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Full text of "Sacred Books East Various Oriental Scholars with Index. 50 vols Max Muller Oxford 1879.1910."

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THE 



SACRED BOOKS OF THE EAST 



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a 



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Uontoon 
HENRY FROWDE 




OXFORD UMTVBBSITY PEEBS WABHHOUBB 
AMEN CORNER 



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THE 



SACRED BOOKS OF THE EAST 



TRANSLATED 



BY VARIOUS ORIENTAL SCHOLARS 



AND EDITED BY 



F. MAX MULLER 



VOL. XXII 



AT THE CLARENDON PRESS 
1884 

[All rights reserved] 



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GAINA StJTRAS 



t 

TRANSLATED FROM P R A K R I T 

II v 

HERMANN JACOBI 



PART 1 

THE AA'ARANGA SUTRA 
THE KALPA SUTRA 



AT THE CLARENDON PRESS 
1884 

[ All rights restrvtd ] 



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(RECAP) 



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CONTENTS. 



Introduction 



PAGB 

ix 



AA'ARANGA StiTRA\ 

FIRST BOOK. 

Lecture 1. Knowledge of the Weapon 

• 2. Conquest of the World 

3. Hot and Cold 

4. Righteousness 

5. Essence of the World 

6. Cleaning 

7. Liberation . 

8. The Pillow of Righteousness 



i 

i5 
28 

36 
42 

53 
62 

79 



SECOND BOOK. 
First Part. 

Lecture 1. Begging of Food 

2. Begging for a Couch 

3. Walking . 

4. Modes of Speech 

5. Begging of Clothes 

6. Begging for a Bowl 

7. Regulation of Possession 



Second Part. 



Lecture 8. 
9. 
„ 10. 
„ 11. 
„ 12. 
„ 13. 
„ 14. 



88 
120 
136 
149 

157 
166 

171 

178 
179 
180 

183 
185 
186 
188 



55009 



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Vlll CONTENTS. 



Third Part. 

PAGK 

Lecture 15. The Clauses 189 

Fourth Part. 
Lecture 16. The Liberation 211 

• KALPA SOTRA. 

Lives of the Ginas 217-285 

Life of Mahavira ...... 217-270 

Lecture 1 217 

2 . . .218 

3 229 

„ 4 238 

5 251 

Life of Parjva 271-275 

Life of Arish/anemi 276-279 

Epochs of the intermediate Tlrthakaras . . .280 

Life of J?*'shabha 281-285 

List of the Sthaviras 286-295 

Rules for Yatis 296-311 

Index 313-320 



Transliteration of Oriental Alphabets adopted for the 

Translations of the Sacred Books of the East . 321-324 



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INTRODUCTION. 



The origin and development of the Gaina sect is a 
subject on which some scholars still think it safe to speak 
with a sceptical caution, though this seems little warranted 
by the present state of the whole question ; for a large and 
ancient literature has been made accessible, and furnishes 
ample materials for the early history of the sect to all who 
are willing to collect them. Nor is the nature of these 
materials such as to make us distrust them. We know 
that the sacred books of the Gainas are old, avowedly 
older than the Sanskrit literature which we are accus- 
tomed to call classical. Regarding their antiquity, many 
of those books can vie with the oldest books of the 
northern Buddhists. As the latter works have success- 
fully been used as materials for the history of Buddha 
and Buddhism, we can find no reason why we should 
distrust the sacred books of the Gainas as an authentic 
source of their history. If they were full of contradictory 
statements, or the dates contained in them would lead to 
contradictory conclusions, we should be justified in viewing 
all theories based on such materials with suspicion. But 
the character of the Gaina literature differs little in this 
respect also from the Buddhistical, at least from that of 
the northern Buddhists. How is it then that so many 
writers are inclined to accord a different age and origin 
to the Gaina sect from what can be deduced from their 
own literature ? The obvious reason is the similarity, real 
or apparent, which European scholars have discovered 
between Gainism and Buddhism. Two sects which have 
so much in common could not, it was thought, have been 
independent from each other, but one sect must needs 



