in men's conduct of affairs), and 
the repentance . and regret (similarly mentioned) are 
the indications of their sorrow and anxiety. 



nature, the principles on which the figures of the Yt were made. 
The fifth and sixth paragraphs show, particularly, how the attri- 
butes represented by the figures A'Aien and KhwEn are to be 
found in (the operations of) heaven and earth. The last two para- 
graphs show both those attributes embodied or realised in man. 
The realisation takes place, indeed, fully only in the sage or the 
ideal man, who thus becomes the pattern for all men. 

In paragraph 3 we have five of the six derivative tri- 
grams ; — the six ' children,' according to the nomenclature of the 
Win arrangement. 'Thunder' stands for kin ( = =^ . 'light- 
ning' for 11 ( —— — ) r 'wind' for Sun ( ). and 'rain' for 
khan {S*S)- 'The sun,' however, is also an emblem of U, 
and ' the moon ' one of kin (^—~~), generally said to represent 
'mountains,' while tui ( """ ~~ ). representing 'collections of 
water,' has no place in the enumeration. J^t Hst says that in 
paragraph 3 we have the natural changes seen in the phenomena 
of the sky, while in 4 we have such changes as find body and 
fig^e on the earth. 

Paragraphs 5 and 6 have both been misunderstood from i^glect 
of the peculiar meaning of the character ^h ( ^ ), and from 
taking it in its common acceptation of 'knowing.' Both com- 
mentaries and dictionaries point out that it is here used in the 
sense of ' directing,' ' presiding over.' In paragraph 7, however, it 
resumes its ordinary significancy. 



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CHAP.n. APPENDIX m. 351 

12. The changes and transformations (of the lines) 
are the emblems of the advance and retrogression 
(of the vital force in nature). Thus what we call 
the strong and the weak (lines) become the emblems 
of day and night. The movements which take 
place in the six places (of the hexagram) show the 
course of the three extremes (i. e. of the three 
Powers in their perfect operation). 

13. Therefore what the superior man rests in, in 
whatever position he is placed, is the order shown 
in the Yl; and the study which gives him the 
greatest pleasure is that of the explanations of the 
several lines. 

14. Therefore the superior man, when living 
quietly, contemplates the emblems and studies the 
explanations of them ; when initiating any move- 
ment, he contemplates the changes (that are made 
in divining), and studies the prognostications from 
them. Thus ' is help extended to him from Heaven; 
there will be good fortune, and advantage in every 
movement.' 

Chapter II, paragraphs 9-14, is divided into two parts. The 
former contains paragraphs 9-12, and tells us how the sages, king 
WSn and the duke of A'llu, proceeded in making the Yt, so that 
the good fortune and bad of men's courses should be indicated by 
it in harmony with right and wrong, and the processes of nature. 
Paragraphs 13, 14 form the second part, and speak of the study of 
the Yt by the superior man, desirous of doing what is right and 
increasing his knowledge, and the advantages flowing from it. 

I can follow to some extent the first two statements of para- 
graph 12, so far as the ideas of the writer are concerned, though 
asserting any correspondence between the changes of the lines of 
the diagrams, and the operations of external nature, as in the suc-- 
cession of day and night, is merely an amusement of the fancy. I 
all but fail, however, to grasp the idea in the last statement. In the 
trigram, the first line represents earth ; the second, man ; and the 



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352 THE APPENDIXES, SECT.!. 

Chapter. III. 15. The Thwan speak of the em- 
blematic figures (of the complete diagrams). The 
YS.O speak of the changes (taking place in the 
several lines). 

16. The expressions about good fortune or bad 
are used with reference to (the figures and lines, as) 
being right or wrong (according to the conditions of 
time and place); those about repentance or regret 
refer to small faults (in the satisfying those con- 
ditions) ; when it is said ' there will be no error,' or 
' no blame,' there is reference to (the subject) 
repairing an error by what is good. 

1 7. Therefore the distinction of (the upper and 
lower trigrams and of the individual lines) as noble 
or mean is decided by the (relative) position (of the 
lines) ; the regulations of small and great are found 
in the diagrams, and the discriminations of good 
and bad fortune appear in the (subjoined) ex- 
planations. 

18. Anxiety against (having occasion for) re- 
pentance or regret should be felt at the boundary 
line (between good and evil). The stirring up the 
thought of (securing that there shall be) no blame 
arises from (the feeling of) repentance. 



third, heaven; in the hexagram, the first and second lines are 
assigned to earth ; the third and fourth, to man ; and the fifth and 
sixth, to heaven. These are the three Powers, and each Power 
has ' a Grand Extreme,' where its nature and operation are seen 
in their highest ideal. This is to some extent conceivable ; but 
when I try to follow our author, and find an analogy between the 
course of these extremes and the movements in the places of the 
diagrams, I have no clue by which to trace my way. For the con- 
cluding sentence of paragraph 14 see the duke of iTiu on the last 
line of hexagram 14. 



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CHAP. 4. APPENDIX III. 353 

19. Thus of the diagrams some are small, and 
some are great; and of the explanations some are 
startling, and some are unexciting. Every one of 
those explanations has reference to the tendencies 
(indicated by the symbols). 

Chapter IV. 20. The Yl was made on a principle 
of accordance with heaven and earth, and shows us 
therefore, without rent or confusion, the course (of 
things) in heaven and earth. 

21. (The sage), in accordance with (the Yi), 
looking up, contemplates the brilliant phenomena of 
the heavens, and, looking down, examines the defi- 
nite arrangements of the earth ; — thus he knows the 
causes of darkness (or, what is obscure) and light 
(or, what is bright). He traces things to their be- 
ginning, and follows them to their end; — thus he 
knows what can be said about death and life. (He 



Chapter III, paragraphs 15-19, gives additional information 
about the constituent parts of the Yl, that is, the Text of the classic 
as we have it from king W&n and his son. The imperial editors 
say that it expands the meaning of the fourth paragraph, the third 
of chapter a. It does do so, but this account hardly covers all 
its contents. 

To understand the names ' small and great,' as used of the dia- 
grams in paragraphs 17 and 19, it should be noted that hexagrams 
to which the divided or yin line gives their character are termed 
'small,' and those where the undivided or yang line rules are 

called 'great.' ATSu (44, ), Thun (33. :), and Phei 

(12, — — Z) are instances of the former class; F&(24, = = ), 

Lin (19, = = ), and ThSi (i i, =^= ) of the other. 

It is observed by 3hii iWing (early in the Ming dynasty) that the 
terms ' diagrams ' and ' explanations ' must be understood not only 
of the whole figures but abo as embracing the several lines, 
[16] A a 



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354 THE APPENDIXES. SECT. r. 

perceives how the union of) essence and breath form 
things, and the (disappearance or) wandering away 
of the soul produces the change (of their constitu- 
tion); — ^thus he knows the characteristics of the 
anima and animus. 

22. There is a similarity between him and heaven 
and earth, and hence there is no contrariety in him 
to them. His knowledge embraces all things, and 
his course is (intended to be) helpful to all under 
the sky; — ^and hence he falls into no error. He acts 
according to the exigency of circumstances without 
being carried away by their current ; he rejoices in 
Heaven and knows its ordinations; — and hence he 
has no anxieties. He rests in his own (present) 
position, and cherishes (the spirit of) generous 
benevolence; — and hence he can love (without 
reserve). 

23. (Through the Yt), he comprehends as in a 
mould or enclosure the transformations of heaven 
and earth without any error; by an ever-varying 
adaptation he completes (the nature of) all things 
without exception ; he penetrates to a knowledge of 
the course of day and night (and all other connected 
phenomena); — it is thus that his operation is spirit- 
like, unconditioned by place, while the changes 
which he produces are not restricted to any form. 



Chapter IV, paragraphs 20-23, is intended still more to exalt the 
Yt, and seems to say that the sage by means of it can make an exhaus- 
tive study of all principles and of human nature, till he attains to the 
knowledge of the ordinances of Heaven. Such is the account of the 
chapter given by A'ii Hsl ; but the second character in paragraph 
21 must be understood in the signification which it has in all the 
sixty-four sentences which explain the emblematic structure of the 
hexagrams, as='in accordance with ' and not 'by means of.' The 



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CHAP. 5. APPENDIX III. 355 

Chapter V. 24. The successive movement of the 
inactive and active operations constitutes what is 
called the course (of things). 



imperial editors append to their statement of A'A's account, that it 
must be borne in mind that the sages had not to wait till the Yi 
was made to conduct their exhaustive study. They had done that 
before, and the Yt may be considered as a talk on the results, 
drawn out in its own peculiar style. It holds the mirror up to 
nature ; but its authors knew nature before they made it. 

In parag^ph 21, 'the brilliant phenomena of the heavens' are 
the various shining bodies of the sky, with their rising and setting; 
' the definite arrangements of the earth ' are the different situations 
of its parts according to the points of the compass, and its surface 
as diversified by mountain and valley; and by the study of these 
the causes of day and night are known as being the expansion and 
contraction of the elementary ether. The same thing produces 
the facts of birth or life and death. 

3ing, which I have translated 'essence,' denotes the more 
subtle and pure part of matter, and belongs to the grosser form of 
the elementary ether ; kh\, or ' spirit,' is the breath, still material, 
but purer than the jing, and belongs to the finer, and more active 
form of the ether. Here kh\ is 'the breath of life.' In the hwun 
or 'soul (animus),' the kh\ predominates, and the jing in the 
pho or animal soul. At death the hwun wanders away, ascending, 
and the pho descends and is changed into a ghostly shade. So did 
the ancient Chinese grope their way from material things to the 
concept and representation of what was immaterial. 

For my 'characteristics of the anima and animus,' Dr. Med- 
hurst rendered 'the circumstances and conditions of the Kwei 
Shins' (Theology of the Chinese, pp. lo-i a); but he observes that 
' the Kwei Shins in the passage are evidently the expanding and 
contracting principles of human life.' The kwei shins are brought 
about by the dissolution of the human frame, and consist of the 
expanding and ascending shin, which rambles about in space, and 
of the contracted and shrivelled kwei, which reverts to earth and 
nonentity. It is difficult to express one's self clearly on a subject 
treated so briefly and enigmatically in the text. 

We must understand that the subject of the predicates in this 
and the next two paragraphs is 'the sage,' who has endeavoured to 
give a transcript of his views and doings in the Yt. The character, 

A a 2 



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356 THE APPENDIXES. SECT. I. 

25. That which ensues as the result (of their 
movement) is goodness ; that which shows it in its 
completeness is the natures (of men and things). 

26. The benevolent see it and call it benevolence. 
The wise see it and call it wisdom. The common 
people, acting daily according to it, yet have no 
knowledge of it Thus it is that the course (of 
things), as seen by the superior man, is seen by 
few. 

27. It is manifested in the benevolence (of its 
operations), and (then again) it conceals and stores 
up its resources. It gives their stimulus to all 
things, without having the same anxieties that pos- 
sess the sage. Complete is its abundant virtue and 
the greatness of its stores ! 

28. Its rich possessions is what is intended by 
'the gfreatness of its stores;* the daily renovation 
which it produces is what is meant by ' the abun- 
dance of its virtue.' 

29. Production and reproduction is what is called 
(the prdcess of) change. 

30. The formation of the semblances (shadowy 
forms of things) is what we attribute to A'^ien ; the 
giving to them their specific forms is what we attri- 
bute to KhwSn. 

3 1 . The exhaustive use of the numbers (that turn 



which I have translated by 'spirit-like ' in paragraph 23, is different 
from khi in paragraph 21. It is sh^n, a character of the phonetic 
class, while its primary material signification has not been satis- 
factorily ascertained. 'The Chinese,' says P. Regis (vol. ii. p. 445), 
' use it in naming the soul, true angels, and the genii of idola- 
ters ; and the Christian Chinese use it when they speak of God, of 
the Holy Spirit, of angels, and of the soul of man. For what else 
could ihey do?' 



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CHAP. 5. APPENDIX III. 357 

up in manipulating the stalks), and (thereby) knowing 
(the character of) coming events, is what we call 
prognosticating ; the comprehension of the changes 
(indicated leads us to) what we call the business (to 
be done). 

32. That which is unfathomable in (the move- 
ment of) the inactive and active operations is (the 
presence of a) spiritual (power). 

Chapter V, paragraphs 24-32, still shows us the Yt fashioned 
so as to give a pictiire of the phenomena of the external universe ; 
but the writer dwells more on the latter, and the different para- 
graphs give an interesting view of his ideas on the subject. He 
supposes a constant change from rest to movement and from 
movement to rest, through which all things -are formed, now still, 
now in motion, now expanding, now contracting. It is customary 
to speak of two forms of an original ether as the two elementary 
principles, but they are really one and the same ether, in a twofold 
condition, with a twofold action. By their successive movement 
the phenomena of existence are produced, — what I have called 
'the course (of things)' in paragraph 24. It is attempted, however, 
by many native scholars and by some sinologists, to give to tdo, 
the last character in that paragraph, the meaning of ' reason,' that 
which intelligently guides and directs the movements of the two 
■elements. But this view is not in harmony with the scope of the 
chapter, nor can the characters be fairly construed so as to justify 
such an interpretation. 

The imperial editors say that the germ of the Mencian doctrine 
about the goodness of human nature is in paragraph 25 ; but it 
says more widely, that ' every creature is good,' according to its 
ideal as from the plastic yin and yang. But few, the next para- 
graph tells us, can understand the measure of this goodness. 

'The benevolent operations' in the course of things in para- 
graph 27 are illustrated from the phenomena of growth and beauty 
in spring and summer ; and the cessation of these in autumn and 
winter may be called ' a concealing and storing them up.' 

Paragraph 29 seems to state the origin of the name Yt as 
applied to the book, the Yt King. 

In paragraph 30 the names A'^ien and Khwiin take the place 
of yin and yang, as used in paragraphs 24 and 32. In A'^ien, 



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358 THE APPENDIXES. SECT. T. 

Chapter VI. 33. Yes, wide is the Yl and great! 
If we speak of it in its farthest reaching, no limit 
can be set to it ; if we speak of it with reference to 
what is near at hand, (its lessons are) still and 
correct ; if we speak of it in connexion with all 
between heaven and earth, it embraces all. 

34. There is A'^ien. In its (individual) stillness 
it is self-absorbed ; when exerting its motive power 
it goes straight forward ; and thus it is that its pro- 
ductive action is on a grand scale. There is KhwSn. 
In its (individual) stillness, it is self-collected and 
capacious ; when exerting its motive power, it de- 
velopes its resources, and thus its productive action 
is on a wide scale. 

35. In its breadth and greatness, (the Yl) corre- 

the symbol of heaven, every one of its three lines is undivided ; it 
is the concentration of the yang faculty; so Khwin, the symbol 
of the earth, is the concentration of the yin. The critics them- 
selves call attention to the equivalence of the symbolic names here 
given to yin and yang. The connexion of the two is necessary 
to the production of any one substantial thing. The yang origin- 
ates a shadowy outline which the yin fills up with a definite sub- 
stance. So actually in nature Heaven (A'Aien) and Earth (Khw5n) 
operate together in the production of all material things and 
beings. 

The 'numbers,' mentioned in paragraph 31, are not all or any 
numbers generally, but 7, 8, 9, 6, those assigned to the four 'em- 
blematic figures,' that grow out of the undivided and divided lines, 
and by means of which the hexagrams are made up in divination. 
The ' future or coming events ' which are prognosticated are not 
particular events, which the diviner has not already forecast, but the 
character of events or courses of actions already contemplated, as 
good or evil, lucky or unlucky, in their issue. 

The best commentary on paragraph 32 is supplied by paragraphs 
8-10 of Appendix VI. The 'Spirit' is that of 'God;' and this 
settles the meaning of tSo in paragraph 24, as being the course of 
nature, in which, according to the author, 'God worketh all in all.' 



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CHAP. 7- APPENDIX IIT. 359 

spends to heaven and earth ; in its ever-recurring 
changes, it corresponds to the four seasons ; in its 
mention of the bright or active, and the dark or 
inactive operation, it corresponds to the sun and 
moon ; and the excellence seen in the ease and ready 
response (of its various operations) corresponds to 
the perfect operations (presented to us in the pheno- 
mena of nature). 

Chapter VII. 36. The Master said : — ' Is not the 
Yt a perfect book ?' It was by the Yt that the 
sages exalted their virtue, and enlarged their sphere 
of occupation. Their wisdom was high, and their 
rules of conduct were solid. That loftiness was 
after the pattern of heaven ; that solidity^afier the 

pattern of earth. /^^ ^ '^ *■ ' ^ -^/^ /> n 

y ' ' ■■"i.-F 'V' 

Chapter VI, paragraphs 33-35, goes on further No'^yfejwafe* the v 
Yl as holding up the mirror to nature in all its operawjn^iih^R^ >**"' 
its widest extent. The grandiloquent language, however, amSHiilB "^ 
only to this, that, when we have made ourselves acquainted with 
the phenomena of nature, we can, with a heated fancy, see some 
analogy to them in the changes of the diagrams and lines of the 
Yt book. 

Kh'xcn and KhwSln must be taken as the same names are 
understood in paragraph 30 above. 

' The Yl,' with which paragraph 33 begins, must be understood 
also at the commencement of paragraph 35. The character which 

1 have translated by 'corresponds' throughout this last chapter, 
should not, it is observed, have stress laid upon it. K^ Hst says 
that it is simply equal to the ' there is a similarity ' of paragraph 

2 2. 'The bright or active element ' and ' the dark or inactive' 
are in the original, ' the yang and the yin.' The correspondence 
predicated between them and the sun and moon, the brightness 
and warmth of the one, and the paleness and coldness of the 
other, shows us how those names arose, and that it is foreign to 
the original concept of them to call them ' the male and female 
principles:' — with the last clause compare paragraphs 6-8. 



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360 THE APPENDIXES. SECT. I. 

37. Heaven and earth having their positions as 
assigned to them, the changes (of nature) take place 
between them. The nature (of man) having been 
completed, and being continually preserved, it is 
the gate of all good courses and righteousness. 

Chapter VIII. 38. The sage was able to survey 
all the complex phenomena under the sky. He 
then considered in his mind how they could be 
figured, and (by means of the diagrams) represented 
their material forms and their character. Hence 
these (diagrams) are denominated Semblances (or 
emblematic figures, the Hsiang). 

39. A (later) sage was able to survey the motive 
influences working all under the sky. He contem- 
plated them in their common action and special 
nature, in order to bring out the standard and 
proper tendency of each. He then appended his 

Chapter VII, paragraphs 36, 37, is understood to set forth how 
the sages embodied the teachings of the Yi in their character and 
conduct. But when it is said that ' it was by the Yl that they 
exalted their virtue and enlarged their sphere of occupation,' the 
meaning can only be that what they did in these directions was in 
harmony with the principles which they endeavoured to set forth 
in the symbols of the Yt. 

' Their rules of conduct were solid,' in paragraph 36, is, literally, 
' their rules were low.' To the height of heaven reached by the 
wisdom of the sages, the author opposes the low-lying earth, 
between which and their substantial practices and virtues he dis- 
covered some analogy. 

It will be seen that the chapter commences with ' The Master 
said.' iCfl Hsl observes that 'as the Ten Appendixes were all 
made by the Master, these words are out of place, and that he 
conjectures that wherever they occur here and elsewhere, they 
were added after the sage's time.' Their occurrence very seri- 
ously affects the question of the authorship of the Appendixes, 
which I have discussed in the Introduction, pages 28-31. 



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CHAP. 8. APPENDIX III, 361 

explanation (to each line of the diagrams), to deter- 
mine the good or evil indicated by it. Hence those 
(lines with their explanations) are denominated Imi- 
tations (the Yio). 

40. (The diagrams) speak of the most complex 
phenomena under the sky, and yet there is nothing 
in them that need awaken dislike ; the explanations 
of the lines speak of the subtlest movements under 
the sky, and yet there is nothing in them to produce 
confusion. 

