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THE 



SACRED BOOKS OF THE EAST 



TRANSLATED 



BY VARIOUS ORIENTAL SCHOLARS 



AND EDITED BY 



F. MAX MULLER 



VOL. XIX 



AT THE CLARENDON PRESS 
1883 

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THE 



FO-SHO-HING-TSAN-KING 



A LIFE OF BUDDHA 



ASVAGHOSHA BODHISATTVA 

TRANSLATED FROM SANSKRIT INTO CHINESE 
BV 

DHARMARAKSHA, A.D. 420 

AND FROM CHINESE INTO ENGLISH 
BV 

SAMUEL BEAL 




AT THE CLARENDON PRESS 
1883 



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CONTENTS. 



PACE 

Introduction ix 

BOOK I. 

SECT. 

1. The Birth i 

2. Living in the Palace 20 

3. Disgust at Sorrow 29 

4. Putting away Desire 38 

5. Leaving the City 47 

BOOK II. 

6. The Return of Z/tandaka 59 

7. Entering the Place (Wood) of Austerities ... 70 

8. The General Grief of the Palace . . . .81 

9. The Mission to seek the Prince .... 94 

BOOK III. 



10. Bimbisira Riga invites the Prince 

11. The Reply to Bimbisira Ra^u 

12. Visit to Anufe Udrarama . 

13. Defeats Mara .... 

14. O-wei-san-pou-ti (Abhisambodhi) 

15. Turning the Law-wheel 



in 
119 
»3i 
147 
156 
168 



BOOK IV. 

16. Bimbisira R&ga. becomes a Disciple . . . .180 

17. The Great Disciple becomes a Hermit . .192 

18. Conversion of the 'Supporter of the Orphans and 

Destitute' (Anithapiwrfada) 201 

19. Interview between Father and Son . . . .218 



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Vlll CONTENTS. 



SECT. PAGE 

20. Receiving the Getavana VMra 230 

21. Escaping the Drunken Elephant and Devadatta. . 241 

22. The Lady AmrS (Amrapall) sees Buddha . . .249 



BOOK V. 

23. By Spiritual Power fixing his (Term of) Years. . 257 

24. The Differences of the Li^Mavis . . .268 

25. Parinirva«a 277 

26. MahSparinirviwa 290 

27. Praising NirvS«a 309 

28. Division of the Madras 325 



NOTES. 

I. Comparative List of 17 Chapters of the Sanskrit and 

Chinese Copies of the Buddha^arita . . . 340 
II. Example of the Style of the Expanded Sutras, as trans- 
lated into Chinese 344 

III. The same Title given to different Works . . . 365 

Index 373 



Transliteration of Oriental Alphabets adopted for the 

Translations of the Sacred Books of the East . .377 



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INTRODUCTION. 



HAVING been asked by the Editor of ' the Sacred Books 
of the East' to contribute to the series a volume from the 
Buddhist literature of China, I undertook, with some dis- 
trust, to translate from that language the Phu-yau-king, 
which is the second version of the Lalita Vistara, known 
in China, and dated A. D. 308. 

After some months of rather disappointing work I found 
the text so corrupt and imperfect, and the style of the 
composition so inflated, that I gave up my task, having 
completed the translation of six chapters (kiouen) of the 
text, out of eight. 

The editor being still desirous to have one book at least 
from the Chinese Tripi/aka in his collection of translations 
(and more especially a translation of some Life of Buddha, 
the date of which could be fixed), kindly renewed his request, 
and proposed that the Fo-sho-hing-tsan-king, which pro- 
fessed to be a translation of A^vaghosha's Buddha£arita, 
made by an Indian priest called Dharmaraksha (or Dharma- 
kshara), about the year 420 A. D., should be substituted for 
the work first selected. 

This is the work here translated. The difficulties have 
been many, and the result can only be regarded as tenta- 
tive. The text itself, and I have had only one Chinese 
text to work on, is in many places corrupt, and the style 
of the composition, especially in the metaphysical portions 
of it, is abstruse and technical. The original Sanskrit, I 
am told, differs considerably from the Chinese translation, 
and except in the restoration of proper names, in which 
the editor of these books has most readily helped me, the 
assistance derived from it has been very little. I offer the 



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FO-SHOHING-TSAN-KING. 



result of my work, therefore, with some mistrust, and yet with 
this confidence, that due allowance will be made for imper- 
fections in the preparation of a first translation of a text 
comprising nearly 10,000 lines of poetry, printed in the 
original without stops or notes of any sort, and in a diffi- 
cult style of Chinese composition. 



Northern Buddhism. 

This term is now well recognised. It is used to denote the 
Buddhism of Nepal, Thibet, China, Japan, and Mongolia, 
as distinguished from the Buddhism of Ceylon, Burmah, 
and Siam. The radical difference between the two schools is 
this, that Northern Buddhism is the system developed after 
contact with Northern tribes settled on the Indus, while 
the Southern school, on the contrary, represents the pri- 
mitive form of the Buddhist faith as it came (presumably) 
from the hands of its founder and his immediate successors. 
We might, without being far wrong, denote the developed 
school as the Buddhism of the valley of the Indus, whilst 
the earlier school is the Buddhism of the valley of the Ganges. 
In China there is a curious mixture of the teaching of both 
schools. The books of the contemplative sect in Southern 
China are translations or accommodations from the teaching 
of men belonging to the South of India, whilst in the North 
we find the books principally followed are those brought by 
priests from the countries bordering on the Indus, and 
therefore representing the developed school of the later 
complex system. 

Northern Buddhism, again, may be divided into two, if 
not three, distinct periods of development, or epochs. The 
earliest includes in it the period during which the teaching 
of the immediate followers of Buddha, who brought their 
books or traditions northward and there disseminated them, 
generally prevailed ; this is called the teaching of the 'little 
vehicle' (Hlnayana), or 'imperfect means of conveyance' 
(across the sea of sense). The second period is that during 
which the expanded form of belief denoted as the * great 



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INTRODUCTION. XI 



vehicle ' (Mahayana) was accepted ; here the radical idea is 
that the teaching of Buddha provides * universal salvation ' 
for the world. Thirdly, the ' indefinitely expanded ' form, 
known as Vaipulya, which is founded on the idea of a uni- 
versal nature, to which all living things belong, and which, 
by recovering itself in each case, secures for the subject 
complete restoration to the one nature from which all living 
things have wandered. This is evidently a form of pure Pan- 
theism, and denotes the period when the distinctive belief 
of Buddhism merged into later Brahmanism, if indeed it did 
not originate it. 

We cannot lay down any sharp line of division (either as 
to time or minute difference of doctrine) between these forms 
of thought as they are found in the books ; but they may 
be traced back, through the teaching of the sects into which 
the system became separated, to the great schism of the 
primitive Buddhist church at Vawali, ioo years after the 
Nirvana. 

With respect to this schism the statement made in the Di- 
pavawsa * is this : ' The wicked Bhikkus, the Va^fiputtakas 
(i.e. the Vaijali Buddhists), who had been excommunicated by 
the Theras, gained another party ; and many people, holding 
a wrong doctrine, ten thousand, assembled and (also) held a 
council. Therefore this Dhamma Council is called the Great 
Council (Mahasangiti),' (Oldenberg's translation, p. 140.) 
Turning now to the Mahasanghika version of the Vinaya, 
which was translated into Chinese by Fa-hien(circ. 420 A. D.), 
who brought it from Pa/aliputra (chap. XXXVI), we read 
(K. 40, fol. 23 b), ' After the Nirvawa (Ni-pan, i. e. Nibbana) 
of Buddha the Great Kajyapa, collecting the Vinaya Pi/aka, 
was the (first) Great Master (Mahasthavira), and his collec- 
tion of the Dharmapi/aka was in 80,000 divisions. After the 
death (mih to, destruction) of the great Klryapa the next 
master (lord) was Ananda, who also held the Dharma- 
pi/aka in 80,000 (divisions). After him the honourable (lord) 
Mo-yan-tin (Madhyantika) was chief, and he also held 
the Dharmapi/aka in 80,000 (divisions). After him came 

1 The Dtpavamsa, an early historical record of Buddhism compiled in Ceylon 
between the beginning of the fourth and the first third of the fifth century a.d. 



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XU FO-SHO-HING-TSAN-KING. 

Sanavasa (she-na-po-sa), who also held the Dharmapifoka 
in 80,000 (divisions). After him came Upagupta, of whom 
the lord of the world (Buddha) predicted that as " a Buddha 
without marks "(alakshawako Buddha^ ; see Burnouf.Introd. 
p. 378, note 1) he should overcome Mara, which is related 
in the Avadanas (yin tin). This (master) could not hold 
the 80,000 divisions of the Dharmapi/aka. After him 
there were five schools (the school of the " Great Assembly " 
being the first of the five) to which the following names were 
given : (1) Dharmaguptas, (2) Mahtrasakas, (3) Klsyaplyas, 
(4) Sarvastivadas. This last is also called the school "that 
holds the existence of all," because it maintains the distinct 
nature of (things existing in) past, present, and future time. 
Each of these schools had its own president and distinctive 
doctrine. Because of this in the time of Ajokara^-a, when 
the king was in doubt what was right and what was wrong, 
he consulted the priests as to what should be done to 
settle the matter. They replied, " The law (dharma) ought 
to be settled by the majority." The king said, " If it be 
so, let the matter be put to the vote (by lots or tokens of 
wood), and so let it be seen who is right (in the majority)." 
On this they cast lots, and our sect (i.e. the Mahasanghikas) 
was in great preponderance. Therefore it is called the 
Mahasahgiti or Great Assembly.' 

From this it appears that the Mahasanghikas, on their part, 
claimed to be the original portion of the Buddhist church, and 
that they regarded the four sects, whose names are given, to be 
heretical. The same colophon has a further notice respecting 
this subject. It states that ' There was in former times in 
Mid-India a wicked king who ruled the world. From him 
all the -Sramawas fled, and the sacred books were scattered 
far and wide. This wicked king having died, there was 
a good king who in his turn requested the .Sramawas to 
come back to their country to receive his protection (nur- 
ture). At this time in Pa/aliputra there were 500 priests 
who wished to decide (matters of faith), but there was no 
copy of the Vinaya, or teacher who knew the Vinaya, to be 
found. They therefore sent forthwith to the Getavana 
Vihara to copy out the Vinaya in its original character, as 



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INTRODUCTION. X1U 



it had been handed down to that period. Fa-hien, when he 
was in the country of Magadha, in the town of Pa/aliputra, 
in the temple of Ajokara^a, in the Vihara of the Southern 
Devara^a (Virudhaka), copied out the Sanskrit (Fan) ori- 
ginal and brought it back with him to P'ing £au, and in 
the twelfth year of the title I-hi (417 a.d.) [416 according 
to the cyclical characters] and the tenth month, he 
translated it.' Here we seem to have an obscure allusion 
to a first and second Asoka.. Is it possible that the refer- 
ence is to an actual council held at Pa/aliputra in opposition 
to the orthodox assembly under Moggaliputta ? The 500 
priests who were sent to the Getavana might have repre- 
sented the popular party, and being without a copy of their 
version of the Vinaya, they procured one from .Sravastt. 
This may or may not be so, and in the absence of further 
details we cannot give it much weight. 

On examining the copy of the Vinaya alluded to by 
Fa-hien, viz. that belonging to the Mahasanghikas, we 
find ample reason for adhering to the statement of the 
Dipavamsa, viz. ' that the members of the great congrega- 
tion proclaimed a doctrine against the faith' (p. 139 op. cit.) 
The sections illustrating the Para^-ika and other rules are 
of a gross and offensive character. The rules are illus- 
trated by an abundance of tales or ^atakas introduced in the 
text (this seems to favour the presence of a Northern ele- 
ment in the redaction). The account of the two councils 
differs from that found in the other copies of the Vinaya, 
and in the history of the second council at VaLrall there is 
mention made only of one of the sins of the ' Vagg-iput- 
takas,' viz. receiving money ; but the council itself is called, 
according to this account, for the purpose of revising the 
canon. Now this seems to show that the Mahasanghika 
school took its rise at this time, and that a redaction of 
the canon was prepared by that school distinct from that 
in common use. According to the statement found in the 
Dipavawsa, 'they composed other Suttas and another 
Vinaya' (p. 141, § 36). This is confirmed by an account 
which we have given us in a work belonging to the Vinaya 
class in the Chinese Tripiteka, called ' The Questions of Sari- 



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XIV FO-SHO-HING-TSAN-KING. 

putra' (Catalogue, case 48, miscellaneous). I thought this 
might be the work referred to in the edict of Aroka 
as the ' Questions of Upatissa,' but on examination it ap- 
pears to be a production of the Mahasanghika school, and 
not exclusively bearing on questions of the Vinaya. Perhaps 
it was written and named in opposition to the orthodox 
text alluded to in the edict. To exhibit the teaching of 
the school to which it belongs I will briefly allude to the 
earlier portion of this Sutra. The scene is laid in R&ga- 
gnha, the question proposed by .Sariputra is, ' Who is the 
true disciple of Buddha, and who not?' Buddha replies, 
'The true disciple is one who attends to and obeys the 
precepts, as the Bhikshu Pao-sse, i. e. precious thing (Yasa), 
who hearing the statement of Buddha that all things 
(sa*«skara) were impermanent, immediately perceived the 
whole truth. The disciple who attends to the tradition 
of the church is also a true one, as the Bhikshu who 
attended to .Sariputra's statement respecting Kaludiyi's 
drinking wine. Those, on the other hand, who neglect 
either the direct instruction of Buddha, or that of his suc- 
cessors — these are not true disciples.' .Sariputra then pro- 
ceeds to ask what are the permissions and what the 
prohibitions made by Buddha in the rules of the Vinaya, 
especially in respect of food, as, for example, where Buddha 
forbids an early meal at the invitation of a villager, or where 
he permits the use of fish and other condiments. Buddha 
replies that these things must depend on circumstances, 
and that the rule of the true disciple is to follow the direc- 
tions of the president of the church. For instance, after 
my Nirvawa (he proceeds) the great Klryapa will have 
authority equal to mine ; after Klryapa, Ananda ; after 
Ananda, Madhyantika; after Madhyantika, 6"anakavasa ; 
after Sanakavasa, Upagupta ; after Upagupta there will be 
a Maurya (king) ^Tu-ko (Ajoka), who will rule the world 
and extend the Scriptures (Dharmavinaya). His grandson 
will be called Pushyamitra (Fu-sha-mih-to-lo), who will 
succeed to the empire of the righteous king (or who 
will succeed directly to the empire of the king, or the 
royal estate). This one will ask his ministers what he must 



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INTRODUCTION. XV 



do to gain an undying fame ; and being told he must either 
patronise religion as his predecessor or persecute it, he will 
adopt the latter course, overthrow the pagodas (dagobas), 
destroy the Scriptures, murder the people. Five hundred 
Arhats, however, will escape the persecution. Meantime the 
Scriptures being taken up to Maitreya, he will preserve them. 
At last the king and his army being destroyed (by a moun- 
tain cast on them), this line of kings will perish. Afterwards 
a righteous king will succeed, and Maitreya will send down 
300 youths, born apparitionally among men, who will recover 
the law from the 500 Arhats, and go amongst men instructing 
them, so that once more the Scriptures, which had been 
taken to heaven by Maitreya, will be disseminated in the 
world. At this time the king of the country will divide 
the Dharmavinaya into many parts, and will build a strong- 
hold in which to preserve them, and so make it difficult for 
those wishing to consult them, to do so. Then an old 
Bhikshu of good repute will write a remonstrance, and 
selecting such passages of the Vinaya as are in accordance 
with Kajyapa's council, and known as the Vinaya of the 
' Great Congregation ' (will make them known) ; the other 
party will, on their part, include with these the false addi- 
tions that have been since made. Thus will begin the 
contention and wrangling. At length the king will order 
the two schools to assemble, and the matter to be put to 
the vote, in this way, — taking a number of slips of wood, 
some black, the others white, he will say, ' let the adherents 
of the old school take the black slips, and the new school 
the white slips.' Then those taking the black slips will be 
myriads in number, those taking the white only hundreds. 
Thus there will be a separation. The old school will be 
called 'the Mahasanghikas,' the new 'the school of the 
elders,' and hence also named 'the Ta-pi-lo' (Sthavira 
(school)). 

This obscure account tends at any rate to show that the 
original separation of the church, from which resulted the 
later schisms, began at the time of the Great Assembly at 
Vaijali. Whether we are to gather that a second and final 
separation took place afterwards when the good king was 



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XVI FO-SHO-HING-TSAN-KING. 

reigning (Dharma-A^oka ?) is not certain, but it seems to be 
implied in this and the former record, and is in every 
respect probable. This would therefore account for the 
silence of the Northern school respecting the Council at 
Pa/aliputra, and would fully explain why the Sthavira 
school insists on that council as the charter, so to speak, 
of their orthodoxy. 

Lives of Buddha. 

There is no life of Buddha in the Southern school. 
Facts connected with his life are found in the different 
canonical books, and these being put together give an out- 
line of his career, though there is no single work devoted to 
the account of his life. But there are many such works in 
the Chinese collection of books. Some of them still exist, 
others have been lost. The earliest of which we have any 
record was translated by Au-fa-lan (Gobharawa) between 
A.D. 68 and A. D. 70. It was called the 

(1) Fo-pen-hing-king 

n # n ft 

in five chapters. It is lost, but there are quotations from 
it found in Chinese Buddhist books which indicate its cha- 
racter. In the commentary, for example, of Taou-shih, 
who edited a life of Buddha by Wong puh, there is frequent 
reference to a work, Pen-hing-king, which in all probability 
is the book under our present consideration. This we 
gather from a comparison of these quotations with the text 
of other works that bear a similar title. For instance, there 
is a book called Fo-pen-hing-tsih-king, which is stated to 
be a Chinese version of the Abhinishkramawa Sutra, that is 
sometimes quoted as the Pen-hing-king, but the passages 
given by Taou-shih are not to be found in this work. 
Neither are they taken from the Pen-hing-king, written by 
Paou-Yun, nor are they to be found in the Pen-hing-king 
by Ajvaghosha. We may justly argue therefore that the 
commentator, Taou-shih, in quoting from the Pen-hing- 
king, refers to the work translated by ^sfu-fa-lan, which is 



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INTRODUCTION. XV11 



now lost. If so, the book can have differed in no material 
point from the common legendary account of Buddha's 
early career. In § 8 the Pen-hing is quoted in reference to 
the selection of Buddha's birth-place ; in § 1 1 the dream of 
Maya at the conception of the child is referred to. In 
§ 23 there is the history of Asita and his horoscope. In § 27 
j 1 the trial in athletic sports. In § 29 the enjoyment of the 
prince in his palace for ten years. In § 3 1 the account of 
the excursion beyond the walls and the sights of suffering. 
In § 33 the interview with his father before his flight from 
the palace. In § 38 the act of cutting his hair with his 
sword and the intervention of Sakra. In § 39 his exchange 
of garments with the hunter. In § 40 his visit to the 
^/shis in the snowy mountains. In § 41 the account of his 
six years' fast at Gaya. In § 44 there is allusion to the 
Nagas Kalika and Mu£ilinda. In § 46 the rice milk given 
by the two daughters of Sq^Ata. Here the quotations 
from the Pen-hing come to an end. We can scarcely 
doubt therefore that this work ended with the account of 
the supreme enlightenment of Buddha. It is said that the 
Fo-pen-hing was in five kiouen ; it could not therefore have 
been a short abstract, but must have been a complete history 
of Buddha from his birth to the period of his victory over 
Mara. It would thus correspond with what is termed the 
'intermediate epoch,' in the Southern records. We may 
conclude therefore that such a life of Buddha was in circu- 
lation in India in a written form at or before the beginning 
of our era. It was brought thence by A'u-fa-lan, and trans- 
lated into Chinese A. D. 67-70. M. Stanislas Julien, in the 
well-known communication found on p. xvii n. of the trans- 
lation of the Lalita Vistara from Tibetan by M. Foucaux, 
speaks of this work as the first version of the Lalita Vis- 
tara into Chinese. 

We have next to consider a work translated into Chinese 
by two Sramawas from India in the year A. D. 194, and 
named 

(2) Siu-hing-pen-k'i-king. 

# ft # m ft 

[19] b 



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XV111 FO-SHO-HING-TSAN-KING. 

This work belongs to case lxviii in my Catalogue of the 
Buddhist Tripi/aka, and is numbered 664 by Mr. Bunyiu 
Nanjio. It was translated by ATu-ta-lih (Mahabala) and 
Kong-mang-tsiang. As the title indicates, it is a brief 
memoir of Buddha's preparatory career (i. e. preparatory to 
his enlightenment), in two parts 1 and seven vargas. It is 
stated in the work, Kao-sang-fu, K. i, fol. f , that this book 
was brought from Kapilavastu by the 5rama«a Dharma- 
phala (Tan-kwo). This is also repeated in the work Lai-tai- 
san-pao, K. iv, fol. 1 8. The opening scene therefore lies in 
Kapilavastu. Its language is sufficiently exaggerated, but 
not to that wearisome degree found in the later Sutras. It 
begins with the nomination of Buddha by Dipankara, 
and ends with the defeat of Mara under the tree of know- 
ledge. It therefore includes both the distant and the 
intermediate epochs. I shall give the headings of the 
seven vargas, with some remarks on the character of the 
narrative. 

Varga 1 (pp. 1-9). 'Exhibiting change.' The scene 
is laid in Kapilavastu, in the Nyagrodha Vih&ra. Sur- 
rounded by a vast assembly of disciples, Buddha enquires 
of Maudgalyayana, ' Can you for the sake of all living things 2 
declare the origin of my career (pen k'i)?' On this Maud- 
galyayana, addressing Buddha in the usual orthodox way, 
asks him to recite the history in virtue of his own inherent 
spiritual power. On this Buddha declares how he had been 
born during innumerable kalpas in every character of life 
for the sake of stemming the tide of lust and covetousness 
which engulphed the world, and by a life of continual 
progress through the exercise of the virtues of wisdom, 
patience, charity, &c. had arrived at the final condition of 
enlightenment. He then gives the history of his nomina- 
tion when Dipankara was Buddha, and of his successive 
births until finally, after having been born as Vessantara, he 
occupied the Tushita heaven, and thence descended to be 



1 Abstract of Four Lectures, p. 10. 

* This is given in Chinese Ta-sa-ho-kie, which can only be restored to Tasa. 
See Childers, sub voce. 



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INTRODUCTION. XIX 



born in Kapilavastu as the Bodhisattva about to accomplish 
his career as Buddha. 

Varga 3. Bodhisattva descends as a spirit. In this section 
we find an account of Bodhisattva's conception. He descends 
under the form * of a white elephant, and is seen by Maya 
in a dream : ' She beholds in the middle of heaven a white 
elephant resplendent with glory, and lighting up the world, 
accompanied by music and sounds of rejoicing, and whilst 
accompanying Devas scatter flowers and incense, the elephant 
approaches her, and for a moment hovers above the spot 
and disappears.' The dream is interpreted by the sooth- 
sayers as an exceedingly fortunate one, because ' it indicated 
the descent of a holy spirit (Shing-shin) into the womb.' 
The child born therefore would be either a wheel-turning 
flying-as-he-goes (fi-hing), universal monarch, or a Buddha 
' born to save the world.' The queen from that moment 
leads a pure, uncontaminate life. 

' Now on account of this conception, 
Bearing as I do a Mahasattva, 
I give up all false, polluting ways, 
And both in heart and body rest in purity.' 

The kings of neighbouring countries bring their presents of 
gold, silver, jewels, and robes, and on the eighth day of the 
fourth month the child is born under an Ajoka tree. The 
angels sing for joy, and thirty-two supernatural events indi- 
cate the nativity. We need not enumerate all these events ; 
the first, however, is that the earth was greatly shaken, and 
all rough and hilly places became smooth. The fifteenth 
is, the star Pushya came down and appeared waiting on 
the prince. The last is that the tree spirit (i. e. the spirit 
residing in the tree under which the Bodhisattva was born) 
appearing from it as a man bowed his head in worship 2 . We 
then have an account of Asita's visit and prediction. The 



1 Or, riding on a white elephant. The phrase in the Chinese is ambiguous. 
There is reason to suppose that the original thought was that the Bodhisattva 
was riding on an elephant, but was invisible as a spirit. 

* Tree and Serpent Worship, plate xci, fig. 4. 

b 2 



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XX FO-SHO-HING-TSAN-KING. 

varga concludes with the account of his superiority over 
his teachers. 

Varga 3. The athletic contest. This section contains an 
account of the prince's marriage with Ku-i (Gopi) after the 
exhibition of his strength in fighting, wrestling, and archery. 
The prince in this account restores the elephant to life 
which Devadatta had killed, and is charged by Devadatta 
and his followers as being strengthened by Mara (the devil) 
in doing the wonders he did. He marries Gopi, and with 
60,000 attendant women dwells in his palace. But his 
heart is not at rest. 

Varga 4. The excursion for observation. This is the 
usual account of the prince's visit to the garden and the 
sights he beheld. The charioteer is accompanied by 1000 
other chariots and 10,000 cavalry. A Buddha Deva called 
Nandahara assumes the form of an old man, a sick man, 
a corpse, and a Sramawa successively, and thus determines 
the prince to leave the world (worldly life) and become an 
ascetic. In order to distract his mind the king requests 
the prince to attend a ploughing festival. Whilst thus 
engaged he beholds the suffering of the oxen, and the heat 
and toil of the men, and the countless insects being 
destroyed and devoured by the birds. Retiring under the 
shadow of a Gambu tree 1 he enters Dhyana (profound medi- 
tation). The king hearing where he was proceeds to the spot, 
and observes the branches of the trees bent down 2 over the 
prince, and on approaching the horses bend their knees in 
reverence. The king and his retinue then return to the 
city. On entering the gate he is met by countless thousands 
of people with flowers and incense, whilst the soothsayers 
shout with joy, ' O king ! live for ever ! ' The king enquiring 
the reason, the Brahmans tell him that to-morrow the seven 
treasures would appear, and the king would become a ' holy 
ruler' (a ^Takravartin). 

Varga 5. Leaving his home. The prince without ceasing 



1 Tree and Serpent Worship, plate xxv, fig. 1 .where the three buildings repre- 
sent the three palaces built for the prince. 
* The leaves are bent down in the plate (op. cit.) 



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INTRODUCTION. XXI 



meditated on the joy of a contemplative life in the desert. 
Being now nineteen years old, he vowed on the seventh 
day of the fourth month to leave his home. In the middle 
of the night he was addressed by Ku-i his wife, who had 
been troubled by five dreams. Having appeased her, the 
gods determined, ere he composed himself again, to induce 
him to leave his home. They sent Ou-suh-man [is this 
*Vesamuna? (Manual of Buddhism, p. 51)] to lull the 
people to sleep, whilst the Deva Nandahara causes all the 
women of the palace to appear in loathsome attitudes, &c. 
The prince beholding the sight, and regarding all things 
that exist 'as a phantom, a vision, a dream, an echo,' called 
his coachman to bring his horse, and accompanied by count- 
less divine beings left the city. Leaving the city they fled 
on their way, till at morning light they had gone 480 lis, 
and arrived at the A-nu-ma country (the river Anavama or 
Anoma ; a Chinese note explains it as the ' ever-full '). Here 
he dismisses his attendant and sends him back with the horse 
and his jewels to Kapilavastu. Having cut off his hair, he 
proceeded totheMagadha country, and there has an interview 
with Bimbisara ra^a. To the enquiry whence he came and 
what his title was, he replies, ' I come from Ka-wei (Kapila 
or Kavila) to the east of the fragrant mountains and north of 
the snowy mountains.' On this Bimbisara asks him in haste, 
'Surely you are not that celebrated Siddhartha?' On his 
replying in the affirmative, the king bows down at his feet, 
and asks why one so richly endowed and so distinguished 
in his person was not a universal monarch, and why he had 
left his home. The prince replies that he had gone forth 
to seek deliverance from old age, disease, and death. On 
this follows a long series of lines (geyas), beginning, ' Sup- 
pose we could.' Finally Bodhisattva leaves the king and 
encounters Arata and Kalama (i. e. Arala Kalama), but not 
satisfied with their teaching he again departs. 

Varga 6. Six years' austerities. Bodhisattva goes forward 
and arrives at the valley (river-valley Cfcuen)) of Se-na. 
This valley was level and full of fruit trees, with no 
noxious insects or snakes. Here dwelt the Rishi (Tao- 
sse) Se-na, with 500 followers. Here Bodhisattva took his 



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XXII FO-SHO-HING-TSAN-KING. 

residence under a .Sala tree. The gods offer him nectar 
(sweet dew), but he receives it not, but vows to take one 
grain of millet (hemp) a day. When he had continued thus 
for six years, and reduced himself to the verge of death, 
the two daughters of Se-na have a dream, in which they 
see a lily having seven colours wither away ; there comes 
a man who waters it, and it revives, whilst other buds 
spring up on the face of the water. Awaking they ask 
their father to explain the dream, but neither he nor 
his followers can do so. On this Sakra descends under the 
form of a Brahma£arin, who explains the dream. The girls 
having prepared a dish of cream convey it to Bodhisattva ; 
he receives it, and his strength revives. Having washed 
his hands and flung the dish into the river, whence it is 
carried by a golden-winged bird to heaven, he proceeds to 
the Bodhi tree. 

Varga 7. Defeats Mara. Seated under the tree he causes 
a stream of light to proceed from between his eyes and to 
enter the dwelling of Mara. Mara, greatly disconcerted, 
knowing that the Bodhisattva if he fulfils his purpose will 
overthrow his power, resolves to oppose him. His son 
Sumati warns him against such an attempt, but Mara, 
summoning his three daughters, acquaints them with his 
design. They robe themselves in their choicest attire, and 
with 500 attendants go to the spot where Bodhisattva was. 
They proceed to tempt him with lascivious offers. Bodhi- 
sattva with a word changes their appearance into that of 
old women. On this Mara, enraged, summons the king 
of the demon spirits (kwei-shin) to assemble with eighteen 
myriads of others. They surround the tree for a distance 
of thirty-six yo^anas, and assuming every shape (lions, 
bears, tigers, elephants, oxen, horses, dogs, monkeys, &c.) 
they belch forth smoke and fire. Bodhisattva sits unmoved. 
Mara then advances and endeavours to induce him to give 
up his purpose. Bodhisattva replies in loving words, and 
finally the entire host is dispersed. Buddha then arrives 
at perfect wisdom, the condition which neither Brahma nor 
any other being had yet attained, and so completes his 
purpose. 



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INTRODUCTION. XX111 



The following life of Buddha, although named in the 
catalogues, has not come under my notice : 

(3) Siau-pen-k'i-king 

>J> # & £ 

in two kiouen ; translated by the 5rama«a Ki-yau, A. D. 196. 
The next history of Buddha in point of the date of its 
translation is the 

(4) Ta-tseu-sui-ying-pen-k' i-king. 

± ? m m # & u 

This is the work of an Upasaka belonging to the Wu dynasty 
(222-264 a. D.), who came to China towards the end of the 
After-Han dynasty, and was a diligent translator. The 
work before us is a brief one, divided into two parts, 
without any subdivision into sections. The first part, 
which resembles the translation last noticed, takes us to 
the defeat of Mara. The second includes in it a descrip- 
tion of Buddha's condition as the ' fully enlightened,' and 
also the conversion of the fire -worshipping Klsyapas. 
With respect to his work of preaching, this book has the 
peculiarity of excluding all mention of the journey to 
Benares after the enlightenment. It makes the conversion 
of the five men take place near the Bodhi tree in Magadha, 
and omits all mention of Yasa, Sariputra, or Maudgalya- 
yana. The account of the conversion of the Klryapas is 
full and circumstantial. It agrees in a marked way with 
the particulars given in the Manual of Buddhism (Spence 
Hardy, pp. 1 88-1 9 1 ). The illustrations of this event, given 
in the Sanchi Sculptures (plates xxiv, xxxi, xxxii, 1st ed.), 
show that it was a popular episode in the history of 
Buddha at the time of the completion of the Sanchi Stupa. 
It is also given in the following pages in Ajvaghosha's 
work, so that we cannot doubt this event formed part of 
the recognised work of Buddha as a teacher. This short 
life therefore includes in it the three portions known in the 
South as the distant, intermediate, and proximate epochs. 
The last named, however, differs materially from the more 
expanded account found in other books, and is in fact 



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XXIV FO-SHO-HING-TSAN-KING. 

confined to the labour of the conversion of the five men 
and the three Klryapa brothers. 

We now come to the consideration of the life of Buddha 
known as the 

(5) A'ung-pen-k'i-king. 

# # m ft 

This translation was made by the .Sramawa Dharmaphala 
in conjunction with Kong-mang-tsiang, about the year 
208 A.D. It was brought by Dharmaphala from Kapila- 
vastu, and it is said to be extracted from the Dirghigama 
(the long Agama), which is undoubtedly a primitive and, 
as we should say, a canonical work. This translation is in 
two parts, divided into 15 vargas. 

Varga 1. Turning the wheel of the law. This section 
begins with Buddha's interview with Upaka, after he 
had attained enlightenment, and gives an account of the 
conversion of the five men. 

Varga 2. Indicating changes. Contains the history of 
Yasa, and the conversion of his four friends (Fu-nai, Puwya- 
£-it; Vimala; Kiu-yen-pih, Gavimpati ; Su-to, Sub&hu). 

Varga 3. The conversion of Kawyapa. 

Varga 4. Converts Bimbisara r&ga. 

Varga 5. Conversion of Sariputra and Maudgalyayana. 

Varga 6. Returns to his own country. 

Varga 7. The history of Su-ta (i. e. Sudatta or Anatha- 
pindada). 

Varga 8. The history of the queen of Udyana, king of 
Kaarambi. She would not comply with the king's wishes, 
because it was a fast day. 

Varga 9. Gautami becomes a Bhikshuwt. 

Varga 10. Inconstancy. Contains the history of Prasena- 
^it's interview with Buddha, and of the minister who had 
lost his child. 

Varga 11. Self-love. Contains the history of an inter- 
view with Prasena^it, and a sermon preached by Buddha 
on self-love. 

Varga 12. Conversion of Mahaklsyapa (Agnidatta). 

Varga 13. Conversion of Ambapali. 



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INTRODUCTION. XXV 



Varga 14. Discussion with the Nirgranthas. 

Varga 15. Buddha eats the food fit for horses 1 . 

It will be seen from the above summary, that so early 
at least as the end of the second century A. D. a life of 
Buddha, with the details above named, was in circulation 
in Kapilavastu. 

The next life of Buddha, in point of date, is the second 
version of the Lalita Vistara, known in China as the 

(6) Phu-yau-king. 

=t m m 

This was translated by the Indian priest Dharmaraksha, 
during the Western Tsin dynasty, about A.D. 300. It is 
in eight chapters, and belongs to the expanded class of 
Buddhist literature. The story of Buddha's life is here 
told from his birth to his death, but in the exaggerated 
and wearisome form peculiar to the works of this (expanded) 
school. It would seem as if the idea of merit attaching to 
the reproduction of every word of the sacred books had 
led the later writers, not only to reproduce the original, but 
to introduce, by an easy but tiresome method, the repetition 
of a simple idea under a multitude of verbal forms, and so 
secure additional merit 2 . 

There is another life of Buddha named in the Chinese 
Catalogues, translated A. D. 420 by Buddhabhadra, who was 
a descendant of AnWtodana, the uncle of Buddha. This 
life is named 

(7) Kwo-hu-yin-ko-king. 

a* m m m 

It is in four kiouen. It has not come under my notice ; 
but another translation of the same text, likewise in four 
kiouen, and made shortly after Buddhabhadra by a native 
of Mid-India called Guwabhadra (a.d. 436), is before me. 
This work is called 



1 See Abstract of Four Lectures, p. 52. 

* To show the character of this style of composition we give at the end 
(Note II) a section from this Sutra relating to the birth of Bodhisattva. 



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XXVI FO-SHO-HING-TSAN-KING. 

(8) Kwo-hu-hien-tsai-yin-ko-king. 

It is not divided into sections, but each kiouen embraces 
a distinct portion of the history. 

Kiouen I contains an account of Sumedhas and his 
nomination by Dipankara Buddha. It then proceeds to 
narrate the events attending the conception, incarnation, 
and early years of the Bodhisattva until his tenth year, and 
his superiority at school (p. 26). 

Kiouen II begins with the martial contest and victory of 
Bodhisattva over his compeers, and ends with the flight 
from his palace at nineteen years of age (p. 27). 

Kiouen III ^begins with Bodhisattva's interview with the 
different 7?*shis, and concludes with the conversion of the 
five men after Buddha's enlightenment (p. 34). 

Kiouen IV begins with the conversion of Yasa and his 
father, and afterwards his fifty friends. It then gives in 
great detail the history of the Kajyapas, and ends with 
an account of the gift of the Cetavana. This life of Buddha 
is of a circumstantial character, and is full of interesting 
episodes. 

The next memoir in point of time of translation is the 
history of Buddha as it occurs in the Vinaya Pi/aka. I shall 
take as my example the Vinaya according to the Mahi- 
jasaka school. In the 15th and 16th chapters of this work 
is a brief life of Buddha. This copy of the Vinaya was 
brought from Ceylon by Fa-hien at the beginning of the 
fifth century (a.d. 414); it was not translated by him, 
but by Buddha^iva, a native of Cophene, A.D. 423 (see 
Abstract of Four Lectures, p. 2 1), with the assistance of 
Tao-sing (A'u-tao-sing), a 5"rama«a of Khoten. 

In this life the order of events (and the precise words 
occasionally) agree with the Pali of the Mahavagga, as pub- 
lished by Oldenberg. It begins, however, with the history of 
the origin of the Sakyas, and in this it resembles the account 
in the Manual of Buddhism \ except that in the Chinese the 

1 Spence Hardy, p. 130. 



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INTRODUCTION. XXVU 



description of Canta, the son of Amba, is that he was con- 
temptible and ugly, whilst in the Singhalese account he is 
described as lovely and well-favoured. After the complete 
enlightenment, Buddha sits in contemplation at the foot of 
different trees. Here there occurs a divergence from the 
Pali, as it is in the interval of his remaining thus in con- 
templation that he visits the village of Senapati, and gives 
to his daughter Su^ata the two refuges in Buddha and the 
law. This is a curious statement, as it seems to imply that 
at that time the triple refuge was not known ; in other words, 
that there was no Sahgha, or Church. 

The interview with Upaka is identical with the Pali. 
The sermon at Benares and the conversion of the five men, 
the visit to and conversion of Bimbisara, the conversion of 
Yasa and his friends, the visit to Uruvilva and the Klyya- 
pas, the conversion of Upatishya and Kolita — all this is as 
in the Southern account. The narrative then breaks off 
suddenly, and the rules of the Vinaya with respect to 
teacher and pupil &c. are introduced. This notice of Bud- 
dha's life, although not translated in China before the fifth 
century, must date back from the time when the Southern 
copy of the Vinaya, which Fa-hien brought from China, 
was first put together. The Mahfaasika school was an 
offshoot from the Aryasthavira branch of the Buddhist 
church, and in all probability was regarded in Ceylon as 
orthodox, in opposition to the Mahasanghikas. It is 
curious that in the Mahasanghika copy of the Vinaya 
which Fa-hien brought from Patna, and which he himself 
translated into Chinese, there is no section corresponding 
to the one just adduced, that is, this copy of the Vinaya 
contains no record of Buddha's life. This may be accounted 
for on the ground that the two redactions were made at 
different times and at places far apart. But yet it is curious 
that a copy of the Vinaya brought from Patna, and said to 
have been copied from an authentic original, should differ 
so widely from a copy found by the same person at the 
same time in Ceylon l . This circumstance at any rate will 



Fa-hien, p. 144. 



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XXVU1 FO-SHO-HINOTSAN-KING. 

show the mixed character of Buddhist books in China, and 
the difficulty of classifying them in any distinct order. 

We come now to notice a life of Buddha translated by 
a native Chinese priest. It is called the 

(9) Fo-pen-hing-king 

wmnrn 

and was translated by Pao-yun, a companion of Fa-hien 
in his travels in India, about A. D. 420. It is in seven 
chapters, and composed in varying measures or verses of 4, 
5 or 7 symbols to the line. We have no means of deter- 
mining the name of the original work from which Pao-yun 
translated his book, but it evidently was not the Buddha- 
£arita-kavya of Ajvaghosha. It resembles it in no parti- 
cular, except that it is in verse. The contents of this work 
I have already given elsewhere (Abstract of Four Lectures, 
p. 100) ; so that there is no need to allude to it here at any 
length. 

Nor need I refer, except to name it, to the Chinese 
version of the Lalita Vistara. This translation was made 
by the 5rama«a Divakara during the Tang dynasty. He 
was a native of Mid-India, and flourished in China A. D. 676. 
It is in 12 chapters and 27 sections. The headings of these 
chapters have been given elsewhere (Catalogue, pp. 18, 19). 
The contents of the Chinese version agree in the main 
with the Tibetan. It is named 

(10) Fang-kwang-tai-iwang-yan-ki ng. 

There is a life of Buddha translated by an Indian priest 
of Cophene, about A. D. 445, which is called 

(11) Sang-kia-lo-c'ha-sho-tsih-fo-hing-king. 

This appears to have been written by a priest called San- 
gharaksha, who was born in the kingdom of Su-lai, and 
came to Gandhara when Kanishka flourished. This 
monarch is called in the text Kien-to-ki-ni-wang. The 



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INTRODUCTION. XXIX 



symbols Kien-to correspond with the family title given 
elsewhere to Kanishka,viz. ATan-tan, i.e. ATandana or sandal- 
wood (see the work Tsah-pao-tsang-king in the Indian 
Office Collection of Buddhist Books, kiouen vi, fol. i a [Cata- 
logue, case lxvi]). This Chinese title may probably cor- 
respond with the tribal name of Gushan, or perhaps (accord- 
ing to Oldenberg) with the title Koiranos, of the coins. But 
in any case Sangharaksha is said to have lived during the 
time of this monarch, and to have written the life of Buddha, 
which was afterwards translated into Chinese by Sangha- 
bhadanta (?). This work is in 5 kiouen ; it comprises the 
usual stories from the birth of Buddha to the distribution 
of his relics after his death. There is at the end a curious 
story about A.roka, who reigned 100 years after the Nir- 
vana. He is said to have had a dream which induced him 
to assemble the Bhikshus in a convocation. He was told 
by them that there was in Ra^agnha a casket on which 
there was a record enshrined, or a gold plate, which had 
been delivered by Buddha. On opening the casket a pro- 
phecy was found stating that in Magadha, in the city of 
Rajg-agnha, there were two householders whose two sons 
were called Vi^ayamitra andVasudatta ; of these the former, 
in consequence of his merit in giving a ball of earth to 
Buddha, should be born 100 years after as Ajoka rkga. of 
the Maurya family. In consequence of this prophecy Asoka 
built 84,000 shrines for the relics of Buddha, obeying in 
this the direction of his dream, that he should cause the 
jartras of the holy one to be everywhere diffused. 

Another life of Buddha is one I have partly translated 
in the Romantic History of Buddha. It is called 

(12) Fo-pen-hing-tsih-king 

and was translated by £/7anagupta or Gwanakuta of the 
Tsui dynasty (circ. A. D. 588). It is said to be the same 
as the Abhinishkramawa Sutra, but of this there is no 
positive evidence. It is in 60 kiouen, and embraces Bud- 
dha's history from the beginning to the time of the con- 
version of the Kajyapas and others. 



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XXX FO-SHO-HING-TSAN-KING. 

The following is the title of a life of Buddha, trans- 
lated by Fa-khin of the Sung dynasty (began 960 A. D.), 
and named 

( 1 3) Fo-shwo-Amg-hu-mo-ho-ti-king 

which is, as it appears, a work of the Sammatiya school of 
Buddhism, corresponding with the Mahavastu. The phrase 
^ |§^ is used in the introductory chapter to denote Sam- 
mata, who was ' chosen by all ' to be the first king ; and 
Jljj g^T ffi is the Chinese form of Mahavastu, ' the great 
(thing).' This memoir is in % vols, and 13 kiouen ; it is 
very complete, agreeing in its details with the notices found 
in the Manual of Buddhism, and in Bigandet's Life of 
Godama. It was probably in the original a Pali work. 
The last version of the Lalita Vistara, known as the 

(14) Shin-t'ung-yaou-hi-king, 



has not come under my notice. 

ASVAGHOSHA. 

The most reliable of the lives of Buddha known in 
China is that translated in the present volume, the Buddha- 
£arita-kavya. It was no doubt written by the Bodhisattva 
Ajvaghosha, who was the twelfth Buddhist patriarch, and 
a contemporary of Kanishka l . Translators in China attri- 
bute both this book and the work which I have called the 
' Sermons of Ajvaghosha ' (ta £wang yan king lun) to him, 
and there is no reason to question it. Kumara^- tva, who 
translated the latter work, was too familiar with Indian 
subjects to be mistaken in this particular, and Dharma- 
raksha (we will employ this restoration of his name) was 
also a native of Mid-India, and deeply versed in Buddhist 



1 There is no absolute certainty about the date of Kanishka ; it may proba- 
bly be referred to the beginning of the latter half of the first century a. d. (see 
next page). 



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INTRODUCTION. XXXI 



literature (he became a disciple at six years of age). Both 
these translators lived about A. D. 400. 

I am told, however, by Mr. Rockhill, that Tar&natha, 
the Tibetan author, mentions three writers of the name 
of Arvaghosha, the 'great one,' the younger, and one 
who lived in the eighth century A. D. This latter, who 
was also called £ura, could not be the A^vaghosha of our 
text, as the translation of the work dates from the fifth 
century. And as of the other two, one was called ' the 
great' and the other 'the younger,' it admits of little 
question that the Bodhisattva would be the former. But 
in the Chinese Catalogues, so far as I have searched, there 
is no mention made of more than one writer called by this 
name, and he is ever affirmed to have been a contemporary 
of Kanishka. In the book Tsah-pao-tsang-king, for instance 
(kiouen vi), there are several tales told of the ATandan 
'Kanika' or 'Kanishka,' in one of which (fol. 13) Ajva- 
ghosha is distinctly named as his religious adviser, and he 
is there called 'the Bodhisattva;' so that, according to evi- 
dence derived from Chinese sources, there seems no reason 
to doubt that the author of the book I have here translated 
was living at and before the time of the Scythian invasion 
of Magadha under the ATandan king Kanishka. With 
respect to the date of this monarch we have no positive 
evidence ; the weight of authority sides with those who 
place him at the beginning of the Saka period, i. e. A. D. 78. 
It is therefore possible that the emissaries who left China 
A. D. 64 and returned A. D. 67 may have brought back with 
them some knowledge of the work of Ajvaghosha called 
Fo-pen-hing, or of the original then circulating in India, on 
which Ajvaghosha founded his poem. It is singular at 
least that the work of Ajvaghosha is in five chapters as 
well as that translated by Au-fa-lan. In any case we 
may conclude that as early as about A. D. 70, if not 
before, there was in India a work known as Buddha£arita 
(Fo-pen-hing). 

As to the origin of such a work, it seems likely to have 
sprung from an enlargement of the Mahaparinirva«a Sutra. 
We know that the record of the history of Buddha's last 



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XXX11 FO-SHO-HING-TSAN-KING. 

days was extant under this title from early times, and 
nothing would be simpler than the gradual enlargement of 
such a record, so as to include in it not only his last days, 
but his work throughout his life. Each district in which 
Buddha taught had probably its own recollections on this 
point, and to any zealous writer the task of connecting 
these several histories would be an easy one. Such a man 
was Arvaghosha. Brought up in Central India, travelling 
throughout his life as a preacher and musician, and finally 
a follower of Kanishka through his Northern campaigns ; 
such a man would naturally be led to put together the 
various tales or traditions he had gathered as to the birth 
and life of his great master, and connect them with the 
already recognised account of his end or last days on earth. 
The detailed account of Buddha's death, recorded in the 
Mahaparinirviwa Sutra, finds a place at the end of the pre- 
sent work ; this account being well known to A^vaghosha, 
there can be no difficulty in understanding how he came to 
write an entire poem on the subject of the master's life 
and death. 

I am told by Professor Max Miiller that the Sanskrit 
versions of the Buddha£arita break off at the end of 
varga 17, that is, after the account of the conversion 
of the great Kajyapa. Whether this is accidental, or 
whether it indicates the original extent of the poem, I have 
no means of judging. One thing is certain, that at the 
time when the translation was made by Dharmaraksha (viz. 
about A. D. 430), the work was of the size of the present 
volume. There is no a priori reason for supposing the 
later portion to have been added by a writer subsequent 
to Ajvaghosha. A poem does not easily admit of 'a con- 
tinuation' by another author; nor can we think that a 
distinguished writer like A^vaghosha would omit in his 
biography the account of the death of his hero, especially 
as the materials were at hand, and the dramatic effect of 
the poem would be undoubtedly increased by the addition 
of such a popular record. It seems therefore more natural 
to suppose that the Sanskrit MSS. are incomplete copies of 
the original, and that the Chinese version before us is in 



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INTRODUCTION. XXXU1 



fact a translation of the entire poem as it came from its 
author's hands. 

There is little to add, with respect to the history of 
A^vaghosha, to the few notices I have given elsewhere 
(Abstract, &c, p. 95 sqq.) One or two allusions to him 
will be found in the work of Wong puh (Shing tau ki, §§ 186 
and 190). These only confirm the general tradition that he 
was originally a distinguished Brahman and became a con- 
vert to Buddhism l . The Buddha^arita contains sufficient 
proof of his acquaintance with and hostility to Brahmanical 
teaching, and the frequent discussions found therein relative 
to the non-existence of ' I ' (an individual self) illustrate the 
record contained in § 190 of the work (Shing tau) named 
above, ' that Vira, a writer of Sistras (Lun sse), a disciple 
of Ajvaghosha Bodhisattva, wrote a treatise in 100 gathas 
on the subject of "non-individuality" (wou 'ngo lun), which 
the heretics were unable to gainsay.' With reference to 
this doctrine of the non-existence of the individual subject, 
it is not possible in such a work as this to say much. 
I shall be glad to place on record, however, my belief that 
in Buddhism this question is much more than a speculative 
question of philosophy. It touches the skirt of the highest 
moral truth. For the individual self in Buddhism is the 
evil or carnal self, the origin of sorrow. This, the Buddhist 
says (at least as I read his confession of faith), does not 
exist ; the evil self is not a separate reality, it is the delu- 
sion of ' sense ; * it is * nothing.' Destroy this idea of self 
and there will be light. If we regard the question thus, 
it assumes a form more interesting and vital than that 
of any philosophical enquiry. As I said above, it touches 
the skirt of the highest truth ; and in this approach to truth 
lies the power of the Buddhist doctrine. 

The Faithfulness of Chinese Translations. 

It is wonderful to look through the large collection of 
Buddhist books translated into Chinese from the dialects 

' Mr. Rockhill has kindly given me an extract from a Tibetan work, Ma»- 
fturtmfllatantra, in which Ajvaghosha is identified with M&trigita or M&trijfita, 
concerning whom, see Abstract, &c, p. 141. 

[19] C 



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XXXI V FOSHOHING-TSAN-KING. 

of India, principally by Indian or Indo-Scythian priests. 
I use this last expression to indicate the nationality of 
those translators who came to China from Cabul and 
regions north of the Indus. For 600 years and more a 
succession of Buddhist teachers and preachers followed 6ne 
another from India and Central Asia towards China with 
little interruption. The result is, that the Buddhist Tripi- 
taka. (canon) as we have it in that country is a collection 
of translations without connection of parts, denoting the 
Buddhism of India and neighbouring countries, in every 
period of its development. Hence side by side with the 
early teaching of the faith found in such books as the Dhar- 
mapada (Tan poh), we have the gross form of Tantra 
worship contained in the 'Dharawi of K&ttdk? Kandk being 
in fact the same as Kail or Durga or Cagatmatr*'. Never- 
theless this collection of translations is a most important 
one. Its importance has yet to be realised. To the stu- 
dent of Buddhism it is an inexhaustible mine of wealth. 
And to the student of history some knowledge of it is 
indispensable. 

The question presents itself, therefore, can we rely on 
the truthfulness of the work done by these men in China ? 
To this question only a qualified answer can be given ; we 
may rely on the work of men of known ability. And in 
other cases we may test the work done by comparison with 
the originals. We should have no reluctance, I think, in 
accepting the translations of men like Kumara^-iva, to 
whom both Chinese and Sanskrit must have been familiar, 
and whose work may be tested by comparison with Sanskrit 
texts. And if he may be trusted, so may others also who 
worked with him or in his time. Amongst these was Dhar- 
maraksha, the translator of the Buddha£arita of this volume. 
He was a man of Mid-India, and became a disciple at six 
years of age, and daily recited 10,000 words of Scripture. 
At first he belonged to the school of the lesser develop- 
ment, and was well acquainted with the discourses of the 
five Vidyas. Afterwards he became a follower of the 
greater development. He arrived in China in the year 
412 A. D. and worked at translations till A.D. 454. Now 



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INTRODUCTION. XXXV 



we can hardly suppose that a man of such natural gifts as 
Dharmaraksha could have laboured for forty- two years 
at translations, without being worthy of trust. Moreover 
we find that Kumara^iva was working at this period in 
China, and that he translated the work of Asvaghosha 
called Ta-£wang-yan-king-lun, which appears to be related 
to the Ta-£wang-yan-king, another name for the Life of 
Buddha (Lalita Vistara). Is it likely that the two translators 
were unknown to one another ? 

It is true, indeed, that I have not been able to test the 
translation of Dharmaraksha by comparison with the San- 
skrit. As I understand Professor Max Miiller, the Sanskrit 
text is not always easy to interpret, a'nd differs in many 
places from the Chinese version. Sometimes it is possible 
to see how it happened that the Chinese translator mis- 
understood the text before him. Sometimes it would seem 
that he omitted intentionally whole passages which would 
be either unintelligible or uninteresting to Chinese readers. 
As there is some prospect of the Sanskrit text of Arva- 
ghosha's work being published, we may hope to arrive in 
time at something like certainty on the point under con- 
sideration. 

But with respect to the trustworthiness of Chinese trans- 
lations in general, it depends, as I said before, on the 
character of the individual scholar. There is no reason at 
all why a Brahman should not have become familiar with 
Chinese, and when we add to this the extraordinary facili- 
ties afforded the Buddhist missionaries in China for exe- 
cuting their work, in the way I mean of royal patronage 
and able coadjutors, there is no reason to suspect the result 
of their labours. Yet doubtless there are many unreliable 
versions of sacred texts to be found. Every zealous Upa- 
saka who came to China was not thereby duly qualified 
for the work of translation ; and as a rule we should be 
cautious in attaching entire credence to the literary labours 
of such persons. 



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XXXVI FO-SHO-HING-TSAN-KING. 



A-svaghosha's Style. 

The Chinese priest I-tsing says that the hymns used in 
the Buddhist church during his visit to India were com- 
posed and arranged by Ajvaghosha (Nan-hae, § 32). There 
can be little doubt that he was a musician as well as poet. 
He travelled about, we are told, with a body of musicians, 
and was the means of converting many persons of distinc- 
tion by his skill (Abstract, &c, p. 97). The work before 
us gives proof of his poetical talent. In translating his 
verses, even from the Chinese, an impulse to follow in his 
poetical vein has been felt. But the requirements of a 
literal translation forbad any such diversion. Nevertheless 
the reader will observe many passages that would have 
easily allowed a more 'flowery diction.' The passage in 
verse 629 and following verses is very touching — the con- 
suming grief of Yajodhara until ' her breath grew less and 
sinking thus, she fell upon the dusty ground.' The account 
of Buddha's enlightenment in verse 1166 and following is 
also striking: 'Thus did he complete the end of self, as 
fire goes out for want of grass ; thus he had done what he 
would have men do ; he first had found the way of perfect 
knowledge. He finished thus the first great lesson ; enter- 
ing the great J?*shi's house, the darkness disappeared, light 
burst upon him ; perfectly silent and at rest, he reached the 
last exhaustless source of truth ; lustrous with all wisdom 
the great Rishi sat, perfect in gifts, whilst one convulsive 
throe shook the wide earth.' 

There are many passages throughout the poem of great 
beauty; there is much also that is dry and abstruse, 
yet we cannot doubt that in that day and among these 
people the 'great poem' of Ajvaghosha must have had 
considerable popularity. Hence the translations of it are 
numerous; it must have tested Dharmaraksha's powers 
to have turned it into Chinese. There is also a Tibetan 
copy of it ; and whether it was originally composed in 
Sanskrit or not, we know that there are now various edi- 
tions of it in that language. I do not pretend to have 



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INTRODUCTION. XXXV11 



found the author's meaning in all cases ; the Chinese is 
not easy; but in the main drift of the poem I have fol- 
lowed my text as faithfully and literally as possible. The 
concluding portion of the last section, as it seems to sup- 
port the idea of only one Aroka, first fierce and then gentle, 
or religious, is, to say the least, a curious passage. But we 
may not attach too much weight to an isolated statement 
of this sort ; there may have been reasons more than we 
know of why the orthodox tradition of the Dharma-A^oka, 
the patron of the Theravadi school, should have been 
ignored by a friend of Kanishka. But in any case the evi- 
dence is too slight to build upon ; we can only say that in 
Arvaghosha's time it had become usual to put the Council 
of Pa/aliputra out of sight, and to regard the Theravadi 
school as one opposed to the generally received traditions 
of the North. 

I cannot conclude this Introduction without expressing 
my thanks to Mr. Bunyiu Nanjio, who kindly suggested 
emendations of my translation of some passages at the 
beginning of the work, and also to Professor Max M tiller, 
to whom I am indebted for the restoration of many of the 
proper names that occur throughout the text. 

S. BEAL. 
The Rectory, Wark, 

Northumberland, 

Feb. 4, 1883. 



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FOSHOHING-TSAN-KING. 



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FOSHOHING-TSAN-KING. 

A METRICAL VERSION 

OF THE 

LIFE OF BUDDHA BY MA-MENG-PU-SA. 
(ASVAGHOSHA BODHISATTVA.) 




KIOUEN I. 

Varga 1. The Birth. 
. (There was) a descendant of the I kshvaku 1 (family), 
an invincible 2 .Sakya monarch, pure in mind (mental 
gifts) and of unspotted virtue, called therefore ' Pure- 
rice' (6uddhodana). i 

Joyously reverenced by all men (or, ' beings '), as 
the new moon (is welcomed by the world), the king 
indeed (was) like the heaven-ruler 6akra 3 , his queen 
like (the divine) Sa&t. 2 

Strong and calm of purpose as the earth, pure 
in mind as the water-lily, her name, figuratively 
assumed, Maya, she was in truth incapable of class- 
comparison. 3 

1 The Ikshviku (sugar-cane) family of Potala. .Suddhodana 
was the father of the Bodhisattva. 

* Wou-shing; this is the equivalent for the A^itavati (river). 
But it here refers to the jakyas, as a race of Aakravartin 
monarchs. 

' Or, like Sakra, king of Devas, the husband of Sa£i. 

[19] B 

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2 . FO-SHOHINOTSAN-KING. I, I. 

On her in likeness as the heavenly queen de- 
scended the spirit and entered her womb. A 
mother, but free from grief or pain, (she was) without 
any false or illusory 1 mind. 4 

Disliking the clamorous ways of the world, (she 
remembered) the excellent garden of Lumbint, a 
pleasant spot, a quiet forest retreat, (with its) trickling 
fountains, and blooming flowers and fruits. 5 

Quiet and peaceful, delighting in meditation, 
respectfully she asked the king for liberty to roam 
therein ; the king, understanding her earnest desire, 
was seized with a seldom-felt anxiety (to grant her 
request). 6 

He commanded his kinsfolk, within and without 
(the palace), to repair with her to that garden shade ; 
and now the queen Maya knew that her time for 
child-bearing was come. 7 

She rested calmly on a beautiful couch, (sur- 
rounded by) a hundred thousand female attendants ; 
(it was) the eighth day of the fourth moon, a season 
of serene and agreeable character. 8 

Whilst she (thus) religiously observed 2 the rules of 
a pure discipline, Bodhisattva was born from her 
right side, (come) to deliver the world, constrained 
by great pity, without causing his mother pain or 
anguish. 9 

As king Yu-liu s was born from the thigh, as king 
Pi-t'au 4 was born from the hand, as king Man-to 6 

1 Here there seems to be a play on the word wan £1 , which is the 
equivalent for Maya or illusion. The Sanskrit text reads Maya- 
pagata-iva Mayfi, i. e. Maya without deceit. 

* Or, (the season for) religiously observing the rules of abstinence. 
5 Aurva. * Pnthu, born from the arm of Vewa. 

• Mandbltr*: . 



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I, i. THE BIRTH. 



was born from the top of the head, as king Kia-zfc'^a 1 
was born from the arm-pit, 10 

So also was Bodhisattva on the day of his birth 
produced from the right side; gradually emerging 
from the womb, he shed in every direction the rays 
of his glory. 1 1 

As one (born) from recumbent space 2 , and not 
through the gates of life, through countless kalpas, 
practising virtue, self-conscious he came forth to life, 
without confusion. 1 2 

Calm and collected, not falling headlong (was he 
born), gloriously manifested, perfectly adorned, spark- 
ling with light he came from the womb 3 , as when the 
sun first rises (from the East). 1 3 

(Men) indeed regarded 4 his exceeding great glory, 
yet their sight remained uninjured: he allowed them 
to gaze, the brightness of his person concealed for 
the time, as when we look upon the moon in the 
heavens. 14 

His body, nevertheless, was effulgent with light, 
and like the sun which eclipses the shining of the 
lamp, so the true gold-like beauty of Bodhisattva 
shone forth and was diffused everywhere. 15 

Upright and firm and unconfused in mind, he deli- 
berately took seven steps 5 , the soles of his feet 

1 Kakshlvat. These names are supplied from the Sanskrit text. 

* This may also be translated 'as one who falls from space,' 
i. e. miraculously born from space. 

' He passed from the womb to be born. The idea seems to 
be that though conceived in the womb, he was born supernaturally 
from the side. 

4 Kwan-tsai, weighed and considered. 

• These seven steps are frequently figured by seven lotus-marks. 
I-tsing refers to such marks at Nalanda, where Buddha walked 
seven steps, forward and backward ; they are also figured on the 

B 2 



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4 FO-SHO-HING-TSAN-KING. I, I. 

resting evenly upon the ground as he went, his foot- 
marks remained bright as seven stars. 16 

Moving like the lion, king of beasts, and looking 
earnestly towards the four quarters, penetrating to 
the centre the principles of truth, he spake thus with 
the fullest assurance : 1 7 

' This birth is in the condition of a Buddha 1 ; after 
this I have done with renewed birth; now only am I 
born this once, for the purpose of saving all the 
world.' 1 8 

And now from the midst of heaven there de- 
scended two streams of pure water, one warm, the 
other cold, and baptized his head 2 , causing refresh- 
ment to his body. 19 

And now he is placed in the precious palace hall, 
a jewelled couch for him to sleep upon, and the 
heavenly kings with their golden flowery hands hold 
fast the four feet of the bed. 20 

Meanwhile the Devas in space, seizing their 
jewelled canopies, attending, raise in responsive har- 
mony their heavenly songs, to encourage him to 
accomplish his perfect purpose 8 . 21 

Then the Naga-rifas filled with joy, earnestly desir- 
ing to show their reverence for the most excellent law*, 
as they had paid honour to the former Buddhas, now 
went to meet Bodhisattva ; 22 



cloth held by the attendants at the birth of Bodhisattva. See Tree 
and Serpent Worship, plate lxv, figure 2, middle scene. 
1 This birth is a Buddha-birth. 

* He was thus consecrated to be a king; see Childers, Pali 
Diet., sub Abhisin£ati ; also Eitel, Handbook, sub MurddhA- 
bhishikta. 

8 Inviting him to perfect the way of Buddha. 

* That is, ' to advance the cause of true religion.' 



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I, i. THE BIRTH. 



They scattered before him Mandara flowers, re- 
joicing with heartfelt joy to pay such religious 
homage; (and so, again,) Tathagata having appeared 
in the world, the Buddha 1 angels rejoiced with glad- 
ness; 23 

With no selfish or partial joy, but for the sake of 
religion they rejoiced, because creation 2 , engulfed 
in the ocean of pain, was now to obtain perfect 
release. 24 

Then the precious Mountain -ra^a., Sume(ru) 3 , 
firmly holding this great earth 4 when Bodhisattva 
appeared in the world, was swayed by the wind of 
his perfected merit. 25 

On every hand the world was greatly shaken, 
as the wind drives the tossing boat; so also the 
minutest atoms of sandal perfume, and the hidden 
sweetness of precious lilies, 26 

Floated on the air and rose through space and 
then commingling came back to earth ; so again 
the garments of Devas descending from heaven 
touching the body, caused delightful thrills of 
joy; 27 

The sun and moon with constant course redoubled 
the brilliancy of their light, whilst in the world the 

1 The 5uddha-vasas, 'beings dressed in pure garments.' A 
class of heavenly beings, supposed to take peculiar interest in 
the religious welfare of men. 

3 ' Creation,' in the sense of ' all that lives.' 

* Sumeru, written also Sume and Meru. The primeval moun- 
tain ; the Alborz, Atlas, or Olympus of other tribes. It is explained 
as ' the high, or resplendent, mountain.' On it was the heaven of 
the gods (the thirty-three gods). 

* It would seem from this that the original idea of Sumeru was 
' the mountain of Heaven ;' the visible heaven, or firmament, which 
' firmly holds the earth.' 



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6 FOSHOHING-TSAN-KING. I, I. 

fire's gleam of itself prevailed without the use of 
fuel. 28 

Pure water, cool and refreshing from the springs, 
flowed here and there, self-caused ; in the palace all 
the waiting women were filled with joy at such an 
unprecedented event. 29 

Proceeding all in company, they drink and bathe 
themselves; in all arose calm and delightful thoughts; 
countless inferior Devas (bhutas), delighting in reli- 
gion, like clouds assembled. 30 

In the garden of Lumbinl, filling the spaces be- 
tween the trees, rare and special flowers, in great 
abundance, bloomed out of season. 3 1 

All cruel and malevolent kinds of beings, together 
conceived a loving heart ; all diseases and afflictions 
among men without a cure applied, of themselves 
were healed. 32 

The various cries and confused sounds of beasts 
were hushed and silence reigned ; the stagnant 
water of the river-courses flowed apace, whilst the 
polluted streams became clear and pure. 33 

No clouds gathered throughout the heavens, whilst 
angelic music, self-caused, was heard around ; the 
whole world of sentient creatures enjoyed peace and 
universal tranquillity. 34 

Just as when a country visited by desolation, sud- 
denly obtains an enlightened ruler, so when Bodhi- 
sattva was born, he came to remove the sorrows of 
all living things. 35 

Mara 1 , the heavenly monarch, alone was grieved 
and rejoiced not. The Royal Father (*Suddhodana) 



1 Mara, the king of the world of desire. According to the 
Buddhist theogony he is the god of sensual love. He holds the 



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I, I. THE BIRTH. 



beholding his son 1 , strange and miraculous 2 , as to 
his birth, 36 

Though self-possessed and assured in his soul, 
was yet moved with astonishment and his coun- 
tenance changed, whilst he alternately weighed with 
himself the meaning (of such an event), now rejoiced 
and now distressed. 37 

The queen-mother beholding her child, born thus 
contrary to laws of nature, her timorous woman's 
heart was doubtful ; her mind through fear, swayed 
between extremes : 38 

Not distinguishing the happy from the sad por- 
tents, again and again she gave way to grief 3 ; and 
now the aged women of the world, (of the 'long 
night*') in a confused way supplicating heavenly 
guidance, 39 

Implored the gods to whom their rites were paid, 
to bless the child; (cause peace to rest upon the 
royal child.) Now there was at this time in the 
grove, a certain soothsayer 6 , a Brahman, 40 

Of dignified mien and wide-spread renown, famed 
for his skill and scholarship : beholding the signs*, his 

world in sin. He was the enemy of Buddha, and endeavoured in 
every way to defeat him. He is also described as the king of 
death. 
1 Beholding his ' born son,' or ' begotten son.' 

* K'i-teh, truly unique (Williams' Diet.) Mi tsang yau, 
unseen before, miraculous. 

* The text seems to point to alternately recurring hope and grief. 
4 The text here is difficult I take A r /4ang-suh to be equal to 

JTAang-y6,which is a frequent expression to denote the ' long night' 
of transmigration or ignorance. If this be not so, then Khxng- 
suh may be simply 'aged.' 

• Kh\ Siang, a discerner of signs or portents. 

• That is, either the signs on the child's body, or the occurrences 
attending his birth. 



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8 FO-SHOHING-TSAN-KING. I, i. 

heart rejoiced, and he exulted at the miraculous 
event. 41 

Knowing the king's mind to be somewhat per- 
plexed, he addressed him (thus) with truth and 
earnestness, ' Men born in the world, chiefly desire 
to have a son the most renowned 1 ; 42 

' But now the king, like the moon when full, should 
feel in himself a perfect joy, having begotten an 
unequalled 2 son, (for by this the king) will become 
illustrious among his race ; 43 

' Let then his heart be joyful and glad, banish all 
anxiety and doubt, the spiritual omens that are 
everywhere manifested indicate for your house and 
dominion a course of continued prosperity s . 44 

' The most excellently endowed child now born will 
bring deliverance to the entire world 4 , none but a 
heavenly teacher has a body such as this 6 , golden 
colour'd, gloriously resplendent. 45 

' One endowed with such transcendent marks, must 
reach the state of " Samyak'-Sambodhi," or if he be 
induced to engage in worldly delights, then he must 
become a universal monarch '; 46 

1 Or, a most victorious son ; or, a son most renowned. 

* K'i-teh, truly unique ; strange or wonderful; (p. 7, n. 2.) 

* Increasing or advancing prosperity. 

* Must assuredly save the world. 
" A body, such a masterpiece. 

* A'Aing-hsio, perfect illumination, Samyak-Sambuddha ; or, 
as in the text. 

7 A wheel-turning monarch. A monarch like the sun ' that flies 
as he goes;' the old conceit of a king of the age of gold a ; the 
expectation of peace and prosperity resulting from the universal 
authority of such a righteous king, is an old, perhaps a primitive, 
one. The ATakravartin is the eastern form of the myth. 

» That is, probably, ' a golden (wheel) king.' 



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1,1. THE BIRTH. 



' Everywhere recognised as the ruler of the great 
earth, mighty in his righteous government, as a 
monarch ruling the four empires 1 , uniting under his 
sway all other rulers ; 47 

'As among all lesser lights, the sun's brightness 
is by far the most excellent. But if he seek a 
dwelling among the mountain forests, with single 
heart searching for deliverance *, 48 

' Having arrived at the perfection of true wisdom, 
he will become illustrious 3 throughout the world; 
for as mount Sumeru is monarch among all moun- 
tains, 49 

' Or, as gold is chief among all precious things, 
or, as the ocean is supreme among all streams*, 
or, as the moon is first among the stars, or, as the 
sun is brightest of all luminaries, 50 

'So Tathagata, born in the world, is the most 
eminent 8 of men; his eyes clear and expanding 6 , 
the lashes both above and below moving with the 
lid, 51 

' The iris of the eye of a clear blue colour 7 , in 
shape like the moon when half full, such character- 
istics as these, without contradiction, foreshadow the 
most excellent condition of perfect (wisdom).' 52. 

1 The four empires, that is, the four continents or quarters of 
the world. 

2 Deliverance, that is, from sin; or sorrow the result of sin 
(moksha). 

' Shine universally; as the light of the sun. 

4 The ocean is always in Buddhist works, as in Homer, asso- 
ciated with 'flowings.' The expression in the Chinese, liu-hai, 
corresponds exactly with "Qmoj-oIo pitOpa. 

* The most worshipful. 

" Widening more and more. 

7 Of a deep purple or violet colour. 



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IO FOSHO-HING-TSAN-KING. I, r. 

At this time the king addressed the twice-born \ 
' If it be as you say, with respect to these miracu- 
lous signs, that they indicate such consequences, 53 

'Then no such case has happened with former 
kings, nor down to our time has such a thing 
occurred.' The Brahman addressed the king thus, 
' Say not so ; for it is not right ; 54 

' For with regard to renown and wisdom, personal 
celebrity, and worldly substance, these four things 
indeed are not to be considered according to pre- 
cedent or subsequence ; 55 

' But whatever is produced according to nature 2 , 
such things are liable to the law of cause and effect : 
but now whilst I recount some parallels let the king 
attentively listen ; 56 

' Bhr/gu, Aiigira 3 (Angiras ?), these two of JZishi 
family 4 , having passed many years apart from men, 
each begat an excellently-endowed son, 57 
1 ' Brz'haspati with .Sukra, skilful in making royal trea- 
tises, not derived from former families (or, tribes) ; 58 

' Sarasvata, the Rishi, whose works 6 have long 
disappeared, begat a son, Po-lo-sa *, who compiled 
illustrious Sutras T and Shastras ; 59 

1 That is, the Brahman ; wearing the twice-born thread. 
* Or, whatever is born according to the nature of things. 

5 I restore these names according to the Sanskrit text, supplied 
by Professor Max Mullen 

4 That is, belonging to the Jiishl tribe; in other words, 'these 
two i?»shis.' 

8 Or, it may, perhaps more correctly, be rendered 'separated 
by a long period from Sutras or Shastras,' or, when these works 
had long been lost. 

6 Is this Parar ara, the reputed father of Vyasa ? (see Max Mttller's 
Ancient Sanskrit Literature, p. 479.) 

7 Illustrious Sutras (Ming King) may possibly refer to the Vedas, 
but the five vidyas are also called by this name (Jul. II, 73). 



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I, I. THE BIRTH. 1 1 

' That which now we know and see, is not there- 
fore dependent on previous connection ; Vyasa, the 
Rishi, the author of numerous treatises, 60 

'After his death had among his descendants, 
Poh-mi (Valmlki), who extensively collected Gatha 
sections; Atri, the J&shi, not understanding the 
sectional treatise on medicine, 61 

'Afterwards begat Atreya, who was able to control 
diseases ; the twice-born J&shi Kusi (Karika), not 
occupied with heretical treatises, 62 

'Afterwards (begat) Kia-ti-na ra/a.who thoroughly 
understood heretical systems ; the sugar-cane 
monarch \ who began his line, could not restrain 
the tide of the sea, 63 

' But Sagara-rdfa, his descendant, who begat a 
thousand royal sons, he could control the tide of the 
great sea so that it should come no further. 64 

' Ganaka, the Ht'sh'i, without a teacher acquired 
power of abstraction. All these, who obtained such 
renown, acquired powers of themselves 2 ; 65 

' Those distinguished before, were afterwards for- 
gotten ; those before forgotten, became afterwards 
distinguished s ; kings like these and godlike ./foshis 
have no need of family inheritance, 66 

'And therefore the world need not regard those 
going before or following. So, mighty king! is it 
with you, you should experience true joy of heart, 67 

' And because of this joy should banish for ever 
doubt or anxiety.' The king hearing the words 

1 That is, the first of the Ikshvaku monarchs who reigned at 
Potala (Tatta) at the mouth of the Indus. 

* Or, were born by their own power. 

5 Or, the former were better, the later inferior; the former 
inferior, the later better. 



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1 2 FO-SHOHINOTSAN-KING. I, r. 

of the seer was glad, and offered him increased 
gifts 1 . 68 

' Now have I begotten a valiant (excellent) son 
(he said), who will establish a wheel authority, whilst 
I, when old and grey-headed, will go forth to lead a 
hermit's life 2 , 69 

' So that my holy king-like son may not give up 
the world and wander through mountain forests.' 
And now near the spot within the garden, there 
was a jRishi, leading the life of an ascetic s ; 70 

His name was Asita, wonderfully skilful in the 
interpretation of signs ; he approached the gate of 
the palace ; the king (beholding him) exclaimed, 
' This is none other but Brahmadeva, 71 

' Himself enduring penance from love of true 
religion, these two characteristics * so plainly visible 
as marks of his austerities.' Then the king was 
much rejoiced; 72 

And forthwith he invited him within the palace, 
and with reverence set before him entertainment, 
whilst he, entering the inner palace, rejoiced only 
(in prospect of) seeing the royal child. 73 

Although surrounded by the crowd of court-ladies, 
yet still he was as if in desert solitude; and now 
they place a preaching throne and pay him increased 
honour and religious reverence, 74 

As Antideva rifa reverenced the priest Vasish/>fca. 
Then the king addressing the ^/shi, said, ' Most 
fortunate am I, 75 

'Great ^?/shi ! that you have condescended to 

1 Or, extended his religious offerings. 

2 Leaving my home will practise a pure (Brahman) life. 

* Practising austerities. 

* That is, 'purity' and 'penance.' 



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I, i. THE BIRTH. 1 3 

come here to receive from me becoming gifts and 
reverence ; I pray you therefore enter on your 
exhortation.' 76 

Thus requested and invited the JZishi felt un- 
utterable joy, and said, ' All hail, ever victorious 
monarch ! possessed of all noble (virtuous) quali- 
ties 1 , 77 

' Loving to meet the desires of those who seek, 
nobly generous in honouring the true law, con- 
spicuous as a race for wisdom and humanity, with 
humble mind you pay me homage, as you are 
bound. 78 

' Because of your righteous deeds in former lives 8 , 
now are manifested these excellent fruits ; listen to 
me, then, whilst I declare the reason of the present 
meeting. 79 

'As I was coming on the sun's way 3 , I heard 
the Devas in space declare that the king had born 
to him (begotten) a royal son, who would arrive at 
perfect intelligence 4 ; 80 

' Moreover I beheld such other portents 4 , as have 



1 The Chinese symbol 'teh' properly means 'virtue,' as in the 
title of Laou Tseu's work, Tau-teh-king. But in Buddhist books 
it generally corresponds with the Sanskrit gu»a, in the sense of 
a 'quality' or 'characteristic' 

1 The expression suh kh ih points to conduct in former conditions 
of existence. It properly means 'a night's rest' or 'a lodging 
one night' (Williams), but in Buddhist books it commonly refers to 
abodes or conditions of life, occupied during the night (long night) 
of transmigration. 

8 Following the way of the sun. 

4 Complete the way of true wisdom (Sambodhi or Sambuddha). 

* Such miraculous portents going before. It would seem from 
Asita's description that he came from the East following the sun, 
and as he came he saw before him miraculous portents. 



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14 FO-SHOHINOTSAN-KING. I, i. 

constrained me now to seek your presence; de- 
siring to see the .Sakya monarch who will erect the 
standard of the true law.' 8 1 

The king hearing the ifoshi's words was fully 
assured ; escaping from the net of doubt, he ordered 
an attendant to bring the prince, to exhibit him to 
the Rishi. 82 

The JZishi, beholding the prince, the thousand- 
rayed wheel on the soles of his feet, the web-like 
filament between his fingers \ between his eyebrows 
. the white 2 wool-like prominence, 83 

His privy parts hidden as those of the horse, 
his complexion bright and lustrous; seeing these 
wonderful birth-portents, the seer wept. and sighed 
deeply. 84 

The king beholding the tears of the J&shi, think- 
ing of his son, his soul was overcome, and his breath 
fast held his swelling heart. Thus alarmed and ill 
at ease, 85 

Unconsciously he arose from his seat, and bowing 
his head at the Jfo'shi s feet he addressed him in 
these words, ' This son of mine, born thus wonder- 
fully, 86 

' Beautiful in face, and surpassingly graceful, little 
different from the gods in form, giving promise of 
superiority in the world, ah! why has he caused 
thee grief and pain ? 87 

' Forbid it, that my son should die ! (should be 
short-lived!) — (the thought) creates in me grief and 

1 Or, his fingers and his toes. 

' That is, the urȣ. This white wool-like mark seems to have 
been derived in the first instance from the circle of hair on the 
forehead of the bull. Moschus describes the bull that carried off 
Europa as having this 'silver white circle 'on his forehead. 



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I, i. THE BIRTH. IS 

anxiety; that one athirst, within reach of the 
eternal draught 1 , should after all reject and lose 
it! sad indeed! 88 

' Forbid it, he should lose his wealth and treasure ! 
dead to his house ! lost to his country ! for he who 
has 2 a prosperous son in life, gives pledge that his 
country's weal is well secured ; 89 

'And then, coming to die, my heart will rest 
content, rejoicing in the thought of offspring sur- 
viving me ; even as a man possessed of two eyes, 
one of which keeps watch, while the other 
sleeps; 90 

' Not like the frost-flower of autumn, which though 
it seems to bloom, is not a reality. A man who, 
midst his tribe and kindred, deeply loves a spotless 
son, 91 

'At every proper time in recollection of it has 
joy; O! that you would cause me to revive 3 !' 
The Hishi, knowing the king-sire to be thus greatly 
afflicted at heart, 92 

Immediately addressed the Maharaja : ' Let not 
the king be for a moment anxious ! the words I have 
spoken to the king, let him ponder these, and not 
permit himself to doubt ; 93 

' The portents now are as they were before, cherish 

1 The 'eternal draught 'or 'sweet dew 'of Ambrosia. This expres- 
sion is constantly used in Buddhist writings. It corresponds with the 
Pali amatam, which Childers explains as the ' drink of the gods.' 

* Or, if I have. 

* This floka may be translated otherwise thus : ' A man among 
all his kindred loves deeply a spotless a son ; at this time, in recol- 
lection thereof, speaking, cause me to revive;' or the latter lines 
may still be rendered, ' in memory of what you said before, cause 
me now, by speaking as before, to revive.' 

* Wou-kwo-tseu ; either ' a faultless son ' or ' nothing beyond his son.' 



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1 6 FO-SHOHINOTSAN-KING. I, i. 

then no other thoughts! But recollecting I myself 
am old, on that account I could not hold my 
tears ; 94 

' For now my end is coming on. But this son 
of thine will rule the world, born for the sake of 
all that lives 1 ! this is indeed one difficult to meet 
with; 95 

1 He shall give up his royal estate, escape from 
the domain of the five desires 2 , with resolution and 
with diligence practise austerities, and then awaken- 
ing, grasp the truth. 96 

' Then constantly, for the world's sake (all living 
things), destroying the impediments of ignorance 
and darkness, he shall give to all enduring light, 
the brightness of the sun of perfect wisdom. 97 

' All flesh submerged in the sea of sorrow ; all 
diseases collected as the bubbling froth ; decay and 
age like the wild billows ; death like the engulfing 
ocean ; 98 

' Embarking lightly in the boat of wisdom he will 
save the world from all these perils, by wisdom 
stemming back the flood. His pure teaching like 
to the neighbouring shore, 99 

* The power of meditation, like a cool lake, will 
be enough for all the unexpected birds; thus deep 
and full and wide is the great river of the true 
law ; 100 

' All creatures parched by the drought of lust 
may freely drink thereof, without stint; those 

1 This line may be also rendered ' because he has done with 
birth, therefore he is born.' The text is full of such double- 
mean ings. 

* The five desires, or five appetites of sight, smell, taste, hearing, 
and touch. 



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1,1. THE BIRTH. 1 7 

enchained in the domain of the five desires, those 
driven along by many sorrows, 101 

' And deceived amid the wilderness of birth and 
death, in ignorance of the way of escape, for these 
Bodhisattva has been born in the world, to open 
out a way of salvation \ 102 

' The fire of lust and covetousness, burning with 
the fuel of the objects of sense, (on the flames) he has 
caused the cloud of his mercy to rise, so that the 
rain of the law may extinguish them. 103 

• The heavy gates of gloomy unbelief, fast kept 
by covetousness and lust, within which are confined 
all living things, he opens and gives free deliver- 
ance. 104 

'With the tweezers of his diamond wisdom he 
plucks out the opposing principles of lustful desire. 
In the self-twined meshes of folly and ignorance all 
flesh poor and in misery, helplessly (lying), 105 

' The king of the law has come forth, to rescue 
these from bondage. Let not the king in respect 
of this his son encourage in himself one thought of 
doubt or pain ; 106 

' But rather let him grieve on account of the 
world, led captive by desire, opposed to truth ; but 
I, indeed, amid the ruins of old age and death, am 
far removed from the meritorious condition of the 
holy one ',107 

' Possessed indeed of powers of abstraction, yet 

1 The word 'salvation' corresponds to the Sanskrit moksha, 
deliverance or escape. The garden of Lumbini is sometimes called 
the ' garden of deliverance,' because Maya" was there delivered of 
her child. 

* Or, removed from an opportunity of reaping merit by the 
teaching of the holy one. 

[19] C 



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1 8 FO-SHO-HING-TSAN-KING. I, I. 

not within reach of the gain he will give, to be 
derived from his teaching as the Bodhisattva; not 
permitted to hear his righteous law, 108 

' My body worn out, after death, alas 1 (destined) 
to be born as a Deva 1 still liable to the three 
calamities (old age, decay, and death), (therefore I 
weep).' The king and all his household attendants, 
hearing the words of the i?«hi, 109 

Knowing the cause of his regretful sorrow, 
banished from their minds all further anxiety : ' And 
now (the king said) to have begotten this excellent 
son, gives me rest at heart ; no 

' But that he should leave his kingdom and home, 
and practise the life of an ascetic, not anxious to 
ensure the stability of the kingdom, the thought 
of this still brings with it pain.' in 

At this time the 7?zshi, turning to the king with 
true words, said, ' It must be even as the king 
anticipates, he will surely arrive at perfect en- 
lightenment' 112 

Thus having appeased every anxious heart among 
the king's household, (the ifo'shi) by his own inherent 
'spiritual power ascended into space and disap- 
peared. 113 

At this time .Suddhodana ri^a, seeing the excellent 
marks (predictive signs) of his son, and, moreover, 
hearing the words of Asita, certifying that which 
would surely happen, 1 14 

Was greatly affected with reverence to the child, 
he redoubled measures for its protection, and (was 



1 The condition of the highest Deva, according to Buddhism, 
does not exempt him from re-birth ; subject to the calamities inci- 
dent on such a renewal of life. 