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GAINA SUTRAS. 



have grown out of, or branched off from the other. This 
a priori opinion has prejudiced the discernment of many 
critics, and still does so. In the following pages I shall try 
to destroy this prejudice, and to vindicate that authority 
and credit of the sacred books of the Camas to which they 
are entitled. We begin our discussion with an inquiry 
about Mahavira, the founder or, at least, the last prophet 
of the Gaina church. It will be seen that enough is 
known of him to invalidate the suspicion that he is a 
sort of mystical person, invented or set up by a younger 
sect some centuries after the pretended age of their 
assumed founder. 

The Camas, both Svetambaras and Digambaras, state 
that Mahavira was the son of king Siddhartha of Knnda.- 
pura or Kuwrfagrarna. They would have us believe that 
Ku«</agrama was a large town, and Siddhartha a powerful 
monarch. But they have misrepresented the matter in 
overrating the real state of things, just as the Buddhists 
did with regard to Kapilavastu and Suddhodana. For 
Kuwdfegrama is called in the A^aranga Sutra a sa*»nivesa, 
a term which the commentator interprets as denoting a 
halting-place of caravans or processions. It must therefore 
have been an insignificant place, of which tradition has 
only recorded that it lay in Videha (A^aranga Stitra II, 
1 5> § J 7)- Yet by combining occasional hints in the Baud- 
dha and Gaina scriptures we can, with sufficient accuracy, 
point out where the birthplace of Mahavira was situated ; 
for in the Mahavagga of the Buddhists 1 we read that 
Buddha, while sojourning at Ko/iggama, was visited by 
the courtezan Ambapali and the Li££Aavis of the neigh- 
bouring capital Vesali. From Koriggama he went to where 
the-Watikas 2 (lived). There he lodged in the JVatika Brick- 
halP, in the neighbourhood of which place the courtezan 



* S«e Oldenberg's edition, pp. 131, t$i ; the translation, p. 104 seq., of the 
second part, Sacred Books of the East, vol. xvii. 

* The passages in which the ivatikas occur seem to have been misunderstood 
by the commentator and the modem translators. Rhys Davids in his transla- 
tion of the Mahaparinibbana-Sutta (Sacred Books of the East, vol. xi) says in a 
note, p. 24 : ' At first Nadika is (twice) spoken of in the plural number ; but then. 



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INTRODUCTION. XI 



Ambapili possessed a park, Ambapalivana, which she 
bequeathed on Buddha and the community. From there 
he went to Vesali, where he converted the general-in-chief 
(of the UkkAzvis), a lay-disciple of the Nirgranthas (or 
Gaina monks). Now it is highly probable that- the Ko/ig- 
gama of the Buddhists is identical with the Ku«</aggama 
of the Gainas. Apart from the similarity of the names, 
the mentioning of the iVatikas, apparently identical with the 
Gnatr«ka Kshatriyas to whose clan Mahavtra belonged, and 
of Siha, the Gaina, point to the same direction. Kun^a- 
grama, therefore, was probably one of the suburbs of Vauali, 
the capital of Videha. This conjecture is borne out by the 
name Vesalie, i. e. Valralika given to Mahavira in the Stitra- 
krs'tanga 1, 3 1 . The commentator explains the passage in 
question in two different ways, and at another place a third 
explanation is given. This inconsistency of opinion proves 
that there was no distinct tradition as to the real meaning of 
Valralika, and so we are justified in entirely ignoring the arti- 
ficial explanations of the later Gainas. Vawalika apparently 
means a native of Vaijali : and Mahavira could rightly 
be called that when KuWagrama was a suburb of Vaijali, 
just as a native of Turnham Green may be called a 
Londoner. If then Kum/agrama was scarcely more than 
an outlying village ofVaijall, it is evident that the sovereign 
of that village could at best have been only a petty chief. 
Indeed, though the Camas fondly imagine Siddhartha to 
have been a powerful monarch and depict his royal state 
in glowing, but typical colours, yet their statements, if 
stripped of all rhetorical ornaments, bring out the fact 