41. (A learner) will consider what is said (under 
the diagrams), and then speak ; he will deliberate 
on what is said (in the explanations of the lines), and 
then move. By such consideration and deliberations 
he will be able to make all the changes which he 
undertakes successful. 

42. 'Here hid, retired, cries out the crane; 

Her young's responsive cry sounds there. 
Of spirits good I drain this cup ; 
With thee a cup I'll freely share.' 

The Master said : — ' The superior man occupies 
his apartment and sends forth his words. If they 
be good, they will be responded to at a distance of 
more than a thousand 11 ; — how much more will they 
be so in the nearer circle ! He occupies his apart- 
ment and sends forth his words. If they be evil, 
they will awaken opposition at a distance of more 
than a thousand 11 ; — how much more will they do 
so in the nearer circle! Words issue from one's 
person, and proceed to affect the people. Actions 
proceed from what is near, and their effects are seen 
at a distance. Words and actions are the hinge and 
spring of the superior man. The movement of that 



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62 THE APPENDIXES. SECT. I. 



hinge and spring determines glory or disg^ce. His 
words and actions move heaven and earth ; — may he 
be careless in regard to them?' 

43. ' (The representative of) the union of men first 
cries out and weeps, and afterwards laughs.' The 
Master said, on this :— 

' The ways of good men (different seem). 
This in a public office toils; 
That in his home the time begfuiles. 
One man his lips with silence seals; 
Another all his mind reveals. 
But when two men are one in heart. 
Not iron bolts keep them apart; 
The words they in their union use, 
Fragrance like orchid plants diffiise.' 

44. ' The first line, undivided, shows its subject 
placing mats of the white grass beneath what he 
sets on the ground.' The Master said : — ' To place 
the things on the ground might be considered suf- 
ficient; but when he places beneath them mats 
of the white grass, what occasion for blame can 
there be ? Such a course shows the height of care- 
fulness. The white grass is a trivial thing, but, 
through the use made of it, it may become impor- 
tant. He who goes forward using such careful art 
will not fall into any error.' 

45. ' A superior man toiling laboriously and yet 
humble! He will bring things to an end, and with 
good fortune.' The Master said on this : — ' He 
toils with success, but does not boast of it; he 
achieves merit, but takes no virtue to himself from 
it; — this is the height of generous goodness, and 
speaks of the man who with (great) merit yet places 



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CHAP. 8. APPENDIX in. 363 

himself below others. He wishes his virtue to be 
more and more complete, and in his intercourse with 
others to be more and more respectful; — he who 
is so humble, carrying his respectfulness to the 
utmost, will be able to preserve himself in his 
position.' 

46. ' The dragon (is seen) beyond his proper 
haunts ; there will be occasion for repentance.' The 
Master said on this : — ' He is noble, but is not in 
his correct place ; he is on high, but there are no 
people to acknowledge him ; there is a man of virtue 
and ability below, but he will not assist him. Hence 
whatever movement he may make will give occasion 
for repentance.' 

47. ' He does not quit the courtyard before his 
door; — there will be no occasion for blame.' The 
Master said on this : — ' When disorder arises, it will 
be found that (ill-advised) speech was the stepping- 
stone to it. If a ruler do not keep secret (his 
deliberations with his minister), he will lose that 
minister. If a minister do not keep secret (his 
deliberations with his ruler), he will lose his life. 
If (important) matters in the germ be not kept 
secret, that will be injurious to their accomplishment. 
Therefore the superior man is careful to maintain 
secrecy, and does not allow himself to speak.' 

48. The Master said : — ' The makers of the Yl may 
be said to have known (the philosophy of) robbery. 
The Yi says, "He is a burden-bearer, and yet rides 
in a carriage, thereby exciting robbers to attack 
him." Burden-bearing is the business of a small 
man. A carriage is the vehicle of a gentleman. 
When a small man rides in the vehicle of a gentle- 



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364 THE APPENDIXES. SECT. r. 

man, robbers will think of taking it from him. 
(When one is) insolent to those above him, and 
oppressive to those below, robbers will wish to 
attack him. Careless laying up of things excites 
to robbery, (as a woman's) adorning of herself 
excites to lust. What the Yl says about the burden- 
bearer's riding in a carriage, and exciting robbers 
to attack him, (shows how) robbery is called out.' 

Chapter VIII, paragraphs 38-48. In the first two paragraphs 
here we have an account of the formation of the diagrams, and of 
the explanation of the whole hexagrams and of the individual 
lines. 'The sage' in paragraph 38 is intended presumably of 
Ffi-hsi ; but we cannot say, from it, whether the writer thought of 
him as having formed only the eight trigrams, or all the sixty-four 
hexagrams. In the diagrams, however, we have semblances, or 
representations, of the phenomena of nature, even the most com- 
plex, and hard to be disentangled. Paragraph 39 goes on to 
speak of the explanation more especially of the individual lines, by 
the duke of .^^u, as symbolical of good luck or evil, as they turned 
up in the processes of divination. 

Paragraph 40 declares the usableness (so to speak) of the dia- 
grams and the explanations of them; and 41 shows us how a 
learner or consulter of the Yt would actually proceed in using it. 

In paragraphs 42-48 we have the words of Confucius on seven 
lines in so many hexagrams, or "rather his amplification of the 
words of the duke of A'au's explanations of their symbolism. The 
lines are 2 of hexagram 61 ; 5 of 13 ; i of 28 ; 3 of 15 ; 6 of 1 ; 
I of 60 ; and 3 of 40. What Confucius says is not without in- 
terest, but does not make the principles on which the Yt was 
made any clearer to us. It shows how his object was to turn the 
symbolism that he found to a moral or ethical account ; and no 
doubt he could have varied the symbolism, if he had been inclined 
to do so. 

I have spoken in the preceding chapter of the difBculty which 
the phrase 'The Master said ' presents to our accepting the Ap- 
pendix as from the hand of Confucius himself. But his words in 
paragraph 43 are in rhyme. He did not speak so. If he rhymed 
his explanation of the symbolism of the line that is the ground- 
work of that paragraph, why did he ;iot rhyme his explanations of 



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CHAP. 9- APPENDIX III, 365 

Chapter IX. 49. To heaven belongs (the num- 
ber) I ; to earth, 2 ; to heaven, 3 ; to earth, 4 ; to 
heaven, 5 ; to earth, 6 ; to heaven, 7 ; to earth, 8 ; 
to heaven, 9 ; to earth, 10. 

50. The numbers belonging to heaven are five, 
and those belonging to earth are (also) five. The 
numbers of these two series correspond to each 
other (in their fixed positions), and each one has 
another that may be considered its mate. The 
heavenly numbers amount to 25, and the earthly to 
30. The numbers of heaven and earth together 
amount to 55. It is by these that the changes and 
transformations are effected, and the spirit-like 
agencies kept in movement. 

51. The numbers of the Great Expansion, (multi- 
plied together), make 50, of which (only) 49 are 
used (in divination). (The stalks representing these) 
are divided into two heaps to represent the two 
(emblematic lines, or heaven and earth). One is 
then taken (from the heap on the right), and placed 
(between the little finger of the left hand and the 
next), that there may thus be symbolised the three 
(powers of heaven, earth, and man). (The heaps 
on both sides) are manipulated by fours to repre- 
sent the four seasons ; and then the remainders are 
returned, and placed (between) the two middle fingers 
of the left hand, to represent the intercalary month. 
In five years there are two intercalations, and there- 
fore there are two operations; and afterwards the 
whole process is repeated. 

52. The numbers (required) for A'^ien (or the 

the other lines ? To answer these questions categorically is beyond 
our power. The facts that suggest them increase the difiScuhy in 
ascribing this and the other additions to the Yt to the later sage. 



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366 THE APPENDIXES. SECT. I. 

undivided line) amount to 216; those for Khwan 
(or the divided line), to 144. Together they are 
360, corresponding to the days of the year. 

53. The number produced by the lines in the 
two parts (of the Yi) amount to 11,520, correspond- 
ing to the number of all things. 

54. Therefore by means of the four operations 
is the Yl completed. It takes 18 changes to form 
a hexagram. 

55. (The formation of) the eight trigrams consti- 
tutes the small completion (of the Yl). 

56. If we led on the diagrams and expanded 
them, if we prolonged each by the addition of the 
proper lines, then all events possible under the sky 
might have their representation. 

57. (The diagrams) make manifest (by their ap- 
pended explanations), the ways (of good and ill 
fortune), and show virtuous actions in their spiritual 
relations. In this way, by consulting them, we may 
receive an answer (to our doubts), and we may also 
by means of them assist the spiritual (power in its 
agency in nature and providence). 

58. The Master said: — ' He who knows the method 
of change and transformation may be said to know 
what is done by that spiritual (power).' 



Chapter IX, paragraphs 49-58, is of a different character from 
any of the preceding, and treats, unsatisfactorily, of the use of 
numbers in connexion with the figtire of the Yl and the practice 
of divination. 

In the Thang edition of the Yt, published in the seventh century, 
paragraph 49 is the first of the eleventh chapter according to the 
arrangement now followed, ^liing-jze restored it to its present 
place, which it occupied, as has been proved, during the Han 



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CHAP. 10. APPENDIX III. 367 

Chapter X. 59. In the Y! there are four things 
characteristic of the way of the sages. We should 
set the highest value on its explanations to guide 



dynasty, and to which it properly belongs. It and the next para- 
graph should be taken together, and are distinct from what fol- 
lows, though the Thang edition is fiulher confused in placing 5 1 
before 50. 

In 49 and 50 ' heaven ' and ' earth ' are used as we have seen 
I^Aien and Khwin are in paragraphs 30 and 34. Odd num- 
bers belong to the strong or undivided line, which is symbolical of 
the active operation in nature, and the even numbers to the weak 
or divided line, symbolical of its inaction. The phraseology of 
the paragraphs, however, can only be understood by a reference to 
' the river map,' which has been given in the Introduction, pages 

16. i6- 

The map, as it appeared on the back of ' the dragon-horse,' con- 
sisted of so many circles, and so many dark circular markings, the 
former, it was assumed, being of the yang character, and the 
latter of the yin. Ffl-hst for the circle substituted the strong or 

undivided line ( ), and for the dark markings the weak or 

divided ( ). It will be seen that the yang symbols are the 

*> 3> 5> 1 ^'id 9 circles, and the yin are the 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10 cir- 
cular markings, which is the pictorial delineation of paragraph 49. 
The only thing to be said upon it is that the arrangement of the 
five circles and ten circular markings is peculiar, and evidently 
devised ' for a purpose.' So far, however, as we know, no figure 
of the map was attempted till after the beginning of our twelfth 
century. 

The same figure is supposed to illustrate what is said in para- 
graph 50 : ' The numbers of the two series correspond to each 
other in their fixed positions.' i and 2, and 3 and 4 certainly front 
each other, and perhaps 5 and 6 ; but 7 and 8, and 9 and 10 do 
not do so in the same way. It is said also that ' each has another 
that may be considered its mate.' So it is with i and 6, 2 and 7, 
3 and 8, 4 and 9, but hardly with 5 and 10. Further, 1-1-3-1-5 
-^7-f-9 = 25; 2-f-4-f-6-f-8-|- 10 = 30; and 25 + 30 = 55; all of 
which points are stated. 

The last statement in the paragraph, however, derives no illus- 
tration, so far as I can see, from the figure. How can the num- 
bers efi'ect the things that are predicated of them? There is a 



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368 THE APPENDIXES. SHCT. I. 

US in speaking ; on its changes for (the initiation of) 
our movements ; on its emblematic figures for (defi- 
nite action as in) the construction of implements; 



jargon indeed about the formation of the five elements, but in 
order to make it appear not reasonable, but capable of being 
related, writers call in ' the Lo writing ' to the aid of ' the Ho map ;' 
and 'the five elements' is a division of the constituents of material 
things, which is foreign to the Yt. 

Paragraph 51 is intended to describe the process of divination 
in manipulating the stalks, but the description is confused by intro- 
ducing into it the four seasons and the subject of intercalation, so 
as to be very difficult to understand. 

In the middle of the Ho map are the five circles symbolical of 
heaven and the ten dark terrestrial markings (five above and five 
below the others). These multiplied together give fifty, which form 
' the great expansion.' But 50 divining stalks or slips, when 
divided, give either two odd numbers or two even ; and therefore 
one was put on one side. The remaining 49, however divided, 
were sure to give two parcels of stalks, one containing an even 
number of stalks, and the other an odd, and so might be said fan- 
cifully to represent the imdivided or strong, and the divided or 
weak line. It is needless to go minutely into the other steps of 
the process. Then comes in the counting the stalks by four, 
because there are four seasons in the year, and those that remain 
represent the intercalary days. But how could such a process 
be of any value to determine the days necessary to be intercalated 
in any particular year? The paragraph shows, however, that, 
when it was written, the rule was to intercalate two months in five 
years. But it does not say how many days would remain to be 
carried on to the sixth year after the second intercalation. 

Paragraph 52. The actual number of the undivided and divided 
lines in the hexagrams is the same, 192 of each. But the repre- 
sentative number of an undivided line is 9, and of a divided line 6. 
Now 9x4 (the number of the emblematic figures) x 6 (the lines of 
each hexagram)=2i6; and 6x4x6=144. The sum of these 
products is 360, which was assumed, for the purpose of working 
the intercalation, as the standard length of the year. But this was 
derived from observation, and other considerations; — it did not 
come out of the Yt. 

Paragraphs 53-56. The number in 53 arises thus: — 193 (the 



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CHAP, lo. APPENDIX III. 369 

and on its prognostications for our practice of 
divination. 

60. Therefore, when a superior man is about to 
take action of a more private or of a public 
character, he asks (the Yl), making his inquiry in 
words. It receives his order, and the answer comes 
as the echo's response. Be the subject remote or 
near, mysterious or deep, he forthwith knows of 
what kind will be the coming result, (If the Yl) 
were not the most exquisite thing under heaven, 
would it be concerned in such an operation as this ? 

61. (The stalks) are manipulated by threes and 
fives to determine (one) change; they are laid on 
opposite sides, and placed one up, one down, to make 
sure of their numbers; and the (three necessary) 



number of each series of lines in the sixty-four hexagrams) x 36 
(obtained as above) = 69i2, and 192 x 24=4608, the sum of which 
= 11,520. This is said to be 'the number of all things,' the 
meaning of which I do not know. The ' four operations ' are 
those described in paragraph 31. They were thrice repeated 
in divination to determine each new line, and of course it took 
eighteen of them to form a hexagram. The diagrams might be 
extended ad infinitum, both in the number of lines and of 
figures, by the natural process of their formation as shown in the 
Introduction, page 14, without the aid of the divining stalks; and 
no sufBcient reason can be given why the makers of the figures 
stopped at sixty-four. 

It is diflScult to believe the first statement in paragraph 57 and 
to understand the second. What is it 'to ShUn or spiritualise 
virtuous actions?' The concluding statement approximates to 
impiety. 

We may grant what is affirmed in paragraph 58, but does 
the Yt really give us any knowledge of the processes of change 
and transformation in nature? What wiser are we after all the 
afiSrmations about numbers ? ' Change ' = changings, understood 
actively : — the work of Heaven ; ' transformations' = evolution: — the 
finish given by earth to the changing caused by Heaven. 
[16] 15 b 



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370 THE APPENDIXES. SECT. r. 

changes are gone through with in this way, till they 
form the figures pertaining to heaven or to earth. 
Their numbers are exactly determined, and the 
emblems of (all things) under the sky are fixed. (If 
the Yl) were not the thing most capable of change 
of all things under heaven, how could it effect such 
a result as this ? 

62. In (all these operations forming) the Yt, there 
is no thought and no action. It is still and without 
movement ; but, when acted on, it penetrates forth- 
with to all phenomena and events under the sky. 
If it were not the most spirit-like thing under the 
sky, how could it be found doing this ? 

63. The (operations forming the) Yl are the 
method by which the sages searched out exhaus- 
tively what was deep, and investigated the minutest 
springs (of things). 

64. ' Those operations searched out what was 
deep :' — therefore they could penetrate to the views 
of all under the sky. ' They made apparent the 
minutest springs of (things) :' — therefore they could 
bring to a completion all undertakings under the 
sky. ' Their action was spirit-like :' — therefore they 
could make speed without hurry, and reached their 
destination without travelling. 

65. This is the import of what the Master said, 
that ' In the Yt there are four things indicating the 
way of the sages.' 



Chapter X, paragraphs 59-65, enlarges on the service rendered 
to men by the Yt, owing to the* way in which it was made by the 
sages to express their views and carry into effect their wishes. 

Paragraph 59 mentions the four things in which its usefulness 
appears. 'The emblematic figures' are the four hsiang, which 
are produced by the manipulation of the undivided and divided 



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CHAP. II. APPENDIX m. 371 

Chapter XI. 66. The Master said :— 'What is It 
that the Yl does ? The Yt opens up (the knowledge 
of the issues of) things, accomplishes the undertak- 
ings (of men), and embraces under it (the way of) 
all things under the sky. This and nothing more 
is what the Yl does. Thereby the sages, dirough 
(divination by) it, would give their proper course to 
the aims of all under the sky, would give stability to 
their undertakings, and determine their doubts.' 

67. Therefore the virtue of the stalks is versatile 



lines, and whose representative numbers are 9, 8, 7, 6. ' Divination ' 
appears in the paragraph as p ft -shih, which means 'divination by 
the tortoise-shell and by the stalks.' But the tortoise-shell had 
nothing to do with the use of the Yt Before the composition of 
these Appendixes the two terms must have been combined to 
express the practice of divination, without reference to its mode. 

Paragraph 60 speaks of the explanations and prognostications 
of the Yt. The ' exquisiteness ' ascribed to it would be due to the 
sages who had devised it, and appended their explanations to it ; 
but the whole thing has no existence save in cloud-land. 

Paragraph 61 speaks of the operations with the stalks till the 
various changes in the results issued in the determination of the 
emblematic figures, and then in the fixing of the individual lines 
and entire hexagrams. Even Kd Hst admits that the references to 
the different processes are now hardly intelligible. 

Paragraph 62. How could the writer speak of the Yl without 
thought or action as bemg most ' spirit-like ?' If it did what he 
asserts, those who contrived it might be so described ? They would 
have been beings whose operation was indeed like that of spirits, 
inscrutable, ' un&thomable ' (paragraph 33), even like that of the 
Spirit of God (VI, 10). 

Paragraphs 63 and 64 ought not to be taken as saying that the 
sages did the things described for themselves by the Yt. They 
knew them of themselves, and made the Yt that others might come 
by it to do the same. So the writer imagined. No words could 
indicate more clearly than those of paragraph 65 that the para- 
graphs between it and 59 did not come from Confucius, but from the 
compiler of the Great Appendix, whoever he was. 

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372 THE APPENDIXES. SECT. t. 

and spirit-like; that of the diagrams is exact and 
wise ; and the meaning given by the six lines is 
changeful to give (the proper information to men). 
The sages having, by their possession of these 
(three virtues), cleansed their minds, retired and 
laid them up in the secrecy (of their own conscious- 
ness). But their sympathies were with the people 
in regard both to their good fortune and evil. By 
their spirit-like ability they knew (the character of) 
coming events, and their wisdom had stored up (all 
experiences of) the past. Who could be able to 
accomplish all this ? (Only our) ancient sages, 
quick in apprehension and clear in discernment, of 
far-reaching intelligence, and all-embracing know- 
ledge, and with a majesty, going spirit-like to its 
objects ; — it was only they who could do so. 

68. Therefore (those sages), fully understanding 
the way of Heaven, and having clearly ascertained 
the experience of the people, instituted (the employ- 
ment of) these spirit-like things, as a provision for 
the use of the people. The sages went about 
the employment of them (moreover) by purifying 
their hearts and with reverent caution, thereby 
giving (more) spirituality and intelligence to their 
virtue. 

69. Thus, a door shut may be pronounced (analo- 
gous to) Khwin (or the inactive condition), and the 
opening of the door (analogous to) JCAien (or the 
active condition). The opening succeeding the being 
shut may be pronounced (analogous to what we 
call) a change ; and the passing from one of these 
states to the other may be called the constant course 
(of things). 

