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Full text of "Sacred Books East Various Oriental Scholars with Index. 50 vols Max Muller Oxford 1879.1910."

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THE 



SACRED BOOKS OF THE EAST 




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3fonbnni 
HENRY FROWDE 




Oxford University Press Warehouse 
Amen Corner, E.C. 



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THE 



SACRED BOOKS OF THE EAST 



TRANSLATED 



BY VARIOUS ORIENTAL SCHOLARS 



AND EDITED BT 



F. MAX MOLLER 



vol. XX 




AT THE CLARENDON PRESS 
1885 

[ All rights ru€rvtd~\ 



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VINAYA TEXTS 



TRANSLATED FROM THE PALI 
by 

T. W. RHYS DAVIDS 

AND 

HERMANN OLDENBERG 



PART III 



THE ATJLLAVAGGA, IV— XII 




AT THE CLARENDON PRESS 
1885 

[ All rights reserved ] 

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CONTENTS. 

1-AGR 

The JTullavagga. 

Fourth Khandhaka (The Settlement of Disputes among 

the Fraternity) i 

Fifth Khandhaka (On the Daily Life of the Bhikkhus) . 66 

Sixth Khandhaka (On Dwellings and Furniture) . . 157 

Seventh Khandhaka (Dissensions in the Order) .224 

Eighth Khandhaka (Regulations as to the Duties of the 

Bhikkhus towards one another) . . .272 

Ninth Khandhaka (On Exclusion from the Pitimokkha 

Ceremony) 299 

Tenth Khandhaka (On the Duties of Bhikkhunfs) . 320 

Eleventh Khandhaka (On the Council of Ra^agaha) . 370 

Twelfth Khandhaka (On the Council of Veslli) . . 386 

Note on the BhSwavtras 415 

Index of Subjects 421 

Index of Proper Names 428 

Index of Pali Words explained or referred to in the Notes . 433 



Transliteration of Oriental Alphabets adopted for the Trans- 
lations of the Sacred Books of the East . . - 44 ' 



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A^ULLAVAGGA 



FOURTH KHANDHAKA. 

THE SETTLEMENT OF DISPUTES AMONG 
THE FRATERNITY. 




i. Now at that time the Blessed Buddha was 
dwelling at Savatthi, in the Arama of Anatha- 
pindika.. And at that time the A^abbaggiya 
Bhikkhus used to carry out the formal Acts — the 
Ta^aniya, and the Nissaya, and the Pabba- 
^■aniya, and the Pa^isara»iya, and the Ukkhe- 
paniya — against Bhikkhus who were not present 

Then those Bhikkhus who were modest were 
annoyed, murmured, and became indignant, saying, 
' How can the AT^abbaggiya Bhikkhus [act thus] 1 ?' 
And those Bhikkhus told the matter to the Blessed 
One. 

' Is it true, O Bhikkhus, as they say, that the 
A^abbaggiya Bhikkhus carry out the (aforesaid) 1 
formal Acts against Bhikkhus who are not present?' 

'It is true, Lord!' 

The Blessed Buddha rebuked them, saying, 'This 
is improper (&c, as in I, i, 2, down to the end).' 

And when he had thus rebuked them, and had 

1 The words above are repeated. 
[20] , s B 



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JSTULLAVAGGA. IV, 2, I. 



delivered a religious discourse, he addressed the 
Bhikkhus, and said : ' The formal Acts, O Bhikkhus, 
theTa^faniya-, the Nissaya-,the Pabba^aniya-, 
the Pa/isara#iya-, and the Ukkhepaniya-kam- 
mas, ought not to be carried out against Bhikkhus 
who are not present. Whosoever does so, shall be 
guilty of a dukka/a offence.' 



2. 

i. The single Bhikkhu who speaks not in ac- 
cordance with the right, the many who speak not in 
accordance with the right, the Sa*»gha which speaks 
not in accordance with the right. The single 
Bhikkhu who speaks in accordance with the right, 
the many who speak in accordance with the right, 
the Sa/#gha which speaks in accordance with the 
right 1 . 

Now (it may happen that) the one Bhikkhu who 
speaks not in accordance with the right may point 
out (the right course) to a single Bhikkhu who 
speaks in accordance with the right, or gives him 
to understand what it is 2 , or urges him to see or 
consider the matter in that light 3 , or teaches him, or 

1 This short enumeration of the different categories occurring 
in the subsequent paragraphs is quite in the style of the Abhi- 
dhamma texts, in which such lists are accustomed to be called 
matika; compare the expression matiki-dharo as applied to a 
learned Bhikkhu in the stock phrase at Mahavagga X, z, i ; 
•ATullavagga I, u ; IV, 14, 25, &c. 

8 The Samanta PdsadikS here says: ni^Mpettti yatM so 
Urn attham niggMyaXi olokcti evam karoti. 

3 Fekkheti anupekkhettti yatha so ta« attham pekkhati 
k' eva punappunan £a pekkhati evaw karoti. (Samanta Pasadikl) 



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IV, 3- THE SETTLEMENT OF DISPUTES. 3 

instructs him, saying, 'This is the Dhamma, this the 
Vinaya, this the teaching of the Master. Accept this, 
and approve this.' If the dispute should be thus 
settled, it is settled contrary to the Dhamma, and 
with a mere counterfeit of the Vinaya rule of pro- 
cedure (that cases of dispute must be settled before 
a duly constituted meeting of the Sa/»gha, and in 
the presence of the accused person) 1 . 

[And in like manner, if he instruct the many, or 
the Sa/»gha, who speak according to the right ; — or 
if the many or the Sawgha who speak not according 
to the right instruct the one, or the many, or the 
Sawgha who speak according to the right; — then 
the dispute is settled contrary to the Dhamma (&c, 
as before).] 

End of the nine cases in which the wrong 
side decides. 



3. 

[This chapter is the contrary of the last; the cases 
put being those in which the three last members of 



1 SammukhS- vinaya -pa/irupakena. The rule of proce- 
dure, called Sammukha-vinaya, hereafter rendered ' Proceeding 
in Presence,' is one of the seven modes of settling disputes already 
referred to in the closing chapter of the P&timokkha ('Vinaya 
Texts,' vol. i, p. 68), and is more fully described below in Aulla- 
vagga IV, 14, 16, and following sections. 

It will be seen below, from §§ IV, 14, 27-30, that it is involved 
in, or rather is supposed to accompany, each of the other Pro- 
ceedings mentioned in this chapter. 

B 2 



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JCULLAVAGGA. IV, 4, 1. 



the matika in the first paragraph of chapter 2 in- 
struct, &c, the three first members.] 



End of the nine cases in which the right 
side decides. 



1. Now at that time the Blessed Buddha was 
staying at Ra^agaha, in the Kalandaka Nivapa, in 
the Bamboo Grove. 

Now at that time the venerable Dabba the Mal- 
lian, who had realised Arahatship when he was 
seven years old, had entered into possession of 
every (spiritual gift) which can be acquired by a 
disciple ; there was nothing left that he ought still 
to do, nothing left that he ought to gather up of 
the fruit of his past labour 2 . And when the vener- 
able Dabba the Mallian had retired into solitude, 
and was sunk in thought, the following consideration 
presented itself to his mind : 'Arahatship had I 

1 The whole of the following story of Dabba down to the end 
of section 9 (except the last sentence) recurs in the Sutta-vibhanga 
as the Introductory Story to the Eighth Sawghidisesa. The 
Samanta PasadikS has therefore no commentary upon it here, and 
the few extracts that we give from it are taken from the notes of 
that work on the corresponding passage in the Sutta-vibhanga. 
The stupidity ofUdayi,who once supplanted Dabba the Mallian in 
the performance of his duty as bhattuddesaka, forms the burthen 
of the Introductory Story to the Gataka on ' the Measure of Rice ' 
(No. 5 in the Gataka book ; ' Buddhist Birth Stories,' pp. 172 and 
following). 

* On this phrase compare MahSvagga V, 1, ai, and the verses 
at V, r, 27. 



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IV, 4, 3' THE SETTLEMENT OF DISPUTES. 5 

acquired when I was seven years old. I have 
gained everything that a learner can reach to. 
There is nothing further left for me to do, nothing 
to gather up of the fruit of that which I have done. 
What service is it possible for me to render to the 
Sawgha?' And it occurred to the venerable Dabba 
the Mallian : 'It would be a good thing for me to 
regulate the lodging-places for the Sawgha, and to 
apportion the rations of food.' 

2. And when, at eventide, the venerable Dabba 
the Mallian had arisen from his meditations, he 
went to the place where the Blessed One was ; and 
when he had come there he saluted the Blessed 
One, and took his seat on one side ; and when he 
was so seated the venerable Dabba the Mallian 
spake thus to the Blessed One : 

'When I had retired, Lord, into solitude and was 
sunk in thought, the following consideration pre- 
sented itself to my mind (&c, as before, down to) 
It would be a good thing for me to regulate the 
lodging-places for the Sawzgha, and to apportion the 
rations of food. I desire, Lord, [so to do].' 

'Very good, Dabba. Do you then regulate the 
lodging-places for the Saw/gha, and apportion the 
rations of food!' 

'It is well, Lord,' said the venerable Dabba the 
Mallian, accepting the word of the Blessed One. 

.3. And the Blessed One on that occasion and in 
that connection, when he had delivered a religious 
discourse, addressed the Bhikkhus, and said : 

' Let then the Sa*»gha, O Bhikkhus, appoint 
Dabba the Mallian as the regulator of lodging- 
places, and as the -apportioner of rations. And 
thus, O Bhikkhus, should the appointment be made. 



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JSTULLAVAGGA. IV, 4, 4. 



' First Dabba should be asked (whether he is 
willing to undertake the office). When he has 
been asked, some able and discreet Bhikkhu should 
lay the resolution before the Sawgha, saying, 

' " Let the venerable Sawgha hear me. 

'"If it be convenient to the Sa*»gha, let the 
Sawgha appoint Dabba the Mallian as regulator 
of lodging-places, and as apportioner of rations. 

' "This is the resolution (»atti). 

' "Let the venerable Sawgha hear me. 

' "The Sa/#gha appoints the venerable Dabba the 
Mallian as regulator of lodging-places, and as ap- 
portioner of rations. Whosoever of the venerable 
ones agrees that Dabba should be so appointed, 
let him remain silent ; whosoever does not agree, 
let him speak. The venerable Dabba is appointed 
by the Sawgha as regulator of the lodging-places, 
and as apportioner of rations. The Sa«/gha ap- 
proves thereof. Therefore is it silent. Thus do 
I understand.'" 

4. And the venerable Dabba the Mallian, being 
so chosen, appointed one lodging-place in the same 
place for the Bhikkhus who belonged to the same 
division. For those Bhikkhus who were repeaters 
of the Suttantas he appointed a lodging-place to- 
gether, thinking, ' They will be able to chant over 
the Suttantas to one another.' For those Bhikkhus 
who were in charge of the Vinaya he appointed a 
lodging-place together, thinking, ' They will be able 
to discuss the Vinaya one with another.' For those 
Bhikkhus who were preachers of the Dhamma he 
appointed a lodging-place together, thinking, ' They 
will be able to talk over the Dhamma one with 
another.' For those Bhikkhus who were given to 



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IV, 4.4- THE SETTLEMENT OF DISPUTES. 7 

meditation ' he appointed one lodging-place together, 
thinking, ' They will not disturb one another.' For 
those Bhikkhus who were wise in worldly lore, 
and abounding in bodily vigour 2 , he appointed one 
lodging-place together, thinking, ' These venerable 
ones, too, will thus remain settled according to their 
pleasure.' And for such Bhikkhus as came in late, 
for them he caught fire 3 , and by the light of the 
flame thereof he pointed out to them a lodging-place. 

So much so * that Bhikkhus of set purpose would 
come in late, thinking, 'We shall thus behold the 
power of the Iddhi of the venerable Dabba the 
Mallian.' And they went up to the venerable 
Dabba the Mallian, and said : 'Appoint us, O 
venerable Dabba, a lodging-place.' 

And to them the venerable Dabba the Mallian 
would speak thus : 'Where do the venerable ones 
desire to rest ? Where shall I appoint it ?' 

And they of set purpose would designate some 
place afar, saying, ' May the venerable Dabba ap- 
point us a lodging-place on the Vulture's Peak ; may 
the venerable one appoint us a lodging-place at the 
Robber's Cliff ; may the venerable one appoint us a 
lodging-place at the Black Rock on the Isigili Passa ; 
may the venerable one appoint us a lodging on the 
Vebhara Passa ; may the venerable one appoint us 
a lodging-place in the Sattapawwi Cave ; may the 

1 GAayino possibly used with the technical connotation of being 
addicted to the practice of the Four Ghiaa. meditations ; but com- 
pare Mahavagga 1, 1, 3, 5, 7. 

* See the comment as quoted by H. O. 

9 Compare the use of te^odhatuw samapa^itva at Maha- 
vagga 1, 16, 4- 

4 Compare api ssu at A'ullavagga I, 9, 1. 



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8 JSTULLAVAGGA. IV, 4, 4. 

venerable one appoint us a lodging-place in the 
mountain cave of the Snake's Pool in Slta's Wood ; 
may the venerable one appoint us a lodging-place 
in the Goma/a Grotto ; may the venerable one ap- 
point us a lodging-place in the cave of the Tinduka 
Tree ; may the venerable one appoint us a lodging- 
place at the Tapoda Ghat ; may the venerable one 
appoint us a lodging-place in the Tapoda Arama ; 
may the venerable one appoint us a lodging-place 
in Qvaka's Mango Grove; may the venerable 
one appoint us a lodging-place in the deer-park 
at MaddakuMJtl.' 

And the venerable Dabba the Mallian would 
burst into flame, and walk on in front of them 
with his finger burning, and they by the light 
thereof would follow close upon the venerable 
Dabba the Mallian. And the venerable Dabba 
the Mallian would appoint them a lodging-place, 
saying, 'This is the couch, and this the stool, and 
this the mat, and this the pillow, and this the privy 
place, and this the drinking-water 1 , and this the 
water for washing, and this the staff 2 , and this 
the form of (the result of) the consultation of the 
Sawgha 8 , that at such and such a time are you 
to enter thereon, and at such and such a time 
are you to depart therefrom*.' And when the 



1 That paribho^aniyam does not mean drinking-water, as 
Childers renders it, is clear from VIII, 1, 2, where it is implied 
that it is to be used for washing feet. Our translation of Maha- 
vagga II, 20, s should be corrected accordingly. 

4 Compare below, VIII, 6, 3. 

9 Katika-sa«Mana/w. Compare Cataka I, 81, and Maha- 
vagga VIII, 32, and A'ullavagga VIII, 1, 2. 

4 That this is the correct rendering of this otherwise doubtful 



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IV, 4, 5- THE SETTLEMENT OF DISPUTES. 9 

venerable Dabba the Mallian had thus appointed 
unto them their lodging-place, he would return back 
again to the Bamboo Grove. 

5. Now at that time the Bhikkhus who were 
followers of Mettiya and Bhumma^aka 1 had been 
but recently received into the Sa*»gha, and were 
wanting in merit, and such among the lodging- 
places appertaining to the Sa/wgha as were inferior 
fell to their lot, and the inferior rations 2 . 

Now at that time the people of Ra^agaha were 
desirous of presenting to the Thera Bhikkhus a 
wishing-gift s , to wit, ghee and oil and dainty bits 4 ; 
while to the Bhikkhus who were followers of Mettiya 
and Bhumma^aka they used to give an ordinary 
gift according to their ability, to wit, scraps of food 
and sour gruel with it *. 

passage is clear from the closing words of VIII, 1, 2, where most 
of these phrases recur. In the text, for the last word nikkhi- 
pitabbam read nikkhamitabbam, as pointed out in the note 
at P- 3^3 of the edition of the text. 

1 These were two of the six leaders of the notorious .Oabbag- 
giya Bhikkhus. 

* Compare the 22nd Nissaggiya. 

9 Abhisawkharikaw; that is, a gift by the giving of which 
the donor expressly wished that a particular result (as, for in- 
stance, that the donor should be re-born as a king or queen, or 
should enter the paths, or have opportunity to hear a Buddha 
preach) should be brought about by the normal effect of that good 
act in a future birth. There are not a few instances of such 
wishes, and of their fulfilment, recorded in various parts of the 
sacred literature. 

* Uttaribhahgam. See the passages quoted in the note on 
Mahivagga VI, 14, 3. These three things are also mentioned 
together at VIII, 4, 4. 

* These expressions recur at Gatakal, 228. The Samanta PasS- 
dika says merely kawa^akan ti sakuntaka-bhattam. Bilanga- 
dutiyan ti kan^ika-dutiyam. 



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IO iTULLAVAGGA. IV, 4, 6. 

When they had returned from their receipt of 
alms, and had eaten their meal, they asked the 
Thera Bhikkhus, 'What did you get, Sirs, at the 
place of alms ; what did you get ?' 

Some of the Theras answered, 'We had ghee, 
Sirs ; we had oil ; we had dainty bits.' 

The Bhikkhus who were followers of Mettiya and 
Bhumma^faka replied : 'We got nothing at all, Sirs ; 
just an ordinary gift such as they could manage, 
scraps of food, and sour gruel with it.' 

6. Now at that time a certain householder, pos- 
sessed of good food 1 , used to give a perpetual alms 
to the Sa*»gha, a meal for four Bhikkhus. He with 
his wife and children used to stand at the place of 
alms and serve ; and offer to some Bhikkhus boiled 
rice, and to some congey, and to some oil, and to 
some dainty bits. 

Now at that time the meal for the Bhikkhus who 
were followers of Mettiya and Bhumma^aka had been 
fixed for the morrow at the house of this prosperous 
householder. And the prosperous householder went 
to the Arama for some business or other, and went 
up to the place where the venerable Dabba the 
Mallian was. And when he had come there, he 
saluted the venerable Dabba the Mallian, and took 
his seat on one side. And him so seated did the 
venerable Dabba instruct, and arouse, and gladden, 
and incite with religious discourse. 

And when the prosperous householder had thus 
been instructed, and aroused, and gladdened, and 
incited by the venerable Dabba the Mallian with 

1 The Samanta PasMka says simply kafyanam bhattam assa ti 
kalyana-bhattiko. 



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IV, 4, ?• THE SETTLEMENT OF DISPUTES. II 

religious discourse, he said to the venerable Dabba 
the Mallian : ' For whom, Sir, has the meal been 
appointed to-morrow at our house ?' 

' The meal has been appointed, my friend, at your 
house to-morrow for those Bhikkhus who are fol- 
lowers of Mettiya and Bhumma^aka/ 

Then the prosperous householder was ill-pleased, 
thinking, ' How can bad Bhikkhus enjoy themselves 
at our house ?' And going home he gave command 
to the slave-girl : ' For those who come to-morrow 
for the meal, spread out the mats in the entrance 
hall 1 , and serve them with scraps of food, and with 
sour gruel with it !' 

' Even so, Sir ! ' said the slave-girl, accepting the 
word of the householder. 

7. Then the Bhikkhus who were followers of 
Mettiya and Bhumma^aka spake one to another: 
' Yesterday a meal has been appointed for us at 
the house of the prosperous householder. To- 
morrow he, with his wife and children, will attend 
upon us at the place of alms, and serve us. And he 
will offer to some of us boiled rice, and to some 
congey, and to some oil, and to some dainty bits.' 
And through joy thereat they slept uneasily that 
night. 

Then the Bhikkhus who were followers of Mettiya 
and Bhumma^aka, having robed themselves in the 
early morning, went duly bowled and robed to the 
dwelling-place of the prosperous householder. And 
that slave-girl saw the Bhikkhus who were followers 



1 Ko/Z/iake, which means the battlemented gateway which 
formed the entrance to an important house; and in which there 
was a room. See Gataka I, 337. 



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1 2 JCULLAVAGGA. IV, 4, J. 

of Mettiya and Bhumma^aka approaching from afar; 
and spreading out the mats in the entrance hall, she 
said to them, ' Be seated, Sirs.' 

And the Bhikkhus who were followers of Mettiya 
and Bhumma^aka thought : ' For a certainty the 
meal cannot yet be ready, since we are told to take 
our seats in the entrance.' 

Then the slave-girl coming up with scraps of 
food, and sour gruel with it, said to them, ' Eat, 
Sirs!' 

' We, sister, are of those for whom perpetual meals 
are provided.' 

' I know, Sirs, that you are so. But only yester- 
day I received command from the householder that 
for them who should come to-morrow for the meal I 
was to spread out the mats in the entrance hall, and 
serve them with scraps of food, and some gruel with 
it. Eat, Sirs ! ' 

Then the Bhikkhus who were followers of Mettiya 
and Bhumma^aka thought : ' It was yesterday that 
the householder, the prosperous one, came to the 
Arama to visit Dabba the Mallian. For a certainty 
the householder must have been set against us by 
Dabba the Mallian.' And through sorrow thereat 
they ate uneasily. And the Bhikkhus who were 
followers of Mettiya and Bhumma^aka, when they 
had finished their meal, returned from the receipt of 
alms, went to the Arama, and laid aside their bowls 
and their robes, and sat down outside the porch 
of the Arama, squatting against their waist cloths 1 , 



1 Sawgha/i-pallatthikdya. There is a misprint in the text 
( r ttikaya). On this curious expression, see below, V, 28, 2. 



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IV, 4, 8. THE SETTLEMENT OF DISPUTES. 




silent, and ashamed, with fallen hearts ', 
faces, moody, and bewildered 2 . 

8. Now the Bhikkhuni Mettiya came up to the 
place where the Bhikkhus who were followers of 
Mettiya and Bhumma^aka were : and when she had 
come there she said to them : ' My salutation to you, 
Sirs 3 !' 

When she had so said the Bhikkhus who were 
followers of Mettiya and Bhumma^aka did not 
speak to her. So a second time she said to them : 
' My salutation to you, Sirs ! ' and they did not 
speak. And a third time she said to them : ' My 
salutation to you, Sirs ! ' Still the third time the 
Bhikkhus who were followers of Mettiya and Bhum- 
ma^aka did not speak. And she said : ' Wherein 
have I offended you, Sirs ? Wherefore do you not 
speak tome?' 

' Are you then so indifferent 4 , sister, when we are 
tormented by Dabba the Mallian ? ' 

' But what can I do, Sirs ? ' 

1 PattakkhandhS, which the Samanta Pasadiki explains by 
patitakkhandha. KhandhS here seems to mean ' faculties.' Com- 
pare the use of Dhamma in a similar connection at MahS-parinib- 
bana Sutta II, 32=Mahivagga V, 13, 9 ; and see Buddhaghosa's 
commentary on that passage, quoted by Rh. D. in ' Buddhist Suttas 
from the PSli,' p. 36. 

1 Appa/ibhanS. Pa/ibhinam is the rapid suggestion of an 
idea in a case of doubt or difficulty, an illumination; so that pa- 
/ibhlnako, the man of ready wit, may be compared with upSya- 
kusalo, the man fertile in resource. 'Absent-minded' would be 
an incorrect rendering; they had no idea what to think or do, 
and the appearance of the nun on the scene (in the next para- 
graph) supplied the want. Till then they hesitated, drifted. 

* The following narrative, down to § 9, is repeated almost word 
for word in V, 20, only that the person there persuaded to bring the 
false accusation is different. 

4 A^Aupekkhati. Compare Gataka 1, 147. 



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14 JCULLAVAGGA. IV, 4, 9. 

' If you like, sister, you could this very day make 
the Blessed One expel the venerable Dabba the 
Mallian.' 

' But what shall I do, Sirs ? What is it that it is 
in my power to do ? ' 

' Come now, sister ; do you go to the place where 
the Blessed One is, and when you have come there say 
as follows : " This, Lord, is neither fit nor proper that 
the very quarter of the heavens which should be 
safe, secure, and free from danger, that from that 
very quarter should come danger, calamity, and 
distress — that where one might expect a calm, one 
should meet a gale. Methinks the very water has 
taken fire. I have been defiled, Lord, by Dabba 
the Mallian!"' 

' Very well, Sirs ! ' said the Bhikkhunl Mettiya, 
accepting the word of the followers of Mettiya and 
Bhumma/aka. And she went to the Blessed One 
[and spake even as she had been directed} 

9. Then the Blessed One, on that occasion and in 
that connection, convened a meeting of the Sawgha, 
and asked the venerable Dabba the Mallian : 

' Are you conscious *, Dabba, of having done such 
a thing as this Bhikkhunt says ? ' 

' Even as my Lord, the Blessed One, knows me.' 
[And a second and a third time the Blessed One 
asked the same question, and received the same 

reply-] 

1 Literally, 'Do you recollect?' But it is quite clear from the 
technical words at the close of this section that the verb sarati 
had already acquired the secondary meaning ' to be conscious of.' 
The whole story is peculiarly valuable as illustrating the growth of 
the connotation of the verb and its allied meanings, and indirectly 
the origin and growth of the idea of ' conscience ' which has played 
so great a part in theological and ethical speculation. 



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IV, 4, 9-' THE SETTLEMENT OF DISPUTES. 1 5 

Then said the Blessed One : ' The Dabbas, O 
Dabba, do not thus repudiate l . If you' have done 
it, say so. If you have not done it, say you have 
not.' 

'Since I was born, Lord, I cannot call to mind 2 
that I have practised sexual intercourse even in a 
dream, much less when I was awake ! ' 

And the Blessed One addressed the Bhikkhus, 
and said : * Expel then, O Bhikkhus, the Bhikkhunl 
Mettiya, and examine those Bhikkhus about it.' 
And so saying he rose from his seat and entered 
into the Vihara. 

Then those Bhikkhus expelled the Bhikkhunl 
Mettiya. But the Bhikkhus who were followers of 
Mettiya and Bhumma^aka said to those Bhikkhus : 
'Do not, Sirs, expel the Bhikkhunl Mettiya. She 
has not committed any offence. She has been set 
on by us with angry and bitter intentions of causing 
his fall.' 

' What then, Sirs ? is it you who are thus 
harassing the venerable Dabba the Mallian with a 
groundless charge and breach of morality ? ' 

' That is true, Sirs.' 

Then those Bhikkhus who were moderate were 
indignant and annoyed and complained, saying, 
' How can these Bhikkhus the followers of Mettiya 
and Bhummafaka harass the venerable Dabba the 
Mallian with a groundless charge of breach of 



* That is, 'Men of character and standing such as yours, 
O Dabba, are not in the habit of repudiating a charge in so 
indirect a manner by adverting merely to their standing and known 
character.' 

* Here the word used is abhi^anami. 



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1 6 KULLAVAGGA. TV, 4, 10. 

morality ? ' And they told the matter to the Blessed 
One. 

* Is this true, O Bhikkhus ? ' 

' It is true, Lord.' 

Then he rebuked them, and when he had de- 
livered a religious discourse, he addressed the 
Bhikkhus, and said : 

'Let then the Sawgha grant to Dabba the 
Mallian, whose conscience in respect of this matter 
is quite clear, the Proceeding for the consciously 
innocent 1 . 

10. 'And thus, O Bhikkhus, is it to be granted. 

'Let that Dabba the Mallian go before the 
Sa*»gha, and having arranged his robe over one 
shoulder, let him bow down at the feet of the senior 
Bhikkhus, and crouching down 2 , let him stretch 

1 Dabbassa sati-vepulla-ppattassa sati-vinayam detu. 
The explanation of the compound sati-vepulla-ppatto given by 
Childers, though it rests on so good an authority as that of V^e- 
simha Mudaliar, cannot be right. He makes it mean ' a man of 
great intellectual development.' But sati must here refer to the 
fact that Dabba has been formally called upon to remember 
(s&rito) whether he did or did not commit the offence. And 
though the exact sense of the compound is subject to some doubt, 
the general sense of the clause must be very much as we have con- 
jecturally rendered it. On this formal appeal to the conscience, or 
memory (sati), of a Bhikkhu charged with an offence, or sup- 
posed to have offended, see ATullavagga I, 2, and 5 at the end; 
and X, 20. 

* Ukku/ikaw nisfditva. This verb does not mean ' to sit on the 
hams,' as rendered by Childers. The exact posture, unknown in 
Europe, is to crouch down on the feet (keeping both toes and heels 
on the ground) in such a way that the hams do not touch the 
ground, but come within an inch or two of it. Europeans find it 
very difficult to retain this posture for any length of time, but the 
natives of India find it easy, and it is regarded in the Pi/akas as a 
posture of humility. 



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IV, 4i JO. THE SETTLEMENT OF DISPUTES. 1 *] 

forth his hands with the palms joined together, and 
let him say, " These Bhikkhus, Sirs, the followers of 
Mettiya and Bhummagaka, are harassing me by a 
groundless charge of breach of morality. But I, 
Sirs, in respect thereof have a clear conscience, and 
I ask the Sawgha for the acquittal to be accorded 
to those who are conscious of innocence.* Then 
some able and discreet Bhikkhu is thus to lay the 
resolution (natti) before the Sawsgha. " Let the 
venerable Sa»zgha hear me. These Bhikkhus, Sirs, 
the followers of Mettiya and Bhumma^aka, are 
harassing the venerable Dabba the Mallian with 
a groundless charge of a breach of morality, and the 
venerable Dabba the Mallian has in respect thereof 
a conscience that is clear, and asks the Sa/wgha for 
the acquittal of those who are conscious of innocence. 
If the time is convenient to the Sawzgha, let the 
Sawgha accord to the venerable Dabba the Mallian 
the acquittal of those who are conscious of inno- 
cence. This is the resolution. Let the venerable 
Saawgha hear me. These Bhikkhus (&c, as before, 
down to) asks the Sa«/gha for the acquittal of those 
who are conscious of innocence. The Sa#/gha 
accords to the venerable Dabba the Mallian the 
acquittal of those who are consciously innocent. 
Whosoever of the venerable ones approves of the 
grant to Dabba the Mallian of the acquittal of 
those who are conscious of innocence, let him keep 
silence. Whosoever approves not thereof, let him 
speak. And a second time I say the same thing. 
And a third time I say the same thing. Let the 
venerable Sawgha hear me. These Bhikkhus (&c, 
as before, down to) let him speak. The acquittal of 
those who are conscious of innocence has been 
[»o] c 



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1 8 iTULLAVAGGA. IV, 4, II. 

granted by the Sawgha to Dabba the Mallian. 
The Sawgha approves thereof. Therefore is it 
silent. Thus do I understand 1 ." ' 

11.' There are five things which make a grant of 
acquittal to those who are conscious of innocence to 
be according to law. The Bhikkhu must be inno- 
cent and without offence, others must have censured 
him, he must ask the Sawgha for acquittal as being 
conscious of innocence, the Sawgha must grant it, 
the Samgha. must be duly held and duly constituted. 
These, O Bhikkhus, are the five things which make 
a grant of the acquittal of those who are conscious 
of innocence to be according to law.' 



5 a . 

1. Now at that time the Bhikkhu Gagga was 
insane and out of his mind ; and by him, when so 
insane and out of his mind, many things unworthy of 
a sama«a had been committed, as well in speech as 
in act 3 . The Bhikkhus warned the Bhikkhu Gagga 
of a fault so committed by him when insane and out 
of his mind, saying, ' Does the venerable one call to 



1 This section is repeated below, chap. 14, § 27, with the neces- 
sary alterations for a general rule instead of a particular case. 

1 The particular decision given in this chapter for the particular 
case is elaborated in chap. 14, § 28 below into a general rule for 
every similar case. 

5 Buddhaghosa explains this word as follows: ' Bh&sitapa- 
rikantan ti v£££ya bhasitaw kaycna parikkantam parikkametvi 
katan ti attho.' The similar word Parikantaw, which occurs in the 
Sutta-vibhaftga, PSra^ika IV, 1, 2, in the sense of lacerated, is from 
the root kr»'nt. 



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IV,5, 1. THE SETTLEMENT OF DISPUTES. 1 9 

mind that he has committed such and such an 
offence ? ' 

He replied, ' I, my friends, was insane and out of 
my mind. (No doubt) many things unworthy of a 
sama«a, as well in speech as in act, may have been 
committed by me when so insane and out of my 
mind. But I do not recollect it It was done by 
me by reason of my insanity.' 

But though they received that answer from him \ 
they warned him still, saying, ' Does the venerable 
one call to mind that he has committed such and 
such an offence ? ' 

'Those Bhikkhus who were moderate were an- 
noyed, murmured, and became indignant, saying, 
" How can those Bhikkhus warn the Bhikkhu Gagga 
. . . saying . . . such and such an offence ?" And when 
he replies, " I, my friends, was insane ... by 
reason of my insanity" — how can those Bhikkhus 
still warn him, saying ... of such and such an 
offence ? ' 

And those Bhikkhus told the matter to the 
Blessed One. 

' Is it true, O Bhikkhus, that those Bhikkhus (&c, 
as before, down to) such and such an offence ? ' 

' It is true, Lord.' 

Then he rebuked them, and when he had delivered 
a religious discourse he addressed the Bhikkhus, 
and said : 

' Let then the Sawgha grant to Gagga the 



1 N am in the text is correct. It is identical with the nam 
so frequently found in Jain Prakrit ; on which see Weber in his 
Bhagavatf ' Abhandlungen der Berliner Akadamie,' 1865, pp. 42a 
and foil. 



C 2 



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20 JTUIXAVAGGA. IV, 5, 2. 

Bhikkhu who is now sane the dispensation for 
those who are no longer insane. 

2. 'And thus, O Bhikkhus, should it be granted. 

' Let that Bhikkhu Gagga [here follow the words 
of the formal request, of the resolution, and of the 
grant by decision of the Sa*»gha, exactly in the 
same way as in the last case, chapter 4, § 10].' 



6. 

1. 'There are three cases, O Bhikkhus, in which 
grants of dispensation for those who are no longer 
insane are not valid : and three cases in which such 
grants are valid. 

4 What are the three cases in which grants of 
dispensation for those who are no longer insane 
are not valid ? 

' In the first place, O Bhikkhus, in case a Bhikkhu 
have committed an offence : and in respect thereof 
either the Sazwgha, or a number of Bhikkhus, or 
a single Bhikkhu, warn him, saying, " Does the 
venerable one call to mind that he has been guilty 
of such and such an offence ? " And he, notwith- 
standing that he does remember it, says, " I do not 
remember, Sirs, that I have been guilty of such and 
such an offence." Then if the Samgha. grant him 
the dispensation of those who are no longer insane, 
that grant is not valid. 

' Again, O Bhikkhus, in case a Bhikkhu (&c, as 
before, down to) And he, notwithstanding that he 
does remember it, says, " I remember it, Sirs, but 
as if in a dream." Then if the Sawgha grant him 



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IV, 6, 2. THE SETTLEMENT OF DISPUTES. 21 

the dispensation of those who are no longer insane, 
that grant is not valid. 

' Again, O Bhikkhus, in case a Bhikkhu have 
committed an offence, and in respect thereof either 
the Sawgha, or a number of Bhikkhus, or a single 
Bhikkhu, warn him, saying, "Does the venerable 
one call to mind that he has been guilty of such 
and such an offence ?" And he, though he is not 
insane, acts in the (deceptive) way of an insane 
person ', saying, " I act so, and you act so likewise. 
It beseems me, and it likewise beseems you." Then 
if the Sawgha grant him the dispensation of those 
who are no longer insane, that grant is not valid. 

' These are the three cases, O Bhikkhus, in which 
a grant of the dispensation for those who are no 
longer insane is not valid. 

2. 'What are the three cases in which grants of 
dispensation for those who are no longer insane are 
valid ? 

' In the first place, O Bhikkhus, in case a Bhikkhu 
be insane and out of his mind ; and by him, when so 
insane and out of his mind, many things unworthy of 
a samana have been committed, as well in speech 
as in act. And either the Sawgha, or a number of 
Bhikkhus, or a single Bhikkhu, warns him in re- 
spect thereof, saying, " Does the venerable one call 
to mind that he has committed such and such an 
offence ?" And he really not remembering it, 
answers, " I do not remember, Sirs, that I have 
been guilty of such and such an offence." Then if 
the Sawgha grants him the dispensation for those 
who are no longer insane, that grant is valid. 

1 Ummattak&layaw karoti, on which Buddhaghosa says 
nothing. The word recurs in the following section. 



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22 JTULLAVAGGA. IV, 1, I. 

'Again, O Bhikkhus, in case a Bhikkhu be insane 
and out of his mind (&c, as "before, down to) And 
he, not really remembering it, answers, " I remember 
it, Sirs, but as if in a dream." Then if the Sawgha 
grants him the dispensation for those who are no 
longer insane, that grant is valid. 

' Again, O Bhikkhus, in case a Bhikkhu be insane 
and out of his mind (&c, as before, down to) " Does 
the venerable one call to mind that he has been 
guilty of such and such an offence ?" And he, being 
still insane, acts in the way of an insane person, 
saying, " I act so, and you act so likewise. It 
beseems me, and it likewise beseems you." Then 
if the Sawgha (afterwards) grant him the dispensa- 
tion for those who are no longer insane, that grant 
is valid. 

' These are the three cases, O Bhikkhus, in which 
the grant of the dispensation for those who are no 
longer insane is valid.' 



i. Now at that time the .Oabbaggiya Bhikkhus 
carried out official acts against Bhikkhus who had 
not confessed themselves guilty — the Tapani ya- 
kamma, or the Nissaya-kamma, or the Pabba- 
^"aniya-kamma, or the Pa/isaramya-kamma, or 
the Ukkhepaniya-kamma. 

Those Bhikkhus who were moderate were an- 
noyed, murmured, and became indignant, saying, 
' How can the A!^abbaggiya Bhikkhus (&c, as 
before).' And those Bhikkhus told the matter to 
the Blessed One. 



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IV, 8, I. THE SETTLEMENT OF DISPUTES. 2;, 

' Is it true, O Bhikkhus, that the A^abbaggiya 
Bhikkhus do so ?' 

' It is true, Lord.' 

Then he rebuked them, and when he had de- 
livered a religious discourse, he addressed the 
Bhikkhus, and said : 

' No official act, O Bhikkhus, — whether the Ta^- 
/•aniya-kamma, or the Nissaya-kamma, or the 
Pabba^aniya-kamma, or the Pa/isara»iya- 
kamma, or the Ukkhepaniya-kamma, — is to 
be carried out against Bhikkhus who have not con- 
fessed themselves guilty 1 . Whosoever does so, 
shall be guilty of a dukka/a offence.' 



8. 

i . ' Now, O Bhikkhus, an official act carried out 
against a Bhikkhu who has confessed himself guilty 
is invalid as follows, and is valid as follows. And 
how does such an official act become invalid ? In 
case a Bhikkhu have committed a Parifika offence, 
and in respect thereof either the Sazwgha, or a 
number of Bhikkhus, or a single Bhikkhu warns 
him, saying, " The venerable one has been guilty of 
a Par&gika." And he replies thus, " I have not, 
Sirs, been guilty of a Para^ika. I have been guilty 
of a Sa*«ghadisesa." And in respect thereof the 
Sawgha deals with him for a Sawghadisesa. Then 
that official act is invalid.' 



1 The mode in which such a confession ought to be made is 
set out in full in IV, 14, 30-34. 



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24 JTULLAVAGGA. IV, 8, 2. 

[And so also if on being warned of any one of 
the seven offences 1 he confesses himself to be guilty 
of any one of the offences different from the one 
charged, then the official act is invalid.] 

2. ' And when, O Bhikkhus, is such an official act 
valid ? In case a Bhikkhu have committed a Para- 
gika offence, and in respect thereof the Sawgha, or 
a number of Bhikkhus, or a single Bhikkhu warns 
him, saying, " The venerable one has been guilty 
of a Para.f ika." And he replies, " Yea, Sirs, I have 
been guilty of a Parifika." And in respect thereof 
the Sa/»gha deals with him for a Pari^ika. Then 
that official act is valid V 

[And so for each of the other offences mentioned 
in J i , the whole of § 2 is repeated.] 



9». 

Now at that time the Bhikkhus in chapter 
(Sa*»gha) assembled, since they became violent, 
quarrelsome, and disputatious, and kept on wound- 
ing one another with sharp words 4 , were unable 

1 The same, namely, as those in the list given at MahSvagga IV, 
1 6, 12, &c. 

* In other words, if a Bhikkhu confesses an offence different 
from that with which he has been charged, the confession cannot 
be used against him even as regards a decision with respect to the 
offence confessed. 

' On this chapter, see further below, IV, 14, 16. 

* Anna.ma.nnam mukhaisattf hi vitudantd viharanti. 
Literally, ' with mouth-javelins.' Vitudati, and not vitudati as 
Childers gives, is the right spelling. So Fausboll reads at Gataka 
II, 185, 186. 



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IV, 9. THE SETTLEMENT OF DISPUTES. 25 



to settle the disputed question (that was brought 
before them). 

They told this matter to the Blessed One. 

1 ' I allow you, O Bhikkhus, to settle such a dis- 
pute by the vote of the majority. A Bhikkhu who 
shall be possessed of five qualifications shall be 
appointed as taker of the voting tickets — one who 
does not walk in partiality, one who does not walk 
in malice, one who does not walk in folly, one who 
does not walk in fear 2 , one who knows what 
(votes) have been taken and what have not been 
taken. 

' And thus shall he be appointed. 

' First the Bhikkhu is to be requested (whether 
he will undertake the office). Then some able and 
discreet Bhikkhu is to bring the matter before the 
Sawgha, saying, 

' " Let the venerable Sawgha hear me. If the 
time seems meet to the Sawzgha, let the Sawgha 
appoint a Bhikkhu of such and such a name as 
taker of the voting tickets. 

' " This is the motion (»atti). 

' " Let the venerable Sawgha hear me. The 

Sawgha appoints a Bhikkhu of such and such a 

name as taker of the tickets. Whosoever of the 

•venerable ones approves of the Bhikkhu of such 

and such a name being appointed as taker of the 



1 From here to the end of the chapter recurs in IV, 14, 24. 

' These are the qualifications always ascribed to one who 
rightly fills any judicial offence, and are called the four Agatis. 
They are the especial attributes of a good king sitting as judge, 
and are mentioned elsewhere (Sawghadisesa XIII ; Mahavagga 
VIII, 5, 2; VIII, 6, 1 ; and* below, VI, n, 2) of other officials 
of the order with duties similar to those in the text 



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26 JCULLAVAGGA. IV, 10, I. 

tickets, let him keep silence. Whosoever approves 
not thereof, let him speak. The Bhikkhu of such 
and such a name is appointed by the Sawgha as 
taker of the voting tickets. Therefore is it silent. 
Thus do I understand.'" 



10 ». 

i. 'There are ten cases, O Bhikkhus, in which the 
taking of votes is invalid; and ten in which the 
taking of votes is valid. 

' Which are the ten in which the taking of votes 
is invalid ? When the matter in dispute is trivial 2 
— when the case has not run its course (that is, 
when the necessary preliminaries of submission to . 
arbitration have not been carried out 3 ) — when re- 
garding the matter in dispute the Bhikkhus have 
not formally remembered, or been formally called 
upon to remember, the offence * — when the taker of 
votes * knows that those whose opinions are not in 
accordance with the law will be in the majority, 



1 On this chapter, see further below, IV, 14, 24-26. 

2 Oramattakam. Compare the English law maxim, De 
minimis non curat lex. 

3 Buddhaghosa says, Na ka. gatigatan ti dve tayo Svase na 
gatam, tattha tatth' eva vS dvitikkhattum wimikkilam. See on 
these proceedings above. 

4 Buddhaghosa says, Na ia. sarita-s&ritan ti dvitikkhattuw 
tehi bhikkhuhi sayam saritaw va annehi saritaw va na hoti. 

* Ganati ti salakaw gahento ^aniti. (S.P.) 



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IV, II, i. THE SETTLEMENT OF DISPUTES. 2"] 

or probably 1 may be in the majority — when he 
knows that the voting will result in a schism in 
the Sawgha — when he is in doubt whether the 
voting will result in a schism in the Sawgha — when 
the votes are irregularly given 2 — when all do not 
vote equally 3 — and when they do not vote in ac- 
cordance with the view (which they really hold). 
These are the ten cases in which the voting is 
invalid *. 

2. ' And which are the ten cases in which the 
voting is valid ?' 

[The ten cases are precisely the reverse of the 
other ten.] 



11. 

I. Now at that time the Bhikkhu Uva/a 5 , being 
examined in the midst of the Sawgha with an 
offence, when he had denied then confessed it, 
when he had confessed it then denied it, made 



1 App eva n&ma. That this phrase does not merely mean 
' perhaps ' is clear from its use in § 2. 

* Adhammena gawhantf ti adhammavSdino evam mayaw 
bahu bhavissama ti dve dve salakiyo ganhanti. (S. P.) 

* On vaggS, here = vi + agga, compare our note on the 21st 
Piiittiya, and Aullavagga I, a, 1. Buddhaghosa here says, 
Vaggi gawhantf ti dve dhammavidino ekara dhammavadi- 
salakaw gawhanti evam dhammavidino na bahu bhavissantf ti 
mannamana. 

* With this chapter the 26th section of chapter 14 should be 
compared, where very curious means are inculcated for avoiding 
some of the votes here stated to be invalid. 

* In the Burmese MSS. the name of this monk is written 
Upavala. 



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28 JTULLAVAGGA. IV, II, 2. 

counter-charges l , and spoke lies which he knew 
to be such 2 . 

Those Bhikkhus who were moderate were an- 
noyed, murmured, and became indignant, saying, 
' How can the Bhikkhu Uva/a do so ? ' And they 
told the matter to the Blessed One. 

' Is it true, O Bhikkhus, as they say that the 
Bhikkhu [&c, as before].' 

' It is true, Lord.' 

Then he rebuked him, and when he had delivered 
a religious discourse he addressed the Bhikkhus, 
and said : 

' Then, O Bhikkhus, let the Sawgha carry out 
the Tassa-papiyyasika-kamma (the Proceeding 
in the case of the obstinately wrong) V 

2. 'And thus, O Bhikkhus, is it to be carried out. 
In the first place the Bhikkhu Uva/a must have been 
warned ; when he had been warned, he must have 
been called upon to remember (whether he has, or 
has not, consciously committed the offence) ; when 
he had been called upon to remember, he must 
have been caused (by being put on his trial with 
respect to the offence) to bring upon himself a new 

1 Anraena annam pa/iiarati. We follow Wijesiwha Mudali- 
yar's interpretation of this phrase as given by Childers (s. v. tassa- 
papiyyasika). 

* Chapter 14, section 29 below, is in fact an elaboration of this 
paragraph, giving instances of the kind of prevarication here in- 
tended to be referred to. 

* The exact meaning of the phrase is somewhat doubtful, owing 
to the ambiguity of the tassa. It should probably be analysed ' the 
proceeding against one who is more sinful (papiyo) than that 
(tassa);' that is, who adds sin to sin. Childers gives a long note 
on the Proceeding drawn by Wijesiwha Mudaliyar from this chapter, 
but does not analyse the word. 



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IV, II, 3. THE SETTLEMENT OF DISPUTES. 29 

offence (namely, of obstinacy or prevarication) ; when 
he has brought upon himself this new offence, some 
discreet and able Bhikkhu ought to lay the matter 
before the Sa#*gha, saying, 

' " Let the venerable Sawzgha hear me. This 
Bhikkhu Uva/a, being examined in the midst of the 
Sawgha with an offence, when he has denied it then 
confesses it, when he has confessed it then denies it, 
makes counter-charges, and speaks lies which he 
knows to be such. If the time seems meet to the 
Sawgha, let the Sawzgha carry out the Tassa- 
papiyyasika-kamma against the Bhikkhu Uva/a. 

' " This is the motion. 

' " Let the venerable Sawgha hear me. This 
Bhikkhu Uva/a (&c, as before). The Sawgha car- 
ries out the Tassa-papiyyasika-kamma against 
Uva/a the Bhikkhu. Whosoever of the venerable 
ones approves of the Tassa-papiyyasika-kamma 
being carried out against Uva/a the Bhikkhu, let him 
keep silence. Whosoever approves not thereof, let 
him speak. 

'"A second time I say the same thing. This 
Bhikkhu Uva/a (&c, as before, down to) let him 
speak. A third time I say the same thing (&c, as 
before, down to) let him speak. 

'"The Tassa-papiyyasika-kamma has been 
carried out by the Sa*#gha against Uva/a the 
Bhikkhu. Therefore is it silent. Thus do I under- 
stand 1 .'" 

1 This KammavSM is precisely the same as is laid down in 
A'ullavagga 1, 1, 4, &c. in the case of all the other penal K am mas. 



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30 JTULLAVAGGA. IV, 12, I. 



12. 

1. ' There are five things, O Bhikkhus, which are 
necessary to the valid carrying out of the Tassa- 
papiyyasika-kamma. To wit — he is impure, he 
is shameless — a censure has been set on foot against 
him 1 — the Sa/wgha carries out the Kamma — it 
carries it out lawfully, and in a full quorum. 

2. ' There are three things, O Bhikkhus, by which, 
when a Tassa-papiyyasika-kamma is character- 
ised, it is against the Dhamma, and against the 
Vinaya, and difficult to be settled ; (that is to say), 
when it has not been carried out in a full assembly 
of properly qualified persons, according to law and 
justice, and in the presence of the litigant parties — 
when it has been carried out without the accused 
person having been heard — when it has been carried 
out without the accused person having confessed 
himself guilty. 

' These are the three things, O Bhikkhus, by 
which, when a Tassa-papiyyasika-kamma is 
characterised, it is against the Dhamma, and against 
the Vinaya, and difficult to be settled. 

' There are three things by which (and as in last 
paragraph) it is in accordance with the Dhamma, 
and in accordance with the Vinaya, and easy to be 
settled ; (that is to say), when it has been [&c, the 
rest of this paragraph is the reverse of the last] 2 .' 

1 Compare the use of anuvado in .Afullavagga I, 5. 

* These paragraphs exactly correspond to paragraphs at A'ulla- 
vagga I, 2. It is probably merely owing to this repetition that 
it is here also prescribed that the accused person must confess 



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IV, 13, I. THE SETTLEMENT OF DISPUTES. 3 1 

3. [This paragraph exactly corresponds to A'ulla- 
vagga I, 4, paragraph i, as to the three cases in 
which the Sawgha, if it likes, may carry out the 
Tassa-papiyyasika-kamma against a Bhikkhu.] 

4. [In this paragraph the 'right conduct' for a 
Bhikkhu who has been subjected to this Kamma is 
laid down precisely as in I, 5 for a Bhikkhu sub- 
jected to the Tagganiya-kamma.] 

Then the Sawgha carried out the Tassa-pa- 
piyyasika-kamma against Uva/a the Bhikkhu. 



13 \ 

1. Now at that time, while the Bhikkhus were 
continuing in quarrels, strifes, and disputes, they 
had been guilty of many things unworthy of a 
S a ma n a, as well in word as in deed, and it occurred 
to the Bhikkhus, 'Whilst we were continuing, &c. . . . 
we have been guilty, &c. ... as well in word as in 
deed. If we now deal one with another for those 
offences, it may happen that that proceeding may 
result in harshness, in ill-feeling, in divisions. How 
now should we manage ? ' 

And they told the matter to the Blessed One. 

' In case, O Bhikkhus, whilst the Bhikkhus are 
continuing, &c. . . . they are guilty, &c. ... as well 
in word as in deed. And it occurs to them, " Whilst 
we were continuing, &c. ... we have been guilty, 
&c . , . If we now deal, &c. . . . How now shall 

himself guilty, as it must be evident from the Introductory Story, 
that he will not do so. 

1 The whole of this chapter recurs below, IV, 14, 33. 



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32 JSTULLAVAGGA. IV, 13, a. 

■ — -■■■ — — .— %— — — - — — -. ,., — -,, ,, 

we manage ?" I enjoin upon you, O Bhikkhus, to 
settle a matter of this kind by Ti«avattharaka 
(the Covering over as with grass) 1 . 

2. 'And thus, O Bhikkhus, is it to be settled. 
All are to meet together in one spot. When they 
have met together some able and discreet Bhikkhu 
is to bring the matter before the Sa/»gha, saying, 

' " Let the venerable Sawgha hear me. While we 
were continuing, &c. ... we have been guilty, &c . . . 
as well in word as in deed. And it occurred to us 
(&c, down to) If we now deal one with another, 
&c. ... it may result in harshness, in ill-feeling, in 
divisions. If the time seems meet to the Sawgha, 
let the Sa/#gha settle this matter by the Covering 
over as with grass — except only as regards serious 
offences 2 , and as regards those things in which the 
laity have been concerned." 

'Then some discreet and able Bhikkhu among 
those Bhikkhus who belong to the one party is to 
bring the matter before his own party, saying, 

' " May the venerable ones hear me. While we 
were continuing, &c. ... we have been guilty, &c. 
... as well in word as in deed. And it occurred 
to us, &c. . . . (down to) in divisions. If the time 
seems meet to you, venerable Sirs, I would confess 
in the midst of the Sawzgha, both on your behalf, 
venerable Sirs, and on my own behalf, both such 
offence as is yours, venerable Sirs, and such offence 



1 Buddhaghosa's commentary on this expression will be found 
in the notes to H.O.'s edition of the text, pp. 313, 314. 

* Buddhaghosa (H. O. loc. cit.) explains this as meaning either 
Para^ika or Samgh&disesa offences. So also he explains 
Du/Mulla apatti at Mahavagga X, 5, 4. 



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IV, 13, a. THE SETTLEMENT OF DISPUTES. 33 

as is mine own, to the end that it may be covered 
over as with grass, except only as regards serious 
offences, and as regards those things in which the 
laity have been concerned." 

'And some discreet and able Bhikkhu among the 
Bhikkhus belonging to the other party is to bring 
the matter before his own party, saying, " May the 
venerable ones hear me [&c, as before in the last 
paragraph, down to the end]." 

' Then the discreet and able Bhikkhu among the 
Bhikkhus belonging to the one party is to bring the 
matter before the Sawgha, saying, " May the vene- 
rable Sawgha hear me. While we (&c, as before, 
down to) in divisions. If the time seems meet to 
the Sazwgha, I would confess 1 in the midst of the 
Sawgha, both on behalf of these venerable ones 
and on my own behalf, both such offence as is theirs 
and such offence as is mine own, to the end that it 
may be covered over as with grass, except only as 
regards serious offences, and as regards those things 
in which the laity have been concerned. This is 
the motion (»atti). May the venerable Sa/wgha 
hear me. While we (&c, as before, down to) in 
divisions. I confess (&c, as before, down to) in 
which the laity have been concerned. Whosoever 
of the venerable ones approves of the confession of 
these our offences, to the end that they may so be 
covered over as with grass, except as before men- 
tioned, let him keep silence. Whosoever approves 
not thereof, let him speak. These our offences are 
confessed in the midst of the Sawgha, to the end 
that they may be covered over as with grass, except 

1 Deseyyaw. Compare IV, 14, 33, at the end. 
[20] D 



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34 JTULLAVAGGA. IV, 14, I. 

as before mentioned. The Sawgha approves thereof. 
Therefore is it silent. Thus do I understand." 

'And the discreet and able Bhikkhu among the 
Bhikkhus belonging to the other party is to bring 
the matter before the Sawgha, saying, "Let the 
venerable Sawgha hear me (&c, as before in the 
last paragraph, down to the end)." 

'Then thus, O Bhikkhus, those Bhikkhus are 
absolved of those offences, except as regards serious 
offences, and as regards those things in which the 
laity have been concerned, and except also as 
regards those who express their disapproval of the 
proceedings, or who are not present at them V 



14. 

1. Now at that time Bhikkhus had disputes with 
Bhikkhus, and Bhikkhunts with Bhikkhus. And 
the Bhikkhu KAanna. 2 , forcing his way (into the 
apartments) of the Bhikkhunis 3 , took the part of the 
Bhikkhunis and disputed with the Bhikkhus. 

1 On these phrases Buddhaghosa has the following note : 
Di/M&vikamman ti ye pana na me tarn khamatt ti annaroanna' 
di/M&vikammam karonti tehi v£ saddhwi Spattis? ipaggitvi pi, 
tattha an&gad agantvS v& kA&ndam datvl parivewSdisu nisinna, te 
Spattihi na vu#ftahanti. This is more an exegesis on the rule 
than an explanation of the words Di/M&vikammaw MapetvS, 
the exact meaning of which remains doubtful. The literal render- 
ing would be ' except as regards the manifestation of opinion.' 

* It was with reference to this conduct of iTAanna that the 
Buddha is stated in the Maha-parinibbana Sutta VI, 4 to have 
imposed a penalty upon him. He is also mentioned above, I, 
25-31, and below, XI, 1, 12-14. 

3 Compare the 16th and 43rd P&litu'yas. Buddhaghosa says 
here, Bhikkhuninaw anupakha^a" ti bhikkhunina/n anto- 
pavisitva. 



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IV, 14, 2. THE SETTLEMENT OF DISPUTES. 35 

Those Bhikkhus who were moderate were in- 
dignant, &c. . . . told the Blessed One, &c. ... he 
addressed the Bhikkhus, and said : 

2. 'There are, O Bhikkhus, the following four 
kinds of legal questions that require formal settle- 
ment by the Sawgha ; (that is to say), legal questions 
arising out of disputes, legal questions arising out of 
censure, legal questions arising out of offences, legal 
questions arising out of business '. 

'Among these, what is a legal question arising 
out of dispute ? This, O Bhikkhus, is when 
Bhikkhus dispute, saying, " This is Dhamma," or 
"This is not Dhamma," or "This is Vinaya," or 
" This is not Vinaya," or " This is taught and 
spoken by the Tathagata," or " This is not taught 
nor spoken by the "Tathagata," or " This has been 
practised by the Tathagata," or " This has not been 
practised by the Tathagata," or " This has been 
ordained by the Tathagata," or " This has not been 
ordained by the Tathagata," or " This is an offence," 
or " This is not an offence," or " This is a slight 
offence," or " This is a grievous offence," or " This 
is an offence which can be done away," or " This is 
an offence which cannot be done away 2 ," or " This is 
a most grave offence," or " This is not a most grave 

1 The various ways of settling these four kinds of legal questions 
are recapitulated in §§ 27-34 of this chapter. 

* SavasesS-anavasesa-apatti. The Pariv&ra IX, 1, 10 says, 
Ya sa apatti anavasesa si apatti na katamena adhikara»ena 
na katamamhi Mane na katamena samathena sammati. It is 
practically equivalent therefore to ParSgika. Those offences 
which can be done away, but only by the Sawgha, are called 
accordingly in the Buddhist Sanskrit SawghSvafesha, which cor- 
responds to the Pali Samghadisesa. The translation and note at 
Mahavagga X, 2, 4 should be altered accordingly. 

D 2 



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36 iOJLLAVAGGA. IV, 14, 2. 

offence." Whatsoever quarrel, strife, controversy, 
difference of opinion, contradiction, opposition, can- 
tankerousness \ or contention there may be on such 
a matter, this is called a legal question arising out of 
dispute. 

'And among these, which is a legal question arising 
out of censure ? This, O Bhikkhus, is when Bhikkhus 
charge a Bhikkhu with a fault of morality, or of 
conduct, or of opinion, or of means of livelihood. 
Whatsoever charge, censure, incrimination 2 , ad- 
monition 2 , candid opinion 3 , making of excuses * for 
a person, or making fun of him, there may be, that 
is called a legal question arising out of censure. 

'And among these, what is a legal question 
arising out of offence ? The five groups of offences e 
are subjects of legal questions of offences, and the 
seven groups of offences 6 are subjects of legal 
questions of offence. This is what is called a legal 
question arising out of offence. 

' And among these, what is a legal question of 
business ? Whatsoever is to the Sawgha a matter 
which ought to be done, an obligation, a matter for 
which leave ought to be formally asked, the pro- 

1 Vipa^atiya voharo ti £itta-dukkhatthaya voharo pharusa- 
va^anan ti attho (S. P.). 

1 Anullapana anubhanana ti ubhayam anuvadana-veva&na- 
mattam eva (S. P.). 

5 Anusampavankata ti punappunaw kaya-£itta»J va^ahi tatth' 
eva sampavankata anuvadanabhavo ti attho (S. P.). 

4 Abbhussahanata ti kasma eva*» na upavadissami upava- 
dissami yeva ti ussaham katva anuvadana' (S. P.). 

* That is to say, Para^ika, Sawghadisesa, Paflttiya, PiTidesa- 
niya, and Dukka/a, as below, in IV, 14, 14; IX, 3, 3. 

* That is to say, the five mentioned in the last note, and 
besides them, Thulla££aya and Dubbhasita. 



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IV, 14, 3- THE SETTLEMENT OF DISPUTES. 37 

posal of a resolution 1 , the proceeding by watti- 
dutiya-kamma 2 , or by »atti-£atuttha-kamma 2 , 
that is called a legal question of business. 

3. 'What is that which gives rise to a legal 
question of dispute ? There are six causes of dis- 
pute that give rise to legal questions of dispute. 
And there are three causes of wrong-doing that give 
rise to legal questions of dispute, and three causes 
of right-doing that give rise to legal questions of 
dispute. And which are these six ? 

' In the first place, O Bhikkhus, there is the 
Bhikkhu who is angry, and who bears enmity in his 
heart. Whatsoever Bhikkhu, O Bhikkhus, is such 
an angry man bearing enmity in his heart, he re- 
mains without reverence for, and without delight in 
the Teacher, the Dhamma, and the Sawgha, and does 
not fulfil all the duties of a disciple. And what- 
soever Bhikkhu, O Bhikkhus, remains without reve- 
rence for, and without delight in the Teacher, the 
Dhamma, and the Sa#*gha, and does not fulfil all 
the duties of a disciple, he causes disputes to arise 
in the Sawgha, and such a dispute becomes a cause 



1 Apalokana-kamman ti-Sdi pana tass' eva pabheda-va^anaw. 
Tattha apalokana-kammaff? nama sima//-4akam samgham so- 
dhctva MandarahSnaw khd.nda.rn aharitva' samaggassa anumatiya 
tikkhattuw sdvetva' katabba-kammaw (S. P.). 

* See our note at Mahlvagga I, 28, 3. The Samanta PSsd- 
dikS here says, nattidutiyakammam pana apaloketva kattab- 
ba/72 pi atthi akattabbam pi atthi. Tattha simasammuti sJma- 
samuhanani kathinadanam kathinubbharo ku/avatthudesanl vihira- 
vatthudesana 'ti imani kha. kamm&ni garukdni apaloketva kdtuw na 
va//ati, nattidutiyakammava£a/» s&vetvS 'va katabbani, avasesa te- 
rasa sammutiyo senisanagahakamataka (P patta) *rvarad&nati( c di c /)- 
sammutiyo ki 'ti evarupini lahukakammani apaloketvd pi katuw 
va//antL 



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38 iTULLAVAGGA. IV, 14, 4. 

of woe, and of want, and of disaster to the great 
multitudes, of woe and of want to gods and men. 
If you, therefore, O Bhikkhus, perceive such a 
one, a root of disputes both internal and external, 
do you exert yourselves, O Bhikkhus, to put away 
from you so evil a person, the root of those dis- 
putes. If you perceive, O Bhikkhus, no such per- 
son, take pains lest any such evil root of disputes 
should thereafter arise among you. Thus will so 
evil a root of disputes be put away from you, and 
thus will no such evil person, the root of disputes, 
arise hereafter among you. 

' Again, O Bhikkhus, there is the Bhikkhu, who 
is a hypocrite \ and who hides his faults ; who is 
envious and jealous ; who is crafty and treacherous ; 
who has sinful desires and false beliefs ; who is 
tarnished by love of worldly gain, devoted to getting 
and taking, for whom to renounce a thing is hard. 
Whatsoever Bhikkhu, O Bhikkhus, is thus a hypo- 
crite, who hides his faults, he remains [&c, as before, 
the whole of the last paragraph down to the end 
being repeated in each of the cases here enume- 
rated]. 

4. ' And which are the three causes of wrong-doing 
which give rise to legal questions of dispute ? 

' Herein, O Bhikkhus, men of greedy mind are 
given to dispute, men of evil mind are given to dis- 
pute, men of foolish mind are given to dispute, say- 
ing, " This is Dhamma," or " This is not Dhamma " 
[&c, as before, in § 2, down to] or " This is not a 

1 Pal a si; no doubt connected with the primary meaning of the 
word ' leaf,' as is also its use in the sense of ' covering, lining,' in 
eka-pal&sik& up&hana at Mahavagga V, 1, 29. The expression 
forms the subject of Puggala II, 2. See also Gataka III, 259. 



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IV, 14, 5« THE SETTLEMENT OF DISPUTES. 39 

most grave offence." These are the three causes of 
wrong-doing which give rise to legal questions of 
dispute. 

' And which are the three causes of right-doing 
which give rise to legal questions of dispute ? 

' In the first place, O Bhikkhus, men not of greedy 
mind [&c, as in the last paragraph, inserting the 
word " not"]. 

5. ' And what is that, O Bhikkhus, which gives rise 
to legal questions of censure ? There are six causes 
of censure that give rise to legal questions of cen- 
sure. And there are three causes of wrong-doing 
that give rise to legal questions of censure. And 
there are three causes of right-doing that give rise 
to legal questions of censure. And the body gives 
rise to legal questions of censure, and speech gives 
rise to legal questions of censure.' 

[The six are word for word the same as in the 
last section, reading ' censure ' for ' dispute.'] 

' And which are the three causes of wrong-doing 
that give rise to legal questions of censure ? 

' Herein, O Bhikkhus, men of greedy mind are 
given to censure, men of evil mind are given to 
censure, men of foolish mind are given to censure, 
accusing others of breaches of morality, or of be- 
haviour, or of error in doctrine, or of adopting a 
wrong means of livelihood. These are the three 
causes of wrong-doing that give rise to legal ques- 
tions of censure.' 

[There follow the three causes of right-doing, 
reading ' men not of greedy mind,' &c, as before, 
end of § 4.] 

• And how does the body give rise to legal ques- 
tions of censure ? In case a man be ill-favoured, 



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40 iTULLAVAGGA. IV, 14, 6. 

or ugly, or a dwarf 1 , or diseased, or blind of 
one eye, or lame, or humpbacked, or crippled, 
people find fault with him on that account. This 
is how the body gives rise to legal questions of 
censure. 

1 And how does speech give rise to legal questions 
of censure ? In case a man have a bad voice, or 
be indistinct, or harsh in speech 2 , then people find 
fault with him on that account. This is how speech 
gives rise to legal questions of censure. 

6. ' And what is it that gives rise to legal ques- 
tions of offence ? There are six origins of offence 
that give rise to legal questions of offence. There 
is an offence that originates in deed, but not in word 
nor in thought. There is an offence that originates 
in word, but not in deed nor in thought. There is 
an offence that originates in deed and in word, but 
not in thought. There is an offence that originates 
in deed and in thought, but not in word. There is 
an offence that originates in word and in thought, 
but not in deed. There is an offence that originates 
in deed and in word and in thought. These are 
the six (&c.) 

7. ' And what is that which gives rise to legal 
questions of business ? There is one thing that 
gives rise to legal questions of business, that is to 
say, the Sawgha. 

1 Buddhaghosa has no explanation of these terms here, but on 
Ahguttara Nikaya III, 2, 3, where the whole list recurs, he says 
(as Dr. Morris is good enough to inform us) that oko/imako is 
equal to laku»/ako; and the same explanation is given by the 
commentary on Puggala IV, 19. Compare the use in English of 
' a mere dot of a man,' in a similar sense. 

8 These three epithets of the voice are no doubt intended to be 
the opposites of the three in Mahavagga V, 13, 9. 



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IV, 14, io. THE SETTLEMENT OF DISPUTES. 

8. ' Legal questions of dispute. Right. Wrong. 
Undetermined 1 . 

' A legal question arising out of dispute may be 
right, and it may be wrong, and it may be un- 
determined. Of these, which is the legal question 
arising out of dispute which is right ? 

' In case, O Bhikkhus, the Bhikkhu of right mind 
discuss, saying, " This is the Dhamma," or " This 
is not the Dhamma" (&c, as before, in § 2, down to) 
or " This is not a most grave offence." Whatsoever 
quarrel, strife, contention, difference of opinion, con- 
tradiction, opposition, cantankerousness, or conten- 
tion there may be in such a discussion is called a 
legal question arising out of dispute that is right.' 

[And so when the Bhikkhus have a wrong mind, 
or an undetermined mind, the legal question arising 
out of such dispute is respectively a legal question 
arising out of dispute that is wrong or undetermined.] 

9. ' Legal questions of censure. Right. Wrong. 
Undetermined.' 

[It may be either of the three, according as the 
Bhikkhus censuring (as in § 5) have a right, wrong, 
or an undetermined mind. The form of the para- 
graph corresponds to § 8 throughout.] 

10. ' Legal questions of offence. Right. Wrong. 
Undetermined. 

' There may be a legal question whether an 
offence is wrong, and there may be a legal question 

1 We have already pointed out (above, IV, 1, 2) that this mode 
of the commencement of a discussion by setting out a list of the 
points to be discussed and compared is found also in some of the 
Abhidhamma books. There it was only the objects themselves, 
here we have all the predicates which it is proposed to apply (as 
in § 8), or to declare inapplicable to the object (as in § 10), which 
are set out, but the principle is the same. 



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42 JTULLAVAGGA. IV, 14, ir. 

whether an offence is undetermined. There is no 
legal question whether an offence be right. 

' Of these, which is a legal question whether an 
offence be wrong ? Whatsoever transgression be 
committed knowingly, consciously, and deliberately, 
this is called a legal question whether an offence 
be wrong. 

' And of these, which is a legal question whether an 
offence be undetermined ? Whatsoever transgression 
be committed not knowingly, not consciously, not de- 
liberately, this is called a legal question whether an 
offence be undetermined. 

11. ' Legal questions of business. Right. Wrong. 
Undetermined.' 

[It maybe all three, according as the Bhikkhus per- 
forming the business specified, as in § 2, are right- 
minded, wrong-minded, or of undetermined mind. 
The form of the paragraph as in § 8 throughout] 

1 2. ' Disputes, legal questions arising out of dis- 
putes. Dispute which is no legal question. Legal 
question which is no dispute. Matter which is both 
legal question and dispute. 

' There may be a dispute which is a legal ques- 
tion of dispute. There may be a dispute which is 
no legal question. There may be such a legal 
question which is no dispute. There may be such a 
legal question and also a dispute. 

' Of these, which is the dispute which is a legal 
question of dispute requiring formal settlement ? 
In case Bhikkhus discuss, saying, " This is Dhamma" 
[&c, as before, in § 2], or " This is not a most grave 
offence." Whatsoever quarrel, strife [&c, as in § 2] 
there may be on such a matter is a dispute which is a 
legal question of dispute requiring formal settlement. 



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IV, 14, 14^ THE SETTLEMENT OF DISPUTES. 43 

' And of these, which is a dispute which is not a 
legal question requiring formal settlement? When 
a mother disputes with her son, or a son with his 
mother, or a father with his son, or a son with his 
father, or a brother with a brother, or a brother 
with a sister, or a sister with a brother, or a friend 
with a friend. Such a dispute is not a legal question 
requiring formal settlement by the Sawgha. 

* And of these, which is a legal question that is not 
a dispute ? A legal question of censure, or a legal 
question of offence, or a legal question of business. 
This is a legal question which is not a dispute. 

' And of these, which is a legal question requiring 
formal settlement which is also a dispute ? A legal 
question of dispute that requires formal settlement 
by the Samgha is both such a legal question and 
also a dispute.' 

13. [The same distinction drawn between censure, 
and a legal question of censure requiring formal 
settlement.] 

• 14. ' Offence. Legal question arising out of an 
offence. Offence which is not subject of a legal 
question. Legal question and no offence. Legal 
question and offence too. 

'There may be an offence which is subject of a legal 
question of offence. There may be an offence and no 
legal question. There may be legal question and no 
offence. There may be legal question and offence too. 

* Of these, which is the offence which may be 
subject of a legal question ? The five groups of 
offences are subjects of legal questions of offence ; 
the seven groups of offences are subjects of legal 
questions of offence. These are offences which may 
be subject of a legal question. 



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44 JOJLLAVAGGA. IV, 14, 15. 

' And of these, which is an offence (Apatti) which 
is not subject of a legal question ? Conversion, higher 
attainment (sot-apatti, sam- apatti), these are 
apatti s which are not subjects of a legal question 1 . 
These are apattis not subjects of a legal question. 

'And of these, what is the legal question where there 
is no offence ? A legal question of official duty, a legal 
question of censure, a legal question of dispute. These 
are legal questions where there may be no offence. 

' And of these, which is the case in which there is 
both a legal question and an offence too ? A legal 
question regarding an offence is a case in which 
there is both a legal question and an offence too. 

1 5. ' Official duty which is subject of a legal ques- 
tion of business. Duty and no legal question. Legal 
question and no duty. Legal question and duty too. 

' There may be [each of these four]. 

' Of these, which is official duty which is subject 
of a legal question ? Whatsoever is to the Sawgha 
a thing which ought to be done, an obligation, a 
matter for which leave ought to be formally asked, 
the proposal of a resolution, the proceeding by 
«atti-dutiya-kamma, or by »atti-^atuttha- 
kamma, that is official duty which may be the 
subject of a legal question of business. 

1 This is merely a play upon words. Apatti is literally 'at- 
tainment to.' Standing alone it is always used with the connotation 
of ' attainment to guilt, sin, offence,' so that its etymological mean- 
ing is always lost sight of. Sotapatti is the 'attainment to,' the 
' entering upon ' the stream, that is, the course of the Excellent 
Way. The Samapattis, literally, 'complete, or higher, attain- 
ments,' are eight successive states of ecstatic insight or meditation 
practised by Arahats and other men of advanced spiritual culture. 
The question stated is in fact a riddle, like so many of the questions 
stated in the Parivara and the Puggala-pawtatti. 



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IV, 14, 16. THE SETTLEMENT OF DISPUTES. 45 

' And of these, which is the official duty which is 
not subject of legal question ? The duties of an 
a^ariya, of an upa^^aya, of a fellow pupil under 
the same upa^^aya or a^ariya, that is business, 
but not subject of a legal question of business. 

' And of these, which is a legal question but not 
official duty ? A legal question arising out of dis- 
pute, a legal question arising out of censure, a legal 
question arising out of offence. This is a legal 
question of business, but not official duty. 

'And of these, which is both legal question and 
official duty too ? A legal question arising out of 
official business is both legal question of business 
and official duty too x . 

16. ' But by what kind of settlements is a legal 
question arising out of dispute brought to settle- 
ment ? By two kinds of settlement, by the Pro- 
ceeding in presence 2 , and by the Proceeding by 
majority of the Sawgha 3 . 

' If one should ask, " Can it be that a legal question 
arising out of dispute without recourse having been 
had to the one mode of settlement — to wit, the Pro- 
ceeding by majority of the Sa/wgha — can it be that 
it may be settled by the other mode of settlement, 
to wit, by the Proceeding in presence ?" He should 
be told "Yes, it can." (If he should say), " How may 
that be ?" the answer should be as follows : " In 

1 Here again the whole section depends upon a play upon the 
various meanings of the word kikkzm. In the technical phrase 
ki£Mdhikara»a«, the word means solely the business or the 
agenda at the formal meetings of the Sawgha (compare above, § 7). 
In the problems or riddles bf this section its more common meaning 
of 'duty' is brought into play. 

* Sammukha-vinayena. See above, chapter 2. 

* Yebhuyyasikena. See above, chapter 9. 



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46 iTULLAVAGGA. IV, 14, 16. 

the case when the Bhikkhus dispute, saying, ' This 
is the Dhamma,' or ' This is not the Dhamma ' (&c, 
as before, in § 2, down to), or ' This is not a most 
grave offence.'" If, O Bhikkhus, those Bhikkhus, 
are able to settle their own dispute, that is called, 
O Bhikkhus, the settlement of the dispute. 

' 1 And how has it been settled ? By the Proceed- 
ing in presence. 

'And what must there be in such a Proceeding 
in presence ? There must be the presence of the 
Sawgha, the presence of the Dhamma, the presence 
of the Vinaya, and the presence of the particular 
person. 

'And therein, what is the presence of the Sazwgha ? 
As many Bhikkhus as are capable of taking part in 
the proceeding 2 , they must be present. The formal 
consent must be produced of those who are in a fit 
state to convey their consent 8 . Those who are 
present must have lodged no objection (against any 
one of them taking part in the proceeding) 4 . This 
is the " presence " in such a matter of the Sa*»gha. 

'And of these, what is the presence of the 
Dhamma, and the presence of the Vinaya ? The 
Dhamma, and the Vinaya, and the teaching of the 
Master by the aid of which that legal question is 
settled. That is the "presence" in such a matter 
of the Dhamma, and of the Vinaya. 

' And of these, what is the presence of the par- 



1 The following five paragraphs recur in IV, 14, §§ 24, 27, and 
four of them in IV, 14, 21, 30. 

2 Kammappatti. See Pariv&ra XIX, 1, 7, et seq. 
8 See above, MahSvagga II, 23. 

* Or rather, perhaps, ' against the proceedings which are being 
carried out.' 



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IV, 14, 18. THE SETTLEMENT OF DISPUTES. 47 

ticular person ? He who disputes, and he with 
whom he disputes — both friends and foes —must be 
present. That is the " presence " in such a matter 
of the particular person. 

'When a legal question, O Bhikkhus, has been 
thus settled, if a disputant re-open the question, 
such re-opening of the question is a Pa&ttiya*. If 
one who has conveyed his consent complain of the 
decision, such complaint is a Pa^ittiya 2 . 

17. 'If those Bhikkhus, O Bhikkhus, are not able 
to settle the legal question within, their own resi- 
dence (Avasa), those Bhikkhus should go, O Bhik- 
khus, to some residence in which there are a larger 
number of Bhikkhus. Then if those Bhikkhus, O 
Bhikkhus, should succeed, whilst on their way to 
that residence, in settling the legal question, that, O 
Bhikkhus, is called a settlement of it. And how 
has it been settled ? (&c, as in the last paragraph of 
the previous section, down to the end.) 

18. ' If those Bhikkhus are not able, O Bhikkhus, 
to settle the legal question whilst they are on their 
way to that residence, then those Bhikkhus, on 
their arrival at that residence, are to address the 
Bhikkhus at that residence thus : " Such and such a 
legal question, Sirs, has arisen thus, and has been 
carried on thus amongst us. It would be well if 
you, Sirs, would settle that legal question for us 
according to the Dhamma, and according to the 
Vinaya, and according to the teaching of the Master, 
to the end that that legal question may be thoroughly 
settled." If the Bhikkhus dwelling in that residence 

1 This is the 63rd Paflttiya. 

* This is the 79th Pa&ttiya. The whole paragraph is repeated 
several times below in this chapter. 



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48 JfULLAVAGGA. TV, 14, 18. 

are the senior, and the incoming Bhikkhus are junior, 
then the Bhikkhus dwelling in that residence are, O 
Bhikkhus, to address the incoming Bhikkhus thus : 
" Pray, Sirs, rest a moment apart until we take 
counsel together ! " If, on the other hand, the 
Bhikkhus dwelling in that residence are junior, and 
the incoming Bhikkhus are senior, then the Bhikkhus 
dwelling in that residence are, O Bhikkhus, to ad- 
dress the incoming Bhikkhus thus : " Then remain 
here, Sirs, a moment until we take counsel together." 
Then if, O Bhikkhus, the Bhikkhus dwelling in that 
residence should, on consideration, think thus : "We 
shall not be able to settle this legal question ac- 
cording to the Dhamma, and according to the 
Vinaya, and according to the teaching of the 
Master," then that dispute is not to be entrusted 
to them. If, on the other hand, O Bhikkhus, the 
Bhikkhus dwelling in that residence should, on 
consideration, think thus : " We shall be able to 
settle this legal question in accordance with the 
Dhamma, and in accordance with the Vinaya, and 
in accordance with the teaching of the Master," 
then, O Bhikkhus, the Bhikkhus dwelling in that 
residence are to address the incoming Bhikkhus 
thus': " If you, Sirs, let us know about this legal 
question, how it arose, and how it was carried on, 
and if you agree that in the manner in which we 
may settle the legal question according to the 
Dhamma, and according to the Vinaya, and ac- 
cording to the teaching of the Master, in that 
manner it shall be settled, then we will thus accept 
the legal question at your hands. But if not (&c, 
the whole being repeated), then we will not accept 
it." When they have thus, O Bhikkhus, brought 



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IV, 14, 19. THE SETTLEMENT OF DISPUTES. 49 

it about that the proper way of putting the legal 
question (the point at issue) has been settled, the 
Bhikkhus dwelling in that residence should under- 
take that legal question. And then the Bhikkhus 
dwelling in that residence should be addressed, O 
Bhikkhus, by the incoming Bhikkhus thus : " We 
inform you, Sirs, how this legal question arose 
and how it was carried on. If you, Sirs, are able 
in such and such a time * to settle this legal ques- 
tion according to the Dhamma, and according to 
the Vinaya, and according to the teaching of the 
Master, then will we entrust this legal question to 
you. But if you, Sirs, should not be able to do so, 
then will we ourselves retain the custody of the 
case." Thus, O Bhikkhus, is that legal question 
to be entrusted by the incoming Bhikkhus to the 
Bhikkhus dwelling in that residence, causing them 
duly to accept it. If those Bhikkhus, O Bhikkhus, 
are able to settle the case, that, O Bhikkhus, is 
called a settlement of the legal question. And how 
has it been settled? (&c, as in last paragraph of § 16, 
down to the end.) 

19. 'If, O Bhikkhus, whilst the case is being 
enquired into by those Bhikkhus, pointless speeches 
are brought forth, and the sense of any single utter- 
ance is not clear 2 , I enjoin upon you, O Bhikkhus, 
to settle the case by referring it (to a jury or com- 
mission) s . 

1 Ettakena va antarena, on which Buddhaghosa has nothing. 
On vS = eva, see B8htlingk-Roth s. v. vS, No. 4. 

* These words recur at XII, 2, 7, where an instance occurs of 
the mode of proceeding here laid down. 

5 Ubbahikaya. Childers has quite misunderstood both the 
meaning and the derivation of this term. It must be derived 

[»] E 



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50 JTULLAVAGGA. IV, 14, 19. 

' A Bhikkhu to be chosen on such a jury must be 
possessed of ten qualities — he must be virtuous — 
he must be living enclosed by the restraint of the 
rules of the Patimokkha — he must be upright in 
life, trained according to the precepts, taking them 
upon himself with a sense of the danger in the 
least offence 1 — he must be versed in the tradition, 
a custodian of the tradition, a storehouse of the 
tradition — whatsoever truths, lovely in their origin, 
lovely in their progress, lovely in their consumma- 
tion, set forth the higher life, both in its spirit and 
in its letter, in all its purity and in all its perfectness 2 , 
in such truths must he be well versed, of such must he 
be full, they must be laid up in his words 3 , and dwelt 
on in his heart, being penetrated throughout through 
right insight 4 — both the Patimokkhas must have 

from ud + vah; and means simply 'reference' — the turning over 
of a difficult or intricate case from the general Sawgha to a 
special committee, as was done at Vesali (below, XII, 2, 7). 

1 With this passage (so far) compare the Akankheyya Sutta, § 2 
(translated in Rh. D.'s 'Buddhist Suttas,' p. 210), where the wording 
is somewhat different See, however, the various readings here. 

* We prefer to translate, in accordance with IX, 5, 1 below, 
sStthaw savyaw^anaw as given in the corrections to the text on 
p. 303 ; thus making the phrase ' in the spirit and in the letter ' 
refer to the brahma-lariyam, and not to the dhamma. But it 
should be pointed out that the parallel passage in the stock 
description of a Buddha (for instance in Tevi^a Sutta I, 46, 
translated in Rh. D.'s 'Buddhist Suttas,' p. 187) would support the 
reading given here in the text, referring the phrase in question 
to the dhammS, and not to the brahma-£ariya»i. 

' See the various readings, and compare Sigalov&da Sutta, p. 301; 
Gataka II, 247, 293; Mahavagga VI, 25, 1. 

4 Though di/Mi is usually found in its bad sense of 'delusion' 
(it never means ' heresy,' as Childers renders it), it is also used, 
especially in older texts, in the good sense of ' insight.' Compare 
the 'Book of the Great Decease,' I, 11. 



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IV, 14, 20. THE SETTLEMENT OF DISPUTES. 5 1 

been completely handed down to him in their full 
extent, he must have well divided them, well esta- 
blished them, well investigated them, both sutta by 
sutta and in every detail ' — further he must be an 
expert in the Vinaya, irrefutable therein 2 — he must 
be competent to point out (the right course) to both 
friends and foes, to get them to understand a thing, 
get them to see it and recognise it 3 , able to pacify 
them — he must be clever (in judging) both as to the 
origin and as to the settlement of disputes — he must 
understand legal questions, the origin thereof, the 
close thereof, and the way that leads to the close 
thereof. 

' I enjoin upon you, O Bhikkhus, to appoint on the 
jury a Bhikkhu possessed of these ten qualities 4 . 

20. ' And thus, O Bhikkhus, is he to be ap- 
pointed. First, the Bhikkhu should be asked 
(whether he be willing to undertake the office). 
Then some discreet and able Bhikkhu should ad- 
dress the Sawgha thus : 

' " May the venerable Sawgha hear me. Whilst 
this case was being enquired into pointless speeches 
were brought forth amongst us, and the sense of no 
single utterance was clear. If the time seems meet 

1 Perhaps this may mean ' both as to the Suttas themselves and 
as to the Old Commentary upon them' — suttato anuvyan^anaso. 
See 'Vinaya Texts,' vol. i, p. xviii, and note 2, p. xxix. 

' Vinaye kAeko hoti asaaihiro. Compare on the use of 
these words, <?ataka I, 290; II, 161; Sutta Nipata V, 18, 26. 

* On all these terms, which have occurred above at IV, 2, 1, 
see the commentary as there quoted in the notes. 

4 It is of course to be understood that the committee or jury 
does not consist of only one such Bhikkhu. In the instance 
already referred to as occurring in XII, 2, 7, four are chosen from 
each side. 

E 2 



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52 JCULLAVAGGA. IV, 14, 21. 

to the venerable Sawgha, let it appoint Bhikkhus of 
such and such a name, and of such and such a name 
on a committee. This is the motion. 

' " Let the venerable Samgha hear me. Whilst 

(&c down to) no single utterance was clear. 

The Samgha. appoints Bhikkhus of such and such 
names on a committee to settle this case. Who- 
soever of the venerable ones approves of the ap- 
pointment of such and such Bhikkhus on the 
committee for the settlement of this case, let him 
be silent. Whosoever approves not thereof, let him 
speak. 

' " Such and such a Bhikkhu is appointed by the 
Sawgha on the committee for the settlement of this 
case. Therefore is it silent. Thus do I under- 
stand." 

21. 'If then, O Bhikkhus, those Bhikkhus are able 
on the reference (or on the committee) to settle the 
case, that, O Bhikkhus, is called a case that is 
settled. And how is it settled ? By the Pro- 
ceeding in Presence l . And what therein is meant 
by the Proceeding in Presence ? The Dhamma is 
represented, and the Vinaya is represented, and the 
particular person is represented 2 . 

' And of these, what is the presence of the 
Dhamma (&c, as in § 16, down to the end). 

' If a dispute, O Bhikkhus, has been thus settled, 
if a disputant re-open the question, such re-opening 
is a Pa^ittiya 3 . 

22. 'If, O Bhikkhus, whilst the case is being 

1 Sammukha-vinayena. See chapter 2. 

2 This is the same as in § 16 of this chapter, except that 'the 
presence of the Sa»igha ' is omitted. 

5 See the 63rd Pa£ittiya, and § 17 above. 



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IV, 14, 24. THE SETTLEMENT OF DISPUTES. 53 

enquired into by those Bhikkhus, there should 
be there a Bhikkhu who is a preacher of the 
Dhamma, but neither has the Sutta 1 been handed 
down to him nor the Sutta-vibhariga, and he not 
regarding the point of the case, reject the sense for 
the shadow of the letter, then should the matter be 
laid before those Bhikkhus by some discreet and 
able Bhikkhu thus : 

' " Let the venerable ones hear me. This Bhikkhu 
of such and such a name is a preacher of the 
Dhamma, but neither has the Sutta been handed 
down to him nor the Sutta-vibhanga. And he, not 
regarding the point of the case, is rejecting the 
sense for the shadow of the letter. If the time 
seems meet to the venerable ones, let them send 
away* the Bhikkhu of such and such a name, and 
let the rest of us settle this case." 

' If those Bhikkhus, O Bhikkhus, should be able, 
after having sent away that Bhikkhu, to settle the 
case, that is called a case that is settled. And how 
has it been settled ? By the Proceeding in Presence 
(&c, as in last section, down to the end).' 

23. (The same decision if the Sutta has been 
handed down to him, but not the Sutta-vibhahga.) 

24. ' If those Bhikkhus, O Bhikkhus, are not able 
by the committee to settle that case, those Bhikkhus, 

Bhikkhus, ought to hand over the case to the 
Sawgha, saying, " We, Sirs, are not able by a com- 
mittee to settle this case, let the Sawgha settle it." 

1 enjoin upon you, O Bhikkhus, to settle such a case 
by vote of the majority (&c, as in chapter 9 to the 

1 That is, the Patimokkha. 

* Literally, ' cause him to arise.' 



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54 XULLAVAGGA. IV, 14, 25. 

end, as to the appointment of a taker of the voting 
tickets). By that Bhikkhu, the taker of the voting 
tickets, are the votes to be collected. And according 
as the larger number of Bhikkhus who are guided 
by the Dhamma shall speak, so shall the case be 
decided. This, O Bhikkhus, is called a legal 
question that has been settled. 

4 And how has it been settled ? By the Proceed- 
ing in Presence and by the vote of the majority. 
And what herein is meant by Proceeding in Pre- 
sence ? The presence of the Sawgha, and the 
presence of the Dhamma, and the presence of the 
Vinaya, and the presence of the particular person. 
And of these, what is the presence of the Sawgha? 
(&c, as in § 16, down to) That is the presence in 
such a matter of the particular person. 

'And what herein is meant by the vote of the 
majority ? The carrying out of, the accomplish- 
ment of, the proceeding by, the undertaking of, the 
acceptance of, the pacification by the official act (the 
Kamma) by the vote of the majority 1 . That is 
what is meant herein by the vote of the majority. 

' When a legal question, O Bhikkhus, has been 
thus settled, if a disputant re-open the question, such 
re-opening is a Pa>6ittiya. If one who has conveyed 
his consent complain of the decision, such complaint 
is a Paiittiya V 

25. Now at that time a certain legal question had 
arisen in such and such a manner, and had grown up 
in such and such a manner at Savatthi. And those 



1 This sentence is also used of the other modes of settlement 
below, §§ 27, 29. 

2 So also above, § 16; and below, §§ 27-29. 



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IT, 14, 25. THE SETTLEMENT OF DISPUTES. 55 

Bhikkhus were discontented with the settlement of the 
case by the Sa*«gha at Savatthi. And they heard 
that in a certain residence there were dwelling a 
number of Theras versed in the traditions ; men to 
whom the Agamas 1 had been handed down ; re- 
citers of the Dhamma, of the Vinaya, and of the 
Matikas 2 , learned, discreet, wise, modest, conscien- 
tious, anxious to learn. And they thought, 'If those 
Theras would settle this case according to the 
Dhamma, and according to the Vinaya, and ac- 
cording to the teaching of the Master, then would 
this case be indeed well settled.' So those 
Bhikkhus went to that residence, and spake to 
those Theras thus : ' This legal question, Sirs, 
has arisen in such and such a manner, and has 
grown up in such and such a manner. It would be 
well if the venerable Theras would settle the case 
according to the Dhamma, and according to the 
Vinaya, and according to the teaching of the 
Master ! ' Then those Theras, saying, ' Even as 
the case has been settled by the Sa/wgha at Savatthi, 
so is it well settled ! ' decided the case in the same 
way. Then those Bhikkhus who had been dis- 
contented with the decision of the Sawgha at Sa- 
vatthi were discontented with the decision of the 
number of Theras. 

[The paragraph is repeated with the necessary 
alterations of consecutive applications to three, two, 
and one Thera with the same result.] 

Then those Bhikkhus, discontented with the 
decision of the Sawgha at Savatthi, discontented 
with the decision of the number of Theras, dis- 

1 That is, the Four Nikayas, now forming the Sutta Pi/aka. 
1 See our note above on A'ullavagga IV, 1, 2. 



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56 JCULLAVAGGA. IV, 14, 26. 

contented with the decision of the three Theras, 
discontented with the decision of the two Theras, 
discontented with the decision of the single Thera, 
went up to the place where the Blessed One was, 
and told the matter to the Blessed One. 

' This case, O Bhikkhus, is done with ; having 
been once settled, it is settled for good. 

26 \ 'I enjoin upon you, O Bhikkhus, three ways 
of taking votes, in order to appease such Bhikkhus 2 
— the secret method, the whispering method, and 
the open method. 

' And how, O Bhikkhus, is the secret method of 
taking votes ? The Bhikkhu who is the teller of 
the votes is to make the voting tickets of different 
colours, and as each Bhikkhu comes up to him he is 
to say to him thus : " This is the ticket for the man 
of such an opinion ; this the ticket for the man of 
such an opinion. Take whichever you like." When 
he has chosen (he is to add), " Don't show it to 
anybody." If he ascertains that those whose opinion 
is against the Dhamma are in the majority, he is to 
reject the vote as wrongly taken. If he ascertains 
that those whose opinion is in accordance with the 
Dhamma are in the majority, he is to report the 
vote as well taken. This, O Bhikkhus, is the secret 
method of taking the votes. 

' And how, O Bhikkhus, is the whispering method 
of taking votes ? The Bhikkhu who is the teller of 
the votes is to whisper in each Bhikkhus ear, "This 
is the ticket of those of such an opinion ; this is the 
ticket of those of such an opinion. Take whichever 



1 On the following section, compare chapters 9 and 10 above. 
' On Sanwattiya, see our note below on VII, 4, 1. 



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IV, 14,27. THE SETTLEMENT OF DISPUTES. 57 

you like." When he has chosen (he is to add), 
" Don't tell anybody (which way you have voted)." 
If he ascertains that those whose opinion is against 
the Dhamma are in the majority, he is to reject the 
vote as wrongly taken. If he ascertains that those 
whose opinion is in accordance with the Dhamma 
are in the majority, he is to report the vote as well 
taken. Thus, O Bhikkhus, is the whispering method 
of taking the votes. 

' And how, O Bhikkhus, is the open method of 
taking votes ? If he ascertains (beforehand) that 
those whose opinion is in accordance with the 
Dhamma are in the majority, the vote is to be taken 
undisguisedly, openly. Thus, O Bhikkhus, is the 
open method of taking the votes. 

' These, O Bhikkhus, are the three methods of 
taking the votes V 

27. 'By how many kinds of settlement is a legal 
question arising out of censure settled ? A legal 
question arising out of censure can be settled by 
four kinds of settlement — by the Proceeding in 
Presence — by the Proceeding for those who are 
consciously innocent — by the Proceeding for those 
who are no longer out of their mind — by the 
Proceeding for those who are obstinate. 

' If one should ask, " Can it be that a legal question 
arising out of censure, without recourse being had to 
two modes of settlement — to wit, the Proceeding for 
those who are no longer out of their mind, and the 

1 This naive chapter would seem to show that the pia fraus was 
not unknown to the Buddhist monks at the time when the 
A'ullavagga was composed. Buddhaghosa's note (given at p. 315 
of H. O.'s edition of the text) specifies the different occasions when 
each of the three methods should be used. 



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58 XULLAVAGGA. IV, 14, 27. 

Proceeding for those who are obstinate — may be 
settled by the two other modes of settlement — to 
wit, the Proceeding in Presence, and the Proceeding 
for those who are consciously innocent ? " he should 
be told, " Yes, it can." (If he should say), " How 
may that be ?" the answer should be as follows : 

' In case the Bhikkhus bring a groundless charge 
against a Bhikkhu of a breach of morality. In 
respect thereof, O Bhikkhus, to that Bhikkhu whose 
memory in regard to the matter is quite clear, the 
Proceeding for the consciously innocent is to be 
accorded. 

' And thus, O Bhikkhus, is to be granted (&c, as 
in chapter 4, § 10, down to the end, with the ne- 
cessary alterations for a general rule instead of a 
particular case). 

' This, O Bhikkhus, is called a legal question that 
has been settled. And how settled ? By the Pro- 
ceeding in Presence, and by the Proceeding for the 
consciously innocent. And what therein belongs to 
the Proceeding in Presence ? The presence of the 
Sawgha, and the presence of the Dhamma, and 
the presence of the Vinaya, and the presence of 
the particular person. And therein what is the 
presence of the Sawgha (&c, as in § 16, down 
to the end) ? And what therein belongs to the 
Proceeding for the consciously innocent ? The 
carrying out of, the accomplishment of, the pro- 
ceeding by, the undertaking of, the acceptance of, 
the pacification of the Proceeding for the consciously 
innocent 1 . That is what belongs herein to the 
Proceeding for the consciously innocent.' 

1 This clause corresponds to the one above, in § 24, and below, 
in § 29. 



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IV, n, «)• THE SETTLEMENT OF DISPUTES. 59 

28. [This section bears exactly the same relation 
to chapter 5 as the last section does to chapter 4, 
the form of the two sections being exactly the same 
throughout.] 

29 1 . ' If one should ask, " Can it be that a legal 
question arising out of censure, without recourse 
being had to two modes of settlement — to wit, the 
Proceeding for those who are consciously innocent, 
and the Proceeding for those who are no longer out 
of their mind — may be settled by the two other 
modes of settlement — to wit, the Proceeding in 
Presence, and the Proceeding for those who are 
obstinate?" he should be told, "Yes, it can." If 
he should say, " How may that be ? " the answer 
should be as follows : 

' In case a Bhikkhu warn another Bhikkhu in the 
midst of the Sawzgha of a grievous offence, and call 
upon him to recollect (whether he have committed it 
or not), saying, " Has the venerable one been guilty 
of such and such a grievous offence — a Parifika 
offence, or an offence equivalent to a Para^ika 
offence ? " And he replies thus, " I do not, Sir, call 
to mind that I have been guilty of such and such a 
grievous offence — a Para^ika offence, or an offence 
equivalent to a Par&fika offence." To him thus 
denying the other insists, saying, " Come now, Sir, 
ascertain for certain whether you are conscious of 
having been guilty of such and such a grievous 

1 This section again bears exactly the same relation to chapter 
11 as the previous ones have done to chapters 4 and 5 respec- 
tively. The outline of the form is the same, but as in the in- 
troductory part (containing the description of the offence) the 
present section is much fuller than the chapter to which it refers, 
we prefer to give that part of this section in full. 