thirdly, in the last clause, in the singular. Buddhaghosa explains this by saying 
that there were two villages of the same name on the shore of the same piece of 
water.' The plural ^atika denotes, in my opinion, the Kshatriyas, the singular 
is the adjective specifying Gingakavasatha, which occurs in the first mention of 
the place in the Mahaparinibbilna-Sutta and in the Mah&vagga VI, 30, 5, 
and must be supplied in the former book wherever Nadika is used in the singular. 
I think the form Nadika is wrong, and .(Vatika, the spelling of the Mah&vagga, 
is correct. Mr. Rhys Davids is also mistaken in saying in the index to his trans- 
lation : ' Nadika, near Patna.' It is apparent from the narrative in the Maha- 
vagga that the place in question, as well as Ko/iggama, was near Vesali. 
1 See Weber, Indische Studien, XVI, p. 26a. 



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xii gaina sCtras. 



that Siddhartha was but a baron ; for he is frequently 
called merely Kshatriya — his wife Trlrala is, so far 
as I remember, never styled Devi, queen, but always 
KshatriyS«i. Whenever the Gn&trika. Kshatriyas are men- 
tioned, they are never spoken of as Siddhartha's Samantas 
or dependents, but are treated as his equals. From all this 
it appears that Siddhartha was no king, nor even the head 
of his clan, but in all probability only exercised the degree of 
authority which in the East usually falls to the share of land- 
owners, especially of those belonging to the recognised 
aristocracy of the country. Still he may have enjoyed a 
greater influence than many of his fellow-chiefs ; for he is 
recorded to have been highly connected by marriage. His 
wife TrLrala was sister to Ketaka., king of Valralt 1 . She is 
called Vaidehi or Videhadatta 2 , because she belonged to the 
reigning line of Videha. 

Buddhist works do not mention, for aught I know, 
Ketaka., king of VaLrali ; but they tell us that the government 
of Vesali was vested in a senate composed of the nobility 
and presided over by a king, who shared the power with a 
viceroy and a general-in-chief 3 . In 6aina books we still 
have traces of this curious government of the Li£&#avis ; 
for in the Nirayavali Sutra 4 it is related that king Ketaka, 
whom Kunika, al. A^fatajatru, king of /ifampa, prepared to 
attack with a strong army, called together the eighteen 
confederate kings of Klri and Kojala, the L.\kk/tavis and 
Mallakis, and asked them whether they would satisfy Kuni- 
ka's demands or go to war with him. Again, on the death of 
Mahavtra the eighteen confederate kings, mentioned above, 
instituted a festival to be held in memory of that event 8 , 
but no separate mention is made of Ketaka, their pretended 
sovereign. It is therefore probable that Ketaka was simply 
one of these confederate kings and of equal power with 
them. In addition to this, his power was checked by the 

1 See Kalpa Sutra, my edition, p. 1 13. ife/aka is called the maternal uncle of 
Mahavira. 

* See Kalpa Sutra, Lives of the Ginas, $ 1 10 ; Aiarahga Sutra II, 15, § 1 5. 

* Tumour in the Journal of the Royal As. Soc. of Bengal, VII, p. 993. 

* Ed. Warren, p. 27. 

* See Kalpa Sutra, Lives of the Ginas. 



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INTRODUCTION. Xlll 



constitution of Vesali. So we are enabled to understand 
why the Buddhists took no notice of him, as his influence 
was not very great, and, besides, was used in the interest of 
their rivals. But the (7ainas cherished the memory of the 
maternal uncle and patron of their prophet, to whose 
influence we must attribute the fact, that Vaijall used to 
be a stronghold of Cainism, while being looked upon by 
the Buddhists as a seminary of heresies and dissent. 