The (first) appearance of anything (cis a bud) is 



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CHAP. II. APPENDIX III. 373 

what we call a semblance ; when it has received its 
complete form, we call it a definite thing. 

(The divining- plant having been produced, the 
sages) set it apart and laid down the method of its 
employment, — what we call the laws (of divination). 
The advantage arising from it in external and in- 
ternal matters, so that the people all use it, stamps 
it with a character which we call spirit-like. 

70. Therefore in (the system of) the Y! there is 
the Grand Terminus, which produced the two ele- 
mentary Forms. Those two Forms produced the 
Four emblematic Symbols, which again produced 
the eight Trigrams. 

71. The eight trigrams served to determine the 
good and evil (issues of events), and from this deter- 
mination was produced the (successful prosecution 
of the) great business (of life). 

72. Therefore of all things that furnish models 
and visible figures there are none greater than 
heaven and earth ; of things that change and ex- 
tend an influence (on others) there are none greater 
than the four seasons ; of things suspended (in the 
sky) with their figures displayed clear and bright, 
there are none greater than the sun and moon ; of 
the honoured and exalted there are none greater 
than he who is the rich and noble (one) ; in pre- 
paring things for practical use, and inventing and 
making instruments for the benefit of all under the 
sky, there are none greater than the sages ; to ex- 
plore what is complex, search out what is hidden, 
to hook up what lies deep, and reach to what is dis- 
tant, thereby determining (the issues) for good or ill 
of all events under the sky, and making all men 
under heaven full of strenuous endeavours, there 



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374 THE APPENDIXES. SECT. I. 

are no (agencies) greater than those of the stalks and 
the tortoise-shell. 

73. Therefore Heaven produced the spirit- like 
things, and the sages took advantage of them. (The 
operations of) heaven and earth are marked by (so 
many) changes and transformations ; and the sages 
imitated them (by means of the Yi). Heaven hangs 
out its (brilliant) figures from which are seen good 
fortune and bad, and the sages made their emblema- 
tic interpretations accordingly. The Ho gave forth 
the map, and the Lo the writing, of (both of) which 
the sages took advantage. 

74. In the (scheme of the) Yt there are the four 
symbolic figures by which they inform men (in divin- 
ing of the lines making up the diagrams) ; the expla- 
nations appended to them convey the significance (of 
the diagrams and lines) ; and the determination (of the 
divination) as fortunate or the reverse, to settle the 
doubts (of men). 



Chapter XI, paragraphs 66-74, treats of divination, and the 
scheme of it supplied in the Yl. That scheme must be referred 
first to Heaven, which produced the spirit-like things, — the divining- 
plant and the tortoise ; and next to the sages, who knew the mind 
of Heaven, and made the plant and shell subservient to the pur- 
pose for which they were intended. 

Paragr^h 66 answers the question of what the Yl does ; and if 
there were truth or reason in it, the book and its use would be 
most important. I have closed the quotation of " the Master's " 
words at the end of the paragraph ; but really we do not know if 
they extend so far, or farther. 

Paragraphs 67 and 68 glorify the sages and their work. The 
virtues of the divining-plant all belonged to them, and it was thus 
that they were able to organise the scheme of divination. The 
production of ' the spirit-like things ' is, in paragraph 73, ascribed 
to 'Heaven ;' the characters about them in these paragraphs mean 
no more than is expressed in the translation. 



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CHAP. 12. APPENDIX III. 375 

Chapter XII. 75. It is said in the Yl, 'Help is 
given to him from Heaven. There will be good 
fortune ; advantage in every respect.' The Master 



Paragraph 69 shows how the antinomy of the yin and yang 
pervades all nature, and how the sages turned it, as existing pre- 
eminently in the divining-plant, to account 

Paragraph 70. Evidently the author had in view here the genesis 
of the diagrams of the YI, the number of figures increasing in a 
geometrical progression with the ratio of 2, while the lines of the 
figures form an arithmetical progression with the common differ- 
ence of I. This is quite plain after 'the two elementary forms 
( and ^ ^)' have been made. They give birth to 'the 

four emblematic symbols,' each of two lines ( , ^=_=:, 

__ .^ = :=, known, in this order, as the Grand or old Yang, 
the young Yin, the young Yang, and the Grand or old Yin). By 
the addition to each of these symbols first of the yang line, and 
then of the yin, there arise the eight trigrams, each of three lines ; 
and the process of formation might be continued indefinitely. 

But how was the first step taken in the formation of the two ele- 
mentary lines ? Here, it is said, they were produced by the Th^ 
K\, or the Grand Terminus. This is represented in Kii Hsfs j 
' Youth's Introduction to the Study of the Yt,' by a circle ; but he , 
tells us that that representation of it was first made by A'Su-jze 
(a.d. 1017-1073, called also AHu Tun-1, ATlu Miu-shft, and, most 
<^of all, Kivi Lien-^^i), and that his readers must be careful not to 
suppose that F(i-hst had such a figure in his mind's eye. I fail 
myself to understand how there can be generated from a circle the 
undivided and the broken line. Given those two lines, and the 
formation of the sixty-four hexagrams proceeds regularly according 
to the method above described. We must start from them, whether 
we can account or not for the rise of the idea of them in the mind 
ofFft-hsl. 

Leaving the subject of the figure of the Thii K\, the name gives 
us hardly any clue to its meaning. K\ is used for the extreme 
term of anything, as the ridge-pole of a house, or the pinnacle of 
a pagoda. The comment on the first sentence in the paragraph 
by Wang Pi (a.d. 226-249) is: — 'Existence must begin in non- 
existence, and therefore the Grand Terminus produced the two 
elementary Forms. ThSi K\ is the denomination of what has no 
denomination. As it cannot be named, the text takes the extreme 



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376 THE APPENDIXES. SECT. I. 

said : — ' Y6 (j^) is the symbol of assisting. He 
whom Heaven assists is observant (of what is right); 
he whom men assist is sincere. The individual here 
indicated treads the path of sincerity and desires to 
be observant (of what is right), and studies to exalt 
the worthy. Hence " Help is given to him from 
Heaven. There will be good fortune, advantage in 
every respect.'" 

76. The Master said : — ' The written characters are 



point of anything that exists as an analogous term for the Thii A'}.' 
Expanding Wang's comment, Khung Ying-ti says : — ' Thdi AT! 
means the original subtle matter, that formed the one chaotic mass 
before heaven and earth were divided ;' and then he refers to certain 
passages in LSo-jze's TSo Teh King, and identifies the Thii JCt 
with his Tio. This would seem to give to Thii A7 a material 
meaning. The later philosophers of the Sung school, however, 
insist on its being immaterial, now calling it It, the principle of 
order in nature, now tSo, the defined course of things, now Tt, 
the Supreme Power or God, now shSn, the spiritual working of 
God. According to ^ii&ng-jze, all these names are to be referred 
to that of ' Heaven,' of which they express so many diflFerent 
concepts. 

Paragraph 71 speaks of divination in practice, and paragraph 73 
celebrates the service done by that through the plant and shell, as 
equal to, and indeed the complement of, all the other services ren- 
dered by heaven and earth, the seasons, the sun and moon, the sages, 
and the greatest potentates. Surely, it is all very extravagant. 

The last two paragraphs resume the theme of the making of the 
Yi by the sages, and their teaching the practice of divination. Of 
the Ho map and the Lo writing, I have spoken in the Introduction, 
pages 14-18. But if we accept the statement that the Lo writing 
had anything to do with the making of the Yt, we must except 
Ffl-hst from the sages to whom we are indebted for it. It was to 
the Great Ytl, more than a thousand years later than Fft-hst, that the 
Lo disclosed its writing; and YO is never said to have had anything 
to do with the Yi. Nor is either of these things mentioned in 
Section ii, paragraph 1 1, where the work of Fft-hst is described 
more in detail. 



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CHAP. 12. APPENDIX in. ^T] 

not the fuH exponent of speech, and speech is not 
the full expression of ideas ; — is it impossible then 
to discover the ideas of the sages ?' The Master 
said : — ' The sages made their emblematic symbols 
to set forth fully their ideas ; appointed (all) the 
diagrams to show fully the truth and falsehood (of 
things) ; appended their explanations to give the 
full expression of their words ; and changed (the 
various lines) and made general the method of 
doing so, to exhibit fully what was advantageous. 
They (thus) stimulated (the people) as by drums 
and dances, thereby completely developing the 
spirit-like (character of the Yt).' 

77. May we not say that Kh\t.r\ and Khw5n 
[= the y^jlg and yin, or the undivided and 
divided lines] are the secret and substance of the 
Yl ? ^^ien and Khw3.n being established in 
their several places, the system of changes was 
thereby constituted. If Kh'x^n and Khwin were 
taken away, there would be no means of seeing that 
system; and if that system were not seen, Kh\t.i\. 
and Khwin would almost cease to act. 

78. Hence that which is antecedent to the ma- 
terial form exists, we say, as an ideal method, and 
that which is subsequent to the material form exists, 
we say, as a definite thing. 

Transformation and shaping is what we call 
change ; carrying this out and operating with it is 
what we call generalising the method; taking the 
result and setting it forth for all the people under 
heaven is, we say, (securing the success of) the 
business of life. 

79. Hence, to speak of the emblematic figures : — 
(The sage) was able to survey all the complex phe- 



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378 THE APPENDIXES. SECT. r. 

nomena under the sky. He then considered in his 
mind how they could be figured, and (by means of the 
diagrams) represented their material forms and their 
character. Hence those (diagrams) are denominated 
Semblances. A (later) sage was able to survey the 
motive influences working all under the sky. He 
contemplated them in their common action and 
special nature, in order to bring out the standard 
and proper tendency of each. He then appended 
his explanation (to each line), to determine the 
good or evil indicated by it. Hence those (lines 
with their explanations) are denominated Imitations 
(the Yio). 

80. The most thorough mastery of all the com- 
plex phenomena under the sky is obtained from the 
diagrams. The greatest stimulus to movement in 
adaptation to all affairs under the sky is obtained 
from the explanations. 

81. The transformations and shaping that take 
place are obtained from the changes (of the lines) ; 
the carrying this out and operating with it is ob- 
tained from the general method (that has been 
established). The seeing their spirit-like intima- 
tions and understanding them depended on their 
being the proper men; and the completing (the 
study of) them by silent meditation, and securing 
the faith of others without the use of words, de- 
pended on their virtuous conduct. 

Chapter XII, paragraphs 75-81, endeavours to show how we 
have in the Yt a representation of the changing phenomena of 
nature, and such a representation as words or speech could not 
convey. 

Paragraph 75 has a good meaning, taken by itself; but it has no 
apparent connexion with the rest of the chapter. Kit. Hsi thought 



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CHAP. r. APPENDIX III. 379 



Section II. 

Chapter I. i. The eight trigrams having been 
completed in their proper order, there were in each 
the (three) emblematic lines. They were then 

it was misplaced in its present position, and should be at the end 
of chapter 8. Compare paragraph 14. 

The first two statements of paragraph 76 are general, but made 
here specially to exalt the Yt, as teaching more clearly and fully 
than written characters could have done. The Khang-hs! editors 
decide that 'the emblematic figures' here are the eight trigrams 
of Ffi-hsl, — against the view of A'ft Hst, which restricts them to 
signify the undivided and divided lines. The repetition of the 
words, 'The Master said,' is probably the error of an early 
transcriber. 

Paragraphs 77 and 78 refer to the phenomena of nature and the 
course of human affairs, as suggesting and controlling the forma- 
tion of the system of the Yt. The formation of that becomes the 
subject in paragraph 79. A'Aien and Khw&n are used, as we have 
already seen them more than once, for the active and inactive con- 
ditions in nature, indicated by the divided and undivided lines. It 
is diflScult to translate what is said in paragraph 78, about T4o and 
JCAl; — what I have called, ' an ideal method ' and ' a definite' thing. 
P. Regis translates the text by — ' Quod non est inter figurata aut 
corporea sed supereminet est rationale, est ratio, Tdo; quod (est) 
inter figurata subjacetque certae figurae est sensibile, est instru- 
mentum.' But tSo cannot here signify ratio or reason; for tdo 
and iM are names for the same thing under different conditions ; 
first as a possibility, and next as an actuality. Such is the natural 
interpretation of the text, and so all the great scholars of the Sung 
dynasty construed it, as may be seen in the 'Collected Comments' of 
the imperial edition. So far they were correct, however many of 
them might stumble and fall in confounding this 'ideal method' 
with God. 

What follows in the paragraph has no connexion with these two 
statements. P. Regis, who divides his translation into two paragraphs, 
says : — ' Satis patet utramque textus hujus partem non cohaerere. 



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380 THE APPENDIXES. SECT. «. 

multiplied by a process of addition till the (six) 
component lines appeared. 

2. The strong line and the weak push them- 
selves each into the place of the other, and hence 
the changes (of the diagrams) take place. The 
appended explanations attach to every form of 
them its character (of good or ill), and hence the 
movements (suggested by divination) are deter- 
mined accordingly. 

3. Good fortune and ill, occasion for repentance 
or regret, all arise from these movements. 

4. The strong and the weak (lines) have their 
fixed and proper places (in the diagrams) ; their 
changes, however varied, are according to the re- 
quirements of the time (when they take place). 

5. Good fortune and ill are continually prevailing 
each against the other by an exact rule. 

6. By the same rule, heaven and earth, in their 
course, continually give forth (their lessons) ; the 
sun and moon continually emit their light; all the 
movements under the sky are constantly subject to 
this one and the same rule. 



Quod ergo illas divisimus, id fecimus majoris perspicuitatis causa, 
non ratione ordinis qui certe nuUus est, ut in re potius assuta quam 
connexa.' 

Paragraph 79 is a repetition of paragraphs 38, 39, 'to introduce,' 
says AHtt Hst, 'the two paragraphs ' that follow. 

The editors of the imperial edition find in 80, 81, an amplifica- 
tion mainly of 76, showing how what is said there of the natural 
phenomena is exhibited in the Yt. The concluding sentence is 
a declaration (hardly necessary) about the sage makers, to the 
effect that they were as distinguished for virtuous conduct as for 
wisdom, — 'the proper men' to stand between Heaven and the 
mass of men as they did. 



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CHAP. I. APPENDIX in. 381 

7. Kk'i^n, (the symbol of heaven, and) conveying 
the idea of strength, shows to men its easy (and 
natural) action. Kh-w^n, (the symbol of earth, and) 
conveying the idea of docility, shows to men its 
compendious (receptivity and operation). 

8. The Yio (or lines) are imitative representa- 
tions of this. The Hsiang, or emblematic figures, 
are pictorial representations of the same. 

9. The movements of the lines and figures take 
place (at the hand of the operator), and are un- 
seen ; the good fortune or ill is seen openly and 
is beyond. The work to be done appears by the 
changes ; the sympathies of the sages are seen in 
their explanations. 

10. The great attribute of heaven and earth is 
the giving and maintaining life. What is most 
precious for the sage is to get the (highest) place — 
(in which he can be the human representative of 
heaven and earth). What will guard this position 
for him ? Men. How shall he collect a large 
population round him ? By the power of his wealth. 
The right administration of that wealth, correct 
instructions to the people, and prohibitions against 
wrong-doing; — these constitute his righteousness. 



Chapter I, paragraphs i-io, is an amplification, according to 
Khung Ying-ti and the editors of the imperial edition of the 
present dynasty, of the second chapter of Section i. The latter 
say that as all the chapters of Section i from the third onwards 
serve to elucidate chapter 2, so it is with this chapter and all that 
follow in this Section. The formation of the diagrams, and of 
their several lines, their indication of good fortune and bad, and the 
analogy between the processes of nature and the operations of 
divination, and other kindred subjects, are all touched on. 

The order of the eight trigrams in paragraph i, is khien, tui, 



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382 THE APPENDIXES. SECT. U. 

Chapter II. 11. Anciently, when Pio-hsl had 
come to the rule of all under heaven, looking up, 
he contemplated the brilliant forms exhibited in the 
sky, and looking down he surveyed the patterns 
shown on the earth. He contemplated the orna- 
mental appearances of birds and beasts and the 
(different) suitabilities of the soil. Near at hand, in 
his own person, he found things for consideration, 
and the same at a distance, in things in general. On 
this he devised the eight trigrams, to show fully the 



It, i^n, sun, khan, klin, khwiln. The three lines of each are 
emblematic, — the first of heaven, the second of man, the third of 
earth. This is the most likely explanation of hsiang, 'the em- 
blems' or 'similitudes' here. Why the maker — 'sages' — stopt at 
sixty-four figures, of six lines each, is a question that cannot be 
answered. 

Paragraph a. Of cotu-se it was a great delusion to suppose that 
the changes of lines consequent on divination could be so con- 
nected with the movements of life as to justify the characterising 
them as good or evil, or afford any guidance in the ordering of 
conduct. 

Paragraph 4. Who can tell ' the requirements of the time' amid 
the complexity of the phenomena of nature or the ever-varying 
events of human experience and history ? The wiser men are, the 
more correct will be their judgments in such matters ; but is there 
any reason for trusting to divination about them 7 

Paragraphs 6, 6. It is difiScult to say what is ' the exact rule ' 
intended here; unless it be that the factors in every movement 
shall act according to their proper nature. The Khang-hsi editors 
say : — 'We see the good sometimes meeting with misfortune, and 
the bad with good fortune; but such is not the general rule.' 'The 
lessons that heaven and earth give forth ' are those concerning the 
method of their operation as stated in paragraph 7, and more fully 
in 6, 7, 8 of Section i. 

What is said in paragraph 10 is striking and important, and in 
harmony with the general strain of Confucian teaching; — as in 
the Great Learning, chapter 10, and many other places; but I fail 
to see its appropriateness in its present place in the Yt. 



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CHAP. 2. APPENDIX III. 383 

attributes of the spirit-like and intelligent (operations 
working secretly), and to classify the qualities of the 
myriads of things. 

12. He invented the making of nets of various 
kinds by knitting strings, both for hunting and 
fishing. The idea of this was taken, probably, 
from Ll (the third trigram, and thirtieth hexa- 
gram). 

13. On the death of Pio-hsl, there arose Shin- 
ning (in his place). He fashioned wood to form 
the share, and bent wood to make the plough- 
handle. The advantages of ploughing and weeding 
were then taught to all under heaven. The idea 
of this was taken, probably, from Yt (the forty- 
second hexagram). 

14. He caused markets to be held at midday, 
thus bringing together all the people, and assem- 
bling in one place all their wares. They made their 
exchanges and retired, every one having got what he 
wanted. The idea of this was taken, probably, from 
Shih Ho (the twenty-first hexagram). 

15. After the death of Shin-ning, there arose 
Hwang Tt, Yio, and Shun. They carried through 
the (necessarily occurring) changes, so that the peo- 
ple did (what was required of them) without being 
wearied ; yea, they exerted such a spirit-like trans- 
formation, that the people felt constrained to approve 
their (ordinances) as right. When a series of 
changes has run all its course, another change 
ensues. When it obtains free course, it will continue 
long. Hence it was that 'these (sovereigns) were 
helped by Heaven; they had good fortune, and 
their every movement was advantageous.' Hwang 
Tl, Yio, and Shun (simply) wore their upper and 



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384 THE APPENDIXES. SECT. II. 

lower garments (as patterns to the people), and good 
order was secured all under heaven. The idea of 
all this was taken, probably, from iST^ien and 
Khw3,n (the first and eighth trigrams, or the first 
and second hexagrams). 

16. They hollowed out trees to form canoes ; they 
cut others long and thin to make oars. Thus arose 
the benefit of canoes and oars for the help of those 
who had no means of intercourse with others. They 
could now reach the most distant parts, and all 
under heaven were benefited. The idea of this 
was taken, probably, from Hwin (the fifty-ninth 
hexagram). 