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60 JCULLAVAGGA. IV, 14, 29. 

offence — a Pari^ika offence, or an offence equivalent 
to a Para^ika offence." And he replies thus : " I do 
not, Sir, call to mind that I have been guilty of such 
and such a grievous offence — a Para^ika offence, or 
an offence equivalent to a Pari^ika offence. But I 
do, Sir, recollect that I was guilty of such and such 
a trifling offence." To him thus denying the other 
insists [as before]. And he replies thus : " Seeing 
that I am willing, Sir, though you did not ask me, to 
confess myself guilty of that trifling offence, why 
should I not confess, when asked, such and such a 
grievous offence — a Para^ika offence, or an offence 
equivalent to a ParSfika offence ? " And the other 
rejoins, " But you do not confess, Sir, even that 
trifling offence without being asked. How should 
you confess, if you were not asked, the commission 
of such and such a grievous offence — a Para^ika 
offence, or one equivalent to a Piri^ika offence ? 
Come now, Sir, ascertain for certain whether you 
are conscious of having been guilty of such and such 
a grievous offence — a Pari^ika offence, or one equi- 
valent to a Para^-ika offence ? " And he replies, 
" Yes, I am conscious, Sir, of having committed 
such and such an offence — a Pardg'ika offence, or 
one equivalent to a Para^ika offence. In sport did 
I say, in fun did I say that I was not conscious 
thereof." 

'Then, O Bhikkhus, the Proceeding for those 
who are obstinate should be carried out against 
that Bhikkhu. 

'And thus should it be carried out (&c, as 
chapter u, § 2, down to the end, reading "such 
and such a Bhikkhu " for " Upavala," and " grievous 
offence " for " offence "). 



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IV, 14, 30» THE SETTLEMENT OF DISPUTES. 6 1 

' This, O Bhikkhus, is called a legal question that 
has been settled. And how has it been settled ? 
By the Proceeding in Presence, and by the Pro- 
ceeding for those who are obstinate. And what 
therein belongs to the Proceeding in Presence ? 
The Presence of the Sawgha (&c, as in § 16). And 
what therein belongs to the Proceeding for those 
who are obstinate ? The carrying out of, the ac- 
complishment of, the proceeding by, the undertaking 
of, the acceptance of, the pacification of the official 
act (the Kamma) by the Proceeding for those who 
are obstinate. That is what belongs therein to the 
Proceeding for those who are obstinate. 

'When a legal question, O Bhikkhus, has been 
thus settled, if a disputant re-open the question, such 
re-opening is a Pi^ittiya. If one who has conveyed 
his consent complain of the decision, such complaint 
is a Pa£ittiya. 

30. ' By how many modes of settlement is a legal 
question arising out of offence settled ? A legal 
question arising out of offence is settled by three 
modes of settlement — to wit, by the Proceeding in 
Presence, and by the Proceeding on confession of 
guilt, and by the Proceeding by covering over as 
with grass. 

'If one should ask, "Can it be that a legal 
question arising out of offence, without recourse 
being had to the one mode of settlement — to wit, 
the Proceeding by covering over as with grass — 
may be settled by the other two modes — to wit, the 
Proceeding in Presence, and the Proceeding on con- 
fession of guilt?" he should be told, "Yes, it can." 
If he should say, " How may that be ?" the answer 
should be as follows : 



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62 iTULLAVAGGA. IV, 14, 30. 

' In case a Bhikkhu has been guilty of a minor 
offence. That Bhikkhu, O Bhikkhus, should go up 
to another Bhikkhu, and having arranged his upper 
robe over one shoulder, and squatted down on his 
heels, and stretched forth his hands with the palms 
held together, should speak as follows : " I, Sir, have 
been guilty of such and such an offence ; and that I 
confess." He should say, "Do you acknowledge it?" 
" Yes ; I acknowledge it." " May you restrain your- 
self in future 1 !" 

' This, O Bhikkhus, is called a legal question 
which has been settled. And how has it been 
settled ? By the Proceeding in Presence, and by 
the Proceeding on confession of guilt. And what 
therein belongs to the Proceeding in Presence ? The 
presence of the Dhamma, and the presence of the 
Vinaya, and the presence of the particular individual. 
And what therein is the presence of the Dhamma, 
and of the Vinaya ? The Dhamma, and the Vinaya, 
and the teaching of the Master, by the aid of which 
that legal question is settled. That is the presence 
in such a matter of the Dhamma, and of the Vinaya. 
And what therein is the presence of the particular 
individual ? He who confesses, and he to whom he 
confesses, both are present. That is the presence 
of the particular individual in such a proceeding. 
And what therein belongs to the Proceeding on con- 
fession of guilt ? The carrying out of, the accom- 
plishment of, the proceeding by, the performance of, 
the acceptance of, the pacification of the official act 
(the Kamma) by the Proceeding on confession of 



1 Ayatiw samvareyyasi. So again in the next section. 
Compare V, 20, 5. 



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IV, 14, 3 2 - THE SETTLEMENT OF DISPUTES. 63 

guilt. That is what belongs therein to the Pro- 
ceeding on confession of guilt. 

'When a legal question, O Bhikkhus, has been 
thus settled, if a disputant re-open the question, such 
re-opening is a Paiittiya 1 . 

31. ' If he should thus receive (absolution), it is 
well. If he should not receive it, that Bhikkhu, O 
Bhikkhus, should go up to a number of Bhikkhus, 
and having arranged his upper robe over one 
shoulder, and bowed down before the elder Bhik- 
khus, and squatted down on his heels, and stretched 
forth his two hands with the palms held together, he 
should speak as follows : " I, Sirs, have been guilty 
of such and such an offence, and that I confess." 
Then some discreet and able Bhikkhu should lay the 
matter before those Bhikkhus, saying, " Let the vener- 
able ones hear me. This Bhikkhu, of such and such 
a name, is conscious of an offence ; and he discloses 
it, reveals it, confesses it. If the time seems meet 
to the venerable ones, I would absolve 2 that Bhik- 
khu's offence." And he should say, " Do you ac- 
knowledge it?" "Yes; I acknowledge it." "In 
future may you restrain yourself!" 

'This, O Bhikkhus, is called a legal question 
which has been settled. And how has it been 
settled ? (&c, as in last section, down to the end.) 

32. ' If he should thus receive absolution, it is 
well. If he should not receive it, that Bhikkhu, 
O Bhikkhus, should go before the Samgha. (&c, 
as in last section, down to the end, then adding) : 
And if one" who has given his consent to the pro- 



1 See §§ 16, 29, &c. of this chapter. 
* Pa/iga«heyya/». See V, 20, 5. 



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64 ffULLAVAGGA. IV, 14, 33. 

ceeding thereafter make complaint thereof, that is a 
Pa&ttiya. 

33. ' If one should ask, " Can it be that a legal 
question arising out of offence, without recourse 
being had to the one mode of settlement — to wit, 
the Proceeding on confession of guilt — may be 
settled by the other two modes — to wit, by the 
Proceeding in Presence, and by the Proceeding by 
covering over as with grass ?" he should be told, 
"Yes, it can." If he should say, "How may that 
be ? " the answer should be as follows : 

'If while the Bhikkhus are continuing in quarrels 
(&c, as in chapter 1 3, §§ 1, 2, and 3, down to the end). 

' This, O Bhikkhus, is called a legal question that 
has been setded. And how has it been settled ? By 
the Proceeding in Presence, and by the Proceeding 
by the covering over as with grass. 

' And what therein belongs to the Proceeding in 
Presence ? The presence (&c, as in § 16, down to) 
And what therein is the presence of the particular 
person ? He who confesses, and he to whom the 
confession is made l , both are present. This is the 
presence of the particular individual in such a case. 

'And what therein belongs to the Proceeding by 
covering over as with grass ? The carrying out of, 
the accomplishment of, the proceeding by, the per- 
formance of, the acceptance of, the pacification of the 
official act (the Kamma) by the Proceeding by cover- 
ing over as with grass. That is what belongs therein 
to the Proceeding by covering over as with grass. 

1 This refers to the technical term of the Proceeding in question, 
tinavattharakena deseyyaw (IV, 13, 2); and the singular of 
course includes the plural, as the confession usually took place 
before a number of Bhikkhus. 



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IV, 14, 34» THE SETTLEMENT OF DISPUTES. 65 

'When a legal question, O Bhikkhus, has been 
thus settled, if a disputant re-open the question, 
such re-opening is a Pa&ttiya. If one who has 
conveyed his consent complain of the decision, such 
complaint is a Paiittiya. 

34. ' By how many modes of settlement is a legal 
question arising out of business settled ? A legal 
question arising out of business is settled by one 
mode of settlement only — to wit, by the Proceeding 
in Presence.' 



End of the Fourth Khandhaka, on the Settle- 
ment of Legal Questions. 



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66 XULLAVAGGA. V, I, I. 



FIFTH KHANDHAKA. 
On the Daily Life of the Bhikkhus. 



i. Now at that time the Blessed One was staying 
at R&fagaha.in the Bamboo Grove, in the Kalandaka 
Nivapa. And at that time the A'fobbaggiya Bhik- 
khus, when bathing, used to rub 1 their bodies — thighs, 
and arms, and breast, and back — against wood. The 
people were annoyed, murmured, and became indig- 
nant, saying, ' How can the Sakyaputtiya Samawas 
do so, like wrestlers, boxers, or shampooers 2 ?' The 
Bhikkhus heard the people so murmuring, &c. ; and 
they told the matter to the Blessed One. 

Then the Blessed One, on that occasion and in 
that connection, having convened a meeting of the 
Bhikkhu-sa/«gha, asked the Bhikkhus : 'Is this true, 
O Bhikkhus, what they say, that the A^abbaggiya 
Bhikkhus, when bathing, rub (&c, as before)?' 

' It is true, Lord.' 

1 Ugghawseti. The simple verb occurs below, V, 9, 2, 4, 
X, 10, 2, and at G&taka, vol. i, p. 190. It is the Sanskrit root 
gharsh. 

* On malla-mu/Mikl Buddhaghosa merely says mu/Mika- 
malla. His note on gSma-poddavi (already given by H. O. 
at P- 3*5 °f the edition to the text) says, 'town's people given to 
adorning themselves by painting their skin' (on which compare 
below, V, 2, 5). But it is difficult to see how that fits in with the 
connection here. 



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V, I, 3. ON THE DAILY LIFE OF THE BHIKKHUS. 67 

The Blessed Buddha rebuked them, saying, ' This 
is improper, O Bhikkhus (&c, as usual, see I, I, 2, 
down to the end).' And when he had rebuked them, 
and had delivered a religious discourse, he addressed 
the Bhikkhus, and said : ' A Bhikkhu, when bathing, 
is not, O Bhikkhus, to rub his body against wood. 
Whosoever does so, shall be guilty of a dukka/a.' 

2. Now at that time the A^abbaggiya Bhikkhus, 
when bathing, used to rub their bodies — thighs, and 
arms, and breast, and back — against a pillar — against 
a wall (&c, as in last section, down to the end). 

3. Now at that time the A^abbaggiya Bhikkhus 
used to bathe on an A //an a (a sort of shampooing 
stand 1 ). The people (&c, as before). The Bhik- 
khus (&c, as before). Then the Blessed One (&c, 
as before, down to) addressed the Bhikkhus, and 
said : ' You are not to bathe, O Bhikkhus, on an 
A //in a. Whosoever does so, shall be guilty of 
a dukka/a.' 

[Paragraphs similar in every respect to the last 
follow as to 

Using a Gandhabba-hatthaka 2 when bathing. 

Using a Kuruvindaka-sutti 3 when bathing. 

Rubbing their bodies, when under water, up 
against each other*. 



1 So Buddhaghosa loc. cit. 

J A wooden instrument in the shape of a hand, which was first 
covered with chunam (fine lime), and then rubbed over the body. 
See Buddhaghosa's note at p. 315 of H. O.'s edition of the text. 

' Apparently a string of beads which was first covered with the 
chunam made from Kuruvindaka stone (a ruby-coloured stone), 
and then held at both ends and rubbed over the body. See 
Buddhaghosa's note loc. cit. 

* As Buddhaghosa, loc. cit., explains this by ' rubbing their 

F 2 



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68 tfULLAVAGGA. V, I, 4. 

Using a Mallaka 1 when bathing.] 

4. Now at that time a certain Bhikkhu had the 
scab, and he could not bathe with comfort without 
a Mallaka 1 . 

They told the matter to the Blessed One. 
1 1 allow, O Bhikkhus, to a sick man the use of a 
Mallaka not (artificially) made 2 .' 

5. Now at that time a certain Bhikkhu who was 
weak through old age was not able to shampoo his 
own body. 

' I allow you, O Bhikkhus, the use of an Uk- 
kasikaV 

Now at that time the Bhikkhus, (fearing to offend 
against these rules,) were afraid to shampoo one 
another. 

' I allow you, O Bhikkhus, the ordinary mode of 
shampooing with the hand 4 .' 



2. 
1. Now at that time the .Oabbaggiya Bhikkhus 

bodies up against each other'(l), vigay ha has here probably nothing 
to do with gah, but is simply vigri'hya. 

1 A kind of back-scratcher, made according to Buddhaghosa, 
loc. cit., by placing together, by the roots, hooks made of the teeth of 
crocodiles (makara-dantaka ; see V, 11, 6 ; VI, 3, 2), which had 
previously been split. Such hooks of split crocodiles' teeth are 
mentioned in the text itself below, V, 9, 2 ; and pins or hooks 
made of naga's teeth at V, 9, 5, and VI, 3, 5 (naga-dantaka), 
and V, 11, 7 (naga-danta). 

1 Buddhaghosa, loc. cit., makes this phrase mean only ' made of 
teeth that had not been previously split.' 

1 Buddhaghosa, loc. cit., explains this word by vattava//i; which 
is to us equally unintelligible. 

4 Pudhu-panikan ti hattha - parikammaw vu£4ati. Tasma 
sabbesa« hatthena pi/Zfti-parikammam katum va//ati (B.). 



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V, 2, 3- ON THE DAILY LIFE OF THE BHIKKHUS. 69 

used to wear ear-rings 1 , and ear-drops 2 , and strings 
of beads for the throat, and girdles of beads s , and 
bangles 4 , and necklaces 6 , and bracelets, and rings. 

The people murmured, &c The Bhikkhus 

heard, &c They told the Blessed One (&c, as 

in V, 1, i, down to) he addressed the Bhikkhus, 
and said : 

' You are not, O Bhikkhus, to wear any of these 
things. Whosoever does so, shall be guilty of a 
dukka/a.' 

2. [A similar paragraph concluding] 

' You are not, O Bhikkhus, to wear long hair. 
Whosoever does so, shall be guilty of a dukka/a. 
I allow you, O Bhikkhus, hair that is two months 
old, or two inches long.' 

3. [Similar paragraph concluding] 

'You are not, O Bhikkhus, to smooth 8 the hair 

1 Vallika ti ka«»ato nikkhanta-mutt-olambakadinara etaw adhi- 
va^anaw. Na kevalan ka. vallika eva, ya/w km£i ka»»a-pilandha- 
nzm antamaso tala-pannaw pi na va//ati (B.). Compare sata- 
vallikam at V, 29, 4. 

s Pamanga. The meaning of which is not clear from Buddha- 
ghosa's note loc. cit. It occurs also at Dipavawsa XII, 1, and 
below in Buddhaghosa's note on maddaviwa at V, 29, 2 (twice). 

* Ka/i-suttakaw. This is not mentioned in the similar para- 
graph at V, 29, 2, where all special kinds of girdles are enume- 
rated. It is forbidden below to the Bhikkhunis at X, 16. 

4 OvaZ/ika. This word is explained by Buddhaghosa as the 
same as valayaw. Ova//iya occurs, apparently in a different 
sense, at Mahavagga VII, 1, 5, and the present word in Buddha- 
ghosa on sata-vallikam at V, 29, 4. 

8 Kayura, on which Buddhaghosa, loc. cit., merely says that the 
meaning of this, and of the following words, is evident. But the 
Gataka commentary (Fausboll III, 437, 14) says kayuran ti 
givaya pilandhana-pasadhanam. 

• Osawheti. Compare the Sanskrit jlakshnayati. The art 
of hair-dressing had, at the time when the Aullavagga was com- 



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70 XUIXAVAGGA. V, a, 4. 

with a comb, or with a smoothing instrument shaped 
like a snake's hood \ or with the hand used as such 
an instrument 2 , or with pomade 3 , or with hair-oil of 
beeswax 8 . Whosoever does so, shall be guilty of a 
dukka/a.' 

4. [Similar paragraph concluding] 

' You are not, O Bhikkhus, to look at the image 
of your faces in a looking-glass, or a bowl of water *. 
Whosoever does so, shall be guilty of a dukka/a.' 

Now at that time a certain Bhikkhu had a sore in 
his face. He asked the Bhikkhus what kind of a 
sore he had. 'Such and such a kind of sore,' 
replied they. He did not believe what they said. 
They told this matter to the Blessed One. 

' I allow you, O Bhikkhus, on account of a disease, 
to look at your faces in a looking-glass, or in a bowl 
of water.' 

5. Now at that time the A'^abbaggiya Bhikkhus 
(&c, down to) 

posed, been already carried to a high state of efficiency in the 
valley of the Ganges, as may reasonably be concluded from the 
numerous kinds of head-dresses figured in bas-relief on some of 
the oldest Buddhist sculptures. 

1 Phanakenati dantamayidisu yena kenaft (B.). 

2 Hattha-phanakenati hatthen' eva pha»aka-ki££am karonti, 
angulihi osawhenti (B.). It is clear from this last explanation that 
the phanaka was a kind of very primitive brush, but without 
bristles. In passing the fingers through the hair the fingers are 
naturally held separate, slightly forward, and stiff — precisely as one 
would hold them if one wished to imitate the hood of a cobra. 
To make a real brush with bristles was evidently beyond the 
mechanical appliances of those times, or such an article would 
certainly have been mentioned in this connection. 

5 On the use of Tela ka, compare Mahavagga VI, 13, 1, and 
Sittha-telaka at ATullavagga IV, 3, 1. 
4 Compare ATullavagga X, 10, 4. 



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V, 2, 6. ON THE DAILY LIFE OF THE BHIKKHUS. 7 1 

' You are not, O Bhikkhus, to anoint your faces, 
nor to rub (ointment, &c.) into your faces, nor to put 
chunam on your faces, nor to smear red arsenic on 
your faces, nor to paint your bodies, nor to paint 
your faces V 

Now at that time a certain Bhikkhu had disease 
in his eyes. They told the matter to the Blessed 
One. 

' I allow you, O Bhikkhus, on account of disease, 
to anoint your faces.' 

6 *. Now at that time there was a festival on the 
mountain-top s at Ra^agaha ; and the A^abbaggiya 
Bhikkhus went to see it. 

The people murmured, were annoyed, and became 
indignant, saying, ' How can the Sakyaputtiya Sa- 
manas go to see dancing, and singing, and music, 
like those who are still enjoying the pleasures of the 
world ? ' And they told this matter to the Blessed 
One. 

' You are not, O Bhikkhus, to go to see dancing, 
or singing, or music. Whosoever does so, shall be 
guilty of a dukka/a.' 



1 All these practices are seriatim forbidden to the Bhikkhunfs 
also in Aullavagga X, 10, 3. 

* The following section recurs, almost word for word, of the 
Bhikkhunts, in the Bhikkhunt-vibhanga, P&tittiya X (Sutta-vibhahga, 
vol. ii, p. 267). 

• Giragga-sama^a. Compare Dfpavamsa XXI, 32, and 
Mahivamsa, p. 214, line 2. It occurs also in the Introductory 
Story in the Sutta-vibhanga on the 37th PaAittiya, and Buddha- 
ghosa there explains it as follows : Giragga-sama^o ti girimhi 
agga-sama^o girissa va" agga-dese sama^o. He is evidently in 
doubt about the word, which is probably connected with ancient 
local worship or custom, a worship in high-places, as little allied 
to Vedic Brahmanism as it was to Buddhism. 



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72 JTULLAVAGGA. V, 3, 2. 



3. 

1. Now at that time the A^abbaggiya Bhikkhus 
used to sing the Dhamma with the abrupt transi- 
tions of song-singing. 

The people murmured, were annoyed, and became 
indignant, saying, ' How can the Sakyaputtiya Sa- 
ma«as [do so] ?' The Bhikkhus heard (&c, as usual, 
down to) he addressed the Bhikkhus, and said : 

1 These five dangers, O Bhikkhus, befall him who 
sings the Dhamma with the abrupt 1 transitions of 
song-singing. — He himself becomes captivated with 
respect to the sound thereof. — Other people become 
captivated with respect to the sound thereof. — The 
laymen are shocked. — The meditation of one who 
strains after accuracy in the sound is broken. — The 
common people fall into heresy 2 . — These five dan* 
gers, O Bhikkhus, befall him who sings the Dhamma 
with the abrupt transitions of song-singing. The 
Dhamma is not, O Bhikkhus, to be sung [in that 
manner]. Whosoever does so, shall be guilty of a 
dukka/a.' 

2. Now at that time the Bhikkhus were afraid to 
make use of intoning 3 . They told this matter to 
the Blessed One. 

' I allow you, O Bhikkhus, to intone.' 

1 Ayatakena gfta-ssarena. Compare Syataken' eva papSto 
at Aullavagga IX, 1, 3. 

8 Probably this is supposed to result because dhamma being 
sung and not said is not intelligible to them — a complaint often 
made against the singing of prayers among Protestant Christians. 
On pai^^imi ^anatS, compare the closing words of V, 21, 2; 
and on the rest of the phrase, Puggala III, 10, 14. The trans- 
lation of sarakuttiw is also very doubtful. 

' Sara-bhanwara. So in the Mahivagga we hear that Sowa 



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V, 5, «. ON THE DAILY LIFE OF THE BHIKKHUS. 73 



i. Now at that time the .Oabbaggiya Bhikkhus 
used to wear woollen cloth with long fleece to it \ 

The people murmured . . . (&c, down to) They 
told this matter to the Blessed One. 

' You are not, O Bhikkhus, to wear woollen cloth 
with long fleece to it. Whosoever does so, shall be 
guilty of a dukka/a.' 



1. Now at that time the mangoes were ripe in the 
park of Seniya Bimbisara, the king of Magadha. 
And Seniya Bimbisara, the king of Magadha, had 
given command, saying, ' Let the venerable ones have 
as much fruit as they like.' Then the A^abbaggiya 
Bhikkhus plucked even the young fruits and ate 
them. 

Now Seniya Bimbisara, the king of Magadha, 
wanted a mango ; and he gave orders, saying, ' Go, 

intoned before the Buddha a chapter from the Sutta Nipata. The 
expression there used issarenaabhisi, of which our word is used 
as the verbal noun, the roots bhaw and bhas being not only 
synonymous but interchangeable. (See, for instance, Vin. Pit. 
vol. iv, p. 353.) Perhaps ' recitative ' would be a good rendering. 
I have several times heard the Dhamma thus recited by living 
Buddhists in accordance with the traditional interpretation of this 
passage, and their Sara-bhailnam was precisely like the intoning 
of prose passages as practised in our cathedral churches (Rh. I).). 

1 Bahira-lomim-u»ttim. Literally, ' with the fleece outside.' 
Compare Mahavagga V, 10, 4, and the Magg&im* Sila, § 5 (p. 193 
of Rh. D.'s ' Buddhist Suttas '). 



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74 JTULLAVAGGA. V, 5, 1. 

my good men, to the park, and bring me hither a 
mango.' 

' Even so, Lord,' said the men in assent to Seniya 
Bimbisara, the king of Magadha : and they went to 
the park, and said to the park-keepers, ' Our lord, 
good friends, has need of a mango. Give us one ! ' 

' There are no mangoes, Sirs. The Bhikkhus 
have plucked even the young ones, and eaten 
them.' 

Then those men told the matter to Seniya Bim- 
bisara, the king of Magadha, and he said : ' The 
mangoes have been well used, my good men, by the 
venerable ones. Notwithstanding it is moderation 
that has been exalted by the Blessed One.' 

The people murmured, were shocked, and were 
indignant, &c, saying, ' How can the Sakyaputtiya 
Samaras, knowing no moderation, use up the king's 
mangoes?' The Bhikkhus heard those men mur- 
muring, shocked, and indignant. Then those Bhik- 
khus told this matter to the Blessed One. 

' You are not, O Bhikkhus, to eat mangoes. Who- 
soever does so, shall be guilty of a dukka/a.' 

2. Now at that time it was the turn of a certain 
multitude to provide the Sawzgha with a meal. 
Mango-peal was put into the curry. The Bhikkhus, 
fearing to offend, would not partake of it. 

' Take it, O Bhikkhus, and eat. I allow you, O 
Bhikkhus, to eat the peal of the mango.' 

Now at that time it was the turn of a certain 
multitude to provide the Sawgha with a meal. 
They did not get so far as to make (curry with) the 
peal, but went about in the dining-hall with whole 
mangoes. The Bhikkhus, fearing to offend, would 
not accept them. 



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V, 6, i. ON THE DAILY LIFE OF THE BHIKKHUS. 75 



' Take them, O Bhikkhus, and eat. I allow you, 
O Bhikkhus, to eat fruit which has become allowable 
to Sama»as in any one of these five ways — when 
it has been injured by fire ' — or by sword 2 — or by 
nails — when it has not yet had any seed in it — and 
fifthly, when it has no more seed in it 3 . I allow 
you, O Bhikkhus, to eat fruit which has become 
allowable to Samanas in any one of these five 
ways.' 




6*. 

1. Now at that time a certain Bhikkhu died of 
the bite of a snake. They told the matter to the 
Blessed One. 



1 Buddhaghosa gives in the Samanta P&s&dika' on the nth 
Pa^iltiya the following explanations of these terms. Aggi-pari- 
^itan ti aggini parifitam abhibhutam diddA&m phu/Man ti attho. 
The reading pari^itaw is correct and should be inserted in the 
text for pariiitam. 

'Sattha-pari^itan ti satthena pari^ttam abhibhutam Min- 
nas viddhaw v& ti attho. Esa nayo nakha-parjgite (B., Ioc. cit.). 

* These last two clauses have already occurred at Mahavagga 
VI, 21. The principle of the injunction throughout its five 
divisions is one and the same— the seed, or the capacity of fructi- 
fication, must either have never existed, or have passed away, or 
have been destroyed. 

* This ancient legend has been expanded into a Gataka story, 
under the title of Khandha-vatta Gataka, No. 203 in Professor 
Fausboll's edition (vol. ii, pp. 144-148), in which recur all the 
verses here given as a snake-charm. The names of the serpents 
are derived from the ancient mythology, and are not to be sup- 
posed to refer to actual breeds of real snakes. Below, A"ullavagga 
VI, 3, 5, where a Bhikkhu is bitten by a snake, the simple pre- 
caution enjoined is the use of a higher bedstead. 



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76 tfULLAVAGGA. V, 6, I. 

' Now surely, that Bhikkhu, O Bhikkhus, had not 
let his love flow out over the four royal breeds of 
serpents ! Had he done so, he would not die of the 
bite of a snake. And which are the four royal 
breeds of serpents ? The Virupakkhas are a 
royal breed. The Erapathas are a royal breed. 
The A^abyaputtas are a royal breed. The 
Ka#hagotamakas are a royal breed. Now surely 
that Bhikkhu, O Bhikkhus, had not let his love flow 
out over the four royal breeds of serpents ! Had 
he done so, he would not die of the bite of a snake. 
I allow you, O Bhikkhus, to make use of a safeguard 
for yourselves for your security and protection, by 
letting your love flow out over the four royal breeds 
of serpents. And thus, O Bhikkhus, are you to 
do so. 

' " I love Virupakkhas, the Erapathas I love. 

' " I love A^abyaputtas, the Kawhigotamakas I 
love. 

' " I love live things that have no feet, the bipeds 
too I love. 

' " I love four-footed creatures, and things with 
many feet. 

' " Let no footless thing do hurt to me, nor thing 
that has two feet. 

' " Let no four-footed creature hurt, nor thing with 
many feet. 

' " Let all creatures, all things that live, all beings 
of whatever kind, 

' " Let all behold good fortune l , and let none 
fall into sin. 



1 This phrase occurs in the passage at Maha-parinibbana 
Sutta I, 31, by which Buddhaghosa is so much perplexed. 



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V, 7, I. ON THE DAILY LIFE OF THE BHIKKHUS. 77 

' " Infinite is the Buddha, infinite the Truth, infi- 
nite the Order. Finite are creeping things ; snakes, 
scorpions and centipedes, spiders and lizards, rats 
and mice. 

' " Made is my safeguard, made my defence. Let 
living things retreat, 

' " Whilst I revere the Blessed One, the Buddhas 
seven supreme , ." ' 

' I allow you, O Bhikkhus, to let blood *.' 



7. 

1. Now at that time a certain Bhikkhu, tormented 
by distaste (for meditation, &c), castrated himself 3 . 
They told this matter to the Blessed One. 

' When one thing wanted cutting off, O Bhikkhus, 
that foolish fellow has cut off another! You are 



1 This is only one of the many passages from which it is 
evident that in the oldest Buddhism only the seven Buddhas, from 
Vipassi down to Gotama inclusive, were known by name to the 
members of the Buddhist community. Compare Rh. D.'s 'Hib- 
bert Lectures, 1881,' p. 142. It is nevertheless probable that, 
with their ideas as to the infinite number of worlds which had 
succeeded one another in the past, they considered that the 
number of previous Buddhas had also been infinite. 

1 This last injunction, which comes in here so tamely, is omitted 
in the tritaka story, and is merely a hook on which to hang an 
excuse for introducing this ancient and evidently favourite pre- 
scription into the Vinaya. That it is quite out of place is suffi- 
ciently evident from the fact that it has already been laid down in 
identical terms in the Mahlvagga VI, 14, 4, where it is found in 
its natural connection. 

8 Anabhiratiyd pi/ito attano aftga^atam £Aindi. This 
anabhirati is constantly referred to, and always as the result of 
falling in love, or in connection with sexual desire. 



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78 rULLAVAGGA. V, 8, I. 

not, Bhikkhus, to castrate yourselves. Whoso- 
ever does so, shall be guilty of a thulla^^aya.' 



8>. 

i. Now at that time the Se//^i of Ra^agaha had 
acquired a block 2 of sandal-wood of the most 
precious sandal-wood flavour. And the Se/Mi of 
Ra^agaha thought, ' How would it be if I were to 
have a bowl carved out of this block of sandal-wood, 
so that the chips 3 shall remain my property, and I 
can give the bowl away ? ' And the Se/Mi of 
Ra^gaha had a bowl turned out of that block of 
sandal-wood, and put it in a balance, and had it 
lifted on to the top of a bamboo 4 , and tying that 
bamboo at the top of a succession of bamboos, he let 
it be known, saying, ' If any Sama»a or Brahman be 
an Arahat and possessed of Iddhi, let him get down 
the bowl. It is a gift to him ! ' 

Then Pura«a Kassapa went to the Se//>6i of 
Ra^agaha, and said to him, '1,0 householder, am 



1 A Burmese version of the following legend is translated by 
Bishop Bigandet in his ' Legend of the Burmese Buddha,' vol. ii, 
pp. 2 1 2-2 1 6 (Third Edition). 

* A"andana-ga«Mt uppanna hot? ti landana-gha/Zika up- 
panna hoti (B.). Compare ga«/Aika at Gataka I, iso=ga«<fika at 
ibid. II, 124, and our note below on that word at V, 29, 3. 

* Lekhaw. It is clear from V, 9, 2, below, and Buddha- 
ghosa's note there, that likhituw is used in the sense of 'to plane' 
or * to adze ' wood or metal ; and the Sinhalese MSS. read here 
likhaw instead of lekhaw. It cannot be 'to turn,' as the turning 
lathe is quite a modern invention. 

4 A similar proceeding is related of a Bhikkhu at 24, 1. 



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V,8, i. ON THE DAILY LIFE OF THE BHIKKHUS. 79 

an Arahat and possessed of Iddhi. Give me the 
bowl.' 

' If, Sir, you are an Arahat and possessed of 
Iddhi, let your reverence get down the bowl ! ' 

Then Makkhali Gosala, and A/ita Kesa-kambaU, 
and Pakudha KaiMyana, and Sa«gaya Bela/Mi- 
putta, and Niga«Ma Nata-putta went severally to 
the Se/Mi of Ra^agaha, [and preferred the same 
request, and received the same reply.] 

Now at that time the venerable Maha Moggallana 
and the venerable Pi«afola Bharadva^a, having 
dressed themselves early in the morning, went into 
Ra^agaha, duly bowled and robed, for alms. And 
the venerable Pi»afola Bharadvi^a said to the 
venerable Maha Moggallana : ' The venerable Maha 
Moggallana is both an Arahat and possessed of 
Iddhi. Go, friend Moggallana, and fetch down this 
bowl, for this bowl belongs to thee.' 

' The venerable Vvidola. Bharadvi^a also is both 
an Arahat and possessed of Iddhi. Go, friend 
Bhiradva^a, and fetch down the bowl, for this bowl 
belongs to thee.' 

Then the venerable Piwdbla Bharadvifa, rising up 
in the air, took the bowl, and went thrice round 
Rifagaha (in the air). And at that time the Se///n 
of Ra^agaha stood, in his dwelling-place with his 
wife and children, and holding up his clasped hands 
in reverent salutation, he exclaimed, ' May the 
venerable Bharadva^a be pleased to descend upon 
our dwelling-place.' And the venerable Bharadv&^a 
descended into his dwelling-place. Then the Setlki 
of Rifagaha took the bowl from the hands of the 
venerable Bharadva^a, and filled it with costly food, 
and presented it to the venerable Bharadvifa. And 



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80 XULLAVAGGA. V, 8, 2. 

the venerable Bhiradva^a took the bowl, and de- 
parted to his Arama. 

2. Now the people heard, ' The venerable PiWola 
Bharadv&ga, they say, has got down the Ra^agaha 
Se//>4i's bowl.' And those people, with shouts loud 
and long, followed in the steps of Vindola. Bharad- 
v&gz. And the Blessed One heard the shouts loud 
and long, and on hearing them he asked the vene- 
rable Ananda, 'What now, Ananda, does this so 
great shouting mean ? ' 

' The venerable Yindola. Bharadva^a, Lord, has 
got down the Ra^agaha Se/Z^i's bowl ; and the 
people thereof are following in his steps with shouts 
loud and long.' 

Then the Blessed One, on that occasion and in 
that connection, convened a meeting of the Bhikkhu- 
Sawgha, and asked Pindoh. Bharadva^a, ' Is it true, 
as they say, that you, Bharadva^a, have got down 
the Ra^agaha Se/Mi's bowl ? ' 

' It is true, Lord.' 

The Blessed Buddha rebuked him, saying, ' This 
is improper, Bh&radva^a, not according to rule, 
unsuitable, unworthy of a Sama»a, unbecoming, and 
ought not to be done. How can you, Bharadva^a, 
for the sake of a miserable wooden pot, display 
before the laity the superhuman quality of your 
miraculous power of Iddhi ? Just, Bharadva^a, like a 
woman who displays herself for the sake of a miserable 
piece of money 1 , have you, for the sake of a miserable 



1 Masaka-rupassa. On the masaka, see Rh. D.'s 'Ancient 
Coins and Measures, &c.,' p. 13. It is evident from the use of 
the word rupa here that stamped pieces of money were known 
in the valley of the Ganges as early as the time when the ATuUa- 



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V, j>, I. ON THE DAILY LIFE OF THE BHIKKHUS. 8 1 

wooden pot displayed before the laity the super- 
human quality of your miraculous power of Iddhi. 
This will not conduce, Bharadva^a, either to the 
conversion of the unconverted, or to the increase of 
the converted; but rather to those who have not 
been converted remaining unconverted, and to the 
turning back of those who have been converted.' 

And when he had rebuked him, and had delivered 
a religious discourse 1 , he addressed the Bhikkhus, 
and said : ' You are not, O Bhikkhus, to display 
before the laity the superhuman power of Iddhi. 
Whosoever does so, shall be guilty of a dukka/a*. 
Break to pieces, O Bhikkhus, that wooden bowl ; 
and when you have ground it to powder, give it to 
the Bhikkhus as perfume for their eye ointments 3 . 
And you are not, O Bhikkhus, to use wooden bowls. 
Whosoever does so, shall be guilty of a dukka/aV 



9. 

i. Now at that time the A^abbaggiya Bhikkhus 
used to use bowls of various kinds, made of gold 
and silver. 

The people murmured (&c, as usual, down to) 
They told this matter to the Blessed One. 

'You are not, O Bhikkhus, to use bowls made 

vagga was composed. The word occurs also below at ATullavagga 
XII, i, i. 

1 See iftillavagga I, i, 2. 

* Compare the 4th Para^ika. 

' The use of sandal-wood for this purpose is allowed by the 
closing words of Maha vagga VI, 1 1. 

4 This injunction is repeated below in the summary at V, 37. 

[ao] G 



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82 JCULLAVAGGA. V, 9, 2. 

of gold, or made of silver, or set with jewels, or 
made of beryl (ve/uriya 1 ), or made of crystal, or 
made of copper, or made of glass 2 , or made of tin, 
or made of lead, or made of bronze. Whosoever 
does so, shall be guilty of a dukka/a. I allow you, 
O Bhikkhus, bowls of two kinds, — those made of 
iron, and those made of clay.' 

2. Now at that time the support at the bottom 
of the bowls wore out 3 . 

They told this matter to the Blessed One. 

' I allow you, O Bhikkhus, to use circular (pieces 
of metal) as the supports for your bowls.' 

Now at that time the A^abbaggiya Bhikkhus 
used to have various kinds of circular supports 
to their bowls, — silver ones, and gold ones. 

The people murmured (&c, down to) They told 
this matter to the Blessed One. 

' You are not, O Bhikkhus, to have various kinds 
of circular supports to your bowls. Whosoever does 

1 It is clear from verses 192-196 of the 13th chapter of the 
Ra£a-nigha«/u, written by Narahari of Kashmir in the thirteenth 
century a, d., that at that time Vai</urya meant 'cafs-eye.' But 
it is uncertain whether that was the only meaning of the word 
ve/uriya at the time when this passage was composed. (See 
especially V. 124, p. 25, of Dr. Richard Garbe's edition in his 
work, 'Die Indischen Mineralien,' Leipzig, 1882.) See also Pro- 
fessor Max Mailer's interesting note at p. 266 of his 'What can 
India teach us?' 

* KSiamayo. There was probably no glass in our modern 
sense of the word when the A'ullavagga was written. But ki/ia 
is a silicious earth, and some sort of glass-like earthenware may 
very well have been in use. The phrase has already occurred, 
together with all the others in this passage, at Mah&vagga V, 8, 3, 
of foot-coverings, but is omitted in the list at Khudda Sikkh& V. 10. 

8 Ghamstyati. Literally, 'were rubbed.' See below, § 3, and 
our note below on V, 9, 2, 4. 



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V, 9, 2. ON THE DAILY LIFE OF THE BHIKKHUS. 83 

so, shall be guilty of a dukka/a. I allow you, 
O Bhikkhus, two kinds of circular supports to your 
bowls, — tin ones, and lead ones.' 

The thick circular supports could not be inserted 1 . 

They told this matter to the Blessed One. 

' I allow you, O Bhikkhus, to shape them 2 (until 
they get to be the right size to fit in) V 

They would not stay in (?) 4 . 

' I allow you, O Bhikkhus, to split little pieces 
of crocodiles' teeth (to fit them in with) ■*.' 

Now at that time the Ayfcabbaggiya Bhikkhus 
had painted circular linings to the bottoms of their 
bowls, with painted figures scattered over them, or 
painted in patches of colour 8 , and they used to 
walk about the streets exhibiting them. 

People murmured (&c, down to) They told this 
matter to the Blessed One. 

' You are not, O Bhikkhus, to have painted cir- 
cular supports to the bottoms of your bowls, covered 

1 A££A6piyanti. On the use of this word, compare Maha- 
vagga VIII, 14, 1, where it is used of inserting a slip of cloth in a 
torn garment. 

s See our note above on V, 8, 1. Buddhaghosa says here 
likhitun ti tanu-kara»-atthay' etaw vuttaw. The 'shaping' may 
be by carving, adzing, or planing. 

* Compare above, V, 8, 1, and see Buddhaghosa's note at 
p. 316 of the edition of the text. 

4 The reading is corrupt ; and therefore this rendering is merely 
conjectural. See H. O.'s note at p. 316 of his edition of the text. 

* On these split crocodiles' teeth, see our note above on V, 1, 4. 

* Rupakoki*»ani bhati-kamma-katani. Buddhaghosa has 
nothing on these words. On the second, see below, VI, 2, 7, and 
H. O.'s note on that passage at p. 321 of the edition of the text. 
It is most probable that the reading in both passages should be 
bhatti-kamma, 'patchwork,' as further explained in our note 
below on VI, 2, 7; and we have translated accordingly. 

G 2 



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84 JCULLAVAGGA. V, 9, 3. 

with figures, and painted in patches of colour. 
Whosoever shall do so, shall be guilty of a dukka/a. 
I allow you, O Bhikkhus, only ordinary linings.' 

3. Now at that time the Bhikkhus put away their 
bowls with water in them, and the bowls were split. 

They told this matter to the Blessed One. 

'You are not, O Bhikkhus, to put away your 
bowls with water in them. Whosoever does so, 
shall be guilty of a dukka/a. I enjoin upon you, 
O Bhikkhus, to dry your bowls in the sunshine 1 
before putting them away.' 

Now at that time the Bhikkhus dried their bowls 
in the sunshine, with water in them ; and the bowls 
became evil-smelling. 

They told this matter to the Blessed One. 

' You are not, O Bhikkhus, to dry your bowls in 
the sunshine with water in them. Whosoever does 
so, shall be guilty of a dukka/a. I allow you, O 
Bhikkhus, to empty out the water 2 , and then warm 
the bowls, before you put them away.' 

Now at that time the Bhikkhus put their bowls 
away in a warm place ; and the colour of the bowls 
was spoilt. 

They told this matter to the Blessed One. 

' You are not, O Bhikkhus, to put your bowls 
away in a warm place. Whosoever does so, shall 
be guilty of a dukka/a. I allow you, O Bhikkhus, 
to dry your bowls for a short time in a warm place, 
and then to put them away.' 

1 Otdpetva. The word has already occurred in Mah&vagga I, 
25, 16. Compare Khudda Sikkha' V. 6. 

* Vodakaw katvd. Vodakaw bears, of course, the same relation 
to sa-udakara, used just before, as vagga does to samagga. 
The expression has occurred already at Mahavagga I, 25, 13. 



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V, 9, 4. ON THE DAILY LIFE OF THE BHIKKHUS. 85 

4. Now at that time a number of bowls were left 
in the open air without supports ; and the bowls 
were turned over by a whirlwind \ and broke. 

They told this matter to the Blessed One. 

' I allow you, O Bhikkhus, the use of supports 
for your bowls (when they are left out).' 

Now at that time the Bhikkhus put their bowls 
away at the edge of the sleeping-benches in the 
verandahs 2 , and the bowls fell down and were broken. 

They told this matter to the Blessed One. 

'You are not, O Bhikkhus, to put your bowls 
away on the edge of the sleeping-benches in the 
verandah. Whosoever does so, shall be guilty of 
a dukka/a.' 

Now at that time the Bhikkhus put their bowls 
away on the edge of the Paribha#</a 8 , and the 
bowls fell down and were broken. 

They told this matter to the Blessed One. 

' You are not, O Bhikkhus, to put your bowls 
away on the edge of the Paribhaw^a. Whosoever 
does so, shall be guilty of a dukka/a.' 

Now at that time the Bhikkhus turned their 
bowls upside down* on the ground, and the lips 
wore out. 

1 V&ta-ma«6?alik£ya. So also in the next section and in the 
Bhikkhuni-vibhaftga, P&Aittiya 96. The reading at Gataka I, 72 
is v£ta-ma»</alam. 

s MirfAante. This word recurs below in VI, 2, 3, where see 
our note. Buddhaghosa's note is given at p. 317 of the edition of 
the text. See also Khudda Sikkhd V. 7. 

' Used of a house, this probably means a plastered flooring of 
scented earth or dried cowdung. See Aullavagga VI, 17, 1, and 
Buddhaghosa's note there. On the use of the word in tailoring, see 
Mah&vagga VII, 1, 5, VIII, 21. Buddhaghosa, loc. cit (p. 317), 
uses the expression mattika-paribharci/a-kataya-bhumiyi. 

4 Nikku^anti. See the use of this word at V, 20, 3. 



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86 tfULLAVAGGA. V, 9, 4. 

They told this matter to the Blessed One. 

' I allow you, O Bhikkhus, the use of a mat made 
of grass V 

The grass-mat was eaten by white ants. 

They told this matter to the Blessed One. 

' I allow you, O Bhikkhus, the use of a small 
cloth V 

The small cloth was eaten by the white ants. 

They told this matter to the Blessed One. 

' I allow you, O Bhikkhus, the use of a raised 
parapet (?) (on which to put your bowls) *.' 

The bowls fell down from the parapet and were 
broken. 

They told this matter to the Blessed One. 

' I allow you, O Bhikkhus, the use of a wicker- 
work stand *.' 

On the wicker-work stand the bowls wore out 

They told this matter to the Blessed One. 

' I allow you, O Bhikkhus, the use of bags to 
carry your bowls in.' 

They had no shoulder-straps 5 . 

1 Tiwa-santharakara. That this word means a mat, and not 
a layer, of grass is clear from its use at Gataka I, 360, and below, 

V, 11, 3. 

* A'olaka. The meaning of the word is doubtful, but see 
Mahavagga VIII, 18. In the udd an a (at p. 143) the correspond- 
ing word is Aola. See also below, VI, 3, 1, VI, 19, VI, 20, 2. 

' Patta-ma/akara. Buddhaghosa says merely, 'It should be 
made either of bricks or of wood.' He confirms the reading of the 
text (with /as against Childers's reading maiako). 

* Patta-ka«<folika ti maha-mukha-ku»rfa-sa«/Mna bhandak- 
ukkha/ika vu££ati (B.). Ka«</ola is a wicker-work basket; see 
B6htlingk-Roth, sub voce. 

5 See H. O.'s note on the reading here ; and compare the table 
of contents to this chapter (at p. 143), where the reading a«asa- 
baddharo confirms the suggested alteration. If there were any 



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V, 9, 5- ON THE DAILY LIFE OF THE BHIKKHUS. Sj 

They told this matter to the Blessed One. 

' I allow you, O Bhikkhus, the use of a shoulder- 
strap (by which to carry the bag), or of a piece 
of string (by which to tie it on).' 

5. Now at that time the Bhikkhus hung up their 
bowls on pins in the walls, or on hooks 1 . The 
pins or hooks falling down, the bowls were broken. 

They told this matter to the Blessed One. 

4 You are not, O Bhikkhus, to hang your bowls up. 
Whosoever does so, shall be guilty of a dukka/a.' 

Now at that time the Bhikkhus put their bowls 
down on a bed 2 , or a chair ; and sitting down 
thoughtlessly 8 they upset them, and the bowls were 
broken. 

They told this matter to the Blessed One. 

'You are not, O Bhikkhus, to put your bowls on 
the bed, or on a chair. Whosoever does so, shall 
be guilty of a dukka/a.' 

Now at that time the Bhikkhus kept their bowls 
on their laps ; and rising up thoughtlessly they 
upset them, and the bowls were broken. 

further doubt it would be removed on comparing the closing words 
of Mahavagga VI, 12, 4, which are identical with the present passage 
and contain the correct reading. The same remarks apply to 
other passages, where the same words occur below, V, 11, 5, 
V, 12, VI, 12, 3. 

1 The use of these appliances is formally allowed at VI, 3, 5. 

* Ma«£a. Compare Rh. D.'s note at p. 277 of the 'Buddhist 
Birth Stories,' and Khuddha Sikkha" V. 7. 

' Sati-sammosd. The word occurs at Milinda-pawha (ed. 
Trenckner), p. 260. It must be connected with mu/Ma-sati, of 
which the Buddhist Sanskrit equivalent is mushita-smruiA (see 
Katha Sarit Sagara 56, 289). It is evident that Childers's original 
explanation of mu///5a-sati from muMa was wrong, and that 
both words must be referred to the root mush, as he points out at 
p. 618 of his Dictionary. 



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88 JTULLAVAGGA. V, 10, r. 

They told this matter to the Blessed One. 

' You are not, O Bhikkhus, to keep your bowls 
on your laps. Whosoever does so, shall be guilty 
of a dukka/a.' 

Now at that time the Bhikkhus put their bowls 
down on a sunshade ; and the sunshade being lifted 
up by a whirlwind, the bowls rolled over, and were 
broken. 

They told this matter to the Blessed One. 

'You are not, O Bhikkhus, to put your bowls 
down on a sunshade. Whosoever does so, shall be 
guilty of a dukka/a.' 

Now at that time the Bhikkhus, when they were 
holding the bowls in their hands, opened the door 1 . 
The door springing back the bowls were broken. 

They told this matter to the Blessed One. 

' You are not, O Bhikkhus, to open the door 
with your bowls in your hands. Whosoever does 
so, shall be guilty of a dukka/a.' 



10. 

i. Now at that time the Bhikkhus went on their 
round for alms, carrying water-jugs made out of 
gourds a , or water-pots s . 

1 Kava/a» pawametva. The construction of doors is de- 
scribed in detail at V, 14, 3, with reference to the bath-house, and 
again at VI, 2. That pawameti is to open, and not to shut, is 
clear from VIII, 1, 1, just as patta/w panameti at VIII, 5, 2 is 
to uncover, disclose, the bowl. Compare Khuddha SikkhS V. 8. 

* Tumba-ka/ahan ti lapu-ka/aha»» vu&tati (B.). Tumba 
is gourd, according to Bohtlingk-Roth. See Khuddha Sikkha V. 1 1. 

* Gha/i-ka/ahan ti gha/i-kapalam (B.). The whole section 
is repeated in the text of each kind of vessel. 



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V, io, 3- ON THE DAILY LIFE OF THE BHIKKHUS. 89 

People murmured, were shocked, and indignant, 
saying, ' As the Titthiyas do.' 

They told this matter to the Blessed One. 

' You are not, O Bhikkhus, to go on your rounds 
for alms with water-jugs, or pots. Whosoever does 
so, shall be guilty of a dukka/a.' 

2. Now at that time a certain Bhikkhu, who had 
taken upon himself a vow to wear or use nothing 
except what he could procure from dust-heaps or 
cemeteries, went on his rounds for alms carrying a 
bowl made out of a skull. A certain woman saw 
him, and was afraid, and made an outcry 1 , saying, 
' O horror ! This is surely a devil ! * 

People murmured, were shocked, and indignant, 
saying, ' How can the Sakyaputtiya Sama«as carry 
about bowls made out of skulls, as the devil-wor- 
shippers 2 do ? ' 

They told this matter to the Blessed One. 

'You are not, O Bhikkhus, to use bowls made 
out of skulls. Whosoever does so, shall be guilty 
of a dukka/a. And you are not, O Bhikkhus, to 
take a vow to wear or to use nothing except what 
you procure from dust-heaps or cemeteries. Who- 
soever does so, shall be guilty of a dukka/a.' 

3. Now at that time the Bhikkhus carried out 
odd bits, and bones, and dirty water 8 in their bowls. 

People murmured, were shocked, and were in- 
dignant, saying, ' The very vessel out of which 

1 Vissaraw akasi, on the use of which idiom see the passages 
quoted below, .ffiillavagga VIII, 1,1. 

* Pisaiillika. See below, rj, 5, and MahSvagga III, 12, 3. 

* This list recurs in the Old Commentary on the 10th Pi^ittiya 
in the Bhikkhunf-vibhanga. As an explanation of v i g h a s a, Buddha- 
ghosa says here u££Aittodakan ti mukha-vikkhalanodakam. 



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90 JTULLAVAGGA. V, II, I. 

these Sakyaputtiya Sama»as eat, that they use as 
a waste-tub!' 

They told this matter to the Blessed One. 

' You are not, O Bhikkhus, to carry out odd bits, 
and bones, and dirty water in your bowls. Whoso- 
ever does so, shall be guilty of a dukka/a. I allow 
you, O Bhikkhus, the use of a waste-tub V 



11. 

i. Now at that time the Bhikkhus sewed their 
robes together after tearing the cloth with their 
hands 2 ; and the robes became jagged. 

They told this matter to the Blessed One. 

' I allow you, O Bhikkhus, the use of a blade and 
of a sheath (for the blade) made of felt V 

Now at that time a blade with a haft to it * had 
come into the possession of the Sa/»gha. 

They told this matter to the Blessed One. 

1 Pa/iggaho. Slop-basin, waste-tub, 'receptacle' for odd 
bits. It is so used below at VIII, 4, 4. 

* Vipa/etvS. The three MSS. read vippidetvd, the same 
corrected to vipphddetvi, and vipphdmetvl M for L is a 
common mistake in Sinhalese MSS., and the correct reading may 
possibly be vipphaletvS, if it is not vipphi/etvi, as suggested 
in H. O.'s note, vol. v, p. 259. 

" Namatakan ti satthaka-ve/ftanakaw pilotika-khan</a*» (B.). 
The word occurs again below at V, 19, 1, V, 27, i, and X, 10, 4 
(where the nuns are forbidden to use it). Namata is felt; and 
n&matika-anga, the wearing of felt, is inserted by some Sanskrit 
Buddhist writers in the list of Dhutangas. (Burnouf, Introduction, 
&c, p. 306.) 

* Dawrfa-satthakan ti vippalikaw va" annaw pi va yaw ki»W 
daWaw yo^etva kata-satthakaw (B.). Compare dawrfa-ka/Ainam 
at V, 11, 3, and dawrfa-parissavanaw at V, 13, 3. ' 



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V, ii, 3. ON THE DAILY LIFE OF THE BHIKKHUS. 9 1 

• I allow you, O Bhikkhus, the use of a blade 
with a haft to it.' 

Now at that time the .rOabbaggiya Bhikkhus 
used various kinds of long handles to their blades, 
made of silver, and made of gold. 

People murmured (&c, as usual, down to) They 
told this matter to the Blessed One. 

4 You are not, O Bhikkhus, to use various kinds 
of handles to your blades. Whosoever does so, shall 
be guilty of a dukka/a. I allow you, O Bhikkhus, 
the use of handles to your blades made of bone, or 
ivory, or horn, or of the na/a reed, or of bamboo, 
or of hard wood, or of lac, or of the shells of fruit, 
or of bronze, or of the centre of the chank-shell V 

2. Now at that time the Bhikkhus sewed their 
robes with quills or bits of bamboo rind, and the 
robes were badly sewn. 

They told this matter to the Blessed One. 

4 1 allow you, O Bhikkhus, the use of needles.' 

The needles got blunted 2 . 

' I allow you, O Bhikkhus, the use of a needle- 
case made of bamboo 3 .' 

Even in the needle-cases the needles became blunt. 

1 This list is given in the Mahavagga VI, 12, i (where see our 
notes), as the materials of which ointment-boxes may be made ; 
and below, V, 1 1, 5, of thimbles. 

' Ka««akita hontf ti malagga-kita (B.). Mala may 
probably here mean 'rust,' if the needles were made of iron. 
Ka»«akita, 'spoiled,' is used of plastered walls and the floors of 
a Vihara at Mahavagga I, 25, i5=A"ullavagga VIII, 1, 3; and 
pawsu-kita occurs just below in our present passage. Compare 
also the note on vika»»am in the following section. 

' Su£i-na/ikam. On these needle-cases compare the Intro- 
ductory Story to the 20th Gataka. It is Pa/Kttiya to have them 
made of ivory, horn, or bone. (80th Pa&ttiya, but they are there 
called SM-gharam.) 



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92 JCULLAVAGGA. V, II, 3. 

' I allow you, O Bhikkhus, to fill the cases with 
chunam 1 . 

Even in the chunam the needles became blunt 

' I allow you, O Bhikkhus, to fill the cases with 
barley-meal V 

Even in the barley-meal the needles became blunt. 

' I allow you, O Bhikkhus, the use of powdered 
stone *.' 

Even in the powdered stone the needles became 
blunt. 

' I allow you, O Bhikkhus, to mix (the powder) 
with beeswax *.' 

The powder still did not cohere. 

' I allow you, O Bhikkhus, to mix sipa/ika gum 6 
with the powder *.' 

3. Now at that time the Bhikkhus sewed their 
robes together by planting stakes here and there, 
and uniting them (with strings). The robes became 
out of shape V 

They told this matter to the Blessed One. 

' I allow you, O Bhikkhus, the use of a KaMina 8 , 

1 Kinwena bitmena. (8.). 

* Satthuya ti halidda-missakena pi//fta-£u«*ena (B.). 

* Saritakan ti pasana-£u»»am vuAiati (B.). 

4 Madhu-sitthakena saretun ti madhu-sitthakena makkhe- 
tum (B.). 

1 The use of this gum for medicine purposes is allowed at 
Mahavagga VI, 7, where see our note. The present use is again 
mentioned below, V, 27, 1. 

* Sarita-sibba/ikan ti madhu-sitthaka-pilotikaw (B.). 

7 Vika«»a»i hoti. See the note on this expression at Maha- 
vagga VI, 2 1, 1. The ' robes ' were lengths of cloth, and ' out of 
shape ' (vikawwaw) must mean either that one side was larger 
than the other, so that each corner (ka»»o) was not a right angle, 
or perhaps that each edge (kawio) was not straight. 

* What KaMina may mean in this connection is not exactly 



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V, if, 3. ON THE DAILY LIFE OF THE BHIKKHUS. 93 

and that you are to sew the robes together after 
tying down KaMina-strings here and there.' 

They spread out the KaMina on uneven (ground), 
and the KaMina fell to pieces 1 . 

'You are not, O Bhikkhus, to spread out the 
KaMina on uneven (ground). Whosoever does 
so, shall be guilty of a dukka/a.' 

They spread out the KaMina on the ground, 
and the KaMina became dirty. 

' I allow you, O Bhikkhus, the use of a grass-mat.' 

The edge of the KaMina decayed through age. 

* I allow you, O Bhikkhus, to strengthen it by a 
doubling or a binding along the edge 2 . 

The KaMina was not large enough s . 

' I allow you, O Bhikkhus, the use of a danda.- 

clear to us, but it is evidently a sort of framework, or bench, for 
the tailors to lay out their work upon. Our notes above on the 
1 st Nissaggiya and on Mahavagga VII, 1, 3, refer to a different 
and secondary use of the word in the KaMina ceremonies — 
so-called doubtless because the Ka/Aina-dussa (the supply of 
cloth to be dyed, sewn, and made up into robes, and distributed, 
on one and the same day) was to be so sewn with the aid of the 
KaMina here referred to. Buddhaghosa says here, KaMinan ti 
nissem pi tattha attharita-ka/asaraka-kilanAanam afmataram pi 
ka/iinam vu/Wati yaya dupa//a-£ivaram sibbenti ka/Aine £tvaram pi 
bandhanti. On Dupa//a, see Mahavagga VIII, 14, 1. 

The use of obandhitva(in reference to the KaMina), in oppo- 
sition to sambandhitva (in reference to the mere stakes), is 
worthy of notice. 

1 Paribhi^ati. Perhaps we should translate, 'did not hold 
together.' See the last section. 

* Anuvitam paribha»</a«. See Mahavagga VII, 1, 5, 
VIII, 21, Aullavagga V, 9, 4, VI, 17, 1, XI, 1, 14, and our 
notes there. 

* KaMinaw na ppahotf ti dighassa bhikkhuno pam&tena 
katam ka/Ainam tattha rassassa bhikkhuno tfvaram patthariya- 
mana/K na ppahoti anto yeva hoti (B.). 



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94 JTULLAVAGGA. V, 1 1, 4. 

ka/^ina 1 , of a pidalaka 1 , of a ticket, of binding 
strings, and of binding threads 8 ; and that you sew 
your robes together after binding them therewith.' 

The interstices between the threads became irre- 
gular in length 8 . 

' I allow you, O Bhikkhus, the use of little marks 
(of the leaf of the talipot palm, or such-like things) 4 .' 

The threads became crooked. 

' I allow you, O Bhikkhus, the use of false threads 
(laid along the cloth to show where it is to be cut 
or sewn) 6 .' 

4. Now at that time the Bhikkhus got on to the 
Ka/^ina with unwashen feet, or wet feet, or with 
their shoes on', and the KaMina was soiled. 

They told this matter to the Blessed One. 

'You are not, O Bhikkhus, to get on to the 
KaMina with unwashen feet, or with wet feet, or 
with your shoes on. Whosoever does so, shall be 
guilty of a dukka/a.' 

5. Now at that time the Bhikkhus, when sewing 

1 On these terms, which we do not attempt to translate, see 
Buddhaghosa's notes as quoted by H. O. at p. 317 of the edition 
of the text The first seems to be a KaMina with a cross-bar, 
but dantfa at V, 11, 1, and V, 13, 3, means handle. 

* Vinandhana-ra^um vinandhana-suttakaw. See Bud- 
dhaghosa's notes loc. cit, and compare Mahavagga V, 11. 

* Visama" honti ti kaii khuddaki honti ka£i mahanta (B.). 
Sutta here probably means those threads or strings just referred to 
by which the stuff was to be tied on to the KaMina. 

4 Ka/imbhakam : so explained by Buddhaghosa, loc. cit 
" Mogha-suttakaw. Buddhaghosa says, 'the making of a 
mark with a green thread, as carpenters do on wood with a black 
thread.' Compare also our notes 2 and 3 on Mahivagga VII, 

1, 5- 

* The whole section is repeated in the text at length for each of 
these three cases. 



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V, ii, S« ON THE DAILY LIFE OF THE BHIKKHUS. 9$ 

their robes, held the stuff with their fingers, and 
their fingers were hurt. 

They told this matter to the Blessed One. 

' I allow you, O Bhikkhus, the use of a thimble V 

Now at that time the A'fobbaggiya Bhikkhus 
used various kinds of thimbles, — gold ones, and 
silver ones. 

People murmured, &c. The Bhikkhus heard, &c. 
They told this matter to the Blessed One. 

' You are not, O Bhikkhus, to use various kinds 
of thimbles. Whosoever does so, shall be guilty 
of a dukka/a. I allow you, O Bhikkhus, thimbles 
made of bone, or ivory, or horn, or of the na/a 
reed, or of bamboo, or of hard wood, or of lac, or of 
the shells of fruit, or of bronze, or of the centre 
of the chank-shell V 

Now at that time the needles, and scissors, and 
thimbles got lost. 

They told this matter to the Blessed One. 

' I allow you, O Bhikkhus, the use of a box or 
drawer 3 in the workshop.' 

They got crowded together in the workshop box. 

They told this matter to the Blessed One. 

* I allow you, O Bhikkhus, the use of a thimble 
bag (to carry the thimbles about in).' 

They had no shoulder-strap. 



1 Pa/iggaho, 'receptacle ' for the finger. See our note above 
on V, 10, 3, where the same word means a waste-tub. For other 
secondary uses of the word, see G&taka I, 146, II, 9, 26. Buddha- 
ghosa says here, pa/iggahan ti ahguli-kosakam. 

* So of ointment-boxes, Mahivagga VII, 12,1; and of scissors, 
above, V, 11, 1. 

* Asevana-(sic)vitthaka«B nama yam kin£i pdti-£ango/akadi 
(B.). 



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96 XULLAVAGGA. V, n, 6. 

They told this matter to the Blessed One. 

' I allow you, O Bhikkhus, the use of a shoulder- 
strap, or of a piece of string, to tie the bags on 
with 1 .' 

6 2 . Now at that time the Bhikkhus, when sewing 
their robes in the open air, were distressed by heat 
and by cold. 

They told this matter to. the Blessed One. 

' I allow you, O Bhikkhus, the use of a hall or 
of a shed for the KaMina.' 

The KaMina hall had too low a basement, and 
it was inundated with water. 

They told this matter to the Blessed One. 

' I allow you, O Bhikkhus, to make it with a high 
basement 3 .' 

The facing (of the basement) fell in. 

' I allow you, O Bhikkhus, to line the basement 
with facing of three kinds* — brick facing, stone 
facing, or wooden facing.' 

They found difficulty in getting up into it 

' I allow you, O Bhikkhus, the use of stairs of 
three kinds — brick stairs, stone stairs, or wooden 
stairs.' 

As they were going up them they fell off. 

' I allow you, O Bhikkhus, the use of a balustrade 8 .' 

1 See our note above on V, 9, 4. 

* The whole of this paragraph is repeated below, though not in 
the same order, of the A'ankama or cloister, and of the (TantSghara, 
or bath-house. (See V, 14, 2, 3.) 

* That is, to build it on a raised platform, the technical term for 
which is £aya. 

4 See our note below on V, 14, 3. The whole passage recurs 
of the lining of a well at V, 16, 2, and of Vihiras themselves at 
VI, 3,3. 

6 Alambana-bahaw. At Maha-sudassana Sutta I, 59, there is 



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V, ii, 7- ON THE DAILY LIFE OF THE BHIKKHUS. 97 

Straw and plaster fell (from the walls and roof) 
into the KaMina-hall. 

' I allow you, O Bhikkhus, to first cover over 
(the walls and roof with skins 1 ), and then plaster 
them within and without. (And I allow the use of) 
whitewash, and blacking, and red colouring 2 , and 
wreath-work, and creeper-work, and bone hooks, and 
cupboards 8 , and bamboos to hang robes on, and 
strings to hang robes on.' 

7. Now at that time the Bhikkhus, when they 
had sewn the robes together, left the Ka//fcina as 
it was, and went away; and the robes were eaten 
by rats and white ants. 

They told this matter to the Blessed One. 

4 1 allow you, O Bhikkhus, to fold up the KaMina.' 

The Ka/^ina came to pieces. 



a description of nights of stairs (sopana), each of which had 
thambha, evidently posts or banisters; su£iyo, apparently cross- 
bars let in to these banisters; and unhtsam, either a head-line 
running along the top of the banisters, or a figure-head at the 
lower end of such a head-line. (See Rh. D.'s 'Buddhist Suttas,' 
p. 262.) This and the previous paragraphs are repeated below, 
V, 14, 2, of the JTankama. 

1 See Mahlvagga V, 11, where the same technical term 
(ogumpheti) is used. Buddhaghosa's note is given at p. 317 of 
• the text. See also V, 14, 3, below. 

' Geruka-parikaramam. This reading, and not gerika, is 
confirmed by VI, 3, 1, VI, 17, 1, where the two previous words 
also occur. On this mode of preparing walls and floors, see our 
note below on VI, 20. 

' Pan£a-pa/ikam or -pa/Mikam, a term of doubtful signi- 
fication which recurs, together with all the previous words, in the 
Old Commentary on the 19th Pa/Kttiya. Compare pan£a- 
prastha in B.R. The word is perhaps however connected with 
Sanskrit pa//ika, as Aela-pattikam at V, 21, 2 undoubtedly is. 
It occurs below, in a similar connection, at VI, 3, r. 
[20] H 



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98 tfULLAVAGGA. V, 11, 7. 

' I allow you, O Bhikkhus, to fold up the KaMina 
in a cow-hide (?)V 

The KaMina got uncovered. 

' I allow you, O Bhikkhus, the use of strings to 
tie it up with.'. 

Now at that time the Bhikkhus went away, putting 
the Ka/^ina up against the wall or a pillar; and 
the KaMina, falling over, was broken. 

They told this matter to the Blessed One. 

' I allow you, O Bhikkhus, to hang it on a stake 
of the wall, or on a hook ".' 



12. 

1. Now the Blessed One, when he had stayed at 
Rifagaha as long as he thought fit, set out on his 
journey toward Vesalt 8 . 

Now at that time the Bhikkhus went along, carry- 
ing their needles and scissors and drugs in their 
bowls. 

They told this matter to the Blessed One. 

' I allow you, O Bhikkhus, the use of a bag to 
carry the drugs in*.' 

1 Go-ghawsikSya. Compare pdda-ghawsani at 22. 1 ; and 
on the use of sawzharati in a similar connection, see VI, 2, 7. 

1 Naga-dante. See the note on Mallaka at ATullavagga V, 
i,4. 

* This is merely introduced to show that the following rules or 
privileges in this and the next chapter (§§ 1, 2) were to be in force 
when the Bhikkhus were on a journey. 

4 Neither here nor in V, 11, 5 are we to understand that the 
needles and scissors are to be carried in bags. They are men- 
tioned in both passages merely to show the inconvenience of having 
no separate receptacles for the thimbles and the drugs. 



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V, 13, l. ON THE DAILY LIFE OF THE BHIKKHUS. 99 

They had no shoulder-strap* 

' I allow you, O Bhikkhus, the use of a shoulder- 
strap x , or of a string to tie the bags on with.' 

Now at that time a certain Bhikkhu tied his 
sandals on to his girdle, and then entered the village 
for alms a . A certain Upasaka, when saluting that 
Bhikkhu, knocked up against the sandals with his 
head. The Bhikkhu was annoyed ; and when he 
had returned to the Arama, he told this matter to 
the Bhikkhus. They told this matter to the Blessed 
One. 

' I allow you, O Bhikkhus, the use of a bag to 
carry your sandals in.' 

They had no shoulder-strap. 

' I allow you, O Bhikkhus, the use of a shoulder- 
strap, or of a string to tie the bags on with.' 



13. 

1. Now at that time the water as they went along 
could not be drunk without breaking the rules 8 , as 
they had no strainers. 

They told this matter to the Blessed One. 

' I allow you, O Bhikkhus, the use of a strainer.' 

The little cloth (that was used for a strainer) 
was not sufficient (to filter enough water for the 
whole party). 

1 See the note on V, 9, 4. 

* He would require the sandals only when he came, in his 
journey, to rough places ; not on the smooth, well-trodden, village 
paths. 

1 The rule, that is, against destroying the life of living things. 

H 2 



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IOO JCULLAVAGGA. V, 13, a. 

' I allow you, O Bhikkhus, the use of a strainer 
fixed on to a ladle 1 .' 

Still the little cloth was not sufficient for the 
purpose. 

' I allow you, O Bhikkhus, the use of a regulation 
water-pot V 

2. Now at that time two Bhikkhus were travelling 
along the high-road in the Kosala country. One 
of the Bhikkhus was guilty of some transgression. 
The other one said to him, ' Do not, my friend, do 
such a thing. It is not becoming.' The first one 
bore a grudge against him 8 . Afterwards the other 
Bhikkhu, being tormented with thirst, said to the 
Bhikkhu who bore the grudge, 'Give me, friend, 
your strainer. I am going to drink some water.' 
The Bhikkhu who bore the grudge would not give 
it to him. The other Bhikkhu died of thirst*. 
Then that Bhikkhu, when he had arrived at the 
ArSma, told this matter to the Bhikkhus. 



1 Ka/aAA/iu-parissivanam nSma ttsu daWakesu vinandhitvi 
kataw (B.y 

1 Dhamma-karakaw. Doubtless a water-pot with a strainer 
so fixed into it that a quantity of water could be filtered quickly. 
The word occurs at MahSvawsa, p. 90, and below, VI, 21, 3. 

* So tasmiw upanandhi. The Introductory Story in the 
Sutta-vibhahga on the 36th Pa^ittiya is, so far, word for word the 
same as this section. Buddhaghosa there explains upanandhi 
by ^-anita-upanaiio. See vol. iv, p. 359, of H. O.'s edition of 
the Vinaya Pi/aka. The Introductory Story to the 3 1st Gdtaka is 
also based on a similar incident, and there the corresponding 
expression is vividaw akamsu. (FausbdU's G&taka, vol. i, 
p. 198.) 

4 In the GStaka commentary this tragic result of the refusal is 
absent. The Bhikkhu who has no strainer merely drinks without 
straining. (Rh. D.'s ' Buddhist Birth Stories,' vol. i, p. 278.) 



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V, i3» 3- 0N THE DAILY LIFE OF THE BHIKKHUS. IOI 

' What then, Sir ? when asked for your strainer, 
would you not lend it ?' 

' It is even so, Sirs.' 

Those Bhikkhus who were moderate were an- 
noyed and vexed, and murmured, saying, ' How can 
a Bhikkhu, when asked for his strainer, refuse to 
lend it ?' And they told this matter to the Blessed 
One. 

Then the Blessed One on that occasion and in 
that connection (&c, as usual, see for instance in 
Aullavagga I, i, 2, down to) addressed the Bhik- 
khus, and said : 

' A Bhikkhu who is on a journey is not, O Bhik- 
khus, to refuse to lend his strainer, when he is asked 
for it Whosoever does so, shall be guilty of a 
dukka/a. And (a Bhikkhu who is) not provided 
with a strainer, O Bhikkhus, is not to undertake a 
journey. Whosoever does so, shall be guilty of a 
dukka/a. If there be no strainer nor regulation 
water-pot, the corner of the upper robe is to be 
adopted 1 for the purpose of straining before drinking.' 

3. Now the Blessed One, journeying straight on, 
arrived in due course at Vesalt. And there at 
Vesalt the Blessed One lodged in the Mahavana, in 
the Ku/agira Hall. 

Now at that time the Bhikkhus were engaged in 
building * ; and the strainer did not act 8 . 

1 Adhi//Mtabbo, that is, the Bhikkhu is to determine in his 
mind that that part of his robe is a strainer for the time. 

* Navakammam karonti. On the use of this and allied 
idioms, see Gataka I, 92, line 22 ; iTullavagga I, 18, 1, VI, 5, 2 ; 
Bhikkhunf-vibhahga, ParS^ika I, 1 ; Indian Antiquary XI, 29 ; 
Senart's Ka/bHtyana, p. 189. 

* Na sammati, which is curious. For 'did not suffice/ the 
standing expression would be na ppahoti. 



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102 JTULLAVAGGA. V, t4, r. 

They told this matter to the Blessed One. 

' I allow, O Bhikkhus, the use of a double strainer 1 .' 

The double strainer did not act. 

' I allow, O Bhikkhus, the use of a filter V 

Now at that time the Bhikkhus were troubled 8 
by mosquitoes. 

They told this matter to the Blessed One. 

' I allow, O Bhikkhus, the use of mosquito cur- 
tains V 



14. 

i. Now at that time at Vesall a regular service 
of sweet food had been established, the laity taking 
the duty in turns. The Bhikkhus, eating the sweet 
food, became very sick with superfluity of humors 
in their body 6 . 

Now £lvaka Komarabha£>£a went to Vesali on 

1 Da»</a-parissavana»i. Apparently a long box, both ends 
of which strain the water, which is poured into the middle by 
means of a pipe (da«</aka). Buddhaghosa says, Da»</a-parisa- 
vanan ti (sic; only one s) ra^anakanaw khara-parisavanaw viya 
£atusu padesu baddha-nisenikaya sa/akam bandhitva magghe da»- 
rfake udakaw isinfttabbam. Tarn ubhohi ko/Masehi puretva pari- 
savati. Compare da«</a-satthakaw and da«</a-kathinaw, 
above, V, n, i, 3. 

* Ottbarakam nama yam udake ottharitva gha/akena udakaw 
ganhanti. Tarn hi £atusu daWakesu vettham bandhitva sabbe 
pariyante udakato moAetva maggAe ottharitva gha/ena udakam 
gawhanti (B.). 

* Ubba/Aa. See Mahavagga III, 9, 1-4, and <?ataka I, 300. 

* Makasa-ku/ika ti Aivara-ku/ika (B.). Literally, a 'mos- 
quito hut,' the walls of which are to be of cloth. 

* Abhisannakaya ti semhadi-dos'-ussanna-kaya (B.). This 
word has already occurred at Mahavagga VI, 14, 7, where Buddha- 
ghosa's explanation is much the same. See also Mahavagga 
VIII, 1, 30. 



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V, 14, i. ON THE DAILY LIFE OF THE BHIKKHUS. IO^ 

some business or other. And on seeing the Bhik- 
khus very sick with superfluity of humors, he went 
up to where the Blessed One was ; and when he 
had come there, he saluted the Blessed One and 
took his seat on one side. And when so seated he 
said to the Blessed One : ' The Bhikkhus, Lord, are 
now very sick with superfluity of humors. It would 
be well if the Blessed One were to prescribe, Lord, 
for the Bhikkhus the use of the cloister 1 and of the 
bath-room 2 . Thus will the Bhikkhus become con- 
valescent' 

Then the Blessed One instructed, and aroused, 
and incited, and gladdened Qvaka Komirabha^ia 
with religious discourse. And£lvaka Komarabha£/£a, 
so instructed, and incited, and aroused, and gladdened 
with religious discourse^ arose from his seat and 
saluted the Blessed One, and keeping him on his 
right hand as he passed him, departed thence. And 
the Blessed One, on that occasion and in that con- 
nection, convened an assembly of the Bhikkhu- 
sawgha, and addressed the Bhikkhus, and said, ' I 



1 ATahkama. A straight piece of ground cleared and levelled 
for the purpose of walking up and down upon for exercise and 
meditation. See our note on this word at Mahavagga V, i, 14. 

* Gant&ghara. See our note above on Mahavagga I, 25, 12. 
It was not ordinarily used for cold baths, which were taken in the 
rivers or tanks, but for a kind of hot-water bath, or perhaps steam 
bath, the exact mode of taking or administering which is not as 
yet certain. Several Bhikkhus took the bath at the same time, but 
it is not likely that they got into the water (though the expression 
uttarati is used, loc. cit., of their leaving the bath), as they 
scarcely would have made vessels large enough to contain a man. 
It rather seems that they sat on stools close to a large fire, and 
had water poured over them. The use of this kind of bath is 
forbidden to the Bhikkhunls at A'ullavagga X, 27, 4. 



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104 JTULLAVAGGA. V, 14, 2. 

prescribe, O Bhikkhus, the use of the cloister and 
of the bath-room.' 

2. Now at that time the Bhikkhus walked up and 
down on a cloister on uneven ground ; and their 
feet were hurt. 

They told this matter to the Blessed One. 

' I allow you, O Bhikkhus, to make it level.' 

The cloister had too low a basement, and was 
inundated with water \ 

They told this matter to the Blessed One. 

' I allow you, O Bhikkhus, to make it with a high 
basement.' 

The facing of the basement fell in 2 . 

* I allow you, O Bhikkhus, the use of facing of 
three kinds — brick facing, stone facing, and wooden 
facing.' 

They found difficulty in getting up into it. 

' I allow you, O Bhikkhus, the use of stairs of 
three kinds — brick stairs, stone stairs, and wooden 
stairs.' 

As they were going up them, they fell off. 

' I allow you, O Bhikkhus, the use of a balus- 
trade.' 

Now at that time the Bhikkhus, when walking up 
and down in the cloister, fell down. 

They told this matter to the Blessed One. 

' I allow you, O Bhikkhus, to provide a railing * 
for the cloister.' 

1 AH the following paragraphs are the same as above, V, 11,6, 
where see our notes. 

1 As we have pointed out above, in our note on Mah&vagga V, 
I, 14, it is not probable that the ATankama at first had a roof 
and stairs and balustrade. These were later improvements. 

3 Vedika. See MahS-sudassana Sutta I, 60, and Rh. D.'s 
note there (' Buddhist Suttas,' p. 26a), and below, VI, 2, 2. 



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V, 14, 3- ON THE DAILY LIFE OF THE BHIKKHUS. IO5 

Now at that time the Bhikkhus, when walking 
up and down in the open air, were distressed by 
heat and by cold. 

They told this matter to the Blessed One. 

' I allow you, O Bhikkhus, the use of a hall for 
the cloister '.' 

Straw and plaster fell (from the walls and roof) 
into the cloister-hall. 

' I allow you, O Bhikkhus, to first cover over 
(the walls and roof with skins), and then plaster 
them. (And I allow the use of) whitewash, and 
blacking, and red colouring, and wreath-work, and 
creeper-work, and bone hooks, and cupboards, and 
bamboos to hang robes on, and strings to hang 
robes on.' 

3. [The whole of the above, from the basement 
down to the balustrade, is repeated of the hot-bath 
house.] 

The bath house had no door. 

' I allow you, O Bhikkhus, the use of a door, with 
door-posts and lintel *, with hollows like a mortar 
(for the door to revolve in s ), with projections to 

1 JTankamana-sala, already referred to at Mahavagga III, 5. 

* Pi/Ma-samghaVam. See Childers under sangha/a, and 
the Sarnanta Pasadika on the 19th P&Kttiya. Kava7a-pi/Ma 
occurs in Mah&vagga I, 25, 15, and in the Samanta Pas&dika on 
PaJittiya 19 (compare upari-pi/Miti at .ffullavagga VIII, 1, 1), 
and this and the two following phrases below, VI, a, 1. Buddha- 
ghosa has nothing on them, either here or there ; and they were 
probably therefore in quite common use even in his day. The 
whole of this paragraph recurs below, VI, 3, 7. 

* Udukkhalikara. Presumably the door had no hinges, but 
the upper and lower ends of one side projected into hollows pre- 
pared for them in the lintel and the threshold. This suggestion is 
confirmed by the connection in which these words are used at VI, 
2, 1. 



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Io6 XULLAVAGGA. V, 14, 3. 

revolve in those hollows 1 , with rings on the door 
for the bolt to work along in *, with a block of wood 
fixed unto the edge of the door-post and containing 
a cavity for the bolt to go into (called the monkey's 
head 3 ), with a pin * (to secure the bolt by), with a 
connecting bolt 5 , with a key-hole 6 , with a hole for 
the string with which the door can be closed, and 
with a string for that purpose V 

1 Uttara-plsakaw. See the last note. Pasaka recurs also 
in the next but one. Compare aggala-pasaga in Ayaranga 
Sutta II, 1, 5, 2. 

* Aggala-va//i nama dvira-bahiye samappamlwo yevaaggalat- 
thambho vu££ati yattha tfni £att&ri Middani katva su£iyo denti (B.). 

* Kapi-slsaka« nama dvara-bahaw vjgyAitva tattha pavesito 
aggalapasako vuiiati (B.). The word recurs in the Mabl- 
parinibbana Sutta V, 32, where it is said of Ananda that he 
kapisisakaw alambitvd a/Masi, just as in the Mahi-sudassana 
Sutta II, 24 it is said of the queen under similar circumstances 
that she dvara-bShaw aiambitva a/MSsi. Buddhaghosa's 
commentary on the word in the former of these two passages is 
given by Rh. D. in his note at p. 95 of the 'Buddhist Suttas.' 

4 Su£ik& ti tattha (that is, kapi-sfsake) va&gght khx&fam katvd 
pavesita (B.). Apparently a pin to pass through the monkey's 
head so as to secure the bolt in its place after it has been shot into 
the cavity. See the next note and below, VI, 2, 1. 

6 Gha/ikS ti upari-yqgiti (B.). At G&taka I, 360 (compare 
Aullavagga IX, 1, 2), we are told of a man who dvSrSni pida- 
hanto sabba-dvaresu suligha/ikidayo datva talam (sic, 
query tilam) abhiruhitvS tattha pi dvaram pidahitva nisidi. 
As the principal bolt was probably called aggala (unless that were 
the name for the whole machinery), this was some smaller bolt 
And in ATullavagga VIII, 1, 1 an instance is given of a man 
undoing the bolt (gha/ikam uggha/etva) of an uninhabited 
vihlra, such as is referred to in VI, 2, 1. 

* TalayMAiddaw. See the end'of VI, 2, 1, and Childers under 
the word ta/o. Buddhaghosa says nothing. The word tala 
occurs in the last note. 

7 AviwMana-££/4iddam iviwAAana-ra^ura. These are 
said in VI, 2, 1 to be necessary because the door could not be put 



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V, 14, 3- ON THE DAILY LIFE OF THE BHIKKHUS. 107 

The lower part of the wattle and daub wall * of 
the bath-room decayed (through damp). 

They told this matter to the Blessed One. 

' I allow you, O Bhikkhus, to face round the 
lower half of the wall (with bricks *).' 

The bath-room had no chimney 3 . 

' I allow you, O Bhikkhus, the use of a chimney.' 

Now at that time the Bhikkhus made a fire-place 
in the middle of a small bath-room, and there was 
no room to get to (the bath). 

' I allow you, O Bhikkhus, to make the fire- 
place at one side of a small bath-room, and in the 
middle of a large one *.' 

The fire in the bath-room scorched their faces. 

' I allow you, O Bhikkhus, the use of clay to 
spread over your faces 5 .' 

They moistened the clay in their hands. 

' I allow you, O Bhikkhus, the use of a trough 
to moisten the clay in'.' 

to, and doubtless have the meaning above assigned to them. A vin£i 
(or Svingi?) at Sutta-vibhanga, Samghidisesa II, 4, 9, means he 
drew towards himself; and A.vin£an& (Svi^anS?), ibid. II, 2, 2, is 
used as an equivalent of aka</</^an&, which is much the same thing. 

1 Ku</</a-pado. Compare Rh. D.'s note on MahS-parinibbana 
Sutta V, 41. The phrase recurs below of Viharas at VI, 3, 4. 

' Manual ikaw katun ti nUa-vatthukam k'mhum (B.). JTinati 
is the technical word for laying bricks one above another; the 
comment therefore means 'to line or face the lower part with 
bricks.' (Compare pokkharaniyo i/MikShi /fcinitum at Mahi- 
sudassana Sutta 1, 58; Rh. D.'s 'Buddhist Suttas,' p. 262, 'to face the 
ponds with bricks or tiles;' and on facing a well below, V, 16, 2.) 

* Dhuma-nettan ti dhuma-nikkhamana-Middaw (B.). The 
word is used of a surgical instrument at Mah&vagga VI, 13, 2. 

4 A similar paragraph occurs below, VI, 3, 3, of VihSras. 

5 Mukha-mattikam. See our note 4 on Mahivagga I, 25, 12. 
' Mattika-do/rikaw. See the last words of V, 16, 2. 



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108 *ULLAVAGGA. V, 14, 3. 

The clay had a bad smell. 

' I allow you, O Bhikkhus, to scent it.' 

The fire in the bath-room scorched their bodies. 

' I allow you, O Bhikkhus, to have water poured 
over you.' 

They poured the water out of dishes and alms- 
bowls. 

' I allow you, O Bhikkhus, a stand for the water, 
and saucers * to pour it from.' 

A bath-room with a thatched roof did not pro- 
duce perspiration. 

' I allow you, O Bhikkhus, to cover the roof of 
the bath-room (with skins 8 ), and to plaster it 
within and without.' 

The bath-room became swampy. 

' I allow you, O Bhikkhus, to lay the floor with 
flooring of three kinds — brick flooring, stone floor- 
ing, and wooden flooring.' 

It still became swampy. 

' I allow you, O Bhikkhus, to wash the floor.' 

The water settled on the floor. 

' I allow you, O Bhikkhus, the use of a drain 
to carry off the water 8 .' 

Now at that time the Bhikkhus sat in the bath- 
room on the ground, and they had pins and needles 
in their limbs *. 

1 SarS vaka*». See Mah&vagga VI, 1 2, 1, and Gataka, vol. i, p. 8. 

* Ogumphetvi. See above, V, 11, 6, and our note there. 

* Udaka-niddhamanaw. See Gritaka I, 175, 409, 425, 489, 
in which passages an entrance to, or an exit from, a palace or a 
city is effected respectively niddhamana-mukhena, niddha- 
mana-dvarena, niddhamanena, and niddhamana-maggena. 
Our phrase here recurs below, V, 35, 4. 

4 Gatt&ni kant/uvanti. Gattani is nominative, not accu- 
sative. Compare Mahavagga VI, 14, 5, where ka«</uvati is used 
in the neuter sense. (' The sore was irritable.') 



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V, 14, 5- ON THE DAILY LIFE OF THE BHIKKHUS. IOg 

' I allow you, O Bhikkhus, the use of stools for 
the bath-room.' 

Now at that time the bath-room had no enclosure. 

' I allow you, O Bhikkhus, to enclose it with 
three kinds of enclosures — brick walls, and stone 
walls, and wooden fences.' 

4. There was- no antechamber 1 (in which the 
water could be kept). 

' I allow you, O Bhikkhus, to have an antechamber.' 
The basement of the antechamber was too low, 
and it was inundated with water [and so on, as in 
11. 6, and in the last section down to the end of 
the description of the door, followed by the closing 
words of 11. 6 and of § 2 from 'straw and plaster 
fell, &c.,' down to ' cupboards J ']. 

5. The cell 8 became swampy. 

' I allow you, O Bhikkhus, to spread gravel 4 over it.' 

1 Ko/Mako. This word means a room without a window; and 
it is used either of 1. 'a room over a gateway,' or 2. ' a room used 
as a store-room.' (Compare Mabavagga III, 5, 6, 9 ; Aullavagga 

IV, 4, 6, 7, VI, 3, 7, 9, VI, 4, 10, IX, 1, 2; and Gataka I, 179, 
227, 230, II, 168.) The whole of this paragraph recurs below, 

V, 35, 4, of the ko///5aka to a privy ; and the two passages taken 
together show that an entrance room or passage, a porch or ante- 
chamber, is meant, in which the water was kept ready for use. 
For that reason this particular kind of ko/Maka is elsewhere 
called, in both connections, udaka-ko/Maka (Mahavagga VI, 
14, 3, of the bath-room — where see Buddhaghosa's note quoted in 
our ' Vinaya Texts,' vol. ii, p. 57 — and Dhammapada, p. 103, of 
the privy). Buddhaghosa explains it here by dvara-ko//Aako; 
and it occurs again below, VIII, 8, 2, in the same sense. 

* The last two items in § 2 are supplied for this case also in the 
next chapter but one. 

* Parive*a is doubtless here, and below at VIII, 8, 2 in the 
same connection, a cell used as a cooling-room, after the steam bath. 
Buddhaghosa says nothing here, but gives a note below, V, 35, 4. 

* Marumba. This word occurs in a description of different 
kinds of earths in the Old Commentary on the 10th Pa&ttiya 



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IIO JTULLAVAGGA. V, 15, 1. 

They did not succeed in getting any l . 

' I allow you, O Bhikkhus, to flag it with stone.' 

The water settled on the floor. 

' I allow you, O Bhikkhus, to have a drain to it' 



15. 

1. Now at that time the Bhikkhus, when naked 2 , 
saluted one another, and received salutes ; did ser- 
vice to one another, and received services ; gave to 
one another, and accepted ; ate, both hard food and 
soft ; tasted ; and drank. 

They told this matter to the Blessed One. 

' A man, O Bhikkhus, when naked, is not to give 
salutations, nor receive them ; is not to do services, 
nor to accept them 8 ; is not to give, nor to receive ; 
is not to eat either hard or soft ; is not to taste ; 
is not to drink. Whosoever does so, shall be guilty 
of a dukka/a.' 



16. 

1. Now at that time the Bhikkhus in the bath- 
room put the robes down on the ground, and the 
robes became dirty. 

(Sutta-vibhanga, Pa&ttiya X, 2, 1) ; and in a similar connection at 
Dipavawsa XIX, 2. Also below, V, 35, 4, VI, 3, 8. 

1 Na pariyipunanti. See the use of this phrase at A'ulla- 
vagga V, 5, 2. 

* That is, while in the GrantSghara, which explains the other- 
wise inexplicable fact of this chapter being inserted here instead of 
at the commencement of 16. 2. 

' In Mahavagga I, 25, 13, services are to be rendered to a 
Bhikkhu who is in the bath. This is permitted by 16. 2 below. 



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V, i6, 2. ON THE DAILY LIFE OF THE BHIKKHUS. I I I 

They told this matter to the Blessed One. 

' I allow you, O Bhikkhus, the use of a bamboo 
to hang your robes on, and of a string to hang your 
robes on '.' 

When rain fell, it fell over the robes. 

' I allow you, O Bhikkhus, to have a hall to the 
bath-room.' 

The basement of the bath-room hall was too low 
[&c, as in n. 6; 14. 2 as to basement, roof-facing, 
stairs, and balustrade, followed by the closing words 
of 11. 6 and 14. 2, down to the end]. 

2. Now at that time the Bhikkhus were afraid a 
to do service to one another, both when in the bath- 
room and in the water. 

They told this matter to the Blessed One. 

' I allow you, O Bhikkhus, three kinds of cover- 
ings — the covering of the bath-room, the covering 
of the water, and the covering by clothes 3 .' 

Now at that time there was no water in the 
bath-room. 

They told this matter to the Blessed One. 

« I allow, O Bhikkhus, a well.' 

The facing of the well fell in *. 

' I allow you, O Bhikkhus, to line the well with 



1 So also above, 11. 6 (at the end), and 14. a (at the end). 

1 On account of the rule laid down in chapter 15. 

' This rule abrogates that laid down in chapter 15, so far as 
regards bathing and shampooing. Buddhaghosa says accordingly, 
Tisso pa/i££Mdayo ti. Ettha ^antaghara-pa/i£Madi ka. udaka- 
pa/iAMSdi £a parikammam karontass' eva va//ati, sesesu abhi- 
vadanadisu na va//ati. Vattha-pa/WMadi sabba-kammesu va//ati. 

* Kulaw lu^ati. (The reading is not without doubt.) Com- 
pare Palu^ati. The same expression occurs below, V, 17, 2; 
and lu^ati at Mahavagga VIII, 21, 1. 



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1 1 2 JTULLAVAGGA. V, 16, a. 

facings of three kinds 1 — brick facing, stone facing, 
and wooden facing.' 

[Then follow the paragraphs as to the high base- 
ment, the facing of the roof, the stairs, and the 
balustrade, as in n. 6 ; 14. 2 ; and above, § 1 *.] 

Now at that time the Bhikkhus drew water with 
jungle-rope 8 , or with their waistbands. 

' I allow you, O Bhikkhus, the use of a string 
rope to draw water with.' 

Their hands were hurt (by the rope). 

' I allow you, O Bhikkhus, the use of a long pole 
balanced as a lever *, of a bullock machine *, or of a 
wheel and axle '.' 

1 A^initum tayo £aye. See our note 4 above on V, 14, 3, and 
the passages there quoted. The whole passage occurs V, 1 1, 6. 

* All this refers doubtless to the kind of shed or portico to be 
erected over the well. (See below.) One would expect that the 
formal licence for such a ma«</apa would have been inserted here 
in due course as above, n. 6, for the Ka/Aina-sala. 

' This is the usual Anglo-Indian term for the creepers so com- 
monly used for such purposes. The Pali word is vallika, which 
occurs in a different sense atV, 2, 1. 

4 Tula. This is the ordinary and simple machine, so common 
in all countries where irrigation is carried on, for raising water from 
canals or from shallow wells. Buddhaghosa says here: Tulan 
ti paw»ikana»» viya udaka-abbhahana-tuli. Pa««ika is 'florist' 
(see G&taka I, 41 1, II, 180). Abbh&hana must be wrong (see Sutta 
Nipata III, 8, 8) ; possibly abbhavahana is the correct reading. 

* The name of this machine is spelt differently in the MSS. 
(karaka/ahka the Sinhalese MS., and karakatfaka the Bur- 
mese MSS.), and the reading is doubtful. Buddhaghosa says: 
Dakadaka/ako (sicl In the next note but two the same MS. 
reads ka/adaka/ake) vu££ati go«e va yo^etva hatthehi va gahetvd 
digha-varattadihi aka</<&ana-yanta/w. We can only say negatively 
that the word can have nothing to do either with karka/aka, a hook 
in the form of a crab's claw; or with kara-kan/aka, finger-nail. 

* ATakkava//aka», on which Buddhaghosa has the unintelli- 
gible note arahatta(!)-gha/i-yantaw. 



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V, t6, a. ON THE DAILY LIFE OF THE BHIKKHUS. 1 1 3 

A number of pots were broken. 

' I allow you, O Bhikkhus, water-vessels 1 of three 
kinds — brass pots, wooden pots, and skins *.' 

Now at that time the Bhikkhus, when drawing 
water in the open air, suffered from heat and cold. 

' I allow you, O Bhikkhus, to build a shed over 
the well V 

Straw and plaster fell into the building over 
the well. 

' I allow you, O Bhikkhus, to cover the shed with 
skins, and to plaster it within and without; and I 
allow the use of whitewash, blacking, red-colouring, 
wreath work, creeper work, cupboards, bamboos to 
hang robes on, and strings to hang robes on.' 

The well was uncovered, and it was littered over 
with grass, and plaster, and dirt 

'I allow you, O Bhikkhus, a lid 4 to the well.' 

Water-vessels were found wanting. 

*I allow you, O Bhikkhus, the use of troughs 8 
and basons.' 

1 Varake. The spelling of this word in Childers's Dictionary 
(varako) is a misprint Both the passages he quotes read 
varako. Other water-vessels, besides these three, are allowed by 
the closing rule of this chapter. 

1 iPamma-khasrfaw nama tulaya va ka/adaka/ake va yo^etab- 
baiw ^amma-bha^anam (B.). The rendering adopted by Childers 
from Tumour (Mahavawtsa, p. 3) is therefore incorrect. 

* The following passage has already occurred above, V, 11, 6 
and V, 14, 3. 

4 Apidhanaw. See Mahavagga VI, 13, 2. 

8 Udaka-do»im. At Gataka I, 450, such a do«i is said to 
have been made out of the trunk of a tree. Compare the use of 
mattika-do«ika»i at V, 14, 3. 



[20] I 

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1 14 JCULLAVAGGA. V, 17, 1. 

17. 

1. Now at that time the Bhikkhus used to bathe 
anywhere all over the Arama, and the Arama be- 
came muddy. 

They told this matter to the Blessed One. 

' I allow you, O Bhikkhus, a pool (at the entrance 
to the Arama).' 

The pool was public, and the Bhikkhus were 
ashamed to bathe in it. 

'I allow you, O Bhikkhus, to surround it with 
enclosures of three kinds — brick walls, stone walls, 
and wooden fences V 

The pool became muddy. 

' I allow you, O Bhikkhus, to flag it with three 
kinds of flooring — brick flooring, stone flooring, or 
wooden flooring.' 

The water settled. 

' I allow you, O Bhikkhus, a drain.' 

Now at that time the Bhikkhus' limbs became cold. 

They told this matter to the Blessed One. 

1 1 allow you, O Bhikkhus, to make use of a 
towel 2 , and to wipe the water off with a cloth.' 

2. Now at that time a certain Upasaka was 
desirous of making a tank for the use of the 
Sawgha. 

They told this matter to the Blessed One. 
' I allow you, O Bhikkhus, a tank.' 
The sides of the tank fell in 3 . 

