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Full text of "Sacred Books East Various Oriental Scholars with Index. 50 vols Max Muller Oxford 1879.1910."

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THE 



SACRED BOOKS OF THE EAST 




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HENRY FROWDE 




OXPOED Utt lV WRBITY FBESS WABEHOUSB 
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THE 



SACRED BOOKS OF THE EAST 



TRANSLATED 



BY VARIOUS ORIENTAL SCHOLARS 



AND EDITED BT 



F. MAX MttLLER 



VOL. XVII 





n ; * i i . • i i v 



®tfovli 

AT THE CLARENDON PRESS 
188a 



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3 & /d 6 



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VINAYA TEXTS 



TRANSLATED FROM THE PALI 



BY 



T. W. RHYS DAVIDS 



AND 



HERMANN OLDENBERG 



PART II 

THE MAHAVAGGA, V— X 
THE ATULLAVAGGA, I— HI 




AT THE CLARENDON PRESS 
1883 

[ All rights rtstrvtd] 



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CONTENTS. 



The Mahavagga 



Fifth Khandhaka (Rules for Foot-clothing, Seats, 
Vehicles, etc.) 

Sixth Khandhaka (On Medicaments) . 
Seventh Khandhaka (The Ka/Aina Ceremonies) 
Eighth Khandhaka (The Dress of the Bhikkhus) 
Ninth Khandhaka (Validity and Invalidity of Formal 

Acts of the Sawgha) 

Tenth Khandhaka (Schisms among the Sawgha) 



The A"ullavagga 

First Khandhaka (The Minor Disciplinary Proceedings) 
Second Khandhaka (Probation and Penance) 
Third Khandhaka (Probation and Penance) 

Note on Abhiha/Mum 



rxcs 

I 



4* 
146 
171 

256 
285 

327 

329 
384 
397 

440 



Transliteration of Oriental Alphabets adopted for the Trans- 
lations of the Sacred Books of the East . . .441 



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MAHAVAGGA 




FIFTH KHANDHAKA. 

(rules for foot-clothing, seats, vehicles, etc.) 



i. At that time the blessed Buddha dwelt at 
Ra/agaha at the Vulture's Peak. 

Now at that time Seniya Bimbisara, the king of 
Magadha, held rule and sovranty over eighty thou- 
sand townships 1 . And at that time there was at 
Aampa a SettAYs son named So»a Ko/ivisa J , deli- 
cately nurtured, on the soles of whose feet hair had 
grown. 

Now when Seniya Bimbisara, the king of Magadha, 
was holding an assembly of the eighty thousand over- 
seers over those townships, he sent a message to 
So«a Ko/ivisa on some matter of business, saying, 
4 Let So«a come hither. I desire Sowa's presence!' 

2. Then spake the parents of So»a Ko/ivisa to him 
thus : ' The king, dear So#a, wishes to see thy feet. 
But stretch not out thy feet, dear So«a, towards the 

1 Gama, which should be understood in the sense of parishes, 
not of villages. 

* This Sowa is the reputed author of one of the Theragathas. 
It is interesting to notice that A'ampS, the capital of Ahga, is here 
included under Magadha. Compare Anga-magadhesu in MahS- 
vagga I, 19, and the beginning sentences of the Sonadamfo Sutta 
(Digha Nikaya), in which it is said that the revenues of the town of 
JTampi had been bestowed by king Bimbisara on the Brahmawa 
Sonadatida. 

[17] B 



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MAHAVAGGA. V, i, 3. 



king. Take thy seat cross-legged before the king, 
that the king may see thy feet as thou sittest there.' 
And they carried So»a Ko/ivisa in a palankeen (to 
Ra^agaha). 

And So»a Ko/ivisa went to the place where 
Seniya Bimbisara, the king of Magadha, was. And 
when he had come there, and had bowed down 
before Seniya Bimbisara, the king of Magadha, he 
took his seat cross-legged before the king. And 
Seniya Bimbisara, the king of Magadha, saw that 
hair had grown on the soles of the feet of So»a 
Ko/ivisa. 

3. Now after Seniya Bimbisara, the king of 
Magadha, had instructed the eighty thousand over- 
seers over those townships in the things of this world 
he exhorted them, saying, ' Ye have now received 
from me instruction in the things of this world. 
Go now, and wait upon the Blessed One. The 
Blessed One himself shall instruct you in the things 
of eternity.' 

Then the eighty thousand overseers over those 
townships went on to the Vulture's Peak. 

4. Now at that time the venerable Sagata was 
the attendant on the Blessed One. And the eighty 
thousand overseers over those townships went to 
the place where the venerable Sagata was. And 
when they were come there they spake thus to the 
venerable Sagata :. 

'The eighty thousand overseers over the town- 
ships are come here, Sir, to visit the Blessed One. 
It were well, Sir, that we should be granted an 
audience of the Blessed One.' 

' Then do you, Sirs, stay here yet a moment, while 
I let the Blessed One know.' 



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V, t, 7. RULES FOR FOOT-CLOTHING, SEATS, ETC. 3 

5. Then the venerable Sagata disappeared down 
the steps x from before the very eyes of the eighty 
thousand overseers over those townships, and ap- 
peared before the Blessed One, and spake to the 
Blessed One, and said : 

' Lord, the eighty thousand overseers over the 
townships are come here to visit the Blessed One. 
Let the Blessed One do as seemeth to him fit.' 

' Do thou then, Sagata, make a seat ready in the 
shade of the house V 

6. ' Even so, Lord ! ' said the venerable Sagata, in 
assent, to the Blessed One. And taking a chair, 
he disappeared from before the Blessed One, and 
reappeared up the steps before the very eyes of 
those eighty thousand overseers over those town- 
ships, and made ready a seat >n the shade of the 
house. 

And the Blessed One came out of the house and 
sat down on the seat made ready in the shade thereof. 

7. Then those eighty thousand overseers over the 
townships went up to the place where the Blessed 
One was. And when they had come there they 
bowed down before the Blessed One and took their 
seats on one side. But those eighty thousand over- 
seers over the townships paid more respect in their 
hearts to the venerable Sagata than to the Blessed 
One 8 . 

And the Blessed One perceived by his mind the 
thoughts of the minds of those eighty thousand 

1 Pa/ikaya nimu^gitva 'ti sopawassa he/Ma addha*andapas4«ena 
nimuggitva (Comm.). 

* ViharapaMiayayan ti vihirapa-Mante JMytyaw. 

' Samannaharantiti pasadavasena punappunaw manasikaronti 

(Buddhaghosa). 



B 2 



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MAHAVAGGA. V, r, 8. 



overseers over the townships ; and he addressed the 
venerable Sagata, and said : ' Show them now, Sagata, 
a still greater wonder, beyond the power of men.' 

' Even so, Lord !' said the venerable Sagata, in 
assent, to the Blessed One. And rising up into the 
air he walked, and stood, and sat, and lay down, 
and gave forth smoke and fire, and disappeared in 
the sky. 

8. Then the venerable Sagata, when he had 
shown in the open sky wonders of various kinds 
beyond the power of men, fell down with his head 
at the feet of the Blessed One, and said to the 
Blessed One : 

' My teacher, Lord, is the Blessed One ; and I am 
the disciple. My teacher, Lord, is the Blessed One ; 
and I am the disciple.' 

Then those eighty thousand overseers over the 
townships thinking, ' Wonderful is it, most marvel- 
lous ! If even the pupil be so mighty and so powerful, 
how much more then the master !' paid more respect 
in their hearts to the Blessed One than to the 
venerable Sagata. 

9. Then the Blessed One perceived by his mind 
the thoughts of the minds of those eighty thousand 
overseers over the townships, and held to them a 
discourse in due order ; that is to say, he spake to 
them of giving, of righteousness, of heaven, of the 
danger, the worthlessness, the depravity of lusts, and 
of the advantages of renunciation. And when the 
Blessed One perceived that they had become pliant, 
softened, unprejudiced, upraised and believing in 
heart, then he proclaimed that which is the special 
doctrine of the Buddhas ; (that is to say), Suffering, 
its Origin, its Cessation, and the Path. 



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V, I, II. RULES FOR FOOT-CLOTHING, SEATS, ETC. 5 

Just as a clean cloth, from which all stain has 
been washed away, would readily take the dye, just 
even so did those eighty thousand overseers over 
the townships obtain, even while sitting there, the 
pure and spotless Eye of the Truth ; (that is to say, 
the knowledge that) whatsoever has a beginning, in 
that is inherent also the necessity of dissolution. 

10. And having seen the Truth, having mastered 
the Truth, having understood the Truth, having 
penetrated the Truth, having overcome uncertainty, 
having dispelled all doubts, having gained full know- 
ledge, dependent on nobody else for the knowledge 
of the doctrine of the Teacher, they said to the 
Blessed One : ' Glorious, Lord ! glorious, Lord ! Just 
as if one should set up, Lord, what had been over- 
turned, or should reveal what had been hidden, or 
should point out the way to one who had lost his 
way, or should bring a lamp into the darkness, in 
order that those who had eyes might see visible 
things, thus has the Blessed One preached the 
doctrine in many ways. We take our refuge, Lord, 
in the Blessed One, and in the Dhamma, and in the 
fraternity of Bhikkhus ; may the Blessed One receive 
us from this day forth while our life lasts as his 
disciples who have taken their refuge in Him.' 

11. And So»a Ko^visa thought : ' As I understand 
the Dhamma proclaimed by the Blessed One, it is 
not easy to a person living as a layman to lead a 
wholly perfect and pure and altogether consummate ' 
life of holiness. What if I were to cut off my hair 
and beard, and to put on yellow robes, and give up 
the world, and go forth into the houseless state.' 

1 Sankhalikhita. See Boehtlingk-Roth s. v. Likhita. 

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MAHAVAGGA. V, I, ia. 



And those eighty thousand overseers over the 
townships, having expressed their joy and delight at 
the words of the Blessed One, rose from their seats, 
respectfully saluted the Blessed One, and passing 
round him with their right sides towards him, went 
away. 

12. And So»a Ko^visa, soon after those eighty 
thousand overseers over the townships had departed,' 
went to the place where the Blessed One was. And 
when he had come there he bowed down before the 
Blessed One and took his seat on one side. Sitting 
on one side So#a Ko/ivisa said to the Blessed One : 
' As I understand the Dhamma proclaimed by the 
Blessed One (&c, as in § 1 1, down to :) and go forth 
into the houseless state. I desire, Lord, to cut off 
my hair and beard, and to put on yellow robes, and 
to give up the world, and to go forth into the house- 
less state. May the Blessed One, Lord, ordain me.' 

Thus So»a Ko/ivisa received from the Blessed 
One the pabba^i and upasampada ordinations. 
And the venerable So«a, soon after his upasam- 
pada, dwelt in the Sitavana grove. 

1 3. As he, with eager determination, was walking 
up and down there, his feet were injured, and the place 
in which he walked became covered with blood, like 
a slaughter-house for oxen. Then in the mind of 
the venerable So«a, who had gone apart and was 
plunged in meditation, there sprung up this thought : 

' Though I have become one of those disciples of 
the Blessed One who live in the exercise of strenuous 
determination, yet my heart has not been set free 
from the Asavas through absence of craving. And 
there is much wealth laid up for me at home. It is 
possible both to enjoy that wealth, and to do good 



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V, i, 15. RULES FOR FOOT-CLOTHING, SEATS, ETC. 7 

deeds. Let me now, then, returning to the lower 
state 1 , enjoy my wealth and do good deeds.' 

14. Now the Blessed One perceived in his mind 
the thought of the heart of the venerable So»a; 
and as quickly as a strong man can stretch forth his 
arm, or can draw it back again when it has been 
stretched forth, he disappeared from the hill of the 
Vulture's Peak, and appeared in the Sttavana grove. 
And the Blessed One, as he was passing through 
the sleeping-places (of the Bhikkhus), came up, with 
a multitude of Bhikkhus, to the place where the 
venerable So»a had walked up and down. 

When the Blessed One saw that the place where 
the venerable So«a had walked up and down was 
covered with blood, he addressed the Bhikkhus, and 
said : ' Whose walking-place 2 is this, O Bhikkhus, 
which is covered with blood, like a slaughter-house 
for oxen ?' 

' As the venerable So»a, Lord, was walking up 
and down here with eager determination, his feet 
were injured ; and so this place has become covered 
with blood, like a slaughter-house for oxen.' 

1 5. Then the Blessed One went on to the house 
in which the venerable So»a was living, and sat 
down there on a seat made ready for him. And 
the venerable So«a bowed down before the Blessed 

1 That is to say, the state of a layman (Hinay* avattitva). 

' Aankama, for which there is no real equivalent in English. 
In speaking of later periods the word ' cloister' is sometimes a cor- 
rect rendering, for the places in which the recluses walked up and 
down, thinking, were then in some cases paved and even roofed. 
The Chinese pilgrim I-tsing has a description of such a stone 
fenkama, which he saw at the great monastery at Nilanda (Indian 
Antiquary, X, 19 a). In this passage it only means a narrow, open, 
space of ground, levelled and cleared for the purpose. 



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8 mahAvagga. V, I, 16. 

One, and took his seat on one side. And when he 
was thus seated, the Blessed One addressed the 
venerable So»a, and said : ' Is it not true, So«a, that 
in your mind, when you had gone apart and were 
plunged in meditation, there sprung up this thought : 
"Though I have become (&c, as in § 13, down to 
the end)?"' 

'Even so, Lord!' 

' Now what think you, So»a, — you were skilled, 
were you not, when you formerly lived in the world, 
in the music of the lute ?' 

' That was so, Lord ! ' 

'Now what think you, So«a, — when the strings 
of your lute 1 were too much stretched, had your lute 
then any sound, was it in a fit state to be played 
upon ? ' 

'Not so, Lord!' 

1 6. ' Now what think you, So«a, — when the strings 
of your lute were too loose, had your lute then any 
sound 2 , was it in a fit state to be played upon ?' 

' Not so, Lord !' 

' Now what think you, So»a, — when the strings 
of your lute were neither too much stretched nor too 
loose, but fixed in even proportion, had your lute 
sound then, was it then in a fit state to be played 
upon ?' 

' Yes, Lord !' 

' And just so, So»a, does too eager a determination 
conduce to self-righteousness, and too weak a deter- 

1 Vi«a. On the construction of the ancient Indian lute, see 
Milinda Panha (p. 53, ed. Trenckner), where all the various parts 
are mentioned. Compare also the Guttila Gataka (No. 343, ed. 
Fausbcll). 

9 There is a misprint here in the text, savarati for saravati. 



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V, i, 18. RULES FOR FOOT-CLOTHING, SEATS, ETC. 9 

mination to sloth, [i 7.] Do thou, therefore, O So#a, 
be steadfast in evenness of determination, press 
through to harmony of your mental powers. Let 
that be the object of your thought ' !' 

' Even so, Lord !' said the venerable So»a, and 
hearkened to the word of the Blessed One. 

And when the Blessed One had exhorted the 
venerable So»a with this exhortation, then, as quickly 
as a strong man can stretch forth his arm, or can 
draw it back again when it has been stretched forth, 
he vanished from the presence of the venerable 
So»a in the Sltavana grove, and reappeared on the 
hill of the Vulture's Peak. 

18. Thenceforward the venerable So»a was stead- 
fast in evenness of determination, he pressed through 
to harmony of his mental powers, that did he take 
as the object of his thought. And the venerable 
So»a remaining alone and separate, earnest, zealous, 
and resolved, attained ere long to that supreme goal 
of the higher life for the sake of which noble youths 
go out from all and every household gain and comfort 
to become houseless wanderers — yea, that supreme 
goal did he, by himself, and while yet in this visible 
world, bring himself to the knowledge of, and con- 
tinue to realise, and to see face to face ! And he 
became conscious that rebirth was at an end, that 
the higher life had been fulfilled, that all that should 
be done had been accomplished, and that after this 
present life there would be no beyond ! 

1 Buddbaghosa says : Tattha 4a nimittam ga»hah!ti : tasmiw 
samathe sati yena adase mukhabimben' eva nimittena uppaggi- 
tabbam, tam samatha-nimittaw vipassana-nimittara magga-nimittam 
phala-nimittan 4a ganhahi nipattetiti (? nipphadehiti, nibbattehiti) 
attho. 



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io mahAvagga. V, i, 19. 

So the venerable So#a became yet another among 
the Arahats. 

19. Now when the venerable So»a had attained, 
to Arahatship there occurred to him the thought: 

' Let me now make known my Insight in the pre- 
sence of the Blessed One ' !' 

Then the venerable So»a went to the place where 
the Blessed One was, and bowed down before the 
Blessed One, and took his seat on one side.' And 
when he was thus seated, the venerable So»a said 
to the Blessed One : 

20. 'Whatsoever Bhikkhu, Lord, is an Arahat 
whose Asavas are rooted out, who has lived the 
life, who has accomplished the task, who has laid 
aside every burden, who has gained the end he had 
in view, who has quite broken the fetter of a craving 
for (future) existence, who is completely set free by 
insight, six things doth he reach up unto 2 — unto 
renunciation, unto the love of solitude, unto kind- 
ness of heart, unto the destruction of craving, unto 
the destruction of thirst, unto the getting free from 
delusions. 

21. ' Now it may be, Lord, that it might occur, 
regarding this matter, to some brother, thus : " For 
the sake of faith merely 8 hath this brother attained 

1 It is often represented in the Pali l'i/akas to have been a cus- 
tomary thing for any one who thought he had attained to Arahatship 
to deliver a discourse in the presence of Gotama, as a kind of proof, 
or test, of his .emancipation ; and to receive the decision of Gotama 
thereupon. Buddhaghosa says : hnnam vy&kareyyan ti : arahd 
ahan ti ^anapeyyaw. Compare' Gataka 1, 140 ; II, 333. 

1 Adhimutto hotiti: pa/ivjg^itvi pa££akkham katva Ifnio hoti(B.). 

' Kevalaw saddhSmattakan ti : pa/ivedha-rahitaw kevalaw pa/i- 
vedha-pannaya asammissaw saddhamattakam (B.). On the lower 
position here assigned to faith, compare Maha-parinibbana Sutta 
VI, 9. 



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V. i, 25. RULES FOR. FOOT-CLOTHING, SEATS, ETC. 1 1 

unto renunciation." But not thus, Lord, should 
this matter be regarded. For the Bhikkhu in whom 
the Asavas are rooted out, who has lived the life, 
who has accomplished the task, he looks not upon 
himself as one who has anything yet to do, or to 
gather up, of (the fruit of his past) labour ; but he 
attaineth to renunciation by the destruction of lust, 
by the very condition of the absence of lust ; he 
attaineth to renunciation by the destruction of ill- 
will, by the very condition of the absence of ill-will ; 
he attaineth to renunciation by the destruction of 
delusions, by the very condition of the absence of 
delusions. 

22. ' Now it may be, Lord, that it might occur, 
regarding this matter, to some brother, thus : 
" Seeking after gain, hospitality, and fame hath this 
brother attained to the love of solitude." But not 
thus (&c, as in § 21, down to the end, substituting 
" love of solitude " for " renunciation "). 

23. ' Now it may be, Lord, that it might occur, 
regarding this matter, to some brother, thus : " Re- 
turning, verily, to the dependence upon works, as 
if that were the true essence (of spiritual welfare), 
hath this brother attained to kindness of heart." 
But not thus (&c, as in § 21, down to the end, sub- 
stituting " kindness of heart " for " renunciation "). 

24. ' He attaineth to the destruction of craving 
by the destruction of lust (&c, as in § 21, down to 
the end, substituting " absence of craving " for " re- 
nunciation "). He attaineth to the absence of thirst 
(&c, as in § 21). He attaineth to the absence of 
delusions (&c, as in § 21, down to the end). 

25. • When a Bhikkhu, Lord, has thus become fully 
emancipated in heart, even though many objects 



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1 2 mahAvagga. V, I, *6. 

visible to the sight should enter the path of his eye l , 
yet they take not possession of his mind : undefiled 
is his mind, firm, immovable; and he sees into the 
(manner which that impression) passes away 2 — even 
though many objects audible to the ear, smellable to 
the nostrils, tastable to the tongue, feelable by the 
body, sensible to the intellect should enter the path of 
the ear,' the nose, the tongue, the skin, the intellect, 
yet they take not possession of his mind : undefiled 
is his mind, firm, immovable, and he sees into the 
(manner in which that impression) passes away. 

26. 'Just, Lord, as if there be a mountain of rock, 
undivided, solid, one mass, and much wind and rain 
should fall upon it from the direction of the East, 
or of the West, or of the North, or of the South, 
yet they would not make it shake, or tremble, or 
quake ; just so, Lord, when a Bhikkhu has thus 
become fully emancipated in heart (&c, as in § 25, 
down to the end). 

27. 'He who has attained to renunciation, to 
solitude of heart, who has attained to kindness, and 
to the rooting out of craving, — 

' He who has attained to the rooting out of thirst, 
to the absence of delusions from the mind, he sees 
the source of sensations, his mind is quite set free. 

' To such a Bhikkhu, so emancipated, and with 
calmness in his heart, there is no gathering up of 
what is done, nothing to be done still remains. 

' As a rock, all of one mass, is not shaken by 



1 Aakkhussa Spathaw ag&WAanti ; that is, should come within 
reach of his vision. 

3 Vayan k' assanupassatiii : tassa £ittassa uppadam pi vayam pi 
passati (B.). 



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V, I, 29. RULES FOR FOOT-CLOTHING, SEATS, ETC. 1 3 

the breezes ', just so never can shapes and tastes, 
and sounds, and smells, and touch — the whole of 
them 

* Things wished for, things unwished — make trem- 
ble such a one. Firm is his mind, set free. He sees 
into the end thereof.' 

28. And the Blessed One addressed the Bhikkhus, 
and said : ' Thus, brethren, do young men of worth 
make their insight known. The truth is spoken, and 
the self is not obtruded. But herein some foolish 
ones, methinks, make known their insight to be a 
thing ridiculous, and they, thereafter, fall into 
defeat!' 

29. Then the Blessed One said to the venerable 
So«a, ' You, So»a, have been delicately nurtured. 
I enjoin upon you, So«a, the use of shoes with one 
lining 2 .' 

• * I have gone out from the world, Lord, into the 
houseless state, abandoning eighty cart-loads of 
gold 3 , and a retinue of seven elephants 4 . It will 
be said against me for this matter : "So«a Ko/ivisa 
went out from the world into the houseless state, 
abandoning eighty cart-loads of gold, and a retinue 
of seven elephants ; but the very same man now 
accustoms himself to the use of shoes with a lining 



1 This half floka recurs in Dhammapada, verse 81. 

1 Ekapalasikan ti eka-pa/alam (B.). 

' Asfti-saka/a-vShe hirawnaw (so correct the misprint in the 
text). Buddhaghosa says : ettha dve saka/abhara eko vaho 'ti vedi- 
tabbo ; but compare Rh. D., ' Ancient Coins and Measures,' &c, 
p. 18, § 32, and p. 14, § 23. Vaha occurs also in the Mahavamsa, 
p. 22. 

* Sattahatthikan £a anikan ti : ettha kha hatthiniyo eko kz. 
hatthtti, ida»i ekam a»ika«, idisani satta awtkani sattahatthikam 
nama (B.). 



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14 MAHAVAGGA. V, 1,30. 

to them." [30.] If the Blessed One will enjoin their 
use upon the Order of Bhikkhus, I will also use 
them. If the Blessed One will not enjoin their 
use upon the Order of Bhikkhus, neither will I 
use them.' 

Then the Blessed One, on that occasion, having 
delivered a religious discourse, thus addressed the 
Bhikkhus : 

' I enjoin upon you, O Bhikkhus, the use of shoes 
with one lining to them. Doubly lined shoes, Bhik- 
khus, are not to be worn, nor trebly lined ones, nor 
shoes with many linings 1 . Whosoever shall wear 
such, is guilty of a dukka/a offence.' 



2. 

1. Now at that time the A'/fcabbaggiya Bhikkhus 
were in the habit of wearing slippers all of a blue, 
yellow, red, brown, black, orange, or yellowish 
colour 2 . People were annoyed, murmured, and 
became angry, saying, ' (These act) like those who 
still enjoy the pleasures of the world 8 .' The brethren 
told this thing to the Blessed One. 

' Do not wear, O Bhikkhus, shoes that are all of 

1 Dvi-giwi 'ti dvi-pa/aia. Ti-gu»i 'ti ti-pa/all Ga»a»/ga»il- 
pahana 'ti £atu-pa/alato pa//Aaya vu££ati (8.). 

* N i 1 i k & ummara-puppha- vanni hoti ; p i t i k & kanikara-puppha- 
va«»a; lohitikfi^ayasumana-puppha-vawwi; maw^e/Mika maw- 
gtUhx-yanni eva; ka«ha a/iri//Aaka-va»«i ; maharangaratta 
satapada-pi//4i-va»»a (Mahara^ana is saffron; the colour of the 
back of a centipede is brownish yellow), mahandmaratta sam- 
bhinna-vanna hoti paw</u-palasa-va»«a, Kurundiyam pana paduma- 
puppha-va«»4 'ti vuttaw (B.). 

8 Read gihikamabhogino (as corrected at vol. ii. p. 363). 



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V, 2, 3- RULES FOR FOOT-CLOTHING, SEATS, ETC. 1 5 

a blue, yellow, red, brown, black, orange, or yellowish 
colour. Whosoever does so, is guilty of a dukka/a 
offence.' 

2. Now at that time the .A^abbaggiya Bhikkhus 
were in the habit of wearing shoes with edges of 
a blue, yellow, red, brown, black, orange, or yellowish 
colour. 

People were annoyed, murmured, and became 
angry, saying, ' These act like those who still enjoy 
the pleasures of the world.' The brethren told this 
thing to the Blessed One. 

' Do not wear, O Bhikkhus, shoes that have edges 
of a blue, yellow, red, brown, black, orange, or 
yellowish colour. Whosoever does so, is guilty of 
a dukka/a offence.' 

3. Now at that time the A^abbaggiya Bhikkhus 
were in the habit of wearing shoes with heel-cover- 
ings (? J ); mocassins 9 ; laced boots 3 ; boots lined with 
cotton*; boots of various hues, like the wings of 
partridges 5 ; boots pointed with rams' horns, and 
with goats' horns 6 ; ornamented with scorpions' 

1 All the names of boots or shoes are of doubtful meaning ; and 
as the use of every sort of foot-covering has long been given up 
among those Buddhists who have preserved the use of the Pili 
language, Buddhaghosa's explanations are not very reliable. He 
says here : Khallaka-baddha 'ti panhi-pidhanattham tale khallakam 
bandhitvi kat£. 

1 Pu/abaddhi 'ti Yonaka-up&hanS vu/Uati, y£va ^anghato sabba- 
pddam paAMMdeti. 

3 PaliguwMima 'ti paliguw/Aitva" katA upari-p&da-mattam eva 
paAWMdeti na ^ahghaw. 

* Tulapunmka" 'ti tulapunna puretvi katl 

• Tittirapattiki 'ti tittira-patta-sadisa-vi&tra-baddhi. 

6 Mem/a-vis&aa-baddhika' 'ti ka»»ika-/Mine mewfeka-singa- 
sa»/Mne vaddhe yo^etvd katd. A^a-visSwa-vaddhikadisu pi es' 
eva nayo. 



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1 6 mahAvagga. V, a, 4. 

tails 1 ; sewn round with peacocks' feathers 2 ; or shoes 
of all kinds of colours 8 . 

People were annoyed (&c, as in § 2, down to :) told 
this thing to the Blessed One. 

' Do not wear, O Bhikkhus, shoes with heel- 
coverings (&c, as in § 3, down to :) shoes of all kinds 
of colours. Whosoever does so, is guilty of a duk- 
ka/a offence.' 

4. Now at that time the -Oabbaggiya Bhikkhus 
were in the habit of wearing shoes adorned with 
lion-skins *, tiger-skins, panther-skins, antelope-skins, 
otter-skins 6 , cat-skins, squirrel-skins, and owl-skins e . 

People were annoyed (&c, as in § 3, down to the 
end, substituting ' shoes adorned with lion-skins, &c.,' 
for ' shoes with heel-coverings, &c.') 



3. 

1. Now the Blessed One, having dressed early 
in the morning, went into Ra^agaha, duly bowled 
and robed, for alms, with a certain Bhikkhu as his 
companion. And that Bhikkhu followed limping step 
by step behind the Blessed One. 

1 ViAfciikstlika' 'ti tatth' eva viAMika-nangu//Aa-sa«/Mne vaddhe 
yqg'etva kata. 

a Morapin^aparisibbita (sic) 'ti talesu vS baddhesu va mora- 
vinMehi (sic) suttakasadisehi parisibbita. 

' JTitui 'ti vtfitrl 

* Siha-^amma-parikkhata nama pariyantesu, ilvaresu anuva7a»i 
viya siha^ammaw yogttvi kati. 

" Udda, an animal, feeding on fish ; but Childers thinks it is not 
an amphibious creature, and therefore not ' otter.' 

1 Luka-£amma-parikkhat& (sic) 'ti pakkha-bi/ala-£amma-parik- 
khata. The latter is the flying fox, a large kind of bat. 



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V, 4, I. RULES FOR FOOT-CLOTHING, SEATS, ETC. I 7 

Now a certain lay-disciple who had put on a pair 
of shoes with many linings, saw the Blessed One 
approaching from afar. And when he saw him, he 
took off that pair of shoes and went up to the Blessed 
One, and saluted him ; and went on to that Bhikkhu, 
and saluted him, and said : 

2. 'Why does your reverence limp?' 

' My feet, friend, are blistered.' 

' But here, Sir, are shoes.' 

'Enough, good friend! shoes with linings have 
been forbidden by the Blessed One.' 

' Take the shoes, O Bhikkhu » !' 

Then the Blessed One, on that occasion, having 
delivered a religious discourse, addressed the Bhik- 
khus, and said : 

' I allow you, O Bhikkhus, the use of shoes with 
linings, when they have been cast off by others 2 . 
But new shoes with lining* are not to be worn. 
Whosoever does so, is guilty of a dukka/a offence.' 



4. 

1. Now at that time the Blessed One walked up 
and down in the open air 8 unshod. Noticing that, 
' The Master walks unshod,' the Elders (the Thera 
Bhikkhus) also went unshod when they were walking 
up and down 8 . But though the Master and the 
Thera Bhikkhus went unshod, the A^abbaggiya 
Bhikkhus walked up and down with coverings on 
their feet. 

1 This must be understood as spoken by the Buddha. 

* Omukkan ti pa/imun^itvi apanttaw (B.). 

* This walking up and down thinking is represented as a con- 
stant habit of the early Buddhist Samaras. 

[17] c 



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1 8 mahAvagga. V, 4, a. 

The temperate Bhikkh us were annoyed, murmured, 
and became angry, saying, ' How can these Khab- 
baggiya Bhikkhus walk shod, when the Master and 
the Thera Bhikkhus walk unshod ?' 

2. Then those Bhikkhus told this thing to the 
Blessed One. 

' Is it true, what they say, O Bhikkhus, that the 
A^abbaggiya Bhikkhus walk shod, though the Master 
and the Elders walk unshod ?' 

* It is true, Lord.' 

The Blessed Buddha rebuked them, saying, 

' How, O Bhikkhus, can these foolish persons walk 
shod, though (&c, as in §§ i, 2). For even the lay- 
men, O Bhikkhus, who are clad in white, for the 
sake of some handicraft that may procure them a 
living, will be respectful, affectionate, hospitable to 
their teachers. [3.] Do you, therefore, O Bhikkhus, 
so let (your light) shine forth, that you having left 
the world (to enter into) so well taught a doctrine 
and discipline may be respectful, affectionate, hospi- 
table to your teachers (a£ariyas), or those who rank 
as teachers \ and to your superiors (upa^f^ayas), or 
those who rank as superiors 2 . This will not conduce, 
O Bhikkhus, to the conversion of the unconverted, 
and to the augmentation of the number of the con- 



1 Avassikassa Mabbasso a£ariyamatto. So hi Aatuvassakale 
tarn nissaya va£££ati (Mahavagga I, 35). Evam ekavassassa satta- 
vasso, duvassassa a/Mavasso, tivassassa dasavasso (8.). 

3 Upagg-Myassa samdi/Ma-sambhatta pana sahaya bhikkhfl, ye 
va pana ke£i dasahi vassehi mahantatara, te sabbe pi upag^Mya- 
matta nama. This confirms the view expressed in a note to the 
first Book (chap. 32. 1), that the XJpaggAiya. is a more important 
person than the A^ariya. The former must have ten years, the 
latter need only have six years, seniority. 



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V, 5, i- RULES FOR FOOT-CLOTHING, SEATS, ETC. 1 Q. 

verted : but it will result, O Bhikkhus, in the uncon- 
verted being repulsed (from the faith), and in many 
of the converted becoming estranged.' Having thus 
rebuked them, and having delivered a religious dis- 
course, he thus addressed the Bhikkhus : 

' None of you, O Bhikkhus, is to walk shod, when 
your teachers or those who rank as teachers, or 
your superiors, or those who rank as superiors, are 
walking unshod. Whosoever does so, is guilty of a 
dukka/a offence. 

' And no one of you, O Bhikkhus, is to wear shoes 
in the open Arama. Whosoever does so, is guilty 
of a dukka/a offence.' 




5. 

i. Now at that time a certain Bhikkhu had an 
eruption 1 on his feet. They used to carry that 
Bhikkhu out when he wanted to ease himself. The 
Blessed One as he was passing through the sleeping 
places (of the Bhikkhus) saw them (doing so), and 
going up to them, he said : 

2. ' What is the disease, O Bhikkhus, from which 
this Bhikkhu suffers?' 

'This venerable brother has an eruption on his 
feet, Lord, and we are carrying him out to ease 
himself.' 

Then, on that occasion, the Blessed One, having 
delivered a religious discourse, addressed the Bhik- 
khus, and said : 

' I enjoin, O Bhikkhus, the use of foot coverings 

1 Padakhilabadho nama padato khila-sadisaw mawsa/n nikkhan- 
taw hoti (B.). 

C 2 



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20 MAHAVAGGA. V, 6, I. 

by one whose feet hurt him, or are blistered, or who 
has an eruption on his feet.' 



6. 

i. Now at that time the Bhikkhus used to get up 
on to couches or chairs with unwashen feet ; and the 
robes and seats became soiled. 

They told this thing to the Blessed One. 

' I enjoin, O Bhikkhus, the use of foot coverings 
when one of you wishes to get up on to couches 
or chairs.' 

2. Now at that time when the Bhikkhus were 
going to the Uposatha Hall or to the assembly in 
the dark, they trod upon stakes or thorns, and their 
feet were hurt. 

They told this thing to the Blessed One. 

' I enjoin, O Bhikkhus, the use of foot coverings 
in the open Arama, and of a torch, or lamp, and a 
walking stick V 

3. Now at that time the A^abbaggiya Bhikkhus 
used to rise up in the night towards dawn; and, 
putting on wooden shoes, walked up and down in 
the open air talking, in tones high, loud, and harsh, of 
all kinds of worldly things — such as tales of kings, 
of robbers, of ministers of state ; tales of armies, 
of terror, of war; conversation respecting meats, 
drinks, clothes, couches, garlands, perfumes, relation- 
ships, equipages, villages, towns, cities, provinces, 
women, warriors, and streets; tales about buried 
treasures, ghost stories ; various tales ; discussions 

1 Kattara-da«rfa. Compare AullavaggaVIII, 6, 3, and Childers 
under Kattara-ya//4i. Our word occurs at Gataka I, 9. 



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V, 1, 1. RULES FOR FOOT-CLOTHING, SEATS, ETC. 21 

on the world ; disasters by sea ; things which are, 
and things which are not 1 . And so doing they 
both trod upon and slew all kinds of insects, and 
disturbed the Bhikkhus in their meditations. 

4. The moderate Bhikkhus were annoyed, mur- 
mured, and became angry, saying, ' How can the 
A^abbaggiya Bhikkhus [do so]?' 

And those Bhikkhus told this thing to the Blessed 
One. 

' Is it true ' (&c, comp. chap. 4. 2) ? 

' It is true> Lord.' 

He rebuked them, and having delivered a religious 
discourse, he addressed the Bhikkhus, and said : 
' Wooden shoes, O Bhikkhus, are not to be worn. 
Whosoever^ wears them, is guilty of a dukka/a 
offence.' 



1. Now when the Blessed One had remained at 
Ra^agaha as long as he thought fit, he set out on 
his journey towards Benares. And wandering from 
place to place, he came to Benares, and there at 
Benares the Blessed One stayed in the deer-park 
Isipatana. 

Now at that time the .Oabbaggiya Bhikkhus, 
since the Blessed One had forbidden wooden shoes, 
used to break off young palmyra palms, and wear 
shoes made of the talipat leaves 2 . The young 
palmyra plants withered. People were annoyed, 
murmured, and became angry, saying, ' How can 

1 This list recurs in the Maxima Sila, § 7 (Rh. D.'s ' Buddhist 
Suttas from the Pali,' p. 194). 
* These are the leaves on which the MSS. are written. 



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2 2 MAHAVAGGA. V, 7, 2. 

the Sakyaputtiya Sama»as break off young palmyra 
palms, and wear shoes made of the talipat leaves ? 
The young palmyra plants wither. (By so doing), 
the Sakyaputtiya Sama»as destroy vegetable life.' 

2. The Bhikkhus heard those people murmuring 
in annoyance and indignation ; and they told this 
matter to the Blessed One. 

' Is it true ' (&c, as in chap. 4. 2) ? 

' It is true, Lord.' 

The Blessed Buddha rebuked them, saying, ' How 
can those foolish persons, O Bhikkhus, [act thus] ? 
For people believe, O Bhikkhus, that life dwells in a 
tree. Such conduct will not conduce (&c, as in chap. 
4. 2, down to :) becoming estranged. 

' Foot coverings made of talipat leaves, O Bhik- 
khus, are not to be worn. Whosoever wears them, 
is guilty of a dukka/a offence.' 

3. Now at that time the .Oabbaggiya Bhikkhus, 
since the Blessed One had forbidden talipat shoes, 
used to break off young bambus, and wear . shoes 
made of the bambu leaves (&c, as in last section 
down to the end, substituting bambu for palmyra). 



8. 

1. Now when the Blessed One had remained at 
Benares as long as he thought fit, he set out on his 
journey towards Bhaddiya. And wandering from 
place to place he came to Bhaddiya : and there, at 
Bhaddiya, he stayed in the Gatiya Grove. 

Now at that time the Bhikkhus at Bhaddiya were 
accustomed to the use of various kinds of foot 
coverings for the sake of ornament. They made, 



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V, 8, 3- RULES FOR FOOT-CLOTHING, SEATS, ETC 23 

or had made for themselves foot coverings of ti«a- 
grass, of muǤci-grass, of babba^a-grass, of the leaves 
of the date-palm ', of kamala-grass *, and of wool \ 
And they neglected* instruction, enquiry, morality, 
self-concentration, and wisdom 6 . 

2. The moderate Bhikkhus were annoyed, mur- 
mured, and became angry, thinking, ' How can they 
[do so]?' And those Bhikkhus told this thing to 
the Blessed One. 

' Is it true ' (&c, as in chap. 4. 2) ? 

' It is true, Lord.' 

The Blessed Buddha rebuked them, saying, ' How 
can they [do so] ? ' This will not conduce (&c, as 
in chap. 4. 2, down to :) becoming estranged. 

3. Having thus rebuked them, and having deli- 
vered a religious discourse, he thus addressed the 
Bhikkhus : ' Shoes, O Bhikkhus, made of ti»a-grass are 
not to be worn, or made of mu«£U-grass, or of bab- 
ba^a-grass, or of leaves of the date-palm, or of 
kamala-grass, or of wool, nor [ornamented with] gold, 
or silver, or pearls, or beryls, or crystal, or copper, 
or glass, or tin, or lead, or bronze. Whosoever does 
so, is guilty of a dukka/a offence. 

1 Hintala-pSduka 'ti khagg-tira- (MS. khaggari) pattehi kata- 
paduka : hinlala-pattehi pi na va//ati yeva (B). 

* Kamala-paduka 'ti kamala-tiwaw nama atthi, tena kata-padukd. 
Ussfra-paduka 'ti pi vadanti. Childers only gives lotus as the 
meaning of kamala. At Gataka I, 119, 149, 178; IV, 43, it must 
be kamala, and not kambala as printed by Fausboll, that is meant. 

* Kambala-paduka 'ti uanahi kata-pidukl 

* On rin^anti (Sanskrit ri£, ri«akti), compare the verses in 
Milinda Panha, p. 419 (ed. Trenckner). 

* The adhisiladi-sikkh4-ttaya« mentioned atDhp. p. 358 is 
explained in the Samgiti Sutta as training in adhisila, adhiiitta, 
and adhipanfia. On the first, compare the note on Mahavagga 
I, 36, 8. 



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24 mahAvagga. V, 9. 1. 

'And clogs, Bhikkhus, that are taken away 1 , are 
not to be worn. Whosoever does so, is guilty of a 
dukka/a offence. 

'I allow you, O Bhikkhus, the use of three kinds 
of clogs, that are fixed to the ground, and are not 
taken away*, privy-clogs, urinal-clogs, and rinsing- 
clogs 8 .' 



9. 

i. Now when the Blessed One had remained at 
Bhaddiya as long as he thought fit, he set out on 
a journey towards Sivatthi. And walking from 
place to place he arrived at Sivatthi. There the 
Blessed One dwelt at Sivatthi at the £etavana, 
Anitha-pi»dfika's Grove. 

2. Now at that time the .AT^abbaggiya Bhikkhus used 
to catch hold of the heifers crossing on the Aiiravatl 
River by their horns, or ears, or dewlaps, or tails 4 , 
or spring up upon their backs, or touch with lustful 

1 See next clause. 

' AsawkamaniySyo 'ti bhfimiyaw supati/Ma" nikkaiS. asamhariya' 
(sic), (B. here). Compare P&timokkha, pp. 106, 113 (ed. Minayeff), 
and Childers's interpretation of those passages under sawkamati. 

s On va££a-p&duk&, see .ffullavaggaV, 35, a, at the end; and 
VIII, io, 3, at the beginning. On the other two, Aullavagga V, 
35; 1, 4, and VIII, 10, 3 ; and see also VIII, 9. The use of them 
was part of the sanitary arrangements enjoined upon the Order. 
A very ancient pair of stone va££a-p&duk£, forming part of a slab of 
stone, was discovered at Anuradhapura by Rhys Davids, and. is now 
in the Colombo Museum. As they were dug up in one of the 
palaces there, they were probably for the use of the king, or some 
high oflScial. These ruins are among the most ancient in Ceylon, 
and are certainly pre-Christian in date. 

* On kheppi, compare Sutta-vibhahga I, 6; and BShtlingk- 
Roth under .repa and parui-Wepa. 



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V,9, 3. RULES FOR FOOT-CLOTHING, SEATS, ETC. 25 

thoughts their privy parts : and they used to duck 
the young calves and so kill them. People were 
annoyed, murmured, and became angry, saying, 'How 
can the Sakyaputtiya Sama»as [act thus] ? it is like 
men still enjoying the pleasures of the world.' 

And Bhikkhus heard them murmuring in annoy- 
ance and indignation : and those Bhikkhus told this 
thing to the Blessed One. 

' Is it true ' (&c, see chap. 4. 2) ? 

' It is true, Lord.' 

He rebuked them, and having delivered a religious 
discourse, he addressed the Bhikkhus, and said : 

' Heifers are not to be caught hold of, O Bhikkhus, 
by their horns, or their ears, or their dewlaps, or 
their tails. You are not to get up on their backs. 
Whosoever gets up on their backs, is guilty of a 
dukka/a offence. And their privy parts, O Bhik- 
khus, are not to be touched with lustful thoughts. 
Whosoever does so, is guilty of a thullai^aya 
offence. And calves ought not to be killed. Who- 
soever kills them, let him be dealt with according 
to law V 

3. Now at that time the .Oabbaggiya Bhikkhus 
used to have themselves carried in vehicles to which 
cows were yoked with a bull between them, or bulls 
were yoked with a cow between them 2 . People were 
annoyed, murmured, and became angry, saying, 'That 
is as is done at the Feast of the Ganga and the Mahl 3 .' 

1 See the 6 1 st Pa&ttiya Rule. 

" Buddhaghosa explains this passage in a different way : Itthi- 
yutteni 'ti dhenu-yuttena. Purisantareni 'ti purisa-sarathinS. 
Purisa-yuttena 'ti go»a-yuttena. Itthantarena 'ti itthi-sara- 
thina. 

* Ganga-mahiyaya 'ti Ganga-mahf-kt/ik&ya (B.). It is pos- 
sible that Mahl may here mean the Earth ; but it is probably the 



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26 mahAvagga. V, io, t. 

They told this thing to the Blessed One. 

' Do not have yourselves carried in vehicles, O 
Bhikkhus. Whosoever does so," is guilty of a duk- 
ka/a offence.' 



10 \ 

i. Now at that time a certain Bhikkhu, as he 
was passing through the Kosala country to Savatthi, 
to visit the Blessed One, was taken ill on the way. 
And that Bhikkhu went aside out of the road, and 
sat down at the foot of a certain tree. 

When people saw him sitting there, they said : 
'Whither is your reverence going ?' 

' I am going, friends, to Savatthi to visit the 
Blessed One.' 

2. ' Come along, Sir ; let us go together.' 

' I cannot, friends. I am sick.' 

' Well then, Sir, get up into the cart' 

' Enough, friends ! The Blessed One has for- 
bidden the use of vehicles.' And fearing to offend, 
he refused to get up into the cart. 

And when that Bhikkhu had come to Savatthi, 
he told this thing to the Bhikkhus, and they told 
it to the Blessed One. 

' I allow you, O Bhikkhus, if you are sick, to use 
a cart.' 

Now the Bhikkhus thought : ' Should the carts 
be yoked with cows or bulls ?' 

well-known affluent of the Ganges, which is one of the MahS- 
nadis. Compare Aullavagga IX, i, 3, Spence Hardy's ' Manual,' 
p. 17, and the Dhaniya Sutta in the Sutta Nipata. 

1 Aullavagga X, 21 gives the rules for sisters of the Order, 
corresponding to the first two sections of this chapter. 



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V.io, 3. RULES FOR FOOT-CLOTHING, SEATS, ETC. 27 

They told this thing to the Blessed One. 

' I allow you, O Bhikkhus, to use a cart drawn by 
bullocks, or by hand 1 .' 

Now at that time a certain Bhikkhu was exceed- 
ingly distressed by the jolting of a cart. 

' I allow you, O Bhikkhus, the use of a litter or 
a sedan-chair.' 

3. Now at that time the .Oabbaggiya Bhikkhus 
were in the habit of using lofty and large things to 
recline upon, that is to say : large cushions *; divans; 
coverlets with long fleece; counterpanes of many 
colours, woollen coverlets 3 , white or marked with 
thick flowers ; mattresses ; cotton coverlets, dyed 
with figures of animals ; rugs with long hair on one or 
both sides ; carpets inwrought with gold, or with silk ; 
large woollen carpets such as the nautch girls dance 
upon 4 ; rich elephant housings, horse-rugs, or carriage 
rugs; panther or antelope skins; couches covered 
with canopies, or with crimson cushions at both 
ends s . 

1 On hatthava/Zakaw here Buddhaghosa merely says, ' itthiyo 
va" va//antu purist vi va/fentu (MS. va//ati) yeva.' The word recurs 
in .ffullavagga X, ai. 

* That Asandi is a cushion, and not a chair as Childers gives, 
is clear from (Ratals a 1, 108. 

8 Pa/ikd 'ti unnimayo setattharako (Sum. Vil. on Brahma^ala 
Sutta 9). 

* Kuttakan ti so/asannam nS/akitthinaw /Aatva naMana-yoggam 
uflflamayattharanam (Sum. Vil. on Brahma^ala Sutta 9). 

8 This list recurs in the Maxima Slla, § 5 (Rh D., 'Buddhist 
Suttas from the PSIi,' p. 193). Childers has given the commentary 
on most of these terms from the Sumahgala Vilasin!. Several of 
the items are also mentioned among the possessions of the Great 
King of Glory (Rh. D., loc. cit, p. 274, &c). In several cases the 
exact meaning is at present quite uncertain. The comment on the 
last two words runs as follows: Sauttanut/Madan ti saha uttara- 



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28 mahAvagga. V, 10, 4. 

When people, who went to visit the Viharas, 
saw these things, they were annoyed, murmured, 
and became angry, thinking, 'This is as if they 
were still enjoying the pleasures of the world.' 

They told this thing to the Blessed One. 

4. ' Lofty and large things to recline upon, such 
as large cushions (&c, as in § 3, down to :) cushions 
crimson at both ends, are not, O Bhikkhus, to be 
used. Whosoever uses them, is guilty of a duk- 
ka/a offence.' 

5. Now at that time the A^abbaggiya Bhikkhus, 
since the use of lofty and large things to recline upon 
had been forbidden by the Blessed One, used to use 
fine skins, such as lion, tiger, and panther skins. 
These skins were cut to fit the couches, and to fit 
the chairs; and were spread inside or outside the 
couches or the chairs. 

When people, who went to visit the Viharas, saw 
these things, they were annoyed, murmured, and be- 
came angry, thinking, ' This is as if they were still 
enjoying the pleasures of the world.' 

They told this thing to the Blessed One. 

6. ' Fine skins, such as lion, tiger, and panther skins, 
are not, O Bhikkhus, to be used. Whosoever does 
so, is guilty of a dukka/a offence.' 

7. Now at that time the .Af^abbaggiya Bhikkhus, 
since fine skins had been forbidden by the Blessed 



£A4adena upari-bandhena ratta-vitanena saddhin ti attho. Seta- 
vitanam pi he//Aa akappiya-pa££atthara*e sati na va//ati, asati pana 
va/Zati. Ubhatolohitakflpadhanaw sisftpadh&nan ka. pad&padhanan 
ka, man£assa ubhatolohitakflpadhanaw evaw (read eva ?) na kappati. 
Yam pana ekam eva upadhlnam ubhosu passesu rattan va hoti 
paduma-va»»a«8 va kitram va saie pamawa-yuttaw va//ati, maha- 
upadhanaw pana pa/ikkhittam. 



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V, io, 9- RULES FOR FOOT-CLOTHING, SEATS, ETC. 29 

One, began to use the skins of oxen. These skins 
were cut to fit the couches, or the chairs ; and were 
spread inside or outside the couches, or the chairs. 

Now a certain Bhikkhu of bad character was a 
friend of the family of a certain lay-disciple of a 
bad character. And that bad Bhikkhu, early one 
morning, dressed himself, and with his robe on and 
his bowl in his hand, went to the dwelling-place of 
that bad disciple, and sat down on a seat made ready 
for him. And the bad disciple went up to the place 
where the bad Bhikkhu was, and saluted him, and 
took his seat beside him. 

8. Now at that time that bad disciple had a 
young bull beautiful to behold, quiet, and varied 
in colour like a panther's cub. And the bad Bhikkhu 
gaze4 with longing at the bull. And that bad 
disciple said to that bad Bhikkhu : ' Why does your 
reverence gaze so with longing at that bull ?' 

' My friend,' said he, ' I want that bull's skin.' 
Then that bad disciple slew that bull, and skinned 
it, and gave it to that bad Bhikkhu. And that bad 
Bhikkhu, hiding that skin under his robe, went away. 

9. Now the cow, greedy for her calf, followed that 
bad Bhikkhu, keeping behind him. The Bhikkhus 
said : 

' How is it, friend, that this cow keeps following 
so behind you ?' 

' I don't know, friends, why it should keep follow- 
ing me.' 

But that bad Bhikkhu's robe was soiled with 
blood ; and the Bhikkhus asked him, 

' How has this robe of yours got marked with 
blood?' 

Then he told them the whole matter. 



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30 mahAvagga. V, io, 9. 

_^ ___ * 

' How is that, Sir ? You have been causing 
another to deprive a living thing of life!' 

' That is so, friends.' 

The modest among the Bhikkhus were annoyed, 
murmured, and became angry, saying, ' How can 
this Bhikkhu induce a man to deprive a living thing 
of life ? Has not the taking of life been censured, 
and the abstinence therefrom been praised in many 
a discourse by the Blessed One ?' 

And the Bhikkhus told this thing to the Blessed 
One. 

Then the Blessed One held because of this, and 
on that occasion, an assembly of the community of 
Bhikkhus, and asked that wicked Bhikkhu, 

' Is it true, as they say, that you, O Bhikkhu, 
have been inducing another to deprive a living 
thing of life ?' 

' It is true, Lord.' 

' But how can you be so foolish as to do so ? 
Have I not censured in many a discourse the taking 
of life, O foolish one, and praised the abstinence 
therefrom ? Such conduct, thou foolish one, will not 
conduce to the conversion of the unconverted !' 

And having thus rebuked him, and delivered a reli- 
gious discourse, he addressed the Bhikkhus, and said : 

' Bhikkhus ! No one shall cause a living thing to 
be deprived of life. Whosoever does so shall be 
dealt with according to the Laws 1 . Ox-skins are 
not to be worn, O Bhikkhus. Whosoever does so, 
is guilty of a dukka/a offence. And neither, O 
Bhikkhus, is any skin to be made use of at all. 
Whosoever does so, is guilty of a dukka/a offence.' 

1 The Laws (Dhammas) referred to are the first ParSgika, the 
nth Pttfittiya, and the 61st and 62nd Palittiyas. 



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V, 12. RULES FOR FOOT-CLOTHING, SEATS, ETC. 3 1 



11. 

Now at that time men had couches and chairs 
covered or bound with skins. The Bhikkhus, fearing 
to offend, would not sit down upon them. 

They told this thing to the Blessed One. 

' I allow you, O Bhikkhus, to sit down on seats 
arranged by laymen, but not to lie down upon them.' 

Now at that time the Viharas were bound together 
by thongs made of skin l . The Bhikkhus fearing to 
offend, would not sit down upon them. 

They told this thing to the Blessed One. 

' I allow you, O Bhikkhus, to sit down upon (skins 
when they are) only used for binding thingsjogeiher.' 

* <^ 




12. 

Now at that time the .AT^abbaggiya Bhikkhus 
used to go into the villages with their shoes on. 
The people were annoyed, murmured, and became 
angry, saying, ' That is how those behave who are 
still enjoying the pleasures of the world ! ' 

They told this thing to the Blessed One. 

' You are not to go into the villages, O Bhikkhus, 
with your shoes on. Whosoever does so, is guilty 
of a dukka/a offence.' 

Now at that time a certain Bhikkhu was sick, and 
unable to go into the village without shoes on. 

They told this thing to the Blessed One. 

' I allow a sick Bhikkhu, O Bhikkhus, to go into 
the village with his shoes on.' 

1 Ogumphiyanthi bhitti-da/a/akidisu ve/£etv£ bandhanti (B.). 

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32 MAHAVAGGA. V, 13, 1. 



18*. 

1. Now at that time the venerable Maha Ka£- 
£4yana was staying in Avanti on the hill called the 
Precipice, near Kuraraghara *. And at that time 
the lay-disciple named So«a Ku/ika««a 8 was the 
personal attendant upon the venerable Maha Ka£- 
iayana. 

And the disciple Sona. Ku/ika«»a went to the 
place where the venerable Maha Ka&£ayana was, 
and saluted him, and took his seat beside him. And 
when he was thus seated, he said to the venerable 
Maha Kai^ayana : 

' As I understand the doctrine laid down by the 
venerable Maha Ka&Sayana, it is difficult for the 
man who dwells at home to live the higher life in 
all its fulness, in all its purity, in all its bright per- 
fection. I wish therefore to cut off my hair and 
beard, to clothe myself in the orange-coloured robes, 
and to go forth from the household life into the 
houseless state 4 . May the venerable Maha Kai- 
^iyana receive me into the Order of those who 
have renounced the world!' 

2. ' Hard is it, So»a, your life long to live the 

1 Sections 1-6 of this chapter were published and translated by 
Alwis in his ' Kakkiy ana's Pali Grammar,' pp. 92 and following. 

1 Buddhaghosa spells this name Kuduraghara, and says it 
was there that KalMyana had been accustomed to go for alms, 
and that he dwelt on the precipice itself. 

* Buddhaghosa has a curious explanation of this name, Ko/i- 
agghanakam pana kawta-pilandhanakam dhareti, tasma Ku4ka»«o 
'ti vui^ati. This is evidently merely drawn from the word itself, 
which may just as well have meant ' with pointed ears.' 

4 This is a common phrase. Compare Tevjggu Sutta (Rh. D., 
« Buddhist Suttas from the Pali,' pp. 187, 188). 



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V, 13,3- RULES FOR FOOT-CLOTHING, SEATS, ETC. 33 

higher life using only one bed, and with but one 
meal a day. Do you, therefore, So»a, remain in 
the state of a householder, and practise only for a 
time the higher life, the precepts of the Buddhas, 
using only one bed, and with but one meal a day.' 

Then the desire for renunciation 1 which had arisen 
in the disciple So»a Ku/ika#«a abated in him. 

A second time the disciple So»a Ku/ika««a [made 
the same request, and received the same reply with 
the same result]. 

And a third time So»a Ku/ika»»a made the same 
request. Then the venerable Maha Ka/fe£ayana con- 
ferred the pabba^a (ordination) on the disciple 
So«a Ku/ika»»a. 

Now at that time in the Southern country and 
in Avanti there were but few Bhikkhus. And it 
was only after the lapse of three years that the 
venerable Maha Ka^fcayana was able, with difficulty, 
and with trouble, to get together a meeting of the 
Order in which ten Bhikkhus were present 2 . And 
then he admitted the venerable So»a into the higher 
rank of the Order. 

3. Now when the venerable So«a had passed the 
rainy season there sprang up in his mind, when he 
was meditating alone, this thought : 

' I have heard indeed that the Blessed One is 
such and such a one. But I have not as yet seen 
him face to face. I should like to go and visit the 
Blessed One, the Arahat Buddha, if my superior 
would allow me.' 

And in the evening the venerable So»a, leaving 
his solitude, went to the place where the venerable 

1 Compare gamikabhisamkhara, MahavaggaVI, 31, 2. 
* On the necessity of this, see Mahivagga IX, 4, 1. 

C'7] D 



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34 mahAvaoga. v, 13, 4. 

Maha Ka££4yana was, and saluted him, and took 
his seat beside him. And when he was thus seated, 
he said to the venerable Maha KafeSayana : 

4. ' When I was meditating alone, venerable Sir, 
the following thought occurred to my mind, " I have 
heard (&c, as above)." Now I would go and visit 
the Blessed One, the Arahat Buddha, if you, as my 
superior, allow it.' 

' That is good, that is good, So»a ! Go then, 
So«a, to visit the Blessed One, the Arahat Buddha. 
[5.] You shall see, Sowa, how the Blessed One arouses 
faith, is worthy of faith, calm in his senses, calm 
in his mind, gifted with the highest self-control and 
quietude, an elephant among men, subdued, guarded, 
with his senses in subjection to himself. Do you 
therefore, So»a, bow down in my name at the feet 
of the Blessed One, and say, " Lord ! my superior, 
the venerable Maha Ka&£ayana, bows down in saluta- 
tion at the feet of the Blessed One !" and add, "In 
the Southern country and in Avanti there are, Lord, 
but few Bhikkhus. And it was only after the lapse 
of three years that with difficulty and with trouble 
an assembly of the Order was got together, in which 
ten members were present, and I could be received 
into the higher rank of the Order. May the Blessed 
One be pleased, therefore, to allow the higher ordina- 
tion in the Southern country and in Avanti before a 
meeting of a lesser number. [6.] In the Southern 
country and in Avanti, Lord, the soil is black on the 
surface ', rough, and trampled by the feet of cattle *. 

1 Kawhuttara 1 'ti ka»ha-mattik-uttara' upari-vaddhili kanha-mat- 
tik& (B.). Alwis translates, 'overrun with thorns.' 

" Gokaw/aka-hatS. 'ti gunnam khurehi akkanta-bhumito samu/Mehi 
go-ka«/akehi upahata. Te kira goka»/ake ekapa/alika" upahana" 



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V, 13, 7- RULES FOR FOOT-CLOTHING, SEATS, ETC. 35 

May the Blessed One be pleased, therefore, to allow 
the use, in the Southern country and in Avanti, of 
shoes with thick linings. In the Southern country 
and in Avanti, Lord, men attach great importance 
to bathing, and are pure by use of water. May the 
Blessed One be pleased to allow, in the Southern 
country and in Avanti, the constant use of the bath 1 . 
In the Southern country and in Avanti, Lord, skins, 
such as sheep-skins, goat-skins, and deer-skins, are 
used as coverlets. Just as in the Middle country 2 
the eragu, moragu, magg^aru, and ^antu grasses 3 
are used for coverlets, so are sheep-skins, goat-skins, 
and deer-skins in the Southern country and in Avanti. 
May the Blessed One be pleased to allow the use 
of such coverlets there. [7.] At present, Lord, people 
are in the habit of giving a set of robes to Bhikkhus, 
who have left the district, saying, ' We give this 
set of robes to (a Bhikkhu) of such and such a name.' 
When they return, the Bhikkhus tell them, ' A set 
of robes has been given to you by a person of such 
and such a name.' But they, fearing to offend, do 
not accept it, saying, ' Let us not be guilty of a 
Nissaggiya.' May the Blessed One be pleased to 
make a detailed statement in the matter of robes." ' 

rakkhitum na sakkonti, evaw khara honti (B.). Alwis takes goka»- 
/aka as a plant (Ruellia Longifolia). 

1 Compare the 57th Pi/Wttiya. 

* See below, §12; and compare Rh. D., ' Buddhist Birth Stories,' 
p. 61. 

" Im& fatasso pi ti«a-g£tiyo. Etehi kata-sa/ake £a ta//ik&yo ka. 
karonti. Ettha eragu 'ti ekaraka-twaw, taw o/drikaw. Moragu- 
tuxawz tamba-sisam sukhumaw mudukam sukha-samphassaw ; tena 
kali ta/Zika nipa^gitva vu/Mitamatte pana uddhumata hutvi ti/Mati. 
Ma^aruni (sic, and so Alwis) kata-saVake pi karonti. Gantussa 
mam-sadiso va««o hoti. TaMka is a mat; see Gataka I, 141. 
Compare Sanskrit Eraka, and Mayuraka. 

D 2 



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36 MAHAVAGGA. V, 13, 8. 

' Even so, Lord,' said the venerable So«a in assent 
to the venerable Maha Kaiiayana, and, rising from 
his seat, he departed thence, keeping his right side 
towards him. And taking up his bed, he went on 
with his robe on, and his bowl in his hand to 
S&vatthi. 

8. And wandering from place to place he arrived 
at the place where the Blessed One was, at Savatthi 
in the CPetavana, Anatha-pi#flfika's park. And when 
he had come there he saluted the Blessed One, and 
took his seat beside him. 

Then the Blessed One said to the venerable 
Ananda : ' Make ready a sleeping-place, Ananda, for 
this Bhikkhu who has just arrived.' And the vener- 
able Ananda thought : 

' Inasmuch as the Blessed One commands me to 
make ready a sleeping-place for the Bhikkhu who 
has just arrived, the Blessed One evidently desires 
to dwell in the same Vihara with that Bhikkhu, he 
desires to dwell in the same Vihara with the venerable 
So»a.' And he made ready a sleeping-place for the 
venerable So«a at the place where the Blessed One 
was staying. 

9. Then the Blessed One, after spending the 
greater part of the night in the open air, entered 
the Vihara. And also the venerable So«a, having 
spent the greater part of the night in the open air, 
entered the Vihara. And the Blessed One rose up, 
early in the morning, towards dawn, and requested 
the venerable So«a, saying, 

' May the Dhamma so become clear to you that 
you may speak V 

1 Pa/ibhatu tam bhikkhu dhamrao bhasitww. Compare Bud- 
dhaghosa's commentary on the similar idiom used in the Maha- 



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V, 13, 10. RULES FOR FOOT-CLOTHING, SEATS, ETC. tf 

' Even so, Lord !' said the venerable So»a in assent 
to the Blessed One ; and he intoned all the verses 
in the Book of the Eights (A/Maka-vaggik&ni '). 

And the Blessed One, at the conclusion of the 
venerable So#a's recitation, expressed his pleasure, 
saying, 

' Excellent, most excellent, O Bhikkhu ! Well have 
the Eights been grasped by thee, well thought over, 
well learnt by heart : and with a fine voice art thou 
gifted, distinct, pleasant 2 , able to make things under- 
stood. How many years is it since thou hast been 
ordained ?' 

' One year, my Lord !' 

10. ' But why have you postponed it so long ?' 

'Tis long, Lord, since I saw into the danger of 
the passions, but life in a household is crowded with 
business and with cares.' 

And the Blessed One, when he heard that matter, 
gave utterance at that time to the expression of 
emotion : 

' When he has seen the danger of the world, when 
he has understood the Truth, when he has become 
free from Upadhi 3 , 



parinibbana Sutta II, 31 as given by Rh. D. (' Buddhist Suttas from 
the Pali,' p. 36). 

1 A//Aaka-vagga is the name of the fourth book in the Sutta 
Nipata. See Professor Fausboll's translation, p. viii. It may also 
be the name of divisions of other books, but probably that portion 
of the Sutta Nipdta is here referred to. 

1 On Ane/agal&ya compare ne/a viii. in § 6 of the 
.ffula-sila. 

* Ariyo is the man who has entered the Path, Su£i is locative. 
Nir upadhi, he in whom there remains no longer the cause of the 
renewal of existence as a separate individual (the cause referred to 
being thirst or excitement and craving, Tawhd, Up&dana). 



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38 mahAvagga. v, 13, ir. 

' The pilgrim finds in sin no pleasure, his delight 
is in the word, the pure.' 

1 1. Then thought the venerable So»a : ' The 
Blessed One is pleased with me. This then is 
the time which my superior spoke of.' And rising 
from his seat, and arranging his robe on one shoulder, 
he bowed down with his head at the feet of the 
Blessed One, and said : 

' Lord ! my superior Maha Ka&fcayana bows down 
in salutation at the feet of the Blessed One. In the 
Southern country and in Avanti there are (&c, as 
in §§ 4-7, down to the end of the message).' 

Then the Blessed One on that occasion and in 
that connection, having delivered a religious dis- 
course, addressed the Bhikkhus and said : 

'The Southern country and Avanti has but few 
Bhikkhus. I allow the upasampada (ordination) 
in border countries to be held in a meeting of only 
four Bhikkhus, beside the chairman, who must be a 
Vinaya-dhara.' 

12. 'In this passage the following are the border 
countries referred to 1 . To the East is the town 
Kafangala, and beyond it Mahasila. Beyond that 
is border country; this side of it is the Middle 
country. To the South-east is the river Salalavatt. 
Beyond that is border country ; this side of it is 
the Middle country. To the South is the town 
Setaka«»ika. Beyond that is border country; this 
side of it is the Middle country. To the West is 
the Brahman district of Thuna. Beyond that is 

1 Compare Cunningham, ' Ancient Geography of India,' I, 440 ; 
Childers, Khuddaka Pa//4a, p. 20 ; Alwis, ' Introduction to Pali 
Grammar,' XXIX; Lassen, Indische Alterthumskunde, I, 119 
(2nd ed.); Rhys Davids, ' Buddhist Birth Stories,' p. 61. 



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V, 13. 13- RULES FOR FOOT-CLOTHING, SEATS, ETC. 39 

border country ; this side of it is the Middle country. 
To the North is the mountain range called Usira- 
dha^a. Beyond that is border country ; this side of 
it is the Middle country. In such border countries, 
I allow, O Bhikkhus, the upasampadi (ordina- 
tion) to be held in a meeting of only four Bhikkhus, 
beside the chairman, who must be a Vinaya- 
dhara. 

13. 'In the Southern country and in Avanti, O 
Bhikkhus, the soil is black on the surface and rough, 
and trampled by the feet of cattle. I allow the use, 
in all the border countries, O Bhikkhus, of shoes 
with thick linings. 

' In the Southern country and in Avanti, O Bhik- 
khus, men attach great importance to bathing, and 
are pure by use of water. I allow the constant 
use of the bath, O Bhikkhus, in all the border 
countries. 

' In the Southern country and in Avanti, O Bhik- 
khus, skins, such as sheep-skins, goat-skins, and 
deer-skins, are used as coverlets. Just as in the 
Middle country, Bhikkhus, the eragu, moragu, maf- 
^aru, and ^antu grasses are used for coverlets, so 
in the Southern country and in Avanti are used 
skins, such as sheep-skins, goat-skins, and deer-skins. 
I allow, O Bhikkhus, the use of skins, such as sheep- 
skins, goat-skins, and deer-skins, as coverlets, in all 
the border countries. 

' There also, O Bhikkhus, people are in the habit 
of giving a set of robes to Bhikkhus who have left 
the district, saying, "We give this set of robes to 
(a Bhikkhu) with such and such a name." I allow 
you, O Bhikkhus, to accept such robes. The set 
of robes does not become subject to the ten-days' 



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40 MAHAVAGGA. V, 13, 13. 

rule, before it reaches the hand (of the person for 
whom it was intended) V 



1 On this last clause compare the first Nissaggiya, and our note 
there. The clause here means that the ten days of the rule in the 
Patimokkha are not to begin to run, under the circumstances 
specified, till the set of robes has actually reached the hand of the 
Bhikkhu for whom they were intended. 

Buddhaghosa says here : Yava aharitva" va na dinnam tumh&kaw 
bhante livaram uppannan ti pahinitva v& naro&taw, tava gananam 
na upeti, anadhi//Aita« na va//ati. Yada pana dnetva v4 dinnam 
hoti, uppannan ti va sutaw, tato pa/Maya dasaham eva pariharaw 
labhati. 



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VI, I, 2. ON MEDICAMENTS. 4 1 



SIXTH KHANDHAKA. 

(on medicaments.) 

1. 

1. At that time the Blessed One dwelt at Savatthi, 
in the (^etavana, the park of Anatha-pi#rfika. And 
at that time Bhikkhus, attacked by the sickness of the 
hot season ', threw up the rice-milk they had drunk, 
and the food they had eaten. And thereby they 
became lean, rough, ill-favoured, yellow and ever 
yellower, and the veins stood out on their limbs 2 . 

And the Blessed One saw those Bhikkhus thus 
lean, rough, ill-favoured, yellow and ever yellower, 
and with the veins standing out on their limbs. 
And on seeing it, he asked the venerable Ananda : 
'How is it, Ananda, that the Bhikkhus are become 
now so lean, rough, &c.?' 

'At this time, Lord, the Bhikkhus are attacked 
with the disease of the hot season ; and they throw 
up the rice-milk they have drunk, and the food 
they have eaten. Thence is it that they are become 
lean, rough, ill-favoured, yellow and ever yellower, 
and that the veins stand out on their limbs.' 

2. Then there occurred to the mind of the 

1 Saradikena 4b£dhen& 'ti sarada-kale uppannena pittabadhena. 
Tasmiw hi kale vassodakena pi tementi, kaddamam pi maddanti, 
antarantara atapo pi kharo hoti. Tena tesa/n pittajw ko/Mabbhan- 
tara-gataw hoti (B.). 

1 Read in the text Dhamani-santata-gatti ; and compare Lalita 
Vistara, p. 226, and Professor Weber's ' Bhagavatl,' II, 289. 



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42 MAHAVAGGA. VI, 1, 3. 

Blessed One, when meditating alone, this considera- 
tion : ' At this time the Bhikkhus (&c, down to :) 
on their limbs. What medicaments shall I now 
prescribe for the Bhikkhus, as may be authorised 
as common medicine, and may be diffused through 
the body, though it be not regarded as ordinary 
(material) food ?' And the Blessed One thought : 
' These five medicaments — that is to say, ghee, 
butter, oil, honey, molasses — are such medicaments. 
Let me then prescribe them as medicines which the 
Bhikkhus may accept at the right time, and use 
at the right time.' 

3. And in the evening, when the Blessed One 
had arisen from his meditation, having delivered 
a religious discourse, he addressed the Bhikkhus 
in that connection, saying, 

' When I was meditating alone, O Bhikkhus, then 
occurred to my mind this consideration : " At this 
time (&c, as in § 2, down to :) material food." Then 
I thought : " These five (&c, as in § 2, down to :) at 
the right time." I prescribe, O Bhikkhus, these five 
things as medicine to be accepted at the right time, 
and to be used at the right time.' 

4. Now at that time the Bhikkhus accepted those 
five things at the right time, and used them at 
the right time. And foods which though rough, 
were ordinary foods, they could not digest 1 , much 
less greasy foods 2 . Then they — attacked both by 
the hot -season disease, and by this want of appe- 
tite 3 — became by both at once still more lean, rough, 

1 Na MAidenti na ^iranti, na vatarogaw pa/ipassambhetwn 
sakkonti (B.). 

" Senesikani siniddhani (8.). Compare Sanskrit snaihika. 
' BhattayfcMandakena 'ti bhattam aro£akena (B.). 



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VI, 2, J. ON MEDICAMENTS. 43 

ill-favoured, yellow and ever yellower, and with the 
veins standing out on their limbs. 

And the Blessed One saw the Bhikkhus thus 
still more lean, &c. And when he saw it, he asked 
the venerable Ananda : ' How is it, Ananda, that the 
Bhikkhus are become now still more lean, &c.?' 

5. ' At present, Lord, these Bhikkhus, who use 
the five medicaments only at the right time, cannot 
digest foods which, though ordinary, are rough, much 
less greasy foods. Then they, attacked (&c, as in 
§ 4, down to :) standing out on their limbs.' 

Then the Blessed One on that occasion, having 
delivered a religious discourse, addressed the Bhik- 
khus, and said : ' I permit you, O Bhikkhus, not only 
to receive those five medicaments, but to use them 
both at the right time, and at other times.' 



i. Now at that time the Bhikkhus who were sick 
had need of fatty substances as medicine. 

They told this thing to the Blessed One. 

' I allow you, O Bhikkhus, the use of the fat of 
bears, of fish, of alligators, of swine, and of asses, 
if received at the right time, cooked at the right 
time, mixed at the right time, to be partaken of 
with oil.' 

2. 'If the fat be received, O Bhikkhus, at the 
wrong time, cooked at the wrong time, and mixed 
at the wrong time, and then taken, the Bhikkhu 
is guilty of three dukka/a offences.' 

' If it be received, O Bhikkhus, at the right time, 
cooked at the wrong time, and mixed at the wrong 



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44 MAHAVAGGA. VI, 3,1. 

time, and then taken, the Bhikkhu is guilty of two 
dukka/a offences.' 

' If it be received, O Bhikkhus, at the right time, 
cooked at the right time, and mixed at the wrong 
time, and then taken, the Bhikkhu is guilty of a 
dukka/a offence.' 

' If it be received, O Bhikkhus, at the right time, 
cooked at the right time, and mixed at the right 
time, and then taken, the Bhikkhu is not guilty.' 



1. Now at that time the Bhikkhus who were sick 
had need of roots for medicine. 

They told this thing to the Blessed One. 

' I allow you, O Bhikkhus, the use of roots as 
medicine — turmeric, ginger, orris root, white orris 
root, ativisa, black hellebore, uslra root, bhadda- 
muttaka, and whatsoever other roots are used for 
medicine, and impart an appetising flavour to foods, 
either hard or soft, which the sick Bhikkhus could 
not otherwise eat 1 . They may be received, and 
stored up your life long ; and, if there be necessity, 
they may be eaten. If eaten without necessity, (the 
Bhikkhu who uses them) is guilty of a dukka/a 
offence.' 

2. Now at that time the Bhikkhus who were sick 
had need for medicine of different sorts of flour 
made from roots. 

They told this thing to the Blessed One. 

1 Literally, 'which impart the quality of eatableness to not 
eatable food, either hard or soft.' 



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VI, 5, 1. ON MEDICAMENTS. 45 

' I allow you, O Bhikkhus, the use of a grind- 
stone, and of another stone to grind upon V 




4. 

i. Now at that time the Bhikkhus who were sick 
had need of astringent decoctions as medicine. 

They told this thing to the Blessed One. 

' I allow you, O Bhikkhus, the use of astringent 
decoctions as medicine — the nimba*. the kufo^a 3 , 
the pakkava 4 , the nattamala 6 , and whatsoever other 
astringent roots are used for medicine, which impart 
an appetising flavour to foods, either hard or soft, 
which the sick Bhikkhus could not otherwise eat. 
They may be received, and stored up your life 
long ; and, if there be necessity, they may be eaten. 
If eaten without necessity, (the Bhikkhu who uses 
them) is guilty of a dukka/a offence.' 



5. 
i. Now at that time the Bhikkhus who were sick 
had need of leaves as medicine. 

They told this thing to the Blessed One. 

' I allow you, O Bhikkhus, the use of leaves as 

1 Compare the Sanskrit root puth. Buddhaghosa says : Pisana- 
sila k% pisana-poto Aa. Pestle and mortar is in Pali udukkhalam 
musalan ka. : see below, VI, 9, 2 . 

1 Azadirachta Indica. Compare Mahavagga III, 1 2, 5. 

* Wrightia anti-dysenterica. Wise, p. 142, gives the botanical 
name as Echites anti-dysenterica, and says it is an emetic. 

* A kind of creeper, says Buddhaghosa. 

* Pongania Glabra (the same as Kara%a, says Buddhaghosa). 



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46 mahAvagga. VI, 6, 1. 

medicine — the leaves of the nimba \ of the ku/a^a \ 
of the pa/ola 2 , of the tulasi s , of the kappasika 4 , and 
whatsoever other leaves are used for medicine, 
and impart an appetising flavour to foods, either 
hard or soft, which the sick Bhikkhus could not 
otherwise eat. They may be received, and stored 
up (&c, as in last chapter, down to :) guilty of a 
dukka/a offence.' 



6. 

i. Now at that time the Bhikkhus who were sick 
had need of fruits as medicine. 

They told this thing to the Blessed One. 

' I allow you, O Bhikkhus, the use of fruits as 
medicine — the vi/anga 6 , the pippala 6 , and marina 
peppers ; the harltaka 7 , and vibhltaka 8 , and amalaka' 
myrobalans ; the go/^a fruit 10 ; and whatsoever other 
fruits are used for medicine, and impart an appetis- 
ing flavour to foods, either hard or soft, which the 



1 See the last chapter for these plants. 

* A species of cucumber, Trichosanthes Dioeca. 

* That is, basil ; but the reading is conjectural only. The text 
has sulasi. 

* This is ordinary cotton. ' Erycibe Paniculata. 

* This is not the Ficus Religiosa, but simply pepper. Childers, 
following Subhuti's edition of the Abhidh&nappadtpikS, spells both 
this word and the allied form Pippali with pph instead of pp. So 
also Fausball at Gataka, vol. i, p. 29, verse 218. We prefer the 
spelling with pp in accordance with the Sanskrit. 

7 Yellow myrobalan. * Beleric myrobalan. 

* Emblic myrobalan. 

10 We cannot suggest any explanation of this word. Buddha- 
ghosa has no comment on any of these medicinal fruits or seeds. 



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VI, 8, 1. ON MEDICAMENTS. 47 

sick Bhikkhus could not otherwise eat. They may 
be received and stored up (&c, as in chap. 4, down 
to :) guilty of a dukka/a offence.' 



1. Now at that time the Bhikkhus who were sick 
had need of various kinds of gum as medicine. 

They told this thing to the Blessed One. 

4 1 allow you, O Bhikkhus, the use of gums as 
medicine — hingu ', hihgu lac, sipa/ika 2 , taka 3 , taka- 
patti 3 , taka-pa«»i 3 , sa^ulasa 4 , and whatsoever other 
gums are used for medicine, and impart (&c, as in 
chap. 4, down to :) is guilty of a dukka/a offence.' 



8. 

1. Now at that time the Bhikkhus who were sick 
had need of various kinds of salt 6 as medicine. 
They told this thing to the Blessed One. 
' I allow you, O Bhikkhus, the use of salts as 

1 Ferula assa foetida. Bohtlingk-Roth (sub voce) say it comes 
from Persia. It is much used in Hindu medicine. See Wise, 
' Hindu System of Medicine,' pp. 152-154. 

* The correct spelling is probably siva/ika. B6htlingk-Roth 
under Siva/ika and Hingu-riva/ika say it is the same as Va»wa- 
pattri. 

* Buddhaghosa merely says these are kinds of lac. According 
to Wise, p. 152, laksha is used as errhine. 

* Resin. 

* On these salts compare Abhidhinappadipika, verse 461; 
Suxruta, vol. i, pp. 226, 227, of the edition by Madhusudana Gupta; 
Wise, 'Hindu Medicine,' p. 117. 



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48 MAHAVAGGA. VI, 9, 1. 

medicine — sea-salt \ black salt 2 , rock salt 8 , kitchen 
salt *, red salt 8 , and whatsoever other salts are used 
in medicine (&c, as in chap. 4, down to :) is guilty of 
a dukka/a offence.' 



9 8 . 

1. Now at that time the venerable Bela/Masfsa, 
the superior of the venerable Ananda, had a disease 
of thick scabs; and by reason of the discharge 
thereof his robes stuck to his body. The Bhikkhus 
moistened those robes with water, and loosened 
them (from his body). 

The Blessed One as he was wandering in search 
of a lodging-place for the night saw them [doing so], 
and going up to the place where they were, he 
asked them : 

'What is the matter, O Bhikkhus, with this 
Bhikkhu ?' 

' The venerable one has the disease of thick 
scabs ; and by reason of the discharge thereof his 
robes stick to his body. So we moisten those robes 
with water, and loosen them (from his body).' 



1 S&nuddild 'ti samudda-tfre valukJt viya ti/Mati (B.). 

* Ki/a-lonan ti pakati-lowaw (B.). 

* Sindhavan ti seta-va««a» : pabbate u//<4ahati (B.). It was pro- 
bably called Sindh salt because it was found there, though, like 
Sindhava horses, it is always supposed to be white. 

4 Ubbhida' 'ti bhummito ahkuyam (sic) u//iahati (B.). 

* Bilan ti dabba-sambharehi saddhiw pa^itaw : taw ratta-va»»a»» 
(B.). It is Sanskrit vida., Hindustani bi/ laban, and the same as 
bilala in the Abhidhanappadfpika. 

* This introductory story recurs as the introduction to the rule 
laid down in VIII, 17. 



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VI, 10, 2. ON MEDICAMENTS. 49 

2. Then the Blessed One on that occasion, having 
delivered a religious discourse, addressed the Bhik- 
khus, and said : 

' I allow, O Bhikkhus, the use of chunam as a 
medicine by whomsoever has the itch, or boils, or 
a discharge, or scabs, or whose body is ill-smelling, 
and to those in health the use of dry dung 1 , and 
of clay, and of colouring matter 2 . I allow the use, 
O Bhikkhus, of a pestle and mortar 3 .' 



10. 

i . Now at that time the Bhikkhus who were sick 
had need of sifted * chunam as medicine. 

They told this thing to the Blessed One. 

' I allow, O Bhikkhus, the use of a chunam sieve.' 

They had need of the chunam very fine. 

' I allow, O Bhikkhus, the use of a cloth sieve.' 

2. Now at that time a certain Bhikkhu had a 
disease not human. Though his teacher and his 
superior nursed him, they were not able to make 
him well. He went to a place where swine were 
slaughtered, and ate the raw flesh, and drank the 
blood. Thereby his sickness abated. 

They told this thing to the Blessed One. 

' I allow, O Bhikkhus, in the case of a disease not 
human, the use of raw flesh and of blood.' 

1 .Oakanan ti gomayaw (B.). 

1 Ra^ana-pakkan (sic) ti ra^anakasa/ara. P4ka/ika-&i»»am pi 
ko/etva udakena temetva nhayitum va//ati, etam pi ra^ana-nipakka- 
sawkhepam (sic, read sa/wkham) eva g&MA&li (B„). Sa/am in this 
passage must be equal to srAam. On samkbam compare below, 
Mahavagga VI, 16, i. 

* Compare above, VI, 3, 2. 

4 ifaleti has often a more definite meaning than ' shake.' Com- 
pare Gataka I, 71. 

[17] E 



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50 MAHAVAGGA. VI, n, i. 



11. 

1. Now at that time a certain Bhikkhu had dis- 
ease of the eyes. They used to carry that Bhikkhu 
out to ease himself. The Blessed One as he was 
passing through the Bhikkhus' sleeping quarters 
saw them [doing so]. When he saw them, he went 
up to the place where they were, and asked those 
Bhikkhus : 

' What is the disease, O Bhikkhus, from which this 
Bhikkhu suffers ?' 

2. ' This venerable one, Lord, has disease of the 
eyes. Therefore do we carry him out to ease 
himself.' 

Then the Blessed One, on that account, having 
delivered a religious discourse, addressed the Bhik- 
khus, and said : 

' I allow, O Bhikkhus, the use of eye ointments ' ; 
to wit, black collyrium 2 , rasa ointment 3 , sota oint- 
ment 4 , geruka 6 , and kapalla 8 .' 

They had need of perfumes to grind up into 
ointments. 



1 An^ana, which is here a generic term, inclusive of all the fol- 
lowing ; sabba-samgaliika-valanam, says Buddhaghosa. 
1 Ka/an^anan ti eki an^ana-^ti (B.). 

* Rasan^anan ti nand-sambharehi kataw(B.). Bohtlingk-Roth 
say it is made with vitriol. 

* Sotan^anan ti nadisotadisu uppa^anakam a,nganam (B.). It 
is called in Sanskrit sroton^-ana, and was made with antimony. 

8 Geruka is the Sanskrit gairika, ochre; and the kind meant 
is yellow ochre. Geruko nama suva»«a-geruko, says Buddha- 
ghosa. Compare the Sanskrit K£n£ana-gairika and svarwa- 
gairika. 

* Kapallan ti dtpa-sikh&to gahita-masi, 'soot taken from the 
flame of a lamp' (B.). 



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VI, 13, 1. ON MEDICAMENTS. 5 1 

' I allow, O Bhikkhus, the use of sandal wood, 
tagara \ black anusari s , kaltya 8 , and bhadda- 
mut'taka V 



12. 

i. Now at that time the Bhikkhus used to put 
pulverised ointments into pots and saucers. They 
became sprinkled over with herb-powders and dust 

They told this thing to the Blessed One. 

' I allow, O Bhikkhus, the use of a box for oint- 
ment' 

Now at that time the A^bbaggiya Bhikkhus used 
to carry about various kinds of boxes for ointments 
— gold ones, and silver ones. People were annoyed, 
murmured, and became angry, saying, * Like those 
who still live in the world.' 

They told this thing to the Blessed One. 

'Various kinds of boxes for ointments, gold ones, 
and silver ones, are not, O Bhikkhus, to be used. 
Whosoever does so, is guilty of a dukka/a offence. 
I allow, O Bhikkhus, the use of such boxes made 
of bone, or ivory, or horn, or of the na/a reed, 
or of bambu, or of wood, or of lac, or of the shells of 
fruit, or of bronze, or of the centre of the chank- 
shell 8 .' 

1 Tagara as a fragrant flower is mentioned in verse 54 of the 
Dhammapada quoted in Milinda Panha, p. 333. 
1 A kind of dark fragrant sandal wood. 

* Read so in the text as corrected on p. 381. It is a kind of 
sandal wood. 

* A perfume made from the grass of the same name (mentioned 
above, VI, 3). 

8 Sankha-n&bhi, the meaning of the latter part of which com- 
pound is not quite clear. 

E 2 



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52 MAHAVAGGA. VI, 12, 2. 



2. Now at that time the boxes of ointment had 
no lid. (The ointment) was sprinkled over with 
herb-powders and dust. 

They told this thing to the Blessed One. 

' I allow, O Bhikkhus, the use of a lid.' 

The lids used to fall off. 

' I allow you, O Bhikkhus, to fasten the lid with 
thread, and to tie it on to the box.' 

The boxes used to fall. 

' I allow you, O Bhikkhus, to sew the boxes on 
with thread 1 .' 

3. Now at that time the Bhikkhus used to rub 
the ointment on with their fingers : and the eyes 
were hurt 

They told this thing to the Blessed One. 

' I allow, O Bhikkhus, the use of a stick or holder 
to put the ointment on with.' 