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I, I. THE BIRTH. 1 9 

filled) with constant thought ; (moreover) he issued 
decrees through the empire, to liberate all captives 
in prison, 115. 

According to the custom when a (royal) son was 
born, giving the usual largess, in agreement with 
the directions of the Sacred Books, and extending 
his gifts to all; (or, all these things he did com- 
pletely). 116 

The child * when ten days old, (his father's) mind 
being now quite tranquil, he announced a sacrifice 
to all the gods, and prepared to give liberal offerings 
to all the religious bodies ; 117 

•Srama/zas and Brahmawas invoked by their prayers 
a blessing from the gods, whilst he bestowed gifts on 
the royal kinspeople and the ministers and the poor 
within the country ; 118 

The women who dwelt in the city or the villages, 
(all those who needed) cattle or horses or elephants 
or money, each, according to his necessities, was 
liberally supplied ; 119 

Then selecting by divination a lucky time, they 
took the child back to his own palace, with a 
double-feeding white-pure-tooth 2 , carried in a richly- 
adorned chariot (cradle), 1 20 

With ornaments of every kind and colour round 
his neck; shining with beauty, exceedingly re- 
splendent with unguents. The queen embracing 

1 ' Shing-tseu,' the bora or begotten child. 

* I am unable to translate this line except literally, ' two-feeding 
white pure ivory (or, tooth),' 'rh fan pih tsing 'nga. [I am 
informed, however, by Professor Max Muller that it refers to the 
'elephant.' The elephant is called dvipa, the twice-drinker, 
corresponding to 'rh fan (for 'rh yin), the double-feeder (drinker), 
in the Chinese.] 

C 2 



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20 FOSHO-HING-TSAN-KING. I, i. 

him in her arms, going around, worshipped the 
heavenly spirits. 121 

Afterwards she remounted her precious chariot, 
surrounded by her waiting women ; the king, with 
his ministers and people, and all the crowd of 
attendants, leading the way and following, 122 

Even as the ruler of heaven, .Sakra, is surrounded 
by crowds of Devas ; as Mahervara, when suddenly 
his six-faced child was born, 123 

Arranging every kind of present, gave gifts, and 
asked for blessings; so now the king, when his 
royal son was born, made all his arrangements in 
like manner; 124 

So Vaiirava«a, the heavenly king, when Nala- 
kuvara 1 was born, surrounded by a concourse of 
Devas, was filled with joy and much gladness ; 125 

So the king, now the royal prince was born, in 
the kingdom of Kapila, his people and all his 
subjects were likewise filled with joy. 126 

Varga 2. Living in the Palace. 

And now in the household of .Suddhodana ri^a, 
because of the birth of the royal prince, his clansmen 
and younger brethren (namesakes), with his ministers, 
were all generously disposed, 127 

Whilst elephants, horses and chariots and the 
wealth of the country and precious 2 vessels, daily 
increased and abounded, being produced wherever 
requisite 3 ; 128 

1 Na-lo-kiu-po. Nalakuvara was the son of Vaurava«a. 

2 Vessels of the seven precious (substances). 

* According to occasion in abundance produced. The expres- 
sion 'tsah' may either refer to variety or number. Thus the 



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1,2. LIVING IN THE PALACE. 21 

So too countless hidden treasures came of them- 
selves from the earth. From the midst of the 
pure snowy mountains, a wild herd of white ele- 
phants, 1 29 

Without noise, of themselves, came ; not curbed 
by any, self-subdued, every kind of colour'd 1 horse^, 
in shape and quality surpassingly excellent, 1 30 

With sparkling jewelled manes and flowing tails, 
came prancing round, as if with wings ; these too, 
born in the desert, came at the right time, of them- 
selves. 131 

A (herd of) pure-colour'd, well-proportioned cows, 
fat and fleshy, and remarkable for beauty, giving 
fragrant and pure milk with equal flow, came toge- 
ther in great number 2 at this propitious time : 132 

Enmity and envy gave way to peace ; content 
and rest prevailed on every side, whilst there was 
closer union amongst the true of heart, discord and 
variance were entirely appeased ; 133 

The gentle air distilled a seasonable rain, no 
crash of storm or tempest was heard, the springing 
seeds, not waiting for their time, grew up apace and 
yielded abundant increase ; 1 34 

The five cereals grew ripe with scented grain, 
soft and glutinous, easy of digestion ; all creatures 
big with young, possessed their bodies in ease and 
their frames well-gathered ; 135 

All men, even those who had not received the 
seeds of instruction derived from the four holy 



convocation of the Arhats at Vawili is called ' tsah ;' a miscellaneous 
collection of anecdotes or tales is called by the same name. 

1 Or, every kind of party-colour'd horse. 

* Like the clouds. 



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2i FO-SHO-HING-TSAN-KINCJ. 1,3. 

ones * ; all these, throughout the world, born under 
the control of selfish appetite, without any thought 
for others' goods, 1 36 

Had no proud, envious longings ; no angry, hateful 
thoughts. All men and women 8 were grave (pro- 
found) as the first man of the age (kalpa). 137 

All the temples of the gods and sacred shrines, 
the gardens, wells, and fountains, all these like things 
in heaven, produced of themselves, at the proper 
time, (their several adornments). 138 

There was no famishing hunger, the soldiers' 
weapons were at rest, all diseases disappeared; 
throughout the kingdom all the people were bound 
close in family love and friendship ; 1 39 

Piously affectioned they indulged in mutual 
pleasures, there were no impure or polluting desires, 
they sought their daily gain righteously, no covetous 
money-loving spirit prevailed, 140 

But with religious purpose they gave liberally; 
there was no thought of any reward (return), but 
all practised the four rules of purity; and every 
hateful thought was suppressed and destroyed. 141 

Even as in days gone by, Manu rifa begat a child 
(called) ' Brilliancy of the Sun,' on which there pre- 
vailed through the country great prosperity, and all 
wickedness came to an end ; 142 



* This seems to mean that those who had not received benefit 
from the teaching of the four previous Buddhas, that even these 
were placable and well-disposed. 

* This is a difficult verse, it may be translated literally thus, 'All 
learned women (or, all the wives of sages) were profoundly grave 
as the first man of the kalpa.' Whether it refers to the docility 
of the otherwise quarrelsome women, or to their gravity and learn- 
ing, it is not easy to say. 



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I, 3. LIVING IN THE PALACE. 23 

So now the king having begotten a royal prince, 
these marks of prosperity were seen ; and because 
of such a concourse of propitious signs, the child 
was named Siddhartha l . 143 

And now his royal mother, the queen Maya, 
beholding her son born under such circumstances, 
beautiful as a child of heaven, adorned with every 
excellent distinction, 144 

From excessive joy which could not be controlled 
died, and was born in heaven 2 . Then Pra^apatt 
Gautaml, beholding the prince, like an angel, 145 

With beauty seldom seen on earth, seeing him 
thus born and now his mother dead, loved and 
nourished him as her own child; and the child 
regarded her as his mother. 146 

So as the light of the sun or the moon, little by 
little increases, the royal child also increased each 
day in every mental excellency and beauty of per- 
son ; 147 

(His body exhaled) the perfume of priceless 
sandal wood, (decorated with) the famed Gambu- 
nada gold (gems); divine medicines (there were) to 
preserve him in health, glittering necklaces upon his 
person ; 148 

The members of tributary states, hearing that 

1 The description here given of the peace and content prevailing 
in the world on the birth of Bodhisattva (and his name given to him 
in consequence) resembles the account of the golden age in classic 
authors. 

' Maya is generally stated to have died after seven days from the 
birth of her child. But here the context seems to require a longer 
interval, as he was ten days old when taken to the temple. Maya 
was born in the Trayastrwwas Heaven, or the Heaven of the Thirty- 
three Gods. The legend states that Buddha after his enlightenment 
proceeded there to convert her. 



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24 FO-StfO-HING-TSAN-KING." I, a. 

the king had an heir born to him, sent their presents 
and gifts of various kinds, oxen, sheep, deer, horses, 
and chariots, 149 

Precious vessels and elegant ornaments, fit to 
delight the heart of the prince; but though pre- 
sented with such pleasing trifles, the necklaces and 
other pretty ornaments, 150 

The mind (nature) of the prince was unmoved, 
his bodily frame small indeed, but his heart esta- 
blished; his mind at rest within its own high 
purposes 1 , was not to be disturbed by glittering 
baubles. 151 

And now he was brought to learn the useful arts, 
when lo! once instructed (at one hearing) he sur- 
passed his teachers. His father, the king, seeing 
his exceeding talent, and his deep purpose to have 
done with the world and its allurements, 152 

Began to enquire as to the names of those in his 
tribe who were renowned for elegance and refine- 
ment. Elegant and graceful, and a lovely maiden, 
was she whom they called Yarodhara ; 153 

In every way fitting to become a consort for 
the prince; and to allure by pleasant wiles his 
heart. The prince with a mind so far removed 
(from the world), with qualities so distinguished, and 
with so charming an appearance, 154 

Like the elder son of Brahmadeva, Sanatkumara 
(She-na Kiu-ma-lo) ; the virtuous damsel, lovely and 
refined, gentle and subdued in manner; 155 

Majestic like the queen of heaven, constant ever, 

1 His mind resting on its high and excellent purpose; so at 
least the expression K'ai, domain or precinct, may sometimes be 
rendered. It means, ' within the limits of its own high excellent 
(purpose).' 



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1,3. LIVING IN THE PALACE. 25 

cheerful night and day, establishing the palace in 
purity and quiet, full of dignity and exceeding 
grace, 156 

Like a lofty hill rising up in space 1 ; or as a white 
autumn cloud ; warm or cool according to the season ; 
choosing a proper dwelling according to the year, 157 

Surrounded by a return of singing women, who 
join (their voices) in harmonious heavenly concord, 
without any jarring or unpleasant sound, exciting (in 
the hearers) forgetfulness of worldly cares. 158 

As the heavenly Gandharvas 2 of themselves in 
their beauteous palaces (cause) the singing women 
to raise heavenly strains, the sounds of which and 
their beauty ravish both eyes and heart ; 159 

(So) Bodhisattva dwelt in his lofty palace, with 
music such as this. The king his father, for the 
prince's sake, dwelt purely in his palace, practising 
every virtue ; 160 

Delighting s in the teaching of the true law, he * 
put away from him every evil companion, (that) his 
heart might not be polluted by lust; regarding 
inordinate desire as poison, 161 

Keeping his passion and his body in due control, 
destroying and repressing all trivial thoughts, de- 
siring to enjoy virtuous conversation, loving 6 instruc- 
tion (fit) to subdue the hearts of men, 162 



1 That is, rising from the earth above other hills. 

* Gandharvas, heavenly musicians ; muses. 

* With nobleness of purpose^ in) loving the transforming power 
of the true law. That is, leading a religious life. 

* That is, as I understand it, the king himself, for his son's sake, 
devoted himself to piety. • 

6 Or, by means of loving instruction subduing men's hearts; or, by 
love, teaching to subdue men's hearts. 



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26 FO-SHOHING-TSAN-KING. 1,2." 

Aiming to accomplish the conversion of unbe- 
lievers; removing all schemes of opposition 1 (from 
whatever source they came), by the enlightening 
power of his doctrine, aiming to save the entire 
world; (thus he desired) that the body of people 
should obtain rest ; 163 

Even as we desire to give peace to our children, 
so did he long to give rest to the world 2 . He also 
attended to his religious duties (sacrificing by fire 
to all the spirits), with clasped hands adoring the 
moon (drinking the moon's brightness) ; 164 

Bathing his body in the waters of the Ganges ; 
cleansing his heart in the waters *of religion, perform- 
ing his duties with no private aim, but regarding 
his child and the people at large, 165 

Loving righteous conversation 8 , righteous words 
with loving (aim), loving words with no mixture of 
falsehood, true words imbued by love, 166 

And yet withal so modest and self-distrustful, un- 
able on that account to speak as confident of truth ; 
loving to all, and yet not loving the world, with no 
thought of selfishness or covetous desire, 167 

Aiming to restrain the tongue and in quietness to 
find rest from wordy contentions, not seeking in the 

1 Or, every kind of doctrine (magical art) that opposed religion. 

* Or, (he said) like as I desire rest for my child, so Ac. 

8 This and the whole of the context is obscure; the account 
evidently refers to 5uddhodana; the line which I have translated 
' loving righteous conversation ' may be rendered ' loving conversa- 
tion (or, converse), opposing a want of truth or righteousness (i),' 
or, ' loving an absence of all unrighteousness in conversation.' The 
next line, which is evidently in contrast with the previous one, may 
be translated, ' Righteous words, opposed to an absence of love.' 
The next line is, ' Loving words, opposed to that which is not true.' 
And then follows, 'Truthful words, opposed to that which is not love.' 



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1,3. LIVING IN THE PALACE. if 

multitude of religious duties to condone for a worldly 
principle in action 1 ; 168 

But aiming to benefit the world, by a liberal and 
unostentatious charity; the heart without any 
contentious thought, but resolved by goodness to 
subdue the contentious, 169 

Composing the one 2 , whilst protecting the seven, 
removing the seven, guarding and adjusting the 
five, reaching to the three, by having learned the 
three, knowing the two, and removing the two ; 1 70 

Desiring to mortify the passions, and to destroy 
every enemy of virtue, not multiplying coarse or 
unseemly words, but exhorting to virtue in the use 
of courteous language, 171 

Full of sympathy and ready charity, pointing out 
and practising the way of mutual dependence, re- 
ceiving and understanding the wisdom of spirits 
and ./foshis, crushing and destroying every cruel and 
hateful thought ; 172 

Thus his fame and virtue were widely renowned, 
(and yet himself) finally (or, for ever) separate from 
the ties of the world, showing the ability of a master 
builder, laying a good foundation of virtue, an ex- 
ample for all the earth ; 173 

So a man's heart composed and at rest, his limbs 
and all his members will also be at ease. And now 



1 I would rather translate these two lines thus, ' Not regarding 
so much the assemblies convoked for sacrificing to the gods, as 
excelling in the merit (happiness) of separation from worldly 
things;' or the word 'sse' may mean 'sacrifice' itself (as vou'a in 
Greek), and then it would be ' excelling in merit without sacrifice.' 

1 These four lines are enigmatical. They perhaps have some 
reference to the teaching of the seven J?/'shis, or the number seven 
may refer to the ' seven passions.' 



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28 FO-SHOHINOTSAN-KING. I, a; 

the son of .Suddhodana, and his virtuous wife 
Yarodhara, 1 74 

As time went on, growing to full estate, their 
child Rahula was born ; and then .Suddhodana rifa 
considered thus, ' My son, the prince, having a son 
born to him, 175 

4 The affairs of the empire will be handed down in 
succession, and there will be no end to its righteous 
government; the prince having begotten a son, 
will love his son as I love him \ 1 76 

' And no longer think about leaving his home as 
an ascetic, but devote himself to the practice of 
virtue ; I now have found complete rest of heart, 
like one just born to heavenly joys.' 177 

Like as in the first days of the kalpa, /?*shi-kings 
by the way in which (they walked), practising pure 
and spotless deeds, offered up religious offerings, 
without harm to living thing, 1 78 

And illustriously prepared an excellent karma, 
so the king excelling in the excellence of purity 2 , 
in family and excellency of wealth, excelling in 
strength and every exhibition of prowess, 179 

Reflected the glory of his name through the world, 
as the sun sheds abroad his thousand rays. But 
now, being the king of men (or, a king among men), 
he deemed it right to exhibit his son's (prowess), 180 

For the sake of his family and kin, to exhibit him ; 
to increase his family's renown, his glory spread so 
high as even to obtain the name of 'God begotten;' 
and having partaken of these heavenly joys, 181 



1 Or, loving his son, and loving me also. 
' We have here a succession of lines in which there is a play on 
the word ' excellency ' (shing), or ' victorious ' (tfina). 



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1,3- DISGUST AT SORROW. 29 

Enjoying the happiness of increased wisdom; 
understanding the truth, by his own righteousness 
derived from previous hearing of the truth ; the 
reward of previous acts, widely known 1 . 182 

Would that this might lead my son (he prayed) to 
love his child and not forsake his home ; the kings of 
all countries, whose sons have not yet grown up, 1 83 

Have prevented them exercising authority in the 
empire, in order to give their minds relaxation, and 
for this purpose have provided them with worldly 
indulgences, so that they may perpetuate the royal 
seed; 184 

So now the king, having begotten a royal son, 
indulged him in every sort of pleasure ; desiring that 
he might enjoy these worldly delights, and not wish 
to wander from his home in search of wisdom ; 185 

In former times the Bodhisattva kings, although 
their way (life) has been restrained (severe), have 
yet enjoyed the pleasures of the world, and when 
they have begotten a son, then separating themselves 
from family ties, 186 

Have afterwards entered the solitude of the 
mountains, to prepare themselves in the way of a 
silent recluse. 187 

Varga 3. Disgust at Sorrow a . 

Without are pleasant garden glades, flowing foun- 
tains, pure refreshing lakes, with every kind of 

1 These verses are very obscure, and can only be understood by 
comparison with the Sanskrit. 

* In this section we have an account of the excursion of the 
royal prince without the precincts of the palace, and the sights 
which affected his mind with a desire to leave the world. 



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30 FO-SHO-HING-TSAN-KING. 1, 3. 

flower, and trees with fruit, arranged in rows, deep 
shade beneath. 188 

There, too, are various kinds of wondrous birds, 
flying and sporting in the midst, and on the surface 
of the water the four kinds of flowers, bright colour'd, 
giving out their floating scent ; 189 

Minstrel maidens * cause their songs, and chorded 
music, to invite the prince. He, hearing the 
sounds of singing, sighs for the pleasures of the 
garden shades, 190 

And cherishing within these happy thoughts 2 , he 
dwelt upon the joys of an outside excursion ; even 
as the chained elephant ever longs for the free 
desert wilds. 191 

The royal father, hearing that the prince would 
enjoy to wander through the gardens, first ordered 
all his attendant officers to adorn and arrange them, 
after their several offices : 192 

To make level and smooth the king's highway, 
to remove from the path all offensive matter, all old 
persons, diseased or deformed, all those suffering 
through poverty or great grief, 193 

So that his son in his present humour might see 
nothing likely to afflict his heart. The adornments 
being duly made, the prince was invited to an 
audience; 194 

The king seeing his son approach, patted his head 
and looking at the colour of his face, feelings of 
sorrow and joy intermingled, bound him. His mouth 
willing to speak, his heart restrained. 195 

(Now see) the jewel-fronted gaudy chariot; the 
four equally-pacing, stately horses; good-tempered 

1 Otherwise, singing-women. * Or, thoughts of happiness. 



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1,3. DISGUST AT SORROW. 3 1 

and well -trained; young and of graceful appear- 
ance; 196 

Perfectly pure and white, and draped with flowery 
coverings. In the same chariot stands the (stately) 
driver ; the streets were scattered over with flowers ; 
precious drapery fixed on either side of the way, 197 

With dwarfed trees lining the road, costly vessels 
employed for decoration, hanging canopies and varie- 
gated banners, silken curtains, moved by the rustling 
breeze, 198 

Spectators arranged on either side of the path. 
With bodies bent and glistening eyes, eagerly gazing, 
but not rudely staring, as the blue lotus flower (they 
bent) drooping in the air, 199 

Ministers and attendants flocking round him, as 
stars following the chief of the constellation 1 ; all 
uttering the same suppressed whisper of admiration, 
at a sight so seldom seen in the world ; 200 

Rich and poor, humble and exalted, old and young 
and middle-aged, all paid the greatest respect, and 
invoked blessings on the occasion : 201 

So the country-folk and the town-folk, hearing 
that the prince was coming forth, the well-to-do not 
waiting for their servants, those asleep and awake 
not mutually calling to one another, 202 

The six kinds of creatures not gathered together 
and penned, the money not collected and locked up, 
the doors and gates not fastened, all went pouring 
along the way on foot ; 203 

The towers were filled and the mounds by the 
trees, the windows and the terraces along the streets ; 
with bent body fearing to lift their eyes, carefully 

1 As stars following the constellation-king. 

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i 



32 FO-SHOHING-TSAN-KING. 1, 3. 

seeing that there was nothing about them to 
offend, 204 

Those seated on high addressing those seated on 
the ground, those going on the road addressing those 
passing on high, the mind intent on one object alone ; 
so that if a heavenly form had flown past, 205 

Or a form entitled to highest respect, there would 
have been no distraction visible, so intent was the 
body and so immovable the limbs. And now beautiful 
as the opening lily, 206 

He advances towards the garden glades, wishing 
to accomplish the words of the holy prophet (&shi). 
The prince seeing the ways prepared and watered, and 
the joyous holiday appearance of the people, 207 

(Seeing too) the drapery and the chariot pure, 
bright, shining, his heart exulted greatly and rejoiced. 
The people (on their part) gazed at the prince, so 
beautifully adorned, with all his retinue, 208 

Like an assembled company of kings (gathered) 
to see a heaven-born prince. And now a Deva-ra^a 
of the Pure abode, suddenly appears by the side of 
the road ; 209 

His form changed into that of an old man, 
struggling for life, his heart weak and oppressed. 
The prince seeing the old man, filled with appre- 
hension, asked his charioteer, 210 

4 What kind of man is this ? his head white and 
his- shoulders bent, his eyes bleared and his body 
withered, holding a stick to support him along the 
way. 211 

' Is his body suddenly dried up by the heat, or 
has he been born in this way ?' The charioteer, 
his heart much embarrassed, scarcely dared to 
answer truly, 212 



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1,3- DISGUST AT SORROW. 33 

Till the pure-born (Deva) added his spiritual 
power, and caused him to frame a reply in true 
words: 'His appearance changed, his vital powers 
decayed, filled with sorrow, with little pleasure, 213 

4 His spirits gone, his members nerveless, these 
are the indications of what is called " old age." This 
man was once a sucking child, brought up and 
nourished at his mother's breast, 214 

'And as a youth full of sportive life, handsome, 
and in enjoyment of the five pleasures; as years 
passed on, his frame decaying, he is brought now to 
the waste of age.' 215 

The prince greatly agitated and moved, asked his 
charioteer another question and said, ' Is yonder 
man the only one afflicted with age, or shall I, and 
others also, be such as he ?' 216 

The charioteer again replied and said, 'Your 
highness also inherits this lot, as time goes on, the 
form itself is changed, and this must doubtless come, 
beyond all hindrance : 217 

' The youthful form must wear the garb of age, 
throughout the world, this is the common lot.' 
Bodhisattva, who had long prepared the foundation 
of pure and spotless wisdom, 218 

Broadly setting the root of every high quality, 
with a view to gather large fruit in his present life, 
hearing these words respecting the sorrow of age, 
was afflicted in mind, and his hair stood up- 
right. 219 

Just as the roll of the thunder and the storm 
alarm and put to flight the cattle; so was Bodhi- 
sattva affected by the words ; shaking with appre- 
hension, he deeply sighed ; 220 

Constrained at heart because of the pain of 'age;' 

[19] D 



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34 FOSHOHING-TSAN-KING. 1, 3. 

with shaking head and constant gaze» he thought 
upon this misery of decay; what joy or pleasure 
can men take (he thought), 221 

In that which soon must wither, stricken by the 
marks of age ; affecting all without exception ; though 
gifted now with youth and strength, yet not one 
but soon must change and pine away. 222 

The eye beholding such signs as these before it, 
how can it not be oppressed by a desire to escape 1 ? 
Bodhisattva then addressed his charioteer, ' Quickly 
turn your chariot and go back, 223 

' Ever thinking on this subject of old age approach- 
ing, what pleasures now can these gardens afford, the 
years of my life like the fast-flying wind ; turn your 
chariot, and with speedy wheels take me to my 
palace.' 224 

And so his heart keeping in the same sad tone, (he 
was) as one who returns to a place of entombment ; 
unaffected by any engagement or employment, so he 
found no rest in anything within his home. 225 

The king hearing of his son's sadness urged (his 
companions) to induce him again to go abroad, and 
forthwith incited his ministers and attendants to de- 
corate the gardens even more than before. 226 

The Deva then caused himself to appear as a sick 
man ; struggling for life, he stood by the wayside, 
his body swollen and disfigured, sighing with deep- 
drawn groans, 227 

His hands and knees contracted and sore with 
disease, his tears flowing as he piteously muttered 
(his petition). The prince asked his charioteer, 
' What sort of man, again, is this ?' 228 

1 How can a man not (desire) to remove it (i.e. old age) as 
a hateful thing? 



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1,3- DISGUST AT SORROW. 35 

Replying he said, ' This is a sick man. The four 
elements all confused and disordered, worn and feeble, 
with no remaining strength, bent down with weak- 
ness, looking to his fellow-men for help.' 229 

The prince hearing the words thus spoken, imme- 
diately became sad and depressed in heart, and 
asked, ' Is this the only man afflicted thus, or are 
others liable to the same (calamity)?' 230 

In reply he said, ' Through all the world, men 
are subject to the same condition ; those who have 
bodies must endure affliction, the poor and ignorant, 
as well as the rich and great.' 231 

The prince, when these words met his ears, was 
oppressed with anxious thought and grief; his body 
and his mind were moved throughout, just as the 
moon upon the ruffled tide. 232 

' Placed thus in the great furnace of affliction, 
say! what rest or quiet can there be! Alas! that 
worldly men, (blinded by) ignorance and oppressed 
with dark delusion, 233 

' Though the robber sickness may appear at any 
time, yet live with blithe and joyous hearts !' On 
this, turning his chariot back again, he grieved to 
think upon the pain of sickness. 234 

As a man beaten and wounded sore, with body 
weakened, leans upon his staff, so dwelt he in the 
seclusion of his palace, lone-seeking, hating worldly 
pleasures. 235 

The king hearing once more of his son's return, 
asked anxiously the reason why, and in reply was 
told — ' he saw the pain of sickness.' The king in 
fear like one beside himself, 236 

Roundly blamed the keepers of the way; his 
heart constrained, his lips spoke not; again he 

d 2 



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36 FO-SHO-HING-TSAN-KING. 1, 3. 

increased the crowd of music women, the sounds 
of merriment twice louder than aforetime, 237 

If by these sounds and sights (the prince) might 
be gratified ; and indulging worldly feelings, might 
not hate his home. Night and day the charm of 
melody increased, but his heart was still unmoved 
by it. 238 

The king himself then went forth to observe 
everything successively, and to make the gardens 
even yet more attractive, selecting with care the 
attendant women, that they might excel in every 
point of personal beauty ; 239 

Quick in wit and able to arrange matters well, 
fit to ensnare men by their winning looks ; he placed 
additional keepers along the king's way, he strictly 
ordered every offensive sight to be removed, 240 

And earnestly exhorted the illustrious coachman, 
to look well and pick out the road as he went. And 
now that Deva of the pure abode, again caused the 
appearance of a dead man ; 241 

Four persons carrying the corpse lifted it on high, 
and appeared (to be going on) in front of Bodhi- 
sattva ; the surrounding people saw it not, but only 
Bodhisattva and the charioteer ; 242 

(Once more) he asked, ' What is this they carry ? 
with streamers and flowers of every choice descrip- 
tion, whilst the followers are overwhelmed with 
grief, tearing their hair and wailing piteously.' 243 

And now the gods instructing the coachman, he 
replied and said, 'This is a "dead man," all his 
powers of body destroyed, life departed ; his heart 
without thought, his intellect dispersed ; 244 

1 His spirit gone, his form withered and decayed ; 
stretched out as a dead log; family ties broken 



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1,3. DISGUST AT SORROW. 37 

— all his friends who once loved him, clad in white 
cerements, 245 

4 Now no longer delighting to behold him, remove 
him to lie in some hollow ditch (tomb).' The prince 
hearing the name of death, his heart constrained 
by painful thoughts, 246 

He asked, ' Is this the only dead man, or does the 
world contain like instances ?' Replying thus he said, 
4 All, everywhere, the same ; he who begins his life 
must end it likewise ; 247 

4 The strong and lusty and the middle-aged, 
having a body, cannot but decay (and die).' The 
prince now harassed and perplexed in mind ; his body 
bent upon the chariot leaning-board, 248 

With bated breath and struggling accents, stam- 
mered thus, ' Oh worldly men ! how fatally deluded ! 
beholding everywhere the body brought to dust, 
yet everywhere the more carelessly living ; 249 

4 The heart is neither lifeless wood nor stone, and 
yet it thinks not " all is vanishing ! * ' Then turning, 
he directed his chariot to go back, and no longer 
waste his time in wandering. 250 

How could he, whilst in fear of instant death, go 
wandering here and there with lightened heart! 
The charioteer remembering the king's exhortation 
feared much nor dared go back ; 251 

Straightforward then he pressed his panting steeds, 
passed onward to the gardens, (came to) the groves 
and babbling streams of crystal water, the pleasant 
trees, spread out with gaudy verdure, 252 

The noble living things and varied beasts so 
wonderful, the flying creatures and their notes 
melodious, all charming and delightful to the eye 
and ear, even as the heavenly Nandavana. 253 



)) 



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38 FOSHO-HING-TSAN-KING. 1,4. 



Varga 4. ' Putting away Desire. 

The prince on entering the garden, the women 
came around to pay him court; and to arouse 
in him thoughts frivolous ; with ogling ways and 
deep design, 254 

Each one setting herself off to best advantage ; 
or joining together in harmonious concert, clapping 
their hands, or moving their feet in unison, or 
joining close, body to body, limb to limb ; 255 

Or indulging in smart repartees, and mutual 
smiles ; or assuming a thoughtful saddened counte- 
nance, and so by sympathy to please the prince, and 
provoke in him a heart affected by love. 256 

But all the women beheld the prince, clouded in 
brow, and his godlike body not exhibiting its wonted 
signs of beauty ; fair in bodily appearance, surpass- 
ingly lovely 1 , 257 

All looked upwards as they gazed, as when we 
call upon the moon Deva to come*; but all their 
subtle devices 3 were ineffectual to move Bodhi- 
sattva's heart. 258 

At last commingling together they join and look 
astonished and in fear, silent without a word. Then 
there was a Brahmaputra, whose name was called 
Udayi * (Yau-to-i). 259 

(He) addressing the women, said, ' Now all of 



1 Surpassingly adorned or magnificent 

2 Or, as when the moon Deva (first) comes. 

* In every way practising subtle devices (updya). 
4 There is mention of Ud&yi in the Fo - pen -hing-tsah- king, 
chap. XIV. See also note 1, p. 124, Romantic History of Buddha. 



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1,4- PUTTING AWAY DESIRE. 39 

you, so graceful and fair, (see if you cannot) by your 
combined power hit on some device; for beauty's 
power is not for ever. 260 

'Still it holds the world in bondage, by secret 
ways and lustful arts ; but no such loveliness in all 
the world (as yours), equal to that of heavenly 
nymphs 1 ; 261 

* The gods beholding it would leave their queens, 
spirits and /fo'shis would be misled by it ; why not 
then the prince, the son of an earthly king 2 ? why 
should not his feelings be aroused ? 262 

' This prince indeed, though he restrains his heart 
and holds it fixed 3 , pure-minded, with virtue un- 
contaminated, not to be overcome by power of 
women ; 263 

' (Yet) of old there was Sundart (Su-to-li) able to 
destroy the great Jitshi, and to lead him to indulge 
in love, and so degrade his boasted eminence 4 ; 264 

' Undergoing long penance, Gautama fell likewise 
(by the arts of) a heavenly queen ; Shing-ku, a Hishi 
putra, practising lustful indulgences according to 
fancy s , (was lost). 265 

'The Brahman Z??shi VL$vamitra (Pi-she-po), 
living religiously* for ten thousand years, deeply 

1 In appearance equal to Devfs. 

a Or, what then is man (to do), though son of a king, that his 
feelings should not be aroused ? 

* Holding his will, though firmly fixed. 

* And bend his head beneath her feet 

* The phrase which ends this line is obscure. It may be rendered 
thus, ' Shing-kU, the Mshi putra, practised lustful ways, beside the 
Sowings of the fountain.' [See a similar case, Catena of Buddhist 
Scriptures, p. 259.] The Sanskrit text is as follows : 'V?»shyaw<nga, 
the son of a Muni, unlearned with women.' 

a Practising religious rules, or, preparing a religious life. 



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40 FOSHOHING-TSAN-KING. 1,4. 

ensnared by a heavenly queen, in one day was com- 
pletely shipwreck'd in faith 1 ; 266 

' Thus those enticing women, by their power, over- 
came the Brahman ascetics ; how much more may 
ye, by your arts, overpower (the resolves) of the 
king's son ; 267 

' Strive therefore after new devices 2 , let not the 
king fail in a successor to the throne ; women, altho' 
naturally weak 8 , are high and potent in the way of 
ruling men. 268 

' What may not their arts accomplish in promoting 
in men a lustful (impure) desire ? ' At this time all 
the attendant women, hearing throughout the words 
of Udiyi, 269 

Increasing their powers of pleasing, as the quiet 
horse when touched by the whip, went into the 
presence of the royal prince, and each one strove 
in the practice of every kind of act, 2 70 

(They) joined in music and in smiling conversa- 
tion, raising their eyebrows, showing their white 
teeth, with ogling looks, glancing one at the other, 
their light drapery exhibiting their white bodies, 271 

Daintily moving with mincing gait, acting the 
part of a bride as if coming gradually nearer*, 
desiring to promote in him a feeling of love, re- 
membering the words of the great king 8 , 272 

— ■ ■* 

1 Completely ruined. The name of the queen was Ghr»'ta#t. 

* The Chinese 'fong pien' denotes the use of 'means to an 
end;' generally it can be rendered 'expedients.' 

* Or, the nature of women although weak. 

4 So I understand the passage, as if a coy wife gradually ap- 
proached her husband. 

* Who the great king is I do not find, but I take the two lines 
following to be a quotation. [The great king was probably the 
father of Buddha.] 



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1,4- PUTTING AWAY DESIRE. 4 1 

' With dissolute form and slightly clad, forgetful 
of modesty and womanly reserve.' The prince with 
resolute heart was silent and still, with unmoved 
face (he sat) ; 273 

Even as the great elephant-dragon, whilst the 
entire herd moves round him 1 ; so nothing could 
disturb or move his heart, dwelling in their midst 
as in a confined room *. 274 

Like the divine .Sakra, around whom all the Devfs 
assemble, so was the prince as he dwelt in the gar- 
dens; (the maidens) encircling him thus ; 275 

Some arranging their dress, others washing their 
hands or feet, others perfuming their bodies with 
scent, others twining flowers for decoration, 2 76 

Others making strings for jewelled necklets, 
others rubbing or striking their bodies, others 
resting, or lying, one beside the other, others, with 
head inclined, whispering secret words, 277 

Others engaged in common sports, others talking 
of amorous things, others assuming lustful attitudes, 
striving thus to move his heart ; 278 

But Bodhisattva, peaceful and collected, firm as 
a rock, difficult to move, hearing all these women's 
talk, unaffected either to joy or sorrow, 279 

Was driven still more to serious thought, sighing 
to witness such strange conduct, and beginning to 
understand the women's design, by these means to 
disconcert his mind, 280 

4 Not knowing that youthful beauty soon falls, 
destroyed by old age and death, fading and perish- 
ing! This is the great distress! What ignor- 



' Or, surrounded bj the entire herd. 

* That is, cramped in the midst of the encircling crowd of girls. 



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42 FOSHOH1NG-TSAN-KING. 1, 4. 

ance and delusion (he reflected) overshadow their 
minds, 281 

4 Surely they ought to consider old age, disease, 
and death, and day and night stir themselves up 
to exertion, whilst this sharp double-edged sword 
hangs over the neck. What room for sport or 
laughter, 282 

' Beholding those (monsters) old age, disease, and 
death ? A man who is unable to resort to this 
inward knowledge, what is he but a wooden or 
a plaster man, what heart-consideration in such a 
case ! 283 

' Like the double tree that appears in the desert, 
with leaves and fruit all perfect and ripe, the first 
cut down and destroyed, the other unmoved by 
apprehension, 284 

' So it is in the case of the mass of men, they 
have no understanding either!' At this time 
Udayi came to the place where the prince 
was, 285 

And observing his silent and thoughtful mien, 
unmoved by any desire for indulgence (the five 
desires), he forthwith addressed the prince, and 
said, 'The Maharaja, by his former appoint- 
ment 1 , 286 

' Has selected me to act as friend to his son ; 
may I therefore speak some friendly words ? an 
enlightened friendship (or, friend) is of three sorts, 
that which removes things unprofitable, 287 

' Promotes that which is real gain, and stands 
by a friend in adversity. I claim the name of 



1 This passage is obscure ; literally it is ' former — seeing — com- 
mand.' 



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1,4- PUTTING AWAY DESIRE. 43 

" enlightened friend," and would renounce all that 
is magisterial, 288 

' But yet not speak lightly or with indifference. 
What then are the three sources of advantage ? 
listen, and I will now utter true words, and prove 
myself a true and sincere adviser. 289 

' When the years are fresh and ripening, beauty 
and pleasing qualities in bloom, not to give proper 
weight to woman's influence, this is a weak man's 
policy (body) , . 290 

' It is right sometimes to be of a crafty mind, 
submitting to those little subterfuges, which find a 
place in the heart's undercurrents, and obeying what 
those thoughts suggest, 29 1 

' In way of pleasures to be got from dalliance, this is 
no wrong in woman's (eye) I even if now the heart has 
no desire, yet it is fair to follow such devices ; 292 

' Agreement (acquiescence) is the joy of woman's 
heart, acquiescence is the substance (the full) of true 
adornment ; but if a man reject these overtures, he's 
like a tree deprived of leaves and fruits ; 293 

' Why then ought you to yield and acquiesce ? 
that you may share in all these things. Because 
in taking, there's an end of trouble — no light and 
changeful thoughts then worry us — 294 

'For pleasure is the first and foremost thought 
of all, the gods themselves cannot dispense with 
it. Lord tSakra was drawn by it to love the wife 
of Gautama the JRishi ; 295 

'So likewise the J&shi Agastya, through a long 

1 ' This is the character of non-victorious men.' Again there is 
a play on the word ' Shing' a Gina. The Sanskrit renders it 
'rudeness.' The Chinese fi-shing-^in may also mean coarse or 
unpolished. 



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44 FO-SHO-HING-TSAN-KING. 1, 4. 

period of discipline 1 , practising austerities, from 
hankering after a heavenly queen (Devi), lost all 
reward of his religious endeavours, 296 

' The Tfo'shi Br/haspati, and A!andradeva putra; the 
ifoshi Parasara, and Kava%ara (Kia-pin-^e-lo) 2 : 297 

' All these, out of many others, were overcome by 
woman's love. How much more then, in your case, 
should you partake in such pleasant joys ; 298 

4 Nor refuse, with wilful heart, to participate in 
the worldly delights, which your present station, 
possessed of such advantages, offers you, in the 
presence of these attendants.' 299 

At this time the royal prince, hearing the words 
of his friend Udayi, so skilfully put, with such fine 
distinction, cleverly citing worldly instances, 300 

Answered thus to Udayi : ' Thank you for having 
spoken sincerely to me, let me likewise answer 
you in the same way, and let your heart suspend 
its judgment whilst you listen ; 301 

' It is not that I am careless about beauty, or am 
ignorant of (the power of) human joys, but only that 
I see on all the impress of change ; therefore my 
heart is sad and heavy ; 302 

' If these things were sure of lasting, without the 
ills of age, disease, and death, then would I too take 
my fill of love ; and to the end find no disgust or 
sadness ; 303 

' If you will undertake to cause these women's 
beauty not after-while to change or wither, then, 
though the joy of love may have its evil, still it 
might hold the mind in thraldom; 304 

(' To know that other) men grow old, sicken, and 

1 'Aang-yS,' the long night 

* The Sanskrit text has, ' Vasish/Aa begat Kapi%aldda.' 



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1,4- PUTTING AWAY DESIRE. 45 

die, would be enough to rob such joys of satisfaction ; 
yet how much more in their own case (knowing this) 
would discontentment fill the mind ; 305 

' (To know) such pleasures hasten to decay, and 
their bodies likewise ; if, notwithstanding this, men 
yield to the power of love, their case indeed is like 
the very beasts. 306 

' And now you cite the names of many ^?/shis, 
who practised lustful ways in life; their cases like- 
wise cause me sorrow, for in that they did these 
things, they perished. 307 

' Again, you cite the name of that illustrious king, 
who freely gratified his passions, but he, in like way, 
perished in the act; know, then, that he was not -a 
conqueror ((Pina); 308 

' With smooth words to conceal an intrigue, and 
to persuade one's neighbour to consent, and by con- 
senting to defile his mind ; how can this be called a 
just device ? 309 

' It is but to seduce one with a hollow lie, — such 
ways are not for me to practise ; or, for those who 
love the truth and honesty ; for they are, forsooth, 
unrighteous ways', 310 

' And such a disposition is hard to reverence ; 
shaping one's conduct after one's likings, liking this 
or that, and seeing no harm in it, what method of 
experience is this ! 311 

'A hollow compliance, and a protesting heart, 
such method is not for me to follow; but this I 
know, old age, disease, and death, these are the 
great afflictions which accumulate, 312 

4 And overwhelm me with their presence ; on 
these I find no friend to speak, alas I alas ! Udayi ! 
these, after all, are the great concerns ; 313 



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46 FO-SHO-HING-TSAN-KING. I, g. 

' The pain of birth, old age, disease, and death ; 
this grief is that we have to fear ; the eyes see all 
things falling to decay, and yet the heart finds joy in 
following them; 314 

*- But I have little strength of purpose, or com- 
mand ; this heart of mine is feeble and distraught, 
reflecting thus on age, disease, and death. Dis- 
tracted, as I never was before; 315 

4 Sleepless by night and day, how can I then 
indulge in pleasure ? Old age, disease, and death 
consuming me, their certainty beyond a doubt, 316 

' And still to have no heavy thoughts, in truth my 
heart would be a log or stone.' Thus the prince, for 
Uda's sake, used every kind of skilful argument, 317 

Describing all the pains of pleasure ; and not 
perceiving that the day declined. And now the 
waiting women all, with music and their various 
attractions, 318 

Seeing that all were useless for the end, with 
shame began to flock back to the city; the prince 
beholding all the gardens, bereft of their gaudy 
ornaments, 319 

The women all returning home, the place becoming 
silent and deserted, felt with twofold strength the 
thought of impermanence. With saddened mien 
going back, he entered his palace ; 320 

The king, his father, hearing of the prince, his 
heart estranged from thoughts of pleasure, was 
greatly overcome with sorrow, and like a sword it 
pierced his heart 321 

Forthwith assembling all his council, he sought 
of them some means to gain his end; they all 
replied, 'These sources of desire are not enough 
to hold and captivate his heart' 322 



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J, 5. LEAVING THE CITY. 47 



Varga 5. Leaving the City. 

And so the king increased the means for gratify- 
ing the appetite for pleasure; both night and day 
the joys of music wore out the prince, opposed to 
pleasure ; 323 

Disgusted with them, he desired their absence, 
his mind was weaned from all such thoughts, he 
only thought of age, disease, and death ; as the 
lion wounded by an arrow. 324 

The king then sent his chief ministers, and the 
most distinguished of his family, young in years 
and eminent for beauty, as well as for wisdom and 
dignity of manners, 325 

To accompany, and rest with him, both night 
and day, in order to influence the prince's mind. 
And now within a little interval, the prince again 
requested the king that he might go abroad. 326 

Once more the chariot and the well-paced horses 
were prepared, adorned with precious substances and 
every gem ; and then with all the nobles, his asso- 
ciates, surrounding him, he left the city gates: 327 

Just as the four kinds of flower 1 , when the sun 
shines, open out their leaves, so was the prince in 
all his spiritual splendour ; effulgent in the beauty 
of his youth time; 328 

As he proceeded to the gardens from the city, 
the road was well prepared, smooth, and wide, the 
trees were bright with flowers and fruit, his heart 
was joyous, and forgetful of its care. 329 

1 It may be a description of some particular flower, ' four-seed 
(kindj-flower.' 



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48 FO-SHO-HING-TSAN-K1NG. I, g. 

Now by the roadside as he beheld the ploughmen, 
plodding along the furrows, and the writhing worms, 
his heart again was moved with piteous feeling, and 
anguish pierced his soul afresh ; 330 

To see those labourers at their toil, struggling 
with painful work, their bodies bent, their hair dis- 
hevelled, the dripping sweat upon their faces, their 
persons fouled with mud and dust; 331 

The ploughing oxen, too, bent by the yokes, their 
lolling tongues and gaping mouths; the nature of 
the prince, loving, compassionate, his mind con- 
ceived most poignant sorrow, 332 

And nobly moved to sympathy, he groaned with 
pain; then stooping down he sat upon the ground, 
and watched this painful scene of suffering ; reflect- 
ing on the ways of birth and death ! 333 

' Alas ! he cried, for all the world ! how dark and 
ignorant, void of understanding 1' And then to give 
his followers chance of rest, he bade them each 
repose where'er they list ; 334 

Whilst he beneath the shadow of a Gambu tree, 
gracefully seated, gave himself to thought. He 
pondered on the fact of life and death, inconstancy, 
and endless progress to decay. 335 

His heart thus fixed without confusion, the five 
desires (senses) covered and clouded over, lost in 
possession of enlightenment and insight, he .entered 
on the first pure state of ecstacy. 336 

All low desire removed, most perfect peace 
ensued; and fully now in Samadhi (he saw) the 
misery and utter sorrow of the world; the ruin 
wrought by age, disease, and death ; 337 

The great misery following on the body's death ; 
and yet men not awakened to the truth ! oppressed 



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1,5. LEAVING THE CITY. 49 

with others' suffering (age, disease, and death), this 
load of sorrow weigh'd his mind ; 338 

' I now will seek (he said) a noble law, unlike the 
worldly methods known to men, I will oppose disease 
and age and death, and strive against the mischief 
wrought by these on men.' 339 

Thus lost in tranquil contemplation, (he con- 
sidered that) youth, vigour, and strength of life, 
constantly renewing themselves, without long stay, 
in the end fulfil the rule of ultimate destruc- 
tion; 340 

(Thus he pondered) without excessive joy or 
grief, without hesitation or confusion of thought, 
without dreaminess or extreme longing, without 
aversion or discontent, 341 

But perfectly at peace, with no hindrance, radiant 
with the beams of increased illumination. At this 
time a Deva of the Pure abode, transforming him- 
self into the shape of a Bhikshu, 342 

Came to the place where the prince was seated ; 
the prince with due consideration rose to meet him, 
and asked him who he was. In reply he said, ' I 
am a Shaman, 343 

' Depressed and sad at thought of age, disease, 
and death, I have left my home to seek some way 
of rescue, but everywhere I find old age, disease, 
and death, all (things) hasten to decay and there is 
no permanency ; 344 

' Therefore I search for the happiness of some- 
thing that decays not, that never perishes, that 
never knows beginning, that looks with equal mind 
on enemy and friend, that heeds not wealth nor 
beauty, 345 

' The happiness of one who finds repose alone in 

[19] E 



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50 FO-SHOHINOTSAN-KING. I, g. 

solitude, in some unfrequented dell, free from 
molestation, all thoughts about the world destroyed, 
dwelling in some lonely hermitage, 346 

' Untouched by any worldly source of pollution, 
begging for food sufficient for the body.' And 
forthwith as he stood before the prince, gradually 
rising up he disappeared in space. 347 

The prince with joyful mind, considering, recol- 
lected former Buddhas, established thus in perfect 
dignity of manner; with noble mien and presence, 
as this visitor. 348 

Thus calling things to mind with perfect self- 
possession, he reached the thought of righteousness, 
and by what means it can be gained. Indulging 
thus for length of time in thoughts of religious 
solitude, 349 

He now suppressed his feelings and controlled 
his members, and rising turned again towards the 
city. His followers all flocked after him, calling 
him to stop and not go far from them, 350 

But in his mind these secret thoughts so held 
him, devising means by which to escape from the 
world, that tho' his body moved along the road, 
his heart was far away among the mountains; 351 

Even as the bound and captive elephant, ever 
thinks about his desert wilds. The prince now 
entering the city, there met him men and women, 
earnest for their several ends ; 352 

The old besought him for their children, the 
young sought something for the wife, others sought 
something for their brethren ; all those allied by 
kinship or by family, 353 

Aimed to obtain their several suits, all of them 
joined in relationship dreading the pain (expectation) 



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I, 5. LEAVING THE CITY. 5 1 

of separation. And now the prince's heart was filled 
with joy, as he suddenly heard those words ' separa- 
tion and association.' 354 

' These are joyful sounds to me,' he said, ' they 
assure me that my vow shall be accomplished.' Then 
deeply pondering the joy of ' snapped relationship,' 
the idea of Nirva»a, deepened and widened in 
him 1 , 355 

His body as a peak of the Golden Mount, his 
shoulder like the elephant's, his voice like the spring- 
thunder, his deep-blue eye like that of the king of 
oxen, 356 

His mind full of religious thoughts (aims), his 
face bright as the full moon, his step like that of 
the lion king, thus he entered his palace, 357 

Even as the son of Lord Sakra. (or, vSakra-putra) 
his mind reverential, his person dignified, he went 
straight to his father's presence, and with head 
inclined, enquired, ' Is the king well ?' 358 

Then he explained his dread of age, disease, and 
death, and sought respectfully permission to be- 
come a hermit. ' For all things in the world ' 
(he said), 'though now united, tend to separa- / 
tion;' 359 

Therefore he prayed to leave the world ; desiring 
to find ' true deliverance.' His royal father hearing 
the words 'leave the world,' was forthwith seized 
with great heart-trembling, 360 

Even as the strong wild elephant shakes with 
his weight the boughs of some young sapling ; going 
forward, seizing the prince's hands, with falling 
tears, he spake as follows: 361 

1 Literally, 'deeply widened the mind of Nirva«a (Ni-pan).' 

E 2 



f 



52 FO-SHO-HING-TSAN-KING. I, 5. 

' Stop ! nor speak such words, the time is not yet 
come for "a religious life," you are young and 
strong, your heart beats full, to lead a religious life 
frequently involves trouble, 362 

' It is rarely possible to hold the desires in check, 
the heart not yet estranged from their enjoyment ; 
to leave your home and lead a painful ascetic life, 
your heart can hardly yet resolve on such a 
course; 363 

' To dwell amidst the desert wilds or lonely dells, 
this heart of yours would not be perfectly at rest, 
for though you love religious matters, you are not 
yet like me in years ; 364 

'You should undertake the kingdom's govern- 
ment, and let me first adopt ascetic life; but to 
give up your father and your sacred duties, this 
is not to act religiously; 365 

' You should suppress this thought of " leaving 
home," and undertake your worldly duties, find your 
delight in getting an illustrious name, and after this 
give up your home and family.' 366 

The prince, with proper reverence and respectful 
feelings, again besought his royal father ; but pro- 
mised if he could be saved from four calamities, 
that he would give up the thought of 'leaving 
home;' 367 

If he would grant him life without end, no disease, 
nor undesirable old age, and no decay of earthly 
possessions; then he would obey and give up the 
thought of ' leaving home.' 368 

The royal father then addressed the prince, ' Speak 
not such words as these, for with respect to these 
four things, who is there able to prevent them, or 
say nay to their approach ; 369 



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1,5- LEAVING THE CITY. 53 

'Asking such things as these (four things), you 
would provoke men's laughter ! But put away this 
thought of "leaving home," and once more take 
yourself to pleasure.' 370 

The prince again besought his father, ' If you may 
not grant me these four prayers, then let me go I 
pray, and leave my home. O ! place no difficulties 
in my path; 371 

' Your son is dwelling in a burning house, would 
you indeed prevent his leaving it! To solve a 
doubt is only reasonable, who could forbid a man 
to seek its explanation ? 372 

' Or if he were forbidden, then by self-destruction 
he might solve the difficulty, in an unrighteous way : 
and if he were to do so, who could restrain him after 
death?' 373 

The royal father, seeing his son's mind so firmly 
fixed that it could not be turned, and that it would 
be waste of strength to bandy further words or 
arguments, 374 

Forthwith commanded more attendant women, to 
provoke still more his mind to pleasure; day and 
night (he ordered them) to keep the roads and 
ways, to the end that he might not leave his 
palace; 375 

(He moreover ordered) all the ministers of the 
country to come to the place where dwelt the 
prince, to quote and illustrate the rules of filial 
piety, hoping to cause him to obey the wishes of 
the king. 376 

The prince, beholding his royal father bathed 
with tears and o'erwhelmed with grief, forthwith 
returned to his abode, and sat himself in silence to 
consider; 377 



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54 FO-SHO-HING-TSAN-KING. I, 5. 

All the women of the palace, coming towards him, 
waited as they circled him, and gazed in silence on 
his beauteous form. They gazed upon him not with 
furtive glance, 378 

But like the deer in autumn brake looks wistfully 
at the hunter; around the prince's straight and 
handsome form, (bright) as die mountain of true 
gold (Sumeru), 379 

The dancing women gathered doubtingly, waiting 
to hear him bid them sound their music ; repressing 
every feeling of the heart through fear, even as the 
deer within the brake ; 380 

Now gradually the day began to wane, the prince 
still sitting in the evening light, his glory streaming 
forth in splendour, as the sun lights up Mount 
Sumeru; 381 

Thus seated on his jewelled couch, surrounded 
by the fumes of sandal-wood, the dancing women 
took their places round; then sounded forth their 
heavenly (Gandharva) music, 382 

Even as Vai^aman (Vaurava«a) produces every 
kind of rare and heavenly sounds. The thoughts 
which dwelt within the prince's mind entirely drove 
from him desire for music, 383 

And tho' the sounds filled all the place, they fell 
upon his ear unnoticed. At this time the Deva 
of the Pure abode, knowing the prince's time was 
come, 384 

The destined time for quitting home, suddenly 
assumed a form and came to earth, to make the 
shapes of all the women unattractive, so that they 
might create disgust, 385 

And no desire arise from thought of beauty. 
Their half-clad forms bent in ungainly attitudes, 



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I, 5. LEAVING THE CITY. 55 

forgetful in their sleep, their bodies crooked or 
supine, the instruments of music lying scattered in 
disorder ; 386 

Leaning and facing one another, or with back to 
back, or like those beings thrown into the abyss, 
their jewelled necklets bound about like chains, 
their clothes and undergarments swathed around 
their persons; 387 

Grasping their instruments, stretched along the 
earth, even as those undergoing punishment at the 
hands of keepers (eunuchs), their garments in con- 
fusion, or like the broken kani flower (poppy?); 388 

Or some with bodies leaning in sleep against the 
wall, in fashion like a hanging bow or horn, or with 
their hands holding to the window-frames, and look- 
ing like an outstretched corpse ; 389 

Their mouths half opened or else gaping wide, 
the loathsome dribble trickling forth, their heads 
uncovered and in wild disorder, like some unreason- 
ing madman's ; 390 

The flower wreaths torn and hanging across their 
face, or slipping off the face upon the ground ; 
others with body raised as if in fearful dread, just 
like the lonely desert (?) bird; 391 

Or others pillowed on their neighbour's lap, their 
hands and feet entwined together, whilst others 
smiled or knit their brows in turn, some with eyes 
closed and open mouth, 392 

Their bodies lying in wild disorder, stretched here 
and there, like corpses thrown together. And now 
the prince seated, in his beauty, looked with thought 
on all the waiting women ; 393 

Before, they had appeared exceeding lovely, their 
laughing words, their hearts so light and gay, their 



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56 FO-SHO-HING-TSAN-KING. 1,5. 

forms so plump and young, their looks so bright ; but 
now, how changed ! so uninviting and repulsive. 394 

And such is woman's disposition ! how can they, 
then, be ever dear, or closely trusted ; such false 
appearances ! and unreal pretences ; they only mad- 
den and delude the minds of men. 395 

And now (he said), 'I have awakened to the truth ! 
Resolved am I to leave such false society.' At this 
time the Deva of the Pure abode descended and 
approached, unfastening the doors. 396 

The prince, too, at this time rose and walked 
along, amid the prostrate forms of all the women ; 
with difficulty reaching to the inner hall, he called 
to A'andaka, in these words, 397 

' My mind is now athirst and longing for the 
draught of the fountain of sweet dew, saddle then 
my horse, and quickly bring it here. I wish to 
reach the deathless city; 398 

' My heart is fixed beyond all change, resolved 
I am and bound by sacred oath ; these women, once 
so charming and enticing, now behold I altogether 
loathsome ; 399 

' The gates, which were before fast-barred and 
locked, now stand free and open! these evidences 
of something supernatural, point to a climax of 
my life.' 400 

Then A'andaka stood reflecting inwardly, whether 
to obey or not the prince's order, without informing 
his royal father of it, and so incur the heaviest 
punishment. 401 

The Devas then gave spiritual strength ; and 
unperceived the horse equipped came round, with 
even pace; a gallant steed, with all his jewelled 
trappings for a rider; 402 



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1,5- LEAVING THE CITY. 57 

High-maned, with flowing tail, broad -backed, 
short-haired and ear'd, with belly like the deer's, 
head like the king of parrots, wide forehead, round 
and claw-shaped nostrils, 403 

Breath like the dragon's, with breast and shoulders 
square, true and sufficient marks of his high breed. 
The royal prince, stroking the horse's neck, and 
rubbing down his body, said, 404 

' My royal father ever rode on thee, and found 
thee brave in fight and fearless of the foe ; now 
I desire to rely on thee alike ! to carry me far off 
to the stream (ford) of endless life, 405 

' To fight against and overcome the opposing force 
of men, the men who associate in search of pleasure, 
the men who engage in the search after wealth, the 
crowds who follow and flatter such persons ; 406 

' In opposing sorrow, friendly help is difficult (to 
find), in seeking religious truth there must be rare 
enlightenment, let us then be knit together thus 
as friends; then, at last, there will be rest from 
sorrow. 407 

' But now I wish to go abroad, to give deliverance 
from pain ; now then, for your own sake it is, and 
for the sake of all your kind, 408 

' That you should exert your strength, with noble 
pace, without lagging or weariness.' Having thus 
exhorted him, he bestrode his horse, and grasping 
the reins, proceeded forth ; 409 

The man like the sun shining forth from his 
tabernacle (sun-palace-streams), the horse like the 
white floating cloud (the white cloud-pile), exerting 
himself but without exciting haste, his breath con- 
cealed and without snorting; 410 

Four spirits (Devas) accompanying him, held up 



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58 FO-SHO-HING-TSAN-KING. I, g. 

his feet, heedfully concealing (his advance), silently 
and without noise ; the heavy gates fastened and 
barred (locked), the heavenly spirits of themselves 
caused to open; 411 

Reverencing deeply the virtuous (sinless) father, 
loving deeply the unequalled son, equally affected 
with love towards all the members of his family 
(these Devas took their place). 412 

Suppressing his feelings, but not extinguishing his 
memory, lightly he advanced and proceeded beyond 
the city, pure and spotless as the lily flowers which 
spring from the mud; 413 

Looking up with earnestness at his father's palace, 
he announced his purpose — unwitnessed and un- 
written — ' If I escape not birth, old age, and death, 
for evermore I pass not thus along;' 414 

All the concourse of Devas, the space-filling 
Nigas and spirits followed joyfully and exclaimed 
Well! well! (s&dhu), in confirmation of the true 
words (he spoke); 415 

The Nagas and the company of Devas acquired 
a condition of heart difficult to obtain, and each with 
his own inherent light led on the way shedding 
forth their brightness. 416 

Thus man and horse both strong of heart went 
onwards, lost to sight, like streaming stars, but ere 
the eastern quarter flashed with light, they had 
advanced three yct^anas. 417 



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11,6. THE RETURN OF JTANDAKA. 59 

KIOUEN II. 

Varga 6. The Return of ATandaka 1 . 

And now the night was in a moment gone, and 
sight restored to all created things, (when the royal 
prince) looked thro' the wood, and saw the abode of 
Po-ka, the AYshi ; [the hermitage of the Bhargavides, 
see Burnouf, Introduction to Ind. Bud. p. 385] ; 418 

The purling streams so exquisitely pure and 
sparkling, and the wild beasts all unalarmed at 
man, caused the royal prince's heart to exult. Tired, 
the horse 2 stopped of his own will, to breathe. 419 

' This, then,' he thought, ' is a good sign and 
fortunate, and doubtless indicates divine approval 3 .' 
And now he saw belonging to the Az'shi, the various 
vessels 4 used for (asking) charity ; 420 

And (other things) arranged by him in order, 
without the slightest trace of negligence. Dis- 
mounting then he stroked his horse's head, and 
cried, 'You now have borne me (well)!' 421 

1 There was a tower erected on the spot where Bodhisattva 
dismissed his coachman. See Fah-hien, p. 9 a. The distance 
given by Asvaghosha, viz. three yqg^nas, or about twenty miles, 
is much more probable than the eight hundred lis, given in later 
accounts as the length of Bodhisattva's journey. Compare Fah- 
hien p. 92, note 2. 

The name '.fiTanna' may perhaps be more properly restored to 
'.ffandaka.' 

* The text here seems to require the alteration of 7f> into 1^. 
' Mi-tsang-li, not-yet-advantage ; or, unheard of, or miraculous, 

profit. 

* ' Ying' is often used for ' a proper measure vessel,' i. e. an 
alms dish. 



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60 FOSHOHINOTSAN-KING. II, 6. 

With loving eyes he looked at A'andaka, (eyes) 
like the pure cool surface of a placid lake (and said), 
' Swift-footed ! like a horse in pace, yea ! swift as 
any light-winged bird, 422 

' Ever have you followed after me when riding, 
and deeply have I felt my debt of thanks, but not 
yet had you been tried in other ways ; I only knew 
you as a man true-hearted, 42 3 

' My mind now wonders at your active powers of 
body ; these two I now begin to see (are yours) ; 
a man may have a heart most true and faithful, but 
strength of body may not too be his ', 424 

' Bodily strength and perfect honesty of heart, I 
now have proof enough are yours. (To be content) 
to leave 1 the tinselled world, and with swift foot to 
follow me, 425 

' Who would do this but for some profit, if without 
profit to his kin 2 , who would not shun it ? but you, 
with no private aim, have followed me, not seeking 
any present recompense ; 426 

' As we nourish and bring up a child, to bind 
together and bring honour to a family ; so we also 
reverence and obey a father, to gain (obedience and 
attention) from a begotten son ; 427 

' In this way all think of their own advantage ; 
but you have come with me disdaining profit ; with 
many words I cannot hold you here, so let me say 
in brief to you, 428 

' We have now ended our relationship ; take, then, 
my horse and ride back again ; for me, during the 

1 To reject and leave, ^g for : ff§. 
* It may also be, ' to himself and kin.' 



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11,6. THE RETURN OF JTANDAKA. 6 1 

long night past 1 , that place I sought to reach now I 
have obtained.' 429 

Then taking off his precious neck-chain, he handed 
it to Aandaka, ' Take this/ he said, ' I give it you, 
let it console you in your sorrow;' 430 

The precious 2 jewel in the tire that bound his 
head, bright-shining, lighting up his person, taking 
off and placing in his extended palm, like the sun 
which lights up Sumeru, 431 

He said, 'O^fandaka! take this gem, and going 
back to where my father is, take the jewel and lay 
it reverently 3 before him, to signify my heart's rela- 
tion to him; 432 

' And then, for me, request the king to stifle every 
fickle feeling of affection, and say that I, to escape 
from birth and age and death, have entered on the 
wild (forest)* of painful discipline, 433 

' Not that I may get a heavenly birth, much less 
because I have no tenderness of heart, or that I 



1 The long night is the dark passage of continued transmigra- 
tion, or change ; the sense is, that Bodhisattva having sought for 
the condition of being, or life, he now has reached through a suc- 
cession of previous births, the relationship or connection with his 
charioteer as master and man, is at an end. 

* The head-jewel, or &Wa-ma»i. This crest-jewel is figured in 
various ways in Buddhist art ; as a rule it may be taken to indicate 
' the highest' (the head), and in this form it is placed on the head 
of the figures of Buddha (in Ceylon) ; and is found at Sanchi and 
Amaravati as an object of reverence ; it symbolises the supreme 
authority of Buddha, Dharma, Sangha. 

8 Or, holding the jewel, worship reverently at the king's feet. 

* The ' forest of mortification,' i. e. the place where mortification 
was to be endured. For an account of Bodhisattva's penance (six 
years' penance [Sharfvarshika-vrata]), see Rajendralala Mitra's 
Buddha Gaya, p. 26. 



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62 FO-SHO-HING-TSAN-KING. II, 6. 

cherish any cause of bitterness, but only that I may 
escape this weight of sorrow ; 434 

' The accumulated long-night 1 weight of covetous 
desire (love), I now desire to ease the load (cause a 
break), so that it may be overthrown for ever ; there- 
fore I seek the way (cause) of ultimate escape ; 435 

' If I should obtain emancipation, then shall I 
never need to put away my kindred 2 , to leave my 
home, to sever ties of love. O ! grieve not for your 
son ! 436 

'The five desires of sense beget the sorrow*; 
those held by lust themselves induce the sorrow; 
my very ancestors, victorious kings, thinking (their 
throne) established and immovable, 437 

' Have handed down to me their kingly wealth ; 
I, thinking only on religion, put it all away; the 
royal mothers at the end of life their cherished 
treasures leave for their sons, 438 

' Those sons who covet much such worldly profit ; 
but I rejoice to have acquired religious wealth ; if 
you say that I am young and tender, and that the 
time for seeking wisdom is not come, 439 

'You ought to know that to seek true religion, 
there never is a time not fit; impermanence and 
fickleness 4 , the hate of death, these ever follow 
us, 440 

' And therefore I (embrace) the present day, con- 



' The ' long night' of previous life. 

* As, for instance, in the Vessantara Gataka (birth), in which 
Bodhisattva gave up home, children, and wife, in pursuance of 
religious perfection. 

8 The five desires are the root of sorrow. 

4 This line may also be rendered, ' impermanence, no fixed con- 
dition, this 1 ' 



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11,6. THE RETURN OF JTANDAKA. 63 

vinced that now is time to seek religion 1 . With 
such entreaties as the above, you must make matters 
plain on my behalf; 441 

' But, pray you, cause my father not to think 
longingly after me ; let him destroy all recollection of 
me 2 , and cut out from his soul the ties of love ; 442 

' And you, grieve not 3 because of what I say, but 
recollect to give the king my message.' Aandaka 
hearing respectfully the words of exhortation, 
blinded and confused through choking sorrow, 443 

With hands outstretched did worship ; and an- 
swering the prince, he spoke, ' The orders that you 
give me, will, I fear, add grief to grief, 444 

' And sorrow thus increased will deepen, as the 
elephant who struggles into deeper mire. When the 
ties of love are rudely snapped, who, that has any 
heart, would not grieve ! 445 

' The golden ore may still by stamping be broken 
up, how much more the feelings choked with sor- 
row 4 ! the prince has grown up in a palace 6 , with 
every care bestowed upon his tender person, 446 

' And now he gives his body to the rough and 
thorny forest ; how will he be able to bear a life of 
privation 6 ? When first you ordered me to equip 
your steed, my mind was indeed sorely troubled, 447 

1 Convinced (resolved) that this is the time to seek the practice 
of the law, i. e. to engage in the work of religion. 

* Let him destroy all recollection of me as a form, or, a living 
person : this does not forbid him to recollect the office and dignity 
of Bodhisattva. 

* Or, let not slip my words. 

4 How much rather, may the heart be broken, choked with 
sorrow 1 

5 Concealed or kept securely in his palace. 

' Fu-hing; the practice of austerities, or mortification. 



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64 FO-SHOHING-TSAN-KING. II, 6. 

' But the heavenly powers urged me on, causing 
me to hasten the preparation (of the horse 1 ), but 
what is the intention that urges the prince, to re- 
solve thus to leave his secure palace ? 448 

' The people of Kapilavastu, and all the country 
afflicted with grief; your father, now an old man, 
mindful of his son, loving him moreover ten- 
derly 2 ; 449 

' Surely this determination to leave your home, 
this is not according to duty ; it is wrong, surely, to 
disregard father and mother, — we cannot speak of 
such a thing with propriety ! 450 

4 Gotaml, too, who has nourished you so long, fed 
you with milk when a helpless child, such love as 
hers cannot easily be forgotten; it is impossible 
surely to turn the back on a benefactor; 451 

' The highly gifted (virtuous) mother of a child, is 
ever respected by the most distinguished families 3 ; 
to inherit distinction* and then to turn round, is not 
the mark of a distinguished man : 452 

1 The illustrious child of Yarodhara, who has in- 
herited a kingdom, rightly governed, his years now 
gradually ripening, should not thus go away from 
and forsake his home ; 453 

' But though he has gone away from his royal 
father, and forsaken his family and his kin, forbid it 

1 To hasten on the decoration, i.e. the harnessing, of the horse. 

* Or, thinking his son beloved and in security. 

* Illustrious families or tribes are strong, or able, to wait upon 
or respect. There seems to be a play here on two words : first, 
shing, illustrious or distinguished, alluding to the SSkyas as a race 
of Ginas or conquerors ; secondly, neng, able, alluding to the origin 
of the word .Sakya, i. e. able. 

4 To obtain 'distinction;' still referring to the word shing; 
also in the next lines. Consult also p. 28, note 2 supra. 



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11,6. THE RETURN OF JTANDAKA. 65 

he should still drive me away, let me. not depart 
from the feet of my master ; 454 

' My heart is bound to thee, as the heat is (bound 
up 1 ) in the boiling water ; I cannot return without 
thee to my country ; to return and leave the prince 
thus, in the midst of the solitude of the desert 2 , 455 

'Then should I be like Sumanta 8 (Sumantra), 
who left and forsook Rama; and now if I return 
alone to the palace, what words can I address to the 
king? -456 

' How can I reply to the reproaches of all the 
dwellers in the palace with suitable words ? Therefore 
let the prince rather tell me, how I may truly* 
describe, 457 

' And with what device, the disfigured body, and 
the merit-seeking condition of the hermit ! I am 
full of fear and alarm, my tongue can utter no 
words ; 458 

' Tell me then what words to speak ; but who is 
there in the empire will believe me ? If I say that 
the moon's rays are scorching, there are men, 
perhaps, who may believe me ; 459 

' But they will not believe that the prince, in his 
conduct, will .act without piety; (for) the prince's 
heart is sincere and refined, always actuated with 
pity and love to men. 460 

'To be deeply affected with love, and yet to 

1 Or, my heart is bound to thee, or cherishes thee, as the fire 
embraces the vessel set over it. 

* I have here inverted the order of the lines, to bring out the sense. 

* Sumantra, the minister and charioteer of Dararatha (Rama- 
yawa II, 14, 30). 

4 The order of these lines is again inverted, as they are compli- 
cated in the original. The word 'hu,' which I have translated 
' truly ,' may mean ' dumbly,' or, ' unfeelingly.' 
[19] F 



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66 FO-SHO-HING-TSAN-KING. II, 6. 

forsake (the object of love), this surely is opposed 
to a constant mind. O then, for pity's sake! re- 
turn to your home, and thus appease my foolish 
longings.' 461 

The prince having listened to Aandaka, pitying 
his grief expressed in so many words, with heart re- 
solved and strong in its determination, spoke thus 
to him once more, and said : 462 

' Why thus on my account do you feel the pain 
of separation ? you should overcome this sorrowful 
mood, it is for you to comfort yourself ; 463 

' All creatures, each in its way, foolishly arguing 
that all things are constant, would influence me to-day 
not to forsake my kin and relatives ; 464 

' But when dead and come to be a ghost, how 
then, let them say, can I be kept ? My loving 
mother when she bore me, with deep affection 
painfully carried me, 465 

' And then when born she died, not permitted to 
nourish me. One alive, the other dead, gone by 
different roads, where now shall she be found ? 466 

' Like as in a wilderness on some high tree all the 
birds living with their mates assemble in the even- 
ing and at dawn disperse, so are the separations of 
the world ; 467 

' The floating clouds rise (like) a high mountain, 
from the four quarters they fill the void, in a mo- 
ment again they are separated and disappear; so 
is it with the habitations of men ; 468 

' People from the beginning have erred thus, 
binding themselves in society and by the ties of love, 
and then, as after a dream, all is dispersed ; do not 
then recount the names of my relatives ; 469 

'For like the wood which is produced in spring, 



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II, 6. THE RETURN OF ffANDAKA. 6j 

gradually grows and brings forth its leaves, which 
again fall in the autumn-chilly-dews — if the different 
parts of the same body are thus divided — 470 

' How much more men who are united in society ! 
and how shall the ties of relationship escape rend- 
ing ? Cease therefore your grief and expostulation, 
obey my commands 'and return home ; 471 

' The thought of your return alone will save me, 
and perhaps after your return I also may come back. 
The men of Kapilavastu, hearing that my heart is 
fixed, 472 

' Will dismiss from their minds all thought of 
me, but you may make known my words, "when I 
have escaped from the sad ocean of birth and death, 
then afterwards I will come back again ; 473 

'"But I am resolved, if I obtain not my quest, my 
body shall perish in the mountain wilds.'" The white, 
horse hearing the prince, as he uttered these true 
and earnest words, 474 

Bent his knee and licked his foot, whilst he sighed 
deeply and wept Then the prince with his soft and 
glossy palm, (fondly) stroking the head of the white 
horse, 475 

(Said), ' Do not let sorrow rise (within), I grieve 
indeed at losing you, my gallant steed 1 — so strong 
and active, your merit now has gained its end 2 ; 476 

'You shall enjoy for long a respite from an evil 
birth s , but for the present take as your reward * 

1 Or, my gentle horse 1 

* This merit, or, meritorious deed, is now completed. 

* The idea is, that the horse, in consequence of the merit he has 
acquired by bearing the prince from his home, shall enjoy hence- 
forward a higher state of existence. 

4 'A superior reward now, for the present,' or, ' a better reward 
than that I now bestow,' viz. the jewels &c. 

F 2 



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68 FO-SHO-HING-TSAN-KING. II, 6. 

these precious jewels and this glittering sword, and 
with them follow closely after ■A'andaka.' 477 

The prince then drawing forth his sword, glancing 
in the light as the dragon's eye, (cut off) the knot 
of hair with its jewelled stud *, and forthwith cast 
it into space ; 478 

Ascending upwards to the firmament, it floated there 
as the wings of the phoenix ; then all the Devas of 
the Trayastri»wa 2 heavens seizing the hair, returned 
with it to their heavenly abodes ; 479 

Desiring always to adore the feet (offer religious 
service), how much rather now possessed of the 
crowning locks, with unfeigned piety do they increase 
their adoration, and shall do till the true law has 
died away. 480 

Then the royal prince thought thus, ' My adorn- 
ments now are gone for ever, there only now remain 
these silken garments, which are not in keeping with 
a hermit's life.' 481 

Then the Deva of the Pure abode, knowing the 
heart-ponderings of the prince, transformed himself 
into a hunter's likeness, holding his bow, his arrows 
in his girdle, 482 

His body girded with a Kashaya 8 -colour'd robe, 
thus he advanced in front of the prince. The prince 



1 That is, the ' khdi mawi,' or hair ornament. This ornament is 
represented at Sanchi and Bharhut (plates xxx and xvi respectively 
[' Tree and Serpent Worship* and ' The Stupa of Bharhut']. In 
the former plate the figure on the upper floor with the women is 
probably Mara seeing Bodhisattva fulfilling his purpose). 

1 That is, the heaven of the thirty-three gods supposed to be 
on the top of Sumeru. 

* Kashaya, the dark colour of the ground, adopted as the colour 
for their robes by the Buddhists. 



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11,6. THE RETURN OP tfANDAKA. 69 

considering this garment of his, the colour of the 
ground, a fitting pure attire, 483 

Becoming to the utmost the person of a JZishi, 
not fit for ' a hunter's dress, forthwith called to the 
hunter, as he stood before him, in accents soft, and 
thus addressed him : 484 

' That dress of thine belikes me much, as if it 
were not fool *, and this my dress I'll give thee in 
exchange, so please thee.' 485 

The hunter then addressed the prince, 'Although 
I ill can spare (am not unattached to) this garment, 
which I use as a disguise among the deer, that 
alluring them within reach I may kill them, 486 

' Notwithstanding, as it so pleases you, I am now 
willing to bestow it in exchange for yours.' The 
hunter having received the sumptuous dress, took 
again his heavenly body. 487 

The prince and Aandaka, the coachman, seeing 
this, thought deeply s thus, ' This garment is of no 
common character, it is not what a worldly man 
has worn ;' 488 

And in (the prince's) heart great joy arose, as 
he regarded the coat with double reverence, and 
forthwith giving all the other things* to Aandaka, 
he himself was clad in it, of Kashiya colour ; 489 

1 This may also be translated, ' a suitable colour for one who is 
the opposite of, Le. opposed to the occupation of, a hunter.' 

* That is, as if it were pure ; there is a play on the expression 
' not foul' or ' impure,' meaning that the dress was itself of a dark 
or impure colour, and that the occupation of the hunter made it 
more so. 

' Thought 'deeply;' the expression rj f^p flg means 'rare,' 
or, ' seldom-felt thought' 

* That is, as I understand it, giving the remaining articles of 
his dress to Aandaka. 



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70 FO-SHO-HINOTSAN-KING. II, 6. 

Then like the dark and lowering cloud 1 , that sur- 
rounds the disc of the sun or moon, he for a moment 
gazed, scanning his steps (way), then entered on the 
hermit's grot ; 490 

^fandaka following him with (wistful) eyes, his 
body disappeared, nor was it seen again. ' My lord 
and master now has left his father's house, his kins- 
folk and myself (he cried), 491 

'He now has clothed himself in hermit's garb 2 , 
and entered the painful s forest ; ' raising his hands 
he called on Heaven, o'erpowered with grief he could 
not move ,'492 

Till holding by the white steed's neck, he tottered 
forward on the homeward road, turning again and 
often looking back, his steps (body) going on, his 
heart back-hastening, 493 

Now lost in thought and self-forgetful, now looking 
down to earth, then raising up his drooping (eye) to 
heaven, falling at times and then rising again, thus 
weeping as he went, he pursued his way home- 
wards. 494 



Varga 7. Entering the Place (Wood) of 
Austerities. 

The prince having dismissed Aandaka, as he 
entered the ifo'shis' abode, his graceful body brightly 



1 I have supposed that j^ is for jftfe. The robe is represented 
as the cloud surrounding the bright person of Bodhisattva. 

* He now has put on a dark-colour'd robe. 

• The painful forest ; that is, the forest or wood where painful 
mortification is practised. ^ ^j jjfo. 



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II, 7. ENTERING THE PLACE OF AUSTERITIES. 7 1 

shining, lit up on every side the forest 'place of 
suffering;' 495 

Himself gifted with every excellence (Siddhartha), 
according to his gifts, so were they reflected. As the 
lion, the king of beasts, when he enters among the 
herd of beasts, 496 

Drives from their minds all thoughts of com- 
mon things 1 , as now they watch the true form 
of their kind 2 , so those Htshi masters assembled 
there, suddenly perceiving the miraculous por- 
tent 8 , 497 

Were struck with awe and fearful gladness 4 , as 
they gazed with earnest eyes and hands conjoined. 
The men and women too, engaged in various 
occupations, beholding him, with unchanged atti- 
tudes, 498 

Gazed as the gods look on king iSakra, with 
constant look and eyes unmoved; so the .tfzshis, 
with their feet fixed fast, looked at him even 
thus; 499 

Whatever in their hands they held, without re- 
leasing it, they stopped and looked ; even as the ox 
when yoked to the wain, his body bound, his mind 
also restrained ; 500 

So also the followers of the holy /frshis, each 
called the other to behold the miracle. The peacocks 
and the other birds with cries commingled flapped 
their wings; 501 

1 That is, expels the recollection of all inferior shapes or forms. 
* ' The true form of their kind,' I here take ^ to be equal 
to the ' way of birth.' 
» ' The miracle,' % H* ^=f . 
4 'Fearful gladness,' Jft ^. 



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72 FO-SHOHING-TSAN-KING. II, 7. 

The BrahmaHrins holding the rules of deer 1 , 
following the deer wandering through mountain 
glades, (as the) deer coarse of nature, with flashing 
eyes [shen shih], regard (or see) the prince with 
fixed gaze ; 502 

So following the deer, those Brahma^arins 
intently gaze likewise, looking at the exceeding 
glory of the Ikshvaku. As the glory of the rising 
sun 503 

Is able to affect the herds of milch kine, so as to 
increase the quantity of their sweet-scented milk, 
so those Brahmaiarins, with wondrous joy, thus 
spoke one to the other: 504 

'Surely this is one of the eight Vasu Devas 2 ;' 
others, 'this is one of the two Asvins 9 ;' others, 'this 
is Mara 4 ; ' others, ' this is one of the s Brahmaka- 
yikas;' 505 

Others, 'this is Suryadeva 6 or Aandradeva, com- 
ing down ; are they not seeking here a sacrifice which 
is their due ? Come let us haste to offer our religious 
services !' 506 

The prince, on his part, with respectful mien ad- 
dressed to them polite salutation. Then Bodhisattva, 
looking with care in every direction on the Brahma- 
£arins occupying the wood, 507 



1 Is this a name of a sect of Brahman ascetics ? holding-deer- 
rules. 

2 A 3sc W ±e e5 s ht Vasus - 

■ — w m tat- 

4 Literally, ' the sixth Mira,' i. e. ' Mira of the sixth heaven,' or 
MSra who rules over the six heavens of the Kimaloka. 

6 $3 & % %• 

8 The sun Devaputra, or the moon Devaputra. 



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11,7. ENTERING THE PLACE OF AUSTERITIES. 73 

Each engaged in his religious duties, all desirous 
of the delights of heaven, addressed the senior 
Brahma£arin, and asked him as to the path of true 
religion 1 .- 508 

' Now having but just come here, I do not yet 
know the rules of your religious life. I ask you 
therefore for information, and I pray explain to me 
what I ask.' 509 

On this that twice-born (Brahman) in reply 
explained in succession all the modes of pain- 
ful discipline, and the fruits expected as their 
result. 510 

(How some ate) nothing brought from inhabited 
places (villages) 8 , (but) that produced from pure 
water, (others) edible roots and tender twigs, (others) 
fruits and flowers fit for food, 5 1 1 

Each according to the rules of his sect, clothing 
and food in each case different, some living 
amongst bird-kind, and like them capturing and 
eating food; 512 

Others eating as the deer the grass (and herbs); 
others living like serpents, inhaling air ; others eat- 
ing nothing pounded in wood or stone ; some eating 
with two teeth, till a wound be formed ; 513 

Others, again, begging their food and giving 
it in charity, taking only the remnants for them- 
selves; others, again, who let water continually 
drip on their heads and those who offer up with 
fire; 514 

1 Or, ' an aged Brahma£arin : ' here we have the expression 
' Khzn% suh,' J|t ffi, for 'aged' (as before). 

* Literally, ' opposed to village coming out,' or, , ' that which 
comes out of (fijf \fy villages.' 



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74 FO-SHO-HINOTSAN-KING. II, •}. 

Others who practise water-dwelling like fish l ; thus 
there are (he said) Brahma£arins of every sort, who 
practise austerities, that they may at the end of life 
obtain a birth in heaven, 5 1 5 

And by their present sufferings afterwards obtain 
peaceable fruit. The lord of men 2 , the excellent 
master, hearing all their modes of sorrow-producing 
penance, 516 

Not perceiving any element of truth in them, 
experienced no joyful emotion in his heart ; lost in 
thought, he regarded the men with pity, and with his 
heart in agreement his mouth thus spake : 517 

' Pitiful indeed are such sufferings ! and merely in 
quest of a human or heavenly reward 8 , ever revolv- 
ing in the cycle of birth or death, how great your 
sufferings, how small the recompence! 518 

' Leaving your friends, giving up honourable posi- 
tion; with a firm purpose to obtain the joys of 
heaven, although you may escape little sorrows, yet 
in the end involved in great sorrow; 519 

' Promoting the destruction of your outward form, 
and undergoing every kind of painful penance, and 
yet seeking to obtain another birth ; increasing and 
prolonging the causes of the five desires, 520 

' Not considering that herefrom (result repeated) 
birth and death, undergoing suffering and, by that, 
seeking further suffering ; thus it is that the world of 
men, though dreading the approach of death, 521 

1 That is, as I understand it, J?»*shis who live in water like fish. 
In the former case the 'air-inhaling snake HishV would be i?i'shis 
who endeavour to live on air like the boa. 

* ' The lord of two-footed creatures,' i.e. of men. 