1 So also the closing words of V, 14, 3. 

* Udaka-punMani. This is also mentioned in the Old 
Commentary on the 86th P&tittiya. The verb recurs in the same 
sense below, VI, 3, 1. 

8 Kulamlu^ati. See V, 16, 2. 



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V, i8, i. ON THE DAILY LIFE OF THE BHIKKHUS. 115 

' I allow you, O Bhikkhus, to line the tank with 
facing of three kinds — brick facing, stone facing, and 
wooden facing.' 

They found difficulty 1 in getting into it. 

' I allow you, O Bhikkhus, flights of stairs of three 
kinds — brick steps, stone steps, and wooden steps.' 

While going up them, they fell down. 

' I allow you, O Bhikkhus, a balustrade.' 

The water in the tank became stale. 

' I allow you, O Bhikkhus, the use of pipes to lay 
on the water 2 , and to drain the water off 3 .' 

Now at that time a certain Bhikkhu was desirous 
of erecting a bath-room with a nillekha 4 roof for 
the use of the Sa*»gha. 

They told this matter to the Blessed One. 

' I allow you, O Bhikkhus, a bath-room with such 
a roof to it.' 



18. 

1. Now at that time the A^abbaggiya Bhikkhus 
separated themselves from the mats on which they 
sat down for four months s . 

They told this matter to the Blessed One. 

' You are not, O Bhikkhus, to separate yourselves 
for four months from the mats on which you sit 

1 Vihannanti. See V, n,6. 

* Udakayatikan ti udakassa agamana-mattikaw (B.). Com- 
pare ayataka at IX, 1, 3. 

' See above our note on V, 14, 3. 

* Nillekha-^ant&gharam nama &viddha-pakkha-pasaka/» 
vu££ati. Gopanasinam upari-maWale pakkha-pasake //iapetvd 
kata-ku/a-£Madanass' etaw namaw (B.). 

1 Compare the 2nd Nissaggiya. 

I 2 



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Il6 JTULLAVAGGA. V, 19, 1. 

down. Whosoever does so, shall be guilty of a 
dukka/a.' 

Now at that time the .Oabbaggiya Bhikkhus lay 
down to sleep on beds scattered over with flowers. 

People who came on a visit to the Viharas saw 
it, and murmured, &c, saying, ' Like those who still 
live in the pleasures of the world.' 

They told this matter to the Blessed One. 

'You are not, O Bhikkhus, to sleep on beds 
scattered over with flowers. Whosoever does so, 
shall be guilty of a dukka/a,' 

Now at that time people came to the Arama, 
bringing perfumes and garlands. The Bhikkhus, 
fearing to offend, would not accept them. 

They told this matter to the Blessed One. 

' I allow you, O Bhikkhus, to accept the perfume, 
and to apply it to the door for a space of five finger- 
breadths 1 ; and to accept the flowers, and put them 
on one side in the Vihira.' 



19. 

1. Now at that time a sheath of felt 2 had come 
into the possession of the Sawgha. 

They told this matter to the Blessed One. 

' I allow you, O Bhikkhus, a sheath.' 

The Bhikkhus considered whether a sheath was a 
thing which each one might keep for himself, or a 
thing which ought to be handed over from time to 
time by one Bhikkhu to another.' 

1 KavaVe paniahgulikam datum, on which Buddhaghosa has 
no note. This measure occurs in Gataka I, 166, 192; Fausboll's 
' Five Gatakas' 6 ; and Mahavawzsa, p. 193. 

* Namataka«. See V, 11, 1. 



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V, 19, i. ON THE DAILY LIFE OF THE BHIKKHUS. 1 1 7 

'A sheath, O Bhikkhus, is neither to be appro- 
priated nor to be handed over V 

Now at that time the .Oabbaggiya Bhikkhus 
used to eat lying on decorated divans. 

People murmured, &c saying, ' Like those 

still living in the pleasures of the world.' 

They told this matter to the Blessed One. 

' You are not, O Bhikkhus, to eat lying on decor- 
ated divans *. Whosoever does so, shall be guilty of 
a dukka/a.' 

Now at that time a certain Bhikkhu was sick, and ' 
when eating he was not able to hold his bowl in his 
hand. 

They told this matter to the Blessed One. 

' I allow, O Bhikkhus, the use of a stand for the 
bowl 3 .' 

Now at that time the .Oabbaggiya Bhikkhus 
used to eat out of one dish, to drink out of one 
vessel, and to lie on one bed, one coverlet, or 
one mat 4 . 

The people murmured, &c 

They told this matter to the Blessed One. 

1 Na adhi/Matabbam na vikappetabbam. That is, it is 
always to be kept as common property of the Sawgha (Saraghika). 
See Mahavagga VIII, ao, a, where the same expressions occur. 

1 Asittakupadh&nam nima tamba-lohena va ra^atena va 
kataya pe/aya (MS. bel&ya) eton adhivaianaw. The use of an 
ubhato-lohitakupadhanaw is condemned, among other things 
of a like kind, in the Maxima Sila, § 5 (Rh. D.'s ' Buddhist 
Suttas,' p. 193), and above, Mahavagga V, 10, a. 

* Ma/orika ti da«rfadharako vwbtati. Ya//&i-4(Mraka-pa»tt£- 
dharaka~paiMita-pi//6ani pi etth' eva pavi/M&ni. Adharaka-saw- 
khepana-gamanato hi pa/M&ya kMddam viddham pi aviddham pi 
va//ati yeva (B.). 

* All these words have already occurred above at Jfullavagga I, 
13, 1. ' Sitting on one seat ' is there added to the list. 



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Il8 ffULLAVAGGA. V, 20, i. 



' You are hot, Bhikkhus, [to do any of these 
things.] Whosoever does so, shall be guilty of a 
dukka/a.' 



20. 

i. Now at that time Vaddha the U\kkkav\ was 
a friend of the Bhikkhus "who were followers of 
Mettiya and Bhumma^aka \ Now Waddha the 
UM/iavl went up to the place where those Bhik- 
khus were, and on arriving there he said to them, 
'My salutation to you, Sirs!' When he had thus 
spoken, the Bhikkhus who were followers of Mettiya 
and Bhumma^aka gave him no reply. And a second 
and a third time [he said the same words, and still 
received no reply]. 

' Wherein have I offended you, Sirs ? Why do 
you give me no reply?' 

' Therein, that you, friend, sit contented while we 
are being molested by Dabba the Mallian.' 

' But what, Sirs, can I do ?' 

' If you wished it, friend, to-day even would the 
Blessed One expel Dabba the Mallian. 

' But what shall I do, Sirs ? What is that it is in 
my power to do?' 

' Come then, friend Vaddha. Do you go up to the 
place where the Blessed One is, and when you have 
come there, say as follows: "This, Lord, is neither 
fit nor becoming that the very quarter of the heavens 
which ought to be safe, secure, and free from danger, 

1 These are two of the .Oabbaggiya Bhikkhus; and the evil 
deeds of the followers form the subject of A'ullavagga IV, 4, 5 and 
following sections. Our sections 1, 2 are nearly the same as 
§§ 8, 9 there. 



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V, so, 3. ON THE DAILY LIFE OF THE BHIKKHUS. I 1 9 

that from that very quarter should arise danger, 
calamity, and distress — that where one ought to 
expect a calm, that just there one should meet a 
gale ! Methinks the very water has taken fire ! My 
wife has been defiled by Dabba the Mallian ! " ' 

2. 'Very well, Sirs!' said VaafaJfca the Uikkhzxi, 
accepting the word of the followers of Mettiya and 
Bhumma^aka. And he went up to the Blessed One 
[and spake even as he had been directed]. 

Then the Blessed One, on that occasion and in 
that connection, convened a meeting of the Bhikkhu- 
sawgha, and asked the venerable Dabba the Mallian : 

'Are you conscious 1 , Dabba, of having done such 
a thing as this Vaddha. says ?' 

! As my Lord, the Blessed One, knows/ 

[And a second, and a third time, the Blessed 
One asked the same question, and received the 
same reply.] 

'The Dabbas, O Dabba, do not thus repudiate. 
If you have done it, say so. If you have not done 
it, say you have not.' 

'Since I was born, Lord, I cannot call to mind 
that I have practised sexual intercourse, even in a 
dream, much less when I was awake ! ' 

3. Then the Blessed One addressed the Bhikkhus, 
and said : ' Let then the Sawgha, O Bhikkhus, turn 
the bowl down 2 in respect of Vaddha the LiiMavi, 

1 See the note above on IV, 4, 9. 

4 Patta/» nikku^atu. This phrase is used in the ordinary 
signification above, V, 9, 4. It is characteristic of the mildness of 
early Buddhism that this should be the only penalty imposed upon 
a layman. Compare H. O.'s remarks in his ' Buddha, sein Leben, 
seine Lehre, seine Gemeinde,' pp. 391-393. The house of such a 
layman becomes then an agoAaro, an ' unlawful resort.' (Aulla- 
vagga VIII, 1, 2.) 



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1 20 JTULLAVAGGA. V, 20, 4. 

and make him incapable of granting an alms to the 
Sawgha *. 

' There are eight things, O Bhikkhus, which when 
they characterise an Upasaka, the bowl is to be 
turned down in respect of him; — when he goes 
about to bring loss of gifts on the Bhikkhus, when 
he goes about to bring harm to the Bhikkhus, 
when he goes about to cause the Bhikkhus to 
want a place of residence, when he reviles or 
slanders the Bhikkhus, when he causes divisions 
between Bhikkhus and Bhikkhus ; — when he speaks 
in dispraise of the Buddha ; — when he speaks in dis- 
praise of the Dhamma ; — when he speaks in dispraise 
of the Sawgha. I allow you, O Bhikkhus, to turn 
down the bowl in respect of an Upasaka who is 
characterised by these eight things *.' 

4. 'And thus, O Bhikkhus, is the bowl to be 
turned down. Some able and discreet Bhikkhu is 
to lay the matter before the Saw/gha, saying, 

1 Asambhogaw sawghena karotu. This phrase is used in 
regard to a Bhikkhu at Aullavagga I, 25, i, as the distinctive mark 
of the Act of Suspension (Ukkhepaniya-kamma), and there 
means ' depriving him of his right to eat and dwell with the other 
Bhikkhus.' Sambhoge anipatti at Mahavagga I, 79, 2 (at the 
end), means that it is not an offence for the Bhikkhus to eat and 
dwell together with a guilty Bhikkhu under certain conditions there 
specified. As an Upasaka never, under any circumstances, either 
eats or dwells together with the Bhikkhus (in Psbftttiya 5 the refer- 
ence is to s&maaeras), the meaning here must be to make him one 
who has no dealings with the Sawgha, to withdraw his privilege of 
providing food or lodging for the Sawgha. The sabho^anaw 
kulaw in the 43rd Pa^ittiya has probably nothing to do with this. 

2 When a Bhikkhu behaves towards the laity in any one of the 
first five of these eight ways the Pa/isira«iya-kamma is to be 
carried out against him — that is to say, he has to ask pardon of 
the layman against whom he has offended. See I, 2a The 
whole eight recur below, § 6. 



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V, 20, 5- ON THE DAILY LIFE OF THE BHIKKHUS. I 2 I 

' " Let the venerable Sawgha hear me. Vaddha 
the lAkkhavi has brought a groundless charge 
against the venerable Dabba the Mallian of a 
breach of morality. If the time seems meet to 
the Sawzgha, let the Saawgha turn down the bowl 
as respects Vaddha the Liii>5avi, and make him 
as one who has no dealings with the Sawgha. 

' " This is the motion (watti). 

1 "Vaddha the hlMhavi has brought a groundless 
charge against Dabba the Mallian of a breach of 
morality. The Sawgha turns down the bowl as 
respects Vaddha the LiMhavi, and makes him as 
one who has no dealings with the Sa»*gha. Who- 
soever of the venerable ones approves of the bowl 
being turned down as regards Vaddha the lAkkhav'i, 
and of making him as one who has no dealings with 
the Sa*»gha, let him keep silence. Whosoever ap- 
proves not thereof, let him speak. 

' " The bowl is turned down by the Saawgha as 
regards Vaddha the IMkkav'x, he is as one who has 
no dealings with the Sawgha. The Saawgha ap- 
proves thereof. Therefore is it silent. Thus do 
I understand.'" 

5. Then the venerable Ananda, having dressed 
himself early in the morning, went, duly bowled 
and robed, to the residence of Vaddha the \Akkkav\. 
And when he had come there he spake to Vaddha 
the Lihhhavi, and said : ' The bowl, friend Vaddha, 
has been turned down by the Sa/#gha as regards 
you, and you are as one who has no dealings with 
the Saawgha.' And Vaddha the \hkkha\\, on hearing 
that saying, immediately 1 fainted and fell. 

1 Literally, ' on that very spot.' 

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122 JTULLAVAGGA. V, 20, 5. 

Then the friends and companions of Vaddha the 
\j\kkkav\, and his relatives of one blood with him, 
said to him ; ' It is enough, friend Vaddka. Weep 
not, neither lament, We will reconcile l the Blessed 
One to you, and the Order of Bhikkhus.' 

And Vaddha the lAkkkax'i, with his wife and his 
children, and with his friends and companions, and 
with his relatives of one blood with him, went up, 
with wet garments and with streaming hair, to the 
place where the Blessed One was ; and when he had 
come there, he cast himself down with his head at 
the feet of the Blessed One, and said : ' Sin has 
overcome me, Lord — even according to my weak- 
ness, according to my folly, according to my un- 
righteousness — in that without ground I brought a 
charge against Dabba the Mallian of a breach of 
morality. In respect thereof may my Lord the 
Blessed One accept the confession I make of my 
sin in its sinfulness 8 , to the end that I may in 
future restrain myself therefrom 3 .' 

'Verily, O friend Vaddha, sin hath overcome 
you — even according to your weakness, and ac- 
cording to your folly, and according to your un- 
righteousness — in that you brought without ground 
against Dabba the Mallian a charge of breach of 
morality. But since you, O friend Vaddha, look 
upon your sin as sin, and make amends for it as is 
meet, we do accept at your hands your confession of 
it. For this, O friend Vaddha, is the advantage of 

1 This is precisely the expression made use of in the converse 
case, when a Bhikkhu has offended against the laity. See I, 22, 3. 

* kkkayzm a££ayato pa/iga«hatu. See the parallel pas- 
sages in Mahavagga IX, 1, 9 ; ^iillavagga VII, 3, 6, &c. 

9 Ayati m sawvaraya. So also above of an offending Bhik- 
khu, IV, 14, 30. 



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V, so, 7. ON THE DAILY LIFE OF THE BHIKKHUS. 

the discipline of the noble one, that he who looks 
upon his sin as sin, and makes amends for it as is 
meet, he becomes able in future to restrain himself 
therefrom V 

6. Then the Blessed One addressed the Bhikkhus, 
and said : ' Let then the Sawgha turn up the bowl 
again as regards Vaddha the Uikkhavi, and make 
him as one who has dealings with the Sa/wgha. 

' There are eight things, O Bhikkhus, which when 
they characterise an Upasaka the bowl should be 
turned up again as regards him ; — when he goes 
not about to bring loss of gifts on the Bhikkhus, 
when he goes not about to bring harm to the 
Bhikkhus, when he goes not about to cause the 
Bhikkhus to want a place of residence, when he 
reviles or slanders not the Bhikkhus, when he 
causes not divisions between Bhikkhus and Bhik- 
khus ; — when he speaks not in dispraise of the 
Buddha; — when he speaks not in dispraise of the 
Dhamma ; — when he speaks not in dispraise of the 
Sawgha. 

7. 'And thus, O Bhikkhus, is the bowl to be 
turned up 2 . That Vaddha the Li^^avi should go 
before the Sawgha, with his upper robe arranged 
over one shoulder 3 , and squatting down, and raising 

1 Samvaram apa^ati. Compare the use of vikappam 
apa^eyy a in the 8th Nissaggiya. 

* The following paragraphs are precisely the same as those in 
which the revocation of the Ta^aniya-kamma is described in 
the reverse case of a Bhikkhu, above, I, 8. 

9 F.kawsaw uttar&sangaw karitvi. Unless these words 
have been introduced by mistake from the corresponding pas- 
sage in I, 8 (which is not probable), they show that the ut- 
tarasanga (on which see the note on Mahavagga VIII, 13, 4) 
was also worn by laymen. But this is the only passage known to 



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1 24 XULLAVAGGA. V, so, 7. 

his hands with the palms joined together, should 
speak as follows : 

' " The bowl has been turned down against me, 
Sirs, by the Sawgha, and I am become as one 
having no dealings with the Sawgha. I am con- 
ducting myself, Sirs, aright in accordance thereto, 
and am broken in spirit 1 , and I seek for release; 
and I request the Sa/wgha for a turning up again of 
the bowl." 

'And a second time he is to prefer the same 
request, and a third time he is to prefer the 
same request in the same words. 

'Then some discreet and able Bhikkhu should 
lay the matter before the Sawgha, saying, 

' " Let the venerable Sawgha hear me. The bowl 
has been turned down by the Sawgha against Vaddha. 
the Wkkkax'x, and he is conducting himself aright in 
accordance thereto, and is broken in spirit, and 
seeks for release, and requests the Sawgha for a 
turning up again of the bowl. If the time seems 
meet to the Saw/gha, let the Sawgha turn up the 
bowl again as regards Vaddfa the \-.\kkh&v\, and make 
him as one who has dealings with the Sawgha. 

' " This is the motion («atti). 

' " Let the venerable Sawgha hear me. The bowl 
has been turned down (&c, as before), and he is 
conducting himself (&c, as before), and he requests 
the Sa/wgha (&c, as before). The Sa/wgha turns 
up again the bowl as regards VaddAa. the UikkhdMi, 
and makes him as one who has dealings with the 

us in the earlier literature in which such a use of it is mentioned or 
implied. Compare Rh. D.'s note on the 'Book of the Great 
Decease,' VI, 26. 

' Lomam pateml See the note on Aullavagga I, 6, 1. 



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V, si, i. ON THE DAILY LIFE OF THE BHIKKHUS. I 25 

Saaegha. Whosoever of the venerable ones ap- 
proves thereof, let him keep silence; whosoever 
approves not thereof, let him speak. 

' " The bowl is turned up again by the Sawzgha as 
regards Vadd/ia. the \J\kkhavi, and he is as one who 
has dealings with the Sa#»gha. The Sawgha ap- 
proves thereof. Therefore Is it silent Thus do I 
understand." ' 



21. 

1. Now the Blessed One, when he had stayed at 
Vesali as long as he thought fit, set out on his 
journey toward Bhagga 1 . And journeying straight 
on he arrived in due course at Bhagga. And there 
at Bhagga the Blessed One resided on the Dragon's 
Hill, in the hermitage in the Bhesaka/a Wood*. 

Now at that time Bodhi the king's son's mansion, 
which was called Kokanada, had just been finished, 
and had not as yet been used 3 by Sama«a, or by 
Brahman, or by any human being. And Bodhi the 
king's son gave command to the young Brahman, 
the son of the Sa«fika woman 4 , saying, ' Come 

1 Bhaggesu. Compare Buddhaghosa ! s note on a similar plural 
at Maha-parinibMna Sutta III, 5, quoted in Rh. D.'s ' Buddhist 
Suttas from the P&li,' p. 24. 

1 This place is also mentioned in the Sutta-vibhanga on the 55th 
and 56th Sekhiyas. 

8 Ana^Aavuttho, literally, no doubt, 'dwelt in.' But it is 
clear that the meal afterwards taken in it by the Buddha was sup- 
posed to be the dedication, so to say, or the house-warming, after 
which it was a^Mvuttho. 

4 On this habit of naming people after the family or tribal (not 
the personal) name of their mothers, see Rh. D.'s note in his 
' Buddhist Suttas,' p. 1. 



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126 JTULLAVAGGA. V, at, a. 

now, my friend Sa#£ika-putta, go thou to the place 
where the Blessed One is, and when you have come 
there, bow down in salutation at his feet on my 
behalf, and enquire in my name whether he is free 
from sickness and suffering, and is in the enjoyment 
of ease and comfort and vigorous health, saying, 
" Bodhi the king's son, Lord, bows down in saluta- 
tion at thy feet, and enquires [as I have said] ', and 
asks : ' May my Lord the Blessed One consent to 
take his to-morrow's meal with Bodhi the king's son, 
together with the Sawzgha of Bhikkhus.' " ' 

'Even so, Sir!' said the young Brahman Sa«^ika- 
putta, in assent to Bodhi the king's son. And he 
went up to the place where the Blessed One was, 
and when he had come there he exchanged with the 
Blessed One the greetings and compliments of 
friendship and civility. And when he had done 
so, he took his seat on one side, and so seated he 
[delivered to him the message even as the king's 
son had commanded]. And the Blessed One gave, 
by silence, his consent. 

2. And when the young Brahman Sa»/ikcl-putta 
had perceived that the Blessed One had consented, 
he arose from his seat, and went up to the place 
where Bodhi the king's son was. And when he had 
come there, he said to him : 'We have spoken, Sir, 
in your behalf to that venerable Gotama, saying 
(&c, as before), and have received the consent of 
the Samawa Gotama.' 

Then Bodhi the king's son made ready at the end 



1 So far this conversation is the stock phrase for a message 
from a royal personage to the Buddha. See « Book of the Great 
Decease,' I, a (Rh. D.'s ' Buddhist Suttas,' p. 2). 



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V, 21, 2. ON THE DAILY LIFE OF THE BHIKKHUS. I 27 



of that night sweet food, both hard and soft ; and 
had the mansion Kokanada spread over with white 
cloths even unto the last planks in the flight of 
steps (at the entrance) 1 ; and gave command to the 
young Brahman Sawgika-putta, saying, ' Come now, 
my friend Sa%ika-putta, go thou up to the place 
where the Blessed One is ; and when you have come 
there, announce the time, saying, " The meal, Lord, 
is ready, and the time has come." ' 

1 Even so, Lord,' said Sa%ika-putta in assent 
[and went to the Blessed One and announced 
accordingly]. 

Now the Blessed One, having dressed himself 
early in the morning, went, duly bowled and robed, 
to Bodhi the king's son's mansion. And Bodhi the 
king's son stood at that time at the portico over the 
outer door to welcome the Blessed One. And he 
saw the Blessed One coming from afar; and on 
seeing him he went forth thence to meet him, and 
when he had saluted the Blessed One, he returned 
again to the mansion Kokanada. 

Now the Blessed One stopped at the last plank 
on the flight of steps at the entrance. And Bodhi the 
king's son said to the Blessed One, ' May my Lord 
the Blessed One walk over the cloths. May the 
Happy One walk over the cloths, that the same 
may be to me for a long time for a weal and for 
a joy.' 

And when he had thus spoken, the Blessed One 
remained silent. And a second time he [preferred 
the same request in the same words with the same 

1 Sopana-ka/iiigari. Compare the Sanskrit Kat/ankara 
(also written ka</angara). The correct reading is doubtless /, 
not 1. 



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128 JTULLAVAGGA. V, ai, 3. 

result]. And a third time he [preferred the same 
request]. Then the Blessed One looked round at 
the venerable Ananda. 

And the venerable Ananda said to Bodhi the 
king's son, 'Let them gather up, O prince, these 
cloths. The Blessed One will not walk on a strip 
of cloth (laid down for ceremonial purposes) 1 . The 
Tathagata has mercy even on the meanest thing/ 

3. Then Bodhi the king's son had the cloths 
gathered up, and spread out a seat on the top of 
Kokanada. And the Blessed One ascended up into 
Kokanada, and sat down on the seat spread out 
there with the Sa/wgha of Bhikkhus. And Bodhi 
the king's son satisfied the Bhikkhu-sawgha with 
the Buddha at their head with the sweet food, both 
hard and soft, waiting upon them with his own 
hand 8 . And when the Blessed One had cleansed 
his bowl and his hands, he (Bodhi) took his seat 
on one side. And the Blessed One instructed, and 
roused, and incited, and gladdened him thus sitting 
with religious discourse. And when he had been thus 
instructed, and roused, and incited, and gladdened 



1 .ffela-pattika ti £ela-santharam, says Buddhaghosa. See 
pa//ika in Childers, and compare paroAa-pa/Mikam at V, 11, 6. 
Aela is not merely ordinary cloth ; it is cloth regarded as a means 
of giving a decorative or festive appearance to a house by spread- 
ing canopies, &c. See (Tataka I, 178, and Maha-parinibbana 
Sutta VI, 26 (p. 64). On such festive occasions the whole house 
(or the Mawrfapa erected in special honour of the guest) is 
covered with lengths of clean cotton cloth — the same as are other- 
wise used for ordinary apparel— white being the colour signifying 
peculiar respect. It is such lengths of cloth so used honoris 
causa that are called £ela-pattik£. Compare Rh. D.'s note in 
' Buddhist Suttas,' p. 12 a. 

1 See the note above on Mahavagga I, 8, 4. 



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V, 31, 4- ON THE DAILY LIFE OF THE BHIKKHUS. 1 29 

with religious discourse, Bodhi the king's son rose 
from his seat and departed thence. 

Then the Blessed One, on that occasion and in 
that connection, convened an assembly of the 
Bhikkhu-sa*Bgha, and after he had delivered a 
religious discourse, he addressed the Bhikkhus and 
said: 

'You are not, O Bhikkhus, to walk upon cloth 
laid down (for ceremonial purposes). Whosoever 
does so, shall be guilty of a dukka/a.' 

4. Now at that time a certain woman who had 
had a miscarriage, and had invited the Bhikkhus, 
and spread cloths in their honour, said to them, 
'Step, Sirs, over the cloth.' 

The Bhikkhus, fearing to offend, would not 
do so. 

'Step, Sirs, over the cloth, for good luck's sake.' 

The Bhikkhus, fearing to offend, would not 
do so. 

Then that woman murmured, was annoyed, and 
was indignant, saying, 'How can their reverences 
refuse to step over the cloth when they are asked 
to do so for good luck's sake ?' 

The Bhikkhus heard of that woman's murmuring, 
and being annoyed, and indignant. And they told 
this matter to the Blessed One. 

'I allow you, O Bhikkhus, when asked to do so 
for the sake of good luck to laymen, to step over 
cloth laid down for ceremonial purposes.' 

Now at the time the Bhikkhus were afraid to step 
on to a mat to be used for wiping the feet 1 . 

They told this matter to the Blessed One. 

1 Dhota-padaka. 



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1 30 XULLAVAGGA. V, 22, 1. 

' I allow you, O Bhikkhus, to step on to a mat to 
be used for wiping the feet.' 



Here ends the second Portion 1 for Recitation. 



22. 

1. Now when the Blessed One had remained at 
Bhagga as long as he thought fit, he set out on his 
journey towards Savatthi. And journeying straight 
on he arrived in due course at Savatthi, and there, 
at Savatthi, he stayed in the (^etavana, in the Arama 
of Anatha-pi#dfika. 

Now Visakha the mother of Migara, bringing 
small jars 2 , and earthenware foot-scrubbers 8 , and 
brooms, went up to the place where the Blessed 
One was; and when she had come there, she 
saluted the Blessed One, and took her seat on 
one side. And so sitting, Visakha the mother of 
Migara said to the Blessed One, ' May the Blessed 
One accept these things at my hands, that that may 
be to me for long for a blessing and a joy.' And the 
Blessed One accepted the small jars and the brooms ; 
but the Blessed One did not accept the earthenware 
foot-scrubbers. 

1 There is no mention in the text of where the first such Portion 
(Bhanavara) ends. There is also no division into Bhanavaras 
in the previous books of the Aullavagga. 

1 Gha/akaw. At Gataka I, 32 this word seems to mean the 
capital of a pillar. We have taken it as the diminutive of g ha/a, 
especially as Buddhaghosa says nothing ; but this is doubtful. 

* Katakaw. To the note quoted at p. 318 of the text, which 
shows that this is a kind of foot-rubber, Buddhaghosa adds that 
this article is forbidden bahulikanuyogatta. This injunction 
is repeated below at V, 37, where kataka is mentioned as a kind 
of earthenware. 



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V, S3, i. ON THE DAILY LIFE OF THE BHIKKHUS. I3I 

Then the Blessed One instructed (&c, as usual, 
see 21. 2, down to) she departed thence. And the 
Blessed One, on that occasion and in that con- 
nection, after having delivered a religious discourse, 
addressed the Bhikkhus, and said : 

1 1 allow you, O Bhikkhus, small jars and brooms. 
You are not, O Bhikkhus, to make use of earthen- 
ware foot-scrubbers. Whosoever does so, shall be 
guilty of a dukka/a. I allow you, O Bhikkhus, 
three kinds of things to rub the feet with — to wit, 
sandstone l , gravel ', and sea-foam V 

2. [A similar paragraph ending] 

' I allow you, O Bhikkhus, the use of fans and 
flower-stands V 



23. 

1. Now at that time a mosquito-fan had come 
into the possession of the Sa*»gha. 

They told this matter to the Blessed One. 

' I allow you, O Bhikkhus, the use of mosquito- 
fans.' - 

A chimara (a tail of the Bos Gruniens or 
Tibetan ox, mounted on a stick, to be used by 

1 Sakkhari and ka/Aala, the exact distinction between which 
two terms is not stated. 

* Samudda-phenaka. By this name are designated the bones 
of the cuttle-fish which, when cast up by the waves on the sea- 
shore, are not unlike petrified foam, and have actually been in- 
troduced from the East into use in Europe as a kind of rough 
natural soap ; and are now sold for that purpose in most chemists' 
shops in England (compare Meerschaum). The same word is 
found in later Sanskrit works. 

8 TalavaH/aw. See ffataka I, 26, 5 (at the end); and com- 
pare talava»/akaw below, V, 29, 4. 

K 2 



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132 XTFLLAVAfcGA. V, 23, a. 

an attendant to whisk off flies) had come into the 
possession of the Sawgha. 

They told this matter to the Blessed One. 

'You are not, O Bhikkhus, to make use of a 
chamara. Whosoever does so, shall be guilty of 
a dukka/a 1 . I allow, O Bhikkhus, three kinds 
of fly-whisks— ^those made of bark, those made of 
Uslra-grass, and those made of peacocks' tails V 

2. [Similar paragraph ending] 

' I allow you, O Bhikkhus, the use of sun-shades 8 .' 

Now at that time the A^abbaggiyas Went about 
with sun-shades up. And at that time a certain 
Upasaka went to a garden with a number of men 
who were followers of the A^ivakas (naked ascetics). 
And those followers of the Kg lvakas saw the J&kab- 
baggiya Bhikkhus coming along in the distance with 
sun-shades held over them ; and on seeing them, 
they said to that Upasaka: 

'Are these, Sir, the men whom you reverence 
coming along, like lords of the treasury, there with 
sun-shades held over them ?' 

'No, Sirs. These are not Bhikkhus; they are 
Paribbd^akas (wandering mendicants).' 

So they made a bet whether they were Bhikkhus 
or not. And when that Upasaka recognised them, 
when they came up, he murmured, was annoyed, 
and was indignant, saying, 'How can their rever- 
ences go about with sun-shades held over them ?' 

The Bhikkhus heard of that Upasaka's thus mur- 

1 Probably because this, tike a white umbrella, was considered 
an appanage of royalty. 

* Mora-pifiMa. This word is spelt prw^a by Childers, and 
by Fausboll, Gfctaka I, 38, 207. 

* See the note at the end of the chapter. 



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V, *3» 3- ON THE DAILY LIFE OF THE BHIKKHUS. I33 

muring, &c. And those Bhikkhus told the matter to 
the Blessed One. 

' Is it true, O Bhikkhus, as they say?' 

' It is true, Lord.' 

The Blessed Buddha rebuked them, saying (&c, 
as usual, see I, i, 2, 3). And when he had rebuked 
them, and had delivered a religious discourse, he 
addressed the Bhikkhus, and said : 

'You are not, O Bhikkhus, to have sun-shades 
held over you. Whosoever does so, shall be guilty 
of a dukka/a.' 

3. Now at that time a certain Bhikkhu was sick, 
and without a sun-shade (being held over him) he 
was ill at ease. 

They told this matter to the Blessed One. 

* I allow, O Bhikkhus, a sun-shade for the sick.' 

Now at that time the Bhikkhus, thinking, ' It is 
for the sick only that sun-shades have been allowed 
by the Blessed One, and not for those who are not 
sick,' were afraid to use sun-shades in the Arama, 
or in the precincts of the Arama. 

They told this matter to the Blessed One. 

' I allow, O Bhikkhus, either a sick man, or one 
who is not sick, to have a sun-shade held over 
him either in the Arama, or in the precincts of the 
Arama 1 .' 

1 There is an ambiguity, either in the use of the word Matta, 
or in the use of the verb dhareti, or both, running through this 
chapter. As a matter of fact, the Bhikkhus now use sun-shades 
(usually those made of paper in China) of the same shape as the 
umbrellas now used in England ; and they make no distinction as 
to the place in which they use them. But there is another shape 
for shades, to be carried by a dependant walking behind the 
person to be shaded, in which the handle is fastened to the rim at 
the side of, and not in the middle underneath that part of it which 



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134 JTULLAVAGGA. V, 24, t. 



24. 

i. Now at that time a certain Bhikkhu tied his 
bowl with a string, and suspending it on a staff 1 , 
went after noon out of a certain village gate. The 
people calling out, ' There goes a thief ; his sword 
is glistening,' fell upon him, and seized him. But 
on recognising him, they let him go. That Bhikkhu, 
returning to the Arama, told this matter to the 
Bhikkhus. ' 

'What then, Sir, did you carry a staff with a 
string to it?' 

'It is even so, Sirs.' 

Those Bhikkhus who were moderate murmured 
(&c, as usual, see I, i, 2, 3) ... . told the Blessed 
One .... he addressed the Bhikkhus, and said : 

' You are not, O Bhikkhus, to carry a staff with a 
string to it. Whosoever does so, shall be guilty of 
a dukka/a.' 

2. Now at that time a certain Bhikkhu was sick, 
and he could not wander about without a staff. 

They told this matter to the Blessed One. 

actually keeps off the sun. Both kinds are figured on the most 
ancient Buddhist sculptures. The Old Commentary on the cor- 
responding rule for the nuns (Bhikkhunt-vibhanga, Pa/ftttiya 
LXXXIV, 2, 1) says that sun-shades are either white, or made of 
matting, or made of leaves (doubtless of the talipot palm) ; and it 
adds that they are either ma«dala~baddha« or salaka- 
baddhaw, which apparently refers to these two ways in which 
the handle was joined on to the shading-part. In the 57th Se- 
khiya (compare also the 23rd and the 67th), and in Aullavagga 
VIII, 1, 1, will be found rules of etiquette which show that it was 
a sign of courtesy or of respect to put down a sun-shade. 

1 See the similar phraseology at V, 8, 1. On u//itvS, compare 
oddeti. 



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V, a6, i. ON THE DAILY LIFE OF THE BHIKKHUS. 1 35 

' I allow you, O Bhikkhus, to give to a sick 
Bhikkhu the permission (license) to use a staff. And 
thus, O Bhikkhus, should it be given. That sick 
Bhikkhu, O Bhikkhus, should go up to the Sawgha 
[here follow the words of a Kammavaia, precisely 
as in V, 20, 7].' 

3. [Similar paragraphs ending with KammavAias 
for license to lift the bowl with a string, and with 
both a staff and a string] 



25. 

1. Now at that time a certain Bhikkhu was a 
ruminator 1 , and he, continually ruminating, used to 
chew the cud. 

The Bhikkhus murmured, were annoyed, and were 
indignant, saying, ' This Bhikkhu eats food out of 
hours V And they told this matter to the Blessed 
One. 

• This Bhikkhu, O Bhikkhus, has but lately fallen 
from the condition of being an ox. I allow, O 
Bhikkhus, to a ruminator the chew of the cud. 
But nothing, O Bhikkhus, brought from the door 
of the mouth to the outside thereof is to be so 
chewed s . Whosoever does so, shall be dealt with 
according to the law V 



26. 

1. Now at that time a certain multitude had 



1 Romanthaka. 

* Which is against the rule laid down in the 27th Pa&ttiya. 
' That would be a breach of the 30th Paflttiya. 

* That is, according to the 27th, 28th, or 30th Patfttiya. 



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J 36 JTULLAVAGGA. V, 37, 1. 

arranged for the privilege of supplying food to 
the Sawgha, and in the dining-hall many fragments 
of rice were allowed to fall. 

The people murmured, were annoyed, and were 
indignant, saying, ' How can the Sakya-puttiya Sa- 
maras, when food is being given to them, take it 
so carelessly. Each single ball of rice is the result 
of hundredfold labour ! ' 

The Bhikkhus heard of the people thus mur- 
muring, &c, and they told the matter to the Blessed 
One. 

' I allow you, O Bhikkhus, whatever thing falls 
when it is being given to you, yourselves to pick 
it up and eat it. That has been presented, O 
Bhikkhus, by the givers.' 



27. 

1. Now at that time a certain. Bhikkhu went on 
his round for alms with long finger-nails. A certain 
woman, seeing him, said to that Bhikkhu : ' Come 
along, Sir, and have connection with me.' 

' Nay, Sister, that is not becoming.' 

'If you do not, Sir, I will at once scratch 1 my 
limbs with my own nails, and will make as if I were 
angry, saying, " This Bhikkhu has ill-treated me." ' 

' Settle that with yourself, Sister.' 

That woman did as she had said, and people 
running up seized that Bhikkhu. Then they saw 
skin and blood on the woman's nails ; and on seeing 
that, they let the Bhikkhu go, saying, ' This is the 



1 On vilikhati, compare VI, 20. 

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V, 37, 3- 0N THE DAILY LIFE OF THE BHIKKHUS. 1 37 

work of the woman herself. The Bhikkhu has not 
done it.' 

Then that Bhikkhu, returning to the A ram a, told 
the matter to the Bhikkhus. 

'What then, Sir, do you wear long nails ?' 

' It is even so, Sirs.' 

The Bhikkhus who were moderate murmured 
(&c. . . . .) told the matter to the Blessed One. 

'You are not, O Bhikkhus, to wear long nails. 
Whosoever does so, shall be guilty of a dukka/a.' 

2. Now at that time the Bhikkhus tore off their 
nails with the nails, bit them off with their teeth, or 
rubbed them down against the wall ; and their fingers 
were hurt. 

They told, this matter to the Blessed One. 

' I allow you, O Bhikkhus, nail-cutters.' 

They cut their nails down to the blood, and their 
fingers were, hurt, 

' I allow you, O Bhikkhus, to cut your nails 
according to the length of the flesh.' 

Now at that time the A^abbaggiya Bhikkhus 
had all the twenty nails (on their hands and feet) 
polished. 

People murmured, &c, saying, ' Like those who 
still live in the pleasures of the world.' 

They told this matter to the Blessed One. 

'You are not, O Bhikkhus, to have the twenty 
nails polished. I allow you, O Bhikkhus, to remove 
the dirt only.' 

3. Now at that time the Bhikkhus' hair grew long. 
They told this matter to the Blessed One. 

'Are the Bhikkhus able, O Bhikkhus, to remove 
one another's hair ?' 
' They are, Lord.' 



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1 38 ffULLAVAGGA. V, 27, 4. 

Then the Blessed One, on that occasion and in 
that connection, after he had delivered a religious 
discourse, addressed the Bhikkhus, and said : 

' I allow you, O Bhikkhus, the use of razors, of a 
hone to sharpen the razors on, of powder prepared 
with Sipa/ika-gum to prevent them rusting 1 , of a 
sheath to hold them in 2 , and of all the apparatus of 
a barber 8 .' 

4. Now at that time the A^abbaggiya Bhikkhus 
wore (&c, as usual, down to) 

' You are not, O Bhikkhus, to have your beards 
cut (by barbers) 4 , nor to let them grow long, nor to 
wear them long on the chin like a goat's beard *, nor 
so cut that they have four corners *, nor to cut off the 
hair growing on your breast 7 , nor to cut the hair on 
your bellies into figures 8 , nor to wear whiskers 9 , nor 
to remove the hair from your private parts 10 . Who- 
soever does so, shall be guilty of a dukka/a.' 

1 Khura-sipa/ikam. See the notes on V, 11, 2, and Buddha- 
ghosa's note at p. 319 of the text 

* Namatakaw. See above, V, 11, 1, and V, 19, 1. 

* Khura-bha«</aw. Compare Mahavagga VI, 37. 

4 Massuzrc kappapentiti kattariya massum Aiedapenti (B.). 
On Kattari (a knife), see Gataka I, 223. It is clear from the 
first words of the next section that Buddhaghosa's explanation 
here is not quite accurate. 

5 Go-lomikan ti hanukamhi digha»» katva /ftapitam e/aka- 
massuw vu££ati (B.). 

6 ATaturassan ti £atu-konam (B.). 

* Parimukhan ti urc loma-samhara»am (B.). 

" Addha.Tbka.rn. See the various readings and Buddhaghosa's 
note at p. 319 of the text. 

* Da/Aika». It is the Sanskrit da^ika or daftsh/rika; and 
occurs at Gataka I, 305. 

10 On the corresponding rule in the Bhikkhunf-vibhahga, the 
2nd Pa&ttiya, the Old Commentary has sambadho nama ubho 
upaka£Makl multa-kara»am. 



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V, *7> 5- 0N THE DAILY LIFE OF THE BHIKKHUS. 1 39 

Now at that time a certain Bhikkhu had a fistula 1 , 
and the ointment would not stick to it. 

They told this matter to the Blessed One. 

' I allow you, O Bhikkhus, on account of disease, 
to remove the hair from the private parts.' 

5. Now at that time the A^abbaggiya Bhikkhus 
(&c, as before, down to) 

' You are not, O Bhikkhus, to have your hair cut 
off with a knife 2 . Whosoever does so, shall be guilty 
of a dukka^a.' 

Now at that time a certain Bhikkhu had a sore 
on his head, and the hair could not be removed with 
a razor. 

They told this matter to the Blessed One. 

' I allow you, O Bhikkhus, on account of disease, 
to have your hair cut off with a knife.' 

Now at that time the Bhikkhus wore the hair in 
their nostrils long. 

People murmured, &c, saying, ' Like the devil- 
worshippers V 

They told this matter to the Blessed One. 

'You are not, O Bhikkhus, to wear the hair in 
your nostrils long. Whosoever does so, shall be 
guilty of a dukka/a.' 

Now at that time the Bhikkhus had the hair in 
their nostrils pulled out with a potsherd 4 , or with 
beeswax ; and their nostrils were hurt. 

1 Compare Mahavagga VI, 22, 2. 

* Kattarikaya ti gam&-rudhi-(sic MS.)-sisa-rog'-abadha-pai- 
>Saya va//ati, which is simply a repetition of the next paragraph, is 
all that Buddhaghosa here says. See note above on § 4. 

* Pisaiillika. So also V, 10, 2, of carrying a skull about; 
and Mahavagga III, 1 2, 3, of living in the hollow of a tree. 

4 SakkharikS, said at Mahavagga VI, 14, 5 to be used as a 
lancet 



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HO «ULLAVAGGA. V, 27, 6. 

They told this matter to the Blessed One. 

' I allow you, O Bhikkhus, the use of pincers V 

Now at that time the A^abbaggiya Bhikkhus 
(&c, as before, ending with) 

'You are not, O Bhikkhus, to have the white 
hairs pulled out (off your heads). Whosoever does 
so, shall be guilty of a dukka/a.' 

6. Now at that time a certain Bhikkhu's ears were 
stopped with the wax. 

They told this matter to the Blessed One. 

' I allow you, O Bhikkhus, the use of an instru- 
ment to remove the wax from the ear V 

[Then a paragraph as to the substances of which 
it may be made, word for word, as in Mah&vagga 
VI, 6, 21 ; 12, 3 ; A"ullavagga V, 5, 2 ; 29, 2, &c] 



28. 

1. Now at that time the AT^abbaggiya Bhikkhus 
laid up much store of brass ware and copper ware. 

People who came on a visit to the Vih&ras, seeing 
it, murmured, &c, saying, ' Like those who spread 
out copper (for sale) 3 .' 

They told this matter to the Blessed One. 

' You are not, O Bhikkhus, to lay up much store 
of brass ware and copper ware. Whosoever does 
so, shall be guilty of a dukkafeV 

1 Sanrfasa. So at (?ataka I, 138, 4, a barber pulls out a white 
hair from the king's head, suva«»a-sa/*</asena. 

* This license is repeated in the next chapter. 

9 Kawsa-pattharika' ti k&»sa-bha»<fo-vam£& (B.). 

4 They might have all kinds of brass ware, except certain 
articles, according to chapter 37 below. 



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V, a8, *. ON THE DAILY LIFE OF THE BHIKKHUS. 141 

2. Now at that time the Bhikkhus were afraid to 
use boxes to put eye-ointment in 1 , and little flat 
sticks to lay it on with 2 , and instruments for re- 
moving wax from the ear 8 , and handles (for razors, 
staves, &c.) 4 . 

They told this matter to the Blessed One. 

' I allow you, O Bhikkhus, the use of these things.' 

Now at that time the .Oabbaggiya Bhikkhus sat 
down lolling up against their waist-cloths (arranged 
as a cushion) 5 , and the edges of the waist-cloths 
wore out*. 

They told this matter to the Blessed One. 

'You are not, O Bhikkhus, to loll in this way. 
Whosoever does so, shall be guilty of a dukka/a.' 

Now at that time a certain Bhikkhu was sick, and 
without some handicraft 7 he was ill at ease. 

1 Aw^anim. The use of these has been already allowed at 
MaMvagga VI, 12, 1, 2, 4. 
1 In the text read an^ana-safdka**, on which see Mahlvagga 

VI, 12, 3,4. 

■ Already allowed in the last chapter. 

4 Bandhana-mattan ti vasi-kattara~ya////i-adfnaw va bandhana- 
mattam (B.). It is clear from this note, and the repetition of the 
pi in the text, that we have to do here with a special object, and 
not a mere qualification of the other three. 

"'Sawgha/i-pallatthikaya nis!ditvl See IV, 4, 7 at the 
end, and the Old Commentary On the 26th Sekhiya. Childers 
translates it as if it were the same as ukku/ikam nistditva ; but 
it must be different from it as that was allowed and constantly 
practised. 

• Pa//4 lu^anti. So read (not patta as to the text) in 
accordance with our note 3 on Mahavagga VIII, 21, 1. The 
second word occurs also above, V, 16, 2; 17, 2. From this pas- 
sage here it is probable that a/Ma-p&daka at Mahavagga VIII, 
21, means a stool. 

T Ayogaw. Compare the "Sutta-vibhanga, Paflttiya LXXXVIII, 
2, 2 ; Gataka III, 447, 6. 



r 



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142 JOJLLAVAGGA. V, 29, 1. 

They told this matter to the Blessed One. 

' I allow you, O Bhikkhus, the use of a loom, and 
of shuttles, strings, tickets, and all the apparatus 
belonging to a loom.' 



29. 

1. Now at that time a certain Bhikkhu entered 
the village for alms without a girdle on, and in the 
highway 1 his waist-cloth fell down 2 . The people 
made an outcry, and that Bhikkhu was abashed. 

On his return to the Arima, that Bhikkhu told 
this matter to the Bhikkhus, and the Bhikkhus told 
it to the Blessed One. 

' You are not, O Bhikkhus, to enter the village 
without a girdle on. Whosoever does so, shall 
be guilty of a dukka/a. I allow, O Bhikkhus, a 
girdle V 

2. Now at that time the A'&ibbaggiya Bhikkhus 
wore (&c, as usual, ending with) 

'You are not, O Bhikkhus, to wear special 
girdles* — those made of many strings plaited to- 

1 RathiySya. The Old Commentary on the Bhikkhunt- 
vibhanga, PSiittiya XIV, says, RathiyS ti niiAL The word 
recurs, ibid., Pa/Kttiya LXXXVI, XCVI (the last of which is nearly 
the same as our passage here). For the more usual form ra- 
th ikS, see .tfullavagga X, 12. 

* Pabhassittha. Compare Sutta-vibhanga, Patfttiya LXXXIII, 
1, 2. It is from the root bhrams, not bhSs. 

* The use of this has already been enjoined at Mahavagga I, 25, 
9, 10. It was to be tied on round the waist, over the waist-cloth, 
to keep it in its place. 

4 It is curious that ka/i-suttakaxn, a kind of girdle which 
would seem properly to belong here, has been included in a former 
list of forbidden articles at V, 2, 1. 



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V, 29, 2. ON THE DAILY LIFE OF THE BHIKKHUS. I43 

gether 1 , those made like the head of a water- 
snake 2 , girdles with tambourines on them 8 , girdles 
with beads on (or with ornaments hanging from 
them) 4 . Whosoever does so, shall be guilty of a 
dukka/a. I allow you, O Bhikkhus, girdles of 
two kinds — those made of strips of cloth, and 
those ....*' 

The borders of the girdles decayed through age. 

' I allow, O Bhikkhus, an edging of brighter 
material • and strengthening at the ends V 

The end of the girdle where the knot was tied 
decayed through age 8 . 

' I allow, O Bhikkhus, a buckle 9 .' 

[A paragraph on the substances of which it may 
be made, as usual, see Mahavagga VI, 12, 3 ; A'ulla- 

1 KalSbukaw. See Buddhaghosa's note at p. 319 of the text, 
and compare Bohtlingk-Roth under kalSpa, kalipaka. 

1 De</rfubhaka/» nima udaka-sappi-sisa-sadisaw (B.). Ded- 
(Atbha corresponds to the later Sanskrit du»</ubha, an older form 
of which is dundubha. 

* Mura^a, literally, 'tambourines;' but see Buddhaghosa's 
note, loc. tit. 

* Maddavfnaw nama pSmanga-san/idnam (B.). On p&- 
mahga, see our note at Aullavagga V, 2, 1. 

6 Sukarantakara. See Buddhaghosa's note at p. 319 of the 
text We do not venture to translate the term. 

' Sobhanam nima ve/Metvi mukha-va/ii-sibhanaw (B.). In 
the MaggAima. Sfla, § 3, sobhanakam or sobhana-karanam 
(so Rh. D.'s MS.) is a kind of game or show. 

7 Guwakaw nama mudika(? muddhika)-san//ianena sibbanam 
(B.). Clough, under gu»a, gives inter alia, 1. fastening; 2. a 
plant of the fibres of which bow-strings are made ; 3. bow-string. 

* Pavananto ti pSsanto (B.). 

* Vidho. But both the reading and the explanation are un- 
certain, and Buddhaghosa says nothing. The word occurs also, 
and apparently in the same sense, in the Old Commentary on the 
86th Paflttiya. 



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144 tfULLAVAGGA. V, 39, 3. 

vagga V, 5, 2, &c, adding at the end 'and made 
of string.'] 

3. Now at the time the venerable Ananda went 
into the village for alms with light garments on • ; 
and his garments were blown up by a whirlwind. 

The venerable Ananda, on returning to the 
Arama, told this matter to the Bhikkhus ; and 
the Bhikkhus told this matter to the Blessed One. 

' I allow, O Bhikkhus, a block * (to be used as a 
weight) or a chain V 

[Similar paragraph to that just above as to the 
substances of which the block may be made.] 

Now at that time the Bhikkhus fastened the 
block or the chain immediately on to their robes; 
and the robes gave way. 

They told this matter to the Blessed One. 

' I allow, O Bhikkhus, a piece of phalaka cloth * 
to attach the block or the chain to.' 

They fastened the phalaka cloth for the block 
or the chain on to the edge of the robe ; and the 
corner came open 8 . 

1 Sa«gha7iyo in the plural must mean garments and not waist- 
cloths only. See the parallel passage in the Bhikkhuni-vibhanga, 
Paflttiya XCVI. 

2 Ga.ntAika.rn. The use of this article is referred to in VIII, 
4, 3, and at Dhammapada, p. 372. That ga«/Ai means a block, 
usually of wood, is clear from the use of dhamma-ga«Mika« at 
Gataka I, 150 (spelt gandika. however at II, 124), compared with 
ga»/Ai (block of sandal-wood) above, V, 8, 1. The word occurs 
also in the Old Commentary on the 86th P&ittiya. 

8 P&sakara, which does not correspond to Sanskrit prasaka 
here, but to pSjraka = p&fa (B6htlingk-Roth give inter alia, 
' Sahl oder Leiste am Anfange eines Gewebes '). Compare. pisanta 
in Buddhaghosa on ma££^ava/akam in the next section. 

* See our note on this word at Mah&vagga VIII, 28, 2. 

• That is, perhaps, the weight dragged the robe to one side and 
the legs were visible through the opening. 



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V, 29, 4* ON THE DAILY LIFE OF THE BHIKKHUS. 145 

They told this matter to the Blessed One. 

' I allow you, O Bhikkhus, to fasten the phalaka 
cloth for the block on the edge of the robe, and to 
fasten the phalaka cloth for the chain seven or 
eight finger-breadths up the robe.' 

4. Now at that time the .Oabbaggiya Bhikkhus 
wore (&c, as usual, ending with) 

'You are not, O Bhikkhus, to wear your under 
garments arranged as laymen do, nor arranged with 
appendages like elephant-trunks \ nor arranged like 
fishing-nets a , nor arranged with four corners show- 
ing 3 , nor arranged like flower-stands *, nor arranged 
like rows of jewelry 8 . Whosoever does so, shall be 
guilty of a dukka/a/ 

[Similar paragraph, ending] 

' You are not, O Bhikkhus, to wear your upper • 



1 Hatthi-soflt/akam niroa nabhi-mulato hatthi-so«<fa-saw/M- 
naw olambakaw katvS nivatthaw, ko/ika-itthinaw nivSsanaro viya 
(B.). 

1 Ma££Aa-va7aka« nSma ekato dasantaw ekato pSsantam 
olambitvi nivatthaw (B.). 

' ^atu-ka»»akaffl upari dve he/liato dve evaw &itt&ro ka»»e 
dassetva nivattha/rc (B.). 

* Tala-vaw/akazn ndma t&lavan/'-SkSrena saYakam olambitvS 
nivasanaw (B.). See our note on taiava»/a above, V, 22, 2, and 
on ima/aka-va»/ika-pt/£am below, VI, 2, 4. 

8 Sata-vallikam nima dtgha-sitakam aneka-kkhattuw obhaft- 
gitvi. ova//ika« karontena nivattha/n vS, padakkhiwa-passesu va" 
nirantaram valiyo dassetva 1 nivatthaw. Sa£e pana ^-amito pa/Miya 
eko vi dve vi valiyo pawnayanti, va//ati (B.). Compare vallikd 
and ova//ika/» at V, 2, 1. Buddhaghosa's second explanation 
would be possible if the reading were sata-valika«, and is 
probably only a pis aller, due to the difficulty of the first, which 
we have adopted doubtfully. 

* P&rupati as opposed to nivSseti above. Compare Dham- 
mapada, pp. 114, 376; CTataka, vol. i, p. 57, line 16. 

[20] L 



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I46 JCULLAVAGGA. V, 29, 5. 

garments as the laymen do. Whosoever does so, 
shall be guilty of a dukka/a.' 

5. [Similar paragraph, ending] 

' You are not, O Bhikkhus, to wear your under 
garments * as the king's porters do 1 . Whosoever 
does so, shall be guilty of a dukka/a.' 



30. 

1. Now at that time the .Oabbaggiya Bhikkhus 
carried a double pingo (a yoke over the shoulders 
with the weight to be carried on both sides). 

People murmured, &c, saying, ' Like the king's 
porters 2 .' 

They told this matter to the Blessed One. 

' You are not, O Bhikkhus, to carry a double pingo. 
Whosoever does so, shall be guilty of a dukka/a. 
I allow you, O Bhikkhus, to carry a single pingo, 
a pingo for two bearers 8 , and to carry weights on 
your head, or your shoulders, or against your hips *, 
and suspended over your backs.' 



31. 

1. Now at that time the Bhikkhus did not use 
tooth-sticks 6 , and their mouths got a bad odour. 

1 Samvelliyam nivasetabbaw See Buddhaghosa's note at 
p. 319 of the text 

* Mu«</a-va//i or -ve/Mi. See the note from the Samanta 
Pasadika at p. 319 of the text. 

3 Antara-ki^aw nama m^e laggetva dvihi vahitabbaw 
bharam (B.). 

4 That is held round by the arm, and resting against the side of 
the hips. Women in Tndia commonly carry their children so, the 
children sitting on the hip, with one leg in front and one behind. 

8 Danta-ka/Ma«, not ' tooth-brushes,' as Childers translates. 



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V, 31, a. ON THE DAILY LIFE OF THE BHIKKHUS. 1 47 

They told this matter to the Blessed One. 

' There are these five disadvantages, O Bhikkhus, 
in not using tooth-sticks — it is bad for the eyes * — 
the mouth becomes bad-smelling — the passages by 
which the flavours of the food pass are not pure — 
bile and phlegm get into 2 the food — and the food 
does not taste well 8 to him (who does not use 
them). These are the five disadvantages, O Bhik- 
khus, in not using tooth-sticks.' 

' There are five advantages, O Bhikkhus, (&c, 
the converse of the last).' 

' I allow you, O Bhikkhus, tooth-sticks.' 

2. Now at that time the A^abbaggiya Bhikkhus 
used long tooth-sticks ; and even struck the Si ma- 
ne ras with them. 

They told this matter to the Blessed One. 

'You are not, O Bhikkhus, to use long tooth- 
Mechanical skill had not advanced so far in those days ; and we 
hear nothing of brushes of any kind (see above, V, 2, 3, as to hair- 
dressing). The ' tooth-sticks ' were bits of sweet-smelling wood 
or root, or creeper (see Gataka I, 80; Mahavawsa, p. 23), the 
ends of which were to be masticated as a dentifrice, not rubbed on 
the teeth. After using them the mouth was rinsed out with 
water; and so in all other passages in the Khandhakas where 
they are mentioned (always in reference to the duty of providing 
them), it is in connection with the bringing of water for that 
purpose. 

1 This has of course nothing to do with keeping the teeth white 
and beautiful; that was not the purpose which the tooth-sticks 
were designed to effect. There seems to have been really some 
idea that the use of them was good for the eye-sight. So Buddha- 
ghosa says here, a£akkhussan ti £akkhunam hitam ma hoti, pari- 
h&mm £aneti, quite in accordance with the Sanskrit £akshushya. 
The words recur below, VI, 2, 2, in the same sense. 

* Pariyonandhanti. Literally, ' envelope,' ' cover.' 

* Na AkMdeti. This is a different word from JbA&deti, 'to 
cover.' It is Wad No. 2 in B8htlingk-Roth. 

L 2 



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148 JTULLAVAGGA. V, 32, 1. 

sticks. Whosoever does so, shall be guilty of a 
dukka/a. I allow you, O Bhikkhus, tooth-sticks 
up to eight finger-breadths in length. And Sa- 
ma»cras are not to be struck with them. Who- 
soever does so, shall be guilty of a dukka/a,' 

Now at that time a certain Bhikkhu, when using 
too short a tooth-stick, got it stuck in his throat 

They told this matter to the Blessed One. 

'You are not, O Bhikkhus, to use too short a 
tooth-stick. Whosoever does so, shall be guilty of 
a dukka/a. I allow you, O Bhikkhus, tooth-sticks 
four finger-breadths long at the least' 



32. 

1. Now at that time the A^abbaggiya Bhikkhus 
set the woods on fire. 

People murmured, &c, saying, ' Like the charcoal 
burners.' 

They told this matter to the Blessed One. 

' You are not, O Bhikkhus, to set woods on fire. 
Whosoever does so, shall be guilty of a dukka/a.' 

Now at that time the Viharas were hidden 
under masses of grass ', and when the woods were 
set on fire the Viharas were burnt. The Bhik- 
khus, fearing to offend, would not make a counter- 
fire for their own protection. 

They told this matter to the Blessed One. 

' I allow you, O Bhikkhus, when the woods are 



1 Ti«a-gahanS. Not covered with thatch, the word for which 
is ti«a-A£>4adanS. See V, n, 6 ; V, 14, 3, &c. 



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V,33. i. ON THE DAILY LIFE OF THE BHIKKHUS. 1 49 

on fire to make a counter-fire 1 , and thus afford your- 
selves protection.' 

2. Now at that time the A^abbaggiya Bhikkhus 
climbed up trees, and jumped from tree to tree. 

People murmured, &c, saying, ' Like monkeys.' 

They told this matter to the Blessed One. 

'You are not, O Bhikkhus, to climb up trees. 
Whosoever does so, shall be guilty of a dukka/a.' 

Now at that time, when a certain Bhikkhu in the 
Kosala country was going to S&vatthi, an elephant 
pursued him on the way. And that Bhikkhu, when 
he had run up to the foot of a tree, fearing to offend, 
did not climb up. The elephant passed on another 
way. 

That Bhikkhu, on arriving at Savatthi, told this 
matter to the Bhikkhus (and the Bhikkhus told this 
matter to the Blessed One 8 ). 

'I allow you, O Bhikkhus, when there shall be 
something to be done to ascend a tree to the 
height of a man; and in cases of misfortune as 
high as you like.' 



33. 

1. Now at that time there were two brothers, 
Bhikkhus, by name Yame/u and Tekula 3 , Brah- 

1 Pa/aggim Aitnm. See the story at GStaka I, 212, and foil. 

9 Omitted in the text. 

* Yame/utekuld. It is possible that this compound should be 
dissolved into Yame/a and Utekula. Compare the word Yame/e 
at verse 35 of the Uddina (which stands where a nominative 
should stand, judging by the form of the other words in the 
Uddana). A comma has there been omitted by misprint after 
Yame/e. 



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1 50 iTULLAVAGGA. V, 33, I. 

mans by birth, excelling in speech, excelling in 
pronunciation. These went up to the place where 
the Blessed One was, and when they had come 
there, they saluted the Blessed One, and took their 
seats on one side. And so sitting those Bhikkhus 
spake to the Blessed One thus : 

' At the present time, Lord, Bhikkhus, differing 
in name, differing in lineage, differing in birth, differ- 
ing in family, have gone forth (from the world). 
These corrupt the word of the Buddhas by (repeating 
it in) their own dialect Let us, Lord, put the word 
of the Buddhas into (Sanskrit) verse V 

' How can you, O foolish ones, speak thus, say- 
ing, " Let us, Lord, put the word of the Buddhas 
into verse ?" This will not conduce, O foolish ones, 
either to the conversion of the unconverted, or to 
the increase of the converted ; but rather to those 
who have not been converted being not converted, 
and to the turning back of those who have been 
converted.' 

And when the Blessed One had rebuked those 
Bhikkhus, and had delivered a religious discourse 2 , 
he addressed the Bhikkhus, and said : 



1 We think that in these words (£^andaso Sropema) there 
does lie a reference to the earlier Sanskrit And this especially 
for four reasons : firstly, this is required by the antithesis to ' their 
own dialect;' secondly, the use of the word Mandasi in Pawini, 
where it always means precisely ' in the Veda-dialect,' requires it ; 
thirdly, it is difficult to understand otherwise the mention of 
' Brahmans by birth ; ' and fourthly, this is in accordance with the 
traditional interpretation of the passage handed down among the 
Bhikkhus. Buddhaghosa says, ^Aandaso Sropema ti Vedam 
viya sakka/a-bhSsaya vafond-maggaw aropema. Sakka/a is of 
course Samskrs'ta. 

* See the substance intended at Abulia vagga I, 1, 3. 



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V, 33» a - ON THE DAILY LIFE OF THE BHIKKHUS. 1 5 I 

'You are not, O Bhikkhus, to put the word of 
the Buddhas into (Sanskrit) verse. Whosoever does 
so, shall be guilty of a dukka^a. I allow you, O 
Bhikkhus, to learn the word of the Buddhas each in 
his own dialect V 

2. Now at that time the -Oabbaggiya Bhikkhus 
learnt the Lokayata system 2 . 

People murmured, &c, saying, ' Like those who 
still enjoy the pleasures of the world !' 

The Bhikkhus heard of the people thus murmur- 
ing; and those Bhikkhus told the matter to the 
Blessed One. 

' Now can a man who holds the Lokayata as 
valuable reach up, O Bhikkhus, to the full ad- 
vantage of, or attain to full growth in, to full 
breadth in this doctrine and discipline 8 ?' 

1 This cannot be, Lord.' 

' Or can a man who holds this doctrine and disci- 
pline to be valuable learn the Lokayata system ?' 

1 On the historical conclusions which may be drawn from this 
tradition, see H. O.'s introduction to the text of the Mahavagga, 
pp. xlix and following. 

1 This is mentioned also in the Assalayana Sutta (at the begin- 
ning), and in the same terms in the Milinda Panha, p. 10, as one 
of the branches of learning distinctive of well-educated Brahmans. 
It is condemned among other ' low arts ' in the very ancient Maha 
Sfla, § 5. (See Rh. D.'s ' Buddhist Suttas from the Pali,' p. 199, 
and his note on the age of this work, ibid. p. 188.) Among later 
works, the Nepalese Buddhists refer to it as one of the things with 
which a Bodhisattva will not condescend to occupy himself (Lotus 
of the Good Law, ch. xiii, Burnoufs version, p. 168), and in 
which good disciples will take no pleasure (ibid. p. 280). Buddha- 
ghosa has a note on the passage in the Maha Sila (quoted by 
Childers sub voce), which shows that it was understood in his time 
to be, or rather to have been, a system of casuistry. 

* So also in the ATetokhila Sutta 2 (translated in Rh. D.'s 
' Buddhist Suttas from the Pali,' p. 223). 



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152 JTULLAVAGGA. ^33,3. 

' This cannot be, Lord.' 

'You are not, O Bhikkhus, to learn the Lo- 
kayata system. Whosoever does so, shall be guilty 
of a dukka/a.' 

Now at that time the ^4abbaggiya Bhikkhus 
taught the Lokayata system. 

People murmured, &c, saying, ' Like those still 
enjoying the pleasures of the world ! ' 

They told this matter to the Blessed One. 

' You are not, O Bhikkhus, to teach the Lo- 
kayata system. Whosoever does so, shall be 
guilty of a dukka/a.' 

[Similar paragraphs to the last, ending] 

' You are not, O Bhikkhus, to learn — to teach — 
the low arts 1 (of divination, spells, omens, astrology, 
sacrifices to gods, witchcraft, and quackery).' 

3. Now at that time the Blessed One when, sur- 
rounded by a great assembly, he was preaching the 
Dhamma, sneezed. The Bhikkhus raised a great 
and mighty shout, ' Long life to our Lord the 
Blessed One! Long life to the Happy One!' and 
by the sound thereof the discourse was interrupted. 
Then the Blessed One said to the Bhikkhus : 

' Now if when a man has sneezed, O Bhikkhus, 
some one says, " Long life to you," can he live or 
die on that account ?' 

' Not so, Lord.' 



1 T'uakkAGina.-vigg&. Literally, 'brutish, or beastly, wisdom.' 
These are set out in full in the seven sections of the Maha" Sila 
(translated in Rh. D.'s 'Buddhist Suttas from the P41i,' pp. 196- 
200). As noticed above, the Lok&yata system is there mentioned 
(§ 5) as one of them. Learning or teaching these things are for- 
bidden in almost identical terms to the Bhikkhunfs in the Bhik- 
khunf-vibhahga, Pavfcittiyas XLIX and L. 



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V, 34. !• ON THE DAILY LIFE OF THE BHIKKHUS. 1 53 

' You are not, O Bhikkhus, when one has sneezed, 
to call out, " Long life to you." Whosoever does 
so, shall be guilty of a dukka/a V 

Now at that time people said to the Bhikkhus 
when they sneezed, ' Long life to your reverence ! ' 
and the Bhikkhus, fearing to offend, gave no reply. 
The people murmured, were annoyed, and were 
indignant, saying, ' How can the Sakya-puttiya 
Samawas omit to reply when people say, " Long life 
to your reverence?'" 

They told this matter to the Blessed One. 

' Laymen, O Bhikkhus, are given to lucky phrases 2 . 
I allow you, O Bhikkhus, to reply, " May you live 
long ! " to laymen who say to you, " Long life to 
your reverence!'" 



34. 

1. Now at that time the Blessed One when, 
surrounded by a great assembly, he was preaching 
the Dhamma, was seated. And a certain Bhikkhu, 
who had eaten onions, sat down apart, thinking, 
' Let not the Bhikkhus be annoyed 8 !' 

The Blessed One saw that Bhikkhu sitting apart ; 
and on seeing him, he said to the Bhikkhus, ' Why 
now, O Bhikkhus, is that Bhikkhu seated apart ?' 

* This Bhikkhu, Lord, has eaten onions, and has 

1 This story forms the Introductory Story also to the Gagga 
Gataka (No. 155 in Fausbdll's edition). On the superstition here 
condemned, see Dr. Morris's remarks in the ' Contemporary Review ' 
for May, 1881. 

* Gihf bhikkhave mangalika. 

9 Vyabahiwsu is for vyabadhiwsu. See p. 320 of the edition 
of the text. 



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1 54 JTULLAVAGGA. V, 34, 2. 

seated himself apart in order not to annoy the 
Bhikkhus.' 

' But ought, O Bhikkhus, anything to be eaten, 
that will "cause the eater to keep away from such 
a preaching of the Dhamma as this ?' 

4 No, indeed, Lord.' 

' You are not, O Bhikkhus, to eat onions. Who- 
soever does so, shall be guilty of a dukka/a V 

2. Now at that time the venerable Sariputta 
had wind in his stomach. And the venerable Maha 
Moggallana went up to the place where the vener- 
able Sariputta was, and when he had come there, 
he said to the venerable Sariputta : 

' How did you formerly, friend Sariputta, get 
relief, when you had wind in the stomach ?' 

' By eating onions, my friend V 

They told this matter to the Blessed One. 

' I allow you, O Bhikkhus, to eat onions on ac- 
count of disease.' 



35. 

1. Now at that time the Bhikkhus made water 
here and there in the Aram a, and the Arama 
was denied. 

They told this matter to the Blessed One. 

' I allow you, O Bhikkhus, to make water at one 
side (of the Arama).' 

1 There is a similar rule for the Bhikkhunts in the Bhikkhunf- 
vibhanga, Pa^ittiya I. So also onions are mentioned among the 
things a Gain Bhikkhu may not accept (Ayaranga Sutta II, 1, 

* It is gruel of various kinds that is prescribed for this malady 
in Mahavagga VI, 16, 3-17, 2. 



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V, 37. *• ON THE DAILY LIFE OF THE BHIKKHUS. 1 55 

The Arama became offensive 

[The rest of this chapter is scarcely translateable. 
It records in like manner the various sanitary diffi- 
culties which arose from the living together of a 
number of Bhikkhus. Each such difficulty is quite 
solemnly said to have been reported to the Blessed 
One, and he is said to have found a way out of it. 
The result of the whole is, that the building of 
privies is enjoined, and all the contrivances, such as 
seats, doors, steps, plastering, &c, already men- 
tioned with respect to the bath-room, above, V, 14, 
are here repeated verbatim *.] 



36. 

Now at that time the A^abbaggiya Bhikkhus 
followed evil practices such as these — they used to 
plant [&c, word for word as in the long list at I, 13, 
1, 2, down to the end]. 

They told this matter to the Blessed One. 

'You are not, O Bhikkhus, to follow manifold evil 
practices. Whosoever does so, shall be dealt with 
according to the law.' 



37. 
1. Now at the time when the venerable Kassapa 
of Uruve/a went forth (from the world), much pro- 
perty in brass and wood and earthenware came 
into the possession of the Sa/»gha 2 . And the 

1 For some of the details, compare Mahavagga V, 8, 3, and 
Mahavagga I, 25, i9=Aullavagga VIII, 1, 5, and Aullavagga 
VIII, 9 and 10. 

* See Mahdvagga I, 20, 19-21. 



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156 rULLAVAGGA. V, 37, 1. 

Bhikkhus thought, 'What kinds of brass ware — of 
wooden things — of earthenware 1 — has the Blessed 
One allowed, and what kinds has he not allowed ?' 

They told this matter to the Blessed One. 

Then the Blessed One, on that occasion and in 
that connection, when he had delivered a religious 
discourse, addressed the Bhikkhus, and said : 

' I allow you, O Bhikkhus, all kinds of brass ware, 
except weapons 2 — all kinds of wooden things, except 
divans 3 , and long-armed chairs 3 , and bowls*, and 
shoes 6 , — and all kinds of earthenware, except ka- 
takas 4 , and large earthen vessels to be used as 
huts to live in 7 .' 



Here ends the Fifth Khandhaka, on 
minor details. 



1 See .tfullavagga VIII, 3, 1. 

* Paharawatthaw katam paharawf ti vu&foti. Yassa kassa £i 
avudha-saraghatass' etaw adhiva£ana« (B.). 

* See Mahavagga V, io, 4, 5. 

* See ATulIavagga V, 8, 2. 
8 See Mah&vagga V, 6, 4. 

* On this word see our note above at V, 22, 1. 

7 This is the only one of the things here mentioned not re- 
ferred to in previous rules. Buddhaghosa says, Kumbha-kSrika' 
ti Dhaniyass' eva sabba-mattikamaya-kuri vu£/fcati. The story of 
Dhaniya is given in the text of the Vinaya, vol, iii, pp. 42 and 
following. 



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VI, i, 2. ON DWELLINGS AND FURNITURE. 1 57 



SIXTH KHANDHAKA. 
On Dwellings and Furniture. 



1. Now at that time the Blessed Buddha 1 was 
staying at Ra^agaha in the Ve/uvana, in the 
Kalandaka Nivapa 2 . And at that time no per- 
mission had been given to the Bhikkhus by the 
Blessed One with respect to dwellings. So the 
Bhikkhus dwelt now here, now there — in the woods, 
at the foot of trees, on hill-sides, in grottoes, in 
mountain caves, in cemeteries, in forests, in open 
plains, and in heaps of straw. And at early morn 
they came in from this place or from that place — 
from the woods (&c, as before) decorous in their 
walking and turning, in their looking on or looking 
round, in stretching out their arms or in drawing 
them back, with eyes cast down, and dignified in 
deportment 8 . 

2. Now at that time the Se//^i of Ra^agaha went 
at early morn to his garden. And the Setlki of 

1 Our readers will have noticed that the phrase at the beginning 
of each Khandhaka is ' the Blessed Buddha,' and not merely ' the 
Blessed One.' It recurs besides only in the constantly- repeated 
paragraph 'The Blessed Buddha rebuked them,. • saying, &c.' 
(see, for instance, Aullavagga I, 1, 2, where the connection is 
given in full). 

* Compare the note on Mahavagga III, 1,1. 

' So also Mahavagga I, 23, 2, and frequently in the Suttas. 



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158 JCULLAVAGGA. VI, 1, 3. 

Rigagaha saw those Bhikkhus coming in from this 
place and from that place, from the woods (&c, as 
in § 1, down to the end), and on seeing them he 
took pleasure therein 1 . And the Se//£i of Ra^a- 
gaha went up to those Bhikkhus, and said to them : 

' If, Sirs, I were to have dwellings erected for 
you, would you take up your abode in those 
dwellings ?' 

' Not so, O householder. Dwellings have not 
been allowed by the Blessed One.' 

'Then, Sirs, ask the Blessed One about it, and 
let me know.' 

' Very well, O householder,' said they, in assent 
to the Se//^i of Ra^-agaha. And they went up to 
the Blessed One, and saluted him, and took their 
seats on one side. And when they were so seated, 
they said to the Blessed One : 

' The Se//Ai of Ra^agaha, Lord, wishes to have 
dwellings erected for us. What, Lord, should be 
done ?' 

Then the Blessed One, on that occasion and in 
that connection, when he had delivered a religious 
discourse, addressed the Bhikkhus, and said : 

' I allow you, O Bhikkhus, abodes of five kinds — 
Viharas, Adfo^ayogas, storied dwellings, attics, 
caves V 

3. Then those Bhikkhus went up to the Se/A&i of 
Ri^agaha, and said to him : ' The Blessed One, 
Sir, has allowed us dwellings ; do, therefore, what 
seemeth to thee good.' And the Se//-fci of Ri^agaha 
had sixty dwelling-places put up in one day. 

1 So also of Bimbisara in the Gataka Commentary, I, 66. 
1 Buddhaghosa's note on these punka, lenani has already been 
given in our note above, Mahavagga I, 30, 4. 



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YI, I, 5. ON DWELLINGS AND FURNITURE. 1 59 

4. And when the Se#>fci of Ra^gaha had com- 
pleted those sixty dwelling-places, he went up to 
the place where the Blessed One was, and [invited 
him and the Bhikkhu Sa*«gha for the morrow's 
meal; and so on, as usual 1 , down to the time 
when, after the meal, the Se//Ai] said to the Blessed 
One : 

' I have had, Lord, these sixty dwelling-places 
made for the sake of merit, and for the sake of 
heaven. What am I to do, Lord, with respect to 
them?' 

' Then, O householder, dedicate 2 these sixty 
dwelling-places to the Sawgha of the four directions, 
whether now present, or hereafter to arrive.' 

' Even so, Lord !' said the SettM of Ra^agaha, in 
assent to the Blessed One, and he dedicated those 
sixty dwelling-places to the use of the Sa/«gha of 
the four directions whether present or to come V 

5. Then the Blessed One gave thanks to the 
Se//^i of Ra^agaha in these verses * : 

' 1. Cold he wards off and heat, so also beasts of 

prey, 
And creeping things and gnats, and rains in 

the wet season. 
And when the dreaded heated winds arise, 

they are kept off. 



1 See, for instance, Mahavagga VI, 30, or .ATullavagga V, 27. 

* Literally, 'establish' (pa/i//Mpehi). 

9 This formula of dedication has been constantly found in rock- 
inscriptions in India and Ceylon over the ancient cave-dwellings of 
Buddhist hermits. See Rh. D. in the 'Indian Antiquary' for 
May, 1872. 

* The following verses recur below at VI, 9, 2 ; and also in 
that connection in the Gitaka. Commentary, I, 93. 



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l6o JTULLAVAGGA. VI, I, 3. 

2. To give Vihiras to the Sawgha, wherein in 

safety and in peace 
To meditate and think at ease, the Buddha 
calls the best of gifts. . 

3. Let then the able man, regarding his own weal, 
Have pleasant monasteries built, and lodge 

there learned men 1 . 

4. Let him with cheerful mind give food to them, 

and drink, 
Raiment, and dwelling-places, to the upright 
in heart. 

5. Then shall they preach to him the Truth — 
The Truth dispelling every grief — 
Which Truth when here that man perceives 
He sins no more, and dies away 2 !' 

And when the Blessed One had given thanks to 
the Se//£i of Ra^agaha in these verses, he rose 
from his seat, and departed thence. 



2. 

1. And the people heard, saying, 'Vi haras have 

been allowed by the Blessed One.' And they 

built Vihiras zealously. Those Viharas had no 

doors 8 , and snakes, scorpions, and centipedes got in. 

1 This verse forms the subject of one of the 'Questions of 
Milinda' (ed. Trenckner, p. 211). 

* The above verses may have stood originally in a different con- 
text from that in which they have been handed down, as the 
opening phrase sltaw pa/ihanti would be more intelligible if the 
word viharo occurred in the immediately preceding clause. 

* Kava/a. This is the special word for door. Dvara often 
roughly translated door, is not really ' door,' but ' door- ' or ' gate- 
way,' with special reference to the aperture and not to that by 
which the aperture could be closed. The latter word is also 



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VI, 2, i. ON DWELLINGS AND FURNITURE. l6l 

They told this matter to the Blessed One. 

' I allow, O Bhikkhus, a door '.' 

They made holes in the wall, and tied the door on 
with string or with creepers, These were eaten by 
mice and white ants ; and when the things by which 
the doors had been tied on had been eaten away, 
the doors fell. 

They told this matter to the Blessed One. 

' I allow, O Bhikkhus, door-posts and lintel, hollow 
like a mortar, for the door to revolve in, and pro- 
jections to the door for it to revolve on.' 

The doors would not come to. 

' I allow, O Bhikkhus, a hole to pass a string 
through with which to pull the door to, and a string 
for that purpose.' 

The doors could not be made fast*. 

' I allow, O Bhikkhus, rings on the door for the 
bolt to work along in, blocks of wood fixed to the 
edge of the door-post and containing a cavity for 
the bolt to go into, a pin to secure the bolt by, and 
a bolt.' 

Now at that time the Bhikkhus were not able 
to open the door. 

They told this matter to the Blessed One. 

different from ' door,' in that it is never used for the entrance into 
an inner chamber. It is always the outer entrance (and the en- 
trance at the front as distinguished from the entrance at the back) 
of a house, or one of the principal entrances to a walled town or 
village. See, for instance, Pa£ittiya XIX ; ATullavagga VIII, 5, 1, 
VIII, 8, 1 ; Gataka I, 63, 114, 346, 361, II, 63, 140. 

1 On this and the following details, compare V, 14, 3, and the 
notes there. 

* Thakiyanti: literally, 'covered, or stopped, up.' The 
same word is used at A'ullavagga VIII, 1, 5, of closing up the 
lattices mentioned in the next section (VI, 2, 2). 
[20] M 



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1 62 JSTULLAVAGGA. VI, 2, a. 

4 1 allow, O Bhikkhus, key-holes, and keys of three 
kinds — bronze keys, and keys of hard wood, and 
keys of horn.' 

When anybody unlocked them ', and entered, 
the Vi haras became unprotected. 

They told this matter to the Blessed One. 

' I allow, O Bhikkhus, a yantaka, and a pin to it 2 .' 

2. Now at that time the Viharas were thatched; 
and in the cold season they were cold, and in the 
hot season hot. 

They told this matter to the Blessed One. 

' I allow you, O Bhikkhus, to cover them (with 
skins) 3 , and to plaster them within and without.' 

Now at that time the Viharas had no windows, 
and they were bad for the eyes, and had a dis- 
agreeable odour. 

They told this matter to the Blessed One. 

' I allow, O Bhikkhus, windows of three kinds- 
windows made with railings 4 , windows made with 
network 6 , and windows made with slips of wood *.' 

1 Uggha/etvS, an expression used in VIII, i, i of undoing the 
bolt (gha/ik£) just referred to. 

1 Yantakaw shkikam, which is the only expression here used 
which has not already occurred above at V, 14, 3. Buddhaghosa 
says, Yantaka-su£ikan ti ettha yaw yaw g&n&d tarn ta»» yanta- 
ka/H, Tassa vivara-sMkaw kuroftkatn katum va//ati. 

8 See the note at V, 14, 3. 

* Vedika-vitapanaw nama £etiye vedika-sadisa/n (B.). See 
our note on vedika above, V, 14, 2. These windows or lattices 
are mentioned in A'ullavagga VIII, 1, 5 ; Mahavagga I, 25, 18. 

6 Gala-vatapanaw nama ^alaka-baddhaw (B.). Galam, 
literally 'net,' is given as a word for 'window* at Abhidhana- 
ppadipika, verse 216. The expression probably corresponds to 
our 'lattice,' and does not mean that an actual net was used. 
Compare the Anglo-Indian 'jalousie.' 

* Salaka-vatapanaw nama thambhaka-vatapanaw (B.). Pos- 



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VI, a, 3. ON DWELLINGS AND FURNITURE. 163 

Squirrels and bats l entered through the opening 
for the window. 

' I allow, O Bhikkhus, window-blinds (or curtains) 2 .' 

The squirrels and bats still got in through the 
interstices between the blind (and the wall). 

' I allow, O Bhikkhus, shutters, and rolls or bags 
(to fill up interstices with) 3 . 

3. Now at that time the Bhikkhus slept on the 
floor, and both their limbs and their robes became 
dirty. 

They told this matter to the Blessed One. 

' I allow, O Bhikkhus, mats made of grass.' 

The mats were eaten by mice and white ants. 

' I allow, O Bhikkhus, a solid bench or divan 
(built up against the wall of a room, or under 
the verandah against the outside wall of the 
house) 4 . 



sibly this means with slips of wood arranged horizontally as in our 
Venetian blinds. 

1 Vagguliyo. This habit of the bat and its harmlessness are 
referred to in Milinda Pawha, p. 404. Compare the Sanskrit 
valguli. 

* A'akkalikan ti. Ettha &>laka-pada-pun<Mana/w bandhitum 
anu^anami ti attho (B.). The word ^akkali occurs below, VI, 
19, probably in the sense here meant. 

* Vatapana-bhisf ti vatapana-pama»ena bhisira katva bandhi- 
tiun anu^anami ti attho (B.). Probably like the sand-bags used in 
England to keep out draughts. On the use of the word in other 
connections, see our note on Mahavagga VIII, 13, 1, and the 
Old Commentary on PaMtiya XIV (where five kinds are named) 
with the Kankha-vitara«l on the last passage quoted by Minayeff, 
p. 86. 

4 MidAiva. See the note on V, 9, 4. Native huts in Ceylon 
always have such solid benches (of brick or mud covered with 
plaster) built up against the wall under the verandah : and they 
are commonly used as sleeping-places for the unmarried males 

M 2 



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1 64 rULLAVAGGA. VI, 2, 3. 

On the solid bench their limbs ached. 

' I allow, O Bhikkhus, bedsteads made of laths 
of split bamboo V 

Now at that time a bier-like masaraka 2 bed- 
stead — a masaraka chair — a bier-like bundika- 
baddha* bedstead — a bundikabaddha chair — a 
bier-like kulira-pidaka 4 bedstead — a kullra-pi- 
daka chair — a bier-like aha>££a-padaka* bedstead 
— an ahaiiSa-padaka chair — had come into the 
possession of the Sawgha. 



in the house. Waskat/uwa Subhuti has this in his mind in the 
explanation he gives in English of vedikd (Abhtdhana-ppadfpikS, 
verse 22a), though he applies it to the wrong word. 

* Bidala-ma?l£aka/K narna vetta-ma«£a/», ve/u-vilivihi va 
vitaw (B.). The word occurs in the Gataka Commentary I, 9, 
lines 26, 34. Compare the Sanskrit bidala and vidala. 

1 Masarako, on which Buddhaghosa says nothing here; but on 
the Old Commentary to the 14th Pa&ttiya, where all the four 
words in this paragraph also occur, he has the following note 
(see Minayeff, p. 68) : Masarako ti man£a-pade viggkitvi tattha 
a/aniyo pavesetva' kato — just the opposite therefore of ihai/ia- 
padako below. On a/ani, compare our note to the 87th Pa£it- 
tiya. The four names recur, of chairs only, in the Old Com- 
mentary on the 87th and 88th Paflttiyas. 

' Buddhaghosa, loc. cit., says, Bundikabaddho ti a/anihi 
ma»£a-p&de </a*as£petva' pallahka-sawkhepena kato. The first 
word, bundika, may mean a small bolt. 

4 Kultra-padako ti assa-me»<£dinaa> pida-sadisehi padakehi 
kato : yo va pana ko£i vahka-pSdako ayaw kulfra-pSdako (B. loc. 
cit.). A bedstead or chair with curved or carved legs, especially 
when carved to represent animals' feet. Kulira is a crab. 

* Aha^ia-pddako ti. Aya»» pana aha££a-padako nama man£o 
ange vigg-Aitva kato hotiti eva»i parato paliyara yeva vutto. Tasini 
a/aniyo vi^Aitva tattha pada-sikhaw pavesetva 1 upari anim-datvi 
kata-manio ahaMa-padako ti veditabbo (B. loc. cit.). This is in 
agreement with the Old Commentary on the 18th Pa&ttiya in 
which this word already occurs. Compare aha£-ta in the Aya- 
ranga Suya II, 1, 1, 2, II, 1, 10, 6. 



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VI, 2, 4» ON DWELLINGS AND FURNITURE. 1 65 

They told this matter (in each case) to the 
Blessed One. 

' I allow you, O Bhikkhus, (each of these things).' 

4. Now at that time a rectangular chair * — an 
arm-chair 2 — a sofa 8 — a sofa with arms to it* — a 
state chair 5 — a cushioned chair • — a chair raised on 
a pedestal 7 — a chair with many legs 8 — a board (to 
recline on) • — a cane-bottomed chair 10 — a straw- 
bottomed chair — had come into the possession of 
the Sawgha. 

They told this matter (in each case) to the 
Blessed One. 

' I allow you, O Bhikkhus, (each of these things).' 



1 Asandiko. Buddhaghosa says, Asandako (sic) ti £aturassa- 
pi/Aam vuiiati. An asandi (cushioned chair) is forbidden at Ma- 
havagga V, 10, 4. 

1 LUAakam pi asandikan ti valanato ekato-bhagena dfgha- 
pt/ftam eva hi a/Mangula-padaka/a va//ati (8.). 

* Sattahgo nama tisu disasu apassayaw katvi manio (6.). 
On apassay nm, compare note 9. 

4 U££ako pi sattahgo. Compare note 2. 

* Bhadda-pt/Aan ti vetta-maya** pttham vui^ati (B.). We 
follow Bohtlingk-Roth sub voce bhadra-piMa. 

* PiMika ti pilotika-baddharo pitham eva (B.). Childers says 
'bench, stool.' Compare Sanskrit piMaka (in the addenda to 
the Petersburg Dictionary). 

7 E/aka-p£daka-piMa« nama dara-paMkaya upari pade 
/Aapetva bho^ana-phalakaw viya kata-pt/Aaw vu^foti (B.). 

' Ama/aka-va»/ika-piMaw nama ama/akikarena yogitaw 
bahu-pada pt//;am (B.). Compare talava»/a at V, 22, 2, and 
tala-va»/aka at V, 29, 4. 

* Phalakam. Compare apassena-phalakaw at Mahavagga 
I, 25, 12, and below, Aullavagga VI, 20, 2. 

10 KoikAa.m nama vakamaya/n va usframayam va mu«^a- 
maya/n v& babba^amayaw va anto samve/Aetvi baddham hoti, says 
the Old Commentary on the 14th Pa&ttiya. Buddhaghosa gives 
here the same explanation, omitting vaka. 



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1 66 JXLLAVAGGA. VI, 2, 5. 

5. Now at that time the A^abbaggiya Bhikkhus 
slept on lofty beds. 

People coming on a visit to the Vihara, when 
they saw them, murmured, &c, saying, ' Like those 
who still live in the pleasure of the world.' 

They told this matter to the Blessed One. 

' You are not, O Bhikkhus, to sleep on lofty beds. 
Whosoever does so, shall be guilty of a dukka/a V 

Now at that time a certain Bhikkhu, when sleep- 
ing on a low couch, was bitten by a snake 2 . 

They told this matter to the Blessed One. 

' I allow you, O Bhikkhus, supports to your 
bedsteads 8 .' 

Now at that time the .Oabbaggiya Bhikkhus used 
lofty supports to their bedsteads, and rocked them- 
selves with these bedstead supports, backwards and 
forwards *. 

' You are not, O Bhikkhus, to use lofty supports 
to your bedsteads. Whosoever does so, shall be 
guilty of a dukka/a. I allow you such supports up 
to eight inches in length.' 

6. Now at that time a quantity of string had 
come into the possession of the Samgha.. 

They told this matter to the Blessed One. 

' I allow you, O Bhikkhus, to weave (a texture 
of string across) the bedstead.' 

Much string was taken up by (passing it round) 
the sides of the bedstead. 



1 Compare the 8th A"ula Sila (Rh. D.'s 'Buddhist Suttas,' 
p. 191). 

2 Compare Aullavagga V, 6. 

* Maw£a-pa/ipadaka« mentioned in Mahavagga I, 25, 16. 
4 Pavedhenti. The reading is doubtful, but the suggestion 
at p. 321 of the text must be withdrawn. 



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VI, 2, 6. ON DWELLINGS AND FURNITURE. \6j 

' I allow you, O Bhikkhus, to pierce the sides of 
the bedstead, and thus to weave the string across 
and across V 

A cloth had come into their possession. 

' I allow you, O Bhikkhus, to use it as a carpet 2 .' 

A mattress stuffed with cotton 3 had come into 
their possession. 

' I allow you, O Bhikkhus, to comb out the cotton, 
and make the cotton up into pillows * if it be of 
any of these three kinds — cotton produced on trees, 
cotton produced on creepers, cotton produced from 
Po/aki-grass.' 

Now at that time the .Oabbaggiya Bhikkhus 
made use of pillows half the size of a man's body. 

People who came on a visit to the Viharas mur- 
mured, &c, on seeing this, saying, ' Like those who 
still enjoy the pleasures of the world.' 

1 A//Aapadakaw vetu»». Buddhaghosa says nothing, either 
here or at Mahavagga VIII, ai, where the word also occurs. 
A///5apada-/Mapana at (?ataka II, 5, 14, is a mode of dressing the 
hair, probably in broad plaits crossing each other so as to re- 
semble the squares of a chessboard. 

* Or 'rug.' A'ilimiki ti nama parikammakataya bhumiya 
jMavi-samrakkhanatthaya atthara»a« vuiiati (B.). It is pro- 
bably the same word as, or connected with, /fcimilika, used by 
Buddhaghosa in note 5 on Mahavagga VII, 1, 5, and explained 
by him (in Minayeff, p. 87, iine 5) as tala-paw«adfhi kati. 
Both words are possibly diminutives of £ola, and it is not im- 
probable that the reading should be £ilimika in both cases, as 
Buddhaghosa so spells the word again in his note below on 
VI, 2, 7. 

* TulikiL This is undoubtedly what is meant to be for- 
bidden in § 5 of the JAaggiimz Sfla, although Grimblot, ' Sept 
Suttas Palis,' p. 9, reads kulikaw. See Mahavagga V, 10, 4. 

4 Compare IV, 4, 4, VIII, 1, 3, where such pillows are men- 
tioned among the ordinary belongings of a VihSra. The present 
rule is repeated below in VI, 14. 



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1 68 JTULLAVAGGA. "VI, 2, 7. 

They told this matter to the Blessed One. 

' You are not, O Bhikkhus, to make use of pillows 
half the size of a man's body. Whosoever does so, 
shall be guilty of a dukka/a. I allow you, O 
Bhikkhus, to have pillows the size of a man's head.' 

7. Now at that time there was a festival on a 
high place l at Ra/agaha. The people provided for 
the use of high officials bolsters stuffed with wool, 
or cotton cloth, or bark, or grass, or leaves. When 
the festival had been held they tore open the covers 
of skin and carried them off. And the Bhikkhus 
saw much wool, and cotton cloth, and bark, and 
grass, and leaves thrown away on the spot where 
the festival had been held ; and on seeing this, they 
told the matter to the Blessed One. 

' I allow, O Bhikkhus, bolsters 2 of five kinds — 
those stuffed with wool, or cotton cloth, or bark, or 
grass, or talipot leaves.' 

Now at that time a bed coverlet had come into 
the possession of the Sawgha. 

They told' this matter to the Blessed One. 

' I allow you, O Bhikkhus, to cover a bolster 
with it.' 

Now at that time the Bhikkhus folded up bed 
bolsters on to chairs 8 , and chair bolsters on to bed- 
steads, and the bolsters came to pieces. 

They told this matter to the Blessed One. 

4 1 allow you, O Bhikkhus, chairs and bedsteads 
covered (with upholstered cushions to fit them).' 

1 Giragga-sama^o. See our note above on V, 2, 6. 

8 Bhisi. See the note on this word at MaMvagga VIII, 13, 1. 

* Buddhaghosa says here man£a-bhisi« pi/Ae samharanti ti 
man&i-pi/Ae attharanti attharanatthaya harantt ti yu^g-ati (B.). 
On this use of sawharati compare above, V, 11, 7. 



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VI, a, 7- ON DWELLINGS AND FURNITURE. 169 

They covered the bedsteads and chairs without 
putting a cloth beneath them ', and the stuffing 
came out from below. 

' I allow you, O Bhikkhus, first to spread out 
a cloth under the bedsteads or chairs, and then to 
upholster them.' 

They tore off the coverings 2 , and took them away. 

' I allow you, O Bhikkhus, to bespatter (the 
coverings with dye) V 

They still took them away. 

' I allow you, O Bhikkhus, to use coverings 
coloured in patches 4 .' 

They still took them away. 

' I allow you, O Bhikkhus, to colour the coverings 
in patches only the size of a man's hand 6 .' 

1 Ullokaw akaritvS hettha /tiliraikam adatvd (B.). The 
word occurs again at Mahavagga I, 25, 15 = JSTullavagga VIII, 
1, 3, where cobwebs are to be removed with a cloth (ullokal). 

* Khay'vn ; but perhaps not necessarily of leather. See the 
commencement of this section. 

* So that the coverings would be useless for other purposes. 
The Pali word is positu/w, which Buddhaghosa explains thus — 
hesitun ti (so the Berlin MS.) ra^anena va haliddhaya vS 
upari pusitani daluw. The word is evidently connected not with 
the root push, but with the roots pr/'sh and prush, 'to be- 
spatter;' and is the same as phositun at MahSvagga VI, 14, 5, 
which is probably the better reading of the two. 

* Bhatti-kammam. The meaning is doubtful, because the 
reading is uncertain. Buddhaghosa says, Bhitti-kamman ti (sic) 
bhisi-Maviyd upari bhitli-kammam. The word is probably 
analogous in formation to our English 'patchwork,' though the 
'patches' are not of pieces of different coloured stuffs, but of 
bits of different colour spread over the same stuff, and whatever 
its meaning, it is probably the same word as bhati-kamma at 

V,9, 2. 

* Again both reading and interpretation are open to question. 
Hattha-bhittin ti pan£ahgula-bhittim is all that Buddhaghosa 



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I7O JCULLAVAGGA. VI, 3, r. 



3. 

1. Now at that time the sleeping-rooms of the 
Titthiyas were whitewashed, the floors of their 
rooms were coloured black, and the walls coloured 
with red chalk '. Much people went to look at their 
sleeping-rooms. 

They told this matter to the Blessed One. 

4 1 allow, O Bhikkhus, the use in your Vi haras 
of whitewash, black colouring, and red colouring.' 

Now at that time the whitewash would not lie on 
to the rough walls. 

They told this matter to the Blessed One. 

' I allow you, O Bhikkhus, to apply the husks of 
grain made up into little balls ; and when you have 
thus removed the unevenness with your hands 2 , to 
lay on the whitewash.' 

The whitewash would not adhere. 

They told this matter to the Blessed One. 

' I allow you, O Bhikkhus, to apply soft clay; and 
when you have thus removed the unevenness with 
your hands a , to lay on the whitewash.' 

(Still) the whitewash would not adhere. 

' I allow you, O Bhikkhus, the use of slime 3 (of 
trees) or of paste *.' 

says ; and we have followed in our translation the reading of the 
Sinhalese MS. (see p. 321 of the edition of the text), which brings 
the word into connection with the preceding phrase. 

1 See V, 11, 6, where all these words recur. 

•Pawikaya. Buddhaghosa says nothing. 

