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The Sacred 
Books of the 
East: Pahlavi 
texts, pt. 2 

Friedrich Max 

The New York Public Library 

Astor, Lenox & Tilden Foundations 

* + + 

The R. Heber Newton 

Presented by His Children 
» 193* * 

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the dAz>istAn-1 DlNlK and the epistles 
of mAnOs/tIhar 




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i. General Remarks xiii 

2. The D&fistin-i Dinik . xxii 

3. The Epistles of Minuj^ihar xxv 

4. The Appendix xxviii 

Abbreviations used in this volume xxxi 

DAz>is'rAN-i DInIk 1 

1. Introductory 3 

2. Why a righteous man is better than all creatures, spiritual 

or worldly . . n 

3. Why a righteous man is created, and how he should act . 15 

4. Why a righteous man is great 20 

5. How temporal distress is to be regarded . . .22 

6. Why the good suffer more than the bad in this world . 23 

7. Why we are created, and what we ought to do . -25 

8. Whether good works done for the dead differ in effect 

from those ordered or done by themselves . .26 

9. How far they differ 28 

1 o. The growth of good works during life . . . -29 

11. Whether the growth of a good work be as commendable 

as the original good work 30 

1 2. Whether it eradicates sin equally well . . . -30 

13. Whether one is made responsible for all his sins and 

good works separately at the last account, or only for 
their balance 31 

1 4. The angels who take account of sin and good works, and 

how sinners are punished 32 

15. The exposure of a corpse does not occasion the final 

departure of life, and is meritorious . . . .34 

1 6. Whether the soul be aware of, or disturbed by, the corpse 

being gnawed 36 

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17. Reasons for the exposure of corpses . . . -38 

18. How the corpse and bones are to be disposed of . -43 

19. Whether departed souls can see Auharmazrf and Aharman 44 

20. Where the souls of the righteous and wicked go . .46 
zi. The Daitih peak, the K\n\3xl bridge, and the two paths 

of departed souls 47 

22. Whether the spirits are distressed when a righteous man dies 50 

23. How the life departs from the body . . . .51 

24. Where a righteous soul stays for the first three nights 

after death, and what it does next . . . . 53 

25. Where a wicked soul stays for the first three nights after 

death, and what it does next 55 

26. The nature of heaven and its pleasures . . . .56 

27. The nature of hell and its punishments . . . -57 

28. Why ceremonies in honour of Srosh are performed for 

the three days after a death . . . . .58 

29. Why Sr6sh must be reverenced separately from other angels 60 

30. Why three sacred cakes are consecrated at dawn after the 

third night from a death 61 

31. How a righteous soul goes to heaven, and what it finds 

and does there . 63 

32. How a wicked soul goes to hell, and what it finds and 

suffers there 70 

33. The position and subdivisions of hell . . . -74 

34. The two ways from the Daitih peak ; that of the righteous 

to heaven, and that of the wicked to hell . . .76 

35. The continuance of mankind in the world till the resur- 

rection 76 

36. The preparers of the renovation of the universe . . 7 7 

37. The contest of the good and evil spirits from the creation 

till the resurrection, and the condition of creation after 
the resurrection 80 

38. The effect of doing more good works than are necessary 

for attaining to the supreme heaven . . . .120 

39. Reasons for wearing the sacred thread-girdle . .122 

40. On the sacred shirt and thread-girdle, grace before and 

after eating, and cleansing the mouth before the after- 
grace 133 

41. The sin of apostasy, and how to atone for it . .136 

42. The good works of him who saves others from apostasy 139 

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43. The distance at which the fire can be addressed, the use 

of a lamp, and the proper order of the propitiatory 
dedications, when consecrating a sacred cake . .141 

44. Whether a skilful priest who is employed to perform 

ceremonies, but is not officially the priest of the dis- 
trict, should be paid a regular stipend . . .145 

45. The separate duties of priests and disciples . . .151 

46. When a priest can abandon the priesthood to obtain a 

livelihood 153 

47. Whether a priest who knows the Avesta, or one who 

understands the commentary, be more entitled to the 
foremost place at a sacred feast . . . . 155 

48. The advantage and proper mode of celebrating the 

ceremonial 159 

y 49. Whether it be lawful to buy corn and keep it long, so as 

to raise the price for the sake of profit . . . 174 

50. Whether it be lawful to sell wine to foreigners and infidels 176 

5 1 . The sin of drunkenness, and what constitutes immoderate 

drinking 178 

52. Whether a man who bargains to deliver wheat in a month, 

and takes a deposit, is bound to deliver the wheat if 

its market-price has risen enormously . . .180 

53. Whether it be lawful to sell cattle to those of a different 

religion 182 

54. Whether a man without a son can give away his pro- 

perty to one daughter on his death-bed; the laws of 
inheritance, and when an adopted son must be ap- 
pointed, in such a case 183 


55. Whose duty it is to order the ceremonies after a death 

56. The laws of adoption and family-guardianship 

57. Those who are fit, or unfit, for adoption 

58. The three kinds of adoption .... 

59. The least amount of property that requires the appoint 

ment of an adopted son 192 

60. The sin of not appointing an adopted son, or of appoint 

ing a dishonest one 192 

61. The merit and demerit of family-guardianship . . 193 

62. The laws of inheritance 194 

63. Whether it be lawful to seize property from foreigners 

and infidels 196 

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The origin of GSydmarrf, Mashyaih, and Mashyay6ih 

The origin of next-of-kin marriage 

Regarding the cost of religious rites, and whether a priest's 

fees can be reduced when others will take less 
The cause of the rainbow .... 
The cause of the phases of the moon . 
The cause of eclipses .... 

The causes of river-beds .... 
What things happen through destiny, and what through 

exertion ...... 

The seven heinous sinners, and the necessity of avoiding 

him who commits unnatural intercourse . 
Whether the stench of such intercourse reaches the sky 
Whether that stench disturbs the archangels 
Whether the angels raise such a sinner from the dead at 

the resurrection 

Whether it be a good work to kill such a sinner . 
Why such intercourse is a heinous sin . 
Why adultery is heinous, and how one can atone for it 
The sin of not repeating the full grace before drinking 

(when one is able to do so), and how one can atone 


Regarding him who does not order ceremonies 

About the ceremonies for the living soul 

About him who pays for ceremonies and him who takes 

the money without performing them 
Whether a priest must undertake all religious rites 
Whether gifts to the priesthood for ceremonies can be 

diminished or increased .... 
The advantages of increasing such gifts 
The harm of diminishing such gifts 
Why it is good to give such gifts 
About the cost of religious rites in Pars 
Whether when a man has once resolved to go into 

PSrs, with gifts for the priesthood, it be lawful for 

him to send another man with the gifts . 
The seven immortal rulers in the region of Khvaniras 

before the coming of the good religion . 
The nature and material of the sky . . . . 
The course and benefit of the water of Arekdvisflr 














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93. Tirtar's seizing of water from the ocean to rain it upon 

the earth, and his conflict with Apa6sh . . .264 

94. Conclusion 269 

Epistles of MANtkdHAR . . . .277 
Epistle I. To the good people of Strk4n. 

1. Introductory compliments, acknowledging receipt of a 

complaining epistle 279 

2. Deploring the false opinions in circulation, owing to the 

fiend, about the purification ceremonies . . . 282 

3. Excusing any defects in this epistle for various reasons 

detailed 286 

4. Deprecating the disuse of the Bareshnum ceremony, as 

decreed by his brother ; such disuse being contrary 

to scripture and the commentaries . . . .292 

5. Alluding to the one-sided view of the opinions of the 

commentators adopted by the decree they had sent . 298 

6. Discussing the different statements of the commentators 

as to the number of purifiers and washings . .301 

7. Discussing the proper quantities of liquids to be used, 

and the 300 pebbles . . . . . 304 

8. Regarding the stirring up of the bull's urine when fetid, 

as mentioned in the Sak&fum Nask . . . 309 

9. Deciding that the commentary which teaches the most 

efficient mode of purification is to be followed, when 
there are no special reasons for acting otherwise . 312 

10. Reserving other matters for special instructions to the 

priests, but warning them not to obey the decree now 
denounced 316 

11. Arranging for the enforcement of his decision, until he 

can write further, or come himself; and concluding 
with benediction and date . . . ... 320 

Epistle II. To his brother, Zarf-sparam. 

1. Acknowledging receipt of a former epistle, and announc- 

ing the arrival of complaints about his brother's 
reprehensible decree 324 

2. Disapproving of the decree and its mode of dealing with 

the commentaries, whose exact agreement is as un- 
likely as the simultaneous occurrence of several 
particular conjunctions of the planets . . . 331 

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3. Exhorting him not to seek for new rules, but to adhere 

strictly to the old customs 336 

4. Reasserting his opinions, and protesting against the 

notion that the decree was in accordance with the 
practice of all the purifiers in Iran . . . . 341 

5. Commenting upon the secrecy with which the decree 

had been prepared, and the evil consequences re- 
sulting from it 343 

6. Persuading him to remain steadfast in the faith, and 

threatening him if he should not .... 348 

7. Explaining that he had previously written to Sirkan, and 

would shortly come there himself; but ordering the 
appointment of proper purifiers . . . .350 

8. Mentioning his general epistle to all of the good religion 

in Mn, and describing the evil consequences of 
continued disobedience, including the possibility of 
his own retreat to foreign lands .... 352 

9. Giving further instructions for satisfying the discontented, 

and opposing the heterodox; and concluding with- 
out date 

Epistle III. To all of the good religion in Irk For- 
bidding the substitution of a fifteenfold washing for the 
Bareshnum ceremony; and dated a.y. 250 (a. jo. 881) 

Appendix .... 
I. Legends relating to Keresasp 
II. The Nirang-i Kusti . 

III. The meaning of Khv£tuk-das 

IV. The Bareshnum ceremony . 

V. Finding a corpse in the wilderness 




3 6 9 


Transliteration of Oriental Alphabets adopted for the 

Translations of the Sacred Books of the East . .481 

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i. General Remarks. 

The Pahlavi texts selected for translation in this volume 
are distinguished from all others by the peculiarity that both 
the name and station of their author and the time in which 
he lived are distinctly recorded. 

His name, Manu^ihar, son of Yudan-Yim (or GfLm- 
dam), is mentioned in each of the headings and colophons 
to the Darfistan-I Dinik and the three Epistles attributed to 
him. He is styled simply aerpat, or 'priest,' in the head- 
ings of Eps. I and II, and aerpat kh(Wai, or 'priestly 
lordship,' in that of Ep. Ill ; but he is called the md, 
'pontiff, or executive high-priest,' of Pars and Kirman, 
and the farma</ar, 'director,' of the profession of priests, 
in the colophons to Dd. and Ep. II ; and we learn from 
Dd. XLV, 5 that the farma*/ar was also the pcyfipat, or 
'leader' of the religion, the supreme high-priest of the 
Mas*/a-worshipping faith. 

Regarding his family we learn, from Ep. I, iii, 10, vii, 5, 
that his father, Yudan-Yim, son of Shahpfihar, had been 
the leader of the religion before him; and his own suc- 
cession to this dignity indicates that he was the eldest 
surviving son of his father, who, in his declining years, 
seems to have been assisted by his advice (Ep. I, iii, 11). 
We also learn, from the heading of his second epistle, that 
Za</-sparam was his brother, and this is confirmed by the 
language used in Ep. II, vi, 1, ix, 6, and by Z*L/-sparam 
being a son of the same father (Eps. I, heading, III, 2); 
that he was a younger brother appears from the general 
tone of authority over him adopted by Manuj^ihar in his 
epistles. Shortly before these epistles were written, ZSui- 
sparam appears to have been at Sarakhs (Ep. II, v, 3), in 

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the extreme north-east of Khurasan, where he probably 
came in contact with the Tughazghuz (Ep. II, i, 12) and 
adopted some of their heretical opinions, and whence he 
may have travelled through Nivshahpuhar (Ep. II, i, 2, 
note) and Shiran (Ep. II, v, 3, 4) on his way to Sirkan to 
take up his appointment as high-priest of the south (Eps. I, 
heading, II, i, 4, v, 9, vii, 1, viii, 1, Zs. I, o). Soon after his 
arrival at Sirkan he issued a decree, regarding the cere- 
monies of purification, which led to complaints from the 
people of that place, and compelled his brother to interfere 
by writing epistles, threatening him with deprivation of 
office (Ep. I, xi, 7) and the fate of a heretic (Eps. II, viii, 2, 3, 
III, 17-19). That Zi</-sparam finally submitted, so far as 
not to be deprived of his office, appears from his still 
retaining his position in the south while writing his Selec- 
tions (Zs. I, o), which must have been compiled at some 
later period, free from the excitement of active and , 
hazardous controversy. 

The age in which Manu^ihar lived is decided by the 
date attached to his third epistle, or public notification, to 
the Ma&/a-worshippers of Iran; which date is the third 
month of the year 250 of Yazdzk&rd (Ep. Ill, 21), cor- 
responding to the interval between the 14th June and 13th 
July A.D. 881 ; at which time, we learn, he was an old man 
(Ep. II, ix, 1), but not too old to travel (Eps. I, iii, 13, xi, 4, 
II. v, 5, vi, 4. <5» vii, 3, viii, 4, 5). 

His writings, therefore, represent the state of the Zoroas- 
trian religion a thousand years ago ; and it may be presumed, 
from the importance and influentialness of his position, that 
his representations can be implicitly relied upon. To detect 
any differences there may be between the tenets and reli- 
gious customs he describes, and those upheld by Zoroas- 
trians of the present time, would require all the learning 
and experience of a Parsi priest; but, so far as a European 
can judge, from these writings and his own limited know- 
ledge of existing religious customs among the Parsis, the 
change has been less than in any other form of religion 
during the same period. 

The manuscripts containing the writings of Manuxfcthar 

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are of two classes, one represented in Europe by the codex 
No. 35 of the collection of Avesta and Pahlavi manuscripts 
in the University Library at Kopenhagen, the other repre- 
sented by No. 14 of the Haug Collection of similar 
manuscripts in the State Library at Munich, which two 
manuscripts are called K35 and M14, respectively, in this 
volume. In the former of these classes, represented by 
K35, the Da*/istan-t Dinik occupies the central third of the 
codex ; being preceded by a nearly equal extent of other 
miscellaneous religious writings of rather later date, resem- 
bling a Pahlavi Rivayat ; and being followed by a third 
series of similar writings of about the same age and extent 
as the D&fistan-i Dinik, which includes the Epistles of 
Manu^ihar and the Selections of Zaif-sparam. In the 
latter class of manuscripts, from which M 14 is descended, 
the text of the Darfistan-t Dinik contains many variations 
from that in the former class, as if it had been revised by 
some one whose knowledge of Pahlavi was insufficient to 
decipher difficult passages, and who had freely exercised 
his editorial license in altering and mutilating the text to 
suit his own limited comprehension of it. 

The codex K35, which was brought from Persia by the 
late Professor Westergaard in 1843, is one of the most impor- 
tant manuscripts of the former class, and now consists of 
181 folios; but it is incomplete at both ends, having lost 
seventy-one folios at the beginning and about thirty-five at 
the end. It still includes, however, the whole of the 
D&/istan-t Dinik and the Epistles of Manuj£ihar ; though 
its date has been lost with its last folios. But this date can 
be recovered from an old copy of this codex existing in India 
(here called BK) and still containing a colophon, probably 
copied from K35 1 , which states that the manuscript was 

1 One reason for supposing that this colophon was so copied is that K35 
does not seem older than the date mentioned in it. Another reason is that 
the loss of the end of this colophon in BK allows as to assume that it was 
followed by another colophon, as is often the case in copies of old MSS. A 
colophon that extends to the end of the last folio of a manuscript can never be 
safely assumed to belong to that manuscript, because it may have been followed 
by others on further folios. 

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completed by Marsapan Frk/un Vahrdm Rustam Bdndar 
Malka-man/an Dln-ayar, on the day Asman of the month 
Amerodarf A.Y. 941 (19th March, 1572), in the district of 
the Dahikan in the land of Kirman. The end of this colo- 
phon is lost with the last folio of BK, which renders it 
possible that the last folio contained the further colophon 
of this copy. 

That BK is descended from K35 is proved by its con- 
taining several false readings, which are clearly due to 
mis-shapen letters and accidental marks in K35. And that 
it was copied direct from that codex is proved by the last 
words of thirty-two of its pages being marked with inter- 
lined circles in K35, which circles must have been the 
copyist's marks for finding his place, when beginning a 
fresh page after turning over his folios. This copy of K35 
has lost many of its folios, in various parts, but most of the 
missing text has been recently restored from the modern 
manuscript J, mentioned below; there are still, however, 
eleven folios of text missing, near the end of the codex, 
part of which can be hereafter recovered from TK, de- 
scribed below. The independent value of BK is that it 
supplies the contents of the seventy-one folios lost at the 
beginning of K35, and of about nineteen of the folios 
missing at the end of that codex. 

A third manuscript of the first class, which may be even 
more important than K35, was brought to Bombay from 
Persia about fifteen years ago, and belongs to Mr. Teh- 
muras Dinshawji Anklesaria, of Bombay, but it has not 
been available for settling the texts translated in this 
volume. It is here called TK, and is described as still 
consisting of 227 folios, though seventy folios are missing 
at the beginning and about fourteen at the end. In its 
present state, therefore, it must begin very near the same 
place as K35, but it extends much further, so as even to 
supply nearly half the contents of the eleven folios missing 
from BK ; it does not, however, include the contents of the 
last three folios of BK. According to a colophon appended 
in this manuscript to the ' Sayings of Za</~sparam, son of 
Yudan-Yim, about the formation of men out of body, life, 

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and soul' (see Zs. XI, 10, note), some copy of these 'sayings' 
was written by Gdpatshah Rustom Bandar Malka-man/an 
in the land of Kirman. This Gdpatshah was evidently a 
brother of Vahrdm, the grandfather of the Marzapan who 
wrote the colophon found in BK and supposed to have 
been copied from K35 (see pp. xv, xvi). If, therefore, this 
colophon in TK has not been copied from some older 
MS., it would indicate that TK is two generations older 
than K35. 

A recent copy of TK exists in the library of the high- 
priest of the Parsis in Bombay, to whom I am indebted for 
the information that its text does not differ from that of 
K35, at the two points (Dd. XCIII, 17 and Ep. Ill, 11) 
where some omission of text may be suspected. 

The manuscripts of the second class appear to be all 
descended from an old, undated codex brought to Bombay 
from Persia about sixty-five years ago 1 , and recently in 
the library of Mr. Dhanjibhai Framji Patel of Bombay. 
From what is stated, concerning the contents of this codex, 
it appears to commence with about three-fourths of the 
miscellaneous religious writings, found at the beginning of 
BK ; and these are followed by the altered text of the 
Darfistan-t Dlnik, as appears from the copies described 
below, but how the codex concludes is not stated. It may, 
however, be supposed that it contains as much of the third 
series of writings as is found in the manuscript J, a copy of 
this codex which ends in Ep. II, vi, a. 

This manuscript J belongs to the library of Dastur 
Jamaspji Minochiharji in Bombay; it commenced originally 
at the same point as the codex just described, and, so far 
as it has been examined, it contains the same altered text of 
the Darfistan-i Dinik. There is, therefore little doubt that 
it was originally copied from that codex, but a considerable 

1 There is some doubt about this period. Dastftr Peshotanji mentions thirty 
or forty years, but in the MS. J, which appears to have been copied chiefly from 
this codex in Bombay, the date noted by the copyist of the older part of that 
MS. is 'the day Rashn of the month Khurdad, a.t. 1188' (21st December 
1818, according to the calendar of the Indian Parsis), showing that the codex 
must have been at least sixty-four years in Bombay. 

[18] b 

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portion of the additional matter at the beginning of BK 
has been prefixed to it at a later date. The oldest portion 
of this copy, extending to Ep. I, vii, 4, bears a date corres- 
ponding to 21st December 1818; the date of a further 
portion, extending to Ep. II, vi, 2, corresponds to 12th 
February 1841 ; and a third portion copied from BK, at the 
beginning of the manuscript, is still more recent. 

Another copy of this codex, or of the Da</istan-t Dinik 
contained in it, exists in the library of the high-priest of 
the Parsis in Bombay ; and from this copy the text of the 
Da*r*istan-i Dinik contained in M 14 was transcribed. 

This latter manuscript consists of two volumes, written 
in 1865 and 1868, respectively; the first volume containing 
Chaps. I, 1 -XXXVII, 9, and the second volume Chaps. 
XXXVI, i-XCIV, 15 of the altered text of the D&flstan-! 

Other copies of the DcL/istan-i Dinik, which have not 
been examined, are to be found in India, but, unless de- 
scended from other manuscripts than K35 and the above- 
mentioned codex recently belonging to Mr. Dhanjibhai 
Framji, they would be of no further use for settling the 

Of the manuscripts above described the following have 
been available for the translations in this volume:— K35 
for the whole of the Darfistan-1 Dinik and the Epistles; 
M14 for the whole of the DaaTistan-i Dinik alone; BK for 
Dd. I, i-VI, 3 1 , X, 2-XIV, 3 2 , LXXXVIII, 9-XCIV, 15, 
the whole of the Epistles, the legend about the soul of Kere- 
sasp (see pp. 373-381), and the extracts from the Pahlavi 
Rivayat in these codices relating to Khvetuk-das (see pp. 
415-423); and J for Dd. I, i-XXXIX, 10 s ; LXXXVIII, 9- 
LXXXIX, 1 *, XCI, 7-XCIV, 15, Ep. I, i, i-II, ix, 7 5 , the 

1 The text of Chaps. VI, 3-X, 1 has been lost, and recently supplied from J. 

* No copy of the intermediate chapters obtained by the present translator, 
and several of the original folios have been lost. 

* No copy of the intermediate chapters taken by the present translator. 
« Chaps. LXXXIX, i-XCI, 7 omitted. 

' Ep. II, vi, 2-ix, 7 being copied from BK and wrongly inserted in Dd. 
XXXVII, 33 (see p. 89, note 5). 

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legend about Keresasp, and the extracts relating to 
Khvetuk-das. Other manuscripts, used for the remaining 
extracts translated in the Appendix, will be mentioned in 
§ 4 of this introduction. 

The existence of two versions of the text of the D<L/is- 
tan-t Dlnik would have been a source of much perplexity 
to the translator, had it not been soon apparent that the 
version represented by M14 was merely a revision of that 
in K35, attempted by some editor who had found much 
difficulty in understanding the involved phraseology of 
Manuj^ihar. There are, undoubtedly, some corrupt words 
and passages in K35, where the revised version may be 
followed with advantage, but nine-tenths of the alterations, 
introduced by the reviser, are wholly unnecessary, and in 
many cases they are quite inconsistent with the context. 

Under these circumstances it has been the duty of the 
translator to follow the text given in K35, wherever it is 
not wholly unintelligible after prolonged study, to note all 
deviations of the translation from that text (which are 
usually small), and merely to mention the variations of the 
revised text, so far as they are intelligible, in the notes. 

The writings of Manuj/feihar are certainly difficult to 
translate, not only from the involved and obscure style he 
affects, but also from the numerous compound epithets he 
uses, which are not easy either to understand with certainty, 
or to express clearly in English. The only other Pahlavi 
writings that approach them in difficulty are those of his 
brother, Za</-sparam, and those of the author of the third 
book of the Dinkan/, who seems to have also been a con- 
temporary writer. To a certain extent, therefore, an involved 
style of writing may have been a failing of the age in which 
he lived ; and his works, being of an epistolary and hor- 
tatory character, would naturally be more abstruse and 
idiomatic than simple narrative ; but much of the obscurity 
of his style must still be attributed to his own want of clear 
arrangement of thought and inadequate, though wordy, 
expression of ideas, the usual sources of all obscure and 
rambling writing. 

When to the difficulty of tracing the thread of an argument 


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through the involved obscurity of the text is added the 
perplexity occasioned by the ambiguity of many Pahlavi 
words, it can be readily understood that no translation is 
likely to be even approximately accurate, unless it be as 
literal as possible. The translator has to avoid enough 
pitfals, in the shape of false constructions and incorrect 
readings, without risking the innumerable sources of error 
offered by the alluring by-paths of free translation. If, 
therefore, the reader should sometimes meet with strange 
idioms, or uncouth phrases, he must attribute them to a 
straining after correctness of translation, however little that 
correctness may be really attained. 

For the purpose of more effectually keeping a curb upon 
the imagination of the translator, and indicating where he 
has been compelled to introduce his own ideas, all words 
not expressed or fully understood in the original text are 
italicised in the translation. Occasionally, also, the 
original word is appended to its translation, where either 
the reading or meaning adopted is unusual, or where a 
scholar might wish to know the particular Pahlavi word 

Some endeavour has likewise been made to introduce 
greater -precision than has hitherto been attempted, in the 
transliteration of Pahlavi words and names, by taking 
advantage of the italic system, adopted for this series of 
Sacred Books of the East, not only for distinguishing 
variations of sound (as in the use of g, k, and s for the 
sounds of j, soft ch, and sh, respectively, in English), but 
also to indicate the use of particular Pahlavi letters, when 
there are more than one of nearly the same sound. Thus, 
d is used where its sound is represented by <y> t ; / and r 
where they are represented by ) n, v, u, or by \ Av. o ; 
v and z where they are represented by £ k ; and zd where 
those letters are represented by x> a. If, in addition to 
these particulars, the Pahlavi scholar will remember that 
the uncircumflexed vowels are not expressed in Pahlavi 
characters, and the vowel o is expressed, he will find no 
particular difficulty in restoring any of the transliterated 
words to their original character, by merely following the 

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ordinary rules of Pahlavi writing. Without some such 
mode 1 of distinguishing the different Pahlavi letters used 
for the same sound, it would be practically impossible to 
restore the transliteration of any word, new to the reader, 
to its original Pahlavi form. And even the system here 
adopted requires the addition of a and d to represent the 
vowel j* a, A when one of its turns is omitted in writing 
(as in & ap, dv, used for £Jj» ap, af ; ){$ adln used for 
rtj-u a din, &c), and of j or/ to represent 5 y when it has 
the sound of g or English j, in order to distinguish it from 

The general reader should, however, observe that these 
niceties of transliteration are merely matters of writing, as 
the exact pronunciation of Pahlavi cannot now be fully 
ascertained in all its details. There is every reason to 
suppose that the Semitic portion of the Pahlavi was never 
pronounced by the Persians as it was written (unless, indeed, 
in the earliest times); but to transliterate these Semitic 
words by their Persian equivalents, as the Persians certainly 
pronounced them, would produce a Pazand text, instead of 
a Pahlavi one. If, therefore, we really want the trans- 
literation to represent the Pahlavi text correctly, we must 
transliterate the Semitic words as they are written, without 
reference to the mode in which we suppose that the 
Persians used to read them. With regard to the Persian 
words, if we call to mind the fact that Pahlavi was the 
immediate parent of modern Persian, we shall naturally 
accept the modern Persian pronunciation (stripped of its 
Arabic corruptions) as a guide, so far as Pahlavi orthogra- 
phy permits, in preference to tracing the sounds of these 
words downwards from their remote ancestors in ancient 
Persian or the Avesta. But the pronunciation of words 
evidently derived directly from the Avesta, as is the case 
with many religious terms, must clearly depend upon the 

1 Dotted letters might be used, if available, instead of italics ; but they are 
liable to the objection that, independent of the usual blunders due to the 
ordinary fallibility of human eyesight, it has been found by the translator that 
a dot, which was invisible on the proofs, will sometimes appear under a wrong 
letter in the course of printing. 

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Avesta orthography, so far as the alteration in spelling 
permits. These are the general rules here adopted, but 
many uncertainties arise in their practical application, which 
have to be settled in a somewhat arbitrary manner. 

2. The DAdistan-i DJnik. 

The term D&flstan-i Dinik, ' religious opinions or de- 
cisions,' is a comparatively modern name applied to 
ninety-two questions, on religious subjects, put to the high- 
priest Manuj^ihar, and his answers to the same. These 
questions appear to have been sent in an epistle from 
Mitrd-khurshe*/,. son of Aturo-mahan, and other Masrfa- 
worshippers (Dd. heading and I, 2), and were received by 
Manuj^ihar, who was the leader of the religion (Dd. I, 10, 
note), in the month of July or August (Dd. I, 17); but it 
was not till September or October, after he had returned 
to Shiran from a tour in the provinces, that he found time 
to begin his reply which, when completed, was sent by 
a courier (Dd. I, 26) to his correspondents, but at what 
date is not recorded. 

Regarding the residence of these correspondents, and the 
year in which these transactions took place, we have no 
positive information. The correspondents seem to have 
thanked Manuj£ihar for sending them one of his disciples 
(Dd. I, 3, 4) to act probably as their high-priest ; and, from 
the mode in which the land of Pars is mentioned in Dd. 
LXVI, 28, LXXXIX, 1, it seems likely that they were not 
inhabitants of that province ; but this conclusion is hardly 
confirmed, though not altogether contradicted, by the fur- 
ther allusions to Pars in Dd. LXVI, 3, 15, 21, LXXXVIII, 1. 
With regard to the date of this correspondence we may 
conclude, from the less authoritative tone assumed by 
Manuj£ihar in his reply (Dd. I, 5-7, 11), as compared with 
that adopted in his epistles (Ep. Ill, 17-19), that he was 
a younger man when he composed the Da^stan-1 Dinik 
than when he wrote his epistles ; we may, therefore, pro- 
bably assume that the Darfistan-i Dtnik was written several 
years before a.d. 881. 

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Although the subjects discussed in the Darfistan-t Dinik 
cover a wide range of religious doctrines, legends, and 
duties, they cannot be expected to give a complete view of 
the Masrafa-worshipping religion, as they are merely those 
matters on which Mitrd-khursh&f and his friends enter- 
tained doubts, or wished for further information. It is also 
somewhat doubtful whether the whole of the questions have 
been preserved, on account of the abrupt transition from 
the last reply, at the end of Dd. XCIII, to the peroration 
in Dd. XCIV, and also from the fact that a chapter is 
alluded to, in Dd. XVII, 20, XVIII, a, which is no longer 
extant in the text. 

The questions, although very miscellaneous in their 
character, are arranged, to some extent, according to the 
subjects they refer to, which are taken in the following 
order : — The righteous and their characteristics ; the tem- 
poral distress of the good ; why mankind was created ; 
good works and their effects ; the account of sin and good 
works to be rendered ; the exposure of corpses and reasons 
for it ; the paths, destinations, and fate of departed souls, 
with the ceremonies to be performed after a death; the 
contributors to the renovation of the universe ; the contest 
between the good and evil spirits from the creation till the 
resurrection ; works of supererogation ; the sacred shirt and 
thread-girdle ; apostasy and its prevention ; the use of fire 
at ceremonies, and other details ; duties, payment, and 
position of priests; details regarding ceremonies; lawful 
and unlawful trading in corn, wine, and cattle, with a 
definition of drunkenness ; adoption, guardianship, and 
inheritance ; rights of foreigners and infidels ; the origin of 
mankind and next-of-kin marriage; the cost of religious 
rites ; the causes of the rainbow, phases of the moon, 
eclipses, and river-beds; things acquired through destiny 
and exertion ; the sins of unnatural intercourse and adultery ; 
imperfect prayer before drinking ; ceremonies and payments 
for them ; the seven immortal rulers before Zaratujt ; the 
sky, the source of pure water, and the cause of rain and 

In his replies to these questions Minu^ihar displays 

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much intelligence and wisdom, the morality he teaches is 
of a high standard for the age in which he lived, and, while 
anxious to uphold the power and privileges of the priest- 
hood, he is widely tolerant of all deficiencies in the conduct 
of the laity that do not arise from wilful persistence in sin. 
The reader will search in vain for any confirmation of the 
foreign notion that Masrdfo-worship is decidedly more dual- 
istic than Christianity is usually shown to be by orthodox 
writers, or for any allusion to the descent of the good and 
evil spirits from a personification of ' boundless time,' as 
asserted by strangers to the faith. No attempt is made 
to account for the origin of either spirit, but the temporary 
character of the power of the evil one, and of the punish- 
ment in hell, is distinctly asserted. 

Although Manuj£ihar does not mention, in his writings, 
any of the lost Nasks or sacred books of the Mas*/a-wor- 
shippers, except the Husparum (Dd. LXI, 3) and the 
Saka^um (Ep. I, viii, 1, 6, 7), he certainly had access to 
many Pahlavi books which are now no longer extant ; hence 
he is able to give us more information than we find else- 
where regarding some of the legendary personages mentioned 
in Dd. II, 10, XXXVI, 4, 5, XLVIII, 33, XC, 3 ; he hints 
that the second month of the year (April-May) was called 
Zaremaya in the Avesta (Dd. XXXI, 14); and he mentions 
two places, instead of one, intermediate between heaven 
and hell, one for the souls of those not quite good enough 
for heaven, and one for those not quite bad enough for hell 
(Dd. XXIV, 6, xxxm, 2). 

The present translation of this work is not the first that 
has been attempted. Shortly before the late Professor Haug 
left India he delivered a lecture on the Parsi religion to a 
large assemblage of Parsis in Bombay, at their request, and 
at his desire the sum of 900 rupls, out of the net proceeds of 
the entrance-tickets sold, was offered as a prize for an edition 
of the Pahlavi text of the DaWistan-1 Dinik with a Gu^arati 
translation and glossary. Some years afterwards this prize 
was awarded to Mr. Shehriarji Dadabhoy and Mr. Teh- 
muras Dinshawji Anklesaria, for their joint Gqgarati trans- 
lation of the work, which still, however, remains unpublished 

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for want of funds, and has, therefore, been inaccessible to 
the present translator. 

3. The Epistles of MAnusxIhar. 

It has been already stated (see pp. xiii, xiv) that 2,%i- 
sparam, a younger brother of Manuj£thar, after having been 
at Sarakhs, in the extreme north-east of Khurasan, where 
he seems to have associated with the heretical Tughazghuz, 
was appointed high-priest of Sirkan, south or south-west of 
Kirman 1 . Shortly after his arrival there he issued a decree, 
regarding the ceremonies of purification and other matters, 
which was so unpalatable to the Ma&/a-worshippers of that 
place that they wrote an epistle to Manuj/felhar, complaining 
of the conduct of his brother (Ep. I, i, a, ii, 1). 

In reply to this complaint, which was sent by a special 
courier (Ep. I, i, a), and after going to Shiran and holding 
a general assembly of the priests and elders (Ep. II, i, 11), 
Man&sv£ihar wrote his first epistle, completed on the 15th 
March 881 (Ep. I, xi, ia), in which he condemned the 
practices decreed by Zarf-sparam, to whom he sent a 
confidential agent, named Yaz^an-panak (Ep. I, xi, 1, a, 6, 
10, II, vii, a), with a copy of this epistle and a further one 
to himself, which has not been preserved, for the purpose 
of inducing his brother to withdraw his decree and conform 
to the usual customs. 

It would appear that Yas*/£n-panak was not very suc- 
cessful in his mission, as we find Manuj/Hhar writing a 
general epistle (Ep. Ill) to all the Maarda-worshippers in 
Iran, in the following June or July (Ep. Ill, 31), denouncing 
as heretical the mode of purification decreed by Zkd- 
sparam, and ordering an immediate return to former 
customs. At the same time (Ep. II, vii, a, viii, 1) he wrote 
a second epistle (Ep. II) to his brother, as he had already 

1 The city of Kirman was itself called Strain, or Strgan, in the middle ages, 
and is evidently mentioned by that name in Ouseley's Oriental Geography, 
pp. 139, 143, though the Strgan of pp. 138, 141 of the same work was clearly 
farther south. Which of these two towns was the Sirkan of these epistles, may, 
therefore, be doubtful. 

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promised in Ep. I, xi, 2, and, after referring to an epistle 
(now lost) which he had received from Z&/-sparam in the 
previous November or December, he proceeded to enforce 
his views by a judicious intermingling of argument, 
entreaty, and threats. He also contemplated making 
preparations (Ep. I, xi, 4, II, vii, 3) for travelling himself 
to Strkan, notwithstanding his age (Ep. II, ix, 1), to 
arrange the matters in dispute upon a satisfactory basis. 
Whether he actually undertook this journey is unknown, 
but that his brother must have finally submitted to his 
authority appears from Zaaf-sparam retaining his position 
in the south, as has been already noticed (p. xiv). 

The matter in dispute between Za</-sparam and the 
orthodox Masv/a-worshippers may seem a trivial one to 
people of other religions, but, inasmuch as the ceremonial 
uncleanness of a person insufficiently purified after contact 
with the dead would contaminate every one he associated 
with, the sufficiency of the mode of purification was quite 
as important to the community, both priests and laity, as 
avoidance of breach of caste-rules is to the Hindu, or 
refraining from sacrifices to heathen gods was to the Jew, 
the early Christian, or the Muhammadan. And much 
more important than any disputes about sacraments, 
infallibility, apostolic succession, ritual, or observance of 
the Sabbath can possibly be to any modern Romanist or 

In his mode of dealing with this matter Manuj£ihar 
displays at once the moderation and tact of a statesman 
accustomed to responsibility, the learning and zeal of a 
well-informed priest, and the kindly affection of a brother. 
That he was not without rivals and enemies appears from 
his casual allusions to Zaratujt, the club-footed, and AturS- 
parf in Ep. II, i, 13, v, 14, ix, 1 1 ; but in all such allusions, as 
well as in his denunciation of heretical opinions, he refrains 
from coarse invective, and avoids the use of exaggerated 
language, such as too often disfigures and weakens the 
arguments in polemical discussions. 

Indirectly these epistles throw some light upon the con- 
dition of the Mas*/a-worshippers after more than two 

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centuries of ceaseless struggle with the ever-advancing 
flood of Muhammadanism which was destined to submerge 
them. Shiran, Slrkan, Kirman, Rat, and Sarakhs are still 
mentioned as head -quarters of the old faith ; and we are 
told of assemblies at Shiran and among the Tughazghuz, 
the former of which appears to have had the chief control 
of religious matters in Pars, Kirman, and the south, acting 
as a council to the high-priest of Pars and Kirman, who was 
recognised as the leader of the religion (Dd. XLV, 5). We 
also learn, from Ep. I, iii, 11, II, v, 14, that the leaders of 
the Mas*/a-worshippers, if not their high-priests, were still 
in the habit of maintaining troops ; and, from Ep. II, i, 9, 
that when a high-priest became very old his worldly duties 
were performed by four of the most learned priests, forming 
a committee, which had full authority to deliberate and act 
for him in all worldly matters. Manuj£ihar even speaks of 
emigrating by sea to China, or by land to Asia Minor 
(Ep. II, viii, 5), in order to escape from the annoyances of 
his position. 

But the statements which are most important to the 
Pahlavi scholar, in these epistles, are the date attached to 
the third epistle, corresponding to A.D. 881, and the men- 
tion of Nishahpuhar in Ep. I, iv, 15, 17 as the supreme 
officiating priest and councillor of king Khusrd Ndshirvan 
(a.d. 53 i_ 579)» engaged apparently in writing commen- 
taries on the Avesta. The date of these epistles not only 
limits that of the Darfistan-1 Dinik to the latter half of the 
ninth century, but also fixes those of the larger recension of 
the Bundahu and of the latest revision of the Dinkarrf 
within the same period, because it is stated in Bd. XXXIII, 
10, 11 that the writer of that chapter was a contemporary 
of Za*/-sparam, son of Yudan-Yim, and At&r-p&d, son of 
Hemi</, the former of whom was evidently the brother of 
Manru^ihar, and the latter is mentioned in Dinkar</ III, 
ccccxiii as the latest editor of that work. The actual com- 
piler of a great part of the Dinkar*/ (especially of the fourth 
and fifth books) was, however, the somewhat earlier writer 
Atur-fr6bag, son of Farukhuzarf (Dd. LXXXVIII, 8, Ep. I, 
iii, 9). The name of Nishahpuhar is also mentioned as that 

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of a commentator in the Pahlavi Vendidarf and Nirangistan, 
which works must, therefore, have been revised since the 
middle of the sixth century. And as we are informed in 
the book of Arc/a-Viraf (1, 35) that ' there are some who call 
him by the name of NikhshahpQr,' we ought probably to 
refer that book to the same age. These epistles, therefore, 
enable us, for the first time, to fix the probable dates of the 
latest extensive revisions of six of the most important Pah- 
lavi works that are still extant ; and from the relationship 
of these to others we can readily arrive at safer conclusions, 
regarding the age of Pahlavi literature in general, than have 
been hitherto possible. 

4. The Appendix. 

For the sake of elucidating certain matters, mentioned in 
the writings of Manu-svfcihar, further information than could 
be given in the foot-notes has been added in the shape of 
an appendix. 

To a brief summary of the Avesta legends, relating to 
the ancient hero Keresasp, has been added a translation of 
a Pahlavi legend regarding the fate of his soul, in which 
several of his more famous exploits are detailed. This 
legend is found in the Pahlavi Rivayat preceding the 
Darfistan-1 Dinik in the manuscripts BK and J, and is 
evidently derived from the fourteenth fargar^ of the Surfkar 
Nask, whose contents, as described in the ninth book of 
the Dinkan/, are also given. It is likewise found in the 
later Persian Rivayats, with several modifications which 
are duly noticed. 

The Nirang-i Kusti, or ceremony of tying the sacred 
thread-girdle, is also described in detail, with a translation 
of the ritual accompanying it, partly from actual observa- 
tion, and partly from Gu^arati accounts of the rite. 

It having become necessary to ascertain with certainty 
whether the term ' next-of-kin marriage ' was a justifiable 
translation of khv6tuk-das, as used by Pahlavi writers, 
an extensive examination of all accessible passages, which 
throw any light upon the meaning of the word, has been 

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made. The result of this enquiry can be best understood 
from the details collected, but it may be stated in general 
terms that, though ' marriage among kinsfolk ' might fairly 
represent the varying meaning ofkhvetuk-das in dif- 
ferent ages, its usual signification in Pahlavi literature is 
more accurately indicated by ' next-of-kin marriage.' 

Some apology is perhaps due to the Parsi community for 
directing attention to a subject which they consider dis- 
agreeable. But, by the publication of a portion of the 
Dinkard, they have themselves placed the most important 
passage, bearing on the subject, within the reach of every 
European Orientalist ; thus rendering it easy for any pre- 
judiced translator to represent the practice of such mar- 
riages as having been general, instead of their being so 
distasteful to the laity as to require a constant exertion of 
all the influence that the priesthood possessed, in order to 
recommend them, even in the darkest ages of the faith. 
To avoid such one-sided views of the matter, as well as to 
hinder them in others, has been the special aim of the 
present translator in trying to ascertain the exact meaning 
of the obscure texts he had to deal with. 

The translations from the Pahlavi Vendida^/, regarding 
the Bareshnum ceremony and the purifications requisite 
after finding a corpse in the wilderness, will be found neces- 
sary for explaining many allusions and assertions in the 
Epistles of Manuj£ihar. 

The text followed in all passages translated from the 
Dlnkarrf is that contained in the manuscript now in the 
library of Dastur Sohrabji Rustamji, the high-priest of the 
Kadmi sect of Parsis in Bombay. It was written A. D. 1669, 
and was brought from Persia to Surat by Mulla Bahman in 
1 783. All other known copies of the Dinkan/are descended 
from this manuscript, except a codex, brought from Persia 
by the late Professor Westergaard in 1843, which contains 
one-fifth of the Dinkar*/ mostly written in 1574, and is now 
in the University Library at Kopenhagen. 

For translations from the Pahlavi VendidcU/ the text 
adopted, wherever available and not evidently defective, 
has been that of L4, a manuscript of the Vendidarf with 

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Pahlavi, Z. and P. IV, in the India Office Library in London. 
The date of this manuscript has been lost with its last 
folio, but its text is in the same handwriting as that of three 
others, in Kopenhagen and Bombay, which were written 
A. D. 1323-4. A considerable portion of the beginning of 
this manuscript has also been lost, and is replaced by 
modern folios of no particular value. 

In conclusion, the translator must take the opportunity 
of thankfully acknowledging the kindness and readiness 
with which Dastur Peshotanji Behramji Sanjana, the high- 
priest of the Parsis in Bombay, and Dastur Jamaspji Mino- 
chiharji Jamasp-Asa-na, of the same city, have always 
furnished him with any information he applied for, not 
only on those matters specially mentioned in the foot- 
notes, but also on many other occasions. 

E. W. WEST. 

September, 1883. 

Digitized by 



Ace. for accusative case ; Af. Zarat. for Afringan-i Zaraturt ; anc. 
Pers. for ancient Persian ; App. for Appendix to this volume ; Ar. 
for Arabic ; A V. for the Book of Ar</a-V!raf, ed. Hoshangji and 
Haug; Av. for A vesta; B29 for Persian Rivayat MS. No. 29 of 
the University Library in Bombay ; Bd. and Byt. for Bundahu and 
Bahman Yart, as translated in vol. v of this series ; BK for an old 
imperfect copy of K35 written in Kirman, but now in Bombay ; 
Chald. for Qbaldee ; comp. for compare ; Dd. for Darfistan-f Dinfk, 
as translated in this volume ; Dk. for Dinkanf ; Ep. for Epistles of 
Manfljiiihar, as translated in this volume ; Farb. Okh. for Farhang-i 
Oim-khaduk, ed. Hoshangji and Haug ; Gen. for Genesis ; Haug*s 
Essays for Essays on the Sacred Language, Writings, and Religion 
of the Parsis, by M. Haug, and edition ; Hn. for H&d&khi Nask, 
as published with AV. ; Huz. for HuzvarLt ; Introd. for Introduc- 
tion ; J. for Dd. MS. belonging to Dastur Jamaspji Minochiharji 
in Bombay; K35 for Dd. MS. No. 35 of the University Library in 
Kopenhagen; L4 for Vend. MS. No. 4 of the India Office Library 
in London; Lev. for Leviticus; M5, M7, Mio, M14 for MSS. 
Nos. 5, 7, 10, 14 of the Haug Collection in the State Library in 
Munich; Mkh. for Mainyd-i-khard, ed. West; n. for foot-note; 
nom. for nominative case ; p. for page ; Pahl. for Pahlavi ; Paz. for 
Pazand; Pers. for Persian; p. p. for past participle; Sir. for 
Sirozah, ed. Westergaard; Sis. for Shayast-la-shayast, as trans- 
lated in vol. v of this series; TD for Bd. MS. belonging to 
Mr. Tehmuras Dinshawji in Bombay ; TK for Dd. MS. belonging 
to the same ; trans. D. for translated by Darmesteter, in vol. iv of 
this series ; Vend., Visp., and Yas. for Vendida*/, Vispara</, and 
Yasna, ed. Spiegel; Yt. for Yart, ed. Westergaard ; Z.D.M.G. for 
Zeitschrift der deutschen morgenlandischen Gesellschaft ; Zs. for 
Selections of Z&f-sparam, as translated in vol. v of this series. 

Digitized by 


Digitized by 


A A A _ A 





mAnCsv^har, son of yudAn-yim, 

* dastOr of 

pArs and kirmAn, 

A.D. 881. 


Digitized by VjOOQlC 


i. For all divisions into chapters and sections the translator is 
responsible, as the manuscripts merely indicate the beginning of 
each question and reply. 

2. Italics are used for any English words which are not expressed, 
or fully understood, in the original text, but are added to complete 
the sense of the translation. 

3. Italics occurring in Oriental words, or names, represent 
certain peculiar Oriental letters (see the ' Transliteration of Oriental 
Alphabets ' at the end of this volume). The italic d, I, n, r, v may 
be pronounced as in English ; but g should be sounded like j, hv 
like wh, k like ch in ' church,' s like sh, and a like French j. 

4. In Pahlavi words the only vowels expressed in the original 
text are those circumflexed, initial a, and the letter o; italic d is 
written like t, r and / like n or the Avesta o, v and z like g, and zd 
like £ in the Pahlavi character (see the latter part of § 1 of the 

5. In the translation, words in parentheses are merely explanatory 
of those which precede them. 

6. For the meaning of the abbreviations used in the notes, see 
the end of the Introduction. 

7. The manuscripts mentioned are : — 

BK, an old imperfect copy of K35 written in KirmSn, but now 
in Bombay. 

J (about 60 years old), belonging to Dastur Jimispji Minochi- 
harji in Bombay. 

K35 (probably written a. d. 1572), No. 35 in the University 
Library at Kopenhagen ; upon the text of which this translation 
is based. 

M5 (written a.d. 1723), a MS. of miscellaneous texts in Persian 
letters, No. 5 of the Haug Collection in the State Library at 

Mi 4 (a modern copy of a MS. in the library of the Parsi high- 
priest in Bombay), No. 1 4 in the same Collection. 

TD, a MS. of the Bundahir belonging to M6bad Tehmuras 
Dinshawji in Bombay. 

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Some chapters of the enquiries which Mitrd- 
khfirsh&£ son of Atur6-mahan 1 , and others of the 
good religion made of the glorified (anoshakS- 
ruban) Manu^lhar 2 , son of Yud4n-Yim, and the 
replies given by him in explanation. 

Chapter I. 

o. Through the name and power and assistance 
of the creator Atiharmazd and all good beings, 
all the heavenly and earthly angels, and every 
creature and creation that Auharmas*/ set going 
for his own angels and all pertaining to the celestial 

1 The name Atur-mahan occurs in a Pahlavi inscription, 
dated a.y. 378 (a. d. 1009), in one of the Kanheri caves, near 
Bombay (see Indian Antiquary, vol. ix, pp. 266, 267), and 
Adharmah is mentioned in Hoffmann's Auszttge aus syrischen 
Akten persischer Martyrer (Leipzig, 1880), p. 203 ; so that this 
name must have been commonly used by Parsis in former times, 
though unknown now. 

" He calls himself pontiff and director of the priests of Pars 
and Kirman in a.y. 250= a. d. 881, and was, therefore, the leader 
of the religion (see Chaps. XLV, 5, XCIV, 13, and Ep. Ill, 21). 
Besides these titles of p&jupaf, 'leader,' farmarfar, 'director,' and 
ra</, 'pontiff or executive high-priest,' he is also called a£rpat 
khurfai, 'priestly lordship,' in the heading to Ep. Ill, and has the 
general title aSrpat, ' priest,' in those of Ep. I and II. The reading 
of the name of his father, Yudan-Yim (Pers. (7uvan-(7am, 'the 
youthful GamshSd'), is merely a guess; the Parsis read either 
G6shna-^am or Gddan-dam; and, perhaps, Gushna-dam, 'breathing 
virility,' is a likely alternative reading. 

B 2 

Digitized by 



i. To those of the good religion, who are these 
enquirers owing to devout force of demeanour and 
strength of character, the type of wisdom and 
standard of ability — and of whom, moreover, the 
questions, seeking wisdom, contemplating good 
works, and investigating religion, are specified— the 
blessing and reply of Minu^Jhar, son of Yudan- 
Yim, are these: — 2. That is, forasmuch as with 
full affection, great dignity, and grandeur you have 
blessed me in this enquiring epistle 1 , so much as 
you have blessed, and just as you have blessed, with 
full measure and perfect profusion, may it happen 
fully likewise unto you, in the first place, and to your 
connections, separately for yourselves and depen- 
dents ; may it come upon you for a long period, and 
may it be connected with a happy end. 

3. As to that which you ordered to write about 
wishes for an interview and conversation with me, 
and the friendliness and regard for religion of your- 
selves and our former disciple 2 (lanmanak kadmdn) 
— who is a servant of the sacred beings (yasrdano) 3 
and a fellow-soldier in struggling with the fiend, 
alike persistent in reliance upon the good religion 
of Mazda.- worship — I am equally desirous of that 
one path of righteousness when its extension is to 
a place in the best existence 4 , and equally hopeful 

1 Regarding this epistle, nothing further is known that can be 
gathered from the text of this reply to it, which gives the substance 
of the questions it contained. 

* This disciple appears to have been previously sent by Manu- 
skihai to the community he is addressing, most probably to serve 
as their high-priest. 

3 The word is plural, like Elohim in the book of Genesis, but 
it means ' God ' in Pers an. 

4 Another name for Gar&raian, the highest heaven, or dwelling 
of Auharmas*/ (see Sis. VI, 3, 4). 

Digitized by 


CHAPTER I, 1-6. • 5 

of resurrection (&khezisnb) at the renovation of 
the best existence 1 . 4. As to the interview and 
important conversation of that disciple of ours 
(manak), and his going, and that also which he 
expounded of the religion — that of him who is 
intimate in interview and conversation with him who 
is wise and righteous the stunted 2 good works are 
then more developing 3 — and as to the degree of 
praise which you ordered to write concerning me, 
much greater than reason, and the important state- 
ments full of the observations of friendship as to 
kind regards, my course about these is also that 
which leads to gratitude. 

5. That which you ordered to write about the 
way of knowing and understanding not being for 
any one else but for your servant, was owing to your 
affection, and for the sake of kind regard; but on 
account of the importance of truth it is more 
expressly to be regarded as being proper to write 
also to other spiritual 4 men, as to the learning which 
is more fully studied by them. 6. For even with 
the perplexing struggle of the fiend, and the grievous 
devastation and collapse (nizdrlh) which have hap- 
pened to religious people, after all, through the 
persistence (khvaparih) of the sacred beings even 

1 That is, when this transitory world is purified and made 
permanent, so as to form a part of heaven, which is expected 
to take place at the resurrection. 

* Pahl. kazd, which may be compared with Pers. kaz, 'distorted,' 
or may be a miswriting of Pahl. kas, ' small.' 

8 The modern MSS., M14 and J, add 'and those which are 
great are more attainable.* 

* The word is matn6k (minavad), but the omission of one 
stroke would make it magdg, ' priestly,' which was probably the 
original reading. 

Digitized by 


DADIStAn-! DINfo. 

now tJiere are pontiffs (raafano), priests, high-priests, 
judges, and also other religious leaders of those of 
the religion in various quarters. 7. Moreover, the 
other priests and spiritual 1 men here enumerated 
have well considered the commentary (zand) of the 
text (mansar) which is muttered, are acquainted 
with opinions explaining the religion, and are, in 
many places, the cause of preferring good works ; 
with whom also, on account of their understanding 
and knowing about such opinions, the sacred beings 
are pleased. 

8. The' desires expressed, and the good wishes 
as to what is mine and has happened to me, which 
you ordered to write, are likewise marks of friend- 
ship and kind regard, and owing to them a like 
measure of friendship and kind regard becomes 
your 2 own. 

9. As to that which you ordered to write in much 
friendship and commendation and profusely about 
me — as regards the administration of the realm 
(k£shvar dast6barlh), 0/ the unity without coun- 
terpart (dadfigarih),and the singleness co-extensive 
with any duality — if the writing of that, too, were 
owing to your friendship, even then it seemed to 
me disquieting, owing to this being so much praise. 
10. If in these times and countries there be an 
understanding of the time and a boasting about any 
one, if it be graceful as regards him who is a leader 
of the religion (din6 p£.yupal) of long-continued faith, 
I consider it not suitable for myself 3 . 11. Though 

1 See p. 5, note 4. ! All MSS. have ' thy.' 

3 Although he was himself the 'director of the profession of 
priests' of Pars (see Chap. XCIV, 13), an office which was then 
equivalent to that of 'leader of the religion' (see Chap. XLV, 5). 

Digitized by 


CHAPTER I, 7-16. 

the praise of a leader (sardar), raised by agreeable 
voices 1 , is uttered about me, yet I am not pleased 
when they extol my greatness more than that of 
their own leader ; for my wish is for that praise 
which is due to my own rank and similar limits, and 
seems suitable to me ; and humility in oneself is as 
correct as grandeur among inferiors. 

12. That which is about the lengthy writing of 
questions, as to your worldly circumstances (stiha- 
nlha) and worldly affairs, has also shown this, that 
I should write a reply at a time in which I have 
leisure. 13. That is more important on account of 
your well-expressed questions and boldness about 
ambiguous answers, and your ardent desire for the 
setting aside of time ; for the setting aside, or not 
beginning, of a reply is implied. 14. But owing to 
the perplexing 2 struggle on account of the fiend 
there is little leisure for quick and searching thought, 
and owing to that which is undecided 3 there is little 
for indispensable (fr£svanlk6) work. 

15. As to a reply at a period of leisure time, the 
occurrence of the time appointed is manifested in 
everything, apart even from the kind regards of 
friendship, and the "collection of information whereby, 
owing to my little leisure, it is declared unto you. 
16. And I have, too, this confidence, that your 
questions are written with religious faith and desiring 
religious decision ; and in the reply the statement 
of reasons from revelation (din 6) is manifold, for 

1 This translation of miln6-advasik6-akhezak6 is somewhat 

J Or ' prodigious.' 

8 That is, awaiting the high-priest's judicial and ecclesiastical 

Digitized by 



guidance which is not destitute of wisdom and which 
is without risk from every kind of importunity '. 

17. And this same epistle 2 came in the month 
Tir 3 , at such season as, owing to entreaties for three 
years from the country-folk (desikan&), and the 
burden of troubles of the offspring (sarak6) of those 
of the good religion, the much importunity for 
arranging what was undecided among them — which, 
inasmuch as I had no power about investigating that 
trouble and suffering, was the more indispensable — 
the arrangements for the preservation and education 
of disciples 4 , and many private matters which had 
accumulated, I obtained no opportunity for properly 
looking over these same questions till the month 
Shatvalrd 6 , when I came to Shiras 6 and had at 
various times a little leisure. 

18. And I looked over these same questions; and 
when I saw the compact writing (ham-dadfakiha- 
yektibunijnih)it then seemed to me more impor- 
tant to make each chapter of the questions separate 
and more explanatory. 19. And I gave the ques- 
tions to a writer, in the same copy which you ordered 
to write, and instructed him to write the various 
chapters, every single question in one chapter ; and 
the several opinions, both due to my acquaintance 
with the religion and my remembrance in perfection, 

1 Or ' over-persuasion.' * See § 2. 

8 The fourth month of the Parsi year, which corresponded to 
July-August in the time of M&nuaNhar. 

* That is, candidates for the priesthood and young priests. 

8 The sixth month of the Parsi year, which then corresponded 
to September-October. 

• From this it would appear that the D&fistSn-t Dfntk was 
written at Shiraz which, being the principal city of P5rs, was 
probably the high-priest's usual residence. 

Digitized by 


CHAPTER I, 17-23. 

both of the decisions (dastdbarlh) of the ancients 
and as regards wisdom, are the replies I intend to 
write below the questions. 

20. When there is nothing in such as you ask, 
concerning which I consider such otherwise, as I 
write, than what is like that which was once advisedly 
our different opinion from those high-priests of the 
ancients who were better and wiser, and have become 
our lord (ahvd), master (ra^6), and high-priest, I 
have written that 1 , even though the usual decision 
on the same subject is such as our high-priests, who 
are of our family, have maintained in particular. 
21. Afterwards, moreover, about the sayings of that 
high-priest whose custom is otherwise there is no 
difference of opinion expressed*; and if there be any 
one for whose opinion I have acquired perfect rever- 
ence, a priestly man acquainted with the religion, 
who understands and who manages intelligently, by 
holding in reverence the ancient treatises and truth, 
and the sayings of the high-priests, whatever of his 
is to the purpose, as regards the reply, this also is 
written as successful illustration. 

22. If owing to such cause it be not fully perceived, 
or regarding the decision it be not clear, it is chiefly 
not owing to the incompleteness of the decision of 
revelation in clearness of demonstration and correct- 
ness of meaning, but owing to our incomplete attain- 
ment to understanding the authoritative decrees 
(nik^^ak fraguftS) 3 of the religion. 23. From the 

1 That is, his own different opinion apparently, but the writer's 
sentences are often so involved as to confuse the reader. 

* Meaning, apparently, that he does not propose to mention the 
opinions of others unless he approves of them. 

1 The MSS. have fragutS, possibly Pers. f a r^ud, 'miracle.' 

Digitized by 


io dAdistAn-! Dtorhc. 

imperfection (av£hih) of that also which is asked 
of us the hasty thinking, notably therein, owing to 
the grievousness of the times, is even till now 
devoid of a distinct knowledge, interpreting the 
texts about the compassion of the good spirits, and 
regarding a clearer demonstration of the exposition 
of revelation which is thereby 1 more fully declared, 
as regards religious practice, from two sources, one 
is from the treatises which are an exposition of the 
rules and wisdom of the leader of the religion, and 
one — which is more descriptively expressed (ma^i- 
ganStar hankhetunt6) — is the writings (vutakQ) 
of various glorified ancients, those who were the 
great leaders of those of the primitive faith 2 . 
24. Owing to that 3 , as their writings (nipikan) 
about the demonstration of reasons, on account of 
depth and minute wording, are not well known, even 
to minute observers and penetrative (v£hramako) 
understandings, and through the little diffusion 
(ir&g S-paaftkhuih), likewise, of difficult words, 
there may be doubts among the less intelligent, so, 
about the purport of these same questions, if there 
be anything which is wanted by you more clear and 
more plain in meaning, or a nearer way to a true 
interpretation, not without clearness, of any decision 
of a learned leader of the religion, I will give 
a reply, whenever you ask and I am able, so far as 
my knowledge and want of power permit. 

25. When one has to observe the nature of the 
attributes (g6haran6) of the sacred beings the 

1 That is, revelation is declared by the exposition. 
* The true Ma2</a-worshipping religion in all ages, both before 
and after the time of Zarattat (see Sis. I, 3). 
s Want of knowledge referred to in § 23. 

Digitized by 


CHAPTER I, 24-II, 3. 1 1 

investigator's great advantage is the perfection, 
peace, equipment with righteousness, and fiend- 
destroying power of his own people ; and since you 
are made aware of the result of wishes and actions, 
and are directed by me, many new blessings also 
arise from you. 

26. That which is written to you yourselves and 
unto all, in the beginning and even the end, is com- 
pletely adapted to your own several wants ; may it 
have an exalted end, with one courier (a£-barl«?6) 
and continuously from beginning to end, and also 
perpetually ! 

27. A fair copy (bur,mnfkS pa£ln&) of the 
questions, as well as the replies, is this; so that, 
when there is nothing in it which owing to that 
cause 1 is different, I am of opinion as is here 

Chapter II. 

1. First you ask thus : Why is a righteous man 
created better than the stars and moon and sun 
and fire of Auharmaz^, and is called in revelation 
greater and better than the spiritual creation, and 
also than that which is worldly ? 

2. The reply is this, that the greatness and 
goodness of advance in wisdom and just judgment 
over the creatures arise from proficiency (hunar). 
3. Justice is the one good proficiency over the 
creatures, the means of wisdom are great, and 
praise bestowed is the most effectual performance 

1 Owing to the copying. The sentence is equivalent to the 
modern phrase, ' errors excepted.' 

Digitized by 



of what is desirable (karrmn-karih). 4. For all 
three are mutually connected together; since the 
manifestation of justice is through wisdom, and its 
advantage is the performance of what is desirable 
for the creator; wisdom is the performance of 
what is desirable for the requirements of the 
creator, and its weapon (z£n6) is justice ; and the 
desire of the creator, which is progress, is in 
wisdom with justice. 5. All three are great among 
the creatures, and their lodgment in the superior 
beings and righteous men is spiritual, in the spirit 
which is the pure guardian angel 1 , in the under- 
standing for encountering, averting, smiting, and 
prostrating (khvapak) the fiend, in the army of 
angels, and in the sovereignty of the far-seeing 
(dur-v£nako) 2 spirit, Auha/rnasrdf; and, materially, 
in the worldly equipment and mutual connection 
of body and life. 6. And their appliances are the 
wisdom and worldly efficacy of treatises on the 
wise adoption of good thoughts, good words, and 
good deeds, and the relinquishment and discon- 
tinuance of evil thoughts, evil words, and evil 
deeds. 7. And their acquirer is the worldly ruler 
who is providing for Adharmazd, and approving 
and stimulating the pure religion, a praiser of the 
good and pure creator, and a director of persistence 
in destruction of the fiend. 8. And in the pro- 

1 The fravihar or fravashi, which is the prototype or spiritual 
counterpart supposed to have been created in the beginning for 
each good creature and creation afterwards produced, whether 
material or immaterial, and whose duty is to represent the creature 
and watch over its interests in the spiritual world. 

s This word is badly written in K35, so that it has become 
z6rlnak in later MSS., which might perhaps mean 'strength- 

Digitized by 



mulgation (rubiko-dahisnlh) of the good and 
religious liturgy (mansar), the coming of the good 
cause of the resurrection, and the production of 
the renovation of the universe' 1 are his cooperation 
and his own thanksgiving ; and over the creatures 
of this prior world he is a guardian, defender, and 

9. And such rulers are great and pre-eminent; 
yet every man is not for that greatness, but it is 
mentioned as to superior beings and concerning 
righteous men, in whom it has arisen, and the best 
are the three who are the beginning, middle, and 
end of the creation. 10. One is the pure man, 
Gay6matt£ who was its first rational praiser; he 
in whose keeping was the whole creation of the 
sacred beings, from its beginning and immaturity 
unto the final completion of the worldly creatures, 
over which was the exercise of goodness of his 
well-destined progeny, such as Hoshang, Takh- 
m6rup, Yim, and Fr&jton 2 , such as the apostles 
of the religion, like Zaratust, Hush&for, and Hush£- 
dar-mah 3 , and the producers of the renovation of 
the universe, like S6shans 4 , R6shan6-^ashm, and 

1 Which is expected to take place about the time of the resur- 
rection (see Bd. XXX, 32). 

1 The first four rulers of the world (omitting the usurper 
Dahak) after Gay&manf (see Bd. XXXI, 1-3, 7). The five names 
of these primeval sovereigns are corruptions of the Avesta names, 
Gaya-maretan, Haoshyangha, Takhm6-urupa, Yima, and Thra£- 
taona. The third name is always written Takhmdrldo in Dd. 

8 Corruptions of Av. Zarathujtra, Ukhshyarf-ereta, and 
Ukhshyarf-nemangh. The last two are future apostles still 
expected by the Parsis to restore their religion to its original 
purity, in preparation for the resurrection (see Bd. XXXII, 2-10, 
Byt. Ill, 13, 43-48, 52, 53). 

4 Av. SaoshySs. The last of the future apostles, in whose 

Digitized by 


14 dabistAn-! d!nik. 

Khur-iashm \ u. The approver 2 of the enter- 
prises (rubak-dahi.miha) of cooperators, the 
purely-praising and just worshipper of the sacred 
beings through the strength of the spirit, the dis- 
abler of the worldly activity of the fiend as regards 
worldly bodies, and the one of pure religion — which 
is his charge (sp6r) 3 , the revelation of the place 
of the beneficent spirit and of the destruction of 
the depravity of the evil spirit 4 , the subjugation 
(khvapi-rno) of the fiend, the completion of the 
triumph of the creator, and the unlimited progress 
of the creatures — is the upholder of Mazda-worship. 
12. And likewise through the goodness of G£y6- 
man/, which is the begetting of Zaratust, he is also 
just; likewise through the goodness of Soshans, 
by which he is the progeny of Zaratust, he is also 
progressive in every good thought, good word, and 
good deed, more than the creatures which -are 
produced with a hope of the religion, and equally 
thankful. 1 3. And one is the producer of bodies 6 , 

time the universe is expected to be renovated and the resurrection 
to take place (see Bd. XXX, 4-27, XXXII, 8, Byt. Ill, 62). 

1 These two names, which mean 'bright-eyed' and 'sunny- 
eyed,' are the Av. Rao£as-£a6shman and Hvare-^aeshman 
of Fravardin Yt. 128 (see also Chap. XXXVI, 4). 

2 This is Zarat&r t (see § 1 2), the righteous apostle of the middle 
portion of the history of creation referred to in § 9. 

* Or ' which is wholly his.' 

* These two spirits are supposed to be the authors of all the 
good and evil, respectively, that exists in creation. They appear, 
originally, to have been both supposed to spring from Auharma*/, 
who speaks of ' the more beneficent of my two spirits ' in Yas. 
XIX, 21 ; but in later times, and throughout the Pahlavi literature, 
the beneficent spirit is identified with Auharmaza', and the origin 
of the evil spirit is left in obscurity. 

* The renovated bodies of the future existence which are pre- 
pared for mankind at the resurrection (see Bd. XXX, 4, 7, 25-27). 

Digitized by 


CHAPTER II, 1 1 -III, 2. 15 

the renovator (frashagar) S6shans, who is the 
putter down, with complete subjugation from the 
world, of the glorification of fiends and demons, 
and of the contention with angels in apostasy and 
heterodoxy of various kinds and unatoned for; 
and the completer of the renovation through the 
full continuance of the glorification of the angels, 
and the perfect continuance of the pure religion. 

14. And through that excellent, unblemished, 
brotherly work * such a ruler may be seen above 
the sun with swift horses, the primeval luminaries, 
and all removal of darkness, the advance of illumi- 
nation which is the display (to^uno) of the days 
and nights of the world 2 . 1 5. Regarding the same 
completion of the renovation of the universe it is 
said in the revelation of the Ma^a-worshippers, 
that this great light is the vesture of the like 
righteous men. 

Chapter III. 

1 . The second is that which you ask thus : For 
what purpose is a righteous man created for the 
world, and in what manner is it necessary for him 
to exist in the world ? 

2. The reply is this, that the creator created / 
the creatures for progress, which is his wish ; and 

1 Mentioned in §§ 7, 8. 

* Mi 4 and J have 'such rulers' own praise is above the sun 
with swift horses, the primeval luminaries, and all good creatures ; 
for that, too, which may be seen when the light of the sun is 
owing to the removal of darkness, and the removal is the advance 
of illumination of the world, is the display of days and nights.' 

Digitized by 


1 6 dAdistAn-J dJnJk. 

it is necessary for us to promote whatever is his 
wish, so that we may obtain whatever is our wish. 
3. And, since that persistent creator is powerful, 
whatever is our wish, and so far as we remain 
very faithful, such is as it were deserving of his 
wish, which is for our obtainment of whatever is 
our wish 1 . 

4. The miracle of these creatures was fully 
achieved {kvtrido) not unequally, and the gain 
(guaftako) also from the achievement of the same 
miracle is manifest ; that is, achieving, and know- 
ing 2 that his achievement is with design {kirn) 
and his desire is goodness, when the designed 
achievement, which is his creature, and also the 
goodness, which is his wish, are certain, and like- 
wise, owing to the perfect ability which is due to 
the creator, the wish is achieved, it is manifest. 
5. And, afterwards, it is decided by wisdom that 
he has achieved it, and the creatures, as perfected 
for the complete progress which is his wish, lapse 
into evil ; and since when evil exists good becomes 
the subjugation of evil — for when evil is not com- 
plete, and after it is expressly said that his creatures 
are created for his own will, the progress due to 
subjugations of evil is on account of the good 
completed — it is similarly testified, in accordance 
with the will aforesaid, that it 3 is achieved. 

6. The creatures are for the performance of 
what is desirable for the creator, and the perform- 
ance of what is desirable for the creator is necessary 

1 Reading kamako instead of the damakd of the MSS., which 
was, no doubt, originally gamako. 
" M14 has 'knowing perfectly.' 
' The subjugation of evil apparently. 

Digitized by 


CHAPTER III, 3-9. 17 

for two purposes, which are the practice of worship 
and contention. 7. As the worship is that of the 
persistent creator, who is a friend to his own 
creatures, and the contention is that with the fiend 
— the contender who is an enemy to the creation 
of the creator — that great worship is a pledge, most 
intimate to one's self, of the utmost contention 
also, and a pledge for the prosperity owing to the 
friend subjugating by a look which is a contender 
with the enemy, the great endeavour of the ac- 
quirers of reliance upon any mortals whatever 1 . 

8. For when the persistent one accomplished that 
most perfect and wholly miraculous creation of the 
lord, and his unwavering look — which was upon 
the coming on of the wandering evil spirit, the 
erratic, unobservant spirit — was unmingled with the 
sight of an eye 2 , he made a spirit of observant 
temperament, which was the necessary soul, the 
virtuous lord of the body moving into the world. 

9. And the animating life, the preserving guardian 
spirit, the acquiring intellect, the protecting under- 
standing, the deciding wisdom, the demeanour which 
is itself a physician, the impelling strength, the 
eye for what is seen, the ear for what is heard, 
the nose for what is smelt, the mouth for recog- 
nising flavour, the body for approaching the as- 
sembly (pidfram) of the righteous, the heart for 

1 Referring probably to the strong influence of a steady eye 
upon all living creatures. 

* This appears to be the meaning of agum6^ijn5-l va/ 
vlnaftSko df</ag; which phrase is followed by the conjunction 
' and,' so that the original text means that when the creator had 
done as in §§ 8, 9, he proceeded to act as in § 10. This conjunction, 
for the sake of clearness,' is here transferred to the beginning of 
§ 10. 

[.8] C 

Digitized by 


l8 DAmSTAN-t DfNiK. 

thinking, the tongue for speaking, the hand for 
working, the foot for walking, these which make 
life comfortable, these which are developments in 
creating, these which are to join the body, these 
which are to be considered perfected, are urged 
on by him continuously, and the means of in- 
dustry of the original body are arranged advisedly. 
10. And by proper regulation, and the recompense 
of good thoughts, good words, and good deeds, 
he announced and adorned conspicuous, patient, 
and virtuous conduct; and that procurer of the 
indispensable did not forget to keep men in his 
own true service and proper bounds, the supreme 
sovereignty of the creator. 

1 1 . And man became a pure glorifier and pure 
praiser of that all-good friend, through the progress 
which is his wish. 12. Because pure friendship 
is owing to sure meditation on every virtue, and 
from its existence no harm whatever arose ; pure 
glorifying is owing to glorifying every goodness, 
and from its existence no vileness whatever arose ; 
and pure praising is owing to all prosperity, and 
from its existence no distress whatever arose. 
1 3. And pronouncing the benedictions he is stead- 
fast in the same pure friendship, just glorifying, 
and expressive praising, which are performed even 
as though Vohuman were kept lodging in the 
thoughts, Srdsh in the words, and Ard in the 
actions 1 . 14. That, moreover, which is owing to 
the lodgment of Vohuman in the thoughts is virtu- 

1 These three angels are personifications of the Avesta terms 
vohu-man6, 'good thought,' sraosha, 'listening, obedience,' and 
areta, 'righteous.' The coming of Vohuman ('the good spirit' of 
§ 17) and of Sr6sh is mentioned in the Gathas (Yas. XLIII, i6,cd). 

Digitized by 



ously rushing unto true propitiation from the heart, 
and keeping selfishness away from the desires ; 
the lodgment of Sr6sh in the words is owing to 
him who is intelligent being a true speaker, and 
him who is unintelligent being a listener to what 
is true and to the high-priests ; and the lodgment 
of Ard in the actions is declared to be owing to 
promoting that which is known as goodness, and 
abstaining from that which one does not know. 
15. And these three benefits 1 which have been 
recited are sent down (fardstako) in two ways 
that the ancients have mentioned, which are that 
deliberately taken and that they should deliber- 
ately leave 2 , whose means are wisdom and proper 

16. And his (man's) high-priest is he whose 
instigation is to keep him truly in accordance with 
the revelation (din 6) of the sacred beings, and is 
the origin of his pure meditation which is truly 
through goodness like Vohuman's. 17. As the 
religious of the ancients have religiously said, that 
of him who keeps the goodness of Vohuman lodg- 
ing in the thoughts the true way is then that of 
the good spirit. 18. The Masaa-worshipper under- 
stands the will of the creator in the true way, and 
grows and acquires by performing what is desirable 
for the creator, which obtains the benefit of the 

19. A more concise reply is this, that a righteous 
man is the creature by whom is accepted that 
occupation which is provided for him, and is fully 

1 The lodgments of the three angels. 

* Meaning, probably, the deliberate adoption of good conduct 
and relinquishment of evil (compare Chap. VII, 7). 

C 2 

Digitized by 


20 DA0ISTAN-I D$nJk. 

watchful in the world as to his not being deceived 
by the rapacious fiend. 20. And as a determiner, 
by wisdom, of the will of the creator — one who is 
himself a propitiator and understander, and a pro- 
moter of the understanding of goodness — and of 
whatever pertains to him (the creator), he is a giver 
of heed thereto ; and it is necessary for him to be 
thus, so that such greatness and goodness may also 
be his more securely in the spiritual existence. 

Chapter IV. 

1. The third question is that you ask thus : For 
what reason does this greatness 1 of a righteous 
man exist ? 

2. The reply is this, that it is for the performance 
of what is desirable for the creator by the Mazdfa- 
worshipper; because he strives unhesitatingly that 
the way for the performance of what is desirable 
for the creator may be the propitiation 2 which is 
his desire, and that desired propitiation 2 becomes 
perfect through sound wisdom. 3. The wisdom by 
which he understands about the desire of the 
heavenly angels is not appointed (vakht), but is 
the true, pure religion which is knowledge of 3 the 
spirits, the science of sciences, the teacher of tjie 

1 Referring to Chap. II, 1, and not to Chap. Ill, 20; otherwise 
it might be supposed that the questions were contrived to suit 
the replies. 

* Or, perhaps, ' understanding.' 

' K35 has 'obedience to' by inserting a medial stroke in 
dani-rno, which converts it into finvbnS, but is probably a 

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CHAPTER III, 20-IV, 6. 21 

teaching of the angels, and the source of all 

4. And the progress, too, of the pure religion 
of the Masda-worshippers is through the righteous 
man, as is shown of him in revelation thus : ' I 
created, O Zaraturt the Spitaman! the righteous 
man who is very active 1 , and I will guard his 
hands from evil deeds ; I will also have him con- 
veyed unto those who are afterwards righteous 
and more actively wise 2 . 5. And at the same 
time the religion of me who created him is his 
desire, and it is the obtainment of a ruler which 
is to be changed by the well-organised renovation 
of the universe V 

6. As through wisdom is created the world of 
righteousness, through wisdom is subjugated every 
evil, and through wisdom is perfected every good ; 
and the best wisdom is the pure religion whose 
progress is that achieved by the upholders of 
religion, the greatness of the best men of the 
righteous, in whose destiny it is, such as that 
which was shown about Gkytmaxd, Zaratfot, and 
S6shans *. 

1 Mi 4 and J here insert ' I will guard his mind from evil 
thoughts, his tongue from evil-speaking.' 

1 In the future existence. 

* Mi 4 and J have 'and it is the obtainment of a ruler who is 
a wise upholder of religion, from time to time, even unto the 
change of the last existences by the well-organised renovation 
of the universe' But the additional words appear to have been 
suggested by the word 'ruler' being taken literally, whereas it 
seems to have been figuratively applied to the religion which is 
to rule the righteous till the future existence. 

4 In Chap. II, 9-13. 

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22 DA7?ISTAN-i DiNtK. 

Chapter V. 

i. The fourth question is that which you ask 
thus : Of this destruction (za.da.rn) and terror which 
ever happen to us from the retribution ' of the 
period, and are a cause of the other evils and 
defects of the good religion, what kind of opinion 
exists ? And is there a good opinion of us among 
the spirits, or not? 

2. The reply is this, that it is said in the revela- 
tion of the Masda-worshippers that the impediments 
(ras-bandlh), through which there is vexation in 
righteousness, are because its doctrine is this, that, 
regarding the difficulty, anxiety, and discomfort 
which occur through good works set going, it is 
not desirable to account them as much difficulty, 
trouble, and discomfort. 3. Whereas it is not 
desirable to account them as anxiety and difficulty, 
it is then declared by it 2 thereof, that, as its 
recompense, so much comfort and pleasure will 
come to the soul, as that no one is to think of that 
difficulty and discomfort which came upon him 
through so many such good works, because he is 
steadfast to maintain the good religion, and utters 
thanksgivings (va staye^S). 4. And as regards 
the discomfort 3 , which the same good religion of 
ours has had, it comes on from the opponents of 
the religion. 

1 Reading parfajan, but by a slight alteration M14 and J have 
pa</akhshahan, 'monarchs,' which is equally suitable. 

! By revelation. 

* M14 and J have ' and he remains thereby certain that his good 
works are in the statement (marfigano) of good works, and as 
regards all that terror, anxiety (v ay a do), and discomfort,' &c. 

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CHAPTER V, I- VI, 3. 23 

5. Through the coming of religion we have full 
enjoyment (bara gukar£m), and owing to religion, 
unlike bondsmen (abur^5ganvar), we do not 
become changeable among the angels ; our spiritual 
life (ahvdth) of praise then arrives in readiness, 
and owing to the angels there are joyous salutation, 
spiritual life, and glory for the soul. 

Chapter VI. 

1. The fifth question is that you ask thus : Why 
does evil always happen more to the good than to 
the bad ? 

2. The reply is this, that not at every time 
and every place, and not to all the good; does evil 
happen more — for the spiritual welfare of the good 
is certainly more — but in the world it is very much 
more manifest 1 . 3. And the reasons for it are many; 
one which is conclusive is even this, that the modes 

1 Mi 4 and J have 'but the worldly evil and bondage are in- 
calculably more manifest about the good, much more in the 
season (zSm&nih) of Sr&sh.' The ' season of Sr6sh ' may per- 
haps mean the night-time, or the three nights after death, 
when the protection of the angel Sr6sh is most wanted; but 
Dastur Peshotanji Behramji, the high-priest of the Parsis in 
Bombay, prefers reading zim&nash (with a double pronominal 
suffix), and has favoured me with the following free translation 
of the whole passage: — 'At every time and every place much 
evil does not happen to all the good ; for the good, after having 
been separated from this world, receive (as a reward for their 
suffering evil) much goodness in the next world, which goodness 
is (regarded as) of a very high degree in religious doctrines 
(srfish).' Perhaps, after all, Srdsh is a miswriting of sarya, 
'bad, evil.' 

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and causes of its occurrence are more ; for the 
occurrence of evil is more particularly appointed 
(vakhto) by two modes, one by the demons, the 
appointers of evil, and one by the vile, the doers 
of evil ; even to the vileness of creation and the 
vile they cause vexation. 4. Moreover, incalculable 
is the evil which happens to the vile from the 
demons, and that to the good from the demons 
and also from the vile, and the mode of its occur- 
rence is in the same way without a demon. 

5. This, too, is more particularly such as the 
ancients have said, that the labour and trouble of 
the good are much more in the world, and their 
reward and recompense are more certain in the 
spiritual existence; and the comfort and pleasure 
of the vile are more in the world, and their pain 
and punishment in the spiritual existence are more 
severe. 6. And this, too, is the case, that the good, 
through fear of the pain and punishment of hell, 
should forsake the comfort and ease in the world, 
and should not think, speak, or do anything im- 
proper whatever. 7. And through hope for the 
comfort and pleasure in heaven they should accept 
willingly, for the neck 1 , much trouble and fear in 
the practice of virtue in thought, word, and deed. 

8. The vile, through provision with temporary 
enjoyment 2 — even that enjoyment of improprieties 
for which eventually there is hell — then enjoy them- 

1 The word can be read either garSvan, 'collar,' or gardun, 
' neck,' and is the usual Paz. of the Huz. hvarman (Chald. **"£?), 
'the neck,' though 'neck' is often expressed by gart/un. The 
meaning is that the yoke of trouble and fear should be accepted. 

1 M14 and J have 'through provision with the enjoyment of 
improprieties which is temporarily theirs.' 

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CHAPTER VI, 4- VII, 3. 25 

selves therein temporarily, and lustfully on account 
of selfishness ; those various actions also, through 
which there would be a way to heaven, they do not 
trouble themselves with. 

9. And in this way, in the world, the comfort 
and pleasure of the vile are more, and the anxiety, 
vexation, despondency, and distress of the good 
have become more; the reason is revealed by 
the stars 1 . 

Chapter VII. 

1. The sixth question is that which you ask thus: 
Why are we men produced for the world, and what 
is it necessary for us to do therein ? 

2. The reply is this, that even in the reply to an 
accompanying question 2 it is written that the crea- 
tures are achieved for 3 justice and the performance 
of what is desirable for the creator ; and to prepare 
thoroughly well that which is unlimited and the 
virtuous progress of the creatures, whose distress 
is like fear, there is the unparalleled (abra^arvatd) 
renovation of the universe. 

3. And that preparation arises from the complete 
predominance of the creator and the non-predomi- 
nance of the fiend, as is said of it in revelation 
thus : ' In that time I become completely predomi- 
nant, I who am Adharmazd ; in nothing whatever 

1 That is, it is dependent upon destiny. 

3 See Chap. III. 

* Reading pavan instead of barS, two words which are often 
confounded by the copyists of MSS. because their Persian equiva- 
lents are nearly identical. 

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26 DADISTAN-i d!n{k. 

is the evil spirit predominant' 4. And also about 
the good procedure of the creature-creation // is 
recounted thus : ' Happy am I when the creatures 
are so created by me, and according to any wish 
whatever of mine they give the sovereignty to me, 
and also come to the sovereignty when I have 
created it for the performance of what is desirable 
for the expression of what sovereignty is.' 

5. And it is necessary for us to become so in the 
world as that the supreme sovereignty of the creator 
may be kept more friendly to us, its own true ser- 
vants. 6. The way to that true service is known 
through wisdom, is believed (vaz>ari-ait6) through 
truth, and is utilized through goodness ; and the 
path of excellence more particularly leads to it. 
7. And to set the good spirit rightly in the place 
of thought it is deliberately taken and they should 
deliberately leave it 1 , as it is said in revelation that 
Auharmas*/ spoke out to Zaratfot thus : ' Thou 
shouldst assist Vohuman with thy pure spiritual 
faculties (ahv6), so that they may make him fully 
welcome; for when thou assistest Vohuman with 
thy pure spiritual faculties, so that they make him 
fully welcome, thou shalt thus fully understand the 
two ways, that which is good conduct, and that also 
which is bad conduct.' 

Chapter VIII. 

1. The seventh question is that you ask thus: 
When a man is passing away, and after the occur- 
rence of his passing away, how does the good work 

1 Compare Chap. Ill, 1 5. The ' good spirit ' is Vohfiman. 

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then go to him and assist him, which any others 
may do for him who has gone out from the world, 
on the third night in the dawn 1 , at which he goes 
out to the balance 2 ? And is Us greatness such as 
though it be done by his own hand, or otherwise ? 

2. The reply is this: — When any others do a 
good work for him who has passed away, after the 
passing away, and if he who has passed away did 
not order that good work in his lifetime, and did 
not bequeath it, nor was its originator, and it was 
not even his by design (daafo), then it does not go 
and does not reach him out at the balance. 3. Even 
at the time for being proceeded with, when that 
good work does not assist it is not appropriated, 
for that which is appropriated as the design of some 
one is appropriated by acceptance from some one ; 
when it is not his by design it is then not accepted 
as his. 

4. If he who has passed away did not order that 
good work, and did not even bequeath it, but was 
consenting to it by design, that which shall be done 
in his lifetime then reaches out in the three nights 
(satuih) for the aggrandizement of his position; but. 
that which shall be done after his passing away is 
not in the account of the three nights and the 
balance, but reaches out, at the time the good work 
is proceeded with, for the enjoyment of the soul. 

5. And if he who has passed away ordered that 

1 The soul of a dead person is supposed to hover about the 
corpse for three nights, and not to depart for the other world 
till the dawn after the third night ; that is, at dawn of the fourth 
day, including the day of death (see Chap. XX, 2, 3, Sis. XVII, 

8 Where the soul's good works are balanced against its sins, 
to determine its fate till the resurrection. 

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good work in his own lifetime, or bequeathed it, or 
was the originator and cause of the soul's employ- 
ment, although it is proceeded with after his passing 
away, it then reaches out to him for the happiness 
of his soul, since the origin of the thanksgiving 
(si pas) 1 , and the orderer and ownership of the good 
work are certain. 

6. Any good work whatever which is proceeded 
with is clearly a like good work as regards those 
who account for it as with him who is the doer of 
it ; also in the account of his soul the good work is 
as much with him who did it, but the soul of him 
by whom the good work is done by his own hand, 
is handsomer and stronger than of him by whom it 
is ordered. 7. And its similitude is such as when 
a man's handsome and seemly suit of clothes is his 
own, and he wears it on his body and is handsomer, 
more splendid, and more seemly than another man 
who wears a suit of clothes, in like manner, which is 
his own by theft. 

Chapter IX. 

1. The eighth question is that which you ask 
thus : Of him who, out of his own wealth, himself 
directed others thus : ' Let them act advantageously 
(khan^inako) for my soul,' is it so that what others 
may do for him out of that wealth and that done by 
his own toil are very different, one from the other, 
or not ? 

1 The good works mentioned in this chapter would chiefly 
consist of prayers and ceremonies for which priests have to be 
remunerated, and gifts to holy men and the poor; such actions 
as are most highly appreciated by priests. 

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2. The reply is this, that they are very different, 
one from the other ; for that which he orders out of 
his own wealth is more effectual than that which 
others may do for him without order. 3. And 
among the kinds of good work, that is more effec- 
tual which one practises himself and with his own 
toil ; then that which one sets going out of what- 
ever is his own by his own order, regarding which 
he 1 afterwards bequeaths and orders out of his own 
property and it comes into progress ; and, lastly, that 
which others may do for him. 

4. Since thus his own and that which is his by 
design, when any one manages for him and in his 
lifetime, aggrandize his position then, and his soul 
is preserved, when he manages for him thereafter 
the enjoyment then reaches unto his soul. 5. When 
not consenting as to the good work, and it is not 
his by design, even though others may do it for 
him it does not then come into his possession. 

Chapter X. 

1. The ninth question is that which you ask thus : 
How much does the growth 2 of his good works 
increase, from the time when the good works are 
done, so long as he is living? 

2. The reply is this, that from the time when a 
good work comes into progress its growth remains 
on the increase so long as he is living; moreover, 

1 Mi 4 and J make this an additional kind of good work by 
reading ' after which is that regarding which he himself,' &c. 
* Reading vakhsh instead of the \ts, 'more,' of the MSS. 

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30 dAdistAn-I DiNtK. 

when he is distressed by that good work ', while the 
increase does not desist from increase, it grows just as 
a child becomes enlarged in the womb of a mother. 

Chapter XI. 

1. The tenth question is that which you ask thus : 
Does the growth which increases become as com- 
mendable in the fourth night 2 as the original good 
work 3 in his possession, or does it become otherwise? 

2. The reply is this, that it is otherwise ; for the 
original good work stands up opposing sin, and the 
growing good work 4 stands up opposed to the growth 
of sin. 

Chapter XII. 

i. The eleventh question is that you ask thus : 
Does the growth of a good work eradicate sin just 
like the original good work, or not ? 

2. The reply is this, that the growth does eradi- 
cate it, as happens with the good work which is for 
atonement for sin ; it shall be done as retribution for 
sin, and it eradicates the sin, which is specially men- 
tioned in revelation 6 . 3. 'Then the place of his 

1 The good work being more meritorious when more trouble- 

s After death, when all the immediate ceremonies for the dead 
have been completed (see Sis. XVII, 5 note). 

8 Literally 'the good work of the beginning.' That bun 
kirfakS does not here stand for bun-t kirfako, 'the origin or 
root of the good work,' appears from Chap. XII, 1, where it is 
written kirfak5-l bun. 

4 Literally ' the good work of growth.' 

8 See Pahl. Vend. VII, 136, where the matter is mentioned, but 

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other good work is evidently the soul ; and, in order 
to be with the sin at its origin, it remains and is 
taken into account' 4. ' Through good works and 
the growth of good works is the recompense of the 
soul, so that they should do those good works in 
atonement for sin.' 5. And concerning the sin 
eradicated it is said: 'An original good work era- 
dicates original sin 1 , and the growth of a good 
work eradicates the growth of a sin.' 

Chapter XIII. 

1. The twelfth question is that which you ask 
thus: In the fourth night do they score off (bar a 
angar£nd) the sin by the good works, and does 
he go by the residue (b6n); or do they inflict 
punishment on him for the sin which has happened 
to him, and give reward and recompense for the 
good works which he has done ? 

2. The reply is this, that at dawn of the third 
night the account is prepared it is said, and about 
the sin which he has atoned for, and the good work 
which is its equivalent (a^ar) tliere is no need for 
account, since the account is about the good works 
which may be appropriated by him as his own, and 
about the sin which may remain in him as its 
origin. 3. Because the origin of it (the sin atoned 
for) remains distinct, and it is cancelled (astaraftS) 

the passages which seem to be quoted here must be from some 
other source. 

1 Literally * sinning of the beginning' (bun-vinaslh). It must 
mean the first commission of any particular sin, and has no con- 
nection with the 'original sin ' of Christian writers. 

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32 DA£ISTAN-t DfNtK. 

by it (the good work), they balance it therewith ; 
and they weigh the excess and deficiency, as it may 
be, of the other good works and sin. 

4. Of those living, at the just, impartial (a^afsisno) 
balance the man of proper habits (daafo), whose 
good works are more, when sin has happened to 
him, undergoes a temporary (vidanalk) punishment 
and becomes eternally cleansed by the good works ; 
and he of improper habits, of much sin and little 
good works, attains temporary enjoyment by those 
good works, but through the sin which they per- 
ceive in him he is suffering punishment unto the 

Chapter XIV. 

1. The thirteenth question is that which you ask 
thus : Who should prepare the account of the soul 
as to sin and good works, and in what place should 
they make it up ? And when punishment is inflicted 
by them, where is their place then ? 

2. The reply is this, that the account about the 
doers of actions, as to good works and sin, three 
times every day whilst the doer of the actions is 
living, Vohuman the archangel should prepare ; 
because taking account of the thoughts, words, and 
deeds of all material existences is among his duties. 
3. And about the sin which affects accusers 1 , which 

1 Sins are divided into two classes, hamSm&lan or those which 
affect ' accusers,' and rubanfk or those which affect only one's 
own soul. In the first class are included all evil actions which 
injure our fellow-creatures or any good animal or thing, and for 
which the injured party (the ' accuser ') must receive satisfaction 
before the sinner can be pardoned (see Sis. VIII, 1). 

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is committed by (va/) breakers of promises, even 
in the world Mitrd 1 is said to be over the bodies, 
words, and fortunes (hu-bakhtak&) of the promise- 
breakers ; and as to the amount, and also as to 
being more than the stipulation when there is a 
period of time 2 , Mitr6 is the account-keeper. 4. In 
the three nights account (satulh) Sr6sh the righteous 
and Rashnti the just 3 are over the estimate of the 
limits of the good works and sin of righteousness 
and wickedness. 5. In the future existence, on the 
completion of every account, the creator Adharrmusd 
himself takes account 4 , by whom both the former 
account of the three nights and all the thoughts, 
words, and deeds of the creatures are known 
through his omniscient wisdom. 

6. The punishment for a soul of the sinners 
comes from that spirit 6 with whom the sin, which 
was committed by it, is connected ; fostered by the 
iniquity practised, that punishment comes upon the 
souls of the sinful and wicked, first on earth, after- 
wards in hell, and lastly at the organisation of the 

1 The angel of the sun's light ; he is a personification of friend- 
ship and good faith, and is, therefore, specially aggrieved by 
breaches of promise and fraudulent debtors, but assists righteous 
souls in their passage to the other world (see AV. V, 3, Mkh. 
II, n 8). 

* Referring to debts and promises to pay. 

' The angels of obedience and justice ; the duty of the former 
is to protect the righteous, and that of the latter is to weigh 
the good works and sins in his golden scales, when the soul's 
account is balanced after the third night after death (see AV. V, 
2-5, Mkh. II, 115-122). 

* Referring, perhaps, to the future temporary separation of the 
wicked from the righteous, after the assembly of the Sarfvastaran 
(see Bd. XXX, 10-16). 

* The demon who is supposed to have occasioned the sin. 

[18] D 

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34 DADISTAN-i d{nJk. 

future existence 1 . 7. When the punishment of the 
three nights is undergone 2 the soul of the righteous 
attains to heaven and the best existence, and the 
soul of the wicked to hell and the worst existence. 
8. When they have undergone their punishment at 
the renovation of the universe they attain, by com- 
plete purification from every sin, unto the everlasting 
progress, happy progress, and perfect progress of the 
best and undisturbed existence. 

Chapter XV. 

1. The fourteenth question is that which you ask 
thus : Is the eradication of life the gnawing of dogs 
and birds upon the corpse ? And does the sin of 
those who suppose it 3 a sin proceed from that origin, 
or not ? 

2. The reply is this, that the decrease of sin and 
increase of good works, owing to good thoughts, 
good words, and good deeds, arise really from the 
effort and disquietude which come on by means of 
the religion the soul practises, and through the 
strength in effort, steadfastness of religion, and 

1 The three days and nights of final punishment, after the 
resurrection and before the final purification in melted metal (see 
Bd. XXX, 13, 16, 20), which is mentioned again in § 8. 

2 This does not refer to the final punishment of §§ 6 and 8, but 
to the previous three nights' tribulation just after death, and to the 
fate of the soul before the resurrection (see Chaps. XXIV, XXV). 

* The exposure of the dead, apparently; but the construction 
of this question and its relation to the reply are by no means clear 
at first sight. From §§ 2, 5, 6 we have to infer that the exposure 
is a meritorious action rather than a sin ; and from §§ 3, 4 we have 
to gather that as loss of life occurs to every one, and exposure of the 
corpse only to some, the former cannot be caused by the latter. 

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CHAPTER XIV, 7 -XV, 6. 35 

protection of soul which the faithful possess. 3. That 
evil which occurs when doing good works, which 
is the one (hana) when doing iniquity, and when 
one strives it is the one when he does not strive, 
the one when content and the one when not content, 
and after it is undesired, and no cause of good 
works is with it, it occurs just as undesired, for the 
sake of favour and reward, is the certain eradication 
of life. 4. It happens once only (a£tum) unto the 
righteous and the wicked, every one who may have 
received the reward — that reward is living until the 
time of passing away — but the gnawing of dogs and 
birds does not happen unto every one and every 
body. 5. It is necessary for those to act very 
differently x whose understanding of good works is 
owing to proper heed of dead matter; and, on 
account of the rapid change (varafi-hastanS) of 
that pollution, and a desire of atonement for sin, 
they should carry the body of one passed away out 
to a mountain-spur (k6f vakhsh), or a place of 
that description, enjoining unanimously that the 
dogs and birds may gnaw it, owing to the position 
of the appointed place 2 . 6. Therefore, as owing to 
that fear 3 , the commands of religion, and progressive 

1 Differently from others. 

8 The dead must be deposited upon some dry and barren spot, 
remote from habitations and water, and, if possible, upon the 
summit of a hill (see Chap. XVII, 17, and Vend. VI, 93). From 
the mention of dogs gnawing the corpse it would appear that the 
depositories for the dead were less enclosed when this work was 
written than they are at present ; and in ancient times both enclosed 
and unenclosed depositories seem to have been used (see Vend. VI, 
92-106). For a description of the present form of such depositories 
see Sis. II, 6, note. 

* Fear of pollution from the dead. 

D 2 

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36 DA.DISTAN-1 DiNiK. 

desire it is accepted strenuously for the wicked him- 
self, his own recompense is therein, and it happens 
to him in that way for the removal (narafsuno) 
of sin and for the gratification of his soul. 

Chapter XVI. 

i. The fifteenth question is that which you ask 
thus : When the dogs and birds tear it (the corpse) 
does the soul know it, and does it occur uncom- 
fortably for it, or how is it ? 

2. The reply is this, that the pain occasioned by 
the tearing and gnawing so galls (maleafo) the body 
of men that, though the soul were abiding with the 
body, such soul, which one knows is happy and 
immortal, would then depart from the body, along 
with the animating life, the informing (sinayinako) 
consciousness, and the remaining resources of life. 
3. The body is inert, unmoving, and not to be 
galled ; and at last no pain whatever galls it, nor 
is it perceived ; and the soul, with the life, is outside 
of the body, and is not unsafe as regards its gnaw- 
ing, but through the spiritual perception l it sees and 
knows it. 

4. That which is wicked is then again desirous 
of its bodily existence 2 , when it sees them thus : 
the wonderfully- constructed body which was its 

1 Supposing that sinS-rno stands for jinSyifno; otherwise we 
must read 'in the spiritual places (divagano).' 

* This section is made still more complicated in the Pahlavi 
text by the division of this first phrase ; half of it being placed 
at the beginning, and the other half at the extreme end of the 

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vesture, and is dispersed, and that spiritual life 
(huk6) which was with its heart, and is even on 
account of this — that is : ' Because in my bodily 
existence and worldly progress there was no atone- 
ment for sin and no accumulation of righteousness' — 
also in mourning about it thus : 'In the prosperity 
which this body of mine had, it would have been 
possible for me to atone for sin and to save the 
soul, but now I am separated from every one and 
from the joy of the world, which is great hope of 
spiritual life ; and I have attained to the perplexing 
account and more serious danger.' 5. And the 
gnawing becomes as grievous to it, on account of 
that body, as a closely-shut arsenal (afzar beta-I 
badtftm) and a concealed innermost garment are 
useless among those with limbs provided with weapons 
and accoutrements, and are destroyed. 

6. And of that, too, which is righteous and filled 
with the great joy that arises from being really 
certain of the best existence, then also the spiritual 
life which was with its body, on account of the great 
righteousness, y£/ for the exalted (flrakhtaganlk), 
which was ever accumulated by it with the body, 
is well developed (madam hu-tashiafo), and the 
wonderfully-constructed body is destroyed in the 
manner of a garment, particularly when its dispersion 
(apa.yi.yn 6) occurs thereby. 

7. And the consciousness of men, as it sits three 
nights outside of the body, in the vicinity of the 
body, has to remember and expect that which is 
truly fear and trouble (khar) unto the demons, and 
reward, peace, and glad tidings (n6vlk) unto the 
spirits of the good ; and, on account of the dispersion 
and injuring of the body, it utters a cry spiritually, 

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thus : ' Why do the dogs and birds gnaw this 
organised body, when still at last the body and life 
unite together at the raising of the dead?' 8. And 
this is the reminding of the resurrection and libera- 
tion, and it becomes the happiness and hope of the 
spirit of the body and the other good spirits, and 
the fear and vexation of the demons and fiends. 

Chapter XVII. 

i . The sixteenth question is that which you ask 
thus : What is the purpose 1 of giving up a corpse 
to the birds ? 

2. The reply is this, that the construction of the 
body of those passed away is so wonderful that two 
co-existences have come together for it, one which 
is to occasion endurance (der paafayiniafano) and 
one which is to cause conflict (nipor^iniafano), and 
their natures are these, for watching the angels and 
averting the demons. 3. After appertaining to it 
the life— so long as it is in the locality of the place 
of the body — and the demons of dull intellects, who 
are frightened by the body, are just like a sheep 
startled by wolves when they shall further frighten 
it by a wolf 2 . 4. The spirit of the body, on 
account of being the spiritual life (huk6) for the 
heart in the body, is indestructible; so is the will 
which resided therein, even when they shall release 
it from its abode. 

5. In the same way the body of those who are 

1 Assuming that ah an stands for aha ng. 

2 This last clause is a quotation, slightly altered, from Pahl. 
Vend. XIX, 108, 109. 

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CHAPTER XVI, 8 -XVII, 8. 39 

passed away is so much the more innocently worthy 
of the rights (sanS) of one properly passed away, 
and what it is therein provided with, as it has 
uttered thanksgivings. 6. For those guardian spirits 
who keep watch over the body of Keresasp 1 the 
Saman are also such praises from the life and body, 
for that reason, moreover, when they unite. 

7. The injury of the destroyer to the body of those 
passed away is contaminating ; the Nasus (' corrup- 
tion') 2 rushes on it and, owing to its violence when 
it becomes triumphant over the life of the righteous 
man, and frightens it from the place of the cata- 
strophe (hankaraflklh),and puts itself into the place 
of the body, that body is then, for that reason, called 
Nasal (' dead matter '). 8. And, on account of the 
co-existence of rapid changing and the mode of 
attacking of the same Nasux, even when it is neces- 
sary for the disintegration of the body, this is also 
then to lie and change sanatorily. 

1 An ancient hero, mentioned both in the Avesta and ShShndmah, 
who, owing to his disregard of religion, is said to be lying asleep 
on the plain of Pe\rySnsai (probably the Pirin valley near Qandahir), 
watched by a myriad guardian spirits of the righteous, until he 
shall be hereafter aroused by the angels to kill the revived usurper 
A«-i Dahak (see Bd. XXIX, 7, 8, Byt. Ill, 59-61). Regarding his 
soul a legend is related in the Pahlavi tracts which precede Dd. in 
some MSS., of which a translation will be found in Appendix I. 

* Supposed to be a fiend who enters and pervades every corpse 
immediately after death, except in certain cases of violent death, 
when its arrival is delayed till the next period of the day (see 
Sis. X, 32). This exception is made in Vend. VII, 5, 6, and was 
probably intended, in most cases, to prevent a person who had 
met with a serious accident being left to perish, through fear of 
his death contaminating any one coming to his relief; not from any 
idea of the fiend being taken unawares by the suddenness of the 
death. This fiend is the Av. nasu (nom. nasuj). 

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40 DADISTAN-i dJnJk. 

9. Hence, as the body of men is formed out of 
hard bone and soft fat, that which is established is 
the expulsion of the bone from the fat. 10. For 
the bone through its hardness, when no damp fat is 
with it, and it does not become a holder of its damp, 
is itself essentially dry ; and it becomes unconsum- 
able and attaining durability, through dryness, out 
of the dead matter even for perpetuity. 11. And 
the sun is provided to make rotten, dispersed, and 
useless the fat that is around the bone, which on the 
decay of the animating life is to become increasingly 
damp, and, after the departure of life through terror 
and disgust (ad6stth), it comes to rottenness and 
stench ; and the noxious creatures in it alike afflict 
it and the hard part such as bone. 

12. As regards the shrinking away of those who 
are sinners, the nearer way to a remedy is the 
gnawer away from men 1 ; the fat becomes separate 
from the bone, and is seized and digested, as by the 
separation of the fat from the dead matter for diges- 
tion, moreover, the permanent matter (asarlh) and 
bone attain more fully unto their own nature (sano), 
and the body (kalp<Wo) to emptiness. 13. Because 
there is no other way to consume that fat of men, 
since it is most grievous to them (the sinners), and 
the pollution and contamination are made a blessing 
unto it (the gnawer). 14. The dispersers (astdr^o- 
garan) completely disperse from it 2 ; they are ap- 

1 That is, in the case of those who neglect the proper exposure 
of corpses, there is a natural remedy in the worms produced for 
consuming them. Perhaps the word khaststr, ' cutter or gnawer,' 
stands for khastar, ' noxious creature.' 

* The consumers of the corpse disperse when their work is 
done, and carry contamination with them unless purified by the 
sun's heat, as described in § 15. 

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CHAPTER XVII, 9-l8. 41 

pointed and produced, a production not worthy, for 
its defilement of those purified and animals is con- 
taminating, through contact again with men. 15. 
The crow (galag) and such-like, through scorching 
away by the fire of the luminaries, become worthy ; 
moreover, the affliction of that which is completely 
pure fire arises therefrom, as it is not able itself to 
come unto the scorched one, for then the defilement 
(darvakh) of the scorcher by the most grievous 
gnawer would be possible. 

16. But it is not proper to recount (angastano) 
the devouring of the noxious creatures, for the spirit 
of the body is troubled when it observes the alarmed 
(vaziaf) spirituality which was in the body of those 
destroyed, the noxious creatures upon the goodly 
forms, and the mode and strangeness of their dis- 
integration and spoliation. 17. And so it then 
becomes the more remedial way 1 when, as it is 
ordered in revelation 2 , the body fraught with cor- 
ruption is placed on the .ground of a clear mountain- 
spur (k6f vakhsh); and, in order not to convey it 
to the water, plants, and men of the plain, it is 
fastened 3 in the customary manner, so that the 
corpse-eating dogs and corpse-eating birds, which 
are not subject to the hand (dastd-amfiko) of men, 
and are likewise not entertained as food, shall yet 
not drag any of it away for man's eating of dead 

18. For streams and waters go themselves 4 and 

1 That is, it is better to adopt the customary mode of removing 
the corpse. 

* See Vend. VI, 93-97. 

* This is ordered only when the corpse is not placed in any 

* Or, as Vend. V, 49-62 describes it, the water is rained down by 

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42 dadistAn-I dJnik. 

consume that fat, and are digested by the vital fire * 
which is in the life of the creatures of Auhaymas*/ ; 
and from fat the corpses and dead matter are re- 
duced unto dregs of clay 2 and permanent matter, 
even with the dust they are mingled and become 
scattered about 19. Likewise to those dogs, flying 
creatures, and birds they themselves (the waters) 
have given the corpse-eating quality and habit 3 , and 
on account of dull intellect they (the creatures) are 
not overwhelmed even by that sin. 

20. From that fat which is mingled with the 
living body of a creature of Auhannas*/ then arises 
also the assault * of the demons, as is shown in the 
chapter 6 on the reason for showing a dog to a dead 
person, so that the body of those passed away, when 
the gnawers away are mingled with the living body 
of a creature of Atiharmazdf, exhibits a partial resur- 
rection and the tokens of it, and thereby the demons 
keep in it (the living body), and give pain 8 by the 
will of the sacred beings. 

Auharmaai/, purified in the Putik sea, and conveyed through the 
wide-formed ocean to the well-watered tree of all seeds, whence the 
falling seeds are brought back, with the misty clouds, and rained 
upon the earth, to grow there and yield food for cattle and men. 

1 The vital heat, or Vohu-frySn fire (see Bd. XVII, 1, 2). 

s Reading gil-vali^ih (compare Pers. kali£, 'sediment,' or 
galiz, 'saliva'). 

3 Which they have imbibed by contact with dead matter. 

* Or ' weapon.' 

" No such chapter is now extant in Dd., and, therefore, this 
remark favours the supposition that some chapters are lost between 
Chaps. XCIII and XCIV. A corpse must be shown to a dog in 
order that the demon, Nasuj, may be driven out of it by the look, 
or touch, of the dog (see Sis. II, 1-4, X, 33). 

' A recognition of the fact that the drinking of impure water, or 
eating of tainted food, is apt to produce disease. 

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CHAPTER XVII, 1 9 -XVIII, 4. 43 

Chapter XVIII. 

1. The seventeenth question is that you ask thus: 
Is it better when they give it to the birds, or what 
mode is better ? 

2. The reply is this, that after showing the dog — 
the reason of which is as declared 1 in its own chapter 
— they shall carry the corpse at once to the hills and 
rising ground (vakhshbum); and, for the reason that 
the dogs and birds should not bring that dead matter 
away to a watered, cultivated, or inhabited place, one 
is to fasten it in the manner of a thief 2 . 3. When the 
corpse-eating birds have eaten the fat, that fat 
which, when it is not possible to eat it, becomes 
rotten, offensive, and fraught with noxious creatures, 
then men shall properly convey the bones away to 
the bone-receptacle (ast6din6), which 3 one is to 
elevate so from the ground, and over which * a roof 
(&.fkup6) so stands, that in no way does the rain fall 
upon the dead matter, nor the water reach up to it 
therein, nor the damp make up to it therein, nor are 
the dog and fox able to go to it, and for the sake of 
light coming to it a hole is made therein. 