8 Gin-tien po; if it had been tien-^in po, it would have 
simply meant ' a heavenly reward.' 



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II, 7. ENTERING THE PLACE OF AUSTERITIES. 75 

' Yet strive after renewed birth ; and being thus 
born, they must die again. Altho' still dreading 
(the power of) suffering, yet prolonging their stay 
in the sea of pain : 522 

' Disliking from their heart their present kind 
of life, yet still striving incessantly after other 
life, ; enduring affliction that they may partake of 
joy; seeking a birth in heaven, to suffer further 
trouble ; 523 

' Seeking joys, whilst the heart sinks with feeble- 
ness. For this is so with those who oppose right 
reason; they cannot but be cramped and poor at 
heart. But by earnestness and diligence, then we 
conquer. 524 

'Walking in the path of true wisdom, letting 
go both extremes 1 , we then reach ultimate per- 
fection ; to mortify the body, (if) this is religion, 2 . 
then to enjoy rest, is something not resulting from 
religion. 525 

'To walk religiously and afterwards to receive 
happiness, this is to make the fruit of religion some- 
thing different from religion ; but bodily exercise is 
but the cause of death, strength results alone from 
the mind's intention ; 526 

1 This line, which (with the following ones) is obscure, may be 
literally translated, 'a double letting-go, eternal Nirvana,' where 
Nirvana is in the original ^ j^. The two extremes are worldly 
life and ascetic life. 

' The word j^, like dharma, is difficult to translate. It may 
mean here either 'religion' or 'something formal;' but the idea 
of the whole verse seems to be this, ' if suffering pain is a part of 
religion, then to enjoy rest is different from religion, therefore to 
practise religious austerities with the view of afterwards obtaining 
rest, is to make the fruit of religion something different from, or 
opposed to, religion itself.' 



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76 FO-SHO-HING-TSAN-KING. II, 7. 

' If you remove (from conduct) the purpose of the 
mind, the bodily act is but as rotten wood ; where- 
fore, regulate the mind, and then the body will 
spontaneously go right. 527 

'(You say that) to eat pure things is a cause 
of religious merit, but the wild beasts and the 
children of poverty ever feed on these fruits and 
medicinal herbs ; these then ought to gain much 
religious merit. 528 

'But if you say that the heart being good then 
bodily suffering is the cause of further merit, (then I 
ask) why may not those who walk (live) in ease, 
also possess a virtuous heart ? 529 

'If joys are opposed to a virtuous heart, a virtuous 
heart may also be opposed to bodily suffering; if, 
for instance, all those heretics profess purity because 
they use water (in various ways), 530 

' Then those who thus use water among men, even 
with a wicked mind (karma), yet ought ever to be 
pure. But if righteousness is the groundwork of a 
./?zshi's purity, then the idea of a sacred spot as his 
dwelling, 531 

' Being the cause of his righteousness (is wrong). 
What is reverenced, should be known and seen 1 . 
Reverence indeed is due to righteous conduct, but let 
it not redound to the place (or, mode of life).' 532 

Thus speaking at large on religious questions, 
they went on till the setting sun. He then beheld 
their rites in connection with sacrifice to fire, the 
drilling (for sparks) and the fanning into flame, 533 



1 This is, as it seems, the meaning of the line, or it may be 
rendered, ' What is esteemed of weight ought to be seen in the 
world.' 



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11,7. ENTERING THE PLACE OF AUSTERITIES. 77 

Also the sprinkling of the butter libations, also 
the chanting of the mystic prayers, till the sun 
went down. The prince considering these acts, 534 

Could not perceive the right reason of them, and 
was now desirous to turn and go. Then all those 
Brahma^arins came together to him to request him 
to stay; 535 

Regarding with reverence the dignity of Bodhi- 
sattva, very desirous, they earnestly besought him : 
'You have come from an irreligious place, to this 
wood where true religion flourishes, 536 

'And yet, now, you wish to go away; we beg 
you, then, on this account, to stay.' All the old 
Brahmaiarins, with their twisted hair and bark 
clothes, 537 

Came following after Bodhisattva, asking him as 
a god 1 to stay a little while. Bodhisattva seeing 
these aged ones following him, their bodies worn 
with macerations, 538 

Stood still and rested beneath a tree ; and sooth- 
ing them, urged them to return. Then all the 
Brahma^arins, young and old, surrounding him, 
made their request with joined hands: 539 

'You who have so unexpectedly arrived here, 
amid these garden glades so full 2 of attraction, 
why now are you leaving them and going away, 
to seek perfection in the wilderness ? 540 

'As a man loving (long) life, is unwilling to let go 
his body, so we are even thus; would that you 
would stop awhile. 541 

1 The original is yj\ jg f$ ; probably jjjty is for >j£. 
* I am not sure whether I understand the original, or whether 
there is not a mistake in the text, which is j/p ^Q jfifc. 



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78 FO-SHO-HING-TSAN-KING. II, 7. 

' This is a spot where Brahmans and ^'shis have 
ever dwelt, royal j&'shis and heavenly ^zshis, these 
all have dwelt within these woods. The places on the 
borders of the snowy mountains, 542 

' Where men of high birth 1 undergo their penance, 
those places are not to be compared to this. All the 
body of learned masters from this place have reached 
heaven; 543 

' All the learned ^?zshis who have sought religious 
merit, have from this place and northwards (found 
it), those who have attained a knowledge of the 
true law, and gained divine wisdom come not from 
southwards ; 544 

' If you indeed see us remiss and not earnest 
enough, practising rules not pure, and on that 
account are not pleased to stay, 545 

' Then we are the ones that ought to go ; you can 
still remain and dwell here, all these different Brah- 
mavfcarins ever desire to find companions in their 
penances. 546 

' And you, because you are conspicuous for your 
religious earnestness, should not so quickly cast 
away their society: if you can remain here, they 
will honour you as god 6akra, 547 

' Yea ! as the Devas pay worship to Brzhaspati * 
(or, Virudhakapati).' Then Bodhisattva answered 
the Brahma^arins and told them what his desires 
were : 548 

' I am seeking for a true method of escape, I 
desire solely to destroy all mundane influences; 
but you, with strong hearts, practise your rules as 
ascetics, 549 

1 Tsang-*Aang ^in, tf£ J| \. 

* Pi-lai-ho. 



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11,7- ENTERING THE PLACE OF AUSTERITIES. 79 

' And pay respectful attention to such visitors as 
may come. My heart indeed is moved with affection 
towards you, for pleasant conversation is agreeable 
to all, those who listen are affected thereby ; 550 

' And so hearing your words, my mind is 
strengthened in religious feeling; you indeed have 
all paid me much respect, in agreement with the 
courtesy of your religious profession ; 551 

' But now I am constrained to depart, my heart 
grieves thereat exceedingly, first of all, having left 
my own kindred, and now about to be separated 
from you. 552 

' The pain of separation from associates, this pain 
is as great as the other, it is impossible for my mind 
not to grieve, as it is not to see others' faults K 553 

' But you, by suffering pain, desire earnestly to 

obtain the joys of birth in heaven ; whilst I desire 

to escape from the three worlds, and therefore I 

give up what my reason (mind) tells me must be 

•rejected 2 . 554 

' The law which you practise, you inherit from the 
deeds of former teachers, but I, desiring to destroy 
all combination (accumulation), seek a law which 
admits of no such accident. 555 

' And therefore I cannot in this grove delay for 
a longer while in fruitless discussions.' At this 
time all the Brahma^arins, hearing the words spoken 
by Bodhisattva, 556 

1 This and the previous line might perhaps be better rendered 
thus, 'A joyless life (absence of joy) is opposed to my disposition, 
moreover (it is my disposition) not to observe the faults of others.' 

• Literally, the form (body) turning from them even as (fflj) 
the mind rejects (3fo) j or may it be rendered, 'the body giving up, 
though the mind is still perverse.' 



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80 F0-SHOH1NG-TSAN-KING. II, 7. 

Words full of right reason and truth, very excellent 
in the distinction of principles, their hearts rejoiced 
and exulted greatly, and deep feelings of reverence 
were excited within them. 557 

At this time there was one Brahmaiarin, who 
always slept in the dust, with tangled hair and 
raiment of the bark of trees, his eyes bleared 
(yellow), preparing himself in an ascetic practice 
(called) 'high-nose 1 .' 558 

This one addressed Bodhisattva in the following 
words: 'Strong in will! bright in wisdom! firmly 
fixed in resolve to escape (pass beyond) the limits 
of birth, knowing that in escape from birth there / 
alone is rest, 559 

' Not affected by any desire after heavenly 
blessedness, the mind set upon the eternal destruc- 
tion of the body (bodily form), you are indeed 
miraculous in appearance, (as you are) alone in 
the possession of such a mind. 560 

'To sacrifice to the gods, and to practise every 
kind of austerity, all this is designed to secure a 
birth in heaven, but here there is no mortification 
of selfish desire, 561 

' There is still a selfish personal aim ; but to bend 
the will to seek final escape, this is indeed the work 
of a true teacher, this is the aim of an enlightened 
master ; 562 

' This place is no right halting-place for you, you 
ought to proceed to Mount Vinda. (Pa#dava), there 
dwells a great Muni, whose name is A-lo-lam 
(Ar&da Rama). 563 

' He only has reached the end (of religious aims), 
the most excellent eye (of the law). Go therefore 

1 I.e. raising his nose to look up at the sun. 



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II, 8. THE GENERAL GRIEF OF THE PALACE. 8 1 

to the place where he dwells, and listen there to 
the true exposition of the law. 564 

' This will make your heart rejoice, as you learn 
to follow the precepts of his system. As for me, 
beholding the joy of your resolve, and fearing that 
I shall not obtain rest, 565 

' I must once more let go (dismiss) those following 
me, and seek other disciples; straighten my head 
(nose) and gaze with my full eyes ; anoint my lips 
and cleanse my teeth, 566 

' Cover my shoulders and make bright my face, 
smooth my tongue and make it pliable. Thus, O 
excellently marked, sir ! fully drinking (at the foun- 
tain of) the water you give (glorious water) l , 567 

' I shall escape from the unfathomable depths. In 
the world nought is comparable to this, that which 
old men and iftshis have not known, that shall (I) 2 
know and obtain.' 568 

Bodhisattva having listened to these words, left 
the company of the j&shis, whilst they all, turning 
round him to the right, returned to their place. 569 



Varga 8. The General Grief of the Palace. 

Aandaka leading back the horse, opening the way 
for his heart's sorrow, as he went on, lamented and 
wept : unable to disburthen his soul. 570 

First of all with the royal prince, passing along the 
road for one night, but now dismissed and ordered 

1 This line and the context, again, is obscure. Perhaps 
!?& ^ * s a mistake for "|J* jfc, which latter expression may 
mean the 'sweet dew' (amn'ta) of Bodhisattva's doctrine. 

' Or, that (you know) and will obtain. 

['Pi G 



1/ 



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82 FO-SHO-HING-TSAN-KING. II, 8. 

to return. As the darkness of night closed on 
him, 571 

Irresolute he wavered in mind. On the eighth 
day approaching the city, the noble horse pressed 
onwards, exhibiting all his qualities of speed ; 572 

But yet hesitating as he looked around and 
beheld not the form of the royal prince; his four 
members bent down with toil, his head and neck 
deprived of their glossy look, 573 

Whinnying as he went on with grief, he refused 
night and day his grass and water, because he had 
lost his lord, the deliverer of men. Returning thus 
to Kapilavastu, 574 

The whole country appeared withered and bare, 
as when one comes back to a deserted village; or 
as when the sun hidden behind Sumeru causes dark- 
ness to spread over the world. 575 

The fountains of water sparkled no more, the 
flowers and fruits were withered and dead, the men 
and women in the streets seemed lost in grief and 
dismay. 576 

Thus Aandaka with the white horse went on 
sadly and with slow advance, silent to those en- 
quiring, wearily progressing as when accompanying 
a funeral; 577 

So they went on, whilst all the spectators see- 
ing A!andaka, but not observing the royal .Sakya 
prince, raised piteous cries of lamentation and 
wept; as when the charioteer returned without 
Rama. 578 

Then one by the side of the road, with his body 
bent, called out to A!andaka : ' The prince, beloved 
of the world, the defender of his people, 5 79 

' The one you have taken away by stealth, where 



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11,8. THE GENERAL GRIEF OF THE PALACE. 83 

dwells he now?' ATandaka, then, with sorrowful 
heart, replied to the people and said : 580 

' I with loving purpose followed after him whom 
I loved; 'tis not I who have deserted the prince, 
but by him have I been sent away ; (by him) who 
now has given up his ordinary adornments, 581 

'And with shaven head and religious garb, has 
entered the sorrow-giving grove.' Then the men 
hearing that he had become an ascetic, were op- 
pressed with thoughts of wondrous boding (unusual 
thoughts); 582 

They sighed with heaviness and wept, and as 
their tears coursed down their cheeks, they spake 
thus one to the other : ' What then shall we do (by 
way of expedient) ? ' 583 

Then they all exclaimed at once, ' Let us haste 
after him in pursuit ; for as when a man's bodily func- 
tions fail, his frame dies and his spirit flees, 584 

' So is the prince our life, and he our life gone, 
how shall we survive? This city, perfected with 
slopes and woods ; those woods, that cover the 
slopes of the city, 585 

'All deprived of grace, ye lie as Bharata when 
killed !' Then the men and women within the town, 
vainly supposing the prince had come back, 586 

In haste rushed out to the heads of the way, 
and seeing the horse returning alone, not knowing 
whether he (the prince) was safe or lost, began to 
weep and to raise every piteous sound ; 587 

(And said, ' Behold !) Aandaka advancing slowly 
with the horse, comes back with sighs and tears; 
surely he grieves because the prince is lost.' And 
thus sorrow is added to sorrow 1 588 

Then like a captive warrior is drawn before the 

g 2 



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84 FOSHOHING-TSAN-KING. II, 8. 

king his master, so did he enter the gates with tears, 
his eyes filled so that he said nought. 589 

Then looking up to heaven he loudly groaned; 
and the white horse too whined piteously ; then all 
the varied birds and beasts in the palace court, and 
all the horses within the stables, 590 

Hearing the sad whinnying of the royal steed, 
replied in answer to him, thinking ' now the prince 
has come back.' But seeing him not, they ceased 
their cries ! 59 1 

And now the women of the after-palace, (hearing 
the cries of the horses, birds, and beasts,) their hair 
dishevelled, their faces wan and yellow, their forms 
sickly to look at, their mouths and lips parched, 592 

Their garments torn and unwashed, the soil and 
heat not cleansed from their bodies, their ornaments 
all thrown aside, disconsolate and sad, cheerless in 
face, 593 

Raised their bodies, without any grace, even as 
the feeble (little) morning star (or stars of morn- 
ing); their garments torn and knotted, soiled like 
the appearance of a robber, 594 

Seeing Aandaka and the royal horse shedding 
tears instead of the hoped-for return, they all, as- 
sembled thus, uttered their cry, even as those who 
weep for one beloved just dead ; 595 

Confused and wildly they rushed about, as a herd 
of oxen that have lost their way. Mahdpra^apati G6- 
tam!, hearing that the prince had not returned, 596 

Fell fainting on the ground, her limbs entirely 
deprived of strength, even as some mad tornado 
wind crushes the golden-colour'd plantain tree ; 597 

And again, hearing that her son had become a 
recluse, deeply sighing and with increased sadness 



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11,8. THE GENERAL GRIEF OF THE PALACE. 85 

she thought, ' Alas ! those glossy locks turning to 
the right, each hair produced from each orifice, 598 

' Dark and pure, gracefully shining, sweeping the 
earth when loose 1 , or when so determined, bound 
together in a heavenly crown, and now shorn and 
lying in the grass! 599 

'Those rounded shoulders and that lion step! 
Those eyes broad as the ox-king's, that body 
shining bright as yellow gold; that square breast 
and Brahma voice; 600 

'That you! possessing all these excellent quali- 
ties, should have entered on the sorrow-giving forest ; 
what fortune now remains for the world, losing thus 
the holy king of earth ? 601 

'That those delicate and pliant feet, pure as the 
lily and of the same colour, should now be torn by 
stones and thorns; O how can such feet tread on 
such ground! 602 

' Born and nourished in the guarded palace, clad 
with garments of the finest texture, washed in 
richly-scented water, anointed with the choicest per- 
fumes, 603 

'And now exposed to chilling blasts and dews of 
night, O! where during the heat or the chilly morn 
can rest be found! Thou flower of all thy race! 
Confessed by all the most renowned! 604 

' Thy virtuous qualities everywhere talked of and 
exalted, ever reverenced, without self-seeking ! why 
hast thou unexpectedly brought thyself upon some 
morn to beg thy food for life ! 605 

' Thou who wert wont to repose upon a soft and 

1 This description of the prince's hair seems to contradict the 
head arrangement of the figures of Buddha, unless the curls denote 
the shaven head of the recluse. 



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86 FOSHO-HING-TSAN-KING. II, 8. 

kingly couch, and indulge in every pleasure during 
thy waking hours, how canst thou now endure the 
mountain and the forest wilds, on the bare grass 
to make thyself a resting-place ! ' 606 

Thus thinking of her son — her heart was full of 
sorrow, disconsolate she lay upon the earth. The 
waiting women raised her up, and dried the tears 
from off her face, 607 

Whilst all the other courtly ladies, overpowered 
with grief, their limbs relaxed, their minds bound 
fast with woe, unmoved they sat like pictured- 
folk. 608 

And now Yarodhara, deeply chiding, spoke thus 
to Aandaka : ' Where now dwells he, who ever dwells 
within my mind ? 609 

' You two went forth, the horse a third, but now 
two only have returned! My heart is utterly o'er- 
borne with grief, filled with anxious thoughts, it 
cannot rest. 610 

'And you deceitful man ! Untrustworthy and false 
associate! evil contriver! plainly revealed a traitor, 
a smile lurks underneath thy tears! 611 

4 Escorting him in going ; returning now with 
wails ! Not one at heart — but in league against 
him — openly constituted a friend and well-wisher, 
concealing underneath a treacherous purpose ; 612 

'So thou hast caused the sacred prince to go 
forth once and not return again ! No questioning 
the joy you feel ! Having done ill you now enjoy 
the fruit; 613 

' Better far to dwell with an enemy of wisdom, 
than work with one who, while a fool, professes 
friendship. Openly professing sweetness and light, 
inwardly a scheming and destructive enemy. 614 



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II, 8. THE GENERAL GRIEF OF THE PALACE. 87 

'And now this royal and kingly house, in one 
short morn is crushed and ruined! All these fair 
and queen-like women, with grief o'erwhelmed, 
their beauty marred, 615 

'Their breathing choked with tears and sobs, 
their faces soiled with crossing tracks of grief! Even 
the queen (Maya) when in life, resting herself on 
him, as the great snowy mountains 616 

' Repose upon the widening earth, through grief 
in thought of what would happen, died. How sad 
the lot of these — within these open lattices — these 
weeping ones, these deeply wailing! 617 

' Born in another state than hers in heaven \ 
how can their grief be borne!' Then speaking to 
the horse she said, ' Thou unjust ! what dullness 
this — to carry off a man, 618 

'As in the darkness some wicked thief bears off 
a precious gem. When riding thee in time of battle, 
swords, and javelins and arrows, 619 

' None of these alarmed or frighted thee ! But 
now what fitfulness of temper this 2 , to carry off by 
violence, to rob my soul of one, the choicest jewel 
of his tribe. 620 

' O ! thou art but a vicious reptile, to do such 
wickedness as this! to-day thy woeful lamentation 
sounds everywhere within these palace walls, 62 1 

' But when you stole away my cherished one, why 
wert thou dumb and silent then ! if then thy voice 



1 This line is obscure ; it may be paraphrased thus, ' If she in 
bearing her son brought about her own death, but yet is now born 
in heaven, how shall these bear their grief, or shall this grief (of 
losing him) be borne by these I ' 

* Or, ' how unendurable then your present conduct I' 



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88 FO-SHO-HINOTSAN-KING. .11,8. 

had sounded loud, and roused the palace inmates 
from their sleep, 622 

' If then they had awoke and slumbered not, 
there would not have ensued the present sorrow.' 
Aandaka, hearing these sorrowful words, drawing in 
his breath and composing himself, 623 

Wiping away his tears, with hands clasped to- 
gether, answered : ' Listen to me, I pray, in self-justi- 
fication — be not suspicious of, nor blame the royal 1 
horse, nor be thou angry with me either. 624 

' For in truth no fault has been committed (by us). 
It is the gods who have effected this. For I, indeed, 
extremely reverenced the king's command, it was 
the gods who drove him to the solitudes, 625 

' Urgently leading on the horse with him : thus 
they went together fleet as with wings, his breathing 
hushed! suppressed was every sound 2 , his feet 
scarce touched the earth! 626 

' The city gates wide opening of themselves ! all 
space self-lighted ! this was the work indeed of the 
gods ; and what was I, or what my strength, com- 
pared with theirs?' 627 

Yasodhara hearing these words, her heart was lost 
in deep consideration 3 ! the deeds accomplished by 
the gods could not be laid to others' charge 4 , as 
faults; 628 

And so she ceased her angry chiding, and allowed 
her great, consuming grief to smoulder. Thus pros- 
trate on the ground she muttered out her sad com- 



1 The white horse. 

2 They caused no sound (to be heard). 

3 See above, p. 69, n. 3. 

* Or, to their charge, i. e. to the charge of .Xandaka or the horse. 



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11,8. THE GENERAL GRIEF OF THE PALACE. 89 

plaints, ' That the two ringed-birds 1 (doves) should 
be divided! 629 

' Now,' she cried, ' my stay and my support is lost, 
between those once agreed in life (religious life) 2 , 
separation has sprung up! those who were at one 
(as to religion) are now divided, (let go their com- 
mon action) ! where shall I seek another mode of 
(religious) life ? 630 

' In olden days the former conquerors (<7inas ?) 
greatly rejoiced to see their kingly retinue; these 
with their wives in company, in search of highest 
wisdom, roamed through groves and plains. 631 

'And now, that he should have deserted me ! and 
what is the religious state he seeks ! the Brahman 
ritual respecting sacrifice, requires the wife to take 
part in the offering 3 , 632 

'And because they both share in the service 
they shall both receive a common reward here- 
after! but you (O prince!) art niggard in your 
religious rites, driving me away, and wandering 
forth alone ! 633 

' Is it that you saw me jealous, and so turned 
against me ! that you now seek some one free from 



1 Or, 'that two birds;' it may be doves; or perhaps the symbol 
Ifjjg is an error for Jp|, meaning the 'double-headed bird.' "f his 
double-headed bird is often alluded to in Buddhist books, as in 
the Fo-pen-hing-tsi-king (Romantic History of Buddha, p. 380). 
The origin of the story may be perhaps found in the myth of 
Yama and Yamt. 

2 It may be ' religious life,' but it can as well refer to the common 
aim of life ; as, for example, in the case of the double-headed bird, 
both heads having one object, viz. the care of the body. 

3 Literally, 'the sacrificial code of the Brahman requires husband 
and wife to act together.' 



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90 FOSHOHINOTSAN-KING. II, 8. 

jealousy! or did you see some other cause to 
hate me, that you now seek to find a heaven-born 
nymph 1 1 634 

' But why should one excelling in every personal 
grace seek to practise self-denying austerities ! 
is it that you despise a common lot with me, 
that variance rises in your breast against your 
wife! 635 

' Why does not Rahula fondly repose upon 2 your 
knee. Alas! alas! unlucky master! full of grace 
without, but hard (diamond) at heart! 636 

'The glory and the pride of all your tribe 3 , yet 
hating those who reverence you ! O ! can it be, you 
have turned your back for good (upon) your little 
child, scarce able yet to smile*! 637 

' My heart is gone ! and all my strength ! my lord 
has fled, to wander in the mountains! he cannot 
surely thus forget me ! he is then but a man of 
wood or stone.' 638 

Thus having spoken, her mind was dulled and 
darkened, she muttered on, or spoke in wild mad 
words, or fancied that she saw strange sights, and 
sobbing past the power of self-restraint, 639 

Her breath grew less, and sinking thus, she fell 
asleep upon the dusty ground ! The palace ladies 
seeing this, were wrung with heartfelt sorrow, 640 

Just as the full-blown lily, struck by the wind and 
hail, is broken down and withered. And now the 

1 'A Devi of the Pure abode.' The idea seems to be that, finding 
Yarodhari less pure than a Devi, he had gone to seek the company 
of one of these. 

* Or, below your knee, i. e. sitting or fondling around the knee. 

* Or, the full-brightness of your illustrious family. 

* ' Your child not yet a boy.' 



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11,8. THE GENERAL GRIEF OF THE PALACE. 9 1 

king, his father, having lost the prince, was filled, 
both night and day, with grief; 641 

And fasting, sought the gods (for help). He prayed 
that they would soon restore him, and having prayed 
and finished sacrifice, he went from out the sacred 1 
gates ; 642 

Then hearing all the cries and sounds of mourn- 
ing, his mind distressed became confused, as when 
heaven's thundering and lightning put to bewilder- 
ing flight a herd of elephants. 643 

Then seeing A'andaka with the royal steed, after 
long questioning, finding his son a hermit, fainting 
he fell upon the earth, as when the flag of Indra 
falls and breaks. 644 

Then all the ministers of state, upraising him, 
exhort him, as was right 2 , to calm himself. After a 
while, his mind somewhat recovered, speaking to 
the royal steed, he said : 645 

' How often have I ridden thee to battle, and 
every time have thought upon (commended) your 
excellence! but now I hate and loathe thee, more 
than ever I have loved or praised thee ! 646 

' My son, renowned for noble qualities, thou hast 
carried off and taken from me ; and left him 'mid 
the mountain forests ; and now you have come back 
alone 8 ; 647 

' Take me, then, quickly hence and go ! And going, 
never more come back with me ! For since you have 
not brought him back, my life is worth no more pre- 
serving ; 648 

' No longer care I about governing ! My son about 

1 The heaven-sacrificing-gate. 

9 In agreement with religion. 

' Or, 'now you return from the desert (hung) alone.' 



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92 FO-SHO-HINOTSAN-KING. II, 8. 

me was my only joy; as the Brahman Gayanta 1 met 
death for his son's sake, 649 

' So I, deprived of my religious son, will of myself 
deprive myself of life. So Manu, lord of all that 
lives, ever lamented for his son ; 650 

' How much more I, a mortal man (ever-man), 
deprived of mine, must lose all rest! In old time 
the king A^a, loving his son 2 , wandering thro' the 
mountains, 651 

' Lost in thought (or deeply affected), ended life, 
and forthwith was born in heaven. And now I- 
cannot die! Thro' the long night fixed in this sad 
state, 652 

' With this great palace round me, thinking of my 
son, solitary and athirst as any hungry spirit (Preta) ; 
as one who, thirsty, holding water in his hand, but 
when he tries to drink lets all escape, 653 

' And so remains athirst till death ensues, and after 
death becomes a wandering ghost 8 ; — so I, in the 
extremity of thirst, through loss, possessed once of 
a son 4 , but now without a son, 654 

' Still live, and cannot end my days ! But come ! 
tell me at once where is my son! let me not die 
athirst (for want of knowing this) and fall among the 
Pretas. 655 

' In former days, at least, my will was strong and 
firm, difficult to move as the great earth ; but now 
I've lost my son, my mind is dazed, as in old time 
the king "ten chariots 6 .'" 656 

1 The Sanskrit text gives San^aya as the Brahman's name. 

2 Or, the son he loved. 

' Or, is born in the way (i. e. the class) of famishing ghosts. 
4 Obtaining a son, as (a thirsty man obtains) water. 
6 That is, Dataratha. 



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11,8. THE GENERAL GRIEF OF THE PALACE. 93 

And now the royal teacher (Purohita), an illustrious 
sage 1 , with the chief minister, famed for wisdom, 
with earnest and considerate minds, both exhorted 
with remonstrances, the king. 657 

' Pray you (they said) arouse yourself to thought, 
and let not grief cramp and hold your mind! in 
olden days there were mighty kings, who left their 
country, as flowers are scattered a ; 658 

' Your son now practises the way of wisdom ; why 
then nurse (increase) your grief and misery; you 
should recall the prophecy of Asita, and reasonably 
count on what was probable! 659 

'(Think of) the heavenly joys which you, a univer- 
sal king, have inherited 8 ! But now, so troubled and 
constrained in mind, how will it not be said, " The Lord 
of earth can change his golden-jewel-heart !" 660 

' Now, therefore, send us forth, and bid us seek 
the place he occupies, then by some stratagem 
and strong remonstrances, and showing him our 
earnestness of purpose, 661 

'We will break down his resolution, and thus 
assuage your kingly sorrow.' The king, with joy, 
replied and said : ' Would that you both would go 
in haste, 662 

' As swiftly as the Saketa 4 bird flies through the 
void for her young's sake ; thinking of nought but 
the royal prince, and sad at heart — I shall await 
your search!' 663 

The two men having received their orders, the 

1 ' To-wan-sse,' a celebrated master. 

* 'As falling flowers/ or 'scattered blossoms,' alluding, as it 
seems, to the separation of the flower from the tree. 

s Or it maybe rendered, 'A heaven-blessed, universal (wheel) king I' 

* She-ku-to bird. 



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94 FOSHOHINOTSAN-KING. II, 9. 

king retired among his kinsfolk, his heart somewhat 
more tranquillised, and breathing freely through his 
throat 664 

Varga 9. The Mission to Seek the Prince. 

The king now suppressing (regulating) his grief, 
urged on his great teacher and chief minister, as 
one urges on with whip a ready horse, to hasten 
onwards as the rapid stream; 665 

Whilst they fatigued, yet with unflagging effort, 
come to the place of the sorrow-giving grove ; then 
laying on one side the five outward marks * of dignity 
and regulating well their outward gestures, 666 

They entered the Brahmans' quiet hermitage, and 
paid reverence to the JZishis. They, on their part, 
begged them to be seated, and repeated the law for 
their peace and comfort. 667 

Then forthwith they addressed the ifo'shis and 
said: 'We have on our minds a subject on which 
we would ask (for advice). There is one who is called 
.Suddhodana ra^a, a descendant of the famous 
Ikshvaku family, 668 

' We are his teacher and his minister, who instruct 
him in the sacred books as required. The king indeed 
is like Indra (for dignity) ; his son, like A"e-yan-to 
(Gayanta), 669 

' In order to escape old age, disease, and death, has 
become a hermit, and depends on this ; on his account 
have we come hither, with a view to let your wor- 
ships know of this.' 670 

Replying, they said : ' With respect to this youth, 

1 The five marks of dignity were the distinguishing robes of 
their office. 



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II, 9. THE MISSION TO SEEK THE PRINCE. 95 

has he long arms and the signs of a great man ? 
Surely he is the one who, enquiring into our prac- 
tice, discoursed so freely on the matter of life and 
death. 671 

' He has gone to the abode of Arada, to seek for 
a complete mode of escape.' Having received this 
certain information, respectfully considering the 
urgent commands of the anxious king, 672 

They dared not hesitate in their undertaking, but 
straightway took the road and hastened on. Then 
seeing the wood in which the royal prince dwelt, and 
him, deprived of all outward marks of dignity, 673 

His body still glorious with lustrous shining, as 
when the sun comes forth from the black cloud 1 ; 
then the religious teacher of the country and the 
great minister holding to the true law, 674 

Put off from them their courtly dress, and de- 
scending from the chariot gradually advanced, 
like the royal Po-ma-ti (? Bharata) and the Rtshi 
VasishMa, 675 

Went through the woods and forests, and seeing 
the royal prince Rama, each according to his own 
prescribed manner, paid him reverence, as he ad- 
vanced to salute him ; 676 

Or as iSukra, in company with Angiras, with 
earnest heart paid reverence, and sacrificed to 
Indra ra^a. 677 

Then the royal prince in return paid reverence 
to the royal teacher and the great minister, as 
the divine Indra placed at their ease «S"ukra and 
Angiras; 678 



1 The character which I have translated ' black ' is Jfsfo, which , 
also means ' a crow.' 



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96 FO-SHO-HING-TSAN-KING. II, 9. 

Then, at his command, the two men seated them- 
selves before the prince, as Poiwia (Punarvasu) and 
Pushya, the twin stars attend beside the moon; 679 

Then the Purohita and the great minister respect- 
fully explained to the royal prince, even as Pi-li- 
po-ti (Brzhaspati) spoke to that <7ayanta : 680 

•Your royal father, thinking of the prince, is 
pierced in heart, as with an iron point; his mind 
distracted, raves in solitude; he sleeps upon the 
dusty ground; 681 

' By night and day he adds to his sorrowful reflec- 
tions ; his tears flow down like the incessant rain ; and 
now to seek you out, he has sent us hither. Would 
that you would listen with attentive mind ; 682 

' We know that you delight to act religiously ; it 
is certain, then, without a doubt, this is not the 
time for you to be a hermit (to enter the forest 
wilds) ; a feeling of deep pity consumes our 
heart! 683 

' You, if you be indeed moved by religion, ought 
to feel some pity for our case ; let your kindly feel- 
ings flow abroad, to comfort us who are worn at 
heart; 684 

' Let not the tide of sorrow and of sadness com- 
pletely overwhelm the outlets of our heart ; as the 
torrents (which roll down) the grassy mountains ; or 
the calamities of tempest, fiery heat, and light- 
ning; 685 

' For so the grieving heart has these four sorrows, 
turmoil and drought, passion and overthrow. But 
come ! return to your native place, the time will arrive 
when you can go forth again as a recluse. 686 

' But now to disregard your family duties, to turn 
against father and mother, how can this be called 



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11,9. THE MISSION TO SEEK THE PRINCE. 97 

love and affection? that love which overshadows 
and embraces all. 687 

' Religion requires not the wild solitudes ; you can 
practise a hermit's duties in your home; studiously 
thoughtful, diligent in expedients, this is to lead a 
hermit's life in truth. 688 

' A shaven head, and garments soiled with dirt, — 
to wander by yourself through desert wilds, — this 
is but to encourage constant fears, and cannot be 
rightly called " an awakened hermit's (life)." 689 

' Would rather we might take you by the hand, 
and sprinkle 1 water on your head, and crown you 
with a heavenly diadem, and place you underneath 
a flowery canopy, 690 

'That all eyes might gaze with eagerness upon 
you ; after this, in truth, we would leave our home 
with joy. The former kings Teou-lau-ma (Dru- 
ma?), A-neou-£e-o-sa(Anu£asaor Anua&sa), 691 

' Po-ie-lo-po-yau (Va^rabahu), Pi-po-lo-'an- 
ti (Vaibhra^a), Pi-ti-o-ie-na (Vata^ana?), Na-lo- 
sha-po-lo (Narasavara ?), 692 

'AH these several kings refused not the royal 
crown, the jewels, and the ornaments of person ; their 
hands and feet were adorned with gems, 693 

' Around them were women to delight and please, 
these things they cast not from them, for the sake of 
escape; you then may also come back home, and 
undertake both necessary duties 2 ; 694 

'Your mind prepare itself in higher law, whilst 
for the sake of earth you wield the sceptre; let 
there be no more weeping, but comply with what 
we say, and let us publish it; 695 

1 I have here substituted jj|| for pj|. 
' That is, the duties of religion and also of the state. 
[19] H 



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98 FO-SHO-HING-TSAN-KING. II, 9. 

' And having published it with your authority, 
then you may return and receive respectful welcome. 
Your father and your mother, for your sake, in grief 
shed tears like the great ocean ; 696 

1 Having no stay and no dependence now — no 
source from which the .Sakya stem may grow — -you 
ought, like the captain of the ship, to bring it safely 
across to a place of safety. 697 

'The royal prince Pi-san-ma, as also Lo-me- 
po-ti, they respectfully attended to the command 
of their father, you also should do the same ! 698 

' Your loving mother who cherished you so kindly, 
with no regard for self, through years of care, as 
the cow deprived of her calf, weeps and laments, 
forgetting to eat or sleep ; 699 

'You surely ought to return to her at once, to 
protect her life from evil ; as a solitary bird, away 
from its fellows, or as the lonely elephant, wandering 
through the jungle, 700 

' Losing the care of their young, ever think of 
protecting and defending them, so you the only 
child, young and defenceless, not knowing what you 
do, bring trouble and solicitude ; 701 

' Cause, then, this sorrow to dissipate itself; as 
one who rescues the moon 1 from being devoured, 
so do you reassure the men and women of 
the land, and remove from them the consuming 
grief, 702 

' (And suppress) the sighs that rise like breath to 
heaven, which cause the darkness that obscures 
their sight ; seeking you, as water, to quench the 
fire, the fire quenched, their eyes shall open.' 703 

1 Referring to an eclipse of the moon. 



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II, 9- THE MISSION TO SEEK THE PRINCE. 99 

Bodhisattva, hearing of his father the king, expe- 
rienced the greatest distress of mind, and sitting 
still, gave himself to reflection ; and then, in due 
course, replied respectfully : 704 

' I know indeed that my royal father is possessed of 
a loving and deeply 1 considerate mind, but my fear 
of birth, old age, disease, and death has led me to 
disobey, and disregard his extreme kindness. 705 

' Whoever neglects right consideration about his 
present life, and because he hopes to escape in the 
end, therefore disregards all precautions (in the 
present), on this man comes the inevitable doom 
of death. 706 

' It is the knowledge of this, therefore, that weighs 
with me, and after long delay has constrained me to a 
hermit's life ; hearing of my father, the king, and his 
grief, my heart is affected with increased love ; 707 

' But yet, all is like the fancy of a dream, quickly 
reverting to nothingness. Know then, without fear 
of contradiction, that the nature of existing things is 
not uniform ; 708 

4 The cause of sorrow is not necessarily 2 the 
relationship of child with parent, but that which 
produces the pain of separation, results from the 
influence of delusion 3 ; 709 

' As men going along a road suddenly meet mid- 
way with others, and then a moment more are 
separated, each one going his own way 4 , 710 

1 Or, as we should say, ' of deep consideration.' 

! Or, does not necessarily exist either in child or parent. 

* Delusion is here equivalent to ' moha.' 

* This line may be more literally translated ' each one acting for 
himself according to his own purpose.' The words run thus, 
• opposite purpose, private, of himself.' 

H 2 



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IOO FO-SHO-HING-TSAN-KING. 11,9. 

'So by the force of concomitance, relationships 
are framed, and then, according to each one's 
destiny 1 , there is separation; he who thoroughly 
investigates this false connection of relationship 
ought not to cherish in himself grief; 711 

' In this world there is rupture of family love, in 
another life (world) it is sought for again ; brought 
together for a moment, again rudely divided 2 , every- 
where the fetters of kindred are formed 3 ! 712 

' Ever being bound, and ever being loosened ! 
who can sufficiently lament such constant separa- 
tions; born into the world*, and then gradually 
changing, constantly separated by death and then 
born again. 713 

'All things which exist in time must perish 6 , 
the forests and mountains all things thus exist 6 ; in 
time are born all sensuous things (things possessing 
the five desires), so is it both with worldly substance 7 
and with time. 714 

' Because, then, death pervades all time, get rid 
of death 8 , and time will disappear. You desire to 



1 The word for 'destiny' is li; it means the 'reason' or 'rule 
of action.' 

* Or, separated in opposite directions. 

3 In every place (place-place) there is no (place) without rela- 
tionships. 

4 From the moment of conception (placed in the womb) gradu- 
ally changing. 

6 All things (in) time have death. 

* The text is very curt, ' mountains, forests, what (is there) with- 
out time.' 

7 'Seeking wealth (in?) time, even thus;' or, 'Seeking wealth 
and time, are even thus.' 

8 ' Exclude the laws of death (sse fa), there will be no time.' 



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11,9* THE MISSION TO SEEK THE PRINCE. IOI 

make me king, and it is difficult to resist the offices 
of love; 715 

' But as a disease (is difficult to bear) without 
medicine, so neither can I bear (this weight of 
dignity) ; in every condition, high or low, we find 
folly and ignorance, (and men) carelessly following 
the dictates of lustful passion; 716 

' At last, we come 1 to live in constant fear ; thinking 
anxiously of the outward form, the spirit droops ; 
following the ways of men 2 , the mind resists the 
right 3 ; but, the conduct of the wise is not so. 717 

' The sumptuously ornamented 4 and splendid 
palace (I look upon) as filled with fire ; the hundred 
dainty dishes (tastes) of the divine kitchen, as 
mingled with destructive poisons; 718 

'The lily growing on the tranquil lake, in its 
midst harbours countless noisome insects; and so 
the towering abode of the rich is the house of 
calamity ; the wise will not dwell therein. 719 

' In former times illustrious kings, seeing the 
many crimes of their home and country, affecting 
as with poison the dwellers therein, in sorrowful 
disgust sought comfort in seclusion 5 ; 720 

' We know, therefore, that the troubles of a royal 
estate are not to be compared with the repose of 
a religious life ; far better dwell in the wild moun- 
tains*, and eat the herbs like the beasts of the 
field; 721 

1 ' In the end the body (that is, the person) ever fearful.' 

* Following the multitude. 

8 The heart opposes religion (fa). 

4 The seven-jewelled, beautiful palace hall. 

8 Became hermits. 

* In the mountains. I take ' lin ' in the expression ' shan lin' in 
this and other passages to be the sign of the plural. It corresponds 



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102 FO-SHOHING-TSAN-KING. II, 9. 



' Therefore I dare not dwell in the wide l palace, 
for the black snake has its dwelling there. I reject 
the kingly estate and the five desires [desires of the 
senses], to escape such sorrows I wander thro' the 
mountain wilds. 722 

' This, then, would be the consequence of com- 
pliance, that I, who, delighting in religion, am 
gradually getting wisdom 2 , should now quit these 
quiet woods, and returning home, partake of sensual 
pleasures, 723 

' And thus by night and day increase 3 my store 
of misery. Surely this is not what should be done ! 
that the great leader of an illustrious tribe, having 
left his home from love of religion, 724 

' And for ever turned his back upon tribal 
honour 4 , desiring to confirm his purpose as a 
leader 6 , — that he, — discarding outward form, clad in 
religious garb, loving religious meditation, wandering 
thro' the wilds, — 725 

' Should now reject his hermit vestment, tread 
down his sense of proper shame (and give up his 
aim). This, though I gained heaven's kingly state, 
cannot be done ! how much less to gain an earthly, 
though distinguished ", home ! 726 

with ' vana ' so used in other languages (the Sinhalese, according 
to Childers). 

1 The wide or deep palace seems to refer to the well-guarded 
and secure condition of a royal abode. 

* Am gradually increasing enlightenment. 

* Here the increase of sorrow is contrasted with the increase of 
wisdom, in the previous verse. 

4 Or, on his honourable, or renowned, tribe. 

* Here the word leader (£ang fu) refers to a religious leader, in 
contrast with a leader of a tribe, or family. 

* There seems to be a fine and delicate sarcasm in these words. 



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11,9- THE MISSION TO SEEK THE PRINCE. IO3 

' For having spued forth lust, passion, and igno- 
rance, shall I return to feed upon it ? as a man 
might go back to his vomit! such misery, how 
could I bear? 727 

'Like a man whose .house has caught fire, by 
some expedient finds a way to escape, will such 
a man forthwith go back and enter it again ? such 
conduct would disgrace a man M 728 

' So I, beholding the evils, birth, old age, and death, 
to escape the misery, have become a hermit ; shall 
I then go back and enter in, and like a fool dwell 
in their company ? 729 

' He who enjoys a royal estate and yet seeks 
rescue 2 , cannot dwell thus, this is no place for him ; 
escape (rescue) is born from quietness and rest ; to 
be a king is to add distress and poison ; 730 

'To seek for rest and yet aspire to royal con- 
dition is but a contradiction, royalty and rescue, 
motion and rest, like fire and water, having two 
principles 3 , cannot be united. 731 

' So one resolved to seek escape cannot abide 
possessed of kingly dignity ! and if you say a 
man may be a king *, and at the same time prepare 
deliverance for himself, 732 

'There is no certainty in this 8 ! to seek certain 



1 How would such a man be not accounted insignificant (tim, a 
dot or spot). 

2 I have translated 'kiai tuh,' rescue ; it means rescue from sor- 
row, or deliverance in the sense of salvation. 

* Two, or different, principles (li). 

* A man may occupy a kingly estate. 

6 This is still opposed to certainty; or, this cannot be esta- 
blished. 



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104 FOSHO-HING-TSAN-KING. II, 9. 

escape is not to risk it thus 1 ; it is through this 
uncertain frame of mind that once a man gone 
forth is led to go back home again ; 733 

' But I, my mind is not uncertain 2 ; severing the 
baited hook 3 of relationship, with straightforward 
purpose*, I have left my home. Then tell me, why 
should I return again ?' 734 

The great minister, inwardly reflecting, (thought), 
' The mind of the royal prince, my master 6 , is full of 
wisdom, and agreeable to virtue', what he says is 
reasonable and fitly framed V 735 

Then he addressed the prince and said : ' Accord- 
ing to what your highness states, he who seeks 
religion must seek it rightly ; but this is not the 
fitting time (for you) ; 736 

'Your royal father, old and of declining years, 
thinking of you his son, adds grief to grief; you say 
indeed, " I find my joy in rescue. To go back would 
be apostacy 8 ." 737 

' But yet your joy denotes unwisdom 9 , and argues 
want of deep reflection; you do not see, because 
you seek the fruit, how vain to give up present 
duty 10 . 738 



1 Certain escape, or certainty in escape, is not thus. 

9 But now I have attained to certainty. 

" That is, taking the bait off the hook of relationship ; the love 
of kindred is the bait. 
4 Using a right (or straight) expedient (upiya). 

6 The purpose of the prince, the master (£ang fu). 

* Deep in knowledge, virtuously accordant 

7 Or, has reasonable sequence (cause and effect). 

* Fi-fa, opposed to religion ; or, a revulsion from religion. 

* Although you rejoice, it comes forth from no-wisdom. 

10 This is a free rendering ; the original is, ' in fa kwan,' which 
means ' present religious consideration.' 



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11,9- THE MISSION TO SEEK THE PRINCE. IO5 

' There are some who say, There is " hereafter 1 ;" 
others there are who say, " Nothing hereafter." So 
whilst this question hangs in suspense, why should 
a man give up his present pleasure ? 739 

' If perchance there is " hereafter," we ought to 
bear (patiently) what it brings 2 ; if you say, " Here- 
after is not 8 ," then there is not either rescue (sal- 
vation) ! 740 

' If you say, " Hereafter is," you would not say, 
" Salvation causes it *." As earth is hard, or fire is 
hot, or water moist, or wind is mobile, 741 

' " Hereafter" is just so. It has its own distinct 
nature. So when we speak of pure and impure, 
each comes from its own distinctive nature. 742 

' If you should say, " By some contrivance this 
can be removed," such an opinon argues folly. 
Every root within the moral world 8 (world or 
domain of conduct) has its own nature predeter- 
mined ; 743 

' Loving remembrance and forgetfulness, these 
have their nature fixed and positive ; so likewise 

1 A discussion now begins as to the certainty or otherwise of ' a 
hereafter;' the words in the text which I have translated 'hereafter,' 
are ' heou shai,' i. e. after world. The phrase seems to correspond 
with the Pdli ' paro loko,' as in the sentence, ' N' ev' atthi na n' 
atthi paro loko ' (see Childers' PSH Diet., sub voce na). 

* We ought to trust it, whatever it is. 

8 These two lines may also be translated thus, ' If you say the 
after world is nothingness, then nothingness is also rescue (from 
the present world).' 

* This seems to mean that if we say there is another world, we 
cannot mean that escape from the present world is the cause of 
the future. Literally and word for word, ' Not-say-escape-the 
cause.' 

* ' The word ' root ' here means ' sense.' The sentence seems 
to mean ' every sense united with its object' 



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106 FOSHOHING-TSAN-KING. II, 9. 

age, disease, and death, these sorrows, who can 
escape by strategy 1 ? (contrivance, upaya). 744 

' If you say, "Water can put out fire," or " Fire 
can cause water to boil and pass away," (then this 
proves only that) distinctive natures may be mutu- 
ally destructive ; but nature in harmony produces 
living things ; 745 

' So man when first conceived within the womb, 
his hands, his feet, and all his separate members, 
his spirit and his understanding, of themselves are 
perfected ; but who is he who does it ? 746 

' Who is he that points the prickly thorn ? This 
too is nature, self-controlling 2 . And take again the 
different kinds of beasts, these are what they are, 
without desire (on their part 3 ); 747 

' And so, again, the heaven-born beings, whom the 
self-existent (Ixvara) rules 4 , and all the world of his 
creation ; these have no self-possessed power of 
expedients ; 748 

' For if they had a means of causing birth, 
there would be also (means) for controlling death, 
and then what need of self-contrivance, or seeking 
for deliverance ? 749 

' There are those who say, " I s " (the soul) is the 
cause of birth, and others who affirm, " I " (the soul) 
is the cause of death. There are some who say, 

1 The word translated ' strategy ' is of very frequent occurrence. 
It means contrivance, use of means to an end. 

1 Tsz' in, 'of itself.' 

* This line seems to mean that these beasts are made, or come 
into being, without desire on their part. 

4 I have supposed that the symbol 4j* in the text is for ^, but 
the first symbol may be retained, and then the passage would 
mean ' whom the self-existent made.' 

8 The word ' I ' here seems to mean ' the self,' or, the soul 



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II, 9- THE MISSION TO SEEK THE PRINCE. IO7 

" Birth comes from nothingness, and without any 
plan of ours we perish 1 ." 750 

' Thus one is born a fortunate child, removed from 
poverty, of noble family, or learned in testamentary 
lore of /?/shis, or called to offer mighty sacrifices to 
the gods, 751 

' Born in either state, untouched by poverty, then 
their famous name becomes to them " escape," their 
virtues handed down by name to us 2 ; yet if these 
attained their happiness (found deliverance), 752 

' Without contrivance of their own, how vain and 
fruitless is the toil of those who seek "escape." 
And you, desirous of deliverance, purpose to prac- 
tise some high expedient, 753 

' Whilst your royal father frets and sighs ; for a 
short while you have assayed the road, and leaving 
home have wandered thro' the wilds, to return then 
would not now be wrong ; 754 

'Of old, king Ambarisha for a long while dwelt in 
the grievous forest, leaving his retinue and all his 
kinsfolk, but afterwards returned and took the royal 
office; 755 

' And so Rama, son of the king of the country, 
leaving his country occupied the mountains, but 
hearing he was acting contrary to usage 3 , returned 4 
and governed righteously. 756 



1 I have taken the symbol ' iu ' here in the sense of ' without,' 
like the Latin ' careo.' 

4 The sense seems to be that the great name and renown of 
such persons handed down through successive generations is ' sal- 
vation' or' deliverance;' not the reward of another world, but the 
immortal character of their good deeds in this. 

3 So I translate the expression ' fung-tsuh-li,' usage-separation. 

4 There is a symbol here which may denote the name of the 



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108 FO-SHOHING-TSAN-KING. II, 9. 

' And so the king of Sha-lo-po, called To- 
lo-ma (Druma) \ father and son, both wandered 
forth as hermits, but in the end came back again 
together; 757 

'So Po-'sz-tsau Muni (Vasish^a?), with On- 
tai-tieh (Atreya?), in the wild mountains practis- 
ing as Brahmaiarins, these too returned to their 
own country. 758 

' Thus all these worthies of a by-gone age, famous 
for their advance in true religion, came back home and 
royallygoverned, as lamps enlightening theworld. 759 

' Wherefore for you to leave the mountain wilds, 
religiously to rule, is not a crime.' The royal prince, 
listening to the great minister, loving words without 
excess of speaking, 760 

Full of sound argument, clear and unconfused, 
with no desire to wrangle after the way of the 
schools, with fixed purpose, deliberately speaking, 
thus answered the great minister: 761 

' The question of being and not-being is an idle 
one, only adding to the uncertainty of an unstable 
mind, and to talk of such matters I have no strong 
(fixed) inclination 2 ; 762 

' Purity of life, wisdom, the practice of asceticism 8 , 
these are matters to which I earnestly apply myself*, 
the world is full of empty studies (discoveries) which 
our teachers in their office skilfully involve ; 763 

' But they are without any true principle, and I 

place to which he returned ; ' wei ' is often used in the composi- 
tion of proper names, especially those ending in • vastu.' 

1 Drumaksha, king of the Salvas. 

' J$C=up&dSna. 

' Or, purely and wisely to practise self-denial (mortification). 

* Or, these are the certainties I for myself know. 



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11,9. THE MISSION TO SEEK THE PRINCE. IO9 

will none of them ! The enlightened man distin- 
guishes truth from falsehood ; but how can truth l 
(faith) be born from such as those ? 764 

' For they are like the man born blind, leading 
the blind man as a guide ; as in the night, as in thick 
darkness [both wander on], what recovery is there 
for them ? 765 

' Regarding the question of the pure and impure, 
the world involved in self-engendered doubt cannot 
perceive the truth ; better to walk along the way of 
purity, 766 

' Or rather follow the pure law of self-denial, hate 
the practice of impurity, reflect on what was said of 
old*, not obstinate in one belief or one tradition, 767 

'With sincere (empty) mind, accepting all true 
words, and ever banishing sinful sorrow (i.e. sin, 
the cause of grief). Words which exceed sincerity 
(simplicity of purpose) are vainly (falsely) spoken; 
the wise man uses not such words. 768 

'As to what you say of Rama and the rest, leaving 
their home, practising a pure life, and then returning 
to their country, and once more mixing themselves 
in sensual pleasures, 769 

' Such men as these walk vainly ; those who are 
wise place no dependence on them. Now, for your 
sakes, permit me, briefly, to recount this one true 
principle (i. e. purpose) (of action) : 770 

"'The sun, the moon may fall to earth, Sumeru 
and all the snowy mountains overturn, but I will 
never change my purpose ; rather than enter a for- 
bidden place, 771 

1 The word ' sin ' 'fpj may mean faith or truth. 
* Consider what has been handed down. 



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I IO FOSHOHING-TSAN-KING. II, 9. 

'" Let me be cast into the fierce fire ; not to accom- 
plish rightly (what I have entered on), and to return 
once more to my own land, there to enter the fire of 
the five desires, 772 

' " Let it befall me as my own oath records :" — so 
spake the prince, his arguments as pointed as the 
brightness of the perfect sun ; then rising up he 
passed some distance off.' 773 

The Purohita and the minister, their words and dis- 
course prevailing nothing, conversed together, after 
which, resolving to depart on their return, 774 

With great respect they quietly inform x the prince, 
not daring to intrude their presence on him further ; 
and yet regarding the king's commands, not willing 
to return with unbecoming haste, 775 

They loitered quietly along the way, and whomso- 
ever they encountered, selecting those who seemed 
like wise men, they interchanged such thoughts as 
move the learned, 776 

Hiding their true position, as men of title; then 
passing on, they speeded on their way. 

1 They breathe it to the prince. 



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Ill, io. BIMBASARA rA(JA INVITES THE PRINCE. 1 1 1 

KIOUEN III. 

VARGA 10. BlMBASARA RA<?A INVITES THE PiUNCE. 

The royal prince departing from the court-master 
(i. e. the Purohita) and the great minister, Sad- 
dharma 1 , keeping along 2 the stream, then crossing 
the Ganges, he took the road towards the Vulture 
Peak 8 , 777 

1 Saddharma may be the name of the minister, or it may be 
rendered ' the great minister of the true law,' i. e. of religion. 

* For the symbol 3 I have substituted ^^ ' to go towards.' 
The whole line may be translated 'following the turbulent (streams) 
he crossed the Ganges/ in this case p^ would be for ^. But 
the sentence is obscure, as ' lang tsai * may be a proper name. 

* The distance from the place of the interview with the 
ministers to the Vulture Peak would be in a straight line about 
150 miles. In the Southern books (Nidana-katha ; Buddhist 
Birth Stories, by Mr. Rhys Davids, pp. 85 and 87 n.) it is said 
that from Kapilavastu to the River Anomi, near which the 
interview took place, is thirty yq^anas ; this is greatly in excess 
of the real distance, which is about thirty-three miles, or five yo- 
#anas. Then again from the Anomi River, or the village of 
Maneya (Mhaniya), where the Bodhisattva halted (see Romantic 
Legend of Buddha, p. 140, and compare vol. xii, plate viii, Archaeo- 
logical Survey of India), to Ri^agriha by way of Vaisili would 
not be more than 180 miles, so that the whole distance from 
Kapilavastu (assuming Bhuila to represent this old town) would be 
about 215 miles, or about thirty yo^anas. Hence we assume that 
the thirty yqpanas of the Southern account is intended to represent 
the entire distance from Kapilavastu, and not from the River 
Anomi. Mr. Rhys Davids supposes the distance from Kapilavastu 
to Ra^agriha (vii Vaualt) to be sixty yo^anas (loc. cit. Birth 
Stories). In the Southern account the journey from the Anomi 
to Ri^agriha is described as having been accomplished in one 
day. 



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112 FO-SHO-HING-TSAN-KING. Ill, 10. 

Hidden among the five mountains 1 , standing alone 
a lovely peak as a roof amid (the others). The 
trees and shrubs and flowers in bloom, the flowing 
fountains, and the cooling rills, 778 

(All these he gazed upon) — then passing on, he 
entered the city of the five peaks, calm and peaceful, 
as one come down from heaven 2 . The country folk, 
seeing the royal prince, his comeliness and his ex- 
cessive grace, 779 

Though young in years, yet glorious in his person, 
incomparable as the appearance of a great master, 
seeing him thus, strange thoughts affected them, 
as if they gazed upon the banner (curtain) of 
Ijvara 3 . 780 

They stayed the foot, who passed athwart the 
path ; those hastened on, who were behind ; those 
going before, turned back their heads and gazed 
with earnest, wistful* look. 781 

The marks and distinguishing points of his person*, 
on these they fixed their eyes without fatigue, and 
then approached with reverent homage, joining both 
their hands in salutation : 782 

1 The five mountains, viz., which surrounded RS^agriha, see 
Fah-hian, p. 112 n. The text seems to imply that the Vulture 
Peak towered above the others, but its base was hidden among 
the five. 

a As a Deva, outside (heaven). 

* The banner of If vara (Indra) is frequently represented in Bud- 
dhist sculptures. There is a pleasing figure of it in Mrs. Speir's 
Ancient India, p. 230 ; see also Tree and Serpent Worship, plate 
xxxviii and elsewhere. 

* Unsatisfied look, that is, constant or fixed gaze. 

8 The marks and distinguishing points are the signs to be found 
on the person of one destined to be a Buddha. In the text the 
expression ' on the four limbs ' means ' on the body.' 



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in, io. bimbasAra rAga invites the prince. 113 

With all there was a sense of wondrous joy, as in 
their several ways they offered what they had, look- 
ing at his noble and illustrious features; bending 
down their bodies 1 modestly, 783 

Correcting every careless or unseemly gesture, 
thus they showed their reverence to him silently*; 
those who with anxious heart, seeking release, were 
moved by love, with feelings composed, bowed down 
the more 8 . 784 

Great men and women, in their several engage- 
ments 4 , at the same time arrested on their way, paid 
to his person and his presence homage : and follow- 
ing him as they gazed, they went not back. 785 

For the white circle between his eyebrows 8 adorn- 
ing his wide and violet colour'd 9 eyes, his noble body 
bright as gold, his pure and web-joined fingers, 786 

All these, though he were but a hermit, were 
marks of one who was a holy king ; and now the 
men and women of Ra^agriha, the old and young 
alike, were moved, 787 

(And cried), 'This man so noble as a recluse, what 
common joy is this for us 7 !' At this time Bimba- 
sara Ra^a, placed upon a high tower of observa- 
tion, 788 

Seeing all those men and women, in different ways 

1 Their different bodies, or forms. 

* Silently they added their respectful homage. 

* These lines seem to refer to the ease of mind given to the 
care-worn by the presence of Bodhisattva. 

* Whether engaged on public or private affairs ; so at least the 
text seems to mean, £■ jj£ ffe. 

* That is, the urna, or circle of hair, supposed to be on the fore- 
head of every great man. 

* The colour is indefinite blue-like ; compare the Greek Kvamt, 
1 That is, ' what an occasion for uncommon joy is this !' 

[19] I 



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114 FO-SHOHING-TSAN-KING. Ill, 10. 

exhibiting one mark of surprise \ calling before him 
some man outside, enquired at once the cause 
of it; 789 

This one bending his knee below the tower, told 
fully what he had seen and heard, ' That one of the 
6akya race, renowned of old, a prince most excellent 
and wonderful, 790 

' Divinely wise, beyond the way of this world, a 
fitting king to rule the eight regions, now without 
home, is here, and all men are paying homage 
to him.' 791 

The king on hearing this was deeply moved at 
heart 2 , and though his body was restrained, his soul 
had gone 8 . Calling his ministers speedily before 
him, and all his nobles and attendants, 792 

He bade them follow secretly the (prince's) steps, to 
observe what charity was given 4 . (So in obedience to 
the command) they followed and watched him stead- 
fasdy, as with even gait and unmoved presence 793 

He entered on the town and begged his food, 
according to the rule of all great hermits, with joyful 
mien and undisturbed mind, not anxious whether 
much or little alms were given ; 794 

Whatever he received, costly or poor, he placed 
within his bowl, then turned back to the wood, and 
having eaten it and drank of the flowing stream, he 
joyous sat upon the immaculate mountain 5 . 795 

1 Scared in different ways, assuming one attitude, or unvarying 
attitude ; the line simply means they all showed the same indication 
of astonishment. 

s Rejoiced with fear, or with astonishment. 

3 His body held (to the place), his soul (shin) had already 
hastened, i. e. to the spot where Bodhisattva was. 

* Or, what religious offering should be made. 

* The White Mountain, meaning probably the Royal Mountain. 



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Ill, 10. BIMBASARA RAGA INVITES THE PRINCE. 1 1 5 

(There he beheld) the green trees fringing with 
their shade the crags, the scented flowers growing 
between the intervals, whilst the peacocks and 
the other birds, joyously flying, mingled their 
notes ; 796 

His sacred garments bright and lustrous, (shone) 
as the sun-lit mulberry leaves ; the messengers be- 
holding his fixed composure, one by one (returning), 
reported what they had seen ; 797 

The king hearing it, was moved at heart, and 
forthwith ordered his royal equipment to be brought, 
his god-like crown and his flower-bespangled robes ; 
then, as the lion-king, he strided forth, 798 

And choosing certain aged persons of considera- 
tion, learned men, able calmly and wisely to dis- 
criminate, he (with them) led the way followed by a 
hundred thousand people, who like a cloud ascended 
with the king the royal mountain. 799 

And now beholding the dignity of Bodhisattva', 
every outward gesture (spring of action) under 
government, sitting with ease upon the mountain 
crag 1 , as the moon shining limpid in the pure 
heavens, 800 

So (was) his matchless beauty and purity of 
grace; then as the converting presence of reli- 
gion 2 dwelling within the heart makes it reve- 
rential 3 , so (beholding him) he reverently ap- 
proached, 801 

Even as divine 6akara comes to the presence of 

1 On the lofty abode of the mountain (peak). 

* This expression is singular, it will bear no other translation 
than this, 'the converting body (or, presence) of the law, i.e. 
religion.' 

8 Or, causes reverence (on the part of the beholder). 

I 2 



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Il6 FOSHOHING-TSAN-KING. Ill, 10. 

Mo-hi-su-ma 1 , so with every outward form of 
courtesy and reverence 2 (the king approached) and 
asked him respectfully of his welfare. 802 

Bodhisattva, answering as he was moved 8 , in his 
turn made similar enquiries. Then the king, the 
questioning over, sat down with dignity upon a 
clean-faced rock. 803 

And so he steadfastly beheld the divine appear- 
ance (of the prince), the sweetness and complacency 
of his features* revealing* what his station was and 
high estate, his family renown, received by inheri* 
tance, 804 

The king who for a time restrained his feelings, 
now wishful to get rid of doubts, (enquired) (why 
one) descended from the royal family of the sun- 
brightness having attended to religious sacrifices 
thro' ten thousand generations, 805 

Whereof the virtue had descended as his full in- 
heritance, increasing and accumulating until now 6 , 
(why he) so excellent in wisdom, so young in years, 
had now become a recluse, 806 

Rejecting the position of a A'akravartin's 7 son, 
begging his food, despising family fame, his beau- 

1 Probably the symbol ma is here used for va, in which case the 
name would be restored to Mahervara. 

1 It is difficult to render such passages as this literally, but it 
might be translated thus, 'With collected air and every mark of 
decorum.' 

* That is, according to the circumstances of the enquiry. 

* The sweet expression blended with a joyfulness of countenance. 

• Or it may be rendered, 'Correctly hearing his name and high 
degree,' as though one of the king's attendants had whispered the 
name and family of Bodhisattva in his ear. 

• Largely possessed (or, collected) in his own person. 
7 Son of a holy king. 



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Ill, IO. BIMBASARA RA<?A INVITES THE PRINCE. 1 1 7 

teous form, fit for perfumes and anointings, why 
clothed with coarse Kasiya garments ; 807 

The hand which ought to grasp the reins of 
empire, instead thereof, taking its little stint of food; 
if Mndeed (the king continued) you were not of royal 
descent, and would receive as an offering the trans- 
fer of this land, 808 

Then would I divide with you my empire 1 ; saying 
this, he scarcely hoped to excite his feelings, who 
had left his home and family, to be a hermit Then 
forthwith the king proceeded thus : 809 

'Give just weight I pray you to my truthful words, 
desire for power is kin to nobleness, and so is just 
pride of fame or family or wealth or personal appear- 
ance; 810 

' No longer having any wish to subdue the proud, 
or to bend (others) down and so get thanks from 
men, it were better, then, to give to the strong and 
warlike martial arms to wear, for them to follow 
war and by their power to get supremacy ; 811 

' But when by one's own power a kingdom falls to 
hand, who would not then accept the reins of empire ? 
The wise man knows the time to take religion, wealth, 
and worldly pleasure. 812 

' But if he obtains not 2 the three (or, threefold 
profit), then in the end he abates his earnest efforts, 
and reverencing religion, he lets go material wealth. 
Wealth is the one desire 8 of worldly men ; 813 

1 The absence of covetousness in Bimbasara has passed into a 
proverb or a typical instance in Buddhist literature. (Compare 
Asvaghosha's Sermons, passim.) 

2 If he desires not to possess the three, that is, wealth, pleasure, 
religion. 

' Wealth affects (makes) all men of the world. 



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Il8 FO-SHOHING-TSAtf-KING. m, 10, 

' To be rich and lose all desire for religion, this 
is to gain but outside wealth. But to be poor and 
even thus despise religion, what pleasure can indul- 
gence give in such a case! 814 

' But when possessed of all the three, and when 
enjoyed with reason and propriety, then religion, 
wealth, and pleasure make what is rightly called a 
great master; 815 

' Permit not, then, your perfectly-endowed body 
to lay aside (sacrifice) its glory, without reward 
(merit); Mandha(ri) the ^Takravartin, as a monarch, 
ruled the four empires of the world, 816 

'And shared with .Sakra his royal throne, but 
was unequal to the task of ruling heaven. But you, 
with your redoubtable strength, may well grasp both 
heavenly and human power ; 817 

' I do not rely upon my kingly power 1 , in my 
desire to keep you here by force, but seeing you 
change your comeliness of person, and wearing the 
hermit's garb, 818 

' Whilst it makes me reverence you for your virtue, 
moves me with pity and regret for you as a man ; 
you now go begging your food, and I offer you 
(desire to offer) the whole land as yours ; 819 

' Whilst you are young and lusty enjoy yourself 2 . 
During middle life acquire wealth, and when old 
and all your abilities ripened, then is the time for 
following the rules of religion ; 820 

'When young to encourage religious fervour, is 
to destroy the sources of desire ; but when old and 

1 That is, I do not command you as a king, but desire you to 
share my kingly power. 

* Receive the pleasure of the five enjoyments (of sense), i. e. the 
indulgence of the five senses. 



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Ill, II. THE REPLY TO BIMBASARA rA(?A. 119 

the breath (of desire) is less eager, then is the time 
to seek religious solitude ; 821 

' When old we should avoid, as a shame, desire of 
wealth, but get honour in the world by a religious 
life ; but when young, and the heart light and elastic, 
then is the time to partake of pleasure, 822 

' In boon companionship to indulge in gaiety, and 
partake to the full of mutual intercourse; but as 
years creep on, giving up indulgence, to observe the 
ordinances of religion, 823 

' To mortify the five desires, and go on increasing 
a joyful and religious heart, is not this the law of the 
eminent kings of old, who as a great company paid 
worship to heaven, 824 

'And borne on the dragon's back, received the 
joys of celestial abodes ? All these divine and 
victorious monarchs, glorious in person, richly 
adorned, 825 

' Thus having as a company performed their reli- 
gious offering, in the end -received the reward of 
their conduct in heaven.' Thus Bimbasara Ra^a 
(used) every kind of winning expedient in argu- 
ment; 826 

The royal prince unmoved and fixed remained 
firm as Mount Sumeru. 



Varga 11. The Reply to BimbasAra RAga. 

Bimbasara Ra/a having, in a decorous manner, 
and with soothing speech, made his request, the 
prince on his part respectfully replied, in the follow- 
ing words, deep and heart-stirring : 827 

' Illustrious and world renowned ! Your words are 



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130 FOSHOHING-TSAN-KING. Ill, u. 

not opposed to reason, descendant of a distinguished 
family — an Aryan 1 — amongst men 2 a true friend 
indeed, 828 

' Righteous and sincere to the bottom of your 
heart, it is proper for religion's sake to speak thus 8 . 
In all the world, in its different sections, there is no 
chartered place 4 for solid virtue (right principles), 829 

' For if virtue flags and folly rules, what reverence 
can there be, or honour paid, to a high name or 
boast of prowess, inherited from former genera- 
tions! 830 

' And so there may be in the midst of great dis- 
tress, large goodness, these are not mutually opposed. 
This then is so with the world in the connection of 
true worth and friendship. 831 

'A true friend who makes good (free) use of 
wealth — is rightly called a fast and firm treasure, 
but he who guards and stints the profit he has made, 
his wealth will soon be spent and lost ; 832 

' The wealth of a country is no constant treasure, 
but that which is given in charity is rich in returns, 
therefore charity is a true friend, altho' it scatters, 
yet it brings no repentance; 833 

'You indeed are known as liberal and kind, I 
make no reply in opposition to you, but simply as 
we meet, so with agreeable purpose we talk. 834 

1 The symbols are 'ho-lai;' the translation may be simply 
' descendant of a noble (ariya) and renowned family.' 
' Or, for men's sake. 

* This line literally translated is, 'Religion requires (me) thus to 
speak,' or, if the expression 'gu shi' refers to what has been said 
(as it generally does), then the line will run thus,' Religion justifies 
you in speaking as you have.' 

* We cannot place (L e. fix the place) where religion (or, virtue 
and right principle) must dwell. 



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Ill, II. THE REPLY TO BIMBASARA RAGA. 121 

' I fear birth, old age, disease, and death, and so I 
seek to find a sure mode of deliverance ; I have put 
away thought of relatives and family affection, how 
is it possible then for me to return to the world 
(five desires) 835 

'And not to fear to revive the poisonous snake, 
(and after) 1 the hail to be burned in the fierce fire ; 
indeed I fear the objects of these several desires, 
this whirling in the stream (ol\ life) troubles my 
heart, 836 

' These five desires, the inconstant thieves* — steal- 
ing from men their choicest treasures,, making them 
unreal, false, and fickle — are like the man called up 
as an apparition 8 ; 837 

' For a time the beholders are affected (by it), but 
it has no lasting hold upon the mind ; so these five 
desires are the great obstacles, for ever disarranging 
the way of peace ; 838 

' If the joys of heaven are not worth having, how 
much less the desires common to men, begetting 
the thirst of wild love, and then lost in the enjoy- 
ment, 839 

'As the fierce wind fans the fire, till the fuel be 
spent and the fire expires ; of all unrighteous things 
in the world, there is nothing worse than the domain 
of the five desires ; 840 

'For all men maddened by the power of lust, 
giving themselves to pleasure, are dead to reason. 
The wise man fears these desires, he fears to fall 
into the way of unrighteousness ; 841 

1 Like frozen hail and fierce burning fire. 

* Robbers of impermanency. 

' That i», are as unreal as an apparition. 



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122 FO-SHOHING-TSAN-KING. Ill, II. 

' For like a king who rules all within the four seas, 
yet still seeks beyond for something more, (so is 
lust); like the unbounded ocean, it knows not when 
and where to stop. 842 

'Mandha, the Afakravartin, when the heavens 
rained yellow gold, and he ruled all within the seas, 
yet sighed aftef the domain of the thirty-three 
heavens ; 843 

' Dividing with Sakra his seat, and so thro' the 
power of this lust he died ; Nung-Sha (Nyasa ?), 
whilst practising austerities, got power to rule the 
V thirty-three heavenly abodes, 844 

' But from lust he became proud and supercilious, 
the Jfo'shi whilst stepping into his chariot, through 
carelessness in his gait, fell down into the midst of 
the serpent pit. 845 

' Yen-lo (Yama ?) the universal monarch (A'akra- 
vartin) wandering abroad thro' the Trayastri»«as 
heaven, took a heavenly woman (Apsara) for a queen, 
and unjustly extorted 1 the gold of a J&shi ; 846 

'The Jtishi, in anger, added a charm, by which 
the country was ruined, and his life ended. Po-lo, 
and .Sakra king of Devas 2 , .Sakra king of Devas, 
and Nung-sha (Nyasa), 847 

'Nung-sha returning (or, restoring) to Sakra; 
what certainty (constancy) is there, even for the 
lord of heaven ? Neither is any country safe, though 
kept by the mighty strength of those dwelling in 
it. 848 

1 - ■ ■ ■ 

1 The literal translation of this line would be, ' Taxing the gold 
of Lim the i?*'shi;' or.'of the harvest ingathered by the JtishU 

* These lines refer to the transfer of heavenly power from .Sakra 
to others, but the myth is not known to me ; and there is confusion 
in the text, which is probably corrupt. 



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in, it. THE REPLY TO BIMBASARA RAG A. 123 

' But when one's clothing consists of grass, the 
berries one's food, the rivulets one's drink, with long 
hair flowing to the ground, silent as a Muni, seeking 
nothing, 849 

' In this way practising austerities, in the end lust 
shall be destroyed. Know then, that the province 
(indulgence) of the five desires is avowedly an enemy 
of the religious man. 850 

'Even the one-thousand-armed invincible king, 
strong in his might, finds it hard to conquer this. 
The -Afehi Rama perished because of lust, 851 

' How much more ought I, the son of a Kshatriya, 
to restrain lustful desire ; but indulge in lust a little, 
and like the child it grows apace, 852 

'The wise man hates it therefore; who would 
take poison for food ? every sorrow is increased and 
cherished by the offices of lust. 853 

' If there is no lustful desire, the risings of sorrow 
are not produced, the wise man seeing the bitterness 
of sorrow, stamps out and destroys the risings of 
desire; 854 

' That which the world calls virtue, is but another 
form of this baneful law 1 ; worldly men enjoying the 
pleasure of covetous desire then every form of care- 
less conduct results ; 855 

'These careless ways producing hurt, at death, 
the subject of them reaps perdition (falls into one of 
the evil ways). But by the diligent use of means, 
and careful continuance therein, 856 

' The consequences of negligence are avoided, we 
should therefore dread the non-use of means ; recol- 

1 The sense of this passage seems to be that what is called by 
men a virtuous life, is but a form of regulated vice. 



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124 FOSHO-HING-TSAN-KING. Ill, n. 

lecting that all things are illusory, the wise man 
covets them not; 857 

' He who desires such things, desires sorrow, and 
then goes on again ensnared in love, with no cer- 
tainty of ultimate freedom; he advances still and 
ever adds grief to grief, 858 

' Like one holding a lighted torch burns his hand, 
and therefore the wise man enters on no such things. 
The foolish man and the one who doubts, still 
encouraging the covetous and burning heart, 859 

' In the end receives accumulated sorrow, not to 
be remedied by any prospect of rest ; covetousness 
and anger are as the serpent's poison; the wise 
man casts away 860 

' The approach of sorrow as a rotten bone ; he 
tastes it not nor touches it, lest it should corrupt his 
teeth, that which the wise man will not take, 861 

'The king will go through fire and water to 
obtain, the wicked sons 1 labour for wealth as for 
a piece of putrid flesh, o'er which the hungry flocks 
of birds contend. 862 

' So should we regard riches ; the wise man is ill 
pleased at having wealth stored up, the mind wild 
with anxious thoughts, 863 

'Guarding himself by night and day, as a man 
who fears some powerful enemy, like as a man's 
feelings revolt with disgust at the (sights seen) 
beneath the slaughter post of the East Market, 864 

' So the high post which marks the presence of 
lust, and anger, and ignorance, the wise man always 
avoids; as those who enter the mountains or the 
seas have much to contend with and little rest, 865 

'As the fruit which grows on a high tree, and is 

1 The foolish world. 



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Ill, II. THE REPLY TO BIMBASARA RAGA. 1 25 

grasped at by the covetous at the risk of life, so 
is the region (matter) of covetous desire, tho' they 
see the difficulty of getting it, 866 

' Yet how painfully do men scheme after wealth, 
difficult to acquire, easy to dissipate, as that which 
is got in a dream, how can the wise man hoard 
up (such trash)! 867 

' Like covering over with a false surface a hole 
full of fire, slipping thro' which the body is burnt, 
so is the fire of covetous desire. The wise man 
meddles not with it 868 

'Like that Kaurava [Kau-lo-po], or Pih-se-ni 
Nanda, or Ni-/6'/5e-lai Danta, as some vfcandala's 
(butcher's) appearance ', 869 

4 Such also is the appearance of lustful desire ; 
the wise man will have nothing to do with it, he 
would rather throw his body into the water or fire, 
or cast himself down over a steep precipice. 870 

'Seeking to obtain heavenly pleasures, what is 
this but to remove the place of sorrow, without 
profit. Siin-tau, Po-sun-tau (Sundara and Vasun- 
dara), brothers of Asura, 871 

' Lived together in great affection, but on account 
of lustful desire slew one another, and their name 
perished; all this then comes from lust; 872 

' It is this which makes a man vile, and lashes 
and goads him with piercing sorrow; lust debases 
a man, robs him of all hope, whilst through the long 
night his body and soul are worn out ; 873 

' Like the stag a that covets the power of speech 

1 This line may be translated, 'as the appearance of the shambles/ 
* I do not know to what this refers ; the symbol ' shing' may 

not only mean 'the power of speech,' but also 'musical power' or 

'music;' or it may mean 'celebrity.' 



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126 FO-SHO-HINOTSAN-KING. in, u. 

and dies, or the winged bird that covets l sensual 
pleasure (the net), or the fish that covets the baited 
hook, such are the calamities that lust brings; 874 

'Considering what are the requirements of life, 
none of these possess permanency; we eat to 
appease the pain of hunger, to do away with thirst 
we drink, 875 

'We clothe ourselves to keep out the cold and 
wind, we lie down to rest to get sleep, to procure 
locomotion we seek a carriage, when we would halt 
we seek a seat, 876 

' We wash to cleanse ourselves from dirt, all these 
things are done to avoid inconvenience ; we may 
gather therefore that these five desires have no 
permanent character ; 877 

' For as a man suffering from fever seeks and 
asks for some cooling medicine, so covetousness 
seeks for something to satisfy its longings ; foolish 
men regard these things as permanent, 878 

' And as the necessary requirements of life, but, in 
sooth, there is no permanent cessation of sorrow; 
for by coveting to appease these desires we really 
increase them, there is no character of permanency 
therefore about them. 879 

' To be filled and clothed are no lasting pleasures, 
time passes, and the sorrow recurs ; summer is cool 
during the moon-tide shining; winter comes and 
cold increases ; 880 

' And so through all the eightfold laws of the 
world they possess no marks of permanence, sorrow 
and joy cannot agree together, as a person slave- 
governed loses his renown. 881 

1 Or, ' that follows after form-covetousness.' 



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Ill, II. THE REPLY TO BIMBASARA RAG A. 1 27 

' But religion causes all things to be of service, 
as a king reigning in his sovereignty; so religion 
controls sorrow, as one fits on a burthen according 
to power of endurance. 882 

'Whatever our condition in the world, still 
sorrows accumulate around us. Even in the con- 
dition of a king, how does pain multiply, though 
bound to others by love, yet this is a cause of 
grief; 883 

' Without friends and living alone, what joy can 
there be in this ? Though a man rules over the four 
kingdoms, yet only one part can be enjoyed ; 884 

' To be concerned in ten thousand matters, what 
profit is there in this, for we only accumulate anxie- 
ties. Put an end to sorrow, then, by appeasing 
desire, refrain from busy work, this is rest. 885 

'A king enjoys his sensual pleasures; deprived 
of kingship there is the joy of rest ; in both cases 
there are pleasures (but of different kinds); why 
then be a king! 886 

' Make then no plan or crafty expedient, to lead me 
back to the five desires ; what my heart prays for, 
is some quiet place and freedom (a free road) ; 887 

' But you desire to entangle me in relationships 
and duties, and destroy the completion of what I 
seek; I am in no fear of a hated house (family 
hatred), nor do I seek the joys of heaven ; 888 

'My heart hankers after no vulgar profit, so 
I have put away my royal diadem ; and contrary 
to your way of thinking, I prefer, henceforth, no 
more to rule. 889 

' A hare rescued from the serpent's mouth, would 
it go back again to be devoured ? holding a torch 
and burning himself, would not a man let it go ? 890 



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128 FOSHOHING-TSAN-KING. Ill, n. 

' A man blind and recovering his sight, would he 
again seek to be in darkness? the rich, does he 
sigh for poverty? the wise, does he long to be 
ignorant? 891 

' Has the world such men as these ? then will 
I again enjoy my country. (But) I desire to get 
rid of birth, old age, and death, with body restrained, 
to beg my food ; 892 

' With appetites moderated, to keep in my retreat ; 
and then to avoid the evil modes of a future life, 
this is to find peace in two worlds : now then I pray 
you pity me not 893 

'Pity, rather, those who rule as kings! their 
souls ever vacant and athirst, in the present world 
no repose, hereafter receiving pain as their 
meed. 894 

'You, who possess a distinguished family name, 
and the reverence due to a great master, would 
generously share your dignity with me, your worldly 
pleasures and amusements ; 895 

' I, too, in return, for your sake, beseech you to 
share my reward with me; he who indulges in 
(practises) the threefold kinds of pleasure, this man 
the world calls " Lord," 896 

' But this is not according to reason either, be- 
cause these things cannot be retained, but where 
there is no birth, or life, or death, he who exercises 
himself in this way, is Lord indeed ! 897 

' You say that while young a man should be gay, 
and when old then religious (a recluse), but I regard 
the feebleness of age as bringing with it loss of 
power (to be religious), 898 

' Unlike the firmness and power of youth, the will 
determined and the heart established; but death 



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in, II. THE REPLY TO BIMBASARA RA<JA. 129 

as a robber with a drawn sword follows us all, 
desiring to catch his prey; 899 

' How then should we wait for old age, ere we 
bring our mind to a religious life ? Inconstancy is 
the great hunter, age his bow, disease his arrows, 900 

' In the fields of life and death he hunts for living 
things as for the deer; when he can get his 
opportunity, he takes our life ; who then would wait 
for age ? 901 

' And what the teachers say and do, with refer- 
ence to matters connected with life and death, 
exhorting the young, mature, or middle-aged, all 
to contrive by any means, 902 

' To prepare vast meetings for sacrifices, this they 
do indeed of their own ignorance; better far to 
reverence the true law (religion), and put an end 
to sacrifice to appease the gods ! 903 

' Destroying life to gain religious merit, what love 
can such a man possess ? even if the reward of such 
sacrifices were lasting, even for this, slaughter would 
be unseemly ; 904 

' How much more, when the reward is transient ! 
Shall we (in search of this) slay that which lives, in 
worship ? this is like those who practise wisdom, 
and the way of religious abstraction, but neglect the 
rules of moral conduct 905 

'It ill behoves us then to follow with the world, 
and attend these sacrificial assemblies, and seek some 
present good in killing that which lives; the wise 
avoid destroying life ! 906 

'Much less do they engage in general sacrifices, 
for the purpose of gaining future reward ! the fruit 
(reward) promised in the three worlds is none of 
mine to choose for happiness! 907 

[19] K 



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I30 FO-SHOHING-TSAN-KING. HI, II. 

' All these are governed by transient, fickle laws, 
like the wind, or the drop that is blown from the 
grass; such things therefore I put away from me, 
and I seek for true escape. 908 

' I hear there is one O-lo-lam (Arada Kalima) 
who eloquently (well) discourses on the way of 
escape, I must go to the place where he dwells, 
that great JZishi and hermit. 909 

' But in truth, sorrow must be banished ; I regret 
indeed leaving you ; may your country have repose 
and quiet! safely defended (by you) as (by) the 
divine .Sakra-ra^a! 910 

' May wisdom be shed abroad as light upon your 
empire, like the brightness of the meridian sun ! may 
you be exceedingly victorious as lord of the great 
earth, with a perfect heart ruling over its destiny !' 91 1 

' May you direct and defend its sons ! ruling your 
empire in righteousness ! Water and snow and fire 
are opposed to one another, but the fire by its influ- 
ence causes vapour, 912 

' The vapour causes the floating clouds, the floating 
clouds drop down rain ; there are birds in space, who 
drink the rain, with rainless bodies x (?) 913 

'Slaughter and peaceful homes are enemies! 
those who would have peace hate slaughter, and if 
those who slaughter are so hateful, then put an end, 
O king, to those who practise it! 914 

•And bid these find release, as those who drink 

1 This line literally translated is,' Who drink rain, not rain-body ;' 
there may be a misprint, but I cannot see how to correct the text. 
The sense of the text and eontext appears to be this, that as there 
are those who drink the rain-clouds and yet are parched with 
thirst, so there are those who constantly practise religious duties 
and yet are still unblest. Compare Epistle by Jude, ver. 1 2, ' Clouds 
without water.' 