* IkkSsa, on which we have nothing to add to Buddhaghosa's 
note at p. 321 of the edition of the text. It recurs below again 
in this section. 

* Pi/Ma-maddan ti pi/Vfta-khalaw (B.). Compare the San- 
skrit mrid. 



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VI, 3i I. ON DWELLINGS AND FURNITURE. 171 

Now at that time the colouring matter of red chalk 
would not lie on the rough walls. 

They told this matter to the Blessed One. 

' I allow you, O Bhikkhus, to apply the husks of 
grain made up into little balls ; and when you have 
thus removed the unevenness with your hands, to 
lay on the colouring matter of red chalk.' 

The red colour would not adhere. 

' I allow you, O Bhikkhus, to apply clay mixed 
with the red powder which adheres to the grain 
of rice under the husks 1 ; and when you have so 
taken off the unevenness with your hands to lay on 
the red colouring matter.' 

Still the red colouring matter would not adhere. 

' I allow you, O Bhikkhus, the use of a paste 
made of mustard seed 2 , and of oil of beeswax V 

It lay on the wall too thickly in great drops 4 . 

' I allow you, O Bhikkhus, to wipe it down with a 
cloth ».' 

Now at that time the black colouring matter did 
not lie on the rough ground. 

' I allow you, O Bhikkhus, to apply husks of grain 

1 Ku»<faka-mattikan ti kuw/aka-missaka-mattikam (6.). 
Compare ku»</aka-puva»» in the Gataka Commentary I, 423 
(cakes made of flour mixed with this powder). 

* Sasapa-ku//an ti sSsapa-pi//Aam. The word has occurred 
already at Mahavagga VI, 14, 5, where the reading is ku//a in- 
stead of hidda. given in the text here. The latter should be 
altered in accordance with that passage, and with Buddhaghosa 
here. 

3 Sittha-telakan ti vilina-madhu-sitthakaw (6.). It is men- 
tioned as used for hair-oil at Aullavagga V, 2, 3. 

* Ailussannam hoti ti binduw bindum hutva ti//Aati, says 
Buddhaghosa. 

* Ablakena paJJuddharituw. Buddhaghosa says paMut- 
tharitun ti mun^ituw ; but compare for the right form V, 17, 1. 



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172 tfULLAVAGGA. VI, 3, a. 

made up into little balls ; and when you have thus 
removed the unevenness with your hands, to lay on 
the black colouring matter.' 

The black colouring matter would not adhere. 

They told this matter to the Blessed One. 

' I allow you, O Bhikkhus, to apply clay mixed 
with, (the excrement of) earth-worms 1 ; and when 
you have thus removed the unevenness with your 
hands, to lay on the black colouring matter.' 

Still the black colouring matter would not adhere. 

They told this matter to the Blessed One. 

' I allow you, O Bhikkhus, the use of slime and 
astringent liquid V 

2. Now at that time the A^abbaggiya Bhikkhus 
had imaginative drawings 3 painted on their Viharas 
— figures of men, and figures of women. 

People, when they saw them on going to visit the 
Viharas, murmured, &c, saying, ' Like those who 
still enjoy the pleasures of the world.' 

They told this matter to the Blessed One. 

' You are not, O Bhikkhus, to have imaginative 
drawings painted — figures of men, and figures of 



1 Gawifu-mattikan ti ga»<rupp£da-gutha-mattika« (B.). 

1 Kasivan ti amalaka-hari/akana/w tasavaw (B.). Compare 
Mahavagga VI, 4. 

3 Pa/ibhana-£itta«. The Bhikkhunis were forbidden by the 
41st Pa£ittiya of the Bhikkhunl-vibhanga to go and see such paint- 
ings. (Sutta-vibhanga II, 298, where a picture gallery, Afitt- 
SgSra, belonging to King Pasenadi of Kosala, is mentioned) 
We are not quite sure of the connotation of the term, which 
appears to imply some reproach. Perhaps it means ' suggestive.' 
Figures as such were not forbidden; and remains of statues and 
bas reliefs erected in the Vihiras, illustrative of every-day life, have 
been found in great numbers. In the introductory story to the 
26th Paftttiya it certainly means ' indecent.' 



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VI, 3, 3- ON DWELLINGS AND FURNITURE. 

women. Whosoever does so, shall be guilty of a 
dukka/a. I allow you, O Bhikkhus, representa- 
tions of wreaths and creepers and bone hooks and 
cupboards V 

3. Now at that time the Vi haras had too low a 
basement (&c, as in V, u, 6 as to roofing, stairs, 
and balustrade). 

Now at that time the Vi haras were crowded 
with people a . The Bhikkhus were ashamed to lie 
down to sleep. 

' I allow you, O Bhikkhus, the use of curtains.' 

They lifted up the curtains and looked in. 

They told this matter to the Blessed One. 

' I allow you, O Bhikkhus, to put up a lath and 
plaster wall half the height of the Vihara.' 

They looked on from over this half-wall. 

' I allow you, O Bhikkhus, to make inner chambers 
of three kinds — chambers in shape like a palankeen 3 , 
chambers in shape like a quart measure *, and cham- 
bers on an upper storey 6 .' 

1 All these words occur above at V, 11, 6, and V, 14, 4. The 
meaning of the two last is very doubtful. Perhaps it is intended 
that these should occupy the space on the walls instead of any 
ornamentation. 

1 AlakamandS, literally, 'like Kuvera's city in heaven.' Bud- 
dhaghosa tells us why. A/akamanda ti ekahgana manussabhi- 
kiw»i. Aki»»a-yakkha, corresponding to this last word, recurs 
in the standing description of A/akamanda at Maha-parinibbdna 
Sutta V, 43 = Maha Sudassana Sutta I, 3. The name of the 
city is spelt in both those passages with / not 1. 

1 Sivika-gabbho ti laturassa-gabbho says Buddhaghosa. 

* Na/ika-gabbho ti vittharato dvigiwa-tigu»-ayamo digha- 
gabbho (B.). That na/ika is used like na/i for a bushel measure 
follows from a comparison of Gataka 1, 124, last lines, with I, 126, 
line 3. 

' Hammiya-gabbho ti akasa-tale ku/agara-gabbho muda«</a- 



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1 74 tfULLAVAGGA. VI, 3, 4. 

Now at that time the Bhikkhus made inner cham- 
bers in the middle of small Viharas, and there was 
no room to move about in. 

They told this matter to the Blessed One. 

' I allow you, O Bhikkhus, to make the inner 
chambers at one side of small Viharas, and in the 
middle of large ones V 

4. Now at that time the lower part of the lath 
and plaster wall of the Vihara decayed. 

They told this matter to the Blessed One. 

' I allow you, O Bhikkhus, buttresses of timber V 

Rain leaked through on to the lath and plaster 
wall of the Vihara 8 . 

' I allow you, O Bhikkhus, a protecting arrange- 
ment 4 and cement 8 .' 

Now at that time a snake fell from the roof on to 
the back of a certain Bhikkhu. He was terrified, 
and made an outcry*. The Bhikkhus, running up, 
said to that Bhikkhu : 'Why, Sir, do you make an 
outcry?' Then that Bhikkhu told the matter to 



MAadana-gabbho va (B.). Compare our note on Mahavagga i, 

3°. 4- 

1 There is a similar injunction at V, 14, 3, with respect to fire- 
places in bath-rooms. 

* Kulanka-padakaw. See Buddhaghosa's note at p. 321 of 
the edition of the text. The remedy here is different from that 
provided in the similar case, at V, 14, 3, with respect to bath- 
houses. 

* On the use of ovassati compare V, 16, 1, and VIII, 3, 3. 

4 Parittina-ki/ikan ti tassa parittanattham ki/ikam is all that 
Buddhaghosa says. Compare the end of § 5. 

5 Uddha-sudhan ti vaWtaka-gomayena ia Marikaya £a sad- 
dhim maddita-mattikaw (B.). 

* Vissaram akasi. See the note on JTullavagga VIII, r, 1, 
where the whole incident is similar. 



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VI, 3, 5- ON DWELLINGS AND FURNITURE. 1 75 

the Bhikkhus, and they told the matter to the 
Blessed One. 

' I allow you, O Bhikkhus, a ceiling-cloth.' 

5. Now at that time the Bhikkhus hung their 
bags at the feet of the bedsteads, and at the feet of 
the chairs ; and they were gnawed by the mice and 
white ants. 

They told this matter to the Blessed One. 

' I allow you, O Bhikkhus, pins in the wall, and 
bone hooks '.' 

Now at that time the Bhikkhus laid aside their 
robes on the bedsteads and on the chairs, and the 
robes were torn. 

They told this matter to the Blessed One. 

' I allow you, O Bhikkhus, bamboos to hang your 
robes on, and strings to hang your robes on V 

Now at that time the Viharas had no verandahs, 
and no defences 3 . 

They told this matter to the Blessed One. 

' I allow you, O Bhikkhus, verandahs 4 , covered 
terraces*, inner verandahs 6 , and over-hanging 
eaves 7 .' 

1 The use of these has been already referred to at V, 9, 5. 

* These have already been allowed in JTullavagga V, 1 1, 6, and 
V, 14, 3. The license under the present rule extends only to their 
use in Viharas. 

8 Apa/issaranS, which must have some special, technical, 
meaning unknown to us. Buddhaghosa says nothing. 

* Alindo nama pamukhaw vuMati (B.). Compare Abhidhana- 
ppadipika, verse 218. 

* Paghanaw nama yam nikkhamanta k& pavisanta £a padehi 
hananti. Tassa vihara-dvare ubhato ku//am (?) niharitva kata- 
padesass' etam adhiva&inam. Paghanan ti pi vullati (B.). 

' Paku/7an ti maggAe gabbhassa samanta pariyagaro vuX^ati. 
Paku/an ti pi parto (B.). 

7 Osarako ti ana/indake vihare vamsa/n datva tato daWake 



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1 76 iTULLAVAGGA. VI, 3, 6. 

The verandahs were too public ; and the Bhik- 
khus were ashamed to lie down in them to sleep. 

' I allow you, O Bhikkhus, an arrangement in 
form of a curtain that can be drawn aside 1 , or an 
arrangement in form of a moveable screen *.' 

6. Now at that time the Bhikkhus, when taking 
their midday meal in the open air, were troubled 
by cold and heat. 

They told this matter to the Blessed One. 

' I allow you, O Bhikkhus, a Service Hall.' 

The Service Hall had too low a basement (&c, 
as in V, 1 1, 6, down to the end). 

Now at that time the Bhikkhus spread their robes 
out on the ground in the open air, and they became 
dirty. 

' 1 allow, O Bhikkhus, bamboos to hang robes on, 
and strings to hang robes in, in the open air. 

7. The water became warm. 

' I allow, O Bhikkhus, a water-room and a water- 
shed.' 

The water-room had too low a basement (&c, as 
in V, 11,6, down to the end). 

There were no vessels for the water. 

' I allow, O Bhikkhus, chank shells and saucers 
for the water.' 

8. Now at that time the Vi haras had no fence 
round them. 

' I allow you, O Bhikkhus, to enclose them with 

osaretva ka.ta.rn Madana-pamukhaw (B.). At Gataka III, 446, it 
is said of a dying man ' niharitva osarake nipagg&pesum.' 

1 Sawsarawa-ki/iko nama Aakkala-yutto ki/iko (B.). ATak- 
kala should be compared with iakkhalika at VI, 2, 2, and 
Jakkhali at VI, 19. 

* UgghS/ana-ki/iko, on which Buddhaghosa says nothing. 



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VI, 3, 9« ON DWELLINGS AND FURNITURE. 1 77 

ramparts (Pak&ra) of three kinds — brick walls, 
stone walls, and wooden fences.' 

There was no store-room \ 

' I allow, O Bhikkhus, a store-room.' 

The store-room had too low a basement, and it 
was flooded with water. 

' I allow you, O Bhikkhus, to make it with a high 
basement.' 

The store-room had no door. 

' I allow, O Bhikkhus, a door ; with door-posts 
and lintel, with hollows like a mortar for the door 
to revolve in, with projections to revolve in those 
hollows, with rings on the door for the bolt to 
work along in, with a block of wood fixed into the 
edge of the door-post, and containing a cavity for 
the bolt to go into (called the Monkey's Head), with 
a pin to secure the bolt by, with a connecting bolt, 
with a key-hole, with a hole for a string with which 
the door may be closed, and with a string for that 
purpose V 

Grass and plaster fell from the store-room. 

' I allow you, O Bhikkhus (&c, as in V, 14, 4, 
down to the end of V, 14, 5, as to roofing, flooring, 
drains, &c.).' 

9. Now at that time the Bhikkhus made fire- 
places here and there in the Parive«a, and the 
Parivewa was covered with the remains of the fires 8 . 

1 Ko/Maka. See our note above on V, 14, 4, as to the various 
allied meanings of this word. Perhaps 'gateway' should be 
chosen as the rendering here, as it clearly must be in the closely 
allied passage in the next section but one (§ 10). As the chamber 
supposed always to be built over the gateway could be used as a 
store-room, the difference is not very essential. 

* The whole as above in V, 14, 3, where see the note. 

8 Ukldpo. On this use of the word compare Afullavagga VIII. 1,3. 
[20] N 



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178 ZULLAVAGGA. VI, 3, 10. 

They told this matter to the Blessed One. 

'I allow you, O Bhikkhus, to make a separate 
room for the fire at one side.' 

The fire-room had too low a basement (&c, as in 
V, 11, 6, as to flooring, stairs, and balustrade, fol- 
lowed by the paragraph as to the door, and the 
facing, as in V, 14, 3, &c). 

10. Now at that time the Aramas had no fences 
to them, and goats and cattle injured the plantations 1 . 

They told this matter to the Blessed One. 

' I allow you, O Bhikkhus, to surround them with 
fencing of three kinds — bamboo fences, thorn fences, 
and ditches.' 

There was no gateway (ko/Maka), and goats 
and cattle, even so, injured the plantations. 

' I allow, O Bhikkhus, a gateway, with gates made 
of stakes interlaced with thorny brakes a , with fences 
(across the gateway) made of the akka plant 8 , with 
ornamental screen-work over the gateway 4 , and with 
bars.' 

[Then the paragraphs allowing the roofing, &c, 
of this ko/Maka as in V, n, 6, and drains for the 
Ar&ma, as in V, 14, 3.] 

1 1. Now at that time Seniya Bimbisara, the king 
of Magadha, wanted to build a pasada 6 (residence), 

1 Uparope. Compare Uparopaka at Gataka II, 345. 
' Apesiyam. See p. 321 of the edition of the text, reading 
of course kawMaka. 

* Akkava/a, on which Buddhaghosa says nothing. A kind of 
dress made from the stalks of the akka plant is mentioned in 
Mahavagga VIII, 28, 2. 

4 Tosa»a, which is the ornamental erection over a gateway of 
which such excellent examples in stone have been found at the 
Sanchi and Bharhut Topes. 

* The exact meaning of the word Pasada at the time when this 



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VI, 4i I. ON DWELLINGS AND FURNITURE. 179 

covered with cement and clay, for the use of the 
Samgha. And it occurred to the Bhikkhus, ' What 
kind of roof now has been allowed by the Blessed 
One, and what kind of roof has not been allowed ?' 

They told this matter to the Blessed One. 

' I allow, O Bhikkhus, roofing of five kinds — brick 
roofing, stone roofing, cement roofing, straw roofing, 
and roofing of leaves.' 

End of the First Bha«avara (or Portion for 
Recitation). 



I. Now at that time the householder An&tha 
Pi«dfika was the husband of the sister of the Ra^a- 
gaha Se///fci. And Anatha TincHka. the householder 
went to Ra^agaha on some business or other. Now 
at that time the Sa*»gha, with the Buddha at its 
head, had been bidden by the Se/Mi of Ra/agaha 
for the morrow's meal. And the Se//Ai of Ra/a- 
gaha gave command to his slaves and work-people, 
saying, ' So get up at early morn, my men, and cook 
congey, and cook rice, and prepare curries, and pre- 
pare delicacies * 1 ' 

book was written has not yet been precisely ascertained. In later 
times it meant a building of several storeys, each successive storey 
being smaller in superficial area than the one immediately beneath 
it Compare the Mah&-loha-pis!da so often mentioned in the 
MahSvamsa (pp. 161-257), the stone pillars of the lowest stories of 
which are still one of the sights of Anur&dhapura. 

1 Uttari-bhangaw. Childers sub voce uttari is in doubt what 
the meaning of this phrase is. It is no longer uncertain that the 
word means ' delicacy' of some sort. Whether the term was more 

N 2 



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l8o JCULLAVAGGA. VI, 4, 3. 

And it occurred to Anatha Vmcfika. the house- 
holder, ' Now formerly this householder was wont, 
when I arrived, to lay aside all other business, and 
exchange the greetings of courtesy with me; but 
now he appears excited, and is giving orders to 
his slaves and work-people. How can it be ? Is he 
taking in marriage, or is he giving in marriage, or 
has he set a great sacrifice on foot, or has he invited 
the Magadhan Seniya Bimbisara, together with his 
retinue, for to-morrow's meal?' 

2. Now when the SettM of Ra^agaha had given 
commandment to his slaves and his work-people, he 
went up to the place where Anatha Findika. the 
householder was, and exchanged with him the 
greetings of courtesy, and took his seat on one 
side. And when he was so seated, Anatha Pi»^ika 
the householder [told him the thoughts that had 
passed through his mind]. 

' I am neither taking nor giving in marriage, O 
householder' (was the reply), 'nor have I invited 
the Magadhan Seniya Bimbisara to to-morrow's meal. 
But a great sacrifice I have set on foot, for the 
Sawgha, with the Buddha at its head, has been 
invited for to-morrow's meal at my house.' 

' Did you, O householder, say " the Buddha ?"' 

' Yes, it was " the Buddha" that I said.' 



precise, and denoted some particular delicacy or not, is still doubt- 
ful. Compare the passages quoted in our note above on Maha- 
vagga VI, 14, 3 (adding Gataka I, 186, and JTullavagga IV, 4, 5, 
VIII, 4, 4), which show that it was eaten with boiled rice or 
congey; is mentioned along with ghee and oil; and could be made 
from the flesh (or other parts) of a sucking-pig. If it were not for 
the latter circumstance (Gataka I, 197) it might well be pickles or 
chutney. 



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VI, 4, 3- ON DWELLINGS AND FURNITURE. l8l 



[And thrice the same question was put, and die 
same reply was given.] 

' Hard is it, O householder, to meet even with 
the mere expression in the world — the news, that is, 
of " a Buddha, a Buddha V Would it be possible 
for us, at this very time, to go and visit that Blessed 
One, the Arahat, the very Buddha 2 ?' 

' It is not now, O householder, the proper time to 
pay a visit to the Blessed One; but early on the 
morrow you shall go and visit him.' 

Then Anatha Pi»dTika, pondering of the visit 
he was about to pay, lay down to sleep with 
his thoughts so bent upon the Buddha that thrice 
in the night he arose, thinking the daylight had 
appeared. 

3. And Anatha Pi#dfika the householder went up 
to the gate leading to the Sltavana, and celestial 
beings opened the gate. And as he emerged from 
the city, the light disappeared and a thick darkness 
arose, and fear and trembling and consternation 
sprang up within him, so that a longing came upon 
him to turn back again from that spot. But Stvaka 
the Yakkha, himself the while invisible, caused a 
sound to be heard, saying : 

' A hundred elephants, a hundred steeds, a hun- 
dred chariots with mules 8 , 

'A hundred thousand virgins with their jewelled 
earrings on, — 

1 ' Much more so with the reality ' is to be understood. Com- 
pare MahS-parinibbana Sutta VI, 63 (at the end). 

* On this rendering of Sammd-sambuddhaw, see Rh. D.'s 
'Hibbert Lectures,' pp. 145-147. 

* Assatari. Compare va££Aatari at Mahavagga V, 9, 1, 3. 
The word recurs below at VII, 2, 5. 



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1 82 XULLAVAGGA. VI, 4, 4. 

'These are not worth, O householder, the six- 
teenth portion of one single stride. 

'Go on, go on, O householder! Advance, and 
not retreat, shall profit thee.' 

Then the darkness disappeared before Anatha 
Tindika. the householder, and a bright light arose, 
and the fear and trembling and consternation that 
had sprung upon within him were appeased. 

[And a second and a third time the same thing 
happened, and the same words were heard, and with 
the same result] 

4. And Anatha Tindika. the householder arrived 
at the Sitavana ; and at that time the Blessed One, 
who had arisen at early dawn, was walking up and 
down (meditating) in the open air. And the Blessed 
One saw Anatha T'mdika. the householder when he 
was coming from afar ; and the Blessed One left the 
place where he had been walking up and down, and 
sat himself down on the seat put out for him. And 
when he was so seated, he addressed Anatha Findika 
the householder, and said : 

' Come hither, Sudatta !' 

Then Anatha Tindika, glad and happy at the 
thought that the Blessed One had addressed him by 
his name, went up to the place where the Blessed 
One was, and bowed down before him, falling at his 
feet, and said : 

' I trust my lord the Blessed One has slept in 
peace I ' 

'He ever sleeps in peace, the Arahat who is 
free \ 

1 Brfihmarto parinibbuto. To translate the first of these 
words by ' Brahman' would mislead English readers. It is con- 
stantly used in early Buddhist texts for Arahat On the use of 



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VI, 4. 5» 0N DWELLINGS AND FURNITURE. 1 83 

'Who is not touched by lusts, but calm and free 
from sin 1 , 

'Has broken all the bars (to freedom of the mind)*, 
has quenched the anguish in his heart, 

' Has fixed peace in his mind, and peaceful, sleeps 
in peace V 

5 *. Then the Blessed One discoursed to Anatha 
Pi#d?ika the householder in due order; that is to 
say, he spake to him of giving, of righteousness, of 
heaven, of the danger, the vanity, and the defilement 
of lusts, and of the advantages of renunciation. And 
when the Blessed One saw that Anatha Pi#dfika the 
householder had become prepared, softened, un- 
prejudiced, and upraised and believing in heart, then 
he proclaimed that which is the special doctrine of 
the Buddhas; that is to say, Suffering, its Origin, 
its Cessation, and the Path. And just as a clean 
cloth from which all stain has been washed away 
will readily take the dye, just even so did Anatha 

parinibbuto not in the sense of ' dead,' but of a living man in the 
sense of ' spiritually free,' compare Dhammapada, verse 89 ; Sutta 
Nipata II, 13, 1, la, III, 12, 35; and Maha-parinibbana Sutta 

IV, 3. 
1 Nirupadhi, i.e. free from Kama, Kilesa, and Kamma. 

* Sabba asattiyo kAetvi. Having cut or broken all the 
Ssatti's (from the root sa.ng, to hang), the things which hang on 
to and burden a man in his spiritual progress. Compare the figure 
of speech at Gataka I, 5 (asattam kunapam Maddetva). Buddha- 
ghosa says sabba asattiyo AAetvi ti . . . . hadaye darathaw 
£itte kilesa-daratham ^inetva. 

* Vineyya and appuya are no doubt gerunds. In a corre- 
sponding passage of the Anguttara Nikaya the Phayre MS. reads 
appeyya, which smoothes over a difficulty at the expense of the 
better reading. 

4 The following section is in identical terms with Mahavagga I, 
1, 5. 10, V, 1, 9, 10, VI, a6, 8, 9. 



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184 JTULLAVAGGA. VI, 4, 6. 

Pi«<jTika the householder obtain, even while sitting 
there, the pure and spotless Eye of the Truth ; (that 
is to say, the knowledge that) whatsoever has a 
beginning, in that is inherent also the necessity of 
dissolution. Thus did Anitha Yindika the house- 
holder see, and master, and understand, and pene- 
trate the Truth ; and he overcame uncertainty, and 
dispelled all doubts, and gained full knowledge, 
becoming dependent upon no one else for his 
knowledge of the doctrine of the Teacher. And 
he addressed the Blessed One, and said : 

'Most excellent, Lord (are the words of thy 
mouth), most excellent! Just as if a man were to 
set up that which is thrown down, or were to reveal 
that which is hidden away, or were to point out the 
right road to him who has gone astray, or were to 
bring a light into the darkness so that those who had 
eyes could see external forms — just even so, Lord, 
has the Truth been made known to me, in many a 
figure, by the Blessed One. And I, even I, betake 
myself, Lord, to the Blessed One as my refuge, to 
the Truth, and to the Order. May the Blessed One 
accept me as a disciple, as one who, from this day 
forth as long as life endures, has taken his refuge in 
him. And may the Blessed One consent to accept 
at my hand the to-morrow's meal for himself and for 
his Order of Bhikkhus.' 

Then the Blessed One, by silence, granted his 
consent. And when Anitha Pi»afika the house- 
holder perceived that his request had been granted, 
he rose from his seat, and bowed down before the 
Blessed One, and keeping him on his right hand as 
he passed him, he departed thence. 

6. Now the Se///fci of Ri^agaha heard that the 



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VI, 4,7- 0N DWELLINGS AND FURNITURE. 185 

Order of Bhikkhus which has the Buddha at its 
head had been invited by Anatha T'mdika. the 
householder for the morrow's meal. And the Se///« 
of Ra^agaha said to Anatha Tindika. the house- 
holder: 'They say, O householder, that you have 
invited the Bhikkhu-sawgha, with the Buddha at 
its head, for the morrow's meal, and you are but 
a stranger here. I will provide the means 1 , O 
householder, for you to provide the Order of 
Bhikkhus, which has the Buddha at its head, with 
food.' 

'It is not necessary, O householder ; I have 
means sufficient for the purpose.' 

[And the townsman of Rifagaha 8 , and Seniya 
Bimbisira the R&^a. of Magadha, made the same 
offer in the same words, and received the same 
reply] 

7. Then Anatha Findika. the householder, when 
the night was far spent, made ready in the house of 
the Se//& of Ra^agaha sweet food both hard and 
soft, and had the time announced to the Blessed 
One, saying, ' The time, Lord, has come ; and the 
meal is ready.' 

And the Blessed One, when he had dressed him- 
self in the early morning, went duly bowled and 

1 Veyy£yika»i formed from vyaya, expenditure. VeyyS- 
yikan ti vayakarawaw vu^ati (B.). 

* Ra^agahako negamo. This person has been already men- 
tioned, and there also in intimate connection with the Se/Mi of 
Ra^agaha, in the Mahavagga VIII, 1, a, 16. It is tolerably clear 
from the connection that this is no ordinary citizen, but one hold- 
ing a distinct and semi-official position. In this respect the word 
is an exact parallel to its neighbour the SeiiM. For instances of 
the word in its more general sense, see Ka££ayana (ed. Senart), 
p. a 1 9, and Di/A&v&msa. Ill, 3. 



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1 86 JTULLAVAGGA. VI, 4, 8. 

robed to the house of the Se/Mi of R4fagaha, and 
sat down there on the seat spread out for him, 
together with the Order of Bhikkhus. And Anatha 
Tindika. the householder offered to the Order of 
Bhikkhus which had the Buddha at its head the 
sweet food both hard and soft, waiting upon them 
with his own hand \ And when the Blessed One 
had finished his meal, and had cleansed his hands 
and his bowl, Anatha Vmdika. took his seat on one 
side ; and, so seated, he said to the Blessed One : 
' May the Blessed One consent to spend the rainy 
season of Was at Savatthi, together with the Order 
of Bhikkhus.' 

' The Tathagatas, O householder, take pleasure in 
solitude.' 

' I understand, O Blessed One ; I understand, O 
Happy One' (was the reply) 2 . 

Then the Blessed One, after he had instructed 
and aroused and incited and gladdened Anatha 
Pi«dfika the householder with religious discourse, 
arose from his seat, and departed thence. 

8. Now at that time Anatha Vmdika. the house- 
holder had many friends and large acquaintance, 
and his word was held of weight 8 . When he had 

1 Compare the note on Mahavagga I, 8, 4. 

* Anwataw bhagavS ann&tam sugata ti. The first word 
is the standing expression used when the Buddha or a Thera has 
signified a request, not in so many words, but in some phrase 
from which the request may be implied, and the person addressed 
desires to express that he has perceived the intended implication. 
Compare Dipavawsa XIV, 65, XV, 5. 

* AdeyyaviLJo ti tassa va&inam bahu^ana" minetabbam maw- 
wanti ti attho (B.). In Puggala III, 1 1, we have the phrase tassa 
va£anam adheyyaw gaMiati, which the commentary explains by 
hadaye adhatabbaai Mapitabbaw. 



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VI, 4, 9- 0N DWELLINGS AND FURNITURE. 1 87 

brought the business he had in hand at R&fagaha to 
its conclusion, he set out towards Savatthi ; and on 
the way he gave orders to people, saying, ' Build 
dwellings, my good men, and make rest-houses 
ready, and prepare gifts. A Buddha has appeared 
in the world, and that Blessed One has been invited 
by me, and by this road will he come.' And those 
people [did all even as they were commanded]. 

And when Anitha Pi»aTika the householder had 
arrived at Savatthi, he examined all the region 
round about it, saying 1 , ' Where now shall I fix the 
place for the Blessed One to stay in, not too far 
from the town and not too near, convenient for 
going and for coming, easily accessible for all who 
wish to visit him, by day not too crowded, by night 
not exposed to too much noise and alarm, protected 
from the wind a , hidden from men, well fitted for a 
retired life ?' 

9. And Anatha F'mdika. the householder saw that 
the garden of (7eta the Kumara had [all these 
advantages]. And when he saw that, he went to 
£eta the Kumara, and said to him, ' Sir, let me 
have your garden to make an Arama on it.' 

' It is not, Sir, for sale, even for (a sum so great 
that the pieces of money would be sufficient to 
cover it if they were) laid side by side.' 

' I take, Sir, the garden at the price.' 

' No, O householder, there was no bargain meant V 

1 The following speech is identical with that put into Bim- 
bisara's mouth on choosing the Ve/uvana, above Mahavagga I, 

22, l6, If. 

* Vi^anavStam, of which neither the reading nor the meaning 
is certain. See the various forms given from the commentaries 
in the notes on the text of the passage in the Mahavagga, loc. cit 

' Na gahito: literally, 'it is not taken/ 



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1 88 tfULLAVAGGA. VI, 4, 10. 

Then they asked the lords of justice whether a 
bargain of sale had been made or not And the 
lords decided thus: 'The A ram a is taken, Sir, 
at the price which you fixed.' 

And Anitha Y'mdika. the householder had gold 
brought down in carts, and covered the <9etavana 
with (pieces) laid side by side K 

10. Now the gold that he had brought down the 
first time did not suffice (after the rest of the 
garden was covered) to cover one small space close 
by the gateway. So Anitha Pi»dfika the house- 
holder told his servants to go back and fetch more 
gold, saying he would cover that piece also. 

Then thought <9eta the Kumara, ' This can be 
no ordinary matter 2 , for which this householder is 
ready to lavish so much gold !' And he said to 
Anitha Pmafika the householder, ' It is enough, O 
householder. You need not have that space covered. 
Let me have that space, and it shall be my gift.' 

Then Anitha Pi#dfika the householder thought 8 , 
' This Geta. the Kumira is a very distinguished and 
illustrious person. Great would be the efficacy of 
the adherence of so well known a man as he to this 
doctrine and discipline.' And he gave up that 



1 It is evident from the illustration of this story on a bas relief at 
the Bharhut Tope that these pieces of money were supposed to be 
square, not round. See Cunningham's 'The Stupa of Bharhut,' 
Plate No. LVII and pp. 84-86. 

1 Na orakawr bhavissati. Compare Mah&vagga I, 9, 1, and 
the commencement of our next chapter below. The idiom recurs 
in VII, 3, 3. 

8 The following phrase is identical with that put into the mouth 
of Ananda, at Mah&vagga VI, 36, 3, with respect to Rqgn the 
Malla. In the text here there is a slight misprint ; the full-stop 
after natamanusso should be struck out 



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VI, 5, I. ON DWELLINGS AND FURNITURE. 1 89 

space to Geta. the Kumara. And Geta. the Prince 
erected thereon a gateway, with a room over it. 

And Anatha Tindika. the householder built 1 
dwelling-rooms, and retiring-rooms, and store-rooms 
(over the gateways), and service halls, and halls 
with fire-places in them, and storehouses (outside 
the Vihira) 2 , and closets, and cloisters, and halls 
for exercise, and wells, and sheds for the well 3 , and 
bath-rooms, and halls attached to the bath-rooms, 
and ponds, and open-roofed sheds *. 



1. Now when the Blessed One had stayed at 
Ra^agaha as long as he thought fit, he set out 
towards Vesalt ; and journeying straight on he in 
due course arrived there. And there at Vesall the 
Blessed One stayed in the peak-roofed hall at the 
Mahivana. 

Now at that time the people were zealously en- 
gaged in putting up new buildings (for the use of 
the Order) 8 , and as zealously provided with the 

1 With the following list should be compared the list of things 
that laymen build for themselves given in Mahavagga III, 5, 7. 

8 Kappiya-ku/iyo. See Mahavagga VI, 33. 

* Udapana-salayo. See above, V, 16, 2. 

4 Ma«<fape. See Mahavagga VIII, 7, 1, and above, .ffulla- 
vagga VI, 3, 7. 

8 Navakammaw karonti. This idiom always connotes 

.buildings for the use of the Order. See the passages quoted in 

our note on Aullavagga I, 18, 1. If the buildings were for the 

Bhikkhus, then a Bhikkhu, if for the Bhikkhunfs, then a Bhikkhunt, 

was appointed to superintend the works in order to ensure the 



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IQO *ULLAVAGGA. VI, 5, a. 

requisite clothes, and food, and lodging, and medi- 
cine for the sick, all such Bhikkhus as superintended 
their work. 

Now a certain poor tailor thought, 'This can be 
no every-day matter on which the people are so 
zealously engaged. Let me too set to work on a 
new building.' And that poor tailor himself kneaded 
the clay, and laid the bricks, and raised the walls. 
But by his want of experience the laying was out 
of line and the wall fell down. And a second and 
a third time he [repeated his work, and with the 
same result]. 

2. Then that poor tailor murmured, was annoyed, 
and became indignant, saying, ' These Sakyaputtiya 
Samawas exhort and teach those men who provide 
them with the requisite clothes, food, lodging, and 
medicine, and superintend their buildings for them. 
But I am poor, and no one exhorts or teaches me, 
or helps me in my building !' 

The Bhikkhus heard him so murmuring, and told 
the matter to the Blessed One. Then the Blessed 
One on that occasion and in that connection made 
a religious discourse, and gave command to the 
Bhikkhus, saying, ' I permit you, O Bhikkhus, to 
give new buildings in course of erection (for the use 
of the Order) in charge (to a Bhikkhu who shall 
superintend * the work). And the Bhikkhu who 

buildings being in accordance with the rules of the Order as to 
size, form, and object of the various apartments. 

The buildings referred to in this section are no doubt intended 
to be the same as those referred to in Aullavagga V, 13, 3. 

1 Navakammam datum. For the works which ought not to 
be included, and for those which might be lawfully included in 
this term, see below, ATullavagga VI, 1 7. Hence the overseer is 
called navakammika. 



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VI, 6, i. ON DWELLINGS AND FURNITURE. 191 

is overseer shall zealously exert himself to the end 
that the work on the Vihara may be brought to a 
rapid conclusion, and shall afterwards cause repairs 
to be executed wherever the buildings have become 
broken or worn out l . 

3. 'And thus, O Bhikkhus, is the work to be 
given in charge. In the first place a Bhikkhu is to 
be asked (whether he will undertake the duty). 
When he has been asked, some able and discreet 
Bhikkhu is to lay the matter before the Samgha, 
saying, " Let the venerable Sawgha hear me. If 
the time seems meet to the Sawgha, let the Sawgha 
give in charge to such and such a Bhikkhu the 
Vihara of such and such a householder as a 
navakammaw. This is the motion (»atti). Let 
the venerable Sawgha hear me. The Sawgha 
hereby gives in charge .... (&c, as before). Who- 
soever of the venerable ones approves thereof, 
let him keep silence ; whosoever approves not 
thereof, let him speak. The Sawgha has given in 
charge .... (&c, as before). Therefore is it silent 
Thus do I understand."' 



6 8 . 
i. Now when the Blessed One had stayed as 
long as he thought fit at Vesalt he set out towards 
Savatthi. 

1 Khafltfan ti bhinnokiso: phullan ti phalitokaso (B.). The 
expression recurs below at VI, 17, 1. 

1 The incident related in the following chapter is identical with 
the 37th Gataka (including the Introductory Story there given) 
already translated by Rh. D. in the 'Buddhist Birth Stories,' 
pp. 310-3M- 



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I92 J5TULLAVAGGA. VI, 6, 3. 

Now at that time the pupils of the .Oabbaggiya 
Bhikkhus went on in front of the Bhikkhu-sawgha 
which had the Buddha at its head, and occupied the 
rooms, and occupied the sleeping-places, saying, 
'This will do for our superiors (upa.gg^ayas), this 
for our teachers (iiariyas), this for ourselves.' And 
the venerable Siriputta who had followed after the 
Bhikkhu-samgha which had the Buddha at its head, 
since all the rooms and all the sleeping-places had 
been occupied, found no place to sleep in, and took 
his seat at the foot of a certain tree. 

Now the Blessed One, at early dawn, after he 
had risen, coughed. The venerable Siriputta 
coughed also. 

' Who is this ?' (said the Blessed One.) 

' It is I, Lord ; Siriputta.' 

' How do you come to be sitting here, Siriputta?' 

Then the venerable Siriputta told the matter 
to the Blessed One. 

2. Then the Blessed One on that occasion and in 
that connection convened a meeting of the Bhikkhu- 
sawgha, and asked, ' Is it true, as I have been told, 
O Bhikkhus, that the pupils of the AT^abbaggiya 
Bhikkhus have (acted in this way) ?' 

' It is true, Lord.' 

Then the Blessed One rebuked them, saying (as 
usual, see ^Tullavagga I, i, 2, 3), and he said to the 
Bhikkhus, 'Who is it, O Bhikkhus, who is worthy of 
the best seat, and the best water, and the best food?' 

Some of the Bhikkhus said, ' One who belonged 
to a Kshatriya family before he entered the Order.' 
Others of the Bhikkhus said, ' One who belonged to 
a Brahman family before he entered the Order.' 
Others again said, ' One who belonged to a Gaha- 



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VI, 6,3. ON DWELLINGS AND FURNITURE. I93 

pati 1 family before he entered the Order — one 
versed in the Suttas — one versed in the Rules of 
the Order — an expounder of the Dhamma 2 — one 
who has attained the first, second, third, fourth 
C7/4ana — one who has entered the first, second, third 
Path — an Arahat — one who has the threefold 
wisdom 8 — one who has the six powers *.' 

3. Then the Blessed One addressed the Bhikkhus, 
and said, ' Long ago, O Bhikkhus, there was a great 
banyan tree on the lower slopes of the Himalaya 
range; and near it there dwelt three friends — a 
partridge, a monkey, and an elephant. And they 
dwelt together without mutual reverence, confidence, 
and courtesy 6 . Then, O Bhikkhus, it occurred to 
those friends, " Come now, let us find out which of 
us is the elder by birth ; and let us agree to honour 
and reverence and esteem and support him, and 
by his counsels let us abide." So, Bhikkhus, the 
partridge and the monkey asked the elephant, 
' " How far back can you, friend, remember ?" 
' " Friends ! when I was little I used to walk over 

1 On this mention of gahapati as the name of a caste or rank, 
compare the passage in the Tevigga. Sutta I, 47 = Samannaphala 
Sutta, p. 133 (translated by Rh. D. in 'Buddhist Suttas from the 
Pili,' S. B. E. vol. xi, p. 187), where the word is opposed to 
annatarasmim kule pziiigito. 

J Dhamma is here possibly already used in the special sense 
to which the term Abhidhamma was afterwards applied. So 
Puwwa, who in the Ahguttara Nikaya I, 14, is called the chief of 
the expounders of the Dhamma (compare Dipavawsa IV, 4), says 
of himself in the Apadana abhidhammanayanno 'ham. 

* Teviggo. See Rh. D.'s remarks in 'Buddhist Suttas,' pp. 
161, 162. 

* This list contains one or two terms which are omitted in the 
Crataka introduction. 

* These terms recur at Mahdvagga I, 25, 6. 

[20] O 



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194 rULLAVAGGA. VI, 6, 3. 

this banyan tree, keeping it between my thighs, and 
its topmost twig brushed against my stomach. So 
far back, friends, can I" remember." 

' Then, O Bhikkhus, the partridge and the elephant 
asked the monkey [the same question], 

' " Friends ! when I was little, sitting once on the 
ground, I gnawed at the then topmost twig of this 
banyan. So far back can I remember." 

' Then, O Bhikkhus, the monkey and the elephant 
asked the partridge [the same question], 

' " Friends ! there was formerly a lofty banyan 
tree in yonder open space. One day after eating 
one of its fruits, I voided the seed here ; and from 
that this banyan tree grew up. So I must be older 
than either of you." 

1 Thereupon, O Bhikkhus, the elephant and the 
monkey said to the partridge, " You, friend, are the 
oldest of us all. Henceforth we will honour and 
reverence and esteem and support you, and by 
your counsels will we abide." 

'Thenceforth, O Bhikkhus, the partridge kept the 
monkey and the elephant in obedience to the Five 
Precepts, and observed them also himself. And 
dwelling together in mutual reverence, confidence, 
and courtesy, at the dissolution of the body after 
death they were reborn unto a happy state in heaven. 
And this (perfect life of theirs) became known as 
11 the good life of the partridge V 

'Tis those who reverence the old 
That are the men who Dhamma know, 



1 Tittiriyam brahmaiariyam. It is quite possible that a 
covert sarcasm is here intended to be understood against the 
Taittirfya Brahmans. 



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VI, 6,5- ON DWELLINGS AND FURNITURE. 1 95 

Worthy of praise while in this life 
And happy in the life to come. 

4. ' So that, O Bhikkhus, since even animals can 
live together in mutual reverence, confidence, and 
courtesy, so much more, O Bhikkhus, should you so 
let your light shine forth 1 that you, who have left 
the world to follow so well taught a doctrine and 
discipline, may be seen to dwell in like manner 
together.' And when he had delivered a religious 
discourse (as in I, i, 3), he said to the Bhikkhus : 

' I enjoin upon you, O Bhikkhus, that paying of 
reverence, rising up in reverence, salutation, proper 
respect, and apportionment of the best seat and 
water and food, shall be according to seniority. 
But property belonging to the Sawgha shall not be 
exclusively appropriated according to seniority 2 . 
Whosoever does so, shall be guilty of a dukka/a. 

5. ' These ten, O Bhikkhus, are not to be saluted 
— a Bhikkhu afterwards admitted unto the higher 
grade of the Order by one previously admitted — a 
person not admitted — a senior Bhikkhu when he 
belongs to a different community, and does not 
speak according to the Dhamma — a woman 3 — a 
eunuch * — a Bhikkhu who has been placed under 
probation* — one who, having been so placed, is 

1 Ta« sobhetha yaw .... On this idiom compare Mahl- 
vagga X, a, ao. 

* Compare chapter 7 and also chapter 12. It would seem from 
these passages that the prohibition to reserve exclusively according 
to seniority the use of property belonging to the whole Sawgha 
was held to imply that the temporary use of it was to go accord- 
ing to seniority. Compare X, 18. 

* See Aullavagga X, 3. 

4 Compare Mahavagga I, 61, 2. 

* See Aullavagga II, 1, 2. 

O 2 



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1 96 JTULLAVAGGA. VI, 7, I. 

liable to be thrown back to the beginning of his 
probationary term 1 — one who is liable to have a 
penance (Manatta) imposed upon him — one who is 
undergoing a penance — one who, so undergoing a 
penance, is fit to be rehabilitated. 

'And these three, O Bhikkhus, ought to be 
saluted — one previously admitted into the higher 
grade of the Order by one afterwards admitted — 
the senior in a different community when he speaks 
according to the Dhamma — and, O Bhikkhus, 
throughout the worlds of men and gods, of Maras 
and of Brahmas, by all creatures Samawas and 
Brahmans, gods and men, the Arahat Samma- 
sambuddha.' 



7. 

1. Now at that time people provided arbours 
(mawdapas), and couches, and room for the use 
of the Sawgha. And the pupils of the Kk&h- 
baggiya Bhikkhus, saying, ' It has been laid down 
by the Blessed One that that which pertains (wholly) 
to the Sawsgha shall be used according to seniority, 
but not that which is given only for the temporary 
use of the Sawgha,' went on in front of the Sazwgha 
and occupied the ma»d?apas, and occupied the 
couches, and occupied the room, saying, ' This shall 
be for our superiors, and this for our teachers, and 
this for ourselves.' 

And Sariputta (&c, as in last chapter, §§ i, 2, 
down to) Then the Blessed One rebuked them, 
&c, and said to the Bhikkhus, ' Even that which 
has been set aside only for the temporary use of 

* See A'ullavagga III, 14. 

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VI,9»i. 0N DWELLINGS AND FURNITURE. I97 

the Sawgha is not, O Bhikkhus, to be reserved for 
exclusive use according to seniority.' 



8. 

1. Now at that time people arranged in the 
eating-rooms, or in the interior courtyards of their 
houses, lofty and large couches, such as [here follows 
the list of things forbidden in Mahavagga V, 10, 4]. 
The Bhikkhus, fearing to offend, would not sit down 
upon them. 

They told this thing to the Blessed One. 

' I allow you, O Bhikkhus, to sit down on seats 
arranged by laymen — excepting three, (that is to 
say) large cushions, divans, mattresses ' — but not to 
lie down upon them.' 

Now at that time people put in the eating- 
rooms, or in the courtyards, stuffed couches and 
stuffed chairs. The Bhikkhus, fearing to offend, 
would not sit down on them. 

They told this matter to the Blessed One. 

' I allow you, O Bhikkhus, to sit down on any 
[such] things arranged by laymen, but not to lie 
down upon them V 



9. 
1. Now the Blessed One, proceeding on his 
journey, arrived in due course at Savatthi; and there, 

1 These are Nos. 1, 2, and 7 in the list just referred to, and 
may be kept if treated in the way laid down in VI, 14, 2 below. 

1 This rule has already occurred in identical terms at Maha- 
vagga V, 11. Probably both here and there the word such, which 
we have here added in brackets, is to be understood. 



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I98 JTULLAVAGGA. VI, 9, 2. 

at Savatthi, the Blessed One stayed in the Cetavana, 
the park of Anatha Tinclika.. Then Anatha Vindika. 
the householder [invited the Blessed One for the 
morrow's meal, and when the meal was over, he 
said to the Blessed One *]■: 

'What, Lord, shall I do with regard to the 
Cetavana ?' 

' You may dedicate it, O householder, to the use 
of the Sawzgha of the four directions 2 either now 
here present, or hereafter to arrive.' 

' Even so, Lord* said Anatha Pi«^ika the house- 
holder in assent to the Blessed One, and he did so. 

2. Then the Blessed One gave thanks to Anatha 
Vmdika. the householder in these verses. [Here 
follow the same verses as were used above in VI, 
1, 5 on the presentation of the (Jetavana 8 .] 



10. 

1. Now at that time it had been settled that 
a certain high official at court, a follower of the 
A^ivakas, should provide the day's meal for the 
Sa»zgha. And the venerable Upananda the Sakyan, 
coming late, but before the meal was over, made 
the Bhikkhu next (junior to him in seniority 4 ) get 

1 The usual terms are here followed throughout : see, for in- 
stance, above, VI, 4, 6, 7. 

* That is ' of all the world.' See our note above on Maha- 
vagga VIII, 27, 5, where the phrase has already occurred. 

* The verses are quoted in the account of Anatha Pwafika's gift 
given in the G&taka commentary (FausbSll I, 93 ; Rh. D.'s ' Bud- 
dhist Birth Stories,' I, 131). 

4 Anantarika»j; perhaps 'the Bhikkhu (who happened to be) 



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VI, 10, a. ON DWELLINGS AND FURNITURE. . 1 99 

up out of his seat ; and the dining-hall was thrown 
into confusion. 

Then that minister became indignant, murmured, 
and was annoyed : ' How can the Sakyaputtiya Sa- 
maras behave so ! Is it not then lawful for any 
one, unless he have been seated, to eat as much 
as he requires?' 

And the Bhikkhus heard him murmuring, &c. 
And they told the matter to the Blessed One. 

' Is it true as they say, &c. ? ' 

' It is true, Lord.' 

Then the Blessed One rebuked him, &c, and he 
said to the Bhikkhus, ' A Bhikkhu is not, O Bhik- 
khus, to be made to get up out of his seat before 
the meal is over. Whosoever does so, shall be 
guilty of a dukka/a. And if any one causes 
another to get up, and be then invited to partake 
of the meal, he shall be ordered to go and fetch 
water. If he shall thus receive the place, it is 
well ; if not, the other one shall first complete his 
swallowing of the rice, and shall then give up the 
place to his senior. But in no case, O Bhikkhus, 
do I say that a place properly belonging to a senior 
Bhikkhu is to be taken (by a junior). Whosoever 
does so, shall be guilty of a dukka/a 1 .' 

2. Now at that time the .AT^abbaggiya Bhikkhus 
made sick Bhikkhus get up (from their seats). The 
sick men said, ' We cannot, Sirs, get up ; for we 
are sick.' 

' We insist upon your getting up,' said they ; and 

next (to him).' The text reads anantarikam, which is a mis- 
print. Compare Mahavagga IX, 4, 8, and A'ullavagga VII, 3, 9, 
VIII, 4, 1. 
1 Compare the rule for Bhikkhunis at X, 18. . 



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200 . 2TULLAVAGGA. VI, 1 1, I. 

seizing them, and pulling them up, they let them 
go as they were standing. The sick men, as soon 
as they were let go, fell down. 

They told this matter to the Blessed One. 

' A sick man, O Bhikkhus, is not to be made to 
get up. Whosoever does so, shall be guilty of a 
dukka/a.' 

Now at that time the -Oabbaggiya Bhikkhus, 
saying, 'We are sick, and cannot be turned out,' 
took possession of the best sleeping-places. 

They told this matter to the Blessed One. 

' I . enjoin, O Bhikkhus, that you allot to sick 
Bhikkhus suitable sleeping-places.' 

Now at that time the ^T^abbaggiya Bhikkhus, 
on pretext of some slight indisposition 1 , took ex- 
clusive possession of sleeping-places. 

They told this matter to the Blessed One. 

' You are not, O Bhikkhus, to do so. Whosoever 
does so, shall be guilty of a dukka/a.' 



II 2 . 

i. Now at that time the Sattarasa-vaggiya Bhik- 
khus made ready a certain large Vihara in the 
neighbourhood 3 , with the intention of dwelling in 
it. And when the A"Aabbaggiya Bhikkhus saw 
what they were doing, they said : ' These vener- 
able ones, the Sattarasa-vaggiya Bhikkhus, are 

1 Lesakappcni ti appakena sfsabadhadimattena (B.). 

* The story in this section forms also the introductory story to 
the 17th Paiittiya. 

8 Pa££antima»»; perhaps 'in the border-country.' Compare 
pa£Aanta/» nagaraw, a frontier fort at Dhammapada, p. 56. 



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VI, II, I. ON DWELLINGS AND FURNITURE. 201 

getting a Vihara ready; come, let us turn them 
out.' Some of them said : ' Let us stay here 1 
whilst they get it ready, and turn them out when 
it is prepared.' So the A^abbaggiya Bhikkhus 
said to the Sattarasa-vaggiyas : ' Depart, Sirs ; the 
Vihara has fallen unto us.' 

'Why did you not, Sirs, say so sooner; and we 
would have got some other one ready ?' 

'Is not, then, this Vihara the common property 
of the Sawgha ?' 

' Yes, Sirs ; that is so.' 

'Then depart, Sirs; for the Vihara has fallen 
unto us.' 

' It is large, Sirs, this Vihara. You can dwell in 
it, and we as well.' 

Then, full of anger and displeasure, they re- 
peated, ' Depart, Sirs; this Vihara has fallen unto 
us.' And seizing them by the throat, they cast them 
out. And the others, being ejected, wept. 

The Bhikkhus asked, 'Why, Sirs, do you weep?' 

Then they told them ; and the moderate Bhik- 
khus murmured, &c, and told the matter to the 
Blessed One. 

' Is it true, as they say, &c. ?' 

' It is true, Lord.' 

Then he rebuked them ; and when he had 
delivered a religious discourse, he said to the 
Bhikkhus : 

'A Bhikkhu is not, O Bhikkhus, to be cast out 
of a Vihara, the common property of the Sawgha, 
in anger and vexation. Whosoever does so, shall 



1 Agametha yava. Compare the introductory story to the 
46th Paiittiya. 



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202 tfULLAVAGGA. VI, 1 1, 3. 

be dealt with according to the law *. I allow you, 
O Bhikkhus, to allot the lodging-places (common to 
the Samgha to those who have need of them) 2 .' 

2. Now the Bhikkhus thought, ' How then shall 
the lodging-places be allotted ?' 

They told this matter to the Blessed One. 

' I allow you, O Bhikkhus, to appoint as an ap- 
portioner of lodging-places a Bhikkhu possessed of 
these five qualifications — one who does not walk in 
partiality, who does not walk in malice, who does 
not walk in stupidity, who does not walk in fear (and 
so on, as in Khandhaka IV, chapter 10, down to the 
end of the Kammava^a).' 

3. Now the apportioners of lodging-places thought, 
' How then ought the lodging-places to be appor- 
tioned ?' 

They told this matter to the Blessed One. 

' I allow you, O Bhikkhus, in the first place to 
count the Bhikkhus, then to count the sleeping- 
places, then to apportion accordingly 3 .' 

When apportioning according to the number of 
sleeping-places, some remained unallotted 4 . 

, * That is, under the 17 th PaJittiya. 

* Senasanam gahetum. Buddhaghosa has nothing on this 
idiom, but its meaning is sufficiently clear from the connection. 

' Seyyaggena gahetum. Buddhaghosa has no special expla- 
nation of agga here, but in his explanation of the passage says 
that this is to be so done that each Bhikkhu receives room for a 
couch (man£a//Mna»»). Agga must here be agra, to which 
Bfihtlingk-Roth give, from Indian lexicographers, the subsidiary 
meaning of ' multitude.' So below in XH, 1, 1, the Vaggiputtakas 
divide money amongst themselves bhikkhu-aggena, 'according 
to the number of the Bhikkhus.' Seyya is here used in the same 
meaning as that in which senlsana is used throughout the rest 
of this chapter and the next. See VIII, 1, 4. 

* Ussadiyimsu. Buddhaghosa says ussarayiwsu ti man- 



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VI, ii, 3. ON DWELLINGS AND FURNITURE. 203 

1 1 allow you, O Bhikkhus, to apportion according 
to the number of apartments (Viharas).' 

When so apportioning, some apartments(Viharas) 
remained unallotted. 

' I allow you, O Bhikkhus, to apportion according 
to the number of buildings (Parivewas) 1 .' 

When so apportioning, some buildings (Parive»as) 
remained unallotted. 

' I allow you, O Bhikkhus, to give a supplementary 
share to each Bhikkhu 2 .' 

When more than one share had been allotted, 
another Bhikkhu arrived. 

' In that case a share need not be allotted to him, 
if the Bhikkhus do not wish to do so *.' 

Now at that time they allotted sleeping-places 
to a Bhikkhu who was then staying outside 'the 
boundary (of the district in which the building 
was situate) 4 . 

They told this matter to the Blessed One. 

faU/A&n&ni atirek&ni ahesum. His reading is in a copy of his work 
in Burmese characters, and is supported, both here and in P&Kttiya 
XL VI, 2, where the word recurs, by a Burmese copy of the text 
The Sinhalese reading is the correct one, but one may compare the 
idiom janaw, or parisam, ussareti at Mahavagga VIII, i, 22, 
and Gataka I, 419, 434. So at IX, 1, 3, 4, the reading ussareti 
given in the text is corrected at p. 363 into ussadeti, in accord- 
ance with the reading of the Sinhalese MS. 

1 The relation of the Vihara to the Parivewa is here curious. 
In the later language parivewa means 'cells.' Here it evidently 
includes several viharas. 

8 Anubhagan ti puna aparaw pi bhagaw datum (B.). 

" Na akama is used here in a sense precisely parallel to that in 
which it occurs at Mahavagga VII, 24, 4. See the passages 
quoted in our note there. 

4 Nissfme Mitassa. See on this phrase above, Mahavagga 

VII, 1, 5, and VIII, 2, 3. It is repeated below, VI, 17, 2. 



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204 tfULLAVAGGA. VI, 1 1, 4. 

' You are not, O Bhikkhus, to [do so]. Whoso- 
ever does so, shall be guilty of a dukka/a.' 

Now at that time the Bhikkhus, after the lodging- 
places had been allotted, kept them to the exclusion 
of others for all time. 

They told this matter to the Blessed One. 

' You are not, O Bhikkhus, to do so. Whosoever 
does so, shall be guilty of a dukka/a. I allow you 
to retain them for the three months of the rainy, 
but not for the dry season.' 

4. Then the Bhikkhus thought, ' What is (it now 
that constitutes) an allotment of lodging-places ?' 

They told this matter to the Blessed One. 

'There are these three allotments of lodging- 
places, O Bhikkhus, — the earlier, the later, and 
the intermediate. The earlier is to be held on 
the day after the full moon of AsaMa (June — 
July); the later, a month after that full moon 1 ; 
the intermediate (literally that which involves a 
giving up during the intervening time) is held on 
the day after the Pavara#a ceremony, with refer- 
ence to the rainy season of the following year. 
These, O Bhikkhus, are the three allotments of 
lodging-places.' 

Here ends the Second Portion for Recitation. 



12. 

1. Now the venerable Upananda the Sakyan, 
after having had a lodging allotted to him in 

1 These first two dates are the days on which the earlier and the 
later Vassa begins. See Mahavagga III, 2. 



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VI, is, i. ON DWELLINGS AND FURNITURE. 205 

Savatthi, went to a certain country-place where a 
community of the Sawgha resided, and there also 
had a lodging allotted to him. Then the Bhikkhus 
there thought, ' Now this brother, Upananda the 
Sakyan, is a maker of strife, quarrelsome, a maker 
of disputes, given to idle talk, a raiser of legal 
questions in the Sawzgha l . If he should spend 
the rainy season here, then shall we all dwell in 
discomfort. Come, let us question him.' And they 
asked the venerable Upananda the Sakyan : 

' Have not you, friend Upananda, had a lodging 
allotted to you in Savatthi ?' 

' That is so, Sirs.' 

'What then do you, friend Upananda, being 
one, yet take exclusive possession of two (lodging- 
places)?' 

' Well, I do now, Sirs, set (the lodging) here free, 
and take the one there.' 

Those Bhikkhus who were moderate murmured, 
&c, and they told the matter to the Blessed One. 

Then the Blessed One, on that occasion and in 
that connection, convened a meeting of the Bhikkhu- 
sawgha, and asked the venerable Upananda the 
Sakyan : 

' Is it true, Upananda, that you, being one, have 
taken possession of two places ?' 

' It is true, Lord.' 

Then the Blessed One rebuked him, saying, ' How 
can you, O foolish one, do such a thing ? What you 
took there, O foolish one, has been lost here ; what 
you took here, has been lost there*. Thus, O 

1 These are the acts which render a Bhikkhu liable to the 
Ta^aniya Kamma. See A"ullavagga I, i, i. 

1 That is, by taking a lodging here you ipso facto renounced 



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206 JCULLAVAGGA. VI, 13, t. 

foolish one, you are deprived of both.' And when 
he had delivered a religious discourse, he said to the 
Bhikkhus : 

* One man is not, O Bhikkhus, to take two 
lodging-places. Whosoever does so, shall be guilty 
of a dukka/a.' 



13. 

1. Now at that lime the Blessed One spake in 
many a figure concerning the Vinaya, speaking in 
praise of the Vinaya, in praise of learning the 
Vinaya, and again and again in reference thereto 
in praise of the venerable Upali. Then said the 
Bhikkhus : ' The Blessed One speaks (&c, down to) 
Upali. Come, let us learn the Vinaya under the 
venerable Upali.' And many Bhikkhus, senior and 
junior, and of medium standing, went to learn the 
Vinaya under the venerable Upali. The venerable 
Upali taught them standing, out of reverence for the 
senior Bhikkhus, and the senior Bhikkhus heard him 
standing, out of reverence for the law ; and thereby 
both the senior Bhikkhus grew weary, and the 
venerable Upali. 

They told this matter to the Blessed One. 

' I allow, O Bhikkhus, a junior Bhikkhu, when 
giving instruction, to sit on a seat of equal height, 
or higher, out of reverence for the law; and a senior 
Bhikkhu, when receiving instruction, to sit on a seat 



your right to a lodging there, and by taking one there you ipso 
facto renounced your right to get one here. 



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VI, 13, 2. ON DWELLINGS AND FURNITURE. 207 

of equal height, or lower, out of reverence for the 
law 1 .' 

2. Now at that time a number of Bhikkhus stood 
around Upali, waiting for seats 2 ; and they grew 
weary. 

They told this matter to the Blessed One. 

' I allow you, O Bhikkhus, to sit down together 
with brethren entitled to sit on seats of equal 
height.' 

Then the Bhikkhus thought, ' How many of us 
are entitled to sit on seats of equal height ?' 

They told this matter to the Blessed One. 

' I allow you, O Bhikkhus, to sit on the same seat 
with those who are within three years of one another 
in seniority.' 

Now at that time a number of Bhikkhus, entitled 
to sit on the same seat, sat down on a couch, and 
broke the couch down ; or sat down on a chair, and 
broke the chair down. 

' I allow, O Bhikkhus, the use of a couch, or a 
chair, for three persons.' 

Even when three sat on the couch, or chair, it 
broke. 

' I allow, O Bhikkhus, two to sit on a couch or a 
chair.' 

Now at that time Bhikkhus who were not entitled 
to seats of equal height, were afraid they would 
offend if they sat together on a long seat. 

They told this matter to the Blessed One. 

1 Compare the fifteen rules of a similar character, Sekhiyas 57- 
72, and especially No. 69. 

' Onlookers apparently, not strictly learners. On the force of 
pa/imaneti, cbmpare the Bhikkhunl-vibhahga, Paragika I, 1, and 
Gataka II, 423. 



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208 ri/'LLAVAGGA. VI, 14, 1. 

* I allow you, O Bhikkhus, to sit together on a 
long seat with others not entitled to sit on seats of 
equal height, unless they are women, or eunuchs, or 
hermaphrodites.' 

Then the Bhikkhus thought, 'What is the limit 
of length which is included under the term "long 
seat?'" 

' I allow the term " long seat " to be used, O 
Bhikkhus, of any seat long enough to accommo- 
date three persons.' 



14- 

1. Now at that time Visakha the mother of 
Migara was anxious to have a storeyed building 
(pasada), with a verandah (alinda) to it, supported 
on pillars with capitals of elephant heads \ built for 
the use of the Sawgha. Then the Bhikkhus thought, 
' Of things which appertain to a storeyed building, 
which has been permitted by the Blessed One, and 
which not 2 ?' 

They told this matter to the Blessed One. 

1 Hatthi-nakhakam, 'supported on the frontal globes 
(kumbhe) of elephants,' says Buddhaghosa. 

2 On the meaning of paribhoga here compare VI, 18, 1. 
The doubt here expressed is curious, as a storeyed building 
(pisida) is one of the five kinds of abodes (lenani) specially 
sanctioned by Mahavagga I, 30, 4, and ^Tullavagga VI, 1, 2 ; and 
a verandah (alinda) has been also authorised by .ffullavagga VI, 
3, 5. No doubt the special point here is as to the carved pillars : 
but, even so, that this rule should be thus separated from the other 
rules as to buildings, in the commencement of this book (VI, 1-4), 
is a proof of the unsystematic way in which the Khandhakas have 
been put together. Even the final redaction which we have now 
before us contains much similar evidence of the gradual growth of 
these rules. See note 3 on the next paragraph. 



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VI, IS, i. ON DWELLINGS AND FURNITURE. 20g 

'I allow, O Bhikkhus, the use of all appurtenances 
to a storeyed building.' 

Now at that time the grandmother of Pasenadi of 
Kosala had died, and many unauthorised things had 
come into the hands of the Sa/«gha, such as couches, 
divans (&c, as in chapter 8 above, and Mahavagga 

V, 10,4). 

They told this matter to the Blessed One. 

' I allow you, O Bhikkhus, to use the stuffed 
couches (asandi) after having broken off the legs 1 , 
and the divans (pallanka) after having removed 
the hair, and to comb out the cotton of the mat- 
tresses and make pillows of it 2 , and to use all die 
rest as floor covering V 



15. 

1. Now at that time the Bhikkhus who dwelt in a 
certain country residence, not far from Savatthi, were 
worried by having constantly to provide sleeping 
accommodation for travelling Bhikkhus who came 
in (from country-places). And those Bhikkhus 

1 Compare the 87th Pa&ttiya. 

1 This rule has already been given in VI, 2, 6. 

" It is distinctly laid down without any reservation in Mahivagga 
V, 10, 5 (in the paragraph erroneously numbered V, 10, 4 in 
vol. ii, p. 28, of the present work), that the use of any of these 
things is a dukka/a offence. That this relaxation of that rule 
should be inserted only here, looks very much like an after-thought, 
even though the former passage merely refers to the use of these 
things as seats. This is more especially noteworthy from the fact 
mentioned in the last note. 

The rules as to new rugs or mats to be used for sitting upon, are 
contained in the nth to the 15th Nissaggiya Pavtitiiyas. 
[20] P 



f 



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2IO tfULLAVAGGA. VI, 15, a. 

thought: '[This being so,] let us hand over all 
the sleeping accommodation which is the property 
of the Saw/gha to one (of us), and let us use it as 
belonging to him.' And they [did so *]. 

Then the incoming Bhikkhus said to them : ' Pre- 
pare, Sirs, sleeping accommodation for us.' 

* There are no beds, Sirs, belonging to the Sawgha. 
We have given them all away to one of us.' 

1 What, Sirs ? Have you then made away with 
property belonging to the Sawgha ?' 

' That is so, Sirs.' 

The moderate Bhikkhus murmured, &c, and told 
this matter to the Blessed One. 

' Is it true, O Bhikkhus, as they say, that Bhik- 
khus make away with Sawgha property?' 

' It is true, Lord.' 

2. Then the Blessed One rebuked them, &c, and 
said to the Bhikkhus : ' These five things, O Bhik- 
khus, are untransferable ; and are not to be dis- 
posed of either by the Sawgha, or by a company of 
two or three Bhikkhus (a Ga«a), or by a single in- 
dividual. And what are the five ? A park (Arama), 
or the site for a park — this is the first untransferable 
thing, that cannot be disposed of by the Sawgha, or 
by a Gawa, or by an individual. If it be disposed of, 
such disposal is void ; and whosoever has disposed 
of it, is guilty of a thulla^^aya. A Vihara, or the 
site for a Vihara — this is the second, &c. (as before). 
A bed, or a chair, or a bolster, or a pillow — this is the 
third, &c. A brass vessel, or a brass jar, or a brass 
pot, or a brass vase, or a razor, or an axe, or a 

1 This is a direct infringement of the 82nd PS^ittiya, which for- 
bids property dedicated to the Sawgha being diverted to the use 
of any individual. 



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VI, l6, I. ON DWELLINGS AND FURNITURE. 21 r 

hatchet, or a hoe, or a spade — this is the fourth, &c. 
Creepers, or bamboos, or musja, or babba^a grass, 
or common grass, or clay, or things made of wood, 
or crockery — this is the fifth, &c. (as before, down 
to) thulla^aya.' 



16. 

i. Now when the Blessed One had dwelt at 
Savatthi as long as he thought fit, he went on on 
his journey towards the Ki/a Hill with a great 
multitude of Bhikkhus — to wit, with about five hun- 
dred Bhikkhus, besides Sariputta and Moggallana. 

And the Bhikkhus who were followers of Assafi 
and Punabbasu x hearing the news, said one to 
another, ' Come, Sirs ; let us divide all the sleeping 
accommodation belonging to the Sawgha. Sariputta 
and Moggallana are men of sinful desires, and are 
under the influence of sinful desires. We will not 
provide sleeping-places for them.' And they did so. 

Now the Blessed One, proceeding on his journey, 
arrived at the Ki/a Hill. And he addressed a 
number of Bhikkhus, saying, ' Do you go, O Bhik- 
khus, to the followers of Assa/i and Punabbasu, and 
say: " The Blessed One, Sirs, has arrived with a 
large number of Bhikkhus — to wit, with about five 
hundred Bhikkhus, besides Sariputta and Moggal- 
lana. Make ready sleeping-places, Sirs, for the 
Blessed One, and for the Bhikkhu-sawgha, and for 
Sariputta and Moggallana." ' 

1 On these Bhikkhus and their relations with Sariputta and 
Moggallana, see above, Aullavagga I, 13-16. 

P 2 



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212 XULLAVAGGA. VI, 16, 2. 

' Even so, Lord,' said those Bhikkhus in assent to 
the Blessed One ; and they did so. 

' There is no sleeping accommodation belonging 
to the Saswgha. We have divided it all ' (was the 
reply). ' The Blessed One, Sirs, is welcome : and 
he may stay in whatever Vihara he chooses. But 
Sariputta and Moggallana are men of sinful desires, 
and under the influence thereof; for them we will 
provide no sleeping-places.' 

2. ' What then, Sirs ? Have you divided sleeping 
accommodation that is the property of the Saawgha?' 

' That is so, Sirs.' 

The moderate Bhikkhus murmured, &c (down to) 
The Blessed One said to the Bhikkhus : 

' These five things, O Bhikkhus, are unapportion- 
able, and are not to be divided either by the Saawgha, 
or by a Ga«a, or by an individual. If divided, the 
division is void ; and whosoever does so, shall be 
guilty of a thulla&£aya. And what are the five 
(&c.,asin Vl,a5, 2) 1 ?' 



17. 

1. Now when the Blessed One had remained at 
the Ki/a Hill as long as he thought fit, he proceeded 
on his journey towards A/avi ; and in due course he 
arrived at A/avi, and there, at A/avi, the Blessed 
One stayed at the Agga/ava Shrine. 

Now at that time the Bhikkhus of A/avl 2 used to 

1 These expressions 'untransferable' (avissa^iylni) and 
' unapportionable ' (avebhangiyani) have already occurred above 
at Mahavagga VIII, 27, 5. 

1 The Bhikkhus of A/avi are frequently mentioned in connection 



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VI, I7»t. ON DWELLINGS AND FURNITURE. 213 

give new building operations in charge (to one or 
other of their number) 1 , such as the following 2 : 
when some clay or earth had merely to be put 
aside in heaps, when a wall had merely to be re- 
plastered, when a door had merely to be made, 
when the socket for a bolt had merely to be made, 
when some joinery-work had merely to be done to a 
window, when some whitewashing merely had to be 
done, or some black colouring laid on, or some red 
colouring 3 , or some roofing-work, or some joinery, 
or a bar had to be fixed to a door 4 , when breaches 
or decay had merely to be repaired *, or the flooring 
to be re-plastered 6 ; and they assigned this office to 
one another for terms of twenty or thirty years, or 



with offences in relation to the navakammam. See, for instance, 
ParSgika III, 5, 30. 

1 For the rule authorising such giving in charge in general cases, 
see above, VI, 5. 

1 For most of the following technical terms in building, see our 
notes above on Aullavagga V, 1 1, and V, 1, a. 

* See our note on this phrase above, V, 1 1, 6. 

* Ga»</ikadhana-mattena ti dvara-bahana/* upari-kapo/a- 
gaw/ika-ycgana-mattena (B.). Ganrfi is used in this sense at 
Gataka I, 237. Compare the use of Dhamma-ga«</ika, 'block 
of execution,' at Gataka I, 150, II, 124. The word ga«rfika 
occurs also at Gataka I, 474 (last line), in the sense of 'bunch:' 
but it is there probably a misprint ; for Oldenberg, in the parallel 
passage at Bhikkhunf-vibhanga, P&Kttiya I, 1, reads bh a«</ike. 
That the two words are easily confused in Burmese writing is 
shown by the fact that the Berlin (Burmese) copy of Buddhaghosa 
reads here also bha«<fikadhana-mattena ti, Ac, and again 
afterwards bha»</ika. 

See our note on this phrase above, VI, 5, 2. 

* Paribhan</a-kara»a-matten4ti gomaya-paribha«/a-kasava- 
parikaraaa-maltena (B.). The very same expression is used in a 
wholly doubtful sense, and of some process of tailoring, in Maha- 
vagga VII, 1, 5. 



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214 ffULLAVAGGA. VI, fj, 3. 

for life ; or they gave in charge a completely finished 
Vihira to a Bhikkhu for such time as should elapse 
till the smoke rose (from the funeral pyre on which 
his body should be burnt *). 

The moderate Bhikkhus murmured, &c. (as usual, 
down to) The Blessed One said to the Bhikkhus: 

' You are not, O Bhikkhus, to confer the office of 
building overseer when clay has merely to be put 
aside in heaps .... (&c, -as before, down to) body 
shall be burnt. Whosoever shall so confer it, shall 
be guilty of a dukka/a. I allow you, O Bhikkhus, 
to give a Vihira not yet begun, or not yet finished 2 , 
in charge as a new building. And with reference to 
the work on a small Vihara, it may be given in charge 
as a navakamma for a period of five or six years, 
that on an AddAayoga. for a period of seven or eight 
years, that on a large Vihira or a Pasada for ten or 
twelve years.' 

2. Now at that time the Bhikkhus gave the whole 
of a Vihira as a navakamma (to one Bhikkhu to 
superintend) — or two Vihiras to one Bhikkhu — or 
the Bhikkhu who had taken the work in charge got 
another (Bhikkhu to live there and take charge for 
him) — or the Bhikkhu who Tiad taken in charge a 

1 Dhumakalikan ti idam yaV assa £itaka-dhumo na pannaya- 
titi t&va ayaw vMro etass' evi ti eva/» dhuma-kale apaloketva" 
kata-pariyositaw viharaw denti (B.). The word recurs below, ap- 
plied to sikkhapadaw, in XI, i, 9. 

* Vippakatan ti ettha vippakato nitna y&va gopSnasiyo na 
arohanti. Gopanasisu pana Sru/hSsu bahukato n£ma hoti : 
tasmS tato pa/Maya na ditabbo (B.). The use of bahukato is 
noteworthy, for in the only other passage where we have found the 
word (Mahavagga VI, 36, 2), it has a totally different application. 
There is possibly a misreading in the one MS. available. 
(? pakato.) 



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VI, 17,3- ON DWELLINGS AND FURNITURE. 215 

building belonging to the Sa^wgha kept exclusive 
possession of it — or the Bhikkhus gave work in 
charge to one not at that time within the boundary * 
— or Bhikkhus who had once taken charge kept 
exclusive possession for all tirfte. 

They told [each of] these matters to the Blessed 
One. 

' You are not, O Bhikkhus, to do [any one of these 
things]. Whosoever does, he is guilty of a duk- 
ka/a. And the Bhikkhu in charge may take one 
good sleeping-place into his exclusive possession 
for the three months of the rainy, but not during 
the dry season.' 

3. Now at that time Bhikkhus who had taken 
charge of building operations left the place [or 
otherwise became incompetent in one or other of 
the twenty and three ways set out in the next 
paragraph 2 ], 

They told this matter to the Blessed One. 

' In case that occurs, O Bhikkhus, as soon as he 
has taken charge, or before the building has been 
completed, let the office be given to another lest 
there should be loss to the Sa/«gha. In case the 
building has been completed, O Bhikkhus, if he 
then leaves the place, it (the office and its privi- 
leges) is still his — if he then returns to the world, 
or dies, or admits that he is a sama»era, or that 
he has abandoned the precepts, or that he has 
become guilty of an extreme offence, the Sawgha 



' See above, VI, 11, 3. 

* See Mah&vagga II, 22, 3, and II, 36, 1-3. In the latter of 
these two passages the three cases are omitted. In Mahavagga 
IX, 4, 2, and 8, the whole 23 are given. 



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2l6 rULLAVAGGA. VI, l8, I. 

becomes the owner 1 — if he then admits that he is 
mad, or that his mind is unhinged, or that he is 
afflicted with bodily pain, or that he has been 
suspended for his refusal to acknowledge an of- 
fence, or to atone for an offence, or to renounce a 
sinful doctrine, it (the office and its privileges) is 
still his — if he then admits that he is a eunuch, 
or that he has furtively attached himself to the 
Sawgha, or that he has gone over to the Titthiyas; 
or that he is an animal, or that he has murdered his 
mother, or his father, or an Arahat, or that he has 
violated a Bhikkhuni, or that he has caused a schism 
in the Sawgha, or that he has shed (a Buddha's) 
blood, or that he is an hermaphrodite, then the 
Sawgha becomes the owner.' 



18. 

i. Now at that time the Bhikkhus made use else- 
where of beds which were appurtenances 8 to the 
Vihara of a certain lay-disciple (upisaka). 

Then that upasaka murmured, &c. 

They told the matter to the Blessed One. 

' Things appurtenant to one place are not, O 
Bhikkhus, to be used in another. Whosoever does 
so, shall be guilty of a dukka/a.' 

Now at that time the Bhikkhus, fearing to offend 
if they took (things to sit upon) even into the 

1 That is, the navakammiko loses his privileges (his lien on 
the best sleeping-place, &c). 

* Vih&ra-paribhogaflt. 'Meant for use only in that Vihara.' 
Compare above, VI, 14, i. 



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VI, 19, I. ON DWELLINGS AND FURNITURE. 2 1 7 

Uposatha Hall, or the meeting-place, sat on the 
ground ; and their legs and robes got soiled. 

They told the matter to the Blessed One. 

' I allow you, O Bhikkhus, to take things away 
for a certain time only 1 .' 

Now at that time a large Vihara belonging to 
the Sa/wgha went to ruin 2 . The Bhikkhus, fearing 
to offend, did not take the bedding in it away. 

They told this matter to the Blessed One. 

' I allow you, O Bhikkhus, to take away things 
in order to save them from destruction.' 



19, 

1. Now at that time there was a very valuable 
rug, and a very valuable piece of cloth, among the 
bedding furniture belonging to the Sawgha. 

They told this matter to the Blessed One 8 . 

' I allow you, O Bhikkhus, to barter either of 
these things -in order to increase the stock of legally 
permissible furniture *.' 

Now at that time the Sawgha had received a 

1 Tavak&likara. The word occurs in ffataka I, 121, 393 
(on which see Rh. D. in 'Buddhist Birth Stories,' p. 170, and 
'Buddhist Suttas,' p. 241), in Buddhaghosa's notes on Mahavagga 
VII, 5, 1 (above, II, 154, note 7), in the Bhikkhuni-vibhanga, 
Pa&ttiya XXV, 2, and in A'ullavagga X, 16, 1. 

* Sawghassa vih&ro udriyati. The whole phrase has 
already occurred at Mahavagga III, 8. 

8 Because such things were forbidden by Mahivagga V, 10, 4, 
though kambala is not there specially mentioned. 

4 Phitikammatthaya ti va<f<ftikammatth£y& ti. Vaddhikam- 
matthaya pbAtikamma»i k' ettha samakaw va" atirekaw v£ aggha- 
nakam man£a-piM&di-sen$sanam eva va//ati (B.). 



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2l8 tfULLAVAGGA. VI, ao, I. 

bear -skin, and a ^akkali ' rug, and a &>laka 
cloth 2 . 

They told this matter to the Blessed One. 

' I allow you, O Bhikkhus, to use them as mats 
to wipe your feet on V 



20. 

i. Now at that time the Bhikkhus walked over 
the mats used for sleeping upon with unwashen 
or wet feet, or with their sandals on ; and the 
matting was soiled. 

They told these matters to the Blessed One. 

1 You are not, O Bhikkhus, to do so. Whosoever 
does, shall be guilty of a dukka/aV 

2. Now at that time the Bhikkhus spat on the 
newly prepared floor 6 , and the colour was spoilt. 

1 According to VI, 2, 2, and VI, 3, 5, this could also be used as 
a screen or curtain over the space in a wall left for a window. 

* According to Mahivagga VIII, 18, this might be used to wipe 
faces with; and according to AuHavagga V, 9, 4, VI, 19, to 
place crockery or furniture on. The word £ola means simply 
cotton cloth, but it is clear from these passages that £olaka has 
some special connotation. 

' Not to sit upon. 

* With this should be compared the other rule in Mah&vagga V, 
6, i, according to which the Bhikkhus were to wear sandals when 
getting upon bedsteads or chairs, lest these should become soiled. 
The two passages are parallel in wording throughout. 

* Parikammakataya. The floors were of earth, not of wood, 
and were restored from time to time by fresh clay or dry cowdung 
being laid down, and then covered with a whitewash, in which 
sometimes black or red (geruka) was mixed. See above, V, 
n, 6; VI, 3, 1 ; 17, 1 ; 27. From the parallel passage at MahS- 
vagga I, 25, 15, and Aullavagga VIII, 3, 1, it would seem that the 
red colouring was used rather for walls, and the black one for 
floors. 



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VI, 20, a. ON DWELLINGS AND FURNITURE. 219 

They told this matter to the Blessed One. 

' You are not, O Bhikkhus, to do so. Whosoever 
does, shall be guilty of a dukka/a. I allow, O 
Bhikkhus, the use of a spittoon.' 

Now at that time the legs of the bedsteads and 
chairs made scratches on the newly prepared floor. 

They told this matter to the Blessed One. 

' I allow you, O Bhikkhus, to cover it up with 
floor-cloth.' 

Now at that time the Bhikkhus leant up against 
the newly prepared walls 1 , and the colouring was 
spoilt. 

They told this thing to the Blessed One. 

' You are not, O Bhikkhus, to do so. Whosoever 
does, shall be guilty of a dukkala. I allow you, 
O Bhikkhus, the use of aboard to lean up against 2 .' 

The board scratched the floor at the bottom, and 
ruined the wall at the top. 

' I allow you, O Bhikkhus, to cover it at the top 
and bottom with cloth.' 

Now at that time, fearing to offend, they would 
not lie down on places over which it was permissible 
to walk with washen feet 3 . 



1 The walls were no doubt usually made with ' wattle and daub ; ' 
that is, sticks with clay between the interstices. This was treated 
from time to time like the flooring (see last note). 

' Apassena-phalakam. This article of furniture is mentioned, 
with the spittoon, in Mahavagga I, 25, 15, 16, and in the parallel 
passage at Atillavagga VIII, 1, 3. We have rendered it in the 
Mahavagga by 'board to recline on.' Compare the use of apas- 
sayaw in Buddhaghosa's note on Aullavagga VI, 2, 4 (above, 
p. 1 53, note 3) of an arm-chair or sofa. 

* Dhotapadaka ti dhotapadaka hutva dhotehi padehi akkamitab- 
ba//ft£ne nipa^gitum kukkullayanti. Dhotapadake ti pi paMo. 
Dhotehi padehi akkamitabba/Zianass' eva etaw adhivalanam (6.). 



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220 rULLAVAGGA. VT, 21, 1. 

They told this matter to the Blessed One. 
' I allow you, O Bhikkhus, to lie down in such a 
place when you have spread something over it.' 



21. 

1. Now when the Blessed One had remained 
at A/avt as long as he thought fit, he set out on his 
journey towards Ri^agaha. And proceeding straight 
on, he arrived in due course at Ri^agaha. And 
there, at Ra^agaha, the Blessed One stayed at the 
Ve/uvana in the Kalandaka Nivipa. 

Now at that time there was a scarcity of food 
at Ra^agaha \ The people were unable to provide 
food for the (whole) Sa/»gha; and they were de- 
sirous of providing food 2 (to be sent to the Vihara) 
for the use of a special Bhikkhu (designated by the 
donor) s , or for special Bhikkhus invited (by the 
donor in his own house) 4 , or for (single Bhikkhus) 
appointed by ticket (issued by the Samgha.) 6 , or of 
providing food during a fortnight e , or on Uposatha 

1 Other special rules for times of scarcity will be found at MaM- 
vagga VI, 17, 1 ; 18, 4 ; 19, 2 ; 20, 4 (repealed for times of plenty 
in VI, 32). Compare also Pira^ika IV, 1, 1. 

s The above modes of receiving food (instead of collecting in a 
bowl morsels of food given in alms) are the dispensations allowed 
by Mahavagga I, 30, 4. 

3 Uddesa-bhatta/n i&tum. Compare the story of Upananda 
at Mah&vagga VI, 19, 1. 

* Nimantana/w k£tum. The word is only used in this special 
technical sense. Compare the whole story of A'ulla-panthaka 
at Gataka I, 116, and especially the last line. 

° Salaka-bhattam i&tum. See especially above, Aullavagga 
IV, 9 ; IV, 10. 

* Pakkhikam k&tu/n. Both Childerssub voce and Frankfurter 



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VI, 2i, 2. ON DWELLINGS AND FURNITURE. 

days (that is, on the last days of each fortnight) or 
on the first days of each fortnight. 

They told this matter to the Blessed One. 

' I allow you, O Bhikkhus, each of three ways of 
obtaining food.' ■ 

Now at that time the A^abbaggiya Bhikkhus 
having received good food for themselves, gave 
over the worse food (which they had also received) 
to the other Bhikkhus. 

They told this matter to the Blessed One. 

' I allow you, O Bhikkhus, to appoint as ap- 
portioner of rations 1 a Bhikkhu who is possessed 
of the following five qualifications — (&c, as in IV, 
9, down to the end of the KammavaH).' 

Now the Bhikkhus who were apportioners of 
rations, thought : ' How then are the rations to be 
apportioned ?' 

They told this matter to the Blessed One. 

' I allow you, O Bhikkhus, to apportion them by 
arranging the food in small heaps, and fastening 
tickets or marks upon them V 

2. Now at that time the Sa/#gha had no dis- 

(' Pali Handbook,' p. 165), in interpreting the passage at Mahavagga 
I, 30, 4, take this to mean a feast given on the eighth day of the 
month. But paksha is the half-month. The expression much 
more probably means, therefore,' to provide food either during the 
whole of a half-month for one or more specially invited Bhikkhus, 
or for a larger number on any one day of the half-month to be 
chosen by the Sawgha. 

1 Compare above, ATullavagga IV, 4, 1. 

* Buddhaghosa says, Salakaya vS pa/ik&ya va upanibandh- 
itva opun-Mitva uddisitun ti va&nato rukkhasaramayaya sala- 
kaya v& ve/uvilivatalapajw»adinayaya pa/ikiya vi asukassa nama 
salakabhattan ti evam akkharani upanibandhitva paAMiyam vd 
tfvarabhoge va katva sabba salakayo omunMitva [sic] punappu- 
nam he///£a-vasena a/oletvd . . . databba. 



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222 rULLAVAGGA. VI, 21, 3. 

tributor of lodging-places — no overseer of stores — 
no receiver of robes — no distributor of robes, of 
congey, or of fruits — and no distributor of dry foods, 
and through not being distributed it went bad. 

They told each of these matters 1 to the Blessed 
One. 

' I allow you, O Bhikkhus, to appoint as dis- 
tributor of lodging-places, &c, a Bhikkhu who has 
(&c, as in § i, down to the end of the Kammava^a, 
inserting throughout the appropriate variations in 
the fifth qualification). 

3. Now at that time articles of trifling value had 
accumulated in the storehouse of the Sa/wgha. 

They told this matter to the Blessed One. 

' I allow you, O Bhikkhus, to appoint as disposer 
of trifles a Bhikkhu who has (&c, as before, down 
to the end of the Kammava^a). Each separate 
needle, and pair of scissors, and pair of sandals, and 
girdle, and pair of braces, and filtering cloth, and 
regulation strainer 2 , and plait 3 , and half-plait 3 , and 
gusset 3 , and half-gusset 3 , and binding 4 , and braiding 4 , 
is to be given away. If the Sawgha has any ghee, 
or oil, or honey, or molasses, he is to give it away 
for personal consumption only, and if it be wanted, 
he is to give it a second and a third time V 

1 There is another officer (isana-pannapaka) mentioned at 
Aullavagga XII, 2, 7, whose omission from the list here is worthy 
of notice. 

* Dhamma-karako. See V, 13, 1. 

* On these words, see Mahivagga VIII, 12, 2. 

* On these two words, see Mahavagga VIII, 1, 5. 

* These things were to be used only as medicines, according to 
Mahivagga VI, 1, 1-5, where butter is also added. That would 
be under the charge of the distributor of dry foods (§ 2), as if kept 
it would go bad. According to VI, 15, 10, none of these five 



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VI, si, 3- ON DWELLINGS AND FURNITURE. 223 

Now at that time the Sawgha had no receiver 
of under-garments 1 , or of bowls, — no superintendent 
of those who kept the grounds in order (the Ara- 
mikas), and the Aramikas not being looked after, 
the necessary work was not done, — no superintend- 
ent of simaweras, and the sama»eras not being 
looked after did not perform their duties. 

They told each of these matters to the Blessed 
One. 

' I allow you, O Bhikkhus, to appoint as receiver 
of under-garments, &c, a Bhikkhu who has (&c, as 
before, down to the end of the Kammava^a).' 



End of the Sixth Khandhaka, on Sleeping 
Arrangements, &c. 



kinds of medicine were to be kept for a period exceeding seven 
days, but that was a rule that was not very probable to be strictly 
followed. 

1 S£/iya; no doubt the same as is spelt elsewhere sS/ika or 
sa/aka, and is used for such purposes as bathing in. 



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224 rULLAVAGGA. VII, I, I. 



SEVENTH KHANDHAKA. 
Dissensions in the Order. 



i. Now at that time the Blessed One was stay- 
ing at Anupiya 2 . Anupiya is a town belonging 
to the Mallas 3 . Now at that time the most 
distinguished of the young men of the S&kya 
clan had renounced the world in imitation of the 
Blessed One. 

Now there were two brothers, Mahanama the 
Sakyan, and Anuruddha the Sakyan. Anuruddha 
the Sakyan was delicately nurtured ; and he had 
three storeyed residences, one for the cold season, 
one for the hot season, and one for the season of 
the rains *. During the four months spent in the 

1 With the whole of the following story compare the, in many 
respects, fuller account given by the commentator on the Dham- 
mapada (Fausbdll, pp. 139 and following). 

* This was the spot where Gotama spent the first week after his 
renunciation of the world, before he went on to Rt^-agaha (Rh. D.'s 
' Buddhist Birth Stories,' I, 87). Professor Fausb6U there (Gataka 
1,65) reads Anupiyam, but all his MSS. have the fi short It is 
noteworthy that in our text the locative is formed as if the word 
were feminine, though the neuter form is used for the nominative. 

3 The more usual mode of adding this description in similar 
passages at the commencement of all the Suttas would lead us to 
expect here Mallanaw nigame. 

* Compare Mah&vagga I, 7, i, where the same thing is said of 
Yasa. 



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VII, I, a. DISSENSIONS IN THE ORDER. 225 

residence for the season of the rains, he was waited 
upon by women performing music 1 , and came not 
down from the upper storey of his residence. 

Then Mahanama the Sakyan thought : ' Now the 
most distinguished of the young men of the Sakya 
clan have already renounced the world in imitation 
of the Blessed One, but from our own family no 
one has gone forth from the household life into the 
• houseless state. Let therefore either I, or Anu- 
ruddha, renounce the world.' And he went to 
Anuruddha the Sakyan, and said [so to him, add- 
ing], ' Either therefore do you go forth, or I will 
do so.' 

' I am delicate. It is impossible for me to go 
forth from the household life into the houseless 
state. Do you do so.' 

2. ' But come now, O beloved Anuruddha, I will 
tell you what is incident to the household life. 
First, you have to get your fields ploughed. When 
that is done, you have to get them sown. When 
that is done, you have to get the water led down 
over them. When that is done, you have to get 
the water led off again. When that is done, you 
have to get the weeds pulled up 2 . When that is 
done, you have to get the crop reaped. When that 
is done, you have to get the crop carried away. 
When that is done, you have to get it arranged 

1 Nippurisehi turiyehi. That Childers's rendering, ' without 
men, without people,' is inadequate is clear from the context at the 
passage which he quotes from Gataka I, 53. 

* Niddipeti. Buddhaghosa says, ' Pull up the weeds ' (tinSni). 
The word occurs also at <?ataka I, 215, where there is a similar list 
of farming operations, which, though smaller, contains one or two 
items not given here. 

[ao] Q 



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226 JTULLAVAGGA. VII, 1, 2. 

into bundles. When that is done, you have to get 
it trodden out 1 . When, that is done, you have to 
get the straw picked out. When that is done, you 
have to get all the chaff removed. When that is 
done, you have to get it winnowed. When that is 
done, you have to get the harvest garnered *. When 
that is done, you have to do just the same the 
next year, and the same all over again the year 
after that. 

' The work is never over : one sees not the end 
of one's labours. O ! when shall our work be over ? 
When shall we see the end of our labours ? When 
shall we, still possessing and retaining the plea- 
sures of our five senses, yet dwell at rest ? Yes ! 
the work, beloved Anuruddha, is never over ; no 
end appears to our labours. Even when our fathers 
and forefathers had completed their time 3 , even then 
was their work unfinished.' 

' Then do you take thought for the household 
duties. I will go forth from the household life 
into the houseless state.' 

And Anuruddha the Sakyan went to his mother, 
and said to her : ' I want, mother, to go forth from 
the household life into the houseless state. Grant 
me thy permission to do so.' 

And when he had thus spoken, his mother replied 

1 Maddapeti. There is mention of threshing (prati-han) 
already in the Vedas. See the passages collected by Zimmer, 
' Altindisches Leben,' p. 238. But treading out is even still a very 
common, if not the more usual, process throughout India and 
Ceylon. 

* Atiharapeti. See Milinda Panha, p. 66. The simple verb 
occurs also in a similar connection in the Bhikkhuni-vibhanga in 
the introductory story to PaJittiya VII. 

* That is, had died. 



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VII, l,3« DISSENSIONS IN THE ORDER. 227 

to Anuruddha the Sakyan, and said : ' You two, 
O beloved Anuruddha, are my two only sons, near 
and dear to me, in whom I find no evil. Through 
death I shall some day, against my will, be separated 
from you ; but how can I be willing, whilst you are 
still alive, that you should go forth from the house- 
hold life into the houseless state ?' 

[And a second time Anuruddha the Sakyan made 
the same request, and received the same reply. 
And a third time Anuruddha the Sakyan made the 
same request to his mother.] 

3. Now at that time Bhaddiya the Sakya Ra/a 
held rule over the Sakyas; and he was a friend 
of Anuruddha the Sakyan's. And the mother of 
Anuruddha the Sakyan, thinking that that being 
so, the Ra^a would not be able to renounce the 
world, said to her son : 'If, beloved Anuruddha, 
Bhaddiya the Sakyan Ri^a will renounce the 
world, thou also mayest go forth into the house- 
less state.' 

Then Anuruddha the Sakyan went to Bhaddiya 
the Sakyan R&fa, and said to him : ' My renuncia- 
tion of the world, dear friend, is being obstructed 
by thee.' 

'Then let that obstruction, dear friend, be re- 
moved. Even with thee will 1 1 — renounce thou 
the world according to thy wish.' 

' Come, dear friend, let us both renounce the 
world together !' 

1 Ahum tayl Buddhaghosa explains that the R&fa is begin- 
ning to say that he will go with his friend. But a desire for the 
glory of sovereignty comes over his heart, and he leaves the sen- 
tence unfinished. (The Pali is given in the notes on the text, 
P- 323) 



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228 JTULLAVAGGA. VII, i, 4. 

' I am not capable, dear friend, of giving up the 
household life. Whatsoever else you can ask of 
me, that I will do \ Do you go forth (alone).' 

' My mother, dear friend, has told me that if thou 
dost so, I may. And thou hast even now declared 
"If thy renunciation be obstructed by me, then let 
that obstruction be removed. Even with thee will 
I — renounce thou the world, according to thy wish." 
Come, then, dear friend, let us both renounce the 
world.' 

Now at that time men were speakers of truth, 
and keepers of their word which they had pledged. 
And Bhaddiya the Sakya Ra^a said to Anuruddha 
the Sakyan : ' Wait, my friend, for seven years. 
At the end of seven years we will renounce the 
world together.' 

' Seven years are too long, dear friend. I am not 
able to wait for seven years.' 

[And the same offer was made successively of six 
years and so on down to one year, of seven months 
and so on down to one month, and even of a fort- 
night, and still there was ever the same reply. At 
last the Ra^a said,] 

' Wait, my friend, for seven days, whilst I hand 
over the kingdom to my sons and my brothers.' 

' Seven days is not too long. I will wait thus 
far ' (was the reply). 

4. So Bhaddiya the Sakya Ri^a, and Anuruddha, 
and Ananda, and Bhagu, and Kimbila, and De- 
vadatta — just as they had so often previously gone 

1 Ty a haw. See Dr. Morris's remarks on this elision in his intro- 
duction to the A'ariya Pi/aka (Pali Text Society, 1882), where he 
makes it equal to tad aham. This seems to us open to question, 
at least in this passage, where it may possibly stand for te aha/n. 



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VIT, 1,4. DISSENSIONS IN THE ORDER. 229 

out to the pleasure-ground with fourfold array — 
even so did they now go out with fourfold array, 
and Upali the barber went with them, making 
seven in all. 

And when they had gone some distance, they sent 
their retinue back, and crossed over into the neigh- 
bouring district, and took off their fine things, and 
wrapped them in their robes, and made a bundle of 
them, and said to Upali the barber: ' Do you now, 
good Upali, turn back. These things will be sufficient 
for you to live upon.' 

But as he was going back, Upali the barber 
thought : ' The Sakyas are fierce. They will think 
that these young men have been brought by me 
to destruction, and they will slay me. But since 
now these young men of the Sakya clan can go 
forth from the household life into the houseless 
state, why indeed should not I ?' And he let down 
the bundle (from his back), and hung the bundle on 
a tree, saying, ' Let whoso finds it, take it, as a gift,' 
and returned to the place where the young Sakyans 
were. 

And the Sakya youths saw him coming from afar, 
and on seeing, they said to him : ' What have you 
come back for, good Upali ?' 

Then he told them [what he had thought, and 
what he had done with the bundle, and why he was 
returned]. 

' Thou hast done well, good Upali (was the reply), 
in that thou didst not return ; for the Sakyas are 
fierce, and might have killed thee.' 