Now at that time the A^abbaggiya Bhikkhus 
used to keep various kinds of ointment-sticks — gold 
ones, and silver ones. People were annoyed, mur- 
mured, and became angry, saying, ' Like those who 
still live in the world.' 

They told this thing to the Blessed One. 

' Various kinds of ointment-holders, O Bhikkhus, 
are not to be used. Whosoever does so, is guilty 
of a dukka/a offence. I allow, O Bhikkhus, the 
use of ointment-holders of bone, or of ivory, or of 
horn, or of the na/a reed, or of bambu, or of wood, 
or of lac, or of fruit, or of bronze, or of the chank- 
shell.' 

1 Buddhaghosa has no comment on this. It may mean that the 
ointment boxes might be sewn either on to some place in the 
Vihara, or on to some part of the Bhikkhu's dress. The latter is 
more in accordance with § 4 below. 



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VI, 13,1. ON MEDICAMENTS. 53 

4. Now at that time the ointment-sticks used to 
fall on the ground and become rough. 

They told this thing to the Blessed One. 

' I allow, O Bhikkhus, the use of a case for the 
ointment-sticks V 

Now at that time the Bhikkhus used to carry the 
ointment-boxes and ointment-sticks about in their 
hands. 

They told this thing to the Blessed One. 

• I allow, O Bhikkhus, the use of a bag to put the 
ointment-box in.' 

They had no shoulder strap. 

' I allow, O Bhikkhus, the use of a shoulder strap 
(by which to carry the ointment-box), or of a thread 
(by which to sew or tie it on).' 



13. 

1. Now at that time the venerable Pilindavai^^a 
had head-ache 2 . 

' I allow, O Bhikkhus, the use of a little oil on the 
head.' 

(The disease) became no better 3 . 

' I allow, O Bhikkhus, the practice of taking up 
(medicine) through the nose V 

1 Salakodhaniyan ti yattha salakaw odahanti susiradantakam 
va thalikam va anu^anami 'ti attho (B.). 
1 Sisabhitapo, literally 'heat in the head.' 
* Compare Maha-parinibbana Sutta II, 31, and below, 13. 2 ; 

14-3- 

4 Natthu-kamma. In the commentary on the Dhammapada, 
pp. 83 and foil., there is an example of the way in which a physician 
administers medicinal oil in this manner to a sick Bhikkhu. 



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54 mahAvagga. vi, 13, 2. 

The nose ran. 

' I allow, O Bhikkhus, the use of a nose-spoon V 

Now at that time the .Oabbaggiya Bhikkhus 
had various kinds of nose-spoons — made of gold, 
and of silver. People were annoyed, murmured, and 
became angry, saying, ' Like those who still live in 
the world.' 

They told this thing to the Blessed One. 

'Various kinds of nose-spoons, O Bhikkhus, are 
not to be used. Whosoever does so, is guilty of 
a dukka/a offence. I allow, O Bhikkhus, the use 
of such nose-spoons made of bone (&c, as in chap. 
12. 1, down to :) or of the chank-shell.' 

2. The nose took up the medicament in unequal 
proportions. 

' I allow, O Bhikkhus, the use of a double nose- 
spoon V 

(The disease) became no better. 

' I allow you, O Bhikkhus, to sniff up the aroma.' 

They used to spread the drugs on a wick before 
they sniffed up the aroma 8 : and their throats got 
burnt. 

' I allow, O Bhikkhus, the use of a pipe to conduct 
the aroma.' 

Now at that time the A^bbaggiya Bhikkhus had 
various kinds of pipes (&c, as in the last clauses of 
§ 1, down to the end). 



1 Natthu-karanf, that is, an instrument to hold up the nose, 
so that the medicinal oil does not run out 

9 Yamaka-natthu-karaftf, that is, one that would go up both 
nostrils. The last sentence of § i would come in better after this 
clause. 

* They used to burn the drugs by smearing them on wicks, and 
then inhale the smoke through their nostrils. 



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VI, 14, 1. ON MEDICAMENTS. 55 

Now at that time the aroma-pipes came open : 
and worms got in. 

' I allow, O Bhikkhus, the use of a lid to the pipes.' 

Now at that time the Bhikkhus carried the pipes 
about in their hands. 

' I allow, O Bhikkhus, the use of a bag to carry 
the aroma-pipes in.' 

The aroma-pipes rubbed against one another. 

' I allow, O Bhikkhus, the use of a double bag.' 

They had no shoulder strap. 

' I allow, O Bhikkhus, the use of a shoulder strap 
(by which to carry the double bag), or of a thread 
(by which to sew it on).' 



14. 

1. Now at that time the venerable PilindavaiMa 
was troubled with wind in the stomach 1 . The 
physicians said he must drink oil. 

' I allow you, O Bhikkhus, a decoction of oil.' 

It was necessary to put strong drink into the 
decoction. 

' I allow you, O Bhikkhus, to put strong drink in 
decoctions of oil.' 

Now at that time the .AT^abbaggiya Bhikkhus 
used to put too much strong drink into their decoc- 
tions of medicinal oils : and they got drunk. 

' Oil should not be drunk, O Bhikkhus, when too 
much strong drink has been put into it. Whosoever 
does so, shall be dealt with according to law V 

' I allow you, O Bhikkhus, to drink such decoctions 

1 Compare chapter 17. a See the 51st PaAittiya. 

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56 mahAvagga. vi, 14, a. 

of oil with strong drink in them, as wherein neither 
the colour, nor the smell, nor the taste of the strong 
drink shall be sensible.' 

2. Now at that time the Bhikkhus had a quantity 
of decoction in which too much strong drink had 
been put. Then those Bhikkhus thought : ' What 
shall we do with this oil, which has too much strong 
drink in it?' 

' I allow, O Bhikkhus, to use it as an ointment.' 
Now at that time the venerable Pilindava^Ma 

had a quantity of oil-decoction ; but he had no vessel 

for it. 

' I allow you, O Bhikkhus, the use of three kinds 

of pots, bronze pots, wooden pots, pots made of the 

shells of fruits V 

3. Now at that time the venerable Pilindavaii^a 
had rheumatism. 

' I allow you, O Bhikkhus, to bring on sweating V 

(The disease) became no better. 

' I allow you, O Bhikkhus, to bring on sweating 
by the use of herbs which have that effect V 

(The disease) became no better. 

' I allow you, O Bhikkhus, the use of a great 
steam bath 4 .' 

(The disease) became no better. 

1 Compare VI, 12, 1. ! Perhaps fumigations. 

8 Sambh&ra-sedan ti nSnavidha-pawna-bhahga-sedaw (B.). 
Apparently a poultice or fomentation in which various kinds of 
leaves or twigs are used. 

* Mahasedan ti mahantaw sedam: porisa-ppamawam ava/am 
angaranam puretva, pamsu-vilikidihi pidahitvS, tattha nanavidhani 
vata-harana-pa»»ani santharitva tela-makkhitena gattena tattha ni- 
pa^gitva samparivattantena sariraw sedetu« anu^anSmiti attho (B.). 
A pit, six feet deep, is filled with charcoal, and covered with a coat- 
ing of earth or sand. The leaves good for rheumatism are spread 



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VI, 14. 4- ON MEDICAMENTS. 5 7 

' I allow you, O Bhikkhus, the use of hemp -water 
(bang) 1 .' 

(The disease) became no better. 

' I allow you, O Bhikkhus, the use of hot baths 
in water in which medicinal herbs have been 
steeped 2 .' 

4. Now at that time the venerable Pilindava^^a 
had intermittent ague. 

' I allow, O Bhikkhus, the letting of blood.' 

(The disease) became no better. 

' I allow you, O Bhikkhus, to make use of a horn 
to let blood*.' 

Now at that time the feet of the venerable Pilin- 
dava^Ma were blistered. 

' I allow, O Bhikkhus, the use of ointment for the 
feet' 

(The disease) became no better. 



over the sand The patient reposes on the leaves on the affected 
limb, which has been rubbed over with oil ; and turns over and 
over until his whole body has been well steamed. 

1 Bhahgodakan ti nand-pa»»a-bhahga-kudhita-udaka»j. Tehi 
pawiehi £a udakena ka sin&tva sedetabbo (B.). Bhahga may here 
mean 'broken bits,' namely, of the leaves, just as sSkha-bhahga 
at Gataka 1, 1 58 means 'twig.' Compare uttari-bhanga, Gitakz 
I, 197, 349; Dhammapada 171; Aullavagga VIII, 4, 4; sarira- 
bhahga, Mahi-parinibb&na Sutta VI, 59; and bhahga alone at 
Gataka I, 392; Mahavagga I, 25, 10; Rh. D., ' Buddhist Suttas 
from the Pali,' p. 241. For kudhita we should read kuthita. 

s Dakako/Makan ti udaka-ko/Mam ka/im va donim vft unho- 
dakassa puretva tattha tattha pavisitvi seda-kamma-karawaw anu- 
^an&miti attho (B.). Compare Dhammapada, p. 103. 

* Wise, p. 176, says, 'The local accumulation of bad blood may 
be removed by means of cupping, which is performed by a horn, 
cut smooth and even at the large extremity, and with a small open- 
ing at the narrow end.' Compare Surruta, Sutrasth£na, chap. 27, 
and .Sarirasthana, chap. 8 (at the end). 



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58 mahAvagga. vi, 14, 5. 

' I allow you, O Bhikkhus, to keep water ready 
for washing the feet (of travellers) 1 .' 

Now at that time a certain Bhikkhu had boils. 

' I allow, O Bhikkhus, the use of the lancet' 

Decoctions of astringent herbs were required. 

' I allow.O Bhikkhus, decoctionsof astringentrherbs 2 .' 

Sesamum salve was required. 

' I allow, O Bhikkhus, the use of sesamum salve *.' 

5. Compresses were required. 

' I allow, O Bhikkhus, the use of compresses *.' 

It was necessary to tie up the sore with cloth. 

' I allow, O Bhikkhus, the use of bandages for 
tieing up wounds/ 

The sore itched. 

' I allow, O Bhikkhus, the sprinkling of a sore 
with mustard-powder 6 .' 

The sore became moist 8 . 

' I allow you, O Bhikkhus, to fumigate (the sore).' 

Proud flesh formed on the wound T . 

' I allow you, O Bhikkhus, to cut off (proud flesh) 
with a lancet.' 

1 This would seem to be a preventive remedy. Water may be 
kept ready, so that the incoming Bhikkhus may use it, and their 
feet therefore may not become blistered. But perhaps pagga here 
means some curative application of water to the feet, such as cold 
water bandages, for example. Compresses (? poultices) are men- 
tioned below (§ 5) for boils. 

8 Compare chapter 4. 

* Buddhaghosa explains tila-kakka as ground sesamum seeds 
(pi/Mehi tilehi attho); but kalka is paste or salve. See Wise, p. 1 29. 

4 Kaba/ikan ti (MS. pakalikan) vana-mukhe sattu- pirn/am 
pakkhipituw (B.). Compare Bohtlingk-Roth, sub voce kavaliki. 

* Sasapa-pi//Aena, says Buddhaghosa. 

* Compare the quotations from Surruta in Bdhtlingk-Roth 
under klidyati. 

7 Vana- (MS. viddhaw) marasan ti adhika-mamsam : dm viya 
u//Aahati (B.). 



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VI, 14, 6. ON MEDICAMENTS. 59 

The wound would not close up. 

' I allow, O Bhikkhus, the use of oil for wounds.' 

The oil ran over. 

They told this thing to the Blessed One. 

' I allow, O Bhikkhus, the use of fine rags \ and 
of all kinds of ways of treating wounds.' 

6. Now at that time a certain Bhikkhu was bitten 
by a snake. 

They told this thing to the Blessed One. 

' I allow, O Bhikkhus, the four kinds of filth to 
be given — dung, urine, ashes, and clay.' 

Now the Bhikkhus thought: 'Are these things 
among those which may be taken even without 
being offered to us by others, or among things 
which cannot be taken unless they are offered ?' 

They told this thing to the Blessed One. 

' I allow these things, O Bhikkhus, to be accepted 
if any one be there to offer them 9 , and if not, then 
that you may take them yourselves and use them.' 

Now at that time a certain Bhikkhu had drunk 
poison. 

' I allow you, O Bhikkhus, to give (as an emetic) 
a decoction of dung.' 

Then the Bhikkhus thought : ' Is this among those 
things which may be taken even without being 
offered to us by others, or is it among things which 
cannot be taken unless they are offered ?' 

They told this thing to the Blessed One. 

' I rule, O Bhikkhus, that there is a proper taking 
when a man takes what he himself has made ; and 



1 Vikisikan ti tcla-ruddhana-pilotikam (B.). See VIII, 2. 
* A kappiya-karaka is one who by offering a thing to a 
Bhikkhu, makes that thing kappiya, allowable, to the Bhikkhu. 



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60 mahAvagga. VI, 14, 7. 

that such a thing need not be received again from 
others/ 

7. Now at that time a certain Bhikkhu suffered 
from the ghara-dinnaka 1 disease. 

' I allow you, O Bhikkhus, to give him to drink 
a decoction of soil turned up by the plough V 

Now at that time a certain Bhikkhu had consti- 
pation 8 . 

' I allow you, O Bhikkhus, to give him a decoction 
of the ashes of burnt rice *.' 

Now at that time a certain Bhikkhu had the 
jaundice. 

' I allow you, O Bhikkhus, to give to drink a 
decoction made with (cows') urine 6 .' 

Now at that time a certain Bhikkhu had skin 
disease. 

• I allow, O Bhikkhus, the anointing with per- 
fumes.' 

Now at that time a certain Bhikkhu had a super- 
fluity of humors in his body •.' 

' I allow you, O Bhikkhus, to give a purgative.' 
Clarified gruel was required. 

1 Ghara-dinnakan ti vasikara»a-pSna-samu///iita-rogo, 'a 
disease arising from a philter, which when given brings another 
into one's power' (B.). He was bewitched, was suffering from 
the results of sorcery. 

2 Sitalo/in ti nangalena kasantassa ph&le lagga-mattikaw 
udakena alo/etva" payetu;» anu^Snamlti attho (B.). 

3 Du/Magahawiko 'ti vipanna-gahamko. Kiiiittta, uHiro 
nikkhamattti. Compare Rh. D., ' Buddhist Suttas from the Pali,' 
p. 260 note. 

4 Amisakhiran ti sukkhodanaw gHpetvi tiya Warik&ya 
paggharitaw khirodakaw (B.). ~ 

" Mutta-har?takan ti gomutta-paribhavitaw haritakaw (B.). 

• Abhisannaklyo'ti ussanna-dosa-kayo (B.). Dosa is a disturb- 
ance of the so-called humors in the body. Compare VIII, 1, 30. 



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VI, IS, I. ON MEDICAMENTS. 6 1 

' I allow, O Bhikkhus, the use of clarified gruel.' 
Natural juice was required l . 
' I allow, O Bhikkhus, the use of natural juice.' 
Artificial and natural juice was required 2 . 
' I allow, O Bhikkhus, the use of artificial and 
natural juice.' 

Meat broth was required 3 . 

' I allow, O Bhikkhus, the use of meat broth.' 



15. 

i. Now at that time the venerable Pilindava^^a 
had a mountain cave at Ra^agaha cleared out, with 
the object of making it into a cave dwelling-place. 
And the Magadha king Seniya Bimbisara went to 
the place where the venerable Pilindava^Ma was ; 
and when he had come there, he saluted the vene- 
rable Pilindava^Ma, and took his seat on one side. 

And when he was so seated the Magadha king 
Seniya Bimbisara said to the venerable Pilinda- 
\2JikkdL, 'What is it that my Lord, the Thera, is 
having done ?' 

' I am having a cave cleared out, with the object 
of making it into a cave dwelling-place.' 

' Do you then, Sir, require an iramika (a park- 
keeper) ?' 

' Not so, great king ! A park-keeper has not been 
prescribed by the Blessed One.' 

' Then, Sir, enquire of the Blessed One (concern- 
ing this matter), and let me then know.' 

1 Aka/a-yfisan ti asiniddho mugga-paflta-pariyo (B.). 

2 Ka/aka/an ti so ia baddhoka-siniddho (B.). 
* Compare chap. 23. 1-8. 



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62 mahAvagga. VI, 15, ». 

'Very well, O King!' said the venerable Pilinda- 
vaJikka. in assent to the Magadha king Seniya Bim- 
bisara. 

2. Then the venerable PilindavaiMa taught and 
incited and roused and gladdened the Magadha king 
Seniya Bimbisara with religious discourse. And 
the Migadha king Seniya Bimbisara, when he had 
been taught &c. by the religious discourse, rose 
from his seat, and bowed down before the venerable 
Pilindava&6^a, and passing round him with his right 
side towards him, departed thence. 

Then the venerable Pilindava&fc&i sent a mes- 
sage to the Blessed One, saying, ' Lord ! the 
Magadha king Seniya Bimbisara desires to present 
me with a park-keeper. What am I, therefore, 
Lord, to do?' 

Then the Blessed One, in that connection, after deli- 
vering a religious discourse, said to the Bhikkhus : 

' I allow you, O Bhikkhus, the accepting of a park- 
keeper.' 

3. And a second time the Magadha king Seniya 
Bimbisara went to the place where the venerable 
Pilindavai^^a was; and when he had come there 
he saluted the venerable Pilindava£>&6a, and took 
his seat on one side. 

And when he was so seated the Magadha king 
Seniya Bimbisara said to the venerable Pilinda- 
vdJikhz, ' Has the Blessed One allowed a park- 
keeper?' 

'Yes, O King!' 

' Then, Sir, I will present a park-keeper to you.' 

Now the Magadha king Seniya Bimbisara, after 
he' had (thus) promised a park-keeper to the vene- 
rable Pilindavau&£^a, forgot it And after a time he 



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VI, 15. 5- ON MEDICAMENTS. 63 

recovered recollection of it, and addressed a certain 
minister who had charge of general affairs, and said : 
' The park-keeper whom I promised to the venerable 
one, has he been given to him ?' 

' No, your Majesty!' 

' How long is it then, good Sir, since that was 
determined?' 

4. Then that minister, counting up the nights, 
said to the Magadha king Seniya Bimbisara, ' Five 
hundred nights, your Majesty.' 

'Give then, my good Sir, five hundred park- 
keepers to the venerable one ! ' 

'As your Majesty commands,' said that minister 
in assent to the Magadha king Seniya Bimbisara; 
and he gave over to the venerable Pilindavai-Wa 
five hundred park-keepers, and (for their use) a 
distinct village grew up. And they called it Ara- 
mika-gama, and they called it also Pilinda-gama. 
Thenceforward the venerable Pilindava^Ma de- 
pended upon the families living in that village 
(for alms, &c). And the venerable PilindavaMfo 
robed himself early in the morning, and entered into 
Pilinda-gama, duly bowled and robed for alms. 

5. Now at that time there was a feast in that 
village, and the children were celebrating it, with 
their ornaments on, and decked with garlands. And 
the venerable Pilindava^^a, when he was going his 
rounds for alms, straight on from house to house, 
came to the dwelling-place of a certain park-keeper ; 
and when he had come there he sat down on a seat 
prepared for him. 

And at that time the daughter of that park- 
keeper's wife, seeing the other children with their 
ornaments on, and decked with garlands, began to 



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64 MAHAVAGGA. VI, 15, 6. 

cry (saying), 'Give me too a garland, give me an 
ornament!' 

And the venerable Pilindava££^a said to that 
park-keeper's wife: 'Why does that girl cry?' 

' This girl, venerable Sir, seeing the other children 
with their ornaments on, and decked with garlands, 
is crying (and saying), " Give me too a garland, give 
me too an ornament!" But whence should we, who 
have become so poor, get garlands or ornaments ?' 

6. Then the venerable Pilindava£££a took a grass 
chumbat x ,and said to the park-keeper's wife : 'Bind, 
I pray you, this grass chumbat round the child's head.' 

And the park-keeper's wife took the grass chum- 
bat, and bound it round the girl's head. And that 
became a chaplet of gold, beautiful, lovely, and pleas- 
ing, such that there was no chaplet of gold in the 
king's seraglio like it. 

And people told the Magadha king Seniya Bimbi- 
sara, ' There is a chaplet of gold, your Majesty, in the 
house of such and such a park-keeper, such that there 
is no chaplet of gold in the king's seraglio like it. How 
could he, poor as he is, have got (such a thing) ? For 
a certainty he must have procured it by theft.' 

Then the Magadha king Seniya Bimbisara had 
(the whole of) that park-keeper's family thrown into 
bonds. 

7. Now the venerable Pilindava^^a robed him- 
self again early in the morning, and went, duly bowled 
and robed, into Pilinda-gama for alms. And going 
his round for alms straight on from house to house he 
came to the dwelling-place of that park-keeper ; and 

1 A circular roll of grass, or cloth, to be placed on the head 
when a pot of oil or water was being carried on the head. Com- 
pare 4umba/aka, and Rh. D.'s 'Buddhist Birth Stories,' p. 295. 



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VI, 15, 9. ON MEDICAMENTS. 65 

when he had come there he asked the neighbours, 
' Where is the family of this park-keeper gone to ?' 

' The king, Sir, has had them thrown into bonds 
on account of that chaplet of gold.' 

Then the venerable Pilindava>6£>&a went on to the 
residence of the Magadha king Seniya Bimbisara : 
and when he had come there he sat down on the 
seat prepared for him. And the Magadha king 
Seniya Bimbisara went to the place where the 
venerable Pilindava<££^a was; and when he had 
come there, he bowed down before the venerable 
Pilindavaiv^a, and took his seat on one side. And 
when he was so seated the venerable Pilindava^Ma 
said to the Magadha king Seniya Bimbisara : 

8. 'Why, O King, has the park-keeper's family 
been thrown into bonds ?' 

' That park-keeper, Sir, has in his house a chaplet 
of gold, such that there is no chaplet of gold in the 
king's seraglio like it. Whence should he, poor as he 
is, have got (such a thing) ? For a certainty he has 
procured it by theft.' 

Then the venerable Pilindavai^a determined 
that the palace of the Magadha king Seniya Bim- 
bisara should be gold. And it became all of gold. 

' Now, your Majesty, whence have you this so 
great quantity of gold?' 

' I understand, Lord. This is your miraculous 
power* (said the king. And so saying) he set that 
park-keeper's family free. 

9. When the people, glad at heart and full of 
satisfaction, saw that so great a miracle had been 
shown by the venerable PilindavaM&a to the king 
and his royal retinue, they brought to the venerable 
PilindavaAfefca the five kinds of medicine, — that is to 

[17] F 



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66 MAHAVAGGA. VI, 15, 10. 

say, ghee, butter, oil, honey, and molasses. Now 
(besides this) the venerable Pilindava^^^a was ac- 
customed to receive the five kinds of medicine; 
and whatever he received he distributed among 
his attendant (Bhikkhus). So the retinue became 
abounding therein, and as they received it they 
laid it aside, filling vessels and pots; and 
filling water-strainers and bags with it they laid 
them in the windows, and they remained there 
clinging and adhering together, and the Viharas 
became sprinkled and scattered all over with them 
through the (gnawing of) rats. People who saw 
this, when they went round the Viharas, were 
annoyed, murmured, and became indignant (say- 
ing), 'These Sakyaputtiya Sama«as are becoming 
storers up of goods like the Magadha king Seniya 
Bimbisara.' 

10. The Bhikkhus heard the people thus mur- 
muring, &c. And those Bhikkhus who were mode- 
rate were indignant, &c, saying, 

' How can Bhikkhus think (of possessing) such 
abundance ?' 

And those Bhikkhus told the matter to the 
Blessed One. 

' Is it true, Bhikkhus, as they say, that Bhikkhus 
think (of possessing) such abundance ?' 

' It is true, Lord.' 

The Blessed One rebuked them, and after deliver- 
ing a religious discourse, he addressed the Bhikkhus : 

' Whatsoever kinds of medicine are meet for the 
use of sick Bhikkhus, — that is to say, ghee, butter, 
oil, honey, and molasses, — when such are received 
they must be used within a period of seven days 
during which they may be stored up. Whosoever 



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VI, 16, 2. ON MEDICAMENTS. 67 

goes beyond that limit shall be dealt with according 
to law 1 .' 

End of the first Bha«avara on the law of medicines. 




16. 

1. Now after the Blessed One had remamecTat 
Savatthi as long as he thought fit, he went forth on 
his journey towards R&gagaha. And on the way the 
venerable Kankha-revata saw a sugar factory, and 
on stepping aside to it (he saw the men) putting 
flour and cane-dust into the molasses. When he 
saw that he thought : ' Molasses mixed with food 
is not permitted : it is not permitted to take such 
molasses (at a time) beyond the time (for the daily 
meal).' And fearing to offend he ate not of it, and 
his attendant Bhikkhus ate not, and such as held 
him worthy to be heard, they ate not 

They told this thing to the Blessed One. 

'Why, O Bhikkhus, do they put flour and cane- 
dust into molasses ?' 

' In order, Lord, to make it firm.' 

' If, O Bhikkhus, they put flour and cane-dust into 
molasses to make it firm, but it is still (nevertheless) 
considered to be molasses, I allow you, O Bhikkhus, 
such molasses as much as you like.' 

2. Now the venerable Kankha-revata saw on the 
way a kidney bean growing out of a dung heap. And 
when he had seen it, he thought : ' Beans are not 
permitted (to us, for) beans grow ready ripe 2 .' And 

1 Compare the 23rd Nissaggiya. 

a PakkS pi mugga ^ayanti, the meaning of which is not quite 
clear. Buddhaghosa says, yathasukham paribhufi^itabbS, pakkattft 

F 2 



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68 MAHAVAGGA. VI, 16, 3. 

he did not eat, fearing to offend, and his attendant 
Bhikkhus did not eat, and such as held him worthy 
to be heard, they also did not eat the beans. 

They told this thing to the Blessed One. 

'Though, Bhikkhus, beans grow ready ripe, yet 
I allow you, O Bhikkhus, to eat beans as much as 
you like.' 

3. Now at that time a certain Bhikkhu suffered 
from wind in the stomach. He drank salt sour 
gruel ; and thereby his sickness abated. 

They told this thing to the Blessed One. 

' I allow, O Bhikkhus, to one who is sick the use 
of salt sour gruel, to one who is not sick the use 
thereof mixed with water 1 as a beverage.' 



17. 

1. Now the Blessed One journeying on in due 
course came to Ra/agaha. And there at Ra^agaha 
the Blessed One stayed at the Veluvana in the 
Kalandaka-nivapa. 

Now at that time the Blessed One was troubled 
with wind in his stomach. And the venerable 
Ananda thinking, ' Now formerly the Blessed One 
when suffering from wind in the stomach had ease 
from Teka/ula 2 gruel,' made ready of his own 
accord til a seeds, and rice, and beans; and kept 

hi te kappiyd. Perhaps the doubt was supposed to have arisen 
because the beans required no cooking, but grew, ready to eat, of 
themselves. 

1 Compare asambhinna-piySsa at Gataka, vol. i, p. 55, 1. 32. 

* That is, gruel containing the three pungent (ka/u) substances, 
which are explained to be ginger and two kinds of pepper. 



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VI, 17, 4- ON MEDICAMENTS. 69 

them indoors ; and cooked them indoors of his own 
accord, and offered them to the Blessed One, saying, 
' Let the Blessed One drink this Teka/ula gruel.' 

2. Now the Tathagatas sometimes ask about 
what they know (&c, as usual, as, for instance, in 
I. 3i» 5 1 down to the end). 

And the Blessed One said to the venerable 
Ananda, ' Whence, Ananda, is this gruel ?' 

Then the venerable Ananda told this thing to the 
Blessed One. 

3. The Blessed Buddha rebuked him, saying, 
' This is improper, Ananda, unbecoming, unsuitable, 
unworthy of Samaras, not allowable, and ought to 
be avoided. How can you, Ananda, think (of 
permitting yourself) such abundance ? Whatever, 
Ananda, is kept indoors, is not allowed ; whatever 
is cooked indoors, is not allowed ; and whatever is 
cooked of your own accord, is not allowed. This 
will not redound, Ananda, to the conversion of the 
unconverted.' 

And when he had rebuked him, and delivered 
a religious discourse, he said to the Bhikkhus : 
' Whatsoever is kept indoors, O Bhikkhus, or cooked 
indoors, or cooked of your own accord, is not to 
be eaten. Whosoever shall eat thereof, is guilty of 
adukka/a offence. 

4. ' And if, O Bhikkhus, there be food kept 
indoors, or cooked indoors, or cooked of your own 
accord, and one shall eat thereof, he is guilty of 
three dukka/a offences. If, O Bhikkhus, food kept 
indoors, and cooked indoors, shall have been so 
cooked by others, and one eat thereof, he is guilty 
of two dukka/a offences. If, O Bhikkhus, food kept 
indoors, shall have been cooked out of doors, and 



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70 mahavagga. vi, 17, 5. 

so cooked of your own accord, and one eat thereof, 
he is guilty of two dukka/a offences. 

5. ' If, O Bhikkhus, food kept out of doors shall 
have been cooked indoors, and of your own accord, 
and one eat thereof, he is guilty of two dukka/a 
offences. If, O Bhikkhus, food kept indoors, shall 
have been cooked out of doors, and by others, and 
one eat thereof, he is guilty of a dukka/a offence. 
If, O Bhikkhus, food kept out of doors shall have 
been cooked indoors, and by others, and one eat 
thereof, he is guilty of a dukka/a offence. If, O 
Bhikkhus, food kept out of doors, shall have been 
cooked out of doors, and of your own accord, and 
one shall eat thereof, he is guilty of a dukka/a 
offence. If, O Bhikkhus, food kept out of doors, 
shall have been cooked out of doors, and by others, 
and one shall eat thereof, he is not guilty.' 

6. Now at that time, the Bhikkhus, thinking, 
' Food cooked of one's own accord has been disal- 
lowed by the Blessed One,' feared to offend by 
cooking a second time food (already cooked once). 

They told this thing to the Blessed One. 
' I allow you, O Bhikkhus, to cook food a second 
time.' 

7. Now at that time there was a scarcity of food 
in Ra^agaha. People brought salt, and oil, and 
rice, and hard food to the Arama. These the 
Bhikkhus kept out of doors ; and vermin x ate them, 
and thieves carried them off. 

They told this thing to the Blessed One. 



1 Buddhaghosa says, ukkapi«</ak£ pi khadantlti bilala-mu- 
sika-godha-mungusa khadanti. The expression recurs in VI, 
33. 5- 



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VI, 17, 8. ON MEDICAMENTS. 




' I allow you, O Bhikkhus, to keep food indoors.' 

When they kept it indoors, and cooked it out of 
doors, those men who practised self-mortification by 
living on the remains of offered food ' crowded round 
them ; and the Bhikkhus ate in fear. 

They told this thing to the Blessed One. 

' I allow you, O Bhikkhus, to cook indoors.' 

In the time of scarcity, those who (by offering 
food, inviting Bhikkhus to their houses, &c.) made 
(the accepting or eating of food) allowable (to the 
Bhikkhus), used to take more (for themselves), and 
give less to the Bhikkhus. 

4 1 allow you, O Bhikkhus, to cook of your own 
accord. I allow you, O Bhikkhus, to cook indoors, 
and of your own accord, food kept indoors.' 

8. Now at that time a number of Bhikkhus who 
had spent the rainy season in the land of Kasi, 
and were journeying to Ra^agaha to visit the 
Blessed One, did not receive on the way as full 
a supply as they required of food, either bitter or 
sweet. And there was plenty of eatable fruit, but 
there was no one to make it allowable for them 2 . 
And those Bhikkhus went on in weariness to Ra^a- 
gaha, to the Veluvana, in the Kalandaka-nivapa, 
where the Blessed One was. And when they had 
come there, they bowed down before the Blessed 
One, and took their seats on one side. 

Now it is the custom of the Blessed Buddhas to 
exchange courteous greetings with Bhikkhus who 

1 Buddhaghosa says, damaka ti vigh&s&dS. The same expla- 
nation is given in AbhidhanappadJpika, verse 467, where the Sin- 
halese expression is indul kanni, and the English 'one who 
eats orts.' 

* See the last section. 



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72 MAHAVAGGA. VI, 17, 9. 

arrive. And the Blessed One said to those 
Bhikkhus : 

' Do things go well with you, O Bhikkhus ? Do 
you get enough to support yourselves with ? Have 
you accomplished your journey without too much 
fatigue? And whence, O Bhikkhus, have you 
come ?' 

9. ' Things go well with us, Lord. We have 
spent the rainy season in the land of Kisi ; and 
as we were journeying to Ra^agaha to visit the 
Blessed One, we did not receive on the way as 
full a supply as we required of food, either bitter 
or sweet And there was plenty of eatable fruit, 
but there was no one to make it allowable for us. 
And we came on our way in weariness.' 

Then the Blessed One, in that connection, after 
having delivered a religious discourse, said to the 
Bhikkhus : ' I allow you, O Bhikkhus, wherever 
edible fruit is seen and there is no one' to make 
it allowable, to pick it of your own accord, and take 
it away. And when you see one who can make 
it allowable, you are to place it on the ground, 
and (only) eat it after you have received it again. 
I allow you, O Bhikkhus, to take whatever (fruit)" 
you have picked up 1 .' 



18. 

1. Now at that time a certain Brahman had 
received some fresh til a seeds, and some fresh 
honey. Now it occurred to that Brahman : ' What 
if I were to give these fresh tila seeds, and this 



1 Compare below, 21. 1. 



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VI, i8, 3. ON MEDICAMENTS. 73 

fresh honey to the Bhikkhu-sawgha with the Buddha 
at their head.' And that Brahman went to the place 
where the Blessed One was, and when he had come 
there, he exchanged courteous greetings with the 
Blessed One. And after he had exchanged with 
the Blessed One the greetings and compliments of 
friendship and civility, he stood on one side. And, 
so standing, that Brahman said to the Blessed One : 

'May the venerable Gotama grant me that the 
venerable Gotama shall take his morrow's meal at 
my home to-morrow with the Bhikkhu-sawgha.' 

The Blessed One consented by remaining silent. 
And when that Brahman perceived that the Blessed 
One had consented he went away. 

2. And that Brahman, at the end of that night, 
when he had made ready sweet food, both hard and 
soft, had the time announced to the Blessed One 
(in the words), ' It is time, O Gotama, and the meal 
is prepared.' 

And the Blessed One, early in the morning, 
having put on his under robe, went duly bowled 
and robed to that Brahman's residence. And when 
he had come there, he sat down on a seat prepared 
for him, and with him the Bhikkhu-sa/wgha. 

And that Brahman satisfied with the sweet food, 
hard and soft, the Bhikkhu-sa*»gha with the Buddha 
at their head, and waited on them with his own 
hand. And when the Blessed One had finished his 
meal, and had washed his hands and his bowl, the 
Brahman took his seat on one side. And as he 
so sat the Blessed One instructed, and roused, and 
incited, and gladdened that Brahman with religious 
discourse, and rose from his seat, and went away. 

3. Now not long after the Blessed One had gone 



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74 MAHAVAGGA. VI, 18,4. 

it occurred to that Brahman : ' The things for the 
sake of which I invited the Bhikkhu-samgha with 
the Buddha at their head, thinking, " I will give 
them the fresh tila seeds and the fresh honey," — 
those I have neglected to give. What if I were 
now to have the fresh tila seeds and the fresh 
honey taken, in pots and vessels, to the Arama!' 

And that Brahman had the fresh tila seeds and 
the fresh honey taken in pots and vessels, and went 
to the place where the Blessed One was. And 
when he had come there, he stood on one side; 
and so standing that Brahman said to the Blessed 
One: 

4. ' The things for the sake of which I invited 
the Bhikkhu-sa/»gha with the Buddha at their head, 
thinking, " I will give them the fresh tila seeds and 
the fresh honey," — those I have neglected to give. 
May the venerable Gotama receive of me the fresh 
tila seeds and the fresh honey.' 

'Very well then, Brahman ; give them to the 
Bhikkhus.' 

Now at that time, during the scarcity, people 
invited Bhikkhus to a slender meal, and they, 
counting the number (of those invited), refused (the 
invitation). And the whole Sawgha was (once) 
invited; but the Bhikkhus, fearing to offend, did 
not accept the invitation 1 . 

' Accept it, O Bhikkhus, and eat. I allow, O 
Bhikkhus, that a Bhikkhu who has eaten and who 
has refused food still offered may nevertheless eat 
food, if it be brought from within, even if it has 
not been left over 2 . 

1 Compare Pdtimokkha, Paflttiya 32. 

9 This is an exception to P&Kttiya 35. A Bhikkhu who has 



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VI, 19, 2. ON MEDICAMENTS. 75 



19. 

i. Now at that time a family who were devoted 
to the venerable Upananda, of the Sakya clan, sent 
hard food for the Sawgha, saying, ' This is to be 
given to the Sa#zgha with especial reference to the 
venerable Upananda.' 

Now at that time the venerable Upananda of the 
Sakya clan had gone forth to the village for alms. 
And those men went to the Arama, and asked the 
Bhikkhus : 

'Where, Sirs, is the venerable Upananda ?' 

'The venerable Upananda of the Sakya clan has 
gone forth to the village for alms.' 

' This hard food, Sirs, is to be given to the 
Saw/gha, with especial reference to the venerable 
Upananda.' 

They told this thing to the Blessed One. 

' In that case, O Bhikkhus, receive it, and put it 
aside till Upananda returns.' 

2. And the venerable Upananda, after having 
attended on the families in the forenoon, returned 
during the (after-part of the) day. 

Now at that time, during the scarcity, people 
invited the Bhikkhus to a slender meal ; and they, 

finished, and has declared himself to have done so by declining 
further food, can still take ' leavings' without offending. By this 
rule he is also allowed to take food tato nfhatam, literally, 
'brought out thence,' which seems to mean 'out of the store of 
the giver.' The expression recurs in VI, 32, i, and again in VI, 
32, 2 (at the end), where the exceptions to Pa&ttiya 35 laid down 
in this and the following rules are again, the scarcity having passed 
away, put aside by ' the Blessed One.' 



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j6 mahAvagga. VI, 20, r. 

counting the numbers (of those invited, refused) the 
invitation. And the whole Sawgha was (once) 
invited; but the Bhikkhus, fearing to offend, did 
not accept the invitation. 

' Accept it, O Bhikkhus, that a Bhikkhu who has 
eaten, and who has refused food still offered, may 
nevertheless eat food, if it have been received before 
meal- time (in the forenoon), even if it has not been 
left over V 



20. 

i. Now the Blessed One having remained at 
Ra^agaha as long as he thought fit, proceeded on 
his way to Savatthi. And wandering straight on 
from place to place he arrived at Savatthi. And 
there, at Savatthi, the Blessed One stayed at the 
Cretavana, Anatha-pi#dfika's Grove. 

Now at that time the venerable Sariputta suffered 
from fever. And the venerable Maha Moggallana 
went to the place where the venerable Sariputta 
was ; and when he had come there he said to the 
venerable Sariputta : 

' You have lately had fever, friend Sariputta. 
By what means has it got well ?' 

' By lotus stalks, my friend, of various kinds.' 

Then the venerable Maha Moggallana, as quickly 
as a strong man would stretch forth his arm, or 
draw it in again when it had been stretched forth, 
vanished from the Cetavana and appeared on the 
bank of the Mandakini lake. 

2. And a certain Naga saw the venerable Mah4 

1 See the last note. 



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VI, 20, 4- ON MEDICAMENTS. 77 

Moggallana coming from afar : and on seeing him 
he said to the venerable Maha Moggallana : 

' May my lord, the venerable Maha Moggallana, 
approach. Welcome to my lord, the venerable 
Maha Moggallana. What may my lord have need 
of? What shall I give to him ?' 

' I want the edible stalks of the various lotuses.' 

Then that Naga gave command to another Naga, 
saying, 'Very well then, good friend, give the 
venerable one edible stalks of the lotuses.' 

And that Naga plunged into the Mandakinl lake, 
and plucked with his trunk edible stalks of the 
lotuses, and washed them thoroughly, and bound 
them in a bundle, and went to the place where the 
venerable Maha Moggallana was. 

3. Then the venerable Maha Moggallana as 
quickly (&c, as in § 1) vanished from the bank of 
the Mandakinl lake, and appeared in CPetavana. 
Then that Naga also vanished from the bank of 
the Mandakinl lake, and appeared in the <7etavana. 
And when that Naga had caused the venerable 
Maha Moggallana to receive those edible stalks 
of the lotuses he vanished from the CPetavana, and 
appeared on the shore of the Mandakinl lake. 

Then the venerable Mahi Moggallana presented 
those edible stalks of the lotuses to the venerable 
Sariputta. And the fever abated on the venerable 
Sariputta when he had eaten the edible stalks of 
the lotuses. And many of them remained over. 

4. Now at that time, during the scarcity (&c, 
as above, in chap. 18. 4, down to:) did not accept 
the invitation. 

'Accept it, O Bhikkhus, and eat I allow a 
Bhikkhu who has eaten, and has refused food still 



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78 mahAvagga. vi, 21, 1. 

offered, to eat things growing in woods and ponds, 
even if they are not the leavings of the meal of 
one who has eaten V 



21. 

1. Now at that time edible fruit was very plen- 
tiful in Savatthi, but there was no one to make 
it allowable 2 . And the Bhikkhus, fearing to offend, 
would not eat of it. 

They told that thing to the Blessed One. 

' I allow you, O Bhikkhus, to eat fruit which has 
not yet had any seed in it, or which has no more 
seed in it, even without any one being there to 
make it allowable 8 .' 



22. 

1. Now when the Blessed One had remained at 
Savatthi as long as he thought fit, he went forth 
on his journey to Ra^agaha. And wandering 
straight on he arrived at Ra/agaha : and there at 
R&fagaha he stayed at the Veluvana in the Kalan- 
daka-nivapa. 

Now at that time a certain Bhikkhu was suffering 
from fistula*. And the physician (named) Ak&sa- 
gotta lanced it. And the Blessed One when he 

1 See the note above, on VI, 18, 4. 

* See above, VI, 17, 7. 

* Buddhaghosa says, abf^an ti tanwa-phalaw ; yassa blgam 
ankuram na ^anetL Nibbatta-bt^an (nivatta-b^an ?) ti bfgzm 
nibbattetva (nivattetvS?) apanetvl 

* Compare VIII, 1, 14. 



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VI, 32, 3- ON MEDICAMENTS. 79 

was going round through the sleeping-places came 
to the place where that Bhikkhu dwelt. 

2. Akasa-gotta, the physician, saw the Blessed 
One coming from afar; and when he saw him he 
said to the Blessed One : ' Let the venerable Gotama 
come and look at this Bhikkhu's orifice ; it is like 
the mouth of an iguana!' And the Blessed One 
thinking, ' This foolish fellow is making fun of me,' 
kept silence and turned away. And in that con- 
nection, and on account of that, he called a meeting 
of the Bhikkhu-saawgha, and asked the Bhikkhus : 
' Is there, O Bhikkhus, in that Vihara a Bhikkhu 
who is sick ?' 

' There is, Lord.' 

'What is the matter, O Bhikkhus, with that 
Bhikkhu ?* 

'That venerable one, Lord, has a fistula, and 
Akasa-gotta, the physician, has been lancing it' 

3. The Blessed Buddha rebuked (that Bhikkhu), 
saying, 'This is improper, O Bhikkhus, for that 
foolish one, unbecoming, indecent, unworthy of 
Samaaas, not allowable, and ought not to be done. 
How can this foolish fellow, O Bhikkhus, allow a 
surgical operation to be performed in that part of 
his body * ? The skin there, O Bhikkhus, is tender, 
the wound is difficult to treat, the knife is difficult 
to guide. This will not redound, O Bhikkhus, to 
the conversion of the unconverted.' 

And having rebuked him, the Blessed One, after 
delivering a religious discourse, said to the Bhik- 
khus : ' You are not, O Bhikkhus, to allow a surgical 
operation to be performed upon you in that part 

1 Samb&dhe. 



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80 mahAvagga. vi, «, 4. 

of your bodies. Whosoever allows that, is guilty 
of a thulla/£/6aya offence.' 

4. Now at that time the A^abbaggiya Bhikkhus, 
since a surgical operation had been forbidden by 
the Blessed One, used a clyster 1 . 

They told this thing to the Blessed One. 

' Is it true, as they say, O Bhikkhus, that the 
.Oabbaggiya Bhikkhus use a clyster?' 

' It is true, Lord.' 

He rebuked them, and having delivered a re- 
ligious discourse, said to the Bhikkhus : ' No 
surgical operation is to be performed within a 
distance of two inches round the anus, and a clyster 
is not to be used. Whosoever does so, is guilty 
of a thulla^iaya offence 2 .' 



23. 

1. And the Blessed One, after having dwelt at 
Ra/agaha as long as he thought fit, went forth to 
Benares. Wandering from place to place he came 
to Benares. There the Blessed One dwelt near 
Benares, in the deer-park Isipatana. 
. At that time there were at Benares a devout 
layman Suppiya and a devout laywoman Suppiya 
who showed their faith in both ways : they were 
givers and doers, and devoted themselves to the 
service of the fraternity. And Suppiya, the lay- 
devotee, went to the Arama, and going around from . 
Vihara to Vihara, and from cell to cell, she asked 

1 Vatthikamma. See Wise, 'Hindu Medicine,' pp. 143 and 
following. 

' Surgical operations are allowed in 14. 5 and below. 



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VI, 23, 3- ON MEBICAMENTS. 8 1 

the Bhikkhus : ' Who is sick, venerable Sirs ? For 
whom, and what shall I procure ?' 

2. At that time a certain Bhikkhu had taken 
a purgative. And that Bhikkhu said to Suppiya, 
the lay-devotee : ' I have taken a purgative, sister, 
and I want some broth V 

(She replied) : ' Well, reverend Sir, it shall be 
procured for you,' — and went to her house and gave 
order to a pupil * : ' Go, my good Sir, and see if 
there is any meat to be had V 

That man accepted this order of Suppiya, the 
lay-devotee (by saying), 'Yes, Madam,' and searched 
through the whole of Benares, but did not find 
any meat on hand*. Then that man went to Sup- 
piya, the lay-devotee; having approached her he 
said to Suppiya, the lay-devotee : ' There is no 
meat to be had, Madam; the killing of cattle is 
interdicted to-day.' 

3. Then Suppiya, the lay-devotee, thought: 'If 
that sick Bhikkhu does not get the broth his sick- 
ness will increase, or he will die. It would be 
unbecoming indeed for me to promise something, 
and not to procure it ;' — (thinking thus) she took 
a knife, cut a piece of flesh from her thigh, and 
gave it to her maid-servant (saying), 'Go, my girl, 

1 Pa/U/fci&daniya. See Abhidhanappadipikd, verse 468, and 
above, chap. 14. 7, at the end. 

1 Of her husband's ? 

' Pavattamawsa, which Buddhaghosa explains, ' matassa mum- 
sun.' Pavatta means ' already existing,' opposed to what is brought 
into existence for a special purpose, and pavattamamsa is said 
here, therefore, in order to exclude uddissa-kata-marasa (meat of 
animals killed especially for them), which Bhikkhus were not 
allowed to partake of (see chap. 31. 14). Compare also pavatta- 
phala-bhcgana at Galaka I, p. 6. 

[17] G 



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82 mahAvagga. VI, 23, 4. 

and get the strength out of this meat. In such 
and such a Vihara is a sick Bhikkhu; give it to 
that (Bhikkhu). And should anybody call for me, 
tell him that I am sick ;' — (speaking thus), she veiled 
her thigh with her upper garment, went into her 
inner room, and lay down on her bed. 

4. And Suppiya, the lay-devotee, came to his 
house and asked the maid-servant: 'Where is 
Suppiya ?' 

' She lies in the inner room, Sir.' Then Suppiya, 
the lay-devotee, went to the place where Suppiyd, 
the lay-devotee, was; having approached her he 
said to Suppiy&, the lay-devotee : ' Why are you 
lying down ?•' 

' I am sick.' 

' What is the matter with you ?' 

Then Suppiyi, the lay-devotee, told the whole 
matter to Suppiya, the lay-devotee. And Suppiya, 
the lay-devotee, said : ' Oh wonderful ! oh astonish- 
ing ! How believing and how pious is this Suppiya 
who gives even her own flesh (to the indigent). 
What else can there be which she would not give ?' 
(Speaking thus), joyful and elated he went to the 
place where the Blessed One was; having ap- 
proached him, and respectfully saluted the Blessed 
One, he sat down near him. 

5. Sitting near him, Suppiya, the lay-devotee, 
said to the Blessed One : ' Might the Blessed One, 
Lord, consent to take his meal with me to-morrow, 
together with the fraternity of Bhikkhus.' 

The Blessed One expressed his consent by remain- 
ing silent Then Suppiya, the lay-devotee, when 
he understood that the Blessed One had accepted 
his invitation, rose from his seat, respectfully saluted 



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VI, 33, 7« ON MEDICAMENTS. 83 

the Blessed One, and passing round him with his 
right side towards him, went away. 

And when the night had elapsed, Suppiya, the 
lay-devotee, ordered excellent food, both hard and 
soft, to be prepared, and had the meal-time an- 
nounced to the Blessed One in the words : 'It is 
time, Lord, the meal is ready.' And in the fore- 
noon the Blessed One, having put on his under-robes, 
took his alms-bowl, and, with his £ivara on, went 
to the house of Suppiya, the lay-devotee. When he 
had arrived there, he sat down with the Bhikkhus 
who followed him, on seats laid out for them. 

6. And Suppiya, the lay-devotee, went to the 
place where the Blessed One was; having ap- 
proached him and respectfully saluted the Blessed 
One, he stationed himself near him. When he was 
standing near him, the Blessed One said to Suppiya, 
the lay-devotee : ' Where is Suppiyi?' 

' She is sick, Lord.' 

' Well, let her come here.' 

' She is not able to do so, Lord.' 

' Well then you must take her and carry her (to 
me).' 

Then Suppiya, the lay-devotee, took Suppiyi, 
the lay-devotee, and carried her (to the Buddha). 
And in the moment the Blessed One saw her, that 
great wound was healed ; and there was good skin 
there, with the tiny hairs thereon. 

7. And Suppiya, the lay-devotee, and Suppiyfi, 
the lay-devotee (thought) : ' Oh wonderful ! oh 
astonishing! What high power and great faculties 
the Tath&gata possesses, in that in the moment the 
Blessed One has seen (Suppiyi), that great wound 
has been healed ; and there is good skin there, 

G 2 



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84 mahAvagga. vi, 23, 8. 

with the tiny hairs thereon ;' — (thinking thus), joyful 
and elated they served and offered with their own 
hands excellent food, both hard and soft, to the 
fraternity of Bhikkhus with the Buddha at its 
head. And when the Blessed One had finished his 
meal, and cleansed his bowl and his hands, they 
sat down near him. And the Blessed One, after 
having taught, incited, animated, and gladdened 
Suppiya, the lay-devotee, and Suppiya, the lay- 
devotee, by religious discourse, rose from his seat 
and went away. 

8. In consequence of that, and on this occasion, 
the Blessed One, having ordered the fraternity of 
Bhikkhus to assemble, questioned the Bhikkhus: 
• Who was it, O Bhikkhus, who asked Suppiya, the 
lay-devotee, for meat ?' 

When he had spoken thus, that Bhikkhu said to 
the Blessed One : ' It is I, Lord, who asked Suppiya, 
the lay-devotee, for meat.' 

' Has it been brought to you, O Bhikkhu ?' 

' It has been brought, Lord.' 

' Have you eaten it, O Bhikkhu?' 

' I have eaten it, Lord/ 

' And did you enquire, O Bhikkhus, (what) meat 
it was ?' 

' Lord ! I did not enquire about that' 

9. Then the blessed Buddha rebuked him: 'How 
can you, O foolish one, eat meat without having 
enquired (what it is) ? It is man's flesh, O foolish 
one, which you have eaten. This will not do, O 
foolish one, for converting the unconverted/ (&c.) 

Having rebuked him and delivered a religious 
discourse, he thus addressed the Bhikkhus : ' There 
are, O Bhikkhus, believing, pious people who give 



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VI, 23. '3' 0N MEDICAMENTS. 85 

up even their own flesh. Let no one, O Bhikkhus, 
eat man's flesh. He who does, commits a thulla^- 
£aya (or, grave) offence. And let no one, O Bhik- 
khus, eat meat without having enquired (what it is). 
He who does, commits a dukkate offence.' 

10. At that time the king's elephants died. During 
a famine the people ate that elephants' flesh, and 
when the Bhikkhus came and asked for alms, they 
gave them elephants' flesh. The Bhikkhus ate that 
elephants' flesh. People were annoyed, murmured, 
and became angry : ' How can the Sakyaputtiya 
Sama«as eat elephants' flesh? Elephants are an 
attribute of royalty. If the king knew that, they 
would not be in his favour.' 

They told this thing to the Blessed One. 

' Let no one, O Bhikkhus, eat elephants' flesh. He 
who does, commits a dukka^a offence.' 

ir. At that time the king's horses died. During 
a famine (&c, as in § 10, down to :) 

' Let no one, O Bhikkhus, eat horse-flesh. He 
who does, commits a dukka/a offence.' 

12. At that time the people, during a famine, ate 
dogs' flesh, and when the Bhikkhus came and asked 
for alms, they gave them dogs' flesh. The Bhikkhus 
ate that dogs' flesh. People were annoyed, murmured, 
and became angry : ' How can the Sakyaputtiya Sa- 
maras eat dogs' flesh? Dogs are disgusting and 
loathsome animals.' 

They told this thing to the Blessed One. 
' Let no one, O Bhikkhus, eat dogs' flesh. He 
who does, commits a dukka/a offence.' 

1 3. At that time the people, during a famine, ate 
serpents' flesh (&c, as in § 12, down to :) 'How can 



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86 mahAvagga. VI, 23, 14. 

the Sakyaputtiya Sama#as eat serpents' flesh ? Ser- 
pents are disgusting and loathsome animals.' 

And the serpent king Supassa went to the place 
where the Blessed One was; having approached him 
and respectfully saluted the Blessed One, he stationed 
himself near him. Standing near him the serpent 
king Supassa said to the Blessed One : ' There are, 
Lord, unbelieving serpents who are disinclined (to 
the faith); these might do harm to the Bhikkhus 
even on trifling occasions. Pray, Lord, let their 
reverences not eat serpents' flesh. Then the Blessed 
One taught, incited, animated, and gladdened the 
serpent king Supassa by religious discourse (&c, 
down to :), and passing round him with his right 
side towards .him, went away.' 

In consequence of that the Blessed One, after 
having delivered a religious discourse, thus addressed 
the Bhikkhus : ' Let no one, O Bhikkhus, eat serpents' 
flesh. He who does, commits adukka^a offence.' 

14. At that time hunters had killed a lion and 
eaten his flesh, and when the Bhikkhus came and 
asked for alms, they gave them lions' flesh. The 
Bhikkhus, having eaten that lions' flesh, sojourned 
in the forest. Then the lions, (attracted) by the 
smell of lions' flesh, fell upon the Bhikkhus. 

They told this thing to the Blessed One. 
' Let no one, O Bhikkhus, eat lions' flesh. He 
who does, commits a dukka/a offence.' 

15. At that time hunters had killed a tiger, &c, 
a panther, &c, a bear, &c, a hyena (&c, as in § 14, 
down to :) 

' Let no one, O Bhikkhus, eat a hyena's flesh. He 
who does, commits a dukka/a offence.' 



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VI,a4,3- ON MEDICAMENTS. 87 



24. 

1. And the Blessed One, after having dwelt at 
Benares as long as he thought fit, went forth to 
Andhakavinda, accompanied by a great number of 
Bhikkhus, by twelve hundred and fifty Bhikkhus. 
At that time the people in the country, after having 
loaded their carts with much salt and oil and rice 
and hard food, followed from behind the fraternity 
of Bhikkhus with the Buddha at its head (thinking), 
'When our turn comes, we will make a meal for 
them ;' and five hundred people who ate the remains 
of (the Bhikkhus') food (followed on their way). And 
the Blessed One, wandering from place to place, came 
to Andhakavinda. 

2. Now a certain Brahma«a, whose turn did not 
come, thought : ' Two months have elapsed while 
I have been following the fraternity of Bhikkhus 
with the Buddha at its head, in order to make a 
meal for them when my turn comes, but my turn 
does not come. I am alone here, and many house- 
hold affairs of mine are going to ruin. What if I 
were to look into the provision-room, and what 
I should not see in the provision-room, to prepare 
that (for the Bhikkhus)!' Then that Brahma»a 
looked into the provision-room and did not see there 
two (sorts of food), rice-milk and honey-lumps. 

3. And that Brahma»a went to the place where 
the venerable Ananda was ; having approached him, 
he said to the venerable Ananda : ' As my turn did 
not come, my dear Ananda, I thought: " Two months 
have elapsed (&c, down to :). What if I were to 
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88 mahAvagga. "VI, 34, 4. 

see in the provision-room, to prepare that !" Thus, my 
dear Ananda, I looked into the provision-room and did 
not see there two (sorts of food), rice-milk and honey- 
lumps. If I were to prepare, my dear Ananda, rice- 
milk and honey-lumps (for the Bhikkhus), would the 
reverend Gotama accept it from me?' 

'Well, my good Brahma^a, I will ask the Blessed 
One.' 

4.. And the venerable Ananda told this thing to 
the Blessed One. 

' Well, Ananda, let him- prepare (those dishes).' 

' Well, my good Brahma»a, you may prepare (those 
dishes)/ 

And when the night had elapsed, that Brahma#a 
had abundant rice-milk and honey-lumps prepared, 
and offered them to the Blessed One (in the words) : 
' May the reverend Gotama accept from me this rice- 
milk and honey-lumps.' 

' Well, my good Brahma#a, give it to the Bhikkhus.' 

The Bhikkhus, fearing to offend, did not accept it. 

' Accept it, O Bhikkhus, and eat it.' 

Then that Brahmawa with his own hands served 
and offered abundant rice-milk and honey-lumps to 
the fraternity of Bhikkhus with the Buddha at its 
head; and when the Blessed One had washen his 
hands, when he had cleansed his bowl and his hands, 
he sat down near him. 

5. When he was seated near him, the Blessed 
One said to that Brahma#a: 'Tenfold, O Brah- 
ma»a, is the merit attached to rice-milk. In what 
way is it tenfold ? He who gives rice-milk, gives 
life; he gives colour; he gives joy; he gives 
strength ; he gives readiness of mind ; rice-milk 
when it is drunk removes hunger; dispels thirst; 



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VI, 25. 1. ON MEDICAMENTS. 89 

sets right the humors of the body; purifies the 
bladder; and promotes the digestion. This ten- 
fold merit, O Brahma«a, is attached to rice-milk. 

6. 'He who attentively at the right time gives 
rice-milk to the self-possessed, who live on what 
others give to them, will benefit them in ten ways : 
life and colour, joy and strength (he gives to them); — 

' Readiness of mind arises from it; it dispels hunger 
and thirst, and sets the humors right ; it purifies the 
bladder, and brings the food to digestion. As medi- 
cine the Perfect One has praised it 

' Therefore should rice-milk be continually given 
by a man who is longing for joy, who is desirous of 
heavenly joy, or who aspires to human prosperity.' 

7. And the Blessed One, having gladdened that 
Brahmaaa by these stanzas, rose from his seat and 
went away. 

And in consequence of this event the Blessed 
One, after having delivered a religious discourse, 
thus addressed the Bhikkhus : ' I allow you, O 
Bhikkhus, (to partake of) rice-milk and honey- 
lumps.' 



25. 

1. Now the people heard: 'The Blessed One 
has allowed (to the Bhikkhus to partake of) rice- 
milk and honey-lumps.' They prepared early in 
the morning solid rice-milk 1 and honey-lumps. 
The Bhikkhus, having satiated themselves in the 

1 B h o^a-yagu, literally, eatable rice-milk, which seems opposed 
to the ordinary rice-milk which was drunk. Yagu is the Pali word 
for what is called in Anglo-Indian terminology ' congey.' Bho^a- 
yagu is ' rice pudding made with milk.' 



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90 mahAvagga. VI, 25, a. 

morning with solid rice-milk and with honey-lumps, 
(afterwards) did not dine in the dining-hall with 
good appetite. At that time a certain minister, who 
was but newly converted, had invited the fraternity 
of Bhikkhus with the Buddha at its head for the 
next day. Now this newly converted minister 
thought: 'What if I were to prepare for these 
twelve hundred and fifty Bhikkhus twelve hundred 
and fifty dishes of meat, and offer to each Bhikkhu 
one dish of meat!' 

2. And when that night had elapsed, that newly 
converted minister ordered excellent food, both hard 
and soft, and twelve hundred and fifty dishes of 
meat to be prepared, and had meal-time announced 
to the Blessed One in the words : ' It is time, Lord, 
the meal is ready.' And in the forenoon the Blessed 
One, having put on his under-robes, took his alms- 
bowl, and, with his £lvara on, went to the house 
of that newly converted minister. When he had 
arrived there, he sat down with the Bhikkhus who 
followed him, on seats laid out for them. 

3. Then that newly converted minister in his dining- 
hall waited on the Bhikkhus. The Bhikkhus said 
to him : ' Give us little, friend ; give us little, friend.' 

' Do not take little, reverend Sirs, because you 
think : " This minister is but newly converted." 
Much food, both hard and soft, has been prepared 
by me, and twelve hundred and fifty dishes of meat ; 
I will offer to each Bhikkhu one dish of meat. Take, 
reverend Sirs, as much as you want.' 

' This is not the reason, friend, for which we take 
little. But we have satiated ourselves in the 
morning with solid rice-milk and with honey-lumps ; 
therefore we take little.' 



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VI, 35, S ON MEDICAMENTS. 9 1 

4. And that newly converted minister was an- 
noyed, murmured, and became angry : 'How can 
their reverences, when I have invited them, partake 
of solid rice-milk with other people, as if I were 
unable to give them as much as they want' 
(Thinking thus), he went around angry, displeased, 
and in an offensive temper, filling the bowls of the 
Bhikkhus (and saying), ' Eat or take it away!' And 
that newly converted minister served and offered 
with his own hands excellent food, both hard and 
soft, to the fraternity of Bhikkhus with the Buddha 
at its head ; and when the Blessed One had finished 
his meal and cleansed his bowl and his hands, he 
sat down near him. And the Blessed One, after 
having taught, incited, animated, and gladdened 
that newly converted minister, who was sitting near 
him, by religious discourse, rose from his seat and 
went away. 

5. And soon after the Blessed One was gone, 
scruples and remorse befell that newly converted 
minister : ' Alas„ it is evil to me, it is not good 
to me ! Alas, it is loss to me, it is not gain to me 
that I went around (among the Bhikkhus) angry, 
displeased, and in an offensive temper, filling their 
bowls (and saying), "Eat or take it away!" What 
have I produced thereby, more merit or more 
demerit ?' 

And that newly converted minister went to the 
place where the Blessed One was ; having approached 
him and respectfully saluted the Blessed One, he 
sat down near him. Sitting near him, that newly 
converted minister said to the Blessed One : ' Lord, 
soon after the Blessed One was gone, scruples and 
remorse have befallen me : " Alas, it is evil to me 



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92 MAHAVAGGA. VI, 25, 6. 

(&c, down to:) more merit or more demerit?" 
Lord, what have I produced thereby, more merit or 
more demerit?' 

6. ' The moment, friend, in which you invited the 
fraternity of Bhikkhus with the Buddha at its head 
for the next day, that moment you acquired 
much merit. And the moment in which each 
Bhikkhu received one lump of rice from you, 
that moment you acquired much merit. You gained 
the inheritance of heaven.' 

Then that newly converted minister thought : 
' Oh, it is good to me ! Oh, it is gain to me ! 
I have acquired much merit! I have gained the 
inheritance of heaven!' — and glad and joyful he 
rose from his seat, respectfully saluted the Blessed 
One, and passing round him with his right side 
towards him, went away. 

7. In consequence of that, and on this occasion, 
the Blessed One, having ordered the fraternity of 
Bhikkhus to assemble, questioned the Bhikkhus: 
' Is it true, O Bhikkhus; that the Bhikkhus, having 
been invited to one place, partake of solid rice- 
milk with other persons ? J 

' It is true, Lord.' 

Then the blessed Buddha rebuked those Bhik- 
khus : ' How can these foolish persons, O Bhikkhus, 
having been invited to one place, partake of solid 
rice-milk with other persons ? This will not do, 
O Bhikkhus, for converting the unconverted,' &c. 
Having rebuked them and delivered a religious dis- 
course, he thus addressed the Bhikkhus : ' Let no 
one, O Bhikkhus, when he is invited to one place, 
partake of solid rice-milk with other persons. He 
who does, is to be treated according to the law.' 



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VI, ad, 3. ON MEDICAMENTS. 93 



26 \ 

1. And the Blessed One, after having dwelt at 
Andhakavinda as long as he thought fit, went forth 
to R&gagaha, accompanied by a great number of 
Bhikkhus, by twelve hundred and fifty Bhikkhus. 
At that time Bela//Aa Kai^ana was travelling on 
the road from Ra^agaha to Andhakavinda with five 
hundred carts all full of pots of sugar. And the 
Blessed One saw Bela/Ma Ka££ana coming from 
afar; when he saw him, he left the road, and sat 
down at the foot of a tree. 

2. And Bela/Ma Kai^ana went to the place 
where the Blessed One was ; having approached 
him and respectfully saluted the Blessed One, he 
stationed himself near him. Standing near him, 
Bela//>fca Ka^ana said to the Blessed One : ' I 
wish, Lord, to give to each Bhikkhu one pot of 
sugar.' 

' Well, Kaiiana, bring here one pot of sugar.' 
Bela//^a Ka^ana accepted this order of the 
Blessed One (by saying), 'Yes, Lord,' took one 
pot of sugar and went to the place where the Blessed 
One was; having approached him, he said to the 
Blessed One : ' I have brought here, Lord, the pot 
of sugar ; what shall I do with it, Lord ?' 

'Well, Kai/fcana, give the sugar to the Bhik- 
khus.' 

3. BehJtAa. Ka££4na accepted this order of the 
Blessed One (by saying), ' Yes, Lord,' gave the 

* See the 33rd PHittiya Rule about parampara-bho^ana (taking 
food in turn). 



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94 mahAvagga. VI, aC, 4. 

sugar to the Bhikkhus, and said to the Blessed 
One : ' I have given the sugar to the Bhikkhus, 
Lord, but there is much sugar left over ; what shall 
I do with it, Lord ?' 

' Well, Ka^ana, give the Bhikkhus as much sugar 
as they want' 

Bela//^a Ka^iana accepted this order of the 
Blessed One (by saying), 'Yes, Lord,' gave the 
Bhikkhus as much sugar as they wanted, and said 
to the Blessed One : ' I have given, Lord, the 
Bhikkhus as much sugar as they want, but there 
is much sugar left over ; what shall I do with it, 
Lord ?' 

'Well, Ka/&&na, let the Bhikkhus eat their fill 
with sugar/ - 

Bela//^a Ka^&fcana accepted this order of the 
Blessed One (by saying), ' Yes, Lord,' and let the 
Bhikkhus eat their fill with sugar; some Bhikkhus 
filled their bowls and filled their water strainers 
and bags with it. 

4. And Bela//^a Kaiiana, having let the Bhik- 
khus eat their fill with sugar, said to the Blessed 
One: 'The Bhikkhus, Lord, have eaten their fill 
with sugar, but there is much sugar left over ; what 
shall I do with it, Lord ? ' 

'Well, Kai^ana, give the sugar to the people 
who eat the remains of (the Bhikkhus') food,' &c. 

'Well, Kai&Lna, give the people who eat the 
remains of (the Bhikkhus') food as much sugar 
as they want/ &c. 

5. 'Well, Kaiiana, let the people who eat the 
remains of (the Bhikkhus') food, eat their fill with 
sugar' (&c, down to:); some of the people who 
ate the remains of (the Bhikkhus') food, filled their 



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VI,a6,8» ON MEDICAMENTS. 95 

pots and jars, and filled their baskets and the folds 
of their dress with it. 

6. And Bela//>fca Kaiiana, having let the people 
who ate the remains of (the Bhikkhus') food, eat 
their fill with sugar, said to the Blessed One : ' The 
people, Lord, who eat the remains of (the Bhik- 
khus') food, have eaten their fill with sugar, but 
there is much sugar left over ; what shall I do with 
it, Lord?' 

' I see no one, Ka££ana, in the world of men 
and gods, in Mara's and Brahma's world, among all 
beings, Sama#as and Brahmawas, gods and men, 
by whom that sugar, when he has eaten it, can 
be fully assimilated, save ,by the Tathagata or by 
a disciple of the Tathagata. Therefore, Kafe&ma, 
throw that sugar away at a place free from grass, 
or sink it into water in which there are no living 
things.' 

Bela//^a Kaiiana accepted this order of the 
Blessed One (by saying), 'Yes, Lord,' and sunk 
that sugar into water in which there were no living 
things. 

7. And that sugar, when thrown into the water, 
hissed and bubbled, and steamed, and sent forth 
smoke. As a ploughshare, which has been heated 
through the whole day and is thrown into water, 
hisses and bubbles, and steams, and sends forth 
smoke, so that sugar, when thrown into the water, 
hissed and bubbled, steamed, and sent forth smoke. 
And Belaya Ka££ana, terrified and having his hair 
erect with fear, went to the place where the Blessed 
One was; having approached him and respectfully 
saluted the Blessed One, he sat down near him. 

8. When Belaya KaA£ana was sitting near him, 



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96 MAHAVAGGA. VI, 26, 9. 

the Blessed One preached to him in due course; 
that is to say, he talked about the merits obtained 
by alms-giving, about the duties of morality, about 
heaven, about the evils, the vanity, and the defile- 
ment of lusts, and about the blessings of the 
abandonment of lusts. When the Blessed One saw 
that the mind of Bela//^a Ka££ana was prepared, 
impressible, free from obstacles (to understanding 
the Truth), elated, and believing, then he preached 
what is the principal doctrine of the Buddhas, 
namely, Suffering, the Cause of suffering, the Cessa- 
tion of suffering, the Path. Just as a clean cloth free 
from black specks properly takes the dye, thus 
Bela///fca Ka&fcana, even while sitting there, obtained 
the pure and spotless Eye of the Truth (that is, 
the knowledge): 'Whatsoever is subject to the 
condition of origination is subject also to the con- 
dition of cessation.' 

9. And Bela//^a Ka&6ana, having seen the Truth, 
having mastered the Truth, having understood the 
Truth, having penetrated the Truth, having over- 
come uncertainty, having dispelled all doubts, having 
gained full knowledge, dependent on nobody else 
for the knowledge of the doctrine of the Teacher, 
said to the Blessed One : ' Glorious, Lord ! glorious, 
Lord! Just as if one should set up, Lord, what 
had been overturned, or should reveal what had 
been hidden, or should point out the way to one 
who had lost his way, or should bring a lamp into 
the darkness, in order that those who had eyes 
might see visible things, thus has the Blessed One 
preached the doctrine in many ways. I take my 
refuge, Lord, in the Blessed One, and in the 
Dhamma, and in the fraternity of Bhikkhus; may 



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VI, 28, i. ON MEDICAMENTS. 97 

» 

the Blessed One receive me from this day forth 
while my life lasts as a disciple who has taken his 
refuge in him.' 



27. 

And the Blessed One, wandering from place to 
place, came to Ra^agaha. There the Blessed One 
dwelt near Ra^agaha, in the Ve/uvana, at Kalanda- 
kanivapa. At that time the Bhikkhus at Ra^agaha 
had plenty of sugar. The Bhikkhus feared to 
offend (and thought) : ' The Blessed One has 
allowed the eating of sugar only to the sick and 
not to the healthy,' and therefore they did not eat 
sugar. 

They told this thing to the Blessed One. 

* I allow, O Bhikkhus, to the sick the eating of 
sugar, and to the healthy the drinking of sugar- 
water.' 



28 \ 

1. And the Blessed One, after having dwelt at 
R4fagaha as long as he thought fit, went forth 
to Pa/aligama, accompanied by a great number of 
Bhikkhus, by twelve hundred and fifty Bhikkhus. 
Wandering from place to place the Blessed One 
came to Pa/aligama. 

1 Chaps. 28-30 are, with a few unimportant variations, word for 
word the same as Mahdparinibbana Sutta I, 19— II, 3; II, 16-24. 
See Rh. D.'s Introduction to his translation of the Mahiparinibbana 
Sutta, pp. xxxiv seq., and bis note there at II, 16. 

[17] H 



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98 MAHAVAGGA. VI, a8,2. 

Now the lay-devotees at Pa/aligama heard : ' The 
Blessed One has arrived at Pa/aligama.' And the 
Pa/aligama lay-devotees went to the place where 
the Blessed One was ; having approached him and 
respectfully saluted the Blessed One, they sat down 
near him. When they were seated near him, the 
Blessed One taught, incited, animated, and glad- 
dened the Pa/aligama lay-devotees by religious 
discourse. 

2. And the Pa/aligama lay-devotees, having been 
taught, incited, animated, and gladdened by the 
Blessed One by religious discourse, said to the 
Blessed One: 'Might the Blessed One, Lord, 
consent to come to our rest house together with 
the fraternity of Bhikkhus.' The Blessed One 
expressed his consent by remaining silent Then 
the Pa/aligama lay-devotees, when they understood 
that the Blessed One had accepted their invitation, 
rose from their seats, respectfully saluted the Blessed 
One, and passing round him with their right side 
towards him, went away to the rest house. When 
they had arrived there, they strewed the whole floor 
of the rest house 1 , placed seats in it, set up a 
water-pot, and fixed an oil lamp. Then they went 
to the place where the Blessed One was; having 
approached him and respectfully saluted the Blessed 
One, they stationed themselves near him. 

3. Standing near him the Pa/aliputta lay-devotees 
said to the Blessed One: 'We have strewn the 
whole floor of the rest house, Lord, (with sand), 
we have placed seats in it, set up a water-pot, and 



1 Perhaps we are to supply ' with sand.' Comp. Dtpavamsa VI, 
64; XII, 71, &c. 



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VI,»8,4- ON MEDICAMENTS. 99 

fixed an oil lamp. May the Blessed One, Lord, do 
now what he thinks fit.' 

And in the forenoon the Blessed One, having 
put on his under-robes, took his alms-bowl, and, 
with his ^ivara on, went to the rest house together 
with the Bhikkhus who followed him. When he 
had arrived there, he washed his feet, entered the 
rest house, and took his seat against the centre 
pillar, with his face towards the east. And the 
Bhikkhus also washed their feet, entered the rest 
house, and took their seats against the western 
wall, with their faces towards the east, having the 
Blessed One before their eyes. And the Pa/aligama 
lay-devotees also washed their feet, entered the 
rest house, and took their seats against the eastern 
wall, with their faces towards the west, having the 
Blessed One before their eyes. 

4. Then the Blessed One thus addressed the 
Pa/aligama lay-devotees : ' Fivefold, O householders, 
is the loss of the wrong-doer through his want of 
rectitude. And which is this fivefold loss ? In the 
first place, O householders, the wrong-doer, devoid 
of rectitude, falls into great poverty through sloth ; 
this is the first loss of the wrong-doer through his 
want of rectitude. And again, O householders, of 
the wrong-doer, devoid of rectitude, evil repute gets 
noised abroad ; this is the second &c. And again, 
O householders, whatever society the wrong-doer, 
devoid of rectitude, enters — whether of noblemen, 
Brahma«as, heads of houses, or Sama«as — he enters 
shyly and confused ; this is the third &c. And 
again, O householders, the wrong-doer, devoid of 
rectitude, is full of anxiety when he dies; this is 
the fourth &c. And again, O householders, the 

h 2 



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ioo mahAvagga. VI, 28, 5. 

wrong-doer, devoid of rectitude, on the dissolution 
of his body, after death, is reborn into some state 
of distress and punishment, a state of woe, and hell ; 
this is the fifth &c. This is the fivefold loss, O 
householders, of the wrong-doer through his want 
of rectitude. 

5. ' Fivefold, O householders, is the gain of the 
well-doer through his practice of rectitude. And 
which is this fivefold gain ? In the first place, O 
householders, the well-doer, strong in rectitude, 
acquires great wealth through his industry; this 
is the first gain of the well-doer through his practice 
of rectitude. And again, O householders, of the 
well-doer, strong in rectitude, good reports are 
spread abroad ; this is the second &c. And again, 
O householders, whatever society the well-doer, 
strong in rectitude, enters — whether of noblemen, 
Brahmawas, heads of houses, or Samaras — he enters 
confident and self-possessed; this is the third &c. 
And again, O householders, the well-doer, strong 
in rectitude, dies without anxiety ; this is the fourth 
&c. And again, O householders, the well-doer, 
strong in rectitude, on the dissolution of his body, 
after death, is reborn into some happy state in 
heaven; this is the fifth &c. This is the fivefold 
gain, O householders, of the well-doer through his 
practice of rectitude.' 

6. When the Blessed One had thus taught, incited, 
animated, and gladdened the Pa/aligama lay-devotees 
far into the night with religious discourse, he dis- 
missed them, saying, ' The night is far spent, O 
householders. May you do now what you think fit.' 
The Pa&iligama lay-devotees accepted the Blessed 
One's word by saying, * Yes, Lord,' rose from their 



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VI, a8,8. ON MEDICAMENTS. IOI 

seats, respectfully saluted the Blessed One, and pass- 
ing round him with their right side towards him, 
went away. 

7. And the Blessed One, not long after the Pa/ali- 
gama lay-devotees had departed thence, went to an 
empty place 1 (in order to give himself to meditation). 

At that time Suntdha and Vassakara, two ministers 
of Magadha, were building a (fortified) town at Pa/a- 
ligama in order to repel the Vaggis. And the Blessed 
One, rising up early in the morning, at dawn's time, 
saw with his divine and clear vision, surpassing that 
of ordinary men, great numbers of fairies who 
haunted the ground there at Pa/aligama. Now, 
wherever ground is occupied by powerful fairies, 
they bend the hearts of powerful kings and ministers 
to build dwelling-places there. Wherever ground 
is occupied by fairies of middling power, &c. ; of 
inferior power, they bend the hearts of middling 
kings and ministers, &c, of inferior kings and min- 
isters to build dwelling-places there. 

8. And the Blessed. One said to the venerable 

A A 

Ananda : ' Who are they, Ananda, who are building 
a town at Pa/aligama ?' 

' Sunldha and Vassakara, Lord, the two ministers 
of Magadha, are building a town at Pa/aligama in 
order to repel the Vaggis.' 

' As if they had consulted, Ananda, with the 
Tavatiwsa gods, so (at the right place), Ananda, 
the Magadha ministers Suntdha and Vassakara 
build this town at Pa/aligama in order to repel the 
Vaggis. When I had risen up early in the morn- 
ing, Ananda, at dawn's time, I saw with my divine 

1 Sxmn&g&TO. Comp. I, 78, 5; Suttavibhanga, T&rfg. IV, 4, 1. 

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102 MAHAVAGGA. VI, 28, 9. 

and clear vision (&c, as in § 7, down to :) they bend 
the hearts of inferior kings and ministers to build 
dwelling-places there. As far, Ananda, as Aryan 
people dwell, as far as merchants travel, this will 
become the chief town, the city of Patfaliputta. But 
danger of destruction, Ananda, will hang over Pa/a- 
liputta in three ways, by fire, or by water, or by 
internal discord 1 .' 

9. And the Magadha ministers Sunldha and Vassa- 
kara went to the place where the Blessed One was ; 
having approached him, they exchanged greeting 
with the Blessed One ; having exchanged with him 
greeting and complaisant words, they stationed 
themselves near him; then standing near him the 
Magadha ministers Sunidha and Vassakara said to 
the Blessed One : ' Might the reverend Gotama 
consent to take his meal with us to-day together 
with the fraternity of Bhikkhus.' 

The Blessed One expressed his consent by remain- 
ing silent. Then the Magadha ministers Sunldha and 
Vassakara, when they understood that the Blessed 
One had accepted their invitation, went away. 



1 The event prophesied here, Pa/aliputta's becoming the capital 
of the Magadha empire, is placed by the various authorities under 
different kings. Hwen Thsang and the Burmese writer quoted by 
Bishop Bigandet (' Legend of the Burmese Buddha,' third edition, 
vol ii, p. 183) say that it was Kal&soka who removed the seat of the 
empire to Pa/aliputta. The Gains, on the other hand, state that 
it was Udayi, the son of A^atasatru. Most probably the latter 
tradition is the correct one, as even king Munda is mentioned in 
the Ahguttara NikSya as having resided at Pa/aliputta. Comp. 
Rh. D.'s ' Buddhist Suttas,' Introd. pp. xv seq. ; H. O.'s Introduc- 
tion to the Mahavagga, p. xxxvii ; and the remarks of Professor 
Jacobi and of H. O. in Zeitschrift der Deutschen Morg. Gesellschaft, 
vol. xxxiv, pp. 185, 751, 75a, note 2. 



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VI, 28, 12. ON MEDICAMENTS. 103 

10. And the Magadha ministers Suntdha and 
Vassakara ordered excellent food, both hard and 
soft, to be prepared, and had meal-time announced 
(&C. 1 , down to :) on seats laid out for them. And 
the Magadha ministers Suntdha and Vassakara with 
their own hands served and offered excellent food, 
both hard and soft, to the fraternity of Bhikkhus 
with the Buddha at its head ; and when the Blessed 
One had finished his meal and cleansed his bowl 
and his hands, they sat down near him. When they 
were sitting near him, the Blessed One gladdened 
the Magadha ministers Suntdha and Vassakara by 
these stanzas: 

ii. 'Wheresoe'er the prudent man shall take up 
his abode, let him support there good and upright 
men of self-control. 

' Let him make offerings to all such deities as 
may be there. Revered, they will revere him; 
honoured, they honour him again ; 

'Are gracious to him as a mother to the son of 
her womb. And a man who has the grace of the 
gods, good fortune he beholds.' 

And the Blessed One, having gladdened the 
Magadha ministers Suntdha and Vassakara by these 
stanzas, rose from his seat and went away. 

1 2. And the Magadha ministers Suntdha and Vassa- 
kara followed the Blessed One from behind, saying, 
' The gate the Sama«a Gotama goes out by to-day 
shall be called Gotama's gate, and the ferry at which 
he crosses the river Ganges shall be called Gotama's 
ferry.' And the gate the Blessed One went out by 



1 See chap. 23. 5, &c. Instead of • Lord,' read here, ' Reverend 
Gotama.' 



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104 MAHAVAGGA. VI, 38, 13. 

was called Gotama's gate. And the Blessed One 
went on to the river. At that time the river Ganges 
was brimful and overflowing 1 ; and wishing to cross 
to the opposite bank, some began to seek for boats, 
some for rafts of wood, while some made rafts of 
basket-work. 

1 3. And the Blessed One saw those people who 
wished to cross to the opposite bank, some seeking 
for boats, some for rafts of wood, and some making 
rafts of basket-work. When he saw them, he van- 
ished as quickly as a strong man might stretch his 
bent arm out, or draw back his outstretched arm, 
from this side of the river Ganges, and stood on the 
further bank with the company of the Bhikkhus. 

And the Blessed One, perceiving all this, on this 
occasion, pronounced this solemn utterance : 

'They who cross the ocean's floods making a 
solid path across the pools — 

' Whilst the vain world ties its basket rafts : these 
are the wise, these are the saved indeed.' 



29. 

1. And the Blessed One went to Ko/igama. 
There at Ko/igama the Blessed One resided. And 
the Blessed One thus addressed the Bhikkhus : 

' It is through not understanding and grasping 
four Noble Truths, O Bhikkhus, that we have had 
to run so long, to wander so long in this weary path 
of transmigration, both you and I. And what are 

1 SamatitthikS. This word is replaced by samattrthika' at 
LaLVist. pp. 501,528. Compare, however,Rh. D.'s note on Teviggz 
Sutta I, 24 ('Buddhist Suttas,' p. 178). 



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VI, 30, I. ON MEDICAMENTS. I05 

these four ? By not understanding and grasping 
the Noble Truth of Suffering, O Bhikkhus ; by not 
understanding and grasping the Noble Truth of 
the Cause of suffering; by not understanding and 
grasping the Noble Truth of the Cessation of 
suffering; by not understanding and grasping the 
Noble Truth of the Path which leads to the cessa- 
tion of suffering : thereby we have had to run so 
long, to wander so long in this weary path of trans- 
migration, both you and I. 

2. 'But now, O Bhikkhus, the Noble Truth of 
Suffering is understood and grasped; the Noble 
Truth of the Cause of suffering, &c, of the Cessa- 
tion of suffering, &c, of the Path which leads to 
the cessation of suffering is understood and grasped. 
The craving for existence is rooted out ; that which 
leads to renewed existence is destroyed ; and there 
is no more birth ! 

4 By not seeing the four Noble Truths as they 
really are, long is the path that is traversed through 
many a birth. 

' Now these are grasped ; the cause of birth is 
removed, the root of sorrow rooted out, and there 
is no more birth.' 



30. 

1. Now the courtezan Ambapall heard that the 
Blessed One had arrived at Ko/igama. And the 
courtezan Ambapall ordered a number of magni- 
ficent vehicles to be made ready, mounted one of 
these vehicles, and left Vesali with her magnificent 
vehicles in order to visit the Blessed One. She 



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106 mahAvagga. VI, 30, 2. 

went in the carriage as far as the ground was pass- 
able for carriages; there she alighted; and she 
proceeded on foot to the place where the Blessed 
One was. Having approached him and respectfully 
saluted the Blessed One, she sat down near him. 

2. When she was sitting near him, the Blessed 
One taught, incited, animated, and gladdened the 
courtezan Ambapali by religious discourse. And 
the courtezan Ambapali, having been taught, &c, 
by the Blessed One by religious discourse, said to 
the Blessed One : ' Might the Blessed One, Lord, 
consent to take his meal with me to-morrow toge- 
ther with the fraternity of Bhikkhus.' 

The Blessed One expressed his consent by remain- 
ing silent 

Then the courtezan Ambapali, when she under- 
stood that the Blessed One had accepted her invi- 
tation, rose from her seat, respectfully saluted the 
Blessed One, and, passing round him with her right 
side towards him, went away. 

3. Now the LiiMavis of Vesali heard that the 
Blessed One had arrived at Ko/igama. And the 
LL&fefcavis of Vesali ordered a number of magni- 
ficent vehicles to be made ready, mounted these 
vehicles, and left Vesali with their magnificent 
vehicles in order to visit the Blessed One. Some 
of the Li£/fe6avis were dark, dark in colour, and 
wearing dark clothes and ornaments; some of 
them were fair, fair in colour, and wearing light 
clothes and ornaments; some of them were red, 
ruddy in colour, and wearing red clothes and orna- 
ments; some of them were white, pale in colour, 
and wearing white colours and ornaments. And 
the courtezan Ambapali drove up against the young 



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VI, 30, 4- ON MEDICAMENTS. 107 

LLfcfcfcavis, pole to pole, yoke to yoke, wheel to 
wheel, axle to axle. [4.] And those Li££6avis said 
to the courtezan Ambapali : ' How is it, Ambapali, 
that you drive up against the young h\JtMa.vis, 
pole to pole, &c. ?' 

' My Lords, I have just invited the Blessed One 
with the fraternity of Bhikkhus for their morrow's 
meal.' 

' Ambapali ! give up this meal to us for a hundred 
thousand.' 

' My Lords, were you to offer all Vesali with its 
subject territory, I would not give up this meal.' 

Then the LiiMavis snapped their fingers (ex- 
claiming), 'We are outdone by this woman 1 ! we 
are out-reached by this woman 1 !' 

4. Then the Li£&6avis went to the place where 
the Blessed One was. And the Blessed One saw 
the lAkkkaxis coming from afar; when he saw 
them, he addressed the Bhikkhus and said : ' O 
Bhikkhus, let those of the Bhikkhus who have 
never seen the Tavatiwsa gods, gaze upon this 
company of the \Akkhzv\s, behold this company of 
the \Akkkzvis, compare this company of the \S\k- 
khaivis, even as a company of Tavatiwsa gods!' 