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111,13. visit to Arada and udrarAma. 131 

and yet are parched with thirst' Then the king 
clasping together his hands, with greatest reverence 
and joyful heart, 9 1 5 

(Said), 'That which you now seek, may you obtain 
quickly the fruit thereof; having obtained the perfect 
fruit, return I pray and graciously receive me ! ' 916 

Bodhisattva, his heart inwardly acquiescing, pur- 
posing to accomplish his prayer, departing, pursued 
his road, going to the place where Arada Kalama 
dwelt, 917 

Whilst the king with all his retinue, their hands 
clasped, themselves followed a little space, then 
with thoughtful and mindful heart, returned once 
more to R&jragriha. ! 918 

Varga 12. Visit to ArAda UdrarAma 1 . 

The child of the glorious sun of the Ikshvaku race, 
going to that quiet peaceful grove, reverently stood 
before the Muni, the great Hishi Arada Rama; 919 

The dark-clad (?) followers of the Kalam (Sangha- 
rama) seeing afar off Bodhisattva approaching, 
with loud voice raised a joyful chant, and with 
suppressed breath muttered ' Welcome,' 920 

As with clasped hands they reverenced him. 
Approaching one another, they made mutual en- 
quiries ; and this being done, with the usual apolo- 
gies, according to their precedence (in age) 2 they 
sat down ; 92 1 

The Brahmaiarins observing the prince, (beheld) 
his personal beauty and carefully considered his 

1 The compound in the original probably represents Ar£</a 
Kalama and Udra(ka) Ramaputra. 
* Tsi'ang tsu may mean ' after invitation.' 

K 2 



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132 FO-SHO-HING-TSAN-KING. Ill, 12. 

appearance; respectfully 1 they satisfied themselves 
of his high qualities, like those who, thirsty, drink 
the 'pure dew.' 922 

(Then) with raised hands they addressed the 
prince, ' Have you* (or, may we know whether you 
have) been long an ascetic, divided from your family 
and broken from the bonds of love, like the elephant 
who has cast off restraint ? 923 

' Full of wisdom (your appearance), completely 
enlightened, (you seem) well able to escape the 
poisonous fruit (of this world) 3 . In old time the 
monarch Ming Shing* (brightly victorious) gave 
up his kingly estate to his son, 924 

'As a man who has carried a flowery wreath, 
when withered casts it away : but such is not your 
case, full of youthful vigour, and yet not enamoured 
with the condition of a holy king ; 925 

' We see that your will is strong and fixed, capable 
of becoming a vessel of the true law, able to em- 
bark in the boat of wisdom, and to cross over the 
sea of life and death : 926 

'The common class 5 , enticed to come to learn, 
their talents first are tested, then they are taught ; 
but as I understand your case, your mind is already 
fixed and your will firm : 927 

1 ' High qualities,' powers of his mind ; probably the same as 
the tai^asa of the Gainas (see Colebrooke, Essays, p. 282). This 
line may be literally translated, ' bathing themselves in a respectful 
admiration of his high qualities.' 

8 The symbol ' £i' may possibly mean ' friend,' in which case the 
line would be, ' O friend ! have you long been a homeless one?' 

3 Or the poisonous fruit of that which is low or base. 

4 I have taken ' Ming Shing ' as a proper name, but it may be 
also translated ' illustrious conquering (kings).' 

1 ' Fan fu,' the common class of philosophers, or students. The 
vulgar herd. 



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in, i*. visit to ArAda and udrarAma. 133 

'And now you have undertaken the purpose of 
learning, (I am persuaded) you will not in the end 
shrink from it' The prince hearing this exhorta- 
tion, with gladness made reply: 928 

'You have with equal intention, illustrious 1 ! 
cautioned me with impartial mind; with humble 
heart I accept the advice, and pray that it may be 
so with me, (as you anticipate) ; 929 

' That I may in my night-journey obtain a torch, 
to guide me safely thro' treacherous places ; a handy 
boat to cross over the sea ; — may it be so even now 
with me! 930 

' But as I am somewhat in doubt and anxious to 
learn, I will venture to make known my doubts, and 
ask, with respect to old age, disease, and death, how 
are these things to be escaped ?' 931 

At this time O-lo-lam (Araak Kalama) hearing 
the question asked by the prince, briefly from the 
various Sutras and .Sastras, quoted passages in ex- 
planation of a way of deliverance. 932 

' But thou (he said) illustrious youth ! so highly 
gifted, and eminent among the wise! hear what I 
have to say, as I discourse upon the mode of ending 
birth and death ; 933 

' Nature, and change, birth, old age, and death, 
these five (attributes) belong to all 2 ; "nature" is (in 
itself) 3 pure and without fault ; the involution of this 
with the five elements 4 , 934 

1 Or, 'illustriously admonished me without preference or dis- 
like;' or 'against preference or dislike.' 

* The discourse following is very obscure, being founded on 
the philosophical speculations of Kapila and others. 

3 Or, Nature is that which is pure and unsullied (tabula rasa). 

* The five 'great' (Mahat). 



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134 FO-SHO-HING-TSAN-KING. Ill, u. 

' Causes an awakening and power of perception, 
which, according to its exercise 1 , is the cause of 
"change;" form, sound, order, taste, touch, these 
are called the five objects of sense (dhatu); 935 

'As the hand and foot are called the " two ways" 
(methods of moving?) so these are called "the roots" 
of action (the five skandhas); the eye, the ear, the 
nose, the tongue, the body, these are named the 
" roots " (instruments) of understanding. 936 

'The root of "mind" (manas) 2 is twofold, being 
both material, and also intelligent; "nature" by its 
involutions is " the cause," the knower of the cause 
is " I" (the soul); 937 

' Kapila the J&slii and his numerous followers, 
on this deep principle of " soul 3 ," practising wisdom 
(Buddhi), found deliverance. 938 

'Kapila" and now Va^aspati*, by the power of 
"Buddhi" perceiving the character of birth, old 
age, and death, declare that on this is founded 
true philosophy 6 ; 939 

'Whilst all opposed to this, they say, is false. 
"Ignorance" and "passion," causing constant "trans- 
migration," 940 

1 That is, as the power of perception is exercised, ' change ' is 
experienced. 

* Refer to Colebrooke, on the SSnkhya philosophy. 

s Much of this discourse might be illustrated from the Chinese 
version of ' the seventy golden »Sastra' (Sankhya Karika) of Kapila ; 
but the subject would require distinct treatment. 

4 This verse is obscure, and the translation doubtful. Literally 
rendered it runs as follows : ' That Kapila (or, that which Kapila 
said) now (is affirmed respecting) Pra^&pati [po-£e-po-ti ; this 
may be restored to Vakpati, or to Pra^ipati ; the latter however 
(as I am told) is the reading found in the Sanskrit original] (by the 
power of) Buddhi, knowing birth,' &c. 

1 This, they say, is called ' to see.' 



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in, u. visit to Arada and udrarama. 135 

'Abiding in the midst of these (they say) is the lot 
of " all that lives." Doubting the truth of " soul " is 
called " excessive doubt," and without distinguishing 
aright, there can be no method of escape. 941 

' Deep speculation as to the limits of perception is 
but to involve the " soul ;" thus unbelief leads to 
confusion, and ends in differences of thought and 
conduct 942 

'Again, the various speculations on "soul" (such 
as) "I say," "I know and perceive," "I come" and 
"I go" or "I remain fixed," these are called the 
intricacies (windings) of "soul 1 ." 943 

'And then the fancies raised in different natures, 
some saying " this is so," others denying it, and this 
condition of uncertainty is called the state of " dark- 
ness*." 944 

'Then there are those who say that outward 
things (resembling forms) are one with " soul," who 
say that the "objective" is the same as "mind," 
who confuse " intelligence " with " instruments," who 
say that " number " is the " soul." 945 

' Thus not distinguishing aright, these are called 
" excessive quibbles," " marks of folly," " nature 
changes," and so on. 946 

' To worship and recite religious books, to slaugh- 
ter living things in sacrifice, to render pure by fire 
and water, and thus awake the thought of final 
rescue, 947 

'All these ways of thinking are called " without 
right expedient," the result of ignorance and doubt, 
by means of word or thought or deed ; 948 

1 The ' soul ' is the ' I ' (aha/nkira) of the Sdnkhya system, con- 
cerning which see Colebrooke (Essays), p. 153. 
* Tamas. 



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I36 FO-SHO-HING-TSAN-KING. Ill, 13. 

' Involving outward relationships, this is called 
" depending on means ;" making the material world 
the ground of "soul," this is called "depending on 
the senses." 949 

' By these eight sorts of speculation are we in- 
volved in birth and death. The foolish masters of 
the world make their classifications in these five 
ways, (viz.) 950 

' Darkness, folly, and great folly, angry passion, 
with timid fear. Indolent coldness is called " dark- 
ness;" birth and death are called " folly j" 951 

' Lustful desire is "great folly r" because of great 
men subjected to error 1 , cherishing angry feelings, 
"passion" results; trepidation of the heart is called 
"fear." 952 

' Thus these foolish men dilate upon the five 
desires ; but the root of the great sorrow of birth 
and death, the life destined to be spent in the five 
ways, 953 

'The cause of the whirl of life, I clearly perceive, 
is to be placed in the existence of "I;" because of 
the influence of this cause, result the consequences 
of repeated birth and death ; 954 

' This cause is without any nature of its own, and 
its fruits have no nature; rightly considering what 
has been said, there are four matters which have to 
do with escape, 955 

' Kindling wisdom — opposed to dark ignorance, — 
making manifest — opposed to concealment and ob- 
scurity, — if these four matters be understood, then 
we may escape birth, old age, and death. 956 

1 Literally ' great men producing error,' or it may be ' because 
of the birth-error (delusion) of great men/ 



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Ill, 13. VISIT TO ARABA AND UDRARAMA. 1 37 

' Birth, old age, and death being over, then we 
attain a final place; the Brabmans 1 all depending 
on this principle, 957 

' Practising themselves in a pure life, have also 
largely dilated on it, for the good of the world.' 
The prince hearing these words again enquired of 
Arada : 958 

' Tell me what are the expedients you name, and 
what is the final place to which they lead, and what 
is the character of that pure (Brahman) life; and 
again what are the stated periods 959 

' During which such life must be practised, and 
during which such life is lawful; all these are princi- 
ples to be enquired into ; and on them I pray you 
discourse for my sake.' 960 

Then that Arada, according to the Sutras and S&- 
stras, spoke, ' Yourself using wisdom is the expe- 
dient; but I will further dilate on this a little ; 961 

' First by removing from the crowd and leading a 
hermit's life, depending entirely on alms for food, 
extensively practising rules of decorum, religiously 
adhering to right rules of conduct, 962 

' Desiring little and knowing when to abstain, 
receiving whatever is given (in food), whether 
pleasant or otherwise, delighting to practise a quiet 
(ascetic) life, diligently studying all the Stitras and 
.Sastras, 963 

'Observing the character of covetous longing and 
fear, without remnant of desire to live in purity, 
to govern well the organs of life, the mind quieted 
and silently at rest, 964 

' Removing desire, and hating vice, all the sorrows 

1 The Brahmans in the world 



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138 FO-SHO-HING-TSAN-KING. in, 13. 

of life (the world of desire) put away, then there is 
happiness; and we obtain the enjoyment of the 
first 1 dhyana. 965 

' Having obtained this first dhyana, then with the 
illumination thus obtained, by inward meditation 
is born reliance on thought alone, and the entangle- 
ments of folly are put away ; 966 

' The mind depending on this, then after death, 
born in the Brahma heavens, the enlightened are 
able to know themselves; by the use of means is 
produced further inward illumination; 967 

' Diligently persevering, seeking higher advance, 
accomplishing the second dhyana, tasting of that 
great joy, we are born in the Kwong-yin 2 heaven 
(Abhasvara); 968 

'Then by the use of means putting away this 
delight, practising the third dhyana, resting in such 
delight and wishing no further excellence, there is a 
birth in the .Subhakrrtsna (hin-tsing) heaven ; 969 

' Leaving the thought of such delight, straightway 
we reach the fourth dhyana, all joys and sorrows 
done away, the thought of escape produced, 970 

'We dwell in this fourth dhyana, and are born 
in the VWhat-phala heaven ; because of its long 
enduring years, it is thus called VWhat-phala (ex- 
tensive-fruit); 971 

' Whilst in that state of abstraction rising (higher), 
perceiving there is a place beyond any bodily con- 
dition, adding still and persevering further in practis- 
ing wisdom, rejecting this fourth dhyana, 972 

1 The dhydnas are the conditions of ecstasy, enjoyed by the 
inhabitants of the Brahmaloka heavens. 

* We have here an account of the different heavens of the 
Brahmalokas, concerning which consult Burnouf, ' Introduction to 
Indian Buddhism.' 



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Ill, is. VISIT TO ARADA AND UDRARAMA. 1 39 

' Firmly resolved to persevere in the search, still 
contriving to put away every desire after form, 
gradually from every pore of the body there is 
perceived a feeling of empfy release, 973 

'And in the end this extends to every solid part, 
so that the whole is perfected in an apprehension of 
emptiness. In brief, perceiving no limits to this 
emptiness, there is opened to the view boundless 
knowledge. 974 

' Endowed with inward rest and peace, the idea of 
" I " departs, and the object of " I :" clearly discrimi- 
nating the non-existence of matter (bhava), this is 
the condition of immaterial life. 975 

' As the Mu«ja (grass) when freed from its horny 
case, or as the wild bird which escapes from its prison 
trap, so, getting away from all material limitations, 
we thus find perfect release. 976 

'Thus ascending above the Brahmans (Brahma- 
lokas ?), deprived of every vestige of bodily existence, 
we still endure 1 . Endued with wisdom 2 ! let it be 
known this is real and true deliverance. 977 

'You ask what are the expedients for obtaining 
this escape ; even as I have before detailed, those 
who have deep faith will learn. 978 

' The ^?«his Gaigishavya, Ganaka, VWddha Para- 
jara 8 , and other searchers after truth, 979 

'All by the way I have explained, have reached true 
deliverance.' The prince hearing these words, deeply 
pondering on the outline of these principles, 980 

And reaching back to the influences produced by 

1 Literally, ' endurance not exhausted.' 

* That is, ' O thou I endued with wisdom,' or, generally, ' those 
endued with wisdom.' 

* These proper names were supplied from the Sanskrit text. 



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140 FO-SHO-HING-TSAN-KING. Ill, I a. 

our former lives, again asked with further words: ' I 
have heard your very excellent system of wisdom, 
the principles very subtle and deep-reaching, 981 

' From which I learn that because of not "letting 
go" (by knowledge as a cause), we do not reach 
the end of the religious life ; but by understanding 
nature in its involutions, then, you say, we obtain 
deliverance ; 982 

' I perceive this law of birth has also concealed 
in it another law as a germ; you say that the "I" 
(i.e. "the soul," of Kapila) being rendered pure 1 , 
forthwith there is true deliverance ; 983 

' But if we encounter a union of cause and effect, 
then there is a return to the trammels of birth; just 
as the germ in the seed, when earth, fire, water, and 
wind 984 

' Seem to have destroyed in it the principle of 
life, meeting with favourable concomitant circum- 
stances will yet revive, without any evident cause, 
but because of desire; so those who have gained 
this supposed release, (likewise) 985 

' Keeping the idea of " I " and " living things," 
have in fact gained no final deliverance; in every 
condition, letting go the "three classes 2 " and again 
reaching the three 3 " excellent qualities," 986 

' Because of the eternal existence of soul, by the 
subde influences of that, (influences resulting from the 
past,) the heart lets go the idea of expedients, 987 

'And obtains an almost endless duration of years. 
This, you say, is true release ; you say "letting go the 
ground on which the idea of soul rests," that this frees 
us from " limited* existence," 988 

1 See Colebrooke, 1. c. p. 150. a Three sorts of pain. 

8 Perception, inference, affirmation. 4 Bbava. 



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in, u. visit to ArAda and udrarAma. 141 

'And that the mass of people have not yet re- 
moved the idea of soul, (and are therefore still in 
bondage). But what is this letting go "gunas 1 " 
(cords fettering the soul) ; if one is fettered by these 
" gums," how can there be release ? 989 

'For guwl (the object) and "gu»a" (the quality) 
in idea are different, but in substance one ; if you 
say that you can remove the properties of a thing 
(and leave the thing) by arguing it to the end, this 
is not so. 990 

' If you remove heat from fire, then there is no 
such thing as fire, or if you remove surface (front) 
from body, what body can remain ? 99 1 

' Thus " gu»a " is as it Avere surface, remove 
this and there can be no "gu«l." So that this 
deliverance, spoken of before, must leave a body 
yet in bonds. 992 

'Again, you say that by "clear knowledge" you 
get rid of body ; there is then such a thing as know- 
ledge or the contrary ; if you affirm the existence of 
clear knowledge, then there should be some one who 
possesses it (i. e. possesses this knowledge) ; 993 

' If there be a possessor, how can there be deli- 
verance (from this personal " I ") ? If you say 
there is no "knower," then who is it that is spoken 
of as "knowing?" 994 

' If there is knowledge and no person, then the 
subject of knowledge may be a stone or a log ; more- 
over, to have clear knowledge of these minute causes 
of contamination and reject them thoroughly, 995 

' These being so rejected, there must be an end, 
then, of the " doer." What Ar&da has declared can- 
not satisfy my heart. 996 

1 Colebrooke, p. 157. 



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142 FO-SHO-HING-TSAN-KING. Ill, n. 

' This clear knowledge is not " universal wisdom," 
I must go on and seek a better explanation.' Going 
on then to the place of Udra 1 JZishi, he also expa- 
tiated on this question of 'I.' 997 

(But) although he refined the matter to the 
utmost, laying down a term of ' thought ' and ' no 
thought ' taking the position of removing ' thought ' 
and ' no thought,' yet even so he came not out of 
the mire; 998 

For supposing creatures attained that state, still 
(he said) there is a possibility of returning to the 
coil, whilst Bodhisattva sought a method of getting 
out of it So once more leaving Udra Jtishi, 999 

He went on in search of a better system, and came 
at last to Mount Kia-^e 2 [the forest of mortifica- 
tion], where was a town called Pain-suffering 
forest (Uravilva?). Here the five Bhikshus had 
gone before. 1000 

When then he beheld these five, virtuously keeping 
in check their senses (passion-members), holding to 
the rules of moral conduct, practising mortification, 
dwelling in that grove of mortification 8 ; 1001 

Occupying a spot beside the Naira»gana river, 
perfectly composed and filled with contentment, 
Bodhisattva forthwith by them (selecting) one spot, 
quietly gave himself to thought 1002 

The five Bhikshus knowing him with earnest 
heart to be seeking escape, offered him their 
services with devotion, as if reverencing Ixvara 
Deva. 1003 

1 Yuh-to. * Gay*, or Gayajirsha. 

* Or is the word fu-hing=the name of a plant, such as the 
uruvu (betel)? 



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in, I*. visit to ArAj>a and udrarAma. 143 

Having finished their attentions and dutiful ser- 
vices, then going on he took his seat not far off, as 
one about to enter on a course of religious practice, 
composing all his members as he desired. 1004 

Bodhisattva diligently applied himself to 'means,' 
as one about to cross over old age, disease, and 
death. With full purpose of heart (he set him- 
self) to endure mortification, to restrain every 
bodily passion, and give up thought about sus- 
tenance, 1005 

With purity of heart to observe the fast-rules, 
which no worldly man (active man) can bear ; silent 
and still, lost in thoughtful meditation ; and so for 
six years he continued, 1006 

Each day eating one hemp grain, his bodily form 
shrunken and attenuated, seeking how to cross (the 
sea) of birth and death, exercising himself still 
deeper and advancing further; 1007 

Making his way perfect by the disentanglements 
of true wisdom, not eating, and yet not (looking to 
that as) a cause (of emancipation), his four members 
although exceedingly weak, his heart of wisdom in- 
creasing yet more and more in light; 1008 

His spirit free, his body light and refined, his 
name spreading far and wide, as 'highly gifted,' 
even as the moon when first produced, or as the 
Kumuda flower spreading out its sweetness; 1009 

Everywhere thro' the country his excellent fame 
extended ; the daughters of the lord of the place 
both coming to see him, his mortified body like a 
withered branch, just completing the period of six 
years, 1010 

Fearing the sorrow of birth and death, seeking 
earnestly the method (cause) of true wisdom, he 



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144 FOSHO-HINOTSAN-KING. in, is. 

came to the conviction that these were not the 
means to extinguish desire and produce ecstatic 
contemplation; ion 

Nor yet (the means by which) in former time, 
seated underneath the 6ambu tree 1 , he arrived at 
that miraculous condition, that surely was the proper 
way, (he thought), 1012 

The way opposed to this of 'withered body.' I 
should therefore rather seek strength of body, by 
drink and food refresh my members, and with con- 
tentment cause my mind to rest. 10 13 

My mind at rest, I shall enjoy silent composure ; 
composure is the trap for getting ecstasy (dhyana) ; 
whilst in ecstasy perceiving the true law (right law, 
i. e. truth), then the force of truth (the law) obtained, 
disentanglement will follow. 1014 

And thus composed, enjoying perfect quiet, old 
age and death are put away ; and then defilement is 
escaped by this first means; thus then by equal 
steps the excellent law results from life restored by 
food and drink 1015 

Having carefully considered this principle, bath- 
ing in the Naira#£ana river, he desired afterwards 
to leave the water (pool), but owing to extreme 
exhaustion was unable to rise; 1016 

Then a heavenly spirit holding out (pressing 
down) a branch, taking this in his hand he (raised 
himself and) came forth. At this time on the oppo- 
site side of the grove there was a certain chief 
herdsman, 10 17 

Whose eldest daughter was called Nanda. One of 
the .Suddhavasa Devas addressing her said, ' Bodhi- 

1 See above, p. 48, ver. 335. 



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m, 12. OFFERING OF NANDA. 145 

sattva dwells in the grove, go you then, and present 
to him a religious offering.' 1018 

Nanda Balada (or Bala/a or Baladhya) with 
joy came to the spot, above her hands (i. e. on her 
wrists) white chalcedony bracelets, her clothing of a 
grey (bluish) colour (dye) ; 1019 

The grey and the white together contrasted in the 
light, as the colours of the rounded river bubble ; 
with simple heart and quicken'd step she came, and, 
bowing down at Bodhisattva's feet, 1020 

She reverently offered him perfumed rice milk, 
begging him of his condescension to accept it \ Bodhi- 
sattva taking it, partook of it (at once), whilst she 
received, even then, the fruits of her religious act. 102 1 

Having eaten it, all his members refreshed, he 
became capable of receiving Bodhi ; his body and 
limbs glistening with (renewed strength), and his 
energies swelling higher still", 1022 

As the hundred streams swell the sea, or the first 
quarter'd moon daily increases in brightness. The 
five Bhikshus having witnessed this, perturbed, were 
filled with suspicious reflection ; 1023 

They supposed (said) that his religious zeal 
(heart) was flagging, and that he was leaving and 
looking for a better abode, as though he had 
obtained deliverance, the five elements entirely 
removed s . 1024 

1 See Tree and Serpent Worship, plate L 

2 This is a free translation; the text is probably defective, 
||0 being a mistake for ^]J or for ~t|r. 

* ' The five elements/ in the original ' the five great ;' the sense 
seems to be that the Bodhisattva was acting as though he had 
attained his aim, and overcome the powers of sense. At the same 

[19] L 



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I46 FO-SHO-HING-TSAN-KING. Ill, 13. 

Bodhisattva wandered on alone, directing his 
course to that 'fortunate 1 ' tree, beneath whose 
shade he might accomplish his search after com- 
plete enlightenment 2 . 1025 

(Over) the ground wide and level, producing soft 
and pliant grass, easily he advanced with lion step, 
pace by pace, (whilst) the earth shook withal ; 1026 

And as it shook, Kala naga aroused, was filled 
with joy, as his eyes were opened to the light. 
Forthwith he exclaimed : ' When formerly I saw 
the Buddhas of old, there was the sign of an 
earthquake as now; 1027 

' The virtues of a Muni are so great in majesty, that 
the great earth cannot endure 3 them; as step by step 
his foot treads upon the ground, so is there heard 
the sound of the rumbling earth-shaking ; 1028 

'A brilliant light now illumes the world, as the 
shining of the rising sun ; five hundred bluish tinted 
birds (I see), wheeling round to the right, flying 
through space ; 1029 

' A gentle, soft, and cooling breeze blows around 
in an agreeable way ; all these auspicious (miracu- 
lous) signs are the same as those of former 
Buddhas; 1030 

'Wherefore I know that this Bodhisattva will 
certainly arrive at perfect wisdom. And now, be- 
hold ! from yonder man, a grass cutter, he obtains 
some pure and pliant grass, 1031 

'Which spreading out beneath the tree, with 
upright body, there he takes his seat; his feet placed 

time it is possible that •' the five great' may allude to the five 
Bhikshus. But in any case it is better to hold to the literal sense. 

1 The ' fortunate tree,' the tree ' of good omen,' the Bodhi tree. 

* Samyak-Sambodhi. ' Cannot excel or surpass them. 



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111,13- DEFEATS MARA. 147 

under him, not carelessly arranged (moving to and 
fro), but like the firmly fixed and compact body of a 
Naga ; 1032 

' Nor shall he rise again from off his seat till he 
has completed his undertaking.' And so he (the 
Naga) uttered these words by way of confirmation. 
The heavenly Nagas, filled with joy, 1033 

(Caused a) cool refreshing breeze to rise; the 
trees and grass were yet unmoved by it, and all 
the beasts, quiet and silent, (looked on in wonder- 
ment.) 1034 

These are the signs that Bodhisattva will certainly 
attain enlightenment. 1035 

Varga 13. Defeats MAra. 

The great Rishi, of the royal tribe of i?«his, 
beneath the Bodhi tree firmly established, resolved 
by oath to perfect the way of complete deliver- 
ance. 1036 

The spirits, Nagas, and the heavenly multitude \ 
all were filled with joy ; but Mara Devari^a, enemy 
of religion, alone was grieved, and rejoiced not ; 103 7 

Lord of the five desires 2 , skilled in all the arts of 
warfare, the foe of those who seek deliverance, there- 
fore his name is rightly given Puuna 3 . 1038 *> 

Now this Mara ra^u had three daughters, minc- 
ingly beautiful and of a pleasant countenance, in 
every way fit by artful ways to enflame a man with 
love, highest in this respect among the Devis. 1039 

The first was named Yuh-yen (lust-pollution), 
the second Neng-yueh-^-in (able to delight a man), 

1 ^ $&• * I. e. king of sensuality. 

' The wicked one. 



L 2 



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I48 FO-SHOHING-TSAN-K1NG. m, 13. 

the third Ngai-loh 1 (love-joy). These three, at 
this time, advanced together, 1040 

And addressed their father Pi sun a and said: 
'May we not know the trouble that afflicts you?' 
The father calming his feelings, addressed his 
daughters thus : 104 1 

' The world has now a great Muni, he has taken a 
strong oath as a helmet, he holds a mighty bow in 
his hand, wisdom is the diamond shaft he uses, 1042 

' His object is to get the mastery in the world, to 
ruin and destroy my territory (domain) ; I am myself 
unequal to him, for all men will believe in him, 1043 

' And all find refuge in the way of his salvation ; 
then will my land be desert and unoccupied. But as 
when a man transgresses the laws of morality, his 
body (or, he himself) is then empty (i. e. unpro- 
tected), 1044 

' So now, the eye of wisdom, not yet opened (in 
this man), whilst my empire still has peace (quiet), 
I will go and overturn his purpose, and break down 
and divide the ridge-pole (of his house) 2 .' 1045 

Seizing then his bow and his five arrows, with all 
his retinue of male and female attendants, he went 
to that grove of ' fortunate rest ' with the vow that 
the world (all flesh) should not find peace s . 1046 

Then seeing the Muni, quiet and still (silent), 
preparing to cross the sea of the three worlds, in 
his left hand grasping his bow, with his right hand 
pointing his arrow, 1047 

1 See Childers, sub Miro, for the name of the daughters. In 
Sanskrit, Rati, Prtti, and Trt'shni. 

1 ' I will return to the house . . . . , he findeth it swept and gar- 
nished, but empty.' 

* Should not find 'rest' There is a play on the word. 



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Ill, 13. DEFEATS MARA. 1 49 

He addressed Bodhisattva and said: ' Kshatriya! 
rise up quickly ! for you may well fear I your death 
is at hand; you may practise your own religious 
system 1 , 1048 

'But let go this effort after the law of deliver- 
ance (for others); wage warfare in the field of charity 2 
as a cause of merit, appease the tumultuous world, and 
so in the end reach your reward in heaven ; 1049 

' This is a way renowned and well established, in 
which former saints (victors) have walked, .fo'shis 
and kings and men of eminence ; but this system of 
penury and alms-begging is unworthy of you. 1050 

' Now then if you rise not, you had best consider 
with yourself, that if you give not up your vow, and 
tempt me to let fly an arrrow, 105 1 

' How that Aila, grandchild of Soma 3 , by one of 
these arrows just touched, as by a fanning of the 
wind, lost his reason and became a madman ; 1052 

'And how the J&shi Vimala, practising auste- 
rities, hearing the sound of one of these darts, his 
heart possessed by great fear, bewildered and 
darkened he lost his true nature; 1053 

' How much less can you — a late-born one — hope 
to escape this dart of mine. Quickly arise then! 
if hardly you may get away ! 1054 

' This arrow full of rankling poison, fearfully in- 
sidious where it strikes a foe ! See now ! with all 
my force, I point it ! and are you resting in the face 
of such calamity ? 1 05 5 

' How is it that you fear not this dread arrow ? say ! 
why do you not tremble ?' Mara uttered such fear-in- 
spiring threats, bent on overawing Bodhisattva. 1056 

1 Or, a system of religion for yourself. * Religious almsgiving. 
' Aida, the grandson of Soma (i. e. Fururavas, the lover of Urvari ?). 



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1 50 FOSHOHING-TSAN-KING. Ill, 13. 

But Bodhisattva's heart remained unmoved; no 
doubt, no fear was present. Then Mara instantly 
discharged his arrow, whilst the three women came 
in front; 1057 

Bodhisattva regarded not the arrow, nor con- 
sidered ought the women three. Mara ra^a now 
was troubled much with doubt, and muttered thus 
'twixt heart and mouth : '1058 

' Long since the maiden of the snowy mountains, 
shooting at Mahervara, constrained him to change 
his mind ; and yet Bodhisattva is unmoved, 1059 

' And heeds not even this dart of mine, nor the 
three heavenly women ! nought prevails to move 
his heart or raise one spark of love within 
him. 1060 

' Now must I assemble my army-host, and press 
him sore by force;' having thought thus awhile, 
Mara's army suddenly assembled round ; 1061 

Each (severally) assumed his own peculiar form ; 
some were holding spears, others grasping swords, 
others snatching up trees, others wielding diamond 
maces; (thus were they) armed with every sort of 
weapon; 1062 

Some had heads like hogs, others like fishes, 
others like asses, others like horses ; some with 
forms like snakes or like the ox or savage tiger ; 
lion-headed, dragon-headed, (and like) every other 
kind of beast; 1063 

Some had many heads on one body-trunk, with 
faces having but a single eye, and then again 
with many eyes ; some with great-bellied mighty 
bodies, 1064 

And others thin and skinny, bellyless ; others 
long-legged, mighty-knee'd ; others big-shanked 



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Ill, 13. DEFEATS MARA. I $1 

and fat-calved ; some with long and claw-like 
nails ; 1065 

Some were headless, breastless, faceless ; some 
with two feet and many bodies ; some with big 
faces looking every way ; some pale and ashy- 
coloured, 1066 

Others colour'd like the bright star rising, 
others steaming fiery vapour, some with ears like 
elephants, with humps like mountains, some with 
naked forms covered with hair, 1067 

Some with leather skins for clothing, their faces 
party-coloured, crimson and white ; some with tiger 
skins as robes, some with snake skins over 
them, 1068 

Some with tinkling bells around their waists, 
others with twisted screw-like hair, others with 
hair dishevelled covering the body, some breath- 
suckers, 1069 

Others body-snatchers, some dancing and shrieking 
awhile, some jumping onwards with their feet toge- 
ther, some striking one another as they went, 1070 

Others waving (wheeling round) in the air, others 
flying and leaping between the trees, others howling, 
or hooting, or screaming, or whining, with their evil 
noises shaking the great earth ; 107 1 

Thus this wicked goblin troop encircled on its 
four sides the Bodhi tree ; some bent on tearing his 
body to pieces, others on devouring it whole ; 1072 

From the four sides flames belched forth, and 
fiery steam ascended up to heaven ; tempestuous 
winds arose on every side 1 ; the mountain forests 
shook and quaked ; 1073 

1 Kik for pien? 



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152 FO-SHO-HING-TSAN-KING. in, 13. 

Wind, fire, and steam, with dust combined, (pro- 
duced) a pitchy darkness, rendering all invisible. 
And now the Devas well affected to the law, and all 
the Nagas and the spirits (kwei-shin), 1074 

All incensed at this host of Mara, with anger 
fired, wept tears of blood ; the great company of 
vSuddhavasa gods, beholding Mara tempting 1 Bodhi- 
sattva, 1075 

Free from low-feeling, with hearts undisturbed by 
passion, moved by pity towards him and commise- 
ration, came in a body to behold the Bodhisattva, so 
calmly seated and so undisturbed, 1076 

Surrounded with an uncounted host of devils, 
shaking the heaven and earth with sounds ill- 
omened. Bodhisattva silent and quiet in the midst 
remained, his countenance as bright as heretofore, 
unchanged; 1077 

Like the great lion-king placed amongst all the 
beasts howling and growling round him (so he sat), a 
sight unseen before, so strange and wonderful ! 1078 

The host of Mara hastening, as arranged, each 
one exerting his utmost force, taking each other's 
place in turns, threatening every moment to destroy 
him, 1079 

Fiercely staring, grinning with their teeth, flying 
tumultuously, bounding here and there; but Bodhi- 
sattva, silently beholding them, (watched them) as one 
would watch the games of children ; 1080 

And now the demon host waxed fiercer and more 
angry, and added force to force, in further conflict; 
grasping at stones they could not lift, or lifting them, 
they could not let them go ; 1081 

I Confusing. 



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Ill, 13. DEFEATS MARA. 1 53 

Their flying spears, lances, and javelins, stuck fast 
in space, refusing to descend; the angry thunder- 
drops and mighty hail, with these, were changed into 
five-coloyr'd lotus flowers, 1082 

Whilst the foul poison of the dragon snakes was 
turned to spicy-breathing air. Thus all these count- 
less sorts of creatures, wishing to destroy the Bodhi- 
sattva, 1083 

Unable to remove him from the spot, were with 
their own weapons wounded. Now Mara had an 
aunt-attendant whose name was Ma-kia-ka-li 
(Maha Kail?), 1084 

Who held a skull-dish in her hands, and stood in 
front of Bodhisattva, and with every kind of winsome 
gesture, tempted to lust the Bodhisattva. 1085 

So all these followers of Mara, possessed of every 
demon-body form, united in discordant uproar, 
hoping to terrify Bodhisattva; 1086 

But not a hair of his was moved, and Mara's host 
was filled with sorrow. Then in the air the crowd 
of angels (spirits), their forms invisible, raised their 
voices, saying: 1087 

' Behold the great Muni ; his mind unmoved by 
any feeling of resentment, whilst all that wicked 
Mara race, besotted, are vainly bent on his destruc- 
tion ; 1088 

' Let go your foul and murderous thoughts against 
that silent Muni, calmly seated ! You cannot with a 
breath move the Sumeru mountain ; 1089 

' Fire may freeze, water may burn, the roughened 
earth may grow soft and pliant, but ye cannot hurt 
the Bodhisattva ! Thro' ages past disciplined by 
suffering, 1090 

' Bodhisattva rightly trained in thought, ever 



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1 54 FO-SHO-HING-TSAN-KING. Ill, 13. 

advancing in the use of "means," pure and illustrious 
for wisdom, loving and merciful to all, 1091 

'These four conspicuous (excellent) virtues cannot 
with him be rent asunder, so as to make it hard or 
doubtful whether he gain the highest wisdom. 1092 

' For as the thousand rays of yonder sun must 
drown the darkness of the world, or as the boring 
wood must kindle fire, or as the earth deep-dug 
gives water, 1093 

' So he who perseveres in the " right means," by 
seeking thus, will find. The world without instruc- 
tion, poisoned by lust and hate and ignorance, 1094 

' Because he pitied "flesh," so circumstanced, he 
sought on their account the joy of wisdom. Why 
then would you molest and hinder one who seeks 
to banish sorrow from the world ? 1095 

'The ignorance that everywhere prevails is due 
to false pernicious books (sutras), and therefore 
Bodhisattva, walking uprightly, would lead and draw 
men after him. 1096 

'To obscure and blind the great world-leader, this 
undertaking is impossible \ for 'tis as though in the 
Great Desert a man would purposely mislead the 
merchant-guide; 1097 

'So "all flesh" having fallen into darkness, ignorant 
of where they are going, for their sakes he would 
light the lamp of wisdom ; say then ! why would you 
extinguish it ? 1098 

'All flesh engulphed and overwhelmed in the great 
sea of birth and death, this one prepares the boat of 
wisdom ; say then ! why destroy and sink it? 1099 

' Patience is the sprouting of religion, firmness 

1 In the sense of ' not commendable.' 



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111,13- DEFEATS MARA. 1 55 

its root, good conduct is the flower, the enlightened 
heart the boughs and branches, i ioo 

' Wisdom supreme the entire tree, the " tran- 
scendent law 1 " the fruit, its shade protects all 
living things ; say then ! why would you cut it 
down ? 1 101 

' Lust, hate, and ignorance, (these are) the rack 
and bolt, the yoke placed on the shoulder of the 
world ; through ages long he has practised austerities 
to rescue men from these their fetters, 1 102 

' He now shall certainly attain his end, sitting 
on this right-established throne ; (seated) as all 
the previous Buddhas, firm and compact like a 
diamond; 1103 

' Though all the earth were moved and shaken, 
yet would this place be fixed and stable ; him, thus 
fixed and well assured, think not that you can over- 
turn. 1 104 

' Bring down and moderate your mind's desire, 
banish these high and envious thoughts, prepare 
yourselves for right reflection, be patient in your 
services.' 1105 

Mara hearipg these sounds in space, and seeing 
Bodhisattva still unmoved, filled with fear and 
banishing his high and supercilious thoughts, again 
took up his way to heaven above ; 1 106 

Whilst all his host (were scattered), o'erwhelmed 
with grief and disappointment, fallen from their 
high estate, 'reft of their warrior pride, their warlike 
weapons and accoutrements thrown heedlessly and 
cast away 'mid woods and deserts. 1 107 

Like as when some cruel chieftain slain, the hateful 

1 Anuttara-dharma. 



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1 56 FO-SHO-HING-TSAN-KING. Ill, 13. 

band is all dispersed and scattered, so the host of 
Mara disconcerted, fled away. The mind of Bodhi- 
sattva (now reposed) peaceful and quiet. 11 08 

The morning sun-beams brighten with the dawn, 
the dust-like mist dispersing, disappears; the moon 
and stars pale their faint light, the barriers of the 
night are all removed, 1109 

Whilst from above a fall of heavenly flowers pay 
their sweet tribute to the Bodhisattva. 1 1 10. 



Varga 14. O-wei-san-pou-ti (Abhisambodhi) 1 . 

Bodhisattva having subdued Mara, his firmly fixed 
mind at rest, thoroughly exhausting the first prin- 
ciple of truth 2 , he entered into deep and subtle 
contemplation, hit 

Self-contained. Every kind of Samadhi in order 
passed before his eyes. During the first watch he 
entered on ' right perception 3 ,' and in recollection all 
former births passed before his eyes ; 1 1 1 2 

Born in such a place, of such a name, and downwards 
to his present birth, so through hundreds, thousands, 
myriads, all his births and deaths he knew ; 1 1 1 3 

Countless in number were they, of every kind and 
sort; then knowing, too, his family relationships, 
great pity rose within his heart 1114 

This sense of deep compassion passed, he once 
again considered 'all that lives,' and how they 
moved within the six * portions of life's revolution, 
no final term to birth and death ; 1 1 1 5 

1 The condition that looks wisdom face to face. 

* 'Eternally exhausting the highest truth' (paramartha). 

* The word for ' perception' is vedana (sheu). 

* The six modes of birth (transmigration). 



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in, 14. OWEI-SAN-POU-TI. 1 57 

Hollow all, and false and transient (unfixed) 
as the plantain tree, or as a dream, or phantasy. 
Then in the middle watch of night, he reached to 
knowledge (eyes) of the pure Devas \ 1 1 16 

And beheld before him every creature, as one sees 
images upon a mirror ; all creatures born and born 
again to die, noble and mean, the poor and rich, 1 1 1 7 

Reaping the fruit of right or evil doing, and 
sharing happiness or misery in consequence. First 
he considered and distinguished evil-doers (works), 
that such must ever reap an evil birth ; 1 1 18 

Then he considered those who practise righteous 
deeds, that these must gain a place with men or 
gods ; but those again born in the nether hells, (he 
saw) participating in every kind of misery ; 1 1 19 

Swallowing (drinking) molten brass (metal), the 
iron skewers piercing their bodies, confined within 
the boiling caldron, driven and made to enter the 
fiery oven (dwelling), 1 1 20 

Food for hungry, long-toothed dogs, or preyed 
upon by brain-devouring birds; dismayed by fire, 
then (they wander through) thick woods, with leaves 
like razors gashing their limbs, 1 1 2 1 

While knives divide their (writhing) bodies, or 
hatchets lop their members, bit by bit ; drinking the 
bitterest poisons, their fate yet holds them back 
from death. 11 22 

Thus those who found their joy in evil deeds, he 
saw receiving now their direst sorrow; a momentary 
taste of pleasure here, a dreary length of suffering 
there; 11 23 

A laugh or joke because of others' pain, a crying 

1 Deva sight. 



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158 FOSHOHING-TSAN-KING. Ill, 14. 

out and weeping now at punishment received. Surely 
if living creatures saw the consequence of all their 
evils deeds, self-visited, 1124 

With hatred would they turn and leave them, 
fearing the ruin following — the blood and death. 
He saw, moreover, all the fruits of birth as beasts, 
each deed entailing its own return, 11 25 

(And) when death ensues born in some other form 
(beast shape), different in kind according to the deeds. 
Some doomed to die for the sake of skin or flesh 1 , 
some for their horns or hair or bones or wings, 1 1 26 

Others torn or killed in mutual conflict, friend or 
relative before, contending thus ; (some) burthened 
with loads or dragging heavy weights, (others) 
pierced and urged on by pricking goads, 1127 

Blood flowing down their tortured forms, parched 
and hungry — no relief afforded ; then, turning round, 
(he saw) one with the other struggling, possessed of 
no independent strength ; 1 128 

Flying through air or sunk in deep water, yet no 
place as a refuge left from death. He saw, more- 
over, those, misers and covetous, born now as hungry 
ghosts, 1 129 

Vast bodies like the towering mountain, with 
mouths as small as any needle-tube, hungry and 
thirsty, nought but fire arid poison'd flame to en- 
wrap their burning forms within. 11 30 

Covetous, they would not give to those who 
sought, or duped the man who gave in charity, now 
born among the famished ghosts, they seek for food, 
but cannot find withal. 11 31 

The refuse of the unclean man they fain would 

1 That is, some born as beasts, whose hides are of value, and 
for which they are killed. 



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Ill, 14. O-WEI-SAN-POU-TI. 159 

eat, but this is changed and lost (before it can be 
eaten) ; oh ! if a man believes that covetousness is 
thus repaid, as in their case, 1 132 

Would he not give his very flesh in charity 
even as Sivi ri^a did ! Then, once more (he saw), 
those reborn as men, with bodies like some foul 
sewer, 11 33 

Ever moving 'midst the direst sufferings, born 
from the womb to fear and trembling, with body 
tender, touching anything its feelings painful, as if 
cut with knives ; 1 1 34 

Whilst born in this condition, no moment free 
from chance of death, labour, and sorrow, yet 
seeking birth again, and being born again, enduring 
pain. 1 1 35 

Then (he saw those who) by a higher merit were 
enjoying heaven ; a thirst for love ever consuming 
them, their merit ended with the end of life, the 
five signs 1 warning them of death (their beauty 
fades), 1 136 

Just as the blossom that decays, withering away, 
is robbed of all its shining tints ; not all their asso- 
ciates, living still, though grieving, can avail to save 
the rest; 1137 

The palaces and joyous precincts empty now, the 
Devls all alone and desolate, sitting or asleep upon 
the dusty earth, weep bitterly in recollection of their 
loves; 1 1 38 

Those who are born, sad in decay; those who are 
dead, beloved, cause of grief; thus ever struggling 
on, preparing future pain, covetous they seek the 
joys of heaven, 11 39 

1 The five signs are the indications of a Deva's life in heaven 
coming to an end. 



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l6o FO-SHOHING-TSAN-KING. m, 14. 

Obtaining which, these sorrows come apace ; des- 
picable joys ! oh, who would covet them ! using such 
mighty efforts (means) to obtain, and yet unable 
thence to banish pain. 1140 

Alas, alas 1 these Devas, too, alike deceived — no 
difference is there ! thro' lapse of ages bearing suf- 
fering, striving to crush desire and lust, 1 141 

Now certainly expecting long reprieve, and yet 
once more destined to fall ! in hell enduring every 
kind of pain, as beasts tearing and killing one the 
other, 1 142 

As Pretas parched with direst thirst, as men worn 
out, seeking enjoyment ; although, they say, when 
born in heaven, ' then we shall escape these greater 
ills,' 1 143 

Deceived, alas ! no single place exempt, in every 
birth incessant pain ! Alas! the sea of birth and death 
revolving thus — an ever-whirling wheel — 1 144 

All flesh immersed within its waves cast here and 
there without reliance! thus with his pure Deva 
eyes he thoughtfully considered the five domains of 
life. 1 145 

He saw that all was empty and vain alike ! with no 
dependence ! like the plantain or the bubble. Then, 
on the third eventful watch, he entered on the deep, 
true * apprehension 2 ; 1 1 46 

He meditated on the entire world of creatures, 
whirling in life's tangle, born 8 to sorrow; the crowds 
who live, grow old, and die, innumerable for multi- 
tude, 1 147 

1 That is, the deep apprehension of truth. 
* Sorrow self-natured. 



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Ill, 14. OWEI-SAN-POU-TI. l6l 

Covetous, lustful, ignorant, darkly-fettered, with 
no way known for final rescue. Rightly considering, 
inwardly he reflected from what source birth and 
death proceed ; 1 148 

He was assured that age and death must come 
from birth as from a source. For since a man has 
born with him a body, that body must inherit pain 
(disease). 1 149 

Then looking further whence comes birth, he saw 
it came from life-deeds done elsewhere ; then with his 
Deva-eyes scanning these deeds, he saw they were 
not framed by Iwara ; 1 150 

They were not self-caused, they were not personal 
existences, nor were they either uncaused ; then, as 
one who breaks the first bamboo joint finds all the 
rest easy to separate, 1 1 5 1 

Having discerned the cause of birth and death, he 
gradually came to see the truth ; deeds come from 
upadana (cleaving), like as fire which catches hold 
of grass; 1152 

Upadana (tsu) comes from trtshnk ('ngai), just 
as a little fire enflames the mountains ; tr«sh«a 
comes from vedana (shau), (the perception of pain 
and pleasure, the desire for rest); 11 53 

As the starving or the thirsty man seeks food and 
drink, so 'sensation' (perception) brings 'desire' 
for life; then contact (sparca) is the cause of all 
sensation, producing the three kinds of pain or 
pleasure, 11 54 

Even as by' art of man the rubbing wood pro- 
duces fire for any use or purpose; spar^a (con- 
tact) is born from the six entrances (ayatanas) 1 , 

1 The six organs of sense. 
[19] M 



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1 62 FO-SHOHING-TSAN-KING. Ill, 14. 

(a man is blind because he cannot see the 
light) 1 ; 1 155 

The six entrances are caused by name and 
thing, just as the germ grows to the stem and 
leaf; name and thing are born from knowledge 
(vi/»ana), as the seed which germinates and brings 
forth leaves. 1156 

Knowledge, in turn, proceeds from name and 
thing, the two are intervolved leaving no remnant; 
by some concurrent cause knowledge engenders 
name and thing, whilst by some odier cause con- 
current, name and thing engender know- 
ledge; 1157 

Just as a man and ship advance together, the 
water and the land mutually involved 2 ; thus know- 
ledge brings forth name and thing; name and 
thing produce the roots (ayatanas) ; 1 158 

The roots engender contact; contact again brings 
forth sensation; sensation brings forth longing 
desire; longing desire produces upadana; 1159 

Upadana is the cause of deeds ; and these again 
engender birth ; birth again produces age and death ; 
so does this one incessant round 1160 

Cause the existence of all living things. Rightly 
illumined, thoroughly perceiving this, firmly esta- 
blished, thus was he enlightened; destroy birth, old 
age and death will cease ; 1 161 

Destroy bhava then will birth cease; destroy 
'cleaving' (upadana) then will bhava end; destroy 
trtshn& (desire) then will cleaving end ; destroy 
sensation then will tf«sh»a end; 1162 

1 This clause is obscure, it may mean, ' blind to darkness there- 
fore he sees.' 

* It is difficult to catch the meaning here ; literally translated the 
passage runs thus: ' Water and dry land cause mutual involution.' 



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Ill, 14. 0-WEI-SAN-POU-TI. 163 

Destroy contact then will end sensation; de- 
stroy the six entrances, then will contact cease; 
the six entrances all destroyed, from this, moreover, 
names and things will cease; 1163 

Knowledge destroyed, names and things 1 
will cease ; sa*«skara (names and things) destroyed, 
then knowledge perishes ; ignorance destroyed, then 
the sawskara 2 will die; the great Jtishi was thus per- 
fected in wisdom (sambodhi). 1164 

Thus perfected, Buddha then devised for the 
world's benefit the eightfold path, right sight, 
and so on, the only true path for the world to 
tread. 1165 

Thus did he complete the end (destruction) of 
' self,' as fire goes out for want of grass ; thus he had 
done what he would have men do ; he first had 
found the way of perfect knowledge; 1166 

He finished thus the first great lesson (para- 
martha); entering the great Zfo'shi's house 8 , the 
darkness disappeared; light coming on, perfectly 
silent, all at rest, 1167 

He reached at last the exhaustless source of 
truth (dharma); lustrous with all wisdom the great 
Jtishi sat, perfect in gifts, whilst one convulsive 
throe shook the wide earth. 11 68 

And now the world was calm again and bright, 
when Devas, N&gas, spirits, all assembled, amidst 
the void raise heavenly music, and make their 
offerings as the law 4 directs ; 1 169 

A gentle cooling breeze sprang up around, and 

1 Here evidently equivalent to samskira. 

* Sa»iskira, i. e. the five skandhas, or constituents of individual life. 
' I. e. attained Nirv&na. 

* ' As the law directs ; ' that is, 'religious offerings' (dharma ddna). 

M 2 



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1 64 FOSHO-HING-TSAN-KING. Ill, 14. 

from the sky a fragrant rain distilled ; exquisite 
flowers, not seasonable 1 , bloomed ; sweet fruits before 
their time were ripened ; 1 1 70 

Great Mandaras 2 , and every sort of heavenly pre- 
cious flower, from space in rich confusion fell, as 
tribute* to the illustrious monk. 11 71 

Creatures of every different kind were moved 
one towards the other lovingly; fear and terror 
altogether put away, none entertained a hateful 
thought ; 1 1 72 

And all things living in the world with faultless 
men* consorted freely; the Devas giving up their 
heavenly joys, sought rather to alleviate the sin- 
ner's sufferings; 11 73 

Pain and distress grew less and less, the moon of 
wisdom waxed apace ; whilst all the ^?/shis of the 
Ikshvaku clan who had received a heavenly 
birth, 1 1 74 

Beholding Buddha thus benefitting men, were 
filled with joy and satisfaction ; and whilst through- 
out the heavenly mansions religious offerings fell as 
raining flowers, 1 1 75 

The Devas and the Naga spirits 5 , with one voice, 
praised the Buddha's virtues ; men seeing the reli- 
gious offerings, hearing, too, the joyous hymn of 
praise, 1 1 76 

Were all rejoiced in turn ; they leapt for unre- 

1 ' Not seasonable;' that is, out of season ; or, before their season. 

* The Maha" Mandira, or Mandarava ; one of the five trees of 
the paradise of Indra (Wilson); the Erythrina fulgens. See 
Burnouf, Lotus, p. 306. 

' As a religious offering to the Muni-lord, 
4 Wou lau gin, leakless men. It means that all things living 
consorted freely with the good. 

* The Devas, Nigas, and heavenly spirits (kwei shin). 



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111,14. 0-WEI-SAN-POU-TI. 1 65 

strained joy; Mara, the Devar&fa, only, felt in his 
heart great anguish. 1 1 77 

Buddha for those seven days, in contemplation lost, 
his heart at peace, beheld and pondered on the Bodhi 
tree, with gaze unmoved and never wearying : t 1 78 

' Now resting here, in this condition, I have ob- 
tained,' he said, 'my ever-shifting 1 heart's desire, 
and now at rest I stand, escaped from self*.' The 
eyes of Buddha 3 then considered 'all that lives,' 1 179 

And forthwith rose there in him deep compas- 
sion ; much he desired to bring about their welfare 
(purity), but how to gain for them that most excellent 
deliverance, 11 80 

From covetous desire, hatred, ignorance, and false 
teaching (this was the question); how to suppress 
this sinful heart by right direction ; not by anxious 
use of outward means, but by resting quietly in 
thoughtful silence. 1181 

Now looking back and thinking of his mighty 
vow, there rose once more within his mind a wish to 
preach the law; and looking carefully throughout 
the world, he saw how pain and sorrow ripened and 
increased everywhere. 1182 

Then Brahma-deva knowing his thoughts, and 
considering * it right to request him to advance reli- 
gion for the wider spread of the Brahma-glory, in 
the deliverance of all flesh from sorrow, 1 183 

1 My heart which has experienced constant and differing birth- 
changes. 

* Wou-ngo, in a condition without personal (ngo) limitations. 
The sense seems to be, that, by casting away the limitations of the 
finite, he had apprehended the idea of the infinite. 

* The eye of Buddha ; the last of the pan£aiakkhus, for which 
see Childers, Pali Diet sub voce. 

4 The sense may be, ' thinking that he ought to be requested to 
preach.' 



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1 66 FO-SHOHING-TSAN-KING. Ill, 14. 

Coming, beheld upon the person of the reverend 
monk all the distinguishing marks of a great preacher, 
visible in an excellent degree; fixed and unmoved (he 
sat) in the possession of truth and wisdom, 1184 

Free from all evil impediments, with a heart 
cleansed from all insincerity or falsehood. Then 
with reverent and a joyful heart, (great Brahma 
stood and) with hands joined, thus made known his 
request: 1185 

' What happiness in all the world so great as 
when a loving master meets the unwise * ; the world 
with all its occupants, filled with impurity and dire 
confusion 2 , 1186 

'With heavy grief oppressed, or, in some cases, 
lighter sorrows, (waits deliverance); the lord of 
men, having escaped by crossing the wide and 
mournful sea of birth and death, 1187 

' We now entreat to rescue others — those strug- 
gling creatures all engulphed therein; as the just 
worldly man, when he gets profit, gives some rebate 
withal 3 , 1 188 

' So the lord of men enjoying such religious gain, 
should* also give somewhat to living* things. The 
world indeed is bent on large personal gain, and 
hard it is to share one's own with others ; 1 189 

' O ! let your loving heart be moved with pity 
towards the world burthened 6 with vexing cares.' 

1 In the sense of 'the nninstructed.' 

* With sense-pollution and distracted heart, oppressed with 
heavy grief, or, may be, with lighter and less grievous sorrow. 

5 These lines are obscure; the sense, however, is plainly that 
given in the text. 

* In the way of request, ' would that the lord of men,' &c. 

* Oppressed amidst oppressions (calamities). 



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Ill, 14. O-WEI-SAN-POU-TI. 167 

Thus having spoken by way of exhortation, with 
reverent mien he turned back to the Brahma 
heaven.^ 1190 

Buddha regarding the invitation of Brahma-deva 
rejoiced at heart, and his design was strengthened ; 
greatly was his heart of pity nourished, and purposed 
was his mind to preach. 1191 

Thinking he ought to beg some food, each of 
the four kings offered him a Patra ; Tathagata \ in 
fealty to religion, received the four and joined 
them all in one. 1192 

And now some merchant men were passing by, to 
whom ' a virtuous friend V a heavenly spirit, said : 
' The great ■tfz'shi, the venerable monk, is dwelling 
in this mountain grove, 11 93 

'(Affording) in the world a noble field for merit 8 ; 
go then and offer him a sacrifice!' Hearing the 
summons, joyfully they went, and offered the first 
meal religiously. 1194 

Having partaken of it, then he deeply pondered, 
who first should hear the law 4 ; he thought at once 
of Ar&da. Kilama and Udraka Ramaputra, 1195 

1 Here the Buddha is called Tathagata. It is a point to be 
observed that this title is only used after the Bodhisattva's en- 
lightenment. 

1 There is a great deal said in Buddhist books about this expres- 
sion ' virtuous,' or, ' good friend.' In general it means Bodhi or 
wisdom. It is used also in Zend literature to denote the sun 
(mithra); see Haug (Parsis), p. 209. 

* That is, giving the world a noble opportunity of obtaining 
religious merit. The expression ' field for merit' is a common one, 
as we say, ' field for work,' ' field for usefulness,' and so on. 

4 Who ought to be first instructed in religion ; or, who should 
hear the first religious instruction (sermon). The first sermon is 
that which is sometimes called ' the foundation of the kingdom of 
righteousness.' It is given further on. 



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1 68 FO-SHOHING-TSAN-KING. Ill, 14. 

As being fit to accept the righteous law ; but now 
they both were dead. Then ' next he thought of 
the five men, that they were fit to hear the first 
sermon. 1196 

Bent then on this design to preach Nirva«a \ as 
the sun's glory bursts thro' the darkness, so went 
he on towards Benares, the place where dwelt the 
ancient ./frshis; 1197 

With eyes as gentle as the ox king's, his pace as 
firm and even as the lion's, because he would con- 
vert the world he went on towards the Klri 2 
city; 1 198 

Step by step, like the king of beasts, did he 
advance watchfully through the grove of wisdom 
(Uruvilva wood). 1 199 

Varga 15. Turning the Law-wheel 3 . 

Tathagata piously composed and silent, radiant 
with glory, shedding light around, with unmatched 
dignity advanced alone, as if surrounded by a crowd 
of followers. 1 200 

Beside the way he encountered a young Brah- 
man*, whose name was Upaka 6 ; struck 4 with the 

1 To preach the law of perfect quietude (quiet extinction ; that 
is, quietness or rest, resulting from the extinction of sorrow). 

• That is, Benares. 

• Concerning this expression, which means 'establishing the 
dominion of truth,' see Childers, Pali Diet, sub voce pavatteti. 

4 A Brahma&rin, a religious student, one who was practising 
a life of purity. 

8 Called ' Upagana ' by Bumouf (Introd. p. 389), and in the 
Lalita Vistara an A^ivaka (hermit), (Foucaux, 378). For some 
useful remarks on this person's character, see £tudes Buddhiques 
(Leon Feer), pp. 15, 16, 17. 

• So I construe 'M k\;' it means ' taken by,' or 'attracted by' 



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Ill, 15. TURNING THE LAW-WHEEL. 1 69 

deportment of the Bhikshu, he stood with reverent 
mien on the road side ; 1201 

Joyously he gazed at such an unprecedented 
sight, and then, with closed hands, he spake 1 
as follows : ' The crowds who live around are 
stained with sin, without a pleasing feature, void 
of grace, 1 202 

' And the great world's heart is everywhere dis- 
turbed; but you alone, your senses all composed, 
with visage shining as the moon when full, seem 
to have quaffed the water of the immortals' 
stream; 1203 

. ' The marks of beauty yours, as the great man's 
(Mahapurusha); the strength of wisdom, as an all- 
sufficient (independent) king's (samri^); what you 
have done must have been wisely done, what then 
your noble tribe and who your master ?' 1204 

Answering he said, 'I have no master; no 
honourable tribe; no point of excellence 2 ; self- 
taught in this profoundest doctrine, I have arrived 
at superhuman wisdom 3 . 1205 

' That which behoves the world to learn, but 
through the world no learner found, I now myself 

the demeanour of the mendicant (Bhikshu). This incident is intro- 
duced as the first instance of Buddha's mendicant life and its 
influence on others. 

1 Or, ' he questioned thus.' 

* ' Nothing that has been conquered.' 

' I have attained to that which man has not attained. That is, 
I have arrived at superhuman wisdom. It appears to me that this 
point in Buddha's history is a key to the whole system of his 
religion. He professes to have grasped absolute truth (the word 
' absolute ' corresponds with ' unfettered') ; and by letting go the 
finite, with its limitations and defilements, to have passed into the 
free, boundless, unattached infinite. 



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1 70 FO-SHOHING-TSAN-KING. Ill, 15.- 

and by myself 1 have learned throughout ; 'tis rightly 
called Sam bod hi (king kioh); 1206 

' That hateful family of griefs the sword of wisdom 
has destroyed ; this then is what the world has named, 
and rightly named, the "chiefest victory." 1207 

' Through all Benares soon will sound the drum 
of life, no stay is possible — I have no name 2 — nor 
do I seek profit or pleasure, 1 208 

'But simply to declare the truth; to save men 
(living things) from pain, and to fulfil my ancient 
oath, to rescue all not yet delivered. 1 209 

' The fruit of this my oath is ripened now, and I 
will follow out my ancient vow. Wealth, riches, 
self all given up, unnamed, I still am named 
" Righteous Master 3 ." 1210 

' And bringing profit to the world (empire), I also 
have the name "Great Teacher 4 ;" facing sor- 
rows, not swallowed up by them, am I not rightly 
called Courageous Warrior? 121 1 

' If not a healer of diseases, what means the name 
of Good Physician? seeing the wanderer, not 
showing him the way, why then should I be called 
"Good Master-guide ?" 1212 

' Like as the lamp shines in the dark, without a 

1 This assertion is a fundamental one (see Mr. Rhys Davids' 
Dhamma-tekka-ppavattana-sutta, Sacred Books of the East, vol xi, 
throughout) ; so that Buddha disclaims any revelation in the sense 
of the result of a higher wisdom than his own. The cloud, in 
fact, of sin moved away, the indwelling of light, by itself, revealed 
itself. 

* 'lama voice.' 

* (Called by the) not-called name, ' Master of righteousness.' 

4 Here follow a list of names applied to Tathagata in virtue 
of his office. He gives up his name Gautama, and claims to be 
known only by his religious titles. 



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Ill, 15. TURNING THE LAW-WHEEL. 17I 

purpose of its own, self- radiant, so burns the lamp 
of the Tathagata, without the shadow of a personal 
feeling. 1 2 1 3 

'Bore wood in wood, there must be fire; the wind 
blows of its own free self in space ; dig deep and 
you will come to water; this is the rule of self- 
causation. 1 2 14 

'All the Munis who perfect wisdom, must do so at 
Gaya; and in the K4.ri country they must first turn 
the Wheel of Righteousness.' 1215 

The young Brahman Upaka, astonished, breathed 
the praise of such strange doctrine 1 , and called to 
mind like thoughts he had before experienced 2 ; lost 
in thought at the wonderful occurrence, T2 16 

At every turning of the road he stopped to think ; 
embarrassed in every step he took. Tathagata 
proceeding slowly onwards, came to the city of 
Klri, 1 21 7 

The land so excellently adorned as the palace of 
5akradevendra ; the Ganges and Barawa 8 , two twin 
rivers flowed amidst; 12 18 

The woods and flowers and fruits so verdant, the 
peaceful cattle wandering together, the calm retreats 

1 Sighed ' oh I' and praised in under tone the strange behaviour 
of Tathagata. 

* Or perhaps the following translation is better : ' following in 
mind the circumstances which led to the strange encounter.' 

* The account in the text makes the city of Benares to be 
between the Ganges and the Bara»& or Vara»4 ; General Cunning- 
ham (Archaeolog. Report, vol. i, p. 104) says, ' The city of Benares 
is situated on the left bank of the Ganges, between the Barna" 
Nadi on the north-east and the Asi Nala on the south-west The 
Barni is a considerable rivulet which rises to the north of Alla- 
habad, and has a course of about 100 miles. The Asi is a mere 
brook of no length.' 



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172 FO-SHO-HING-TSAN-KING. Ill, 15. 

free from vulgar noise, such was the place where the 
old jfo'shis dwelt. 12 19 

Tathagata glorious and radiant, redoubled the 
brightness of the place ; the son of the Kau#*tfinya- 
tribe (Kau#dfinya-kulaputra), and next Darabala- 
klryapa, 1220 

And the third Vishpa, the fourth Arvafit, the fifth 
called Bhadra, practising austerities as hermits, 1221 

Seeing from far Tathagata approaching, sitting 
together all engaged in conversation, (said), 'This 
Gautama, defiled by worldly indulgence, leaving the 
practice of austerities, 1222 

' Now comes again to find us here, let us be careful 
not to rise in salutation, nor let us greet him when he 
comes, nor offer him the customary refreshments 11223 

' Because he has broken his first vow, he has no 
claim to hospitality;' [for men on seeing an ap- 
proaching guest by rights prepare things for his 
present and his after wants, 1224 

They arrange a proper resting-couch, and take on 
themselves care for his comfort.] 1 Having spoken 
thus and so agreed, each kept his seat, resolved and 
fixed. 1225 

And now Tathagata slowly approached, when, lo ! 
these men unconsciously, against their vow, rose 
and invited him to take a seat ; offering to take his 
robe and Patra, 1226 

They begged to wash and rub his feet, and asked 
him what he required more; thus in everything 
attentive, they honour'd him and offered all to him 
as teacher. 1227 

They did not not cease however to address him 

1 This f ] seems to be parenthetical. 



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Ill, 15. TURNING THE LAW-WHEEL. 1 73 

still as Gautama, after his family 1 . Then spake the 
Lord to them and said: 'Call me not after my 
private name, 1228 

* For it is a rude and careless way of speaking to 
one who has obtained Arhatship 2 ; but whether 
men respect or disrespect me, my mind is un- 
disturbed and wholly quiet ; 1229 

' But you * — your way is not so courteous, let go, 
I pray, and cast away your fault. Buddha can save 
the world ; they call him, therefore, Buddha ; 1230 

' Towards all living things, with equal heart he 
looks as children, to call him then by his familiar 
name is to despise a father; this is sin 4 .' 1231 

Thus Buddha, by exercise of mighty love, in deep 
compassion spoke to them; but they, from ignorance 
and pride, despised the only wise 5 and true one's 
words. 1232 

They said that first he practised self-denial, but 
having reached thereby no profit, now giving rein to 
body, word, and thought 6 , how by these means (they 
asked) has he become a Buddha ? 1233 

Thus equally entangled by doubts, they would 
not credit that he had attained the way. Thoroughly 
versed in highest truth, full of all-embracing wis- 
dom, 1234 

1 The address ' Bho Gotama' or 'Gotama/ according to Childers 
(Pali Diet. p. 150), was an appellation of disrespect used by uncon- 
verted Brahmins in addressing Buddha. The title Gautama Buddha 
is rarely met with in Northern translations. 

8 The Arhat is the highest grade among the Buddhist saints. 
See Burnouf, Introd. p. 295. 

* Here the appeal is to them as religious persons. 
4 Or, is the sin of dishonouring a father. 

• The true words of the Only Enlightened ; that is, of the Buddha. 



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1 74 FO-SHOHING-TSAN-KING. HI, 15. 

Tathagata on their account briefly declared to 
them the one true way; the foolish masters prac- 
tising austerities, and those who love to gratify their 
senses, 1235 

He pointed out to them these two distinctive 
classes 1 , and how both greatly erred. 'Neither of 
these (he said) has found the way of highest wis- 
dom, nor are their ways of life productive of true 
rescue. 1236 

' The emaciated devotee by suffering produces in 
himself confused and sickly thoughts, not conducive 
evert to worldly knowledge, how much less to 
triumph over sense ! 1237 

' For he who tries to light a lamp with water, will 
not succeed in scattering the darkness, (and so the 
man who tries) with worn-out body to trim the lamp 
of wisdom shall not succeed, nor yet destroy his 
ignorance or folly. 1238 

'Who seeks with rotten wood to evoke the fire 
will waste his labour and get nothing for it; but 
boring hard wood into hard, the man of skill 
forthwith gets fire for his use; 1239 

' In seeking wisdom then it is not by these au* . 
sterities a man may reach the law of life. But 
(likewise) to indulge in pleasure is opposed to 
right, this is the fool's barrier against wisdom's 
light; 1240 

' The sensualist cannot comprehend the Sutras or 
the .Sastras, how much less the way of overcoming 
all desire ! As some man grievously afflicted eats 
food not fit to eat, 1241 

' And so in ignorance aggravates his sickness, so 

1 The two extremes. 



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Ill, 15. TURNING THE LAW-WHEEL. 1 75 

how can he get rid of lust who pampers lust ? 
Scatter the fire amid the desert grass, dried by the 
sun, fanned by the wind, 1242 

' The raging flames who shall extinguish ? Such 
is the fire of covetousness and lust (or, hankering 
lust), I, then, reject both these extremes, my 
heart keeps in the middle way. 1243 

'All sorrow at an end and finished, I rest at peace, 
all error put away; my true sight 1 greater than the 
glory of the sun, my equal and unvarying wis- 
dom 2 , vehicle of insight, 1 244 

'Right words 8 as it were a dwelling-place, 
wandering through the pleasant groves of right 
conduct 4 , making a right life* my recrea- 
tion, walking along the right road of proper 
means 6 , 1245 

'My city of refuge in right recollection 7 , and 
my sleeping couch right meditation 8 ; these are 
the eight even and level roads 9 by which to avoid 
the sorrows of birth and death ; 1246 

' Those who come forth by these means from the 
slough, doing thus, have attained the end ; such 
shall fall neither on this side or the other, amidst 
the sorrow-crowd of the two periods 10 . 1 247 

' The tangled sorrow-web of the three worlds by 
this road alone can be destroyed ; this is my own 
way, unheard of before ; by the pure eyes of the 
true law, 1 248 

1 Samyag drtsh/i. * Samyak samkalpa. 

• Samyag vai. * Samyak karma. 

f Samyag S^tva. * Samyag vy&ySma. 

7 Samyak smri'ti. * Samyak sam&dhi. 

• The right roads (orthodox ways). 

w Or rather, of the ' two ages;' this age and the next. 



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1 76 FOSHO-HING-TSAN-KING. Ill, 15. 

' Impartially seeing the way of escape, I, only I, 
now first make known this way; thus I destroy the 
hateful company of Trzsh#a's 1 host, the sorrows of 
birth and death, old age, disease, 1 249 

' And all the unfruitful aims of men, and other 
springs of suffering. There are those who warring 
against desire are still influenced by desire; who 
whilst possessed of body, act as tho* they had 
none; 1250 

' Who put away from themselves all sources of 
true merit, briefly will I recount their sorrowful 
lot Like smothering a raging fire, though carefully 
put out, yet a spark left, 1251 

' So in their abstraction, still the germ of " 1 2 ," the 
source 8 of great sorrow still surviving, perpetuates 
the suffering caused by lust (trishnS), and the evil 
consequences of every kind of deed survive ; 1252 

' These are the sources of further pain, but let these 
go and sorrow dies, even as the seed of corn taken 
•from the earth and deprived of water dies ; 1253 

' The concurrent causes not uniting, then the bud 
and leaf cannot be born; the intricate bonds of every 
kind of existence, from the Deva down to the evil 
ways of birth, 1254 

' Ever revolve and never cease ; all this is pro- 
duced from covetous desire ; falling from a high 
estate to lower ones, all is the fault of previous 
deeds; 1255 

' But destroy the seed of covetousness and the 
rest, then there will be no intricate binding, but all 

1 For some account of Trtsh»a, Pali Ta»ha, see Rhys Davids 
(op. cit.), p. 149 note. 

1 The germ of self; that is, of individual existence. 
' Having the nature of great sorrow. 



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HI, IS- TURNING THE LAW-WHEEL. 1 77 

effect of deeds destroyed, the various degrees of 
sorrow then will end for good; 1256 

'Having this, then, we must inherit that; de- 
stroying this, then that is ended too ; no birth, old 
age, disease, or death ; no earth, or water, fire, or 
wind; 1257 

' No beginning, end, or middle ; and no deceptive 
systems of philosophy ; this is the standpoint of wise 
men and sages ; the certain and exhausted termina- 
tion, (complete Nirviwa). 1258 

' Such do the eight right ways declare ; this one 
expedient has no remains; that which the world 
sees not, engrossed by error (I declare), 1259 

' I know the way to sever all these sorrow-sources ; 
the way to end them is by right reason, meditating 
on these four highest truths, following and per- 
fecting this highest wisdom. 1260 

'This is what means the "knowing" sorrow; this 
is to cut off the cause of all remains of being ; these 
destroyed, then all striving, too, has ended, the 
eight right ways have been assayed. 1261 

' (Thus, too), the four great truths have been 
acquired, the eyes of the pure law completed. In 
these four truths, the equal (i. e. true or right) 
eyes not yet born, 1262 

' There is not mention made of gaining true deli- 
verance, it is not said what must be done is done, 
nor that all (is finished), nor that the perfect truth 
has been acquired. 1263 

' But now because the truth is known, then by 
myself is known "deliverance gained," by my- 
self is known that "all is done," by myself is 
known "the highest wisdom."' 1264 

And having spoken thus respecting truth, the 

[19] N 



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1 78 FO-SHO-HING-TSAN-KING. Ill, 15. 

member of the Kanndinya. family, and eighty thou- 
sand of the Deva host, were thoroughly imbued 
with saving knowledge; 1265 

They put away defilement from themselves, they 
got the eyes of the pure law ; Devas and earthly 
masters thus were sure, that what was to be done 
was done. 1266 

And now with lion-voice he joyfully enquired, and 
asked KauwaTinya, ' Knowest thou yet?' Kau»- 
aTinya forthwith answered Buddha, 'I know the 
mighty master's law;' 1267 

And for this reason, knowing it, his name was 
A^»ata Kau#a!inya (a^»ata> known). Amongst all 
the disciples of Buddha, he was the very first in 
understanding. 1268 

Then as he understood the sounds of the true 
law, hearing (the words of) the disciple — all the 
earth spirits together raised a shout triumphant, 
'Well done! deeply seeing (the principles of) the 
law, 1 269 

'Tathagata, on this auspicious day, has set re- 
volving that which never yet revolved, and far and 
wide, for gods and men, has opened the gates of 
immortality 1 . 1270 

' (Of this wheel) the spokes are the rules of pure 
conduct; equal contemplation, their uniformity of 
length; firm wisdom is the tire; modesty and 
thoughtfulness, the rubbers (sockets in the nave 
in which the axle is fixed); 1271 

' Right reflection is the nave; the wheel itself 
the law of perfect truth; the right truth now 



1 The way or gate of sweet dew. 



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HI, 15. TURNING THE LAW- WHEEL. 1 79 

has gone forth in the world, not to retire before 
another teacher.' 1272 

Thus the earth spirits shouted, the spirits of the 
air took up the strain, the Devas all joined in 
the hymn of praise, up to the highest Brahma 
heaven. 1273 

The Devas of the triple world, now hearing what 
the great J&sbi taught, in intercourse together 
spoke, 'The widely-honoured Buddha moves the 
world! 1274 

'Wide-spread, for the sake of all that lives, he 
turns the wheel of the law of complete purity 1' 
The stormy winds, the clouds, the mists, all disap- 
peared; down from space the heavenly flowers 
descended; 1275 

The Devas revelled in their joys celestial, filled 
with unutterable gladness. 1276 



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I So FOSHO-HING-TSAN-KING. IV, 16. 



KIOUEN IV. 

Varga 16. BimbisAra RAga becomes a Disciple. 

And now those five men, Asva^it, Vashpa, and the 
others, having heard that he (Kau#afinya) 'knew' 
the law, with humble mien and self-subdued, 1277 

Their hands joined, offered their homage, and 
looked with reverence in the teacher's face. Tatha- 
gata, by wise expedient, caused them one by one to 
embrace the law. 1278 

And so from first to last the five Bhikshus ob- 
tained reason and subdued their senses, like the five 
stars which shine in heaven, waiting upon the 
brightening moon. 1279 

At this time in the town of Ku-i 1 (Kusinara) 
there was a noble's son (called) Yasas; lost in 
night-sleep suddenly he woke, and when he saw 
his attendants all, 1280 

Men and women, with ill-clad bodies, sleeping, 
his heart was filled with loathing ; reflecting on the 
root of sorrow, (he thought) how madly foolish men 
were immersed in it; 1281 

Clothing himself, and putting on his jewels, he 
left his home and wandered forth ; then on the way 
he stood and cried aloud, 'Alas! alas! what endless 
chain of sorrows.' 1282 

1 The scene of this history of Yasas is generally laid in Benares ; 
see Romantic Legend, p. 261 ; Sacred Books of the East, vol. xiii, 
p. 10a. 



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iv, i6. bimbisAra rAga becomes a disciple. 181 

Tathagata, by night, was walking forth, and 
hearing sounds like these, 'Alas! what sorrow,' 
forthwith replied, 'You are welcome! here, on the 
other hand, there is a place of rest, 1283 

'The most excellent, refreshing, Nirvana, quiet 
and unmoved, free from sorrow.' Yasas hearing 
Buddha's exhortation, there rose much joy within 
his heart, 1284 

And in the place of the disgust he felt, the cooling 
streams of holy wisdom found their way, as when 
one enters first a cold pellucid lake. Advancing 
then, he came where Buddha was; 1285 

His person decked with common ornaments, his 
mind already freed from all defects ; by power of 
the good root obtained in other births, he quickly 
reached the fruit of an Arhat; 1286 

The secret light of pure wisdom's virtue (li) ena- 
bled him to understand, on listening to the law; 
just as a pure silken fabric 1 with ease is dyed a 
different colour; 1287 

Thus having attained to self-illumination, and 
done that which was to be done, (he was converted) ; 
then looking at his person richly ornamented, his 
heart was filled with shame. 1288 

Tathagata knowing his inward thoughts, in gathas 
spoke the following words : ' Tho' ornamented with 
jewels, the heart may yet have conquered sense; 
1289 

' Looking with equal mind on all that lives, (in 
such a case) the outward form does not affect reli- 
gion; the body, too, may wear the ascetic's garb, 
the heart, meanwhile, be immersed in worldly 
thoughts; 1290 

1 Sacred Books of the East, vol. xiii, p. 105. 

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1 82 FOSHO-HING-TSAN-KING. IV, i<5. 

'Dwelling in lonely woods, yet covetous of worldly 
show, such men are after all mere worldlings; the 
body may have a worldly guise, the heart mount 
high to things celestial; 1291 

' The layman and the hermit are the same, when 
only both have banished thought of "self," but if 
the heart be twined with carnal bonds, what use the 
marks of bodily attention ? 1 292 

' He who wears martial decorations, does so be- 
cause by valour he has triumphed o'er an enemy, — 
so he who wears the hermit's colour'd robe, does so 
for having vanquished sorrow as his foe.' 1293 

Then he bade him come, and be a member of 
his church (a Bhikshu); and at the bidding lo! 
his garments changed ! and he stood wholly attired 
in hermit's dress, complete ; in heart and outward 
look, a Sra.ma.na.. 1294 

Now (Yasas) had in former days some light com- 
panions, in number fifty and four ; when these beheld 
their friend a hermit, they too, one by one, attained 
true wisdom [entered the true law]; 1295 

By virtue of deeds done in former births, these 
deeds now bore their perfect fruit. Just as when 
burning ashes are sprinkled by water, the water 
being dried, the flame bursts forth. 1 296 

So now, with those above, the .Sravakas (dis- 
ciples) were altogether sixty, all Arhats; entirely 
obedient and instructed in the law of perfect dis- 
cipleship 1 . So perfected he taught them further: 
1297 

' Now ye have passed the stream and reached 
" the other shore," across the sea of birth and death; 

1 The law of Arhats. 



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IV, l6. BIMBISARA RAG A BECOMES A DISCIPLE. 1 83 

what should be done, ye now have done! and ye 
may now receive the charity of others. 1 298 

' Go then through every country, convert those not 
yet converted ; throughout the world that lies burnt 
up with sorrow, teach everywhere; (instruct) those 
lacking right instruction ; 1 299 

'Go, therefore! each one travelling by himself 1 ; 
filled with compassion, go! rescue and receive. 
I too will go alone, back to yonder Kia-^e 2 moun- 
tain ; 1 300 

'Where there are great ifrshis, royal ifo'shis, 
Brahman ^/shis too, these all dwell there, influencing 
men according to their schools ; 1301 

' The J&shi Klryapa, enduring pain, reverenced 
by all the country, making converts too of many, 
him will I visit and convert.' 1 302 

Then the sixty Bhikshus respectfully receiving 
orders to preach, each according to his fore-deter- 
mined purpose, following his inclination, went thro' 
every land ; 1 303 

The honour'd of the world went on alone, till he 
arrived at the Kia-^e mountain, then entering a 
retired religious dell, he came to where the Rtshi 
Kasyapa was. 1 304 

Now this one had a ' fire grot' where he offered 
sacrifice, where an evil Naga dwelt s , who wandered 
here and there in search of rest, through mountains 
and wild places of the earth. 1 305 



1 In after time the disciples were not allowed to travel alone, 
but two and two. 

1 Gaylrfrsha, or Gayastsa in the Pali (Sacred Books of the East, 
vol. xiii, p. 134). 

* The episode here translated is found amongst the Sanchi 
sculptures. See Tree and Serpent Worship, plate xxiv. 



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184 FO-SHOHING-TSAN-KING. IV, 16. 

The honoured of the world, (wishing) to instruct 
this hermit and convert him, asked him, on coming, 
for a place to lodge that night. Klryapa, replying, 
spake to Buddha thus : ' I have no resting-place to 
offer for the night, 1306 

'Only this fire grot where I sacrifice, this is a 
cool and fit place for the purpose, but an evil dragon 
dwells there, who is accustomed, as he can, to poison 
men.' 1 307 

Buddha replied, ' Permit me only, and for the 
night I'll take my dwelling there.' Ka^yapa made 
many difficulties, but the world-honoured one still 
asked the favour. 1 308 

Then Kasyapa addressed Buddha, 'My mind 
desires no controversy, only I have my fears and 
apprehensions, but follow you your own good plea- 
sure.' 1 309 

Buddha forthwith stepped within the fiery grot, 
and took his seat with dignity and deep reflection ; 
and now the evil Naga seeing Buddha, belched 
forth in rage his fiery poison, 13 10 

And filled the place with burning vapour. But 
this could not affect the form of Buddha. Through- 
out the abode the fire consumed itself, the honoured 
of the world still sat composed : 1 31 1 

Even as Brahma, in the midst of the kalpa-fire 
that burns and reaches to the Brahma heavens, still 
sits unmoved, without a thought of fear or appre- 
hension, 13 1 2 

(So Buddha sat) ; the evil Naga seeing him, his 
face glowing with peace, and still unchanged, 
ceased his poisonous blast, his heart appeased ; he 
bent his head and worshipped. 131 3 

Kasyapa in the night seeing the fire-glow, sighed ; 



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IV, l<S. BIMBISARA RAGA BECOMES A DISCIPLE. 1 85 

' Ah ! alas ! what misery ! this most distinguished 
man is also burnt up by the fiery Naga,' 13 14 

Then Kasyapa and his followers at morning light 
came one and all to look. Now Buddha having 
subdued the evil Naga, had straightway placed him 
in his patra, 131 5 

(Beholding which) and seeing the power of Bud- 
dha, Kajyapa conceived within him deep and secret 
thoughts : ' This Gotama,' he thought, ' is deeply 
versed (in religion), but still he said, "lama master 
of religion." ' 13 16 

Then Buddha, as occasion offered, displayed all 
kinds of spiritual changes l , influencing his (Kasyapa's) 
heart-thoughts, changing and subduing them ; 1 3 1 7 

Making his mind pliant and yielding, until at 
length prepared to be a vessel of the true law, he 
confessed that his poor wisdom could not compare 
with the complete wisdom of the world-honoured 
one. 1 318 

And so, convinced at last, humbly submitting, 
he accepted right instruction. (Thus) U-pi-lo 
(Uravilva) Kasyapa, and five hundred of his fol- 
lowers 1 319 

Following their master, virtuously submissive, in 
turn received the teaching of the law. Kasyapa and 
all his followers were thus entirely converted. 1320 

The I&sh\ then, taking his goods and all his sacri- 
ficial vessels, threw them together in the river, which 
floated down upon the surface of the current. 1321 

Nadi and Gada, brothers, who dwelt adown the 
stream, seeing these articles of clothing (and the 
rest) floating along the stream disorderly, 1322 

1 The different wonders wrought by Buddha are detailed in 
Spence Hardy's Manual, and in the Romantic Legend of Buddha; 



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1 86 FO-SHO-HING-TSAN-KING. IV, 16. 