4. More authoritatively (dast6bariha) it is said 
that bone-receptacle is a vault (ka^akS) of solid 
stone 6 , and its covering (nihumbakS) one is to 

1 Literally 'as the reason of it is declared.' This is another 
allusion to the missing chapter mentioned in Chap. XVII, 20. 

* Reading ahun khadutno, but this is very likely a corruption 
of khaduinS khaduin6, '/« various modes.' 

* The MSS. have munam, 'which by me.' 

* The MSS. have min madam, 'from above.' 

6 Whether khaduko-sagak8 means 'solid rock' or 'solid 
ashlar ' is doubtful. 

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44 DACISTAN-t DiNfo. 

construct also of a single stone which is cut perfo- 
rated (sulak-h6mand), and around it one is to fill in 
with stone and mortar 1 . 

Chapter XIX. 

i. The eighteenth question is that which you ask 
thus : When the souls of the righteous and the souls 
of the wicked go out to the spirits, will it then be 
possible for them to see Auharmaz^ and Aharman 2 , 
or not ? 

2. The reply is this, that concerning Aharman it 
is said that his is no material existence (stls) ; and 
Auharma^, as a spirit among the spirits, is to be 
heard by those who are material and those also who 
are spiritual, but his form (kerp6) is not completely 
visible except through wisdom. 3. And a sem- 
blance of his power is seen, as was told unto Zara- 
tujt the Spltaman when he saw the result (zah) of 
his handiwork, and he (Auharma^) spoke thus : 
' Grasp the hand of a righteous man ! for the kindly 
operation of my religion through 3 thee thyself is as 

1 Perhaps the single stone is not to cover the whole space, but 
merely to contain the opening for light, and to be set in a vaulted 
roof of ashlar or rubble ; otherwise it is not clear where the filling 
with stone and mortar is to be placed. This bone-receptacle was 
to be provided for the bones of those corpses which were deposited 
on the open ground. In the enclosed depositories, used in India, 
the bone -receptacle is a circular well in the centre, from which the 
rain does not appear to be excluded (see Sis. II, 6, note). 

* The evil spirit (see Chap. II, 11), whose nature and powers 
differ very little from those ascribed to the devil by most Christian 

3 Or ' on ;' or, perhaps, it ' is as much as he shall grasp at thee 

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much as he shall grasp, and thou mayst see him 
whose reception (mahmanih) of my wisdom and 
glory is the most.' 

4. And about the souls of the righteous and 
wicked, in the spiritual places they see the throne 
(gas), which they deem a sight of Auharmas*/. 5. 
And so also those who are domiciled with (ham- 
neman) Aharman, through that wisdom with refer- 
ence to whose creator they shall suffer, will under- 
stand minutely as regards Adharmazd and the 
nature of Aharman (Aharmanih). 6. And he who 
is of the righteous is delighted at escaping from 
Aharman and coming to the existence pertaining to 
Auharmasaf; and they shall offer homage to the 
glory 1 of Atiharmazd. 7. And he who is wicked, 
through being deceived by Aharman, and turning 
from the direction (pe/ag) of Auharmazdf, becomes 
more vexed and more penitent; the hope (zahi^no) 
and forgiveness which he possesses, and the retribu- 
tion and manacling which are his among the fiends 
and spirits through his own handiwork, are by the 
permission which comes from the most persistent of 
the persistent 2 at the period of the resurrection. 

1 The word ' glory ' is always to be understood in its material 
sense of ' radiance, effulgence.' 

2 That is, from Auharmasrf. The epithet khvapar, here trans- 
lated ' persistent,' appears to mean ' self-sustaining ' in the Avesta 
(see Sis. XXII, 21); traditionally it is supposed to mean 'pro- 
tecting, cherishing,' but this is merely a guess, though it seems 
related to Pers. khaparah, 'active,' and may, therefore, often 
mean ' persevering.' 

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Chapter XX. 

i. The nineteenth question is that you ask thus : 
To what place do the righteous and wicked 1 go ? 

2. The reply is this, that it is thus said that the 
souls of those passed away and of the dead 2 are 
three nights on earth ; and the first night satisfaction 
comes to them from their good thoughts and vexa- 
tion from their evil thoughts, the second night come 
pleasure from their good words and discomfort and 
punishment 3 from their evil words, and the third 
night come exaltation from their good deeds and 
punishment from their evil deeds 4 . 3. And that 
third night, in the dawn, they go to the place of 
account on Alburs 6 ; the account being rendered they 
proceed to the bridge 6 , and he who is righteous 

1 As K35 inserts the relative i here, some such phrase as ' who 
are dead ' has probably dropped out of the Pahlavi text. 

* The Parsi books speak of the righteous dead as 'departed,' 
a term very rarely applied to the wicked (see Chap. XXXII, 4), 
who are nearly always said 'to die;' the latter verb is, however, 
occasionally used when speaking of the righteous. This distinc- 
tion is made even in the Huzvaru logograms, which express the 
death of the righteous by forms allied to Chald. ">?? ' he passed 
over,' and the death of the wicked by forms allied to Chald. O'D 
' he died.' 

3 So in all MSS., but the ' punishment ' seems superfluous here. 

4 The Avesta merely states that the soul remains three nights 
near the body, chanting a particular hymn, and experiencing as 
much pleasure or uneasiness as it had in the world (see Hn. II, 
3-17, III, 3-16); and much the same account is given in AV. 
IV, 9-14, XVII, 2-9, Mkh. 11,114, 158-160. 

5 The mountain chain which is supposed to surround the world 
(see Bd. XII, 3); the Av. Hara-berezaiti. 

The Ainva</ bridge (see Chap. XXI, 2-7), which is said to 

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passes over the bridge on the ascent (lalaih), and 
if belonging to the ever-stationary (hamistanikS) 1 
he goes thither where their place is, if along with 
an excess of good works his habits are correct 
(frarun-darf) he goes even unto heaven (vahi^td), 
and if along with an excess of good works and 
correct habits he has chanted the sacred hymns 
(gasano) he goes even unto the supreme heaven 
(ga^d'manS). 4. He who is of the wicked falls 
from the lower end (tih) of the bridge, or from the 
middle of the bridge ; he falls head-foremost to hell, 
and is precipitated (nikuni-aito) unto that grade 2 
which is suitable for his wickedness. 

Chapter XXI. 

1. The twentieth question is that which you ask 
thus : How are the Ifmvad bridge, the Dai tih peak 
(kak&d), and the path of the righteous and wicked ; 

rest upon the Daitih ('judicial') peak, and to pass over to Alburs 
(see Bd. XII, 7). According to the Avesta (Vend. XIX, 100, 101, 
trans. D.) his conscience, in the form of a maiden, ' makes the soul 
of the righteous one go up above the Hara-berezaiti (Alburz); 
above the Kmvzd bridge she places it in the presence of the 
heavenly gods (angels) themselves.' See also AV. V, 1, 2, Mkh. 

II, 11 5- 

1 The intermediate place for those not good enough for heaven 
and not bad enough for hell, where such souls remain in a passive, 
immovable state till the resurrection (see Sis. VI, 2). It is divided 
into two parts, according to the author, one for those nearly 
righteous (see Chap. XXIV, 6), and one for those nearly wicked 
(see Chap. XXXIII, 2). 

* Four grades of heaven and four of hell are mentioned in AV. 
and Mkh. (see Sis. VI, 3, note). 

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how are they when one is righteous, and how when 
one is wicked ? 

2. The reply is this, that thus the high-priests 
have said, that the Daitih peak 1 is in A!ran-ve> 2 , in 
the middle of the world ; reaching unto the vicinity 
of that peak is that beam-shaped (dar-kerpo) spirit, 
the Kmwsui bridge 3 , which is thrown across from 
the Alburs enclosure (var) back to the Daitih peak. 
3. As it were that bridge is like a beam of many 
sides, of whose edges (p6.rt6) there are some which 
are broad, and there are some which are thin and 
sharp; its broad sides (sukiha) are so large that 
its width is twenty-seven reeds (nai), and its sharp 
sides are so contracted (tang) that in thinness it is 
just like the edge of a razor. 4. And when the 
souls of the righteous and wicked arrive it turns to 
that side which is suitable to their necessities, through 
the great glory of the creator and the command of 
him who takes the just account *. 

5. Moreover, the bridge becomes a broad bridge 
for the righteous, as much as the height of nine 
spears (nisako) — and the length of those which 
they carry is each separately three reeds 8 — ; and 

1 The Ka.ted-1 Daitik of Bd. XII, 7. 

* The primeval home of Mazda-worship (see Vend. I, 5, 6), 
which the Bundahir places 'in the direction of Adarbfcan;' it is 
also stated to contain the Daitik or Daitih river (which must not 
be confounded with the Daitih peak) and the Dara^-a river (on 
whose bank Zaratujt's father is said to have dwelt), and to have 
been the scene of Zaratfift's first promulgation of the religion (Bd. 
XX, 13, 32, XXIX, 12, XXXII, 3). Its winter is likewise described 
as both long and cold (Vend. I, 8-12, Bd. XXV, 11, 16), which is 
the case in Adarbtgin. 

* See Chap. XX, 3. * The angel Rashnu. 

* The nine spears of three reeds each, in length, making up the 

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CHAPTER XXI, 2-9. 49 

it becomes a narrow bridge for the wicked, even 
unto a resemblance to the edge of a razor. 6. And 
he who is of the righteous passes over the bridge, 
and a worldly similitude of the pleasantness of his 
path upon it is when thou shalt eagerly and un- 
weariedly walk in the golden-coloured spring, and 
with the gallant (hu-iir 1 ) body and sweet-scented 
blossom in the pleasant skin of that maiden 2 spirit, 
the price of goodness. 7. He who is of the wicked, 
as he places a footstep on to the bridge, on account 
of affliction (si pari h) and its sharpness, falls from 
the middle of the bridge, and rolls over head- 
foremost. 8. And the unpleasantness of his path 
to hell is in similitude such as the worldly one in the 
midst of that stinking and dying existence (hastin), 
there where numbers of the sharp-pointed darts 
(te^6 muk du^S) are planted 3 out inverted 
and point upwards, and they come unwillingly 
running; they shall not allow them to stay behind, 
or to make delay. 9. So much greater than the 
worldly similitude is that pleasantness and unplea- 
santness unto the souls, as such as is fit for the 
spirit is greater than that fit for the world. 

twenty-seven reeds mentioned in § 3. As the reed appears to 
have been about 4 feet 8 inches (see Chap. XLIII, 5, note), the 
width of the bridge is supposed to be about 126 feet, and the 
length of a spear is taken as 1 4 feet. 

1 So in the MSS., but hu-£thar, ' handsome,' is more probable. 

* Reading kaniko, instead of the kanako of the MSS., as there 
can be no allusion to the evil spirit here. The reference is to a 
good conscience, which is symbolised by the handsome maiden 
who is supposed to meet the righteous soul on its way to heaven 
(see Chap. XXIV, 5). 

* Assuming that a^zast is equivalent to Pers. a^ast. The 
allusion seems to be to a form of torturing punishment (running 
upon ground studded with sharp points) well known to the author. 

[18] * E 

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50 dAdistan-1 d{n{k. 

Chapter XXII. 

i. The twenty-first question is that which you 
ask thus : When he who is righteous passes away, 
who has performed much worship of the sacred 
beings, and many duties and good works, do the 
spirit of creation, the spirit of the sacred ceremony 
(ya2i.n1 6) and religion of the Mazda-worshippers, 
the water, earth, plants, and animals, make complaint 
unto Auharmasd, owing to the passing away of him 
who is righteous, and is it distressing to them when 
he goes out from the world, or how is it ? 

2. The reply is this, that as to him who is of the 
righteous, in his transit of worldly pain in passing 
away, and also" after passing away to the passage 
onwards 1 which is his limit (stir) still in the per- 
plexing account, and, after the account, in his own 
joy, and in what occurs when his gossips (ham- 
va^an) in the world — by whom the spiritual beings 
are also not unrecognised, nor his position unknown 
— are in worldly demeanour downcast and grieving, 
on all these occasions* his thoughts, procuring for- 
giveness, are about the sacred beings. 3. And the 
spirit of creation, and the good spirit of the religion 
of the Mazda-worshippers, which are in the worldly 
existence — of which s also, in the world, that righteous 
one is a praiser, an employer, a manager, a protection, 
and a forbearing friend — shall make an outcry to 

1 The .ffinvarf bridge, near which the soul's account is rendered. 
! The sentence is clear enough in Pahlavi, but too involved to 
be readily understood in English without these extra words. 
3 The worldly existences which those spirits represent. 

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the creator about him who is righteous, who is away 
from worldly protection, also for the granting of 
a promoter of forbearance, and for a restorer 
(tvbrdkr) of what is extorted 1 ; likewise a petition 
about the compensatory concomitants as to his new 
protection and disposer. 

4. And the almighty creator responds, and allots 
a teacher 2 for smiting the fiend, for the satisfaction 
of the righteous, and for the protection of the good 
creatures. 5. As it is said, that in every age a high- 
priest of the religion and his managing of the 
creatures are made manifest, in whom, in that age, 
the protection of the creatures and the will of the 
sacred beings are progressing. 

Chapter XXIII. 

1. The twenty-second question is that which you 
ask thus : When they shall snatch forth the life from 
the body of man how does it depart ? 

2. The reply is this", that it is said to be in 
resemblance such as when the redness is drawn up 
out of a fire ; for when the inflammable material of 
a fire is burnt, and has remained without glowing 3 , 

' These latter clauses of the outcry refer to their own wants, 
and the necessity of providing some one to take the place of the 
deceased; but the final petition seems to be for the deceased 

* The word maybe either farhakht&ko, ' preparing, educating,' 
or firfotakd, 'sending, deputing,' and must be used as a sub- 

' Reading abarU (compare Pers. bara, 'splendour'), or it may 
be abarakh, 'sparkless,' if barkh, 'a spark,' be a pure Persian 
word, which is doubtful. 

E 2 

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52 DADISTAN-t d}n{k. 

and when it does not obtain new inflammable mate- 
rial, or extinguishing matter (nteayunik) comes 
upon it, its redness and heat then depart from it 1 ; 
the life, too, on the departure of the breath (va</5 
va^aklh), does not stay in the body, but in like 
manner departs. 

3. To a like purport the high-priests of the religion 
have also said this, that mortals and men by listening 2 
perceive the time when the spirits shall put a noose 
(band) on the neck 3 ; when his time lias fully come 
one then conducts him with a companion (pavan 
ham-bar)*, and at his falling are the place of 
death 6 and cause of death ; and having made lethargy 
(bush asp) deliver him up, and terrified his fever 
(tapS), death (aosh) seizes decrepitude (zarman) 
away from him 9 . 

4. The strength in those intrusted with him, and 
the good proceedings and pursuit of means which 
remain behind 7 , giving them strength, are the deter- 

1 Mi 4 and J omit the remainder of the sentence. 

2 Reading finvixnS, but by omitting a stroke we should have 
dinuno, 'knowledge.' 

3 Of a person at the point of death. The demon of death, Astd- 
vidat/, is supposed to cast a noose around the necks of the dead to 
drag them to hell, which only the righteous can throw off (see 
Bd. Ill, 2i, 22). 

* That is, the dying man must be conveyed by more than one 
person, for fear of such contamination by the demon of corrup- 
tion (at the time of death) as would require the tedious Bareshnum 
ceremonial of purification (see Sis. II, 1, 6-8). 

5 And, therefore, the place where his body will rise again at the 
resurrection (see Sis. XVII, 11-14). 

* Lethargy, fever, and decrepitude are considered as fiends, but 
are dispossessed by the mightier demon of death. M14 and J 
mention ' lethargy,' but omit the after part of the sentence. 

7 Alluding probably to the ceremonies to be ordered and per- 
formed by the survivors (see Chap. XX VIII, 6, Sis. XVII, 2-6). 

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mination (vi^!r) which is their own inward physician. 

5. And should it be a passing away (vi</arg) which 
obtains no light, and on account of their disquietudes 
tliey have gone to the understanders of remedies for 
strength for the remedial duties, and the way is 
closed, he proceeds with insufficiency of means 1 . 

6. And the soul of the body, which is the master 
of its house (ka^ak khu^ai), along with the ani- 
mating life, goes out of the impotent body to the 
immortal souls 2 , as a wise master of a house goes 
out of a foreign (anirano) house to a residence of 
the good worship. 

7. // was also told to the ancient learned that life 
(khayi) is where there is a living spirit within the 
soul's body, which is connected with the soul 3 , as 
much as a development (.rarituntano) of the body, 
and is the life (ztvandakih) of the soul of a body 
of one passed away. 

Chapter XXIV. 

1. The twenty-third question is that which you 
ask thus : When he who is righteous passes away, 
where is the place the soul sits the first night, the 
second, and the third ; and what does it do ? 

2. The reply is this, that thus it is said, that the 

1 That is, when there are doubts about the fate of the soul, and 
the survivors can obtain no satisfactory assurances from the priest- 
hood, the soul has to proceed to the other world without suitable 
provision for its happiness. 

1 The MSS. have' soul.' 

* M14 and J have 'which is the soul,' and omit the remainder 
of the sentence. 

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soul of man, itself the spirit of the body \ after 
passing away, is three nights upon earth, doubtful 
about its own position (gas) 2 , and in fear of the 
account; and it experiences terror, distress (dah- 
yakS), and fear through anxiety about the ICmvad 
bridge 3 ; and as it sits it notices about its own good 
works and sin. 3. And the soul, which in a manner 
belongs to that same spirit of the body which is alike 
experiencing and alike touching it, becomes ac- 
quainted by sight with the sin which it has com- 
mitted, and the good works which it has scantily 

4. And the first night from its own good thoughts, 
the second night from its good words, and the third 
night from its good deeos it obtains pleasure for the 
soul ; and if also, with the righteousness, there be 
sin which remains in it as its origin, the first punish- 
ment in retribution for the evil deed occurs that 
same third night. 5. The same third night, on 
the fresh arrival of a dawn 4 , the treasurer of good 
works, like a handsome maiden (kanlko) 6 , comes 
out to meet it with the store of its own good works ; 
and, collected by witches (parlko-^ind), the sin 
and crime unatoned for (atdkhto) come on to the 
account and are justly accounted for". 

1 The ' spirit of the body ' which is to some extent distinguished 
from the ' soul,' both in this chapter and the next, is probably the 
life, as described in Chap. XXIII, 7. 

8 That is, its future position, or * destination.' 

5 See Chap. XXI, 2-7. 

4 Reading din bam-i nuk aydft6. 

5 Fully described in Hn. II, 22-32, AV. IV, 18-35, Mkh. II, 

' The author is more practical than most other writers on the 
same subject, as he assumes that the righteous soul is not abso- 
lutely righteous, nor the wicked soul absolutely wicked. 

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CHAPTER XXIV, 3 -XXV, 4. 55 

6. For the remaining (ketrund) sin it undergoes 
punishment at the bridge, and the evil thoughts, evil 
words, and evil deeds are atoned for ; and with the 
good thoughts, good words, and good deeds of its 
own commendable and pleasing spirit it steps for- 
ward unto the supreme heaven (gardafmand) 1 , or to 
heaven (vahi^t6), or to the ever-stationary (haml- 
stanaganS) of the righteous 2 , there where there is 
a place for it in righteousness. 

Chapter XXV. 

1 . The twenty-fourth question is that which you 
ask thus : When he who is wicked shall die, where 
is the place the soul sits the first night, the second, 
and the third ; and what does it say and do ? 

2. The reply is this, that those three nights the 
soul is upon earth, and notices about the thoughts, 
words, and deeds of its own body; it is doubtful 
about its own position, and experiences grievous fear 
of the account, great terror of the bridge, and per- 
plexing fear on account of hell. 3. Thought is 
oppressive as an indicator of fear, and the soul, in a 
manner the spirit of the body, is a computer 3 and 
acquirer of acquaintance by sight about the good 
works which it has not done, and the sin which it 
has committed. 

4. And the first night it is hastening away from 

1 See Chap. XX, 3. 

* There is another place for the ever-stationary of the wicked 
(see Chap. XXXIII, 2). 
5 Assuming that angrtirf&r stands for angarWar. 

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56 dadistAn-} dinIk. 

its own evil thoughts, the second night from its own 
evil words, and the third night from its own evil 
deeds ; but, owing to the good works which it has 
done in the world, the first night the spirit of its 
good thoughts, the second night the spirit of its 
good words, and the third night the spirit of its good 
deeds, come unto the soul, and become pleasing and 
commendable to it. 

5. And the third night, on the fresh arrival of a 
dawn, its sin, in the frightful, polluted shape of a 
maiden (/6aratik) who is an injurer, comes to meet 
it with the store of its sin; and a stinking northerly 1 
wind comes out to meet it, and it comes on shud- 
deringly, quiveringly 2 , and unwillingly running to 
the account. 6. And through being deceived and 
deceiving, heresy (af&run-dlndih), unrelenting and 
false 3 accusation of constant companions, and the 
wide-spread sinfulness of a fiend-like existence 
(dru^-stihlh) it is ruined, falls from the bridge, 
and is precipitated to hell. 

Chapter XXVI. 

1. The twenty-fifth question is that which you 
ask thus : How are the nature of heaven (vahutd), 
and the comfort and pleasure which are in heaven ? 

2. The reply is this, that it is lofty, exalted, and 

1 The demons are supposed to come from the north, where the 
gates of hell are situated (see Sis. X, 7). 

1 Reading ast6-sistiha' naf6-^umdSnihS, which may be, 
literally, 'with bones started and with shaking navel;' but the 
reading is doubtful. 

* Literally ' not allowing to hear and false-speaking.' 

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supreme, most brilliant, most fragrant, and most 
pure, most supplied with beautiful existences, most 
desirable, and most good, and the place and abode 
of the sacred beings (yaz^anfi). 3. And in it are 
all comfort, pleasure, joy, happiness (vasldfagih), 
and welfare, more and better even than the greatest 
and supremest welfare and pleasure in the world ; 
and there is no want, pain, distress, or discomfort 
whatever in it ; and its pleasantness and the welfare 
of the angels are from that constantly-beneficial place 
(gas), the full and undiminishable space (gun^)', 
the good and boundless world. 

4. And the freedom of the heavenly from danger 
from evil in heaven is like unto their freedom from 
disturbance, and the coming of the good angels is 
like unto the heavenly ones own good works pro- 
vided. 5. This prosperity (freh-hast6) and welfare 
of the spiritual existence is more than that of the 
world, as much as that which is unlimited and ever- 
lasting is more than that which is limited and 
demoniacal (sSdantkS). 

Chapter XXVII. 

1. The twenty-sixth question is that which you 
ask thus : How are the nature of hell, and the pain, 
discomfort 2 , punishment, and stench of hell ? 

2. The reply is this, that it is sunken, deep, and 
descending, most dark, most stinking, and most 
terrible, most supplied with wretched existences 
(anasidfantum), and most bad, the place and cave 

* See Chap. XXXI, 34. * Or ' ingloriousness.' 

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58 dAdistAn-i d{n{k. 

(grestakfi) of the demons and fiends. 3. And in it 
is no comfort, pleasantness, or joy whatever ; but in 
it are all stench, filth, pain, punishment, distress, 
profound evil, and discomfort; and there is no re- 
semblance of it whatever to worldly stench, filthi- 
ness, pain, and evil. 4. And since there is no 
resemblance of the mixed evil of the world to that 
which is its sole-indicating (a£-numaf) good, there 
is also a deviation (gumi^no) of it from the origin 
and abode of evil 1 . 

5. And so much more grievous is the evil in hell 
than even the most grievous evil on earth, as the 
greatness of the spiritual existence is more than that 
of the world ; and more grievous is the terror of the 
punishment on the soul than that of the vileness of 
the demons on the body. 6. And the punishment 
on the soul is from those whose abode it has be- 
come 2 , from the demons and darkness — a likeness 
of that evil to hell — the head (kamarakfi) of whom 
is Aharman the deadly. 

7. And the words of the expressive utterance of 
the high-priests are these, that where tfiere is a fear 
of every other thing it is more than the thing itself, 
but hell is a thing worse than the fear of it. 

Chapter XXVIII. 

1. The twenty-seventh question is that which 
you ask thus : Why and what is the ceremony of 

Meaning, probably, that the mixture of good and evil in the 
world is as far removed from heaven as it is from hell. But the 
words ae-numai and gumij-no are doubtful both in reading and 

* That is, hell has become; reading man ga;to. 

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the three nights (satulh), when during three days 
they order and perform the sacred-cake ceremony 
(ya^i^no dron6) of Srdsh 1 ? 

2. The reply is this, that the life and soul, when 
from the realm of the spirit of air 2 they attain unto 
worldly attire, and have passed into its pain and 
misfortune, are more sensitive (na2uktar); owing 
to their nurture, birth, and mission, protection and 
defence are more desirable and more suitable for 
the discreet (hu-/£iraganiktar); and milk food, 
and renewed (navagunak) and constant attention 
to the fire are requisite 3 . 3. So also when they 
are ousted from bodily existence, and pain and the 
eradication of life have come upon them, they are 
in like manner more sensitive, and sending them 
protection and defence from spirits and worldly 
existences is more desirable. 4. And on account 
of their spiritual character the offering (firi$ti.yn6) 
of gifts for the angels, fit for the ritual of a spirit 
(malndk niranglk), is more presentable; and also 
a fire newly tended (n6g6nd) is that which is more 
the custom in the sacred ceremony (yasisno). 

5. For the same reason in the three days when 
in connection with the soul the sacred ceremony, 
the burning of fire, its cleanly clearance (gdndunS), 

» See Chap. XIV, 4. 

1 Reading min maindk v&yih, and assuming that 'the good 
VSe 1 ' (the Vayd of the Rim Yt.), who is often called the angel 
Ram, is alluded to (see Chap. XXX, 4, Sis. XI, 4, XVII, 4). The 
life and soul are treated as one being in this chapter, as all the 
verbs and pronouns referring to them are in the singular number 
in the Pahlavi text. 

5 Referring to the proper care of new-born infants, for whose 
protection from the demons a bright fire is to be kept constantly 
burning for three days (see Sis. XII, n, 12). 

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6o DADISTAN-t D^ilC. 

and other religious and ritualistic defence, feeding 
on milk and eating with a spoon ' are ordered, 
because — as the sacred ceremony, the defence and 
protection of the worldly existences, is, by order of 
the creator, the business of Sr6sh the righteous 2 , 
and he is also one of those taking the account in the 
three nights* — Srdsh the righteous gives the soul, 
for three days and nights, the place of the spirit of 
air in the world, and protection. 6. And because 
of the protectiveness of Srosh, and that one is 
assisted likewise by Sr6sh's taking the account, and 
for that purpose, are the manifest reasons for per- 
forming and ordering the ceremony of Srosh for 
three days and nights 4 . 

7. And the fourth day the ordering and perform- 
ing the ceremony of the righteous guardian spirit 
(ar^ai fravardfo) 5 are for the same soul and the 
remaining righteous guardian spirits of those who 
are and were and will be, from Gay6man/ the 
propitious to S6shans the triumphant*. 

Chapter XXIX. 

1. The twenty-eighth question is that you ask 
thus : For what reason is it not allowable to perform 

1 No meat is to be eaten by the survivors until the third night 
has passed away (see Sis. XVII, 2). 

* The angel Srosh is said to have been the first creature who 
performed the sacred ceremony (see Yas. LVI, i, 2-7, ii, 2-4, iii, 
2-4), of which the spiritual counterpart was produced by Auhar- 
maz</ during the creation (see Bd. II, 9). 

3 See Chap. XIV, 4. * See Sis. XVII, 3. 

8 See Sis. XVII, 5. 

* That is, from the first man to the last ; the phrase is quoted 
from Yas. XXVI, 33. 

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the ceremony of Srdsh, the living spirit (ahv6)\ 
along with other propitiations (shnflmano) 2 , when 
they reverence him separately? 

2. The reply is this, that the lord of all things is 
the creator who is persistent over his own creatures, 
and a precious work is his own true service s which 
is given by him to Srosh the righteous whom, for 
this reason, one is to reverence separately when even 
his name is not frequently mentioned, and one is not 
even to reverence the names of the archangels with 

Chapter XXX. 

i. The twenty-ninth question is that which you 
ask thus: The third night, in the light of dawn, 
what is the reason for consecrating separately the 
three sacred cakes 4 with three dedications (shnu- 
man)? • 

2. The reply is this, that one sacred cake, whose 
dedication is to Rashnu and ks\&d<>, is for 8 satisfying 

1 Probably a miswriting of ash 6 k, ' righteous.' 

* Short formulas of praise, reciting all the usual titles of the 
spirits intended to be propitiated by them, which are introduced 
into a particular part of the liturgy to dedicate the ceremony to the 
particular spirit in whose honour it is being performed (see Sis. 
VII, 8). 

* Reading b6ndakih; but it may be bundakfh, 'complete- 
ness, perfection.' 

* The drdn, or sacred cake, is a small flexible pancake which 
is consecrated in the ceremonies, and dedicated to some particular 
spirit by means of the shnuman, or propitiatory dedication (see Sis. 
HI, 32). 

* See Sis. XVII, 4. These two angels are supposed to be 
present when the soul renders its account; Rashnu weighs its 
actions in his golden balance, and Ast&d assists it (see AV. V, 3, 5). 

' Reading rai, instead of la, 'not.' 

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the light of dawn and the period of Aushahln 1 , 
because the mountain AushdcLrtar 2 is mentioned 
in the propitiation of the angel hstkd. 3. With 
AstAcl is the propitiation of the period of Aushahln 3 , 
and she is the ruler of glory 4 of that time when the 
account occurs ; the souls are in the light of the 
dawn of Aushahln when they go to the account; 
their passage (vi</ar) is through the bright dawn. 

4. One sacred cake, which is in propitiation of 
the good Vae 6 , is, moreover, on this account : 
whereas the bad Vae 6 is a despoiler and destroyer, 
even so the good Vae is a resister (kukh shikar), 
and likewise encountering the bad Vae ; he is also 
a diminisher (vizfWar) of his abstraction of life, 

1 One of the five periods of the day and night, extending from 
midnight until the stars disappear in the dawn, or, as some say, 
until all the fixed stars disappear except four of. the first magnitude 
(see Bd. XXV, 9, Sis. XIV, 4-6). 

2 Called Ushi-darena in the Avesta, and identified with some 
mountain in Sagastan in Bd. XII, 15. It is mentioned in the 
dedicatory formula of hs\M (see Sir. 26), and its name is evidently 
here supposed to mean ' the holder of dawn,' an appropriate term 
for a lofty mountain to the eastward. 

9 Both Rashnu and Astad are blessed in the prayers appointed 
for the Aushahtn period of the day. 

4 The ' glory of the Aryans ' is lauded in the Artirf Yart. 

B The spirit of air, or arlgel Ram, who receives and protects the 
good soul on its way to the other world (see Chap. XXVIII, a, 5). 

6 Identified with Ast6-vida<f, the demon of death, in Bd. XXVIII, 
35, but Pahl. Vend. V, 25, 31 makes him a separate demon, who 
conveys away the bound soul, which would identify him with the 
demon Vfzaresh of Vend. XIX, 94, Bd. XXVIII, 18. There is 
very little doubt, however, that the Pahlavi translator of Vend. V 
misunderstood the Avesta, which merely says that ' Ast6-vidh6tu 
binds him, Vay6 conveys him bound,' referring probably to the 
good VSS who receives the parting soul; and Pahl. Vend.V, 31 
admits that this was the opinion of some. 

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and a receiver and protection of life, on account of 
the sacred cake 1 . 

Chapter XXXI. 

1. The thirtieth question is that which you ask 
thus : When a soul of the righteous goes on to 
heaven, in what manner does it go; also, who 
receives it, who leads 2 ii, and who makes it a house- 
hold attendant 3 of Auharmasrflf ? Also, does any one 
of the righteous in heaven come out to meet it, and 
shall any thereof make enquiry of it, or how ? 
2. Shall they also make up an account as to its sin 
and good works, and how is the comfort and 
pleasantness in heaven shown to it; also, what is 
its food ? 3. Is ii also their assistance which 

1 Nothing is here said about the third sacred cake, but Sis. 
XVII, 4 states that this is to be dedicated to the righteous guardian 
spirit (see Chap. XXVIII, 7). 

s It is doubtful whether the verb be yezrun (a corruption of 
yezderfln) or dezrun (a corruption of dedrun), but both forms 
are traceable to the same Semitic root (i3"l), one with and the 
other without the prefix 'ye,' and both, therefore, have nearly the 
same meaning. 

3 Reading khavag-i-m&n, 'servant of the house' (see also §§5,8, 
Chaps. XXXI I, 7, XXX VII, 16, 17, 21, XLIII, 1, XLVIlf, 41). 
This word occurs in Pahl.Vend. XIX, 102, in a compound which 
is doubtfully read avidamankar&no, 'those acting without time, 
eternal ones,' in Haug's Essays, p. 388 (it should be ' those acting 
as household attendants'). It also occurs in the Pazand tract called 
Aogemadae^a, from its initial word (see Geiger's ed. p. 23, § 11), 
where it is read andim&nt, and translated by Sans, pratihara, 
' doorkeeper ; ' but in a Fahlavi version of this tract (which seems 
to form part of the Afrln-i Dahman, and differs considerably from 
the Pazand text) this word is replaced by bondak manik-i, 
' a household servant,' which confirms the reading adopted here. 

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reaches unto the world, or not ? And is the limit 
(samano) of heaven manifest, or what way is ill 

4. The reply is this, that a soul of the righteous 
steps forth unto heaven through the strength of the 
spirit of good works, along with the good spirit 1 
which is the escort (parvanako) of the soul, into 
its allotted station and the uppermost (taytko) which 
is for its own good works ; along with the spiritual 
good works, without those for the world, and a crown 
and coronet 2 , a turban-sash and a fourfold fillet- 
pendant 3 , a decorated robe (famako) and suitable 
equipments, spiritually flying unto heaven (vahistd), 
or to the supreme heaven (gardafman), there where 
its place is. 5. And Vohuman 4 , the archangel, 
makes it a household attendant (khavag-1-manf- 
ner/6) to Auharmas^ the creator, and by order of 
Auharmasaf announces its position (gas) and reward; 
and it becomes glad to beg for the position of 
household attendant of Adharmazd, through what 
it sees and knows. 

6. A&harmazd the creator of good producers 

1 Probably the good VaS, the spirit of air (see Chaps. XXVIII, 
2, 5, XXIX 4). 

2 Reading rukho var</ivan5, which words also occur in AV. 
XII, 16, XIV, 9. A most elaborate account of heaven and hell 
will be found in the Book of Arda Vtraf with an English Transla- 
tion, ed. Hdshangji and Haug, 1872. 

8 Reading vis va £aharak5 balak. 

4 Vend. XIX, 102-107 (trans. D.) states as follows : ' Up rises 
Vohu-man6 from his golden seat ; Vohu-man6 exclaims : " How 
hast thou come to us, thou holy one, from that decaying world into 
this undecaying one?" Gladly pass the souls of the righteous to 
the golden seat of Ahura Mazda, to the golden seat of the Ame- 
sha-spe»tas, to the Garfi-nmanem, the abode of Ahura Mazda, 
the abode of the Amesha-spewtas, the abode of all the other holy 

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CHAPTER XXXI, 4-9. 65 

(da h dk in) is a spirit. even among spirits, and spirits 
even have looked for a sight of him ; which spirits 
are manifestly above worldly existences 1 . 7. But 
when, through the majesty 2 of the creator, spirits 
put on worldly appearances (v£ni.snSiha), or are 
attending (sinayan!k6) to the world and spirit, and 
put away appearance (v£nisnS apadd^nd), then 
he whose patron spirit (ahv6) 3 is in the world is 
able to see the attending spirits, in such similitude 
as when they see bodies in which is a soul 4 , or 
when they see a fire in which is Varahran 5 , or see 
water in which is its own spirit 9 . 8. Moreover, in 
that household attendance, that Auharma-sw? has seen 
the soul is certain, for Auhamias*/ sees all things ; 
and many even of the fiend's souls 7 , who are put 
away from those of Auhannasr^ in spiritual under- 
standing, are delighted by the appearance (numu- 
*/ano) of those of Atiharmazd. 

9. And the righteous in heaven, who have been 

1 Implying that Auharmas</ can hardly be considered visible, 
except by the eye of faith (see Chap. XIX, 2). 

2 Assuming that rabS-vanagih is equivalent to Pers. buzur- 
ganagf, 'magnificence.' 

• The ahvfi (Av. ahu) seems to be a spiritual protector, some- 
what similar to a patron saint ; as, according to the Ahunavar, the 
most sacred formula of the Parsis (see Bd. I, 21, Zs. 1, 12-19), 
both an ahu and a ratu are to be chosen, that is, both a patron 
spirit and a high-priest 

4 That is, he sees the spirits by means of their material mani- 

• The old Pahl. form of VShram, the angel whose name is 
applied to the sacred fire (see Bd. XVII, 1,2,9); he IS * e Av. 
Verethraghna of the Bahr&m Yt. 

• The female angel of water is the Av. ardvt sura Anahita of 
the Abin Yt. 

7 The souls in hell. 

[18] F 

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his intimate friends, of the same religion and like 
goodness, speak to him of the display of affection, 
the courteous enquiry, and the suitable eminence 
from coming to heaven, and his everlasting well- 
being in heaven. 

10. And the account as to sin and good works 
does not occur unto the heavenly ones ; it is itself 
among the perplexing questions of this treatise, for 
the taking of the account and the atonement for the 
sins of a soul of those passed away and appointed 
unto heaven happen so 1 , although its place (gas) is 
there 2 until the renovation of the universe, and it 
lias no need for a new account, n. And that 
account is at the time the account occurs ; those 
taking the account are AuharmasaCVohuman, Mitr6, 
Srosh, and Rashnu, and they shall make up the 
account of all with justice, each one at his own time, 
as the reply is written in its own chapter s . 

12. As to that which you ask concerning food, 
the meals of the world are taken in two ways : 
one is the distribution of water in haste, and one 
is with enjoyment ( to the end; but 
in heaven there is no haste as to water, and re- 
joicing with much delight they are like unto those 
who, as worldly beings, make an end of a meal 
of luxury (aurvasisnikih). 13. To that also which 
is the spiritual completion of the soul's pleasure 
it is attaining in like proportion 4 , and in its ap- 
pearance to worldly beings it is a butter of the 
name of MaWydk-zarem 5 . 14. And the reason of 

1 As in Chap. XXIV, 5, 6. 8 In heaven. 

• See Chap. XIV, 2-5. 

4 This sentence is rather ambiguous in the original. 

1 Said to be the food of the souls in heaven (see Hn. II, 38, 

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that name of it is this, that of the material food 
in the world that which is the product of cattle 
is said to be the best (pas hum), among the pro- 
ducts of cattle in use as food is the butter of milk, 
and among butters that is extolled as to goodness 
which they shall make in the second month of 
the year \ and when Mitrd 2 is in the constellation 
Taurus; as that month is scripturally (dln61k5) 
called Zaremeya 3 , the explanation of the name to 
be accounted for is this, that its worldly repre- 
sentative (andasako) is the best food in the 

15. And there is no giving out of assistance by 
the soul of the righteous from heaven and the 
supreme heaven 4 ; for, as to that existence full 

Mkh. II, 152) ; it is to be distinguished from the draught of immor- 
tality, called Hush, which is prepared from the fat of the ox 
Hadhayfo and the white H6m at the time of the resurrection (see 
Bd. XXX, 25). 

1 If the writer refers to the correct solar year of Bd. XXV, 2 1, 
beginning at the vernal equinox, the second month would be 
19th April-i9th May when the sun is in the conventional sign of 
Taurus ; but the ordinary Parsi year in his time commenced in the 
middle of April, and its second month would be May-June when 
the sun (about a.d. 880) would be in the actual constellation of 
Taurus. So that the statements in the text afford no certain indi- 
cation of the particular calendar used by the author. 

* The angel of the sun's light, here used for the sun itself. 

8 The fifteenth day of the second month of the Parsi year is the 
season festival called Maidhyd-zaremaya, 'mid-verdure,' in the 
Avesta ; being also the middle of the second month, the author 
assumes that the name of that month was originally Zaremaya. 
The Pahl. word can also be read Zar-mah, ' the month of gold, or 
the green month.' 

* That is, there is no intercession of saints for those still in the 
world. The only interceders are the angels and guardian spirits, 
and they go no further than to obtain strict justice for every one 
according to his worldly merits. 

F 2 

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68 dAdistAn-! din!k. 

of joy, there is then no deserving of it for any 
one unless each one is fully worthy of it. 16. But 
the soul has a remembrance of the world and 
worldly people, its relations and gossips; and he 
who is unremembered and unexpecting (abarmar- 
va.d) is undisturbed, and enjoys in his own time 
all the pleasure of the world as it occurs in the 
renovation of t/ie universe, and wishes to attain to 
it. 17. And, in like manner, of the comfort, plea- 
sure, and joy of the soul, which, being attained in 
proportion, they cause to produce in heaven and 
the supreme heaven, its own good works of every 
kind are a comfort and pleasure such as there are 
in the world from a man who is a wise friend — 
he who is a reverent worshipper — and other edu- 
cated men, to her who is a beautiful, modest, and 
husband-loving woman — she who is a manager 
(arastar) under protection — and other women who 
are clever producers of advantage 1 . 18. This 2 , too, 
which arises from beasts of burden, cattle, wild 
beasts, birds, fish, and other species of animals; 
this, too, from luminaries, fires, streams (hu-ta^is- 
nan), winds, decorations, metals, and coloured 
earths ; this, too, which is from the fences (par- 
dakano) of grounds, houses, and the primitive 
lands of the well-yielding cattle; this 3 , too, which 
is from rivers, fountains, wells, and the primary 
species of water; this, too, which is from trees 
and shrubs, fruits, grain, and fodder, salads, aro- 
matic herbs, and other plants; this, too, which is 

1 Reading surf az karSno, and identifying the second word with 
Pers. £ z. 

1 That is, the pleasure. 

' This clause is omitted in M14 and J. 

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CHAPTER XXXI, l6-22. 69 

the preparation of the land for these 1 creatures 
and primitive creations ; this, too, from the species 
of pleasant tastes, smells, and colours of all natures, 
the producers of protections 2 , the patron spirits 
(ahuan), and the appliances of the patron spirits, 
can come unto mortals. 

19. And what the spirit of good works is in 
similitude is expressly a likeness of stars and males, 
females and cattle, fires and sacred fires, metals 
of every kind, dogs, lands, waters, and plants 3 . 
20. The spiritual good works are attached (a^a- 
yukhtd) to the soul, and in the degree and pro- 
portion which are their strength, due to the 
advancement of good works by him who is right- 
eous, they are suitable as enjoyment for him who is 
righteous. 21. He obtains durability thereby * and 
necessarily preparation, conjointly with constant 
pleasure and without a single day's vexation (ay6m- 

22. There is also an abundant joyfulness, of 
which no example is appointed (vakhtd) in the 
world from the beginning, but it comes thus to 
those who are heavenly ones and those of the 
supreme heaven ; and of which even the highest 
worldly happiness and pleasure are no similitude, 
except through the possession of knowledge which 
is said to be a sample of it for worldly beings. 

1 It is doubtful whether we should read le-denmanshano, 
a rare plural form of denman, 'this,' or whether it should be 
le-denman yzzdinb ; in the latter case the translation would be 
' for these creatures of the sacred beings.' 

1 Assuming that zinharanS stands for zinharino, otherwise 
we must read z6haranS, 'holy-waters.' 

* The chief objects benefited by good works. 

* Reading hangimlh-ash, but the construction is unusual. 

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23. And of its indications by the world the limited 
with the unlimited, the imperishable with perish- 
ableness, the consumable with inconsumableness 
are then no equivalent similitudes of it \ 24. And 
it is the limited, perishable, and consumable things 
of the world's existence which are the imperishable 
and inconsumable ones of the existence of endless 
light 2 , the indestructible ones of the all-beneficial 
and ever-beneficial space (gun^) 3 , and the all- 
joyful ones — without a single day's vexation — of 
the radiant supreme heaven (gar6rfman6). 25. And 
the throne (g&s) of the righteous in heaven and 
the supreme heaven is the reward he obtains first, 
and is his until the resurrection, when even the 
world becomes pure and undisturbed ; he is himself 
unchangeable thereby, but through the resurrec- 
tion he obtains what is great and good and perfect, 
and is eternally glorious. 

Chapter XXXII. 

1. The thirty-first question is that which you ask 
thus: When he who is wicked goes to hell, how 

1 Meaning that no adequate conception can be obtained of the 
enjoyments of heaven by contrasting the earthly objects which 
most resemble it with those most opposed to it 

* The place of Auharmasrf, or heaven in general (see Bd. I, 2), 
where things which are perishable on earth become everlasting. 

3 The 'constantly-beneficial place' of Pahl. Vend. XIX, 122, 
'which is self-sustained, (its constant beneficialness is this, that, 
when it once became so, all of it became thereby ever-beneficial).' 
The Avesta version (trans. D.) merely calls it ' the sovereign place 
of eternal weal;' and it appears from Chap. XXXVII, 22, 24 that 
it is here understood as the unlimited space of heaven, contained 
in the ' endless light' 

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CHAPTER XXXI, 2 3 -XXXII, 5. 7 1 

does he go, and in what manner does he go ; also, 
who comes to meet him, and who leads him * to 
hell; also, does any one of the infernal ones (du.ra- 
hulkan8) come to meet him, or how is it? 

2. Shall they also inflict punishment upon him, 
for the sin which he has committed, at once, or is 
his punishment the same until the future existence ? 

3. Also, what is their food in hell, and of what 
description are their pain and discomfort; and is 
the limit of hell manifest, or how is it ? 

4. The reply is this, that a soul of the wicked, 
the fourth night after passing away 2 , its account 
being rendered, rolls head-foremost and totters 
(kapinedft)) from the Kinvzd bridge 8 ; and Vlza- 
rash 4 , the demon, conveys (nayeafS) 8 him cruelly 
bound therefrom, and leads him unto hell. 5. And 
with him are the spirits and demons connected 
with the sin of that soul, watching in many guises, 
resembling the very producers of doubt (vlman- 
daafaran-i£), the wounders, slayers, destroyers, 
deadly ones, monsters (dus-gerpanS), and criminals, 

1 Mi 4 and J omit the words from ' also' to 'leads him.' 

* The term ' passing away ' is here used with reference to the 
death of a wicked person, contrary to the general rule (see 
Chap. XX, 2). 

s See Chap. XX, 3. 

4 ' Then the fiend, named Vizaresha, carries off in bonds the 
souls of the wicked Daeva-worshippers who live in sin' (Vend. XIX, 
94, trans. D.); see also Bd. XXVIII, 18, where the name is Viza- 
r£sh, but it is always Vizarash in Dd. Here it has been first 
miswritten in K35, and afterwards corrected, so that later copyists 
have read Vir&sh, as in M14 and J. 

• Identifying the verb with Av. nayeiti of Vend. V, 25, 31; or 
it may be read vaye</6, and identified with Av. vaySiti of Vend. 
XV, 17, or Av. v4dhay8iti of Vend. XIX, 94, without much 
change of meaning. 

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those who are unseemly, those, too, who are dis- 
eased and polluted, biters and tearers, noxious 
creatures, windy stenches, glooms, fiery stenches, 
thirsty ones, those of evil habits, disturbers of sleep 
(khvap-kharan), and other special causers of sin 
and kinds of perverting, with whom, in worldly 
semblance, are the spiritual causers of distress. 
6. And proportional to the strength and power 
which have become theirs, owing to his sin, they 
surround him uncomfortably, and make him ex- 
perience vexation, even unto the time of the reno- 
vation of the universe. 7. And through the leading 
ofVizarash 1 he comes unwillingly unto hell, becomes 
a household attendant (khavag-1-mandl-alto) of 
the fiend and evil one, is repentant of the delusion 
of a desire for fables (vardaklha), is a longer 
for getting away from hell to the world, and has 
a wonderful desire for good works. 

8. And his food is as a sample of those which 
are among the most fetid, most putrid, most pol- 
luted, and most thoroughly unpleasant; and there 
is no enjoyment and completeness in his eating, 
but he shall devour (ga.t&d) with a craving which 
keeps him hungry and thirsty, due to water which 
is hastily sipped 2 . 9. Owing to that vicious habit 
there is no satisfaction therefrom, but it increases 
his haste and the punishment, rapidity, and tedious- 
ness of his anguish. 

10. The locality 3 in hell is not limited (samani- 

1 See § 4. 

* Referring to the fact that a person who is both hungry and 
thirsty cannot quench his thirst, for more than a few minutes, by 
drinking water without eating. 

* Or, perhaps, *his position/ if we read divak-a* instead of 

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CHAPTER XXXII, 6 -1 3. 73 

alt) before the resurrection, and until the time of 
the renovation of the universe he is in hell. 1 1. Also 
out of his sin is the punishment connected with it, 
and that punishment comes upon him, from the 
fiend and spirit of his own sin, in that manner and 
proportion with which he has harassed, and vexed 
others \ and has reverenced, praised, and served that 
which is vile. 

1 2. And at the time of the renovation, when the 
fiend perishes, the souls of the wicked pass into 
melted metal (ayen6) 2 ybr three days; and all fiends 
and evil thoughts, which are owing to their sin, have 
anguish effectually, and are hurried away by the 
cutting and breaking away of the accumulation 
(ham-daafakih) of sin of the wicked souls. 13. 
And by that pre-eminent (az>artum) ablution in the 
melted metal they are thoroughly purified from guilt 
and infamy (dastS va raspako), and through the 
perseverance (khvaparlh) 3 and mercifulness of the 
pre-eminent persistent ones they are pardoned, and 
become most saintly (m6gtum) pure ones; as it is 
said in metaphor that the pure are of two kinds, one 
which is glorious (khvarvat6), and one which is 
metallic (ay£navat6) 4 . 

dtvdklh, but the former reading would be more of a modern 
Persian idiom than a Pahlavi one. 

1 Or, 'the good;' the word is not expressed in the Pahlavi text 

$ Bd. XXX, 30 states that both the righteous and wicked are 
finally purified by melted metal which is a torment to the latter, 
but only like a bath in warm milk to the former. 

• See Chap. XIX, 7 n. 

4 This is probably a misapplication of a Pahlavi phrase which 
contained the word isnavatd, 'indestructible,' and was the trans- 
lation of an Avesta passage containing the words Apathrava»</, 
'brilliant, glorious,' and dsna, ' stony, indestructible, enduring '(often 
translated ' heavenly '), which words are sometimes used together, 

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14. And after that purification there are no de- 
mons, no punishment, and no hell as regards the 
wicked, and their disposal (vlrastakS) also is just ; 
they become righteous, painless, deathless, fearless, 
and free from harm. 15. And with them comes the 
spirit of the good works which were done and insti- 
gated by them in the world, and procures them 
pleasure and joy in the degree and proportion of 
those good works. 16. But the recompense of a 
soul of the righteous is a better formation (v£h* 

da aft h) and more 1 . 

Chapter XXX11I. 

1. As to the thirty-second question and reply, 
that which you ask is thus : In which direction and 
which land is hell, and how is it ? 

2. The reply is this, that the place of a soul of 
the wicked, after the dying off 2 of the body, is in 
three districts (vim and) : one of them is called that 
of the ever-stationary 8 of the wicked, and it is a 

as in Yas. LIX, 14. As the Pahl. asnavat6 and ay6navatd are 
written alike they are easily confounded, but that ' metal ' is meant 
here appears from Yas. L, 9, b, Bd. XXX, 20. 

1 M14 has 'and the position of more good works is better, the 
rank is greater, and the pleasure and delight more.' 

* Literally ' dying down.' 

* Assuming that ham-hastakan, 'co-existences, associates,' is 
meant for hamfstakin (see the hamist&niko of Chap. XX, 3). 
From this it would appear that the place of the Hamistakan, inter- 
mediate between heaven and h 11, was itself supposed by the author 
to be divided into two widely separated regions, one for the slightly 
righteous (see Chap. XXIV, 6), and one for the slightly wicked, 
as here described. No such separation is mentioned in AV. and 
Mkh., and the passage is omitted in M14. 

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chaos (ghm&zako), but the evil is abundantly and 
considerably more than the good ; and the place is 
terrible, dark, stinking, and grievous with evil. 3. 
And one is that which is called the worst existence, 
and it is there the first tormentors (vikhruniganS) 
and demons have their abode ; it is full of evil and 
punishment, and there is no comfort and pleasure 
whatever. 4. And one is called Dru^askan 1 , and is 
at the bottom of the gloomy existence, where the 
head (kamarako) of the demons rushes; there is 
the populous abode of all darkness and all evil. 

5. These three places, collectively, are called hell, 
which is northerly, descending, and underneath this 
earth, even unto the utmost declivity of the sky ; 
and its gate is in the earth, a place of the northern 
quarter, and is called the Arezur ridge 2 , a mountain 
which, among its fellow mountains of the name of 
Arezur 3 that are amid the rugged (k6flk) mountains, 
is said in revelation 4 to have a great fame with the 
demons, and the rushing together and assembly of 
the demons in the world are on the summit of that 
mountain, or as it is called ' the head of Arezur.' 

1 The Av. dru^askanSm of Vend. XIX. 139, which is trans- 
lated 'the slothful ones of the Drug'' by Darmesteter, ' the servants 
of the Dru^' by Harlez, and 'wizards' in Haug's Essays, p. 336. 
Dru^dskin is said to be a son of the evil spirit in Bd. XXXI, 6. 

• See Bd. XII, 8. 

* Bd. XII, 16 mentions another Arezur 'in the direction of 

4 Vend. XIX, 142 (trans. D.) says 'they run away casting the 
evil eye, the wicked, evil-doing DaSvas : " Let us gather together 
at the head of Arezura !" ' 

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Chapter XXXIV. 

i. As to the thirty-third question and reply, that 
which you ask is thus: In what manner is there one 
way of the righteous from the Daitih peak 1 to 
heaven, and one of the wicked to hell ; and what is 
their nature ? 

2. The reply is this, that one is for ascent, and 
one for descent ; and on account of both being of 
one appearance I write thus much for understanding 
and full explanation, that is to say : — 3. The right- 
eous souls pass over on the A'inva^ bridge 2 by 
spiritual flight and the power of good works ; and 
they step forth up to the star, or to the moon, or to 
the sun station, or to the endless light 3 . 4. The 
soul of the wicked, owing to its falling from the 
bridge, its lying demon, and the pollution collected 
by its sin, they shall lead therefrom to the descent 
into the earth, as both ways lead from that bridge 
on the Daitih peak. 

Chapter XXXV. 

1. The thirty-fourth question is that which you 
ask thus: Does this world become quite without 
men *, so that there is no bodily existence in it what- 

1 See Chap. XXI, 2. * See Chap. XXI, 2-7. 

3 These are the four grades of heaven, as described in AV. 
VII-X, Mkh.VII, 9-1 1. 

4 Reading a»fk (or avih) anshuta, but it may possibly be 
avl- 1 anshutS, 'without a single man.' 

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ever, and then shall they produce the resurrection, 
or how is it ? 

2. The reply is this, that this world, continuously 
from its immaturity even unto its pure renovation, 
has never been, and also will not be, without men ; 
and in the evil spirit, the worthless (ajaplr), no 
stirring desire of this arises. 3. And near to the 
time of the renovation the bodily existences desist 
from eating, and live without food (pavan akhuris- 
nlh) 1 ; and the offspring who are born from them 
are those of an immortal, for they possess durable 
and blood-exhausted (khun-girai) bodies. 4. Such 
are they who are the bodily-existing men that are in 
the world when there are men, passed away, who 
rise again and live again. 

Chapter XXXVI. 

1. The thirty-fifth question is that which you ask 
thus : Who are they who are requisite in producing 
the renovation of the universe, who were they, and 
how are they ? 

2. The reply is this, that of those assignable for 
that most perfect work the statements recited are 
lengthy, for even Gay6mar^, Yim the splendid, 
Zaratust the Spltaman 2 , the spiritual chief (raafS) 
of the righteous, and many great thanksgivers were 

1 Bd. XXX, 3 states that men first abstain from meat, after- 
wards from vegetables and milk, and, finally, from water. 

* See Chap. II, 10. His title, which is nearly always written 
Spltaman in K35 (rarely SpitSman), is Av. spitama or spitama, 
but is usually understood to mean 'descendant of Spitama,' his 
ancestor in the ninth generation (see Bd. XXXII, 1). 

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78 DADISTAN-i DiNk. 

appointed for completing the appliances of the reno- 
vation ; and their great miracles and successful 
(apa^iraganik) management have moved on, which 
works for the production of the renovation '. 3. 
Likewise, on the approach of the renovation, Kere- 
sasp 2 the Saman who smites Dahak, Kai-Khusrol 3 
who was made to pass away by Vae the long-con- 
tinuing lord 4 , Tus and Vevan 8 the allies (aoakano), 
and many other mighty doers are aiding the produc- 
tion of the renovation. 

4. But those who are the producers of the reno- 
vation more renowned throughout the spheres (vas- 
poharakanlktar) are said to be seven, whose names 
are R6shan6-£ashm 6 , Khur-/£ashm, Frada^-gadman, 

1 That is, even these ancient rulers and legislators have contri- 
buted to the final renovation of the universe by their wise actions 
and laws. 

a See Chap. XVII, 6. 

8 Av. Kavi Husravangh,the third king of the Kayanian dynasty 
(see Bd. XXXI, 25, XXXIV, 7), whose mysterious disappearance, 
as related in the Shahnamah, is evidently alluded to here. 

4 The Av. vayam dareghd-^adhaitim of KhflrshSd NyS- 
yish, 1, that seems to be identified here with the good Vae" (see 
Chap. XXX, 4), who conducts the soul to the other world. 

• The Tfls and Giw of Bd. XXIX, 6 and the Shahnamah, where 
they are said to have been frozen in the mountain snow, with other 
warriors, after the disappearance of Kai-Khusr6i. They are the 
Av. Tusa of AMn Yt. 53, 58, and, perhaps, Gagvani of Frav- 
ardin Yt. 115, but the Pahlavi form VSvan (or Viv6) of our text 
is inconsistent with the latter identification; the form Giw of Bd. 
XXIX, 6 is merely Pazand. 

* These names are the Av. Rao£as-£aSshman, Hvare-£a£shman, 
FrSdarf-^oarend, Vareda</-A»aren6, Vouru-nem6, Vouru-sav6, and 
SaoshySs of Fravardtn Yt. 128, 129, partly transcribed, partly trans- 
lated, and partly corrupted into Pahlavi. The corruptions are easily 
explained thus: Av. vouru, 'wide,' when written in Pahlavi is 
often identical with varen, 'desire,' and has been so read by a 
later copyist and then translated by its synonym kamak; Av, 

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Vareda^-gadman, Kamak-vakhshi^n, Kamak-s<W, and 
S6shans. 5. As it is said that in the fifty-seven 
years 1 , which are the period of the raising of the dead, 
R6shand-£ashm in Arzah 2 , Khur-^ashm in Savah, 
FrAda^-gadman in Fradaa&fsh, VaredaaJ-gadman in 
Vtdadafsh, Kamak - vakhshun in Vorubarrt, and 
Kamak-suaf in Vdru^arrt, while S6shans in the 
illustrious and pure Khvaniras is connected with 
them, are immortal. 6. The completely good sense, 
perfect hearing, and full glory of those seven pro- 
ducers of the renovation are so miraculous that they 
converse from region unto region, every one to- 
gether with the six others, just as now men at an 
interview utter words of conference and co-operation 
with the tongue, one to the other, and can hold a 
conversation 3 . 

7. The same perfect deeds for six* years in the 
six other regions, and for fifty years in the illustrious 
Khvaniras*, prepare immortality, and set going ever- 

nemfl is translated by Pahl. nlyayijn, 'homage, praise,' which is 
written very much like vakhshif n, ' increase,' and has been so 
read by a later copyist For the first two names and the last see 
Chap. II, to. 

1 The same period is mentioned in Bd. XXX, 7. 

* That is, there is one of the seven producers of the renovation 
in each of the seven KSshvars, or regions of the earth, of which 
Arzah is the western, SavSh the eastern, Frada</afsh and Vrdadifsh 
the two southern, Vorubarrt and V6r%arrt the two northern, and 
Khvaniras the central one (see Bd. V, 8, 9, XI, 2-4). 

* If this passage were found in the Christian scriptures, it would 
very probably be considered as a prophetical allusion to the electric 
telegraph and telephone. 

4 So in all MSS., but one would expect it to be ' seven,' so as to 
complete the fifty-seven years of § 5. The number being written 
in ciphers the difference between ' six ' and ' seven ' is very slight. 

* This central region of the earth is that which contains Iran 
and all lands well known to the Iranians. 

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8o dAdistan-J D$NiK. 

lasting life and everlasting weal (suafth) through the 
help and power and glory of the omniscient and 
beneficent spirit, the creator Auharmas^. 

Chapter XXXVII. 

i. As to the thirty-sixth question and reply, that 
which you ask is thus : How shall they produce the 
resurrection, how do they prepare the dead, and 
when the dead are prepared by them, how are they? 
2. When it is produced by them, is an increase in 
the brilliance of the stars, moon, and sun necessary, 
and does it arise, or not ? are tfiere seas, rivers, and 
mountains, or not ? and is the world just as large as 
this, or does it become more so and wider ? 

3. The reply is this, that the preparation and 
production of the resurrection are an achievement 
connected with miracle, a sublimity (rabaih), and, 
afterwards, also a wondrous appearance unto the 
creatures who are uninformed. 4. The secrets and 
affairs of the persistent creator are like every 
mystery and secret; excepting himself — he who is 
capable of all knowledge, the fully-informed, and 
all in all (vispanS visp6) — no one of the worldly 
beings and imperfect spirits has known them. 

5. A true proverb (g6bi^n6-g6) of the intelligent 
and worldly, which is obvious, is that as it is easier 
in teaching to teach again learning already taught 
and forgotten than that which was untaught, and 
easier to repair again a well-built house, given 
gratuitously, than that which is not so given, so 
also the formation again of that which was formed 
is more excellent (hunirtar), and the wonder is 

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less, than the creation of creatures. 6. And through 
the wisdom and glory of the omniscient and omni- 
potent creator, by whom the saddened (allkhtS) 
creatures were created, that which was to perish is 
produced again anew, and that which was not to 
perish, except a little, is produced handsome even 
for a creation of the creator 1 . 

7. He who is a pure, spiritual creature is made 
unblemished ; he, also, who is a worldly creature is 
immortal and undecaying, hungerless and thirstlesSj 
undistressed and painless ; while, though he moves 
(^unde^o) in a gloomy, evil existence, the fiend is 
rightly judging from its arrangement (min nivarafo) 
that it is not the place of a beneficent being, but 
the place of an existence which is deadly, ignorant, 
deceiving, full of malice, seducing, destroying, caus- 
ing disgrace, making unobservant (aub£ngar), and 
full of envy. 8. And his existence is so full of 
malice, deceit, seductiveness, unobservance, destruc- 
tiveness, and destruction that he has no voice except 
for accomplices (ham-buafikan) and antagonists, 
except also for his own creatures and gossips when 
their hearts are desirous of evil, seducing, destroy- 
ing, making unobservant, causing malice, and bear- 
ing envy. 9. And he is disclosed (vishaaf) from 
his own origin and abyss full of darkness, unto the 
limits of darkness and confines of the luminaries ; 
and in his terribleness and demoniacal deliberation 
he gazes at the unblemished light and creatures 
of the beneficent Auharmasaf. 10. And through 
abundant envy and complete maliciousness is his 
lying ; and he mounts (subar6dfS) to seize, destroy, 

1 This last clause is omitted in M14 and J. 
[18] G 

Digitized by 


82 DADISTAN-i dIn{k. 

render unobservant, and cause to perish these same 
well-formed creatures of the sacred beings, u. And 
owing to his observance of falsehood he directed 
falsehood and lies with avidity (varend), which 
were necessary for obtaining his success in his own 
rendering others unobservant (a u be no) ; even in the 
nine thousand winters (hazangr6k ztm) 1 of false- 
hood that which is disregarded therein is his own 

12. He who is the most lordly of the lords of 
the pre-eminent luminaries, and the most spiritual 
of spirits, and all the beings of Auharmas^ the 
creator — who was himself capable of an effectual 
(tubin6) gain for every scheme of his 2 — do not 
allow that fiend into the interior, into the radiance 
(far6gi^) of the luminaries. 13. And they 3 under- 
stood through tlieir own universal wisdom that fiend's 
thoughts 4 of vileness, and meditation of falsehood 

1 The interval between the first appearance and the final disap- 
pearance of the evil spirit. Twelve thousand years are supposed 
to elapse between the first creation and the resurrection ; during 
the first three (about b.c. 8400-5400) the creation remains undis- 
turbed in a spiritual state, during the next three (b.c 5400-2400) 
the evil spirit appears, but flies back to hell in confusion, during 
the next three (b.c 2400- a. d. 600) he attacks the creation and 
keeps it in a constant state of tribulation, and during the last three 
(a. d. 600-3600) his power, having attained its maximum, is gra- 
dually weakened till it is finally destroyed at the resurrection (see 
Bd. I, 8, 18, 20, 22, III, 1, XXXIV, 1-9, Byt. Ill, 11, 44, 52, 
61, 62). 

* Probably ' the fiend,' but the sentence is by no means clear. 

* As the verbs 'allow' in § 12 and 'accept' in § 13 are both 
plural we must understand that the opposition to the fiend arises 
from the spiritual creatures of Auharmasrf, and not from Auhar- 
mazrf alone. 

* Reading minishnd instead of maindgano, 'spirits;' the dif- 
ference between these words in Pahlavi being only a single stroke. 

Digitized by 



and lies, and became aware of them by themselves 
and through their own intuition, and shall not accept 
the perdition (a6shlh) of the fiend, but are to be 
rightly listening to the commands of him 1 who is 
worthy. 14. For his 2 is not the nature of him who 
is good, nor the wisdom of him who is propitious ; 
and he does not turn from the confines of the shining 
ones, and the developments pertaining to those of 
the good being*, until he arrives at the creatures ; 
and he struggles in an attempt (auzmanS), spreads 
forth into the sky, is mobbed (gar6hagl-ait) in 
combats, is completely surrounded, and is tested 
with perfect appliances. 15. His resources, also, 
are destroyed, his internal 4 vigour is subdued, his 
weapons of falsehood are disregarded, and his 
means of deceiving shall perish ; and with complete- 
ness of experience, thorough painfulness, routed 
troops, broken battle-array, and disarranged means 
he enjoys on the outside the radiance of the lumi- 
naries with the impotence (anatyyaraglh) of a 
desire which again returns to him. 

16. And the same well-shining light of all kinds 
of the creator, when they shall not let in him who 
is Aharman, shall remain an unlimited time, while 
the fiend is in household attendance on those of 
the frontier through not being let in, and constantly 
troubled at the everlasting creatures. 17. The 
household attendance of the fiend seemed to it 6 
perpetually afflicting; and also the previous struggle 

1 Auharma*/. * The fiend's. 

* Reading vShlkSnako vakhshuno. 

4 Assuming that andarmunlh is a form analogous to ptra- 
munih, and with the meaning of andarunih. 
8 The light. 

G 2 

Digitized by 


84 dadistAn-I d!n!k. 

of the fiend when the celestial spirit (ahv 6) pertain- 
ing to the luminaries was not contended with by 
him, his defeat (makhttuntano) when the lumi- 
naries were not defeated by him, his infliction of 
punishment before sin, and his causing hatred before 
hatred exists are all recounted by it to the justice 
and judiciousness whose unchangeableness, will, per- 
sistence, and freedom from hatred — which is the 
character of its faithful ones — are not so 1 , to him 
who is the primeval (p£jako) creator. 

1 8. The fiend, after his falsity, the struggle — on 
account of the fighting of the shining ones and the 
decreed keeping him away which was due to the fighter 
for the luminaries — and the ill-success of the struggle 
of himself and army, ordered the beating back of 
the worthy fighter against destruction, the malicious 
avenging again of the causer of hatred, and the de- 
stroyer's internal vileness and disorganisation anew of 
his own place. 19. He saw the beneficent actions by 
which, through the wisdom of Auharmazaf, the spiri- 
tual wisdom 2 , within the allotted (burtn-h6m6nd) 
time, the limited space, the restricted conflict, the 
moderate trouble, and the definite (farf am-h6mand) 
labour existing, struggles against the fiend, who is the 
unlawful establisher of the wizard ; and he returned 
inside to fall disarmed (asam£n6) and alive, and 
until he shall be fully tormented (pur-dar^ag-hae) 
and shall be thoroughly experienced, they shall not 3 
let him out again in the allotted time that the fiend 
ordered for the success of falsehood and lies. 20. 

1 That is, they are altogether different from the faults of the 
fiend, just recounted. 

9 Perhaps the same as ' the spirit of wisdom ' of Mkh. 
' Reading IS, ' not,' instead of rii, ' on account of.' 

Digitized by 


CHAPTER XXXVII, 1 8-2 2. 85 

And the same fiend and the primeval (kadm6n) 
demons are cast out confusedly, irreverently, sor- 
rowfully, disconcertedly, fully afflicting their friends, 
thoroughly experienced, even with their falsehoods 
and not inordinate means 1 , with lengthy slumbers, 
with broken-down (az/aslst) deceits and dissipated 
resources, confounded and impotent, into the per- 
dition of Aharman, the disappearance of the fiend, 
the annihilation of the demons, and the non-exist- 
ence of antagonism. 

21. To make the good creatures again fresh and 
pure, and to keep them constant and forward in pure 
and virtuous conduct is to render them immortal ; 
and the not letting in of the co-existent one *, owing 
to the many new assaults (pad^astSlh) that occur 
in his perpetual household attendance 3 of falsity — 
through which there would have been a constant 
terror of light for the creatures of the sacred 
beings — is to maintain a greater advantage. 22. And 
his (AuharmastfPs) means are not the not letting in 
of the fiend, but the triumph arranged for \i\mself 
in the end — the endless *, unlimited light being also 
produced by him, and the constantly-beneficial space 8 

1 The words va avi^afto afzSrtha are omitted in M14 and J. 

* The evil spirit. As the co-existent spirits of good and evil are 
antagonistic the word ham-burfiko, ' co-existent,' is often supposed 
to mean ' antagonistic' 

* See § 16. M14 and J have only ' that occur through his falsity 
and the constant terror of light which would have arisen from him.' 

* That the term asar has only its etymological meaning ' end- 
less,' and not the wider sense of ' eternal,' is clear from this phrase. 
The 'endless light' is the phrase used in Pahlavi to express 
Av. anaghra raolau, a term implying ' the fixed stars,' so the 
passage in the text is very suggestive of the phrase, ' he made the 
stars also' (Gen. i. 16). 

5 Instead of gun^, 'space,' we might read gan^, 'treasury,' 

Digitized by 



that is self-sustained — which (triumph) is the resource 
of all natures, races, characters, powers, and duties 
from the beginning and maturing of those of the 
good religion and the rushing of the liar and 
destroyer on to the creatures, which are requisite 
for the final, legitimate triumph of the well-directing 
creator, and for the termination of the struggles of 
all by the protection and recompense of the praises 
and propitiation performed, which are the healing 
of the righteous and the restoration of the wicked 
at the renovation. 23. Even these developments, 
even these established habits (da^-^anlha), even 
these emissions of strength, even these births, even 
these races, even these townspeople (dihlkolha), 
even these characters, even these sciences 1 , even 
these manageable and managing ones 2 , and even 
these other, many, special species and manners which 
at various periods (anbano) of time are in the hope 
that the quantity and nature of their auxiliaries may 
be complete, and their coming accomplished and not 
deficient in success (vakhto), are distributed and 
made happy by him. 

24. The sky is in three thirds, of which the one 
at the top is joined to the endless light, in which 
is the constantly-beneficial space ; the one at the 

but it is written gun^ in Chap. XXXI, 24, according to K35, and 
the meaning 'space' is more appropriate to the gatiu ^»adhato, 
' self-sustained place,' of Vend. XIX, 122. The epithet ' constantly- 
beneficial' is a Pahl. translation of A v. misvana, and is evidently 
applied here to the unlimited heavenly space contained in the 
'endless light '(see § 24) and including the supreme heaven, as 
appears from the order in which these three existences (the earliest 
creations of Auharmaa/) are mentioned in Chap. XXXI, 24. 

1 M14 and J have 'separate doers.' 

s Mi 4 and J have ' doers at different times.' 

Digitized by 


CHAPTER XXXVII, 23-28. 87 

bottom reached to the gloomy abyss, in which is 
the fiend full of evil ; and one is between those two 
thirds which are below and above. 25. And the 
uppermost third, which is called ' the rampart of the 
supreme heaven' (gar6rfman6 drupustS) 1 , was 
made by him with purity, all splendour, and every 
pleasure, and no access to it for the fiend. 26. And 
he provided that third for undisturbedly convoking 
the pure, the archangels, and the righteous that have 
offered praises who, as it were unarmed (azenavar), 
struggle unprepared and thoroughly in contest with 
the champions of the co-existent one, and they smite 
the co-existent one and his own progeny (g6harak6) 
already described, and afford support to the im- 
perishable state 2 , through the help of the archangels 
and the glory of the creator. 27. And, again also, 
in their 3 fearlessness they seek for the destruction 
of the demons and for the perfection of the creatures 
of the good beings; as one who is fearless, owing to 
some rampart which is inaccessible to arrows and 
blows, and shoots arrows at the expanse below, is 
troubled (bakhseWS) for friends below. 

28. And he made a distinction in the prescribed 
splendour and glory for the lowermost third of the 
sky ; and the difference is that it is liable to injury 
(pavan resh), so that the fiend, who is void of 
goodness, comes and makes that third full of dark- 
ness and full of demons, and shall be able to perplex 
in that difficulty when the thousand winters occur, 
and the five detested (lakhsi^akS) kinds of the 

1 Bd. Ill, 26 says that ' the rampart of the sky was formed so 
that the adversary should not be able to mingle with it.' 

2 Reading agurasend va/ ase^ gun. 

' Assuming that va/ stands for valman or valmanjan. 

Digitized by 



demons of life l have also overwhelmed with sin 
those of the wicked who are deceived by the demons 
and have fled from the contest. 29. But they shall 
not let the fiend fully in, owing to the luminaries of 
the resplendent one, during the allotted time when 
the demons' punishing and the repentance of the 
wicked are accomplished. 

30. And he appointed for the middle third the 
creatures of the world separated 2 from the world 
and the spiritual existence; and among those crea- 
tures 3 were produced for them the managing man 
as a guardian of the creatures, and the deciding 
wisdom as an appliance of man ; and the true 
religion, the best of knowledge was prepared by 
him. 31. And that third is for the place of combat 
and the contest of the two different natures 4 ; and 
in the uppermost part of the same third is stationed 
by him the light of the brilliant sun and moon and 
glorious stars, and they are provided by him that 
they may watch 6 the coming of the adversary, and 
revolve around the creatures. 32. All the sacred 
ceremonies of the distant earth (bum), the light, 
the abundant rains, and the good angels vanquish 

1 Probably referring to the five fiends, or demonesses, which 
are the special embodiments of each man's evil passions, and are 
thus detailed in Mkh. XLI, 9-1 1 : — ' That man is the stronger who 
is able to contend with his own fiends, and who keeps these five 
fiends, in particular, far from his body, which are such as avarice, 
wrath, lust, disgrace, and discontent.' 

* Reading ftjar</ak6, but the word is doubtful. This central 
region of the sky would seem to be the place of the 'ever- stationary,' 
if it do not include the earth itself, which is not quite clear, owing 
to the obscure style of the author. 

* While in the world. 

4 The beneficent and evil spirits. 

5 Reading venap&nd, but the word is doubtful. 

Digitized by 


CHAPTER XXXVII, 29-35. %9 

and smite the wizards and witches who rush about 
below them l , and struggle to perplex by injury 
to the creatures ; they make all such assailants 
become fugitives 2 . 33. And through their revolu- 
tion the ascents and descents, the increase and 
diminution (narafsisnS), of the creatures 3 shall 
occur, the flow and ebb of the seas, and the increase 
of the dye-like* blood of the inferior creatures 6 ; 
also owing to them and through them have elapsed 
the divisions of the days, nights, months, years, 
periods, and all the millenniums (hazagrdk zlman) 
of time. 

34. He also appointed unto our forefathers the 
equipment which is their own, a material vesture, 
a sturdy bravery, and the guardian spirits of the 
righteous ; and he provided that they should remain 
at various times in their own nature 6 , and come 
into worldly vesture. 35. And those for great hosts 
and many slaves are born, for the duties of the 
period, into some tribe ; he who has plenty of off- 
spring is like Fravak 7 , he who is of the early law 

1 Below the sun, moon, and stars which protect the creatures. 
' Literally ' springers back.' 

5 Reading damiko, but the word is unusual ; it might be read 
dahmik6, 'of the holy man,' or be considered a corruption of 
damiko, 'earth.' 

4 Reading rangmano, but the word is doubtful. 

6 Five folios of text are here interpolated in J, of which four 
contain the passage (Ep. II, vi, 4 — ix, 7) omitted at the end of that 
MS., and the fifth contains a passage on the same subject as Ep. Ill, 
and which may possibly be part of the text missing in Ep. Ill, 1 1. 

• Meaning that the unembodied spirits of men should enter 
upon their worldly existence. 

7 The great-grandson of the primeval man, Gay6mar</, and the 
forefather of the fifteen races of undeformed human beings (see 
Bd. XV, 25-31, XXXI, 1). 

Digitized by 



(pesdado) like Hoshang 1 , he who is a smiter of 
the demon like Takhmdrup 2 , he who is full of glory 
like Yim 3 , he who is full of healing like Freafan, he 
who has both wisdoms 4 like the righteous Manu- 
stihar 6 , he who is full of strength like Keresasp 6 , 
he who is of a glorious race like Kai-Kavad? 7 , he 
who is full of wisdom like A6shanar 8 . 36. He who 
is noble is like Siyavash 9 , he who is an eminent 
doer (az/arkar) like Kai-Khusr6l 10 , he who is exalted 
like Kal-Virtisp n , he who is completely good like 
the righteous Zaraturt 12 , he who arranges the world 
like Peshyotanu 13 , he who is over the religion (dtn6- 

I See Chap. II, 10 for this and the following three names. 

3 He is said to have kept the evil spirit thirty years as a steed 
(see Ram Yt. 12, Zamyad Yt. 29, Mkh. XXVII, 22). 

* Here written Gim. 

* Instinctive wisdom and that acquired by experience (see 
Chap. XL, 3). 

8 Av. ManiuJithra; the descendant of Fr&/un, in the eleventh 
generation, who overthrew the usurpation of the collateral branches 
of his family, and restored the Iranian line of the PeVdadian dynasty 
in his own person (see Bd. XXXI, 12-14, XXXIV, 6). 

* See Chap. XVII, 6. 

7 Av. KaviKavata; the first king of the Kayanian dynasty 
(see Bd. XXXI, 24, 25, XXXIV, 7). 

* Probably the Av. Aoshnara, mentioned in Af. Zarat., along 
with several of the other names, in a passage somewhat similar to 
that in our text. The name here can also be read Aush-khur. 

* Av. Kavi Sy&varshSn; the son of king Kai-Kaus and 
father of king Kaf-Khusr6i, but he did not reign himself. He 
is said to have formed the settlement of Kangdea (see Chap. XC, 5, 
Bd. XXXI, 25, Byt. Ill, 25, 26). 

10 See Chap. XXXVI, 3. 

II Av. Kavf Vift&spa, Pers. GuftSsp; the fifth king of the 
KaySnian dynasty, who received the religion from Zaraturt. His 
father, the fourth king, was of collateral descent from the first king 
(see Bd. XXXI, 28, 29, XXXIV, 7). 

" The great apostle of the Parsis (see Chap. II, 10). 

" Av. Peshdtanu; a son of Kat-VLrt&sp, who is said to be 

Digitized by 



az/arag) like Aturo-pa*/ 1 , he who is liturgical like 
Hushedar 2 , he who is legal like Hushedar-mah, and 
he who is metrical and concluding like S6sh&ns. 
37. Among them are many illustrious ones, glo- 
rious doers, supporters of the religion, and good 
managers, who are completely (&pur) for the smiting 
of the fiend and the will of the creator. 

38. He also produced the creatures as contenders, 
and granted assistance (veVvarih), through the 
great, in the struggle for the perfect happiness from 
heaven at the renovation 3 of the universe; and he made 
them universally (vasp6harakaniha) contented. 
39. A vitiated thought of a living, well-disposed 
being is a stumble (nisivb) which is owing to evil; 
and these are even those* contented with death, 
because they know their limit, and it shall be definite 
(burlno-h6m6nd) and terminable; the evil of the 
world, in life, is definite, and they shall not make 
one exist unlimitedly and indefinitely in the evil of 
the world, through an eternal life with pain. 

40. And through a great mystery, wholly mira- 
culous, he produced a durable immortality for the 
living ; a perplexity so long as the best and utmost 
of it is such an immortality of adversity, for it is 

immortal and to live in Kangdes, whence he is to come to restore 
the religion in the millennium of Hush€</ar (see Chap. XC, 3, 5, 
Bd. XXIX, 5, Byt. Ill, 25-32, 36-38, 41, 42). 

1 Probably the supreme high-priest and prime minister of the 
ninth Sasanian king, Shapur II (a.d. 309-379 ; see Bd. XXXIII, 3). 

2 See Chap. II, 10 for these last three names. The terms 
mansarik, 'liturgical,' dSrfik, 'legal,' and gasanlk, 'metrical,' 
are those applied to the three divisions of the twenty-one Nasks, 
or books of the complete literature of the Maz<fe-worshippers. 

3 Mi 4 and J have merely 'granted assistance in the struggle at 
the renovation.' 

* Assuming that gha/ stands for valman, as it sometimes does. 

Digitized by 


92 DABISTAN-i d}n{k. 

ever living molested and eternally suffering. 41. And 
their development, the strength of lineage obtained, 
is ever young in succession, and the tender, well- 
destined ones, who are good, are in adversity and 
perpetuity of life, so that there is a succession of 
life through their own well-destined offspring 1 . 
42. They become eternally famous, so that they 
obtain, every one, an old age which is renewed, free 
from sickness and decay, visibly in their own off- 
spring and family (goharakS) whenever they become 
complete; and any one of the combative, whose 
struggle is through the smiting that his fellow- 
combatant obtains, is of a comfortable disposition 
at the balance 2 . 43. This one, too, is for stepping 
forth to heaven, even as that pre-eminent one of the 
righteous, the greatest of the apostles and the most 
fortunate of those born, the chief of worldly beings, 
the righteous Zaratust the Spltaman, when the 
omniscient wisdom, as a trance (gip), came upon 
him from Auharmas?^, and he saw him who was 
immortal and childless, and also him who was mortal 
and provided with children ; that perpetual life of 
the childless then seemed to him terrible, and that 
succession of mortals seemed commendable 3 ; so that 

1 Mi 4 and J have merely: 'are a succession in adversity and 
perpetuity of life.' 

1 Assuming that tarae stands for tarasuk. The meaning is 
that any one who has successfully struggled with sin in the world, 
and leaves offspring behind him, goes to his account, at the balance 
of the angel Rashnu, with cheerfulness. 

' This seems to be a variation of the statement in Byt. II, 13, 
where Zarat&rt, after asking for immortality, and having had the 
omniscient wisdom infused into him for a week, describes what he 
had seen, and amongst other things says : ' I saw a wealthy man 
without children, and it did not seem to me commendable ; and I 

Digitized by 


CHAPTER XXXVII, 4 1 -45. 93 

the coming of his assured offspring 1 , Hushedar, 
Hush&fer-mah, and Sdshans 2 , became more longed 
for and more desired, and death more than the per- 
petual life of his own body. 

44. And when he 3 who is all-watchful and all- 
knowing had arranged the means of opposing the 
fiend, there came for destroying, like a general 
leader (vispvar), that fiend of deceiving nature, the 
harassing, rushing, evil-wishing, primeval (p&s) con- 
tender, together with the demons Ak6man6 (' evil , 
thought ')*, A£shm (' wrath '), Zarman ('decrepitude'), 
Bushasp (' lethargy '), craving distress, bygone luck 6 , 
Vae 6 , Varend ('lust') 7 , Ast6-vldaaf 8 , and Vlzarash 9 , 
and the original, innumerable demons and fiends of 
Mazendaran 10 . 45. And his darkness and gloom, 
scorpions (kadzunS), porcupines, and vermin, poison 

saw a pauper with many children, and it seemed to me com- 

1 The Av. asna frazai«tif, 'inherent or natural offspring,' of 
Yas. LIX, 14, &c. The Pahl. equivalents isnu</ak and asni</ak 
can hardly be mere transliterations of asna, but are more probably 
translations, formed of a + junu</ak and nnf<fek, with some such 
meaning as ' assured.' 

• These three future apostles (see Chap. II, 10) are considered 
to be sons of Zarattot (see Bd. XXXII, 8). 

" Auharmasrf. 

4 These first four demons are described in Bd. XXVIII, 7, 

15-17. 23. 26. 

• The words niyasinak5 tangih burfS bakhtS, here trans- 
lated, may possibly be a miswriting of five names of demons. 

• The bad Vae (see Chap. XXX, 4). 
' See Bd. XXVIII, 25. 

• A demon of death (see Chap. XXIII, 3, note, Bd. XXVIII, 35). 

• Another demon of death (see Chap. XXXII, 4, 7). 

10 The mountainous country south of the Caspian, said to be full 
of demons, the Mazainya da6va of the Avesta (see Bd. Ill, 20, 
XV, 28). These demons were, no doubt, merely idolators. 

Digitized by 


94 DABISTAN-t DlNilC. 

and venom, and the mischief originally in the lower- 
most third of the sky \ issue upwards, astute in evil, 
into the middle third, in which are the agreeable 2 
creatures which Auharma^^ created. 

46. And he smote the ox 3 , he made Gay6marc/ 
mortal, and he shook the earth ; and the land was 
shattered, creation became dark, and the demons 
rushed below, above, and on all sides, and they 
mounted even to the uppermost third of the sky *. 
47. And there the barricade (band) and rampart 
fortifying (vakhshiko) the spiritual world is 
approached, for which the safeguard (nigas) of all 
barricades 6 , that is itself the great glory of the pure 
religion, solving doubts — which is the safeguard of 
all barricades — is arrayed. 48. And the splendid, 
belt-bearing Pleiades 6 , like the star-studded girdle 
of the spirit-fashioned, good religion of the Masrda- 
worshippers, are so arrayed as luminaries of the 
fully-glorious ones. 49. And there was no possibility 
(altokih) of any demon or fiend, nor yet even of 

1 See § 28. 

* By omitting a stroke n6f, 'agreeable,' would become v£h, 
' good.' 

3 The sole-created, or primeval ox, whence all animals are said 
to have sprung. For an account of this incursion of the fiend, see 
Bd. Ill, 12-20, VIII, 1, Zs. II, 1-11. 

4 Mi 4 and J have 'even to the upper sky of the middle third,' 
which means the same thing, as the author's words imply that the 
demons did not enter the upper third, but only reached its borders 
(see § 49). 

6 M14 and J conclude the sentence as follows : 'the pure religion, 
solving doubts, is arrayed.' 

• Reading vandvar PSrvakfi. The author seems to have been 
thinking of Yas. IX, 81 : 'Mazda brought to thee the star-studded, 
spirit-fashioned girdle (the belt of Orion) leading the Pleiades; the 
good Mazda-worshipping religion' (Haug's Essays, p. 182). 

Digitized by 


CHAPTER XXXVII, 46-52. 95 

the demon of demons, the mightiest (mazvantum) 
in valour, rushing up across that boundary; they 
are beaten back now, when they have not reached 
it from the gloom, at once and finally (yak-vay6 

50. And the fiend 0/" gloomy race, accustomed to 
destruction (a6sh-ayin), changed into causes of 
death the position (gas) of the brilliant, supreme 
heaven of the pure, heavenly angels — which he 
ordained through the power of 1 Mlt6kht ('false- 
hood') — and the triumph of the glory of the world's 
creatures, as ordained through two decrees (ziko): — 
one, the destruction of the living by the power 2 of 
death ; and one causing the manacling of souls by 
a course of wickedness. 51. And he made as lead- 
ers therein that one astute in evil who is already 
named s , and Ast6-v!da^* who is explained as ' the 
disintegration of material beings ; ' he also intrusted 
the demon Bushasp(' lethargy')* with the weakening 
of the breath, the demon Tap (' fever') 6 with 
stupefying and disordering the understanding, and 
the demon Kz ('greediness') 6 with suggesting 
cravings and causing drinking before having the 
thirst of a dog 7 . 52. Also the demon Zarman 
('decrepitude') 8 for injuring the body and abstract- 

1 Or, z6harak5 may mean 'venomous.' Mltdkht was the first 
demon produced by the evil spirit (see Bd. I, 24, XXVIII, 14, 16) 
who is supposed to be as much 'the father oflies' as his counter- 
part, the devil of the Christians. 

4 Or, zdhar may mean 'venom.' 

8 Mit6kht. * See § 44. 

8 See Chap. XXIII, 3. • See Bd. XXVIII, 27. 

7 Reading p&s tuno-i sagak ndfanini</an&, but we might 
read p&s tijnSg sedkununintrfano, 'causing gnawing before 
being thirsty.' 

8 See § 44 for this demon and the next two. 

Digitized by 



ing the strength ; the bad Vae's tearing away the 
life by stupefying the body; the demon Aeshm 
('wrath') for occasioning trouble by contests, and 
causing an increase of slaughter; the noxious 
creatures of gloomy places for producing stinging 
and causing injury; the demon ZMrii 1 for poisoning 
eatables and producing causes of death ; with NiyiLs 
('want') 2 the stealthily-moving and dreading the 
light 3 , the fearfulness of Nihiv ('terror') chilling 
the warmth, and many injurious powers and demons 
of the destroyers were made by him constant assist- 
ants of Asto-vidaaf in causing death. 

53. Also, for rendering wicked and making^ for 
hell those whose souls are under the sway of* false- 
hood (kadba), which in religious language is called 
Mit6kht — since it is said in revelation that that is 
as much an evil as all the demons with the demons 
of demons — there is Ak6man6 ('evil thought') 5 , who 
is with the evil spirit owing to the speaking of 
Mlt6kht ('falsehood') 8 . 54. And for his doctrine 
(dln61h) of falsehood, and winning the creatures, 
slander the deceiver, lust the selfish, hatred, and 
envy, besides the overpowering progress of disgrace 
(nang), the improper desires of the creatures, 
indolence in seeking wisdom, quarrelling about that 

1 One of the seven arch-fiends, the Av. Zairi-fca, which probably 
means 'decay,' but from the resemblance of his name to zahar, 
'poison,' he is called 'the maker of poison' (see Bd. I, 27, 
XXVIII, 11). 

1 See Bd. XXVIII, 26. 

8 Reading gadman bim, but it may be yadman bf m, ' dread- 
ing the hand;' and it is doubtful whether the epithet be applied to 
Niy&z, or to Nihiv. 

4 Reading i instead of the va, ' and,' of the MSS. 

* See § 44- * See § 50. 

Digitized by 


CHAPTER XXXVII, 53—57. . 97 

which is no indication of learning, disputing (sito.f) 
about the nature of a righteous one, and many other 
seductive powers and demons helping to win, were 
made auxiliary to the doctrine of falsehood in 
deceiving the creatures. 

55. Also, to turn his disturbance 1 to creatures 
of even other kinds, there are demons and fiends 
of further descriptions (freh-altan); and for the 
assistance of those combatants he established also 
those afflictions (nlvakan) of many, the witches of 
natures for gloomy places, whose vesture is the 
radiance of the lights 2 that fall, and rush, and turn 
below the luminaries which have to soar ( 
kano) in stopping the way of any little conceal- 
ment of the spirits and worldly beings*. 56. And 
they (the witches) overspread the light and glory 
of those luminaries, of whose bestowal of glory and 
their own diminution of it, moreover, for seizing 
the creatures, consist the pain, death, and original 
evil of the abode for the demon of demons 4 . 

57. And those demons and original fiends, who 
are the heads and mighty ones of the demons, 
injudiciously, prematurely moving, prematurely 
speaking, not for their own disciplined advantage, 

1 Reading paitiyarakS, but K35 and J have pattasarakS, 
which, if it be a real word, woujd have nearly the same meaning. 

* Shooting stars, meteors, and comets, the last of which are 
apparently intended by the term Mftjpar (Av. Muj pairika, ' the 
Mfl* witch ') of Bd. V, 1, XXVIII, 44. 

" That is, the luminaries which have to prevent these beings 
from becoming obscured by the darkness produced by the evil 

* By the omission of one loop the MSS. have yaerfano, 
'angels,' instead of sh£dan6, 'demons;' the difference between 
the two words being very slight in Pahlavi characters. 

[IS] H 

Digitized by 


98 • DAfliSTAN-i d}n!k. 

but with unbecoming hatred, lawless manner 1 , envy, 
and spears exposing the body 2 , undesirably struggle 
together — a perplexing contention of troublers — 
about the destruction of the luminaries. 58. The 
army of angels, judiciously and leisurely fighting 
for the good creatures of the sacred beings, not with 
premature hatred and forward spears (pes-ntzahlh), 
but by keeping harm away from themselves — the 
champions' customary mode 3 of wounding — valiantly, 
strongly, properly, and completely triumphantly 
struggle for a victory triumphantly fought. 59. For 
Aharman the demons are procurers (vashikano) of 
success in the contests till the end, when the fiend 
becomes invisible and the creatures become pure. 

60. Since worldly beings observe, explain, and 
declare among worldly beings the work of the spirits 
and knowledge of customs (rtstako).by true observa- 
tion, through wisdom, that that life (zik) is proper 
when it is in the similitude of the true power of 
wisdom, and the visible life is undiscerning of that 
which is to come and that which is provided, so 
also the evidence of a knowledge of the end of the 
contention is certain and clearly visible. 61. And 
tokens are discernible and signs apparent which, to 
the wisdom of the ancients — if it extended, indeed, 
to a knowledge about this pre-eminent subject — 
were hidden by the fiends, who are concealers of 
them from the perception (ha^i^n6) of worldly 
beings, and also from their coming to the perception 
of worldly beings. 

1 Reading an-ayin gun, but this is uncertain. 
8 Reading iihar-tanu nizah; the last word is usually spelt 
nlzak, but occurs in § 58 in the same form as here. 
' Reading nivikan mank gun, but this is uncertain. 

Digitized by 


CHAPTER XXXVII, 58-65. 99 

62. The learned high-priests who were founders 
(pay tn Ik an 6) of the religion knew it {the evidence), 
and those portions of it were transmitted by them 
to the ancients which the successive realisers of it, 
for the ages before me (levinam), have possessed. 

63. The deceivers 1 of the transmitters, who have 
existed at various times, even among those who are 
blessed 2 , have remained a mass of knowledge for 
me, by being my reminder of the mature and proper 
duty of those truly wise (hu-^!raganlko), through 
the directions issuable by even worldly decision, and 
of so many of which I have a remembrance s , for 
the writing of which there would be no end. 

64. Then the manifest power of the fiend among 
us below, and the way provided by the creator for 
his becoming invisible and his impotence are clear ; 
so also the full power of the creator of the army of 
angels, assuredly the procurers of success in the end, 
and 4 the accomplishment ail-powerfully — which is 
his own advantage — of the completely-happy 
progress, for ever, of all creations which are his 
creatures, are thereby visible and manifest; and 
many tokens and signs thereof are manifestly clear. 

65. One is this, that the creator is in his own 
predestined (bagdaafakS) abode, and the fiend is 

1 The unorthodox, or those holding erroneous views regarding 
the traditions handed down by them. 

* Reading afrinl<f6, which K35 has converted into afgdn&</5, 
' casts,' by inverting the order of the two central characters. 

5 Mi 4 and J omit the words from ' through ' to ' remembrance.' 
The author means that he has acquired much information on the 
subject even from the opinions of the unorthodox judiciously 

4 M14 has merely the words: 'and the completely-harpy 
progress,' &c. 

H 2 

531801 & 

Digitized by VjOOQlC 


advancing and has rushed in, and his advancing is 
for the subjugation of the creation 1 . 

66. One, that the creatures of Auharmaar^ are 
spiritual and also worldly, and that is no world of 
the fiend, but he gathers an evil spiritual state into 
the world ; and as among so many the greed of suc- 
cess is only in one 2 , so the triumph is manifest of the 
good spirits and worldly beings over the evil spirits. 

67. One is this, that his defeat in the end is 
manifest from his contention and aggression (pes- 
za</arlh); for the fiend is an aggressor in an 
unlawful struggle, and leaving the army of Auhar- 
mausd — subsequently the lawful defender (lakhvar- 
za</ar) — the fiend of violence is a cause of power 
among those wholly unrequiting the creator in the 
world 3 . 68. If, also, every time that he smites the 
creatures he is equally and lawfully beaten once 
again, it is assuredly evident therefrom that, when 
their beating and being beaten are on an equality 
together, at first he whose hand was foremost was 
the smiter, and the backward fighter was beaten ; but 
at last that backward fighter is the smiter, and the 
foremost fighter becomes beaten ' ; for when he is 

1 K35 has altered dakhshako, 'token,' into dahi*n5, 'creation,' 
by changing one letter, and M14 and J have adopted the wrong 

« Reading Jigun d6n havandih k\x as d£n khadfiko. The 
drift of these two first reasons seems to be that the fiend, being 
an invader and outnumbered, must be vanquished in the end. 

5 Reading zak-i z6r dru^6 d£n-i d&dir bar&-at6^igan6-l 
sttx vahanS-i niruko-hdmandih. This phrase seems to 
have been generally misunderstood by copyists, as both Mi 4 and 
J have altered it into something like : ' when the violence of the 
fiend is in the hand of the creator, yet even if the motive of 
the army is so much power.' 

* Mi 4 and J omit this clause, from 'but' to ' beaten.' 

Digitized by 



beaten in the former combat, tftere is then a combat 
again, and his enemy is beaten. 

69. One is this, that when the supply of weapons 1 , 
the fighting, and the ability of the contenders are 
equal, the supply of weapons of him who is the 
beginner (pe^f^ar) has always sooner disappeared, 
and, at last, he is unarmed and his opponent re- 
mains armed ; and an armed man is known to be 2 
victorious over him who is unarmed, just as one 
fighting is triumphant over one not fighting 8 . 70. 
And a similitude of it, which is derived from the 
world, is even such as when each one of two furious 
ones (Ard6) of equal strength, in a fight together, 
has an arrow, and each one is in fear of the other's 
possession of an arrow; and one of them alone 
shoots his arrow, and makes it reach his opponent ; 
then he is without an arrow, and his opponent, 
fully mindful of it, has an arrow, and becomes 
fearless through possession of the arrow, his own 
intrepidity, and the lack of arrows and complete 
terror of that earlier shooter. 71. And as regards 
mighty deeds he is successful ; and though there be 
as much strength for the earlier fighter a successful 
termination is undiscoverable yfrr him; despoiled of 
possession by him who is later, and ruined in that 
which is all-powerful, his end and disappearance are 
undoubted, clear, and manifest 4 . 

1 The term zend afz&r evidently refers here to the warrior's 
stock of arrows and other missiles which were to be expended in 
battle, so that it is analogous to the modern term ' ammunition.' 

8 M14 has yehevun£rf, 'becomes/ instead of dindsto, 'known.' 

' Mi 4 and J omit these last four words. 

* The argument, both in this case and the preceding one, is 
that even when two combatants are equal in power and resources 
the hasty aggressor is likely to be beaten in the end, and, therefore, 

Digitized by VjOOQlC 


72. One is this, that owing to the previous non- 
appearance of the fiend, the coming forward of sick- 
ness and death unto the creatures of the sacred beings 
occurred when the fiend rushed in, and he rendered 
the existence of men sickly; he also destroyed and 
put to death the progeny of animals. 73. After- 
wards, through lawfully driving him away, sickness 
and death come in turn (barikiha) unto the demons, 
and the healthiness 1 of the righteous and perfect 
life unto the creatures of the sacred beings, as its 
counterpart is the great healthiness which comes, 
more rightly rising, unto the creatures advised by 
the sacred beings, through united arrangement 2 . 
74. And, in the end, a worldly similitude of the 
sickness and grievous, complete death for the 
fiends 3 , and of the healthiness and intrinsic (benaf- 
.yman-^igunlh) life for the creatures of the sacred 
beings, is that which occurs when one of two liti- 
gants (ham-patkar), prematurely revengeful, gives 
to his fellow-litigant an irritating poison, and himself 
eats wholesome flour before the later litigant gives 
a poison, as an antidote, to the earlier litigant, and 
himself eats the poison-subduing flour ; after which 
he is cured by the poison, and his- enemy is dead 
through the poison of the later flour 4 . 

the inferiority of the fiend is still more likely to lead to his final 

1 M14 begins a fresh argument here, owing to some misunder- 
standing of the meaning of the sentence. 

5 That is, the advantage of driving away the fiend in this life is 
a counterpart of the blessings attained at the resurrection. 

8 The word dru^ a no, 'fiends,' is omitted in K35, but is evi- 
dently necessary to complete the sentence. 

4 This appears to be a description of ordeal by poison and 
the two usual modes of evading its operation. The hasty evader 
relies upon deceitfully substituting a wholesome powder for the 

Digitized by 



75. One is this, that Atiha.rma.zd, the creator, is 
a manager with omniscient wisdom, and the conten- 
tion of the fiend of scornful looks (tar nigfrUn) is 
through lust of defilement ; of united power is the 
management of that creator, as existing with (ham- 
zik) 1 all the vigilance in the wisdom which is in 
everything; and that united power is the strength 
of the management of heaven. 76. And of much 
power is the contention of the fiend, as his manifold 
changing of will — which is hostile to the will of even 
his own creatures, and is through the weakness 
and exhausted 2 strength of an evil nature — is the 
contending power which forms his visible strength 3 . 

77. One is this, that is, on account of the fiend's 
contending ill-advisedly, however strongly the contest 
is adapted for the damage of his own fiendishness, 
and regret and bad consequences therefrom are 
perceptible. 78. Such as the very paralyzing 4 
affliction which was appointed (nJhadfS) by him 

poison he has to take ; while the more cautious evader trusts to 
recognising his adversary's poison by its taste, and selecting another 
poison as an antidote for both to take, so that the hasty evader 
suffers through his own deceit in not taking the first poison. 
Similarly, the fiend is supposed to suffer in the end from the death 
and destruction which he was the first to introduce into the 

1 By omitting a phrase Mi 4 and J have : ' and the management 
of the fiend of scornful looks is as it were existing with,' &c. 

' This is little more than a guess at the meaning of a word 
which can be read vashaki</8 (compare Pers. ga* and ka.ndan). 
The whole sentence is rather uncertain. 

" The argument is that this unstable power of the fiend cannot 
permanently stand against the consolidated strength of the creator. 

* Adopting J's reading samakguntar, but K35 has vasmak- 
gun tar, which may be 'very troublesome,' and M14 has sam- 
kintar, probably for sahmgintar, 'very terrible.' 

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104 dAdistan-J d{n}k. 

for the creatures of the world in putting the living 
to death, which he ordered with violence and the 
hope that it would be his greatest triumph. 79. 
Even that is what is so self-damaging to the same 
fiend that, when he puts to death him who is wicked, 
and he who is wicked, who is performing what is 
desirable for him (the fiend) — that performance of 
what is desirable being the practice of sin — is useless 
and goes thither where he is penitent of that seduc- 
tion, the spirit ' of the owner (shah) of the sin, whose 
soul is wicked 2 , is righteous, in whose worldly body 
exist the fetters of pain and darkness ; and owing to 
the unfettering of its hands from that pain it (the 
spirit) is far away, and goes to heaven, which is the 
most fortified of fortresses. 80. Fearlessly it fights 
for it, even as the guardian spirit of Yim the splen- 
did 3 kept away all trouble (v^am), the guardian 
spirit of Fr&/un kept away even those active in 
vexing 4 , and other guardian spirits of those passed 
away are enumerated as engaged in the defeat of 
many fiends. 

1 That is, the guardian spirit (see Chap. II, 5) which is not 
rendered wicked by the sin of the soul. 

* The phrase mun ruban-t zak darvand is ambiguous, as it 
might mean ' which is the soul of that wicked one,' but this is not 
reconcileable with the context. 

* See Chap. II, 10. Yim-t sh£</6 is the Yimd khshaStd of 
Vend. II, 43, 45, the JamshSd of the Shahnamah. The legends 
here referred to are mentioned in Fravarafin Yt. 130-138, where 
the guardian spirit of Yima is said to withstand the misfortune 
brought on by. the demons, while that of Thra&aona (Fr&ffin) 
withstands various diseases, and those of other heroes withstand 
various other evils and demons. 

4 Reading pavan bSsh-i£ kara'arin, but for \k we ought 
probably to read az, so as to make the phrase correspond to the 
Av. azi-karjtahS </ba£shanghd of Fravarrfin Yt. 131. 

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CHAPTER XXXVII, 79-83.* 105 

81. One is this, that the most grievous severance 
that is owing to him (the fiend) 1 is the production of 
the mortality of the creatures, in which the afflicting 
(nizgun) demon Ast6-vidaaf 2 is the head of the many 
Mazlnikan demons*. 82. And the propitious crea- 
tor's developers were thus unprovoked (anarg6nd) 
when the only person, who is called Gay6maraf 4 , was 
destroyed by him, and came back to the world as 
a man and a woman whose names were Marhaya 
and Marhly6ih s ; and the propagation and connec- 
tion of races were through their next-of-kin mar- 
riage of a sister*. 83. The unlucky 7 fiend, while he 

1 Instead of zfj madam, 'that is owing to him,' we ought 
probably to read z\s bar, 'that is his production;' the Huz. 
madam, which is the proper equivalent of the preposition bar, ' on, 
according to,' being wrongly used for the noun bar, 'produce.' 

* See § 44. 

8 The Mazainya dafiva of the Avesta (see § 44, note). 

4 The sole-created, or primeval, man from whom the whole 
human race is said to have sprung (see Chap. II, 10, Bd. Ill, 14, 
17, 19-23, XV, 1, 31). 

* The progenitors of the undeformed human race, who are 
said to have grown up, in the manner of a plant, from the seed 
of the dead Gaydmanf (see Bd. XV, 2-5). Their names are 
derived from Av. mashya mashydi, 'the man and woman,' but 
the latter form is no longer extant in the Avesta. From Av. 
mashya we have the Mashya of Bd. XV, 6, and the Mashya 
of Bd. XV, 11, 19, 20, 30. From its dialectical variant martiya 
in ancient Pers., which would be marethya in the Avesta (com- 
pare Av. mareta, Pers. mard), we have the Marhaya of our 
text. And by transposition of the letters rt=reth=rha in these 
latter forms, we have the Matrd of Bd. XV, 2 and the Maharih 
or Maharya of Bd. XV, 22, note. Other forms of these names 
also occur (see Chaps. LXIV, 2, LXV, 2, LXXVII, 4). 

* Mi 4 has ' of brother and sister,' but the insertion of the extra 
word is unnecessary. Regarding khv£tud&</, or next-of-kin 
marriage, see Chap. LXV. 

7 Reading IS- kha^astS; the fiend is certainly ' unlucky ' here, 

Digitized by 


I06 DADISTAN-f dJniK. 

increased offspring and fortune for them through 
death, so uplifted his voice in their presence, about 
the death of the living ones of their offspring and 
lineage, that together with the unmeasured destruc- 
tiveness of the deadly evil spirit, and the unjust 
contention of his through death and the conveyer 
of death 1 , the sting also of birth was owing to 
death. 84. The repetitions of the cry were many, 
so that the issue (bar) of thousands and thousands 
of myriads from those two persons, and the multi- 
tude passed away, from a number which is limited 
and a counterpart (ae*/unSlh) of the living people 
in the world, are apparent ; and for the annihilation 
of many fiends, through death, the propitiousness 
of the contending power of the creator is clear and 

85. One is this, that the most steadfast quality 
of the demon himself is darkness, the evil of which 
is so complete that they shall call the demons also 
those of a gloomy race. 86. But such is the power 
in the arms and resources of the angels, that even 
the first gloomy darkness in the world is perpetually 
subdued by the one power really originating with 
the sun and suitable thereto, and the world is illu- 
minated 2 . 

87. One is this, that the most mischievous weapon 
of the demons is the habit of self-deception which, 

as by introducing death into the world he merely increases the 
number of beings who pass into the other world to join his 
opponents in the end; but the text probably means that he is 
' inauspicious ' and wishes to bring misfortune on mankind. 

1 Astd-vfd&/(see§8i). 

* The argument is that, as the sun is able to subdue darkness, 
the most constant quality of the fiend, every day, it is probable 
that the fiend himself will be entirely subdued in the end. 

Digitized by 



on account of rendering the soul wicked thereby, 
seemed to them as the greatest triumph for them- 
selves, and a complete disaster for the angels. 

88. In the great glory of the pure, true religion 
of the sacred beings is as much strength as is 
adapted to the full power of the lawlessness and 
much opposition of falsehood, and also to the fully 
accurate (zvsido) speaking which is in itself an 
evidence of the true speaking of every proper 
truth ; and no truth whatever is perverted by it 

89. And the false sayings are many, and good say- 
ings — i/ieir opponents through good statement — 
do not escape from their imperfect truth 1 ; since a 
similitude of them is that which occurs when, con- 
cerning that which is white-coloured, the whole of 
the truthful speak about its white colour, but as to 
the liars there are some who speak of its black 
colour, some of its mud colour, some of its blue 
colour, some of its bran 2 colour, some of its red 
colour, and some of its yellow colour. 90. And 
every single statement of each of the truthful is as 
much evidence, about those several colours of those 
who are liars, as even the compiled sayings of the 
Abraham of the Christians 3 , which are the word 
of him who is also called their Messiah 4 , about the 

1 Assuming that apurastih stands for apur r&stih; it may, 
however, be intended for az»i-r£stih,'want of truth.' The meaning 
is that even true statements become perverted by inaccurate 

* Perhaps sapujag, 'bran,' may have originally been sapzag, 
' green.' 

* Written Abraham-! TarsSktg&n. 