1 7. They used oxen (in carts) and yoked horses 
(to chariots), thus providing for the carriage of what 
was heavy, and for distant journeys, — thereby 
benefiting all under the sky. The idea of this 
was taken, probably, from Sui (the seventeenth 
hexagram). 

18. They made the (defence of the) double gates, 
and (the warning of) the clapper, as a preparation 
against the approach of marauding visitors. The 
idea of this was taken, probably, from Yii (the 
sixteenth hexagram). 

19. They cut wood and fashioned it into pestles ; 
they dug in the ground and formed mortars. Thus 
the myriads of the people received the benefit 
arising from the use of the pestle and mortar. The 
idea of this was taken, probably, from Hsiio Kwo 
(the sixty-second hexagram). 

20. They bent wood by means of string so as to 
form bows, and sharpened wood so as to make 
arrows. This gave the benefit of bows and arrows, 
and served to produce everywhere a feeling of awe. 



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CHAP. 2. APPENDIX III. 385 

The idea of this was taken, probably, from Khwei 
(the thirty-eighth hexagram). 

21. In the highest antiquity they made their 
homes (in winter) in caves, and (in summer) dwelt 
in the open country. In subsequent ages, for 
these the sages substituted houses, with the ridge- 
beam above and the projecting roof below, as a 
provision against wind and rain. The idea of this 
was taken, probably, from Tk A'wang (the thirty- 
fourth hexagram). 

22. When the ancients buried their dead, they 
covered the body thickly with pieces of wood, 
having laid it in the open country. They raised 
no mound over it, nor planted trees around; nor 
had they any fixed period for mourning. In subse- 
quent ages the sages substituted for these practices 
the inner and outer coffins. The idea of this was 
taken, probably, from Ti Kwo (the twenty-eighth 
hexagram). 

23. In the highest antiquity, government was 
carried on successfully by the use of knotted cords 
(to preserve the memory of things). In subse- 
quent ages the sages substituted for these written 
characters and bonds. By means of these (the 
doings of) all the officers could be regulated, and 
(the affairs of) all the people accurately examined. 
The idea of this was taken, probably, from Kwii 
(the forty-third hexagram). 

Chapter II, paragraphs 11-23, treats of the progress of civi- 
lisation in China, and how the great men of antiquity who led the 
way in the various steps of that progress were guided by the YI. 
Only five of these are mentioned ; — the first, Ffl-hst, the beginning 
of whose reign, according to the least unlikely of the chronological 
accounts, must be placed in the 34th century b. c, while Shun's 
[16] C C 



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386 THE APPENDIXES. SECT. ir. 

Chapter III. 24. Therefore what we call the Yt 
is (a collection of) emblematic lines. They are 
styled emblematic as being resemblances. 



reign ended in B.C. 2203. The time embraced in this chapter 
therefore is about twelve centuries and a half. But the writer 
gives his own opinion that the various discoveries and inventions 
mentioned were suggested to their authors by certain hexagrams 
of the YJ. The most commonly received view, however, is 
that FA-hst had only the eight trigrams, and that the multipli- 
cation of them to the 64 hexagrams was the work of king W&n, 
fully a thousand years later than Shun. This is the view of 
the editors of the imperial Yl. If it be contended that Ffl-hsl 
himself multiplied his trigrams, and gave their names to the 
resulting hexagrams, how could he have wrapped up in them the 
intimations of discoveries which were not made till many centuries 
after his death ? The statements in the chapter cannot be received 
as historical. It came from another hand, and not from Confucius 
himself. The writer or compiler gives the legends current about 
the various inventions of his time. The making of the trigrams 
is placed first of all to do honour to the Yt. The account of it is 
different from that given in paragraph 73 of the former Section, 
and we hear nothing of the Ho map or Lo writing. 

Paragraph 11. Pio-hst here and in 13 is the same as F(i-hst. 
As PSo is written here, there is no meaning in it; but another 
character Phdo (^) is more common, and Phio-hst would mean 
the inventor of the kitchen and cookery. This was the first step 
towards civilisation, and was appropriately followed by the hunting 
and fishing — both by means of nets — in paragraph 12. 

Paragraphs 13, 14 celebrate the work of ShSn-nSUig, 'the mar- 
vellous or spirit-like husbandman.' There was no metal about the 
primitive plough. The market for the exchange of commodities, 
without the use of coin, was an impiortant advance. 

The invention of the robes, or of dress, mentioned in paragraph 
15, would seem to show that previously men had been in a very 
rude state. The passage indicates, however, the courtesies and 
proprieties of social life, in which dress plays an important part, 
and which now began to be organised. 

The infant navigation in paragraph 16 was as little indebted to 
the use of metal as the agriculture of 13. 

Paragraphs 17 and 18 show that in those primitive times there 



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CHAP. 3. APPENDIX III. 387 

25. What we call the Thwan (or king Win's 
explanations) are based on the significance (of each 
hexagram as a whole). 

26. We call the lines (of the figures) Yio from 
their being according to the movements taking place 
all under the sky. 

27. In this way (we see) the rise of good fortune 
and evil, and the manifestation of repentance and 
regret. 



were already the practices of rapine and war. ' The double gates ' 
were those of the city wall, and of the enclosed suburb. The 
clapper may still be heard all over China. Bows and arrows, 
however, came rather later, as in 20. 

I suppose 'the sages' in paragraphs 21, 22, 23 refer generally 
to the great names mentioned in the previous chapters; nor can 
we define the distinction in the writer or compiler's mind between 
' antiquity ' and ' the highest antiquity.' Compare what is said on 
the rise of the coffin in 22 with Mencius' remarks on the same 
subject in Book III, ii, 5. 4. He would hardly have expressed 
himself as he did, if he had been familiar with this text. The 
invention of written characters is generally ascribed to Ffl-hst. 
Paragraph 23 does not say so, but the inventor is said to have 
been a sage of a subsequent age to the time of ' high antiquity.' 
That ' high antiquity' must stretch back very far. 

Chapter III, paragraphs 34-27, treats of the Yi as made up 
of figurative diagrams, which again are composed of lines ever 
changing, in accordance with the phenomena of nature and human 
experience, while to the resulting figures their moral character and 
providential issues are appended by the $ages. It may be regarded 
as an epitome of chapter 2 in Section i. 

Paragraph 24. It is observed by the editors of the imperial 
edition that a chapter should not begin with a ' therefore ; ' and 
they are inclined to agree with many critics who would enter this 
as the last paragraph of the preceding chapter. In that case it 
would be a summing-up of the concluding sentences of the different 
paragraphs, the truth and genuineness of which are deservedly 
suspected. The characters for ' therefore,' however, are very loosely 
used in these Appendixes. — The lines, as they were intended by 

C c 2 



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388 THE APPENDIXES. SECT. II. 

Chapter IV. 28. In the Yang trigrams (or those 
of the undivided line) there are more of the Yin 
lines, and in the Yin trigrams (or those of the 
divided line) there are more of the Yang lines. 

29. What is the cause of this ? It is because 
the Yang lines are odd (or made by one stroke), 
and the Yin lines are even (or made by two 
strokes). 

30. What (method of) virtuous conduct is thus 
intimated? In the Yang trigrams we have one 
ruler, and two subjects, — suggesting the way of the 
superior man. In the Yin trigrams we have two 
rulers, and one subject, — suggesting the way of the 
small man. 



Fft-hsl, were emblematic ; and they are still more so, as interpreted 
by the duke of A'iu. Meaning^ are drawn from the figures that 
resemble or illustrate principles in the subjects to which they are 
applied. 

Paragraph 25. The character rendered 'the significance' means 
materials, and is illustrated by reference to all the different materials 
out of which a house is composed. So there are half-a-dozen 
things about the diagrams, their lineal structure, emblematic in- 
tention, their attributes, &c., out of which their interpretation is 
fashioned. 

Paragraph 26. E.g. an undivided line may appear in an odd 
place, which is right, or in an even place, which is wrong ; and the 
case is the opposite with the divided lines. But what has this to do 
with the right or wrong of the events divined about? 

Chapter IV, paragraphs 28-30. Of the distinction of the trigrams 
into Yang and Yin. 

The trigrams that contain only one undivided line — kin 
(=_=), khan (=-=), and kin (=~=)^ — are called Yang. 
The undivided line is called ' the lord' in them. It is just the 
opposite with the Yin trigrams, in which there are two undivided 
lines, and one divided, — sun ( __ __ ), li ( — - — ), and tui 
( *"" *"" )- These together constitute the ' six children,' or ' three 



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CHAP. 5. APPENDIX HI. 389 

Chapter V. 31. It is said in the Yl, 'Full of 
anxious thoughts you go and come ; (only) friends 
will follow you and think with you.' The Master 
said : — ' In all (the processes taking place) under 
heaven, what is there of thinking ? what is there of 
anxious scheming ? They all come to the same (suc- 
cessful) issue, though by different paths; there is one 
result, though there might be a hundred anxious 
schemes. What is there of thinking ? what is there 
of anxious scheming ?' 

32. The sun goes and the moon comes; the 
moon goes and the sun comes ; — the sun and moon 
thus take the place each of the other, and their 
shining is the result. The cold goes and the heat 
comes ; the heat goes and the cold comes ; — it is by 
this mutual succession of the cold and heat that the 
year is completed. That which goes becomes less, 
and less, and that which comes waxes more and 
more ; — it is by the influence on each other of this 
contraction and expansion that the advantages (of 
the different conditions) are produced. 

33. When the looper coils itself up, it thereby 
straightens itself again ; when worms and snakes 



sons ' and ' three daughters ' in the later arrangement of the tri- 
grams, ascribed to king Win. 

Paragraph 29. Each part of the divided line counts as one; 
hence a yang trigram counts as 1 + 2 + 2 = 5 strokes, four of 
which are yin, while a yin trigram counts as 2 + i + i = 4, only 
two of which are yang. But this is mere trifling. 

In explanation of paragraph 30 it is said that ' we have in the 
yang trigrams two (or more) subjects serving one ruler, and in the 
yin one subject serving two rulers, and two rulers striving together 
for the allegiance of one subject.' This is ingenious, but fanciful ; 
as indeed this distinction of the trigrams into a yang class and a 
yin is a mere play of fancy. 



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390 THE APPENDIXES. SECT. n. 

go into the state of hybernation, they thereby keep 
themselves alive. (So), when we minutely inves- 
tigate the nature and reasons (of things), till we 
have entered into the inscrutable and spirit-like in 
them, we attain to the largest practical application 
of them ; when that application becomes the quickest 
and readiest, and all personal restfulness is secured, 
our virtue is thereby exalted. 

34. Going on beyond this, we reach a point which 
it is hardly possible to know. We have thoroughly 
comprehended the inscrutable and spirit-like, and 
know the processes of transformation ; — this is the 
fulness of virtue. 

35. It is said in the Yt, '(The third line shows its 
subject) distressed before a rock, and trying to lay 
hold of thorns; entering into his palace and not 
seeing his wife: — there will be evil.' The Master 
said : — 'If one be distressed by what need not distress 
him, his name is sure to be disgraced ; if he lay hold 
on what he should not touch, his life is sure to be 
imperilled. In disg^ce and danger, his death will 
(soon) come ; — is it possible for him in such circum- 
stances to see his wife ?' 

36. It is said in the Yl, ' The duke with (his bow) 
shoots at the falcon on the top of the high wall ; he 
hits it : — his every movement will be advantageous.' 
The Master said : — ' The falcon is a bird (of prey) ; 
the bow and arrow is a weapon (of war); the shooter 
is a man. The superior man keeps his weapon con- 
cealed about his person, and waits for the proper 
time to move; — doing this, how should his move- 
ment be other than successful ? There is nothing 
to fetter or embarrass his movement; and hence, 
when he comes forth, he succeeds in his object. 



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CHAP. 5. APPENDIX III. 391 

The language speaks of movement when the instru- 
ment necessary to it is ready and perfect' 

37. The Master said: — 'The small man is not 
ashamed of what is not benevolent, nor does he fear 
to do what is not righteous. Without the prospect 
of gain he does not stimulate himself to what is 
good, nor does he correct himself without being 
moved. Self-correction, however, in what is small 
will make him careful in what would be of greater 
consequence ; — and this is the happiness of the small 
man. It is said in the Yl, " His feet are in the 
stocks, and he is disabled in his toes : — there will be 
no (further) occasion for blame.'" 

38. If acts of goodness be not accumulated, they 
are not sufficient to give its finish to one's name ; if 
acts of evil be not accumulated, they are not sufficient 
to destroy one's life. The small man thinks that 
small acts of goodness are of no benefit, and does 
not do them ; and that small deeds of evil do no 
harm, and does not abstain from them. Hence bis 
wickedness becomes great till it cannot be covered, 
and his guilt becomes great till it cannot be par- 
doned. This is what the Yl says, 'He wears the 
cangue and his ears are destroyed: — there will be 
evil.' 

39. The Master said : — 'He who keeps daager in 
mind is he who will rest safe in his seat ; he who keeps 
ruin in mind is he who will preserve his interests 
secure ; he who sets the danger of disorder before him 
is he who will maintain the state of order. There- 
fore the superior man, when resting in safety, does 
not forget that danger may come ; when in a state 
of security, he does not forget the possibility of ruin; 
and when all is in a state of order, he does not 



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392 THE APPENDIXES. SECT. It. 

forget that disorder may come. Thus his person is 
kept safe, and his states and all their clans can be 
preserved. This is according to what the Yl says, 
"(Let him say), 'Shall I perish ? shall I perish?' (so 
shall this state be firm, as if) bound to a clump of 
bushy mulberry trees." ' 

40. The Master said : — 'Virtue small and office 
high ; wisdom small and plans great ; strength small 
and burden heavy: — where such conditions exist, it 
is seldom that they do not end (in evil). As is 
said in the Yl, "The tripod's feet are overthrown, 
and the ruler's food is overturned. The body of 
him (who is thus indicated) is wet (with shame) : — 
there will be evil." ' 

41. The Master said : — ' Does not he who knows 
the springs of things possess spirit-like wisdom ? 
The superior man, in his intercourse with the high, 
uses no flattery, and, in his intercourse with the low, 
no coarse freedom : — does not this show that he 
knows the springs of things .■* Those springs are the 
slight beginnings of movement, and the earliest 
indications of good fortune (or ill). The superior 
man sees them, and acts accordingly without waiting 
for (the delay of) a single day. As is said in the 
Yl, "He is firm as a rock, (and acts) without the 
delay of a single day. With firm goodness there 
will be good fortune." Firm as a rock, how should 
he have to wait a single day to ensure his knowing 
(those springs and his course) ? The superior man 
knows the minute and the manifested ; he knows 
what is weak, and what is strong : — he is a model 
to ten thousand.' 

42. The Master said: — ' I may venture to say that 
the son of the Yen family had nearly attained (the 



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CHAP.g. APPENDIX III. 393 

Standard of perfection). If anything that he did was 
not good, he was sure to become conscious of that ; 
and when he knew it, he did not do the thing again. 
As is said in the Yl, "(The first line shows its sub- 
ject) returning from an error that has not led him 
far away. There is no occasion for repentance. 
There will be great good."' 

43. There .is an intermingling of the genial in- 
fluences of heaven and earth, and transformation in 
its various forms abundantly proceeds. There is 
an intercommunication of seed between male and 
female, and transformation in its living types pro- 
ceeds. What is said in the Yl, ' Three individuals 
are walking together and one is made to disappear ; 
there is (but) one man walking, and he gets his 
mate,' tells us of the effort (in nature) at oneness (of 
operation). 

44. The Master said : — ' The superior man (in a 
high place) composes himself before he (tries to) 
move others ; makes his mind restful and easy before 
he- speaks; settles (the principles of) his intercourse 
with others before he seeks anything from them. 
The superior man cultivates these three things, and 
so is complete. If he try to .move others while he 
is himself in unrest, the people will not (act) with 
him ; if he speak while he is himself in a state of 
apprehension, the people will not respond to him ; 
if without (certain principles of) intercommunica- 
tion, he issue his requests, the people will not 
grant them. When there are none to accord with 
him, those who (work to) injure him will make 
their appearance. As is said in the Yl, "(We see 
one) to whose advantage none will contribute, while 
some will seek to assail him. He observes no 



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394 THE APPENDIXES. SECT. II. 

regular rule in the ordering of his heart: — there 
will be evil." ' 

Chapter V, paragraphs 31-44, gives the words of the duke of 
Alu on eleven different lines in the Text of the Yi, along with 
remarks of Confucius in farther illustration of them. But they 
seem also to be intended to bring forth more fully the meaning 
of certain previous utterances about the structure and scope of 
the Yl. 

Paragraphs 31-34 start from the fourth line of the 31st hexa- 
gram, which would seem merely to require a steady and unvarying 
purpose in any one, in order to the full development of his influ- 
ence. The editors of the imperial edition, however, make the 
whole a sequel of paragraph 5. But granted that there is no 
' anxious scheming' in the processes of the natural world or in the 
phenomena of insect life, there is really no analogy to their pro- 
ceedings in the course of the man who makes himself master of 
'the nature and reasons of things,' as described in 33 and 34. 
Nor are ' the nature and reasons of things' to be found in the Yl, 
as the writer believed they were. Such as it is, it requires immense 
thought to understand it, and when we have laid hold of it, there is 
nothing substantial in our grasp. The ' virtue ' predicated of such 
attainment is not so much moral excellence, as apprehension and 
the power and ability to invent, and to affect others. 

Paragraph 35. See on the third line of KhwJln, the 47th 
hexagram. If we were to translate the explanations of the fine 
after Confucius, we should put the first two statements hypotheti- 
cally; but the four that compose it seem to run on in the same 
way. They are all, I apprehend, hypothetical. 

Paragraph 36. See on the last line of A'ieh, the 40th hexa- 
gram. 

Paragraph 37. See on the first line of Shih Ho, the 2ist hexa- 
gram. The ' self-correction in what is small' implies of course 
that the small man has been ' awed.' What is said about him here 
is true ; but we hardly expect it in this place. 

Paragraph 38 should probably begin, like those before and after 
it, with ' The Master said.' The characters quoted from the Yt 
are again from the text of Shih H 0, on the last line. 

Paragraph 39. See on the fifth line of Phi, the 12th hexagram. 

Paragraph 40 gives Confucius' views on the fourth line of Ting, 
the 50th hexagram. 

In paragraph 41 we are conducted to the i6th hexagram,— the 



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CHAP, 6. APPENDIX in. 395 

Chapter VI. 45. The Master said: — '(The tri- 
grams) A'^ien and KhwSn may be regarded as the 
gate of the Yl.' ^^i en represents what is of the yang 
nature (bright and active); Khwin what is of the 
yin nature (shaded and inactive). These two unite 
according to their qualities, and there comes the 
embodiment of the result by the strong and weak 
(lines). In this way we have the phenomena of 
heaven and earth visibly exhibited, and can com- 
prehend the operation of the spiritual intelligence. 

46. The appellations and names (of the diagrams 
and lines) are various, but do not go beyond (what 
is to be ascribed to the operation of these two con- 
ditions). When we examine the nature and style 



second line of it. The being ' firm as a rock'^ is understood to 
symbolise the state of ' rest,' the quiet self-possession out of which 
successful movement and action is understood to spring. 

In paragraph 42, 'the son of the Yen family' is Yen Hui, the 
favourite disciple of Confucius. The passage quoted from the Yi 
is that on the first line of Ffl, the 24th hexagram. 

To paragraph 43, as to paragraph 38, I would prefix the cha- 
racters for ' The Master said.' ' Male and female ' is to be taken 
generally, and not confined to the individuals of the human pair. 
One Chinese writer says that in the transformations ascribed to 
heaven and earth, birds, fishes, animals, and plants are included, 
but from the ' transformation in its living types' plants are excluded, 
because in their generation there is nothing analogous to the emis- 
sion and reception of seed. Other Chinese writers, however, are 
well enough acquainted with the sexual system of plants. It would 
seem to me that Confucius, if the paragraph were really his, intended 
only plants or the vegetable world in his reference to the operation 
of heaven and earth, and had all living tribes in view in his mention 
of male and female. The passage of the Yt referred to is on the 
third line of Sun, the 41st hexagram. The application of it is 
far-fetched. 