And the LLfe&fcavis went in the carriages as far 
as the ground was passable for carriages (&c, as 
in §§ i, 2, down to :) 'Might the Blessed One, Lord, 
consent to take his meal with us to-morrow together 
with the fraternity of Bhikkhus.' 

1 Ambakdya, which Buddhaghosa explains by itthikSya, comp. 
the well-known Mantra, Va^asaneyi Sawhita 23. 18 : Ambe ambike 
'mbalike, &c. Probably the word ambaka is a contemptuous form 
intended here at the same time to convey an allusion to the mango- 
(amba-) gardens which Ambapali possessed, and from which she 
was named. Comp. Rh. D.'s note at Mahaparinibbana Sutta II, 1 9. 



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108 mahAvagga. vi, 30, 5. 

' I have promised, O LLfcMavis, to dine to-morrow 
with Ambapalt the courtezan.' 

5. And the Blessed One, after having dwelt at 
Korfgima as long as he thought fit, went to i^atika. 
There the Blessed One dwelt at i^atika, in the Brick 
Hall (Gi«fakavasatha). And when the night had 
elapsed, the courtezan Ambapalt ordered in her park 
excellent food (&c, as in chap. 28. 10 \ down to :) she 
sat down near him. Sitting near him the courtezan 
Ambapalt said to the Blessed One : ' I give up this 
Ambapalt grove, Lord, to the fraternity of Bhikkhus 
with the Buddha at its head.' The Blessed One 
accepted the Arama. Then the Blessed One, after 
having taught, incited, animated, and gladdened the 
courtezan Ambapalt by religious discourse, rose from 
his seat and went to the Mahavana. There the 
Blessed One dwelt at Vesali, in the Mahavana, in 
the Ku&gara-sala. 

End of the Livfcfcfcavi Bha#avara. 



31. 

1. At that time many distinguished Li^^avis 
were sitting together assembled in the town-hall 
and spoke in many ways in praise of the Buddha, 
of the Dhamma, and of the Sawgha. At that time 
Stha, the general-in-chief (of the lA&Ma.vis), a dis- 
ciple of the Nigantka. sect, was sitting in that 
assembly. And Siha, the general, thought : ' Truly 

1 Replace 'the Magadha ministers Suntdha and Vassakira' by 
'the courtezan Ambapalt,' and instead of 'Reverend Gotama,' read 
'Lord.' 



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VI, 3I»3- ON MEDICAMENTS. IO9 

he, the Blessed One, must be the Arahat Buddha, 
since these many distinguished Li^Mavis, who are 
sitting here together assembled in the town-hall, 
speak in so many ways in praise of the Buddha, 
of the Dhamma, and of the Samgha.. What if I 
were to go and visit him, the Arahat Buddha.' 

2. And Slha, the general, went to the place where 
the NigantAa. Nataputta 1 was; having approached 
him, he said to the Niga#/$a Nataputta : ' I wish, 
Lord, to go and visit the Sama«a Gotama.' 

' Why should you, Slha, who believe in the result 
of actions* (according to their moral merit), go to 
visit the Sama#a Gotama, who denies the result of 
actions ? For the Samawa Gotama, Siha, denies 
the result of actions; he teaches the doctrine of 
non-action; and in this doctrine he trains his 
disciples.' 

Then the desire to go and to visit the Blessed 
One, which had arisen in Siha, the general, abated 
in him. 

3. And a second time many distinguished Li£- 
Mavis were sitting together (&c, as in §§ i, 2, down 
to the end). 

And a third time many distinguished Li££(4avis 
were sitting together, &c. And a third time Slha, 
the general, thought : ' Truly he, the Blessed One, 
must be the Arahat Buddha, since these many dis- 
tinguished Li&&Aa.vis, who are sitting here together 
assembled in the town-hall, speak in so many ways 

1 The founder of the Niga«//4a sect, who is, according to the 
important discovery of Professors Buhler and Jacobi, identical with 
the Mah&vira of the Gain legends. See Jacobi's Preface to the 

Kalpasfltra, pp. 1 seq. 
* Kirirav&da. 



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no mahAvagga. VI, 31, 4. 

in praise of the Buddha, of the Dhamma, and of the 
Sawgha. What are the Niga»/^as to me, whether 
they give their consent or not ? What if I were to 
go without asking the Niga«/ias for their consent, 
to visit him, the Blessed One, the Arahat Buddha.' 

4. And Stha, the general, went out of Vesali 
with five hundred vehicles at broad daylight in 
order to visit the Blessed One. He went in the 
carriage as far as the ground was passable for 
carriages; there he alighted; and he proceeded 
on foot to the place where the Blessed One was. 
Having approached him, and respectfully saluted 
the Blessed One, he sat down near him. When 
he was sitting near him, Stha, the general, said to 
the Blessed One : ' I have heard, Lord, that the 
Samara Gotama denies the result of actions ; he 
teaches the doctrine of non-action, and in this 
doctrine he trains his disciples. Now, Lord, those 
who speak thus: "The Sama»a Gotama denies 
the result of actions," &c. — do they say the truth 
of the Blessed One, and do they not bear false 
witness against the Blessed One and pass off a 
spurious Dhamma as your Dhamma? And there 
is nothing blameworthy in a discourse and dispute 
like this regarding matters of the Dhamma ; for it 
is our intention, Lord, to avoid bringing false accu- 
sations against the Blessed One.' 

5 \ ' There is a way, Slha, in which one speak- 
ing truly could say of me : " The Sama«a Gotama 
denies action 8 ; he teaches the doctrine of non- 
action ; and in this doctrine he trains his disciples." 

1 A part of the following discourse is the same as Suttavibhanga, 
Para^. I, i, 3. 
» 'The doctrine of non-action,' and 'the doctrine of action,' 



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VI, 31, 5« 0N MEDICAMENTS. Ill 

' And again, Siha, there is a way in which one 
speaking truly could say of me : " The Sama#a Go- 
tama maintains action * ; he teaches the doctrine of 
action ; and in this doctrine he trains his disciples." 

'And again, Siha, there is a way in which one 
speaking truly could say of me : " The Sama#a Go- 
tarna maintains annihilation 2 ; he teaches the doctrine 
of annihilation ; and in this doctrine he trains his 
disciples." 

'And again, Siha, there is a way in which one 
speaking truly could say of me : " The Samawa Go- 
tama proclaims contemptibleness 3 ; he teaches the 
doctrine of contemptibleness ; and in this doctrine 
he trains his disciples." 

' And again, &c. : " The Sama«a Gotama pro- 
claims Vinaya 4 ; he teaches the doctrine of Vinaya; 
and in this doctrine he trains his disciples." 

' And again, &c. : " The Sama»a Gotama pro- 
claims Tapas 6 , &c." 

'And again, &c. : "The Sama»a Gotama is apagab- 
bha* ; he teaches the doctrine of apagabbhata, &c." 

taken in the ordinary sense of the words, are the doctrines that 
the actions of sentient beings receive not, or receive, their reward 
according to the law of moral retribution. In this discourse, how- 
ever, a peculiar meaning is attached to these two terms; see § 6. 

1 See note 2, p. no. 

1 U££Aedav&da (' the doctrine of annihilation') is the doctrine 
that death is the annihilation of existence (' uiMedav&da" sato 
sattassa vMiedsm vin&sam vibhavam pawnapenti.' Brahma^ila- 
sutta). But in this discourse the word is taken in a peculiar sense ; 
comp. § 7. 

* GeguMAitL See § 7. 

* ' Right conduct' But in this discourse it is also taken in the 
sense of ' putting away' (scil. evil) ; see § 8. 

* ' Self-mortification,' literally, ' burning,' in which sense the word 
is taken in § 8. 

* Apagabbha (apragalbha) and apagabbhata 1 ordinarily mean 



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112 MAHAVAGGA. VI, 31, 6. 

' And again, &c. : " The Sama«a Gotama is con- 
fident 1 ; he teaches the doctrine of confidence, &c." 

6. ' And in which way is it, Siha, that one speak- 
ing truly could say of me : " The Samawa Gotama 
denies action ; he teaches the doctrine of non-action ; 
and in this doctrine he trains his disciples ?" I teach, 
Slha, the not-doing of such actions as are unright- 
eous, either by deed, or by word, or by thought ; I 
teach the not bringing about of the manifold condi- 
tions (of heart) which are evil and not good. In this 
way, Siha, one speaking truly could say of me : " The 
Sama«a Gotama, &c." 

' And in which way is it, Siha, that one speaking 
truly could say of me : " The Sama«a Gotama main- 
tains action ; he teaches the doctrine of action ; and 
in this doctrine he trains his disciples?" I teach, 
Siha, the doing of such actions as are righteous, by 
deed, by word, and by thought ; I teach the bring- 
ing about of the manifold conditions (of heart) which 
are good and not evil. In this way, &c." 

7. ' And in which way is it, Siha, that one speak- 
ing truly could say of me : " The Sama«a Gotama 
maintains annihilation; he teaches the doctrine of 
annihilation ; and in this doctrine he trains his dis- 
ciples?" I proclaim, Siha, the annihilation of lust, 
of ill-will, of delusion ; I proclaim the annihilation 
of the manifold conditions (of heart) which are evil 
and not good. In this way, &c." 

* And in which way is it, Siha, that one speak- 
ing truly could say of me : " The Sama«a Gotama 

' irresolute ' and ' irresolution.' But here the words are taken in 
quite another sense, with a pun that cannot be rendered in English ; 
see § 9. 
1 See § 9. 



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VI, 3i, S. ON MEDICAMENTS. JI3 

proclaims contemptibleness, &c. ?" I deem, Siha, 
unrighteous actions contemptible, whether they be 
performed by deed, or by word, or by thought; I 
proclaim the doctrine of the contemptibleness of 
falling into the manifold conditions (of heart) which 
are evil and not good. In this way, &c. 

8. ' And in which way is it, Slha, that one speak- 
ing truly could say of me : " The Samawa Gotama 
proclaims Vinaya, &c?" I teach, Slha, the doing 
away 1 with lust, with ill-will, with delusion ; I teach 
the doing away with the manifold conditions (of heart) 
which are evil and not good. In this way, &c. 

' And in which way is it, Slha, that one speak- 
ing truly could say of me : " The Samawa Gotama 
proclaims Tapas, &c. ?" I teach, Slha, that all the 
conditions (of heart) which are evil and not good, 
unrighteous actions by deed, by word, and by thought 
must be burnt away 2 . He who has freed himself, 
Slha, from all conditions (of heart) which are evil 
and not good, which. ought to be burnt away, who 
has rooted them out, and has done away with them 
as a palm tree is rooted out 3 , so that they are 
destroyed* and cannot grow up again — such a 




1 VinaySya. (' I \ I \ / ,, . ; , ( > 

* Tapanfya, connected with tapas. \ c^ 

* Tali vatthukat3. See Buddhaghosa's wtpkasjlon . o£ this 
phrase in Vinaya Pi/aka, vol. iii, p. 267. 

4 Anabhavaa* gat£ (see the correction, Vinaya Pi/aka, vol. ii, 
p. 363), literally, ' They are gone to non-existence.' Buddhaghosa 
takes great pains in explaining anabhava ; and he quotes also a 
various reading anubhiva ; see Vinaya Pi/aka, vol. iii, p. 267. But 
anabh&va is correct, and must be understood as a synonym of 
abhiva. As to ana-, equal to a-, compare S. Goldschmidt, Zeitschr. 
der Deutschen Morg. Ges. vol. xxxii, pp. 100 seq. ; Weber, Hala, 
p. 16; Pischel's note on Hema£andra II, 190; Curtius, Griechische 

[17] I 



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i r4 mahAvagga. ti, 31, 9. 

person do I call accomplished in Tapas. Now the 
Tathagata, Slha, has freed himself from all condi- 
tions, &c. In this way, &c. 

9. ' And in which way is it, Siha, that one speak- 
ing truly could say of me : " The Samawa Gotama 
is apagabbha (irresolute 1 ), &c?" He who has 
freed himself, Slha, from the necessity of returning 
in future into a mother's womb 4 , and of being reborn 
into new existences, who has rooted out (his being 
subject to) rebirth, and has done away with it as a 
palm tree is rooted out, so that it is destroyed and 
cannot grow up again — such a person do I call 
apagabbha. Now the Tathagata, Siha, has freed 
himself, &c. In this way, &c. 

' And in which way is it, Slha, that one speak- 
ing truly could say of me : " The Sama«a Gotama 
is confident, &c. ?" I am confident, Siha, by the 
highest confidence; and thus I teach the doctrine 
of confidence and train my disciples in it. In this 
way, &c.' 

10. When he had spoken thus, Slha, the general, 
said to the Blessed One : ' Glorious, Lord ! glorious, 
Lord ! (&c, as in chap. 26. 9, down to :) may 
the Blessed One receive me from this day forth 
while my life lasts as a disciple who has taken his 
refuge in him.' 

'Consider first, Slha, what you are doing. It is 
becoming that well-known persons like you should 
do nothing without due consideration.' 

Etymologie, 5th edition, p. 306 (awwftw, &c). Another Pali word 
containing this prefix ana- is anatnata,anamatagga; see,for instance, 
Cataka II, p. 56. 

1 See § 5 with our note. 

* Into a 'gabbha.' 'Apagabbha' is taken here as 'not subject 
to returning to a gabbha.' 



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VI, 3i, II- ON MEDICAMENTS. I15 

' By this, Lord, my joy and my faith in the Blessed 
One has still increased, in that the Blessed One says 
to me: "Consider first, &c." Had the other Tit- 
thiya teachers, Lord, got me as their disciple, they 
would carry around their banners through the whole 
of Vesali (and cry) : " Slha, the general, has become 
our disciple!" But the Blessed One says to me: 
" Consider first, &c." For the second time, Lord, 
I take my refuge in the Blessed One, and in the 
Dhamma, and in the Bhikkhu-sawgha : may the 
Blessed One receive me from this day forth while 
my life lasts as a disciple who has taken his refuge 
in him.' 

11.' For a long time, Slha, drink has been offered to 
the NigawAfcas in your house 1 . You should therefore 
deem it right (also in the future) to give them food 
when they come (to you on their alms-pilgrimage).' 

' By this, Lord, my joy and my faith in the Blessed 
One has still increased, in that the Blessed One says 
to me : " For a long time, &c." I have been told, 
Lord : " The Sama»a Gotama says : ' To me alone 
gifts should be given; to nobody else gifts should 
be given. To my pupils alone gifts should be given ; 
to no one else's pupils gifts should be given. Only 
what is given to me has great reward ; what is given 
to others has not great reward. Only what is given 
to my pupils has great reward ; what is given to the 
pupils of others has not great reward.' " But the 
Blessed One exhorts me to give also to the Niga»- 
thas. Well, Lord, we will see what will be season- 



1 Literally, ' your house has been an op£na to the Niga«/i4as.' 
Opana may be either avapana or, as Buddhaghosa seems to 
understand it, udapana (compare oka =» udaka). 

I 2 



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1 16 mahAvagga. vi, 31, M. 

able. For the third time, Lord, I take my refuge 
in the Blessed One, &c.' 

12. And the Blessed One preached to Slha, the 
general, in due course; that is to say, he talked 
about the merits obtained by almsgiving, about the 
duties of morality (&c, in the usual way ; see, for 
instance, I, 8, 2, 3, down to :) dependent on nobody 
else for knowledge of the doctrine of the Teacher, 
he said to the Blessed One : ' Lord, may the Blessed 
One consent to take his meal with me to-morrow, 
together with the fraternity of Bhikkhus.' 

The Blessed One expressed his consent by re- 
maining silent. Then Siha, the general, when he 
understood that the Blessed One had accepted his 
invitation, rose from his seat, respectfully saluted 
the Blessed One, and, passing round him with his 
right side towards him, went away. 

And Slha, the general, gave order to a certain 
man (among his subalterns, saying), ' Go, my friend, 
and see if there is any meat to be had 1 .' And when 
that night had elapsed, Slha, the general, ordered ex- 
cellent food (&c, as in chap. 23. 5, down to the end). 

13. At that time a great number of Niga»/^as 
(running) through Vesali, from road to road and 
from cross-way to cross-way 2 , with outstretched arms, 
cried : ' To-day Siha, the general, has killed a great 
ox and has made a meal for the Sama#a Gotama ; 
the Samawa Gotama knowingly eats this meat of an 
animal killed for this very purpose, and has thus 
become virtually the author of that deed (of killing 
the animal) ! ' 

Then a certain man went to the place where Slha, 

1 About pavattamamsa, see the note at chap. 23. 2. 
* See X, 1, 9. 

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VI, 32, 1. ON MEDICAMENTS. 1 1 "J 

the general, was. Having approached him he said 
to Siha, the general, into his ear: 'Please, Lord, 
have you noticed that a great number of Niga»/^as 
(running) through Vesali, &c. ?' 

' Do not mind it, my good Sir. Long since those 
venerable brethren are trying to discredit the Buddha, 
the Dhamma, and the Sawgha ; and those venerable 
brethren do not become tired of telling false, idle, 
vain lies of the Blessed One. Not for our life would 
we ever intentionally kill a living being.' 

14. And Siha, the general, served and offered 
with his own hands excellent food, both hard and 
soft, to the fraternity of Bhikkhus with the Buddha 
at its head ; and when the Blessed One (&c, as in 
chap. 23. 7, down to the end). 

In consequence of that the Blessed One, having 
delivered a religious discourse, addressed the Bhik- 
khus and said : 

' Let no one, O Bhikkhus, knowingly eat meat (of 
an animal) killed for that purpose. Whosoever does 
so, is guilty of a dukka/a offence. 

' I prescribe, O Bhikkhus, that fish is pure to you 
in three cases : if you do not see, if you have not 
heard, if you do not suspect (that it has been caught 
specially to be given to you).' 



32. 
1. Now at that time Vesali was well provided 
with food, the harvest was good, alms were easy to 
obtain, one could very well get a living 1 by gleaning, 
or through favour. 

1 Literally, ' keep oneself going.' Compare the use of y dpetuw 
at Maha-parinibbana Sutta II, 32. 



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i i 8 mahAvacga. VI, 32, a. 

And when the Blessed One had retired into soli- 
tude this consideration presented itself to his mind : 
' The things which I have prescribed for the Bhik- 
khus in a time of scarcity, when the harvest is bad, 
and alms are difficult to obtain — keeping food 
indoors, cooking it indoors, cooking it of one's own 
accord, taking what they can pick up, eating food 
brought from within, or received before meal-time, 
eating things found in woods or in pools 1 , those 
things the Bhikkhus enjoy also now.' 

And the Blessed One, in the evening, when he had 
left his solitude, said to the venerable Ananda : ' The 
things which (&c, as above, down to :) or in pools — 
do the Bhikkhus enjoy those things now also ?' 

' They enjoy them, Lord.' 

2. Then the Blessed One, in that connection, 
and on that account, after having delivered a reli- 
gious discourse, said to the Bhikkhus : 

' The things which I have prescribed (&c, as in 
§ 1 , down to :) or in pools — those I do not allow 
from this day forth. You are not, O Bhikkhus, to 
eat food kept indoors, or cooked indoors, or cooked of 
your own accord ; nor to take things (to eat) which 
you have picked up. Whosoever shall do so, is guilty 
of a dukka/a offence. And you are not, O Bhik- 
khus — after you have once finished eating, and have 
refused food still offered — to eat food brought from 
within, or received before meal-time, or found in the 
woods or pools, even if it be food which is not the 
leavings of the meal of one who has eaten on invita- 
tion. Whosoever shall so eat, shall be dealt with 
according to law 2 .' 

1 For these rules, see above, VI, 17-19. 

* See the 35th Paflttiya Rule, and our note upon it. 



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VI, 33- »• ON MEDICAMENTS. IC9 

« 

33. 

1. Now at that time the country people loaded 
much salt, and oil, and rice, and hard food on their 
carts, and making a laager in the outer enclosure of 
the Arama, they waited there, saying, ' When it 
comes to our turn, we will provide a meal.' And a 
great storm-cloud arose. 

Then those people went to the place where the 
venerable Ananda was ; and when they had come 
there they said to the venerable Ananda : ' We 
loaded a quantity of salt, and oil, and rice, and hard 
food on to our carts ; and they stand there. Now a 
great storm-cloud has arisen. What are we now, 
Ananda, Sir, to do with them ?' 

Then the venerable Ananda told this thing to the 
Blessed One. 

2. 'In that case, Ananda, let the Samgha de- 
cide upon some outside building as a kappiya- 
bhumi (that is to say, a site, outside the actual 
dwelling, in which provisions can be kept or cooked 
without breaking the rule laid down in the last 
chapter) and keep the stores there (in a building) 
of any shape the Sa#/gha chooses, such as vihara, 
addhayoga, pasada, hammiya, guha 1 . 

' And thus, O Bhikkhus, should it be resolved 
upon. A discreet and able Bhikkhu should pro- 
claim the following »atti before the Sawgha: "Let 
the Sa*#gha, reverend Sirs, hear me. If the Samgha 
is ready, let the Samgha appoint the Vihara called 
N. N. to be our kappiya-bhumi. This is the 
watti. Let the Sawzgha, reverend Sirs, hear me. 

1 On these five kinds of buildings, see above, I, 30, 4 ; II, 8, 1. 

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1 20 MAHAvAGGA. VI, 33, 3. 

The Sawgha appoints the Vihara called N. N. to 
be our kappiya-bhumi. Let any one of the 
venerable brethren who is in favour of appointing 
the Vihara (&c, down to :) thus I understand." ' 

3. Now at that time men in that place — the 
kappiya-bhumi duly chosen by resolution (of the 
Sa*«gha) — boiled congey, and boiled rice, and mixed 
curries, and cut up meat, and split fire-wood. And 
when the Blessed One, as the night was passing 
away, rose up, he heard a great and loud noise, as 
of the cawing of crows. On hearing this he asked 
the venerable Ananda: ' What now, Ananda, maybe 
this great and loud noise, as of the cawing of crows?' 

4. 'In that place, Lord, — the kappiya-bhumi 
duly chosen by resolution (of the Sawgha), — men 
are now boiling congey, and boiling rice, and mixing 
curries, and cutting up meat, and splitting fire-wood. 
Thence, Lord, comes that great and loud noise, as 
of the cawing of crows.' 

Then the Blessed One, in that connection, and on 
that account, after he had delivered a religious dis- 
course, said to the Bhikkhus : 

'A kappiya-bh&mi, O Bhikkhus, duly chosen, 
is not to be made use of. Whosoever shall so use 
it, is guilty of a dukka/a offence. I allow you, O 
Bhikkhus, a kappiya-bhftmi of three kinds, one 
that has become so by means of a proclamation 1 , 



1 Buddhaghosa says, on this word : ' When- a Vihara is to be 
erected on piles, or the foundations of its walls are to be dug out, 
and the stones on which it is to rest are already laid, then when the 
first pile or the first stone of the walls is put upon them, the men 
standing round in a body proclaim, "Let us make a kapplya- 
ku/i."' The proclamation cannot be made after the building has 
got further than the actual stage here described. UssavanS, is 



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VI, 34, T. ON MEDICAMENTS. 121 

an ox-stall 1 , and a building belonging to lay- 
men 2 .' 

5. Now at that time the venerable Yasq^a was 
sick, and drugs were brought for his use, and these 
the Bhikkhus put out of doors. Vermin ate them, 
and thieves carried them away 8 . 

They told this thing to the Blessed One. 

' I allow you, O Bhikkhus, to use a duly chosen 
kappiya-bhftmi (to keep drugs in). I allow you, 
O Bhikkhus, a kappiya-bhftmi of four kinds, one 
that has become so by means of a proclamation, an 
ox-stall, a building belonging to laymen, and a duly 
chosen one.' 

End of the twenty-fourth Bha«avara. 



1. Now at that time in Bhaddiya-nagara there 
dwelt a householder named Mendaka. (the Goat), 
who was possessed of this miraculous power : When 
he had bathed his head, and had had his granary 
swept out, he could sit outside and fill the granary 

therefore from ussaveti, 'to proclaim ;' and antika is used here, 
as below in VII, 1, 7. 

1 Gonisadika. Compare Buddhaghosa's explanation of go- 
nisadi-nivi/Mo gamo at Sutta-vibhanga, Par. II, 3, as given by 
Minayeff, ' Pratimoksha,' p. 66, lines 7, 8. Here Buddhaghosa says 
simply, ' There are two kinds of ox-stalls ; arima ox-stalls and vi- 
h&ra ox-stalls. Of these, when neither the arama nor the dwellings 
are fenced in (parikkhittani honti), that is an drama ox-stall ; when 
all or some of the dwellings are fenced in, and not the arama, that 
is a vihara ox-stall. So both kinds depend upon the fencing in *f 
the arama.' 

1 This seems to mean that stores could be kept for the Sawgha 
on laymen's premises. 

* Compare above, VI, 17, 7. 



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122 MAhAvAOGA. VI, 34, J. 

by making showers of grain fall down from the sky. 
His wife was possessed of this miraculous power : 
When she sat down beside a pint 1 pot and vessel 
for curry and sauce she could serve the serving men 
with food ; and so long as she did not get up, it was 
not exhausted. Their son was possessed of this 
miraculous power : He could take a bag containing 
a thousand 2 , and give to each serving man six 
months' wages ; and so long as he held it in his 
hand, it was not exhausted. 

2. Their daughter-in-law was possessed of this 
miraculous power : When she sat down beside a 
four-bushel 3 basket she could give six months' rice 
to the serving men ; and so long as she did not get 
up, it was not exhausted. Their slave was possessed 
of this miraculous power : When he ploughed with 
one plough-share seven furrows were formed. 

3, 4; Now the Migadha king Seniya' Bimbisara 
heard : ' In Bhaddiya-nagara in our kingdom there 
dwells, they say, a householder named Mendaka., who 
is possessed (&c, as in $ i, 2, down to the end).' 

5. Then the Magadha king Seniya Bimbisara 
said to a certain minister who had charge of general 
affairs : ' They say, good Sir, that in Bhaddiya- 
nagara (&c, as above). Go, good Sir, and find out 
about this. When you have seen it, it shall be the 
same as if I myself had seen it' 

' Even so, Lord,' said that minister, in assent, to 
the Migadha king Seniya Bimbisdra, and he set 
out for Bhaddiya-nagara with his fourfold host. 

6. And proceeding straight on he came to Bhad- 
diya-nagara, and to the place where the householder 

1 AMaka. See Rh. D., 'Ancient Coins and Measures,' p. 18. 
* Ibid. p. 9 and note 4. s Do»a. Ibid. p. 18. 



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VI, 34.9. ON MEDICAMENTS. 1 23 

Mendaka was; and when he had come there, he 
said to the householder Mendaka : ' I have received 
command from the king, " They say, good Sir (&c, 
as above, § 5)." Let us behold, O householder, your 
miraculous power.' 

Then Mendaka the householder bathed his head, 
and had his granary swept out, and sat down out- 
side it And showers of grain fell down from the 
sky and filled the granary. 

' I have seen, O householder, your miraculous 
power. Let us see that of your wife.' 

7. Then Me«<feka the householder gave com- 
mand to his wife, ' Serve then the fourfold host with 
food.' 

And the wife of Mendaka the householder took 
her seat beside a pint pot and a vessel of sauces 
and curry, and served the fourfold host with food ; 
and until she rose up it was not exhausted. 

' I have seen, O householder, the miraculous 
power of your wife. Let us see that of your son.' 

8. Then Mendaka the householder gave command 
to his son, ' Pay then, my dear boy, six months' 
wages to the fourfold host' 

And the son of Mendaka. the householder took 
one bag containing a thousand, and paid the four- 
fold army six months' wages. And so long as he 
held it in his hand, it was not exhausted. 

' I have seen, O householder, the miraculous 
power of your son. Let us see that of your 
daughter-in-law.' 

9. Then Mendaka the householder gave command 
to his daughter-in-law, ' Give, then, six months' rice 
to the fourfold host' 

And the daughter-in-law of Mendaka the house- 



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124 mahAvagga. VI, 34, 10. 

holder sat down beside one four-bushel basket, and 
provided the fourfold host with six months' rice. And 
so long as she did not get up, it was not exhausted. 

' I have seen, O householder, the miraculous 
power of your daughter-in-law. Let us see that of 
your slave.' 

4 The miraculous power of my slave, Sir, must be 
seen in the field.' 

' It is enough, O householder. I have seen the 
miraculous power of your slave.' 

Then that minister returned again to Ra^agaha 
with his fourfold host, and went to the place where 
the Magadha king Seniya Bimbisira was, and when 
he had come there he told the matter to the 
Magadha king Seniya Bimbisara. 

io. Now the Blessed One, when he had remained 
at Vesali as long as he thought fit, went on his way 
to Bhaddiya with a great company of Bhikkhus, 
with one thousand two hundred and fifty Bhikkhus. 
And the Blessed One wandering straight on arrived 
at Bhaddiya. And there the Blessed One stayed 
in the G&tiyavana. 

ii. And Mendaka. the householder heard: 'Be- 
hold, that Sama«a Gotama, of the Sakya clan, who 
left the Sakya tribe to adopt the religious life, is 
now arrived at Bhaddiya and is staying in the 
Catiyavana. Now regarding that venerable Gotama, 
such is the high reputation that has been noised 
abroad that he is said to be a fully-enlightened one, 
blessed, and worthy, abounding in wisdom and good- 
ness, happy, with knowledge of the worlds, unsur- 
passed, who guides men as a driver curbs a bullock, 
a teacher of gods and men, a blessed Buddha. He 
by himself thoroughly understands, and sees, as it 



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VI, 34. »3- ON MEDICAMENTS. 1 25 

were face to face, this universe, the world with its 
Devas, and with its Brahmas, and with its Maras, and 
all creatures, Samawas and Brahmawas, gods and 
men : and he then makes that knowledge known to 
others. The truth doth he make known, both in 
the spirit and in the letter : lovely in its origin, 
lovely in its progress, lovely in its consummation. 
The higher life doth he proclaim, in all its purity 
and all its perfectness. Blessed is the sight of Ara- 
hats like that.' 

1 2. Then Me«^aka the householder had a number 
of splendid carriages made ready, and mounting one 
of them he set out from Bhaddiya with the train of 
splendid carriages to visit the Blessed One. 

And many Titthiyas saw Me«aaka the house- 
holder as he was coming from afar ; and when they 
had seen him, they said to Mendaka. the house- 
holder : 

'Whither, O householder, are you going?' 

' I am going, Sirs, to visit the Blessed One, the 
Samawa Gotama.' 

' But why, O householder, do you, being a 
Kiriya-vida, go out to visit the Blessed One who 
is an Akiriya-vada? For, O householder, the 
Sama«a Gotama, who is an Akiriya-vada, teaches 
Dhamma without the doctrine of action 1 , and in 
this Dhamma he instructs his hearers.' 

1 3. Then thought Mendaka. the householder : 
' For a certainty that Blessed One must be an 
Arahat Buddha : since these Titthiyas are so jealous 
of him.' And he went on to the place where the 
Blessed One was, proceeding in the carriage as far 

1 See above, VI, 31, 5. 



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126 mahAvagga. VI, 34, r{. 

as the ground was passable for carriages, and then 
dismounting from the carriage, and going on foot. 
And when he had come there, he bowed down before 
the Blessed One, and took his seat on one side. 

And when he was so seated the Blessed One 
preached (&c, as usual, for instance, I, 8, 2, 3, down 
to :) ' taken his refuge in him.' 

' May the Blessed One consent to take his meal, 
together with the Bhikkhu-sa#zgha, at my house 
to-morrow.' 

The Blessed One consented by remaining silent. 

14. Then Mewdaka the householder when he saw 
that the Blessed One had consented (&c, as usual, 
see VI, 18, 1, 2, down to:), sat down on the seat 
prepared for him. 

15. Then the wife, and the son, and the daughter- 
in-law, and the slave of Me#daka the householder 
went to the place where the Blessed One was : and 
when they had come there they bowed down before 
the Blessed One and took their seats on one side. 

And the Blessed One preached to them (&c, as 
in § 13, down to :) ' taken their refuge in him.' 

16. Then Menelaka. the householder served the 
Bhikkhu-sa/#gha with the Buddha at their head 
(&c, as usual, down to :) sat down on one side. 

And when he was so seated Mewaaka the house- 
holder said to the Blessed One : ' So long as the 
Blessed One shall stay at Bhaddiya, so long will 
I provide the Bhikkhu-sawgha with the Buddha at 
their head with food every day.' 

Then the Blessed One gladdened (&c, as usual, 
down to :) the Blessed One rose from his seat, and 
went away. 

17. Now when the Blessed One had remained 



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VI, 34, 19- ON MEDICAMENTS. 1 27 

at Bhaddiya as long as he thought fit, he went 
on, without informing Me/waka the householder, to 
Anguttarapa with a great company of Bhikkhus, 
with one thousand two hundred and fifty Bhikkhus. 
And Mewdaka the householder heard : ' The Blessed 
One, they say, has gone on to Anguttarapa with 
(&c, down to 1) Bhikkhus.' And Me«afaka the house- 
holder gave command to his slaves and servants : 
* Load then, my men, a quantity of salt and oil, and 
rice, and hard food, and come : and let one thousand 
two hundred and fifty cow-keepers come with one 
thousand two hundred and fifty cows. Wherever 
we find the Blessed One there will we supply him 
with fresh milk.' 

18. And Mendaka. the householder came up with 
the Blessed One in a desert place on the way. 
And Mewdaka the householder went up to the 
place where the Blessed One was : and when he had 
come he stood on one side. And so standing, 
Me»<&ka the householder said to the Blessed One : 
'May the Blessed One consent to take his meal 
(&c, as usual, down to :) ' The time has come, and 
the meal is ready.' 

19. And the Blessed One early in the morning (&c, 
down to :) sat down on the seat prepared for him. 

Then Mendaka. the householder gave command 
to those thousand two hundred and fifty cow- 
keepers : ' Take then, my men, each of you a cow, 
and wait each of you upon a Bhikkhu, and provide 
him with fresh milk.' 

And Mendaka. the householder waited upon the 
Bhikkhu-sawgha with the Buddha at their head 
with his own hand, and satisfied them with sweet 
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128 MAHAVAGGA. VI, 34,20. 

The Bhikkhus, fearing to offend, would not take 
the milk: 

' Take it, Bhikkhus, and drink it' 

20. And Mendaka the householder, when he had 
waited with his own hand upon the Bhikkhu-sawgha 
with the Buddha at their head, and had satisfied 
them with sweet food, hard and soft, and with fresh 
milk; and when the Blessed One had finished his 
meal, and had washed his hands and his bowl, took 
his seat on one side. 

And, so sitting, Me«daka the householder said to 
the Blessed One : ' There are desert ways, Lord, 
waterless and foodless, where it is not easy to 
travel without supplies for the journey. It would 
be well if the Blessed One were to allow the Bhik- 
khus to take supplies with them.' 

Then the Blessed One gladdened (&c, as usual, 
down to :) rose from his seat, and went away. 

21. And the Blessed One, in that connection, 
and on that account, after having delivered a reli- 
gious discourse, said to the Bhikkhus : 

'I allow you, O Bhikkhus, the five products of 
the cow ; — milk, curds, ghee, buttermilk, and butter. 
There are, O Bhikkhus, desert ways, waterless and 
foodless, where it is not easy to travel without 
supplies for the journey. I allow you, O Bhikkhus, 
to provide yourselves with supplies for a journey ; — 
rice for him who wants rice, beans for him who 
wants beans \ salt for him who wants salt, molasses 
for him who wants molasses, oil for him who wants 
oil, ghee for him who wants ghee. There are, O 
Bhikkhus, faithful and converted men who deposit 

1 Two kinds of beans are mentioned, mugga and masa. 

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VI, 35.*- ON MEDICAMENTS. 1 29 

gold with a kappiya-karaka 1 , saying, "Provide 
whatever is allowable for this Bhikkhu." I allow 
you, O Bhikkhus, to accept whatever is allowable. 
But I do not say by that, O Bhikkhus, that you 
may, on any pretext whatsoever, accept or seek for 
gold.* ===========z 

35. 

1. Now the Blessed One proceeded straight on, 
on his alms-pilgrimage, to Apaoa. And Keniya 
the ascetic 2 heard the saying, ' Behold ! the Samawa 
Gotama, who was born in the Sakya clan, and who 
went forth from the Sakya clan (to adopt the reli- 
gious life), has arrived at Apa»a, and is staying at 
Apaoa. Now regarding that venerable Gotama, 
such is the high reputation that has been noised 
abroad that he is said to be a fully-enlightened 
one, blessed and worthy, abounding in wisdom and 
goodness, happy, with knowledge of the worlds, 
unsurpassed, who guides men as a driver curbs a 
bullock, a teacher of gods and men, a blessed 
Buddha. He by himself thoroughly understands, 
and sees, as it were face to face, this universe, the 
world with its Devas, and with its'Brahmas, and 
with its Maras, and all creatures, Samaras and 
Brahmaoas, gods and men: and he then makes 
his knowledge known to others. The truth doth 
he make known, both in the spirit and in the letter: 

1 See above, chap. 17. 8. 

* In Pali G a/ila ; that is, ' one with long matted hair.' See our 
note on Mahivagga 1, 15, 1; and compare also Dfpavamsa I, 38 ; 
G&taka. I, 15, 84; Dhammapada, v. 141, and the passages quoted 
by Professor Oldenberg in his edition of the JSTullavagga, p. 350, 
and by Dr. Rhys Davids in his ' Buddhist Birth Stories,' p. 185. 

[17] K 



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130 MAHAVAGGA. VI, 35, 2. 

lovely in its origin, lovely in its progress, lovely in 
its consummation. The higher life doth he pro- 
claim, in all its purity and all its perfectness. 
Blessed is the sight of Arahats like that 1 !' And 
Keniya the ascetic thought : ' What now should 
I have taken 8 to the Sama#a Gotama.' 

2. And Keniya the ascetic thought : ' They who 
are the ancient /?*shis of the Brahmans, the authors 
of the sacred verses, the utterers of the sacred 
verses, whose ancient form of words, so uttered 
chaunted or composed, the Brahmans of to-day 
chaunt over again and repeat, intoning or reciting 
exactly as had been intoned or recited — to wit, 
A//>£aka, Vamaka, Vamadeva, Vessamitta, Yama- 
taggi, Angirasa, Bharadva^a, Vase/Afca, and 
Bhagu 3 — they were abstainers from food at night, 
and abstainers from food at the wrong time, yet 
they used to receive such things as drinks. (3.) Now 
the Samawa Gotama is also an abstainer from food 

1 This is a stock phrase. Compare above VI, 34, 11, and the 
Teviggu Sutta I, 7, 46, and the passages quoted on the last by 
Rh. D., 'Buddhist Suttas,'p. 287. 

* That is, as a present, the usual tribute of respect. 

* The names of these -ffj'shis, and the above phrases from ' They 
who' &c. downwards, recur several times in the Tevi^ya Sutta. 
See Rh. D., ' Buddhist Suttas,' p. 172, &c. Most of these names 
are easily to be identified, being in Sanskrit Vamadeva, Vifva- 
mitra, Gamadagni (who is only mentioned in this list in refer- 
ence to Rig-veda III, 62, quoted from below. See also 01denberg*s 
note to Sahkhayana's Gr/hya-sutra IV, 10 in Indische Studien XV, 
153), Angirasa, Bharadvi^a, Vasish/Aa, Kajyapa, and 
Bhrigu. The only doubtful names are Vamaka and A/ztfaka. 
The latter must be Ash/aka, mentioned as the author of Rig-veda 
X, 104, unless it be supposed to be a corrupt reading under which 
some representation of Atri may lurk. Vamaka is the only unin- 
telligible form, for it would be difficult to see how that word could 
come to stand for the Vamra to whom Rig-veda X, 99 is ascribed. 



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VI. 35» 4« ON MEDICAMENTS. 131 

at night, an abstainer from food at the wrong time 1 . 
It will be worthy of him too to receive such things 
as drinks. And when he had had a quantity of 
drinkables made ready he had them carried on pin- 
goes and went up to the place where the Blessed 
One was. And when he had come there, he 
greeted him; and after exchanging with him the 
greetings of friendship and civility, he stood by 
on one side. And so standing Keniya the ascetic 
spake thus to the Blessed One : 

' May the Blessed One accept at my hands these 
drinkables.' 

'Very good then, Keniya; give them to the 
Bhikkhus.' 

The Bhikkhus, fearing to offend, would not 
receive them. 

' Receive them, O Bhikkhus, and make use of them.' 

4. Then Keniya the ascetic having, with his own 
hand, satisfied the Bhikkhu-sawgha with the Buddha 
at their head with many drinkables until they re- 
fused any more, took his seat, when the Blessed 
One had washed his hands, and had laid aside the 
bowl, on one side. And when he was so seated the 
Blessed One taught and incited and aroused and 
gladdened Keniya the ascetic with religious dis- 
course : and Keniya the ascetic, when he had been 
taught and incited and aroused and gladdened by 
the Blessed One with religious discourse, spake 
thus to the Blessed One: 

'May the venerable Gotama grant to me the 
privilege of providing the to-morrow's meal for 
him, together with the company of the Bhikkhus.' 

1 See the eighth section of the A'ftla-sila. 
K 2 



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132 MAHAVAGGA. VI. 35, 5. 

5. 'Great, O Keniya, is the company of the 
Bhikkhus. Two hundred and fifty are the Bhik- 
khus in number. And thou art greatly devoted to 
the Brahmans.' 

Yet a second time spake Keniya the ascetic to 
the Blessed One thus : 

'What though the company of the Bhikkhus, O 
Gotama, be great; and though two hundred and 
fifty be the number of the Bhikkhus. May the 
venerable Gotama grant to me the privilege of 
providing the to-morrow's meal for him, together 
with the company of the Bhikkhus.' 

' Great, O Keniya (&c, as before).' 

Yet a third time spake Keniya the ascetic to the 
venerable Gotama thus : 

' What though the company of the Bhikkhus (&c, 
as before).' 

Then the Blessed One granted, by remaining 
silent, his consent And when Keniya the ascetic 
perceived that the Blessed One had granted his con- 
sent, he arose from his seat, and departed thence. 

6. Then the Blessed One on that occasion, and 
in that connection, after he had delivered a religious 
discourse, addressed the Bhikkhus, and said : 

' I allow you, O Bhikkhus, eight kinds of drink- 
able things: mango-syrup, and jambu-syrup, and 
plantain-syrup 1 , and mo^a-syrup, and honey, and 

1 So Buddhaghosa ; but it may also be cocoa-nut or cinnamon, 
according to Bohtlingk-Roth sub voce. Buddhaghosa's words are 
iToia-pinan ti a//Aika-kadali-phalehi kata-panam; and he ex- 
plains mo£a by ana/Mikehi kadali-phalehi kata-panam. As kadali 
is the ordinary plantain or banana, which has no seeds, the mean- 
ing of the difference he makes between the two kinds is not clear. 
The expression eka/Mithalapakka, at Gataka I, 70, evidently 
rests on the same meaning of the word aJlAi, which there also 



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■VI, 35. 7- 0N MEDICAMENTS. 1 33 

grape-juice, and syrup made from the edible root 
of the water-lily 1 , and pharusaka*-syrup. I allow 
you, O Bhikkhus, the juice of all fruits, except the 
juice prepared from corn 8 . I allow you, O Bhik- 
khus, drinks prepared from all leaves, except drinks 
prepared from potherbs*. I allow you, O Bhikkhus, 
drinks prepared from all flowers, except liquorice- 
juice*. I allow you, O Bhikkhus, the use of the 
juice of the sugar cane.' 

7. And Keniya the ascetic, at the end of the 
night, had sweet food, both hard and soft, made 
ready at his hermitage : and he had the time 
announced to the Blessed One, saying, ' It is time, 
O Gotama, and the meal is ready.' 

And the Blessed One, having put on his under 
robes early in the morning, went, duly bowled and 
robed, to the place where the hermitage of Keniya 
the ascetic was. And when he had arrived there, 
he sat down on the seat spread out for him, and 
with him the company of the Bhikkhus. Then 

cannot be, as usual, seed ; for there is no such thing as a palmyra 
fruit with one seed. See Rh. D.'s note on p. 94 of the ' Buddhist 
Birth Stories.' 

1 In the text read saluka. 

1 This is the Grewia Asiatica of Linnaeus. See Bdhtlingk- 
Roth under parusaka. 

* Toddy and arrack are so prepared. The use of toddy was 
one of the famous Ten Points of the heretics at the Council of 
Vesali. See below, ATullavagga XII, 1, n. Buddhaghosa explains 
this as 'drink made from any one of the seven kinds of corn;' 
where the seven kinds referred to must be those mentioned in the 
Abhidhana-ppadipika, verses 450, 451. 

' Z>aka = sika. Compare our note below on VI, 36, 8, and 
Gataka, ed. Fausbdll, I, 308. 

• Madhuka-puppha-rasa«; Madhuka is the Bassia Latifolia 
of Linnaeus. 



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IJ4 MAHAVAGGA. VI, 36, 8. 

Keniya the ascetic, with his own hand, offered to 
the company of the Bhikkhus with the Buddha at 
their head, and satisfied them with the sweet food, 
both hard and soft. And when the Blessed One 
had finished his meal and had washed his hands and 
his bowl, he (Keniya) took his seat on one side. 

8. And when he was so seated the Blessed One 
pronounced the benediction on Keniya the ascetic 
in these verses : 

' Of the offerings 1 the fire sacrifice is the chief, of 
sacred verses the chief is the Savitthi 2 ; 

'Among men the king is chief, and of waters 
the ocean, 

' Of constellations the moon is chief, and of heat- 
givers the sun, 

' But of them, the conquering ones, who long after 
good, the Sa/wgha, verily, is chief.' 

And when the Blessed One had, in these verses, 
pronounced the benediction 3 on Keniya the ascetic, 
he rose from his seat, and departed thence*. 



36. 

i. Now when the Blessed One had stayed at 
Apa«a as long as he thought fit, he went on, on 
his pilgrimage, to Kusinari, with a great company 

1 YanftS. Compare above, I, 22, 4, and our note there (p. 138). 

* This is of course the well-known verse Rig-veda III, 62, 10. 
The argumentum ad hominem here is a fresh confirmation of the 
view already expressed above in our note on 1, 15, 1, that by the 
(Tatilas are to be understood the orthodox Brahman ascetics. 

' Compare the Book of the Great Decease I, 31, and Gataka 
I, 119. 

* §§ 1, 8 recur in the Sela Sutta (Sutta Nipita, III, 7, 21, 22), 
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VI, 36, a. ON MEDICAMENTS. 1 35 

of Bhikkhus, with two hundred and fifty Bhikkhus. 
And the Mallas of Kusinara heard, saying, 'The 
Blessed One, they say, is coming to Kusinara with 
a great company of Bhikkhus, with two hundred 
and fifty Bhikkhus.' And they established a com- 
pact to the effect that whosoever went not forth to 
welcome the Blessed One, should pay a fine of five 
hundred (pieces *). 

Now at that time there was a certain Malla, by 
name Rq^a, who was a friend of the venerable 
Ananda's. And the Blessed One* continuing in due 
course his pilgrimage, arrived at Kusinara. 

2. Then the Mallas of Kusinara went forth to 
welcome the Blessed One. And Rq^u the Malla, 
having gone forth to welcome the Blessed One, 
went on to the place where the venerable Ananda 
was : and when he had come there, he saluted the 
venerable Ananda, and stood by on one side. And 
to him, so standing, the venerable Ananda spake 
thus : 

' This is most excellent of thee, friend Ro^a, that 
thou hast come forth to welcome the Blessed One !' 

' It is not I, O Ananda, who am much moved 2 by 
the Buddha, or the Dhamma, or the Sawgha. But 
by the clansmen a compact was made to the effect 
that whosoever went not forth to welcome the 
Blessed One should pay a fine of five hundred 
(pieces). So that it was through fear of being fined 

1 That is, the square kah£p4«as of copper or bronze, figured in 
the Barhut bas-reliefs, and mentioned in the Dhammapada. See 
Rh. D.'s 'Ancient Coins and Measures,' p. 4, § 5. 

* Bahukato ; only found in this passage. Buddhaghosa says, 
N&ham bhante Ananda bahukato ti n&ham Buddh&di-gata- 
pasida-bahum&nena idhagato ti dassetf ti. Here Buddha di 
means the Buddha, the Dhamma, and the Samgha. 



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136 mahAvagga. VI, 36,3. 

by my clansmen that even I went forth to welcome 
the Blessed One.' 

Then the venerable Ananda was filled with sorrow, 
thinking, ' How can Rq§a. the Malla speak thus ?' 

3. And the venerable Ananda went up to the 
place where the Blessed One was : and when he 
had come there, he saluted the Blessed One, and 
took his seat on one side, and so sitting the 
venerable Ananda spake to the Blessed One thus : 

'This Rqja the Malla, Lord, is a very dis- 
tinguished and well-known person. Great would 
be the efficacy 1 of the adherence given by well- 
known persons like him to this doctrine and disci- 
pline. May the Blessed One be pleased so to act, 
that Rqja the Malla shall become devoted to this 
doctrine and discipline.' 

' Now that, Ananda, is not a hard thing for the 
Tathigata — so to act that Rqfa the Malla should 
become devoted to this doctrine and discipline.' 

4. Then the Blessed One suffused Ro^a the 
Malla with the feeling of his love 2 , and rising from 
his seat he entered into his dwelling-place. And 
Rqfa the Malla, overcome by the Blessed One by 
the sense of his love, just as a young calf follows 
the kine, so did he go on from dwelling-place to 
dwelling-place, and from apartment to apartment, 
asking the Bhikkhus : 

'Where then, Sirs, is that Blessed One dwelling 
now, the Arahat Buddha ? For we desire to visit that 
Blessed One, the Arahat Buddha.' 

* Mahiddhiyo, where, as so often elsewhere, Iddhi has no 
supernatural connotation. Compare the passages quoted above in 
our note on 1, 15, 2. 

* Compare Rh. D,,' Buddhist Birth Stories,' p. us. 



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VI, 36,5- ON MEDICAMENTS. 1 37 

' This, friend, is his dwelling-place, the door of 
-which is shut. Go up therefore quietly, and with- 
out crossing the threshold, enter into the verandah, 
and knock at the cross-bar. The Blessed One will 
open the door to thee.' 

5. So Rog-a the Malla did so, and the Blessed 
One opened the door. And Ro^a the Malla 
entered into the dwelling-place, and saluted the 
Blessed One and took his seat on one side. And 
to Rqfa the Malla sitting there the Blessed One 
preached in due course : that is to say, he talked 
to him of giving ; of moral conduct ; of heaven ; 
of the danger of vanity, of the corruption of lusts ; 
and of the advantages of renunciation. When the 
Blessed One saw that the mind of Ro^a the Malla 
was prepared, impressible, free from obstacles to 
understanding the truth, elated, and believing, then 
he preached that which is the principal doctrine of 
the Buddhas, namely, Suffering, the Cause of suf- 
fering, the Cessation of suffering, and the Path. And 
just as a clean cloth, free from black specks, properly 
takes the dye, thus did Ro^a the Malla, even while 
sitting there, obtain the pure and spotless eye of 
the truth (that is, the knowledge that), ' Whatsoever 
is subject to the condition of beginning, that is 
subject also to the condition of cessation.' And 
Ro£a the Malla, having seen the truth, having 
mastered the truth, having understood the truth, 
having penetrated the truth, having overcome un- 
certainty, having dispelled all doubts, having gained 
full knowledge, dependent on no one else for 
knowledge of the doctrine of the Teacher, thus 
spake to the Blessed One: 

'May the venerable one be pleased, Lord, to 



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138 mahAvagga. VI, 36, 6. 

receive from me alone, and not from others, the 
requisites of the Order : that is to say, robes, and 
food, and dwelling-places, and medicine for the use 
of the sick.' 

'Whosoever, Ro^a, with the knowledge of a 
disciple, and with the insight of a disciple 1 , has 
perceived the Truth, even as thou hast, they also 
will think, " Oh ! that the venerable ones would be 
pleased to receive from me alone, and not from 
others, the requisites of the order." Therefore, Ro^a, 
they shall receive them from you, indeed, but also 
from others.' 

6. Now at that time a certain succession had 
been fixed, in which the inhabitants of Kusinara 
should each in succession provide food for the 
Sawgha. And it occurred to Ro^a the Malla, who 
had not received a place in the succession, thus: 
' What if I were to inspect the Sa*#gha's storehouse, 
and provide whatever I found wanting in the store- 
house ?' And on inspecting the storehouse, he 
found there no potherbs, and no meal 2 . 

Then Rq^a the Malla went up to the place where 
the venerable Ananda was, and when he had come 
there, he spake to the venerable Ananda thus : 

' It occurred to me (&c, as before, down to :) and 
no meal. If, Ananda, I were to provide potherbs 
and meal, would the Blessed One accept them at 
my hands ?' 

7. The venerable Ananda told this thing to the 
Blessed One. 

1 Sekhena, as opposed to asekhena. That is, with the know- 
ledge of one who is not himself an Arahat. See our note on MahS- 
vagga I, 7, 13. 

* See the note at the end of § 8. 



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VI, 36, 8. ON MEDICAMENTS. 1 39 

'Very good, then, Ananda. Let him provide them.' 
'Very good, then, Ro^a. Provide them accordingly.' 
Then Rqfa the Malla at the end of the night, 
after he had had a quantity of potherbs and meal 
made ready, offered them to the Blessed One, 
saying, ' May the Blessed One accept at my hands 
the potherbs and the meal.' 

'Very good, then, Ro^a. Present them to the 
Bhikkhus.' 

The Bhikkhus, fearing to offend, did not accept 
them. 

'Accept them.O Bhikkhus, and make use of them.' 
8. Then Rq^a the Malla, with his own hand, 
offered to the company of the Bhikkhus with the 
Buddha at their head, and satisfied them with the 
potherbs and the meal. And when the Blessed 
One had finished his meal, and had cleansed his 
hands and the bowl, he (Rqfa) took his seat on one 
side. And when he was so seated the Blessed One 
taught, and incited, and conversed, and gladdened 
Rq^a the Malla with religious discourse. And 
Ro^a the Malla, when he had been taught, &c, rose 
from his seat and departed thence. 

And the Blessed One, on that occasion, and in 
that connection, when he had delivered a religious 
discourse, addressed the Bhikkhus, and said : 

' I allow you, O Bhikkhus, all kinds of potherbs \ 
and all kinds of meal V 



1 Sabba»i £a /akan (sic) ti sappi-adihi pakkaw va apakkam 
va yaw ki«& /akaw (B.) 

* Pi/Ma-khadaniyan ti pi/Maraayaw khadaniyam (B.) 



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140 MAHAVAGGA. VI, 37, 1. 

87. 

1. Now the Blessed One, when he had stayed at 
Kusinara as long as he thought fit, went on, on his 
pilgrimage to Atuma, with a great company of the 
Bhikkhus, with two hundred and fifty Bhikkhus. 
And at that time there was dwelling at Atuma a 
certain man, who had entered the Order in his 
old age, and who had previously been a barber 1 . 
He had two sons, handsome 3 , skilled in discourse 8 , 
able, fully educated in all the arts which belonged 
to the barbers' craft handed down to them by their 
teachers *. 

2. Now this dotard* heard the news: 'The 
Blessed One, they say, is coming to Atuma with 

1 This man is identified by the tradition with the Subhadda men- 
tioned in the accounts of the Great Decease, and of the First 
Council. See Rh. D.'s note on MahS-parinibb&na Sutta VI, 40. 

2 Buddhaghosa understands this word, which he reads differently, 
as meaning 'sweet-voiced.' Maw^uka (sic) ti madhura-va£an<L 
We follow the ordinary meaning of maJl^u. 

* Here again Buddhaghosa gives a technical meaning to the 
word, unsupported by the derivation. He says, Pa/ibh£neyyak£ 
ti sake sippe pa/ibhSna-sampanna. This agrees with Childers's ren- 
dering (sub voce) of ffitaka I, 60 ; but compare Sigilovida Sutta, 
ed. Grimblot, p. 309. 

* On the idiomatic phrase sakam ££ariyakam, compare MahS- 
parinibbina Sutta III, 7, 8 (text ed. Childers, pp. 24 and following). 

6 Literally, ' this man who had gone forth (from the household 
state into the homeless life of the Order) in his old age.' But it is 
impossible to repeat this long phrase throughout the narrative as 
is done in the Pali, where the meaning of the phrase is expressed 
by one compound. As the Pali word vuddha-pabba^ito con- 
notes contempt, and even censure (men entering the Order in their 
old age being often represented as incapable of appreciating even 
the simplest principles of the * doctrine and discipline '), the use of the 
word 'dotard' in our translation seems to retain the spirit of the Pali 
epithet, while avoiding the inconvenient length of a literal version. 



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VI, 37. 4- ON MEDICAMENTS. 141 

a great company of the Bhikkhus, with two hundred 
and fifty Bhikkhus.' Then that dotard spake thus 
to his sons : ' They say the Blessed One is coming, 
my children 1 , to Atuma. with a great company of 
Bhikkhus, with two hundred and fifty Bhikkhus. 
Go, therefore, my children, and taking your 
barbers' lad* with you, collect in quart pots from 
house to house, salt, and oil, and rice, and meal. 
And we will prepare congey for the Blessed One 
when he has arrived.' 

3. Very good, Father, said they, and (did so). 
And when people saw those young men, of pleasing 
appearance, and skilful in discourse, so acting, then 
even those who were not willing to be led into join- 
ing in the act were led to join in it ; and being so led, 
they gave abundantly. So the young men collected 
a great quantity of salt, and oil, and rice, and meal. 

4. And the Blessed One in due course arrived 
in his journey at Atuma ; and there at Atuma the 
Blessed One stayed at the Threshing-floor. And 
that dotard, when the night was far spent, had much 
congey made ready, and offered it to the Blessed 
One, saying, 'May the Blessed One accept the 
congey at my hands.' 

Now the Tath&gatas sometimes ask about what 
they know ; sometimes they do not ask about what 
they know. They understand the right time when 
to ask, and they understand the right time when 
not to ask. The Tathagatas put questions full of 

1 T£ta, not tM. It will be seen that Childers is wrong in sup- 
posing that the plural form is always used when more than one 
person is addressed. 

1 Khura-bha»</am; not 'shaving materials;' compare hatthi- 
bhawrfb and assa-bha/itfo at Mahayagga 1, 61, and below, § 5. 



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142 MAHAVAGGA. VI, 37, 5. 

sense, not void of sense : to what is void of sense, 
the bridge is pulled down for the Tathagatas. For 
two purposes the blessed Buddhas put questions to 
the Bhikkhus — when they intend to preach the Truth, 
and when they intend to institute a rule of conduct to 
their disciples \ And the Blessed One spake thus to 
that dotard, 'Whence, O Bhikkhu, is this congey ?' 

Then that dotard informed the Blessed One of 
the whole matter. 

5. The Blessed Buddha rebuked him, saying, 
'This is improper, O foolish one, not according 
to rule, unsuitable, unworthy of a Sama»a, un- 
becoming, and ought not to be done. How can 
you, O foolish one, having gone forth (from the 
world into the Order), instigate others to do what 
is unlawful. This will not conduce, O foolish one, 
to the conversion of the unconverted.' 

And when he had rebuked him, and had delivered 
a religious discourse, he addressed the Bhikkhus, 
and said: 'One who has gone forth ought not, O 
Bhikkhus, to instigate others to an unlawful act 2 . 
Whosoever does so, is guilty of a dukka/a. And 
one, O Bhikkhus, who has formerly been a barber 
' is not to keep a barber's boy. Whosoever does so, 
is guilty of a dukka/a.' 



38. 

1. And when the Blessed One had tarried at 
Atuma as long as he thought fit, he went on his 

1 See Mahivagga I, 31, 5. 

3 Unlawful, because one Bhikkhu may not beg for others, and it 
is unlawful for those others to accept things thus procured. 



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VI, 40, I. ON MEDICAMENTS. 1 43 

journey towards Savatthi. And in due course, 
journeying straight on, he arrived at Savatthi, and 
there, at Sivatthi, the Blessed One stayed in the 
Arama of Anatha-pi»afika. 

Now at that time there was in Savatthi great 
abundance of solid food in the shape of fruits. And 
the question arose among the Bhikkhus, ' Has, now, 
the Blessed One permitted the use of fruits as solid 
food, or has he not ?' 

They told this thing to the Blessed One. 

' I allow -you, O Bhikkhus, all solid food in the 
shape of fruits.' 



39. 

1 . Now at that time, seedlings belonging to the 
Sawgha grew upon private ground, and seedlings 
belonging to private persons grew upon ground 
which was the property of the Sawzgha. 

They told this thing to the Blessed One. 

' Of seedlings belonging to the Sawgha, grown 
upon private ground, half the produce, O Bhikkhus, 
you may have, when you have given a part to the 
private owner. Of seedlings belonging to a private 
person, grown upon ground the property of the 
Sa#*gha, you may have the use, when you have 
given a part to the private owner 1 .' 



40. 
1. Now at that time there used to arise among 
the Bhikkhus a fear lest they should offend in 

1 Buddhaghosa explains the ' part'(bbigam) as the twelfth part, 
which, he says, is in accordance with the ancient custom of India. 
Used absolutely, as in this passage, bhdga usually means ' half.' 



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144 mahAvagga. vi, 40, a. 

some particular or other, they thinking, ' Has this 
been permitted by the Blessed One, or has it not ?' 
They told this thing to the Blessed One. 

* Whatsoever, O Bhikkhus, has not been disallowed 
by me in the words, " This beseems you not," then, 
if that thing is in accord with what is unlawful, and 
is contrary to what is lawful, that is not lawful. 
Whatsoever has not been disallowed by me with 
the words, " This beseems you not," then, if that 
thing is in accord with what is lawful, and is contrary 
to what is unlawful, that is lawful. ' 

'And whatsoever, O Bhikkhus, has not been 
allowed by me with the words, " This beseems you," 
then, if that thing is in accord with what is lawful, 
and is contrary to what is unlawful, that is not 
lawful. Whatsoever has not been allowed by me 
with the words, " This beseems you," then, if that 
thing is in accord with what is lawful, and is contrary 
to what is unlawful, that is lawful V 

2. Then the Bhikkhus thought : ' Is food that 
may be eaten till the first watch of the night * law- 
ful, or not, when mixed with food that ought to be 
eaten before noon on the same day ? Is food that 
may be eaten at any time within seven days 8 lawful, 
or not, when mixed with food that ought to be 
eaten before noon on the same day ? Is food that 
may be eaten at any time during life* lawful, or 
not, when mixed with food that ought to be eaten 

1 The formal expressions referred to in these two paragraphs 
are precisely the expressions to which, in the Book of the Great 
Decease VI, 40, and in the -ATullavagga XI, 1, 1, Subhadda is stated 
to have taken such serious objection. 

* This refers to certain medicines ; see Mahfivagga VI, 1, 5. 

* This also refers to certain medicines ; see the 23rd Nissaggira. 

* What this refers to is unknown to us. 



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VI, 40, 3' ON MEDICAMENTS. 1 45 

before noon on the same day? Is food that may 
be eaten at any time within seven days lawful, or 
not, when mixed with food that may be eaten at 
any time during life ? Is food that may be eaten 
at any time during life lawful, or not, when mixed 
with food that may be eaten at any time within 
seven days ?' 

They told this thing to the Blessed One. 

3. ' Food that may be eaten up to the first watch 
of the night, or food that may be eaten at any time 
within seven days, or food that may be eaten at any 
time during life, is lawful, O Bhikkhus, when mixed 
with food that ought to be eaten before noon on 
the same day, up till noon-time, and it is not lawful 
after noon-time. Food that may be eaten at any 
time within seven days, or food that may be eaten 
at any time during life, is lawful, O Bhikkhus, — when 
it has been mixed with food that may be eaten up 
to the first watch of the night, — up till the first watch 
of the night, and is not lawful after the first watch of 
the night. Food that may be eaten at any time during 
life, is lawful, O Bhikkhus, — when it has been mixed 
with food that may be eaten at any time within 
seven days, — at any time within seven days, and is 
not lawful beyond seven days 1 .' 



Here ends the sixth Khandhaka on Medicaments. 

1 Buddhaghosa says that this holds good if the two are so mixed 
that the taste (rasu) has become one (sambhinna). If the two 
are not so mixed, then they may be divided, and the part allow- 
able during the longer period may be enjoyed up to the end of 
that period. See I, 20, 9 ; V, 2, 1 ; VI, 16, 3 ; VIII, 1, 24, and the 
notes there. 



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146 mahAvagga. vii, 1, 1. 



SEVENTH KHANDHAKA. 
(the kathina ceremonies.) 

1. 

1. Now at that time the Blessed One was staying 
at Savatthi, in the Getavana, Anathapwafika's. Grove. 
And at that time about thirty PaMeyyaka Bhikkhus J, 

1 Buddhaghosa says, ' PSMeyya (the Berlin MS. reads PSveyya) 
is the name of a kingdom situated to the west of the Kosala country. 
This passage refers to Bhikkhus who dwelt there. The Bhatta- 
vaggiyaTheras (so the Berlin MS.; query Satta-vaggiya), who 
were brothers of the Kosala king, sons of the same father, are here 
alluded to.' 

But with which of the many kingdoms ' to the west of the Kosala 
country' are we to identify PaV^eyya? The word does not occur 
in the stock list, found in different parts of the Pali Pi/akas, of the 
sixteen Mahi-^anapada' ; that is to say, Ahga, Magadha, K&si, 
Kosala, Va^gi, Malla, JSTetiya, Va/asa, Kuru, Pawiila, MaiAia, 
Surasena, Assaka, Avanti, GandhSra, Kambqg-a. The account of 
the Council at Vesali gives us a hint as to the right answer to the 
above question; for the Thera Sambhuta, who took part in that 
Council, is called a PiVAeyyaka in ATullavagga XII, 2, 7, and is 
also said at Afullavagga XII, 1, 8 to have lived Ahogange 
Pabbate. The position of this hill is further described in the 
Mah&vamsa as being on the upper Ganges — uddhagang&ya .... 
Ahogahgamhi pabbate (p. 39, ed. Tumour). Then again in A'ulla- 
vagga XII, 1, 7 the Thera Yasa, when wishing to put himself in 
communication with the Bhikkhus in PaTieyya and in other places, 
goes to Kosambt as the most convenient meeting-place for Bhik- 
khus coming from the East The other places mentioned in that 
passage in juxta-position with PaTfteyya would seem to show that 
PaMeyya, with P&4ina, Avanti, and Dakkhinipatha, is one of the prin- 
cipal divisions into which India, as then known, was divided ; and 
that it includes most, if not all, of the great westerly kingdoms of 



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VII, I, a. THE KArfflNA CEREMONIES. I47 

who were all dwellers in the forest, all living on 
alms, all dressed in rags from the dust heap, all 
having only three robes each, when they were on 
the way to Savatthi to visit the Blessed One, at 
the time when the period for entering upon Vassa 
was at hand, were unable to reach Savatthi in time 
to spend the Vassa there, and stayed at Saketa on 
the way for the Vassa. And they spent the period 
of Vassa in discomfort, thinking, ' Our Blessed One 
is staying near us, six leagues from here, and we 
are not able to visit the Blessed One.' 

And when, after three months, those Bhikkhus 
had completed their Vassa residence, and had held 
their Pa vara » a, they went on to the place where 
the Blessed One was, at Savatthi, in the Cetavana, 
Anathapi«dfika's Grove, while the rain was falling, 
and the waters were gathering 1 , and the swamps 
were forming, and their robes were all drenched, 
and they were weary. And when they had arrived, 
they saluted the Blessed One, and took their seats 
on one side. 

2. Now it is the custom of the blessed Buddhas 
to greet kindly Bhikkhus who have just arrived. 
And the Blessed One said to those Bhikkhus * : 

' Do things go well with you, O Bhikkhus ? Do 

Kuru, Paii&Lla, &c, which are the last eight of the sixteen king- 
doms in the stock list above referred to. Probably the literal 
meaning of PiMeyya is ' western ' (Sans, pratyani). In the Sutta- 
vibhanga (Pilittiya 34) merchants are mentioned who are travelling 
from R&^agaha to the Pa/iyaloka, which must mean ' the western 
country,' just as Pa/iyarama (Dfpav. 17, 11) means 'the western 
Arama.' 

1 Udaka-samgahe 'ti udakena sawgahite gha/ite sajnsaJlhe thale 
Aa. ninne kz. ekodakibhute 'ti attho (B.). 

* Compare IV, 1, 8, and foil. 

L 2 



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148 mahAvagga. VII, 1, 3. 

you get enough to support yourselves with ? Have 
you kept Vassa well, in unity, and in concord, and 
without quarrel, and have you not suffered from 
want of food ?' 

' Things go well with us, Lord ; we get enough to 
support ourselves with, Lord; we have kept Vassa, 
Lord, in unity, and in concord, and without quarrel, 
and have not suffered from want of food. When 
we were on our way, Lord, about thirty Pi/^eyyaka 
Bhikkhus, to Savatthi to visit the Blessed One, we 
were unable to reach Savatthi in time (&c, as in 
§ 1, down to :). And when, after three months, Lord, 
we had completed our Vassa residence, and had held 
our Pavira«a, we have made our way, while the 
rain was falling, and the waters were gathering, and 
the swamps were forming ; and our robes were all 
drenched ; and we have become weary.' 

3. Then the Blessed One in that connection, 
having delivered a religious discourse, addressed the 
Bhikkhus, and said * : 



1 As has been remarked in a previous note (to the first Nissaggiya 
P&Httiya Rule) some of the details of these Ka/iina ordinances are 
at present difficult to understand. But the general meaning of 
them is already clear. Immediately after the PavSrawi, the cere- 
mony by which the Vassa residence is closed, there follows a 
distribution of the robes belonging to the local Samgha, (that is, 
the portion of the Order dwelling within one boundary,) to the 
particular Bhikkhus composing the Samgha. This distribution 
commences with the ka/Ain-atthara, atthslra, 'spreading out,' 
not being used here literally for spreading out on the ground or 
otherwise, but in a secondary, juristic sense. And the act per- 
formed receives the technical name atthara by a process of putting 
a part for the whole, the spreading out in the sun (see our note, 
p. 18) for the whole ceremony. We translate the term according 
to the context, sometimes by ' spreading out,' sometimes by ' cere- 
mony,' sometimes by ' dedication.' 



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VII, I, 3. THE KATWINA CEREMONIES. I49 

' I prescribe, O Bhikkhus, that the Ka/v&ina 
ceremony shall be performed by Bhikkhus when 

The KaMina, literally ' hard,' is the stock of cotton cloth provided 
by the faithful to be made up into robes for the use of the Sawgha 
during the ensuing year. The whole of this cotton cloth must be 
dyed, sewn together, and made into robes, and then formally 
declared to be (not only common property, Sawghika, but) avail- 
able for immediate distribution — all on one and the same day. 
The object of this was that the Sawgha, or at least a quorum of 
the Sawigha, being able to be present throughout, there would be 
less chance of any mistake by which what was intended equally for 
all might come to be unequally divided among a few. All the 
Brethren who have kept their Vassa within the limits of the district 
within which the particular Samgha lives (and therefore technically 
called an avasa, 'residence'), and who have taken part in the 
Pavarawd, are entitled to share in the distribution. 

(Buddhaghosa says, 'Ettha kathinatthara/n ke labhanti ke na 
labhanti. Ga«avasena tava pa£Mima-ko/iyd pan£a gani (for at 
least five must be present to make a Pavarana legal, Mahavagga 
IX, 4, 1) . . . . vu//Aavassavasena purimikaya vassaw upagantvd 
paMama-pavaranaya pavaritd labhanti.') 

There can of course be no kaMin-atthara if there is no 
ka/Aina; and, under certain restrictions laid down in the Nissag- 
giya Pdftttiya Rules, laymen were allowed to give robes for the 
special use of a particular Bhikkhu. If, however, a layman was 
desirous of giving the much more meritorious gift of a Ka/Aina to 
the whole community, then he is to present the cloth in the early 
morning to a properly constituted meeting of the Sawgha, and the 
Ka/^ina ceremony has to be gone through. All the Brethren 
living within the boundary have to be present, and to take part in 
the work of making the cotton cloth up into robes ; and if there is 
any danger of the work not being concluded before the day is 
over, even the most senior Bhikkhus, or the most revered for 
their learning or insight, must lend a hand. Then follows the 
distribution so far only as is set forth in the next section (§ 4) and 
in the note to it. 

Now it would often happen that, at the end of the rainy season 
of Vassa, the last year's robes of some of the Bhikkhus would be 
worn out. And yet no laymen would come forward to give a 
Ka/Aina until some time after the Vassa residence had closed. But 



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1 50 MAHAVAGGA. VII, 1, 3. 

they have completed their Vassa. And five things 
are allowable to you, O Bhikkhus, after the KaMina 
ceremony has been held — going for alms to the 
houses of people who have not invited you \ going 

if any one did offer a Ka/Aina, and the ceremony was duly per- 
formed, then each Bhikkhu had a right to supply his actual needs 
from the robes made out of the Ka/ftina. He need not do so at 
once. His want might not be pressing, or might not even arise 
till afterwards. During such an interval the five privileges (Ani- 
sawisi) mentioned in this section (§ 3) are accorded to the Bhikkhus, 
though they would be against the rules in force during the rest of 
the year. 

But if the Bhikkhu kept on postponing his choice would the 
privileges accorded by this section hold good even during the 
whole year? Could the Bhikkhu, by his mere abstention, thus 
bring about a practical abrogation of the general rules? Not so, 
for the five privileges are in their turn suspended by any one of the 
eight things mentioned below in § 7. 

We may add that at the present time in Burma and Ceylon, the 
robes for the Bhikkhus are usually provided in accordance with 
the rules regulating gifts to particular Bhikkhus. But the gift of 
a KaMina is still by no means uncommon. See Spence Hardy's 
' Eastern Monachism,' pp. 1 2 1 and foil. There is probably, however, 
very seldom any necessity for the Bhikkhus to avail themselves of 
any of the five privileges, except the last. 

1 This privilege is one of the exceptions allowed, in the P4ti- 
mokkha, to the 46th Pa^ittiya. Bhikkhus were allowed, as a general 
rule, to pass through a village, with their alms-bowls in their hands, 
in order to give any disciple who wished to do so the opportunity 
of giving them food. (To describe this procedure by our word 
• begging,' as is so often done, is, to say the least, misleading.) 
The 46th Pa&ttiya lays down, in certain circumstances, a restric- 
tion on this general rule. The present section removes that 
restriction during the period of Ka/Ain-atthira; in order, according 
to Buddhaghosa (see the note on PSi. 46), to prevent the stock of 
robes falling short. That is, apparently,, with the hope that a freer 
intercourse than usual between Bhikkhus and laity might lead to 
a gift of a Ka/£ina when it was urgently required. 

Here Buddhaghosa says simply, * An4manta-£aro 'ti y&va ka/S4i- 
nam na uddhariyati tiva andmantetvaV Amanteti must be equal to 
SpuMAati. Compare Bohtlingk-Roth under amantrawa. 



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VII, 1, 4. THE KATTTINA CEREMONIES. 1 5 1 

for alms without wearing the usual set of three 
robes \ going for alms in a body of four or more 2 , 
possessing as many robes as are wanted 8 , and what- 
ever number of robes shall have come to hand, that 
shall belong to them (that is, to the Bhikkhus 
entitled, by residence and otherwise, to share in the 
distribution *). 

'And thus, O Bhikkhus, is the KatfAina to be 
dedicated. 

4. ' Let a learned, competent Bhikkhu proclaim 

1 This privilege is granted as a relaxation of the 2nd Nissaggiya. 
Buddhaghosa says, ' Asamadana-iiaro 'ti ti-Aivaraw asamadaya £ara- 
tam ttvara-vippavlso kappissatiti attho.' Compare Mahivagga VIII, 
23, 3- It will be seen that the wording of the Patimokkha Rule is 
not inconsistent with the rule laid down here. 

1 This is a relaxation of the 32nd Pa^ittiya, and is mentioned in 
that rule. 

* This would seem to be a relaxation of the 1st Pa&ttiya. 
Though it is not referred to there in terms, it is implied in the 
clause by which the operation of the rule is postponed till after the 
Ka/iina has been ' taken up,' i. e. till each Bhikkhu has actually 
received his share, or otherwise lost his claim to it. Till that has 
taken place, a Bhikkhu may use (temporarily, and without actually 
appropriating them) as many robes as he likes. B. says, ' Ydvadat- 
tha-£tvaran ti y&vata £ivarena attho t&vatakam anadhi/Mitaw avi- 
kappitam (compare Sutta-vibhahga Niss. I, 3, 1) kappissatiti attho.' 

* That is, according to Buddhaghosa, either those belonging to 
a Bhikkhu who has died, or those belonging to the Samgha in any 
way. This shows that at the division not only the robes made out 
of the gift of a Ka/Aina were to be included, but whatever robes 
had not been given as intended specially for some one Bhikkhu. 
As to the actual practice now in Ceylon, compare Spence Hardy, 
loc. cit. Buddhaghosa says here : ' Yo ka tattha iivar-uppido 
tattha ka/ftinatthata-simaya mataka-£ivaram v£ hotu samgham 
uddissa dinnam vi samghikena tatr' uppidena abhataw v£ yena 
kenaft akarena yam sawghikaw klvaxam uppa^gati tarn tesam bha- 
vissatiti attho.' The use of the pronoun nesam at the end of the 
rule is awkward, following after vo ; but the meaning as trans- 
lated is not open to doubt. 



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152 MAHAVAGGA. VII, 1, 5. 

the following watti before the Sawgha : " This 
Ka//&ina-clothhas become the property of the Sawgha. 
If the Sawgha is ready, let the Sawgha hand over 
the Ka/^ina-cloth to such and such a Bhikkhu to 
spread out the Ka/^ina. This is the »atti. Let 
the Sawgha, reverend Sirs, hear me. This Ka/^ina- 
cloth has become the property of the Sa*«gha. The 
Saw/gha hands it over to such and such a Bhikkhu 
to spread out the Ka/vfcina. If the Sawgha approves 
of the handing over of the Ka/^ina to such and 
such a Bhikkhu for spreading it out, let it remain 
silent. The Sawgha approves thereof. Therefore 
does it remain silent. Thus I understand 1 ." 

5. ' Now thus, O Bhikkhus, has the Ka^ina 
ceremony been duly held; and thus has it not 
been duly held 2 . 

1 This formula is one of those included in the collection entitled 
Kammava£a»z. It appears from Minayeff (Pratimoksha, pp. 75, 
76) that the Bhikkhu so appointed superintends the processes 
of dyeing, sewing, &c. When the new robes are ready for wear, 
he lays aside one of his old robes which has been worn out 
(pa££uddharitv&), and chooses for himself one of the new ones 
(navaw adhi/MahitvS), saying as he does so, ' imiya sawghaTiya 
(or, as the case may be, uttarasangena, antarav£sakena)kaMinaw 
attharSmi.' This speech shows the technical application of the 
verb attharati in this connection. He then points out the remaining 
robes to the Bhikkhus there present, specifying which he thinks fit 
for the elder, and which for the younger members of the Order 
(Theras and Navakas) ; but not assigning further any particular 
robes to particular Bhikkhus. Finally he calls upon the Sajwgha 
for their formal approval of his procedure (compare the closing 
words of §§ 5, 6). But when they have given it, the distribution is 
not at an end. The time has only come when each of the Bhik- 
khus can transmute his claim to an undivided share into the actual 
possession of a divided share. Until he does so, the Ka/ftina 
privileges set out in § 3 are allowed to him. 

3 The formal permission to each Bhikkhu to take his share is 



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VII, i.S- THE KATHINA CEREMONIES. 1 53 

' When, O Bhikkhus, has it not been duly held ? ' 
' The KaMina ceremony has not been duly held 
when the stuff has only been marked (for the pur- 
poses of measurement) 1 : when it has only been 
washed : when it has only been calculated (to see 
how many robes it will make) : when it has only been 
cut out : when it has only been pieced together 2 : 
when it has only been sewn in lengths 3 : when 
it has only been marked 4 : when it has only been 
made strong (in the seams) 6 : when it has only 

not completed by any one of the following acts having been per- 
formed. The technical terms of the tailor's craft are, as will be 
seen, by no means easy to follow. 

1 Ullikhita-mattena 'ti dighato ka, puthulato ka pamina- 
gahana-mattena. Pam&iam hi gawhanto tassa tassa padesassa 
sa%ananattham nakhadihi va parM/Medam dassento ullikhati, nala- 
/adisu va ghawsati. Tasma tam pama»a-gaha»a/» ullikhita-mattan 
ti vuiiati (B.). 

* Bandhana-mattena 'ti mogha-suttak-Sropana-mattena (B.). 
Mogha-suttakani, ' false threads,' are threads put in the cloth to 
show where it is to be cut or sewn. See Buddhaghosa on JTulla- 
vaggaV, ii, 3 (p. 317 of H. O.'s edition). Our clause therefore 
means temporarily pieced together as the commencement of the 
tailoring work. 

* Ova//iya (sic) -karawa-mattena'ti mogha-suttakanusarena 
digha-sibbita-mattena (B.). Sewn in lengths along the lines of 
the false threads mentioned in the last note. The word occurs 
also in Mahavagga VIII, 14, 2 ; and in Aullavagga V, 1,2 we are 
told that the A'Aabbaggiya Bhikkhus ova//ika« dharenti. Buddha- 
ghosa says there vigyAita-karanaw ova//ika. 

* By joining on a little piece of cloth. Ka»</usa-kara»a- 
mattena 'ti muddiya-pa//a-bandhana-mattena, says Buddhaghosa. 

* Da/Ai-kara«a-mattena 'ti dve &milikayo (MS. Mmikayo) 
ekato katva sibbita-mattena : athava pa//iama-£imilika gha//etva* 
/Capita hoti, kaMina-sa/akaw tassa ku^Mi-^imilikaw katvS sappita- 
(read sibbita-) mattena 'ti pi attho. Maha-pa^ariyaw pakati- 
/iivarassa upassaya-danena 'ti vuttaw. Kurundiyaw pakatipa/Za- 
/ftvaram dupa//a»j katum ku£A4i-£imilika»» alliyapana-matlena 'ti 
vuttam (B.). On /WmilikS compare MinayefTs 'Pratimoksha,' p. 87. 



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154 mahAvagga. vii, i, 5. 

been strengthened by a braid 1 or by a binding 2 
along the back, or by being doubled in parts 8 : 
when it has only been put into the dye * : when 
the decision (by the presiding Bhikkhu, as to which 
robes he will take for himself) has been made (but 
not been carried out 6 ) : when there has been talk 
(about the merit acquired by presenting the Sawgha 
with cloth, and the donor has been induced thereby to 
show his liberality 8 ) : when the gift is only a temporary 
one 7 : when the ceremony has been postponed 8 : 

1 AnuvSta-kara»a-mattena 'ti pi//Ai-anuvata-Sropana-mat- 
tena (B.). Compare VIII, 2 1 , 1 . 

' Paribha«</a-kara«a-mattena 'ti kuAMi-anuvata-aropana- 
mattena (8,). Compare VIII, ai, i. 

* Ova/Meyya (sic) -kara«a-matten& 'ti agantuka-pa//'- 
aropana-mattena : ka/ftina-£ivarato va pa//am gahetva annasmim 
aka/Aina-£ivare pa/Aaropana-mattena (B.). 

4 Kambala-maddana-mattena 'ti ekavaraw yeva ra^ane 
pakkhittena danta-va««ena pa»</u-palasa-va««ena va : safe pana 
sakira va dvikkhattum va rattam (MS. nltfmm) pi saruppaw hoti 
vatfati (BO. 

" Or perhaps, according to some commentators, when it has 
been decided to accept the gift as a Ka/tfina, that is, when it has 
been decided that the cloth is of a suitable kind to make robes out 
of. Buddhaghosa says: Nimitta-katena" 'ti imina dussena 
VaJhiaam attharissamiti evara nimittakatena. Ettakam eva Parivare 
vuttaw. A/Makathasu pana ayam sa/ako sundaro, sakka imina' 
ka/flinam attharitun ti evaw nimittakatam katva laddhena 'ti attho. 
Compare below, § 6, for this and the two following words, the 
meaning of which is very doubtful. 

6 Buddhaghosa: Parikatha-katena 'ti kaMinam nama datum 
vaflati, ka/Aina-dayako bahu-punnan pasavatiti evam parikathaya 
uppaditena. KaMinaw nama ati-ukkaZ/Aaw va//ati: mataram pi 
na vin«apetu»z va//ati : akasato otutna-sadisam eva vatfati. 

7 Buddhaghosa simply says: kukku-katena 'ti tavakalikena. 
The last word mean's ' only for a time, temporary, on loan ;' see 
ffataka I, lai, 393, and ATullavagga X, 16, 1 ; but the explanation 
is not clear. According to the Abhidh£na-ppadipik& kukku is 
a measure of length. 

' Sannidhi-katena'ti ettha duvidho sannidhi ; kara«a-sannidhi 



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VII, i, 6. THE KATOINA CEREMONIES. 4 '-"' 

when the ceremony has had to be abandoned (because 
it has lasted through the night) * : when the ceremony 
has fallen through (from other causes) 2 : when (in 
the formal choice by the presiding Bhikkhu) the 
upper robes have been left out, or the under robes, 
or the waist-cloths : when any one of the five parts 
of the robe have been omitted in the cutting out 3 : 
when the ceremony has been presided over by more 
than one Bhikkhu*. And even when the Ka/^ina 
ceremony has (otherwise) been normally performed, 
if (the Sa#*gha) ratifying the distribution, be other 
than the (whole Sawgha) dwelling within the boun- 
dary, then also the KaMina ceremony has not been 
duly held 8 . 

' In these cases, O Bhikkhus, the KaMina cere- 
mony has not been duly held. 

6. 'And when, O Bhikkhus, has the Ka/^ina 
ceremony been duly held ?' 

'When the robes have been made out of new 

ka. ni£aya-sannidhi £a. Tattha tadah' eva akatva /AapetvS karanam 
karana-sannidhi ; samgho a^a ka/ftina-dussan? labhitva puna-divase 
deti ayaw niiaya-sannidhi (B.). 

1 Nissaggiyeni 'ti ratti-nissaggiyena. ParivSre pi vuttaw 
nissaggiyaw nama kayiramane arunaw udriyatlti (B.). 

! Akappa-katena 'ti anadinna-kappa-bindhuna (B.), which we 
do not understand. Perhaps we should read bin dun a. 

9 Annatra pancake na va atireka-pan^akena va 'ti pallia 
va atirekani va kharu&ni katva maha-man<&la-arf</,4a-ma«</alani das- 
setva" katen' eva va//ati. Evam hi sama«<foli-kata»i hoti. Turn 
//iapetva annena ai^Ainnakena va dvi-tti-£atu-kha»rfena va na va//ati 
(B.). On these five parts of the robe compare below, Mahivagga 

VIII, 12, 2. 

4 Annatra puggalassa atthara 'ti puggalassa attharaw 
Mapetva na annena sawghassa va gaaassa va attharena atthataw 
hoti (B.). The official 'distributor' (attharaka) must be a single 
person, not a gana, or the Samgha. 

" See the note on § 4, and below, VIII, 23. 



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156 mahAvagga. VII, i, 7. 

cotton-cloth, or as good as new, or out of cloth 1 , or 
out of (rags) taken from the dust-heap 2 , or out of 
odd bits picked up in the bazaar 3 : when the decision 
(by the presiding Bhikkhu as to which robes he will 
take for himself) has not (merely) been made (but 
carried out) : when there has been no talk about (the 
merit acquired by offering a KaMina) : when the 
gift is not merely a temporary one : when the cere- 
mony has not been postponed : when it has not 
been necessary to abandon the ceremony : when 
the ceremony has not fallen through : when (in 
the choice made by the presiding Bhikkhu) the upper 
robes have not been left out, nor the under robes, 
nor the waist-cloths : when not one of the five parts 
of the robe have been omitted in the cutting out : 
when (the ceremony has been presided over) by one 
Bhikkhu. And also when, after the Ka//fcina cere- 
mony has been (otherwise) normally performed, the 
ratification has been given by the (whole Sawzgha) 
dwelling within the boundary. 