4 The letter * in Majikha is here written like i\, but the word 
is correctly written in § 91. 

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Son of the Supreme Being 1 ; thus, they recount that 
the Son, who is not less than the Father, is himself 
He, the Being whom they consider undying. 91. 
One falsehood they tell about the same Messiah 
is that he died, and one falsehood they tell is that 
he did not die ; it is a falsehood for those who say 
he did not die, and for those who say he did die ; 
wherefore did he not die, when he is not dead ?. 
and wherefore is it said he did not die, when he 
is mentioned as dead 2 ? 92. Even the compilation 
itself is an opponent to its own words, for, though 
it said he is dead, it spoke unto one not dead ; and 
though he is not dead, it spoke unto one dead. 
93. The proper office (gas) of a compiler and 
mutilator 3 — through whose complete attainments 
the demons of like power as to the force of truth 
are strengthened, and the pure, good religion of the 
Masda-worshippers is itself dissipated and rendered 
useless for itself — is a habit (da</6) growing with 

1 The phrase is barmano-i da</, literally 'son of the created 
one! unless we assume that darf is taken as a name of God. It is, 
however, quite conceivable that a priest would be reluctant to 
admit that a strange god could be anything better than a created 
being. That da</ is here used as a noun, and not with the 
meaning of 'gift' or 'law,' appears from the subsequent phrase 
da</6-t amirako yakhsenund, ' the created one whom they 
consider undying.' 

* Owing to the frequent repetitions of the same words in these 
phrases they are specially liable to corruption by copyists, but as 
they stand in K35 they can hardly be translated otherwise than 
as questions. Mi 4 and J have an altered text which may be 
translated as follows : — ' for whomever he did not die, when dead, 
he is as dead; for whomever it is said he died, he is so when 
he is mentioned as dead ; ' but this seems no improvement of 
the text. 

* Referring to those who compile commentaries and mutilate 
texts to suit their own views. 

Digitized by 



the fiend ; and, as he is seen to be victorious who 
overturns reliance on changeableness and similar 
powers, the final disruption of forces is a disruption 
of peculiarities (khiWfh vish6pi-?n6) 1 . 

94. One is this, that is, even that prodigious 
devastation of which it is declared that it happens 
through the rain of Malkds 2 , when, through snow, 
immoderate cold, and the unproductiveness of the 
world, most mortals die ; and even the things attain- 
able by mortals are attended with threatenings of 
scarcity. 95. Afterwards — as among the all-wise, 
preconcerted remedies (p&s iarih) of the bene- 
ficent spirit 3 such a remedy was established (and 
nih&d k&r) that there is one of the species of 
lands, that is called ' the enclosure formed by 

1 The argument is that even heterodoxy, ' the most mischievous 
weapon' of the fiend (see § 87), must fail in the end, because, 
like other revolutions, it relies on constant change, which implies 
want of permanency. 

* Malk6san5, 'of Malk6s,' is a denominative adjective derived 
from Chald. B*ip?9 ' autumnal rain.' The deluging rain of Malkfis 
is supposed to usher in the dreadful winter foretold to Yima in 
Vend. II, 46-56, when all, or nearly all, living creatures were to 
perish, a truly glacial epoch. In a Persian paraphrase of the 
Bahman Yart (see Byt. Introd. p. lix) this period of Malk6s is 
described as follows: — 'As three hundred years have elapsed 
from the time of Hush£<fer (Byt. Ill, 44-49), the period of Malkds 
comes on ; and the winter of Malkds is such that, owing to the 
cold and snow which occur, out of a myriad of men in the world 
only one will remain, and the trees and shrubs all become 
withered, and the quadrupeds, whether carrying, walking, leaping, 
or grazing, will all utterly die. Then, by command of God, they 
will come from the enclosure formed by Yim, and the men and 
quadrupeds from that place spread over Iran, and make the 
world populous a second time, and it is the beginning of the 
millennium of Hush&/ar(-mah).' 

' The formation of the enclosure was ordered, as a precaution, 
by Auharmas*/ (see Vend. II, 61-92). 

Digitized by 


no DADISTAN-! DiNhc. 

Yim 1 ,' through which, by orders issued by Yim the 
splendid and rich in flocks, the son of Vtvangha 2 , 
the world is again filled — men of the best races, 
animals of good breeds, the loftiest trees, and most 
savoury (khare^istano) foods, in that manner 
came back miraculously for the restoration of the 
world ; which new men are substituted for the former 
created beings, which is an upraising of the dead 3 . 
96. Likewise from that miracle is manifested the non- 
attainment of the evil spirit to the universal control 
of the glory of the creator for every purpose. 

97. One is this, that — when the heterodox (dris- 
din6) Dahak 4 , on whom most powerful demons and 
fiends in the shape of serpents are winged 6 , escapes 
from the fetters of Fre^un, and, through witch- 
craft, remains a demon even to the demons* and 

1 Reading Yim-kar<f var, but these words are corrupted in 
three different ways in the three MSS. consulted. This enclosure 
is said to have been in the middle of Pars in Bd. XXIX, 14. 

2 Av.Vivanghau (see Bd. XXXI, 2). 
s That is, a type of the resurrection. 

* The Av. Azi Dahaka, 'destructive serpent,' slain by ThraS- 
taonx In later times he was converted into a usurping king, or 
dynasty, the Dha'h'hak of the Shahnamah, who conquered Yim 
(Jamshed) and, after a reign of a thousand years, was defeated by 
FrMm (ThraStaona) and fettered under Mount Dimavand ; whence 
he is to escape during the millennium of Hush&fer-mah to devas- 
tate the world, till he is finally slain by the hero Keresasp, who is 
revived for the purpose (see Bd. XXIX, 8, 9, XXXI, 6, Byt. Ill, 

5 That is, attached to the shoulders like wings ; referring to the 
serpents said to have grown from the shoulders of Dahak. 

* M14 alters shSdln, 'demons,' into gfih&n, 'world,' so as to 
read ' through the demon of witchcraft remains a destroyer unto 
the world.' The alteration in the Pahlavi text is small, but seems 

Digitized by 



a destroyer — a mighty man who is roused 1 up 
beforehand from the dead, and is called Keresasp 
the Saman 2 , crushes that fiendishness with a club 
consisting of a cypress tree, and brings that Dahak 
through wholesome fear to the just law of the sacred 
beings 3 . 

98. One is this, that these, which are distinct 
from those born and the men who have laboured 
together, Ast6-vlda^ 4 has not obtained, nor even 
will obtain, for death ; and through the power of 
immortals, and the action of the good discourses 
(hu-sakhunaganlh) s , they urge on to the sacred 
beings those who are inquiring (kav-h6mand), 
even to the immortality which is the renovation 
of the other creatures. 99. One, which is where 
the mingled conflict of the meeting of good and 
evil occurs*, is the glorious good-yielding one of 
the creator which is guarded by purity, so that 
the fiend has not attained to injuring it, since 
it is pronounced to be the uninjured ox which is 
called Hadhay&y 7 . 100. Also the long life which 

1 Reading angSaoi-aito, instead of the unintelligible angi</?- 

8 See Chap. XVII, 6. 

* Dahak and all other heinous offenders are said to undergo 
a special punishment for three nights at the resurrection, and are 
then finally purified by passing through molten metal like the rest 
of mankind (see Bd. XXX, 16, 20). 

4 See § 44. 

* Perhaps referring to the liturgical recitations. 

* In the atmosphere apparently (see Bd. I, 4). 

T Written HadhaySm here, but Hadhayi* in § 119, Chnps. 
XLVIII, 34, XC, 4, and Hadhayfij or Hadhayavj in Bd. XIX, 
13, XXX, 25, though always in PSzand. It is also called Sar- 
saok, or Srisaok, in Bd. XV, 27, XVII, 4, XIX, 13, always in 
Pazand, and this name is converted into Pahl. Sruv6 in Zs. XI, 10. 

Digitized by 


112 DADISTAN-t D$Nfoc. 

is through its all-controlling power 1 until they cause 
the end to occur, and the devourers of fires are 
subdued by it — besides the whole strength of the 
unboasting (aidtn) creatures of the beneficent 
spirit, after they live even without eating 2 — is 
because of the H6m that is white 3 and the pro- 
moter (frashm) of perfect glory, which possesses 
the wholesomeness of the elixir of immortality, and 
through it the living become ever-living. 101. And 
also as many more specially pure glorious ones whose 
enumeration would be tedious *. 

1 02. One is this, that the struggle of the evil 
one and the demons with the creatures is not pre- 
cisely the existence of various kinds of contest, but 

It is said to be an ox which never dies till it is slaughtered at 
the resurrection, so that its fat may form one of the ingredients 
of the elixir of immortality which all men have then to taste ; it is 
also said that mankind, in ancient times, crossed the ocean on its 
back, when going to settle in the other regions of the earth. From 
what is stated in the text it may be supposed to be some form of 
cloud myth, but it is not mentioned in the extant portion of the 
Avesta, unless 'the ox Hadhay6f' be taken as a corruption of 
gSu.r hudhau, 'the well-yielding ox,' and Sarsaok as connected 
with Pers. sruk, 'a drop,' and referring to showers of rain; but 
this is very uncertain. 

1 The power of the white H6m mentioned below. 

* As, it is said, they will do for ten years before SoshSns, the 
last apostle, appears to prepare for the resurrection (see Chap. 
XXXV, 3, Bd. XXX, 3). 

* A tree said to grow in the ocean, the juice of which is the 
other ingredient of the elixir of immortality; it is also called 
Gokarn, or Gdkart/, Av. gaokerena, and is guarded by ten 
enormous fish (see Bd. XVIII, 1-3, XXVII, 4, XXX, 25). 

* The existence of such immortal creatures, said to be intended 
for special use at the resurrection, is here taken as a proof of the 
reality of the resurrection itself. Whether the seven immortals 
described in Chap. XC are to be included among them is uncertain. 

Digitized by 



by natural operation and through desire of deceit 1 . 
103. And the demon of slander (spazg), whose 
nature it is to make the indignation (zdhar) of the 
creatures pour out, one upon the other, about 
nothing, as he does not succeed in making it pour 
out among the righteous*, he makes the wicked 
even pour it out upon the wicked ; and as he does 
not succeed even in making it pour out among 
the wicked, he makes a demon pour it out upon 
a demon. 104. The impetuous assailant, Wrath 
(Aeshm), as he does not succeed in causing strife 
among the righteous, flings discord and strife amid 
the wicked ; and when he does not succeed as to the 
strife even of the wicked, he makes the demons and 
fiends fight together. 105. So also the demon of 
greediness (aso), when he does not attain, in 
devouring, to that of the good, mounts 3 by his 
own nature unto devouring that of the demons. 
106. So also the deadly Ast6-vida^ 4 is ever an 
antagonistic operator ; when there is no righteous 
one who is mortal, nor any creatures in the world, 
the wicked dying one (mfrak) rides to the fiends 
through a death which is an antagonism of himself 6 . 

1 That is, the demons do not come into personal conflict with 
material creatures, but are supposed to influence their evil passions 
and to pervert the original laws of nature. 

1 M14 omits the passage from this word to the same word in 
§ 104. 

* The word s6bSrlrf5, ' rides, mounts,' both here and in § 106, 
is possibly only a mis writing of the very similar word dubarg</6, 
'runs, rushes.' Several words in this sentence are accidentally 
omitted in Mi 4. 

* See § 44. 

8 As it is uncertain whether the ' dying one ' is a human being 
or the demon himself, it is doubtful which of them is here supposed 
to commit suicide. M14 and J have merely : ' nor even among the 

[.8] I 

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107. The means of the united forces 1 are means 
such as the wise and the high-priests have pro- 
claimed, that is, at the time of the renovation of 
the universe 2 being nigh, when completion has come 
to generation — those who were provided being born 
— and after they occasion freedom from generation 
(azerkhuni.ynlh), they cause men and animals to 
exist, though passed away and dead. 108. All men, 
righteous and wicked, who continue in the world 
become immortal, the men are righteous whom Asto- 
vid&d does not obtain for death by evil noosing 
(du.y-vadi.ynS) 3 from behind, and who have com- 
pletely attained to the rules of the sacred beings 
(yang-J yasdfan); and the soul of the wicked, 
which is repentant of deceit, turns back upon the 
demons and fiends themselves all that previous 
violence of destruction and perversion, contention 
and blinding 4 which is natural to a demon, and 
they fight, and strike, and tear, and cause to tear, 
and destroy among themselves (benafoman va/ 

creatures of the sacred beings those which are an antagonism of 
himself;' apparently connecting this section with the next. This 
final argument is that, as the demons by their very nature must 
injure their friends if they fail with their enemies, they contain 
within themselves the source of their own final destruction. In 
other words : ' if Satan rise up against himself, and be divided, he 
cannot stand, but hath an end' (Mark iii. 26). 

1 The army of angels of §§ 58, 64. The author, having 
exhausted his arguments in favour of the final triumph of the 
good creation, now returns to his description of the issue of the 
contest, which he was about to commence in § 64. 

s Mi 4 and J omit the following words as far as ' provided.' 

» See Chap. XXIII, 3. 

4 Or, perhaps, ' concealment,' as there is some doubt whether 
aub£ni</arih means 'making unseeing, or making unseen.' 

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benafrman) so long as they are in hell and 

109. The wicked who are penitent become cou- 
rageous anew as to the demon who perverts, the living 
occasion strength 1 , and the retribution of the hellish 
existence of the wicked is completed, because the 
increase of sins 2 , owing to the sin which they com- 
mitted, ceases, no. They are let out from hell, 
though their sins are thus accumulated by the de- 
mons ; they have also prepared 3 the spirit of sin 
by the three days in molten metal*, which drives 
away tears, as its name is owing to the lessening 
of tears 6 , which is all 6 in that which occurs when all 
the doers of actions for the demon of falsehood 7 
pass through that preparation, in. And he who, 
for three days, thus bathes (vushakeVo) his sins 
which are owing to the fiend, and has destroyed the 
filth (£akhu) of the accumulated sins, is like those 
who have passed off and turned over a burden. 

112. And the impotence of sin is owing to the 
destroyer of the fiend by the perception of light, 

1 That is, the wicked who are still living, being penitent, rein- 
force the host of the righteous. 

s Referring probably to the 'growth of sin' mentioned in Chaps. 
XI, a, XII, 5. 

* That is,' purified.' 

* All men are said to be purified, at the time of the resurrection, 
by passing through melted metal, which seems like warm milk to 
the righteous, but is a final torment to the wicked (see Chap. 
XXXII, is, 13, Bd. XXX, 19, 20). 

6 This would seem to allude to some Avesta name of this molten 
metal, which is no longer extant. 

6 We should probably read hamai, ' ever,' instead of bamak, 

7 Reading zur, but it may be z 6 r, 'violence.' 

I 2 

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n6 dadistAn-S d!n}k. 

who was their creator 1 ; they (men) all see all, they 
all forgive, and they all are powerful as regards all 
things for the creator. 113. And, moreover, after 
the three days, when they occur, all the creatures 
of the good creator are purified and pure by the 
perfect washing passed through, by the most amaz- 
ing preparation ordained (bakhto), and by the most 
complete account they render complete. 114. And 
they are triumphant over the fiend through their own 
weapons, through their own driving away of their 
own littleness (kasvidfarlh), and the glory of the 
creator and that of the angels ; and since he becomes 
exhausted in resources (den kkx) they make him 
become extinct. 

115. But previously 2 they are attacked, and dis- 
persed, and subdued, and this even fully painfully 
and with complete experience ; and they aid, 
through backward goodness, in the antagonism of 
means which are separated divergently, through 
scattered resources and subdued strength, like the 
life from the body of worldly mortals, and this, 
moreover, confusedly, uselessly, and unmovingly. 
116. But the abode 3 for the essential material 
existence (sti-t ^ihariko), about which there is a 
seeking for interment 4 , is not powerless, and on 
enquiring the wishes of such numbers 6 they have 

1 That is, the destroyer of the fiend was the creator of the men 
mentioned in § 108. The reading sin&jno, ' perception,' is un- 
certain; perhaps we ought to read 'in the regions (dtvigano) 
of light.' 

* That is, before the purification in molten metal. 

8 The ' body,' apparently, but this section is by no means clear. 

* This must be on the part of the fiend, as burial is unlawful. 

8 Perhaps the meaning is that the fiend is at length overcome 
by the constantly accumulating numbers of the penitent wicked. 

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cast him out ; and no share whatever, nor fragment 
of a share, of fiendishness, nor even so much as 
some morsel of unpardonableness sent by fiendish- 
ness, remains in this light. 

1 1 7. Those who are righteous, intelligent through 
their own glory of religion — which is a spirit 1 in 
the form of light — are scattered (parvandag-ait6) 
equally around the sky of skies, when from every 
single side of it there arises, for the sake of margin, 
three times as much space as the earth created by 
Auharmas^, in the preparation of the creatures 
which were created by him. 118. Through his 
own will he again constructs the bodies of the 
evil creation, unlaboriously, easily, and full-glori- 
ously, though their construction is even from the 
clay of Aushdastir 2 , and their moisture is from 
the purified water of Arekdvisur 8 the undefiled. 
1 19. And from that which is a good protector 
through him, and which is also connected with 

1 The handsome maiden who is supposed to meet the departed 
soul, and whose form is an embodiment of its own deeds and 
religion (see Chaps. XXIV, 5, XLIV, 20). Or, perhaps, the angel 
of religion (Din) itself, which is reverenced for its radiance and 
glory in Din Yt. 4. 

* A mythical mountain (see Chap. XXX, 2). 

* The mythical source of pure water which is said to flow from 
Mount Alburz into Lake Urvis on the summit of Mount Hugar, 
and thence to Mount Ausinddm in the wide-formed ocean, whence 
it partly flows into the ocean, and partly rains upon the earth (see 
Bd. XIII, 1, 3-5). Much the same account of it is given in Chap. 
XCII, 5, only the lake is said to be on the summit of Mount 
Ausinddm. It is the Av. Ardvi sura of the AbSn Yt., and the 
Pahl. form Arekdvisur = Aregdvisur may be explained as a trans- 
position of Aredgvisur, an ordinary mispronunciation of Ardvt 
sura. Modern P arsis, who consider the Pahl. k as silent (or merely 
a soft aspirate) after a vowel, would pronounce Aredvisdr. 

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him, even from the HadhayaLr ox 1 , is the strength 
of everlasting welfare (vehgarih) and immortality; 
and the living are again produced for the body, they 
have immortal life, and they become hungerless and 
thirstless, undecaying and undying, undistressed and 
undiseased, ever-living and ever-beneficial. 

1 20. After the renovation of the universe t/iere is 
no demon, because there is no deceit ; and no fiend, 
because there is no falsity ; there is no evil spirit 
(angramind), because there is no destruction ; there 
is no hell, because there is no wickedness ; there is 
no strife, because there is no anger ; there is no 
hatred, because there is no ill-temper (dazth); 
there is no pain, because there is no disease. 
121. There is also no Dahak 2 , because there is 
no fear ; there is no want, because there is no 
greediness ; there is no shame, because there is no 
deformity; there is no falsehood 3 , because there 
is no desire of falsehood ; there is no heterodoxy, 
because there are no false statements ; and there is 
no tardiness, because it speaks of a dilatory (^usto) 
race in that which is said thus : ' They are all those 
of evil thoughts, of evil words, of evil deeds, a race 
of all evils to be made to tear by the evil spirit' 

122. And on his (the demon's) disappearance 
every evil has disappeared, on the disappearance 
of evil every good is perfected, and in the time of 
complete goodness it is not possible to occasion 
(andakhtano) any pain or distress whatever, by 
any means, to any creature. 123. Those who are 
present (nunak) sufferers 4 , when there is a blow of 

1 See § 99. * See § 97. 

3 Mi 4 and J omit what follows, as far as ' heterodoxy.' 

4 Literally ' attainers to endurance.' 

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CHAPTER XXXVII, 120-128. I19 

a fist on the body, or the point of a nail (t£kh 
burak) is driven into a limb, are pained on account 
of the combination (ham-darfakih) of a different 
nature for the purposes of the fiend in the body. 
124. But at that time of no complication (aham- 
yakhtih), when a limb is struck upon a limb, or 
even such a thing as a knife, or sword, or club, or 
stone, or arrow reaches the body, there is no pain 
or discomfort whatever corresponding to that pre- 
sent pain. 125. And at that time one consideration 
(vusld-a.6) occurs, for now the pain from that beat- 
ing and striking is always owing to that different 
nature, and on account of their being suitable to it, 
but at that time everything being of like nature and 
like formation there is never any distress. 

126. And in that most happy time they let the 
sun, moon, and luminaries exist, but there is no 
need for a return of the day and a removal of its 
going forth (frashm) 1 , for the world is a dispenser 
(vakhtar) of all light, and all creatures, too, are 
brilliant; those luminaries also become as it were 
perfectly splendid for them. 127. And every crea- 
ture, too, is of like will and like power; which- 
ever were mortals, unenvious of the welfare of all 
creatures, are alike joyous, and that share of their 
position and pleasure rejoices them which has come 
to them from the glory of all the existences and capa- 
bilities of him, the all-good, who is aware of all of 
everything through his own perfect persistence and 
complete resources. 

128. And he allots, to the doers of good works 

1 The ' going forth ' of the day or the sun means its disappear- 
ance or going away, and is an Avesta phrase. The sun is supposed 
to be ' forth ' when it is absent, not when it appears. 

Digitized by 


120 DADISTAN-i dJnJk. 

and the suitable ranks, the power of a judge 
(dadfoko), wealthiness, goodness, and the director- 
ship (radih) of what is intended. 129. He is the 
designer of what is intended, as it is said about 
his creatures and capability that fire is producing 
wind, fire is producing water, and fire is producing 
earth ; wind is producing fire, wind is producing water, 
and wind is producing earth ; water is producing fire, 
water is producing wind, and water is producing earth ; 
earth is producing fire, earth is producing wind, and 
earth is producing water. 130. The spirit is both 
the cause of spirit and the cause of matter (stl^) ; 
and the cause of matter, too, is also the cause of 
spirit, through that perpetual capability. 

131. And, moreover, all the angels, the souls, and 
the guardian spirits are attending to the wishes of 
the glory of the creator and the commands of the 
creator, without trouble and fully rejoicing, in like- 
ness unto the forms of seas, rivers, mountains, trees, 
and waters 1 ; and they have comforted and deco- 
rated the creation. 132. And the angels, souls, and 
guardian spirits, themselves also the constituted 
spirits of a former contact with life, are thereby 
pleased and rejoiced ; eternal and thoroughly pre- 
pared they are naturalised in that complete joy. 

Chapter XXXVIII. 

1. As to the thirty-seventh question and reply, 
that which you ask is thus : The measure that they 

1 All objects being supposed to be represented by guardian 
spirits in the other world. 

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measure good works with being revealed 1 , how is it 
then when there is more, or not, done by us ? 

2. The reply is this, that every thought, word, 
and deed whose result is joy, happiness, and com- 
mendable recompense — when a happy result is ob- 
tainable, and the exuberance (afzuno) of thought, 
word, and deed is important — is well-thought, well- 
said, and well-done 2 . 3. And for him the result of 
whose wish for good works is conclusively joy and 
exaltation of soul — which are his attainment of 
recompense from the constantly-beneficial space 3 , 
the immortal and unlimited, which shall never perish 
— there is no measure of the multitude of good 
works. 4. For every one by whom many are per- 
formed, and who engages in still more, appropriates 
the result more fully, and is more worthy ; but it is 
not obtained for the completion of that which is a 
definite measure, therefore he does not obtain still 
more, and it is not necessary he should; and it is, 
moreover, not obtained even for the completion of a 
limit of unlimitedness 4 . 

1 They are balanced against the sins committed (see Chaps. XIII, 
2-4, XXIV, 5, 6) ; if the good works exceed the sins by a very 
small quantity the soul is supposed to go to the ordinary heaven 
(vahu td), but if by a quantity sufficient to balance one unatonable 
sin it goes to the best existence, or supreme heaven (gar6</m£nd, 
see Sis. VI, 3, 4). Mi 4 and J have merely: 'The measure for 
good works being revealed.' 

9 The three characteristics of good works. 

• See Chaps. XXVI, 3, XXXI, 24, XXXVII, 22. 

4 The good works in excess of the quantity necessary for ad- 
mitting the soul into the supreme heaven cannot affect the destina- 
tion of the soul, but they add to its future enjoyment (see Chap. 
VIII, 4), and no limit can be assigned to the quantity that can be 
thus absorbed. 

Digitized by 


122 dAx>istan-J DtNiK. 

Chapter XXXIX. 

i. As to the thirty-eighth question and reply, that 
which you ask is thus : What are the reason and 
cause of tying on the sacred tnrcad-girdle (kustfko) 1 
which, when they shall tie it on is said to be so 
greatly valuable, and when they shall not tie it the 
sin is so grievous ? 

2. The reply is this, that the all-good, most 
spiritual of spirits, and most ruling of rulers is the 
creator, and there is no need of troubles for men of 
the poor as to any wealth or anything, for all are 
his own. 3. And through his will as ruler, and all- 
powerful, he demands this of men, to remain properly 

1 The Kusttk (Pers. kustt) consists of a string, about the size 
of a stay-lace, which is first passed twice round the waist very 
loosely, over the sacred shirt (see Chap. XL, 2), and tied in front 
with a loose double knot (right-handed and left-handed), and the 
long ends are then passed a third time round the waist and tied 
again behind with a similar double knot. This string contains six 
strands, each consisting of twelve very fine, white, woollen threads 
twisted together, or seventy-two threads in all. Near each end the six 
strands are braided together, instead of being twisted, and for the 
last inch they are braided into three separate string-ends of two 
strands each ; these string-ends, therefore, contain twenty-four 
threads each, and form a kind of fringed end to the string. This 
fringe is a sort of remembrancer, as its six strands are supposed to 
symbolize the six Gahanbars or season-festivals, the twelve threads 
in each strand symbolize the twelve months, the twenty-four threads 
in each string-end symbolize the twenty-four kan/aks or sections of 
the Vispararf, and the seventy-two threads in the whole string 
symbolize the seventy-two his or chapters of the Yasna. The 
girdle has to be re-tied every time the hands have been washed, 
which, in order to comply with the ceremonial laws, occurs many 
times in the day ; and each time it has to be done with ceremony 
and a particular formula of prayer (see § 27). 

Digitized by 



skirted 1 as a true servant not even bound — which is 
due to that service, and also the indication of a 
servant — as is seen and clearly declared in the ever- 
fixed (hamat-da^o) religion and belief. 

4. Formerly men paid homage through the will 
and worship, as it were more effectually, more essen- 
tially, and more suitably for the discreet ; and every 
day spent in worship offered and homage paid they 
account as of the greatest use, particularly for ob- 
serving the world, and understanding its character. 
5. And as to him of whose offering of homage no 
worldly advantage whatever is apparent — as fruit is 
apparent from trees, flavour from foods, fragrance 
from aromatic herbs, tint (bam) from colours, the 
good quality of spears from the forest, health from 
the patient (m6lvarakan), and decision from words 
— but, audibly speaking, his head is lowered in sign 
of humility — as though the head, which is uppermost 
in the body and in the most pre-eminent position, 
and is lowered as far even as the sole of the foot, 
which is lowermost in the body, salutes 2 and is 
placed on the ground in thought about worship and 
desire of paying homage — and the appearance which 
exists as regards himself through that lowliest (ki- 
hastS) servitude is in accordance with that which is 
apparent from trees, food, and the many other worldly 
advantages before recited — whoever has offered hom- 
age and such advantageous (v6.ri.mak5) appearance 

1 That is, fully clad, as going about uncovered is a sin (see 
Chap. XL, 4). On occasions of ceremony, and for the purpose 
of showing extraordinary respect, the Parsis wear an extra long- 
skirted robe. 

1 Reading drhdo&d, but the orthography is unusual and the 
word, therefore, uncertain. 

Digitized by 


124 DADISTAN-t dJnJk. 

is manifest — even then that sign of humility and 
servitude is what great multitudes consider the 
offering of homage of a man more essential for 
hypocrisy (sh^do) 1 . 

6. But owing to that which happens when they 
plant a tree in the name of a sacred being 2 and eat 
the produce, and practise other worldly labour of 
worldly advantage, owing also to work of this kind 
through the doing of which they preserve all the 
growing crops of the whole world, and through tillage 
and multitudinous cultivated plots (khustakiha) *V 
is manifest that they should meditate inwardly (d£n 
mf noy£n) s . 7. A token and sign of worship is of 
great use, and a great assistance (ban^i-rno) therein 
is this belt (band), which is called the Kustik, that 
is tied on the middle of the body. 

8. The reasons of the assistance are numerous ; 
and its first assistance is this, that as to him who — 
as a worshipper of the sacred beings, owing to the 
undeceitful (akadba) religion whose indication is 
sagaciously propitiating with the purifying cup 4 — 
wears upon the body that spiritual, customary, and 

1 The author is here adopting his most involved style of writing, 
which, in the original Pahlavi, is often hardly intelligible, and 
particularly apt to be misunderstood ; but the object of this section 
seems to be to deprecate the Muhammadan practice of frequent 
prostrations during prayer, which are in marked contrast to the 
slight obeisances made by the Parsis. 

8 Whether y&datd means ' an angel,' or ' God,' is here uncertain. 

s The argument is that the growth of plants is so obviously 
occasioned by some unseen power that it naturally leads to medi- 
tation, and then to prayer. 

* The words danunik6 levatman-tajttk-shnayln seem to 
refer to the Bareshnum ceremony of purification, described in 
Vend. IX, 1-145 (see App. IV), which is a rite eminendy character- 
istic of Mazda-worship. 

Digitized by 


CHAPTER XXXIX, 6-1 1. 1 25 

doctrinal indication of the sacred beings with a wis- 
dom which is truly religion, his steadfastness and 
religious service of the sacred beings are audibly 
spoken thereby; even for the religious it is com- 
manded, because it is an assisting motive of beneficial 
high-priests and such-like submitters to the com- 
mands of the religion of the sacred beings. 

9. One is this, that, as the lowliest servant and 
greatest lord are steadily agreed, and it is beneficial 1 
when they (the servants) wear a belt upon the body 
as a sign of service — because it is not the custom 
to grant that little at any time without guardianship 
— the lapse of which service is also not a beneficial 
lapse, then those unbound are without a token of the 
lord's service. 

10. One is this, that it is commanded in revela- 
tion to keep thought, word, and deed confined from 
sin by a belt, and just like a servant ; for the sake 
of confinement of sins from purity of thought, whose 
dwelling is the heart, one is to wear the same belt, 
which is the token of a servant, on the middle of the 
body and before the heart; and the periodical (han- 
gamlkanS) sight of the token and sign of confined 
sins, and of the constant reminder for one's own 
mind, is the necessity of wearing it as a belt which 
is very restraining from the sin in thought, word, 
and deed that is manifest even in experience ; which 
wearing of the same belt is as a reason and cause of 
much remembrance of much sin, that in the same 
way is therefore a restraint of it. 

1 1. One is this, that the ancients acquainted with 
religion have communicated these tidings (srdbo) 

1 Reading spenak, but it may be saao&k, 'seemly.' 

Digitized by 


126 DA2)ISTAN-i dJniK. 

unto our ancestors and to us : — ' When the destroyer 
came upon the creatures, the demons and witches 
(parlko) especially rushed up in the earth and 
atmosphere, and even to just below the position of 
the stars ; and they saw multitudes of luminaries, 
and also the barricade and rampart 1 of the glory of 
the religion, and the girdle (parvand) 2 of the wishes 
and good works of all, when 3 it is arrayed like a 
brilliant thread-girdle (kustik), and all its luminaries 
are girded (par vast 6) by the girdle as the girdle of 
the omniscient wisdom has girded the all-intelligent 
angels.' 1 2. That great glory of the pure religion, 
solving doubts, became as beautiful and far-adorning 
as is stated in the liturgy (mansar) thus: 'The 
star-studded girdle (ayt^yahangano) of the spirit- 
fashioned, good religion of the Masttfa-worshippersV 

1 3. All the demons and fiends were terrified by the 
great glory of the religion, and it is said that, by the 
recital, practice, and promulgation of the whole 
routine of the enlightened religion, all those fiends 
are subdued, and the renovation of the universe is 
produced by the will of the patron spirits (ah van). 

14. Likewise, on account of that terror, none of the 
demons and fiends, who are the mightiest of the 
demons, rushed upon the creatures of that upper- 
most third of the sky 5 , who are in purity and inde- 

1 See Chap. XXXVII, 47. 

* It is not certain that parvand signifies 'a girdle,' or that 
parvastanS means 'to gird,' but they seem to be used in that 
sense here. The former word translates Av. paurvanim, 'leading 
the Pleiades' (Haug's Essays, p. 182), in Yas. IX, 81, an epithet 
applied to the belt of Orion. 

' M14 has 'which.' 

« Quoted from Pahl. Yas. IX, 81 (see Chap. XXXVII, 48). 

• See Chap. XXXVII, 24-27. 

Digitized by 


CHAPTER XXXIX, I2-I7. 1 2 7 

structibility. 15. And it (the girdle) is commanded 
in revelation for men, more particularly for upholders 
of the religion 1 , to be within the middle third and 
near to the uppermost third of the body 2 . 

16. One is this, that Yim the splendid, son of 
Vivangha 3 , who in his worldly career was most 
prosperous in worldly affairs, a keeper away of all 
agitations of temper* and all death, and a provider 
of freedom from decay and exemption from death, 
when he was deceived by the fiend was thereby 
made eager for supreme sovereignty instead of the 
service of Atiharmazd. 17. And about his admi- 
nistration (dad?arih) of the creatures it is said he 
himself became cut 6 away from radiant glory by 
that fiendishness 6 , and their cause of wandering 

1 M14 continues as follows: — 'through that girdle (parvand) 
of the religion, and a Mr«z</-girdle (kustiko), from the region of 
the world and religious in character, is put on within the middle 
third,' &c. 

* Some words are evidently here missing in the Pahl. text, 
including the first word of the next section. The reason here 
given for the girdle being worn round the waist, just below the 
uppermost third of the body, is that the impregnable barrier of 
heaven (of which the girdle is a counterpart) is said to be just 
below the uppermost third of the sky. 

* See Chap. XXXVII, 80, 95. 

4 Reading vispo khdi-.r6r£n, but we might perhaps read 
vispoan sah6ran, 'all oppressors,' assuming that sahor stands 
for Av. sSthra, a term applied to some particular tribe of another 
religion which was under the rule of Yim and his two predecessors 
(see Zamyad Yt. 26, 28, 31). Another possible reading is vis- 
poan ySkhvaran, ' all frosts.' 

6 Assuming that khvu</ak8 stands for khurfako, but the word 
is uncertain. 

* The particular kind of fiendishness that led Yim astray in his 
old age (like Solomon) was lying, that is, denial of the truth of 
his religion. In consequence of this apostasy the royal glory 
departed from him, and he allied himself to the demons in the 

Digitized by 


128 dAdistan-! d{n!k. 

(gartni^no) is the demon, and mankind perishes in 
that wandering from plain and hill-side 1 . 18. And 
his pardon originated from the fully -persistent 
creator; therefore he spoke and gave advice unto 
his successors as to the retribution of those who shall 
abandon the service of the creator; and therein is 
explained about the fortress of the angels 2 , with 
the many proper actions which are the strength of 
the fortress, and about the proportional way it is 
strengthened when a belt worn on the waist is or- 
dered for men by him — the fully glorious ruler who 
was lord of the world, and also in gloriousness well- 
betokening the good creation — and they 3 likewise 
order it. 

19. One is this, that just as through that reason 4 , 
which is an appointment (pa^o-dahi^no) that the 
sacred beings decreed, the sacred thread-girdle was 
worn even before the coming of Zaratust the Spita- 
man, so after the coming ^/"that messenger (vakh .y var) 
of the sacred beings, the righteous Zaratuit — who 
enjoined the commands of the good spirits and the 
exposition of the religion, with discourse praising 
the sacred beings and scriptures (az>istakS) about 
steadfastness in the good religion — the same religious 
girdle is put on, with a religious formula 6 , around 

617th year of his reign, and remained in their power for most of 
the remaining century of his life (see Zamyad Yt. 3 1-38, Bd. XXIII, 
1, XXXIV, 4). 

1 Assuming that dasto stands for Pers. daft, and vartvako 
for Pers. garivah; otherwise, we may read 'from dignity and the 
hovel (varUako),' meaning that they perish from all ranks, instead 
of all places. 

9 The rampart of heaven (see § 11). 

3 His successors. * As detailed in § 18. 

5 The Nirang-i Kusti (see § 27). 

Digitized by 



the body, over the garment of Vohuman 1 . 20. Be- 
cause the same intimation, relative to girding (par- 
vandi^nik) is wisdom for which the race of the 
religion is so justly famed that innumerable people, 
with the same customs and equally proper girding, 
wear the sacred thread-girdle, the ceremonial belt of 
the religion and indication of the creator, on the 
middle of the body ; and it becomes more destructive 
of the power of destruction 2 , more obstructive of the 
way to sin, and more contesting (kastaktar) the 
will of the demons. 

21. One is this, that he is unwise that has not 
worn it when that man has arrived in whose law no 
belting and no girdling 8 are ordered, and more per- 
plexing and more grievous destruction is so mani- 
fested at the time, that it is similar evidence to that 
exposition of revelation, the purport (advaz) of whose 
question and reply is spoken thus 4 : — '"O creator! 
in whom is the manifestation of secretly-progressing 
destruction, that is, in whom is its progress 5 ?" And 
Auharmas^ spoke thus : " In him who is the guide 
of a vile religion ; whoever it is who puts on a girdle 

1 The sacred shirt (see Chap. XL, 2). The garment of a 
purified man is called Vohuman in Vend. XIX, 76-78, 81-83 
(trans. D.). 

* The term se^ or %kg, used for 'destruction' here and in 
§§ 21-23, IS the name of 'the fiend who causes annihilation' (see 
Bd. XXVIII, 26). 

' It is possible that an-ay!»ySg£nlh may mean 'no gar- 
menting,' and refer to the sacred shirt, as the previous term 
apibandih, 'no belting,' refers to the sacred thread-girdle. 

4 In PahLVend. XVIII, 2 1-23, with some variations (see Haug's 
Essays, p. 367). 

• Instead of rubikih, 'progress,' K35 has rub&nth, which 
might mean 'soul-state,' but is probably a clerical blunder. 

[18] K 

Digitized by 


I30 DADISTAN-t pfNlK. 

at most thrice (3-tumak) in a year 1 , that is, he does 
not wear a sacred shirt and thread-girdle, and his 
law also is this, that it is not necessary to wear 
them'" — and when the law of no belting is so 
grievous that, when that law shall be accepted, it is 
observed that destruction is strengthened. 

22. The same belt, kept on after the command of 
Yim, was the first token as regards which an annihi- 
lator of destruction is mentioned and established by 
law; and on both occasions 2 destruction is more 
grievously manifest. 23. That which is more par- 
ticularly important is such as the destroyer of de- 
struction, Yim the splendid, advised, which the high- 
priest of the good, Zaratu^t the Spitaman, mentioned 
thus : — ' The sacred thread-girdle is as a sign of the 
service of the sacred beings, a token of sin ended, 
and a presage of beneficence ; and one is to put it 
on and to gird it, in the neighbourhood of the heart 
and on the middle of the body, with the religious 
formula accompanying the glorious scripture.' 24. 
That is also betokened by its equally-dividing (ham- 
bur) position and determining fashion ; for, as a wise 
man becomes a discriminator between benefit and 
injury, between good and evil, so also the place of 
the sacred thread-girdle is between below and above. 
25. With a low sacred girdle there is a passage for one's 
want of openness (avishoflfanS) and secret ruin, 
and also a shutting up 3 of life ; with a high sacred 

1 In the Vendidad it is he who does not put one on for three 

* Both when ordered by Yim and when confirmed by Zaraturt. 

9 Reading avar-vadunoih (the first nasal in bandi;n= 
vandijn being often omitted); it can hardly be afrandifn&lh, 
' magnificence,' because the latter abstract suffix, -ih, would be 

Digitized by 


CHAPTER XXXIX, 22-28. 13I 

girdle there is a way for thought, word, and deed, 
and no confinement (aglri^nokarlh) of life; and 
tying the sacred girdle with a religious rite (ham- 
din 6) is like a glory amid the glories of the angels, 
for it is itself through the aid of the patron spirit 
(ahv6). 26. And from the heart, which is the place 
of thought and dwelling of life, on the upper side 
(lalaih) are the eye, ear, tongue, and brain, which 
are the dwellings of sight, hearing, speech, under- 
standing, and intellect ; and on its lower side (frddfih) 1 
is the abode of a father's generativeness. 

27. When this sacred Unread-girdle, whose token, 
sign, and presage are such 2 , is tied, it is girded on 
with this glorious rite 8 of the glorious ones, the 
custom of the learned, the command of rulers, and 
the decree of apostles. 

28. That secretly-progressing destruction 4 , which 
arises from the fiend of insubordination (asardarih) 8 
who was much afraid of Yim, and which is averse to 
the labour of men and the service of Auharmas^, 
is a demon and irreligious (du^-dln6), who is full 
of fear of the girdles (parvandiha) of the glory of 

ungrammatical after the former, -ijno, in an uncompounded verbal 
noun. Some of the other words are also uncertain. 

1 The MSS. have merely r6</ih. J As stated in § 23. 

' This is the Nirang-i Kusti, or girdle formula, that has to be 
performed every time the girdle is re-tied, which happens several 
times a day. It is fully detailed in Appendix II, at the end of 
this volume. 

4 See § 21 ; the first letter of nihan, 'secretly,' is omitted by 
K35 in both places. 

5 Se£, the fiend of destruction, is connected with the demon 
But in Vend. XIX, 4, 6 ; but the characteristic of 'insubordination' 
is more applicable to the demon Tar6mat, ' the disobedient ' (see 
Bd. XXVIII, 14, 26, 34). 

K 2 

Digitized by 




132 dAdistAn-! dJnJk. 

religion, with which both angels and also worldlings 
have become belted and diligent 

29. Then, because the glory for this belt of ours, 
which is called the Kusttk and is worn on the middle 
of the body, remains unreleased (az/1-vukht) from 
the angels, who are givers of glory, and from men 
who are glorious — which is explained as a similitude 
and sample of fortunes (baharakoihi) among world- 
lings, even those who are actually primitive creatures 
likewise 1 — it has, therefore, seemed comely and 
desirable. 30. And their heart, will, knowledge, 
and purpose are as much for it as that which is per- 
ceptible where, even apart from those of the good 
religion who shall tie the sacred thread-girdle with 
the scripture formula, some of the faiths of all coun- 
tries, except those who are unbelted, possess the 
religious custom 2 . 31. Also outside the seat of the 
existence of faith* all men have the waist, or the 
palms of the hands 4 , or similar joints for a girdle 
(kusttko); and it is deemed comely, desirable, and 
convenient for work to wear it. 32. And it is mani- 
festly the lot (dako) of the thoroughly-praising one 
whose own desire is truth and the enjoyment of wel- 
fare, it is a token of the service of the sacred beings, 
and a sign of walking in the commands of religion, 

1 The precise meaning is not very clear. 

1 Alluding probably to the Brahmanical thread which is worn 
by the higher castes of Hindus diagonally, over one shoulder and 
below the other arm, and is so far analogous to the Parsi thread- 
girdle that it is a religious symbol put on with a religious rite. 

* Reading vardyuno ahu gas, but K35 has rdyixnd, 'growth,' 
instead of ' faith.' 

4 Reading kafiha, or kafagih. Perhaps the allusion is to a 
rosary which is held in the hands, or worn on the wrists, by people 
of many religions. 

Digitized by 


CHAPTER XXXIX, 2C.-XL, 3. 1 33 

which they shall tie on account of the superior beings 
(pis human) with the proper formula, more particu- 
larly with that which one utters when there is reliance 
upon the scripture itself. 

Chapter XL. 

1. As to the thirty-ninth question and reply, that 
which you ask is thus : What kind of goodness and 
want of goodness can there be in the sacred thread- 
girdle and shirt ; and what are the sin of running 
about uncovered, of prayer offered and prayer not 
offered, and the purpose of cleansing (mlsn) ? 

2. The reply is this, that it (the shirt) 1 is needful 
to be perfectly pure white and single, which one fold 
is because Vohuman also is thus the one creature 
who was first 2 , and afterwards from him the gar- 
ment which is innermost and concealed is called in 
revelation 3 . 

3. Proper girdling is double *, which two folds are 
because he also who is in the course of the twofold 
religious wisdom is intelligent, and the duties dtu to 
the sacred beings are themselves in two divisions 

1 The sacred shirt, constantly worn by Parsis of both sexes 
(young children excepted), is a very loose tunic of white muslin, 
with very short loose sleeves covering part of the upper arm (see 
Sis. IV, 4-8). 

2 The archangel Vohuman (see Chap. Ill, 13) is said to have 
been the first creation of the creator (see Bd. I, 23). 

5 The garment of Vohuman (see Chap. XXXIX, 19). 

* That is, it is passed twice round the waist before it is tied the 
first time, but then it is passed a third time round the waist (see 
Chap. XXXIX, 1). 

Digitized by 


134 DADlSTAN-t DtNtK. 

which are called the instinctive and that heard by 
the ears 1 . 

4. After a man is in the girding they shall tie on, 
the symptoms of any sins of the belted body are free 
from sin which is condemned (vi^irtnldfo); and 
when he walks uncovered, or naked, or with a two- 
fold garment, there is then no root of the sin of 
running about uncovered 2 in him. 5. Moreover, on 
hymns being chanted during a meal an inward prayer 
is not also necessary 3 . 

6. The purpose 4 of a cleansing (mi.yn-a£) is this, 
that the suitableness of men for eating is due to 
worship of the sacred beings and glorification of the 
sacred beings. 7. And as to their necessary recom- 
mendation (siparlh) 6 of any food for eating, the 

1 The twofold wisdom of the Avesta comprises the two intellects, 
the &sn6 khratuj, 'the durable or instinctive wisdom,' and the 
gaosh6-sruto khratu.r, 'the ear-heard or acquired wisdom,' 
which are the terms used here. 

4 The sin of visha</-dftbarun!h, which would have been in- 
curred in any of these cases if no girdle had been worn, is a venial 
sin of one Farman for each of the three first steps, but becomes 
a Tanapuhar sin (equivalent to 75 or 400 Farmans) at the fourth 
step (see Sis. IV, 8-10). 

9 This is mentioned as a further illustration of a greater religious 
duty superseding a lesser one. When the Gathas, or hymns, are 
being chanted, the reciter is already under the protection of the 
inward prayer (v&g) with which all acts of worship must 
commence; it is, therefore, unnecessary to take another prayer 
inwardly before eating. Inward prayer is a short formula which 
is said to be ' taken ' and ' retained ' inwardly, as a protective spell, 
by muttering its commencement before certain necessary acts, and 
after the completion of the act the remainder of the formula is 
' spoken out ' aloud, and the spell is dissipated, before the person 
can converse (see Sis. Ill, 6). 

4 The MSS. have pSm, ' milk,' instead of £im, ' purpose,' but 
see § 1 ; the Pahl. letters p and k are often much alike. 

* M14 has sipasih, 'praise;' but this and several other emenda- 

Digitized by 



glorifying of the sacred beings, and the true usages 
about recounting it, it is commanded, before eating, 
when the mouth is not soiled with food, that the 
mouth (dahan) should proceed with the utterance of 
the pure glorification 1 . 8. Being thereupon suitably 
seated, and having properly eaten the food, one is to 
make the mouth clean with a tooth-pick and water ; 
and after eating, before all words, the praise of the 
sacred beings is glorified by the mouth cleansed by 
washing. 9. And between the glorifying before 
eating and the after glorification one is not 2 to speak 
other words, and when during a meal a word is 
spoken by the mouth, that kind of glorification which 
it is the custom to utter before and after eating is 
offered by its own organ (andam) 3 . 

10. And every single organ has one function, but 
two special functions are connected with the mouth, 
which are speaking and eating; and because they 
are together they are mutually opposed, for speaking 
connects that which is an inward possession with 
outside teachings (iashiha), and through eating, 
the outside food comes for the inward further vitality 
of life. ii. As the ancients have said, where one 
operation is appointed unto two operators, it is more 

tions in the same MS. are probably nothing but unsuccessful 
attempts to render an obscure text intelligible, without taking the 
trouble to understand it. 

1 This glorification (stayifnS) must refer to the inward prayer 
of § 5, which commences by praising Auhannas</ (see Chap. 
LXXIX, 3, note). 

' Reading la, 'not,' instead of rai, 'on account of.' M14 has 
altered the passage. 

* That is, when the spell of the inward prayer is broken by 
speaking before the proper time (see § 5, note), the spell must be 
renewed before proceeding with the meal. 

Digitized by 


136 dAdistAn-! d!n{k. 

expressly so that during eating two operations may 
not both at once (ayag-i/6-gun) be produced, by 
speaking and by eating. 

12. To keep those two operations distinct, one 
from the other, the custom of uttering the praise of 
sacred beings and the glorification of sacred beings 
when the mouth remains in the act of eating, until 
the mouth becomes clean from food, is decreed as 
inconsistent with goodness (aham-vehih). 13. And 
that which remains from the outpouring (rikh) at the 
time of a cleansing is called 'a cleansing (misn-ae).' 

14. One means for the retention of knowledge is 
through not having that retention of knowledge 
exhausted, but when one thus speaks during that 
cleansing the words are really originating with the 
mouth, for he does not retain them ; and whenever 
(ma man) he does not speak anything whatever 
with the tongue, that religious glorification which 
it is the custom to utter before and after eating 
is then offered by him from his own limited resources 
(samanS-i vlm6nd), and it will be offered from his 
own limited resources. 

Chapter XLI. 

1. As to the fortieth question and reply, that 
which you ask is thus : Of those whose decision is 
this, that it is not necessary to be steadfast in the 
religion of the Ma-saa-worshippers — by which deci- 
sion this is asserted, that they should abandon the 
religion of the Masafa-worshippers — some one dis- 
parages the religion and goes over to a foreign 
faith (an-airlh), then of what nature is his sin 

Digitized by 



owing thereto, and what does the sin owing thereto, 
as regards those of the same foreign religion, 
amount to ? 2. Or order some one then to tell us 
clearly concerning it, how it is, and how is the 
disobedience due to this sin. 

3. The reply is this, that an adult is worthy of 
death 1 on account of the good religion they 2 would 
abandon, on account also of the adopted law of the 
foreign faith lie is worthy of death, in whose reliance 
upon the improper law is also the sin which they 3 
maintain and practise by law, and through being 
in the same law he is equally sinful with them. 
4. And also when any one is on that course, and 
his wish is for the same protection, of which a 
similitude is in the enduring words of that good law 
they would forsake, and he adopts that which is 
vile*, even through that impropriety he is equally 

5. When he dies, without renunciation* of that 
sin and impenitently, in that improperly-constituted 
law, the position of his soul is then in the worst 

' That is, he commits a mortal sin, for which he could have 
formerly been condemned to death by the high-priest (see Sis. 
VIII, 2, 5-7, 21). 

' The teachers of infidelity. * The foreigners. 

* The probable meaning is that if he conforms to the foreign 
faith merely from politic motives, while retaining a belief in his own 
religion, he is still equally sinful. 

5 This renunciation is effected by the recitation of a particular 
formula called the Patit, in which every imaginable sin is mentioned 
with a declaration of repentance of any such sins as the reciter 
may have committed. But this formal renunciation must be 
accompanied by atonement and true repentance ; and in order to 
ascertain the proper atonement all serious sins must be confessed 
to the high-priest (see Sis. IV, 14, VIII, 1, a, 8-10). 

Digitized by 




existence 1 , and his punishment is that of many sins 
worthy of death ; from the demons also there come 
grievously, hand in hand, pain and suffering, gnaw- 
ing and stench of many kinds, stinging, tearing, and 
lacerating, primary evil and discomfort. 6. And 
through their 2 law and faith his distress in that 
worst existence is thus until the last change of 
existence, when the renovation of tfte universe is 
produced by will among living beings. 

7. But reality (altoih), as regards living, arises 
from renunciation of that disobedience ; it makes 
those attract to the good law who seduced him to 
that evil law, that which established him improperly 
in the law it eradicates from his conduct (rubakih), 
advancing sins it again restrains, and whatever has 
advanced it repairs again anew through the religion 
of the Masda-worshippers, and he becomes thought- 
ful, constant, and steadfast. 8. The sin which he 
set going he restrains and atones for by wealth, 
trouble, and authorising 8 commands; even in the 
body he also undergoes punishment in the three 
nights (satuih) 4 ; he then obtains forgiveness, and 
his soul is saved. 

9. And as it is said in the persistent law of the 
sacred beings 5 , that ' the good religion of the sacred 
beings, who are the Mazda-worshipping superiors, 

1 See Chap. XXXIII, 3. • The foreigners'. 

• Or, tubinkir may mean 'lavish.' The ordering of religious 
ceremonies, as good works in atonement for sin, is probably in- 
tended ; and these always imply a lavish expenditure upon the 

4 Referring to the three nights' punishment after the resurrection 
of the body, which is specially reserved for mortal sinners (see Bd. 
XXX, 16). 

f Quoting, with some alteration, from PahLVend. Ill, 151. 

Digitized by 



ordains it as retribution,' so that the sin it takes 
away (spayeiti) 1 may not exist in him, his retri- 
bution is declared by revelation. 10. And by the 
same witness it is said, that all of the primitive faith 
have been quite of the same opinion about this, that 
from the good religion except by 2 the way of 
renunciation of sin there is none unless to hell ; but 
that renunciation should be during life, for it is said 
that 'whoever when living does not become right- 
eous, that is, does not fully atone for sin, for him 
when dead there is no grant of 3 the best existence.' 
ii. To commit no sin is better than retribution and 
renunciation of sin. 

Chapter XLI I. 

i. As to the forty-first question and reply, that 
which you ask is thus : As to him who remains in the 
good religion of the Mazda-worshippers, wJwm men 
shall make the protection and assistance of the good 
religion 4 , who shall save men from a foreign faith 
and irreligion (akdindih), and then holds back some 
of those who have the idea that they should go over 
to a foreign faith and irreligion, and they do not go 
over to the foreign faith, but become steadfast in the 
religion of the Mazda-worshippers, what is then 5 the 

1 The Avesta verb spayliti, here used as a technical term, 
occurs frequently in Vend. Ill, 142-148. 

* Assuming that bara, 'indeed,' stands for pa van, 'by,' (see 
Chap. VII, 2 n.) 

* Reading bakhshun-1, but it may be a corruption of bakh- 
shand.'they shall grant,' as assumed in Mi 4. This passage is 
quoted from PahLVend.V, 173. 

4 Some one placed in authority, such as a high-priest or judge, 
is evidendy meant. 
8 Reading fidtnaj, 'then of him,' instead of ayuf, 'or;' the 

Digitized by 


140 dAbistan-} d1n{k. 

nature of the decision of the angels about him, and 
what is the nature of their (the men's) good works 
and sin ? 

2. The reply is this, that he is much extolled, 
happy, exalted, of great good works and abundant 
recompense, and the path to the best existence, pre- 
pared (frarasto) by his righteousness, is wide 1 ; the 
delight of his soul becomes complete, and its hope 2 
is great. 3. And every good work that is manifested 
in the good religion by those who are transferred by 
him from a foreign faith and irreligion, and which 
they shall do thereafter — when, through the perse- 
verance and praise exercised by him who is protected 
by the religion, they are saved from irreligion — be- 
comes his as much as though it had been set going 
by him himself, and he has the same praise and the 
same good works with them. 4. Of the extent 
(saman5) and amount of such good works there is 
no writing a second time, unless his acquaintance 
with the full computation of the good works due to 
their number is continuous 3 ; but when in the same 
way they are practising and steadfast in sin it shall 
not be assigned to him*. 5. Then his position in 

two words being alike in Pahlavi except in the latter part of the 
last letter. 

] That is, his path to heaven over the KimaJ bridge is rendered 
wide and easy by his good deeds (see Chap. XXI, 5). 

1 Reading aim S d; Mi 4 has khim, ' disposition,' and K35 has 
khimaV, which suggests 'shall be greatly celebrated ' as a possible 

" The meaning appears to be that their good works are imputed 
to him only so long as he continues to exercise some control over 

* That is, their sins will not be imputed to him in the same way 
as their good works. 

Digitized by 



righteousness 1 is very grand, and in the world he 
has himself great eminence, applause, and dignity. 

6. And as much as that which is an improper law 
and a law worthy of death is a punishing of the soul, 
and the disconnected 8 words and perversion (va.y- 
takih), due also to the perfidy (rangunS) of the 
fiend who has come, are such that in his time the 
religious rites (din 6) performed are rites of grievous 
vexation and fear, so that which is a proper law, like 
the great glorification in spirit and the connected 
words of the high-priests, is the arrival of the good 
spirit as much as a virtue worthy of recompense and 
full of hope. 7. Even as that which is said thus : 
' Of men who are practisers of good deeds the mani- 
festation is then in their children.' 

Chapter XLII I. 

1. As to the forty-second question and reply, that 
which you ask is thus : Regarding a man who 
is consecrating a sacred cake 3 , and the fire is his 
household attendant (khavag-1 man6) from afar, 
when he sees it, at how many steps is it improper ? 
2. When they consecrate a sacred cake by light of a. 
lamp, why do they not say the words 'tava athrd 
(for thee, the fire),' as by another fire ? 3. And of 
the propitiatory dedications (shnumanSIha) 4 to the 
period of the day (gih), the day, and the month of 
the consecration of the sacred cake, which is that 

1 Or, perhaps, aharfiboth may here mean 'the righteous ex- 
istence ' or heaven. 

1 Reading aparfvand, instead of va pa^vand. 

» See Chap. XXX, 1. * See Chap. XXIX, 1. 

Digitized by 


142 dAdistAn-1 dJnik. 

which when earlier or later is also then not proper, 
and which is that which is proper ? 4. When they 
shall accomplish the consecration of a sacred cake 
with one more dedication than those of the thirty 
days of the months in the year, how is it necessary 
to act so that it may not enter too early ; and which 
is the one more dedication which, when they shall 
make it, is proper, which is that which is not proper, 
and which is that which is earlier and later ? 

5. The reply is this, that at forty-eight 1 feet from 
the sacred twigs 2 to the fire — which would be about 
nine reeds, if of a medium man — even though one 

1 K35 has ' forty-seven.' Taking the foot at ioj English inches 
(see Bd. XXVI, 3 n) the 48 feet would be 42 English feet, and the 
naf or reed would be 4 feet 8 inches. 

2 The bares6m (Av. baresma), or bundle of sacred twigs, is 
an indispensable part of the ceremonial apparatus ; it is held in the 
hand of the officiating priest while reciting many parts of the 
liturgy, and is frequently washed with water and sprinkled with 
milk. It consists of a number of slender rods, varying with the 
nature of the ceremony, but usually from five to thirty-three. These 
rods were formerly twigs cut from some particular trees, but now 
thin metal wires are generally used ; and when not in the hand of 
the priest they are laid upon the crescent-shaped tops of two adja- 
cent metal stands, each called a mah-ru, 'moon-face,' and both 
together forming the bares6m-dSn or 'twig-stand.' The bare- 
s6m is prepared for the sacred rites by the officiating priest while 
reciting certain prayers (see Haug's Essays, pp. 396-399), during 
which he washes the twigs with water, and ties them together with 
a kustik, or girdle, formed of six thread-like ribbons split out of a 
leaflet of the date-palm and twisted together. This girdle, being 
passed twice round the middle of the bundle of twigs, is secured 
with a right-handed and left-handed knot on one side of the bundle, 
and is then passed round a third time and secured with a similar 
double knot on the other side, exactly as the kustik or sacred 
thread-girdle is secured round the waist of a Parsi man or woman 
(see Chap. XXXIX, 1). 

Digitized by 


CHAPTER XLIII, 4-8. 1 43 

sees the fire and does not say ' tava athr6Y it is 
proper. 6. And a lamp also has the same con- 
tingency (ham-brah) as a fire ; and by our teaching 
they do not consecrate a sacred cake at a lamp on 
which there is no burning of firewood, but they 
should cause a burning of firewood on that at which 
they consecrate a sacred cake, and they say 'tava 

7. And there is a propitiatory dedication for each 
separate consecration of a sacred cake, and not again 
from the first to the last 8 ; and the first is the nearest 
to the first day, Auharma^, just as Atur (' fire') and 
Az/an ('waters') are other days in the series; and 
the last is the day Aniran, because in the same series 
the day Aniran is the latest 4 . 8. When the seven 

1 These Avesta words, meaning ' for thee, the fire,' are used 
when addressing the fire, or presenting anything to it, such as fire- 
wood and incense (see Yas. Ill, 52, VII, 3, XXII, 10, 22, &c); 
they are not to be used, however, when the fire is so far off, or so 
feeble, that its light cannot be seen by the speaker (see Sis. X, 37). 

9 Meaning that in his opinion a lamp is no proper substitute for 
a sacred fire unless a little firewood is burnt in it. 

* In the liturgy for the consecration of the sacred cakes, which 
consists chiefly of Yas. HI, i-VIII, 9 (see Haug's Essays, p. 408), 
the portion contained in Yas. Ill, IV, VI, VII is filled with propi- 
tiatory formulas, some of which are fixed, but others vary according 
to the hour, day, and month of the service. Some of the variable 
propitiatory dedications for the day and month are, however, iden- 
tical with some of the fixed ones, such as those for fire, waters, <Sx. 
And in case of the day or month requiring the use of a variable 
dedication of this description, the object of the text is to prohibit 
the use of the corresponding fixed dedication, which would be an 
unnecessary repetition of the same words. This appears to be the 
meaning of the words va akhar min zak-i levino va/ akhar la 
translated in the text ; but it would be hardly possible to express 
so simple a meaning in a more obscure fashion. 

4 The series of propitiatory dedications for the thirty days of the 

Digitized by 


144 dAdistan-J dJnik. 

archangels are in the propitiatory dedication it is 
proper to put the seven archangels first in their 
own order, then the period of the day 1 , then the day, 
then the month of the consecration, and, afterwards, 
the other dedications in such order as they are 

9. And as to the earlier which they should put 
later, one is when they shall put a dedication before 
the seven archangels, one is that when they shall 
put the day before the period of the day, one is 
when they shall put the month before the day, and 
one is that when a dedication, distinct from the seven 
archangels, the period of the day, the day, and the 
month, on account of being before the archangels, or 
before the period of the day, or before the day, or 
before the month, is accounted as improper a dedi- 

month (which are also used for months of the same names) consti- 
tute the Sir6zah, which is given in two forms, one in which the 
names and titles are in the genitive case, and the other in which 
they are in the accusative. From the first form of the Sir6zah the 
proper dedications for the actual day and month are taken and 
substituted for Yas. Ill, 50, 51, IV, 40, 41, VII, 41, 42 (which 
passages, as they stand, are correct only for the first day, Auharmaerf, 
of the first month, Fravarrfin); and from the second form of the 
Str6zah they are similarly taken and substituted for Yas. VI, 37, 38 ; 
somewhat in the same way as the Collect, Epistle, and Gospel for 
the day are taken from the complete series of such writings, and 
inserted in the Communion service of the Church of England. 
The first day is Auharmazrf, the ninth day and ninth month are 
Atur, the tenth day and eighth month are Avan, and the last day is 
Aniran. Following these variable dedications for the day and 
month are the fixed dedications for Atur, ' fire,' and Az^n, ' waters,' 
unless they have been already recited for the day or month. 

1 The dedication for the glh or period of the day occupies the 
place of Yas. Ill, 31-37 (in which the formulas for all five g&hs 
are given) ; so that when the archangels are to be propitiated the 
dedications for them must precede Yas. Ill, 21. 

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cation as that of yesterday, or the day before, is for 
this day. 

10. So that when it is the propitiatory dedication 
for the day Khur of the month of consecration A^an 1 , 
the day and month are such that their order and the 
Atur ('fire') and At/an ('waters') succeeding them 
are thereby set in reverse order to the proper se- 
quence 2 , u. Then, too, when in the same month 8 
its propitiatory dedication for the day and month 
becomes alike for day and month 4 , it is recited as 
regards both the month and the 'waters' (a&an), 
because they are not connected together and have 
again become non-inclusive ; and then one is to con- 
sider them as proper. 

Chapter XLIV. 

1. As to the forty-third question and reply, that 
which you ask is thus : There is a man who is super- 
intending (az>ar-mandakako) and skilful, in whom 
great skill as regards religion is provided, and the 
high-priest's dutyand officiating priest's duty (magd- 
patih^are performed by him ; or they are not per- 
formed by him, but in him great skill as regards 

1 The eleventh day of the eighth month. 

* The meaning is that in such a case the dedications for the day 
and month, and the fire and waters (Yas. Ill, 52, 53) which follow, 
will stand in the following order : — Khur, Az»an, Atur (the second 
A»in being omitted as directed by § 7), which is precisely the reverse 
order of those names among the days of the month. 

* The eighth month, Awan. 

' That is, on the tenth day of the eighth month, when both day 
and month are A»an, in which case there would be three Az>an 
dedications, but only two are to be used as here directed. 

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religion is provided. 2. In a place of that district 
there is no one who rightly knows the commentary 
and ' the proper and improper 1 ,' so that he comes 
forth into a place of such decay (sapakhan); and 
the people of the district — who constantly order all 
the religious rites (din6 2 ) of many sacred ceremonies 
from any poor man of the various persons from other 
districts whose skill and superintending are not like 
his, but they constantly come to that district — shall 
constantly receive from him all the many religious 
rites and many sacred ceremonies. 3. And that 
man, who is revered and skilful, proceeds not unde- 
jectedly (la ana^kandtha) and bashfully to his own 
superintending position, the position of the religion 
and position of the skill which are his ; he does not 
demand any employment in the district or any award 
(din a) from the district, and does not know how to 
pro ide any other employment or award, in which 
there would be any fitness for him. 4. Are the 
people of the district — on account of the skill and 
activity which that man has exercised in religion, 
due to the performance of all the religious rites and 
sacred ceremonies which they constantly order — 
— — - — — . . — . — . _ 9 

1 From this it would appear that a treatise called ' Sh&yast L&- 
shSyast ' existed a thousand years ago, which probably bore some 
resemblance to Sis., the work which now bears the same name. 

1 The words ham&k din6, translated 'all the religious rites' 
both here and elsewhere, are a technical term which (as I am 
informed by Dastur Peshotanji Behramji, the high-priest of the 
Parsis in Bombay) is applied to ' those obligatory religious rites and 
festivals that every Parsi is bound to observe by performing certain 
ceremonies, in his or her name, with the assistance of priests 
engaged for the purpose. These rites and festivals include the 
Rapithvan, the Gahambars, the Fravardigdn, the monthly festi- 
vals, &c.' 

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CHAPTER XLIV, 2-C;. 1 4 j 

thereupon to prepare that man a stipend (bahar)', 
and is it necessary for them to give a stipend to 
that man, or how is it necessary to act ; and is it 
necessary for them to collect it for him, or not ? 
5. And of the much advantage of all the religious 
rites and work is it necessary to speak thus : ' Until 
the time that thou hadst come it was not possible 
for us to order except of him who is inferior to thee,' 
or how is it to be done ? 6. Is it necessary to col- 
lect a stipend for him on account of the benefit and 
reasoning thought (vlrmato) on other subjects, of 
which he was the means, or how is it necessary for 
the superintendent of our people to collect such 
stipend of skill, position, and religion ? 

7. The reply is this, that a man of such descrip- 
tion as written above, and superintending the exer- 
cise of skill and provision of ability, is very worthy 
of a stipend and courtesy (khupth); also, through 
good management of all religious rites and the cere- 
mony of the sacred beings, he is very confident in 
any uncertainty. 8. Therefore it is necessary to 
consider that he manages more openly and better 
than those whose skill and ability are not like his ; 
and also as regards stipend and reasoning thought, 
owing to the worthiness of the ceremony of the 
sacred beings, his are more whose skill, ability, and 
activity in religion are greater. 9. And as to a man 
who is as written above — when all those religious 
rites and ceremonies are well-managed by him, and 
his repeated direction and right continuance of proper 
duties are an accumulation of his own reasoning 

1 Literally * a share ' of the produce of the district, analogous 
to tithes. 

L 2 

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148 dAjhstan-i dJnJk. 

thought and great capability, and are ordered of him 
with great solicitude — one is also to consider him 
a stipendiary 1 thereby, and a thriving acquirement 
of ample reasoning thought. 10. And as to him, 
moreover, who is less skilled than he, and of inferior 
position, by as much as he is not so worthy, his 
custom is therefore to produce a want of himself 

11. But he who has much skill should have 2 a 
great stipend, and he of medium ability should have 2 
a medium one, he having less means of benefiting 
worthily, maturely, and necessarily. 12. And the 
value is as it is said in revelation thus : ' The stipend 
they should announce to him who is an upholder of 
religion is two shares, and to him who is mediocre 
only one, to him whose lot is inferior.' 

13. That man is a master and high-priest s whose 
usage also (aln-1^6) is wise, and in ability, good- 
ness, and skill is the best of those of the religion of 
the Maswfa-worshippers, which is the religion of wise 
upholders. 14. And the exercise of his religious 
disposition — originally possessing a religious sti- 
pend — which they shall order of him in that place, 
and that of the other worthy ones and applicants in 
the place and coming applying to the place, as much 

1 Literally ' a shareholder.' 

* Assuming that the adverbial suffix -ih£ may be taken here 
(as it can be probably in all cases) as the PSz. conditional form 
hft& of the verb 'to be,' equivalent to the more usual forms a 6, ae, 
and the Huz. hdmanae (see Chap. XLVIII, 23). 

' Or, ra</dast6bar may mean 'an awarding high-priest,' as he 
is called ra<f, ' master, chief,' in virtue of his power of sentencing 
sinners and governing the religious body, and he is called dasto- 
bar, ' upholder of customs,' in virtue of his control over rites and 

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as it is worth a nd happens to be their own want, one 
is to altogether thoroughly well consider for him. 
15. Good destiny is not fulfilled by granting to those 
applying, but through forward ability, the forward, 
kind-hearted 1 ,and extreme skill provided, and grand 
position he is worthy of much stipend, and it is 
important to make them stipendiary in their own 
gradation of applying. 16. For the observance of 
moderation and the granting of applications are 
mutually destructive, and it is discriminatively said 
that the high-priest (7amasp of the Hv6vas 8 con- 
sidered, in that mode, the much skill of that good 
superintendent being without a stipend as not dispro- 
portionate, but most justly very moderate. 

1 7. Moreover, to collect for all except for one 
skilful man, and to provide a stipend for any other 
applicants, is not right; and the limits should be 3 
moderate, for each one really shares the moderate 
apportionments according to his own want, apart 
even from the sacred ceremony. 18. But to collect 
for such a man, who has kind-heartedly superintended 
by rule during reasoning thought, is a greater good 
work than to approve even him who is superintending 
much more authoritatively. 19. And he who has 
himself requested is to obtain everything last ; for, 
except in that case when a virtuous doer has in any 

1 Literally ' good-hearted.' 

* The Av. Gamaspa Hvdgva (or Hvdva) of Yas. XLV, 17, L, 18, 
Fravar</in Yt 103. He was high-priest and prime minister of Kai- 
Vwtasp ; but probably the opinion of some much later Gamasp is 
here erroneously attributed to him, much in the same way as the 
comparatively modern Book of Enoch is attributed to Enoch, ' the 
seventh from Adam,' in Jude, 14. 

3 Reading hag instead of -iha, as in §11. 

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mode begged a livelihood 1 and is not capable of 
earning it — so that something even of the righteous 
gifts 2 of clothing is begged by him — to live in idle- 
ness is not the way to be assisted ; but he who has 
not himself requested, and is wise, is to beg a suit of 
clothes (rakht-hana). 

20. They give to the good provider of gifts much 
praise, and for the preservation of the perfect giver 
are many religious friends 8 , and the position of the 
upholders of religion 4 ; so it is necessary to give, 
and to consider it as provided for the great female 
whom revelation greatly celebrates 6 , that patron 
spirit (ahu) connected with religion, as it is said 
that in the opinion of Human 6 , the high-priest, the 
propitious religion is, as it were, the way of saving 
their souls T . 

1 M14 has zlvijno, and K35 has zivandan. 

1 Charitable donations given to the priesthood and poor for the 
purpose of acquiring religious merit on certain solemn occasions ; 
they often consist of clothing, and are then supposed to furnish the 
giver, or the person in whose name they are given, with garments 
in the other world after the resurrection (see Bd. XXX, 28). 

* The angels who assist his soul after death, such as Srdsh, 
Mitrd, Rashnu, Axtarf, and the good VaS (see Chaps. XIV, 3, 4, 
XXX, 2-4). 

* That is, he will occupy the same grade in heaven as the 

6 Referring to the maiden spirit supposed to meet the good soul 
after death and to conduct it over the A"inva</ bridge to heaven 
(see Chaps. XXIV, 5, XXXVII, 117). She is described in Vend. 
XIX, 98-101, and more fully in Hn. II, 22-32 and the later Pahlavi 
works. Her beauty is said to be proportional to the religious merit 
of the soul, and she is here identified with the ahu or patron spirit 

* Probably some one nearly contemporary with the author, such 
as Atur-pSrf son of H@mi</ (see Bd. XXXIII, 11), who is called 
hu-man 6, 'well-meaning,' and styled 'the leader of the people of 
the good religion ' in the Dinkaiv/ (III, ccccxiii). 

7 The maiden spirit, being developed by religious actions, is 

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21. About upholders of religion, and a more 
particular rule how the lawful computation should 
be for glorifying with moderation, a chief of the 
priests 1 has spoken thus : ' Shouldst thou be our 
father in wealthiness, I am thy protector in body, 
and thou becomest thy protector in soul 2 .' 

22. The same collection 3 is the way of the friends 
of religion for begging from the upholders of reli ion 
the preservation of the soul, and for well considering, 
extremely gracefully and fully reverently, the advan- 
tage and pleasure of the position * of the upholders 
of religion, so that they shall properly collect for the 
preservation of souls by the mode of going to collect 
thoroughly with great gain. 

Chapter XLV. 

1. The forty-fourth question is that which you 
ask thus: Of priesthood (a£rpatlh) or discipleship 
(havinih) which is the priest's duty (a£rpatth), 
and which the disciple's; which is that which it is 
necessary to have in priesthood, and which in 
discipleship ? 

called the soul's ' own religion' in AV. IV, 23 ; it is, therefore, that 
spirit's assistance which is probably meant here, when speaking of 
religion saving the soul. 

* A mdbad of mdbads. 

* Meaning that the wealthy man can easily protect his own soul 
by a proper expenditure of his wealth on good works. The con- 
nection of this with the first part of the sentence is rather obscure. 

' Mentioned in §§ 17, 18. 

4 In heaven (see § 20). To induce the laity to collect ample 
property for paying the priesthood they are promised a share of 
the priest's happiness in heaven. 

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152 dAdistan-} dJn!k. 

2. The reply is this, that the priesthood and dis- 
cipleship are connected together; the priests teach 
the scriptures *, and the disciples learn the knowledge 
of the religion, that is, the A vesta and Zand 2 . 3. The 
priest ; have been disciples ; through the teaching 
of his own priest they make the aroused existence 3 
of even a disciple become a priest, and in one body 
with the learner are the priesthood and discipleship. 
4. Through that which he has learned as a disciple 
from the priest he is wiser, and owing to the priest- 
hood in his own person he teaches the disciple who 
is a learner ; the desire which is his craving for 
learning is also owing to that in his own priest, 
when he was a disciple unto his own priest. 

5. And the disciple and priest are even such as 
is said thus: 'The director (farmad?ar) of the 
profession of priests (asravoan) of Pars 4 , and 
chieftain over the faithful and the officiating priests 
(magdpatan) of Pars, is the leader of the religion ; 
and his disciple (ashakardfo) is a disciple in a se- 
lected foremost position among the priests of the reli- 
gion, set up (madam a^ast) over those acquainted 
with the commentary (zand-akasan6).' 6. The 

1 The word marfigan means a treatise upon almost any subject, 
but it is specially applied to the Nasks or books of the complete 
ancient literature of the Mas</a-worshippers, which are now nearly 
all lest. It should be noted that ' teaching ' and ' learning ' are 
expressed by the same word in Pahlavi. 

1 The Avesta is the religious literature in its original language, 
erroneously called Zend by Europeans, and the Zand is the Pahlavi 
translation of the same literature, with the Pahlavi commentary (see 
Bd. Introd. p. %). 

' Reading ham-vikht& yehevunih and taking ham-vikhto 
as equivalent to Pers. angikht. 

* This was the post held by the author himself (see Chap. 
XCIV, 13). 

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more infallible (a .yak tar) of these is the powerful 
skill of the priest (a£rpatd) put forth through the 
ritual and Vispara^ l , and his skill in the commen- 
tary (zand); the skill of disciples in the Avesta 
is, further, fully understood, and sin recognised as 
oppressive, through the formulas (nirang) of the 
sacred ceremony, ablution and non-ablution, purity 
and pollution. 

7. And both professions are the indispensable 
preservers of great decisions as to that which the 
priestly disposition has taught, done, and considered 
about the perpetual existence of every being, the 
complete goodness and final success of the non- 
existent evil and entire good of the sacred beings, 
the annihilation of the demons 2 , and the complete 
understanding of the friends of the sacred beings. 

Chapter XLV I. 

1. The forty-fifth question is that which you ask 
thus : Is it allowable that those of the priesthood, 
when there is no daily livelihood for them from 
the life of the priesthood, should abandon the priest- 
hood, and that other work be done, or not ? 

1 The term ya*t6, 'ritual,' means any form of prayer with 
ceremony, and appears to include the Yasna or chief ceremonial 
ritual. The Vispararf (here written Visp6rerfo) is a particular form 
of ceremonial prayer, the various sections of which are interspersed 
among those of the Yasna and Vendidarf in the full liturgy of the 
Mazda-worshippers ; it is called Vispara</, ' all chiefs,' because it 
commences with an invocation of all the spiritual chiefs of the 

* K35 has khajano, which might stand for khasan5, 'reptiles,' 
but is more probably a slight alteration of .redanS, ' demons,' which 
would correspond to the more modern form, jedaanS, in Mi 4. 

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154 DABISTAN-t DtNtK. 

2. The reply is this, that there is no loss of 
reputation to priests from priestly duties (a£rpatlh), 
which are themselves the acquired knowledge that 
is accumulated by the priestly disposition, care for 
the soul, and the requisite good works. 3. And 
there is this advantage, that, through acquaintance 
with the religion of the sacred beings, and certainty 
as to the reward of the spirit, they make them 
become more contented in adversity, more intel- 
ligent as regards stability of character in difficulty 
and restriction, and more through knowledge the 
abode of hope for those saved. 4. So that it is not 
lit they should abandon the priesthood, which is 
both harmless and an employment with advantages 
that has required much trouble to learn. 

5. But, indeed, when they do not obtain 1 a daily 
livelihood from priestly duty, and the good do not 
give them chosen righteous gifts 2 for it, and they 
do not let them obtain any from next of kin or 
the wicked even by begging, a livelihood may be 
requested from the paid performance of ceremonies, 
management of all religious rites (din6), and other 
priestly disciple's duty therein s . 6. When even by 
that they do not obtain it, they are to seek a 
livelihood by agriculture, sheep-rearing, penmanship, 
or other proper employment among priests; and 
when it is not possible for them to live even by 
these, they are to seek it by bearing arms, hunting, . 
or other proper employment in the profession of 
a virtuous warrior. 7. And when even it is not 

1 K35 has ' beg,' both here and in § 6, the difference between 
the two words in Pahlavi being only a stroke. 
' See Chap. XLIV, 19. 
' That is, from the general funds of the priesthood. 

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possible for them to maintain their own bodies, 
which are in requisite control, by that which is 
cravingly digested, they are to beg a righteous gift 1 
authorisedly (dastdbartha) as an effectual remedy; 
by living idly, or not expending strength, their own 
bodies, which are in control, are without livelihood, 
but not authorisedly 2 . 

Chapter XLVI I. 

1. As to the forty-sixth question and reply, that 
which you ask is thus : At a sacred feast (myazd) 3 
of those of the good religion, in which there are 
fifty or a hundred men, more or less, just as it 
happens, and seven men who are engaged in the 
performance of the religious rite (din 6) which is 
celebrated by them are feasting together with them, 
of those seven men there are some who are easily * 
able to pray five sections (vldak) 6 , and some six 
subdivisions (vakhshisnS), of the Avesta, but no 
chapter (fargarafS) 9 of the commentary (zand) is 

1 That is, charity. 

* That is, they are not authorised to beg charity for maintain- 
ing themselves in idleness. 

* The sacred feast consists of the consecration of the sacred 
cakes (see Chap. XXX, i), followed by that of wine and fruit with 
the recitation of the Afringan or blessings (see Haug's Essays, 
p. 408), after which the consecrated food and drink are consumed 
by those present, both priests and laymen. 

4 That is, they know the prayers by heart, which is necessary in 
reciting the Avesta. 

* Compare Pers. vat, vtd, vtda, 'part, little,* ^uz, 'a portion, a 
bundle of folios.' Mr 4 has nask, 'book,' but this is clearly an 
unlucky guess. 

The chapters of the Vendidarf are called fargar</s, as are also 

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156 dAdistAn-5 dJnIk. 

easy to them ; and all seven of them are disputing 
about the right (ras) to the foremost places. 2. And 
he to whom thirty chapters in ' the commentary are 
easy speaks thus : ' The foremost place is mine, 
and it became my place owing to great retentiveness 
of memory, for I know the commentary well and 
"the proper and improper 2 ;" and my place must 
be good, for whenever I do not indicate this as 
the place of religion unto the people I am not in 
the security of religion ; but you should not dispute 
about my place, for it is not becoming to dispute it, 
because this neglect and outlandishness (an-alrlh), 
which some one brings constantly into the religion, 
is not due to me.' 3. Those seven men, moreover, 
speak constantly unto him thus : ' Our place is more 
important and must ever be so, for every man of 
us is able to pray several sections in his own 
officiating priestly duty (zdtih), and it is ever neces- 
sary to consider who is more participating in sharing 
a reward.' 4. Then as to those whose Avesta is 
very easy, or him who knows the commentary and 
'the proper and improper' well, and their goodness 
and greatness, as asked by us in this chapter, direct 
some one to make them clear unto us, for when he 
demonstrates the littleness and greatness in this 

those of the Vutisp Yart and many of the lost Nasks or books. 
The text here applies the term specially to the chapters of some 
scripture with commentary, and it may be noted that the thirty 
fargar</s, subsequently mentioned, are the exact number contained 
in the Vendida</ and Vixtasp Yaxt taken together, the learning of 
which by heart (as the word ' easy ' implies) is a very serious task, 
comparable with learning the whole Greek text of the four Gospels. 

1 Perhaps 'with' is meant, but the word used is pavan. 

» See Chap. XLIV, a. 

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CHAPTER XLVII, 2-7. 157 

subject his great religion is then completely an 

5. The reply is this, that, as to that which you 
ask me to write, so that they may decide whether 
thirty chapters in the commentary are easier, or 
really the other, be they five or be they six sections 
of the Avesta, are easier, there is no deciding, 
because which are the chapters and which the 
sections ? 6. For, as regards more cleverness and 
less cleverness, it is not clear ; there are some of the 
sections greater than many sections, and there are 
chapters as great as many chapters, but to under- 
stand severally the divisions (buris) and enumeration 
of him to whom five sections of the Avesta are 
easy, and also of him whose thirty chapters in the 
commentary are easy, it is necessary for making the 
calculation to consider every single division in the 
commentary as equivalent to seven equal divisions 
apart from the commentary 1 . 7. And it is thereby 
thus manifest who has skill in the one and who has 
skill in the other 2 , and whoever has less, when there 
is nothing in it regarding which he is otherwise than 
when the superintending command 3/" rulers (khurfa - 
yfin) delivered over to him the place of duty — or 
on account of a new officiating priestly duty or 
directorship (raafth) of the season festivals 3 , or the 

1 The reason for this difference is that it is only necessary to 
learn the words of the Avesta, without understanding them, whereas 
a knowledge of the Zand, or commentary, implies understanding 
both texts as well as knowing the Avesta by heart. 

1 M14 omits the repetition of the words mun afzar, but it 
seems necessary for the completion of the idiomatic phrase. 

' The six Gasanbirs or Gahambars are festivals, each held for 
five days, and severally ending on the 45th, 105th, 180th, 210th, 
290th, and 365th days of the Parsi year. They were probably 

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158 dAdISTAN-J DiNfo. 

foremost places being occupied, or like causes he 
becomes otherwise — is fit for all the great share and 
very good estimation of the place of one much more 
skilful, when their being fitting and skilful, or their 
excess or deficiency, is not specially manifest from 
their skill \ 8. And him to whom the commentary 
is very easy, having prayed much, it has seemed 
important to consider more thriving proportionable 
to his eating 2 . 

9. And great and ample respect for both their 
ways of worthiness is an advantage and fully neces- 
sary, skill in the commentary and that in the Avesta 
being together mutually assisting; for even the 
solemnizers of the Avesta have need for information 
from the commentary about the scattered (parvand) 
'proper and improper' usages of the sacred ceremony. 
10. The more efficient information from the com- 
mentary is advantageous when the ceremonial is 
proceeded with by them, and one of those two is 
one of the skilful, and a friend, provider, glorifier, 
and aggrandizer for the other; and the friends of 
religion are good friends and, therefore, also pro- 
viders of fame for both of them. 

intended originally to celebrate the periods of midspring, midsum- 
mer, the beginning of autumn, the beginning of winter, midwinter, 
and the beginning of spring (see Sis. XVIII, 3), when the Parsi 
year was fixed to begin at the vernal equinox. In later times they 
were supposed to commemorate the creations of the sky, water, 
earth, vegetation, animals, and man. 

1 The meaning seems to be that a priest once acknowledged as 
pre-eminent is not to lose his right of precedence merely because 
others become rather better qualified, so long as he himself does 
not retrograde, or is not superseded in his official duties. But if 
through any accidental circumstance he be excluded from the 
chief seat, he ought not to dispute the matter. 

8 Or, perhaps, ' through being moderate in his eating.' 

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11. When, too, they are publishing accusing state- 
ments, one about the other, from necessity, or from 
the violence which is owing to the adversary l , it is 
important to become an excuser as regards them, 
and not a diminisher of their share, nor a bringer 
(akhtar) of unhealthiness to their united strength. 

Chapter XLVII I. 

1. The forty-seventh question is that which you 
ask thus : How is a liking for the desirableness, 
joy, and pleasure arising from the sacred ceremony 
(yazisn) friendly to Auhanriasa/, the archangels 2 , 
and the guardian spirits of the righteous 3 ; in what 
manner is the perfection of him by whom the cere- 
mony is ordered and the people of the country then 
exalted by them ; and how and in what manner does 
it become the vexation, defeat, anguish, and dis- 
comfort of the evil spirit, the demons, and the 
fiends ? 2. How is the purpose of the ceremony, 
what is the ceremony, where is the place* when 
they shall perform it, what is good when they shall 

1 The evil spirit. 

* The archangels are usually reckoned as seven in number, be- 
cause Auharma«</, their creator, is considered as presiding over the 
six others, whose names are Vohuman, Ardavahift, Shatvaird, Spen- 
darmarf, Horvada</, and Amerddarf. These names are merely 
corruptions of Avesta phrases meaning 'good thought, perfect 
rectitude, desirable dominion, bountiful devotion, health, and im- 
mortality,' respectively, and the archangels, or 'immortal benefactors,' 
are personifications of these ideas. They are said to have been the 
first creatures created, after the guardian spirits or prototypes of 
creation, the light, and the sky (see Bd. I, 8, 23-26). 

* See Chap. II, 5. * Or gas may mean ' time.' 

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160 dAbistAn-J d{nJk. 

perform it, and how is it good when they shall per- 
form it? 

3. The reply is this, that the great satisfaction 
of Auharmasaf and the archangels arising from the 
sacred ceremony is in the purity of its formulary 
(nirang), and also in this, that it is completely 
fulfilling his own blessed commands ; because he 
ordered that entire goodness for the complete pro- 
cedure of those of the good religion (bundako 
hudlnakanakih), as the recompense and full allot- 
ment of the sure upholder of religion among those 
who rightly recite it. 4. From the performance of 
the ceremonial of the sacred beings are the propi- 
tiation of the good spirits, the destruction (d 
sx\6) of violence, the increase of digestiveness, the 
growth of plants, the prosperity of the world, and 
also the proper progress of living beings, even until 
the movement of the renovation of the universe and 
the immortality of the creatures arise therefrom. 5. It 
became so, it is expressly said, because the sacred 
beings are great ; and unitedly opposing it the 
demons are particularly undesirous of it, and owing 
to it their defeat and vexation are severe ; its con- 
secrated cup (tajtiko) 1 also becomes the express 
preservation of the ceremony. 

6. And its purpose enquired about is this, that 
religion is transmitted clearly to the intelligent, that 
is, it is not the wisdom whose comprehension exists 
in worldly beings ; and as, moreover, even that which 
is not understood by worldly wisdom is really the 

1 Referring probably to the cup of H6m juice, the preparation, 
consecration, and use of which are essentially characteristic of the 
Yasirn or sacred ceremony, and are, therefore, supposed to be very 
repulsive to the demons. 

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CHAPTER XL VIII, 3-9. l6l 

creature of the spirits, that also which is the spiritual 
formulary (ntrang) is for making it intelligible to 
worldly beings through the body 1 . 7. That religion 
which is comprehensible by the world and authori- 
tative (nik£,sakS) is rightly connected with that 
which worldly beings are quite able to understand 
through worldly wisdom ; and the understanding 
about its evidence as to that which is spiritual and 
powerful, apart from the worldly evidence of supe- 
riors (az>arikanS), is the right way of the intelligent 
8. That proper (kin 6) purpose — in which, more- 
over, the ceremonial, owing to timely memory for 
its own completion, is unique — is this unique exhi- 
bition of purity in the pure glorifying of the hea- 
venly angels, as is commanded ; just as the purpose 
of the ceremonial of a season-festival being before 
the season-festival, and of maintaining (daran) the 
exposure of the body of a jackal (.sakhal) 2 or a 
man, is to make the body clean from the corrupting 
(nasusiko) pollution 8 , and also from outward con- 

9. That also which might be written, as to the 
much retribution appointed as regards washing 
the limbs outside with clean moisture from clean 

1 That is, the purpose of the ceremonial is to afford an outward 
symbol of the spiritual mysteries of the religion. 

* This reading is uncertain, but the reference appears to be to 
the exposure of the dead. M14 has the sentence altered as fol- 
lows : — 'just as the ceremony of a season-festival is exhibited more 
royally (or more joyously) before the season-festival, and a man 
who is a judge is for the purpose of making the body clean from 
the corrupting pollution, and also from contamination which is 
even outside the body, as much as is proper.' 

* That is, the pollution due to the Nasflj, or fiend of corruption, 
who is supposed to seize upon all corpses (see Chap. XVII, 7). 

[18] M 

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l62 DAZ)ISTAN-i dInIk. 

animals 1 and plants, and then completely washing 
the body with the purifying water streaming forth ; 
as to the clean scents among those which they 
rightly perceive, and making the body and cloth- 
ing 2 sweet-scented; and as to the putting on of 
the white and proper garment of VohGman 8 , and 
supposing the power 4 of avarice to be the sight of 
distress, is all superfluous. 10. But it is needful 
still as regards these matters, that is, while engaged 
in the ceremonial it is not to be hurried owing 
to any hunger or thirst, owing to liability of 
punishment for religious practices 6 , or even owing 
to deficiency 6 of vacant space, n. And before 
the ceremonial one is to eat at the appropriate 
time, and such food, too, as is preparable and only 
moderately troublesome (navas) ; and any of that 
which one has to perform aloud in leaving the 
heavenly-minded, yet moderate, duty in the abode 
of fires 7 — which is perpetual light — is proper, per- 
taining to good works, and good for him, and 
thereby lodging in him. 12. And they, that is, 

1 Referring to ceremonial purification by washing with bull's 

* Or ' the clothing of the body.' 

* The sacred shirt (see Chaps. XXXIX, 19, XL, 2). 

4 Reading va zdrih, but it may be nizdrih, ' weakening.' 
8 This seems tobethe meaning of min p&rfafr&hfh-i din6ikth.. 
At the time this was written the religion was often persecuted, and 
its ceremonies were liable to interruption; but even when such 
a misfortune was apprehended, they were not to be hurried over. 

* The word is kamih in the MSS., but it may possibly have 
been k&mih originally, in which case the meaning would be: 'or 
even owing to wishing for evacuation.' 

7 The fire temple, where the sacred fire is kept perpetually 

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the gloomy ones 1 , thereby see the service (yasak) 
for them themselves is short; and good are they* 
who come into the world glorified by praise. 

13. The position of the ceremony-holders 3 them- 
selves, that is, the position of the officiating priest 
(zdt8) and his co-operators, is the Aurv£s* place ; 
and, if it be the precinct (dargaslh) of prayers 8 , one 
should wash it over (madam pasayaaf) with the 
water of purification, to make it clean. 14. The 
apparatus of the ceremonial, together with its own 
man, who is a solemnizer, and the two creatures 
which are solid* out of these four: fire, metal, 
water, and plants, just as one has to bring them 
together in readiness, the stone Aurv£s, the stone 
and mortar Khan 7 , attd the H6m-mortar* (hava- 
nih), cups, and crescent-shaped (mah-rupo) stands 9 
set upon it, are all ceremoniously washed (paafya- 
vinid) with the water of purification. 15. The 

1 The demons. In Mi 4 the sentence, already obscure, is 
altered so as to be unintelligible. 

* The angels. The meaning is that, by the utterance of the proper 
formulas at the proper times, the demons are discouraged, and the 
angels are induced to come to the ceremony. 

3 Perhaps we should read sakht&r an, 'preparers,' as in M14, 
or else yaxtdran, ' solemnizers,' instead of d&j-t&rSn, 'holders.' 

* This is the name of the consecrated space within which the 
ceremony is performed. It is often written Arvfs, but is probably 
to be traced to the Av. urva6 sa, ' goal.' 

* That is, when the place is about to be used for a ceremony. 

* Literally 'material;' meaning the metallic and vegetable por- 
tions of the ceremonial apparatus. 

7 The slightly raised platform or table upon which all the 
apparatus, except the fire and unconsecrated water, is placed. 

" In which the twigs of Hdm are pounded and mixed with 

* For the Baresdm or sacred twigs (see Chap. XLIII, 5). 

M 2 

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1 64 DAZ)ISTAN-i DfrjiK. 

bright fire on the clean fire-stand (atlstS) 1 is 
increased by the dry firewood delivered to it puri ' 
fied, and one is to put upon it at appropriate times 
the wholesome perfumes of various kinds of plants ; 
and the water of purification, which is ritualistically 
produced 2 by reciting the words of revelation, is in 
the clean metal cups. 16. The well-grown H6m s 
through which the world is possessed of creatures*, 
the H6m through which the production of Zaraturt 
occurred 5 , is a symbol of the white G6keran6' as 

1 A small stone platform on which the fire vase is placed, now 
usually called addst. 

* Reading nfrangfktha darf instead of the unintelligible 
nlrang ashiya</of K35, which is very similarly written in Pah- 
lavi ; M14 has ' which one is to keep pure by the ritual of words of 

* A plant said to grow among the mountains in southern 
Persia, which has not yet been botanically identified, but Anquetil 
Duperron was told that it resembled a vine without fruit. Twigs 
of this plant are brought to India ' by traders and are, therefore, 
considered impure until they have been purified, laid aside for a 
year, and again purified' (see Haug"s Essays, p. 399). A few 
fragments of these twigs are pounded and mixed with water in the 
Hdm-mortar, and the juice is tasted by the priest who performs the 
ceremony. The Avesta H6m and the Sanskrit Soma must have 
been originally the same plant, but both Parsis and Hindus now 
use plants which are no doubt mere substitutes for that original. In 
southern and western India the Soma plant now used by the 
Brahmans is the Sarcostemma Brevisligma, a leafless bush of green 
succulent branches, growing upwards, with flowers like those of an 
onion ; when not in flower it can hardly be distinguished from the 
Euphorbia Tirucalli, or thornless milk-bush, commonly used for 
hedges in many parts of India. 

4 Reading dam-hOmand; or it may be xem-hdmand, 
* renowned.' 

• Zaratfljt is said to have been begotten in consequence of his 
parents drinking Hom-juice and cow's milk infused, respectively, 
with his guardian spirit and glory (see Zs. XI, ion). K35 has 
homan, and M14 has hdmand, instead of hdm, in this clause. 

• Av. gaokerena, sometimes called gdkar<? in Pahlavi, the 

Digitized by 



regards the immortality of the renovation of the 
universe manifest therefrom, and the resting-places 
of its vengeance 1 are the various demons ; and with 
it one is to put attentively (.rinvunS-dahak) in its 
appropriate place the pomegranate (hadanapag) 2 
plant of the Aurvaram. 17. The vegetable 3 sacred 
twigs carefully girded with the vegetable belt (par- 
vand) and girdle, and the metallic* crescent-shaped 
stands — which are in the position of those who are 
sovereigns of the worldly creatures who are inter- 
preted as the sacred twigs 8 of the treatises — are 

18. When arranged (st6r<aft>) by the bringing 
together of clean worldly productions, so much the 
more purely as is possible, the arrival of the pure 
renders all the symbols reliable. 19. Those cele- 
brators of whom the outside of their own bodies is 
defiled with their bodily refuse and in clean cloth- 
ing, and their disposition — if 6 in the religion of 

mythic white Hdm-tree which is said to grow in the wide-formed 
ocean, and from which the draught of immortality is prepared for 
mankind at the resurrection (see Vend. XX, 17, Bd. XVIII, 1-4, 
XXVII, 4, XXX, 25). 
1 Reading aySngth nisfm, but this is uncertain. 

* Av. hadhanagpata, to represent which the Parsis now use a 
twig of the pomegranate bush, but it must originally have been 
some sweet-scented plant (see Vend. VIII, 7). The Aurvaram 
(Av. ace. urvarSm) consists of this twig, a small fragment of which 
is pounded with the Hdm-twigs when preparing the H6m-juice. 

* From this it would appear that the practice of using metal 
wires, instead of twigs of trees, for the baresdm (see Chap. 
XLIII, 5) was not in use a thousand years ago. 

* Literally ' Shatvatrian ;' the archangel ShatvaJrd (Av. khsha- 
thra vairy a, 'desirable dominion') having special charge of all 
metals (see Bd. XXX, 19, Sis. XV, 14-19). 

6 Reading baresom; K35 has basom and M14 btm-i£. 

' M14 substitutes ydshdasarinWS for denman hlgarint</6, 

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1 66 dAdISTAN-1 DfNtK. 

moderate eating in which is a thirst for lawfully- 
drinking — is customarily sleep and lethargy through 
the tendency (run 6) to falsehood of their wisdom, 
are to consider, even from their innermost hearts 
and minds, the retribution of the body of wrath, 
the falsehood, and bad thoughts in that disposition 
of infamy, and the recompense of their own renun- 
ciation of it ; they are to atone for their sinfulness, 
and to seek great purification of mind. 20. And 
having acquired eyes speaking 1 forth, hands in a state 
of ablution, and every other member of the body — 
especially there where well-accomplishable — free 
from its bodily refuse and covered with the clean 
clothing, the tongue is preserved and guarded from 
falsehood and the hand from sin, the mind is esta- 
blished by little preparation with good consideration 
for knowledge of the sacred beings, and even the 
good are to recite by direction (raaflha) the verbal 
renunciation of sin 2 . 

21. The officiating priest (zdto), having directed 
and purified the place 8 of the fire with liturgical 
words*, is to go and walk unto the place of the 
officiating priests 6 while glorifying the sacred beings, 

and pa</mukht for va khtm hat, so as to read 'the outside of 
their own bodies is purified and attired in clean clothing,' but this 
can hardly be reconciled with the context. The term hlgar or 
htkhar (Av. hikhra), here translated 'bodily refuse,' is applied to 
any refuse or dirt from the living body, or any liquid exudation 
from a dead one. 

1 Reading g6vak, but it may be yuv&k, 'wishing,' or duvak, 
' flowing.' M14 alters it to vSnak, 'looking,' which suits the eyes 
well enough, but hardly seems to express the author's idea. 

* See Chap. XLI, 5. 

* Mi 4 has 'having purified around the place.' 

4 The Atar Nyayi* (see Haug's Essays, p. 403). 

* This place is at the end of the ceremonial area farthest from 

Digitized by 


- CHAPTER XL VIII, 2O-24. 167 

and to consider invokable the glory given to the 
luminaries and the guardian spirits of the good. 22. 
Of those 1 also who, co-operatively, conjointly, and in- 
terspersed (ham- res), have each separately remained 
in their own places and thought of the sacred beings, 
with propitiation of Auharmaawf and scornful notice 
(tar dalmnd) of the evil spirit, the employment 
stands forth prominently at the ceremonial. 23. 
As to the position of others co-operating with him 
who is an officiating priest of good leadership, there 
are some who are for the Avesta 2 , there is the 
solitude (khadui^arih) by the fire, there are some 
who are bringers * forward of water, there are some 
who are for carriers away, there are some who are 
solitary ones, there are some who are gregarious 
ones, there are some who are directors of duties, and 
their own needful arrangement in the place is ar- 
ranged in the ceremony. 

24. In cleanliness, purity, and truth, as much as 
there is in this mingled existence*, if one has to 
commence a ceremony glorifying the sacred beings, 

the fire. Here the priest first invokes the spirits in whose honour 
the ceremony is about to be performed, by reciting their several 
propitiatory formulas (see Chap. XXIX, 1). 

1 Referring to any other priests who may be present. 

* M14 has ' for carriers,' omitting the three clauses about the 
Avesta, fire, and bringing water. 

9 Or, perhaps, ' there is he who may be a bringer ;' and similarly 
in the following clauses. The plural suffix -iha being identical in 
form with the Paz. conditional form of the verb ' to be,' which 
seems to be the origin of the adverbial suffix corresponding to -ly 
in English when added to an adjective ; occasionally it is added to 
a substantive, as is probably the case here, and can then be only 
translated by ' may, or would, be' (see Chap. XLIV, n). 

* This first clause may belong to the preceding section. 

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1 68 DA/>ISTAN-i DiNfrC. 

when the righteously-disposed temperament is puri- 
fied along with the apparatus the abundant ritualism 
(nlrangaklh) of the spirit is a symbol and reminder 
of the will of the sacred beings, undesired by the 
fiend *, and remains a blessing deservedly unto those 
come together. 25. Then is explained the text 
(az/istak) of that great scripture (nask6) which is 
called the Haafokht 2 , that is itself the best of the 
chiefs of the scriptures, and of the sublime Dv&sdah- 
hdmast 3 that is not recited by any voice with false- 
hood (ikadba)*, and is called 'the origin of every 
truth V 

26. The pure glorification of the sacred beings 
is in the light, this is in the morning time(frayar 
gas) 8 ; and even until night the ritualistic and true 

1 K35 has dr6n, ' sacred cake,' instead of diHg. 

* The twentieth Nask, which is said to have chiefly treated of 
religious ceremonies and texts (see Byt. Ill, 25). Two Avesta 
fragments, published by Westergaard as Yt. XXI and XXII, are 
traditionally ascribed to this Nask. 

* Another name for the Damdarf Nask, from which the Bundahu 
appears to have originated (see Zs. IX, 1). The name is also 
applied to a particular series of ceremonies, continued for twelve 
successive days in honour of each of the twenty-two sacred beings 
whose names are given to the ist~7th, 9th-i4th, i6th-22nd, 24th, 
and 26th days of the month; these ceremonies last, therefore, for 
264 days (see Byt. II, 59). 

4 It can hardly be akadba, as that would imply that it 'is not 
recited by any undeceitful voice.' The use of the prefix a- in the 
sense of 'with' is rare, but it occurs in apustanu, 'pregnant,' 
(whence Pers. abistan), and is noticed by Dastur Jamaspji in his 
Fahlavi Dictionary, p. 2. 

8 Reading bun-i ko/a rastth, apparently a forerunner of the 
modern name Bundahlr. 

* The friyar period of the day corresponds to the Havan Gab. 
or morning (compare Farh. Okh. p. 42 with Bd. XXV, 9), at which 
time the Yasna ceremonial should be performed when not accom- 

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CHAPTER XLVITI, 25-29. 1 69 

recitation of revelation (din 6) is unchangeably pro- 
ceeding, undivided and faultless. 27. This, too, is 
in benediction of the angels ; this, too, is producing 
restraint of the fiends ; this, too, is in praise of the 
glorious ones, the mighty doers ; this, too, is as an 
admonition for creatures subject to command; this 
is in the' true words of the ancients who have passed 
away; this, too, is as a suitable servant for the 
righteous, these good doers ; this, too, is to obtain 
a permanence (patlstan) of requisites ; this, too, is 
suitable for the discreet and is merciful ; this, too, is 
as another way in which the promoters of good 
(veh-ya&karan) are pardoned, as soon as the H6m- 
juice (parahdm) is digested, through not having 
eaten from dawn till night during the pure utterance 
of the pure glorification. 28. And, moreover, one 
performs no work 1 , nor is even a word uttered ; one 
does not go to sleep, nor should they allow any 
pollution to the body; the sequence (patisarih) of 
the religious formulas is, likewise, not changed from 
that ordered, nor is even a detached thought away 
from that truth and purity ; but always with phrases 
rightly consecutive and properly worded (hu-sakh- 
unaganoiha) the A vesta is uttered; and even the 
manner of response of one's co-operators is in modes 
contributing to good (hu-pa^ayak5), or they utter 
the scripture (nask). 

29. Since the production of stench is needing 
something essentially purifying, many formulas in the 
ceremonial are tokens and signs which, while they 

panied by the VendidSrf; or, according to the text, it must be 
performed by daylight. 
1 During the ceremonial. 

Digitized by 



are strongly manifested, are terrifying and vexing to 
the demons, and inviting and rejoicing to the angels. 
30. Such as, indeed, the pure H 6m, which is squeezed 
out by four applications of holy-water (zdrlh) 1 with 
religious formulas, is noted even as a similitude of 
the understanding 2 and birth of the four apostles 
bringing the good religion, who are he who was the 
blessed Zaratust and they who are to be HusheWar, 
Hush6dar-mah, and Sdshans 3 . 31. As also the 
metal mortar (ha van) which is struck* .during the 
squeezing of the H 6m, and its sound is evoked along 
with the words of the Avesta, which becomes a re- 
minder of the thoughts, words, and deeds on the 
coming of those true apostles into the world. 32. 
As also the proper rite as regards the water, that 
they should perform three times *, which is showing 
the world the glorious seizing of water 4 and formation 

1 In preparing the Hdm-juice fresh holy- water (zdr) is added 
four times to the H6m-twigs which are each time pounded anew, 
while reciting the Ahunavar formula, and their liquor strained into 
a cup (see Haug's Essays, p. 402). 

* There is no authority for translating s invij nS by 'conception,' 
otherwise that meaning would suit this sentence better. M14 has 
y e he vftni* no, 'existence,' which differs by only one extra stroke 
of the pen in Pahlavi. 

» See Chap. II, 10. 

4 The word jikS»f-att8 really means 'is split.' During the 
pounding of the H6m-twigs the pestle is struck several times 
against the sides of the mortar, so as to produce a ringing sound 
(see Haug's Essays, p. 401). 

" Reading vidanig, instead "of gfln-aS, by transposing the 
first two Pahlavi characters. After the first series of poundings of 
the Hdm-twigs holy-water is added to them three times while 
reciting, each time, the Ashcm-vohu formula (ibid.). 

• The evaporation from the ocean, said to be effected by Tlrtar 
for the production of rain (see Chap. XCIII, 2, 3). 

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of rain, and the healthfulness of the production of 
rain 1 . 33. And as the purification of the milk, by 
the glorious ritualistic product (nirang) 2 taken from 
the purifying cattle, is divided in two, by means of 
which the token is that which is great, glorious, and 
good ; one being for the daughter of Paurva^iryi 3 
the Maswfe-worshipper, and from her was Adshndr 
full of wisdom ; and one being Farhank, daughter of 
Vidhirisa *, and from her came Kal-Kava^ 8 . 

34. And, as to the high-priests of the glorious 
religion, it is said many concomitants (pa^vandlhi) 
are obtained ; such as, much discrimination of scrip- 
ture (nask), the holy-water which is indispensable 
as a remedy, the healthfulness which is given in 
that ceremonial to the sacred fire 4 which the world 
destroys, that pre-eminent strength which is given 
at the end of the world from the ox Hadhay&y 7 unto 
the good people scattered about (fravaftan) — it is 

1 The delightfulness of rain after an eight-months' drought can- 
not be adequately appreciated by a dweller in Europe. 

' That is, bull's urine. 

8 The reading of this name, as well as that of Adshndr, is 
doubtful ; but if these names occur at all in the extant Avesta, they 
may perhaps be found in the Aoshnara pouru-^fra of Fravarrfin 
Yt. 131, Af. Zarat. 2; the epithet pouru-^tra, when it occurs 
after the name, would naturally be considered a patronymic, whence 
a father or grandfather could be easily created, if he did not exist 
already in legendary history. 

4 This name is written in P&zand, and is evidently meant for 
the same person as the PSz. Vtdharg-afra* taka of Bd. XXXI, 31, 
where Farhank is said to have been the mother of Kat-Api v6h and, 
therefore, the wife of Kai-Kavarf. 

8 Mi 4 has 'from him she came unto Kat-KavSrf,' which would 
tally better with the statements in Bd. XXXI, 25, 31. 

• Literally * the fire of Varahrin (BahrSm).' 

7 See Chap. XXXVII, 99. 

Digitized by 


172 DADISTAN-I DfNfo. 

mingled with the fire of men's bodies \ and they, 
therefore, become perfect and immortal through it — 
and there are also other things. 35. There are also 
in the ceremonial many tokens and signs of spiritual 
mysteries, glorious matters, and habitual practices of 
which statements would be very tedious. 

36. And if the wish (ayupo) should be this, that 
they should be engaged in a single ceremony of the 
length of a day, a man who is righteous in purification, 
inside and outside the body, should stay away from all 
his relations and the worldly transaction of business, 
from malicious actions and covetous practices, sepa- 
rated from all lying and falsehood of relatives ; and 
his words are to be all those which are serving the 
angels, glorifying, and begging favours. 37. Then, 
indeed, the way of the spirit and the harmoniousness 2 
of the sacred beings, are manifest therefrom ; and 
those which are as much the means due to the 
primitive good creations as is more purely possible 
are strengthening as regards the utility (bun) for 
offering, encouraging for purity, confounding for the 
confusers (gume^akan), terrifying for the fiends, and 
propitiating for the sacred beings. 