We have traced the connection of Mahavira's family not 
out of mere curiosity, which indiscriminately collects all 
historical facts however insignificant in themselves, but for 
the reason that the knowledge of this connection enables 
us to understand how Mahavira came to obtain his success. 
By birth he as well as Buddha was a member of a feudal 
aristocracy similar to that of the Yadavas in the legends 
about Kr*'sh«a, or that of the Rajpoots of the present day. 
In feudal societies family ties are very strong and long 
remembered x . Now we know for certain that Buddha at 
least addressed himself chiefly to the members of the aris- 
tocracy, that the <7ainas originally preferred the Kshatriyas 
to the Brahmans 2 . It is evident that both Mahavira and 
Buddha have made use of the interest and support of their 
families to propagate their order. Their prevalence over 
other rivals was certainly due in some degree to their con- 
nection with the chief families of the country. 

Through his mother Mahavira was related to the ruling 
dynasty in Magadha; for /sTe/aka's daughter ATellana 3 
was married to Sewiya Bimbhisara 4 or Bimbisara, king of 
Magadha, and residing in Ra^agr/ha. He is praised by 
the Gainas and Buddhists, as the friend and patron of both 



' The Gainas are very particular in stating the names and gotras of Mahavtra's. 
relations, of whom they have recorded little else. Kalpa Sutra, Lives of the Ginas, 
i 109. 

* See Kalpa Sutra, Lives of the Ginas, $$17 and 18. 

* See Nirayaval! Sutra, ed. Warren, p. 22. She is commonly called by the 
Buddhists Vaidebt ; in a Thibetan life of Buddha her name is Sribhadra, which 
reminds us of the name of JSTe/aka's wife Subhadra. See Schiefner in Memoires 
de I'Academie Imperiale de St. P&ersbourg, tome iv, p. 253. 

* He is usually called only Seniya or A'renika ; the full name is given in the 
Dasasrutaskandha, Weber, Ind. Stud. XVI, p. 469. 



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XIV GAINA SUTRAS. 



Mahavira and Buddha. But Kunika or, as the Buddhists 
call him, A^atajatru \ his son by A'ellana, the Videhan 
lady, showed no favour to the Buddhists in the earlier part 
of his reign ; only eight years before Buddha's death he 
became his patron. We should go wrong in believing him 
to have sincerely been converted. For a man who avowedly 
murdered his father 2 , and waged war against his grand- 
father 3 , is not likely to have cared much about theology. 
His real motive in changing his religious policy we may 
easily guess. He planned to add Videha to his dominions, 
just as his father had added Anga to his kingdom of Maga- 
dha ; he therefore built the fort at Pa/aligrama * in order 
not to repel but subdue the Va^gians or W^fis, a tribe of 
Videha, and at last fixed a quarrel on . the king of Vaijalt, 
his grandfather. As the latter was the maternal uncle of 
Mahavira, A^ataratru, by attacking this patron of the 
Gainas, lost in some degree their sympathy. Now he 
resolved on siding with their rivals, the Buddhists, whom 
he formerly had persecuted as friends of his father's, whom, 
as has been said above, he finally put to death. We know 
that A^atajatru succeeded in conquering Vauali, and that 
he laid the foundation of the empire of the Nandas and 
Mauryas. With the extension of the limits of the empire 
of Magadha a new field was' opened to both religions, over 
which they spread with great rapidity. It was probably 
this auspicious political conjuncture to which 6'ainism and 
Buddhism chiefly owed their success, while many similar 
sects attained only a local and temporal importance. 

The following table gives the names of the relations of 
Mahavira, or, as we should call him when not speaking of 



1 That the same person is intended by both names is evident from the fact 
that according to Buddhist and Gaina writers he is the father of Udayin or 
Udayibhaddaka, the founder of Paraliputra in the records of the Cabas and 
Brahman s. 

* The story is told with the same details by the Buddhists ; see Kern, Der 
Buddhismus und seine Geschichte in Indien, I, p. 149 (p. 195 of the original), 
and the Gainas in the Nirayavalt Sutra. 

* See above. • 

* Mahaparinibbana-Sutta I, 26, and Mahavagga VI, 28, 7 seq. 