Paragraph 44. See on the fifth line of Yl, the 42nd hexa- 
gram. 



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396 THE APPENDIXES. SECT. 11; 

(of the appended explanations), they seem to express 
the ideas of a decaying age. 

47. The Yl exhibits the past, and (teaches us to) 
discriminate (the issues of) the future; it makes 
manifest what is minute, and brings to light what 
is obscure. (Then king W3.n) opened (its symbols), 
and distinguished things in accordance with its names, 
so that all his words were correct and his explana- 
tions decisive ; — (the book) was now complete. 

48. The appellations and names (of the diagrams 
and lines) are but small matters, but the classes of 
things comprehended under them are large. Their 
scope reaches far, and the explanations attached to 
them are elegant. The words are indirect, but to 
the point; the matters seem plainly set forth, but 
there is a secret principle in them. Their object is, 
in cases that are doubtful, to help the people in their 
conduct, and to make plain the recompenses of good 
and evil. 



The principal object, it is said, of chapter VI, paragraphs 45-48, 
is to set forth the views of king Win and his son in the explana- 
tions which they appended to the diagrams and lines; and in 
doing this the writer begins in 45, with Ffl-hst's starting, in the 
formation of his eight trigrams, from the devising of the whole and 
divided lines, to represent the two primitive forms in nature. The 
two 'pure' trigrams formed of these lines, unmixed, give rise to all 
the others, or rather the lines of which they are formed do so ; and 
are thus compared to a gate by which the various diagrams enter 
to complete the system that is intended to represent the changing 
phenomena of nature and experience. The next sentence in the 
above version of paragraph 45 appears in Canon McClatchie's 
translation of the Y!, as follows: — 'A'^ien is the membrum 
virile, and KhwSn is the pudendum muliebre (the sakti of 
A'Aien).' It is hardly possible, on reading such a version, to sup- 
press the exclamation proh pudorl Can a single passage be 
adduced in support of it from among all the Chinese critics in the 



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CHAP. 7. APPENDIX III. 397 

Chapter VII. 49. Was it not in the middle period 
of antiquity that the Yl began to flourish? Was 
not he who made it familiar with anxiety and cala- 
mity ? 

50. Therefore (the loth diagram), LI, shows us 
the foundation of virtue; (the 15th), Hsien, its 
handle; (the 24th), F6, its root; (the 32nd), H5ng, 
its solidity; (the 41st), Sun, its cultivation; (the 
42nd), Yl, its abundance; (the 47th), KhwSn, its 
exercise of discrimination ; (the 48th), 3ing, its field ; 
and (the 57th), Sun, its regulation. 

51. In Ll we have the perfection of harmony; 
in Hsien, we have the giving honour to others. 



line of centuries? I believe not. The ideas which it expresses are 
gratuitously and wantonly thrust into this text of the Yl. 'A'Aien* 
and 'Khwiln' are not spoken of thus. If the latter half of the 
paragraph be unintelligible, this interpretation of the former would 
make the whole disgusting. 

In paragraph 46 the writer passes from the work of Fd-hsl to 
that of king Wan and his son, and the composition of the written 
Yi is referred to ' a decaying age,' — the age, namely, of the tyrant 
Allu. Then king WSn and the duke of .ATdu, it is said, deploring 
the degeneracy of their times and the enormities of the government, 
indicated, by their treatment of the ancient symbols, their sense of 
right and wrong, and the methods by which the prevailing evils 
might be rectified. 

Paragraphs 47 and 48 follow and expand the meaning of 45. 
The editors of the imperial edition say that the former sentence of 
47 is the sequel of 45, and the latter of 46, bringing us finally to 
the explanations and decisions of king W^n, as the most im- 
portant portion of the Yt. A'fl Hsl, moreover, observes that 
throughout the chapter, as well as in the chapters that follow, there 
must be many characters wanting in the text, while there are many 
also that are doubtful. This is specially the case with 48. Where 
the order of the characters has been disarranged merely, correction 
is easy; but where characters are evidently missing, attempts to fill 
the lacunae are merely guess-work. 



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398 THE APPENDIXES. SKCT. It, 

and the distinction thence arising; in FA we have 
what is small (at first), but there is in it a (nice) 
discrimination of (the qualities of) things ; in Hang 
we have a mixed experience, but without any weari- 
ness; in Sun we have difficulty in the beginning 
and ease in the end ; in Yl we have abundance of 
growth without any contrivance; in KhwSn we 
have the pressure of extreme difficulty, ending in a 
free course ; in 3ing we have abiding in one's place 
and at the same time removal (to meet the move- 
ment of others); and in Sun we have the weighing 
of things (and action accordingly), but secretly and 
unobserved. 

52. (The use of) Lt appears in the harmony of 
the conduct; of Hsien, in the regulation of cere- 
monies ; of FA, in self-knowledge ; of HSng, in uni- 
formity of virtue ; of Sun, in keeping what is harmful 
at a distance; of Yl, in the promotion of what is 
advantageous; of KhwSn, in the diminution of re- 
sentments; of Sing, in the discrimination of what 
is righteous; and of Sun, in the doing of what is 
appropriate to time and to circumstances. 



Chapter VII, paragraphs 49-52, is occupied with nine hexa- 
grams, as specially indicating how the superior man, or the ruler, 
should deal with a time of trouble and solicitude, specially by the 
cultivation of his own virtue. Not, we are told, that the same 
thing might not be learned from other diagrams, but these nine 
specially occurred to the writer, or, as many think, to Confucius. 

Paragraph 49 is important as agreeing in its testimony with 46. 
The Yt was made in middle-antiquity ; that is, in the end of the 
Shang dynasty, and the rise of the A'iu ; and the maker or makers 
had personal and public reasons for anxiety about the signs of 
the times. 

Paragraph 50 shows the particular phase of virtue in each of the 
nine hexagrams that are mentioned; 51, the marvellous character- 



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CHAP. 8. APPENDIX in. 399 

Chapter VIII. 53. The Yl is a book which should 
not be let slip from the mind. Its method (of teach- 
ing) is marked by the frequent changing (of its lines). 
They change and move without staying (in one 
place), flowing about into any one of the six places 
of the hexagram. They ascend and descend, ever 
inconstant. The strong and the weak lines change 
places, so that an invariable and compendious rule 
cannot be derived from them ; — it must vary as their 
changes indicate. 

54. The goings forth and comings in (of the lines) 
are according to rule and measure. (People) learn 
from them in external and internal aflairs to stand 
in awe. 

55. (The book), moreover, makes plain the nature 
of anxieties and calamities, and the causes of them. 
Though (its students) have neither master nor 
guardian, it is as if their parents drew near to 
them. 

56. Beginning with taking note of its explanations, 
we reason out the principles to which they point. 
We thus find out that it does supply a constant and 
standard rule. But if there be not the proper men 
(to carry this out), the course cannot be pursued 
without them. 

istics of each phase ; and 52, its use. The ' therefore ' with which 
paragraph 50 commences shows the process of thought by which the 
writer passed from the anxiety that possessed the mind of the 
author of the Yi to the use to be derived, in such circumstances, 
from the study of L! and the other hexagrams. 

Chapter VIII, paragraphs 53-56, describes the method of study- 
ing the Yi as consisting very much in watching the changes that 
take place in the lines, and reflecting on the appended explanations ; 
while, after all, much must depend on there being ' the proper men,' 
to carry its lessons into practice. 



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400 THE APPENDIXES. SECT. n. 

Chapter IX. 57. The Yi is a book in which the 
form (of each diagram) is determined by the lines 
from the first to the last, which must be carefully 
observed. The six lines are mixed together, accord- 
ing to the time (when they enter the figjure) and 
their substance (as whole and divided). 

58. There is difficulty in knowing (the significance 
of) the first line, while to know that of the topmost 
line is easy ; — they form the beginning and the end 
(of the diagram). The explanation of the first line 
tasks the calculating (of the makers), but in the 
end they had (but) to complete this. 

59. As to the variously- disposed intermediate 
lines with their diverse formations, for determining 
their qualities, and discriminating the right and 
wrong in them, we should be unprovided but for the 
explanations of them. 

60. Yea, moreover, if we wish to know what is 
likely to be preserved and what to perish, what will 
be lucky and what will be unlucky, this may easily be 
known (from the explanations of the different lines). 
But if the wise will look at the explanations of the 
entire diagrams, their thoughts will embrace more 
than half of this knowledge. 

61. The second and fourth lines are of the same 



There seems to be a contradiction between the statements in 
paragraphs 53 and 56 about the book supplying, and not sup- 
plying, a standard rule ; but the meaning, probably, is that while it 
does not give a rule generally applicable, it gives rules for par- 
ticular cases. 

^1^ Hsi says he does not understand 54, and thinks some cha- 
racters must have been lost. ' The six places of the hexagram ' in 
53 are, literally, ' the six empties.' The places are so called, be- 
cause it is only a temporary possession of them, which is held by 
the fugitive lines, whether whole or divided. 



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CHAP. p. APPENDIX III. 401 

quality (as being in even places), but their positions 
(with respect to the fifth line) are different, and 
their value is not the same ; but the second is the 
object of much commendation, and the fourth the 
subject of many apprehensions, — from its nearness 
(to that line). But for a line in a place of weakness 
it is not good to be far (from the occupant of the 
place of strength), and what its subject should desire 
in such a case is (merely) to be without blame. The 
advantage (here) is in (the second line) being in the 
central place. 

62. The third and fifth lines are of the same 
quality, (as being in odd places), but their positions 
are different ; and the (occupant of) the third meets 
with many misfortunes, while the occupant of the 
fifth achieves much merit: — this arises from one 
being, in the noble position and the other in the 
mean. Are they occupied by the symbol of weak- 
ness ? There will be peril. By that of strength ? 
There will be victory. 

Chapter IX, paragraphs 56-62, speaks of the hexagrams as 
made up of the different lines, and various things to be attended to 
in those lines to determine their meaning. 

Paragraph 57. The time or order in which the lines enter de- 
termines of course the place and number of each in the figure. 
Their 'substance' is their form, as whole or divided, being yang 
or yin. 

Paragraph 58 belongs to the first and sixth lines. We are hardly 
prepared for the statement that 'the maker or makers' had so 
much difiSculty in determining the meaning of the first line. Of 
course when they had fixed that and completed the figure, ex- 
plaining all the lines, it was easy for the student to follow their 
exposition, as paragraph 59 says. 

Paragraph 60 seems to say that the work of the duke of H^in on 
each line was but an indicating in detail of the processes of his 
father's mind in explaining the whole figure. 
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402 THE APPENDIXES. SECT. II. 

Chapter X. 63. The Yt is a book of wide com- 
prehension and great scope, embracing everything. 
There are in it the way of heaven, the way of man, 
and the way of earth. It then takes (the lines 
representing) those three Powers, and doubles them 
till they amount to six. What these six lines show 
is simply this, — the way of the three Powers. 

64. This way is marked by changes and move- 
ments, and hence we have the imitative lines. Those 
lines are of different grades (in the trigrams), and 
hence we designate them from their component 
elements. These are mixed together, and elegant 
forms arise. When such forms are not in their appro- 
priate places, the idejis of good fortune and bad are 
thus produced. 

The last two paragraphs mention several points important to be 
attended to in studying, more especially, the duke of ^Su on the 
several lines. Three different views of the concluding statement, — 
' are they occupied,' &c., — are given in the imperial edition. ' It be- 
longs,' says Wfi AlUng, 'to the fifth line ; ' ' to the third line,' says Hfl 
Ping-win (also of the Yttan dynasty) ; while HSn Hsing-kwo (of 
the Thang dynasty) held that it belonged to both. The Khang-hsi 
editors say that ' by discriminating and combining these views, we 
get to the meaning of the text.' I am unable to do so. 

Chapter X, paragraphs 63, 64, speaks of the great comprehen- 
siveness of the Yt, its figures and explanations being applicable to 
the three Powers — heaven, earth, and man. 

With paragraph 63, compare paragraph 4, Appendix VI. In the 
trigrara the upper line represents heaven, the middle line man, and 
the lowest earth. This paragraph and that other are the nearest 
approach I know to an attempt to account for the doubling of the 
number of lines, and stopping with the hexagram ; but the doing so 
was entirely arbitrary. ATft Hsi says : — ' The upper two characters 
belong to heaven, the middle two to man, and the lower two to earth,' 
No words could be more express ; and yet Canon McClatchie says 
(P- 354)= — 'The two upper strokes represent Heaven, or ThSi- 
yi, the husband ; the two middle strokes. Earth, his wife ; and the 



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CHAP. II. APPENDIX III. 403 

Chapter XL 65. Was it not in the last age of 
Yin, when the virtue of KAu had reached its highest 
point, and during the troubles between king Win 
and (the tyrant) Kiu, that the (study of the Yl) 
began to flourish ? On this account the explana- 
tions (in the book) express (a feeling of) anxious 
apprehension, (and teach) how peril may be turned 
into security, and easy carelessness is sure to meet 
with overthrow. The method in which these things 
come about is very comprehensive, and must be 
acknowledged in every sphere of things. If at the 
beginning there be a cautious apprehension as to 
the end, there will probably be no error or cause for 
blame. This is what is called the way of the Yt. 



two lower strokes, Man, their son ; all being animated by the same 
Divine Reason (t&o) or Supreme God (Chih Shin).' This note 
shows how one error, or misunderstanding of the Chinese original, 
draws other errors with it. The character tio in the paragraph 
has not at all the sense of reason, human or divine, but its primary 
and ordinary signification of the path or course. As Lfi 3i (Han 
dynasty) says: — 'In the way of heaven there are the changes of 
day and night, sun and moon ; in that of earth, those of hardness 
and softness, dryness and moisture ; in that of man, those of action 
and rest, of movement and stillness, of good fortune and bad, of 
good and evil.' 

' The imitative lines ' in the translation of 64, is simply ' the YSo' 
in the Chinese text, which I have rendered according to the account 
of them in paragraph 8, et al. Their different grades are their 
position as high or low in the figures (paragraph i. Section i), and 
their 'component elements,' literally 'their substance, or thing- 
nature,' is their structure as being yang or yin, according to the 
use of wuh in paragraphs 57, 59, et al. A yang line in an even 
place, or a yin line in an odd, is not in its appropriate place, and 
gives an indication of what is bad. 

Chapter XI, paragraph 65. P. Regis observes on this chapter: — 
' I do not hesitate to say that there is found nowhere in the whole 

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404 THE APPENDIXES. SECT. ir. 

Chapter XII. 66. (The hexagram) Kh'itn repre- 
sents the strongest of all under the sky. Through 
this quality its operations are always manifested 
with ease, for it knows where there would be peril 
and embarrassment (The hexagp-am) Khwin 
represents the most docile of all under the sky. 
Through this quality its operations are. always mani- 
fested with the promptest decision, for it knows 
where there would be obstruction. 

67. (The sages, who are thus represented, and 
who made the Yt,) were able to rejoice in heart 
(in the absolute truth of things), and were able (also) 
to weigh carefully all matters that could occasion 
anxiety ; (thus) they fixed the good and bad fortune 
(of all things) under the sky, and could accomplish 
the things requiring strenuous efforts. 

68. Therefore amid the changes and transforma- 
tions (taking place in heaven and earth), and the 
words and deeds of men, events that are to be 
fortunate have their happy omens. (The sages) 
knew the definite prindples underlying the prog- 
nostications of the former class, and the future of 



Yt a passage which affords more light for the explanation of the 
book.* Paragraph 49 told us that 'the study of the Yt flourished in 
the middle period of antiquity, and that the author of it was familiar 
with anxiety and troubles.' That information becomes here more 
particular. The Yt, existing when this Appendix was written, was 
made in the closing period of the Yin dynasty, and the making of 
it was somehow connected with the attempts of the tyrant Ki\x 
against king Win. We are not told expressly that the book was 
written, in part at least, by king W&n ; but the tradition to that 
effect derives a certain amount of support from what is said here. 
The general object of the author is also stated clearly enough, — 
to inculcate a cautious and reverent administration of affairs, never 
forgetful of the uncertainties of life and fortune. 



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CHAP. 12. APPENDIX III. 405 

those of the latter, (now to be) ascertained by 
divination. 

69. The places of heaven and earth (in the dia- 
grams) having been determined, the sages were 
able (by means of the Yl) to carry out and complete 
their ability. (In this way even) the common 
people were able to share with them in (deciding 
about) the counsels of men and the counsels of 
spiritual beings. 

70. The eight trigrams communicate their infor- 
mation by their emblematic figures. The explana- 
tions appended to the lines and the completed 
figures tell how the contemplation of them affected 
(the makers). The strong and the weak lines 
appear mixed in them, and (thus) the good and the 
evil (which they indicate) can be seen. 

71. The changes and movements (which take 
place in the manipulation of the stalks and the 
formation of the diagrams) speak as from the stand- 
point of what is advantageous. The (intimations of) 
good and evil vary according to the place and nature 
(of the lines). Thus they may indicate a mutual 
influence (in any two of them) of love or hatred, 
and good or evil is the result ; or that mutual 
influence may be affected by the nearness of the 
lines to, or their distance from, each other, and then 
repentance or regret is the result ; or the influence 
may be that of truth or of hypocrisy, and then the 
result is what is advantageous, or what is injurious. 
In all these relations of the (lines in the) Yl, if two 
are near and do not blend harmoniously, there may 
be (all these results), — evil, or what is injurious, or 
occasion for repentance and regret. 

72. The language of him who is meditating a 



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406 THE APPENDIXES. SECT. 11. 

revolt (from the right) betrays his inward shame ; 
that of him whose inward heart doubts about it 
diverges to other topics. The words of a good man 
are few; those of a coarse man are many. The 
words of one who slanders what is good are un- 

Chapter XII, paragraphs 66-72, is generally divided into three 
sections ; — the first, embracing 66-68^ and treating of the sages, 
the makers of the Yt, as themselves independent of it, knowing all 
that it enables us to know, and able to accomplish all that it en- 
ables us to accomplish; the second, embracing 69-71, and telling 
how the sages formed the Yt, and made all men, by means of it, 
partakers of their now unlimited knowledge and power ; the third, 
comprised in paragraph 72, and saying, if it be genuine and in its 
proper place, that the ordinary speech of men is as mysterious and 
indicative of what is in them, as the explanations of the Yt are, 
when we consider who were its authors. 

'The sages,' who are the subject of 65-68, are not mentioned in 
the text ; but 67 makes it plain that the subject must be some per- 
sonal being or beings. Neither JOien nor KhwSn can ' rejoice in 
heart, and weigh carefully matters occasioning anxiety.' The com- 
mentators generally interpolate 'the sages;' even Ying-t4 of the 
Thang dynasty, who does not introduce the sages in his exposition, 
yet makes the subject to be ' the disposer and nourisher of all 
things.' He gets to his view by an unnatural interpretation of two 
characters in 67, which are now thrown out of the text by all critics 
as not genuine. That ' the sages ' is really the subject in the mind 
of the writer appears from the express mention of them in 69, 
when also 'heaven and earth' take the place of ATAien and 
KhwS.n. It is absurd, not to say blasphemous, to assume that 
the sages who made the Yi had the knowledge and ability here 
ascribed to them ; but the theory of the Yt as containing a scheme 
for the discovery of the future necessitated the ascribing such attri- 
butes to them. Compare with the whole Section, and especially 
with paragraph 68, what is said in ' the Doctrine of the Mean,' 
chapter 24. 

The first Section shows how the sages were themselves indepen- 
dent of the Yt, and had no need of it ; the second goes on to tell 
how they devised and constructed it, to make all men equal to 
themselves in a knowledge of phenomena and human events, and 
of their indications of, and issues in, the future. Summing up its 



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CHAP. 19. APPENDIX III. 407 

substantial; those of him who is losing what he 
ought to keep are crooked. 

lessons, the editors of the imperial edition say, 'There is no passage 
in the Appendix more full and clear than this on the five points in 
regard to the lines which the student of the Yl has to attend to. 
Those points are : — their time, position, quality, mutual nearness, 
and responsive relation. It is by a consideration of the two latter 
points, moreover, that he must form his judgment on their appro- 
priateness or inappropriateness in the three others.' 