38. The ceremonial which is good is when they 
shall perform it for a pure disposition and assured 
wisdom, a minder of the religion of the sacred beings 
of the spheres, and with pure thoughts, just thoughts 3 , 
wise deeds, a purified body, a tongue worthy of good 

1 The vital heat or Vohu-frySn fire (see Bd. XVII, 1, 2). 

1 Reading Shank&nakih, as in K35; M14 has khadukana- 
kf h, ' unity,' which is a much commoner word, nearly identical with 
the other in its Pahlavi form. 

* So in the MSS., but it was probably ' true words ' originally, 
so as to complete the triad of thought, word, and deed. 

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CHAPTER XLVIII, 35~4I. 1 73 

(v£h-sa,sak), a scripture (nask) made easy 1 , a true 
text (az>istak), ablutions performed, proper rites, 
undivided, and faultless. 39. Near which fashion, 
with like abilities, and innumerable times, it is very 
purely solemnized in the abode of the ever-growing 
fire, then in the abode of the other sacred fires 2 , 
then in the abodes of Mas*&-worshippers and other 
good people, and then in other places pronounced 
clean. 40. That of the three days 8 is in the abode 
of the fire-place which is nearest to that of the de- 
parted ; the ceremony of the guardian spirits of the 
righteous* is solemnized in purity there where the 
dwelling is which is nearest that of the departed 
whose soul is honoured. 41. And that for victories 
in war is then at its times of battle, the husbandry 
of Sam 8 and other offenders (vinasagan) who were 
for keeping away husbandry, the household attend- 
ant's place for a warrior of another rank, the occasion 
of the outcry of those not possessing (adarigan) a 
lodging, unto the rest of the same temperament 
(mun6k6), expressly to produce and maintain a pro- 
portional resemblance 6 . 

1 That is, learnt by heart. 
s Literally ' fires of Varahr&n.' 

• The three days after a death, during which ceremonies are 
performed in honour of the angel Srdsh, who is supposed to protect 
the departed soul from the demons during that period, while it 
is still hovering about the body (see Chap. XXVIII, 6). 

4 On the fourth day after a death (see Chap. XXVIII, 7). 

• That is, Keresasp the Saman (see Chap. XVII, 6); having 
been a famous warrior his husbandry is said to be battle, the 
destruction of all ordinary husbandry. 

• That is, the ruin of people by war leads them to demand 
a share of the property of those more fortunate, so as to produce 
an equality. The whole section seems to be a bitter sarcasm upon 
the effects of war, representing the generals as cultivators of 

Digitized by 


174 dAdistAn-1 dInJk. 

Chapter XLIX. 

i. As to the forty-eighth question and reply, that 
which you ask is thus : As to them who shall buy 
corn and keep it in store until it shall become dear, 
and shall then sell it at a high price (pa van gi ri- 
nd ih), what is the nature of the decision ? 

2. The reply is this, that when there is nothing 
therein on account of which I should so deem 1 it 
otherwise than due to the eating of the requisite 
amount (az>ayi.?n) of food for one's self, that which 
is his controlling impulse (sa^darlh), and not the 
teachings of the worthy and good, is the internal 
instruction which a time of scarcity has taught by 
means of the occurrences during that time 2 ; but 
clamorous worldly profit is want of diligence (akha- 
parakanth), for they would buy to make people 
distressed, and in order that they may sell again 
dearer. 3. Moreover, the store one keeps, and keeps 
as closed even unto the good as unto the bad — and 
though it be necessary for a man of the good and 
worthy, and they beg for some of the food, they shall 
not sell at the price it is worth at that time, on 
account of its becoming dearer — one keeps in store 
unauthorisedly and grievously sinfully, and every 
calamity of those good people they shall suffer who 
would not sell it at the price they beg. 

slaughter and rapine, with the soldiers as their domestic servants, 
driving the people into social democracy. 

1 K35 has a blank space for this word, but it is given in Mi 4, 
and also occurs in a similar phrase in Chap. LTV, 6. 

* That is, so long as one does not lay in a store more than 
sufficient for one's own requirements, it is only an act of prudence 
taught by former' experience. 

Digitized by 


CHAPTER XLIX, 1-8. 1 75 

4. On account of that non-obtainment of corn, or 
that unlawfully heinous sin, and because of clearness 
of price it is not proper to give it for that non-dis- 
tribution (an-afyan61h) unto him himself, or those 
under his control, or the poor to whom it would be 
given by him 1 ; and the distribution (r&sh\sn6) which 
occurs is then retaliative upon him. 5. And if the 
corn be spoiled 2 , through keeping too long a time 
in store, he is suffering assault from the hungry man 
(gurjno) who is injured even by that damaging 
(bddydz&dlh)* of the corn; if through that un- 
lawful want of preservation (adari^ndih) noxious 
creatures are associated with the corn, he is over- 
whelmed also by that heinous sin ; and, through the 
profit of improper diligence he is unworthy. 

6. But if it be necessary for their own people who 
are under their control, on account of the fear of 
a time of scarcity, they should buy at their own 
suitable time, and should afford protection. 7. Or, 
because of the teachings of the good and worthy, 
they should buy corn at a cheap price from a place 
where the corn is more than the requirements of the 
eaters, and they should bring it unto there where 
corn is scarce, provided (va hat6) the good and those 
requiring corn are sufficient (vasan). 8. So that, 
while their information of a scarcity of corn is even 

* That is, corn is not to be sold to a man who keeps it in store 
for the purpose of raising the price, nor to his people, nor is it even 
to be given to the poor whom he relieves, so that he may be com- 
pelled to support them out of his own stores, as a penalty. 

* Reading tapabi-aft, as in M14. 

' Literally 'destroying the consciousness,' or 'injuring the exist- 
ence.' Bd</y6z£</ is a technical name for sins whereby animals 
are ill-treated, or useful property injured (see Sis. II, 39). 

Digitized by 


176 DADISTAN-t DfrjlK. 

from him himself to whom the price would become 
profit 1 , or is the persistence of these same teachings 
of the good — so that it may become more abundant 
unto them than unto the bad, even in the time of 
scarcity when it is very much raised in price 2 — they 
should buy corn at a cheap price during an excess 
of corn, so that one may keep it until the time of 
a period of scarcity. 9. When there occurs a 
necessity for it among the good he sells it at such 
price as one buys it at that time, that is, the market 
price (ar^-i shatrdlk) 3 ; by that means, in a season 
of scarcity, much more is obtained in price, and it 
becomes more plentiful among the good ; then a 
more invigorating (pa^lkhulnagtar) praise of him 
is commendable. 

10. And, yet, as regards that which is suitable 
profit — and also apart from the eating of com, from 
anything eatable for the maintenance of life, from 
medicine and remedies for the healthfulness of life, 
and from whatever is for the preservation of life — it 
is allowable that they shall buy and shall sell dear*. 

Chapter L. 

1. The forty-ninth question is that you ask thus : 
If they should sell wine unto foreigners and infidels 
what is then the decision about it ? 

1 And, therefore, likely to be correct, as it is given in opposition 
to his own interest. 

' M14 has 'begged at a price,' by inserting a stroke. 

9 Without holding it back for an exorbitant rise in prices. 

* That is, there is no harm in speculating upon prices, except 
in the case of necessaries of life. 

Digitized by 


CHAPTER XLIX, 9-L, 4. I 77 

2. The reply is this, that there is very vehement 
danger of grievous sin, and it would be an evil 
occupation. 3. But if through the operation of that 
wine-selling of theirs the wine is kept more away 
from those who become worse through immoderate 
drinking of wine, and comes to those who drink wine 
in moderation ' — whom they cause to become better 
through drinking the wine — more than when they 
shall not practise that selling of the wine, then through 
that selling of theirs the power which is in the 
wealth 2 , by their keeping away of which a man is 
confirmed (pa^aylnl^S) in the good religion and 
diverted from going into infidelity, the progress of 
sin is impeded and good works are promoted, be- 
comes the assistance of the good and protection of 
religion, the hindrance of sin and aid of good works, 
which, when they shall not practise that wine-selling, 
do not arise, and which are much more promoted 
than the various sins that might have arisen from 
the unlawfully drinking of wine. 4. Or, otherwise, 
the greater decision — and great are the good works 
which are assured therein — is thus: 'They who 
shall sell wine 8 to foreigners, infidels, and others 
from whom unlawful conduct arises through drunken- 
ness, act very sinfully and not authorisedly.' 

1 That is, when the supply, of wine is so limited that by selling 
it to moderate drinkers they keep it away from drunkards. 

* The wealth they acquire by selling wine, which would have 
produced evil in the hands of the buyers, and ought to produce 
good in their own. 

* K35 has vin&s, 'sin,' instead of Ss, 'wine,' which is clearly 

[18] N 

Digitized by 


178 dAdistAn-J d!n!k. 

Chapter LI. 

1. The fiftieth question is that which you ask 
thus : As to one of the good religion who drinks wine 
immoderately, and loss and injury happen to him 
owing to that immoderate drinking, what is then the 
decision about him ? 2. And how is the measure 
of wine-drinking which when they drink is then 
authorised for them ? 

3. The reply is this, that whoever through the 
influence of opportunity drinks wine immoderately, 
and is adult and intelligent, through every loss and 
injury which thereupon come to him from that im- 
moderate drinking, or which occasion anything unto 
any one, is then his causing such pollution to the 
creatures, in his own pleasurably 1 varied modes, that 
the shame owing to it is a help (dastaklh) out of 
that affliction. 4. And even he who gives wine 
authorisedly 2 unto any one, and he is thereby in- 
toxicated by it, is equally guilty of every sin which 
that drunkard commits owing to that drunkenness. 

5. And concerning that drunkenness, what is said 
is that that is to be eaten through which, when one 
eats it, one thinks better, speaks better, and acts 

1 K35 has a blank space here for a word, but no word seems 
really necessary. M14 fills up the blank by changing gvt</6 into 
gzTdinido, and reads 'converted unto his own pleasure, and the 
mode,' &c. 

1 Mi 4 has ' unauthorisedly,' a very natural emendation of the 
text as it stands in K35, but it does not appear that the author 
intended to limit the responsibility of the person giving the wine 
merely to those cases in which bis action would be quite unjustifi- 

Digitized by 


CHAPTER LI, I-9. 179 

better ; and such even is the food by which, through 
having drunk wine, one becomes more virtuous, or 
does not become more vicious, in thought, word, and 
deed. 6. When an experiment as regards its being 
good is tried, so that having drunk it in that propor- 
tion one becomes better, or does not become worse, 
then it is allowable to drink it. 

7. When an untried person, for the sake of being 
tried, has drunk a mingled portion, first of one drink- 
ing-cup 1 , secondly of two drinking-cups, and thirdly 
of three drinking-cups, and through drinking it he 
becomes more virtuous, or does not become more 
vicious, in thought 2 , word, or deed, he is to increase 
the drinking-cups, and the experiment is allowable 
unto those tested just so far as the proportion is such 
that he becomes better, or does not become worse. 
8. To those tested it is authorisedly given to that 
amount through which the experimenting that is 
mentioned has extended ; and to hint who it is proved 
will become worse through the drinking of wine, that 
amount, through the drinking of which, when given 8 
in the experiment, it was seen that he became worse, 
is not authorisedly given. 

9. In a case of doubt one is to consider him who 
is orthodox (hu-din6), who has chanted the sacred 
hymns, and is of good repute, whose drunkenness 

1 Reading &v ^imak6, 'water-cup;' but it is written like av 
simako in the MSS. 

* K35 has man, M14 minijno. 

* Reading yehabunto instead of the unintelligible ^Sn bu</6 
of K35, the alteration being merely lengthening the bottom stroke 
of the Pahl. b. BJ14 substitutes bar! yehevun&rf for burfo ^an 
b<Wo, which gives the following meaning : ' through the drinking 
of which, in the experiment, it is seen that he becomes thoroughly 

N 2 

Digitized by 


l8o DlDISTAN-t dMr. 

is not manifest, in this way, that he drinks as much 
wine as was tried by him when he became no worse 
by drinking it. 10. It is necessary to consider hint 
whose religion is unseen, whose religion is wrong, 
and him who is a child furnished even with the 
realities of religion, in this way, that he becomes 
worse through having drunk wine. n. When apart 
from the decision there is no assignable (ban^i^nlk) 
reason as regards it, the share of wine which they 
gave not authorisedly who themselves drank wine, 
one considers as some of the wine on its being given 
more authorisedly \ 

Chapter LI I. 

i. As to the fifty-first question and reply, that 
which you ask is thus : There is a man who hands 
over a dirham 2 as regards five bushels (kafis) of 

1 The meaning appears to be that, when there is no special 
reason to the contrary, the quantity of wine one may have already 
drunk elsewhere is to be considered as part of one's allowance. 

1 The dirham (Spawn) is a weight, and also a silver coin of that 
weight, but its amount is rather uncertain. According to the Pers. 
MS. M5 (fol. 55), written a.d. 1723, the proper dowry for a 'privi- 
leged ' wife is 2000 dirhams of white silver, or 2300 rflpis, and 2 
dirhams of red gold, or 2J tolas. The rupis formerly current in 
Gug-arat were less in value than the present Indian coinage, but the 
tola, which is the weight of the present rupi, was probably much 
the same as it is now, or 180 grains ; the statement in M5 is, there- 
fore, equivalent to saying that the dirham contained 202 grains of 
pure silver. This is so much more than the amount deducible from 
other authorities that it might be supposed that the stir (arariip) or 
tetradrachm was meant, if it were not confirmed, to some extent, 
by the Pers. Riviyats, which state the dowry at 2000 dirhams of 
pure white silver and 2 dinars of red gold of the Ntshapur currency ; 
the dinar being a gold coin containing a dirham weight of pure 

Digitized by 


CHAPTER LI, IO-L1I, 4. l8l 

wheat, thus : ' I give this to thee as an instalment 
(bdn-ae) 1 of five bushels of wheat at the end of 
a month;' and during the month, and at its end, 
those five bushels of wheat become five times the 
price ; would they authorisedly seize the five bushels 
of wheat when winnowed (p£khtS ka^dfo) by him, 
through that instalment which he handed over, or 

2. The reply is this, that when they who shall 
take his dirham have to intrust the five bushels of 
wheat, unsuspiciously and by their own will, to him 
to winnow, even so as they are advisedly and un- 
suspiciously winnowed by him they should take them 
just as winnowed ; this is the decision authorisedly 
given. 3. But when it is winnowed by him on 
account of very grievous necessity for payment, it 
is more suitable for the soul to beg the giver of the 
money, who is the purchasing payer a , for some of 
that excess of undivided (a par) profit. 4. For he 
has to consider the profit of his successors as among 
the profit of money on the spot 3 — when more than 

gold. It is safer, however, to rely upon the average weight of the 
Sasanian dirham coins, which, according to Dr. Mordtmann's state- 
ment in ZDMG. vol. xii, pp. 44, 45, is about 63 grains, or 5$ 
annas' worth of silver; so that the stfr would be 252 grains or 
22$ annas. But the actual value of such coins of former times can 
be ascertained only from the quantity of corn, or other well-defined 
necessary of life, which they would purchase. 

1 K35 has vaban twice in this sentence, but bdn in § 4. M14 
alters this word and others, so as to make the chapter unintelligible. 
The money is supposed to be given merely as a deposit, in acknow- 
ledgment of a bargain to be carried out after the corn is ready for 

1 Reading zednunand dukhtar, but, perhaps, this is a corrup- 
tion of zednuninWar, ' a causer of purchase, a broker.' 

* That is, ' ready money.' 

Digitized by 


1 82 DAi>ISTAN-i DtNiK. 

such instalment demanded — and not as a fresh 
carrying off of a gift \ 

Chapter LI 1 1. 

i. As to the fifty-second question and reply, that 
which you ask is thus : //"people of the good religion, 
in their country or out of their country, shall buy and 
sell with those of a different religion as regards 
cattle, or shall lay hold of traders (vanlkgaran) and 
shall sell to them, what is then the decision abput 
it ? 2. When those of the good religion shall not 
buy, as they have not come up to the price, but the 
orthodox dealers shall sell to traders and those of 
a different religion, what is then the decision about 
it ? 3. And about him, of whom the means of 
existence (zivunS mindavam) are such, what is 
then the decision ? 

4. The reply is this, that it would be very grievously 
sinful, and it would be an, evil occupation to transact 
such business through the influence of opportunity, 
and to seek profit unauthorisedly in that manner. 
5. But if it be the means of existence of those of 
the good religion of whom you have written, and they 
are not able to seek it in any other business and 
proper occupation which would be a less sinful means 
of existence, complete 2 purchasers who have acquired 

1 That is, having made a bargain, he is not to be aggrieved 
at any unexpected excess of profit made in good faith by the other 
parties to the bargain ; a rather high standard of commercial 

s The word is pur, but it may be suspected of being a blunder, 
as idri, ' ox,' would be a more likely word. 

Digitized by 


CHAPTER LIII, I-L1V, 3. 1 83 

the good religion shall sell unto those of the good 
religion x ; because it is possible for him to be less 
sinful to whom it is allowable to beg the life of a 
comrade, for still the rule of a. righteous man, with 
the righteous who are in his guardianship, is to live. 
6. So it is possible, when they shall sell cattle for 
slaughter and foreign eating, many cattle — amounting 
even to a diminution of the maintenance of Iran — 
are more wretched than a righteous man forced to 
kill them through a living becoming unobtainable and 
the fear of death. 

Chapter LIV. 

1. As to the fifty-third question and reply, that 
which you ask is thus : A man whose wife, daughters, 
sisters, and relations are many, and who is the master 
of much wealth, becomes sick, and during the sick- 
ness has given this hoard of wealth unto one 
daughter. 2. And his other sisters and daughters 
are not contented therewith, and speak thus : ' This 
wealth ought to have been given during health and 
consciousness, not during sickness ; and now it should 
not be allowable to give anything whatever unto 
any one during sickness, for if anything happens * 
the wealth all comes back for division amongst us.' 
3. Would it be allowable to give anything whatever 
of that wealth to any one, during sickness, or not ? 

1 Who would not be likely to kill the animal, and with whom 
they could come to an understanding as to its good treatment, so 
as to avoid the sin of bddy 6zeVih (see Chap. XLIX, 5 n). 

* M14 has 'if he gives anything.' 

Digitized by 


184 dAdistAn-J d!n}k. 

4. Is it necessary l for one of such wife, daughters, 
and sisters as there happen to be to appoint an adopted 
son for that man, because of that wealth, or not ? 

5. Are the wife, daughters, and sisters who shall 
take their share of the wealth responsible for * the 
religious rites of every kind, and is it necessary for 
them to order the annual ceremonies for that man 
at the daily and yearly periods, or not 8 ? 

6. The reply is this, that, when there is nothing 
therein on account of which I should so deem him 
otherwise than a man in sickness and nearly passing 
away, it is not allowable to give it up, except when it 
is for his debts, or his wife and children, or an aged 
person (zarman) or father who is in his guardian- 
ship — whom it is indispensably necessary to main- 
tain — and is such as, or as much as, is discreetly 
requisite for payment of the debt, ox for the food, 
maintenance, and protection of those that I have 
written about; then, however, it is allowable to 
give it up away (btrunS) from those of whom you 
have written, as much as during his consciousness. 
7. In other sickness, not while passing away, what- 
ever is given up by him himself during conscious- 
ness is allowable ; when he is not conscious it is not 
allowable. 8. And on that which he says during 
unconsciousness one is not reliant and it is not 
credible (va#ar); but that which he says during 

1 K35 has 'is it not necessary,' by using IS, 'not,' instead of 
raM, 'for,' which latter reading is adopted in the text from Mi 4, 
but it is doubtful which reading is the better one. The same 
variation occurs in § 5. 

' Literally ' are the rites on their necks.' 

* Ceremonies for the dead have to be performed on the first four 
days, the tenth day, and then at the end of a month and a year 
from the time of death (see Sis. XVII, 5). 

Digitized by 


CHAPTER LIV, 4-9. 185 

consciousness, and that, too, which the same man 
gave unto a daughter when he was ill, if given by 
him consciously, are even then proceedings to be 
granted ; if given by him during unconsciousness it 
is just as though he died without an opportunity of 
speaking (avang-ptrus) K 

9. Of the property left by will 2 , one share is 
needful for each separate daughter for whom a 
husband is not provided, and two shares for a wife 
who may be a privileged one •; and so long as the 
wife is living she exists as the house-mistress of the 
family ; moreover, it is not needful to appoint an 

1 For this uncommon word M14 substitutes avik-andarz, 
'intestate;' but the meaning is that the gift is as invalid as if he 
had been unable to make a declaration of his intentions. 

1 Levatman andarz in K35, but M14 has avik andarz, 
' without a will,' which, at first sight, appears the more plausible 
reading (especially as ai/ik, ' without,' is written very much like 
avak, ' with,' the Paz. synonym of levatman). But on further con- 
sideration it seems equally probable that this section is intended to 
limit the power of a testator, so as to prevent him from dividing so 
much of his property as he leaves to his family in any unfair 
manner. The rule here laid down would, of course, also apply in 
cases of intestacy when the testator has no son ; and is that given 
in the Persian Rivayats. 

* This does not imply that a man might have more wives than 
one, but that wives are of five classes, according to the circum- 
stances of the marriage. A pa</akhshah or 'privileged' wife is 
one who was a maiden married with the consent of her parents 
who have another child. A yukan or 'only-child' wife differs 
from the last merely by being an only child, and having, therefore, 
to give up her first child to her parents. A satar or 'adopted' 
wife is one who was a maiden enabled to marry by receiving a 
dowry from the relatives of a man who has died unmarried, on 
condition that half of her children shall belong to the deceased. 
A /iakar or 'serving' wife is a widow who marries again. A 
khu</-*arai or 'self-disposing' wife is one who marries without 
her parents' consent (see Bd. XXXII, 6 n). 

Digitized by 


1 86 DADISTAN-i DtNk. 

adopted son (satdr), for the adopted son's duty 
(satdrih) remains with her, and she manages to 
claim guardianship for the family from some man 
out of the relatives most nearly allied. 10. Out of 
the portion of the property for food and maintenance 
the wife should provide the daughters with hus- 
bands ; and to keep going the necessities in the 
guardianship, the nurture which the . deceased man 
afforded, and the ceremonies and good works im- 
posed upon the family, and thereby become indis- 
pensable, she herself is to take lapfuls and armfuls 1 
out of the income (bar). 

ii. A s to the sisters of that man, if they have 
been necessarily in his guardianship, even as to 
nourishment, and there is no property for them in 
any other way, their food and maintenance are also 
needful to be out of the income of the property, 
unless 2 that man has otherwise devised, or the ap- 
pointment of a husband is not provided on account 
of the non-subjection (16it5 atrih) in which they 
have been unto the guardianship of that man, or 
anything else opposed to it, so that nothing whatever 
of the property of that man is needful for them. 

12. He who is a husband of one of the daughters 
is a leader in the management (dast6barlh) of the 
family, but with the concurrence of the house-mistress 
of the family, and even so when the action is one 
which they should not do, and his son is not born, 
or becomes passing away 3 . 

1 Literally ' the bosom size and arm size,' a Pahlavi idiom for 
1 plenty.' 

* In the Pahlavi text this latter half of the section precedes the 
foregoing provisional clauses. 

* The meaning seems to be that so long as he has no son (who 

Digitized by 


CHAPTER LIV, IO-LV, 2. 1 87 

13. As to a daughter not provided with a husband, 
should the one whose husband is not provided be 
an only child' 1 , to keep her subject also to the house- 
mistress of the family it is needful for her that there 
should be an adopted son in it ; and when they shall 
appoint her husband unto the adopted-sonship the 
property then comes over into his possession. 

14. When the house-mistress of the family passes 
away, and the daughters are provided with husbands, 
the adopted-sonship is to be appointed. 

Chapter LV. 

1. As to the fifty-fourth question and reply, that 
which you ask is thus : What is the occupation and 
capacity (giriftarlh) of the person that has to pre- 
serve those who are in their three nights' trials 2 , 
and who is he ? 

2. The reply is this, that it is said a husband 
(gabri) is indispensable for preservation through 
the three nights' trials which shall be/or a privileged 
wife, a father/*?/- those of a child, and a master /or 
those of a servant. 

would be a member of the family in direct descent through his 
mother) he can only assist and advise the widow, but on the birth 
of his son he can act more authoritatively, as the representative of 
the child. 

1 Written aev6k-ae in Pazand. She becomes a yukan or 
' only-child ' wife (see § 9 n) until she has given up her first child 
to her mother, after which she is a ' privileged ' wife. 

* The three nights after death (see Chap. XXIV). 

Digitized by 


1 88 dAhistan-} dMk. 

Chapter LVI. 

i. As to the fifty-fifth question and reply, that 
which you ask is thus : What is this adopted-sonship 
and guardianship of the family, and what does it 
become ; in what manner is it necessary to appoint 
it, whence is it necessary to provide food and clothing 
for it, and how is it necessary to be for it ? 

2. The reply is this, that the adopted-sonship is 
thus : — It is requisite whenever a man of the good 
religion is passing away, while he is a complete ruler 
of a numerous household 1 , who has no wife and 
child that may be privileged 2 and acknowledged, 
nor associating brother, nor son by adoption, and 
his property is sixty stirs 3 of income. 3. The con- 
trolling (khuafayl nag) of the property is to be 
publicly provided out of the kindred of the deceased, 
and is called the adopted-sonship; and he is to be 
appointed to it who is the nearest of the same lineage 
(min ham-nafin), who will manage and keep the 
property united in its entirety. 

1 Reading vad marak khan shah bundak5, but the phrase 
can also be read vad malkaan shah bandako, 'while he is a 
servant of the king of kings (that is, a subject of the Iranian sove- 
reign),' which is evidently the reading adopted by M14 in Chap. 
LVII, 2, where it substitutes the Huz. synonym malka for shah, 
but here the word shah is uncertain. This ambiguous phrase can 
also be read vad mark-ahangiha bundakS,' while the agonies 
of death are complete.' 

* See Chap. LIV, 9. 

3 About 84 rupis (see Chap. LII, 1 n) ; but the actual value of 
such an income depends upon the value of silver at that time, or, in 
other words, upon the prices of the necessaries of life. 

Digitized by 


CHAPTER LVI, 1-9. 189 

4. The guardianship of a family is that when a 
guardian has to be appointed in that manner over 
the fafriily of a man whose wife 1 , or daughter, or 
infant son is not fit for their own guardianship, so 
it is necessary to appoint some one. 5. And it is 
necessary to appoint the adopted son and the family 
guardianship at stick time as may be convenient to 
them ; and when the man passes away as / have 
written it is necessary to appoint at such period as 
/ have written, and to neglect it temporarily, even 
the length of a year, would not be authorised. 

6. Fit for adoption is a grown-up sister who is 
not adopted in another family 2 , then a brother's 
daughter, then a brother's son, and then the other 
nearest relatives. 7. Fit for the family guardian- 
ship is first the father of the serving wife (£agar) s , 
then a brother, then a daughter, and then the other 
nearest relations; among brothers he who is the 
eldest (mas) among them is the fittest 

8. The food and clothing of a wife that may be 
privileged — who is the house-mistress of the family, 
and is one kind of adopted son — of & living infant 
son till he becomes grown up, and of a daughter of 
the family while she is in the guardianship of the 
family guardians 4 , are out of the property of the 
family so long as it exists for the purpose. 

9. // has become the custom that the lapfuls and 

1 Because she is not a privileged wife, but a serving one (see 
Chap. LIV, 9), as appears from § 7. 

* A woman or child cannot be adopted by more than one family 
(see Chap. LVII, 3). The case under consideration is that men- 
tioned in § 2, when the deceased leaves no wife, child, or brother. 

' Referring to the case assumed in § 4. 

* That is, till she is married. 

Digitized by 


I90 DAJ)ISTAN-i d{nik. 

armfuls 1 of the family guardian are every month 
four stirs of, it may be, sixteen 2 , which is the dis- 
bursement (anda.ari.fno), for food, clothing, medicine, 
and shelter, out of the income (bar), or out of the 
capital (bun), of the property which remains in the 
family, by a perfect 3 wife when she is capable — such 
as the former house-mistress — so as want of nourish- 
ment (atafda^S) may not come nakedly and unlaw- 
fully upon them. 

Chapter LVII. 

i. As to the fifty-sixth question and reply, that 
which you ask is thus : Who is suitable/or adoption, 
and who is not suitable ? 

2. The reply is this, that a grown-up man of the 
good religion who is intelligent, a complete ruler of a 
numerous household*, expecting offspring, and not 
having sins worthy of death is suitable for adoption ; 
even when he has accepted either one adoption, or 
many adoptions, he is then still suitable for another 
adoption. 3. And a grown-up woman, or even a child, 
is suitable for one adoption, but when adopted in 
one family she is not suitable for another adoption. 

1 That is, an ample remuneration (see Chap. LIV, 10). 

1 So the sentence may be literally translated, but it is not quite 
certain that this is the meaning intended, as the language used 
is very involved. This would imply that the family guardian is 
entitled to one-fourth of the family expenditure. 

* It is doubtful what noun is to be connected with the adjective 
pur; perhaps we should read ' full disbursement' in the foregoing 
part of the sentence, and omit the word ' perfect ' here. 

4 M14 has malkSdno malka bdndak, 'a servant of the king 
of kings;' but see Chap. LVI, 2. 

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4. A woman requiring a husband — though a com- 
plete worshipper — or a foreigner, or an infidel, or 
one having sins worthy of death, is unfit for adoption ; 
so also those who are demon-worshippers, she who 
is a concubine (shusar nfi^man) or courtezan, and 
she who is menstruous are unfit. 

Chapter LVII I. 

1. The fifty-seventh question is that which you 
ask thus: How many kinds of family guardianship 
and adoption are there ? 

2. The reply is this, that it is said there are three 
kinds, which are the existent, the provided, and the 
appointed. 3. An adopted son who is existent is such 
as a wife who may be privileged, or an only daughter 
is a kind of adopted son owing to confidence in her- 
self, such as happens when there is no wife, and a 
daughter for whom there is no husband, and none is 
provided, is the one that has remained. 

4. An adopted son who is provided is such as 
a son that is acknowledged, who is accepted by 
one's self 1 , and free from being appointed, ox from 
necessity 2 . 

5. And an adopted son who is appointed is he 
who is to be appointed among the relations who are 
suitable for adoption — and are nearest to him who 
is to be appointed as adopted son — and the ministers 
(pa^in) of religion, and he performs the duty of 

1 That is, adopted during the man's lifetime. 
* Reading ayuf niySzo, but it may be ayuf8 6ya»8, l at from 

Digitized by 


192 dAdistAn-J DiNfK. 

family guardianship 1 ; he who is the appointed one is 
he who is appointed by the men who are the nearest 
relations (nabanazdi^tinfi) on account of proximity. 

Chapter LIX. 

i. As to the fifty-eighth question and reply, that 
which you ask is thus : For how much property is 
it then necessary to appoint an adopted son ? 

2. The reply is this, that when the property which 
has remained his for whom it is necessary to appoint 
an adopted son is as much as sixty sttrs 2 of income, 
it is then indispensable to appoint an adopted son 
for him. 3. Even when it is less they should recog- 
nise him whose adoption is needful, and who con- 
ducts an adopted son's duty; and, similarly, an 
adoption is to be appointed for him, though it may 
not come as a possession unto him who is fittest for 

Chapter LX. 

1. As to the fifty-ninth question and reply, that 
which you ask is thus : What is the sin owing to 
not appointing an adopted son ? 

2. The reply is this, that for the man himself it is 
allowable when he gives up all the property in 

1 Mi 4 has ' an existent family guardianship is in the son of him 
appointed, and a provided one is that when he himself performs the 
duty in the guardianship;' but the phrase interpolated is hardly 

* About 84 rupis (see Chap. LVI, 2). 

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CHAPTER LIX, I-LXI, 2. 1 93 

righteous gifts, and when he has no property they 
should not provide an adopted-sonship for him, and 
his relations are innocent as regards it. 3. But 
should they recognise him who has the adopted- 
sonship of the deceased, or has accepted the position 
of his adopted-sonship 1 , or should they have seized 
the property for the adopted-sonship in order to 
appoint an acting adopted son (satdrgar), and he 
conducts the adopted-sonship, and throws away both 
the portion (b6n) provided for disbursement (vi- 
sh6p6) and the entirety, and quite destroys the 
property, and thoroughly ruins the adopted-sonship, 
though, on account of not restraining him, it is said 
to be a sin worthy of death for every single dirham, it 
is not said they are killed outright 2 . 

Chapter LXI. 

1. As to the sixtieth question and reply, that 
which you ask is thus : What is the propriety and 
impropriety, the merit and demerit, of family guar- 
dianship ? 

2. The reply is this, that the merit is the appoint- 
ment and recognition of him who accomplishes more 
worthily the greater benefit; the demerit is as to 

1 Mi 4 'lias 'or any one who has accepted the adoption as an 

* The meaning appears to be that, though, owing to their mis- 
placed confidence and neglect, they have been guilty of many 
mortal sins, they are not liable to capital punishment. It is evident 
that the writer had no apprehension that any property would lie 
neglected through want of administration, but that he had consi- 
derable doubts of the prudence and honesty of administrators. 
[18] O 

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him who is unworthy, or him whose worthiness is 
not appointed to avert a lesser benefit and the 
ruining of a worthy adoption. 3. Nearer details 
(khurafakS) of the family guardianship which is 
proper and which is not proper for an adopted son's 
duty, of the child of good religion with whose business 
it is connected, and of the fathers for whom a family 
guardian is to be appointed, are in the recital of five 
chapters (fragar</6) of the Husparum Nask 1 , and 
in the abstracts (giriftakoiha) of the good ideas 
in various scriptures (nask 6) in which many deci- 
sions are together. 

Chapter LXII. 

1. As to the sixty-first question and reply, that 
which you ask is thus : How stand the shares in the 
inheritance (mlrato) of property among those of the 
good religion, and how is it necessary for them to 
stand therein ? 

2. The reply is this, that in the possession of 
wealth the wealth reaches higher or lower, just like 
water when it goes in a stream on a declivity, but 
when the passage shall be closed at the bottom it 
goes back on the running water (puy-iz/o), a#af then 
it does not go to its after-course 2 . 

1 The seventeenth book of the complete Ma&fe-worshipping 
literature, whose sixty-four sections are described in detail in the 
Dinkar</(see Sis. X, ai). The five chapters here mentioned were 
evidently in that one of the last fourteen sections which is said 
to have consisted of six chapters on the ownership of property 
and disputes about it, on one's own family, acquiring wife and 
children, adoption, &c. 

* This metaphor seems to mean that property, like water, always 

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3. When there is nothing otherwise in the will 
and private 1 , property goes to a wife or daughter* 
who is privileged ; if one gives her anything by will 
then she does not obtain the share (da*) pertaining 
to her 8 . 4. Whenever 4 a share for a son is not 
provided by it, every one has so much and the wife 
who may be a privileged one has twice as much ; 
and the share of that one of the sons 8 , or even the 
wife of a son, who is blind in both eyes, or crippled 6 
in both feet, or maimed in both his hands, is twice 
as much as that of one who is sound. 

5. And it is needful that he who was in the father's 
guardianship shall remain in guardianship, as when 
a father or mother is decrepit and causing awe 
(Sagarin), or of a. nurture different from that of the 
guardian T — or a child of his brother or sister, or 
a father, or one 8 without nurture apart from him, is 

descends until it meets with an obstruction to its downward pro- 
gress in the shape of the nearest descendants, but, when once in 
their possession, it can again ascend (like the dammed stream) for 
the support of the survivors of an older generation (see § 5). 

1 Or, it may be 'in the provisions (vuyag&n) of the will;' or, 
by omitting two strokes, we have simply ' otherwise (han) in the 

* That is, they have a share of the property when there are other 
next of kin. Mi 4 adds, ' and they should provide a living son as 
father and husband unless privileged,' referring to the necessity of 
adoption when there is no son and the wife is not a privileged one. 

' It being assumed that the will provides as much as is intended 
for any one whom it mentions. 

* Reading amat, 'when,' instead of mun, 'who,' which words 
are often confounded because their Paz. equivalents are nearly 

8 M14 has ' daughters.' 

* Armgrt probably means literally 'most immovable.' 

7 M14 omits this last clause. ' Mi 4 has ' mother.' 

o 2 

Digitized by 


196 dAdistan-! d!n}k. 

without a guardian — the ready guardianship of a 
capable man, and the shelter and nourishment that 
have become inadequate l are as indispensably forth- 
coming 2 from the possessors of wealth, of those who 
have taken the property, as that taking was indis- 
pensable 3 . 

6. If there be no son of that man, but there be 
a daughter or wife of his, and if some of the affairs* 
of the man are such as render a woman not suitable 
for the guardianship, it is necessary to appoint a 
family guardian ; if there be, moreover, no wife or 
daughter of his it is necessary to appoint an adopted 
son. 7. This — that is, when it is necessary to ap- 
point a family guardian and who is the fittest, and 
when it is necessary to appoint an adopted son and 
which is the fittest — is written in the chapters on 
the question 5 . 

Chapter LXIII. 

1. The sixty-second question is that which you 
ask thus : Would they authorisedly carry off any 
property whatever from foreigners and infidels, or 

2. The reply is this, that wealth and property and 
anything that foreigners (an-air&n5) possess and 
is carried off by them from the good with violence, 
and which through obstinacy they do not give back 

1 Literally ' not issuing.' 

8 Mi 4 has ' are thus forthcoming' 

* M14 has 'or have become indispensable to it' 

* Or, it maybe 'dependents;' the text is merely va hat6 min 
zak-t gabrl 

8 See Chaps. LVI-LIX. 

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CHAPTER LXII, 6-LXIV, 3. 1 97 

when it is proper, it is well allowable in that case 
that they should seize from the foreigners. 3. So 
long as it is the lawful order of the procurator of its 
owners 1 it is allowable for a just decider to consider 
properly, and to demand authoritatively the sending 
of interest (su^6) thereon for himself. 4. But if 
they proceed in their obstinacy he is sent to come up 
with them in obstinacy, not to dissemble with them 2 . 
5. // is the custom to give an infidel (ak-din6), 
who is not a foreigner, food, clothing, and medicine, 
when his renunciation (vis) has come, for keeping 
away matters (£uan6) of death and sickness owing 
to hunger and thirst, cold and heat; but wealth, 
horses, accoutrements, wine, and land are not given 
authorisedly, it is said, unto foreigners and idolators 3 . 

Chapter LXIV. 

1 . As to the sixty-third question and reply, that 
which you ask is thus : Whence was the first crea- 
tion of mankind, and how was the formation of the 
original race of men ? 2. What issued from Gay6- 
mara'*, and what did it really become ; and from 
what have Mashyaih and Mashyaydlh 6 arisen ? 

3. The reply is this, that Auhannas*/, the all- 

1 Reading vad zak amata; khurfiyan ayaft-attar far- 
man-t da</lk. The form of ayast-aitar has not yet been met 
with elsewhere, but it seems to mean ' one who holds the obtain- 
ment,' though whether as agent or officer of justice is uncertain. 

* Mi 4 has merely ' but should they proceed in their obstinacy, 
to come with them is not to dissemble.' 

* Literally ' demon-worshippers.' * See Chap. II, 10. 

* The same as the Marhaya and Marhiydih of Chap. XXXVII, 82. 

Digitized by 


198 DAcisTAN-i d!n!k. 

ruling, produced from the endless light the shape of 
a fire-priest (4sruk5) whose name was that of Auhar- 
maz^, and its brilliance that of fire ; its incombusti- 
bility was like that inside the light, and its expansion 
like the western (khurbarag) land. 4. And in the 
shape of the fire-priest was created by him the mate- 
rial existence (stih) that is called man, and for three 
thousand years 1 , when it did not progress and did 
not eat, it did not speak ; likewise, it did not utter, 
but it thought of, the righteousness of the perfect 
and true religion, the desire for the pure glorifica- 
tion of the creator. 

5. Afterwards, the contentious promise-breaker 2 
injured the life of it, and produced a burdensome 
mortality ; and the mortality is clear from the appel- 
lation, G4y6man/ 3 , of the nature produced. 6. The 
seed which was the essence of the life of the leader 
(m Irak 5) of life, who was Gaydmanaf, flowed forth 
on his passing away, came on to the earth of the 
beneficent angel *,and is preserved in the earth until, 
through the protection of the angels, a brother and 

1 This is the second of the four periods of three thousand years 
of which time is said to be composed (see Chap. XXXVII, 1 1 n). 
The ' shape of the fire-priest ' is one of the spiritual creations of the 
first period, in which shape man was created during the second 
period, and this primeval man became Gayomarrf (that is, ' a living 
mortal ') through the persecution of the evil spirit (see § 5) at the 
commencement of the third period. The first two steps of this 
creation are not described in the text of the Bundahir known to 

* The evil spirit, who is said to be the origin of falsehood (see 

s Which means ' the living mortal,' or ' the mortal living one.' 

' The female archangel Spendarmarf, who has special charge of 
the earth. Or the phrase may be ' came on to the earth which the 
beneficent spirit produced.' 

Digitized by 



sister of mankind 1 , connected together, have grown 
from it, have attained to movement and walking 
upon the earth, and have advanced even to inter- 
course and also procreation. 

7. The ground where the life of Gaydmana? de- 
parted is gold, and from the other land, where the 
dissolution of his various members occurred, as 
many kinds of decorative metals flowed forth it is 
said 2 . 

Chapter LXV. 

1 . As to the sixty-fourth question and reply, that 
which you ask is thus : Where and from what did 
the origin of race, which they say was next-of-kin 
marriage (khv£tuda</6) 3 , arise; and from what 
place did it arise ? 

1 The MashySih and Mashyaydih, or man and woman, of § 2, 
who are said to have grown up, in the course of forty years, con- 
nected together in the shape of a plant; but, after a breathing soul 
had entered them, they became human beings, and fifty years later 
they began to be the progenitors of mankind (see Bd. XV, 1-30). 

3 Zs. X, 3 states that eight kinds of metal arose from the various 
members of the dead Gaydmarrf, namely, gold, silver, iron, brass, 
tin, lead, quicksilver, and adamant. 

* Usually written khvStuk-das (Av. Az/aStvadatha, 'a giving 
of, or to, one's own'). It is a term applied to marriages between 
near relations, and is extolled as specially meritorious. For cen- 
turies past the Parsis have understood it to refer to marriages 
between first cousins, and all allusions to marriage between nearer 
relations they attribute to the practices of heretics (see Sis. XVIII, 
4 n) ; though, like the professors of all other religions, they must 
admit the necessity of such a practice in the first family of mankind, 
as detailed in the text. Translations of other passages relating to 
the subject will be found in Appendix III, and it is also mentioned 
in Chaps. XXXVII, 82, LXXVII, 6, and LXXVIII, 19. 

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2. The reply is this, that the first consummation 
of next-of-kin marriage was owing to that which 
Mashyaih and Mashyaydlh 1 did, who were brother 
and sister together, and their consummation of inter- 
course produced a son 2 as a consummation of the 
first next-of-kin marriage. 3. So that they effected 
the first intercourse of man with woman, and the 
entire progress of the races of every kind of lineage 
of men arose from that, and all the men of the world 
are of that race. 

4. It is truly said, that it was the joy of the lord 
and creator after the creation of the creatures, and, 
owing to that, its consummation, which was his 
complete accomplishment of the existence of the 
creatures (d&man!h), was owing to him. 5. And 
its occurrence, too, is in evidence that the creator, 
who is so with unflinching (at6rik) will, is as much 
the cause of the begetting and entire progress of his 
own perfect creatures 3 , in whom begetting is by 
destiny, as H6shang* by whom two-thirds* of the 
demons were smitten, Takhm6rup e who overturned 
Aharman through the power of the angels, Yim by 

1 See Chap. LXIV, 2. The names are here written Mashyelh 
and Mashyey6ih. 

J Twins, according to Bd. XV, 22, 24. 

* That is, he is not only the original creator, but also the per- 
petual promoter of the increase and progress of the creation, as 
much as those who appear to be such promoters, though merely 
acting as his agents. 

4 Here written Hdshy&ng. For the Av. names of these four 
primeval monarchs, see Chap. II, ion. 

• K35 has 'three-thirds,' but see Aban Yt. 22, Rim Yt. 8, Zam- 
yad Yt 26. 

' He is said to have subjugated the evil spirit, and to have used 
him as a steed for thirty years (see Chaps. II, 10, XXXVII, 35). 

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CHAPTER LXV, 2-LXVI, 3. 201 

whom order was arranged and death was driven 
away (avakal^d) 1 , Fr£afan who fettered A2-I Da- 
hak 2 and stripped his blaspheming (nirang&k) from 
the world, and the many princes (kayan) and high- 
priests of grave spirit who were, and are, and will be. 

Chapter LXVI. 

1. As to the sixty-fifth question and reply, that 
which you ask is thus : There is a man of wealth of 
the good religion who fully intends to order a cele- 
bration of all the rites of his religion ; and a priest 
of it, to whom the five chapters (fragar^/6) of the 
Avesta (' text') of the correct law of the Nlrangistan 
('religious-formula code') 3 are easy through the 
Zand ('commentary'), is ever progressing in priestly 
manhood (mag6i-gabraih). 2. And he (the man) 
goes unto him, and he (the priest) speaks thus : 'All 
the religious rites are performed for 350 dirhams*, 
as a gift always given beforehand by them who give 
the order unto me, so that I may come to them! 

3. A man of the disciples 5 , to whom the five 

1 He is said to have kept away cold and heat, decay and death, 
and other evils from the earth (see Ram Yt. 16, Zamyad Yt. 33). 

8 See Chap. XXXVII, 97. 

8 This was the name of one of the first thirty sections of the 
Husparum Nask (see Chap. LXI, 3), and a portion of it, contain- 
ing the Pahlavi commentary (or Zand) of three chapters, with 
many Avesta quotations, is still extant. 

* The word gbgnnb, 'dirham,' is here omitted, but occurs in 
§§ 16, 20. The sum of 350 dirhams would be about 122 J rupts 
(see Chap. LII, 1 n). 

* That is, those who are still learning their priestly duties (see 
Chap. XLV). 

Digitized by 


202 DABISTAN-t DforfK. 

sections (vldag) of the Avesta are easy, and no- 
thing whatever of its Zand is easy 1 , then says unto 
him — unto that man who intends to order all the 
religious rites — thus : ' For this gift I will conduct 
all the religious rites for thee twice, with the appli- 
ances in the land of Pars 2 , shouldst thou give the 
order unto me. 4. For it is quite possible for me 
to pray so many sections through my own exertion 
(dasto), but for him 3 it is necessary to order again 
of an officiating priest (pavan z6takS), who is him- 
self not able to pray any section, or does not himself 
pray ; and it is not necessary for him to go for the 
control (parvar) 4 of all the religious rites when a 
stipend (bahar) is the one consideration within him, 
and the matter is that he 6 may receive again. 5. He 
who has always himself prayed is better than he who 
shall accept readily and orders the work again, and 
is not able to pray it himself, when a fulfilment is 
tedious to him ; when it is I who e receive, I always 
pray myself better than he who would accept readily 
and orders again, and it brings on my business to a 
closing point.' 

6. The priestly man speaks thus : ' The considera- 

1 It being far easier to learn the Avesta by heart than to under- 
stand its meaning by aid of the Pahlavi commentary ; a competent 
knowledge of the latter being sought only by advanced disciples, 
and rarely attained by any but the most learned priests. 

1 Reading pavan bum-1 P&rs, as in § 15; K35 has here 
pavan bun-frts, 'for opening the beginning,' which might be 
understood to refer to the preliminary ceremonies for preparing 
the ceremonial apparatus, if the phrase were not otherwise written 
elsewhere. In § 21 K35 has pavan bun-t Pirs. 

8 K35 omits the last letter of valman. 

4 Or, it may be ' to the precincts.' * Literally ' I.' 

* Reading li mun, instead of lanman, 'we.' 

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tion of stipend is more necessary to arise with me 
than 1 other men, owing to the position of religion, 
not the other portion (sin 6) of all religious rites; 
therefore, it is more authorisedly received and con- 
ducted by me when I accept readily and again intrust 
the work ; but I direct so that they pray thoroughly, 
and it brings on much business to its closing point ; 
moreover, if I seize upon it, even then I should be 
authorised, for this is the stipend of religion.' 

7. Should they seize this that is authorisedly 
theirs, or not ? And is it the custom of a man who 
is frequently ordering all the religious rites to reduce 
his gift for the ceremonial, or not ? 

8. Order some one to decide for us clearly, when 
they do not dispute the gift for the ceremonial, or 
when they do dispute it, how is then its great ad- 
vantage ; and the harmfulness that exists therein, 
in many ways and many modes, when they give an 
insufficient gift for the ceremonial. 9. Is the pro- 
perty which is given up as a gift for the ceremonial — 
so long as it thus becomes the remuneration which 
one gives to a receiver of remuneration (mozdd- 
bar) — that property which they can seize ? 10. And 
is the work which is done, or deputed, and its great 
advantage, more than they would perform when, in 
the period of the evil millenniums 2 , they diminish the 
gift for the ceremonial ; and in how many modes 

1 Reading li min, instead of the imperfect word lanm. 

* Of the twelve millenniums of time, mentioned in Chap. XXXVII, 
1 1 n, the most evil one is said to have been that in which the author 
lived, the millennium of HftsheViar (about a.d. 600-1600 according 
to the chronology of Bund, and Byt.), for ' mankind become most 
perplexed in that perplexing time ' (see Byt. II, 62, 63), a period of 
great tribulation for the religion of the Maa/a-worshippera. 

Digitized by 


204 dAz>istAn-& dIn{k. 

does its harm then proceed therefrom? u. Of 
whom are all the religious rites always more autho- 
risedly ordered, of that priestly man, or of that dis- 
ciple ? 12. For what reason, also, is it proper to 
diminish the gift for all the religious rites of him 
who is a priestly man, or to give it in excess ? 13. 
When they do not diminish the gift for the cere- 
monial, and it is given in excess, in what manner 
does its great advantage then arise therefrom ; and 
why and through what source (b£kh) is it possible 
for advantage to arise therefrom ? 14. When they 
diminish the gift what harm to it (the ceremonial) is 
then possible to arise therefrom, and how is it better 
when they give the gift for the ceremonial ? 

15. For when the family householders, with those 
of the good religion of Iran, are early (p&s) with 
every single celebration of all the religious rites with 
holy-water, in the land of Pars, unless they are in 
distress, their gift is then 400 dirhams 1 ; and we 
have given more than this, even 450 dirhams a , for it. 
16. And now should it be needful, when we diminish 
anything from the 400 dirhams, or from the450 3 dir- 
hams, of their gift, they would then not accept it 
from us, and they speak thus : ' For 400 dirhams, 
or at least for 350 dirhams 4 ; nothing less do we 

1 About 140 rupts (see Chap. LII, 1 n). Mi 4 has 300 dirhams. 

! About 1574 rupfs. M14 has 350 dirhams. The actual value 
of all these sums depends upon the cost of the necessaries of life 
in Pars in the ninth century. 

* M14 has '350.' 

* About 122^ rupts. K35 has Sngun, 'so,' instead of^u^an5, 
' dirham ' (the two words being nearly alike in Pahl. letters) ; this 
would alter the phrase as follows : — ' or less ; as to 350, so paltry 
a thing we do not accept.' 

Digitized by 



accept.' 17. But there are needy men 1 who always 
come to us and speak thus : ' For 350 dirhams we 
will twice conduct all the religious rites with holy- 
water 2 , as you have always ordered us before for 
400 dirhams; order it only of us, for shouldst thou 
have it managed by priestly men, they always say 
that they should always perform a curtailment (kas- 
t&rih) of the religious rites and ceremonies of the 
sacred beings, and that all the religious rites are not 
authorisedly ordered except of them.' 

18. Although a priest (a £r pat 6) who becomes a 
ruler of the ceremonial should be doubly a decider, 
yet order some one to explain to us clearly concerning 
these questions, as asked by us. 

19. The reply is this, that the man of the good 
religion who intended to order all the religious rites 
is he whose desire is goodness, and he should be 
a decider of questions about it. 

20. As to the priest who spoke thus: — 'Thou 
shouldst order it of me for 350 s dirhams, as you have 
always given before your business was arranged ; 
and it becomes your own non-religious share of the 
duty, to be authorisedly given, because you have pro- 
ceeded with the alleged demeanour of the country 
and for the purpose of intercession; and all the 

1 The disciples, who are represented as applicants for employ- 

* That is, in the most solemn manner, and with all appliances. 
It appears from Chap. LXXXVIII, 9, that the religious rites without 
holy-water were then performed for 120 to 150 dirhams, or little 
more than one-third the fee demanded for those with holy-water ; 
whereas the merit of some rites with holy-water is said to be a 
hundred times as great as that of the same rites without holy-water 
(see Sis. XVI, 6). 

9 M14 has '400' here, but see § 2. 

Digitized by 


206 DATHStAn-1 DlNtK. 

religious rites with holy-water are such as they 
solemnize repeatedly (pavan d6r), among which 
there are many in which 1 I act and am very well 
performing* — the gift of 350 dirhams is then not 
excessive remuneration for him. 

21. As to the disciple who spoke thus: — 'For 
350 dirhams I will twice 2 conduct all the religious 
rites in the land 3 of Pars ' — such of them as they 
then conduct repeatedly are not many in the aggre- 
gate (ilnakS), and they certainly damage his (the 
man's) property, and all the religious rites of fire, 
through that deficiency. 22. And they would accept 
it on this account, that through a love of righteous- 
ness they might cause an advantage (khan^tnakS) 
unto all those religious rites by their own inferior 
eminence 4 . 23. And he extends and impels the 
ceremonial of the sacred beings into much progress 
who promotes it through that eminence which is 
owing to his own wealth, and which is thus more 
possessed of a share (b6n) of the ceremonial of the 
sacred beings and of the good work of praise — except, 
indeed, a like good work of praise of his — when they 
shall cause that manifestation of eminence 5 . 24. So 
that the orderer of the good work understands that 
that which is diminished by him* is the eminence 

1 Reading mun, 'which,' instead of amat, 'when' (see Chap. 
LXII, 4 n). 

3 The cipher '2' is omitted in the Pahl. text here, but see 

§§ 3. * 7- 

9 K35 has bun, instead of bum (see § 3). 

4 Or, it may be 'by the eminence of their own wealth,' as air, 
' inferior,' and khSl, ' wealth, property,' are alike in Pahlavi ; but 
neither reading is quite satisfactory here. 

" By a proper disbursement of wealth. 
8 When he diminishes his payment. 

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CHAPTER LXVI, 21-2 7. 2C<7 

of the disciple, which his own wealth has to order 
for those who are not able to give wealth which is 
their own property for it ; and he makes no curtail- 
ment (ban^uno) of those scanty remunerations. 

25. And if that disciple should accept as remu- 
neration less than is the custom for all the religious 
rites, the orderer is not undiminished in wealth 1 , for 
the reason that the good effect owing to the advan- 
tage of holy-water is such as when they conduct 
them repeatedly, unless it be necessary to conduct 
them in a manner as if unpaid (pa van zgzzid). 
26. That curtailment of the good effect is not after- 
wards demandable (pastn-sakhuntko), if it has to 
be accepted by him ; and if that acceptance of less 
remuneration by him be an opposing of him to the 
malice and ill-temper (vushal) of the priests, this 
also is not the way that they should cause progress 
as regards their own business. 

27. And the proximity (nazdih) of a master of 
the house 2 who keeps away from all the religious 
rites requested and accepted — more particularly 
when the accepter accepts all the religious rites of the 
requester for that remuneration — is itself necessary ; 
he may not be of a religious disposition, but it is 
yet requisite for him to be where this is requested 

1 M14 has '/'/ is not eminence in wealth;' but the meaning is 
evidently that there is no real saving when the expenditure is re- 
duced, because the good effect of the rites is also diminished when 
they are insufficiently paid for. 

1 Or, khanopano may mean 'a keeper of the sacred table,' or 
low stone platform on which the ceremonial vessels are placed, 
which is often called khan. In either case the orderer of the 
ceremony is meant, and the author evidently contemplates the 
probability of the order being given as a mere formal matter of 
duty, without any really religious feeling. 

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208 DAi>ISTAN-t D^rk. 

and accepted for that scanty remuneration of his, 
owing to the extent and impetus of his share of 
the duty. 

28. Moreover, it is perceived by us in Pars that 
they who would accept the work for half the remu- 
neration which was requisite as profit for it formerly 
would seize the remuneration. 29. And the reason 
of it is this : — The peasants relied upon the corn of 
the field (khanS) which has not come, and they said : 
' We are hurried ; we never obtain anything even on 
a single one of various debts, and by this payment 
we shall save our lives for the time ; so we calculate 
that whatever we seize in the manner of a debt or 
two, when the corn arrives and we sell the corn, we 
shall make as profit on that business 1 ;' — and it 
seemed to me very desirable for such a man. 

30. If, also, they should approve that scanty re- 
muneration of that disciple, it is an injury of all the 
religious rites, of which the forgivers 2 have to cast 
the consideration of the unequally-shared advantage 
out of the body 3 . 31. All the religious rites ordered 
of him who is a better performer, owing to not di- 
minishing the proper remuneration, having proceeded 
unaltered, the remuneration of righteousness one 
does not approve is important as regards such as 
they solemnize and conduct in the period *. 

1 This parable justifies the taking of religious stipends by force, 
in cases of necessity, by a practical appeal to the sympathies of the 
enquirers ; but it really evades the question proposed in § 7, which 
refers to seizures not justified by necessity. 

* Probably the priests who appoint atonements for sins con- 
fessed and renounced (see Sis. VIII, 1, a, 5, 6). 

' Of those who have obtained a disproportionate share of the 
profit of the good works by not paving properly for them. 

4 There are several doubtful points in the construction of this 

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CHAPTER LXVI, 28-34. 2 °9 

32. Since, for the 350 dirhams, all the religious 
rites which they conduct once with holy-water are, 
it is affirmed, all the religious rites caused to be 
conducted twice with holy-water in that same place 
and with the same good effect, it is more important 
to order of them who shall allow all the religious 
rites twice ; for, with as much wealth, as much effi- 
ciency, and as much good effect, more ceremonial 
is good. 

33. The worthiness of the disciple, which is owing 
to himself, is the preparation ; and the priest is 
worthy, of whose performance in the religion you 
have spoken 1 ; therefore, supreme worthiness is un- 
attainable by either of them ; so it is more significant 
when the disciple is the preparer, and the priest, as 
director, becomes a demander of good effect ; both 
strive for good progress, and through many kinds of 
participation they may be worthy. 34. And both 
of them, praising together — whereby the participation 
is brought to an end — may authorisedly seize 2 ; but 
that worthiness of theirs is owing to the duty and 
the praise therein — this one in preparing, and this 
one in superintendence (a.v ar-maafth) of the recital — 
and the after discourse and petitioning, and other 
good done. 

1 See § 1. 

* Probably the remuneration, if it be withheld ; provided always 
they do their duty thoroughly, as mentioned in the concluding 


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2io dAdistan-I d!n!k. 

Chapter LXVII. 

i. As to the sixty-sixth question and reply, that 
which you ask is thus: What is this appearance 1 
which is girded on the sky ? 

2. The reply is this, that it is a mingling of the 
brilliance of the sun with mist and cloud that is seen, 
of which it is at all times and seasons, moreover, 
a characteristic appearance, whereby it has become 
their sign above from spiritual to earthly beings. 
3. That which is earthly is the water above to which 
its brilliance is acceptable; and the many brilliant 
colours (gunakan) which are formed from that much 
mingling 2 of brilliance and water, and are depicted 
(minaki-alt6), are the one portion for appearing 8 . 

Chapter LXVII I. 

1. As to the sixty-seventh question and reply, 
that which you ask is thus : What is this which, when 
the sun and moon have both come up, is something * 

1 Reading df</anoih ; but the word can also be read sarf-vanth, 
which might stand for sarf-gunih, 'a hundred-coloured existence,' 
a possible term for the rainbow, but the Persian dictionaries give 
no nearer term than sadkas, or sadkSs. 

1 Mi 4 has ' that mingling of many portions and few portions/ 

* Reading dirfanoko; but it can also be read sa<f-vanak5, a 
similar alternative to that in § 1. 

4 The only probable reading for this word is mindavam, ' a 
thing ; ' it occurs three times in this question, but is a very vague 
term for the phases of the moon, probably referring to a supposed 
body covering the dark part of the moon's disc. 

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come, and comes on as it were anew when it (the 
moon) becomes new, and men want the thing to go 
down from the place where it is becoming apparent ? 
2. When it has been several times, what is then 
the thing which comes up and exists, and how is its 
motion by night and day ? 

3. The reply is this, that the sun and moon are 
always seen 1 there where they stand, and they exist 
for men and the creatures. 4. The sun is swifter- 
moving 2 than the moon, and every day becomes a 
little in advance ; at the new moon the sun is shining, 
and the moon owing to diminution backwards, on 
account of the slenderness of the moon by much 
travelling 3 , and on account of the brilliance of the 
sun, is not apparent 5. As the sun goes down a 
light which is not very apparent is the moon, and 
not having gone down the moon is seen *; and each 
day the moon increases, comes up more behind the 
sun, and goes down more behind, and is, therefore, 
more seen. 6. When increased to the utmost, which 
is approaching a likeness of the sun, it comes spheri- 
cal (aspiharako), and is seen the whole night; to 
diminish anew it comes back to the companionship 
of the sun, and goes into the splendour of the sun. 

1 The MSS. have astf-h£nd, 'have remained,' instead of 
khadltunt-hfind, 'are seen;' but the difference between these 
words in Fahlavi letters is merely a medial stroke. 

1 Apparently so, as the moon rises and sets about 48 minutes 
later every day, on the average. 

8 A very anthropomorphic mode of accounting for the waning 
of the moon into a slender crescent 

4 Most Orientals consider the day of the new moon to be that 
in the evening of which it is first possible to see the moon ; this is 
usually the first, but sometimes the second, day after the actual 
change of the moon according to European ideas. 

P 2 

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212 dAdISTAN-! DtNtK. 

Chapter LXIX. 

i. As to the sixty-eighth question and reply, that 
which you ask is thus : When something takes hold 
of the moon or sun what is then its residence 
(khan 6), and whence does it always seize upon it? 

2. The reply is this, that two dark progeny of the 
primeval ox 1 move and are made to revolve from 
far below the sun and moon, and whenever, during 
the revolution of the celestial sphere, they make one 
pass below the sun, or below the moon, it becomes 
a covering which is spun (ta</) over the sun, and it 
is so when the sun or moon is not seen. 3. Of each 
of those two progeny of the primeval ox — one of 
which is called 'the head,' and one 'the tail' — the 
motion is specified among astronomers 2 ; but in re- 
maining upon those luminaries, and producing that 
covering, they do not attain unto those luminaries 

1 Supposing the reading should be 2 -in g6£ihar-i t£r here, 
, and 2-3n gdlihar&n in § 3. G6£ihar is a supposed planetary 
(and, therefore, malevolent) body, connected with the sun and 
moon and having a head and tail, which falls on to the earth at 
the resurrection (see Bd. V, 1, XXVIII, 44, XXX, 18), and is here 
described as the cause of eclipses. Its name implies that it sprang 
from, or contained, the seed of the primeval ox, the supposed 
source of animal life (see Bd. XIV, 3), and in its Av. form, gao- 
lithra, it is a common epithet of the moon; in Pers. it has become 
gdzihr or gavaz£ihr. As the words stand in K35 they look more 
like 2 andd^ ddlan-1 tSr, 'two dark store-lobbies,' or 2 andfi^ 
gil-i tir, 'two clusters of dark spiders;' and in § 3 the word 
hanKno is substituted for the nearly synonymous ando^-. In 
M14 the words seem to be 2 angun £iharano-t tir, 'two such 
dark faces.' 
9 Mi 4 has 'in the calculations of astronomers.' 

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within that covering. 4. There occurs no difference 
whatever of the descending rays 1 from those lumi- 
naries into a place of purity and freedom from dis- 
turbance far below those luminaries, except this, that 
the light which they divert to the world, and their 
activity as regards the celestial spheres are not com- 
plete for so much time, nor the coming 2 of the light 
to the earth. 

Chapter LXX. 

1. As to the sixty-ninth question and reply, that 
which you ask is thus: What are these river-beds 3 , 
and what is the cause of them; whence do they 
always arise, and why is there not a river-bed every- 
where and in every place where there is no mountain? 

2. The reply is this, that any place where a moun- 
tain is not discernible and a river-bed exists it is a 
fissure (ask up 6); and it is declared as clear that, 
even before the growth of the mountains, when the 
earth was all a plain, by the shaking of the world 
the whole world became rent (zandak 6)*. 3. Even 

1 Literally ' fallers.' 

* Assuming that ma</4rth stands for ma</4rth. The meaning 
is that an eclipse produces no harm beyond a short interruption of 
the descent of the sun's or moon's rays to the earth. 

3 There is some doubt as to whether the word should be read 
zogako (comp. Pers. ztgh, 'a river'), or zandako (comp. Pers. 
2 and ah, 'fissured'), but the meaning is tolerably certain from the 

4 When the evil spirit rushed into the earth it is said to have 
shaken, and the mountains began to grow (see Bd. VIII, 1-5) ; and 
at the resurrection it is expected that the earth will recover its 
original perfect state of a level plain (see Bd. XXX, 33). 

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214 DADISTAN-i DiNtK. 

Frisiyaz> of Tur * was specially mighty by causing 
the construction of channels (vidfarg) there where it 
is mountainous, and also in low-lands 2 , in which 
there is no mountain, and the shaking in its crea- 
tion was the formation of great sunken 3 springs and 
river-beds. 4. And if it has been prepared in, or if 
it be in a ravine (nkaftS) of, the mountains, the 
cause, too, of the contraction, thundering, and tearing 
of a river, if its confinement be in the earth, is the 
resistance which it meets in seeking a passage ; and 
as it is a spring of the waters of the earth, so also it 
is in the earth, whose contraction and panting are 
mighty and full of strength. 5. And when it is a 
time that they would make a constructed channel at 
the outside of its ravine, as regards the contraction 
which is within it, the resistance by which it is con- 
tracted at the outside of the ravine is the ground *. 

Chapter LXXI. 

1. As to the seventieth question and reply, that 
which you ask is thus : Is anything which happens 

1 Frangrasyan, the Turyan, in the Avesta ; called AfHUiyab in 
the Shahnamah (see Bd. XXXI, 14). He is often mentioned as 
constructing canals (see Bd. XX, 17, 34, XXI, 6), but being a 
foreign conqueror he was considered as specially wicked by the 

1 Assuming that ;itan is a miswriting of fipoan, occasioned 
by joining two of the letters, just as harvisp5, 'all,* is often 
written harvist. 

' Or, perhaps, ' hidden.' 

4 That is, a watercourse which is confined by its natural rocky 
channel in the mountains, when carried across the plain in a canal, 
is confined only by softer soil 

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CHAPTER LXX, 4-LXXI, 4- 21 5 

unto men through fate or through action, is exertion 
destiny or without destiny, and does anything devoid 
of destiny happen unto men, or what way is it ? 
2. As to that which they say, that, when a man turns 
unto sinfulness, they ordain anew a new death 1 ; 
as to that which they say, that anything which hap- 
pens unto men is a work of the moon 2 , and every 
benefit is connected with the moon, and the moon 
bestows it upon worldly beings ; and as to what way 
the moon does this, and bestows all benefits, order 
some one to decide the literal explanation of how and 
what way it is, by the will of the sacred beings. 

3. The reply is this, that the high-priests 3 have 
said thus, that there are some things through destiny, 
and there are some through action ; and it is thus 
fully decided by them, that life, wife, and child, 
authority and wealth are through destiny, and the 
righteousness and wickedness of priesthood, war- 
fare, and husbandry are through action. 4. And 
this, too, is thus said by them, that that which is not 

1 This reference is to a phrase in the Pahl. commentary on 
Vend. V, 33, which commentary contains a good many of the 
statements made in this chapter, excepting those relating to the 
moon. The reading a6sh, 'death,' given by K35, is probably 
more correct than auba;, ' for him,' given by our modern MSS. of 
the Vendidarf; but Mi 4 has amended it, and states 'then many 
new things are ordained by it for him.' 

* Assuming that vidanag, 'time,' stands for bidanag, the Huz. 
of mah, which means both ' month ' and ' moon.' In the following 
phrases the word mah is used. 

8 It may be noted that most Pahlavi writers, when quoting the 
Pahlavi commentaries on the Vendidarf (as the author is doing 
here) or any other Nask, speak of them merely as the utterances 
of the high-priests, and reserve the term dtnd, 'revelation,' for the 
A vesta itself; thus showing that belief in the inspiration of the 
Pahlavi translations of the Avesta is a very modern idea. 

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2l6 DAJHSTAN-t DtNtK. 

destined for a man in the world does not happen ; 
and that which is destined, be it owing to exertion, 
will come forward, be it through sinfulness or sloth- 
fulness he is injured by it. 5. That which will 
come forward owing to exertion is such as his who 
goes to a meeting of happiness, or the sickness of 
a mortal who, owing to sickness, dies early 1 ; and he 
who through sinfulness and slothfulness is thereby 
injured is such as he who would wed no wife, and is 
certain that no child of his is born, or such as he 
who gives his body unto slaughter, and life is injured 
by his living. 

Chapter LXXII. 

1. As to the seventy-first question and reply, that 
which you ask is thus : What are the heinous sins 
of committing unnatural intercourse, is it proper to 
order or perform the sacred ceremony for him who 
shall commit unnatural intercourse, and is it then 
proper to practise sitting together and eating together 
with him who shall commit zV, and shall commit it 
with a longing for it, or not ? 

2. The reply is this, that of the evil Mazda- 
worshippers 2 — who were the seven evil-doers of sin 
of a heinous kind 3 , whose practice of Aharman's 
will was as much as an approximation to that of 

1 Mi 4 has 'which comes forward owing to sickness.' 
1 Mi 4 has 'of a like evil practice, in inclination for sins, were 
the very heinous in the religion of the Masrfa-worshippers.' 

* Reading girai van vin&s, and assuming that van is a mis- 
writing of gun. 

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Aharman himself- — two are those whom you have 
mentioned, who are denied with mutual sin. 3. For, 
of those seven evil-doers, one was hzA. Dahak 1 , by 
whom witchcraft was first glorified; he exercised 
the sovereignty of misgovernment, and desired a 
life of the unintellectual (ahangan khaya) for the 
world. 4. One was Azt Sruvar 2 , by whom infesting 
the highway in terrible modes, frightful watchful- 
ness (vimag-bl^arih) 3 of the road, and devouring 
of horse and man were perpetrated. 5. One was 
Vadfak* the mother of Dahak, by whom adultery 
was first committed, and by it all lineage is dis- 
turbed, control is put an end to, and without the 
authority of the husband an intermingling of son 
with son tt occurs. 6. One was the Viptak 6 (' pathic ') 

1 See Chap. XXXVII, 97. 

* A personification of Av. azi srvara, a serpent or dragon thus 
described in the H6m Yt. (Yas. IX, 34-39) : — ' (Keresaspa) who 
slew the serpent Srvara which devoured horses and men, which was 
poisonous and yellow, over which yellow poison flowed a hand's- 
breadth (spear's-length?) high. On which Keresaspa cooked a 
beverage in a caldron at the mid-day hour, and the serpent scorched, 
hissed, sprang forth, away from the caldron, and upset the boiling 
water; Keresaspa Naremanau fled aside frightened ' (see Haug's 
Essays, pp. 1 78, 1 79). The same account is given in Zamyad Yt. 40. 

3 M14 has bfrnlnfrfarfh, 'terrifying.' 

* See Chap. LXXVIII, 2. There is possibly some connection 
between this name and the Av. epithet.Vadhaghana, which is thus 
mentioned by the evil spirit, speaking to Zaraturt, in Vend. XIX, 
23 : — ' Curse the good Maz<fo-worshipping religion ! and thou shalt 
obtain fortune such as the Vadhaghana sovereign obtained;' and 
Mkh. LVII, 25 calls him ' the Varfagan sovereign Dahak.' The 
Fahlavi writers seem to have taken this epithet as a matronymic, 
owing to its form, but whether the mother's name be really tra- 
ditional, or merely manufactured from the epithet, is doubtful. 

5 Reading levatman barman barman, instead of levatman 
bum barman. M14 omits bum. 

* Av. vipt6 (p. p. of vip, ' to sow, to fecundate '), used in the 

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2l8 DAMSTAN-i DtNiK. 

in the intercourse of males, the infecundity of which 
is the desire of men ; and by him the intercourse of 
males and the way of destroying the seed were first 
shown unto males. 7. One was the Vtplntakk 1 
(' paederast'), the male by whom the use of females 
was first brought among the errors (khazdag) of 
the male, and was despised (dukhto) by him; he 
who is a cherisher of seed is delivering it to females, 
and that which is destroying the seed is the flowing 
of stenches into the prescribed vessels 2 for it, the 
delivering it to males by a demoniacal process, and 
carrying on a practice which effaces (Ahang'eVo) 
and conceals the race s of the living. 8. One was 
Tur-i Bradkr-vakhsh *, the Karap and heterodox 
wizard, by whom the best of men was put to death. 
9. And one was he by whom the religions of apos- 
tates 6 were preferred — through the deceitfulness of 
the perverted text and interpretation 6 which they 
themselves utter — to the law which the righteous 

sense of 'a pathic' in Vend. VIII, 102. This name, as well as 
the next one, is used here more as representing a class than an 

1 The p.p. of the causal form of vtptari5, 'to fecundate,' used 
as an equivalent of the Av. va6pay6 of Vend. VIII, 102. 

3 Assuming that pavan pavan mlWragano stands for pavan 
farmurf ragano ; but there is some doubt as to the correct reading 
of several words in this section. 

s Or 'seed.' 

4 The eldest of five brothers who were wizards of the Karap 
race or caste, and deadly enemies of Zaraturt (see Byt. II, 3). He 
is said to have slain Zaratuxt in the end. 

* Aharmdk6, Av. ashemaogha, means literally 'disturbing the 
right,' and is a term applied to an ungodly man specially under the 
influence of the evil spirit, as an apostate is naturally supposed 
to be. 

* The Avesta and Zand. 

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has praised, that existence which would have pro- 
cured a complete remedy, and would have become 
the eternity of the records which bestow salvation, 
through the good righteousness which is owing to 
the pure religion, the best of knowledge. 

10. And they who are defiled by a propensity to 
stench are thereby welcoming the demons and fiends 1 , 
and are far from good thought 2 through vexing it; 
and a distance from them is to be maintained of 
necessity in sitting and eating with them, except so 
far as it may be opportune for the giving of incite- 
ment by words for withdrawing (pa^ali^nfi) from 
their sinfulness, while converting them from that 
propensity. 11. Should one die, to order a ceremo- 
nial for him is indecorous, and to perform it would 
be unauthorised ; but if he were to do so penitently 
one would then be authorised to perform his cere- 
monial after the three nights s , for it is the remedy 
for atonement of sin. 12. And so long as he is 
living he is in the contingencies (vakhtaginS) 
owing to the sickness through which he is in that 
way an infamous one (akhamldfar), and there are 
no preventives (bdndagind) and medicinal powder 
for it; these are teachings also for the duty and 
good works of a ceremonial for the soul *, 

1 Who are supposed to seize upon them and pervade them ; hence 
the necessity of shunning such men, to avoid contamination from 
the demons who possess them. 

1 That is, from what is personified in the archangel Vohuman. 

* During which the soul is supposed to remain on earth, hovering 
about the body, after death (see Chaps. XX, 2, XXIV, a, XXV, a). 

4 That is, they are warnings to him to repent. 

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22o dAdistAn-! dInIk. 

Chapter LXXIII. 

i. A s to the seventy-second question and reply, 
that which you ask is thus : Does the stench of 
him, stinking withal, who commits unnatural inter- 
course proceed to the sky, or not ; and to what 
place does the wind of that stench go when it goes 
anywhere ? 

2. The reply is this, that the material stench goes 
as far and in such proportion as there are filthiness 
and fetidness in the stinking existences, and the 
spiritual stench goes unto there where there are 
appliances (s am in 6) for acquiring stench, a misera- 
ble place ; on account of the separation (gardth.) of 
the sky, everywhere where it goes in the direction 
of the sky it does not reach to the undisturbed 
existences 1 . 3. Information about the stench is 
manifest in the omniscient creator, whose omni- 
science is among the luminaries, but that persistent 
creator and the primeval angels and archangels 
are free from its attack ; and his information 
about the deception which is practised upon that 
labourer for hell and mind allied with the demons 2 
is certain. 

1 The sky being divided into three parts, and the uppermost part 
being inaccessible to evil (see Chap. XXXVII, 24, 25). 

1 Reading az>a-.r£da-m?nun6ih, but it is possible that azrfi 
may have originally been kha»dak, for the Av. khavzd, 'male 
paramour,' of Vend. VIII, 99, 103 (trans. D.). 

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Chapter LXXIV. 

1. As to the seventy-third question and reply, 
that which you ask is thus : Is there any discom- 
fiture (vanl^arlh) of the archangels from that 
stench, or not ? 

2. The reply is this, that the archangels are im- 
mortal and undistressed ; their place, also, is in that 
best existence of light, all-glorious, all-delightful, 
and undisturbed; and the strength of the stench 
due to the demons x does not reach unto anything 
pertaining to the archangels. 3. The archangels 
are omniscient 2 , friendly to the creatures, persistent, 
and procure forgiveness; they know that heinous 
practice which is the heinous practice 3 of that 
wretched dupe (friftako) who has become defiled 
in that most filthy manner (ztsttum arang), which 
is like that which is provided and which is applied 
to him even in the terrible punishment 4 that has 
come upon him from the demons ; and then, on 
account of their friendliness to the creatures, it has 

1 Reading az-jeddiko, but it may be Sa-.rSd&tk6, 'of the 
demon of greediness,' or it may stand for khawdak-fed&tko, 'of 
a male paramour of the demons,' as mentioned in the last note. 

1 Omniscience with regard to what is taking place in the world 
being an indispensable characteristic of any being to whom prayers 
are addressed, or whose intercession is implored. 

* These words are thus repeated in K35, and the repetition may 
be correct. 

* Referring probably to the punishment of such a sinner, de- 
tailed in AV. XIX, 1-3, as follows : — ' I saw the soul of a man, 
through the fundament of which soul, as it were, a snake, like a 
beam, went in, and came forth out of the mouth ; and many other 
snakes ever seized all the limbs.' 

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222 dAdistAn-1 dInIk. 

seemed to them severe, and thereby arises their 
forgiveness which is according to whatever anguish 
is owing to the torment which galls him. 

Chapter LXXV. 

i. As to the seventy-fourth question and reply, 
that which you ask is thus : Do the angels have his 
dead body restored, or not ? 

2. The reply is this, that there was a high-priest 
who said that the angels do not have his dead body 
restored, because of the sin of the mutually-pol- 
luting, full of stench, and inglorious victims (khva- 
plafoan) 1 , the terrible kind of means for the excul- 
pation of creatures 2 , and that practice when males 
keep specially imperfect in their duty ; it being then 
suitable for mankind to become free from him who — 
like Az-t Dahak s , who wanted many most powerful 
demons — resists and struggles, and is not possessing 
the perception to extract (patka.ristan6)a pardon, 
owing to the course of many demoniacal causes. 
3. But innumerable multitudes (amarakanJha), 
happily persevering 4 in diligence, have with united 
observation, unanimously, and with mutual assist- 
ance (ham-ban^-ivjnlha) insisted upon this, that 
they have the dead bodies of all men restored ; for 

1 Victims of the deceptions practised by the demons (see Chaps. 
LXXIII, 3, LXXIV, 3); but the reading is uncertain. 

! Probably the punishment of the wicked in helL 

» See Chap. XXXVII, 97. 

4 Reading farukhvo-tushitn, but it may be perkhuntS 
dahun, 'having begged the boon;' and M14 has p6ry6</ke- 
sh&no, 'of those of the primitive faith.' 

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the good creator, granting forgiveness and full of 
goodness, would not abandon any creature to the 
fiend 1 . 4. In revelation (din 6) it is said that every 
dead body is raised up, both of the righteous and of 
the wicked 2 ; there is none whom they shall abandon 
to the fiend. 

5. And this, also, is thus decided by them 8 , that 
even as to him who is most grievously sinful, when 
he becomes mentally seeking pardon and repentant 
of the sin, and, being as much an atoner as he is well 
able, has delivered up his body and wealth for retri- 
bution and punishment, in reliance upon the atone- 
ment for sin of the good religion, then it is possible 
for his soul, also, to come to the place of the 
righteous 4 . 

Chapter LXXVI. 

1. As to the seventy-fifth question and reply, that 
which you ask is thus: As to him who shall slay 
those who shall commit unnatural intercourse, how 
is then his account as to good works and crime ? 

2. The reply is this, that the high-priests, in their 
decision, have thus specially said, that all worthy 
of death are so by the decision of judges and the 

1 Except for temporary punishment in hell. All ideas of the 
vindictiveness of implacable justice are foreign to the Maft/a- 
worshipper's notion of the good creator. 

J Compare Bd. XXX, 7. 

8 Probably by the 'multitudes' of § 3. 

* By delivering up his body and wealth to the will of the high- 
priest, as an atonement, and mentally renouncing his sins, he is 
saved from hell, and the beneficial effect of any good works he 
may have performed returns to him (see Sis. VIII, 5). 

Digitized by 


224 DAflISTAN-t DfNtK. 

command of kings, whose business is execution. 3. 
Whoever shall slay him who has heinous sins x after 
controversies three times with him, about the deci- 
sion of those acquainted with the religion and about 
the command of kings, when he lias thus remained 
in the sin in defiance of his own relations — and not 
inimically to the man and injuriously to the religion, 
but inimically to the sin and in order to keep away 
intercourse with demons — is to consider it as a great 
good work. 4. No command is given about the 
decision of what one is to do in the same matter, 
more needfully and more authorisedly in cases of 
doubtful attention, for the good work exists un- 
doubtedly more and more abundantly 2 . 

Chapter LXXVII. 

1. As to the seventy-sixth question and reply, 
that which you ask is thus : Will you direct some 
one then to make the heinousness of this sin of 
unnatural intercourse clear to us ? 

2. The reply is this, that the first material crea- 
ture was the righteous man, the smiter of the fiend, 
the righteous propitiator ; so, also, in the world he 
is more recognising the sacred beings, more com- 
pletely (hamaktar) for the production of creatures, 

1 Reading vinasSno, as in M14, instead of the doubtful word 
vashkijn, which might perhaps be compared with Pers. buzhix, 
' opposition.' 

' The meaning is that no one is bound to put such sinners to 
death until they are condemned by the authorities, but should one 
do so upon his own responsibility, entirely for the good of the 
faith, and certain of the impenitence of the sinners, he is not only 
free from blame, but has done a meritorious deed. 

Digitized by 



and with more provision for the creatures \ 3. And 
with the manifestation of knowledge the best duty 
is that which exists in lawfully practising procrea- 
tion, and the complete progression of righteous men 
arose therefrom. 

4. In like manner he who is the omniscient crea- 
tor formed mankind in the first pair, who were 
brother and sister, and became Mashyalh and Mash- 
yaydlh a , and all races of material life exist by means 
of acquiring sons and his omnisciently causing pro- 
creation. 5. The man and woman were also made 
to lust (gamlntdft)) by him, and thereby became the 
father and mother of material men ; and he natura- 
lized among primitive man the qualities of a desire 
(aluafanS) for acquiring sons together through 
glorifying. 6. And the law and religion authorised 
it as a proper wish, so long as they proceed from 
those who are their own relations, not from those 
who are not their own ; and with those whom next- 
of-kin marriages 8 , original duties, and desires for 
other sons have formed, complete progress in the 
world is connected, and even unto the time of the 
renovation of the universe*, it is to arise therefrom. 
7. And the birth of many glorious practisers of the 
religion, those confident in spirit, organizers of the 
realm, arrangers of the country, and even accom- 

1 Reading va/-d4m-niv£run8ih£tar; the syllables -Star 
being written separately M14 has va/ d&m-niv&mnfh afyyirf- 
tar, ' more remembering the provision for the creatures.' Pro- 
moting the increase of, and providing maintenance for, good 
creatures are considered to be important good works. 

1 Here written Mashyi and Mashyayadih, but Bee Chaps. 
XXXVII, 8a, LXIV, 2. 

8 See Chap. LXV. * See Chap. II, 8. 

[18] Q 

Digitized by 


226 DADISTAN-i DiNtK. 

plishers of the renovation of t/ie universe, which 
arises from those same to whom that practice shall 
be law — and when it occurs lawfully — is a miracle 
and benefit of the world, the will of the sacred 
beings and the utmost good work discernible, be- 
cause the complete progress of the righteous arises 
therefrom, and the great female faculty (nekedlh) 
is manifested. 

8. So when the opponent of the same, by whom 
the source of seed and procreation is spoiled, is 
intent upon a way for the death of progeny — and 
the intention is certain — its annihilation is owing to 
him 1 ; and he is the devastating fiend 2 , whose will is 
a desire of depopulation and ruin, and by the power 
of his NiyeLsr (demon of 'want') 3 he turns imper- 
ceptibly the esteem of the very indispensable pro- 
duction of men from the position of wishing for sons 
to a creature i who is opposed to it, through whom 
have arisen its ruin and corruption. 9. And the 
nature and power which are his cherishing of pro- 
geny are not suitable for receiving seed, and mis- 
represented (drdktnlafo) by him is the accom- 
panying evil intercourse, so that emitting the seed 
(shudak), in delivering it at that time into that 
burning place, full of stench, is to produce its death, 
and no procreation occurs. 

10. The dupes 6 turn the living seed from mingling 
with women and seeking for births, just as in the 
like vice of any demon, connected with a longing 

1 A free translation of a^ai Idito, which phrase is placed at 
the end of the section in the Pahl. original. 
» The evil spirit. ■ See Chap. XXXVII, 52. 

4 Mi 4 has ' to a member.' 5 Of the fiend. 

Digitized by 



for the dupes 1 , they shall abandon that advantage of 
the world, the delights (vayaganS) of a son 2 , n. 
He who is wasting seed makes a practice of causing 
the death of progeny; when the custom is com- 
pletely continuous, which produces an evil 3 stoppage 
of the progress of the race, the creatures have be- 
come annihilated ; and certainly, that action, from 
which, when it is universally proceeding, the depopu- 
lation of the world must arise, has become and 
furthered (frarastS) the greatest wish of Aharman*. 
12. Such a practiser is the greatest wish of Ahar- 
man, through the demon's excretion* of doubt in 
the practice, owing to intercourse with the emitter, 
which is most filthy and most fetid, and the emitting 
member, which is causing death ; and the demoniacal 
practice 6 is perceptible even from the same practice, 
and whatever is the heinousness of the sinfulness is 
clear to observers of the dead body. 

Chapter LXXVII I. 

i. As to the seventy-seventh question and reply, 
that which you ask is thus : As to the nature of the 
heinousness and sinfulness of committing adultery, 
and the worldly retribution specified for it in revela- 

1 Such men are said to become paramours of the demons (see 
Vend. VIII, 102-106), as further alluded to in § 12. 

1 Mi 4 has ' seeking a son.' 

s Reading daherf varf, but M14 has y&ltyuntd, 'brought a," 
and may be right. 

4 See Chap. XXXVII, 10. 

• Reading rikhih, but M14 has r&sfh, 'course.' 

• In hell. 

Q 2 

Digitized by 


228 dA^istAn-J dInIk. 

tion, will you then direct some one to point out to us 
the modes 1 of retribution for it ? 

2. The reply is this, that it is adultery, heinous 
and vicious, which first Dahak used to commit, and 
he is known by the illicit intercourse which was his 
desire with VWak 2 , who was his mother, in the life- 
time of Aurvadasp 3 , who was his father, without* 
the authority of Aurvadasp, who was the husband of 
VWak whose practising of sin, unauthorisedly and 
injudiciously, was itself heinous and very frequent 
3. And its modes of theft or spoliation are just as 
much more heinous than other theft and spoliation 
as a man and that which arises from his procreation 
of man are greater than the position of property. 

4. One is this, that it is important to consider 
with steadfastness the courtezan life of the adul- 
teress aHd the bad disposition assuredly and un- 
doubtedly therein ; she causes pillage unauthorisedly, 
and in her practice, also, intercourse during menstru- 
ation, owing to its resembling the burning of seed, 
is a frightful kind of handiwork (dastd). 

1 M14 has ' the various modes.' 

* This is evidently the name written Udat in Paz. in Bd. XXXI, 
6, who was, therefore, the daughter of Bayak ; the fact of her being 
the mother of Dahak is more clearly expressed in the Pahlavi text 
of Chap. LXXII, 5. 

* This is the name written Khrutasp in Bd. XXXI, 6, which is 
a Paz. reading, though confirmed by the Pahl. form in TD (as Udat 
is, to some extent, by the Pahl. Au</ of TD). This Aflrvarfasp, 
whose name can also be read Khurutasp, must be distinguished 
from his namesake, the father of VLrtisp, whose name became cor- 
rupted into Loharasp (see Bd. XXXI, 28, 29). 

4 K35 omits az>ik, ' without,' here, but has it in Chap. LXXII, 5. 
Without this particle the meaning would be ' who was the high- 
9 priest of his father, Atirvarfisp.' 

Digitized by 



5. One is this, that it may be that she becomes 
pregnant by that intercourse, and has to commit on 
her child 1 the murdering of progeny. 

6. One is this, that it may be in pregnancy, by 
her coming to intercourse with another man, that 
the living child which is in her womb has died 
through that intercourse. 

7. One is this, that it may be that she becomes 
pregnant by that intercourse, and the pregnancy 
having given indications, through shame or fear she 
swallows a drug 2 [and seeks a remedy, and murders 
the child in her womb. 

8. One is this, that it may] be that a woman who 
is foreign or infidel, and becomes pregnant by that 
intercourse, gives birth to a child, and it has grown 
up with the child which is known to belong to the 
husband of the woman, and remains in foreign habits 
(an-alrlh) or infidelity. 9. The committer of the 
illicit intercourse is as unobservant and grievously 
sinful as he who shall lead his own child from his 
native habits (alrih) and the good religion into 
foreign habits and infidelity; as to the sin which 
that child may commit in childhood he is the sinner, 
and as to that which it may commit in manhood he 
is equally sinful with it. 10. Also, if that child be 
put to death in childhood, and be passed through 
water, rain, or fire, or be buried in the well-yielding 
earth 8 , he is an equally vicious murderer, and is 
defiled thereby through being the invisible causer. 

1 Mi 4 has ' and with the assistance of another man she has so 
to commit on her child of that pregnancy.' The interpolation is 
clumsy, and does not make the sentence easier to translate. 

1 The passage which follows, in brackets, is from M14; there 
being evidently something omitted from K35 at this point. 

' The contamination of water, rain, fire, or earth, by contact with 

Digitized by 


2^o dAdistAn-! dJnIk. 

ii. Likewise, if he who is a man of the good 
religion accustoms a woman to illicit intercourse, and 
through adultery a child is born and grows up, even 
then to practise undutifully that which undutifulness 
committed is to make a wretched and clandestine 
connection. 12. On account of the birth having 
occurred through illicit intercourse it is grievously 
sinful; through propriety it is praiseow/^y, and 
through falsity it is sinful 1 , and it is said that a 
bastard is not appointed in superintendence over 
any one. 13. If it be done so that pregnancy does 
not occur, even then every single time — not to 
mention the text (a^istak) as to the matter regarding 
the destruction of his own living seed 2 — it is a sin of 
two Tanapuhars, which are six hundred stirs 8 ; and 
regarding that emission it is inexpiable (atana- 
puhar) 4 . 

a corpse, being considered a heinous sin (see Sis. II, 9, 50, 76, 
XIII, 19). 

1 That is, procuring the birth of a legitimate child is highly meri- 
torious, but an illegitimate birth is sinful. 

* Referring probably to Vend. VIII, 77-82, which states that the 
voluntary waste of seed is an inexpiable sin, as mentioned at the 
end of this section. 

* A Tanapuhar (Av. tanuperetha) sin was originally one that 
required the sinner to place his body at the disposal of the high- 
priest, in order to atone for it ; but it was not necessarily a sin 
worthy of death, or mortal sin. At the time when the Vendidarf 
was written, such a sin was punished by two hundred lashes of a 
horse-whip or scourge (see Vend. IV, 72). Subsequently, when the 
Vendidac/ scale of punishments was converted into a scale of weights, 
for estimating the amounts of sins and good works, a Tanapuhar 
sin was estimated at three hundred stirs (<rremjp) of four dirhams 
(8paxi4) each (see Sis. 1, 1, 2). The weight of 600 stirs was probably 
about that of 840 rupfs, or 2 if lbs. (see Chap. LII, 1 n). 

4 That is, a sin which cannot be atoned for even by giving up 
one's body for execution. Anapuhar in Pahl. Vend. VIII, 82. 

Digitized by 



14. As much on account of the conversation as 
on account of the companionship of the man who 
goes unto various women, for the sake of a man's 
sin, and is unatoning, should his own body be also 
defiled with bodily refuse (hlgar-hdmdnd) 1 , or 
should those kinds of harm be not kept away from 
another 2 , even then every single time of the bodily 
refuse bringing harm to his own body is a sin of 
sixty stirs s , and through making his own body defiled 
with bodily refuse is each time a sin of sixty stirs ; 
and if he washes with water that defilement with 
his own bodily refuse, or that which is harmed 
thereby, every single time it is a sin of six hundred 4 

15. And if it be a foreign or infidel woman, apart 
from the sinfulness about which / have written, it is 
a sin of sixty stirs on account of not controlling the 
sins and vicious enjoyment of the foreign woman. 
16. And, finally, the other various sins which are 
owing to this sin are very numerous, and grievous 
to thousands of connections, and it is thereby con- 
taminating to them in a fearful manner. 

1 7. The retribution is renunciation of sin in pro- 
curing pardon; and the renunciation in his turning 
from equally grievous disobedience 8 , every single 

1 SeeChap.XLVIII,i9. 

J Mi 4 has 'or he does not wash those harmful kinds of bodily 
refuse/ which is inconsistent with what follows. 

' This is the estimated weight of a Khor sin, originally the crime 
of inflicting a severe hurt, ranging from a bruise to a wound or 
broken bone not endangering life (see Sis. 1, 1, 2). The weight 
was probably equal to that of 84 rupfs. 

4 M14 has' three hundred.' 

* Reading asrfijtih as in M14, instead of the aitr6ijt6th of 
K35. Possibly the latter word might be read 3-tr6!jt6ih, 'the 

Digitized by 


dadistAn-! d!n{k. 

time that he turns from similar viciousness, and as 
an atonement for the sin, is to arrange, or order, 
four (arba) marriages of the next of kin to his own 
wife, lawfully, authorisedly, and most hopeful of off- 
spring. 1 8. Through fear of the grievous sinfulness 
which / have recounted, in case of a child of those 
of the good religion who has no giver of shame \ 
and to keep lawfully in subjection a child who is 
under control, he who is unnurtured is lawfully given 
nurture, and is nominated for lawfully bringing up. 
19. And to turn a man or woman of bad disposition, 
by eulogy and entreaty, or 2 by distress (fangim) and 
fear and other representations, from that bad dis- 
position and vicious habit; to order next-of-kin 
marriage 3 and all the religious rites (ham 4k din 6), 
the Dvazdah-hdmast *, the ceremony in honour of 
the waters 6 , and the presentation of holy-water to 
the fires 9 ; to remove the burden of offspring 7 which 
is distressing those of the good religion, and to force 
them from the infidelity acquired, which is a very 
atoning atonement for such sins, are extremely proper 
proceedings (aolr-farhakhtlklh). 

passing away of the three nighis,' referring to the Av. phrase 
thrityau khshap6 thracrta, 'on the passing away of the third 
night,' in Hn. II, 18 ; the three nights are those immediately after 
death, while the soul is supposed to remain hovering about the 
body, thinking over its sins, and dreading the approaching judg- 
ment of the angel Rashnu ; but previous renunciation of sin would 
relieve it from much of this dread. 

1 That is, one not born in shame, but a legitimate child. M14 
has shfr, 'milk,' substituted for sharm, ' shame.' 

* M14 has 'woman of family with extending sins or bad 

' See Chap. LXV. * See Chap. XLVIII, 25. 

* Probably the Ab&n Nyiyb. * Probably the Ata* Nydy is. 

1 By assisting in their support. 

Digitized by 



Chapter LXXIX. 

1. As to the seventy-eighth question and reply, 
that which you ask is thus : What is the decision 
about water with the word Itha ' and him who shall 
drink it ? 2. When a man has performed his ritual 
and does not take the prayer {y&g 6) inwardly, but 
drinks water with the word Itha, what is the decision 
about this efficacy 2 of which he takes up one half 
and abandons one half, how is it necessary, or not, to 
consider it, and what is the sin of it ? 3. A s to him 
who performs half, or less than half, of the efficacy, 
and drinks water with the word Ith&, what is the 
retribution for this sin when he shall commit it 
occasionally, and what is good in order that this sin, 
when he shall commit it, may depart from its source ? 

1 The first word of Yas.V, 1, 2 which forms the first portion 
(after the invocation) of the inward prayer, or grace, to be muttered 
before eating or drinking. This first portion may be translated as 
follows : ' Here then we praise Ahura-mazda, who gave (or created) 
both cattle and righteousness, he gave both water and good plants, 
he gave both the luminaries and the earth, and everything good.' 
This is followed by three Ashem-vohus, each meaning as follows : 
' Righteousness is the best good, a blessing it is ; a blessing be to 
that which is righteousness to the angel ^"perfect rectitude.' After 
muttering these formulas, or ' taking ' them inwardly as a protective 
spell, the mutterer can eat or drink, and after washing his mouth 
he ' speaks out ' the spell or v&g by reciting certain other formulas 
aloud. This chapter refers to those who mutilate the v&g by 
muttering only its first word or words, which matter is also treated 
in Sis. V. 

9 Supposing that this word, which may be twice read maanaS 
and four times maenafi, represents the Ar. ma'hni, but this is by 
no means certain. 

Digitized by 


234 dAdistan-! dMk. 

4. As to him who has performed his Nabar 1 ritual, 
and drinks water with the word Itha, not muttering 
(andako) the inward prayer {y&g 6), and performs 
a ceremony (ya^t6), though he does not order a 
ceremony of G£td-kharid? 2 for himself, is the de- 
cision then about him anything better, or not ; and 
does the good work of this ceremony of G£to-khart</ 
become just the same as that of the Nabar ceremony, 
or not ? 5. As to him who orders a ceremony of 
Geto-kharW for 3 himself, what is then his good work, 
and what is the value 4 of his worthiness when he 
does not himself perform because he orders that 
they should perform for him ? 6. Arid as to him 
who has not performed his Ceremony, and is fifteen 
years old, what is then the decision about him ? 

7. The reply is this : — When a man who has 
chanted the Gathas ('hymns') ^drinks water with the 
word Itha, if, moreover, being preservable from suf- 
fering *, he be not a righteous one overwhelmed by 
impotence, it is thus said that, when in order to con- 
secrate the sacred cake (dr6no) 7 it is not possible 

1 The initiatory ceremony of a young priest, written nStbar or 
nagbar in this chapter, and sometimes ndnibar (Pahl. navak 

1 This ceremony, which means ' the world-purchased,' and by 
which, according to the Sad-dar Bundahi;, ' heaven is purchased in 
the world, and one's own place brought to hand in heaven,' lasts 
three days, and is performed by two priests ; the first day's cere- 
monies are those of the Ndnibar, those of the second are of the 
angel Srdsh, and those of the third are of the Strdzah, or angels of 
the thirty days of the month (see Bd. XXX, 28 n). 

• Reading rSf instead of Id, ' not.' 

4 Reading varka, instead of va neked, 'female,' which is much 
like it in Pahl. letters. 

• And is, therefore, an initiated priest. 

• Mi 4 has ' from impotent suffering.' T See Chap. XXX, 1. 

Digitized by 


CHAPTER LXXIX, 4-9. 235 

to take the prayer inwardly, and there are no pre- 
sentations of it for the tasting of the virtuous with 
inward prayer 1 , or for the sake of relieving the 
sickness of a righteous person, which has come 
severely, when it is possible for him to say 'Itha' 
and one 'Ashem-vohu 2 ,' or it is possible for him to 
say 'Ashem,' he is to recite that which it is possible 
for him to speak, and he is to drink or eat 3 the water, 
or food, or medicine which is discreetly his, and may 
be the custom of his body and life 4 . 

8. But the sinfulness of him who has drunk water 
with the word Itha, not owing to suffering, is much 
the most sinful, except this efficacy of which you have 
written that, having taken up 6 one half, they shall 
abandon one half; for, when in eating the efficacy 
is possessed in that manner, it is then a chattering 
meal which is a very grievous sin 8 . 9. Every single 
drop (pashan) 7 which in that manner comes to the 

1 Reading v&go atdfdS</agdn-i nadug&n6, which M14 has 
altered to mean ' and if in his state of hunger and thirst.' 

J Merely the first words of the two formulas which constitute 
the inward prayer, or \&g (see § 1 n). 

' M14 has only 'he is to eat.' 

* Mi 4 has ' and is authorised ly to preserve his own body.' 

* Reading frig, as in M14 and § 2, instead of pa van, 'in;' 
though the reading ' in taking up ' is quite possible. 

* The sin of dT&y&n-gdyismh, 'eagerness for chattering,' 
which arises from talking while eating, praying, or at any other 
time when a prayer (va^) has been taken inwardly and is not yet 
spoken out. The sin arises from breaking the spell of the inward 
prayer (see Sis. V). 

7 Comp. Av. parshuya and Pers. pashang, bashang. This 
word has been misread yae is n, 'ceremony,' in Sis. V, 3, 4, which 
ought to stand as follows : — ' It is unseasonable chatter for every 
single drop ; for him who has performed the ritual it is a Tand- 
puhar sin ; for him who has not performed the ritual il is less, 

Digitized by 


2:6 DADTSTAN-! DlNfo. 

mouth as a new taste is a sin of three sttrs \ and 
every single thing which is spoken like that word 2 
is a sin of three stirs, which is mentioned as the 

10. The retribution is that way well perfected 
when, in renunciation of that sin which attacks, a 
proper efficacy is prepared and becomes a vestige 
(vunak6) of the sin of the performer. 1 1. Whoever 
is not able to arrange it in this manner is to entreat 
the prayers of three men with a donation of wealth, 
and is to solemnize his N6nabar ceremony 3 , or he is 
to consecrate a sacred cake every day in the cere- 
monial place, to eat food lawfully, and to order the 
proper maintenance of the efficacy. 12. The as- 
sistance of performing the proper rituals through 
ordering the Nabar ceremony, and the helping ex- 
istence of discharging the burden of the trouble of 
a populous household seem to me suitable for the 
atonement of such-like sin, through the will of the 
sacred beings. 

some have said three Sr6shd-£aran&ms. The measure of unseason- 
able chatter is a TanSpfthar sin ; this is where every single drop, 
or every single morsel, or every single taste is not completed.' 

1 The stir is evidently taken here as equivalent to the Sr6sh6- 
£aranim of Sis. V, 3 (see the last note). A sin of three Sr6sh6- 
^aranams, ' lashes with a scourge,' is called a Fannin, and is usually 
the least degree of sin of which notice is taken ; its amount is 
variously estimated (see Sis. IV, 14, X, 24, XI, 2, XVI, i, 5), but 
the value given here, in the text, is very likely correct, and is 
equivalent to about 4^ rupls, either in weight or amount (see 
Chap. LII, 1 n). 

J The word IthS. M14 has ' every single time it is spoken in 
tasting with an efficacy like that word,' but the meaning of this is 
not clear. 

8 See § 4. 

Digitized by 



Chapter LXXX. 

i. A s to the seventy-ninth question and reply, 
that which you ask is thus : Concerning him who 
does not order ceremonies what is then the decision ? 

2. The reply is this, that, excepting those among 
which is specially the selected religious rite (din 6) 
of him whose ceremony is not performed — who, even 
though having many good works, does not afterwards 
attain unto the supreme heaven, which is deter- 
mined 1 — this, moreover, is thus said, that he who 
is not able to perform his ritual himself, when he 
orders a G6t6-khari</ 2 ceremony and they shall per- 
form it, can become fit for the supreme heaven 
(garddfmanlkd) ; this is greatly to be commended. 

Chapter LXXXI. 

i. As to the eightieth question and reply, that 
which you ask is thus : What is the purpose of this 
ceremony for the living soul 8 , and why* is it necessary 

1 It is the general opinion that if the proper ceremonies are not 
performed during the three days after a death (see Chap. XXVIII) 
the deceased cannot attain to the highest grade of heaven ; this is, 
however, denied by some of the commentators (see Sis. VI, 3-6). 

1 See Chap. LXXIX, 4 n. 

* Dastur Peshotanji Behramji, the high-priest of the Parsis in 
Bombay, informs me that every Parsi is bound to perform, or get 
performed, every year during his or her lifetime, ceremonies for 
three days in honour of his or her soul, analogous to those per- 
formed during the three days after a death. These Zindah-ravin, 
or Srdsh, ceremonies are generally ordered on the first three 
Fravardigan holidays, extending from the twenty-sixth to the 
twenty-eighth day of the last month of the Parsi year. 

* Reading maman rdl, as in M14; K35 has 14 'not,' instead 
of r a i,' for.' 

Digitized by 


238 DA.DISTAN-i DiNiK. 

to order it? 2. And, whenever one orders it, how 
is it necessary then to order it, how is it best when 
they celebrate it, and what is its great advantage 
as a good work ? 

3. The reply is this, that worship with the cere- 
monial for those newly passed away, during the 
three days which they spend in the account 1 , is suit- 
able for the discreet, just as the protection with 
nourishment of those newly born, in their infancy, 
is also much more suitable for the discreet. 4. He 
is a truly discreet man through whom there is cere- 
monial for the three days, on account of his own 
father, and privileged wife, and infant child, and 
well-behaved servant, on their passing away; and 
it is indispensable to order the triple ceremonial of 
the three days. 

5. This, too, is said : where it is not possible to 
solemnize his three days, or they solemnize them 
afterwards, when information of the death arrives 2 , 
three days are to be solemnized as a substitute for 
those three. 6. For the good work of the ceremo- 
nial which is ordered by him himself, or bequeathed 
by him, or is his through consenting to it by design 3 , 
exists — even though it is thus possible that it will 
be conducted afterwards — whenever it comes into 
progress ; therefore he is exalted for it at his account 

1 See Chaps. XXIV, XXV. 

* M14 has 'or they do not solemnize them, after which the in- 
formation arrives,' which is clearly inconsistent with the context 
When a person dies away from home, and the ceremonies are not 
performed on the spot, they must be performed at his home 
immediately after information of his death arrives, and the three 
succeeding days are considered as representing the three days 
after the death (see Sis. XVII, 6). 

* Comp. Chap. VIII, 5. 

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CHAPTER LXXXI, 2-1 1. 239 

in the three days, and it comes on for his being ex- 
alted. 7. When that which is conducted afterwards 
comes on for aiding his being exalted in the three 
days of the account, that which was conducted by 
him himself beforehand is more hopeful and more 
certain of being exalted in that position. 

8. On account of there being also a diminution 
(aIto-/£ gahlafarlh) of risk about their own souls, in 
the event of (min zak algh hat) their children not 
ordering the three days ceremonial, or it not being 
possible to solemnize it at that time, it is desirable 
to order, in their own lifetime and at their own con- 
venience, the ceremony for their own living souls, 
advisedly, without doubt, and having appointed the 
mode of life of the three days, and also to appoint by 
will him who is to conduct it in the end. 9, And 
when both are conducted, the increase of good works 
and exaltation, though the end is not possible, or is 
not proceeded with — and the previous good works 
are commendable, and, therefore, preservatory — has 
reached even unto the most lordly wishes. 

10. As to the man with great and powerful chil- 
dren, to whom the ceremonial of the three days for 
himself at the final day, and also the progress of 
many good works have seemed certain, but on ac- 
count of yet another way to freedom from doubt 
effectually (frarastlha) existing, he has bequeathed 
the conduct of the three days' ceremonial, and also 
other good works, unto his children, in order that 
the ceremony for the living soul may be conducted at 
the final day, with him the angels are in triumph, 
the glory of the religion in the most lordly glory, 
and the solemnizers of ceremonial worship are many. 
11. Then, moreover, owing to the contest of the 

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24O DADISTAn-! DfNtK. 

demons — so unjust that on the day of his passing 
away it is due to the uncleanness (ap4dtyaz>lh) which 
has attained unto its full extent 1 — all the solemnizers 
in the country, of the acts of worship solemnized, 
may have become thoroughly doubtful of the wor- 
ship, and until it goes on to the disciples, and the 
ceremony is prepared, it is not proper to perform 
the whole ceremonial ; in that way is manifested the 
great advantage and commendableness which arises 
from that ceremony for his living soul. 

1 2. The nature of the ceremony ordered for the 
living soul is a counterpart of the three days, so it is 
needful that at all times of the three days and nights, 
successively emancipative (avadigtni^nlk), a cere- 
monial in honour of Sr6sh* be always conducted, and 
t/tat it proceed ; and a fire is lighted in the cere- 
monial, and the clean ligature of the limbs is to be 
tied. 13. As a rule it is so considered that* in the 
three days there are fifteen 4 ceremonies (ya$tan8) 
in honour of Srdsh, and three sacred cakes (drdn)* 
which are consecrated in each dawn (bam- 1) with 
various dedications ; and the fourth day they solem- 
nize the Vispara^ 8 , the portion 7 of the righteous 
guardian spirits (ardit fravan#$). 14. And there 

1 The corpse being considered utterly unclean. 

* See Chap. XIV, 4. 

' The following clause, about the three days, is omitted in Mi 4, 
which skips from ' that ' to ' the fourth day.' 

4 The Pers. Rivayats merely say that four priests are employed, 
two at a time, so as to relieve each other in the continuous series 
of ceremonies for three days and nights. 

* See Chap. XXX, 1. 

* Here written Vispare^o (see Chap. XLV, 6). 