And they took Upali the barber with them to the 
place where the Blessed One was. And on arriving 
there, they bowed down before the Blessed One, and 



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23O ffULLAVAGGA. VII, 1, 4. 

took their seats on one side. And so seated they 
said to the Blessed One : ' We Sakyas, Lord, 
are haughty. And this Upali the barber has 
long been an attendant, Lord, upon us. May the 
Blessed One admit him to the Order before us, 
so that we may render him respect and reverence, 
and bow down with outstretched hands before him 
(as our senior), and thus shall the Sakya pride be 
humbled in us Sakyans 1 .' 

Then the Blessed One received first Upali the 
barber, and afterwards those young -men of the Sakya 
clan, into the ranks of the Order. And the venerable 
Bhaddiya, before that rainy season was over, became 
master of the Threefold Wisdom ", and the vener- 
able Anuruddha acquired the Heavenly Vision 8 , 
and the venerable Ananda realised the effect of 
having entered upon the Stream *, and Devadatta 
attained to that kind of Iddhi which is attainable 
even by those who have not entered upon the Ex- 
cellent Way 6 . 

1 This reputation of the Salcya family for pride is referred to in 
Gataka I, 88, 89. 

* Tisso vi^i, see Kh. T>?s remarks at pp. 161, 162 of 
'Buddhist Suttas from the Pali' (S. B. E., vol. xi). They are 
probably here the three vi^as referred to in the Sutta-vibhahga, 
Paragika I, 1, 6-8, as the second of those is the Heavenly Vision, 
here mentioned in the next clause. 

* Dibba£akkhu, a full description of the details of which will 
be found in the stock paragraph translated by Rh. D. in ' Buddhist 
Suttas from the Pali' (S. B. E., vol. xi, pp. 216-218). 

4 Sotapattiphala ; that is, he became free from the delusion 
of self (sakkayadi/Mi), from doubt (viMkikiAi), and from depend- 
ence upon ceremonies or works (silabbata-parSmasa). See Rh. D.'s 
manual, 'Buddhism,' pp. 108-110. 

4 Pothu^anika iddhi. What this may be is unknown to 
us. A fourfold Iddhi is described in detail in the stock passage 



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VII, i, 6. DISSENSIONS IN THE ORDER. 231 

5 '. Now at that time the venerable Bhaddiya, 
who had retired into the forest to the foot of a tree, 
into solitude, gave utterance over and over again to 
this ecstatic exclamation : ' O happiness ! O happi- 
ness ! ' And a number of Bhikkhus went up to the 
place where the Blessed One was, and bowed down 
before him, and took their seats on one side. And, 
so seated, they [told the Blessed One of this], and 
added, ' For a certainty, Lord, the venerable Bhad- 
diya is not contented as he lives the life of purity ; 
but rather it is when calling to mind the happiness of 
his former sovranty that he gives vent to this saying.' 

Then the Blessed One addressed a certain Bhik- 
khu, and said : ' Do you go, O Bhikkhu, and in my 
name call Bhaddiya the Bhikkhu, saying, " The 
Teacher, venerable Bhaddiya, is calling for you.'" 

' Even so, Lord/ said that Bhikkhu, in assent to 
the Blessed One. And he went to Bhaddiya, and 
called him [in those words]. 

6. ' Very well,' said the venerable Bhaddiya, in 

translated by Rh. D. in ' Buddhist Suttas from the Pali,' S. B. E., 
vol. xi, p. 214, and the fourfold Iddhi of the ideal king in the 
similar passage, loc. cit., pp. 259-261. The Iddhi here referred to 
may be the former of these two, though that list does not include 
the power ascribed to Devadatta in the next chapter. At Gitaka I, 
140, the expression of our text here is replaced by gh&na., though 
the account there is otherwise the same. 

It is worthy of notice that Devadatta, though a Bhikkhu, is not 
honoured with the standing epithet, ' venerable,' always used of the 
other members of the Order, even when they are represented to 
have been of bad character. 

1 The following incident, with a summary of the preceding sec- 
tions, forms the introductory story to the 10th Grataka (Rh. D.'s 
' Buddhist Birth Stories,' i. pp. 190-193). The legend may have 
first arisen as an explanation of the name Bhaddiya, which means 
' the fortunate one.' 



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232 rULLAVAGGA. VIT, i,6. 

assent to that Bhikkhu ; and he came to the Blessed 
One, and bowed down before him, and took his 
seat on one side. And when he was so seated, the 
Blessed One said to the venerable Bhaddiya : 

' Is it true, as they say, that you Bhaddiya, when 
retired into the forest to the foot of a tree, into 
solitude, have given utterance over and over again 
to this ecstatic exclamation, " O happiness ! O happi- 
ness ! " What circumstance was it, O Bhaddiya, that 
you had in your mind when you acted thus ?' 

'Formerly, Lord, when I was a king, I had a 
guard completely provided both within and without 
my private apartments, both within and without the 
town, and within the (borders of my) country. Yet 
though, Lord, I was thus guarded and protected, I 
was fearful, anxious, distrustful, and alarmed. But 
now, Lord, even when in the forest, at the foot of a 
tree, in solitude, I am without fear or anxiety, trustful 
and not alarmed; I dwell at ease, subdued 1 , secure 2 , 
with mind as peaceful as an antelope's 3 . It was when 
calling this fact to mind, Lord, that I gave utterance 
over and over again to that cry, " O happiness ! O 
happiness!'" 

Then the Blessed One, on hearing that, gave 
utterance at that time to this song : 

1 Pannalomo. See our note 2 on ATullavagga I, 6, 1 (above, 
vol. ii, p. 339). 

' Paradavutto. This is the reading of the Sinhalese MS., and 
is the correct one. See Oldenberg's note at p. 363 of the edition 
of the text. Our translation is conjectural. 

* Migabhutena £etas&. The meaning of miga in this 
phrase is not certain ; and the figure may be drawn from the care- 
less mind of any animal in its natural state. We have not noticed 
the idiom elsewhere; but compare the converse figure, bhanta- 
miga-sappa/ibh£go sasane anabhirato, at Gataka I, 303, 6. 



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VII, a, i. DISSENSIONS IN THE ORDER. 233 

' The man who harbours no harsh thoughts within 

him, 
Who cares not whether things are thus or thus, 
His state of joy, freedom from grief or care, 
The very gods obtain not to behold!' 



2. 

1. Now when the Blessed One had stayed at 
Anupiya as long as he thought fit, he set out on 
his journey towards Kosambl. And journeying 
straight on he arrived in due course at Kosambl, 
and there, at Kosambl, he stayed at the Ghosita 
Arama. 

Now the following thought occurred to Devadatta, 
when he had retired into solitude, and was plunged 
in meditation : ' Whom now * can I so gain over that, 
he being well pleased with me, much gain and 
honour may result to me? And it occurred to 
him, ' Now this prince A^atasattu is young, and 
has a lucky future before him. Let me then gain 
him over; and he being well pleased with me, 
much gain and honour will result.' 

Then Devadatta folded up his sleeping-mat, and 
set out, fully bowled and robed, for Rifagaha ; and 
in due course he arrived at Ra^agaha. Then he 
laid aside his own form, and took upon himself the 
form of a child clad in a girdle of snakes, and ap- 
peared on the lap of prince A^atasattu ". Then was 

1 In the text, for kin nu read ka» nu. 

* This taking upon oneself another shape is not one of the 
powers of Iddhi included in the first list referred to at note 5, 
p. 230. 



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234 ffULLAVAGGA. VII, a, 2. 

prince Af&tasattu terrified, and startled, and anxious, 
and alarmed. 

And Devadatta said to prince A^atasattu, 'Are 
you afraid of me, O prince ?' 

' Yes, I am. Who are you ?' 

' I am Devadatta.' 

1 If you, Sir, are really the worthy Devadatta, be 
good enough to appear in your own shape.' 

Then Devadatta, laying aside the form of the 
child, appeared there before prince A^atasattu with 
his inner and outer robes on, and with his bowl in 
his hand. And prince A^atasattu was well pleased 
with Devadatta by reason of this marvel of Iddhi, 
and morning and evening he used to go in five 
hundred chariots to wait upon him, and food was 
brought and laid before him in five hundred dishes. 

Then there arose in Devadatta's mind, possessed 
and vanquished by gain and hospitality and fame l , 
some such thought as this : 'It is I who ought to 
lead the Bhikkhu-saawgha.' And as the idea rose up 
within him, (that moment) was Devadatta deprived 
of that his power of Iddhi. 

2. Now at that time a Koliyan, by name Kakudha, 
who had been (as Bhikkhu) the attendant on Moggal- 
lana, had just died, and had appeared again in a 
certain spiritual body 2 , possessed of a personality as 
large as two or three of the common rice-fields of a 
Magadha village, and yet so constituted* that he was 

1 Compare Mahavagga V, i, 22, on this expression. Also 
below, § 5. 

* Annataram manomayaw kayaw upapanno. Perhaps ' in 
a mode of existence in which his body was changeable at will.' 
(See Childers, sub voce manomayo.) 

* Attabhavo. See IX, 1, 3. 



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VII, 2,3- DISSENSIONS IN THE ORDER. 235 

not in the way either of himself or of others \ And 
this celestial being, Kakudha, went to the venerable 
Moggallana, and bowed down before him, and took 
his stand on one side. And so standing, he told the 
venerable Moggallana [of the thought that had arisen 
in Devadatta's mind, and of the result thereof]. And 
when he had told him, he bowed down before the 
venerable Moggallana, and keeping him on his right 
side as he passed him, he vanished away. 

And the venerable Moggallana went to the place 
where the Blessed One was, and told him [the whole 
matter] 2 . 

'What then, Moggallana, have you so penetrated 
the mind of that celestial being Kakudha, that you 
know that whatsoever he speaks, that will be accord- 
ingly, and not otherwise 3 ?' 

' I have, Lord.' 

' Keep that saying, Moggallana, secret ; keep that 
saying secret. Even now that foolish man will 
himself make himself known. 

3*. 'There are, Moggallana, these five kinds of 
teachers now existing in the world. What are the 
five ? 

' In the first place, Moggallana, there is one kind 
of teacher whose conduct not being pure, he yet 

1 Vyibadheti. He could occupy the same space as other 
beings without incommoding them. The word occurs in the same 
sense in the passage quoted from Buddhaghosa in Rh. D.'s note 1 
on the Maha-parinibbana Sutta V, 10, but originally occurring in 
the Anguttara Nikaya. 

* The last paragraph is here repeated in the text. 

* On the use here of £etas& icto pari^a, compare Mahd-pari- 
nibbana Sutta I, 16, 17. 

4 The following two sections are repeated below, VII, 3, 10, to 
all the Bhikkhus. 



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236 JTULLAVAGGA. TO, 1, 4. 

gives out that he is a person of pure conduct, one 
whose conduct is pure, and innocent, and without 
stain. His disciples know that that is so, but they 
think, " If we announce the fact to the laity, he will 
not like it. And how can we conduct ourselves 
towards him in a way that is displeasing to him? 
And besides he is honoured with gifts of the 
requisite clothing, food, lodging, and medicine for 
the sick. He will sooner or later become known 
by that which he himself will do." Such a teacher, 
Moggallina, do his disciples protect in respect of his 
own conduct. And being as he is, he expects * to be 
protected by his disciples in respect of his own 
conduct. 

4. ' Again, Moggallina,' &c. [as before, putting 
successively ' mode of livelihood,' ' preaching of the 
Dhamma,' 'system of exposition,' &c, 'insight arising 
from knowledge,' for ' conduct']. ' These, Moggallina^ 
are the five kinds of teachers now existing in the 
world. But I being pure in conduct, mode of liveli- 
hood, preaching of the Dhamma, system of expo- 
sition, and insight arising from knowledge, give out 
that I am so, that I am pure, innocent, and without 
stain in all these things. And neither do my disciples 
protect me in respect of my own conduct, nor do I 
expect them to do so.' 

5. Now when the Blessed One had remained at 
KosambI as long as he thought fit, he set out on his 
journey towards Ri^agaha. And journeying straight 
on, he arrived in due course at Ri^agaha ; and there, 
at Ri^agaha, he stayed at the Ve/uvana in the Ka- 
landaka Nivipa. 

1 PaMasiwsati. Perhaps this word here means 'he requires, 
needs.' 



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Vn, 2, 5. DISSENSIONS IN THE ORDER. 237 

And a number of Bhikkhus went to the Blessed 
One, and bowed down before him, and took their 
seats on one side. And when so seated, they said 
to the Blessed One : ' Prince A.fatasattu is in the 
habit of going morning and evening with five 
hundred carts to wait upon Devadatta, and food is 
brought and laid before him in five hundred 
dishes.' 

' Envy not, O Bhikkhus, the gain and hospitality 
and fame of Devadatta. So long, O Bhikkhus, as 
A^atasattu [so waits upon him and gives him alms] 
so long may we expect Devadatta not to prosper, but 
to decline in virtuous qualities *. Just, O Bhikkhus, 
as if you were to burst a gall (bladder) 2 before the 
nose of a fierce dog, the dog would thereby become 
so much the fiercer, just so long, O Bhikkhus (&c, 
as before). To his own hurt, O Bhikkhus, has this 
gain, hospitality, and fame come to Devadatta, to 
his own destruction. Just, O Bhikkhus, as a plan- 
tain, or a bamboo, or a reed gives fruit to its own 
hurt and its own destruction 3 , just so to his own 
hurt (&c, as before). Just as a young she-mule 
conceives to her own hurt and her own destruction 4 , 
just so, O Bhikkhus, to his own hurt has this gain, 
&c, come to Devadatta. 

' Its fruit destroys the plantain-tree ; its fruit the 
bamboo and the reed. 



1 This phrase runs in the same mould as the one so constantly 
repeated at the commencement of the Mah£-parinibbina Sutta 

(I.§§4-»). 

1 Pittaw bhindeyyuw. Literally, 'should break a gall.' 

* These three plants die after producing fruit. 

4 Because she would die if she did. On assatari, compare 
above, VI, 4, 3, and our note there. 



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238 tfULLAVAGGA. VH, 3, 1. 

4 Honour destroys the evil man, just as its foal 
destroys the young she-mule.' 



Here endeth the First Portion for Recitation. 



3. 

1. Now at that time the Blessed One was seated 
preaching the Dhamma, and surrounded by a great 
multitude, including the king and his retinue. And 
Devadatta rose from his seat, and arranging his 
upper robe over one shoulder, stretched out his 
joined hands to the Blessed One, and said to the 
Blessed One : 

4 The Blessed One, Lord, is now grown aged, he 
is old and stricken in years, he has accomplished a 
long journey, and his term of life is nearly run \ 
Let the Blessed One now dwell at ease in the 
enjoyment of happiness reached even in this world. 
Let the Blessed One give up the Bhikkhu-sawgha 
to me, I will be its leader.' 

' Thou hast said enough, Devadatta. Desire not 
to be the leader of the Bhikkhu-sa/»gha.' 

[And a second time Devadatta made the same 
request, and received the same reply. And a third 
time Devadatta made the same request.] 

4 I would not give over the Bhikkhu-sawgha, 
Devadatta, even to Sariputta and Moggallina. 

1 This string of epithets recurs in Para^ika I, 1, 2, of old and 
venerable Brahmans. 



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VII, 3, *• DISSENSIONS IN THE ORDER. 239 

How much less, then, to so vile and evil-living a 
person as you 1 .' 

Then Devadatta thought : ' Before the king and 
his retinue the Blessed One denies me, calling me 
" evil-living," and exalts Sariputta and Moggallana.' 
And, angry and displeased, he bowed down before 
the Blessed One, and keeping him on his right hand 
as he passed him, he departed thence. 

This was the first time that Devadatta bore 
malice against the Blessed One. 

2. And the Blessed One said to the Bhikkhus, 
' Let then the Sawgha, O Bhikkhus, carry out 
against Devadatta the Act of Proclamation 2 in 
Ra^agaha, to the effect that whereas the nature of 
Devadatta used to be of one kind it is now of an- 
other kind, and that whatsoever he shall do, either 
bodily or verbally, in that neither shall the Buddha 
be recognised, nor the Dhamma, nor the Sawgha, 
but only Devadatta. 

'And thus, O Bhikkhus, shall the Act be car- 
ried out. Some discreet and able Bhikkhu (&c, 



1 In the text read Mavassa khe/ipakassa. On the first word, 
compare V, 2, 8. For the second the Dhammapada commentator 
(Fausbttll, p. 143) reads, as does the Sinhalese MS. in our passage, 
khe/isika. Buddhaghosa, explaining it, says, 'In this passage 
(we should recollect) that those who obtain the requisites (of a 
Bhikkhu) by an evil mode of life are said by the Noble Ones to be 
like unto spittle. The Blessed One calls him khe/apaka (to ex- 
press that) he eats, (that is, ' gains a living) in sin like that.' (For 
the Pali, see the edition of the text, p. 323, where the comma after 
khe/asadisS should be before it.) 

* Pakasaniya-kammara. This is not one of the regular 
official acts of the Samgha, as described in A'ullavagga I, and is 
only mentioned in this passage. It is not referred to by the 
Dhammapada commentator. 



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24O XULLAVAGGA. VII, 3, 3. 

in the same form as in I, i, 4, down to the end of 
the Kammava^a).' 

And the Blessed One said to the venerable Sari- 
putta, ' Do you then, Sariputta, proclaim Devadatta 
throughout Ra^agaha.' 

' In former times, Lord, I have sung the praises 
of Devadatta in Ra^agaha, saying, " Great is the 
power (Iddhi) of the son of Godhi ! Great is the 
might of the son of Godhi !" How can I now pro- 
claim him throughout ReLfagaha ?' 

' Was it not truth that you spoke, Sariputta, when 
you [so] sang his praises ?' 

'Yea, Lord!' 

' Even so, Sariputta, do you now, speaking the 
truth, proclaim Devadatta throughout Ra^agaha.' 

' Even so, Lord,' said Sariputta, in assent to the 
Blessed One. 

3. And the Blessed One said to the Bhikkhus : 
' Let then the Sawgha appoint Sariputta to the 
office of proclaiming Devadatta throughout Ra/a- 
gaha to the effect (&c, as before, § 2). And thus, 
O Bhikkhus, should he be appointed. First, Sari- 
putta should be asked, &c. (as usual in official ap- 
pointments 1 , down to the end of the Kammavaia).' 

Then Sariputta, being so appointed, entered R&^a- 
gaha with a number of Bhikkhus, and proclaimed 
Devadatta accordingly. And thereupon those people 
who were unbelievers, and without devotion or insight, 
spake thus : ' They are jealous, these Sakyaputtiya 
Samawas ! They are jealous of the gain and hospi- 
tality that fall to Devadatta !' But those who were 
believers, full of devotion, able, and gifted with in- 

1 See, for instance, I, aa, a. 



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VII, 3, 4- DISSENSIONS IN THE ORDER. 241 

sight, spake thus : ' This cannot be any ordinary 
affair 1 , in that the Blessed One has had Devadatta 
proclaimed throughout Ra^agaha!' 

4. And Devadatta went to A^atasattu the prince, 
and said to him : ' In former days, prince, people 
were long-lived, but now their term of life is short. 
It is quite possible, therefore, that you may com- 
plete your time while you are still a prince. So 
do you, prince, kill your father, and become the 
Rl£a ; and I will kill the Blessed One, and become 
the Buddha.' 

And prince A^atasattu thought, ' This worthy 
Devadatta has great powers and might; he will 
know (what is right).' And fastening a dagger * 
against his thigh, he entered with violence and at 
an unusual hour 8 , though fearful, anxious, excited, 
and alarmed, the royal chamber. And when the 
ministers who were in attendance in the private 
chamber saw that, they seized him. And when, on 
searching him, they found the dagger fastened on 
his thigh, they asked him : 

' What were you going to do, O prince ?' 

' I wanted to kill my father.' 

' Who incited you to this ?' 

' The worthy Devadatta.' 

Then some of the ministers advised ' The prince 
should be slain, and Devadatta, and all the Bhik- 
khus.' Others of them advised ' The Bhikkhus 
ought not to be slain, for they have done no wrong; 

1 Na orakam bhavissati. See Mah&vagga I, 9, 1, and 
JTullavagga VI, 4, 10, and our note on the latter passage. 

* Potthanikam. This word has already occurred at Mahi- 
vagga VI, 23, 3, 

' Divadivassa. See the use of this word at Gataka II, 1. 
Oo] R 



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242 tfULLAVAGGA. VII, 3, 5. 

but only the prince and Devadatta.' Others of 
them again said, ' Neither should the prince be 
slain, nor Devadatta, nor the Bhikkhus. But the 
king should be told of this, and we should do as 
the king shall command.' 

5. So these ministers, taking the prince with them, 
went to the Ra^a of Magadha, to Seniya Bimbisira, 
and told him what had happened. 

' What advice, my friends, did the ministers 
give ?' 

[When they had told him all (as before) he said] : 
' What, my friends, can the Buddha, or the Sawgha, 
or the Dhamma have to do with this ? Has not 
the Blessed One had a proclamation already made 
throughout Ra^agaha concerning Devadatta, to the 
effect that whereas his nature used to be of one 
kind, it is now of another ; and that whatsoever he 
shall do, either bodily or verbally, in that shall 
neither the Buddha, nor the Dhamma, nor the 
Saazgha be required, but only Devadatta ?' 

Then those ministers who had advised that the 
prince and Devadatta and all the Bhikkhus should 
be slain, them he made incapable (of ever again hold- 
ing office). And those ministers who had advised 
that the prince should be slain, and Devadatta, 
them he degraded to lower offices. But those 
ministers who had advised that neither should the 
prince be slain, nor Devadatta, nor the Bhikkhus, 
but that the king should be informed of it, and his 
command be followed, them he advanced to high 
positions. 

And the Ra^a of Magadha, Seniya Bimbisara, 
said to prince A^atasattu : ' Why did you want to 
kill me, O prince ?' 



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VII, 3, 7. DISSENSIONS IN THE ORDER. 243 

' I wanted a kingdom, O king ! ' 

' If you then want a kingdom, O prince, let this 
kingdom be thine!' And he handed over the 
kingdom to A^atasattu the prince \ 

6. Then Devadatta went to prince 2 A^atasattu, 
and said, ' Give such orders, O king, to your men 
that I may deprive the Samawa Gotama of life.' 
And Afitasattu the prince gave orders to his 
men : ' Whatsoever the worthy Devadatta tells you, 
that do!' 

Then to one man Devadatta gave command: 
' Go, my friend, the Samawa Gotama is staying at 
such and such a place. Kill him, and come back 
by this path.' Then on that path he placed other 
two men, telling them, 'Whatever man you see 
coming alone along this path, kill him, and return 
by that path.' Then on that path he placed other 
four men [and so on up to sixteen men} 

7. And that man took his sword and shield, and 
hung his bow and quiver at his back, and went to 
the place where the Blessed One was, and when at 
some little distance from the Blessed One, being 

1 The early literature already mentions that A^atasattu eventually 
killed his father. (See, for instance, Samawna-phala Sutta, p. 154.) 
Bigandet I, 261 (3rd edition) adds that the mode adopted was by 
starving him to death in prison. 

1 The Buddhist writers being so especially careful in their ac- 
curate use of titles, it is particularly noteworthy that A^-atasattu is 
here called prince (kumara) and not king (r&ga). It is almost 
impossible to avoid the conclusion that this paragraph stood 
originally in some other connection ; and that the events it de- 
scribes must then have been supposed to have taken place before 
A^&tasattu actually became king. That the Dhammapada com- 
mentator says here (Fausbdll, p. 143) tasmiw (that is, A^atasattu) 
ra.gge pati/Mite, is no evidence the other way; for that account 
is either taken from this, or depends ultimately upon it. 

R 2 



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244 rCJLLAVAGGA. VII, 3, 7. 

terrified, anxious, excited, and alarmed, he stood 
stark still and stiff 1 . 

On the Blessed One seeing him so, he said to 
the man : ' Come hither, friend, don't be afraid.' 

Then that man laid aside his sword and his 
shield, took off his bow and his quiver, and went 
up to the Blessed One ; and falling at his feet, he 
said to the Blessed One : ' Transgression, Lord, has 
overcome me even according to my folly, my 
stupidity, and my unrighteousness, in that I have 
come hither with evil and with murderous intent. 
May the Blessed One accept the confession I make 
of my sin in its sinfulness, to the end that in future 
I may restrain myself therefrom !' 

'Verily, my friend, transgression has overcome 
thee [&c, down to] intent. But since you, my 
friend, look upon your sin as sin, and duly make 
amends for it, we do accept (your confession of) it. 
For this, O friend, is progress in the discipline of 
the Noble One, that he who has seen his sin to be 
sin makes amends for it as is meet, and becomes 
able in future to restrain himself therefrom 2 .' 

Then the Blessed One discoursed to that man in 
due order, that is to say (&c, as usual in conver- 
sions s , down to) May the Blessed One accept me 
as a disciple, as one who, from this day forth as long 
as life endures, has taken his refuge in him. 

And the Blessed One said to the man : ' Do not, 
my friend, leave me by that path. Go by this 
path,' and so dismissed him by another way. 

1 Patthaddha; that is, prastabdha. See Sutta-vibhanga, 
Pira^ika I, 10, 17, 21. 

* This confession and acceptance are in a standing form, which 
occurs, for instance, at Mahavagga IX, 1, 9 ; Aullavagga V, 20, 5. 

8 See, for instance, .ffullavagga VI, 4, 5. 



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VII, 3i $>• DISSENSIONS IN THE ORDER. 245 

8. But the two men thought, ' Where now can 
that man be who was to come alone ? He is 
delaying long.' And as they were going to meet 
him, they caught sight of the Blessed One sitting at 
the foot of a certain tree. On seeing him they 
went up to the place where he was, and saluted 
him, and took their seats on one side. To them 
also the Blessed One discoursed, [and they were con- 
verted as the other man had been, and he sent 
them back by another way. And the same thing 
occurred as to the four, and the eight, and the 
sixteen men '.] 

9. And the one man returned to Devadatta, and 
said to him : ' I cannot, Lord, deprive the Blessed 
One of life. Great is the power (Iddhi 2 ) and might 
of the Blessed One.' 

' That will do, friend. You need not do so. I will 
slay the Blessed One myself.' 

Now at that time the Blessed One was walking 
up and down (meditating) in the shade below 3 the 
mountain called the Vulture's Peak. And Deva- 
datta climbed up the Vulture's Peak, and hurled 
down a mighty rock with the intention of depriving 
the Blessed One of life. But two mountain peaks 
came together and stopped that rock, and only 
a splinter 4 falling from it made the foot of the 
Blessed One to bleed 6 . 

1 The last two paragraphs of § 7 are repeated in full in the text 
in each case. 

* The Iddhi here must be the power of religious persuasion. 

' Y&kihi.yiy3.m. See Mahavagga V, 1, 5, and Mahl-parinib- 
bana Sutta II, 31 (p. 22 of the text). 

* Papatika. In the text, by a misprint, this and the preceding 
word have been joined together. 

5 Fade ruhiram uppadesi, where ruhira is equal to lohita. 



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246 JTULLAVAGGA. VII, 3, 10. 

Then the Blessed One, looking upwards, said to 
Devadatta : ' Great, O foolish one, is the demerit 
you have brought forth for yourself 1 , in that with 
evil and murderous intent you have caused the 
blood of the Tathagata to flow.' 

And the Blessed One said to the Bhikkhus : 
'This is the first time that Devadatta has heaped 
up (against himself) a Karma which will work out 
its effect in the immediate future 2 , in that with evil 
and murderous intent he has caused the blood of 
the Tathagata to flow.' 

10. And the Bhikkhus having heard that Deva- 
datta was compassing the death of the Blessed One, 
walked round and round the Vihara, making recita- 
tion in high and loud tones, for a protection and 
guard to the Blessed One. On hearing that noise 
the Blessed One asked the venerable Ananda what 
it was. And when Ananda [told him], the Blessed 
One said : ' Then, Ananda, call the Bhikkhus in my 



It is so used at Gataka II, 275, in the Milinda Panha, p. 125, and 
in the account of the present incident in the Dhammapada com- 
mentary (p. 144). In Mahtvagga I, 67, where it is said that one 
who has shed (a Buddha's) blood cannot be received into the 
Order, the expression is lohitaw uppadeti: and in numerous 
passages elsewhere it is added that such a lohitupp&dako be- 
comes ipso facto discharged from one or other of the duties and 
privileges of a member of the Order, just as if he had thrown off 
the robes. 

1 Pasutam. By a misprint the text has pasutaw. Compare 
the end of § 16 below. 

1 Anantarika-kammaw. That is, that will work out its 
effect, (not in the next birth, as is the case of all other Karma,) 
but immediately, in the present life. There are five such deeds 
(see Childcrs, sub voce pan£°, and Milinda Panha, p. 25). The 
Bodisats, according to (Jataka I, 45 (verse 256), are free from 
such sins. 



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VII, 3, ii. DISSENSIONS IN THE ORDER. 247 

name, saying, " The Teacher sends for the venerable 
ones." ' 

And he [did so], and they came, and saluted the 
Blessed One, and took their seats on one side. 
And when they were so seated, the Blessed One 
said to the Bhikkhus : ' This, O Bhikkhus, is an 
impossible thing, and one that cannot occur, that 
one should deprive a Tathagata of life by violence. 
The Tathagatas, O Bhikkhus, are extinguished (in 
death) in due and natural course. 

' There are, O Bhikkhus, these five kinds of 
teachers now living in the world (&c, as in VII, 2, 
3, 4, down to the end). And this, O Bhikkhus, 
is an impossible thing, and one that cannot occur, 
that a Tathagata should be slain by any act set on 
foot by any one besides himself. The Tathagatas, 
O Bhikkhus, are extinguished (in death) in due 
course (of nature). Go, therefore, O Bhikkhus, each 
one to his Vihara, for the Tathagatas require no 
protection.' 

11. Now at that time there was at Ri^agaha an 
elephant named Nalagiri, fierce, and a manslayer. 
And Devadatta went into Ra^agaha, and to the 
elephant stables, and said to the elephant-keepers l : 
* I, my friends, am a relative of the rasa's, and am 
able to advance a man occupying a low position to 
a high position, and to order increase of rations or 
of pay. Therefore, my friends, when the Sama«a 
Gotama shall have arrived at this carriage-road 2 , 
then loose the elephant Nalagiri, and let him go 
down the road.' 

1 Hatthi-bhaWe. See the note on Mahavagga VI, 37, 2. 
* RakkA&m ; that is, rathyam. Compare Gataka I, 346, and 
the Old Commentary on the Bhikkhuni-vibhahga, Pa&ttiya VII. 



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248 JSTULLAVAGGA. VII, 3, 12. 

' Even so, Sir,' said those elephant-keepers in 
assent to Devadatta. 

And when the Blessed One early in the morning 
had dressed himself, he entered Ri^agaha duly 
bowled and robed, and with a number of Bhikkhus, 
for alms ; and he entered upon that road. On 
seeing him the elephant-keepers loosed Nalagiri, 
and let it go down the road. And the elephant 
saw the Blessed One coming from the distance; 
and as soon as it saw him, it rushed towards the 
Blessed One with uplifted trunk, and with its tail 
and ears erect 

When those Bhikkhus saw the elephant Nalagiri 
coming in the distance, they said to the Blessed 
One : ' This elephant, Lord, Nalagiri, is fierce, and 
a manslayer, and it has got into this road. Let 
the Blessed One, 1 Lord, turn back : let the Happy 
One turn back.' ^ 

' Come on, O Bhikkhus. Be not alarmed. There 
is, O Bhikkhus, no possibility [&c, as in last section, 
down to the end].' 

[And a second and a third time the Bhikkhus 
made the same appeal, and received the same 
reply.] 

12. Then at that time the people climbed up on 
to the upper storeys of the houses, and on to the 
balconies, and on to the roofs. And those of 
them who were unbelievers and without faith or 
insight, said, ' Truly the countenance of the great 
Sama#a is beautiful ; but the elephant will do him 
a hurt 1 .' But those who were believers, full of 

1 The setting of this paragraph is parallel to § 3 above in this 
chapter ; the speech of the unbelievers is the same as that of the 
Ga/ilas at Mah&vagga I, 15, 4. 



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VII, 3, I a. DISSENSIONS IN THE ORDER. 249 

devotion, able, and gifted with insight, said, ' 'Twill 
be long e'er the elephant can fight a fight with the 
elephant (of men) ! ' 

And the Blessed One caused the sense of his 
love to pervade the elephant Nalagiri 1 ; and the 
elephant, touched by the sense of his love, put down 
his trunk, and went up to the place where the 
Blessed One was, and stood still before him. And 
the Blessed One, stroking the elephant's forehead 
with his right hand, addressed him in these stanzas : 
' Touch not, O elephant, the elephant of men ; for 

sad, O elephant, is such attack a , 
' For no bliss is there, O elephant, when he is 
passed from hence, for him who strikes the 
elephant of men. 
' Be not then mad, and neither be thou careless 8 , 
for the careless enter not into a state of bliss, 
' Rather do thou thyself so act, that to a state of 
bliss thou mayest go.' 
And Nalagiri the elephant took up with his 
trunk the dust from off the feet of the Blessed One, 
and sprinkled it over its head, and retired, bowing 
backwards the while it gazed upon the Blessed 
One. 

And Nalagiri the elephant returned to the ele- 
phant stables, and stood in its appointed place, and 

1 Mettena Aittena phari; literally, ' he suffused him with 
loving heart' Compare Rh. D.'s ' Buddhist Birth Stories,' i. p. 1 ia. 

* In nagamasado the m is inserted for euphony. See the in- 
stances given by Kuhn, ' Beitrage zur Pali-grammatik,' p. 63. 
Many others might be added; siva-m-ati^ase, Gataka, vol. i, 
verse 27; samana-m-aAala, Childers sub voce, &c. Compare 
the curious use of aside ti at A'ullavagga I, 27. 

* A play on the words is here lost in English (ma mado ma 
Aa pamado). 



r 



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25O ITULLAVAGGA. VII, 3, 13. 

became once more the tame Nalagiri. And at that 
time the people sung these verses : 
'They can be tamed by sticks, and goads, and 

whips, 
' But the great Sage has tamed this elephant with- 
out a weapon or a stick.' 

13. The people were angry, murmured, and be- 
came indignant, saying, ' How wicked is this Deva- 
datta, and how wretched \ in that he can go about 
to slay the Sama«a Gotama, who is so mighty 
and so powerful.' And the gain and honour of 
Devadatta fell off, while that of the Blessed One 
increased. 

2 Now at that time, when the gain and honour of 
Devadatta had fallen off, he went, surrounded by 
Bhikkhus, to people's houses, appealing for alms s . 

The people were angry, murmured, and became 
indignant, saying, ' How can the Sakyaputtiya Sa- 
ma«as live on food that they ask for at people's 
houses ? Who is not fond of well-cooked food ? 
Who does not like sweet things ?' 

The Bhikkhus heard (&c, down to) the Blessed 
One said to the Bhikkhus : ' Therefore do I lay 
down this rule, O Bhikkhus, for the Bhikkhus that 



1 Alakkhiko ti ettha na lakkhettti alakkhiko na^anatiti attho. 
Apakata-kammam karomiti na ^Snatlti na lakkhitabbo ti alakkhano 
passitabbo ti attho (B.). We venture to differ from both of these 
explanations, and to follow rather the derivation of the word, and 
the meaning of the corresponding Sanskrit term alakshmtka. 

* From here down to the ' decision ' is identical with the intro- 
ductory story in the Sutta-vibhanga to the 32nd Pa&ttiya, — a rule 
the previous existence of which is implied in the decision given 
here. 

* Vinwapeti is continually used in the Sutta-vibhahga in this 
sense, and even occurs already in the Patimokkha, Pa&ttiya 39. 



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VII, 3, 14- DISSENSIONS IN THE ORDER. 2$t 

(not more than) three shall enjoy an alms (together) 
at people's houses — and this for the sake of three 
reasons ; (to wit) for the restraint of the evil-minded, 
and for the ease of the good 1 , lest those who have 
evil desires should, in reliance upon a particular 
party (among the Bhikkh us), break up the Sawgha*, 
and (lastly) out of compassion for the laity 8 . (A 
Bhikkhu) who shall enjoy an alms in parties of 
more than three, shall be dealt with according to 
law 4 .' 

14 5 . Now Devadatta went to the place where 
Kokalika, and Ka/amoraka-tissaka, and the son of 
Kha#a?a-devi and Samudda-datta were, and said to 
them, ' Come, Sirs, let lis stir up a division in the 
Samawa Gotama's Sawgha, and in the body of his 
adherents '.' 

When he had thus spoken, Kokalika said to 
Devadatta, ' The Sama«a Gotama, Sir, is mighty 
and powerful. How can we [do such a thing] ?' 

' Come, Sirs, let us go to the Sama«a Gotama, 
and make the following five demands, saying, 

1 This whole phrase recurs in Sutta-vibhahga, Pira^ika I, 5, 11, 
and in the Anguttara NikSya II, 17, 2. In the latter passage 
Dr. Morris reads dummannunam; see his note at pp. 127, 128. 
But the Sanskrit Buddhist vocabulary Vyutpatti (teste BShtlingk- 
Roth, s. v. manku) authorises the use of dummaftku. 

1 So the Anguttara, loc. cit., has, in the same connection, 
gihtnam anukampaya p&pi££^£nam pakkhupa^MedSya. 

* See last note. The idea is here, of course, lest any particular 
layman should be burdened by providing for many Bhikkhus. 

* That is, under the 32 nd Pi/ftttiya, on which rule the Sutta- 
vibhaftga explains the phrase gawa-bho^ana. 

* Sections 14, 15, and the greater part of 16 recur, word for 
word, as the introductory story to the 10th Samgh&disesa. 

' In iakka-bhedam the first word no doubt connotes 'king- 
dom, lordship,' as in dhamma-£akka, lakkavatti, &c. 



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25 2 JCULLAVAGGA. VII, 3, 14. 

"The Blessed One, Lord, has declared in many a 
figure the advantages of the man who wishes for 
little, who is easy to satisfy in the matter of support 
and nourishment, who has eradicated evil from his 
mind, has quelled his passions, and is full of faith, 
of reverence, and of the exercise of zeal l . The fol- 
lowing five things, Lord, conduce to such a con- 
dition 2 . It would be good, Lord, if the Bhikkhus 
should be, their lives long, dwellers in the woods — 
if whosoever goes to the neighbourhood of a village 
should thereby commit an offence. It would be 
good if they should, their lives long, beg for alms — 
if whosoever should accept an invitation, should 
thereby commit an offence. It would be good if 
they should clothe themselves, their lives long, in 
cast-off rags — if whosoever should accept a gift of 
robes from a layman 3 , should thereby commit an 
offence. It would be good if diey should dwell, 
their lives long, under the trees 4 — if whosoever 
should (sleep) under a roof, should thereby commit 
an offence. It would be good if they should, their 
lives long, abstain from fish * — if whosoever should 

1 This is part of the standing ' religious discourse ' so often as- 
cribed to the Buddha in the Vinaya texts, and given at full in the 
.ffullavagga I, 1-3. 

* It was on precisely the same reasoning that a certain Bhikkhu 
in Mahivagga VIII, 28, 1, endeavoured to get the Buddha to con- 
vert to the rejection of all clothing. 

* At MahSvagga VIII, 1, 35, it is laid down that a Bhikkhu may 
either dress in cast-off rags, or accept robes from a layman, 
according as he likes. 

4 This dwelling under trees is expressly forbidden, as regards 
the season of the rains, in Mahivagga III, 12, 5. 

8 The rule of the Order is merely that no one may knowingly 
eat fish which he has seen or heard or suspected to have been 
caught for that purpose. See Mahivagga VI, 31, 14. 



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"VII, 3, 16. DISSENSIONS IN THE ORDER. 253 

eat fish, should thereby commit an offence." The 
Sama»a Gotama will not grant these things. Then 
will we gain over the people by means thereof.' 

' Yes ; it may be possible so to stir up divisions 
in the Sawgha, and in the party of the Sama»a 
Gotama. For the people believe in rough measures.' 

15. And Devadatta went to the Blessed One, sur- 
rounded by his friends, and made these demands 
[in the words just set out], 

' No, Devadatta. Whosoever wishes to do so, 
let him dwell in the woods ; whosoever wishes to do 
so, let him dwell in the neighbourhood of a village. 
Whosoever wishes to do so, let him beg for alms ; 
whosoever wishes to do so, let him accept invitations 
from the laity. Whosoever wishes to do so, let him 
dress in rags ; whosoever wishes to do so, let him 
receive gifts of robes from laymen. Sleeping under 
trees has been allowed by me, Devadatta, for eight 
months in the year ; and the eating of fish that is 
pure in the three points — to wit, that the eater has 
not seen, or heard, or suspected that it has been 
caught for that purpose.' 

And Devadatta, pleased and delighted that the 
Blessed One had refused the five demands, arose 
from his seat, and keeping him on his right hand as 
he passed him, departed thence with his friends. 
And he entered into Ra^agaha, and urged his view 
upon the people by means thereof, saying, ' Such 
and such things did we ask, Sirs, of the Sama#a 
Gotama. He would not allow them, but we live in 
accordance with them.' 

16. Then those of the people who were un- 
believers, and without reverence or insight, said, 
'These Sakyaputtiya Samaras have eradicated evil 



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254 JCULLAVAGGA. VII, 3, 16. 

from their minds, and have quelled their passions, 
while on the other hand the Sama»a Gotama is 
luxurious, and his mind dwells on abundance 1 .' 
But those of the people who were believers, and full 
of reverence and insight, were indignant, became 
vexed, and murmured, saying, ' How can Devadatta 
go about to stir up division in the Sa/#gha of the 
Blessed One, and in the party that is subject to him.' 

The Bhikkhus, hearing them so murmuring, told 
the matter to the Blessed One. 

' Is it true, O Devadatta, as they say, that thou 
goest about to stir up division in the Sawgha, and 
in the body of my adherents ?' 

' It is true, Lord.' 

'(Thou hast gone far) enough, Devadatta. Let 
not a division in the Sawgha seem good to thee 2 ; 
— grievous is such division. Whosoever, O Deva- 
datta, breaks up the Sawgha, when it is at peace, 
he gives birth to a fault (the effect of) which en- 
dures for a kalpa 3 , and for a kalpa is he boiled in 
niraya. But whosoever, O Devadatta, makes peace 
in the Sa/»gha, when it has been divided, he gives 
birth to the highest merit, and for a kalpa is he 
happy in heaven 4 . Thou hast gone far enough, 

1 Bahulliko bihulliya £eteti. Both these expressions occur 
above in Mahavagga VI, 15, 9, 10, and elsewhere (see, for in- 
stance, the introductory stories to G&taka, Nos. 6 and 32) as the 
standing expression for the opposite of the state of mind in which 
a good Bhikkhu ought to live. 

a MS te tuAH sawghabhedo. For the connotation of this 
phrase, compare below, VII, 4, 4. 

' Kappa/Mikam kibbisaxn. At Gataka I, 172, 213, 215, 
Prof. Fausbdll reads kappa/Miya. In saying that the fault itself 
(kibbisam) is to endure for a kalpa, the meaning of course is 
that its effects on the Karma will endure so long. 

* Either the text has here preserved (as in other cases elsewhere) 



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VII, 3. 17- DISSENSIONS IN THE ORDER. , 255 

Devadatta. Let not a division in the Sawgha, O 
Devadatta, seem good to thee. Grievous, O Deva- 
datta, is such division.' 

17. Now the venerable Ananda, having dressed 
himself early in the morning, went duly bowled and 
robed into R&fagaha for alms. And Devadatta 
saw the venerable Ananda proceeding through R&gu- 
gaha for alms. On seeing that he went up to the 
venerable Ananda, and said to him : ' At once, from 
this day forth, friend Ananda, I intend to perform 
Uposatha, and to carry out the formal proceedings 
of the Order, without either the Blessed One or the 
Bhikkhu-sawgha.' 

And when the venerable Ananda had gone through 
Ra^agaha for alms, and had returned from his 
rounds, and had finished his meal, he went to the 
Blessed One, and bowed down before him, and took 
his seat on one side. And when he was so seated, 
he told the Blessed One [what Devadatta had said, 
and added], ' This very day, Lord, Devadatta will 
break up the Sawgha.' 

Then the Blessed One, when he heard that, 
gave utterance at that time to this expression of 
strong emotion : 

' Easy is a good act to the good, a good act is 
hard to the wicked ; 

' Easy is evil to the evil, but evil is hard for the 
Noble Ones to do.' 



Here ends the Second Portion for Recitation. 



the fragments of earlier verses, or the poetical forms of the verses 
below at VII, 5, 4, have crept into the prose here, where we 
should otherwise expect sagge and niraye. 



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256 JTULLAVAGGA. VII, 4, r. 



i. Now Devadatta on that day, which was Upo- 
satha day, arose from his seat, and gave out voting- 
tickets 1 , saying, 'We went, Sirs, to the Sama«a 
Gotama and asked for the Five Points, saying — 
(&c, as above in VII, 3, 14 and 15). These the 
Sama«a Gotama will not allow ; but we live in ac- 
cordance therewith. Whosoever of the venerable 
ones approves of the Five Things, let him take a 
ticket' 

Now at that time there were five hundred Bhik- 
khus, Vesaliyans, and belonging to the Vaggian 
clan 2 , who had but recently joined the Order, and 
were ignorant of what he had in hand s . These 
took the voting-tickets, believing [the Five Points 
to be according to] the Dhamma, and the Vinaya, 
and the teaching of the Master. And Devadatta, 
having thus created a division in the Sawgha, went 
out to the hill Gaya-slsa, taking those five hundred 
Bhikkhus with him. 

Then Sariputta and Moggallana went to the 
Blessed One, and bowed down before him, and took 
their seats on one side. And when they were so 
seated, Sariputta said to the Blessed One : ' Deva- 

1 It may be noticed that Devadatta here takes upon himself the 
office of asalaka-gahipako without having been appointed to 
it in the manner required by the rule laid down in Alullavagga IV, 
9 and 10. On the process to be followed when voting with tickets, 
see IV, 4, 26. 

* So it is the Vaggi&ns from Vesdlt who are represented, below 
XII, 1, 1, to have put forward those Ten Points which gave rise to 
the Council and the schism at Ves&li a hundred years after the 
Buddha's death. 

* Apakatanwuno. 



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VII, 4, 2- DISSENSIONS IN THE ORDER. 257 

datta, Lord, has gone forth to Gaya-slsa, taking five 
hundred Bhikkhus with him.' 

' Verily, Sariputta and Moggallana, there must be 
a feeling of kindness towards those young Bhikkhus 
among you both. Go therefore, both of you, before 
they have fallen into entire destruction.' 

' Even so, Lord,' said Sariputta and Moggallana, 
in assent to the Blessed One. And rising from their 
seats, they bowed down before him, and keeping 
him on their right hand as they passed him, they set 
out for Gaya-sisa. 

Then at that time a certain Bhikkhu, standing not 
far from the Blessed One, began to weep. And 
the Blessed One said to him : ' Why, O Bhikkhu, 
dost thou weep ?' 

'Those, Lord, who are the Blessed One's chief 
disciples, Sariputta and Moggallana, even they have 
gone to Devadatta's side, approving the Dhamma of 
Devadatta.' 

' That, O Bhikkhu, would be impossible, that 
Sariputta and Moggallana should approve his teach- 
ing. They are gone only to gain those Bhikkhus 
over again 1 .' 

2. Now at that time Devadatta, surrounded by a 
great number of adherents, was seated, preaching 
the Dhamma. And when he saw from afar Sari- 
putta and Moggallina coming towards him, he said 
to the Bhikkhus : ' See, O Bhikkhus, how well 
preached must be my doctrine, in that even the two 
chief disciples of the Samawa Gotama — Sariputta 

1 Bhikkhu-sannattiya. The phrase occurs above at IV, 
14, 26, and below XII, 2, 8, and corresponds to the expression 
ga.na.rn sanflapeti (above, VII, 3, 14), used of Devadatta's trying 
to gain the people over to his views. 
[20] S 



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258 ffULLAVAGGA. VII, 4, 3. 

and Moggallana — are coming to join me, being 
pleased with my Dhamma.' 

When he had thus spoken Kokalika said to De- 
vadatta : ' O venerable Devadatta, trust not Sari- 
putta and Moggallana, for they are inclined towards 
evil, and under the influence of evil desires.' 

' Nay, my friend, let us bid them welcome since 
they take pleasure in my teaching (Dhamma).' 

And Devadatta invited Sariputta to share his 
own seat, saying, ' Come, friend Sariputta. Sit thou 
here!' 

' Nay (there is no need of that),' said Sariputta ; 
and taking another seat, he sat down on one 
side. And Devadatta instructed and incited and 
aroused and gladdened the Bhikkhus far into the 
night with religious discourse ; and then made re- 
quest to Sariputta, saying, ' The assembly, friend 
Sariputta, is still alert and sleepless. Will you, 
friend Sariputta, be so good as to think of some 
religious discourse to address to the Bhikkhus 1 ? My 
back is tired, and I would stretch myself a little.' 

' Even so, friend,' said the venerable Sariputta, in 
assent to Devadatta. And Devadatta spread his 
waist-cloth folded in four on the ground, and lay 
down on his right side. And in a moment even 
sleep overcame him who was tired, and had lost his 
presence of mind and his self-consciousness 2 . 

3. Then the venerable Sariputta taught and ex- 
horted the Bhikkhus in a religious discourse touch- 
ing the marvels of preaching, and the venerable 

1 Pa/ibhatu taw bhikkhtinam dhammt katha. See our 
note above on Mahavagga V, 13, 9. 

* Compare Mahavagga VIII, 16 = Sutta-vibhanga, Sawgha- 
disesa I, 2, 1. 



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VII, 4, 4- DISSENSIONS IN THE ORDER. 259 

Moggallana taught and exhorted the Bhikkhus in a 
religious discourse touching the marvels of Iddhi. 
And whilst they were being so taught and exhorted 
those Bhikkhus obtained the pure and spotless Eye 
of the Truth 1 — (that is, the knowledge that) what- 
soever has a beginning, in that is inherent also the 
necessity of dissolution. Then the venerable S&ri- 
putta addressed the Bhikkhus, and said : ' Let us 
go, my friends, to the Blessed One's side. Whoso- 
ever approves of his doctrine (Dhamma), let him 
come.' 

And Sariputta and Moggallana went back to the 
Ve/uvana, taking those five hundred Bhikkhus with 
them. But Kokalika awoke Devadatta, and said : 
'Arise, friend Devadatta ! Your Bhikkhus have been 
led away by Sariputta and Moggallana. Did I not 
tell you, Devadatta, not to trust Sariputta and 
Moggallana, in that they were inclined towards evil, 
and were under the influence of evil desires V 

Then hot blood came forth from Devadatta' s 
mouth 2 . 

4. But Sariputta and Moggallana went to the 
place where the Blessed One was, and bowed down 
before him, and took their seats on one side. And 
when they were so seated, Sariputta said to the 
Blessed One : 

' It were well, Lord, that Bhikkhus who have 
turned aside to schism should be received afresh 
into the higher grade of the Order.' 

' Nay, Sariputta, let not the reordination of schis- 

1 This expression is the standing one in conversions; see, for 
instance, Mahavagga I, 7, 6 ; AMavagga VI, 4, 5, VII, 3, 6. 

* The later legends preserved in Spence Hardy and Bigandet 
say that Devadatta died on the spot. 

S 2 



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260 JTULLAVAGGA. VII, 4, 5. 

matical Bhikkhus seem good to thee. But rather 
cause such Bhikkhus to confess that they have. com- 
mitted a thulla££aya offence. And how, Sari- 
putta, did Devadatta treat you ?' 

'When Devadatta, Lord, had instructed and 
aroused and incited and gladdened the Bhikkhus 
far into the night with religious discourse, he then 
made request to me, saying, " The assembly, friend 
Sariputta, is still alert and sleepless. Will you, friend 
Sariputta, think of some religious discourse to ad- 
dress to the Bhikkhus ? My back is tired, and I 
would stretch myself a little." This, Lord, was the 
way in which Devadatta behaved to me.' 

5. Then the Blessed One addressed the Bhikkhus, 
and said: 'Once upon a time, O Bhikkhus, there 
was a great pond in a forest region. Some ele- 
phants dwelt beside it ; and they, plunging into the 
pond, plucked with their trunks the edible stalks of 
the lotus plants, washed them till they were quite 
clean 1 , masticated them 2 without any dirt, and so 
eat them up. And that produced in them both 
beauty and strength, and by reason thereof they 
neither went down into death, nor into any sorrow 
like unto death. Now among those great elephants, 
O Bhikkhus, there were young elephant calves, who 
also, in imitation of those others, plunged into that 
pond, and plucked with their trunks the edible stalks 
of the lotus plants ; but they did not wash them till 
they were clean, but masticated them, dirt and all, 
and so eat them up. And that produced in them 

1 The last three lines have occurred word for word in Mah&- 
vagga VI, 20, 2. 

9 Samkhiditvi. Compare the use of this word at Gataka 
I. 5«7- 



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VII, 4, 6. DISSENSIONS IN THE ORDER. 26 1 

neither beauty nor strength ; and by reason thereof 
they went down into death, and into sorrows like 
unto death. Just so, O Bhikkhus, will Devadatta 
die who, poor creature, is emulating me. 

• Like the elephant calf who eateth mud in imi- 
tation of the great beast * 

That shakes the earth, and eats the lotus plant, 
and watches through the night among the waters * — 

So will he, poor creature, die that emulateth me.' 

6. 'A Bhikkhu who is possessed of eight quali- 
fications is worthy, O Bhikkhus, to do the work of 
an emissary. And what are the eight ? The Bhik- 
khu, O Bhikkhus, must be able to hear and to make 
others listen, able to learn, able to bear in mind, 
able to discern and to make others discern, skilful 
to deal with friends and foes, and no maker of 
quarrels. These are the eight qualifications of 
which when a Bhikkhu is possessed, he is worthy, 
O Bhikkhus, to do the work of an emissary. 

' Sariputta, O Bhikkhus, being possessed of eight 
qualifications, is worthy to do the work of an 
emissary. What are the eight (&c, as in last 
paragraph) ? 

' He who on entering a company that is violent of 
speech, 



1 Maha-varaha. At Abhidhanappadtpika, verse 1115, varaha 
is said to mean ' elephant ' as well as ' boar ; ' and so here Buddha- 
ghosa says Maha-varahassa maha-nagassa. As this explana- 
tion possibly rests only on such passages as the present, we have 
chosen an ambiguous rendering. 

"Nadisu^aggato ti. Ettha so kira hatthi-nago sayanha- 
samayam ta/w nadt-namakam pokkharamm ogahetvS kilanto sabba- 
rattiw vitinamesi gaYikam karoti. Tena vuttam nadlsu^aggato 
ti (B.). 



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262 JOJLLAVAGGA. VII, 4, 7. 

Fears not, forgoes no word, disguises not his 
message, 

Is unambiguous in what he says, and being 
questioned angers not, 

Of such is surely the Bhikkhu worthy to go on a 
mission V 

7. ' Devadatta, O Bhikkhus, being overcome, his 
mind being taken up by eight evil conditions 2 , is 
irretrievably (doomed to) remain for a Kalpa in 
states of suffering and woe 3 . And what are the 
eight ? He is overcome, his mind is taken up by 
gain, by want of gain, by fame, by want of fame, by 
honour, by want of honour, by his having wicked 
desires, and by his having wicked friends. These, O 
Bhikkhus, are the eight evil conditions by which 
Devadatta being overcome, and his mind being taken 
up.he is irretrievably (doomed to) remain for a Kalpa 
in states of suffering and woe. 

'It would be well, O Bhikkhus, that Bhikkhus 
should continue in complete ascendancy over any 
gain or loss, any fame or the reverse, any honour or 

1 On these lines compare some similar expressions at Mahavagga 
X,6, 3 . 

1 Asaddhamma. It is very difficult to find a proper rendering 
for this expression. Dhamma here means, no doubt, 'quality,' 
* condition' (as it does in the title of the Sanskrit work Saddharma- 
pumfarika, unhappily rendered by Burnouf, ' Lotus de la bonne 
loi '). But the details of the various particulars suggest rather the 
rendering ' surrounding occurrences ' or ' matters,' for they are ob- 
jective, external, and not (or only incidentally and secondarily) 
subjective, internal. 

- ' Apayiko nerayiko. 'Liable to re-birth in apaya and in 
niraya.' Of these the former includes the latter, and also the states 
of being an animal, a disembodied ghost (peta), or an asura. Hell, 
though a convenient, is a misleading translation of the latter of the 
two words, for the reasons given by Rh. D. on Maha-parinibbana 
Sutta I, 23. All the expressions used here recur below at VII, 5, 4. 



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VII, 4, 7- DISSENSIONS IN THE ORDER. 263 

dishonour, any evil longing or evil friendship, that 
may accrue to them. And for what reason l ? For 
as much, O Bhikkhus, that bad influences (asavas) 
arise, full of vexation and distress 2 , to one who is 
not continuing in complete ascendancy over each of 
these eight things, but to one, who is so continuing, 
such influences arise not. This is the reason, O 
Bhikkhus, why it would be well (&c, as before). 
Let us then, O Bhikkhus, continue in complete 
ascendancy over any gain or loss, any fame or the 
reverse, any honour or dishonour, any evil longing 
or evil friendship, that may accrue to us. And thus, 
O Bhikkhus, should you train yourselves. 

' There are three evil conditions, O Bhikkhus, by 
which Devadatta being overcome, and his mind 
being taken up, he is irretrievably doomed to re- 
main for a Kalpa in states of suffering and woe. 
And what are the three ? His having wicked de- 
sires, and his having wicked friends, and his having 
come to a stop on his way (to Nirva#a or Arahat- 
ship) because he had already attained to some lesser 
thing 3 . These are the three (&c, as before).' 

1 Kim (read kam) atthavasaw pa/i££a. So also above, 
Mahavagga VIII, 15, 7; A'ullavagga VII, 1, 6, and in the Maha- 
parinibbana Sutta V, 28, and Dhammapada, verse 289. The 
whole of the previous sentence is here repeated in the text. 

* Vighata-pari/aha. This is a standing epithet of the Asavas, 
recurring, for instance, many times in the Sabbasava Sutta, §§ 18- 
37 (Rh. D.'s ' Buddhist Suttas,' pp. 302 and following). The word 
'influence,' here chosen as a rendering for asava, is suggested by 
Dr. Morris as being similar, both in its derivation and in the history 
of its meaning, to the Pali one. The principal objection against it 
is that it has never acquired the bad connotation of asava, and re- 
quires, therefore, to be supplemented by some epithet. 

* Oramattakena visesadhigamena antara vos&nam 
apidi. On this phrase, which recurs in full in the Maha-parinib- 



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264 tfULLAVAGGA. VII, 4, 8. 

8. "Verily! let no wicked desire whatever arise 

within you ! 
Know rather from this what is the outcome 

thereof. • 
' Known was he as wise, reputed to be trained ; 
Aglow with glory did Devadatta stand ' (thus have 

I heard). 
He gave himself to vanity, to attacking 1 the Ta- 

thagata : 
He fell into the Avlii hell, guarded fourfold and 

terrible 2 . 
The injurer of the good, of the man who does no 

wrong, 
Him sin pervades, the man of cruel heart, and void 

of love. 
Though one should think the ocean to befoul with 

but one poison pot, 
Yet could he not befoul it, for awful 8 is the sea, 

and great ; 
Just so though one should injure the Tathagata by 

words, — 

bana Sutta I, 7, see Buddhaghosa's note there, quoted by Rh. D., 
' Buddhist Suttas,' p. 7. The ' lesser thing ' here referred to is 
doubtless the pothu^anikA iddhi mentioned above in § 4. 

1 Anukinno iszgga.na.rn. On the former of these two words 
the passages at Dipavamsa I, 18, and Gataka I, 20 (verse 126), 
and below, VII, 5, 2 = Mahavagga X, 5, 4, may be referred to. 
The latter seems to bear the same relation to asadana, ' attack,' as 
vikubbana does to vikarana. Buddhaghosa's notes (text, 
p. 325) presuppose different readings of both words. 

* 'Guarded fourfold' is £atudvara«, that is, 'having gates 
and the ramparts (through which they pass) on all four sides.' On 
the general sentiment of these stanzas, and especially of this line, 
compare the Kokaliya Sutta in the Sutta Nipata (III, 10). 

9 Bhasmi is explained by Buddhaghosa as equal to bhaya- 
nako. 



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VII, 5, i. DISSENSIONS IN THE ORDER. 265 

That perfect one, that peaceful heart, — against him 

the words would not avail. 
Let the wise Bhikkhu make a friend of, and resort 

to him 
By following whose way he will come to the end of 

griefs ! " 



5. 

1. Now the venerable Upali went up to the 
Blessed One, and bowed down before him, and took 
his seat on one side. And when he was so seated, 
the venerable Upali said to the Blessed One : 
' The expressions, Lord, " disunion in the Sawgha," 
and "schism in the Sawgha," are used \ How much, 
Lord, goes to make disunion and not schism in the 
Sa/»gha, and how much goes to make both disunion 
and schism in the Sawgha ?' 

' If one is on one side, Upali, and two on the 
other side, and a fourth makes a formal proposition, 
and gives them voting-tickets, saying, "This is 
according to the Dhamma, and according to the 
Vinaya, and according to the teaching of the Master. 
Take this (ticket) and give your sanction to this 
(opinion)" — then this, Upali, is disunion in the 
Sawgha, and not schism. 

' If, Upali, two are on one side, and other two 
are on the other side, and a fifth .... (and so on 
up to) and an eighth tell them something (&c, as 
before) — then this, Upali, is disunion in the Sawgha, 
and not schism. 

' If, Upali, four are on one side, and other four 

1 Samgha-ra^i and sawgha-bhedo. See Mahavagga X, 
1, 6, where other expressions, not here referred to, are also used. 



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266 JCULLAVAGGA. VII, 5, 2. 

are on the other side, and a ninth tell them (&c, as 
before) — then this, Upali, is both disunion in the 
Sawgha, and it is schism *. 

'(A separation) of nine, Upali, or of more than nine, 
is both disunion in the Sawgha, and it is schism. 

' A Bhikkhunt, Upali, cannot make (one of the 
requisite number to cause) a schism, though she 
may help to produce a schism — nor a woman novice, 
nor a S£ma«era, male or female, nor a layman, nor 
a laywoman. It is only a Bhikkhu who is in full 
possession of all his privileges, and belongs to the 
same communion, and is domiciled in the same 
district ' who can make (one of the number requisite 
to form) a schism.' 

2. ' There is the expression, Lord, " schism in 
the Sawgha." How much, Lord, does it require 
to constitute a schism in the Sawgha?' 

'They put forth 3 , Upali, what is not Dhamma 
as Dhamma (i), or what is Dhamma as not- 
Dhamma (2), or what is not Vinaya as Vinaya (3), 
or what is Vinaya as not Vinaya (4), or what has 
not been taught and spoken by the Tathagata as 
taught and spoken by him (5), or what has been 
taught and spoken by the Tathagata as not taught 

1 That is, stated shortly, it requires the breaking up of a body of 
at the least nine Bhikkhus to make a schism. 

1 Pakatatto samina-sawvasako samana-sim&ya /Aho. 
On the two last of these expressions, see our notes on Mah&vagga 
IX, 4, 8. The first is there wrongly rendered, and should be 
translated as it is here; see the frequent passages in which the 
word occurs (e. g. A*ullavagga 1, 5, 1 ; 1, 6, 1 ; I, 27, 1 ; II, 1, &c, 
where we have rendered it shortly ' a regular Bhikkhu '). 

5 The first ten of the following list recur word for word in the 
Anguttara NMya I, n, 1-20 (AdhammSdi-vagga), and the whole 
eighteen above in the Mahavagga X, 5, 4, 5. 



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VII, 5, 4- DISSENSIONS IN THE ORDER. 267 

and spoken by him (6), or what has not been 
practised by the Tathagata as practised by him (7), 
or what has been practised by the Tathagata as not 
practised by him (8), or what has not been ordained 
by the Tathagata as ordained by him (9), or what 
has been ordained by the Tathagata as not or- 
dained by him (10), or what is no offence as an 
offence (11), or what is an offence as no offence 
(12), or what is a slight offence to be a grievous 
offence (13), or what is a grievous offence to be a 
slight offence (14), or what is (a rule regarding) an 
offence to which there is an atonement as without 
atonement (15), or what is (a rule regarding) an 
offence to which there is no atonement as admitting 
of atonement (16), or what is a grave offence as 
not a grave offence (17), or what is not a grave 
offence as a grave offence (18). In these Eighteen 
Points they hinder and mislead (their followers) \ and 
perform independently Uposatha, and Pavara«£, and 
(official) acts of the Sawgha. So much, Upali, does 
it require to constitute a schism in the Sawgha.' 

3. ' There is the expression, Lord, " concord in 
the Sa/»gha." What, Lord, does it require to con- 
stitute concord in the Sa#zgha ?' 

' They put forth, Upali, what is not Dhamma as 
not Dhamma' (and so on through the Eighteen 
Points down to the end). 

a 4. ' To what (result of Karma), Lord, does that 

1 Both the exact Pali form and the interpretation of these terms 
are uncertain. Buddhaghosa's notes will be found at p. 325 of 
H. O.'s edition of the text, and most probably we should there read 
pari saw in both cases. 

* On the whole of the following section, compare above, VII, 
3, 1 6, where much of the phraseology recurs. 



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268 tfULLAVAGGA. VII, 5, 5. 

man give rise who brings about a schism in the 
Sawzgha when it is in concord ?' 

' He gives rise, Upali, to a fault (the result of 
which) endures for a Kalpa, and for a Kalpa is 
he boiled in Niraya.' 

"He who breaks up the Sawgha is (doomed) to 
remain for a Kalpa in states of suffering and woe 1 . 

He who delights in party (strife), and adheres not 
to the Dhamma, is cut off from Arahatship : 

Having broken up the Sawgha when it was at 
peace he is boiled for a Kalpa in Niraya." 

' To what (result of Karma), Lord, does that man 
give rise who brings about reconciliation in the 
Sawgha when it has been split up ?' 

' He gives rise, Upali, to the highest merit, and 
for a Kalpa is he happy in heaven. 
" Blessed is concord in the Sawgha, and the 

support of those who are at peace ! 
He who delights in peace, adhering to the 

Dhamma, is not cut off from Arahatship : 
On reconciling the Sawgha, when it was at strife, 
he is happy for a Kalpa in heaven." ' 

5. ' Can it be, Lord, that one who breaks up the 
Sa/wgha is irretrievably (doomed) to remain for a 
Kalpa in states of suffering and woe ?' 

' Yes, Upali, that can be.' 

' Can it be, Lord, that one who breaks up the 
Sa/wgha is not doomed to be reborn in states either 
of suffering or of woe ; that he is not doomed to 
remain so in such states for a Kalpa ; and that he 
(his position) is not irretrievable ?' 

' Yes, Upali, that can be.' 

1 On this line see our note above on VII, 4, 7. 



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VII, 5, 5- DISSENSIONS IN THE ORDER. 269 

* Who then, Lord, [comes under the first head ?]' 

' In case, Upali, a Bhikkhu gives out what is not 
Dhamma as Dhamma, directing his opinion and 
his approval and his pleasure and his intention 1 (to 
what he says and does); and in belief that the 
doctrine (he propounds) is against the Dhamma, 
and that the schism resulting therefrom would be 
against the Dhamma 2 ; and makes publication 
thereof 3 , giving out tickets, and saying, "Take 
this (voting-ticket): approve this (opinion)*. This 
is Dhamma ; this is Vinaya ; this is the teaching 
of the Master," — a man, Upali, who thus divides 
the Sawgha, is irretrievably doomed to remain for a 
Kalpa in states of suffering and woe.' 

[The above paragraph is then repeated in full, 
reading successively for ' in belief that the doctrine 
(he propounds) is against the Dhamma, and the 
schism resulting therefrom would be against the 
Dhamma,' each of the following clauses : — 

(6) . . . in belief that the doctrine is against the 
Dhamma, but that the schism resulting therefrom 
would be in -accordance with the Dhamma . . . 

1 Vinidh&ya &\tthim, vinidhSya khantiw, vinidhSya 
T\\k\m, vinidhiya bhivaw. These expressions all recur in the 
Sutta-vibhahga, Pa&ttiya I, a, a and following sections, where the 
question at issue is whether an erroneous statement is, or is not, a 
conscious lie. The meaning of the whole is clear, though each of 
the words is used in a rather uncommon sense. On khanti, 
compare di/Me sute khantiw akubbamSno (of the Arahat) at 
Sutta Nipata IV, 13, 3, and the standing use of the verb khamati, 
at the end of the KammavaMs. 

* Bhede adhamma-di/Mi; literally, 'in the schism (there 
will be) doctrine that is against the Dhamma.' 

* Anuss&veti, v/hich is here equivalent to the technical 'pub- 
lication ' required in the English law of libel and slander. 

* See the note above on VII, 4, 1. 



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27O JCULLAVAGGA. VII, 5, 6. 

(c) . . . in belief that the doctrine is against the 
Dhamma, but in uncertainty whether the schism 
resulting therefrom would be against the Dhamma 
or not ... 

(d) ... in belief that the doctrine is in accord- 
ance with the Dhamma, but that the schism result- 
ing therefrom would be against the Dhamma . . . 

(e) . . . in belief that the doctrine is in accord- 
ance with the Dhamma, but in uncertainty whether 
the schism resulting therefrom would be against 
the Dhamma or not . . . 

(/) ... in uncertainty whether the doctrine is 
against the Dhamma or not, but in the belief that 
the schism resulting therefrom would be against 
the Dhamma . . . 

(g) ... in uncertainty whether the doctrine is 
against the Dhamma or not, and in the belief that 
the schism resulting therefrom would be against the 
Dhamma . . . 

(k) . . . in uncertainty whether the doctrine 
would be against the Dhamma, and in uncertainty 
whether the schism resulting therefrom would be 
against the Dhamma or not . . .] 

[The whole paragraph is then again repeated, 
reading successively for * gives out that which is not 
Dhamma as Dhamma ' each of the Eighteen Points 
given in full in VII, 5, 2.] 

6. 'Who then, Lord, is one who breaks up the 
Sawgha, and yet is not doomed to be reborn in 
states either of suffering or of woe ; is not doomed 
to remain in such states for a Kalpa; and is not so 
doomed that his position is irretrievable ?' 

' In case, Upali, a Bhikkhu gives out what is 
not Dhamma as Dhamma [and so on successively 



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VII, 5i 6. DISSENSIONS IN THE ORDER. 2 7 1 

through the whole Eighteen Points] without direct- 
ing his opinion and his approval and his pleasure 
and his intention thereto, and in the belief that the 
doctrine he propounds is in accordance with the 
Dhamma, and that the schism resulting therefrom 
would be so too 1 .' 



Here ends the Third Portion for Recitation. 



Here ends the Seventh Khandhaka, on Divisions 
in the Sawgha. 



1 The sum of the last two sections seems to come to this, that 
practically such a schism as would have the awful effects set out 
above in § 4 would be impossible in Buddhism. For not only is a 
formal putting forward and voting on the false doctrine essential to 
schism as distinct from mere disagreement, but the offending Bhikkhu 
must also be quite aware that the doctrine so put forth is wrong, 
or at least doubtful, and also that the schism resulting from his 
action will be, or will probably be, disastrous to the Dhamma. In 
other words, the schism must be brought about by deliberately 
putting forward a doctrine known to be false, or at least doubtful, 
or with the express intention or hope of thereby injuring the cause 
of the Dhamma (that is, of the Truth). 



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272 tfULLAVAGGA. VIII, I, I. 



THE EIGHTH KHANDHAKA. 

Regulations as to the Duties of the 
Bhikkhus towards one another. 

1. 

1. Now at that time the Blessed One was staying 
at Savatthi, in Anatha Pi«dfika's Arama. 

Now at that time incoming Bhikkhus entered the 
Arama with their sandals on 1 , or with sunshades 
held up over them 2 , or with their heads muffled up 8 , 
or with their upper robe carried in a bundle on 
their heads 4 ; and they washed their feet in the 
drinking-water; and they did not salute resident 
Bhikkhus senior to them, nor ask them where they 
(the incomers) should sleep. 

And a certain incoming Bhikkhu undid the 
bolt 5 of an unoccupied room (Vihara), and opened 
the door*, and so entered by force ; and a snake fell 

1 That this was a sign of disrespect is clear from Mah£vagga V, 
12, and the 61st and 62nd Sekhiyas. 

' See our discussion of the sunshade question in the note on 
Aullavapga V, 23, 2. 

* OguwMitS. See the 23rd and the 67th Sekhiyas. 
' Sise katvl Compare VIII, 6, 3. 

* Gha/ikl This word is discussed at ATullavagga V, 14, 3. 

* Such an act has been already guarded against by the rule laid 
down at the end of ATullavagga V, 9, 5, where the same expression 
is made use of. 



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VIII, r,2. REGULATIONS AS TO DUTIES OF BHIKKHUS. 273 

on to his back from the lintel above 1 , and he was 
terrified, and made an outcry 2 . 

The Bhikkhus, running up, asked him why he 
did so. He told them that matter. Then those 
Bhikkhus who were moderate in their desires were 
vexed and indignant, and murmured, saying, ' How 
can incoming Bhikkhus enter the Arama . . . . ? 
(&c, as before, down to) ... . where they should 
sleep V 

They told the matter to the Blessed One (&c, as 
usual, I, 1,2, 3, down to) he addressed the Bhikkhus, 
and said, ' Therefore, O Bhikkhus, do I establish a 
rule of conduct for incoming Bhikkhus, according to 
which they ought to behave. 

2. ' An incoming Bhikkhu, O Bhikkhus, when he 
knows he is about to enter an Arama, ought to take 
off his sandals, turn them upside down 4 , beat them 
(to get the dust) off, take them (up again) in his 

1 Up a ri -pi //Ait o. On pi //A a (which we should possibly read 
here), as the lintel of a door, see our note above at AMavagga V, 
14, 3. It recurs immediately below, VIII, 1, 3. 

* Vissaram akasi. As Childers, sub voce, expresses doubt 
as to the meaning of this word, it may be well to note that this 
phrase occurs above, A^iillavagga V, 10, 2 and VI, 3, 4, and also 
in the Bhikkhuni-vibhanga, PaAittiya LX, and always in the sense 
here given. The meaning of the allied idiom, vissaro me bha- 
vissati, might be just doubtful as used in a peculiar connection at 
Bhikkhuni-vibhanga, Para^ika I, 1, and Sawghadisesa III, 3, were 
it not clear from ibid., PSiittiya LXXXVI, that it means simply 
' there will be an outcry against me.' 

* The form of this speech bears very clear testimony to the 
artificial way in which these introductory stories are put together, 
for the speech does not arise out of the story. Similar instances 
are not infrequent. See VIII, 5, 1. 

* Nik&m katvS. So also at VIII, 6, 2. The word is used 
below and at Mahavagga I, 25, n and 15 of a bedstead and 
chair, and below, VIII, 4, 4, of a bowl when it is being washed. 

[20] T 



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2 74 ZULLAVAGGA. Till, I, 2. 

hand, put down his sunshade, uncover his head, 
arrange his upper robe on his back 1 , and then care- 
fully and slowly enter the Arama. 

' When he enters the Arama he ought to notice 
where the resident Bhikkhus are gone to ; and 
whithersoever they are gone — whether to the ser- 
vice hall, or to the portico (mandapa), or to the foot 
of a tree — thither he ought to go, and laying his 
bowl on one side, and his robe on one side, he 
ought to take a suitable seat, and sit down. 

' He ought to ask as to the drinking-water, and 
the water for washing 2 , which is appropriated to the 
one use, and which to the other. If he has need of 
drinking-water, he ought to fetch it and drink. If 
he has need of water for washing, he ought to fetch 
it, and wash his feet. In washing his feet he ought 
to pour the water over them with one hand, and 
wash them with the other; he ought not to pour 
the water over them and wash them with one and 
the same hand. 

' He ought to ask for the cloths with which 
sandals are cleaned, and clean his sandals. In 
cleaning his sandals he ought first to wipe them 
with a dry cloth, and afterwards with a wet cloth : 
and then he ought to wash the cloths, and lay them 
on one side 8 . 

1 See the note below on VIII, 8, a. 

1 On these expressions, compare the note above on ATuUavagga 
IV, 4, 4 (at the end), and JTullavagga VIII, i, 5 = Mahavagga I, 
*& 19- 

* These cloths (£olaka«») are not specially permitted anywhere 
in the Khandhakas, as cloths for wiping the face and feet are in 
MahaWagga VIII, 18, and Zullavagga VI, 19, respectively. The 
word is used for 'duster' below, VIII, 1, 3, and for 'tinder' at 
Milinda Panha, p. 53. 



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VIII, 1,3- REGULATIONS AS TO DUTIES OF BHIKKHUS. 275 

' If the resident Bhikkhu be senior, he ought to be 
saluted ; if junior, he ought to be made to salute 
(the incomer). The incomer ought to ask as to the 
lodging-place, which has fallen (to his lot) 1 , and 
whether it is occupied or unoccupied. He ought to 
ask as to lawful and unlawful resorts 2 , and as to 
what families have been officially declared to be 
in want 3 . 

4 ' He ought to ask as to the retiring-places, 
(where they are), and as to the drinking-water, and 
as to the water for washing, and as to the staves 
for walking with, and as to the place for the con- 
ferences of the Sazwgha, (and as to) the time at 
which he ought to enter (it) and at which he ought 
to leave it. 

3. 'If the Vihara be unoccupied, he ought to 
knock at the door, then to wait a minute, then to 
undo the bolt, and open the door, and then, still 
standing outside, to look within. 

' If that Vihara is covered with dust 6 , or the beds 
or chairs are piled one upon another, and the 
bedding put in a heap on the top of them*, — then if 

1 See the rules as to the division of lodging-places according to 
the number of applicants at Abulia vagga VI, 21, 2, and especially 

VI, 11, 3. 

* Go£aro a go tar o. There were some places or families to 
which the Bhikkhus of a particular residence were not allowed to 
resort for alms. See the rule as to ' turning down the bowl ' with 
respect to a person at iTullavagga V, 20. 

* Sekha-sammatani kul&ni. See the note on the 3rd PaVi- 
desaniya. 

* All the following expressions have occurred together at .ffulla- 
vagga IV, 4, 4, where an example is given of the course of pro- 
ceeding here laid down. And they are repeated below, VIII, 2, 2. 

6 Uklipo. Compare A'ullavagga VI, 3, 9, and below, § 5. 

* This was the way in which a Bhikkhu, on going away from it, 

T 2 



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276 JTULLAVAGGA. VIII, I, 3. 

he can do so he ought to clean up the Vihara. 
'And when cleaning the Vihara, he ought to take 
the floor matting out and put it down on one 
side, and the supports of the bedsteads 2 , and the 
bolsters 8 and pillows, and the mat which is used as 
a seat. Putting the bedsteads and chairs down on to 
the ground, and carefully avoiding scratching (the 
floor with them) or knocking them up against (the 
door-posts), he ought to take them outside the door, 
and put them down on one side. The spittoon and 
the board to lean up against 4 ought to be taken 
out, and put down on one side 6 . 

' If the Vihara is covered with cobwebs, they 
should first be removed with a cloth*. The case- 
ments should be dusted, especially in the corners 
and joints. 

' If the wall which had been plastered and red- 
washed, or the floor which had been laid (with 
earth) and black-washed 7 , has become dirty in 
the corners 8 , they should be wiped down with a 

was to leave his Vihara. See below, VIII, 3, 2, and on the details 
of the terms used, see our note below on VIII, 1, 4. 
1 The rest of this section is repeated in full below, VIII, 7, 2. 

* Pa/ip&daka. Doubtless the same as forms part of the 
£ha££a-ma}1£a mentioned in the 18th Pa&ttiya and above, VI, 

a, 5- 

* Bhisi. See the note on MahSvagga VIII, 13. 

4 Apassena-phalakaw. See the note on JTullavagga VI, 
20, 2. 

6 All the expressions in this sentence and the next are the same 
as those used in a similar connection at Mahavagga I, 25, 15. 

* UllokS. See the note at A'ullavagga VI, 2, 7, according to 
which our rendering at Mahavagga I, 25, 15 should be corrected. 

7 On this mode of preparing walls and floors, see the notes 
above on ATullavagga VI, 20. 

8 Ka»«akitl See our note above on A*ullavagga V, ir, 3. 



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VIII, 1, 3. REGULATIONS AS TO DUTIES OF BHIKKHUS. 277 

duster 1 that has been first wetted and wrung out. If 
the floor has not been so prepared, it should be 
sprinkled over with water and swept 2 , lest the 
Vihira should be spoilt 3 by dust. The sweepings 
should be gathered together, and cast aside. 



The translation of our present passage at Mahavagga I, 25, 15, 
must be corrected accordingly. 

1 ATolaka. See the note on this word in last section. 

1 Samma^ati is to sweep (not to scrub), as is apparent from 
Mahivagga VI, 34, 1. 

3 Uhawni. So also at Mahavagga I, 25, 15. At Mahavagga 
I, 49, 4, we should have rendered ' defiled their beds ' instead of 
'threw their bedding about,' correcting uhananti of the text 
there into uhadanti. t)han (originally ' to throw up,' ' raise,' &c.) 
seems, like samuhan, to have acquired the meaning of to destroy, 
injure, spoil. From this meaning of spoiling, uhan evidently came 
to be used for, or confounded in the MS. with, u had, 'to defile 
(with excrement).' So the phrase 'uhananti pi ummihanti pi' 
(at Mahavagga I, 49, 4) exactly corresponds in meaning to 'omut- 
tenti pi uhadayanti pi' in Dhammapada, p. 283. There are 
other passages showing the same confusion. (1) The gerund, 
uha££a, which occurs in Gataka II, p. 71 ('iddni kho (ahan) 
tarn uha£4a'), is explained by the commentator to mean ' va££an 
te sise katva.' (2) uhanti, in Gatakall, p. 73 ('aggihuttafi ka. 
uhanti, tena bhinnd kama«</aluti'), must mean the same and 
be = uhadeti. For the monkey here referred to is said to have 
been guilty of the following dirty trick: — 'kuarfika' bhindati, 
aggisalaya va&kam karoti.' (3) mutteti ohaneti at Kuriyi 
Pi/aka II, 5, 4, represents u£Mra-pas£vam katvS at Gataka II, 
385. In the first of these passages uha^Aa may well be a copyist's 
blunder, arising from the similarity of the words, for uha^a. 
Dr. Morris, to whom we owe the comparison of these passages 
and the suggested emendation of Mah&vagga I, 49, 4, is rather of 
opinion that the words were confounded by the writers. For it is 
not an uncommon thing to find two words, not very remote in 
form or meaning, confounded together. It is well known that the 
English word livelihood properly and originally meant 'liveliness,' 
and has only afterwards replaced the earlier livelode, to which the 
sense of livelihood properly belongs. And something of this kind 



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278 *ULLAVAGGA. VIII, I, 4. 

4. 'The floor coverings 1 should be dried in the 
sun, cleaned, beaten to get the dust out, taken back, 
and spread out again in the place to which they be- 
longed 2 . The supports of the bed should be dried 
in the sun, dusted, taken back, and put in the place 
to which they belonged. The bed (ma»ia) and 
the chairs (piMa) should be aired in the sun, 
cleaned, beaten to get the dust out, turned upside 
down, taken back, carefully avoiding scratching 
them against the floor, or knocking them up against 
the door-posts, and then put in the place to which 
they belonged 3 . The bolsters and pillows, and the 

must have occurred, he thinks, in Pali in the use of uhan for uhad. 
The past participle uhata occurs at Aullavagga VIII, 10, 3. 

1 Bhummattharaaam; usually, no doubt, matting of various 
kinds, but occasionally also skins or rugs of the kinds specially 
allowed by VI, 14, 2. 

* YathSbh£ga». The use of this word here constitutes the 
only variation between our passage and that in the Mah&vagga I, 
25 = below, VIII, 7, 2, where it is replaced by yatha7/Mne or 
yathapa«wattaw. 

1 This passage throws a welcome light on the meaning of 
manJa and ptMa: for as they were to be beaten to get the dust 
out, it is clear that they were upholstered. The mare^a, or bed, 
must have been a wooden framework, stuffed (probably with 
cotton), covered at the top with cotton cloth, and made underneath 
and at the sides of wood. It had no legs fixed to it, but was sup- 
ported on movable tressels — the pa/ipidaki. When using it, 
the sleeper covered it with a mat, or a cotton sheet, and had over 
him a coverlet of some kind ; and these articles, which he would 
also use if he slept on the ground, constituted, together with the 
bolster and pillows, the senSsanaw or bedding, — that is, in the 
more special and limited use of that term (as, for instance, above, 
§ 3, and perhaps below, 7, 1). In its larger sense the same word is 
used, putting the part for the whole, for the whole sleeping ap- 
paratus, and is nearly equivalent to seyyiyo (so, for instance, in 
VI, 1 1 and 1 2, and below, VIII, 2,1; 6, 2 ; and perhaps VIII, 7, 1 ; 
whereas the latter term is used in the same connection at VI, 6, 



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VHI,l,5. REGULATIONS AS TO DUTIES OF BHIKKHUS. 279 

mats used as seats, should be aired in the sun, 
cleaned, beaten to get the dust out, taken back, and 
put in the place to which they belonged. The spit- 
toon, and the board for leaning up against, should 
be put in the sun, dusted, taken back, and put in 
the place to which they belonged. 

1 5. ' (Then the incoming Bhikkhu) should put away 
his bowl and his robe. In putting away his bowl, 
he should hold it in one hand while he feels under 
the bed or the chair with the other, and then put it 
away; and he should not put it on a part of the 
floor which has been left bare. In putting away his 
robe, he should hold it in one hand while he feels 
along the bamboo or the rope used for hanging 
robes on with the other ; and then hang it up with 
the border turned away from him, and the fold 
turned towards him. 

2 ' If the winds, bearing dust with them s , blow 
from the East, West, North, or South, the window 
spaces* on the side in question should be closed up 
(with shutters or lattices). If it is cold weather, the 
lattices should be opened by day, and closed by 

and VI, 11, 3). Say an a, in VI, 8, is a generic term including 
bed, couch, sofa, and divan, but probably with special reference to 
these three latter things used in the day-time. 

1 The following paragraph occurs, word for word, at Mahavagga 
I, 25, 11, and below, VIII, 7, 2. 

* The following paragraph is the same as Mahavagga I, 25, 18. 
' Sara^a vata. These are the well-known hot winds (like the 

sand-bearing simoom that blows from North Africa over Italy), 
against which modern residents endeavour to protect themselves 
by the use of ' tats.' 

* There were, of course, no windows in our modern sense, but 
only spaces left in the wall to admit light and air, and covered by 
lattices of three kinds allowed by VI, 2, 2. 



f 



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280 iTULLAVAGGA. VIII, a, I. 

night : if it is hot weather, they should be closed 
by day, and opened by night 

1 ' If the cell, or the store-room, or the refectory, 
or the room where the fire is kept, or the privy, is 
covered with dust, it should be swept out. If there 
is no drinking-water, or water for washing, they 
should be provided. If there is no water in the 
rinsing-pot 2 , water should be poured into it. 

'This, O Bhikkhus, is the rule of conduct for 
incoming Bhikkhus, according to which they ought 
to behave.' 



i. Now at that time resident Bhikkhus, on seeing 
incoming Bhikkhus, did not prepare seats for them, 
nor provide water and footstools and towels for 
them to wash their feet, nor go to meet them and 
take charge of their bowls and their robes, nor ask 
them whether they wanted drinking-water 3 , nor 
salute such of the incoming Bhikkhus as were their 
seniors, nor make beds ready for them. 

The moderate Bhikkhus murmured, &c, and told 
the matter to the Blessed One, &c, (down to) he 
said to the Bhikkhus : ' Therefore, O Bhikkhus, 



1 The following paragraph is the same as Mah&vagga I, 25, 19, 
and part of it is repeated below, VIII, 10, 3. 

* A^amana-kumbhi. This formed part of the sanitary ap- 
paratus for use in the privy. See above, Mahavagga V, 8, 3, and 
below, A'ullavagga VIII, 9 and 10. 

a All the above expressions are used at the opening of Maha- 
vagga IX. 



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VIII, 2,3- REGULATIONS AS TO DUTIES OF BHIKKHUS. 28 1 

do I establish a rule of conduct for resident Bhik- 
khus, according to which they ought to behave. 

2. 'A resident Bhikkhu, on seeing an incoming 
Bhikkhu, who is senior to him, ought to make 
ready a seat for him, provide water and a footstool 
and a towel for him to wash his feet, go to meet 
him, and take charge of his robe and his bowl, ask 
him if he wants water to drink, and if he can 
(bring himself to do so), he ought to wipe his 
sandals. In wiping the sandals, they should be first 
wiped with a dry cloth, then with a wet one, and 
the cloths ought then to be washed, and put 
aside. 

1 ' An incoming Bhikkhu ought to be saluted. A 
bed should be laid for him, saying, " This bed is for 
you." He should be informed whether (the bed- 
room) is occupied or not, what are lawful and' what 
are unlawful resorts, and what families have been 
officially declared to be in want. He should be 
told where the retiring-places are, and the drinking 
and washing water, and the staves, and the place 
for the conferences of the Sa*«gha, and what is 
the time when he ought to enter, and ought to 
leave (it). 

3. ' If (the incoming Bhikkhu) be junior to him, 
then (the resident Bhikkhu), keeping his seat, 
should tell him where he is to put his bowl and 
his robe away, and on which mat he is to sit down. 
The incoming Bhikkhu should be informed where 
the drinking and washing water are, and the cloths 
to clean sandals with ; he should be allowed to 
salute the resident Bhikkhu : and he should be told 

1 This paragraph corresponds to the last paragraph of VIII, 1, a. 



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282 JTULLAVAGGA. VIII, 3, 1. 

where his bed is, saying, " That bed is for you." 
He should be informed whether (that bedroom) is 
occupied or not (and so on, as in last paragraph, 
down to the end). 

' This, O Bhikkhus, is the rule of conduct for 
resident Bhikkhus, according to which they ought 
to behave.' 



1. Now at that time Bhikkhus, about to leave, 
started without setting the wooden articles and 
crockery in order, leaving doors and lattices open, 
and without giving the sleeping-places in charge to 
any one. The wooden articles and crockery were 
spoilt, and the sleeping-places were unprotected. 

The moderate Bhikkhus murmured, &c 

told the Blessed One, &c (down to) He said 

to the Bhikkhus : ' Therefore, O Bhikkhus, do I 
establish a rule of conduct for Bhikkhus about to 
leave, according to which they ought to behave. 

2. ' A Bhikkhu about to leave should, O Bhik- 
khus, put the wooden articles and earthenware in 
order, close the doorways and lattices, give the 
sleeping-places in charge 1 (to some one, and only) 
then set out. If there be no Bhikkhu remaining, 
a Samarcera should be put in charge. If there be 
no Sama»era remaining, the attendant who keeps 
the grounds in order 2 should be put in charge. If 

1 Senasanaw ipuk&AL Compare the Old Commentary on 
the 14th and 15th Pa£ittiyas. The lengthening of the last vowel in 
apu££^a is noteworthy. 

* Aramiko. In Mahavagga VI, 15, the king wishing to pre- 
sent a man for this purpose, it is there laid down that the Bhikkhus 



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r.vn 




VIII,3,3. REGULATIONS AS TO DUTIES OF BHIKKlK^J&frj.f, ^,A 

there be neither Bhikkhu, nor Sama#era, nor 
Aramika, the bed frame should be laid on four 
stones 1 , the other bed frames put on the top of it, 
the chairs should be put one on the top of the 
other, the bedding piled in a bundle on the top, the 
wooden articles and the earthenware should be put 
away in order, and the doorways and lattices should 
be closed 8 , and then should be set out. 

3. ' If the Vihara leaks, it should be repaired if 
he can, or he should exert himself to get the Vihara 
roofed. If he should thus succeed, it is good. If 
not, he should put the bed frame on four stones in 
that part of the Vihara which does not leak, and 
then put the other bed frame (&c, as in last para- 
graph, to the end). If the whole of the Vihara 
leaks, he should if he can take all the bedding to 
the village, or should exert himself to get it taken 
there. If he should succeed, it is good. If not, he 
should lay a bed frame on four stones in the open 
air, put the others on the top of it, put the chairs 
one on another, pile the bedding on the top, lay the 
wooden and earthenware utensils in order by them, 
and cover the whole up with grass or leaves, so that 
at least the principal articles of furniture might re- 
main (uninjured) 8 ; and (only) then go away. 

'This, O Bhikkhus, is the rule of conduct for 



may accept him ; and at A'ullavagga VI, 21, 3, a superintendent of 
such slaves is mentioned as one of the officials of the Order. 

1 This is the usual method still adopted by native servants as a 
safeguard against white ants, who would eat up into the legs of 
furniture left standing on the ground. 

* This arrangement is referred to above at VIII, 1, 3. 

* AftgSni pi seseyyuw. See Buddhaghosa's note as appended 
to the edition of the text (p. 325). 



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284 JTULLAVAGGA. VIII, 4, r. 

Bhikkhus about to leave, according to which they 
should behave themselves.' 



4. 

1. Now at that time the Bhikkhus did not give 
thanks in the place where a meal was served. 
People murmured, &c. ; the Bhikkhus heard, &c. ; 
the Blessed One on that occasion, &0 1 said to the 
Bhikkhus : 

' I allow, O Bhikkhus, the giving of thanks.' 

Then the Bhikkhus thought, 'By whom should 
the thanks be given ?' 

They told this matter to the Blessed One. 

' I allow, O Bhikkhus, the elder Bhikkhu (present) 
to give thanks in the place where a meal is served.' 

Now at that time (the turn to provide) the 
Sawgha with a meal had fallen to a certain com- 
pany 2 ; and the venerable Sariputta was the senior 
(Bhikkhu in that) Sawgha. The Bhikkhus, think- 
ing, 'The Blessed One has permitted the senior 
Bhikkhu to return thanks in the place where a meal 
is served,' went away, leaving the venerable Sari- 
putta alone. And the venerable Sariputta gave 
thanks to those people, and then came away alone. 

The Blessed One saw the venerable Sariputta 
coming from the distance; and on seeing him, he 
said to him : ' Did the meal, then, Sariputta, pass 
off well 3 ?' 

1 For the passages here implied, see I, 1, 2, 3. 

2 Awnatarassa pugassa. This sentence has already occurred 
at V, 5, 2. 

8 On this use of iddho, compare ovSdo iddho in the Bhik- 
khunl-vibhanga, Pa&ttiya LVI. 



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VIII, 4. 2- REGULATIONS AS TO DUTIES OF BHIKKHUS. 285 

' The meal, Lord, passed off well. But the Bhik- 
khus went away and left me alone.' 

Then the Blessed One, in that connection, having 
delivered a religious discourse, said to them : 

' I allow, O Bhikkhus, four or five of the Bhik- 
khus, who are senior or next to the seniors, to 
wait.' 

Now at that time a certain elder waited in the 
dining hall, though he wanted to retire, and through 
holding himself back, he fainted and fell. 

They told this matter to the Blessed One. 

' I allow you, O Bhikkhus, if necessity should 
arise, to leave the hall after informing the Bhikkhu 
sitting immediately next 1 (to the one who wants 
to go).' • 

2. Now at that time the AT^abbaggiya Bhikkhus 
went to the place where a meal was to be served 
with their under-garments or their robes improperly 
put on, and not decently attired; and turning aside 2 , 
they pushed on in front of the senior Bhikkhus ; and 
they encroached on (the space intended for) the 
senior Bhikkhus * when taking their seats, and they 
compelled the junior Bhikkhus to give up their 
seats to them ; and spreading out their upper robes 

1 Anantarikaw bhikkhuw. See the note on this phrase at 
VI, 10, 1. Anantarikaw in the text (with long i) is a mis- 
print. 

' Vokkamma, which is not, as Childers supposes, equal to 
okkamma with euphonic v, but to vyavakramya or vyut- 
kramya. 

* Anupakha^a: which is here used, not in the sense it has at 
IV, 14, 1, but in the sense in which it is used in the 16th and 43rd 
Pi&ttiyas, in both which passages it is explained by the Old Com- 
mentary by anupavisitvS. This clause and the next occur also 
at Mahavagga I, 25, 13. 



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286 JCULLAVAGGA. VIII, 4, 3. 

(as mats) x they took their seats in the space be- 
tween the houses 2 . 

The moderate Bhikkhus murmured, &c. . . . told 
the Blessed One, &c. ... he said to the Bhikkhus : 

' Therefore, O Bhikkhus, do I establish a rule of 
conduct for the Bhikkhus at a meal, which they are 
to observe thereat. 

3 3. ' When time has been called in the Arama, a 
Bhikkhu should put on his waistcloth so as to cover 
himself all round from above the navel to below the 
knees, tie his belt round his waist, fold * his upper 
robes and put them on, fasten the block on 6 , wash 
(his hands), take his alms-bowl, and then slowly and 
carefully proceed to the village. He is not to turn 
aside (from the direct route) and push on in front of 
senior Bhikkhus 6 . He is to go amidst the houses 
properly clad, with (his limbs) under control, with 
downcast eye, with (his robes) not tucked up, not 
laughing, or speaking loudly, not swaying his body 
or his arms or his head about, not with his arms 
akimbo, or his robe pulled over his head, and with- 
out walking on his heels. And he is to take his 

1 Siiragha/i/» ottharitva. This use of the Samghi/i is re- 
ferred to at Gataka I, 212, and above, I, 13, 2. 

8 Antaraghare. See Sekhiyas 3-26, repeated in the next sec- 
tion. It is perhaps doubtful whether this word may not mean here 
(as in Sekhiya 27 = below, § 6) the inner courtyard of a house 
which is surrounded by buildings ; but we follow the interpretation 
we have adopted, loc. cit. 

' The following section repeats the Sekhiyas, Nos. 3-26, where 
see further notes. Much of it recurs below in VIII, 5, 2. 

4 Sagu«aw katvi. Compare MaMvagga I, 25, 9. 

8 Ga«Mika«. See the note on V, 29, 3. It was to prevent 
the robe being blown up by the wind. The word occurs again in 
VIII, 5, a. 

* The following sentence is repeated, word for word, below, § 6. 



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VIII, 4, 4- REGULATIONS AS TO DUTIES OF BHIKKHUS. 287 

seat amidst the houses properly clad (&c, all as 
before, down to) not with his arms akimbo, or his 
robes pulled over his head, and without lolling, and 
without encroaching on (the space intended for) the 
senior Bhikkhus, or ejecting the junior Bhikkhus 
from the seats, or spreading his upper robe out (as 
a mat). 