Said, ' Some great change has happened,' and 
deeply pained, were restlessly (concerned). The two, 
each with five hundred followers, going up the 
stream to seek their brother, 1323 

Seeing him now dressed as a hermit, and all his 
followers with him, having got knowledge of the 
miraculous law — strange thoughts engaged their 
minds — 1324 

' Our brother having submitted thus, we too 
should also follow him (they said).' Thus the three 
brothers, with all their band of followers, 1325 

Were brought to hear the lord's discourse on the 
comparison of a fire sacrifice 1 : (and in the dis- 
course he taught), ' How the dark smoke of ignorance 
arises 2 , whilst confused thoughts, like wood drilled 
into wood, create the fire, 1326 

'Lust, anger, delusion, these are as fire produced, 
and these enflame and burn all living things. Thus 
the fire of grief and sorrow, once enkindled, ceases 
not to burn, 1327 

' Ever giving rise to birth and death ; but whilst 
this fire of sorrow ceases not, yet are there two 
kinds of fire, one that burns but has no fuel 
left; 1328 

' So when the heart of man has once conceived 
distaste for sin, this distaste removing covetous 
desire, covetous desire extinguished, there is 
rescue; 1329 

' If once this rescue has been found, then with it 
is born sight and knowledge, by which distinguishing 

1 So I translate i sse fo pi ; it may mean, however, ' in respect of 
the matter of the fire comparison.' 

* This is the sermon on ' The Burning ;' see Sacred Books of the 
East, voL xiii, p. 135. 



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iv, i<s. bimbisAra rAoa becomes a disciple. 187 

the streams of birth and death, and practising pure 
conduct, 1330 

' All is done that should be done, and hereafter 
shall be no more life (bhava).' Thus the thousand 
Bhikshus hearing the world-honoured preach, 1331 

All defects 1 for ever done away, their minds 
found perfect and complete deliverance. Then 
Buddha for the Klryapas' sakes, and for the benefit 
of the thousand Bhikshus, having preached, 1332 

And done all that should be done, himself with 
purity and wisdom and all the concourse of high 
qualities excellently adorned, he gave them, as in 
charity, rules for cleansing sense. 1333 

The great I&shi, listening to reason, lost all re- 
gard for bodily austerities, and, as a man without 
a guide, was emptied of himself, and learned 
discipleship. 1334 

And now the honoured one and all his followers 
go forward to the royal city 2 (Ra^agrzha), remem- 
bering, as he did, the Magadha king, and what he 
heretofore had promised. 1335. 

The honoured one when he arrived, remained 
within the ' staff grove 3 ;' Bimbisara Ra^a hearing 
thereof, with all his company of courtiers, 1336 

Lords and ladies . all surrounding him, came to 
where the master was. Then at a distance seeing 
Buddha seated, with humbled heart and subdued 
presence, 1337 

Putting off his common ornaments, descending 
from his chariot, forward he stepped ; even as 



1 TheAfravas. 

1 So also in the Pali. 

* The 'JSTang lin/ called in Sanskrit Yash/ivana. 



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1 88 FO-SHOHING-TSAN-KING. IV, 16. 

•Sakra, king of gods, going to where Brahmadeva- 
ra^a dwells. 1338 

Bowing down at Buddha's feet, he asked him, 
with respect, about his health of body; Buddha 
in his turn, having made enquiries, begged him to 
be seated on one side. 1339 

Then the king's mind reflected silently: 'This 
■Sakya must have great controlling power, to sub- 
ject to his will these Kasyapas who now are round 
him as disciples.' 1 340 

Buddha, knowing all thoughts, spoke thus to 
Kajyapa, questioning him: 'What profit have you 
found in giving up your fire-adoring law ?' 1341 

Klyyapa hearing Buddha's words, rising with 
dignity before the great assembly, bowed lowly 
down, and then with clasped hands and a loud voice 
addressing Buddha, said : 1 342 

'The profit I received, adoring the # fire spirit, was 
this, — continuance in the wheel of life, birth 
and death with all their sorrows growing, — this ser- 
vice I have therefore cast away; 1343 

'Diligently I persevered in fire-worship, seeking 
to put an end to the five desires, in return I found 
desires endlessly increasing, therefore have I cast 
off this service. 1344 

' Sacrificing thus to fire with many Mantras, I did 
but miss (i. e. I did not find) escape from birth; 
receiving birth, with it came all its sorrows, there- 
fore I cast it off and sought for rest. 1 345 

' I was versed, indeed, in self-affliction, my mode 
of worship largely adopted, and counted of all most 
excellent, and yet I was opposed to highest wis- 
dom. 1346 

' Therefore have I discarded it, and gone in quest 



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iv, i<s. bimbisAra rAga becomes a disciple. 189 

of the supreme Nirva»a. Removing from me birth, 
old age, disease, and death, I sought a place of 
undying rest and calm. 1347 

'And as I gained the knowledge of this truth, 
then I cast off the law of worshipping the fire 
(or, by fire).' The honoured-of-the-world, hearing 
Klryapa declaring his experience of truth, 1348 

Wishing to move the world throughout to con- 
ceive a heart of purity and faith, addressing Klryapa 
further, said,' Welcome ! great master, welcome ! 1 349 

1 Rightly have you distinguished law from law, and 
well obtained the highest wisdom; now before 
this great assembly, pray you ! exhibit your excellent 
endowments ; 1 350 

' As any rich and wealthy noble opens for view 
his costly treasures, causing the poor and sorrow- 
laden multitude to increase their forgetfulness 
awhile; 1351 

'(So do you now) and honour well your lord's 
instruction.' Forthwith in presence of the assembly, 
gathering up his body and entering Samadhi, calmly 
he ascended into space, 1352 

And there displayed himself, walking, standing, 
sitting, sleeping, emitting fiery vapour from his 
body, on his right and left side water and fire, not 
burning and not moistening him ; 1353 

Then clouds and rain proceeded from him, thun- 
der with lightning shook the heaven and earth ; 
thus he drew the world to look in adoration, with 
eyes undazzled as they gazed; 1354 

With different mouths, but all in language one, 
they magnified and praised this wondrous spectacle, 
then afterwards drawn by spiritual force, they came 
and worshipped at the master's feet, 1355 



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I90 FOSHO-HING-TSAN-KING. IV, 16. 

(Exclaiming), ' Buddha is our great teacher 1 we 
are the honoured one's disciples.' Thus having 
magnified his work and finished all he purposed 
doing, 1356 

Drawing the world as universal witness, the 
assembly was convinced that he, the world-honoured, 
was truly the ' Omniscient !' 1357 

Buddha, perceiving that the whole assembly 
was ready as a vessel to receive the law, spoke 
thus to Bimbisara Ra^a : ' Listen now and under- 
stand; 1358 

' The mind, the thoughts, and all the senses are 
subject to the law of life and death. This fault 1 
of birth and death, once understood, then there is 
clear and plain perception ; 1359 

'Obtaining this clear perception, then there is born 
knowledge of self, knowing oneself and with this 
knowledge laws of birth and death, then there is 
no grasping and no sense-perception. 1360 

'Knowing oneself, and understanding how the 
senses act, then there is no room for " I," or ground 
for framing it; then all the accumulated mass of 
sorrow, sorrows born from life and death, 1361 

' Being recognised as attributes of body, and as 
this body is not " I," nor offers ground for " I," then 
comes the great superlative (discovery), the 
source of peace unending; 1362 

'This thought (view) of "self" gives rise to all 
these sorrows, binding as with cords * the world, but 
having found there is no "I" that can be bound, 
then all these bonds are severed. 1363 

' There are no bonds indeed — they disappear — 

1 This fault ; that is, this Saw. * As with fetters. 



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IV, 16. BIMBISARA RAGA BECOMES A DISCIPLE. I9I 

and seeing this there is deliverance. The world 
holds to this thought of " I," and so, from this, 
comes false apprehension. 1364 

' Of those who maintain the truth of it, some say 
the " I " endures, some say it perishes ; taking the 
two extremes of birth and death, their error is most 
grievous! 1365 

'For if they say the " I" (soul) is perishable, the 
fruit they strive for, too, will perish ; and at some 
time there will be no hereafter, this is indeed a 
meritless deliverance. 1366 

' But if they say the " I " is not to perish, then in 
the midst of all this life and death there is but one 
identity (as space), which is not born and does not 
die. 1367 

'If this is what they call the "I," then are all 
things living, one — for all have this unchanging 
self — not perfected by any deeds, but self- 
perfect ; 1 368 

' If so, if such a self it is that acts, let there be 
no self-mortifying conduct, the self is lord and 
master ; what need to do that which is done ? 1 369 

' For if this " I " is lasting and imperishable, then 
reason would teach it never can be changed. But 
now we see the marks of joy and sorrow, what room 
for constancy then is here ? 1370 

' Knowing that birth brings this deliverance then 
I put away all thought of sin's defilement ; the whole 
world, everything, endures! what then becomes of 
this idea of rescue. 1371 

' We cannot even talk of putting self away, 
truth is the same as falsehood, it is not "I" that 
do a thing, and who, forsooth, is he that talks 
of "I?" 1372 



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si A* 



192 FO-SHO-HING-TSAN-KING. IV, iff. 

♦ But if it is not "I" that do the thing, then there 
is no "I" that does it, and in the absence of these 
both, there js_ no "I" atall, in very truth. 1373 

' No doer and no knower, no lord, yet notwith- 
standing this, there ever lasts this birth and death, 
like morn and night ever recurring. But now attend 
to me and listen ; 1374 

'The senses six and their six objects united cause 
the six kinds of knowledge, these three (i. e. senses, 
objects, and resulting knowledge) united bring 
forth contact, then the intervolved effects of recol- 
lection (follow). 1375 

' Then like the burning glass and tinder thro' the 
sun's power cause fire to appear, so thro' the know- 
ledge born of sense and object, the lord (of know- 
ledge) (self) (like the fire) is born. 1376 

'The shoot springs from the seed, the seed is not 
the shoot, not one and yet not different, such is the 
birth of all that lives.' 1377 

The honoured of the world preaching the truth, 
the equal and impartial paramartha, thus ad- 
dressed the king with all his followers. Then king 
Bimbisara filled with joy, 1378 

Removing from himself defilement, gained reli- 
gious sight, a hundred thousand spirits also, hearing 
the words of the immortal law, shook off and lost 
the stain of sin. 1379 



Varga 17. The Great Disciple becomes a 
Hermit. 

At this time Bimbisara Ra^a, bowing his head, 
requested the honoured of the world to change his 



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IV, 17. THE GREAT DISCIPLE BECOMES A HERMIT. 1 93 

place of abode for the bamboo grove 1 ; graciously 
accepting it, Buddha remained silent. 1380 

Then the king, having perceived the truth, offered 
his adoration and returned to his palace. The 
world-honoured, with the great congregation, pro- 
ceeded on foot, to rest for awhile in the bamboo 
garden 2 . 1 38 1 

(There he dwelt) to convert all that breathed 8 , to 
kindle once for all * the lamp of wisdom, to establish 
Brahma and the Devas, and to confirm the lives 5 of 
saints and sages. 1382 

At this time Asvagit and Vashpa 8 , with heart 
composed and every member (sense) subdued, the 
time having come for begging food, entered into the 
town of Ra^agrzha : 1383 

Unrivalled in the world were they for grace of 
person, and in dignity of carriage excelling all. 
The lords and ladies of the city seeing them, were 
filled with joy; 1384 

Those who were walking stood still, those before 
waited, those behind hastened on. Now the Risbi 
Kapila amongst all his numerous disciples 1 385 

1 This garden, called the Karamfa Venuvana, was a favourite resi- 
dence of Buddha. For an account of it, see Spence Hardy, Manual 
of Buddhism, p. 194. It was situated between the old city of RS^a- 
grsha and the new city, about three hundred yards to the north of 
the former (see Fa-hien, chap, xxx, Beal's translation, p. 117 and 
note 2). 

2 I have translated Ku'an 'to rest awhile,' it might be supposed 
to refer to the rest of the rainy season. But it is doubtful whether 
this ordinance was instituted so early. 

* All living things. 

* To establish and settle the brightness of the lamp of wisdom. 
1 To establish the settlement of sages and saints. 

* He is sometimes called Daxabala Kiryapa (Eitel, Handbook, 
p. 158 b). 

[19] 



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194 FO-SHO-HING-TSAN-KING. IV, 17. 

Had one of wide-spread fame, whose name was 
.Sariputra; he, beholding the wonderful grace of 
the Bhikshus, their composed mien and subdued 
senses, 1386 

Their dignified walk and carriage, raising his 
hands, enquiring, said : ' Young in years, but pure 
and graceful in appearance, such as I before have 
never seen, 1387 

' What law most excellent (have you obeyed) ? 
and who your master that has taught you ? and 
what the doctrine you have learned ? Tell me, I 
pray you, and relieve my doubts.' 1388 

Then of the Bhikshus, one 1 , rejoicing at his 
question, with pleasing air and gracious words, re- 
plied : ' The omniscient, born of the Ikshvaku 
family, 1389 

' The very first 'midst gods and men, this one is 
my great master. I am indeed but young, the sun 
of wisdom has but just arisen, 1390 

' How can I then explain the master's doctrine ? 
Its meaning is deep and very hard to understand, 
but now, according to my poor capability (wisdom), 
I will recount in brief the master's doctrine : 1391 

'"Whatever things exist all spring from cause, 
the principles (cause) of birth and death (may be) 
destroyed, the way is by the means he has de- 
clared a ." ' 1 392 



1 In the Pali account of this incident Asvagit alone is represented 
as begging his food; but here Asvagit and Vashpa are joined according 
to the later rule (as it would seem) which forbad one mendicant to 
proceed alone through a town. (Compare Sacred Books of the East, 
vol. xiii, p. 144.) 

* For the Southern version of this famous stanza, see Sacred 
Books of the East, vol. xiii, p. 146; also Manual of Buddhism, 



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IV, 17. THE GREAT DISCIPLE BECOMES A HERMIT. I95 

Then the twice -born Upata (Upatishya), em- 
bracing heartily what he had heard, put from him 
all sense-pollution, and obtained the pure eyes of 
the law. 1393 

The former explanations he had trusted, re- 
specting cause and what was not the cause, that 
there was nothing that was made, but was made by 
livara, 1 394 

All this, now that he had heard the rule of true 
causation, understanding (penetrating) the wisdom 
of the no-self, adding thereto the knowledge of 
the minute (dust) troubles 1 , which can never be 
overcome in their completeness (completely de- 
stroyed), 1395 

But by the teaching of Tathigata, all this he now 
for ever put away ; leaving no room for thought of 
self, the thought of self will disappear 2 . 1396 

' Who, when the brightness of the sun gives light, 
would call for the dimness of the lamp ? for, like the 
severing of the lotus, the stem once cut, the pods (?) 
will also die; 1397 

'So Buddha's teaching cutting off the stem of 
sorrow, no seeds are left to grow or lead to further 
increase.' Then bowing at the Bhikshu's feet, with 
grateful mien, he wended homewards. 1 398 

The Bhikshus after having begged their food, 
likewise went back to the bamboo grove. Skri- 

p. 196. For a similar account from the Chinese, see Wong 
Puh, § 77. 

1 The ' dust troubles ' are the troubles caused by objects of sense, 
as numerous as motes in a sunbeam. 

1 '. Look upon the world as void, O MogharS^an, being always 
thoughtful ; having destroyed the view of oneself (as really existing), 
so one may overcome death ; the king of death will not see him 
who thus regards the world,' Sutta Nipata, Fausboll, p. 208. 

O 2 



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I96 FO-SHO-HING-TSAN-KING. IV, 17. 

putra on his arrival home, (rested) with joyful face 
and full of peace. 1 399 

His friend the honoured Mugalin (Maudgalya- 
yana), equally renowned for learning, seeing .Sari- 
putra in the distance 1 , his pleasing air and lightsome 
step, 1400 

Spoke thus : ' As I now see thee, there is an 
unusual look I notice, your former nature seems 
quite changed, the signs of happiness I now ob- 
serve, 1 40 1 

'All indicate the possession of eternal truth, these 
marks are not uncaused.' Answering he said : ' The 
words of the Tathagata are such as never yet were 
spoken;' 1402 

And then, requested, he declared (what he had 
heard). Hearing the words and understanding them, 
he too put off the world's defilement, and gained the 
eyes of true religion, 1403 

The reward of a long-planted virtuous cause; 
and, as one sees by a lamp that comes to hand, so 
he obtained an unmoved faith in Buddha ; and now 
they both set out for Buddha's presence, 1404 

With a large crowd of followers, two hundred men 
and fifty. Buddha seeing the two worthies 2 coming, 
spoke thus to his disciples : 1405 

' These two men who come shall be my two most 
eminent followers, one unsurpassed for wisdom, the 
other for powers miraculous ;' 1406 

And then with Brahma's voice 3 , profound and 

1 ' Then the paribba^aka S&riputta went to the place where the 
paribba^aka Moggallana was/ Sacred Books of the East, vol. xiii, 
p. 147. 

2 The two ' bhadras,' i. e. ' sages,' or ' virtuous ones.' 

8 Or, with ' Brahma-voice ' (Brahmaghosha), for which, see Childers 
sub voce. 



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IV, 17. THE GREAT DISCIPLE BECOMES A HERMIT. I97 

sweet, he forthwith bade them 'Welcome!' Here 
is the pure and peaceful law (he said) ; here the end 
of all discipleship ! 1407 

Their hands grasping the triple-staff 1 , their twisted 
hair holding the water-vessel 2 , hearing the words of 
Buddha's welcome, they forthwith changed into com- 
plete .Sramawas 8 ; 1408 

The leaders two and all their followers, assuming 
the complete appearance of Bhikshus, with prostrate 
forms fell down at Buddha's feet, then rising, sat 
beside him*: 1409 

And with obedient heart listening to the word, 
they all became Rahats. At this time there was a 
twice-(born) sage*, Ka\yyapa Shi-ming-teng (Eggi- 
datta) (Agnidatta), 1410 

Celebrated and perfect in person, rich in posses- 
sions, and his wife most virtuous. But all this he 

1 This triple (three-wonderful) staff is, I suppose, a mark of a 
Brahman student. 

8 Twisted hair holding the pitcher ; this may also refer to some 
custom among the Brahmans. Or the line may be rendered, 'their 
hair twisted and holding their pitchers.' 

* This sudden transformation from the garb and appearance of 
laymen into shorn and vested Bhikshus, is one often recounted in 
Buddhist stories. 

4 Or, sat on one side (ekamantam). 

• This expression, which might also be rendered ' two religious 
leaders ' ('rh sse), may also, by supplying the word ' sing,' be trans- 
lated a 'twice-born sage,' i.e. a Brahman; and this appears more 
apposite with what follows, and therefore I have adopted it. The 
Brahman alluded to would then be called Klryapa Agnidatta. The 
story of Eggidatta is given by Bigandet (Legend, p. 180, first 
edition), but there is nothing said about his name Klryapa. Eitel 
(Handbook, sub voce Mahaklryapa) gives an explanation of the 
name Klryapa, 'he who swallowed light;' but the literal translation 
of the words in our text is, 'Klryapa giving in charity a bright 
lamp.' 



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198 FO-SHO-HING-TSAN-KING. IV, 17. 

had left and become a hermit, seeking the way of 
salvation. 141 1 

And now in the way by the To-tseu 1 tower he 
suddenly encountered .Sakya Muni, remarkable for 
his dignified and illustrious appearance, as the em- 
broidered flag of a Deva (temple) ; 141 2 

Respectfully and reverently approaching, with 
head bowed down, he worshipped his feet, whilst he 
said: 'Truly, honoured one, you are my teacher, and 
I am your follower, 141 3 

' Much and long time have I been harassed with 
doubts, oh ! would that you would light the lamp 2 
(of knowledge).' Buddha knowing that this twice- 
(born) sage was heartily desirous of finding the best 
mode of escape s , 1 4 1 4 

With soft and pliant voice, he bade him come and 
welcome. Hearing his bidding and his heart com- 
plying, losing all listlessness of body or spirit, 14 15 

His soul embraced the terms of this most excel- 
lent salvation*. Quiet and calm, putting away 
defilement, the great merciful, as he alone knew 
how, briefly explained the mode of this deliver- 
ance, 1416 

Exhibiting the secrets of his law, ending with 



1 This 'many children' tower is perhaps the one at VawSlf alluded 
to by Fa-hien, chap. xxv. 

* Here the phrase ' teng ming,' light of the lamp, seems to be a 
play on the name ' ming teng,' bright lamp. The method and way 
in which a disciple (saddhiviharika) chooses a master (upagyMya) 
is explained, Sacred Books of the East, vol. xiii, p. 154. 

* Literally, '(had) a heart rejoicing in the most complete method 
of salvation (moksha).' 

4 Or, 'the mode of salvation explained by the most excellent 
(Buddha).' 



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IV, 17- THE GREAT DISCIPLE BECOMES A HERMIT. 1 99 

the four indestructible acquirements 1 . The great 
sage, everywhere celebrated, was called Maha Ka- 
jyapa, 141 7 

His original faith was that ' body and soul are 
different,' but he had also held that they are the same, 
that there was both ' I ' and a place 2 for I ; but now 
he for ever cast away his former faith, 1418 

And considered only (the truth) that ' sorrow ' is 
ever accumulating ; so (he argued) by removing 
sorrow there will be 'no remains' (i.e. no subject 
for suffering); obedience to the precepts and the 
practice of discipline, though not themselves the 
cause, yet he considered these the necessary mode 
by which to find deliverance. 14 19 

With equal and impartial mind, he considered the 
nature of sorrow, for evermore freed from a cleaving 
heart Whether we think ' this is,' or ' this is not ' 
(he thought), both tend to produce a listless (idle) 
mode of life; 1420 

But when with equal mind we see the truth, then 
certainty is produced and no more doubt. If we rely 
for support on wealth or form, then wild confusion 
and concupiscence result, 1421 

Inconstant and impure. But lust and covetous 
desire removed, the heart of love and equal thoughts 
produced, there can be then no enemies or friends 
(variance), 1422 

But the heart is pitiful and kindly disposed to all, 
and thus is destroyed the power of anger and of 
hate. Trusting to outward things and their rela- 
tionships, then crowding thoughts of every kind 
are gendered; 1423 

1 JSTatuA-samyak-pradh&na ? * flft ' the place of.' 

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200 FO-SHO-HING-TSAN-KING. IV, 17. 

Reflecting well, and crushing out confusing 
thought, then lust for pleasure is destroyed. Though 
born in the Arupa world (he saw) that there would 
be a remnant of life still left ; 1424 

Unacquainted with the four right truths, he had 
felt an eager longing for this deliverance, for the 
quiet resulting from the absence of all thought 
And now putting away for ever covetous desire 
for such a formless state of being, 1425 

His restless heart was agitated still, as the stream 
is excited by the rude wind. Then entering on 
deep reflection in quiet he subdued his troubled 
mind, 1426 

And realised the truth of there being no 'self,' 
and that therefore birth and death are no realities ; 
but beyond this point he rose not, his thought of 
'self destroyed, all else was lost. 1427 

But now the lamp of wisdom lit, the gloom of 
every doubt dispersed, he saw an end to that which 
seemed without an end ; ignorance finally dis- 
pelled, 1428 

He considered the ten points of excellence ; the 
ten seeds of sorrow destroyed, he came once 
more to life, and what he ought to do, he did. 
And now regarding with reverence the face of his 
lord, 1429 

He put away the three 1 and gained the three 2 ; 
so were there three disciples 3 in addition to the 



1 The three poisons, lust, hatred, ignorance. 

* The three treasures (triratna), Buddha, the law, the com- 
munity. 

" The three disciples, as it seems, were SSriputra, Maudgalyayana, 
and Agnidatta (K&ryapa). 



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IV, 18. CONVERSION OF THE SUPPORTER ETC. 201 

three 1 ; and as the three stars range around the 
Trayastriwwas heaven, 1430 

Waiting upon the three and five *, so the three 
wait on Buddha. 1431 

Varga 18. Conversion of 8 the 'Supporter of the 
Orphans and Destitute*' (AnAthapwbada). 

At this time there was a great householder 6 whose 
name was 'Friend of the Orphan and Destitute;' he 
was very rich and of unbounded means, and widely 
charitable in helping the poor and needy. 1432 

Now this man coming far away from the north, 
even from the country of Ko^ala 8 , stopped at the 
house of a friend whose name was Sheu-lo 7 (in 
Ra^ag?7ha). 1433 

Hearing that Buddha was in the world and dwell- 

1 In addition to the three brothers (the Kibyapas). 

* The allusion here is obscure ; there may be a misprint in the 
text 

* Literally, ' he converts,' &c. 

* This is the Chinese explanation of the name of Anithapimfada 
(or Anathapifeiika), 'the protector or supporter of the destitute.' 
He is otherwise called Sudatta (see Jul. II, 294). 

* The Chinese is simply ' ta Aang k&,' but this is evidently the 
equivalent of ' Maha-se/Mi,' a term applied emphatically to Anatha- 
pi*fcfoda (see Rhys Davids, Sacred Books of the East, vol. xiii, 
p. 102, note 2). Where I have translated it 'nobleman,' the word 
'treasurer' might be substituted; the term 'elder' cannot be 
allowed. Yasa the son of a se//4i is called by Rh. D. a ' noble 
youth '(op. cit.p. 102, §7). 

* That is, Uttara Kosala (Northern Kosala), the capital of which 
was .Srivastt. 

7 Rhys Davids gives the name of one of the rich merchant's 
daughters, A'ula-Subhaddd (Birth Stories, p. 131); perhaps his 
friend at Ri^agrtha was called Sula or A"ula (see also Manual of 
Buddhism, p. 219). 



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202 FOSHO-HING-TSAN-KING. IV, 18. 

ing in the bamboo grove near at hand, understanding 
moreover his renown and illustrious qualities, he set 
out that very night 1 for the grove. 1434 

Tathagata, well aware of his character, and that 
he was prepared to bring forth purity and faith 2 , 
according to the case, called him by his true 3 
(name), and for his sake addressed him in words of 
religion:. 1435 

' Having rejoiced in the true law *, and being 
humbly s desirous for a pure and believing heart, 
thou hast overcome desire for sleep, and art here to 
pay me reverence ; 1436 

4 Now then will I for your sake discharge fully the 
duties of a first meeting 6 . In your former births 
the root of virtue planted firm in pure and rare 
expectancy 7 , 1437 

' Hearing now the name of Buddha, you rejoiced 
because you are a vessel fit for righteousness, humble 



1 The statements that he came 'by night,' and that Buddha 
called him by his name — or, as the Chinese might be translated, 
called him ' true' (? guileless) — appear as though borrowed from the 
Gospel narrative. Nicodemus was rich, and Nathaniel (Bartholo- 
mew) preached in India (Euseb. Lib. v. cap. 10). He is said to 
have carried the Gospel of St. Matthew there, where it was dis- 
covered by Pantaenus. 

* That is, that he was ripe for conversion. 

* The name by which he was called, according to Spence 
Hardy (Manual of Buddhism, p. 217), was Sudatta. 

4 That is, ' because ' you have rejoiced. The ' true law ' is the 
same as ' religious truth.' 

6 Literally, ' pure and truthful of heart, with meekness thirsting 
(after knowledge).' 

* The meaning is, as we have now met for the first time, I will 
explain my doctrine (preach) in a formal (polite) way. 

7 That is, your merit in former births has caused you to reap 
a reward in your present condition. 



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IV, 18. CONVERSION OF THE SUPPORTER ETC. 203 

in mind, but large in gracious deeds, abundant in 
your charity to the poor and helpless — 1438 

' The name you possess wide spread and famous, 
(this is) the just reward (fruit) of former merit. The 
deeds you now perform are done of charity, done 
with the fullest purpose and of single heart. 1439 

' Now, therefore, take from me ' the charity of 
perfect rest (Nirva»a), and for this end accept my 
rules of purity. My rules 2 are full of grace, able to 
rescue from destruction (evil ways of birth), 1440 

' And cause a man to ascend to heaven and share 
in all its pleasures. But yet to seek for these 
(pleasures) is a great evil, for lustful longing in its 
increase brings much sorrow. 1441 

'Practise then the art of "giving up 8 " all 
search, for "giving up" desire is the joy of per- 
fect rest (Nirva«a)*. Know 6 then! that age, dis- 

* The construction here is difficult There seems to be a play 
on the word ' shi,' religious charity ; the sense is, that as Anatha- 
pi«</ada was remarkable for his liberality now, he should be liberally 
rewarded by gaining a knowledge of salvation (Nirvana). 

* Instead of ' my rules,' it would be better to understand the 
word in an indefinite sense as 'rules of morality '(stla). 

* 'Giving up,' that is, putting away all desire and giving up 
'self,' even in relation to future reward; compare the hymn of 
S. Francis Xavier, 

'O Deus, ego amo Te 
Nee amo Te ut salves me,' etc. 
And again, 

'Non ut in coelo salves me 
Nee praemii uUius spe.' 
4 This definition of Nirvana, as a condition of perfect rest result- 
ing from ' giving up' desire, is in agreement with the remarks of 
Mr. Rhys Davids and others, who describe Nirvana as resulting 
from the absence of a ' grasping ' disposition. 

* It would seem, from the context, that the word *£i' (know), in 
this line, is a mistake for ' sing,' birth. 



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204 FO-SHO-HING-TSAN-KING. IV, 18. 

ease, and death, these are the great sorrows of the 
world. 1442 

' Rightly considering the world, we put away birth 
and old age, disease and death ; (but now) because 
we see that men at large inherit sorrow caused by 
age, disease, and death, 1443 

' (We gather that) when born in heaven, the case 
is also thus; for there is no continuance there for 
any, and where there is no continuance there is 
sorrow, and having sorrow there is no " true 
self." 1444 

' And if the state of " no continuance " and of 
sorrow is opposed to "self," what room is there for 
such idea or ground for "self 1 ?" Know then ! that 
" sorrow " is this very sorrow (viz. of knowledge), 
and its repetition is "accumulation 1 ;" 1445 

' Destroy* this sorrow and there is joy, the way* is 
in the calm and quiet place. The restless busy nature 
of the world, this I declare is at the root of pain. 1446 

' Stop then the end by choking up the source 6 . 

1 The argument is, that there can be no personal self, in other 
words, no ' soul,' where there is no continuance, or power of inde- 
pendent existence. This is one of the principles of Buddhism, 
viz. that what has had a beginning must come to an end ; the 
' soul,' therefore, as it began with the birth of the individual, must 
die (and as the Buddhists said) with the individual. If we put this 
into modern phraseology, it will be something like this, ' the very 
nature of phenomena demonstrates that they must have had a be- 
ginning, and that they must have an end' (Huxley, Lay Sermons, 
p. 17). 

* The sorrow of 'accumulation' is the second of the 'four 
truths' (according to Northern accounts). 

* ' Destruction' is the third great truth. 
4 The ' way' is the fourth truth. 

8 The sentiment here enunciated is repeated, under various 
forms, in Dhammapada ; the first paragraph in the Sutra of Forty- 
two Sections, also, exhibits the same truth. 



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IV, 18. CONVERSION OF THE SUPPORTER ETC. 205 

Desire not either life (bhava) or its opposite; the 
raging fire of birth, old age, and death burns up the 
world on every side. 1447 

'Seeing the constant toil (unrest) of birth and 
death we ought to strive to attain a passive state 
(no-thought), the final goal of Sammata \ the place 
of immortality 2 and rest. 1448 

'All is empty! neither "self," nor place for "self," 
but all the world is like a phantasy ; this is the way 
to regard ourselves, as but a heap of composite 
qualities (sawskara).' 1449 

The nobleman hearing the spoken law forthwith 
attained the first s degree of holiness, he emptied, 
as it were, the sea of birth and death, one drop * 
alone remaining. 1450 

By practising, apart from men, the banishment 
of all desire he soon attained the one impersonal 



1 Sammata or Sammati seems to be the same as Samatha in 
Pali (concerning which, see Childers, Pali Diet, sub voce). The 
Chinese expression ' yih sin ' (one heart) is generally equivalent 
to 'sammata/ ecstatic union. It cannot here be rendered by 
samadbi. 

* The place of ' sweet dew ' (amrtta). 

* That is, of a Srotapanna. Spence Hardy, in his Manual of 
Buddhism, p. 218, also says that Anathapiw/ada entered the first 
path after hearing the sermon ; but in his account the sermon con- 
sisted of two stanzas only, ' He who is free from evil desire attains 
the highest estate and is always in prosperity. He who cuts off 
demerit, who subdues the mind and attains a state of perfect equa- 
nimity, secures Nirvana; this is his prosperity.' In this account 
the idea of ' prosperity ' is the same as the ' charity of NirvSwa ' in 
our version. 

4 This appears to allude to the circumstance that at the dedica- 
tion of the Vihira Anithapim/ada arrived at the third degree of 
holiness, after which there was but one birth (drop) more to expe- 
rience before reaching Nirvawa (Manual of Buddhism, p. 220). 



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206 FO-SHO-HING-TSAN-KING. IV, 18. 

condition, not * as common folk do now-a-day who 
speculate upon the mode of true deliverance; 1451 

For he who does not banish sorrow-causing 
sa*»skaras does but involve himself in every kind 
of question ; and though he reaches to the highest 
form of being, yet grasps not the one and only 
truth ; 1452 

Erroneous thoughts as to the joy of heaven are 
still entwined by the fast cords of lust 2 . The noble- 
man attending to the spoken law the cloud of dark- 
ness opened before the shining splendour; 1453 

Thus he attained true sight, erroneous views for 
ever dissipated ; even as the furious winds of autumn 
sway to and fro and scatter all the heaped-up 
clouds. 1454 

He argued 3 not that Isvara was cause, nor did he 
advocate some cause heretical, nor yet again did he 
affirm there was no cause for the beginning of the 
world. 1455 

'If the world was made by Isvara deva*, there 
should be neither young nor old, first nor after, nor 
the five ways of birth (transmigration) ; and when 
once born there should be no destruction. 1456 

' Nor should there be such thing as sorrow or 
calamity, nor doing wrong nor doing right ; for all, 



1 These lines appear to be by way of reflection. 
* ' Lust' in the sense of ' appetite.' 

3 Here follows a long dissertation on the subject of the ' maker ' 
of the world. The theories refuted are (1) that Irvara is maker, 
(2) that self-nature is the cause, (3) that time is the maker, (4) that 
self (in the sense of ' universal self) is the cause, (5) that there is 
no cause. 

4 Here I begin with inverted commas, as if the discourse were 
either spoken by Buddha or interpolated by Ajvaghosha. 



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IV, 18. CONVERSION OF THE SUPPORTER ETC. 207 

both pure and impure deeds, these must come from 
l^vara deva. 1457 

'Again, if Ixvara deva made the world there 
should be never question (doubt) about the fact, 
even as a son born of his father ever confesses him 
and pays him reverence. 1458 

'Men when pressed by sore calamity ought not 
(if I.rvara be creator) to rebel against him, but rather 
reverence him completely, as the self-existent. Nor 
ought they to adore more gods than one (other 
spirits). 1459 

' Again, if lxvara be the maker he should not be 
called the self-existent 1 , because in that he is the 
maker now he always should have been the maker 
(ever making). 1460 

' But if ever making, then ever self-remembering 2 , 
and therefore not the self-existent one. And if he 
made without a mind (purpose) then is he like the 
sucking child ; 1461 

' But if he made having an (ever prompting) pur- 
pose, then is he not, with such a purpose, self- 
existent. Sorrow and joy spring up in all that lives, 
these at least are not the works of Isvara ; 1462 

' For if he causes grief 8 and joy, he must himself 



1 In the sense of ' existing in himself or independently. How 
entirely Northern Buddhism changed its character shortly after 
Axvaghosha's time, is evident from the fact that Avalokite^vara, 
• the god who looks down ' (in the sense of protector), became an 
object of almost universal worship, and was afterwards regarded 
as the creating god. 

* That is, ever ' purposing ' to make, and so not complete in 
himself. 

* ' This question, " unde malum et quare," ' was the question 
that of old met the thoughtful at every turn. And it has always 



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208 FO-SHO-HING-TSAN-KING. IV, 18. 

have love (preference) and hate ; but if he loves 
unduly, or has hatred, he cannot properly be named 
the self-existent 1463 

'Again, if l^vara be the maker, all living things 
should silently submit, patient beneath the maker's 
power, and then what use to practise virtue? 1464 

''Twere equal, then, the doing right or wrong, 
there should be no reward of works; the works 
themselves being his making, then all things are the 
same with him, the maker. 1465 

' But if all things are one with him, then our 
deeds, and we who do them, are also self-existent 
But if l^vara be uncreated, then all things (being 
one with him) are uncreated. 1466 

' But if you say there is another cause beside him 
as creator, then 1 svara is not the "end of all" (l^vara, 
who ought to be inexhaustible, is not so), and there- 
fore all that lives may after all be uncreated (without 
a maker). 1467 

'Thus, you see, the thought of l^vara is over- 
thrown in this discussion (xastra); and all such 
contradictory assertions should be exposed ; if not, 
the blame is ours \ 1468 

'Again, if it be said self-nature 2 . is the maker, this 



done so. Many of the arguments used in the text may be found 
in works treating on the subject of ' evil ' and its origin. 

1 So the passage must be translated ; but if so, it would appear, 
as before stated, that this discourse on the ' maker ' is introduced 
here parenthetically by Arvaghosha, not as spoken by Buddha. 
No doubt the theories and their confutations were such as pre- 
vailed in his day. 

' By self-nature, or, original nature, is evidently meant 'sva- 
bhava.' The theory of such a cause had evidently gained ground 
at this time in the North, although it seems unknown amongst 



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IV, i8. CONVERSION OF THE SUPPORTER ETC. 209 

is as faulty as the first assertion ; nor has either of 
the Hetuvidya 1 sastras asserted such a thing as this, 
till now. 1469 

' That which depends on nothing cannot as a cause 
make that which is ; but all things round us come 
from a cause, as the plant comes from the seed ; 1470 

' We cannot therefore say that all things are pro- 
duced by self-nature. Again, all things which exist 
(are made) spring not from one (nature) as a 
cause; 1471 

'And yet you say self-nature is but one, it cannot 
then be cause of all. If you say that that self-nature 
pervades and fills all places, 1472 

'If it pervades and fills all things, then certainly it 
cannot make them too ; for there would be nothing, 
then, to make, and therefore this cannot be the 
cause. 1473 

' If, again, it fills all places and yet makes all 
things that exist, then it should throughout "all 
time " have made for ever that which is. 1474 

1 But if you say it made things thus, then there is 
nothing to be made " in time 2 ;" know then for cer- 
tain self-nature cannot be the cause of all. 1475 

' Again, they say that that self-nature excludes all 



Southern Buddhists. Nagasena wrote a Sastra (' of one doka ") to 
disprove it. 

1 The usual Chinese expression for ' hetuvidya 'is 'in ming ; ' 
here the phrase is ' ming in ; ' but I suppose this to be either an 
error, or equivalent with the other. The Hetuvidya xastra is a 
treatise on die ' explanation of causes.' 

' The argument seems to be that self-nature must have made 
all things from the first as they are ; there is no room therefore for 
further creation, but things are still made, therefore self-nature 
cannot be the cause. 

[19] r 



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2IO FO-SHO-HING-TSAN-KING. IV, iff. 

guwas ' (modifications), therefore all things made by 
it ought likewise to be free from gu«as. 1476 

' But we see, in fact, that all things in the world 
are fettered throughout by gu#as, therefore, again, 
we say that self-nature cannot be the cause of 
all. 1477 

' If, again, you say that that self-nature is dif- 
ferent from such qualities (guwas), (we answer), 
since self-nature must have ever caused, it cannot 
differ in its nature (from itself) ; 1478 

' But if the world (all living things) be different 
from these qualities (gu«as), then self-nature cannot 
be the cause. Again, if self-nature be unchangeable, 
so things should also be without decay; 1479 

' If we regard self-nature as the cause, then cause 
and consequence of reason should be one ; but be- 
cause we see decay in all things, we know that they 
at least are caused. 1480 

' Again, if self-nature be the cause, why should we 
seek to find "escape?" for we ourselves possess this 
nature; patient then should we endure both birth 
and death. 1481 

' For let us take the case that one may find " es- 
cape," self-nature still will re-construct the evil of 
birth. If self-nature in itself be blind, yet 'tis the 
maker of the world that sees. 1482 

'On this account again it cannot be the maker, 
because, in this case, cause and effect would differ in 
their character, but in all the world around us, cause 
and effect go hand in hand. 1483 

' Again, if self-nature have no purpose 2 (aim), it 

1 That is, that it is nirgu»a, devoid of qualities. 

* 'No purpose' — no heart; if we take the two powers of soul 



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IV, i8. CONVERSION OF THE SUPPORTER ETC. 211 

cannot cause that which has such purpose. We know 
on seeing smoke there must be fire, and cause and 
result are ever classed together thus. 1484 

' We are forbidden, then, to say an unthinking 
cause can make a thing that has intelligence. The 
gold of which the cup is made is gold throughout 
from first to last. 1485 

'Self-nature then that makes these things from 
first to last must permeate all it makes. Once more, 
if "time" is maker of the world, 'twere needless then 
to seek "escape," i486 

' For " time " is constant and unchangeable, let us 
in patience bear the "intervals" of time. The world 
in its successions has no limits, the " intervals" of 
time are boundless also. 1487 

'Those then who practise a religious life need 
not rely on " methods " or " expedients." The To-lo- 
piu Kiu-na * (Tripuna gu«a .y&stra?), the one strange 
.Sastra in the world, 1488 

'Although it has so many theories (utterings), yet 
still, be it known, it is opposed to any single cause. 
But if, again, you say that "self 2 " is maker, then 
surely self should make things pleasingly, 1489 

' But now things are not pleasing for oneself, how 
then is it said that self is maker ? But if he did not 
wish to make things so, then he who wishes for 
things pleasing, is opposed to self, the maker. 1490 

(according to the scholastic method) to be a ' vis cognitiva ' and 
a ' vis effectiva,' the expression in the text appears to correspond 
with the latter. 

1 I do not know any other way of restoring these symbols than 
the one I have used. But what is the Tripuna gun a j astra ? 

* ' Self in the sense of a ' universal cause ' co-extensive with the 
things made. 

P 2 



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212 FO-SHO-HING-TSAN-KING. IV, 18. 

'Sorrow and joy are not self-existing, how can 
these be made by " self?" But if we allow that self 
was maker, there should not be, at least, an evil 
karman 1 ; 1491 

' But yet our deeds produce results both good and 
evil, know then that " self" cannot be maker. But 
perhaps you say "self" is the maker according to 
occasion 8 (time), and then the occasion ought to be 
for good alone; 1492 

' But as good and evil both result from " cause," 
it cannot be that " self" has made it so. But if you 
adopt the argument — there is no maker — then it is 
useless practising expedients 3 ; 1493 

'All things are fixed and certain of themselves, 
what good to try to make them otherwise ? Deeds of 
every kind, done in the world, do, notwithstanding, 
bring forth every kind of fruit ; 1494 

' Therefore we argue all things that exist are not 
without some cause or other. There is both "mind" 
and "want of mind," all things come from fixed 
causation ; 1495 

'The world and all therein is not the result of 
"nothing" as a cause.' The nobleman 4 (house- 
holder), his heart receiving light, perceived through- 
out the most excellent system of truth, 1496 

Simple, and of wisdom born ; thus firmly settled 

1 There should not be works producing birth in one of the evil 
ways. 

• I do not understand the point here ; literally the passage is ' say- 
ing self according to time makes ' — the Chinese ' ts'ui shi ' means 
'whenever convenient,' or 'at a good time;' so that the passage 
may mean ' but if you say that self creates only when so prompted 
by itself.' 

* That is, using means for salvation or escape from sorrow. 

4 Here the narrative seems to take up the thread dropped at v. 1451, 



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IV, 18. CONVERSION OF THE SUPPORTER ETC. 213 

in the true doctrine he lowly bent in worship at the 
feet of Buddha and with closed hands made his 
request : 1497 

' I dwell indeed at .Sravastl (Savatthi) 1 , a land rich 
in produce, and enjoying peace ; Prasena^ it (Pasenit) 2 
is the great king thereof, the offspring of the "lion" 
family; 1498 

' His high renown and fame spread everywhere, 
reverenced by all both far and near. Now am I 
wishful there to found a Vihara, I pray you of your 
tenderness accept it from me. 1499 

' I know the heart of Buddha has no preferences, 
nor does he seek a resting-place from labour, but on 
behalf of all that lives refuse not my request.' 1 500 

Buddha, knowing the householder's heart, that his 
great charity was now the moving cause, untainted 
and unselfish charity, nobly considerate of the heart 
of all that lives 1501 

(He said), ' Now you have seen the true doctrine, 
your guileless heart loves to exercise its charity, for 
wealth and money are inconstant treasures, 'twere 
better quickly to bestow such things on others. 1 502 

' For when a treasury has been burnt, whatever 
precious things may have escaped the fire, the wise 

1 She-po-ti; evidently a Pali or Prdkrit form of the Sanskrit 
•SrSvastf. The Chinese explanation of this name is (as found in 
the next line) a ' country of abundance.' It has been identified by 
General Cunningham with SShet M&het. 

* Po-sze-nih, i.e. Prasena^it (victorious army). With respect to 
this king, we know from Hiouen Thsang (Jul. II, 317) that he did 
not belong to the .Sakya race, but he became a convert to Bud- 
dhism. His son ViruaMaka massacred a number of the Sakyas, 
' and the ground was covered with their dead bodies as with pieces 
of straw' Qui. II, 317). The king is here described as belonging 
to the Sunha race ; probably he was a Scyth, of the same family as 
the Va^yis, one tribe of whom was called the 'lion' tribe. 



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214 FO-SHO-HING-TSAN-KING. TV, 18. 

man, knowing their inconstancy, gives freely, doing 
acts of kindness with his saved possessions. 1 503 

' But the niggard guards them carefully, fearing to 
lose them, worn by anxiety, but never fearing (worst 
of all!) "inconstancy 1 ," and that accumulated sorrow, 
when he loses all ! 1 504 

' There is a proper time and a proper mode in 
charity, just as the vigorous warrior goes to battle, 
so is the man "able to give," he also is an able 
warrior; a champion strong and wise in action. 1505 

' The charitable man is loved by all, well-known 
and far-renowned! his friendship prized by the gentle 
and the good, in death his heart at rest and full of 
joy! 1506 

' He suffers no repentance, no tormenting fear, 
nor is he born a wretched ghost or demon ! this is 
the opening flower of his reward, the fruit that 
follows — hard to conjecture 2 ! 1507 

'In all the six conditions born there is no sweet 
companion like pure charity ; if born a Deva or a 
man, then charity brings worship and renown on 
every hand; 1508 

' If born among the lower creatures (beasts), the 
result of charity will follow in contentment got ; 
wisdom leads the way to fixed composure without 
dependence and without number 3 . 1509 

'And if we even reach the immortal path, still by 
continuous acts of charity we fulfil ourselves in 

1 ' Inconstancy,' or ' death.' 

* This is a singular expression, implying that the character of a 
good man's final condition is difficult to describe: 'it has not 
entered the heart.' 

* These two lines appear to be irrelevant ; nor do I understand 
the last phrase ' without number,' in its connection with the context. 



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IV, 1 8. CONVERSION OF THE SUPPORTER ETC. 215 

consequence of kindly charity done elsewhere. 
Training ourselves in the eightfold * path of recol- 
lection, 15 10 

'In every thought the heart is filled with joy, firm 
fixed in holy contemplation (samadhi), by meditation 
still we add to wisdom, able to see aright (the cause 
of) birth and death ; 1 5 1 1 

' Having beheld aright the cause of these, then 
follows in due order perfect deliverance. The chari- 
table man discarding earthly wealth, nobly excludes 
the power of covetous desire 11512 

' Loving and compassionate now, he gives with 
reverence and banishes all hatred, envy, anger. So 
plainly may we see the fruit of charity, putting away 
all covetous and unbelieving ways, 1513 

' The bands of sorrow all destroyed, this is the 
fruit of kindly charity. Know then ! the charitable 
man has found the cause of final rescue ; 1514 

' Even as the man who plants the sapling, thereby 
secures the shade, the flowers, the fruit (of the tree 
full grown) ; the result of charity is even so, its 
reward is joy and the great Nirvawa. 15 15 

' The charity which unstores 2 wealth leads to 
returns of well-stored fruit. Giving away our food 
we get more strength, giving away our clothes we 
get more beauty, 15 16 

' Founding religious rest-places 8 (pure abodes) we 

1 The eight recollections (nim) ; doubtless these are the eight 
' samSpattis ' (attainments or endowments), concerning which we 
may consult Childers' Pali Diet., sub ' samipatti.' 

* That is, which does not store up wealth, but unstores it to give 
away. There seems to be here a tacit allusion to Sudatta's wealth, 
which he unstored and gave in charity by purchasing the garden of 
Geta. 

' That is,Viharas. 



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2l6 FO-SHO-HING-TSAN-KING. IV, 18. 

reap the perfect fruit of the best charity. There is 
a way *of giving, seeking pleasure by it ; there is a 
way of giving, coveting to get more ; 1517 

' Some also give away to get a name for charity, 
others to get the happiness of heaven, others to 
avoid the pain of being poor (hereafter), but yours, 
O friend! is a charity without such thoughts, 15 18 

' The highest and the best degree of charity with- 
out self-interest or thought of getting more. What 
your heart inclines you now to do, let it be quickly 
done and well completed! 15 19 

'The uncertain and the lustful heart goes wan- 
dering here and there, but the pure eyes (of virtue) 
opening, the heart comes back and rests 1 !' The 
nobleman accepting Buddha's teaching, his kindly 
heart receiving yet more light, 1520 

He invited Upatishya 2 , his excellent friend, to 
accompany him on his return to Kerala ; and then 
going round to select a pleasant site, 1521 

He saw the garden of the heir-apparent, £eta, the 
groves and limpid streams most pure. Proceeding 
where the prince was dwelling, he asked for leave to 
buy the ground ; 1522 

The prince, because he valued it so much, at first 
was not inclined to sell, but said at last : ' If you can 
cover it with gold then, but not else, you may 
possess it 8 .' 1523 

1 These two lines are probably proverbial, something of this 
kind, 'the uncertain, amorous mind is profligate (wandering), the 
enlightened man comes to himself.' 

* Upatissa is the same as .SSriputra. Hiouen Thsang (Jul. II, 
296) says that Buddha sent £Sriputra with Sudatta, to advise and 
counsel bim. 

* The famous contract between Sudatta and Geta, the heir-appa- 
rent, is well known, and may be read in all the translations of the 



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IV, i8. CONVERSION OF THE SUPPORTER ETC. 21 7 

The nobleman, his heart rejoicing, forthwith began 
to spread his gold. Then (Seta said : ' I will not give, 
why then spread you your gold ?' 1524 

The nobleman replied, ' Not give ; why then said 
you, "Fill it with yellow gold?'" And thus they 
differed and contended both, till they resorted to the 
magistrate. 1525 

Meanwhile the people whispered much about his 
unwonted 1 (charity), and (Seta too, knowing the man's 
sincerity, asked more about the matter : what his 
reasons were. On his reply, ' I wish to found a 
Vihara, 1526 

'And offer it to the Tathagata and all his Bhikshu 
followers,' the prince, hearing the name of Buddha, 
received at once illumination, 1527 

And only took one half the gold, desiring to share 
in the foundation : ' Yours is the land (he said), but 
mine the trees ; these will I give to Buddha as my 
share in the offering.' 1528 

Then the noble took the land, (Seta the trees, and 
settled both in trust on ^Sariputra. Then they began 
to build the hall, labouring night and day to finish 
it; 1529 

Lofty it rose and choicely decorated, as one of the 
four kings' palaces, in just proportions, following the 



lives of Buddha. There is a representation of the proceeding in 
plate lvii (Bharhut Stupa). I may observe here that the figure 
immediately in front (by the side of Geta, the prince, who is 
apparently giving away the trees, whilst Sudatta below him is giving 
the land), whistling with thumb and forefinger, and waving the 
robe, is typical of a number of others in these sculptures similarly 
engaged (see eg. plate xiii [outer face]). 

1 Or, the unwonted circumstance; or, the 'unusual' character 
of Sudatta. 



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2l8 FO-SHO-HING-TSAN-KING. tV, 18. 

directions which Buddha had declared the right 
ones; 1530 

Never yet so great a miracle as this ! the priests 
shone in the streets of .Sravastt ! Tathigata, seeing 
the divine shelter, with all his holy ones resorted 
to the place to rest 1 ; 1531 

No followers there to bow in prostrate service, 
his followers rich in wisdom only. The nobleman 
reaping his reward, at the end of life ascended up 
to heaven, 1532 

Leaving to sons and grandsons a good founda- 
tion, through successive generations, to plough the 
field of merit. 1533 

Varga 19. Interview between Father and Son. 

Buddha in the Magadha country (employing him- 
self in) converting all kinds of unbelievers 2 (heretics), 
entirely changed them by the one and self-same 3 law 
he preached, even as the sun drowns with its bright- 
ness all the stars. 1534 

Then leaving the city of the five mountains 4 with 
the company of his thousand disciples, and with a 



1 The expression 'to rest' may also mean 'to observe the rainy 
season rest,' if the ordinance of Wass had been enacted at this 
time. 

* ' I tau,' different persuasions. It was during Buddha's stay 
near Ri^agrtha that different rules for the direction of the ' Order' 
were framed. See Romantic Legend, p. 340 seq. There is no 
reference in our text to the stately march of Buddha to Kapila- 
vastu, or of the different messages sent to him, as related by 
Bigandet, p. 160, and in Hardy's Manual of Buddhism, pp. 198, 
199, also Romantic Legend, p. 349. 

* Yih-mi-ft, ' one-taste law.' 

* That is, R%agnha ; the city surrounded by five mountains. 



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IV, 19. INTERVIEW BETWEEN FATHER AND SON. 2I<J 

great multitude who went before and came after him, 
he advanced towards the Ni-kin 1 mountain, 1535 

Near Kapilavastu ; and there he conceived in 
himself a generous purpose to prepare an offering 
according to his religious doctrine 2 to present to 
his father, the king. 1536 

And now in anticipation of his coming the royal 
teacher (purohita) and the chief minister had sent 
forth certain officers and their attendants to observe 
on the right hand and the left (what was taking 
place) ; and they soon espied him (Buddha) as he 
advanced or halted on the way. 1537 

Knowing that Buddha was now returning to his 
country they hastened back 8 and quickly announced 
the tidings, 'The prince who wandered forth afar to 
obtain enlightenment, having fulfilled his aim, is now 
coming back.' 1538 

The king hearing the news was greatly rejoiced, 
and forthwith went out with his gaudy equipage to 
meet (his son) ; and the whole body of gentry (sse) 
belonging to the country, went forth with him in his 
company. 1539 

Gradually advancing he beheld Buddha from afar, 
his marks of beauty sparkling with splendour two- 



1 This may be the Nyagrodba garden alluded to by Spence Hardy, 
Manual of Buddhism, p. 200, and also in the Romantic Legend, 
p. 350. The symbols ni-kin, however, seem to have some other 
equivalent, such as Nigantha. 

* This of course means 'a religious offering,' or 'service of 
religion,' i. e. agreeable to religion. 

• There is no reference here to their conversion as in the 
Southern accounts. The account in the Manual of Buddhism, 
p. 200, of the king's preparation to meet his son, bears the appear- 
ance of a late date, and in exaggeration surpasses all we find in 
the Northern books. 



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*20 FOSHO-HING-TSAN-KING. IV, 19. 

fold greater than of yore; placed in the middle of 
the great congregation he seemed to be even as 
Brahma ra^a. 1 540 

Descending from his chariot and advancing with 
dignity, (the king) was anxious lest there should be 
any religious 1 difficulty (in the way of instant 
recognition); and now beholding his beauty he 
inwardly rejoiced, but his mouth found no words to 
utter. 1 541 

He reflected, too, how that he was still dwelling 
among the unconverted throng, whilst his son had 
advanced and become a saint (jfo'shi) ; and although 
he was his son, yet as he now occupied the position 
of a religious lord 2 , he knew not by what name to 
address him. 1542 

Furthermore he thought with himself how he had 
long ago desired earnestly (this interview), which 
now had happened unawares* (without arrangement). 
Meantime his son in silence took a seat, perfectly 
composed and with unchanged countenance. 1543 

Thus for some time sitting opposite each other, 
with no expression of feeling (the king reflected 
thus) 4 , ' How desolate and sad does he now make 
my heart, as that of a man, who, fainting, longs for 
water, upon the road espies a fountain pure and 
cold; 1544 

'With haste he speeds towards it and longs to 



1 That is, whether religion required a greeting first from him, 
the father. 

9 An Arhat or distinguished saint. 

* Without any summons. 

* I supply this (as in many other cases); in the text we are 
without direction when and where to bring in these explanatory 
phrases. 



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IV, 19. INTERVIEW BETWEEN FATHER AND SON. 221 

drink, when suddenly the spring dries up and dis- 
appears. Thus, now I see my son, his well-known 
features as of old ; 1545 

' But how estranged his heart ! and how his man- 
ner high and lifted up ! There are no grateful 
outflowings of soul, his feelings seem unwilling to 
express themselves ; cold and vacant (there he sits); 
and like a thirsty man before a dried-up fountain (so 
am I).' 1546 

Still distant thus (they sat), with crowding thoughts 
rushing through the mind, their eyes full met, 
but no responding joy ; each looking at the other, 
seemed as one who thinking of a distant friend, 
gazes by accident upon his pictured form 1 . 1547 

'That you' (the king reflected) 'who of right 
might rule the world, even as that Mandhatrz ra^ a, 
should now go begging here and there your food ! 
what joy or charm has such a life as this ? 1548 

' Composed and firm as Sumeru *, with marks of 
beauty bright as the sunlight, with dignity of step 
like the ox king, fearless as any lion, 1 549 

'And yet receiving not the tribute of the world, 
but begging food sufficient for your body's nourish- 
ment!' Buddha, knowing his father's mind, still 
kept to his own filial purpose. 1550 

And then to open out his 8 mind, and moved with 

1 This translation is doubtful ; there is some question as to the 
correct reading. 

* Buddha is often called ' the golden mountain,' and in this par- 
ticular, as in many others, there is in Buddhism a marked resem- 
blance with traditions known among primitive races; Bel, for 
example, is called ' the great mountain.' 

' That is, as I understand it, to move his father's mind. It may 
be understood, however, in the sense of carrying out his own 
purpose. 



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222 FO-SHOHING-TSAN-KING. IV, 19. 

pity for the multitude of people, by his miraculous 
power he rose in mid-air, and with his hands 
(appeared) to grasp the sun and moon 1 . 1551 

Then he walked to and fro in space, and under- 
went all kinds of transformation, dividing his body 
into many parts, then joining all in one again. 1552 

Treading firm on water as on dry land, entering 
the earth as in the water, passing through walls of 
stone without impediment, from the right side and 
the left water and fire produced 2 ! 1553 

The king, his father, filled with joy, now dismissed 
all thought of son and father*; then upon a lotus 
throne, seated in space, he (Buddha) for his father's 
sake declared the law. 1554 

' I know that the king's heart (is full of) love and 
recollection, and that for his son's sake he adds 
grief to grief; but now let the bands of love that 
bind him, thinking of his son, be instantly unloosed 
and utterly destroyed. 1555 

' Ceasing from thoughts of love, let your calmed 
mind receive from me, your son, religious nourish- 
ment ; such as no son has offered yet to father, such 
do I present to you the king, my father. 1556 

'And what no father yet has from a son received, 
now from your son you may accept, a gift miracu- 
lous for any mortal king to enjoy, and seldom had 
by any heavenly king ! 1557 

'The way superlative of life immortal 4 (sweet 

1 Here we have an account of the grotesque miracles that dis- 
tinguish this part of the narrative in all Northern Buddhist books ; 
see Romantic Legend, p. 352. 

* This is probably the twin-miracle (yamaka-pa7Mriya») referred 
to by Mr. Rhys Davids, Birth Stories, p. 105 n. 

* That is, of the relative duties of father and son. 

4 This phrase, ' the way of sweet dew,' I can only restore to ' the 



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IV, 19- INTERVIEW BETWEEN FATHER AND SON. 223 

dew) I offer now the Maharaja ; from accumulated 
deeds comes birth, and as the result of deeds comes 
recompense; 1558 

' Knowing then that deeds bring fruit, how dili- 
gent should you be to rid yourself of worldly deeds I 
how careful that in the world your deeds should be 
only good and gentle ! 1559 

' Fondly affected by relationship or firmly bound 
by mutual ties of love, at end of life the soul (spirit) 
goes forth alone, — then, only our good deeds be- 
friend us. — 1560 

'Whirled in the five ways of the wheel of life, 
three kinds of deeds produce three kinds of birth 1 , 
and these are caused by lustful hankering, each kind 
different in its character. 1561 

' Deprive these of their power by the practice now 
of (proper) deeds of body and of word ; by such right 
preparation day and night strive to get rid of all 
confusion of the mind and practise silent (con- 
templation) ; 1562 

'Only this brings profit in the end, besides this 
there is no reality; for be sure! the three worlds 
are but as the froth and bubble of the sea. 1563 

' Would you have pleasure, or would you practise 
that which brings it near ? then prepare yourself by 



way of immortality;' of course it means 'immortality' (amrrtaw) 
according to Buddhist ideas, that is, Nirviwa. Childers tells us 
that 'Buddhaghosa says that Nirvawa is called amata, because not 
being born it does not decay or die' (Pali Diet., sub amatam). 
This definition of NirvS»a is the usual one found in Chinese books, 
that state which admits ' neither of birth nor death.' 

1 Referring to the three inferior kinds of birth, as a beast, a 
preta, or in hell. 



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224 FO-SHO-HING-TSAN-KING. IV, 19. 

deeds that bring the fourth birth 1 : but (still) the 
five ways in the wheel of birth and death are like 
the uncertain wanderings of the stars; 1564 

' For heavenly beings too must suffer change : 
how shall we find with men (a hope of) constancy ; 
Nirv4»a ! that is the chief rest ; composure 1 that 
the best of all enjoyments! 1565 

'The five indulgences (pleasures) enjoyed by 
mortal kings are fraught with danger and distress, 
like dwelling with a poisonous snake; what pleasure, 
for a moment, can there be in such a case ? 1 566 

' The wise man sees the world as compassed 
round with burning flames ; he fears always, nor 
can he rest till he has banished, once for all, birth, 
age, and death. 1567 

' Infinitely quiet is the place where the wise man 
finds his abode ; no need of arms (instruments) or 
weapons there! no elephants or horses, chariots or 
soldiers there ! 1568 

' Subdued the power of covetous desire and angry 
thoughts and ignorance, there's nothing left in the 
wide world to conquer! Knowing what sorrow is, 
he cuts away the cause of sorrow ; 1569 

'This destroyed, by practising right means, rightly 
enlightened in the four true principles 8 , he casts off 
fear and escapes the evil ways of birth.' The king 
when first he saw his wondrous spiritual power (of 
miracle) rejoiced in heart ; 1570 

But now his feelings deeply affected by the joy 
of (hearing) truth, he became a perfect vessel for 
receiving true religion, and with clasped hands he 

1 The ' fourth birth' would be as ' a man ; ' but it may refer here 
to birth as ' a Deva.' 

* That is, in the 'four truths.' 



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IV, 19. INTERVIEW BETWEEN FATHER AND SON. 225 

breathed forth his praise : ' Wonderful indeed ! the 
fruit of your resolve (oath) 1 completed thus ! 1571 

'Wonderful indeed! the overwhelming sorrow 
passed away ! Wonderful indeed, this gain to me ! 
At first my sorrowing heart was heavy, but now my 
sorrow has brought forth only profit ! 1572 

'Wonderful indeed! for now, to-day, I reap the 
full fruit of a begotten son. It was right he should 
reject the choice pleasures of a monarch (conqueror) ; 
it was right he should so earnestly and with diligence 
practise penance ; 1573 

'It was right he should cast off his family and kin; 
it was right he should cut off every feeling of love 
and affection. The old ftishi kings boasting of .their 
penance gained no merit; 1574 

' But you, living in a peaceful, quiet place, have 
done all and completed all ; yourself at rest now you 
give rest to others, moved by your mighty sympathy 
(compassion) for all that lives! 1575 

' If you had kept your first estate with men, and 
as a Aakravartin monarch ruled the world, pos- 
sessing then no self-depending power of miracle, 
how could my soul have then received deli- 
verance? 1576 

'Then there would have been no excellent law 
declared, causing me such joy to-day ; no ! had you 
been a universal sovereign, the bonds of birth and 
death would still have been unsevered ; 1577 

' But now you have escaped from birth and death; 
the great pain of transmigration overcome, you are 
able, for the sake of every creature, widely to preach 
the law of life immortal (sweet dew), 1578 

1 That is, the oath to become enlightened and a deliverer. 
C'9] Q 



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226 FO-SHO-HING-TSAN-KING. IV, 19. 

' And to exhibit thus your power miraculous, and 
(show) the deep and wide power of wisdom ; the 
grief of birth and death eternally destroyed, you now 
have risen far above both gods and men. 1579 

' You might have kept the holy state of a Aakra- 
vartin monarch ; but no such good as this would 
have resulted.' Thus his words of praise con- 
cluded, filled with increased reverence and religious 
love, 1580 

He who occupied the honoured place of a royal 
father, bowed down respectfully and did obeisance. 
Then all the people of the kingdom, beholding 
Buddha's miraculous power, 158 1 

And having heard the deep and excellent law, 
seeing, moreover, the king's grave reverence, with 
clasped hands bowed down and worshipped. Pos- 
sessed with deep portentous thoughts, 1582 

Satiated. with sorrows attached to lay-life, they all 
conceived a wish to leave their homes 1 . The princes, 
too, of the .Sakya tribe, their minds enlightened to 
perceive the perfect fruit of righteousness, 1583 

Entirely satiated with the glittering joys of the 
world, forsaking home, rejoiced to join his company 
(become hermits). Ananda, Nanda, Kin-pi (Kim- 
bila) 2 , Anuruddha, 1584 

Nandupananda, with Kunda.da.na. s , all these prin- 
cipal nobles and others of the .Sakya family, 1585 

1 That Is, to become mendicants, or religious followers of 
Buddha. 

' The conversion of Nanda &c. is referred to in Spence Hardy's 
Manual of Buddhism, p. 227. I have restored Kin-pi to Kimbila 
from this authority, p. 228. Perhaps also in the Romantic Legend, 
p. 386, it ought to have been so restored. 

* JSTun-ia-to-na. I do not remember having met with this name 
before. It may be meant for ^4andaka, see Schiefner, ' Lebens- 
beschreibung £lkyamuni's,' p. 266. 



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IV, ip. INTERVIEW BETWEEN FATHER AND SON. 227 

From the teaching of Buddha became disciples 
and accepted the law. The sons of the great 
minister of state, Udayin being the chief, 1586 

With all the royal princes following in order 
became recluses. Moreover, the son of Atalt, whose 
name was Upali, 1587 

Seeing all these princes and the sons of the chief 
minister becoming hermits, his mind opening for 
conversion, he, too, received the law of renuncia- 
tion. 1588 

The royal father seeing his son possessing the 
great qualities of JZiddhi, himself entered on the 
calm flowings (of thought), the gate of the true law 
of eternal life. 1589 

Leaving his kingly estate and country, lost in 
meditation, he drank sweet dew. Practising (his re- 
ligious duties) in solitude, silent and contemplative 
he dwelt in his palace, a royal Rishi. 1 590 

Tathagata following a peaceable 1 life, recognised 
fully by his tribe, repeating the joyful news of 
religion,, gladdened the hearts of all his kinsmen 
hearing him. 1591 

And now, it being the right time for begging 
food, he entered the Kapila country (Kapilavastu) ; 
in the city all the lords and ladies, in admiration, 
raised this chant of praise : 1592 

'Siddhartha! fully enlightened! has come back 
again!' The news flying quickly in and out of 
doors, the great and small came forth to see 
him; 1593 

Every door and every window crowded, climbing 
on shoulders*, bending down the eyes, they gazed 

1 Or, living in peaceful prosecution of his work. 
* Or it may be ' shoulder to shoulder.' 

Q 2 



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228 FOSHO-HING-TSAN-KING. IV, 19. 

upon the marks of beauty on his person, shining 
and glorious! 1594 

Wearing his Kashaya garment outside, the glory 
of his person from within shone forth, like the sun's 
perfect wheel ; within, without, he seemed one mass 
of splendour *. 1595 

Those who beheld were filled with sympathising 8 
joy; their hands conjoined, they wept (for gladness) 3 ; 
and so they watched him as he paced with dignity 
the road, his form collected, all his organs well- 
controlled! 1596 

His lovely body exhibiting the perfection 4 of reli- 
gious beauty, his dignified compassion adding to their 
regretful joy ! his shaven head, his personal beauty 
sacrificed ! his body clad in dark and sombre vest- 
ment, 1597 

His manner natural and plain, his unadorned 
appearance; his circumspection as he looked upon 
the earth in walking! 'He who ought to have 
had held over him the feather-shade ' (they said), 
'whose hands should grasp "the reigns of the 
flying 5 dragon," 1598 

' See how he walks in daylight on the dusty road ! 
holding his alms-dish, going to beg ! Gifted enough 
to tread down every enemy, lovely enough to 
gladden woman's heart, 1599 



1 The glory of his person within and without, together, like 
a mass of light. 

* Compassion and joy. 

* That is, they wept for pity and for joy. 

* Manifesting religious uprightness or rectitude. 

* This appears to be a Chinese phrase, adapted perhaps from 
some expression in the Sanskrit original signifying 'supreme 
power.' 



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IV, 19. INTERVIEW BETWEEN FATHER AND SON. 229 

' With glittering vesture and with godlike crown 
reverenced he might have been by servile crowds ! 
But now, his manly beauty hidden, with heart re- 
strained, and outward form subdued, 1600 

1 Rejecting the much-coveted and glorious apparel, 
his shining body clad with garments grey, what 
aim, what object, now! Hating the five delights 
that move the world, 1601 

1 Forsaking virtuous wife and tender child, loving 
the solitude, he wanders friendless; hard, indeed, 
for virtuous wife through the long night 1 , cherishing 
her grief; 1602 

'And now to hear he is a hermit! She enquires 
not now (so lost to life) of the royal .Suddhodana if 
he has seen his son or not! 1603 

' But as she views his beauteous person, (to think) 
his altered form is now a hermit's ! hating his home, 
still full of love ; his father, too, what rest for him 
(they say)! 1604 

'And then his loving child Rihula, weeping with 
constant sorrowful desire! And now to see no 
change, or heart-relenting ; and this the end of such 
enlightenment ! 1605 

'All these attractive marks, the proofs of a reli- 
gious calling, whereas, when born, all said, these are 
marks of a " great man," who ought to receive 
tribute from the four seas! 1606 

'And now to see what he has come to! all these 
predictive words vain and illusive.' Thus they 
talked together, the gossiping multitude, with con- 
fused accents. 1607 

Tathagata, his heart unaffected, felt no joy and 

1 L e. her life of widowhood. 



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230 FO-SHO-HING-TSAN-KING. IV, 19. 

no regret. But he was moved by equal love to all 
the world, his one desire that men should escape the 
grief of lust; 1608 

To cause the root of virtue to increase, and for 
the sake of coming ages, to leave the marks of 
self-denial 1 behind him, to dissipate the clouds and 
mists of sensual desire, 1609 

He entered, thus intentioned, on the town to beg. 
He accepted food both good or bad, whatever came, 
from rich or poor, without distinction ; having filled 
his alms-dish, he then returned back to the soli- 
tude. 1 610 



Varga 20. Receiving the Cetavana VihAra. 

The lord of the world, having converted 2 the 
people of Kapilavastu according to (their several) 
circumstances 8 , his work being done, he went with 
the great body of his followers, 161 1 

And directed his way to the country of Kerala, 
where dwelt king Prasena.fit (Po-se-nih). The 
£etavana was now fully adorned, and its halls and 
courts carefully prepared ; 16 12 

The fountains and streams flowed through the 
garden which glittered with flowers and fruit ; rare 
birds sat by the pools (water side), and on the land 



1 Little desire. 

* The expression in the original is 'having opened for con- 
version.' 

* It is not necessarily 'according to their circumstances,' but 
it may also be rendered ' according to circumstances/ or 'as the 
occasion required.' 



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IV, 20. RECEIVING THE GETAVANA VIHARA. 23 1 

they sang in sweet concord, according to their 
kind; 1613 

Beautiful in every way as the palace of Mount Kilas 
(Kail&sa) \ (such was the £etavana.) Then the noble 
friend of the orphans, surrounded by his attendants, 
who met him on the way, 16 14 

Scattering flowers and burning incense, invited the 
lord to enter the ^etavana. In his hand he carried 
a golden dragon-pitcher a , and bending low upon his 
knees he poured the flowing water 161 5 

As a sign of the gift of the £etavana Vihara for 
the use of the priesthood throughout the world 3 . 
The lord then received it, with the prayer* that 
' overruling all evil influences it might give the king- 
dom permanent rest, 1616 

' And that the happiness of Anathapi»dada might 
flow out in countless streams.' Then the king 
Prasenafit, hearing that the lord had come, 161 7 

With his royal equipage went to the (Jetavana to 
worship at the lord's feet 8 . (Having arrived) and 



1 Mount Kailisa, the fabulous residence of Kuvera ; the paradise 
of Siva. 

s In the Barahut sculpture there is a figure carrying a pitcher in 
the act of pouring out the water ; but the figure is not kneeling. 

* ' The four quarters/ that is, ' the world.' 

* 'The prayer,' the 'devout incantation;' it has often been 
questioned whether ' prayer ' is possible with Buddhists ; the ex- 
pression in the Chinese is the same as that used for prayer in other 
books; but it may of course denote sincere or earnest desire, 
coming from the heart. 

8 There are various representations of Prasena^it going to the 
Getavana in the Barahut sculptures. In plate xiii (Cunningham's 
Barahut) the Vihara is represented, the wheel denoting the sermon 
which Buddha preached; the waving of garments and whistling 
with fingers denoting the joy of the hearers. 



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232 FO-SHO-HING-TSAN-KING. IV, 20. 

taken a seat on one side, with clasped hands he 
spake to Buddha thus : 1618 

'O that my unworthy and obscure kingdom 
should thus suddenly have met such fortune I For 
how can misfortunes or frequent calamities possibly 
affect it, (in the presence of) so great a man? 161 9 

'And now that I have seen your sacred features, 
I may perhaps partake of the converting streams of 
your teaching. A town although it is composed of 
many sections 1 , yet both ignoble and holy persons 
may enter the surpassing 2 stream ; 1620 

'And so the wind which fans the perfumed grove 
causes the scents to unite and form one pleasant 
breeze; and as the birds which collect on Mount 
Sumeru (are many), and the various shades that 
blend in shining gold, 162 1 

' So an assembly may consist of persons of dif- 
ferent capacities, Individually insignificant, but a 
glorious body. The desert master by nourishing 
the Rishi, procured a birth as the san-tsuh (three 
leg or foot) star 3 ; 1622 

'Worldly profit is fleeting and perishable, religious 
(holy) profit is eternal and inexhaustible; a man 
though a king is full of trouble, a common man, who 
is holy, has everlasting rest.' 1623 



1 I cannot be sure of this translation ; yet I can suggest no other. 
The line is §R gg ^ ^ fo. 

* 'The victorious stream;' this may refer to the Rapti, on the 
banks of which Sravasti was situated. The object of the allusion 
is that as both rich and poor, noble and ignoble may enter the 
stream of the river, so all may seek the benefit of the stream of 
religious doctrine. 

* I am unable to explain the reference here; nor do I know 
what the ' three-footed star ' can be. 



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IV, 20. RECEIVING THE GETAVANA VIHARA. 233 

Buddha knowing the state of the king's heart, — 
that he rejoiced in religion as .Sakrara^a 1 , — con- 
sidered the two obstacles that weighted him, viz. 
too great love of money, and of external plea- 
sures 8 ; 1624 

Then seizing the opportunity, and knowing the 
tendencies of his heart, he began, for the king's sake, 
to preach : ' Even those who, by evil karman 8 , have 
been born in low degree, when they see a person of 
virtuous character, feel reverence for him ; 1625 

' How much rather ought an independent * king, 
who by his previous conditions of life has acquired 
much merit, when he encounters Buddha, to con- 
ceive even more reverence. Nor is it difficult to 
understand, 1626 

' That a country should enjoy more rest and 
peace, by the presence of Buddha, than if he were 
not to dwell therein 8 . And now, as I briefly declare 
my law, let the Maharaja listen and weigh my 
words, 1627 

'And hold fast that which I deliver! See now 
the end of my perfected merit 4 , my life is done, 

1 General Cunningham (Barahut Stupa, plate xhi) has re- 
marked that the Preaching Hall visited by Prasena^it resembles 
in detail the Palace of Sakrara^u ; the reference in the text seems 
to allude to this. 

* Reference is often made in Buddhist books to the self-indulg- 
ence of king Prasenajit. Compare section xxix of the Chinese 
Dhammapada. 

8 That is, in consequence of evil deeds. 

4 This expression 'tsze tsai,' which I render 'independent,' 
means 'self-sufficient,' or 'self-existing;' the reference is probably 
to a lord paramount (samraf). 

6 This exordium appears intended to take down the pride of 
the king. 

' Buddha points to himself as having gained the end of all his 



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234 FO-SHO-HING-TSAN-KING. IV, 20. 

there is for me no further body or spirit, but freedom 
from all ties of kith or kin ! 1628 

' The good or evil deeds we do from first to last 
(beginning to end) follow us as shadows; most 
exalted then the deeds (karman) of the king of 
the law 1 . The prince 8 (son) who cherishes his 
people, 1629 

' In the present life gains renown, and hereafter 
ascends to heaven; but by disobedience and neg- 
lect of duty, present distress is felt and future 
misery! 1630 

' As in old times Lui-'ma (lean horse) 8 ra^a, by 
obeying the precepts, was born in heaven, whilst 
Kin-pu (gold step) ra^a, doing wickedly, at the end 
of life was born in misery. 1631 

' Now then, for the sake of the great king, I will 
briefly relate the good and evil law (the law of good 
and evil). The great requirement* is a loving heart ! 
to regard the people as we do an only son, 1632 

' Not to oppress, not to destroy ; to keep in due 
check every member of the body, to forsake un- 
righteous doctrine and walk in the straight path; 
not to exalt oneself by treading down others (or 
inferiors), 1633 

' But to comfort and befriend those in suffer- 
previous meritorious conduct, in the attainment of his present 
condition. 

1 Dharmara^a, an epithet of every Buddha (Eitel). 

* The symbol here stands for 'son;' it may mean 'prince' in 
the sense of ' son of the king of the law ' (fa wang tseu), which 
is a common one in Buddhist books, and is often rendered by 
' Kum&ra bhuta.' 

a Lui-'ma may be a phonetic equivalent of the name of the 
king, or a translation of the name, viz. Krisisva. So also in the 
next line Hirawyakajipu may be meant. 

* The ' great deficiency,' or ' the great need.' 



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IV, ao. RECEIVING THE GETAVANA VIHARA. 235 

ing; not to exercise oneself in false theories 1 
(treatises), nor to ponder much on kingly dignity 
(strength), nor to listen to the smooth words of 
false teachers ; 1634 

'Not to vex oneself by austerities, not to exceed 
(or transgress) the right rules of kingly conduct, 
but to meditate on Buddha and weigh his righteous 
law, and to put down and adjust all that is contrary 
to religion ; 1635 

' To exhibit true superiority by virtuous conduct 
and the highest exercise of reason, to meditate 
deeply on the vanity of earthly things, to realise 
the fickleness of life by constant recollection ; 1636 

1 To exalt the mind to the highest point of reflec- 
tion, to seek sincere faith (truth) with firm purpose ; 
to retain an inward sense of happiness resulting from 
oneself 2 , (and to look forward to) increased happiness 
hereafter; 1637 

'To lay up a good name for distant ages, this 
will secure the favour of Tathagata 8 , as men now 
loving sweet fruit will hereafter be praised by their 
descendants 4 . 1638 

' There is a way of darkness out of light 5 , there is 
a way of light out of darkness ; there is darkness 
which follows after the gloom (signs of gloom), 

1 In false theories and ' vidyas ' (ming). 

* Self-dependent happiness. 

* Whether the phrase '^u-lai ' ought to be here translated TathS- 
gata, or whether it refers simply to 'future generations,' is a 
question. 

* This again is an uncertain translation, although the meaning 
is plain, that those who here love ' sweet fruit,' will not set their 
children's teeth on edge hereafter. 

1 In this and the following lines the reference is apparently to 
the possibility of growing worse or better by our deeds. 



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236 FOSHO-HING-TSAN-KING. IV, so. 

there is a light which causes the brightening of 
light. 1639 

'The wise man leaving first principles 1 , should go 
on to get more light 2 ; evil words will be repeated 
far and wide by the multitude, but there are few to 
follow good direction ; 1640 

'It is impossible however to avoid result of works 8 , 
the doer cannot escape ; if there had been no first 
works, there had been in the end no result of 
doing, 1 64 1 

' — No reward for good, no hereafter joy — ; but 
because works are done, there is no escape. Let us 
then practise good works ; 1642 

' (Let us) inspect our thoughts that we do no evil, 
because as we sow so we reap*. As when enclosed in 
a four-stone [stone or rock-encircled] mountain, there 
is no escape or place of refuge for any one, 1643 

' So within this mountain-wall of old age, birth, 
disease, and death, there is no escape for the world 6 . 
Only by considering and practising the true law can 
we escape from this sorrow-piled mountain. 1644 

' There is, indeed, no constancy in the world, the 
end of the pleasures of sense is as the lightning 
flash, whilst old age and death are as the piercing 
bolts; what profit, then, in doing (practising) ini- 
quity 6 ! 1645 

1 San p'hin, the ' three sections.' 

' ' Ought to learn from first to last, illumination.' Does it refer 
to books or vidyas (ming) of instruction ? 

' There is not such a thing as ' not making fruit,' or the fruit of 
' not making;' but the former is the more likely. ' Fruit,' of course, 
refers to the result of works. 

4 ' Because as we ourselves do, we ourselves receive.' 

• For all living creatures. 

' ' Why then ought we to do iniquity I' (fi fa.) 



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IV, 30. RECEIVING THE GET A VAN A VIHARA. 237 

'All the ancient conquering kings, who were as 
gods 1 on earth, thought by their strength to over- 
come decay 2 ; but after a brief life they too dis- 
appeared 3 . 1646 

'The Kalpa-fire will melt Mount Sumeru, the water 
of the ocean will be dried up, how much less can our 
human frame, which is as a bubble, expect to endure 
for long upon the earth ! 1647 

' The fierce wind scatters the thick mists, the sun's 
rays encircle (hide) Mount Sumeru, the fierce fire 
licks up the place of moisture, so things are ever 
born once more to be destroyed ! 1648 

' The body is a thing (vessel) of unreality, kept 
through the suffering of the long night*, pampered 
by wealth, living idly and in carelessness, 1649 

' Death suddenly comes and it is carried away as 
rotten wood in the stream ! The wise man expect- 
ing these changes with diligence strives against 
sloth ; 1650 

' The dread of birth and death acts as a spur to 
keep him from lagging on the road ; he frees himself 
from engagements, he is not occupied with self- 
pleasing, he is not entangled by any of the cares 
of life, 165 1 

' He holds to no business, seeks no friendships, 
engages in no learned career, nor yet wholly sepa- 
rates himself from it ; for his learning is the wisdom 



' Who were as Irvaradeva. 

* Literally, ' to conquer emptiness ; ' it may mean to ' surpass 
the sky' — to climb to heaven. 

* They were ground to dust and disappeared. 

* The suffering of the 'long night' (the period of constant 
transmigration) keeps and guards it. 