7 Reading bdn, instead of nub; Mi 4 omits the word. 

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CHAPTER LXXXI, 1 2-1 7. 24 1 

are fugitives of families of the period, and other still 
further diminishers 1 of good works, who have wished 
to produce the wealth which is necessary to perform 
advantageously, as a custom of the soul in those 
three days, one celebration of all the religious rites 
(ha male dln6) in honour of Sr6sh, and the consecra- 
tion of three sacred cakes for Srdsh every day ; and 
the third night, at dawn *, the consecration of a sacred 
cake dedicated in three modes. 15. In accomplish- 
ing the consecration of the sacred cake specially for 
the righteous guardian spirits, on the fourth day, one 
is supposed to order a Dvasdah-hdmast 3 in honour 
of the righteous guardian spirits, and the rest of the 

16. And he who has intended much more laud- 
ably is declared as the more devout and more 
judicious of worshippers; and for the sake of the 
ceremonial he is cleansed by the Bareshnum cere- 
mony*, and is to practise other descriptions of clean- 
liness as regards his body and clothing. 17. While 
in the performance of the ceremonial, bread made 
from corn which is ground by those of the good 

1 M14 has 'there are ghostly observers of the families of the 
period, and many other teachers.' But the original meaning was, 
no doubt as in K35, that there were many persons at that period 
who would have been glad to possess the means of ordering even 
a small portion of the proper rites for the dead. 

• That is, at dawn on the fourth day. The rites here mentioned 
seem to have been considered as the minimum that could be 

' See Chap. XLVIII, 25. 

4 A tedious ceremony of purification, lasting nine nights and 
detailed in Vend. IX, 1-145 (see App. IV). Its name is the Av. 
word which commences the instructions for sprinkling the unclean 
person (Vend. IX, 48), and means ' the top ' of the head. , 
[■8] R 

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242 DADISTAN-t d!n{k. 

religion, wine from that made by those of the good 
religion, aWmeat from the animal 1 which is slaugh- 
tered in the ceremonial are eaten ; and otie is to pro- 
ceed into the abode of fires 2 and of the good, and to 
abstain from the rest of the other places which are 
dubious 3 and food which is dubious. 18. And with 
that thorough heedfulness one is to conduct and 
order that ceremonial in the abode of the ever-grow- 
ing fire, or other fire of Varahran 4 ; whereby his 
numerous good works are effectual, and the path of 
good works 5 is very broad. 19. Concerning 9 the 
suffering of him whose capability in that which is 
his preserving efficacy' is less, it is thus revealed, 
that not he who is righteous is overwhelmed, as it 
were unwilling, by incapability 8 . 

Chapter LXXXII. 

1. As to the eighty-first question and reply, that 
which you ask is thus : As to a man who shall order 
a ceremonial and shall give the money (diram), 
and the man who shall undertake his ceremonial 

1 A goat or sheep is meant by gdspend here. 
* The fire temple, in, or near, which the priests (' the good ') 

3 Or, var-h6mand may mean 'open to choice,' but it is generally 
used as the opposite of ae var, 'certain.' 

4 Sacred fire (see Chap. XXXI, 7). 

6 Over the Kvcmd bridge (see Chap. XXI, 5). 

" Reading rSt, instead of 1 4, ' not,' here, and vice versa further 
on in the sentence, as in Mi 4. 

7 That is, in good works. Mi 4 omits the word 'less.' 

8 The construction of this quotation is suggestive of its being a 
literal translation from the Avesta. 

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and shall take his money, but has not performed the 
ceremonial, what is then the decision ; and what is 
then the decision about the man who ordered the 
ceremonial ? 

2. The reply is this, that the merit of a cere- 
monial not performed is not set going, and does not 
come to the soul of the undertaker who shall take 
money for it, nor even to that of the orderer who 
gave money for it. 3. But, as to him who is the 
orderer, since his mental meritoriousness is so stead- 
fast that he gave his money, the efficacy (tuban) of 
the good work, mentally his own, has not stayed 
away from him, because he gave money authorisedly 
for the good work ; the decision, then, about him is 
such as about him to whom harm occurs in perform- 
ing a good work for the religion. 4. It is said that 
the angels so recompense him that he does not con- 
sider it as any other harm ; and as much as the good 
money given 1 for the sacred feast 2 and ceremonial 
is then the pleasure which comes unto his soul, as 
much as would have been possible to arise in the 
world from that money. 

5. And he who shall take his money, and did not 
perform his ceremonial, is just as though he had 
abstracted from the angels s and the righteous guar- 
dian spirits, and destroyed, as much propitiation as 
would have been possible from that ceremonial ; 
and he is, therefore, overwhelmed by it 4 , and expi- 
ates it in the soul. 

1 Mi 4 has ' the money given by him,' which may be correct. 
9 See Chap. XLVII, 1. 

* K35 has ' the good.' 

* Or, we might perhaps read ' thereby it is his overwhelming 
(astarWS),' supposing astarirfo to be a technical term implying a 

R 2 

Digitized by 


244 dAdistan-I diNik. 

Chapter LXXXIII. 

i. As to the eighty-second question and reply, that 
which you ask is thus : Is it necessary for a priestly 
man 1 that he should undertake all the religious rites 
and other ceremonials, or in what way is it ? 

2. The reply is this, that a priestly man should 
necessarily undertake all the religious rites another 
ceremonials, because the deciding and advising per- 
formers of the ceremonial, these same priestly men, well 
understand the merit or demerit, the propriety or im- 
propriety, of the ceremonial. 3. When the undertaker 
and conductor of all the religious rites is a priestly 
man, one is more hopeful of their progress in merit 

4. As to the priestly man who shall undertake 
all the religious rites, if he be living comfortably 
(h(i-ztvi5n6) on a share of our house-rulership 2 , 

flogging, as appears probable from a passage in Farh. Okh. p. 34, 
11. 1, 2, which, when restored to its form in the oldest MSS., runs as 
follows: — Astari</and afk&rih astaraspan snaj pavan vinas, 
which may be translated ' the manifestation of " overwhelming " is 
the blow of horsewhips for sin;' assuming thatastarasp is equiva- 
lent to asp6 axtar, the usual translation of Av. aspahe" anraya, 
' with a horsewhip.' 

1 The term magav6g-gabra probably means strictly 'a man 
of a priestly family,' as ^distinguished from a priest appointed from 
the laity, an appointment that seems to have been occasionally 
made in former times (see Bd. Introd. p. xxxiii, note 1). According 
to the Nirangistan any virtuous man or woman can perform certain 
priestly duties under certain circumstances (see Sis. X, 35), but 
would not, of course, be magav6g, 'priestly, or of priestly family.' 

3 Reading manpatih, instead ofmagdpatih, 'priesthood,' which 
words are often confounded in Pahlavi, being written very nearly 
alike. And assuming that ha torn, * if my,' stands for hatoman, ' if 
our;' M14 has a tukhsh,' without exertion,' but hat6f,'if his,' would 
be a more probable emendation, as it occurs in the next section. 

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village-rulership, tribe-rulership, and province-ruler- 
ship, and his needful support of religion remain 
the consideration as to his living comfortably, and 
he have no need for the stipend of all the religious 
rites, then the rule for him is to distribute properly 
that recompense of the sacred feast 1 , which is to 
be given for all the religious rites, among the solem- 
nizers*,, 5. If it be needful for him, the priestly 
man, as he is suitable, is not changed — whereby 
good management is not attained — and if it be 
needful even for his consideration of all those 
religious rites, his performance in the duty and 
ministration is then an approval of worthiness and 
management. 6. When they shall act so, all those 
religious rites are more meritoriously managed; 
and one day the solemnizers are brought from the 
fag-end (sar) into the rank of priestly manhood, 
which is the stipend for all the religious rites that 
they shall expressly take authorisedly, and are, 
therefore, worthy of it 3 . 

Chapter LXXXIV. 

1. As to the eighty-third question and reply, 
that which you ask is thus : Is it desirable to give 

1 See Chap. XLVII, 1. 

3 That is, if the chief priest has already a sufficient income, he 
is not to appropriate the fees for such occasional ceremonies, 
but to distribute them among his assistants, who are the actual 

* That is, when the chief priest requires the fees for his own 
support, the reward of his assistants must be the fact that they are 
rendering themselves competent to undertake the responsibility of 
the chief priest at some future time. 

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246 DADISTAN-t DiN}K. 

in excess the gift for the ceremonial which it is 
not desirable to diminish ? 

2. The reply is this, that it is proper not to 
diminish a gift where it is the gift 1 for a cere- 
monial, and the reasons for it are many. 3. One 
is this, that a gift is the money which in another 
good work suffices for the accomplishment of the 
good work, and the good work of a righteous gift* 
is a great good work, and not to diminish /'/ is 
sure worthiness among the explainers. 4. When 
the sacred feast 3 and the gift for the ceremonial are 
supplied in excess, even that which is an excess of 
gift is an excess of liberality to the performers of the 
ceremonial, and has realized (frarastS) an excess of 
good works that is commendable. 

Chapter LXXXV. 

1. As to the eighty-fourth question and reply, 
that which you ask is thus : As to a gift for the 
ceremonial which they do not reduce, and while 
they give it in excess, in what manner is then its 
great advantage, and how and in how many modes 
is it possible to occur ? 

2. The reply is this, that the advancement of the 
ceremonial of the sacred beings is by so much as 
the gift is more fully given ; and the great advan- 
tage of the good work is more, and its reasons many, 
therefrom. 3. The desire of this wealth, which has 
come for the sake of the good work, is an experience 

1 Mi 4 omits the repetition of the words afgh dahijno-i. 
' See Chap. XLIV, 19. » See Chap. XLVII, 1. 

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of the comfortable living of the angels, by whom the 
solemnizers are aggrandized, and is proper apart from 
its great judiciousness ; to diminish it is improper. 

4. When the gift for the ceremonial is abundantly 
given, the performers of the ceremonial, who, with 
much trouble annoying them, have solemnized the 
Avesta and chanted the hymns (Gathas), and obtain 
the stipend of their solemnizing from the remunera- 
tion of the solemnization, are living comfortably, 
thriving, and blessed. 5. And also the undertakers 
of all the religious rites who, by means of the hope 
of rightful religion, render one certain as to the way 
to the distant awful place 1 , and tempt the longers 
for righteousness into the religion 2 , undertake all the 
religious rites and ceremonial of the sacred beings 
for the sake of the stipend of proper diligence. 

6. And reasoning thought is cognizant as regards 
the advantageousness due to the undertakers and 
solemnizers of all the religious rites, and a great 
stipend is more obtained and observed for them 
than for any other profession. 7. The sons, too, 
of priests and disciples strive for the words prayed 3 , 
and are more eager for their prayers ; ' and many, 
likewise, shall engage for all the religious rites, and 
become more diffusive of the religion (dln6 balis- 
nlktar); and, in like manner, the proper, more 
attainable, and more propitious path of the good 
for saving the soul becomes wider 4 . 

1 The place of account (see Chap. XX, 3). Or, it may be, 
'render one certain, in the course of time, regarding the awful 
place (hell).' 

1 Mi 4 adds ' and acquire good works.' 

8 That is, they are more diligent in learning the prayers by 

4 Referring to the ITiavad bridge (see Chap. XXI, 5). 

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248 dAdistan-J d!n!k. 

Chapter LXXXVI. 

1. As to the eighty-fifth question and reply, that 
which you ask is thus : What is possible to become 
the harm of a gift that is reduced ? 

2. The reply is this, that since those things are to 
be properly given which are for the religious rites 
of the ceremonial 1 , and are the consideration of the 
undertakers of all the religious rites, and are also 
the stipend of some solemnizers, both 2 are living 
comfortably by the ceremonial. 3. The sons of the 
disciples who wanted approval for the words prayed, 
become so much the more to be ordered and to be 
accepted; and the ceremonial of all the religious 
rites becomes more progressive. 

4. So, moreover, when they go to undertake 
the well-operating activity of the ceremonial for a 
diminution of remuneration and gift, and owing to 
undertaking and ordering again 3 , by way of routine 
(pavan d6r ras), they do not request so much 
stipend, it is as though they should buy my linen 
and should sell it again for their own payment 
(daafano). 5. As to the performers of the ceremonial, 
likewise, who have to acquire approval with much 
trouble and words prayed, and obtain a remunera- 
tion which, for the soul even, is as little for the 
ceremonial as though one were annoyed — whereby 

1 M14 has merely 'since the proper donation for the cere- 

3 That is, both the undertakers and solemnizers, the chief priest 
and his assistants. 

* Referring to a priest who undertakes ceremonies and then 
directs inferiors to perform them (see Chap. LXVI, 4, 6). 

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living is difficult — they become sorry for enduring 
the trouble, owing to lukewarmness (afsurdfS- 
mini^nlh) in the same profession. 6. And even 
the sons of the disciples shall sell linen for wages, 
and they rejoice that it is possible to learn other 
callings with less pains ; and thus they make them 
become lukewarm and meditating retreat (av&z- 
ahang) from the words of fresh paragraphs con- 
tinually prayed 1 , from the approval requested of the 
learned (asan), and from all the religious rites they 
should undertake for the contented. 

7. As to those, moreover, who, through fervent- 
minded undertaking of what is ordered, request less 
for all the religious rites, and have not obtained 2 
even that which is due to them, it is not even as 
though they ordered of them for the fiends 3 . 8. And 
the disgrace, too, of the orderers of good works of 
lukewarmness is the exaltation of the profession of 
the disciples ; and its deficient progress becomes 
the paralysation of the ceremonial of the sacred 
beings for saving the souls of the good from the 
deadly one (mar). 

Chapter LXXXVI I. 

1 . As to the eighty-sixth question and reply, that 
which you ask is thus : How is it good when they 
give a gift for the ceremonial ? 

1 Literally ' prayed and prayed.' 

* Reading ay&ft, instead of the unintelligible ayarft, as d has, 
no doubt, been written for f. 

' Meaning that the orderers would act more liberally if they 
wanted a ceremony even in honour of the fiends. 

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25O DAJ5ISTAN-1 DfrjiK. 

2. The reply is this, that as it is necessary, so 
that the ceremonial of the sacred beings may be 
more advanced, and such wealth may more come • 
on to the good work, for the proper stipends of the 
undertakers and solemnizers — that they may become 
less lukewarm as regards the accompanying pro- 
prieties, and thereby diligent in performing them — 
and there is not in it 1 an express connection mani- 
fested with different work, and with that which has 
proceeded from so many previous good people, I deem 
the introduction of it* more expressly better. 

Chapter LXXXVIII. 

i. As to the eighty -seventh question and reply, 
that which you ask is thus : As family householders 
we of the good religion of Iran, before each celebra- 
tion of all the religious rites with holy-water 3 which 
they have provided in the land 4 of Pars, have then 
always given for it a gift of 400 dirhams, or 350 
dirhams 6 at least. 2. And now if we should be 
needy, when we deduct something from the 400 
dirhams, or from the 350 dirhams, of the gift for 
them, they would then not accept it from us, and 
speak thus : ' Less than 400, or than 350, dirhams 
we do not* accept.' 3. But there are needy men 

1 The ceremonial. * The gift. » See Chap. LXVI, 17. 

* Reading bum, as in M14, instead of the barmano, 'son,' 
of K35. 

5 About 140 or 12 2 J rupis (see Chap. Ill, 1 note). As in 
Chap. LXVI, the actual value of these sums of money depended 
upon the price of the necessaries of life in the ninth century. 

* K35 repeats the negative, but whether this is a blunder, or 
intended to intensify the negation, is uncertain. 

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who always come to us themselves and speak thus : 
' For 350 dirhams we will always twice conduct all 
the religious rites and ceremonial with holy-water 
such as those which you have always ordered before 
for 400; only order us.' 4. Would a needy one, 
apart from the priestly men who always say that 
they are not, be authorised, or not? 

5. The reply is this, that the priest to whom 
your predecessors have given a gift of 400 or 350 
dirhams, for all the religious rites with holy-water, 
it is proper to consider particularly virtuous and 
faithful, when there is nothing else about him, on 
account of which he is otherwise. 6. A celebration 
of all the religious rites with holy-water, in which 
they shall use four pure animals * — and just accord- 
ing to the teaching of the high-priests they present 
to every single fire from one animal and one holy- 
water — and the offering of holy-water unto the fire 
whose holy-water it is, and bringing it on to another 
fire apart from that holy-water, and the ceremonial 
cleansing of the holy-water they maintain by agree- 
ment in thy name, the superiors solemnize with 
approval, faithfully, and attentively ; and the remu- 
neration of 350 dirhams would be a balancing of 
when they conduct the religious rite at the place 
of undertaking it, and when it is undertaken as 
regards a distant district 2 . 

7. In Artakhshatar-gadman s , within my memory, 

1 Sheep or goats. * That is, it is a fair average charge. 

' The Huz. form of Arrfashtr-khurrah, the name given by Aria- 
shir son of Papak, the first Sasanian king, to the city and district 
of G6r, subsequently called Piruzabad (see NSldeke's Geschichte 
der Perser und Araber zur Zeit der Sasaniden, pp. 11, 19), about 
seventy miles south of Shiraz. 

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252 dadistAn-J d!n{k. 

they who would accept less than 300 dirhams 1 for 
it made a . memorandum (farhang), to keep in 
remembrance that 350 dirhams for all the religious 
rites performed was to be the rule declared by those 
of the religion in Artakhshatar-gadman. 8. Like- 
wise, the glorified Atur-fr6bag 2 , son of Farakhuza*/, 
who was the pre-eminent leader of those of the good 
religion, decided in the same manner. 

9. And now, too, they always conduct those rites 
which are without holy-water for 150 dirhams, or 
even for 1 20 dirhams 3 ; and the reason of it is 
the neediness of the disciples who, owing to that 
need, and in hope of obtaining more employment, 
always diminish their demands, and through deficient 
remuneration always become more needy, more im- 
portunate, and more moderate in desiring remune- 
ration ; and, in the course of the employment of 
resources and requesting the charge of all the 
religious rites, the labour and endurance of disciple- 
ship are exhausted. 

10. And as to him who undertakes to conduct all 
the religious rites twice for 350 dirhams, if he be 
properly working and thoroughly reliable for the 350 
dirhams which are always given him for the cere- 
monial of all the religious rites — just like those who 
would always undertake them once — and all the 
religious rites are conducted and secured twice, on 

1 About 105 rupis. 

1 The name of an early editor of the Dtnkar</, whose selections 
from various religious writings form the fourth and fifth books of 
that extensive work in its present form. He lived after the Muham- 
madan conquest of Persia, and probably in the eighth century of 
the Christian era. 

3 That is, 52^ or 42 rupts. 

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account of the merit due to the continuous cere- 
monial of the sacred beings it is more authorisedly 
ordered of those who solemnize all the religious 
rites twice 1 . 11. But as to him who would under- 
take all the religious rites twice for 350 dirhams, 
but is not able to conduct them unless he puts to 
it some of his own wealth, so that the progress may 
be acceptable to him as they conduct them through 
repetition, he should not undertake them owing to 
the reasons written in another chapter of ours 2 , 
since it tends much more to neediness. 

12. And more like unto the ancient sceptics 
(vimanakS) have become the disciples, among 
whom disagreement and enmity are produced, as 
is written in the same writing (khadu-gun na- 
makS) s ; and, owing to admonishing words, these 
become enviousness and maliciousness unto the disci- 
ples, and trouble and disagreement less becoming 
among you and more contentious about you. 
13. And at the time in which a great stipend 
existed, they contended with him through whose 
greatness and abundance of stipend their conflict 
was caused, one with the other, through envy ; and 
now, too, they aways squabble about his deficient 
stipend, by which they will tempt them, on account 
of its inadequacy, for the sake of a way for preserv- 
ing life, as was shown by my metaphor in the other 
chapter 4 . 14. When those who, through need of 
employment in the rites of religion, or the recitations* 

1 This is also stated in Chap. LXVI, 32. 
4 See Chap. LXVI, 24-26. ' Ibid. 

4 See Chap. LXVI, 28, 29. 

1 It is uncertain whether these are the correct technical meanings 
of kesh and d6r. 

Digitized by 


254 DADISTAN-t d!n}k. 

which are its wisdom, would at once produce enmity, 
and the friends of religion, are for each of two sides, 
it is important to look to the procuring of forgive- 
ness, kind regards, and the progress of the elect 
(pasandakano) in the duty of the faithful. 

Chapter LXXXIX. 

i. As to the eighty-eighth question and reply, 
that which you ask is thus : When a man resolves 
within himself thus : ' In the summer 1 time I will 
go into Pars, and will give so much money for 
the high-priesthood, on account of the fires and 
other matters which are as greatly advantageous,' 
though he himself does not come into Pars, but 
sends the money according to his intention, or in 
excess of it, unto the high-priests — so that he is like 
the great who send in excess of that unto the high- 
priests 2 — that, as the benefit is greater which is 
more maintained, they may provide for the fires 
of every kind and other matters, is then his pro- 
ceeding of sending to Pars, for that purpose, a sin, 
or not ? 

2. The reply is this, that if his coming be in- 
dispensable for the design he would undertake, then 
it is indispensable for him to accomplish his own 
mental undertaking ; but in suffering which is excited 
and not avoidable, when there is really no possibility 

1 Assuming that h&m&n stands for hamind. 
1 M14 omits this phrase. 

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of his travelling himself, any one whom he sends in 
his place, more particularly on that account, is not 
acceptable by the approval of the angels who have 
realized the affliction in his good thought, but the 
good work is to be eagerly well-considered. 3. Good 
gifts, and every office (gas) about good works which 
it is possible to perform, are what are commendable 
in the well-housed man that is not able to work 
himself^; they are avoidable by him when not of 
good race, and are not indispensable for him when- 
ever the good work is not announced. 4. When 
able to manage it himself it is better ; and when 
otherwise, his appointment of a faithful person over 
its preparation, and his accomplishment of the work 
of selector are expedient. 

Chapter XC. 

1. As to the eighty-ninth question and reply, that 
which you ask is thus : Who, and how many are they 
who are without the religion (adln61h) but are 
made immortal, and for what purpose is their im- 
mortality ? 2. Where is the place they, each one, 
possess sovereignty, and in the place where they 
possess sovereignty are there people of the good 
religion of every kind, or how are they ; are there 
sacred fires 2 and appointed worship, or how is 

1 Mi 4 adds, 'he longs for good giving and good consideration; 
important and virtuous is he when able to do it ; ' but the sentence 
is hardly grammatical. 

* Literally ' fires of Varahrdn ' (see Chap. XXXI, 7). 

Digitized by 


256 daxjistAn-} d{n}k. 

it; and for what purpose is each one of their 
sovereignties ? 

3. The reply is this, that the immortal rulers of 
the region of glory, Khvaniras 1 , are said to be 
seven: one is Y6^t6, son of .Fryan 2 ; the A vesta 
name of one is Yakhmayu^a^ 3 , son of the same 
Fryan ; the name of one is Fradhakhrto, son of the 
Khumbiks 4 ; the name of one is Ashavazang, son of 
P6rudakhst6ih s ; one is the tree opposed to harm * ; 

1 The central one of the seven regions of the earth, which is 
supposed to contain all the countries best known to the Iranians, 
and to be as large as the other six regions put together (see Bd. 
XI, 2-6). The name is here corrupted into Khvanaira*. 

* Av.Y6iit6 y6 FryananSm of Abin Yt. 81, Fravanfin Yt 120, 
who had to explain ninety-nine enigmas propounded to him by the 
evil Akhtya. In Paz. this name is corrupted into Gfot-f Frydnd, 
whose explanation of thirty-three enigmas propounded by Akht 
the wizard, and proposal of three enigmas in his turn form the 
subject of a Pahlavi tale published with AV. He is not included 
among the immortals mentioned in Bd. XXIX, 5, 6, and Dk. 
(see § 8, note), but is one of those specified in Byt II, 1. 

' No doubt, the Av. Ashem-yahmai-ufta ('righteousness for 
which be blessing') who precedes Y6irt6 in Fravardin Yt. 120. 
He is the Asam-i Yamahurt of Bd. XXIX, 5, who is said to reside 
in the district of the river Naivtak ; but he is not mentioned in Dk. 
The names Yakhmayu*a</, Fradhakh.rt5, and Ashavazang are written 
in Pazand, which accounts for their irregular spelling. 

* Av. Fradhakhf ti Khuwbya of Fravarrfin Yt. 138. In Dk. 
he is said to be ruler on the Naivtak waters, but in Bd. he is called 
Pamdga ifrembya residing in the plain of P&yansai. 

* Av. Ashavazdang the Pourudhakhjtiyan of Aban Yt 72, 
Fravarrfin Yt. 112. He is the Ashavazd son of Pourudhakhrt in 
Bd., and is said to rule in the plain of P&yansai in Dk. 

* The many-seeded tree, said to grow in the wide-formed ocean, 
and also in Airan-ve^-, on which the Saena bird (simurgh) is sup- 
posed to sit and shake off the seeds, which are then conveyed by 
the bird A'amrdf to the waters gathered by Twtar, who rains them 
down on the earth with the water ; hence the growth of fresh vege- 
tation when the rainy season commences (see RashnuYt. 17, Bd. 
XXVII, 2, XXIX, 5, Mkh. LXII, 37-42}. 

Digitized by 


CHAPTER XC, 3-6. 257 

one is Gdpatshah 1 ; and one is Peshy6tanu 2 , who is 
called after the ATltrav6kS-miyanS 8 . 

4. The reign of Gdpatshah is over the land of 
G6pato 4 , coterminous with Airin-ve^ 6 , on the bank 
(bar) of the water of the Daltlh 6 ; and he keeps 
watch over the ox HadhaysLy 7 , through whom occurs 
the complete perfection of primitive man 8 . 5. The 
reign of Peshydtanu is in Kangde?*, and he resides 
in the illustrious Kangdez which the noble Slya- 
vash 10 formed through his glory, he who is called 
the erratic youth 11 of the illustrious Kayanians. 
6. And through his powerful spirit arose increase 
of cultivation and the ruler Kai-Khusr61 12 among 
the highest of the mountains in the countries of 

I Either a tide or son of AghrSnuf, brother of Frdsty&f of Tur 
(see Bd. XXIX, 5, XXXI, 30-22). He is a righteous minotaur 
according to Mkh. LXII, 31-36. 

* Here written PatshSydtanu, but he is the Peshydtanu of Chap. 
XXXVII, 36. 

* The A'atru-mlyan river in Kangdez (see Bd. XX, 31). 

4 Which is a non-Aryan country according to Dk., but Bd. 
(XXIX, 5) calls it ' the land of the Saukavastan,' and Mkh. (XLIV, 
2 4~35» LXII, 31) places G6patshah in Afr&n-ve^. 

* See Chap. XXI, 2. 

' Av. Daitya, a river which flows out of AtrSn-ve£ (see Bd. 
XX, 13). 

7 See Chap. XXXVII, 99. 

* Referring either to the complete peopling of the earth by emi- • 
gration on the back of this ox in ancient times, or to the immor- 
tality produced at the resurrection by tasting an elixir, of which 
the fat of this ox is one of the ingredients. 

* A settlement east of Persia formed, or fortified, by Siy&vash 
(see Bd. XXIX 10, Byt III, 25). 

10 See Chap. XXXVII, 36. 

II Or kang-f raftar may mean 'jaunty youth;' but it is evi- 
dently an attempt to account for the name Kangdez as ' the fortress 
ofthekang ("youth").' 

a The son of Siyavash (see Chap. XXXVI, 3, Bd. XXXI, 25). 
[18] S 

Digitized by 


258 DArlSTAN-t DtNfK. 

Iran and Turin; the purity of the sacred fire 1 of 
great glory and the recital of the liturgy exist there, 
and the practice of religious rites (din 6) is provided. 
7. The custom, also, of him (Peshydtanu) and his 
companions and coadjutors (ham-bar), in the ap- 
pointed millenniums, is the great advancement of 
religion and good works in other quarters likewise 2 . 
8. But, secondly, as to the whereabouts of the 
places which are theirs — just like his — of which 
there is no disquisition by me, this also is even 
owing to my not remembering 8 . 

1 Literally ' fire of Varahrin.' 

2 He is expected to be summoned by the angels to restore the 
religious rites to the world, after the conflict of the nations in 
a future age (see Byt. Ill, 25-42). 

8 In the detailed account of the contents of the Surfkar (or 
Studgar) Nask, given in the ninth book of the Dlnkarrf, the latter 
part of its fifteenth fargan/ is said to have been ' on the seven 
immortal rulers who are produced in the region of Khvaniras, and 
also about the determination of their glory, and the goodness, too, 
of their assistants and living sovereignty in both worlds. The 
tree opposed to harm is on Afrin-ve^ in the place of most exca- 
vations (fr£h-nig&n£n ?). Gok-pato is in the non-Aryan countries. 
Peshydtanu son of Vutisp is in Kangdes of the hundred-ribbed 
shape (sa</-dandak8 kerpih?), in which a myriad of the exalted, 
who wear black marten/«r(mun styah samur yakhsenund), arc 
righteous listeners out of the retinue of Peshydtanu son of Vwtitsp. 
FriVakhf to son of the mortal Khumbfks, who is sovereign on the 
water of N&ivtik. Ashavazd son of P6r<Wakhjto, who is sovereign 
over the most manifest among uplands, the plain of Pkrin&s. 
Barazd the causer of strife. And of the father-in-law's race 
(khaxt-t6magag?) of the famous Vlrtisp is he who is called 
Kai-Khusrdt, who produces even an advance of thy religion of the 
Mae A- worshippers, and siso understands about it; and who gives 
my good practices further blessings, so that the world maintains my 
doings with benedictions. Perfect is the excellence of righteousness.' 

In this list of the immortal rulers of ancient times, the names of 
Barazd and Kai-Khusroi are substituted for those of Ydrtd and 

Digitized by 


CHAPTER XC, 7-XCI, 4. 259 

Chapter XCI. 

1. As to the ninetieth question and reply, that 
which you ask is thus : From what is the sky made, 
and with what is it prepared ? 

2. The reply is this, that the sky is a dome 
(gar^un), wide and lofty ; its inside and whole 
width and boundaries (akhyaklha), besides its 
material existence, are the stone of light, of all 
stones the hardest 1 and most beautiful ; and the 
grandeur of its spirit and even its internal bow * are 
like those of mighty warriors arrayed. 3. And that 
material of the sky reached unto the place where 
promise-breaking words exist s , and was without 
need of preparation ; as it is said of places such as 
those — where wisdom is a witness about them — that 
that which is not even itself a place, and its place does 
not yet exist, is without need of any preparing 4 . 

4. The light is for existing things, and they 
cherish a faculty (nlyulh) of motion also of two 

YakhmayuW in our text. Barizd is the Ibairaz of Bd. XXIX, 6, 
and, possibly, the Av. Berezyarxti of Fravarrfin Yt. 101. 

1 The same notion as that indicated in Genesis by the word 
' firmament' 

* The rainbow. 

* Probably meaning that the sky extends downwards, below the 
horizon, as far as the second grade of hell, that for ' evil words,' 
Dftj-hukht (see Sis. VI, 3, note). 

4 The word dtvak,' place' (zivak in the Sasanian inscription 
of Naqj-i Rustam, but traditionally pronounced ^inak), seems to 
be here taken in the etymological sense of zi vak, that is, ' a living- 
place.' The text refers to the period, in the beginning, when the 
sky was indefinite space unprepared for the residence of creatures 
and merely a region of light (see Bd. I, 2), the light mentioned in 
§ 4. Its preparation is referred to in §§ 8, 9. 

S 2 

Digitized by 


260 dAdISTAN-1 DtNtK. 

kinds, that causing motion and that of movables 1 ; 
as mobility is mentioned about thought 2 and immo- 
bility about material things. 5. Immovables are 
not moved, while movables are moved by their 
power of movement; and those movables, that 
way causing motion, are afterwards themselves a 
moving secret cause of motion, and then a cause of 
motion is not moving the movable, since it is not 
incapable of causing motion secretly by movement 
of itself. 6. Just as the force (kuni-rno) of a move- 
ment exists and does not become a force ; only then 
it is declared by wisdom, that the causers of motion 
have been the causing of motion by force before 
movement, and, being unmoved, they are subse- 
quently made to move by the force ; later on, the 
causers of motion have to cause motion, by their 
power of causing motion, in the non-causers of 
motion, from which it is certain though the force of 
a movement exists it does not become a force ; but, 
finally, that which is prepared with a source of acti- 
vity 3 , before force, becomes unmoved 

7. Natures without need of the trouble of a pre- 
parer are distinguished from such ; where movement 
occurs through every force, the championship of a 
position (gah) not made to move — except, indeed, 
of that whose force, when it is unmoved by other 
force, is its own — is unmoving and thirstless 4 . 8. // 

1 Mi 4 has 'movables and immovables' instead of this clause. 

* Perhaps we should read 'the spirits,' by inserting an addi- 
tional medial stroke in the Pahlavi word. 

* Reading tukhshinikiha, instead of the unintelligible tukh- 
shtikthS. The author has so nearly lost sight of his argument 
in the mazes of his verbiage that there is some uncertainty about 
the translation of this paragraph. 

4 That is, the guardians of a place exposed to all attacks (as 

Digitized by 


CHAPTER XCI, 5-10. 26l 

was restored immovably when there was an approach 
to the sky of that actual contender for the place, the 
fiend, and the sky was shaken by him ; for connected 
with the sky were arranged so many possessors of 
all resources, dignified (afranklrf) by their own all- 
powerful position and that well-operating, mighty, 
undrawn bow \ righteous and well-discoursing (h u- 
fravakhsh), and many good spirits, gloriously co- 
operating for the preparation of the sky. 9. For 
that which was not even itself a place 2 , when it is 
thus henceforth really a place, is in want of pre- 
paring; and, in the preparation of that visible 3 
place, with the material of the sky is mingled that 
triumphing, powerful spirit who made its existence 
a seeking for principle and seeking for intention, 
drawing up from below and drawing down from 
above, so that through that seeking for principle it 
becomes a concord, the resting-place of united cham- 
pions, and unadmonishable through that power of 
seeking for intention ; such as this it is if, indeed, 
it be the will of him, the creator of all goodness. 

10. And it is said summarily that the sky was 
shaken in the period of disturbance and restored 
with trouble ; and, if the guardian spirits are in 
freedom from disturbance through the glory of the 
creator, when there is not even a place for it pre- 
pared by themselves 4 , and their nature and own 

the sky is supposed to be), unless it is a stronghold in itself, must 
be always on the alert. 

1 The rainbow; reading at an^ darun. 

* That is, ' a living-place' (see § 3 n). 

* Reading df do, 'seen ;' but it may be std for stf, ' material.' 

4 That is, while the sky was still indefinite space, the region of 
light, but no dwelling-place; although the guardian spirits had 

Digitized by 


262 DAfllSTAN-i DiNlK. 

strength are approving the trouble of preparation, it 
is not moved \ except by the creatures of his will, 
a will which is subduing. 

Chapter XCII. 

i. As to the ninety-first question and reply, that 
which you ask is thus : Of waters and rivers, and 
whatever water is good, is Arekdvisur 2 the greatest 
(mas), or some other water or good river; and, 
again, where is the place of Arekdvisur ? 

2. The reply is this, that it is the water of Arek- 
dvisur ; and what has gushed from Arekdvisur is as 
large a mass as all the water in the world s except 
the Arvand 4 ; within the wide-formed ocean 6 it is 
dominant over the thousand cascades (pashan) and 
thousand lakes 8 of the waters, and its place is most 
renowned throughout the spheres. 3. There flows 
the water of Arekdvisur in a forest, the source of 
all seeds, whereby the species which plants possess 
are assimilated (aeVunagid?6) by it, and healing 
existences of all kinds are mingled with it from 
medicinal plants. 4. The abundant power of the 

been created as representatives of the creatures, both spiritual and 
material, which were to be afterwards produced (see Bd. I, 8). 

1 That is, when afterwards prepared as a dwelling-place the sky 
remains unmoved by evil beings. 

* See Chap. XXXVII, 118. ^ 

* Compare Yas. LXIV, 12, Abdn Yt 3. 

4 A name of the river Tigris (see Zs. VI, 20). 
" As this ocean is supposed to encircle the world, the whole 
earth is within it. 

* Compare Yas. LXIV, 17, Abin Yt. 4, 101. 

Digitized by 


CHAPTER XCII, 1-6. 263 

coming of healing to the purifying water is like 
the nature of the existences which it acquires, and 
then the nature which it thus acquires for its own 
the water draws up by the power which is drawing 
water to itself. 

5. The water of Arekdvisur is on Alburn \ and 
flows even to the summit of the star station during 
the coming of the healing of purification, even unto 
Hukhir the lofty 2 , all-gorgeous and brilliant; thence 
its flowing is effected s into the lake of a summit to 
Alburn, Mount Aus.hin^um 4 , which is in the middle 
of the wide-formed ocean. 6. And from that flowing 
of waters that destined river, the utter destruction of 
every night, comes on in the light of a dawn ; by 
the sprinkling of spray (pash-pashanS) it extends 
through the seven regions of the earth, and from it 
arise the growth of their plants and the coming of 
the healing of purification ; that which is called a 
drop (sri^k) of the primeval creatures being a particle 
(aham) of water of the bulk of a horse 6 . 

1 The chain of mountains supposed to surround the world and 
reach to heaven (see Chap. XX, 3, Bd. XII, 1, 3) ; owing to its 
height any water from its summit must flow downwards to reach 
the lowermost grade of heaven, called the star station. 

2 Av. Hukairya berezd, the H%ar of Bd. XII, 5, XXIV, 17, 
probably a western summit of the mythic Alburz. 

5 M14 and J have nikunl-aitS, 'is precipitated,' instead of 

4 The Av. us Hindvarf.'up the Hindva,' of Tfctar Yt. 32, a 
mountain summit where the clouds gather; it is the Ausindom 
mountain of Bd. XII, 6, XIII, 5, said to be of the ruby material of 
the sky. In Bd. XIII, 4 the lake is said to be on the summit 
of Hugar. 

Referring to the term aspd-kehrpa applied to waters in 
Haftan Yt 13, Tfrtar Yt. 8, 46. 

Digitized by 


264 DAJ5ISTAN-1 D!NtK. 

Chapter XCIII. 

1. As to the ninety-second question and reply, 
that which you ask is thus : From what place should 
Tirtar * seize the water ? How does it pass into a 
cloud, and how does he make the cloud move on ? 
How does it rain upon the world ? How can he 
carry on a struggle with demons, and with which 
demon can he carry it on ? How does this always 
happen with the hail and snow, whenever hail and 
snow occur ? And who can force away that hail 
and snow ? 

2. The reply is this, that the high-priests have 
thus said, that Tl.rtar seizes a place which is called 
' abysmal' (virunak) 2 , that is the last place of filtra- 
tion in the ocean, and there are no removal of any 
kind and causing rain from any other place. 3. And 
the cause of its (the rain's) establishment is spirit- 
ually active, more particularly, however, through 
two kinds of material agency : one is that which is 
the rule (mang) in the atmosphere of the earth, 
whereby it is drawn up in atoms similarly to smoke, 
and in larger masses, well-soaring from the rivers ; 
and one is that which blows with the power of the 
well-operating wind, and the blowing of the great 
united breath (ham-va£) and strength of the com- 

1 The angel who is supposed to produce rain, being a personifi- 
cation of the star Tirtar or Sirius. His production of rain and 
conflict with the demons of drought and thunder are detailed in 
Bd.VII,i-i 3 . 

1 Assuming that the word is meant as a translation of Av. 
vairya, a term which is applied to the depths or depressed basins 
of the ocean in Yas. LXIV, 17, 1 8, Aban Yt. 101, Zamyid Yt 51. 

Digitized by 



munity (^andlganoih) of spirits 1 , from the fully 
perfect distillation (pur-hu-zuhlg!h) of the mighty 
ocean to the upper regions, and thereby the clouds 
are blown. 

4. Afterwards, it (the rain) speeds in the cloud, 
through the great strength of the mighty wind, to 
where there is a necessity for it, to divert it from 
where there is no necessity ; and so long as there is a 
necessity for it it (the cloud) discharges. 5. And 
when there is a necessity and it causes rain, and the 
necessity is for no more acquisitions of water, and 
the advantage is the effect of water upon the place, 
and it distributes it to the existing rivers for the use 
of the sea, and it causes rain again, it thereby pro- 
duces even new water, new flowing, new coming of 
healing to plants, new growth, new golden colouring 
to lands, new purification to animals, new procre- 
ation, new proper breathings for other creatures, 
new dawn, and new things of that description. 
6. The thriving of the world makes the advantage 
and perfection of the good creation increase ; and, 
apart from a great craving for the effect of the glory 
of the spirits in the operations of cultivation and the 
performance of spiritual mysteries, it is said labours 
are aided even for one gloriously destined. 

7. And Tlrtar in seizing the water should seize 
upon the great strength of the wind of whirlwinds 
(garaftnakan), which is figuratively (minisnik) the 
dragging and blowing that follow the whirling ; and 
the purified water is expanded and carried up aloft 
to the higher regions of the atmosphere, just as that 

1 Altering minijnd, 'thought,' into 'spirits' by inserting an 
extra medial stroke, as in M14 and J. 

Digitized by 


266 dawstAn-! d5n}k. 

which is seen where it reaches up with the heavi- 
ness and weight of earth, and then is discerned in 
the plain 1 accompanied by the dragging of the 
whirling wind which would carry it afar to settle 
like that which is owing to dust ; it (the atmosphere) 
is called Andarvae ('the intermediate air'), and the 
wind is a whirlwind. 8. As the water is lighter, and 
owing to the more strongly dragging wind on the 
ocean than that which exists on the plain, so, also, 
the water from the ocean is much more in proportion, 
and transportable farther up than the dust 2 from the 
plain. 9. And as in the midst of a plain a medium 
whirlwind of wind is expanded into the wide plain 
by a medium dragging of the wind, and plenty of 
much buffeting is the violence of the dragging of 
winds, a whirlwind of wind which is seen very lofty 
and large is unknown ; so, also, one is ignorant of 
what is spreading among the movements of the sea. 
10. The water of that full and abundant flowing — 
which is through the power and glory of the heavenly 
angels and Tatar's control of the work — is blown 
up, both by the well-characterised water-drawing 
power, and also by the force of various kinds, the 
dragging, and upward blowing of the winds, into the 
atmosphere ; and thence it rains the complete rain, 
as they have recounted from observation and much 
full evidence. 

1 1. The demon who resists the doings of Ttotar — 
and the glorious TLrtar, meeting him, properly 
drives back such improper resistance of his — is 

1 Referring to the frequent small whirlwinds, sweeping up the 
dust, which accompany every complete change of wind in dry 

* K35 omits the first two letters of afrS, 'dust,' by mistake. 

Digitized by 



a demon of the name of Apa6sh \ which is inter- 
preted as 'the destruction of water' (ap-ads'h). 
12. He contends, moreover, with the uppermost 
and lowermost water ; and desirous of its destruction 
that demon contends at three periods : first, for the 
non-existence of rain; secondly, for converting it 
into a cause of damage to a place ; and thirdly, at 
the place of producing it with advantage ; and the 
struggling is like a tree (van6) which is set moving. 
1 3. The seizers of the feminine 2 pure water are 
a benefit for the existences of the whole world ; and 
the formation of rain, and the triumph and ascen- 
dancy of Ttrtar over the demon, through that 
seizing (falanih) of water, are due to the creator 
who strengthens him 3 , the archangels who have 
him assisted 4 , the religious who reverence him, 
and the worldly beings who glorify him. 14. Very 
properly do the archangels propitiate him, and man- 
kind promote the strength and power, which are 
engaged about the business, by glorifying and in- 
voking the good spirit who increases them in conse- 
quence of glorifying and worship, and through which 

1 Av. Apaosha, the demon of drought, who, in the form of a 
black horse, is said in the Tlrtar Yart to fight with Ttrtar in the 
ocean. Here his name is written Apihdsh, but see Bd.VII, 8-12. 

* Reading mdrfagik. According to Bd. XVI, 6 the sky, metal, 
wind, and fire are always male, while water, earth, plants, and fish 
are always female, and all other creations are of both sexes. Water 
and earth are also personified as female angels. 

* In his first encounter with Apadsh, Ttrtar is vanquished, and 
attributes his defeat to his not being invoked by name in the cere- 
monies, whereupon Auharma&f invokes him by name so as to give 
him enormous strength, when he returns to the conflict and con- 
quers the demon (see Ttrtar Yt 20-28, Bd.VII, 8-10). 

4 Reading aiyyarinSnd, as in Mi 4 and J; in K35 it is written 
like SySnd rtvfind, ' they come and liberate.' 

Digitized by 


268 dAdistan-1 d!n!k. 

arises that advantageousness 1 of his — which owing 
to that benefit is the benefit of every one else — for 
this advantageous business. 

15. And Tfatar shall gradually (parfmanlklha) 
seize upon the water to distribute it liberally, assidu- 
ously a similitude of that which a learned ruler said, 
in extolling a wise high-priest, that, 'just as the 
wind draws the up-flying water from rivers and 
springs and from seas, Tfrtar, through his own 
liberality, bestows the prepared apportionments of 
the whole production for the advantage of the 
creatures by the will of the sacred beings, and makes 
it rain. 16. And through that which he shall pur- 
posely seize to distribute suitably he distributes the 
water purified, he moistens the pleasant existences 
of animals and plants and spares 2 the polluted, he 
provides for the thirsty 3 , he causes harm to the 
dye-like bloody one, and he makes the world thrive. 
17. When that wide-spread liberality of his, the 
production of rain, is from the pure, healing water 
which he shall thus seize gradually and with just 
apportionment, and when through that acquiring of 
water-seizings the rivers, springs, another existences 
(shavandaganS) are well-expanding, and even the 
diminution which is owing to the wasting (airikh- 
tagth) of rivers and springs does not occur thereby, 
it is thus, too, the lordly, by a law (dadfo) moderate 
and varied — if the regulation (gun) is to reach away 
from the region — are as much contributing, as 

1 Reading surfakth instead of 1 yurfakih, 'which is unity.' 
M14 has nadukf h, ' benefit' 
9 Or 'forgives' (bakhshSrfS). 
' M14 and J have 'he causes the thirsty to drink.' 

Digitized by 



Tfrtar is by causing rain for the region and the 
good, to the aggrandizement of the many grades 1 
and the replenishment of the region and creatures 2 . ' 

Chapter XCIV. 

1. And 3 those of the primitive faith, the ancients 
of those acquainted with the religion 4 , thus con- 
sidered, that in the spirit of life (ahv6) 6 there is 

* Or ' to the great aggrandizement of the grades.' 

* Reading dam, as in M14 and J, instead of gadman, ' glory.' 
The chapter appears to break off here, without any reference to 
the queries about hail and snow ; but it is uncertain if any portion 
of the work be here omitted (owing to loss of folios in some older 
MS.) because the author does not always reply to all clauses of the 
questions, as may be noticed in Chap. XXXVII. One reason, 
however, for supposing that some of the text is here lost is the 
allusion, in Chaps. XVII, 20, XVIII, 2, to a chapter no longer 
extant in Dd. 

* The first eleven sections of this chapter are quoted from the 
beginning of the sixth book of the Dtnkar</, which commences as 
follows : — ' The propitiation of the creator Auharmaaf is even in 
the benedictions of the religion of Ma«da-worship; this, too, was 
the settled decision of those of the primitive faith. The sixth book 
is on a compendium (vasang) which was prepared by those of the 
primitive faith to maintain about the sayings of the religion of 
Ma#/a- worship ;' and then proceeds as in our text, with the varia- 
tions and additional matter mentioned in the foot-notes. It is 
hardly probable that these quotations were intended as a conclusion 
to any reply, the beginning of which may be lost, as they refer to a 
variety of subjects ; but they may have been selected by the author 
as authoritative opinions sufficiently comprehensive for his general 
peroration. At any rate they show that-the Dinkzrd must have 
been in existence in its present form before the D&fistan-t Dtnik 
was written. All the MSS. have this peroration written con- 
tinuously with the preceding chapter, without stop or break of any 
kind to indicate a change of subject. 

4 Dk. has ' the ancients of the wise.' 6 Dk. adds ' of men.' 

Digitized by 


27O DABISTAN-f d!n!k. 

a thought and one appointed who 1 holds the posi- 
tion (gas), and there is a fiend who stops 2 the way; 
and in the thought there is a word appointed which 
holds the position, and there is a fiend who stops 
the way 3 . 2. In the spirit of life* is a thought and 
Spendarma^ 5 ('bountiful devotion') holds the posi- 
tion, and the fiend Tar6mat* (' scornful thought') stops 
the way ; in the thought is a word and Ard 7 (' the 
righteous ') holds the position, and Varend 8 (' lust ') 
stops the way; in the word is a deed and Dlnd' ('re- 
ligion'), the good, holds the position, and self-conceit 

1 Dk. has ' which is appointed and,' &c. 

* Literally « holds.' 

' It is evident from the context that something is omitted here, 
and Dk. supplies the following: — 'and in the word there is a 
deed/or the appointed position, and there is a fiend who stops the 
way. And in the spirit of life is a heart (vai6m) and Vohuman 
("good thought ") holds the position, and Ak6man6 ("evil thought ") 
stops the way; and in the heart is a will and Srosh ("attention") 
holds the position, and Aeshm (" wrath ") stops the way.' It seems 
probable that the author did not mean to quote the latter sentence 
of this passage. 

4 Dk. has ' and in the will' 

* The female archangel, who is a personification of Av. spenta 
armaiti, and has special charge of the earth and virtuous women 
(see Bd. I, 26, Sis. XV, 20-24). 

* Here written Tardkmatd (A v. tar6maiti); he is the arch- 
demon of disobedience, also called Naunghas (see Bd. XXVIII, 14, 
XXX, 29). 

7 Av. areta, a title of the female angel Arshuang or Ashuang 
(Av. ash ix vanguhi, 'good rectitude'), whose name is given to the 
25th day of the Parsi month (see Bd. XXII, 4, XXVII, 24, Sis. 
XXII, 25, XXIII, 4). 

8 Av. varcna, 'desire,' personified as a demon (see Bd. 
XXVIII, 25). 

* Av. daSna personified as an angel whose name is given to 
the tenth month and 24th day of the month of the Parsi year, and 
is also coupled with the names of other angels to form appellations 

Digitized by 


CHAPTER XCIV, 2-5. 271 

(khu^-d6shagth) stops the way. 3. We men of all 
descriptions 1 have to become very* cautious that, 
while we do not desist from that way 8 , we do not 
go on to the way of the demons and fiends 4 . 
4. For the struggling of men 5 is in these three 6 
ways and paths ; and whoever is saved in these 
three* ways and paths is saved from every place, 
and whoever is misled there comes into the hands 
of the demons and fiends 7 , and is thenceforth not 
master (xalita) of himself, except when he shall 
do that which the fiends order him 8 . 

5. And this, too, was thus considered by them, 
that that nature only is good when it' shall not 
do unto another whatever is not good for its own 
self 10 ; and that wisdom only is good when it 
thoroughly 11 understands how to utilize the advan- 
tage 12 of that happiness which has occurred, and 
shall 1S not suffer vexation on account of harm which 
has not occurred ; and that intellect only is good which 

for the 8th, 15th, and 23rd days (see Bd. XXV, 3, ri, 20, Sis. 
XXII, 8, 15, 23, 24, XXIII, 4). Dk. omits the epithet ' good.' 

1 Dk. omits the words ' of all descriptions ; ' it also places § 3 
after § 4. 

* Dk. omits 'very.' ' Dk. has ' from the way of the angels.' 

* Dk. has ' go after the fiends.' 

* Dk. has ' and the struggling of the fiend with men/ and places 
this section after § 2. 

* Dk. has ' such ' instead of ' three ' in both places. 
7 Dk. has ' comes then to the hands of the fiends.' 

* Dk. then proceeds with § 3, ' and we men have to become 
cautious,' &c. 

* Dk. has ' which,' instead of ' when it/ both here and in the 
next clause. 

10 Dk. has ' for itself.' u Dk. omits ' thoroughly.' 

M Literally *to eat the fruit,' w Dk. has 'does.' 

Digitized by 


272 dadistAn-1 dInIx. 

understands that it does not understand that which 
it does not understand. 

6. And this, too, was thus considered by them, 
that one is to become 1 a friend of every one, and 
this is thy nature 2 ; also, bring them on into 3 
goodness, and this is thy wisdom; also, consider 
them as thine own, and this is thy religion ; also, 
through them it shall produce * happiness, and this 
is thy soul 5 . 

7. And this, too, was thus considered by them, 
that, when s one shall do even that which he knows 
to be sin 7 , that is disobedience, and disobedience 
is the nature of the adversary ; when ffne shall not 
do even that which he knows to be a good work, 
that is cupidity (varendikih), and cupidity is the 
wisdom of the adversary 8 ; «»</ when one shall do* 
even that which he does not know to be a good 
work or a sin, until it comes fully to 10 his knowledge, 

1 Dk. has ' it is the becoming.' * Dk. has 'wisdom.' 

8 Or ' through.' Dk. omits this clause, substituting * and this, too, 
was thus considered by them.' 

4 Dk. has ' do thou produce.' 

8 Dk. continues as follows : — ' And this, too, was thus considered 
by them, that nature is that which deceives no one, wisdom is that 
which does not deceive itself, and religion is that which is whatever 
knows where one should perform good works.' 

' Reading amat, instead of mun, 'which,' in all three clauses 
(see Chap. LXII, 4 n) ; Dk. omits the word altogether. 

7 Dk. has ' shall not do even that which he knows to be a good 
work,' as in the second clause which it omits. 

8 This clause is omitted by Mi 4, J, BK, and the oldest MS. of 
Dk. ; later MSS. of Dk. give it as follows : ' should they do even 
that they know to be a sin, that is lustful (varendtk), and lustful 
is the wisdom of the adversary.' 

* Dk. has ' does.' 
10 Dk. has ' before it comes unto.' 

Digitized by 


CHAPTER XCIV, 6-8. 273 

that is self-conceit, and self-conceit is the religion of 
the adversary 1 . 

8. And this, too, was thus considered by them, 
that Aharman 2 would do everything for the injury 
of Auharniae^, but when it is done by him 8 it is 
then an injury of him himself, and an advantage of 
Auharmasdf; and Auha^mas^ would do everything 
for his own advantage, and when it is done by him 
it is then, indeed *, an advantage of him himself, but 
an injury of Aharman '. 

1 In Dk. the following is here inserted: — 'And this, too, was 
thus considered by them, that in one's nature there is no wisdom, 
but in wisdom there is nature, and in religion are both wisdom and 
nature. It is known how to manage the affairs of the spirit by the 
nature, they are preserved by wisdom, and the soul is preserved by 
a union of both. And this, too, was thus considered by them, that 
shame is that which should not allow one to commit sin, and dis- 
grace is that it would not allow to cause. And this, too, was thus 
considered by them, that the essential thing of the primitive faith is 
freedom from sin. And this, too, was thus considered by them, 
that one becomes diligent about that with which he is conversant. 
And this, too, was thus considered by them, that the good thoughts 
that are in the records of the religion of every kind one should 
always put fully into practice, so far as he understands them. And 
this, too, was thus considered by them, that Auharmasa/, the lord, 
produced these creatures through his nature, maintains them through 
wisdom, and forces them back to himself through religion.' 

* The evil spirit (see Chaps. II, 1 r, XIX, 1). 

' Or ' when he has done it,' which would be expressed by the 
same words. 
4 Dk. omits ' indeed.' 

• In Dk. the following is here inserted : — ' And this, too, was 
thus considered by them, that people are to keep an eye most 
diligently on the worldyiv these three things : that which is realis- 
able by a sinner through sin, a follower made famous, and to beg 
the recompense of good works from the spirits : and keeping their 
eye on the world is said to be this, that it is he who observes himself, 
so that a part of whatever he really desires he should always per- 
form. And this, too, was thus considered by them, that three 

[18] T 

Digitized by 


274 DJblSTAN-t DlNilC. 

9. And this, too, was thus considered by them, 
that a person of whatever description is to be kept ' 
in remembrance of the affairs of the spirit at every 
period and time, and of the happiness of heaven and 
misery of hell at that period when comfort, happi- 
ness, and pleasure have come to him, 

10. And this, too, was thus considered by them *, 
that happiness, indeed, would be there, in the 
heaven of light 8 , when even here it is so happy, 
though, owing to many things*, Aharman — with 
whom the happiness there is not connected — is 
even here so happy at the time when distress, 
vexation, and misery have come hereto ; and this, 
too, was thus considered, that evils, indeed, would 
be there, in hell, when here is such misery, though 
even here much of the earthly happiness of Auhar- 

things which are very difficult to do are even such as these : one is 
not to render the sinfulness famous by the sin ; one is not to exalt 
the opinions of the fiend, and the various sovereignties of the evil 
one, for the sake of wealth ; and one is to beg the recompense of 
good works from the spirits, and not from the world.' 
1 Dk. has merely ' keeps.' 

* Dk. has ' this, too, is to be considered,' as a continuation of the 
preceding section. 

* Dk. omits 'of light.' 

4 The oldest MS. of Dk. has ' though some of the much happiness 
of Auharmaa/,' &c, as in the latter part of the section, omitting the 
passage referring to Aharman and hell ; later MSS., however, insert 
a modified version of the omitted passage, and read as follows : 
* When even here it is so happy at the period when it should be 
distressing and the mischievous vexation, of much pain has come; 
this, too, is to be considered, that misery, indeed, is the calamity 
(afato) there, in bell, when even here it is so, though some of the 
much happiness of Auharmaz</,' &c, as before. This interpolation 
in Dk. is evidently modern (as the word afatd is Arabic and not 
Pahlavi), and was probably composed by a copyist in India who 
was acquainted with the text of Dk. 

Digitized by 


CHAPTER XCIV, 9-1 3« 875 

mazd — with whom the misery there is not con- 
nected-- is here so evil. 

11. And this, too, was thus considered by them, 
that that person is the more fortunate 1 , in whom 
are soundness of body, happiness, and energy 
(raylni$n&) 2 ; who has done those things about 
which the last wish of him who departs from the 
world is then thus : ' I will strive to do more ;' and 
who shall have exercised much complete abstinence 
from those things about which his last wish, when 
he departs from the world, is then such as ' I will 
strive to do less, and it would have occurred more 
comfortably for my soul *.' 

12. Do you good people of those of the good 
religion of these countries of Iran keep in use the 
laws appointed by those of the primitive faith who 
were high-priests, so that your bodies may become 
more renowned, and your souls more perfect, in 
the radiant supreme heaven which 4 is the seat of 
Auharmas^ and the archangels, of the angels and 
all the guardian spirits of the righteous. 13. So these 
are so many answers of the questions provided, and 
are given explanatorily from the exposition of the 
religion and the statements of the high-priests of 

1 Dk. has ' that a person is most fortunate in that.' 

• Mi 4 and J have 'are the appearance of health of body and 
pleasure;' Dk. has ' is the appearance of perfection.' 

' Dk. concludes as follows : ' who has done those things which 
are done, about which on his last day — when the things of the 
world depart— his wish is then thus, that ' more endeavour should 
be made by me ;' and has exercised much abstinence from those 
things about which his last day's wish is this, that the endeavour made 
should not be made.' ' The quotations from Dk. end at this point. 

* Reading mun, as in M14 and J, instead of ama.t, ' when,' (see 

T 2 

Digitized by 


276 dAdistAn-! DtNhc. 

those of the primitive faith, and are the nature of 
the teachings that Manu-sv£ihar, son of Yudan-Yim \ 
pontiff (radd) of Pars and Rinnan*, and director 
(farmi^ar) 8 of the profession of priests, ordered to 

14. Steadfast in the propitiation and praise of the 
creator Atiharmazd is the righteousness of obtain- 
ments of prayers, perfect is Zaratu.rt, and one only 
is the way * which righteousness obtains, the others 
are no ways ; homage to the exalted pontiff sent from 
the creator Auharmas^, the heavenly, most righteous 
Zarattot the Spitaman. 

15. Completed in peace and pleasure, joy and 
delight ; happy for him who reads, and happier for 
him who keeps it in use and shall take his duty 
therefrom 5 , if they exist unto time eternal. 

1 See p. 3, note 2. 

* The two southern provinces of Persia, bordering on the 
Persian Gulf. 

* This title seems to be always spelt in Pahlavi with & in the middle 
syllable, so that the form framamiar in Noldeke's Geschichte 
der Perser und Araber zur Zeit der Sasaniden, p. 9, must be looked 
upon as an Arabic corruption, and the idea that it means ' a pre- 
ceder or one who has precedence' can hardly be maintained. 
It probably stands for far mat </ar, 'a director or commander,' not 
in a military sense. It occurs also in Bd. XXXIII, 2, where the 
title ' great farma</ar ' is evidently equivalent to ' prime minister, 
or grand vaztr,' but applied to a priest, as farma</ar is here and 
in Chap. XLV, 5. 

* Reading ras, as in Mi 4, instead of ra, which is merely an 
imperfect word. This clause of the sentence is a slight modifica- 
tion of a well-known quotation (said to be taken from the lost part 
of the Ha^dkht Nask) which is often used in perorations. 

* Or ' who keeps to duty and shall do his duty thereby.' 

Digitized by 



* _ A. 



A. D. 88 1. 

Digitized by VjOOQlC 


i. For all divisions into chapters and sections the translator is 
responsible, as the manuscripts are written continuously, with very 
few stops marked, and even those are often misplaced. 

2-6. (The same as on page 2.) 

7. The manuscripts mentioned are: — 

BK, an old imperfect copy of K35 written in Kirman, but now 
in Bombay. 

J (about 60 years old), belonging to Dastur Jam&spji Minochi- 
harji in Bombay. 

K35 (probably written a. d. 1572), No. 35 in the University 
Library at Kopenhagen ; upon the text of which this translation 
is based. 

Mio (about 150 years old), a Persian Rivayat, No. 10 of the 
Haug Collection in the State Library at Munich. 

Digitized by 





Through the name and assistance of the creator 
Auharmasdf and the whole of the sacred beings, 
all the angels of the spiritual and the angels of the 
worldly existences. 

A copy of the epistle of the priest Manux&har ', 
son of Yudan-Yim, which was composed by him for 
the good people of Slrkan J , on the contents of the 
precepts (vi^lr-karafo) which the priest Za/£ 
sparam s , son of Yudan-Yim, prepared. 

Chapter I. 

i. In the name of the sacred beings, who sent 
you a soul with long life, with provision for proper 
progress, and with the protection of increase of 
righteousness and wisdom, may such works and 

1 The high-priest of Pars and Kirman (see the heading to Dd., 


3 Written Sirkan once, Sirkan6 twice, and Strgano four times, 
in these epistles. It was a town of considerable importance in 
former times (see Onsele/s Oriental Geography, pp. 138-145), 
about thirty parasangs south of Kirmin. 

* He was high-priest of Slrkan and brother of MandrMtr (as 
expressly stated In the heading to Ep. II), both being sons of the 
same father. 

Digitized by 



mysterious dignity, encompassed with 1 happiness, 
now possess increasing prosperity and a complete 
share of pre-eminent welfare and great exaltation in 
both worlds. 

2. The epistle 2 which was wisely, properly, and 
with religious demeanour ordered by you, and sent 
by a courier (pa Ik 6), has come, and has enveloped 
and assailed (^astS) me, indeed, with appalling 
intelligence on other subjects ; and if even a por- 
tion 3 of the vast importance and great value, as 
regards your heavenly concerns, arrangements, and 
natural and unpremeditated (avartk) prodigies*, 
which are for my knowledge, for the sake of 
courteous (druaflk) information, be owing to in- 
telligence for which the courteousness and proper 
courageousness are among you, special pleasure is 
received therewith. 3. And praise is, thereupon, 
recited by me to the sacred beings, as regards the 
conflicting affairs even of this disordered (gum 6 
sisnlkS) existence; worldly possessions, as much as 
are suitable for the assistance of wisdom, are proper 8 , 
and the gift of virtuous pleasure is the gain of the 
undeserving good work or prayer they (the sacred 
beings) shall accept ; it causes aggrandizement and 
is as deserving as even that which the decision of 

1 Or, ' sent down in,' according as we read parvastS or frdsto. 

* An epistle complaining of certain heretical teachings of their 
high-priest, Za</-sparam, which is no longer extant. 

* Reading va hat vahar-i£. 

4 The epistle which he had received from his brother, Zirf- 
sparam, some time before, seems also to have mentioned certain 
omens (see Ep. II, i, 3). 

* J omits shaye</5, 'are proper,' because it follows the other 
shaye</, ' are suitable;' but it is not always safe to assume that the 
repetition of a word is a blunder. 

Digitized by 


EPISTLE I, CHAPTER I, 2-5. 28 1 

the wise has said about it, that even from the 
management of disordered possessions which are 
impaired there is advantage through the power of 
wisdom ; and they (the sacred beings) select and 
cleanse and uplift the good works in such manner 
as a precious stone (sag khel) from the water, and 
gold brocade 1 from the dust 

4. My pleasure, also, is as much increased through 
the information due to the same courtesy, and I 
have a new and great desire for the arrival of 
information, continuously from henceforth, about 
the perfect courageousness, enduring humility, good 
works, worshipping, favouring position, and eager- 
ness of soul of you who have recounted your great 
thoughtfulness for religion and have provided good 

5. On account of the universal renown (aspdha- 
rakanih) of the good people of Khvaniras 2 , which 
is yours, owing to the favour that is your complete 
happiness, ardently and joyfully most desired, and 
constantly so, when there are opportunities of seeing 
you — though it is supposed to be the advantage of 
your own religion, joy of soul, courteousness, and 
proper constancy — since my will resides among you, 
you make known and command my actions, through 
the will of the sacred beings. 

1 Reading d!pak5-i zahaba. 

* The central region of the earth, containing all the lands best 
known to the Iranians (see Dd. XC, 3). 

Digitized by 



Chapter II. 

i. Then comes that itself 1 which is dictated /* 
the middle of your epistle, and, thereupon, it lays 
hold of me, and, owing to its hellish gloom, pallid 
appearance, and hellish effect, benediction is per- 
plexedly dispensed by me in terror for my heart and 
mind ; I have, also, grievously repented, as regards 
my own former arrangements in my warfare of 
violence — which were undeceptive in the balance 
pertaining to Rashnu 2 — of any real falsity of the 
co-existent one 3 I may have produced. 

2. Responsible for the malice and annoyance of 
unjust kinds which are encountering us is the fiend 
of great strength, who is unobserving, seductive, 
astute in evil, eager for causing annihilation (ga^tS- 
kun-varen), and i\x\\ of deceit, so that it is possible 
for him to render doubtful, when so deceived, even 
him who is most a listener to essential righteous- 
ness, most desirous of steadfast truth, most perform- 
ing proper religious customs, most acquainted with 
good ideas, most amazingly careful of his soul, most 
approved in the most wounding hell-brought conflict, 
and most at home (khanaglktum) in truth of all 
kinds, and to show him a semblance of reality in 
unreality, and of unreality in reality. 3. Just as 
even that similitude which is mentioned in revela- 
tion thus : ' He intends righteousness and considers 

* J has 'the writing.' 

* See Dd. XIV, 4. 

' The evil spirit who is supposed to be, for a time, co-existent 
with the beneficent spirit of Auharmajk/. 

Digitized by 



about it thus : " A good work is done by me," and 
he acquires fiendishness — that is, it becomes a 
source of sin for him^-who shall bring forth water 
without holy-water to one contaminated by dead 
matter (nas-h6mand), or who shall bring it forth 
Without holy-water on a concealed or dark place in 
the night 1 .' 

4. And about this I have no doubt, that the wish 
of that spirit is not coincident with righteousness, 
for it is realised, understood, and known that, as 
regards his own creatures, he is not careful for the 
proper movement of body and for the long living 
of life ; so that the furtherance and continuance of 
these, which are his original resources of body and 
activities (khaparanS) of life, become, for him who 
is among them (the fiend's creatures), an increase 
of the propitiation of the sacred beings, of the 
practice of religion, and of the advancement and 
benediction of the teachings of just high-priests 2 . 
5. // is also manifest from the constantly-operating 
arrangement of manuscripts and synodical state* 
ments, about which Afarg* wrote without falsifying 
the religion and apart from controversies ; because 
among them (the fiend's creatures) is he who has 
said they are like unto that which is now written 

1 Quoted from Pahl. Vend. VII, 194-196, with some slight varta- 
tions from the existing text. The meaning is that it is quite 
possible to commit sin by doing a good action in an improper 

* That is, even the wicked, when they seek welfare, have to take 
to religious practices. 

' A commentator whose opinions are frequently quoted in the 
Pahlavi translations of the A vesta (see Sis. I, 3). J has 'about 
which the splendour (afrand) of the religion is without falsehood.' 

Digitized by 



by him himself about it, and it has arranged much 
deliverance from sin 1 . 

6. Of this, too, I am aware, that, except there 
where a purifier is in no way reached, his great 
duty — which is just the purification in which there 
is a washer who is cleansed (mas 1^6) in the reli- 
gious mode for the profession of the priesthood — 
is then a means which the high-priests should 
allow 2 . 7. A washing which is not religiously 
ritualistic is ranked as an operation among the 
useless ones ; it is vicious and grievously criminal, 
because the special means which, by preserving the 
soul s , is the perfect happiness of men, is the puri- 

1 That is, any one who explains the scriptures in a new fashion 
to suit his own purposes, which he thereby represents as beneficial, 
is merely carrying out the wishes of the fiend. The author is here, 
referring to the heretical teachings of his brother, regarding purifi- 
cation, which are further described in the sequel. 

* That is, whenever a properly-qualified purifier is procurable, 
the priests should require him to purify any one who happens to be 
defiled by contact with dead matter by means of the Bareshnum 
ceremony (see App. IV). It appears from the sequel, and from 
Eps. II and III, that the heresy of Z&f-sparam consisted chiefly of 
a misinterpretation of Vend. VIII, 278-299 (see App. V), which 
passage directs that a man in the fields, who has touched a corpse 
not yet eaten by dogs or birds, shall wash himself fifteen times with 
bull's urine, that he shall then run to some village, asking three 
different men on the way to cleanse him with the proper ceremony, 
and if they decline they each take upon themselves a share of the 
sin ; when arrived at the village he shall ask a fourth time to be 
cleansed, and if no one will perform the ceremony he must wash 
himself with bull's urine and water in the ordinary manner, and 
shall be clean. The erroneous teaching of Zarf-sparam was that 
the fifteen times' washing was sufficient, without the subsequent 
ceremonial cleansing; and the object of these epistles was to com- 
bat that view of the law. 

1 The ceremonial purification is supposed to cleanse the soul, 

Digitized by 



fication of men. 8. // is said 1 : ' The purification 
of men cleansingly is a something (alt8) for the 
soul that should be after perfect birth ; when they 
have been fully born the purification of others is the 
one thing which is good for the soul.' 

9. And it is shown in another place that it is 
possible to obtain possession of purification also for 
the soul through purification of the body, even as 
it is said that a purifier is requested by him. 
10. And it is necessary for him to speak thus : ' I 
have thus stood close by the body of him who is 
dead ; I am no wisher for it by thought, I am no 
wisher for it by word, I am no wisher for it by 
deed; which is the reason — that is, on account of 
pollution — it is not possible to seek good works by 
thought, word, or deed, and it demands purification 
for me, that is, wash me thoroughly M* n. As it 
is thereby declared that when he whose body is not 
purified, until they thoroughly wash him, is not able 
to seek good works by thought, word, or deed, and 
is not able to purify his soul, it is then a matter for 
the truly wise to seek even for purification of the 
soul by the purification of the body, for whose 
religious purification are those things which are 
unsubdued (asikand) in the religious ritual. 

1 2. When these are thus the statements of former 
upholders of the religion and high-priests of the 
religion, he who is more intelligent and more active 

whereas ordinary washing cleanses the body only, and is spiritually 

1 In Pahl. Vend. V, 65, X, 35, being a translation of a quotation 
from the Gdthas or sacred hymns (Yas. XLVII, 5, c). 

* Quoted, with some variation, from Pahl. Vend. VIII, 283, 284 
(see App. V). 

Digitized by 



in the religion of the Masa/a-worshippers in every 
house, village, tribe, and province — and, very much 
more the man who is righteous, of fluent speech, 
speaking the truth, who has chanted the sacred 
hymns, acquainted with the ritual, trained for the 
work, of renowned disposition, and a friend of the 
soul — is competent for the purification which it is 
very important to prepare, to think of, and to 

1 3. When the period is so unworthy, the fiend 
so abundantly contentious, and the hasty preparer 
of holy-water of such base origin (duj-v^kh) 1 — 
which happens, moreover, when the good are equally 
low-minded (ham-bast5-mini.rno) — we strive for 
what encourages the preparation of that even which 
is a collectively virtuous profession. 14. Then, too, 
there remains such rising in strength of many new 
things from very many countries, which is particu- 
larly grievous distress and danger to us ; they 
deliver tokens of them to us applaudingly, and the 
expansibility of the words of the delivering diffuser 
of these and also other religious customs, as the 
sacred beings' own persistency and complete glory, 
is a great and powerful capability. 

Chapter III. 

1. This, too, I am begging of you, that you may 
be desiring the truth, and that Vohuman 2 , who, 

1 This seems to be an allusion to the unworthiness of some of 
the priests of the period (compare Ep. II, i, 13; v, 14). 

* The archangel personifying 'good thought' (see Dd. Ill, 13). 

Digitized by 


EPISTLE I, CHAPTER II, 13^111, 6. 287 

when a ruler (shah) of yours, is an interpreter 
(pa^Okd) about the writing which 1 I write, may as 
regardfully and accommodatingly observe and direct 
as the variety of dispositions permits. 2. For you 
are of like opinion with me, to inform again the 
most initiated 2 ; so that I am more steadfastly^ 
determined (atistlkan6-mini$ntar) thereon, 3. And 
if there be anything that seems to you otherwise, 
direct some one to point it out again, with the reason 
for maintaining it which occurs to you, just as a 
household companion is a responder and has spoken 
again for the sake of pointing out again ; for there 
are many reasons, on account of which your kindly- 
regardful observation is needful, which are to be 
written about. 

4. The first is this, that the penmanship of the 
spirits is not the profession of me and others 3 ; and 
as to him by whom a theory (farhang) not univer- 
sally operating is disseminated, which is distinct 
from his more indispensable occupation, there is 
then no command for his teaching and apostleship 
therein. 5. On that account, too, the wise and the 
seekers for truth uphold the body of opinion about 
the statements of the writing of the spirits *, and, 
therefore, direct less of the ingenuity of preparing 
again the penmanship of various tidings. 

6. The second is this, that, in the distress 
(dahyakS) of this grievous time, he to whom 

1 Reading t instead of va, ' and/ 

* That is, to severely admonish their high-priest, as he does in 
Ep. II. 

3 That is, he disclaims all pretensions to inspiration on the part 
of himself and his contemporaries. 

4 The inspired scriptures. 

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adherence and much indebtedness even as to his 
forefathers have remained, is well-lamenting, owing 
to the proposals (daafano) of the unfriendly, and 
much harm has occurred through the conflicting 
(ardftkS) offer of remedies and lawful provision of 
means, full of trouble, except, indeed, to the up- 
holder of religion who is more worldly-managing; 
and investigation by opponents is grievous danger, 
full of things inopportune and unnecessary for 
accomplishment l . 

7. The third is this, that a wise man who is 
a high-priest of the spirit-retaining* religion and 
acquainted with opinions, when also himself pro- 
perly humble, fearless, and benedictive in the world, 
is then even, owing to his estimating* pardonings 
and \ong-coniinued dexterity (d£r zlva^aklh), 
united with the good creations in affliction and 
vexation. 8. And, on account of information about 
the worldly and spiritual misery of former evils 
of many kinds — always as much in the religion, 
and in the thoughts of others \ as one delivers up 
his heart to ingenious verbiage and for the prepara- 
tion of phrases — he speaks as in the question in 
revelation, thus 6 : '"Who in the bodily existence 

1 Referring to the risk of unfriendly and destructive criticism of 
the scriptures. 

* J has 'spirit-observing,' by changing girixno into nigtrixno. 

* Reading andasth ; the reference being to the sympathy ac- 
quired by a high-priest through performing his duty of appointing 
atonements for sins confessed to him. 

4 Assuming that atxand stands for afxanS. 

* J has only 'as one speaks out his heart for ingenious verbiage 
and phrases, thus.' The question and reply here quoted seem to 
be no longer extant in the Avesta. 

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is more quickly fortunate ?" and it is answered thus : 
" The youth who is observant and humble, O Zara- 
tust ! who, as regards both that which has happened 
and that which happens, also sees that which is evil 
and good with gratitude, just like that also which 
happens unto another;'" because he knows this, that 
from this is a benefit, for he knows happiness and 
also misery 1 . 9. The glorified leader of those of 
the good religion, H6r-Frdvag 2 , son of Farukhu- 
za</, wrote : ' It is he understands the consequence 
of his own action ; and it is his great household 
attendant, and the worldly desire provided at the 
Kinvad bridge 3 becomes less watchful.' 

10. The fourth is this, that I am more universally 
hoping about the property of the profession and the 
much duty fit for the truly wise, in such manner 
as even that in which the glorified and greatly- 
learned leader of those of the good religion, Yudan- 
Yim *, son of Shahpuhar, always urged on a priestly 
man with many sons and equally clever * discourse. 

1 It is doubtful whether this last clause be a portion of the quota- 
tion, or not 

* This name is corrupted into H6-F6rvag in the MSS., but Atur- 
Frdbag is probably intended. He was the compiler of a great part 
of the Dinkanf, and is also mentioned in Dd. LXXXVIII, 8. The 
names Atur and H&r are synonymous, both meaning ' fire.' The 
passage quoted in the text has the same form (beginning with the 
word hdman</5, 'it is') as nearly all the sections of the third book 
of the Dinkan/, but it has not yet been discovered among them. 

' Here written ATif-vidarg (see Dd. XX, 3). 

4 So written in J, but K35 and BK have the syllable din some- 
what corrupted. The person meant, both here and in Chap. VII, 5, 
was probably the author's father, though Bd. XXXIII, 1 1 seems to 
make Yudan-Yim the son of Vahram-sharf. 

• Reading ham-gdko, but J has ham-du</ak5, 'of the same 
family;' it also omits several other words by mistake, 

[18] U 

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11. That was through my instigation, alone and 
with little assistance, in the beginning; and, on 
account of the deficiency of warriors \ the abundance 
of opponents, the very rapid arrival of disturbance, 
and the fourfold supplication for keeping away the 
ruin or hasty unlawful maintenance of the fires of 
the Ma-sda-worshippers, my constant distress is such 
that most of my time speaks of the same subject 8 . 

1 2. They may leave the abundance of despondency 
and thoughtfulness of the bodily existence to such 
remedial writing of his, unto whom the pleasandy 
comfortable thought of an evaded (virikht6) seizure 
is requisite, but there is little worldly leisure for me 
for writing more in this direction (hana-runtar). 

1 3. And specially in this passing time — when, alike 
limited by the coming of the period of giving daily 
supplies to the performers of worship, and by the 
ever-triumphant fire and its produce 3 , it was neces- 
sary for me to go to Shirls* on account of some 
indispensable provision of means — the work was 
much and the leisure little. 

1 From this and Ep. II, v, 14 it would appear that the priests at 
that time maintained a body of troops for the protection of their 

1 That is, regarding the proper maintenance of the priesthood, 
which had already engaged his anxious attention during the life- 
time of his father. 

' The word var may either mean 'ashes' (see Sis. II, 49), 
alluding to clearing out the fire, or it may mean ' ordeal ' (see Sis. 
XIII. 17). 

4 See Dd. I, 17. This name is written Shira»5 once, SJriso 
thrice, and Siraso four times in K35. Manuutihar appears to have 
come to Shiraa on this occasion to hold a general assembly of the 
priests and It ading members of the community, and he wrote this 
epistle from that city (see Ep. II, i, 1 1 ; v, 10). 

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14. The fifth is this, that the custom of providing 
for all the duties even of the sacred fire (atu^) by 
me, and my own desire \ trained hand 2 , unhardened 
mind, and unhardened heart for managing many 
things should have become the joy of my mind. 
15. Then, too, from having read such writing and 
such news the healer of distress would be thoroughly 
connected with my heart and mind, owing to which 
my intellect would have become quickly fatigued 
(mandakS) by a limited preparation of phrases. 

16. The sixth is this, that even he who is a 
rescued 3 and better-operating (hu-dagtar) man — 
when, owing to the writing of a learned man of the 
realm who is desiring the truth, he is so perplexed * 
on account of a doubt of increasing the after-tearing 
of the same perplexity — has no doubt of the falsity 
and little training existent in the worldly. 

1 7. The seventh is this, that if none of these six 
of which I have written should exist, even then your 
approved cleverness (jlvagdarlh), extolled freedom 
from strife, hereafter-discerning and complete mind- 

1 Reading kamako, instead of the unintelligible kamun. 

* The MSS. omit the last letter of y adman. 

* That is, delivered from contamination or sin; vfrikhtd is 
probably to be traced to A v. vi + irikhta, rather than to vi + 
rikhta (Pers. gurfekht). 

4 K35 has a blank space here, and again a few words further on, 
but it is doubtful if any words be missing. The spaces are filled 
up in J and BK, apparently by guess, as follows : J has ' he sees 
so perplexing a chance, concerning which, owing to the increase 
of after-tearing of the same perplexity and the arrival of evil, he is 
doubtful, has no doubt,' &c. And BK has ' he is so perplexed on 
account of no doubt of the falsity and .little training that existed in 
the worldly for increasing the after-tearing of the same perplexity, 
has no doubt, &c.' 

U 2 

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fulness, practised 1 attention to the good, and much 
affection 2 for the faithful — so kindly regarding, truly 
judging, and with a liking for praising (srlda.t\6), as 
regards whatever I write truly and with true con- 
viction — are, I consider, to make provision, and have 
realised a preparation striven for. 

Chapter IV. 

1. I have also seen the spiritual life 8 in the writing 
which is in such statements of incompleteness *, and 
owing to the same reason they should not cease 
from the operation* of washing you — whom may the 
angels protect! — with the Bareshnum ceremony*. 
2. Because the ancients have said that, when it 
shall be discarded from use, every water, fire, plant, 
righteous man, and animal, and all the creatures of 
Auharmas</ are afflicted, diminished, and made to 
leap away. 3. As it is said in revelation that, as to 
him who stands by a dead body upon which the 
Nasus 7 has rushed 8 , 'anus6 zi, Spitama Zara- 

1 J has burzidako, 'extolled,' instead of varstdakd, 'practised.' 

* Reading dukhsharmth as in J; the other MSS. have m instead 

* Reading d!</ ahvdth; but it can also be read stihan5ih, in 
which case the translation would be: — 'And my worldly condition.' 

4 Meaning the incomplete kind of purification which their state- 
ments complained of, or his referred to. 

* K35 and BK omit the r in kar</ako. 

6 See App. IV. 

7 The fiend of corruption (see Dd. XVII, 7). 

* The three Avesta passages here quoted, with their Zand (Pah- 
lavi translation), are from Vend. IX, 161-163, and are freely trans- 
lated (trans. D) thus: — 'It grieves the sun, indeed, O Spitama 

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thiutra! aesha ya 1 paiti-irista avaaf 2 hvare 
a-tapayeiti s , anus6 hau mau, anusd av£ stard* 
— discontentedly, moreover, O Zaraturt the Sptta- 
man ! does the sun shine upon him who has been by 
the dead, so discontentedly [does the moon] 6 , thus 
discontentedly do the stars — khshnavay£iti zl, 
Spitama Zarathurtra! a£shd na yd yaosda- 
thryd, yaaf astern 6 paiti-iristem fra-nasum ke- 
renaoiti — the man who is purifying propitiates 
them, O Zaraturt the Spitaman! when he operates 
on him who has been by the dead, on whom the 
Nasfo is put forth, and he has become parted from 
the sacred twigs 7 — he propitiates fire, he propitiates 

Zarathurtra ! to shine upon a man defiled by the dead ; it grieves 
the moon, it grieves the stars. That man delights them, © Spitama 
Zarathurtra 1 who cleanses from the Nasu those whom she has 
defiled ; he delights the fire, he delights the water, he delights the 
earth, he delights the cow, he delights the trees, he delights the 
faithful, both men and women.' The Avesta text is given according 
to the standard edition of Westergaard (IX, 41, 42), and all variants 
of any importance, in the three MSS. here used, are mentioned in 
the notes. These passages are also referred to in Ep. II, iii, 5. 

1 K35 and BK insert the last three words, anusd ava stard, 

* J inserts ya here. 

3 J has a-tapayafita, but K35 and BK omit the word. 

4 K35 and BK have khshathrd-chinanghd, 'of a desire of 
authority ' (which occurs in Fravarc/in Yt. 112 as the name of a 
man) instead of a ve* stard, which they have inserted earlier. They 
also leave a blank space for the words maman akhursandiha, 
' moreover, discontentedly' (which begin the Pahlavi translation), as 
if they were descended from a damaged original. 

• All three MSS. omit the words in brackets, which are neces- 
sary to complete the Pahlavi version. 

' K35 and BK omit agtem. 

7 J has ' who has become polluted,' which separation from the 
sacred twigs (see Dd. XLIII, 5), or other ceremonial apparatus, 
implies. The phrase is omitted in Pahl. Vend. IX, 162. 

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water, he propitiates animals and plants 1 , he pro- 
pitiates the righteous man 2 , he propitiates the 
righteous woman, both of them', as in the A vesta* 
of it: — khshnavayGiti atarem, &c. 

4. When tlure is no purifier all the angels of the 
worldly existence become afflicted and dissatisfied ; 
and religious purifiers who are intelligent are even 
now not to keep backward the work of purification, 
just as it has come to them by practice from those 
of the primitive faith, and are not to diminish it. 
5. To change a good work properly appointed they 
shall not accept a law which is not right, a good 
work not properly appointed*; not to do the work 
thereof is accounted very sagacious and perfectly 
wise; and through your freedom from inferiority 6 
the glorifying, commendation, praise, and blessing 
are your own. 6. For it is said that in all the work 
of forming and maintaining the law (daa?istan6) 
those of the primitive faith were very greatly parti- 
cular about every single thing ; and as to the whole 
operation of that proceeding into which they have 
entered, those of the primitive faith have become 
aware of the power which resides in true authority. 
7. But, otherwise 6 , the routine which is brought out 

1 J has 'he propitiates plants,' as in Pahl.Vend. IX, 163. 

* Literally 'male.' 

* The initial words of which here follow their Pahlavi translation, 
instead of preceding it. 

4 J omits these six words. 

* Reading afrdtarih, as in BK; K35 had originally apart arlh, 
'pre-eminence,' as in J, but the copyist wrote afrd (=aparva) 
over the az»arta, as a correction, leaving it doubtful whether he 
meant afrdtarfh or aparvarih, 'want of education.' 

' That is, unless confirmed by the decisions of the ancients. 

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from revelation 1 and the teaching of the high-priests 
is then not authorisedly changed by that priestly man 
whose decree of the fifteen 2 washings is written in 
your epistle 8 ; because, on account of the whole and 
any perversion (gajtaklh) of the same writing, not 
of similar utterance with revelation, before which 
the custom did not exist, I am without doubt as to 
that decree. 

8. And in it *, moreover, is written, declared, and 
contained (va.ngld6) that once washing is men- 
tioned 8 , until a purifier comes who is acquainted 
with the ritual, who washes just as declared in reve- 
lation. 9. To be so washed I consider just as a 
thing for which he is even now as it were a purifier 
who is a good washer 6 , that of which it is written 
below and clearly realised that it should not be 
decreed ; and through the scanty deliverance written 
therein T *'/ is manifest it would not be the statement 
above 8 . 

1 J has 'which is brought out with knowledge of the puri/ying 
cup (t&nik), with preservation of faith, and with manifestation from 

* All three MSS. have ' sixteen ' in ciphers, but it is evident that 
Z£<?-sparam and his erroneous teaching of the sufficiency of fifteen 
washings (see Ep. Ill, 1, a) are here referred to. 

* Reading jreraag, a Huz. hybrid for n&mak. 
4 The decree of Zjuf-sparam, apparently. 

* Referring probably to Vend. VIII, 299, which provides a 
washing for the polluted person by himself, if he can find no one 
willing to purify him (see App.V). 

' That is, for such a purpose any ordinary washer would be 

7 In Pahl. Vend. VIII, 299, which states that, although pure 
enough for ordinary purposes, he must still abstain from engaging 
in ceremonies for others (see App. V). 

* That is, it is very different from the propitiation mentioned in § 3. 

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10. If learned knowledge, relating both to that 
about inferior matters (ag Irtariha) and that about 
superior matters, be x true authority praised and de- 
clared by the great primitive faith, former high-priests 
and those newly arisen (navakgandakanS) would 
be and would have been similarly forward ; then, 
too, it would exist not so much with the priestly 
men of the time as with the learned officiating 
priests (mag6patan) of Atih&rmazd who have been 
before. 11. And when, moreover, all the Avesta 
and Zand are easy to a priest 2 , pre-eminently 
acquainted with the liturgy and a supreme Zaraturt, 
he has attained unto, and should remain with, Auhar- 
mazd and 3 the officiating priestship of Abharmazd, 
and the supreme, world-managing, religion-observing 
(hu-dln-nikah) sovereignty as to religious trea- 
tises*. 12. To change then their practice in the 
law would be entirely an outcry apart from deliber- 
ation, and a like violation of the unanimity of the 
spirits who are the heads and guardians 5 of the 
religion, and of the unanimity of the source of 
opinion of the good themselves, for the sake of 
what is not acceptable. 

13. But the statement above • is, was, and will be 
that which remains a good idea well considered by 
them with the centre of thought, as to its well- 

1 J has ' because if even for that about superior matters, ac- 
quaintance with religion, and learned knowledge there be,' &c 

* That is, when he knows all the scriptures and commentaries by 

* J omits ' Auharmaz</ and.' 

* That is, he has full authority to interpret the scriptures. 

"• Reading sarin sarddrSn, but in K35 the two words overlap, 
so that sar-sardarin, 'head guardians,' might be intended. 

* Probably referring to the quotation from the Vendidatf in § 3. 

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operating characteristics, just contention, and com- 
plete powerfulness. 14. Also from the teaching of 
just high-priests, through the preservation of much 
evidence, and ascertained for the members of the 
assemblies of various provinces (shatr6 shatr6), are 
shown the opinion and experience of most priestly 
men; and to make the various districts (kustako 
kustakS) thrivingly steadfast, an unperverted one 
should be set up in all four quarters (paaflcds) of 
the same province. 

1 5. And a semblance of it is apparent even from 
that which the glorified Nlshahpuhar, the supreme 
officiating priest 1 , and also other officiating priests 
of Auhannasr^ have said, that one is not to change 
any teaching of theirs thereon after it is provided, 
and not to render useless the statements of other 
authority thereon. 16. But that which they should 
accept from them as a certainty is to maintain the 
statements of other high-priests as pre-eminent ; and 
not to change the operation of statements of another 
description has appeared lawful. 17. Even so it 
was as that same Nlshahpuhar, in the council of the 
glorified (andshako ruband) Khusrd 2 , king of 

1 This mdbad of mdbads is mentioned in Pahl. Vend. Ill, 151, 
V, 112, VI, 71, VIII, 64. XVI, 10, 17, AV. I, 35, and twenty-four 
times in the Ntrangistan (see Sis. I, 4 n). His name is spelt in 
various ways. 

* King Khusrd, son of Kav&f, who is best known by his title 
N6shirv£n, or An6shirvSn, ' immortal-soulled,' reigned a.d. 531— 
579 ; and the statement that Nlshahpuhar was one of his coun- 
cillors (made little more than three centuries after his death, and, 
therefore, probably correct) is of considerable importance for fixing 
a limit to the age of those Pahlavi books in which he is mentioned. 
These books are the Pahlavi NJrangistan, a late recension of the 
Pahlavi Vendidarf, and the Book of Anft-Viraf, in which last it is 

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kings and son of Ravi*/, — by preserving old things 
(ligan6) — showed that way on whose thoughts they 
are established, and wrote them unaltered, so that 
such thoughts thereon became as it were decided ; 
and their thoughts thereon, after such decree of his, 
have so become unanimous. 18. Through the im- 
portance of his assured rank, and the rest which 
was said by him in the work of sustaining the 
faithful, he maintains as much as the other state- 
ments, one by one, from the deliberative teaching 
of those high-priests. 

Chapter V. 

1. That writing which comes amid the writing of 
your epistle is a correct fragment 1 as regards the 
nothing in which one is to change the operation pro- 
perly maintainable, and it is becoming ; because, if it 
be even for him, by whom it is written from the 

stated that Viraf was called by the name of Nikhshapur by some. 
From the statements made in our text it seems probable that the 
council was employed in revising the Pahlavi Vendida*/, in which 
they were careful not to erase the opinions of older commentators, 
and thus confirmed their statements by their own authority. It is 
possible that this council was that mentioned in Byt. I, 7, where the 
name Nishapur also occurs, but whether it refers to a man or a 
city is not quite certain. This council, which seems to have been 
summoned for condemning the heresy of Mazdak, was held pro- 
bably two or three years before Khusrd came to the throne (see 
Noldeke: Geschichte der Perser und Araber zur Zeit der Sasaniden, 
p. 465). 

1 Reading ban^unih, but it may be bu^ijnih, 'deliverance 
from contamination! The reference is to the decree of Z&/-sparam 
mentioned in Chap. IV, 7, the 'writing' alluded to in Ep. II, ii, 1; 
iii, 1. 

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EPISTLE I, CHAPTER IV, l8-V, 4. 299 

statements of M&fy6k-mah, Afarg, and S6shins\ 
the several statements and teachings of the same 
high-priests, yet then the elaboration and publica- 
tion thereof are not such as that which is sent down 
by his further elaboration 2 . 2. And thereby it has 
seemed manifest that it is sent so that a wish for the 
spirit may proceed from the truth of its minister 
(pa</6), or from his thought for the desired decision; 
or his understanding may be of that kind which is 
warped (vuku Jt6), as though he believed it as other 
than the exposition of the religion and the teaching 
of the high-priests. 3. But until the unparalleled 
arrival of S6shans 8 any one not sharing in complete 
knowledge is not appointed unto a patron spirit 
(ahvd), and the fiend specially contends more ex- 
perimentally with the thoughts of the high-priests 
of the religion for a religious decision. 

4. And even the recompense of community* of 
property is that when one gladly observes pure 
thoughts; and the swift action of voluble (pur) 
speakers and kind regard of religious characters for 
deliverance 8 and for the noticeable undeceitfulness 
of the same spirit 6 — which is itself the desire of 
settled observation that is in it for the sake of the 

1 The names of three of the commentators whose opinions are 
most frequently quoted in the Pahlavi Vendid&Z (see Sis. I, 3). 
Each of them appears to have written a complete 'teaching' or 
dissertation upon the ceremonial laws, from which the quotations 
are taken (see § 6). 

* That is, in collecting the opinions of the ancients, he has 
twisted them so as to suit his own views. 

* The last of the future apostles (see Dd. II, 10), not the com- 
mentator of the same name mentioned in § 1. 

4 Literally 'fraternity.' 

6 From pollution or sin. * See § 2. 

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same kind of full religious diffusion — are the swift 
action of the patron spirit, which, for the sake of 
preparing him for a deliverance that is not falsifying 
revelation and is without disputants, is a kind regard 
for the deliverance itself of him whose spiritual life 
(hukS) it is. 

5. As to that which is thought by him 1 of those 
deliverances sent down, completed, and announced, 
I consider more particularly about the meaning of 
one thing, which is their solemnized observance. 
6. The solemnized observance of MeWy6k-mah is in 
the teaching 8 of Merfyok-mah, and those of Afarg 
and Soshans are each one meditated and indicated 
in a teaching ; and the pointedly superior position 
of each one of them is mentioned by him in his 
statement of any teaching and of the decision set 
up. 7. Also with a kind regard for his own choice 
he has thought it (the former teaching) imperfect, 
and, on account of what was not attained by it — 
which was a re-explainer of the same good ideas 
provided — its dissimilarity to it is not unnoticed 3 . 
8. But when one hears the re-explainers of a true 
reply he is well protected (hu-zinhar!</6) by com- 
plete mindfulness 4 , and is himself confident that the 
teaching of Meafy6k-mah is not the whole statement 
of M&/y6k-mah, for there are many opinions of 

1 Za</-sparam the writer of the decree mentioned in § 1. 

* The word iis tako means usually a written course of teaching 
or exposition, a commentary, dissertation, or manual of instruction. 

1 Implying that Zarf-sparam had been more inclined to enforce 
his own opinions than to examine those of the commentators. 

4 The Pahl. translation of Av. Srmaiti, 'devotion,' which is 
usually personified as a female archangel protecting the earth. 

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Medydk-mah 1 which have decided in another man- 
ner; not that whatever M&fy6k-mah said is not 
good, but in the teaching of M&afy6k-mah it is certain 
that even what is not proper is mentioned many 
times as a possibility 2 . 

Chapter VI. 

1. As to that which is written in that epistle, that 
in the teaching of Sdshans he thus states, that ' of 
both the purifiers necessary he is suitable by whom 
the ritual is performed V they have been similarly 
very unanimous that when one is incapable (atu)* it 
is the other that is suitable, who is written of in con- 
nection with him; and that, moreover, because the 
statement of Afarg is in a teaching of his 6 , and, on 

1 J inserts ' rules which are mentioned in the special teaching of 
M&/ydk-mah.' It appears probable that the author had access to 
much more complete commentaries than the fragments now extant 
in the Pahlavi version of the Vendida*/. 

* Meaning, probably, that MeVy&k-mah was disposed to relax 
the rigid enforcement of the law in cases of doubt or difficulty, as 
the Avesta itself does in several cases. 

8 Quoted from Pahl. Vend. IX, 132, b, where it may be read 
either as an opinion of Afarg (as mentioned in our text), or as a 
statement of the Pahlavi translator, who would, therefore, appear to 
have been S6sh£ns. A complete translation of the Pahlavi version 
of Vend. IX, 1-145 and the commentaries relating to the Bare- 
shnum ceremony, which are frequently alluded to in these epistles, 
will be found in A pp. IV. 

* Perhaps ' impotent,' as the Rivayats (Mio, fol. 103 a) provide 
that a purifier shall be neither aged nor youthful, not less than 
thirty years of age. 

6 See note 3, above ; from this it appears that Afarg was the 
earlier commentator. 

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that account, that declaration of his seemed to be 
from him, which is as though it were decided by 
him. 2. Then, when one reaches the eulogistic 
(afrasinako) reply of his re-explainer, owing to his 
just will it is itself well perceived that Afarg comes 
into account as one of the high-priests ; and that 
which is the special teaching of Sdshans has men- 
tioned that they have been very unanimous that 
when there is one he would be suitable 1 . 

3. That evidence, too, which many high-priests, 
and especially one teaching, are alike diffusing, is 
stated also in the teaching of MeWy6k-mah, that 
when he who is washing 2 understands the profes- 
sion, then one purifier is plenty for him. 4. When 
it is abundantly declared, in particular by two teach- 
ings, that when there is one he is suitable, it is then 
not to be rendered quite inoperative through the 
solitary statement of Afarg ; for Afarg only said, as 
it appeared so to him himself, that 'two purifiers 
are requisite 3 .' 5. The customs of another high- 
priest are not declared to exist with like evidence ; 
and this is set aside (spe^i*/&) even by him himself, 
that another custom is not suitable to exist, because 
his own view is mentioned as it appeared to him. 

6. Those of the primitive faith have been fully 4 
of the custom that other one selected, as to this, 
where it is the performance of the Vlkaya (' exor- 
cism') 8 ; because its explanation is this, that an 

1 See Pahl.Vend. IX, 132, £, but the earlier part of the section 
refers to statements no longer extant. 

1 That is, the person undergoing the purification. 

* See Pahl. Vend. IX, 132, b, Ep. II, ii, 7. 

4 J inserts ' of the same opinion.' 

4 That is, they have considered one purifier sufficient for reciting 

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opinion upon which the priests (magavdganS) are 
without dispute is that which he says is the custom 
of a priest, and the business of the two priests, of 
whose other custom he speaks as much, is a per- 
formance by those two witnesses indicating the 
same as the priest. 

7. This, too, is evident, that, by confession of 
Afarg, when there is only one purifier he is to be 
considered as being suitable 1 ; and an attainment to 
more evidence is that which is written by you, that 
Meafy6k-mah Jias said that every customary part 
(pl.r ako) is to be washed three times 2 , and now the 
purifiers do it once. 8. That teaching remains in 
the same manner as written by him, but the three- 
fold washing of Medfyok-mah is not a washing to be 
striven for, but one to be well considered, of which 
he spoke ; and this, too, is not said by him, that when 
one shall not wash three times it is not proper 3 . 
9. Afarg said that when one shall* wash once it is 
proper, and about this once the opinion of M&/y6k- 
mah is the after statement, and the opinion of Afarg 
is the prior statement ; and since in the life of man 
the first thing to be considered is about purity, not 
the indispensability of washing, and, further, the 

the passages from the Avesta (see Vend. VIII, 49-62, IX, 118) 
which are supposed to drive away the fiend (comp. Ep. II, ii, 7). 

1 See Pahl. Vend. IX, 132^. 

1 See Pahl. Vend. IX, 1 32,/, where, however, the statement as to 
three times washing is attributed to Afarg, who is the prior authority 
quoted (as mentioned in § 9), and that as to once washing is attri- 
buted to M£</y6k-mah, who is the after authority. 

* Reading la khaleluneV6-ae Id shayed6 instead of 14 
khalelun£<ffi a-li shaye</6. 

4 Reading ae" instead of va a. This statement is attributed to 
M&fydk-mah in Pahl. Vend, (see note a, above). 

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pollution diminishes, about which it speaks in the 
religious cleansing, during so many times washing 
as is declared, then the consideration of it is a con- 
sideration about the one time which is the first com- 
putation \ 10. That which mentions more than once 
washing is a contradiction of the prior deponent, not 
a declaration ; and the consideration of that opera- 
tion, so long as it is declared, is about the statement 
of him who has mentioned once washing with the 
opinion of a prior deponent*, owing to the same 
reasons. 11. But if it be even that much washing 
which is the merit of the operation, then the state- 
ment of Afarg about these times 3 is manifestly very 
preservative, and that of M&/y6k-mah is a necessity 
for declaration. 

Chapter VII. 

1. And as to that which is written 4 , that 'in the 
teaching of Afarg it is thus declared, that "for every 
single person, at the least 8 , one cup of water and 

1 In Vend. IX, 48-1 17 the washings of the several parts of the 
body are mentioned only once, which is ' the first computation ' 
here mentioned. 

* Reading pesmal, as equivalent to the p§* mal or p&rfmal 
previously used; but the word can also be read pasfmal, 'after 
deponent,' which would be inconsistent with the context The two 
terms are very liable to be confounded in writing Pahlavi, and in 
Ep. II, ii, 6 they are again written alike, though put in opposition 
to each other. The 'prior deponent' is Afarg. 

3 That is, 'about this one time,' as J has it. 

4 In the epistle to which he is replying. 

8 The words pavan kamistih, both here and in §§ 5, 6, would 
be better translated 'as a desideratum, or desired quantity;' but in 

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one cup of bull's urine, which are well alike (v£h- 
mal) 1 , are requisite;" and in the same manner it is 
said in the teaching of M&/y6k-mah, that " the water 
and bull's urine, when it is possible, are all to be 
thoroughly consecrated; when not — and, at the 
lowest, one cup of water and one cup of bull's urine, 
which are well alike, for every single person — they 
are to be set down in that place, and are afterwards 
to be mingled together 2 ." 2. And since two teach- 
ings have so stated, are we to perform the operation 
more preservatively 3 and according to a more cor- 
rect opinion than this?' 

3. Also, 'a correct apportionment is not under- 
stood by us, and clear reasons have not come to our 
knowledge that a less measure of the thing is 
proper.' 4. But I well imagine (hu-minam) this is 
not the operation of the purifying cup (ta.rtik6), 
where a less thing is not proper, because the infor- 
mation with which they have existed — owing to 
that information of theirs, of which a former high- 
priest and deliberator was the communicator — is 
that which was heard by me, that there are some 
who, for the sake of diminishing the measure of 
water and bull's urine, speak of this apportionment 
thus: ' V\.k\t\irek\d k , in everything the operation 

Pahl. Vend. IX, 132, c the phrase is pavan kamistlh, which can 
mean only 'at the minimum, or least.' 

1 In Pahl. Vend. IX, 132, c, where this statement occurs, the first 
letter of this word is omitted, which converts it into shumar, 
'alike.' Either word may be correct, but vSh-mal occurs twice in 
this section. 

* This statement of M&fy6k-mah seems no longer extant in the 
Pahlavi Vendidarf. 

* That is, in a way more delivering from pollution and sin. 

* This word, which probably means ' in whatever is-varied,' was 

[18] X 

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which accomplishes this, that is, when there is as 
much as is discernible from his body 1 , is proper.' 
5. And the saying is not perceived by me as a 
correct apportioning, because the judgment of the 
greatly-learned leader of those of the good religion, 
the glorified Yudan-Yim 2 , and of other delibera- 
tors, the opinion of good thinkers, was thus, that 
that saying is spoken about that of which the measure 
is not declared as the least by the high-priests' 
teaching of revelation. 6. Finally, when it is really 
of the same origin and suitable, then less than the 
least of that, of which the measure is declared as 
the least, is not proper, if, owing to much evidence 
in the teaching which has mentioned it as suitable, 
it be more of a blessing, and the operation performed 
thereby be more legitimate ; because that teaching is 
for confessing that the statements of high-priests are 
most evidence of the practice. 

7. This is that which is equally perpetual :. it is 
very important for the purifiers to keep the intellect 
of life in operation, and for the good to become 
mentally a powerful giver of aid to them ; and now, 
too, a purifier is ordered to keep in use his own most 
universal equal measure. 8. That which is per- 
ceived by me, and has come to my knowledge, more 
particularly when washed by myself, is the keeping 
in use an equal measure 3 . 9. And even if there be 
a purifier who does not completely keep in use the 

evidently the beginning of an Avesta phrase whose Pahlavi transla- 
tion concludes the sentence. The phrase does not appear to be 
extant elsew here. 

1 That is, just sufficient to wet the body. 

1 His father (see Chap. Ill, 10). 

3 That is, the two liquids should be provided in equal quantities, 

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consecrated water and bull's urine, still then it is not 
worse than when it does not really arise from the 
same origin 1 , and its religious rite also does not 
take place. 

10. Also the words of both the solemnization of 
the Vendida</ and the recitation of the Avesta are 
likewise to be uttered by him ; because 2 ' Zarat&rt 
enquired of Atiharmajzd about it thus :• " How shall 
I purify 3 where he does not attain unto the Air- 
y«na * — there are some who say where everything is 
anus6 ('discontented') 8 ? n. How as to the fire, 
how as to the water, how as to the earth, how as to 
animals, how as to plants, how as to the righteous 
man, how as to the righteous woman, how as to the 
stars, how as to the moon, how as to the sun, how 
as to the endless light, how as to the independent 
light 6 , how as to all the prosperity, created by 

which differs from the present practice, as stated in the Persian 
Riv&yats; thus, Mio, fol. 104 a, mentions 3 \ mans of water and 
1$ man of bull's urine as suitable quantities to be provided. This 
section is omitted in J, 'probably by mistake. 

1 Apparently deprecating the use of mingled liquids derived from 
various sources. 

* The passage quoted here is from Pahl. Vend. XI, 1-5, with a 
few variations. 

* Pahl. Vend, inserts ' as to the abode.' 

4 The Airynni (written AirySme" in the MSS.) is Yas. LIU, 
which commences with the words 'A airy ma ishy6,'and is the 
last of the GStha spells mentioned, in Vend. X, 22, as having to be 
recited four times in order to exorcise the fiend. The meaning of 
the question in the text, therefore, is : how is the purification to be 
effected when all the spells are not recited ? 

* Referring to Vend. IX, 161-163 (see Chap. IV, 3). 

* This clause is omitted in Pahl. Vend., being merely a repetition 
of the preceding one, the Av. anaghra rao£au being first trans- 
lated by asarag rdshanoih, and then partially transliterated by 

X 2 

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Atih&rmazd 1 , which is a manifestation of righteous- 
ness ?" 12. And Auharmaz*/ spoke to him thus: 
" Thou shalt chant the purification liturgy, O Zara- 
turt ! — that is, fully solemnize a Vendida^ service — 
then he becomes purified, &c," ' as mentioned by me 
above 1 . 13. Where they do not make them solem- 
nize a Vendidaaf so that they keep in operation that 
which is written of it as a rite, this does not drive 
pollution from any one ; and then, too, they should 
abandon the commands of a decree of leaders who 
are not over them 3 . 

14. Keep the Bareshnum ceremony '* in operation, 
so that the consecrated water and bull's urine are in 
the proportion which is taught by the high-priests of 
the religion, unless a scarcity occurs as regards 
these. 1 5. Then together with it, also, this is to be 
observed, that what is mentioned in two teachings is 
certainly more correct ; afterwards, too, where a pos- 
sibility for it is not obtained by them, there is what 
is mentioned as suitable by one teaching, and I do 
not decide that it is not an expediency. 

16. And as to that, also, which is written con- 
cerning the three hundred pebbles ' that, sprinkled 

anagrag rdshand. As sar means 'head, end' in Pahlavi (hardly 
ever 'beginning'), the only meaning common to the two terms 
asarag and anagrag seems to be 'without a head or superior, 
independent/ that is, in this case, independent of the light of other 

1 K35 has 'righteousness, created by Auharmaa*/,' but this is 
evidendy a mistake, as 'righteousness' does not translate the 
original Av. vohu. 

* That is, as to the fire, Ac. mentioned in § 1 1. 

* Referring to the heretical decree about which he is writing. 

4 See App. IV. 

5 See also Ep. II, iii, 12. The word generally used in these 

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in ceremonial ablution (paafyap 6), are cast into (va/) 
the bull's urine and water, that is taught even in the 
same manner ; the inward prayer (vi^S) 1 , even for 
when one does not cast them, is in the existing 
teaching, which is proper. 17. Then, too, on ac- 
count of the cheapness 2 and harmlessness of the 
pebbles the purifiers are less curtailing as to them, 
and to drink the thing so is well-curative in per- 
formance. 18. In the existing teaching of imperfect 
purifiers it should be very advantageous to maintain 
it as easy ; moreover, it is not said of it that it is not 
suitable, and in the teaching of Afarg it is said that 
it is proper. 

Chapter VIII. 