4. 'When the water is being given out (before 
the meal), he is to hold his bowl with both hands, 
receive the water (in it), lower the bowl carefully 
down to the ground so as to avoid scratching the 
floor, and then wash it. If there be (a person there) 
whose duty it is to take away the water (which has 
been so used), (the Bhikkhu) should lower (his bowl 
on to the ground) and pour the water into the waste 
tub x without splashing the person in question, nor 
the Bhikkhus near, nor (his own) robes. If there 
be no such person, he should lower his bowl on to 
the earth and pour the water away, without splash- 
ing the Bhikkhus near or (his own) robes. 

'When the boiled rice is being given out, he 
should hold his bowl with both hands, and receive 
the rice in it Room should be left for the curry. 
If there is ghee, or oil, or delicacies 2 , the senior 
Bhikkhu should say: "Get an equal quantity for 
all." The alms (given) are to be accepted with 
mind alert, paying attention to the bowl, with equal 
curry, and equally heaped up 8 . And the senior 

1 Pa/iggahe. See the note on V, 10, 3. Avakkara-p&ti, at 
Maha%*agga IV, i, 2 = Aullavagga VIII, 5, 3, seems to have very 
nearly the same meaning. The whole of this paragraph is re- 
peated below, § 6. 

* Uttaribhangam. See the note on VI, 4, 1. 

* On the expressions in this sentence, compare the notes on 
Sekhiyas 27-32. 



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288 JTULLAVAGGA. VIII, 4, 5. 

Bhikkhu is not to begin to eat until the boiled rice 
has been served out to all. 

1 5. ' The alms given are to be eaten with mind 
alert, paying attention to the bowl, with equal curry, 
and equally heaped up ; without pressing down from 
the top ; without covering up the curry or the con- 
diment with the rice, desiring to make it nicer ; and 
without asking for either rice or curry for the Bhik- 
khu's own particular use, unless he be sick. Others' 
bowls are not to be looked at with envious thoughts. 
The food is not to be rolled up (by the fingers) into 
balls that are too large, but into round mouthfuls. 
The door of the mouth is not to be opened till 
the ball is brought close to it. When eating, the 
whole hand is not to be put into the mouth. He is 
not to talk with his mouth full, nor to toss the food 
into his mouth as he eats, nor to nibble at the balls 
of food, nor to stuff his cheeks out as he eats, nor to 
shake (particles of food off) his hands, nor to scatter 
lumps of rice about, nor to put out his tongue, nor 
to smack his lips, nor to make a hissing sound as he 
eats, nor to lick his fingers, or his bowl, or his lips. 
And the jar containing drinking-water is not to be 
taken hold of with hands soiled with food. 

6. ' The senior Bhikkhu is not to accept water (to 
rinse out his bowl with) until all Bhikkhus have 
finished eating. When water is being given out 
(after the meal .... &c, as in the first paragraph of 
§ 4, down to the end). The water that has been 
used for washing the bowl is not to be thrown with 
the rinsings in it into the inner court 2 . 



1 This paragraph repeats Sekhiyas 31-55, where see our notes. 
8 This is the 57th Sekhiya. 



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VIII, 5, i. REGULATIONS AS TO DUTIES OF BHIKKHUS. 289 

' In returning, the junior Bhikkhus are to go back 
first, and the senior Bhikkhus after them. Each 
Bhikkhu is to pass amidst the houses properly 
clad .... (&c, as above, § 3, down to) without walk- 
ing on his heels. 

' This, O Bhikkhus, is the rule of conduct that I 
establish for Bhikkhus at a meal, which they are to 
observe thereat.' 

Here ends the First Portion for Recitation. 



1. Now at that time Bhikkhus who were going 
on their rounds for alms did so with their under gar- 
ments or their robes improperly put on, and not 
decently attired, and they entered dwellings without 
deliberation, and left them without deliberation, and 
they entered dwellings roughly, and left them 
roughly, and they stood at too great a distance or 
too near, and they stood too long or turned back 
too soon. 

And a certain Bhikkhu, on his round for alms, 
entered a dwelling without noticing where he was 
going to, and taking (a doorway) for a house-door 
he passed into an inner chamber. A woman was 
lying asleep, naked on her back in that chamber ; 
and when the Bhikkhu saw her he went out again, 
perceiving that that was no house-door, but a 
chamber. Now the husband of that woman, seeing 
his wife in that position in the chamber, thought : 
' My wife has been defiled by that Bhikkhu.' And 
he seized him, and beat him. 
[ao] U 



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29O XVLLAVAGGA. VIII, 5, 3. 

But the woman, being woke up by the noise, 
said to the man, 'Why, Sir, are you beating this 
Bhikkhu ?' 

' You have been defiled by this Bhikkhu.' 

' Not so, Sir. This Bhikkhu has done nothing' 
(said she), and had the Bhikkhu set free. 

Then the Bhikkhu, on going to the Arama, told 
the matter to the Bhikkhus .... murmured .... 
told the Blessed One .... he said to the Bhik- 
khus : 

' Therefore, O Bhikkhus, do I establish a rule of 
conduct for Bhikkhus going their rounds for alms, 
which they are to observe therein. 

2. 'A Bhikkhu, O Bhikkhus, who intends to go 
his round for alms, should put on his waistcloth 
(&c, as in chapter 4, § 3, sentences 1 and 3, down 
to the end). 

'When he enters a dwelling, he should take 
notice (where he goes, saying to himself), " By this 
way will I go in, and by this way will I come out" 
He should not go in, nor come out, roughly. He 
should not stand too far off, nor too near, nor too 
long ; and he should not turn back too easily. 

'As he stands still he should notice where (the 
people in the house) seem willing or not willing to 
give (him food). If she lays aside her work, or 
rises from her seat, or wipes a spoon, or wipes or 
puts ready a dish, he. should stand still, perceiving 
that she seems willing to give. 

' When food is being given to him, he should lift 
up his robe (Sawgha/i) with his left hand so as to 
disclose his bowl x , take the bowl in both his hands, 

1 The bowl is always carried by the left hand under the robe. 
On pawameti, see the note at V, 9, 5. 



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VIII,5,3- REGULATIONS AS TO DUTIES OF BHIKKHUS. 29 1 

and receive the food into it. And he should not 
look into the face of the woman who is giving the 
food. 

' He should take notice whether she seems willing 
or not to give curry. If she wipes a spoon, or 
wipes or puts aside a dish, he should stand still, per- 
ceiving that she seems willing to give. 

' After the food has been given, he should cover 
up the bowl with his robe, and turn back slowly and 
carefully. He should pass through the houses (on 
his way back) properly clad .... (&c, as in § 3, 
sentence 3, down to the end). 

1 3. 'He who comes back first from the village, 
from his round for alms, should make seats ready, 
and place the water and footstools and towels ready 
there for washing feet, and clean the waste-tub* 
and put it ready, and put ready water to drink and 
water for washing. 

4 He who comes back last from the village, from 
his round for alms, may eat if there be any food left 
(from the meal of the other Bhikkhus), if he desires 
to do so. If he does not desire to do so, he should 
throw away the leavings on the (ground at a place) 
which is free from grass, or pour them away into 
water in which there are no living things. He 
should put away the water, footstools, and towels 
used for washing feet, clean the waste-tub and put 
it away, put away the drinking-water and the water 



1 The following section is, word for word, parallel to Mah&vagga 
IV, 1, 2-4. 

* Avakkira-pitt. We have had pa/iggaha usid just above 
(VIII, 4, 4) in a very similar sense and connection. The present 
word occurs also at Mah&vagga IV, 1, 3. 

U 2 



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292 CTJLLAVAGGA. VIII, 6, I. 

for washing, and sweep the room where the meal 
was eaten. 

' Whosoever sees a pot for drinking-water or for 
washing-water, or a chamber utensil empty and 
void, should put it in its proper place. If he is not 
able to do so single-handed, he should call some one 
else, and they should put it away with their united 
effort, and silence should not be broken on that 
account l . 

' This, O Bhikkhus, is the rule of conduct which 
I establish for Bhikkhus going their rounds for 
alms, which they are to observe therein.' 



6. 

I. Now at that time a number of Bhikkhus dwelt 
in the woods ; and they provided neither drinking- 
water, nor water for washing, nor fire, nor drill 
sticks nor tinder (for starting a fire) 2 ; nor did they 
know the stations of the constellations, nor the 
divisions of the (ten) ' directions' (of the sky). 

Thieves went there and said to the Bhikkhus, 
' Have you, Sirs, got drinking-water ?' 

1 Yi.ia.rn bhindati. To break silence by speaking. See 
Mahavagga IV, i, 3, where it makes good sense. 

1 Arani-sahitam, on which Buddhaghosa merely says aram- 
sahite sad aggim katuw pi va//ati. In the Gitaka Commentary 
(I, 212, ed. FausbOll) we have the phrase ara»i-sahita/B niha- 
ritvd aggim karonti. At p. 34 of the Assalayana Sutta (ed. 
Pischel) we hear of there being an upper and lower stick to the 
ara«i ; and at p. 53 of the Milinda Pawha (ed. Trenckner) we find 
the same upper and lower sticks, the thong by which to turn the 
latter, and the piece of rag for tinder mentioned as the constituent 
parts of this ancient means of producing fire. The expression in 
the text is probably a collective term for the whole of these. 



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VIII,6,a. REGULATIONS AS TO DUTIES OF BHIKKHUS. 293 

' No, friends, we have not' 

' Have you, Sirs, got water for washing ?' 

' No, friends, we have not.' 

' Have you, Sirs, got fire ?' 

' No, friends, we have not.' 

' Have you, Sirs, got sticks and tinder for pro- 
ducing fire ?' 

' No, friends, we have not.' 

'With what (constellation is the moon now in) 
conjunction?' 

' That, friends, we do not know.' 

' Which direction is this ?' 

' That, friends, we do not know.' 

[On hearing these answers] 1 , the thieves said, 
' These are thieves. These men are no Bhikkhus.' 
And they beat them, and went away. 

The Bhikkhus told this matter to the Bhikkhus. 
The Bhikkhus told it to the Blessed One. Then 
the Blessed One, on that occasion and in that con- 
nection, after delivering a religious discourse, said to 
the Bhikkhus : 

' Therefore, O Bhikkhus, do I establish a rule of 
conduct for Bhikkhus dwelling in the woods, accord- 
ing to which they are to behave themselves therein. 

2. 'A Bhikkhu, O Bhikkhus, who is dwelling in 
the woods, should rise betimes, place his bowl in the 
bag 2 , hang it over his shoulder, arrange his upper 
robe over his back (over both shoulders) 3 , get on 

1 They are all repeated in the text. 

* Thavika. This is possibly one of the bags referred to in the 
permission granted by Mahavagga VIII, 20, but it was only to be 
used when the bowl had to be carried a long distance, and not 
when passing through a village. (See the beginning of the next 
section.) 

' JHvaram khandhe katva: either in contradistinction to 



/ 



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294 tfULLAVAGGA. VIII, 6, 3. 

his sandals, put the utensils of wood and earthen- 
ware in order, close the doorway and lattice, and 
then leave his lodging-place. 

' When he perceives that he is about to enter a 
village, he should take off his sandals, turn them 
upside down 1 , beat them to get the dust out, put 
them into a bag, hang it over his shoulder, put on 
his waistcloth [and so on as laid down for a 
Bhikkhu entering the village for alms above, VIII, 
5, 2, paragraph i, to the end]. 

3. ' On leaving a village he should put the bowl 
into its bag, hang it over his shoulder, roll his robes up, 
put them on his head 2 , get on his sandals, and-then go. 

'A Bhikkhu living in the woods, O Bhikkhus, 
should keep drinking-water, and water for washing, 
and fire, and drill sticks and tinder, and walking 
staves ready. He should learn the stations (of the 
moon) in the constellations, either in the whole or in 
part, and he should know the directions of the sky. 

' This, O Bhikkhus, is the rule of conduct that 
I lay down for Bhikkhus dwelling in the woods, 
according to which they should behave themselves 
therein.' 



7. 

i. Now at that time a number of Bhikkhus 
carried on robe-making in the open air. The 
A"^abbaggiya Bhikkhus beat their bedding to get 

ekamsam £tvaram katva (on which question there is a great 
division among modern Buddhists. Compare Rh. D.'s note on the 
Maha-parinibbana Sutta VI, 47), or possibly ' put it in a roll on his 
back.' 

1 On this expression, see above, VIII, i, 2. 

* See Mahavagga VIII, 13, 1. 



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VIII,7,a. REGULATIONS AS TO DUTIES OF BHIKKHUS. 295 

the dust out in the open space 1 to windward of 
them, and covered the Bhikkhus (who were at 
work) with dust. 

The moderate Bhikkhus murmured, &c told 

the Blessed One, &c and he said to the Bhik- 
khus: 

' Therefore, O Bhikkhus, do I establish a rule of 
conduct for the Bhikkhus in respect of lodging- 
places, according to which they are to behave them- 
selves in respect thereof. 

2. ' In whatever Vihira he is staying, if that 
Vihira is dirty, he should, if he can, make it clean. 
When cleaning the Vihira, he should first take out 
his bowl and his robe and the mat used for sitting 
upon, and the bolster and pillows, and put them 
down on one side. Taking the bed-frame down 
(from its stand), he should carry it out [and so on as 
in VIII, 1, 2, down to the end] 8 . 

' He should not beat the bedding to get the dust 
out close to the Bhikkhus, or to the Vihara, or to 
the drinking-water, or to the water for washing, or 
in the open space (in front of the Vihira) to wind- 
ward of it or the Bhikkhus, but to leeward. 

1 Ahgana. This is not ' courtyard,' as Childers renders it, but 
a part of the Arima, immediately in front of the hut or VMra, 
which is kept as an open space, and daily swept. The Sinhalese 
name for it is mid ul a ; there those who sleep in the hut spend the 
greater part of the day, and not even grass is allowed to grow upon 
it. The term is a very common one, and its meaning is not doubt- 
ful. Compare the Gataka book, I, 124, 151, 421; II, 249, 250, 
345. Ekanganam bhavati, at ibid. I, 53, 12, is to become one 
open space, as ekanganam karoti at II, 357, is to clear a forest, 
and turn it into an open space. 

9 The order is slightly different, but all the details are the same. 
The only addition is that in speaking of taking out the floor cover- 
ings, he is directed to notice where they lay. 



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296 tfULLAVAGGA. VIII, 7, 4. 

3. 'The floor coverings should be dried in the 
sun [and so on as in VIII, i, 4, and 5, to the end, 
reading " in the place where it stood (or lay) " for " in 
the place to which it belongs"]. 

4. ' If he is dwelling in the same Vihara with an 
older (Bhikkhu), no recitation should be given, 
nor examination held, nor exhortation made, nor 
Dhamma spoken * (to a pupil), without leave being 
asked of the senior. Nor should a lamp be lighted 
or extinguished, nor the lattices opened or closed, 
without his leave. 

' If he is walking up and down on the same 
A'ankama with an older (Bhikkhu), then he should 
turn back at the spot where his senior turns back ; 
and he should not touch his senior even with the 
corner of his robe. 

' This, O Bhikkhus, is the rule of conduct that I 
lay down for the Bhikkhus in respect of lodging- 
places, according to which they are to behave them- 
selves therein.' 



8. 

1. Now at that time the AVzabbaggiya Bhikkhus, 
on being hindered by the senior Bhikkhus in (their 
use of) the hot bath-room, out of spite piled up a 
quantity of sticks (in the fireplace), set fire to them, 
closed up the doorway, and sat down in the door- 
way. The Bhikkhus, scorched by the heat, and 
not being allowed a way out, fell down in a faint. 

The sober Bhikkhus murmured, &c told 

the Blessed One, &c He said to the Bhik- 

1 All the preceding expressions have occurred at Mahavagga I, 
26, 1 ; see also 32, 1, and 38, 6. 



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VIII, 8, 2. REGULATIONS AS TO DUTIES OF BHIKKHUS. 297 

khus, ' No one, O Bhikkhus, is to [do so]. Whoso- 
ever does, shall be guilty of a dukka/a. 

2. ' Therefore, O Bhikkhus, do I establish a rule 
of conduct for the Bhikkhus, in respect of the hot 
bath-room 1 , according to which they ought to 
behave themselves therein. 

'Whosoever first enters the bath-room, if ashes 
have accumulated (in the fireplace) should throw the 
ashes out. If the hot bath-room, or its prepared 
flooring, or the cell, or the ante-chamber of the 
bath, or the cooling-room, or the hall are dirty, 
they should be swept. The chunam should be 
pounded, the clay moistened with water, and water 
poured into the water-jar. 

' When entering the hot bath-room, the face 
should be smeared over with clay, and the person 
well covered up in front and behind before enter- 
ing. A seat is not to be taken so as to hustle the 
senior Bhikkhus, and junior Bhikkhus are not to be 
ousted from their seats. If possible, shampooing is 
to be performed for the senior Bhikkhus in the hot 
bath-room. 

' When leaving the hot bath-room, the chair (that 
has been used to sit on before the fire) should be 
carried off, and the person well covered up before 
and behind before leaving. If possible, shampooing 
is to be performed for the senior Bhikkhus in the 
water also. 

' A bath is not to be taken in front of the senior 
Bhikkhus, nor above them. One who has bathed 



1 Gantaghara, not simply bath-room, but room in which hot 
or steam baths were taken. Most of the following expressions 
occur in Mahavagga I, 25, 12, or above at V, 14, 3. 



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298 JSTULLAVAGGA. VIII, 9-14. 

and is getting up out (of the water) is to make way 
for one who is getting down into the water. 

' Whoso comes last out of the hot bath-room is to 
wash it, if it be dirty ; to wash the vessel in which 
the clay is kept, to put the chairs used in the hot 
bath-room in order, to extinguish the fire, to close 
up the doorway, and then come out. 

' This, O Bhikkhus, is the rule of conduct which 
I lay down for the Bhikkhus, in respect of the hot 
bath-room, according to which they are to behave 
themselves therein.' 



9 and 10. 

[These chapters deal with the manner of using 
the privies, and other sanitary arrangements de- 
scribed in V, 35, where see our note.] 



11, 12, 13, and 14. 

[These chapters simply repeat, word for word, 
Mahavagga I, 25, 14-24; I, 26, 1-11; I, 32, 3; 
and I, 33 respectively.] 



Here ends the Eighth Khandhaka, containing 
the Rules for Conduct. 



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IX, I, I. ON EXCLUSION FROM THE PATIMOKKHA. 299 



NINTH KHANDHAKA. 
On Exclusion from the PAtimokkha Ceremony. 



1. Now at that time the Blessed One was staying 
at Savatthi, in the Eastern Ar&ma, the mansion of 
the mother of Migara. And at that time, it being 
Uposatha Day, the Blessed One was seated in the 
midst of the Bhikkhu-sawgha. And the venerable 
Ananda, when the night was far spent, when the 
first watch was passing away, arose from his seat, 
arranged his robe over one shoulder, and stretching 
out his joined hands towards the Blessed One, said 
to the Blessed One : 

' The night, Lord, is far spent. The first watch 
is passing away. For a long time has the Bhikkhu- 
sawgha been seated here. Let my lord the Blessed 
One recite to the Bhikkhus the Patimokkha.' 

When he had thus spoken, the Blessed One re- 
mained silent. And a second time, when the second 
watch was passing away [he made the same request 
with the same result]. And a third time, when the 
third watch had begun, and the dawn was breaking 1 
[he made the same request]. 

' The assembly, Ananda, is not pure 2 .' 

1 Nandimukhiya rattiyd ti arunadhata-kale piti-mukha viya 
ratti khiyati ten' aha nandimukhiya ti (B.). See also our note on 
this at Mahavagga VIII, 13, 1. 

* That is, there is some one present who is disqualified by some 



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300 JTULLAVAGGA. IX, I, a. 

2. Then the venerable Maha. Moggallana 
thought, 'What individual can the Blessed One 
be referring to in that he says, " The assembly, 
Ananda, is not pure.'" And the venerable Maha 
Moggallana considered the whole Bhikkhu-sawgha, 
penetrating their minds with his. Then the vener- 
able Mahi Moggallana perceived who was that in- 
dividual, — evil in conduct, wicked in character, of 
impure and doubtful 1 behaviour, not a Sama»a 
though he had taken the vows of one, not a re- 
ligious student though he had taken the vows of 
one, foul within, full of cravings, a worthless 
creature, — who had taken his seat amongst the 
Bhikkhu-sawgha. On perceiving which it was, he 
went up to that individual, and said to him, 
' Arise, Sir ! The Blessed One has found you out. 
There can be no communion 2 between you and the 
Bhikkhus!' 

When he had thus spoken, that man kept silence. 
And a second and a third time the venerable Maha 
Moggallana addressed to him [the same words, and 
with the same result]. Then the venerable Maha 
Moggallana took that man by the arm and made 
him go out beyond the porch 3 , and bolted the door, 

fault from taking part in the proceedings, which would therefore be 
invalid. 

1 Sawkassara. See the passages quoted by Dr. Morris in the 
introduction to his edition of the Anguttara (pp. viii, ix), though 
we cannot accept his conclusions. We may add that the Tibetan 
rendering of Dhammapada 312, given in Rockhill's ' Ud&na-varga,' 
p. 49, from which we might expect some help, throws no light on the 
exact meaning of the word, the translator contenting himself with 
an ambiguous phrase. 

* Sawviso. See Mahavagga.I, 79, 2, and A'ullavagga. 

* On these expressions, see the notes above, V, 14, 3, in accord- 
ance with which we should read here, in the text su£i, for sui'u 



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IX, 1,3. ON EXCLUSION FROM THE PATIMOKKHA. 30I 

and went up to the place where the Blessed One 
was, and said to him, ' Lord, I have made that man 
go out. The assembly is now undefiled. May my 
lord the Blessed One recite the Patimokkha to the 
Bhikkhus.' 

' How astonishing and curious a thing it is, Mog- 
gallina, that that foolish fellow should have waited 
up to the very point when he had to be taken by 
the arm.' 

3. And the Blessed One said to the Bhikkhus : 
' There are, O Bhikkhus, in the great ocean, then, 
eight astonishing and curious qualities, by the con- 
stant perception of which the mighty creatures take 
delight in the great ocean. And what are the 
eight ? 

' The great ocean, O Bhikkhus, gets gradually 
deeper, slope following on slope, hollow succeeding 
hollow, and the fall is not precipitously abrupt 1 . 
This is the first [of such qualities] 2 . 

' Again, O Bhikkhus, the great ocean remains of 
the same nature s , and passes not beyond the shore. 
This is the second [of such qualities]. 

'Again, O Bhikkhus, the great ocean will not 
brook association with a dead corpse. Whatsoever 
dead corpse there be in the sea, that will it — and 
quickly — draw to the shore, and cast it out on the 
dry ground 4 . This is the third [of such qualities]. 

' Again, O Bhikkhus, all the great rivers — that is 
to say, the Ganga, the Yamuna, the A/£iravatt, the 

1 Na ayataken' eva. See A'ullavagga V, 3, r, and V, 17, 2. 
' Paragraph 1 is here, and in the succeeding paragraphs, re- 
peated in full. 

* 7%ita-dhammo, 'has characteristics which are stable.' 

4 For ussareti read ussadeti. See our note on VI, n, 3. . 



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302 JfULLAVAGGA. EC, i, 4. 

Sarabhu, and the Mahl — they, when they have 
fallen into the great ocean, renounce their names 
and lineage, and are reckoned thenceforth as the 
great ocean. This is the fourth [of such qualities]. 

'Again, O Bhikkhus, though all the streams in 
the world flow on till they reach the great ocean, 
and all the waters of the sky fall into it, yet does it 
not thereby seem to be the more empty or more 
full. This is the fifth [of such qualities]. 

' Again, O Bhikkhus, the great ocean has only 
one taste, the taste of salt This is the sixth [of 
such qualities]. 

'Again, O Bhikkhus, the great ocean is full of 
gems, of gems of various kinds ; among which are 
these gems — that is to say, the pearl, the diamond, 
the catseye, the chank, rock, coral, silver, gold, the 
ruby, and the cornelian 1 . This is the seventh [of 
such qualities]. 

' Again, O Bhikkhus, the great ocean is the 
dwelling-place of mighty beings, among which are 
these — that is to say, the Timi, the Timingala, the 
Timitimihgala, the Asuras, the Nagas, and the Gan- 
dhabbas. There are in the great ocean creatures 
so constituted that they stretch from one to five 
hundred leagues 2 . This is the eighth [of such 
qualities]. 

4. ' And just in the same way, O Bhikkhus, there 
are in this doctrine and discipline eight marvellous 
and wonderful qualities, by the constant perception 



1 On these gems, compare Rh. D.'s note on the Maha-sudassana 
Sutta I, 4, in ' Buddhist Suttas from the Pali,' pp. 249, 250. 

* On this belief, compare above, VII, 2, 2, of land creatures, 
where the same term, attabhava, is used. 



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IX, 1,4- ON EXCLUSION FROM THE PATIMOKKHA. 3O3 

of which the Bhikkhus take delight in this doctrine 
and discipline. What are the eight ? 

' Just, O Bhikkhus, as the great ocean gets 
gradually deeper, slope following on slope, hollow 
succeeding hollow, and the fall is not precipitately 
abrupt — just so, O Bhikkhus, in this doctrine and 
discipline is the training a gradual one, work follow- 
ing on work, and step succeeding step ; and there is 
no sudden attainment to the insight (of Arahat- 
ship) 1 , This is the first [of such qualities]. 

'Just, O Bhikkhus, as the great ocean remains of 
the same nature, and passes not beyond the shore — 
just so, O Bhikkhus, is the body of precepts which I 
have established for those who are hearers of my 
word, and which they, their lives long, do not pass 
beyond. This is the second [of such qualities]. 

'Just, O Bhikkhus, as the great ocean will not 
brook association with a dead corpse ; but whatso- 
ever dead corpse there be in the sea that will it — 
and quickly — draw to the shore, and cast it out upon 
the dry land — just so, O Bhikkhus, if there be any 
individual evil in conduct, wicked in character, of 
impure and doubtful behaviour, not a Sama»a 
though he have taken the vows of one, not a re- 
ligious student though he have taken the vows of 
one, foul within, full of cravings, a worthless 
creature ; with him will the Sawgha brook no asso- 
ciation, but quickly, on its meeting together, will it 
cast him out. And what though that man should 
himself be seated in the midst of the Bhikkhu- 
sa/wgha, verily, both is he afar off from the Sawgha, 



1 An»&-pa/ivedho. On the use of %nn%, standing alone, in 
this sense, see the note above on Mahavagga V, 1, 19. 



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304 1TULLAVAGGA. IX, 1, 4. 

and the Sawgha from him. This is the third [of 
such qualities]. 

'Just, O Bhikkhus, as the great rivers — that is to 
say, the GangA, the Yamuna, the Aliravatt, the 
Sarabhu, and the Mahi — when they have fallen 
into the great ocean, renounce their name and 
lineage and are thenceforth reckoned as the great 
ocean — just so, O Bhikkhus, do these four castes — 
the Khattiyas, the Brahmans, the Vessas, and the 
Suddas — when they have gone forth from the world 
under the doctrine and discipline proclaimed by the 
Tathagata, renounce their names and lineage, 
and enter into the number of the Sakyaputtiya 
Samaras. This is the fourth [of such qualities]. 

'Just, O Bhikkhus, as though all the streams in 
the world flow on till they reach the great ocean, 
and all the waters of the sky fall into it, yet does it 
not seem thereby to be either more empty or more 
full — just so, O Bhikkhus, though many Bhikkhus 
pass entirely away in that kind of passing away 
which leaves not a trace behind, yet does not [the 
Sawzgha] thereby seem to be either more empty or 
more full. This is the fifth [of such qualities]. 

'Just, O Bhikkhus, as the great ocean has only 
one taste, the taste of salt — just so, O Bhikkhus, 
has this doctrine and discipline only one flavour, 
the flavour of emancipation. This is the sixth [of 
such qualities]. 

' Just, O Bhikkhus, as the great ocean is full of 
gems, of gems of various kinds — that is to say, the 
pearl, the diamond, the catseye, the chank, rock, 
coral, silver, gold, the ruby, and the cornelian — just 
so, O Bhikkhus, is this doctrine and discipline full 
of gems, of gems of various kinds, among which are 



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IX, I, 4. ON EXCLUSION FROM THE PATIMOKKHA. 305 

these gems, — that is to say, the four Earnest Medi- 
tations, the fourfold Great Struggle, the four Roads 
to Iddhi, the five Moral Powers, the five Moral 
Senses, the seven kinds of Wisdom, and the noble 
eightfold Path. This is the seventh [of such 
qualities]. 

'Just, O Bhikkhus, as the great ocean is the dwell- 
ing-place of mighty beings, among which are the 
Timi, the Timingala, the Timitimingala, the Asuras, 
the Nagas, and the Gandhabbas; just as there are in 
the great ocean creatures so constituted that they 
stretch from one to five hundred leagues — just so, 
O Bhikkhus, is this doctrine and discipline the resort 
of mighty beings, among whom are he who has en- 
tered the First Path (the converted man, the Sota- 
panno) and he who has realised the fruit thereof, he 
who has entered the Second Path (the Sakadagamin) 
and he who has realised the fruit thereof, he who has 
entered the Third Path (the Anagamin) and he who 
has realised the fruit thereof, the Arahat, and he 
who has realised the fruit of Arahatship. This is 
the eighth [of such qualities]. 

' These, O Bhikkhus, are the eight marvellous 
and wonderful qualities in this doctrine and dis- 
cipline by the constant perception of which the 
Bhikkhus take delight therein.' 

And the Blessed One, on perceiving that matter, 
gave forth at that time this ecstatic utterance : 

' The rain falls heavily on that which is covered, 
not upon that which is revealed. 

' Reveal, therefore, what thou hast concealed, 
and the rain shall touch thee not 1 .' 

1 This enigmatical saying amounts apparently to this: 'As a 
usual thing, no doubt, the rain falls not on that which is covered 

O] x 



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306 rULLAVAGGA. IX, 2, t. 



i. Now the Blessed One addressed the Bhikkhus, 
and said : ' Now henceforth I, O Bhikkhus, will not 
hold Uposatha, nor recite the Patimokkha ; let you 
yourselves, O Bhikkhus, henceforth hold Uposatha 
and recite the Patimokkha. It is, O Bhikkhus, 
an impossible thing and an inexpedient that the 
TathSgata should hold Uposatha and recite the 
Patimokkha before an assembly which is not pure. 
And the Patimokkha, O Bhikkhus, is not to be 
listened to by one who has committed an offence. 
Whosoever shall so listen to it, shall be guilty of a 
dukka/a. I allow you, O Bhikkhus, for whomso- 
ever shall listen to the Patimokkha at a time when 
he is guilty, to interdict for him the Patimokkha 1 . 

'And thus, O Bhikkhus, is it to be interdicted. 
On the day of Uposatha, on the fourteenth or fif- 
teenth day of the month, and at a time when that 
individual is present, thus shall it be proposed in the 
midst of the Sawgha : 

' " Let the venerable Sawgha hear me. Such and 
such an individual is guilty of an offence. For him 

with a roof; but in morals it is precisely where there is already a 
fault concealed, unconfessed, that new faults rain in upon him who 
adds deceit to his fault.' Buddhaghosa says, A'/iannajH ativas- 
satiti apattim apa^gitva pa/WMadento annam navam apattun 
apa^fattti idam etawsandhaya vutta/n. Viva/am nativassatfti 
Spattiw &paggilv& vivaranto an nam n'apa^atiti idam etam san- 
dhaya vuttaw. 

1 Patimokkhaw Mapctum : exactly analogous to pavara«a« 
Mapetum at Mah&vagga IV, 16, 2. H. O. has already pointed 
out (in his ' Buddha,' p. 381, note 2) that we have evidently here a 
later innovation. The whole frame of the Patimokkha shows that 
it was at first intended that a guilty Bhikkhu should confess his 
offence during the recitation, if he had not done so before. 



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IX, 3, 2. ON EXCLUSION FROM THE pAtIMOKKHA. 3O7 

do I interdict the Patimokkha to the effect that it 
shall not be recited when he is present. The Pati- 
mokkha is accordingly interdicted." ' 



3. 

1. Now at that time the -Oabbaggiya Bhikkhus 
thinking, ' No one knows that we are guilty,' 
listened to the Patimokkha. The Thera Bhikkhus, 
who understood the thoughts of other men, told the 
Bhikkhus, saying, • Such and such a one, Sirs, and 
such and such a one, A^abbaggiya Bhikkhus, think- 
ing, " No one knows that we are guilty," are listening 
to the Patimokkha.' 

When the .A^abbaggiya Bhikkhus heard that, 
they, thinking ' the good Bhikkhus will (otherwise) 
first interdict the Patimokkha to us,' interdicted the 
Patimokkha to the Bhikkhus who were pure and 
innocent before (they had time to do so to them), 
and this without ground and without cause. 

Those Bhikkhus who were moderate murmured, 
&c, .... (as usual, down to) told the matter to 
the Blessed One. 

' Is it true, O Bhikkhus, that the .Oabbaggiya 
Bhikkhus have [acted thus] ? ' 

4 It is true, Lord !' 

Then he rebuked them, and when he had de- 
livered a religious discourse, he said : ' The Pati- 
mokkha is not, O Bhikkhus, to be interdicted to 
pure and innocent Bhikkhus without ground and 
without cause. Whosoever does so, shall be guilty 
of a dukka/a. 

2. 'There is one kind of inhibition of the Pati- 
mokkha, O Bhikkhus, which is illegal, and one 

x 2 



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308 XULLAVAGGA. IX, 3, 3. 

which is legal. There are two three ..... 

four (&c, up to) ten kinds of inhibition of the Pati- 
mokkha which are illegal, and one, two (&c, up to) 
ten which are legal. 

3. 'Which is the one kind of inhibition of the 
Patimokkha which is illegal ? When one inhibits 
the Patimokkha for a breach of morality without 
ground. This is the one kind, &c. 

' And which is the one kind of inhibition of the 
Patimokkha which is legal ? When one inhibits the 
Patimokkha for a breach of morality with good 
ground. This is the one kind, &c. 

' And which are the two kinds of inhibition of the 
Patimokkha which are illegal ? When one inhibits 
the Patimokkha for a breach of morality, or for an 
offence against conduct, and each of them without 
ground. These are the two kinds, &c. 

' And which are the two kinds of inhibition of the 
Patimokkha which are legal ? When one inhibits 
the Patimokkha for a breach of morality, and for an 
offence against conduct, and each of them with good 
•ground. These are the two kinds, &c. 

' And which are the three kinds, &c. ? [as the last 
two, adding " offence against doctrine."] 

' And which are the four kinds, &c. ? [as the last, 
adding " offence against the right mode of live- 
lihood."] 

1 And which are the five kinds of inhibition of the 
Patimokkha which are illegal ? When one inhibits 
the Patimokkha for a Para^ika, or for a Sa/wgha- 
disesa, or for a Pl^ittiya, or for a Pa^idesantya, 
or for a Dukka/a, and each of them without 
ground. These are the five kinds, &c. 

' And which are the five kinds of inhibition of the 



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IX, 3, 3' ON EXCLUSION FROM THE PATIMOKKHA. 309 

Patimokkha which are legal ? [Same as the last, 
" with good ground."] 

' And which are the six kinds of inhibition of the 
Patimokkha which are illegal ? When one inhibits 
the Patimokkha for an offence against morality .... 
conduct .... doctrine 1 .... without ground, the 
offence being one of omission — when one inhibits the 
Patimokkha for an offence against morality .... con- 
duct .... doctrine .... without ground, the offence 
being one of commission 8 . These are the six, &c. 

'And which are the six kinds of inhibition of the 
Patimokkha which are legal ? [Same as the last, 
" with good ground."] 

'And which are the seven kinds of inhibition of 
the Patimokkha which are illegal ? When one in- 
hibits the Patimokkha for a Para^ika, or for a 
Sawghadisesa, or for a Thulla>6>6aya, or for a 
Paiittiya, or for a-Pa/idesantya, or for a Duk- 
ka^a, or for a Dubbhasita, and each of them with- 
out ground. These are the seven kinds, &c. 

'And which are the seven kinds of inhibition of 
the Patimokkha which are legal ? [Same as the 
last, " with good ground."] 

'And which are the eight kinds of inhibition of 
the Patimokkha which are illegal ? [The same as 
the six, adding " offence against the right means of 
livelihood."] 

1 The paragraph is repeated in the section full for each of 
these cases. 

a Kata .... akati .... katakata we have rendered here 
and below as offence of omission — of commission — of both, as 
seems imperatively demanded by the context. Buddhaghosa, how- 
ever, says, Akataya ti tena puggalena sa vipatti kata va hotu akata 
va patimokkha-Mapanakassa sanna amulika-vasena amftlika hoti. 
Katakataya ti katan Aa akatan £a ubhayam gahetva vuttam. 



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3IO KULLAVAGGA. IX, 3, 3. 

'And which are the nine kinds of inhibition of 
the Patimokkha which are illegal .... legal ? [The 
same as the six, adding for each kind of offence, 
" the offence being one both of omission and of 
commission."] 

'And which are the ten kinds of inhibition of 
the Patimokkha which are illegal ? When (a 
Bhikkhu) who has been guilty of a Para/ika is not 
seated in that assembly 1 , — when no discussion is 
still going on (in the assembly) as to a Para^ika 
offence (supposed to have been committed by a 
Bhikkhu then present), — when (a Bhikkhu) who 
has abandoned the precepts 2 is not seated in that 
assembly, — when no discussion is still going on (in 
the assembly) in respect of (a Bhikkhu then present 
having been charged with) abandoning the pre- 
cepts, — when (the person charged) submits himself 
to the legally prescribed concord (of the assembly) s , 
— when (the person charged) does not withdraw his 
acceptance of the legally prescribed concord (of the 
assembly) 4 , — when no discussion is still going on 
(in the assembly) in respect of the withdrawal of 
(any member's) acceptance of the legally (pre- 
scribed) concord (of the assembly), — when (the 
Bhikkhu charged) has not been suspected of an 
offence against morality, nor seen (to have com- 
mitted one), nor heard (to have committed one) — 
.... of an offence against conduct — .... of an 

1 This and the following phrase are further enlarged upon in § 4 
and the following sections. 

2 See our note on Mahdvagga II, 22, 3. 

* See Mahavagga X, 5, 13, &c. 

* Pa^Hdfyati. Buddhaghosa says here,pa££adiyati ti puna 
katabbaw kammaw pa^adfyati. Tena ukko/anake pa£ittiya»» 
Spa^fati. 



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IX, 3, 4- ON EXCLUSION FROM THE PATIMOKKHA. 3 1 1 

offence against doctrine These are the ten 

kinds, &c 

' And which are the ten kinds of inhibition of the 
Patimokkha which are legal ? [The same as the 
last, positive instead of negative.] 

4. 'And how (can it be legally said that) a 
Bhikkhu who has been guilty of a Par&fika offence 
is seated in the assembly ? 

' In case, O Bhikkhus, a Bhikkhu sees that 
(another) Bhikkhu is incurring a Para^ika offence 
by those means, marks, and signs by which the in- 
curring of a Para/ika offence is brought about. Or 
in case a Bhikkhu does not himself see that 
(another) Bhikkhu is incurring a Para^ika offence, 
but another Bhikkhu inform the (first-mentioned) 
Bhikkhu, saying, " Such and such a Bhikkhu, Sir, 
has been guilty of a Pari/ika offence." Or in case a 
Bhikkhu does not himself see that another Bhikkhu 
is incurring a Para^ika offence, but that one him- 
self inform the (first-mentioned) Bhikkhu, saying, 
" I, Sir, have been guilty of a Para/ika offence." 

'(In either of these cases), O Bhikkhus, if he 
seem to do so, the Bhikkhu may, on the ground of 
what he has seen and heard and suspected, bring for- 
ward the following resolution on an Uposatha day, 
on the fourteenth or fifteenth day of the month, at a 
time when that individual is present in the midst of 
the Sa/wgha : " Let the venerable Saawgha hear me. 
Such and such an individual has been guilty of a 
Para^ika offence. I interdict for him the Pati- 
mokkha, to the effect that the Patimokkha ought 
not to be recited at a time when he is present." 
That is a legal inhibition of the Patimokkha. 

'If, when the Patimokkha has been inhibited for 



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312 rULLAVAGGA. IX, 3, 5. 

that Bhikkhu, the assembly should rise on account 
of any one or other of the Ten Dangers * — danger 
arising from the king, or from thieves, or from fire, 
or from water, or from human beings, or from non- 
human beings, or from beasts of prey, or from 
creeping things, or danger of life, or danger against 
chastity — the Bhikkhu may, if he desire to do so, 
bring forward the following resolution, either in that 
circle of residence or in another circle of residence, 
at a time when that individual is present in the 
midst of the assembly : " Let the venerable Sawzgha 
hear me. A discussion had commenced with re- 
gard to a Para^-ika offence of such and such a 
person, but that matter was not decided. If the 
time seems meet to the Sa*»gha, let the Sawgha de- 
cide that matter." If he thus succeed, it is well. If 
not, then on an Uposatha day, on the fourteenth or 
fifteenth day of the month, at a time when that 
individual is present in the midst of the Sawgha, let 
him bring forward the following resolution: "Let 
the venerable Sawgha hear me. A discussion had 
commenced with regard to a Par&fika offence of 
such and such a person, but that matter was not 
decided. I interdict the Patimokkha for him to the 
effect that the Patimokkha ought not to be recited 
at a time when he is present." That is a legal inhi- 
bition of the Patimokkha. 

5. 'And how (can it be legally said that a 
Bhikkhu) who has abandoned the precepts is seated 
in the assembly ? ' 

[The same as last, reading 'abandoned the pre- 
cepts,' &c, for ' Para/ika offence,' &c] 

6. 'And how (can it be legally said that the person 

1 See the rule laid down in Mahavagga II, 15, 4. 

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IX, 4, I. ON EXCLUSION FROM THE PATIMOKKHA. 313 

charged) does not submit himself to the legally 
(prescribed) concord (of the assembly)?' 

[Same as last, reading ' not submit himself to the 
legally (prescribed) concord of the assembly/ &c, 
instead of ' abandon the precepts,' &c] 

7. 'And how (can it be legally said that the 
person charged) withdraws his acceptance of the 
legally (established) concord (of the assembly) ? ' 

[Same as last, reading 'withdraws his accept- 
ance,' &c, for 'does not submit,' &c] 

8. 'And how can it be legally said that the 
person charged has been seen or heard or sus- 
pected -of having committed an offence against 
morality .... an offence against conduct .... 
an offence against doctrine ? ' 

[Same as § 4, reading ' offence against morality,' 
&c, for ' Parifika offence.'] 

These are the ten kinds of the inhibition of Pati- 
mokkha which are legal. 



Here ends the First Portion for Recitation. 



4. 

1. Now the venerable Upali 1 went up to the 
Blessed One, and bowed down before him, and took 
his seat on one side. And when he was so seated, 
the venerable Upali said to the Blessed One : 

'When a Bhikkhu, Lord, intends to take upon 
himself the conduct (of any matter that has to be 

1 No doubt in his rdle of a chief of the Vinaya-dharas, as in 
Mahavagga IX, 6, &c. 



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314 JTULLAVAGGA. IX, 4, U 

decided) 1 , under what conditions should he take the 
conduct thereof upon himself* ? ' 

'A Bhikkhu, Upali, who intends to take upon 
himself the conduct of any matter, should take such 
conduct upon himself under five conditions. 

' (In the first place.) A Bhikkhu, Upali, who in- 
tends to take the conduct of any matter upon him- 
self, should thus consider: "The conduct of this 
matter which I intend to take upon myself, is it now 
the right time for the taking charge of the conduct 
thereof, or is it not ? " If that Bhikkhu, Upali, so 
considering, come to the conclusion that it is not the 
right time, he should not, Upali, take charge -of it. 

'(Secondly.) If that Bhikkhu, Upali, so consider- 
ing, come to the conclusion that it is the right time, 
he should, Upali, further consider thus : " The con- 
duct of this matter which I intend to take upon my- 
self, is it just, or is it not ? " If that Bhikkhu, Upali, 
so considering, come to the conclusion that it would 
not be just, he should not take charge of it. 

' (Thirdly.) If that Bhikkhu, Upali, so consider- 
ing, come to the conclusion that it would be just, he 
should, Upali, further consider thus : " The conduct 
of this matter which I intend to take upon myself, 
would it tend to advantage, or would it not?" If 
that Bhikkhu, Upali, so considering, come to the 
conclusion that it would not tend to advantage, he 
should not, Upali, take charge of it 

'(Fourthly.) If that Bhikkhu, Upali, so consider- 
ing, come to the conclusion that it would tend to 

1 As, for instance, in the last chapter (§§ 4 and following) the 
Bhikkhu who lays the matter before the Samgha. 

* Attidinam adfyati, in our explanation of which we follow/ 
Buddhaghosa. 



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IX, 5, '. ON EXCLUSION FROM THE PATIMOKKHA. 315 

profit, he should, Upali, further consider thus : 
" While I am taking, the conduct of this matter 
upon myself, shall I find that the Bhikkhus who are 
my intimates and associates are on my side in ac- 
cordance with the Dhamma and the Vinaya, or shall 
I not?" If that Bhikkhu, Upali, so considering, 
come to the conclusion that he will not, he should 
not, Upali, take charge of it. 

• (Fifthly.) If that Bhikkhu, Upali, so consider- 
ing, come to the conclusion that he will find them 
so, he should further, Upali, consider thus : "Whilst 
I am taking the conduct of this matter upon myself, 
will the Sawgha, as a result thereof, fall into strife, 
quarrel, contention, or dispute, or will there arise a 
split in the Sa/»gha, disunion in the Sawgha, diver- 
sity of position in the Sawgha, diversity of action in 
the Sawgha 1 ?" If that Bhikkhu, Upali, so con- 
sidering, come to the conclusion that that will 
happen, he should not take charge of it. But if 
that Bhikkhu, Upali, thus considering, should come 
to the conclusion that that will not happen, he 
should take charge of it. The taking charge of a 
matter, Upali, subject to these five conditions, will 
not give cause to subsequent remorse.' 



5. 

1 . ' When, Lord, a Bhikkhu who takes upon him- 
self to warn another, is about to do so, of how many 
qualities should he consider whether they are within 
himself before he does so ? ' 

(a) ' A Bhikkhu who warns another should, Upali, 

1 This list has occurred above, Mahavagga X, 1, 6; X, 5, 13 ; 
JSTullavagga VII, 5, 1. 



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3l6 JTULLAVAGGA. IX, 5, 1. 

when he is about to do so, consider thus : " Am I 
pure in the conduct of my body ; pure therein with- 
out a flaw, without a fleck ? Is this quality found 
in me, or is it not ?" If, Upali, the Bhikkhu is not 
so, there will be some who will say to him : " Come, 
now, let your reverence continue still to train your- 
self in matters relating to the body!" — thus will 
they say. 

(b) ' And further, a Bhikkhu who warns another 
should, Upali, when he is about to do so, consider 
thus : "Am I pure in the conduct of my speech ; 
pure therein without a flaw, without a fleck ? Is 
this quality found in me, or is it not ? " If, Upali, 
the Bhikkhu is not so, there will be some who will 
say to him : " Come, now, let your reverence con- 
tinue still to train yourself in matters relating to 
speech ! " — thus will they say. 

(c) 'And further, a Bhikkhu who warns another 
should, Upali, consider thus : " Is a kindly mind 
ever present in me, one without anger against those 
who are my companions in the religious life ? Is 
this quality found in me, or is it not?" If, Upali, 
such a mind is not in that Bhikkhu, there will be 
some who will say to him : " Come, now, let your 
reverence continue still to cultivate a friendly feel- 
ing towards those who are your companions in the 
religious life ! " — thus will they say. 

(d) ' And further, a Bhikkhu who warns another 
should, Up&li, consider thus : " Am I a man versed 
in the tradition, a custodian of the tradition, a store- 
house of the tradition ? Whatsoever truths, lovely 
in their origin, lovely in their progress, lovely in 
their consummation, magnify the higher life, both 
in the spirit and in the letter, and in all its points, in 



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IX, 5i a. ON EXCLUSION FROM THE PATIMOKK HA. 317 

all its perfectness, — in such truths am I well versed, 
of such am I full, are such laid up in my words, 
dwelt on in my heart, penetrated throughout through 
right insight 1 ? Is this quality found in me, or is it 
not ? " If that Bhikkhu, Upali, is not such a man, 
there will be some who will say to him : " Come, 
now, let your reverence continue still to learn the 
faith ! " — thus will they say. 

(e) ' And further, a Bhikkhu who warns another 
should, Upali, consider thus : " Have both the Pati- 
mokkhas been completely handed down to me in 
their full extent ; have I well divided them, well 
established them, well investigated them, both Rule 
by Rule 2 , and in every detail ? Is this quality 
found in me, or is it not ? " If, Upali, that is not 
so, then when he is asked, " Where has this, Sir, 
been declared by the Blessed One ?" he will not be 
able to explain 3 , and there will be some who will 
say to him : " Come, now, let your reverence continue 
still to learn the Vinaya!" — thus will they say. 

' These are the five qualities, Upali, of which a 
Bhikkhu about to warn another should consider 
before he does so, whether they are within himself 
or not.' 

2. ' When, Lord, a Bhikkhu who takes upon him- 
self to warn another, is about to do so, how many 
qualities should he call up (establish) within himself 
before he does so ? ' 



1 On the whole of this and of the next paragraph, which have 
occurred already above at IV, 14, 19, see our notes there. 

* That is, ' Sutta by Sutta.' On the whole stock phrase, compare 
our remarks in p. xviii of the Introduction ; and above, Mah&- 
vagga I, 36, 14; A'ullavagga IV, 14, 19. 

1 Read na samp&yati, in accordance with H.O.'s note at p. 364 
of the text. 



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3 1 8 JTULLAVAGGA. IX, 5, 3. 

' A Bhikkhu, Upali, who is about to warn another, 
should call up within himself five qualities before he 
does so, (saying to himself): "At the right time 
will I speak, not at the wrong time. In truth will I 
speak, and not in falsehood. Gently will I speak, 
and not in harshness. To profit will I speak, and 
not senselessly. In kindly spirit will I speak, and 
not in anger 1 . 

' These, Upali, are the five,' &c. 

3. 'In how many ways, Lord, is repentance to be 
brought home to a Bhikkhu who has wrongfully 
warned another Bhikkhu ? ' 

1 In five ways, Upali, is repentance to be brought 
home to a Bhikkhu who has wrongfully warned 
another Bhikkhu, (that is to say, by saying to him) : 
" At the wrong time did you warn him, Sir, not at 
the right time : wherein is need of repentance. 
Untruthfully did you warn him, Sir, and not accord- 
ing to fact : wherein is need of repentance. In 
harshness did you warn him, Sir, and not gendy : 
wherein is need of repentance. Senselessly did you 
warn him, Sir, and not in a way redounding to 
profit : wherein is need of repentance. In anger 
did you warn him, Sir, and not in kindly spirit: 
wherein is need of repentance. 

' In these five ways, Upali, should repentance be 
brought home to a Bhikkhu who has wrongfully 
warned another Bhikkhu. And why ? That no 
other Bhikkhu may think that warning is to be 
given not according to fact' 

4. ' In how many ways, Lord, is it to be brought 



1 On these phrases, compare the A'flla Slhm, translated by Rh. D. 
in 'Buddhist Suttas/ p. 190. 



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IX, 5, 7- ON EXCLUSION FROM THE PATIMOKKHA. 319 

about that repentance shall not be brought home to 
a Bhikkhu who has been wrongfully warned ? ' 

' In five ways, Upali, (that is to say, by saying to 
him) : " At the wrong time, Sir, were you warned, 
and not at the right time : there is no need of re- 
pentance,'" [&c, as in § 3, paragraph 2, with similar 
alterations.] 

5. ' In how many ways, Lord, is the contrary of 
repentance to be brought home to a Bhikkhu who 
has rightfully warned another Bhikkhu ? ' 

[The answer is the exact contrary of § 3.] 

6. [This section is the contrary of § 5.] 

7. 'When, Lord, a Bhikkhu who warns another 
Bhikkhu, is about to do so, how many things should 
he call to mind before he does so ? ' 

' Five things, Upali — to wit : mercy, seeking the 
good of others, compassion, the giving up of 
offences, and deference towards the Vinaya. These 
are the five,' &c. 

' And a Bhikkhu, Lord, who is warned, in how 
many qualities should he keep himself firm ? ' 

' In two things, Upali — to wit : in truth and in 
freedom from anger.' 



Here ends the Ninth Khandhaka, on the 
Interdiction of the Patimokkha. 



r 



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320 rULLAVAGGA. X, I, i. 



TENTH KHANDHAKA. 
On the Duties of Bhikkhun!s. 



i. Now at that time the Blessed Buddha was 
staying among the Sakyas in Kapilavatthu, in the 
Nigrodharama. And Maha-pa^apatl the GotamI 
went to the place where the Blessed One was, and 
on arriving there, bowed down before the Blessed 
One, and remained standing on one side. And so 
standing she spake thus to the Blessed One : 

' It would be well, Lord, if women should be 
allowed to renounce their homes and enter the 
homeless state under the doctrine and discipline 
proclaimed by the Tathagata.' 

' Enough, O GotamI ! Let it not please thee that 
women should be allowed to do so.' 

[And a second and a third time did Maha-pafa- 
patl the GotamI make the same request in the 
same words, and receive the same reply.] 

Then Maha-pa^apati the GotamI sad and sor- 
rowful for that the Blessed One would not permit 
women to enter the homeless state, bowed down 
before the Blessed One, and keeping him on her 
right hand as she passed him, departed thence 
weeping and in tears. 

2. Now when the Blessed One had remained at 
Kapilavatthu as long as he thought fit, he set 
out on his journey towards Vesalt ; and travelling 



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X, I, 3. ON THE DUTIES OF BHIKKHUNts. 321 

straight on he in due course arrived thereat. And 
there at Vesall the Blessed One stayed, in the Maha- 
vana, in the Ku/agara Hall. 

And Maha-pa^apatt the Gotamt cut off her hair, 
and put on orange-coloured robes, and set out, with 
a number of women of the Sakya clan, towards 
Vesalt ; and in due course she arrived at Vesalt, at 
the Mahavana, at the Ku/agara Hall. And Maha- 
pa^apatt the Gotamt, with swollen feet and covered 
with dust, sad and sorrowful, weeping and in tears, 
took^her stand outside under the entrance porch. 

And the venerable Ananda saw her so standing 
there, and on seeing her so, he said to Maha-pa/a-' 
patl : ' Why standest thou there, outside the porch, 
with swollen feet and covered with dust, sad and 
sorrowful, weeping and in tears ?' 

' Inasmuch, O Ananda, as the Lord, the Blessed 
One, does- not permit women to renounce their 
homes and enter the homeless state under the doc- 
trine and discipline proclaimed by the Tathagata.' 

3. Then did the venerable Ananda go up to the 
place where the Blessed One was, and bow down 
before the Blessed One, and take his seat on one 
side. And, so sitting, the venerable Ananda said 
to the Blessed One : 

' Behold, Lord, Maha-pa^&patt the Gotaml is 
standing outside under the entrance porch, with 
swollen feet and covered with dust, sad and sorrow- 
ful, weeping and in tears, inasmuch as the Blessed 
One does not permit women to renounce their 
homes and enter the homeless state under the doc- 
trine and discipline proclaimed by the Blessed One. 
It were well, Lord, if women were to have per- 
mission granted to them to do as she desires.' 



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322 JTULLAVAGGA. X, i, 4. 

' Enough, Ananda ! Let it not please thee that 
women should be allowed to do so.' 

[And a second and a third time did Ananda make 
the same request, in the same words, and receive 
the same reply.] 

Then the venerable Ananda thought : ' The 
Blessed One does not give his permission, let me 
now ask the Blessed One on another ground.' And 
the venerable Ananda said to the Blessed One : 

' Are women, Lord, capable — when they have 
gone forth from the household life and entered the 
homeless state, under the doctrine and discipline 
•proclaimed by the Blessed One — are they capable 
of realising the fruit of conversion, or of the second 
Path, or of the third Path^Jbr of Arahatship ?' 

' They are capable, Ananda.' 

' If then, Lord, they are capable thereof, since 
Maha-pa^ipatl the Gotaml has proved herself of 
great service to the Blessed One, when as aunt and 
nurse she nourished him and gave him milk, and on 
the death of his mother suckled the Blessed One at 
her own breast, it were well, Lord, that women should 
have permission to go forth from the household life 
and enter the homeless state, under the doctrine and 
discipline proclaimed by the Tathagata V 

4. ' If then, Ananda, Maha-pa^apat! the Gotamt 
take upon herself the Eight Chief Rules 2 , let that 
be reckoned to her as her initiation.' 

3 [They are these]: (i) ' A BhikkhunI, even if of 

1 Ananda's conduct in this matter was afterwards charged 
against him as a dukka/a. See below, XI, 1, 10. 

2 The A/Ma GarudhammS, on which see further our note 
above on the 21st P^Uittiya, and below, X, 9. 

' The whole of the following eight paragraphs recur in the 



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X, I, 4- ON THE DUTIES OF BHIKKHUNlS. 323 

a hundred years standing, shall make salutation to, 
shall rise up in the presence of, shall bow down 
before, and shall perform all proper duties towards 
a Bhikkhu, if only just initiated. This is a rule to be 
revered and reverenced, honoured and observed, 
and her life long never to be transgressed. 

(2) ' A Bhikkhuni is not to spend the rainy season 
(of Was) in a district x in which there is no Bhikkhu. 
This is a rule .... never to be transgressed. 

(3) ' Every half month a Bhikkhuni is to await from 
the Bhikkhu-sawzgha two things, the asking as to (the 
date of) the Uposatha ceremony 2 , and the (time when 
the Bhikkhu) will come to give the Exhortation 3 . 
This is a rule .... never to be transgressed. 

(4) ' After keeping the rainy season (of Was), the 
Bhikkhuni is to hold Pavarawa (to enquire whether 
any fault can be laid to her charge) before both 
Sawghas — as well that of Bhikkhus as that of Bhik- 
khunls — with respect to three matters, namely, what 
has been seen, and what has been heard, and what 
has been suspected *. This is a rule .... never to 
be transgressed. 

Sutta Vibhahga, Piftttiya XXI, 3, 1. It is very instructive to notice 
the curious blunders which the Tibetan writers (translated by Rock- 
hill in his ' Life of the Buddha,' pp. 62, 63) make in the rendering 
of the difficult technical terms in these Eight Rules. 

1 Avasa. Compare A'ullavagga I, 18, 1, VI, 15, 1, VIII, 1, 2. 
This rule is the 56th Bhikkhuni Pa£ittiya. 

* The Bhikkhunis are to ask two or three days beforehand 
whether the Uposatha is to be held on the 14th or 15th day of the 
month, says Buddhaghosa here. Compare also the 59th Bhik- 
khuni Paiittiya, where the whole passage recurs. 

' Compare the 21st Pl&ttiya, and our note there. 

4 See Mahavagga IV, 1, 13, 14. This rule is the same as the 
57th Bhikkhuni Pa&ttiya. The mode of carrying out this rule is 
explained in detail below, X, 19. ^ -, 

Y a 



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324 rULLAVAGGA. X, i, 5. 

(5) ' A Bhikkhunt who has been guilty of a serious 
offence is to undergo the Manatta discipline towards 
both the Sawghas (Bhikkhus and Bhikkhunts). This 
is a rule .... never to be transgressed. 

(6) 'When a Bhikkhunt, as novice, has been trained 
for two years in the Six Rules \ she is to ask leave 
for the upasampada initiation from both Sawghas 
(as well that of Bhikkhus as that of Bhikkhunls *). 
This is a rule .... never to be transgressed. 

(7) 'A Bhikkhunt is on no pretext to revile or 
abuse a Bhikkhu s . This is a rule .... never to 
be transgressed. 

(8) ' From henceforth official admonition * by 
Bhikkhunts of Bhikkhus is forbidden, whereas the 
official admonition of Bhikkhunts by Bhikkhus is 
not forbidden. This is a rule .... never to be 
transgressed. • 

' If, Ananda, Maha-pa^apatl the Gotaml take 
upon herself these Eight Chief Rules, let that be 
reckoned to her as her initiation.' 

5. Then the venerable Ananda, when he had 
learnt from the Blessed One these Eight Chief 
Rules, went to Maha-pa^apatt the Gotamt and [told 
her all that the Blessed One had said]. 

1 ^]4asu dhammesu. The Six Rules for novices. They are 
referred to in the Bhikkhuni Vibhaftga, under Paflttiyas LXIII— 
LXVII. 

s The actual ordination (upasampadS) itself is not complete 
till it has been conferred by Bhikkhus (see the rule at X, 2, 2). 
The whole proceeding is fully set out below, X, 17. Compare also 
the 63rd and 64th Bhikkhunt Pa£ittiyas. 

" This is the 52nd Bhikkhunt Paflttiya. 

* Va^ana-patho. That is, literally, speech. But the reference 
is, no doubt, to the various kinds of official admonitions given in 
detail in chapter 20 below. 



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X, 1,6. ON THE DUTIES OF BHIKKHUNis. 325 

' Just, Ananda, as a man or a woman, when young 
and of tender years, accustomed to adorn himself, 
would, when he had bathed his head, receive with 
both hands a garland of lotus flowers, or of jasmine 
flowers, or of atimuttaka flowers, and place it on the 
top of his head; even so do I, Ananda, take upon 
me these Eight Chief Rules, never to be trans- 
gressed my life long.' 

6. Then the venerable Ananda returned to the 
Blessed One, and bowed down before him, and took 
his seat on one side. And, so sitting^the venerable 
Ananda said to the Blessed One : '' Maha-pa^apatt 
the Gotamt, Lord, has taken upon herself the Eight 
Chief Rules, the aunt of the Blessed One has re- 
ceived the upasampada initiation.' 

' If, Ananda, women had not received permission 
to go out from the household life and enter the 
homeless state, under the doctrine and discipline 
proclaimed by the Tathagata, then would the pure 
religion, Ananda, have lasted long, the good law 
would have stood fast for a thousand years. But 
since, Ananda, women have now received that per- 
mission, the pure religion, Ananda, will not now last 
so long, the good law will now stand fast for only five 
hundred years. Just, Ananda, as houses in which 
there are many women 1 and but few men are easily 
violated 2 by robber burglars 3 ; just so, Ananda, under 

1 Bahutthikani. The context shows that we are to understand 
itthiandnotattha. Compare Rockhill's 'Life of the Buddha,' p. 61. 

* Suppadhawsiyani. Compare Bhikkhum Vibhahga, SawghS- 
disesa III, 1, 2, and see also Aullavagga VII, 5, 4. 

* A"orehi kumbatthenakehi; on which Buddhaghosa has 
the following note: — Kumbathenakehi ti kumbhe dipaw^aletvi 
ena alokena paraghare bhaw/anz viiinitva thcnakaiorehi. 



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326 ffULLAVAGGA. X, 2, i. 

whatever doctrine and discipline women are allowed 
to go out from the household life into the homeless 
state, that religion will not last long. And just, 
Ananda, as when the disease called mildew falls upon 
a field of rice in fine condition, that field of rice does 
not continue long ; just so, Ananda, under whatsoever 
doctrine and discipline women are allowed to go forth 
from the household life into the homeless state, that 
religion will not last long. And just, Ananda, as 
when the disease called blight falls upon a field of 
sugar-cane in good condition, that field of sugar- 
cane does not continue long ; just so, Ananda, under 
whatsoever doctrine and discipline women are 
allowed to go forth from the household life into the 
homeless state, that religion does not last long. 
And just, Ananda, as a man would in anticipation 
build an embankment to a great reservoir, beyond 
which the water should not overpass ; just even so, 
Ananda, have I in anticipation laid down these 
Eight Chief Rules for the Bhikkhunls, their life 
long not to be overpassed.' 



Here end the Eight Chief Rules for the 
Bhikkhuhis. 



i. Now Maha-pa^apatt the Gotaml went up to 
the place where the Blessed One was, and bowed 
down before him, and stood respectfully on ■ one side. 
And, so standing, Maha-pa^apatl the Gotaml spake 
thus to the Blessed One : ' What course, Lord, 



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X, 3, i. ON THE DUTIES OF BHIKKHUNfs. 327 

should I pursue towards these women of the Sakya 
clan?' 

Then the Blessed One taught Mahi-pa^apatt the 
Gotamt and incited her, and aroused her, and 
gladdened her with religious discourse ; and she, 
so taught, incited, aroused, and gladdened, bowed 
down before the Blessed One, and keeping him 
on her right hand as she passed him, she departed 
thence. 

Then the Blessed One, in that connexion, deli- 
vered a religious discourse, and said to the Bhikkhus, 
' I allow Bhikkhunls, O Bhikkhus, to receive the u pa- 
sampadi initiation from Bhikkhus 1 .' 

2. Now those Bhikkhunls said to MahA-pa^apat! 
the Gotamt : ' Neither have you received the upa- 
sampada initiation, nor have we; for it has thus 
been laid down by the Blessed One : " Bhikkhunls 
are to be initiated by Bhikkhus." ' 

Then Maha-pa/apatl the Gotaml went to the 
venerable Ananda, and [repeated their words to 
him]. And the venerable Ananda went to the 
Blessed One, and [repeated them to him]. 

' In that moment, Ananda, when Maha-pafapatl 
the Gotaml took upon herself the Eight Chief Rules, 
that was to her as the upasampada initiation.' 



1. Now Mahi-pa^apatt the Gotaml went up to the 
place where the venerable Ananda was, and bowed 
down before him, and stood respectfully on one side. 

1 Compare the 6th Garudhamma above, X, 1, 4. 

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328 JTULLAVAGGA. X, 4, I. 

And, so standing, Maha-pa/apati the Gotami said 
to the venerable Ananda : ' One thing, Ananda, 
would I ask of the Blessed One. It were well, Sir, 
if the Blessed One would allow the making of salu- 
tations, the rising up in presence of another, the 
paying of reverence, and the performance of proper 
duties one towards another, to take place as between 
both Bhikkhus and Bhikkhunts (equally) according 
to seniority.' 

And the venerable Ananda went to the Blessed 
One [and repeated her 1 ^ words to him]. <, 

'This is impossible, Ananda, and unallowable, 
that I should so order. Even those others, Ananda, 
teachers of ill doctrine, allow not such conduct to- 
wards women ; how much less, then, can the Tatha- 
gata allow it ?' 

And the Blessed One, on that occasion, having 
delivered a religious discourse, addressed the Bhik- 
khus, and said : ' You are not, O Bhikkhus, to bow 
down before women, to rise up in their presence, to 
stretch out your joined hands towards them, nor to 
perform towards them those duties that are proper 
(from an inferior to a superior). Whosoever does 
so, shall be guilty of a dukka/a.' 



1. Now Maha-pa^apatt the Gotam! went up to the 
place where the Blessed One was, and bowed down 
before him, and stood respectfully on one side. 
And, so standing, Maha-pa^apatt the Gotamt said 
to the Blessed One : ' What course, Lord, shall we 
pursue with reference to those precepts for the 



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X, 5, i. ON THE DUTIES OF BHIKKHUNis. 329 

Bhikkhunls which are applicable also to the Bhik- 
khus ?' 

' Train yourselves, Gotamt, therein in the same 
manner as the Bhikkhus do.' 

' And what course, Lord, should we pursue in re- 
ference to those precepts for the Bhikkhunls which 
are not applicable also to the Bhikkhus ?' 

* Train yourselves, Gotamt, therein according to 
the substance thereof, as they are laid down.' 



1. Now Maha-pa/apatt the Gotamt went to the 
Blessed One [&c, as before], and said : ' May the 
Blessed One preach to me the Dhamma (truth, 
doctrine) in abstract ; so that, having heard the doc- 
trine of the Blessed One, I may remain alone and 
separate, earnest, zealous, and resolved V 

' Of whatsoever doctrines thou shalt be conscious, 
Gotamt, that they conduce to passion and not to 
peace, to pride and not to veneration, to wishing for 
much and not to wishing for little, to love of society 
and not to seclusion, to sloth and not to the exercise 
of zeal, to being hard to satisfy and not to content * 
— verily mayest thou then, Gotamt, bear in mind 

1 These last words are the standing expression for the prepara- 
tory stage to Arahatship. Compare Mahavagga I, 6, 16 ; Mahi- 
parinibbana Sutta V, 68. The whole speech frequently occurs in 
the Samyutta Nikaya at the commencement of conversations with 
the Buddha. 

* Most of these terms have already occurred in the standing 
' religious discourse ' which is related to have preceded the enun- 
ciation of so many of the rules for Bhikkhus (JSTullavagga I, 2, 3). 



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330 tfULLAVAGGA. X, 6, I. 

that that is not Dhamma, that that is not Vinaya, 
that that is not the teaching of the Master. But of 
whatsoever doctrines thou shalt be conscious, Go- 
tami, that they conduce to peace and not to passion, 
to veneration and not to pride, to wishing for little 
and not to wishing for much, to seclusion and not to 
love of society, to the exercise of zeal and not to 
sloth, to content and not to querulousness — verily 
mayest thou then bear in mind that that is Dhamma, 
and that is Vinaya, and that the teaching of the 
Master.' 



6. 

i. Now at that time the Patimokkha was not recited 
to the Bhikkhunts. 

They told this matter to the Blessed One. 

' I allow the Patimokkha, O Bhikkhus, to be recited 
to the Bhikkhunis.' 

Now it occurred to the Bhikkhunis : ' By whom 
should the Patimokkha be recited to the Bhik- 
khunis ?' 

They told this matter to the Blessed One. 

' I allow, O Bhikkhus, the Patimokkha to be recited 
to Bhikkhunts by Bhikkhus.' 

Now at that time Bhikkhus went to the residence 
of the Bhikkhunis and recited the Patimokkha to 
the Bhikkhunts there. The people murmured, and 
were indignant, saying : ' There are their wives, 
there are their mistresses ; now will they take plea- 
sure together.' 

The Bhikkhus heard this, and told the matter to 
the Blessed One. 

' Bhikkhus are not, O Bhikkhus, to recite, the 



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X, 6, 2. ON THE DUTIES OF BHIKKHUN&S. 33 1 

Patimokkha to the Bhikkhunls at their residence. 
Whosoever does so, shall be guilty of a dukka/a. 
I allow Bhikkhunls, O Bhikkhus, to recite the Pati- 
mokkha to the Bhikkhunls/ 

The Bhikkhunls did not know how to recite the 
Patimokkha. They told this matter to the Blessed 
One. 

'I allow Bhikkhus, O Bhikkhus, to tell Bhik- 
khunls how to recite the Patimokkha.' 

2. Now at that time the Bhikkhunls did not con- 
fess the faults (they had committed). 

They told this matter to the Blessed One. 

' A Bhikkhunl, O Bhikkhus, is not to leave a fault 
unconfessed. . Whosoever does so, shall be guilty of 
a dukka/a.' 

The Bhikkhunls did not know how to confess their 
faults. They told this matter to the Blessed One. 

' I allow Bhikkhus, O Bhikkhus, to tell Bhikkhunls 
how they should confess their faults.' 

Then it occurred to the Bhikkhus : ' By whom 
ought the confession of a fault to be received from 
the Bhikkhunls?' They told this matter to the 
Blessed One. 

' I allow Bhikkhus, O Bhikkhus, to receive the 
confession of a fault from Bhikkhunls.' 

Now at that time Bhikkhunls, on seeing a 
Bhikkhu on the road, or in a street closed at one 
end, or at the place where four cross-roads met, 
would place their bowl on the ground, and arranging 
their robes over one shoulder, would crouch down 
on their heels, and stretch forth their joined hands, 
and confess a fault. The people murmured, were 
indignant, and complained, saying : ' There are their 
wives, there are their mistresses ; they are asking 



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332 JTULLAVAGGA. X, 6, 3. 

pardon now after having treated them scornfully 
overnight' 

They told this matter to the Blessed One. 

4 Bhikkhus are not, O Bhikkhus, to receive the 
confessions of a fault from Bhikkhunts. Whosoever 
does so, shall be guilty of a dukka/a. I allow 
Bhikkhunts, O Bhikkhus, to receive the confession 
of a fault from Bhikkhunts.' 

The Bhikkhunts did not know how to receive the 
confession of a fault. They told this matter to the 
Blessed One. 

'I allow Bhikkhus, O Bhikkhus, to tell Bhik- 
khunts how to receive the confession of a fault.' 

3. Now at that time disciplinary proceedings 
(K am mas) were not carried out against Bhik- 
khunts. They told that matter to the Blessed One. 

' I allow disciplinary proceedings, O Bhikkhus, to 
be carried out against Bhikkhunts.' 

Then the Bhikkhus thought : ' By whom ought 
disciplinary proceedings to be carried out against 
Bhikkhunts ?' They told this matter to the Blessed 
One. 

' I allow Bhikkhus, O Bhikkhus, to carry out dis- 
ciplinary proceedings against Bhikkhunts.' 

Now at that time Bhikkhunts who had been sub- 
jected to disciplinary proceedings, on seeing a 
Bhikkhu on the road, or in a street closed at one 
end, or at the place where four cross-roads met, 
would place their bowls on the ground, and ar- 
ranging their robes over one shoulder, would crouch 
down on their heels, and stretching out their joined 
palms would ask for pardon, thinking that that was 
the proper time for doing so. The people mur- 
mured [&c, as before]. 



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X, 7, I. ON THE DUTIES OF BHIKKHUNis. 333 

They told this matter to the Blessed One. 

' Bhikkhus are not, O Bhikkhus, to carry out 
disciplinary proceedings against the Bhikkhunts. 
Whosoever does so, shall be guilty of a dukka/a.' 
I allow Bhikkhunts, O Bhikkhus, to carry out dis- 
ciplinary proceedings against Bhikkhunts.' 

The Bhikkhunts did not know how to carry out 
the disciplinary proceedings. They told this matter 
to the Blessed One. 

* I allow Bhikkhus, O Bhikkhus, to tell the Bhik- 
khunts how to carry out disciplinary proceedings.' 



7. 

1. Now at that time Bhikkhunts in Sawgha assem- 
bled, having fallen into quarrel, strife, and dispute, 
got to blows, and were unable to settle the point at 
issue. They told this matter to the Blessed One. 

' I allow Bhikkhus, O Bhikkhus, to settle for 
Bhikkhunts a point at issue.' 

Now at that time Bhikkhus were settling for 
Bhikkhunts a point at issue, and as the point at 
issue was being enquired into, it was found that 
both Bhikkhunts competent to take part in an 
official act \ and Bhikkhunts who had been guilty of 
an offence (had taken part in the Sawgha during 
the official act (the K am ma) at which the point in 
issue arose). 

The Bhikkhunts said : ' It would be well if you, 
Sirs, would carry out disciplinary proceedings against 
the guilty Bhikkhunts, or absolve their offence : for 

1 Kammappatti ; on which see Parivara XIX, 6, 7. 

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334 ffULLAVAGGA. X, 8, I. 

thus has it been laid down by the Blessed One : 
" Bhikkhus are to settle for the Bhikkhunts a point 
at issue. 

They told this matter to the Blessed One. 

' I allow Bhikkhus, O Bhikkhus, to set on foot ' 
an official act for Bhikkhunls, and then to give it in 
charge for Bhikkhunts to carry out the official act 
against Bhikkhunls. And I allow Bhikkhus to set 
on foot the (dealing with an) offence for Bhikkhunls, 
and then to give it in charge for Bhikkhunls to ac- 
cept the confession thereof.' 



8. 

i. Now at that time a Bhikkhunl, a pupil of the 
Bhikkhunl Uppalava#«a, followed the Blessed One 
for seven years, learning the Vinaya ; but she, being 
forgetful, lost it as fast as she received it. And that 
Bhikkhunl heard that the Blessed One was about to 
go to Sivatthi. Then she thought : ' For seven 
years have I followed the Blessed One, learning the 
Vinaya ; and, being forgetful, I have lost it as fast as 
I received it. Hard is it for a woman to follow the 
Blessed One her life long. What now shall I do ?' 

And that Bhikkhunl told this matter to the Bhik- 
khunls, and they told it to the Bhikkhus, and the 
Bhikkhus told it to the Blessed One. 

' I allow Bhikkhus, O Bhikkhus, to teach the 
Vinaya to Bhikkhunls.' 



Here ends the First Portion for Recitation. 

1 Rope tuffz, on which Buddhaghosa says : Ta^ganiyidisu imam 
nama kamma« etissS katabban ti evam ropetva. 



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X, 9, i- ON THE DUTIES OF BHIKKHUNls. 335 



9. 

i. Now when the Blessed One had stayed at 
Vesall as long as he thought fit, he sat out towards 
Savatthi ; and, journeying straight on, he in due 
course arrived thereat. And there, at Savatthi, the 
Blessed One remained in the (7etavana, Anatha 
Piwdfika's Park. 

Now at that time the A'fobbaggiya Bhikkhus 
threw dirty water over Bhikkhunls, thinking, per- 
haps, they would fall in love with them '. 

They told this matter to the Blessed One. 

'A Bhikkhu is not, O Bhikkhus, to throw dirty 
water at a Bhikkhunl. Whosoever does so, shall 
be guilty of a dukka/a. I allow a penalty, O Bhik- 
khus, to be imposed on that Bhikkhu. 

Then the Bhikkhus thought : ' What penalty is it 
that ought to be imposed on him ?' They told this 
matter to the Blessed One. 

' That Bhikkhu is to be declared to be one who is 
not to be saluted by the Bhikkhunt-sazwgha V 

Now at that time the A^abbaggiya Bhikkhus un- 
covered their bodies, or their thighs, or their private 
parts, and showed them to Bhikkhunls, or addressed 
Bhikkhunls with wicked words, or associated with 
Bhikkhunls, thinking, perhaps, they would fall in 
love with them *. 

They told this matter to the Blessed One. 

1 On sdra^eyyun compare sira^ati at V, 3, 1. 

* On this decision compare the 'sending to Coventry' of 
ATftanna for levity of conduct towards Bhikkhus at Mahi-parinib- 
bana Sutta VI, 4, and Aullavagga XI, 1, 12 (where the penalty is 
called Brahma-da«</a). 

* On sampayo^eti compare ATullavagga I, 5, at the end. 



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336 ffULLAVAGGA. X, 9, a. 

' A Bhikkhu is not, O Bhikkhus, to do [any of 
these things]. Whosoever does, shall be guilty of 
a dukka/a. I allow, O Bhikkhus, a penalty to be 
imposed on that Bhikkhu.' 

Then the Bhikkhus thought : 4 What penalty is it 
that ought to be imposed on him ?' They told this 
matter to the Blessed One. 

' That Bhikkhu is to be declared to be one who is 
not to be saluted by the Bhikkhunl-sa/#gha.' 

2. [The last section repeated of the A^abbaggiya 
Bhikkhunls, the decision being the same down to] 

Then the Bhikkhus thought : ' What penalty is it 
that ought to be imposed on her ? ' They told this 
matter to the Blessed One. 

' I allow you, O Bhikkhus, to prohibit her (from 
entering a Vihara) V 

When the prohibition was laid upon them, they 
would not accept it. They told this matter to the 
Blessed One. 

' I allow you, O Bhikkhus, to inhibit them from 
the Exhortation.' 

3. Then the Bhikkhus thought : 4 Is it lawful to 
hold Uposatha with a Bhikkhunt who has been in- 
hibited from the Exhortation, or is it not lawful ?' 

They told this matter to the Blessed One. 

' You are not, O Bhikkhus, to hold Uposatha 
with a Bhikkhunt who has been inhibited from the 
Exhortation until such time as her case has been 
settled.' 

Now at that time the venerable Udayi, after 
having inhibited the Exhortation (to one or more 
Bhikkhunls), went away on a journey. The Bhik- 

1 Avarawan ti vMrapavesane mx&ntnm, says Buddhaghosa. 

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X,9»4- 0N THE DUTIES OF BHIKKHUnIs. 337 

khunls murmured, were indignant, and complained, 
saying : • How can the venerable Udayi [act so]?' 

They told this matter to the Blessed One. 

' You are not, O Bhikkhus, to go on a journey 
after having inhibited the Exhortation. Whosoever 
does so, shall be guilty of a dukka/a.' 

Now at that time foolish and incompetent Bhik- 
khus inhibited the Exhortation. 

They told this matter to the Blessed One. 

' The Exhortation is not, O Bhikkhus, to be inhi- 
bited by a foolish, incompetent Bhikkhu. When such 
a one does so, he shall be guilty of a dukka/a.' 

Now at that time Bhikkhus inhibited the Exhorta- 
tion without grounds and without cause. 

They told this matter to the Blessed One. 

' You are not, O Bhikkhus, to inhibit the Exhorta- 
tion without ground and without cause. Whosoever 
does so, shall be guilty of a dukka/a.' 

Now at that time Bhikkhus, who had inhibited the 
Exhortation, would not give a decision (on the 
matter out of which the inhibition arose). 

They told this matter to the Blessed One. 

' When, O Bhikkhus, you have inhibited the Ex- 
hortation, you are not to abstain from giving a deci- 
sion (on the matter out of which the inhibition arose). 
Whosoever does so, shall be guilty of a dukka/a.' 

4. Now at that time Bhikkhunts did not go to 
the Exhortation. They told this matter to the 
Blessed One. 

4 A Bhikkhunl, O Bhikkhus, is not to omit going 
to the Exhortation. Whosoever does so, shall be 
dealt with according to the rule V 

1 Bhikkhunf P&ittiya LVIII. 
[ao] Z 



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338 JTULLAVAGGA. X, 9, 4. 

Now at that time the whole Bhikkhunt-sawgha 
went to the Exhortation together. The people 
murmured, were indignant, and complained, saying : 
' There are their wives, there are their mistresses ; 
now will they take pleasure together.' 

They told this matter to the Blessed One. 

'The whole Bhikkhunl-sa#*gha is not, O Bhik- 
khus, to go to the Exhortation together. And if it 
should so go, it is guilty of a dukka^a. I allow, 
O Bhikkhus, four or five Bhikkhunls to go together.' 

[The same when four or five went the decision 
ending,] 

' I allow, O Bhikkhus, two or three Bhikkhunis 
to go together to Exhortation ; and let them go up 
to some one Bhikkhu, and arrange their robes over 
one shoulder, and, sitting down on their heels, let 
•them stretch forth their joined palms, and thus ad- 
dress him : " The Bhikkhunt-sawzgha salutes the 
feet of the Bhikkhu-sawgha, and requests permission 
to come for the purpose of the Exhortation being 
•held ; may that be granted, they say, to the Bhik- 
khunl-sawgha." 

' Then he who is entrusted with the recitation of 
the Patimokkha is to ask : " Is there any Bhikkhu 
who has been appointed to hold the Exhortation of 
the Bhikkhunis?" 

' If a Bhikkhu has been appointed thereto, the 
reciter of the Patimokkha is to say : " Such and 
such a Bhikkhu has been appointed to hold Ex- 
hortation to the Bhikkhunis. Let the Bhikkhuni- 
sa/wgha come to him accordingly." 

' If no Bhikkhu has been appointed thereto, the 
reciter of the Patimokkha is to say : " Which of 
the venerable ones is able to hold Exhortation to 



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X, 9, 5- 0N THE DUTIES OF BHIKKHUltfs. 339 

the Bhikkhunis ? " If any one is able to do so, and 
is possessed of the eight qualifications 1 , he is to 
appoint him thereto, and is to say : " Such and 
such a Bhikkhu is appointed to hold Exhortation 
to the Bhikkhunis. Let the Bhikkhunl-sa#*gha 
come to him." 

' If no one is able to do so, the reciter of the 
Patimokkha is to say : " There is no Bhikkhu ap- 
pointed to hold Exhortation to the Bhikkhunis. 
May the Bhikkhunl-sawgha obtain its desire in 
peace V ' 

5. Now at that time Bhikkhus did not accept the 
(office of holding) Exhortation. They told this 
matter to the Blessed One. 

' The Exhortation is not, O Bhikkhus, to be de- 
clined. Whosoever shall not accept it, shall be 
guilty of a dukka/a.' '. 

Now at that time a certain Bhikkh 1 was stupid. 
To him the Bhikkhunis went, and said : ' Sir, please 
to accept the (duty of holding) Exhortation.' 

' I, sister, am stupid. How can I accept the Ex- 
hortation?' 

• You should take it, Sir ; for thus has it been 
laid down by the Blessed One : " Bhikkhus are to 
accept the (duty of holding) Exhortation to the 
Bhikkhunis."' 

They told this matter to the Blessed One. 

* I allow, O Bhikkhus, all the rest, save the 
stupid, to accept the Exhortation.' 

[The same repeated of a sick Bhikkhu, and a 

1 These are given at length in the Sutta Vibhanga, Pa£ittiya 
XXI, a, 1. 

8 Pdsadikena samp&detu, on which Buddhaghosa has no 
note. Perhaps ' by means of faith ' would be a better rendering. 

Z 2 



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34° JCULLAVAGGA. X, 10, i. 

Bhikkhu on a journey. The same case put of a 
Bhikkhu living in the jungle. The decision is,] 

' I allow a Bhikkhu living in the jungle, O Bhik- 
khus, to accept the Exhortation, and to appoint a 
time and place for the meeting l , saying : " There 
will I perform it'" 

Now at that time Bhikkhus accepted the Ex- 
hortation, but did not perform it. They told this 
matter to the Blessed One. 

'The Exhortation, O Bhikkhus, is not to be 
neglected. Whosoever does so, shall be guilty of a 
dukka/a.' 

Now at that time Bhikkhunis did not attend at 
the place appointed. They told this matter to the 
Blessed One. 

' A Bhikkhuni is not, O Bhikkhus, to omit attend- 
ing at the place appointed. Whosoever does so, 
shall be guilty of a dukka/a.' 



10. 
i. Now at that time Bhikkhunis wore long 
girdles, and out of them they arranged fringes*. 
The people murmured, were indignant, and com- 
plained, saying : ' As the women who are still en- 
joying the pleasures of the world do ! ' 

1 On sawketa/B, see our note above on Mah&vagga VIII, 23, 3. 

1 Pasuke namentlti gihidirikayo viya ghanapa/Zakena kaya- 
bandhanena pasuke namanatthaya bandhanti, says Buddhaghosa. 
Pasuka is probably equal to the Sanskrit parjvaka, and means a 
fringe arranged round the body, as shown in Plate LI of Cunning- 
ham's ' Bharhut Tope,' being so called from the rib-like arrange- 
ment of the strings or cloth or other substance of which it was 
made. On corresponding girdles worn by men and forbidden to 
Bhikkhus, see .Afullavagga V, 29, 2. 



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X, 10, J. ON THE DUTIES OF BHIKKHUNfs. 34 1 

' A Bhikkhunt is not, O Bhikkhus, to wear a long 
girdle. Whosoever does so, shall be guilty of a 
dukka/a. I allow a Bhikkhuni, O Bhikkhus, a 
girdle that will go once round the body 1 , and 
fringes are not to be arranged in it. Whosoever 
does so, shall be guilty of a dukka/a.' 

Now at that time Bhikkhunts arranged fringes in 
cloth of bambfl fibre 4 , or in leather, or in white 
cotton cloth 8 , or in plaited cotton cloth*, or in 
fringed cotton cloth 6 , or in white or in plaited or in 
fringed £ola cloth 8 , or in plaits or fringes made of 
thread. The people murmured, were indignant, and 
complained, saying : ' As the women who are still 
enjoying the pleasures of the world do ! ' 

They told this matter to the Blessed One. 

' A Bhikkhuni is not, O Bhikkhus, to wear any of 
these things. Whosoever does so, shall be guilty of 
a dukka/a.' 

2. Now at that time Bhikkhunts had their backs 
scrubbed with the steak-bone of an ox, or slapped with 
the jaw-bone of an ox ; and had their fore-arms 7 , 

1 Ekapariydkatan ti ekavaraw parikkhipanaka/n, says the 
Samanta Pisadika. 
! Vilivena pattenati (sic) sa»heti ve/uvi/Ivehi (sic) katapa//ena. 
3 Dussapa/Zenati setavatthapa//cna. 

* Dussave»iyati dussena kataveniya. 
1 Dussava//iy£ti dussena katava/ZiyS. 

* A'olapaZZadisu &>lak&vasaw lolan ti veditabbaw. 

7 Hatthaw koZZapenttti aggaai baham koZZapetvi morapat- 
tadihi Jittakaw karonti, says Buddhaghosa. The meaning is not 
clear. No. 10 of the tattoo marks figured on Plate LII of Cun- 
ningham's ' Bharhut Tope,' referred to in the note on the next sec- 
tion, is a representation of a peacock's feathers. On a/Mi 11a, see 
Buddhaghosa's note at p. 327 of the text. Compare the prohibition 
of the use by Bhikkhus of back-scratchers and other like things (A r ul- 
lavagga V, 1, 1) connected with shampooing or luxurious bathing. 



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342 JCULLAVAGGA. X, 10, 3. 

and the backs of their hands 1 , and their calves 2 , 
and the upper part of their feet 3 , and their thighs, 
and their faces, and their gums, so slapped. The 
people murmured, were indignant, and complained, 
saying : ' As the women who are still enjoying the 
pleasures of the world do ! ' 

They told this matter to the Blessed One. 

' A Bhikkhuni is not, O Bhikkhus, to [do any of 
these things]. Whosoever does so, shall be guilty 
of a dukka/a.' 

3. Now at that time the AT^abbaggiya Bhikkhunls 
[&c, down to] 

' * A Bhikkhuni is not, O Bhikkhus, to anoint her 
face, nor to rub ointments on to her face 5 , nor to 
put chunam on to her face, nor to smear red arsenic 
on to her face, nor to paint her body, nor to paint 
her face, nor to paint her body and face. Whosoever 
does so, shall be guilty of a dukka/a.' 

4. [Similar paragraph concluding,] 

' A Bhikkhuni is not, O Bhikkhus, to make (tattoo 
marks) by the corners of her eyes 6 , or on her cheeks 7 , 
nor to peep out of window 8 , nor to stand in the 



1 Hattha-ko££Aan ti pi/Mi-hattham. 

* Pstdan ti^ahghaw. 

8 Pada-ko£Man ti pi//>4i-pada/». 

* This paragraph has already occurred above, V, 2, 5 of the 
Bhikkhus. 

8 These two injunctions are found also in the 90th and 91st 
Bhikkhunf Paflttiyas. 

* Avangam karontiti avanga-dese adhomukhaw lekham ka- 
ronti (B.). Avanga=Sanskrit apaftga. 

7 Visesakaw karontiti gawda-padese vi£itra-sa»M&na« vise- 
sakaw karonti (B.). A number of tattoo marks on the cheeks are 
figured in Plate LII of Cunningham's ' Bharhut Tope.' 

8 Olokentiti vatapanaw vivaritva vithlm olokenti (B.). 



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X, ir, r. ON THE DUTIES OF BHIKKHUNts. 343 

light (of a half-opened door) 1 , nor to have dances 
performed, nor to keep courtesans, nor to keep a 
tavern, nor to keep a slaughter-house, nor to open 
a shop, nor to practise usury, nor to supply men 
slaves or women slaves, or men servants or maid 
servants, or animals, nor to carry on the business of 
florist and seedsman 2 , nor to carry the razor case V 

[Similar paragraph concluding,] 

' A Bhikkhunt is not, O Bhikkhus, to wear robes 
that are all of a blue, light yellow, crimson, black, 
brownish-yellow, or dark yellow colour : nor to wear 
robes with skirts to them which are not made of 
torn pieces of cloth, or are long, or have flowers 
worked on them, or cobras' hoods; nor to wear 
jackets, nor dresses made of the fibre of the Tirl- 
taka plant*. Whosoever does so, shall be guilty of 
a dukka/a.' 



11. 

1. Now at that time a certain Bhikkhuni, when on 
her death-bed, said: 'After I am gone, let my set 
of necessaries 6 belong to the Sawgha.' Then the 

1 Saloke ti/Mantiti dvaro/n vivaritva up&ddfa-k&y&m dassen- 
tiyo ti/Manti (B.). Compare Theri-gathS 73. 

1 Haritaka-panwikaw pakiwantiti haritakaw k' eva pawmi 
h. pakiflanti, paki«»akapa«a/« pasarentili vutta/w hod (B.). Com- 
pare pa»»ika-upasako in the GStaka I, 411=11, 180. 

* Namatakaw dhareti. See V, 27, 3, and our note above on 
V, 1 1, 1. The expression evidently means here ' to be a barber.' 

* This paragraph has already occurred above, in respect to the 
Bhikkhus (Mahavagga VIII, 29), where see our notes on the 
various items. 

s Parikkhdro; that is, the eight things over which a member 



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344 JTULLAVAGGA. X, ra, i. 

Bhikkhus and the Bhikkhunts disputed as to it, say- 
ing : ' It belongs to us ; it belongs to us.' 

They told this matter to the Blessed One. 

' If, O Bhikkhus, a Bhikkhun!, or a novice under 
training to become one (a Sikkhamana), when 
on her death-bed, should say : " After I am gone, 
let my set of necessaries belong to the Sawgha," 
then it is the Bhikkhunl-samgha it belongs to ; the 
Bhikkhu-sa*»gha is not the owner thereof. If a 
Bhikkhu, O Bhikkhus, or a novice under training 
to become one (a Sama#era), when on his death- 
bed, should say : " After I am gone, let my set of 
necessaries become the property of the Sa/wgha," 
then it is the Bhikkhu-sa»2gha it belongs to; the 
Bhikkhunl-sawgha is not the owner thereof 1 .' 



12. 

i. Now at that time a certain woman, who had for- 
merly belonged to the clan of the Mallas 2 , had 
entered the Order of the Bhikkhunts. She, seeing 
a weakly Bhikkhu on the road, struck up against 
him with the edge of her shoulder, and knocked 
him over. The Bhikkhus murmured, were indig- 
nant, and complained, saying : ' How can a Bhik- 
khun! assault a Bhikkhu ? ' 

They told this matter to the Blessed One. 

'A Bhikkhunl is not, O Bhikkhus, to assault a 

of the Buddhist Order was allowed proprietary rights — the three 
robes, the alms-bowl, razor, needle, girdle, and water-strainer. 

1 By the rule laid down in the Mahavagga VIII, 27, the set of 
robes and the bowl are to be assigned by the Sa«gha to those that 
waited on the sick — at least in the case of Bhikkhus, — and the 
analogy would doubtless hold good of the Bhikkhunts also. 

* Well known as wrestlers. 



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X, 13, i. ON THE DUTIES OF BHIKKHUNts. 345 

Bhikkhu. Whosoever does so, shall be guilty of a 
dukka^a. I prescribe that a Bhikkhunl, O Bhik- 
khus, on seeing a Bhikkhu, should get out of the 
way when still at a distance, and make room for 
him.' 



13. 

1. Now at that time a certain woman, while her 
husband was on a journey, became with child by a 
paramour. She had a premature delivery, and 
asked a Bhikkhuni, a confederate of hers, to carry 
away the foetus in her bowl. And that Bhikkhun! 
put it into her bowl, and, covering it over with her 
upper robe, went away. 

Now at that time a certain Bhikkhu, who was on 
an alms-pilgrimage, had made a vow not to partake 
of the first food given to him until he had already 
given of it either to a Bhikkhu or to a Bhikkhunl. 
On seeing the Bhikkhunl, that Bhikkhu said : 
' Come, sister ! take some food.' 

' No thank you, Sir.' 

[And a second and a third time the Bhikkhu 
made the same request, and received the same 
reply. Then he said,] 

* Sister ! I have made a vow not to partake my- 
self of the first food given to me until I have already 
given of it either to a Bhikkhu or to a Bhikkhun!. 
Come, sister ! take the food.' 

Then that Bhikkhuni, being so pressed by the 
Bhikkhu, pulled out her bowl, and showed him what 
was inside of it. And the Bhikkhu was indignant, and 
annoyed, and remonstrated, saying : ' How can you 
do such a thing ? ' And he told the Bhikkhus, and 
they were indignant, &c, and told the Blessed One. 



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34^ JCULLAVAGGA. X, 15, 1. 

' A Bhikkhunl is not, O Bhikkhus, to carry away 
a foetus in her bowl. Whosoever does so, shall 
be guilty of a dukka/a. I allow a Bhikkhunl, O 
Bhikkhus, on seeing a Bhikkhu, to pull out her 
bowl, and show it to him.' 



The following short section will scarcely bear translating into 
modern English. 



15. 

1. Now at that time the people gave food to the 
Bhikkhus, and the Bhikkhus gave to the Bhik- 
khunls. The people murmured, were indignant, 
and complained, saying : ' How can their reverences 
give away to others what was given for them to 
have — as if we did not know how to give gifts ?' 

They told this matter to the Blessed One. 

' A Bhikkhu, O Bhikkhus, is not to give away to 
others what was given for them themselves to have. 
Whosoever does so, shall be guilty of a dukka/a.' 

Now at that time the Bhikkhus had come into 
the possession of some (meat for) food. They told 
this matter to the Blessed One. 

' I allow you, O Bhikkhus, to give it to the 
Sa/wgha.' 

Too much came into their possession. 

They told this matter to the Blessed One. 

' I allow you, O Bhikkhus, to give away that 
which was given to special individuals (and to keep 
that which had come into the possession of the 
Sa/wgha as a whole 1 ).' 

1 Puggalika/ra datu»z. On this phrase compare the similar one 
below at X, 24. Buddhaghosa has no note either here or there. 



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X, i6, 2. ON THE DUTIES OF BHIKKHUNts. 347 

Now at that time food, which had been stored up 
for the Bhikkhus, had come into their possession. 

They told this matter to the Blessed One. 

' I allow food that has been stored up to be en- 
joyed by the Bhikkhunls after they have had it 
given over to them by the Bhikkhus.' 

2. [The same repeated, reading Bhikkhunl for 
Bhikkhu, and vice versa.] 



16. 

1. Now at that time the Bhikkhus had come into 
the possession of some bedding, and the Bhikkhunls 
had none. The Bhikkhunls sent a messenger to 
the Bhikkhus, saying : ' It would be well if their 
reverences the Bhikkhus would give us some bed- 
ding on loan V 

They told this matter to the Blessed One. 
' I allow you, O Bhikkhus, to give bedding to the 
Bhikkhunls on loan.' 