' In these cases, O Bhikkhus, the Ka/^ina cere- 
mony has been duly held.' 



2*. 

1. 7. ' Now when, O Bhikkhus, is the Ka/^ina (that 
is to say, the privileges allowed after the Ka/^ina 
ceremony) suspended ? 

1 Pilo/ik3y& 'ti hata-vatthaka-saTakena (B.). 

9 PawsukulenS 'ti te-visatiya khettesu uppanna-pawsukulena. 

* P&pa»iken& 'ti dpana-dvare patita-pilo/ikaw gahetva ka/Ain- 
atthiya deti, tenapi va//atiti attho (B.). Compare VIII, 14, 2. 

4 The new chapter should have begun here, and not with the 
next section as printed in the text. 



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VII, I, 7. THE KATHIHA CEREMONIES. 1 57 

' There are, O Bhikkhus, these eight grounds l for 
the suspension of the Ka/^ina (privileges) 2 — the 
ground depending on (the Bhikkhus) having gone 
away, on (his robe being ready) finished, on his 
resolve (not to have it finished), on (his robe) having 
been destroyed, on his having heard (of the general 
suspension of the privileges of the whole Sazwgha), 
on the lapse of expectation (that a special gift of 
a robe would be made to him), on his having gone 
beyond the boundary (of the Sazwgha to whom the 
Ka//iina was given), on the common suspension (of 
the Ka///ina privileges of the whole Samgha). 

1 MStika 'ti mataro ^anettiyo 'ti attho (B.). So also in VIII, 14. 

* The discussion of these eight grounds of the suspension of 
the five KaMina privileges is closely connected with the description 
in the 13th chapter of the two so-called Palibodhas. Palibodha 
seems to mean the continued existence of a claim on the Bhikkhu's 
side to a share in the distribution of the Ka/ftina. Two conditions 
are necessary to the validity of this claim ; the first touching the 
Bhikkhu's domicile (ivdsa), the second the state of his wardrobe 
(^ivara). He must remain within the boundary (sima) of the 
Samgha to whom the Ka/ttina has been given ; or if he has left it, 
then he must have the intention of returning, the animus rever- 
tendi. And secondly, he must be in actual want of robes. If 
either of these conditions fail, then the Bhikkhu is apalibodha in 
respect of the avasa or the Jivara respectively. If he is apalibodha 
in both respects, then there follows the suspension of the Ka/Aina 
privileges, the kaMin-uddhSra, or kaMin-ubbhSra, so far as 
he is concerned. 

So the eight grounds of the suspension of the privileges referred 
to in our present section (chap. 1. 7) either refer to the Bhikkhu's 
domicile or to the state of his robes, or to ways in which his case falls 
within the general suspension of privileges of the whole Samgha. 
Each of the eight cases is explained in detail in the following sections, 
except the sixth ground, which is specially treated of afterwards in 
chapters 8 and 9. See the note on the title at the end of this 
chapter, and compare further our note on the first Nissaggiya 
PaAittiya. 



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*58 mahAvagga. vii, 2, i. 

2. i. 'A Bhikkhu, after the KaAfcina ceremony 
has been held 1 , takes a robe ready for wear, and 
goes away, thinking, " I will come back." 

' That Bhikkhu's Ka/^ina privileges are suspended 
on the ground of his having gone away. 

' A Bhikkhu, after the Ka//&ina ceremony has been 
held, takes a robe and goes away. And when he 
had got beyond the boundary he thinks, " I will 
have the robe made up here, and will never go 
back." And he gets the robe made up. 

' That Bhikkhu's KaMina privileges are suspended 
on the ground of his having a robe ready for wear. 

' A Bhikkhu, after the Ka/^ina ceremony has been 
held, takes a robe and goes away. And when he 
has got beyond the boundary he thinks, " I will 
neither have the robe made up, nor will I go back." 

' That Bhikkhu's Ka//&ina privileges are suspended 
on the ground of his having so decided. 

' A Bhikkhu, after the Ka/£ina ceremony has been 
held, takes a robe and goes away. And when he 
has got beyond the boundary he thinks, " I will have 
the robe made up here, and will never go back." 
And he has the robe made up. And as the robe 
is being made up for him, it is spoilt. 

' That Bhikkhu's KaMina privileges are suspended 
on the ground of the robe being so spoilt. 

2. ' A Bhikkhu, after the Ka/^ina ceremony has 
been held, takes a robe and goes away, thinking, " I 
will come back." When he has got beyond the 
boundary he has that robe made up. When his robe 
has thus been made up he bears the news, " The 
Ka/^ina, they say, has been suspended in that 
district \" 

1 Literally, ' whose Ka/Aina has been spread out.' 

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VII, 3. THE KAIWINA CEREMONIES. 1 59 

' That Bhikkhu's KaMina privileges are suspended 
on the ground of his having heard that news. 

' A Bhikkhu, after the Ka//&ina ceremony has been 
held, takes a robe and goes away, thinking, " I will 
come back." And when he has got beyond the 
boundary he has that robe made up. .And then, 
after it has been made up, he postpones his return 
until the (general) suspension of privileges has taken 
place. 

' That Bhikkhu's Ka^&ina privileges are suspended 
on the ground of his being beyond the boundary. 

' A Bhikkhu, after the Ka/yfcina ceremony has been 
held, takes a robe and goes away, thinking, " I will 
come back." And when he has got beyond the 
boundary he has that robe made up. And then, 
when it has been made up, he postpones his return 
until the very moment when the (general) suspension 
of privileges takes place \ 

' That Bhikkhu's Ka/>&ina privileges are suspended 
on the ground of the common suspension (of the 
privileges of the whole Sawgha).' 



End of the section entitled Adaya-sattaka 2 . 



3. 
' A Bhikkhu, after the Ka//&ina ceremony has been 

1 In the table of contents (p. 266) sambhuȣti is replaced by 
sambhoti. Abhisambhu»eyya/» occurs in Burnouf's ' Lotus,' &c, 

P- 3«3- 

* That is, ' the seven cases in which he takes a robe away.' The 
eighth case is explained below in chapters 8, 9. 



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160 mahAvagga. VII, 4. 

held, takes with him a robe ready for wear, and goes 
away, &C. 1 ' 

End of the section entitled Samadaya-sattaka 2 . 



4. 
' A Bhikkhu, after the Ka//fcina ceremony has been 
held, takes a robe not ready, and goes away. And 
when he has got beyond the boundary he thinks, 
" I will have the robe made up here, and will never 
go back;" and .he gets the robe made up, &c. 8 ' 



End of the section entitled Adaya-^akka 4 . 



' A Bhikkhu, after the Ka/^ina ceremony has been 
held, takes with him a robe not ready, and goes 
away, &c. 8 ' 

End of the section entitled Samidaya-^^akka 6 . 

1 This chapter is word for word identical with chap. 2 : only 
instead of ' takes' (adaya) read ' takes with him' (samadaya). We 
cannot say what different meaning these two words are intended to 
convey. 

* That is, ' the seven cases in which he takes a robe with him.' 

* Six of the seven cases specified in chap. 2 (with the exception 
of the first of the seven) are repeated here in the same words, with 
the only difference that instead of ' takes a robe ' it is said here 
' takes a robe not ready.' The first case is necessarily omitted, 
because it is essential to that case, that the Bhikkhu going away 
takes with him a robe ready for wear. 

4 ' The six cases in which he takes a robe away.' 
8 As in chap. 4. For ' takes ' read ' takes with him.' See the 
note at chap. 3. 

* ' The six cases in which he takes a robe with him.' 



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VII, 6, 4. THE KATHINA CEREMONIES. l6l 



6. 

i. 'A Bhikkhu, after the Ka/$ina ceremony has 
been held, takes a robe, and goes away. And when 
he has got beyond the boundary he thinks, " I will 
have the robe made up here, and will never go back." 
And he gets the robe made up. 

' That Bhikkhu's Ka//&ina privileges are suspended 
on the ground of his having a robe ready for wear, 

&C 1 

2. ' A Bhikkhu, after the Ka//&ina ceremony has 
been held, takes a robe and goes away, thinking, " I 
will never come back." And when he has got beyond 
the boundary he thinks, " I will have the robe made 
up here." And he gets the robe made up, &c. 2 

3. ' A Bhikkhu, after the KaMina ceremony has 
been held, takes a robe and goes away, without taking 
a resolution ; he neither thinks " I will come back," nor 
does he think " I will not come back." And when 
he has got beyond the boundary, &c. 8 

4. ' A Bhikkhu, after the KaMina ceremony has 
been held, takes a robe and goes away, thinking, 

1 This case is word for word identical with the second case in 
chap. 2. 1. After it follow the third and fourth case of chap. 2. 1, 
which it is unnecessary to print here again in full extent. The triad 
of these cases is repeated here in order to serve as a basis for the 
variations which are to follow in §§ 2, 3. 

* The triad of § 1 is repeated here, with the difference, as is seen 
from the opening clauses which we have fully printed, that the 
Bhikkhu, before he has got beyond the boundary, and not after- 
wards as in § 1, resolves upon not returning to the ivdsa. 

8 The whole triad as in § 1. The only difference between § 3 
and § 1 consists in the following words being added in § 3 in each 
of the three cases, ' without taking a resolution ; he neither thinks 
" I will come back," nor does he think " I will not come back." ' 

[17] M 



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1 62 mahAvagga. VII, 7. 

" I will come back." And when he has got beyond 
the boundary, &C 1 ' 



7: 

' A Bhikkhu, after the Ka^iina ceremony has been 
held, takes a robe with him and goes away, &c. 2 ' 



End of the Adaya-(' Taking away') Bhawavara. 



8: 

1. 'A Bhikkhu, after the Ka//5ina ceremony has 
been held, goes away with the expectation of getting 
a robe (presented). And when he has got beyond 
the boundary, &c. And he adopts such a course 
of action as may lead to his expectation being 
realised. But he obtains a robe where he had not 
expected it, and does not obtain it where he had 
expected it. And he thinks, " I will have the robe 
made up here, and will never go back." And he 
gets the robe made up. 

' That Bhikkhu's Ka/^ina privileges are suspended 
on the ground of his having a robe ready for wear. 

' A Bhikkhui after the KaMina ceremony has been 

1 Supply here the whole triad as in § 1, the words 'thinking " I 
will come back " ' being constantly added. After this triad follow 
three other cases which are exactly identical with the three con- 
tained in chap. 2. 2. 

* The whole chapter 6 is repeated here three times, the first time 
replacing the words 'takes a robe* by 'takes a robe with him' 
(comp. chap. 3); the second time replacing 'takes a robe' by 
' takes a robe not ready' (comp. chap. 4) ; and the third time with 
these two modifications combined (comp. chap. 5). 



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VII, 9, I. THE KATOINA CEREMONIES. 1 63 

held (&c, as in the preceding case). And he thinks, 
" I will neither have the robe made up, nor will I 
go back." 

' That Bhikkhu's Ka/^ina privileges are suspended 
on the ground of his having so decided. 

' A Bhikkhu, after the KaMina ceremony has been 
held, &c. And he thinks, " I will have the robe 
made up here, and will never go back." And he 
has the robe made up. And as the robe is being- 
made up for him, it is spoilt. 

' That Bhikkhu's Katkina. privileges are suspended 
on the ground of the robe being so spoilt. 
' ' A Bhikkhu, after the KaMina ceremony has been 
held, goes away with the expectation of getting a 
robe (presented). And when he has got beyond the 
boundary, he thinks, " I will adopt here such a course 
of action as may lead to my expectation being realised, 
and will never go back." And he devotes himself 
to obtaining that expected gift, but his expectation 
comes to nothing. 

' That Bhikkhu's Ka/^ina privileges are suspended 
on the ground of the lapse of that expectation.' 

2, 3 1 - 

End of the section entitled Anasa-do/asaka 2 . 



9. 

1. ' A Bhikkhu, after the Ka/^ina ceremony has 
been held, goes away with the expectation of getting 

1 §§ 2, 3 stand exactly in the same relation to § 1 in which 
chap. 6. 2, 3 stand to chap. 6. 1. 

1 'The twelve cases (in which the robe is received) against 
expectation.' 

M 2 

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1 64 MAHAVAGGA. VII, 9, 2. 

a robe (presented), thinking, " I will come back." 
And when he has got beyond the boundary, he 
devotes himself to the realisation of his expectation, 
and he obtains a robe where he had expected it, and 
does not obtain one where he had not expected it 
And he thinks, " I will have the robe made up here, 
and will never go back," &c.' 

2. ' A Bhikkhu, after the Ka/^ina ceremony has 
been held, goes away with the expectation of getting 
a robe (presented), thinking, "I will come back." 
And when he has got beyond the boundary, he 
hears the news : " The Ka/yfcina, they say, has been 
suspended in that district." And he thinks, " Since 
the Ka^ina has been suspended in that district, I 
will devote myself here to obtaining the gift I am 
expecting." And he adopts such action as may 
lead to the realisation of his expectation, and he 
obtains a robe where he had expected it, and does 
not obtain one where he had not expected it. And 
he thinks, " I will have the robe made up here, and 
will never go back," &c. 2 

3. 'A Bhikkhu, after the Ka^ina ceremony has 
been held, goes away with the expectation of getting 
a robe (presented), thinking, " I will come back." 
And when he has got beyond the boundary, he 
adopts such action as may lead to the realisation of 
his expectation, and he obtains a robe where he had 
expected it, and does not obtain one where he had 
not expected it, and he has that robe made up. 

1 Here follows the same development into the four cases of 
ni/ZASnantika, sanni//Aanantika, nasanantika, and asava£Medika 
ka/Ainuddhara, as in chap. 8. 1. 

* Supply here the same four cases as in the preceding paragraph 
or in chap. 8. 1. 



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VII, 9, 3* THE KA7"fflNA CEREMONIES. I65 

When that robe has thus been made up he hears 
the news, "The Ka/^ina, they say, has been sus- 
pended in that district." 

' That Bhikkhu's KaMina privileges are sus- 
pended on the ground of his having heard that 
news. 

' A Bhikkhu, after the KaMina ceremony has been 
held, goes away with the expectation of getting a robe, 
thinking, " I will come back." And when he has 
got beyond the boundary, he thinks, " I will devote 
myself to obtaining that expected gift, and will never 
go back." And he cares for that expected gift, but 
his expectation collapses. 

'That Bhikkhu's Ka/^ina privileges are sus- 
pended on the ground of the lapse of that expec- 
tation. 

' A Bhikkhu, after the Ka/>&na ceremony has been 
held, goes away with the expectation of getting a 
robe, thinking, " I will come back." And when he 
has got beyond the boundary, he devotes himself 
to the realisation of his expectation, and he obtains 
a robe where he had expected it, and does not obtain 
one where he had not expected it, and he has that 
robe made up. And then, after it has. been made 
up, he postpones his return until the (general) 
suspension of privileges has taken place. 

' That Bhikkhu's Ka/Ains. privileges are sus- 
pended on the ground of his being beyond the 
boundary. 

' A Bhikkhu, after the Ka/^ina ceremony has been 
held (&c, as in the preceding case, down to :) And 
then, after it has been made up, he postpones his 
return until the very moment when the (general) 
suspension of privileges takes place. 



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1 66 mahAvagga. VII, 10. 

' That Bhikkhu's Ka/^ina privileges are suspended 
on the ground of the common suspension.' 



End of the section entitled Asa-do/asaka 1 . 



10. 

' A Bhikkhu, after the KaAfcina ceremony has been 
held, goes away on some business. And when he 
has got beyond the boundary, he conceives the 
expectation of getting a robe (presented). And he 
devotes himself to the realisation of his expectation, 
and he obtains, &c. 2 ' 



End of the Kara«iya-do/asaka 3 . 



11. 

i. 'A Bhikkhu, after the Ka/^ina ceremony has 
been held, goes away travelling to the (four) quarters 
(of the world 4 ), guarding 6 his claim to a share in 
the robes. When he is so travelling, the Bhikkhus 
ask him : " Where have you kept Vassa, friend, and 
where have you your share in the robes ?" 

' He replies : " I have kept Vassa in such and such 

1 ' The twelve cases (in which the robe is received) as expected.' 

s See chap. 8. i. The same three times four cases are specified 
here as in chap. 5; only the opening clauses of each case, which 
we have printed above, are different from those in chap. 8. 

' ' The twelve cases of (the Bhikkhu's going away on) business.' 

4 Comp. II, 2i, i. 

' Apa&nayamSna, comp. apa£iti, apajfita. 



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VII, II, 3- THE KArfllNA CEREMONIES. I67 

a residence, and there I have my share in the 
robes." 

' They say to him : " Go, friend, and bring your 
robe hither ; we will make it up for you here." 

4 And he goes to that residence and asks the 
Bhikkhus : " Where is the portion of robes due to 
me, friends ? " 

' They reply : " Here it is, friend ; where are you 
going?" 

' He says : " I will go to such and such a residence ; 
there the Bhikkhus will make up the robe for me." 

' They answer : " Nay, friend, do not go ; we will 
make up the robe for you here." 

' And he thinks, " I will have the robe made up 
here, and will not go back (to that other place)," &C. 1 

2. 'A Bhikkhu, after the Ka/^ina ceremony has 
been held, goes away travelling (&c, as in § i, down 
to:) "Here it is, friend." And he takes that robe 
and sets out for that residence. On the way some 
Bhikkhus ask him : " Friend, where are you going ?" 

' He says : " I intend to go to such and such a 
residence; there the Bhikkhus will make up the 
robe for me." 

' They answer : "Nay, friend, do not go ; we will 
make up the robe for you here." 

' And he thinks, " I will have the robe made up 
here, and will not go back (to that other place)," &c. 2 

3. ' A Bhikkhu, after the KaMina ceremony has 
been held, goes away travelling (&c, as in § I, down 
to :) " Here it is, friend." And he takes that robe, 
and sets out for that residence. And when going 

1 Here follow the three cases as given in chap. 6. 1, in the 
usual way. 

* The usual three cases ; see the preceding note. 



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1 68 mahAvagga. vii, 12. 

to that residence, he thinks, " I will have the robe 
made up here, and will not go back (to that place)," 
&C. 1 ' 

End of the Apaiinana-navaka *.. 



12. 

' A Bhikkhu intent on finding a comfortable place 
(to live in), after the Ka//4ina ceremony has been 
held, takes a robe, and goes away, thinking, " I will 
go to such and such a residence ; if it is comfortable 
there, I will remain there ; if it is not, I will go to 
such and such a. residence ; if it is comfortable there, 
I will remain there ; if it is not, I will go to such 
and such a residence ; if it is comfortable there, I 
will remain there ; if it is not, I will go back." 

'When he has got beyond the boundary, he thinks, 
" I will have the robe made up here, and will never 
go back," &c. s ' 

End of the five cases of the Bhikkhu intent on 
comfort.. 



13. 

1. 'On two conditions, O Bhikkhus, the claim (of 
a Bhikkhu to a share in the distribution) of the 

1 The same three cases as before. 
* ' The nine cases in which he guards (his claim).' 
3 The usual three cases as before, and then the two cases of the 
simatikkantika ka/Ainuddhira and the saha bhikkhflhi 
kaMinuddhara, which run as may be seen from chap. 2. 2 (the 
two last cases there) or from chap. 9. 3. 



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VII, 13, 2. THE KATHISA CEREMONIES. 1 69 

Ka/^ina continues to exist, and on the failing of 
these two conditions it is lost *. 

'And which are the two conditions, O Bhikkhus, for 
the continued existence of that claim ? The condition 
regarding the residence, and the condition regarding 
the robe. 

'And which, O Bhikkhus, is the condition regarding 
the residence ? A Bhikkhu, O Bhikkhus, goes away 
(for a time), when it is raining or storming, with the 
intention of returning to that residence. In this 
case, O Bhikkhus, the condition regarding the 
residence is fulfilled. And which, O Bhikkhus, is the 
condition that regards the robe? A Bhikkhu' s 
robe, O Bhikkhus, is not made up, or not ready, or 
his expectation of getting a robe has ceased. In 
this case, O Bhikkhus, the condition regarding the 
robe is fulfilled. These, O Bhikkhus, are the two 
conditions for the continued existence of the claim. 

2. ' And which, O Bhikkhus, is the failing of the 
two conditions by which the claim is lost ? The 
failing of the condition regarding the residence, and 
the failing of the condition regarding the robe. 

'And in which case.O Bhikkhus, does the condition 
regarding the residence fail ? 

'A Bhikkhu, O Bhikkhus, goes away from the 
residence, giving it up, turning away from it with 
contempt, abandoning it, with the intention of not 
returning. In this case, O Bhikkhus, the condition 
regarding the residence fails. And in which case, 
O Bhikkhus, does the condition regarding the robe 



1 Literally, there are two Palibodhas of the Ka/ftina and two 
Apalibodhas. On the subject discussed in this chapter — the Pali- 
bodhas — see the note on chap. 1. 7. 



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1 70 mahAvagga. VIT, 13, 2. 

fail ? A Bhikkhu's robe, O Bhikkhus, has been made 
up, or spoilt, or lost, or burnt, or his expectation of 
getting a robe »has ceased. In these cases, O Bhik- 
khus, the condition regarding the robe fails. This 
is the failing of the two conditions, O Bhikkhus, by 
which the claim is lost.' 



End of the seventh Khandhaka, the Ka/^ina- 
khandhaka. 



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VIII, 1, 2. THE DRESS OF THE BHIKKHUS. 171 



EIGHTH KHANDHAKA. 

(THE DRESS OF THE BHIKKHUS.) 



1. At that time the blessed Buddha dwelt at 
Ra^agaha.in the Ve/uvana, in the Kalandaka-nivapa. 
At that time Vesali was an opulent, prosperous 
town, populous, crowded with people, abundant with 
food 1 ; there were seven thousand seven hundred 
and seven storeyed buildings, and seven thousand 
seven hundred and seven pinnacled buildings, and 
seven thousand seven hundred and seven pleasure 
grounds (Aramas), and seven thousand seven hundred 
and seven lotus-ponds. There was also the courtezan 
Ambapalika 2 , who was beautiful, graceful, pleasant, 
gifted with the highest beauty of complexion, well 
versed in dancing, singing, and lute-playing, much 
visited by desirous people. She asked fifty (kaha- 
pa«as) for one night Through that person Vesali 
became more and more flourishing. 

2. Now a merchant from Ra^agaha went to 
Vesali on a certain business. That Ra^agaha 
merchant saw what an opulent, prosperous town 
Vesali was, how populous, crowded with people, and 
abundant with food, and the seven thousand seven 

1 Compare Maha-sudassana Sutta I, 3, and Maha-parinibbana 
Sutta V, 42. 

* See above, VI, 30, 6; Maha-parinibbana Sutta II, 16 seq. 



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1 72 MAHAVAGGA. VIII, 1, 3. 

hundred and seven storeyed buildings .... and the 
courtezan Ambapall, who was beautiful .... and 
through whom Vesali became more and more 
flourishing. And the Ri^agaha merchant, after 
having done his business in Vesalt, returned to 
Ra^agaha and went to the place where the Magadha 
king Seniya Birnbisara was. Having approached him, 
he said to the Magadha king Seniya Birnbisara : 
'Vesali, Your Majesty, is an opulent, prosperous 
town (&c, as in § i, down to :) Through that person 
Vesalt becomes more and more flourishing. May 
it please Your Majesty, let us also install a cour- 
tezan.' 

(The king replied), 'Well, my good Sir, look for 
such a girl whom you can install as courtezan.' 

3. Now at that time there was at Ra^agaha a girl 
Salavatl by name, who was beautiful, graceful, plea- 
sant, and gifted with the highest beauty of complexion. 
That girl Salavatl the Ra^agaha merchant installed 
as courtezan. And before long the courtezan Sala- 
vatl was well versed in dancing, singing, and lute- 
playing, and much visited by desirous people, and 
she asked one hundred (kahipa«as) for one night 
And before long the courtezan Salavat! became 
pregnant. Now the courtezan Salavatl thought: 
'Men do not like a pregnant woman. If anybody 
should find out regarding me that "The courtezan 
Salavatl is pregnant," my whole position will be 
lost What if I were to have the people told that 
I am sick.' 

And the courtezan Salavatl gave orders to the 
door-keeper (saying), ' Let no man enter here, my 
good door-keeper, and if a man calls for me, tell 
him that I am sick.' The door-keeper accepted 



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VIII, i, 4. THE DRESS OF THE BHIKKHUS. 1 73 

this order of the courtezan Salavatl (by saying), 
* Yes, Madam.' 

4. And the courtezan Salavatl, when the child in 
her womb had reached maturity, gave birth to a 
boy. And the courtezan Salavatl gave orders to 
her maid-servant (saying), ' Go, my girl, put this 
boy into an old winnowing basket, take him away, 
and throw him away on a dust-heap.' The servant 
accepted this order of the courtezan Salavatl (by 
saying), ' Yes, Madam,' put that boy into an old 
winnowing basket, took him away, and threw him 
away on a dust-heap. 

At that time a royal prince, Abhaya by name \ 
went betimes to attend upon the king, and saw that 
boy, around whom crows were gathering. When 
he saw that, he asked the people : ' What is that, my 
good Sirs, around which the crows are gathering?' 

' It is a boy, Your Highness V 

' Is he alive, Sirs ?' 

' He is alive, Your Highness.' 

' Well, my good Sirs, bring that boy to our palace 
and give him to the nurses to nourish him.' 

And those people accepted that order of the royal 
prince Abhaya (by saying), ' Yes, Your Highness,' 
brought that boy to the palace of the royal prince 
Abhaya, and gave him to the nurses (saying), 
'Nourish (this boy).' 

1 This 'royal prince Abhaya' (Abhaya kum&ra) is mentioned 
by the Gainas under the name of Abhayakumara as the son of 
Semyn, i.e. Bimbisira. See Jacobi, Zeitschrift der Deutschen 
Morg. Gesellschaft, vol. xxxiv, p. 187. 

* The word which we have translated 'Your Highness' (deva, 
lit 'God') is the same which is used by all persons except by 
Sama«as in addressing a king. 



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1 74 mahAvagga. viii, i, 5. 

Because (the people had said about this boy to 
Abhaya), 'He is alive' (flvati), they gave him 
the name of ^ivaka; because he had been caused 
to be nourished by the royal prince (kumarena 
posapito), they gave him the name of Komara- 
bha^ia 1 . 

5. And ere long £lvaka Komarabhaiia came 
to the years of discretion. And £lvaka Koma- 
rabha££a went to the place where the royal prince 
Abhaya was; having approached him he said to 
the royal prince Abhaya : ' Who is my mother, Your 
Highness, and who is my father ?' 

' I do not know your mother, my good <7tvaka, but 
I am your father, for I have had you nourished.' 

Now Givaka. Komarabha££a thought : ' In these 
royal families it is not easy to find one's livelihood 
without knowing an art. What if I were to learn 
an art.' 

6. At that time there lived at Takkasila (TdgtXa) a 
world-renowned physician. And Clvaka Komara- 
bha££a without asking leave of the royal prince 
Abhaya set out for Takkasila. Wandering from place 
to place he came to Takkasila and to the place where 

1 Evidently the redactors of this passage referred the first part 
of the compound Komarabha££a to the royal prince (kumara) 
Abhaya, and intended Komarabha££a to be understood as 'a 
person whose life is supported by a royal prince.' So also the 
name Kumara-Kassapa is explained in the Gataka commentary 
(Rh. D., ' Buddhist Birth Stories,' p. 204). The true meaning of 
the name, however, appears to have been different, for in Sanskrit 
kumarabhr«'tyi and kaumSrabhr/tya are technical terms for 
the part of the medical science which comprises the treatment of 
infants (see Wise, 'Commentary on the Hindu System of Medicine,' 
p. 3). We believe, therefore, that this surname Komarabha££a 
really means, ' Master of the kaumarabhr/tya science.' 



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VIII, 1, 7- THE DRESS OF THE BHIKKHUS. 1 75 

that physician was. Having approached him he said 
to that physician, ' I wish to learn your art, doctor.' 

' Well, friend Glvaka, learn it.' 

And Glvaka Komarabha£/£a learnt much, and 
learnt easily, and understood well, and did not forget 
what he had learnt. And when seven years had 
elapsed, Glvaka Komirabhai^a thought : ' I learn 
much, and learn easily, and I understand well, and 
I do not forget what I have learnt. I have studied 
now seven years, and I do not see the end of this 
art When shall I see the end of this art ?' 

7. And Glvaka Komarabha£/£a went to the place 
where that physician was ; having approached him 
he said to that physician : ' I learn much, doctor, and 
I learn easily ; I understand well, and do not forget 
what I have learnt. I have studied now seven 
years, and I do not see the end of this art. When 
shall I see the end of this art ?' 

' Very well, my dear Glvaka, take this spade, and 
seek round about Takkasila a yq^ana on every 
side, and whatever (plant) you see which is not 
medicinal, bring it to me.' 

Glvaka Komarabha^Sa accepted this order of that 
physician (saying), ' Yes, doctor,' took a spade, and 
went around about Takkasila a yo^ana on every side, 
but he did not see anything that was not medicinal. 
Then Glvaka Komarabhai^a went to the place where 
that physician was ; having approached him he said 
to that physician : ' I have been seeking, doctor, all 
around Takkasila a yo^ana on every side, but I have 
not seen anything that is not medicinal.' 

(The physician replied), ' You have done your 
learning, my good Glvaka ; this will do for acquiring 
your livelihood.' Speaking thus he gave to Givaka 



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1 76 mahAvagga. VIII, 1, 8. 

Komarabhaiia a little (money) for his journey 
(home). 

8. And <9tvaka Komarabhaiia took that little 
money, given to him for his journey, and set out 
for Ra^agaha. And on the way at Saketa that 
little money of <7lvaka Komarabhaiia was spent 
Now <7lvaka Komarabha^ia thought : ' These ways 
are wild, and there is but little water and little food ; 
it is difficult to travel here without money for the 
journey. What if I were to try to get some money 
for my journey.' 

At that time the se/Mi's 1 wife at Saketa had 
been suffering for seven years from disease in the 
head ; many very great and world-renowned physi- 
cians came, but they could not restore her to health ; 
they received much gold, and went away. 

And £lvaka Komarabha£/£a, when he had entered 
Saketa, asked the people : ' Who is sick here, my 
good Sirs ? Whom shall I cure ?' 

' That se/Mi's wife, doctor, has been suffering 
for seven years from a disease in the head; go, 
doctor, and cure that sett/ii's wife.' 

9. Then Qvaka Komarabha^fct went to the house 
of that householder, the se///fci ; and when he had 
reached it, he gave orders to the door-keeper (saying), 
' Go, my good door-keeper, and tell the se//^i's wife : 
" A physician has come in, Madam, who wants to 
see you." ' 

That door-keeper accepted this order of <7tvaka 
Komarabha/&£a (saying), ' Yes, doctor,' went to the 
place where the se/Mi's wife was, and having ap- 
proached her, he said to the se/^i's wife : ' A physician 
has come in, Madam, who wants to see you.' 

1 See the note at I, 7, 1. 

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VIII, I, ii. THE DRESS OF THE BHIKKHUS. iyj 

'What sort of man is that physician, my good 
door-keeper ?' 

' He is a young man, Madam.' 

'Nay, my good door-keeper, what can a young 
physician help me ? Many very great and world- 
renowned physicians have come and have not been 
able to restore me to health ; they have received 
much gold, and have gone away.' 

10. Thus that door-keeper went to Gtvaka. 
Komarabha^a; having approached him he said 
to £tvaka Komarabhai^a : 'The se/Mi's wife has 
said, doctor : " Nay, my good door-keeper (&c, as 
in § 9)."' 

(<7lvaka replied), ' Go, my good door-keeper, and 
tell the se///4i's wife : " The physician, Madam, says : 
' Do not give me anything beforehand, Madam ; 
when you shall have been restored to health, then 
you may give me what you like.' " ' 

The door-keeper accepted this order of Ctvaka 
Komarabha££a (saying), ' Yes, doctor,' went to the 
place where the se/Mi's wife was, and having ap- 
proached her he said to the se/Mi's wife : ' The 
physician, Madam, says (&c, as above).' 

'Well, my good door-keeper, let the physician 
enter.' 

The door-keeper accepted this order of the stlthi's 
wife (saying), 'Yes, Madam,' went to the place where 
Crlvaka Komarabha££a was, and having approached 
him he said to Givaka. Komarabha&6a : ' The se/Z&'s 
wife calls you, doctor.' 

ii. Then Gtvaka. Komarabha&£a went to the 
place where the se//^i's wife was ; having approached 
her, and having carefully observed the change in 
the appearance of the se///fci's wife, he said to the 

[17] N 



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178 MAHAVAGGA. VIII, I, I 2. 

se///4i's wife : 'We want one pasata 1 of ghee, Madam.' 
Then the se///fci's wife ordered one pasata of ghee 
to be given to Givaka. Komarabhaiia. And £ivaka 
Komarabha££a boiled up that pasata of ghee with 
various drugs, ordered the s&lthi's wife to lie down 
on her back in the bed, and gave it her through her 
nose. And the butter given through the nose came 
out through the mouth. And the szllhis wife spat 
it out into the spittoon, and told the maid-servant : 
' Come, my girl, take this ghee up with a piece of 
cotton.' 

1 2. Then <7ivaka Komarabha£/£a thought : ' It is ■ 
astonishing how niggardly this house-wife is, in that 
she has this ghee, which ought to be thrown away, 
taken up with a piece of cotton. I have given her 
many highly precious drugs. What sort of fee will 
she give me?' 

And the se/Mi's wife, when she observed the 
change of demeanour in £ivaka Komarabha£/6a, said 
to £lvaka Komarabha>6£a : 'Why are you per- 
plexed, doctor?' 
: ' I thought: " It is astonishing, &c." ' 

' Householders like us, doctor, know why to 
economize thus ; this ghee will do for the servants 
or workmen to anoint their feet with, or it can be 
poured into the lamp. Be not perplexed, doctor, 
you will not lose your fee.' 



1 One prasn'ta or prasr*ti ('handful') is said by the Sanskrit 
lexicographers to be equal to two palas. About the pala, which 
according to the ghee measure (ghrz't aprama»a) of Magadha was 
the thirty-second part of a prastha, see the Atharva-parirish/a 
35> 3> a P- Weber, Ueber den Vedakalender namens Jyotisham, 
p. 82. Compare also Rh. D., 'Ancient Coins and Measures of 
Ceylon/ pp. 18, 19, 



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VIII, I, 14. THE DRESS OF THE BHIKKHUS. 1 79 

1 3. And Qvaka Komarabha£>£a drove away the 
disease in the head which the sztthis wife had had 
for seven years, by once giving her medicine through 
the nose. Then the se//^i's wife, who had been 
restored to health, gave four thousand (kahapa»as) 
to Glvaka. Komarabhai^a ; her son (thinking), ' My 
mother stands there restored,' gave him four thou- 
sand ; her daughter-in-law (thinking), ' My mother- 
in-law stands there restored,' gave him four thousand; 
the se/Mi, the householder, (thinking), 'My wife 
stands there restored,' gave him four thousand and 
a man-servant and a maid-servant and a coach with 
horses. 

Then Civaka Komarabha^ia took those sixteen 
thousand (kahapa«as) and the man-servant, the maid- 
servant, and the coach with the horses, and set out 
for Ra/agaha. In due course he came to R&^agaha, 
and to the place where the royal prince Abhaya 
was ; having approached him he said to the royal 
prince Abhaya: 'This, Your Highness, (have I re- 
ceived for) the first work I have done, sixteen thou- 
sand and a man-servant and a maid-servant and a 
coach with horses; may Your Highness accept this 
as payment for my bringing up.' 

' Nay, my dear (Glvaka, keep it, but do not get 
a dwelling for yourself elsewhere than in our 
residence.' 

Qvaka Komarabhaiia accepted this order of the 
royal prince Abhaya (saying), 'Yes, Your Highness,' 
and got himself a dwelling in the residence of the 
royal prince Abhaya. 

14. At that time the Magadha king Seniya Bim- 
bisara suffered from a fistula; his garments were 
stained with blood. When the queens saw that, 

N 2 



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180 mahAvagga. vih, i, 15. 

they ridiculed (the king, and said) : * His Majesty is 
having his courses. His Majesty will bring forth 1' 
The king was annoyed at that And the Magadha 
king Seniya Bimbisara said to the royal prince 
Abhaya : ' I am suffering, my dear Abhaya, from 
such a disease that my garments are stained with 
blood ; and the queens, when they see it, ridicule 
(me by saying), " His Majesty is, &c." Pray, my dear 
Abhaya, find a physician for me, able to cure me.' 

'This excellent young physician of ours, Sire, 
Clvaka, he will cure Your Majesty.' 

' Then pray, my dear Abhaya, give orders to the 
physician Givaka, and he shall cure me.' 

15. Then the royal prince Abhaya gave orders 
to Gtvaka. Komarabhaiia (saying), ' Go, my dear 
Glvaka, and cure the king.' 

Clvaka Komarabhai^a accepted this order of the 
royal prince Abhaya (by saying), ' Yes, Your High- 
ness,' took some medicament in his nail, and went 
to the place where the Magadha king Seniya 
Bimbisara was. Having approached him, he said 
to the Magadha king Seniya Bimbisara : ' Let us 
see your disease, Your Majesty.' And Gtvaka. Ko- 
marabhaiia healed the fistula of the Magadha king 
Seniya Bimbisara by one anointing. 

Then the Magadha king Seniya Bimbisara, having 
been restored to health, ordered his five hundred 
wives to put on all their ornaments ; then he ordered 
them to take their ornaments off and to make a 
heap of them, and he said to Glvaka. Komarabha&6a : 
' All these ornaments, my dear Qvaka, of my five 
hundred wives shall be thine.' 

' Nay, Sire, may Your Majesty remember my 
office.' 



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Till,' I, 17. THE DRESS OF THE BHIKKHUS. l8t 

' Very well, my dear (7lvaka, you can wait upon 
me and my seraglio and the fraternity of Bhikkhus 
with the Buddha at its head.' 

Gtvaka. Komarabha££a accepted this order of the 
Magadha king Seniya Bimbisara (by saying), ' Yes, 
Your Majesty.' 

16. At that time the se//£i at Rdfagaha had been 
suffering for seven years from a disease in the head. 
Many very great and world-renowned physicians 
came, and were not able to restore him to health ; 
they received much gold and went away. And a 
prognostication had been made by the physicians 
to him, to wit : Some of the physicians said : ' The 
se//>4i, the householder, will die on the fifth day;' 
other physicians said : ' The se/ZAi, the householder, 
will die on the seventh day.' 

Now (a certain) Ra^agaha merchant thought: 
' This se//£i, this householder, does good ' service 
both to the king and to the merchants' guild. Now 
the physicians have made prognostication to him(&c, 
as above). There is 61vaka, the royal physician, 
an excellent young doctor. What if we were to ask 
the king for his physician Gtvaka to cure the se//^i, 
the householder ?' 

17. And the Rafagaha merchant went to the 
place where the Magadha king Seniya Bimbisara 
was ; having approached him, he said to the Magadha 
king Seniya Bimbisara: 'That se#Ai, Sire, that 
householder, does good service both to Your Majesty 
and to the merchants' guild. Now the physicians 
have made prognostication to him, &c. May it please 
Your Majesty to order the physician Gtvaka. to cure 
the sttthx, the householder.' 

Then the Magadha king Seniya Bimbisara gave 



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1 82 mahAvagga. viii, i, iff. 

orders to <7ivaka Komarabhaiia (saying), ' Go, my 
dear £ivaka, and cure the se/Mi, the householder.' 

(7lvaka Komarabhaiia accepted this order of the 
Magadha king Seniya Bimbisara (by saying), ' Yes, 
Your Majesty,' went to the place where the se/Mi, 
the householder, was, and having approached him, 
and having carefully observed the change in his 
appearance, he said to the se//^i, the householder : 
' If I restore you to health, my good householder, 
what fee will you give me ?' 

' All that I possess shall be yours, doctor, and 
I will be your slave/ 

1 8. ' Well, my good householder, will you be able 
to lie down on one side for seven months ?' 

' I shall be able, doctor, to lie down on one side 
for seven months.' 

' And will you be able, my good householder, to 
lie down on the other side for seven months ?' 

' I shall be able, doctor, to lie down on the other 
side for seven months.' 

' And will you be able, my- good householder, to 
lie down on your back for seven months ?' 

' I shall be able, doctor, to lie down on my back 
for seven months.' 

Then £tvaka Komirabha^a ordered the settAi, 
the householder, to lie down on his bed, tied him 
fast to his bed, cut through the skin of the head, 
drew apart the flesh on each side of the incision, 
pulled two worms out (of the wound), and showed 
them to the people (saying), ' See, Sirs, these two 
worms, a small one and a big one. The doctors 
who said, " On the fifth day the s&tlh'i, the house- 
holder, will die," have seen this big worm, and how 
it would penetrate on the fifth day to the brain of 



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VIII, i, 19. THE DRESS OF THE BHIKKHUS. 183 

the se//^i, the householder, and that when it had 
penetrated to the brain, the se///fci, the householder, 
would die. Those doctors have seen it quite rightly. 
And the doctors who said, " On the seventh day the 
se/Mi, the householder, will die," have seen this small 
worm, and how it would penetrate on the seventh 
day to the brain of the se/Mi, the householder, and 
that when it had penetrated to the brain, the sztlfti, 
the householder, would die. Those doctors have 
seen it quite rightly.' (Speaking thus) he closed up 
the sides of the wound, stitched up the skin on the 
head, and anointed it with salve. 

19. And when seven days had elapsed, the se///fci, 
the householder, said to <7lvaka Komarabh&fcfca : 
' I am not able, doctor, to lie down on one side for 
seven months.' 

' Did you not tell me, my good householder : 
" I shall be able, doctor, to lie down on one side 
for seven months ?" ' 

' It is true, doctor, I told you so indeed, but I 
shall die (if I do) ; I cannot lie down on one side for 
seven months.' 

' Well, my good householder, then you must lie 
down on the other side for seven months.' 

And when seven days had elapsed, the settAi, the 
householder, said to £ivaka Komarabhaiia : ' I am 
not able, doctor, to lie down on the other side for 
seven months.' 

' Did you not tell me, &c.' 

' It is true, doctor, I told you so indeed, &c.' 

' Well, my good householder, then you must lie 
down on your back for seven months.' 

And when seven days had elapsed, the se#/fci, the 
householder, said to Glvaka. Komarabhai^a : ' I am. 



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1 84 mahAvagga. VIII, I, ao. 

not able, doctor, to He down on my back for seven 
months.' 

' Did you not tell me, &c.?' 

4 It is true, doctor, I told you so indeed, &c' 

20. ' If I had not spoken thus to you, my good 
householder, you would not have lain down even so 
long a time. But I knew beforehand, " After three 
times seven days the se/Mi, the householder, will 
be restored to health." Arise, my good house- 
holder, you are restored; look to it what fee you 
give me.' 

' All that I possess shall be yours, doctor, and I 
will be your slave.' 

' Nay, my good householder, do not give me all 
that you possess, and do not be my slave ; give one 
hundred thousand (kahapa«as) to the king, and one 
hundred thousand to me.' 

Then the se//#i, the householder, having regained 
his health, gave a hundred thousand (kahapa»as) to 
the king, and a hundred thousand to Gtvaka. Komi- 
rabhai^a. 

21. At that time the son of the se//^i at Benares, 
who used to amuse himself by tumbling (mokkha- 
iika 1 ), brought upon himself an entanglement of his 

1 Mokkha£ik& is explained in a passage quoted by Childers 
sub voce and taken from the Sumangala Vilasini on the 4th Ma^- 
gMmz Sila. (Compare Rh. D., ' Buddhist Suttas from the Pali,' 
p. 193.) The passage from Buddhaghosa is however not devoid of 
ambiguity. He says: 'Mokkha£ik& is the feat of turning over 
and over. One gets hold of a staff in the air, and places his head 
on the ground; turning himself upside down. This is what is 
meant (by the word mokkha^ika).' It is not clear whether the 
performer suspends himself by his feet from a horizontal bar fixed 
at a height above the ground ; or whether he turns a sommersault, 
holding at the same time a stick in his hands. The latter seems 



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VIII, i, 32. THE DRESS OF THE BHIKKHUS. 1 85 

intestines, in consequence of which he could digest 
neither the rice-milk which he drank, nor the food of 
which he partook, nor was he able to ease himself in 
the regular way. In consequence of that he grew 
lean, he looked disfigured and discoloured, (his com- 
plexion became) more and more yellow, and the 
veins stood out upon his skin. 

Now the se//^i of Benares thought : ' My son is 
suffering from such and such a disease : he neither 
can digest the rice-milk which he drinks (&c, as 
above, down to :) and the veins stand out upon his 
skin. What if I were to go to Ra^agaha and to ask 
the king for his physician (7ivaka to cure my son.' 

And the se//£i of Benares went to Ri^agaha and 
repaired to the place where the Magadha king 
Seniya Bimbisara was ; having approached him he 
said to the Magadha king Seniya Bimbisara : ' My 
son, Your Majesty, is suffering from such and such a 
disease : he neither can digest the rice-milk which he 
drinks (&c, as above, down to :) and the veins stand 
out upon his skin. May it please Your Majesty to 
order the physician (7tvaka to cure my son.' 

22. Then the Magadha king Seniya Bimbisara 
gave orders to Givaka. Komarabhaiia (saying), 'Go, 
my dear £ivaka; go to Benares, and cure the se/Mi's 
son at Benares.' 

Clvaka Komarabha^ia accepted this order of the 
Magadha king Seniya Bimbisara (by saying), ' Yes, 
Your Majesty,' went to Benares, and repaired to 
the place where the son of the Benares se/Afci 
was ; having approached him, and having carefully 

more in accordance with the phrase ' holding a stick in the air ' 
(akase d&nda.m gahetva) and with the phrase ' turning over and 
over' (sampariva//ana«). 



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1 86 mahAvagga. vhi, i, 23. 

observed the change in his appearance, he ordered 
the people to leave the room, drew the curtain, tied 
him fast to a pillar, placed his wife in front of him, 
cut through the skin of the belly, drew the twisted 
intestines out, and showed them to his wife (saying), 
' Look here what the disease was, from which your 
husband was suffering. This is the reason why he 
neither can digest the rice-milk which he drinks, nor 
can digest the food of which he partakes, nor is able 
to ease himself in the regular way, and why he has 
grown lean, and looks disfigured and discoloured, 
and (why his complexion has become) more and 
more yellow, and the veins have stood out upon his 
skin.' (Speaking thus), he disentangled the twisted 
intestines, put the intestines back (into their right 
position), stitched the skin together, and anointed it 
with salve. And before long the Benares se/Mi's 
son regained his health. 

Then the se/Mi of Benares (saying to himself), 
' My son stands here restored to health,' gave six- 
teen thousand (kahapa»as) to £ivaka Komirabha^a. 
And Clvaka Komirabha^ia took those sixteen 
thousand (kahapawas), and went back again to 
Rigagaha. 

23. At that time king Pa^ota (of Uggent) was 
suffering from jaundice. Many very great and 
world-renowned physicians came and were not able 
to restore him to health ; they received much gold 
and went away. Then king Pag^ota sent a mes- 
senger to the Magadha king Seniya Bimbisara 
(with the following message) : ' I am suffering from 
such and such a disease ; pray, Your Majesty \ give 

1 This passage in which king Pa^-ota is represented as address- 
ing king Bimbis&ra by the respectful expression ' de va ' may in our 



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VIII, I, 24. THE DRESS OF THE BHIKKHUS. 187 

orders to the physician <7ivaka ; he will cure me.' 
Then the Magadha king Seniya Bimbisira gave 
orders to <7lvaka Komarabha/6£a (saying), ' Go, my 
dear Civaka; go to Ug^enl, and cure king Paggota.' 

Clvaka Komarabha££a accepted this order of the 
Magadha king Seniya Bimbisara (by saying), ' Yes, 
Your Majesty,' went to U^fenl and to the place 
where king Pa^fota was, and having approached 
him, and having carefully observed the change in his 
appearance, he said to king Pa^ota : 

24. ' I will boil up some ghee, Sire, which Your 
Majesty must drink.' 

' Nay, my good <7ivaka ; do what you can for 
restoring me without giving me ghee ; I have an 
aversion and a distaste for ghee.' 

Then Givaka. Komarabha&£a thought : ' The dis- 
ease of this king is such a one that it cannot be 
cured without ghee. What if I were to boil up ghee 
so that it takes the colour, the smell, and the taste of 
an astringent decoction 1 .' 

Then £lvaka Komarabhai/fca boiled some ghee 
with various drugs so as to give it the colour, the 
smell, and the taste of an astringent decoction. And 
Qvaka Komarabhai/£a thought: 'When this king 
shall have taken the butter and digested it, it will 
make him vomit. This king is cruel; he might 
have me killed. What if I were to take leave before- 



opinion be brought forward against Professor Jacobi's conjecture 
(Zeitschrift der Deutschen Morg. Gesellschaft, vol. xxxiv, p. 188) 
that Bimbisira was merely a feudal chief under the supreme 
rule of king TaggotA. The Pi/aka texts are always very exact in 
the selection of the terms of respect in which the different persons 
address each other. 
1 See, about the decoctions used in medicine, VI, 4. 



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1 88 mahAvagga. viil, i, as. 

hand.' And Glvaka. Komarabha>&£a went to the 
place where king Paggota was ; having approached 
him he said to king Pa^ota : 

25. 'We physicians, Sire, draw out roots and 
gather medical drugs at such an hour as this. May 
it please Your Majesty to send the following order to 
the (royal) stables, and to the gates (of the town) : 
" Let Glvaka. ride out on what animal he likes ; let 
him leave (the town) by what gate he likes; let 
him leave at what hour he likes; let him enter 
again at what hour he likes.'" 

And king Pajgota sent the following order to the 
(royal) stables and to the gates (of the town): 'Let 
<7lvaka ride out on what animal he likes, &c.' 

At that time king Pa^yota had a she-elephant, 
called Bhaddavatika, which could travel fifty ycganas 
(in one day). And Glvaka Komarabha£/£a gave the 
ghee to king Pa^ota (saying), ' May Your Majesty 
drink this decoction.' Then, having made king 
Pa^foto drink the ghee, <7lvaka Komarabha>fe6a 
went to the elephant stable, and hasted away from 
the town on the she-elephant Bhaddavatika. 

26. And when king Pajgota had drunk that ghee 
and was digesting it, it made him vomit Then 
king Paggota. said to his attendants : ' That wicked 
<7tvaka, my good Sirs, has given me ghee to drink. 
Go, my good Sirs, and seek the physician £ivaka.' 

(The attendants answered), ' He has run away 
from the town on the she-elephant Bhaddavatika.' 

At that time king Paggota had a slave, Kaka by 
name, who could travel sixty yo^anas (in one day), 
who had been begotten by a non-human being. To 
this slave Kaka, king Pagfota gave the order: 'Go, 
my good Kaka, and call the physician G-'ivaka back 



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VIII, 1,28. THE DRESS OF THE BHIKKHUS. 189 

(saying), " The king orders you to return, doctor." 
But those physicians, my good Kaka, are cunning 
people ; do not accept anything from him.' 

27. And the slave Kaka overtook Glvaka Koma- 
rabha^/fct on his way, at Kosambt, when he was 
taking his breakfast. And the slave Kaka said to 
Glvaka Komarabha^ia : 'The king orders you to 
return, doctor.' 

(Glvaka replied), ' Wait, my good Kaka, until we 
have taken our meal ; here, my good Kaka, eat' 

(Kaka said), 'Nay, doctor, the king has told me, 
" Those physicians, my good Kaka, are cunning 
people; do not accept anything from him."' 

At that time Glvaka Komarabhai^a, who had 
cut off some drug with his nail, was eating an emblic 
myrobalan fruit and drinking water. And Glvaka. 
Komarabhaiia said to the slave Kaka : ' Here, my 
good Kaka, eat of this myrobalan fruit and take 
some water.' 

28. Then the slave Kaka thought : ' This physi- 
cian eats the myrobalan and drinks the water ; there 
cannot be any harm in it ;' so he ate half of the 
myrobalan and drank some water. And that half 
myrobalan which (Glvaka) had given him to eat, 
opened his bowels on the spot. 

Then the slave Kaka said to Glvaka Komara- 
bha££a: 'Can my life be saved, doctor?' 

(Glvaka replied), ' Be not afraid, my good Kaka, 
you will be quite well. But the king is cruel ; that 
king might have me killed ; therefore do I not 
return.' 

Speaking thus he handed over to Kaka the she- 
elephant Bhaddavatika and set out for Ri^agaha. 
Having reached Ra^agaha in due course, he went to 



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I90 MAHAVAGGA. VIII, 1,29. 

the place where the Magadha king Seniya Bimbisara 
was; having approached him he told the whole 
thing to the Magadha king Bimbisara. 

(Bimbisira said), 'You have done right, my good 
<9ivaka, that you have not returned ; that king is 
cruel ; he might have had you killed.' 

29. And king Paggota, being restored to health, 
sent a messenger to (Jlvaka Komarabhai^a (with this 
message), 'May Gtvaka come to me; I will grant 
him a boon.' 

(Glvaka. replied), 'Nay, Sir, may His Majesty re- 
member my office.' 

At that time king Paggota had a suit of Siveyyaka 
cloth 1 , which was the best, and the most excellent, 
and the first, and the most precious, and the noblest 
of many cloths, and of many suits of cloth, and of 
many hundred suits of cloth, and of many thousand 
suits of cloth, and of many hundred thousand suits 
of cloth. And king Pa^gota sent this suit of Sivey- 
yaka cloth to Civaka Komarabha^a. Then Qvaka 
Komirabha^^a thought : ' This suit of Siveyyaka 
cloth which king Paggota has sent me, is the best 
and the most excellent (&c, down to :) and of many 
hundred thousand suits of cloth. Nobody else is 
worthy to receive it but He the blessed, perfect 



1 Buddbaghosa gives two explanations of Siveyyakaw dussa- 
yugaw. 'Either Siveyyaka cloth means the cloth used in the 
Uttarakuru country for veiling, the dead bodies when they are 
brought to the burying-ground (sivathiki). (A. certain kind of 
birds take the bodies to the Himavat mountains in order to eat them, 
and throw the cloths away. When eremites find them there, they 
bring them to the king.) Or Siveyyaka cloth means a cloth woven 
from yarn which skilful women in the Sivi country spin.' No 
doubt the latter explication is the right one. 



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VIII, 1, 3'' THE DRESS OF THE BHIKKHUS. I9I 

Arahat-Buddha, or the Magadha king Seniya Bim- 
bisara.' 

30. At that time a disturbance had befallen the 
humors of the Blessed One's body. And the 
Blessed One said to the venerable Ananda : ' A 
disturbance, Ananda, has befallen the humors of 
the Tathagata's body ; the Tathagata wishes to take 
a purgative.' Then the venerable Ananda went to 
the place where Ctvaka Komarabhai^a was ; having 
approached him he said to Glvaka. Komarabhaiia : 

' My good Glvaka, a disturbance has befallen the 
humors of the Tathagata's body; the Tathagata 
wishes to take a purgative.' 

(Glvaka. replied), 'Well, venerable Ananda, you 
ought to rub the Blessed One's body with fat for a 
few days.' 

And the venerable Ananda, having rubbed the 
Blessed One's body with fat for some days, went to 
the place where Civaka Komarabhai^a was ; having 
approached him he said to Glvaka Komarabha£/£a : 
' I have rubbed, my good Clvaka, the Tathagata's 
body with fat ; do you now what you think fit.' 

31. Then (Glvaka Komarabhai/fca thought : ' It is 
not becoming that I should give a strong purgative 
to the Blessed One.' (Thinking thus), he imbued 
three handfuls of blue lotuses with various drugs 
and went therewith to the place where the Blessed 
One was; having approached him he offered one 
handful of lotuses to the Blessed One (saying), 
' Lord, may the Blessed One smell this first handful 
of lotuses ; that will purge the Blessed One ten 
times.' Thus he offered also the second handful of 
lotuses to the Blessed One (saying), ' Lord, may the 
Blessed One smell this second handful of lotuses; 



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192 mahAvagga. VIII, I, 32. 

that will purge the Blessed One ten times.' Thus 
he offered also the third handful of lotuses to the 
Blessed One (saying), ' Lord, may the Blessed One 
smell this third handful of lotuses ; that will purge 
the Blessed One ten times. Thus the Blessed One 
will have purged full thirty times.' And 61vaka 
Komirabha^ia, having given to the Blessed One 
a purgative for full thirty times, bowed down before 
the Blessed One, and passed round him with his 
right side towards him, and went away. 

32. And (7lvaka Komirabha^fci, when he was 
out of doors, thought : ' I have given indeed to the 
Blessed One a purgative for full thirty times, but as 
the humors of the Tathagatha's body are disturbed, 
it will not purge the Blessed One full thirty times; it 
will purge the Blessed One only twenty-nine times. 
But the Blessed One, having purged, will take a bath ; 
the bath will purge the Blessed One once ; thus 
the Blessed One will be purged full thirty times.' 

And the Blessed One, who understood by the 
power of his mind this reflection of Civaka Komara- 
bha££a, said to the venerable Ananda : ' <7ivaka 
Komarabha^ia, Ananda, when he was out of doors, 
has thought : "I have given indeed (&c, as above, 
down to :) thus the Blessed One will be purged full 
thirty times." Well, Ananda, get warm water ready.' 

The venerable Ananda accepted this order of the 
Blessed One (saying), ' Yes, Lord,' and got warm 
water ready. 

33. And Glvaka. Komarabha/&6a went to the place 
where the Blessed One .was; having approached 
him and respectfully saluted the Blessed One, he 
sat down near him ; sitting near him £lvaka Koma- 
rabhai&i said to the Blessed One : ' Lord, has the 



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VIII, I, 34. THE DRESS OF THE BHIKKHUS. I93 

Blessed One purged ?' (Buddha replied), ' I have 
purged, Gtvaka..' (Civaka said), 'When I was out 
of doors, Lord, I thought : " I have given indeed, 
&c." Lord, may the Blessed One take a bath, may 
the Happy One take a bath.' Then the Blessed 
One bathed in that warm water; the bath purged 
the Blessed One once ; thus the Blessed One was 
purged full thirty times. 

And Glvaka. Komarabhai&i said to the Blessed 
One : ' Lord, until the Blessed One's body is com- 
pletely restored, you had better abstain from liquid 
food.' And ere long the Blessed One's body was 
completely restored. 

34. Then <7lvaka Komarabhai-fci took that suit 
of Siveyyaka cloth and went to the place where 
the Blessed One was ; having approached him, and 
having respectfully saluted the Blessed One, he sat 
down near him. Sitting near him, <7lvaka Komara- 
bhaiia said to the Blessed One : * Lord, I ask one 
boon of the Blessed One.' (Buddha replied), ' The 
Tathagatas, £tvaka, are above granting boons (be- 
fore they know what they are).' (Glvaka. said), 
' Lord, it is a proper and unobjectionable demand.' — 
' Speak, Clvaka.' 

'Lord, the Blessed One wears only pawsukula 
robes (robes made of rags taken from a dust heap 
or a cemetery 1 ), and so does the fraternity of Bhik- 
khus. Now, Lord, this suit of Siveyyaka cloth has 
been sent to me by king Pa.gfota, which is the best, 
and the most excellent, and the first, and the most 
precious, and the noblest of many cloths and of 

1 Buddhaghosa : ' To the Blessed One during the twenty years 
from his Sambodhi till this story happened no one had presented 
a lay robe.' 

C'7] O 



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194 mahAvagga. vih, i, 35. 

many suits of cloth, and of many hundred suits of 
cloth, and of many thousand suits of cloth, and of 
many hundred thousand suits of cloth. Lord, may 
the Blessed One accept from me this suit of Sivey- 
yaka cloth, and may he allow to the fraternity of 
Bhikkhus to wear lay robes V 

The Blessed One accepted the suit of Siveyyaka 
cloth. And the Blessed One taught, incited, ani- 
mated, and gladdened £tvaka Komarabhaiia by 
religious discourse. And Clvaka Komirabhai/fci, 
having been taught, incited, animated, and glad- 
dened by the Blessed One by religious discourse, 
rose from his seat, respectfully saluted the Blessed 
One, passed round him with his right side towards 
him, and went away. 

35. And the Blessed One, after having delivered 
a religious discourse in consequence of that, thus 
addressed the Bhikkhus: 

' I allow you, O Bhikkhus, to wear lay robes. He 
who likes may wear pazwsukula robes; he who 
likes may accept lay robes. Whether you are 
pleased with the one or with the other sort 2 of 
robes, I approve it.' 

Now the people at Ra^agaha heard, 'The Blessed 
One has allowed the Bhikkhus to wear lay robes.' 
Then those people became glad and delighted (be- 
cause they thought), ' Now we will bestow gifts (on 
the Bhikkhus) and acquire merit by good works, 

1 Gahapati£ivara may be translated also, as Buddhaghosa 
explains it, ' a robe presented by lay people.' 

* Itaritara ('the one or the other') clearly refers to the two 
sorts of robes mentioned before, not, as Childers (s.v. itaritaro) 
understands it, to whether the robes are good or bad. Compare 
also chip. 3, § 2. 



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VIII, a. THE DRESS OF THE BHIKKHUS. 195 

since the Blessed One has allowed the Bhikkhus to 
wear lay robes.' And in one day many thousands 
of robes were presented at R&fagaha (to the 
Bhikkhus). 

And the people in the country heard, ' The 
Blessed One has allowed the Bhikkhus to wear lay 
robes.' Then those people became glad (&c.,as above, 
down to:) And in one day many thousands of robes 
were presented through the country also (to the 
Bhikkhus). 

36. At that time the Sawgha had received a 
mantle. They told this thing to the Blessed One. 

' I allow you, O Bhikkhus, to wear a mantle.' 

They had got a silk mantle. 

' I allow you, O Bhikkhus, to wear a silk mantle.' 

They had got a fleecy counterpane \ 

' I allow you, O Bhikkhus, to use a fleecy counter- 
pane.' 

End of the first Bhawavara. 



At that time the king of Kasi 2 sent to Ctvaka 
Komarabha^ia a woollen garment made half of 
Benares cloth . . . 3 . Then Givaika. Komarabha££a 

1 See Abhidh&napp. v. 313. 

* Buddhaghosa : ' This king was Pasenadi's brother, the same 
father's son.' He appears to have been a sub-king of Pasenadi, 
for in the Lohi££a-sutta it is stated that Pasenadi's rule extended 
both over Kasi and Kosala (' R&g& Pasenadi Kosalo K&sikosalam 
a^ASvasati '). 

8 Our translation of a</</Aakasikaw kambalam is merely 

O 2 



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196 MAHAVAGGA. VIII, 3, 1. 

took that woollen garment made half of Benares cloth 
and went to the place where the Blessed One was; 
having approached him, and respectfully saluted the 
Blessed One, he sat down near him. Sitting near 
him, <7tvaka Komarabha^ia said to the Blessed One : 
' Lord, this woollen garment made half of Benares 
cloth. . . .* has been sent to me by the king of Kasi. 
May the Blessed One, Lord, accept this woollen gar- 
ment, which may be to me a long time for a good 
and a blessing.' The Blessed One accepted that 
woollen garment. 

And the Blessed One taught (&c, as in chap, i, 
§ 34, down to :) and went away. 

And the Blessed One, after having delivered a 
religious discourse in consequence of that, thus 
addressed the Bhikkhus : 

' I allow you, O Bhikkhus, to use woollen gar- 
ments.' 



3. 

1. At that time the fraternity got robes of dif- 
ferent kinds. Now the Bhikkhus thought : ' What 
robes are allowed to us by the Blessed One, and 
what robes are not allowed?' 

They told this thing to the Blessed One. 

' I allow you, O Bhikkhus, six kinds of robes, viz. 

conjectural. Buddhaghosa has the following note: 'A</<//iakasi- 
yam, here kasi means one thousand; a thing that is worth one 
thousand, is called k&siya. This garment was worth five hundred; 
therefore it is called a</<MakSsiya. And for the same reason it is 
said, uparf<Makasina/» khamamanam.' Perhaps vikSsikam 
at VI, 15, 5 may have some connection with the word used here. 
1 See last note. 



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VIII, 4, 2. THE DRESS OF THE BHIKKHUS. IQJ 

those made of linen, of cotton, of silk, of wool, of 
coarse cloth, and of hempen cloth.' 

2. At that time the Bhikkhus accepted lay robes, 
but did not get pawsukula robes, because they 
had scruples (and thought) : ' The Blessed One has 
allowed us either kind of robes only, not both 
kinds 1 .' 

They told this thing to the Blessed One. 

' I allow, O Bhikkhus, that he who accepts lay 
robes, may get also pa/wsukula robes. If you are 
pleased with those both sorts of robes, I approve 
that also.' 



1. At that time a number of Bhikkhus were 
travelling on the road in the Kosala country. Some 
of these Bhikkhus went off (the road) to a cemetery 
in order to get themselves pa/»sukula robes ; some 
(other) Bhikkhus did not wait. Those Bhikkhus 
who had gone to the cemetery for pawsukula robes, 
got themselves pawsukulas; those Bhikkhus who 
had not waited, said to them : ' Friends, give us also 
a part (of your pawsukulas).' They replied, ' We 
will not give you a part, friends ; why have you not 
waited ? ' 

They told this thing to the Blessed One. 

' I prescribe, O Bhikkhus, that you are not obliged 
to give a part against your will to Bhikkhus who 
have not waited.' 

2. At that time a number of Bhikkhus were 
travelling on the road in the Kosala country. Some 

1 See chap. 1, § 35. 

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198 MAHAVAGGA. VIII, 4, 3. 

of these Bhikkhus went off (the road) to a cemetery 
in order to get themselves pawzsukula robes; 
some (other) Bhikkhus waited for them. Those 
Bhikkhus who had gone to the cemetery for pa*#- 
sukula robes, got themselves pawsukulas; those 
Bhikkhus who had waited, said to them : ' Friends, 
give us also a part (of your pa*«sukulas).' They 
replied, ' We will not give you a part, friends ; why 
did you not also go off (to the cemetery) ?' 

They told this thing to the Blessed One. 

' I prescribe, O Bhikkhus, that you give a part 
(even) against your will to Bhikkhus who have 
waited.' 

3. At that time a number of Bhikkhus were 
travelling on the road in the Kosala country. Some 
of these Bhikkhus went aside first from (the road) 
to a cemetery in order to get themselves pawsu- 
kula robes ; some (other) Bhikkhus went aside later. 
Those Bhikkhus who had gone first to the cemetery 
for pa wsukula robes, got themselves pawsukulas; 
those Bhikkhus who had got off later, did not get 
any, and said (to the other ones) : ' Friends, give us 
also a part.' They replied, 'We will not give you 
a part, friends ; why did you get off (to the cemetery) 
after us?' 

They told this thing to the Blessed One. 

' I prescribe, O Bhikkhus, that you are not obliged 
to give a part against your will to Bhikkhus who 
have gone (to the cemetery) later (than yourselves).' 

4. At that time a number of Bhikkhus were 
travelling on the road in the Kosala country. They 
went altogether off (the road) to a cemetery in order 
to get themselves pawsukula robes; some of the 
Bhikkhus got pawsukulas, other Bhikkhus did not 



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VIII, 5. I. THE DRESS OF THE BHIKKHUS. I99 

get any. The Bhikkhus who had got nothing, said : 
1 Friends, give us also a part (of your pawsukulas).' 
They replied, ' We will not give you a part, friends ; 
why did you not get (them yourselves) ?' 

They told this thing to the Blessed One. 

' I prescribe, O Bhikkhus, that you give a part 
(even) against your will to Bhikkhus who have gone 
(to the cemetery) together with yourselves.' 

5. At that time a number of Bhikkhus were 
travelling on the road in the Kosala country. They 
went off (the road) to a cemetery in order to get 
themselves pawsukula robes, after having made 
an agreement (about the distribution of what they 
were to find). Some of the Bhikkhus got them- 
selves pa/wsukulas, other Bhikkhus did not get 
any. The Bhikkhus who had got nothing, said : 
' Friends, give us also a part (of the pawsukulas).' 
They replied, ' We will not give you a part, friends ; 
why did you not get (them yourselves) ?' 

They told this thing to the Blessed One. 

' I prescribe, O Bhikkhus, that you give a part, 
(even) against your will, to Bhikkhus who have 
gone (with you to the cemetery) after having made 
with you an agreement (about the distribution of 
the pa/tfsukulas).' 



5. 
1. At that time people went to the Arama with 
robes 1 (which they intended to present to the 

1 It will be as well to remind the reader that here and in the 
following chapters £ivara can mean both *a robe' and 'cloth for 
making robes.' 



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20O MAHAVAGGA. VIII, 5, 3. 

Bhikkhus). They found there no Bhikkhu who 
was to receive the robes ; so they took them back 
again. (In consequence of that) few robes were 
given (to the Bhikkhus). 

They told this thing to the Blessed One. 

' I prescribe, O Bhikkhus, that you appoint a 
Bhikkhu possessed of the following five qualities, 
to receive the robes (presented to the Bhikkhus): 
(a person) who does not go in the evil course of 
lust, in the evil course of hatred, in the evil course 
of delusion, in the evil course of fear, and who knows 
what has been received and what has not. 

2. ' And you ought, O Bhikkhus, to appoint (such 
a Bhikkhu) in this way : First, that Bhikkhu must 
be asked (to accept that commission). When he 
has been asked, let a learned, competent Bhikkhu 
proclaim the following »atti before the Sawgha : 
" Let the Sa*»gha, reverend Sirs, hear me. If the 
Samgha. is ready, let the Sa/wgha appoint the 
Bhikkhu N. N. to receive the robes (presented to 
the Bhikkhus). This is the watti. Let the Sawgha, 
reverend Sirs, hear me. The Sa/«gha appoints the 
Bhikkhu N. N. to receive the robes (presented). 
Let any one of the venerable brethren who is in 
favour of our appointing the Bhikkhu N. N. to 
receive the robes (presented), be silent, and any one 
who is not in favour of it, speak. The Bhikkhu 
N. N. has been appointed by the Sawgha to receive 
the robes (presented). The Sa/wgha is in favour 
of it, therefore are you silent ; thus I understand." ' 



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VIII, 7. THE DRESS OF THE BHIKKHUS. 201 



6. 

i. At that time the Bhikkhus who had to receive 
the robes (presented), after having received them, 
left them there (in the Viharas) and went away ; the 
robes were spoilt. 

They told this thing to the Blessed One. 

' I prescribe, O Bhikkhus, that you appoint a 
Bhikkhu possessed of the following five qualities, 
to lay by the robes (received): (a person) who does 
not go in the evil course of lust, in the evil course 
of hatred, in the evil course of delusion, in the evil 
course of fear, and who knows what is laid by and 
what is not 

2. 'And you ought, O Bhikkhus, to appoint (&c, 
see chap. 5, § 2).' 



7. 

At that time the Bhikkhus appointed to lay the 
robes by, laid the robes by in an open hall, or at the 
foot of a tree, or in the hollow of a Nimba tree 1 ; 
thus they were eaten by rats and white ants. 

They told this thing to the Blessed One. 

' I prescribe, O Bhikkhus, that you appoint what 
the Sa#*gha chooses, a Vihara, or an Adtf^ayoga 2 , 
or a storied building, or an attic, or a cave, to be the 
store-room 3 (of the Sa/wgha). 

1 Compare III, 12, 5. g Compare I, 30, 4. 

* The word bha»</£gara does not imply any special reference 
to robes more than to any other articles belonging to the Samgha. 
A good many things which were usually kept in the bhawrfagdra 
are mentioned at ^ullav.VI, 21, 3. 



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202 MAHAVAGGA. VIII, 8, i. 

' And you ought, O Bhikkhus, to appoint it in this 
way : Let a learned, competent Bhikkhu proclaim the 
following »atti before the Sa/wgha: " Let the Sam- 
gha, reverend Sirs, hear me. If the Sawgha is ready, 
let the Sawgha appoint the Vihira called N. N. to 
be the store-room (of the Sawgha), (&c, the usual 
formula of a wattidutiya kamma).'" 



8. 

i. At that time the cloth in the Sawgha's store- 
room was not protected (from rain, mice, &c.) 

They told this thing to the Blessed One. 

' I prescribe, O Bhikkhus, that you appoint a 
Bhikkhu possessed of the following five qualities, 
to take charge of the store-room : (a person) who 
does not go in the evil course of lust (&c, as in 
chap. 5, § i), and who knows what is protected and 
what is not. 

'And you ought, O Bhikkhus, to appoint (&c, 
see chap. 5, § 2).' 

2. At that time the A^abbaggiya Bhikkhus 
expelled a Bhikkhu, who had charge of a store- 
room, from his place. 

They told this thing to the Blessed One. 

' Let no one, O Bhikkhus, expel a Bhikkhu, who 
has charge of a store-room, from his place. He who 
does so, commits a dukka/a offence.' 



9. 

1. At that time the Sawgha's store-room was 
over-full of clothes. 



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VIII, 9. 3- THE DRESS OF THE BHIKKHUS. 203 

They told this thing to the Blessed One. 

' I prescribe, O Bhikkhus, that they should be 
distributed by the assembled Sawgha.' 

At that time the whole Sawgha, when distributing 
the clothes, made a bustle. 

They told this thing to the Blessed One. 

' I prescribe, O Bhikkhus, that you appoint a 
Bhikkhu possessed of the following five qualities, 
to distribute the clothes: (a person) who does not 
go in the evil course of lust .... and who knows 
what is distributed and what is not 

'And you ought, O Bhikkhus, to appoint (&c, 
see chap. 5, $ 2).' 

2. Now the Bhikkhus appointed to distribute the 
clothes thought : ' In what way are we to distribute 
the clothes?' 

They told this thing to the Blessed One. 

' I prescribe, O Bhikkhus, that you first assort the 
clothes, estimate them, share them according to their 
higher or lower value 1 , then count the Bhikkhus, 
divide them into troops 2 , and divide the portions of 
cloth (accordingly).' 

Now the Bhikkhus, who were to distribute the 
clothes, thought : ' What portion of cloth shall be 
given to the Samaweras?' 

They told this thing to the Blessed One. 

' I prescribe, O Bhikkhus, that you give to the 
Simaweras half a portion.' 

1 Buddhaghosa : ' If there are robes of the same quality, for 
instance, each worth ten (kShapawas), for all Bhikkhus, it is all 
right ; if they are not, they must take together the robes which are 
worth nine or eight, with those which are worth one or two, and 
thus they must make equal portions.' 

* ' In case the day should not suffice for distributing the robes 
to the Bhikkhus one by one ' (Buddhaghosa). 



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204 mahAvagga. VIII, 9, 3. 

3. At that time a certain Bhikkhu wished to go 
across (a river or a desert) with the portion that 
should come to him. 

They told this thing to the Blessed One. 

' I prescribe, O Bhikkhus, that you give to a 
Bhikkhu who is going across (a river or a desert), 
the portion that should come to him.' 

At that time a certain Bhikkhu wished to go 
across (a river or a desert) with a greater portion 
(of cloth than fell to his share). 

They told this thing to the Blessed One. 

' I prescribe, O Bhikkhus, that you give more 
than the due portion (to a Bhikkhu who desires 
it), if he gives a compensation.' 

4. Now the Bhikkhus, who were to distribute the 
clothes, thought: ' How are we to assign the portions 
of cloth (to the single Bhikkhus), by turns as they 
arrive (and ask for cloth), or according to their age 
(i. e. the time elapsed since their ordination)?' 

They told this thing to the Blessed One. 

' I prescribe, O Bhikkhus, that you cast lots, made 
of grass-blades, after having made every defective 
portion even.' 



10. 

1. At that time the Bhikkhus dyed cloth with 
(cow-)dung or with yellow clay. The robes were 
badly coloured. 

They told this thing to the Blessed One. 

' I prescribe, O Bhikkhus, that you use the follow- 
ing six kinds of dye, viz. dye made of roots, dye 
made of trunks of trees, dye made of bark, dye made 
of leaves, dye made of flowers, dye made of fruits.' 



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Till, 10, 3. THE DRESS OF THE BHIKKHUS. 205 

2. At that time the Bhikkhus dyed cloth with 
unboiled dye ; the cloth became ill-smelling. 

They told this thing to the Blessed One. 

' I prescribe, O Bhikkhus, that you boil the dye 
(and use) little dye-pots.' 

They spilt the dye. 

' I prescribe, O Bhikkhus, that you put basins 
(under the dye-pots) to catch the spilt (dye).' 

At that time the Bhikkhus did not know whether 
the dye was boiled or not. 

They told this thing to the Blessed One. 

' I prescribe, O Bhikkhus, that you let a drop of 
dye fall into water, or on to your nail (in order to 
try if the dye is duly boiled).' 

3. At that time the Bhikkhus, when pouring the 
dye out (of the pot), upset the pot ; the pot was 
broken. 

They told this thing to the Blessed One. 

' I prescribe, O Bhikkhus, that you use a dye- 
ladle or a scoop with a long handle.' 

At that time the Bhikkhus did not possess vessels 
for keeping dye. 

They told this thing to the Blessed One. 

' I prescribe, O Bhikkhus, that you get jars and 
bowls for keeping the dye.' 

At that time the Bhikkhus rubbed the cloth 
against the vessels and the bowls (in which they 
dyed it); the cloth was rent. 

They told this thing to the Blessed One. 

' I prescribe, O Bhikkhus, that you use a (large) 
trough for dying (cloth) in.' 



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206 MAHAVAGGA. VIII, H, I. 



11. 

i. At that time the Bhikkhus spread the cloth on 
the floor (when they had dyed it) ; the cloth became 
dusty. 

They told this thing to the Blessed One. 

' I prescribe, O Bhikkhus, that you spread grass 
(and put the cloth on it).' 

The grass they had spread was eaten by white ants. 

They told this thing to the Blessed One. 

' I prescribe, O Bhikkhus, that you get a bambu 
peg or rope to hang the cloth on.' 

They hung it up in the middle ; the dye dropped 
down on both sides. 

They told this thing to the Blessed One. 

' I prescribe, O Bhikkhus, that you tie it fast at 
the corner.' 

The corner wore out. 

They told this thing to the Blessed One. 

' I prescribe, O Bhikkhus, the use of a clothes- 
line.' 

The dye dropped down on one side. 

They told this thing to the Blessed One. 

' I prescribe, O Bhikkhus, that you turn the cloth, 
when dying it, whenever required, and that you do 
not go away before the dye has ceased to drop.' 

2. At that time the cloth had become stiff 1 . 

They told this thing to the Blessed One. 



1 Buddhaghosa : Patthinan ti (this is the reading of the 
Berlin MS.) atira^itattd thaddha/w, i. e. 'Patthina/w means that 
it had become stiff from too much dye.' Thina or thinna is 
Sanskrit sty an a. 



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VIII, 13, I. THE DRESS OF THE BHIKKHUS. 207 

' I prescribe, O Bhikkhus, that you dip (the cloth) 
into water (in order to remove the excessive dye).' 

At that time the cloth became rough. 

They told this thing to the Blessed One. 

' I prescribe, O Bhikkhus, (that you smooth it 
by) beating it with your hands.' 

At that time the Bhikkhus possessed a^i^in- 
naka 1 robes of yellowish colour like ivory. The 
people were annoyed, murmured, and became angry : 
'(The Bhikkhus dress) like those who still live in 
the pleasures of the world.' 

They told this thing to the Blessed One. 

' You ought not, O Bhikkhus, to possess a^^^in- 
naka robes. He who does, commits a dukka/a 
offence.' 



12. 

i. Now when the Blessed One had remained at 
Ri^agaha as long as he thought fit, he set forth on 
his journey towards Dakkhi»a-giri (the Southern 
Hills 2 ). And the Blessed One beheld how the 
Magadha rice fields were divided into short pieces 3 , 

1 That is, made of untorn cloth. See VIII, ai, a. 

* These are always mentioned in connection with R&^agaha 
(Mahlvagga I, 53 ; Aullavagga XI, 1-10), and are probably the 
name of the mountainous district immediately south of Ra^agaha. 

* A££ibaddhan (sic) ti £aturassakedarakabaddha«t (B.). I 
have never seen a field divided ' ray-fashion,' which would appa- 
rently be the literal translation of the term, and it is difficult to see 
how the necessary water could be conducted from strip to strip of 
a field so divided. Buddhaghosa also, though his explanation is 
insufficient, evidently does not take zkki in the ordinary sense 
(Rh. D.). 



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208 MAHAVAGGA. VIII, la, 2. 

and in rows 1 , and by outside boundaries 2 (or ridges), 
and by cross boundaries 8 . 

On seeing this the Blessed One spake thus to the 
venerable Ananda : ' Dost thou perceive, Ananda, 
how the Magadha rice fields are divided into short 
pieces, and in rows, and by outside boundaries, and 
by cross boundaries ?' 

' Even so, Lord.' 

ft 

' Could you, Ananda, provide 4 robes of a like kind 
for the Bhikkhus ?' 

' I could, Lord.' 

Now when the Blessed One had remained in the 
Southern Hills as long as he thought fit, he returned 
again to R&^agaha. 

Then Ananda provided robes of a like kind for 
many Bhikkhus ; and going up to the place where 
the Blessed One was, he spake thus to the Blessed 
One : ' May the Blessed One be pleased to look at 
the robes which I have provided.' 

2. Then the Blessed One on that occasion ad- 
dressed the Bhikkhus and said: 'An able man, 
O Bhikkhus, is Ananda; of great understanding, 
O Bhikkhus, is Ananda, inasmuch as what has been 
spoken by me in short that can he understand 
in full, and can make the cross seams 6 , and the 

1 Pa/ibaddhan (sic) ti ayamato ka. vittharato ka. dighamariyada- 
baddhaw (B.). 

* Mariyadabaddhan (sic) ti antarantaraya mariyadaya mari- 
yadabaddham (B.). 

' Sihgha/akabaddhan (sic) ti mariyadSya (sic) mariy&dara vini- 
viggMtvi gata//Mne singha/akabaddham. ATatukkasan/A&nan ti 
attho (B.). 

4 Sa/»vidahitun ti katuw (B.). 

8 Kusim pt 'ti dy&mato ka. vittharato ka, anuvMdinatn dfgha- 
pa//anaw etam adhivaianaw (B.). 



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VIII, ia, a. THE DRESS OF THE BHIKKHUS. 209 

intermediate cross seams 1 , and the greater circles 8 , 
and the lesser circles 3 , and the turning in*, and the 
lining of the turning in 6 , and the collar piece*, and 
the knee piece 7 , and the elbow piece 8 . And it 
shall be of torn pieces 9 , roughly sewn together 10 , 
suitable for a Sama»a, a thing which his enemies 
cannot covet 11 . I enjoin upon you, O Bhikkhus, 
the use of an under robe of torn pieces, and of an 
upper robe of torn pieces, and of a waist cloth of 
torn pieces 12 .' 

I AddAakust ti antarantara rassa-pa//anara namaw (B.). 

9 Mandalan ti pa££a-kha»<fika-£tvarassa ekekasmim khaWe 
mahi-mandalam (B.). 
' Addhamandalan ti khuddaka-man^&lam (B.). 

* Viva//an ti mandahn to addAa-mandaizfi, ia ekato katva sib- 
bitam maggkima-khandam (B.). 

* Anuviva/Zanti tassa ubhosu passesu dve kha«<fani. Athava 
viva//assa ekekapassato dvinnam pi Aatunnam pi kha»</anam etam 
nlmam (B.). 

' Giveyyakan ti gfva-//4ane daMi-karan-attham nHnam suttam 
sibbitam tgantuka-pa//am (B.). 

T Gahgheyyakan ti #angha-papuna-/Mane tatth' eva samsib- 
bita-pa/Zan. Giva-/Mane to. ^ahgha-//ASne ia pa//ana»? ev' etam 
naman ti pi vadanti (B.). 

* Bahantan ti anuviva/Zanani bahi ekekakham/am. AthavS 
suppamdnaw £ivaram parupentena samharita bahaya upari Capita 
ubho anto-bahi-mukha ti//flanti. Tesam etam namawi. Ayam eva 
hi nayo Mahi-atthakathayam vutto ti (B.). This latter explanation 
from bah a seems evidently more correct than the other one from 
bahi; and we accordingly follow it. 

9 See the end of the last chapter. 

10 Satta-lukha; in which compound the signification of satta 
is by no means clear. Buddhaghosa has no note upon it. Now 
it is curious that in chapter ai, below, it is laid down that the robe 
is to be sutta-lukha, the meaning of which would fit this passage 
excellently. We have accordingly adopted that reading here. 

II Compare the similar expressions at G&taka 1, 8 and 9. 

11 The general sense of this chapter is clear enough. As an 
Indian field, the common property of the village community, was 

[«7] P 



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2IO mahAvagga. VIII, 13, i. 



13. 

i. Now when the Blessed One had remained at 
Ri^agaha as long as he thought fit, he went forth 
on his journey towards Vesali. And the Blessed 
One, when on the high road between RJ^agaha and 
Vesali, saw a number of Bhikkhus smothered up in 
robes 1 , they went along with robes made up into 
a roll 2 on their heads, or on their backs, or on their 
waist. And when the Blessed One saw them, he 
thought : ' With too great celerity have these foolish 
persons given themselves up to superfluity* in the 
matter of dress. It would be well were I to confine 
the dress of the Bhikkhus within limits, and were to 
fix a bound thereto.' 

2. And the Blessed One, proceeding in due course 
on his journey toward Vesali, arrived at that place. 
And there, at Vesali, the Blessed One stayed at the 
Gotamaka shrine 4 . And at that time in the cold 



divided, for the purposes of cultivation, across and across, so must 
also the Bhikkhu's robe be divided. That some, both of the agri- 
cultural and of the tailoring terms, should now be unintelligible to 
us is not surprising. Buddhaghosa himself, as the extracts from 
his commentary show, was not certain of the meaning of them alL 

1 Ubbha»</ite #varehi. The former word is of course applied 
to the Bhikkhus. Compare Childers, under Bha»<fik£, and G&taka 
I, 504 (last line but one). 

8 Bhisi = Sanskrit Brat. Compare the 14th Pa&ttiya, where 
we ought to have rendered the word ' bolster.' Childers is incorrect 
in translating it by ' mat.' 

3 Mentioned also, as being near to Vesali, in the ' Book of the 
Great Decease,' III, a. 

4 Bahull&ya dvattl This phrase occurs in Mahavagga I, 
3i.5- 



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VIII, 13, 3. THE DRESS OF THE BHIKKHUS. 211 

winter nights, in the period between the Ash/aka 
festivals when the snow falls 1 , the Blessed One 
sat at night in the open air with but one robe on, 
and the Blessed One felt not cold. As the first 
watch of the night was coming to its end, the Blessed 
One felt cold; and he put on a second robe, and 
felt not cold. As the middle watch of the night 
was coming to its end, the Blessed One felt cold; 
and he put on a third robe, and felt not cold. As 
the last watch of the night was coming to an end, 
when the dawn was breaking and the night was far 
spent 2 , the Blessed One felt cold; and he put on 
a fourth robe, and felt not cold. 

3. Then this thought sprang up in the Blessed 
One's mind : ' Those men of good birth 8 in this 
doctrine and discipline who are affected by cold, and 
are afraid of cold, they are able to make use of three 
robes*. It were well if in confining within limits 
the dress of the Bhikkhus, and in fixing a bound 
thereto, I were to allow the use of three robes.' 
And on that occasion the Blessed One, when he had 



1 See our note on the same phrase at MahSvagga I, 20, 15. 

* NandimukhiyS rattiyi. The derivation of this phrase is 
uncertain, though the general meaning is not subject to doubt. 
The Sanskrit form of the whole phrase will be found in the Lalita 
Vistara at p. 4 4 7 . Comp. .Sahkhayana-gnhya, ed. Oldenberg, IV, 4, 
where the word ndndimukho occurs in a diiFerent connection. 

* In the text read Ye pi kho kulaputtl The idea is that 
men of lower grade, being accustomed to cold, would not want so 
many robes. But there must be one rule for all ; and the rule is 
accordingly made to suit the comfort of the weaker brethren*— eariy 
Buddhism, contrary to an erroneous opinion still frequently ex- 
pressed, being opposed to asceticism. 