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238 FOSHO-HING-TSAN-KING. IV, 20. 

of not-perceiving * wisdom, but yet perceiving that 
which tells him of his own impermanence ; 1652 

' Having a body, yet keeping aloof from defile- 
ment, he learns to regard defilement as the great- 
est evil. (He knows) that tho' born in the Arupa 
world, there is yet no escape from the changes of 
time; 1653 

' His learning, then, is to acquire the changeless 
body; for where no change is, there is peace. 
Thus the possession of this changeful body is the 
foundation of all sorrow. 1654 

' Therefore, again, all who are wise make this their 
aim — to seek a bodiless condition ; all the various 
orders of sentient creatures, from the indulgence of 
lust, derive pain; 1655 

'Therefore all those in this condition ought to 
conceive a heart, loathing lust; putting away and 
loathing this condition, then they shall receive no 
more pain; 1656 

' Though born in a state with or without an ex- 
ternal form, the certainty of future change is the 
root of sorrow; for so long as there is no perfect 
cessation of personal being, there can be, certainly, 
no absence of personal desire ; 1657 

' Beholding, in this way, the character of the three 
worlds, their inconstancy and unreality, the presence 
of ever-consuming pain, how can the wise man seek 
enjoyment therein ? 1658 

' When a tree is burning with fierce flames how 



1 'The wisdom of not perceiving;' the symbol 'sheu' corres- 
ponds with ' vedana,' perception, or sensation. The meaning there- 
fore is that true wisdom depends not on the power of sense ; but 
yet he perceives by his senses that he (his body) is impermanent 



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IV, 20. RECEIVING THE GETAVANA VIHARA. 239 

can the birds congregate therein ? The wise man, 
who is regarded as an enlightened sage, without this 
knowledge is ignorant ; 1659 

' Having this knowledge, then true wisdom dawns ; 
without it, there is no enlightenment. To get this 
wisdom is the one aim, to neglect it is the mistake 
of life. 1660. 

' All the teaching of the schools should be centred 
here ; without it is no true reason. To recount this 
excellent system is not for those who dwell in family 
connection; 1661 . 

'Nor is it, on that account, not to be said 1 , for 
religion concerns a man individually [is a private 
affair]. Burned up with sorrow, by entering the 
cool stream, all may obtain relief and ease; 1662 

' The light of a lamp in a dark room lights up 
equally objects of all colours, so is it with those 
who devote themselves to religion, — there is no 
distinction between the professed disciple and the 
unlearned (common). 1663 

' Sometimes the mountain-dweller (i. e. the reli- 
gious hermit) falls into ruin, sometimes the humble 
householder mounts up to be a J&shi ; the want of 
faith (doubt) is the engulfing sea, the presence of 
disorderly belief is the rolling flood, 1664 

' The tide of lust carries away the world ; involved 
in its eddies there is no escape ; wisdom is the handy 
boat, reflection is the hold-fast. 1665 

' The drum-call of religion (expedients), the bar- 
rier (dam) of thought, these alone can rescue from 



1 This and the preceding line are obscure. The sense of the 
whole passage seems to point to the adaptation of religion for 
the life of all persons, laVc or cleric. 



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24O FO-SHO-HING-TSAN-KING. IV, ao. 

the sea of ignorance.' At this time the king sincerely 
attentive to the words of the All-wise 1 , 1666 

Conceived a distaste for the world's glitter and 
was dissatisfied with the pleasures of royalty, even 
as one avoids a drunken elephant, or returns to 
right reason after a debauch. 1667 

Then all the heretical teachers, seeing that the 
king was well affected to Buddha, besought the king 
(mahari^-a), with one voice, to call on Buddha to 
exhibit 2 his miraculous gifts. 1668 

Then the king addressed the lord of the world : 
'I pray you, grant their request!' Then Buddha 
silently acquiesced 3 . And now all the different 
professors of religion, 1669 

The doctors who boasted of their spiritual power, 
came together in a body to where Buddha was ; then 
he manifested before them his power of miracle; 
ascending up into the air, he remained seated, 1670 

Diffusing his glory as the light of the sun he 
shed abroad the brightness of his presence. The 
heretical teachers were all abashed, the people all 
were filled with faith. 1671 

Then for the sake of preaching to his mother, he 
forthwith ascended to the heaven of the thirty-three 
.gods ; and for three months dwelt in heavenly man- 
sions 4 . There he converted the occupants (Devas) 
of that abode, 1672 

1 The words of him who knew all things. 

1 To substantiate his claim by exhibiting miraculous power. 

* By his silence showed his acquiescence. 

* There is an account of Buddha's ascent to this heaven in the 
Manual of Buddhism, pp. 298 seq. Also in Fa-hien, cap. xvii. 
There are pictures (sculptures) of the scene of his descent in 
Tree and Serpent Worship, plate xvii, and in the account of the 
Stupa of Barahut 



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IV, 21. WORK OF CONVERSION. 24 1 

And having concluded his pious mission to his 
mother, the time of his sojourn in heaven finished, 
he forthwith returned, the angels accompanying 
him on wing 1 ; he travelled down a seven-gemmed 
ladder, 1673 

And again arrived at Gambudvipa. Stepping 
down he alighted on the spot where all the Buddhas 
return 2 , countless hosts of angels accompanied him, 
conveying with them their palace abodes (as a 
gift); 1674 

The people of Gambudvtpa with closed hands 
looking up with reverence, beheld him. 1675 



Varga 21. Escaping the Drunken Elephant 
and devadatta. 

Having instructed his mother in heaven with all 
the angel host, and once more returned to men, he 
went about converting those capable of it. 1676 

Goitika, Glva(ka) 3 , Sula, and A'urwa, the noble's 
son Anga and the son of the fearless king 
(Abhaya) 1677 

Nyagrodha* and the rest; .Srikutaka (or, Sri- 

1 It would be curious, if this translation were absolutely certain, 
to find that Arvaghosha had heard of angels with ' wings.' In the 
sculptures the Devas are represented as ordinary mortals. The 
Chinese may, however, simply mean • accompanying him, as if on 
wing,' i.e. following him through the air. 

* That is, at Sankisa (Sanklrya), [see the Archaeological Survey 
of India, 1862-1863.] 

3 This I suppose is the physician <?Jvaka. The names of many 
of the persons in the context may be found in Spence Hardy, 
M. B., passim. 

* For Nyagrodha, see M. B., p. 39. 

[19] * 



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242 FO-SHO-HING-TSAN-KING. IV, 21. 

guptaka), Upali the Nirgrantha 1 , (all these) were 
thoroughly converted. 1678 

So also the king of Gandhara, whose name 
was Fo-kia-lo (Pudgala?) ; he, having heard the pro- 
found and excellent law, left his country and became 
a recluse. 1679 

So also the demons Himapati and Vatagiri, 
on the mountain Vibhara, were subdued and con- 
verted; 1680 

The Brahmaiarin Prayan(tika), on the mountain 
Va^ ana (Po-sha-na), by the subtle meaning of half 
a gatha, he convinced and caused to rejoice in 
faith; 1681 

The village of Danamati (Khanumat) 2 had one 
Kutadanta, the head of the twice-born (Brah- 
mans) ; at this time he was sacrificing countless 
victims; 1682 

Tathagata by means (upaya, expedients) con- 
verted him, and caused him to enter the true path. 
On Mount Bhatika 3 (?) a heavenly being of eminent 
distinction, 1683 

Whose name was Paȣa.rikha 4 , receiving the 
law, attained Dhyana 5 ; in the village of Vainu- 



1 For Upali the Nirgrantha, see M. B., p. 267. 

* The village Danamati must be the same as that called Khanu- 
mat by Spence Hardy, M. B., p. 271. 

* For this event, see Spence Hardy's M. B., p. 288. He calls the 
mountain or rock by the name of We"di. 

* For PariAarikha and his conversion, see M. B., p. 289 ; also 
Fa-hien, cap. xxviii. [I may here correct my translation of the 
passage in my 'Buddhist Pilgrims' (p. no), instead of 'each one 
possessing a five-stringed lute,' it should be ' attended by the divine 
musician Paniarikha.'] For Pan&urikha, see Childers' Pali Diet., 
sub voce Pancasikho ; also Eitel's Handbook. 

8 Or attained rest, or a fixed mind. 



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IV, 31. WORK OF CONVERSION. 243 

sh/a, he converted the mother of the celebrated 
Nanda 1 ; 1684 

In the town of Awiavari (Agri/avt), he subdued 
the powerful (mahabala) spirit; Bhanabhadra (pa- 
tala), .Sronadanta; 1685 

The malevolent and powerful Nigas, the king 
of the country and his harem, received together 
the true law, as he opened to them the gate of 
immortality (sweet dew). 1686 

In the celebrated Vi^i village (or in the village 
Paviggi) Kina and Si la, earnestly seeking to be 
born in heaven, he converted and made to enter the 
right path; 1687 

The Angulimila 2 , in that village of Sumu, 
through the exhibition of his divine power, he con- 
verted and subdued ; 1688 

There was that noble's son, Puri^tvana, 
rich in wealth and stores as Punavatl (punya- 
vatl?), 1689 

Directly he was brought to Buddha (Tathagata) 
accepting the doctrine, he became vastly liberal. So 
in that village of Padatti he converted the cele- 
brated Patali (or, Potali), 1690 

And also Patala, brothers, and both demons. In 
Bhidhavali (Pi-ti-ho-fu-li) there were two Brah- 
mans, 1691 

One called Great -age (Mahayus?), the other 
Brahma-age (Brahmiyus ?). These by the power 
of a discourse he subdued, and caused them to 
attain knowledge of the true law ; T692 

1 The mother of Nanda was Pra^ipatt ; for her conversion, see 
M. B., p. 307. She was the foster-mother of Buddha. 

• For the history of the conversion of the Angulimala, see 
M. B., p. 249. 

R 2 



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244 FO-SHO-HING-TSAN-KING. IV, ai. 

When he came to Vauali, he converted all the 
Raksha demons, and the lion (Siwha) of the \J\k- 
kf&u'xs, and all the LiiMavis, 1693 

Sa^a 1 the Nirgrantha, all these he caused to 
attain the true law. Hama kinkhava had a demon 
Potala, 1694 

And another Potalaka (in) Potalagama [these 
he converted]. Again he came to Mount Ala, to 
convert the demon A lava, 1695 

And a second called Kumar a, and a third Asi- 
daka ; then going back to Mount Ga^a (Gayaslrsha) 
he converted the demon Kaw^ ana, 1696 

And Kamo(kin-mau) the Yaksha, with the sister 
and son. Then coming to Benares, he converted the 
celebrated Katyayana 2 ; 1697 

Then afterwards going, by his miraculous power, 
to Sruvala (Sou-lu-po-lo), he converted the mer- 
chants Davakin and Nikin(?), 1698 

And received their sandal-wood hall, exhaling its 
fragrant odours till now. Going then to MahivatI, 
he converted the Htshi Kapila, 1699 

And the Muni remained with him ; his foot step- 
ping on the stone, the thousand-spoked twin-wheels 
appeared, which never could be erased. 1 700 

Then he came to the place Po-lo-na (Pri»a), 
where he converted the demon Po-lo-na; coming 
to the country of Mathura, he converted the demon 
Godama (Khadama ?) ; 1701 

In the Thurakusati (? neighbourhood of Mathura) 



1 For Sa£a the Nirgrantha, see M. B., p. 255 ; also Dhammapada 
from the Chinese, p. 126. 

* That is, MahSkStyayana. There was another KStySyana, men- 
tioned by Hiouen Thsang, who lived 300 years after the NirvSwa. 



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IV, ai. WORK OF CONVERSION. 245 

he also converted Pi#dfap£la (or, vara); coining 
to the village of Vairaw^a, he converted the 
Brahman ; 1 702 

In the village of Kalamasa (or Kramasa), he 
converted Savasasin, and also that celebrated 
A^irivasa. 1 703 

Once more returning to the .Sravasti country, 
he converted the Gautamas ^atisruna and 
Dakatili; 1704 

Returning to the Ko^ala country, he converted the 
leaders of the heretics Vakrapali (or, Vikravari) 
and all the Brahmaiarins. 1 705 

Coming to Satavaka, in the forest retreat, 
he converted the heretical Jitshis, and con- 
strained them to enter the path of the Buddha 
JZtshi. 1 706 

Coming to the country of Ayodhya, he con- 
verted the Demon Nagas ; coming to the 
country of Kimbila, he converted the two Naga- 
ra^as ; 1 707 

One called Kimbila, the other called Kilaka. 
Again coming to the Vaggi country, he converted 
the Yaksha demon, 1 708 

Whose name was Pish a 1 , the father and mother 
of N agar a, and the great noble also, he caused to 
believe gladly in the true law. 1 709 

Coming to the Kausambi country, he converted 
Goshira*, and the two Upaslkis, Va^uttara 1710 

And her companion Uvari; and besides these, 
many others, one after the other. Coming to the 



1 Pi-sha, i. e. Vaurava«a, the Regent of the North: converted 
by Buddha. 

' For Goshira, see Jul. II, 285 ; Fa-hieo cap. xxxiv. 



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246 FO-SHO-HING-TSAN-KING. IV, 31. 

country of Gandhara he converted the Naga 
Apalala 1 ; 1711 

Thus in .due order all these air-going, water- 
loving natures he completely converted and saved, 
as the sun when he shines upon some dark and 
sombre cave. 171 2 

At this time Devadatta 2 , seeing the remarkable 
excellences of Buddha, conceived in his heart a 
jealous hatred ; losing all power of thoughtful ab- 
straction, 1 71 3 

He ever plotted wicked schemes, to put a stop to 
the spread of the true law ; ascending the GWdhra- 
ku/a (Ghiggaku/a) mount he rolled down a stone to 
hit Buddha 3 ; 1714 

The stone divided into two parts, each part 
passing on either side of him. Again, on the royal 
highway he loosed a drunken, vicious elephant 4 ; 1 715 

With his raised trunk trumpeting as thunder (he 
ran), his maddened breath raising a cloud around 
him, his wild pace like the rushing wind 1 to be 
avoided more than the fierce tempest; 1716 

His trunk and tusks and tail and feet, when 
touched only, brought instant death. (Thus he ran) 
through the streets and ways of Rlfagriha, madly 
wounding and killing men ; 1 71 7 

Their corpses lay across the road, their brains 

1 For the conversion of Apalala, see Jul. II, 135. 

* Devadatta, the envious ; he was the son of Suprabuddha, the 
father-in-law of Buddha, M. B., p. 61. 

* This event is related by Fa-hien, cap. xxix, p. 115 (Bud- 
dhist Pilgrims). Fa-hien says, ' The stone is still there,' but he 
does not say that it was divided. See also M. B., p. 383, where the 
account somewhat differs. 

* This story of the drunken elephant is related in nearly all the 
' lives of Buddha.' The sculptures at Amaravatt and Barahut also 
include this episode. See also Fa-hien, p. 113. 



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IV, 21. ESCAPING THE DRUNKEN ELEPHANT. 247 

and blood scattered afar. Then all the men and 
women filled with fear, remained indoors ; 1718 

Throughout the city there was universal terror, 
only piteous shrieks and cries were heard ; beyond 
the city men were running fast, hiding themselves 
in holes and dens. 1719 

Tathagata, with five hundred followers, at this 
time came towards the city; from tops of gates and 
every window, men, fearing for Buddha, begged him 
not to advance; 1720 

Tathagata, his heart composed and quiet, with 
perfect self-possession, thinking only on the sorrow 
caused by hate, his loving heart desiring to appease 
it, 1721 

Followed by guardian angel-nagas, slowly ap- 
proached the maddened elephant. The Bhikshus 
all deserted him 1 , Ananda only remained by his 
side; 1722 

Joined by every tie of duty, his steadfast nature 
did not shake or quail. The drunken elephant, 
savage and spiteful, beholding Buddha, came to him- 
self at once, 1723 

And bending, worshipped at his feet 8 just as a 
mighty mountain falls to earth. With lotus hand 
the master pats his head, even as the moon lights 
up a flying cloud. 1724 

And now, as he lay crouched before the master's 
feet, on his account he speaks some sacred words : 
' The elephant cannot hurt the mighty dragon 8 , hard 
it is to fight with such a one ; 1 725 

1 It is said, in the later accounts, that ' they rose into the air.' 
* See Tree and Serpent Worship, plate lviii; also Burgess' 
Western Caves, plate xvii. 
' Buddha was also called the great N&ga or dragon. 



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248 FO-SHO-HING-TSAN-KING. IV, ax. 

'The elephant desiring so to do will in the end 
obtain no happy state of birth ; deceived by lust, 
anger, and delusion, which are hard to conquer, but 
which Buddha has conquered. 1 726 

' Now, then, this very day, give up this lust, this 
anger and delusion! You! swallowed up in sorrow's 
mud ! if not now given up, they will increase yet 
more and grow.' 1727 

The elephant, hearing Buddha's words, escaped 
from drunkenness, rejoiced in heart; his mind and 
body both found rest, as one athirst (finds joy) who 
drinks of heavenly dew. 1628 

The elephant being thus converted, the people 
around were filled with joy ; they all raised a cry of 
wonder at the miracle, and brought their offerings of 
every kind. 1729 

The scarcely-good arrived at middle-virtue, the 
middling-good passed to a higher grade, the unbe- 
lieving now became believers, those who believed 
were strengthened in their faith. 1 730 

A^atayatru, mighty king, seeing how Buddha 
conquered the drunken elephant, was moved at 
heart by thoughts profound ; then, filled with joy, he 
found a twofold growth of piety. 1731 

Tathagata, by exercise of virtue, exhibited all 
kinds of spiritual powers; thus he subdued and 
harmonised the minds of all, and caused them in 
due order to attain religious truth ; 1732 

And through the kingdom virtuous seeds were 
sown, as at the first when men began to live 
(i. e. were first created). But Devadatta, mad 
with rage, because he was ensnared by his own 
wickedness, 1 733 



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IV, 23. THE LADY AMRA SEES BUDDHA. 249 

At first by power miraculous able to fly, now 
fallen, dwells in lowest hell 1 . 1 734 

Varga 22. The Lady Amra 2 (AmrapAl!) sees 
Buddha. 

The lord of the world having finished his wide 
work of conversion conceived in himself a desire 
(heart) for Nirv£#a. Accordingly proceeding from 
the city of Ri^agrzha, he went on towards the town 
of Pa-lin-fo (Pa/aliputra) 3 . 1735 

Having arrived there, he dwelt in the famous 
Pa/ali £etiya 4 . Now this (town of Pa/aliputra) is 

1 For a full account of the deeds and punishment of Devadatta, 
see M. B., pp. 328, 329. We are told that Suprabuddha, the father 
of Devadatta, also went to hell, M. B., p. 339 seq. 

* This lady is called Ambapalt, the courtezan, in the southern 
records. 

8 Pa/aliputra, so called, as it seems, from a flower, pa/ali (Big- 
nonia suaveolens). It was otherwise called Kusumapura, ' the city 
of flowers.' The Palimbothra of the Greeks, Arrian, Hist. Ind. 
p. 324 (ed. Gronovii) ; supposed to be the modem Patna. The 
story found in the text, viz. that the place was an unfortified village 
or frontier station of Magadha when Buddha was seventy-nine years 
old, compared with the statement that in the time of Megasthenes 
it was one of the largest and most prosperous towns of India 
(Arrian, as above), seems to show that some considerable time had 
elapsed between the Nirvana and the period of the Greek con- 
quest. It is singular however (as I stated in Buddhist Pilgrims, 
p. lxiv) that Fa-hien in his account of this town (cap. xxvii) 
makes no allusion to the Buddhist council said to have been held 
there under Dharmiroka. (For further notice of Pi/aliputra, 
compare Sacred Books of the East, vol. xi, pp. 16, 17 ; also 
Bigandet, p. 257, and Spence Hardy, passim.) 

' There is no mention of the Pa/ali ketiya. (unless the rest-house 
is the same as the ifetiya hall) in the Maha-parinibbana-Sutta, 
but in Bigandet, p. 357, it is stated that the people prepared the 
' dzeat,' or hall, for his use. This ' dzeat ' had been erected by 



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250 FO-SHO-HING-TSAN-KING. IV, aa. 

the frontier town of Magadha, defending the out- 
skirts of the country. 1736 

Ruling the country was a Brahman 1 of wide 
renown and great learning in the scriptures (sutras) ; 
and (there was also) an overseer of the country, to 
take the omens of the land with respect to rest or 
calamity. 1737 

At this time the king of Magadha sent to that 
officer of inspection (overseer) a messenger to warn 
and command him to raise fortifications in the 
neighbourhood (round) of the town for its security 
and protection. 1 738 

And now the lord of the world, as they were 
raising the fortifications, predicted that in conse- 
quence of the Devas and spirits who protected and 
kept (the land), the place should continue strong 
and free from calamity (destruction). 1739 



king A^dtaratru for receiving the lAAAfavi princes of VauSlt, who 
had come to a conference at this place to settle their affairs with 
the king. This hall is probably represented at AgzntA, Cave xvi 
(see Burgess' Report, vol. i, plate xiii, fig. a ; also Mrs. Speirs' 
Ancient India, p. 197) ; at least it would seem so from the exact 
account left us of the position Buddha took on this occasion, ' he 
entered the hall and took his seat against the central pillar of the 
hall' (Rhys Davids and Bigandet in loc.) Does this hall, built 
by king A^itafatru, and called in our text a ' -ATetiya hall,' bear 
any resemblance to a Basilica ? 

1 Rhys Davids (Sacred Books of the East, vol. xi, p. 18) 
tells us that 'the chief magistrates of Magadha Suntdha and 
Vassakara were building a fortress at PaValigSma to repel the 
Vaggi&ns;' I have therefore in my translation supposed the ' hi 
kwo' and the 'yang kwan' to be the two officers referred to. It 
would seem that these titles ' ruling the country ' and ' overseer ' 
were recognised at the time. The text, however, would bear 
another translation, making the Brahman ruler the same as the 
omen-taking overseer. 



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IV, 23. THE LADY AMRA SEES BUDDHA. 25 1 

On this the heart of the overseer greatly rejoiced 1 , 
and he made religious offerings to Buddha, the law, 
and the church. Buddha now leaving the city gate 
went on towards the river Ganges. 1 740 

The overseer from his deep reverence for Buddha 
named the gate (through which the lord had passed) 
the 'Gautama gate 2 .' Meanwhile the people all by 
the side of the river Ganges went forth to pay 
reverence to the lord of the world. 1741 

They prepared for him every kind of religious 
offering, and each one with his gaudy boat (deco- 
rated boat) 8 invited him to cross over. The lord 
of the world, considering the number of the boats, 
feared lest by an appearance of partiality in ac- 
cepting one, he might hurt the minds of all the 
rest. 1 742 

Therefore in a moment by his spiritual power 
he transported himself and the great congregation 
(across the river), leaving this shore he passed at 
once to that, 1743 

Signifying thereby the passage in the boat of 
wisdom 4 (from this world to Nirva#a), a boat large 
enough to transport all that lives (to save the world), 
even as without a boat he crossed without hindrance 
the river (Ganges). 1 744 

1 The account here given is less exact than that of the Mahi- 
parinibbana-Sutta, and it would seem as if it were borrowed from 
a popular form of that work. 

1 This is in agreement with the Southern account (see Rhys 
Davids, Sacred Books of the East, vol. xi, p. 2 1). 

* There is no mention here made of the river being ' brimful 
and overflowing ' as in the Southern books, nor of the search for 
rafts of wood or basket-work. 

* Compare the account given .by Rhys Davids (Sacred Books 
of the East, vol xi, p. 21) and the verse or song there preserved. 



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252 FO-SHO-HING-TSAN-KING. IV, 22. 

Then all the people on the bank of the river, 
with one voice, raised a rapturous shout 1 , and all 
declared this ford should be called the Gautama 
ford. 1745 

As the city gate is called the Gautama gate, 
so this Gautama ford is so known through ages; 
and shall be so called through generations to 
come 2 . 1 746 

Then Tathigata, going forward still, came to that 
celebrated Kuli 8 village, where he preached and 
converted many; again he went on to the Nidi* 
village, 1747 

Where many deaths had occurred among the 
people. The friends of the dead then came (to the 
lord) and asked, ' Where have our friends and rela- 
tives deceased, now gone to be born, after this life 
ended 5 ?' 1748 

Buddha, knowing well the sequence of deeds, 
answered each according to his several case. Then 
going forward to Vaisali 8 , he located himself in the 
Amra grove 7 . 1749 

The celebrated Lady Amra, well affected to Bud- 
dha, went. to that garden followed by her waiting 

1 Or rather ' shouted out, " miraculous !"' 

8 Is there any name corresponding to the 'Gautama' ford 
known near Patna? 

8 No doubt the same as Ko/igama (op. cit., p. 23) called Kanti- 
kama by Bigandet, p. 259. 

* ' Come, Ananda, let us go to the villages of Nadika,' Rhys 
Davids, p. 24. 

° The names of the dead are given in the Pali ; the account here 
is evidently an abstract only. 

• ' Come, Ananda, let us go on to Vesali,' Rh. D., p. 28. 

7 ' And there at Vesali the Blessed One stayed at Ambapali's 
grove,' Rh. D., p. 28. 



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IV, 33. THE LADY AMRA SEES BUDDHA. 253 

women, whilst the children from the schools 1 paid 
her respect. 1750 

Thus with circumspection and self-restraint, her 
person lightly and plainly clothed, putting away all 
her ornamented robes and all adornments of scent 
and flowers, 1751 

As a prudent and virtuous woman goes forth to 
perform her religious duties, so she went on, beau- 
tiful to look upon, like any Devi in appearance. 1 752 

Buddha seeing the lady in the distance approach- 
ing, spake thus to all the Bhikshus 2 : 'This woman 
is indeed exceedingly beautiful, able to fascinate the 
minds (feelings) of the religious ; 1 753 

' Now then, keep your recollection straight ! let 
wisdom keep your mind in subjection ! Better fall 
into the fierce tiger's mouth, or under the sharp 
knife of the executioner, 1 754 

' Than to dwell with a woman and excite in your- 
selves lustful thoughts. A woman is anxious to 
exhibit her form and shape 3 , whether walking, 
standing, sitting, or sleeping. 1755 

' Even when represented as a picture, she desires 
most of all to set off the blandishments of her 
beauty, and thus to rob men of their steadfast 
heart! How then ought you to guard your- 
selves ? 1 756 

'By regarding her tears and her smiles as ene- 
mies, her stooping form, her hanging arms, and all 
her disentangled hair as toils designed to entrap 
man's heart. 1757 

1 So I translate ts'iang tsin; it may mean grown-up scholars, 
however, or ' students.' 

' This sermon against ' woman's wiles' is not found in the Pali. 
* Tsz' t'ai, her bewitching movements or airs. 



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254 FO-SHO-HING-TSAN-KING. IV, aa. 

4 Then how much more (should you suspect) her 
studied, amorous beauty! when she displays her 
dainty outline, her richly ornamented form, and 
chatters gaily with the foolish man! 1758 

'Ah, then! what perturbation and what evil 
thoughts, not seeing underneath the horrid, tainted 
shape, the sorrows of impermanence, the impurity, 
the unreality! 1759 

' Considering these as the reality, all lustful 
thoughts die out ; rightly considering these, within 
their several limits, not even an Apsaras would give 
you joy. 1 760 

' But yet the power of lust is great with men, 
and is to be feared withal; take then the bow of 
earnest perseverance, and the sharp arrow points of 
wisdom, 1 761 

'Cover your head with the helmet of right- 
thought, and fight with fixed resolve against the 
five desires. Better far with red-hot iron pins bore 
out both your eyes, 1 762 

'Than encourage in yourselves lustful thoughts, 
or look upon a woman's form with such desires. 
Lust beclouding a man's heart, confused with 
woman's beauty, 1763 

' The mind is dazed, and at the end of life that 
man must fall into an " evil way." Fear then the 
sorrow of that "evil way!" and harbour not the 
deceits of women. 1764 

• The senses not confined within due limits, and 
the objects of sense not limited as they ought to 
be, lustful and covetous thoughts grow up between 
the two, because the senses and their objects are 
unequally yoked. 1 765 

'Just as when two ploughing oxen are yoked 



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IV, 22. THE LADY AMRA SEES BUDDHA. 255 

together to one halter and cross-bar, but not to- 
gether pulling as they go, so is it when the senses 
and their objects are unequally matched. 1 766 

'Therefore, I say, restrain the heart, give it no 
unbridled license.' Thus Buddha, for the Bhikshus' 
sake, explained the law in various ways. 1767 

And now that Amra lady gradually approached 
the presence of the lord; seeing Buddha seated 
beneath a tree, lost in thought and wholly absorbed 
by it, 1 768 

She recollected that he had a great compassionate 
heart, and therefore she believed he would in pity 
receive her garden grove. With steadfast heart and 
joyful mien and rightly governed feelings, 1 769 

Her outward form restrained, her heart composed, 
bowing her head at Buddha's feet, she took her 
place as the lord bade her, whilst he in sequence 
right declared the law: 1770 

'Your heart (O lady!) seems composed and 
quieted, your form without external ornaments ; 
young in years and rich, you seem well-talented as 
you are beautiful. 1771 

' That one, so gifted, should by faith be able to 
receive the law of righteousness is, indeed, a rare 
thing in the world ! The wisdom of a master ', 
derived from former births, enables him to accept 
the law with joy, this is not rare ; 1 772 

' But that a woman, weak of will, scant in wisdom, 
deeply immersed in love, should yet be able to de- 
light in piety, this, indeed, is very rare. 1773 

'A man born in the world, by proper thought 
comes to delight in goodness, he recognises the 

1 That is, of a man. 



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256 FOSHO-HING-TSAN-KING. IV, J2. 

impermanence of wealth and beauty, and looks upon 
religion as his best ornament. 1774 

' He feels that this alone can remedy the ills of 
life and change the fate of young and old ; the evil 
destiny that cramps another's life cannot affect him, 
living righteously; 1775 

'Always removing that which excites desire, he 
is strong in the absence of desire ; seeking to find, 
not what vain thoughts suggest, but that to which 
religion points him. 1776 

' Relying on external help, he has sorrow ; self- 
reliant, there is strength and joy. But in the case 
of woman, from another comes the labour, and 
the nurture of another's child. 1777 

' Thus then should every one consider well, and 
loath and put away the form of woman.' Amra 
the lady, hearing the law, rejoiced. 1778 

Her wisdom strengthened, and still more en- 
lightened, she was enabled to cast off desire, and of 
herself dissatisfied with woman's form, was freed 
from all polluting thoughts. 1779 

Though . still constrained to woman's form, filled 
with religious joy, she bowed at Buddha's feet and 
spoke : ' Oh ! may the lord, in deep compassion, re- 
ceive from me, though ignorant, 1 780 

'This offering, and so fulfil my earnest vow.' 
Then Buddha knowing her sincerity, and for the 
good of all that lives, 1781 

Silently accepted her request, and caused in her 
full joy, in consequence ; whilst all her friends atten- 
tive, grew in knowledge, and, after adoration, went 
back home. 1782 



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V, J3- BY SPIRITUAL POWER FIXING HIS YEARS. 2-$J 



KIOUEN V. 

Varga 23. By Spiritual Power fixing his 
(Term of) Years 1 . 

At this time the great men among the LLfc&fcavis 2 , 
hearing that the lord of the world had entered their 
country and was located in the Amra garden, 1783 

(Went thither) riding in their gaudy chariots with 
silken canopies and clothed in gorgeous robes, both 
blue and red and yellow and white, each one with 
his own cognizance. 1 784 

Accompanied by their body guard surrounding 
them, they went ; others prepared the road in front ; 
and with their heavenly crowns and flower-bespan- 
gled robes (they rode), richly dight with every kind 
of costly ornament. 1785 

Their noble forms resplendent increased the glory 
of that garden grove ; now taking oft" the five dis- 

1 This title may also be rendered, 'By spiritual power stopping 
his years of life.' It probably refers to the incident related by 
Mr. Rhys Davids (Sacred Books of the East, vol. xi, p. 35), ' Let 
me now, by a strong effort of the will, bend this sickness down and 
keep my hold on life till the allotted time be come.' There is no 
mention, however, in the text of Buddha's sickness, which caused 
the determination here referred to. The sickness is mentioned in 
the Chinese copy of the ParinirvaVia Sutra, which in the main 
agrees with the Pali. 

* The LAAAA&vte were residents of Vairalf. I have shown else- 
where (Journal of the R.A. S., Jan. 1882) that they were probably 
of Scythic origin. The account given in the text of their gorgeous 
chariots, cognizances, &c. is quite in keeping with the customs of 
the Northern nations. The account given in the MahS-parinibbana- 
Sutta is in agreement with the text (Sacred Books of the East, 
vol. xi, p. 31). 

[19] S 



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258 FO-SHO-HING-TSAN-KING. V, 33. 

tinctive ornaments 1 , alighting from their chariots, 
they advanced afoot. 1 786 

Slowly thus with bated breath, their bodies re- 
verent (they advanced). Then they bowed down and 
worshipped Buddha's foot 2 , and, a great multitude, 
they gathered round the lord, shining as the sun's 
disc, full of radiance. 1787 

(There was) the lion Li^i^avi 8 , among the Li£- 
khiv'is the senior, his noble form (bold) as the 
lion's, standing there with lion eyes, 1 788 

But without the lion's pride, taught by the 6akya 
lion 4 (who thus began): 'Great and illustrious person- 
ages, famed as a tribe for grace and comeliness ! 1 789 

' Put aside, I pray, the world's high thoughts, and 
now accept the abounding lustre* of religious 
teaching. Wealth and beauty, scented flowers and 
ornaments like these, are not to be compared for 
grace with moral rectitude ! 1 790 

1 These five distinctive ornaments were, probably, crowns, 
earrings, necklets, armlets, and sandals. 

1 The worship of the foot of Buddha is exemplified in many of 
the plates of the Sanchi and AmarSvatl sculptures, where we see 
worshippers adoring the impression of his foot on the stool before 
the throne (plates lviii, lxxi, &c.) 

8 This and following lines are somewhat obscure, as it is not 
plain whether the reference is to one, or all the likkhams. I have 
preferred to refer it to one of them, the chief or leader ; for so we 
read in Spence Hardy's Manual, p. 282 : * A number of the Lichawi 
princes then went to the king (i. e. the chief of their tribe), whose 
name was Maha-li.' It would seem as if ' li ' were a component part 
of the name LLfcMavi, and meant ' a lion,' — the chief would then be 
' the great lion.' Compare the root ' ur ' in the Assyrian urmakh, 
' great lion ; ' and the Hebrew layish, ' a great or strong lion.' 

4 The .Sakya lion was Buddha, the lion of the Saky as (5akyasi»»ha). 

• The ' abounding lustre,' that is, the additional glory or lustre 
of religion. The sermon appears to be addressed principally 
against pride of person, and anger. 



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V,33. BY SPIRITUAL POWER FIXING HIS YEARS. 259 

' Your land productive and in peaceful quiet — this 
is your great renown ; but true gracefulness of body 
and a happy people depend upon the heart well- 
governed. 1 79 1 

'Add but to this a reverent (joyful) feeling for 
religion, then (a people's) fame is at its height! a 
fertile land and all the dwellers in it, as a united 
body, virtuous 1 ! 1 792 

'To-day then learn this virtue 2 , cherish with care- 
fulness the people, lead them as a body in the right 
way of rectitude s , even as the ox-king leads the way 
across the river-ford. 1 793 

4 If a man with earnest recollection ponder on 
things of this world and the next, he will consider 
how by right behaviour * (right morals) he prepares, 
as the result of merit, rest in either world. 1 794 

' For all in this world will exceedingly revere him, 
his fame will spread abroad through every part, the 
virtuous will rejoice to call him friend, and the out- 
flowings of his goodness will know no bounds for 
ever. 1 795 

' The precious gems found in the desert wilds are 
all from earth engendered ; moral conduct, likewise, 
as the earth, is the great source of all that is 
good 5 . 1 796 

1 Much of this discourse seems to refer to the fertility of the 
land occupied by these Li^Aavis in the valley of the Ganges, and 
to their good rules of government. The character of their govern- 
ment is alluded to in pp. 3, 4, Sacred Books of the East, vol. xi. 

* The symbol 'tin,' which I have translated by 'virtue,' means 
' quality ' (gu»a) or ' lustre ' (te^as). 

* The literal rendering of this line is ' lead the body of them all 
in the clear and right (path).' 

4 Right behaviour, right morality, here refer to the Buddhist 
rules of right conduct (site). 
6 All that is illustrious (shen). 

S 2 



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260 FO-SHO-HING-TSAN-KING. V, 23. 

1 By this, without the use of wings, we fly through 
space, we cross the river needing not a handy boat ; 
but without this a man will find it hard indeed to 
cross (the stream of) sorrow (or, stay the rush of 
sorrow). 1797 

'As when a tree with lovely flowers and fruit, 
pierced by some sharp instrument, is hard to climb, 
so is it with the much-renowned for strength and 
beauty, who break through the laws of moral recti- 
tude ! 1 798 

' Sitting upright in the royal palace (the palace of 
the conqueror) the heart of the king was grave and 
majestic * ; with a view to gain the merit of a pure 
and moral life, he became a convert of a great 
Zfo'shi. 1 799 

'With garments dyed and clad with hair, shaved, 
save one spiral knot 2 (he led a hermit's life), but, as 
he did not rule himself with strict morality, he was 
immersed in suffering and sorrow. 1800 

'Each morn and eve he used the three ablutions, 
sacrificed to fire and practised strict austerity, let his 
body be in filth as the brute beast, passed through fire 
and water, dwelt amidst the craggy rocks, 1801 

' Inhaled the wind, drank from the Ganges' stream, 
controlled himself with bitter fasts — but all ! far 
short of moral rectitude 3 . 1802 

1 This line is difficult ; I was prepared to regard flffij Sua 
proper name. Dr. Legge, however, has kindly suggested the 
translation in the text. But who is the king referred to ? 

' The spiral knot of hair may be seen in many of the sculptures 
(e. g. plate hex, Tree and Serpent Worship). 

* This is a free rendering ; I have supposed that the description 
throughout refers to the 'king' alluded to above; this line may 
mean, < (he did all this) having put aside right morals.' 



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V, 23. BY SPIRITUAL POWER FIXING HIS YEARS. 26 1 

4 For though a man inure himself to live as any 
brute, he is not on that account a vessel of the 
righteous law 1 ; whilst he who breaks the laws of 
right behaviour invites detraction, and is one no 
virtuous man can love; 1803 

' His heart is ever filled (ever cherishes) with 
boding fear, his evil name pursues him as a shadow. 
Having neither profit nor advantage in this world, 
how can he in the next world reap content 
(rest)? 1804 

' Therefore the wise man ought to practise pure 
behaviour (morals); passing through the wilderness 
of birth and death, pure conduct is to him a virtuous 
guide. 1805 

' From pure behaviour comes self-power, which 
frees a man from (many) dangers ; pure conduct, like 
a ladder, enables us to climb to heaven. 1806 

' Those who found themselves on right behaviour, 
cut off the source of pain and grief; but they who 
by transgression destroy this mind, may mourn the 
loss of every virtuous principle. 1807 

'(To gain this end) 2 first banish every ground of 



1 A vessel of righteousness. 

* I have supplied this, although the sentence would make com- 
plete sense without it. In the context 'every ground of self 
('ngo sho) seems to refer to the aim after selfish ends. The 
sermon from this point refers to ' pride of self,' and its evil conse- 
quences ; in the latter portion he joins hatred or anger with pride ; 
the whole reminds us of Milton's description : 

'Round he throws his baleful eyes 
That witnessed huge affliction and dismay 
Mixed with obdurate pride and steadfast hate.' 

Paradise Lost, I, 57, 58. 
Whilst the war of Devas and Asuras is just Milton's idea when 
he says, 



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262 FO-SHO-HING-TSAN-KING. 



*3- 



"self;" this thought of "self" shades every lofty 
(good) aim, even as the ashes that conceal the fire, 
treading on which the foot is burned. 1808 

' Pride and indifference shroud this heart, too, as 
the sun is obscured by the piled-up clouds ; super- 
cilious thoughts root out all modesty of mind, and 
sorrow saps the strongest will. 1809 

' (As) age and disease waste youthful beauty, (so) 
pride of self destroys all virtue ; the Devas and 
Asuras, thus from jealousy and envy, raised mutual 
strife. 1 8 10 

' The loss of virtue and of merit which we 
mourn proceeds from "pride of self," throughout; 
and as I am a conqueror (G'ma) amid conquerors 1 , 
so he who (they who) conquers self, is one with 
me. 181 1 

' He who little cares to conquer self, is but a 
foolish master; beauty (or, earthly things), family 
renown (and such things), all are utterly inconstant, 
and what is changeable can give no rest of in- 
terval 2 . 1 8 1 2 

1 Storming fury rose 
And clamour, such as heard in heaven till now 
Was never.' Ibid. VI, 207-209. 

1 Here there is allusion to Buddha's name 'Deva among Devas.' 
The construction of these sentences is obscure on account of the 
varied use of the word ' I ' ('ngo) ; this symbol is used sometimes, 
as in the line under present consideration, as a pronoun, but 
in the next line it means the evil principle of 'self.' I have 
found it difficult to avoid comparing this use of the word 'I,' 
meaning the • evil self,' with the phrase the ' carnal mind.' The 
question, in fact, is an open one, whether the Buddhist teaching 
respecting the non-existence of 'I,' i.e. a personal self or soul, 
may not justly b& explained as consisting in the denial of the 
reality of the 'carnal self.' 

* I should like to translate it no ' interval of rest,' but it seems to 



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V, *3- BY SPIRITUAL POWER FIXING HIS YEARS. 263 

' If in the end the law of entire destruction (is 
exacted) what use is there in indolence and pride ? 
Covetous desire (lust) is the greatest (source of) 
sorrow, appearing as a friend in secret 'tis our 
enemy. 1813 

'As a fierce fire excited from within (a house), so 
is the fire of covetous desire : the burning flame of 
covetous desire is fiercer far than fire which burns 
the world (world-fire). 18 14 

' For fire may be put out by water in excess, but 
what can overpower the fire of lust ? The fire which 
fiercely burns the desert grass (dies out), and then 
the grass will grow again ; 18 15 

' But when the fire of lust burns up the heart, 
then how hard for true religion there to dwell ! for 
lust seeks worldly pleasures, these pleasures add to 
an i mpure karman 1 ; 1 8 1 6 

' By this evil karman a man falls into perdition (evil 
way), and so there is no greater enemy to man than 
lust. Lusting, man gives way to amorous indulg- 
ence (lit. " lust, then it brings forth love "), by this 
he is led to practise (indulge in) every kind of 
lustful longing; 181 7 

' Indulging thus, he gathers frequent sorrow (all 
sorrow, or accumulated sorrow, referring to the 
second of the " four truths "). No greater evil (exces- 
sive evil) is there than lust. Lust is a dire disease, 
and the foolish master stops (i.e. neglects) the medi- 
cine of wisdom. 1 8 1 8 

'(The study of) heretical books not leading to 

mean the only rest given is momentary, no rest from interval, 
i. e. constant change. 

1 The impure karman is, of course, the power of evil (in the 
character) to bring about suffering by an evil birth. 



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264 F0-SH0-HING-TSAN-K1NG. V, 23. 

right thought, causes the lustful heart to increase 
and grow, for these books are not correct (pure) on 
the points of impermanency, the non-existence of 
self, and any object (ground) for "self 1 ." 1819 

' But a true and right apprehension through the 
power of wisdom, is effectual to destroy that false 
desire (heretical longing), and therefore our object 
(aim or purpose) should be to practise this true 
apprehension. 1820 

1 Right apprehension (views) once produced then 
there is deliverance from covetous desire, for a 
false estimate of excellency produces a covetous 
desire to excel, whilst a false view of demerit pro- 
duces anger (and regret); 182 1 

' But the idea of excelling and also of inferiority 
(in the sense of demerit) both destroyed, the desire 
to excel and also anger (on account of inferiority) 
are destroyed. Anger ! how it changes the comely 
face, how it destroys the loveliness of beauty! 1822 

' Anger dulls (clouds) the brightness of the eye (or, 
the bright eye), chokes all desire to hear the prin- 
ciples of truth, cuts and divides the principle of 
family affection, impoverishes and weakens every 
worldly aim 2 . 1823 

1 The meaning is, that heretical books, i. e. books of the 
Brahmans and so on, teach no sound doctrine as to the unreality 
of the world, the non-existence of a ' personal self,' and the im- 
propriety of any personal selfish aim, and therefore not teaching 
these, men who follow them are taken up with the idea that there 
is reality in worldly pleasures, that there is a personal self capable 
of enjoying them, and that the aim after such enjoyment is a right 
aim. All this Buddha and his doctrine exclude. 

1 I am not sure whether this is a right translation, it appears 
rather to contradict Buddha's teaching about the unreality of the 
world; literally the line is this, ' it makes the world what is light and 
poor.' 



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V, 23. BY SPIRITUAL POWER FIXING HIS YEARS. 265 

'Therefore let anger be subdued, yield not (a 
moment) to the angry impulse (heart) ; he who can 
hold his wild and angry heart is well entitled " illus- 
trious charioteer." 1824 

' For men call such a one "illustrious team-breaker 1 " 
(who can) with bands restrain the unbroken steed ; 
so anger not subdued, its fire unquenched, the 
sorrow of repentance burns like fire. 1825 

' A man who allows wild passion to arise within, 
himself first burns his heart, then after burning adds 
the wind 2 thereto which ignites the fire again, or not 
(as the case may be) 3 . 1826 

' The pain of birth, old age, disease, and death 
press heavily upon the world, but adding "passion" to 
the score, what is this but to increase our foes when 
pressed by foes ? 1827 

' But rather, seeing how the world is pressed by 
throngs of grief, we ought to encourage in us love 4 
(a loving heart), and as the world (all flesh) produces 
grief on grief, so should we add as antidotes un- 
numbered remedies.' 1828 

Tathagata, illustrious in expedients, according to 



1 This expression and that in the verse preceding is allied 
to the Pali purisadammasarathi, ' trainer or breaker-in of the human 
steer,' the unconverted man being (as Childers says, Diet, sub voce 
puriso) like to a refractory bullock. In the Northern books the 
comparison generally refers to a 'breaker-in of horses,' derived 
doubtless from the associations of the Northern people (converts 
to Buddhism), who excelled in chariot racing. 

* The wind of repentance, the frequent ' sighs ' and moans of 
penitence. 

' It seems to mean that the wind may sometimes revive the fire, 
but sometimes not 

4 This remedy of ' love ' is a singular feature in the Buddhist 
doctrine. 



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266 FO-SHO-HINOTSAN-KING. V, 23; 

the disease, thus briefly spoke; even as a good 
physician in the world, according to the disease, 
prescribes his medicine. 1829 

And now the Li^>4avis, hearing the sermon 
preached by Buddha, arose forthwith and bowed 
at Buddha's feet, and joyfully they placed them on 
their heads 1 . 1830 

Then they asked both Buddha and the congre- 
gation on the morrow to accept their poor religious 
offerings. But Buddha told them that already Amra 
(the lady) had invited him. 183 1 

On this the Li^i^avis, harbouring thoughts of 
pride and disappointment 2 , (said): 'Why should 
that one take away our profit ?' But, knowing 
Buddha's heart to be impartial and fair, they once 
again regained their cheerfulness. 1832 

Tathagata, moreover, nobly (virtuously or illus- 
triously) seizing the occasion (or, following the right 
plan), appeasing them, produced within a joyful 
heart ; and so subdued, their grandeur of appear- 
ance came again, «as when a snake subdued by 
charms glistens with shining skin. 1833 

And now, the night being passed, the signs of 
dawn appearing, Buddha and the great assembly 
go to the abode of Amra, and having received her 
entertainment, 1834 

They went on to the village of Pi-nau s (Beluva), 

1 Placing the foot on the head is a symbol of submission — the 
custom of putting relic-caskets on the head is illustrated in Tree 
and Serpent Worship, plate xxxviii. 

* • We are outdone by this mango girl,' Sacred Books of the 
East, vol. xi, p. 31. 

* 'Now when the Blessed One had remained as long as he 
wished at Ambapalfs grove, he addressed Ananda, and said, " Come, 



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V,33. BY SPIRITUAL POWER FIXING HIS YEARS. 267 

and there he rested during the rainy season; the 
three months' rest being ended, again he returned 
to Valyali, 1835 

And dwelt beside the Monkey 1 Tank; sitting 
there in a shady grove, he shed a flood of glory from 
his person ; aroused thereby, Mara Pinma 1836 

Came to the place where Buddha was, and with 
closed palms 2 exhorted him thus : ' Formerly, beside 
the Naira»/ana river, when you had accomplished 
your true and steadfast aim, 1837 

' (You said), " When I have done all I have to do, 
then will I pass at once to Nirva»a;" and now you 
have done all you have to do, you should, as then 
you said, pass to Nirva»a.' 1838 

Then Buddha spake to Pinma 8 : ' The time of 
my complete deliverance is at hand, but let three 
months elapse, and I shall reach Nirva»a.' 1839 

Then Mara, knowing that Tathagata had fixed 
the time for his emancipation, his earnest wish 
being thus fulfilled, joyous returned to his abode 
in heaven*. 1840 



Ananda, let us go on to Beluva,"' Sacred Books of the East, 
vol. xi, p. 34. v 

1 The Marka/ahrada. 

' Here the description of Mara, ' with closed palms,' leaves no 
doubt that the figure in Tree and Serpent Worship (plate xxvi, 
fig. 1, 1st ed.) represents Mara in this scene, ' requesting Buddha to 
depart.' It is satisfactory to know that the Buddhist idea of the 
appearance of ' the Wicked One ' (Piruna) was not in agreement 
with our modem conception of the form of Satan. He is here 
represented as a Deva, ' lord of the world of desires ' (kamaloka). 

* Compare this account of Mara's appeal with Rhys Davids 
(Pali Suttas, p. 53). 

* His abode in heaven. He is represented in Tree and Serpent 
Worship (plate xxx, fig. 1) as standing on die platform above the 



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268 . FO-SHOHING-TSAN-KING. V, aj. 

Tathagata, seated beneath a tree, straightway was 
lost in ecstasy, and willingly rejected his allotted 
years, and by his spiritual power fixed the remnant 
of his life. 1841 

On this, Tathagata thus giving up his years, 
the great earth shook and quaked through all the 
limits of the universe; great flames of fire were 
seen around, 1842 

The tops of Sumeru were shaken (fell), from 
heaven there rained showers of flying stones, a 
whirling tempest rose on every side, the trees were 
rooted up and fell, 1843 

Heavenly music rose with plaintive notes, whilst 
angels for a time were joyless. Buddha rising from 
out his ecstasy, announced to all the world : 1844 

' Now have I given up my term of years ; I live 
henceforth by power of Samadhi * (faith) ; my body 
like a broken chariot stands, no further cause of 
" coming " or of " going ;" 1 845 

'Completely freed from the three worlds, I go 
enfranchised, as a chicken from its egg.' 1846 



Varga 24. The Differences of the Lut^havis. 

The venerable Ananda, seeing the earth shak- 
ing on every side, his heart was fearful and 
his hair erect; he asked the cause thereof of 
Buddha. 1847 



Trayastriwwas heaven (where the Devas are worshipping the 
tiara), — this is his right place as lord of the world of desires. 

1 Rhys Davids says samadhi corresponds to the Christian faith, 
Buddhist Suttas, p. 145. 



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V, 24. THE DIFFERENCES OF THE UXKH AVIS. 269 

Buddha replied : ' Ananda! I have fixed three 
months to end my life, the rest of life I utterly 
give up ; this is the reason why the earth is greatly 
shaken.' 1848 

Ananda, hearing the instruction of Buddha, was 
moved with pity and the tears flowed down his face, 
even as when an elephant of mighty strength shakes 
(with a blow) the sandal-wood tree. 1849 

Thus was (Ananda) shaken and his mind per- 
turbed, whilst down (his cheeks) the tears, like drops 
of perfume, flowed ; so much he loved the lord his 
master, so full of kindness (was he), and, as yet, not 
freed from earthly thoughts (desire) 1 . 1850 

Thinking then on these four things 2 alone, he 
gave his grief full liberty, nor could he master it, 
(but said), ' Now I hear the lord declare that he has 
fixed for good his time to die (Nirva#a), 1851 
' ' My body fails, my strength is gone, my mind is 
dazed, my soul is all discordant, and all the words of 
truth forgotten ; a wild deserted waste seems heaven 
and earth. 1852 

' Have pity ! save me, master (lord of the world) ! 
perish not so soon 3 ! Perished with bitter cold*, 
I chanced upon a fire — forthwith it disap- 
peared. 1853 



1 ' Freedom from desire ' (vttaraga) was the distinction of an 
Arhat ; Ananda had not yet arrived at this condition. 

* 'These four things/ or, the things of the world j 'the four' 
denoting the ' four quarters,' that is, ' the world.' 

8 This and the previous line may otherwise be translated, ' Have 
pity ! save the world, O lord I from this so unexpected an end (of 
your life).' 

* These and the succeeding comparisons represent the condition 
of Ananda in prospect of Buddha's death. 



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27O FOSHO-HINOTSAN-KING. V, J4. 

' Wandering amid the wilds of grief and pain, de- 
ceived, confused, I lost my way — suddenly a wise 
and prudent guide encountered me, but hardly 
saved from my bewilderment, he once more 
vanished. 1854 

' Like some poor man treading through endless 
mud, weary and parched with thirst, longs for the 
water, suddenly he lights upon a cool refreshing lake, 
he hastens to it — lo! it dries before him. 1855 

'The deep blue, bright, refulgent eye 1 , piercing 
through all the worlds, with wisdom brightens the 
dark gloom, the darkness (but) for a moment is 
•dispelled*. 1856 

' As when the blade shoots through the yielding 
earth, the clouds collect and we await the welcome 
shower, then a fierce wind drives the big clouds 
away, and so with disappointed hope we watch the 
dried-up field! 1857 

' Deep darkness reigned for want of wisdom, the 
world of sentient creatures groped for light, Tatha- 
gata lit up the lamp of wisdom, then suddenly ex- 
tinguished it — ere he had brought it out 8 .' 1858 

Buddha, hearing Ananda speaking thus, grieved 
at his words, and pitying his distress, with soothing 
accents and with gentle presence spake with purpose 
to declare the one true 4 law : 1859 



1 That is, the eye of Buddha, about which so much is said in 
the books. 

8 Such appears to be the meaning of the passage, implying 
that the disappearance of darkness is but for a moment. 

* Or, alas ! why bring it out 1 

* The expression here, as in other cases, is a strong affirmative, 
'the true law of truth/ 'the only true law; ' the word ' law' means 
religious system. 



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V, 34- THE DIFFERENCES OF THE UKKHAV1S. 2"Jl 

' If men but knew their own 1 nature, they would 
not dwell (indulge) in sorrow ; everything that lives, 
whate'er it be*, all this is subject to destruction's 
law; i860 

' I have already told you plainly, the law (nature) 
of things "joined 3 " is to "separate;" the principle 
of kindness and of love* is not abiding, 'tis better 
then to reject this pitiful and doting heart. 1861 

' All things around us bear the stamp of instant 
change ; born, they perish ; no self-sufficiency 8 ; those 
who would wish to keep them long, find in the end 
no room for doing so. 1 862 

' If things around us could be kept for aye, 
and were not liable to change or separation, then 
this would be salvation* 1 where then can this be 
sought? 1863 

'You, and all that lives, can seek in me this 
great deliverance ! That which you may all attain 

1 ' (The character of) self-nature/ or as in the text. 

1 'All things that have a personal or individual existence.' It would 
be well to compare the spirit of this sermon with the old belief 
of the Veda, respecting the birth of the ' one nature ' from which 
the visible world took shape (History of Ancient Sanskrit Literature 
by Max MUller, p. 561). It seems that the effort of Buddha was 
to transcend the time of the birth of this nature, and thus arrive at 
the condition of the original first cause, which 'breathed breathless;' 
in other words, this is the condition of Nirvana. 

* As in the concluding verse of the Va^ra^^edikfi Sutra, 'tarakl 
timiram,' &c. Analecta Oxoniensia, Aryan Series, vol. I, part i, 
p. 46. 

4 'Love' in the sense of parental love; or the love which 
produced the world. 

* In the Rig-veda (according to Dr. Muir) the gods though 
spoken of as immortal are not regarded as unbeginning or self- 
existent; see Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society, 1864, p. 62. 

* That is, there would be no need to seek salvation, for it would 
be already possessed. 



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272 FO-SHOHING-TSAN-KING. V, 34. 

I have already told you, (and tell you) to the 
end. 1864 

' Why then should I preserve this body ? The 
body of the excellent law 1 shall long endure ! I am 
resolved; I look for rest! This is the one thing 
needful 2 . 1865 

'So do I now instruct all creatures, and as a 
guide, not seen before, I lead them; prepare your- 
selves to cast off consciousness 3 , fix yourselves well 
in your own island 4 . 1866 

'Those who are thus fixed (mid-stream), with 
single aim and earnestness striving in the use of 
means, preparing quietly a quiet place, not moved 
by others' way of thinking, 1867 

' Know well, such men are safe on the law's island. 
Fixed in contemplation, lighted by the lamp of wis- 
dom, they have thus finally destroyed ignorance and 
gloom. Consider well the world's four bounds, 1868 

' And dare to seek for true religion only ; forget 
" yourself," and every " ground of self," the bones, 
the nerves, the skin, the flesh, the mucus, the blood 
that flows through every little vein ; 1869 



1 The « body of the law ' represents the teaching of the word of 
Buddha, which teaching is supposed to be accompanied with or 
attended by a living power, ever dwelling with the congregation 
of the faithful. 

* * That which is wanting only resides in this.' 

* The Chinese ' siang' is equivalent to Sanskrit $aaigji&, the third 
skandha (constituents of personal being). It is the receptive 
(subjective) power, in distinction to the perceptive power (yedana). 
Buddha denied the necessity of personal consciousness (i. e. of 
self-consciousness, or consciousness of self) as an element of life, 
i. e. life in the abstract. 

4 This idea of 'an island' (dvtpa), fixed amid the running 
stream of life, is found in Dbammapada, verse 25. 



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V, 24- THE DIFFERENCES OF THE LIJTJTffAVIS. 273 

' Behold these things as constantly impure, what 
joy then can there be in such a body ? every sensa- 
tion born from cause, like the bubble floating on the 
water. 1870 

' The sorrow coming from (the consciousness of) 
birth and death and inconstancy, removes all 
thought of joy — the mind acquainted with the law 
of production 1 , stability, and destruction, (recognises) 
how again and once again things follow or (succeed 
one another) with no endurance. 1871 

' But thinking well about Nirviwa 2 , the thought 
of endurance is for ever dismissed, (we see how) 
the sawskaras 3 from causes have arisen, and how 
these aggregates will again dissolve, all of them 
impermanent. 1872 

' The foolish man conceives the idea of " self," the 
wise man sees there is no ground on which to build 
the idea of " self," thus through the world he rightly 
looks and well concludes, 1873 

'AH, therefore, is but evil (one perverse way) — 
the aggregate amassed by sorrow must perish (in 
the end) ! if once confirmed in this conviction, that 
man perceives the truth. 1874 

1 The law of production, stability, and destruction ; this refers 
to the Buddhist theory of the successive stages in the development 
of the world. The world is produced from chaos, established for 
a period, and then destroyed; and this law is a perpetual one, 
extending through all space (the infinite systems of worlds) and 
through all time. 

* Nirvana, quietness and extinction. 

8 The sawskiras, the elements of being, i. e. individual being (for 
a full account of this term, see Childers' Pali Diet, sub voce). With 
regard to the use of the Chinese 'hing' for samskira, see Eitel, 
Handbook, sub sawskira ; also consult Colebrooke, Hindu Philo- 
sophy, p. 254, and Burnouf (Introduction, pp. 504, 505, note a). 

[19] T 



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274 FO-SHO-HING-TSAN-KING. V, 24. 

'This body, top, of Buddha now existing (soon 
will) perish, the law is one and constant, and without 
exception.' Buddha having delivered this excellent 
sermon, appeased the heart of Ananda. 1875 

Then all the Lii^avis, hearing the report 1 , with 
fear and apprehension assembled in a body; devoid 
of their usual ornaments, they hastened to the place 
where Buddha was. 1876 

Having saluted him according to custom, they 
stood on one side, wishing to ask him a question, but 
not being able to find words. Buddha, knowing 
well their heart, by way of remedy, in the right use 
of means 2 , spake thus : 1877 

'Now I perfectly understand that you have in 
your minds unusual thoughts, not referring to 
worldly matters, but wholly connected with subjects 
of religion; 1878 

' And now you wish to hear from me, what may 
be known respecting the report about my resolve 
to terminate my life, and my purpose to put an end 
to the repetition of birth. 1879 

' Impermanence is the nature of all that exists 8 , 
constant change and restlessness its conditions; 
unfixed, unprofitable, without the marks of long 
endurance. 1880 

' In ancient days the Rishi kings, Vasish/<4a ifoshi, 

1 ' Hearing it,' in the original, i.e. hearing the report of Buddha's 
approaching death. 

* ' The right use of means ' is the rendering of the Chinese 
' fang pien,' the Sanskrit upaya ; this term may mean ' by artifice,' 
or, 'by way of expedient;' but generally it refers to the use of 
means to an end, where the ' means ' are evanescent and illusory ; 
the end attained, lasting and real. 

9 Here we have the well-known Pali formula ' sabbe sawkhara 
ani£&L' 



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V, 24. THE DIFFERENCES OF THE LZXKHAVIS. 2"/$ 

Mandhatr/, the Aakravartin monarchs, and the rest, 
these and all others like them, 1881 

4 The former conquerors ((^inas), who lived with 
strength like ljvara, these all have long ago pe- 
rished, not one remains till now; 1882 

' The sun and moon, .Sakra himself, and the great 
multitude of his attendants, will all, without excep- 
tion, perish 1 ; there is not one that can for long 
endure; 1883 

'All the Buddhas of the past ages, numerous 
as the sands of the Ganges, by their wisdom en- 
lightening the world, have all gone out as a 
lamp 2 ; 1884 

' All the Buddhas yet to come will also perish in 
the same way ; why then should I alone be different ? 
I too will pass into Nirva#a; 1885 

' But as they prepared others for salvation, so 
now should you press forward in the path ; VaLsall 
may be glad indeed, if you should find the way of 
rest! 1886 

' The world, in truth, is void of help, the " three 
worlds" not enough for joy — stay then the course 
of sorrow, by engendering a heart without de- 
sire. 1887 

' Give up for good the long and straggling (way of 
life), press onward on the northern track 8 , step by 

1 That the gods were considered to be mortal appears, as Wilson 
says (Rig-veda, vol. i, p. 7 n), from the title (nara) given to them. 
Compare also Coxe, Mythol. II, p. 13, and Muir, Journal of the 
Royal Asiatic Society, 1864, p. 6a. 

* This idea of a lamp going out is a fundamental one as a 
definition of Nirvana (pa^g-otassa nibbanam). Its meaning has 
been discussed by Professor Max Mailer in his Introduction to 
Buddhaghosha's Parables (by Captain Rogers). 

* That is, the northern track of the sun. 

T 2 



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276 FO-SHO-HING-TSAN-KING. V, 24. 

step advance along the upward road, as the sun skirts 
along (approaches) the western 1 mountains.' 1888 

At this time the LLfcfc&avis, with saddened hearts, 
went back along the way; lifting their hands to 
heaven and sighing bitterly : ' Alas ! what sorrow 
this! 1889 

' His body like the pure gold mountain 8 , the marks 
upon his person so majestic, ere long and like a 
towering crag he falls ; not to live, then why not, 
"not to love 8 ?" 1890 

• The powers of birth and death, weakened awhile, 
the lord Tathagata, himself the fount (mother) of 
wisdom (appeared), and now to give it up and 
disappear! without a saviour now, what check to 
sorrow. 1891 

' The world long time endured in darkness, and 
men were led by a false light along the way — when 
lo ! the sun of wisdom rose ; and now, again, it fades 
and dies — no warning given. 1892 

' Behold the whirling waves of ignorance engulfing 
all the world ! (Why is) the bridge or raft of wisdom 
in a moment cut away ? 1893 

' The loving and the great physician king (came) 
with remedies of wisdom, beyond all price, to heal 
the hurts and pains of men — why suddenly goes he 
away ? 1 894 

' The excellent and heavenly flag of love adorned 
with wisdom's blazonry, embroidered with the dia- 

1 The idea appears to be, that as the sun advances in his course, 
he approaches the western mountains as his true setting place, 
i. e. he approaches the equinoctial point. 

* This comparison of Buddha's body to the golden mountain 
(sumeru) is a very frequent one, and is probably allied in its origin 
with the idea of Bel, ' the great mountain ' (sadu rabu). 

' The sense is, ' if he dies, where is the proof of his love ?' 



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v, 25. parenirvAjva. 277 

mond heart, the world not satisfied with gazing on 
it, 1895 

' The glorious flag of heavenly worship * ! Why in 
a moment is it snapped ? Why such misfortune for 
the world, when from the tide of constant revolu- 
tions 1896 

' A way of escape was opened — but now shut 
again! and there is no escape from weary sorrow!' 
Tathagata, possessed of fond and loving heart, now 
steels himself and goes away ; 1897 

He holds his heart 2 so patient and so loving, and, 
like the Wai-ka-ni (Vakkani ?) flower, with thoughts 
cast down (irresolute) and tardy, he goes depressed 
along the road ; 1898 

Or like a man fresh from a loved one's grave, the 
funeral past and the last farewell taken, comes back 
(with anxious look). 1899 

Varga 25. ParinirvA^a. 

When Buddha went towards the place of his 
Nirva#a, the city of Vai^all was (as if) deserted, as 
when upon a dark and cloudy night the moon and 
stars withdraw their shining. 1900 

The land that heretofore had peace, was now 
afflicted and distressed; as when a loving father 
dies, the orphan daughter yields to constant 
grief. 1 90 1 

Her personal grace unheeded, her clever skill but 
lightly thought of, with stammering lips she finds 
expression for her thoughts ; how poor her brilliant 
wit and wisdom now ! 1902 

1 Religions sacrifices. 

* That is, he restrains himself. 



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278 FO-SHO-HINOTSAN-KING. V, ag. 

Her spiritual powers (spirits 1 ) ill regulated (with- 
out attractiveness 2 ), her loving heart 8 faint (poor) and 
fickle (false), exalted high* but without strength, and 
all her native grace neglected (without rule) 8 ; 1903 

Such was the case at Vaijall ; all outward show e 
now fallen (sorry-looking), like autumn verdure in 
the fields bereft of water, withered up and dry; 1904 

Or like the smoke of a half-smouldering 7 fire, or 
like those who having food before them yet forget 
to eat, so these forgot their common household 8 
duties, and nought prepared they for the day's 
emergencies. 1905 

Thinking thus on Buddha, lost in deep reflec- 
tion, silent they sat nor spoke a word. And now 
the lion-Li&&£avis 9 , manfully enduring their great 
sorrow, 1906 



1 Shin-tung generally means ' spiritual (miraculous) powers,' but 
here it refers to the ' spirits' or ' good spirits,' i. e. the bearing or 
cheerful tone of mind. 

8 Without dignity. 

* That is, her heart capable of love now poor and estranged, 
i. e. incapable of earnest attachment. 

* The symbol ' shing' denotes not only ' power ' generally, and 
hence used for the Sanskrit '^ina,' but also * a head-dress worn by 
females.' It thus corresponds with the Greek «£ov<na (1 Cor. xi. 10). 
The phrase in the text may therefore mean 'her horn (head-dress) 
exalted, but bereft of power,' where there is a play on the second 
word ' lih ' (power). 

8 ' Dignified and yet no ruler.' 
" Outward glory. 

7 Like the smoking (ashes) of a fire put out. 

8 Kung sz' may mean ' public and private,' or as in the text. 

* The difficulty here, as before, is to know whether one LLbMavi 
is referred to, or the whole clan. We may observe that there is 
an Accadian root ' lig' or ' lik,' meaning ' lion.' Sayce, Assyrian 
Grammar. 



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V,2g. PARINIRVAtfA. 279 

With flowing tears and doleful sighs, signifying 
thereby their love of kindred, destroyed for ever all 
their books of heresy, to show their firm adherence 
to the true law 1 . 1907 

Having put down all heresy (or heretics), they left 
it once for all 2 (never to return); severed from 
the world and the world's doctrines, convinced that 
non-continuance (impermanence) was the great dis- 
ease (evil). 1908 

(Moreover thus they thought) : ' The lord of men 
now enters the great quiet place (Nirva»a), (and we 
are left) without support and with no saviour ; the 
highest lord of " means " (means of saving men) is 
now about to extinguish all his glory in the final s 
place (of death). 1 909 

' Now we indeed have lost our steadfast will, as 
fire deprived of fuel; greatly to be pitied is the 
world, now that the lord gives up his world-pro- 
tecting (office), 1 910 

' Even as a man bereft of spiritual power (right 
reason) throughout the world is greatly pitied. Op- 
pressed by heat we seek the cooling lake, nipped by 
the cold we use the fire ; 191 1 

1 But in a moment all is lost 4 , the world is left 
without resource 6 ; the excellent law (superlative 



1 JOing-fa=saddharma. 

1 The passage may possibly mean that they sent away all 
heretics from their city ; but the whole verse is obscure. 

• The ' final' or * highest' place. 

* This is a doubtful translation; the original is sin kwoh in, 
* all openly or widely (gone).' 

' Without a place of refuge, or a lodging-place. The line literally 
translated is, ' All things that live, what refuge have they ?' 



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28.0 FOSHO-HING-TSAN-KING. V, 25. 

law), indeed, is left, to frame the world anew, as a 
metal-caster frames anew his work \ 191 2 

1 The world has lost its master-guide, and, men 
bereaved of him, the way is lost ; old age, disease, 
and death, self-sufficient 2 , now that the road is missed, 
pervade the world without a way. 191 3 

' What is there now throughout the world equal 
to overcome the springs of these great sorrows ? 
The great cloud's rain alone can make the raging 
and excessive fire, that burns the world, go out. 1914 

4 So only he can make the raging fire of covetous 
desire go out; and now he, the skilful maker of 
comparisons 8 , has firmly fixed his mind to leave the 
world! 191 5 

' And why, again, is the sword of wisdom, ever 
ready to be used for an uninvited friend (i.e. on 
behalf of the friendless), only like the draught of 
wine given to him about to undergo the torture and 
to die 4 ? 1916 

' Deluded by false knowledge the mass of living 
things are only born to die again ; as the sharp knife 
divides the wood, so constant change divides the 
world. 191 7 

' The gloom of ignorance like the deep water, 
lust like the rolling billow, sorrow like the float- 



1 This is the idea, as it seems, of the original, implying that the 
law of Buddha alone was left to take the place of the teacher. 
1 Tsz'-tsai, independent, without control. 

3 ' Powerful in making comparisons,' one of Buddha's character- 
istic names. The construction of these lines is unlike Chinese, 
and is evidently adapted from the Sanskrit original. 

4 The sense seems to be that the sword of Buddha's wisdom, 
instead of rescuing the friendless, has only been used, as the 
executioner's draught, to lull the pain of death. 



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v, 25- parinirvajva. 281 

ing bubbles, false views (heresy) like the Makara 1 
fish, 191 8 

'(Amidst all these) the ship of wisdom only 
can carry us across the mighty sea. The mass 
of ills (diseases) are like the flowers of the (sor- 
row) tree, old age and all its griefs, the tangled 
boughs; 1919 

' Death the tree's tap-root, deeds done in life the 
buds, the diamond sword of wisdom only strong 
enough to cut down the mundane tree ! 1920 

' Ignorance (is like) the burning fire-glass, covetous 
desire the scorching rays, the objects of the five 
desires the (dry) grass, wisdom alone the water to 
put out the fire. 192 1 

'The perfect law, surpassing every law, having 
destroyed the gloom of ignorance, we see the 
straight road leading to quietness and rest, the end 
of every grief and sorrow. 1922 

'And now the loving (one), converting men, im- 
partial in his thoughts to friend or foe, the all- 
knowing, perfectly instructed, even he is going to 
leave the world! 1923 

' He with his soft and finely modulated voice, his 
compact body and broad shoulders, he, the great 
./foshi 2 , ends his life! Who then can claim ex- 
emption ? 1924 

' Enlightened, now he quickly passes hence ! let 



1 A mythical sea monster (see for a probable representation of 
it, Bharhut Stfipa, plate xxxiv, fig. 2). 

2 The great /?;'shi (Mahesi), even he has come to die, who then 
can claim exemption ? It would seem, from this episode, that the 
Li£££avis were now convinced of the law of impermanence, and 
this was the lesson they most needed to learn, being of a proud 
and haughty disposition. 



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282 FO-SHO-HING-TSAN-KING. V, 35. 

us therefore seek with earnestness the truth, even 
as a man meets with the stream beside the road, 
then drinks and passes on. 1925 

' Inconstancy, this is the dreaded enemy — the 
universal destroyer — sparing neither rich nor poor ; 
rightly perceiving this and keeping it in mind, 
this man, though sleeping, yet is the only ever- 
wakeful.' 1926 

Thus the Liii^avi lions, ever mindful of the 
Buddha's wisdom, disquieted with (the pain of) birth 
and death, sighed forth their fond remembrance of 
the man-lion 1 . 1927 

Retaining in their minds no love of worldly 
things, aiming to rise above the power of every 
lustful quality*, subduing in their hearts the thought 
of light or trivial matters, training their thoughts 
(hearts) (to seek) the quiet, peaceful place ; 1928 

Diligently practising (the rules) of unselfish, chari- 
table conduct; putting away all listlessness, they 
found their joy in quietness and seclusion, meditating 
only on religious truth. 1929 

And now the all-wise (omniscient), turning his 
body round with a lion-turn 3 , once more gazed upon 
Vawalt, and uttered this farewell verse : 1930 

1 That is, of Buddha, the lion of the .Sakya tribe (-Slkyasiwha). 
There is here, of course, reference to the lAkkhaxi lion, as con- 
trasted with the .Sakya lion. It will be well to bear in mind that 
the beautiful pillar described by Stephenson, Cunningham, and 
others, found near the site of Vawali, was surmounted by a ' lion.' 

1 Tih, corresponding to gu/ia. 

* In the text it is yuen shin, 'his round or perfect body;' in 
Fa-hien the symbol is hwui, ' turning' (cap. xxv). The passage in 
Fa-hien may be translated ' turning his body with a right-turn-look.' 
Here the passage is ' turning (yuen for hwui) his body with a lion- 
turn ;' in the Pali (Sacred Books of the East, vol. xi, p. 64) it is 'he 



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V, as. PARINIRVltfA. 283 

' Now this, the last time this, I leave (wander 
forth from) VaLralt — the land where heroes 1 live and 
flourish I Now am I going to die.' 1931 

Then gradually advancing, stage by stage* he 
came to Bhoga-nagara (Po-ki'a-shing), and there he 
rested in the .Sala 8 grove, where he instructed all 
his followers (Bhikshus) in the precepts : 1932 

' Now having gone on high (ascended into 
heaven)* I shall enter on Nirva»a : ye must rely 
upon the law (religious truth) — this is your highest, 
strongest, vantage ground 6 . 1933 

' What is not found (what enters not) in Sutra, or 
what disagrees with rules of Vinaya, opposing the 
one true system (of my doctrine), this must not be 
held by you 8 . 1934 

' What opposes Dharma, what opposes Vinaya, or 

gazed at Vesali with an elephant look ' (nSgapalokitaw), on which 
word Mr. Rhys Davids has an interesting note. The lion appears 
to be the favourite with Northern Buddhists, the elephant (naga) 
with the Southern. 

1 Lih sse, generally translated 'Mallas;' in Fa-hien 'Kin kang 
lih sse' has been translated by Va^rapim (cap. xxiv), but this is not 
correct; it is singular that 'lih sse' — in old Chinese 'lik sse' — 
should be applied as another term for Lii&iavis. As stated above, 
lik is an Accadian root for 'lion' — is the Chinese symbol 'lik,' 
strong, allied to this ? 

* The stages according to the Pali (Sacred Books of the East, 
vol. xi, p. 66) were from Vesili to Bham/a-gama, from Bha»</a- 
gama to Hatthi-g&ma, from Hatthi-gama to Amba-gama, from 
Amba-gama to Gambu-gama, and thence to Bhoga-nagara. 

3 At the Ananda Aetiya (in the Pali, as above). 

* This is a singular phrase, ' having ascended into heaven I shall 
enter Nirviwa' — it may refer to the process hereafter named through 
which the mind of Buddha passed (entering the dhyanas &c.) ere 
he died ; but anyhow, it is a curious phrase. 

* This then is the noble, conquering place. 

' It will be well to compare this sermon with that in the Pali 
(op. cit pp. 67, 68). 



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284 FO-SHOHING-TSAN-KING. V, 35. 

what is contrary to my words, this is the result 
(speech) of ignorance, ye must not hold such 
doctrine, but with haste reject it. 1935 

' Receiving that which has been said aright (in the 
light) 1 , this is not subversive of true doctrine, this 
is what I have said 2 , as the Dharma and Vinaya 
say. 1936 

'Accepting that which I, the law, and the Vinaya 
declare, this is (the truth) to be believed. But words 
which neither I, the law, nor the Vinaya declare, these 
are not to be believed. 1937 

'Not gathering (explaining) the true and hidden 
meaning, but closely holding to the letter 8 , this is 
the way of foolish teachers, but contrary to my doc- 
trine (religion) and a false way of teaching. 1938 

' Not separating the true from false, accepting in 
the dark without discrimination, is like a shop where 
gold and its alloys are sold together, justly con- 
demned by all the world. 1939 

'The foolish masters, practising (the ways of) 
superficial wisdom, grasp not the meaning of the 
truth ; but to receive the law (religious doctrine) as 
it explains itself, this is to accept the highest mode 
of exposition (this is to accept the true law). 1940 

1 This dictum has been often quoted as illustrating the breadth 
of Buddha's teaching, ' keep and receive the right (vidyi) spoken 
(words),' or ' whatever is according to right reason' (see Wassiljew, 
Buddhismus, pp. 18, 68). 

* The distinction between Dharma Vinaya and 'what I have 
said,' seems to point to the numerous discourses which are called 
' Fo shwo' (in Chinese, i. e. spoken by Buddha. Compare with this 
phrase the Pali ' Tathagatena vutto,' see Leon F£er, £tudes, p. 19a; 
Childers, Pali Diet, sub vutti). 

9 This ' holding to the letter' is also alluded to in the Pali (see 
Childers, sub voce vyawg-anam). 



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V,a$. PARINIRVAjVA. 285 

' Ye ought therefore thus to investigate true prin- 
ciples, to consider well the true law and the Vinaya, 
even as the goldsmith does who melts and strikes 
and then selects the true (metal). 1941 

' Not to know the Sutras and the .Sastras, this is 
to be devoid of wisdom ; not saying properly that 
which is proper, is like doing that which is not fit 
to see. 1942 

' Let all be done (accepted) in right and proper 
order, according as the meaning of the sentence 
guides, for he who grasps a sword unskilfully, does 
but inflict a wound upon his hand. 1943 

' Not skilfully to handle words and sentences, the 
meaning then is hard to know; as in the night time 
travelling and seeking for a house, if all be dark 
within, how difficult to find. 1944 

'Losing the meaning, then the law (dharma) is 
disregarded, disregarding the law the mind becomes 
confused ; therefore every wise and prudent master 
neglects not to discover the true and faithful 
meaning.' 1945 

Having spoken these words respecting the pre- 
cepts of religion, he advanced to the town of Pavi l , 
where all the M alias (lih sse) prepared for him 
religious offerings of every kind. 1946 

At this time a certain householder's son 2 , whose 

1 Sacred Books of the East, vol. xi, p. 70. It would seem from 
the people of Pava being called Mallas that they were allied with 
the L\ikAa.vis. 

* There is nothing said in the text about Aunda being a worker 
in metals, or about the character of his offering, or its consequences 
on Buddha's health. The expression ' householder's son' may be 
also translated a 'householder,' the symbol 'tseu' (son) being often 
used, as Wassiljew (Buddhismus, p. 168) has observed, as an 
honorific expletive. 



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286 FOSHOHING-TSAN-KING. V, ag. 

name was Aunda, invited Buddha to his house, and 
there he gave him, as an offering, his very last 
repast. 1947 

Having partaken of it and declared the law 
(preached), he onward went to the town of Kusi 
(Kurinagara), crossing the river Tsae-kieuh (Tsaku) 
and the Hira#yavatl (Hi-lan) 1 . 1948 

Then in that .Sala grove, a place of quiet and 
seclusion (hermit-rest), he took his seat: entering 
the golden river (Hira«yavatl) he bathed his body, 
in appearance like a golden mountain. 1949 

Then he spake his bidding thus to Ananda : ' Be- 
tween those twin .Sala trees, sweeping and watering, 
make a clean space, and then arrange my sitting- 
mat (couch), 1950 

'At midnight coming, I shall die* (enter Nirv4«a). 
Ananda hearing the bidding of his master (Buddha), 
his breath was choked with heart-sadness ; 1951 

But going and weeping he obeyed the instruction, 
and spreading out the mat he came forthwith back 
to his master and acquainted him. Tathagata having 
lain down with his head towards the north and on 
his right side, slept thus. 1952 

Resting upon his hand as on a pillow with his feet 
crossed 8 , even as a lion-king; all grief is passed, 
his last-born body from this one sleep shall never 
rise. 1953 

His followers (disciples) round him, in a circle 

1 Korinagara is the present Kasia. I do not find any reference in 
General Cunningham's account of this city (Archaeological Survey 
of India, I, 76 seq.) to the river Tsaku, but the Hiraxyavati is still 
known as the Hirana. 

a ' With one leg resting on the other,' Sacred Books of the East, 
vol. xi, p. 86. 



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V, 25. PARINIRVAtfA. 287 

gathered, sigh dolefully: 'The eye of the (great) 
world is now put out !' The wind is hushed, the 
forest streams are silent, no voice is heard of bird or 
beast 1954 

The trees sweat out large flowing drops, flowers 
and leaves out of season singly fall, whilst men and 
Devas, not yet free from desire, are filled with over- 
whelming fear. 1955 

(Thus were they) like men wandering through the 
arid desert, the road full dangerous, who fail to reach 
the longed-for hamlet ; full of fear they go on still, 
dreading they may not find it, their heart borne 
down with fear they faint and droop. 1956 

And now Tathagata, aroused from sleep, addressed 
Ananda thus : ' Go I tell the Mallas, the time of my 
decease (Nirvawa) is come ; 1957 

' They, if they see me not, will ever grieve and 
suffer deep regret.' Ananda listening to the bidding 
of his master (Buddha), weeping went along the 
road. 1958 

And then he told those Mallas all — ' The lord is 
near to death.' The Mallas hearing it, were filled 
with great, excessive grief (fear). 1959 

The men and women hurrying forth, bewailing as 
they went, came to the spot where Buddha was ; 
with garments torn and hair dishevelled, covered 
with dust and sweat they came, i960 

With piteous cries they reached the grove, as 
when a Deva's day of merit (heavenly merit or 
enjoyment) comes to an end 1 , so did they bow 

1 The time when a Deva's sojourn in heaven is approaching 
its end is indicated by certain signs (fading of the head-garland, 
restlessness on his couch, &c), on observing which there is general 
grief among the Devis and others, his companions. 



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288 FO-SHOHING-TSAN-KING. V, 25. 

weeping and adoring at the feet of Buddha, grieving 
(to behold) his failing strength. 1961 

Tathagata, composed and quiet, spake : ' Grieve 
not ! the time is one for joy ; no call for sorrow or 
for anguish here ; 1962 

' That which for ages I have aimed at, now am I 
just about to obtain ; delivered now from the narrow 
bounds of sense, I go to the place of never-ending 
rest and peace (purity). 1963 

' I leave these things, earth, water, fire, and air, to 
rest secure where neither birth nor death can come. 
Eternally delivered there from grief, oh I tell me ! 
why should I be sorrowful ? 1964 

' Of yore on .Sirsha's 1 mount, I longed to rid me of 
this body, but to fulfil my destiny I have remained 
till now with men (in the world) ; 1965 

' I have kept (till now) this sickly, crumbling body, 
as dwelling with a poisonous snake ; but now I am 
come to the great resting-place, all springs of sorrow 
now for ever stopped. 1966 

' No more shall I receive a body, all future sorrow 
now for ever done away; it is not meet for you, on 
my account, for evermore, to encourage any anxious 
fear.' 1967 

The Mallas hearing Buddha's words, that he was 
now about to die (enter the great, peaceful, quiet 
state), their minds confused, their eyes bedimmed, as 
if they saw before them nought but blackness, 1968 

With hands conjoined, spake thus to Buddha : 
' Buddha is leaving now the pain of birth and 
death, and entering on the eternal joy of rest 
(peaceful extinction) ; doubtless we ought to rejoice 
thereat. 1969 

1 Near Gayl 



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v, a$. parinirvAjva. 289 

' Even as when a house is burnt a man rejoices if 
his friends are saved from out the flames ; the gods ! 
perhaps they rejoice — then how much more should 
men I 1970 

4 But — when Tathagata has gone and living things 
no more may see him, eternally cut off from safety 
and deliverance — in thought of this we grieve and 
sorrow. 197 1 

' Like as a band of merchants crossing with careful 
steps a desert, with only a single guide, suddenly 
he dies! 1972 

' Those merchants now without a protector, how 
can they but lament ! The present age, coming to 
know their true case 1 , has found the omniscient, and 
looked to him, 1973 

' But yet has not obtained the final conquest ; — 
how will the world deride ! Even as it would laugh 
at one who, walking o'er a mountain full of trea- 
sure, yet ignorant thereof, hugs still the pain of 
poverty.' 1974 

So spake the Mallas, and with tearful words excuse 
themselves to Buddha, even as an only child pleads 
piteously before a loving father. 1975 

Buddha then, with speech most excellent, exhi- 
bited and declared the highest principle (of truth), 
and thus addressed the Mallas : ' In truth, 'tis as you 
say ; 1976 

' Seeking the way, you must exert yourselves and 
strive with diligence — it is not enough to have seen 
me 1 Walk, as I have commanded you ; get rid of 
all the tangled net of sorrow ; 1977 

1 Men now living having learned their case, or condition, from 
the teaching of Buddha. 

[19] U 



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290 FOSHOHING-TSAN-KING. V, 25. 