1. As to that which is written 3 , that it is declared 
in the Sakaafum Nash*, that the consecrated bull's 

epistles is sang, 'stone,' but Chap. IX, 6 has sagliako, and Pahl. 
Vend. IX, 132, c mentions sag£ak, 'a pebble,' as being cast into 
(din) the consecrated water and bull's urine, without specifying 
any number. The practice appears not to be mentioned in the 
Persian Rivayats, and seems now obsolete ; the addition of a small 
quantity of the ashes of the sacred fire to the bull's urine, which is 
tasted at the beginning of the rite, is, however, mentioned in the 

1 See Dd. LXXIX, 2. The prayer or grace has to be taken in- 
wardly, that is, murmured, before the drinking mentioned in § 17. 
According to this text provision seems to have been made for not 
using the pebbles, by means of a special prayer. 

* Or 'value,' as ar^inlh means both. 

' In the epistle to which he is replying. 

4 This was the eighteenth of the lost books of the Ma«rfa-wor- 
shippers (see Sis. X, 25, note). It was one of the seven law books, 
and treated of many legal matters. Among the contents of its first 
thirty sections the following items are mentioned by the Dtnkanf, 

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urine, when it becomes fetid, is to be stirred up 
(bard agan/61ni.rn6), and they should not carry it 
forth so to the fire, so that the stench extends to the 
fire ; because, if that stench extends to the fire, on 
account of the moisture and through carrying bodily 
refuse (hlgar) 1 on and forth to the fire, it over- 
whelms it ; that is taught in like manner lest, and 
owing to what is said, it then seemed to one that 
the bodily refuse and pollution of fetid bull's urine 
is on account of the stench. 2. But it is proper to 
observe it more fully mindfully, perfectly completely, 
and with better understanding, because that which 
is said by it, that the carrying of bodily refuse forth 
to the fire overwhelms it, is not on account of the 
pollution of the bull's urine, but the proportion of 
the sin through this ; so that it becomes the origin 
of as much sin for him as that pollution of the bull's 
urine ; but the stench, on account of moisture, is 
like him even who shall bring clean and purified 
water into the fire, and thereby becomes sinful 2 . 

and one of these passages probably contained tbe statement quoted 
in our text: — 'On carrying forth the boly-water and also the pot 
(dfgo-£) to tbe fire, that is, with purified and thoroughly-washed 
hands; and the sin of carrying them forth with unpurified and 
imperfectly-washed bands. On preserving the pot and the other 
things, whose use is with the fire, from defilement with bodily 
refuse ; when, through want of care, defilement occurs, and any 
one shall carry it unawares to the fire, he who is careless over- 
whelms it thereby. ... On lawfully warming the bull's urine on 
the fire, and tbe sin when it is not done lawfully.' 

1 See Dd. XLVIII, 19, note. 

* The argument is that the urine being a consecrated liquid, its 
corruption is not contaminating (provided it be not occasioned by 
foreign matter, as alluded to in § 7); but if the stench be sufficient 
to extinguish or injure the fire, it is as sinful to expose the fire to 
its influence as it would be to injure the fire with holy-water. 

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3. This, too, is a saying, that the proportion of 
the sin is mentioned not on account of the pollution 
of the bull's urine ; it is said to be a counterpart even 
of that which is declared of the care of the fash of 
the ass and pig, so that when they shall now carry 
unto the fire more than the proportion which is 
ordered, it overwhelms it through carrying bodily 
refuse forth to the fire, and even then that flesh, 
investigated as to purity, is mentioned as a supply 
for the season-festival 1 . 

4. The fetid bull's urine is itself likewise prepared, 
so that on this account it is ordered that it is to be 
stirred up, that so long as it is stirred up they may 
thereupon order the use of it ; if then it is to be 
rendered quite useless, there is afterwards no neces- 
sity for stirring it. 5. The stirring is declared a 
purification as regards polluted things, where bodily 
refuse is only such that it is not endless, and so 
pure that it purifies even that of another. 

6. When it is written of it itself, that it is thus 
declared in the Sak&dum Nask, that consecrated 
bull's urine which is fetid is to be stirred up for the 
fire, /'/ is afterwards declared that it is not speaking 
only of the bull's urine which is provided those three 
days*; but that, too, which is old and consecrated, 

1 So the damage to the fire is not occasioned by any impurity of 
the flesh ofthe ass or pig (which could be used for a sacred feast), 
but by the excessive quantity brought to it. The pig was formerly 
domesticated by the Parsis (see Sis. II, 58), but they have long 
since adopted the prejudices of the Hindus and Muhammadans as 
regards its uncleanness. 

2 Referring probably to the times ofthe three washings, subsequent 
to the chief ceremony, which take place after the third, sixth, and 
ninth nights, respectively, (see Vend. IX, 136, 140, 144.) 

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become fetid and is stirred again, when they keep it 
in use, is proper. 7. And that which the Saka^um 
has declared is, specially, that one of the high-priests 
has individually said : ' That stench is mentioned 
with reference to the occasion when a stench reaches 
it of a different kind/nwz that which exists naturally 
in it.' 

Chapter IX. 

1. And as to that which is written 1 , that ' the 
teachings of M&/y6k-mah, Afarg, and S6shans* have 
all three come and remained, and, on that account, 
whoever has washed just as they always wash 
therein is certain that he is worthy.' 2. Also, 
'should it have been as it were proper to them, 
would M&/y6k-mah have said that " not even the 
purifier is single ?'" 3. And the rest as written on 
that subject, which, on account of its acute observa- 
tion, has seemed to be from their statements ; they, 
however, have not decided it so by the teaching 
which is in their names, as was indicated by me 
before s . 

4. But I do not so understand that 'if those 
should have been all the particulars of the pecu- 
liarity of all three teachings, would the teachings of 
M&/y6k-mah and S6shans have said, concerning 
any one who should have so washed that the puri- 
fier was single, that it is suitable, because the high- 
priests have been thus very unanimous that when 

1 In the epistle to which he is replying. 

* See Chap.V, 1. ' See Chap. VI, 2-4. 

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there is one he is unsuitable 1 ? 5. And when it 
should be to them as it were proper that, apart from 
the hands, the other 2 customary parts (pi yak 6) 
should be washed once by them, would Afarg have 
said it is proper 3 , because washing them three times 
is not mentioned in the Avesta ? 6. And when it 
would have been as it were proper that the three 
hundred pebbles (sang) should not be cast into the 
water and bull's urine, would Afarg r s teaching have 
said that it is proper *, because there is not a single 
use for a pebble (sagiiakfi) ? 7. And when it 
would be as it were proper that he who is washed 
at the ablution seats (mak) at which any one has 
been washed during the length of a year, is not 
injured thereby — only they shall take them away 
and they are again deposited 6 — would M&/y6k-mah's 
teaching have said that it is proper, because, when 
the stones (sago) are again deposited by one, it 
is to effect the cleansing (vistari-fnS) of some one, 

1 The writer says he does not understand this argument of his 
correspondents, because it differs from the view he takes in Chap. 
VI, 2, but it must be confessed that the meaning of the passage in 
dispute (Pahl. Vend. IX, 132, b) is not very clear, as the word 
ashayerf, ' he is unsuitable,' can also be read ae sh£ye</, 'he would 
be suitable,' both there and in our text 

* K35 has one line blank here, but this was probably owing to 
the state of the paper, or some inadvertence of the copyist ; ae it is 
evident that none of the text is omitted. 

* Compare Chap. VI, 9-1 1. 

4 Compare Chap. VII, 16-18. 

* This shows that the places for ablution during the Bareshnum 
ceremony were, a thousand years ago, the same as now, namely, 
stones deposited on the ground, not holes dug in the ground, as 
directed in Vend. IX, 13, 14, 16. They are, in fact, the stones or 
hard material directed to be deposited at the holes in Vend. IX, 29, 
30, but they go by the old name for the holes (magb). 

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and when a shower of rain occurs thereon so that 
the whole place shall be thoroughly wetted, inside 
and outside, it is proper ? 8. And if some one says 
that this is the case of a rite by a teaching of 
authority, and the rule is by a teaching of private 
authority, is not the whole rite by any teaching 
proper, that consists in this washing which is 
thoroughly preserved as they keep it in practice 1 ?' 
9. The reply is even this, that every rite (nirdng) 
is to be performed in such manner as that which is 
said to be most preservative, and most connected 
with the declaration of revelation and the testimony 
of the high-priests concerning it. 10. And not for 
the reason that Meafy6k-mah's teaching is more 
preservative 2 as to one rite, and after that some- 
thing of Afarg is more preservative, is the operation 
to be performed by the statement of M&fy6k-mah ; 
but whatever is the more preservative of M&/y6k- 
mah'j is collected from MeWydk-mih, all the more 
preservative of Afarg from Afarg, and that which 
is the more preservative of any other high-priest 
from that which has the most preservative approval 
of the high-priest. 11. That which those high- 
priests have said, which they decide by just au- 
thority, is the commandment of the learned of the 
realm, which has lawfully arisen over the provinces 
(sh6harano) ; but even that statement opposing 
it which is much testified and manifestly more of 
a deliverance, or which is declared as an exposition 

1 This string of arguments appears to be quoted from the epistle 
to which the writer is replying, but as they are separated from their 
context it is difficult to understand the exact line of argument, or to 
be sure that they are translated correctly. 

9 From pollution or sin. 

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EPISTLE I, CHAPTER IX, 8-1 5. 315 

of the teaching of high-prieste of the religion in 
a dissimilar case, they shall then 1 wholly accept, 
and they are to perform the operation authorisedly 
and preservatively thereby. 

12. This, too, I so consider, that even if each 
separate teaching should be as it were proper, it 
would then not be determined by them as to the 
impropriety of the purifying cup, for M&/y6k-mah 
has stated, only as it was apparent to him, that 
every single" customary part is to be washed for 
three times*, and has not specifically determined 
that when all shall be so once .it is not proper. 
13. By the special teaching of M&/y6k-mah and 
the washing which is in the law that says — con- 
cerning those interpreting revelation — that whoever 
becomes quite polluted shall thoroughly wash by 
that law, so that his being washed is to be con- 
sidered as being washed, it (the rite) is not performed 
by me if, also, that other high-priest has said, that 
every one who becomes quite polluted, and washes 
not by the law of the primitive faith, is not to be 
considered as washed. 14. Then, too, in the special 
teaching of M&/y6k-mah it is not said, of that 
washing which is washed by the law of those of 
a portion of the religion (parak-din6an), that it is 
not proper. 

15. He who washes by the law of those of the 
primitive faith, which many high-priests maintain 
as excellent, because it is suitable, and imagines 
that regarding the threefold washing it should be 
said that it is not proper, even he — when he also 

1 That is, when the dissimilar case arises, or when it is manifestly 
more efficient. 
* See Chap. VI, 7. 

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has become of the same opinion as to this, that the 
statements of the high-priests are on an equality, 
and the most evidence of the high-priests is the 
right course — would have attained to confidence 
about this, that in a doubtful matter there should 
be a high-priest \ and also that of which Afarg and 
Soshans have alike understood a similar thing is 

Chapter X. 

i. And as to the many other matters to which an 
explicit reply is not written by me — be it the deter- 
minableness of it, be it the flow of inward prayer *, 
be it the pouring of the water, and likewise the rest 
which is written to me — the statements, when de- 
liberation and conjecture about such arrangements 
become needful, are not to be made unto the multi- 
tude, but unto the priestly at once 3 . 2. And this 
much, also, which is written by me is on this 
account 4 , that when a writing has come to you 
which is the purport of my re-explanation, and it 
has seemed that it is written after a>*?//-weighed 
(sakhtak6) observations', even so they would cause 
some of those of good desires to understand, who 
are thoughtful friends of the soul and observers of 

1 To consult about the matters in doubt 

* Reading va^-re^unSih; but J omits the first letter, and 
thereby converts the word into apardazunfh, 'want of leisure.' 

* J has merely 'the statements are when deliberation and conjec- 
ture become at once needful.' 

* Reading hani rS!, as in J; the other MSS. have hand It. 

5 Or, perhaps, 'strict observations' here, and 'strict observers' 
further on. 

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a>tf//-weighed ideas, in whose heart and mind, owing 
to that other writing \ the existence of doubtfulness 
may fully remain ; and, owing to that, this much 
re-explanation has, indeed, seemed to me good. 

3. And then the desire 2 to sprinkle 3 in many 
modes is also an incorrect presentation *, on which 
same subject there is this in consideration, that 
afterwards, peradventure, the same priestly man 6 
by whom it is written may come — whose assured 
wisdom • may the angels make steadfast! and whom 
my approaching causing a purifier to travel for 
various quarters has occasioned to write it — so that 
while they are, therefore, awed by him, and shall 
provide more completely for use the full measure of 
water and bull's urine, the complete words of the 
Avesta, and other proper rites, they shall proceed 
more approvably. 4. And if it be even not auxiliary 
for the same purpose (ah a no) that it was written 
by him — except, indeed, through consideration of 
its details — no reason for a writing of that kind is 
to be assigned. 

5. But if for the reason it was written by him it 
be manifest as an existence which is very little 
threatening, then I consider his opinion, which is 
in his decree, not so perplexing ; and, till 7 now, the 
perplexing consideration was more particularly as 

1 To which he is replying. 

* Reading adtn gtm, but this is doubtful. 

* The Huz. verb zertkuntanS, 'to sprinkle,' is not found in the 
glossaries, but is readily traceable to Chald. p"!?. 

* Reading arashn!k5-45-dahifnth. 
1 Meaning his brother, Z&f-sparam. 

* The usual Pahlavi phrase for the Av. 4sn6 khratuj or in- 
stinctive wisdom (see Dd. XL, 3). 

T Assuming that val stands for va/. 

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to- that, when, owing to the great learning thereof 
to be seen by me, this was not doubtful, that as io 
the great opinion of the world about the existing 
law of the profession of the priesthood, and the 
practice of all those of the good religion of the 
realm, they should make a decree only by the 
deliberation of me and other priestly men and 
religious observers 1 . 6. For if even he retorts a 
further statement 2 as to the appointed observance, 
its origin is then also a propagation from the diverse 
teachings of those great high-priests of those of the 
primitive faith, who were they who have been for- 
merly great. 

7. On account of the depth and much intricacy 
of the religion they mention many opinions and 
well-considered decrees which were likewise formed 
devoid of uniformity, and the utterance of the 
different opinions of the priests is with the reciters 
of the Nasks ; but even among themselves the most 
supremely just high-priests were of a different 
opinion, different judgment, different teaching, 
different interpretation, and different practice only 
in the peace, mutual friendship, and affection which 
they had together. 8. Just as that even which was 
prominent about these chief priests (mag6patan5 
mag6pato), whose names were Atur6-Fr6bag- 
vindaaf and Atur6-bu # f&/, who have been, each 
separately, the high-priest of the realm of the true 
religion and the scholar of the age. 

1 Implying that the more learning there is manifest in an erro- 
neous teaching, the more necessary it is to submit it to careful 

* Reading fr&gb va£ pato-yekavtmun6rf, and assuming that 
the last word stands for pato-tstfirf. 

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EPISTLE I, CHAPTER X, 6-1 1. 319 

9. To many, when an opinion is afterwards so 
obtained, pertaining to the high-priests in. the 
spiritual existence*, it is as is said about Zaraturt 
the Spltaman, that 'the first time when the arch- 
angels are seen by him, the Spltaman, it is then 
supposed by him that they are Alndar, Saru, Naki- 
jiyya, Tautr6t>, and ZatrLfc 2 , who are most mighty V 
10. From such as those the decree and its original 
perversity (bun-ga.rtlkSlh) and scanty preserva- 
tiveness are so written and prepared, and after- 
wards, also, your opinion is that way irritated by 
the habit of good thinking — of which there is so 
much manifest 4 from those of the primitive faith 
and the high-priests — because even its words and 
those written with it, and the completeness of will 
and religion which is written, inclined the mind 
away from the teaching of the high-priests. 

11. But as the same decree, or that which is 
resembling the same decree*, is appointed (vakhtS) 

1 That is, such as have passed away. 

' These are the last five of the arch-demons who are the special 
opponents of the archangels, being corruptions of the A vesta names 
Indra, Sauru, Naunghaithya, Tauru, and ZairUa (see Bd. 1, 27). The 
name of the first arch-demon, Akdman, is omitted here, probably 
by the mistake of some copyist, as six names are wanted to make 
up the number of the archangels exclusive of Auharmaarf himself. 

* J continues as follows: — '"of the demons." 10. Written 
with the wretchedness (vakharih) and savageness of such as 
those, the oppressiveness and disaster of a decree of that descrip- 
tion, and its original perversity,' &c. (as in the text). 

4 In the decree, which was so written as to appear to be directly 
derived from the teachings of the commentators, but, at the same 
time, so warped their statements as to lead astray. Hence, it 
might be compared to the conversion of an archangel into an arch- 
fiend through a mental hallucination, as mentioned in § 9. 

' J omits these last eight words. 

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and specially decided, and is not to be accepted 
from him, and the operation is not to be performed 
thereby, its position is then to be considered, by 
those steadfast in the practice of the pre-eminent 
religion, with the most advanced understanding and 
discernment, which are the thought of its true sta- 
tion in the religion of the Mazda-worshippers. 12. 
And other religious decrees, intelligently preserva- 
tive of the soul, which are made known and declared 
from the teaching of truthful high-priests of the 
religion of the Mazda-worshippers, are to be suitably 
accepted and fulfilled. 13. And since this opinion 
(dastako) of mine is, moreover, from the writing 
of Afarg, even about the preservation of different 
interpretations and different teachings, not specially 
owing to unobtainable statements of this shattered 1 
religion of the Mazda-worshippers, nor even to dis- 
tress through simultaneous strife, but owing to the 
desire of true opinions which has existed, there is 
safety abundantly, but temporarily, from the scrib- 
bling of the opposing, partial, and injurious writing 
of that priestly man 2 . 

Chapter XI. 

1. For completion little is observed by me ; and 
a man of my own, in a position of authority (sdng 
gah), comes wkh a second epistle 3 for that priestly 
man, opposing, disputing, showing the harm, making 

1 Reading hana giring, but it can also be read an adarog, 
' that undeceitful.' 

* Za</-sparam. 

* Not Ep. II, but one which preceded it (see § 5, note). 

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aware of the deliverance \ and applying for arrange- 
ment. 2. And the man who comes as a co-operator 
is announced by me, and the rite which is accom- 
plished by him is so till further notice, which is for 
my further epistle 2 ; because a double elucidation 
about that which it is necessary to arrange from afar 
is a custom more suitable for the discreet. 

3. If that same priestly man 3 should have been 
in the vicinity, then interviews with me, with a few 
words, would have been more preservative than try- 
ing to convert that wretchedness (vakhar) into that 
which is customary (pi .rako) even by further writing 
and much information. 4. And even now my pros- 
pect is a well-considering demand for explanation, so 
that, if the duties which are suitable for the discreet 
be really disposable for it, it is proper so to arrange 
what it is possible for me to complete for three 
months ; and I may go myself into the presence of 
that same priestly man for the arrangement of the 
indispensable duties, and may diffuse this arrange- 
ment properly*. 5. But there are many reasons 
for private reflection (nahlafS) on account of which 
a descent from position is an evil resource ; and this 
once a temporary epistle is written by me to him, 
and comes with this epistle*. 6. And Yzzd&n- 

1 From pollution, by means of the Bareshnum ceremony. 

* Probably referring to Ep. II, till the arrival of which (or that of 
Ep. Ill) they were to act as directed by the priest he sends with 
this epistle. 

* His brother ZivZ-sparam. 

4 This intended visit to Sirkan is also mentioned in Ep. II, v, 5; 
vi, 4» 6 ', vii, 3. 

5 Being apprehensive that personal interference might lead to 
altercations derogatory to his dignity, he prefers trying the effect of 
writing in the first place. The temporary epistle, here referred to, 

[18] Y 

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panak 1 , a man who is instructed 2 , shall come to him, 
who is friendly to custom (ainag-iyar), and of like 
rank with his own man who is faithful ; and I will 
write further and more controversially to him, and 
give the information advisedly with which I shall 
acquaint him, so that it may be more explanatory 
to him. 

7. But if through this which is written by me, or 
through myself 3 , he should come immediately (di- 
^andyls) unto Pars, I shall then be seeking an 
opportunity even for the retirement of him himself; 
I do not abominate it (madam 14 man^6m) when 
it is necessary for them and private, as is better. 

8. As to these other diffusions of arrangements 
which are pre-eminently the resources of that priestly 
man, and the acquaintance with revelation which is 
sought by him, for the sake of the advantage of the 
religion they should not be molested before 4 . 

9. May the arrangement and restoration and 
benediction of the revelation (din 6) of the Maa&- 
worshipping religion reach a climax! and may the 

could not have been Ep. II, as that was written after Ep. Ill, and 
was the further epistle promised in § 6. 

* Or, perhaps, Yasdan-pahnak. This was a common Parsi name 
in former times, as it is found in two of the Pahlavi inscriptions in 
the Kanheri caves, dated a.d. 1009 (see Indian Antiquary, vol. ix, 
pp. 266, 267), and the very similar name, Yazd-panih, occurs as the 
name of a Parsi convert to Christianity who was put to death about 
a. d. 541 (see Hoffmann's Ausziige aus syrischen Akten persischer 
Martyrer, p. 87). 

* Assuming that dinbar</5 stands for zinharl</5. 

* If I should come personally. 

* Referring probably to further matters of complaint, which he 
did not think it advisable to notice seriously until the present 
controversy was settled. 

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eminence of you listeners * to the primeval religion 
consist in long-continued, supreme prosperity, through 
all happiness ! then, through such thoughtful friends, 
the acquaintance with its difficult teaching and 
mighty words, which is to increase that gratitude 
of yours to me for my decisions, is made a blessing 
to you, if you observe therein a good idea which 
seems to you important, when it reaches your sight. 

10. The correct writer and scribe is ordered that 
he do not alter any of 2 the words (marik), while he 
writes a fair copy of this epistle of mine, which is 
written by me to you, and he orders some one to give 
*/ to that same man, Ya&a&n-panak, along with that 
epistle, so that it may come to him s , for there are 
times when I seem aware that it is better so. 1 1. And 
may the angels increase and enlarge your many new 
things with full measure and complete exaltation! 
the pleasure, peace *, righteousness, prosperity, com- 
mendation, and happiness of the powerful 8 who are 
all-controlling and happy-ending. 

12. Manu&6lhar, son of Yudan-Yim, has written 
it in the day and month of Spendarma*/ 6 , in the 

1 Reading nydkhshf</£r&n&, as in J, instead of avakhshi- 

* Reading min, instead of mun, 'who.' 

' To Zi</-sparam. This copy was that mentioned in Ep. II, 
vii, 1. 

* Reading s /am, as in J; the other MSS. have shnuman, 'pro- 
pitiation,' the two words being nearly alike in Pahlavi letters. 

* Reading patugdnS; J has pa<fvand£n5, * connections,' by 
inserting a stroke. 

* The fifth day of the twelfth month of the Parsi year; and, as 
Ep. Ill (which was evidently written after further consideration) is 
dated in the third month of a. y. 250, this must have been written 
in a. v. 249. The date of this epistle, therefore, corresponds to 
the 15th March, 881. 

V 2 

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enjoyment of righteousness, the glorification of the 
religion, trustfulness to the angels, and gratitude 
unto the creator Auharmasaf, the archangels, and 
all the angels of the spiritual and the angels of 
the worldly existences. 13. Praise to the month 
(mah) of like kind which is exalted in its name 
with this. 

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Copy of an epistle of the priest Manu&fthar, son 
of Yudan-Yim, which was prepared by him for the 
priest, his brother, Za^sparam 1 . 

Chapter I. 

i. In the name of the sacred beings who shall 
keep exalted the pre-eminent success olyour priestly 
lordship, accomplishing your wishes in both worlds, 
I am longing for the children — formerly promoting 
health of body — and for activity, and fully desirous, 
and in every mode a thanksgiver unto the sacred 
beings, for the well-abiding <?y*sight, peace, and 
understanding of your priestly lordship. 

2. The epistle that came from you in the month 
A&an 2 , which Nlvshahpuhar 8 was ordered to write, 

1 See the heading to Ep. I. 

* The eighth month of the Parsi year, which must have been 
a.t. 249 (see Ep. I, xi, 12, note). This month corresponded to the 
interval between the nth November and the 10th December, 880; 
but it is evident from Chaps. VII, 2, VIII, 1 that this reply was 
written about the same time as Ep. Ill, that is, in the interval 
between the 14th June and 13th July, 881. 

* This appears to have been the original form of the name Nikh- 
shahpuhar or Nlshahpuhar, applied both to a man (see Ep. I, iv, 
15, 17) and to a city in Khurasan, and in this place it is not quite 

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and .... by me from 1 .... and would have 

been quite desirable to increase my gratitude unto 
the sacred beings for the health and salutation of 
your priestly lordship, though it had been merely to 
write intelligence of your own condition ; for your 
writing of the epistle is not such as that of the dis- 
tant who write in duplicate, but like that of neigh- 
bours who think that everything new should always 
be really mutual information. 3. As to that, too, 
which you ordered to write about omens and such 
occurrences — for which my form of words is not as 
is twice specified within the epistle, and from hence- 
forth one should order to write intelligence more 
clearly — moreover, on account of want of leisure 
on many subjects, my heart is not disengaged even 
for the understanding of omens. 

4. I apprize your priestly lordship that in this 

certain whether a man or a city is alluded to. The text, as it 
stands in the MSS., is as follows : — ' Namako zitand dSn bidana 
Av&ab mun Nivshahpuhar niputanS farmiWo va mado.' This can 
be translated as in our text, if the word va be omitted ; but, if this 
word be retained and mun be changed into min, the translation 
would be as follows : — ' The epistle which some one was ordered by 
you to write in the month Avan from Nivshahpuhar, and which 
came/ Now it is evident from Ep. I that Zarf-s'param must have 
been in Sirkan for some time previous to the date of that epistle, 
15th March 881, and, therefore, probably in the previous Novem- 
ber ; but, at the same time, it must be noticed that there are allu- 
sions in this second epistle (see Chaps. 1, 12, V, 3) to his having 
been formerly at Sarakhs and among the Tughazghuz, that is, in 
the extreme east of Khurasan; it is, therefore, just possible that he 
may have been at Nivshahpuhar, on his way to Sirkan in the south, 
in November. 

1 J and BK attempt to fill up the blank with the words kfishvar 
ar^-, ' the value of the realm;' but the original text probably stood 
thus : — ' and was received by me from so and so,' the names having 
been torn off in some intermediate MS. 

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interval (tahlkfi) 1 a written statement has come unto 
me that the good people of Strkan are, indeed, so 
enveloped by you in distress, despondency, and 
trouble that its counterpart was when there was a 
liberation of our glorified fathers from the state of 
material existence. 5. For such as the insufficiency 
of the whole life of such was then to me, so even is 
the wounding and damage which comes now to my 
understanding and intellect. 6. The whole life of 
such is on the confines of the pure existence, a con- 
test with the complete incorrectness that remains 
contaminating the liturgy by which the greatest 
intelligence of the religion of the Mas*/a-worshippers 
is aided; a little also, finally, of sagacity and observ- 
ance of the apportionment of the more grievous 
impostures and more frightful delusions. 

7. And, first of all, as to when your completely 
vile idea first destroyed your own enlightenment, 
and quite subdued your seconding of me, is inoppor- 
tune (avidana) for me; and that ordinance*, which 
though it be also right, is then even grandeur, be- 
cause it is a law of the realm and an opinion of the 
world. 8. When even in the mansion of various 
thoughts, the residence of the assembly of Pars, and 
many other conventions to deliberate, and the united 
opinions of a thousand priestly men (magavdg) 
of the good religion thereon, it could remain unal- 
tered, then, also, the various good thoughts and 
opposing considerations that, along with me, the 

1 Since he heard from his correspondent The word cannot 
be tfjgako, ' nine days' as that would not tally with the dates of 
Eps. I and III. 

* Referring probably to the Bareshnum ceremony which 2&d- 
sparam wished to dispense with in many cases. 

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328 EPISTLES OF uklltsKiHAR. 

minds of other heads of the religion have promoted, 
and shaped or altered decisions thereon, and settled 
and issued orders thereon, could not have seen a 
grievance (se/) therein. 9. And this, too, should be 
observed among your requirements \ that when the 
fattiness 2 of the body is in wrinkles (£ln), so that four 
perfect ones of the period are provided, even then 
the opinion of a high-priest of the religion is greater 
than every opinion, but the law of the realm of 
various kinds 8 is only through the deliberation of 
the same perfect ones; to make him decide then is 
not proper 4 . 

10. And it would be desirable for you to take 
account of that which is said thus : ' Thou shouldst 
not practise that, O Zarattot ! when thou and three 
or four companions, in the village of a thanksgiver 
of the assembly, shall say this : " Such is an evil 
notion.'" 11. These words of his are then not taken 
into account by you ; and it is firmly and with acute 
observation determined by you, and thought preser- 
vative for yourself, that even the sin be not privately 
(andarg) declared by me unto the assembly which 
has deliberated at Shirls 8 . 1 2. You order this, and 

— »^ — ■ ■ -■■ ■ ... 1 1 ... — i^^ — ■■ ■ .1 ... ^ — ^ _ 1 ■ ■ 

1 J omits this phrase. 

* Reading mexakh or miskhd; but it may be masagfh, 
' squeezing.' 

* J has merely the words, ' even then the opinion of the high- 
priest for the realm,' which gives a reverse meaning to the text 

4 It appears from this, that when a supreme high-priest became 
very old, his worldly duties were put in commission, by being 
intrusted to a committee of four of the most learned priests ; but 
the opinion of the superannuated high-priest was still supreme in 
spiritual matters, though not to be trusted in worldly affairs. 

* Whither Mlnfciihar had specially gone to hold this assembly 
before writing Ep. I (see Ep. I, iii, 13). 

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EPISTLE II, CHAPTER I, 9- 1 4. 329 

it is known that if it were a statement of yours in 
the assembly of the Tughazghuz \ you would have 
been still less a speaker in private. 

13. I consider that you are as much under-Az«*Z 
(air) about this, as regards yourself, as Zaraturt 2 the 
club-footed (apafrdbd) when he arranged his gar- 
ments (vakhshaklha), and his club-foot is itself 
overspread thereby even to himself, so that he was 
then approved as good 8 by some of those of Kirm&n* 
when they heard of it, and those of Rat 8 (RaslkanS) 
wrote a reply that, if he should be appointed by you 
also at a distance, he would then be approved by 
them likewise as good. 14. This idea of yours is 
more heinous than that act of his, the reply from 
various sides is more mischievous, the disgrace 
among the people is more unslumberable, the load 
upon the soul is more consumingly heavy, and the 

1 The MSS. have Tughzghuz in Plzand. Mas'audt states (a.d. 
943) that the 7aghazghaz were a powerful Turkish tribe who 
dwelt between Khurasan and China, in and around the town of 
KtLrin, and not very far from the supposed sources of the Ganges. 
They had become Manicheans, having been converted from idolatry 
to the heretical form of Maa/a-worship taught by Mazdak (see 
Mas'audl, ed. Barbier de Meynard, voL i, pp. 214, 288, 399, 
quoted at length in a note to Sis. VI, 7). It would seem from the 
allusion in our text that Zarf-sparam had recently been among these 
Zaghazghaz, and might have imbibed some of their heretical 
opinions, so as to lead to this controversy with his brother and the 
orthodox people of Strkan. That he had recently been in the 
extreme north-east of Khurasan is further shown by the allusion to 
Sarakhs in Chap. V, 3. 

1 Evidently some recent pretender to the supreme high-priest- 
hood, who had endeavoured to conceal the deformity that disquali- 
fied him for that office. 

* That is, fit for the dignity he aspired to. 

« Here written Gtrmin (see Dd. XCIV, 13). 

' Near Teheran. 

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severance from, and contest with, Auharmazaf and 
Zaratfot become more incalculably perplexing. 15. 
And this, too, is my summing up (khapir) 1 — when 
your own acquaintance with the religion and salva- 
tion of soul are in such force — by the parable (an- 
guni-altakS) of that physician of the body who, 
when they asked about destroying the toothache, 
thereupon gave his reply thus: 'Dig it out!' and 
they rejoined thus : ' He is always wanted as our 
physician, so that he may cure even a tooth which 
is diseased;' I would extract its teeth 8 more plenti- 
fully and with more suspicion than he. 

16. And if, also, those of the good religion in the 
country of Iran be, therefore, always in want of the 
learning and acquaintance with religion of his priestly 
lordship, so that he disperses the profession and the 
preparation and management of the remedy 8 of many 
diseases, then he throws it away as a profession, and 
there is not much of a necessity for the wisdom and 
learning of his priestly lordship. 1 7. For there are 
some of the present time would never vouchsafe 
approval of a presiding fire 4 , which is in many 
modes an advance of foreign habits ; and of many 
things which are in writing, of a nature easier and 
more comfortable in a worldly sense, they offer and 

1 J converts the phrase into ' very heinous to me,' by reading 
azrfr and adding girSn. 

1 That is, he would drive the morbid ideas from his brother's 

' Meaning the practice of the Bareshnum ceremony, for which 
the priests were specially required. 

4 Probably because they saw no necessity for the presence of 
the fire at the sacred ceremonies. He is warning his brother that 
his heretical teachings would soon make the people imagine that 
they could dispense with the priesthood altogether. 

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EPISTLE II, CHAPTER I, 15-H, 3. 33 1 

always give more than he who is a priest ; and, at 
last, no one ever accepts any except him who is 
astute in evil and wicked 1 . 

Chapter II. 

1. I have also examined that writing 2 in detail, 
and it is very unprepared for the remarks of the 
learned and those acquainted with the religion, for 
the sentences concocted have to be divided, and the 
slender demonstration is disconnected (aparvan- 
di*/6); so I consider that it is not sent to be seen, 
as regards which such a course would, indeed, be a 
cause of terror to purifiers. 2. It is so written that, 
while on account of that same terror they are very 
much alarmed, and are thorough in maintaining the 
duty of the continuance of care for water and bull's 
urine 8 , and of the formula of the operation, they 
shall more fully perform it as a duty provided for 
high-priests; even from that I am more fully of 
opinion that your like judgment and own concession 
have produced this explanation. 

3. When I saw in the decree, such as that which 
you have written, that each time one comes unto a 
purifier who washes in such manner as is declared 

1 That is, some priest who teaches such heresies. These terms 
are those applied to the demons themselves in Pahl. Vend. XIX, 
140, 141, 147. 

* The decree of Zarf-sparam, a copy of which had been sent to 
him by the people of SirkSn (see Ep. I, iv, 7). 

' The two liquids used in the purifying ceremony of the Bare- 
shnum (see App. IV). 

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in revelation — which is evident, indeed, from his 
existence when he is a religious purifier, and also 
from your priestly lordship's knowledge of the rite ; 
indeed, there is no use of that same decree unless 
the scripture of revelation, likewise, be so — he is to 
do it with very strict observation, now, since, owing 
to the reception of terror by the purifiers, that pre- 
paration is evidently to produce, as regards their 
own disposition and movements, much harm and ir- 
regularity, and perplexed thoughts among the people, 
the discredit of the decreer is generated therefrom, 
and it would have been more reasonable to consider 
the terror and doubt of the purifiers in another way. 
4. That which is so explained by you as though 
it would remain accomplished and would be in notice 
— and this is written by you like as it were from 
a teaching of some description — is not proper; be- 
cause, thus, every rite in the performance of the 
desired operation, even by one single teaching, is 
suitable, which, like the preparation for the state- 
ments of lying litigants, is very like, but not correct. 
5. For when there are some who have furthered 
MeVyok-mah l better than the teaching of Afarg \ 
it is well when every single rite in the teaching is 
right; and as to his rite it is not very clear that 
deliverance 2 is promoted by maintaining it. 6. Even 
on that occasion when M&fydk-mah has mentioned 
threefold washing, and Afarg once washing 8 , Mtd- 
y6k-mah is the after deponent and Afarg the prior 

1 See Ep. I, v, 1. * From pollution. 

* In Pahl. Vend. IX, 132,7 (see App. IV), where the threefold 
washing is connected with the name of Afarg, and the once washing 
with that of M&fydk-mah ; but Ep. I, vi, 7-9 agrees with the state- 
ment here. 

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deponent 1 ; and, on that account, the statement is to 
be made as long as M&jfydk-mah is preserved, but 
as regards the opinion of the words of Afarg it is 
to be maintained in a state of preservation. 

7. As to that which Afarg has said 2 , that 'two 
purifiers are requisite,' M&afy6k-mah has also said 
that one is plenty; and, since the teaching of Sd- 
shans 8 is similar evidence to his, as to that which is 
said by him, they have thus been more unanimous 
that when there is one it would be proper ; and as 
several high-priests have announced just the same 
evidence, and Afarg himself and other priests have 
been of the same opinion where it is the performance 
of the beginning of the Vlkaya (' exorcism ')*, M6d- 
ydk-mah is preserved. 8. Not on this account, that 
Afarg is more preservative 6 through once washing, 
is the operation to be performed according to the 
teaching of Afarg, but the once washing from Afarg 
who is the prior deponent, and the one purifier from 
M&fydk-mah who is the most corroborated are to be 
accepted and to be conducted. 

9. And even the computers of the stars would 
make the position of the stars which exists when 
that of the sun and moon is from the direction (min 
zlk) of »Satvaharan 6 , that of Saturn from the direc- 

1 The words pasfmal, 'after deponent,' and p£smai, 'prior 
deponent,' are here written alike (see Ep. I, vi, 10, note). 

• In Pahl. Vend. IX, 132,6 (see App. IV and compare Ep. I, 
vi, 1-4). 

• See Ep. I, v, 1. « See Ep. I, vi, 6. 

• From pollution (see § 6). 

• The high-priest of the Parsis in Bombay is of opinion that the 
names of the three ' directions ' mentioned in this section are the 
Pahlavi forms of the names of three of the lunar mansions, whose 

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334 epistles of mAnOmtIhar. 

tion of Avenak, and that of Mars from the direction 
of Padframg6.y, a position which sends much good, 
and is said to be capable of undoubtedly (anarangak) 
bringing on maturity of strength. 10. That this is 
to be seen as an occurrence (g ast6) is a conjunction 
(nazdakd) which is not possible 1 , because, if the 
conjunction of .Satvaharan be exact, yet, since Saturn 
andMars are not at their conjunctions (m in nazdak), 
its effect is not a good configuration (khup tanu); 
if the conjunction of AvGnak be exact, yet, since the 
sun, moon 2 , and Mars are not at their conjunctions, 
its effect is not good ; and if the conjunction of Pa^- 
ramgd* be exact, yet, since the sun, moon, and 
Saturn are not* at their conjunctions, the effect is 

Pazand appellations are given in Bd. II, 3 ; and he identifies £atvS- 
haran with Kahtsar, Avdnak with Avdem, and Pat/ramgox with 
PadSvar. The reading of all these names is, however, very uncer- 
tain. .Satvaharan is written .Sataharan three times out of the five 
occurrences of the name, and the first syllable might easily be 
read Gaht=Kaht, so as to correspond with the Pazand; on the 
other hand, the reading .Sat corresponds with •Sata-bhisha^ or 
■Sata-taraka, the Sanskrit name of the 25th lunar mansion, Kahtsar. 
As Paz. Avdem seems to be merely Pahl. afdum, 'last,' I prefer 
identifying Avenak (which can also be read AveYak) with the ninth 
lunar mansion, Avra (Avrak in Bd. VII, 1, Azrak in Zs. VI, 1), the 
Sans. Arlesha. Paiframgdx is also written Padramgds twice out of 
the three occurrences of the name ; its identification with Pad6var 
makes it the first lunar mansion, the Sans. Arvint. The aspect of 
the heavens, therefore, which is here mentioned as very auspicious, 
has the sun and new moon in the latter part of Aquarius, Saturn in 
the first part of Aries, and Mars in the latter part of Cancer, that is, 
twice as far from Saturn as the latter is from the sun and moon. 

1 That is, it very rarely happens ; as rarely as the exact agree- 
ment of three different commentators, whom these three conjunc- 
tions are intended to represent. 

* Reading mitrd mah, instead of MS</y6k-mah. 

• The MSS. omit la, 'not,' by mistake. 

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not good; on account of 1 which, in any conjunction 
which is not exact, they believe it possible for a 
firm mind also to accomplish this auspicious labour 
(, but they say the just and wise 
should make the decision 2 , n. So that this one is 
a very good position, because that which is truly 
issuing (rast-ta/ - ) through the conjunction of .Satva- 
haran is from that mighty .Satvaharan 8 , and that of 
.Satvaharan being better through the conjunction of 
Paaframgfo, that is done*. 

1 2. You should understand that of the same kind 
is the similitude of the three teachings, of which you 
have written, with this similitude which I have por- 
trayed 6 and ordered to form and scheme, so that 
you may look at it more clearly, from a proper 
regard for your own deliverance 6 , for the sharp 

1 Reading ril, as in J, instead of the 1£, 'not,' of K35 and BK. 

1 That is, the circumstances are too unpropitious for any one to 
come to a decision without consulting those -who are better qualified 
to judge, as is also the case when commentators disagree. 

' Reading min zak rabd .SatvSharan, but this is doubtful, 
because K35 has min rab£ Shardn with zak Sat written above 
min rabi; BK has min zak SatS (or di</5) rabi aharSn (or 
khiran), which is merely reading the same characters in a different 
order ; while J omits most of the doubtful phrase, having merely 
min zak-i, which, with the alteration of rast-ta^ into r&sttar, 
changes the meaning into the following : — ' because that which is 
through the conjunction of .Satv&harSn is more correct than that 
of .Satvaharin, and that which is through the conjunction of Parf- 
ramgo;, that is done.' 

• Or ' that remains the effect' 

• Reading rifj&nint<ft>; K35 and BK omit the first letter so 
as to convert the word into dthantni</6, which might mean 
' presented.' 

• From pollution. There is some temptation to use the word 
' salvation ' for bu^ixn, but this would introduce ideas that were, 
no doubt, foreign to the author's mind. 

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336 epistles of mAnO^har. 

intellectuality of the re-explainers of what is not 
well-considered in connection with its purpose (ihan- 
kS), and for the accumulation of opinions that is 
steadfast in the law of the ancients and orders you 
to heed it. 13. For, owing to the miraculousness 
and pre-eminence of that 1 , he who thinks to restore 
the good ideas of the ancients does not himself 
understand the knowledge in that wisdom of the 
ancients, and does not keep his own presumption 
(mlnlh) lowly and teachable; much, too, which is 
through his own learning is declared to be out of 
it (the law), and how he orders us to understand it 
is by his own opinion *. 

Chapter III. 

1. It is disquieting about this, too, which is 
declared in your writing 3 , as regards your vehement 
desire and embarrassment (ruzdlh) for a new law, 
and your wish and longing for the establishment of 
the law of the apostles*; as also that which you 
have done about the gathering of the details of 
statements from the three teachings 8 , and about 

* The ancient law, as contained in the difficult language of the 

' That is, commentators are apt to attribute to the scriptures 
many opinions which really originate in themselves. 

* The decree mentioned in Chap. II, 1. 

4 That is, the new law which the future apostles, HushSdar, 
Hush€<&r-mah, and Sdshans (see Dd. II, 10) are expected to bring, 
so as to restore the religion in preparation for the resurrection. 

8 Those of M&ry6k-mah, Afarg, and Sdshans (see Ep. I, v, x, 6). 

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causing the rapid bringing of the new law. 2. And 
on account of your embarrassment and -wrong-doing 
(va^ag) they would give up the Frasnate6 ('wash- 
ing upwards 1 ') and Upasnate6 ('washing down- 
wards '), to bring the fifteen times which are without 
ordinance (bara ainako), that are after it 2 , back to 
the fifteen which are a portion of the ordinance 
(atnako vai). 

3. As to the three times, each of which times one 
runs a mile (hasar) even until he obtains a purifier 8 , 
since peradventure thy mile (pa rasa ng), too, might 
become more, all the good work is written purposely 
(a^-karlha) of three miles and more*. 4. And 
that, too, which the high-priests have so appointed, 
when he has striven in that manner for three per- 
sons 8 , -or that sin and retribution of his is appor- 
tioned unto them and brought to the balance 
(san^ag-alniafS), is because that commission and 
retribution of sin might now, peradventure, be 

1 These terms are quoted from Vend. VIII, 276, 279 (see 
App. V), and are thus explained in Pahlavi in Chap. IV, 2. 

* Referring, apparently, to the second mention of the fifteen 
washings, in Pahl. Vend. VIII, 281, which does not occur in the 
Avesta text (' the ordinance '), but refers to its previous occurrence 
in § 279 of the Avesta. But, perhaps, the author means that they 
would confound the final washing appointed in Vend. VIII, 299 
with the preliminary washing appointed in the previous § 279. 

' See Vend. VIII, 280, 287, 291 (compare App. V and Ep. I, 
ii, 6, note). 

4 After the polluted person has thrice run a mile, he is to run 
further (see Vend. VIII, 294) to some inhabited spot ; from which 
directions the author concludes that any excess of distance is 
immaterial. K35 and BK have 'four miles and more,' but this 
seems to be a copyist's blunder. 

• To purify him, and, if they refuse, they each take a share of 
his sin (see Vend. VIII, 280-293). 

[.8] Z 

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allotted unto the priest 1 ; for if he were impure 
(pali$t6) there would be no one whatever who 
would properly perform the purification as it is 

5. Then it has become indispensable for you to 
perform the purification, for that operation — so 
suitable for the discreet where ' he who has been by 
the dead 2 ,' so that he has become polluted, and 
even ' the stars and moon and sun shine upon his 
life discontentedly' — is just as fit for the exalted 
when there is great 'propitiation of fire, water, 
earth, cattle, righteous males, and righteous women' 
thereby. 6. So great is its value that where there 
is no purification of the body it is not possible to 
purify the life and soul ; and when there is a man 
in a realm who is able to perform it, that man is 
not justifiable except when he shall perform it. 

7. Finally, when that pre-eminent operation is 
being accomplished, over which there is in revelation 
and the perfect information due to revelation that 
supreme 3 control which you are so disputing in the 
religion — which even through your trifling (k h ur- 
ate, k 6) in the name of authority is becoming a 
struggle (patkar-yehevun) — then, though it may 
not be possible for you to perform it yourself, it 
should thereupon be the duty of some one of your 
disciples to perform it in your sight, so that you may 
be aware of the rite, even apart from the great 
resources in that most learned (A^tum) acquaintance 

1 Who is to purify him finally with the Bareshnflm ceremony. 
1 Referring to Vend. IX, 1 61-163, quoted at length in Ep. I, iv, 3. 
* Reading mahtstd, but it can also be read Mag«/ayast6, 
' MaWa-worshipping.' 

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with revelation which is associated with you 1 . 

8. Also from that which is repeatedly written by 
you with understanding of the rite, as regards all 
three teachings 2 , it is manifest those rites are 
mentioned even as those which are more maintained, 
and are not those which are unnecessary to perform. 

9. You are a something therein that tends to 
preserve 8 a little ^/"what it is not possible for thee 
to attain fully in any mode ; when thou shalt obtain 
the operations of the voice*, and the water and 
bull's urine, as well as the three men 6 , or thou 
shalt give a man 6 to wash therein, the intellect of 
those controlling is then, indeed, not preservative 

10. It is proper also for you to consecrate the 
water and bull's urine by that ritual which is in all 
three teachings, to prepare your own ritualistic 
liquid and other things which are approved among 
you with mutual assistance, and to appoint a purifier 
who has performed fully acceptably and been wanted. 
11. Then, to give out properly to the country that 
the purification is according to my order, I always 

1 That is, even when not performing the ceremony himself, his 
presence would be desirable, for the sake of securing due attention 
to all the details, with which his superior knowledge must make 
him better acquainted than his subordinates. 

* See§i. 

* Reading bukhtanS; the MSS. divide the word, so as to con- 
vert it into bara tanu,'without a body.' The meaning is that by 
his presence he is, at all events, able to secure some efficiency in 
the ceremony, when he is compelled to intrust its performance to 
subordinates who are not fully competent. 

* In the prayers and exorcisms. * See § 4. 

* That is, one thoroughly qualified (the priest mentioned in § 4) 
who requires no special supervision. 

Z 2 

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340 epistles of manOmtJhar. 

perform it more acceptably than that of other puri- 
fiers. 12. For the water atid bull's urine are all 
consecrated by me, and the three hundred pebbles 
(sang 1 ) are cast into them (aubax) by me, just as 
it is directed ; the operation is also directed by me 
in the three days 2 when it is performed, and all the 
customary parts are washed three times by me 5 ; 
the ablution seats (makS) are also arranged by me 
anew for every single person, and the use of washed 
seats is not ordered by me therein 4 ; every rite of 
the washing by the purifier is also so performed by 
me as all three teachings have mentioned as per- 
fection. 13. You become the best of the district, 
as regards the minutiae (barikidfoan) of the puri- 
fication that is within your duty, so long as they 
excite the sight 8 , but which are curtailed (kazd) by 
you in the way of washing disclosed to me*, while, 
when it should be performed by you in this manner, 
your performance would be equally constantly ex- 
tolled and your writing praised. 

14. When, then, you write of it that they should 
always perform it just as now, the falsity therein is 

1 See Ep. I, vii, 16. 

1 The 'three washings ' mentioned in PahLVend. IX, 132,0 (see 
App. IV) ; referring probably to those after the third, sixth, and 
ninth nights (see Vend. IX, 136, 140, 144), that is, on the fourth, 
seventh, and tenth days of the Bareshnum ceremony. Most of 
this clause is omitted in J. 

* As said to have been directed by M&fy6k-mah (see Chap. II, 6, 
Ep. I, vi, 7), though the extant Pahlavi Vendidarf (IX, i32,_/) attri- 
butes the order to Afarg. 

* Compare Ep. I, ix, 7, Pahl. Vend. IX, 13a, q, t. 

' J has ' so long as they advance the purification as much as 
possible by a resemblance so approved.' 

* In the heretical decree under consideration. 

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grievous (yagar), and I know none worse; for this 
washing and professional purification which one is 
to keep in operation — as is declared by revelation, 
the teaching of high-priests, and those of the primi- 
tive faith who are esteemable 1 — you withdraw 
(madam dareVQ) from the midst of us. 15. That 
which you understand yourself is that unto Auhar- 
mazd the confederate good creatures are as it were 
defiled, and in the eyes of the good and wise they 
are as it were propitiatory towards the mischievous 
Va£*. 16. And your words about it are just as 
they say concerning a beggar 3 , where a garment 
is given to him, thus : ' Wash the dirt (&lug) on him 
thoroughly clean ;' and that garment they shall take 
is put upon the fire and burnt ; and he spoke thus : 
' My dirt was a comfort.' 

Chapter IV. 

I. It* is both explained again and summarized 
thus: — If the decree be from a law of Zaraturt, is it 
so decreed as he spoke it ? and if they should never 
perform by that, do not bring the Avesta and its 
exposition into the midst of it. 2. For the fifteen 
times of which you have written, if from the reve- 
lation of Zaraturt, are his mode of washing fifteen 
times upwards and fifteen times downwards 6 , a rule 

1 That is, by the Avesta and Zand. 

* Reading anak5 Vie" ; he is the demon that carries off the soul 
(see Dd. XXX, 4). Even the best creatures are imperfect in the 
eyes of Auharmaof and the righteous. 

* Reading niyiskar, instead of the niyisar of the MSS. 

* His own line of argument. * See Chap. Ill, a. 

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which is fulfilled. 3. // is said, if one's defilement be 
owing to depositing any bodily refuse (higar-1), 
then nothing of this is ever necessary for him, for 
one reckoning (mar-1) 1 will smite that which he 
takes hold of with a finger and it is clean, or it will 
smite a golden yellow clean, or whatever 2 it shall 
smite is clean ; but nothing merely clean is purified, 
unless a demon be clean 8 . 

4. And this, too, is very amazing to me, that 
when this is not taken into account by you, that 
when there should be, and one should obtain, no 
purifier 4 it would then be necessary for him to 
operate himself 6 , how then is this knowledge ob- 
tained by you, on which information (agahlh) has 
reached you, that the purifying of all the purifiers 
of the country of Iran is just as they should always 
perform it. 5. When, as I consider, there is then 
no complete acquaintance with the management of 
a house in you, its own master, in what manner 
then is your account of the gossip 6 , and your infor- 
mation, about all the purifiers of the country of Iran 

1 That is, a single washing, which is sufficient for ordinary 
defilements unconnected with the dead. 

9 This is doubtful; the word seems to be £ik£ in Pazand, but, as 
the Av. 1 and u are much alike in Iranian MSS., it may be read 
£uk-6, and the phrase would then be 'or it will smite a penis 

' That is, cleanliness can no more be considered purification 
than a demon, who is supposed to be an embodiment of impurity, 
can be considered clean. 

4 J has ' when there should be no purifier it would be necessary 
to beg the help of a chief of the religion, and when one should not 
obtain that' 

* As directed in Vend. VIII, 399 (see App. V). 

* Reading va£ sakhun, but this is uncertain. 

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obtained ? 6, If your people should abandon that 
which is most indispensable, and your account of 
the gossip, as regards that which the whole realm 
has done, be not according to the commands of reli- 
gion and to sound wisdom ; and if it has not come 
completely to your knowledge as the washing of the 
purifiers of the country of Iran — because, when you 
do not fix the number even of their footsteps 1 , it is 
certain that your understanding of their disposition 
and virtuous practice is even less — then it was 
necessary for you to determine the reason that all 
the purifiers in the country of Iran always wash that 
way that is declared as improper, with whatever 
certainty it be uttered or written. 

Chapter V. 

i. If this which is said by you be a knowledge 
that is replete (a»kar) with advantage, why was it 
then necessary for you to keep it as it were con- 
cealed 2 from me, when I thus consider that, if a 
knowledge should be rightly obtained by you, it 
should then have been needful for you to report 
unto me on the first rumour 8 from every one who 
is well-enlightened (hu-b&m)? 2. If this decree 

1 Referring probably either to the distance of the Bareshnum 
place from pure objects, or to the distances between the holes or 
ablution seats, and from them to the furrows, mentioned in Vend. 
IX, 12, 14, 18, 22 (see App. IV). 

1 Reading nthan5, as in J, but K35 and BK omit the first 

* Assuming that mayig is a pseudo-Huzv&ru equivalent of 
&v&g (Pers. &v&); may a being the true Huzvarur of tv, 'water.' 

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344 epistles of mAn^^Ihar. 

seemed so to you before, between when you have 
been in Pars and this time when in Slrkan, it was 
not well considered with those acquainted with the 
religion, the wise and the high-priests, and not even 
reported. 3. If not conceived by you before, then 
what learned acquaintance with the religion was 
acquired by you in Sarakhs 1 and Shiraz, about 
which you are enlightened ? 4. And before it was 
to be well considered amid observation and medita- 
tion 2 what high-priest was obtained by you in Shirks, 
who, when it was well considered with him, in com- 
pletely securing himself, kept you away from deli- 
beration to be decided with me and other priestly 
men and high-priests ? 

5. If not decided by you in Pars on account of 
breaking away from me, that is as though you your- 
self understand that I am to keep, in my own person, 
not even in the rank of discipleship unto you, but 
in that which is like servitude ; and my coming 8 , 
which is on your account, is even an accumulation 
of harm and distrust (tars) which you have amassed 
for yourself by having written and acted, and has 
made me suffer sorrow (vi^var!n!^6) in my own 
person. 6. If it had been shown to me by you that 
it would be the preservation of the religion, it would 
then have incited me to accept it steadfastly. 7. If, 

1 A town in the extreme north-east of Khurasan, between Nishah- 
puhar and Marv, but nearer the latter city. When in this town 
Za^-sparam probably came in contact with the Tughazghuz men- 
tioned in Chap. 1, 12. 

* J inserts the words 'by you, and through your good considera- 
tion it was more properly undeceiving, if done, then.' 

8 Referring to his intended visit to Sirkan, mentioned in Chaps. 
VI, 4, 6, VII, 3,Ep.I,xi, 4 . 

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for the sake of co-operation with me, a lawful decree 
had been even more privately propagated by you, 
and if the religious demonstration about it were con- 
servative and correct, it would then have been less 
vexatious for you to explain it to me than to others 
who have less acquaintance with the decrees and 
declaration of revelation ; and if a difference had 
arisen thereon, a correct reply would then have 
come to you more fully from me. 8. And if you 
conceive that it is not necessary to demonstrate it to 
me through the declaration in revelation, that deli- 
verance which it is not necessary to announce is not 
to be so decreed, even in another place. 9. And, 
just as even in Pars, if it were not decreed by you 
in Slrkan on that account, when your conception 
was that they would not accept it from you, it 
was necessary for you to know that, because it was 
not possible for you to provide much interval for 

10. If its purport be now considered by you, when 
you are moving as to the writing from Shirlz 1 — 
which writes fully of your acquirement and interpre- 
tation of it, and of a mutilated deliverance 2 — the 
arrangements for iniquity on this subject are many. 
1 1. And one of them is the erroneous writing 8 which 
is with me, for you conceive that they would accept 
from me your mew, as it were swearing (s 6 kandlko) 
that it does not go to the filth accumulated for* 

1 Referring probably to Ep. I, which appears to have been 
written from Shiras after holding a general assembly (see Chap. I, 
11, Ep. I, iii, 13) ; but this epistle, judging from the remark in the 
text, was probably written after Man&r/tihar had left Shiras, as was 
also Ep. Ill (see Chap. VIII, 1). 

* From pollution. ' See Chap. II, 1. 

* Assuming that the Paz. p^sihu stands for pas s&kh-l; but, 

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Zaratust, and does not contend with him ; and that 
the opposition (hamemalih) does not strive for a 
new law, and does not increase the evil of the spirit 
and the world, since it labours for the hoard of 
the soul. 

1 2. And, persistently concealed, that was done by 
thee, owing to which is the anguish of my life ; for 
it is annoying when a wound of the soul is not actu- 
ally realised by means of the decree ; but if, too, 
it should be really avoidable, it is then even said 
that ignorance itself would be regenerative (navazft- 
</ariha), since it is not dubious to me, unless a 
matured knowledge of creation and some of that 
even of the angels should be in sight 1 . 13. Also 
through their much talking, which is like Vlsaru 1 , 
and much affliction, which is like the eradication 
of life, there is a perpetual demonstration then in 
every place of the country of Iran, where this infor- 
mation about its religion shall arrive, that they then 
consider thee as an apostate and an enemy of the 

14. And through this eager procedure of yours 
many troops in the provinces, who have to horse 
(asplnldfanS) themselves, have joined Atflr5-pa^ 3 ; 

as Av. g and d are much alike, it may be prfsahu, which, when 
written in Pahlavi letters, can also be read pa</ gShin, 'protector 
of the world;' or p</sahu may be merely a corruption of pa</- 
shdh=pa</akhshah, ' sovereign.' 

1 Meaning that he should have preferred being ignorant of such 
a decree, unless it exhibited far more knowledge of the truth than 
it actually did. 

1 So written here in Pazand; but, no doubt, the demon Vtzaresha 
(the Vlzarash of Dd. XXXII, 4, XXXVII, 44), who carries off the 
souls of the wicked, is meant. 

' The name, apparently, of some rival of his in authority, who 
is also mentioned in Chap. IX, 11. 

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EPISTLE II, CHAPTER V, 1 2- 1 6. 347 

for, inasmuch as those most mounted on horses 1 are 
the washers 2 of Slrkan, who would have always 
thought about their abundance which is due to the 
archangels, they have spoken with opponents about 
this interpretation of the section of scripture (yifaV)*, 
and so become similarly testifying 4 , thus: 'We do 
not conceive it is necessary to demand thy reason for 
this most grievous disaster 6 , a thing which is more 
complete through your elucidation of doubt and the 
power of the enemy, owing to this way which is 
appointed by thee.' 15. And on that account, too, 
it is more disquieting unto me, when I am aware 
both of the origin of this perplexity and the sur- 
passing contamination which is possible to arise 
from it. 

16. And you always so observe as not to leap 
(14 atyyukhtanS) without looking before ; but tem- 
porary observation is nothing really of that which, 
by a well-stinging similitude, is what one observes, 
with the eyesight looking well forward, when dust of 
many kinds is domesticated with the sight of the 

1 Reading asp-virak£ntum, and this meaning tallies well with 
the previous mention of troops horsing themselves ; but J, by pre- 
fixing a stroke, changes the word into vispdharak&ntum, ' those 
most renowned among the spheres.' 

* The ceremonial washers or priests. 

* The term vtdak is applied to sections or chapters of the 
Avesta in Dd. XLVII, 1, 5, 6, LXVI, 4 ; and here it must be 
applied to the Avesta of Vend. VIII or IX, to which the misinter- 
pretations of Zirf-sparam specially referred. 

* J has 'and so given similar testimony, which is written by them 
of a priest of your fame, and written by them to me.' 

* The diminution of their means of livelihood by the decrease of 
ceremonial washing, more than their apprehension of the sinfulness 
of such decrease. 

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eye ; and if his intellect be not judicious he is won- 
derfully deceived by it ; and should it be even when 
he mentions the existence of two moons, has it 
become more proved thereby ? 17. //wa custom 
of the most provoking in itself, and presented dis- 
quietingly when I, who believe with a fervent mind, 
would have delivered the life even of my body over 
to the perplexing bridge 1 for your happiness and 
enjoyment. 18. Also, on account of my want of 
leisure, even the information which is presented, 
asking peace, is information I believe with a gene- 
rous mind ; and being aware regarding my want of 
leisure is both an advantage and harmful, and the 
heart to write of them 2 is, therefore, miraculous. 
19. Then it is always necessary for me, who am in 
want of leisure, to write unto you so much writing 
of the harassing of annoyers and against disputes, of 
whose end there is no conception in my heart. 

Chapter VI. 

1. When at any time I write more pleasantly, this 
directs you to understand that still with the stead- 
fast are my affection and natural lowly-mindedness ; 
afterwards, too, that which happens when you have 
kept me wide away from the way of brotherhood, 
and higher even than a father, master, leader, ruler, 
or high-priest, is due to the fame and happiness of 

1 The K'mvzd bridge, or passage to heaven (see Dd. XX, 3); 
meaning that he would have been ready to lose his life for the sake 
of his brother. 

* The heart to write of the 'happiness and enjoyment' of § 17. 

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my body and life, not to affection of character, but 
the position of religion and the command of the 
sacred beings. 2. On that account, when you have 
seen the pure religiousness, the learned knowledge, 
and the repose-promoting truth of the invisible 
(avdnaplh) of which my 1 heart is leaping with evi- 
dence, so that you are steadfast even unto the nbid 
asta-ia ('not though the body') of which Zaraturt 
the Spltaman spoke 2 — and, because, turned by me 
to the religion which is thy passport (parvanakS) 
to the best existence, you have understood that it is 
the organizer of the greatest protection, even that 
is supposed by me — I undergo all the terror of the 
•■period in hope of the supreme recompense. 

3. And the position that that religion has given, 
which on that account is mine, you have that way 
considered as supremacy s ; and if, sent from you or 
another person, the opposition of one of the same 
religion is seen to be the dispersion and disruption 
of the appointed profession, I act against the con- 
tinuance of the opposition, and as steadfastly as the 
series (zarah) of submissiveness and gratification of 
your priestly lordship has done to me. 4. And this 
will be undoubtedly realised by you, that if you do 
not turn away from this decree which is not pre- 
servative, but, being appointed, I reach out from 

1 The MS. J ends at this point, but the continuation of the text, 
as far as the word ' important ' in Chap. IX, 7, is interpolated in 
Dd. XXXVII, 33 in the same MS. 

* In Vend. XIX, 26, ' not though the body, not though the life, 
not though the consciousness should part asunder,' would he curse 
the good, Mazrfa-worshipping religion. 

' He now proceeds from persuasion to an assertion of his 
authority, accompanied by threats. 

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the country of I rein 1 , then I shall become its great- 
est attacker of you. 5. And so I consider that 
from my opposition it is possible for more harm to 
happen unto you than from many accusers who are 
like the leader of those of the good religion, the 
many who are as it were of like fame with me. 

6. And also from my departure, and the non- 
existence of one that is a friend of yours, who, like 
me, is less able to be for your harm than he who is 
one of the many accusers of whom it is I who am 
the restrainer, you know this, that my coming is on 
account of the affection of some and the reverence 
of others. 7. From the exercise of religion I do 
not at all fall away, and for the sake of the position 
of the religion I am maintaining opposition a to any 
one ; even when he is a friend who is loved by me, 
I am then his antagonist. 8. Fate (zlk5) 3 is the 
great truth of the vacant, the form (an dim) 4 which 
has procured the light of life. 

Chapter VII. 

1. A well-reflecting person, moreover, is able to 
understand that which is written by me, in private, 
in writing unto the good people of Sirkan, as perhaps 
a legitimate copy* of a writing of that kind from 

1 Referring to bis intended visit to Strk&n (see Chaps. V, 5, VII, 3, 
Ep. I, xi, 4). 
1 J has ' I am an opposition.' 

* Or ' living.' « Or ' the time (hangSm).' 

• The MSS. have ptn6, instead of pa/iinS. This copy of Ep. I 
is mentioned in Ep. I, xi, 10. 

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me may be near you ; and it was like the production 
of some one for the tearing and rending of his own 
limbs, and for the purpose of bringing on that 
remedy — the burning, torturing medicine that is 
religious 1 — whose purpose is to remain away from 
the steadfast while abiding by the commands of 
religion. 2. This same epistle 2 , which was one of 
very great incompleteness, and one as it were 
thinking very severely, was similar to the decision 
(azad 8 ) to which I have come on the same subject, 
which is written of below and again ; and accom- 
panying this epistle was a man of my own with 
a further epistle 4 . 3. I am discharging (vi^arako) 
my own duty as regards it 6 , where I so arrange 
affairs of every kind which it is possible for me to 
complete for a period of three months ', and come 
myself to where you are, and that mastery (£lrth) 
which is prepared is again arranged when it is 
wanted by them 7 . 

4. You have already become a reserver (khamo- 
.sl^ar) and rapid preparer of the adaptation of words 
in which cogency exists, and have clearly explained 

1 Probably meaning ' remorse.' * Ep. I. 

' Chald. "U*j, referring to his general mandate (Ep. Ill) men- 
tioned again in Chap. VIII, 1. 

* The temporary epistle to Zarf-sparam (mentioned in Ep. I, xi, 
1, 5), of which no copy has been preserved. 

1 J begins as follows: — 'And I will come later on and more 
combatively, when it is requisite for the sacred beings (or for 
them) ; I am also myself in possession of an opportunity as re- 
gards it' 

* This period for his visit to Sirkin is also mentioned in 
Ep. I, xi, 4. 

7 Or 'by the sacred beings;' the words yazrffin and sin being 
written alike. 

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-- -- "---^s vu - aji f 


as much as is in sight about the reason of altering 
that decree, concerning which your opinion is written 
with great judiciousness. 5. But as to the under- 
standing which prompted you to write properly, and 
not to alter the rites and purifications of the Avesta, 
and about the duty of purifying the purifiers 1 , such 
as has entered into the practice of the good, the 
propriety is declared in the teaching of the high- 
priests ; and to do it better, so far as is possible, is 
to strive forwards in goodness. 

6. Also, as regards changing the law of the 
fifteen times washing 1 , just as it is for Iran in which 
purifiers are to be found, it is ordered for places to 
be found without purifiers ; and it is in the countries 
of Iran that the order is given regarding purifiers 
not thus appointed for the work. 

Chapter VIII. 

1. To arrange again for approval the other 
matters, of which a portion is written about by you, 
an epistle s is again prepared in advance for Slrk&n, 
Shiran, and other places, so as thus to make your 
decree a writing of bygone offence. 2. Because, 
if your despatch (fir 1st) prepared this new pro- 
ceeding, and you do not turn away/raw it, and do 
not recede through opposition and accumulation 
of vexation, and these others, too, like thee, shall 

1 J has 'and not to alter the purification in the rites of the 

1 See Chaps. Ill, 2, IX, 2, Ep. I, ii, 6, note. 

* Ep. Ill, also mentioned as a ' decision ' in Chap. VII, 2. 

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not now abandon routine of that kind, then your 
children, your own precious ones who are beloved — 
of whom I know that you make them love you, 
and do not, moreover, diminish in your protection 
of them — shall be your accusers; and they shall 
abandon confidence in me as refuge and guardian, 
and in the sacred beings, through want of advice 
and want of guardianship. 3. The fires of the 
sacred fires whose manager is a guard and pro- 
tection such as I, lest they should not obtain such 
an officiating priest (zdtS), will have in defence and 
guardianship of themselves to make back to their 
Shiran abode. 4. And / myself shall have to retire 
(agvirazldfono) from the countries of Iran, and to 
wander forth to far distant realms where I shall not 
hear a rumour about your evil deeds. 5. In my 
occupation, moreover, my fortune (yukun) may be 
to wander forth by water even to China, or by land 
even to Arum 1 ; but to be carried off by Vie 2 , that 
uplifter, is much more my desire than when I am 
there where, owing to you, I hear that, as regards 
the glorifying of the sacred beings, which, because 
of my reply obtained above, would then be as much 
as death to me ; it would also be the ending of that 
internal strife, so distasteful (aparvarakS) to me, 
which is like his who has to struggle with his own 

1 The eastern empire of the Romans, that is, Asia Minor and 
the neighbouring regions. 
* The bad V&6, who carries off the soul (see Dd. XXX, 4). 

[18] A a 

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Chapter IX. 

i. This, too, this aged one (auzvarafo ') orders, 
that, as to the polluted of the countries of Iran, 
when they do not obtain another washer, their way 
is then through thoroughly washing themselves*. 
2. For you who are understanding the rite and 
capable of washing, and are the most forward and 
intelligent of the religious, so long as your previous 
washing is a way of no assistance, there is this 
tediously-worded epistle ; moreover, all their sin you 
assign for your own affliction 3 , whose after-course 
is thus for their Paȣadasa (' fifteen/*?/*/') washing 4 , 
at the time they shall • abandon, as distasteful, that 
sin which is a new development by way of Upas- 
natee' ('washing downwards')*; and the sinfulness 
is his who established that law for them. 

3. And yours are truly creatures of a fetid pool 
(gand-az/8), who, as regards my motive, always 
speak about it just as they spoke thus to a priest*: 
'Why has the savoury meat-offering not become 
forgotten by thee, while the firewood and incense, 
because it is not possible to eat them up, are quite 

1 From this it appears clearly that Manfatfhar was an aged 
man when these epistles were written, though not too old to travel. 
The previous allusion to old age, however, in Chap. I, 9, may not 
have referred to himself. 

* As provided in Vend. VIII, 299 (see App. V). 

* J omits alag, 'affliction;' and in K35 it is doubtful whether it 
be struck out, or not 

* See Chap. Ill, 2 for both these terms. 

8 Implying that the laity were inclined to attribute his own strict 
enforcement of ceremonies, requiring the employment of the priest- 
hood, to interested motives. 

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forgotten ?' 4. Also, as a similitude of your affairs, 
they are saying that it is as though the stipend of 
guardianship were always to be demanded just in 
accordance with omissions of duty (a#ag mant- 
dVnky. 5. So that even while the trifle of trifles 
which exists as an interval from the title of leader- 
ship unto that of high-priestship— in which, except 
a title that is no joy of the strictly religious, there 
is nothing whatever — is, that way, to prepare a 
source of dispute as to the work which you do 
for the guardianship, it should, therefore, be a 
sufficiency (khvar-bar), where your own supreme 
work is purification itself; and to do either what is 
taught, or is advantageous, would be withdrawing 
from the country a demand which has caused disturb- 
ance (balubaklnldfS); to subdue it thou shouldst 
always so decide the daily allowances 2 . 

6. And, to-day, I have, on that account, written 
everything sternly, because that which another per- 
son arranges and speaks so opposed to me in evil 
appearance — which is little fit to be prepared — when 
I write seasonably, and with friendly and brotherly 
exaltation, you direct and persevere more expressly 
in preparing, so that portion upon portion is thus 
brought forth. 7. In good old age 8 the great law 
of after-restoration is a harsh remedy, and, on that 

1 That is, the laity attributed his brother's laxity, on the other 
hand, to sheer neglect of duty, and had, therefore, begun to consider 
his supervision hardly worth paying for. 

* Meaning that by adherence to long-established custom, as 
regards both priestly work and priestly allowances, the laity would 
be better satisfied and more easily managed. 

• Reading hu-kahdbanih; J has merely kahdbanth/old age, 
antiquity.' He appears to be referring rather to the antiquity of the 
Avesta law, than to his own old age. 


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356 epistles of mAnO^har. 

supposition, where a rule is shown to descend from 
their three teachings 1 , and is itself regarded as true, 
and the wisdom of the period as impotent (an6z6- 
harlkS), you yourself fully imagine (hu-min£d?6)* 
that further restoration is not an important 8 and 
foremost thing. 8. Those of different faiths of 
various kinds have many usages and perplexing 
kinds of doubt, even about the accomplishment and 
explanation of the statements of the high-priests 4 , 
for on this subject, about old age (gunanlh), and 
even about sprinkling and about yourself accom- 
plishing the religious rites, you are wisely for a 
preservation of the equally wise experience of the 
profession; and as to the heterodox, that writing 
which realised that even now memory is opposing 
you is itself evil-wishing 6 , and you know it is your 
own arrangement. 

9. This, too, they 6 say that, if it be on that account 
that the purifiers shall not always so perform the 
purification by all three teachings, or every rite 
which is proper according to one teaching, it will be 
necessary that the purifiers shall abandon purifica- 
tion. 10. Then about old age, the performance of 
the ceremonial 7 , and the many times of this which 

1 See Chap. Ill, 1, Ep. I, v, i, 6. 

* J has khavftun€</, 'you know.' He deprecates all further 
investigation into the meaning of the scriptures, which had already 
been explained by three old commentators, as he doubted the 
religious wisdom of the age in which he lived. 

' The continuation of the text in J ends at this point. 

4 The commentators. 

5 That is, the decree of Z&f-sparam, though itself objectionable, 
was opposed to the heterodox who wished for further innovations. 

• The heterodox. 

7 Referring perhaps to the performance of the Vendid&f service 

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are mentioned as though this were proper, it is stated 
as regards how it is proper that, when on account of 
those of the good religion they always proceed just 
as is mentioned in the Zand teaching of the Avesta 1 , 
it will then be necessary that they shall abandon the 
religion. 1 1. And many other sayings of things like 
unto these are scattered about (zerkhunl-alt6), and 
are named near Atdr6-ptd 2 as hints from you; for 
this reason they are reckoned (khaprag-att5) in 
the thoughts of men. 

12. And this much is written by me in distressing 
haste; I consider it complete, and may peace and 
every happiness perpetually become hospitably at- 
tainable and accomplishable for you thereby, through 
the severe anguish and discomfort, and the eternal 
distress and despondency of the healer of affliction, 
Manu^ilhar, son of Yudan-Yim, director of the pro- 
fession of priests of Pars and Kirman 8 . 

13. Written in propitiation, praise, and benedic- 
tion of the creator Auharmas*/ and the archangels, 
all the angels of the spiritual and the angels of the 
worldly existences, and every guardian spirit of the 
righteous. 14. Homage to the exalted pontiff (rarfS) 
sent from the creator Adharmazd, the most heavenly 
of the heavenly, Zaratu.rt the Spitaman. 15. The 

(which includes the Yasna ceremonial) as directed in Fahl. Vend. 
IX, 132, b, (see App. IV). 

1 It is possible also to read ' in the teaching of the Avesta and 
Zand;' but this would ignore the fact that the 'teaching' is the 
Zand itself. 

8 The same rival as is mentioned in Chap. V, 14. 

* According to Dd. XLV, 5 the farm&</&r or 'director' of the 
profession of priests of PSrs was the pSjupS.1 or 'leader' of the 

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most prayerful and gainful of things is righteous- 
ness ; great and good and perfect is Zaratu-rt ; and 
one only is the way of righteousness, all the others 
are no ways 1 . 

1 Compare Dd. XCIV, 14, Ep. Ill, 23. 

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In the name of the sacred beings. 

A copy of the notification (vishadfekS) of his 
priestly lordship Mantoiihar, son of Yudan-Yim, 
regarding the grievous sinfulness of assuming the 
propriety of washing for fifteen times. 

In the name of the sacred beings, 
i. It has come unto the ears (va$ammuni.yn5) 
of me, Manu&£ihar, son of Yudan-Yim, pontiff (rarf) 
of Pars and Kirman \ that, in some quarters of the 
country of Iran, they whose chance happens to be so 
much 2 pollution, such as is decreed unto so much 
washing of the customary parts (pljak5), always 
wash themselves fifteen times with bull's urine and 
once with water, consider themselves as clean 8 , and 
go to water, fire; and ceremonial ablution, the ablution 

1 See Dd. XCIV, 13. 

1 Reading havan ; but it may be ' pollution of the spiritual life 
(ahvd),' though this is hardly possible in the next phrase, where 
the same word occurs. 

* By confounding the preliminary washing appointed in Vend. 
VIII, 279 with the final washing appointed in Vend. VIII, 299 (see 
App. V, and compare Ep. II, iii, 2, ix, 2). 

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of the sacred twigs. 2. Such — although 1 they say 
that Za</-sparam 2 , son of Yudan-Yim, has ordered, 
and the high-priests have appointed, washing of this 
kind — has appeared to my well-reflecting (hu-min) 
opinion, apprehension, and appreciation very mar- 
vellous and grave, and merely a rumour. 3. And it 
is needful for me to keep those of the good religion 
in all quarters of the country of Iran informed con- 
cerning the placing reliance upon their washing with 
the Bareshnum ceremony % , and to make my own 
opinion clear also as regards the writings collected. 

4. And, first of all, about the indispensability of 
the Bareshnum ceremony I write several such copies 
of a well-matured writing of mine 4 as may even be 
new light to the intelligent. 5. That my opinion 
of the information provided by revelation, the deci- 
sions of high-priests, and the teachings of those of 
the primitive faith is thus, that washing by the pol- 
luted with water is pollution for the life and spiritual 
life (ahvd) 6 ; they render the material body clean 
thereby, but that which is known as the handiwork • 
of the immortals, and is also professionally called the 
Bareshnum, when there is the protection of a ritual 
of various kinds, shall make the body clean from 
endless worldly attacks. 

6. It is in the nine ablution seats (magakS) 7 and 
the furrow 8 , even with prayer, bull's urine, water, 

1 Reading amat, instead of the very similar word hamSt, ' ever.' 

* See the headings to Eps. I, II. * See App. IV. 

* Meaning this epistle. 

B Because it pollutes pure water, which is considered a sin. 

* Reading yadman; but it may be gadman, 'glory,' which is 
written in precisely the same manner. 

7 See Ep. I, ix, 7. 

J See Vend. IX, 21-28 (App. IV) 

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EPISTLE III, 2-1 1. 361 

and other appliances, and the ritual which is such as 
is declared in the teaching of revelation ; and even 
now the purifiers, who are just as written about be- 
low, keep it in use. 7. When there is a washing 
they wash just as in the well-teaching statements 
which are known as those of MeWydk-mah, of Afarg, 
and of Sdshins 1 , or in the statement of one of those 
three teachings, or in the statement of one of the 
high-priests by whom those three teachings are de- 
clared as propriety, or has come unto me as the 
practice of those same three teachings by those of 
the primitive faith. 

8. I deem this deliverance 2 one wholly approv- 
able, and the washer in a washing of that kind, with 
the Bareshnum ceremony — which is lawfully of that 
description — I consider as a purifier who is approv- 
able. 9. And the polluted of every description, as 
above written, who have obtained, for any indispens- 
able reason whatever, a purifier, as above written, 
whom even now various districts and various places 
have appointed and approved, are able to wash with 
the Bareshnum ceremony as above written. 10. Then 
their washing fifteen times is no deliverance in any 
way, and to wash them quickly with the Bareshnum 
ceremony as above written is indispensable. 

1 1. Owing to a washing of the same kind through 
the Bareshnum ceremony, as is intended, water, fire, 
and other things, not to provide care for which is 
un 3 authorisedly is grievously sinful. 

1 See Ep. I, v, 1. * From pollution. 

' At this point there is a blank page in K35, and also in the 
MS. belonging to Mr. Tehmuras Dinshawji, which is supposed to 
be older; and one line is left blank in BK. It is not, however, 

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1 2. When, on account of a cleansing through another 
washing, distinct from the Bareshnum ceremony, 

quite certain that any text is really missing, as this section can be 
read continuously and translated as follows, without much diffi- 
culty: — 'Apart from a washing of the same kind through the 
Bareshnum ceremony, as is intended, there would be a grievous sin 
against water, fire, and other things, not to provide care for which 
would be unauthorised.' 

If some folios of text are missing, as seems quite possible from 
the terms applied to this epistle in § 4, the question arises whether a 
portion of the missing text may be contained in the following frag- 
ment on the subject of the Bareshnum, which is appended to the 
passage (Ep. II, vi, 2-ix, 7) interpolated in Dd. XXXVII, 33 in 
the MS. J :— 

' As it is declared in revelation that, if a man who has chanted 
comes upon a corpse, whether a dog, or a fox, or a wolf, or a male, 
or a female, or any creature on whose corpse it is possible thai he 
may come, that good man becomes so that a man may become 
defiled by him, and it is necessary to wash the polluted one, so that 
it may not make him a sinner. In order that they may act so to the 
polluted one it is necessary to wash him, it is necessary to perform 
that Bareshnum ceremony of the nine nights. If the man that is 
spoken of has worked about carrying the dead and contact with 
dead matter (nosa ha ma lib), so that they know about his defile- 
ment to whom he comes, then he who has done this work in 
contact with dead matter becomes afterwards disabled for that 
worship of the sacred beings which they perform. So, also, some 
one says (compare Vend. VIII, 271-299), where in a wilderness 
(vy&van) are several priests (asruvd) and a. man lies on the road, 
there he who carries the dead body of the man who passes away — 
as those others remain and stand away helpless, without offerings 
of inward prayer (va^S vakhtagan) over that person (kerpd) 
according to the religious way — having washed his body, comes 
into the town and performs the nine nights' Bareshnum ceremony 
twice ; afterwards, his GSt6-khari</ ceremonies (see Dd. LXXIX, 4) 
are performed, and he has acted well according to the religious 
way; then he comes into the ceremonial of the sacred beings. 
" How are those men purified, O righteous one I who shall stand up 
by a corpse which is very dry and dead a year ?" (See Pahl. Vend. 
VIII, 107, 108.) The reply is this, that " those men are purified ; 

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EPISTLE III, 12-15. 363 

they consider themselves as clean it is more griev- 
ously sinful ; just as when they do not wash with 
the Bareshnum, as above written, but consider them- 
selves as clean through washing fifteen times, as 
above written, or on account of any washing what- 
ever distinct from the Bareshnum, it is more griev- 
ously sinful ; because, when they do not wash with a 
Bareshnum, as above written, but wash for fifteen 
times, as above written, or any washing whatever 
distinct from the Bareshnum, as above written, they 
do not become clean, through the professional wash- 
ing which is decreed, from that pollution which 
remains K 

13. When without similar trouble and great judi- 
ciousness they go unto water and fire, the sin is 
grievous; and when they go to the bowl (padfrnand) 
for ablution of the sacred twigs 2 it is non-ablution 
advisedly, and to perform the ceremonial therewith 
would not be authorised. 14. And, in like manner, 
the washing of polluted H6m twigs*, for any indis- 
pensable purpose, with the Bareshnum ceremony, as 
above written, is not possible. 

15. Therefore, so that we may obtain as it were a 
remedy for it, I wash with the Bareshnum ceremony, 
as above written ; to keep the mind steadfast and to 
attain to a remedy I wash with the Bareshnum, as 
above written; and to bestow the indispensable, com- 
prehensive Bareshnum, as above written, is indeed a 
good work suitable for the discreet and liberated 

for it is not to the dry from that dryness — that is, it would not act 
from this polluted thing — that the existence of dry diffusion has 

1 Even after the best ordinary washing. 

8 See Dd. XLIII, 5. » See Dd. XLVUI, 16. 

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364 EPISTLES OF ukstsKiHAR. 

from bonds, and the purification of body and soul is 
connected with it. 

16. These things those of the primitive faith, who 
provided for the moderns, have communicated, whose 
position was above us moderns who are now the law 
(gun) of others, and are teachers and rulers ; our 
station as regards them is the position (gasih) of 
disciples to spiritual masters, that of listeners and 
servitors to form and hold the opinion, about the 
same and other things, which those of the primi- 
tive faith formed; and the teaching of even one of 
those high-priests is greater and higher than our 
sayings and decisions. 

1 7. And as to every custom there may be in the 
country of Iran, about casting away the Bareshnum 
ceremony, as written by me, and about all the pol- 
luted, as above written — whom it is possible to wash, 
for any indispensable reason whatever, with the 
Bareshnum as written by me, and one does not 
wash with the Bareshnum as written by me, but is 
ordered to wash for fifteen times, as written by me, 
and to pronounce as clean — and which is established 
as a rule one is urged to practise, if Za^-sparam or 
any one else has ordered, said, or decided in the 
name of authority that one is to do so, or has estab- 
lished it as a rule,, or set it going, this is to give 
authoritatively my opinion, decision, and enactment 
upon it likewise. 18. That those same sayings are 
short-sighted (a£-v£nak6), that same order is un- 
lawfully given, that same decision is false teaching, 
that same rule is vicious, that same setting going is 
grievously sinful, and that same authority is not to 
be accepted ; it is a practice, therefore, not to be 
performed, and whoever has performed it, is to 

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EPISTLE III, l6-22. 365 

engage quickly in renunciation of it. 19. And he 
who has decreed in the country of Iran, in the name 
of authority, washing of other kinds as all-remedial 
for the polluted, as above written, and has established 
a rule of that description is to be considered as a 
heretic (aharm6k6) deserving death. 

20. So, when through his wilfulness that kind of 
injury without enlightenment (bam) is decreed, and 
a rule of that description is established, as above 
written, and one rendered polluted is washed fif- 
teen times with bull's urine and once with water, or 
in whatever other mode that is distinct from the 
Bareshnum ceremony as written by me, though it is 
possible to wash him, for any indispensable reason 
whatever, with the Bareshnum as above written, then, 
his renunciation of sin being accomplished, he is to 
be washed again at the nine ablution seats (magh) 1 
with the Bareshnum as written by me ; and until 
washed again, as written by me, he is not to go to 
water and fire and the bowl for ablution. 

21. And this epistle is written by me, in my own 
hand-writing, for the sake of all members whatever 
of the good religion of the country of Iran becoming 
aware of the opinion, apprehension, and apprecia- 
tion of the commands of religion entertained by me, 
Mantoiihar, son of Yudan-Yim ; and several copies 
are finished in the month of the triumphant Hor- 
vadaa? of the year 250 of Yazdakar*/ 2 . 

22. In trustfulness and gratitude to the sacred 
beings, and homage to the exalted pontiff sent from 8 

1 See § 6. 

* The third month of the Parsi year 250, which corresponded to 
the interval between the 14th June and 13th July, 881. 

* Reading min, as in Ep. II, iz, 14, instead of mun, ' who.' 

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the creator Atiharmazd, the heavenly, most right- 
eous, and glorified Zarattot the Spitaman. 23. For 
the sake of obtainments of prayers the one thing is 
the righteousness of the Spitaman; great, good, and 
perfect is Zaratuyt; one only is the way of perfect 
righteousness, which is the way of those of the 
primitive faith ; all the others, appointed afresh, are 
no ways 1 . 

1 Compare Dd. XCIV, 14, Ep. II, ix, 15. This epistle is followed, 
in K35, by the Selections of Za<f-sparam, of which the first portion 
is translated in the fifth volume of the Sacred Books of the East. 

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Google ^J 







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i. For all divisions of the translations into sentences or sections 
the translator is responsible, as such divisions are rarely made in 
the manuscripts. 

2-6. (The same as on page 2.) 

7. The manuscripts mentioned are : — 

B29 (written a. d. 1679), a Persian Rivdyat, No. 29 in the 
University Library at Bombay. 

BK, J, K35, Mio (as described on page 278). 

L4 (written about a. d. 1324), a Vendidarf with Pahlavi, in the 
India Office Library in London. 

M7 (written a. d. 1809), miscellaneous Parsi-Persian writings, 
No. 7 of the Haug Collection in the State Library at Munich. 

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I. Legends relating to Keresasf. 

The Avesta informs us that Keresaspa was a son 
of Thrita the Saman, and the brother of Urvakh- 
shaya 1 . From the name of his father's family he is 
sometimes called Sama Keresaspa 2 , but his more 
usual title is Naremanau or Nairimanau, ' the manly- 
minded 3 .' He is described as ' a youthful hero, wear- 
ing side-locks and carrying a club 4 ,' to whom the 
witch Knathaiti 6 attached herself; she whom Zara- 
turt promised to destroy by means of the aposde 
Saoshyas, who is to be born hereafter 4 . And his 
body is watched over by 99,999 guardian spirits 7 . 

1 SeeYas. IX, 30, 31. 

* See Fravarrfin Yt. 61, 136. Hence he is often called Sim in 
Pahlavi works (see Bd. XXIX, 7, 9, Byt. Ill, 60, 61); and, in a 
passage interpolated in some manuscripts of the Shahnamah, we 
are informed that GarrSsp was son of Atrat, son of 5am, which is 
evidently a reminiscence of Keresisp being a son of Thrita the 
Saman (see also Bd. XXXI, 26, 27). 

* See Aban Yt. 37, Rim Yt. 27, Zamyirf Yt. 38, 40, 44. Hence 
we have Sam, son of Nariman, as the grandfather of Rustam in the 

4 See Yas. IX, 33. M. de Harlez converts the side-locks into 
some weapon called ga6suj, but this word still survives in Pers. 
g£s or gfesu, ' ringlet, side-lock.' 

5 See Vend. I, 36. Or it may be * the witch whom one destroys, 
or to whom one prays,' if we translate the name. 

« See Vend XIX, 18. 

7 See FravaroTin Yt. 61. For the reason of this watchfulness, see 
Dd.XVII, 6n. 

[.8] B b 

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Of his exploits we are told that he ' slew the ser- 
pent Srvara, which devoured horses and men, which 
was poisonous and yellow, over which yellow poison 
flowed a hand's-breadth high. On which Keresaspa 
cooked a beverage in a caldron at the midday hour, 
and the serpent being scorched, hissed, sprang forth, 
away from the caldron, and upset the boiling water ; 
Keresisp, the manly-minded, fled aside frightened 1 .' 
We are further told that he slew the golden-heeled 
Gawdarewa 2 ; that he smote Hitaspa in revenge for 
the murder of his brother, Urvakhshaya 8 ; that he 
smote the Hunus who are the nine highwaymen, and 
those descended from Nivika and DeLrtayani 4 ; also 
Vareshava the Danayan, Pitaona with the many 
witches, Arez6-shamana, and Snavidhaka 5 ; and that 
he withstood many smiters or murderers'. 

The details of these exploits, still extant in the 
Avesta, are very scanty ; but some of them appear 
to have been more fully described in a legend about 
the soul of Keresaspa which formerly constituted 
the fourteenth fargantf of the Sftdflcar Nask, the 
contents of which are thus summarized in the ninth 
book of the Dinkardf : — 

' The fourteenth fargan/, Aaf-fravakhshl 7 , is about 

1 See Yas. IX, 34-39, Zamyirf Yt. 40 (translated in Hang's 
Essays, pp. 178, 179). 

' See Aban Yt. 38, Zamy&d Yt. 41. A monster in the wide- 
shored ocean, who is also mentioned in Ram Yt. 28. 

» See Ram Yt. 28, Zamj&d Yt 41. 

4 See Zamy&f Yt 41. For ' Hunus ' some read ' sons.' 

6 See Zamy&d Yt 41-44. ' See Fravanffn Yt 136. 

7 The name of Yas. XLIV, being the first two words, ai 
fravakhshya, of that chapter of the Gathas. In the detailed 
account of the contents of each farganf of the first three Nasks, 
given in the ninth book of the Dtnkarrf, each fargan/is distinguished 

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AuharmasaTs showing the terrible state of the soul 
of Keresasp 1 to Zaratu-rt; the dismay of Zaraturt 
owing to that terrible state ; the sorrowful speaking, 
of Keresasp as regards the slaying of multitudes, for 
which mankind extol him, whereby abstentions from 
sin occurred ; and the recognition of him by the 
creator, Auharma&Z, as extinguishing his fire. The 
supplication of Keresasp for the best existence from 
Auharmasra? for those exploits when the serpent 
(gaz) Srdbar 2 was slain by him, and the violence 
of that adversary; when Gandarep 3 with the golden 
heels was smitten by him, and the marvellousness 
of that fiend ; when the Hunus of VerkS 4 , who are 

by the name of some section of the Githas. The names thus em- 
ployed are composed of the first one, two, or three words of the 
YathS-ahu-vairy6, the Ashem-vohu, the YSNh6-hdtim,Yas. XXVIII- 
XXXIV, the Yasna haptanghaiti, Yas. XLII-L, LII, LIII, which 
supply the twenty-two names required. When the Nask contains 
twenty-three farganft, as in the case of the Varrtm&nsar, the first 
farganf remains unnamed. Whether these words were used merely 
as names, or whether their insertion implies that the fargan/s of 
these Nasks used to be recited (somewhat like those of the Vcn- 
didaVf) alternately with the sections of the Gathas, can hardly be 
determined from our present information. It may be noted that 
the three Nasks (SiWkar, Varrtm&nsar, and Bak6), whose contents 
are thus detailed in the Dfnkarrf, all belong to the so-called gdsinik 
or Gatha class of Nasks ; but whether that term implies that they 
were metrical, or merely that they were connected in some way with 
the Gathas, is also uncertain. 

1 Written Kere\rSsp6, or Gere\r£spd, throughout the Pahlavi text 
of this paragraph. 

* The Srvara of Yas. IX, 34, ZamySrf Yt. 40. 

8 The Gawdarewa of AbSn Yt. 38, Rim Yt. 28, Zamyirf Yt. 41. 

* Reading Hunu Vexko, but it is also possible to read khunS- 
dako, ' blood-producing,' which is fully applicable to these highway- 
robbers. The 'Hunus in Vafiska' are mentioned in AbSn Yt. 54, 
57 as opponents of the warrior Tusa, but the Hunus in ZamyaV Yt. 
41 have no country assigned to them. 

B b 2 

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descendants of Nlvlk and D&rtanik 1 , were slain by 
him, and the grievous harm and disaster owing to 
•them ; and when the mighty wind 2 was appeased by 
him, and brought back from damaging the world to 
benefiting the creatures ; and for that which happens 
when, owing to confinement 3 , Dahak becomes eager, 
rushes on for the destruction of the world, and 
attempts the annihilation of the creatures ; and his 
being roused to smite him and to tame that powerful 
fiend for the creatures of the world. The opposition 
of fire to Keresisp, through his causing distress to it 
and keeping away /rom it, which were owing to his 
seeking hell ; the supplication of ZaratCtyt: to the fire 
to have compassion upon him, which was owing to 
his sin ; the compliance of the fire with that request ; 
and the departure of the soul of Keresasp to the 
ever-stationary existence 4 . Perfect is the excellence 
of righteousness 8 .' 

Although the SiWkar Nask has long been lost, 
the legend contained in this fourteenth fargaraf still 
survives in its Pahlavi form, though probably some- 
what abridged, and a Persian paraphrase of this 
Pahlavi version is also to be found in the Persian 

1 The Nivika and D&rtayani of Zamya</ Yt. 41. 

9 The wind (va</6), though an angel when moderate and useful, 
is supposed to become a demon in a gale or hurricane ; and is men- 
tioned as such in Vend. X, 24. 

3 In the volcano, Mount Dimavand (see Bd. XII, 31, XXIX, 9, 
Byt. Ill, 55-6 r). This exploit is expected to be performed hereafter. 

4 The hamtsttkS ahvan6, intermediate between heaven and 
hell (see Dd. XX, 3). 

5 The Pahlavi equivalent of the Av. ashe m vohu, here translated, 
follows each summary of the contents of a fargan/ or Nask in the 
Dinkan/, in the same way asashcmvohu follows each farganf of 
the Vendidarf and each section of the Galhas in the Vendida</ sadah 
or liturgy. 

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Rivayats 1 . The Pahlavi legend is included among 
a series of quotations, regarding the importance of 
fire, contained in a Pahlavi Rivayat preceding the 
Da^istan-1 Dlnlk in some manuscripts 2 ; and its 
close correspondence with the above summary of 
the fourteenth fargan/ of the StWkar Nask will be 
seen from the following translation of it : — 

. . . . ' And it is declared that fire is so precious 
that Auhannasrf spoke unto Zaratfot thus : " Of 
whose soul is it that the actions 8 , position, con- 
sciousness, and guardian spirit seem best when thou 
shalt behold it?" 

'And Zaratfot spoke thus: "Of him who is 

'Auharmas*/ summoned the soul of Keres&sp, 
and the soul of Keresasp saw 4 Zaraturt and, on 
account of the misery which it had seen in hell, it 
spoke unto him thus : " I have been a priest of 
Kapul 6 , which should be a power in support of me ; 
and for the sake of begging life I have ever travelled 
through the world, and the world would have become 
hideous in my eyes, the world which should have 
feared my splendour 6 ." 

1 In B29, fols. 167-169, where it is quoted from a work called 
the Sad-darband-i Hush. 

* In BK and J ; but in K35 this portion of the RivSyat has been 
lost, with the first 7 1 folios of that MS. ; it also appears to have 
been similarly lost from the older MS. belonging to Mr. Tehmuras 
Dinshawji Anklesaria. 

* J omits this word. * J omits the seeing. 

8 Kabul. One of the three most sacred fires, the Frdbak fire, is said 
to have been removed by Virtasp from Khv&riaem to Kavulistan (see 
Bd. XVII, 6). The Persian version has 'would to God (kSAS) I 
were a priest !' and alters the rest of the sentence to correspond. 

* Reading rd-i li; J has 100 v a r, ' a hundred lakes (or ordeals 
or results).' 

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' And Ahharmazd spoke thus : " Stand off, thou 
soul of Keresisp! for thou shouldst be hideous in 
my eyes, because the fire, which is my son 1 , was 
extinguished by thee, and no care of it was pro- 
vided by thee." 

' And the soul of Keresisp spoke thus : " Forgive 
me, O Auharmasaf! and grant me the best exist- 
ence ! grant me the supreme heaven ! The serpent 
(a.zo) Sr6vbar 2 is slain outright, which was swallow- 
ing horses and swallowing men, and its teeth were 
as long as my arm, its ear was as large as fourteen 
blankets (namaafo), its eye was as large as a wheel, 
and its horn was as much as Dahak 8 in height And 
I was running as much as half a day on its back, till 
its head was smitten by me at the neck with a club 
made for my hand, and it was slain outright by me*. 
And if that serpent had not been slain by me, all thy 
creatures would have been completely annihilated by 
it, and thou wouldst never have known a remedy for 

' Auharmas^ spoke thus : " Stand off! for the fire, 
which is my son, was extinguished by thee." 

' Keresisp spoke thus : "Grant me, O Auharmaa/! 
that best existence, the supreme heaven! for by 
me Gandarep 6 was slain outright, by whom twelve 

1 Fire is often called ' the son of Ahura-mazda ' in the A vesta, as 
in Yas. II, 18, Vend. V, 9, &c. 

* The Srvara of Yas. IX, 34, Zxmy&d Yt 40. The Persian 
version has merely a z da ha, ' a dragon.' 

3 Or it may be shdk, ' a bough.' The Persian version has • eighty 

* The Persian version adds ' and as I looked into its mouth, men 
were still hanging about its teeth;' which was evidently suggested 
by what is stated in the account of the next exploit. 

5 See p. 371, note 3. 

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districts were devoured at once. When I looked 
among the teeth of Gandarep, dead men 1 were 
sticking among his teeth ; and my beard was seized 
by him, and I dragged him out of the sea 2 ; nine 
days and nights the conflict was maintained by us 
in the sea, and then I became more powerful than 
Gandarep. The sole of Gandarep's foot was also 
seized by me, and the skin was flayed off up to his 
head, and with it the hands and feet of Gandarep 
were bound ; he was also dragged by me out to the 
shore of the sea, and was delivered by me over to 
Akhrurag 8 ; and he slaughtered and ate my fifteen 
horses. I also fell down in a dense thicket (a! .yak 6), 
and Gandarep carried off my friend Akhrurag, and 
she who was my wife was carried off by him*, and 
my father and nurse (dayakS) were carried off by 
him. And I took under my protection (dinharl- 
gln!d?6) and raised all the people of our pleasant 
place, and every single step I sprang forward a 
thousand steps, and fire fell into everything which 
was struck by my foqt as it sprang forward* ; I went 
out to the sea, and they were brought back by me, 

1 The Persian version says ' horses and asses.' 

8 For this clause the Persian version substitutes ' the sea was up 
to his knee, and his head up to the sun.' 

* This is merely a guess. The word can also be read kharvarag, 
' thorny, or a thorny brake ;' but it seems to be the name of some 
person, being followed by the word ddst6, ' friend,' in the next sen- 
tence. Akhrura, son of Haosravangh, is mentioned in Fravarrffn 
Yt. 137, next after Siraa Keresaspa, as ' withstanding Hashi-dava 
(or daSva), the wicked and covetous one destroying the world.' 
The Persian version omits from the dragging out of the sea in 
this sentence to the slaying in the next (p. 376, line 1). 

4 BK has ' by me,' which must be a blunder. 

1 J omits these last seven words. 

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and Gandarep was taken and slain by me 1 . And if 
he had not been slain by me, Aharman would have 
become predominant over thy creatures." 

' Auharma^ spoke thus : " Stand off! for thou art 
hideous in my eyes, because the fire, which is my 
son, was extinguished by thee." 

' Keresasp spoke thus : " Grant me, O Auhannasaf! 
heaven or the supreme heaven ! for I have slain the 
highwaymen 2 who were so big in body that, when 
they were walking, people considered in this way, 
that ' below them are the stars and moon, and below 
them moves the sun at dawn, and the water of the 
sea reaches up to their knees.' And I reached up 
to their legs, and they were smitten on the legs by 
me ; they fell, and the hills on the earth were shat- 
tered by them 3 . And if those fallen 4 highwaymen 
had not been slain by me, Aharman would have 
become predominant over thy creatures." 

'Auharmas^ spoke thus: "Stand off! for thou 
shouldst be hideous in my eyes, because the fire, 
which is my son, was extinguished by thee." 

' Keresasp spoke thus : "Grant me, O Auharmaa*/ ! 
heaven or the supreme heaven! When the wind 
was weakened (rakhto) and paralysed by me, the 

1 The Persian version says, 'I slew him, and as he fell down many 
villages and places became desolate.' 

* The 'nine highwaymen ' of Zamyii Yt. 41. The Persian 
version says ' seven.' BK has ' walked,' instead of ' slain.' 

' Instead of this sentence the Persian version has ' through fear 
of them people could not go on any journey, and every one whom 
they might see, on the road that he went, they would instantly eat 
up ; and in three years they reckoned three hundred thousand men 
they had slain and destroyed. And I fought with them and slew all 
the seven.' 

4 J omits the word 'fallen.' 

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demons deceived the wind, and they spoke unto 
the wind thus : ' He is more resisting thee than all 
the creatures and creation, and thou shouldst think 
of him thus, that " there is no one walks upon this 
earth more resistant of me than Keresasp;" he 
despises demons and men, and thee, too, who 
shouldst be the wind, even thee he despises.' And 
the wind, when those words were heard by it, came 
on so strongly that every tree and shrub which was 
in its path was uprooted, and the whole earth which 
was in its path was reduced to powder (payan^anoi- 
aitd kard&), and darkness arose. And when it 
came to me, who am Keresasp, it was not possible 
for it to lift my foot from the ground ; and I arose 
and sallied forth (bara yehabunaf) upon the earth, 
and I stood upon it, with both feet on an equality 
(mirlh), until a rampart (pund) of it was com- 
pleted, so that I might go again below the earth ; 
that which Auharmas^ ordered thus : ' Should I 
appoint a keeper of the earth and sky, they would 
not forsake me 1 .' And if that thing had not been 
done by me, Aharman would have become predomi- 
nant over thy creatures." 

' Auharmazd? spoke thus : " Stand off! for thou 
shouldst be hideous in my eyes, because the fire, 
which is my son, was smitten by thee." 

' Keresasp spoke thus : " Grant me, O Auhar- 
mazdl heaven or the supreme heaven! for it is thus 

1 The Persian version has ' and as it arrived near me, it was not 
able to bear my foot from the spot ; and I seized the spirit of the 
wind, and overthrew him with my own strength, until he made a 
promise thus : " I will go again below the earth." And I did not 
keep back my hand/row that work less than Auharmasrf and the 
archangels ordered me.' 

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declared by revelation, that, when Dahak has escaped 
from confinement 1 , no one is able to seek any other 
remedy against him but me ; on that account grant 
me heaven or the supreme heaven ! And if it be 
not possible to grant me heaven or the supreme 
heaven, give me again the strength and success 
which were mine during life ! for when thou shalt 
give me again so much strength and success as were 
mine when I was produced alive, I will slay Ahar- 
man with the demons, I will eradicate darkness 
from hell, I will complete the beautiful light, and 
within its sole existence (tanu-ae) 2 you shall sit 
and move 3 ." 

' Auharmas^ spoke thus : " This I will not give 
thee, thou soul of Keresasp! because men shall 
commit sin ; and until men commit no more sin, it 
is not possible to make thee alive again, and thou 
wouldst also not be able to make other men alive 
again, for they produce the resurrection thus, when 
all men become quite innocent When men shall 
die, and their souls are wicked, all comfort shall 
forsake them, and all the misery and discomfort 
occasioned by them shall remain." 

' When Keresasp and his exploits were spoken of 
in this manner, the angels of the spiritual and the 
angels of the worldly existences wept aloud, and 

1 See Byt. Ill, 55-61. The Persian version substitutes a legend 
about the gigantic bird Kamak (also mentioned in Mkh. XXVII, 
50) which overshadowed the earth, and kept off the rain till the 
rivers dried up ; it also ate up men and animals as if they were 
grains of corn, until Keresasp killed it by shooting it with arrows 
continuously for seven days and nights. 

2 That is, when there is only light, and no darkness. 

* J has 1 1 will sit and move alone within it;' and the Persian 
version has ' I will sit alone in that place.' 

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Zaratfot the Spitaman wept aloud 1 and spoke thus : 
" Though there should be no deceiver, I would be 
the deceiver in thy eyes 2 , O Auharmas^! as regards 
the soul of Keresasp ; for when Keresasp should not 
have existed as a bodily and living existence, there 
would have been no remnant of anything whatever, 
or of creature of thine, in the world 3 ." 

' When Zaraturt had become silent therewith, the 
angel of fire 4 stood upon his feet*, and the sinfulness 
of Keresasp unto himself was fully mentioned by 
him, and he spoke thus : " I shall not let him into 

' And the angel of fire, having spoken thus many 

1 The Persian version does not mention the angels and the 

1 This can also be translated thus : ' Though thou shouldst be 
no deceiver, thou wouldst be a deceiver in my eyes ;' the words 
hdmaniyS, 'would be,' and hdmane^, ' thou wouldst be,' being 
written alike. 

* The Persian version of this speech is, ' O good creator I I know 
that hatred and anger are not in thy path, and when any one 
indulges in hatred of another, there is no acquiescence of thine 
therein, yet now I see this matter as though some one maintained 
hatred against another.' 

* The Persian version says ' the archangel Ardibahut,' who is the 
protector of fire (see Sis. XV, 5, 12, 13). 

* The Persian version proceeds, and concludes the sentence, as 
follows : ' and Keresisp groaned unto Zaratdrt the Spitaman, and 
Ardibahijt, the archangel, said : " O Zaratuxt I thou dost not know 
what Keresasp has done unto me ; that in the world, formerly, my 
custom and habit would have been so, that, as they would place 
firewood under a caldron, I would send the fire, until that caldron 
should be boiled, and their work should be completed, and then it 
would have come back to its own place. As that serpent that he 
speaks of was slain he became hungry, and because the fire fell one 
moment later upon the firewood which he had placed below the 
caldron, he smote the fire with a club and scattered the fire, and 
now I will not pass the soul of Keresasp to heaven." ' 

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words, desisted; and the angel Gd^-aurvan 1 stood 
upon her feet, and spoke thus : " I shall not let him 
into hell, for the benefit produced by him for me 
was manifold." 

' Gos-aurvan, having spoken thus many words, 
desisted 2 ; and Zaraturt stood upon his feet, and 
homage was offered by him unto the fire, and he 
spoke thus : " I shall provide care for thee, and shall 
speak of thy exploits in the world, and I shall speak 
to VLrtisp 3 and Gamasp 4 thus : ' Observe fully that 
a place is made /or the fire as it were at once !' when 
Keresasp has engaged in renunciation of sin, and 
you shall forgive him 6 ."' 

The Pahlavi legend breaks off at this point, leaving 

1 Av. geus urva, 'the soul of the ox,' that is, of the primeval 
ox, from which all the lower animals are supposed to have been 
developed. This angel, who is usually called G6s, is said to be a 
female, and is the protectress of cattle (see Bd. IV, 2-5) ; in this 
capacity she is supposed to be friendly to Keresasp, whose exploits 
had chiefly consisted in slaying the destroyers of animal life. 

s The Persian version omits these words, and the preceding para- 
graph, proceeding in continuation of note 5, p. 379, as follows : 'And 
as Ardibahift, the archangel, spoke these words, the soul of KeresSsp 
wept and said: " Ardtbahirt, the archangel, speaks truly; I com- 
mitted sin and I repent." And he touched the skirt of Zarat&rt with 
his hand, and said : " Of mankind no one has obtained the eminence, 
rank, and dignity that thou obtainedst ; now, through this grandeur 
and glory which is thine, do thou entreat and make intercession of 
Ardibahirt, the archangel, for me I so that it may be that I obtain 
liberation from this distress and torment." ' 

» See Dd. XXXVII, 36. * See Dd. XLIV, 16. 

6 The Persian version continues as follows : ' And as Zaratftft the 
Spitaman made intercession, Ardibahirt, the archangel, said : " Thy 
reputation is immense, and thy will is great." And after that he 
made no opposition to the soul of Keresasp, but pardoned if for 
Zaratfirt the Spttaman ; and the soul of Keresasp obtained liberation 
from that discomfort.' This version then concludes with an admo- 
nition as to the necessity of treating fire with proper respect. 