* Or, ' to get on with the three robes.' Compare the use of 
yipetuw in the 'Book of the Great Decease,' II, 32. 

P 2 



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212 MAHAVAGGA. VIII, 13, 4. 

delivered a religious discourse, addressed the Bhik- 
khus, and said : 

4, 5. ' When on the high road, &c. ... I saw, 

&c and I thought, &c (all the chapter 

is repeated down to " .... I were to allow the use 
of three robes"). I allow you, O Bhikkhus, the use 
of three robes, (to wit), a double waist cloth, and a 
single 1 upper robe, and a single under garment 2 .' 

1 'Ekak&iyam. Compare Gataka I, 326. Buddhaghosa says 
dvigu»a*8 dupa/fo-sa»>gha/ijK ek&iiiy&m ekapatfam. Though 
' single,' the lengths of cotton cloth, pieced together, of which the 
robes were made, were allowed to be doubled at the seams, the 
collar, the elbows, and the knees. See above, VII, 1, 5. 

* The waist cloth (sa/»gha/i) was wrapped round the waist and 
back, and secured with a girdle. The under garment (antara- 
vasak a ; see also the end of this note) was wrapped round the loins 
and reached below the knee, being fastened round the loins by an end 
of the cloth being tucked in there ; and sometimes also by a girdle. 
The upper robe (uttarasawga) was wrapped round the legs from 
the loins to the ankles, and the end was then drawn, at the back, 
from the right hip, over the left shoulder, and either (as is still the 
custom in Siam, and in the Siamese sect in Ceylon) allowed to fall 
down in front, or (as is still the custom in Burma, and in the Bur- 
mese sect in Ceylon) drawn back again over the right shoulder, 
and allowed to fall down on the back. From the constant refer- 
ence to the practice of adjusting the robe over one shoulder as 
a special mark of respect (for instance, Mahavagga I, 29, 2 ; IV, 
3, 3), the Burmese custom would seem to be in accordance with 
the most ancient way of usually wearing the robe. The oldest 
statues of the Buddha, which represent the robe as falling over 
only one shoulder, are probably later than the passages just 
referred to. 

The ordinary dress of laymen, even of good family, in Gotama's 
time was much more scanty than the decent dress thus prescribed 
for th% Bhikkhus. See Rh. D.'s note on the ' Book of the Great 
Decease,' VI, 26. But it consisted also, like that of the Bhikkhus, 
not in garments made with sleeves or trousers, to fit the limbs, but 
in simple lengths of cloth. 

The antara-vasaka corresponds, in the dress of the monks, to 



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Tin, 13, 7- THE DRESS OF THE BHIKKHUS. 213 

6. Now at that time the .Oabbaggiya Bhikkhus, 
on the ground that three robes had been allowed 
by the Blessed One, used to frequent the village in 
one suit of three robes, and in another suit to rest 
in the Arama, and in another to go to the bath. 
Then those Bhikkhus who were modest were an- 
noyed, murmured, and became indignant, saying, 
' How can the A^abbaggiya Bhikkhus wear extra 
suits of robes.' 

And those Bhikkhus told the matter to the Blessed 
One. Then the Blessed One on that occasion, when 
he had delivered a religious discourse, addressed 
the Bhikkhus, and said : 

' You are not, O Bhikkhus, to wear an extra suit 
of robes. Whosoever does so, shall be dealt with 
according to law 1 .' 

7. Now at that time the venerable Ananda had 
acquired an extra suit of robes, and the venerable 
Ananda was desirous of giving the extra suit to the 
venerable Siriputta, but the venerable Sariputta was 
staying at Saketa. Then the venerable Ananda 
thought : ' It hath been laid down by the Blessed 
One that we are not to keep an extra suit of robes. 
Now I have received one, and I want to give it to 
the venerable Siriputta ; but he is staying at Saketa. 
What now shall I do ?' 

the sa/ika in the dress of ordinary women, and was of the same 
shape as the udaka-sa/ika, or bathing dress, prescribed for the 
use both of monks (below, chapter 15) and of nuns (Bhikkhuni- 
vibhanga, PaJittiya XXII). The latter was, however, somewhat 
shorter. 

The ordinary dress of the Bhikkhunis or Sisters consisted of the 
same three garments as that of the Bhikkhus. 

1 That is, according to the first Nissaggiya. The first section of 
the Sutta-vibhaftga on that rule is identical with this section. 



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214 MAHAVAGGA. Vm, 13, 8. 

And the venerable Ananda told this thing to the 
Blessed One. 

' How long will it be, Ananda, before the vener- 
able Sariputta returns ?' 

' He will come back, Lord, on the ninth or the 
tenth day from now.' 

Then the Blessed One on that occasion, when he 
had delivered a religious discourse, addressed the 
Bhikkhus, and said : 

' I allow you, O Bhikkhus, to keep an extra suit 
of robes up to the tenth day 1 .' 

8. Now at that time the Bhikkhus used to get 
extra suits of robes given to them. And these Bhik- 
khus thought : ' What now should we do with extra 
suits of robes ? J 

They told this thing to the Blessed One. 

' I enjoin upon you, O Bhikkhus, to make over 
an extra suit of robes (to other Bhikkhus who have 
no robes*).' 



14. 

1. Now when the Blessed One had remained at 
Vesali as long as he thought fit, he went onwards 
on his journey towards Benares. And in due course 
he arrived at Benares, and there, at Benares, he 
stayed in the hermitage in the Migadaya. 

Now at that time a certain Bhikkhu's under robe 
was torn. And that Bhikkhu thought : 'The Blessed 

1 So the first Nissaggiya; the second section of the Sutta-vibhanga 
on which rule is identical with this section 7. 

" On vikappetuw, compare our note above, the 59th Pa£ttiya, 
and below, chapters 20, 22. 



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VIII, »4, a. THE DRESS OF THE BHIKKHUS. 215 

One has ordained the use of three robes, a double 
waist cloth, and a single upper robe, and a single 
under-garment ', and this under-garment of mine is 
torn. What if I were to insert a slip of cloth 2 so 
that the robe shall be double all round and single in 
the middle.' 

2. So that Bhikkhu inserted a slip of eloth. And 
the Blessed One on his way round the sleeping 
apartments saw him doing so, went up to the place 
where he was, and said to him : 

' What are you doing, O Bhikkhu ?' 
' I am inserting a slip of cloth, Lord.' 
' That is very good, O Bhikkhu. It is quite right 
of you, O Bhikkhu, to insert a slip of cloth.' 

And the Blessed One on that occasion, when he 
had delivered a religious discourse, addressed the 
Bhikkhus, and said : 

' I allow you, O Bhikkhus, to use a double waist 
cloth, and a single upper robe, and a single under- 
garment, of cloths which are new, or as good as 
new 3 ; and the use of a fourfold waist cloth k and of 
a double upper robe, and of a double under robe of 
cloth which has been worn for a long time. You 
are to make endeavour to get sufficient material 
from rags taken from the dust-heap *, or from bits 
picked up in the bazaar *. I allow you, O Bhikkhus, 
slips of cloth inserted bolt-like to hold a torn robe 

1 Bee above, VIII, 13, 5. 

* Buddhaghosa says, Agga/a« aiMadeyyan (sic) ti AAmna- 
tiAfbie pilotika-khaWam laggapeyyaw. The word occurs at (Tataka 
1, 8, where the liability to want such an insertion is given as one of 
the nine disadvantages of a robe from the ascetic's point of view. 

* Ahata-kappanam. See above, VII, 1, 6. 

* See our notes on these expressions above, VII, 1, 6. 



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216 mahAvagga. vin, 15, 1. 

together, patches 1 , dams 8 , and small pieces of cloth 
sewn on by way of marking 2 , or of strengthening 8 
the robe.' 



15. 

1. Now when the Blessed One had remained at 
Benares as long as he thought fit, he went onwards 
on his journey toward Savatthi. And in due course 
journeying straight on he arrived at Savatthi ; and 
there, at Savatthi, he stayed at the Getavana, 
Anatha-pitfdfika's Arama. And Visakha the mother 
of Migara went up to the place where the Blessed 
One was; and when she had come there, she 
saluted the Blessed One, and took her seat on one 
side. And the Blessed One taught Visakha the 
mother of Migara seated thus: and incited, and 
aroused, and gladdened her with religious dis- 
course. And Visakha the mother of Migara when 
she had been thus taught, &c, spake thus to the 
Blessed One: 'Will my Lord the Blessed One 
consent to accept his morrow's meal at my hands, 
together with the company of the Bhikkhus ?' The 
Blessed One, by remaining silent, granted his con- 
sent ; and Visakha the mother of Migara, perceiving 
that the Blessed One had consented, rose from her 
seat, and saluted the Blessed One, and keeping him 
on her right side as she passed him, she departed 
thence. 

1 This liability to have to be patched is given, in connection 
with the previous phrase, as one of the nine disadvantages of robes 
at G&taka I, 8; and tunnav&ya occurs as the expression for a 
mender of old clothes at ATulIavagga VI, 5, 1; 

* See our notes on these expressions above, VII, 1, 5. 



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VIII, 15, 3- THE DRESS OF THE BHIKKHUS. 

2. Now at that time, when the night was far 
spent, there was a great storm of rain over the 
whole world 1 . And the Blessed One said to the 
Bhikkhus : 

'Just as it is raining in the £etavana, O 
Bhikkhus, so is it raining over the whole world. 
Let yourselves, O Bhikkhus, be rained down upon, 
for this is the last time there will be a mighty storm 
of rain over the whole world.' 

' Even so, Lord,' said those Bhikkhus in assent to 
the Blessed One ; and throwing off their robes they 
let themselves be rained down upon. 

3. And Visakha the mother of Migara having 
provided sweet food, both hard and soft, gave com- 
mand to a slave girl, saying, 

'Go thou 9 to the Arama; and when you are 
there, announce the time, saying, " The time, Sirs, 
has arrived, and the meal is ready." ' 

' Even so, my Lady,' said the slave girl in assent 
to Visakha, the mother of Migara ; and going to 
the Arama she beheld there the Bhikkhus, with 
their robes thrown off, letting themselves be rained 
down upon. Then thinking, ' These are not Bhik- 
khus in the Arama, they are naked ascetics letting 
the rain fall on them,' she returned to the place 
where Visakha the mother of Migara was, and said 
to her: 

' There are no Bhikkhus in the Arama ; there are 



1 ATituddfpiko, literally, ' over the four continents,' into which 
the world was supposed to be divided. Compare Genesis vii. 44. 

* G&kAAa. ge; where ^e is the appropriate form of address 
invariably used to a female slave or maid-servant. Compare 
Childers, in the 'Dictionary,' p. 617. 



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*i8 mahAvagga. vin, 15, 4- 

naked ascetics there, letting the rain fall on them- 
selves.' 

Then it occurred to Visakba the mother of 
Migara — she being learned, expert, and wise — ' For 
a certainty the venerable ones must have thrown 
off their robes in order to let themselves be rained 
down upon, and this foolish girl thinks therefore that 
there are no Bhikkhus in the Ar&ma, but only 
naked ascetics letting the rain fall on them.' And 
she again gave command to the slave girl, saying, 

' Go thou to the Arama ; and when you are there, 
announce the time, saying, "The time, Sirs, has 
arrived, and the meal is ready." ' 

4. Now the Bhikkhus when they had cooled their 
limbs, and were refreshed in body, took their robes, 
and entered each one into his chamber. When the 
slave girl came to the Arama, not seeing any Bhik- 
khus, she thought : ' There are no Bhikkhus in the 

A A 

Arama. The Arama is empty.' And returning to 
Visakha the mother of Migara she said so. 

Then it occurred to Visakhi the mother of Mi- 
gira — she being learned, expert, and wise — ' For 
a certainty the venerable ones, when they had cooled 
their limbs and were refreshed in body, must have 
taken their robes, and entered each one into his 
chamber.' And she again, gave command to the 
slave girl, saying, 

' Go thou to Ar&ma ; and when you are there 
announce the time, saying, "The time, Sirs, has 
arrived, and the meal is ready." ' 

5. And the Blessed One said to the Bhikkhus: 
' Make yourselves ready, O Bhikkhus, with bowl 
and robe ; the hour for the meal has come.' 

' Even so, Lord,' said the Bhikkhus in assent to 



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VIII, 15, 7. THE DRESS OF THE BHIKKHUS. 2IQ. 

the Blessed One. And m the morning the Blessed 
One, having put on his under-garment, and being 
duly bowled and robed, vanished from the (7etavana 
as quickly as a strong man would stretch forth his 
arm when it was drawn in, or draw it in again when 
it was stretched forth, and appeared in the mansion 1 
of Visakha the mother of Migara. And the Blessed 
One took his seat on the seat spread out for him, 
and with him the company of the Bhikkhus. 

6. Then said Visakha the mother of Migara : 
' Most wonderful, most marvellous is the might and 
the power of the Tathagata, in that though the 
floods are rolling on knee-deep, and though the 
floods are rolling on waist-deep, yet is not a single 
Bhikkhu wet, as to his feet, or as to his robes.' 
And glad and exalted in heart she served and 
offered with her own hand to the company of the 
Bhikkhus, with the Buddha at their head, sweet 
food, both hard and soft. And when the Blessed 
One had finished his meal, and had cleansed his 
hands and the bowl, she took her seat on one side. 
And, so sitting, she spake thus to the Blessed One : 

' Eight are the boons, Lord, which I beg of the 
Blessed One.' 

1 The Tathagatas, O Visakha, are above granting 
boons (before they know what they are) *.' 

' Proper, Lord, and unobjectionable are the boons 
1 ask.' 

' Speak then, O Visakha.' 

7. ' I desire, Lord, my life long to bestow robes 

1 Ko/Maka does not only mean a room, as given by Childers : 
it signifies here, as at (Jataka I, 227, a battlemented dwelling, the 
house of a person of rank. 

* See our note on this phrase at I, 54, 4. 



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220 MAHAVAGGA. VIII, 15, 8. . 

for the rainy season on the Sa»*gha, and food for 
in-coming Bhikkhus, and food for out-going Bhik- 
khus, and food for the sick, and food for those who 
wait upon the sick, and medicine, for the sick, and 
a constant supply of congey, and bathing robes for 
the nuns.' 

' But what circumstance is it, O Visakha, that you 
have in view in asking these eight boons of the 
Tathagata?' 

' I gave command, Lord, to my slave girl, saying, 
" Go thou to the Arama ; and when you are there, 
announce the time, saying, ' The time, Sirs, has 
arrived, and the meal is ready.' " And the slave 
girl went, Lord, to the Arima ; but when she beheld 
there the Bhikkhus with their robes thrown off, 
letting themselves be rained down upon, she thought : 
" These are not Bhikkhus in the Arama, they are 
naked ascetics letting the rain fall on them," and she 
returned to me and reported accordingly. Impure, 
Lord, is nakedness, and revolting. It was this 
circumstance, Lord, that I had in view in desiring 
to provide the Sawgha my life long with special 
garments for use in the rainy season 1 . 

8. ' Moreover, Lord, an in-coming Bhikkhu, not 
being able to take the direct roads, and not knowing 
the places where food can be procured, comes on his 
way wearied out by seeking for an alms. But when 
he has partaken of the food I shall have provided 
for in-coming Bhikkhus, he will come on his way 
without being wearied out by seeking for an alms, 
taking the direct road, and knowing the place where 
food can be procured. It was this circumstance 

1 See below, the note on § 15. 

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VIII, 15, 9. THE DRESS OF THE BHIKKHUS. 221 

that I had in view in desiring to provide the 
Sawgha my life long with food for in-coming 
Bhikkhus. 

'Moreover, Lord, an out-going Bhikkhu, while 
seeking about for an alms for himself, may be left 
behind by the caravan 1 , or may arrive too late at 
the place whither he desires to go, and will set 
out on the road in weariness. But when he has 
partaken of the food I shall have provided for out- 
going Bhikkhus, he will not be left behind by the 
caravan; he will arrive in due time at the place 
whither he desires to go, and he will set out on the 
road when he is not weary. It was this circum- 
stance, Lord, that I had in view in desiring to 
provide the Sawgha my life long with food for 
out-going Bhikkhus. 

9. ' Moreover, Lord, if a sick Bhikkhu does not 
obtain suitable foods his sickness may increase upon 
him, or he may die. But if a Bhikkhu have taken 
the diet that I shall have provided for the sick, 
neither will his sickness increase upon him, nor will 
he die. It was this circumstance, Lord, that I had 
in view in desiring to provide the Sa/wgha my life 
long with diet for the sick. 

' Moreover, Lord, a Bhikkhu who is waiting upon 
the sick, if he has to seek out food for himself, may 
bring in the food (to the invalid) when the sun is 
already far on his course", and he will lose his 



1 Compare sukhi vihSyati in the Sigilov&da Sutta at p. 302 
of Grimblot's ' Sept Suttas Palis.' 

* Compare Ussura-seyyo in the Sig&lovida Sutta at p. 302 
of Grimblot's 'Sept Suttas Palis;' and B6htlingk-Roth, under 
utsura. 



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222 MAHAVAGGA. VIII, 15, 10. 

opportunity of taking his food *. But when he has 
partaken of the food I shall have provided for those 
who wait upon the sick, he will bring in food to 
the invalid in due time, and he will not lose his 
opportunity of taking his food. It was this cir- 
cumstance, Lord, that I had in view in desiring to 
provide the Sazwgha my life long with food for 
those who wait upon the sick. 

10. ' Moreover, Lord, if a sick Bhikkhu does not 
obtain suitable medicines his sickness may increase 
upon him, or he may die. But if a Bhikkhu have 
taken the medicines which I shall have provided for 
the sick, neither will his sickness increase upon him, 
nor will he die. It was this circumstance, Lord, 
that I had in view in desiring to provide the Sa*»gha 
my life long with medicines for the sick. 

' Moreover, Lord, the Blessed One when at 
Andhakavinda, having in view the ten advantages 
thereof, allowed the use of congey 2 . It was those 
advantages I had in view, Lord, in desiring to 
provide the Saawgha my life long with a constant 
supply of congey. 

11. ' Now, Lord, the Bhikkhunts are in the habit 
•of bathing in the river Aiiravatl with the courte- 
sans, at the same landing-place, and naked. And 
the courtesans, Lord, ridiculed the Bhikkhunts, 
saying, " What is the good, ladies, of your maintain- 
ing 3 chastity when you are young? are not the 

1 Bhatta^Aedaw karissati, because he may not eat solid 
food after sun-turn. 

2 See Mahivagga VI, 24. The ten advantages are enumerated 
in § 5 there. 

* In the text read Mnnem. Compare Bhikkhunf-vibhahga, 
Palittiya XXI, 1, where the whole passage recurs. The first sen- 
tence also recurs ibid., Pa&ttiya II. 



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VIH, 15, 13. THE DRESS OF THE BHIKKHUS. 223 

passions things to be indulged ? When you are old, 
maintain chastity then ; thus will you be obtain ers- 
of both ends." Then the Bhikkhunts, Lord, when 
thus ridiculed by the courtesans, were confused. 
Impure, Lord, is nakedness for a woman, disgusting, 
and revolting. It was this circumstance, Lord, that 
I had in view in desiring to provide the Bhikkhunl- 
sa#rgha my life long with dresses to bathe in.' 

1 2. ' But what was the advantage you had in 
view for yourself, O Visakha, in asking these eight 
boons of the Tathagata?' 

' Bhikkhus who have spent the rainy seasons in 
various places will come, Lord, to Savatthi, to visit 
the Blessed One. And on coming to the Blessed 
One they will ask, saying, " Such and such a Bhik- 
khu, Lord, has died. Where has he been re-born^ 
and what is his destiny?" Then will the Blessed 
One explain that he had attained to the fruits of 
conversion, or of the state of the Sakadagamins, 
or of the state of the Anagimins, or of Arahatship 1 . 
And I, going up to them, shall ask, " Was ihat 
brother, Sirs, one of those who had formerly been 
at Savatthi ?" 

13. 'If they should reply to me, "He had for- 
merly been at Savatthi," then shall I arrive at the 
conclusion, " For a certainty did that brother enjoy 
either the robes for the rainy season, or the food for 
the in-coming Bhikkhus, or the food for the out- 
going Bhikkhus, or the food for the sick, or the 
food for those that wait upon the sick, or the 



1 A conversation of the kind here referred to is related, as having 
actually taken place at Nadika, in the ' Book of the Great Decease,' 
II, 5-8. 



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224 MAHAVAGGA. VIII, 15, 14. 

medicine for the sick, or the constant supply of 
congey." Then will gladness spring up within me 
on my calling that to mind ; and joy will arise to 
me thus gladdened ; and so rejoicing all my frame 
will be at peace; and being thus at peace I shall 
experience a blissful feeling of content ; and in that 
bliss my heart will be at rest ; and that will be to 
me an exercise of my moral sense, an exercise of 
my moral powers, an exercise of the seven kinds 
of wisdom 1 ! This, Lord, was the advantage I had 
in view for myself in asking those eight boons of 
the Blessed One.' 

14. 'It is well, it is well, Visdkha. Thou hast 



1 The succession of ideas in this paragraph is very suggestive, 
and throws much light both upon the psychological views and 
upon the religious feelings of the early Buddhists. The exact 
rendering of course of the abstract terms employed in the Pali 
text is no doubt, as yet, beset with difficulty, for the reasons pointed 
out in Rh. D.'s ' Buddhist Suttas from the Pali,' pp. xxv, xxvi ; but 
the general sense of the passage is already sufficiently clear. For 
one or two words we have no real and adequate equivalent. 

Kdya is neither 'body' nor 'faculties;' it is the whole frame, 
the whole individuality, looked at rather objectively than sub- 
jectively, and rather from the outward and visible than from the 
inner, metaphysical, stand-point. Compare the use of SakkSya- 
di/Mi and of Kayena passati. 

Sukha is not so much 'happiness,' simply and vaguely, as the 
serenity of the bliss which follows on happiness. It is contrasted 
with, and follows after, pamo^a and piti, in the same way as in 
this passage, in the standing description of the (JMnas (translated 
by Rh. D. in the Maha-sudassana Sutta II, 5-8, in the 'Buddhist 
Suttas,' p. 272). Its opposite, Dukkha, is a positive state of pain, 
and in comparison with this, sukha is negative, the absence of 
pain. 

A'itta is always more emotional than intellectual. It has the 
connotation, not of ' mind,' as is usually and erroneously supposed, 
but of ' heart.' 



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VIII, 15, 15- THE DRESS OF THE BHIKKHUS. 225 

done well in asking eight boons of the Tathagata 
with such advantages in view.' 

And the Blessed One gave thanks to Visakha 
the mother of Migara in these verses ; 

' Whatsoever woman, upright in life, a disciple of 
the Happy One, gives, glad at heart and overcom- 
ing avarice, both food and drink — a gift, heavenly, 
destructive of sorrow, productive of bliss, — 

' A heavenly life does she attain, entering upon 
the Path that is free from corruption and impurity ; 

'Aiming at good, happy does she become, and 
free from sickness, and long does she rejoice in 
a heavenly body.' 

And when the Blessed One had given thanks to 
Visakha the mother of Migara in these verses, he 
arose from his seat, and departed thence. 

15. Then the Blessed One on that occasion, 
after he had delivered a religious discourse, ad- 
dressed the Bhikkhus, and said: 

1 1 allow you, O Bhikkhus, garments for the rainy 
season 1 , and food for in-coming Bhikkhus, and food 
for out-going Bhikkhus, and diet for the sick, and 
food for those that wait upon the sick, and medicine 
for the sick, and a constant supply of congey, and 
bathing robes for the sisterhood.' 



Here ends the chapter called the 
Visakha-bha#avara. 

1 The size of such a garment is limited by the 91st PiMittiya to 
six spans by two-and-a-half — that is just enough to go round the 
loins from the waist half down to the knee. It would be decent, 
and yet avoid the disadvantage of wearing the robes in the rain, 
where they would become wet and heavy in the manner described, 
for instance, at Mahavagga VII, 1,1. 

07] Q 



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226 MAHAVAGGA. VIII, 16, I. 



16. 

i, 2. Now at that time Bhikkhus who had eaten 
sweet foods went to sleep unmindful and unthought- 
ful. And they who had thus gone to sleep, 
dreamed J 

3 'I allow, O Bhikkhus, for the protection 

of the body, and of the robe, and of the sleeping- 
place, the use of a mat' 

4. Now at that time the mat, being too short 2 , 
did not protect the whole of the sleeping-place. 

' I allow you, O Bhikkhus, to have a covering 
made as large as you like.' 



17 s . 

1. Now at that time the venerable Bela//^asisa, 
the superior of the venerable Ananda, had a disease 
of thick scabs; and by reason of the discharge 
thereof his robes .stuck to his body. The Bhikkhus 
moistened those robes with water, and loosened 
them (from his body). 

The Blessed One, as he was going on his rounds 
through the sleeping-places, saw them [doing so], 
and going up to the place where they were, he 
asked them : 

1 The remainder of this introductory story scarcely bears trans- 
lation. The first sentences recur in the Sutta-vibhahga, Saiwghadi- 
sesa I, 2, 1, and Pa&ttiya V, 1, 1. 

* The length of'a mat (nisidanaw) was limited by the 89th 
Pa&ttiya to two spans by one. 

8 This introductory story is also given as the introduction to 
Mahavagga VI, 9. 



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VIII, l8, i. THE DRESS OF THE BHIKKHUS. 227 

'What is the matter, O Bhikkhus, with this 
Bhikkhu V 

' The venerable one has the disease of thick 
scabs ; and by reason of the discharge thereof his 
robes stick to his body. So we are moistening 
those robes thoroughly with water, to loosen them 
(from his body).' 

2. Then the Blessed One on that occasion, after 
having delivered a religious discourse, addressed the 
Bhikkhus, and said : 

' I allow, O Bhikkhus, to whomsoever has the itch, 
or boils, or a discharge, or scabs, the use of an 
itch-cloth V 



18. 

1. Now Visakha the mother of Migara took a cloth 
for wiping the face, and went up to the place where 
the Blessed One was. And on arriving there, she 
saluted the Blessed One, and took her seat on one 
side, and, so sitting, Visakha the mother of Migara 
spake thus to the Blessed One : 

'May the Blessed One be pleased to accept of 
me this cloth for wiping the face, that that may be 
to me for a long time for a blessing and for good.' 

And the Blessed One accepted the cloth for 
wiping the face. And he taught, and incited, and 
aroused, and gladdened Visakha the mother of 
Migara with religious discourse. And she, so 
taught &c, rose from her seat, and saluted the 

1 According to the 90th Plflttiya such a cloth must not be more 
than four spans in length, and two in breadth. 

Q 2 



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228 mahAvagga. vin, 19, 1. 

Blessed One, and passing him on her right side, she 
departed thence. 

Then the Blessed One on that occasion, after 
having delivered a religious discourse, addressed 
the Bhikkhus, and said : 

' I allow you, O Bhikkhus, a cloth to wipe your 
faces with.' 



19. 

1. Now at that time Rq^a the Malla was a friend 
of the venerable Ananda's 1 . And a linen cloth 
belonging to Ro^a the Malla had been deposited 
in the keeping of the venerable Ananda ; and the 
venerable Ananda had need of a linen cloth. 

They told this matter to the Blessed One. 

' I allow you, O Bhikkhus, to take a thing on 
trust (that it would be given to you) when it 
belongs to a person possessed of these five qualifi- 
cations — he must be an intimate and familiar friend 
who has been spoken to (about it) 2 and is alive, 
(and the Bhikkhu taking the thing) must know " He 
will remain pleased with me after I have taken it." 
I allow you, O Bhikkhus, to take a thing on trust 
(that it would be given to you) 8 when it belongs to 
a person possessed of these five qualifications.' 



1 He is also mentioned as such in Mahivagga VI, 36. 

1 Buddhaghosa says, Alapito ti mama santakaw ganhihi yam 
i&Weyy&fti evaw vutto. 

* Viss&saw gahetum, on which phrase compare viss&sS 
gawh&ti in chapter 31, below, where the context leaves no doubt 
as to its meaning. 



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Vin.ao, 2. THE DRESS OF THE BHIKKHUS. 229 



20. 

i. Now at that time the Bhikkhus were fully 
provided with the three robes, but they had need 
of water-strainers 1 and of bags (to carry their bowls 
and other things in) 2 . 

They told this matter to the Blessed One. 

' I allow you, O Bhikkhus, pieces of cloth requisite 
(for those purposes).' 

2. Then it occurred to the Bhikkhus: 'The 
things allowed by the Blessed One — the three 
robes, and the robes for the rainy season, and the 
mat, and the bed-covering, and the cloth to cover 
boils &c. with, and to wipe the face with, and 
required (for water-strainers and bags) — are all 
these things things which ought to be kept to 
ourselves 3 , or things which ought to be handed 
over 4 (from time to time by one Bhikkhu to 
another) ?' 

They told this matter to the Blessed One. 

' I allow you, O Bhikkhus, to keep in hand the 
three robes, and not to assign them — to keep to 
yourselves the robes for the rainy season during the 
four months of the rains, but beyond that time to 
hand them over — to keep to yourselves the mats 
and the bed coverings, and not to hand them over — 
to keep to yourselves the coverings for the itch &c. 
while the disease lasts, but beyond that time to 

1 Compare JTullavagga VI, 13. 

* Compare the passages given in the index to the text of the 
Aullavagga, p. 355, s. v. thavikl 

8 Compare below, VIII, 24, 3. 

* Compare above, VIII, 8, 3. 



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23O MAHAVAGGA. VIII, 21, 1. 

hand them over — to keep to yourselves the cloths 
to wipe the face with, and those required for water- 
strainers and bags, and not to hand them over.' 



21. 

1. Now the Bhikkhus thought : ' What is the limit 
for the size of a robe up to which it ought to be 
handed over to another Bhikkhu 1 ?' 

They told this matter to the Blessed One. 

' I prescribe, O Bhikkhus, to hand over any robe 
which is in length eight inches according to the 
accepted inch V 

Now at that time a robe belonging to the vener- 
able Maha Kassapa, which had been made of cast-off 
pieces of cloth became heavy (by reason of the 
weight of the new pieces tacked on to it 3 ). 

They told this matter to the Blessed One. 

' I allow you, O Bhikkhus, to darn it roughly 
together with thread*.' 

It was uneven at the end 5 . 

They told this thing to the Blessed One. 

' I allow you, O Bhikkhus, to remove the uneven- 



1 See VIII, 1 3, 8, and our note on the 59th PS/Kttiya. 

a See our note on this word in the 92nd PS-4ittiya. 

3 So explains the commentary, A'Ainna-Z/Aane aggaldropanena 
garuko hoti. 

* Suttalukhaw katun ti sutten' eva aggalam katun ti attho 
(B.). Compare above, chapter 1 2. 2. 

5 Vika««o ti suttam a«£itv& sibbantanaw eko sawgha/i-ko»o 
digho hoti, says Buddhaghosa. Vika««aka in the 233rd Gitaka 
seems to mean ' harpoon.' 

6 Vika»«am uddharitun ti digha-ko«aw Aiindituw (B.). 



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VIII, 2t, 2. THE DRESS OF THE BHIKKHUS. 23I 

The threads frayed out l . 

They told this matter to the Blessed One. 

' I allow you, O Bhikkhus, to put a braiding or 
a binding along or round (the edge) V 

Now at that time the ribbons 3 of the under 
garment gave way *. 

They told this matter to the Blessed One. 

' I allow you, O Bhikkhus, to make an eight- 
footed . . . *.' 

2. Now at that time when a set of robes was 
being made for a certain Bhikkhu it was impossible 
to make it entirely from torn pieces of cloth 6 . 

' I allow you, O Bhikkhus, to have two of the 
robes made of torn pieces of cloth, and one of cloth 
not torn.' 

It was impossible to make two of the robes of 
torn pieces of cloth, and one of cloth not torn. 

' I allow you, O Bhikkhus, to make two robes 

1 Okiratf (sic)ti ^inna-kowato ga/ati (B.). Ga/ati at VI, 13, 1, 
is 'ran over,' whereas okiriyanti at the corresponding passages 
VI, 12, 1, 2, is 'were spilt.' Probably the above rendering is the real ' 
meaning here, as the threads could not be literally spilt or 
sprinkled. 

* On these difficult technical terms Buddhaghosa provokingly 
says, anuvataw paribha»</am anuv&tan k' eva paribha»</am. 
Childers, under the first, has merely ' with the wind,' and under the 
second, ' girdle.' The same expressions occur also above, at VII, 
1, 5, where Buddhaghosa again only explains the words by the 
words themselves. 

* We probably ought to read pa//3, not pattd; but what is 
meant by the ribbons of the sawghi/i is very doubtful. Buddha- 
ghosa says nothing. 

4 For lu^ati compare palu^ati. 

* What this is is again uncertain, and Buddhaghosa gives no 
help. 

' See above, chapter 11, at the end. 



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232 MAHAVAGGA. VIII, a J, l- 

(out of the set) of untorn pieces, and one of torn 
pieces.' 

Even this was impossible. 

' I allow you, O Bhikkhus, to make (each robe out 
of the set) half (from torn pieces) and half 1 (from 
untorn pieces). But a set of robes made entirely 
from untorn pieces is not to be worn. Whosoever 
shall wear (a set of robes so made) is guilty of a 
dukka/a.' 



22. 

1. Now at that time a quantity of robes had 
come into the possession of a certain Bhikkhu, and 
he was desirous of giving those robes to his father 
and mother. 

They told this matter to the Blessed One. 

' Since they are his father and mother, what can 
we say, O Bhikkhus, though he give them to them. 
I allow you, O Bhikkhus, to give (robes, in such a 
case,) to your parents. And a gift of faith is not to 
be made of no avail. Whosoever shall make it of 
no avail, he is guilty of a dukka/a *.' 



23. 

1. Now at that time a certain Bhikkhu who had 
deposited his robes 3 in Andhavana entered the 

1 Anvidhikam, on which Buddhaghosa says nothing. 

s Compare the 1st and 3rd Nissaggiyas, and above, VIII, 13, 8, 
as to the rules concerning extra robes, and what is to be done 
with them. 

9 For the rule as to such depositing, see the 29th Nissaggiya. 



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VIII, *3i 3* THE DRESS OF THE BHIKKHUS. 233 

village for alms (clad only) in his waist cloth and 
nether garment 1 . Thieves carried off that robe. 
That Bhikkhu became ragged and ill-clad. 

The Bhikkhus spake thus : 'How is it, friend, 
that you have become ragged and ill-clad ?' 

' I had deposited my robe in Andhavana, and 
entered the village in my waist cloth and nether 
garment Thieves carried off that robe. Thence 
am I become ragged and ill-clad.' 

They told this matter to the Blessed One. 

'You are not, O Bhikkhus, to enter the village 
(clad only) in your waist cloth and nether garment. 
Whosoever shall do so is guilty of a dukkate*.' 

2. Now at that time the venerable Ananda through 
thoughtlessness went into the village for alms in his 
waist cloth and nether garment 

The Bhikkhus spake to him thus : 'Hath it not 
been laid down by the Blessed One that we are not 
to enter the village, in our waist cloth and nether 
garment. Why have you, O friend, gone so into 
the village ?' 

' It is true, my friends, that it has been laid down 
by the Blessed One that we are not to enter the 
village so, but I did it out of thoughtlessness.' 

They told this matter to the Blessed One. 

3. ' There are five reasons, O Bhikkhus, for laying 



iHvara (robe) must here be used for Samgha/i. See our note 
on VIII, 13, 5, and section 2, below, where sa»gha/i occurs. 

1 On Santaruttara, see the 7th Nissaggiya. It is clear from 
this passage that Buddhaghosa was right in his limitation of the 
word as used in that rule; and we should have done better, there- 
fore, to follow it in our translation of the rule. 

* Compare the 1st, 2nd, 3rd, and 4th Sekhiyas, and the 2nd Nis- 
saggiya; and also above, VII, 1, 3. 



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234 MAHAVAGGA. VHI, 23, 3. 

aside the robe 1 — when he (the Bhikkhu) is sick, 
when it is the appointed time for keeping the rainy 
season 2 , when it is necessary to go to the other side 
of a river, when the vihara has been securely fast- 
ened with a bolt 8 , when the KaMina ceremony has 
been performed 4 . These, O Bhikkhus, are the five 
reasons for laying aside the robe (Saz#gha/i). 

' There are five reasons, O Bhikkhus, for laying 
aside the waist cloth and the nether garment. [The 
reasons are the same as in the last paragraph.] 
These, O Bhikkhus, are the five reasons, &c. 

' There are five reasons for laying aside the gar- 
ment for use in the rainy season — when he is sick, 
when it is necessary to go beyond the boundary (?) 5 , 
when it is necessary to go to the other side of a 
river, when the vihara has been securely fastened 
with a bolt, when the garment for use in the rainy 



1 Here the word used is Sawgha/i. 

2 On sawketa, compare II, 8, 1. Buddhaghosa merely says 
here, Vassika-sa/nketan ti /tattaro mase. As samketa implies 
a mutual agreement, the 'appointed time' here probably means, 
not the time fixed by the Buddha, but the time agreed upon by the 
Sawgha as that to which the rule laid down by the Buddha should 
apply. There may easily have arisen questions as to the exact 
day on which the four months should properly begin ; and there 
were even differences of opinion as to the exact length of the 
period itself, some making it three, and some four months. See 
on these points Childers, under Vassa and Vassupanayika. 

3 From fear of thieves. 

4 See the 2nd Nissaggiya, and above, VII, 1, 3. 

6 Buddhaghosa has nothing on this reason. It would seem that 
the garment in question might be left behind when the Bhikkhu 
had to go on a journey, if that journey would take him beyond the 
boundary of the technical ' residence.' On the use of the word, see 
the passages collected by H. O. in the Index to the Pali Text 
(vol. ii. p. 349, s. v. sima). 



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VIII, 24, 2. THE DRESS OF THE BHIKKHUS. 235 

season has not been made, or has been left un- 
finished \ 

' These, O Bhikkhus, are the five reasons,' &c. 



24. 

1. Now at that time a certain Bhikkhu kept Vassa 2 
alone. The people then gave him robes, saying, 
' We give them to the Sawgha.' 

Then that Bhikkhu thought : ' It has been laid 
down by the Blessed One that the lowest number 
which can constitute a Sawzgha is four 3 . Now I am 
by myself, and these people have given the robes, 
saying, " We give them to the Sawgha." I had 
better take these robes, which are the property of 
a Sawgha, to Savatthi.' 

So that Bhikkhu did so, and told the matter to 
the Blessed One. 

' These robes are your own, O Bhikkhu, until the 
KaMina ceremony shall have been performed 4 .' 

2. ' Now in case, O Bhikkhus, a Bhikkhu keep 
Vassa alone, and the people of the place give 

1 It is evident from this last reason that the reasons are not such 
as would justify a Bhikkhu in laying aside the garment in such a 
way as to remain naked, but such as would justify him in not using 
the rainy-season garment when he might otherwise have done so. 
In the five cases mentioned he might wear the nether garment only 
reaching from above the navel to below the knees, instead of the 
garment for the rainy season, which was smaller in size. See our 
note above on VIII, 13, 5, and VIII, 15, 15. 

* That is, spent the rainy season. 

* This is laid down in Mahavagga IX, 4, 1. 

* And thereby the KaMina license suspended. Compare the 
1 st, and, and 3rd Nissaggiyas, and our note on p. 18. 



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236 mahAvagga. VIII, 34, 3. 

him robes, intending them for the Sa/wgha, — 
I prescribe, O Bhikkhus, that those robes shall be 
his until the KaMina ceremony shall have been 
performed' 

3. Now at that time a certain Bhikkhu spent the 
rest of the year (besides the rainy season) 1 alone. 
The people there (&c, as before, in the first para- 
graph of 24. 1, down to the end). 

So that Bhikkhu did so, and told the matter to 
the Bhikkhus. They told the matter to the Blessed 
One. 

' I prescribe, O Bhikkhus, that you are to divide 
such robes with the Samgha (whether large or small 
in number) that may be present there. 

4. * Now in case, O Bhikkhus, a. Bhikkhu spend 
the rest of the year (besides the rainy season) alone, 
and the people of the place give him robes, intending 
them for the Sawgha, — I allow, O Bhikkhus, that 
that Bhikkhu should appropriate those robes to him- 
self 2 , saying, " These robes are for me." If another 
Bhikkhu should arrive before those robes have been 
appropriated to that Bhikkhu, an equal share is to 
be given (to the in-coming Bhikkhu). If while the 
robes are being divided by those Bhikkhus, and 
before the lot has been cast, another Bhikkhu should 
arrive, an equal share is to be given to him. If 
while the robes are being divided by those Bhikkhus, 
and after the lot has been cast, another Bhikkhu 



1 Buddhaghosa says, Utukaian ti vassinato anitam k&lam, 
where vasslna means the rainy season. See Abhidh&nappadfpiki, 
verse 79. 

* On this sense of adhi/M&tum, see above, MaMvagga VIII, 
20, 2. 



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Vin, 34,6. THE DRESS OF THE BHIKKHUS. 237 

should arrive, an equal share need not, if they do 
not wish it \ be given to him.' 

5. Now at that time two Theras, who were 
brothers, the venerable Isidasa and the venerable 
Isibhatta, having spent the rainy season in Savatthi, 
went to take up their abode in a certain village. 
The people there, thinking, ' It is long since these 
Theras have arrived here,' made gifts of both food 
and robes. 

The Bhikkhus who resided there asked the Theras, 
saying, ' These robes, Sirs, which are the property of 
the Sawgha, have come to us through the Theras' 
arrival 2 . Will the Theras accept a share ?' 

The Theras answered : ' As we understand the 
rule laid down by the Blessed One, these robes 
belong to you alone until the Ka/^ina ceremony 
shall have been performed 3 .' 

6. Now at that time three Bhikkhus spent the 
rainy season at Ri^agaha. The people there made 
gifts of robes, saying, ' We give them to the Sawgha.' 

Then those Bhikkhus thought thus : ' It has been 
laid down by the Blessed One that the smallest 
Sa*«gha shall consist of four persons, and we are 
only three, and these people have made gifts of 
robes, intending to give them to the Sawgha. What 
now ought we to do with them ?' 

Now at that time there were staying in Pa/ali- 



1 Ak&m&; on which compare II, 27, 15, and especially II, 34, 
3, and IV, 17, 6. 

1 Agamma, which is here nearly the same as uddissa. To 
give the full import of the expression it would be necessary to say, 
' have come to us in consequence of the inducement offered to the 
givers by the presence of the Theras here.' 

* See our note above on § 1. 



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238 MAHAVAGGA. VIII, 25, 1. 

putta, at the kukku/arama, a number of Theras — 
the venerable Nilavasi.and the venerable Sa^avasi 1 , 
and the venerable Gopaka, and the venerable Bhagu, 
and the venerable Phalika-sandana. And those Bhik- 
khus went to Pa7aliputta, and asked the Theras what 
they should do. 

The Theras answered : 'As we understand the 
rule laid down by the Blessed One, these robes 
belong to you alone until the KaMina ceremony 
shall have been performed.' 



25. 

1. Now at that time the venerable Upananda of 
the Sakya race, having spent the rainy season at 
Savatthi, went to take up his abode in a certain 
village. The Bhikkhus in that place assembled 
together with the object of dividing the robes. 
They said to him : 

' These robes, friend, which are the property of 
the Sawgha, are about to be divided. Will you 
accept a share of them ?' 

' Yes, friends, I will,' said he ; and taking his 
share, departed thence and took up his abode 
elsewhere. 

[The same thing happened there, and] he departed 
thence and took up his abode elsewhere. 

[The same thing happened there, and so] he re- 
turned to Savatthi with a great bundle of robes. 

2. The Bhikkhus said to him : ' What a merito- 

1 There is a Sa«avSsi who takes a prominent part at the Council 
of Vesali (tfullavagga XII, 1, 8; XII, 2, 4). He is probably 
meant to be considered the same as. this one. 



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VIII, 25,4. THE DRESS OF THE BHIKKHUS. 239 

rious person you are, friend Upananda. Plenty of 
robes have come into your possession!' 

' Where is my merit, friends ?' said he, and [told 
them all that had happened] 1 . 

3. ' How then, friend Upananda, have you spent 
the rainy season in one place, and accepted a share 
of robes in another place ?' 

' Yes, friends, that is so.' 

Those Bhikkhus who were moderate were indig- 
nant, murmured, and became annoyed, saying, ' How 
can the venerable Upananda spend the rainy season 
in one place, and accept a share of robes in another 
place ?' 

They told the matter to the Blessed One. 

' Is it true, Upananda, as they say, that you have 
spent the rainy season in one place, and have 
accepted a share of robes in another place ?' 

' It is true, Lord.' 

The Blessed Buddha rebuked him, saying, ' How 
can you, O foolish one, act so ? This will not re- 
dound to the conversion of the unconverted, or to 
the increase of the converted!' 

And after having rebuked him, and delivered a 
religious discourse, he addressed the Bhikkhus, 
saying, 'Whosoever, O Bhikkhus, has spent the 
rainy season in one place, is not to accept a share 
of the robes in another place. Whosoever does so 
shall be guilty of a dukka/a.' 

4. Now at that time the venerable Upananda of 
the Sakya race spent the rainy season alone in two 
residences, thinking thus to obtain many robes. 
And the Bhikkhus thought: ' How should his portion 

1 Section 1 repeated, with the necessary change of person, &c. 

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240 MAHAVAGGA. VIII, 26, r. 

of the robes be assigned to Upananda of the Sakya 
race ?' 

They told the matter to the Blessed One. 

' Give, O Bhikkhus, to that foolish one but one 
portion 1 . In case, O Bhikkhus, a Bhikkhu spend 
the rainy season alone in two residences, thinking 
thus to obtain many robes, then, if he have spent 
exactly half the season in one place and half in 
another, a half portion of the robes due to him 
shall be given to him in one place, and a half in the 
other ; but in whichever place of the two he have 
spent a greater part of the rainy season, thence 
shall the portions of robes due to him be given.' 



26. 

1. Now at that time a certain Bhikkhu had a 
disturbance in his bowels, and he lay fallen in his 
own evacuations. And the Blessed One on going 
round the sleeping-places accompanied by the vener- 
able Ananda came to that Bhikkhu's abode, and saw 
him so. And he went up to him, and asked him, 
' What is the matter with you, O Bhikkhu ?' 

' I have a disturbance, Lord, in my bowels.' 
' Then have you, O Bhikkhu, any one to wait 
upon you ?' 
1 No, Lord.' 

' Why do not the Bhikkhus wait upon you ?' 
' Because I am of no service, Lord, to the Bhikkhus.' 

2. Then the Blessed One said to the venerable 



1 Buddhaghosa says, Ek&dhippSyan ti ekam adhippfyam. 
Eka-puggala-pa/ivisam eva deth& ti attho. 



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VIII, a6, 4. THE DRESS OF THE BHIKKHUS. 24I 

Ananda : ' Go, Ananda, and fetch some water. Let 
us bathe this Bhikkhu.' 

' Even so, Lord,' said the venerable Ananda, 
in assent to the Blessed One, and fetched the 
water. And the Blessed One poured the water 
over that Bhikkhu ; and the venerable Ananda wiped 
him down. And the Blessed One taking hold of 
him at the head, and the venerable Ananda at the 
feet, they lifted him up, and laid him down upon 
his bed. 

3. Then the Blessed One, on that occasion and 
in that connection, convened a meeting of the 
Bhikkhu-samgha, and asked the Bhikkhus, ' Is there, 
O Bhikkhus, in such and such an apartment, a 
Bhikkhu who is sick ?' 

' There is, Lord.' 

' Then what, O Bhikkhus, is the matter with that 
Bhikkhu ?' 

' He has a disturbance, Lord, in his bowels.' 

'And is there any one, O Bhikkhus, to wait upon 
him ?' 

' No, Lord.' 

' Why, then, do not the Bhikkhus Wait upon him?' 

'That Bhikkhu, Lord, is of no service to the 
Bhikkhus ; therefore do they not wait upon him.' 

' Ye, O Bhikkhus, have no mothers and no fathers 
who might wait upon you ! If ye, O Bhikkhus, wait 
not one upon the other, who is there indeed who 
will wait upon you ? Whosoever, O Bhikkhus, would 
wait upon me, he should wait upon the sick. 

4. ' If he have an upa^Aaya, his upa^f^aya 
should wait upon him as long as his life lasts, and wait 
until he has recovered ; and so if he have an a£a- 
riya, a saddhi-viharika, an antevasika, a fellow 

[17] * 



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242 mahAvagga. VIII, 26, 5. 

saddhi-viharika, or a fellow antevasika 1 . And 
if he have neither of all these, then should the 
Sawgha wait upon him ; and whosoever does not do 
so, shall be guilty of a dukka/a. 

5. ' There are five qualities, O Bhikkhus, which, 
when a sick man has, he is difficult to wait upon — 
when he does not do what is good for him ; when 
he does not know the limit (of the quantity of food) 
that is good for him 2 ; when he does not take his 
medicine ; when he does not let a nurse who desires 
his good know what manner of disease he has, or 
when it is getting worse that that is so, or when it 
is getting better that that is so, or when it is sta- 
tionary that that is so; and when he has become 
unable to bear bodily pains that are severe, sharp, 
grievous, disagreeable, unpleasant, and destructive 
to life 3 . These are the five qualities, O Bhikkhus, 
which, when a sick man has, he is difficult to wait 
upon. 

6. 'There are five qualities, O Bhikkhus, which, 
when a sick man has, he is easy to wait upon — 
when he does' (&c, the contrary of the last section). 

7. ' There are five qualities, O Bhikkhus, which, 
when one who waits upon the sick has, he is incom- 
petent to the task — when he is not capable of pre- 
scribing medicines ; when he does not know what 
(diet) is good and what is not good for the patient, 
serving what is not good, and not serving what is 
good for him ; when he waits upon the sick out of 

1 On all except the last two this duty has already been enjoined 
above in the passages on the mutual duties of masters and pupils 
(Mahavagga I, 24, 25 ; I, 26, 1 1 ; I, 32, 3 ; I, 33, 1). 

* Compare Gataka II, 293, 294. 

s This last clause occurs also above, at I, 49, 6. 



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VIII, 27, 3. THE DRESS OF THE BHIKKHUS. 243 

greed, and not out of love ; when he revolts from 
removing evacuations, saliva or vomit ; when he is 
not capable from time to time of teaching, inciting, 
arousing, and gladdening the patient with religious 
discourse. These are the five qualities, O Bhikkhus, 
which, when one who waits upon the sick has, he is 
incompetent to the task. 

8. ' There are five qualities, O Bhikkhus, which, 
when one who waits upon the sick has, he is com- 
petent to the task — when he is capable' (&c, the 
contrary of the last section). 



27. 

1. Now at that time two Bhikkhus were journey- 
ing along a high road in the country of Kosala. 
And they came to a certain residence, and there 
one of the two fell ill. Then the Bhikkhus 
there thought : ' Waiting upon the sick has been 
highly spoken of by the Blessed One. Let us then, 
friends, now wait upon this Bhikkhu.' And they 
waited upon him, and while he was being nursed by 
them, he completed his time 1 . Then those Bhik- 
khus took that Bhikkhu's bowl and his robes, and 
went to Savatthi, and told the matter to the 
Blessed One. 

2. • On the death of a Bhikkhu, O Bhikkhus, the 
Samgha. becomes the owner of his bowl and of his 
robes. But, now, those who wait upon the sick are 
of much service. I prescribe, O Bhikkhus, that the 
bowl and the set of robes are to be assigned by the 

1 That is, he died 
R 2 

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244 MAHAVAGGA. VIII, 27, 3. 

Sawgha to them who have waited upon the sick. 
And thus, O Bhikkhus, are they to be assigned. 
The Bhikkhu who has waited upon the sick ought 
to go before the Sawgha, and to say thus : " Such 
and such a Bhikkhu, Sirs, has completed his time. 
These are his set of robes and his bowl." Then a dis- 
creet and able Bhikkhu ought to lay the proposition 
before the Sawgha, saying, " Let the Sawgha hear 
me. Such and such a Bhikkhu has completed his 
time. These are his set of robes and his bowl. If 
it is convenient to the Sawgha, let the Sawgha 
assign this set of robes and this bowl to those who 
have waited upon the sick." This is the »atti.' 
[Here follow the usual formal words of a kamma- 
vaia 1 .] 

3. Now at that time a certain Samawera had 
completed his time. 

They told this matter to the Blessed One. 
[The decision and the kammava^a are the same 
as in § 2.] 

4. Now at that time a certain Bhikkhu and a 
Sama«era waited upon a sick Bhikkhu ; and while 
he was being waited upon by them he completed 
his time. And the Bhikkhu who had waited upon 
the sick thought : ' How now ought the due portion 
of robes be given to the Sama«era who waited 
upon the sick ?' 

They told this matter to the Blessed One. 

' I prescribe, O Bhikkhus, that you are to give an 
equal portion toaSamawera who waits upon the 
sick.' 

5. Now at that time a certain Bhikkhu who was 

1 There is only one, not three Kammav&Hs, given in the text. 



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VIII, 28, 1. THE DRESS OF THE BHIKKHUS. 245 

possessed of much property, and of a plentiful supply 
of a Bhikkhu's requisites, completed his time. 

They told this matter to the Blessed One. 

' On the death of a Bhikkhu, O Bhikkhus, the 
Sawgha becomes the owner of his bowl and of his 
robes. But, now, those who wait upon the sick are 
of much service. I prescribe, O Bhikkhus, that the 
set of robes and the bowl are to be assigned by the 
Sawgha to them who have waited upon the sick. 
And whatever little property and small supply of 
a Bhikkhu's requisites there may be, that is to be 
divided by the Sawgha that are present there ; but 
whatever large quantity of property and large supply 
of a Bhikkhu's requisites there may be, that is not to 
be given away 1 and not to be apportioned 2 , but to 
belong to the Sa*»gha of the four directions 3 , those 
who have come in, and those who have not*.' 



28. 

1. Now at that time a certain Bhikkhu came 
naked up to the place where the Blessed One was, 
and said : 

'The Blessed One, Lord, has praised in many 
ways the moderate man and the contented who has 
eradicated (evil), who has shaken off his passions, 
who is gracious, reverent, energetic 5 . Now this 

1 See JTullavaggaVI, 15, 2. * See Afullavagga VI, 16, 2. 

* That is, 'of all the world.* 

« This description of the totality of the Sawgha is constantly 
found in dedicatory inscriptions. See Rh. D.'s paper in the Indian 
Antiquary, May, 1872. 

6 So, for example, in JTuIlavagga 1, 1, 3. 



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246 MAHAVAGGA. VIII, 38, 2. 

nakedness, Lord, is in many ways effectual to 
moderation and content, to the eradication of evil, 
to the suppressions of the passions, to graciousness, 
reverence, and zeal. It were well, Lord, if the 
Blessed One would enjoin nakedness upon the 
Bhikkhus.' 

The Blessed Buddha rebuked him, saying, ' This 
would be improper, O foolish one, crooked, unsuit- 
able, unworthy of a Sama»a, unbecoming, and it 
ought not to be done. How can you, O foolish 
one, adopt nakedness as the Titthiyasdo? This 
will not conduce, O foolish one, to the conversion of 
the unconverted.' 

And when he had rebuked him, and had deli- 
vered a religious discourse, he addressed the Bhik- 
khus, and said : 

' You are not, O Bhikkhus, to adopt nakedness, 
as the Titthiyas do 1 . Whosoever does so, shall 
be guilty of a grave offence (Thulla^aya).' 

2. [The whole section repeated respectively in 
the case of a Bhikkhu clad in a garment of grass, 
clad in a garment of bark 2 , clad in a garment of 
phalaka cloth 3 , clad in a garment of hair*, clad in 
the skin of a wild animal, clad in the feathers of 

1 Compare above, VIII, 15, 7 and 11. 

* This is several times referred to in the Gatakas ; for instance, 
pp. 6, 9, 1 a. 

" Perhaps made of leaves. Compare BShtlingk-Roth's, No. 5, 
sub voce; and <7ataka I, 304 (phalakattharasayana). Perhaps 
also Gataka I, 356/making a man his phalaka,' may be a figure 
of speech founded on this use of the word, and mean ' making him 
his covering.' 

4 Like the well-known Titthiya A^ita, one of the six great 
heretics (Samanna-phala Sutta, ed. Grimblot, p. 11 4,= Book of the 
Great Decease, V, 60). 



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VIII, 20, I. THE DRESS OF THE BHIKKHUS. 247 

an owl, clad in antelope skins (with the hoofs left 
on) 1 . But instead of ' adopt nakedness as the 
Titthiyas do ' substitute respectively ' wear a gar- 
ment of grass, &c, which is the symbol 2 the Titthi- 
yas use.'] 

. 3. Now at that time a certain Bhikkhu came up 
to the place where the Blessed One was, clad in 
cloth made of the stalks of the akka plant 8 . 

[All as before in § i, down to :] 

And when he had rebuked him, and had delivered 
a religious discourse, he addressed the Bhikkhus, 
and said : 

' You are not, O Bhikkhus, to dress yourselves in 
the stalks of the akka plant. Whosoever does so, 
shall be guilty of a dukka^a.' 

fj 3 is then repeated of a Bhikkhu clad in cloth 
made of the maka^i fibre *.] 



29. 

1. Now at that time the .Oabbaggiya Bhikkhus 
wore robes that were all of a blue, light yellow, 
crimson, brown, black, brownish yellow, or dark 



1 Buddhaghosa, at Suttavibhahga, Pari^ika 1, 10, 3, where this 
word occurs, says on it, A^inakkhikan (sic) ti salomam sakhuraw 
a£ina-miga-£amma»i. Compare also above, Mahavagga V, 2, 4. 

8 Titthiya-dha^a. Compare Gataka I, 65, and Aullavagga 
I, 27. 

9 Akkana/an ti akkani/amayaw (B.). Compare BShtlingk- 
Roth, under arka. 

4 Potthako ti maka&mayo vui£ati (B.). So also Childers, sub 
voce. 



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248 mahAvagga. vin, 30, 1. 

yellow colour ' ; they wore robes with skirts to them 
which were not made of torn pieces of cloth, or 
were long, or had flowers on them, or cobras' hoods 
on them; they wore jackets, and dresses of the 
Tirl/aka plant 2 , and turbans. 

The people were indignant, murmured, and 
became annoyed, saying, 'This is like those still 
living in the enjoyments of the world.' 

They told the matter to the Blessed One. 

' Robes that are all of a blue colour [&c. ; all the 
things mentioned in the first paragraph being here 
repeated] are not to be worn. Whosoever wears 
them shall be guilty of a dukka/a 8 .' 



30. 

1. Now at that time Bhikkhus, after having 
spent the rainy season, but before a gift of robes 
had fallen to the Sawgha, went away (from the 
place); left the Order ; died ; admitted that they were 
Sama»eras; or that they had abandoned the pre- 
cepts ; or that they had become guilty of an extreme 



1 See Buddhaghosa's explanations of all these colours in the 
note on V, 2, 1. 

* Buddhaghosa says on this word, Tirftan (sic) ti pana ruk- 
kha£4allimaya», tarn p&da-punManaw kitum va/Zati. A^alli is 
'bark.' 

' Buddhaghosa says that the robes of the colours mentioned in 
this chapter may be worn if they have first been dyed, or may be 
used as coverlets, or may be cut up and used as parts of robes. So 
the robes with skirts to them may be worn if the forbidden skirts 
have first been torn or cut off. 



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VIII, 30, a. THE DRESS OF THE BHIKKHUS. 249 

offence ; or that they were mad ; or that their minds 
were unhinged; or that they suffered bodily pain; 
or that suspension had been pronounced against them 
for their refusal to acknowledge an offence they had 
committed, or to atone for such an offence, or to 
renounce a false doctrine; or that they were 
eunuchs ; or that they had furtively attached them- 
selves (to the Sawgha) ; or that they had gone over 
to the Titthiyas; or that they were an animal; or 
that they had been guilty of matricide, or of 
parricide; or that they had murdered an Arahat; 
or that they had violated a Bhikkhunl ; or that they 
had caused a schism in the Sawgha; or that they 
had shed (a Buddha's) blood; or that they were 
hermaphrodites K 

They told this matter to the Blessed One. 

2. ' In case, O Bhikkhus, a Bhikkhu, after having 
spent the rainy season, goes away before a gift of 
robes has fallen to the Sa*»gha — then they are 
nevertheless to be allotted to him if there be any 
person present proper to receive them on his be- 
half. 

* Moreover in case, O Bhikkhus, a Bhikkhu, after 
having spent the rainy season, and before a gift of 
robes has fallen to the Sa/wgha, leaves the Order, 
or dies, or acknowledges that he has become a 
Sama#era, or that he has abandoned the precepts, 
or lastly that he has become guilty of an extreme 
offence, — then the Sawgha becomes the owner 
(of the portion of robes that would have fallen 
to him). 

1 The above list of disqualifications has already occurred at 
11,36; IV, 14. 



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250 mahAvagga. vni, 30,3. 

' Moreover in case, O Bhikkhus, a Bhikkhu, after 
having spent the rainy season, and before a gift 
of robes has fallen to the Sawgha, acknowledges 
that he has become mad, or unhinged in his mind, 
or in bodily pain, or that he has been suspended 
for refusal to acknowledge an offence he had 
committed, or to atone for such an offence, or to 
renounce a false doctrine — then (his portion of 
robes- is nevertheless) to be allotted to him if there 
be any person present proper to receive them on 
his behalf. 

' Moreover in case, O Bhikkhus, a Bhikkhu, after 
having spent the rainy season, and before a gift 
of robes has fallen to the Sawgha, acknowledges 
that he is a eunuch, or that he had furtively attached 
himself to the Sawgha, or that he had gone over 
to the Titthiyas, or that he is an animal, or that 
he had been guilty of matricide, or of parricide, 
or that he had murdered an Arahat, or that he 
had violated a Bhikkhunl, or that he had raised 
a schism in the Sawgha, or that he had shed a 
Buddha's blood, or that he is a hermaphrodite — 
then the Sazwgha becomes the owner (of the portion 
of robes that would have fallen to him). 

3. ' [The same rules as in § 2, if he had gone 
away, &c, after the gift of robes had been made 
to the Sawzgha, but before the robes had been 
divided among the individual members of the Saw- 
gha belonging to the place where he had spent the 
rainy season.] 

4. 'Moreover in case, O Bhikkhus, after the 
Bhikkhus have spent the rainy season, divisions arise 
among the Sa*»gha before any robes have fallen 
to them, and the people there give the water (of 



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Vni, 31, I. THE DRESS OF THE BHIKKHUS. 25 1 

presentation 1 ) to one party, and the robes to the 
other party, thinking, " We are giving to the 
Sawgha" — then those (robes are the property) of 
the (whole) Sawgha. 

' The people there give the water of presentation 
to one party, and the robes to the same party, 
thinking, "We are giving to the Sawzgha" — then 
those robes are the property of the whole Sawgha. 

5. ' [In the same two cases, if the people intend 
to give to the one party only, the robes are to be 
the property of that party.] 

6. ' Moreover in case, O Bhikkhus, after the Bhik- 
khus have spent the rainy season, divisions arise 
among the Sa/wgha after the gift of robes has been 
made to the Sawgha, but before the division (of 
the robes to" the individual members) has taken 
place — then at the division an equal share is to be 
given to all.' 



31. 

1. Now at that time the venerable Revata sent 
a robe to the venerable Sariputta in charge of a 
certain Bhikkhu, saying, 'Give this robe to the 
Thera.' But that Bhikkhu, whilst on the way, took 
the robe himself in trust on the venerable Revata 2 . 

Now the venerable Revata, on meeting with the 

* 

1 There is no doubt that this is the meaning here of udaka. 
Compare above, Mah&vagga I, 22, 18, and G&taka I, 93 ; III, 286 ; 
Dtpavamsa XIII, 29. 

1 That is, in trust that the venerable Revata, if he knew that the 
Bhikkhu wanted it, would have given it to him. See above, Maht- 
vagga VIII, 19. 



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252 MAHAVAGGA. VIII, 31,2. 

venerable Siriputta, asked him, saying, ' I sent to 
the venerable Thera a robe. Did that robe come 
into his hands?' 

' I know nothing, friend, about that robe.' 

Then the venerable Revata said to that Bhik- 
khu : ' I sent a robe, my friend, in your charge to 
the Thera. Where is that robe ? ' 

' I took the robe myself, Lord, * in trust upon 
you.' 

They told the matter to the Blessed One. 

2. ' In case, O Bhikkhus, a Bhikkhu send a robe 
in charge of a Bhikkhu, saying, " Give this robe 
to such and such a Bhikkhu;" and he, whilst 
on the way, takes it himself in trust on the one 
who sends it — then it is rightly taken. But if he 
takes it himself in trust on the one to whom it 
was sent, it is wrongly taken. 

'[The same repeated, the latter case being put 
first, and the former case last.] 

' Moreover in case, O Bhikkhus, a Bhikkhu send 
a robe in charge of a Bhikkhu, saying, " Give this 
robe to such and such a Bhikkhu ;" and he, whilst on 
the way, hears that that Bhikkhu who sent it is 
dead ; — then if he keeps the robe himself 1 as the 
robe of a deceased Bhikkhu, it is rightly kept ; if 
he takes it himself in trust on the one to whom it 
was sent, it is wrongly taken. 

' [In the same case], if he, whilst on the way, hears 
that that Bhikkhu to whom it was sent is dead — 
then if he keeps the robe himself as the robe of 
a deceased Bhikkhu, it is wrongly kept ; if he takes 



1 On this meaning of adhiti/Mati, see our note above, VIII, 
20, 2 ; VIII, 24, 2. 



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VTII, 32, 1. THE DRESS OF THE BHIKKHUS. 253 

it himself in trust on the one who sent it, it is 
rightly taken. 

' [In the same case, if he hears, whilst on the way, 
that both are dead — then if he keeps it himself as 
the robe of a deceased Bhikkhu, to wit, the one who 
sent it, it is rightly kept ; if he keeps it himself as 
the property of a deceased Bhikkhu, to wit, the one 
to whom it was sent, it is wrongly kept] 

3. 'Moreover in case, O Bhikkhus, a Bhikkhu 
send a robe in charge of a Bhikkhu, saying, " I give 
the robe to such and such a Bhikkhu " — then [in all 
the cases given in § 2 the decision is reversed] V 



32. 

1. There are, O Bhikkhus, these eight grounds 2 
for the getting of a gift of robes — when he gives 
it to the boundary, when he gives it to (a Sa»*gha 
which is) under agreement (with other Sawghas), 
when he gives it on a declaration of alms, when 
he gives it to the Sawgha, when he gives it. to 
both the Sawghas, when he gives it to the Sawgha 
which has spent the rainy season (at the place), 
when he gives it to a specified number 8 , when he 
gives it to a single Bhikkhu. 

1 The reason of all this is, that if the sender (A) says to the mes- 
senger (B), ' Give this robe to the sendee (C),' the property in the 
robe does not pass; if A says to B/I give this robe to C,' it does 



* MdtikS; used in the same sense here as at VII, 1, 7. 

* That is, of monks and nuns — the Bhikkhu-samgha and the 
Bhikkhuni-samgha. 



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254 MAHAVAGGA. VIII, 32, 1. 

'When he gives it to the boundary, it is to be 
divided among all those Bhikkhus who have come 
within the boundary 1 . 

'When he gives it to a Sawgha which is under 
agreement, there are a number of residences which 
hold in common whatever they get, and what is 
given in one residence is given in all. 

'When he gives it on a declaration of alms 
(means when the givers say), " We give it at the 
place where constant supply of alms is kept up for 
the Sawgha 2 ." 

' ' When he gives it to the Sawgha, it is to be 
divided among the Sawgha there present. 

' When he gives it to both the Sawzghas, though 
there be many Bhikkhus and only one BhikkhunI, 
an equal half is to be given (to each of the two 
Sawghas), and though there be many Bhikkhunls 
and only one Bhikkhu, an equal half is to be given 
(to each of the two Sa*»ghas). 

' When he gives it to the Sawgha which has spent 
the rainy season, it is to be divided among as many 
Bhikkhus as have spent the rainy season at that 
particular residence. 

'When he gives it to a specified number, it is 
the number present at the giving of congey, or 



1 See chapters II, 6 and following. 

9 Buddhaghosa says, Bhikkha-pannattiya, ti attano parUiaga- 
pannapana-//Aane. Ten' ev' aha yattha samghassa dhuvakara 
kariyantf ti. Tass' attho, yasmim viharc imassa /Mvara-dayakassa 
santakaw samghassa pakava/Zaw va va/Zati, yasmim va vihare bhik- 
khu attano bharaw katva sada gehe bho^esi. Yattha varena avaso 
va karito, saldkabhattadini va nibaddhani, yena pana sakalo pi 
viharo pati//Mpito, tattha vattabbaw eva n' atthi ime dhuvakara 
nama. 



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VIII, 32. i. THE DRESS OF THE BHIKKHUS. 255 

rice, or hard food, or robes, or bedding, or medi- 
cine 1 . 

' When he gives it to a single Bhikkhu, he says, 
" I give a set of robes to such and such a one." ' 



Here ends the eighth Khandhaka, the ATivara- 
khandhaka. 



1 That is, he invites a number of Bhikkhus to partake of y£gu, 
and when the ySgu is served he says, 'I give robes to those who 
have partaken of the yigu,' and so on in all the other cases except 
that of robes. In that case he says, ' I give robes to those who 
have previously received robes from me' (B.). 



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256 mahAvagga. IX, I, I. 



NINTH KHANDHAKA. 

(validity and invalidity of formal acts 

OF THE SAAfGHA.) 



i. At that time the blessed Buddha dwelt at 
ATampa, on the brink of the lotus-pond Gaggara. 
At that time there was in the country of Kasi (a 
village) called Vasabha-gima. There a Bhikkhu 
called Kassapa-gotta had his residence, who was 
bound (to that place) by the string (of the religious 
duties which he had to perform there 1 ), and who 
exerted himself to the end that clever Bhikkhus 
from a distance might come to that place, and the 
clever Bhikkhus therein might live at ease, and that 
(religious life at) that residence might progress, 
advance, and reach a high state. 

Now at that time a number of Bhikkhus, making 
their pilgrimage in the country of Kasi, came to 
Vasabha-gama. And the Bhikkhu Kassapa-gotta 
saw those Bhikkhus coming from afar ; when he saw 
them, he prepared seats for them, brought water for 
the washing of their feet, a foot-stool, and a towel 2 . 
Then he went forth to meet them, took their bowls 
and their robes, offered them (water) to drink, and 
provided a bath for them, and provided also rice- 
milk and food hard and soft. 

1 Tanti-baddha. Buddhaghosa says, Tanti-baddho 'ti tasmim 
av&se kitabbati-tanti-pa/ibaddho. 
* See our note at I, 6, 1 1. 



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IX, 1,3. FORMAL ACTS OF THE SAAfGHA. 257 

Now those stranger Bhikkhus thought : ' The 
resident Bhikkhu here, O friends, is indeed good- 
natured; he provides a bath for us and provides 
also rice-milk, and food, hard and soft. What if we 
were to stay here, friends, at Vasabha-gama.' Thus 
those stranger Bhikkhus stayed there at Vasabha- 
gama. 

2. Now the Bhikkhu Kassapa-gotta thought : 
' These stranger Bhikkhus are rested now from their 
travel-weariness ; they did not know their way here 
before, but now they know their way. It is trouble- 
some indeed to be busy all one's life for people not 
related to one's self, and being asked 1 is disagree- 
able to men. What if I were to provide no longer 
rice-milk, and food, hard and soft (for those Bhik- 
khus).' Thus he did not provide any more (for 
them) rice-milk, and food, hard and soft 

Then those stranger Bhikkhus thought : ' Formerly, 
friends, this resident Bhikkhu used to provide baths 
for us, and to provide also rice-milk, and food, hard 
and soft. But now he does not provide any more 
rice-milk, and food, hard and soft. This resident 
Bhikkhu, friends, is in anger with us now. Well, 
friends, let us pronounce expulsion against this 
resident Bhikkhu.' 

3. Then those stranger Bhikkhus assembled and 
said to the Bhikkhu Kassapa-gotta : ' Formerly, 
friend, you used to provide baths for us and to 
provide also rice-milk, and food, hard and soft. 
But now you do not provide any more rice-milk, 
and food, hard and soft. You have committed an 
offence, friend ; do you see that offence ? ' 

1 As he was obliged to ask the people of Vasabha-gama for 
what the stranger Bhikkhus wanted. 

[17] s 



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258 mahAvagga. IX, i, 4. 

' There is no offence, friends, for me to see.' 
Then those stranger Bhikkhus pronounced ex- 
pulsion against the Bhikkhu Kassapa-gotta for his 
refusal to see that (pretended) offence. Then the 
Bhikkhu Kassapa-gotta thought : ' I do not know 
indeed whether this is an offence or not, and 
whether I have made myself guilty of an offence 
or not, and whether I have been expelled or not, 
and whether that sentence is lawful or unlawful, 
objectionable or unobjectionable, valid or invalid. 
What if I were to go to Aampa and to ask the 
Blessed One about this matter ?' 

4. And the Bhikkhu Kassapa-gotta put his 
resting-place in order, took up his alms-bowl and 
his robe, and went forth to Aampa; and in due 
course he came to -ATampa and to the place where 
the Blessed One was. Having approached him 
and respectfully saluted the Blessed One, he sat 
down near him. 

Now it is the custom of the blessed Buddhas 
to exchange greeting with incoming Bhikkhus. 
And the Blessed One said to the Bhikkhu Kas- 
sapa-gotta : ' Is it all well with you, O Bhikkhu ? 
Do you find your living ? Have you made your 
journey without too much fatigue ? And from 
what place do you come, O Bhikkhu?' 

' It is all well, Lord ; I find my living, Lord ; 
I have made the journey, Lord, without too much 
fatigue. 

5. 'There is in the country of Kasi, Lord, (a 
village) called Vasabha-gama. There I had my 
residence, Lord, (&C 1 , down to :) Then those 

1 See §§ 1-3. Instead of ' the Bhikkhu Kassapa-gotta' the 



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IX, I, 7. FORMAL ACTS OF THE SAJVGHA. 259 

stranger Bhikkhus, Lord, pronounced against me 
expulsion for my refusal to see that offence. Then 
I thought, Lord : " I do not know indeed whether 
this is an offence or not, and whether I have 
made myself guilty of an offence or not, and 
whether I have been expelled or not, and whether 
that sentence is lawful or unlawful, objectionable 
or unobjectionable, valid or invalid. What if I 
were to go to Aampa and to ask the Blessed One 
about this matter." Thus I have come here, Lord.' 

6. (Buddha replied) : ' This is no offence, O Bhik- 
khu; it is not an offence. You are innocent; you 
are not guilty of an offence. You are not expelled, 
and have not been expelled ; the sentence by which 
you have been expelled is unlawful, objectionable, 
and invalid. Go, O Bhikkhu, and settle yourself 
again at Vasabha-gama.' 

The Bhikkhu Kassapa-gotta expressed his assent 
to the Blessed One (by saying), 'Yes, Lord,' rose 
from his seat, and having respectfully saluted the 
Blessed One and walked round him with his right 
side towards him, he went on his way to Vasabha- 
gama. 

7. Now those stranger Bhikkhus (at Vasabha- 
gama) were overcome by scruples and remorse : 
' It is all loss to us indeed, it is no gain to us ; 
we will fare ill indeed, we will not fare well, in 
this that we have expelled that pure, guiltless 
Bhikkhu without any cause and reason. Well, 
friends, let us go to Aampa and let us confess 
there in the Blessed One's presence our sin in its 
sinfulness.' 

pronoun of the first person is to be read; and the appellation 
' Lord,' addressed to Buddha, is inserted several times. 

S 2 



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260 MAHAVAGGA. IX, 1, 8. 

And those stranger Bhikkhus put their resting- 
places in order, took up their alms-bowls and their 
robes, and went forth to Aampa, and in due course 
they came to ATampa and to the place where the 
Blessed One was. Having approached him and 
respectfully saluted the Blessed One, they sat down 
near him. Now it is the custom of the blessed 
Buddhas (&C. 1 , down to :) ' It is all well, Lord ; 
we find our living, Lord ; we have made the journey, 
Lord, without too much fatigue. There is in the 
country of Kasi, Lord, (a village) called Vasabha- 
gama ; from that place we come, Lord.' 

8. ' So are you, O Bhikkhus, those who have 
expelled the resident Bhikkhu there?' 

' We are, Lord.' 

' For what cause, O Bhikkhus, and for what 
reason ? ' 

' Without any cause and reason, Lord.' 

Then the Blessed One rebuked those Bhikkhus : 
' That is improper, O Bhikkhus, it is unbecoming, 
indecent, unworthy of Samawas, unallowable, and to 
be avoided. How can you, O fools, expel a pure 
and guiltless Bhikkhu, without any cause and reason ? 
This will not do, O Bhikkhus, for converting the 
unconverted.' Having thus rebuked them and deli- 
vered a religious discourse, he thus addressed the 
Bhikkhus : ' Let no one, O Bhikkhus, expel a pure 
and guiltless Bhikkhu without cause and reason. 
He who does, commits a dukka/a offence.' 

9. Then those Bhikkhus rose from their seats, 
adjusted their upper robes so as to cover one 



1 See § 4. The alterations to be made (' those Bhikkhus' instead 
of ' the Bhikkhu Kassapa-gotta,' &c.) are obvious. 



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IX, 2, I. FORMAL ACTS OF THE SAJIfGHA. 26 1 

shoulder, prostrated themselves, inclining their heads 
to the feet of the Blessed One, and said to the 
Blessed One : ' Transgression, O Lord, has over- 
come us like the foolish, like the erring, like the 
unhappy, in this that we have expelled a pure, 
guiltless Bhikkhu without any cause and reason. 
May, O Lord, the Blessed One accept (the confes- 
sion of) our sin in its sinfulness, and we will refrain 
from it in future.' 

' Truly, O Bhikkhus, transgression has overcome 
you like the foolish, like the erring, like the unhappy, 
in that you have expelled a pure, guiltless Bhikkhu 
without any cause and reason. But as you see, O 
Bhikkhus, your sin in its sinfulness, and duly make 
amends Jfor it, we accept it from you. For this, O 
Bhikkhus, is called progress in the discipline of the 
noble one, if one sees his sin in its sinfulness, and 
duly makes amends for it, and refrains from it in 
future.' 



i. At that time the Bhikkhus of Afampa performed 
official acts in the following ways : they performed 
unlawful acts before an incomplete congregation ; 
they performed unlawful acts before a complete con- 
gregation; they performed lawful acts before an 
incomplete congregation ; they performed seemingly 
lawful acts before an incomplete congregation ; they 
performed seemingly lawful acts before a complete 
congregation; a single Bhikkhu pronounced expul- 
sion against a single one; a single Bhikkhu pro- 
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262 MAHAVAGGA. IX, a, 2. 

pronounced expulsion against a number of Bhik- 
khus ; a single Bhikkhu pronounced expulsion 
against a Sa/wgha ; two Bhikkhus pronounced ex- 
pulsion against a single one .... against two .... 
against a number of Bhikkhus .... against a Saw/gha ; 
a number of Bhikkhus pronounced expulsion against 
a single one .... against two .... against another 
number .... against a Sawgha ; a Sa*»gha pronounced 
expulsion against another Sawgha 1 . 

2. Those Bhikkhus who were moderate, were 
annoyed, murmured, and became angry : ' How can 
the Bhikkhus of A'ampa perform official acts in the 
following ways : perform unlawful acts before an 
incomplete congregation (&c, down to :) how can 
a Saw/gha pronounce expulsion against another 
Sawgha ?' 

These Bhikkhus told this thing to the Blessed One. 

' Is it true, as they say, O Bhikkhus, that the 
Bhikkhus of A'ampa perform official acts in the 
following ways, &c. ?' 

' It is true, Lord.' 

Then the blessed Buddha rebuked those Bhik- 
khus : 'It is improper, O Bhikkhus, what these 
foolish persons are doing ; it is unbecoming, indecent, 
unworthy of Samawas, unallowable, and to be avoided. 
How can these foolish persons, O Bhikkhus, perform 
official acts in the following ways, &c. This will not 
do, O Bhikkhus, for converting the unconverted.' 
Having thus rebuked them and delivered a religious 
discourse, he thus addressed the Bhikkhus : 

3. ' If an official act, O Bhikkhus, is performed 

1 The cases of a Sa/wgha's expelling a single Bhikkhu, or two 
Bhikkhus, or a number of Bhikkhus, are omitted, because such 
proceedings are lawful. 



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IX, 3,4- FORMAL ACTS OF THE SAAfGHA. 263 

unlawfully by an incomplete congregation, it is no 
real act 1 and ought not to be performed. An official 
act performed unlawfully by a complete congregation 
is no real act and ought not to be performed (&c, 
as in § 1, down to :). A seemingly lawful act per- 
formed before a complete congregation is no real act 
and ought not to be performed. In case a single 
Bhikkhu pronounces expulsion against a single one, — 
this is no real act and ought not to be performed 
(&c, down to:). In case a Sawgha pronounces 
expulsion against another Sawgha, — this is no real 
act and ought not to be performed. 

4. ' There are, O Bhikkhus, four kinds of official 
acts (which a Sawgha can perform) ; an unlawful act 
performed by an incomplete congregation, an unlaw- 
ful act performed by a complete congregation, a 
lawful act performed by an incomplete congre- 
gation, and a lawful act performed by a complete 
congregation. 

' If, O Bhikkhus, an act is unlawful and performed 
by an incomplete congregation — such an act, O 
Bhikkhus, is objectionable and invalid on account of 
its unlawfulness and of the incompleteness (of the 
congregation). Such an act, O Bhikkhus, ought not 
to be performed, nor is such an act allowed by me. 

' If, O Bhikkhus, an act is unlawful and performed 
by a complete congregation — such an act, O Bhik- 
khus, is objectionable and invalid on account of its 
unlawfulness. Such an act, &c. 

' If, O Bhikkhus, an act is lawful and performed 
by an incomplete congregation — such an act, O 
Bhikkhus, is objectionable and invalid on account of 

1 I. e. it is null and void. 



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264 mahavagga. IX, 3, 1. 

the incompleteness (of the congregation). Such an 
act, &c. 

* If, O Bhikkhus, an act is lawful and performed 
by a complete congregation — such an act, O Bhik- 
khus, is unobjectionable and valid on account of its 
lawfulness and of the completeness (of the congre- 
gation). Such an act, O Bhikkhus, ought to be 
performed, and such an act is allowed by me. 

' Therefore, O Bhikkhus, you ought to train your- 
selves thus : " Lawful acts which are performed by 
complete congregations — such acts will we per- 
form 1 ."' 



3. 

1. At that time the -Oabbaggiya Bhikkhus per- 
formed official acts in the following ways : they 
performed unlawful acts before an incomplete con- 
gregation (&c, as in chap. 2, § 1, down to:) they 
performed seemingly lawful acts before a complete 
congregation; they performed acts without a »atti* 
and with the proclamation (of the kammava^a 2 ); 
they performed acts without a proclamation (of the 
kammavaia) and with the #atti; they performed 
acts without a »atti and without a proclamation (of 
the kammava^a); they performed acts contrary to 
the Dhamma ; they performed acts contrary to the 
Vinaya ; they performed acts contrary to the doctrine 
of the Teacher; and they performed acts against 
which (the Bhikkhus present) protested, which were 
unlawful, objectionable, and invalid. 

Those Bhikkhus who were moderate, were annoyed, 

1 A similar injunction is found at the close of chapter II, 14. 
* See I, 28, &c. 



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IX. 3i 3- FORMAL ACTS OF THE SAJIfGHA. 265 

&c. These Bhikkhus told this thing to the Blessed 
One. 

'Is it true, as they say, O Bhikkhus, that the 
A^abbaggiya Bhikkhus, &c. ?' 

' It is true, Lord, &c.' 

Having thus rebuked them and delivered a reli- 
gious discourse, he thus addressed the Bhikkhus : 

2. ' If an official act, O Bhikkhus, is performed 
unlawfully by an incomplete congregation, it is no 
real act and ought not to be performed (&c l , down 
to:). If an official act, O Bhikkhus, is performed 
against which (the Bhikkhus present) protest, which 
is unlawful, objectionable, and invalid, this is no real 
act and ought not to be performed. 

3. ' There are, O Bhikkhus, six kinds of official 
acts (which a Sa*»gha can perform) : an unlawful act, 
an act performed by an incomplete congregation, an 
act performed by a complete congregation, a seem- 
ingly lawful act performed by an incomplete congre- 
gation, a seemingly lawful act performed by a com- 
plete congregation, a lawful act performed by a 
complete congregation. 

'And which, O Bhikkhus, is an unlawful act? If 
one performs, O Bhikkhus, a »attidutiya act 2 with 
one »atti, and does not proclaim a kammava^a, such 
an act is unlawful. If one performs, O Bhikkhus, 
a »attidutiya act with two »attis and does not 
proclaim a kammava^a .... with one kamma- 
vaia and does not propose a »atti .... with two 

1 Here the different categories of forbidden acts are enumerated 
one after the other, as in § 1. 

* About watti, kammaviH, fiattidutiya, and natti£atuttha 
acts, see our note at I, 28, 3. ' Proposing a natti' and 'proclaim- 
ing a kammavi/ii' mean proposing a motion and putting a 
resolution to the assembled brethrea 



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266 MAHAVAGGA. IX, 3, 4. 



kammavd^s and does not propose a »atti, such 
an act is unlawful. 

4. ' If one performs, O Bhikkhus, a »atti£atuttha 
act with one watti and does not proclaim a kamma- 
vaia, such an act is unlawful. If one performs, 
O Bhikkhus, a watti^atuttha act with two (. . . . 
three, .... four) wattis and does not proclaim a 
kammavaia, such an act is unlawful. If one per- 
forms, O Bhikkhus, a »atti-6atuttha act with one 
kammava/6a (. . . . with two, .... three, .... four 
kammava-6as) and does not propose a »atti, such 
an act is unlawful. Such acts, O Bhikkhus, are 
called unlawful acts. 

5. ' And which, O Bhikkhus, is an act of an incom- 
plete congregation ? 

' If, O Bhikkhus, at a »attidutiya act not all 
Bhikkhus, as many as are entitled to vote, are 
present, if the i^anda 1 of those who have to de- 
clare their khanAz. has not been conveyed (to the 
assembly), and if the Bhikkhus present protest, such 
an act is performed by an incomplete congregation. 

' If, O Bhikkhus, at a «attidutiya act as many 
Bhikkhus as are entitled to vote, are present, but if 
the khandz. of those who have to declare their khanAz. 
has not been conveyed (to the assembly), and if the 
Bhikkhus present protest, such an act is performed 
by an incomplete congregation. 

' If, O Bhikkhus, at a wsattidutiya act as many 
Bhikkhus as are entitled to vote, are present, if the 
Manda. of those who have to declare their Manda 
has been conveyed, but if the Bhikkhus present pro- 
test, such an act is performed by an incomplete 
congregation. 

1 See II, 23. 

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IX, 3, 8. FORMAL ACTS OF THE SAfl/GHA. 267 

' If, O Bhikkhus, at a #attiiatuttha act, &C. 1 
' Such acts, O Bhikkhus, are called acts performed 
by incomplete congregations. 

6. ' And which, O Bhikkhus, is an act of a com- 
plete congregation ? 

' If, O Bhikkhus, at a wattidutiya act as many 
Bhikkhus as are entitled to vote, are present, if the 
Manda of those who have to declare their Manda. 
has been conveyed (to the assembly), and if the 
Bhikkhus present do not protest, such an act is per- 
formed by a complete congregation. 

' If, O Bhikkhus, at a «attii£atuttha act (&c, as 
in last section). 

' Such acts, O Bhikkhus, are called acts performed 
by complete congregations. 

7. ' And which, O Bhikkhus, is a seemingly lawful 
act performed by an incomplete congregation ? 