' Walk in the way with steadfast aim ; 'tis not from 
seeing me this comes, — even as a sick man depend- 
ing on the healing power of medicine, 1978 

' Gets rid of all his ailments easily without behold- 
ing the physician. He who does not do what I com- 
mand sees me in vain, this brings no profit ; 1979 

' Whilst he who lives far off from where I am, and 
yet walks righteously, is ever near me ! A man may 
dwell beside me, and yet, being disobedient, be far 
away from me. 1980 

' Keep your heart carefully — give not place to 
listlessness ! earnestly practise every good work. 
Man born in this world is pressed by all the sorrows 
of the long career (night) [of suffering], 1981 

' Ceaselessly troubled — without a moment's rest, 
as any lamp blown by the wind !' The Mallas all, 
hearing Buddha's loving instruction, 1982 

Inwardly composed, restrained their tears, and, 
firmly self-possessed, returned. 1983 



Varga 26. MahAparinirvajva. 

At this time there was a Brahmaiarin whose 
name was Su-po-to-lo 1 (Subhadra); he was well 
known for his virtuous qualities (bhadra), leading a 
pure life according to the rules of morality, and 
protecting all living things. 1984 

When young 2 he had adopted heretical views 
and become a recluse among unbelievers — this one, 
wishing to see the lord, spake to Ananda thus : 1985 

' I hear that the system of Tathagata is of a 

1 Called Subhadda in the Southern accounts. 

2 This may also be translated 'of small endowments.' 



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v, a6. mahAparinirvAjva. 291 

singular character and very profound (difficult to 
fathom), and that he (has reached) the highest 
wisdom (anuttara(sam)bodhi) in the world, the first 
of all horse-tamers *. 1986 

'(I hear moreover) that he is now about to die 
(reach Nirva«a), it will be difficult 2 indeed to meet 
with him again, and difficult to see those who have 
seen him with difficulty, even as it is to catch in a 
mirror the reflection of the moon. 1987 

' I now desire respectfully to see him the greatest 
and most virtuous guide (of men), because I seek to 
escape this mass of sorrow (accumulated sorrow) and 
reach the other shore of birth and death. 1988 

'The sun of Buddha now about to quench its 
rays, O! let me for a moment gaze upon him.' 
The feelings of Ananda now were much affected, 
thinking that this request was made with a view to 
controversy, 1989 

Or that he (i. e. Subhadra) felt an inward joy be- 
cause the lord was on the eve of death. He was 
not willing therefore to permit the interview with 
Buddha (the Buddha-sight). Buddha, knowing the 
man's (that one's) earnest desire and that he was a 
vessel fit for true religion (right doctrine), 1990 

Therefore addressed Ananda thus : ' Permit that 
heretic to advance ; I was born to save mankind s , 
make no hindrance therefore or excuse ! ' 1991 

1 Compare ' Purisa-damma-sarathi,' as before. We observe, 
again, how the reference here is to taming of 'horses,' in the 
Southern accounts to the taming of the ' steer,' showing the asso- 
ciations of the people using the figure. 

' 'Sometimes and full seldom do Tathagatas appear in the 
world,' Sacred Books of the East, vol. xi, p. 104. 

* Here again the construction is inverted and un-Chinese, but 

U 2 



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292 F0-8HOH1NG-TSAN-K1NG. V, a6. 

Subhadra, hearing this, was overjoyed at heart, 
and his religious feelings (his feelings of joy in reli- 
gion) were much enlarged, as with increased re- 
verence he advanced to Buddha's presence. 1992 

Then, as the occasion required 1 , he spoke be- 
coming words and with politeness made his saluta- 
tion 2 , his features pleasing and with hands conjoined 
(he said) : ' Now I desire to ask somewhat from 
thee; 1993 

' The world has many teachers of religion 8 (those 
who know the law) as I am myself ; but I hear that 
Buddha has attained a way which is the end of 
all, complete emancipation. 1994 

' O that you would, on my account, briefly ex- 
plain (your method), moisten my empty, thirsty soul 
(heart) 1 not with a view to controversy or from a 
desire to gain the mastery (but with sincerity I ask 
you so to do).' 1995 

Then Buddha, for the Brahma^arin's sake, in brief 
recounted the eight ' right ways ' (noble paths) — on 
hearing which, his empty soul (meek heart) ac- 
cepted it, as one deceived accepts direction in the 
right road. 1996 

the sense appears plain, ngo wei to gin sing, ' I, to save men am 
born.' The idea of Buddha as a saviour of men seems to be a 
development of his character as ' teacher ' or ' sage.' It expanded 
afterwards in Northern Buddhism into the idea of a universal 
saviour, and was afterwards merged in the character of Avalo- 
kitervara, a being ' engaged by an eternal oath (covenant) to save all 
living things.' The presence of Western modes of thought cannot 
be doubted here. 

1 According to the occasion ; or, as it was customary on such 
an occasion. 

* Compare the Pali sarimyaw vitis&retvi ; ' wen sun,' however, 
in the Chinese, appears to correspond with the Pali abhivadeti. 

* These teachers are named in the Pali. 



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V, »6. mahAparinirvJLna. 293 

Perceiving now, he knew that what he had before 
perceived was not the final way (of salvation), but 
now he felt he had attained what he had not before 
attained, and so he gave up and forsook his books 
of heresy. 1997 

Moreover, now he rejected (turned his back) on 
the gloomy hindrances of doubt (moha), reflecting 
how by his former practices, mixed up with anger, 
hate, and ignorance, he had long cherished no real 
(good) joy 1 . 1998 

For if (he argued) the ways of lust and hate and 
ignorance are able to produce a virtuous karman 
(good works), then ' hearing much ' and ' persevering 
wisdom ' (or, wisdom and perseverance (virya)) these, 
too, are born from lust, (which cannot be.) 1999 

But if a man is able to cut down hate and igno- 
rance, then also he puts off all consequences of 
works (karman), and these being finally destroyed, 
this is complete emancipation. 2000 

Those thus freed from works are likewise freed 
from subtle questionings (investigation of subtle 
principles), (such as) what the world says ' that all 
things, everywhere, possess a self-nature *.' 2001 

But if this be the case and therefore lust, hate, 
and ignorance possess a self-implanted nature, then 
this nature must inhere in them ; what then means 
the word ' deliverance ?' 2002 

For even if we rightly cause 8 the overthrow 

1 I think i§| is for Jp|, in which case the line would be, ' he had 
long cherished works (karman) not good' (^)- 

' This theory of a 'self-nature' (svabh&va) appears to have pre- 
vailed widely about the time of As vaghosha, the Svabhivika sect of 
Buddhists perhaps had their origin about this time. 

' That is, ' by the use of right means.' 



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294 FO-SHO-HING-TSAN-KING. V, 26. 

(destruction) of hate and ignorance, yet if lust 
(love) remains, then there is a return of birth; 
even as water, cold in its nature, may by fire be 
heated, 2003 

But when the fire goes out then it becomes cold 
again, because this is its constant nature; so (we 
may) ever know that the nature which lust has is 
permanent [or, ' endurance, we may know, is the 
nature of lust'], and neither hearing, wisdom, or 
perseverance can alter it. 2004 

Neither capable of increase or diminution, how 
can there be deliverance ? I held aforetime (thus 
he thought) that (those things capable of) birth 
and death resulted thus, from their own innate 
nature ; 2005 

But now I see that such a belief excludes deliver- 
ance; for what is (born) by nature must endure 
so, what end can such things have ? 2006 

Just as a burning lamp cannot but give its light; 
the way (doctrine) of Buddha is the only true one, 
that lust, as the root-cause, brings forth the things 
that live (the world) ; 2007 

Destroy this lust (love) then there is Nirvawa (quiet 
extinction) ; the cause destroyed then the fruit is not 
produced. I formerly maintained that ' I ' (self) was 
a distinct entity (body), not seeing that it has no 
maker. 2008 

But now I hear the right doctrine preached by 
Buddha, there is no ' self (personal self) in all the 
world, for all things are produced by cause, and 
therefore there is no creator (I^vara). 2009 

If then sorrow is produced by cause (or, if then 
cause producing things, there is sorrow), the cause 
may likewise be destroyed ; for if the world is cause- 



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v, 26. mahAparinirvAjva. 295 

produced, then is the view correct, that by destruc- 
tion of the cause, ther» is an end. 2010 

The cause destroyed, the world brought to an 
end, there is no room for such a thought as per- 
manence, and therefore all my former views (he 
said) are 'done away,' and so he deeply 'saw' the 
true doctrine taught by Buddha. 201 1 

Because of seeds well sown in former times, he 
was enabled thus to understand the law on hearing 
it; thus he reached the good and perfect state of 
quietness, the peaceful, never-ending place (of 
rest). 2012 

His heart expanding to receive the truth, he 
gazed with earnest look on Buddha as he slept, nor 
could he bear to see Tathagata depart and die 
(leave the world and attain Nirvana); 2013 

' Ere yet,' he said, ' Buddha shall reach the term 
(of life) I will myself first leave the world (become 
extinct);' and then with hands close joined, retiring 
from the holy form (face or features), he took his 
seat apart, and sat composed and firm x . 2014 

Then giving up his life (years), he reached Nir- 
vana, as when the rain puts out a little fire. Then 
Buddha spake to all his followers (Bhikshus) : ' This 
my very last disciple 2015 

' Has now attained Nirvana, cherish him (his 
remains) properly.' Then Buddha the first night 
(watch) passed, the moon bright shining and all 
the stars clear in their lustre, 2016 

The quiet grove without a sound, moved by his 
great compassionate heart, declared to his disciples 

1 Compare this account with the Pali (Sacred Books of the East, 
vol. xi, p. no, and note). 



r 



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296 FO-SHO-HING-TSAN-KING. V, «6. 

this his bequeathed precepts 1 (his testamentary 
rules). 'After my Nirva#a, $017 

' Ye ought to reverence and obey the Pratimoksha, 
(receive it) as your master, a shining lamp in the 
dark night, 2018 

' Or as a great jewel (treasured by) a poor man. 
The injunctions I have ever given, these you ought 
to obey and follow carefully, and treat in no way 
different from myself. 2019 

' Keep pure your body, words, and conduct, put 
from you all concerns of daily life (business), lands, 
houses, cattle, storing wealth or hoarding grain. 2020 

' All these should be avoided as we avoid a fiery 
pit ; (so also) sowing the land, cutting down shrubs, 
healing of wounds or the practice of medicine, 202 1 

'Star-gazing and astrology, forecasting lucky or 
unfortunate events by signs (palm signs), prognos- 
ticating good or evil, all these are things for- 
bidden. 2022 

' Keeping the body temperate, eat at proper times ; 
receive no mission as a go-between ; compound no 
philteries ; abhor dissimulation ; 2023 

' Follow right doctrine, and be kind to all that 
lives ; receive in moderation what is given ; receive 
but hoard not up; these are, in brief, my spoken 
precepts. 2024 

' These form the groundwork of my rules, these 
also are the ground of full emancipation 2 . Enabled 

1 These 'bequeathed precepts' form a separate tract in the Chinese 
Buddhist Canon ; it is generally bound up with the ' Sutra of 4a 
Sections.' I have translated it in my first Report on the Chinese 
Buddhist Books in the Library of the India Office. [This Sutra in 
Chinese is called ' an epitome of the Vinaya.' Is it the ' substance 
of the Vinaya ' referred to in the Bairat Edict of A joka ?] 

' Full emancipation seems here to be a synonym of ' Prati- 



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V, 26. MAHAPARINIRVAtfA. 397 

thus to live (relying on this law, able to live) this is 
rightly to receive all (other things). 2025 

' This is true wisdom which embraces all, this is 
the way (cause) to attain the end ; this code of rules, 
therefore, ye should hold and keep, and never let it 
slip or be destroyed. 2026 

' For when pure rules of conduct are observed 
(not broken), then there is true religion ; without 
these, virtue languishes ; found yourselves therefore 
well on these my precepts (moral rules) ; 2027 

' Grounded thus in rules of purity, the springs of 
feeling (animal feeling) will be well controlled, even 
as the well-instructed cowherd guides well his cattle 
(permits them neither to loiter nor hurry on). 2028 

' Ill-governed feelings (senses), like the horse, run 
wild through all the six domains of sense, bringing 
upon us in the present world unhappiness, and in 
the next, birth in an evil way. 2029 

' So, like the horse ill-broken, these land us in the 
ditch ; therefore the wise and prudent man will not 
allow his senses licence. 2030 

•For these senses (organs of sense) are, indeed, our 
greatest foes, causes of misery ; for men enamoured 
thus by sensuous things cause all their miseries to 
recur. 2031 

' Destructive as a poisonous snake, or like a 
savage tiger, or like a raging fire, the greatest 
evil in the world, he who is wise, is freed from 
fear of these. 2032 

' But what he fears is only this — a light and trivial 
heart, which drags a man to future misery (evil way 



moksha.' The rules of the Fratimoksha (350 rules) were probably 
later in their origin than the rules here given. 



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298 FO-SHO-HING-TSAN-KING. V, 26. 

of birth) — just for a little sip of pleasure not looking 
at the yawning gulf (before us) ; 2033 

' Like the wild elephant freed from the iron curb 
(ahkuya), or like the ape that has regained the forest 
trees, such is the light and trivial heart ; — the wise 
man should restrain and hold it therefore. 2034 

' Letting the heart go loose without restraint, that 
man shall not attain Nirvana ; therefore we ought to 
hold the heart in check, and go apart from men and 
seek a quiet resting-place (hermit's abode). 2035 

' Know when to eat and the right measure ; and 
so with reference to the rules of clothing and of 
medicine; take care you do not by the food you 
take, encourage in yourselves a covetous or an angry 
mind. 2036 

' Eat your food to satisfy your hunger and (drink 
to satisfy) your thirst, as we repair an old or broken 
chariot, or like the butterfly that sips the flower de- 
stroying not its fragrance or its texture. 2037 

' The Bhikshu, in begging food, should beware of 
injuring th.e faithful mind of another 1 ; if a man opens 
his heart in charity, think not about his capabilities 
(i. e. to overtax him), 2038 

' For 'tis not well to calculate too closely the 
strength of the ox, lest by loading him (beyond his 
strength) you cause him injury. At morning, noon, 
and night, successively, store up good works. 2039 

' During the first and after watch at night be not 
overpowered by sleep, but in the middle watch, with 
heart composed, take sleep (and rest) — be thoughtful 
towards the dawn of day. 2040 

1 This seems to refer to the offence given by a Bhikshu in 
asking food, either seeking much or of different quality to that 
offered. 



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V, 3<S. MAHAPARINIRVAtf A. 299 

'Sleep not the whole night through, making the 
body and the life relaxed and feeble ; think ! when 
the fire shall burn the body always, what length of 
sleep will then be possible ? 2041 

* For when the hateful brood of sorrow rising 
through space, with all its attendant horrors, meeting 
the mind o'erwhelmed by sleep and death, shall 
seize its prey, who then shall waken it ? 2042 

' The poisonous snake dwelling within a house 
can be enticed away by proper charms, so the black 
toad that dwells within his heart, the early waker 
disenchants and banishes. 2043 

' He who sleeps on heedlessly (without plan), 
this man has no modesty; but modesty is like a 
beauteous robe, or like the curb that guides the 
elephant. 2044 

' Modest behaviour keeps the heart composed, 
without it every virtuous root will die. Who has 
this modesty, the world applauds (calls him excel- 
lent) ; without it, he is but as any beast. 2045 

' If a man with a sharp sword should cut the 
(another's) body bit by bit (limb by limb), let not an 
angry thought, or of resentment, rise, and let the 
mouth speak no ill word. 2046 

' Your evil thoughts and evil words but hurt your- 
self and not another ; nothing so full of victory as 
patience, though your body suffer the pain of muti- 
lation. 2047 

' For recollect that he who has this patience 
cannot be overcome, his strength being so firm ; 
therefore give not way to anger or evil words towards 
men in power 1 . 2048 

1 So I translate the symbol ' kia.' 



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300 F0-SH0-H1NG-TSAN-KING. V, 26. 

* Anger and hate destroy the true law ; and they 
destroy dignity and beauty of body; as when one 
dies we lose our name for beauty, so the fire of 
anger itself burns up the heart. 2049 

' Anger is foe to all religious merit v he who loves 
virtue let him not be passionate ; the layman who 
is angry when oppressed by many sorrows is not 
wondered at, 2050 

' But he who has " left his home 1 " indulging anger, 
this is indeed opposed to principle, as if in frozen 
water there were found the heat of fire. 205 1 

' If indolence (an indolent mind) arises in your 
heart, then with your own hand smooth down your 
head 2 , shave off your hair, and clad in sombre 
(dyed or stained) garments, in your hand holding the 
begging-pot, go ask for food ; 2052 

' On every side the living perish, what room 
for indolence ? the worldly man, relying on his 
substance or his family, indulging in indolence, is 
wrong; 2053 

' How much more the religious man, whose pur- 
pose is to seek the way of rescue, who encourages 
within an indolent mind; this surely is impos- 
sible ! 2054 

' Crookedness and truth (straightness) are in their 
nature opposite and cannot dwell together more than 
frost and fire; for one who has become religious, 
and practises the way of straight behaviour, a false 
and crooked way of speech is not becoming. 2055 

' False and flattering speech is like the magician's 

1 That is, the hermit, or professed disciple. 

* Does this refer to smoothing the hair previous to shaving it 
off ? But the sense in any case is obscure, for how could a person 
admit himself to the ' order?' 



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V, a6. MAHAPARINIRVAA'A. 30I 

art; but he who ponders on religion cannot speak 
falsely (wildly). To "covet much," brings sorrow; 
desiring little, there is rest and peace. 2056 

' To procure rest (peace of mind), there must be 
small desire — much more in case of those who seek 
deliverance (salvation). The niggard dreads the 
much -seeking man lest he should filch away his 
property (wealth and jewels), 3057 

1 But he who loves to give has also fear, lest he 
should not possess enough to give; therefore we 
ought to encourage small desire, that we may have 
to give to him who wants, without such fear. 2058 

1 From this desiring-little-mind we find the way of 
true deliverance ; desiring true deliverance (seeking 
salvation) we ought to practise knowing-enough 
(contentment). 2059 

* A contented mind is always joyful, but joy like 
this is but religion 1 ; the rich and poor alike, having 
contentment, enjoy perpetual rest 2060 

'The ill -contented man though he be born to 
heavenly joys, because he is not contented would 
ever have a mind burned up by the fire of sor- 
row. 2061 

' The rich, without contentment, endures the pain 
of poverty; though poor, if yet he be contented, 
then he is rich indeed ! 2062 

' That ill-contented man, the bounds of the five 
desires extending further still, (becomes) insatiable 
in his requirements, (and so) through the long night 
(of life) gathers increasing sorrow. 2063 

'Without cessation thus he cherishes his careful 
(anxious) plans, whilst he who lives contented, freed 

1 So the line plainly means fun hi tsih shi fa, 'joy, like this, is 
but religion/ 



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302 FO-SHO-HING-TSAN-KING. V, 26. 

from anxious thoughts about relationships (family 
concerns), his heart is ever peaceful and at rest. 2064 

' And so because he rests and is at peace within, 
the gods and men revere and do him service. There- 
fore we ought to put away all cares about relation- 
ship (the encumbrance of close or distant relation- 
ships). 2065 

' For like a solitary desert tree in which the birds 
and monkeys gather, so is it when we are cumbered 
much with family associations ; through the long 
night we gather many sorrows. 2066 

' Many dependents (relationships) are like the 
many bands (that bind us), or like the old elephant 
that struggles in the mud. By diligent perseverance 
a man may get much profit ; 2067 

' Therefore night and day men ought with cease- 
less effort to exert themselves ; the tiny streams that 
trickle down the mountain slopes (valleys) by always 
flowing eat away the rock. 2068 

' If we use not earnest diligence in drilling wood 
in wood for fire, we shall not obtain the spark, so 
ought we to be diligent and persevere, as the skilful 
master drills the wood for fire. 2069 

'A "virtuous friend 1 " though he be gentle is not 
to be compared with right reflection (thought) — 
right thought kept well in the mind, no evil thing 
can ever enter there. 2070 

'Wherefore those who practise (a religious life) 
should always think about "the body" (their true 
condition — themselves); if thought upon oneself be 



1 This ' virtuous friend ' is here, probably, to be taken in its 
literal sense. The * right reflection ' is samyak smrAi. And so the 
others that follow are the eight portions of the holy path. 



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V, a6. mahaparinirvAjva. 303 

absent, then all virtue (virtuous intentions or pur- 
poses) dies. 207 1 

' For as the champion warrior relies for victory 
upon his armour's strength, so " right thought" is 
like a strong cuirass able to withstand the six sense- 
robbers (the robber-objects of the six senses). 2072 

' Right faith 1 (samadhi) enwraps 2 the enlightened 
heart, (so that a man) perceives the world throughout 
(is liable to) birth and death ; therefore the religious 
man should practise " samadhi." 2073 

' Having found peace (quietness and peace) in 
samadhi, we put an end to all the mass of sorrows, 
wisdom then can enlighten us, and so we put away 
the rules by which we acquire (knowledge by the 
senses). 2074 

' By inward thought and right consideration fol- 
lowing with gladness the directions of the "true 
law," this is the way in which both lay (men of the 
world) and men who have left their homes (religious 
men) should walk. 2075 

'Across the sea of birth and death, "wisdom" is 
the handy bark ; " wisdom " is the shining lamp that 
lightens up the dark and gloomy (world). 2076 

'"Wisdom" is the grateful medicine for all the 
defiling ills [of life] (asravas) ; " wisdom " is the axe 
wherewith to level all the tangled (prickly) forest 
trees of sorrow. 2077 

'"Wisdom" is the bridge that spans the rushing 
stream of ignorance and lust — therefore, in every 

1 Mr. Rhys Davids (Sacred Books of the East, vol. xi, p. 145) 
is of opinion that samadhi in Buddhism corresponds to ' faith' in 
Christianity. There is much to bear out this opinion. 

* The Ivivfia (in a gnostic sense) of the awakened heart; the 
atmosphere in which the enlightened heart lives. 



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304 FO-SHO-HING-TSAN-KING. V, a6. 

way, by thought and right attention (listening), a 
man should diligendy inure himself to engender 
"wisdom." 2078 

'Having acquired the threefold 1 wisdom, then, 
though blind, the eye of wisdom sees throughout ; 
but without wisdom the mind is poor and insincere 
(false) ; such things cannot suit (agree with) the man 
who has left his home. 2079 

* Wherefore let the enlightened man lay well to 
heart that false and fruitless (vain) things become 
him not, and let him strive with single mind for that 
pure (refined and excellent) joy which can be found 
alone in perfect rest and quietude (the place of rest 
and peace, i. e. Nirvana). 2080 

1 Above all things be not careless, for carelessness 
is the chief foe of virtue ; if a man avoid this fault he 
may be born where »Sakra-ra/a dwells. 2081 

' He who gives way to carelessness of mind 
must have his lot where the Asuras dwell. Thus 
have I done my task, my fitting task, (in setting 
forth the way of) quietude, the proof (work) of 
love*. 2082 

' On your parts be diligent 8 (earnest)! with virtuous 
purpose practise well these rules (works), in quiet 
solitude of desert hermitage nourish and cherish a 
still and peaceful heart. 2083 

I Is this the wisdom of Buddha, dhanna and sahgha ? or does it 
refer to the trividySs, the knowledge-of impermanence, sorrow, and 
unreality ? See Childers, P&li Diet, sub vijja ; also Mr. Rhys Davids' 
Tevjgya Sutta, Introduction, Sacred Books of the East, vol. xi. 

I I have finished my task of love in setting forth to you the way 
of rest. 

* ' Behold now, brethren, I exhort you, saying, " Decay is inherent 
in all component things 1 Work out your salvation with diligence!'" 
Sacred Books of the East, vol. xi, p. 1 14. 



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v, 26. mahaparinirva#a. 305 

' Exert yourselves to the utmost, give no place to 
remissness, for as in worldly matters when the con- 
siderate physician prescribes fit medicine for the 
disease he has detected, 2084 

' Should the sick man neglect to use it, this cannot 
be the physician's fault, so I have told you (now) the 
truth, and set before you this the one and level road 
(the road of plain duty). 2085 

' Hearing my words and not with care obeying 
them, this is not the fault of him who speaks; if 
there be anything not clearly understood in the prin- 
ciples of the " four truths," 2086 

' You now may ask me, freely; let not your inward 
thoughts be longer hid.' The lord in mercy thus 
instructing them, the whole assembly remained 
silent. 2087 

Then Anuruddha, observing that the great con- 
gregation continued silent and expressed no doubt, 
with closed hands thus spake to Buddha : 2088 

' The moon may be warm, the sun's rays be cool, 
the air be still 1 , the earth's nature mobile; these 
four things, though yet unheard of in the world, 
(may happen); 2089 

'But this assembly never can have doubt about 
the principles of sorrow, accumulation, destruction, 
and the way (the four truths) — the incontrovertible 
truths, as declared by the lord. 2090 

' But because the lord is going to die, we all 
have sorrow (are deeply affected); and we cannot 
raise our thoughts to the high theme of the lord's 
preaching. 209 1 

' Perhaps some fresh disciple, whose feelings are 

1 In the sense of 'fixed' or 'solid.' 
[19] X 



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30$ FOSHO-HING-TSAN-KING. V, 26. 

yet not entirely freed (from other influences) [might 
doubt] ; but we, who now have heard this tender, 
sorrowful discourse, have altogether freed ourselves 
from doubt. 2092 

' Passed the sea of birth and death, without 
desire, with nought to seek, we only know how 
much we love, and, grieving, ask, why Buddha dies 
so quickly?' 2093 

Buddha regarding Anuruddha, perceiving how his 
words were full of bitterness (sorrow-laden), again 
with loving heart, appeasing him, replied : 2094 

' In the beginning 1 things were fixed, in the end 
again they separate; different combinations cause 
other substances, for there is no uniform and con- 
stant principle (in nature). 2095 

' But when all mutual purposes be answered (what 
is for oneself and for another, be done), what then 
shall chaos and creation do ! the gods and men alike 
that should be saved, shall all have been completely 
saved ! 2096 

' Ye then ! my followers, who know so well the 
perfect law, remember! the end must come (com- 
plete destruction of the universe must come); give 
not way again to sorrow ! 2097 

' Use diligently the appointed means ; aim to 
reach the home where separation cannot come; I 
have lit the lamp of wisdom, its rays alone can drive 
away the gloom that shrouds the world. 2098 

'The world is not for ever fixed! Ye should 

1 This is a very singular passage; it refers to the Buddhist 
theory that the world (universe) is continually renewed and destroyed, 
but here we have the novel addition that in ' the end' all this will 
cease, and there will be no chaos (' void,' hung) and no renovation 
(re-creation). 



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V, 26. mahaparinirvAjva. 307 

rejoice therefore! as when a friend, afflicted griev- 
ously, his sickness healed, escapes from pain. 2099 

' For I have put away this painful vessel (my 
painful body), I have stemmed the flowing sea (sea 
current) of birth and death, free for ever now, from 
pain (the mass of sorrow) ! for this you should exult 
with joy! 2100 

' Now guard yourselves aright, let there be no 
remissness ! that which exists will all return to 
nothingness! and now I die. 2101 

' From this time forth my words are done, this 
is my very last instruction.' Then entering the 
Samadhi of the first Dhyana, he went successively 
through all the nine in a direct order; 2102 

Then inversely he returned throughout and en- 
tered on the first, and then from the first he raised 
himself and entered on the fourth. 2103 

Leaving the state of Samadhi, his soul without 
a resting-place (a house to lodge in), forthwith he 
reached Nirva»a. And then, as Buddha died, the 
great earth quaked throughout. 2104 

In space, on every hand, was fire like rain (it rained 
fire) [or, possibly, ' there was rain and fire'], no fuel, 
self-consuming l . And so from out the earth great 
flames arose on every side (the eight points of the 
earth), 2105 

Thus up to the heavenly mansions flames burst 
forth ; the crash of thunder shook the heavens and 
earth.rolling along the mountains and the valleys, 2 106 

Even as when the Devas and Asuras fight with 
sound of drums and mutual conflict. A wind tem- 
pestuous from the four bounds of earth arose — 

1 That is, the fire was self-originated, and was supported with- 
out fuel. 

X 2 



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308 FO-SHO-HINOTSAN-KING. V, 26. 

whilst from the crags and hills, dust and ashes fell 
like rain. 2107 

The sun and moon withdrew their shining; the 
peaceful streams on every "side were torrent-swollen ; 
the sturdy forests shook like aspen leaves, whilst 
flowers and leaves untimely fell around, like scattered 
rain. 2108 

The flying dragons, carried on pitchy clouds, wept 
down their tears 1 (five-headed tears) ; the four kings 
and their associates, moved by pity 2 , forgot their 
works of charity. 2109 

The pure Devas came to earth from heaven, halt- 
ing mid-air they looked upon the changeful scene (or, 
the death scene), not sorrowing, not rejoicing. 2 no 

But yet they sighed to think of the world, heed- 
less of its sacred teacher, hastening to destruction. 
The eightfold heavenly spirits 8 , on every side filled 
space, 2 1 1 1 

Cast down at heart and grieving, they scattered 
flowers as offerings. Only Mara-ra^a rejoiced, and 
struck up sounds of music in his exultation. 2112 

Whilst ^ambudvlpa 4 , shorn of its glory, (seemed 
to grieve) as when the mountain tops fall down to 
earth, or like the great elephant robbed of its tusks, 
or like the ox-king spoiled of his horns ; 21 13 

Or heaven without the sun and moon, or as the 
lily beaten by the hail ; thus was the world bereaved 
when Buddha died ! 2 1 14 

1 This passage is obscure, it may mean the dragons wept tears 
from their five heads, but it is doubtful. 

1 Here again is an error in the text, the symbol •& being 
clearly a misprint. 

* That is, Nagas, Kinnaras, and the rest 

* That is, ' the world,' as Buddhists count it 



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V, 27« PRAISING NIRVAVA. 309 



Varga 27. Praising Nirvana. 

At this time there was a Devaputra, riding on (or 
in) his thousand 1 white-swan palace 2 in the midst of 
space, who beheld the Parinirva»a of Buddha. 21 15 

This one, for the universal benefit of the Deva 
assembly, sounded forth at large these verses 
(gathas) on impermanence : ' Impermanency is the 
nature of all (things), quickly born, they quickly 
die. 21 16 

'With birth there comes the rush 8 of sorrows, 
only in Nirva#a 4 is there joy. The accumulated 
fuel heaped up by the power of karman 8 (deeds), 
this the fire of wisdom alone can consume. 2 1 1 7 

'Though the fame (of our deeds 8 ) reach up to 
heaven as smoke, yet in time the rains which de- 
scend will extinguish all, as the fire that rages at the 
kalpa's end is put out by the judgment 7 (calamity) 
of water.' 21 18 



1 The symbol for ' thousand' is probably an error for the pre- 
position ' u ' upon. 

* The hawsa is the vehicle of BrahmS. The white hamsa is 
probably the same. 

* The accumulation, or crowd of sorrows. 

4 Ts'ie mih, quiet extinction, or the destruction ending in 
quietness. 

1 The collection of the pile of fuel of the deeds (or beams) of 
conduct (samskiras). 

* Or, simply, ' though our fame;' or it may refer to the renown 
of Buddha. 

7 Referring to the Buddhist account of the destruction and reno- 
vation of the universe; the last 'calamity' or 'judgment' was the 
destruction by water. 



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3IO FOSHO-HING-TSAN-KING. V, 27. 

Again there was a Brahma-^'shi-deva, like a most 
exalted JZishi (a highest-principle J&shi 1 ), dwelling 
in heaven, possessed of superior happiness, with no 
taint in his bliss (heavenly inheritance), 2119 

Who thus sighed forth his praises of Tathagata's 
Nirva#a, with his mind fixed in abstraction as he 
spoke : ' Looking through all the conditions of life 
(of the three worlds), from first to last nought is free 
from destruction. 2120 

' But the incomparable seer dwelling in the world, 
thoroughly acquainted with the highest truth 2 , 
whose wisdom grasps that which is beyond the 
(world's) ken 8 , he it is who can save the worldly- 
dwellers*. 2121 

'He it is who can provide lasting escape (pre- 
servation) from the destructive power of imperma- 
nence. But, alas ! through the wide world, all that 
lives is sunk in unbelief (heretical teaching).' 2122 

At this time Anuruddha, ' not stopped' (ruddha) 8 
by the world, 'not stopped' from being delivered 



1 This may refer to one of the highest J?«shis, or Pra^tpati 
7?»'shis, belonging to the Vedic literature. 

* Here is the same phrase, ' ti yih i,' the first, or highest, truth, 
or principle of truth (paramSrtha). 

* Whose wisdom sees that which (k6) is above, or superior, (to 
man.) 

4 The difficulty is to find a word in English corresponding to 
the Buddhist phrase 'all in the world;' it is not only 'mankind' 
(Sacred Books of the East, vol. xi, p. 133) that are invited to trust 
in Buddha, but all things that have life. The Chinese phrase is 
' £ung sing,' all that lives. 

8 Not 'liu to,' where Miu to' is equivalent to 'ruddha' in the 
proper name Anuruddha. I take the word, therefore, in the sense 
of * stopped' — it is used, of course, as a figure of speech ; so also 
in the next phrase. Anuruddha is here taken as A-niruddha. 



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V, 37. PRAISING NIRVANA. 3 If 

(delivered and not stopped), the stream of birth and 
death for ever ' stopped 1 ' (niruddha), 2 1 23 

Sighed forth the praises of Tathagata's Nirvi«a : 
'All living things completely blind and dark 2 ! the 
mass of deeds (sawskara) all perishing (inconstant), 
even as the fleeting cloud-pile 8 ! 2124 

' Quickly arising and as quickly perishing ! the 
wise man holds not to such a refuge, for the dia- 
mond mace of inconstancy can (even) overturn the 
mountain of the JZishi hermit 4 (muni). 2125 

' How despicable and how weak the world ! 
doomed to destruction, without strength ! Imper- 
manence, like the fierce lion, can even spoil the 
N aga-elephant-great-i?*shi 6 . 2126 

' Only the diamond curtain of Tathagata can 
overwhelm* inconstancy ! How much more should 
those not yet delivered from desire (passion), fear 
and dread its power. 2127 

'From the six seeds there grows one sprout 7 , 
one kind of water from the rain, the origin of the 

1 Ni-liu-to, equal to ' niruddha.' 

* It for % 

* The Chinese ' feou* means a ' floating' pile or mass, whether 
of clouds or fanciful worlds. Hence its use in the later Buddhist 
development to mean a 'series of worlds' (as in the successive 
stages of the pagoda). 

* Or, the i?/shi-hermit-mountain, referring probably to Buddha. 
' Referring again to Buddha. 

" The literal translation would be, ' only makes impermanence, 
destruction.' There may be an error in the text, but this sense is 
sufficiently plain. The meaning of the word ' curtain,' or, perhaps, 
' standard,' is not quite so evident in this connection, it is evidently 
used in opposition to the ' diamond mace,' in the preceding clause. 

T This and the following lines are obscure ; the reference must 
be gathered from Sanskrit rather than Chinese. The line before 
us, rendered literally, is ' six seeds, one bud.' 



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312 FO-SHOHING-TSAN-KING. V, 37. 

four points 1 is far removed, five kinds of fruit from 
the two "koo 2 ;" 2128 

' The three periods (past, present, future) are but 
one in substance; the Muni-great-elephant plucks up 
the great tree of sorrow, and yet he (even he) can- 
not avoid the power of impermanence. 2129 

' For like the crested 3 (.rikhin) bird delights (within) 
the pool (water) to seize the poisonous snake, but 
when from sudden drought he is left in the dry pool, 
he dies ; 2130 

' Or as the prancing steed advances fearlessly to 
battle, but when the fight has passed goes back 
subdued and quiet ; or as the raging fire burns with 
the fuel, but when the fuel is done, expires ; 213 1 

' So is it with Tathagata, his task accomplished he 
returns * to (find his refuge in) Nirva«a : just as the 
shining of the radiant moon sheds everywhere its 
light and drives away the gloom, 2132. 

'All creatures grateful for its light, (then sud- 
denly) it disappears concealed by Sumeru ; such is 
the case with Tathagata, the brightness of his 
wisdom lit up the gloomy darkness, 2133 

' And for the good of all that lives drove it away, 
when suddenly it disappears behind the mountain of 
Nirvana. The splendour of his fame throughout 
the world diffused, 2 1 34 

1 The four ' yin' may be the four points of the compass. But 
the text is without note or comment 

* The Chinese symbol ' koo' means a 'libation cup.' 

* The symbols * shi-hi' correspond with Sanskrit" fikhin ; I have 
therefore taken it in the sense of ' crested.' There may be a bird, 
however, called .Sikhin. 

* The expression 'he returns to Nirvaaa' is unusual; I have 
therefore used the alternative meaning which the symbol ' kwei' 
sometimes has, ' finding refuge in.' 



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V, 27- PRAISING NIRVAWA. 313 

' Had banished all obscurity, but like the stream 
that ever flows, it rests not with us ; the illustrious 
charioteer with his seven prancing steeds 1 flies 
through the host (and disappears) ; 2135 

'The bright-rayed 2 Surya-deva, entering the 
Yen-tsz' s cave, was, with the moon, surrounded with 
fivefold barriers ; " all things that live," deprived of 
light, 2136 

' Present their offerings to heaven ; but from their 
sacrifice nought but the blacken'd smoke ascends 4 ; 
thus is it with Tathagata, his glory hidden, the 
world has lost its light 2137 

' Rare was the expectancy of grateful love 5 that 
filled the heart of all that lives ; that love, reached 
its full limit, then was left to perish ! 2138 

' The cords of sorrow all removed, we found the 
true and only way ; but now he leaves the tangled 
mesh of life, and enters on the quiet place ! 2139 

' His spirit (or, by spiritual power) mounting 
through space, he leaves the sorrow-bearing vessel 
of his body! the gloom of doubt and the great 

1 This passage is a difficult one ; if the construction is closely 
followed, the rendering would be this, ' The illustrious charioteer 
(with) his seven swift steeds, the army host quickly (or, the wings 
of the army host) following him about.' Possibly it must be con- 
nected with the lines which follow, and refers to the saptirva- 
vahana of Surya. 

s Kwong-kwong, well-rayed. 

9 The Yen-tsz' cave is the fabulous hiding-place of the sun. 
The fable is a common one, particularly in Japanese mythology. 
I do not know whether it is found in Sanskrit literature. 

* The reference in this and the preceding lines is to the disap- 
pearance of the sun and moon, and the darkness of the world, 
compared to the Nirva«a of Tathagata. 

* This is a free translation; I have taken 'tsiueh' as an inten- 
sitive particle. 



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314 FO-SHO-HING-TSAN-KING. V, 27. 

(heaped-up) darkness all dispelled, by the bright 
rays of wisdom! 2140 

'The earthy soil of sorrow's dust his wisdom's 
water purifies ! no more, no more, returns he here ! 
for ever gone to the place of rest ! 2141 

' (The power of) birth and death destroyed, the 
world (all things) instructed in the highest doctrine ! 
he bids the world rejoice in (knowledge of) his law, 
and gives to all the benefit of wisdom ! 2142 

' Giving complete rest to the world, the virtuous 
streams 1 flow forth ! his fame known (spread) 
throughout the world, shines still with increased 
splendour! 2143 

' How great his pity and his love to those who 
opposed his claims, neither rejoicing in their defeat 
nor exulting in his own success 2 . 2144 

' Illustriously controlling his feelings, all his senses 
completely enlightened, his heart impartially ob- 
serving events, unpolluted by the six objects (or, 
fields) of sense ! 2145 

' Reaching to that unreached before ! obtaining 
that which man had not obtained! with the water 
which he provided filling every thirsty soul ! 2146 

' Bestowing that which never yet was given, and 
providing a reward not hoped for! his peaceful, 
well-marked person, perfectly knowing the thoughts 3 
(prayers) of all. 2147 



1 The streams of his virtuous qualities. 

* This verse again is doubtful. The entire section (a hymn of 
praise in honour of the departed Buddha) is couched in obscure, 
figurative language. 

* His well-composed and illustrious person, knowing perfectly 
all the reflections of men. ' Nim' is sometimes used to signify 
' prayers' or ' aspirations.' 



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V, *<j. PRAISING NIRVAiVA. 3 1 5 

' Not greatly moved either by loving or disliking ! 
overcoming all enemies by the force (of his love) ! 
the welcome physician for all diseases, the one de- 
stroyer of impermanency ! 2 1 48 

' All living things rejoicing in religion, fully satis- 
fied 1 ! obtaining all they need (seek), their every 
wish (vow) fulfilled ! 2149 

' The great master of holy wisdom once gone 
returns no more ! even as the fire gone out for want 
of fuel! 2150 

' (Declaring) the eight rules (noble truths ?) with- 
out taint 2 ; overcoming the five 3 (senses), difficult to 
compose ! with the three 4 (powers of sight) seeing 
the three (precious ones) ; removing the three (rob- 
bers, i. e. lust, anger, ignorance) ; perfecting the three 
(the three grades of a holy life). 2 1 5 1 

' Concealing 8 the one (himself) and obtaining the 
one (saintship) — leaping over the seven (bodhyan- 
gas?) and (obtaining) the long sleep; the end of 
all, the quiet, peaceful way; the highest prize of 
sages and of saints! 2152 



1 Each one satisfied ; the sense seems to be that through him, 
i. e. Buddha, all things obtained the completion of their religious 
desires. 

* Or it may be by way of exclamation, ' those eight rules which 
admit of no pollution I' referring perhaps to the name ' the noble 
rules.' 

* I suppose 'the five' are the five senses. The expression 
' difficult to compose' might be also rendered ' the difficult to com- 
pose group.' 

4 Using (i) 'the three,' and yet seeing the 'three.' The next 
line is, ' removing the three,' and yet perfecting ' the three.' 

* Or it may be ' treasuring the one,' where ' the one' may be the 
one duty of a religious life; but it is difficult to interpret these 
paradoxes. 



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3l6 FO-SHOHING-TSAN-KING. V, 27. 

' Having himself severed the barriers of sorrow, 
now he is able to save his followers, and to provide 
the draught of immortality (sweet dew) for all who 
are parched with thirst ! 2153 

' Armed with the heavy cuirass of patience, he 
has overcome all enemies! (now) by the subtle 
principles of his excellent law (able to) satisfy every 
heart 2154 

' Planting a sacred seed (seed of holiness) in the 
hearts of those practising virtue (worldly virtue 1 ) ; 
impartially directing and not casting off those who 
are right or not right (in their views) ! 2155 

' Turning the wheel of the superlative law ! re- 
ceived with gladness through the world by those 
(the elect) who have in former conditions implanted 
in themselves a love for religion, these all saved 
by his preaching! 2156 

' Going forth 2 among men converting those not 
yet converted; those who had not seen (learned) the 
truth, causing them to see the truth ! 2157 

' All those practising a false method (heretical) of 
religion, delivering to them deep principles (of his 
religion) ! preaching the doctrines of birth and death 
and impermanency ; (declaring that) without a master 3 
(teacher) there can be no happiness ! 2158 

' Erecting the standard of his great renown, over- 
coming and destroying the armies of Mara (all the 
Maras) ! advancing to the point of indifference to 

1 The sense seems to be, that in the case of those leading a vir- 
tuous life, i. e. a moral life, the seeds of holiness take root 

a All these verses might be introduced with some such exclama- 
tion as this, ' See 1 how he went forth I' &c. 

3 Perhaps the word 'hi' might be rendered 'a ruling principle,' 
viz. of religion. 



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V,*7« PRAISING NIRVANA. 317 

pleasure or pain, caring not for life, desiring only 
rest (Nirva«a) ! 2 1 59. 

' Causing those not yet converted to obtain con- 
version ! those not yet saved to be saved ! those not 
yet at rest to find rest ! those not yet enlightened to 
be enlightened ! 2160 

' (Thus) the Muni (taught) the way of rest for the 
direction of all living things! alas! that any trans- 
gressing the way of holiness should practise impure 
(not right) works. 2 161 

' Even as at the end of the great kalpa, those 
holding the law who die (or, are dead '), (when) the ' 
rolling sound of the mysterious thunder-cloud severs , 
the forests, upon these there shall fall the rain of 
sweet dew (immortality). 2162 

' The little elephant breaks down the prickly 
forest, and by cherishing it we know that it can 
profit men 2 ; but the cloud that removes the sorrow 
of the elephant old-age 3 , this none can bear 8 . 2163 

'He by destroying systems of religion (sights, 
i. e. modes of seeing, darsanas) has perfected his 

1 The literal translation of this passage is curious: 'Even 
as at the end of the great kalpa, those holding the law, asleep ; 
the mysterious cloud rolling forth its cracking (thunder), riving the 
forests, there descends as rain sweet dew.' The end of the great 
kalpa is the consummation of all things : ' the religious who sleep' 
would mean the good who are dead ; ' the cracking thunder and 
riven forests ' would point to a general overthrow ; ' the rain of sweet 
dew ' seems to refer to the good who sleep, receiving immortality, 
or perfection of life. 

* ' The little elephant ' may mean ' the young elephant ' in its 
literal sense ; or it may refer to ' the young disciple.' ' By cherish- 
ing it we know ' may also be rendered ' knowledge-cherishing ' is 
able, &c. 

* 'The cloud removing the elephant old and sorrowful;' but 
what is ' the cloud ' and who ' the elephant ?' 



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318 FO-SHO-HING-TSAN-KING. V, 97. 

system, in saving the world and yet saving ! he has 
destroyed the teaching of heresy, in order to reach 
his independent (self-sufficient) mode (way) [of doc- 
trine]. 2164 

'And now he enters the great quiet (place)! no 
longer has the world a protector or saviour! the 
great army host of Mira-ra^a, rousing their warrior 
(spirits), shaking the great earth, 2165 

' Desired to injure the honour'd Muni ! but they 
could not move him, whom in a moment now the 
Mara " inconstancy " destroys. 2 1 66 

' The heavenly occupants (Devas) everywhere 
assemble as a cloud ! they fill the space of heaven, 
fearing the endless (mastery of) birth and death ! 
their hearts are full of (give birth to) grief and 
dread! 2167 

' His Deva eyes clearly behold, without the limita- 
tions of near or distant, the fruits of works dis- 
cerned throughout, as an image perceived in a 
mirror! 2168 

' His Deva ears perfect and discriminating 
throughout, hear all, though far away (not near), 
mounting through space he teaches all the Devas, 
surpassing his method (limit) of converting 
men! 2169 

' He divides his body still one in substance, crosses 
the water as if it were not weak (to bear) 1 1 remem- 
bers all his former births, through countless kalpas 
none forgotten! 2170 



1 This sentence may perhaps be rendered thus, 'dividing his 
body yet one in substance, wading through water and yet not 
weak,' but the allusion is obscure. [It refers, probably, to Buddha's 
miraculous powers.] 



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V, 27- PRAISING NIRVANA. 319 

' His senses (roots) wandering through the fields 
of sense (limits) 1 , all these distinctly remembered ; 
knowing the wisdom learned in every (state of) mind, 
all this perfectly understood ! 2 1 71 

' By spiritual discernment and pure mysterious 
wisdom equally (impartially) surveying all (things) ! 
every vestige of imperfection (leak) removed ! thus 
he has accomplished all (he had to do). 2172 

' By wisdom rejecting other spheres of life, his 
wisdom now completely perfected, lo ! he dies ! 
let the world, hard and unyielding, still, behold- 
ing it, relent! 2173 

' All living things though blunt in sense, behold- 
ing him, receive the enlightenment of wisdom ! their 
endless evil deeds long past, as they behold, are 
cancelled and completely cleansed ! 2 1 74 

'In a moment gone ! who shall again exhibit 
qualities like his. ? no saviour now in all the world — 
our hope cut off, our very breath (life) is stopped 
and gone! 2175 

' Who now shall give us life again with the cool 
water (of his doctrine) ? his own great work accom- 
plished, his great compassion now has ceased to 
work for long (has long ceased or stopped) ! 2176 

' The world ensnared in the toils of folly, who 
shall destroy the net ? who shall, by his teaching, 
cause the stream of birth and death to turn 
again? 2177 

'Who shall declare the way of rest (to instruct) 

1 The meaning is, all bis births, in which his senses or material 
body took every kind of shape ; all these he knew. The figurative 
style of this ' hymn ' may be gathered from this one instance, where 
instead of saying ' all his previous births ' it is said ' his senses 
wandering through the field (limits or boundaries) of sense.' 



< 



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320 FO-SHO-HING-TSAN-KING. V, a?. 

the heart of all that lives, deceived by ignorance ? 
Who will point out the quiet place, or who make 
known the one true doctrine (system of doc- 
trine)? 2178 

' All flesh suffering (receiving) great sorrow, who 
shall deliver, like a loving father ? Like the horse 
changing his master loses all gracefulness, as he for- 
gets his many words of guidance (so are we) ! 2179 

' As a king without a kingdom, such is the world 
without a Buddha! as a disciple (a iSravaka, a 
"much hearer") with no power of dialectic (dis- 
tinguishing powers) left, or like a physician without 
wisdom, 2180 

'As men whose king has lost the marks of 
royalty (bright or glorious marks), so, Buddha dead, 
the world has lost its glory ! the gende horses left 
without a charioteer, the boat without a pilot 
left! 2 181 

' The three divisions ' of an army left without a 
general! the merchantmen without a guide! the 
suffering and diseased without a physician ! a holy 
king (^akravartin) without his seven insignia (jewels, 
ratnani)! 2182 

' The stars without the moon ! the loving years 
(the planet Jupiter ?) without the power of life ! — 
such is the world now that Buddha, the great teacher, 
dies!' 2183 

Thus (spake) the Arhat 2 , all done that should be 
done, all imperfections quite removed, knowing the 
meed of gratitude, he was grateful therefore (spake 
gratefully of his master) ; 2 1 84 

Thus thinking of his master's love he spake! 

1 Infantry, cavalry, and chariots. 
* That is, as it seems, Anuruddha. 



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V, 37- PRAISING NIRVANA. 321 

setting forth the world's great sorrow ; whilst those, 
not yet freed from the power of passion, wept with 
many tears, unable to control themselves. 2185 

Yet even those who had put away all faults, 
sighed as they thought of the pain of birth and 
death. And now the Malla host 1 hearing that 
Buddha had attained Nirvana, 2186 

With cries confused, wept piteously, greatly 
moved, as when a flight of herons meet a hawk 
(kite). In a body now they reach the twin (6ala) 
trees, and as they gaze upon Tathagata dead (en- 
tered on his long sleep), 2187 

Those features never again to awake to con- 
sciousness, they smote their breasts and sighed to 
heaven ; as when a lion seizing on a calf, the whole 
herd rushes on with mingled sounds. 2188 

In the midst there was one Malla, his mind 
enamoured of the righteous law, who gazed with 
steadfastness upon the holy 2 law-king, now entered 
on the mighty calm, 2189 

And said : ' The world was everywhere asleep, 
when Buddha setting forth his law caused it to 
awake ; but now he has entered on the mighty calm, 
and all is finished in an unending sleep. 2190 

' For man's sake he had raised the standard of 
his law, and now, in a moment, it has fallen ; the 
sun of Tathagata's wisdom spreading abroad the 
lustre of its " great awakening 3 ," 2 1 9 1 

1 The Mallas (wrestlers) are termed ' lih-sse,' strong-masters, in 
Chinese. They dwelt at Kurinagara and PSvl The LUMavis 
are also called lih-sse. 

* The holy law-king, dharmari^a. 

1 The ' great awakening ' refers, of course, to Buddha as ' the 
awakened.' 

[19] Y 



r 



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322 FO-SHO-HING-TSAN-KING. V, 27. 

' Increasing ever more and more in glory, spread- 
ing abroad the thousand rays of highest know- 
ledge, scattering and destroying all the gloom (of 
earth), why has the darkness great come back 
again? 2192 

' His unequalled wisdom lightening the three 
worlds, giving eyes that all the world might see, 
now 'suddenly (the world is) blind again, bewildered, 
ignorant of the way ; 2193 

'In a moment fallen the bridge of truth (that 
spanned) the rolling stream of birth and death, the 
swelling flood of lust and rage and doubt, and all 
flesh overwhelmed therein, for ever lost.' 2194 

Thus all that Malla host wept piteously and 
lamented; whilst some concealed their grief nor 
spoke a word ; others sank prostrate on the 
earth; 2195 

Others stood silent, lost in meditation; others, 
with sorrowful heart, groaned deeply. Then on a 
gold and silver gem-decked couch 1 , richly adorned 
with flowers and scents, 2196 

They placed the body of Tathagata ; a jewelled 
canopy they raised above, and round it flags and 
streamers and embroidered banners; then using 
every kind of dance and music 2 , 2197 

The lords and ladies of the Mallas followed 



1 The ' gem-decked couch' or palanquin is probably represented 
in plate lxiv, fig. 1 (Tree and Serpent Worship, first edition). This 
is the procession of the couch through Kurinagara. The curly- 
haired men bearing it would indicate that the Mallas and LUMavis 
of Vaual! were the same race. 

* The use of ' dance and music ' at funerals is an old and well-, 
understood custom. Compare Sacred Books of the East, vol. xi, 
pp. 122, 123. 



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V, »7- PRAISING NIRVAiVA. 323 

along the road presenting offerings, whilst all the 
Devas scattered scents and flowers, and raised the 
sound of drums and music in the heavens. 2 198 

Thus men and Devas shared one common sor- 
row, their cries united as they grieved together. 
Entering the city, there the men and women, old 
and young, completed their religious offerings. 2 1 99 

Leaving the city, then, and passing through the 
Lung-tsiang gate 1 , and crossing over the Hira- 
«yavatl .river, they repaired to where the former 
Buddhas having died, had A'aityas raised to 
them 2 . 2200 

There collecting ox-head sandal wood and every 
famous scented wood, they placed the whole above 
the Buddha's body, pouring various scented oils upon 
the pyre ; 2201 

Then placing fire beneath to kindle it, three times 
they walked around ; but yet it burned not. At this 
time the great K&ryapa had taken his abode at Ra- 
gagriha. 3 , 2202 

And knowing Buddha was about to die was 
coming thence with all his followers ; his pure 
mind, deeply moved, desired to see the body of 
the lord ; 2203 

And so, because of that his sincere wish, the 
fire went out and would not kindle. Then Ka- 
jyapa and his followers coming, with piteous sighs 
looked on the sight 2204 

1 The Naga or Naga-Elephant gate. 

* Had their Nirvana-Jaityas erected. The account in the text 
does not agree with the Southern account ; but the popular Chinese 
record of the Nirvana is the same as the Pali. 

3 He was between Pava and Kurinagara, according to the 
common account. 

Y 2 



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324 FOSHO-HING-TSAN-KING. V, 27. 

And reverenced at the master's feet; and then, 
forthwith, the fire burst out. Quenched the fire of 
grief within ; without, the fire has little power to 
burn. 2205 

Or though it burn the outside skin and flesh, 
the diamond true-bone still remains. The scented 
oil consumed, the fire declines, the bones they place 
within a golden pitcher ; 2206 

For as the mystic world x (dharma-dhatu) is not 
destroyed, neither can these, the bones (of Buddha), 
' perish ; the consequence (fruit) of diamond 2 wisdom, 
difficult to move as Sumeru. 2207 

The relics which the mighty golden-pinioned bird 
cannot remove or change, they place within the 
precious vase ; to remain until the world shall pass 
away; 2208 

And wonderful! the power of men (the world) 
can thus fulfil Nirvana's laws, the illustrious name 
of one far spread, is sounded thus throughout the 
universe; 2209 

And as the ages roll, the long Nirva«a, by these, 
the sacred relics (bones), sheds through the world 
its glorious light, and brightens up the abodes of 
life. 2210 

He perished (quenched his splendour) in a mo- 
ment ! but these relics, placed within the vase, the 
imperishable signs of wisdom, can overturn the mount 
of sorrow; 221 1 

1 The dharma-dh&lu (fa kai) is the mystic or ideal world of the 
Northern Buddhists. Literally it is the ' limit (Spot) of dharma ;' 
dharma being the universal essence. This bears a striking resem- 
blance to the gnostic (Valentinian) theory of limitation of the 
Divine essence. 

3 Diamond wisdom, indestructible wisdom. 



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V, a8. DIVISION OF THE JARjRAS. 325 

The body of accumulated griefs 1 this imperishable 
mind (£i) can cause to rest, and banish once for 
ever all the miseries of life. 2212 

Thus the diamond substance (body) was dealt 
with at the place of burning. And now those valiant 
Mallas, unrivalled in the world for strength, 2213 

Subduing all private animosities, sought escape 
from sorrow in the true refuge. Finding sweet 
comfort in united love, they resolved to banish every 
complaining thought. 2214 

Beholding thus the death of Tathagata, they con- 
trolled their grieving hearts, and with full strength of 
manly virtue dismissing every listless thought, they 
submitted to the course (laws) of nature. 2215 

Oppressed by thoughts of grievous sorrow, they 
entered the city as a deserted wild, holding the 
relics thus they entered, whilst from every street 
were offered gifts. 2216 

They placed the relics then upon a tower 2 , for men 
and Devas to adore. 2217 

Varga 28. Division of the .SarJras. 

Thus those Mallas offered religious reverence to 
the relics, and used the most costly flowers and 
scents for their supreme act of worship. 2218 

Then the kings of the seven countries 3 , having 
heard that Buddha was dead, sent messengers to 

1 That is, the body subject to accumulation of sorrow. 

* ' In their council hall with a lattice work of spears, and with 
a rampart of bows,' Sacred Books of the East, vol. xi, p. 131. 

* The seven ' kings ' were, the king of Magadha, the Li£Mavis 
of Vairali, the Sakyas of Kapilavastu, the Bulis of Allakappa, the 
Koliyas of Rlmagrama, the Brahman ofVe/Aadipa, and the Mallas 
of P&va; Sacred Books of the East, vol. xi, pp. 131, 132. 



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326 FO-SHO-HING-TSAN-KING. V, 28. 

the Mallas asking to share the sacred relics (of 
Buddha). 2219 

„ Then the Mallas reverencing the body of Tatha- 
gata, trusting to their martial renown, conceived 
a haughty mind : 2220 

4 They would rather part with life itself (they 
said), than with the relics of the Buddha;' so those 
messengers returned from the futile embassage. 
Then the seven kings, highly indignant, 2221 

With an army, numerous as the rain clouds, 
advanced on Ku^inagara ; the people who went from 
the city filled with terror soon returned 2222 

And told the Mallas all, that the soldiers and the 
cavalry of the neighbouring countries were coming, 
with elephants and chariots, to surround the Kuri- 
nagara city. 2223 

The gardens, lying without the town, the foun- 
tains, lakes, flower and fruit trees were now de- 
stroyed by the advancing host, and all the pleasant 
resting-places lay in ruins. 2224 

The Mallas, mounting on the city towers, beheld 
the great supports of life 1 destroyed; they then 
prepared their warlike engines to crush the foe 
without; 2225 

Balistas 2 and catapults and 'flying torches 8 ' to 

1 The supports of life, as I take it, are the fields and fountains. 

8 It may be rendered 'bow catapults' and ' balista-stone-car- 
riages,' or bows, catapults, balistas, and stone carriages (carrying 
machines ?). 

* These flying torches and other instruments were u§ed by the 
Northern nations from remote antiquity. There is no indication 
of them, however, in the plate (xxxviii) in Tree and Serpent 
Worship, which, I take it, represents this scene. Ajvaghosha 
was familiar with Kanishka and his military appliances, and these 
doubtless included the instruments here referred to. 



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V, 28. DIVISION OF THE SARiRAS. 327 

hurl against the advancing host. Then the seven 
kings entrenched themselves around the city, each 
army host filled with increasing courage ; 2226 

Their wings of battle shining in array as the 
sun's seven beams of glory shine ; the heavy drums x 
rolling as the thunder, the warlike breath (rising) as 
the full cloud mist. 2227 

The Mallas, greatly incensed, opening the gates 
command the fray to begin ; the aged men and 
women whose hearts had trust in Buddha's 
law, 2228 

With deep concern breathed forth their vow, ' Oh ! 
may the victory be a bloodless one 2 !' Those 
who had friends used mutual exhortations not to 
encourage in themselves a desire for strife. 2229 

And now the warriors, clad in armour, grasping 
their spears and brandishing their swords 'midst the 
confused noise and heavy drums 1 (advanced). But 
ere the contest had begun, 2230 

There was a certain Brahman whose name was 
Dro#a (tuh-lau-na), celebrated for penetration, 
honour'd for modesty and lowliness, 2231 

Whose loving heart took pleasure in religion. 
This one addressed those kings and said : ' Regard- 
ing the unequalled strength of yonder city, One man 
alone would be enough (for its defence); 2232 

' How much less when with determined heart 
(they are united), can you subdue it! In the begin- 
ning 3 mutual strife produced destruction, how now 
can it result in glory or renown ? 2233 

1 Is HI for ^ ? If so, it would be cymbals and drums. 
* May they subdue those without loss or hurt to themselves. 
' Or, from the beginning. 



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328 FOSHOHING-TSAN-KING. V, 28. 

' The clash of swords and bloody onset done, 'tis 
certain one must perish ! and therefore whilst you 
aim to vanquish those, both sides will suffer in the 
fray. 2234 

' Then there are many chances, too, of battle, 'tis 
hard to measure strength by appearances; the 
strong, indeed, may overcome the weak, the weak 
may also overcome the strong ; 2235 

' The powerful champion may despise the snake, 
but how will he escape a wounded body ? there are 
men whose natures bland and soft, seem suited for 
the company of women or of children, 2236 

' But when enlisted in the ranks, make perfect 
soldiers. As fire when it is fed with oil, though 
reckoned weak, is not extinguished easily ; so when 
you say that they (your enemies) are weak, 2237 

'Beware of leaning overmuch on strength of body; 
nought can compare with strength of right (religion). 
There was in ancient times a Gina. 1 king, whose 
name was Karandhama (Avikshit), 2238 

' His graceful (upright) presence caused such love 
(in others) that he could overcome all animosity; 
but though he ruled the world and was high re- 
nowned, and rich and prosperous, 2239 

' Yet in the end he went back 2 and all was lost ! 
So when the ox has drunk enough, he too returns. 
Use then the principles of righteousness, use the 
expedients of good will and love. 2240 

' Conquer your foe by force, you increase his 



1 A Gina king, or a conquering king. Karandhama was a 
name of Avikshit. 

* Whether it means he went back ' to death,' or he lost his pos- 
sessions by warfare, is not plain from the text. The phrase ' all 
was lost,' may also be rendered, ' he gave up all.' 



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V, 28. DIVISION OF THE SARtRAS. 329 

enmity ; conquer by love, and you will reap no after- 
sorrow. The present strife is but a thirst for blood, 
this thing cannot be endured ! 2241 

' If you desire to honour Buddha, follow the exam- 
ple of his patience and long-suffering 1 !' Thus this 
Brahman with confidence declared the truth ; 2242 

Imbued with highest principles of peace, he 
spake with boldness and unflinchingly. And now the 
kings addressed the Brahman thus : 2243 

' You have chosen a fitting time for giving increase 
to the seed of wisdom, the essence of true friend- 
ship is (leads to) the utterance of truth. The 
greatest force (of reason) lies in righteous judg- 
ment. 2244 

' But now in turn hear what we say : The rules 
of kings are framed to avoid the use of force when 
hatred has arisen from low desires (question of the 
five pleasures) ; 2245 

' Or else to avoid the sudden use of violence in 
trifling questions (where some trifling matter is at 
stake). But we for the sake of law (religion) are 
about to fight What wonder is it 1 2246 

' Swollen pride is a principle to be opposed, for it 
leads to the overthrow of society ; no wonder then 
that Buddha preached against it, teaching men to 
practise lowliness and humility. 2247 

' Then why should we be forbidden to pay our 
reverence to his body-relics ? In ancient days a 

1 ' Hear, reverend sirs, one single word from me. 

Forbearance was our Buddha wont to teach.' 

Sacred Books of the East, vol. xi, p. 133. 
But it is not plain how Dro»a could address the Mallas as ' reverend 
sirs,' unless indeed the brethren were going to fight, which is 
beyond probability. 



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330 FO-SHO-HING-TSAN-KING. V, 28. 

lord of the great earth, Pih-shih-tsung 1 Nanda[or 
two lords, viz. Pih-shih-tsung and Nanda], 2248 

' For the sake of a beautiful woman fought and 
destroyed each other; how much more now, for 
the sake of religious reverence to our master, freed 
from passion, gone to Nirva#a, 2249 

' Without regard to self, or careful of our lives, 
should we contend and assert our rights ! A former 
king Kaurava (or belonging to the Kauravas) fought 
with a Pa#dava (king), 2250 

'And the more they increased in strength the 
more they struggled, all for some temporary gain ; 
how much more for our not-coveting 2 master 
(should we contend), coveting to get his living 
(relics)? 2251 

'The son of Rama, too, the J&shi (or Rama- 
rz'shiputra), angry with king Dararatha, destroyed 
his country, slew the people, because of the rage he 
felt ; 2252 

' How much less for our master, freed from anger, 
should we be niggard of our lives ! Rama, for Sita's 
sake, killed all the demon-spirits ; 2253 

' How much more for our lord, heaven '-received, 
should we not sacrifice our lives ! The two demons 
A-lai (Alaka) and Po-ku were ever drawn into con- 
tention; 2254 

' In the first place, because of their folly and 
ignorance, causing wide ruin among men ; how 

1 The character ' tsung ' in this name is uncertain, I have not 
therefore attempted to restore it. 

' Not-covetous; here there is a double-entendre, contrasting 
the absence of covetousness in Buddha with the presence of it in the 
Paw/avas and Kauravas. 

* ^C "HI f^ heaven-taken-up-received. 



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V, 28. DIVISION OF THE SARiRAS. 33I 

much less for our all-wise master should we be- 
grudge our lives! 2255 

' Wherefore if from these examples we find others 
ready to die for no real principle, how shall we for 
our teacher of gods (Devas) and men, reverenced 
by the universe, 2256 

' Spare our bodies or begrudge our lives, and not 
be earnest in desire to make our offerings ! Now 
then, if you desire to stay the strife, go, and for us 
demand within the city 2257 

' That they open wide (distribute) the relics, and 
so cause our prayer to be fulfilled. But because 
your words are right ones, we hold our anger for a 
while; 2258 

' Even as the great, angry snake, by the power of 
charms is quieted.' And now the Brahman 1 , having 
received the king's instruction, 2259 

Entering the city, went to the Mallas, and saluting 
them, spoke these true words : ' Without the city 
those who are kings among men 2 grasp with their 
hands their martial weapons, 2260 

' And with their bodies clad in weighty armour 
wait eagerly (to fight) ; glorious as the sun's rays ; 
bristling with rage as the roused lion. These united 
are, to overthrow this city. 2261 

' But whilst they wage this religious war, they fear 
lest they may act irreligiously, and so they have sent 
me here to say what they require. 2262 

'"We 8 have come, not for the sake of territory, 



1 There is nothing like this in the Southern account. 
' ' Kings among men/ Svanrts dvSpwv. 

' This is the only way to take the translation, although the 
pronoun 'ngo standing alone would signify ' I ' have come ; but 



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332 FO-SHO-HING-TSAN-KING. V, a8. 

much less for money's sake, nor on account of 
any insolent feeling, nor yet from any thought of 
hatred ; 2263 

' " But because we venerate the great JZishi, we 
have come on this account. You, noble sirs ! know 
well our mind ! Why should there be such sorrowful 
contention ! 2264 

' " You honour what we honour, both alike, then 
we are brothers as concerns religion. We both with 
equal heart revere the bequeathed spiritual relics of 
the lord. 2265 

' " To be miserly in (hoarding) wealth, this is an 
unreasonable fault ; how much more to grudge 
religion, of which there is so little knowledge in the 
world! 2266 

' " The exclusive and the selfishly-inclined, should 
practise laws of hospitality (civility) 1 ; but if ye have 
not rules of honour 2 such as these, then shut your 
gates and guard yourselves." 2267 

' This is the tenor of the words, be they good or 
bad, spoken by them. But now for myself and my 
own feelings, let me add these true and sincere 
words. 2268 

* Let there be no contention either way ; reason 
ought to minister for peace, the lord when 
dwelling in the world ever employed the force of 
patience. 2269 

' Not to obey his holy teaching, and yet to offer 
gifts to him, is contradiction. Men of the world 

perhaps the singular implies that Drona used the words of the chief 
of the kings. 

1 Should practise ' waiting for guest laws,' civil conduct. I have 
given here the sense of the passage. 

* Kshatriya rules, rules or laws of chivalry. 



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V, a8. DIVISION OF THE SARiRAS. 333 



for some indulgence, some wealth or land, contend 
and fight, 2270 

' But those who believe the righteous law, should 
obediently conform their lives to it ; to believe and 
yet to harbour enmity, this is to oppose " religious 
principle" to "conduct." 2271 

' Buddha himself at rest, and full of love, desired 
to bestow the rest he enjoyed, on all. To adore 
with worship the great merciful, and yet to gender 
wide destruction, 2272 

'.(How is this possible ?) Divide the relics, then, 
that all may worship them alike ; obeying thus the 
law, the fame thereof wide-spread, then righteous 
principles will be diffused; 2273 

' But if others walk not righteously, we ought by 
righteous dealing to appease them, in this way 
showing the advantage (pleasure) of religion, we 
cause religion everywhere to take deep hold and 
abide. 2274 

' Buddha has told us that of all charity " religious 
charity" is the highest; men easily bestow their 
wealth in charity, but hard is the charity that works 
for righteousness.' 2275 

The Mallas hearing the Brahman's words with 
inward shame gazed at one another ; and answered 
the Brahma^arin thus : ' We thank you much for 
purposing to come to us, 2276 

'And for your friendly and religious counsel — 
speaking so well, and reasonably. Yours are words 
which a Brahman ought to use, in keeping with his 
holy character 1 ; 2277 

'Words full of reconciliation, pointing out the 

~l)] ^ merit, or religious merit. 



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334 FO-SHO-HING-TSAN-KING. V, 28. 

proper road; like one recovering a wandering 
horse brings him back by the path which he had 
lost. 2278 

'We then ought to adopt the plan of recon- 
ciliation such as you have shown us ; to hear the 
truth and not obey it brings afterwards regretful 
sorrow.' 2279 

Then they opened out the master's relics and 
in eight parts equally divided them. Themselves 
paid reverence to one part, the other seven they 
handed to the Brahman; 2280 

The seven kings having accepted these, rejoiced 
and placed them on their heads 1 ; and thus with 
them returned to their own country, and erected 
Dagobas for worship over them. 2281 

The Brahma&lrin then besought the Mallas to 
bestow on him the relic-pitcher as his portion, and 
from the seven kings he requested a fragment of 
their relics, as an eighth share. 2282 

Taking this, he returned and raised a A'aitya, 
which still is named ' the Golden Pitcher Dagoba.' 
Then the men of Kusinagara collecting all the ashes 
of the burning, 2283 

Raised over them a Aaitya, and called it 'the 
Ashes Dagoba.' The eight Stupas of the eight 
kings, 'the Golden Pitcher' and 'the Ashes 
Stupa 2 ,' 2284 

Thus throughout 6ambudvlpa there first were 
raised ten Dagobas. Then all the lords and ladies 

1 Placing relics on the head was a token of reverence. Com- 
pare plate xxxviii (Tree and Serpent Worship). 

* In reference to these Aaityas or towers, compare the account 
given in the Pali (Sacred Books of the East, vol. xi, p. 135), and 
also Fa-hien, cap. xxiii. 



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V, a8. DIVISION OF THE SARtRAS. 335 

of the country holding gem-embroidered cano- 
pies, 2285 

Paid their offerings at the various shrines, adorn- 
ing them as any golden mountain \ And so with 
music and with dancing through the day and night 
they made merry, and sang. 2286 

And now the Arhats numbering five hundred, 
having for ever lost their master's presence, reflect- 
ing there was now no ground of certainty, returned 
to Gridhraku/a mount; 2287 

Assembling in king .Sakra's cavern 2 , they collected 
there the Sutra Pi/aka ; all the assembly agreeing 
that the venerable Ananda 2288 

Should say (recite), for the sake of the congrega- 
tion, the sermons of Tathagata from first to last, 
1 Great and small, whatever you have heard from 
the mouth of the deceased Muni.' 2289 

Then Ananda in the great assembly ascending 
the lion throne, declared in order what the lord 
had preached, uttering the words 'Thus have I 
heard.' 2290 

The whole assembly, bathed in tears, were deeply 
moved as he pronounced the words ' I heard ;' and 
so he announced the law as to the time, as to the 
place, as to the person ; 2291 

As he spoke, so was it written down from first 
to last, the complete Sutra Pi/aka 3 . By diligent 



1 Or, as the Golden Mountain, i. e. Sumeru. 

1 Indra jrilagrzha. 

8 Here we have a short account of the first Buddhist Council, 
called the Council of the 500. It forms no part of the MahS-pari- 
nibbana-Sutta, although it is found in the Vinaya Pi/aka. Com- 
pare Oldenberg, Vinaya Pi/akam, Introduction. 



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33^ FOSHO-HING-TSAN-KING. V, 28. 

attention in the use of means, practising (the way of) 
wisdom, (all these) (Arhats) obtained Nirva#a ; 2292 

Those now able so to do, or hereafter able, shall 
attain Nirvawa, in the same way. King Ajoka 1 
born in the world when strong, caused much sor- 
row; 2293 

When feeble 2 , then he banished sorrow; as the 
Asoka-flower tree, ruling over Gambudvtpa, his 
heart for ever put an end to sorrow, 2294 

When brought to entire faith in the true law; 
therefore he was called ' the King who frees from 
sorrow.' A descendant of the Mayura family, re- 
ceiving from heaven a righteous disposition, 2295 

He ruled equally over the world; he raised 
everywhere towers and shrines, his private name 
the ' violent Ajoka,' now called the ' righteous 
Ajoka.' 2296 

Opening the Dagobas raised by those seven kings 
to take the .Sartras thence, he spread them every- 
where, and raised in one day eighty-four thousand 
towers 8 ; 2297 

Only with regard to the eighth pagoda in Rama- 
grama, which the Naga spirit protected 4 , the king 
was unable to obtain those relics ; 2298 

1 This episode about Aioka is a curious one. It would seem 
from it that A^vaghosha knew only of one king of that name, called 
first ' the fierce,' afterwards ' the righteous.' 

* There are one or two Avadanas to be met with in Chinese 
Buddhist literature, relating to Aroka's sickness, and how he then 
desired to redeem his character by making offerings to Buddha. 
But the accounts are too uncertain to be admitted as conclusive 
evidence in the question of his conversion. 

8 This is a story everywhere received in Northern books. These 
eighty-four thousand towers are supposed to represent the number 
of sections, or perhaps letters, in the Pi/akas. 

* See Fa-hien's account, cap. xxiii. 



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V, 28. DIVISION OF THE SARiRAS. 337 

But though he obtained them not, knowing they 
were spiritually bequeathed relics of Buddha which 
the Naga worshipped and adored, his faith was in- 
creased and his reverent disposition. 2299 

Although the king was ruler of the world, yet was 
he able to obtain the first holy fruit 1 ; and thus in- 
duced the entire empire to honour and revere the 
shrines of Tathagata. 2300 

In the past and present, thus there has been deli- 
verance for all. Tathagata, when in the world ; and 
now his relics — after his Nirva«a; 2301 

Those who worship and revere these, gain equal 
merit ; so also those who raise themselves by wisdom, 
and reverence the virtues of the Tathagata, 2302 

Cherishing religion, fostering a spirit of alms- 
giving, they gain great merit also. The noble and 
superlative law of Buddha ought to receive the 
adoration of the world. 2303 

Gone to that undying place (Anmta), those 
who believe (his law) shall follow him there ; there- 
fore let all the Devas and men, without exception, 
worship and adore 2304 

The one great loving and compassionate, who 
mastered thoroughly the highest truth, in order to 
deliver all that lives. Who that hears of him, but 
yearns with love! 2305 

The pains of birth, old age, disease, and death, 
the endless sorrows of the world, the countless 
miseries of 'hereafter,' dreaded by all the De- 
vas, 2306 

He has removed all these accumulated sorrows ; 

1 That is, the first step in the Buddhist profession of sanctity 
(Srotapanna). 

[19] Z 



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338 FO-SHO-H1NG-TSAN-KING. V, a8. 

say, who would not revere him ? to escape the joys 
of after life, this is the world's chief joy ! 2307 

To add the pain of other births, this is the world's 
worst sorrow! Buddha, escaped from pain of birth, 
shall have no joy of the ' hereafter *!' 2308 

And having shown the way to all the world, who 
would not reverence and adore him ? To sing the 
praises of the lordly monk, and (declare) his acts 
from first to last, 2309 

Without self-seeking or self-honour, without desire 
for personal renown, but following what the scrip- 
tures say, to benefit the world, (has been my 
aim.) 2310 

1 The joy of the * hereafter,' is the joy, as men count it, of future 
sentient happiness. This, according to the text, it is the happiness 
of Buddha to have escaped. 



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NOTES. 

I. Comparative List of 17 Chapters of the Sans- 

krit and Chinese Copies of the Buddha- 
jcarita. 

II. Example of the Style of the Expanded 

SOtras, as translated into Chinese. 

III. The same Title given to different Works. 



Z 2 



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NOTE I. 

List of the Titles of 17 Chapters of 

the Sanskrit Text of the Buddhajtarita-kAvya, 

by Asvaghosha. 

1 wzm^tiAm n*ra: *Ft: II 

Birth of the Bhagavat 

2 qhnijiftgiCt *n* ffrfta: *tf: ii 

Life in the Palace. 
Beginning of Inward Trouble. 

4 fcflftmriHt Tm ^jpl: *rt: 11 

Separation from his Wife, &c. 

5 srfafH*5RTOt r(m iftn: *Ft: 11 

Departure. 

v 6 ^<<«fH«iA«j Tm to: *p! : 11 

Return of vWandaka. 

7 fTqt^TO^t «TTO TOW Wil II 

Entering the Forest of Penance. 

s 9m:g<Atf|ift STPTTCW *pt: n 

Lamentation in the Palace. 

9 $HKi3mift ^m toi: *pf: 11 

Search after the Crown Prince. 

io ^hhuHm^ ^?rfan*Rt im ?*m: *r: ii 

The arrival of Stem. 



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NOTE I. 
Chinese Translation bv Dharmaraksha. 

Mffrnmm 

Lit, • Buddha's practice-praise-sutra.' 

i £.&%- 

Birth. 

2 & W & $n 

Living in the Palace. 

3 JP B & $ H 

Disgust at Sorrow. 

Gives up a Life of Pleasure. 

5 Hi m & n& 

Leaves the City. 



6 IP- |g *g tfc ^ ^T 

Return of JOandaka. 

Enters the Forest of Penance. 

8 £ ^ £ IK a n A 

The general Grief of the Palace. 

9 ^^iC^^^^L 

Mission despatched to search for the Royal Prince. 

10 «»£»**,&# + 

Bimbis&ra R%u goes to visit the Royal Prince. 



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342 NOTE I. 

Renouncing Pleasure. 
Interview with ArSJa. 
Conquest of M&ra. 
Praise of Enlightenment 

15 ^H<inM^^^shH ^?n v)M<!J?iw ^N^r:^Fr:ii 

Request to turn the Wheel of the Law. 

16 ^imwlM$a «l&441HiM «tto ^tro wi** II 

Turning the Wheel of the Law. 

Going to Lumbinf, &c. FST* XTtI* ii 



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note i. 343 

The Prince's Reply to Bimbisara. 
Interview with Arida. and Udrarima. 

13 wl m ft n + ~ 

Defeats Mara. 
Abhisambodhi. 

15 m & n ft m + 3t 

Turns the Wheel of the Law. 

i6fc&^ii&#Tft$ + * 

Bimbisira Ra^a becomes a Disciple. 

n^^-f-Hl^ft^ + 'fc 

The Great Disciple quits his Home. 



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NOTE II. 

Example of the Style of the Expanded SOtras, 
as translated into chinese. 

PHtT YAU KING. 

KlOUEN II, § I. 

On the thirty-two miraculous signs which appeared 
on the eve of the Birth of Bodhisattva. 

Buddha addressed all the Bhikshus and said: Ten 
months having been fulfilled, Bodhisattva being on the 
point of birth, at this time there were manifested thirty- 
two miraculous signs. The first was this : (i) In the after- 
garden all the trees spontaneously bore fruit (a) The solid 
earth produced blue lotus flowers as large as a chariot- 
wheel. (3) All the decayed trees of the earth produced 
flowers and leaves. (4) The heavenly spirits drawing the 
chariots adorned with curtains of seven gems, arrived at 
the spot. (5) In the middle of the earth (or, in the earth) 
20,000 treasures of precious substances appeared of them- 
selves. (6) On every side, far and near, was perceived the 
agreeable fragrance of celebrated perfumes (ming hiang 
/ct ^8") - (?) From the snowy mountains there came forth 
500 white lions, and arranging themselves in front by the 
gates of the city, stood there without doing harm to any 
one. (8) Five hundred white elephants, arranging them- 
selves in front of the palace, stood there. (9) The Devas 
caused a soft and perfumed rain to fall on every hand (the 
four quarters, i.e. through the world). (10) There appeared 
in the palace of the king spontaneously a water fountain 
possessed of the hundred qualities of taste, fit to satisfy 
the wants of all who were athirst. (11) The Naga women 
appearing in the air with half their body visible, remained 
thus. (12) Ten thousand Devts, holding in their hands 



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EXAMPLE OF THE STYLE OF EXPANDED SUTRAS. 345 

peacock-feather fans, remained thus above the palace-walls. 

(13) All the Devis, holding in their hands 10,000 golden 
pitchers full of sweet- dew (nectar), remained fixed in space. 

(14) Ten thousand Devis, holding in their hands 10,000 
vases full of scented water, proceeded and stopped in the 
air [p|3 I suppose to be omitted]. (15) Ten thousand Devts, 
holding in their hands standards and parasols, stood at 
attention. (16) All the Devts arranging themselves in 
order stood still, whilst every kind of responsive music 
sounded spontaneously through space. (17) The four great 
river-drains (the four rivers flowing from the Anavatapta 
Lake?) remaining at rest, ceased to flow. (18) The sun and 
moon (the palaces of the sun and moon Devas) ceased to 
move. (19) The constellation Pushya descending, waited 
in the rear of all the other stars (or, star-concourse). (20) 
A net-like precious canopy entirely covered the palace 
of the king, (ai) The divine pearl of the bright moon 
hanging over the palace hall, shed abroad a brilliant 
effulgence. (22) The lamps and fires of the palace were 
(by the superior light without) no longer visible. (23) 
Baskets and articles of dress appeared placed on their 
stands. (24) Articles of jewelry and treasures of every 
kind of precious stone appeared of themselves. (25) The 
five kinds of poisonous insects suddenly disappeared, whilst 
the fortunate bird (or bird of good omen) soaring aloft 
poured forth pleasant songs. (26) The pains inflicted in 
the different hells were allayed. (27) The earth through 
a great movement became perfectly level and smooth. (28) 
The four great highways and the narrower streets appeared 
perfectly smooth and ornamented with flowers. (29) All 
valleys and cavernous places were raised and became 
even. (30) The cruel designs of those who fished in the 
waters or hunted on the land gave way in a moment to 
a loving and merciful heart. (31) All the diseases to 
which children newly born, such as blindness, deafness, &c, 
are liable, were averted. (32) The tree-Devas, with half 
their bodies visible, appeared to all beholders, their heads 
reverently inclined. Such were the thirty-two miraculous 
signs which appeared on every side of the (palace) en- 
closures, sufficient to cause wonder and admiration (in 



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346 NOTE II. 



those who beheld them), as indications of the approaching 
period. At this time the queen being about to give birth (to 
Bodhisattva), he, i.e. Bodhisattva, by exciting the thought 
in her mind by his own spiritual energy, caused her to 
arise at the first watch of the night, and having robed 
herself to go with her attendants to the place where the 
king was — (when she addressed him as follows) : — ' Listen 
to my words ! for a long time have I thought of entering 
the garden for the purpose of religious meditation — sup- 
posing in every case, O Maharaja 1 the idea is not dis- 
pleasing or troublesome to you ; in which case I would at 
once resort thither to reflect silently on the words of the 
sacred books.' The king thereupon answered, ' Willingly 
do I consent, saintly lady, that you should go forth to 
contemplate the flowers of the trees now in full bloom — for 
at this season, around the palace and its lovely dwellings, are 
countless kinds of trees, whose fruit and fragrant blossoms 
cannot but afford unmixed delight (to all beholders).' The 
queen, hearing these words, was filled with joy. Then the 
king commanded the precious chariot known as the ' cloud- \ 
mother ' to be prepared and decorated ; followed by a 
retinue of servants, and surrounded by attendant 1 women, 
thus the queen went forth to behold the trees in the 
Lumbint 2 garden. The conductors of the inferior chariots 
were all similar in appearance and colour, distinguished for 
their splendour as they rode, dazzling the eyes of men. 
Two hundred white elephants followed and preceded the 
cortege, all decorated with gems and pearls. The elephants 
were furnished with six tusks. The king of the elephants, 
in the midst, was covered with a golden network, to which 
bells were attached that sounded melodiously 3 as the wind 
blew them one against the other; in other respects also 
they were fully caparisoned and armed. At this time 
there was concord and goodwill in the world, an absence of 
a contentious spirit Thus surrounded, the queen wandered 

1 The expression is ' tsae' it% 

* The Chinese is ' Lin-ping ' for 'Lumbint;' in the glossary the sound 'ping* 
is given as equal to p(ing)-(m)i, i. e. ' pi.' 