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INTRODUCTION. XV 



him as a prophet of the G'ainas, Vardhamana or <7«a- 
triputra 1 : — 



I I I I 

Suparsva Siddhartha Trisala or JTe/aka SubhadrS 

j Videhadattft king of Vaisali [ 



Nandivardhana Vardhamana Sudarsana Bimbisara fellani 
married to king of Magadha 

Yasoda I 



Anoggi m. to KQnika or Agatasatru 
Gamali | 

| Udayin, founder of 
Seshavatt. Pa/aliputra. 

I do not intend to write a full life of Mahavira, but to 
collect only such details which show him at once a distinct 
historical person, and as different from Buddha in the most 
important particulars. Vardhamana was, like his father, 
a Kajyapa. He seems to have lived in the house of his 
parents till they died, and his elder brother, Nandivardhana, 
succeeded to what principality they had. Then, at the age 
of twenty-eight, he, with the consent of those in power, 
entered the spiritual career, which in India, just as the 
church in Roman Catholic countries, seems to have offered 
a field for the ambition of younger sons. For twelve years 
he led a life of austerities, visiting even the wild tribes of 
the country called RaaWa. After the first year he went 
about naked 2 . From the end of these twelve years of pre- 
paratory self-mortification dates Vardhamana's Kevaliship. 
Since that time he was recognised as omniscient, as a 
prophet of the Gainas, or a Tirthakara, and had the titles 
Gina, Mahavira, &c, which were also given to .Sakyamuni. 
The last thirty years of his life he passed in teaching his 
religious system and organising his order of ascetics, which, 
as we have seen above, was patronised or at least counte- 
nanced chiefly by those princes with whom he was related 
through his mother, viz. ATe/aka, .Srewika, and Kunika, the 

* Nataputta in Pali and Prakrit. The Buddhists call him Nigan/Aa NStaputta, 
i. e. Gnatn'putra the Nirgrantha or Gaina monk. 

' This period of his life is the subject of a sort of ballad incorporated in the 
AiHtranga Sutra (I, 8). 



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Xvi GAINA SOTRAS. 



kings of Videha, Magadha, and Anga. In the towns which 
lay in these parts he spent almost all the rainy seasons 
during his spiritual career \ though he extended his travels 
as far west and north as Sravastt and the foot of the Hima- 
laya. The names of his chief disciples, the eleven Ga#a- 
dharas or apostles of the (Jamas, as detailed in the Kalpa 
Sutra (List of Sthaviras, § i), are given without any varia- 
tion by both divisions of the church, the .SVetambaras 
and Digambaras. Of the details of Mahavtra's life, men- 
tioned in the canonical books, his rivalry with, and victory 
over Gojala, the son of Makkhali, and lastly, the place of 
his death, the small town Papa, deserve to be noticed. Nor 
are we by any means forced to rely on the tradition of the 
Gainas only, since for some particulars we have the testi- 
mony of the Buddhists also, in whose writings Mahavira is 
mentioned under his well-known name Nataputta, as the 
head of the NigawA&as or £aina monks and a rival of 
Buddha. They only misstated his Gotra as that of Agni- 
vaLryayana ; in this particular they confounded him with 
his chief apostle Sudharman, the only one of all the apostles 
who survived him and took the lead in the church after his 
teacher's death. Mahavira being a contemporary of Buddha, 
they both had the same contemporaries, viz. Bimbisara and 
his sons, Abhayakumara and A^ataratru, the Li££Aavis 
and Mallas, Gorala Makkhaliputra, whom we accordingly 
meet with in the sacred books of either sect. From the 
Buddhist Pi/akas it appears, as we have seen above, that 
Mahavtra's followers were very numerous in Vauali, a fact 
that is in perfect accordance with what the Gainas relate 
about his birth in the vicinity of that town, and which at 
the same time well agrees with his connection with the 
chief magistrate of the place. In addition to this, some 
tenets of the Niga«/Aas, e.g. the Kiriyavada and the belief 
that water is inhabited by souls, are mentioned in the 
sacred books of the Buddhists, in perfect accordance with 