'If, O Bhikkhus, at a «attidutiya act the kam- 
mava^ais proclaimed first and the «atti is proposed 
afterwards, if not all Bhikkhus, as many as are en- 
titled to vote, are present, &c. 2 

8. ' And which, O Bhikkhus, is a seemingly lawful 
act performed by a complete congregation ? 

' If, O Bhikkhus, at a wattidutiya act the kam- 
mava^i is proclaimed first and the watti is pro- 
posed afterwards, if as many Bhikkhus as are entitled 
to vote, are present, &c. 3 

1 The identical three cases given before with regard to the 
nattidutiya act are repeated here. 

4 The six cases given in this paragraph, of which three refer to 
nattidutiya acts and three to walti^atuttha acts, differ from 
those specified in § 5 only by the statement added in each of these 
cases regarding the inverted order of natti and kammav$££. 

' This paragraph stands precisely in the same relation to § 6 
in which the preceding one stands to § 5. 



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268 mahAvagga. ix, 3, 9. 

9. ' And which, O Bhikkhus, is a lawful act per- 
formed by a complete congregation ? 

' If, O Bhikkhus, at a «attidutiya act the »atti 
is proposed first and afterwards the act is performed 
with one kammavaia, if as many Bhikkhus as are 
entitled to vote, are present, if the £^anda of those 
who have to declare their £^anda has been con- 
veyed (to the assembly), and if the Bhikkhus present 
do not protest, such an act is lawful and performed 
by a complete congregation. 

' If, O Bhikkhus, at a »atti£atuttha act the 
»atti is proposed first and afterwards the act is 
performed with three kammava^as, if as many 
Bhikkhus as are entitled to vote, &c, such an act is 
lawful and performed by a complete congregation.' 



1. 'There are five kinds of Sawghas: the 
Bhikkhu Sa/wgha consisting of four persons, the 
Bhikkhu Sa/wgha consisting of five persons .... of 
ten persons .... of twenty persons .... of more 
than twenty persons. 

' In case, O Bhikkhus, the Bhikkhu Sawgha con- 
sist of four persons, and acts lawfully, and is com- 
plete, it is entitled to perform all official acts except 
three acts, that is, the upasampada ordination, 
pavara«a, and abbhana 1 . 

' In case, O Bhikkhus, the Bhikkhu Sawgha con- 
sist of five persons, and acts lawfully, and is com- 
plete, it is entitled to perform all official acts except 

1 See JTullavagga III, 2 seq. 

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IX, 4, 3. FORMAL ACTS OF THE SAJtfGHA. 269 

two acts, that is, the upasampadi ordination in 
the central countries 1 and abbhana. 

' In case, O Bhikkhus, the Bhikkhu Sawgha con- 
sist of ten persons, and acts lawfully, and is complete, 
it is entitled to perform all official acts except one, 
namely, abbhana. 

' In case, O Bhikkhus, the Bhikkhu Sa*#gha con- 
sist of twenty persons, and acts lawfully, and is com- 
plete, it is entitled to perform all official acts. 

' In case, O Bhikkhus, the Bhikkhu Sawgha con- 
sist of more than twenty persons, and acts lawfully, 
and is complete, it is entitled to perform all official 
acts. 

2. 'An official act, O Bhikkhus, which requires 
the presence of four persons, if performed by a 
congregation in which a Bhikkhunl is the fourth, is 
no real act, and ought not to be performed. An 
official act, O Bhikkhus, which requires the pre- 
sence of four persons, if performed by a congrega- 
tion in which a sikkhamana is the fourth, .... in 

which a sama»era, &c. 2 , is the fourth in which 

a person belonging to another communion is the 
fourth, .... in which a person staying within a 
different boundary 3 is the fourth, ... .in which 
a person poised in the air by supernatural power is 



1 As regards the exceptional regulations referring to the upa- 
sampadi ordination in the bordering countries, see above, V, 

13. Ia - 

* Here follows the very frequent enumeration given, for instance, 

at II, 36, §§ 1-4. 

* Generally speaking, the two categories of ' persons belonging 
to another communion,' and 'persons staying within another 
boundary,' can be considered as coincident. In certain cases, 
however, they could be distinguished; see X, 1, §§ 9, 10. 



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27O MAHAVAGGA. IX, 4, 3. 

the fourth, .... in which a person against whom 
the Sawgha institutes a proceeding is the fourth — 
is no real act and ought not to be performed.' 



End of the regulations about acts performed by 
four persons. 



3-5. ' An official act, O Bhikkhus, which requires 
the presence of five (. . . . ten, .... twenty) persons, 
if performed by a congregation in which a Bhikkhunt, 

&c.\ is the fifth ( . . . . tenth twentieth), is no 

real act and ought not to be performed.' 

End of the regulations about acts performed by 
five, (ten, twenty) persons. 



6. 'If, O Bhikkhus, a congregation in which a 
person sentenced to the parivasa discipline 2 is the 
fourth, institutes the proceedings of pari visa, of 
mul&ya pa/ikassana, and of manatta, or if a con- 
gregation in which such a person is the twentieth, 
confers abbhana, this is no real act and ought not 
to be performed. 

' If, O Bhikkhus, a congregation in which a person 
that ought to be sentenced to mulaya pa/ikas- 
sana . . . . that ought to be sentenced to manatta 
.... that is subject to the manatta discipline .... 

1 Here the enumeration of § 2 is repeated. 

a See about parivasa, and the other Sawghakammas referred 
to in this paragraph, the details given in the second book of the 
iiTullavagga. 



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IX, 4, 8. FORMAL ACTS OF THE SAMGHA. 27 1 

on whom the abbhana sentence ought to be con- 
ferred 1 , institutes the proceedings of pari visa, of 
mulaya pa/ikassana, and of manatta, or if a 
congregation in which such a person is the twentieth, 
confers abbhana, this is no real act and ought not 
to be performed. 

7. ' Of some persons, O Bhikkhus, the protest 2 
raised in the assembly is effectual, of some persons 
it is ineffectual. 

* And which are the persons, O Bhikkhus, whose 
protest raised in the assembly is ineffectual ? 

' The protest, O Bhikkhus, raised in the assembly 
by a Bhikkhuni is ineffectual. The protest, O 
Bhikkhus, raised in the assembly by a sikkha- 
mani (&c. 8 , down to :) by a person against whom 
the Sawgha institutes a proceeding, is ineffectual. 
These are the persons, O Bhikkhus, whose protest 
raised in the assembly is ineffectual. 

8. ' And which are the persons, O Bhikkhus, 
whose protest raised in the assembly is effectual ? 

' The protest, O Bhikkhus, of a Bhikkhu who is 
healthy (in mind), who belongs to the same com- 
munion *, who stays within the same boundary 5 , even 



1 But has not yet been conferred. An abbhita Bhikkhu is 
considered as fully rehabilitated. 

* Against official acts which the Sawgha is performing. 

s This list of persons who cannot protest against official acts of 
the Samgha differs from that given in § 2 or at II, 36, §§ 1-4, only 
by three categories being here added after 'a person guilty of 
an extreme offence' (antimavatthuw a^g-Mpannaka). These cate- 
gories are the following: 'a madman,' 'a person whose mind is 
unhinged,' 'a person who suffers (bodily) pain.' See II, 22, 3, &c. 

* That is, the Sawgha which is going to perform the act in 
question. 

5 See the note at § 2. 



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272 MAHAVAGGA. IX, 4, 9. 

if he have committed a sin which brings about imme- 
diate punishment in hell, — if he give notice of his 
protest at the meeting, — is effectual. This is the 
person, O Bhikkhus, whose protest raised in the 
assembly is effectual. 

9. ' There are, O Bhikkhus, two cases of expul- 
sion 1 (pronounced against a person). If expulsion, 
O Bhikkhus, had not been pronounced (before) 
against a person, and the Sawgha pronounces ex- 
pulsion against him, there are some against whom 
such expulsion has been pronounced duly, and others 
against whom it has been pronounced unduly. 

' And which is a person, O Bhikkhus, against 
whom, if expulsion had not been pronounced before, 
and the Sazwgha pronounces expulsion against him, 
expulsion has been pronounced unduly ? In case, 
O Bhikkhus, there be a pure, guiltless Bhikkhu, — 
if the Sawgha pronounces expulsion against him, 
expulsion has been pronounced unduly. This, O 
Bhikkhus, is called a person against whom, if expul- 
sion had not been pronounced before, and the Sawgha 
pronounces expulsion against him, expulsion has been 
pronounced unduly. 

' And which is a person, O Bhikkhus, against 
whom, &c, expulsion has been pronounced duly ? 
In case, O Bhikkhus, there be an ignorant, unlearned 
Bhikkhu, a constant offender, who is unable to discern 
what is an offence 2 , who lives in lay society, unduly 



1 Compare the rules regarding the pabba^aniy akamma, vSTuIla- 
vagga I, 13 seq., and our note at I, 79, 1. 

1 Anapadana. Buddhaghosa: 'Anapadano'ti apa/ana- (read 
apadana-) virahito. apadanaw vu££ati parUWedo. apatti-parii- 
Meda-virahito 'ti attho.' Probably the word must not be derived 
from the root da, ' to give,' but from da, ' to cut.' 



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IX, 4, II. FORMAL ACTS OF THE SAJlfGHA. 273 

associating himself with lay people, — if the Sa*#gha 
pronounces expulsion against him, expulsion has 
been pronounced duly. This, O Bhikkhus, is 
called a person, &c. 

10. ' There are, O Bhikkhus, two cases of restora- 
tion (of an expelled Bhikkhu). If restoration, O 
Bhikkhus, had not been granted before to a person, 
and the Sa/»gha grants restoration to him, there are 
some to whom such restoration will have been 
granted duly, and others to whom it will have been 
unduly granted. 

' And which is a person, O Bhikkhus, to whom, 
&c, restoration has been granted unduly ? A eunuch, 
O Bhikkhus, to whom restoration had not been 
granted before, and whom the Sawgha restores, has 
been restored unduly. A person who has furtively 
attached himself (to the Sa/wgha), &C. 1 , to whom 
restoration had not been granted before, and whom 
the Sawzgha restores, has been restored unduly. 

' This, O Bhikkhus, is called a person to whom, 
&c, restoration has been granted unduly. These, 
O Bhikkhus, are called persons to whom, &c, resto- 
ration has been granted duly. 

11. 'And which is a person, O Bhikkhus, to whom, 
&c, restoration has been granted duly?' &c. 2 



End of the first Bh£#avara, called the Vasabha- 
gfima Bh&#avara. 



1 See the list of persons given at II, 36, 3. 

* The formality and the repetitions are the same here as in § 10, 
and need not be repeated. The list of persons whose restoration 
is stated to be valid is the same as at I, 71, 1. 



[17] T 

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274 MAHAVAGGA. IX, 5, 1. 



5. 

i. 'In case, O Bhikkhus, there be no offence 
which a Bhikkhu should see (or, acknowledge as 
committed by himself), and if the Sa*»gha, or a 
number of Bhikkhus, or a single person reprove 
him (and say): "You have committed an offence, 
friend; do you see that offence ?" — and he replies: 
" There is no offence, friends, which I should see," 
and the Sawgha pronounces expulsion against him 
for his refusal to see that offence, — this is an un- 
lawful act. 

* In case, O Bhikkhus, there be no offence which 
a Bhikkhu should atone for, &C 1 

' In case, O Bhikkhus, there be no false doctrine 
which a Bhikkhu should renounce, &c. 2 

2. ' In case, O Bhikkhus, there be no offence 
which a Bhikkhu should see, and there be no offence 
which he should atone for, and if the Sawgha, or 
a number of Bhikkhus, or a single person reprove 
him (and say) : " You have committed an offence, 
friend ; do you see that offence ? Atone for that 
offence," — and he replies: "There is no offence, 
friends, which I should see; there is no offence, 

1 The ukkhepaniyakamma ipattiyd appa/inissagge (expulsion 
for a Bhikkhu's refusal to atone for an offence) is spoken of here 
exactly in the same terms as those in which the ukkhepaniyakamma 
apattiyi adassane (expulsion for a Bhikkhu's refusal to see an 
offence) is spoken of in the preceding clause. The brethren say 
to the pretended offender, 'You have committed an offence, friend; 
atone for that offence' — which he refuses to do. 

1 As above; the Bhikkhus institute the ukkhepaniyakamma 
papikaya ditlhiyi appa/inissagge (expulsion for a Bhikkhu's refusal 
to renounce a false doctrine). 



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IX, 5,9* FORMAL ACTS OF THE SAATGHA. 275 

friends, which I should atone for," and the Sawgha 
pronounces expulsion against him for his refusal to 
see that offence, or for his refusal to atone for that 
offence, — this is an unlawful act. 

3-5 1 - 

6-7. ' In case, O Bhikkhus, there be an offence 
which a Bhikkhu should see, and if the Sawgha, or 
a number of Bhikkhus, or a single person reprove 
him (and say): 'You have committed an offence, 
friend ; do you see that offence ?" — and he replies : 
" Yes, friends, I see it," and the Sawgha pronounces 
expulsion against him for his (pretended] refusal to 
see that offence, — this is an unlawful act. 

* In case, O Bhikkhus, there be an offence which 
a Bhikkhu should atone for, &c. 2 

8-9. ' In case, O Bhikkhus, there be an offence 
which a Bhikkhu should see, and if the Sawgha, or 
a number of Bhikkhus, or a single person reprove 
him (and say) : " You have committed an offence, 
friend; do you see that offence ?" — and he replies : 
" There is no offence, friends, which I should see," 
and the Sawgha pronounces expulsion against him 
for his refusal to" see that offence, — this is a lawful 
act 8 .' 



1 As in § a, the first and second of the three cases given in § 1 
are combined, so follow now combinations of the first and third, 
the second and third, and of the first, second, and third cases 
respectively. 

* Here follow again the cases of the ukkhepaniyakamma Spat- 
tiyS appa/inissagge and p&pikiya di/MiyS appa/inissagge, and the 
combinations of the three cases as above. 

8 Here follow the two other cases, together with the combinations 
of the three, exactly as above. 

T 2 

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276 mahAvagga. IX, 6, 1. 



6. 

1. And the venerable Upali 1 went to the place 
where the Blessed One was. Having approached 
him and respectfully saluted the Blessed One, he sat 
down near him. Sitting near him the venerable 
Upali said to the Blessed One : ' Lord, if a complete 
congregation performs an act at which the presence 
(of the accused Bhikkhu) is required, in his absence — 
is this act, Lord, performed lawfully according to 
Dhamma and Vinaya ? ' 

' It is performed, Upali, unlawfully against 
Dhamma and Vinaya.' 

2. ' Lord, if a complete congregation performs an 
act at which (the accused Bhikkhu) ought to be 
called upon for an answer, without calling upon him 
for an answer — if it performs an act at which the 
confession (of the culprit) is required, without his 
confession — if it grants to a Bhikkhu to whom sat i- 
vinaya 2 ought to be granted, an amu/^avinaya 3 — 
if it proceeds against a Bhikkhu to whom amftMa- 
vinaya ought to be granted, with the tassapapiyya- 
sikakamma 4 — if it proceeds against a Bhikkhu 
against whom the tassapapiyyasikakamma ought 

1 That the redactors of this Pi/aka have chosen Upali here and 
at X, 6, JTullavagga II, 2, 7, to question the Blessed One about the 
Vinaya regulations, stands evidently in connection with the tradition 
ascribing to Upali an especial authority regarding the rules of the 
Order and styling him, as is said in the Dipavamsa (IV, 3, 5 ; V, 
1> 9)> agganikkhittaka, i.e. original depositary, of the Vinaya 
tradition. See our Introduction, p. xii seq. 

2 See JSTullavagga IV, 4, 10. * See iSTullavagga IV, 5. 
* See ATullavagga IV, 1 1. 



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IX, 6, 3- FORMAL ACTS OF THE SAAfGHA. 277 

to be instituted, with the ta^aniyakamma 1 — if it 
proceeds against a Bhikkhu against whom the ta^f a- 
niyakamma ought to be instituted, with the nissa- 
yakamma — if it proceeds against a Bhikkhu against 
whom the nissayakamma ought to be instituted, 
with the pabba^aniyakamma — if it proceeds 
against a Bhikkhu against whom the pabba^aniya- 
kamma ought to be instituted, with the pa/isa- 
ra#iyakamma — if it proceeds against a Bhikkhu 
against whom the pa/isara#iyakamma ought to 
be instituted, with the ukkhepaniyakamma — if it 
sentences a Bhikkhu against whom the ukkhepa- 
niyakamma ought to be instituted, toparivasa 2 — 
if it sentences a Bhikkhu who ought to be sentenced 
to parivasa, to mulaya pa/ikassana — if it sen- 
tences a Bhikkhu who ought to be sentenced to 
mulaya pa/ikassana, to manatta — if it "grants to 
a Bhikkhu who ought to be sentenced to manatta, 
the decree of abbhana — if it confers on a Bhikkhu 
to whom abbhana ought to be granted, the upa- 
sampada ordination, — is this act, Lord, performed 
lawfully according to Dhamma and Vinaya ?' 

3. ' It is performed, Upali, unlawfully against 
Dhamma and Vinaya. If a complete congregation, 
Upali, performs an act at which the presence (of the 
accused Bhikkhu) is required, in his absence (&c, 
down to:) confers on a Bhikkhu to whom abbhana 
ought to be granted, the upasampada ordina- 
tion, — in such case, Upali, this act is performed 
unlawfully against Dhamma and Vinaya, and in 
such case this Sawgha trespasses against the law.' 

1 This Sawghakamma and the following ones are explained in 
JTullavagga 1, 1 seq. 
* For this term and the next ones, see JTullavagga III, 1-7. 



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278 mahAvagga. IX, 6, 4. 

4. ' Lord, if a complete congregation performs an 
act at which the presence (of the accused Bhikkhu) 
is required, in his presence (&c, down to:) confers 
on a person, on whom the upasampada ordination 
ought to be conferred, the upasampada ordina- 
tion, — is this act, Lord, performed lawfully according 
to Dhamma and Vinaya ? ' 

'It is performed, Upali, lawfully according to 
Dhamma and Vinaya. If a complete congregation 
performs an act (&c, down to:) the upasampada 
ordination, — in such case, Upali, this act is performed 
lawfully according to Dhamma and Vinaya, and in 
such case this Sawgha does not trespass against 
the law.' 

5. ' Lord, if a complete congregation grants to a 
Bhikkhu to whom sativinaya ought to be granted, 
an amuMavinaya, and to a Bhikkhu to whom 
amuMavinaya ought to be granted, a sativi- 
naya (&C. 1 , down to :) confers on a Bhikkhu to whom 
abbhana ought to be granted, the upasampada 
ordination, and grants to a person on whom the 
upasampada ordination ought to be conferred, the 
decree of abbhana, — is this act, Lord, performed 
lawfully according to Dhamma and Vinaya ? ' 

6. 'It is performed, Upali, unlawfully against 
Dhamma and Vinaya. If a complete congregation 
grants to a Bhikkhu, &c, — in such case, Upali, this 
act is performed unlawfully against Dhamma and 



1 The Samghakammas enumerated in § 2, beginning with sati- 
vinaya, are arranged here in pairs, in direct and reverse order, in 
this way: sativinaya and amu/^avinaya, amu/jiavinaya and sati- 
vinaya; then amu/Aavinaya and tassap&piyyasik&kamma, tassa- 
p&piyyasik&kamma and amuttavinaya, &c. 



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IX, 6, 9. FORMAL ACTS OF THE SAAfGHA. 279 

Vinaya, and in such case this Sawgha trespasses 
against the law.' 

7. 'Lord, if a complete congregation grants 
sativinaya to a Bhikkhu to whom sativinaya 
ought to be granted, and amu I ha. vinaya to a 
Bhikkhu to whom amuMa vinaya ought to be 
granted (&c. 1 , down to:) grants abbhana to a 
Bhikkhu to whom abbhana ought to be granted, 
and confers the upasampada ordination on a person 
on whom the upasampada ordination ought to be 
conferred, — is this act, Lord, performed lawfully 
according to Dhamma and Vinaya ?' 

8. ' It is performed, Upali, lawfully according to 
Dhamma and Vinaya (&c, down to :) and in such 
case this Sawgha does not trespass against the law.' 

9. And the Blessed One thus addressed the 
Bhikkhus : ' If a complete congregation, O Bhik- 
khus, grants to a Bhikkhu to whom sativinaya 
ought to be granted, an amuMavinaya, in 
such case, O Bhikkhus, this act is performed 
unlawfully against Dhamma and Vinaya, and in 
such case this Sawgha trespasses against the 
law. If a complete congregation, O Bhikkhus, 
institutes against a Bhikkhu to whom sativinaya 
ought to be granted, the tassapapiyyasikakamma 
(&c. 2 , down to :) grants to a person on whom the 



1 The same dyads as in § 5. 

1 In this paragraph all possible combinations of two different 
Sawghakammas are formed in this way : first, sativinaya is com- 
bined with amu/^avinaya and all the rest, down to upasampada' ; 
then amu/iavinaya with all terms from tassapipiyyasiki down to 
sativinaya, and so on ; the whole series ends thus with the combi- 
nations of upasampad&raha with all terms from sativinaya down 
to abbbina. 



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280 mahAvagga. IX, 7, i. 

upasampad& ordination ought to be conferred, 
the decree of abb h an a, — in such case, O Bhikkhus, 
this act is performed unlawfully against Dhamma 
and Vinaya, and in such case this Sawgha trespasses 
against the law.' 

End of the second Bha«avira, which contains 
the questions of Upali. 



i. 'In case, O Bhikkhus, a Bhikkhu be litigious, 
contentious, quarrelsome, disputatious, and con- 
stantly raise questions before the Sawgha. And 
the other Bhikkhus say among each other : " This 
Bhikkhu, friends, is indeed litigious, contentious, 
&c. ; well, let us proceed against him with the 
ta^aniyakamma 1 ." And they proceed against 
him with the ta^aniyakamma unlawfully 2 with 
an incomplete congregation 3 , and he then goes from 
that district to another district. There the Bhik- 
khus say among each other : " Against this Bhikkhu, 
friends, the Sawgha has proceeded with the ta.gga.- 
niyakamma unlawfully with an incomplete congre- 
gation; well, let us proceed against him with the 
ta^aniyakamma." And they proceed against 
him with the ta^aniyakamma unlawfully with 
a complete congregation, and he then goes from 
that district again to another district And there 
the Bhikkhus again say among each other (&c, 



1 See .ffullavagga 1, 1-8. 2 See above, chap. 3, § 3 seq. 

8 See above, chap. 3, § 5. 



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IX, 7, 7- FORMAL ACTS OF THE SAAfGHA. 2&I 

down to:) and they proceed against him with the 
ta^faniyakamma lawfully with an incomplete 
congregation .... seemingly lawfully 1 with an in- 
complete congregation .... seemingly lawfully with 
a complete congregation 2 . 

2-5. ' In case, O Bhikkhus, a Bhikkhu be liti- 
gious, &c. 8 

6. ' In case, O Bhikkhus, a Bhikkhu be ignorant, 
unlearned, a constant offender, unable to discern 
what is an offence 4 , and lives in lay society, unduly 
associating himself with lay people. And the other 
Bhikkhus say among each other : " This Bhikkhu, 
friends, is indeed ignorant, unlearned, &c. ; well, 
let us proceed against him with the nissaya- 
kammaV' and they proceed against him with 
the nissayakamma unlawfully with an incomplete 
congregation, &c* 

7. ' In case, O Bhikkhus, a Bhikkhu leads a life 
hurtful to the laity, and devoted to evil 7 . And the 
other Bhikkhus say among each other : " This 



1 See above, chap. 3, § 7. 

1 See above, chap. 3, § 8. 

' As m § 1, but with a different arrangement of the five categories 
on which this exposition is based : unlawfully with an incomplete 
congregation, unlawfully with a complete congregation, lawfully 
with an incomplete congregation, seemingly lawfully with an in- 
complete congregation, seemingly lawfully with a complete congre- 
gation. In § 1 these categories are arranged in their natural order ; 
in § 2 the second is placed at the head, then follow the third, fourth, 
fifth, and finally the first ; in § 3 the exposition likewise begins with 
the third and ends with the second, &c. This arrangement is 
called ' a wheel' (fokka). 

4 See the note at chap. 4, § 9. 

8 See JTullavagga I, 9-13. 

' The same five cases and the same £akka as in §§ 1-5. 

7 See the 13th Sawghadisesa Rule. 



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282 MAHAVAGGA. IX, 7, 8. 

Bhikkhu, friends, leads a life hurtful to the laity, 
and devoted to evil ; well, let us proceed against 
him with the pabba^aniyakamma 1 ," &c. 8 

8. ' In case, O Bhikkhus, a Bhikkhu abuses and 
reviles lay people. And the other Bhikkhus say 
among each other : " This Bhikkhu, friends, abuses 
and reviles lay people ; well, let us proceed against 
him with the pa/isara»iyakamma 3 ," &c. 8 

9-1 1. 'In case, O Bhikkhus, a Bhikkhu, having 
committed an offence, refuses to see that offence 
(committed by himself) 4 . And the other Bhikkhus 
say among each other: "This Bhikkhu, friends, 
has committed an offence and refuses to see that 
offence; well, let us pronounce expulsion against 
him for his refusal to see that offence 5 ," &c. 2 

12^13. ' In case, O Bhikkhus, a Bhikkhu, against 
whom the Saz»gha has proceeded with the ta^ - - 
^•aniyakamma, behaves himself properly, lives 
modestly, aspires to get clear of his penance, and 
asks for the revocation of the ta^aniyakamma 
sentence. And the other Bhikkhus say among each 
other : " This Bhikkhu, friends, against whom the 
Sa#*gha has proceeded with the ta^aniya- 
kamma, in truth behaves himself properly; he 
lives modestly, &c. ; well, let us revoke the ta^- 
^•aniyakamma sentence pronounced against him." 
And they revoke the ta^aniyakamma sentence 



1 See A'ullavagga 1, 13-17. * As in §§ 1-5 or in § 6. 

* JTullavagga I, 18-24. 

* § 10: A Bhikkhu, having committed an offence, refuses to 
atone for that offence. § 1 1 : A Bhikkhu refuses to renounce a 
false doctrine. 

* § 10: For his refusal to atone for that offence. § 11 : For his 
refusal to renounce that false doctrine. 



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IX, 7, i5« FORMAL ACTS OF THE SAJlfGHA. 283 

pronounced against him unlawfully with an incom- 
plete congregation. And he then goes from that 
district to another district. There the Bhikkhus 
say among each other: "The ta^aniyakamma 
sentence, friends, pronounced against this Bhikkhu 
has been revoked by the Sawgha unlawfully with 
an incomplete congregation," &c. l 

14. ' In case, O Bhikkhus, a Bhikkhu against 
whom the Samgha has proceeded with the nissa- 
yakamma .... with the pabba^aniyakamma 
.... with the pa/isarawiyakamma .... against 
whom the Samgha. has pronounced expulsion for 
his refusal to see an offence .... for his refusal 
to atone for an offence .... for his refusal to 
renounce a false doctrine, behaves himself pro- 
perly, &c." 

15. 'In case, O Bhikkhus, a Bhikkhu be litigious, 
contentious, quarrelsome, disputatious, and con- 
stantly raise questions before the Samgha. And 
the other Bhikkhus say among each other : 
"This Bhikkhu, friends, is indeed litigious, con- 
tentious, &c. ; well, let us proceed against him 
with the ta^aniyakamma." And they proceed 
against him with the ta^faniyakamma, unlaw- 
fully with an incomplete congregation. Now among 
the Samgha. residing in that district a contention is 
raised whether this is an act performed unlawfully 
with an incomplete congregation, or an act per- 
formed unlawfully with a complete congregation, 
or an act performed lawfully with an incomplete 



1 The analogous five cases with the £akka development as in 

§§ 1-5- 
* As in §§ ia, 13. 



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284 mahAvagga. IX, 1, 16. 

congregation, or an act performed seemingly law- 
fully with an incomplete congregation, or an act 
performed seemingly lawfully with a complete con- 
gregation, or an act not performed, badly performed, 
to be performed again. In this case, O Bhikkhus, 
the Bhikkhus who say : " It is an act performed 
unlawfully with an incomplete congregation" — and 
the Bhikkhus who say : " It is an act not performed, 
badly performed, to be performed again" — these 
Bhikkhus are right herein. 

16. 'In case, O Bhikkhus, a Bhikkhu be liti- 
gious (&c, as in § 15, down to:) and they proceed 
against him with the ta^aniyakamma unlaw- 
fully with a complete congregation .... lawfully 
with an incomplete congregation .... seemingly 
lawfully with an incomplete congregation .... 
seemingly lawfully with a complete congregation. 
Now among the Sawgha residing in that district 
(&c, as in § 15). 

1 7-20. ' In case, O Bhikkhus, a Bhikkhu be 
ignorant, unlearned,' &C 1 



End of the ninth Khandhaka, which treats of 
the events in Aampa. 



1 The text treats here in §§ 17, 18 of the nissayakamma (see 
§ 6) and of the Sawghakammas down to the expulsion for a Bhik- 
khu's refusal to renounce a false doctrine (see §§ 7-1 1) in the same 
manner as the ta^ganiyakamma is spoken of in §§ 15, 16. Then 
follows (§§ 19, 20) an exactly analogous exposition about the revo- 
cation of these Sawghakammas, which stands in the same relation 
to §§ 15-18 in which §§ 12-14 stand to §§ 1-11. 



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X, i, 2. SCHISMS AMONG THE SAAfGHA. 285 



TENTH KHANDHAKA. ; 

(SCHISMS AMONG THE SAJfGHA.) 
1. 

i. At that time the blessed Buddha dwelt at 
Kosambl in the Ghositarima. 

At that time a certain Bhikkhu had committed 
an offence which he considered as an offence, while 
the other Bhikkhus considered that offence as no 
offence. Afterwards he began to consider that 
offence as no offence, and the other Bhikkhus began 
to consider that offence as an offence. 

Now those Bhikkhus said to that Bhikkhu : ' You 
have committed an offence, friend ; do you see that 
offence ? ' 

(He replied) : ' There is no offence, friends, which 
I should see.' 

Then those Bhikkhus, bringing about unanimity 
(of the fraternity for their sentence) pronounced 
expulsion against that Bhikkhu for his refusal to 
see that offence. 

2. Now that Bhikkhu was erudite ; he had studied 
the Agamas; he knew the Dhamma, the Vinaya, 
the Matika 1 ; he was wise, learned, intelligent, 
modest, conscientious, anxious for training. 

And that Bhikkhu went to his companions and 
friends among the Bhikkhus, and said to them : 
' This is no offence, friends ; this is not an offence. 

1 See JSTullavagga I, 1 1, 1, with our note. 

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286 MAHAVAGGA. X, r, 3. 

I am offenceless ; I am not guilty of an offence ; I 
am unexpelled and have not been expelled; the 
sentence by which I have been expelled is unlaw- 
ful, objectionable, and invalid. May the venerable 
ones be my partisans according to Dhamma and 
Vinaya.' 

Thus that Bhikkhu got his companions and friends 
among the Bhikkhus on his side. 

And he sent also a messenger to his companions 
and friends among the Bhikkhus of the whole country 
(with the following message) : ' This is no offence, 
friends ; this is not an offence (&c, down to :). 
May the venerable ones be my partisans according 
to Dhamma and Vinaya.' 

Thus that Bhikkhu got also his companions and 
friends among the Bhikkhus of the whole country 
on his side. 

3. Now those Bhikkhus who were partisans of 
the expelled Bhikkhu, went to the place where those 
who had expelled him, were. Having approached 
them, they said to the Bhikkhus who had expelled 
him : ' This is no offence, friends ; this is not an offence. 
This Bhikkhu is offenceless; this Bhikkhu is not 
guilty of an offence. This Bhikkhu is unexpelled ; 
this Bhikkhu has not been expelled. The sentence 
by which he has been expelled is unlawful, objec- 
tionable, and invalid.' 

When they had spoken thus, the Bhikkhus who 
had expelled that Bhikkhu, said to the partisans of 
the expelled one : ' This is an offence, friends ; this 
is not no offence. This Bhikkhu is an offender; 
this Bhikkhu is not offenceless. This Bhikkhu is 
expelled; this Bhikkhu is not unexpelled. The 
sentence by which he has been expelled is lawful, 



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X, 1,6. SCHISMS AMONG THE SAAfGHA. 287 

unobjectionable, and valid. Do not stand, O vener- 
able ones, on the side of this expelled Bhikkhu ; do 
not follow him.' 

But the partisans of the expelled Bhikkhu, though 
they were spoken to thus by the Bhikkhus who had 
expelled him, persevered nevertheless on the side 
of that expelled Bhikkhu and followed him. 

4. And a certain Bhikkhu went to the place 
where the Blessed One was. Having approached 
him and respectfully saluted the Blessed One, he sat 
down near him. Sitting near him that Bhikkhu said 
to the Blessed One : ' A certain Bhikkhu, Lord, had 
committed an offence which he considered as an 
offence (&c, as in $$ 1-3, down to :). But the par- 
tisans, Lord, of the expelled Bhikkhu, though they 
were spoken to thus by the Bhikkhus who had ex- 
pelled him, persevered nevertheless on the side of 
that expelled Bhikkhu and followed him.' 

5. Then the Blessed One (exclaimed) : ' The 
Bhikkhu Sawgha is divided ! The Bhikkhu Sawgha 
is divided!' — and he rose from his seat and went to 
the place where the Bhikkhus were who had pro- 
nounced that sentence of expulsion. Having ap- 
proached them, he sat down on the seat they had 
prepared. Sitting there the Blessed One said to 
the Bhikkhus who had pronounced expulsion against 
that Bhikkhu: 'Do not think, O Bhikkhus, that 
you are to pronounce expulsion against a Bhikkhu 
whatever be the facts of the case, saying, " It occurs 
to us to do so ; it occurs to us to do so." 

6. ' In case, O Bhikkhus, a Bhikkhu has com- 
mitted an offence which he considers as no offence, 
while the other Bhikkhus consider it as an offence — 
if, O Bhikkhus, those Bhikkhus know with regard 



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288 mahAvagga. x, i, 7. 

to that Bhikkhu : " This venerable brother is eru- 
dite; he has studied the Agamas; he knows the 
Dhamma, the Vinaya, the Matika; he is wise, 
learned, intelligent, modest, conscientious, anxious 
for training. Should we pronounce expulsion against 
this Bhikkhu for his refusal to see that offence, and 
should we not hold Uposatha with that Bhikkhu, 
but hold Uposatha without that Bhikkhu, this matter 
will cause among the Sa*»gha altercations, conten- 
tions, discord, quarrels, divisions among the Sawgha, 
disunion among the Sazwgha, separations among the 
Sawgha, schisms among the Sa*»gha," — in that case, 
O Bhikkhus, let those Bhikkhus, standing in awe of 
causing divisions, not pronounce expulsion against 
that Bhikkhu for his refusal to see his offence. 

7. ' In case, O Bhikkhus, a Bhikkhu has com- 
mitted (&c, as above, down to :). " Should we pro- 
nounce expulsion against this Bhikkhu for his refusal 
to see that offence, and should we not hold Pava- 
ra»a with that Bhikkhu, but hold Pavarawa without 
that Bhikkhu, and not perform official acts with 
that Bhikkhu, but perform official acts without that 
Bhikkhu, and not sit down on our seats with that 
Bhikkhu, but sit down on our seats without that 
Bhikkhu, and not sit down to drink rice-milk with 
that Bhikkhu, but sit down to drink rice-milk with- 
out that Bhikkhu, and not sit down in the dining- 
hall with that Bhikkhu, but sit down in the dining- 
hall without that Bhikkhu, and not dwell under one 
roof with that Bhikkhu, but dwell under one roof 
without that Bhikkhu, and not perform with that 
Bhikkhu, according to seniority, the duties of re- 
spectfully saluting each other, rising from our seats, 
raising the joined hands before each other, and all 



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X, t,8. SCHISMS AMONG THE SAAfGHA. 289 

proper duties, but perform without that Bhikkhu, 
according to seniority, the duties, &c, — this matter 
will cause among the Sawsgha (&c, as in § 6, down 
to the end).' 

8. And the Blessed One, having spoken thus to 
the Bhikkhus who had pronounced that sentence of 
expulsion, rose from his seat, and went to the place 
where the partisans of the expelled Bhikkhu were. 
Having approached them, he sat down on the seat 
they had prepared. Sitting there the Blessed One 
said to the partisans of the expelled Bhikkhu : ' Do 
not think, O Bhikkhus, if you have committed an 
offence, that you need not atone for that offence, 
(saying to yourselves) : " We are without offence." 
In case, O Bhikkhus, a Bhikkhu has committed an 
offence which he considers as no offence, while the 
other Bhikkhus consider it as an offence — if, O 
Bhikkhus, that Bhikkhu knows with regard to those 
Bhikkhus : " These venerable brethren are erudite 
(&c, down to :) anxious for training. It is impos- 
sible that they should, on my account, or on account 
of anybody else, abandon themselves to walking in 
longing, in malice, in delusion, in fear. Should these 
Bhikkhus pronounce expulsion against me for my 
refusal to see that offence, and should they not hold 
Uposatha with me, but hold Uposatha without me, 
and should they not hold Pavarawa with me, but 
hold Pavarana without me (&c, as in § 7), this 
matter will cause, &c, schisms among the Sawgha," 
— in that case, O Bhikkhus, let that Bhikkhu, stand- 
ing in awe of causing divisions, acknowledge that 
offence on the authority of his brethren V And the 

1 In the text sandhaya must be corrected into saddhaya ; 
see JTullavagga XI, 1, 10. 

[.7] U 



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290 MAHAVAGGA. X, 1,9. 

Blessed One, having spoken thus to the partisans 
of the expelled Bhikkhu, rose from his seat and 
went away. 

9. At that time the Bhikkhus who were partisans 
of that expelled Bhikkhu, held Uposatha and per- 
formed official acts at that same place, within the 
boundary. On the other hand the Bhikkhus who 
had pronounced expulsion against him, went outside 
the boundary and there held Uposatha, and per- 
formed official acts. 

Now a certain Bhikkhu of those who had expelled 
that Bhikkhu, went to the place where the Blessed 
One was; having approached him and having re- 
spectfully saluted the Blessed One, he sat down 
near him. Sitting near him that Bhikkhu said to 
the Blessed One : ' Lord, those Bhikkhus who are 
partisans of that expelled Bhikkhu, hold Uposatha, 
and perform official acts, at that same place, within 
the boundary. On the other hand, we who have 
pronounced expulsion against him, have gone out- 
side the boundary and there hold Uposatha and 
perform official acts.' 

(Buddha replied) : * If those Bhikkhus, O Bhikkhu, 
who are partisans of that expelled Bhikkhu, will hold 
Uposatha, and perform official acts, at that same 
place, within the boundary, according to the rules 
laid down by me about watti and anussavana, 
these official acts which they perform will be lawful, 
unobjectionable, and valid. And if you, O Bhikkhus, 
who have expelled that Bhikkhu, will hold Uposatha, 
and perform official acts, at that same place, within 
the boundary (&c, down to :) and valid. 

10. ' And why is this so ? These Bhikkhus be- 
long to another communion than that to which you 



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X, 3, I. SCHISMS AMONG THE SAAfGHA. 

belong, and you belong to another communion than 
that to which they belong. 

' There are two cases, O Bhikkhu, in which a 
Bhikkhu (though he dwell within the same boundary) 
is considered as belonging to another communion : — 
either he himself makes himself belong to another 
communion \ or the Sawsgha in a complete congre- 
gation pronounces expulsion against him for his 
refusal to see (an offence committed by himself), or 
to atone (for such an offence), or to renounce (a false 
doctrine). These, O Bhikkhu, are the two cases 
in which a Bhikkhu is considered as belonging to 
another communion. 

' There are two cases, O Bhikkhu, in which a 
Bhikkhu (belonging to either of the categories men- 
tioned) reacquires the belonging to the same com- 
munion (with his brethren within the same boundary) : 
either he himself makes himself belong (again) to 
that same communion 2 , or the Sawgha, having ex- 
pelled him for his refusal to see (an offence), or to 
atone (for an offence), or to renounce (a false doctrine), 
restores him in a complete congregation. These, O 
Bhikkhu, are the two cases in which a Bhikkhu re- 
acquires the belonging to the same communion. 



2. 

i. At that time the Bhikkhus, among whom 
altercations, contentions, and quarrels had arisen, 
in the dining-hall and amidst the houses, behaved 

1 By associating with expelled Bhikkhus. 

2 By giving up his connection with expelled Bhikkhus, 

V 2 



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292 1»AHAvAGGA. X, a, 2. 

improperly towards each other in gesture and word, 
and came to blows. 

The people were annoyed, murmured, and became 
angry (saying), ' How can these Sakyaputtiya Sa- 
ma#as, when altercations, contentions, and quarrels 
have arisen among them, &c, and come to blows?' 
Some Bhikkhus heard those people that were an- 
noyed, murmured, and had become angry. The 
moderate Bhikkhus were annoyed, murmured, and 
became angry (saying), ' How can the Bhikkhus, 
when altercations, &c. ? ' 

These Bhikkhus told the thing to the Blessed 
One. 

' Is it true, O Bhikkhus, &c. ? ' 

' It is true, Lord.' 

Having rebuked them, and delivered a religious 
discourse, he thus addressed the Bhikkhus : ' When 
divisions have arisen among the Sawgha, O Bhik- 
khus, and when unlawful conduct and unfriendliness 
prevail among the Bhikkhus, then you ought to sit 
down on your seats (separately, saying to yourselves) : 
"At least we will not behave improperly towards 
each other in gesture or word, and will not come to 
blows." When divisions have arisen among the 
Sa#*gha, O Bhikkhus, and when lawful conduct and 
friendliness prevail among the Bhikkhus, then you 
may sit down (together), one by one from each side 1 .' 

2. At that time the Bhikkhus, among whom alter- 
cations, contentions, and quarrels had arisen, wounded 
each other with sharp words in the assemblies, and 
were unable to settle that question. 



1 Asanantarikiya. Buddhaghosa : ' Ekekam asanaw antaram 
katva' nisiditabbaw.' 



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X, 2,3- SCHISMS AMONG THE SAMGHA. 293 

Then a certain Bhikkhu went to the place where 
the Blessed One was ; having approached him and 
respectfully saluted him, he stationed himself near 
him. Standing near him, that Bhikkhu said to the 
Blessed One : ' Lord, the Bhikkhus among whom 
altercations, contentions, and quarrels have arisen, 
wound each other with sharp words in the assemblies, 
and are unable to settle that question. Pray, Lord, 
may the Blessed One go to those Bhikkhus out of 
compassion towards them.' 

And the Blessed One expressed his consent by 
remaining silent. 

Then the Blessed One went to the place where 
those Bhikkhus were ; having approached them, he 
sat down on the seat they had prepared. Sitting 
there the Blessed One thus addressed those Bhik- 
khus : ' Enough, O Bhikkhus, no altercations, no 
contentions, no disunion, no quarrel!' 

When he had spoken thus, a certain Bhikkhu, an 
adherer of the party who were wrong, said to the 
Blessed One : ' Lord, may the Blessed One, the king 
of Truth, be patient ! Lord, may the Blessed One 
quietly enjoy the bliss he has obtained already in 
this life! The responsibility for these altercations 
and contentions, for this disunion and quarrel will 
rest with us alone.' 

And for the second time the Blessed One thus 
addressed those Bhikkhus : ' Enough, O Bhikkhus, 
&c.' And for the second time that Bhikkhu who 
adhered to the party who were wrong, said to the 
Blessed One : ' Lord, may the Blessed One, &c.' 
Then the Blessed One spoke thus to those Bhik- 
khus: 

3. 'In former times, O Bhikkhus, there lived at 



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294 MAHAVAGGA. X, 2, &, 

Benares a king of Kasi, Brahmadatta by name, 
wealthy, rich in treasures, rich in revenues, rich in 
troops and vehicles, the lord over a great realm, 
with full treasuries and storehouses. And there was 
also a king of Kosala, Dlghlti by name, not wealthy, 
poor in treasures, poor in revenues, poor in troops 
and vehicles, the lord over a small realm, with 
empty treasuries and storehouses. 

'And king Brahmadatta, O Bhikkhus, of Kasi, 
having set the four hosts of his army in array, went 
out to war with king Dlghlti of Kosala. 

'And king Dlghlti of Kosala heard, O Bhikkhus : 
" King Brahmadatta of Kasi, having set the four 
hosts of his army in array, has gone out to war with 
me." Then king Dlghlti of Kosala thought, O 
Bhikkhus : " King Brahmadatta of Kasi is wealthy, 
rich in treasures, &c. ; and I am not wealthy, poof 
in treasures, &c. I am not able to stand against 
even one attack of king Brahmadatta of K&si. 
What if I were to flee from the town beforehand." 

'And king Dlghlti of Kosala, O Bhikkhus, took 
his queen-consort with him and fled from the town 
beforehand. 

' Then king Brahmadatta of Kasi, O Bhikkhus, 
conquered the troops and vehicles, the realm, the 
treasuries and storehouses of king Dlghlti of Kosala, 
and took possession of them. 

'And king Dlghlti of Kosala, O Bhikkhus, together 
with his consort, went forth to Benares. Wandering 
from place to place he came to Benares, and there 
at Benares, O Bhikkhus, king Dlghlti of Kosala 
dwelt, together with his consort, at a certain place 
near the town, in a potter's. dwelling, in disguise, in 
the guise of a wandering ascetic. 



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X,a, 5. SCHISMS AMONG THE SAAfGHA. 295 

4. 'And ere long, O Bhikkhus, the queen-consort 
of king Dlghiti of Kosala became pregnant And 
there came upon her the longing of pregnant women; 
and she desired, at sunrise, to see an army, with its 
four hosts set in array, clad in armour, standing on 
auspicious ground, and to drink the water in which 
the swords were washed. 

'And the queen-consort, O Bhikkhus, of king Dl- 
ghiti of Kosala said to king Dlghiti of Kosala : " I 
am pregnant, Lord, and the longing of pregnancy 
has come upon me ; and I desire, at sunrise, &c." 

'(The king replied): "Whence shall come, O queen, 
to people in distress like us, an army with four hosts 
set in array, clad in armour, standing on auspicious 
ground, and the water in which the swords are 
washed ?" 

'(The queen said) : " If I do not obtain it, Lord, 
I shall die." 

5. ' Now at that time, O Bhikkhus, the Brahma#a 
who was domestic chaplain to king Brahmadatta of 
Kasi, was a friend of king Dlghiti of Kosala. And 
king Dlghiti of Kosala, O Bhikkhus, went to the 
place where that Brahma»a, the domestic chaplain to 
king Brahmadatta of Kasi, was ; having approached 
him he said to that Brahmawa, the domestic chap- 
lain to king Brahmadatta of Kasi : " Your lady- 
friend, my beloved, is pregnant, and the longing of 
pregnant women has come upon her ; and she de- 
sires (&c, as above)." 

'(The Brahma«a replied): "Well, O king, let us 
see the queen also." 

' Then, O Bhikkhus, the queen-consort of king 
Dlghiti of Kosala went to the place where that 
Brahmawa, the domestic chaplain to king Brah- 



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296 • mahAvagga. X, 2,6. 

madatta of Kasi, was. And, O Bhikkhus, that 
Brahma«a, the domestic chaplain to king Brah- 
madatta of Kasi, saw the queen-consort of king 
Dighlti of Kosala coming from afar. On seeing 
her he rose from his seat, adjusted his upper robe 
so as to cover one shoulder, raised his joined hands 
to the queen-consort of king Dtghlti of Kosala, and 
three times uttered this exclamation : " Verily a 
Kosala king dwells in thy womb ! Verily a Kosala 
king dwells in thy womb ! " (And further he said) : 
" Do not despond, O queen, you will obtain the 
sight at sunrise of an army with its four hosts set 
in array, clad in armour, standing on auspicious 
ground, and you will obtain the drinking of the 
water in which the swords are washed." 

6. 'And, O Bhikkhus, that Brahma»a, the do- 
mestic chaplain to king Brahmadatta of Kasi, went 
to the place where king Brahmadatta of Kasi was. 
Having approached him, he said to king Brah- 
madatta of Kavsi : " Lord, the signs that appear 
are such, that to-morrow at sunrise an army with 
four hosts, set in array, clad in armour, must station 
itself on auspicious ground, and the swords must be 
washed." 

'Then, O Bhikkhus, king Brahmadatta of Kisi 
gave order to his attendants : " Do, my friends, what 
the Brahma«a, my domestic chaplain, tells you." 

'Thus, O Bhikkhus, the queen-consort of king 
Dighlti of Kosala obtained the sight at sunrise, &c, 
and the drinking of the water in which the swords 
were washed. 

' And, O Bhikkhus, the queen-consort of king 
Dighlti of Kosala, when the child in her womb had 
reached maturity, gave birth to a boy. They called 



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X, a, (>• SCHISMS AMONG THE SAilfGHA. 297 

him Dlghavu (" Longeval"). And ere long, O Bhik- 
khus, young Dlghavu came to the years of discretion. 

7. 'And king Dighlti of Kosala, O Bhikkhus, 
thought: "This king Brahmadatta of Kasi has 
done much harm to us. By him we have been 
robbed of our troops and vehicles, our realm, our 
treasuries and storehouses. Should he find us out 
here, he will have us all three killed. What if I 
were to cause young Dlghavu to dwell outside the 
town." 

' Then king Dighlti of Kosala, O Bhikkhus, caused 
young Dlghavu to dwell outside the town. And 
young Dlghavu, O Bhikkhus, dwelling outside the 
town, ere long learnt all arts. 

8. 'At that time, O Bhikkhus, the barber of king 
Dighlti of Kosala dwelt at the court of king Brahma- 
datta of Kasi. Now, O Bhikkhus, this barber of 
king Dighlti of Kosala saw king Dighlti of Kosala 
dwelling, together with his consort, at Benares, at a 
certain place near the town, in a potter's dwelling, 
in disguise, in the guise of a wandering ascetic. 
When he had seen him, he went to the place where 
king Brahmadatta of Kasi was, and having ap- 
proached him, he said to king Brahmadatta of 
Kasi : " King Dighlti of Kosala, Your Majesty, 
dwells, together with his consort, at Benares, at a 
certain place near the town, in a potter's dwelling, 
in disguise, in the guise of a wandering ascetic." 

9. ' Then, O Bhikkhus, king Brahmadatta of Kasi 
gave order to his attendants : " Well, my friends, 
bring king Dighlti of Kosala and his consort 
before me." 

' And those people, O Bhikkhus, accepted this 
order of king Brahmadatta of Kasi (by saying), 



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298 MAHAVAGGA. X, 3, 10. 

" Yes, Your Majesty," and brought king Dighlti of 
Kosala and his consort before him. 

'Then, O Bhikkhus, king Brahmadatta of Kasi 
gave order to his attendants: "Well, my friends, 
bind king Dighlti of Kosala and his consort firmly 
with strong ropes, tie their arms to their backs, 
have them close shaven, lead them around with 
loud beatings of drums from road to road and from 
cross-way to cross-way, then lead them out of the 
town by the southern gate, hew them in four pieces 
to the south of the town, and throw the pieces away 
to the four quarters." 

'And those people, O Bhikkhus, accepted this 
order of king Brahmadatta of Kasi (by saying), 
" Yes, Your Majesty," bound king Dlghtti of Kosala 
and his consort firmly with strong ropes, tied their 
arms to their backs, had them close shaven, and led 
them around with loud beatings of drums from road 
to road and from cross-way to cross-way. 

10. ' Now, O Bhikkhus, young Dighavu thought : 
" For a long time I have not seen my father and 
mother. What if I were to go and see my father 
and mother." And young Dighavu, O Bhikkhus, 
entered Benares, and saw his father and mother, 
bound firmly with strong ropes, their arms tied to 
their backs, close shaven, and being led around with 
loud beating of drums from road to road and from 
cross-way to cross-way. When he saw that, he 
went up to his father and mother. 

' And king Dighiti of Kosala, O Bhikkhus, saw 
young Dighavu coming from afar ; seeing young 
Dighavu he said to him : " Do not look long, my 
dear Dighavu, and do not look short \ For not by 

1 This enigmatic phrase will be found explained below, § 19. 

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X, 2, 12. SCHISMS AMONG THE SAJtfGHA. 299 

hatred, my dear Dighavu, is hatred appeased; by 
not-hatred, my dear Dighavu, hatred is appeased." 

11. 'When he had spoken thus, O Bhikkhus, the 
people said to king Dlghlti of Kosala : " This king 
Dighlti of Kosala is mad and raves. What has this 
Dighavu to do with him ? Who is he to whom he 
says : ' Do not look long, &c. ?' " (Dlghlti replied) : 
" I am not mad, my friends, nor do I rave. He who 
is clever will understand it" 

' And for the second time, &c. And for the third 
time, O Bhikkhus, king Dlghlti of Kosala said to 
young Dighavu, &c. And for the third time said 
the people (&c, down to :) " He who is clever will 
understand it." 

' Then those people, O Bhikkhus, having led king 
Dlghlti of Kosala and his consort around from road 
to road and from cross-way to cross-way, led them 
out of the town by the southern gate, hewed them 
in four pieces to the south of the town, threw the 
pieces away to the four quarters, stationed there 
a troop of soldiers, and went away. 

12. ' Then young Dighavu, O Bhikkhus, went to 
Benares, got strong drink there, and made those 
soldiers drink it. When they were drunk and had 
fallen down, he gathered the pieces (of the two 
bodies), made a funeral pile, put his father's and 
his mother's bodies on that pile, set it on fire, and 
raising his clasped hands he three times circum- 
ambulated the funeral pile. • 

' Now at that time, O Bhikkhus, king Brahma- 
datta of Kasi had gone up on to the terrace of his 
splendid palace. And king Brahmadatta of Kasi, 
O Bhikkhus, saw young Dighavu, who, raising his 
clasped hands, three times circumambulated the 



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300 mahAvagga. X, a, 13. 

funeral pile. When he saw that, he thought: 
" Doubtless this man is a relation or kinsman of 
king Dighiti of Kosala. Alas for my misfortune, 
that nobody will tell me (what this means)!" 

1 3. ' And young Dlghavu, O Bhikkhus, went to 
the forest. There he cried and wept to his heart's 
content Then he wiped his tears, entered the town 
of Benares, went to the elephant stables near the 
royal palace, and said to the elephant trainer : " I 
wish to learn your art, master." 

' " Well, my good young man, learn it" 

* And young Dlghavu, O Bhikkhus, arose in the 
night, at dawn's time, and sung in the elephant 
stables in a beautiful voice, and played upon the 
lute. And king Brahmadatta of Kasi, O Bhikkhus, 
having risen in the night, at dawn, heard that singing 
in a beautiful voice and that playing upon the lute 
in the elephant stables. On hearing that he asked 
his attendants: "Who is it, my friends, who has 
risen in the night, at dawn's time, and has sung in 
the elephant stables in so beautiful a voice, and has 
played upon the lute ?" 

14. '(The attendants replied): "A young pupil, 
Your Majesty, of such and such an elephant trainer, 
has risen in the night, at dawn, and has sung in the 
elephant stables in so beautiful a voice, and has 
played upon the lute." 

' (The king said) : " Well, my friends, bring that 
young man to me." 

* Those people accepted, O Bhikkhus, that order 
of king Brahmadatta of Kasi (by saying), " Yes, 
Your Majesty," and brought young DighAvu to him. 

' " Is it you, my good young man, who has risen 
in the night, &c. ?" 



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X, a, 15- SCHISMS AMONG THE SAAfGHA. 3OI 

' " Yes, Your Majesty." 

' " Well, my good young man, sing and play upon 
the lute (also before me)." 

' Young Dighavu, O Bhikkhus, accepted this order 
of king Brahmadatta of Kasi (by saying), " Yes, 
Your Majesty," and in order to win (the king's) 
favour he sung in a beautiful voice and played upon 
the lute. 

' And king Brahmadatta of Kasi, O Bhikkhus, said 
to young Dighavu : " Be my attendant, my good 
young man." 

' Young Dighavu, O Bhikkhus, accepted this order 
of king Brahmadatta of Kasi (by saying), " Yes, 
Your Majesty." And young Dighavu, O Bhikkhus, 
became (a servant) of king Brahmadatta of Kasi, 
rising before him, lying down after him, willingly 
obeying all his commands, agreeable in his conduct, 
pleasing in his words. And ere long, O Bhikkhus, 
king Brahmadatta of Kasi gave to young Dighavu 
an intimate position of trust. 

15. ' And king Brahmadatta of Kasi, O Bhikkhus, 
said to young Dighavu : " Well, my young friend, 
put the horses to the chariot ; we will go a-hunting." 
And young Dighavu, O Bhikkhus, accepted this 
order of king Brahmadatta of Kasi (by saying), 
" Yes, Your Majesty," put the horses to the chariot, 
and said to king Brahmadatta of Kasi : " The horses 
have been put to your chariot, Your Majesty ; you 
may do now as you think fit." 

'And king Brahmadatta of Kasi, O Bhikkhus, 
ascended the chariot, and young Dighavu drove the 
chariot: and he drove the chariot in such a way 
that the hosts (of the royal retinue) went one way, 
and the chariot went another way. 



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302 MAHAVAGGA. X, a, 16. 

' And after a long drive, O Bhikkhus, king Brah- 
madatta of Kasi said to young Dighavu : " Well, 
my young friend, stop now the chariot. I am tired ; 
I would lie down." 

' Young Dighavu, O Bhikkhus, accepted this 
order of king Brahmadatta of Kasi (by saying), 
" Yes, Your Majesty," stopped the chariot, and sat 
down on the ground cross-legged. And king Brah- 
madatta of Kasi, O Bhikkhus, lay down, laying his 
head in the lap of young Dighavu ; and as he was 
tired, he fell asleep in a moment. 

16. ' And young Dighavu thought, O Bhikkhus : 
" This king Brahmadatta of Kasi has done much 
harm to us. By him we have been robbed of our 
troops and vehicles, our realm, our treasuries and 
storehouses. And he has killed my father and 
mother. Now the time has come to me to satisfy 
my hatred," — (thinking thus) he unsheathed his 
sword. Then, O Bhikkhus, young Dighavu thought: 
" My father said to me in the hour of his death : 
' Do not look long, my dear Dighavu, and do not 
look short. For not by hatred, my dear Dighavu, 
is hatred appeased ; by not-hatred, my dear Dighavu, 
hatred is appeased.' It would not become me to 
transgress my father's word," — (thinking thus) he 
put up his sword. 

4 And for the second time .... and for the third 
time young Dighavu thought, O Bhikkhus: "This 
king Brahmadatta of Kasi has done much harm to us'' 
(&c, down to :) — (thinking thus) he put up his sword. 

' At that moment, O Bhikkhus, king Brahmadatta 
of Kasi, frightened, terrified, full of anguish, and 
alarmed, suddenly arose. 

' And young Dighavu, O Bhikkhus, said to king 



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X, 2, 17. SCHISMS AMONG THE SAAfGHA. 303 

Brahmadatta of Kasi : " Why do you arise so sud- 
denly, O king, frightened, terrified, full of anguish, 
and alarmed ?" 

' (The king replied) : " I dreamt, my young friend, 
that young Dighavu, the son of king Dlghtti of 
Kosala, came upon me with his sword; therefore 
have I arisen so suddenly, frightened, terrified, full 
of anguish, and alarmed." 

17. 'Then, O Bhikkhus, young Dighavu, stroking 
with his left hand the head of king Brahmadatta of 
Kasi, and with his right hand unsheathing his sword, 
said to king Brahmadatta of Kasi : " I am that young 
Dighavu, O king, the son of king Dlghlti of Kosala. 
You have done much harm to us. By you we have 
been robbed of our troops and vehicles, our realm, 
our treasuries and storehouses. And you have 
killed my father and mother. Now the time has 
come to me to satisfy my hatred." 

' Then, O Bhikkhus, king Brahmadatta of Kasi 
fell down before young Dighavu, inclining his head 
to his feet, and said to young Dighavu : " Grant me 
my life, my dear Dighavu ! Grant me my life, my 
dear Dighavu!" 

' " How can I grant you your life, O king ? It is, 
you, O king, who should grant me my life !" 

• " Well, my dear Dighavu, then grant me my life, 
and I will grant you your life." 

* Thus, O Bhikkhus, king Brahmadatta of Kasi 
and young Dighavu granted each other their lives 
and took each other's hands and swore an oath not 
to do any harm to each other. 

'And king Brahmadatta of Kasi, O Bhikkhus, 
said to young Dighavu : " Well, my dear Dighavu, 
put now the horses to the chariot ; we will go." 



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304 MAHAVAGGA. X, 2, 18. 

' And young Dighivu, O Bhikkhus, accepted this 
order of king Brahmadatta of Kisi (by saying), 
" Yes, Your Majesty," put the horses to the chariot, 
and said to .king Brahmadatta of Kisi : " The horses 
have been put to your chariot, Your Majesty ; you 
may do now as you think fit." 

' And king Brahmadatta of Kisi, O Bhikkhus, 
ascended the chariot, and young Dtghivu drove the 
chariot; and he drove the chariot in such a way 
that they soon reached again the hosts (of the royal 
retinue). 

18. 'And king Brahmadatta of Kisi, O Bhikkhus, 
having entered Benares, convoked his ministers and 
counsellors and said to them : " If you should see, 
my good Sirs, young Dighivu, the son of king Dlghlti 
of Kosala, what would you do to him ?" 

'Some (of the ministers) replied : " We would cut 
off his hands, Your Majesty;" (others said): "We 
would cut off his feet" — "We would cut off his 
hands and feet " — " We would cut off his ears " — 
" We would cut off his nose " — " We would cut off his 
ears and his nose " — " We would cut off his head." 

'" This is young Dtghivu, Sirs, the son of king 
Dlghlti of Kosala. It is not permitted to do any- 
thing to him ; he has granted me my life, and I 
have granted him his life." 

19. 'And king Brahmadatta of Kisi, O Bhikkhus, 
said to young Dtghivu : " Why did your father say 
to you in the hour of his death : ' Do not look long, 
&c.' — what did your father mean by that ?" 

' " What my father said, O king, in the hour of 
his death : ' Not long ' — (means) : ' Let not your 
hatred last long ;' this did my father mean when he 
said in the hour of his death : ' Not long.' And 



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X, a, 20. SCHISMS AMONG THE SAJfGHA. 305 

what my father said, O king, in the hour of his 
death : ' Not short ' — (means) : ' Do not be hasty to 
fall out with your friends;' this did my father mean 
when he said in the hour of his death : ' Not short.' 
And what my father said, O king, in the hour of his 
death: 'For not by hatred, my dear Dighavu, is 
hatred appeased ; by not-hatred, my dear Dighavu, 
is hatred appeased ' — (means this) : ' You have killed 
my father and mother, O king. If I should deprive 
you therefore of life, O king, then your partisans, 
O king, would deprive me of life ; my partisans 
again would deprive those of life. Thus by hatred 
that hatred would not be appeased. But now, O 
king, you have granted me my life, and I, O king, 
have granted you your life ; thus by not-hatred 
hatred has been appeased.' This did my father 
mean when he said in the hour of his death : ' For 
not by hatred, &c."' 

20. 'Then king Brahmadatta of Kasi, O Bhikkhus, 
thought : " O wonderful ! O marvellous ! How clever 
is this young Dighavu, that he understands in its full 
extent the meaning of what his father spoke so con- 
cisely," — and he gave him back his father's troops 
and vehicles, his realm, his treasuries and store- 
houses, and he gave him his daughter. 

' Now, O Bhikkhus, if such is the forbearance and 
mildness of kings who wield the sceptre and bear 
the sword, so much more, O Bhikkhus, must you so 
let your light shine before the world that you, having 
embraced the religious life according to so well- 
taught a doctrine and a discipline, are seen to be 
forbearing and mild.' 

And for the third time 1 the Blessed One thus 

1 See § a. 
C'7] X 



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306 mahAvagga. x, 3. 

addressed those Bhikkhus : ' Enough, O Bhikkhus, 
no altercations, no contentions, no disunion, no 
quarrels!' 

And for the third time that Bhikkhu who adhered 
to the party who were wrong, said to the Blessed 
One : ' Lord, may the Blessed One, the king of 
Truth, be patient! Lord, may the Blessed One 
quietly enjoy the bliss he has obtained already in 
this life ! The responsibility for these altercations 
and contentions, for this disunion and quarrel will 
rest with us alone.' And the Blessed One thought : 
' Truly these fools are infatuate ; it is no easy task 
to administer instruction to them,' — and he rose 
from his seat and went away. 



End of the first Bha#avara, which contains 
the story of Dtghavu. 



3. 

And in the forenoon the Blessed One, having put 
on his under-robes, took up his alms-bowl and his 
£ivara, and entered the town of Kosambl for alms. 
Having collected alms in Kosambi, after his meal, 
when he had returned from his alms-pilgrimage, he 
put his resting-place in order, took up his alms-bowl 
and his ^Ivara, and standing in the midst of the 
assembly he pronounced the following stanzas : 

' Loud is the noise that ordinary men make. No- 
body thinks himself a fool, when divisions arise in 
the Sawgha, nor do they ever value another person 
higher (than themselves). 



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X, 3- SCHISMS AMONG THE SAAfCHA 307 

' Bewildered * are (even) the clever words of him 
who is versed in the resources of eloquence. As 
wide as they like they open their mouth. By whom 
they are lead they do not see. 

'"He 2 has reviled me, he has beaten me, he has 
oppressed me, he has robbed me," — in those who 
nurse such thoughts, hatred will never be appeased. 

' " He has reviled me, he has beaten me, he has 
oppressed me, he has robbed me," — in those who 
do not nurse such thoughts, hatred is appeased. 

' For not by hatred is hatred ever appeased ; by 
not-hatred it is appeased ; this is an eternal law. 

'The others 3 do not know that we must keep 
ourselves under restraint here ; but those who know 
it, their quarrels are appeased. 

' They whose bones are broken (by their foes), 
who destroy lives, who rob cows, horses, and trea- 
sures, who plunder realms, — even these may find 
conciliation. How should you not find it ? 

' If * a man find a wise friend, a companion who 

1 Parimu/Ma. Buddhaghosa: 'Parimu///;a 'ti mu/Massatino.' 
Mu/Massati cannot be connected with muMa, as Childers supposes, 
but it is evidently mushitasmr/ti (Kathasarils. 56, 289 ; compare 
satisammosa, Mil. Paiiha, p. 266). Thus it appears that parimu/Ma 
must be derived also from the root mush. 

s These verses are inserted in the Dhammapada, vv. 3-6. 

* That is to say, those who do not follow the Buddha's teaching. 
On this meaning of pare compare parappavadS at Mahi-parinib- 
bana Sutta V, 62. Professor Max Milller, who in the first edition of 
his translation of the Dhammapada (Buddhaghosa's Parables, p. lvi) 
has 'Some do not know that we must all come to an end here/ 
in the revised edition (Sacred Books of the East, vol. x) renders 
the phrase, 'The world does not know that we must all come to an 
end here.' 

* The following three verses have also been inserted in the 
Dhammapada, w. 328-330. The two first recur in the Khagga- 
visana-sutta of the Sutta Nipata, vv. 11, 12. 

X 2 



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308 MAHAVAGGA. X, 4, r. 

lives righteously, a constant one, he may walk with 
him, overcoming all dangers, happy and mindful \ 

' If he find no wise friend, no companion who lives 
righteously, no constant one, let him walk alone, like 
a king who leaves his conquered realm behind *, like 
an elephant in the elephant forest 8 . 

' It is better to walk alone ; with a fool there is 
no companionship. Let a man walk alone ; let him 
do no evil, free from cares, like an elephant in the 
elephant forest 3 .' 



4. 

1. And the Blessed One, having pronounced 
these stanzas standing in the midst of the assembly, 
went forth to Balakalo#akara-gama (or, to Balaka, 
the salt-maker's village). 

At that time the venerable Bhagu dwelt at Bala- 
kalo«akara-gama. And the venerable Bhagu saw 
the Blessed One coming from afar; seeing him he 
prepared a seat, brought water for the washing of 
his feet, a foot-stool, and a towel, went forth to meet 
him, and took his bowl and his robe. The Blessed 
One sat down on the seat he had prepared ; and 

1 On the juxtaposition of happiness with mindfulness, see the 
constantly repeated phrase occurring, for instance, in the Tevi^ga 
Sutta I, 49 (at the end). It would perhaps be better to read sa- 
tfmfi in the text, as Fausboll has done, metri causS. 

' That is, who abdicates, and devotes himself in the forest to a 
hermit's life. This is given as the crucial instance of a happy life 
in the Gitaka. Story, No. 10. 

* Professor Fausboll reads in both verses matahgarafjno 
instead of mitahgaranne. 



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X, 4, 3« SCHISMS AMONG THE SAVGHA. 309 

when he was seated, the Blessed One washed his 
feet And also the venerable Bhagu, having respect- 
fully saluted the Blessed One, sat down near him. 
When he was sitting near him, the Blessed One said 
to the venerable Bhagu : ' Is it all well with you, 
O Bhikkhu ? Do you find your living ? Do you get 
food without too much trouble ?' 

'It is all well with me, Lord; I find my living, 
Lord ; I get food, Lord, without too much trouble.' 

And the Blessed One, having taught, incited, ani- 
mated, and gladdened the venerable Bhagu by reli- 
gious discourse, rose from his seat and went forth 
to the Eastern Bambu Park (Pa^ina-vawsa-ddya). 

2. At that time the venerable Anuruddha and the 
venerable Nandiya and the venerable Kimbila dwelt 
at Pa&na-vawssa-daya. And the park-keeper saw 
the Blessed One coming from afar ; seeing him he 
said to the Blessed One : ' Do not enter this park, 
O Sa/ttana; here dwell three noble youths accustomed 
to comfort and ease; you must not annoy them.' 
And the venerable Anuruddha heard what the park- 
keeper was saying to the Blessed One ; hearing that 
he said to the park-keeper : ' Do not keep off the 
Blessed One, my good park-keeper; our teacher, 
the Blessed One, has arrived.' And the venerable 
Anuruddha went to the place where the venerable 
Nandiya and the venerable Kimbila were; having 
approached them, he said to the venerable Nandiya 
and to the venerable Kimbila : ' Come here, my 
venerable friends ! Come here, my venerable friends ! 
Our teacher, the Blessed One, has arrived.' 

3. And the venerable Anuruddha, the venerable 
Nandiya, and the venerable Kimbila went forth to 
meet the Blessed One ; one took the bowl and the 



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3IO MAHAVAGGA. X, 4, 4. 

robe of the Blessed One, the other one prepared 
a seat, the third one brought water for the washing 
of his feet, a foot-stool, and a towel. Then the 
Blessed One sat down on the seat they had pre- 
pared; and when he was seated, the Blessed One 
washed his feet. And also those venerable persons, 
having respectfully saluted the Blessed One, sat 
down near him. When the venerable Anuruddha 
was sitting near him, the Blessed One said to him : 
'Is it all well with you, O Anuruddhas 1 ? Do you 
find your living ? Do you get food without too 
much trouble ?' 

' It is all well with us, Lord ; we find our living, 
Lord; we get food, Lord, without too much trouble.' 

'And do you live, O Anuruddhas, in unity and 
concord, without quarrels, like milk and water (mixed 
together) 2 , and looking at each other with friendly 
eyes ?' 

' Certainly, Lord, do we live in unity and concord 
(&c, down to :) and looking at each other with 
friendly eyes.' 

' And in what way, O Anuruddhas, do you live in 
unity and concord, &c. ?' 

4. ' I think, Lord : " It is all gain to me indeed, 
it is high bliss for me indeed, that I live in the com- 
panionship of brethren like these." Thus, Lord, do 
I exercise towards these venerable brethren friend- 
liness in my actions, both openly and in secret; I 

1 We have here the plural AnuruddhS, meaning Anuruddha 
and his friends. So in A'ullavagga I, 13, 6 Sariputta means Sari- 
putta and Moggallana. 

* Khfrodakibhuta' can scarcely contain an allusion to the Milk 
Ocean (see Childers, s.v. khtrodaka). Milk and water is frequently 
chosen by the Indian poets as a type of the most perfect union. 



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X,4, 5. SCHISMS AMONG THE SAJfGHA. 3II 

exercise (towards them) friendliness in my words, 
and friendliness in my thoughts, both openly and in 
secret And I think thus, Lord : " What if I were 
to give up my own will and to live only according to 
the will of these venerable brethren." Thus, Lord, 
I give up my own will and live only according to 
the will of these venerable brethren. Our bodies, 
Lord, are different, but our minds, I think, have 
become one 1 .' 

And also the venerable Nandiya .... and also 
the venerable Kimbila .... said to the Blessed 
One: 'I think also, Lord: "It is all gain to me" 
(&c, down to :) have become one. 

' In this way, Lord, do we live in unity and con- 
cord, without quarrels, like milk and water (mixed 
together), and looking at each other with friendly 
eyes.' 

5. 'And do you live, O Anuruddhas, in earnest- 
ness, zeal, and resolvedness ?' 

' Certainly, Lord, do we live in earnestness, zeal, 
and resolvedness.' 

'And in what way, O Anuruddhas, do you live in 
earnestness, zeal, and resolvedness ?' 

' He* who first of us comes back, Lord, from the 
village, from his alms-pilgrimage, prepares seats, 
gets water for washing feet, a foot-stool, and a towel, 
cleans the slop-basin, and gets it ready, and puts 
there (water to) drink and food. He who comes 
back last from the village, from his alms-pilgrimage, 
eats, if there is any food left (from the dinner of the 
others) and if he desires to do so ; and if he does 

1 Compare the last poem in the Sutta NipSta, and especially 
v. 1 143. 
* Compare IV, 1. 



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312 MAHAVAGGA. X,4, 6. 

not desire (to eat), he throws it away at a place free 
from grass, or pours it away into water in which no 
living things are; takes away the seat, puts away 
the water for washing the feet, the foot-stool, and 
the towel, cleans the slop-basin and puts it away, 
puts the water and the food away, and sweeps the 
dining-room. He who sees a water-pot, or a bowl 
for food, or an easing-chair, empty and void, puts it 
(into its proper place), and if he is not able to do so 
single-handed, he calls some one else, and thus we 
put it (into its place) with our united effort, but 
we do not utter a word, Lord, on that account. 
And every five days, Lord, we spend a whole 
night, sitting together, in religious discourse. In 
this way, Lord, do we live in earnestness, zeal, and 
resolvedness.' 

6. And the Blessed One, having taught, incited, 
animated, and gladdened the venerable Anuruddha 
and the venerable Nandiya and the venerable Kim- 
bila by religious discourse, rose from his seat, and 
went forth to Parileyyaka. Wandering from place 
to place he came to Parileyyaka. There the Blessed 
One dwelt at Parileyyaka, in the Rakkhita grove, at 
the foot of the Bhaddasala tree. Then in the mind 
of the Blessed One, who was alone, and had retired 
into solitude, the following thought arose : ' Formerly 
I did not live at ease, being troubled by those liti- 
gious, contentious, quarrelsome, disputatious Bhik- 
khus of Kosambl, the constant raisers of questions 
before the Sawsgha. But now, being alone and with- 
out a companion, I live pleasantly and at ease, re- 
mote from those litigious, contentious, quarrelsome, 
disputatious Bhikkhus of Kosambl, the constant 
raisers of questions before the Sawgha.' And there 



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X.4.7- SCHISMS AMONG THE SAAfGHA. 313 

dwelt also a noble elephant, who was surrounded by 
a crowd of elephants, she-elephants, elephant-calves, 
and young elephants ; the grass blades he ate had 
their tips broken ; the branches he broke down (the 
other elephants) ate ; the water he drank was turbid ; 
and when he waded into the river and plunged down, 
the she-elephants came and rubbed up their bodies 
against him. Now that noble elephant thought : 
' I am surrounded by a crowd of elephants (&c, 
down to :) and rub up their bodies against me. 
What if I were to live alone, far away from those 
crowds.' 

7. And that noble elephant left the herd behind, 
and went to Parileyyaka, to the Rakkhita grove, to 
the foot of the Bhaddasala tree, to the place where 
the Blessed One was. Having approached him, he 
administered with his trunk to the Blessed One 
(water to) drink and food, and removed the grass 
from that place. And that noble elephant thought : 
' Formerly I did not live at ease, surrounded by that 
crowd of elephants (&c, down to :) and rubbed up 
their bodies against me. But now, being alone and 
without a companion, I live pleasantly and at ease, 
remote from those elephants, she-elephants, ele- 
phant-calves, and young elephants.' 

Then the Blessed One, both regarding his own 
retirement, and understanding by the power of his 
mind the thoughts which had arisen in the mind of 
that noble elephant, on this occasion pronounced this 
solemn utterance : 

'Thus the noble one and the noble, the elephant 
tusked with tusks like cart poles 1 (and the noble 

1 Is&danta; see B&htlingk-Roth, sub voce tsbl 

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3H MAHAVAGGA. X, 5, t. 

One among men) — the mind of the one and the 
mind of the other harmonise in this, that they take 
delight in dwelling alone in the forest' 



5. 

1. And the Blessed One, having dwelt at Piri- 
leyyaka as long as he thought fit, went forth to 
Savatthi. Wandering from place to place he came 
to Savatthi. There the Blessed One dwelt at 
Savatthi, in the Getavana, the garden of Anatha- 
piwafika. And the lay-devotees of Kosambt 
thought: 'These venerable Bhikkhus of Kosamb! 
have brought much misfortune to us; worried 1 by 
them the Blessed One is gone. Well, let us neither 
salute the venerable Bhikkhus of Kosambl, nor rise 
from our seats before them, nor raise our hands 
before them, nor perform the proper duties towards 
them, nor honour and esteem and revere and sup- 
port them, nor give them food when they come on 
their walks for alms; thus, when they are not 
honoured, esteemed, revered, supported, and hos- 
pitably received by us, they will go away, or return 
to the world, or propitiate the Blessed One.' 

2. Thus the lay-devotees of Kosambi did not 
salute any more the Bhikkhus of Kosambl, nor did 
they rise from their seats before them (&c, down 
to :) nor gave them food when they came on their 
walks for alms. 

Then the Bhikkhus of KosambJ, when they were 
no more honoured (&c, down to :) and hospitably 

1 UbbaV^a ; see (JStaka I, 300, and Mahivagga III, 9, 1. 

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X, 5, 4- SCHISMS AMONG THE SAMGUA. 3 1 5 

received by the lay-devotees of KosambI, said to 
each other: 'Well, friends, let us go to Savatthi 
and let us settle there that question before the 
Blessed One.' And the Bhikkhus of KosambI put 
their resting-places in order, took up their alms- 
bowls and their robes, and went forth to Savatthi. 

3. And the venerable Sariputta heard : ' Those 
litigious, contentions, quarrelsome, disputatious 
Bhikkhus of KosambI, the constant raisers of ques- 
tions before the Sawgha, are coming to Savatthi.' 
And the venerable Sariputta went to the place 
where the Blessed One was; having approached 
him and respectfully saluted the Blessed One, he 
sat down near him. Sitting near him the venerable 
Sariputta said to the Blessed One : ' Lord, those 
litigious, contentious (&c, down to :) are coming 
to Savatthi. How am I to behave, Lord, towards 
those Bhikkhus?' 

' Well, Sariputta, you must side with those who 
are right according to the Dhamma.' 

' But how shall I discern, Lord, what is right and 
what is wrong ?' 

4. ' There are eighteen things, Sariputta, by which 
you may conclude that a Bhikkhu is wrong accord- 
ing to the Dhamma. In case, Sariputta, a Bhikkhu 
declares what is not Dhamma to be Dhamma, or 
declares what is Dhamma not to be Dhamma, or 
declares what is not Vinaya to be Vinaya, or declares 
what is Vinaya not to be Vinaya, or declares what 
has not been taught and spoken by the Tathagata 
to have been taught and spoken by the Tathagata, 
or declares something taught and spoken by the 
Tathagata not to have been taught and spoken 
by the Tathagata, or declares what has not been 



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3i6 mahAvagga. x, 5, 5. 

practised by the Tathagata to have been practised 
by the Tathagata, or declares something practised by 
the Tathagata not to have been practised by the 
Tathagata, or declares what has not been ordained 
by the Tathagata to have been ordained by the 
Tathagata, or declares something ordained by the 
Tathagata not to have been ordained by the Tatha- 
gata, or declares what is no offence to be an offence, 
or declares an offence to be no offence, or declares a 
slight offence to be a grievous offence, or declares 
a grievous offence to be a slight offence, or declares 
(a rule regarding) an offence to which there is an 
exception to be without an exception, or declares 
(a rule regarding) an offence to which there is no 
exception to admit of exceptions 1 , or declares a 
grave offence 2 to be a not grave offence, or declares 
an offence that is not grave to be a grave offence, 
— these are the eighteen things, Siriputta, by which 
you may conclude that a Bhikkhu is wrong accord- 
ing to the Dhamma. 

5. ' And there are eighteen things, Sariputta, by 
which you may conclude that a Bhikkhu is right 
according to the Dhamma. In case, Siriputta, a 
Bhikkhu declares what is not Dhamma to be not 

1 Our translation of sa vases a and anavasesa is entirely con- 
jectural. By the exceptions alluded to here we believe that such 
clauses must be understood as, for instance, in the sixth Nissaggiya 
Rule the words: 'Except at the right season; — here the right 
season means when the Bhikkhu has been robbed of his robe, or 
when his robe has been destroyed. This is the right season in 
this connection.' 

• The term ' Du//Aulli Spatti ' is used also in the ninth P&Aittiya 
Rule, and the Old Commentary there states that by ' grave offences ' 
those belonging to the Para^ika and SawghMsesa classes are 
understood. 



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X,S, 1- SCHISMS AMONG THE SAMGHA. 317 

Dhamma,or declares what is Dhamma to be Dhamma 
(&c, down to :), or declares a grave offence to be 
a grave offence, or declares an offence that is not 
grave to be not grave, — these are the eighteen 
things, Sariputta, by which you may conclude that 
a Bhikkhu is right according to the Dhamma.' 

6. And the venerable Mahamoggallina heard 
(&c, as in §§ 3-5) — and the venerable Mahikas- 
sapa heard, &c. — and the venerable Mahakai^ana 
heard, &c. — and the venerable Mahako/Mita 1 heard, 
&c. — and the venerable Mahakappina heard, &c. — 
and the venerable Mahiiunda heard, &c. — and the 
venerable Anuruddha heard, &c. — and the venerable 
Revata heard, &c. — and the venerable Upali heard, 
&c. — and the venerable Ananda heard, &c. — and 
the venerable Rahula heard (&c, as above). 

7. And Mahapa^apati Gotaml heard: 'Those 
litigious, contentious, quarrelsome, disputatious 
Bhikkhus of Kosambt, the constant raisers of 
questions before the Samgha, are coming to Sa- 
vatthi.' And Mahapa^apati Gotaml went to the 
place where the Blessed One was; having ap- 
proached him and respectfully saluted the Blessed 
One, she stationed herself near him. Standing 
near him Mahapa^apati Gotamt said to the Blessed 
One : ' Lord, those litigious, contentious (&c, down 
to :) are coming to Savatthi. How am I to behave, 
Lord, towards those Bhikkhus?' 

'Well, Gotamt, hear the Dhamma on both sides. 
When you have heard the Dhamma on both sides, 

1 The name of this Thera is spelt in the MSS. Mahako///4ita and 
Mahako/Ziika. In the Northern Buddhist works he is called MahS- 
kaush/frlya. In the Lalita Vistara (p. 1, ed. Calc.) KauMlya is 
a misprint. 



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3 1 8 MAH AVAGGA. X, 5, 8. 

then accept the opinion and the belief and the doc- 
trine and the cause of those Bhikkhus who are right 
according to the Dhamma ; and whatever the Bhik- 
khunlsajwgha has to apply for to the Bhikkhusa*»- 
gha 1 , for all that you must apply to the party of 
those who are right.' 

8. And Anatha-pi«dTika the householder heard 
(&c, as in § 3, down to :). ' How am I to behave, 
Lord, towards those Bhikkhus ? ' 

'Well, householder, bestow gifts on both sides; 
having bestowed gifts on both sides, hear the 
Dhamma on both sides. When you have heard 
the Dhamma on both sides, then accept the opinion 
and the belief and the doctrine and the cause of 
those Bhikkhus who are right according to the 
Dhamma.' 

9. And Visakha Migaramata heard, &c. 2 

10. And the Bhikkhus of Kosambl in due course 
came to Savatthi. And the venerable Sariputta 
went to the place where the Blessed One was; 
having approached him and respectfully saluted 
the Blessed One, he sat down near him. Sitting 
near him the venerable Sariputta said to the Blessed 
One : ' Lord, those litigious, contentious, quarrel- 
some, disputatious Bhikkhus of Kosambt, the con- 
stant raisers of questions before the Sawgha, have 
arrived at Sivatthi. How are we, Lord, to arrange 
the dwelling-places of those Bhikkhus?' 

' Well, Sariputta, assign separate dwelling-places 
to them.' 



1 See ATiillavagga X, 1, 4, and the 59th P&iittiya Rule in the 
Bhikkhuni-patimokkha. 
■ As in § 8. Instead of ' Well, householder,' read 'Well.Vis&kha.' 



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X,5i"« SCHISMS AMONG THE SAAfGHA. 319 

' And if there be no separate dwelling-places, what 
are we to do then, Lord?' 

' Then, Sariputta, you must separate (some 
dwelling-places from the rest) and then assign 
them (to those Bhikkhus). But in no wise, Sari- 
putta, do I say that the dwelling-place of a senior 
Bhikkhu must be taken from him. He who does 
that, commits a dukka/a offence.' 

'And how are we to act, Lord, regarding (the 
distribution of) material gifts ' ?' 

' Material gifts, Sariputta, must be distributed 
among all in equal parts.' 

11. And that Bhikkhu against whom expulsion 
had been pronounced, pondering over both Dhamma 
and Vinaya, came to the following conclusion : * This 
is an offence ; this is not no offence. I am an offender ; 
I am not offenceless. I am expelled ; I am not un- 
expelled. The sentence by which I have been 
expelled is lawful, unobjectionable, and valid.' Then 
that expelled Bhikkhu went to the expelled Bhikkhu's 
partisans ; having approached them, he said to the 
partisans of the expelled Bhikkhu : ' This is an 
offence, friends ; this is not no offence, &c. Come 
now, my venerable brethren, and restore me.' 

12. Then the partisans of that expelled Bhikkhu 
took with them the expelled Bhikkhu, and went to 
the place where the Blessed One was ; having 
approached him and respectfully saluted the Blessed 
One, they sat down near him. Sitting near him 
those Bhikkhus said to the Blessed One : ' Lord, 
this Bhikkhu, against whom expulsion has been pro- 
nounced, says, " This is an offence, friends (&c, 

1 Such as food, robes, &c. 



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320 mahAvagga. X, 5, 13. 

down to :) and restore me." What are we to do 
here, Lord ?' 

' This is an offence, O Bhikkhus ; this is not no 
offence. This Bhikkhu is an offender ; this Bhikkhu 
is not offenceless. This Bhikkhu is expelled ; he is 
not unexpelled ; the sentence by which he has been 
expelled is lawful, unobjectionable, and valid. But 
since this Bhikkhu, O Bhikkhus, having committed 
an offence, and having been sentenced to expulsion, 
sees (his offence), restore now that Bhikkhu, O 
Bhikkhus.' 

13. And the partisans of that expelled Bhikkhu, 
having restored that expelled Bhikkhu, went to the 
Bhikkhus who had sentenced him to expulsion; 
having approached them, they said to the Bhikkhus 
who had pronounced that sentence: 'As regards 
that matter, friends, which gave origin to altercations 
among the Sawzgha, to contentions, discord, quarrels, 
divisions among the Sawgha, to disunion among the 
Sawgha, to separations among the Sawgha, to schisms 
among the Sawzgha, — that Bhikkhu (who was con- 
cerned in that matter), having committed an offence, 
and having been sentenced to expulsion, has seen 
(his offence) and has been restored. Come, friends, 
let us declare now the re-establishment of concord 
among the Sawgha in order to bring that matter to 
an end.' 