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the reader to infer that Zaratti-rt's request was granted. 
It is succeeded, however, by the following further 
remarks about Keresasp, which are evidently con- 
nected with the same legend : — 

' Zaratilrt enquired of A&harmazd thus : " Whose 
is the first dead body thou shalt unite (varaz&s) ?" 

'And Auharma^ spoke thus 1 : "His who is 
Keresasp 2 ." 

' And it seemed grievous to Zaraturt, and he 
spoke unto Auharmasa? thus : " When the business 
of Keresasp was the slaughter of men, why is his 
the first dead body thou wilt prepare ?" 

' Atiharmazd spoke thus : " Let it not seem 
grievous to thee, O ZaratCLrt! for if Keresasp had 
not existed, and thus much work had not been 
done by him, which has been stated, there would 
have been no remains of thee, nor of any creature 
of mine." ' 

Besides the Persian paraphrase of this legend, in 
prose, the Persian Rivayats contain another version 
in metre, which consists of 173 couplets 8 . The 
exploits of Keresasp are also mentioned in the 
Mainy6-i Khar^ (XXVII, 49-53) as follows : — 

' And from Sam the advantage was this, that by 
him the serpent Sruvar, the wolf Kzp&d which they 
also call P<?han 4 , the water-demon Ga«darfi, the bird 
Kamak 6 , and the bewildering 8 demon were slain. 

1 J omits the following words as far as the next ' thus/ 

* Referring to the revival of Keresasp from his trance, in order 
to destroy Dah&k, which is expected to take place before the general 
resurrection (see Bd. XXIX, 8, Byt. Ill, 59-61). 

* In B29, fols. 169-171, it is quoted from ' the book of Bahiram 

* Written P6hin8, or Pann8, in the Pahlavi text. 

* See p. 378, note 1. * Or ' seducing,' or * desolating.* 

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And also many other great actions, that were more 
valuable, he performed ; and he kept back much 
disturbance from the world, of which, if one of those 
special disturbances had remained behind, it would 
not have been possible to effect the resurrection and 
the future existence.' 

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II.. The NiRANG-i Kusil 

The Nlrang-i Kusti, or girdle formula, is a religious 
rite which a Parsi man or woman ought to perform 
every time the hands have been washed, whether for 
the sake of cleanliness, or in preparation for prayer ; 
but it is not always strictly performed in all its 

■ The Kusti, or sacred thread-girdle, is a string 
about the size of a stay-lace, and long enough to pass 
three times very loosely round the waist, to be tied 
twice in a double knot, and to leave the short ends 
hanging behind. It is composed of seventy-two 
very fine, white, woollen threads, as described in 
Dd XXXIX, 1, note, and is tied in the manner 
there mentioned, but with the actions and ritual 
detailed below 1 . 

The ceremonial ablution having been performed, 
and the Kusti taken off, the person stands facing the 
sun by day, or a lamp or the moon at night ; when 
there is no light he should face the south, as he 
should also at midday, even when the sun is 
northerly 8 . The Kusti is then doubled, and the loop 
thus formed is held in the right hand, with the thumb 
in the loop ; while the left hand holds the two parts 
of the string together, some twenty inches hori- 
zontally from the other hand; and the ends hang 
loosely from the left hand. 

1 For most of the details which follow I am indebted to Dastur 
Jamaspji Minochiharji Jamasp-Asa-na. 

a As it is, in Bombay, for about two months in the summer. 

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Holding the Kustf in this fashion, the person 
recites the following prayer in Pazand, bowing and 
raising to his forehead the horizontal portion of the 
string at the name of Auhannas*/, dashing the string 
loosely and sharply downwards towards the left when 
mentioning Aharman, and repeating this downward 
jerk to the left, less violently, as each of the other 
evil beings is named : — ' May Atiharmazd be lord ! 
and Aharman unprevailing, keeping far away, smitten, 
and defeated ! May Aharman, the demons, the fiends, 
the wizards, the wicked, the Klks, the Karaps 1 , the 
tyrants, the sinners, the apostates, the impious, the 
enemies, and the witches be smitten and defeated ! 
May evil sovereigns be unprevailing ! May the 
enemies be confounded 1 May the enemies be 
unprevailing ! ' 

Bending forwards and holding the doubled Kustt 
up, horizontally, as before, he continues: 'Auhar- 
mazd is the lord ; of all sin I am in renunciation and 
penitent, of all kinds of evil thoughts, evil words, 
and evil deeds, whatever was thought by me, and 
spoken by me, and done by me, and happened 
through me, and has originated through me in the 

Then, holding the KustI single with both hands 
near the middle of the string, .but as far apart as 
before, while the loose ends of the string are short- 

1 These two Pahlavi names are merely transliterations of the Av. 
Kavi and Karapan, the names of certain classes of evil-doers, 
traceable back to the earliest times, and, probably, to theVedic 
kavi and kalpa, which would naturally be used in a bad sense in 
the Avesta (see Haug's Essays, p. 289). The Pahlavi translators of 
the Yasna explain these names by the words kur, ' blind,' and kar, 
' deaf,' which are merely guesses. 

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ened (to prevent their touching the ground) by being 
partially gathered up in a large loop hanging under 
each hand, like a pair of spectacles, he proceeds : 
' For those sins of thought, word, and deed, of body 
and soul, worldly and spiritual, do thou pardon this 
one 1 ! I am penitent and in renunciation through the 
three words V 

He then continues to recite the following A vesta 
phrases : ' Satisfaction for Ahura-mazda !' bowing 
and raising the Kusti to the forehead; 'scorn for 
Angra-mainyu!' jerking the Kustl to the left, with- 
out altering the mode of holding it ; ' which is the 
most forward of actual exertions through the will. 
Righteousness is the best good, a blessing it is ; a 
blessing be to that which is righteousness to perfect 
rectitude 8 .' Applying the middle of the Kust! to 
the front of the waist at the first word, ' righteous- 
ness,' of the last sentence, it is passed twice round 
the waist during the remainder of the sentence, by 
the hands meeting behind, exchanging ends, and 
bringing them round again to the front. 

The following Avesta formula is then recited : 
' As a patron spirit is to be chosen, so is an earthly 
master, for the sake of righteousness, to be a giver of 
good thought of the actions of life towards Mazda ; 
and the dominion is for the lord whom he has given 

1 The Pizand word is ukhe' or aokh§, which the Gu^arati 
Khurdah Avesta translates by khudataeld, 'most high God;' but 
it seems more probably a misreading of PahL hana-i, 'this one.' 
These phrases are a portion of the Patit or renunciation of sin. 

* That is, in thought, word, and deed. So far the phrases are 
recited in Pazand, but the following recitations are in the Avesta 

3 This last sentence is the Ashem-vohfl formula (see Bd. XX, 2). 
[18] c c 

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as a protector for the poor '.' At the first word the 
long ends of the Kustl, hanging in front, are loosely 
twisted round each other at the waist, with a right- 
handed turn (that is, with the sun), and the reciter, 
holding his hands together, should think that Auhar- 
mi&d is the sole creator of the good creation, until he 
comes to the word ' actions,' after which the twist is 
drawn closer to the waist during the remainder of 
the recitation. 

The same Avesta formula is then repeated. At 
the first word the second half of the knot is formed, 
by twisting the long ends of the Kustl loosely round 
each other with a left-handed turn (that is, against 
the sun), so as to complete a loose reef-knot, and the 
reciter, holding his hands together, should think that 
Mazda-worship is the true faith, until he comes to 
the word ' actions,' after which the complete double 
knot is drawn close during the remainder of the 

Then, passing the long ends of the Kustl round 
the waist for the third time, from front to back, the 
previous Avesta formula, ' Righteousness is the best 
good,' &c, is recited. At the first word the ends 
of the Kustl are loosely twisted round each other 
behind the waist, with a right-handed turn as before, 
and the reciter should think that Zaraturt was the 
true apostle, until he comes to the first occurrence of 
the word ' blessing,' when the twist is drawn close. 
During the remainder of the formula the second half 
of the knot is formed, with a left-handed twist as 
before, while the reciter thinks that he must practise 

1 This is the Ahunavar, or Yatha-ahu-vairy6 formula (see Bd. 
I, 21, Zs. 1, 12-19). 

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good thoughts, good words, and good deeds, and 
avoid all evil thoughts, evil words, and evil deeds ; 
the double knot being completed behind as the last 
word of the formula is uttered. 

Afterwards, bending forward and holding the 
front knot of the Kustl with both hands, the person 
recites the following Avesta formula : ' Come for my 
protection, O Mazda 1 ! A Mazda-worshipper am I, 
a Zarathurtrian Mazda-Worshipper will I profess my- 
self, both praising and preferring it. I praise a well- 
considered thought, I praise a well-spoken word, I 
praise a well-performed deed. I praise the Mazda- 
worshipping religion, expelling controversy 2 and 
putting down attack, and the righteous union of 
kinsfolk 8 , which is the greatest and best and most 
excellent of things that exist and will exist, which is 
Ahurian and Zarathu-rtrian. I ascribe all good to 
Ahura-mazda. Let this be the eulogy of the Mazda- 
worshipping religion.' And the reciter then repeats 
the formula, ' Righteousness is the best good,' &c, 
as before, bowing reverently, which completes the 

1 What follows is from Yas. XIII, 25-29, and is the conclusion 
of the Mazda-worshipper's creed. 

2 The meaning of the original term fraspayaokhedhram is 
rather uncertain, and the Pahlavi version is not easy to understand 
clearly; it translates this sentence, as far as the next epithet, as 
follows : ' I praise the good religion of the Masda -worshippers, from 
which the disunion cast forth and the assault put down are manifest 
(this is manifest from it, that it is not desirable to go to others without 
controversy, and with that which arises without controversy it is 
quite requisite to occasion controversy).' 

* This is one of the earliest references to Ava6tvadatha,or 
marriage among next-of-kin ; the passage being written in the later 
Gatha dialect. 

C C 2 

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During the rite the person performing it must 
remain standing on the same spot, without stepping 
either backwards or forwards, and must speak to no 
one. Should anything compel him to speak, he must 
re-commence the rite after the interruption. 

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III. The Meaning of KhvetOk-das or KhvetOdad. 

That the term Khv&uk-das is applied to mar- 
riages between kinsfolk is admitted by the Parsis, 
but they consider that such marriages were never 
contracted by their ancestors within the first degree 
of relationship, because they are not so permitted 
among themselves at the present day. Any state- 
ments of Greek, or other foreign, writers, regarding 
the marriage of Persians with their mothers, sisters, 
or daughters, they believe to be simply calumnies due 
to ignorance, which it-is discreditable to Europeans to 
quote" x . Such statements, they consider, may have 
referred to the practices of certain heretical sects, 
but never to those of the orthodox faith. 

The Parsis are, no doubt, fully justified in 
receiving the statements of foreign writers, re- 
garding the customs of their ancestors, with proper 
caution ; a caution which is quite as necessary when 
the statements are agreeable as when they are 
disagreeable to present notions. The Greeks, 
especially, had such a thorough contempt for all 
foreign customs that differed from their own, that 
they must have found it quite as di/ficult to obtain 
correct information, or to form an impartial opinion, 
about oriental habits as the average European finds 
it at the present time. On the other hand, the 
Parsis have to consider that the ancient Greek 
writers, whose statements they repudiate, were neither 
priests nor zealots, whose accounts of religious cus- 

1 See Dastur Peshotanji's translation of the Dinkan/, p. 96, note. 

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toms might be distorted by religious prejudices, but 
historians accustomed to describe facts as impartially 
as their information and nationality would permit 
It is quite possible that these writers may have 
assumed that such marriages were common among 
the Persians, merely because they had sometimes 
occurred among the Persian rulers ; but such an 
assumption would be as erroneous as supposing that 
the marriage practices of the Israelites were similar 
to those of their most famous kings, David and 
Solomon, forgetting that an oriental sovereign is 
usually considered to be above the law and not 
subject to it. 

Rejecting all statements of foreigners, as liable to 
suspicion, unless confirmed by better evidence, it 
seems desirable to ascertain what information can 
be obtained, on this subject, from the religious books 
of the Parsis themselves. This matter has hitherto 
been too much neglected by those best acquainted 
with the original texts, and must be considered as 
only partially exhausted in the following pages. 

The term Khv£tuk-das 1 is a Pahlavi transcription 
of the Avesta word ^z/a£tvadatha, 'a giving of, 
to, or by, one's own,' and is sometimes partially 
translated into the form Khv6tuk-dadf, or Khv£tu- 
da</, in which the syllable d&d, 'what is given, a 
gift,' is merely a translation of the syllable das 
(Av. datha). 

The Avesta word ^#a6tvadatha is not found in 
any of the Gathas, or sacred hymns, that are still 
extant and are usually considered the oldest portion 

1 Occasionally written KhvMk-dat, as in Pahl. Vend. VIII, 36 
(see p. 392). 

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of the Avesta. But its former component, A^a^tu, 
occurs several times therein, with the meaning ' one's 
own, or kinsman,' as distinguished from 'friends' 
and ' slaves.' 

The earliest occurrence of the complete word is 
probably in Yas. XIII, 28 l , where it is mentioned 
as follows : — ' I praise .... the righteous /foaetva- 
datha, which is the greatest and best and most 
excellent of things that exist and will exist, which 
is Ahurian and Zarathustrian.' This merely implies 
that Zfoa^tvadatha was a good work of much im- 
portance, which is also shown by Visp. Ill, 18, Gah 
IV, 8, and VLrtisp Yt. 1 7, where the /foaStvadatha 
(meaning the man who has accomplished that good 
work) is associated with youths who are specially 
righteous for other reasons. But there is nothing 
in any of these passages to indicate the nature of 
the good work. 

In Vend. VIII, 35, 36 we are told that those who 
carry the dead must afterwards wash their hair and 
bodies with the urine ' of cattle or draught oxen, 
not of men or women, except the two who are 
Z/z'a£tvadatha and //i>a£tvadathi,' that is, male and 
female performers of //z>a£tvadatha. This passage, 
therefore, proves that the good work might be 
accomplished by both men and women, but it does 
not absolutely imply that it had any connection with 

Turning to the Pahlavi translations of these pas- 
sages we find the transcription Khv£tuk-das, KhvS- 
tuk-dat, or Khv6tuk-dasth, with explanations which 
add very little to our knowledge of the nature of 

1 See p. 387, note 3. 

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the good work. Thus, Pahl. Yas. XIII, 28 merely 
states that it is ' declared about it that it is requisite 
to do it;' Pahl. Virtasp Yt 17 l asserts that 'the 
duty of Khv€tuk-das is said to be the greatest good 
work in the religion, that, owing to it, Aharman, the 
demon of demons, is becoming hopeless, so that the 
dissolution of Khvetuk-das is worthy of death ;' and 
Pahl. Vend. VIII, 36 speaks of 'the two who are 
a Khvetuk-dat man and woman 2 , that is, it is done 
by them.' 

Another reference to Khv£tuk-das in the Pahlavi 
translations of the Avesta occurs in Pahl. Yas. 
XLIV, 4, as follows: — 'Thus I proclaim in the 
world that [which he who is Auharmasaf made his 
own] best [Khvetuk-das] 3 . By aid of righteousness 
Auharmas^is aware, who created this one* [to perform 

1 The age of this Pahlavi version of the Vwtasp Yart is doubtful, 
and it is even possible that it may have been composed in India. 
The only MS. of it that I have seen belongs to Dastur Jimaspji 
Minochiharji, who kindly gave me a copy of it, but seemed doubtful 
about the age of the translation. He was aware that his MS. was 
written some forty years ago, but he did not know from what MS. 
it was copied. This version is, however, mentioned in the list of 
Pahlavi works given in the introduction to Dastur Peshotanji's 
Pahlavi Grammar, pp. 18, 31, so that another MS. of the Pahlavi 
text probably exists in the library of the high-priest of the Parsis 
in Bombay. 

* Or, perhaps, ' man and wife ; ' as gabrfi, ' man,' is occasionally 
used for 'husband,' though shui is the usual word, and ne^man 
means both ' woman ' and ' wife.' 

* Written KhvStvadas or Khvgtudas in the very old MS. of 
Dastur JSmSspji Minochiharji, the text of which is followed in this 
translation. The phrases in brackets have no equivalents in the 
original Avesta text, and, therefore, merely represent the opinions 
of the Pahlavi translators. 

* Spendarnuuf apparently, as indicated by the sequel. 

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Khv6tuk-das]. And through fatherhood Vohuman 1 
was cultivated by him, [that is, for the sake of the 
proper nurture of the .creatures Khvetuk-das was 
performed by him.] So she who is his daughter is 
acting well, [who is the fully-mindful] Spendarma^ 2 , 
[that is, she did not shrink from the act of Khvetuk- 
das.] She 3 was not deceived, [that is, she did not 
shrink from the act of Khvdtuk-das, because she is] 
an observer of everything [as regards that which is] 
Auharmastff s, [that is, through the religion of Au- 
harmasd she attains to all duty and law.]' The 
allusions to Khvetuk-das in this passage are mere 
interpolations introduced by the Pahlavi translators, 
for the sake of recommending the practice ; they have 
no existence in the Avesta text, but they show that 
the Pahlavi translators understood Khv6tuk-das to 

1 The Pahlavi translator seems here to understand Vohuman not 
as the archangel (see Dd. Ill, 13), but as a title ('good-minded') of 
the primeval man, Gay6mar<f, who is supposed to have been pro- 
duced by Auharmazrf out of the earth (compare Gen. ii. 7), repre- 
sented by the female archangel Spendarma*/. The term vohu- 
mand is used in Vend. XIX, 69, 76-84 for both a well-intentioned 
man and his clothing. 

* The female archangel, a personification of the Avesta phrase 
spenta armaiti, 'bountiful devotion ;' she has special charge of 
the earth and virtuous women (see Bd. I, 26, Sis. XV, 20-24). 
She is called the daughter of Auharmazrf, even as the fire and 
Vohuman are called his sons, because devotion (representing the 
earth), fire, and good thought are considered to be his most im- 
portant creations. And, as the earth is also, metaphorically, the 
mother of man, and the creator Auharmaz</ is figuratively his 
father, this unfortunate combination of anthropomorphisms has 
induced later superstition to take these statements literally, and 
to quote them as a justification of marriage between father and 

8 This seems the most probable nominative to the verbs in this 
sentence, but it is by no means certain. 

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refer to such relationship as that of father and 
daughter, as will appear more clearly from further 
allusions to the same circumstances in passages to 
be quoted hereafter 1 . Regarding the age of the 
Pahlavi translation of the Yasna we only know for 
certain that it existed in its present form a thousand 
years ago, because a passage is quoted from it by 
Ziaf-sparam, brother of the author of the Djufistan-1 
Dtnik and Epistles of Manu^ihar, in his Selections 2 , 
and we know that he was living in A. D. 88 1 s . But 
it was probably revised for the last time as early as 
the reign of Khusr6 N6shirvan (a. d. 531-579), when 
the Pahlavi Vendidaaf was also finally revised*. 

The Pahlavi versions of the lost Nasks must have 
been nearly of the same age as those of the extant 
Avesta, but of the contents of these versions we 
possess only certain statements of later writers. 
According to some of the modern Persian state- 
ments the Dubasru^e*/ Nask contained many details 
about Khvetuk-das, but this is contradicted by the 
long account of its contents given in the eighth 
book of the Dinkzrd, which was written more than 
a thousand years ago 6 , and in which Khv£tuk-das 
is not once noticed. The practice is, however, men- 
tioned several times in the Dinkardf, as an important 
good work noticed in the Nasks, but no details are 
given, except in the following passages from the 
ninth book : — 

First, regarding the latter part of the eighteenth 
fargan/ of the Varartmansar Nask : — ' And this, too, 

1 See pp. 396, 401, 416. * See Zs. V, 4. 

8 See Ep. Ill, 2, 17, 21. 4 See Ep. I, iv, 17, note. 

8 This is proved by the long quotation from Dk. VI contained 
inDd. XCIV, 1-11. 

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that thereupon they shall excite a brother and sister 
with mutual desire, so that they shall perform 
Khvetuk-das with unanimity, and before midday are 
generated a radiance which is sublime, centred in 
the face, and peeping glances (veniko aids); and 
they make the radiance, which is openly manifest, 
grow up in altitude the height of three spears of a 
length of three reeds each}; and after midday they 
have learned expulsion (ranakih 2 ), and shall re- 
nounce the fiend who is before the destroyer.' This 
is clearly an allusion to the Khvetuk-das of brother 
and sister, as' it can hardly be considered as merely 
referring to the arrangement of marriages between 
their children. 

Second, regarding the earlier part of the fourteenth 
fargaraf of the Bakd Nask : — ' And this, too, that the 
performance of whatever would be a causer of pro- 
creation for the doers of actions is extolled as the 
perfect custom of the first Khvetuk-das ; because 
causing the procreation of the doers of actions is the 
fatherhood of mankind, the proper fatherhood of 
mankind is through the proper production of pro- 
geny, the proper production of progeny is the culti- 
vation of progeny in one's own with the inclinations 
(khlmtha) of a first wish 3 , and the cultivation of 
progeny in one's own is Khvetuk-das. And he who 
extols the fatherhood of mankind, when it is a causer 
of the procreation of the doers of actions, has also 
extolled Khvetuk-das. And this, too, that the proper 
nurture for the creatures, by him whose wish is for 

1 A height of about 42 English feet (see Dd. XLIII, 5). 
* That is, the capability of expelling the fiends that try to take 
possession of man. 
5 Reading gam (=k am), but it may be dam, 'creature.' 

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virtue, has taught him to perform Khv£tuk-das. 
Virtue is its virtue even for this reason, because, for 
the sake of maintaining a creature with propriety, 
he reckons upon the proper disposition of the 
multitude, that which is generated in the race by 
innumerable Khvetfik-dases 1 . And this, too, that 
Spendarma^ is taught as being in daughterhood to 
Aflharmas^ by him whose wisdom consists in com- 
plete mindfulness. Even on this account, because 
wisdom and complete mindfulness 2 are within the 
limits of AGharma&/ and Spendarmadf; wisdom is 
that which is AGharmazafs, complete mindfulness 
is that which is SpendarmaaTs, and complete mind- 
fulness is the progeny of wisdom, just as Spendar- 
maaf is of Auha^masdf. And from this is expressly 
the announcement that, by him who has connected 
complete mindfulness with wisdom, Spendarma// is 
taught as being in daughterhood to Auharmasa/. 
And this, too, the existence of the formation of that 
daughterhood, is taught by him whose righteousness 
consists in complete mindfulness.' This quotation 
merely shows that Khv£tuk-das referred to con- 
nections between near relations, but whether the 
subsequent allusions to the daughterhood of Spen- 
darniaaf had reference to the Khvdttik-das of father 
and daughter is less certain than in the case of Pahl. 
Yas. XLIV, 4, previously quoted*. 

Third, regarding the middle of the twenty-first 

1 That is, the useful peculiarities of a particular breed of domestic 
animals are maintained and intensified by keeping up the purity of 
the race. 

' ' Complete mindfulness ' is the usual Pahlavi explanation of Av. 
armaiti, ' devotion,' the latter component of the name Spendarmat/. 

* See pp. 392, 393. 

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fargan/ of the Bak6 Nask : — ' And this, too, that 
a daughter is given in marriage (n£smanih) to a 
father, even so as a woman to another man, by him 
who teaches the daughter and the other woman the 
reverence due unto father and husband.' The refer- 
ence here to the marriage of father and daughter 
is too clear to admit of mistake, though the term 
Khv£tuk-das is not mentioned. 

Next in age to the Pahlavi versions of the Avesta 
we ought perhaps to place the Book of An& -Viraf, 
because we are told (AV. I, 35), regarding Viraf, that 
' there are some who call him by the name of Nikh- 
shahpur,' and this may have been the celebrated 
commentator of that name, who was a councillor of 
king Khusrd Ndshirvan 1 , so that we cannot safely 
assume that this book was written earlier than the 
end of the sixth century. It gives an account of 
heaven and hell, which An/a-Viraf is supposed to have 
visited during the period of a week, while he seemed 
to be in a trance. In the second grade of heaven, 
counting upwards, he found the souls of those who 
had ' performed no ceremonies, chanted no sacred 
hymns, and practised no Khvetuk-das,' but had come 
there 'through other good works;' and it may be 
noted that the two upper grades of heaven appear 
to have been reserved for good sovereigns, chief- 
tains, high-priests, and others specially famous. In 
hell, also, he saw the soul of a woman suffering 
grievous punishment because she had 'violated 
Khvetuk-das ;' but this passage occurs in one MS. 
only. We are also told (AV. II, 1-3, 7-10) that 
' Viraf had seven sisters, and all 2 those seven sisters 

1 See Ep. I, iv, 17. 

* The word translated ' all' is the ordinary Huz. ko/4, equivalent 

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-I l. J 1,'f 'H. „ .. I ...h..„ 


were as wives of Viraf; revelation, also, was easy to 
them, and the ritual had been performed .... they 
stood up and bowed, and spoke thus : " Do not 
this thing, ye Ma^a -worshippers ! for we are seven 
sisters, and he is an only brother, and we are, all 
seven sisters, as wives 1 of that brother."' This 
passage, supposing that it really refers to marriage, 
seems to attribute an exaggerated form of the Khv£- 
tuk-das of brother and sister to Viraf, as a proof of 
his extraordinary sanctity ; but it can hardly be con- 
sidered as a literal statement of facts, any more than 
the supposed case of a woman having married seven 
brothers successively, mentioned in Mark xii. 20-22, 
Luke xx. 29-32. 

In another Pahlavi book of about the same age, 
which is best known by its Pazand name, Mainyd-i 
Khan/ 2 , we find Khvetuk-das placed second among 

to Pers. har, but a Parsi critic has suggested that it ought to be read 
kanfk, 'virgin,' so as to get rid of the idea that the sisters were 
married to Viraf. This suggestion is ingenious, because the dif- 
ference between ko/a and kanik is very slight, when written in 
Pahlavi characters ; but it is not very ingenuous, because the substi- 
tution of kanfk for ko/a, both here and in the similar phrase at 
the end of the passage quoted in our text, would render the sentences 
quite ungrammatical, as would be easily seen by any well-educated 
Parsi who would translate the phrases literally into modern Persian 
words, which would give him the following text: &n har haft 
'^vaharan Viraf £un zan bud and for the first phrase, and har 
haft Vivahar an biradar zani 6m for the second. To substitute 
any Persian word for ' virgin ' in place of the pronoun har, in these 
two phrases, would evidently produce nonsense. The really doubtful 
point in these phrases is whether zan and zanf are to be understood 
as ' wife ' and ' wifehood,' or merely as ' woman ' and ' womankind ;' 
but it would be unusual to use such terms for the unmarried female 
members of a family. 

1 Or ' the womankind.' 

a From a facsimile of the only known MS. of the original Pahlavi 

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seven classes of good works (Mkh. IV, 4), and 
ninth among thirty-three classes of the same (Mkh. 
XXXVII, 12); and the dissolution of Khv&tuk-das 
is mentioned as the fourth in point of heinousness 
among thirty classes of sin (Mkh. XXXVI, 7). 

In the Bahman Yart, which may have existed in 
its original Pahlavi form before the Muhammadan 
conquest of Persia 1 , it is stated that, even in the 
perplexing time of foreign conquest, the righteous 
man ' continues the religious practice of Khve'tuk-das 
in his family 2 .' 

The third book of the Dinkurd, which appears to 
have been compiled by the last editor 8 of that work, 
contains a long defence of the practice of Khv6tuk- 
das, forming its eighty-second* chapter, which may 
be translated as follows : — 

' On a grave attack (hu-girayuno) of a Jew upon 

text of this work, recently published by Dr. Andreas, it appears that 
its Pahlavi name was Dina-i Minavad-f Khanf (orMaindg-i Khin/), 
' the opinions of the spirit of wisdom/ 
1 See Sacred Books of the East, vol. v, pp. liii-lvi. 

* See Byt. II, 57, 61. 

1 The name of this editor was Atur-p&</, son of H&mid, as appears 
from the last chapter (chap. 413) of the same book. He was a 
contemporary of the author of the Darfistan-t Dinik (see Bd. 
XXXIII, 11). 

* Chap. 80 in the recent edition of Dastur Peshotanji Behramji, 
because his numbers do not commence at the beginning of the book. 
His translation of this chapter (see pp. 90-102 of the English trans- 
lation of his edition) differs considerably from that given in our text. 
This difference may be partly owing to its being translated from the 
Gug'arati translation, and not direct from the original Pahlavi ; but 
it is chiefly due to the inevitable result of attempting a free transla- 
tion of difficult Pahlavi, without preparing a literal version in the first 
place. The translation here given is as literal as possible, but the 
Pahlavi text is too obscure to be yet understood with absolute cer- 
tainty in some. places. 

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a priest, which was owing to asking the reason of 
the custom (ahanko) as to Khv£tuk-das ; and the 
reply of the priest to him from the exposition of the 
Mazda- worshipping religion. 

' That is, as one complaining about wounds, 
damage, and distress comes on, it is lawful to dis- 
pute with him in defence begirt with legal opinion 
(daafistano parvand), and the consummation of 
the accusation of an innocent man is averted; so 
of the creatures, the invisible connection of their 
own power to fellow-creations and their own race, 
through the propitiousness of the protection and 
preserving influence of the sacred beings, is a girdle, 
and the consummation of the mutual assistance of 
men is Khvetuk-das. The name is Khv£tuk-das, 
which is used when it is " a giving of one's own" 
(khvej-dalmnlh), and its office (gas) is a strong 
connection with one's own race and fellow-creations, 
through the protection and preserving influence of 
the sacred beings, which is, according to the treatises, 
the union of males and females of mankind of one's 
own race in preparation for, and connection with, 
the renovation of the universe. That union, for the 
sake of proceeding incalculably more correctly, is, 
among the innumerable similar races of mankind, 
that with near kinsfolk (nabanazdistanS), and, 
among near kinsfolk, that with those next of kin 
(nazd-pa^vandano); and the mutual connection 
of the three kinds of nearest of kin (nazd-paaf- 
vandtar) — which are father and daughter, son and 
she who bore him 1 , and brother and sister — is the 
most complete (a&lrtar) that I have considered. 

1 Literally 'bearer' (burrfir), which is not the usual word for 
'mother,' but equivalent to the Av. baretar that is used in that sense. 

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' On the same subject the exposition of the ob- 
scure statements of the good religion, by a wise 
high-priest of the religion, is this : — " I assert that 
God (y£dat6) is the being, as regards the creatures, 
who created any of the creatures there are which 
are male, and any there are which are female ; and 
that which is male' is a son, and, similarly, a daughter 
is that which is female. The daughter of himself, 
the father of all, was Spendarmarf 1 , the earth, a 
female being of the creation; and from her he 
created the male Gay6maraf a , which is explained as 
the name for him who was specially the first man, 
since it is Gaydmara? living who is speaking and 
mortal, a limitation which was specially his, because 
of these three words — which are 'living, speaking, 
and mortal ' — two of the limitations, which are ' living 
and speaking,' were through the provision of his 
father, the creator, and one, which is ' mortal,' was 
proceeding from the destroyer ; the same limitation 
is upon all mankind, who are connected with that 
man's lineage, until the renovation of (he universe. 
And now I say, if the aid of the father has produced 
a male from the daughter, it is named a Khv6tuk-das 
of father and daughter 3 ." 

4 This, too, is from the exposition of the religion, 
that the semen of GaydmaraJ— which is called seed — 
when he passed away, fell to Spendarmarf*, the earth, 
which was his own mother ; and, from its being united 

1 See p. 393, note a. 

• See Dd. II, io, XXXVII, 8a, LXIV, 5. 

' It is uncertain whether the high-priest's statement continues 
beyond this point, or not 

* See Bd. XV, 1, a, Dd. LXIV, 6. 

[18] D d 

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herewith, Mashya and Mashly6t * were the son and 
daughter of Gay6mara? and SpendarmaaT, and it is 
named the Khvetuk-das of son and mother. And 
Mashya and Mashty6t, as male and female, practised 
the quest of offspring, one with the other, and it is 
named the Khvetuk-das of brother and sister. And 
many couples were begotten by them, and the couples 
became continually 2 wife and husband 3 ; and all men, 
who have been, are, and will be, are from origin the 
seed of Khve'tuk-das. And this is the reason which 
is essential for its fulfilment by law, that where its 
contemplation (and&£-i.yno) exists it is manifest 
from the increase of the people of all regions. 

'And I assert that the demons are enemies of 
man, and a non-existence of desire for them consists 
in striving for it when Khv6tuk-das is practised ; it 
then becomes their 4 reminder of that original prac- 
tice of contemplation which is the complete gratitude 
of men, and has become his 8 who is inimical to them. 
Grievous fear, distress, and anguish also come upon 
them, their power diminishes, and they less under- 
stand the purpose of causing the disturbance and 
ruin of men. And it is certain that making the 
demons distressed, suffering, frightened, and weak- 
ened is thus a good work, and this way of having 
reward and of recompense is the property of the 
practisers of such good works. 

' And I assert that the goodness of appearance 
and growth of body, the display of wisdom, temper, 

1 See Dd. XXXVII, 82, LXIV, a, LXV, a, LXXVII, 4, where 
these names are spelt differently. 
1 Literally ' have become and have become.' 

* See Bd. XV, 32, 24-26. « The demons'. 

* Aflharmaz<f s. 

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, y Google 


and modesty, the excellence of skill and strength, 
and also the other qualities of children are so much 
the more as they are nearer to the original race of 
the begetter, and they shall receive them more per- 
fectly and more gladly. An example is seen in 
those who spring from a religious woman who is 
gentle, believing the spiritual existence, acting mo- 
destly, of scanty strength, who is a forgiver and 
reverential, and from a mzii\-clad (gapar) warrior of 
worldly religion, who is large-bodied and possessing 
strength which is stimulating (agar) his stout heart 
while he begets. They 1 are not completely for war — 
which is a continuance of lamentation (nis-ravan- 
dih) — and not for carefulness and affection for the 
soul; as from the dog andvrolf — and not the ruin 
(se^f) of the sheep — arises the fox, like the wolf, but 
not with the strength of the wolf like the dog, ar^d it 
does not even possess its perfect shape, nor that of 
the dog. And they are like those which are born 
from a swift Arab horse and a native dam, and are 
not galloping like the Arab, and not kicking (pa</4- 
yak) like the native. And they have not even the 
same perfect characteristics*, just as the mule that 
springs from the horse and the ass, which is not like 
unto either of them, and even its seed is cut off 
thereby, and its lineage is not propagated forwards. 
' And this is the advantage from the pure preser- 
vation of race. I assert that there are three 8 species 

1 The offspring of such a match, which the apologist evidently 
considers an ill-assorted one, as tending to deteriorate the warlike 
qualities of the warrior's descendants, although he himself is no 
advocate for war. 

* As their parents. 

* Dastur Peshotanji has ' four/ because the Pahlavi text seems 

D d 2 

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(vag) and kinds of affection of sister and brother for 
that which shall be born of them : — one is this, where 
it is the offspring of brother and brother ; one is 
this, where the offspring is that of 1 brothers 2 and 
their sister ; and one is this, where it is the offspring 
of sisters*. And as to the one of these where the 
offspring is that of 4 a brother, and for the same 
reason as applies to all three 6 species of them, the 
love, desire, and effort, which arise for the nurture of 
offspring of the three species, are in hope of benefit 
And equally adapted are the offspring to the pro- 
creators ; and this is the way of the increasing love 
of children, through the good nurture which is very 

' And so, also, are those who are born of father 
and daughter, or son and mother. Light flashed 
forth (^ast6) or unflashed (aparvakhtS) is always 
seen at the time when it is much exposed, and 
pleased is he who has a child of his child, even when 
it is from some one of a different race and different 

to speak of four species in the next sentence ; here it seems to 
have ' six ' in ciphers, but the first cipher can also be read a 6, the 
conditional suffix to the verb which immediately precedes the 
ciphers in the Pahlavi text, and the second cipher is merely 'three,' 
which corresponds to the three possible kinds of first cousins that 
are about to be detailed in the text. 

1 Reading zak-f instead of zIj (which might be read zakth 
if there were such a word). 

8 Literally 'brother.' ' Literally ' sister.' 

4 Reading zak-f instead of zis, as before. This is Dastur 
Peshotanji's fourth species of cousinship, which he understands as 
meaning second cousins. 

8 Reading t3, by dividing the Pahlavi cipher for 'four' into 
two parts, both here and near the end of the sentence. This 
paragraph can hardly be understood otherwise than referring to 
the present form of KhvStuk-das, the marriage of first cousins. 

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■ ..I .... ^.. ■ ■»....■... - ■■ 1 1 M ■ ■ — ^^— 1. 11. . , , 

country. That, too, has then become much delight 
(vayag) which is expedient, that pleasure, sweet- 
ness, and joy which are owing to a son that a man 
begets from a daughter of his own, who is also a 
brother of that same mother ; and he who is born 
of a son and mother is also a brother of that same 
father ; this is a way of much pleasure, which is a 
blessing of the joy, and no harm is therein ordained 
that is more than the advantage, and no vice that is 
more than the well-doing (khup gar). And if it 
be said that it is of evil appearance, it should be 
observed that when 1 a wound occurs in the sexual 
part of a mother, or sister, or daughter, and she 
flees (fravd*/) from a medical man, and there is no 
opportunity for him to apply a seton (palitS), and 
her father, or son, or brother is instructed in similar 
surgery, which is more evil in appearance, when they 
touch the part with the hand, and apply a seton, or 
when a strange man does so ? 

' And, when it is desirable to effect their union, 
which is the less remarkable (k am hu-zanakhlktar) 
in evil appearance, when they are united (ham- 
dvaa?i-h£nd) by them in secret, such as when the 
hearing of their written contract (nipi^tS) of wife- 
hood and husbandhood* is accomplished in the back- 
ground (dar pu^t6), or when the sound of drums 
and trumpets acquaints the whole district, where 

1 Reading amat instead of mun, ' who,' (see Dd. LXII, 4 n.) 
1 Showing that the practice advocated was understood to be 
a regular marriage (performed in private probably on account of 
the authorities being of a foreign faith) and not any kind of 
irregular intercourse. It is here approvingly contrasted with the 
noisy celebration of a marriage with a person of foreign faith, in 
accordance with foreign customs. 

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these people are renowned, that such an Aruman 1 
intends to effect such a purpose with the daughter, 
sister, or mother of such a Parsl man ? 

1 On this account of less evil appearance is even 
the good appearance which is to be mutually prac- 
tised ; and after the mode is seen, even the advan- 
tageousness in the accomplishment of the daily duty 
of concealing disgrace, the mutual desire, the mutual 
advantage and harm, and the contentment which 
arise as to whatever has happened are also mutual 
assistance. Some, with a husband and faint-hearted- 
ness, have a disposition (jano) of incapability, and 
the diligence which is in their reverence of the 
husband, who is ruler of the family (bunag shah), 
is due even to the supremacy which he would set 
over them through the severity of a husband. Very 
many others, too, who are strange women, are not 
content with a custom (va,f) of this description ; for 
they demand even ornaments to cover and clothe 
the bold and active ones, and slaves, dyes, perfumes, 
extensive preparations, and many other things of 
house-mistresses which are according to their de- 
sire, though it is not possible they should receive 
them. And, if it be not possible, they would not 
accept retrenchment ; and, if they should not accept 
retrenchment, it hurries on brawling, abuse, and 
ugly words about this, and even uninterrupted false- 
hood (avisistak-ii zur) is diffused as regards it; 
of the secrets, moreover, which they conceal they 
preserve night and day a bad representation, and 
unobservantly. They shall take the bad wife to 

1 A native of Asia Minor, or any other part of the eastern 
empire of the Romans. 

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the house of her father and mother, the husband 
is dragged to the judges, and they shall form a dis- 
trict assembly (shatrd ang£26) about it. And lest 
he should speak thus : " I will release her from wife- 
hood with me 1 ," vice and fraud of many kinds and 
the misery of deformity are the faults which are also 
secretly attributed to him. 

'A wife of those three classes 2 is to be provided, 
since they would not do even one of these things 8 ; 
on which account, even through advantageousness, 
virtuous living, precious abundance, dignity, and 
innocence, mutual labour is manifestly mighty and 

' And if it be said that, " with all this which you 
explain, there is also, afterwards, a depravity (dar- 
vakh) which is hideous," it. should be understood 
in the mind that hideousness and beauteousness 
are specially those things which do not exist in 
themselves, but through some one's habit of taking 
up an opinion and belief. The hideous children of 
many are in the ideas of procreation exceedingly 
handsome, and the handsome forms of many are in 
the ideas of a housekeeper (khanSpanS) exceed- 
ingly ugly. We consider him also as one of our 
enemies when any one walks naked in the country, 
which you consider hideous ; but the naked skins of 

1 That is, lest he should pronounce her divorce. 

* The three nearest degrees of relationship must be meant, 
as the sequel admits the possibility of the union being considered 
objectionable ; otherwise, the three kinds of first cousins might be 

' As a special pleader for marriage between near relations the 
apologist feels himself bound to argue that all bad wives must have 
been strangers to the family before marriage. 

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the country call him handsome whose garments, 
which seem to them hideous, have fallen off. And 
we are they in whose ideas a nose level with the face 
is ugly, but they who account a prominent nose ugly, 
and say it is a walling that reaches between the two 
eyes, remain selecting a handsome one 1 . And con- 
cerning handsomeness and ugliness in themselves, 
which are only through having taken up an opinion 
and belief, there is a change even through time and 
place ; for any one of the ancients whose head was 
shaved was as it were ugly, and it was so settled by 
law that it was a sin worthy of death for them 8 ; 
then its habits (janS) did not direct the customs of 
the country to shave the head of a man, but now 
there is a sage who has considered it as handsome 
and even a good work. Whoever is not clear that 
it is hideous is to think, about something threaten- 
ing (girat), that it is even so not in itself, but 
through what is taken into themselves they con- 
sider that it is hideous. 

' Then for us the good work of that thing 8 , of 
which it is cognizable that it is so ordained by the 
creator, has its recompense; it is the protector of 
the race, and the family is more perfect ; its nature 

1 That is, those who admire flat noses select their beauties 
accordingly. Beauty being merely a matter of taste, which varies 
with the whim of the individual and the fashion of the period. 

* This law was evidently becoming obsolete at the time the 
apologist was writing, and is now wholly forgotten. All Parsi 
laymen have their heads shaved at the present time, although the 
priests merely have their hair closely cut. This change of custom, 
in a matter settled by religious law, should warn the Parsis not 
to deny the possibility of other complete alterations having taken 
place in their religious customs. 

» KhvMk-das. 

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is without vexation (aptear) and gathering affec- 
tion, an advantage to the child — the lineage being 
exalted — gathering (a&ariun) hope, offspring, and 
pleasure it is sweetness to the procreator, and the 
joy is most complete ; less is the harm and more the 
advantage, little the pretence and much the skill of 
the graceful blandishments (na-zanS) which are ap- 
parent, aiding and procuring assistance (banfi.m5), 
averting disaster, and conducting affairs ; less is the 
fear, through itself is itself illustrious, and the stead- 
fast shall abandon crime (iam), And all our fathers 
and grandfathers, by whom the same practice was 
lawfully cherished, maintained it handsomely in their 
homes; and to think of mankind only as regards 
some assistance is the enlightenment of the stead- 
fast, a reason which is exhibiting the evidence of 
wisdom, that no practice of it 1 is not expedient. 

'And if it be said that the law 2 has afterwards 
commanded as regards that custom thus : " Ye shall 
not practise it /" every one who is cognizant of that 
command is to consider it current ; but we are not 
cognizant of that command, and by an intelligent 
person (khaparvarakft) this should also be seen 
minutely, through correct observation, that all the 
knowledge of men has arisen from Khv£tuk-das. 
For knowledge is generated by the union of instinc- 
tive wisdom and acquired wisdom 8 ; instinctive wis- 
dom is the female, and acquired wisdom the male ; 
and on this account, since both are an achievement 
by the creator, they are sister and brother. And 

1 Khvetuk-das. 

' Perhaps the law of the foreign conquerors is meant. 

• See Dd. XXXVII, 35^ XL, 3. 

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also of everything worldly the existence, maturing, 
and arrangement are due to union in proportion ; 
water, which is female, and fire, which is male 1 , 
are accounted sister and brother in combination, 
and they seem as though one restrains them from 
Khvetuk-das, unless, through being dissipated them- 
selves 2 , seed — which is progeny — arises therefrom; 
and owing to a mutual proportionableness of water 
and fire is the power in the brain, for if the water be 
more it rots it away, and if the fire be more it burns 
it away.' 

This elaborate defence of Khv6tuk-das shows 
clearly that, at the time it was written (about a 
thousand years ago), that custom was understood to 
include actual marriages between the nearest rela- 
tives, although those between first cousins appear 
to be also referred to. 

In the 195th 3 chapter of the third book of the 
Dlnkard we are told that the eighth of the ten 
admonitions, delivered to mankind by Zaraturt, was 
this: — 'For the sake of much terrifying of the 
demons, and much lodgment of the blessing of the 
holy 4 in one's body, Khv£tuk-das is to be practised.' 
And the following chapter informs us, that ' opposed 
to that admonition of the righteous Zaraturt, of prac- 
tising Khv£tuk-das for the sake of much terrifying 

1 See Dd. XCIII, 13 n. 

* Into the forms of moisture and warmth in the body. Water and 
fire in their ordinary state being incapable of combination. 

* This will be the 193rd chapter in Dastur Peshotanji's edition, 
because his numbers do not commence at the beginning of the 
book. A similar difference will be found in the numbering of all 
other chapters of the third book of the Dinkarrf. 

4 The technical name of Yas. LIX. 

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of the demons from the body of man, and the lodg- 
ment of the blessing of the holy in the body, the 
wicked wizard Akht6\ the enemy of the good man 
on account of the perplexing living which would 
arise from his practising Khv&tuk-das, preferred not 
practising Khv£tuk-das.' 

The practice is also mentioned in the 287th chapter 
of the same book, in the following passage : — ' The 
welfare of the aggregate of one's own limb-forma- 
tions — those which exist through no labour of one's 
own, and have not come to the aid of those not 
possessing them (anafrmanan) owing to their own 
want of gratitude — even one of a previous formation 
has to eulogize suitably ; and this which has come, 
completely establishing (sp6r-nih) the Avesta, one 
calls equally splendid, by the most modestly com- 
prehensive appellation of Khv6tuk-das.' 

In the sixth book of the Dlnkara?, which professes 
to be a summary of the opinions of those of the 
primitive faith*, we are told that, ' when the good 
work of Khv£tuk-das shall diminish, darkness will 
increase and light will diminish.' 

In the seventh book of the Dlrikard, which relates 
the marvels of the Masafe-worshipping religion, we 
are informed that it was ' recounted how — Gay6- 
maraf 8 having passed away — it was declared secondly, 
as regards worldly beings, to Masyfi and Masya66 4 , 
the first progeny of G&ybmard, by the word of 
Auharmazrf — that is, he spoke to them when they 

1 Av. Akhtya of AbSn Yt. 83, who propounded ninety-nine 
enigmas to Ydixtd of the Frylns (see Dd. XC, 3). 

• See Dd. XCIV, in.* 

8 The sole-created man (see Dd. II, 10, XXXVII, 82). 

* See p. 402, note 1. 

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were produced by him — thus : " You are the men I 
produce, you are the parents of all bodily life, and 
so you men shall not worship the demons, for the 
possession of complete mindfulness 1 has been per- 
fectly supplied to you by me, so that you may quite 
full-mindfully observe duty and decrees." And the 
creativeness of Atiharmazd was extolled by them, 
and they advanced in diligence; they also performed 
the will of the creator, they carved (parkavini^S) 
advantage out of the many duties of the world, and 
practised Khv£tuk-das through procreation and the 
union and complete progress of the creations in the 
world, which are the best good works of mankind.' 

The following passage also occurs in the same 
book : — ' Then Zaraturt, on becoming exalted, called 
out unto the material world of righteousness to extol 
righteousness and downcast are the demons; and, 
" homage being the Masrda-worship of Zaraturt, the 
ceremonial and praise of the archangels are the best 
for you, I assert; and, as to deprecation (aya.zi.ynih) 
of the demons, Khv£tuk-das is even the best intima- 
tion, so that, from the information which is given as 
to the trustworthiness of a good work, the greatest 
is the most intimate of them, those of father and 
daughter, son and she who bore him*, and brother 
and sister." // is declared that, upon those words, 
innumerable demon-worshipping Klks and Karaps 5 
disputed {s&r'isldo) with Zaraturt and strove for his 
death, just like this which revelation states : — " It is 
then the multitude clamoured (mar bara xlr&d) 
who are in the vicinity of the seat of Tur, the well- 

1 See p. 396, note 2. * See p. 400, note 1. 

' See p. 384, note 1. 

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afflicting 1 holder of decision ; and the shame of the 
brother of Tur arose, like that of a man whose 
shame was that they spoke of his Khv£tuk-das so 
that he might perform it This Tur was Tur-t 
Aurvatta-sang 2 , the little-giving, who was like a 
great sovereign of that quarter ; and he maintained 
many troops and much power. And the multitude 
told him they would seize the great one from him 
who is little 8 . But Tur-1 Aurvatta-sang, the litde- 
giving and well -afflicting, spoke thus: — 'Should I 
thereupon smite him, this great one who mingles 
together those propitious words for us — where we 
are thus without doubt as to one thing therein, such 
as Khvetuk-das, that it is not necessary to perform 
it — it would make us ever doubtful that it might be 
necessary to perform it' ... . And Zaraturt spoke 
to him thus : ' I am not always that reserved speaker, 
by whom that I have mentioned is the most propi- 
tious thing to be obtained ; and inward speaking 
and managing the temper are a Khv£tuk-das*, and 
the high-priest who has performed it is to perform 
the ceremonial.' " ' This passage attributes to Zara- 
ttlrt himself the enforcement of next-of-kin marriage, 
but it is hardly necessary to point out that the Din- 
Vzrd only records a tradition to that effect ; which 

1 The word hfl-n6jak5 is the Pahlavi equivalent of Av. hu- 
nu Jta (Yas. L, 10, b), but the meaning of both words is uncertain. 
This Tur seems to have been more friendly to Zaratfat than the 
Turanians were in general, but he appears not to be mentioned in 
the extant Avesta. 

* As this epithet has not been found in the extant Avesta, the 
reading is uncertain. 

' Meaning that they demanded possession of Zaratdrt in an 
insolent manner. 

4 In a figurative sense. 

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record may be quoted as evidence of the former 
existence of such a tradition, but not as testimony 
for its truth. It is also worthy of notice that this 
tradition clearly shows that such marriages were 
distasteful to the people in general ; but this might 
naturally be inferred from the efforts made by reli- 
gious writers to assert the extraordinary merit of 
Khv£tuk-das, because customs which are popular 
and universal require no such special recommenda- 
tion from the priesthood. 

In the Daafetan-! Dlnik (XXXVII, 82, LXIV.6. 
LXV, 2, LXXVII, 4, 5) allusions are made to the 
Khv^tudaa? 1 of brother and sister, formed by the 
progenitors of mankind. We are also told that Khv6- 
tuda</ is to be practised till the end of the world, 
and that to occasion it among others is an effectual 
atonement for heinous sin 2 (Dd. LXXVII, 6, 7, 
LXXVII I, 19); but it is not certain that the term 
is applied in these latter passages to marriages be- 
tween the nearest relatives. 

For later particulars about Khv6tuk-das we have 
to descend to the darkest ages of Masak-worship, 
those in which the RivAyats, or records of religious 
legends, customs, and decisions, began to be com- 
piled. Of the earlier Rivayats, such as the Shayast 
La-shayast and Vi^irkar^-i Dinlk, which were written 
in Pahlavi, few remain extant; but the later ones, 
written in Persian, are more numerous and very 

A Pahlavi Rivayat, which precedes the Dadistan-t 
Dlnik in many MSS. of that work, devotes several 

1 Another form of the word Khv&tuk-das (see p. 390). 
• This is also stated in Sis. VIII, 18. 

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pages to the subject of Khv£tuda^, which fully con- 
firm the statements of the defender of the practice, 
quoted above from the "Dtnkard (111, lxxxii). The 
age of this Pahlavi Riviyat is quite uncertain ; it is 
found in MSS. written in the sixteenth century, but, 
as it does not mention the marriage of first cousins, 
it was probably compiled at a much earlier period, 
more especially as it is written in fairly grammatical 
Pahlavi. The following extracts will be sufficient 
to show how far it confirms the statements of the 
Dtnkard: — 

'Of the good works of an infidel this is the 
greatest, when he comes out from the habit of infi- 
delity into the good religion ; and of one of the good 
religion, remaining backward (akhar-man) at the 
time when his ritual is performed, this is a great 
good work, when he performs a Khvetuda*/; for 
through that Khv6tudaof, which is so valuable a 
token of Masda-worship, is the destruction of de- 
mons. And of A&harmazd it is declared, as regards 
the performance of KhvGtudaa?, that, when ZaratUrt 
sat before Auhannazrf 1 , and Vohuman, Ardavahist, 
Shatvaird, Horvadaa?, Amerddaaf, and SpendarnW 
sat around Auharmae^, and Spendarmaaf sat by his 
side, she had also laid a hand on his neck, and Zara- 
turt asked Auhannas*/ about it thus : " Who is this 
that sits beside thee, and thou wouldst be such a 
friend to her, and she also would be such a friend 
to thee ? Thou, who art Auharmas^, turnest not 
thy eyes away from her, and she turns not away 

1 As he is said to have done in heaven, when receiving instruc- 
tion in the religion. 

* The archangels (see Dd. XLVIII, 1 n), of whom Spendarma</ 
is said to be a female (see p. 393, note 2). 

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from thee ; thou, who art AuhannazaT, dost not re- 
lease her from thy hand, and she does not release 
thee from her hand 1 ." And Auharmaa/ said : "This 
is Spendarma^, who is my daughter, the house- 
mistress of my heaven, and mother of the crea- 
tures 2 ." Zarattot spoke thus : " When they say, in 
the world, this is a very perplexing thing, how is it 
proclaimed by thee — thee who art Auharmas*/ — for 
thee thyself? " Auharmas^ spoke thus : " O Zara- 
turt! this should have become the best-enjoyed 
thing of mankind. When, since my original creation, 
Mahartya and Mahartyadlh 3 had performed it, you, 
also, should have performed it ; because although 
mankind have turned away from that thing*, yet 
they should not have turned away. Just as Maha- 
rtya and Mahartyadlh had performed Khv6tud&/, 
mankind should have performed it, and all mankind 
would have known their own lineage and race, and 
a brother would never be deserted by the affection 
of his brother, nor a sister by that of her sister. For 
all nothingness, emptiness 5 , and drought have come 
unto mankind from the deadly one (mar), when men 
have come to them from a different country, from 
a different town, or from a different district, and 
have married their women; and when they shall 
have carried away their women, and they have 

1 This legend is an instance of the close proximity of super- 
stition to profanity, among uneducated and imaginative people. 
1 She being a representative of the earth. 
8 See p. 402, note 1. 

* That is, from marriage of the nearest relations, which is 
admitted, throughout these extracts, to be distasteful to the people ; 
hence the vehemence with which it is advocated. 

• Literally 'air-stuffing' (v&6-&ktnib). 

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wailed together about this, thus : ' They will always 
carry our daughters into perversion 1 .' " 

' This, too, is said, that Khv£tudaa? is so miracu- 
lous that it is the preservation of the most grievous 
sin — such as witchcraft and that worthy of death — 
from hell. And the want of protection (az/ipi- 
harih) from hell of one unprotected from Aharman 
and the demons arises at that time when, owing to 
what occurs when he is begged by some one to exer- 
cise witchcraft, he is made worthy of death. And 
when they shall perform KhvStuda*/, when the 
Khv£tudaa? is owing to him 2 , the unprotected one 
is preserved from the prison of he\\, from Aharman 
and the demons ; so miraculous is Khv£tudadf. 

'In a passage it is declared, that Auhannas*/ 
spoke unto Zaraturt thus : " These are the best four 
things : the ceremonial worship of Auharmazd', the 
lord; presenting firewood, incense, and holy-water 
to the fire ; propitiating a righteous man 8 ; and one 
who performs Khv6tudaaJ with her who bore him, 
or a daughter, or with a sister. And of all those 
he is the greatest, best, and most perfect who shall 
perform Khv6tud£d?. . . . When Sdshans comes* 
all mankind will perform Khvdtuda^, and every 
fiend will perish through the miracle and power 
of Khv^tuda^.' 

It is then explained why the several merits of the 

1 This fear of perversion to another faith was, no doubt, the 
real cause of the vehement advocacy of family marriages by the 

' That is, when he has arranged the next-of-kin marriage of 
others, before his death. 

* That is, a priest. 

4 Shortly before the resurrection (see Dd. II, 10). 
[18] e e 

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three classes of Khv£tudaa? are considered to stand 
in the same order as that in which the classes are 
mentioned in the preceding paragraph; also that 
the third class includes the case of half brothers 
and sisters, and the second that of an illegitimate 
daughter. After this we find the following legend : — 
' And Khv£tudaaf is so miraculous, that it is de- 
clared, regarding Yim 1 , that, when the glory of his 
sovereignty had departed from him, he went out to 
the precincts (var) of the ocean with Yimak, his 
sister, in order to flee from the people, demons, and 
witches of the assembly of Dahak*. And they were 
sought by them in hell and not seen ; and others 
sought them among mankind, water, earth, and 
cattle, among trees, in the mountains, and in the 
towns, but they were not seen by them. Then 
Aharman shouted thus : " I think thus, that Yim 
is travelling in the precincts of the ocean." And 
a demon and a witch, who stood among them, spoke 
thus : " We will go and seek Yim." And they 
rushed off and went ; and when they came unto 
those precincts where Yim was — the precincts wliere 
the water of Tlr* was — Yim spoke thus : " Who are 

1 The third sovereign of the world, after Gaydmarrf (see Dd II, 
io). This legend is also mentioned in Bd. XXIII, i, as explaining 
the origin of the ape and bear. 

' The foreign king, or dynasty, that conquered Yim (see Dd. 
XXXVII, 97 n). 

8 Evidently intended for Tfatar, a personification of the star 
Sirius, who is supposed to bring the rain from the ocean (see Dd. 
XCIII, 1-17). Strictly speaking Tir is the planet Mercury, the 
opponent of TJrtar, whose name is given to the fourth month, and 
thirteenth day of the month, in the Parsi year (see Bd. V, 1, VII, 2, 
XXVII, 24); but the confusion between the two names is not 
uncommon in the later books (comp. Sis. XXII, 13 with XXIII, 2). 

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you ?" And they spoke thus : " We are those who 
are just like thee, who had to flee from the hands of 
the demons ; we, too, have fled away from the 
demons, and we are alone. Do thou give this 
sister in marriage to me, while I also give this one 
unto thee ! " And Yim, therefore, when the demons 
were not recognised by him from mankind, made 
the witch his own wife, and gave his sister unto the 
demon as wife. From Yim and that witch were 
born the bear, the ape, Gandarep 1 , and Gdsubar 2 ; 
and from Yimak and that demon were born the 
tortoise (gasaf), the cat, the hawk (gavin^ - ), the 
frog, the weevil (divakS), afid also as many more 
noxious creatures, until Yimak saw that that demon 
was evil, and it was necessary to demand a divorce 
(zan-ta£a) from him. And one day, when Yim and 
that demon had become drunk with wine, she ex- 
changed her own position and clothing with those 
of the witch ; and when Yim came he was drunk, 
and unwittingly lay with Yimak, who was his sister, 
and they came to a decision as to the good work of 
KhvGtudaaf; many demons were quite crushed and 
died, and they rushed away at once, and fell back 
to hell.' 

The fact, that the zealous writer felt that he had 
to force his opinions upon an unwilling people, is 
betrayed by the exaggerated language he uses in 
the following statements : — 

4 This, too, is declared by the Avesta, that Zara- 
ttot enquired of Auharmas*/ thus: " Many thoughts, 
many words, and many deeds are mentioned by 

1 See p. 371, note 3. 

* Not identified, and the reading is, therefore, uncertain. 
e e 2 

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thee — thee who art Atiharmas*/ — that it is necessary 
to think, speak, and do ; of all such thoughts, words, 
and deeds which is the best, when one shall think, 
speak, or do it ?" Auharmastf spoke thus : " Many 
thoughts, many words, and many deeds should be 
proclaimed by me, O Zaraturt ! but, of those thoughts, 
words, and deeds which it is necessary to think, 
speak, and do, that which is best and most perfect 
one performs by Khv£tudad?. For it is declared that, 
the first time when he goes near to it, a thousand 
demons will die, and two thousand wizards and 
witches ; when he goes near to it twice, two thou- 
sand demons will die, and four thousand wizards 
and witches ; when he goes near to it three times, 
three thousand demons will die, and six thousand 
wizards and witches ; and when he goes near to it 
four times it is known that the man and woman 
become righteous 1 ." 

' . . . . Owing to the performance of Khv£tudi^ 
there arises a destruction of demons equivalent to a 
stoppage of creation ; and though, afterwards, some 
of those men and women shall become wizards, or 
unlawfully slaughter a thousand sheep and beasts of 
burden at one time, or shall present holy-water to 
the demons,^/, on account of that destruction and 
vexation of the demons, which has occurred to them 
owing to the Khv£tuda</, it does not become com- 
fortable to them while completed; and it is not 
believed by them that " the souls of those people 
will come to us." 

' Whoever keeps one year in a marriage of Khv£- 

1 Or, as stated in the Appendix to the Shayast LS-shayast (Sis. 
XVIII, 4), they 'will not become parted from the possession of 
Auharmaarf and the archangels.' 

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thd&d becomes just as though one-third of all this 
world, with the water, with the trees, and with the 
corn, had been given by him, as a righteous gift, 
unto a righteous man. When he keeps two years in 
the marriage it is as though two-thirds of this world, 
with the water, trees, and corn, had been given by 
him unto a righteous man. When he keeps three 
years in the marriage it is as though all this world, 
with the water, with the trees, and with everything, 
had been given by him, as a righteous gift, unto a 
righteous man. And when he keeps four years 
in his marriage, and his ritual x is performed, it is 
known that his soul thereby goes unto the supreme 
heaven (gar6</man) ; and when the ritual is not 
performed, it goes thereby to the ordinary heaven 

' Zaraturt enquired of Auharmastf? thus : "As to 
the man who practises Khve"tuda</, and his ritual is 
performed, and he also offers a ceremonial (ya-si st\6- 
a£), is the good work of it such as if one without 
Khv&tuda</ had offered it, or which way is it ? " 
Auharma?^ said : "// is just as though a hundred 
men without Khv^tuda^ had offered it." 

' Zaraturt enquired this, also, of Auharmazfl?, that 
is: " How is the benediction (afrind) which a man 
who practises Khvfitud&Z shall offer ?" Auharmas*/ 
spoke thus: "As though a hundred men without 
Khvetudaaf should offer the benediction." 

'And this, too, was asked by him, that is: "As 
to them who render assistance, and one meditates 
and attains to Khv£tuda*/ through them, and one 

1 The proper ceremonies after his death, or for his living soul 
during his lifetime (see Dd. XXVIII, LXXXI). 

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performs Khvettid&Z on account of their statements, 
how is their good work ?" Abharmasd spoke thus : 
" Like his who keeps in food and clothing, for one 
winter, a hundred priests — each of which priests has 
a hundred disciples — such is his good work." 

' Zaraturt enquired this, also, of Auharma^, that 
is : "As to them who keep a man back from per- 
forming Khvetuda*/, and owing to their statements 
he shall not perform Khv£tudaV, what is their sin ?" 
Aiiharmazd spoke 1 thus : " Their place is hell." 

'In a passage it is declared that, wiser than the 
wise, and more virtuous than the virtuous is he in 
whose thoughts, words, and deeds the demons are 
less predominant ; and Aharman and the demons 
are less predominant in the body of him who prac- 
tises Khvetuda*/, and his ritual 2 is performed. 

'// is declared by revelation that at the time when 
ZaratU5t came out from the presence of Auharmas*/, 
the lord, into a worldly place where he travelled, he 
spoke this, that is : " Extol the religion ! and you 
should perform Khv£tuda<£ I speak of the good 
and those existing in the religion ; as to the negli- 
gent, the vile, and those in perplexity, this is said, 
that a thing so wondrous and important as that 
which is in our law of Khv£tud£u/ could not be for 
performance. This is a sublime (£irag) custom, 
and, as the best of all things, one asserts that it is 
necessary to perform it. To me, also, this is mani- 
fest when, through all faith in the law of those 
existing in the religion 3 , that which is called by 

1 The Pahlavi text is imperfect. f See p. 421, note 1. 

* That is, the general law of Maat/a-worship, as distinguished 
from what he is advocating as a peculiarly religious law sanctioned 

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them a very heinous sin, through faith in this law of 
the good, is that which is called the most perfect and 
best good work of Ma^a-worship." 

' This, too, is declared by revelation, that Auhar- 
mas*/ spoke unto Zaratust thus: "You should cause 
the performance of duties and good works." And 
Zaratu^t spoke thus : " Which duty and good work 
shall I do first?" Auharma^ spoke thus: "Khv£- 
tudaaf; because that duty and good work is to be 
performed in the foremost place of all, for, in the 
end, it happens through Khvetudidf, when all who 
are in the world attain unto the religion 1 ." 

' This, too, is declared by revelation, that Zaraturt 
spoke unto Auharmas*/ thus : " In my eyes it is an 
evil ( which is performed, and it is perplexing 
that I should make Khv£tudaaf as it were fully cur- 
rent among mankind." Auharma?^ spoke thus : 
"In my eyes, also, it is just as in thine ; but for 
this reason — when out of everything perfect there is 
some miserable evil 2 for thee — it should not seem so. 
Do thou be diligent in performing Khvetuda*/, and 
others, also, will perform it diligently." ' 

The unpopularity of the practice advocated could 
hardly be more fully admitted than in this last para- 
graph, nor the objection more irrationally and dog- 
matically disposed of. As for the numerous quota- 
tions, which the compiler of this Pahlavi Rivayat 

by the priests (' the good '). This is evidently an admission that 
the practice advocated was contrary to the ordinary laws of Maz</a- 
worship itself. 

1 As Pahlavi writers expect them to do before the resurrection. 

' Reading va</6-f vfcsht; but it may be 'something is difficult 
and hard' (tang va sakht). 

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professes to take from the Parsi scriptures, it is 
hardly necessary to remark that their authenticity 
must be accepted with great reserve. 

Persian Rivayats, copied in the seventeenth cen- 
tury, advocate the marriage of first cousins, and 
allude vaguely to those between nearer relatives as 
long extinct, though most of their remarks merely 
recommend the performance of Kh6dy6dath \ with- 
out explaining the meaning of the term. Thus, we 
are informed that a person worthy of death can 
perform Kh6dy6dath as a good work, but it is better 
if followed by the Bareshnum ceremony a . An un- 
clean person can do the same, but the Bareshnum 
should precede the performance, so as to avoid sins 
arising from the uncleanness. The performance 
also destroys demons, wizards, and witches; and 
if arranged by any one, at his own expense, for 
another- person, it is as meritorious as if performed 
by himself. But the following quotations are more 
descriptive of the practice 3 : — 

' Again, whereas the great wisdom of the king and 
of the assembly of priests fully understands that the 
ceremony of all the religious rites 4 is a great good 
work, besides that which is called Kh£dyddath, yet, 
in these days, both have fallen out of their hands ; 
but they will make an endeavour, so that they may 
form connection with their own, and on account of 

1 The Persian form of the word Khvettik-das. It is also written 
Khetyodath in some passages, and Khetvadat in others. 

1 The great ceremony of purification (see App. IV). 

* The Persian Rivdyat from which all this information has been 
extracted is Mio (fol. 50 a). 

4 See Dd. XL1V, 2 n. 

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the Musulmans the connection is a medium one 1 , 
better than that of an infidel. And Ormazd has 
said that by as much as the connection is nearer 
it is more of a good work ; and they display their 
endeavour and effort, and give the son of a brother 
and daughter of a brother to each other. And just 
as this is said: " I establish the performer of Khed- 
y6dath, I establish the patrol of the country 2 ," even 
on this account they certainly display an endeavour. 

'Query: — "How are the connections that relations 
form ?" Reply : — "A brother's children with a bro- 
ther's children and a sister's children, and relations 
with one another form connections, and it is proper 
for them." 

' Kh6dy6dath is that which is a great good work, 
and has fallen out of their hands, owing to the reason 
that there is no king of the good religion ; and if it 
be so they will make an endeavour, and will form 
connections with their own, and will give the son of 
a brother and daughter of a brother to each other, 
and if not it is not proper ; and every such connec- 
tion as is nearer is more of a good work. And the 
mode they will act who are at first without a king 
will be an infidel one, and to form connections among 
themselves will be very difficult now he (the king) 
is a Musulman, but that which is nearer is better 
and more of a good work.' 

1 This seems to be an allusion to some interference of the 
Muhammadan government with marriages of those next of kin. 
A similar allusion occurs in the next paragraph but one, which, 
with most of this paragraph, is also found in M7, fols. 229b, 230a. 

* This Avesta quotation, fromVisp. Ill, 18, 19, is as follows: — 
' ApaStvadathem Sstaya, daiMurvae'sem Sstaya;' and the meaning 
of the last term is uncertain. 

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in in i . . iu 


These quotations indicate that a great change had 
crept over the meaning of Khv£tuk-das since the 
dark ages of the Pahlavi Rivayat, previously quoted, 
although a tradition of the old meaning still lingered 
in the minds of the writers. The modern meaning 
is, however, most completely explained in a passage, 
appended to a Persian version of A£shm's complaint 
to Aharman, regarding the difficulty of destroying 
the effect of the season-festivals, the sacred feast, 
and Khvetuk-das (Sis. XVIII). After Aharman has 
confessed his inability to suggest a means of de- 
stroying the merit of the last, the Persian writer 
adds the following particulars : — 

' Therefore it is necessary to understand, that the 
chief Kh£tvadat is that of a sister's daughter and 
brother's son ; a medium Kh£tvadat is that of a 
brother's son and a younger brother's daughter, or 
of a sister's son and a younger sister's daughter ; 
and inferior to a medium Kh£tvadat is that of a 
sister's son and a younger brother's daughter. It is 
necessary to know that any person who performs 
Khetvadat, if his soul be fit for hell, will arrive 
among the ever-stationary 1 ; if it be one of the ever- 
stationary it will arrive at heaven. Another parti- 
cular is to be added: if any one, in departing, settles 
and strives for the connection of Khetvadat of a 
next brother it is a good work of a thousand Tani- 
puhars 2 ; if any one strives to break off the connec- 
tion of Khetvadat he is worthy of death.' 

1 See Dd. XX, 3. 

1 See Dd. LXXVIII, 13. Geldner in his Studien zum A vesta, 
I, pp. 3-12, suggests that the original meaning of Av. tanuperc- 
tha and peshotanu was 'outcast;' but, although these words are 
translated by PahL tanapuhar, it is doubtful whether this last 

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With this quotation, which occurs in a MS. * written 
a.d. 1723, we may conclude our examination of all 
passages in the Parsi scriptures referring to Khve- 
tuk-das, the result of which may be summarized as 
follows : — 

First, the term does not occur at all in the oldest 
part of the Avesta, and when it is mentioned in the 
later portion it is noticed merely as a good work 
which is highly meritorious, without any allusion to 
its nature ; only one passage (Vend. VIII, 36) indi- 
cating that both men and women can participate in 
it. So far, therefore, as can be ascertained from the 
extant fragments of the Avesta — the only internal 
authority regarding the ancient practices of Masrda- 
worship — the Parsis are perfectly justified in be- 
lieving that their religion did not originally sanction 
marriages between those who are next of kin, 
provided they choose to ignore the statements of 
foreigners, as based upon imperfect information. 

Second, when we descend to the Pahlavi transla- 
tions and writings of the better class, which, in their 
present form, probably range from the sixth to the 
ninth century, we find many allusions to Khvdtuk- 
das between those next of kin, and only one obscure 
reference to the marriage of first cousins 2 . Mar- 
riages between the nearest relations are defended 
chiefly by reference to mythical and metaphorical 

word be a mere transcript of tanuperetha (which ought to have 
been tanupuhar), or whether it expresses the different idea of 
tan-apuhar, 'a person without a bridge to heaven,' which might 
have been that adopted by the Pahlavi translators of the Vendidiif ; 
an outcast in this world being very liable to be considered as an 
outcast from the next. 
1 M5, fols. 54, 55. ' In Dk. Ill, lxxxii (see p. 404). 

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statements regarding the creation, and to the prac- 
tice of the progenitors of mankind; they are also 
advocated with all the warmth and vehemence that 
usually indicate much difficulty in convincing the 
laity, and this zealous vehemence increases as we 
descend to the dark ages of the Pahlavi Rivayat \ 
the compilation of which may perhaps be attributed 
to some writer of the thirteenth or fourteenth cen- 
tury. Unless, therefore, the Parsis determine to 
reject the evidence of such Pahlavi works as the 
Pahlavi Yasna, the book of An&-Viraf, the Dlnka/v/, 
and the Daafetan-i Dlnik, or to attribute those books 
to heretical writers, they must admit that their 
priests, in the later years of the Sasanian dynasty, 
and for some centuries subsequently, strongly advo- 
cated such next-of-kin marriages, though, probably, 
with little success. That a practice now reprobated 
by all Parsis should have been formerly advocated 
by their priests, as a religious duty, need not excite 
the surprise of those who consider how slavery has 
been advocated by many Christians, on scriptural 
grounds, within the present generation, and how the 
execution of supposed witches was similarly advo- 
cated a few generations ago. 

Third, as we come to the modern writings of the 
Persian Rivayats, which may have commenced about 
the fifteenth century, we find the present form of 
Khvetuk-das, the marriage of first cousins (which 
was only slightly mentioned in the Dlnkaraf of the 
ninth century), the only form in use ; though obscure 
allusions are made to the other forms as being long 

1 See pp. 415-423- 

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At whatever period the practice of next-of-kin 
marriage may have originated there were evidently 
two reasons for its establishment and continuance ; 
one was the indispensable necessity of offspring 1 , 
unfettered by duties towards any other family, for 
the purpose of maintaining the necessary periodical 
ceremonies for the souls of those passed away ; the 
other was the wish of preventing any risk of reli- 
gious perversion consequent upon marrying into 
a family of strangers or infidels. Both of these 
reasons must have become intensified as the 
Masrrfa-worshippers diminished in numbers, hence 
the increasing vehemence of priestly advocacy, until 
the foreign conquerors probably interfered, and put 
a stop to the practice. 

That such marriages were not unusual among 
other races, in ancient times, we learn from many 
tales in Greek and Roman mythology, from the 
usual practice of the Greek dynasty of the Ptolemies 
in Egypt, and even from the laws prohibiting such 
connections in Lev. xviii. 6-16, which, as laws are 
not made to prohibit practices that do not exist, 
would hardly have been written unless the children 
of Israel had at one time adopted the custom to 
some slight extent. That Parsis now deny the 
existence of such marriages among their ancestors 
proves that they no longer approve the custom, but 
does not affect the historical evidence of its former 

1 The oriental feeling of such a necessity, for the mere purpose 
of perpetuating the family, is abundantly manifested in the story of 
Lot's daughters (Gen. xix. 30-38), which is related without re- 
proval by its writer. Also by the exceptional law requiring a man 
to marry his brother's wife, when the brother has died childless 
(Deut. xxv. 5-10). 

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existence. Christians no longer approve the perse- 
cution and execution of women for the imaginary 
crime of witchcraft, but it would be both childish 
and useless for them to deny that their ancestors 
committed hundreds of such judicial murders less 
than two centuries ago. 

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IV. The BareshnOm Ceremony. 

The great ceremony of purification for any Parsi 
man or woman who has become unclean by contact 
with the dead, or through any other serious de- 
filement, lasts for nine nights, and is called the 
Bareshnum, which is the A vesta name for the 'top' 
of the head, the first part of the body appointed to 
be washed in the ceremony, after the hands. The 
description of this ceremony, given in Pahl. Vend. 
IX, 1-145, which does not differ very materially 
from the rite still in use, is as follows 1 : — 

Pahl. Vend. IX, i. Zaraturt enquired of Auhar- 
mazd thus : ' O Auharma^, propitious spirit ! creator 
of the material world ! who art the righteous one [of 
righteousness !' that is, Auharma^ is the righteous 
creator through invocation, and the rest through 
praise]. 2. ' How, when in the material existence 
they see a [clean] man together with [that which is 
polluted], (3) how shall they purify him clean who 

1 Observing that the passages in brackets do not occur in the 
Avesta text, but are added by the Pahlavi translators ; and that the 
sections are numbered to correspond with the alternating Avesta 
and Pahlavi sections in the MSS., which is the division adopted in 
Spiegel's edition of the texts. The readings adopted are those of 
L4, wherever they are not defective ; this MS. was written about 
a. d. 1324, and differs occasionally from Spiegel's printed text; 
it begins the ninth fargarrf with the following heading : — ' May it 
be fortunate I may it destroy the corruption (nasuj) which rushes 
on from a dead dog and men on to the living I May the pure, good 
religion of the Maada-worshippers be triumphant 1 ' 

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is with that fraught with corruption [together with 
pollution] owing to that dead body ? [that is, how 
should they make him thoroughly clean ?] ' 

4. And Atiharmazd spoke thus : ' A righteous 
man, O Zaratu^t the Spitaman ! [a purifier], (5) who 
is a speaker [that is, it is possible for him to speak], 
a true-speaker [that is, falsehood is little spoken by 
him], an enquirer of the liturgy [that is, the ritual 
is performed by him], and righteous, (6) he who 
specially understands the purification of the religion 
of the Mazrfa-worshippers [that is, he knows the rite], 
(7) such a one shall cut up the plants on the fruitful 
earth, (8) for a length of nine separate reeds 1 in 
every one of the four directions, (9) at a place on 
this earth which is most devoid of water, most 
devoid of trees, land most purified [from bodily 
refuse] 2 , and with the driest ground [that is, there 
is no damp in that extent of it} 10. Even where 
least upon the paths do cattle and beasts of burden 
step forth, and the fire of Auharmasraf, the sacred 
twigs 3 spread forth with righteousness, and the 
righteous man 4 do least exist' 

ii.' Creator of the material world ! thou righteous 
one ! how far from the fire ? how far from the 
water ? how far from the sacred twigs spread forth 

1 Which would be 42 feet (see Dd. XLIII, 5 n) ; but the phrase 
gvi</ nai (which, in PahL Vend. VII, 90, has become gvt</ hanS by 
misreading gvf</5-a&, and then substituting Huz. hand for Paz. 
a 6) is merely an attempted translation of Av. vtbizu, which latter 
appears to mean the ' two arms ' outstretched, or a fathom. So the 
1 separate reed ' should be understood as a longer kind of reed, 
equal to a fathom, instead of 4 feet 8 inches. 

* See Dd. XL VIII, 19 n. L4 omits this clause altogether. 

• SeeDd. XLIII, 5 a 

4 Any priest not engaged in the purification. 

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with righteousness? how far from a man of the 
righteous ?' 

12. And Auharmazrf spoke thus: ' Thirty steps 1 
from the fire, thirty steps from the water, thirty steps 
from the sacred twigs spread forth with righteous- 
ness, and three steps 2 from the men of the righteous. 
13. The cutting out for the first hole [for bull's 
urine] 3 , after the coming on of summer, is two 
fingtr-breadths in excavation; after the coming on 
of hail-fraught (s6ngagan-h6mand) winter it is as 
it were a cup of four finger-6readtks*. 14. So also 
for the second hole, for the third hole, for the fourth 
hole, the fifth, and the sixth.' 

' How much is one such hole from another hole 6 ? ' 

'As much as one step onwards.' 

1 As the step is three feet (see § 15), and the foot, being four- 
teen finger-breadths (see Bd. XXVI, 3 n), may be taken as \o\ 
inches, these thirty steps would be nearly 79 English feet. 

4 That is, 7 feet io| inches. This diminution of distance enables 
a purifying priest to stand near enough to an unclean person to 
hand him the purifying liquid in a ladle tied to a stick (see §§ 40-42), 
without going within the furrows traced around the holes or ablu- 
tion seats at the same distance of three steps (see §§ 21-23). 

* That is, at which the unclean person is sprinkled with the 
urine (see §§ 48-116). The urine should be that of a bull, accord- 
ing to Vend. XIX, 70; but Vend. VIII, 35, 36 state that it may 
be that of cattle or draught oxen, generally, or even that of those 
who perform KhvStuk-das (see p. 391). At the present time the 
term magh, which means ' a hole ' in the Avesta, is applied to the 
stones which are used as ablution seats for squatting upon. 

* The greater depth of the hole for catching the ablution drop- 
pings in the winter, would provide for the larger quantity of liquid 
that could not sink into the soil, or evaporate, during the tedious 
washing, owing to the soil and air being damper than in summer. 

* The probable positions of these holes, and of the furrows 
enclosing them, are shown upon the plan of the Bareshnum Gah 
on p. 435, which differs but little from the plan still in use. 

[18] F f 

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1 5. ' What kind of one step ?' 
•Just like three feet.' 

16. 'The cutting out of the three other holes 
[which are for water], (17) after the coming on of 
summer, is as much as two finger-dreadths in exca- 
vation ; after the coming on of hail-fraught winter 
it is as much as four finger-dreadths.' 

18. 'How much from those former ones [for bull's 
urine] ?' 

' As much as three steps.' 

19. ' What kind of three steps ?' 

' As much as the steps one plants in walking with 
the steps he would take.' 

20. ' What kind of walking with steps ?' 
'Just like nine feet.' 

21. ' Thou shalt also plough up a furrow with the 
blade due to Shatry6vairV 

22. 'How much from the holes ?' 
' As much as three steps.' 

' What kind of three steps ? ' 
' As much as in walking with the steps one would 
take and plant.' 

23. 'How much is the walking with steps ?' 
' As much as nine feet' 

24. ' Then, afterwards, is the ploughing up of the 
twelve furrows. 25. By the ploughing up of three 
from among them three holes are separated within 
them. 26. Thou shalt plough up three from among 
them with six holes separated within. 27. Thou 
shalt plough up three from among them with nine 
holes separated within. 28. And thou shalt plough 

1 That is, made of metal, which is under the special protection 
of the archangel Shatry6vair or Shatvatrd (see Dd. XL VIII, 17 n). 

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Plan of BareshnCm Gah. 

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up three, within which are the [three] holes that 
are apart, [which are for water, and] beyond [those 
within, which are for bull's urine] 1 . 

29. ' Thou shalt carry three loads of stones on to 
those spaces of nine feet 2 , as an approach to the 
holes; (30) or potsherds, or knotty and massive 
blocks, or a clod of the earth of Vi-rtasp, or [a pot or 
something of] any hard earth whatever. 

31. 'Afterwards, he who has been by the dead 
shall come to that approach, which is the approach 
to the holes. 32. Thereupon thou, O Zaratu-rt ! 
hast to stand up more aside, by the furrows*. 

1 The arrangement, here described, is that of six holes in a row, 
one step apart ; then an interval of three steps, followed by three 
more holes, one step apart, in the same line. This row of nine 
holes, from north to south (see § 132, e), is surrounded by three 
furrows, the first six holes and the last three are both surrounded 
by a second series of three furrows, and the first three holes are 
surrounded by a third series of three furrows. And these furrows 
are not less than three steps from the holes in any place, except 
where they separate the three series of holes from each other. 
The object of the furrows, which are scored during the recitation 
of certain formulas (see § i$2,f,g),\$ to prevent the fiend of cor- 
ruption from forcing its way from the unclean person within the 
furrows to any other person outside them. And, as the fiend is 
supposed to be strongest at first, and to become gradually weak- 
ened by the progress of the purification (see § 119), the first three 
holes are surrounded by the strongest barrier of nine furrows. 

* There were three such spaces, one between the furrows and 
the first hole, one between the sixth and seventh holes, and one 
between the last hole and the furrows (see the plan). It is not dis- 
tinctly stated that these stones were to be distributed, as ablution 
seats, to each of the nine stations, as at present ; but this was 
probably intended. At the present time an additional group of 
stones is placed outside the furrows, at the entrance to the north, 
as a station for the preliminary washing. 

* That is, the priest is to stand outside, to the right (see § 132, t), 
but close to the furrows. 

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33. Then these words are to be murmured \by thee, 
that is] : " Praise to Spendarmadf 1 , the propitious ! " 

34. And he who has been by the dead shall speak in 
reply to it thus : " Praise to Spendarma*/, the propi- 
tious!" 35. Then the fiend becomes disabled by 
every word [of each repetition] ; (36) the smiting of 
the evil spirit, the wicked one, is owing to it ; (37) the 
smiting of Aeshm 2 , the impetuous assailant, is owing 
to it; (38) the smiting of the Mizinlkan demons 3 
is owing to it ; (39) the smiting of all the demons is 
owing to It. 

40. 'Afterwards, thou shalt sprinkle bull's urine 
upon him with an iron, or with a leaden, ladle. 41. If 
thou shalt sprinkle upon him with a leaden one*, thou 
shalt strongly demand, O Zaratfot ! the stem of a 
reed whose nine customary parts (pi .yak) you have 
mentioned l [as nine knots] ; (42) and one should tie 
that leaden ladle strongly on its foremost part*. 

43. ' He shall first wash over his hands [even to 
the elbows]. 44. When he does not wash over his 
hands, (45) he then makes all his own body impure 
[and polluted]. 46. When he shall have washed over 
his hands for three times, (47) then, when thy hands 

1 See p. 393, note 2. This exclamation is a Pahlavi version of 
a quotation from the Gathas (Yas. XLVIII, 10, c). 

* The demon of wrath (see Dd. XXXVII, 44). 

' See Dd. XXXVII, 81. This passage (§§ 36-39) is quoted 
from Yas. XXVII, 2, LVI, xii, 5. 

* These words are omitted in the Pahlavi text, but occur in the 

* Or, perhaps, 'murmured over' with prayers. 

6 This nine-knotted reed, or stick, must be so long that the 
ladle, tied to its end, can easily reach the unclean person at the 
holes, when the stick is held by the priest who stands outside 
the furrows. 

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shall have been washed over, (48) thou shalt sprinkle 
him on the front of the top of his head, [as far as the 
hair has grown.] 49. Then the fiend of corruption 1 
rushes in front, upon some of the space between the 
brows of that man. 

50. ' Thou shalt sprinkle in front, on some of the 
space between the brows of that man, [from the 
place where the hair has grown, as far as to the 
ears backwards, and both cheeks at the bottom.] 
51. Then the fiend of corruption rushes upon the 
back of his head. 

52. ' Thou shalt sprinkle on the back of his head, 
[from the place where the hair has grown, casting 
(stunak) one-fourth to the spine.] 53. Then the 
fiend of corruption rushes in front upon his jaws. 

54. ' Thou shalt sprinkle in front, on his jaws, 
[both cheeks as far as to the ears backwards, casting 
one-fourth unto the throat.] 55. Then the fiend of 
corruption rushes upon his right ear. 

56. ' Thou shalt sprinkle on his right ear. 57. 
Then the fiend of corruption rushes upon his left 

58. ' Thou shalt sprinkle on his left ear, [just as 
the ear is turned, casting one-fourth to the liquid 2 .] 

1 The Nasflj fiend (see Dd. XVII, ?). 

* The word, both here and in § 68, must be Av. 4fx, 'water,' 
and not a P&zand term for any part of the body, as any such term 
would be inadmissible in § 68. It would seem as if a smaller 
supply of liquid were requisite for the ears than for the other 
customary parts, so that a quarter of the supply is directed to be 
returned to the vessel holding the liquid. The remarks made by 
the Pahlavi translator, upon the sprinkling of the left-hand mem- 
bers of the body, are evidently intended also to apply, in nearly all 
cases, to the sprinkling of the right-hand members. 

Digitized by VjOOQlC 

•J&. 1, 


59. Then the fiend of corruption rushes upon' his 
right shoulder. 

60. 'Thou shalt sprinkle on his right shoulder. 
61. Then the fiend of corruption rushes upon his 
left shoulder. 

62. ' Thou shalt sprinkle on his left shoulder, [on 
the side in front, just as it is turned, even unto the 
elbow.] 63. Then the fiend of corruption rushes 
upon his right armpit 

64. *Thou shalt sprinkle on his right armpit 
65. Then the fiend of corruption rushes upon his 
left armpit. 

66. ' Thou shalt sprinkle on his left armpit, [as far 
as the hair has grown.] 67. Then the fiend of cor- 
ruption rushes in front upon his chest 

68. 'Thou shalt sprinkle in front on his chest, 
[half the liquid to the shoulders, and half to the 
region of the throat, within three finger-breadths of 
the face 1 .] 69. Then the fiend of corruption rushes 
upon his back. 

70. ' Thou shalt sprinkle on his back, [from the 
slender part of the spine unto the anus.] 71. Then 
the fiend of corruption rushes upon his right nipple. 

72. ' Thou shalt sprinkle on his right nipple. 73. 
Then the fiend of corruption rushes upon his left 

74. ' Thou shalt sprinkle on his left nipple, [just 
as the nipple shall be turned ; and those of women 
(zanag&nd) are to be held up.] 75. Then the fiend 
of corruption rushes upon his right side. 

76. 'Thou shalt sprinkle on his right side. 77. Then 
the fiend of corruption rushes upon his left side. 

1 Reading dimak, but it may be gSmak (compare Pers. gam, 
' jaw'). L4 has gimak. 

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78. 'Thou shalt sprinkle on his left side; [this, 
moreover, is because one specially recites for ever 
on that side.] 79. Then the fiend of corruption 
rushes upon his right hip 1 . 

80. 'Thou shalt sprinkle on his right hip. 81. 
Then the fiend of corruption rushes upon his left 

82. ' Thou shalt sprinkle on his left hip, [just as it 
is turned, as far as to the hollow 2 of it (guyak-1 
valman) below the thigh.] 83. Then the fiend of 
corruption rushes upon his sexual part 

84. ' Thou shalt sprinkle on his sexual part 85. If 
it be a male, thou shalt sprinkle behind it before- 
hand, and in front of it afterwards ; (86) and if it be 
a female, thou shalt sprinkle in front of it before- 
hand, and behind it afterwards; [on this occasion 
half is for the front and half for behind, and it is 
rubbed in in front] 87. Then the fiend of corrup- 
tion rushes upon his right thigh. 

88. 'Thou shalt sprinkle on his right thigh. 
89. Then the fiend of corruption rushes upon his 
left thigh. 

90. ' Thou shalt sprinkle on his left thigh, [from 
the prominence (gdhak) below the thigh to the 
knee.] 91. Then the fiend of corruption rushes 
upon his right knee. 

92. ' Thou shalt sprinkle on his right knee. 93. 
Then the fiend of corruption rushes upon his left 

1 Reading srinak, as in Pahl. Vend. VIII, 178-182 ; but here 
the word is four times written slnak. 

1 Or, perhaps, ' prominence ' is meant, as in § 90 ; although the 
two words guyak and gdhak are written differently, they refer 
probably to the same part. 

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iv. hie bareshnOm ceremony. 441 

94. ' Thou shalt sprinkle on his left knee, [above 
just as it is turned, and below the slender part ; 
there are some who would say thus : " As much 
above it as below."] 95. Then the fiend of corrup- 
tion rushes upon his right shin. 

96. ' Thou shalt sprinkle on his right shin. 97. 
Then the fiend of corruption rushes upon his left 

98. ' Thou shalt sprinkle on his left shin, [from 
the knee unto the place where the leg and foot 
unite.] 99. Then the fiend of corruption rushes 
upon his right ankle 1 . 

100. ' Thou shalt sprinkle on his right ankle. 
1 01. Then the fiend of corruption rushes upon his 
left ankle. 

102. ' Thou shalt sprinkle on his left ankle, [just 
as the leg and foot unite, that is, while the ten toes 
are back to the ground.] 103. Then the fiend of 
corruption rushes upon his right instep. 

104. ' Thou shalt sprinkle on his right instep. 
105. Then the fiend of corruption rushes upon his 
left instep. 

106. ' Thou shalt sprinkle on his left instep, [from 
the place where the leg and foot unite, to the end of 
his toes.] 107. Then the fiend of corruption turns 
dejected under the sole of the foot, and its likeness is 
as it were the wing of a fly's body. 

108. 'The toes being held quite in union with 
the ground, his heel is held up from the ground. 
109. Thou shalt sprinkle on his right sole. no. 
Then the fiend of corruption rushes upon his 
left sole. 

1 The word zang means rather ' the lower part of the leg.' 

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in. 'Thou shalt sprinkle on his left sole. 112. 
Then the fiend of corruption turns dejected under 
the toes, and its likeness is as it were the wing of 
a fly. 

113.' The heel being held quite in union with the 
ground, his toes are held up from the ground. 114. 
Thou shalt sprinkle on his right toes. 115. Then 
the fiend of corruption rushes upon his left toes. 

116. 'Thou shalt sprinkle on his left toes. 117. 
Then the fiend of corruption returns dejected to 
the northern quarter in the shape of a raging fly, 
bandy-legged, lean-hipped, illimitably spotted, so that 
spot is joined to spot, like the most tawdry 1 noxious 
creature, and most filthy. 

118. 'Then these words are to be murmured, 
which are most triumphant and most healing 2 : — 

'"As is the will of the patron spirit [as is the will 
of Auharmas^], so should be the earthly master [so 
should be the high priest], owing to whatever are 
the duty and good works of righteousness ; [that is, 
he is always to perform duty and good works as 
authoritatively as the will of Auharmaer^.] That 
which is the gift of good thought is the work of 
both existences [and the work] of Auharmazrf ; [that 
is, the reward and recompense they give to good 
thought, they give also to him ; there are some who 
would say thus : ' It is the possession of good thought'] 

1 Reading bd^-akintum, 'most stuffed with ostentation,' as in 
L4. In AV. XVII, 12 the word can be read baaak-dylntftm, 
< most sin-accustomed.' 

* Only the initial and final words of the Avesta of the following 
passages are given in the MSS. here, but they are given at length, 
with their Pahlavi translation, in Vend. VIII, 49-62, whence the 
Fahlavi version is here taken. 

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The sovereignty is given to Auharma^, [that is, 
Auharmas*/ has made the ruler for himself,] who 
has given protection and nourishment to the poor, 
[that is, he would provide assistance and intercession 
for them.] 1 

4 "Who is given to me by thee, O Auharma^! as 
a protection? [when 2 1 shall do duty and good works, 
who would provide me protection ?] — when I am in 
custody of the malice of that wicked [Aharman, that 
is, he retains malice with me in his thoughts] — other 
than thy fire and good thought ? [this I know, that 
they would do so on account of you ; but, apart from 
you, who would provide me protection ?] When in 
their employ I invoke righteousness, O Auharmazd? 1 
[that is, I shall do duty and good works, who would 
provide me protection ?] That which thou shalt 
proclaim to me as religion through a high-priest 
[this I say, that is, preach religion through a high- 
priest] 3 . 

' " Who is the smiter with triumph, through this 
thy teaching of protection ? [that is, so far as is 
declared by the revelation of scripture, who should 
inflict the punishment for sinners ?] With clearness 
the superintendence (radfth) of the creation in both 
existences is to be taught to me, [that is, it is neces- 
sary for thee to give unto me the high-priesthood 
here and there 4 .] The arrival of virtuous obedience 
(Srdsh), with good thought (Vohuman), is here, 

1 This paragraph is the Pahlavi version of the Ahunavar, or 
Yath4-ahu-vairyd formula (see p. 385). 

* Reading amat, instead of mun, ' who,' (see Dd. LXII, 4 n.) 

* This paragraph is the Pahlavi version of the K«n-na-mazda 
stanza of the Githas (Yas. XLV, 7). 

4 Both in this world and the next. 

Digitized by 



[that is, it is necessary for thee to give VLrtasp 1 
unto me as assistance.] O Atiharmsuzd '! [the arrival 
of] that one [is according to my wish], who is he 
according to the wish of every one, [that Sdshins 8 
that shall be necessary for every one, so that they 
may thereby convey away their misery, the misery it 
is possible he should convey away from every one.] s 
' " Let us be guarded from the most afflicting one 
[here, and apart from the sinners], O Auharmasof 
and Spendarmadf 4 ! [that is, keep us away from the 
harm of the evil spirit !] Perish, thou demon fiend 1 
[as I speak in front of thee.'] Perish, thou race of 
the demons ! [that is, their race is from that place.] 6 
Perish, thou work transformed by the demons [for 
uselessness] ! Perish, thou work produced by the 
demons [^r^fore and hereafter I this produced 
without the sacred beings, and produced by them 
(the demons) even for uselessness]. Perish utterly, 
thou fiend ! [that is, mayst thou become invisible !] 
Perish utterly, thou fiend ! [that is, rush away from 
here, and mayst thou become invisible on any path !] 
Perish utterly and apart, thou fiend ! [that is, stand 
not again on any path!] Thou shalt perish again 
to the north ! [the path was mentioned thus : ' Go 
in the direction of the north ! '] do not destroy the 
material world of righteousness* !" 

1 The king in the time of Zaratuxt (see Dd. XXXVII, 36). 

* The last of the future apostles (see Dd. II, ro). 

* This paragraph is the Pahlavi version of a passage in the 
Gathas (Yas. XLIII, 16, b-e). 

4 See p. 393, note 2. 

* From hell, the place of the demons. 

6 It appears from what follows, in § 1 20, that the whole of the 
sprinklings and exorcisms, detailed in §§ 33-1 18, are to be repeated 
at each of the first six holes. 

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119. 'At the first hole the man becomes freer 
from the fiend of corruption, [that is, it shall depart 
a little from his body, like a flock when they dis- 
perse it.] 

1 20. ' Then these words are to be murmured by thee, 
&c. [as in §§ 33-1 1 8. At] the second [hole, &c, as in 
§ 1 19. And the same routine is to be followed at] the 
third, fourth, fifth, and sixth [holes] 1 . 

' Afterwards he shall sit — he who has been by the 
dead — within the precinct (sitrfy of the holes 2 apart 
from those holes [which are for bull's urine} 121. So 
much from that [of the previous ones for bull's urine] 
as four finger-breadths*. 122. They shall also dig up 
those full diggings up of this earth, [they should 
accomplish this well.] 123. They shall scrape toge- 
ther fifteen handfuls of the earth, [so that they shall 
quite dislodge the damp purely.]* 124. And they 
shall remain about it the whole period from that time 
until the time when the hair on his head shall become 
dry, (125) and until the time when the wet earth on 
his body shall become dry. 

126. 'Then he who has been by the dead shall 
come to that approach to those other holes [which 
are for water]. 127. At the first hole he shall then 
purify over his own body once with water. 128. At 
the second hole he shall then purify over his own 

1 This paragraph is omitted in the Pahlavi text, being merely 
given in the Avesta (for the sake of brevity) so far as the words 
are not included in the brackets. 

1 The three holes for washing with water. 

* That is, three English inches south of the six furrows which 
separate the first six holes from the last three, at the point D on 
the plan. 

4 That is, the person undergoing purification shall be rubbed 
with dust until he is quite dry. 

Digitized by 



body twice with water. 129. At the third hole he 
shall then purify over his own body thrice with 

130. 'Afterwards, he who is perfumed with san- 
darac (rasnS) 1 , or benzoin, or aloes 2 , or any other 
of the most odoriferous of plants, (131) shall then 
put on his clothes. 132. Then he who has been by 
the dead shall come to that approach, the approach 
to his abode 3 .' 

[a. The clothing is always cleansed by the 
Khshvash-nuzunghd ("the six-months' process")*. 

b. Afarg 5 said two purifiers are requisite 6 , and of 
the two he is suitable who has performed the ritual ; 
thus they have been very unanimous; when he 
scores the furrow, washes that unclean person in the 
customary places, abutters the Avesta he has per- 
formed it ; the other, when he has not performed it, 

1 Av. urvasna (which is translated by Pahl. rasno) is supposed, 
in India, to mean sandal-wood. 

* These are supposed, in India, to be the two substances meant 
by the Av. vohu-gaona and vohu-kereti, which are merely 
transcribed by the Pahl. hu-gdn and hu-keret. The Avesta text 
adds a fourth perfume, named hadha naSpata, which is under- 
stood to mean the pomegranate bush, although that plant seems 
to yield no perfume. 

* For the continuation of the instructions see § 133; the text 
being here interrupted by a long Pahlavi commentary on the whole 
of the foregoing description of the ceremony. 

4 This sentence is evidently incomplete in the Pahlavi text 
The process is thus described in Pahl. Vend. VII, 36 : — ' If it be 
that it is woven, they shall wash it over six times with bull's urine, 
they shall scrape together six times on the earth with it [so that 
they quite dislodge its moisture purely], they shall wash it over six 
times with water, and they shall perfume over it six months at 
a window in the house.' For the Avesta version of this descrip- 
tion, which is nearly the same, see Sis. II, 95 n. 

* See Ep. I, v, 1. • See Ep. I, vi, 4, II, ii, 7. 

Digitized by 



is unsuitable ; when there shall also be one who is 
suitable 1 he fully solemnizes a Vendid&Z service, for 
this purpose, with a dedication (shnumand) to 

c. For every single person, at the least, one cup, 
alike of water and bull's urine, is to be set down in 
that place 2 , and at the beginning of its consecration it 
is to be thoroughly inspected, and at the Vendid&/ 
*'/ is to be thoroughly inspected 3 ; afterwards, when it 
is covered, it is also well ; the pebbles cast into it* 
they should carry back to the holy-water, there is 
no use for them ; when thoroughly consecrated it is 
always suitable, until it becomes quite fetid 8 . 

d. For the avoidance of an unsecluded (agubal) 
menstruous woman nava vlbizva dr&fd (' the 
length of nine fathoms')' from her is necessary, 
when she stands nearest ; in a wild spot the herbage 
is to be dug up 7 ; when they shall make the purifying 
place in the town, and a path, or a stream, or a wall 
does not extend into it, it is suitable ; and the cleanly 
plucking up of its small trees, extracting them in the 
daytime with recitation of the A vesta of Zaraturt 8 
— those which are thick not existing among the 
holes — is proper. 

e. And every one who digs the holes, with what- 
ever he digs, and whenever he digs, is suitable; four 
fingtr-dreadths and two frnger-ireadths 9 is no matter; 

1 See Ep. I, vi, 7. * See Ep. I, vii, 1. 

* L4 has ' it is to be taken up,' by omitting the first letter of 

* See Ep. I, vii, 16, II, iii, ia. • See Ep. I, viii, 1-6. 
' See § 8. T See § 7. 

• These twelve words do not occur in L4. 

• See § 13. 

Digitized by 



each hole is at a minimum distance of three feet 1 , at 
a maximum as much as one thoroughly purifies his 
body in ; and they are to be formed in it from the 
north, and are to be dug in the direction towards its 
more southern side. 

f. In the daytime is the purifier's scoring of the 
furrows, and with a blade they are to be scored ; with 
the recital of the A vesta 2 they are to be scored ; in 
the day they are to be scored 3 ; in that day they are 
to be scored, when a furrow is scored, three Ashem- 
vohus 4 , the Fravarane 4 , whatever period of the day 
one considers it to be, the dedication to Srdsh 6 , and 
its inward prayer 7 are to be taken up inwardly. 

g. It is also to be done inside it from the north, 
and its end is to be passed back at the end ; for 
every single furrow there is one Yatha-ahu-vairyd 8 
at the least, and at the most as many as are possible 
for it; a furrow is not to be scored again for a 
furrow, until it is to be put into use ; whenever it 
is fully disturbed it is to be scored again with the 
recital of its Avesta ; when prepared for use and one 
scores it again it is no matter. 

1 See §§ 14, 15. 

a The Ahunavar or Yatha-ahu-vairyd (see § g). 

* So in L4. * See Dd. LXXIX, 1, note. 

5 That is, the profession of faith (Yas. I, 65), which is as fol- 
lows : — ' I will profess myself a Zarathurtrian Mao/a-worshipper, 
opposed to the demons and of the Ahura faith.' This is followed 
by the dedication to the period of the day, which is given for the 
first period only in Yas. I, 66, 67 ; the dedications for the other 
periods will be found in Gah II -V, 1. 

• Sir. 1, 17. 

7 See Dd. XL, 5, note. All the prayers here detailed are to be 
murmured merely as a preliminary spell, but while each furrow is 
being scored a further formula is to be recited (see § g). 

» See pp. 385-386. 




h. Once the outside of the body is to be made 
quite clean from the bodily refuse 1 of the world ; and 
the hair being tied up — it is no use to cut the pubes 
(nihano) — he is also to be brought into it (the 
precinct) from the north to the holes. 

i. The purifier stands up on the right-hand side, 
and when he retains the inward prayer from scoring 
the furrows 2 it is proper ; when not, the prayer to be 
taken inwardly by him — which is his utterance of 
Nemas-£a ya armaiti^ i^aia (' and the homage which 
is devotion and nourishment') 3 — is also that which is 
to be uttered by the unclean person ; and when he 
is not able to speak, it is both times to be uttered 
for him. 

j. And his hands are to be thoroughly washed 
three times, not in the inside ; as to the other cus- 
tomary parts (pi .rak) Afarg has said three times, not 
in the inside, but M&/6k-mah * one time ; also the 
water and bull's urine, such as are necessary for him, 
are to be conveyed on to him; and a portion (bah- 
rak) is to be preserved for him away from the body, 
and, when anything comes upon him, a little bull's 
urine is to be dropped down upon him ; likewise, 

1 See Dd. XLVIII, 19 n. 

* That is, when he has not broken its spell by talking, since he 
began the scoring. 

8 These are the Avesta words from Yas. XLVIII, 10, c, of which 
the Pahlavi version is given in §§ 33, 34. 

* Written Me</y6k-mah in Ep. I, v, 1. The statement here attri- 
buted to M&/6k-mah is ascribed to Afarg in Ep. I, vi, 7, 9, II, ii, 6, 
but Afarg is there said to be ' the prior deponent,' as he is here ; 
we should, therefore, probably transpose the 'three times' and 'one 
time ' in our text ; the blunder having originated from the frequent 
substitution of hana for aS in Pahlavi, both meaning ' this,' while 
a 6 also means ' one ' and is the cipher for ' 3/ 

[18] G g 

Digitized by 



any customary part, while being washed by him, is to 
be preserved from that which is not washed ; when 
it comes upon it, it is improper. 

k. When a drop of water (&v yu^akS-l) shall 
remain upon him, his hand is to be thoroughly 
rubbed over it ; when at the same hole and he 
becomes doubtful as to a customary part 1 , when he 
knows which, it is to be washed by him again, and 
from that onwards they are always to be washed 
again by him ; when he does not know which, the 
beginning of tfie washing at the hole is to be done 
again by him, and when he comes unto that which 
he did before, when he knows it, he is also to go 
again to that after it, from his doing again of the 
beginning of the washing at the hole; when he 
becomes doubtful as to the hole, he is to go back to 
that which is not doubtful. 

/. And when they go from hole to hole, the dog * 
is to be held once, the Avesta 3 of the purifier is to 
be spoken, and it is to be done by him thus : — When 
he arrives at the place, it is done by him; when not, 
the head is to be done thoroughly — there are some 
who would say thus : ' In the same hole the head is 
to be done thoroughly' — and all four feet of the dog 
are to be put by him into the hole ; he is also to sit 
down within four finger-breadths*, and the Paȣadasa 
zem6 ha»kanayen (' fifteen times of earth they shall 

1 That is, when he is doubtful which he washed last. 

3 The dog is not mentioned in the Avesta account of the Baresh- 
num in Vend. IX, but it is ordered to be brought before the unclean 
person in another such account in Vend. VIII, 120, 123. The use 
of the dog is that its sight or touch is supposed to destroy or drive 
away the Nasdr, or fiend of corruption. 

* The exorcism in § 118. * See § 121. 

Digitized by 



scrape together') 1 are to be well completed by him, 
it is also to be thoroughly done by him, and he is to 
be fully guarded while he properly and thoroughly 
well perseveres. 

m. And, after it, he is to go unto the holes for 
water; the different times with water are just like 
the different holes for bull's urine, except holding 
the dog ; the dog, too, works for him inside. 

n. When he seeks for it, it % is to be thoroughly 
warmed for him ; when he hungers for it, bread is to 
be given to him ; when the necessity of making water 
arises, something is to be held unto him ; when, on 
account of his imperfect strength (yad zdrlh), he is 
quite unable to wash, some one is to sit down inside 
with him ; when he is only just • washed, he is to 
come into his position therein before, the inward 
prayer is to be spoken out by him, and the inward 
prayer is to be again offered by him, his customary 
parts are also washed, and are to be considered as 

0. When he shall keep on for three washings 4 , 
though not clean, it is not improper ; when he does 
not attain three washings, it is not proper; when 
the enclosure is not to be formed to the north 6 , it is 
not proper; when one shall not solemnize the Vendi- 
dad service •, it is not proper. 

/. When the purifier shall not have performed the 
ritual, it is not proper; when the purifier is not a 
man, it is not proper. 

1 The Avesta version of § 123. 

* The water, apparently. 

* Perhaps it should be £and tak, 'several times,' instead of 
£}gun t&k, 'only just.' 

* See §§ 136, 140, 144. • See § e. * See § b. 


Digitized by 



q. When he shall not wash on the customary 
parts, it is not proper; when he does not utter 
the Avesta, it is not proper ; and when the dog ' is 
not held, it is not proper ; when there is no digging 
of the holes, it is not proper ; when he does not 
perform the Paw^adasa zem6 hawkanayen ('fifteen 
times of earth they shall scrape together') 2 , it is not 

r. When it is not the purifier who scores the 
furrows, and he does not score them with a blade s , 
nor does he score them with the recitation of the 
Avesta, nor does he score them in the daytime, it is 
not proper. 

s. When he shall see anything impure in the hole, 
it is not proper ; when they shall cause rain to come 
within a hole for bull's urine, it is not proper ; when 
night shall come in upon him, it is not proper ; 
when in everything there is suitableness, but as to 
one thing doubt arises, through that suitableness it 
is not proper.] 

133. 'He* is to sit down in the place of the 
secluded (arm£.ytan6) 6 , within the precinct (.ritra) 
of his abode, apart from the other Maarak-worship- 
pers. 134. He shall not come with authorization to 
fire, nor to water, nor to earth, nor to animals, nor 
to plants, nor to a righteous man, nor to a righteous 

1 See§/. * See§ 123. ■ See §/ 

* He who has been by the dead, as stated in § 132, in connec- 
tion with which this sentence is to be read ; the foregoing §§ as 
being interpolated by the Pahlavi translators. 