* The sounds produced by gems striking one another. See glossary. 



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EXAMPLE OF THE STYLE OF EXPANDED SUTRAS. 347 

forth and reposed beneath the trees of the Lumbint garden. 
Then .Sakra-deva and Brahma-ra^a and the four heavenly 
kings descending (flying) from their respective abodes, 
and scattering flowers, hastily proceeded to the palace to 
ascertain the state of the case, and entering the different 
apartments, caused the servants and attendants to receive 
instructions (i. e. put the thought into their minds) to 
sweep and prepare the way for the approach of the king 
on the queen's departure. This being done and reported, 
the king was filled with joy, and entering the palace 
of the female attendants, he spoke thus : 'You who desire 
to give me satisfaction, and to impart joy, will do as I 
request; let there be no differences among you, but let 
each one be ready to sit quietly and reflect (on what I 
say). Decorate yourselves in your most dazzling attire ; and 
anoint yourselves (or, your garments) with the choicest per- 
fumes, pure and sweet; let your bodies be covered with 
countless ornaments and gems whose sound is delightful to 
the ear and joy-giving to the beholder, prepare for your- 
selves every kind of musical instrument, cymbals and pipes 
and lutes and drums, of every sort, which may accord in 
producing sweet music, so that the Devis themselves hearing 
it may have joy. Thus provided, attend the queen as she 
mounts the lovely chariot ; let male and female attendants 
alike, and the elephants composing the cortege, be deco- 
rated in one way, and let no ill sound or discordant note 
be heard to discompose the mind of the queen.' And now 
the elephants and horses and the military attendants of 
every kind, decorated as aforesaid, stood by the gate, and 
as the queen passed through on her departure there was 
heard the sound as it were of a great ocean, and the shouts 
of those who desired her ten thousand years, whilst the 
ornaments which decorated the chariot, as it moved along, 
gave forth propitious music. The lion throne, like that of the 
gods, was composed of (the wood of) the four precious (gem) 
trees, covered with (carved?) leaves and flowers of every 
possible description so as to perfect it. And now the ducks 
and geese and the peacocks raised their piteous notes in 
unison, whilst banners and flags decorated with the seven 
precious substances were placed as a canopy over the chariot 



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348 NOTE II. 



Then the Devas who dwell in space, surrounding the chariot 
as it advanced, likewise sang together in melodious strains. 
As soon as the queen sat down upon the lion throne the 
great universe (chiliocosm) was six times (or in six manners) 
shaken, and all the Devas scattered flowers (as they cried) : 
'The holy one to-day is about to be born even here 
beneath a tree of the Lumbint (garden), it is he who is 
a god among gods.' The four heavenly kings conduct 
the chariot, the divine 5akra purifies and prepares the 
way, whilst Brahma Devaraj-a leads on before, attended 
by a hundred thousand Devas, who ever turn towards the 
chariot and adore (the queen) with heads inclined. 

And now the king, the father, seeing all this, was filled 
with joy in his heart, and reflecting with himself he ex- 
claimed : ' This (child) must be in truth the king of gods 
and men, whom all the Devas, the four heavenly kings, 
.Sakra and Brahma, attending, agree to honour ; he must 
indeed be one who shall attain to the condition of Buddha ; 
for never yet in the three worlds has one received such 
adoration, whether Deva or Naga or divine .Sakra or 
Brahma, and yet escaped with life (unsplit head). Such a 
one then receiving these honours must of necessity in the 
end prove himself a holy person (divine).' Thus the queen 
(advanced), escorted by 84,000 chariots drawn by horses, 
the same number drawn by elephants, and by the same 
number of chariot drivers, fully adorned, and surrounded 
by soldiers, spearmen and halbard bearers of approved 
courage and strength on the right hand and on the 
left, and by others in front and rear, whilst before and 
behind was a surrounding concourse of 60,000 attendant 
women accompanied by 40,000 nobles all of the family 
of king 6uddhodana, whilst others, the attendants of 
64,000 kings, took part in the cortege that surrounded 
the mother of Bodhisattva. Moreover, there were 84,000 
female attendants of the Devas, the Nagas, the Gandharvas, 
the Kinnaras, Mahoragas, Asuras, all sumptuously deco- 
rated with jewels and ornaments, provided with drums and 
musical instruments, producing harmonious sounds although 
differing in character, whilst with their voices they sang 
of the perfections (virtues) of Bodhisattva's mother. Thus 



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EXAMPLE OF THE STYLE OF EXPANDED SfjTRAS. 349 

surrounded and attended they approach the Lumbin! grove, 
the road prepared carefully and the ground perfumed with 
scented water and covered with divine flowers, whilst the 
trees themselves budded forth and blossomed and the 
scented oil of choicest sandal-wood was produced on every 
side. This, indeed, was by the express interference of the 
gods. And now the queen having arrived, descended 1 from 
her precious chariot, and accompanied by Devas and Devis 
she proceeded onwards through the garden, whilst the trees 
in honour of her presence shed abroad their brilliant hues 
and their fragrant scent. The queen now observed one 
tree of conspicuous beauty, made perfect by every kind 
of pearl and precious ornament. The stalks and twigs, the 
branches and leaves of this tree were all in truth full of 
fragrance, whilst its lovely verdure spread around on every 
side drooped to the ground, pliant and pure as silky grass. 
Like a vestment of some heavenly being it covered the 
earth — even as had been the case from old time with 
respect to the laws (relating to the birth) of all the 
Buddhas. And now all the Devas and men, at once, strike 
their drums, and from innumerable instruments the fol- 
lowers of the queen join in the strain, as she goes forward 
and arrives beneath the tree. By the influence of Bodhi- 
sattva the spirit inhabiting the tree bending down a branch 
of its own accord rendered assistance to the queen. All 
the Devas who inhabit space bending down their heads 
did obeisance, the sun and moon shed abroad a pure un- 
sullied light, whilst the Devas and their female attendants, 
filled with admiration, gathered round to render meritorious 
service (to the queen as she stood) beneath the tree. 
Meantime the tree Deva was filled with joy in considering 
the reason of the presence of all this vast multitude, and 
reasoned thus : * Now may we all well endure to bear these 
bodies of ours, whilst we employ them in rendering service 
and obedience, for from the lowest hell 2 to the highest 
heavens of the Trayastriwwas all sorrow must cease, all 
darkness disappear, whilst now the holy one is about to be 

• I have substituted ~|t for _|^ in the text. 

' I have been obliged here to substitute BH for ;pB. 



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35° NOTE II. 



born. So it is the trees are covered with flowers and foliage, 
whilst innumerable Devas gathered around do homage, and 
the great earth is shaken in six ways. The sun and moon 
shed abroad a pure and serene light, and music from innu- 
merable instruments is heard around; yea, moreover, all 
impure desire is put away, and all the Devas are rilled with 
joy; for to-day the holy one is to show his pity for all 
creatures, and therefore Brahma and .Sakra and all the 
gods rejoice and worship; this is the honourable one 
among men, whose merits surpass the sun and moon. It 
is he, now dwelling in the womb, who shines forth like gold 
with a brightness eclipsing the light of heaven ; all the 
Devas, Brahma, .Sakra and the rest, and all the denizens 
of the countless worlds of space, putting away evil ways 
and thoughts, are now at peace, without remnant of sorrow 
or grief; and therefore the Devas, countless in number, 
offer the sacrifice of scattered flowers and music, and by 
their indomitable might cause the very ground to produce 
of itself flowers composed of the seven precious substances.' 
And now as Bodhisattva was born from the right side of 
his mother, suddenly there appeared a precious lotus flower 
on which he stood, and then taking seven steps he declared 
in words of the Fan language (or, with the voice of 
Brahma ; — Brahmaghosha) the character of impermanency 
in accordance with his (subsequent) teaching (and added) : 
' I am now about to save and deliver all those in heaven 
and earth (above the heaven and below the heaven), as the 
lord of Devas and men to deliver (detach) them from the 
misery of (repeated) birth and death, as the highest in the 
universe (the three worlds) to cause all creatures to arrive 
at the condition of non-individuality (wu-wei) and thus 
obtain enduring rest' Then .Sakra-ra^a and Brahma 
caused every kind of scented water to descend suddenly 
for the purpose of washing (the person of) Bodhisattva, 
whilst the nine dragons who dwelt in space above, caused 
other scented streams to descend for the purification of 
the holy master. The washing being finished (he stood) 
perfectly pure in body and soul (heart), raised far above 
the position which for the present he occupied as way- 
farer, born of a noble parentage, like a perfect and true gem 



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EXAMPLE OF THE STYLE OF EXPANDED SfJTRAS. 35 1 

uniting in itself every rare quality and excellency : about 
to turn the wheel of the law, or as a wheel king (Afakra- 
vartin) (if he continue in the world (the three worlds)) 
to bring all the quarters (the ten regions) under one over- 
shadowing government And there arose in the heart 
of .Suddhodana-ra^a a rapturous exultation. At this time 
there were born children of 5000 attendants (blue-clad)i 
who were presented to the king to become his personal 
guards (lih-sse, the words used generally for vri^i); 
800 young nurses also were delivered of sons; 100,000 
elephants likewise produced their young ; (as many) white 
mares produced their foals, their colour white as snow, their 
coats glossy and smooth; (as many) yellow sheep pro- 
duced their lambs. At the same time there appeared two 
myriads of curtained precious chariots ' for the holy one's 
use, (whilst those who brought them), bending their heads, 
desired to know whither he would go ; and beyond all this 
the Devas caused innumerable apparitional forms to pre- 
sent themselves, to offer various services, and caused a 
glorious radiance to fill the place: 5000 Apsarases, their 
persons breathing fragrance, each holding a jar of scented 
unguents, came to the place where stood the mother of 
Bodhisattva, 5000 others came to escort her to the city; 
having flowers and heavenly garments, whilst many youths 
and others came with jewels and ornaments for her per- 
son. Bodhisattva arriving at the condition ' free from fear ' 
must complete the way of Buddha 2 . Then Buddha ad- 
dressed the Bhikshus : * At the time of Bodhisattva's birth, 
his mother was perfectly at ease, no disagreeable malady 
or accompanying inconvenience disturbed her ; but she was 
in the condition which most became her. At the same 
time, both in front and behind her, were 5000 female 
attendants providing divine incense and holding scented 
oil as an offering to the mother of Bodhisattva, whilst 
without intermission they paid her lowest reverence : there 
were, moreover, 5000 female attendants who offered her 
divine medicaments, 5000 others who presented her with 

1 Before the word for 'precious,' the text has an expression kiau-lu, which 
is said to mean curtain. 
' This clause comes in without any apparent connection with the context 



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352 NOTE II. 



jewels and necklets (or, precious necklaces), 5000 others 
who offered her divine robes for her person, 5000 others 
who offered her (or, attended her with) divine music, all 
these paid to her constant and reverent attention.' 

And now it came to pass that there were five Rishis with 
supernatural powers passing over this country through the 
air who suddenly appeared in the presence of Suddhodana- 
ra^a 1 . Buddha, moreover, addressed the Bhikshus and 
said : ' At the time of Bodhisattva's birth, during seven days 
from morning till evening, there was continual music, whilst 
all the assembly offered a hundred different sorts of food 
beneath the Lumbinf tree, presenting to the mother of 
Bodhisattva the fruits of merit resulting from the exercise 
of the paramitas of charity, morality, patience, and perse- 
verance. At this time 32,000 Brahma£arins from day to 
day, without intermission, offered their gifts without stint, 
whatever (the mother of Bodhisattva) desired ; .Sakra-deva 
and Brahma, assuming the appearance of young Brahmans 
(students), having taken conspicuous places amongst the 
assembled Brahma£arins, repeated these Gathas : 

" Having put an end to all evil ways of birth (in himself) 
He has now sent universal peace among men ; 
All creatures enjoying concord and rest 
Are free from sorrow everywhere. 
As the brightness of the sun scatters darkness, 
So the glory of all the Devas withers, 
His glorious merit scatters all their brightness, 
And causes it to decay and disappear. 
(We do) not (now) consider the time when he shall have exhausted 

karman (i. e. be born as a Buddha), 
Nor shall we hear again of such a time, 
For now the glory of Buddha has appeared, 
And he has become the great saint of the world ; 
No more for him of labour or the ills of sense (dust), 
His loving heart compassionates all living creatures, 
And so innumerable Devas of the Brahma heaven (or, innumerable 

Brahma devas) . 
Have come to offer him boundless sacrifice. 
And therefore also the trees covered with flowers 
Rest in quiet upon the peaceful (or level) earth, 
(In proof that) all the world will come to him for refuge (salvation), 
And that all will fully rely on him. 

1 These parenthetical clauses appear to have crept into the text, and remained 
there without any immediate connection. 



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EXAMPLE OF THE STYLE OF EXPANDED SUTRAS. 353 

Just as in this lower world 

The lotus springs from the midst of the mire, 

Thus is PrabhapSla 1 now born in the world. 

About to nourish and govern all that lives. 

For like as a pliant delicate robe 

Is redolent with heavenly perfume, 

So if there be a man diseased or sick 

He will for his sake become ' the chief physician.' 

And as by his presence he has caused an absence of all lustful desire, 

And peace and goodwill dwell in the world of form, 

(And as) with hands clasped (all these) render him worship, 

He is surely worthy to be called the 'protector of all,' 

And as the Devas, and their followers, 

All with compliant hearts 

Mix freely with men in their common worship, 

He will be in truth the 'great master of all.' 

And as the pure unsullied water (rain) 

Is universally diffused and causes luxuriant vegetation, 

So by the right apprehension (samyakdnsh/i) of the truth of this one's 

doctrine, 
There shall ever be both rest and quiet.'" 

Buddha, moreover, addressed the Bhikshus and said: 
' Seven days after the birth of Bodhisattva his mother died.' 
On this the thought occurred to the Bhikshus, it must have 
been on account of some fault on the part of Bodhisattva 
that such an event occurred ; on which Buddha resumed : 
Let not such a thought present itself ; and why ? Because 
her destiny was even so, that the birth of Bodhisattva should 
be the term of her life ; and hence at her birth, when she 
came down for the purpose of bearing Bodhisattva in her 
womb, all the Devas attended her and provided her with 
heavenly clothing and food. And it has ever been thus. 
The mothers of all the Buddhas have always died seven 
days after their birth ; and so because at the time of 
Bodhisattva's birth the bodily functions of his mother were 
all in perfect condition, she was born as the result of her pre- 
vious merit in the Trayastri»ttas heaven. And before this, 
Bodhisattva not yet born, she had gone up thither, on which 
occasion all the Devas attending her offered her a palace 
to dwell in, and awaiting her in the great preaching hall 
they offered the queen 5000 pitchers containing the rarest 
scented waters ; 5000 Apsarases presented her with thrones 

1 In Chinese 'hu-ming:' this was the name of Bodhisattva whilst resident 
in the Tusita heaven. 

[19] a a 



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354 ' NOTE »• 



to sit on ; 5000 others, holding caps of state in their hands, 
sprinkled before her on the ground perfumed water ; 50,000 
Brahma devas, holding golden pitchers, saluted her with 
expressions that she might live 10,000 years ; 20,000 N&gas 
with necklaced bodies, 20,000 white elephants with pearl- 
covered bodies, 20,000 chariots with flags and jewelled cano- 
pies surrounded her, and behind these 40,000 armed attend- 
ants, heroes of marked courage, and Bodhisattva himself in 
the rear. Moreover, on this occasion there were countless 
thousand Devas, who caused to appear in space in a moment 
yellow golden parapets, along which they offered worship to 
the mother of Bodhisattva. On that night Bodhisattva was 
conceived in the womb, on which occasion 20,000 damsels 
attendants on Mara, proceeding from the great and superbly- 
adorned palace of the Kamaloka heavens, and holding in 
their hands precious silken tissues, came to the place to 
wait on the mother of Bodhisattva ; and so likewise 20,000 
men (male Devas?) with highly decorated bodies, to do 
honour to the occasion. On that night between every two 
attendant women was one Apsaras 1 ; the attendant women 
beholding the beauty of her face felt the risings of desire. 
And now by the power of the divine merit of Bodhisattva 
in the midst of this great city of Kapilavastu, 500 nobles, all 
of the Stikya. race, each laid the foundation of a palace for 
residence, 500 in all, so that when he entered the gates of the 
city, they addressed him as they paid him reverence and said, 
' Oh ! would that Sarv&rthasiddha would condescend to enter 
this divine abode (place 2 ), this perfectly pure abode. Oh ! 
thou whose eye beholds all things (samanta&ikshus), thou 
hast come down into this world (yeou=bhava), (condescend 
to enter) this great palace called " Hu-tsing-fa" (defend- 
pure-fiower), a fitting residence for Bodhisattva.' 

Then the great Brahma/fc&rins and the principle princes of 

1 I take this from the French translation of the Lalita Vistara; the Chinese 
expression is rr4| ~tt. 

* JTu-tien-Jtii; the French translation from the Tibetan renders this'God 
above gods,' and so in the next phrase, tsi ng- 1 sing-iii, ' perfectly pure abode 
or place,' the Tibetan refers this also to Bodhisattva, and translates it, ' Oh I 
thou pure being.' I do not see how to bring the Chinese text into harmony 
with the Tibetan in this passage. 



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EXAMPLE OF THE STYLE OF EXPANDED SfjTRAS. 355 

the .Sakya tribe addressing .Suddhodana said, ' It would be 
perhaps convenient if the prince would condescend to agree 
to enter these abodes and remain in them (use them).' 
Bodhisattva therefore entered the 500 abodes. (Moreover 
they said, ' Who is there 1 ) of conspicuous merit, and of com- 
placent disposition, who can protect and order (Bodhisattva) 
aright?' Then 500 ATAandakas ", each one said, 'We can 
nourish and cherish the prince.' But others replied, ' It is 
a difficult task to train aright and lead into obedience 
one possessed of such saintlike wisdom as the prince, espe- 
cially such as are in the prime of their beauty and youth, 
for when he begins to grow up who then will be able to 
attend on him and direct him aright?' Then they all 
agreed that Mahaprajrapati alone was able to nourish (the 
child), and with loving heart to protect him from the heats 
and damps of his abode, and to feed him with child's food 
(pap) by which he might grow to maturity. Mahapra.ga- 
patl, the prince's maternal aunt, pure and faultless, she, 
they said, is the one to protect and cherish, and ever be 
near the person of the prince. Then .Suddhodana-ra^a 
and the .Sikya princes, being all agreed on this point, went 
together to the abode of Mahapra^apati and expressed 
their wishes on the point: 'The prince's mother being 
dead, we beg you, his maternal aunt, to take charge of 
him and bring him up, that he may grow up (to manhood).' 
So Mahapra^apati undertook the office. 

The king now called an assembly of the .Sakyas, wishing to 
find out, by enquiring of them, whether the prince was to be 
the lord of the kingdom, or if he was to become a recluse ; 
desiring to solve this doubt (he called them together). Then 
the Sakyas all replied and said, ' We have heard that in the 
snowy mountains there is a Rishi, a Brahmaiarin, called 
Asita (A-i-to), of advanced age, and possessed of much 
wisdom, and thoroughly understanding all qualities and 
substances 3 (i. e. the nature of all things).' 

1 I have been obliged to supply this, the text being evidently corrupt. 

' Ku-nih. This is the transcription for JSTAandaka, the coachman of Bodhi- 
sattva. It is possible it may here represent ' a personal attendant ' only, whether 
male or female. In the Lalita Vistara we read Sakyabadhfl, the wives of the S'akyas. 

* I take siang here in its usual (Buddhist) sense as equal to 'lakshana,' 
and fa as equal to ' dharma' in the sense of ' substance.' 

A a 2 



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356 NOTE II. 



The king on hearing this was filled with joy, and caused 
a white elephant to be sumptuously equipped for the pur- 
pose of bringing to the place this learned man 1 . Then all 
the Devas and Nagas and spirits assembled in countless 
numbers and in various shapes accompanied the cortege as 
it left the city. Then Asita, seeing the transformed appear- 
ances of the Devas, knew thai .S'uddhodana-ra.^a had a holy 
son, whose spiritual (divine) glory outshone that of all the 
Devas and men, and so his heart was rejoiced, and he desired 
to go to behold him. On this the world-honoured one (i. e. 
Buddha) again, for the sake of the assembly, repeated these 
Gathas : 

'The Brahman Rishi Asita 
Beholding the Devas flying thro' space, 
Their forms beautiful and of golden colour, 
Seeing them, was filled with joy. 
Devas, Asuras, and Garurfas (golden-wings) 
Chanting' their praises in honour of Buddha, 
Hearing these verses, how great his joy. 
Then looking by his divine sight thro' the world, 
And considering the various examples of men of renown. 
Whose excellences were as the mountain tops, 
Or like the well-set and glossy flowers of the tree, 
Wherever dwelt the lord of the three wprlds, 

There the wide-spreading earth would be level as the palm of the hand, 
There would be heavenly and unmixed joy. 
There would be abundance as the treasures of the sea king. 
Regarding thus the declarations (" reason," or " way ") of the law, 
That one should come who would destroy evil and put an end to 

sorrow, 
Whilst he saw the Devas flying thro' space, 
And listened to their melodious songs (sounds), 
Regarding these fortunate and rare occurrences, 
Asita looked through the world. 
And narrowly scanning (the territory of) Kapila (and the family of) 

&uddhodana-raj'a ', 
He saw that a child had there been bom with fortunate signs. 

1 Taou gin, this is another instance of the use of this expression not for a 
Buddhist, but for a religious man generally. 

' fun- to, which I can only restore to JTAandas, in the sense of a verse or 
singing a verse. 

* The sentence is elliptical and difficult ; literally rendered it would be 
'scanning Ka-i-pih-wang,' where I take Ka-i to be a form for Kapi(la) (just as 
the expression Kiu-i, so commonly met with as the name of Bodhisattva's 
wife, may be restored to Gopt) and pih-wang (the white king) to be a 
contracted form of ■9uddh(odana)-ra£a. 



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EXAMPLE OF THE STYLE OF EXPANDED SUTRAS. 357 

Seeing this, rejoicing he set out. 

And (arriving) stood at the king's palace gate; 

He beheld there an innumerable concourse of people, 

When spying out a servant (grey-clothes), he asked and said: 

"All hail I where dwells the king? 

I desire to have an audience with the lord of the kingdom;" 

The servant seeing the Ri&hi venerable for age, 

With joy elated, entered the palace and delivered the message. 

The king then ordered him to cause the Rishi to appear before him, 

And spreading a seat he went forthwith to meet him. 

Asita, hearing (the message), was glad at heart. 

And filled with a yearning desire 1 , 

He asked where dwelt the lord, the holy one, 

For he was failing now in years and had but few to live. 

The king, commanding him to be seated. 

Asked him wherefore he had come'? 

Because (he said) of the many signs he had seen, he had come, 

Hearing of the excellency (superiority) of the son he had, 

The thirty-two signs on his body, 

He wished to behold him and inspect the fortunate indications, 

Therefore (he said again) have I come. 

"Welcome I (said the king) I rejoice (to see you) [or, I rejoice (to 

hear it)]. 
Now for a moment the child sleeps in peaceful rest, 
But wait for a little while until he wakes, 
And you shall see him beautiful as the moon at full."' 

On this the mind of Asita being much perplexed, he 

replied to the king in the following Gathas and said : 

'From endless Kalpas 

With perseverance' accumulating meritorious conduct. 
From time long past inspired with wisdom, 

How is it possible that such a one can again take his rest in sleep? 
Thro' ages past exercising the virtue of charity, 
Feeling deep compassion for the poor, 
Grudging nothing which he possessed, 
How can such a one again seek rest in sleep? 
Reverencing the rules of pure conduct (stla). 
Observing the moral law without transgression. 
Desiring to relieve and save all that lives, 
How can such a one still find rest in sleep? 
Always practising patience and equanimity. 
His mind harbouring no resentment, 
Controlling his heart (firm) like the solid earth, 
How can such a one still repose in sleep ? 
Persevering steadily, as the. moon from its first appearance, 

1 Literally, ' in his heart harbouring-hungry-void.' 
• Why himself invited, or condescended to come. 
« Vtrya. 



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358 



NOTE II. 



His eye ever looking onward without a moment's hesitation, 

Regarding the example of the Buddhas of the ten regions (the universe), 

How can such a one again repose in sleep? 

With equal mind 'ever lost in contemplation (dhyina), 

Without at any time disturbance or confusion, 

The mind fixed as a great mountain. 

How can such a one again repose in sleep? 

Possessed of wisdom (prig/ii) without limit, 

With divine penetration like the sun's brightness, 

Able to open out and explain every subject of enquiry, 

How can such a one again repose in sleep? 

Always cherishing the fourfold qualities', 

Practising love and pity, joy and equanimity 

Ceaselessly and without neglect as Brahma 3 himself, 

How can such a one again repose in sleep? 

Reverently practising the four gracious acts' — 

Benevolence, charity, humanity, and love — 

Doing all for the good of men and that they again may profit others. 

How can such a one again repose in sleep? 

Reverently performing the thirty-seven divisions*, 

How can such a one again repose in sleep? 

Always exercising the cross-method of indirect means (upSya), 

Taking advantage of the occasion to open out and convert (explain and 
so convert), 

Aiming in every turn to save the whole creation, 

How can such a one again repose in sleep? 

His heart always at perfect rest, 

His mind fixed with no approach to indifference. 

Entering thus on the deep and impenetrable sam&dhi, 

How can such a one again repose in sleep? 

Seeing clearly the beginning and ending (of the history) of that and 
this (i. e. of all), 

Beholding as though present all the Buddhas, 

Explaining that they (i. e. the Buddhas) are essentially without be- 
ginning, 

How can such a one again repose in sleep? 

Ever practising (or using) the three gates of salvation, 

(Viz.) (the gate of) perfect void, without qualities, incessant effort 
(prayer or vow), 

(Teaching) that the ideas of real existence (bhava). 

And the absence of such existence, are without solid foundation, 

How can such a one again repose in sleep? 

Great in love, of unfailing compassion, 

1 Yih- sin generally corresponds to the Sanskrit samyak ; it denotes the con- 
dition enjoyed during sam&dhi. 

* Viz. the four qualities of heart named in the next line. 
» Fan. 

* Yan-hing, these four are named in the line following. 

5 The thirty-seven perfections necessary to the attainment of Bodhi. I have 
not thought it necessary to name these in the text. 



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EXAMPLE OF THE STYLE OF EXPANDED SUTRAS. 359 

As a boat of the law (vessel of religion) passing through the three worlds. 

To save and deliver the living and the dead. 

How can such a one again repose in sleep? 

His religious merit (virtue) vast as space. 

Himself bom in this lower world for the sake of all creatures. 

Under a vow to deliver these by means of the three vehicles', 

How can such a one again repose in sleep? 

Able to pass thro' the vastness of space, 

Knowing the hidden depths of the wide sea, 

Able to count the number of every tree and shrub, 

How can such a one again repose in sleep? 

Let the king hear my words, 

The virtues (excellences) of his son are without compare. 

His wisdom infinite (beyond the number of the dust), 

How can such a one again repose in sleep? 

Descending as a god into his mother's womb, 

So as to save countless beings. 

Not omitting even the least in his intention, 

How can such a one again repose in sleep?' 

And now Bodhisattva having awoke from his sleep and 
arisen, Mahapra^apati, enfolding him in a white and silk-like 
robe, came with him to the place where the king was. 
The king then offered to the Rtshi (man of reason) a purse 
of gold and one of silver (yellow gold, white silver), which 
he declined to receive. Then unfolding the robe in which 
he was wrapped, (Asita) proceeded to observe the dis- 
tinctive marks on the person of the prince. Of these he 
perceived thirty-two, viz. his entire body of a golden 
colour, on the summit of his head a fleshy excrescence, 
his hair of a purplish dark colour 2 ; between the eyebrows 
a white soft hairy circle, from the top of his head a bright 
light like that of the sun, the iris of the eye of a deep 
blue, moving the eyes up and down with ease, forty teeth 
in the mouth, the teeth white and even and square, the jaw- 
bones wide and long, the tongue long and full, his breast 
and shoulder broad and square like a lion's, his fingers 
long, his heels full and round, the fingers and toes connected 
by a thin filament, the wheel with a thousand spokes 
under the feet, that which ought to be hidden 3 concealed, 

1 That is, the three degrees of Sravaka, Pratyeka Buddha, and Bodhisattva. 

* This colour seems to correspond with the Greek iciavos ; compare mavo- 
xa/rijr as applied to Poseidon. 

* Concealed, as in the horse ; but the whole of this part of the text is involved. 
This refers to the thirteenth lakshana, Koshopagatavastiguhyata. 



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36O NOTE II. 



his leg (calf of leg) like the stag's \ the hair of the head 
curling to the right, every hair with a distinct opening, 
the hair or the skin soft and pliant, free from perspiration 2 , 
on his breast the figure ^J. Asita beholding these signs 
was overcome with emotion, the tears fell from his eyes, and 
he was unable to speak. On this, the king and Mahipra^a- 
pati were moved at heart, and with reverence (closed hands) 
addressed him thus : ' Is there then something unlucky ? 
oh ! tell us then its purport.' With closed hands, and raised 
in reverence, he replied : ' Fortunate and without the least 
ill omen. Let me venture to felicitate the king on the 
birth of this divine being (spiritual man). Undoubtedly 
it was on this account that the heavens and earth were 
greatly shaken on the evening of yesterday ; and now as 
I understand the meaning of these signs, I will tell the 
king. The child possesses the thirty-two marks of a great 
man ; if he remains in the world (i. e. a secular man) he 
will be a holy wheel-king (£akravartin) to whom the seven 
precious things will of themselves arrive, and his thousand 
sons will rule the world in righteousness ; but if he leaves the 
world (i.e. becomes a recluse) he will of himself become 
a Buddha (perfectly enlightened), and be the saviour of all 
living things. And now because I am old, I shall assuredly 
not in after days behold the Buddha, nor hear his sacred 
instructions (sutras), and therefore I give way to grief.' 
Then the king, perfectly understanding his ability in inter- 
preting signs, caused a palace to be erected with three 
halls fit for the three seasons — each in a different place— one 
for the cool season, and this he called the Autumn Hall ; 
one for the warm season, and this was the Cool Hall ; one 
for the winter season, and this was the Warm Hall : and 
then he selected 500 dancing women of rare beauty, neither 
too stout nor too thin, neither too tall nor too short, neither 
too fair nor too dark, skilful in all feminine arts and blandish- 
ments, all of them provided with pearl and other famous 

1 There is a phrase here used ffiu £m hook-lock, which may possibly refer 
to the hooked form of the leg of the stag, though this would hardly be a sign 
of beauty in a human being. [It is explained in the glossary as denoting 
the bones well knit together.] 

* Dust-water. 



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EXAMPLE OF THE STYLE OF EXPANDED SUTRAS. 36 1 

jewelled necklaces for their persons. A hundred men, each 
in turn, guarded the place by night. Before the several 
palaces were every kind of sweet fruit trees, and between 
the trees tanks of water, in which were every kind of 
aquatic flower, whilst an innumerable number (or a large 
number) l of birds with shining plumage and of different 
species (sounded their joyful notes on every side). The 
king hoped thus to amuse and please the prince, so as 
to prevent the rising of any desire to awaken reason (to 
become Buddha). The palace windows were all well 
secured, and the gates on opening and shutting could be 
heard at a distance of forty lis. 

And now Buddha addressed the Bhikshus : ' When Bo- 
dhisattva was born, the great-spirit illustrious Deva (i.e. 
Mahe^vara) addressed all the pure-abode (Devas) [i.e. the 
Suddhavasakayikas] (and said), " Bodhisattva Mahasattva 
(ta-sse) through countless ages having heaped up merit 
and acquired (tied as in a string) virtuous conduct, by his 
purity which has been to him a sacred enclosure 2 , by 
his charity which has been everywhere celebrated, by his 
moral conduct (jila) purifying himself throughout, diligently 
practising right conduct, his great love and pity leading 
him willingly to undertake the protection of all creatures 
and to lay a foundation of great rest (peace) in the world, 
Bodhisattva thus persevering with unflagging determination 
to fulfil the great vow he made in ages gone by before 
the Buddha then living (i. e. Dlpankara) to plant the root 
of all virtues in himself, to be distinguished by possessing 
the glorious and holy substance of a hundred (sources) of 
merit, by which to cause peace and agreement amongst 
all creatures, and to cause them to rise above perverse 
thoughts (disagreements), and by perfect purity and re- 
jection of all that is vile, in this way to lay the foundation 

= f" Q , which is a phrase often used for 'a great number;' see Notices 
on Chinese Grammar [part i, by Philo-Sinensis, Batavia. 1843], p. 70 ; and com- 
pare Fa-hien, p. 1C1 (English edition), where M. Stanislas Julien has suggested 
another reading. 

1 Taou-*ang, reason enclosure; this is the usual phrase for the Bodhi 
maiu&Ia, or enclosure round the Bodhi tree ; it is difficult to translate in the 
text. 



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362 NOTE II. 



in himself for arriving at perfect wisdom, and (unfurl) the 
infinitely high standard of religion for the rescue of those 
who profess only natural powers (for their salvation), of 
himself to subdue (the evil powers that govern) the great 
universe, to become the leader and guide of gods and men, 
to perform fully that great sacrifice which directs men 
in the way from ignorance, and leads them to accumulate 
the excellent qualities of wisdom, to cut off the very source 
of repeated birth and death, to put in motion and make 
manifest the great vehicle — this one has just been born 
on the lower earth, and dwells in the king's palace — ; oh 
then ! let all living things — putting aside all private feelings 
(or intentions), those who have arrived at wisdom and 
those not yet arrived— go straightway and adore with 
bowed heads, let them admire his merit and virtue, let 
them offer their sacrifice and bestow their gifts ; and as 
for the rest, those Devas who are not subject to religion, 
but are puffed up in their own estimation, not knowing 
that the chief true one is manifested to point out the great 
way, whose destiny is of infinite worth, surpassing that of 
Bodhisattvas unknown in number, — let all these too come 
and adore, let them behold this land of the king of the 
country of .Sravasti 1 , let 2 them acquire merit by declaring 
the wisdom and majesty of Sarvarthasiddha, who has been 
born there, let them examine his true wisdom, and thus 
attain to the highest method of salvation;" and then 
they chanted thus : 

"The merits (virtues) of Siddhartha' are as the sea (for extent). 
And so declares Mahesvara with propriety, 
Through ages too numerous to mention, 
Preparing to be accepted as the honourable among men. 
And now the countless host of the Devas of the pure abodes, 
With glorious bodies resplendent as gems, 
Are come with dignity and decorum in a body, 

1 Tsang-yeh, increase and augment. Used for ■Sravastt. Perhaps it should 
be Kapilavastu. 

1 In the original it is 'let them &c. of born-time.' I take born-time to be 
a form of Bodhisattva's name, ' Sarvarthasiddha,' because when this name was 
given him, the king said, 'At the time of his birth all was prosperous.' 
But it is obscure. 

' Sing-shi. 



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EXAMPLE OF THE STYLE OF EXPANDED SUTRAS. 363 

To offer to the most honourable one, in person, their respectful worship. 
These Devas, secure from the sufferings of the long night ', 
Fixed (or safe) in the pure gate * of all virtue, 
Glorious with (or like) precious jewels. 
Beautiful in appearance as the full moon, 
Shining with radiance, but not equal to the holy one. 
In reputation not to be compared with him, 
They dare not pass over the royal precinct, 

(Denizens of) the three worlds are unable to take so great responsi- 
bility, 
Though from their persons issued such pure effulgence, 
Though their words were harmonious (sweet) beyond rivalry, 
Though richly (deeply) endowed with moral excellence 
Beyond all other Devas, 

Yet they could but offer to him their incomparable perfumes, 
(They could but) reverence and adore 
The Prince, unequalled for dignity, 
And sacrifice to him as a god among gods. 
Asita now informed (sent to) Suddhodana 

(This message), ' The sign-interpreter desires to be admitted to see 
The incomparably-beautiful divine holy one.' 
The king, hearing the message, rejoiced exceedingly; 
The gate-keeper respectfully announces, ' the king (desires you) to enter.' 
The (sage), honoured by men, hearing this, 
His hand holding a flower, was glad, 
And like a divine person entered the holy abode. 
And now the king beholding him enter, 
Immediately rose with hands clasped together. 
And arranged for him a gilded jewelled couch, 

With the request that his excellency would sit on this (prepared) couch ; 
Immediately sitting, he examined carefully the four (quarters). 
The king then desired to know wherefore he had come. 
The child just born, his body replete with excellent tokens. 
His conduct true, this one I am come to see; 
Provided with marks and signs (indicating) his holy intelligence. 
Not knowing any cause to return quickly, 
Therefore do I wait here on the chair, 

Expecting to be permitted to behold the glorious marks and signs. 
And' now this attendant company (of Devas) arriving. 
Quietly and joyfully they took their places above the Royal Prince, 
And with reverence they behold him ; 

Lost in wonder, they reported to those without his unequalled (beauty) 
And now, at length, (when) the exceedingly excellent lord and master, 
Resplendent as gold, awaking, holy and graceful, 
Raised himself, and showed his countenance, 

1 ITang-ye, viz. the long night of pain. 

* The expression • gate,' e. g. ' gate of the law,' means generally a ' mode' or 
' method' (of salvation) ; hence the Devas are here said to be safe in the ' pure 
mode' or 'method,' i.e. to be £uddhavasikas. 

3 Here the arrival of the Devas is again referred to. 



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364 NOTE II. 



They bowed their heads to hide their eclipsed glory. 

The old man (Asita), beholding him, rejoiced, 

His incalculable (top unseen) excellences and endowments, 

The white hair, unknown 1 among the Devas, 

(A sign) that he would reach the condition of a Buddha and conquer 
all the hosts of Mara, — 

(Seeing these) he sighed in astonishment at the very perfect (true) excel- 
lences (virtues, adornments), 

Which were a sign that he would bring down and destroy the entice- 
ments of the senses, 

And that the renowned (precious) Lion had come into the world, 

Who would destroy (curse) the pollutions of birth and death. 

Throughout the three worlds the fire of the three impurities (rages), 

From the act of thought springs up the pollution of the poisons, 

The rain of the law falling on the chiliocosm, 

As the water of life (amrtta), destroys the fire of the senses ; 

Armed with the cuirass of love, beholding 

(These sorrows) the workings (aroma) of pity (arises). 

And with his pliant, sweet voice of Brahma, 

He instructs fully the three thousand worlds ; 

His mouth resounds the news of the great law as a drum ; 

It is he who is able to destroy the teaching (sutras) of the heretical 
schools, 

And the complications (bands) of all evil practices. 

His teaching, not being heard without avail, 

Shall mightily prevail for the reformation of the age. 

Like the shadow of a mighty tree, 

His powerful teaching shall overshadow the world; 

His wisdom able to survey the condition of all men, 

His knowledge by its brightness able to scatter all darkness, 

The only illustrious benefactor of Devas, 

The only source of purity and truth, 

Able to empty (the way of) wickedness and profit the way of heaven, 

The faultless treasure found amongst men. 

Then the assembled Devas, showering down flowers, 

Worshipped and turned round him to the right, 

After which, felicitating Buddha and the land of his birth, 

Ascending into the air, they returned to heaven."' 



End of Kiouen II. 



BS a character of uncertain signification. 

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NOTE III. 

The same Title given to different Works. 

The Chinese translators in making new translations of 
foreign texts, often give as their reason for doing so that 
the former translation or translators could not be under- 
stood or relied on. But in explanation of this we must 
remember that the originals themselves in the hands of 
successive translators, though bearing the same name, were 
not always copies of the same works. For instance, in the 
case of the work Fo-pan-ni-pan-king, that is, the Parinirvawa 
Sutra, translated into Chinese by Pih-fa-tsu, between 290 
and 306 A. D. We cannot doubt that the text used by this 
translator was another form of the Maha-parinibbana-Sutta 
embodied in the Southern Canon \ 

But how widely another work bearing the same title, 
viz. Mahaparinirva«a Sutra, and translated into Chinese by 
Dharmaraksha, the same priest who turned the Buddha- 
£arita into that language, differs from the simple Sutra just 
named, the following brief extract will show. We will select 
the incident of ATunda's offering, which is thus expanded in 
the last work : 

MAHAPARINIRVAJVA StTTRA, 
Translated by Dharmaraksha. 

KlOUEN II, § I. 

' At this time, in the midst of the congregation, there was 
a certain Upasaka (lay-disciple) of the city of Kurinagara, 
the son of a blacksmith, whose name was ATunda ; this 
man, with his whole family, fifteen persons in all, had 
devoted himself to a religious life. At this juncture then 
it was that ATunda, rising from his seat, addressed Buddha 

1 See some remarks on this point in the eleventh volume of the Sacred Books 
of the East, p. xxxvi. 



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*66 NOTE III. 



in the orthodox way and said : " Oh that the world-honoured 
(TatMgata) and the members of this great assembly would 
receive our poor offering, the very last to be presented, for 
the sake of bringing the benefit thereof to innumerable 
creatures ! World-honoured one ! from this time we are 
without a master, without a friend, with no means of ad- 
vance, no helper, no refuge. Oh that Tathagata would of 
his great compassion deign to receive this offering of ours 
before he enters Nirvawa. World-honoured 1 it is as though 
a Kshatriya, or a Brahman, or a VaLrya, or .Sudra were to 
be reduced by poverty so far as to be compelled to go to 
another land, and there by industry prepare a piece of 
ground for cultivation. He procures a serviceable ox for 
the plough, and carefully roots up all the noxious weeds, 
and removes all stones and broken vessels from the ground, 
and then only awaits the grateful rain from heaven to crown 
his endeavours — so it is with me, the ox yoked to the plough 
is this body of mine, the cleared land (is the work of) su- 
preme wisdom, the impediments and weeds removed are 
all the sources of sorrow which I have put away, and now 
we only await the rain of the sweet dew of the law ! Look 
upon us, we are poor and perishing from want, without 
a friend, no help, no refuge ; oh that Tathagata would pity 
us even as he had compassion on his son Rahula ! " 

* Then Tathagata replied : " Well said ! well said 1 K unda. 
For your sake I will relieve the poverty of the world, and 
cause the rain of the insurpassable law to descend upon the 
field, and bring forth abundant fruit. Whatever your request, 
it shall be granted and I receive your offering. For as I 
accepted the gift of the shepherd girls before arriving at 
supreme wisdom, so now will I accept your corresponding 
gift before entering Nirva«a, and thus enable you to accom- 
plish fully the Paramita of charity." ATunda replied : " Let 
not Tathagata say that the merit of these two gifts is the 
same, for surely when the shepherd girls offered their food, 
the world-honoured one had not entirely got rid of all the 
sources of sorrow, or completed every growth of the seeds 
of wisdom ; nor was he able at that time to cause others to 
complete the Paramita of charity by accepting their gifts ; 
but this last offering is like a God in the midst of gods. 



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THE SAME TITLE GIVEN TO DIFFERENT WORKS. 367 

The first offering was made for the support of the body of 
Tathagata still suffering from human wants : this last offer- 
ing is made to Tathagata possessing an eternal, sorrowless, 
and unchangeable (va^ra) body, the body of the law; 
everlasting, boundless. In these (and other) respects, then, 
it seems to me the two offerings differ in character and in 
merit." Tathagata answered : "Illustrious youth ! for ages 
innumerable (countless asankhyeyas of kalpas) Tathagata 
has possessed no such body as that you named, as suffering 
from human wants or necessities — nor is there such an after- 
body as that you describe as eternal, illimitable, indestructi- 
ble. To those who as yet have no knowledge of the nature 
of Buddha, to these the body of Tathagata seems capable 
of suffering, liable to want (but to others it is not so). At 
the time when Bodhisattva received the offering of food and 
drink at the hands of the shepherd girls, he entered into 
the Samadhi known as va^ra, and beheld the nature of 
Buddha, and so obtained the highest and most complete 
enlightenment (and thus was supposed to have eaten the 
food); so now as he receives your offering he enters the 
same condition ; in this (and other respects) the offerings 
differ not in character. But principally for this reason, 
that as he then began to declare his law and preach it for 
the good of men, but did not completely exhaust the 
twelve portions of it, so now, having received your offering, 
he will preach the law in its entire form (i. e. including the 
Vaipulya, or last section) for the good of the assembly. 
But still, as in the former case, he ate not, so neither does 
he now eat." 

'At this time the congregation having heard that the 
world-honoured would preach the law in its fulness after 
receiving the offering of A'unda, rejoiced with exceeding 
joy, and opened their mouths with one accord in these 
words of praise : " Well done 1 well done ! exceedingly for- 
tunate Aunda ! Thy name is now established (in meaning), 
well art thou called ATunda, for thou hast established a 
most excellent method of deliverance, and, therefore, thou 
art well named. Now shall your name be much honoured 
among men. Well done, ATunda I it is indeed seldom that 
a Buddha appears in the world, and to be born when he is 



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368 NOTE III. 



born is exceedingly difficult ; to believe in him and listen 
to his law is difficult ; but how much more so to have the 
privilege of offering to him the last gift before he enters 
Nirv&wa. Glory to ATunda ! Glory to ATunda ! Like the 
autumn moon on the 15th day of the month, your merit is 
full, and as all men look up to the cloudless moon with 
admiration and reverence, so do we reverence thee. Glory 
to ATunda 1 Now then Buddha has received from you his 
very last offering 1 thus have you completed the Paramita 
of charity ! Glory to ATunda ! " &c. Then the assembly 
uttered these verses : 

"Although bom in the role of men, 
Already hast thon overleapt the six heavens. 
And therefore this united congregation 
With supreme reverence make this request (of thee) ; 
The most adorable amongst men 
Is now about to enter Nirvana I 
You then, we pray, to pity us, 
And respectfully entreat Buddha (on our behalf) 
For a longer period to remain in the world. 
To bring profit and advantage to countless assemblies; 
And to declare fully the treasures of -wisdom, 
The sweet dew of the most exalted law. 
If you consent not to make this request, 
Our destiny will be yet incomplete; 
We therefore, on this account, and with this view, 
Respectfully entreat thee as our leader." 

' At this time ATunda, overjoyed as a man whose father or 
mother, after having been conveyed to the tomb, suddenly 
re-appears alive, again prostrated himself before Buddha 
and repeated the following verses : 

"Oh I fortunate one that I am — to have gained such distinction, 
To have been born thus happily as a man! 
To have cast away covetousness and folly, 
To have got rid for ever of the three evil ways of life, — 
Oh I fortunate one that I am, to have gained this I 
To have found such a treasure of gold and gems, 
To have met with such a distinguished teacher. 
To have rescued myself from birth as a beast 1 . 
The appearance of Buddha in the world is like that of the Udumbara 

flower; 
It is difficult to have faith in him when born, 

1 That is, in any inferior position in the animal creation. 



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THE SAME TITLE GIVEN TO DIFFERENT WORKS. 369 

And having met with him, to sow the seeds of virtue, 

Whereby for ever to escape the sorrows of hell (Pretas), 

And to destroy and put to rout 

The combined power of all the Asuras (this also is difficult). 

Truly to attain this when Buddha is bom 

Is as difficult as to cast a mustard seed on the point of a spear. 

But now having completed (the Paramita) of charity, 

It is my happy privilege to deliver both Devas and men from life an 

death. 
The law of Buddha is an uncontaminated law. 
Like the pure flower on the surface of the water, 
Able to deliver to the utmost (those highest in existence). 
Able to rescue eternally from the waters of birth and death. 
It is difficult when bom to be bom as a man, 
To meet with Buddha in the world is difficult, 
Even as it is hard for a blind turtle 

To find the hole in a piece of wood floating on the great ocean. 
And now on the ground of this offering of food, 
I aspire to attain the highest recompense, 
Deliverance from the whole concourse of sorrows, 
To destroy them and be held by them no more. 
I desire not as my aim in this 
To be bora as a man or a Deva, 
Like others who look only for this recompense: 
And when obtained find no real delight. 
But now Tathagata, by receiving my offering, 
Has inspired me with true and lasting joy. 
Even as the Hiranya (golden?) flower 
Placed on (or in a setting of) scented sandal-wood, — 
So my body, like that flower, 

Is now filled with joy in consequence of Tathagata ; 
Like that sandal-wood (setting), having received my gift, 
Such is the delight that now fills my soul. 
And my present reward is equally great, 
Beyond any other in point of excellence, 
For fakra, and Brahma, and all the gods 
Here present, adore and reverence (bring their offerings to) me. 
But alas I all the world 
Is filled with unutterable sorrow, 
In the knowledge that the world-honoured Buddha 
Is about to enter Nirvana. 
And the cry is heard on every hand, 
'The world is left without a ruler.* 
But it is not well thus to leave mankind, 
They should rather be looked on as an only son, 
And Tathagata dwelling in their midst 
Should completely expound the supreme law — 
That law, grand as the precious Sumeru, 
Planted firmly in the midst of the great sea. 
The wisdom of Buddha is able completely to dissipate 
The dark gloom of our ignorance, 

C'9] B b 



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J70 NOTE III. 



Even as when in the midst of space 

A rising cloud is suddenly dispersed. 

Tathagata is able to destroy for ever 

The entire concourse of sorrows. 

Even as the sun, when he bursts forth, 

Disperses with his brightness the blackness of the cloud. 

So it is that now the entire world 

Laments and weeps with affliction 

On account of the torrents of suffering 

Which fall heavily upon all in their passage thro' birth and death. 

On this account, therefore, the world-honoured 

Ought to strengthen and increase the faith of men, 

That they may escape these sorrows, 

And to remain a longer while in the world." 

' Then Buddha replied to A'unda : " Even so 1 even so ! 
it is as you say — the birth of a Buddha in the world is 
rare as the appearance of the Udumbara flower, and to be 
able to believe in him is also a matter of extreme difficulty ; 
but infinitely more difficult is it to be selected as the one 
to present a last offering to him before he enters Nirvlwa. 
What room, then, O /sTunda, is there for sorrowful thoughts ? 
your heart should rather dance for joy! for you are the 
one thus selected to offer the last offering, and so complete 
your work of charity. Make not, then, such a request that 
Buddha should remain longer in the world, for you should 
now be able to realise (kwan°) even the highest truth [the 
province or domain (keng kiai) of all the Buddhas], the 
impermanency of all things, that all systems of religion (or, 
elements of being) — (hing c ) both as to their nature and 
attributes — are also impermanent. And then for the sake 
of Aunda he repeated these Gathas : 

"AH things in the present world 
Being produced, must return to destruction; 
Although the term of life were immeasurably long, 
Yet it must in the end come to a close. 
Prosperity gives place to adversity, 
Plenty is succeeded by want. 
Youth before long yields to decay, 
The ruddy colour of health is paled by disease, 
Life, also, is followed by death, 
There is no such thing as permanency. 
The most absolute monarchs, 
Whose might none can dispute. 
These also come to naught and change, 
The years of their life are just the same, 



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THE SAME TITLE GIVEN TO DIFFERENT WORKS. 37 1 

Involved in the wheel of transmigration. 

The rolling stream of life goes on. 

And there is no continuing place for any. 

There is no real joy to be found in the world. 

For the mark set upon all these things 

Is that they are all empty and unreal, 

Liable to destruction and change. 

Ever accompanied by sorrow. 

Tinctured with fears and regrets, 

And the bitterness of old age, disease, and death, 

Even as an insect born in filth. 

What wise man would desire 

To continue in the midst of such things as these (or find his joy therein)? 

So the sorrows to which the body is joined, 

Are even like this impure substance. 

Surrounded, as it were, with these, man lives 

Without any reasonable hope of escape. 

And so even the bodies of the Devas 

Are likewise perishable and impure; 

All things liable to desire are unreal, 

And, therefore, I have cast off this cloak of covetousness. 

I have discarded the very thought of desire, 

And so I have arrived at the only truth, 

And passed beyond the boundary of Being. 

To-day I shall reach NirvSna — 

To-day I shall cross to that shore; 

I have for ever got rid of sorrow. 

And therefore it is to-day 

I shall be (or am) ravished with unutterable joy. 

In this way and by these means it is 

I have arrived at the one reality : 

For ever free from the bonds of grief, 

To-day I shall reach Nirvana. 

No more disease, old age, or death, 

The days of my life interminable, inexhaustible. 

Now shall I enter Nirvana 1 

Just as a great fire which is extinguished. 

fun da I you ought not therefore 

To think of measuring the truth of Tathigata, 

You should rather contemplate his true nature. 

As the great Mount Sumeru, 

So am I resting on Nirvana, 

Receiving and keeping in me the only joy. 

This is the law of all the Buddhas. 

Weep, then, and lament no morel'" 



B b 2 

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INDEX. 



Abhisambodhi, the condition that 
stands face to face with wis- 
dom, page 156. 

Aja, king, 92. 

Agastya, a Rishi, 43. 

A^itavati, name of a river, meaning 
invincible, t. 

Agfi&ta. kauWinya, he who knows, 
name of a disciple, 178. 

Agnidatta Kajyapa, same as Eggi- 
datta, description of, 197. 

Aila, grandchild of Soma, 149. 

Ala, mount, 244. 

Alava, a demon, 244. 

Ambrosia, ' sweet dew,' 15. 

Amra, garden of, 257. 

AnlthapiWada, friend of the orphan, 
conversion of, 201. 

Angiras, name of a .Rishi, 95. 

Awl^avari, town of, 243. 

Anoma, a river, in. 

Antideva r%a, an old king, ia. 

AraVa, abode of, 137. 

AriL/a Kalama, name of Rishi, 130. 

AraVa Rama, a .Rishi, 131. 

AraWa Udrarima, 131. 

Asidaka, a demon, 244. 

Asita, a .Rishi, 12. 

Ajokarag-a, temple of, xiii. 

Ajravas, extinction of the, 187 n. 

Atri, an old king, in. 

Avalokitervara, the god who looks 
down, 207. 

Ayodhyi, country of, 245. 

Barahut, Cunningham's, 231. 

Barana, river in India, 171. 

Bhargavides, hermitage of, 59. 

Bhr/'gu, Rishi, 10. 

Bigandet, story of Eggidatta (Le- 
gend, p. 180), 197. 

Bimbisara ra^a, becomes a disciple, 
180. 

— prince's reply to, 119. 

— visits the prince, in. 



Bird, double-headed, 89. 
Bodhi, capable of receiving, 145. 

— tree, 146. 

Bodhisattva, addressed as ' Ksha- 
triya' by Mira, 149. 

— birth of, 2. 

Bournoufs Introduction to Indian 

Buddhism, 138. 
Brahma, voice of. See Childers, 

sub voce, 196. 
Brahmadeva, an ascetic, 12. 
Brahmaloka heavens, 138. 
Brahman, a soothsayer, 7, 137. 
Br/haspati, Devas pay worship to, 

78. 
Buddha, ascended to the heavens of 

the thirty-three gods, 240. 

— birth of, 4. 

— death of, 307. 

— first instance of mendicant life 

of, 169. 

— Romantic History of, 7a. 

— the eye of. See Childers" Pali 

Diet., sub voce, 165. 

— the Lady Amra sees, 249. 

— wonders wrought by. See Spence 

Hardy's Manual and Beal's Ro- 
mantic Legend, 185. 

Buddha's foot worshipped, 258. 

Buddhaghosha's Parables, by Cap- 
tain Rogers, 275. 

Buddhiques, Etudes (Leon Feer), 
i«8. 

Buddhism, Manual of (Spence 
Hardy), 193. 

Buddhist Birth Stories, in. 

— literature, 117. 

— sculptures, 1 12. 

Buddhists' denial of 'soul' (by 

Northern Buddhists), 204. 
Burgess, Western Caves, 247. 

Catena of Buddhist Scriptures, 39. 
Childers' Pali Diet., 4. 
Colebrooke, Essays, 132. 



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374 



FO-SHO-HING-TSAN-KING. 



Conversion of supporter of orphans, 

201. 

Cunningham, General, Archseolo- 
gical Report, 171. 

Davids, Dr. Rhys, xxxvi, 170, 176, 

201, 20?. 

Death, the prince hearing the name 

of, 37. 
Desire, putting away, 38. 
Devadatta, son of Suprabuddha,2 46 n. 
Devaputra, the sun or the moon, 72. 
Deva-r%a, of the pure abode, 32. 
Dharmaraksha,an I ndian priest, i,xxv. 
Dhyanas, first state, condition of 

ecstasy, 138. 

— second state, tasting of great joy, 

138. 

— third state, wishing no 'further 

excellence, 138. 

— fourth state, all joys and sorrow 

done away, 138. 
Dipavawxsa, statement made in, xii. 
Disgust at sorrow, 29. 

East Market, slaughter post of the, 

124. 
Eitel, Handbook, sub Mfirddha- 

bhishikta, 4. 
Elephant-dragon, 41. 
Elephant, escaping the drunken, 24 1. 
Erythrina fulgens (see Bournoufs 

Lotus, p. 306), 164. 

Fa-hien, 58, 112, 193, 198. 

Fan-fu, philosophers or students, 
132. 

Fang - k wang - tai - k wang - yan - king, 
Life of Buddha, xxviii. 

Five outward marks of dignity, 94. 

Ko-pen-hing, Life of Buddha, xxviii. 

Fo-pen-hing-king, xvi. 

Fo-pen-hing-tsih-king, Life of Bud- 
dha, xxix. 

Fo-shwo-£ung-hu-mo-ho-ti-king, 
Life of Buddha, xxx. 

Gzgz mount, 244. 
Gandhara, king of, 242. 
Gandharvas, heavenly musicians, 25. 
Ganges, river, m, 171. 
Gautama, fall of, 39. 

— ford, near Patna, 252. 

— gate of, 252. 

Gautamas Gatisruna and Dakatili, 
245. 



Godama, a demon, 244. 
Golden mount, 51. 
Great-age, a Brahman, 245. 
Gr/dhraku/a mount, 246. 

Caigishavya, a iJ/shi, 1 39. 

Gambu tree, 48. 

Gambudvipa, continent of, 241. 

Gambunada gold, 23. 

Ganaka, a Rishi, 11. 

Ganta, description of, xxvii. 

Gayanta, a Brahman, 92. 

Geta, the heir-apparent, 216. 

Getavana, the monastery at SravastT, 

230. 
Getavana Vihira, receiving of, 230. 

Hama kinkhava, 244. 

Haug, Parsis, 167 n. 

Heaven of the thirty-three gods, 23. 

Hermit, the great disciple becomes 

a, 192. 
Hetuvidya jastra, 209. 
Hin-tsing, heaven, 138. 
Hiranyavati, golden river, 286. 

' 1/ the soul, 191. 
tkshvaku, family of, 1, 72. 
ijvara, banner of, 1 1 2. 

Kalamasa, village of, 245. 

Kalpa-fire, 237. 

Kamo, the Yaksha, 244. 

Ka%ana, a demon, 244. 

Kapila, a if/'shi, 244. 

Kapilavastu, the people of, 64. 

Karandhama, a Gina king, 328. 

Kashaya, coloured robe, 68. 

KaVyapa, a hermit, 183. 

— Shi-ming-teng, a sage, 197. 

Kauxrfnya, tribe of, 172. 

Kaorambi, country of, 245. 

Kava%ara, a itc'shi, 44. 

KiA-k'ha, a king, 3. 

Kilas (Kailasa), palace of mount, 

231. 
Kimbila, country of, 245. 
Kin-pu rSga, 234. 
Koniinya (see KauWmya), family of, 

178. 
Kojala, country of, 230, 245. 
Ku'i, town of, 180. 
Kiui, a Rishi, 1 1. 
Kuri, town of, 286. 
Kurinagara, a city of, 326. 
Kwong-yin heaven, 138. 



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INDEX. 



375 



JTaitya, tower, 334. 
fandradevaputra, a ftshi, 44. 
ATiiandaka, return of, 59. 
AiWadana, of the 5akya family, 236. 
/fung-pen-k'i-king, Life of Buddha, 



Lay Sermons, Huxley, 304. 

Leaving the city, 47. 

LMbavi lions, 282. 

LiMAavis, residents of Vauali, 250. 

Lo-me-po-ti, royal prince, 98. 

Lord 6'akra, 51. 

Lumbinl, garden of, 2, 6, 17. 

Lung-tsiang, gate of, 323 n. 

Magadba, king of, 250. 

— town of, 250. 

Mahi Kajvapa, a great sage, 199. 

Mahapra^apati Gotamt, foster-mo- 
ther of Bodhisattva, 84. 

Mahavati, country of, 244. 

Makara fish, 281. 

Ma-kia-ka-li, aunt attendant on 
Mara, 153. 

Mandara flowers, 5. 

Manto, king, 2. 

Mara, the heavenly king, 6. 

Mara Devarag-a, enemy of religion, 

147- 
Max Miiller, Professor, 10, 19, 275. 
Maya, mother of Buddha, 1, 23, 87. 
Mi-tsang-yau, miraculous, 7. 
Monkey tank, 267. 
Mu»*ga grass, 1 39. 
Muni, virtues of a, 146. 

Naira^anH, river, 142, 144, 267. 
Nalakuvara, the son of Vaisravana, 

30. 
Na-lo-sha-po-lo, a king, 97. 
Neng-yueh-^in, daughter of Mara 

riga, 147. 
Ngai-loh, daughter of Mara r%a, 

148. 
Nirvana, idea of, 51. 
Nung-sha, 122. 

On-tai-tieh, a Brahman, 108. 
O-wei-san-pou-li, 156. 

Padatti, village of, 243. 
Pa-lin-fo, town of, 249. 
Pa&feuikha, a heavenly being, 342. 
Pao-yun, companion of Fa-hien, 
xxvii. 



Panbara, a Rishi, 44. 
Patali, 243. 

Plfaligrama, town of, 250. 
Pa/aliputra, town of, 249. 
Paviggi, village of, 243. 
Phfi-yau-king, Life of Buddha, xxv. 
PiWapila, a demon, 245. 
Pi-po-lo-'an-ti, king, 97. 
Pi-sha, Regent of the North, 345. 
Pi-runa, name of Mara, 267. 
Pi-ti-ho-fu-li, town of, 243. 
Pi-ti-o-*e-na, king, 97. 
Po-jte-lo-po-yau, king, 97. 
Po-lo-na, a demon 244. 
Po-lo-sa, son of SSrasvata, 10. 
Po-sha-na, a mountain, 242. 
Po-sun-tau, brother of Asura, 125. 
Potala, a demon, 243. 
Potalagama, a demon, 244. 
Potalaka, a demon, 244. 
Pou-na, a star, 96. 
Pushya, a star, 96. 

Ragagr/ha, town of, 131. 

&shyajr/nga, son of a Muni, 39. 

Saddharma, minister of religion, 1 1 1. 

Saketa bird, 93. 

SarnSdhi, condition of religious 

ecstasy, 48. 
Sammata, condition of ecstasy, 

205 n. 
Sa/nskara, i.e. the five skandhas, 

163. 
Samyak-Sambodhi, state of, 8. 
Sanatkumara, son of Brahma deva, 

*4- 

SSng-kia-lo-c'ha-sho-tsih-fo-hing- 
king, Life of Buddha, xxviii. 

Satavaka, name of place, 245. 

Savasasin, a convert, 245. 

Savatthi, country of, 345. 

Shin-t'ung-yaou-hi-king, last version 
of the Lalita Vistara, xxx. 

Siau-pen-k'i-king, Life of Buddha, 
xxiii. 

Siddhartha, name for Bodhisattva, 
23. 

Siu-hing-pen-k'i-king, a work trans- 
lated into Chinese by two Sra- 
manas from India, xvii. 

Study of heretical books, 263. 

Sumeru, mount, 9. 

Sflryadeva, the sun deva, 72. 

Sutra Pi/aka, 335. 



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37 6 



FO-SHO-HING-TSAN-KING. 



Sakradevendra, palace of, 171. 
Sakra-putra, 51. 
Sakya lion, 258. 

— Muni, 198. 

— tribe, 226. 

Sariputra, disciple of Kapila, 194. 
Subhakn'tsna heaven, 138. 

Ta-tseu-sui-ying-pen-k'i-king, Life 
of Buddha, xxiii. 

Teou-lau-ma, king, 97. 

Topes of the eight kings, 334. 

To-tsin, tower, 198. 

Trlyastriwuas, name of the thirty- 
three heavens, 68. 

Triple staff, 197. 

UdSyi, a Brahmaputra, 38. 
Udra, a ftshi, 142. 
Udraka Ramaputra, 167. 
Upadana, cleaving to existence, 161. 
Upaka, a young Brahman, 168. 
Upali, son of Atalt, 227. 
Upatissa, twice-born, 195. 



U-pi-lo Kiryapa, 185. 

Uvari, companion to Goshira, 245. 

Vagji, country of, 245. 
VaijaW, a town, 244. 
VaLrravaua, the heavenly king, 20. 
Vashpa, a disciple, 180. 
Vasish/yia, priest, 12. 
Vasu Devas, one of the eight, 72. 
Vessels of the seven precious sub- 
stances, 20. 
Vimala, a iUshi, 149. 
Vinaya Pifaka, xxvi. 
VijvSmitra, a Rishi, 39. 
Vriddha Parirara, a JUshi, 139. 
VWhatphala heaven, 138. 
Vulture Peak, m. 

Yasa, a noble's son, 180. 
Yajodhari, a lovely maiden, 24, 86. 
Yen-tsz' cave, fabulous hiding-place 

of the sun, 313. 
Yuh-yen, daughter of Mara i%a f 

147. 



CORRECTIONS. 

Page 228, verse 1598, for 'reigns' read 'reins.' 

In the spelling of Chinese words, the Canton form has sometimes 
been used inadvertently, as in ' Fo-sho ' for ' Fo-so.' 



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Sacred Books of the East 

TRANSLATED BY VARIOUS ORIENTAL SCHOLARS 
AND EDITED BY 

THE RIGHT HQN. F. MAX MULLER. 

' »% This Series is published with the sanction ami cooperation of the Sect etary of 
State for India in Council. 

KBPOJtT presented to the ACADBMXB BBS XBSCBXVXXOHB, May 11, 
1883, by M. BBHBBT KGIAI. 
' M. Renan presente trois nouveaux une seconde, dont l'intiret historique et 
volumes de la grande collection des religienx ne sera pas moindre. M. Max 
"Livres sacres de l'Orient" (Sacred Miiller a su se procurer la collaboration 
Books of the East), que dirige a Oxford, des savans leg plus eminens d'Europe et 
avec une si vaste Erudition et une critique d'Asie. L'Universite' d'Oxford, que cette 
si sure, le savant associe de 1'AcadeWe grande publication honore au plus haut 
des Inscriptions, M. Max Miiller. ... La degnS, doit tenir a continuer dans les plus 
premiere s^rie de ce beau recueil, com- larges proportions une oeuvre aussi pliilo- 
posee de 24 volumes, est presque achevee. sophiquement concue que savamment 
M. Max Miiller se propose d'en pnblier executee.' 

BXTBAOT from the QTJABTMI.Y BSVXBW. 

' We rejoice to notice that a second great edition of the Rig-Veda, can corn- 
series of these translations has been an- pare in importance or in usefulness with 
nounced and has actually begun to appear, this English translation of the Sacred 
The stones, at least, out of which a stately Books of the East, which has been devised 
edifice may hereafter arise, are here being by his foresight, successfully brought so 
brought together. Prof. Max Miiller has far by his persuasive and organising 
deserved well of scientific history. Not power, and will, we trust, by the assist- 
a few minds owe to his enticing words ance of the distinguished scholars he has 
their first attraction to this branch of gathered round him, be carried in due 
study. But no work of his, not even the time to a happy completion.' 

Professor B. IABDI, Inaugural Lecture In the University of Freiburg, 1887. 
' Die allgemeine vergleichende Reli- internationalen Orientalistencongress in 
gionswissenschaft datirt von jenem gross- London der Grundstein gelegt worden 
artigen, in seiner Art einzig dastehenden war, die Obersetzung der heiligen Biicher 
Unternehmen, zu welchem auf Anregnng des Ostens' (the Sacred Books of the 
Max Miillers im Jahre 1874 auf dem East). 

The Hon. AX.BEBT B. O. CAJTHXEG, 'Word* on Existing Religions.' 
• The recent publication of the " Sacred a great event in the annals of theological 
Books of the East" in English is surely literature.* 



OXFORD 

AT THE CLARENDON PRESS 

LONDON: HENRY FROWDE 

OXFORD UNIVERSITY PRESS WAREHOUSE, AMEN CORNER, K.C. 

* 



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SACRED BOOKS OF THE EAST: 



FIRST SERIES. 

Vol. I. The Upanishads. 

Translated by F. Max MUixer. Part I. The A^ndogya- 
upanishad, The Talavak&ra-upanishad, The Aitareya-£ra»yaka, 
The Kaushitaki-br£hma»a-upanishad, and The Vdgasaneyi- 
saffzhilS-upanishad. Second Edition. 8vo, cloth, \os. 6d. 

The Upanishads contain the philosophy of the Veda. They have 
become the foundation of the later Veddnta doctrines, and indirectly 
of Buddhism. Schopenhauer, speaking of the Upanishads, says : 
' In the whole world there is no study so beneficial and so elevating 
as that of the Upanishads. It has been the solace of my life, it will 
be the solace of my death! 

[See also Vol. XV.] 

Vol. II. The Sacred Laws of the Aryas, 

As taught in the Schools of Apastamba, Gautama, VSsish/fa, 
and BaudhSyana. Translated by Georg BOhler. Part I. 
Apastamba and Gautama. Second Edition. 8vo, cloth, \os. 6d. 

The Sacred Laws of the Aryas contain the original treatises on 
which the Laws of Manu and other lawgivers were founded. 

[See also Vol. XIV.] 

Vol. III. The Sacred Books of China. 

The Texts of Confucianism. Translated by James Legge. 
Part I. The Shu King, The Religious Portions of the Shih 
King, and The Hsiio King. SecondEdition. 8vo, cloth, 1 2s . 6d. 

Confucius was a collector of ancient traditions, not the founder of 
a new religion. As he lived in the sixth and fifth centuries B. C. 
his works are of unique interest for the study of Ethology. 
[See also Vols. XVI, XXVII, XXVIII, XXXIX, and XL.] 

Vol. IV. The Zend-Avesta. 

Translated by James Darmesteter. Part I. The Vendidad. 
SecondEdition. 8vo, cloth, 14^. 

The Zend-Avesta contains the relics of what was the religion of 
Cyrus, Darius, and Xerxes, and, but for the battle of Marathon, 



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EDITED BY F. MAX MULLER. 



might have become the religion of Europe. It forms to the present 
day the sacred book of the Par sis, the so-called fire-worshippers. 
[See also Vols. XXIII and XXXI.] 

Vol. V. Pahlavi Texts. 

Translated by E. W. West. Part I. The BundahU, Bahman 
Ya^t, and Shayast la-sh&yast. 8vo, cloth, i is. 6d. 

The Pahlavi Texts comprise the theological literature of the revival 
of Zoroaster' s religion, beginning with the Sassanian dynasty. They 
are important for a study of Gnosticism. 

[See also Vols. XVIII, XXIV, XXXVII, and XLVII.] 

Vols. VI and ix. The Quran. 

Parts I and II. Translated by E. H. Palmer. Second Edition. 
8vo, cloth, 2 is. 

This translation, carried out according to his own peculiar views 
of the origin of the Qur'dn, was the last great ivork ofE. H. Palmer, 
before he was murdered in Egypt. 

Vol. VII. The Institutes of Vish«u. 

Translated by Julius Jolly. 8vo, cloth, \os. 6d. 

A collection of legal aphorisms, closely connected with one of the 
oldest Vedic schools, the KaMas, but considerably added to in later 
time. Of importance for a critical study of the Laws of Manu. 

Vol. VIII. The Bhagavadglta.with The Sanatsufatiya, 
and The Anugita. 

Translated by KAshinath Trimbak Telang. Second Edition. 
8vo, cloth, I Of. 6d. 

The earliest philosophical and religious poem of India. It has been 
paraphrased in Arnold's 'Song Celestial.' 

Vol. x. The Dhammapada, 

Translated from Pali by F. Max Muller ; and 

The Sutta-Nipata, 
Translated from Pali by V. FausbSll ; being Canonical Books 
of the Buddhists. Second Edition. 8vo, cloth, 10s. 6d. 

The Dhammapada contains the quintessence of Buddhist morality. 
The Suita-Nipdta gives the authentic teaching of Buddha on some 
of the fundamental principles of religion. 



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SACRED BOOKS OF THE EAST: 



Vol. XI. Buddhist Suttas. 

Translated from Pali by T. W. Rhys Davids, i. The Maha- 
parinibbana Suttanta; 2. The Dhamma-£akka-ppavattana 
Sutta. 3. The Tevigga. Suttanta; 4. The Akankheyya Sutta ; 
5. The .ffetokhila Sutta; 6. The Maha-sudassana Suttanta; 
7. The Sabbasava Sutta. 8vo, cloth, 10s. 6d. 

A collection of the most important religious, moral, and philosophical 
discourses taken from the sacred canon 0/ the Buddhists. 

Vol. XII. The »Satapatha-Brahma«a, according to the 
Text of the Madhyandina School. 

Translated by Julius Eggelino. Part I. Books I and II. 
8vo, cloth, 1 2s . 6d. 

A minute account of the sacrificial ceremonies of the Vedic age. 
It contains the earliest account of the Deluge in India. 
[See also Vols. XXVI, XLI, XL1II, and XLTV.] 

Vol. XIII. Vinaya Texts. 

Translated from the Pali by T. W. Rhys Davids and Hermann 

Oldenberg. Parti. The Patimokkha. The Mahavagga, I-IV. 

8vo, cloth, iof. 6d. 

The Vinaya Texts give for the first time a translation of the moral 

code of the Buddhist religion as settled in the third century B. C. 

[See also Vols. XVII and XX.] 

Vol. XIV. The Sacred Laws of the Aryas, 

As taught in the Schools of Apastamba, Gautama, Vasish/Aa, 
and Baudhayana. Translated by Georg Buhler. Part II. 
Vasish/£a and Baudhayana. 8vo, cloth, 10s. 6d. 

Vol. XV. The Upanishads. 

Translated by F. Max Muller. Part II. The KaMa-upanishad, 
The Miwrfaka-upanishad, The Taittirfyaka-upanishad, The 
BnhadSranyaka-upanishad, The 5Vetlrvatara-upanishad, The 
Prarfta-upanishad, and The Maitraya«a-brlhma«a-upanishad. 
Second Edition. 8vo, cloth, iar. 6d. 

Vol. XVI. The Sacred Books of China. 

The Texts of Confucianism. Translated by James Legge. 
Part II. The Yf King. 8vo, cloth, 10s. 6d. 
[See also Vols. XXVII, XXVIII.] 

Vol. xvii. Vinaya Texts. 

Translated from the Pali by T. W. Rhys Davids and Hermann 
Oldenberg. Part II. The MaMvagga, V-X. The A'ullavagga, 
I— III. 8vo, cloth, 10s. 6d. 



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EDITED BY F. MAX MULLER. 



Vol. XVIII. Pahlavi Texts. 

Translated by E. W. West. Part II. The Darfistan-t Dfntk 
and The Epistles of Manuxifhar. 8vo, cloth, 1 2s. 6d. 

Vol. XIX. The Fo-sho-hing-tsan-king. 

A Life of Buddha by Ajvaghosha Bodhisattva, translated from 
Sanskrit into Chinese by Dharmaraksha, a.d. 420, and from 
Chinese into English by Samuel Beal. 8vo, cloth, 10s. 6d. 

This life of Buddha was translated from Sanskrit into Chinese, 
A.D. 420. // contains many legends, some of which show a certain 
similarity to the Evangelium infantiae, ifc. 

Vol. XX. Vinaya Texts. 

Translated from the Pali by T. W. Rhys Davids and Hermann 
Oldknbkrg. Part III. The .ffullavagga, IV-XII. 8vo, cloth, 
1 of. 6 d. 

Vol. XXI. The Saddharma-pu#dfarlka ; or, The Lotus 
of the True Law. 

Translated by H. Kern. 8vo, cloth, 1 2s. 6d. 

1 The Lotus of the True Law' a canonical book of the Northern 
Buddhists, translated from Sanskrit. There is a Chinese transla- 
tion of this book which was finished as early as the year 286 A.D. 

Vol. xxii. Gaina-SOtras. 

Translated from Prakrit by Hermann Jacobi. Part I. The 
AJaranga-Sutra and The Kalpa-Sutra. 8vo, cloth, ioj. 6d. 

The religion of the Gainas was founded by a contemporary of Buddha. 
It still counts numerous adherents in India, while there are no 
Buddhists left in India proper. 

[See Vol. XLV.] 

Vol. xxiii. The Zend-Avesta. 

Translated by James Dakmestetek. Part II. The Strdzahs, 
Yaxts, and Nyayif. 8vo, cloth, 10s. 6d. 

Vol. XXIV. Pahlavi Texts. 

Translated by E. W. West. Part III. Dina-f Mainfig- 
Khircuf, Sikand-gumanfk Vig&r, and Sad Dar. 8vo, cloth, 
1 ox. 6d. 



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SACRED BOOKS OF THE EAST. 



SECOND SERIES.. 

Vol. XXV. Manu. 

Translated by Georg Buhler. 8vo, cloth, 21s. 
This translation is founded on thai of Sir William f ones, which 
has been carefully revised and corrected with the help of seven native 
Commentaries. An Appendix contains all the quotations from Manu 
which are found in the Hindu Law-books, translated for the use of 
the Law Courts in India. Another Appendix gives a synopsis of 
parallel passages from the six Dharma-sHtras, the other Smntis, 
the Upanishads, the Mahdbhdrata, <Jv. 

Vol. XXVI. The 6atapatha-Brahma«a. 

Translated by Julius Eggeling. Part II. Books III and IV. 
8vo, cloth, \2S. 6d. 

Vols. XXVII and xxviii. The Sacred Books of China. 

The Texts of Confucianism. Translated by James Legge. Parts 
III and IV. The Li K\, or Collection of Treatises on the Rules 
of Propriety, or Ceremonial Usages. 8vo, cloth, 25J. 

Vol. XXIX. The Grzhya-Sutras, Rules of Vedic 
Domestic Ceremonies. 

Part I. .SSnkhayana, As valayana, Paraskara, Khadira. Trans- 
lated by Hermann Oldenberg. 8vo, cloth, 1 2s . 6d. 

Vol. xxx. The Grz'hya-Sutras, Rules of Vedic 
Domestic Ceremonies. 

Part II. Gobhila, Hirawyakeiin, Apastamba. Translated by 
Hermann Oldenberg. Apastamba, Ya^fla-paribhasha-sutras. 
Translated by F. Max Muller. 8vo, cloth, 12s. 6d. 
These rules of Domestic Ceremonies describe the home life of the 
ancient Aryas with a completeness and accuracy unmatched in any 
other literature. Some of these rules have been incorporated in the 
ancient Law-books. 

Vol. xxxi. The Zend-Avesta. 

Part III. The Yasna, Visparad, Afrinag&n, Gahs, and 
Miscellaneous Fragments. Translated by L. H. Mills. 8vo, 
cloth, 12X. 6d. 

Vol. XXXII. Vedic Hymns. 

Translated by F. Max Muller. Part I. 8vo, cloth, 18s. 6d. 
[See also Vol. XLVI.] 

Vol. XXXIII. The Minor Law-books. 

Translated by Julius Jolly. Part I. NSrada, Brjhaspati. 
8vo, cloth, 1 Of. 6d. 



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EDITED BY F. MAX M&LLER. 



Vol. xxxiv. The Vedanta-Sutras, with the Com- 
mentary by .Sankaraiarya. Part I. 

Translated by G. Thibaut. 8vo, cloth, 1 2s. 6d. 
[See also Vol. XXXVIII.] 

Vols, xxxv and XXXVI. The Questions of King 
Milinda. 

Translated from the Pali by T. W. Rhys Davids. 
Part I. 8vo, cloth, 10s. 6d. Part II. 8vo, cloth, 12s. 6d. 

Vol. XXXVII. Pahlavi Texts. 

Translated by E. W. West. Part IV. The Contents of the 
Nasks, as stated in the Eighth and Ninth Books of the 
Dtnkard. 1 5* . 

Vol. XXXVIII. The Vedanta-Sutras. Part II. 8vo, 
cloth, with full Index to both Parts, 1 2s . 6d. 

Vols, xxxix and xl. The Sacred Books of China. 
The Texts of Taoism. Translated by James Lkgge. 8vo, 
cloth, 2 is. 

Vol. xli. The 6atapatha- Brahma«a. Part III. 
Translated by Julius Eggeling. 8vo, cloth, 12s. 6d. 

Vol. XLH. Hymns of the Atharva-veda. 
Translated by M. Bloomfield. 8vo, cloth, 21s. 

VOL. XLlll. The 6atapatha-Brahma«a. 

Translated by Julius Eggeling. Part IV. Books VIII, 
IX, and X, 12*. 6d. 

Vol. XLIV. The .Satapatha-Brahmawa. 

Translated by Julius Eggeling. Part V. Books XI, XII, 
XIII, and XIV. iSs. 6d. 

Vol. XLV. The Gaina-Sutras. 

Translated from Prakrit, by Hermann Jacobi. Part II. The 
Uttaradhyayana Sutra, The Sutrakr/tahga Sutra. 8vo, cloth, 
12s. 6d. 

Vol. XLVI. Vedic Hymns. Part II. 8 vo, cloth, 14*. 

Vol. XLVII. Pahlavi Texts. 

Translated by E. W. West. Part V. Marvels of Zoroas- 
trianism. 8s. 6d. 

Vol. XL VIII. The Vedanta-Sutras, with Ramanu^a's 
.SHbhashya. 

Translated by G. Thibaut. [In the Press.] 

Vol. XLIX. Buddhist Mahayana Texts. Buddha- 
Aarita, translated by E. B. Cowell. Sukhavatt-vyuha.Va^TaMAe- 
dikS, &c, translated by F. Max Muller. Amitayur-Dhyina- 
Sutra, translated by J. Takakusu. 8vo, cloth, 12s. 6d. 



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RECENT ORIENTAL WORKS. 



Stnecfcota ©vomensia. 

ARYAN SERIES. 

Buddhist Texts from Japan. I. Va^ra^Medika ; The 

Diamond-Cutter. 

Edited by F. Max Muller, M.A. Small 4to, 3^. 6d. 
One of the most famous metaphysical treatises of the Mahayana Buddhists. 

Buddhist Texts from Japan. II. Sukhavatf-Vytiha : 
Description of Sukh&vati, the Land of Bliss. 

Edited by F. Max MUller, M.A., and Bunyiu Nanjio. With 

two Appendices : (1) Text and Translation of Saftghavarman's 

Chinese Version of the Poetical Portions of the Sukhavatl- 

Vyuha ; (2) Sanskrit Text of the Smaller Sukhavati-Vyuha. 

Small 4to, js. 6d. 

The tditio princeps of the Sacred Book of one of the largest and most 

influential sects of Buddhism, numbering more than ten millions of followers 

in Japan alone. 

Buddhist Texts from J apan. III. The Ancient Palm- 
Leaves containing the Pra^«a-Paramita-HWdaya- 
Siitra and the Ush»isha-Vi^aya-Dhara«i. 

Edited by F. Max Muller, M.A., and Bunyiu Nanjio, M.A. 
With an Appendix by G. Buhler, CLE. With many Plates. 
Small 4 to. ioj. 
Contains facsimiles of the oldest Sanskrit MS. at present known. 

Dharma-Sa/«graha, an Ancient Collection of Buddhist 
Technical Terms. 

Prepared for publication by Kenjiu Kasawara, a Buddhist 
Priest from Japan, and, after his death, edited by F. Max 
Muller and H. Wenzel. Small 4to, is. 6d. 

Katyayana's Sarvanukrama«! of the Bigveda. 

With Extracts from Sharfgunuishya's Commentary entitled 
Vedarthadfpika. Edited by A. A. Macdonell, M.A., Ph.D. 16s. 

The Buddha-Aarita of Asvaghosha. 

Edited, from three MSS., by E. B. Cowell, M.A. 12s. 6d. 

The Mantrapatha, or the Prayer Book of the Apa- 
stambins. 

Edited, together with the Commentary of Haradatta, and 
translated by M. Winternitz, Ph.D. First Part. Introduc- 
tion, Sanskrit Text, Varietas Lectionis, and Appendices. 
Small quarto, ioj. 6d. 

OXFORD 

AT THE CLARENDON PRESS 

LONDON : HENRY FROWDE 

OXFORD UNIVERSITY PRESS WAREHOUSE, AMEN CORNER, E.C. 



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