2. Now at that time Bhikkhunls, in their courses, 
sat down or lay down on stuffed bedsteads and 
chairs, and the stuffing was soiled with blood. 

They told this matter to the Blessed One. 

' A Bhikkhunl is not, O Bhikkhus, to sit down or 
lie down on a stuffed bedstead or chair. Whoso- 
ever does so, shall be guilty of a dukka/a. I allow 
the use, O Bhikkhus, of an indoors robe V 

The indoors robe got soiled. 

1 TSvakilikaw. See the passages quoted in our note above 
on Aullavagga VI, 1 8. 

s Avasatha-iivaraw. See the Old Commentary on this 
word as occurring in the 47th Bhikkhunl Pa&ttiya. 



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348 JTULLAVAGGA. X, 16, 2. 

They told this matter to the Blessed One. 

' I allow, O Bhikkhus, the use of a thigh-cloth (a 
cloth to reach nearly down to the knee ').' 

The thigh-cloth slipped down. 

They told this matter to the Blessed One. 

' I allow it, O Bhikkhus, to be fastened by a 
thread to be tied round the thigh.' 

The thread broke. 

They told this matter to the Blessed One. 

' I allow, O Bhikkhus, a loin-cloth, and a string 
going round the hips (to keep it up) 2 .' 

Now at that time the A^abbaggiya Bhikkhunis 
used to wear the hip-string always. The people 
murmured, &c, saying : ' Like the women who still 
enjoy the pleasures of the world ! ' They told this 
matter to the Blessed One. 

' A Bhikkhun! is not, O Bhikkhus, to wear a hip- 
string for constant use 3 . I allow its use to one who 
is in her courses.' 

1 A«i-£olaka*. Buddhaghosa has no note on this. A»i 
must be here ' that part of the leg immediately above the knee, the 
front of the thigh.' Compare Bohtlingk-Roth s. v. No. 2. 

2 Sawvelliyaw ka/i-suttakaw. The sa«velliya« is the 
ordinary undress as worn for the sake of decency, even now, by a 
labourer working in muddy paddy fields, or at any severe task. It 
is a wedge-shaped strip of cotton cloth about a foot and a half 
long, about five inches wide at one end, and tapering down to one 
inch in width at the other. The broad end is fixed on to a string 
going round the waist (£a/i-suttaka«), and hangs down, when 
put on, in front of the legs. When worn under other clothes, it 
remains so ; but when the other clothes are taken off for work the 
narrow end is passed under the body between the legs, and twisted 
round the hip-string behind (at the small of the back) so as to keep 
it fast. Its use is forbidden to Bhikkhus at V, 29, 5, where Bud- 
dhaghosa says, ' Such as wrestlers and labourers wear.' 

8 Its use is also forbidden to Bhikkhus (above, .ffullavagga 
V, 2, 1). 



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X, 17, I. ON THE DUTIES OF BHIKKHUNis. 349 

17. 

1. Now at that time there were found among the 
Bhikkhunls some who were [deformed in one or 
other of eleven ways] 1 . 

They told this matter to the Blessed One. 

' I prescribe, O Bhikkhus, that a woman on whom 
the upasampada initiation is being conferred, is to 
be questioned as touching the four-and-twenty Dis- 
qualifications 2 . And thus, O Bhikkhus, is she to be 
questioned : 

(1-11) " Have you anyone or other of the eleven 
deformities [each repeated as above] ? " 

(12-16) " Have you any of the following diseases- 
leprosy, boils, dry leprosy, consumption, or fits ?" 

(17) " Are you a human being s ? " 

(18) "Are you a female?" 

(19) " Are you a free woman ? " 

(20) " Are you free from debts ? " 

(21) " Are you not in the king's service ? " 

(22) " Have your father and mother given their 
consent ? " 

(23) " Are you full twenty years of age ? " 

(24) " Are you duly provided with robes and alms- 
bowl?" 

" What is your name ? " 

• x Here follow a number of abnormities, deformities, or diseases, 
all of which have reference to the womb or its accessories. Some 
of them are unintelligible to us. Compare the corresponding sec- 
tion in respect to Bhikkhus at Mahavagga I, 68. 

* Of these twenty-four, eleven are the deformities just referred 
to, and the rest are the same as those for Bhikkhus at Mahavagga 
I, 76. The number of questions is, in fact, twenty-six, but the last 
two do not refer to Disqualifications. 

' For the reason of this, see Mahavagga I, 63. 



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35° JCULLAVAGGA. X, 17, a. 

" What is the name of your proposer 1 ? " ' 

2. Now at that time Bhikkhus put the questions 
as touching the Disqualifications to Bhikkhunls 2 , 
and they who were seeking after the upasampada 
initiation became disconcerted and perplexed, and 
were unable to answer. 

They told this matter to the Blessed One. 

' I prescribe, O Bhikkhus, that initiation is to be 
conferred in the Bhikkhu-sawgha upon a BhikkhunI 
who has been initiated on the one side in the Bhik- 
khuni-sawgha, and has there cleared herself (from 
the Disqualifications).' 

Now at that time the Bhikkhunls questioned 
those who desired to receive the upasampada 
initiation about the Disqualifications, without having 
had them instructed beforehand (how to answer). 
The persons who desired to be ordained became 
disconcerted and perplexed, and were not able to 
answer 8 . 

They told this matter to the Blessed One. 

' I prescribe, O Bhikkhus, that you first instruct 
the women about to be initiated (how to answer), 
and that you then question them as to the Dis- 
qualifications.' 

Then they instructed the candidates in the midst 
of the assembly, and they still became disconcerted, 
and could not answer. 

They told this matter to the Blessed One. 

1 Pavattinf; corresponding to upagghiya. in the case of 
Bhikkhus. 

' This is in accordance with the rule laid down in X, 2, 2, that 
Bhikkhus, and not BhikkhunJs, are to confer the upasampadi. 

* This paragraph is word for word the same as Mahavagga I, 
76, 2 of the Bhikkhus. 



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X, 17,4- ON THE DUTIES OF BHIKKHUNts. 35 1 

' I prescribe, O Bhikkhus, that they be instructed 
aside, and then questioned in the midst of the 
assembly. 

'And thus, O Bhikkhus, ought they to be in- 
structed : — First they ought to be made to choose 
an instructor 1 ; when they have chosen an instructor 
their robes and bowl must be shown to them : 
" This is your alms-bowl, this is your waist-cloth, 
this is your upper garment, this is your under gar- 
ment, this is your vest, this is your bathing dress 2 . 
Go and stand in such and such a place." ' 

3. Ignorant and incompetent (Bhikkhunis) in- 
structed them, and they became disconcerted, per- 
plexed, and unable to answer. 

They told this matter to the Blessed One. 

' They are not to be instructed, O Bhikkhus, by 
unlearned, incompetent Bhikkhunis. Whosoever 
does so, shall be guilty of a dukka/a. I prescribe,. 
O Bhikkhus, that they be instructed by learned and 
competent Bhikkhunis.' 

4. Bhikkhunis not appointed (to the office of 
doing so) instructed them. 

They told this matter to the Blessed One. 

' Let no one, O Bhikkhus, instruct them without 

1 Up agg h aw. It should be observed that this expression is 
found only here, and in the corresponding section for the Bhikkhus, 
at Mahavagga I, 76, 3. Elsewhere, throughout, Upa^Adya is 
the form used for Bhikkhus, and Pavattini for Bhikkhunts. The 
word is probably here also, as in the Mahavagga I, 76, 3, to be 
taken as a masculine. 

2 These last two are omitted in the corresponding section for 
the Bhikkhus, Mahavagga I, 76, 3. On Sa/»ka££Aikam, see the 
note of the Old Commentator on the 96th Bhikkhunt P&ftttiya, 
and on Udaka-sS/ikS, the same on the 22nd Bhikkhunt 
Paiittiya. 



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35 2 rULLAVAGGA. X, i-j, 5. 

having been appointed thereto. Whosoever does 
so, shall be guilty of a dukka/a. I prescribe, O 
Bhikkhus, that a Bhikkhunl appointed to the office 
instruct them. 

' And thus, O Bhikkhus, ought she to be * ap- 
pointed — one may either appoint herself, or one may 
be appointed by another. And how is a Bhikkhunl 
to appoint herself? Let a learned, competent 
Bhikkhunl lay the following motion (»atti) before 
the Samgha.: " Let the Sa#zgha, reverend Ladies, hear 
me. N. N. desires to receive the upasampadi 
initiation from the venerable lady, M. M. If it seem 
meet to the Sawgha, I will instnict N. N." Thus 
may a Bhikkhunl appoint herself. 

' And how is a Bhikkhunl to be appointed by 
another ? Let a learned, competent Bhikkhunl lay 
the following resolution before the Sa»2gha: "Let 
the Sa/«gha, reverend Ladies, hear me. N. N. de- 
sires to receive the upasampada initiation from 
the venerable lady, M. M. If it seem meet to the 
Saw/gha, let A. A. instruct N. N." Thus may one 
Bhikkhunl be appointed by another. 

5. ' Then let that so appointed Bhikkhunl go to 
the person who is seeking to be initiated, and thus 
address her : " Listen to me, N.N. This is the time 
for you to speak the truth, to declare that which is. 
When you are asked about what has happened be- 
fore the Sawgha, you ought, if it is so, to answer : 
" That is so ; " if it is not so, to answer : " That is 
not so." Be not perplexed, be not disconcerted. I 
shall ask you thus : " Are you deformed (&c, down 
to the end of the twenty-six questions in § i)." ' 

(After the instruction was over, the instructor and 
the candidate) returned together to the assembly. 



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X, 17, 7- ON THE DUTIES OF BHIKKHUNts. 353 

' They are not to return together. Let the in- 
structor return first, and lay the following resolution 
before the Sa/»gha : " Let the Sawgha, reverend 
Ladies, hear me. N. N. desires to receive the upa- 
sampada initiation from the venerable lady, M. M.; 
and she has been instructed by me. If it seem 
meet to the Sawgha, let N. N. come forward." 
Then let her be told to come forward. Then 
let her be told to adjust her upper robe over 
one shoulder only, to bow down before the Bhik- 
khunls, to sit down on her heels, and stretching 
forth her joined palms, to ask for the upasampada 
initiation, saying : " I ask the Sawgha, reverend 
Ladies, for initiation. May the Sa#zgha, reverend 
Ladies, raise me up (out of the worldly life), having 
pity on me." And a second and a third time is she 
to repeat that request. 

6. * Then let a learned and competent Bhikkhunl 
lay the following resolution before the Saawgha : 
" Let the Saawgha, reverend Ladies, hear me. This 
person, N. N., desires to receive the upasampada 
initiation from M. M. ; and she has been instructed 
by me. If it seem meet to the Sawgha, let me 
question N. N. as touching the Disqualifications. 
Listen to me, N. N. [as before, down to the end of 
the questions]." 

7. ' Then let a learned and competent Bhikkhunl 
lay the following motion before the Sawgha : " Let the 
Sawgha, reverend Ladies, hear me. This person, 
N. N., desires to receive the upasampada initiation 
from the venerable lady, M. M. She is free from 
the Disqualifications, and is duly provided with alms- 
bowl and robes. This person, N. N., asks the 
Sa/wgha for the upasampada initiation, the vene- 

[20] a a 



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354 JTULLAVAGGA. X, 17, 8. 

rable lady, M. M., being her proposer. If it seem 
meet to the Sawgha, let the Sawgha receive N. N., 
the venerable lady, M. M., being her proposer. 
That, then, is the motion. 

' " Let the Sa«fgha, venerable Ladies, hear me. 
N. N. desires to receive the upasampada, the 
lady, M. M., being her proposer. The Sawgha 
confers the upasampada upon N. N., the lady, 
M. M., being her proposer. Whosoever of the 
venerable ones agrees thereto, let her keep silence ; 
whosoever agrees not thereto, let her speak. A 
second time I say the same thing." [The whole 
of this paragraph repeated.] And a third time I 
say the same thing. [Paragraph repeated.] 

' The Sa#*gha has conferred the upasampada 
upon N. N., the lady, M. M., being her proposer; 
The Sa/#gha agrees thereto. Therefore is it silent. 
Thus do I understand.' 

8. 'Then, further, let her be taken before the 
Bhikkhu-sawgha, and there told to arrange her robe 
over one shoulder only, to bow down before the 
Bhikkhus, and, sitting down on her heels, to stretch 
forth her joined palms, and say : " I, Sirs, N. N., 
who, being desirous of receiving the upasampada 
initiation from M. M., have received it on the one 
side (of the Sawgha, from the Bhikkhunts), and 
have there been declared free (from the Disqualifi- 
cations), do hereby ask the Sawgha for the upa- 
sampada." [The rest of the proceedings are the 
same as before the Bhikkhuni-sawgha.] " May the 
Sawgha, reverend Sirs, raise me up (out of the 
worldly life), having pity on me." And a second 
time do I hereby ask [&c, repeated]. And a third 
time do I hereby ask [the same repeated]. 



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X, i8. ON THE DUTIES OF BHIKKHUNis. 355 

[The rest of the proceedings are the same as in 
the last sections 6 and 7, putting ' Bhikkhu ' for 
' Bhikkhunl,' and ' reverend Sirs ' for ' reverend 
Ladies.'] 

* Then, further, let them (the Bhikkhus) measure 
the shadow, tell (the newly-received Bhikkhunl) 
what season and what date it is, tell her what part 
of the day it is, tell her the whole formula 1 , and tell 
the Bhikkhunls: "You are to teach her what are 
the three things allowed 2 , and what are the eight 
things interdicted '." ' 



18. 

Now at that time Bhikkhunls wasted their time 
in the dining-hall, doubting as to which should take 
which seat 

They told this matter to the Blessed One. 

' I prescribe, O Bhikkhus, that the senior eight 
Bhikkhunls shall take their seats according to 
seniority, and the rest as they happen to come in.' 

Now at that time Bhikkhunls, on the ground 
that the Blessed One had so prescribed, let the 
eight senior Bhikkhunls in every other place take 

1 Samgiti. On the meaning of this curious use of the word, 
see our note on the corresponding section for the Bhikkhus (Mahi- 
vagga I, 77). 

* The three Nissayas, which are doubtless the same as the 1st, 
2nd, and 4th of the four Resources mentioned in the corresponding 
paragraph for Bhikkhus (Mahavagga I, 77). The third is for- 
bidden to Bhikkhunls, below, X, 23. 

* A/Ma akaraniy&ni. These must bear the same relation to 
the eight Bhikkhunl P&ra^ikas as the four Interdicts in the corres- 
ponding paragraph for the Bhikkhus (Mahavagga I, 78) do to the 
four Bhikkhu Pari^ikas. 

A a 2 



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356 iTULLAVAGGA. X, 19, r. 

exclusive possession (of the first eight seats), and the 
rest arranged themselves as they came in. 

They told this matter to the Blessed One. 

' I prescribe, O Bhikkhus, as above, only in the 
case of the dining-hall. Everywhere else let there 
be no exclusive right to seats by seniority.' 



19. 

1. Now at that time the Bhikkhunls did not hold 
Pavara«a. 

They told this matter to the Blessed One. 

'A Bhflckhunl is not, O Bhikkhus, to omit holding 
Pavara#a. Whosoever does so, shall be dealt with 
according to law V 

Now at that time the Bhikkhunls held Pavarawa 
by themselves, and not in the Bhikkhu-sawgha. 

They told this matter to the Blessed One. 

'A Bhikkhuni is not, O Bhikkhus, to hold Pa- 
vara«a apart, and not in the Bhikkhu-sa;#gha. 
Whosoever does so, shall be dealt with according 
to law V 

Now at that time Bhikkhunls holding Pavarawa 
with the Bhikkhus only, and not apart by themselves, 
disturbed (the meeting of the Bhikkhu-saa#gha). 

They told this matter to the Blessed One. 

' A Bhikkhuni is not, O Bhikkhus, to hold Pava- 
ra»a with the Bhikkhu-sawzgha only. Whosoever 
does so, shall be guilty of a dukka/a 2 .' 

Now at that time Bhikkhunls spent all their time 

1 The 57th Bhikkhuni Paflttiya, which is the same as the 4th 
Garudhamma above, X, 1, 4. 
' See last note. 



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X, 19, 2. ON THE DUTIES OF BHIKKHUn!s. 357 

before noon holding Pavara»4 [and so had no time 
left for the early meal]. 

They told this matter to the Blessed One. 

' I prescribe, O Bhikkhus, that they hold Pava- 
ra#a in the afternoon.' 

When holding Pavara»a in the afternoon, they had 
not time enough [to conclude their own ceremony 
that day, and take part in that of the Bhikkhus]. 

They told this matter to the Blessed One. 

'I allow them, O Bhikkhus, to hold their own 
Pavara»a one day, and that with the Bhikkhus the 
next day.' 

2. Now at that time the whole of the Bhikkhunl- 
sawgha declaring, each one for herself, her Pavarawa 
before the Bhikkhu-sawagha, disturbed (the pro- 
ceedings). 

They told this matter to the Blessed One. 

1 1 prescribe, O Bhikkhus, that some one learned 
and competent Bhikkhunt be deputed to make the 
Pavara»a invitation on behalf of the Bhikkhuni- 
sawgha before the Bhikkhu-saz#gha. And thus, 
O Bhikkhus, is she to be deputed : 

' " First, the Bhikkhunf is to be asked (whether 
she be willing to serve). When that has been done, 
a learned and discreet Bhikkhunl is to lay this motion 
before the Sa*«gha : Let the Sawgha, venerable 
Ladies, hear me. If it seem meet to the Sawzgha, 
let the Sawzgha depute N. N. to make the Pavarawa 
invitation on behalf of the Bhikkhunf-sawgha before 
the Bhikkhu-sawgha. That is the motion. 

' " Let the Sawgha, venerable Ladies, hear me. 
The Sawgha deputes N. N. to make the Pavarawa 
invitation on behalf of the Bhikkhunl-sawgha before 
the Bhikkhu-sawgha. Whosoever of the venerable 



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358 JTULLAVAGGA. X, 19, 3. 

ones approves thereof, let her keep silence. Who- 
soever approves not thereof, let her speak. 

' " N. N. is deputed by the Sawgha to make the 
Pavara»a invitation on behalf of the Bhikkhuni- 
sawgha before the Bhikkhu-sawgha. The Samgha. 
approves thereof. Therefore is it silent. Thus do 
I understand." ' 

3. ' When that Bhikkhunl has been deputed, she, 
accompanied by the Bhikkhunl-sawgha, is to go 
before the Bhikkhu-sawgha, arrange her robe over 
one shoulder, bow down before the Bhikkhus, and 
sitting on her heels, to stretch forth her joined 
palms, and say : " The Bhikkhunt-sawgha invites 
the Bhikkhu-sa#zgha (to point out to them any 
faults they may have committed) in respect of 
things heard, or seen, or suspected. May the 
Bhikkhu-sawgha speak to the Bhikkhunl-sawgha 
(if there be anything wherein they have offended) 
out of compassion toward them. Then will they, if 
they perceive the offence, confess the same. And a 

second time the Bhikkhunt-sa#*gha [the 

whole repeated]. And a third time [the 

whole repeated] V ' 



20. 

Now at that time Bhikkhunls inhibited Bhikkhus 
from the Uposatha, or from the Pavara«a, or from 
the Exhortation, or issued commands to them, or 
asked them to give them leave to rebuke them, or 
warned them of some offence they supposed they 

1 This, of course, is the same form that each separate member of 
the Order uses before his or her own Sawgha. Compare our notes 
above on the corresponding passage in the Mahavagga, IV, 1, 4. 



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X, 31. ON THE DUTIES OF BHIKKHUnJs. 359 

were committing, or called upon them to remember 
whether or not they had committed an offence 1 . 

They told this matter to the Blessed One. 

' A Bhikkhuni is not, O Bhikkhus, to perform any 
one of these official acts towards a Bhikkhu. 
Should she do so, the act is itself invalid, and she 
is guilty of a dukka/a.' 

Now at that time Bhikkhus inhibited Bhikkhunts 
[&c, as before, giving the contrary decision]. 



21. 

Now at that time the A^abbaggiya Bhikkhunts 
had themselves carried in vehicles to which cows 
were yoked with a bull between them 2 , or bulls 
were yoked with a cow between them. People 
were annoyed, murmured, and became indignant, 
saying : ' That is what is done at the feast of the 
Ganga, and the Mahi V 

They told this matter to the Blessed One. 

1 A Bhikkhuni is not, O Bhikkhus, to be carried in 
a vehicle. Whosoever does so, shall be dealt with 
according to law V 

Now at that time a certain Bhikkhuni was sick, 
and unable to go on foot. 

They told this matter to the Blessed One. 

' I allow the use of a carriage, O Bhikkhus, to 
a sick (Bhikkhuni) V 

1 On all these official acts of a Bhikkhuni, see the notes above 
on JTullavagga I, 5. 

* On all these expressions, see our notes above at Mahavagga V, 
9, 3, where they recur word for word. 

* This is the 85th Bhikkhuni Pa/fcituya. 

4 This is repeated from the 85th Bhikkhunf PaAittiya. The cor- 
responding permission is given to Bhikkhus by Mahavagga V, 10, 2. 



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360 JTULLAVAGGA. X, 22, 1. 

Now the Bhikkhunts thought : ' Should the carts 
be yoked with cows or bulls ?' 

They told this matter to the Blessed One. 

' I allow, O Bhikkhus, a cart yoked with cows or 
bulls, or drawn by hand V 

Now at that time a certain Bhikkhunl was much 
distressed by the jolting of the cart. 

They told this matter to the Blessed One. 

' I allow, O Bhikkhus, the use of a litter or 
sedan chair V 



22. 

1. Now at that time a courtesan named AddAa.- 
kast s had adopted the religious life under the Bhik- 
khunts, and she wanted to go to Savatthi to be 
received as full member of the Order (to receive 
the upasampada initiation) by the Blessed One 
himself. And men of abandoned life heard of it, 
and beset the road. And when Aafo^akast, the 
courtesan, heard that they had done so, she sent a 
messenger to the Blessed One, saying : ' I want to 
receive the upasampada initiation : what course of 
action should I adopt ? ' 

Then the Blessed One, in that connection, ad- 
dressed the Bhikkhus, after delivering a religious 
discourse 4 , and said : ' I allow you, O Bhikkhus, to 
confer the upasampada initiation (upon Bhik- 
khunts) even by a messenger 6 .' 

1 Hattha-va//aka«. See the note on MahSvagga V, 10, 3. 
9 So also for Bhikkhus at Mahavagga V, 10, 3. 
8 On the meaning of this nickname or epithet, compare our note 
on Mah&vagga VIII, 2 (and see also VIII, 1,1, and 3). 
4 As set out in Afullavagga I, 1 ; MahSvagga I, 35, 6. 
* The ordinary rule, no doubt, required, as in the case of Bhik- 



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X, 22, 3. ON THE DUTIES OF BHIKKHUNls. 361 

2. They conferred it by (sending) a Bhikkhu as 
the messenger. 

They told this matter to the Blessed One. 

'You are not, O Bhikkhus, to confer the u pa- 
samp ad 4 initiation on a Bhikkhunl by sending a 
Bhikkhu as messenger. Whosoever does so, shall 
be guilty of a dukka/a.' 

They conferred it by sending a female student 

a male novice ..... a female novice an 

ignorant, incompetent Bhikkhunl, as the messenger. 

[Similar decision in each case.] 

' I allow you, O Bhikkhus, to confer the upa- 
sampada initiation by sending a learned, competent 
Bhikkhunl as a messenger..' 

3. 'That Bhikkhunl messenger is to go before 
the Sa2«gha> and arranging her robe over one 
shoulder, is to bow down before the Sa#*gha, and 
sitting on her heels, to. stretch forth her joined 
palms, and say : " N. N., having been desirous of 
receiving the upasampada initiation with the lady, 
M. M. (as her proposer), has received it on the one 
hand from the Bhikkhunt-sawzgha, and has there 
been declared free (from the Disqualifications'). 
But she is prevented by some danger or other from 
coming before the Saflagha (to have her initiation 
confirmed) 2 . N. N..asks the Sa#zgha for initiation. 
Let the Sawgha raise her up (out of the worldly life) 
out of compassion upon her.' [To be said thrice.] 

khus, a Sawtgha of not less than ten persons (Mahavagga I, 31, 2, 
and IX, 4, 1), each of ten years standing or more (Mahavagga I, 
31, 8). But even for Bhikkhus there were, under special circum- 
stances, certain relaxations of this rule (Mahavagga V, 13, n). 

1 See above, X, 17, 1, for the twenty-four Disqualifications. 

1 Compare above, X, 1, 4, and X, 17. 



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362 JTULLAVAGGA. X, 23. 

' Then let a learned, competent. Bhikkhu lay the 
motion before the Sawgha. " Let the Sa#*gha, vene- 
rable Sirs, hear me. N. N., having been desirous 

[statement of fact, as before]. If it seem 

meet to the Samgha, let the Sa*»gha confer the 
upasampada initiation upon N. N., M. M. being 
her proposer. That is the motion. 

' " Let the Samgha, venerable Sirs, hear me. 

N. N [statement of fact, as before]. The 

Sa*»gha hereby confers the upasampada initiation 
upon N. N., M. M. being her proposer. Whosoever 
of the venerable ones approves thereof, let him keep 
silence Whosoever approves not thereof, let him 
speak. And a second time I say the same thing. 

N. N., (&c, down to) let him speak. And 

a third time I say the same thing. N. N 

(&c, down to) let him speak. 

'"The Sawgha has hereby conferred the upa- 
sampada initiation upon N. N., M. M. being her 
proposer. The Samgha. approves thereof. There- 
fore is it silent Thus do I understand." ' 

' Then, further, let them (the Bhikkhus) measure 
the shadow, tell (the messenger that she may tell 
the newly-received BhikkhunI) what season and 
what date it is, tell her what part of the day it is, 
tell her the whole formula ; and tell the Bhikkhunls 
to teach her what are the three things allowed, and 
what are the eight things interdicted V 



23. 
Now at that time Bhikkhunts dwelt in the forest, 
and men of abandoned life violated them. 

1 See above, X, 17, 8. 

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X, 34, I. ON THE DUTIES OF BHIKKHUNfs. 363 

They told this matter to the Blessed One. 

'A Bhikkhuni is not, O Bhikkhus, to adopt the 
forest life. Whosoever does so, shall be guilty of a 
dukfca/a 1 .' 



24. 

1. Now at that time a certain lay disciple had 
given to the Bhikkhunl-sawgha a servant's lodge 8 
(to live in). 

They told this matter to the Blessed One. 

' I allow, O Bhikkhus, the use of a stable.' 

It did not satisfy (their wants) 3 . They told this 
matter to the Blessed One. 

'I allow, O Bhikkhus, a separate residence for 
Bhikkhunis.' 

That did not satisfy their wants. They told this 
matter to the Blessed One. 

' I allow, O Bhikkhus, building operations * (to be 
carried on for the benefit of Bhikkhunis).' 

' Compare Mahavagga 1, 30, 4, and 1, 77, and our note above on 
X, 17, 8. 

* This word has already occurred, in a list of various buildings, 
at Mahavagga III, 5, 9, where we have rendered it stable. Bud- 
dhaghosa says here uddositan (MS. udosita) ti bha«rfa-sala, and 
as at Mahavagga I, 61, assa-bha»</a and hatthi-bhaw</a are 
evidently grooms attending on horses or elephants (compare 
Gataka I, 62, 3), bha»<fa-sala may mean a servant's hall for the 
use of that particular class of servants. A lawsuit about an uddosita 
forms the Introductory Story to the 1st Bhikkhunt Sawghadisesa, but 
the passage throws no light on the special meaning of the term. See 
also the Sutta-vibhanga on Nissaggiya II, 3, 5, and Khudda Sikkha 
III, 19. The Sanskrit equivalent might perhaps beudavasita, if 
the reading of the Samanta Pasadika had any traditional value ; but 
the dd is not doubtful in the MSS. of the text at any of the passages 
quoted. Assa-sala is the word for stable at <7ataka I, 62, 3. 

s Na sammati. See the note on V, 13, 3. 

* Navakammaw. See the note above at V, 13, 3. 



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364 tfULLAVAGGA. X, 25, I. 

That did not satisfy their wants. They told this 
matter to the Blessed One. 

' I allow Bhikkhunts, O Bhikkhus, to assign cer- 
tain places to live in to individual members of the 
Order 1 .* 



25. 

1. Now at that time a certain woman who had 
already conceived, but did not know it, was received 
into the Order among the Bhikkhunts. Afterwards 
her womb moved within her 2 . Then that Bhik- 
khunl thought : ' How shall I now conduct myself 
towards this child ?' 

They told this matter to the Blessed One. 

' I allow her, O Bhikkhus, to bring it up till it 
have attained to years of discretion V 

Then the Bhikkhunl thought : 'It is not per- 
missible for me to live alone, nor for any other 
Bhikkhunl to live with a male child. What course 
ought I to pursue?' 

They told this matter to the Blessed One. 

' I allow the Bhikkhunts, O Bhikkhus, to depute 
any one Bhikkhunl, and give her as a companion to 
that (first-mentioned) Bhikkhunl.' 

1 Puggalikaw katuw. See the note above on X, 15, 1. 

* There is a touching story founded on a similar incident which 
is given as the Introductory Story to No. 1 2 of the Gatakas, trans- 
lated in Rh. D.'s •Buddhist Birth Stories,' pp. 199-205. By the 
6 1 st Bhikkhuni P&flttiya it is lawful or unlawful to initiate a preg- 
nant woman according as she is unconscious or conscious of the 
fact of her conception. 

8 Vinwutam p£pu»£ti. That is, no doubt, to puberty. 
Compare the opening phrases of the Introductory Story referred to 
in the last note (Gataka I, 231) and also ffataka III, 437. 



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X, 2$, 3» ON THE DUTIES OF BHIKKHUNis. 365 

1 And thus, O Bhikkhus, is she to be appointed : 
First that Bhikkhunl ought to be asked (whether 
she be willing to undertake the duty). After she 
has been asked, a learned and competent Bhikkhunl 
ought to lay the motion before the Samgha, saying : 

' " Let the Samgha, venerable Ladies, hear me. 
If it seem meet to the Samgha, let the Sawgha 
depute N. N. as a companion to M. M. That is 
the motion. 

' " Let the Sa*»gha," ' [&c, as usual, to the end of 
the Kammava^a.] 

2. Then that companion Bhikkhunl thought : 
'Now how should I conduct myself towards this 
Child?' 

They told this matter to the Blessed One. 

' I prescribe that the Bhikkhunis, O Bhikkhus, 
conduct themselves towards that child precisely as 
they would towards other men, save only as regards 
the sleeping under the same roof 1 .' 

3. Now at that time a certain Bhikkhun!, who 
had been guilty of a grievous offence, was living 
subject to the Manatta penance*. Then that 
Bhikkhunl thought: ' It is not permissible for me 
to live alone, and it is not permissible for any 
other Bhikkhunl to live with me. What now ought 
I to do?' 

They told this matter to the Blessed One. 

' I allow the Bhikkhunis, O Bhikkhus, to depute 
any one Bhikkhunl, and to give her as a companion 
to that Bhikkhunl. And thus, O Bhikkhus, ought 



1 S agar am ; on which Buddhaghosa has no note. 
* For what this implied, see ATullavagga II, 1, 2, and II, 6, 1, and 
compare the 5th Garudhamma above, X, 1, 4. 



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366 JTULLAVAGGA. X, 26, t. 

she to be deputed [&c, as in last section but one, 
down to the end of the Kammavaia].' 



26. 

1. Now at that time a certain Bhikkhunt first 
abandoned the precepts, and then threw off the 
robes 1 . Afterwards she came back, and asked the 
Bhikkhunls to admit her into the Order again. 

They told this matter to the Blessed One. 

' A Bhikkhuni ought not, O Bhikkhus, to abandon 
the precepts. But by having thrown off the robes 
she is ipso facto incapable of being a Bhikkhuni.' 

2. Now at that time a certain Bhikkhuni, though 
still wearing the orange-coloured robe, joined a 
sect of the Titthiyas. Afterwards she came back, 
and asked the Bhikkhunls to receive her into the 
Order again. 

They told this matter to the Blessed One. 

' A Bhikkhuni, O Bhikkhus, who, when still wear- 
ing the orange-coloured robe, has gone over to the 
Titthiyas, is not to be received again K 



27. 

1 . Now at that time Bhikkhunls, fearing to offend, 
would not let men salute them, or cut their hair or 
nails, or dress their wounds. 

1 On the distinction between these two phrases, see the note on 
Mah&vagga II, 22, 3. 

* For the similar rule in the case of Bhikkhus, see Mahavagga 
I, 38. 1. 



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X, 37, 4. ON THE DUTIES OF BHIKKHUNfs. 

They told this matter to the Blessed One. 
' I allow them, O Bhikkhus, to permit those 
things.' 

2. Now at that time Bhikkhunts, when sitting on 
a divan, allowed (other people thereon) to touch 
them with their heels. 

They told this matter to the Blessed One. 

' A BhikkhunI is not, O Bhikkhus, to sit on a 
divan 1 . Whosoever does so, shall be guilty of a 
dukka/a.' 

Now at that time a certain BhikkhunI was sick, 
and without using a divan she could not be at ease. 

They told this matter to the Blessed One. 

' I allow Bhikkhunts, O Bhikkhus, to use a half- 
divan *.' 

3. [Rule as to construction of privies s .] 

4. Now at that time the Bhikkhunts used chunam 
at their baths. 

People murmured, saying, ' As the women in the 
world do!' 

They told this matter to the Blessed One. 

' A Bhikkhunt is not, O Bhikkhus, to use chunam 
at her bath. Whosoever does so, shall be guilty 
of a dukka/a. I allow, O Bhikkhus, the use of clay 
and the red powder of rice husks V 

1 Pallaakaw. Compare Mahavagga V,u>, 4, 5,; Aullavagga V, 
37, VI, 8, VI, 14 ; and the 42nd BhikkhunI Pa/fcittiya. 

9 A*f<Ma-pallanka«. Probably a cushion, which only one 
person could use at a time. 

* Compare the Rules for the Bhikkhus, jffullavagga VIII, 9, 10, 
which we have also left untranslated. Buddhaghosa says here, 
He/A4a-viva/e upari£££anne ti ettha sa/Se kupo khato hoti 
upari pana padaramattam eva sabba-disasu pannayati evarupe pi 
va//ati 

4 Kukkusam. Buddhaghosa says here, Kukkusaw mattikan 



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368 tfULLAVAGGA. X, if, 4. 

[Similar paragraph, ending] 

' A Bhikkhunl is not, O Bhikkhus, to use scented 
clay at her bath 1 . Whosoever does so, shall be 
guilty of a dukka/a. I allow, O Bhikkhus, the use 
of common clay.' 

Now at that time Bhikkhunls bathing together in 
the steam-bath room made a tumult 

They told this matter to the Blessed One. 

' Bhikkhunls are not, O Bhikkhus, to bathe in a 
steam-bath. Whosoever does so, shall be guilty of 
a dukka/a.' 

Now at that time Bhikkhunls bathing against the 
stream allowed the rush of water against them. 

They told this matter to the Blessed One. 

'A Bhikkhunl is not, O Bhikkhus, to bathe 
against the stream. Whosoever does so, shall be 
guilty of a dukka/a.' 

Now at that time Bhikkhunls bathed in a place 
not a common bathing-place, and men of abandoned 
life violated them. 

They told this matter to the Blessed One. 

' A Bhikkhunl is not, O Bhikkhus, to bathe at a 
place not a common bathing-place. Whosoever does 
so, shall be guilty of a dukka/a.' 

Now at that time Bhikkhunls bathed at a bathing- 
place used also by men. People murmured, were 
indignant, and complained, saying, ' As those women 
do who are still living in the pleasures of the 
world V 

They told this matter to the Blessed One. 

ti kundakari k' eva mattikan £a. The use of these last two was allowed 
to Bhikkhus by A'ullavagga VI, 3, 1, for building purposes. 

1 This is apparently covered by the 88th and 89th Bhikkhunl 
P&Kttiya. 



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X, »7»4- ON THE DUTIES OF BHIKKHUNis. 369 

'A Bhikkhunl is not, O Bhikkhus, to bathe at a 
bathing-place used also by men. Whosoever does 
so, shall be guilty, of a dukkala. I allow, Bhik- 
khunts, O Bhikkhus, to bathe at a bathing-place 
used by women.' 



End of the Third Portion for Recitation. 



End of the Tenth Khandhaka, the Bhikkhuni- 
Khandhaka. 



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37© JTULLAVAGGA. XI, I, I. 



ELEVENTH KHANDHAKA. 
On the Council of Ragagaha. 

I 1 . 

i. Now the venerable Maha Kassapa addressed 
the Bhikkhus, and said : ' Once I was travelling 
along the road from Pava to Kusinara with a great 
company of the Bhikkhus, with about five hundred 
Bhikkhus. And I left the high road and sat myself 
down at the foot of a certain tree. 

'Just at that time a certain naked ascetic 

(ifivaka), who had picked up a Mandirava 2 flower 

in Kusinara, was coming along the road towards 

Pava. And I saw him coming in the distance, and 

' on seeing I said to him : 

' " O, friend ! surely thou knowest our Master ? " 

' " Yea, friend, I know him. This day the Sa- 
ma«a Gotama has been dead a week. That is 
how I obtained this Mandarava flower." ' 

4 Then, Sirs, of those of the Bhikkhus who were 
not yet free from their passions, some stretched out 

1 The following section differs from the corresponding passage 
in the ' Book of the Great Decease ' (VI, 36-41) in the very curious 
and instructive way pointed out by H. O. in the Introduction to his 
edition of the text, p. xxvi, on which see the remarks of Rh. D. 
at p. xiii of the General Introduction to his ' Buddhist Suttas.' 

* This was a flower which was supposed to grow only in heaven, 
and its appearance on earth showed that the devas, on some 
special occasion, had been casting down heavenly flowers upon the 
earth. 



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XI, I, I. ON THE COUNCIL OF RAGAGAHA. 37I 

their arms and wept; and some fell headlong on 
the ground ; and some reeled to and fro in anguish 
at the thought: "Too soon has the Blessed One 
died ! Too soon has the Happy One passed away ! 
Too soon has the Light gone out in the world ! " ' 

' But those of the Bhikkhus who were free from 
the passions (the Arahats) bore their grief, collected 
and composed at the thought : " Impermanent^ are 
all component things. How is it possible [that 
they should not be dissolved] ? " 

' Then I, Sirs, spake thus to the Bhikkhus : 
" Enough, Sirs ! Weep not, neither lament ! Has 
not the Blessed One already declared to us that it is 
the very nature of all things near and dear unto us 
that we must divide ourselves from them, leave 
them, sever ourselves from them ? How then, Sirs, 
can this be possible — that whereas anything what- 
ever born, brought into being and organised, 
contains within itself the inherent necessity of dis- 
solution — how then can this be possible that such a 
being should not be dissolved ? No such condition 
can exist ! " 

' Then at that time *, Sirs, one Subhadda, who 
had gone out from the world in his old age, was 
seated there in the company of Bhikkhus. And 
Subhadda, the late-received one, said to the Bhik- 
khus : " Enough, Sirs ! Weep not, neither lament ! 
We are well rid of the great Sama»a. We used to 
be annoyed by being told, ' This beseems you, this 
beseems you not.' But now we shall be able to do 
whatever we like ; and what we do not like, that we 
shall not have to do 1 ." 

1 In the ' Book of the Great Decease ' the following speech comes 
before the preceding one. 

Bb2 



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372 ATULLAVAGGA. XI, I, 2. 

'Come, Sirs, let us chant together the Dhamma 
and the Vinaya before what is' not Dhamma is 
spread abroad, and what is Dhamma is put aside ; 
before what is not Vinaya is spread abroad, and 
what is Vinaya is put aside ; before those who argue 
against the Dhamma become powerful, and those 
who hold to the Dhamma become weak ; before 
those who argue against the Vinaya become power- 
ful, and those who hold to the Vinaya become weak ! ' 

2. ' Let then the venerable Thera choose out 
Bhikkhus.' 

Then the venerable Maha Kassapa chose out five 
hundred Arahats less one. And the Bhikkhus said 
to the venerable Maha Kassapa : ' Lord, this vener- 
able one, Ananda, although he have not yet attained 
[to Nirva»a], yet is he incapable of falling into error 
through partiality, or malice, or stupidity, or fear, 
and thoroughly have the Dhamma and the Vinaya 
been learnt by him from the Blessed One himself. 
Therefore let our Lord choose the venerable 
Ananda. And the venerable Maha Kassapa chose 
also the venerable Ananda.' 

3. Then it occurred to the Thera Bhikkhus : ' In 
what place shall we now chant over together the 
Dhamma and the Vinaya ? ' And it occurred to the 
Thera Bhikkhus: 'In Ra^agaha is alms plentiful, 
and there is abundance of lodging-places. ; What, 
now, if we were to spend the rainy season at Rlfa- 
gaha, and chant the Dhamma and the Vinaya 
together there : and if no other Bhikkhus were to 
go up to Ra^agaha for the rainy season 1 ?' 

4. Then the venerable Maha Kassapa laid the 

1 This last was necessary, for if other Bhikkhus spent the Was 
at Ra^agaha, either they must take part in the council, or its 



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XI, 1,6. ON THE COUNCIL OF rA<7AGAHA. 373 

resolution before the Sa/wgha : ' Let the venerable 
Sawzgha hear me. If the time seems meet to the 
Sa*»gha, let the Sawgha appoint that these five 
hundred Bhikkhus take up their residence during 
the rainy season at Rafagaha, to chant over to- 
gether the Dhamma and the Vinaya, and that no 
other Bhikkhus go up to Ra^agaha for the rainy 
season. This is the resolution. Let the venerable 
Sa««gha hear. The Sawgha appoints accordingly. 
Whosoever of the venerable ones approves thereof, 
let him keep silence. Whosoever approves not 
thereof, let him speak. The Sawgha has appointed 
accordingly. Therefore is it silent. Thus do I 
understand.' 

5. So the Thera Bhikkhus went up to Ra^agaha 
to chant over together the Dhamma and the Vinaya. 
And the Thera Bhikkhus thought : ' The Blessed 
One has spoken in praise of the repair of dilapida- 
tions. Let us, then, during the first month of the 
rainy season repair such dilapidations, and during 
the middle month let us chant over the Dhamma 
and the Vinaya together.' And during the first 
month they repaired dilapidation. 

6. And the venerable Ananda — thinking, ' To- 
morrow is the assembly, now it beseems me not to 
go into the assembly while I am still only on the 
way (towards Arahatship)' — spent the whole night 
with mind alert. And at the close of the night, in- 
tending to lie down, he inclined his body, but before 
his head reached the pillow, and while his feet were 
still far from the ground, in the interval he became 

decisions would have been invalid through its being incompletely 
constituted (want of vaggatta). 



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374 JCULLAVAGGA. XI, I, 7. 

free from attachment to the world, and his heart was 
emancipated from the Asavas (that is to say, from 
sensuality, individuality, delusion, and ignorance) l . 

7. And the venerable Maha Kassapa laid the 
resolution before the Sazwgha : ' If the time seem 
meet to the Sa*»gha, I will question Upali concern- 
ing the Vinaya.' And the venerable Upali laid a 
resolution before the Sawgha : ' Let the venerable 
Sawgha hear me. If the time seems meet to the 
Sa*»gha, I, when questioned by the venerable Maha 
Kassapa, will give reply.' 

Then the venerable Maha Kassapa said to the 
venerable Upali : ' Venerable Upali, where was the 
first Par&fika promulgated ? ' 

« In Vesali, Sir.* 

' Concerning whom was it spoken ? ' 

' Concerning Sudinna, the son of Kalanda.' 

' In regard to what matter ? ' 

' Sexual intercourse.' 

Thus did the venerable Maha Kassapa question 
the venerable Upali as to the matter, as to the 
occasion, as to the individual concerned, as to the 
(principal) rule, as to the sub-rule 2 , as to who would 
be guilty, and as to who would be innocent 8 , of the 
first Parifika. 

* In other words, he became an Arahat Some MSS. omit the 
clause about the feet. 

* Anupawnatti. Tumour (Journal of the Asiatic Society of 
Bengal, 1837, P- l 9) translates this word, which is not in Childers, 
by ' the sequel or application of the exhortation.' We think the 
pafinatti refers to the principal rule (as laid down in the Sutta 
Vibhanga at the close of I, 5, n), and the anupawnatti to the 
additions made to it in the following sections. 

* This last clause doubtless refers to the closing words in the 
account given in the Sutta Vibhanga of each rule. 



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XI, i, 7. ON THE COUNCIL OF rAgAGAHA. 375 

'Again, venerable Upali, where was the second 
Pira/ika promulgated ? ' 

4 At Ri^agaha, Sir.' 

' Concerning whom was it spoken ? '. 

' Dhaniya, die potter's son.' 

' In regard to what matter ? ' 

' The taking of that which had not been given V 

Thus did the venerable Maha Kassapa question 
the venerable Upali as to the matter, and as to the 
occasion, and as to the individual concerned, and as 
to the (principal) rule, and as to the sub-rule, and as 
to who would be guilty, and as to who would be 
innocent of the second Par&fika. 

'Again, venerable Upali, where was the third 
Pari/ika promulgated ?' 

' At Vesali, Sir.' 

' Concerning whom was it spoken ?' 

• A number of Bhikkhus.' 

1 In regard to what matter ? ' 

' Human beings 2 .' 

Thus did the venerable Maha Kassapa question 
the venerable Upali as to [all the particulars, as be- 
fore] of the third Parafika. 

' Again, venerable Upali, where was the fourth 
Para^ika promulgated ?' 

' At Vesali, Sir.' 

' Concerning whom was it spoken ?' 

'The Bhikkhus dwelling on the banks of the 
Vaggumuda river.' 

' In regard to what matter ?' 



1 That is, * theft.' 

* That is, murder or manslaughter. ' The slaying of is to be 
understood. 



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376 rUIXAVAGGA. XI, 1, 8. 

' Superhuman conditions.' 

Thus did the venerable Maha Kassapa question 
the venerable Upali as to [all the particulars, as 
before] of the .fourth Para^ika. And in like manner 
did he question him through both the Vinayas 1 ; 
and as he was successively asked, so did Upali 
make reply. 

8. Then the venerable Maha Kassapa laid a reso- 
lution before the Sawgha : ' Let the venerable 
Sa*»gha hear me. If the time seems meet to the 
Sa*»gha, I would question Ananda concerning the 
Dhamma.' 

And the venerable Ananda laid a resolution 
before the Samgha: 'Let the venerable Sa*wgha 
hear me. If the time seems meet to the Sawgha, 
I, as questioned by the venerable Maha Kassapa, 
will give reply.' 

And the venerable Maha Kassapa said to the 
venerable Ananda : ' Where, venerable Ananda, 
was the Brahma^ala spoken ? ' ' 

' On the way, Sir, between Ra^agaha and Nalanda, 
at the royal rest-house at Ambala/Mika V 

' Concerning whom was it spoken ? ' 

' Suppiya, the wandering ascetic, and Brahma- 
datta, the young Brahman.' 

Thus did the venerable Maha Kassapa question 

1 Ubhato-vinaye. That is, relating on the one hand to Bhik- 
khus, and on the other to Bhikkhunis (not Sutta Vibhanga and 
Khandhakas). The Burmese MS. at Berlin reads ubhatc-vi- 
bhange, suggested possibly by Buddhaghosa's expression in the 
corresponding part of his accounts of this Council at the com- 
mencement of the Sumangala Vilasini and the Samanta Pasadika 
(see Tumour, loc. cit, and H. O., Vinaya III, 290.) 

* In the text read ra^agarake, as suggested in the notes at 
p. 329, and confirmed by the Sutta itself (ed. Grimblot). 



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XI, I, 9. ON THE COUNCIL OF RAGAGAHA. 377 

the venerable Ananda as to the occasion of the 
Brahma^ala, and as to the individuals concerning 
whom it was spoken. 

' And again, venerable Ananda, where was the 
Sama»»a-phala spoken ? ' 

' At Ra^agaha, Sir ; in CSvaka's Mango Grove.' 

' And with whom was it spoken ?' 

' With A^atasattu, the son of the Vedehi.' 

Thus did the venerable Maha Kassapa question 
the venerable Ananda as to the occasion of the 
Sama##a-phala, and as to the individual concerned. 
And in like manner did he question him through the 
five Nikayas, and as he was successively asked, so 
did Ananda make reply. 

9. Then the venerable Ananda spake thus to the 
Thera Bhikkhus : ' The Blessed One, Sirs, at the 
time of his passing away, spake thus to me : " When 
I am gone, Ananda, let the Sawgha, if it should so 
wish, revoke all the lesser and minor precepts V ' 

' Did you then, venerable Ananda, ask the Blessed 
One which were the lesser and minor precepts ?' 

' No, Sirs.' 

Some Theras then said that all the rules save the 
four Para^ikas ; others that all save those and the 
thirteen Sa*»ghadisesas ; others that all save those 
and the two Aniyatas; others that all save those 
and the thirty Nissaggiyas; others that all save 
those and the ninety-two Paiittiyas ; others that all 
save those and the four Pa/idesaniyas were lesser 
and minor precepts. 

Then the venerable Maha Kassapa laid a reso- 
lution before the Sa/wgha : ' Let the venerable 

1 ' Book of the Great Decease/ VI, 3. 

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378 JTULLAVAGGA. XI, i, 10. 

Samgha hear me. There are certain of our pre- 
cepts which relate to matters in which the laity are 
concerned. Now the laity know of us that " such 
and such things are proper for you Samawas who 
are Sakyaputtiyas, and such and such things are 
not" If we were to revoke the lesser and minor 
precepts, it will be said to us : "A set of precepts 
was laid down for his disciples by the Samana 
Gotama to endure until the smoke should rise from 
his funeral pyre 1 . So long as their teacher re- 
mained with these men, so long did they train 
themselves in the precepts. Since their teacher has 
passed away from them, no longer do they now train 
themselves in the precepts.' 

' If the time seems -meet to the Saawgha, not 
ordaining what has not been ordained, and not 
revoking what has been ordained, let it take upon 
itself and ever direct itself in the precepts accord- 
ing as they have been laid down. This is the 
resolution. 

'Let the venerable Sawgha hear me. [These 
things being so*] the Sa*»gha takes upon itself the 
precepts according as they have been laid down. 
Whosoever of the venerable ones approves thereof, 
let him keep silence. Whosoever approves not 
thereof, let him speak. The Sawgha has taken 
upon itself the precepts according as they were 
laid down. Therefore does it keep silence. Thus 
do I understand.' 

lo. Now the Thera Bhikkhus said to the vener- 

1 Dhtimakalikam. See our note above on VI, 17, 1. Buddha- 
ghosa says here, Dhftmakalikan ti yava samanassa Gotamassa 
parinibbina-£itika-dhfimo pafinayati dvakalo ti attho. 

' The whole repeated. 



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XI, I, 10. ON THE COUNCIL OF RAGAGAHA. 379 

able Ananda : ' That was ill done by thee, friend 
Ananda, in that thou didst not ask the Blessed One 
which were the lesser and minor precepts. Confess 
thy fault' 

' Through forgetfulness was it, Sirs, that I did not . 
ask that of the Blessed One. I see no fault therein. 
Nevertheless, out of my faith in you, I confess that 
as a fault V 

' This also, friend Ananda, was ill done by thee, 
in that thou steppedst upon the Blessed One's rainy- 
season garment to sew it. Confess thy fault.' 

1 It was not, Sirs, through any want of respect to 
the Blessed One that I did so. I see no fault 
therein. Nevertheless, out of my faith in you, I 
confess that as a fault.' 

'This also, friend Ananda, was ill done by thee, 
in that thou causedst the body of the Blessed One 
to be saluted by women first 2 , so that by their 
weeping the body of the Blessed One was defiled 
by tears. Confess that fault' 

' I did so, Sirs, with the intention that they should 
not be kept beyond due time. I see no fault 
therein. Nevertheless, out of my faith in you, I 
confess that as a fault' 

' This too, friend Ananda, was ill done by thee, in 
that even when a suggestion so evident and a hint' 
so clear were given thee by the Blessed One, thou 
didst not beseech him, saying, " Let the Blessed One 
remain on for a kalpa ! Let the Happy One remain 
on for a kalpa for the good and happiness of the 



1 Compare Mah&vagga X, 1, 8, at the end. 
' It is worthy of notice that this episode is not referred to in the 
' Book, of the Great Decease ' (VI, 23-36. Compare V, 46-51). 



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38O rULLAVAGGA. XI, I, 11. 

great multitudes, out of pity for the world, for the 
good and the gain and the weal of gods and men 1 !" 
Confess that fault' 

' I was possessed (by the Evil One) *, friends, 
when I refrained from so beseeching him. I see 
no fault therein. Nevertheless, out of my faith in 
you, I confess that as a fault* 

' This also, friend Ananda, was ill done by thee, 
in that thou exertedst thyself to procure admission 
for women into the Dhamma and Vinaya proclaimed 
by the Tathagata 8 . Confess that fault' 

' That did I do, friends, thinking of Maha Pafa- 
patl the Gotaml, the sister of the Blessed One's 
mother ; his nurse and comforter, who gave him 
milk ; how she, when she who had borne him was 
dead, herself suckled him as with mother's milk. 
I see no fault therein. Nevertheless, out of my 
faith in you, I confess that as a fault' 

11. Now at that time the venerable Pura»a was 
wandering through the Southern Hills with a great 
company of Bhikkhus, with five hundred Bhikkhus. 
And when the Thera Bhikkhus had completed the 
chanting over together of the Dhamma and the 
Vinaya, he, having stayed in the Southern Hills as 
long as he thought fit, went on to Ri^agaha to 
the Ve/uvana, to the Kalandaka Nivapa, where 
the Thera Bhikkhus were, and having greeted the 
Thera Bhikkhus, he took his seat on one side. 

1 This refers to the conversations in the ' Book of the Great 
Decease,' III, 1-4, and 43-60 (especially 56). 

* Pariyu/Mita-£itto. The words in parentheses are supplied 
from the ' Book of the Great Decease," III, 4, where see Rh. D.'s 
note on the spelling of the word. 

3 Pabba^am, admission into the Order. 



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XI, I, 12. ON THE COUNCIL OF rAgAGAHA. 381 

When he was so seated, the Thera Bhikkhus said 
to him : 

' The Dhamma and the Vinaya, friend Puri«a, 
have been chanted over together by the Thera 
Bhikkhus. Do thou, then, submit thyself to and 
learn the text so rehearsed by them V 

' The Dhamma and the Vinaya, Sirs, have been 
well sung by the Theras. Nevertheless, even in 
such manner as it has been heard by me, and re- 
ceived by me from the very mouth of the Blessed 
One, in that manner will I bear it in my memory.' 

1 2. Now the venerable Ananda said to the Thera 
Bhikkhus : ' The Blessed One, Sirs, said to me at the 
time of his death : " Let then the Saawgha, Ananda, 
when I am dead, impose the higher penalty on 
AT/fcanna the Bhikkhu V 

' Didst thou then, friend Ananda, ask the Blessed 
One what the higher penalty was ?' 

' I did, Sirs, (and the reply was) : ' Let KAarrna. the 
Bhikkhu, Ananda, say whatever he may wish ; but 
the Bhikkhus should neither speak to him, nor ex- 
hort him, nor admonish him." ' 

' Do thou, then, friend Ananda, let icTtanna the 
Bhikkhu know that the higher penalty has been 
imposed upon him.' 

. ' How can I, Sirs, do so ? Passionate is that 
Bhikkhu, and rough.' 

• ' Go then, friend Ananda, in company with a 
number of other Bhikkhus.' 

' Even so, Sirs,' said Ananda, in assent to the 
Thera Bhikkhus. And he took with him a number 



1 Sangttim upehi. 

1 See ' Book of the Great Decease,' VI, 4. 



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382 JTULLAVAGGA. S3, 1, 13. 

of Bhikkhus, to wit, five hundred Bhikkhus, and em- 
barked on a boat going up stream, and disembarked 
at Kosambt, and not far from king Udena's park he 
took his seat at the foot of a certain tree. 

13. Now at that time king Udena was enjoying 
himself in the park together with the ladies of his 
palace. And the ladies heard that their teacher, the 
venerable Ananda, was seated at the foot of a tree 
not far from the park. And they said to king 
Udena : 

' They say that our teacher, the venerable Ananda, 
is seated at the foot of a tree not far from the park. 
We desire, Lord, to go and see him.' 

' Go, then, and see the Sama«a Ananda.' And 
they went and saluted the venerable Ananda, and 
took their seats on one side. And he instructed, 
and aroused, and incited, and gladdened them with 
religious discourse. And when that discourse was 
concluded, they presented the venerable Ananda 
with five hundred robes, and exalted and thanked 
him for his discourse, and arose from their seats, 
and saluted him, and keeping him on their right 
sides as they passed him, they departed thence. 

14. And king Udena saw the ladies coming from 
the distance. And on seeing them he said to them : 

'Well, did you succeed in seeing the Samana 

Ananda ? ' 

' We saw him, Sire.' 

' Did you present the Sama»a Ananda with any 
gift?' 

' We gave, Sire, to the venerable .Ananda five 
hundred robes.' 

Then king Udena was indignant and annoyed, 
and became angry, saying : 



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XI, i, 14. ON THE COUNCIL OF RAGAGAHA. 383 

' How can the Sama»a Ananda accept so many 
robes ? Would be set up as a hawker in cloths, or 
would he open a shop 1 ? ' 

And king Udena went to where the venerable 
Ananda was, and after exchanging with him the 
greetings and compliments of friendship and civility, 
sat down by his side. And when he was so seated, 
he said to him : 

' Did our ladies come hither, Ananda ? ' 

• Yes, great king.' 

' Did they give anything to your reverence ? ' 

1 They gave me, great king, five hundred robes.' 

' And what does your reverence intend to do with 
those five hundred robes?' 

' I shall divide them, great king, among those of 
the Bhikkhus whose robes are worn out.' 

' And what do you intend, Ananda, to do with 
the worn-out robes ? ' 

' Of those, great king, we shall make counterpanes.' 

1 And what do you intend to do, Ananda, with the 
old counterpanes ? ' 

'Of those, great king, we shall make bolster 
cases.' 

' And what do you intend to do, Ananda, with the 
old bolster cases ? ' 

' Of those, great king, we shall make carpets.' 

' And what do you intend to do, Ananda, with the 
old carpets ? ' 

' Of those, great king, we shall make towels for 
the washing of the feet' 

' And what do you intend to do, Ananda, with the 
old towels ? ' 

1 Paggahika-sala, on which Buddhaghosa says nothing. 



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384 tfULLAVAGGA. XI, t, 15. 

' Of those, great king, we shall make dusters.' 

' And what do you intend to do, Ananda, with the 
old dusters ? ' 

' Those, great king, we shall tear in shreds, and 
beat up with mud, and use them for making flooring 
of clay.' 

Then king Udena thought : ' These Sakyaputtiya 
Sama«as make general use of everything in a con- 
scientious way, and take nothing as one man's 
peculiar property 1 .' And he presented other five 
hundred pieces of cloth to the venerable Ananda. 

15. But Ananda went on to the Ghosita Arama, 
and sat down then on the seat spread out for him. 
And the venerable Alcanna went to the place 
where he was and saluted him, and took his seat 
beside him. And when he was so seated, Ananda 
said to him : 

' The Sawgha, friend A^anna, has imposed upon 
you the higher penalty.' 

' What then, friend Ananda, is the higher penalty ?' 

' You, friend A'&inna, may say to the Bhikkhus 
whatever you wish ; but the Bhikkhus are neither 
to speak to you, nor exhort you, nor admonish 

y° u -' 

' Shall I not be even a slain man, friend Ananda, 
so long as I am neither spoken to, nor exhorted, nor 
admonished by the Bhikkhus ? ' said AT^anna, and he 
fainted and fell. 

Then the venerable A^anna, pained, grieved, and 
seized with remorse through the higher penalty, re- 
mained alone and separate, earnest, zealous, and 
resolved. And ere long he attained to that supreme 

1 Na kulavaw garaenti, on which Buddhaghosa says nothing. 



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XI, i, 16. ON THE COUNCIL OF RAGAGAHA. 385 

goal 1 of the higher life for the sake of which men even 
of good family go out from all and every household 
gain and comfort to become houseless wanderers — 
yea, that supreme goal did he, by himself, and while 
yet in this visible world, bring himself to the know- 
ledge of, and continue to realise, and to see face to 
face ! And he became conscious that rebirth was at 
an end for him, that the higher life had been ful- 
filled, that all that should be done had been accom- 
plished, and that, after this present life, there would 
be no beyond 8 ! 

So the venerable A^anna became yet another 
among the Arahats. And after he had attained to 
Arahatship, the venerable A*#anna went to the 
venerable Ananda, and said : 

' Remove from me now, friend Ananda, the higher 
penalty.' 

' From the moment, friend A^anna, that you had 
realised Arahatship, from that moment was the 
higher penalty removed from you.' 

16. Now whereas five hundred Bhikkhus, with- 
out one failing, without one more, took part in 
this rehearsal of the Vinaya, therefore is that re- 
hearsal ' of the Vmaya called ' that of the five 
hundred •/ 



Here ends the Eleventh Khandhaka, on the 
Rehearsal by the Five Hundred. 



1 That is, Arahatship, Nirv£«a. 

* This Nirviwa paragraph is constantly recurring (e.g. ' Book of 
the Great Decease,' V, 68 ; Mahavagga V, 1, 18; Saatyutta VII, 1). 
' Compare XII, 2, 9. 



[ao] C C 

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386 ZULLAVAGGA. XII, i, i. 



TWELFTH KHANDHAKA. 
On the Council of VesalI. 



i. Now at that time, a century 1 after the death 
of the Blessed One, the Bhikkhus of Vesali, Vaf- 
^ians, promulgated at Vesali the ten theses : — (i) 
that storing salt in a horn vessel was permissible ; 

(2) that the midday meal might be eaten when the 
sun's shadow showed two finger breadths after noon; 

(3) that he who intends to go into the village could 
begin to eat again after he had once left off; (4) 
that a number of Bhikkhus residing within the same 
boundary might hold Uposatha separately; (5) that 
a Sawgha not at unity within itself might carry out 
an official act, undertaking to inform Bhikkhus of 
it ; (6) that it was permissible for a Bhikkhu to do 
anything adopted as a practice by his Upa^g-Aaya ; 
(7) that curds might be eaten by one who had already 
finished his midday meal ; (8) that it was permis- 
sible to drink unfermented toddy ; (9) that a rug or 
mat need not be of the limited size prescribed if 
it had no fringe; (10) that it was permissible to 
receive gold and silver 2 . 

1 As pointed out at p. xxii of our Introduction, we believe this 
number ought not to be taken too literally, but to be considered 
a round number. 

* The above terms are explained below, §§ 1, 10, and 2, 8. 



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XII, 1,1. ON THE COUNCIL OF VESALf. 387 

Now at that time the venerable Yasa, the son 
of Kaka»daka, who was wandering through the 
Va^gian country, arrived at Vesali; and there the 
venerable Yasa stayed at the Mahavana, in the 
Ku&gara Hall. 

Now at that time the Vagfian Bhikkhus of Vesali, 
on Uposatha day, filled a copper pot with water and 
placed it in the midst of the Bhikkhu-sawgha, and 
said to such of their Vesalian lay disciples as came 
there : ' Give, Sirs, to the Sawgha a kahapawa 1 , or 
half a one, or a pada, or a masaka. It will be 
wanted for the Sawsgha, for the provision of various 
utensils.' 

When they had thus spoken, the venerable Yasa, 
the son of Kaka#daka, said to the lay disciples : 
' Do, Sirs, nothing of the kind. The use of gold 
and silver is not allowed to the Sakyaputtiya Sa- 
ma#as. The Sakyaputtiya Sama»as neither allow 
it to be given to them, nor take charge of it. The 
Sakyaputtiya Samaras are men whose gems and 
jewelry have been laid aside, and who are without 
silver and without gold.' 

Though the lay disciples from Vesali had been 
thus addressed by the venerable Yasa, the son 
of Kaka«a?aka, they gave money to the Sawgha. 
And the Va^an Bhikkhus of Vesali, at the close 
of the night, reserving one portion 2 , divided that 
money according to the number of the Bhikkhus. 
And they said to the venerable Yasa, the son of 
Kaka»</aka : 

' This, friend Yasa, is thy due portion of the money.' 

1 About a penny ; on this and the following terms, see Rh. D.'s 
' Ancient Coins and Measures, &c.,' p. 6. 

2 Pa/iviso. See Mahavagga VIII, 27, 4. 

C C 2 



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388 jtuixavagga. xn, i, 2. 

' I have no due portion in that money. I do not 
allow any money to be given to me/ 

2. Then the Va^jfian Bhikkhus of Vesali said 
one to another : ' This brother, Yasa, the son of 
Kaka/tt/aka, upbraids and reviles, and renders dis- 
satisfied believing and faithful followers. Come, let 
us carry out against him die Act of Reconciliation V 
And they did so. 

Then the venerable Yasa, the son of Kaka«daka, 
said to them : ' It has been laid down, Sirs, by the 
Blessed One, that a companion shall be appointed 
to go as messenger with a Bhikkhu against whom 
the Act of Reconciliation has been carried out 2 . Ap- 
point, Sirs, a Bhikkhu, as companion messenger to 
me.' And the Va^ian Bhikkhus of Vesalt deputed 
a Bhikkhu to that work, and gave him as a com- 
panion messenger to the venerable Yasa. 

And the venerable Yasa, taking the companion 
Bhikkhu with him, entered into Vesali, and said to 
the believing laymen there : 

' I am said, Sirs, to be upbraiding and reviling, 
and rendering dissatisfied believing and faithful 
followers, thereby that I have said what is against 
the Dhamma to be against the Dhamma, and what 
is Dhamma to be Dhamma, and what is against 
the Vinaya to be against the Vinaya, and what is 
Vinaya to be Vinaya. 

3. 'Now the Blessed One was once, Sirs, staying 
at Savatthi in the £etavana, Anatha PimAka's 
pleasure-ground. And there, Sirs, the Blessed One 
exhorted the Bhikkhus, and said : 



1 Pa/isara»iya-kamma. Sec iTullavagga I, 18. 
1 On Anudftta, see ATullavagga I, 20-22. 



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XTI, 1, 3. ON THE COUNCIL OF VESAlii. 389 

' " There are, O Bhikkhus, "four obstructions of 
the sun and moon, by which when the sun and moon 
are affected, they give no heat and they give no 
light, and they are no longer glorious. And what 
are the four ? They are clouds and fog and dusty 
smoke and Rahu 1 , by which when the sun and the 
moon are affected they give neither heat nor light 
nor sheen. Just so, O Bhikkhus, there are four 
stains by which when Samawas and Brahmans are 
affected they give neither heat nor light «nor sheen. 
And what are the four ? There are some Sama»as 
and Brahmans who drink strong drink, and things 
intoxicating, abstaining not therefrom 2 . This is the 
first of such stains. And further, O Bhikkhus, there 
are some Samaras and Brahmans who practise 
sexual intercourse, and abstain not therefrom. This 
is the second of such stains. And further, O Bhik- 
khus, there are some Sama»as and Brahmans who 
accept silver and gold, abstaining not from the use 
thereof. This is the third of such stains. And 
lastly, O Bhikkhus, there are some Sama#as and 
Brahmans who gain their livelihood by low arts 8 , 
abstaining not from such means of life. This is the 
fourth of such stains." 

' Thus spoke, Sirs, the Blessed One : and when 
the Happy One had thus spoken, the Master further 
said : 
' " Stained by lust and malice, some Sama»as and 
Brahmans, 



1 That is, eclipse. 

9 It is curious that this matter is not, like all the following, re- 
ferred to in the Silas. See Rh. D.'s 'Buddhist Suttas,' p. 190. 

' Those, namely, which are set out in the Maha Stla (Rh. D.'s 
' Buddhist Suttas,' pp. 196-203). 



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390 JTULLAVAGGA. XII, 1, 4. 

Men blinded by ignorance, praise things that 

seem to have delight. 
Strong drink they drink and fierce, indulge in 

sensual acts, 
Devoid of wisdom, silver and gold they take. 
And by low arts some Sama»as and Brahmans 

live. 
Stains are such actions called by the Buddha 

of the Solar race, 
Stains*— by which defiled some Samaoas and 

Brahmans, 
Impure brutes and unclean, give neither heat 

nor light. 
Covered rather by darkness, purblind, enslaved 

by craving lusts, 
They enlarge the realm of death 1 , and dread 
rebirth they gain." 
' It is for upholding this opinion that I, Sirs, have 
been said to be upbraiding and reviling and render- 
ing dissatisfied believing and faithful followers, in 
that I have said what is against the Dhamma to be 
against the Dhamma, and what is Dhamma to be 
Dhamma ; what is against the Vinaya to be against 
the Vinaya, and what is Vinaya to be Vinaya. 

4. 'And once the Blessed One was staying, Sirs, 
at Ra^agaha, in the Ve/uvana, at the Kala#daka 
Nivapa. Now at that time among the royal atten- 
dants sitting together in the women's apartment in 
the palace, the following saying was heard : " Silver 
and gold is allowed to the Sakyaputtiya Samaras. 

x That is, by being repeatedly reborn they continually die. 
VarfrfAenti ka/asin ti punappunam kalevara-nikkhipamlna- 
bhumim va<i</Aenti, says Buddhaghosa. The word occurs at 
tfataka 1, 146. 



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XII, I, 4. ON THE COUNCIL OF VESALt. 39 1 

The Sakyaputtiya Samaras accept it, and take it in 
charge." Now at that time Ma#iiu/aka, a village 
headman, was present. And he said to the people 
there : " Say not so, Sirs. Neither is silver and 
gold allowed to the Sakyaputtiya Samawas, nor do 
they accept it, nor take it in charge. The Sakya- 
puttiya Sama»as are men who have laid aside gems 
and jewelry, and are without silver, and without 
gold." And the headman, Ma#i/£u/aka, succeeded 
in satisfying them. 

'Then the headman, Ma»i£u/aka, went to the 
place where the Blessed One was and saluted him, 
and took his seat on one side. And he told the 
Blessed One the whole matter 1 , and said : 

'" Now am I, Lord, in maintaining as I did, one 
who speaks accofding to the word of the Blessed 
One, one who does not falsely represent the Blessed 
One, one who does not put forth minor matters in 
the place of the true Dhamma ? And is there 
anything that leads to blame in such discussion, this 
way and that, as touching the observance of the 
rules of the order* ? " 

'"Most certainly, Ma»L£u/aka, in maintaining 
thus you speak in accordance with my word, and 
do not represent me falsely, nor put forth minor 
matters as the true Dhamma. Nor is there any- 
thing leading to blame in such discussions. For 
gold and silver is not allowed, Ma«i/£u/aka, to the 
Sakyaputtiya Samawas, nor ought they to accept it, 
nor take it in charge. Men who have laid aside 
gems and jewelry are the Sakyaputtiya Sama»as, 

1 The whole is repeated in the text. 

1 The whole of this speech recurs, nearly word for word, in the 
MahSvagga VI, 31, 4. 



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392 XTJLLAVAGGA. XII, 1, 5. 

men without silver and without gold. For to 
whomsoever, Ma»i£u/aka, gold and silver are 
allowed, to him also the five kinds of sensual 
pleasure 1 are allowed. And to whomsoever these 
five kinds of pleasure are allowed, him you may 
know of a certainty to be following neither the rule 
of the Sama»as, nor the rule of the sons of Sakya. 
Although, Ma»i£u/aka, I have said that he who is 
in need of grass may seek for grass, and he who is 
in need of wood may seek for wood, and he who is in 
need of a conveyance may seek for a conveyance, 
and he who is in need of a servant may seek for a 
servant ; yet have I never said in any way what- 
ever that gold or silver may be sought after or 
accepted." 

' It is for maintaining this opinion that I, Sirs, 
have been said to be upbraiding and reviling and 
rendering dissatisfied believing and faithful fol- 
lowers, in that I have said what is against the 
Dhamma to be against the Dhamma, and what is 
Dhamma to be Dhamma ; that what is against the 
Vinaya is against the Vinaya, and what is Vinaya is 
Vinaya.' 

5. ' And once, Sirs, the Blessed One at the same 
place, at Ra^agaha, on the occasion of the matter of 
Upananda, the Sakyan, distinctly laid down a pre- 
cept by which gold and silver were forbidden a . 

' It is for maintaining this opinion that I, Sirs, 
have been said to be upbraiding and reviling and 
rendering dissatisfied believing and faithful fol- 
lowers, in that I have said what is against the 

1 Compare Aullavagga VII, 1, 2. 

' This is set out in full in the Sutta Vibhaftga in the Intro- 
duction to the 18th Nissaggiya P&Kttiya. 



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XII, i, 7. ON THE COUNCIL OF VESAl± 393 

Dhamma to be against the Dhamma, and what is 
Dhamma to be Dhamma ; that what is against the 
Vinaya is against the Vinaya, and what is Vinaya 
is Vinaya.' 

6. When he had thus spoken, the lay brethren 
said to Yasa, the son of Kaka^daka : ' There is but 
one, Sirs ', who is a Sakyaputtiya Sarnawa, our 
master, Yasa, the son of Kaka»afaka. All the rest 
are no Sama»as, neither Sakyaputtiyas. Let the 
venerable Yasa, the son of Kakam&ka, dwell among 
us. We will exert ourselves to provide him with 
robes, and food, and medicine, and the necessaries 
for the sick.' 

Then the venerable Yasa, the son of Kaka«^aka, 
having gained over the lay brethren, returned with 
the companion Bhikkhu to the Arama. 

7. And the Vagfian Bhikkhus of Vesall asked the 
companion Bhikkhu : ' Did Yasa, the son of Ka- 
kaWaka, obtain, Sir, the forgiveness of the lay 
brethren ? ' 

' Evil, Sirs, hath been wrought against us. Yasa, 
the son of Kakawdaka, and he alone has been de- 
cided to be a Sakyaputtiya Sama«a, and all of us 
neither Samawas nor Sakyaputtiyas.' 

Then the Vag^ian Bhikkhus of Vesall said : 
' The venerable Yasa, the son of Kaka#d?aka, 
without being deputed by us, has proclaimed to 
laymen (a false doctrine) 2 . Come, let us carry 
out the Act of Suspension* against him.' And 

1 They are speaking to Tasa and the anudflta. 

' This cannot refer to the 9th PiUittiya, which only speaks of 
making known grievous offences. Ahguttara II, 5, 2 refers to 
laymen as well as tosamaneras. 

a Ukkhepaniya-kamraa. See Aullavagga I, 25. 



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394 XULLAVAGGA. XIT, 1, 8. 

they assembled together with the intention of 
doing so. 

But the venerable Yasa, the son of Kaka#daka, 
rose up into the sky and descended at Kosambi. 
And he sent messengers to the Bhikkhus of the 
Western country, and of Avanti, and of the Southern 
country 1 , saying, ' Let your reverences come ! We 
must take in charge this legal question before what 
is not Dhamma is spread abroad, and what is 
Dhamma is put aside ; before what is not Vinaya is 
spread abroad, and what is Vinaya is put aside ; 
before those who argue against the Dhamma be- 
come powerful, and those who argue in favour of 
the Dhamma become weak ; before those who 
argue against the Vinaya become powerful, and 
those who argue in favour of the Vinaya become 
weak.' 

8. Now at that time the venerable Sambhuta 
Siwavasl 2 was dwelling on the Ahoganga Hill 3 . And 
thither the venerable Yasa, the son of KiLkandaka., 
went ; and on his arrival he saluted the venerable 
Sambhuta Sa»avas!, and took his seat on one side : 
and being so seated he said to him : 

' Lord, these Va.ggian Bhikkhus of Vesali have 



1 On these terms, compare note on Mahdvagga VII, i, i. 

1 Sawavisi is, literally, he who wears a hempen dress. In the 
traditions of the Sanskrit Buddhist literature we find mentioned a 
SSnav&sika, said to be a predecessor, in the teacher and pupil line, 
of Upagupta (Wassilief, p. 44). The Nepalese call him Sowavasi 
(Rajendral&l Mitra, ' Sanskrit Buddhist Literature of Nepal,' p. 10). 
He is the hero of the Siwavisi Avadana part of the Bodhisatva 
AvadSna KalpalatS (Mitra, p. 67, Bendall ' Catalogue of Cambridge 
MSS.,' p. 4a), where the name is explained: 'I wished for an 
ochre-coloured robe (sow a); hence I was called Sibavdsi.' 

3 See, for the position of this mountain, our note last quoted. 



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XII, i,9- ON THE COUNCIL OF VESALL 395 

put forward ten theses.' And he told him what 
they were 1 , and added: 'Come now, Lord, let us 
take in charge this last question before what is not 
Dhamma is spread abroad, and what is Dhamma is 
put aside ; before what is not Vinaya is spread 
abroad, and what is Vinaya is put aside ; before 
those who argue against the Dhamma become 
powerful, and those who argue in favour of the 
Dhamma become weak ; before those who argue 
against the Vinaya become powerful, and those who 
argue in favour of the Vinaya become weak.' 

'Even so, Lord,' said .the venerable Sambhuta 
Sawavasl, in assent to the venerable Yasa Kaka«- 
oaka-putta. 

Then about sixty Bhikkhus from the Western 
country, all of whom were hermits, all of whom 
lived only on alms, all of whom dressed only in cast- 
off clothes, and kept only three robes, and all of 
whom were Arahats, assembled together at the 
Ahoganga Hill. And about eighty-eight from 
Avanti and the Southern country, some of whom 
were hermits, and some of whom lived only on alms, 
and some of whom dressed only in cast-off clothes, 
and some of whom kept only three robes, but all of 
whom were Arahats, met together with them on the 
Ahoganga Hill. 

9. And the Thera Bhikkhus, consulting together, 
came to this conclusion : ' This legal question, now, 
is hard and subtle. How can we obtain such sup- 
port that we may have the greater power at the 
decision thereof 2 ?' 

1 In the text the full words of I, i are here repeated. 
* Compare below, XII, 2, i. 



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396 rULLAVAGGA. XII, I, 10. 

Now at that time the venerable Revata was 
dwelling at Soreyya, and he was wise in the tra- 
ditions, one who had learned the Agamas (the four 
Nikayas), and knew by heart the Dhamma, the Vi- 
naya, and the Matikas ; intelligent, discreet, and wise, 
modest, conscientious, devoted to the precepts x . And 
the Thera Bhikkhus thought that if they could gain 
him over to their side, they would attain their end. 

And the venerable Revata, by the divine ear, 
clear and surpassing that of men, heard the Thera 
Bhikkhus as they were thus consulting together; 
and he thought : ' This legal question is both hard 
and subtle, it would not become me to hold back 
therefrom. But even now those Bhikkhus (the 
Va^gians) will be coming. It would be unpleasant 
travelling for me were I to fall in with them. Let 
me go on before them.' 

So the venerable Revata went from Soreyya to 
Sawkassa. And when the Thera Bhikkhus went to 
Soreyya, and asked : ' Where is the venerable Re- 
vata?' they said : ' He is gone to Sa/wkassa.' 

Now the venerable Revata had gone on from 
Sawkassa to Ka»#akug£a. And when the Thera 
Bhikkhus came to Sa*»kassa, and asked : ' Where is 
the venerable Revata ? ' they said : ' He is gone on 
to Ka»»akugga.' And in the same way they fol- 
lowed him thither, and to Udumbara, and to Agga- 
lapura, and to Saha^ati, and there they met with the 
venerable Revata. 

10. And the venerable Sambhuta Sa#avast said 
to the venerable Yasa, the son of Kakaodfaka : 



1 These adjectives have occurred above at Mahivagga X, i, 2, 
and A^ullavagga I, 11, 1. 



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XII, I, io. ON THE COUNCIL OF VESAd. 397 

' Friend, the brother Revata is wise in the tradi- 
tions, has learnt the Agamas, knows by heart the 
Dhamma, the Vinaya, and the Matikas, he is intelli- 
gent, discreet, and wise, modest, conscientious, and 
devoted to the precepts. If we ask the venerable 
Revata a puzzling question, he is capable of spending 
the whole night on that one question. And even 
now the venerable Revata will call upon a Bhikkhu 
who is an intoner 1 , and a pupil of his. Do you, 
therefore, when the Bhikkhu has concluded, go to 
the venerable Revata and ask him concerning these 
ten theses (points).' 

' Even so, Sir,' said the venerable Yasa, the son 
of Kakaod&ka, in assent to the venerable Sambhuta 
Sa*av4st. 

And the venerable Revata called upon the 
Bhikkhu, the pupil of his, the intoner. And when 
the Bhikkhu had concluded, the venerable Yasa, the 
son of KakaWaka, went to the venerable Revata, 
and saluted him, and took his seat beside him. 
And, so seated, he said to the venerable Revata 2 : 

' Is the horn-salt-license, Lord, allowable ?' 

' What, Sir, is this horn-salt-license ? ' 

'Is it allowable, Lord, to carry about salt in a 
horn with the intention of putting it into food which 
has not been salted ? ' 

' No, Sir, it is not allowable.' 

4 Is the two-inch-license, Lord, allowable?' 

4 What, Sir, is this two-inch-license ? ' 

4 Is it allowable, Lord, to eat the midday meal 



1 SarabhSnakam. See our note above at iPullavagga V, 3, 2. 
* The whole of the following questions and answers recur below 
at XII, a, 8, where the reasons of the answers also appear. 



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398 JfULLAVAGGA. XII, I, 10. 

beyond the right time, provided only that the shadow 

has not yet turned two inches ? ' 
' No, Sir, it is not allowable.' 
' Is the village-trip-license, Lord, allowable?' 
' What, Sir, is this village-trip-license?' 
'Is it allowable, Lord, for one who has once 

finished his meal, and refused any more, to eat food 

which has not been left over, on the ground that he 

is about to proceed into the village ? ' 
' No, Sir, it is not allowable.' 
' Is the circuit-license, Lord, allowable ? ' 
' What, Sir, is this circuit-license ? ' 
' Is it allowable, Lord, for a number of Bhikkhus 

who dwell within the same circuit, within the same 

boundary, to hold separate Uposathas ? ' 

. ' No, Sir, it is not allowable.' 
' Is the indemnity-license, Lord, allowable ?' 
' What, Sir, is this indemnity-license ? ' 
' Is it allowable, Lord, for a Sawgha, which is not 

legally constituted 1 , to perform an official act on the 

ground that they will afterwards obtain the sanction 

of such Bhikkhus who may subsequently arrive ? ' 
' No, Sir, it is not allowable.' 
4 Is the precedent-license, Lord, allowable?' 
' What, Sir, is this precedent-license ? ' 
' Is it allowable, Lord, to do a thing on the ground 

that, " My preceptor (upa^f^aya) has practised this; 

or my teacher (a^ariya) has practised that?"' 
' In some cases, Sir, this is allowable, and in 

some not 2 .' 



1 Vaggena. See our note on the aist Paiittiya, and ATuIla- 
vagga V, 2, i. 

1 That is, of course, according as the thing enjoined is, or is not, 



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XII, r, 10. ON THE COUNCIL OF VESALi. 399 

' Is the churn-license, Lord, allowable ?' 

' What, Sir, is this churn-license ? ' 

'Is it allowable, Lord, for one who has once 
finished his meal, and has refused any more, to 
drink milk not left over from the meal, on the 
ground that it has left the condition of milk, and has 
not yet reached the condition of curds 1 ? ' 

' No, Sir, it is not allowable.' 

' Is it allowable, Lord, to drink toddy ?' 

' What, Sir, is this toddy ? ' 

4 Is it allowable, Lord, to drink spirits which have 
left the condition of not being spirits, and yet have 
not acquired intoxicating properties 2 ?' 

' No, Sir, it is not allowable?' 

' Is a rug or mat (when it is beyond the prescribed 
size) lawful, Lord, because it is unfringed ? ' 

' No, Sir, it is not allowable.' 

' Is gold and silver, Lord, allowable ?' 

' No, Sir, it is not allowable.' 

' These are the ten theses, Lord, which these 
Vag^ian Bhikkhus of Vesall have put forth. Come, 
Lord, let us take this legal question in hand before 
that which is not Dhamma is spread abroad, and 
that which is Dhamma is put aside ; before that 
which is not Vinaya is spread abroad, and that which 
is Vinaya is put aside; before those who argue 
against the Dhamma become powerful, and those 

lawful. Eka££o kappatf ti idam dhammikam &&wnam sandhaya 
vuttam, says Buddhaghosa. 

1 That is, which is neither liquid nor solid : something appa- 
rently like buttermilk. 

* It is a question constantly arising under the excise laws in 
India and Ceylon, whether the liquor in the case has become 
arrack, or is only arrack in the making, and unfermented. This 
last is called unfermented toddy. 



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40O tfULLAVAGGA. XII, 3, I. 

who argue in favour of the Dhamma become weak ; 
before those who argue against the Vinaya become 
powerful, and those who argue in favour of the 
Vinaya become weak.' 

'Even so, Sir,' said the venerable Revata, in assent 
to the venerable Yasa, the son of Kakaw^&ka. 



Here ends the First Portion for Recitation. 



2. 

i. Now the Va^gian Bhikkhus of Vesali heard 
the rumour : 'Yasa, they say, the son of K&kajutaka., 
wishing to take this legal question in hand, is seek- 
ing about for support, and support they say he is 
succeeding in getting.' And they thought : ' This 
legal question, now, is hard and subtle. How can 
we obtain such support that we may have the 
greater power at the decision thereof 1 ? ' 

And they thought : ' The venerable Yasa, who 
dwells at Soreyya, is wise in the traditions, and is 
one who has learnt the Agamas, who knows by 
heart the Dhamma, the Vinaya, the Matikas, is in- 
telligent, discreet, and wise, modest, conscientious, 
and devoted to the precepts. If we could gain him 
over to our side, we should attain our end.' 

Then the Vaggian Bhikkhus of Vesali got to- 
gether much property, requisites, a number of things 
of the Samaras' life — to wit, bowls and robes, and 
rugs, and needlecases, and girdles, and filters, and 
regulation-pots 2 . And, taking this property with 

1 Compare above, XII, i, 9. 

* On Dhamma-karaka, see our note at JSfullavagga V, 13, 1. 



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XII, a, 3. ON THE COUNCIL OF VESAl!. 401 

them, they went up stream by boat to Sahaf&ti, and 
there disembarked, and took their meal at the foot 
of a certain tree. 

2. Now to the venerable Sa/-4a, who retired apart 
and was plunged in meditation, there occurred this 
doubtful problem : ' Are the Bhikkhus of the East, 
or the Bhikkhus of the West, the more in accordance 
with the Dhamma in the opinion that they hold ? ' 
And having gone over the Dhamma and the Vinaya in 
his mind, he came to the conclusion, ' The Bhikkhus 
of the East are not, and the Bhikkhus of the West 
are, in accordance with the Dhamma in the opinion 
that they hold.' 

And a certain one of the deities in the Pure Abode ' 
perceived how this doubtful problem had arisen in 
the venerable Si/^a's mind, and as quickly as a 
strong man could stretch forth his bent arm, or draw 
it in again when it was outstretched, so quickly did 
that deity vanish from the Pure Abode, and ap- 
peared before the venerable Sa/£a ; saying to him '. 
' Thou art quite right, Sa/-6a ; it is the Eastern 
Bhikkhus whose opinions are against the Dhamma, 
and the Western Bhikkhus whose opinions accord 
therewith. Do thou, therefore, O Sa/£a, even as 
the Dhamma is, so take thy stand ! ' 

' Both formerly, O deity, and now, also, do I take 
my stand even as the Dhamma is. Notwithstand- 
ing, I shall not make manifest my opinion until (the 
Sawgha) shall have appointed me (judge) over this 
question V 

3. Now the Va££ian Bhikkhus of Vesalf, taking 
with them the aforesaid property, went to the place 

1 The Heaven, so called. ' Compare below, § 6. 

[20] D d 



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402 JTULLAVAGGA. XII, a, 3. 

where the venerable Revata was, and said to him : 
* Let the venerable Thera receive at our hands these 
requisites of a Sama«a's life.' 

But he refused to receive it, saying, ' Not so, my 
friends. I have all the things 1 I want' 

Now at that. time a Bhikkhu named Uttara, who 
had been twenty years admitted into the Order 2 , 
was the attendant upon the venerable Revata. And 
the Vagfian Bhikkhus of Vesill went to him, and 
said : ' Let your reverence receive at our hands 
.these requisites of a Sama»a's life.' 

But he made the same reply. 

Then they said : ' People used to offer such re- 
quisites to the Blessed One. If he received them, 
they were happy. If he did not receive them, they 
used to offer them to the venerable Ananda, saying, 
f( Let the venerable Thera receive these requisites 
of a Samara's life : that will be just as if the Blessed 
One had received them." ' Let the venerable Uttara 
receive these things : that will be as if the Thera 
had received them.' 

Then the venerable Uttara, being thus importuned 
by the Vagfian Bhikkhus of Vesali, accepted one robe, 
saying, ' You may tell me, friends, what you want.' 

' Let the venerable Uttara say thus much for us 
to the Thera : " Let the venerable Thera say thus 
much in the meeting of the Sawgha — ' It is in the 
regions of the East that the Buddhas, the Blessed 
Ones, are born. It is the Bhikkhus of the East 
who hold opinions in accord with the Dhamma, 
whereas the Bhikkhus of the West do not.' " ' 



1 Literally, ' I have the three robes.' 

* Visativasso; that is, since his upasampada. 



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XII, 3, 4- ON THE COUNCIL OF VESAlJ. 4O3 

' Even so, Sirs,' said the venerable Uttara, in 
assent to the Va^ian Bhikkhus of Vesali. And he 
went to Revata, and told him what they had said, 

'Thou urgest me, O Bhikkhu, to that which is 
against the Dhamma,' said the Thera, and sent away 
the venerable Uttara *. 

And the Vaggian Bhikkhus of Vesill said to the 
venerable Uttara : ' What, friend Uttara, did the 
Thera say ? ' 

'It is an evil you have wrought me, Sirs. The 
Thera has sent me away, saying, "Thou urgest 
me, O Bhikkhu, to what is against the Dhamma." ' 

' Are you not, Sir, of full age, of twenty years 
(since your upasampadi)?' 

' Yes, Sirs, I am.' 

'Then do we take the nissaya under you as 
your pupils V 

4. Now the Sawgha met together with the in-r 
tention of deciding the legal question. And the 
venerable Revata laid a resolution before the 
Saawgha, saying, 

4 Let the venerable Sawgha hear me. If we 
were to settle this question, it might be that those 
Bhikkhus who had at first taken the matter in hand 
might raise it again*. If it seem meet to the 
Sa*»gha, let the Sawgha settle it at that place 
where it arose.' 

p * Pawamesi. That is, permanently from attendance upon him. 
Compare Mahivagga I, 27, a, where the word is used of the 
formal dismissal or turning away of a pupil. 

* Garu-nissayam ganhama; on which Buddhaghosa has 
nothing, though the phrase does not occur elsewhere in the Khan- 
dhakas. 

* Compare the 63rd Pa/iittiya. 

o d 2 



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404 jtullavagga. xn, 3, 5. 

Then the Thera Bhikkhus went to Vesalt, with 
the intention of settling the matter there. 

Now at that time the eldest Thera in the world, 
Sabbakamt by name, one who was of a hundred and 
twenty years' standing from the date of his upasam- 
pada, and who had been a pupil 1 of the venerable 
Ananda, was living at Vesalt. And the venerable 
Revata said to the venerable Sambhuta Sa»avast : 

' I shall go to that Vihara in which the Thera 
Sabbakamt dwells. Do you go betimes to the 
venerable Sabbakaml, and question him as touching 
these ten points.' 

' Even so, Lord/ said the venerable Sambhuta 
Sa«avast, in assent to the venerable Revata. 

And the venerable Revata came to that Vihara 
in which the venerable Sabbakaml lived ; and a 
sleeping-place was made ready for the former in the 
inner chamber, and for the latter in front thereof. 
And the venerable Revata, thinking, 'This Thera, 
though so old, does not care to sleep,' did not go to 
rest. And the venerable Sabbakamt, thinking, 
'This Bhikkhu, though a traveller and tired, does 
not care to sleep,' did not go to rest. 

5. Then when the night was far spent, the vene- 
rable Sabbakamt said to the venerable Revata : 

' By what manner of life, beloved one, have you 
lived now these so many years ?' 

'By continuing in the sense of love, honoured 
friend, have I continued thus so many years.' 

' They say that you have continued thus, beloved 
one, by easiness of life : and that indeed, beloved one, 
is an easy life, (I mean) the continuing in love.' 

1 Literally, 'had dwelt in the same Vihara with.' t 

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XII, 3, 6. ON THE COUNCIL OF VESAlL 405 

' Even long ago, Sir, when I was a layman, was 
much love laid up in my heart, therefore is it that 
now also I live much in the sense of love, and in- 
deed since long I have attained to Arahatship. And 
by what manner of life have you lived now these 
many years ? ' 

' By continuing in the sense of the emptiness (of 
worldly things) have I, beloved one, lived these 
many years.' 

' They say that you, honoured friend, have con- 
tinued thus by the sense of being a man born to 
greatness * ; and that indeed, honoured friend, is the 
same feeling, (I mean) the sense of the emptiness 
of things.' 

' Even long ago, beloved one, when I was a lay- 
man, had I a strong sense of the emptiness of 
things, therefore is it that now also I live much in 
that feeling, and indeed since long I have attained to 
Arahatship.' 

6. Now 2 this conversation between the Thera 
Bhikkhus was still unfinished when the venerable 
Sambhuta Sa#avasi arrived there. And he went up 
to the venerable Sabbakaml, and saluted him, and 
took his seat beside him. And, so seated, he said 
to the venerable Sabbakaml : 

' These Va^fian Bhikkhus of Vesalt have put 
forth in Vesali these ten points ; ' and he told them 
all 3 . ' Now you, O Thera, have mastered much 
Dhamma and Vinaya at the feet of your preceptor. 

1 Mahapurisa. On the subsequent history of which word, see 
Senart's ' Le*gende du Buddha,' pp. 54, 107. 

' Aarahi. Compare 'Book of the Great Decease,' III, 53; 
Childers, p. 32. 

a The text repeats XII, 1, 1. 



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406 tfULLAVAGGA. XII, 2, 7. 

What, then, is the conclusion to which you, O Thera, 
come as you lay over in your mind the Dhamma 
and the Vinaya ; — whose opinion is in accordance 
with the Dhamma, that of the Bhikkhus of the East, 
or that of the Bhikkhus of the West ? ' 

' You also, Sir, have mastered much Dhamma and 
Vinaya at the feet of your preceptor. What, then, 
is the conclusion to which you, Sir, come as you lay 
over in your mind the Dhamma and the Vinaya ; — 
whose opinion is in accordance with the Dhamma, 
that of the Bhikkhus of the East, or that of the 
Bhikkhus of the West?' 

' The conclusion to which I come, Lord, as I so 
lay over in my mind the Dhamma and the Vinaya, 
is this — that the Bhikkhus of the East hold an 
opinion that is not in accord with the Dhamma, 
while the Bhikkhus of the West are in accord with 
the Dhamma. Notwithstanding, I do not intend to 
make manifest my opinion until (the Sa*»gha) shall 
have appointed me (referee) over this question V 

' The conclusion to which I also have come, Sir, as 
I lay over in my mind the Dhamma and the Vi- 
naya, is this — that the Bhikkhus of the East hold an 
opinion that is not in accordance with the Dhamma, 
while the Bhikkhus of the West are in accord with 
the Dhamma. Notwithstanding, I do not intend to 
make manifest my opinion until (the Sawzgha) shall 
have appointed me (referee) over this question.' 

7. Then the Sawgha met together with the in- 
tention of enquiring into this legal question. But 
while they were enquiring into it, both was much 
pointless speaking brought forth and also the sense 

1 Compare above, § 2. 

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XII, 2,7- ON THE COUNCIL OF VESALL 407 

in no single speech was clear 1 . Then the venerable 
Revata laid a resolution before the Sawgha : 

' Let the venerable Samgha hear me. Whilst we 
are discussing this legal question, there is both much 
pointless speaking, and no sense is clear in any 
single speech. If it seem meet to the Sawgha, let 
the Sawgha settle this legal question by referring it 
(to a jury) V 

And he chose four Bhikkhus of the East and four 
Bhikkhus of the West — from the Bhikkhus of the 
East the venerable Sabbakami, and the venerable 
SalAa, and the venerable Khugga-sobhita, and the 
venerable Vasabha-gamika — and from the Bhikkhus 
of the West, the venerable Revata, and the venerable 
Sambhuta Sawavast, and the venerable Yasa, the son 
of Kaka.nda.ka., and the venerable Sumana. Then the 
venerable Revata laid a resolution before theSawzgha : 

' Let the venerable Samgha hear me. During 
the enquiry into this matter there has been much 
pointless talk among us, and in no single utterance 
is the sense clear. If it seem meet to the Sa#*gha, 
let the Sazwgha delegate four Bhikkhus of the East 
and four Bhikkhus of the West to settle this 
question by reference. This is the resolution. 

' Let the venerable Sawgha hear me. During 
the enquiry into this matter there has been much 
pointless talk among us, and the sense in any single 
utterance is not clear. The Sawgha delegates four 
Bhikkhus of the East and four Bhikkhus of the 
West to settle this question by reference. Whoso- 

1 So above in .ffullavagga IV, 14, 19, where the proceeding 
adopted in the subsequent sentences is laid down for use on such 
an occasion. 

* UbbShikSya. See the passage quoted in the last note. 



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408 tfULLAVAGGA. XII, a, 8. 

ever of the venerable ones approves thereof, let him 
keep silence. Whosoever approves not thereof, let 
him speak. The delegation is made accordingly. 
The Sawgha approves thereof. Therefore is it 
silent. Thus do I understand.' 

Now at that time a Bhikkhu named Afita, of ten 
years' standing, was the reciter of the Patimokkha to 
the Sawgha. Him did the Sawgha appoint as seat 
regulator * to the Thera Bhikkhus. 

Then the Thera Bhikkhus thought, ' At what 
place, now, ought we to settle this legal question ? ' 
And it occurred to them : ' This Valika Arama is a 
pleasant place, quiet and undisturbed. Let us settle 
the matter there.' And thither the Thera Bhikkhus 
proceeded to enquire into the question. 