Paragraph 72 has really no connexion with the rest of the 
chapter. I have stated above how the critics attempt to make out 
such a connexion ; but I agree myself with P. Regis, who appends 
to his version of the paragraph this note : — ' Quae sententiae qui- 
dem sapiunt doctrinam Confucianam, at non ordinem, utpote cum 
praecedentibus minime cohaerentes, sed omnino ab iis abscissae 
avulsaeque.' 



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APPENDIX IV. 

Supplementary to the Thwan and Yio on the first and second 
Hexagrams, and showing how they may be interpreted of man's 
nature and doings. 

Section I. Khieh. 

Chapter I. i. What is called (under ICMen) 'the 
great and originating ' is (in man) the first and chief 
quality of goodness ; what is called ' the penetrating ' 
is the assemblage of excellences ; what is called ' the 
advantageous ' is the harmony of all that is right ; 
and what is called 'the correct and firm' is the 
faculty of action. 

2. The superior man, embodying benevolence, is 
fit to preside over men ; presenting the assemblage 
of excellences, he is fit to show in himself the union 
of all propriety ; benefiting (all) creatures, he is fit to 
exhibit the harmony of all that is right ; correct and 
firm, he is fit to manage (all) affairs. 

3. The fact that the superior man practises these 
four virtues justifies the application to him of the 
words — ' IC/iien represents what is g^eat and origin- 
ating, penetrating, advantageous, correct and firm.' 

The title of this Appendix is in Chinese the Win Yen JTwan, 
'The Record of W5n Yen;' and according to the analogy of 
the titles of the three Appendixes that follow, Win should per- 
form the part of a verb and Yen that of a substantive. So the 
characters are usually taken, and to W5n is given the meaning of 
'Explaining (Shih);' and to Yen that of 'Words or Sentences,' 
meaning the Thwan of king WJin, and the Y4o of the dulce of 
A'iu on the first two hexagrams. The document treats of these, 



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CHAP. a. APPENDIX IV, 409 

Chapter II. 4. What is the meaning of the words 
under the first line undivided, ' The dragon lies hid 
(in the deep); — it is not the time for active doing?' 
The. Master said : — ' There he is, with the powers of 
the dragon, and yet lying hid. The influence of the 
world would make no change in him ; he would do 
nothing (merely) to secure his fame. He can live, 
withdrawn from the world, without regret ; he can 
experience disapproval without trouble of mind. 
Rejoicing (in opportunity), he carries his principles 

and of no others. ' It shows the amount and depth of meaning in 
them,' says A'fl Hst, 'and the other hexagrams may be treated 
after the analogy suppHed here.' Confucius, it is said by others, 
died before he was able to carry out the plan which he had formed. 
But, as I have shown in the Introduction (pp. 28-30), it is more than 
doubtful whether we have in this Appendix anything at all directly 
from the sage. 

Chapter I, paragraphs 1-3, shows how the attributes of A'^ien, 
as explained by king W5n, are to be understood of the constituent 
principles of human nature. What is remarkable is, that we find 
paragraphs i, 2, with very little variation, in one of the narra- 
tives of the 3o -^wan, as having been spoken by a marchioness- 
dowager of Lfl in B.C. 564, several years before Confucius was bom. 
One so familiar as J^H Hsi was with all the classical literature of 
his country could not be ignorant of this. His solution of the 
questions arising from it is, that anciently there was this explana- 
tion of the characters of king Win ; that it was employed by Shft 
Alang (of Lfl), and that Confucius also availed himself of it ; while 
the chronicler used, as he does below, the phraseology of 'The 
Master said,' to distinguish the real words of Confucius from such 
ancient sayings. But who was this chronicler ? No one can telL 
The legitimate conclusion from A'd's criticism is this, that so much 
of this Appendix as is preceded by ' The Master said ' is from 
Confucius; — so much and no more. 

The ascription in paragraph 3 of ' the four virtues ' to the supe- 
rior or normal man, man in his best estate, and yet inferior to 'the 
sagely man,' is Confucian, — after the style of the teaching of the 
Master in the Analects. 



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4IO THE APPENDIXES. SECT. r. 

into action ; sorrowing (for want of opportunity), he 
keeps with them in retirement. Yes, he is not to 
be torn from his root (in himself).' This is 'the 
dragon lying hid.' 

5. What is the meaning of the words under the 
second line, ' The dragon shows himself and is in 
the field ;^-it will be advantageous to see the great 
man ?' The Master said : — ' There he is, with the 
dragon's powers, and occupying exactly the central 
place. He is sincere (even) in his ordinary words, 
and earnest in his ordinary conduct. Guarding 
against depravity, he preserves his sincerity. His 
goodness is recognised in the world, but he does not 
boast of it. His virtue is extensively displayed, and 
transformation ensues. The language of the Yf, 
" The dragon shows himself and is in the field; — it 
will be advantageous to see the great man," refers 
to a ruler's virtue.' 

6. What is the meaning of the words under the 
third line, ' The superior man is active and vigilant 
all the day, and in the evening (still) careful and 
apprehensive ; — the position is dangerous, but there 
will be no mistake ?' The Master said : — ' The supe- 
rior man advances in virtue, and cultivates all the 
sphere of his duty. His leal-heartedness and good 
faith are the way by which he advances in virtue. 
His attention to his words and establishing his sin- 
cerity are the way by which he occupies in his 
sphere. He knows the. utmost point to be reached, 
and reaches it, thus showing himself in accord with 
the first springs (of things) ; he knows the end to be 
rested in, and rests in it, thus preserving his righte- 
ousness in accordance with that end. Therefore he 
occupies a high position without pride, and a low 



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CHAP. 2. APPENDIX IV. 411 

position without anxiety. Thus it is that, being 
active and vigilant, and careful (also) and apprehen- 
sive as the time requires, though his position be 
perilous, he will make no mistake.' 

7. What is the meaning of the words under the 
fourth line, * He is as if he were leaping up, (but 
still) is in the deep; — there will be no mistake?' 
The Master said : — ' He finds no permanent place 
either above or below, but he does not commit the 
error (of advancing). He may advance or recede ; — 
there is no permanent place for him : but he does 
not leave his fellows. The superior man, advancing 
in virtue and cultivating the sphere of his duty, yet 
wishes (to advance only) at the (proper) time, and 
therefore there is no mistake.' 

8. What is the meaning of the words under the 
fifth line, ' The dragon is on the wing in the sky ; — 
it will be advantageous to see the great man ?' 
The Master said : — ' Notes of the same key respond 
to one another ; creatures of the same nature seek 
one another ; water flows towards the place that is 
(low and) damp ; fire rises up towards what is dry ; 
clouds follow the dragon, and winds follow the tiger : — 
(so) the sage makes his appearance, and all men look 
to him. Things that draw their origin from heaven 
move towards what is above ; things that draw their 
origin from the earth cleave to what is below : — so 
does everything follow its kind.' 

9. What is the meaning of the words under the 
topmost line, ' The dragon exceeds the proper 
limits ; — there will be occasion for repentance ?' 
The Master said : — ' The position is noble, but it is 
not that of office ; (its occupant) dwells on high, but 
he has no people (to rule) ; and the men of talent 



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412 THE APPENDIXES. SECT.!. 

and virtue in the positions below will give him no 
aid ; — should he move in such a case, there will be 
occasion for repentance.' 

In chapter II, paragraphs 4-9, Confucius is introduced, ex- 
plaining, with considerable amplification, what is said by the duke 
of A'liu under the several lines of the hexagram. ' The dragon ' 
becomes the symbol of ' the superior man;' and of 'the great man,' 
or the sage upon the throne. The language approaches at times to 
the magniloquence of Mencius, while in paragraph 8 the voice hardly 
seems to be that of the sage at all. 

With paragraph 5, compare chapters 8 and 14 of 'the Doc- 
trine of the Mean,' agreeing much in language and sentiment 
with what we have here. The line, a strong or undivided line, and 
therefore yang, is said to be 'exactly in the central place;' but 
the line is in the second, an even place, that proper to a yin line ; 
and in other passages this might be explained in an unfavourable 
way. The Chinese character i^ng has the meaning given to it, 
now of 'exact,' and now of 'correct,' the latter being always 
favourably interpreted. 

Paragraph 8. The fifth is almost always the place of honour and 
authority in the hexagram, and therefore 'the great man' here con- 
tinues to be the great man, 'the sage.' The argument is that as 
things of the same kind respond to and seek one another, so is it 
with the sage and ordinary man. They are of the same kind, 
though far apart ; and when a sage appears, all other men look to 
him with admiration and hope. The continuity of the illustrations, 
however, is broken by the introduction of the dragon and clouds, 
and the tiger and wind. Are these of the same kind ? A'fl Hst 
says he does not think that the real dragon and real tiger are 
intended ; but he does not tell us how he understood the terms. 
3ai iSTAing (early in the Ming dynasty) says : — ' The dragon feels 
the influence of the clouds surcharged with rain, and rises from the 
deep, and when the tiger feels the approach of the cold winds he 
roars. Thus when the dragon rises, the clouds are sure to collect ; 
and when the tiger screams, the winds follow;' but all this does not 
help us to appreciate any better the words of the text. And the 
concluding illustration is nearly as foreign to our way of conceiving 
things. By 'things that draw their origin from heaven ' all animals 
— moving creatures — are intended ; and by those that draw their 
origin from the earth are intended all plants, — things that stand and 



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CHAP. 3- APPENDIX IV, 413 

Chapter III. 10. ' The dragon lies hid; — it is not 
the time for active doing:' — the position is (too) low. 

11. 'The dragon shows himself and is in the 
field :' — the time (requires him still) to be unem- 
ployed. 

12. ' All the day active and vigilant:' — (he now) 
does his (proper) business. 

13. ' He is as if he were leaping up, (but still) is 
in the deep :' — he is making trial of himself. 

14. 'The dragon is on the wing in the sky:' — 
(the subject of the line) is on high and ruling. 

15. 'The dragon exceeds the proper limit, and 
there will be occasion for repentance : ' — when things 
have been carried to extremity, calamity ensues. 

16. Undivided lines appear in all these representa- 
tions of the great and originating power denoted by 
A'^ien : — (what follows in the Yio tells us how) all 
under the sky there will be good order. 

do not move. The former turn their heads to the sky, and the 
latter their roots to the earth. So we read in JPfi Hst ; but I con- 
tinue to wonder that Confucius selected such illustrations and spoke 
in such a style. 

Paragraph 9. As I have said above, the place of honour and 
authority in the hexagram belongs to the fifth line, and no other 
plays so unimportant a part as the sixth; and hence it is repre- 
sented here as having ' no place ' at all. Before he whom it re- 
presents is called to act, the battle has been won or lost Movement 
from him will only accelerate and intensify the result. 

Chapter III, paragraphs 10-16, goes over again the YSo of the 
duke of A'Su with very brief explanations, grounded chiefly on the 
consideration of the place or position occupied by the several 
lines, and the time of their introduction into the action of the 
hexagram. 

Paragraph 16. See the note on the Text of iTAien, corresponding 
to this line, page 58, and also that on paragraph 7 of the symbolism 
of the figures and lines, Section i, page 165. There is the same 



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414 THE APPENDIXES. SECT. L 

Chapter IV. 1 7. ' The dragon lies hid in the 
deep; — it is not the time for active doing:' — the 
energy denoted by the undivided line is laid up and 
hid away as in the deep. 

18. ' The dragon appears in the field :' — all under 
heaven (begins to be) adorned and brightened. 

19. 'AH the day active and vigilant:' — continu- 
ally, as the time passes and requires, does he act. 

20. 'He is as if he were leaping up, (but still) is 
in the deep :' — a change is taking place in the method 
indicated by (this) A'^ien diagram. 

21. 'The dragon is on the wing in the sky:' — 
this shows that his place is based on his heavenly 
virtue. 

22. 'The dragon exceeds the (proper) limit; — 
there will be occasion for repentance:' — the time is 
come to an end, and so also is his opportunity. 

23. Undivided lines appear in all these repre- 
sentations of the great and originating power denoted 
by Kkie.n : — and (from what follows in the Y4o) 
we see the model (of action) afforded by heaven, 

difficulty in understanding the first part of the short paragraph ; 
the conclusion of it must be a consequence of the language of the 
Yio, though it is not repeated here. 

Chapter IV, paragraphs 17-23, goes over the same ground for a 
third time, treating the various paragraphs chiefly from the stand- 
point of time. 

Paragraph 17 tells us that time and circumstances are essential, as 
well as inward power, to successful development and demonstration. 
In paragraph 18, the words of the Yio about meeting with the great 
man are not quoted, but they prompted the latter half of it 

Far^raph 19. Compare the language on paragraph 6, towards 
the end. 

Paragraph zo. The subject passes here from the lower trigram 
and enters into the upper. We are told not to lay stress on 'the 
method oiKh'itn.' In paragraph 21 we have the sage upon the 



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CHAP. 5. APPENDIX IV. 415 

Chapter V. 24. The 'greatness' and 'originating' 
represented by Kh'i&n refer to it as (the symbol of) 
what gives their beginning (to all things), and (also) 
secures their growth and development. 

25. ' The advantageousness and the correctness 
and firmness ' refer to its nature and feelings (as 
seen in all the resulting things). 

26. Kh'x^n, (thus) originating, is able with its 
admirable benefits to benefit all under the sky. We 
are not told how its benefits are conferred ; but how 
great is (its operation) ! 

27. How great is (what is emblemed by) Kh{&n\ — 
strong, vigorous, undeflected, correct, and (in all 
these qualities) pure, unmixed, exquisite ! 

28. The six lines, as explained (by the duke of 
A'iu), bring forth and display (its meaning), and 
everything about it is (thus) indirectly exhibited. 

29. (The great man) at the proper time drives 
with these six dragons through the sky. The clouds 
move, and the rain is distributed ; all under heaven 
enjoys repose. 

throne. Time and opportunity are both in progress in 19 ; here in 
22, they are both passed, have reached their extremity or end. 

Paragraph 23 : — see on paragraph 16. 'The model of heaven,' says 
Wfl Kh&n^t ' Js the due blending of the strong and active with the 
weak and passive, the regulation of movement in accordance with the 
highest reason, so that there shall be neither excess nor deficiency.' 

Chapter V, paragraphs 24-29. The author here, leaving the 
treatise on the symbolism of the Y4o, turns to that on the Th wan, 
or expositions of king W5n, and amplifies it, not quoting from it, 
however, so fully and exactly, as he has done in the previous 
chapters from the YSo. 

Paragraphs 24 and 25 are based on the statement of the signi- 
ficance of the Thwan under A'Aien, and not on the treatise on the 
symbolism. The originating power cannot be separated from that 
of penetration and development The latter issues from the former 



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4l6 THE APPENDIXES. SECT. I. 

Chapter VI. 30. In the superior man his conduct 
is (the fruit of) his perfected virtue, which might be 
seen therefore in his daily course ; but the force of 
that phrase, 'lying hid,' requires him to keep re- 
tired, and not yet show himself, nor proceed to the 
full development of his course. While this is the 
case, the superior man (knows that) it is not the 
time for active doing. 

3 1 . The superior man learns and accumulates the 
results of his learning ; puts questions, and discrimi- 
nates among those results; dwells magnanimously 
and unambitiously in what he has attained to ; and 
carries it into practice with benevolence. What the 
Yl says, 'The dragon appears in the field: — it will 
be advantageous to meet with the great man,' has 
reference to the virtuous qualities of a ruler (as 
thus described). 

32. In the third line there is a twofold (symbol 
of) strength, but (the position) is not central. (Its 

as the summer follows on the spring, according to an illustration 
ofiS'fi Hst. 'The advantageousness ' and 'firm correctness,' he 
compares also to the autumn and winter, saying that the A'.iien 
power in its essence, as it is in itself, is best described by these two 
latter characteristics, while the two former describe it in its opera- 
tion. It is thus that he tries to give his readers an idea of what he 
understood by ' nature and feelings' in 25. But this chapter treats 
of the liAiea power in nature rather than in humanity. Confining 
our view to the power so operating, we cannot say that the descrip- 
tion of it in 26 and 27 is magniloquent or hyperbolical 

Paragraph 28 returns to the explanations of the lines of the 
hexagram by the duke of K&u, which exhibit the power in different 
positions and relations, bringing out all its significance ; and then 
29 confines us to the fifth line, in which we have its ideal. The 
spheres of nature and of men seem to be in the view of the 
author, and therefore I introduce ' the great man,' as the subject, 
after the example of the best critics. Like the clouds and the rain to 
the thirsty earth, so is the rule of the sage to expectant humanity. 



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CHAP. 6. APPENDIX IV. 417 

occupant) is not in heaven above, nor is he in the 
field beneath. Therefore there must be active vigi- 
lance and cautious apprehension as the time requires ; 
and though (the position be) perilous, there will be 
no mistake. 

33. In the fourth line there is (the symbol of) 
strength, but (the position) is not central. (Its 
occupant) is not in heaven above, nor is he in the 
field beneath, nor is he in the place of man inter- 
mediate. Hence he is in perplexity ; and being so, 
he has doubts about what should be his movements, 
and so will give no occasion for blame. 

34. The great man is he who is in harmony, in 
his attributes, with heaven and earth ; in his bright- 
ness, with the sun and moon ; in his orderly pro- 
cedure, with the four seasons ; and in his relation 
to what is fortunate and what is calamitous, in har- 
mony with the spirit-like operations (of Providence). 
He may precede Heaven, and Heaven will not act 
in opposition to him ; he may follow Heaven, but 
will act (only) as Heaven at the time would do. If 
Heaven will not act in opposition to him, how much 
less will men ! how much less will the spirit-like 
operation (of Providence) ! 

35. The force of that phrase — 'exceeding the 
proper limits' — indicates the knowing to advance 
but not to retire ; to maintain but not to let perish ; 
to get but not to lose. 

36. He only is the sage who knows to advance and 
to retire, to maintain and to let perish ; and that with- 
out ever acting incorrectly. Yes, he only is the sage ! 

Chapter VI, paragraphs 30-36. The author leaving the Th wan, 
turns again to the treatise on the symbolism of the Yio, his maia 
[16] E e 



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4l8 THE APPENDIXES. SECT. II. 



Section II. KhwXn. 

Chapter I. i. (What is indicated by) KhwSn is 
most gentle and weak, but, when put in motion, is 

object being to show how reasonable are the decisions and lessons 
of the duke of A'au. 

The subject of paragraph 30 has the virtue ; but his position in 
the lowest place shows that his time is not yet come. 

In paragraph 31 we have the superior man developing, by means 
of the processes described, into ' the great man,' with the attributes 
of a ruler, the appearance of whom is a blessing to men. 

The twofold symbol of strength in paragraph 32 is the yang or 
undivided line in the third place (odd) proper to it. There will be 
no mistake, because the subject of the line, in the exercise of his 
caution, will abstain from any forward movement 

According to paragraph 63 of last Appendix, Section ii, both 
the third and fourth lines in the hexagram belong to man, and are 
intermediate between those of heaven and those of earth. Khung 
Ying-ti, to get over the difficulty in what is said on the fourth 
line, says that, as a matter of fact and locally, man is nearer earth 
than heaven, and is aptly represented therefore by the third line 
and not by the fourth; — I prefer to ]X)int out the inconsistency, 
and leave it. The subject of this fourth line will move very 
cautiously, and so escape blame. ' 

The eulogium of ' the great man ' in paragraph 34 cannot fail to 
recall to the classical scholar the thirty-first and other chapters of 'the 
Doctrine of the Mean,' where the sage is described as 'The Equal 
of Heaven.' In one sentence here be is spjoken of as sometimes 
taking precedence of Heaven, which then does not act in opposi- 
tion to him I I do not know of any statement about the sage, 
coming without doubt from Confucius, that is so extravagant as 
this. It is difficult — in fact impossible — to say from the Yt itself, what 
we are to understand by the kwei shin, which I have translated 
here by 'the spirit-like operations (of Providence).' The compound 
denomination does not often occur in the book. In Appendix III, 
Section i, 21, kwei is the anima and sh&n the animus; and 
in paragraph 50, 1 have translated the terms by 'the contracting and 
expanding operations.' In Appendix I, page 226 and page 259, the 
name is used as in the present text. That second instance and this 



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CHAP, a. APPENDIX IV. 419 

hard and strong ; it is most still, but is able to give 
every definite form. 