1 See Kalpa Sutra, Lives of the Gtoas, im; /Tampa, 3 ; Vai»al!, 1 a ; Mithila, 6 ; 
Rfig-agWha, 14; Bhadrika, a ; Alabhika, 1 ; Paaitabhumi, I ; Sravastt, 1 ; Papa, 1. 
All these towns, with the exception of Panitabhflmi, Sravastf, and perhaps 
Alabhika, lay within the limits of the three kingdoms mentioned in the text. 



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INTRODUCTION. XVU 



the Gaina creed. Lastly, the Buddhists are correct in 
assuming the town Papa as the scene of Nataputta's 
death. 

Comparing this outline of Mahavlra's life with that of 
Buddha's, we can detect little or nothing in the former 
which can be suspected as having been formed after the 
latter by tradition. The general resemblance between the 
lives of both is due to their being lives of ascetics, which 
from the nature of the things must present some uniformity, 
which certainly will appear greater to the mind of a European 
historian of our times than to that of an ancient Hindu. 
Some names of Mahavlra's relations are similar to those of 
Buddha's : the former's wife was Yaroda, the latter's Yaro- 
dhara ; the former's elder brother was Nandivardhana, the 
latter's step-brother Nanda; Buddha's name as a prince 
was Siddhartha, which was the name of Mahavlra's father. 
But if the similarity of these names proves anything, it 
proves no more than that names of this description were 
much used then among the Kshatriyas, as surely they were 
at all times 1 . Nor is it to be wondered at that two Ksha- 
triyas should have founded sects in opposition, or at least in 
disregard to the authority of the Brahmans. For, as I shall 
try to prove in the sequel, the Kshatriyas were the most 
likely of all to become what the Brahmans would call 
' untrue ascetics.' 

We shall now put side by side the principal events of 
Buddha's and Mahavlra's lives, in order to demonstrate 
their difference. Buddha was born in Kapilavastu, Maha- 
vlra in a village near Vauali ; Buddha's mother died after 
his birth, Mahavlra's parents lived to see him a grown-up 
man ; Buddha turned ascetic during the lifetime and 
against the will of his father, Mahavlra did so after the 
death of his parents and with the consent of those in 
power; Buddha led a life of austerities for six years, 
Mahavtra for twelve ; Buddha thought these years wasted 
time, and that all his penances were useless for attaining 
his end, Mahavtra was convinced of the necessity of his 



1 See Petersburg Dictionary, ss.w. 
[32] b 



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xviii caina sCtras. 



penances 1 , and persevered in some of them even after 
becoming a Ttrthakara. Amongst Buddha's opponents 
Goyala Makkhaliputra is by no means so prominent as 
amongst Mahavira's, nor among the former do we meet 
Gamali, who caused the first schism in the Gaina church. 
All the disciples of Buddha bear other names than those 
of Mahavira. To finish this enumeration of differences, 
Buddha died in Kusinagara, whereas Mahavira died in 
Papa, avowedly before the former. 

I have dwelt so long on the subject of Mahavira's life in 
order to make the reader acquainted with facts which must 
decide the question whether the origin of Gainism was 
independent of Buddhism or not. Though most scholars 
do not go the length of denying that Mahavira and Buddha 
were different persons, yet some will not admit that this 
decides the question at issue. Professor Weber, in his 
learned treatise on the literature of the Gainas 2 , says that 
he still regards 'the Gainas merely as one of the oldest 
sectsofBuddhism. According to my opinion,' he writes, 
'this is not precluded by the tradition about the origin of 
its founder having partly made use of another person than 
Buddha Sakyamuni; nay, even of one whose name is fre- 
quently mentioned in Buddhist legends as one of Buddha's 
contemporary opponents. This rather suggests to me that 
the Gainas intentionally disowned Buddha, being driven to 
this extremity by the animosity of sect. The number and 
importance of coincidences in the tradition of either sect 
regarding their founders is, on the whole, overwhelming.' 