Then the Bhikkhus who had pronounced that 
sentence of expulsion, went to the place where the 
Blessed One was ; having approached him and re- 
spectfully saluted the Blessed One, they sat down 
near him ; sitting near him those Bhikkhus said to 
the Blessed One : ' Lord, those partisans of the 
expelled Bhikkhu have said to us : " As regards 



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X, 5, M- SCHISMS AMONG THE SAJVfGHA. 32 1 

that matter (&c, down to :) in order to bring that 
matter to an end." What are we to do here, Lord?' 
14. ' Since this Bhikkhu, O Bhikkhus, having 
committed an offence, and having been sentenced to 
expulsion, has seen (his offence) and has been re- 
stored, let the Sawgha, O Bhikkhus, declare the 
re-establishment of concord in order to bring that 
matter to an end. And this declaration is to be 
performed in this way: Let all brethren assemble 
together, both the sick and the healthy ; no one is 
allowed to send his declaration of ^anda 1 (and to 
stay away). When you have assembled, let a learned, 
competent Bhikkhu proclaim the following »atti 
before the Sa/#gha : " Let the Sawgha, reverend 
Sirs, hear me. As regards that matter which gave 
origin to altercations among the Sawgha, to conten- 
tions, discord, quarrels, divisions among the Sa*»gha, 
to disunion among the Sawgha, to separations among 
the Sawgha, to schisms among the Sawgha, — that 
Bhikkhu (concerned in that matter), having com- 
mitted an offence, and having been sentenced to 
expulsion, has seen (his offence) and has been 
restored. If the Sa#/gha is ready, let the Sawgha 
declare the re-establishment of concord in order to 
bring that matter to an end. This is the »atti. 
Let the Sa/»gha, reverend Sirs, hear me (&c. 2 , down 
to:) the re-establishment of concord, in order to 
bring that matter to an end, has been declared by 
the Sawgha; the division that existed among the 
Sawgha has been settled ; the disunion that existed 

1 See II, 23. 

* Here follows the repetition of the natti and the other solemn 
formulas belonging to a nattidutiya kamma in the usual way. 

[17] v 



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322 MAHAVAGGA. X, 6, I. 

among the Sawzgha has been settled. The Sa/#gha 
is in favour (of this declaration) ; therefore you are 
silent ; thus I understand." Then let the Sawgha 
hold Uposatha and proclaim the Patimokkha.' 



6. 

i. And the venerable Upali 1 went to the place 
where the Blessed One was. Having approached 
him and respectfully saluted the Blessed One, he 
sat down near him. Sitting near him the venerable 
Upali said to the Blessed One : ' Lord, if the Sawgha, 
regarding a matter which has given origin to alter- 
cations (&c, down to :) to schisms among the Sa/wgha, 
declares the re-establishment of concord, without 
having inquired into that matter and without having 
got to the bottom of it, is this declaration, Lord, 
lawful ?' 

' If the Sa/wgha, Up&li, regarding a matter (&c, 
down to :) declares the re-establishment of concord, 
without having inquired into that matter and without 
having got to the bottom of it, — this declaration, 
Upali, is unlawful.' 

' But if the Sawzgha, Lord, regarding a matter (&c, 
down to :) declares the re-establishment of concord, 
after having inquired into that matter and after 
having got to the bottom of it, — is this declaration, 
Lord, lawful ?' 

' If the Sawgha, Up&li, (&c, down to :) declares 
the re-establishment of concord, after having inquired 

1 See the note at IX, 6, i. 



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X, 6, 3- SCHISMS AMONG THE SAAfGHA. 323 

into that matter and after having got to the bottom 
of it, — this declaration, Upali, is lawful.' 

2. ' How many kinds are there, Lord, of the re- 
establishment of concord among a Sawgha ?' 

'There are the following two kinds, Upili, of 
re-establishment of concord among a Sawgha : Con- 
cord may be re-established, Upali, in the letter, but 
not in the spirit, and concord may be re-established 
both in the spirit and in the letter. 

'And in what case, Upali, is concord re-established 
in the letter, but not in the spirit ? If the Sawgha, 
Upali, (&c, as above) declares the re-establishment 
of concord, without having inquired into that matter 
and without having got to- the bottom of it, — in this 
case, Upali, concord is said to have been re-esta- 
blished in the letter, but not in the spirit. 

' And in what case, Upali, is concord re-established 
both in the spirit and in the letter ? If the Sawgha, 
Upali, (&c, as above) declares the re-establishment 
of concord, after having inquired into that matter 
and after having got to the bottom of it, — in this 
case, Upali, concord is said to have been re-estab- 
lished both in the spirit and in the letter. These, 
Upali, are the two kinds of re-establishment of con- 
cord among a Sawgha.' 

3. And the venerable Upali rose from his seat, 
adjusted his upper robe so as to cover one shoulder, 
bent his clasped hands towards the Blessed One, 
and addressed the Blessed One in the following 
stanzas : 

' In the affairs of the Sawgha and in its consulta- 
tions, in the business that arises and in trials, what 
sort of man is then most wanted ? what Bhikkhu is 
then most worthy of the leadership ? ' 

y 2 



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324 MAHAVAGGA. X, 6, 3. 

' Above all he who is blameless in his moral con- 
duct, who watches over his behaviour, whose senses 
are well controlled, whom his rivals do not reprove 
according to the law, — for there is nothing for which 
they could censure him, — 

' Such a man, who abides in blameless conduct, is 
well versed (in the doctrine), and mighty are his 
words. He is not perplexed, nor does he tremble, 
when he enters an assembly 1 . He does not dis- 
parage his cause by vain talk. 

' So also when he is asked questions in the assem- 
blies, he does not hesitate, and is not troubled. By 
his timely words, that solve the questions, the clever 
man gladdens the assembly of the wise. 

' Full of reverence for elder Bhikkhus, well versed 
in what his teacher has taught him, able to find out 
(the right), a master of speech, and skilled in making 
his rivals fail, — 

'By whom his rivals are annihilated, by whom 
many people receive instruction, — he does not for- 
sake the cause he has taken up, (nor does he become 
tired) of answering questions and putting questions 
without hurting others ; — 

' If he is charged with a mission, he takes it upon 
himself properly, and in the business of the Sa/»gha 
(he does) what they tell him 2 ; — when a number of 
Bhikkhus despatches him (somewhere), he obeys 

1 The same idea is put into the Buddha's mouth in the Maha- 
parinibbana Sutta I, 23, 24. 

2 We propose to read ahu nam yatha. This seems more 
satisfactory than the reading and the explanation found in Bud- 
dhaghosa's A/Makatha : ' yatha narna ahunara ahutipim/am saraug- 
gawbanti (sic) evara api so scmanassa^aten' eva ietasa sawghassa 
kii&su samuggaho.' 



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X, 6, 3. SCHISMS AMONG THE SAJJfGHA. 325 

their command, but he does not think therefrom, 
"It is I who do this;"— 

' In what cases a Bhikkhu commits an offence, 
what an offence is, and how it is atoned for,- both 
these expositions are well known to him 1 ; he is 
versed in the rules about offence and atonement ; — 

' By what deeds a Bhikkhu brings expulsion upon 
himself, in what cases one has been expelled, and 
the rehabilitation of a person who has undergone 
that penance, — all this he* also knows, well versed 
in the Vibhangas ; — 

' Full of reverence for elder Bhikkhus, for the 
young, for the Theras, for the middle-aged, bringing 
welfare to many people, a clever one : — such a 
Bhikkhu is the one who is then worthy of the 
leadership.' 

End of the tenth Khandhaka, which contains the 
story of the Bhikkhus of Kosambl. 



End of the Mahavagga. 



1 For 'Exposition' the text has vibhahga, about the technical 
meaning of which see our Introduction, pp. xv seq. ' Both ' 
refers to the Bhikkhuvibhahga and Bhikkhunivibhahga. In the 
text, ubhayassa must be corrected into ubhay' assa, i.e. ubhaye 
assa. 



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A'ULLAVAGGA. 



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A^ULLAVAGGA. 



FIRST KHANDHAKA. 
THE MINOR DISCIPLINARY PROCEEDINGS. 



I. The Tagganiya Kamma (Act of Rebuke). 



i. At that time the Blessed One was staying at 
<7etavana, in the grove of Anatha-pi«dfika. 

Now at that time the Bhikkhus who were fol- 
lowers of Tznduka. and of Lohitaka 1 , — who them- 
selves were makers of strife, quarrelsome 2 , makers 
of disputes 8 , given to idle talk, and raisers of legal 
questions in the Sawgha *, — used to go up to such 
other Bhikkhus as were the same, and say, ' Do not 
allow such a one, venerable Sirs, to turn you back. 
Discuss loud and long. You are indeed cleverer, 
more wise, more well informed, more able at that (than 

1 These were two out of the six notorious .Oabbaggiya Bhikkhus, 
who are so frequently mentioned elsewhere. Buddhaghosa says, 
tesam nissitaka pi Pa«</ukalohitaka tv'eva pannayanti. 

* In addition to the passages referred to in the two following 
notes, compare the closing words of the Patimokkha, and the 2nd, 
3rd, iath, 13th, 17th, 54th, 74th, and 75th Pa^ittiyas. 

* Such persons were formerly dealt with according to the 10th, 
nth, and 12th Sawghadisesas. 

* Such persons were formerly dealt with according to the 8 th 
and 9th Saraghadisesas and the 76th Pa^ittiya. Compare also 
below, IV, 14, and the 63rd and 79th P&iittiyas. 



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330 JCULLAVAGGA. 1,1,3. 

your adversaries are) and do not you be afraid of them. 
We too will be on your side.' Thereby both disputes 
arose which had not arisen before ; and disputes 
which had arisen grew hotter. 

2. Those Bhikkhus who were modest were an- 
noyed, murmured, and became indignant, saying, 
' How can the Bhikkhus Who are followers of 
Pawdfuka and of Lohitaka act thus.' And those 
Bhikkhus told the matter to the Blessed One. 

Then the Blessed One on that occasion, and in 
that connection, convened an assembly of the Order 
of Bhikkhus, and inquired of the Bhikkhus : 'Is it 
true, as they say, Bhikkhus, that those Bhikkhus 
who are followers of Pa«^uka and Lohitaka, — who 
themselves (&c, as in § I, down to the end) ?' 

' It is true, Lord !' 

The Blessed Buddha rebuked them, saying, ' This 
is improper, O Bhikkhus, for those foolish persons, 
not according to rule, unsuitable, unworthy of a 
Samawa, unbecoming, and ought not to be done. 
How can these foolish persons, O Bhikkhus, who 
themselves (&c, as in $ i, down to the end). This 
will not conduce, O Bhikkhus, either to the conver- 
sion of the unconverted, or to the increase of the 
converted ; but rather to those who have not been 
converted being not converted, and to the turning 
back of those who have been converted.' 

3. And when the Blessed One had rebuked those 
Bhikkhus in various ways, — speaking of the evils 
of being hard to satisfy in the matter of support 
or nourishment, of wishing for much, of discontent, 
of love of society, and of sloth ; and speaking in 
praise of being easy to satisfy in the matter of 
support and nourishment, of wishing for little, of the 



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I, 1, 4. THE MINOR DISCIPLINARY PROCEEDINGS. 33 1 

contented man who has eradicated (evils from his 
mind), has quelled his passions 1 , and is full of faith, 
of reverence, and of the exercise of zeal, — when he 
had thus held a religious discourse to the Bhikkhus 
as to what was fit and suitable in that respect, he 
addressed the Bhikkhus, and said : ' Let the Sa#zgha, 
therefore, O Bhikkhus, carry out the Ta^aniya- 
kamma (Act of Rebuke) against those Bhikkhus. 

4. ' Now thus, O Bhikkhus, should it be carried 
out. In the first place the Bhikkhus who are 
followers of Fanduka and Lohitaka ought to be 
warned ; when they have been warned, they ought to 
be reminded (of the Rule in the Patimokkha against 
which they have offended) ; when they have been 
reminded, they ought to be charged with the (par- 
ticular) offence ; when they have been charged with 
the offence, some discreet and able Bhikkhu ought 
to lay the matter before the Sa/«gha, saying, 

' " Let the venerable Sawzgha hear me. These 
Bhikkhus who are followers of Pa«afuka and Lohi- 
taka, who themselves (&c, as in § i, down to the end). 
If the time is fit for the Sawgha (to do so) let the 
Sawgha carry out the Taj^aniya-kamma against 
the Bhikkhus who are followers of Paw^uka and 
Lohitaka. 

'"Such is the motion («atti). 

' " Let the venerable Sazwgha hear me. The Bhik- 
khus who are followers of Fanduka and Lohitaka, 

1 We have here the substance of that 'religious discourse' 
(dhammiw katha/n) which the Buddha is so frequently stated to 
have held before he laid down the rule for the guidance of the 
Bhikkhus in the particular matter which had been brought before 
him. It recurs in the Mahavagga (I, 25, 6), and is constantly to be 
supplied both there and below. 



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332 JTULLAVAGGA. I, 2, I. 

who themselves (&c, as in § i, down to the end). 
The Samgha hereby carries out the Ta^aniya- 
kamma against them. Whosoever of the venerable 
ones approves of the carrying out of the T a^a n iya- 
kamma against the Bhikkhus who are followers of 
Panduka, and Lohitaka, let him remain silent Who- 
soever approves not thereof, let him speak. 

' " A second time I say the same thing. Let the 
venerable Sawgha (&c, as before *). A third time 
I say the same thing. Let the venerable Samgha 
(&c, as before '). 

' " The Ta^aniya-kamma against the Bhikkhus 
who are followers of Panduka and Lohitaka has 
been carried by the Sawgha. The Sa*«gha approves 
(the motion). Therefore is it silent Thus do I 
understand." ' 



2 s . 

i. 'There are three things, O Bhikkhus, by 
which, when a Ta^aniya-kamma is characterised, 
it is against the Dhamma, and against the Vinaya, 
and difficult to be settled; (that is to say), when it 
has not been carried out in a full assembly of 
properly qualified persons, according to law and 
justice, and in the presence of the litigant parties 3 — 
when it has been carried out without the accused per- 
son having been heard — when it has been carried out 
without the accused person having confessed himself 
guilty. A Ta^aniya-kamma, O Bhikkhus, charac- 

1 The motion just proposed is repeated down to the end. 

.* Repeated below, chapters io, 14, and 19. 

8 AH these details are involved in the meaning of the technical 
term asammukhata, which is fully explained in ^Tullavagga IV, 
14, 16, and following. 



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I, 2, I. THE MINOR DISCIPLINARY PROCEEDINGS. 333 

terised by these three things is against the Dhamma, 
and against the Vinaya, and difficult to be settled. 

' There are other three things, O Bhikkhus, by 
which, when a Ta^faniya-kamma has been cha- 
racterised, it is against the Dhamma, and against 
the Vinaya, and difficult to be settled ; (that is to 
say), when it has been carried out though no fault 
has been committed — when it has been carried out 
for a Para^ika or a Sazwghadisesa offence ' — when 
it has been carried out though the fault has been 
confessed. A Ta^aniya-kamma, O Bhikkhus, 
characterised (&c, as before, down to) settled. 

'There are other three things, O Bhikkhus, by 
which, when a Ta^aniya-kamma has been cha- 
racterised, it is against the Dhamma, and against 
the Vinaya, and difficult to be settled ; (that is to 
say), when it has been carried out without the accused 
person having been warned — when it has been carried 
out without the accused person having been called 
upon to remember (whether he has or has not com- 
mitted the offence) — when it has been carried out 
without the accused person having been convicted. 
A Ta^aniya-kamma, O Bhikkhus, characterised 
(&c, as before, down to) settled. 

'There are other three things, O Bhikkhus, by 
which, when a Ta^aniya-kamma has been cha- 
racterised, it is against the Dhamma, and against 
the Vinaya, and difficult to be settled ; (that is to say), 
when it has not been carried out in a properly con- 
stituted meeting properly conducted 2 — when it has 

1 Buddhaghosa says, AdesanSgtminiydti Para^ikapattiy£ va 
Sawghadisesapattiyi va. 

1 As in the first paragraph of this section more fully described. 
The word here used is the same. 



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3^4 JTULLAVAGGA. I, 2, 1. 

been carried out without justice 1 — when it has been 
carried out without the presence and approval of all 
the Bhikkhus belonging to the particular circuit 2 . A 
Ta^aniya-kamma, O Bhikkhus, characterised by 
these three things is (&c, as before, down to) settled. 

' There are other three things, O Bhikkhus, by 
which, when a Ta^aniya-kamma has been cha- 
racterised, it is against the Dhamma, and against 
the Vinaya, and difficult to be settled ; (that is to 
say), when it has been carried out without the 
accused person having been heard — when it has 
been carried out without justice — when it has been 
carried out without the presence and approval of all 
the Bhikkhus belonging to the circuit. A Ta^fa- 
niya-kamma, O Bhikkhus, characterised by these 
three things is (&c, as before, down to) settled. 

' There are other three things (&c, as before, down 
to) that is to say, when it has been carried out without 
the accused person having been convicted — when it 
has been carried out without justice — when it has 
been carried out without the presence and approval 
of all the Bhikkhus belonging to the circuit.' 

[And in a similar way each of the three things in 
paragraphs 2 and 3 of this section are united with the 
two things just repeated in each of paragraphs 4, 5, 
and 6, to make six further cases in which a Ta^a- 
niya-kamma is declared to be against the Dhamma, 
and against the Vinaya, and difficult to be revoked.] 



Here end the twelve cases of a proceeding (K am ma) 
which is against the law. 

1 Adhammena; perhaps ' contrary to the Rules.' 
3 Vaggena for vi + aggena, the opposite of samaggena. See our 
note on the 21st Pa&ttiya, and Mahavagga IX, 3, 5. 



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I,4,i. THE MINOR DISCIPLINARY PROCEEDINGS. 335 

3. 

1. 'There are three things, O Bhikkhus, by 
which, when a Ta^aniya-kamma is characterised, 
it is a proceeding in accordance with the Dhamma, 
a proceeding in accordance with the Vinaya, and is 
easy to be settled ; (that is to say), when it has been 
carried out in a full assembly of qualified persons, 
according to law, and in the presence of the litigant 
parties — when it has been carried out after the 
accused person has been heard — when it has been 
carried out after the accused person has confessed 
himself guilty. A Ta^aniya-kamma, O Bhik- 
khus, characterised by these three things is in 
accordance with the Dhamma, and in accordance 
with the Vinaya, and is easy to be settled.' 

[And in a similar way the opposite of each of the 
twelve propositions in the last section is here laid 
down.] 

Here end the twelve cases of a proceeding (K am ma) 
which is according to law. 



4. 

1. ' There are three things, O Bhikkhus, which, when 
they characterise a Bhikkhu, the Sawgha, if it likes, 
should carry out the Ta^aniya-kamma against 
him ; (that is to say), when he is a maker of strife, 
quarrelsome, a maker of disputes, given to idle talk, 
and a raiser of legal questions in the Sawgha 1 — 
when he is dull, stupid, full of faults, and devoid of 
merit — when he is living in lay society, in unlawful 

1 This refers to the Introductory Story, 1, 1, 1. 

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336 JTULLAVAGGA. 1, 4, a. 

association with the world. • There are three things, 
O Bhikkhus, which, when the Sawgha suspects (&c, 
as before, down to) against him. 

' There are other three things, O Bhikkhus, (&c, 
as before, down to) against him ; (that is to say), 
when he has failed in morality as regards moral 
things — when he has failed in conduct as regards 
transgression — when he has failed in opinion as 
regards the principal matters of opinion 1 . There 
are three things, O Bhikkhus, (&c, as before, down 
to) against him. 

'There are other three things, O Bhikkhus, (&c, 
as before, down to) against him ; (that is to say), 
when he speaks in dispraise of the Buddha — when he 
speaks in dispraise of the Dhamma — when he speaks 
in dispraise of the Sawgha. These are three things, 
O Bhikkhus, (&c, as before, down to) against him. 

2. 'There are three kinds of Bhikkhus, O Bhik- 
khus, against whom, if the Sawgha likes, it should 
carry out the Ta,£f aniya-kamma ; (that is to say), 
one who is a maker of strife (&c, as in § i, down 
to) a raiser of legal questions in the Sawgha — one 
who is dull, stupid, full of faults, and devoid of 
merit — and one who is living in lay society, in 
unlawful association with the world. These are 
three kinds of Bhikkhus, O Bhikkhus, (&c, as 
before, down to) the Ta^aniya-kamma. 

'There are other three kinds of Bhikkhus, O 
Bhikkhus, against whom, if the Sa/wgha likes, it 
should carry out the Ta^aniya-kamma; (that is 
to say), one who has failed in morality in regard 
to moral matters — one who has failed in conduct 

1 Compare Mahavagga I, 36, 8, and our note there. 

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1,5,1. THE MINOR DISCIPLINARY PROCEEDINGS. 337 

as regards transgression — one who has failed in 
opinion as regards the principal matters of opinion. 
These are three kinds of Bhikkhus, O Bhikkhus 
(&c, as before, down to) the Tapani ya-k am ma. 

' There are other three kinds of Bhikkhus, O 
Bhikkhus, against whom, if the Sa*«gha likes, it 
should carry out the Ta^aniya-kamma; (that 
is to say), one who speaks in dispraise of the 
Buddha — one who speaks in dispraise of the 
Dhamma — one who speaks in dispraise of the 
Sazwgha. These are three kinds of Bhikkhus, O 
Bhikkhus (&c, as before, down to) the Tapani ya- 
kamma.' 

Here end the six permissive case's of Ta^aniya- 

kamma. 



6\ 

I. 'A Bhikkhu against whom the Ta^aniya- 
kamma has been carried out ought to conduct him- 
self aright. And herein this is the right conduct 2 : 
he ought not to confer the upasampadi — he ought 
not to give a nissaya 8 — he ought not to provide 

1 This chapter is repeated below for the Nissaya-, Pabba^a- 
niya-, and Pa/isaramya-kammas (chapters 10, 15, and 21). The 
corresponding rule for the first two Ukkhepaniya-kammas is 
different, and much more stringent (chapter 27, repeated in chapter 
31); but that for the third (chapter 33) is again the same as the 
rule laid down in this chapter. In the second Khandhaka (1, 2) 
the list of restrictions is again longer. 

* SammSvattanS. See MahSvagga T, 26, 1; 27, 1 ; 33, 1; 34, 1. 

* Buddhaghosa says, agantukanaw nissayo na databbo. The 
relation of a junior Bhikkhu either to his upa^Mya or to his 
&£ariya is alike called nissaya (Mahavagga I, 36, 1); but the 
term is more especially applied to the latter, (MahSvagga I, 31, 2, 
whereas in the corresponding formula for the upa^Aaya, Maha- 

[17] z 



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338 JTULLAVAGGA. 1, 5, I. 

himself with a simawera 1 — he ought not to accept the 
office of giving exhortation to the nuns 2 — and if he has 
accepted the office, he ought not to exhort the nuns 2 — 
he ought not to commit the offence for which the 
Ta^faniya-kamma has been carried out by the 
Sawgha against him — nor any offence of a similar 
kind — nor any worse offence — he ought not to find 
fault with the proceeding (that has been carried out 
against him) — nor with (the Bhikkhus) who have 
carried it out — he ought not to raise objection 
against a regular 3 Bhikkhu's taking part in the 
Uposatha ceremony 4 — or in the Pavara»4 cere- 
mony 8 — he ought not to issue commands (to a 
junior inhibiting him from going beyond the 
bounds', or summoning him to come before the 
elders) — he ought not to set on foot a censure 
against any other Bhikkhu 7 — he ought not to ask 
another Bhikkhu to give him leave (to rebuke that 
Bhikkhu 8 ) — he ought not to warn (another Bhik- 
khu • whom he supposes to be offending) — he ought 

vagga I, 25, 7, the word nissaya does not occur). In other 
words, nissaya means all that is included in the phrase ' nissaya te 
vatthabbaw' (A'ullavagga I, 9, 2). 

' Compare Mahavagga I, 36, 37. 

» See below, ATullavagga X, 9, 4, and also the 21st PSiittiya. 

* Compare Minayeff, Patimokkha, p. 63. 

* Compare Patimokkham Mapetuw at Ajulla vagga IX, 2. 
8 Compare Mahavagga IV, 16, 2. 

* As, for example, under the rule at Mahavagga I, 27, 2. Bud- 
dhaghosa says, Na sava£aniya*n katabban ti aham ayasmantam 
asmi/n vatthusmim vafoniyaw karomi imamhl avasa param pi mi 
pakkami yava na taro adhikara»a« vupasantam hottti. He also 
gives a longer note, partly to the same effect, on the corresponding 
passage in II, 1, 2, which will be found in our note there, and from 
which we have taken the second clause in the parentheses. 

7 See the note on this word in the next chapter. 

* Compare Mahavagga II, 16, 1. * Compare Aulla vagga IX, 5. 



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I, 6, a. THE MINOR DISCIPLINARY PROCEEDINGS. 339 

not to call upon another Bhikkhu to remember 
(whether he has or has not committed an offence) — 
and he ought not to associate with the Bhikkhus.' 



Here end the eighteen duties which follow on a 
Ta^aniya-kamma. 



6». 

1. So the Sa*«gha carried out the Ta/^aniya- 
kamma against the Bhikkhus who were followers 
of Vanduka. and Lohitaka. And when they had 
been subjected by the Sa/»gha to the Ta^aniya- 
kamma and were conducting themselves aright in 
accordance thereto, they became subdued 2 , and they 
sought for release 8 ; and going up to the Bhikkhus 
they spake as follows : ' We, Sirs, have been sub- 
jected by the Sawgha to the Ta^aniya-kamma 
(&c., down to) release. What now should we do ?' 

They told this thing to the Blessed One. 

' Then, O Bhikkhus, let the Sawgha revoke the 
Ta^aniya-kamma carried out against the fol- 
lowers of Pawdfaka and Lohitaka. 

2. ' There are five things, O Bhikkhus, by which, 



1 Compare below, chapters 11, 16, 23, 28, 34. 

* Loma* patenti. See the commentary as given by H. Olden- 
berg at p. 309 of his edition of the text. That our translation is 
correct is evident from the use of panna-lomo (at Aullavagga 
VII, 1, 6), that being simply the opposite of ha /Ma- lo mo, which 
signifies ' having the hair of the body erect in consequence of the 
excitement produced by fear, joy, or amazement ;' and hence simply 
1 troubled, excited.' The opposite of this is ' pacified, subdued.' 

* Nettharam vattanti. See the commentary in the edition of 
the text loco citato. 

Z 2 

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340 rULLAVAGGA. 1, 6, 2. 

when a Bhikkhu is characterised, a Ta^aniya- 
kamma ought not to be revoked for him; (that is 
to say), when he confers the upasampada — when 
he gives anissaya — when he provides himself with 
a sama»era — when he accepts the office of giving 
exhortation to the nuns — and when, having accepted 
that office, he exhorts the nuns. These are the 
five things, O Bhikkhus (&c., as before, down to) 
revoked for him. 

'There are other five things, O Bhikkhus, by 
which, when a Bhikkhu is characterised, a Ta//a- 
niya-kamma ought not to be revoked for him; 
(that is to say), when he commits the offence for 
which the Ta^faniya-kamma has been carried 
out by the Sawgha against him — or any other 
offence of a similar kind — or any worse offence — 
when he finds fault with the proceeding that has 
been carried out against him — or with the Bhikkhus 
who have carried it out. These are five things, 
O Bhikkhus (&c, as before, down to) revoked for 
him. 

' There are eight things, O Bhikkhus, by which, 
when a Bhikkhu is characterised, a Tapani ya- 
kamma ought not to be revoked for him ; (that is 
to say), when he raises objections against a 
regular 1 Bhikkhus taking part in the Uposatha 
ceremony — or in the Pavara»4 ceremony — when 
he inhibits a junior from going beyond the bounds — 
when he sets on foot a censure against any other 
Bhikkhu — when he asks another Bhikkhu to give 

1 Pakatattassa, that is a Bhikkhu who has not made himself 
liable to any disciplinary proceeding, has committed no irregu- 
larity. It is one of the expressions unknown to the Patimokkha, 
but occurs in the much later Introduction to that work (Dickson, 
p. n). See below, III, i, i. 



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1,8,1. THE MINOR DISCIPLINARY PROCEEDINGS. 34I 

him leave to rebuke that Bhikkhu — when he warns 
another Bhikkhu whom he supposes to be offend- 
ing — when he reminds another Bhikkhu of a rule 
against which he supposes that Bhikkhu to be 
offending — when he associates with the Bhikkhus. 
These are the eight things, O Bhikkhus (&c, as 
before, down to) revoked for him.' 

Here end the eighteen cases in which there ought to 
be no revocation (of the Ta^aniya-kamma). 



7. 
[This chapter is exactly the converse of the last] 



Here end the eighteen cases in which there ought to 
be a revocation (of the Tapani ya-kam ma). 



8*. 

1. ' Now, thus, O Bhikkhus, should the revocation 
be carried out. Those Bhikkhus who are followers 
of Pawafuka and Lohitaka should go before the 
Sawgha, with their upper robe arranged over one 
shoulder, and should bow down at the feet of the 
elder Bhikkhus, and squatting down, and raising 
their hands with the palms joined together, should 
speak as follows : " We, Sirs, have been subjected 
by the Sa/wgha to the Ta^aniya-kamma,and are 
conducting ourselves aright in accordance thereto; 
and we have become subdued, and we seek for 
release, and beg for a revocation of the Ta^aniya- 

1 Compare below, chapters 12 and 17. 

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342 JTULLAVAGGA. 1, 8, a. 

kamma." And a second time they should beg [in 
the same words]. And a third time they should beg 
[in the same words]. Then a discreet and able Bhik- 
khu should lay the matter before the Sawgha : 

2. ' " Let the venerable Sa#*gha hear me. These 
Bhikkhus who are followers of Paw^uka and Lohi- 
taka have been subjected (&c, as before), and they 
are conducting themselves (&c, as before), and they 
beg (&c, as before). 

'"This is the motion (»atti). 

'"Let the venerable Sawgha hear me. These 
Bhikkhus (&c, as before, down to) and they beg 
for a revocation of the Ta^aniya-kamma. The 
Sawgha revokes the Tapani ya-kamm a for the 
Bhikkhus who are followers of Pa«</uka and Lohi- 
taka. Whosoever of the venerable ones approves of 
the revocation of the Ta^faniya-kamma for the 
Bhikkhus who are followers of Pawduka and Lohi- 
taka, let him hold his peace. Whosoever approves 
not thereof, let him speak. 

'"And a second time I say the same thing. Let 
the venerable Sawgha (&c, as before, down to) let 
him speak. 

'"And a third time I say the same thing. Let 
the venerable Sa/wgha (&c, as before, down to) let 
him speak. 

' " The revocation of the T a/^a niya-kammafor 
the Bhikkhus who are followers of Pa#</uka and 
Lohitaka has been carried by the Sawsgha. The 
Sa/»gha approves; therefore is it silent Thus do 
I understand."' 

Here ends the first (Kamma), the 
Ta^faniya-kamma. 



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I, 9, I. THE MINOR DISCIPLINARY PROCEEDINGS. 343 



II. The Nissaya-kamma (Act of Subordination). 



9. 

i. Now at that time the venerable Seyyasaka 
was stupid, and indiscreet, and full of faults, and 
devoid of merit, and was living in lay society in 
unlawful association with the world 1 . So much so 
that the Bhikkhus were worn out 2 with placing him 
on probation 3 , and with throwing him back to the 
beginning (of his probationary term) 4 , and with sub- 
jecting him to the manatta discipline 5 , and with 
rehabilitating him 6 . The moderate Bhikkhus were 
annoyed, and murmured, and became indignant 

1 There is no rule in the Patimokkha in which any of these 
things are declared to be an offence. The 3 ist and 85th Paiittiyas 
only refer to a Bhikkhu's staying an unreasonable time in a public 
rest-house, and to his frequenting a village beyond the ordinary 
occasions. Stupidity, and keeping low company, are not men- 
tioned. Why then should Seyyasaka have been placed upon pro- 
bation? We think the answer will appear from our note 1 on 
II, 1, 1. 

* PakatS, 'done up,' explained by vSva/S. See Oldenberg's 
quotation from Buddhaghosa at p. 310 of his edition of the text. 

* Compare Mahavagga I, 38, 1 ; MahS-parinibbana Sutta V, 64, 
65; and .Afullavagga III, 3. On the distinction between these 
kinds of probation, see also our note below on II, 1, 1. 

* See below, II, 2, 1. Compare also Subhutj's explanation in 
Childers, and the passages quoted in the index to Oldenberg's 
edition of the text, p. 348, sub voce, especially .ffullavagga III, 7. 

6 See below, Aullavagga III, 1 ; III, 4. 
6 See below, A'ullavagga III, 2 ; III, 5. 



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344 JTULLAVAGGA* 1, 9, a. 

(saying), ' How can the venerable Seyyasaka be so 
stupid (&c, as before), that the Bhikkhus are worn 
out (&c, as before) ?' 

Then those Bhikkhus told that matter to the 
Blessed One. 

And the Blessed One on that occasion, and in 
that connection, convened a meeting of the Bhikkhu- 
sawgha, and asked the Bhikkhus, ' Is it true, O 
Bhikkhus, as they say, that the venerable Seyya- 
saka is stupid (&:., as before, down to) with reha- 
bilitating him ?' 

'It is true, Lord!' 

The Blessed Buddha rebuked him (saying), 'This 
is improper' (&c, as usual, compare I, 2, 3, down 
to), and addressed the Bhikkhus, and said, ' Let the 
Sawgha therefore, O Bhikkhus, carry out the Nis- 
saya-kamma (Act of Subordination) against the 
venerable Seyyasaka : " Thou must remain under 
the superintendence of others 1 ." 

2. 'Now thus, O Bhikkhus, should it be carried 
out. In the first place the Bhikkhu Seyyasaka ought 
to be warned ; when he has been warned, he ought 
to be reminded 2 ; when he has been reminded, he 
ought to be charged with the offence 2 ; when he has 
been charged with the offence, some discreet and 
able Bhikkhu ought to lay the matter before the 
Sa#zgha (saying), 

' " Let the venerable Sawgha hear me (&c, as 
usual ; see above, chapters 1. 4 and 8. 2)." ' 

1 These are the distinctive and technical words of the Nissaya- 
kamma, just as the corresponding clause in chap. 13, § 7 contains 
the technical words of the Pabba^ajiiya-kamma. 

9 As explained above, chap. 1. 4. 



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I, ii, I. THE MINOR DISCIPLINARY PROCEEDINGS. 345 

10. 

[Chapters 2-5 are here repeated at length, Nis- 
saya-kamma being substituted throughout for 
Ta^aniy a-kam ma.] 



II 1 . 

I. So the Sawgha carried out the Nissaya- 
kamma against the Bhikkhu Seyyasaka (saying), 
' Thou must remain under the superintendence of 
others.' 

And he, when subjected by the Sawgha to the 
N issaya-kamma, by resorting to and cultivating the 
acquaintance of good companions 2 , associating with 
them, getting them to declare to him (the Dhamma), 
and asking them questions, became wise in the tra- 
ditions; a man to whom the Nikayas had been 
handed down; a reciter of the Dhamma, of the 
Vinaya, and of the Matikas; clever, discreet, wise, 
modest, full of remorse, and docile ; he conducted 
himself aright, he became subdued, he sought for 
release, and going up to the Bhikkhus, he spake as 
follows : 

I I, Sirs, after having been subjected by the Sawgha 
to the N issaya-kamma, am conducting myself 
aright, and have become subdued, and I seek for 
release. What now should I do ?' 

They told this thing to the Blessed One. 
' Then, O Bhikkhus, let the Sawgha revoke the 
Nissaya-kamma for the Bhikkhu Seyyasaka. 

1 Compare above, chapter 6. 

* Compare Dhammapada, ver. 357. 



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346 tfULLAVAGGA. I, II, 3. 

2. ' There are five things, O Bhikkhus (&c, as 
in chap. 6. 2, down to the end of chap. 7, read- 
ing throughout Nissaya-kamma for Tapani ya- 

karama).' 



12. 

[This chapter sets out the mode of revocation by 
a kamma-vaia precisely as above in chapter 8.] 



Here ends the second (Kamma), the Nissaya- 
kamma. 



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I, 13, I. THE MINOR DISCIPLINARY PROCEEDINGS. 347 



III. The PabbAganiya-kamma (Act of Banishment). 



18». 

1. Now at that time the Bhikkhus who were 
followers of Assafi and Punabbasu were dwelling 
on the Ki/a Hill, wicked Bhikkhus, and shameless. 
Such as these were the evil practices they followed : 
they used to plant cuttings of flowers, and have 
them planted ; they used to water flowers, and have 
them watered; they used to gather them, and 
have them gathered; they used to make them up 
into nosegays, and have them so made up ; they 
used to make them up, and to have them made up, 
into wreaths, of the kind with the stalks together, 
and of the kind with the stalks separate 2 , of the 
kind called ma»farika 3 , of the kind called vidhu- 
tika 4 , of the kind called va/awsaka 8 , of the kind 



1 The whole of this chapter recurs in the Sutta Vibhanga on 
the 13th Sawghadisesa. The proceeding here laid down is really 
only a later method of acting under the circumstances similar to 
those for which that rule had previously been the authorised 
dealing. 

1 The Samanta Pasadika says, Ekatovan/ikan ti pupphanam 
va«/e ekato katva kata-malam. Ubhato vaw/ikan ti ubhohi passehi 
puppha-va»/e katva kata-malaw. 

* Perhaps * like an anklet.' The Sam. Pis. says, Man^rt viya 
kaut puppha-vikati man^arika ti. 

4 Perhaps 'like a fan.* The Sam. Pas. says, Vidhutiki ti 
sfliiya va salakaya vi sinduvara-pupphadini vjgyAitva kaut (mala). 

* Perhaps 'like a crest.' The Sam. Pis. says, va/a/nsako ti 



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348 *ULLAVAGGA. I, 13, 2. 

called ave/a 1 , of the kind called ura££^ada 2 ; — 
and they then used to take or send wreaths of each 
of these various kinds to the wives and daughters 
and young women and sisters-in-law and female 
slaves in respectable families ; — and they used to 
eat out of one dish, to drink out of one vessel, to sit 
on one seat, to lie on one bed, one mat, one coverlet, 
with the wives and daughters and young women 
and sisters-in-law and female slaves in respectable 
families ; — and they used to eat food at the wrong 
time, and to drink strong drink, and to make use 
of garlands, and scents, and unguents ; — and they 
used to dance, and sing, and play music, and wanton, 
and all these together in every combination. 

2. And they used to amuse themselves at games 8 
with eight pieces and ten pieces, and with tossing 
up, hopping over diagrams formed on the ground, 
and removing substances from a heap without 
shaking the remainder; and with games at dice, 
and trap-ball ; and with sketching rude figures, 
tossing balls, blowing trumpets, having matches at 
ploughing with mimic ploughs, tumbling, forming 
mimic wind-mills, guessing at measures, having 

avatawsako. Compare the close of Rh. D.'s note on vegha for 
avegha, ' Buddhist Suttas,' p. 37. 

1 Perhaps 'like an earring.' The Sam. P&s. says, a£elo (sic) ti 
kawrikd. Compare Sanskrit apitfa, and Gataka, vol. i, pp. 12, 
95, 269. 

* The Sam. Pis. says, Ura/WAado ti hira-sadisam ure-rtapanaka- 
puppha dimaw. ' Like mail-armour.' 

8 All these games are forbidden seriatim in paragraph 4 of the 
Maggkimz Sila, and the whole list of offences recurs in the Sutta- 
vibhaftga, SawghMsesa XIII, 1, 2. See Rh. D., ' Buddhist Suttas 
from the Pali,' p. 193. We adhere to the translations there given 
and based on the Sumangala Vilasinf. 



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I, 13, 3. THE MINOR DISCIPLINARY PROCEEDINGS. 349 

chariot races, and archery matches, shooting marbles 
with the fingers, guessing other people's thoughts, 
and mimicking other people's acts ; — and they used 
to practise elephant riding, and horse riding, and 
carriage driving, and archery, and swordsmanship ; — 
and they used to run to and fro in front of elephants, 
and in front of horses, and in front of carriages ; — 
and they used to exhibit signs of anger 1 , and to 
wring their hands 2 , and to wrestle 8 , and to box 
with their fists; — and spreading their robes out as 
a stage they used to invite dancing girls, saying, 
'Here you may dance, sister 1' and greet her with 
applause*. Thus manifold were the evil lives which 
they practised. 

3. Now at that time a certain Bhikkhu who had 
spent the rainy season in the country of Kasi, and 
was on his way to visit the Blessed One, arrived 
at the Ki/a Hill. And that Bhikkhu in the early 
morning put on his under garment, and went, duly 
bowled and robed, to the Ki/a Hill for alms. And 
he was perfect in dignity, with his eyes cast down, 
and pleasing in appearance, whether in going in or 



1 Usse/^enti. We are quite uncertain how to render this 
word. One might be tempted to think that a denominative verb 
from ussoMi may have acquired a technical sense appropriate to 
this passage. But we do not favour any such conjectural alteration 
of the clear reading of the MSS., at all events at present 

1 AppoMenti. See Buddhaghosa's note quoted by Rh. D. in 
his note on the Book of the Great Decease, II, 19: 

* Nibbu^Aanti, which Buddhaghosa explains by malla-yud- 
dhaw karonti. Compare ubbu^Aati at Aullavagga VIII, 10, and 
Sutta-vibhanga, Par%ika I, 10, 26. 

4 The Sam. Pis. says, Nala7ikam pi denti sadhu sidhu bhagi- 
nfti attano nala/e ahgulim MapetvS tassi nala/e Mapenti. 



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350 JtULLAVAGGA. I, 13, 4. 

in coming out, in looking or in watching, in bending 
in his arm or in stretching it forth 1 . 

Then the people on beholding that Bhikkhu, 
said, ' Who is this fellow like a fool of fools, or 
like an idiot of idiots, or like a simpleton of 
simpletons 2 ? Who would give an alms when 
this fellow comes near ! Now our own masters, the 
followers of Assa^i and Punabbasu, are gentle, 
friendly, pleasant in speech, radiant with smiles, by 
no means fools, but open in countenance, and the 
first to speak. To such now it is fit to give an 
alms!' 

And a certain lay-disciple saw that Bhikkhu as 
he was going along the Ki/4 Hill for alms. And 
on seeing him, he went up to the place where he 
was ; and on coming there he said to that Bhikkhu : 
' Has your reverence received an alms ?' 
' No, my friend, I have received no alms !' 
' Come, your reverence ! Let us go to my house !' 
4. So the lay-disciple took the Bhikkhu to his 
house, and gave him to eat, and asked him : 
' Whither then is your reverence going ?' 
' I am on my way to Savatthi, my friend, to visit 
•the Blessed One.' 

' Then let your reverence bow down at the feet 
of the Blessed One in my name, and say, "The 
residence on the Ki/4 Hill, Lord, has been spoiled. 
The Bhikkhus who are followers of Assagi and 
Punabbasu are dwelling on the Ki/4 Hill, wicked 
Bhikkhus, and shameless. Such as these are the 



1 Compare Mahi-parinibbana Sutta II, 15. 
1 The Sam. PSs. says, Sawku/ita-mukhataya bhiku/ika-bhiku/ika 4 
viya. 



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I» 13. 5- THE MINOR DISCIPLINARY PROCEEDINGS. 35 1 

evil practices they follow (&c, as in §§ i, 2, down 
to the end). And people, Lord, who were formerly 
believers and full of faith, are now become non- 
believers and void of faith ; the opportunities of 
alms that were formerly open to the Sawgha are 
now destroyed; worthy Bhikkhus forsake, and 
wicked Bhikkhus dwell in the place. Let, Lord, 
the Blessed One be pleased to send (other) Bhik- 
khus to the Ki/a Hill in order that the residence 
there may be re-established.'" 

5. 'Very well, my friend,' said the Bhikkhu, in 
assent, to that lay-disciple. And rising from his 
seat, he set out for Savatthi, and went straight on 
to Anatha-pi»dfika's grove, to the (7etavana in 
Savatthi, to the place where the Blessed One was 
staying. And on arriving there he saluted the 
Blessed One, and took his seat on one side. 

Now it is the custom for the Blessed Buddhas 
to exchange words of greeting with in-coming Bhik- 
khus. And the Blessed One said to that Bhikkhu, 
' Do things go well with you, O Bhikkhu ? Have 
you enough for your support ? Have you accom- 
plished your journey without too much fatigue ? 
And whence, O Bhikkhu, have you come?' 

' Things go well with me, Lord. I have enough 
for my support. And I have accomplished my 
journey without too much fatigue. I have spent 
the rainy season, Lord, in the land of Kasi ; and on 
my way to Savatthi to visit the Blessed One I 
arrived at the Ki/a Hill. And after having dressed 
early in the morning, I went, Lord, duly bowled 
and robed, on to the Ki/a Hill for alms. And a 
certain lay-disciple saw me (&c, as above, down to 
the end of § 4, with the alterations necessary to 



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352 rULLAVAGGA. 1, 13, 6. 

the narrative form of speech). Thence, Lord, am 
I* come.' 

6. Then the Blessed One on that occasion, and 
in that connection, convened a meeting of the 
Bhikkhu-Sawgha, and asked the Bhikkhus : 

' Is it true, O Bhikkhus, as they say, that those 
Bhikkhus who are followers of Assafi and Punab- 
basu, and are dwelling on the Ki/4 Hill, are wicked 
Bhikkhus, and shameless; and that such are the 
evil practices they follow (&c, as in § 4, down to 
the end)?' 

' It is true, Lord.' 

The Blessed Buddha rebuked them, saying, ' How 
can they, O Bhikkhus, foolish persons that they are, 
follow such practices as these (&c, as in §§ 1, 2, 
down to the end) ? This will not conduce, O Bhik- 
khus, to the conversion of the unconverted (&c, as 
usual. Compare chap. 1, § 2, down to the end).' 

And when the Blessed Buddha had rebuked them, 
and had delivered a religious discourse, he addressed 
the venerable Sariputta and Moggallana, and said, 
1 Go now, Sariputta and Moggallana \ to the Ki/4 
Hill. And on arriving there carry out the Pabba- 
^•aniya-kamma (Act of Banishment 2 ) against 
those Bhikkhus who are followers of Assa^i and 
Punabbasu, to the effect that they may become your 
Saddhi-viharikas 3 .' 



1 On this meaning of Sariputta, see the note on Mah&vagga 
X, 4, 3- 

* That is, out of the particular place where they have caused 
the scandal, not of the Order. When they in anger left the Order, 
their conduct in doing so is blamed. See chap. 16, § 1. 

8 See Mahavagga I, 25, 6, and following, and iTullavagga VIII, 
11, 12, and compare above, 9. 1. 



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I, 13, 7. THE MINOR DISCIPLINARY PROCEEDINGS. 353 

4 How, Lord, can we carry out the Pabba,f aniya- 
kamma against those Bhikkhus who are followers 
of Assafi and Punabbasu ; for they are passionate 
men and violent V 

'Then do you go, Siriputta and Moggallana, 
together with a number of Bhikkhus.' 

'So be it, Lord!' said Sariputta and Moggallana, 
in assent, to the Blessed One. 

7 1 . 'Now thus, O Bhikkhus, should it be car- 
ried out. In the first place the Bhikkhus who are 
followers of Assa^i and Punabbasu ought to be 
warned : when they have been warned, they ought 
to be reminded (of the Rule in the Patimokkha 
against which they have offended) ; when they have 
been reminded they ought to be charged with the 
offence ; when they have been charged some discreet 
and able Bhikkhu ought to lay the matter before 
the Sawgha, saying, 

' " Let the venerable Sawgha hear me. These 
Bhikkhus who are followers of Assafi and Punab- 
basu are wicked Bhikkhus and shameless. Their 
evil practices are both seen and heard, and also 
that respectable families have been led astray by 
them is seen, too, and heard 2 . If the time is fit 
for the Sa/wgha to do so, let the Sawgha carry out 
the Pabba^aniya-kamma against those Bhik- 
khus who are followers of Assafi and Punabbasu, 
to the effect that the Bhikkhus who are followers 



1 On this section compare chap. 1, § 4, chap. 9, § 2. 

4 Buddhaghosa points out that whereas the Ta^aniya-kamma 
is directed against quarrelsomeness, and the nissaya-kamma 
against foolishness, it is scandal to the community against which 
the Pabba^aniya-kamma is directed. 

[17] a a 



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354 rULLAVAGGA. I, 13, 7. 

of Assafi and Punabbasu are not to dwell on the 
KiA Hill 1 . 

' " This is the motion (#atti). 

' " Let the venerable Sawzgha hear me. These 
Bhikkhus who are followers of Assafi and Punab- 
basu are wicked Bhikkhus and shameless. Their 
evil practices (&c, as before, down to) is seen, too, 
and heard. The Sawgha hereby carries out the 
Pabba^aniya-kamma against them, to the effect 
that the Bhikkhus who are followers of Assa^i and 
Punabbasu are not to dwell on the Ki/a Hill 1 . 
Whosoever of the venerable ones approves of the 
carrying out of the Pabba^aniya-kamma against 
the followers (&c, as before) to the effect (&c, as 
before J ) let him remain silent. Whosoever approves 
not thereof, let him speak. 

'"A second time I say the same thing. Let 
the venerable Sawzgha (&c, as before). A third 
time I say the same thing. Let the venerable 
Sa/«gha (&c, as before). 

'"The Pabba^aniya-kamma has been carried 
out by the Sawgha against those Bhikkhus who are 
followers of Assa^i and Punabbasu to the effect that 
those Bhikkhus who are followers of Assa^i and 
Punabbasu are not to dwell on the Ki/a Hill 1 . 
The Sawzgha approves of it. Therefore is it silent. 
Thus do I understand.'" 



14. 
1. [Here follow the twelve cases in which a 
Pabbi^aniya-kamma is declared to be against 

1 The corresponding clause to the words ' to the effect,' &c, is 
wanting in chap. 1, § 4, but occurs in chap. 9, § 2. 



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I, 14, 1. THE MINOR DISCIPLINARY PROCEEDINGS. 355 

the law, and according to law respectively, in the 
precise wording of chapters 2 and 3, reading Pab- 
ba^aniya for Ta^aniya. Then follow the six 
cases of permissive suspension in the precise word- 
ing of chapter 4, but in addition to the cases there 
given for the Ta^aniya-kamma, §§ 1 and 2 of this 
chapter are respectively added at the end of §§ 1 
and 2 of that chapter.] 

1. ' There are three things, O Bhikkhus, which 
when they characterise a Bhikkhu, the Samgha, 
if it likes, should carry out the Pabb&^aniya- 
kamma against him; (that is to say), when he 
is characterised by frivolity x of action — when he is 
characterised by frivolity of speech — when he is 
characterised by frivolity both of action and of 
speech. These are the three things, O Bhikkhus 
(&c, as before, down to) against him. 

' There are other three things, O Bhikkhus, which 
when they characterise a Bhikkhu, the Sawzgha, if 
it likes, should carry out the Pabbi^aniya- 
kamma against him; (that is to say), when he is 
characterised by absence of right-doing in action — 
when he is characterised by absence of right-doing 
in speech — when he is characterised by absence of 
right-doing both in action and in speech. These 
are the other three things, O Bhikkhus (&c, as before, 
down to) against him. 

' There are other three things (&c, as in each of 
the last paragraphs; the three things here being 
injury 2 done by him to others in action, in speech, 
and both in action and in speech, owing to his own 

1 The Sam. Pas. says, Kayiko davo naraa kaya-ki/a vu^ati. 
1 The Sam. Pis. says, Kayikaw upaghititaw n&ma kaya-dvSre 
panilatti-sikkhapadassa asikkhana-bhavena upahanana/N vui&ti. 

a a 2 



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356 JSTUIXAVAGGA. I, 14, a. 

want of training in the precepts and practices of the 
order). 

' There are other three things (&c, as in each of 
the last paragraphs, the three things here being 
evilness of life in action, in speech, and both in action 
and in speech). 

2. 'There are three kinds of Bhikkhus, O Bhik- 
khus, against whom, when the Sawgha likes (to 
do so), it should carry out the Pabba^aniya- 
kamma; (that is to say), one who is frivolous in 
action — one who is frivolous in speech — one who is 
frivolous both in action and in speech. These are 
the three kinds of Bhikkhus (&c, as above, down 
to) the Pabbi^aniya-kamma. 

' There are other three kinds of Bhikkhus (&c, as 
in the last paragraph, substituting first, absence of 
right-doing — secondly, injury to others — and thirdly, 
evilness of life respectively in action, in speech, and 
both in action and in speech).' 



15. 

[This chapter is identical with chapter 5, reading 
Pabbifaniya for Ta^aniya.] 



16 ». 

1. So the Bhikkhu-Sawgha, with Siriputta and 
Moggallana at their head, proceeded to the Ki^L 
Hill, and there carried out the Pabbcifaniya- 
kamma against those Bhikkhus who were followers 

1 Corresponding to chapters 6 and 1 1 above. 

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I, 16, I. THE MINOR DISCIPLINARY PROCEEDINGS. 357 

of Assa^i and Punabbasu, to the intent that those 
Bhikkhus should no longer dwell on the Ki/a Hill. 
And they, when subjected by the Samgha. to the 
Pabba^aniya-kamma, did not conduct themselves 
aright, they did not become subdued, they did not 
seek for release, they did not ask the Bhikkhus for 
forgiveness, they reviled them, they found fault with 
them 1 , saying that they were offending by acting 
in partiality, in ill-feeling, in folly, and in fear 2 ; and 
they not only departed from the place, but also left 
the Order 8 . 

Those Bhikkhus who were moderate were of- 
fended, murmured, and became indignant, saying, 
' How can those Bhikkhus who are followers of 
Assa^i and Punabbasu, after having been subjected 
by the Sawgha to the Pabba^aniya-kamma, 
refuse to conduct themselves aright (&c, as before, 
down to) leave the Order ?' And those Bhikkhus 
told the matter to the Blessed One. 

Then the Blessed One on that occasion, and in 
that connection, convened a meeting of the Bhikkhu- 
sa#zgha, and asked the Bhikkhus : 

' Is it true, O Bhikkhus, as they say, that those 
Bhikkhus who are followers of Assa^i and Punab- 
basu, after having been subjected by the Sawgha to 
the Pabbi^aniya-kamma, refuse (&c, as before, 
down to) leave the Order ? ' 

' It is true, Lord !' 

1 Compare Sawghidisesa 1 3. 

* These are the four so-called Agatis, usually occurring as the 
faults of a judge (Rh. D., ' Buddhist Birth Stories,' p. xxii, and 
Dasaratha Gataka, p. 1), but compare Sigalovada Sutta, ed. Grim- 
bolt, p. 299. 

* Compare Gataka 1, 117, and Mahavagga I, 39, 5. 



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358 tfULLAVAGGA. 1, 16, r. 

' How can those Bhikkhus who (&c, as before, 
down to) leave the Order ? This will not conduce, 
O Bhikkhus, either to the conversion of the un- 
converted, or to the increase of the converted ; but 
rather to the unconverted being- not converted, and 
to the turning back of those which have been con- 
verted.' And when the Blessed One had rebuked 
those Bhikkhus in various ways, and had delivered 
a religious discourse, he addressed the Bhikkhus, 
and said: 

' Then, O Bhikkhus, let not the Sawgha revoke 
the Pabba^ aniya-kamma. There are five things, 
O Bhikkhus (&c, as before, from chapter 6, § 2, 
down to the end of chapter 7, reading Pabba^a- 
niya for Ta^-aniya).' 



Here end the eighteen cases in which there 

ought to be a revocation (of the 

Pabba^aniya-kamma). 



17\ 

1. ' Now thus, O Bhikkhus, should the revocation 
be carried out The Bhikkhu, who has been sub- 
jected to the Pabba^-aniya-kamma, should go 
before the Sawgha (&c, as before in chapter 8, 
§§ 1, 2, down to the end).' 



Here ends the third (Kamma), the 
Pabba^aniya-kamma. 

1 Compare chapters 8 and 12. 



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I, 18, 1. THE MINOR DISCIPLINARY PROCEEDINGS. 359 

IV. 

THE PAriSARAiVIYA-KAMMA (ACT OF RECONCILIATION). 




18\ 

1 . Now at that time the venerable Sudhamma was 
residing at Ma^Mikasa«</a in dependence upon Altta 
the householder, superintending 2 the new buildings 
he erected 3 , and being constantly supplied by him 
with food. And whenever -ATitta the householder 
wished to give an invitation to the Sazwgha, or to 
four or five Bhikkhus*, or to a single one, he used 
not to invite them without making special mention 
of the venerable Sudhamma. 

Now at that time a number of the Thera Bhikkhus, 
including the venerable Sariputta, and the venerable 
Maha Moggallana, and the venerable Maha Ka&Sana, 
and the venerable Maha Ko//^ita, and the venerable 
Maha Kappina, and the venerable Maha A'unda, and 

1 The whole of this story of AHtta and Sudhamma recurs in the 
Dhammapada commentary, pp. 262-264. There is no Rule in 
the Patimokkha by which giving offence to a layman, the cause of 
the proceeding described in the following chapters, is considered 
worthy of censure. 

8 Navakammiko, not 'newly appointed to an office,' as Dr. 
Rudolf Hoernle translates in the Indian Antiquary, XI, 29, in 
dealing with one of the Bharhut Inscriptions. See Gataka I, 92, 
and below, V, 1 3, 3, VI, 5, 2, VI, 1 7, 1, X, 24. This duty of super- 
intending a new building was even filled by Bhikkhunis ; see the 
Bhikkhunl-vibhanga, Para^ika I, where the details of the duty are 
incidentally mentioned. 

* Compare below, ATullavaggaVI, 5, 2, and Gataka I, 92, 22. 

4 This clause, both here and below, is omitted in the Sinha- 
lese MS. 



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o 



60 JCULLAVAGGA. I, 18, a. 



the venerable Anuruddha, and the venerable Revata, 

A 

and the venerable Upali, and the venerable Ananda, 
and the venerable Rahula, as they were journeying 
through the country of Kasi, arrived at Mai^ika- 
sznddL. And Altta the householder heard the news 
that the Thera Bhikkhus had arrived at MsJtkki- 
kasawafa. 

Then K\v& the householder went up to the place 
where the Thera Bhikkhus were, and on arriving 
there, he saluted the Thera Bhikkhus, and took his 
seat on one side. And when he was so seated the 
venerable Sariputta taught /Titta the householder, 
and incited him, and roused him, and gladdened him 
with religious discourse. And Altta the householder, 
having been thus taught, and incited, and roused, 
and gladdened with religious discourse, said to the 
Thera Bhikkhus, ' May the venerable Theras con- 
sent to take their to-morrow's meal, as incoming 
Bhikkhus, at my house.' And the Thera Bhikkhus 
signified, by silence, their consent. 

2. Then perceiving that the Thera Bhikkhus had 
given their consent, Altta the householder rose from 
his seat, and bowed down before the Thera Bhik- 
khus, and keeping them on his right hand as he 
passed them, went on to the place where the vener- 
able Sudhamma was. And on arriving there, he 
saluted the venerable Sudhamma, and stood by on 
one side. And so standing, Kitta. the householder 
said to the venerable Sudhamma : ' May the venera- 
ble Sudhamma consent to take his to-morrow's meal 
at my house with the Theras.' 

But the venerable Sudhamma, thinking, ' For- 
merly indeed this Altta the householder, whenever 
he wished to give an invitation to the Sawgha, or to 



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T, 18, 3- THE MINOR DISCIPLINARY PROCEEDINGS. 361 

four or five Bhikkhus, or to a single one, used not 
to invite them without making special mention of 
me; but now he has invited the Thera Bhikkhus 
without regarding me. This ATitta the householder 
is now incensed against me, unfavourable to me, 
takes pleasure in me no longer.' And so thinking 
he refused, saying, ' It is enough, O householder.' 

And a second time Altta the householder said to 
the venerable Sudhamma (&c, as before, with the 
same result). And a third time (&c, as before, with 
the same result). 

Then A"itta the householder, thinking, ' What can 
the venerable Sudhamma do against me, whether he 
consents, or whether he does not consent,' saluted 
the venerable Sudhamma, and keeping him on his 
right hand as he passed him, departed thence. 

3. And at the end of the night .A'itta the house- 
holder made ready sweet food, both hard and soft, 
for the Thera Bhikkhus. And the venerable Su- 
dhamma, thinking, ' I may as well go and see what 
Altta the householder has made ready for the Thera 
Bhikkhus,' robed himself early in the morning, and 
went, duly bowled and robed, to the place where 
AHtta the householder dwelt ; and, on arriving there, 
he took his seat on a mat spread out for him. 

Then A'itta the householder went up to the place 
where the venerable Sudhamma was ; and after he 
had come there, he saluted the venerable Sudhamma, 
and took his seat on one side. And when he was so 
seated the venerable Sudhamma addressed A~itta the 
householder, and said : ' Though this great store of 
sweet food, both hard and soft, has been made ready 
by you, O householder, there is one thing yet want- 
ing, that is to say, tila seed cake.' 



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362 JEULLAVAGGA. I, 18, 4. 

' Though then, Sir, there is so much treasure in 
the ward of the Buddhas, yet there is but one thing 
of which the venerable Sudhamma makes mention, 
and that is tila seed cake. Long ago, Sir, certain 
merchants of Dakkhiwapatha went, for the sake of 
their traffic, to the country of the East, and thence 
they brought back a hen. Now, Sir, that hen made 
acquaintance with a crow, and gave birth to a chicken. 
And, Sir, whenever that chicken tried to utter the 
cry of a cock it gave vent to a " caw," and whenever 
it tried to utter the cry of a crow, it gave vent to a 
" cock-a-doodle-do 1 ." Just even so, Sir, though there 
is much treasure in the ward of the Buddhas, when- 
ever the venerable Sudhamma speaks, the sound is 
"tila seed cake.'" 

4. ' You are abusing me, householder. You are 
finding fault with me, householder. This place, 
householder, is yours. I must go away from it,' said 
the venerable Sudhamma. 

' I do not intend, Sir, to abuse the venerable 
Sudhamma, nor to find fault with him. Let, Sir, 
the venerable Sudhamma still dwell at Ma£Miki- 
sandn. Pleasant is this grove of plum trees, and 
I shall take good care to provide the venerable Su- 
dhamma with those things a recluse requires — to 
wit, with robes and food and lodging and medicine 
when he is sick.' 

And a second time the venerable Sudhamma said : 
' You are abusing me (&c, as before, with the same 
reply). And a third time the venerable Sudhamma 
said : ' You are abusing me (&a, as before, down to) 
I must go away from it' 

1 Compare G&taka I, 432 ; II, 307. 

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I, 18, 5. THE MINOR DISCIPLINARY PROCEEDINGS. 363 

' Whither then, Sir, will the venerable Sudhamma 

go?* 

' I shall go to Savatthi, O householder, to visit 
the Blessed One.'. 

' Then, Sir, let the Blessed One know all, both 
what you yourself have said, and what I have said. 
And I should not, Sir, be surprised if the venerable 
Sudhamma were to return again even to Maz&fe&ika- 
sa«da.' 

5. So the venerable Sudhamma gathered together 
his sleeping mat, and set out, with his bowl and his 
robe, for Savatthi. And he journeyed straight on to 
Savatthi, to the Cetavana, Anathapi«dfika's Grove, 
to the place where the Blessed One was; and on 
arriving there he bowed down before the Blessed 
One, and took his seat on one side. And when he 
was thus seated the venerable Sudhamma informed 
the Blessed One of all, both that he himself had 
said, and that A'itta the householder had said. 

The Blessed Buddha rebuked him, saying, ' This 
was improper, O foolish one, not according to rule, 
unsuitable, unworthy of a Samawa, and ought not 
to have been done. How is it that you, O foolish 
one, could put down 1 and could lower by your cen- 
sure 2 A'itta the householder, he being a man of 
faith, a believing disciple, and a donor, a provider, 
and a supporter of the Sawgha ?' This will not con- 
duce, O foolish one, either to the conversion of the 
unconverted, or to the increase of the converted ; 
but rather to the unconverted not being converted, 
and to the turning back of those who have been 

1 Compare Dhammapada, p. 263, and Gataka I, 191. 

* Compare <?ataka I, 191, 356, 359, and SuttaNipata, verse 905. 



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364 JTULLAVAGGA. I, 18, 6. 

converted.' And after he had rebuked him, and 
had delivered a religious discourse, he addressed 
the Bhikkhus, and said : ' Let therefore the Samgha, 
O Bhikkhus, carry out the Pa/isara»iya-kamma 
(Act of Reconciliation) 1 against the Bhikkhu 
Sudhamma, saying, " You are to ask and obtain 
pardon of Artta the householder.'" 

6. ' Now thus, O Bhikkhus, should it be carried 
out. In the first place the Bhikkhu Sudhamma 
ought to be warned : when he has been warned, he 
ought to be reminded (of the Rule in the Pati- 
mokkha against which he has offended) ; when he 
has been reminded, he ought to be charged with the 
offence ; when he has been charged with the offence, 
some discreet and able Bhikkhu ought to lay the 
matter before the Sawgha, saying, 

' " Let the venerable Sawzgha hear me. This 
Bhikkhu Sudhamma has put down, and has lowered 
by censure Altta the householder, a man of faith, 
a believing disciple, a donor, provider and supporter 
of the Sawgha. If the time is fit for the Samgha. 
to do so, let the Samgha carry out the Pa/isara- 
»iya-kamma against the Bhikkhu Sudhamma. 

'" This is the motion (»atti). 

1 Childers proposes doubtingly to derive the word Pa/is£ra»iya 
from the root smar; but that that is impossible is probably suffi- 
ciently evident from the meaning of the word, which is quite clear 
from the context of this, and from the following chapters. Now 
a ' P- 53° °f the Lalita Vistara the common Pali phrase sammo- 
daniyaw kathaw sirSwiyaw vitis&retva' is represented by the 
Sanskrit sammodaniA sawraw^ani/j k&th&A krriva. It is by 
no means impossible that this parallel may offer the true solution 
of the etymology of the Pili words in question ; (compare SSraga as 
equal to samraga, saratta to sawrakta, &c. &c.) Pa/isarawiya would 
then be equal to pratisa«ra«^anfya. See Senart, Mahavagga, p. 599. 



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I, ao, I. THE MINOR DISCIPLINARY PROCEEDINGS. 365 

' " Let the venerable Satngha. hear me. This 
Bhikkhu (&c, as before, down to) supporter of the 
Sawgha. The Sawgha hereby carries out the 
Pa/isarawiya-kamma against the Bhikkhu Su- 
dhamma with the words, 'You are to ask and obtain 
pardon of A'itta the householder.' Whosoever of 
the venerable ones approves of the carrying out of 
the Pa/isara«iya-kamma against Sudhamma the 
Bhikkhu, let him remain silent. Whosoever ap- 
proves not thereof, let him speak. 

' " A second time I say the same thing. Let the 
venerable Sawgha (&c, as before). A third time 
I say the same thing. Let the venerable Sawgha 
(&c, as before). 

"'The Pa/isara«iya-kamma has been carried 
out against the Bhikkhu Sudhamma with the words, 
' You are to ask and obtain pardon of A'itta the 
householder.' The Sawzgha approves the motion. 
Therefore is it silent. Thus do I understand." ' 



19. 
[Here the twelve cases of a proceeding against, 
and the twelve cases of a proceeding according to 
law are repeated of the Pa/isara#iya-kamma in 
the words of chapters 2 and 3 of the Ta^aniya- • 
kamma.] 

20 \ 

1. 'There are five things, O Bhikkhus, which when 

they characterise a Bhikkhu, the Sawgha, if it likes, 

should carry out the Pa/isara«iya-kamma against 

him ; (that is to say), when he goes about to bring 

1 See above, chapter 4. 

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366 ffUIXAVAGGA. I, so, I. 

loss on the laity — when he goes about to do harm 
to the laity — when he goes about to deprive the 
laity of their dwellings — when he reviles and 
finds fault with the laity — when he brings about 
division between the laity. These are the five 
things, O Bhikkhus, which (&c, as above, down to) 
against him. 

' There are other five things, O Bhikkhus, which 
when they characterise a Bhikkhu, the Sawzgha, if 
it likes, should carry out the Pa/isara#iya- 
kamma against him; (that is to say), when he 
speaks to the laity in dispraise of the Buddha — when 
he speaks to the laity in dispraise of the Dhamma — 
when he speaks to the laity in dispraise of the 
Sawgha — when he puts laymen down, and lowers 
them by censure — when he does not fulfil a promise 
made in accordance with the Rules to the laity. 
These are the other five things, O Bhikkhus, which 
(&c, as before, down to) against him. 

' There are five kinds of Bhikkhus, O Bhikkhus, 
against whom the Sawgha, if it likes, should carry 
out the Pa/isara#iya-kamma; (that is to say), 
one who goes about to bring loss on the laity (&c, 
as in the last paragraph, down to the end).' 



Here end the four times five cases of suspicion. 



21. 

[Chapter 5, as to the right conduct of a Bhikkhu 
subjected to the Ta^aniya-kamma, is repeated, 
reading Pa/isara«iya for Ta^aniya.] 



Here end the eighteen duties which follow on a 
Pa/isara»iya-kamma. 



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1,22,4. THE MINOR DISCIPLINARY PROCEEDINGS. 367 



22. 

1. So the Sa/«gha carried out the Pa/isara#iya- 
kamma against Sudhamma the Bhikkhu, saying, 
* You are to ask and obtain pardon of Altta the 
householder. And after he had been subjected by 
the Sawgha to the Pa/isara#iya-kamma, though 
he went to Ma>£^ikasa«da, he was unable, being 
greatly troubled in his mind, to ask and obtain 
pardon of Altta the householder, but returned again 
even to Sivatthi. 

Then the Bhikkhus asked him, ' Has Altta the 
householder been induced by you to give you his 
pardon ?' 

' Indeed, though I went to Ma££^ikasa«da, I was 
unable, being greatly troubled in my mind, to ask 
and obtain pardon of Altta the householder.' 

They told this thing to the Blessed One. 

2. ' Let, then, the Sawgha, O Bhikkhus, appoint 
a companion messenger to Sudhamma the Bhikkhu, 
to ask and obtain pardon of A'itta the householder. 

' Now thus, O Bhikkhu, should the companion 
messenger be appointed. Irt the first place the 
Bhikkhu (who is to be sent) is to be asked (whether 
he is willing to go). After he has been asked, let 
some discreet and able Bhikkhu lay the matter 
before the Sa*»gha, as follows : 

' " Let the venerable Sawgha hear me. If the 
time seems meet to the venerable Sawgha, let the 
Sa#zgha appoint such and such a Bhikkhu as a 
companion messenger to Sudhamma the Bhikkhu, 
to ask and obtain pardon of A^itta the householder. 

' " This is the motion (»atti). 



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368 ffULLAVAGGA. 1, 2 a, 3. 

' " Let the venerable Sawzgha hear me. The 
Samgha hereby appoints such and such a Bhikkhu 
as a companion messenger to Sudhamma the 
Bhikkhu, to ask and obtain pardon of Kitta. the 
householder. Whosoever of the venerable ones 
approves of such and such a Bhikkhu being ap- 
pointed as a companion messenger to Sudhamma 
the Bhikkhu, let him remain silent. Whosoever 
approves not thereof, let him speak. 

' " Such and such a Bhikkhu has been appointed 
by the Sawgha (&c, as before). The Sa#zgha 
approves thereof. Therefore is it silent. Thus do 
I understand." 

3. ' Then, O Bhikkhus, let Sudhamma the Bhikkhu 
go, together with the Bhikkhu who is the companion 
messenger, to Ma£>6//ikasa«da, and ask pardon of 
A"itta the householder, saying, " Pardon me, O 
householder; I desire to gain once more thy good 
pleasure." If, when he thus speaks, he pardons him, 
it is well. If he pardon him not, the Bhikkhu who 
is the companion messenger should say, " Pardon 
him, O householder ; he desires to gain once more 
thy good pleasure." If, when he thus speaks, he 
pardon him, it is well. If he pardon him not, the 
Bhikkhu who is the companion messenger should 
say, " Pardon him, O householder ; I desire to gain 
thy good pleasure." If, when he thus speaks, he 
pardon him, it is well. If he pardon him not, the 
Bhikkhu who is the companion messenger should 
say, " Grant pardon, O householder, to this Bhikkhu, 
in the name of the Sawgha (I ask it)." If (&c, as 
before, down to). If he pardon him not, the 
Bhikkhu who is the companion messenger — without 
going out of sight, and without going out of hearing, 



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I,a4« THE MINOR DISCIPLINARY PROCEEDINGS. 369 

of Altta the householder — should make Sudhamma 
the Bhikkhu arrange his robe on one shoulder, and 
squat down on his heels, and stretch forth his two 
hands with the palms together, and so confess his 
fault' 



23. 

1. So the venerable Sudhamma went, with another 
Bhikkhu as companion messenger, to Ma/&££ikasa«<&, 
and obtained pardon of JCitta. the householder. And 
he conducted himself aright, and he became sub- 
dued, and he sought for release (&c, as above, in 
chapters 6, 7, down to the end). 



Here end the eighteen cases in which there ought to 
be a revocation of the Pa/isara#iya-kamma. 



24. 

[In this chapter the Kammava^a of the revocation 
of the Parisara«iya-kamma is given in words pre- 
cisely similar to those of chapters 8 and 12.] 



Here ends the fourth (Kamma), the 
Pa/isara#iya-kamma. 



[17] B b 

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370 ffULLAVAGGA. 1, 25, I. 



V. The Ukkhepaniya-kammas (Acts of Suspension) 
for not acknowledging, and for not atoning for, 
an offence 1 . 



25. 

1. Now at that time the Blessed Buddha was 
dwelling at Kosambi, in the Ghosita Arama. And 
at that time the venerable ./sf^anna 2 , when he had 
committed a fault, was not willing to acknowledge 
the fault. Those Bhikkhus who were moderate 
were annoyed, murmured, and became indignant, 
saying, 'How can the venerable -Oanna act so?' 
And those Bhikkhus told the matter to the Blessed 
One. 

Then the Blessed One on that occasion, and in 
that connection, after he had convened a meeting 
of the Bhikkhu-sawgha, asked the Bhikkhus : 

' Is it true, O Bhikkhus, as they say, that -/sT^anna 

1 There is no mention in the Pdtimokkha of any such pro- 
ceeding. At the close of each of the four PaTidesaniya Rules there 
is a form of confession to be observed. It would seem from the 
following chapters, which are nowhere expressly confined to these 
four cases, that a similar confession was expected after the com- 
mission of an offence against any of the Pitimokkha Rules. In 
the closing words of the Sawghadisesa Rules, an older proceeding 
is mentioned, under which an offending Bhikkhu who has not con- 
fessed any breach of either of those thirteen Rules is to remain on 
probation for as many days as he has allowed to go by without 
confessing. 

* On Alftanna's character, see also below, IV, 14, 1, XI, 1, 13-14, 
and MahS-parinibbSna Sutta VI, 4. 



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1,25,1. THE MINOR DISCIPLINARY PROCEEDINGS. 371 

when he has committed a fault, is not willing to 
acknowledge the fault ?' 

' It is true, Lord!' 

The Blessed Buddha rebuked him, saying, ' How, 
O Bhikkhus, can that foolish one act so ? This will 
not conduce either to the conversion of the uncon- 
verted, or to the increase of the converted; but 
rather to those who have not been converted being 
not converted, and to the turning back of those who 
have been converted.' 

And when the Blessed One had so rebuked him, 
and had delivered a religious discourse, he addressed 
the Bhikkhus and said : ' Let therefore the Saw/gha, 
O Bhikkhus, carry out against ^anna the Bhikkhu 
the apattiya adassane Ukkhepaniya-kamma 
(the Act of Suspension which follows on not 
acknowledging a fault) to the intent that he 
shall not eat or dwell together with the Sa»<gha '. 

' Now thus, O Bhikkhus, should it be carried out.' 
[Here follow the formal words of the Kamma- 
va£a as in chapter i. 4, with the necessary altera- 
tions owing to the difference of the fault and of the 
Kamma following on it. And at the end of the 
Kammavaia (after the words ' Thus I under- 
stand') the following sentence is added.] 

'And send a proclamation, O Bhikkhus, from 
residence to residence 2 ; saying, "Joanna the Bhik- 
khu has been subjected by the Sawgha to the 
Ukkhepaniya-kamma for not acknowledging a 
fault."' 

1 Compare Mahavagga I, 79 generally, and § 2 of that chapter 
on the last clause (asambhogam sawghena). 

* On this phrase the Samanta PSsadiki says, AvSsa-param- 
param £a bhikkhave sawsath& ti sabbSvasesu arofetha. 

B b 2 



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372 JTULLAVAGGA. 1, 26. 



26. 

[Here follow the twelve cases in which a Kamma 
is against the law, and the twelve in which it is 
according to law ; and also the six permissive cases 
in which it may be carried out, if the Sawgha likes, 
precisely as in chapters 2, 3, and 4.] 



27 \ 

1. 'A Bhikkhu against whom the Ukkhepaniya- 
kamma that follows on not acknowledging a fault 
has been carried out ought to conduct himself aright. 
And herein this is the right conduct : he ought not 
to confer the upas amp add — he ought not to give 
a nissaya 2 — he ought not to provide himself with a 
sama#era 2 — he ought not to accept the office of giv- 
ing exhortation to the nuns 2 — if he have accepted that 
office, he ought not to exhort the nuns 2 — he ought 
not to commit the offence for which the Ukkhepa- 
niya-kamma that follows on not acknowledging a 
fault has been carried out against him — nor any 
offence of a similar kind — nor any worse offence — 
he ought not to find fault with the proceeding (that 
has been carried out against him) — nor with (the 
Bhikkhus) who have carried it out — 3 he ought not 
to accept from a regular Bhikkhu reverence, or 

1 As this chapter, containing the samma-vattana" or right con- 
duct, differs from the corresponding chapters of the preceding 
Kammas (chapters 5, 10, 15, and 21), it is here set out in fulL 

* See the passages quoted above (chapter 5). 

8 The passage between these two figures recurs at II, 1, 1. 



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1,27,1. THE MINOR DISCIPLINARY PROCEEDINGS. 373 

service, or salutation, or respect, nor allow him to 
provide a seat, or a sleeping-place, or water for the 
feet, or a foot-stool*, or a foot-towel 5 for him, nor to 
carry his bowl or his robe, nor to shampoo him 8 — 
he ought not to harass a regular Bhikkhu with a 
complaint that he has failed in morality, or in con- 
duct, or in doctrine, or in the mode of obtaining a 
livelihood — he ought not to cause division between 
a Bhikkhu and the Bhikkhus — he ought not to wear 
the outward signs of being a layman, or of being a 
follower of some other doctrine * — he ought not to 
follow the professors of other doctrines — he ought 
to follow the Bhikkhus — he ought to train himself 
in the training of the Bhikkhus — he ought not to 
dwell under one and the same roof with a regular 
Bhikkhu, whether in a place formally declared to be 
a residence, or to be not a residence, or in a place 
which is neither the one nor the other, — on seeing a 
regular Bhikkhu he ought to rise from his seat — he 
ought not to touch 7 a regular Bhikkhu, either inside 
or outside (of the residence) — he ought not to raise 
objections against a regular Bhikkhus taking part 
in the Uposatha ceremony 8 — or in the Pavara«a 

4 At II, i, 1. Buddhaghosa explains this word as confined to 
a stool on which to place feet that have been washed (dhota-p&da- 
//Sapanakaw). 

8 Buddhaghosa says on the same expression in II, 1, 1, p&da- 
kathaliyan (sic) ti adhota-p4da-//4apanaka»i p&da-ghawsanaw vi. 

• The Samanta PSsMki says, Na titthiya-dha^o ti kusa^i- 
lidim na dhdretabbaw. Compare the use of arahad-dha^a»J at 
<?ataka I, 65. 

7 The Samanta Pdsidikd says, Na Ss&detabbo ti na p4sS- 
detabbo (compare the use of isSdesi, G&taka I, 481). Anto \i 
bahi vi ti viharassa anto v& bahi vL 

' On this and the following sentences compare the passages 
quoted above, chapter 5. 



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374 ffULLAVAGGA. 1, 28, 1. 

ceremony — he ought not to issue command (to a 
junior, inhibiting him from going beyond the bounds, 
or summoning him to appear before the elders) — he 
ought not to set on foot a censure against any other 
Bhikkhu — he ought not to ask another Bhikkhu to 
give him leave (to rebuke that Bhikkhu) — he ought 
not to warn (another Bhikkhu whom he supposes to 
be offending) — he ought not to remind (another 
Bhikkhu of a law against which he supposes that 
Bhikkhu to be offending) — and he ought not to 
associate with the Bhikkhus.' 



Here end the forty-three duties which follow on an 

Ukkhepaniya-kamma for not acknowledging 

a fault. 



28. 
1. So the Sawgha carried out against .A^anna 
the Bhikkhu the Ukkhepaniya-kamma for not 
acknowledging a fault to the effect that he should 
not eat or dwell together with the Sawgha. And 
after he had been subjected by the Sawgha to the 
Ukkhepaniya-kamma for not acknowledging his 
fault he went from that residence to another residence. 
And the Bhikkhus there did no reverence to him, 
rose not from their seats to welcome him, rendered 
him not service, offered him not salutation, paid not re- 
spect to him, offered him not hospitality, nor esteemed 
him, nor honoured him, nor supported him. And 
when he received from the Bhikkhus neither hospi- 
tality, nor welcome, nor esteem, nor honour, nor 



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1,29. THE MINOR DISCIPLINARY PROCEEDINGS. 375 

support, he went from that residence to another 
residence. And the Bhikkhus there did no reve- 
rence to him, rose not from their seats to welcome 
him, rendered him not service (&c, as before, down 
to :) he went from that residence to another resi- 
dence. And when he received no hospitality he 
returned back again even to Kosambl. Then he 
conducted himself aright, and he became subdued, 
and he sought for release, and going up to the 
Bhikkhus he spake as follows : ' I, Sirs, having been 
subjected by the Sawgha to the Ukkhepaniya- 
kamma am conducting myself aright in accordance 
thereto, and I am become subdued, and I seek for 
release. What now should I do ?' 

They told this thing to the Blessed One. 

'Then, O Bhikkhus, let the Sa*»gha revoke the 
Ukkhepaniya-kamma for not acknowledging his 
fault carried out against jOanna the Bhikkhu. 

2. ' There are five things, O Bhikkhus, [&c, the 
rest of this section bearing the same relation to the 
last, which chapter 6, § 2, does to chapter 5.]' 

Here end the forty-three cases [in which an 

Ukkhepaniya-kamma for not acknowledging a 

fault is not to be revoked]. 



29. 
' There are five things, O Bhikkhus, [&c, as in 
chapter 7. This chapter being the exact opposite 
of chapter 28.] 

Here end the forty-three cases [in which an 

Ukkhepaniya-kamma for not acknowledging a 

fault ought to be revoked]. 



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376 JTULLAVAGGA. 1, 30. 



30. 

'And thus, O Bhikkhus, should the revocation be 
carried out [&c., as before, in chapters 8, 12, &c.]' 



Here ends the fifth Kamma, namely, the 
Ukkhepaniya-kamma for not acknowledging a 

fault 



31. 

Now at that time the Blessed Buddha was dwell- 
ing at Kosambt, in the Ghosita Arama. And at 
that time the venerable A^anna, when he had com- 
mitted a fault, was not willing to atone for .that fault 
[&c, the proceeding in this case being the same, 
and laid down in the same words as the proceeding 
in the last case, chapters 25-30]. 



Here ends the sixth Kamma; namely, the 
Ukkhepaniya-kamma on not atoning for a fault 1 . 



1 It will be seen from the above chapters, and especially from 
chapter 27, that the Ukkhepaniya-kamma is an Act, not of 
expulsion, but only of suspension. The ten cases in which a 
member of the Order could be expelled are those given above in 
MahSvagga 1, 60; and the technical word for 'expel' is n&seti. 



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1,32,1. THE MINOR DISCIPLINARY PROCEEDINGS. 377 



VI. The Ukkhepaniya-kamma for not renouncing 
a sinful doctrine. 



32. 

i. Now at that time the Blessed Buddha was 
staying at Savatthi, in the Getavana, the grove of 
AnathapittdTika. And at that time a certain Bhikkhu 
by name Knttha., who had formerly been a vulture 
tormentor 1 , had fallen into a sinful belief of this 
kind ; (that is to say), ' In this wise do I understand 
the Dhamma preached by the Blessed One, that 
to him who practises those things which have been 
declared by the Blessed One to be impediments 2 , 

1 In his commentary on the P&iittiya, quoted by Oldenberg in 
his note on this passage, Buddhaghosa explains this expression to 
mean ' born in a family of vulture slayers.' This does not help 
us much, vulture slaying as a regular occupation being somewhat 
incomprehensible, and not referred to elsewhere. Whatever its 
meaning, the occupation referred to is perhaps the origin of, or 
should at least be compared with, the statement of Ktesias (circa 
b. c. 400) in his 'Indika' (ed. C. Mtiller, Fragment xiii), that the 
Indians used not dogs but vultures, which they trained for that 
purpose, in hunting hares and foxes. Lassen in his 'Indische 
Alterthumskunde,' II, 658, 639, thinks this statement not incredible, 
very fairly comparing the use of falcons in Europe in the Middle 
Ages. It is not impossible that the correct rendering here should 
be 'vulture-catcher,' or 'vulture-trainer ;' but we prefer to be literal. 

* The only one of such things (Dhamma) known to us else- 
where in the Vinaya Pi/aka itself is deliberate falsehood. This 
is stated in Mahavagga II, 3, 3 to be an impediment, which is 
explained by the Old Commentator, at MahSvagga II, 3, 7, to 
mean an impediment to the attainment of the Guanas, and other 
things of similar nature. 



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37^ rULLAVAGGA. I, 32, 2. 

there will arise no impediment sufficient (to prevent 
his acquiring spiritual gifts) '.' 

Now many Bhikkhus heard that Ari/Ma, who had 
formerly (&c, as before, down to :) to be impedi- 
ments. And those Bhikkhus went up to the place 
where hvitthz. the Bhikkhu, who had formerly been 
a vulture tormentor, was ; and on arriving there they 
asked Kxitth-a. the Bhikkhu, who had formerly been 
a vulture tormentor, ' Is it true, friend Ari//^a, as 
they say, that you have fallen into a sinful belief 
(&c, as above, down to) spiritual gifts ?' 

'Certainly 2 ! I do so understand the Dhamma 
preached by the Blessed One (&c, as before).' 

2. ' Say not so, friend Ari//4a. Bear not false- 
witness against the Blessed One. For neither is it 
seemly to bring a false accusation against the Blessed 
One, nor could the Blessed One have spoken so. 
By many a figure, friend Ari/Ma, have the things 
which are impediments been declared to be impedi- 
ments by the Blessed One, and also to be sufficient 
to prevent him who cultivates them (from attaining 
to spiritual gifts) 3 . Lusts have been declared by 
the Blessed One to be of short taste *, full of pain, 
and full of despair, things wherein the danger is 
great. Lusts have been declared by the Blessed 
One to be like the bones of a skeleton, full of pain, 
and full of despair, things wherein the danger is 

1 This is word for word the same speech as that which is con- 
demned in the 68th and 70th Pi^ittiyas. 

* By& is only known to us as an intensive particle occurring in 
passages like the present one. 

8 So far this section is word for word the same as the 68th and 
the 70th PiiHttiyas. 

* Quoted at Dhammapada, ver. 186. 



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1,33,3- THE MINOR DISCIPLINARY PROCEEDINGS. 379 

great Lusts have been declared by the Blessed 
One to be like lumps of raw meat, full (&c, as 
before, down to :) is great. Lusts have been de- 
clared by the Blessed One to be like torches made 
of a wisp of hay . . . . , like a pit full of live coals l . . . . , 
like the visions of a dream like a beggar's por- 
tion . . . . , like the fruits of trees like the sword 

and the slaughter-house like darts and clubs 

..... like snakes and creeping things, full of pain, 
and full of despair, things wherein the danger is 
great.' 