8. Then the venerable Revata laid a resolution 
before the Sa*«gha 8 : ' Let the venerable Saawgba 
hear me. If it seem meet to the Sa*»gha, I will 
question the venerable Sabbakaml as touching the 
Vinaya.' And the venerable Sabbakaml laid a reso- 
lution before the Sawgha : ' If it seem meet to the 
Sa*»gha, I, when asked by Revata touching the 
Vinaya, will give reply.' 

And the venerable Revata said to the vener- 
able Sabbakaml: 'Is the horn-salt-license, Lord, 
allowable ?' 

1 Asana-pawnapakaw. This office is not mentioned in the 
other Khandhakas. We should expect to find it at Aullavagga VI, 
2i, 2. The reason of this is that it is no office of authority. The 
different referees would take their seats in the order of their 
seniority, and all that the tsana-pamndpaka would have to do 
would be to see that they were provided with everything they re- 
quired (it was not much, chiefly mats or rugs to sit upon) in the 
hall or grove where they met 

* Here, of course, consisting of the eight referees. 



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XII, 3, 8. ON THE COUNCIL OF VESALf. 409 

'What, Sir, is this horn-salt-license ?' 
' Is it allowable, Lord, to carry about salt in a 
horn with the intention of putting it into food which 
has not been salted ? ' 

' No, Sir, it is not allowable.' 
* Where was such a claim rejected ? ' 
' At Savatthi, in the Sutta Vibhanga.' 
'Of what offence is the person, who does so, 
guilty ? ' 

' Of Paiittiya, in eating food which has been 
put by V 

' Let the venerable Sa/#gha hear me. This first 
point, having been examined into by the Samgha, 
has been found to be false Dhamma and false 
Vinaya, and not contained in the teaching of the 
Master. Thus do I cast the first vote.' 

' Is the two-inch-license, Lord, allowable ?' 
' What, Sir, is this two-inch-license ? ' 
' Is it allowable, Lord, to eat the midday meal be- 
yond the right time, provided only that the shadow 
of the sun has not yet turned two inches ? ' 
' No, Sir, it is not allowable.' 
' Where has such a claim been rejected ? ' 
' At Ra^agaha, in the Sutta Vibhanga.' 
' Of what offence is he, who does so, guilty ?' 
' Of Pa&ttiya, in eating at the wrong time V 
' Let the venerable Sawgha hear me. This 
second point, having been examined into by the 
Sawgha, has been found to be false Dhamma and 
false Vinaya, and not contained in the teaching of 
the Master. Thus do I cast the second vote.' 
' Is the village-trip-license, Lord, allowable ?' 

1 P&Kttya XXXVIII. » Pa/Kttiya XXXVII. 

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410 ffULLAVAGGA. XII, a, 8. 

' What, Sir, is this village-trip-license ?' 
' Is it allowable for one who has once finished his 
meal, and has refused any more, to eat food which 
has not been left over, on the ground that he is 
about to proceed into the village ? ' 
' No, Sir, it is not allowable.' 
' Where was such a claim rejected ? ' 
' At Savatthi, in the Sutta Vibhanga.' 
' Of what offence is he, who does so, guilty ? ' 
' Of Pa&ttiya, in eating food which has not been 
left over 1 .' 

' Let the venerable Sawgha hear me. This third 
point, having been examined into by the Sawgha, 
has been found to be false Dhamma and false 
Vinaya, and not contained in the teaching of the 
Master. Thus do I cast the third vote.' 
' Is the circuit-license, Lord, allowable ? ' 
' What, Sir, is this circuit-license ? ' 
' Is it allowable, Lord, for a number of Bhikkhus 
who dwell within the same circuit, within the same 
boundary, to hold separate Uposathas ? ' 
' No, Sir, it is not allowable.' 
' Where was such a claim rejected ? ' 
' At Ra^agaha, in the Uposatha Sawyutta *.' 
' Of what offence is he, who does so, guilty ? ' 
' Of Dukka/a, ia neglecting the Vinaya.' 
* Let the venerable Sawgha hear me. This 
fourth point, having been examined into by the 
Sawgha, has been found to be false Dhamma and 
false Vinaya, and not contained in the teaching of 
the Master. Thus do I cast the fourth vote.' 

1 Pa/Httiya XXXV. 

1 Sawyutta must here be used for Khandhaka. The passage 
referred to is MahSvagga II (the Uposatha Khandhaka), 8, 3. 



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XII, 2, 8. ON THE COUNCIL OF VESAlL 411 

' Is the indemnity-license, Lord, allowable?' 
' What, Sir, is this indemnity-license ? ' 
' Is it allowable, Lord, for a Sawgha which is not 
legally constituted to perform an official act, on the 
ground that they will afterwards obtain the sanction 
of such Bhikkhus as subsequently arrive ? ' 
' No, Sir, it is not allowable.' 
' Where was such a claim rejected ?' 
' In the ATampeyyaka section, in the body of the 
Vinaya V 

' Of what offence is he, who does so, guilty ? ' 
' Of Dukkafo, in neglecting the Vinaya.' 
4 Let the venerable Sa*»gha hear me. This fifth 
point, having been examined into by the Sawgha, 
has been found to be false Dhamma and false 
Vinaya, and not contained in the teaching of the 
Master. Thus do I cast this fifth vote.' 

' Is the precedent-license, Lord, allowable ?' 
' What, Sir, is this precedent-license ? ' 
' Is it allowable, Lord, to do a thing on the ground 
that " My preceptor (upa^^aya) has practised this," 
or " My teacher (i/fcariya) has practised that ? " ' 
' In some cases,Sir,it is allowable, and in some not 2 .' 
' Let the venerable Sawgha hear me. This sixth 
point, having been examined into by the Sawgha, 
has been found to be false Dhamma and false 
Vinaya, and not contained in the teaching of the 
Master. Thus do I cast this sixth vote.' 
' Is the churn-license, Lord, allowable?' 
'What, Sir, is this churn-license?' 

1 Vinaya-vatthu. Here used as a title, apparently of the 
Khandhakas. The passage referred to is in the .Xampeyyaka 
Khandhaka (Mahivagga IX, 3, 5). 

* See the note above on XII, 1, 10. 



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412 tfULLAVAGGA. XII, a, 8. 

' Is it allowable, Lord, for one who has once 
finished his meal, and has refused any more, to 
drink milk not left over from the meal, on the 
ground that it has left the condition of milk and has 
not yet reached the condition of curds ? ' 
' No, Sir, it is not allowable.' 
' Where was such a claim rejected ? ' 
' At Savatthi, in the Sutta Vibhanga.' 
' Of what offence is he, who does so, guilty ? ' 
' Of Pa&ttiya, in eating food which has not been 
left over V 

' Let the venerable Sa/»gha hear me. This 
seventh point, having been examined into by the 
Sawgha, has been found to be false Dhamma and 
false Vinaya, and not contained in the teaching of 
the Master. Thus do 1 cast this seventh vote.' 
' Is it allowable, Lord, to drink toddy?' 
' What, Sir, is this toddy? ' 

' Is it allowable, Lord, to drink spirits which have 
not yet become spirits and have not yet acquired 
intoxicating properties ? ' 
' No, Sir, it is not allowable.' 
' Where was it rejected ? ' 
' At Kosambl, in the Sutta Vibhanga.' 
' Of what offence is he, who does so, guilty? ' 
' Of Pa&ttiya, in the drinking of fermented liquors 
and strong drink V 

' Let the venerable Sawgha hear me. The eighth 
point, having been examined into by the Sa/#gha, 
has been found to be false Dhamma and false 
Vinaya, and not contained in the teaching of the 
Master. Thus do I cast this eighth vote.' 

1 Pa&ttiya XXXV. * PSflttiya LI. 



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XH, a, 8- ON THE COUNCIL OF VESALf. 413 

' Is the unfringed-seat, Lord, allowable 1 ?' 
' No, Sir, it is not allowable.' 
' Where has it been rejected ? ' 
' At Savatthi, in the Sutta Vibhanga.' 
' Of what offence is he, who uses such a seat, 
guilty ? ' 

' Of Pa&ttiya, in using a thing which ought to be 
cut down (to the proper size) 2 .' 

' Let the venerable Sawgha hear me. This ninth 
point, having been examined into by the Sawgha, 
has been found to be false Dhamma and false 
Vinaya, and not contained in the teaching of the 
Master. Thus do I cast this ninth vote.' 
' Is gold and silver, Lord, allowable ? ' 
' No, Sir, it is not allowable.' 
' Where was it forbidden ?' 
' At RA^agaha, in the Sutta Vibhanga.' 
' Of what offence is he, who takes it, guilty ? ' 
' Of Pa&ttiya, in accepting gold and silver V 
' Let the venerable Sawgha hear me. This tenth 
point, having been examined into by the Sawgha, 
has been found to be false Dhamma and false 
Vinaya, and not contained in the teaching of the 
Master. Thus do I cast this tenth vote.' 

1 Let the venerable Sa^wgha hear me. These ten 
points, having been examined into by the Sa/wgha, 
have been found to be false Dhamma and false 
Vinaya, and not contained in the teaching of the 
Master/ 

1 That is, does the fact of its being unfringed make legal a 
mat or rag otherwise illegal by reason of its size? See above, 
XII, 1, 10. 

* Paflttiya LXXXIX. 

* The 1 8th Nissaggiya Pa/Kttiya. 



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414 rULLAVAGGA. XII, a, 9. 

' * This legal question, Sir, has been concluded ; 
and being settled, it is settled once for all. Never- 
theless, Sir, do you question me on these ten points 
in the midst also of the Sawgha s , in order to per- 
suade those Bhikkhus 3 .' 

So the venerable Revata questioned the venerable 
Sabbakam! on the ten points also in the midst of the 
Samgha, and as he was questioned on one after the 
other, the venerable Sabbakami gave reply. 

9. Now whereas at this rehearsal of the Vinaya 
seven hundred Bhikkhus, without one more, with- 
out one being wanting, took part, therefore is that 
rehearsal of the Vinaya called ' That of the seven 
hundred 4 .' 

Here ends the Twelfth Khandhaka, on the 
Rehearsal by the Seven Hundred. 



1 It is clear from the word tvzm Svuso, that Sabbakamf is 
here addressing Revata. 

* That is not only of the referees, but of all the Bhikkhus there 
at VesSlf. 

9 Bhikkhunant sannattiyS. See the use of this phrase at 
.ffullavagga IV, 14, 26, and VII, 4, 1, and our note on the latter of 
those two passages. 

4 Compare XI, 1, 15. 



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NOTE ON THE BHAJWWARAS. 

As the division into Bha«avSras or Portions for Recitation is 
of some value in the history of the way in which the books were 
handed down, and is now overshadowed by the more practical 
division for modern purposes adopted in this translation into 
chapters and sections, the following table may be of use u — 

MAHAVAGGA. 

Present division. PHi title. **£* £*£ 
Khandhaka I. 

Chapter 6. Pa/Aama-bhSwavdraw .... 14 14 

„ 14. Dutiyaka-bhanav&ram .... 24 10 
„ 21, Uruvela-pi/ih£riyamtatiyaka-bh£- 

»avlra« niJ/Mtam 35 11 

„ 24. A'atutthaka-bh. ni//Mtnm ... 44 9 
„ 30. Upa^ASya - vatta - bh. ni//h\tam 

pan£ama« 58 14 

„ 33. Kh&ttkun bhi»av£ram .... 61 3 

„ 38. Sattamaw bhiwavSraw . ... 71 10 

„ 53. Abhayuvara-bh. ni/Mitam ... 81 10 

79 98 ?i7 

Khandhaka II. 

Chapter 16. Anna-titthiya-bh. nU/Mtam . . 115 16 

„ 27. Abdani-vatthu-bh. ni//>5ita»j . . 128 13 
11 3<>t Uposatha-khandhaketatiyawbhS- 

wavilraw 136 8 

Khandhaka III. 

Chapter 8. Vassavasa-bh. ni/Mitaw ... 148 n 

,, 14: • • • 155 7 

Khandhaka IV. 

Chapter 6. Pa/iama-bh. ni/Mitaw .... 164 9 

18 178 14 

Khandhaka V has no Bhawavaras, and ends in the 

text on page 198 20 



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416 JTULLAVAGGA. 



Khanohaka VI. 

Chapter 15. Bhesa^fa-anunndta-bh.pa/^amam 209 10 

„ 30. Lii/Wavi-bh. nUMt&m .... 233 24 

» 33- Aatu-vtsati-bh. ni/Mitaw . . . 240 7 

» 40 251 " 

Khandhaka VII. 

Chapter 7. Adaya-bh. xdi/MtiM .... 259 7 

» 13 265 6 

Khandhaka VIII. 

Chapter 1. Pa/iamaka-bh. niMMtam . . . 281 14 

„ 15. VisakM-bh3«avSra« .... 294 13 

» 3 2 310 i<> 

Khandhaka IX. 

Chapter 4. V&sabha-ga^na-bh&nav&rampa/Aa- 

mam 322 n 

„ 6. Upiili-puM4a-bha«avara»2 dud- 
yam 328 6 

» 7 333 5 

Khandhaka X. 

Chapter 2. DlghSvu-bhawavSraw pa/Aamam 349 13 

» 6 359 i° 



tfTJLLAVAGGA. 

Khandhaka I-IV. None. 
Khandhaka V. 

Chapter 21. Dutiya-bhl»avSra« 129 25 

» 37 143 14 

Khandhaka VI. 

Chapter 3. Bhinavinun ni//j£itam pa/iamam 154 9 

„ 11. Dutiya-bhiwavaraw . . . . . 167 13 

21 177 10 

Khandhaka VII. 

Chapter 2. Pa/4amaka-bhd«av£ra»» ni//Aita« 188 9 

„ 3. BhS«avdra»i ni///4itaw dutiyaa* ; 198 10 

„ 5. Bh&»avara« mtihiXam tatiyara . 206 8 
Khandhaka VIII. 

Chapter 4. Bh&tavaram paMamaw ... 215 8 

„ 12. Dutiya-bha«avara« 231 16 

» 14 231 — 



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NOTE ON THE BHAYAVARAS. 417 

Khandhaka IX. 

Chapter 3. Pa/Aamo bhanavaro l .... 247 12 

5 2 5' 4 

Khandhaka X. 

Chapter 8. PaMama-bhanaviram .... 261 9 

„ 16. Dutiya-bhawavSraw . . . . 271 10 

„ 27. Tatiya-bhS«avara»» 281 10 

Khandhaka XI has none 292 9 

Khandhaka XII. 

Chapter 1. Pa/Aama-bhawavaraw .... 301 8 

» 2 3<>7 <5 

On this it may be observed — 

1. The last Bha»av£ra in each Khandhaka is not referred to 
either by name or by number, except in Mahavagga II, and in 
JS'ullavagga VII and X. In the Mah&vagga fourteen of the 
Bhanaviras have special titles, independent of their number in the 
particular Khandhaka. 

2. Probably two Bha»avaras in Mahavagga V, all the Bhawa- 
varas in ATullavagga I-IV, and the first in Aullavagga V, are not 
noticed in the printed text. 

3. Making allowance for these we have in the Mahavagga 
31 (? 32) Bhanavaras, occupying about 350 pages of Pali text, and 
about 610 pages in our translation. In books V-XII of the 
Aullavagga we have 20 BhawavSras, occupying about 200 pages of 
Pali text, and about 350 pages in our translation. Total 51 (? 52) 
Bhawavaras, occupying about 550 pages of Pali, and about 960 
pages of translation. 

4. As in the printed text repetitions have been avoided by a 
mode of reference to former passages which was impossible in the 
MSS., the average length of the matter contained in a Bhawavara, 
as written much more in full in the MSS., would be somewhat 
greater than its average length as actually printed. It would 
probably amount to what, if printed verbatim, would occupy in 
space not. much less than a sheet of the size and type used in 
the edition of the text. Thus the three Bha«av£ras in Mahavagga 
VIII, which owing to the subject-matter are printed with only 
a few such contractions, occupy respectively 14, 13, and 16 pages 
of the text. 



1 Sic. This is the only instance in the Vinaya of a masculine 
use of the word. 

[20] E e 



r 



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41 8 JTULLAVAGGA. 



5. The recital in the usual sara-bhanna (or intonation, see 
Aullavagga V, 3) of such a ' portion for recitation ' would occupy 
in time about half-an-hour. 

6. Spence Hardy informs us in his 'Eastern Monachism' 
(p. 168) that the Digha Nikaya contains 64, the "MaggMma, 
Nikaya 80, the Samyutta Nikaya 100, and the Anguttara Nikaya 
120 Bhawavaras. In fact it is only a few of the longer Suttas 
in the first two collections which are actually divided into 
Bhanavaras in the MSS. ; and only the longer Nipatas in the 
Anguttara. There are no Bha«avaras in the Eka- and Duka- 
Nipaias of that collection; and there are also none in the 
Samyutta Nikaya, and none in any of the books of the later 
literature contained in the Abhidhamma Pi/aka (including all 
those in the Khuddaka Nikaya) as yet published. 

7. The division into Bhanavaras is not made use of in many 
books of the Pi/akas themselves, or in the fifth-century commen- 
taries of Buddhaghosa and others. In the Sutta-vibhanga it is 
only used in Paraf ikas I— III, and in the Parivara not at all. When 
Spence Hardy says therefore (loc. cit. p. 1 72) that the Fi/akas and 
commentaries combined contain 5347 Bha«avaras, he must be re- 
ferring to a mere calculation and not to the actual use of the MSS. 
On the other hand, the fact of Bha»avaras being used in the 
Dipavawsa and the Khudda-sikkha may possibly afford some clue 
to the age in which those works were composed. 



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INDEX TO VINAYA TEXTS, 

PARTS I, II, III, 
VOLUMES XIII, XVII, XX. 



E e 2 



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INDEX OF SUBJECTS. 



References to the Introduction are in Roman numerals only, those to 
the Text have P., M., or AT. prefixed, according as they occur in the Plti- 
mokkha, the Mahavagga, or the ATullavagga, respectively. The nume- 
rals refer after P. to the pages, after M. and AT. to the chapters and 
sections. 



Absolution, M. ii, 27 ; AT. iv, 14, 30- 
32; v, 20, 5; vii, 37. 

Abuse, P. 32; AT. x, 22, 1. 

Accoucheur, M. viii, 1, 4. 

Acquittal of the consciously inno- 
cent, AT. i, 4. 

Age, when it begins to run, M. i, 75. 

Agriculture forbidden to Bhikkhus, 

P. 33- 

— blight and mildew, K. x, 1, 6. 

— scare-crows, M. i, 50. 

— ploughshares, M. vi, 26, 7. 

— gleaning, M.vi, 32, 1. 

— shape of rice-fields, M. viii, 12. 

— list of farming operations, AT. vii, 

1,2. 
Ague, intermittent, M. vi, 14, 4 ; M. 

i, 6, 1, 2. 
Alligator's fat, as medicine, M.vi, 2, 2. 
Ambrosia of Arahatship, M. i, 5, 7, 

12 ; 6, 8, 12. 
Animals, conduct towards, P. 46; 

M. iii, 1. 

— not to be members of the order, 

M. i, 63; ii, 22, 3. 

— not to be killed, M. v, 9, 2 ; 10, 

9 ! vi, 31, 14. 

— various, not to be eaten, M. vi, 

23- 

— song of love to, AT. v, 6. 
Annihilation, sense in which Bud- 
dha teaches, M. vi, 31, 7. 

Aperient myrobolan, M. viii, 1, 28. 
Arahatship, M. v, 1, 18-28 ; AT. i, 4, 
1 ; xii, 2, 5. 



Architecture (see also Rest-house). 
Buddhist Vihira, size of, P. 8, 9. 

— building of, P. 35 ; AT. vi, 4, 10; 

vi, 5 ; vi, 17. 

— cleansing of, M. i, 25, 15. 

— rooms, various, M. i, 25, 19; AT. 

vi, 33, 6. 

— buildings, list of various, M. 

iii, 5, 6 ; AT. vi, 10, 4. 

— the five kinds of, M. i, 30, 4 ; 

ii, 8, 1 ; vi, 33, 2 ; viii, 7 ; 
AT. vi, i, 2. 

— earthenware huts, M. iii, 1 2, 9 ; 

K. v, 37. 

— loomsheds, K. v, 11, 6. 

— roofs of skins, K. v, 11, 6 ; 14, 

2 ; vi, 2, 2 ; other kinds, AT. 
vi, 3, 11. 

— doors, drains, chimneys, AT. v, 

Mi 3 ; vi, 1, 2 ; 3, 8. 

— wells, building and machinery 

of, AT. v, 16, 2. 

— artificial lakes, AT. v, 17. 

— windows, AT. vi, 22 ; viii, 3, 5. 

— plastering, &c, of walls, AT. vi, 

3» i- 

— ceiling cloth, AT. vi, 3, 5. 

— entrance porch, AT. v, 14, 4; 

vi, 3, 9, 10. 

— verandahs, AT. vi, 14. 
Arithmetic, M. i, 49. 
Asceticism, definition of Buddhist, 

M. vi, 31, 8. 
Assemblies, fortnightly, duty of at- 
tending, M. ii, 1. 



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422 



VINAYA TEXTS. 



Astringent herbs, list of, M. vi, 4. 
Astrology condemned, K. v, 33, 2. 
Astronomy, elementary, to be learn- 
ed, AT. viii, 6, 3. 



Back scratcher, K. v, 1, 4. 
Banishment of guilty Bhikkhus, K. 

i, 13-17. 
Barbers, M. vi, 37 ; K. v, 27, 3 ; 

Bhikkhunts not to be, K. x, 

10, 4. 
Bark garments forbidden, M. viii, 

28, 2. 
Barter, P. 21-24, when allowed to 

Bhikkhus, K. vi, 19. 
Bathing, P. 44 ; M. i, 25, 12 ; v, 13, 

6 ; K. viii, 4, 2. 
Shampooing, AT. v, 1. 
Steam baths, M. vi, 14, 3 ; AT. v, 

'4. if 3- 
— etiquette in, K. viii, 8 ; forbidden 

to Bhikkhunts, AT. x, 27, 4. 
Bathing dresses for irons, M. viii, 

15, ir. 
Rules for Bhikkhunts at the bath, 

AT. x, 27. 
Forbidden methods of, K. v, 1. 
— in the open air, AT. v, 17. 
Beans, eating of, M. vi, 16. 
Bears' fat as medicine, M. vi, 2, 2. 
Beasts of prey, M. iii, 9, 1. 
Bedsteads, K. vi, 2, 3 ; form of, AT. 

viii, 1, 4. 
Bewitched, cure for those, M. vi, 

14. 7. 

Bhikkhunts, eight chief rules for, 
K. x, 1, 4 ; six rules for novices, 
ibid. ; rules for reciting the Pati- 
mokkha before, x, 6, 1 ; dis- 
ciplinary proceedings against, 
x, 6, 3 ; settlement of disputes 
among, x, 7 ; inhibition of, x, 
9, 2 ; exhortation of, x, 9, 3 ; 
girdles, x, 10; shampooing, x, 
2 ; dress of, x, 4, x, 16 ; devo- 
lution of property of, x, 1 1 ; dis- 
qualifications for initiation as, 
x, 17, 1 ; rules for initiation, x, 
17, x, 20; rules for Pavarana 
of, x, 19; children of, x, 25, 1, 
2 ; reinitiation of, x, 26. 

Bladder, rice-milk good for the, M. 
vi, 24, 5. 

Bleeding, surgical, M. vi, 14, 4. 

Bolsters, AT. vi, 2, 7. 



Boots, various forbidden kinds of, 

M. v, 2, 3. 
Border countries, list of, M. v, 13, 

12. 
Bowls, wooden, forbidden, AT. v, 

8,2. 

— of iron and clay allowed, AT. v, 

9, 1. 

— not to be painted, K. v, 9, 2. 

— ' turning down ' of, K. v, 20. 

— proper modes of carrying, AT. 

viii, 5, 2 ; 6, 3. 
Boy-Bhikkhus, M. i, 49. 
Brahman used for Arahat, M. i, 1, 

3, 7 ; M. i, 2, 3. 
Brass, K. v, 37, 1. 
Brooms, AT. v, 22. 
Buddha, a, description of, M. i, 23, 

2; vi, 34, 11. 



Cannibalism, M. vi, 23, 9. 
Castration forbidden, AT. v, 7. 
Casuistry, AT. v, 33, 2. 
Chain of Causation, M. i, 1, 2. 
Chairs, M. v, n; AT. vi, 2, 4 ; vi, 8. 
Chapter of five Bhikkhus, M. ix, 4. 

— often, M. i, 31, 4. 

— of twenty, P. 14. 
Chicken, fable of, K. i, 18, 4. 
Chunam, M. vi, 9, 2 ; AT. v, 1-2 ; not 

to be used at the bath by Bhik- 
khunts, AT. x, 27, 4. 
Civil law, M. vi, 3, 9 ; K. iv, 9 ; vi, 

4, 10. 
Cloister, use of, for exercise, AT. v, 

14, 1. 
Cloths, not to be walked on, AT. v, 

21, 2, 3. 
Clyster, use of, forbidden, M. vi, 

22,4. 
Cobras' hoods as ornament, M. viii, 

29. 
Cobwebs, M. i, 25, 15. 
Commentary, the Old, xvi. 
Common property of the order, K. 

vi, 15. 
Concealing offences, K. iii, passim. 
Conscience, AT. i, 4, 9. 
Conversion, M. 1, 7, to. 
Corpse, belief that the sea always 

throws out a, AT. viii, 1, 3. 
Council of Raj-agaha, AT. xi, passim. 

— Vesalt, K. xii, passim. 
Covering over as with grass, AT. i, 

13- 



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INDEX OF SUBJECTS. 



423 



Coverlets, used in South India, M. 
v, 13,6. 

Cow and calf, story of, M. v, 10. 

Crocodiles' teeth as pins, K. v, 1, 4; 
v, 9, a. 

Cupping, for fever, M. vi, 14, 4. 

Curds, not to be eaten after mid- 
day, K. xii, 1, 10. 

Cuttle-fish bones for soup, A. v, 22. 



Dangers, the ten, M. ii, 15,4; ii, 

35 ! A. "<• 3. 4- 
Date of the Vinaya, xxi. 
Debtors, imprisonment of, M. i, 46. 
Dedication by water, M. i, 22, 18. 
Demons troubling Bhikkhus, M. Hi, 

9, 2. 
Devil-worshippers, K. v, 10, 2; v, 

27,5- 
Disabilities, the eighteen, of a Bhik- 

khu, K. i, 5. 
Discourse, to laymen, M. i, 75, 6. 

— to the Bhikkhus, M. i, 25, 6; v, 

1,9; AT. vi, 4, 5; i, t, 3. 
Diseases, the five, M. i, 39 ; i, 76, t. 
Disqualifications, the twenty-three, 

after initiation, M. ii, 36 ; iv, 

14 ; viii, 30. 

— for initiation of men, M. i, 76. 

— of women, A. x, 17, 1. 

Dogs, not to be eaten, M. vi, 23, 12. 

Doubts of conscience, M. iii, 6, 4. 

Drains for water, A. v, 14; v, 16 ; 
v, 17. 

Dress, P. 18-24, 28-30, 45, 54 ; M. 
vii, viii, passim ; viii, 4, n. ; A. v, 
29 ; of women, A. x, 10. 

Drinks, list of, allowable, M. vi, 

35.6- 
Dung, medical use of, M. vi, 9 ; vi, 

14,6. 
Dwarfs, K. iv, 14, 5. 
Dyeing robes, M. i, 26, n ; viii, 10. 



Earth, diving into the, M. v, 1, 5. 
Elephants, speaking, M. vi, 20, 2. 

— not to be eaten, M. vi, 23, 10. 

— fable of the old and young, A. 

vii, 4. 5- 

— story of the rogue, A. vii, 3, 1 1. 

— of men = Buddha, A. vii, 3, 12. 
Embryo, consciousness of, M. i, 75. 
Emissary, eight qualifications of a 

good, A. vii, 3, 6. 



Emptiness of worldly things, A. xii, 

i. 5- 

Etiquette, rules of, P. 59-67 ; M. 
vi, 36, 4 ; AT. vi, 1 3 ; on arrival 
at a Vihara, viii, 1 ; at meals, 
viii, 4 ; when on begging rounds, 
viii, 5; towards fellow-lodgers, 
viii, 7. 

Eunuchs, M. i, 38, 5; i, 61 ; iii, ir, 
4 ; A. v, 7. 

Exhortation of Bhikkhunis, P. 35, 36. 

Expulsion of Bhikkhus, M. i, 60. 

— of a nun, A. i, 4, 9. 
Extremes, the two, M. i, 617. 
Eye of the Truth, M. i, 7, 6. 

— ointments, M. vi, 11. 



Fairies, curious belief as to, M. vi, 

28, 8. 
Faith, works, and insight, M. v, 1, 

21-25. 
False charges, P. 9, 10. 
False pretensions, P. 5. 
Famine, M. vi, 19, 2 ; vi, 32, 2 ; A". 

vi, 21. 
Fat, as medicine, M. vi, 2. 
Feathers, not to be used for dress, 

M. viii, 28, 2. 
Feet, washing of, M. i, 25, 11. 

— the Buddha washes disciples, M. 

x> 4, 3- 
' Festivals, the ash/aka, M. i, 30, 15. 
Fever, M. vi, 14, 4 ; cure for, M. vi, 

20. 
Fines of money, M. vi, 36, 1. 
Fire, sacred, M. i, 15, 2. 

— sacrifice to, M. i, 20, 19 ; vi, 35, 8. 

— sermon on, M. i, 21. 

— by friction, A. viii, 6, 1. 
Fistula, M. vi, 22 ; viii, 1, 14, AT. v, 

*7, 4- 
Flowers, right and wrong use of, A. 

v, 18. 
Fly whisks, three kinds of, allowed, 

A. v, 23. 
Food, P. 37-42, 56, 57 ; A. v, 5 ; 

vii, 5-7. 
Freedom, M. i, 6, 46 ; i, 7, 1 1 ; i, 

11, 1; AT. vi, 4, 4. 
Frescoes, AT. vi, 3, a. 
Fruits, which, may be eaten, A", vi, 5. 
Furniture, P. 34, 53, 54 ; M. i, 25, 

16; A. v, 19; v, 37 ; vi, passim. 

— list of,inaVihira,A.viii; 1,3; 3,3. 
Future life, M. v, 1, 20. 



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424 



VINAYA TEXTS. 



Gall bladder, K. vii, a, 5. 

Games, list of, forbidden toBhikkhus, 

K. i, 13, 2. 
Gems, list of the ten, K. ix, 1, 3. 
Ghost stories, M. v, 6, 3. 
Gift of a Vihara, M. i, 22, 18. 
Girdles, rules for, K. v, 29. 
Gleaning, M. vi, 32, 1. 
Goblins in hollow trees, M. iii, 1 2, 2. 
Gods envy the Arahats, K. vii, 1, 6. 
Gold and silver, the Bhikkhus not to 

accept, P. 26 ; K. xii, 1-7, 10. 
Gotamaka Afetiya, M. viii, 1 3, 2. 
Gotama's Ford, M. vi, 28, 12. 
Gotama's Gate, M. vi, 28, 12. 
Gotamf, M. x, 5, 7 ; K. x, 1, 1 ; xi, 

i,9- 
Gourds as water- pots, K. v, 10, 1. 
Gravel, K. v, 14, 3 ; v, 22. 
Grindstone, M. vi, 3, 2. 
Gums, medical, list of, M. vi, 7. 



Hair on the soles of the feet, M. 

v, 1. 
Hair-garments, forbidden, M. viii, 

28, 2. 
Hair, modes of wearing, forbidden, 

K. v, 2, 3 ; v, 27, 4- 
Handicraft allowed to Bhikkhus, K. 

v, 28. 
Happiness, the highest, M. i, 3, 4. 
Harmony of mental powers, M. v, 

1, 17. 
Headache, cures for, M. vi, 13. 
Heresy of Bhikkhus, punishment of, 

K. i, 32. 
— of laymen, how to be treated, K. 

v, 20. 
Hermaphrodites, M. i, 69. 
High places, worship on, K. v, 2, 6 ; 

vi, 2, 7. 
High treason, punishment for, M. 

ix, 2, 9 ; K. vii, 3, 4. 
Horns to carry salt in, K. xii, 1, 10. 
Horse-flesh not to be eaten, M. vi, 

23, 11. 
House-warming, K. v, 21. 
Humours, of the body, M. vi, 14 ; 

24, 5; viii, 1, 30; K. v, 14, 1. 



Iddhi, M. v, 1, 5, 7 ; vi, 15, 8; of 
laymen, vi, 34 ; K. i, 4, 4 ; v, 8 ; 

v », 1, 4 ; >i 1 ; 3, 3 ; of the 

Buddha, vii, 3, 9; sermon on, 



vii, 4, 3 ; a lesser thing than 

Arahatship, vii, 4, 7 ; flying, K. 

xii, 1, 7. 
Ill-will, P. 33. 
Impurity, P. 7. 
Initiation into the order, M. i, 12, 

4 ; i, 28 and foil. 
Insane offender, treatment of, K. 

i, 5- 
Insects, destruction of, M. v, 6, 3. 
Insubordination, P. 12. 
Interdictions, the form, M. i, 78. 
Intoning, K. v, 3. 
Inward struggles, M. iii, 6, 3. 
Iron, M. vi, 26, 7. 
Itch-cloth, M. viii, 17. 



jails, public, M. i, 4:. 

Jains, xi. 

Jaundice, M. vi, 1 ; vi, 14, 7 ; viii, 

1, 23. 
Jewelry for men, K. v, 2, r. 
Judges, what four things they should 

avoid, K. iv, 9. 
— what ten characteristics they 

should have, K, iv, 14, 19. 
Judicial office, four qualifications 

for, K. i, 9. 
Jury in different cases, K. iv, 14, 19. 



Karma, K, vii, 3, 9. 

Kingdom of Righteousness, M. i, 6, 

30. 
Knives, K. v, 11, 1. 



Lamps, etiquette as to lighting, K. 

viii, 7, 4. 
Landmarks, M. ii, 6. 
Language, each Buddhist to learn 

the word in his own, K. v, 33. 
Lattices for windows, K. vi, 2, a ; 

etiquette as to, K. viii, 7, 4. 
Legal questions, settlement of, P. 

68, 69; K. i, 14. 
Legend of Buddha, growth of, M. 

«, 7, «• 
Lever used at wells, K. v, 16, 2. 
Licenses, the ten, disallowed at 

Vesali, K. xii, 1, 10. 
Lies, P. 2, 32 ; M. ii, 7. 
Life begins in the womb, M. i, 75. 
Light (so let your light shine forth), 

M. v, 4, 2 ; ix, 2, 20 ; K. vi, 6, 4. 



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INDEX OF SUBJECTS. 



425 



Lions' flesh not to be eaten, M. vi, 

*3> »4. 
Litigiousness, P. 46. 
Lodging-places, regulation of, K. i, 

4 5 vi, it. 
Longing of pregnant women, M. ix, 

2,4. 
Looms, AT. v, 11. 
Love, power of, M. vi, 36, 4 ; sense 

of, K. xii, 2, 5. 
Luck, walking over cloths for good, 

K. v, 21, 4. 
Luck in sneezing, K. v, 33, 3. 
Lunacy (?), M. vi, 10. 
Lusts, K. i, 32, 2. 
Lute, parable of the, M. v, 1, 15, 16. 



Madness, rules in case of, M. ii, 25. 
Magical powers (of laymen), M. vi, 

34. i, *• 
Matricide, M. i, 64, 69. 
Measures of capacity, M. viii, 1, n. 
Medicaments, the five ordinary, M. 

vi, 1, 3. 
Medicine, P. 27 ; M. vi, passim ; 

school of, M. viii, 1. 
Mice, K. vi, 1 2. 
Middle country, the boundaries of, 

M. v, 13, 12. 
Miracles by the Buddha, M. i, 15- 

21; vi, 23, 6. 
Miraculous powers. See Iddhi. 
Mission of the sixty-one disciples, 

M. i, 11. 
Money changing, M. i, 49. 

— pieces of, M. vi, 35, 1 ; viii, 1, 1, 

3, 13; AT. v, 8, 2. 
Mosquito curtains, AT. v, 1 3. 

— fans, K. v, 23, 1. 

Mules, cannot produce young, K. 

vii, 2, 5. 
Murder, P. 4. 



Nails, to be cut short, K. v, 27. 
— custom of polishing, K. v, 27. 
Nakedness forbidden, M. i, 70 ; viii, 

28. 
Names too venerable to be uttered, 

M. i, 74. 1. 
Needles, K. v, ti, 2. 
Needle-cases, P. 86 ; K. v, 1 1. 
Nirvana, M. i, 5, 2 ; i, 6, 8, 17, 18 ; 

v, 1, 18, 28; K. xi, 1, 15 (see 

also Arahatship). 



Noble eightfold path, xii ; M. i, 6, 

18. 
Noble ones, discipline of, M.ix, 1,9. 
Noble states, the ten, M. i, 22, 13. 
Noble truths, xii; M. i, 6, 19-22; 

vi, 29. 
Non-human beings, M. i, 7, 3 ; ii, 

«5, 4- 

— disease, M. vi, 10. 

Nose, giving of medicine through 

the, M. vi, 13 ; viii, 1, 13. 
Novices, rules for, M. i, 56. 

— punishment of, M. i, 57-70. 
Nuns (see Bhikkhunis). 

Ocean, parable of the, K. ix, 1, 3. 
Offences, five kinds of and seven 

kinds of, K. ix, 3, 3. 
Onions, not to be eaten, K. v, 34. 

Painting the face, K. v, 2, 5. 

— bowls, K. v, 9, 2. 

— walls, AT. vi, 3, 2. 
Paricide, M. i, 65, 69. 
Parishes or districts, M. ii, 6-8. 
Partridge, fable of, K. vi, 6, 3. 
Pasenadi, king, story of, M. iii, 14. 
Patchwork coverlets, AT. vi, 2, 7. 
Patimokkha, x-xxiii ; P. 2, 5 1 ; M. 

'. J6. 14; "> 3-5. "5-*i i K. 

ix, 2. 
Pavlrana' ceremony, M. iv, passim. 
Penance and probation, distinctions 

between, AT. ii, 6. 
Perfumes, list of, permitted, M. vi, 

11. 
Pestle and mortar, M. vi, 9, 2. 
Pingoes, K. v, 30. 
Pins and needles in one's limbs, K. 

v, i4i 3- 
Plants, injury of, M. iv, 1 ; v, 7, 1. 

— seeds of, not to be destroyed, AT. 

v, 5- 
Practical joking, P. 4.1, 46. 
Precedent, no ground for change of 

rules, K. xii, 1-10. 
Precepts, the ten, M. i, 56. 
Present, who must be, at a judicial 

proceeding before the Chapter, 

K. iv, 14, 16. 
Prevarication, P. 33. 
Probation, P. 14 ; M. i, 38 ; K. ii, 

iii. 
Property in a robe, when it passes, 

M. viii, 31. 



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VINAYA TEXTS. 



Propriety of demeanour, P. 59-61. 
Punishments, M. i, 40, 3 ; i, 44 ; ix, 

2, 9. 
Pupils and preceptors, duties of, M. 

i, 25-27- 

Rations, apportioner of, K. i, 4 ; vi, 

21. 
Rebuke of guilty Bhikkhus, K. i, 

1-8. 
Reconciliation, act of, K, i, 18-24. 
Refuges, the three, M. i, 4, 5 ; i, 

38,2. 
Requisites, the four, P. 43. 
Reservoirs, K. v, 17. 
Res judicata, K. iv, 14, 25. 
Respect, want of, P. 33. 
Rest-house, public, P. 37; M. vi, 

28, 3. 
Reviews not to be witnessed by 

Bhikkhus, P. 43. 
Rice-milk, praise of, M. vi, 24, 5. 
Riddles in casuistry, K. i, 14, 15. 
ftshis, Vedic, list of, M. vi, 35, 2. 
Rivers, ancient worship of, M. v, 9, 

31 K. X,2I. 

— list of principal, K. ix, 1, 3. 
Robes, donation of, eight grounds 

for, M. viii, 32. 
Roots, medical, lists of, M. vi, 3, 4. 
Rugs, P. 24-27; M. v, 10; K. vi, 

19. 
Ruminator, story of the human, K. 

v, 26. 

Sabbath (see Uposatha). 
Salt, M. x, 4, t. 

— various kinds of, M. vi, 8. 
Samanas, xii. 

Sandals, P. 66 ; K. viii, 1, 3 ; 6, 2. 

Sanitary arrangements, K. v, 35. 

Savages, M. iv, 15. 

Savatthi (the hymn), M. vi, 35, 8. 

Scabs, cure for, M. vi, 9. 

Schism, P. 10, 11; distinguished 

from disunion, K. vii, 5, 1. 
• — eighteen kinds of, K. vii, 5, 2. 
Schismatics, conduct towards, M. 

x, 5, 8 ; K. i, 4 j vii, 4, 4. 
Scissors, K. vi, 21, 3. 
Sects, non-Buddhistic, P. 41. 
Seedlings, ancient law of, M. vi, 

39- 
Seeds, fruits containing life, not to 

be eaten, K, v, 5. 



Self (or soul), M. i, 6, 38-41. 
Sexual intercourse, P. 4 ; M. i, 78. 
Shampooing, K. v, 1. 
Shoes, M. i, 25, 8; v, 1, 29; 8, 3; 

v, 12; v, 13, 13; AT. v, 12. 
Sick Bhikkhus, M. ii, 23; Hi, 6 ; iv, 

3; 17,7; viii, 26, 27; K.vi, 10. 

— relatives, M. iii, 7. 

— Bhikkhu, story of the Buddha 

nursing a, M. viii, 26. 
Silence, vow of, forbidden, M. iv, 1. 
Singing the Dhamma forbidden, K. 

v, 3- 
Skins, not to be used for dress, M. 

viii, 28, 2. 

— to be used for roofing, K. v, n, 

6; M, 3- 

— for water- vessels, K. v, 16, 2. 
Skulls as bowls, K. v, 10, 2. 
Sky, walking in the, M. v, 1, 7. 
Slander, P. 32. 
Slaughter-house for oxen, M. v, 1, 

»3- 
Slaves, runaway, M. i, 47. 
Snakes in form of men, M. i, 3,- 3 ; 

"163; vi, 23, 13. 

— of supernatural power, M. i, 15. 

— girdle of, K. vii, 2, 1. 

— bite of, cure for, M. vi, 14, 6. 
charm against, K. v, 6. 

— not to be eaten, M. vi, 23, 13. 

— in houses, K. vi, 2, 5 ; vi, 3, 4 ; 

viii, i, 1. 

Sneezing, curious custom connected 
with, K. v, 33,3. 

Snow, M. i, 20, 15. 

Sodomy, M. i, 52. 

Soldiers may not enter the order, 
M. i, 40. 

Sorcery, M. vi, 14, 7. 

Spittoon, K. viii, 1. 

Spoons, K. viii, 5, 2. 

Sporting in water, P. 44. 

Staves, K. v, 24. 

Subordination of guilty Bhikkhus, 
K. i, 9-12. 

Suffering, M. i, 6, 20-22. 

Sugar, M. vi, 26. 

Sunshades, K. v, 9, 5 ; v, 23 ; eti- 
quette as to, P. 65; K. viii, 

1, 3- 
Suspension of Bhikkhus, M. i, 79 ; 
K. i, 25. 

Tailor, story of his building, K. vi, 5. 
Tanks, K. v, 17. 



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INDEX OF SUBJECTS. 



427 



Tathagatas ( = Buddhas), habits of, 

M. i, 4, 4. 
— death of, K. vii, 3, 10. 
Teetotalism, P. 44. 
Theft, P. 4. 
Thimbles, K. v, 11, 5. 
Thoughts, understanding their, M. 

i, 22,4; v, i, 7. 
Titthiyas, M. i, 38; vi, 31; 34, 12; 

35, 1 ; viii, 28. 
Toddy drinking forbidden, K. xii, 

1, 10. 
Toleration, duty of, M. vi, 31, 11. 
Tooth-sticks, rules for, K. v, 31. 
Treasure trove, P. 53. 

Upanishads, x. 

Uposatha (seventh day), x ; M. ii, 
passim. 

Validity of official acts of the Sam- 

gha, M. ix, passim. 
Vedas, sacred verses of, M. vi, 3 5, 2, 8. 
Vehicles, use of, forbidden, M. v, 9. 
Vihara=cave, M. v, 1, 5. 
Voting in the Chapters of the Order, 

K. iv, 9-10; 14, 25; vii, 4. 
Vultures, training of, K. i, 32. 

Walking up and down thinking, M. 
v, 1, 14; K. ii, 1, 4; v, 14, 1. 



Wandering ascetics, non-Buddhistic, 
M. i, 23. 

Was, keeping of, M. i, 13, 1 ; iii, 
passim. 

Waste tub, K. viii, 4, 4. 

Water, pouring out of, as dedica- 
tion ceremony, M. i, 22, 18; 
viii, 30, 4; used as looking- 
glass, K. v, 2, 4 ; strainers, K. 
v, 13. 

Weapons, P. 65 ; K. v, 37, 1 ; vii, 

3. 4, 7- 
Wells, K. v, 16, 2. 
Wheel and axle machinery, K. v, 

16, 2. 
White ants, K. v, 9, 4 ; vi, 1, 2 ; viii, 

3>*. 

Wind in the stomach, M. vi, 1 4, 1 ; 
16, 3; 17; K.v, 34. 

Window spaces, M. i, 25, 15, 18; 
K. viii, 1, 5 ; three kinds of lat- 
tices for, K. vi, 2, 2. 

Winter, M. i, 20, 15. 

Wishing-gift, what it is, K. i, 4, 5. 

Women, first disciples, M. i, 8, 3. 

— See Bhikkhuni. 

— story of the lost, M. i, 14. 
Worldly talk, specimens of, M. v, 

6,3- 
Worms in the head, M. viii, 1, 18. 
Writing, xxxii-xxxv ; M. i, 49. 



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INDEX OF PROPER NAMES. 



Abhaya, M. viii, i, 4 seq., 1 j seq. 
AaWAakasi, K. x, 23, 1. 
A^apalanigrodha, M. i, 2, 1 ; 3, 1 ; 5,1. 
Ajjatasattu, K. vii, 2, 1, 5 ; 3, 4 seq.; 

xi, 1, 7. 
Agga/apura, AT. xii, 1, 9. 
Agga/ava *etiya, AT. vi, 17, 1. 
A^ita, K. xii, a, 7. 
Ae-ita Kesakambalt, AT. v, 8, 1 . 
Ahir%akulani, AT. v, 6. 
Ahoganga pabbata, AT. xii, 1,8. 
Akasagotta, M.vi, 22, 1. 
A/tiravatt, M. v, 9, 1; viii, 15, 11; 

AT. ix, 1, 3 seq. 
A/ira Kalama, M. i, 6, i, 2. 
A/avaka bhikkhfi, AT.vi, 17, 1. 
A/avi, AT.vi, 17, 1 ; ai, 1. 
Amanussa, M. i, 6, 3 ; vii, 1, 36. 
Ambala///)ika, AT. xi, 1, 7. 
Ambapal? ("palika), M. vi, 30 ; viii, 

1, 1 seq. 
Ambapalivana, M. vi, 30, 6. 
Ananda, M. i, 4, 9, 5 ; 51 ; 53 ; v, 

1 J, 8; 9, 1; 17; a 4 , passim. 
AnathapiWika, M. x, 5, 8 ; AT. vi, 4 ; 

9. See Sudatta and Getavana. 
Andhakavinda, M. ii, 12, 1 ; vi, 24, t ; 

26, 1 ; viii, 15, 10. 
Andhavana, M. viii, 23, 3. 
AngS, M. i, 19, 1, 3. 
Angirasa, M. i, 15,7; vi, 35, 2. 
Afiguttar&pa, M. vi, 34, 17. 
A»«ako«</a««a, M. i, 6, 31 seq. 
Anotattadaha, M. i, 19, 2, 4. 
Antaka, M.i, n, a ; 13, 2. See Mara. 
Anupiya, AT. vii, 1,1; 2, 1. 
Anuruddha, M. x, 4 ; 5, 6 ; AT. i, 1 8, 

1 ; vii, 1, 1 seq. 
Apanam, M. vi, 35, 1 ; 36, 1. 
Aramikagama, M. vi, 15, 4. 
AriMta, AT. i, 32 seq. 
Ariyawi ftyatanam, M. vi, 28, 8. 
Assa^-i, M. i, 6, 36 ; 23. 
Assa^-ipunabbasuka' bhikkhQ, AT. i, 1 3 

seq. ; vi, 16. 



AsurS, AT. ix, 1, 3. 
Attiiaka, M. vi, 35, 2. 
Atuma, M. vi, 37 ; 38. 
Avantt, M. v, 13, 1. 
Avantidakkhinapatha, M. v, 13. 
Avantidakkhinapathaka bhikkhQ, AT. 
xii, 1, 7, 8. 

Balakalonakiragama, M. x, 4, 1. 
BSranasi, M. i, 6, 6, 10, 30 ; 7, t ; 9, 

1, 2; 14, 1; v, 7, 1; 8, 1 ; vi. 

23, 1 seq.; 24, 1; viii, 1, 22; 

'4, «; 15. 1; *. 2» 3- 
Belartia Ka/Mana, M. vi, 26. 
Bela/zAasisa, M. vi, 9, 1 ; viii, 17. 
Bela//£iputta. See Sa^gaya. 
Bhaddasala, M. x, 4, 6 seq. 
Bhaddavaggiya, M. i, 14. 
Bhaddiya (the place), M. v, 8, 1 ; 9, 

1 5 vi, 3, 4- 
Bhaddiya (the Bhikkhu), M. i, 6, 33 ; 

AT. vii, 1,3 seq. 
BhaggS, AT. v, 2t, 1; 22, 1. 
Bhagu, M. vi, 35, 2 ; viii, 24, 6 ; x, 4, 

1 ; K. vii, 1, 4. 
Bhallika, M. i, 4. 

BhJradvaVa, M. vi, 35, 2 ; AT. v, 8. 
Bhesaka/avana, AT. v, 21, 1. 
Bhumma deva, M. i, 6, 30. 
Bhumma^aka. See Mettiyabhum- 

magaka. 
BhQsagSra, M. vi, 37, 4. 
Bimbisara (rag§. Migadha Seniya), 

M. 1,22; 39540; 42546; ii. 1; 

iii, 4, 3, passim ; AT. v, 5 ; vi, 3, 1 1 ; 

vii, 3, 5- 
Bodhi, AT. v, 21. 
Brahma, AT. vii, 3, 16. 
Brahmadatta, M. x, 2, 3 seq. ; AT. xi, 

1,7- 
BrahmakSyika devl, M. i, 6, 30. 
Brahma Sahampati, M. i, 5, 18 ; 6, 

30. 

Dabba Mallaputta, AT. iv, 4 ; v, 30. 



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INDEX OF PROPER NAMES. 



429 



Dakkhinigiri, M. i, 5, 3 ; viii, 12, 1 ; 

K. xi, i, 10. 
Dakkhinapatha. See Avantidakkh". 
Dakkhinapathaka, K. i, 18, 3. 
Devadatta, M. ii, 16, 8 ; K. vii, 1,4 ; 

2 seq. See Godhiputta. 
Devaputta, K. vii, 2, 2. 
Devatd, M. i, 4 ; 6, 2, 4 ; 20 ; vi, 28, 

7; ii ; viii, 16, 3. 
Dhaniya, K. xi, 1, 6. 
DtghDvu, M. x, 2, 8 seq. 

Eripatha, K. v, 6. 

Gagga, M. ii, 25 ; K. iv, 5. 

Gaggarl, M. ix, 1, 1. 

Gandhabba, K. ix, 1, 3. 

Gaftga, M. v, 9, 4 ; vi, 28, 12 seq. ; 

K. ix, 1, 3 seq. 
Gavampati, M. i, 91, 2. 
Gaya, M.i, 6, 7 ; 21, 1. 
Gayakassapa, M. i, 15, 1 ; 20, 22. 
Gayasisa, M. i, 21, 1 ; 22, 1 ; K. vii, 

4. «. 

Ghositirama, M. x, 1, 1; K. i, 25, 1 ; 
31 ; vii, 2, 1 ; xi, 1, 14. 

Gi^pAakfi/a, M. ii, 1, 1 ; 5, 4 ; v, 1, 1, 
3, 14, 17; AT. iv, 4,4; viii, 3,9. 

Gi%ak3vasatha, M. vi, 30, 6. 

Giribbaja, M. i, 24, 5, 6, 7. See Ra- 
pagaha. 

Godhiputta, K. vii, 3, 2. See Deva- 
datta. 

Goma/akandari, K. iv, 4, 4. 

Gopaka, M. viii, 24, 6. 

Gosala. See Makkhali. 

Gotama (Buddha), M. i, 2, 2, 6, 10, 
15; 22, 2, passim; (Buddha's 
father], M. i, 54, 4- 

Gotamadvira, M. vi, 28, 12. 

Gotamaka ATetiya, M. viii, 13, 2. 

Gotamatittha, M. vi, 28, 12. 

Gotamf . See Mahapa;apatt. 

Cambudipa, M. i, 20, 7 seq. 
Catiy3vana, M. v, 8, 1 ; vi, 34, 10. 
Ceta, K. vi, 4, 9 seq. 
Cetavana, M. i, 55 ; iii, 5, 1, passim ; 

K. i, 1, 1; 13,5; 18, 5, passim. 
Givaka Komarabha/Ma, M. i, 39 ; 

viii, 1, 4 seq.; 2 ; K. v, 14, 1. 
Givakambavana, K. iv, 4, 4 ; xi, 1,7. 

Himavanta, K. vi, 6, 3. 

Inda. See S.ikka. 



Isibhatta, M. viii, 24, 5. 
Isid&sa, M. viii, 24, 5. 
Isigili, K. iv, 4, 4. 

Isipatana, M. i, 6, 6, 10, 30 ; 7, 7 ; 
v, 7, 1 ; vi, 23, 1 ; viii, 14, 1. 

Ka^afigala, M. v, 13, 12. 
Kaka, M. viii, t, 26 seq. 
KakaWaka putta, K. xii, 1, 1 seq. ; 

2, 1 seq. 
Ka/M&na, Ka^ayana. See Pakudha, 

Belaz/M, Mahaka»ana. 
Kakudha, K. vii, 2, 2 ; (Devaputta), 

K. vii, 2, 2. 
Kalima. See A/ara. 
Kalandakanivapa. See Ve/uvana. 
Kalandaputta, K. xi, 1, 6. 
KaVasila, AT. iv, 4, 4. 
Kan</aka, M. i, 52 ; 60. 
KaWaki, M. i, 60. 
Kanliagotama, AT. v, 6. 
Kaftkhlrevata, M. vi, 16. 
Kannaku^ga, K. xii, 1, 9. 
Kapilavatthu, M. i, 54, 1 ; 55, 1 ; K. 

x, 1, 1. 
Kasi, M. i, 6, 8; vi, 17, 8 seq.; ix, 

1. i» 5. 7 ; K- i, 13, 3 ; 18, 1. 
Kasii%H, M. viii, 2 ; x, 2, 3 seq. 
Kassapa, M. i, 15 seq. 522,5; vi, 35, 2. 
Kassapagotta, M. ix, 1. 
Ka/amorakatissaka, K. vii, 3, 14. 
Kcniya, M. vi, 35. 
Kesakamball. See Agita. 
Khan</adevt, K. viii, 3, 14. 
Khupyasobhita, K. xii, 2, 7. 
Kimbila, M. x, 4 ; K. vii, 1, 4. 
Kuagiri, K. i, 13 seq. ; vi, 16 ; 17, 1. 
Kokllika, K. vii, 3, 14 ; 4, 2 seq. 
Kokanada, K. v, 21. 
Kolita, M. i, 24, 3. 
Ko/ivisa. See Sona. 
Ko/iyaputta, K. viii, 2, 2. 
Komarabha/Ma. See Givaka. 
Koni/a^^a, M. i, 6, 29, 31. 
Kosala, M. i, 73, 1, 2 ; ii, 15, 3 ; iii, 

5,i; 9>i; ii,pa?sim> K.\, 13, 

2; 32, 2. 
Kosalara^a, M. x, 2, 3 seq. 
KosambakS bhikkhO (upasaka), M. 

x» 4. 6 ; 5- 
Kosambi, M. viii, 1, 27 ; x, 1, 1 ; 3 ; 

K. i, 25, 1 ; 28, 1 ; vii, 2, 1, 5 ; 

xi, 1, 11 ; xii, 1, 7 ; 2, 8. 
Kosinlraka Malia, M. vi, 36, 1. 
Ko/igama, M. vi, 29 seq. 
Kukku/arSma, M. viii. 24, 6. 



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VINAYA TEXTS. 



Kumarakassapa, M. i, 75. 
Kuraraghara, M. v, 13, 1. 
Kuru. See Uttarakuru. 
Kusinara, M. vi, 36, 1, 6; 37, 1 ; K. 

xi, 1, 1. 
Ku/ikanna. See Sona. 

£ampi, M. v, 1, 1 ; ix, 1 ; 2. 
ATampeyyaka, K. xii, 2, 8. 
ATatumahlraVika deva, M. i, 6, 30. 
£6aby3putta, K. v, 6. 
Kbannz, K. i, 25 ; 28 ; 30 ; 31 ; iv, 14 ; 

xi, 1, 11,14. 
Altta, K. i, 18 ; 22 seq. 
iTodanaVatthu, M. ii, 17, 1 ; 18, 1. 
ATorapapata, K. iv, 4, 4. 

Laf/Aivanuyyana, M. i, 22, 1, 2. 
Liiibavi, M. vi, 30 ; 3 1, 1 ; K. v, 20. 
Lohitaka. See PaWukalohitaka. 

Maddaku/M/ji, M.ii, 5, 3; K. iv, 4, 4. 
Magadhi, M. i, 5,7 ; 19, 1, 3 ; 24, 5, 

6, 7 5 39. «• 
Magadha. See Bimbisara. 
Magadhaka, M. i, 22, 3 seq.; 24, 5 ; 

K. vii, 2, 2. 
Magadha-khetta, M. viii, 12, 1. 
Magadha-mahamatta, M. vi, 28, 7 

seq. 
Ma^Aima^anapada, K. i, 1 8 ; 2 2 seq. 
Mahaka, M.i, 52. 
Mah3ka**ana, M. v, 13 ; x, 5, 6 ; K. 

i, 18, t. 
Mahikappina, M. v, 1 3 ; x, 5, 6 ; K. 

i, 18, 1. 
Mahakassapa, M. i, 74 ; ii, 1 2, 1 ; 

viii, 2i, 1 ; x, 5, 6 ; K. xi, 1, 1 seq. 
Mahakof/Ma, M. x, 5, 6 ; K. i, 18, 1. 
Mahaiunda, M. x, 5, 6 ; K. i, 18, 1. 
Mahamoggallana, M. i, 23 ; 24 ; vi, 

20; K. i, 18, 1; v, 8, 1; 34.^2; 

vii, 2, 2 ; 4, 2 ; ix, 1. See Sari- 

puttamoggalla'ni. 
Mahanama, M. i, 6, 36 ; K. vii, 1, 1. 
Mahapa^pati Gotami, M. x, 5, 7 ; 

K. xi, 1 seq.; xi, 1, 9. 
Mahira?ano, M. i, 4, 4 ; 16. 
Mahasala, M. v, 13, 12. 
Mahavana, M. vi, 30, 6 ; K. v, 13, 3 ; 

vi, 5. 1 5 x, 1, 2 ; xii, 1, 1. 
Mahf, K. ix, 1, 3 seq. 
Makkhali Gosala, K. v, 8, 1. 
MsdHbikasanda, K. i, 18 ; 22 seq. 
Malla, M. vi, 36 ; viii, 19 ; K. vii, 1, 1. 
Mallaputta. See Dabba. 



Mall}, K. x, 12. 

MandSkini, M. vi, 20. 

ManUG/aka, K. xii, 1, 4. 

M&ra, M. i, 6, 30 ; 11,2; 13, 2 ; K. 

xi, 1, 9. See Antaka. 
Marasena, M. i, 1, 7. 
Men</aka, M. vi, 34. 
Mettiya, K. iv, 4, 8. 
Mettiyabhumtiwjaka, K. iv, 4, 5 seq. ; 

v, 20. 
MigUramata, K. ix, 1, 1. See Visa- 

khl 
Moggallana. See Mahamoggallana. 
Muialinda, M. i, 3 ; 4, 1. 

Nadt Kassapa, M. i, 15, 1; 20, 30. 
Niga, M. i, 15 ; 63 ; K. ix, 1, 3. 
NaVanda, K. xi, 1, 7. 
Nanda, M. i, 54, 5. 
Nitaputta, M. vi, 31 ; K. v, 8, 1. 
Natika, M. vi, 30, 6. 
Nerawgara, M. i, 1, 1 ; 15, 6 ; 20, 15. 
Nigrodharama, M. i, 54, 1 ; AT.x, 1, 1. 
Nilavast, M. viii, 24, 25. 
NimmanaratT deva, M. i, 6, 30. 

Pa^yota (i%3), M. viii, 1, 23 seq. ; 

24. 
Paiinaka (bhikkhfl), K. xii, 2, 2 seq. 
Paiinavamsadlya, M. x, 4, 1 seq. 
Pajbiantimi ^anapadl, M. v, 13, 16 

seq. 
Pakudha KaiHyana, K. v, 8, 1. 
Pam/ukalohitaka, K. i, t ; 6, 8. 
Paranimiriitavasavatti deva, M. i, 6, 

30. 
Pirileyyaka, M. x, 4, 6 seq. ; 5, 1. 
Pasenadi (rapi Kosala), M. iii, 14. 
PaValigama, M. vi, 28. 
Pa/aliputta, M. vi, 28, 8 ; viii, 24, 6. 
Pa/Aeyyaka bhikkhfl, M. vii, 1, 1 

seq.; K. xii, 1, 7, 8 ; 2, 2 seq. 
PSva, AT. xi, 1, 1. 
Phalikasandina, M. viii, 24, 6. 
Pilinda-gama, M. vi, 15, 4, 7. 
Pilindava/Mia, M. vi, 13 seq. 
Piw/olabharadva£a, K. v, 8. 
PisiUillika, AT. v, 10, 3 ; 27, 5. 
Pubbarlma, K. ix, 1, 1. 
Punabbasuka. See Assa^ipunabba- 

suka. 
Punna^i, M. i, 9, 1, 2. 
Purana, K. xi, 1, 10. 
Pflra/ia Kassapa, K. v, 8, 1. 
Puratthima ^anapada, K. i, 18, 3 ; 

xii, 2, 3. 



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INDEX OF PROPER NAMES. 



431 



Ragagaha, M. i, 22, i, 2, 13 ; 23, 1 

seq.; 28,2; 30,1; 49,1; 53,1, 

passim; K. iv, 4, 15; v, 1, 1; 

2, 6, passim. 
R%agahaka, M. viii, 1, 2, 16 seq.; 

K. v, 8 ; vi, 1 ; 4, 1, 6 seq. 
Rap-ayatana, M. i, 4, i, 2 ; 5, 1. 
Rami asurinda, K. xii, 13. 
Rahula, M. i, 54 ; 55 ; x, 5, 6 ; K. i, 

18, 1. 
Rahulamata, M. i, 54. 
RakkhitavanasaWa, M. x, 4, 6 seq. 
Ramaputta. See Uddaka. 
Revata, M. viii, 31, 1 ; x, 5, 6 ; K. i, 

18, 1 ; xii, 1, 9 seq.; 2, 1 seq. 

See Kafikharevata. 
Roga, M. vi, 36 ; viii, 19. 

Sabbakami, AT. xii, 2, 4 seq. 
Sagata, M. v, 1, 3 seq. 
Saha^ati, AT. xii, 1, 9; 2, 1. 
Saketa, M. i, 66, 1 ; vii, 1,1; viii, 

1, 8; 13, 7. 
Sakiya, M. i, 38, 11 ; K. vii, 1, 4 ; x, 

i, 2; 2, 1. 
Sakka, M. i, 17; 20; 22, 13 seq. 
SakkS, M. i, 54 ; K. vii, 1, 1 seq.; x, 

1, 1, 2. 
Sakya, AT. vii, 1, 3. 
Sakyakula, M. i, 22, 2; 23, 4; vi, 

34. 11; 35. «• 
Sakyakumara, K. vii, 1, 1 seq. 
Sakyaputta. See Upananda. 
Sakyaputtiya, M. i, 24, 7 seq., passim. 
Sakyari^i, AT. vii, 1, 3 seq. 
Saiavati, M. viii, 1, 3 seq. 
SaVA.n, AT. xii, 2, 2 seq. 
Sallavati, M. v, 13, 12. 
SambhQta, K. xii, 1, 8 seq.; 2, 4 seq. 
Samkassa, K. xii, 1 , 9. 
Samuddadatta, K. vii, 3, 14. 
Sana, M. viii, 24, 6. 
Sanavils!, M. viii, 24, 6 ; K. xii, 1, 8 

seq. ; 2, 4 seq. 
San^aya, M. i, 23 ; 24 ; AT. v, 8, 1. 
Sajfcikaputta, K. vi, 21, 1 seq. 
Sappaso/fcrikapabbhara, K. iv, 4, 4. 
Sarabhfl, K. ix, 1, 3 seq. 
Siriputta, M. 1, 23; 24; 28, 2, 3; 

54, passim; K. i, 18, 1; v, 34 ; 

2; v 'i6. 1 ! 7; vii, 3,2 seq.; 4; 

viii, 4, 1. See Sariputtamoggal- 

lana. 
Sariputtamoggallini, K. i, 13, 16; 

16 ; vi, 16, 1 ; vii, 3, 1 ; 4, 1 seq. 
Sattapa/miguhi, AT. iv, 4, 4. 



Savattht, M. 1, 55 ; 66, 1 ; 67 ; iii, 

5, 1, passim; K. i, 1, 1 ; 13, 3, 

5; 18, 4, passim. 
SenSnigama, M. i, 11, 1. 
Seniya. See Bimbisara. 
Setakannika, M. v, 13, 12. 
Seyyasaka, K. i, 9 seq. 
Siha, M. vi, 31. 
Sitavana, M. v, 1, 12 seq.; 17; AT. 

>v, 4. 4; vi, 4, 3 seq. 
Sfvaka (yakkha), AT. vi, 4, 3. 
Siveyyaka, M. viii, 1, 29, 34. 
Sona Ko/ivisa, M. v, 1. 
Sona Ku/ikanna, M. v, 1 3. 
Soreyya, K. xii, 1, 9. 
Sudatta, K. vi, 4, 4. Cf. Anatha- 

pin/rfka. 
Suddhivisa devS, Suddhavasakayika 

devata, K. xii, 2, 2. 
Suddhodana, M. i, 54. 
Sudhamma, AT. 1, 18 ; 22 seq. 
Sudinna, K. xi, 1, 6. 
Sumana, AT. xii, 2, 7. 
Sumsumaragira, AT. v, 21, 1. 
Sunidha, M. vi, 28, 7 seq. 
Supassa nagai%a, M. vi, 23, 13. 
Supati///f>a ATetiya, M. i, 22, 1, 2. 

TakkasilS, M. viii, 1, 5 seq. 
Tapodakandara, AT. iv, 4, 4. 
Tapodar&ma, AT. iv, 4, 4. 
Tapussa, M. i, 4. 
Tavatimsa, M. i, 6, 30; 20, 10; vi, 

28, 8 ; 30, 5. 
Tekula. See Yame/utekulS. 
Thfina, M. v, 13, 12. 
Tissaka. See Ka/amorakatissaka. 
TusitS deva, M. i, 6, 30. 

Udayi, M. ii, 16, 7 ; AT. iii, 1 ; x, 9, 3 

seq. 
Uddaka RSmaputta, M. i, 6, 3, 4. 
Udena, M. iii, 5 ; AT. xi, 1, 1 1 seq. 
Udumbara, AT. xii, 1, 9. 
Upyent, M. viii, 1, 23. 
Ukkala, M. i, 4, 2. 
Upaka, M. i, 6, 7 seq. 
Upali, M. i, 62 ; 64 ; ix, 6 ; AT. i, 

18, 1 ; ii, 2 ; 7, passim. 
Upali (of Ragagaha), M. i, 49. 
Upananda, M. i, 52; 60; iii, 14; 

vi, 19; viii, 25; AT. vi, 10, 1 ; 

12; xii, 1, 5. 
Upasena Vafigantaputta, M. i, 31. 
Upatissa, M. i, 24, 3. 
Uppaiavanna, AT. x, 8. 



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VINAYA TEXTS. 



UruvelS, M. i, i, i ; 6, 6 ; 1 1, i ; 14, 

1 ; i5» ' ; «> 4- 
Uruvelakassapa, M. i, 15; 22, 4; 

K. v, 37. 
Usiraddhaja, M. v, 13, 2. 
Uttara, K. xii, 2, 3. 
Uttarakuru, M. i, 19, 2, 4. 
UvaVa, AT. iv, n ; 12, 5. 

Vsuliiba, K. v, 20. 
Vaggi, M. vi, 28. 
Vagjiputtaka, K. vii, 4, 1 ; xii, 1, 1 

seq. ; 2, 1 seq. 
Vaggumuditiriya, K. xi, i, 6. 
Valikar3ma, K. xii, 2, 7. 
Vamadeva, M. vi, 35, 2. 
Vamaka, M. vi, 35, 2. 
Vafigantaputta, M. i, 31. 
Vappa, M. i, 6, 33. 
Vasabhagama, M. ix, 1, r, 5, 7. 
Vlsabhagamika, K. xii, 2, 7. 
VSse//iia, M. vi, 35, 2. 
Vassakara, M. vi, 28, 7 seq. 
VebhSra, K. iv, 4, 4. 
Vedehiputta, K. xi, 1, 7. 
Ve/uvana, M. i, 22, 18 ; 24, 3 ; iii, 1, 



1; vi, 17, 1, 8; 22, 1; 27; viii, 
1, 1 ; K. iv, 4, 1, 4 ; v, 1, 1 ; vi, 
1, 1; 21, 1; vii, 2, 5; 4, 3; xi, 
1, n; xii, 1,4. 
Vesili, M. vi, 30, 31, 4, 10 seq.; 32, 
1; viii, 1, 1 seq.; 13; 14, 1; 
K.v, 12, 1; 13,3; 14,1; 21,1; 
vi, 5, 1 ; 6, 1 ; x, t, 2 ; 9, 1 ; xi, 

1, 6; xii, 1, 1 seq.; 2, 4 seq. 
Vesalika, K. vii, 4, 1 ; xii, 1, 1 seq. 
Vessamitta, M. vi, 35, 2. 
Videha. See Vedehiputta. 
Vimala, M. i, 9, 1, 2. 
VirfipakkhS, K. v, 6. 

VisSkha MigJramata, M. iii, 13; 
viii, 15; 18; x, 5, 9; K.v, 22; 
vi, 14. 

Yakkha, K. vi. 4, 3. 

Y3ma deva, M. i, 6, 30. 

Yamataggi, M. vi, 35, 2. 

Yame/utekula, K.v, 33, 1. 

Yamuna, K. ix, 1, 3 seq. 

Yasa, M. i, 7 seq.; K. xii, 1, 1 seq.; 

2, 1 seq. 
Yasoga, M. vi, 33, 5. 



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INDEX OF PALI WORDS 

EXPLAINED OR REFERRED TO IN THE NOTES. 



The references are to parts i, ii, iii, and pages. 



akappakata, part ii, p. 155. 
akaraniya, iii, 355. 
akuppa, ii, 435. 
akkanaVa, ii, 247. 
akkava/a, iii, 178. 
agga, iii, aoa. 
agga/a, ii, 215. 
agga/avatti, iii, 106. 
angana, iii, 295. 
aiakkhussa, iii, 147. 
a>elaka, i, 41. 
aMbaddha, ii, 207. 
aiiekaihara, i, 29. 
aMMipiyati, iii, 83. 
aginakkhipa, ii, 247. 
angaria, ii, 50. 
arigani, iii, 141. 
a«#3, ii, 10; iii, 303. 
atfwata, iii, 186. 
attana, iii, 67. 
A«i>aka, ii, 130. 
a/tbakavagga, ii, 37. 
a/t£apadaka, iii, 167. 
attb\\\a, iii, 341. 
a</</£ak3sika, ii, 195 seq. 
addkokosx, ii, 209. 
a^^apallafika, iii, 367. 
addbamandaXa, ii, 209. 
addbayoga, i, 174. 
addbartiia, iii, 138. 
attakamaparUariya, i, 8. 
att&dUna, iii, 313. 
atthavasa, iii, 263. 
atthara, ii, 1 48 seq. 
attharaka, ii, 155. 
adesanigami, ii, 333. 
addhana, i, 26. 
adhi/Atahati, iii, 101, 117. 
adhitMta, ii, 40, 151, 15a. 
adhisila, ii, 33. 
anajMi>ariya, i, 85. 

[20] 



anantarika, iii, 385. 
anapadana, ii, 273. 
anabhiva, ii, 113. 
anabhirati, iii, 77. 
anavasesa, ii, 316; iii, 35. 
anadariya, i, 44. 
animantaiara, ii, 150. 
anika, ii, 13. 

anupakha&ga, i, 4a ; iii, 285. 
anupaMatti, iii, 374. 
anupadagg*yya, i, 29. 
anubhaga, iii, 303. 
anullapana, iii, 36. 
anuvita, ii, 154; ii> 33 x i >»> 93- 
anuvivawa, ii, 209. 
anusampavankati, iii, 36. 
ane/agala, ii, 37. 
antaggahika, i, 344. 
antaraghara, i, 56, 59, 65 ; iii, 386. 
antaravasaka, ii, 312. 
antarftkaga, iii, 146. 
antimavatthu, i, 376. 
apagabbha, ii, m, 112. 
apatissarana, iii, 175. 
apalokana, iii, 37. 
apassenaphalaka, iii, 219. 
appuyya, iii, 183. 
appo/ieti, ii, 349. 
abbhussahanata, iii, 36. 
abhaytivara, i, 207. 
abhisamkhanka, iii, 9. 
abhisanna, ii, 60. 
abhisannakiya, iii, 102. 
abhihattAum, i, 21; ii, 440. 
ambakS, ii, 107. 
aramsahita, iii, 292. 
ariyavasa, i, 141. 
alakkhika, iii, 250. 
alamkammaniya, i, 16. 
avakkarapati, iii, 287. 
avagaa^aklrakam, i, 64. 

Ff 



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VINAYA TEXTS. 



avafiga, iii, 342. 
avippavasa, i, 20, 255. 
asaddhamma, iii, 262. 
asamadanaiara, ii, 151. 
asambhoga, iii, 120. 
ahivatakaroga, i, 204. 
Ahogafiga, ii, 146. 

agamma, ii, 237. 
SUamanakumbhi, iii, 280. 
aiariya, i, 178 seq. 
&>ariyaka, ii, 140. 
SMra, i, 184. 
Sntfolaka, iii, 348. 
adeyyavaia, iii, 1 86. 
anantarika, iii, 198, 246. 
apayika, iii, 262. 
£ma/akava»rikapi/£a, iii, 165. 
Smisa, i, 36. 
Smisakhara, ii, .60. 
ayataka, iii, 72. 
Syatika, iii, 115. 
iyoga, iii, 141. 
arama, i, 23. 
arimika, iii, 282. 
alambanablha, iii, 96. 
Slinda, iii, 175. 
avarana, iii, 336. 
avasathapiWa, i, 37. 
avasaparampara, ii, 371. 
SviS^ana, iii, 106. 
asa^anawi, iii, 264. 
Ssatti, iii, 183. 
asanantarika, ii, 292. 
asanapa/Wapaka, iii, 408. 
asandi, ii, 27. 
asandika, iii, 165. 
asadeti, ii, 373. 
asittakupadhina, iii, 1 1 7. 
asevanavitthaka, iii, 95. 
ShaMapadaka, iii, 164. 
ahundarika, i, 205. 

ikkasa, iii, 171. 

iddhi, i, 1 19 ; ii, 136 ; iii, 230. 

indakhila, i, 52. 

ukkapi/b&ka, ii, 70. 
ukkasika, iii, 68. 
ukkufikam, iii, 16. 
ukkudka, i, 62. 
wbtinatha, i, 194. 
uMfredavada, ii, 1 1 1 . 
uahisa, iii, 97. 
utu, ii, 236. 
uttara££i>ada, ii, 27. 



uttarapasaka, iii, 106. 
uttar&aftga, ii, 212 ; iii, 123. 
uttaribhafiga, iii, 9, 179. 
utti«i>apatta, i, 152. 
udakaniddbamana, iii, 108. 
udakasamgaha, ii, 147. 
udakasi/ika, ii, 225. 
udukkhalika, iii, 105. 
udda, ii, 1 6. 
uddesa, i, 12. 
uddosita, iii, 363. 
uddhasudhS, iii, 174. 
upaggin, iii, 3$ 1. 
upaggi&yz, i, 178 seq. 
upa//i>apeti, i, 49. 
upadhi, i, 85, 138. 
upanandhati, iii, 100. 
upanikkhitta, f, 26. 
uparipitfAita, iii, 273. 
upalapeti, i, 49. 
uposathapamukha, i, 252. 
ubbtUbsi, ii, 314. 
ubbabikS, iii, 49. 
ubbhaWita, ii, 210. 
ubbhara, i, 19; ii, 157. 
ubbhida, ii, 48. 

ubhatoIohitakQpa, dhana, ii, 28. 
ubhatovinaya, iii, 376. 
ubhatovibhaftga, iii, 376. 
ummattakalaya, iii, 21. 
ura&Mada, ii, 348. 
ullikhita, ii, 153. 
ulloka, iii, 169. 
ussideti, iii, 202, 301. 
ussavanS, ii, 120. 
usstra, ii, 23. 
usse/i&eti, ii, 349. 

fiha^i, iii, 277. 

eka/Miya, ii, 212. 
ekapariyakata, iii, 341. 
ekapalaiika, ii, 1 3. 
ekuddesa, i, it. 
eragu, ii, 35. 
e/akapadakapWa, iii, 165. 

okirati, ii, 231. 
oko/imaka, iii, 40. 
ogumphiyati, ii, 31. 
otinna, i, 7. 
ottharaka, iii, 102. 
onita, i, 83. 
ono^ana, ii, 386. 
opana, ii, 115. 
obhoga, i, 156. 



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INDEX OF PALI WORDS IN THE NOTES. 



435 



ovawika, iii, 69. 
ova/riyakarana, ii, 153. 
ovaddheyya, ii, 1 54. 
ovSda, i, 35. 
osaraka, iii, 175. 

kamsapattharikS, iii, 140. 
kakka, ii, 58. 

ka/aMAuparissavana, iii, 100. 
ka/asi, iii, 390. 
karisuttaka, iii, 69, 142, 348. 
katb'ma, i, 18 seq. ; ii, 148 seqq. ; 

93 seq. 
kasafaka, iii, 9. 
kanAisakarana, ii, 153. 
kannakita, iii, 91. 
katakata, iii, 309. 
katikasan/iAna, iii, 8. 
kattaradaWa, ii, 20. 
kattari, iii, 138. 
kattarika, iii, 139. 
kattika, i, 29 seq. 
kapalla, ii, 50. 
kapistsaka, iii, 106. 
kappawAika, iii, 254. 
kappiyakaraka, ii, 59. 
kappiyakurf, i, 303. 
kaba/ika, ii, 58. 
kamala, ii, 23. 
kambala, ii, 23. 
kambalamaddana, ii, 154. 
kammarabhWu, i, 200. 
karaka/aka, iii, 112. 
kaiabuka, iii, 143. 
ka/iftgara, iii, 127. 
ka/imbhaka, iii, 94. 
kavafa, iii, 88, 160. 
kav3/apitt£a, iii, 105. 
kasSva, iii, 172. 
kiUa, iii, 82. 
kaya, ii, 224. 
kayura, iii, 69. 
kaVaka, i, 25. 
ki/M-ana, i, 139. 
ki/ika, iii, 174, 176. 
kukkukata, ii, 154. 
kukkusa, iii, 367. 
ku/6&ptda, iii, 107. 
kun</akamattika ( iii, 171. 
kuttaka, ii, 27. 
kupita, i, 309. 
kumbhakarikS, iii, 156. 
kumbhatthena, iii, 325. 
kuruvindakasutti, iii, 67. 
kulahkapSdaka, iii, 174. 
kulava, iii, 384. 



kulirapadaka, iii, 164. 

kusi, ii, 208. 

ko, i, 138. 

koiihA, i, 34; iii, 165. 

kortapeti, iii, 341. 

kowAaka, ii, 219; iii, 11, 109, 177. 

kopeti, ii, 435. 

komudt, i, 324. 

khaWa, iii, 191. 
khandhakavatta, i, 185. 
iii, khallaka, ii, 15. 
khidaniya, i, 39. 
kharika^a, i, 132. 
khuddlnukhuddaka, i, 50. 
khurabha*</a, ii, 141. 
khurasipa/iki, iii, 138. 
khe/apaka, iii, 239. 

gawamagga, i, 269. 
ga»/£ika, iii, 144. 
ganafiklklhana, iii, 2 1 3. 
gaWumattikt, iii, 172. 
gatigata, iii, 26. 
gandhabbahatthaka, iii, 67. 
gabbha, iii, 173. 
gahapatWivara, ii, 194. 
gSmapoddava, iii, 66. 
gamOpa^ara, i, 256. 
giraggasama^ya, iii, 71. 
gtveyyaka, ii, 209. 
gunaka, iii, 143. 
gubi, i, 174- 
geruka, ii, 50. 
gerukaparikamma, iii, 97. 
gokao/aka, ii, 34. 
goghantsika, iii, 98. 
goJara, iii, 275- 
gonisSdika, ii, 121. 
golomika, iii, 138. 

ghafaka, iii, 130. 
gharikafaha, iii, 88. 
ghafika, iii, 106. 
gharadinnaka, ii, 60. 

iakkabheda, iii, 251. 
iakkaliki), iii, 163. 
£akkavatfaka, iii, 112. 
lankama, ii, 7 ; iii, 103. 
latukannaka, iii, 145. 
^andanagan/M, iii, 78. 
£ammakham/a, iii, 113. 
ialeti, ii, 49. 
iitta, ii, 224. 
iimiliki, iii, 167. 

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VINAYA TEXTS. 



tfvara, ii, 199. 
ietapeti, i, 22. 
/telapattiki, iii, 128. 
JkoAa., ii, 132. 
tolaka, iii, 86. 

ibakana, ii, 49. 
>Matta, iii, 133. 
>£adana, i, 35. 
Xi>anda, i, 277. 
>Aandaso, iii, 150. 
iAava, iii, 239. 
>£avi, iii, 169. 
4/adeti, ii, 42 ; iii, 147. 
4/Mnniriyapatha, i, 225. 
ibeppi, ii, 24. 

.g-afigheyyaka, ii, 209. 
gztila, i, n8; ii, 129, 134. 
_panata, iii, 72. 
,?antaghara, i, 157 ; iii, i<>3- 
^antu, ii, 35. 
^aia, iii, 162. 
£e,ii, 217. 

#6iyi, iii, 7. 

tfatti, i, 169. 
dattiiatuttha, i, 169. 
tfattidutiya, i, 169. 

tattika, ii, 35- 
tathlgata, i, 82. 
tantibaddha, ii, 256. 
talasattikS, i, 51. 
tassapapiyyasika, iii, 28. 
tala>M/Wdda, iii, 106. 
tila van/a, iii, 131,145. 
tavakalika, iii, 217. 
tLMvara, i, 20; f, 255. 
tinagahana, iii, 148. 
tinasantharaka, iii, 86. 
tittirapattika, ii, 15- 
Tittiriya, iii, 194. 
tiraMbknaviggb, iii, i5 2 - 
tiritaka, ii, 248. 
tumbaka/aha, iii, 88. 
tula, iii, 112. 
tulikS, iii, 167. 
tula, i, 54. 
tulapunnika, ii, 15. 
torarca, iii, 178. 

thakfyati, iii, 161. 
thavika, iii, 293. 
thinna, ii, 206. 



thullaMaya, i, xxv. 
thflpato, i, 63. 
theyyasamkbita, i, 4. 

dakako//£aka, ii, 57. 
daWaka/iina, iii, 93. 
daWaparissavana, iii, 102. 
(LWasatthaka, iii, 90. 
dantakatt£a, iii, 146. 
dantapona, i, 40. 
datnaka, ii, 71. 
daAMkarana, ii, 153. 
da/Aik3, iii, 138. 
di«/!>avikamma, iii, 34. 
dukka/a, i, xxv. 
dukkha, ii, 224. 
duft/>agaha»ika, ii, 60. 
duttimlla, ii, 316. 
dubbaia, i, 12. 
dubbalya, i, 4. 
dummanku, iii, 251. 
dummawflu, iii, 251. 
de<Uubhaka, iii, 143. 
dvara, iii, 160. 
dvarakosa, i, 35. 

dhamanisantata, ii, 41, 
dhamma, iii, 193, 262. 
dhammakaraka, iii, 100. 
dhlna, ii, 28. 
dhuvakara, ii, 254. 
dhflmakalika, iii, 214, 378. 
dhfimanetta, iii, 107. 
dhotapadaka, iii, 219. 

nam, iii, 19. 
natthukamma, ii, 53. 
nattbukarani, ii, 54. 
nandimukhf, ii, 211 ; iii, 299. 
namataka, iii, 90, 343. 
nali/ika, ii, 349. 
navakamroa, iii, 101, 189 seq. 
navakammika, ii, 359. 
nagadanta, iii, 68, 98. 
na/ikagabbha, iii, 173. 
nasani, i, 236. 
nlseti, ii, 377. 
niganf£a, i, 41. 
ntggbapeti, iii, 2. 
nuWapeti, iii, 225. 
nippurisa, iii, 225. 
nibbti£j/>ati, ii, 349. 
nimitta, ii, 9. 
nimittakata, ii, 154. 
nillekhagantaghara, iii, 115. 
nissaggiya, ii, 155. 



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INDEX OF PALI WORDS IN THE NOTES. 



437 



mssaya, 11, 337; in, 355. 
nekkhamma, i, 104. 
negama, iii, 185. 
netthl, ii, 339. 
nerayika, iii, 262. 

pamsukfila, ii, 157. 

pakata, ii, 343. 

pakatatta, ii, 340; iii, 366. 

pakisaniyakamma, iii, 239. 

pakutta, iii, 175. 

pakkhasamkanta, i, 178. 

pakkhika, iii, 220. 

paggahikasali, iii, 383. 

paghana, iii, 175. 

pai/takkh&ta, i, 275. 

paji/takkh&ti, i, 4. 

pai/taya, i, 146. 

p&btuddharati, ii, 152. 

pa&iaka, ii, 155. 

paAlapa/ika, iii, 97. 

parika, ii, 3, 27. 

pariggaha, iii, 90, 95. 

pa/i/MAadaniya, ii, 8 1 . 

patMbidi, iii, 11 1. 

pa/ibblna, iii, 1 3. 

pa/ibh3na>itta, iii, 172. 

pa/ibhaneyyaka, ii, 140. 

pa/isaraniya, ii, 364. 

pa«a, iii, 341. 

panimeti, iii, 403. 

pattakam/oliki, iii, 86. 

pattakkhandha, iii, 13. 

pattama/aka, iii, 86. 

patthaddha, iii, 244. 

pannaloma, iii, 232. 

para, ii, 307. 

paradavutta, iii, 232. 

paramparabhojana, i, 38. 

parikathakata, ii, 154. 

parikammakata, iii, 218. 

parikkblra, iii, 343. 

parigita, iii, 75. 

parittanaki/ika, iii, 174. • 

parinibbuta, iii, 183. 

paribbagaka, i, 41. 

paribhamfe, ii, 154, 231; iii, 83, 93. 

paribhWakarana, iii, 2 1 3. 

paribhoga, iii, 208. 

paribho^aniya, iii, 8. 

parimaWalam, i, 59. 

parimana, ii, 421. 

parimukha, iii, 138. 

parimu«i&a, ii, 307. 

pariyanta, ii, 386. 

pariylya, i, 47. 



pariyuM&itaiitta, iii, 380. 
parivena, iii, 109; iii, 203. 
parisa, i, 12. 
pala, ii, 178. 
palisf, iii, 38. 
palibodha, ii, 157. 
pallanka, iii, 367. 
pallatthika, i, 62 ; iii, 1 41. 
pavattamamsa, ii, 81. 
pavattint, iii, 350. 
pavananta, iii, 143. 
pavaranSsamgaha, i, 353. 
pavirita, i, 39. 
pavaxeti, i, 21. 
pasata, ii, 178. 
paharanf, iii, 156. 
pjUittiya, {,32. 
Pa/i>eyyaka, ii, 146. 
patimokkha, i, xxvii seq. 
padakathalika, i, 92 ; ii, 373. 
padakhilabadha, ii, 19. 
padapi/£a, i, 92. 
papanika, ii, 157. 
pimabga, iii, 69. 
para^ika, i, 3. 
pirisuddhi, i, 242, 274. 
paligu»/£ima, ii, 15. 
p&libaddha, ii, 208. 
pasaka, iii, 144. 
pasada, i, 174 ; iii, 178. 
pasadika, iii, 339. 
pasuka, iii, 340. 
pif/Aakhadaniya, ii, 139. 
pi/Afamadda, iii, 171. 
pi«/6asa»»gha7a, iii, 105. 
pimAikkhepakam, i, 64. 
pitta, iii, 237. 
pidalaka, iii, 94. 
pilo/ika, ii, 157. 
pisaiillika, i, 318; iii, 139. 
piiba., iii, 278. 
pitMb.%, iii, 165. 
puiiJkiti (vassam), i, 310. 
piuMAant, iii, 114. 
pufabaddha, ii, 15. 
puthupiniya, iii, 68. 
pflva, i, 39. 
peyylla, i, 291. 
potthaka, ii, 247. 
pothu£ganika, iii, 230. 
position, iii, 169. 

phanaka, iii, 70. 
pbalaka, ii, 246; iii, 165. 
phltikammattha, iii, 217.. 
phulla, iii, 191. 



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438 



VINAYA TEXTS. 



bandhana, ii, 153. 
bandhanamatta, iii, 141. 
bahukata, ii, 135; iii, 214. 
bahanta, ii, 209. 
bahullika, iii, 254. 
bidalamaft/taka, iii, 164. 
bila, ii, 48. 
bilafiga, iii, 9. 
bundikabaddha, iii, 164. 
byi, ii, 378. 

bhahga, ii, 57. 
bhafigodaka, ii, 57. 
bhan^agdra, ii, 201. 
bhamfika, iii, 213. 
bhatikamrna, iii, 83. 
bhattikamma, iii, 169. 
bhaddap i/*,i, iii, 165. 
bhasma, iii, 264. 
bhikkhugatika, i, 312. 
bhisi, ii, 210; iii, 163. 
bhummattharana, iii, 278. 
bhoganiya, i, 39. 
bhcggayagu, ii, 89. 

makaradantaka, iii, 68. 
makasaku/ikS, iii, 102. 
maM&ava/aka, iii, 145. 
ma^ru, ii, 35. 
mania, iii, 278. 
ma&tuka, ii, 140. 
ma%arika, ii, 347. 
ma%u, ii, 140. 
ma«</ala, ii, 209. 
ma»</alika, iii, 107. 
matakatfvara, ii, 151. 
mattikldonikl, iii, 107. 
maddavina, iii, 143. 
madhusitthaka, iii, 92. 
manam, i, 234. 
mantha, i, 39. 
mandamukhi, i, 130. 
marumba, iii, 109. 
mallaka, iii, 68. 
mallamu//£ika, iii, 66. 
ina/oriki, iii, 117. 
masaraka, iii, 164. 
rnahanSima, ii, 14. 
maharanga, ii, 14. 
mahiseda, ii, 56. 
Main, ii, 25. 

mStiki, i, 273 ; ii, 157 ; iii, - a. 
mSsakarfipa, iii, 80. 
migabhfita, iii, 232. 
mu/£anta, iii, 85. 
midM, iii, 163. 



missaka, ii, 432. 
mukhamattika, iii, 107. 
muttaharttaka, ii, 60. 
memfovisibiabandhika, ii, 15. 
mokkha>iki, ii, 184. 
moghasuttaka, iii, 94. 
nuvfa, ii, 132. 
moragu, ii, 35. 

yathadhammo, i, 203. 
yantaka, iii, 162. 
y£gu, ii, 89. 

ra^-anapakka, ii, 49. 
ratanasammata, i, 53. 
rfipa, i, 201. 
rUpiyaAi&aJdaka, i, 27, 
rtihati, ii, 414. 
ropeti, iii, 334. 

latt&ivana, i, 136. 
liuyati, iii, in. 
lfika, ii, 16. 
lekha, iii, 78. 
lesakappa, iii, 200. 
lona, ii, 48. 
loma, ii, 339. 

vagga, iii, 27. 
vaggult, iii, 163. 
vajanapatha, iii, 324. 
va£4apiduki, ii, 24. 
va/amsaka, ii, 347. 
va/ri, iii, 341. 
vanta, ii, 347. 
vatthikamma, ii, 80. 
varaha, iii, 261. 
vallika, iii, 69. 
vassupanSyikS, i, xxxvii. 
vatapSna, iii, 162. 
vStamaWalika, iii, 85. 
Vamaka, ii, 130. 
vlraka, iii, 113. 
vaha, ii r i3. 

vikanna, ii, 230; iii, 92. 
vikappana, i, 45. 
vikala, i, 53. 
vikasika, ii, 59. 
vigayha, iii, 68. 
viMMkSlika, ii, 16. 
vi*«u,i, 33. 
vidha, iii, 143. 
vidhutiki, ii, 347. 
vinandhana, iii, 94. 
vinayapamokkha, i, xiii. 
vinayavatthu, iii, 411, 



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INDEX OF PALI WORDS IN THE NOTES. 



439 



vinidhlya, iii, 269. 
vineyya, iii, 183. 
vipa*iattya, iii, 36. 
viparinata, i, 7. 
vipS/eti, iii, 90. 
vippakata, iii, 314. 
vibbbamati, i, 275. 
vibhanga, ii, 325. 
vivatta, ii, 209. 
visibbanS, i, 44. 
visesaka, iii, 342. 
visesadhigama, iii, 263. 
vissara, iii, 273. 
vihara, ii, 386. 
vihesaka, i, 33. 
vtna, ii, 8. 

vuddhapabba^ita, ii, 140. 
vtipakaseti, i, 161. 
vokkamma, iii, 285. 
vodaka, iii, 84. 
veni, iii, 341. 
vedikl, iii, 162. 
veyylyika, iii, 185. 
ve/uriya, iii, 82. 
vyabadheti, iii, 235. 

samvelliya, iii, 348. 
samsaranaki/ika, iii, 176. 
samharati, iii, 168. 
saguna, i, 155. 
samk&bhMka, iii, 351. 
samkassara, iii, 300. 
samkSpayati, i, 298. 
samketa, ii, 234. 
saiikhanibhi, ii, 51. 
samkhira, i, 76. 
samgtti, iii, 355. 
samghSJri, ii, 212. 
samghanpallatthiki, iii, 12. 
samghldisesa, i, 7. 
sa£#atti, iii, 257. 
san<£sa, iii, 140. 
satavallika, iii, 145. 
sati, i, 119. 

sativepullappatta, iii, 16. 
sattafiga, iii, 165. 
sattalfikha, ii, 209. 
satthahiraka, i, 4 seq. 
satthu, iii, 9a. 
santaruttara, i, 21 ; ii, 233. 
sannidhikata, ii, 154. 
sapadana, i, 63. 
sabhogana, i, 41. 
samanuddesa, i, 48. 
samatittika, i, 62; ii, 104. 
samanubhasati, i, 11. 



samasQpaka, i, 62. 
samukase, i, xxvi. 
samuddaphenaka, iii, 131. 
samodhlna, ii, 405, 409. 
sampavSreti, i, no. 
sambharaseda, ii, 56. 
sambbinna, ii, 145. 
sambbwiiti, ii, 159. 
sammukha, ii, 332. 
sammukhavinaya, iii, 3. 
sammosa, iii, 87. 
sayana, iii, 279. 
sarakutti, iii, 72. 
sarati, iii, 14. 
sarabhawtfa, iii, 73. 
saravaka, iii, 108. 
saritaka, iii, 92. 
saritasanta, iii, 26. 
saritasipa/ika, iii, 92. 
salaka, iii, 162. 
sallkabhatta, iii, 220 seq. 
salakodhaniya, iii, 53. 
savaiantya, ii, 338, 386. 
sahadhammikam, i, 12. 
Sahampati, i, 86. 
sa/iya, iii, 223. 
Sanavlst, iii, 394. 
saradika, ii, 41. 
sSraniya, ii, 364. 
siloka, iii, 343. 
savasesa, ii, 316; iii, 35. 
sasapakutfa, iii, 171. 
sikkhasa^-tva, i, 4. 
sitthatelaka, iii, 171. 
sindhava, ii, 48. 
siva/ika, ii, 47. 
sivikagabbba, iii, 173. 
siveyyaka, ii, 190. 
sitilo/i, ii, 60. 
stla, i, 184. 
sukha, ii, 224. 
sugata, i, 54 seq. 
sugatavidatthi, 1, 8. 
su##agara, ii, 101. 
sutta, i, xxix. 
suttadhara, i, xxviii. 
suttanta, i, xxix seq. 
suttalflkha, ii, 209, 230. 
suttavibhanga, i, xxix seq. 
suddhaka, ii, 433. 
suddhanta, ii, 417. 
suppavayita, i, 28. 
sfikarantaka, iii, 143. 
sfl/ti, iii, 97. 
s(Uiki, iii, 106, 162. 
sfiiina/ika, iii, 91. 



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VINAYA TEXTS. 



sekha, i, 185; ii, 138. 
sekhasammata, i, 57. 
settbi, i, 10a. 
seda, ii, 56. 
senesika, ii, 42. 
seyvagga, iii, 20a. 
sotapattiphala, iii, 2 30. 
sobhana, iii, 143. 

hatthabhitti, iii, 169. 
hatthavattaka, ii, 27. 



hatthavikira, i, 326. 
hatthavilafighaka, i, 326. 
battbinakhaka, iii, 208. 
hatthiso>fc&ka, iii, 145. 
hammiya, i, 174. 
hammiyagabbha, iii, 173. 
barttaka, ii, 60. 
harftakapannikS, iii, 343. 
hintala, ii, 23. 
huhunka^itika, i, 79. 
hetu, i, 146. 




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