• The original meaning of armfixt was probably 'most sta- 
tionary,' as it is a term applied to water in tanks, helpless cripples, 
and insane people, as well as to unclean persons who have to 
remain apart from their friends (see Sis. II, 98 n). 

Digitized by 



woman, (135) at all from that time, until the time 
when his three nights shall fully elapse. 

1 36. ' After those three nights he shall wash over 
his body, and his clothes are purified over in such a 
way as with bull's urine and also with water. 137. 
He shall sit in the place of the secluded, within the 
precinct of his abode, apart from the other Mazda- 
worshippers. 138. He shall not come with authoriza- 
tion to fire, &c. [just as has been written in § 1 34], 
(139) at all from that time, until the time when his 
six nights shall fully elapse. 

140. i After those six nights* he shall wash over 
his body, and his clothes are purified over in such a 
way as with bull's urine and also with water. 141- 
143. He shall sit in the place of the secluded [just 
as has been written in \\ 133-135] until the time when 
his nine nights shall fully elapse. 

144. ' Then, after the nine nights, he shall wash 
over his body, and his clothes are purified over in 
such a way as with bull's urine and also with 
water. 145. Then he shall come with authoriza- 
tion unto fire, unto water, unto earth, unto animals, 
unto plants, unto a righteous man, unto a righteous 

Besides the above fully detailed description of 
the Bareshnum ceremony we find two other accounts 
of the rite, in the Vendidad. Of these the most 
detailed is contained in Vend. VIII, 117-228, which 
mentions the use of the dog 2 , the nine holes, the 
washing with bull's urine and water, and all the 

1 The MSS. omit several words, when sentences are repeated, 
for the sake of brevity. 
1 See § / above. 

Digitized by 



detail of driving the fiend of corruption from one 
part of the body to another (by sprinkling with ' the 
good waters ') till it flies away to the north as in 
Vend. IX, 117. But it omits the description of the 
purifier, the dimensions of the purifying place, the 
scoring of the furrows, the placing of the stones, 
the exorcism x , the seclusion for nine nights, and all 
the washings after the first day. 

The other account, which is much shorter, is given 
in Vend. XIX, 67-84. It specifies that the urine 
must be that of a young bull, and that the purifier 
must score a furrow ; it mentions the recitation of a 
hundred Ashem-vohus and two hundred Yatha-ahu- 
vairyds, four washings with bull's urine and two 
with water, nine nights' exposure, followed by atten- 
tion to the fire and fumigation, when the man 
clothes himself while paying homage to the sacred 
beings, and is clean ; but no other details are given. 

* That is, the exorcism is not found in the Pahlavi version, bat 
is introduced in the Vendidat/ sadah in an abbreviated form, pos- 
sibly copied from Vend. IX, 118. 

Digitized by 



V. Finding a Corpse in the Wilderness. 

The controversy between Minu^ihar and his 
brother, Za^-sparam, of which the Epistles of Manu- 
s&lhar are the only portion extant, turned chiefly 
upon the meaning to be attached to Vend. VIII, 
271-299 l , and whether the mode of purification 
therein detailed was a sufficient substitute, or merely 
a preparation, for the Bareshnum ceremony. The 
following is a translation of the Pahlavi version of 
this passage 2 : — 

Pahl. Vend. VIII, 271. 'O creator! how are those 
men purified, O righteous Auharmas^! who shall 
stand by a corpse, in a distant place, upon a wild 
spot 3 ?' 

272. And Abharmazd spoke thus : ' They are 
purified, O righteous ZaratujtF 

273. ' But when so ? [that is, how will such a one 
become clean ?]' 

274. ' If a corpse-eating dog, or a corpse-eating 
bird, has attacked that corpse, (275) the man shall 
then purify over his own body with bull's urine, 
(276) thirty times by washing forwards \with the 
bull's urine], and thirty times by washing over 4 , [and 

1 See Sacred Books of the East, vol. iv, pp. 11 6- 11 8. 

* Subject to the same observations as those detailed in p. 431 n. 

* Reading pavan vaxkar, but the MSS., by omitting a stroke, 
have pavan jrikar, ' on the chase.' 

4 So here, but 'washing backwards' in § 279; and in Ep. II, 
iv, 2 we find ' upwards ' and ' downwards,' instead of * forwards ' 
and ' backwards.' The Pahlavi translators were evidently doubtful 
whether the Av. upasnStefi (see Ep. II, iii, 2) meant ' washing 
over, backwards, or downwards.' 

Digitized by 



his hand shall rub over it.] 277. Of the topmost 
part of him is the washing over, [that is, the wash- 
ing of his head is that regarding which there is 
a mention through this study-causing (hushkar) 
exclamation.] 1 

278. 'If a corpse-eating dog, or a corpse-eating 
bird, has not attacked that corpse, (279) he shall 
purify fifteen times by washing forwards, and fifteen 
times by washing backwards, [and his hand shall rub 
over it.] 

280. ' He shall run the first mile (hasar) 2 . 281. 
He shall then run forwards, [when the Pa«£adasa 
("fifteen times")sb.d\\ be performedbyhim.] 282. And 
when he shall thus stop opposite any one whomso- 
ever of the material existence 8 , he shall be prepared 
with a loud issue of words, (283) thus 4 : "I have thus 
stood close by the body of him who is dead; I am 
no wisher for it by thought, I am no wisher for it by 
word, I am no wisher for it by deed, [that is, it is 
not possible for me to be as though washed.] 284. It 
demands purification for me, [that is, wash me 
thoroughly!]" 285. When he runs, the first he shall 
reach, (286) if they do not grant him purification, 
share one-third of that deed of his, [that is, of all that 
sin, not possible for him to bear, except when they 
shall perform his purification, one part in three is 
theirs at its origin.] 

287. ' He runs the second mile [while he runs for 

1 Implying that the Pahlavi translators had found the use of 
Av. aghrya for ' head ' rather perplexing. 

• The h&sar was 'a thousand steps of the two feet' (see Bd. 
XXVI, 1, note), and was, therefore, about an English mile. 

* That is, any human being. 
4 See Ep. I, ii, 10. 

Digitized by 



it\ 288. He runs, and a second time he reaches 
people. 289. If they do not grant him purification, 
(290) they share a half 1 of that deed of his, [that is, 
of all that sin, not possible for him to bear, except 
when they shall perform his purification, as it were a 
half is even for them at its origin.] 

291. ' He shall run the third mile [while he runs 
for it\ 292. When he runs, the third he shall reach, 
(293) if they do not grant him purification, share all 2 
that deed of his, [that is, all that sin which it is 
not possible for him to bear, except when they 
shall perform his purification, is ever theirs at its 

294. 'He shall then run forwards 8 . 295. He 
shall thus stop opposite some people of the next 
house, village, tribe, or district, and he shall be 
prepared with a loud issue of words, (296) thus : 
" I have thus stood close by the body of him who is 
dead ; (297) I am no wisher for it by thought, I am 
no wisher for it by word, I am no wisher for it by 
deed, [that is, it is not possible to bear without 
washing.] 298. It demands purification for me, 
[that is, wash me thoroughly!]" 299. If they do 
not grant him purification, he shall then purify over 
his own body with bull's urine, and also with water; 
thus he shall be thoroughly purified over *.' 

[a. He shall go three miles ; it is not allowable to 
walk back to his district, until he has fully striven 

1 That is, half of the two-thirds remaining with him, or one- 
third of the whole original trespass. 

* That is, all the remaining one-third of the original trespass. 

• See Ep. II, iii, 3. 

4 What follows is a commentary, by the Pahlavi translators, on 
the whole passage. 

Digitized by 



with three persons, and all that sin, not possible for 
him to bear, except when they shall perform his 
purification, is theirs at its origin. 

b. When thus thoroughly washed by hims*^, 
his duty even then is the work frakairi frakere- 
naoaf, vastr£ verezy6irf ('he should accomplish 
with perseverance, he should cultivate in the pas- 
tures v ) ; there are some who would say thus : ' He is 
always for the performance of work, and abstinence 
from the ceremonies of others is for him 2 .'] 

1 Quoted from Vend. XIX, 140, where the words 'sheep's food 
and food for oxen' are added. 

* A person so purified by himself, after vainly seeking a proper 
purifier, is, therefore, only fit for the ordinary labours of life, and 
must avoid all religious celebrations till properly purified by the 
Bareshnum ceremony. This was the opinion of Manufiihar, but 
it is based upon a Pahlavi commentary, and not upon the Avesta 
text, which is not clear upon this point 

Digitized by 



Digitized by 



i. The references in this index are to the pages of the introduction 
and appendix, and to the chapters and sections of the translations ; the 
chapters being denoted by the larger ciphers, or by roman type. 

2. References to passages which contain special information are given 
in parentheses, when the reference is not the first one. 

3. Though different forms of the same name may occur in the trans- 
lations, only one form is usually given in the index, to which the references 
to all forms are attached ; except when the forms differ so much as to 
require to be widely separated in the index. 

4. Pazand forms are printed in italics, as their orthography is usually 
corrupt. In all such italicised names any letters which would elsewhere 
be italic are printed in roman type. 

5. Abbreviations used are : — Ap. for Appendix ; AV. for ArJi-Virif ; 
Av. for Avesta word ; Byt. for Bahman Yart ; com. for commentator ; 
Cor. for Corrections ; Dd. for Da</istan-i-Dinik ; Dk. for DinkarJ; Dr. 
for Doctor; Ep. for Epistle; ins. for inscription; lun. man. for lunar 
mansion ; m. for mountain ; meas. for measure ; Mkh. for Mainyo-t 
Khar//; n for foot-note ; Pahl. for Pahlavi ; Pers. for Persian ; Prof, for 
Professor; r. for river; Riv. for Rivayat ; Sans, for Sanskrit word ; trans, 
for translation ; Vend, for VendidaW; Visp. for Vispara*/; Y as. for Yasna. 

Digitized by 



Abin nyayw, Dd. 78, 1911. 
Ablution, Dd. 45, 6 ; 48, 9, 14, 20 ; 

Ep. I, vii, 16; III, 1, 13; Ap. 

38 3. — holes, Ep. I, ix, 7 n ; Ap. 

433-4J* 5 . 444 "»445i 447-453- — 
in Bareshnfim, Ap.437-454. — in 
melted metal, Dd. 32, 13; 87, 
no, in, 113. — seats, Ep. I, 
ix, 7 ; II, iii, 12, iv, 6 n ; III, 6, 
20; Ap. 433 n, 43 6n. 

Abode of fires, Dd. 48, n ; 81, 17, 

Abortion, Dd. 78, 7. 

Abraham, Dd. 87, 90. 

Abyss, Dd. 87, 9, 24. 

Account of the soul, Dd. 8, 6 ; 13, 
2;14,i- 5 ;20,3;22,2;24, 5 ; 
25, 5 ; 28, 5, 6 ; 80, 3 ; 31, 2, 
10, it; 32, 4. 

Adam, Dd. 44, 16 n. 

Adarbf^an, land, Dd. 21, 2 n. 

A*/-fravakhshy3, Av., Ap. 370. 

Adharmah, man, Dd. n. 

Adopted daughter, Dd. 58, 6. 

— son, Dd. 54, 4, 9, 13 ; 58, 2, 5, 6, 

8 ; 58, 3-5 ; 59, 1-3 ; 60, 1, 3 ; 
61, 3 ; 62, 6, 7. 

— sonship, Dd. 64, 13, 14 ; 56, 1-3 ; 

60, 2, 3. 
Adoption, Dd. 66, 2, 6; 57, 1-4; 

68, 1, 5 5 59, 3 ; 61, 2. 
Adfist, see Fire-stand. 
Adultery, Dd. 72, 5; 78, 1-19. 
Adversary, Dd. 37, 31 ; 94, 7. 
Aerpat, Int. 13; Dd. On. See 


— kWWat, Int. 13; Dd. On. See 

Priestly lordship. 

Aeshrn, demon, Dd. 37, 44, 52, 104; 
94, 1 n ; Ap. 426, 437. 

Afarg, com., Ep. I, ii, 5, v, 1, 6, vi, 1, 
a, 4. 7, 9, 11, vii, 1, 18, ix, 1, 5, 
6, 10, 15, x, 13; II, ii, 5-8, iii, 
in; III, 7; Ap. 446, 449. 

Afrasiyab, king, Dd. 70, 3 n. 

Afrin, see Benediction. 

— t dahman, Dd. 81, 1 n. See 

Blessing of the holy. 

Afringan, rite, Dd. 47, 1 n. 
Aghrera*/, man, Dd. 90, 3 n. 
Aharman, Dd. 19, 1, 2, 5-7 ; 27, 6 ; 

87, 16, 20, 59; 65, 5; 72, 3; 

77,11,12; 94,8,10; Ap. 374, 

376-378, 384, 39*, 4i7, 418, 

Aharm&kd, Dd. 72, 9 n. See Apos- 
Ahunavar, Dd. 48, 30 n ; Ap. 386 n, 

443 n, 448 n. 
Ahura, Av., Ap. 448 n. 
Ahura-mazda, Av., Dd. 79, 1 n ; Ap. 

374 n, 385, 387. See AQhar- 

Ahv6, Dd. 1, 20 ; 7, 7 ; 29, 1 ; 81, 7. 

See Patron spirit. 
Ahvdih, Dd. 6, 5. See Spiritual 

Aindar, demon, Ep. I, x, 9. 
Airin-ve^, land, Dd. 21, 2 ; 90, 3 n, 

4, 8n. 
Airymia, Av., Ep. I, vii, 10. 
Akhrfirag, man, Ap. 375. 
Akhtya, man, Dd. 90, 3 n ; Ap. 41m. 
Ak6man6, demon, Dd. 37, 44, 53 ; 

94, 1 n ; Ep. I, x, 9 n. 
Albtira m., Dd. 20, 3 ; 21, 2 ; 87, 

it8n; 92, 5. 
Aloes, Ap. 446. 
Ameroda*/, angel, Dd. 48, 1 n ; Ap. 

Amesha-spentas, Dd. 81, 5 n. See 

Anahita, angel, Dd. 31, 7 n. 
Andarvae, Dd. 93, 7. 
Andreas, Dr., Ap. 399 n. 
Angel of wind, Ap. 372 n. 
Angels, Dd. l,o; 2, 13; 3, 13 n, 15 n; 

4,3; 6,5; 17,2; 20, 3n; 26, 

3,4; 28,4; 81, 15 n; 87, 32, 

86,87,114, 131,132539,11,25, 

28, 29; 42, 1 ; 48, 12 n, 27, 29; 

64, 6; 65, 5; 75, 1, 2; 81, 10; 

82,4,5; 86, 3; 89,2; 94,12; 

Ep. I,iv,i,x,3,xi, n;II,v, 12; 

Ap. 379 n ; army of, Dd. 37, 58, 

64, 107 n; fortress of, Dd. 89, 

Digitized by 




18 ; earthly, Dd. 1, o ; heavenly, 

Dd. l,o; 4, 3; 37, 50; 48, 8; 

03, 10; primeval, Dd. 73, 3; 

spiritual, Ep. I, o, xi, 12 ; II, ix, 

13 ; Ap. 378 ; worldly, Ep. I, o, 

iv, 4 ,xi, 12; II, ix, 13; Ap. 378. 

See Sacred beings. 
Angra-mainyu, Av., Ap. 385. See 

Evil spirit. 
Aniran day, Dd. 43, 7. 
An6shirvan, Ep. I, iv, 17 n. 
Anquetil Duperron, Dd. 48, 16 n. 
Aogemadaera, Av., Dd. 31, 1 n. 
A6shanar, man, Dd. 37, 35. 
AdshnSr, man, Dd. 48, 33. 
Apaosh, demon, Dd. 93, 11, 13 n. 
Ape, origin of, Ap. 418 n, 419. 
Apostates, Dd. 72, 9 ; Ep. II, v, 13 ; 

Ap. 384. 
Apostles, Dd. 2, 10 n, 11 n; 87, 43, 

100 n ; 38, 27 ; 48, 30, 31; Ep. 

I,v, 3n; II, hi, 1; Ap. 369, 386, 

444 n. 
Aquarius, Ep. II, ii, 911, 
Arab horse, Ap. 403. 
Archangel, Dd. 14, 2 ; 81, 5 ; 72, 

ion; Ep. I, iii, 1 n; Ap. 380 n, 

434 n ; female, Dd. 84, 2 n ; Ap. 

393 "• 

Archangels, Dd. 28, 2 ; 87, 26 ; 43, 
9; 48, (1,) 3; 73, 3; 74, 1,2; 
93,13,14; 94,i2; Ep. I, x,9, 
xi, 12; II, v, 14, ix, 13; Ap. 
377 n, 412, 4i5n,- 4 2on; om- 
niscient, Dd. 74, 3 ; seven, Dd. 
43, 8, 9. 

Ar</, angel, Dd. 8, 13, 14; 94, (2.) 

An/ashir-i Papakln, king, Dd. 88, 

An/ashir-khurrah, town, Dd. 88, 7 n. 

Ar</avahijt, angel, Dd. 48, 1 n ; Ap. 

Ar</a-Viraf,man, Int. 28; Dd. 31, 4n; 
Ep. I, iv, 17 n ; Ap. 397, 428. 

Ardibahut, angel, Ap. 379 n, 380 n. 

ArekdvisOr water, Dd. 37, 118; 92, 

i-3, 5- 
Arezd-shamana, man, Ap. 370. 
Arezur m., Dd. 38, 5. 
Aries, Ep. II, ii, 9 n. 
Armkrt, Ap. 452 n. See Secluded. 
Artakhshatar-gadman, town, Dd. 

Arum, land, Ep. II, viii, 5. 
Arfiman, Ap. 406. 
Arvand r., Dd. 92, 2. 

Arvte, Dd. 48, 13 n. See Afirves. 
Aryans, glory of, Dd. 80, 3 n. 
Arzah, region, Dd. 88, 5. 
Asam-i Tamabust, chief, Dd. 90, 3 n. 
Asbavazang, chief, Dd. 90, 3. 
Ashavazd, chief, Dd. 90, 3 n, 8 n. 
Ashem-vohfi, Av., Dd. 48, 32 n ; 79, 

7 ; Ap. 371 n, 37a n, 448, 454 ; 

translated, Dd. 79, 1 n; Ap. 385. 
Ashes of sacred fire, Ep. I, vii, 16 n. 
Ashbang, angel, Dd. 94, 2 n. See 

Asia Minor, Int. 27 ; Ep. II, viii, 5 n ; 

Ap. 406 n. 
AjleshS, lun. man., Ep. II, ii, 9 n.' 
Ass, Ep. I, viii, 3. 
Assembly, Int. 25, 27 ; Ep. I, iv, 14 ; 

II, i, 8, 10-12, v, 10 n ; Ap. 407, 

ArtaV, angel, Dd. 30, 2,3; 44, 20 n. 
Ast6-vidaV, demon, Dd. 23, 3 a; 

30, 4 n ; 37, 44, 51, 52, 81, 83 n, 

98, 106, 108. 
A/vinl, lun. man., Ep. II, ii, 9 n. 
Ataj nyayij, Dd. 48, 21 n ; 78, 19 n. 
Atonement for sin, Dd. 12, 2 ; 13, 2, 


78,17,19; Ap. 414. 
Atrat, man, Ap. 369 n. 
Atur (fire), Dd. 48, 10; day, Dd. 


Atar-fr&bag-f FarukhfizSJan, priest, 
Int. 27; Dd. 88, 8; Ep. I, iii, 

AtGrd-bu£&/, priest, Ep. I, x, 8. 

— frdbag-vindiL/, priest, Ep. I, x, 8. 

— mahan, man, Int. 22 ; Dd. O. 

— paV, man, Int. a6 ; Ep. II, v, 14, 

ix, 11. 
1 HemWan, priest, Int. 27; 

Dd. 44, 20 n ; Ap. 399 n. 
1 Maraspendan, priest, Dd.37, 

Afiharmaz4 Dd. 1, o ; 2, 5, 7 ; 22, 

i;28, sn; 31, 5, 8, 11; 88,7; 

37, 22, 43, 44 n, 95 n ; 40, 7 n ; 

48,1,3! 84,3; 88,1311; 94, 

8, 10 ; Ep. I, iv, 1 1, x, 9 n ; II, 

«, 14, "'», J5! Ap. 373, 377, 3»4, 
386, 392, 393, 396, 402 n, 411, 
4»*> 415,442-444; army of, Dd. 
87, 67 ; beneficent, Dd. 37, 9 ; 
created by, Dd. 87, 117 ; Ep. I, 
vii, 1 1 ; creatures of, Dd. 17, 1 8, 
20; 87, 13 n, 66; Ep. I, iv, 2 ; 
domestic of, Dd. 31, 1, 5 ; fire 

Digitized by 




of, Dd. 2, 1 ; Ap. 432 ; in endless 
light, Dd. 81, 24 n ; in GariW- 
mln, Dd. 1, 3 n ; 94, 1 a ; nature 
of, Dd. 19, 1-7 ; priests of, Ep. 

1, iv, 10, 11, 15; propitiation of, 
Dd. 48, 22 ; service of, Dd. 39, 

16, 28 ; speaks, Dd. 7, 3 ; talks 
with Keresasp, Ap. 374, 376- 
378 ; talks with ZaratOit, Dd. 7, 
7; Ep. I, vii, 10, 13; Ap. 371, 
373, 379. 381, 415-417, 4»9-433» 
431-433, 455; the creator, Dd. 
12, 75; 94, in, 14; Ep. I, o, 
xi, 12; II, ix, 13, 14; III, 33; 
Ap. 393 n ; the lord, Dd. 94, 7 n ; 
Ap. 384, 422 ; two spirits of, Dd. 

2, 1 1 n ; Ep. I, ii, 1 n ; wisdom 
of, Dd. 87, 19 ; worship of, Ap. 

Auharmaz*/ day, Dd. 43, 7. 
AQn-a^asp, man, Dd. 78, 2. 
Aflrvaram, Dd. 48, 16. 
Aurves (ceremonial area), Dd. 48, 

Afishahin g3h, Dd. 30, 2, 3. 
Aflshdlrtar m., Dd. 30, 2 ; 87, 118. 
Afis.hin</um m., Dd. 87, 1 18 n; 92, 5. 
Avin (waters), Dd. 48, 10 ; day, Dd. 

43, 7,11 n ; month, Dd. 43, 10, 

11 n; Ep. II, i, 2. 
Avdem, lun. man., Ep. II, ii, 9 n. 
Avenak, lun. man., Ep. II, ii, 9, 10. 
Avesta, Dd. 30, 4 n ; 71, 3 n ; 81, 

19 n ; Ep. I, iii, 8 n, v, 8 n; II, 

ii, 13 n, iv, 1, v, 14 n, vii, 5, ix, 

7»; Ap. 369, 370, 391, 392, 

394, 397, 4", 4»3 n, 419, 
427, 437 n; — and Zand, Dd. 
46, 2; Ep. I, iv, 11 ; II, iii, 14 n, 
ix, 10; — formula, Ap. 385-387; 
Khurdah, Ap. 385 n ; — phrases, 
Ep. I, vii, 4 n; Ap. 385, 449 n, 
451 ; recital of, Dd. 46, 6 ; 47, 
1,4-6,9; 48, 23,28, 31; 88, 1, 
3; 86, 4; Ep. I, vii, 10, x, 3; 
Ap. 446-448, 450; —text, Ep. 
I, iv, 3; II, iii, in; Ap. 393, 
442 n, 445 n ; — word, Ap. 390. 
Avesta names, Dd. 2, ion; 8, 13 n ; 

17, 7 n ; 20, 3 n ; 80, 2 n ; 31, 
14 n; 88, 3 n, 411; 37, 22 n, 
35 n, 36 n, 44 n, 52 n, 80 n-82 n, 
97 n, 101 n, non, n8n; 44, 
i6n; 48, 13^ 33n; 70, 3n; 
72, 4 n, sn, 9a; 90, 3 n, 8n; 

92, 511; 98, 11 n; Ap. 41m, 

43i, 433 ». 
Avrak, lun. man., Ep. II, ii, 9 n. 
Az, demon, Dd. 37, 51. 
Az-i Dahak, king, Dd. 17, 6 n ; 86, 

5 ; 72, 3 ; 75, 2. See Dahlk. 
Az! SrOvar, Dd. 72, 4. See SrOvar. 

Bahman Yajt, Ap. 399. 

Bakd nask, Ap. 371 n, 395, 397. 

Balance of good works and sin, Dd. 

8, 1, 2, 4 ; 18, 3, 4. 
Barazd, man, Dd. 90, 8 n. 
BareshnQm ceremony, Int. 29 ; Dd. 

23, 3 n ; 89, 8 n ; 81, 16 ; Ep. I, 
ii, 6 n, iv, 1, vi, 1 n, vii, 14, ix, 
7 n, xi, 1 n ; II, i, 7 n, 16 n, ii, 
2 n, iii, 4 n, 12 n, iv, 6 n; III, 
3-5, 8-12, 14, 15, 17, 20; Ap. 
424,(431-455,) 458 n. 

— gih, Ap. 433 n ; plan of, Ap. 435. 
Baresom, see Sacred twigs. 

— din, Dd. 43, 5 n. 
Bargaining, Dd. 62, 1-4. 
Bastard, Dd. 78, 8-12. 
Bayak, demon, Dd. 78, 2 n. 
Bear, origin of, Ap. 418 n, 419. 
Benediction, Ep. I, ii, 1, 4; Ap. 

Beneficent angel, Dd. 64, 6. 

— spirit, Dd. 2, 1 1 ; 36, 7 ; 37, 31 n, 

95, 100; Ep. I, ii, 1 n. 
Benzoin, Ap. 446. 
Berezyanrti, man, Dd. 90, 8 n. 
Best existence, Dd. 1, 3 ; 14, 7, 8 ; 

16,6; 41, 10; 42, 3; 74,2; 

Ap. 374- 
Blessing of the holy, Ap. 410, 411. 
Bodily refuse, Dd. 48, 19, 20; 78, 

14; Ep.I,viii, 1-3, 5; II, iv, 3; 

Ap. 432, 449. 
B&fydzeV sin, Dd. 49, 5 n ; 63, 5 n. 
Bombay, Dd. On; 6, 2 n ; 81, 1 n ; 

Ep. II, ii, 9 n; Ap. 383 n, 392 n. 
Bone-receptacle, Dd. 18, 3, 4. 
Boundless time, Int. 24. 
Brahmanical thread, Dd. 39, 30 n. 
Bridge, see KmvaJ bridge. 
Bull's urine, Dd, 48, 9 n, 33 n; Ep. I, 

ii, 6n, vii, 1, 4, 9, 14, 16, viii, 

1-4, 6, ix, 6, x, 3; II, ii, 2, iii, 

9, 10, 12 ; III, i, 6,20; Ap. 391, 
433-437, 445, 44$ n, 447, 449, 
45«-455, 457- 

Bundahb, Int. 37; Dd. 21, 3 n; 48, 
25 n. See also Sad-dar. 

Digitized by 




BQshasp, fiend, Dd. 37, 44, 51. 
Bfit, demon, Dd. 38, 28 n. 

Cancer, Ep. II, ii, 9 n. 
Carrion-crows, how purified, Dd. 17, 


Caspian Sea, Dd. 37, 44 n. 

Cat, origin of, Ap. 419. 

Cattle-dealing, Dd. 53, 1-6. 

Celestial spirit (ahvS), Dd. 37, 17. 

Ceremonial (yaswn), Dd. 47, 10 ; 48, 
4.8, 10, n, 14,22, 26 n, 29, 34, 
35, 38; 66,8-10, 13, 14, 18,23, 
32; 72, n, 12; 79, 11; 81, 3, 
4, 6, 8, 10-12, 15-18; 82, 1,2, 
4,5; 83,2; 84,i, 2, 4; 85,i, 
*, 4. 5; 86, 2-5, 8; 87, 1, 2; 
88, 10; Ep. II, ix, 10; III,i3; 
Ap. 413,417,421 ; — apparatus, 
Ep. I, iv, 3 n. 

— area, Dd. 48, 21 n. See AflrvSs. 

Ceremonies, after a death, Dd. 23, 
4 n; 81, sn ; Ap.429;— (ya^td), 
Dd.80, 1; Ap. 397 ; — (yazun), 
Dd. 44, 9 ; 46, 5 ; 54, 10 ; Ep. 
I, iv, 9n; Ap. 458; an- 
nual, Dd. 54, 5 ; of the 

sacred beings, Dd. 66, 17; — 
— sacred, Dd. 37, 32; 44, 2, 
4; Ep. II, i, 17 n. 

Ceremony, Ep. I, viii, 6 n ; II, iii, 
7 n, 9 n; Ap. 431, 446 n ; of 
guardian spirits, Dd. 28, 7 ; 48, 
40; 81, 15; of Srdsh, Dd. 28, 
1, 6 ; 28, 1 ; 48, 40 n ; 81, 1 n, 
12-14; of the three nights, Dd. 
28, 1, 5-7 1 Ap. 421 n ; for living 
soul, Dd. 81, 1, 8, 10-12; Ap. 
42m;— (yajtd), Dd. 79, 4, 6 ; 

80, 2 ; 81, 11; of Get6- 

kharW, Dd. 79, 4, 5 ; 80, 2 ; 

of Nabar, Dd. 79, 4 ; — 

(yazijn), Dd. 48, 1, 2, 23, 36; 

86, 7 n ; of the sacred 

beings, Dd. 44, 7, 8 ; 48, 24 ; 

of the waters, Dd. 78, 19; 

sacred, Dd. 22, 1 ; 28, 

4, 5; 44, 17; 45, 6; 47, 9; 
48, 1, 3, 5 n; 72, 1. See 

Ch in Oriental words is printed K, 

China, Int. 27 ; Ep. II, i, 12 n, viii, 5. 

Christianity, Int. 24. 

Christians, Int. 26 ; Dd. 12, 5 n ; 19, 
in; 37, 90 ; Ap. 428, 430. 

Cleansing, Dd. 40, 1, 6, 8, 13, 14. 
Clouds, Dd. 93, 1, 3, 4. 
Co-existent one, Dd. 37, 21, 26; 

Ep. I, ii, 1. 
Commentaries, Dd. 71, 2 n, 3 n ; Ep. 

I, iv, 1 1 n, v, 8 n, vi, in; Ap. 

457 n. See Pahlavi. 
Commentary (zand), Dd. 1, 7 ; 44, 2 ; 

45, 5, 6; 47, 1, 2, 4-6, 8-10;— 

(<tlrtak5), Ep. 1, v, 6 n. 
Commentators, Ep. I, ii, sn, iv, i7n, 

v, 1 n, vi, in, x, ion; II, ii, ion,, 7n; Ap. 397. 
Complete mindfulness, Ap. 412. 
Conjunctions of planets, Ep. II, ii, 

10, 11. 
Consecrating sacred cakes, Dd. 28, 

1; 80,i ; 79, 7; 81,13-15- 
Constantly-beneficial place, Dd. 26, 

3 ; 81, 24 n ; — space, Dd. 37, 

22, 24 ; 88, 3. 
Corn-dealing, Dd. 49, 1-10. 
Corpse-eating dogs and birds, Dd. 

15, 1, 4, 5; 16, 1, 7; 17, 1, 

17, 19; 18, 1-3; Ap. 455, 

Creation of man, Dd. 64, 1-7. 
Creator, Dd. 1, o; 2, 4, 7, n; 3, 

a-4, 6, 7, 8n, 10, 18, 20; 4, 2; 

7, 2, 3, 5 ; 14, 5 ; 19, s ; 21, 4 ; 

22,3, 4! 29, 2; 31, 5-7 5 38, 

7; 87, 4,6, 12, 16, 17, 22, 36, 

37, 64, 65, <S7, 75, 84, 96, i"- 
114, 131; 39, 2, 18; 64, 4; 
65, 4, 5 ; 73, 3 ; 75, 3 ; 77, 4 ; 
91,9, i°; 93, 13; 84, 14; Ep. 
I, o, xi, 12; II, ix, 13, 14; III, 
22; Ap. 379 n, 386, 401, 408, 

Da</istan-t Draft, Dd. 94, 1 n ; Ap. 
373. 394, 399 », 4*4, 4*8 ; con- 
tents, Int. 22, 23 ; Gu^arati 
trans., Int. 24 ; how composed, 
Dd. 1,18-27; MSS., Int. 15-18; 
two versions, Int. 15, 19; written 
at Shiraz, Dd. 1, 17 n. 

Daeva-worshippers, Dd. 32, 4 n. 

Dahak, king, Dd. 2, ion; 86, 3 ; 37, 
(97,) 121; 72, 5; 78, a; Ap. 
37», 374, 378, 418. See Aa-i 

Dahikan, Int. 16. 

Dahman afrin, see Blessing of the 

Digitized by 




Daitih peak, Dd. 20, 3 n; 21, 1, a; 
84, 1, 4. 

— river, Dd. 21, 2 n ; 90, 4. 
Dakhma, see Depository. 
DamdaV nask, Dd. 48, 25 n. 
Danayan, Ap. 370. 
Dara^a r., Dd. 21, 2 n. 
Darmesteter, Prof. J., Vend, trans., 

Dd. 20, 3 n ; 31, 5 n, 24 n ; 32, 

4 n; 33, 4 n, 5 n; 30, 19 n; 

73, 3 n ; Ep. I, iv, 3 n. 
Dirtanik, man, Ap. 370, 372. 
Dates of Pahlavi books, Int. 27, 28 ; 

Ep. I, iv, 17 n; Ap. 392 n, 394, 

397-399i 4>5, 4*7, 4*8. 
David, Ap. 390. 
Deadly one, Dd. 86, 8. 
Dead matter, Dd. 16, 5; 17, 7, 10, 

17, 19 n; 18, 2; Ep. I, ii, 3, 

Death demon, Dd. 23, 3 n ; 80, 4 n. 

— of the wicked, Dd. 20, 2 n. 
Decree, Ep. I, iv, 7, v, 1 n, x, 7, 11, 

12; II, ii, in, 3, iii, 13 n, iv, 1, 
v, 2,7, 12, vi, 4, vii, 4. 

Decrepitude demon, Dd. 23, 3. 

Dedications, Dd. 80, 1 ; 43, 3, 4, 
7-1 1 ; Ap. 447, 448. 

Demon, Dd. 14, 6 n ; 80, 4 n ; 34, 
4 ; 87, 49i 81, 85, 97, 103, 108- 
110, 120, 122; 38, 17, 28; 77, 
8, 10, 12; 83, 11-13; E P- !•> 
iii, 15 n, iv, 3; Ap. 372 n, 381, 
418,419, 444. 

— of demons, Dd. 87, 49, 53, 56 ; 

Ap. 392. 

Demons, Dd. 8, 3, 4 ; 16, 7 ; 17, 2, 
3, 20 ; 26, 5 n ; 27, 5. 6 5 32, 
5, 14; S3, 3-5; 37, 20, 27-29, 
46, 53, 54. 59, 73. 81, 85, 87, 93. 
102, 105, no; 88, 11, 20; 41, 
5; 46, 7; 48, 5. »*«», 16. *9J 
65,5; 73,35 74,2,3; 75,2; 
76, 3; 81, 11; 93, 1 ; Ap. 377, 
378, 402, 410-412, 415, 417-4*0, 
422, 424, 437, 444 ; coupled 
with fiends, see Fiends. 

Demon-worshippers, Dd. 57, 4 ; 
68, 5 n. 

Departure of the righteous, Dd. 20, 

Depository for the dead, Dd. 16, 5 n ; 

18, 4 n. 
Destiny, Dd. 71, 1-4. 
Destroyer, Dd. 17, 7; Ap. 395,401. 
Deuteronomy, book, Ap. 429 n. 

[18] H 

Dimavand m., Dd. 37, 97 n; Ap. 

37* n. 
Dinkan/, book, Int. 19, 27, 29; Dd. 

61, 3»; Ap. 389 n, 415, 428; 

editor of, Int. 27 ; Dd. 88, 

8 n ; Ep. I, iii, 9 n ; quoted, see 

Din6, angel, Dd. 94, 2. 
Director of the priests, Int. 1 3 ; Dd. 

On; 1, ion; 45,(5;) 04, 13; 

Ep. II, ix, 12. 
Dirhams, Dd. 62, 1, 2 ; 60, 3 ; 66, 

2, 15-17, 20, 21, 32; 78, 13 n; 

82, 1; 88,1-3,5-7,9-u- 
Disciples, Dd. 1, 3, 4, 17 ; 46, 1-6 ; 

46, 5; 66, 3, 11, 21,24,25,30, 

33; 81, 11; 86, 7; 88, 3, 6, 

8; 88, 9, 12; Ep. II, iii, 7; 

III, 16 ; Ap. 422. 
Discipleship, Dd. 46, 1-3 ; 88, 9 ; 

Ep. II, v, 5. 
Divorce, Ap. 407 n, 419. 
Dog, shown to the dead, Dd. 17, 20 ; 

18, 2 ; used in BareshnQm, Ap. 

Dowry, Dd. 62, 1 n. 
DrSyin-jtiyunm sin, Dd. 79, 8 n. 
Dr6n, see Sacred cake. 
Dt%askan, Dd. 38, 4. 
Drunkenness, Dd. 60, 3, 4; 61, 

Drying with dust, Ap. 435, 445, 

446 n, 450-452. 
DQbasr%e</ nask, Ap. 304, 
DQj-hOkht, grade of hell, Dd. 91, 3 n. 
Dvaadah-hemist, rite, Dd. 48, 25 ; 

78, 19 ; 81, 15. 

Eating, desisting from, Dd. 86, 3; 

with a spoon, Dd. 28, 5. 
Eclipses, Dd. 69, 1-4. 
Egypt, Ap. 4*9. 
Elohim, Dd. 1, 3 n. 
Endless light, Dd. 31, 24 ; 87, 32, 

24; 64,3; 91, 311, 4. 
Enoch, Dd. 44, 16 n. 
Epistle, Dd. 1, 2, 17 ; Ep. I, o, i, 2, 

ii, i,iv, 7, v, 1, vi, 1, xi, 1, 2,5, 

10; II, o, i, 2, 3, v, ion, vii, a, 

viii, 1, ix, 2 ; III, 21. 
Epistles of Min&NKhar, Int. xxv- 

xxviii; Ap. 394,455- 
Eradication of life, Dd. 16, 1, 3 ; 

28, 3 ; of sin, Dd. 12, 1, a, 5. 
Ever-stationary, Dd. 20, 3 ; 87, 30 n ; 

Ap. 426 ; of the righteous, Dd. 


Digitized by 




24, 6; of the wicked, Dd. 24, 
6 n ; 83, 2. 
Evil beings, Ap. 384. 

— one, Dd. 32, 7 ; 37, 102. 

— spirit, Dd. 2, 1 1 ; 3, 8 ; 7, 3 ; 19, 

in; 86, 2; 37, 21 n, 3m, 53, 
83,96,120548,1,22; 64, sn; 
70, 2 n ; 72, 9 n ; Ep. I, ii, 1 n, 
4 I Ap. 437, 444. 

— spirits, Dd. 87, 66. 

— thoughts, words, and deeds, Dd. 

2,6; 20,2; 24,6; 25, 4; Ap. 

384, 387. 
Exorcism, Ep. I, vi, 6 ; II, ii, 7 ; Ap. 

443-444. 450 n, 454. 
Exposure of the dead, Dd. 16, 1-6; 

16, 1-8; 17, 1-20; 18, 1-4. 

Farhank, woman, Dd. 48, 33. 
FarmaVar, Int. 13; Dd. On. See 

Farman sin, Dd. 40, 4 n ; 78, (9 n.) 
Farukhuzarf, priest, Int. 27 ; Dd. 88, 

8 ; Ep. I, iii, 9. 
Fastening corpses to the ground, Dd. 

17, 17; 18,2. 
Fathom, meas., Ap. 432 n, 447. 
Female things, see Male. 
Fever demon, Dd. 23, 3. 

Fiend, a, Dd. 37, 49, 120; 84, 1 ; 
— of corruption, Dd. 17, 7 n ; 
Ap. 436 n, 437-44*1 444> 445, 
450 n, 454 ; — , the (archfiend), 
Dd. 1, 3,6, 14; 2,5,7, 11; 3, 
7, 19 ; 7, 3 ; 22, 4 ; 81, 8 ; 82, 
7,12; 87,7, ", 13. '4 n, 17-20, 
«, 24, 25, 28, 29, 37, 44, 50, 
59, 64" 6 7, 7», 75-77, 79, 81, 83, 
93,99, i", 11*, "4, 1 i fi n,i23; 
39,i6; 42,6; 48, 24; 75, 3, 
4 ; 77, 2, 8, ion ; 91, 8 ; 94, 8 n ; 
Ep. I, ii, 2, 4, 5, 13; v, 3; Ap. 
395 ; — the (inferior), Dd. 32, 
11; 89,28; 94,2; Ap. 395. 

Fiends, Dd. 19, 7 ; 32, 12 ; 87, 61, 
74,80,84,106; 88,13; 48,27, 
37 ; 86, 7 ; 94, 4 ; Ap. 417 ; 
coupled with demons, Dd. 2, 
13; 16, 8; 27, 2; 37, 44, 55, 
57, 97, 104, 108; 89, 13, 14; 
48, 1; 72, 10; 94, 3, 4; Ap. 

Fifty-seven years' preparation for 
resurrection, Dd. 86, 5, 7 a. 

Finger-breadth, meas., Ap. 433, 434, 
439, 445, 447, 45°- 

Fire angel, Ap. 37*-374, 37*. 377, 
379, 380, 3931,443- 

— for ceremonies, Dd. 28, 5 ; 48, 

I, 2,5; 48,15,21,23; 78,19; 
88, 6 ; Ep. I, viii, 1-3 ; II, i, 
17; Ap. 417, 432, 433. 

— priest, Dd. 64, 3, 4. 

— stand, Dd. 48, 15. 

— temple, Dd. 81, 17 n. See Abode. 

— to protect infants, Dd. 28, 2 n. 

— wood, Dd. 43, 6; 48, 15; Ep. 

II, ix, 3; Ap. 417. 
Firmament, Dd. 91, 2 n. 

Foot, meas., Dd. 48, 5 ; Ap. 433 n, 

434, 43 6 > 448. 
Foreign conquerors, Ap. 409 n, 429 ; 

— faith, Dd. 41, 1, 3 ; 42, 1, 3 ; 

Ap. 405 n ; — habits, Dd. 78, 8, 

9 ; Ep. II, 1, 17 ; — woman, 

Dd. 78, 8, 15. 
Foreigners, Dd. 41, 3 n, 6 n ; 50, i, 

4; 63, 1, 2,5. 
Fourth day after death, Dd. 81, 15. 

— night after death, Dd. 11, 1 ; 

13, 1. 
Fradai&fsh, region, Dd. 36, 5. 
Frada</-gadraan, man, Dd. 86, 4, 5. 

— bvarend, man, Dd. 36, 4 n. 
FraVakhrto, chief, Dd. 90, 3, 8 n. 
Frashakar^, see Renovation. 
Fr3siyai>, king, Dd. 70, 3 ; 90, 3 n. 
FrasnUtrS, Av., Ep. II, iii, 2. 
Fravak, man, Dd. 37, 35. 
Fravarane, Av., Ap. 448. 
Fravar<fig3n, rite, Dd. 44, a n. 
Fravan/in, month, Dd. 48, 7 n. 
Fravashi, Av., Dd. 2, 5 n. See 

Guardian spirit. 
Friyar (morning), Dd. 48, a6. 
Fr&ffln, king, Dd. 2, 10; 87, 35, 

80, 97 ; 65, 5. 
Fr8bak fire, Ap. 373 n. 
Frog, origin of, Ap. 419. 
Fryln, man, Dd. 90, 3 ; Ap. 411 n. 
Furrows, Ep. Ill, 6; Ap. 4330, 

434, 43«, 437 n, 445n, 446, 448, 

449, 45*. 454« 
Future existence, Dd. 2, 1 3 n ; 14, 

6; 32, 2; Ap. 382. 

Gaevani, man, Dd. 36, 3 n. 

G3h, see Period of the day. 

Gahanblrs, Dd. 44, a n. See Sea- 

Gandarep, monster, Ap. 370, 371, 
374-37<5, 381, 419. 

Digitized by 




GarS</man, Dd. 1, 3 n ; 20, 3. See 
Heaven, supreme and highest. 

Ganasp, hero, Ap. 369 n. 

Gatha dialect, Ap. 387 n. 

Gathas, Dd. 40, 5 n ; 79, 7 ; Ep. I, 
vii, 10 n ; Ap. 370 n-372 n, 390. 
See Sacred hymns. 

Gaydman/, man, Dd. 2, 10, 12; 4, 
6; 28,7; 86,2; 87, 35n, 4«, 
82 ; 64, a, 5-7 ; Ap. 393 n, 401, 
402, 411, 418 n. 

Geiger, Dr., Dd. 81, 1 n. 

Geldner, Dr., Ap. 426. 

Genesis, book, Dd. 1, 3 n ; 37, 22 n ; 
91, 2 n ; Ap. 393 n, 429 n. 

Geresasp6, hero, Ap. 371 n. See 

G£t6-kharW, rite, Dd. 79, 4, 5 ; 80, 
2; Ep. Ill, 11 n. 

Gnu urva, Av., Ap. 380 n. 

G!<w, man, Dd. 86, 3 n. 

God, Dd. 1, 3 n ; Ap. 401 ; Cor. 479. 

Gdkarn, tree, Dd. 37, 100 n ; 48, 16. 

Gdmez, see Bull's urine. 

Good religion, Dd. 1, 1, 17 ; 6, 1 ; 
87, 22; 41, 10; 42, 1, 3; 47, 
1 ; 53, 1, 2, 5 ; 66, 2 ; 57, 2 ; 
61, 3; 62, 1 ; 66,15,19: 76, 
5; 78, 9, 18, 19; 81, 17; 88, 
8 ; 90, 2 ; 94, 1 2 ; Ep. I, iii, 10, 
vii, 5, x, 5 ; II, i, 8, 16, vi, 5 ; 
III, 21; Ap. 401, 415,425- 

— spirit, Dd. 3, 17; 7, 7 J 31, 4; 


— spirits, Dd. 1, 23 ; 16, 8 ; 87, 66 ; 

48, 4 ; 91, 8. 

— thoughts, words, and deeds, Dd. 

2, 6, 12 ; 3, 10; 16, 2; 20, 2; 24, 
4,6; 28,4; 88,2; Ap. 387. 

— works, Dd. 1, 4, 7 ; 6, 2, 3 ; 8, 

1-6; 9, 3; 10, 1, 2; 11, 1, 2; 

12, 1-5; 13, 1-4; 14, 1, *, 4; 
16, 2, 3,5; 20, 3; 22, i; 24, 
*. 3; 26, 3,4; 31, 2, 4»io,i7, 
19, *o; 82, 7, 15, 16 n; 84, 3; 
37,128; 38, 1, 3; 42, 3,4; 46, 
2; 48, 11; 60, 3, 4; 64, 10; 
66,24; 72,12; 75, 5 n; 76, 1, 

3, 4 5 80, 2; 81, 9,10,14,18; 
82,3; 84,3,4; 86,2,3; 89, 
3; 90,7; 94, 7, 8n; Ep. I, i, 
3, 4, tv> 5 5 II, "i, j; HI, 15; 
A P- 39', 39», 399, 402, 411, 412, 
4'5, 4»9, 4*1-4*7, 44*, 443- 

Gdpatd, land, Dd. 90, 4, 8 n. 
G8patshah, chief, Dd. 90, 3, 4. 


G8r, town, Dd. 88, 7 n. 
G6/-aurvan, angel, Ap. 380. 
G8sna-jam, priest, Dd. On. See 

Gftrt-t FryanS, chief, Dd. 90, 3 n. 
GosQbar, Ap. 419. 
Grades in heaven, Dd. 20, 4n; 34, 3. 

— in hell, Dd. 20, 4 n ; 88, 2-5. 
Greeks, Ap. 389, 429. 

Growth of good works, Dd. 12, 1, 

*, 4, 5- 

— of sin, Dd. 12, 5. 

Guardian, Dd. 66, 9; 61, 3 ; 62, 
5-7; Ep. II, viii, 2. 

— spirit, Dd. 2, 5 ; 3, 9 ; 87, 80 ; 

— spirits, Dd. 17, 6; 31, 1511; 
87, 80, 131, 132; 91, 10; Ap. 

369; , righteous, Dd. 17, 

6n; 28, 7; 37,34! 48, 1, 21, 
40; 81, 13, 15; 82, 5; 94,i2; 
Ep. II, ix, 13. 

Guardianship, Dd. 64, 6, 9, 11 ; 66, 
1, 4, 5, 7 ; 68, 1, 5 ; 61, 1, 3 ; 62, 
5,6; Ep. II, viii, 2, 3, ix, 4, 5. 

G&ma-dam, priest, Int. 13, Dd. On. 

Gartasp, king, Dd. 87, 36 n. See 

Gamasp, priest, Dd. 44, 16; Ap. 380. 
G6dan-dam, priest, Dd. n. 
Guvan-Gam, priest, Dd. n. 

Hadhanaepata, Av., Dd. 48, 16 n ; 

Ap. 446 n. See Pomegranate. 
Hadbajas, ox, Dd. 81, 13 n; 37, (99,) 

Ji9; 48, 345 90,4. 
HSJSkht nask, Dd. 48, 25 ; 94, 14 n. 
Hamemil sin, Dd. 14, 3 n. 
Hamfstakin, Dd. 20, 3; 88, 2 n. See 

Haosravangh, man, Ap. 375 n. 
Hara-berezaiti m., Dd. 20, 3 n. 
Harlez, Prof. C. de, Dd. 83, 4 n; Ap. 

369 n. 
Hasar, meas., Ap. 456 n. See Mile. 
Hashi-dava, Ap. 375 n. 
Haug's Essays, Dd. 31, 1 n; 37, 48 n; 

39, n n, 21 n; 48, sn, 7«i;47, 

in; 48, 21 n, 30 n, 31 n; 72, 

4 n ; Ap. 370 n, 384 n. 
Havan gah, Dd. 48, 36 n. 
Hawk, origin of, Ap. 419. 
Heaven (vahut), Dd. 1, 3 n ; 8, 7, 8 ; 

14, 7; 20, 3; 24, 6; 26, (1-5;) 

27, 4«»; 31, 1-4, 9, 10, »*» '5, 

i7,*4n,*5;3S,an; 84, 1; 87, 

Digitized by 




38, 43. 75. 79 5 88, in; 44, 
20 n, 22 n ; 94, 9, 10 ; Ap. 376- 
379. 397,415", 42'. 4* 6 ; grades 
in, Dd. 20, 4 n ; 34, 3. 

Heaven (gar6</man), highest, Dd. 1, 
jn ; — supreme, Dd. 20, 3 ; 24, 
6; 31, 4, 15, 17, 22, 24, 25; 37, 
25, 50; 38, in, 4 n; 80, 2; 84, 
12; Ap. J74, 376-378,421. 

Hell, Dd. 6, 6, 8 ; 14, 6, 7 ; 20, 4 ; 
21, 8 ; 25, 2, 6 ; 27, (1-7 32, 

I, 3, 4, 7, 10. 14; 83. 1. 2 n, 5; 
34, 1; 37, 108, no, 120; 41, 
10; 75, 2n, 3n, sn; 91, 3n; 
94, 9, 10; Ap. 373. 397, 417- 
419, 422, 426, 444 n; grades in, 
Dd. 20, 4 ; 33, 2-5. 

Heretic, Ep. Ill, 19. 

Hdr-fr8vag, priest, Ep. I, iii, 9. 

Heterodox, Ep. II, ix, 8. 

Higar, see Bodily refuse. 

High-priest, Int. 13, 14, 27; Dd. 
On; 1, 3 n, 14 n, 17 n, 20, 
21; 8, 16; 22, 5; 39, 23; 41, 
3n; 44, 1, 13, 16, 20; 75, 2; 
93, 15 ; Ep. I, o n, iii, 2 n, 7, vi, 
5, vii, 4, ix, 10, 13,15, x, 8; II, i, 
9, », 9 n, v, 4, vi, i;Ap. 4 oi,4i3, 
442, 443; — supreme, Int. 13. 

High-priesthood, Dd. 89, 1 ; Ep. II, 
ix, 5; Ap. 443; — supreme, Ep. 

High-priests, Int. 27 ; Dd. 1, 6, 20, 
21; 8, 14; 21, 2; 23, 3; 27, 7; 

87, 62, 107 ; 39, 8; 42, 6 ; 48, 
34! 66,5; 71, 3; 78, 2; 88,6; 
89, i; 94,i2, 13; Ep. I, ii, 4, 
6, 12, iv,7, 10, 14, 16, 18, v, 1-3, 
vi, 2, 3, vii, 5, 6, 14, viii, 7, ix, 
4, 9,11.15. *, «. 7,' 9. >°» 12; 

II, ii, 2, 7, "i, 4. M. v, 2, 4, vii, 
5,ix, 8; III, 2,5, 7,16; Ap. 397. 

Highwaymen, Ap. 376. 
Hikhar, see Bodily refuse. 
HindQs, Dd. 39, 30 n; Ep. I, viii, 3 n. 
Hindva m., Dd. 92, 5 n. 
Hitaspa, man, Ap. 370. 
Hoffmann, Prof. G., Dd. On; Ep. I, 

xi, 6n. 
Holes (magha), see Ablution holes. 
Holy-water, Dd. 48, 30, 32 n, 34 ; 

86,15,17, 20, 25, 32; 78,19; 

88, 1, 3, 5, 6, 9 ; Ep. I, ii, 3, 
13, viii, in; Ap. 417, 420, 447- 

H8m juice, Dd. 48, 5 n, 16 n, 27, 
30, 31 ; — mortar, Dd. 48, 14, 

16 n, 31; — pestle, Dd. 48, 

31 n; — plant, Dd. 48, 16; — 
twigs, Dd. 48, 14 n, 16 n, 30 n- 

32 n; Ep. Ill, 14; — white, Dd. 
31, 13 n; 37, 100. 

Horvadai/, angel, Dd. 48, 1 n ; Ap. 

415; month, Ep. Ill, 21. 
HSshing, king, Dd. 2, 10; 37, 35; 

Household attendance, Dd. 31, 8; 

37, 16, 17, 21 ; — attendant, 

Dd. 81, 1, 5; 82, 7; 43, 1; 

48, 41 ; Ep. I, iii, 9. 
Hugar m., Dd. 87, 118 n. See 

HGkhfr m., Dd. 92, 5. See Hugar. 
Human, priest, Dd. 44, 20. 
Hunus, Ap. 370, 371. 
Hush, beverage, Dd. 31, 13 n. 
Hfish&fer, apostle, Dd. 2, 10; 37, 

36, 43, 94n; 48, 30; 68, ion; 
Ep. 11, iii, 1 n. 

HQsheVar-mah, apostle, Dd. 2, 10; 

37, 36, 43, 94 n, 97 n; 48, 30; 
Ep. II, iii, 1 n. 

HQsparum nask, Int. 24; Dd. 61, 

3 ; 66, 1 n. 
Jfoa&vadatha, A v., Dd. 86, 1 n; Ap. 

387 n, 390, 391. 
Hvare-iaeshman, man, Dd. 2, ion; 

86, 4 n. 
Wsembya, title, Dd. 90, 3 n. 
Hvfivas, family, Dd. 44, 16. 

Ibairaz, man, Dd. 90, 8 n. 
Immortal rulers, Dd. 37, 101 n; 

Incense, Ep. II, ix, 3 ; Ap. 417. 
India, Dd. 18, 4 n ; Ap. 446 n. 
Indian Antiquary, Dd. On; Ep. I, 

xi, 6 n. 
Indra, demon, Ep. I, x, 9 n. 
Infanticide, Dd. 78, 5. 
Infidel, Dd. 50, 1, 4 ; Ap. 415, 425. 
Infidelity, Dd. 41, 3n; 60, 3; 78, 

8,9. '9 5 Ap. 415. 
Inheritance, Dd. 54, 9-1 1 ; 56, 8,9; 

62, 1-4. 
Inspiration, Dd. 71, 3 n; Ep. I, Ui. 

4 n, 5 n. 

Inward prayer (vig), Dd. 40, 5, 7 n, 
9n; 79,m, 2,4,7, 8n; Ep. I, 
x, 1; Ap. 448, 449,^451. 

Irin, Int. 14, 25; Dd. 36, 7 n; 37, 
94»»; 53, 6; 88, 15; 88, 1 ; 
90, 6; 94,ia; Ep. II, i, ,6, 

Digitized by 




iv, 4-6, v, 13, vi, 4, vil, 6, viii, 4, 
ix, 1; III.i, 3, 17, 19. »i. 

Iranians, Dd. 36, 7 n; 80, 3 n. 

Israelites, Ap. 390, 429. 

Itha, Av., Dd. 78, 1-4, 7, 8, 9 n. 

J in Oriental words is printed G. 
Jamaspji Minochiharji, DastCr, Dd. 

48, 25 n; Ap. 383 n, 392 n. 
Jew, Int. 26 ; Ap. 399. 
Jude, epistle, Dd. 44, 16 n. 
Judges, Dd. 1, 6 ; Ap. 407. 

Kahttar, lun. man., Ep. II, ii, 9 n. 
Kai-Apiveh, prince, Dd. 48, 33 n. 

— KaQs, king, Dd. 87, 36 n. 

— KavH king, Dd. 87, 35 5 48, 33- 

See Kavi</. 

— Khusr6i, king, Dd. 38, 3; 87, 36; 

80, 6, 8 n. 

— VLrtasp, king, Dd. 37, 36 ; 44, 

16 n. See Vutasp. 
Kalpa, Sans., Ap. 384 n. 
Kamak, bird, Ap. 378 n, 381. 
Kamak-s(W, man, Dd. 36, 4, 5. 

— vakhshun, man, Dd. 86, 4, 5. 
Kangdez, land, Dd. 37, 36 n; 80, 3 n, 

5, 8n. 
Kanheri caves, Dd. On; Ep. I, xi, 

Kap&Z, wolf, Ap. 38 r. 
KapGl, town, Ap. 373. 
Karap, title, Dd. 72, 8; Ap. 384, 

Kavar/, king, Ep. I, iv, 1 7. See Ka?- 

Kavi, title, Ap. 384 n. 
Kavulistan, land, Ap. 373 n. 
Kayanians, Dd. 80, 5. 
Krrn-na-rnazdU, stanza, Ap. 443. 
Keresasp, hero, Int. 18, 19, 28; Dd. 

17,6; 86, 3; 37, 35. 97! 48, 

41 n; 72, 4 n; Ap. 369-381. 
Keshvars, Dd. 36, 5 n. See Regions. 
KhSn, platform, Dd. 48, 14 ; 66, 

27 n. 
KhavzS, Av., Dd. 73, 3 n ; 74, 2 n. 
Kh6r sin, Dd. 78, 14 n. 
Khrafstras, see Noxious creatures, 
Khrtitlsp, man, Dd. 78, 2 n. 
KhshnQmand, see ShnGmand. 
Khshvash-maungh8 process, Ap.446. 
KhQmbtk, title, Dd. 90, 3, 8 n. 
Khfir, day, Dd. 48, 10. 
Khurasan, land, Int. 14, 25; Ep. II, 

i, 2 n, 12 n, v, 3 n. 

Khurdah A vesta, Ap. 385 n. 
Khur-4ashm, man, Dd. 2, 10 ; 36, 

4, 5- 

KhQsrfi N6shirv3n, king, Int. 27; 
Ep. I, iv, 17; Ap. 394, 397. 

Khvantras, region, Dd. 36, 5, 7 ; 80, 
3, 8 n ; Ep. I, i, 5. 

KhvSpar (persistent), Dd. 19, 7 n. 

Khvarizem, land, Ap. 373 n. 

Khvetfik-das, Int. 18, 19, 28, 29; 
Dd. 65, in; Ap. 389-430, 
433 n. See Next-of-kin mar- 

Kik, title, Ap. 384, 412. 

Kirman, land and town, Int. 13, 16, 
17,25.37; Dd. On; 84, 13; Ep. 

I, on; II, i, 13, ix, 12 ; III, 1. 
Knathaiti, witch, Ap. 369. 
Kfban, town, Ep. II, i, 12 n. 
Kfistik, Dd. 38, 7, 29 ; Ap. 383-387. 

See Sacred thread-girdle. 

KakldA Daitik m., Dd. 21, 2 n. See 

Daitih peak. 
ATamr6j, bird, Dd. 80, 3 n. 
Kmvzd bridge, Dd. 20, 3 ; 21, (1-7 ;) 

22, 2n; 24, 2, 6 ; 25, 2, 6 ; 32, 

45 84, 3.4! 42, an; 44, 2on; 

81, 18 n ; 85, 7 n ; Ep. I, iii, 9 ; 

II, v, 17m 
Attrav8k6-miyan6 r., Dd. 80, 3. 

Ladle for sprinkling, Ap. 437. 
Lamp for ceremonies, Dd. 48, 2, 6. 
Leader of the religion, Int. 13, 22, 

27; Dd. On; 1, 6, 10, 23, 24; 

44, 20 n ; 45, 5 ; 88, 8 ; Ep. 

I, iii, 10, vii, 5; II, vi, 5, ix, 

12 n. 
Leadership of ditto, Ep. II, ix, 5. 
Lethargy, demon, Dd. 23, 3. 
Leviticus, book, Ap. 429. 
Libertinism, Dd. 78, 14, 15. 
Liturgy, Dd. 2, 8 ; Ap. 432. 
L6harasp, king, Dd. 78, 2 n. 
Lord, Dd. 1, 20; Ap. 384, 385, 422. 
Luke, gospel, Ap. 398. 
Lunar mansions, Ep. II, ii, 9 n. 

Magh, Ap. 433 n. See Ablution seat. 
Mah-rQ, Dd. 43, 5 n ; 48, 14, 17. 
Maiden meeting the soul, Dd. 20, 

3n; 21,6; 24, 5 ; 25, 5. 
Maidhy8-zaremaya, season, Dd. 81, 

14 n. 
Maf</y6k-zarem butter, Dd. 81, 13. 

Digitized by 




Mainy6-i Khar</, book, Ap. 381, 398. 
Male and female things, Dd. 83, 

13 n; Ap. 409, 410. 
Malkos, Dd. 37, 94 ; Cor. 479. 
Manicheans, Ep. II, i, nn. 
Mansar (text, liturgy), Dd. 1, 7 ; 2, 8. 
Manuscripts described, Int. 14-19, 

*9, 3°- 
ManfljjHhar, author, Int. 13-15, 19, 
22-28; Dd. 0; 1,1, 3 n, 17 n; 
94,13; Ep. I, o, xi, 12; II, o, 
i, 11 n, v, ion, ix, 1 n, 12; III,o, 

1, 21; Ap. 455, 458 n. 

— king, Dd. 87, 35. 

Marhaya, man, Dd. 37, 82 ; 64, 2 n ; 

Ap. 416. See Mashyalh. 
MarhiySih, woman, Dd. 37, 82 ; 64, 

2n;Ap. 416. See Mashyay6ih. 
Mark, gospel, Dd. 87, 106 n; Ap. 398. 
Marriage, see Next-of-kin; of 

cousins, Ap. 404, 407 n, 415, 

Mars, planet, Ep. II, ii, 9, 10. 
Marv, town, Ep. II, v, 3 n. 
Mas'audt, Ep. II, i, 12 n. 
Mashyaih, man, Dd. 64, 2, 6 n ; 66, 

2; 77, 4; Ap. 402, 411. See 

Mashy3y6ih, woman, Dd. 64, 2, 6 n ; 

66, 2 ; 77, 4 ; Ap. 402, 411. See 

Master (ra</), Dd. 1, 20 ; 44, 1 3 ; 

Ap. 385, 442. 
Mazda, Ap. 385, 387. See Afihar- 

Mazdak, heretic, Ep. I, iv, 17 n; II, 

i, 12 n. 
Maz^a-worship, Int. 24; Dd. 1, 3; 

2, 11 ; 21, 2 n; 39, 8n; 94, 
1 n ; Ep. II, i, 12 n ; Ap. 386, 
412, 414, 415, 422 n, 423, 427. 

— worshipper, Dd. 8, 18 ; 4, 2 ; 48, 

33 ; 76, 3 n ; Ap. 387, 448 n. 

— worshippers, Int. 14, 24-27 ; Dd. 

2, 15; 4, 4? 6, 2; 22, 1, 3; 
87, 36 n, 48, 93; 89,12; 41, 
1, 7; 42, 1 ; 44, 13; 46, 2 n, 
6 n ; 48, 39 ; 66, 10 n ; 72, 2 ; 
60, 8n; Ep. 1, ii, 12, iii, 11, 
viii, 1 n, x, 11-13 ; II, i, 6; Ap. 
398, 4*9. 43i », 432, 452, 453. 

— worshipping literature, Dd. 61, 

3 n ; religion, Int. 13, 23 ; 

Dd. 1, 23 n; Ep. I, xi, 9; II, 
vi, 2 n; Ap. 387, 400, 411; 
superiors, Dd. 41, 9. 

Mazendaran, land, Dd. 37, 44. 
Mazinikan demons, Dd. 37, 81 ; Ap. 

Meat-offering, Ep. II, ix, 3. 
M&/y&k-mlh, com., Ep. I, v, 1, 6, 

8, vi, 3, 7-9, 11, vii, 1, ix, 1, 2, 

4, 7, 10, 12-14; II, ii, 5-8, iii, 

in; 111,7 5 Ap. 449. 
Melted metal ablution, Dd. 82, 12, 

13; 37, 1 10. 
Menstruation, Dd. 78, 4. 
Menstruous woman, Ap. 447. 
Mercury, planet, Ap. 418 n. 
Messiah, Dd. 37, 90, 91. 
Metals, origin of, Dd. 64, 7. 
Meteors, Dd. 37, 55. 
Mile (hasar), Ep. II, iii, 3 ; Ap. 456, 

Milk, food, Dd. 28, 5. 
Millenniums, Dd. 37, 11 n, 33, 97 n; 

64, 4 ; 66, 10 ; 90, 7. 
Miscarriage, Dd. 78, 6. 
MJtokht, demon, Dd. 87, 50, sin, 

Mitrd, angel, Dd. 14, 3 ; 31, 11 ; the 
sun, Dd. 31, 14. 

— khurshS^man, Int. 22, 23 ; Dd.O. 
MSbad, see Priest, officiating. 

— of mobads, Dd. 44, 2 1 n ; Ep. I, 

iv, 15 n. 
Moon's influence, Dd. 71, 2. 
Mountains, growth of, Dd. 70, 2. 
Muhammadan conquest, Dd. 88, 

8 n ; Ap. 399. 
Muhamraadans, Int. 26; Ep. I, viii, 

Mujpar, comet, Dd. 87, 55 n. 
Musulmans, Ap. 425. 
Myazd, see Sacred feast. 

NSbar, rite, Dd. 79, 4, 12. See N6- 

Nafvtak r., Dd. 90, 3 n, 8 n. 
Nakuiyya, demon, Ep. I, x, 9. See 

Naqj-i Rustam ins., Dd. 91, 3 n ; 

Cor. 479. 
Naremanau, title, Dd. 72, 4 n ; Ap. 

Nasai, see Dead matter. 
Nask, Dd. 48, 25 n ; 71, 3 n ; Ap. 

37m; named, Int. 34; Dd. 

48, 25n; 61, 3; 66,111; 71, 

3«i 84, 14 n; Ep. 1, viii, 1, 6, 

7 ; Ap. 373, 394, 395, 397 . See 


Digitized by 




Nasks, Int. 24 ; Dd. 37, 36 n ; 46, 
an; 47, 1 n ; Ep. 1, x, 7 ; Ap. 
37° n, 37m, 394. 

Nasfu, demon, Dd. 17, 7, 8, son; 
48, 8 n; Ep. I, iv, 3; Ap. 438 n, 
450 n. 

NaQnghas, demon, Dd. 94, 2 n. See 
Nakutyya 1 . 

Next-of-kin marriage, Int. 28 ; Dd. 
37, 82; 65, 1-5; 77, 6; 78, 19; 
Ap. 387 n, 413, 427-429; de- 
fined, Ap. 401, 402, 404, 405, 
412, 417. See Khv4tflk-das. 

Nihiv, demon, Dd. 37, 52. 

Nikhshahpfir, com., Int. 28 ; Ep. II, 
i, 2 n ; Ap. 397. 

Nine nights' seclusion, Ap. 453, 

Nirang-i kusti, Int. 28; Dd. 38, 

19 n, 27 n; Ap. 383-388. 
Nirangistan, book, Int. 28 ; Dd. 66, 

1 ; 83, 1 n; Ep. I, iv, 15 n, 

17 n. 
Nishahpfihar, com., Int. 27; Ep. I, 

iv, 15, 17; man, Ep. II, i, an; 

town, Ep. II, i, a n, v, 3 n. 
NishapQr, town, Dd. 52, 1 n ; Ep. I, 

iv, 17 n. 
Nfvtk, man, Ap. 370, 372. 
NivshahpOhar, man or town, Int. 

14; Ep. II, i, a. 
NJyas, demon, Dd. 37, 52 ; 77, 8. 
Noldeke, Prof., Dd. 88, 7 n ; 84, 

13 n ; Ep. I, iv, 17 n ; Cor. 479. 
Ndnibar, rite, Dd. 79, 4 n, 11. See 

Noosing the soul, Dd. 28, 3. 
North, Dd. 26, 5 n ; Ap. 44a, 444, 

448, 449. 451,454- 
NSshirvan, title, Int. 27 ; Ep. I, iv, 

17 n. 
Noxious creatures, Dd. 17, 12 n, 16; 

is, 3 ; 37, 5*. 

Ocean, Dd. 48, 32 n ; 92, 2, 5 ; 93, 
2, 3, 8, 11 n; Ap. 418. See 

Omniscient wisdom, Dd. 37, 43, 75 ; 

Ordeal by poison, Dd. 87, 74. 

Original good work, Dd. 12, 1, 5. 

— sin, Dd. 12, 5. 

Orion, Dd. 87, 48 n ; 39, 1 1 n. 

Ormazd, Ap. 425. See AOharmaz*/. 

Ouseley, Sir W., Int. 25 n; Ep. I, 

Pa</ramg8j, lun. man., Ep. II, ii, 
9-1 1. 

Pahlavi book, Ap. 398; commen- 
taries, Dd. 45, 2 n ; 66, 1 n ; 
71, 311; Ap. 446 n, 458 n; in- 
scriptions, Dd. On; Ep. I, xi, 

6 n ; language, Dd. 22, 2 n ; 45, 
2 n ; Ap. 4 1 5 ; legend, Ap. 373- 
381 ; literature, Int. 29 ; Dd. 2, 
1 1 n ; text, Dd. 16, 4 n ; 87, 
97 n ; 39, 5 n ; 64, 1 1 n ; Ap. 
403 n, 404 n, 42a n, 445 n; 
translations, Dd. 45, an; 71, 
3n; Ep. I, iv, 3 n, vii, 4 n; Ap. 
391, 396 n, 427, 442 n; trans- 
lators, Ap. 392 n, 393, 427 n, 
431 n, 438 n, 452 n, 456 n, 457 n ; 
version, Ap. 372, 381 n, 392 n, 
394, 397, 442 n, 455 ; works, 
Ap. 428; writers, Int. 28; Dd. 
71, 3"i 72, sn; Ap. 423 n; 
writing, Dd. 42, 1 n ; 46, 5 n ; 
66, 22 n; Ap. 449 n. 

PSpak, man, Dd. 88, 7 n. 

Pars, land, Int. 13, 22, 27 ; Dd. n ; 

I, ion, 17 n; 46,5; 66,3,15, 
ai, 28 ; 88, 1 ; 89, 1 ; 94, 13 ; 
Ep. I, o n, xi, 7 ; II, i, 8, v, 2, 
5, 9)i*, 12; III, 1. 

ParjadgJ, chief, Dd. 90, 3 n. 
Plrst, Ep. I, xi, 6 n ; Ap. 383, 398 n, 

406, 431; scriptures, Ap. 427; 

year, Dd. 1, 17 n ; 81, 14 n ; 47, 

7 n ; 81, 1 n ; Ep. I, xi, 1 2 n ; 

II, i, 2 n ; III, 21 n; Ap. 418 n. 
PSrsis, Dd. On; 2, ion; 6, an; 

48, 5 n; Ep. I, viii, 3 n; II, ii, 

9n; Ap. 389, 390, 408^427- 

PaAid, wolf, Ap. 381 n. 
Patit, Dd. 41, 5 n ; Ap. 385 n. See 

Patron spirit (ahvo), Dd. 81, 7, 18; 

39, 13, 25; 44, 20; Ep. I, v, 

3,4; Ap. 385,442. 
PaQrva^irya, man, Dd. 48, 33. 
Pazand, Dd. 87, 99 n ; 90, 3 n ; Ep. 

II,ii, 9 n, iv, 3 n; Ap. 384, 438 n. 
Pebbles used in Bareshnum, Ep. I, 

vii, 16, 17, ix, 6 ; II, iii, 12 ; Ap. 

Period of the day, Dd. 48, 3, 8, 9 ; 

Ap. 448. 
Persian version, Ap. 373-380; writer, 

Ap. 426. 
Persians, Ap. 389, 390. 

Digitized by 




Peshotanji Bebramji, Dastflr, Int. 

1 7 n, 30 ; Dd. 6, 2 n ; 44, 2 n ; 

81, 1 n; Ep. II, ii, 90; Ap. 

389 n, 39a n, 399 n, 403 n, 404 n, 

410 n. 
PeshyStanO, chief, Dd. 87, 36 ; 90, 

3. 5, 7, 8 n. 
P^inSs, land, Dd. 90, 8 n. Sec 

Pe\»fipai, Int. 13; Dd. On; 1, 10. 

See Leader. 
P£jyansai,land, Dd. 17, 6 n ; 90, 3 n. 

See Peiinas. 
Phases of the moon, Dd. 68, 1-6. 
Pig, Ep. I, viii, 3. 
Pirfizabad, town, Dd. 88, 7 n. 
PLiin, land, Dd. 17,- 6 n. 
Pitaona, man, Ap. 370. 
Pleiades, Dd. 37, 48 ; 39, 1 1 n. 
Pomegranate bush, Dd. 48, 16; Ap. 

446 n. 
Pontiff (ra//), Int 13; Dd. On; 1, 

6; 94, 13, 14; Ep. II, ix, 14; 

III, 1,22. 
P8rudakhst6ih, man, Dd. 90, 3, 8 n. 
P6ry(Wkeshih, see Primitive faith. 
Prayer before eating, Dd. 79, 1 n ; 

imperfect, Dd. 79, 1-12. See 

Inward prayer. 
Priest, Dd. 79, 4 n ; 88, 4 n ; Ap. 

417 n, 432 n, 436 n, 437 n; (aer- 

pat), Int. 13; Dd. n; 45, 1, 

3-6; 66, 1, 2, 18, 20, 33; 88, 

5; Ep. I, o; II, o, i, 17, iii, 4, 

9 ", ix. 3 ; Ap- 373, 4°o; (maga- 

vag), Ep. I, iv, 11, vi, 6. See 


— chief, Dd. 83, 4 n, 6 n ; (m6bad 

of mdbads), Dd. 44, 2 1 ; Ep. I, 
x, 8. 

— officiating (mag6pat), Dd. 44, 1 ; 

45, 5 ; ,(z6t5), Dd. 48, 13, 21, 

23566,4; Ep. II, viii, 3; 

supreme, Ep. I, iv, 15 ; see m6- 
bad of mobads. 

Priesthood, Ep. I, iii, n n; II, ix, 
311; Ap. 414; (a£rpatlh), Dd. 

46, 1-4; 46, i, 4, 5 n; (Isra- 
v6ih),Dd. 71, 3; Ep. I, ii, 6, 
x, 5. 

Priestly duties, Dd. 45, 1 ; 46, 2 ; 88, 
1 n. 

— lordship, Int. : 3 ; Dd. n ; Ep. 

II, i, 1, 2, 4, 16, ii, 3, vi, 3 ; 

— men, Dd. 1, 5 n, 21 ; 66, 6, 12, 

17; 83,1-6; 88, 4; Ep. I, iii, 

10, iv, 7, 10, x, 3, 5, 13, xi, 1, 3, 
4, 8 ; II, i, 8, v, 4. 

Priests, Dd. 66, 30 n ; Ep. I, ii, 6 n ; 

1 1, v, 14 n ; Ap. 424, 428 ; (a£r- 
pat3n), Dd. 1, 7 ; 45, 2, 3, 5 ; 

46, a ; 66, 26 ; 85, 7 [ Ep. I, x, 
7 ; II, ii, 7; Ap. 422; (asravoan), 
Dd. 46, 5 ; 46, 6 ; (magavdgSn), 
Ep. I, vi, 6 ; (magSpatln), Dd. 

— officiating (magopatan), Dd. 45, 

5; Ep. I, iv, 10, 15; (z6tan), 

Dd. 48, 21. 
Priestship, officiating, Ep. I, iv, 11. 
Primeval ox, Dd. 37, 46 ; 69, 2, 3 ; 

Ap. 380 n. 

— religion (kadmon dlno), Ep. I, xi, 

Primitive faith, Dd. 1, 23; 41, 10; 

94, 1, 7i>, 12, 13; Ep. I, iv, 4, 

6, 10, vi, 6, ix, 13, 15, x, 6, 10; 

II, iii, 14; 111,5,7,16,23; Ap. 

Producers of the renovation, Dd. 36, 

Proper and improper, Dd. 44, 2 ; 

47, 2, 4, 9. See Shayast I„&- 

Propitiations, Dd. 29, 1 ; 30, 2 ; 48, 
2 1 n. See Dedications. 

Ptolemies, Ap. 429. 

Punishment for sin, Dd. 6, 5, 6 ; IS, 
1,4; 14, 1,6-8; 19,7; 20, 2; 
24, 4, 6 ; 27, 1, 5, « ; 32, 2, 9, 
11, 14; 33, 3; 41, 5, 8; Ap. 

Purifier, Ep. I, ii. 6, 9, iv, 4, 8, 9, vi, 

1, 3i 4, 7, tii, 7, 9, 17, is, 4. x, 
3; H, ii, 1, 3, 7. 8, iii, 3, 10-u, 
iv,4-6, vii, 5,6, ix, 9; III, 6,8, 
9; Ap.432.433n, 446, 449, 451, 

452. 454- 
Purifying cup, Dd. 89, 8 ; Ep. I, vii, 

4, ix, 12. 
Pfltiksea, Dd.17, 18 n. 

Qandahlr, town, Dd. 17, 6 n. 
Quotations from AV., Dd. 74, 3 n ; 
Ap. 397, 398. 

— from Byt., Dd., 87, 43 n. 

Dk., Dd. 44, 20 n ; 8O, 8 n ; 

94, 1-11; Ep. I, viii, 1 n; Ap. 

370-372, 394-397, 399-413. 
Mkh., Dd. 37, 28 n ; 90, 3 n ; 

Ap. 381, 382, 399. 

Digitized by 




Quotations from Pahl. Riv., Ep. Ill, 
ii n; Ap. 373-381, 415-423- 

Pahl. Vend., Dd. 17, 3 ; 31, 

24 n ; 88, 21 ; 41, 9, 10 ; Ep. I, 
ii, 3, 8, 10, iv, 3, vii, 1, 10-12 ; 
Ap. 392. 43 1-453> 455-458. 

Pahl. Yas., Ap. 392, 393, 437, 

Pers. Riv., Dd. 87, 94 n ; Ap. 

373n-38on, 424.425- 
Vend., Dd. 20, 3 n ; 80, 4 n ; 

31, 5 n ; 32, 4 n ; 33, 5 n; 72, 

5n; Ep. I, iv, 3; II, iii, 5, vi, 

an; Ap. 391. 

Visp., Ap. 425 n. 

Yas., Dd. 28, 7 ; 37, 48 n ; 38, 

12 ; 78, 1 n ; Ap. 385-387, 39», 

448 n, 449. 
— not identified, Dd. 4, 4, 5 ; 7, 3, 

4,7; 12, 3-5; 18, 3! 32, 13; 

37, 121 ; 38, 11, 23 ; 41, 10; 

42,7 5 44, 12,21; 45,5; 83, 

15-17 ; Ep. I, iii, 8, 9, vii, 4, viii, 

7 ; II, i, 10. 

Ra^ (master, pontiff), Int. 1 3 ; Dd. 
On; 1,6,20; 36,2 ; 44, 13 n; 

Rat, town, Int. 27 ; Ep. II, i, 13. 
Rain, Dd. 48, 32 ; 80, 3 n ; 83, 1-17 ; 

Ap. 378 n, 452. 
Rainbow, Dd. 67, 1-3 ; 81, 2 n, 8 n. 
Ram, angel, Dd. 28, 2 n ; 30, 4 n. 
Rao4as-£a£shman, man, Dd. 2, 10 n ; 

36, 4 n. 
Rapithvan, rite, Dd. 44, 2 n. 
RashnO, angel, Dd. 14, 4 ; 21, 4 n ; 

30, 2, 3 n ; 81, n ; 87, 42 n ; 

44, 20 n ; 78, 17 n ; Ep. I, ii, 1. 
Ready money, Dd. 62, 4 n. 
Recompense for good works, Dd. 6, 

3; 6,5,7; 12,4; 18, i; 81, 25; 

Ap. 442. 
Reed, meas., Dd. 21, 3, 5 ; 43, 5 ; 

Ap. 395, 432- 
Regions of the earth, Dd. 86, 5 n, 

«, 7 ; 02, 6. 
Religious rites (dtn6), Dd. 38, 25 ; 

42, 6 ; 47, 1 ; 80, 2 ; 80, 6 ; Ep. 

I, vii, 9; II, ix, 8; all, Dd. 

44,2,4,5,7,9; 46,5; 64,5; 

66, 1-4, 6, 7, 11, 12, 15, 17, 19- 

22, 25, 27, 30-32; 78, 19; 81, 

14; 83, 1-6; 86, 5-7; 86, 2, 3, 

6,7; 88, 1, 3, 5-7, 9-'»; Ap. 


Renovation of the universe, Dd. 1, 
3; 2,8,io, 13, 15; 8, 18; 4, 5; 

7, 2 ; 31, 10, 16; 32, 6, 10, 12 ; 
86,2,3; 36, 1-4, 6; 87, 22, 38, 
98, 107, 120; 38, 13; 41, 6; 
48, 4, 16 ; 77, 6, 7 ; Ap. 400, 

Renunciation of sin, Dd. 41, 5, 7, 10, 
11; 48, 20; 78, 17; 78, 10; 
Ep. Ill, 18, 20; Ap. 380, 384, 

Resurrection, Dd. 1, 3 ; 2, 8, ion; 

8, 1 n; 13, 4; 14, 6 n; 16,7, 8; 
18, 7 ; 31, 13 n, 25 ; 32, 10 ; 35, 
1 ; 37, 1, 3, 100 n ; 75, 3-5 ; Ep. 
II, iii, 1 n; Ap. 378, 382, 417 n, 

Retribution, Dd. 12, 2 ; 41, 9, 1 1 ; 

75,5 5 78, 1, 17; 78,3, io;Ep. 

II, iii, 4. 
Righteous gifts, Dd. 44, 19; 46, 5, 

7; 60, 2; 84, 3; Ap. 421. 
Ritual, Dd. 45, 6 ; Ap. 415,421, 422, 

432, 446. 
Rivayat, Pahl., Int. 15, 18, 28; Ap. 

373, 4M, 4'5, 423, 426, 428; 
quoted, see Quotations. 

— Pers., Int. 28 ; Dd. 52, in; 81, 

13 n; Ep. I, vi, in, vii, 8n, 16 n; 

Ap. 373, 381, 4'4. 424, 428; 

quoted, see Quotations. 
River-beds, Dd. 70, 1-5. 
Romans, Ep. II, viii, 5 n ; Ap. 406 n, 

R6shan6-<fashm, man, Dd. 2, 10 ; 36, 

4, 5- 
Rubanik sin, Dd. 14, 3 n. 
Rustam, hero, Ap. 369 n. 

Sacred being (ygdatS), Dd. 88, 6. 

— beings (yasi/an), Dd. 1, 3, 6, 7, 

25; 2, 10, 11; 8, 16; 17, 20; 
22, 1, 2, 5; 28, 2; 31, 18 n; 
37, 10, 21,58,72-74,88,97,98, 
108; 88, 8, 19, 23, 32; 40,3, 
6-8, 12; 41, 9; 44, 7, 8; 46, 7; 
46, 3; 48, 4, 5, 20-22, 24, 26, 
37, 38; 66, 17, 23; 71, 2; 77, 
2,7; 78,12; 86, 2,5; 86,8; 
87, 2; 88, 10; 83, 15; Ep. I, 

°, i, 1, 3, 5,'i, 4, M; II, i, 1, 2, 
vi, 1, viii, 2, 5 ; III, o, 22 ; Ap. 
400, 444, 454. See Angels. 

— cake (dr6n), Dd. 28, 1 ; 30, (1,) 

2, 4 ; 43, 1-4, 6, 7 ; 78, 7, 1 1 ; 
81, 13-15. 

Digitized by 




Sacred ceremony, see Ceremony. 

— feast (myazd), Dd. 47, i ; 82, 4 ; 

83, 4 ; 84, 4 ; Ap. 436. 

— fire, Dd. 48, 1 1 n, 34, 39 ; 86, a 1 ; 

81, 18 n ; 88, 1 ; 80, 2, 6 ; Ep. 
I, Hi, ii, 13, 14; II, viii, 3. 

— hymns (gathas), Dd. 20, 3 ; 61, 

9; 79, 7; 85, 4; Ep. I, ii, 12; 
Ap. 39°. 397- 

— milk, Dd. 48, 33. 

— shirt, Dd. 39, 19 n, 21 ; 40, 1, 2. 

— thread-girdle (kflstik), Dd. 39, 1, 

19-25. 27, 30; 40, 1, 3; 43,5n; 
Ap. 383. 

— twigs (bares6m), Dd. 43, 5 5 48, 

14 n, 17 ; Ep. I, iv, 3 ; III, 1, 

13; Ap. 432, 433. 
Sad-darband-i Hush, book, Ap. 3 7 3 n. 
Sad-dar Bundahb, book, Dd. 79, 4 n. 
Sarfvastarln assembly, Dd. 14, 5 n. 
Saena bird, Dd. 90, 3 n. 
Sagastan, land, Dd. 30, 2 n. 
Saka</Qm nask, Int. 24 ; Ep. I, viii, 

I, 6, 7. 

Sam, man, Ap. 369 n. 

Sam, man, Dd. 48, 41 ; Ap. 381. 

Saman, title, Dd. 17, 6 ; 86, 3 ; 87, 

97; 48, 41 n; Ap. 369. 
Sandal-wood, Ap. 446 n. 
Sandarac, Ap. 446. 
Saoshyas, apostle, Ap. 369. 
Sarakhs, town, Int. 13, 25, 27 ; Ep. 

II, i, 13 n, v, 3. 
Sarsaok, ox, Dd. 37, 99 n. 
SarC, demon, Ep. I, x, 9. 
Sasanian dynasty, Ap. 428. 

— inscription, Dd. 91, 3 n; Cor. 479. 
Satan, Dd. 37, 106 n. 
S'ata-taraka, lun. man., Ep. II, ii, 9 n. 
Saturn, planet, Ep. II, ii, 9, 10. 
Satvaharan, lun. man., Ep. II, ii, 9- 

Siuia-uajtan, land, Dd. 90, 4 n. 
Savah, region, Dd. 86, 5. 
Scripture (avesta), Ap. 443; (nask), 

Dd. 48, 25, 28, 34, 38 ; 61, 3. 
Season-festivals, Dd. 89, in; 47, 

(7 ;) 48, 8 ; Ep. I, viii, 3 ; Ap. 

Secluded, place of the, Ap. 452, 453. 
Seeds, see Source and Tree. 
Seg, demon, Dd. 39, 28 n. 
Selections of ZaW-sparam, book, Int. 

14, 15; Ep.III, 23 n; Ap. 394. 
Shahnamah, book, Dd. 17, 6 n; 

37, 97 n ; 70, 3 n ; Ap. 369 n. 

ShahpQhar, priest, Int. 13; Ep. I, 

iii, 10. 
ShatvairS, angel, Dd. 48, in, 17 n ; 

Ap. 415, 434 n ; month, Dd. 1, 

Shaving the head, Ap. 408. 
Shayast La-shayast, book, Dd. 44, 

2 n; Ap. 414, 420 n. See 

Proper and improper. 
Shirax, town, Int. 14, 22, 25, 27; 

Dd. 1, 17 ; 88, 7 n ; Ep. I, iii, 

13; II, i, w, v, 3, 4, 10, viii, 

1. 3- 

ShnfimanS (dedication, propitiation), 

Dd. 29, 1 ; 30, 1. 
Showing a dog to the dead, Dd. 17, 

20; 18, 2. 
Sin, Dd. 11, 2 ; 12, 3 ; 15, 1, 2 ; 24, 

2, 3 ; 25, 3 ; 32, 6 ; 37, 79 ; 40. 

4 ; 45, 6 ; 50, 3 ; 75, 2 ; 78, 14, 
15; 79,3, 3; 89, 1 ; 94, 7, 8 n; 
Ep. I, viii, », 3; II, i, 11; Ap. 
372, 378, 380 n, 399,422. 424; 
account of, Dd. 18, 1-4 ; 14, 1, 
2, 4; 31, 2, 10; accumulation 
of, Dd. 82, 12 ; 34, 4; 37, m ; 
affecting accusers, Dd. 14, 3; 
atonement for, Dd. 12, 2, 4 ; 
16,4; 41,8, io;72, n;75,5; 
78, 17, 19; 79, 12; Ap. 414; 
confinement of, Dd. 89, 10, 20, 
23 ; deliverance from, Ep. I, ii, 

5 ; demons of, Dd. 82, 5, 11, 12; 
34, 4 ; 37, 1 10 ; grievous, Dd. 
89, 1 ; 50, 2; 78, 16; 79, 8; 
Ep. Ill, 11 n; Ap. 417; growth 
of, Dd. 11, a ; 12, 5 ; 37, 109 ; 
heinous, Dd. 49, 4, 5 ; 72, 1,2; 
76, 3 ; 77, 1 ; 78, 2 ; Ap. 423 ; 
impotence of, Dd. 37, 112; 
imputed, Dd. 42, 4 ; 51, 4 ; 78, 
9, 10; Ap. 456-458; of apos- 
tasy, Dd. 41, 1-6; of running 
about uncovered, Dd. 40, 1,4; 
source of, Ep. I, ii, 3 ; store of, 
Dd. 25, 5 ; washing away of, 
Dd. 87, in. See Bddy6ze</, 
Drayan-£fiyi.mih, Eradication, 
Farman, HamSmal, Kh6r, Ori- 
ginal, Punishment, Renuncia- 
tion, Retribution, TanapOhar. 

Sinfulness, Dd. 25, 6; 48, 19; 71, 
2, 4; 72,io; 77,12; 78,i, 15, 
18; 79,8; Ep. II, ix, 2; III, o; 
Ap. 379- 

Sinners, put to death, see Slaying. 


Digitized by 




Sinners, seven heinous, Dd. 72, 2-9. 

Sirius, star, Dd. 93, 1 n ; Ap. 418 n. 

Sirkan, town, Int. 14, 25-27 ; Ep. I, 
o,xi, 4 n; II, i, 4, 12 n, v, 2,sn, 
9, 14, vi, 4 n, vii, 1, 3 n, viii, 1. 

Sirfizah, Dd. 43, 7 n ; 79, 4 n. 

Siyavash, prince, Dd. 87, 36; 90, 

5, 6n. 

Sky, nature of, Dd. 91, 1-3, 8-10; 
three parts of, Dd. 87, 24-31, 
45,46; 89, 14, 15 n; 78, 2 n. 

Slaying heinous sinners, Dd. 76, 1-4. 

Snavidhaka, man, Ap. 370. 

Solomon, king, Dd. 39, 17 n; Ap. 

Soma, plant, Dd. 48, 16 n. 

SSshans, apostle, Dd. 2, 10, 12, 13 ; 
4,6; 28,7! 38,4,55 37,36, 
43, 100 n; 48, 30; Ep. I,v, 3; 
II, iii, 1 n ; Ap. 417, 444 ; com., 
Ep. I, v, 1, 6, vi, 1, 2, ix, 1, 4, 

'5! II, «', 7! HI, 7. 
Soul, Dd. 8, 8 ; 5, 5 ; 8, 4-6 ; 9, 1, 
4; 12, 3, 4; 14, 6, 7; 16, 2; 

16, 1-4 ; 28, 7 5 24, 1-4, 5 n ; 
25, 1-4; 27,5,6; 28, 2, 5,7; 
81, 1,4,7,8, 15-17, 20; 82,4, 
16; 87,79,io8; 38, 3; 41,8; 
42,2,6; 44,22; 46,2; 52,3! 
72, 1 in, 12; 75, 5; 82, 4,5; 
86, 7; 88, 5; 84, 6, 11; Ep. I, 
«, 4. 5, ", 2, 7, 11, x, 12; II, iii, 

6, v, 11, 12, viii, 5 n ; Ap. 421. 
Souls, Dd. 14, 6; 19, 1, 4; 21, 9; 

23, 6; 31, 8; 82, 12; 37, 50, 

131, 132; 44, 20, 22; 86, 8; 

Ap. 420. 
Source of all seeds, Dd. 92, 3. 
Spear, meas., Dd. 21, 5 ; Ap. 395. 
Spell, Dd. 40, 5 n, 9 n ; 79, 1 n, 8 n ; 

Ap. 448 n, 449 n. 
Spendarmarf, angel, Dd. 48, 1 n ; 

64, 6 n ; 94, 2 ; App. (393,) 396, 

401, 402, 415, 416, 437, 444; 

day and month, Ep. I, xi, 12. 
Spiegel, Prof., Ap. 43m. 
Spirit of air, Dd. 28, 2, 5 ; 30, 4 n ; 

81, 4 n. 
Spiritual counterpart, Dd. 28, 5 n. 

— faculties (ahv6), Dd. 7, 7. 

— life (ahv6), Dd. 94, 1, 2 ; Ep. Ill, 

1 n, 5 ; (ahv6ih), Dd. 5, 5 ; Ep. 
I, iv, 1 ; (hflkd), Dd. 16, 4, 6 ; 

17, 4 ; Ep. I, v, 4. 

— men, Dd. 1, 5, 7. 

— wisdom, Dd. 87, 19. 

Spitama, title, Dd. 36, 2 n. 
Spitamin, title, see Zarat&rt. 
SrCsh, angel, Dd. 3, 13, 14 ; 6, 2 n ; 

14, 4 ; 28, 1, 5, 6 ; 28, 1, 2 ; 

81, 11 ; 44, 20 n ; 79, 4 n ; 81, 

12-14; 94, in; Ap. 443, 447, 

Sr6sh6-iaranim, Dd. 79, 9 n. 
Srfivar, snake, Dd. 72, 4 ; Ap. 370, 

371, 374, 38l. 
Star station in the sky, Dd. 92, 5. 
Step, meas., Ap. 433*435, 436 n. 
Stipend, Dd. 44, 4, 6-8, 11, 12, 14- 

17 ; 66, 6 ; 88, 4, 6 ; 85, 4-6 ; 

88,2,4; 87,2; 88, 13. 
Stir (tetradrachm), Dd. 52, in; 

58, 2, 9; 59, 2; 78, 13-15; 

Su</kar nask, Int. 28 ; Dd. 90, 8 n ; 

Ap. 37o, 37i n, 372, 373- 
Supreme high-priest, Int. 13; Ep. 
II, i, 9n, ijn. 

Takhmdrup, king, Dd. 2, 10 ; 37, 

35; 65,5- 
TanSpGhar sin, Dd. 40, 4 n ; 78, 

(13;) 79, 9 n; Ap. (426.) 
Tap, demon, Dd. 37, 51. 
TarOmat, demon, Dd. 39, 28 n; 

TSulrgi, demon, Ep. I, x, 9. 
Taurus, Dd. 31, 14. 
Teheran, town, Ep. II, i, 13 n. 
Tehmuras Dinshawji Anklesaria, 

Mr., Int. 16, 24; Ep. Ill, 11 ; 

Ap. 373 n. 
Text (avistak), Dd. 48, 25, 38 ; 78, 

13 ; (minsar), Dd. 1, 7. 
Third night after death, Dd. 8, 1 ; 

13,2; 20,3; 81,i 4 . 
Thra&aona, king, Dd. 2, ion; 37, 

97 n. 
Three days after a death, Dd. 28, 1 ; 

48, 40; 81, 3-8, 10, 12-14. 
— nights' account, Dd. 14, 4, 5 ; 


after death, Dd. 8, 4 ; 18, 7 ; 

20,2; 24, 1-5; 25, 1-5; 56, 1, 

2; 72, 11 ; 78, 17 n. 
punishment, Dd. 14, 6 n, 7 ; 

Thrita, man, Ap. 369. 
Tigris, river, Dd. 92, 2 n. 
Time, unlimited, Dd. 87, 16. 
Tir, angel, Ap. 418 ; month, Dd. 1, 


Digitized by 




Tlrtar, angel, Dd. 48, 32 n ; 90, 3 n ; 

83, i, 2, 7, 10, 11, 13, 15, 17; 

Ap. 418 n. 
Tortoise, origin of, Ap. 419. 
Transliteration of Pahlavi, Int. 20- 

Tree of all seeds, Dd. 17, 18 n; 

80, 3 n. 
Tughazghuz, tribe, Int. 14, 25, 27 ; 

Ep. II, i, 12, v, 3 n. 
Tfir, Dd. 70, 3 ; 80, 3 n. 

— i Aflrvalta-sang, man, Ap. 412, 


— i BriUar-vakhsh, man, Dd. 72, 8. 
Tflran, land, Dd. 80, 6. 

T (Iranians, Ap. 413 n. 

Ttis, man, Dd. 36, 3 ; Ap. 37m. 

Udai, woman, Dd. 78, 2 n. 
Ukhshyarf-ereta, apostle, Dd. 2, 10 n. 

— nemangh, apostle, Dd. 2, ion. 
Unnatural intercourse, Dd. 72, 1, 6, 

7, 10-J2 ; 73, 1-3 ; 74,'i-3 ; 75, 
1, 2, 5; 76, 1; 77, 1,8-12. 

Upasnatee, Av., Ep. II, Hi, 2, ix, 2. 

UrvSkhshaya, man, Ap. 369, 370. 

Urvasna, Av., Ap. 446 n. 

Urvis lake, Dd. 37, 118 n. 

Ushi-darena m., Dd. 30, 2 n. 

Va<&k, woman, Dd. 72, 5 ; 78, 2. 
Vadhaghana, title, Dd. 72, 5 n. 
Vae the bad, demon, Dd. 80, 4; 

37, 44, 5»; Ep. II, Hi, 15, 

viii, 5. 

— the good, angel, Dd. 28, 2 n ; 30, 

(4 ;) 31, 4 n ; 36, 3 ; 44, 20 n. 
Vaeska, land, Ap. 371 n. 
Va#, see Inward prayer. 
VShrlm, angel, Dd. 31, 7 n. 
V3hram-sh£/, priest, Ep. I, iii, ion. 
Varahran, angel, Dd. 31, 7 ; fire of, 

Dd. 48, 34 n, 39 n ; 81, t8 ; 80, 

2 n, 6 n. 
Varcda^-gadman, man, Dd.86, 4, 5. 
Vareda^-AtrarenS, man, Dd. 36, 4 n. 
Varend, demon, Dd. 87, 44 ; 84, 2. 
Vareshava, man, Ap. 370. 
Vantmansar nask, Ap. 371 n, 394. 
VendidaV, book, Dd. 45, 6 n ; 47, 

in; 71, 2n, 311; 78, 13 n; Ep. 

I, iv, 13 n; Ap. 372 n, 453; 

service, Dd. 48, 26 n ; Ep. I, 

vii, 10, 12, 13; II, ix, ion; Ap. 

447,451. See Quotations. 

— Pahlavi, Int. 28, 29 ; Ep. I, iv, 

i7n,v, in, 8 n;Ap. 394,427 d. 

See Quotations. 
VendidaV sadah, book, Ap. 372 n. 
Verethraghna, angel, Dd. 31, 7 n. 
Vejk6, land, Ap. 371. 
Vevan, man, Dd. 38, 3. 
VibSzu, meas., Ap. 432 n, 447. 
Vida^fsh, region, Dd. 36, 5. 
Vidbirud, man, Dd. 48, 33. 
S\g\r)ard-\ Dinik, book, Ap. 414. 
Vikaya, Av., Ep. I, vi, 6 ; II, ii, 7. 
VipinMak, Dd. 72, 7. 
Viptak, Dd. 72, 6. 
Viraf, priest, Ap. 397, 398. 
Vispanu/, book, Dd. 38, 1 n ; service, 

Dd. 45, 6; 81,13. 
Vlrtasp, king, Dd. 78, 2 n ; 90, 8 n ; 

Ap. 373 >», 380, 444 ; earth of, 

Ap. 436. See Kai-Vi/tasp. 

— yajt, book, Dd. 47, 1 n ; Pahlavi, 

Ap. 392 n. 
Vivangha, man, Dd. 37, 95; 89, 

Vtzarash, demon, Dd. SO, 4 n ; 32, 

4,7; 37,44; Ep. II, v, 1 311. 
Fohu-jfrydn fire, Dd. 17, 18 n; 48, 

34 ». 
Vohfi-gaona, scent, Ap. 446 n. 

— kereti, scent, Ap. 446 n. 
Vohflman, angel, Dd. 3, 13, 14, i<>, 

17; 7, 7; 14, 2; 31,5, "J 40, 

2 ; 48, 1 n ; 72, 10 n ; 94, 1 n ; 

Ep. I, iii, 1; Ap. 415, 443; 

man, Ap. 393. 
Vohtiman's garment, Dd. 39, 19; 

40, 2 n ; 48, 9. 
V8rubar#, region, Dd. 86, 5. 
V8riVjar.rt, region, Dd. 36, 5. 
Vouru-nem6, man, Dd. 86, 4 n. 

— sav8, man, Dd. 36, 4 n. 

Weevil, origin of, Ap. 419. 

Westergaard, Prof., Int. 15, 29 ; Dd. 
48, 25 n; Cor. 479. 

Whirlwinds, Dd. 93, 7"9- 

Wide-formed ocean, Dd. 17, 18 n; 
92, 2, 5. See Ocean. 

Wife, only child, Dd. 54, 1 3 n ; pri- 
vileged, Dd. 54, 9, 1 3 n ; 55, 2 ; 
56, 2, 8 ; 58, 3 ; 62, 3, 4 ; 81, 
4 ; serving, Dd. 56, 4 n, 7. 

Will (testament), Dd. 54, 9 ; 62, 3. 

Wind, angel, Ap. 372 n ; demon, Ap. 
372, 376, 377- 

Wine-drinking, Dd. 50, 3 ; 51, 1-11. 

— selling, Dd. 50, 1-4. 

Digitized by 




Wisdom, acquired and instinctive, 

Dd. 40, 3 n ; Ap. 409. 
Witchcraft, Ap. 417, 430, 
Witches, Dd. 24, 5 ; 87, 55, 56 ; 88, 

11; Ap. 384, 418-420, 424, 

Wives, five kinds, Dd. 64, 9 n. 
Wizards, Dd. 72, 8 ; Ap. 384, 420, 

Worst existence, Dd. 14, 7 ; 88, 3 ; 

41, 5, 6. 
Worthy of death, Dd. 41, 3, 5 ; 42, 

6; 67, J,4! 78,3; Ep. Ill, 19; 

Ap. 393, 408, 417, 434> 4*6- 

YakbmdyusaA, chief, Dd. 80, 3, 8 n. 

Yasna, book, Dd. 88, 1 n ; Ap. 3840 ; 
rite, Dd. 46, 6 n ; 48, 26 n ; 
Ep. II, ix, 10 n. See Quota- 

— haptanghaiti, Ap. 371 n. 

— Pahlavi, Ap. 394, 428. See Quo- 

Yajtfi, see Ceremony. 
Yathi-ahu-vairyd formula, Ap. 37m, 

386 n, 448, 454. See Ahunavar. 
Ya&fokan/, king, Int. 14; Ep. Ill, 

Yaz/ftn, see Angels, Sacred beings. 

— pinak, man, Int. 25 ; Ep. I, xi, 6, 


Yazun, see Ceremonial. 

Y&Nhe-lvatam formula, Ap. 37 m. 

Yim, king, Dd. 2, 10 ; 38, 2 ; 87, 35, 
80, 94 n, 95 ; 88, 16, 22, 33, 28; 
66, 5; Ap. 418, 419; his en- 
closure, Dd. 87, 95. 

Yimak, queen, Ap. 418, 419. - 

Y&itd, chief, Dd. 80, 3, 8 n ; Ap. 
411 n. 

Yudin-Yim, priest, Int. 13 ; Dd. 0; 
1, 1; 84, 13; Ep. I,o, iii, 10, 
vii, 5, xi, 12 ; II, o, ix, 12 ; III, 
o, 1, 2, ai. 

ZaV-sparam, priest, Int. 13-16, 19, 
35-27 ; Ep. I, o, i, 2 n, ii, 6 n, 
13 n, xi, 3 n, 10 n ; II, o, i, 2 n, 
7 n, 12 n, ii, 1 n, v, 3 n, 14 n, 
vii, 2 n, ix, 8 n; III, 2, 17; Ap. 

394. 455- 

Za!rii,demon,Dd.87,52 ; Ep. I, x,9. 

Zand.Dd. 1, 7; 45,(2;) 66, 1, 3; 
Ep. I, iv, 11 ; II, iii, 14 n, ix, 10. 

Zaratujt, apostle, Dd. 1, 33 n; 2, 
(10,) 1 in, 12; 4, 6; 48, 16, 
30; 84,14; Ep. II, i, 14, v, 11; 
Ap. 369, 386, 410, 444 n; ad- 
dressed by evil spirit, Dd. 72, 
5 n ; A vesta of, Ap. 447 ; blessed 
(yajt6-frav3har), Dd. 48, 30; 
his early home, Dd. 21, an; 
his origin, Dd. 48, 16; law 
of, Ep. II, iv, 1, 2; perfect 
(pashum), Ep. II, ix, 15; III, 
23; preaches, Ap. 412, 413; 
righteous, Dd. 37, 36; sees 
Keresasp, Ap. 371-373. 379- 
381 ; slain, Dd. 72, 8 n; talks 
■with AGharma&/, Dd. 7, 7 ; Ep. 
1, iii, 8, vii, 10-12; II, i, 10; 
Ap. 381, 4«5-4'7, 4i9-433f 43i> 
43 6 > 437, 455; the Spitaman, 
Dd.4, 4; 18,3! 36,(2;) 87, 
43; 88, 19, 23; 84, 14; Ep. I, 
>v, 3,*, 9 5 'I, vi, 2,ix, 14; III, 
32; Ap. 379, 380 n, 432. 

— supreme, Ep. I, iv, 11. 

— the club-footed, priest, Int. 26 ; 

Ep. II, i, 13. 
Zaremeyl, month, Int. 24 ; Dd. 31, 

Zarmin, demon, Dd. 37, 44, 52. 
Zindah-ravan rites, Dd. 81, 1 n. 
Z8r, see Holy-water. 
Zoroastrian religion, Int. 14. 
Zoroastrians, Int. 14. 
Zdtd, see Priest, officiating. 

Digitized by 


Digitized by 



P. 66, line 15 ; p. 67, 1. 7; for 'Mitr8' read 'MitroV 

P. 108, lines 1, 3, for 'the Supreme Being' and 'the Being' read 'God 
(yedat6),' and cancel note 1. 

P. 109, note 2, add ' MalkSs has also been read Markfis and traced to 
Av. mahrkfbe (see Fragment VIII, 2 in Westergaard's Zend- 
Avesta, p. 334), which appears to be the title of some demon, 
regarding whom very little can be ascertained from the text that 
mentions him.' 

P. 143, 1. 12 ; 145, 1. 6 ; 150, note 6 ; 252, 1. 6 ; 289, note 3 ; 318, 11. 26, 
27 ; 346, 1. 24 ; for ' Atflr ' and ' Atfir5' read ' AtOr' and ' AtG>8.' 

The following emendations depend upon the meaning to be attached 
to the word vispSharak, or vaspuharak, which in Mkh. I, 7 was 
traced to Pers. b3, 'with,' and sipih rah, 'sphere, world, universe,' and 
supposed to mean 'world-renowned,' being rendered by vikhyatimat in 
Sanskrit. The objections to this etymology are that Pers. ba is Pahl. 
avik (not va), which is nearly always replaced by Huz. levatman, 
and that vaspfihar appears to be the correct form of the word vaspflr, 
which explains the Huz. barb€tl, literally 'son of the house' in the 
Pahlavi Farhang (p. 9, ed. H.) ; the latter word having been the highest 
title of the Persian nobility, probably confined to the heads of seven 
families (see NSldeke's Geschichte der Perser und Araber zur Zeit der 
Sasaniden, pp. 71, 501). Such nobles are called barb@t£n in the H3- 
^■iSbad inscription, line 6, and vaspfiharakan in the Naqj-i Rustam 
inscription, line 6 ; they may perhaps be styled 'princes,' and their title, 
vaspfihar, may be traced to the ancient Persian equivalent of Av. vtsft 
puthra (Vend. VII, 114), literally 'son of the village or borough.' It 
may be noted, however, that the word ' sphere' does really occur in 
a form very similar to this title, in the word aspiharakanikihi, 'as 
regards the spheres,' in Dd. 69, 4. 

P. 78, IL 1 1- 1 3, read 'But those who are the more princely (v3spfl- 
haraklniktar) producers of the renovation are said to be 
seven . . .' 

P. 91, 11. 11, 12, read '. . . and he made the princes (vaspuharakSnthS) 

Digitized by 



P. 172, 11. 26, 27, read ' . . . a minder of the princes of the religion (din- 

vaspuharakanti), the angels, and with pure thoughts . . .' 
P. 262, 11. 15, 16, read '. . . and its position is most princely (vaspfi- 

P. 281, 11. 17, 18, read 'On account of the princeliness (vaspfihara- 

k3 nth) of the good people of Khvaniras . . .' 
P. 289, 11. 14, 15, read ' ... I am more applauding the princes (vasptl- 

harakand-zlhtar) about the property of the profession . . .' 
P. 306, 11. 23, 24, read ' ... to keep in use the equal measure <wbicb is 

more the custom of his own superiors (nafjman vaspQhara- 


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