2. 'By following, it obtains its (proper) lord,' and 
pursues its regular (course). 

3. It contains all things in itself, and its trans- 
forming (power) is glorious. 

4. Yes, what docility marks the way of Khwin ! 
It receives the influences of heaven, and acts at 
the proper time. 

Chapter II. 5. The family that accumulates good- 
ness is sure to have superabundant happiness, and 
the family that accumulates evil is sure to have 
superabundant misery. The murder of a ruler by 

paragraph were evidently constructed, the one on the model of the 
other. I think it likely that the breath or air, kh\, became the name 
with the earliest Chinese for their first concept of spirit; then the 
breath inspired or inhaled was called kwei, and became the name 
for the grosser part of the spirit, returning to the earth; and shin, 
the breath exhaled or expired, the name for the subtler and intellec- 
tual spirit, ascending to a state of activity and enjoyment. The 
explanations of the terms in the R Yi and other dictionaries seem 
to justify this view. The combination kwei ;hin is sometimes 
best translated by 'spiritual beings.' The school of the Sung 
philosophy understand by it — the contracting and expanding of the 
primary matter, or that matter conceived of in two forms or with 
two opposite qualities. Khkng-^zt says here that 'Heaven and 
earth are another name for tio, and kwei sh&n anoth.er name for 
"the vestiges of making and transformation;" and that the sage being 
in harmony with the tSo or practical reason of the universe, how 
can men or the kwei shin be contrary to him?' Whatever be 
thought of the Sung speculations and theories, I think that a trans- 
lator ought to give an indication of the primary meaning of the 
name kwei shin. 

Paragraphs 35 and 36 suggest the description of Confucius by 
Mencius, V, ii, \, 5, as the one among the sages who was most 
governed by the consideration of time, doing continually what the 
circumstances of the time required. 

£62 



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420 THE APPENDIXES. SECT. II. 

his minister, or of his. father by a son, is not the 
result of the events of one morning or one evening. 
The causes of it have gradually accumulated,-^ 
through the absence of early discrimination. The 
words of the Yl, 'He treads on the hoar-frost; the 
strong ice will come (by and by),' show the natural 
(issue and growth of things), 

6. ' Straight ' indicates the correctness (of the 
internal principle), and 'square,' the righteousness 
(of the external act). The superior man, (thus 
represented), by his self-reverence maintains the 
inward (correctness), and in righteousness adjusts 
his external acts. His reverence and righteousness 
being (thus) established, his virtues are not solitary 
instances or of a single class. ' Straight, square, 
and great, working his operations, without repeated 
efforts, in every respect advantageous :' — this shows 
how (such a one) has no doubts as to what he does. 

7. Although (the subject of) this divided line has 
excellent qualities, he (does not display them, but) 
keeps them under restraint. * If he engage with 
them in the service of the king, and be successful, 
he will not claim that success for himself:' — this 
is the way of the earth, of a wife, of a minister. 
The way of the earth is — ' not to claim the merit 
of achievement,' but on behalf (of heaven) to bring 
things to their proper issue. 

8. Through the changes and transformations pro- 
duced by heaven and earth, plants and trees grow 
luxuriantly. If (the reciprocal influence of) heaven 
and earth were shut up and restrained, we should 
have (a state that might suggest to us) the case 
of men of virtue and ability lying in obscurity. The 
words of the Yl, 'A sack tied up:— there will be 



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CHAP. 2. APPENDIX IV, 42 1 

no ground for blame or for praise,' are in reality 
a lesson of caution. 

9. The superior man (emblemed here) by the 
' yellow ' and correct (colour), is possessed of com- 
prehension and discrimination. He occupies the 
correct position (of supremacy), but (that emblem) 
is on (the lower part of) his person. His excellence 
is in the centre (of his being), but it diffuses a 
complacency over his four limbs, and is manifested 
in his (conduct of) affairs : — this is the perfection of 
excellence. 

10. (The subject of) the yin (or divided line) 
thinking himself equal to the (subject of the) yang, 
or undivided line, there is sure to be 'a contest' 
As if indignant at there being no acknowledgment 
of the (superiority of the subject of the) yang line, 
(the text) uses the term ' dragons.' But still the 
(subject of neither line) can leave his class, and 
hence we have ' the blood ' mentioned. The men- 
tion of that as being (both) 'azure and yellow' 
indicates the mixture of heaven and -earth. Hea- 
ven's (colour) is azure and earth's is yellow. 

The hexagram Khw&n is dealt with in Section ii, and much 
more briefly than A'Aien in Section i. Much less distinct, more- 
over, is the attempt in it to show how the attributes of the hexagram 
are to be understood of the principles of human nature. The most 
important portion of the Section, perhaps, is paragraph 5, the first 
of chapter II, and I have spoken of it in the Introduction, pages 
47 and 48. 



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APPENDIX V. 

Treatise of Remarks on the Trigrams. 

Chapter I. i. Anciently, when the sages made 
the Yl, in order to give mysterious assistance to the 
spiritual Intelligences, they produced (the rules for 
the use of) the divining plant. 

2. The number 3 was assigned to heaven, 2 to 
earth, and from these came the (other) numbers. 

3. They contemplated the changes in the divided 
and undivided lines (by the process of manipulating 
the stalks), and formed the trigrams ; from the 
movements that took place in the strong and weak 
lines, they produced (their teaching about) the sepa- 
rate lines. There ensued a harmonious conformity 
to the course (of duty) and to virtue, with a dis- 
crimination of what was right (in each particular 
-case). They (thus) made an exhaustive discrimina- 
tion of what was right, and effected the complete 
development of (every) nature, till they arrived (in 
the Yl) at what was appointed for it (by Heaven). 

Chapter I, paragraphs r-3, treats of the rise of the scheme of 
the Yi from the wonderful qualities of the divining plant, the use 
of certain numbers, and the formation of the lineal figures. 

P. Regis translates paragraph i by — ' The ancient (sages), the 
most excellent men, were the authors of the Yt-king, in making 
which they were assisted by an intelligent spirit, who for their help 
produced the plant called Shih.' 

But the text will not admit of this version, nor have I found the 
view given in it in any Chinese writer. It is difficult to make up 
one's mind whether to translate — ' the sage,' or ' the sages.' Khung 
Ying-id contends that the writer had FA-hsi and him alone in his 



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CHAP. 2. • APPENDIX V. 423 

Chapter II. 4. Anciently, when the sages made 
the Yl, it was with the design that (its figures) should 
be in conformity with the principles underlying the 
natures (of men and things), and the ordinances (for 
them) appointed (by Heaven). With this view they 
exhibited (in them) the way of heaven, calling (the 
lines) yin and yang ; the way of earth, calling (them) 
the weak (or soft) and the strong (or hard); and 
the way of men, under the names of benevolence 



mind. To me it seems otherwise. Ffi-hsl, if we accept the testi- 
mony of universal Chinese consent, made the eight trigrams ; but 
he did not make the Yt, which, by the same consent, was the pro- 
duction of king W^n and his son. 

The text would seem to say that the sages 'produced' the 
plant, but this is so extravagant that the view indicated in my 
supplementary clause appears in all the best commentators. So 
understood, the Yt may be said to 'give mysterious assistance to 
the spiritual Intelligences,' or, if we take that name as singular 
(according to the analogy of chapter 6), to the Divine Being in 
affording a revelation of His will, as in paragraph 3. We may well 
say that it is a pity the revelation should be so enigmatical ; but 
the author, it must be remembered, is writing from his own stand- 
point. W&n and his son, as I have endeavoured to show in the 
Introduction, merely wished to convey, under the style and veil of 
divination, their moral and political lessons. 

On paragraph 2 it is said that heaven is round ; and as the cir- 
cumference of a circle is three times its diameter, hence 3 is the 
number of heaven. Again, earth is square, and as the circumference 
of a square is four times its length or breadth, or it consists of two 
pairs of equal sides, hence 2 is the number of earth. 

The concluding statement about ' the other numbers ' is under- 
stood of the manipulation of the divining stalks, as in Appendix III, 
i, 51, That manipulation, thrice repeated, might leave three stalks 
each time, and 3x3 = 9; or 2, being in the same way in all=6; or 
twice 3 and once 2=8; or twice a and once 3 = 7. These are 
the numbers of the 4 binary symbols, employed in forming the new 
figures; . the old yang, = 9; — ^. the young yin, = 8; 

=-=, the young yang, = 7; and ^ ^, the oldyin,=6. 



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424 THE APPENDIXES. CHAP. 3. 

and righteousness. Each (trigram) embraced (those) 
three Powers ; and, being repeated, its full form con- 
sisted of six lines. A distinction was made of (the 
places assigned) to the yin and yang lines, which 
were variously occupied, now by the strong and now 
by the weak forms, and thus the figure (of each hexa- 
gram) was completed. 

Chapter III. 5. (The symbols of) heaven and 
earth received their determinate positions; (those 
for) mountains and collections of water interchanged 
their influences ; (those for) thunder and wind excited 
each other the more ; and (those for) water and fire 
did each other no harm. (Then) among these eight 
symbols there was a mutual communication. 

6. The numbering of the past is a natural pro- 
cess ; the knowledge of the coming is anticipation. 
Therefore in the Yl we have (both) anticipation (and 
the natural process). 



Chapter II. The top line in each trigram thus belongs to the 
category of heaven; the bottom line to that of earth; and the 
middle line to that of man. The odd places should be occupied, 
' correctly,' by the undivided lines ; and the even by the divided. 
The trigram being increased to the hexagram, lines 5 and 6 were 
assigned to heaven ; i and 2 to earth ; and 3 and 4 to man. 5 is 
the yang characteristic of heaven, and 6 the yin; so i and 2 in 
regard to earth ; while 3 represents the benevolence of man, and 4 
his righteousness. But all this is merely the play of fancy, and 
confuses the mind of the student. 

Chapter III, paragraphs 5 and 6, is understood, though not 
very clearly, by referring to the circular arrangement of the trigrams 
according to Ffl-hst, as shown in Figure 2, of Plate III. Para- 
graph 5 refers to the correlation of ^Aien and Khwin, Kin and 
Tui, A'&n and Sun, Khin and Lt. Paragraph 6 is less easy of 
apprehension. Starting in the same figure from ^^ien and num- 
bering on the left we come to A'Jln by a natural process. Then 



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CHAP. 5. APPENDIX V. 425 

Chapter IV. 7. Thunder serves to put things in 
motion ; wind to scatter (the genial seeds of) them ; 
rain to moisten them ; the sun to warm them ; (what 
is symbolised by) KSn, to arrest (and keep them in 
their places) ; (by) Tui, to give them joyful course; 
(by) A'^ien, to rule them; and by Khw3,n, to 
store them up. 

Chapter V. 8. God comes forth in A'3.n (to His 
producing work); He brings (His processes) into 
full and equal action in Sun; they are manifested 
to one another in Ll ; the greatest service is done 
for Him in Khw^n; He rejoices in Tui; He 
struggles in ^^ien; He is comforted and enters 
into rest in Kh&n; and He completes (the work of 
the year) in KSn. 

9. All things are made to issue forth in A'Sn, 
which is placed at the east. (The processes of pro- 
duction) are brought into full and equal action in 
Sun, which is placed at the south-east. The being 
brought into full and equal action refers to the purity 
and equal arrangement of all things. Ll gives the 
idea of brightness. All things are now made mani- 



we turn back, and numbering on the right, from Sun, we come by 
a backward process to KhwSn. The same process is illustrated 
on a large scale by the circular arrangement of the 64 hexagrams 
in Plate I. But what the scope of the paragraph is I cannot tell, 
and am tempted to say of it, as P. Regis does, ' Haec observatio 
prorsus inanis est.' 

In chapter IV we have the same circular arrangement of the 
trigrams, though they are named in a different order ; the last first 
and the first last. The first four are mentioned by their elemental 
names; the last four by the names of their lineal figures. No 
special significance is attached to this. If it ever had any, it has 
been lost. 



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426 THE APPENDIXES. CHAP. r. 

fest to one another. It is the trigram of the south. 
The sages turn their faces to the south when they 
g^ve audience to all under the sky, administering 
government towards the region of brightness : — the 
idea in this procedure was taken from this. KhwSn 
denotes the earth, (and is placed at the south-west). 
All things receive from it their fullest nourishment, 
and hence it is said, ' The greatest service is done 
for Him in KhwSn.' Tui corresponds (to the west) 
and to the autumn, — the season in which all things 
rejoice. Hence it is said, ' He rejoices in Tui.' He 
struggles in KMen, which is the trigram of the 
north-west. The idea is that there the inactive 
and active conditions beat against each other. 
Khan denotes water. It is the trigram of the exact 
north, — the trigram of comfort and rest, what all 
things are tending to. Hence it is said, ' He is com- 
forted and enters into rest in Khan. Kan is the 
trigram of the north-east. In it all things bring to 
a full end the issues of the past (year), and prepare 
the commencement of the next. Hence it is said, 
' He completes (the work of the year) in Kin.' 



Chapter V, paragraphs 8 and 9, sets forth the operations of 
nature in the various seasons, as being really the operations of God, 
who is named TJ, ' the Lord and Ruler of Heaven.' Those opera- 
tions are represented in the progress by the seasons of the year, as 
denoted by the trigrams, according to the arrangement of them by 
king wan, as shown also in Plate III, Figure 2. 

'The greatest service is done for Ti in Khwin;' Yang Wan-li 
(of our twelfth century, but earlier than £ti Hsi) says : — ' KhwSn 
is a minister or servant. Tt is his ruler. All that a ruler has to do 
with his minister is to require his service.' 'On the struggles in 
Ji^Akn' he says: — 'liAien is the trigram of the north-west, when 
the yin influence is growing strong and the yang diminishing.' 

The ' purity ' predicated in paragraph 9 of things in Sun, was 



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CHAP. 6. APPENDIX V. 427 

Chapter VI. 10, When we speak of Spirit we mean 
the subtle (presence and operation of God) with all 
things. For putting all things in motion there is 
nothing more vehement than thunder ; for scattering 
them there is nothing more effective than wind ; for 
drying them up there is nothing more parching than 
fire ; for giving them pleasure and satisfaction there 
is nothing more grateful than a lake or marsh ; for 
moistening them there is nothing more enriching 
than water ; for bringing them to an end and making 
them begin again there is nothing more fully adapted 
than K 3.n. Thus water and fire contribute together 
to the one object; thunder and wind do not act con- 
trary to each other ; mountains and collections of 
water interchange their influences. It is in this way, 
that they are able to change and transform, and to 
give completion to all things. 



explained by .^ng Khang-^Aang (our second century) as equiva- 
lent to ' newness,' referring to the brightness of all things in the 
light of spring and summer. On ' all things receive from the earth 
their fullest nourishment' the same Yang, quoted above, says : — 
'The earth performs the part of a mother. All things are its 
children. What a mother has to do for her children is simply to 
nourish them.' 

Chapter VI is the sequel of the preceding. There ought to have 
been some mention of Shdn or 'Spirit 'in chapters. It is the 
first character in this chapter, and the two characters that follow 
show that it is here resumed for the purpose of being explained. 
As it does not occur in chapter 5, we must suppose that the author 
of it here brings forward and explains the idea of it that was in his 
mind. Many of the commentators recognise this, — e. g. Liang Yin, 
as quoted in the Introduction, p. 33. 

Two other peculiarities in the style of the chapter are pointed 
out and explained (after a fashion) by 3hui ATmg (earlier, probably, 
than the Sung dynasty): — 'The action of six of the trigrams is 
described, but no mention is made of A'Aien or Khwin. But 



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428 THE APPENDIXES. CHAP. 7. 

Chapter VII. ii. Khi^n is (the symbol of) 
strength; KhwSn, of docility; A'cLn, of stimulus to 
movement; Sun, of penetration; Khan, of what is 
precipitous and perilous ; Ll, of what is bright and 
what is catching; Kein, of stoppage or arrest; and 
Tui, of pleasure and satisfaction. 



heaven and earth do nothing, and yet do everything ; hence they 
are able to perfect the spirit-liice subtilty of the action of thunder, 
wind, and the other things. (Moreover), we have the trigram Kin 
mentioned, the only one mentioned by its name, instead of our 
reading " mountains." The reason is, that the putting in motion, 
the scattering, the parching, and the moistening, are all the pal- 
pable effects of thunder, wind, fire, and water. But what is ascribed 
to K&n, the ending and the recommencing all things, is not so 
evident of mountains. On this account the name of the trigram is 
given, while the things in nature represented by the trigrams are given 
in those other cases. The style suitable in each case is employed.' 

Chapter VII mentions the attributes, called also the ' virtues,' of 
the different trigrams. It is not easy to account for the qualities — 
' their nature and feelings ' — ascribed to them. Khung Ying-tS 
says: — 'Kh\tn is represented by heaven, which revolves without 
ceasing, and so it is the symbol of strength ; Khwin by the earth, 
which receives docilely the action of heaven, and so it is the 
symbol of docility ; Kin by thunder, which excites and moves all 
things, and so it is the symbol of what produces movement; Sun 
by wind, which enters everywhere, and so it is the symbol of pene- 
tration; Khin by water, found in a place perilous and precipitous, 
and the name is explained accordingly; Lt by fire, and fire is sure 
to lay hold of things, and so it is the symbol of being attached to ; 
Kin by a mountain, the mass of which is still and arrests progress, 
and so it is the symbol of stoppage or arrest; and Tui by a lake 
or marsh, which moistens all things, and so it is the symbol of 
satisfaction.' 

The Khang-hst editors consider this explanation of the qualities 
of the trigrams to be unsatisfactory, and certainly it has all the 
appearance of an ex post facto account. They prefer the views of 
the philosopher ShSo (of our eleventh century), which is based on 
the arrangement of the undivided and divided lines in the figures. 
This to me is more unsatisfactory than the other. The editors say, 



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CHAP. 10. APPENDIX V. 429 

Chapter VIII. 12. Khit.x\ (suggests the idea of) 
a horse; Khwan, that of an ox; K^n, that of the 
dragon ; Sun, that of a fowl ; Khan, that of a pig ; 
Ll, that of a pheasant; K&n, that of a dog; and 
Tui, that of a sheep. 

Chapter IX. 13. A'^ien suggests the idea of the 
head; Khw^n, that of the belly; A'Sn, that of the 
feet; Sun, that of the thighs; Khan, that of the 
ears ; Ll, that of the eyes ; KcLn, that of the hands ; 
and Tui, that of the mouth. 

Chapter X. 14. A'-^ien is (the symbol of) heaven, 
and hence has the appellation of father. Khw3.n 
is (the symbol of) earth, and hence has the appella- 
tion of mother. Kkn shows a first application (of 
KhwcLn to Khi&n), resulting in getting (the first of) 
its male (or undivided lines), and hence is called ' the 
oldest son.' Sun shows a first application (of A'^ien 
to KhwcLn), resulting in getting (the first of) its 
female (or divided lines), and hence is called 'the 
oldest daughter.' Khan shows a second application 

moreover, that SMo's account of the three yang trigrams, K^n, 
Khan, and K&n is correct, and that of the three yin, Sun, 
Ll, and Tui incorrect; but this would be based on king Win's 
arrangement, which does not appear to have place here. 