Yet notwithstanding that Bhikkhu Ari//^a, who 
had formerly been a vulture tormentor, when thus 
being addressed by the Bhikkhus, remained stead- 
fastly adhering, in the very same way, and with 
violence, to that sinful doctrine, declaring, ' Verily 
I do so understand the Dhamma preached by the 
Blessed One (&c, as before, in § i).' 

3. Then since those Bhikkhus were unable to 
move hntthdi the Bhikkhu, who had formerly been 
a vulture tormentor, from that sinful doctrine, they 
went up to the place where the Blessed One was ; 
and when they had come there, they told this thing 
to the Blessed One. 

And the Blessed One on that occasion, and in 
that connection, convened a meeting of the Bhikkhu- 
sa*»gha, and asked Kxittha. the Bhikkhu, who had 
formerly been a vulture tormentor, ' Is it true, as 
they say, Aritt/ia., that you have fallen into a sinful 
doctrine of such a kind (&c, as before, in § i) ?' 

' Certainly, Lord ! I do so understand (&c, as before, 
in $ 1).' 

1 Compare Gitaka.1, 231, 232. 

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380 JCULLAVAGGA. 1, 32, 4. 

' How can you, O foolish one, so understand the 
Dhamma preached by me ? Have I not, by many 
a figure, O foolish one, declared the things which 
are impediments to be impediments, and sufficient 
to prevent him who cultivates them (from attaining 
to spiritual gifts)? Have not lusts been by me 
declared to be of short taste (&c, as above, down 
to :) like snakes and creeping things, full of danger, 
full of despair, things wherein the danger is great ? 
Yet now you, O foolish one, by your having 
grasped that doctrine wrongly 1 , are not only 
bearing false-witness against us, but you are also 
rooting yourself up, and are giving rise to much 
demerit, the which will be to you for a long time 
for an evil and a woe. This will not conduce, O 
foolish one, either to the conversion of the uncon- 
verted, or to the increase of the converted; but 
rather to those who are unconverted not being 
converted, and to the turning back of those who 
have been converted '.' 

When he had thus rebuked him, and had delivered 
a religious discourse, he addressed the Bhikkhus, 
and said : ' Let therefore the Sa/»gha, O Bhikkhus, 
carry out against Anttha. the Bhikkhu, who was 
formerly a vulture tormentor, the Ukkhepaniya- 
kamma for not renouncing a sinful doctrine, to the 
intent that he shall not eat or dwell together with 
the Sawgha.' 

4. ' Now thus, O Bhikkhus, should it be carried 
out. In the first place the Bhikkhu Aril/£a ought 



1 Compare Maha-parinitMna Sutta IV, 8-1 1. 
* Up to this point the whole chapter recurs as the Introductory 
Story in the Sutta-vibhanga on the 68th PUittiya. 



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1, 34,1. THE MINOR DISCIPLINARY PROCEEDINGS. 38 1 

to be warned [&c, as in chapter 25, down to the 
end of the Kammavaia, including the supplementary 
sentence as to the proclamation].' 



33. 

[Here follow the twelve cases in which the 
K am ma is against the law, the twelve cases in which 
it is according to law, the six permissive cases in 
which it can be carried out if the Sawgha likes, and 
the eighteen divisions of the right conduct for the 
convicted Bhikkhu to pursue, precisely as in chapters 
2, 3, 4, and 5, reading ' Ukkhepaniya-kamma 
for not renouncing a sinful doctrine,' instead of 
' Ta£g*aniya-kamma.'] 



34. 

1. So the Sawgha carried out against Ari//-&a the 
Bhikkhu, who had formerly been a vulture tormentor, 
the Ukkhepaniya-kamma for not renouncing a 
sinful doctrine, to the intent that he should not eat 
nor dwell with the Sa#*gha. And when he had 
been thus subjected by the Sa/»gha to the Ukkhe- 
paniya-kamma for not renouncing a sinful doctrine, 
he left the Order. 

Those Bhikkhus who were moderate were annoyed, 
murmured, and became indignant, saying, ' How can 
Ari#i6a the Bhikkhu, having been subjected by the 
Sawgha to the Ukkhepaniya-kamma for not 



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382 tfULLAVAGGA. 1, 34, 1. 

renouncing a sinful doctrine, leave the Order?' And 
those Bhikkhus told the matter to the Blessed One. 

Then the Blessed One on that occasion, and 
in that connection, convened a meeting of the 
Bhikkhu-sawgha, and asked the Bhikkhus, ' Is it 
true, O Bhikkhus, as they say, that Knttha. the 
Bhikkhu, having been subjected (&c, as before, 
down to) left the Order ?' 

' It is true, Lord.' 

The Blessed Buddha rebuked him, saying, ' How 
can Knttka. the Bhikkhu (&c, as before, down to) 
leave the Order ? This will not conduce either to 
the conversion of the unconverted, nor to the in- 
crease of the converted ; but rather to those who 
have not been converted not being converted, and 
to the turning back of those who have been con- 
verted.' 

And when he had rebuked him, and delivered 
a religious discourse, the Blessed One addressed 
the Bhikkhus, and said : ' Let then the Sawgha, O 
Bhikkhus, revoke the Ukkhepaniya-kamma for 
not renouncing a sinful doctrine, which has been 
carried out against Ari//>fca the Bhikkhu, 

'There are five things, O Bhikkhus, [&c, as 
before, in chapters 6 and 7, down to the end.]' 



Here end the eighteen cases in which a revocation 

of the Ukkhepaniya-kamma on not renouncing a 

sinful doctrine should be carried out. 



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1,35- THE MINOR DISCIPLINARY PROCEEDINGS. 383 



35. 

' Now thus, O Bhikkhus, should it be carried out,' 
&c. [Here follows the Kammavaia for the re- 
vocation of a Kamma precisely as in chapter 8, 
with the necessary alterations.] 



Here ends the seventh (Kamma), theUkkhepaniya- 
kamma on not renouncing a sinful doctrine. 



Here ends the First Khandhaka, the Khandhaka 
on the Kammas. 



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384 JfULLAVAGGA. II, 1, 1. 



SECOND KHANDHAKA. 

Probation and Penance. 



1. Now at that time the Blessed Buddha was 
staying at Savatthi, in the £etavana, Anatha- 
piwoTika's Grove. And at that time Bhikkhus who 
had been placed on probation 1 used to accept re- 
verence and service and salutation and respect from 
regular Bhikkhus ; and to allow them to provide a 
seat, or a sleeping-place, or water for the feet, or 
a foot-stool, or a foot-towel for them ; and to carry 
their bowl or their robe, and to shampoo them 2 . 

1 There are four principal kinds of probation; the first of which 
was required when the follower of another of the reforming sects 
was received into the Buddhist Order, and is described in MahS- 
vagga I, 38. The other three, which follow on the commission of 
a Sawghadisesa offence, are more particularly described below in 
the third Khandhaka. The Pali names of these fom- are respec- 
tively apa/i/Wy&anna-parivasa, pa/i£/Manna-parivasa, suddhanta-pari- 
vasa, and samodhana-parivasa. 

No conclusion should be drawn against this statement from the 
passage above at I, 9, 1 ; though Seyyasaka's conduct, as there 
described, would not have rendered him liable to any one of these 
four principal probationary proceedings. For he is said to have 
been guilty of many offences (apatti-bahulo). The accom- 
panying enumeration must be taken, not as a description of those 
offences, but as additional to them. And the probation imposed 
upon him must have been for concealing one or more of the many 
offences not particularly specified. 

a All these expressions recur above, I, 27, 1. 



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II, I, t. PROBATION AND PENANCE. 385 

Those Bhikkhus who were moderate were an- 
noyed, murmured, and became indignant, saying, 
' How can Bhikkhus who have been placed on pro- 
bation accept reverence (&c, as above, down to) 
shampoo them?' 

And those Bhikkhus told this thing to the Blessed 
One. 

Then the Blessed One on that occasion, and in 
that connection, convened a meeting of the Bhikkhu- 
sawgha, and asked the Bhikkhus : ' Is it true, O 
Bhikkhus, as they say, that Bhikkhus who have 
been placed on probation accept reverence (&c, as 
before, down to) shampoo them ?' 

' It is true, Lord.' 

The Blessed Buddha rebuked them, saying, ' How 
can those Bhikkhus (&c.,as before, down to) shampoo 
them ? This will not conduce, O Bhikkhus (&c, 
as usual, down to) 1 turning back of those who have 
been converted.' 

And when he had rebuked them, and had deli- 
vered a religious discourse, he addressed the Bhik- 
khus, saying, 'A Bhikkhu who has been placed 
on probation ought not to accept reverence (&c, 
as before, down to) shampoo them. Whosoever 
does so, shall be guilty of a dukka/a offence. 
I prescribe, O Bhikkhus, to those Bhikkhus who 
have been placed on probation to do [all the cour- 
tesies, duties, and services mentioned above 2 ] for 
one another, according to their seniority. I pre- 
scribe, O Bhikkhus, five things (as permissible) to 
Bhikkhus who have been placed on probation, 

1 See I, 1, 2, down to the end. 

s That is, in the lists recurring in the previous paragraphs, and 
given in full at I, 27, 1. 

[17] c c 



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386 JCULLAVAGGA. II, r, 2. 

according to their seniority; (that is to say), the 
Uposatha ceremony, the Pavara#a ceremony, the 
share in robes for the rainy season, in things dedi- 
cated to the Sawgha 1 , and in food. 

2. ' Therefore, O Bhikkhus, do I make known to 
you a rule of conduct for Bhikkhus who have been 
placed on probation, according to which they ought 
to conduct themselves aright. And herein this is 
the right conduct. He ought not to confer the 
Upasampada (&c, as above, in I, i, 5, down to 
the end) 2 . 

'A Bhikkhu who has been placed on probation 
ought not, O Bhikkhus, to walk in front of, or to sit 
down in front of, a regular Bhikkhu. Whichever 
belonging to that company of Bhikkhus shall be the 
worst seat 3 , or the worst sleeping-place, or the worst 
room*, that shall be given to that Bhikkhu, and there- 



1 Ono^anam, which the Samanta Pasadika explains by 'visa^- 
gan&m.' Compare the use of ono^esi at Dipavawsa XIII, 29. 
The etymology of the word is unknown to us. 

s The Samanta PasadikS has here the following note on sava- 
kaniyzm, which should be compared with the shorter note on the 
same word given above, 1, 1, 5 : Na sava£aniya»i katabban ti 
palibodhatthaya pakkosanatthaya vk sava^aniyaw na katabbaw. 
Palibodhatthaya hi karonto, aha/» ayasmantaw imasmi/w vatthusmi« 
sava^aniyaw karomi, imamha avasa ekapadaw pi mi pakkarni 
yava na ta*» adhikarawaw vupasantaw hotiti ; evam karoti. Pak- 
kosanatthaya karonto, ahaw te savafoniyaw karomi, ehi maya 
saddhi/w vinaya-dharana/B sammukhibhivaw ga&Mami ti : evaro 
karoti. 

8 Buddhaghosa says here, Asanapariyanto bhattaggidisu 
sa*»gha-navak-asana»* vukknti, svassa databbo. Pariyanta is 
used here in the same sense as in the 22nd Nissaggiya. 

4 Vihara. In later times this word is no doubt always, or 
almost always, used to designate the whole of a building in which 
several or many Bhikkhus resided. In the older literature it always, 



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11,1,2. PROBATION AND PENANCE. 387 

with shall he content himself. A Bhikkhu who has 
been placed under probation ought not, O Bhikkhus, 
to visit the families who support a regular Bhikkhu 
(by officiating, in order to do so, as the companion 
who precedes or follows that regular Bhikkhu) — he 
ought not to devote himself to a forest life — he ought 
not to devote himself to living on alms personally 
received 1 — he ought not to cause an alms to be 
brought out to him with the object of escaping an 
extension of his probationary term 2 , thinking, "Let 
them not recognise me" (as one who has been placed 
under probation) 3 . 

1 A Bhikkhu who has been placed on probation 
ought, O Bhikkhus, to announce the fact of his having 
been so placed when he arrives at a residence as an 
incoming Bhikkhu — he ought to announce the fact 
to an incoming Bhikkhu — he ought to announce the 
fact at an Uposatha meeting — he ought to an- 
nounce the fact at a Pa'vira»a meeting — and, if 
he be sick, he ought to announce the fact at such 
meetings by means of a messenger 4 . 

or almost always, denotes the dwelling-place, the private apart- 
ment, of a single Bhikkhu. 

1 That is, to refrain from salaka-bhatta, &c. 

* The Samanta PasSdik& says, TappaMayd 'ti niha/abhatto 
hutvi vih&ren' eva nisiditvi bhunganto vattiyo gawayissSmi ga£- 
ihato me bhikkhu disvi anaro£entassa ratti^Medo (cap. 2) siya 'ti 
imina kara»ena pi«</apato na niharipetabbo. 

8 MS. maw^anirasu 'ti mi mam ekabhikkhu pi ^Snatu 'ti<4a 
imina a^Msayena vihare samawerehi pa££petv& bhuw^itum labbhati. 
Gama/H pwtfaya pavisitabbam eva. Gilanassa pana navakammaw 
aforiyupa^g-Aiyaki^adipasu (sic) tassa v£. vihlre yeva aiihltum 
va//ati. Sa£e pi game anekasata bhikkhu viiaranti na sakka hoti 
aro^eruw gSmakavasaw gantvi sabhaga/Mne vasituw va//ati. 

* This paragraph, it will be seen, is omitted in three out of the 
four following cases, which are otherwise similar in every respect, 

C C 2 



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388 IULLAVAGGA. II, i, 3. 

3. ' A Bhikkhu who has been placed on probation 
ought not, O Bhikkhus, to go away from a residence 
in which Bhikkhus are living to a residence in which 
no Bhikkhus are living, unless with a regular Bhik- 
khu, or in time of danger. A Bhikkhu who has been 
placed on probation ought not, O Bhikkhus, to go 
away from a residence in which Bhikkhus are living 
to a place which is not a residence 1 and where no 
Bhikkhus are living, unless with a regular Bhikkhu, or 
in time of danger. A Bhikkhu (&c, as before) ought 
not to go away from a residence in which Bhikkhus 
are living, either to a residence or to a place which 
is not a residence, and where Bhikkhus are not 
living, unless (&c, as before) 2 . . . . from a place 
which is not a residence, but where Bhikkhus are 
living, to a place which is a residence, but where 
Bhikkhus are not living .... from a place which is 
not a residence, but where Bhikkhus are living, to 
a place which is not a residence and where Bhikkhus 
are not living .... from a place which is no residence, 
but where Bhikkhus are living, either to a place 
which is not a residence or to a residence where no 
Bhikkhus are living .... from a place which is either 
a residence or not a residence, to a place which is a 
residence, but where no Bhikkhus are living .... 
from a place which is either a residence or no re- 
sidence, but where Bhikkhus are living, to a place 



as regards the right conduct which is laid down for them, to the 
present case of the Bhikkhus who have been placed on probation. 

1 The Samanta Pasidika says, (Abhikkhuko avaso) na hi 
tattha vuttharattiyo ga«anupik& honti. pakatattena pana saddhws 
va/Zati. Anavaso nama £etiyaghara« bodhighara#> sammaw^ani- 
a//ako darua//ako paniyamaVo va£Aaku/i dvarako/Mako 'ti evamadi. 

* In the text read £vaso vd anavdso vL 



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n, i, 4. PROBATION AND PENANCE. 389 

which is not a residence and where no Bhikkhus are 
living .... from a place which is either a residence 
or not a residence, but where Bhikkhus are living, 
to a place which is either a residence or not a resid- 
ence, but where no Bhikkhus are living, unless with 
a regular Bhikkhu or in time of danger. 

'A Bhikkhu who has been placed on probation 
ought not, O Bhikkhus, to go away from a residence 
where Bhikkhus are living to a residence where 
Bhikkhus are living, but where there may be Bhik- 
khus of different communities from his own (unless, 
&c, as before). [The same changes as in the last 
series are here rung upon this inhibition, down to] 

from a place which is either a residence or not a 

residence, but where Bhikkhus are living, to a place 
which is either a residence or not a residence, and 
where Bhikkhus are living, but where there may be 
Bhikkhus of different communities from his own 
(unless, &c, as before). 

' A Bhikkhu who has been placed on probation 
ought to go, O Bhikkhus, from a residence where 
Bhikkhus are living to a residence where Bhikkhus 
are living, and where there are Bhikkhus of the 
same community (with himself), if he knows, " This 
very day I can go there." [Here follow the same 
permutations and combinations as in the last two 
series.] 

4. ' A Bhikkhu who has been placed on probation 
ought not, O Bhikkhus, to dwell with a regular 
Bhikkhu in a residence under one and the same 
roof — nor in a place which is not a residence under 
one and the same roof — nor in a place which is 
either a residence or not a residence under one and 
the same roof. On seeing a regular Bhikkhu he 



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390 tULLAVAGGA. II, I, 4. 

ought to rise from his seat * ; and he ought to offer 
his seat to a regular Bhikkhu. He ought not to 
sit down on one and the same seat with a regular 
Bhikkhu ; when a regular Bhikkhu is seated on a 
low seat he ought not to sit down on a high seat 2 ; 
when a regular Bhikkhu is seated on the ground he 
ought not to sit down on a seat 3 ; he ought not to 
walk up and down on the same £ankama 4 with 
a regular Bhikkhu ; when a regular Bhikkhu is 
walking up and down on a low iankama he ought 
not to walk up and down on a higher >fcankama; 
when a regular Bhikkhu is walking up and down on 
the ground he ought not to walk up and down on 
a (properly prepared) £ankama. 

' A Bhikkhu who has been placed on probation 
ought not, O Bhikkhus, to dwell (&c, all the other 
acts mentioned in the last paragraph being here 
repeated down to the end) with a Bhikkhu senior to 
himself who has been placed on probation .... with 
a Bhikkhu who has been thrown back to the com- 
mencement of his term of probation .... with a 
Bhikkhu who has rendered himself liable to the 
Manatta discipline 6 .... with a Bhikkhu under- 
going the Manatta discipline .... with a Bhikkhu 
who is in a position to receive rehabilitation 5 . 

'If a meeting of four Bhikkhus, of whom one is 



1 This recurs in Khandhaka I, chapter 27. 

* Compare the 69th Sekhiya. 

* Compare the 68th Sekhiya. 

* A narrow space of open ground, levelled and cleared of jungle, 
for the purpose of being used to walk up and down upon when 
meditating. See our note on Mahavagga V, 1, 14. 

8 On these disciplines and on rehabilitation, see the following 
Khandhaka. 



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11,2,1. PROBATION AND PENANCE. 391 

a probationer, should place a Bhikkhu on probation, 
or throw him back to the beginning of his proba- 
tionary course, or subject him to the Mlnatta 
discipline — or if a meeting of twenty Bhikkhus, of 
whom one is a probationer, should rehabilitate a 
Bhikkhu, that, O Bhikkhus, is an invalid act, and 
need not be obeyed 1 .' 



Here end the ninety-four duties encumbent on 
a probationer. 



1. Now the venerable Upali went up to the place 
where the Blessed One was ; and on arriving there, 
he saluted the Blessed One, and took his seat on 
one side. And when he was so seated the venerable 
Upali said to the Blessed One : ' Now in what case, 
Lord, can there be an interruption of the proba- 
tionary period of a Bhikkhu who has been placed on 
probation 2 ? ' 

'There are three ways of interruption of the 
probationary period, O Upali, of a Bhikkhu who 
has been placed on probation ; (that is to say), by 



1 Compare Mahav&gga IX, 4, 1. 

* Literally, ' breaking of the nights.' The time of probation was 
reckoned, not by days, but by nights; and in either of the three 
cases which follow the reckoning was interrupted, and had to 
begin afresh. 



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39 2 rULLAVAGGA. II, 3, I. 

dwelling together 1 , by dwelling alone 2 , and by not 
announcing 8 . 

' These are the three ways of interruption to the 
probationary period, O Upali, of a Bhikkhu who has 
been placed under probation.' 



3*. 

1. Now at that time, since there was a great com- 
pany of the Bhikkhus gathered together at Savatthi, 
those Bhikkhus who had been placed on probation 
did not know how to carry out their probation 
correctly. 

They told this thing to the Blessed One. 

' I prescribe to you, O Bhikkhus, to carry out your 
probation correctly. Now thus, O Bhikkhus, ought 
you to postpone 8 the probation. The Bhikkhu who 
has been placed on probation is to go up to a single 
Bhikkhu, and arranging his robe on one shoulder, 
and squatting down on his heels, and stretching 
forth his hands with the palms together, he is to 
say : " I postpone my probation." Then the proba- 
tion is postponed. Or he is to say : " I postpone 

1 Buddhaghosa explains this to mean when the probationer has 
done any of the things forbidden in II, 1, 4. 

8 That is, when the probationer has done any of the things 
forbidden in II, 1, 3. 

8 That is, when the probationer has omitted to make any of the 
announcements prescribed at the end of II, 1, 2. 

4 This chapter is repeated below, chap. 8, in reference to 
Bhikkhus undergoing the Mdnatta discipline. 

8 That is, if it should be impossible during the time immedi- 
ately succeeding the imposition of probation to fulfil all the thereto 
necessary duties, then a Bhikkhu might postpone the fulfilment to 
some more convenient season. 



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11,4,1. PROBATION AND PENANCE. 393 

the duties (i. e. of a probationer)." Then also the 
probation is postponed.' 

2. Now at that time the Bhikkhus who were at 
Savatthi went away hither and thither, and the 
Bhikkhus who had been placed on probation were 
not able to carry out their probation correctly 1 . 

They told this thing to the Blessed One. 

1 1 prescribe to you, O Bhikkhus, to take upon 
yourselves again the probation (which had been 
postponed). Now thus, O Bhikkhus, ought you to 
take it upon yourselves again. The Bhikkhu who 
has been placed under probation is to go up to a single 
Bhikkhu, and arranging his robe on one shoulder, 
and squatting down on his heels, and stretching forth 
his hands with the palms together, he is to say : " I 
take my probation again upon myself." Then the 
probation is resumed. Or he is to say : " I take the 
duties (i.e. of a probationer) upon myself again." 
Then also is the probation resumed.' 



Here end the duties encumbent on a probationer. 



4. 

1. Now at that time Bhikkhus, who had rendered 
themselves liable to be thrown back to the com- 
mencement (of their probationary course) 2 , used to 

1 The Samanta PSsadiki here says, Eva»i vattaw samSdiyitva' 
parivutta-pariv&sassam&nattaw ga/xhato puna vatta-sam&d&na-kiiiaw 
n' atthi sam&dinna-vatto yeva hi esa. Tasmassa kA&raXtem minattam 
d&tabbam, 4i»«a-minatto abbhetabbo, evam anapattiko hutva" sud- 
dhante pati/Mito tisso sikkhi puretva" dukkhass' antaw karissatiti. 

* This is fully explained in the next Khaodhaka. 



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394 JTULLAVAGGA. II, 5. 

accept reverence [&c, as before in chapter i, reading 
throughout ' Bhikkhus liable to be thrown back to 
the beginning of their probationary course* for 
' Bhikkhus who had been placed on probation 1 ;' and 
omitting in chapter 2 the announcements referred to 
there in our note]. 



5. 

[In this chapter the same rules are laid down, 
Word for word, as in the last, reading throughout 
for ' Bhikkhus liable to be thrown back to the be- 
ginning of their probationary course,' 'Bhikkhus 
liable to be subjected to the Manatta discipline 2 .'] 



6. 

[In this chapter the same rules for the Manatta, 
or Penance, are laid down word for word as those in 
chapter 1, §§ 1, 2, 3, and 4, for the probation, reading 
throughout ' Bhikkhus who are going through the 
Manatta discipline' for 'Bhikkhus who have been 
placed under probation.' There are, however, one 
or two minor points of difference, which are as 
follows : 

1. At the end of the announcements (chapter 1, 

1 In the text alter the words 'Instead of sawghena parivaso 
dinno hoti read samghena muliya pa/ikassanaraho kato 
hoti' into ' Instead of parivasika bhikkhu read mulaya pa/i- 
kassan&raha bhikkhu.' 

* This is fully explained in the next Khandhaka. 



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II, 7. 1. PROBATION AND PENANCE. 395 

§ 2) there is inserted the injunction, ' He ought to 
announce the fact every day.' 

2. In the passages about going from one resi- 
dence to another (chapter i, § 3) read 'unless with 
the Sawgha' instead of 'unless with a regular 
Bhikkhu.'] 1 



1. Now the venerable Upali went up to the place 
where the Blessed One was ; and on arriving there, 
he saluted the Blessed One, and took his seat on 
one side. And when he was so seated the venerable 
Upali said to the Blessed One : ' Now in what case, 
Lord, can there be an interruption of the Manatta 
discipline 2 of a Bhikkhu who is undergoing that 
discipline ?' 

'There are four ways of interruption of the 
Manatta discipline, O Upali, of a Bhikkhu who is 
undergoing that discipline ; (that is to say), by dwell- 
ing together 3 , by dwelling alone 8 , by not announcing 8 , 
and by living with less than four other Bhikkhus 4 . 
These are the four ways (&c, as before, down to) 
undergoing that discipline.' 

1 It will be seen, therefore, that there is very little, one might 
almost say no practical, difference between the Parivasa, which 
we have rendered 'probation/ and the Manatta, which we have 
usually left untranslated, and sometimes rendered 'penance.' 
Neither the one nor the other are at present enforced anywhere 
among the Buddhists. 

* See chapter 2, note 1. 

* See the notes above on chapter a. 

* The Samanta Pasadika says, fine ga«e ti fcittaro va atireka va. 



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396 JTULLAVAGGA. 11,8. 



8. 

[In this chapter the means of postponing and 
resuming the M&natta penance are laid down, word 
for word, as in chapter 3, reading ' Bhikkhus who 
are undergoing the M&natta discipline' for 'Bhik- 
khus who have been placed on probation.'] 



9. 

[This chapter is word for word the same as 
chapter 1, reading 'Bhikkhus who have rendered 
themselves capable of receiving rehabilitation' for 
' Bhikkhus who have been placed on probation.'] 



Here ends the Second Khandhaka, called the 
Khandhaka on Probationers, &c. 



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Ill, i, 2. PROBATION AND PENANCE. 397 



THIRD KHANDHAKA. 
Probation and Penance (continued). 



1. Now at that time the Blessed Buddha was 
staying at Savatthi, in the Getavana, Anathapi#- 
afika's Grove. And at that time the venerable Uddyi 
committed an offence, to wit, the first Saa&ghadisesa 
offence, and did not conceal it He told the Bhik- 
khus, saying, ' I have committed an offence — the 
first Sawghadisesa offence — and do not conceal it. 
What now shall I do?' 

They told this thing to the Blessed One. 

' Then, O Bhikkhus, let the Sawgha lay the Ma- 
natta penalty on Udayi the Bhikkhu for the space 
of six days on account of that offence — the first 
Saawghadisesa — which he has not concealed. 

2. ' Now thus, O Bhikkhus, ought it to be laid 
upon him. Udayi the Bhikkhu ought to go up, 

Bhikkhus, before the Sawgha; and, arranging 
his robe on one shoulder, he ought to bow down at 
the feet of the elder Bhikkhus, and squatting down 
on his heels, and stretching forth his hands with the 
palms together, he ought to say as follows : 

' " I, venerable Sirs, have committed an offence — 
the first Sa*»ghadisesa — which I have not concealed. 

1 ask the Sawgha (to impose upon me) the Manatta 
penalty for six days on account of this offence — the 



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398 iTULLAVAGGA. Ill, i, 3. 

first Sa*»ghadisesa offence — which I have not con- 
cealed." ' 

[This speech is repeated three times.] 

3. ' Some discreet and able Bhikkhu should then 
lay the matter before the Sa#zgha, as follows : 

'" Let the venerable Saawgha hear me. Udiyi 
the Bhikkhu has committed an offence — the first 
Sawghadisesa offence — which he has not concealed. 
And he asks the Sawgha for the Manatta penalty 
for six days on account of that offence — the first 
Sawghadisesa offence — which he has not concealed. 

'"If the time seem meet to the Sawgha, let the 
Samgha. impose a Manatta of six days' duration on 
Udiyi the Bhikkhu for that one offence — the first 
Sawghadisesa offence — which he has not concealed. 

' " This is the motion («atti). 

' " The Sawgha hereby imposes a Manatta of six 
days on Udayi the Bhikkhu for that one offence — 
the first Sawghidisesa offence — which he has not 
concealed. 

' " Whosoever of the venerable ones approves of 
the imposition of a Manatta (&c, as in the last 
paragraph, down to) not concealed, let him remain 
silent Whosoever approves not, let him speak. 

' " A second time I say the same thing (&c, as 
before in the last two paragraphs). A third time I 
say the same thing (&c, as before). 

' " The Sawgha has imposed a Mfinatta of six 
days' duration (&c, as before, in the words of the 
motion, down to) not concealed. The Sa/wgha ap- 
proves thereof. Therefore is it silent. Thus do I 
understand." ' 



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111,2,3- PROBATION AND PENANCE. 399 



i. When he had done the Manatta he told the 
Bhikkhus, saying, ' Friends, I committed an offence 
— the first Sawghadisesa offence — which I had not 
concealed. And I asked the Sa*»gha for a Manatta of 
six days' duration for that offence — the first Saw/gha- 
disesa offence — which I had not concealed. The 
Sawgha imposed upon me a Manatta (&c, as before, 
down to) not concealed. Now I have accomplished 
that Manatta. What now shall I do ?' 

They told this thing to the Blessed One. 

' Then, O Bhikkhus, let the Sawzgha rehabilitate 
Udayi the Bhikkhu. 

2. ' Now thus, O Bhikkhus, ought he to be re- 
habilitated. 

' Udayi the Bhikkhu ought to go up (&c, as in 
chapter i, § 2, down to) he ought to say as follows * 

' " I committed, venerable Sirs, an offence — the 
first Sawghadisesa offence — which I did not conceal. 
I asked the Sawgha (to impose upon me) a Manatta 
of six days' duration for that offence — the first 
Sa/wghadisesa offence — which I had not concealed. 
The Sawgha imposed upon me a Manatta of ... . 
for ... . not concealed. I, having accomplished that 
Manatta, ask the Samgha. for rehabilitation.'" 

[This speech is repeated three times.] 

3. 'Then some discreet and able Bhikkhu [&c, 
as before in chapter 1, § 2, the rest of the kamma- 
vl/£a bearing the same relation to the petition as it 
does there].' 



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400 tfULLAVAGGA. Ill, 3, 1. 



i. Now at that time the venerable Udayi had 
committed an offence — the first Sawghadisesa — 
which he had for one day concealed. 

He told the Bhikkhus (&c, as before). 

They told this thing to the Blessed One. 

' Then, O Bhikkhus, let the Sawgha impose a 
probation of one day on Udayi the Bhikkhu for an 
offence (&c, as in the first paragraph of this section 
down to) concealed. 

2. ' Now thus, O Bhikkhus, ought it to be im- 
posed — .' 

[Here follows the kammavaia precisely as in 
chapter i, §§ 2 and 3, with the necessary changes in 
the wording, a. of the offence, b. of the penalty.] 



1. When he had passed through the probation he 
told the Bhikkhus, saying, ' I committed, friends, 
an offence — the first Sawzghadisesa — which for one 
day I concealed. I asked the Sa#zgha to impose 
upon me a probation of one day for the offence .... 
concealed. The Sawgha imposed .... concealed. 
I have passed through that probation. What now 
should I do ?' 

They told this thing to the Blessed One. 
' Let then the Sawgha impose upon Udayi the 
Bhikkhu a Manatta of six days' duration.' 

2, 3. [Here follows the kammava-£a as in 
chapter 1, §§ 2, 3, to the end.] 



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ITT, 7, I. PROBATION AND PENANCE. 4OI 



i. When he had accomplished the Manatta he 
told the Bhikkhus, saying, ' I committed (&c, as 4. 
1, down to) for one day concealed. I asked, &c. . . . 
The Saw/gha imposed a probation, &c. . . . When I 
passed through that probation the Sawgha imposed 
a Manatta of &c. ... for &c. ... I have accomplished 
that Manatta. What now shall I do ?' 

They told that matter to the Blessed One. 

' Let then the Sawgha, O Bhikkhus, rehabilitate 
Udayi the Bhikkhu.' 

2, 3. [Here follows the kammava^a as in 
chapter 2, §§ 2, 3, to the end.] 



6. 



[This chapter is the same as chapter 3, reading 
'for two — three — four — five days concealed,' and 
' probation of two — three — four — five days.'] 



7. 

1. Whilst he was undergoing that probation, he 
committed an offence — the first, &c. — which he did 
not conceal. 

He told the Bhikkhus, saying, ' I committed, 
&c. ... I asked the Sa#zgha, &c. . . . The Sawgha 
imposed upon me a probation of two — three — four 
— five days. Whilst I was undergoing that pro- 
bation, I committed, &c. . . .' 
[17] d d 



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402 JCULLAVAGGA. , III, •}, 2. 

They told that matter to the Blessed One. 

' Let then the Sawgha, O Bhikkhus, throw back 
Udayi the Bhikkhu to the commencement (of his 
probationary course).' 

2, 3. [Here follows the kammava^a as in 
chapter i, with the necessary alterations.] 



8. 

1. When he had undergone that probation, and 
was liable to the Manatta, he c6mmitted an offence — 
the first Sawghadisesa — which he did not conceal. 

He told the Bhikkhus, saying, &c. . . . 

They told this matter to the Blessed One. 

' Let then the Sawgha, O Bhikkhus, throw back 
Udayi the Bhikkhu to the commencement (of his 
probationary course).' 

2, 3. [Here follows the kammava/£a in the 
same form as is given in chapter i.] 



9. 

1. When he had undergone that probation he 
told, &c. ... 

They told, &c. . . . 

4 Let then the Sawzgha, O Bhikkhus, impose upon 
Udayi the Bhikkhu a Manatta of six days' proba- 
tion for these offences.' 

2, 3. [The kammava^a as before.] 



10. 

1. While he was undergoing that Manatta he 



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Ill, II, I. PROBATION AND PENANCE. 403 

committed an offence — the first Sawghadisesa — 
which he did not conceal. 

He told the Bhikkhus, saying, ' I committed, &c. 
... I asked the Sawzgha. . . . The Sawgha imposed 
[&c, going through all that had happened, down to 
the end of the first paragraph in this chapter]. 

They told, &c. 

1 Let then the Sawgha, O Bhikkhus, impose upon 
Udayi the Bhikkhu a Manatta of six days' duration, 
throwing him back to the commencement (of his 
Manatta). 

[The kammavaia as before.]- 



11. 

1. When he had accomplished that Manatta, and 
while he was worthy to be rehabilitated, he com- 
mitted an offence — the first Sawghadisesa offence — 
which he did not conceal. 

He told the Bhikkhus [all that had happened from 
chapter 6 onwards down to this last offence]. 

They told, &c. 

' Let then the Sa*»gha, O Bhikkhus, impose upon 
Udayi the Bhikkhu a Manatta of six days' duration, 
for that he when he had (&c, as in first paragraph 
down to) not conceal, throwing him back to the 
commencement (of his Manatta). 

' Now thus, O Bhikkhus, [here follows the kam- 
mavaia as before.] 



d d 2 

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404 rULLAVAGGA. Ill, ia, t. 



12. 

i. When he had accomplished that Manatta he 
told the Bhikkhus [all that had happened]. 

They told, &c. 

' Let then the Sa#*gha, O Bhikkhus, rehabilitate 
Udayi the Bhikkhu. 

1 Now thus [here follows the kammava^a as 
before]. 



13. 

i. Now at that time the venerable Udayi com- 
mitted an offence — the first Sa*»ghadisesa — and for 
half a month he concealed it. 

[The rest of this chapter is precisely the same as 
chapter 3, reading ' for half a month ' instead of ' for 
one day.'] 



14. 

1. Whilst he was undergoing that probation he 
committed an offence — the first Sawghadisesa — 
which for five days he concealed. 

He told, &c. . . . ' I committed, &c. ... I asked, 
&c. . . . The Sawgha imposed a probation of half a 
month, &c. . . . Whilst I was undergoing, &c. . . . 
What now shall I do ?' 

They told, &c. 

' Let then the Sawgha, O Bhikkhus, for that whilst 
(&c, as in the first paragraph) throw Udayi the 
Bhikkhu back to the beginning of his probationary 



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Ill, 15, 1. PROBATION AND PENANCE. 405 

term, and impose upon him an inclusive proba- 
tion (to include his new offence together) with the 
former offence 1 . 

' Now thus, O Bhikkhus, [here follow two 
kammava^as, one for the throwing back, and one 
for the additional probation, each of them as in 
chapter i.]' 



15. 

1. When he had undergone that probation, and 
while he was liable to the Manatta, he committed 
an offence — the first Saw/ghadisesa — which for five 
days he concealed. 

He told, &c. . . . [all that happened, from chapter 1 3 
downwards]. 

They told, &c. 

' Let then the Sa»*gha, O Bhikkhus, for that he 
when he had (&c, as in the first paragraph) throw 
Udayi the Bhikkhu back to the commencement of 



1 Samodh&na-pariv&sa. It is clear from the next chapter that 
this probation did not affect the Minatta to which he was liable 
for that first offence. The Manatta always lasted six days, and 
was preceded by a probation equal in length to the time during 
which the offence had been concealed. If now, during that proba- 
tion, another offence was committed and concealed, the penalties 
for this new offence and for the old one were not accumulative but 
concurrent. The offender lost the advantage of the probation he 
had already undergone, he was thrown back to the commencement 
of his term of probation, and had to begin again. But the new 
term of probation — equal in length to whichever was the longest 
of the two periods during which he had concealed the two offences — 
satisfied both the concealments, and the Manatta which still, as it 
would have done before, followed at the end of the probation, 
satisfied both the offences. See our note below on chapter 20. 



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406 JTULLAVAGGA. Ill, 16, i. 

his probationary term, and impose upon him an 
inclusive probation (for this and) for the former 
offence. 

' Now thus, O Bhikkhus, [here follow two kam- 
mava^as, as in the last chapter.]' 



16. 

i. When he had undergone that probation he 
told the Bhikkhus, &c. [all that had happened since 
chapter 13]. 

They told, &c. 

' Let then the Sawgha, O Bhikkhus, impose upon 
Udayi the Bhikkhu a Manatta of six days' duration 
for these offences \ 

'Now thus, O Bhikkhus, [here follows one kam- 
mava/C'd in the form given in chapter 1.]' 



17. 

1. While he was undergoing that Manatta he 
committed an offence — the first Sazwghadisesa — 
which he for four days concealed. 

He told, &c. . . . [all that had happened, from 
chapter 13 downwards]. 

They told this matter to the Blessed One. 

' Let then the Sa/»gha, O Bhikkhus, for that while 
(&c, as in the first paragraph) throw Udayi the 
Bhikkhu back to the commencement (of the proba- 
tionary term he had already undergone), and impose 

1 As in chapter 9. 

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Ill, 19, 1. PROBATION AND PENANCE. 407 

upon him an inclusive probation (for* this and) 
for the first offence, and also a Manatta of six days' 
duration. 

. ' Now thus, O Bhikkhus, [here follow three 
kammavaias, one for the throwing back, one for 
the inclusive probation, and one for the new Ma- 
natta, each of them on the same form as that given 
in chapter i.]' 



18. 

1. When he had accomplished that Manatta, and 
while he was worthy to be rehabilitated, he com- 
mitted an offence — the first Sa»/ghadisesa — which 
for five days he concealed. 

He told, &c. [all that happened, from chapter 13 
downwards]. 

They told this matter to the Blessed One. 

' Let then the Sa»*gha, O Bhikkhus, for that when 
he had (&c, as in the first paragraph) throw Udayi 
the Bhikkhu back to the commencement (of the 
probationary term he had already undergone) and 
impose upon him an inclusive probation for this 
and for the first offence, and a Manatta of six days' 
duration. 

4 Now thus, &c. . . . [Here follow three kamma- 
va^as as in chapter 17.]' 



19. 



1. When he had accomplished the Manatta he 
told the Bhikkhus [all that happened, from chapter 1 3 
downwards]. 



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408 JTULLAVAGGA. Ill, 19, 1. 

They told this matter to the Blessed One. 

'Let then the Sa*»gha rehabilitate Udayi the 
Bhikkhu. 

'Now thus, O Bhikkhus, [here follows the 
kammava^a as in chapter 5.]' 



Here end the proceedings on the breach of the 
first Sawghadisesa. 



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Ill, 20, 1. PROBATION AND PENANCE. 409 



20. 

1. Now at that time a certain Bhikkhu had com- 
mitted numerous Sawghadisesa offences, one of 
which he had concealed for one day, one for two 
days, one for three days, [and so on down to] and 
one for ten days. 

He told the Bhikkhus, saying, ' I have committed, 
(&c, as before, down to) and one for ten days. What 
now shall I do?' 

They told this thing to the Blessed One. 

' Let then the Sawgha, O Bhikkhus, impose upon 
that Bhikkhu an inclusive probation according to 
one of those offences which has been concealed for 
ten days 1 .' 

' Now thus, O Bhikkhus, ought it to be imposed.' 



1 From this and what follows it is clear that however many are 
the offences, and however various the periods of concealment, the 
probation is only to last for the same period as the longest of the 
concealments has lasted. Thus the Samanta Pdsddikd says here : 
agghasamodhdno ndma sambahulasu dpattlsu yd eki vd dve va 
tisso va sambahuli vd dpattiyo sabba&rapa/LWAanndyo tisam ag- 
ghena samodhdya tdsara rattipariiMedavasena avasesdnaw unatara- 
pa//^Aanndnaw ipattinam parivdso diyyati. Yassa pana satam 
ipattiyo dasdhapa//££Aannd, aparam pi satam dpattiyo dasdha- 
pa//AMannd ti, evam dasakkhattuw katvd dpattisahassam divasasata- 
pa//'&Manna»z hoti, tena kirn kdtabban ti ? Sabbaw samodhdpetvd 
dasa divase parivasitabbam, evam eken' eva dasdhena divasasataw 
pi parivasitam eva hoti. Vuttaw pi £' etaw : 

dasasataw rattisatam dpattiyo -Mddayitvdna 
dasarattiyo vasitvdna mu^eyya pdrivdsiko. 



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410 iTULLAVAGGA. 111,21,1. 

[Here follows the kammav&id in the form given 
at chapter i, §§ 2, 3, to the end.] 



21. 

I. Now at that time a certain Bhikkhu had com- 
mitted numerous Sawghadisesa offences, one of 
which he had concealed for one day, two for two 
days, three for three days, [and so on down to] and 
ten for ten days. 

He told, &c. 

They told, &c. 

' Let then the Sa/«gha, O Bhikkhus, impose upon 
that Bhikkhu an inclusive probation equal in duration 
to the longest time during which he has concealed 
any one or more of those offences 1 .' 

[Then follows the kammava^a as before.] 



22. 

1. Now at that time a certain Bhikkhu had com- 
mitted two Sawghadisesa offences which he had 
concealed for two months. And it occurred to him, 
' Lo ! I have committed two Sawghadisesa offences 
which I have concealed for two months. Let me 
now ask the Sa/#gha for a probation of two months 
for one offence concealed for two months.' And he 
asked the Sawgha for a probation of two months for 

1 Literally, ' according to the value of whichever offences among 
those offences have been the longest concealed.' 



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111,33,1. PROBATION AND PENANCE. 4 II 

one offence concealed for two months. And the 
Sawgha imposed upon him a probation (&c, as 
before, down to) for two months. Whilst he was 
undergoing that probation, shame overcame him in 
that he thought, ' I have committed, &c. . . . And 
it occurred to me, &c. ... And I asked, &c. . . . 
And the Sawgha imposed .... And whilst I was 
undergoing .... (&c, as before, down to) for two 
months.' 

' Let me now ask the Sawgha for a probation of 
two months for the other offence concealed for two 
months.' 
. 2. He told the Bhikkhus [all that had happened]. 

They told this thing to the Blessed One. 

3. 'Let then the Sawzgha, O Bhikkhus, impose 
upon that Bhikkhu a probation of two months for 
that other offence concealed for two months.' 

[Here follows the kammava^a as before.] 

' Then that Bhikkhu, O Bhikkhus, should undergo 
probation for two months from that date 1 .' 



23. 

1. ' Now in case, O Bhikkhus, a Bhikkhu have 
committed two Sawghadisesa offences [&c, as be- 
fore, in the first paragraph of the last chapter down 
to the end]. And he asks the Sawgha for a pro- 
bation of two months for that other offence concealed 
for two months. And the Sa/wgha imposes upon 
him a probation of two months for that other offence 

1 Tadupadaya; see chapters 23. 1 and 2, 24. 3. 

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412 rULLAVAGGA. m, 23, a. 

concealed for two months 1 . That Bhikkhu, O Bhik- 
khus, ought to continue on probation for two months 
from that date. 

2. ' Now in case, O Bhikkhus, a Bhikkhu have 
committed two Sa*«ghadisesa offences, which he has 
concealed for two months. And he is aware of one 
offence, but of the other offence he is not aware. 
And he asks the Samgha for a two months' pro- 
bation for that offence of which he is aware, con- 
cealed for two months. And the Samgha gives him 
a probation of two months for an offence concealed 
for two months. And whilst he is undergoing that 
probation he becomes aware of the other offence. 
Then it occurs to him, 

' " Lo ! I have committed two Sa**ghadisesa 
offences (&c, as in the last paragraph, down to) I 
became aware of the other offence. Let me now 
ask the Sawgha for a probation of two months for 
that other offence concealed for two months." 

'And he asks the Sa*»gha for a probation of 
two months for that other offence concealed for two 
months. And the Sawgha imposes upon him a 
probation of &c. ... for &c. . . . That Bhikkhu, 
O Bhikkhus, ought to continue on probation for two 
months from that date. 

3. ' Now in case, O Bhikkhus, a Bhikkhu commit 
two Sa/«ghadisesa offences, which he conceals for 
two months ; and one offence he recollects, but the 
other offence he does not recollect. And he asks 
the Samgha (&c, as in the last section, down to the 
end, reading "recollect" for "be aware of"). 

1 This is merely repeated to lay a basis for the following varia- 
tions. See below, chapter 25. 



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IIT, 23,5. PROBATION AND PENANCE. 413 

4. 'Now in case, O Bhikkhus, a Bhikkhu commit 
two Sawghadisesa offences, which he conceals for 
two months ; and of one offence he is not doubtful 1 , 
but of the other offence he is doubtful. And he 
asks the Sawgha (&c, as in the last section, reading 
"is doubtful" for "does not recollect"). 

5. ' Now in case, O Bhikkhus, a Bhikkhu commit 
two Sawghadisesa offences, which he conceals for 
two months ; and one offence he conceals wittingly, 
but the other offence he conceals unwittingly. And 
he asks the Samgha. for a probation of two months 
for those two offences concealed for two months. 
And the Sawzgha imposes upon him a probation of 
two months for those two offences concealed for two 
months. And whilst he is undergoing that probation 
there arrives a Bhikkhu who is versed in the tradi- 
tions, acquainted with the tradition, a custodian of 
the Dhamma, of the Vinaya, and of the Matikas 2 , 
clever, discreet, wise, modest, sensitive, willing to 
learn. And he speaks thus : 

' " What has this Bhikkhu, O friends, been guilty 
of, and why is he on probation ?" 

' And they reply : " This Bhikkhu, O friend, has 
committed two Sawghadisesa offences, which he 
concealed for two months ; and one offence he con- 
cealed wittingly, and one offence he concealed un- 
wittingly. He asked the Sawgha for a probation of 
two months for those two offences concealed for two 
months. And the Sa*»gha imposed upon him a 
probation of two months for those two offences con- 

1 In chapter 34, § 1, di/Mi, instead of nibbematiko, is put 
in opposition to vematiko. 

a See our note above, on Mah&vagga II, 21, 2, and compare 
VII, i, 7 ; VIII, 32, 1 ; X, i, 2 ; .ffullavagga 1, 1 1, 1. 



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41 4 iTULLAVAGGA. Ill, 23, 6. 

cealed for two months. Therein, O friend, is this 
Bhikkhu guilty, and therefore is he on probation." 

' And he rejoins : " The offence which he wittingly 
concealed, O friends, for that the imposition of a 
probation is valid, and by reason of its validity it 
takes effect 1 . But the offence which he unwittingly 
concealed, O friends, for that the imposition of a 
probation is invalid, and by reason of its invalidity 
it does not take effect. For this offence, O friends, 
the Bhikkhu is liable to a Manatta." 

6. ' In case, O Bhikkhus, a Bhikkhu commit two 
Sawzghidisesa offences, which he conceals for two 
months. And one offence he conceals recollecting 
it, but the other offence he conceals without recol- 
lecting it.' 

[Here follow the same remarks as in the last 
section, down to the end, reading ' recollecting it ' for 
' wittingly.'] 



24. 

1. Now at that time a certain Bhikkhu committed 
two Sawghadisesa offences which he concealed for 
two months. And it occurred to him, ' Lo ! I have 
committed, &c. ... for two months. Let me now 
ask the Sawgha for a probation of one month for 
&c. . . .' He asked the Sawzgha for a probation of 
one month for &c. . . . The Sa/«gha imposed upon 
him a probation of one month for &c. . . . Whilst he 
was undergoing that probation, shame (for the way 

1 This expression recurs below, chaps. 25, 27, &c. Compare 
the use of ruhati at Mahavagga VI, 14, 5. 



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Ill, 25,1. PROBATION AND PENANCE. 415 

in which he had acted) overcame him. ' Let me now 
ask the Sawgha for a (further) probation of one 
month for the two Sawghadisesa offences concealed 
for two months.' 

2. He told the Bhikkhus [all that had happened, 
in the words of § i, and asked them], 'What now 
shall I do?' 

They told this thing to the Blessed One. 

3. ' Let then the Sa/«gha, O Bhikkhus, impose 
upon that Bhikkhu a probation for a further month 
for those two Saflzghadisesa offences concealed for 
two months.' 

[Here follows the kammaviH in the form 
given in chapter i, §§ 2, 3.] 

' Thus that Bhikkhu, O Bhikkhus, should undergo 
probation for two months from that date 1 .' 



25. 

1. 'In case, O Bhikkhus, a Bhikkhu commit two 
Sawghadisesa offences which he conceals for two 
months. And it occurs to him (&c, as in last 
chapter). . . . And he asks .... And the Sawgha 
imposes .... And whilst he is undergoing that pro- 
bation, shame (&c.) overcomes him, &c. .,. . And he 
asks the Sawgha for a probation of a further month 
for those two Sawzghadisesa offences concealed for 
two months. And the Sa#zgha imposes upon him 
a further probation, &c. . . . Then, O Bhikkhus, that 
Bhikkhu should from that date undergo that further 

** f < — — — i n— ■■ ... . ■ ■-. 1 

1 See above, chap. 22. 3. 

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41 6 tfULLAVAGGA. 111,25,2. 

probation of one month for those two Sa*«ghadisesa 
offences concealed for two months 1 . 

2, 3. ' Now in case, O Bhikkhus, a Bhikkhu have 
committed two Sa/#ghadisesa offences, which he con- 
ceals for two months. And of one month he is aware, 
but of the other month he is not aware .... one 
month he recollects, but the other month he does 
not recollect .... one month he wittingly conceals, 
but the other month he unwittingly conceals.' 

[This chapter is word for word the same as chapter 
23, reading 'month' for 'offence.'] 



26. 

1. Now at that time a certain Bhikkhu had com- 
mitted numerous Sawghadisesa offences ; but he was 
not aware of the degree of the offences 2 , and was 
not aware of the duration of the times 2 ; or he did 
not recollect the degree of the offences, and did not 
recollect the duration of the times ; or he was un- 
certain as to the degree of the offences, and was 
uncertain as to the duration of the times. 

He told the Bhikkhus, saying, ' I have committed, 
&c. . . . but I am not aware, &c. ... I do not recol- 
lect, &c. ... I am uncertain, &c. . . . What now shall 
I do?' 

They told this thing to the Blessed One. 

' Then let the Sawgha, O Bhikkhus, impose upon 
that Bhikkhu a probation of complete purifi- 

1 This repetition of the last chapter is again only to afford 
a basis for the succeeding variations, as above, in chap. 23. 

* That these are plurals, and not singulars, is clear from § 3, 
below. 



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in, 26,3. PROBATION AND PENANCE. 417 

cation (that is to say, a probation for as many days 
as have elapsed since the date of his upasampada) 1 . 

2. ' Now thus, O Bhikkhus, should it be imposed.'. . . 

[Here follows the kammava^a in the same form 
as is given in chapter i.] 

3. ' In the following cases, O Bhikkhus, is the 
probation of complete purification to be imposed ; 
and in the following cases is the (ordinary) probation 
to be imposed. Now in what cases is the probation 
of complete purification to be imposed ? When he 
is not aware of the degree of the offences, nor of the 
duration of the times ; when he does not recollect the 
degree of the offences, nor the duration of the times ; 
and when he is not certain as to the degree of the 
offences, nor as to the duration of the times — then is 
the probation of complete purification to be imposed. 

4 When he is aware of the degree of the offences, 
but not of the duration of the times ; when he does 
recollect the degree of the offences, but not the dura- 
tion of the times ; when he is certain as to the degree 
of the offences, but not as to the duration of the 
times — then is the probation of complete purification 
to be imposed. 

'When he is aware .... recollects .... is certain .... 
of the degree of some, but not of others of the 
offences, and is not aware of ... . does not recol- 
lect .... is not certain of the duration of the times 2 — 
then &c. 

' When he is not aware .... does not recollect .... 

1 Suddhanta-parivaso. The Samanta Pasadika says, Tarn 
gahetva gahita-divasato yava upasampada-divaso tava rattiyo ga- 
netva parivasitabbaw. 

s This and the following sentences are given in the text in full, 
as in the last paragraph. 

[17] e e 



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41 8 1TULLAVAGGA. HE, 26, 4. 

is not certain .... of the degree of the offences, and 
is aware .... recollects .... is certain .... of the times 
of some, but not of the times of the others — then, &c. 

• When he is aware .... recollects .... is certain of 
the degree of the offences, and is aware recol- 
lects .... is certain of the times of some, but not of 
the times of others — then, &c. 

' When he is aware .... recollects .... is certain of 
the degrees of some of the offences, but not of others ; 
and is aware .... recollects .... is certain of the times 
of some, but not of the times of others — then, &c. 

'In these cases, O Bhikkhus, is the probation of 
complete purification to be imposed. 

4. ' And in what cases, O Bhikkhus, is the (ordi- 
nary) probation to be imposed ? When he is aware 
.... recollects .... is certain of the degree of the 
offences, but is not aware .... does not recollect .... 
is not certain of the duration of the times — then is 
the (ordinary) probation to be imposed. 

' When he is not aware .... does not recollect 

is not certain of the degree of the offences, but is 
aware .... recollects .... is certain of the duration of 
the times — then &c. . . . 

' When he is aware .... recollects .... is certain of 
the degree of some of the* offences, but not of others ; 
and is aware .... recollects .... is certain of the dura- 
tion of the times — then &c. . . . 

4 In these cases, O Bhikkhus, is the (ordinary) 
probation to be imposed 1 .' 



Here ends the probation. 



1 That is to say, shortly ; if the guilty Bhikkhu can determine 
the time during which the offence has been concealed (on which 
the length of the probation depends), then he is to undergo the 



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Ill, 27, i. PROBATION AND PENANCE. 419 



27. 

i. Now at that time a certain Bhikkhu, whilst he 
was under probation, threw off the robes. After- 
wards he came back again, and asked the Bhikkhus 
for upasampada. They told this thing to the 
Blessed One. 

* In case, O Bhikkhus, a Bhikkhu throws off the 
robes whilst he is under probation, there can follow 
no probation to him, O Bhikkhus, so long as he is 
out of the Order. If he afterwards receive the 
upasampada, the original probation (previously 
imposed upon him, still remains obligatory) upon 
him. A probation once imposed, is imposed for 
good ; a probation once undergone, is undergone 
for good ; if any (portion of the time) remain over, 
the probation must be again undergone (from the 
beginning). 

' In case, O Bhikkhus, a Bhikkhu, whilst he is 
undergoing probation, becomes aSama»era. There 
can happen no probation to him, O Bhikkhus, so long 
as he is a Sama#era. If he afterwards receives 
the upasampada (&c, as in the last paragraph, 
down to the end). 

* In case, O Bhikkhus, a Bhikkhu, whilst he is 
undergoing probation, goes out of his mind .... be- 
comes weak in his mind .... diseased in his sensa- 
tions .... is suspended for not acknowledging an 

corresponding probation. If not, he is to undergo the so-called 
' probation of complete purification,' which, as it is computed from 
the date of his ordination, is quite certain to be as long as the 
time of the longest concealment of any offence, 

e e 2 



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420 rULLAVAGGA. HI, 27, 2. 

offence .... for not atoning for an offence .... for not 
recanting a sinful doctrine 1 — there can happen no 
probation to him, O Bhikkhus, so long as he is out 
of his mind .... weak in his mind .... suspended, &c. 
If he afterwards becomes not out of his mind .... 
becomes not weak in his mind .... is restored from 
the suspension, the original probation is still obli- 
% gatory upon him. A probation once imposed (&c, 
as in the first paragraph, down to the end). 

2. ' In case, O Bhikkhus, a Bhikkhu, whilst he is 
liable to be thrown back to the commencement of 
his probation, throws off the robes (&c, as in all the 
paragraphs of section 1, reading " liable to be thrown 
back," for " undergoing probation").' 

3. [The same for a Bhikkhu who throws off the 
robes, or becomes any of the seven things specified, 
whilst he is liable to be subjected to the Manatta 
discipline ; 

4. Or is undergoing the Manatta discipline; 

5. Or is fit to be rehabilitated.] 



Here end the forty 2 cases (of interruption to a major 

disciplinary proceeding from a change of state 

in the person undergoing that discipline). 



28. 

1. 'In case, O Bhikkhus, whilst a Bhikkhu is 
undergoing probation, he commit numerous Sa/wgha- 

1 The text has a separate paragraph for each of these cases. 
* That is, on any of the above eight events occurring in any of 
the above five cases. 



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Ill, 28, 2. PROBATION AND PENANCE. 42 1 

disesa offences, definite 1 , but not concealed, that 
Bhikkhu is to be thrown back to the commencement 
of his probation. 

2. ' In case, O Bhikkhus, whilst a Bhikkhu is under- 
going probation, he commit numerous Sawghadisesa 
offences, definite, and concealed, that Bhikkhu is to 
be thrown back to the commencement of his proba- 
tion, and an inclusive probation is to be imposed 
upon him according to the duration of time since 
the first of the offences which he has thus con- 
cealed. 

' In case, O Bhikkhus, whilst a Bhikkhu is under- 
going probation, he commit numerous Sa/wghadisesa 
offences, grievous, and some of them concealed, some 
of them not concealed, that Bhikkhu must (as in the 
last paragraph to the end). 

' In case, O Bhikkhus, whilst a Bhikkhu is under- 
going probation, he commit numerous Sawghadisesa 
offences, not definite, and not concealed .... not defi- 
nite, and concealed 2 .... not grievous, and some of 
them concealed, others not concealed .... some defi- 
nite, and some not definite and not concealed .... 
some definite, and some not definite and (all) con- 
cealed .... some definite, and some not definite, some 
concealed, some not concealed — then that Bhikkhu is 
to be thrown back, and an inclusive probation is to 
be imposed upon him, according to the duration of 



1 ParimSwS, the meaning of which is open to much doubt. 
The Samanta PasMkS merely says, An tarsi sambihuli Spattiyo 
Spa^ati parimawd pa/i££^ann£yo ti adisu apatti-pariMieda- 
vase parimaȣyo k' eva appaAbMannayo k& 'ti attho. The only con- 
clusion to be drawn from this is that the word is ace. fern, plur., 
and not an adverb. Compare chap. 33, below. 

* The text has a full paragraph for each of these cases. 



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42 2 JCULLAVAGGA. m, 29, t. 

the time since the first of the offences which he had 
concealed.' 

[The same if the offences are committed whilst 
he is liable to the Manatta discipline, or under- 
going the Manatta discipline, or pending his re- 
habilitation.] 

Here end the thirty-six cases (of fresh offences being 
committed whilst under probation) 1 . 



29. 

1. 'In case, O Bhikkhus, a Bhikkhu who has 
committed numerous Sawghadisesa offences, but has 
not concealed them, throw off the robes, and he, 
having afterwards again received the upasampada, 
does not conceal them. A Manatta, O Bhikkhus, 
is to be imposed upon that Bhikkhu. 

' In case, O Bhikkhus, a Bhikkhu (&c, as before, 
down to) throw off the robes, and he, having after- 
wards again received the upasampada, does conceal 
them, — on that Bhikkhu, O Bhikkhus, a probation is 
to be imposed according to the duration of the time 
during which he has concealed any offence in the 
batch of offences thus afterwards concealed 2 ; and 
after that a Manatta is to be imposed. 

1 This chapter is repeated below, chap. 33, for the cases in which 
a new ordination has followed after the offences have been com- 
mitted. 

1 The Samanta Pasadikd says, PaH^imasmixa apattik- 
khandhe ti eko 'va so dpattikkhandho, pa/i££Mditatt& pana 
pa^imasmiw apattikkhandhe ti vuttam. Purimasmin ti etthapi 
es' eva nayo. 



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in, 29,2. PROBATION AND PENANCE. 42^ 

' In case, O Bhikkhus, a Bhikkhu who has com- 1 
mitted numerous Sawzghadisesa offences, and has 
concealed them, throw off the robes, and he, after 
having again received the upasampada, does not 
conceal them, — on that Bhikkhu, O Bhikkhus, a pro- 
bation is to be imposed according to the duration of 
the time during which he has concealed any offence 
in the batch of offences thus previously concealed 1 ; 
and after that a Manatta is to be imposed upon 
him. 

'In case, O Bhikkhus, a Bhikkhu who has com- 
mitted numerous Sawghadisesa offences, and has 
concealed them, throw off the robes, and, after again 
receiving the upasampada, he does conceal them, 
— on that Bhikkhu, O Bhikkhus, a probation is to be 
imposed corresponding to the duration of the time 
during which he has concealed any offence either in 
the first or in the batch of offences thus afterwards 
concealed; and after that a Manatta is to be im- 
posed upon him. 

2 2. '[In case, O Bhikkhus, a Bhikkhu have com- 

1 See the close of the last note. 

* This section should correspond to chap. 31, section 2, but as 
noted by H. O. in his edition of the text, p. 312, there is very 
great confusion in the MSS. We ought to have four cases of 
which the distinctions are as under. Those offences 
f concealed before are afterwards not concealed 
I not concealed before „ not „ 

{concealed before „ not „ 

not concealed before „ concealed 

( concealed before „ concealed ) -f + 

3 \ not concealed before „ not concealed 

( concealed before „ concealed 1 + + 

* I not concealed before „ concealed / — + 

All these four cases are required to make up the one hundred 

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} + - 



424 jnjLLAVAGGA. HI, 29, 3. 

mitted numerous Sawgh&disesa offences, and some 
of his offences have been concealed, and some not 
concealed ; and he, having thrown off the robes, and 
again received the upasampada, does not after- 
wards conceal those offences which he had previously 
concealed, and does not afterwards conceal those 
offences which previously he had not concealed, — 
on that Bhikkhu [the penalty is to be the same as in 
section i, paragraph 4].] 

' In case, O Bhikkhus, a Bhikkhu [&c, as in last 
paragraph, down to] does not afterwards conceal 
those offences which he had previously concealed, 
and does conceal those offences which previously he 
had not concealed, — on that Bhikkhu [the penalty is 
to be the same as in section 1, paragraph 4]. 

' In case, O Bhikkhus, a Bhikkhu (&c, as in last 
paragraph, down to) does afterwards conceal those 
offences which he had previously concealed, and 
does not afterwards conceal those offences which 
previously he had not concealed, — on that Bhikkhu 
[the penalty is to be the same as in section 1 , para- 
graph 4]. 

' In case, O Bhikkhus, a Bhikkhu (&c, as in last 
paragraph, down to) does afterwards conceal those 
offences which he had previously concealed, and does 
afterwards conceal those offences which previously 
he had not concealed, — on that Bhikkhu [the penalty 
is to be the same as in section 1, paragraph 4]. 

3. ' In case, O Bhikkhus, a Bhikkhu have com- 
mitted numerous Sawghadisesa offences, and of some 

cases mentioned in the title at the close of chap. 30 ; but the first 
is altogether omitted in the text, and the others are not properly 
discriminated. We have supplied the first in brackets, and corrected 
the others accordingly. 



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Ill, 29,3. PROBATION AND PENANCE. 425 

of them he is aware, but of some of them he 
is not aware; and he conceals those offences 
of which he is aware, but does not conceal those 
offences of which he is not aware; after having 
thrown off the robes, and again received the upa- 
sampada, those offences of which he had previously 
been aware, and which he did then conceal, of 
them, afterwards, he is still aware, and he does not 
conceal them ; and those offences of which previously 
he had not been aware and did not then conceal, of 
them, afterwards, he becomes aware, and does not 
conceal them, — on that Bhikkhu [the penalty is the 
same as in section i, paragraph 3]. 

' In case, O Bhikkhus, a Bhikkhu (&c, as in the 
last paragraph, down to) and again received the 
upasampada, those offences of which he had pre- 
viously been aware, and which he did then conceal, of 
them, afterwards, he is still aware, and he does not 
conceal them ; and those offences of which previously 
he had not been aware, and did not then conceal, 
of them, afterwards, he becomes aware, and does 
conceal them, — on that Bhikkhu [the penalty is the 
same as in section 1, paragraph 4]. 

' In case, O Bhikkhus, a Bhikkhu (&c, as in the 
last paragraph, down to) which he did then conceal, 
of them, afterwards, he is still aware, and does con- 
ceal them ; and of those offences of which previously 
he had not been aware, and did not then conceal, of 
them, afterwards, he becomes aware, and does not 
conceal them, — on that Bhikkhu [the penalty is the 
same as in section 1, paragraph 4]. 

' In case, O Bhikkhus, a Bhikkhu (&c, as in the 
last paragraph, down to) which he did then conceal, 
of them, afterwards, he is still aware, and does conceal 



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426 JCULLAVAGGA. Ill, 29, 4. 

them ; and of those offences of which previously 
he had not been aware, and did not then conceal, 
of them, afterwards, he becomes aware, and does 
conceal them, — on that Bhikkhu [the penalty is the 
same as in section 1, paragraph 4].' 

4. [This section is the same as the last, reading 
'he recollects' for 'he is aware,' and 'he does not 
recollect' for ' he is not aware.'] 

5. [This section is again the same as section 3, 
reading 'he is certain' for 'he is aware,' and 'he is 
not certain' for ' he is not aware.'] 



30. 
1. [The whole of the last chapter is 'repeated in 
the case of a Bhikkhu who, having committed 
offences, becomes a Sama«era, goes out of his mind, 
or becomes weak in his mind 1 , and the text then 
goes on] ' He becomes diseased in his sensations. 
His offences are some of them concealed, some not 
concealed. Of some offences he is aware, of some 
he is not aware. Some offences he recollects, some 
he does not recollect. Of some offences he is cer- 
tain, of some he is not certain. Those offences of 
which he was not certain, those he conceals ; those 
offences of which he was certain, those he does not 
conceal. Then he becomes diseased in his sensa- 
tions. When he has recovered power over his 
sensations, those offences of which he previously 
had been certain and had concealed, of those he is 
afterwards still certain, but does not conceal them ; 
and those offences of which he previously had been 

1 See above, chap. 27, and MaMvagga II, 22, 3 ; IX, 4, 7. 

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ITT, 30, T. PROBATION AND PENANCE. 427 

uncertain and had not concealed, of those he became 
certain but did not conceal them. Those offences of 
which he previously had been certain and had con- 
cealed, of those he was afterwards still certain and 
did not conceal ; while those offences of which he 
previously had been uncertain, and had not con- 
cealed, of those offences he afterwards became cer- 
tain and did conceal them. Those offences of which 
previously he had been certain, and had concealed, 
of those offences he was afterwards still certain and 
did conceal them ; while those offences of which he 
previously had been uncertain and had not concealed, 
of those offences he afterwards became certain, and 
did not conceal them. Those offences of which he 
previously had been certain, and had concealed them, 
of those offences he was afterwards still certain and 
did conceal them ; whilst those offences of which he 
previously had been uncertain and did not conceal 
them, of those offences he afterwards became certain 
and did conceal them, — on that Bhikkhu, OBhikkhus, 
[the same penalty is to be imposed as in chapter 29, 
section 1, paragraph 4.] ' 



Here end the hundred cases 1 in which a M&natta 

(is to be imposed after a change of state 

in the guilty Bhikkhu). 

1 The hundred cases are made up thus : Chap. 29, §§1,2, 3, 4, 5 
contain each of them four cases (after our correction of 29. 2) ; so 
that chap. 29 gives altogether twenty cases. Then in chap. 30, 
each of these twenty cases is repeated in the four other cases there 
given; so that chap. 30 gives altogether eighty cases. Of these 
eighty cases, as usual, at the end of a re'petition, the last (four 
cases) are set out in full. 



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428 JTULLAVAGGA. m, 31, 1. 



31. 

1. 'In case, O Bhikkhus, a Bhikkhu who is under- 
going probation is guilty meanwhile of a number of 
Sa*»ghadisesa offences, and without concealing them 
then throws off the robes, and he, when he has again 
received the upasampada, does not conceal those 
offences — that Bhikkhu ought to be thrown back to 
the commencement (of his term of probation). 

' And in case, O Bhikkhus, a Bhikkhu (&c, as 
before, down to) and he, when he has again received 
the upasampada, does conceal those offences — 
that Bhikkhu ought to be thrown back to the com- 
mencement (of his term of probation), and an in- 
clusive probation ought to be imposed upon him 
(corresponding to the time which has elapsed since) 
the first offence among those offences which he has 
concealed. 

'And in case, O Bhikkhus, a Bhikkhu who is 
undergoing probation is guilty meanwhile of a 
number of Sawzghldisesa offences, and, concealing 
them, throws off the robes; and he, when he has 
again received the upasampada, does not conceal 
those offences — that Bhikkhu ought to be thrown 
back to the commencement of his term of probation, 
and an inclusive probation ought to be imposed upon 
him (corresponding to the period which has elapsed 
since) the first offence among those offences which 
he has concealed.' 

[The same judgment if he has concealed the 
offences before he throws off the robes, and also 
after he has again received the upasampada.] 1 

I This section corresponds to chap. 29, section 1. 

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HI, 31, 3. PROBATION AND PENANCE. 429 

2. ' And in case, O Bhikkhus, a Bhikkhu who is 
undergoing probation is guilty meanwhile of a 
number of Sa/#gh£disesa offences, and some of 
them he has concealed and some of them he has 
not concealed ; and after he has thrown off the robes 
and again received the upasampada, he does not 
afterwards conceal those offences which previously 
he had concealed, and he does not afterwards con- 
ceal those offences which previously he had not 
concealed — [the judgment is the same as in the last 
paragraph of § i].' 

[In the same case down to] he does not afterwards 
conceal those offences which previously he had con- 
cealed, and he does afterwards conceal those offences 
which previously he had not concealed [the judgment 
is the same]. 

[In the same case, down to] he does afterwards 
conceal those offences which previously he had con- 
cealed, and he does not afterwards conceal those 
offences which previously he had not concealed [the 
judgment is the same]. 

[In the same case, down to] he does afterwards 
conceal those offences which previously he had con- 
cealed, and he does afterwards conceal those offences 
which previously he had not concealed [the judgment 
is the same] 1 . 

3. 'And in case, O Bhikkhus, a Bhikkhu who 
is undergoing probation is guilty meanwhile of a 
number of Sawghidisesa offences, and he is aware 
of some of those offences, and not aware of others ; 
and he conceals those offences of which he is aware, 
but does not conceal those offences of which he is 

1 This section corresponds to chap. 29, section .2. 

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430 JTULLAVAGGA. Ill, 3a, 1. 

not aware. After having thrown off the robes and 
again received the upasampada, those offences of 
which he had previously [&c, as in chapter 29, 
section 3, down to] on that Bhikkhu [the penalty is 
the same as in the last section, chapter 31, § 2].' 

[The rest of this chapter corresponds exactly to 
chapter 29, §§ 4, 5, and chapter 30; the penalty being 
always the same.] 



32. 

1. ' And in case, O Bhikkhus, a Bhikkhu who has 
rendered himself liable to the Manatta discipline, 
or is undergoing the Manatta discipline, or is fit to 
be rehabilitated, is guilty meanwhile of a number of 
Sawghadisesa offences which he does not conceal ; 
and he then throws off the robes, and again receives 
the upasampada, — then with regard to the Bhik- 
khu so liable to the Manatta discipline, or under- 
going the Manatta discipline, or fit to be rehabili- 
tated, the same rules are to apply as in the case of 
a Bhikkhu so acting while undergoing probation 1 . 

' And in case, O Bhikkhus, a Bhikkhu who is fit 
to be rehabilitated 2 is guilty meanwhile of a number 
of Sawghadisesa offences which he does not conceal ; 
and he then becomes a Sama»era, goes out of his 
mind, becomes weak in his mind, or becomes dis- 
eased in his sensations ; his offences are some of them 

1 As laid down in chap. 31. 

* This includes, of course, the two other cases of a Bhikkhu 
who has rendered himself liable to, or is undergoing the Manatta 
discipline. 



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Ill, 33,1. PROBATION AND PENANCE. 43 1 

concealed, some of them not concealed .... [and so 
on, as in chapter 30, down to the end, excepting that 
the penalty is here the same as it is in the previous 
chapters 31 and 32].' 



33. 

1. ' And in case, O Bhikkhus, a Bhikkhu is guilty 
of a number of Sawghadisesa offences, definite, and 
not concealed — not definite, and not concealed — of 
one designation, and not concealed — of various de- 
signations, and not concealed — similar, and not con- 
cealed — dissimilar, and not concealed — connected 1 , 
and not concealed — disconnected, and not concealed 
— and then throws off the robes 2 .' . . . 



1 On the opposition of vavatthita and sambhinna, compare 
Minayeff Patimokkha, p. 29, where these two expressions are used 
of language. 

* The chapter is translated as it stands. To supply the impli- 
cations involved, the words ' a Bhikkhu ' at the beginning should 
be understood as ' a Bhikkhu undergoing probation, or liable to 
the Manatta discipline, or undergoing the Manatta discipline, or 
fit to be rehabilitated.' And the conclusion should be supplied 
as in chap. 28, except that the penalty in each case is not an 
additional probation, but a probation corresponding in length to 
the period which has elapsed since the first of those offences which 
the re-ordained Bhikkhu has concealed (either before or after the 
second ordination). The details are only worked out, in chap. 28, 
of the first of the several pairs here enumerated, and are intended 
to be supplied here for each of the other pairs in a similar way. All 
the pairs recur in chaps. 35, 36. 



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432 rULLAVAGGA. Ill, 34, I. 



34. 

1. ' Two Bhikkhus have been guilty of a Sa/wgha- 
disesa offence, and as touching that Sazwghadisesa 
offence they are of opinion that it is a Sawghadisesa 
offence 1 . One of them conceals, the other does not 
conceal it. He who has concealed it should be 
compelled to confess himself guilty of a dukka/a_ 
offence, and a probation corresponding to the period 
during which he has concealed it having been im- 
posed upon him, a Manatta should be imposed upon 
them both. 

' Two Bhikkhus have been guilty of a Sawgha- 
disesa offence, and as touching that Sa»zghadisesa 
offence they are in doubt One of them conceals, 
the other does not conceal it. [The penalty is the 
same.] 2 

' Two Bhikkhus have been guilty of a Sawgha- 
disesa offence, and as touching that Sa#zghadisesa 
offence they are of opinion that it is a mixed offence 3 . 
One of them conceals, the other does not conceal it 
[The penalty is the same.] 2 

'Two Bhikkhus have been guilty of a mixed 
offence, and as touching that mixed offence they are 
of opinion that it is a Sa/#ghadisesa offence. One of 



1 Compare chap. 23, § 4. 

8 The concluding words of the last paragraph are here repeated. 

* The Samanta Pasadika says, Missakan ti thulla££ay£dfhi 
missitam ; that is an act which involves not only a Sawghadisesa, 
but also some one or other of the lesser offences. Compare the 
use of missaka at Gataka II, 420, 433, and at Maha-parinibb&na 
Sutta, ed. Childers, p. 22. 



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Ill, 34, a. PROBATION AND PENANCE. 433 

them conceals, the other does not conceal it [The 
penalty is the same.] 1 » 

'Two Bhikkhus have been guilty of a mixed 
offence, and as touching that mixed offence they are 
of opinion that it is a mixed offence. One of them 
conceals, the other does not conceal it [The penalty 
is the same.] 

'Two Bhikkhus have been guilty of a minor 
offence 2 ; and as regarding that minor offence they 
are of opinion that it is a Sawghadisesa offence. 
One of them conceals, the other does not conceal 
it He who has concealed it should be compelled 
to confess himself guilty of a dukka/a offence, 
and both of them should be dealt with according 
to law. 

'Two Bhikkhus have been guilty of a minor 
offence, and as touching that minor offence they are 
of opinion that it is a minor offence. One of them 
conceals, the other does not conceal it He who has 
concealed it should be compelled to confess himself 
guilty of a dukka/a offence, and both of them 
should be dealt with according to law. 

2. ' Two Bhikkhus have been guilty of a Sawghi- 
disesa offence, and as touching that Sa/wghadisesa 
offence they are of opinion that it is a Sawghadisesa. 
One of them thinks : " I will tell (the Sa/wgha of it)." 
The other thinks : " I will not tell (the Sa*»gha of it);" 
and during the first watch of the night he conceals it, 
and during the second watch of the night he conceals 

1 The concluding words of the last paragraph are here repeated. 

' That is, any offence less than a Samghadisesa. The Samanta 

Pasadika says, Suddhakan ti Samghadisesan vina lahukapattik- 

khandham eva. 

[17] F f 



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434 JTULLAVAGGA. HI, 34, 2. 

it, and during the third watch of the night he con- 
ceals it. After the sun has arisen . the offence is a 
concealed one. He who has concealed it [&c. ; the 
penalty is the same as in section i, paragraph i]. 

' Two Bhikkhus have been guilty of a Sawghi- 
disesa offence, and as touching that Sa*«ghadisesa 
offence they are of opinion that it is a Sa*#gh4disesa 
offence. They set out, intending to tell (the Sawgha 
of it). On the way there springs up in one of them 
a desire to conceal it ; and during the first watch of 
the night he conceals it, and during the second watch 
of the night he conceals it, and during the third 
watch of the night he conceals it. After the sun has 
arisen the offence is a concealed one. He who 
has concealed it [&c. ; the penalty is the same as 
before]. . 

' Two Bhikkhus have been guilty of a Sawghi- 
disesa offence, and as touching that Sa/wghadisesa 
offence they are of opinion that it is a Sa*«ghadisesa 
offence. They go out of their mind ; and afterwards 
when they have recovered their senses one of them 
conceals, the other does not conceal it He who 
has concealed it [&c. ; the penalty is the same as 
before] l . 

' Two Bhikkhus have been guilty of a Saawgha- 
disesa offence. When the Patimokkha is being re- 
cited they say thus : " Now do we come to perceive 
it ; for this rule they say has been handed down in 
the Suttas, is contained in the Suttas, and comes 
into recitation every half month." As touching that 
Sawghadisesa offence, they (thus) come to be of 



1 It is probably to be understood that a like rule is to apply in 
the other similar cases mentioned in the last paragraph of chap. 32. 



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IH.35.I' PROBATION AND PENANCE. 435 

opinion that it is a Sa/#ghadisesa offence. One of 
them conceals, the other does not conceal it. He 
who has concealed it [&c. ; the penalty is the same 
as before].' 



35. 

1. 'And in case, O Bhikkhus, a Bhikkhu is guilty 
of a number of Sa»zghadisesa offences — definite, and 
not definite — of one designation, and of various 
designations — similar to each other, and dissimilar 
— connected with each other, and disconnected 1 . 
He asks the Sawzgha for an inclusive probation on 
account of those offences 2 . The Samgha imposes 
upon him an inclusive probation on account of those 
offences. He undergoing that probation is guilty 
meanwhile of a number of Sawghadisesa offences, 
definite ones, which he does not conceal. He asks 
the Sa*»gha to throw him back on account of those 
intervening offences to the commencement (of his 
term of probation). The Sawgha [does so] by a 
lawful proceeding that cannot be quashed 3 , and fit 

1 See chap. 33 for this list. 

1 In accordance with the rule laid down in chap. 28, which 
shows that by ' a Bhikkhu ' must be understood ' a Bhikkhu who is 
under probation;' and the offences he has committed must have 
been concealed by him. 

* Akuppa. The technical term kammaw kopeti is not to 
revoke the valid decision of a kamma regularly held, but to show 
that the kamma by reason of some irregularity was no real 
kamma, and its whole proceedings therefore void. One may 
compare akuppa me Aeto-vimutti spoken by the Buddha im- 
mediately after he had attained Nirva«a under the Bo Tree (Ariya- 
pariyosana Sutta in H. O.'s 'Buddha,' p. 429) and the opposite 
idea in Sutta Nipata IV, 3, 5, 

F f 2 



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436 JTULLAVAGGA. HI, 35, 2. 

for the occasion; and it also imposes a Manatta 
upon him, but by an unlawful proceeding, and then 
by an unlawful proceeding rehabilitates him. That 
Bhikkhu, O Bhikkhus, is not purified from those 
offences. 

' And in case, O Bhikkhus, a Bhikkhu is guilty of a 
number of Sawghadisesa offences — definite, and not 
definite — of one designation, and of various desig- 
nations — similar to each other, and dissimilar — con- 
nected with each other, and disconnected. And he 
asks the Safl/gha for an inclusive probation on 
account of those offences. The Sawgha imposes 
upon him an inclusive probation on account of those 
offences. He undergoing that probation is guilty 
meanwhile of a number of Saawghadisesa offences, 
definite ones, which he does conceal. He asks the 
Sawgha to throw him back on account of those 
intervening offences to the commencement (of his 
term of probation). The Sawgha [does so] by a 
lawful proceeding that cannot be quashed, and fit for 
the occasion ; and it also imposes upon him an inclu- 
sive probation by a lawful proceeding, and imposes 
upon him a Manatta, but by an unlawful proceeding, 
and by an unlawful proceeding it rehabilitates him. 
That Bhikkhu, O Bhikkhus, is not purified from those 
offences.' 

[The same decision is given if, of the intervening 
offences, all of which are definite, some have been 
concealed, and some not concealed.] 

2. [The same if the intervening offences have 
been not definite and not concealed, or not definite 
and concealed, or all not definite but some concealed 
and some not concealed, or all not concealed but 
some definite and some not definite, or all concealed 



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HI, 36, 2. PROBATION AND PENANCE. 437 

but some definite and some not definite, or some 
definite and some not definite and some concealed 
and some not concealed.] 



Here end the nine principal cases (which serve as 

a basis for the variations in the following 

chapter) in which a Bhikkhu is not 

purified (by undergoing a 

term of probation). 



36. 

1. [The same nine cases of the throwing back is 
carried by unlawful proceeding, though the Manatta 
and the rehabilitation are by a lawful proceeding.] 

2. ' And in case, O Bhikkhus, a Bhikkhu is guilty 
of a number of Sawghadisesa offences — definite, and 
not definite — of one designation, and of various de- 
signations — similar to each other, and dissimilar — 
connected with each other, and disconnected 1 . He 
asks the Sa*»gha for an inclusive probation on 
account of those offences. The Sawgha imposes 
upon him an additional probation on account of 
those offences. He undergoing that probation is 
guilty meanwhile of a number of Saw/ghadisesa 
offences, definite ones, which he does conceal. He 
asks the Sawgha to throw him back on account 

1 These offences must be understood to be offences com- 
mitted while under probation, and concealed. See the note on 
chap. 35, § 1. 



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438 JCULLAVAGGA. HI, 36, 2. 

of those intervening offences to the commencement 
of his term of probation. The Sawgha [does so] by 
an unlawful proceeding that is liable to be quashed, 
and unfit for the occasion ; and it also imposes an 
inclusive probation upon him, but by an unlawful 
proceeding. He thinking, " I am undergoing that 
probation," is guilty meanwhile of a number of 
Saw/ghadisesa offences, definite ones, which he does 
conceal. When he has arrived at this condition he 
calls to mind the other offences committed while the 
first offences were being committed, and he calls to 
mind also the other offences committed while the 
latter offences were being committed. 

' Then it occurs to him, " I have been guilty of 
a number of Sawghadisesa offences (&c, as in the 
whole of the section from the beginning to the end 
of the last paragraph, down to) and I called to mind 
also the other offences committed while the latter 
offences were being committed. Let me now ask 
the Sawgha to throw me back on account of those 
offences committed while the former offences, and 
while the latter offences, were being committed, to 
the commencement of my term of probation, by a 
lawful proceeding that cannot be quashed, and is fit 
for the occasion; and let me ask for an inclusive 
probation to be imposed by a lawful proceeding, 
and for a Manatta to be imposed by a lawful pro- 
ceeding, and then for rehabilitation by a lawful 
proceeding." 

' And he asks the Sa«/gha [accordingly], and the 
Sa#zgha [does so]. That Bhikkhu, O Bhikkhus, is 
purified from those offences.' 

[The same if some of the offences in each case 
have been concealed and some not concealed.] 



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HI, 36,4. PROBATION AND PENANCE. 439 

3, 4. [The Bhikkhu is not purified from such inter- 
vening and remembered offences as are specified in 
the last section, if the Sawgha has proceeded, as 
in the first section of this chapter, by an unlawful 
proceeding.] 

Here ends the Third Khandhaka, on the 
Accumulation of Offences. 



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NOTE ON ABHIUATTinjM. 

In the 7th Nissaggiya, in the 34th P&ftttiya, and in the 36th 
PsUittiya there occurs the phrase abhiha/Muw pavdreyya, 
regarding the correct translation of which, as will be seen from 
the note on the first passage, we were in doubt. The connection 
is always ' if A should offer B,' &c. ; and the only difficulty is the 
force of the word abhiha/Mu m which precedes the ' should offer,' 
and in some way qualifies it. In all three passages the Old Com- 
mentary preserved in the Sutta-Vibhahga explains the two words 
abhiha/Muw pav&reyya by 'Take just as much as you want' 
(ydvatakaw U^asi tavatakaw ga«hahi), which does not solve the 
difficulty. On the following words of the third passage, however, 
the Old Commentary (see H. O., ' Vinaya Pitakaw,' vol. iv, p. 84) 
uses the word abhiharati in its usual sense of ' he brings up to, 
offers to, hands over to,' as practically equivalent to abhiha/Mum 
pav&reti; and Buddhaghosa, in the Samanta P&s&diM on the 
7th Nissaggiya, uses abhiharitva as directly equivalent to abhi- 
•ha/Muw. 

Now in a passage quoted from the Thera-gatha" in H. O.'s 
'Buddha, sein Leben, seine Lehre, und seine Gemeinde' (p. 425, 
note 1), nikkhamituwna occurs as the gerund of nikkhamati 
instead of nikkhamitvdna. The existence in Prikrit of corres- 
ponding gerunds in -tu, -tu« for -tvS, and in -tu«a, -tudwa for 
-tvSna, is laid down in Hemafondra II, 146 (Pischel, vol. i, p. 62). 
And Professor Weber has given corresponding forms (£ha//u, ka//u, 
&c.) from the Gain dialect in his Bhagavatf I, p. 433. 

What we have in the phrase in question is therefore simply a 
gerund in -tuw, and the two words taken together mean, 'if A 
should lay before and offer to B,' &c. The thing offered in one 
case is robes, in the other two cases food ; and abhiharati is the 
usual word in Pali for serving food, laying it before another person. 
Compare th£li-p£ka-sat£ni abhihari at Gitaka. I, 186; and 
the phrase bhattabhiharo abhih&riyittha constantly repeated 
in the Mahd-sudassana Sutta (Rh. D., ' Buddhist Suttas,' in the last 
paragraph of chap. II, §§12, 29, 31, 33, 37). 



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