Chapter VIII. In the Great Appendix, p. 383, it is said that 
FA-hst, in'lnaking his trigrams, was guided by ' the consideration 
of things apart from his own person.' Of such things we have a 
specimen here. The creatures are assigned, in their classes, to 
the different trigrams, symbolising the ideas in the last chapter. 
We must not make any difference of sex in translating their 
names. 

Chapter IX. Ffl-hsl found also ' things near at hand, in his own 
person,' while making the trigrams. We have here a specimen of 
such things. 



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430 THE APPENDIXES. CHAP. it. 

(of KhwSn to Kh'x&n), resulting in getting (the 
second of) its male (or undivided lines), and hence 
is called ' the second son.' LI shows a second appli- 
cation (of ^^ien to KhwSn), resulting in getting 
the second of its female (or divided lines), and hence 
is called ' the second daughter.' KSn shows a third 
application (of KhwSn to A!"^ien), resulting in get- 
ting (the third of) its male (or undivided lines), and 
hence is called ' the youngest son.' Tui shows a 
third application (of ^^ien to KhwSn), resulting 
in getting (the third of) its female (or divided lines), 
and hence is called 'the youngest daughter.' 

Chapter XI. 15. A'^ien suggests the idea of 
heaven ; of a circle ; of a ruler ; of a father ; of jade ; 
of metal ; of cold ; of ice ; of deep red ; of a good 
horse ; of an old horse ; of a thin horse ; of a pie- 
bald horse ; and of the fruit of trees. 

16, KhwSn suggests the idea of the earth; of a 
mother ; of cloth ; of a caldron ; of parsimony ; of 
a turning lathe ; of a young heifer ; of a large wag- 
gon ; of what is variegated ; of a multitude ; and of 
a handle and support. Among soils it denotes what 
is black. 

17. A'S.n suggests the idea of thunder; of the 
dragon ; of (the union of) the azure and the yellow ; 
of development ; of a great highway ; of the eldest 
son ; of decision and vehemence ; of bright young 
bamboos ; of sedges and rushes ; among horses, of 



Chapter X has been discussed in the Introduction, pp. 49 and 
50. Let it simply be added here, that the account which it does 
give of the formation of the six subsidiary trigrams is inconsistent 
with their gradual rise from the mutual imposition of the undivided 
and divided lines. 



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CHAP. II. APPENDIX V. 431 

the good neigher; of one whose white hind-leg 
appears, of the prancer, and of one with a white 
star in his forehead. Among the productions of 
husbandry it suggests the idea of what returns to 
life from its disappearance (beneath the surface), of 
what in the end becomes the strongest, and of what 
is the most luxuriant. 

18. Sun suggests the idea of wood ; of wind; of 
the oldest daughter ; of a plumb-line ; of a carpenter's 
square ; of being white ; of being long ; of being 
lofty ; of advancing and receding ; of want of deci- 
sion; and of strong scents. It suggests in the 
human body, the idea of deficiency of hair; of a 
wide forehead ; of a large development of the white 
of the eye. (Among tendencies), it suggests the 
close pursuit of gain, even to making three hundred 
per cent in the market In the end it may become 
the trigram of decision. 

19. Khan suggests the idea of water ; of channels 
and ditches (for draining and irrigation) ; of being 
hidden and lying concealed ; of being now straight, 
and now crooked ; of a bow, and of a wheel. As 
referred to man, it suggests the idea of an increase 
of anxiety; of distress of mind; of pain in the 
ears ; — it is the trigram of the blood ; it suggests the 
idea of what is red. As referred to horses, it sug- 
gests the idea of the horse with an elegant spine ; 
of one with a high spirit ; of one with a drooping 
head; of one with a thin hoof; and of one with a 
shambling step. As referred to carriages, it suggests 
one that encounters many risks. It suggests what 
goes right through ; the moon ; a thief. Referred 
to trees, it suggests that which is strong, and firm- 
hearted. 



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432 THE APPENDIXES. CHAP. rr. 

20. LI suggests the emblem of fire; of the sun; 
of lightning ; of the second daughter ; of buff-coat 
and helmet ; of spear and sword. Referred to men, 
it suggests the large belly. It is the trigram of dry- 
ness. It suggests the emblem of a turtle ; of a crab ; 
of a spiral univalve ; of the mussel ; and of the tor- 
toise. Referred to trees, it suggests one which is 
hollow and rotten above. 

21. KS.n suggests the emblem of a mountain; of 
a by-path ; of a small rock ; of a gateway ; of the 
fruits of trees and creeping plants ; of a porter or a 
eunuch ; of the (ring) finger ; of the dog ; of the rat ; 
of birds with powerful bills ; among trees, of those 
which are strong, with many joints. 

22. Tui suggests the emblem of a low-lying col- 
lection of water ; of the youngest daughter ; of a 
sorceress ; of the mouth and tongue ; of the decay 
and putting down (of things in harvest) ; of the 
removal (of fruits) hanging (from the stems or 
branches) ; among soils, of what is strong and salt ; 
of a concubine ; and of a sheep. 



Chapter XI may be made to comprehend all the paragraphs 
from the 15th to the end, and shows how universally the ideas 
imderlying the Yt are diffused through the world of nature. The 
quality of the several trigrams will be found with more or less of 
truth, and with less or more of fancy, in the objects mentioned in 
connexion with them. More needs not to be said on the chapter 
than has been done in the Introduction, pp. 53 and 54. 



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APPENDIX VI. 
The Orderly Sequence of the Hexagrams. 

Section I. 

1-3. When there were heaven and earth, then 
afterwards all things were produced. What fills up 
(the space) between heaven and earth are (those) 
all things. Hence (^^ien and Khwin) are fol- 
lowed by ^un ^ ^un denotes filling up. 

3-6. A'un is descriptive of things on their first 
production. When so produced, they are sure 
to be in an undeveloped condition. Hence ATun 
is followed by MSng. Ming is descriptive of 
what is undeveloped, — the young of creatures and 
things. These in that state require to be nourished. 
Hence Ming is followed by Hsii. HsU is de- 
scriptive of the way in which meat and drink 
(come to be supplied) ^ Over meat and drink 
there are sure to be contentions'^. Hence HsU 
is followed by Sung. 

6-8. Sung is sure to cause the rising up of the 
multitudes'; and hence it is followed by Sze. Sze 
has the signification of multitudes', and between 
multitudes there must be some bond of union. 
Hence it is followed by PI, which denotes being 
attached to. 

8-1 1. (Multitudes in) union must be subjected to 
some restraint Hence P! is followed by HsiAo 

[16] F f 



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434 THE APPENDIXES. SECT. I. 

Kh^. When things are subjected to restraint, there 
come to be rites of ceremony, and hence Hsiio 
Khti is followed by Ll*. The treading (on what 
is proper) leads to Th4i, which issues in a state of 
freedom and repose, and hence Li is followed by 
Thai. 

11-16. Thii denotes things having free course. 
They cannot have that for ever, and hence it is 
followed by Phi (denoting being shut up and re- 
stricted). Things cannot for ever be shut up, and 
hence Phi is followed by Thung 3a n. To him 
who cultivates union with men, things must come 
to belong, and hence Thung 33.n is followed by 
Ti Yd. Those who have what is great should 
not allow in themselves the feeling of being full, and 
hence TS. Y<i is followed by A'^ien. When gp-eat 
possessions are associated with humility, there is 
sure to be pleasure and satisfaction; and hence 
. .AT^ien is followed by Yii. 

16-19. Where such complacency is awakened, (he 
who causes it) is sure to have followers'. They 
who follow another are sure to have services (to 
perform), and hence Sui is followed by K<i*. K<i 
means (the performance of) services. He who per- 
forms such services may afterwards become great, 
and hence KA is followed by Lin. Lin means 
great ". 

19-23. What is great draws forth contemplation, 
and hence Lin is followed by Kw4n. He who 
attracts contemplation will then bring about the 
union of others with himself, and hence Kwdn is 
followed by Shih Ho. Shih Ho means union. 
But things should not be united in a reckless or 
irregular way, and hence Shih Ho is followed by 



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SECT. II. APPENDIX VI. 435 

Pi. Pi denotes adorning. When ornamentation 
has been carried to the utmost, its progress comes 
to an end; and hence Pi is followed by Po. Po 
denotes decay and overthrow. 

23-26. Things cannot be done away for ever. 
When decadence and overthrow have completed 
their work at one end, redintegration commences at 
the other; and hence Po is followed by FA. When 
the return (thus indicated) has taken place, we have 
not any rash -disorder, and FA is followed by W(i 
Wang. Given the freedom from disorder and insin- 
cerity (which this name denotes), there may be the 
accumulation (of virtue), and Wd Wang is followed 
by Ti Khti. 

26-30. Such accumulation having taken place, 
there will follow the nourishment of it ; and hence 
Ti Kh^ is followed by 1. 1 denotes nourishing. 
Without nourishment there could be no movement, 
and hence I is followed by Ti Kwo. Things can- 
not for ever be in a state of extraordinary (prog^ress) ; 
and hence Td Kwo is followed by Khdn. Khin 
denotes falling into peril. When one falls into peril, 
he is sure to attach himself to some person or thing ; 
and hence Khdn is followed by Ll. Ll denotes 
being attached, or adhering, to. 



Section II. 

31, 32. Heaven and earth existing, all (material) 
things then got their existence. All (material) things 
having existence, afterwards there came -male and 
female. From .the existence of male and female 
there came afterwards husband and wife. From 

F f 2 



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436 THE APPENDIXES. SECT. II. 

husband and wife there came father and son. From 
father and son there came ruler and minister. From 
ruler and minister there came high and low. When 
(the distinction of) high and low had existence, after- 
wards came the arrangements of propriety and right- 
eousness. 

The rule for the relation of husband and wife 
is that it should be long-enduring. Hence Hsien 
is followed by H^ng. H5ng denotes long en- 
during "*. 

32-37. Things cannot long abide in the same 
place; and hence HSng is followed by Thun. 
Thun denotes withdrawing. Things cannot be for 
ever withdrawn ; and hence Thun is succeeded by 
Ti A'wang. Things cannot remain for ever (simply) 
in the state of vigour; and hence Td A'wang is 
succeeded by 3 in. 3 in denotes advancing. (But) 
advancing is sure to lead to being wounded; and 
hence 3in is succeeded by Ming I. I denotes being 
wounded. He who is wounded abroad will return 
to his home ; and hence Ming I is followed by Ki& 

37-40. When the right administration of the 
family is at an end, misunderstanding and division 
will ensue; and hence A'ii Z3.n is followed by 
Khwei. Khwei denotes misunderstanding and 
division ; and such a state is sure to give rise to 
difficulties and complications. Khwei therefore is 
followed by A'ien. A'ien denotes difficulties; but 
things cannot remain for ever in such a state. A'ien 
therefore is followed by A'ieh, which denotes re- 
laxation and ease. 

40-44. In a state of relaxation and ease there 
are sure to be losses; and hence A'ieh is followed 



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SECT. II. APPENDIX VI. 437 

by Sun, But when Sun (or diminution) is going 
on without end, increase is sure to come. Sun 
therefore is followed by Yl, When increase goes 
on without end, there is sure to come a dispersing 
of it, and hence Yi is followed by Kwii. Kw&i 
denotes dispersion. But dispersion must be succeeded 
by a meeting (again). Hence Kwii is followed by 
Kdu, which denotes such meeting. 

44-48, When things meet together, a collection 
is then formed. Hence Kiu is followed by 3hui, 
which name denotes being collected. When (good 
men) are collected and mount to the highest places, 
there results what we call an upward advance ; and 
hence 3hui is followed by Shang, When such 
advance continues without stopping, there is sure to 
come distress; and hence ShSng is followed by 
Khwcin, When distress is felt in the height (that 
has been grained), there is sure to be a return to the 
gpround beneath; and hence KhwSn is followed by 
3ing. 

48, 49, What happens under 3ing requires to be 
changed, and hence it is followed by Ko (denoting 
change). 

49-55. For changing the substance of things there 
is nothing equal to the caldron; and hence K6 is 
followed by Ting. For presiding over (that and 
all other) vessels, no one is equal to the eldest son, 
and hence Ting is followed by A'an. A'Sn conveys 
the idea of putting in motion. But things cannot 
be kept in motion for ever. The motion is stopped ; 
and hence A'an is followed by KSn, which gives the 
idea of arresting or stopping. Things cannot be 
kept for ever in a state of repression, and hence 
K5n is followed by ATien, which gives the idea of 



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438 THE APPENDIXES. SECT. 11. 

(gradually) advancing. With advance there must 
be a certain point that is arrived at, and hence 
A'ien is succeeded by Kwei Mei. When things 
thus find the proper point to which to come, they 
are sure to become great. Hence Kwei Mei is 
succeeded by FSng, which conveys the idea of 
being great. 

55~57' He whose greatness reaches the utmost 
possibility, is sure to lose his dwelling ; and hence 
FSng is succeeded by Lu (denoting travellers or 
strangers). We have in it the idea of strangers who 
have no place to receive them, and hence LU is 
followed by S6n, which gives the idea of (penetrating 
and) entering. 

57-59, One enters (on the pursuit of his object), 
and afterwards has pleasure in it; hence S<in is fol- 
lowed by Tui. Tui denotes pleasure and satis- 
faction. This pleasure and satisfaction (begins) 
afterwards to be dissipated, and hence Tui is fol- 
lowed by Hwan, which denotes separation and 
division. 

59-62, A state of division cannot continue for 
ever, and therefore Hwan is followed by 3ieh. 
3ieh (or the system of regulations) having been 
established, men believe in it, and hence it is fol- 
lowed by A'ung Fd. When men have the belief 
which /sTung Fti implies, they are sure to carry 
it into practice ; and hence it is succeeded by 
Hsiio Kwo, 

62-64. He that surpasses others is sure to remedy 
(evils that exist), and therefore Hsiio Kwo is 
succeeded by A'l 3l. But the succession of events 
cannot come to an end, and therefore Ki 3 1 is 



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SECT. II. APPENDIX VI. 439 

succeeded by Wei 3t, with which (the hexagrams) 
come to a close. 

The few sentences on this Appendix in the Introduction, pp. 54, 
55, are sufficient. It shows the importance of the meaning of the 
name in the attempt to explain, the lineal figures, and prepares us 
to expect on each one a brief enigmatical essay, which, it has 
been seen, is the nature of the Text. But the writer, whoever 
he was, is by no means careful always to follow that Text in the 
significance of the characters, as will appear in the few instances to 
which attention is called in the following notices. The treatise 
is too slight to require, or to justify, an exhibition of all its 
inaccuracies. 

' But A'un does not denote filling up. It is the symbol of 
being in a state of distress and difficulty. The writer is thinking 
of the result of the interaction of heaven and earth as being to fill 
all between them with the various forms of living beings; and to 
represent that he gives the result of ATun, and not its meaning. 
He makes a blunder which might have been easily avoided, for he 
adds immediately that the character is descriptive of things on their 
first production. 

* It is difficult to follow the writer here. HsQ in the Text is 
the symbol of the idea of waiting. Does he mean that a provision 
of food and drink can only be made gradually ? There is nothing 
in the character Hstl to awaken in the mind the idea of nourish- 
ment. Then the genesis of contention which is given is strange. 
The writer probably had in his mind the lines of the Shih, II, i, 
ode 5. 3 :— 

' The loss of kindly feeling ofl 
From slightest things shall grow. 
Where all the fare is dry and spare, 
Resentments fierce may glow.' 
But what is allowable, good even, in poetry, is out of place in this 
treatise. 

' Contention on a great scale will put all the population of a 
state in excitement and motion, and military measures of repression 
will be necessary. But the idea of the multitudes in Sze would 
seem to be simply that of number, and not that of a numerous 
host. In a feudal kingdom, however, all the able-bodied people 
might be required to join the army. 



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440 THE APPENDIXES. SECT. 11. 

* Lt, the name of the loth hexagram, is the symbol for a shoe, 
and the act of treading or walking. It seems here to be derived 
from the homophonous li, the symbol of acts of ceremony. The 
identity of sound or name must be considered as accidental A 
measured step would be one of the first ways in which the inward 
sense of propriety would manifest itself. 

" By the subject of T& Yft and A'Aien we must understand the 
possessor of the kingdom, — the great man who in his greatness is 
yet distinguished by humility. He attracts followers. 

• For the true meaning of ATft and Lin, the names of hexa- 
grams 1 8, 19, see what is said in the notes on the Text of them. 

^ The same reference should be made to the notes on the Text 
of Hsien and many of the other hexagrams that follow. 



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APPENDIX VII. 

Treatise on the Hexagrams taken promiscuously, according to 
the opposition or diversity of their meaning. 

This last of the Appendixes is touched on very briefly in the 
concluding paragraph of the Introduction, p. 55. It is stated there 
to be in rhyme, and I have endeavoured to give a similar form to 
the following version of it. The rhymes and length of the lines in 
the original, however, are very irregular, and I found it impossible 
to reproduce that irregularity in English. 

I, 2. Strength in A'^ien, weakness in Khw3.n 

we find. 
8, 7. Pi shows us joy, and Sze the anxious 
mind. 
19, 20. L!n gives, Kwdn seeks; — such are the 
several themes 
Their different figures were to teach de- 
signed. 

3. .^un manifests itself, yet keeps its place ; 

4. 'Mid darkness still, to light Ming sets 

its face. 

51, 52. A'in starts; Kin stops. In Sun and Yl 

are seen 
41, 42. How fulness and decay their course begin. 

26. TA Khti keeps still, and waits the proper 

time. 
25. WA Wang sets forth how evil springs 

from crime. 



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442 THE APPENDIXES. 



45,46. Good men in 3hui collect; in Shing 

they rise : 
15, 16. KMen itself, Yii others doth despise. 

21, 22. Shih Ho takes eating for its theme; and 
PI 
Takes what is plain, from ornament quite 
free. 

58, 57. Tui shows its scope, but Sun's we do 

not see. 
17, 18. Sui quits the old; K\X makes a new 

decree. 

23. We see in Po its subject worn away ; 

24. And F 6 shows its recovering from decay. 

35. Above in 3in the sun shines clear and 

bright; 

36. But in Ming 1 'tis hidden from the 

sight. 
48, 47, Progress in Sing in KhwSn encounters 
blight. 

31. Effect quick answering cause in Hsien 

appears ; 

32. While H3.ng denotes continuance for 

years. 
59,60. Hwin scatters; but 3ieh its code of 
rules uprears, 

40. Relief and ease with /ifieh are sure. to 

come; 

41. Hard toil and danger have in A'ien their 

home. 

38. Khwei looks on others as beyond its care ; 

37. Kik Zan all includes within its sphere. 



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APPENDIX VII. 443 



12, II. While Phi and Th3.i their different scopes 

prefer, 
34, 33. Ti ^wang stops here as right; withdraws 

Thun there. 

14. T& Yd adhering multitudes can show ; 
13. Thung Z^n reflects their warm affection's 
glow. 

50, 51. Ting takes what's new; the old is left 

by Ko. 
61, 62. Sincere is A'ung FA ; but exceeds, Hsi4o 

Kwo. 

55, 56. Fang tells of trouble; Lii can boast few 

friends. 
30, 29, Fire mounts in Ll; water in Khin 
descends. 
9. Hsi4o KAd with few 'gainst many foes 

contends. 
10. Movement in Ll, unresting, never ends, 

5, H sii shows its subject making no advance : 

6. In Sung we seek in vain a friendly glance ; 
28. And Ti Kwo's overthrown with sad mis- 
chance. 

44. Kiu shows a meeting, where the many 
strong 
Are met by one that's weak, yet struggles 
long. 

53. In A'ien we see a bride who will delay 
To move until the bridegroom takes his 
way. 

2 7. Body and mind are nourished right in I ; 
63. All things are well established in ATI 31. 



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444 THE APPENDIXES. 



54. Kwei Mei reveals how ends the virgin life ; 
64. Wei 3 1 how fails the youth (to get a wife). 

43. The strong disperse the weak ; K wii teaches so. 
Prospers the good man's way ; to grief all small 
men go. 



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