Professor Weber's last argument, the very one on which 
he seems to base his theory, has, according to my opinion, 
been fully refuted by our preceding inquiry. This theory, in 
itself, would require the strongest proof before we could admit 
it as even probable. Generally, heterodox sects claim to be 
the most authentic and correct interpreters of the words and 

1 These twelve years of penance were indeed always thought essential for 
obtaining perfection, and every ascetic who endeavours to quit this life with 
the best claims to enter one of the highest heavens, or even Nirvana, has to 
undergo a similar course of preparatory penance, which lasts twelve years. 

1 Indische Studien, XVI, 210. 



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INTRODUCTION. XIX 



tenets of their founders. If a sect begins to recognise 
another authority than that of the original founder of the 
main church, it either adopts another faith already in exist- 
ence, or starts a new one. In the first case the previous 
existence of the Caina faith in some form or other has to be 
admitted ; in the second we must suppose that the malcontent 
Buddhists searched in their scriptures for an opponent of 
Buddha, on whom they might foist their heretical theories, 
a course in which they were not followed by any other of the 
many sects of Buddhism. Now, granted for argument's 
sake, that they really did what they are charged with, they 
must have proceeded with the utmost dexterity, making use of, 
and slightly altering all occasional hints about the Niga«/Aas 
and Nataputta which they were able to hunt up in their 
ancient scriptures, inventing new facts, and fabricating docu- 
ments of their own, which to all, not in the secret, would 
seem just as trustworthy as those of their opponents. Indeed 
the Buddhistical and Gaina traditions about Mahavira, the 
circumstances in, and the people with whom he lived, so 
very well tally with, complete and correct each other that 
the most natural and plausible way to account for this fact, 
which our preceding inquiry has established, seems to be 
that both traditions are, in the main, independent of each 
other, and record what, at the time of their, attaining a fixed 
form, was regarded as historical truth. 

We shall now consider the resemblance between Buddhism 
and Gainism which has struck so many writers on this topic 
and greatly influenced their opinion regarding their mutual 
relation. Professor Lassen 1 adduces four points of coinci- 
dence which, according to his opinion, prove that the 
Gainas have branched off from the Bauddhas. We shall 
discuss them one after the other. 

Both sects give the same titles or epithets to their prophets: 
Cina, Arhat, Mahavira, Sarva^Sa, Sugata, Tathagata, 
Siddha, Buddha, Sambuddha, Parinivrtta, Mukta, &c. All 
these words occur more or less frequently in the writings of 
both sects ; but there is this difference, that with the exception 



1 IndUche AlUrthumskunde, IV, p. 76J seq. 

ba 



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XX GAINA SOTRAS. 



of Cina, and perhaps Sramawa, the preference is given to 
some set of titles by one sect, and to another set by the 
rival sect; e.g. Buddha, Tathagata, Sugata, and Sam- 
buddha are common titles of .Sakyamuni, and are only 
occasionally used • as epithets of Mahavira. The case is 
exactly reverse with regard to Vira and Mahavira, the usual 
titles of Vardhamana. More marked still is the difference 
with regard to Tirthakara, meaning prophet with the Cainas, 
but founder of an heretical sect with the Bauddhas. What 
then may be safely inferred from the peculiar choice which 
either sect made from these epithets and titles ? That the 
Camas borrowed them from the older Buddhists ? I think 
not. For if these words had once been fixed as titles, or 
gained some special meaning beyond the one warranted 
by etymology, they could only have been adopted or 
rejected. But it was not possible that a word which had 
acquired some special meaning should have been adopted, 
but used in the original sense by those who borrowed it 
from the Buddhists. The most natural construction we can 
put on the facts is, that there was and is at air times a 
number of honorific adjectives and substantives applicable 
to persons of exalted virtue. These words were used as 
epithets in their original meaning by all sects; but some 
were selected as titles for their prophets, a choice in which 
they were directed either by the fitness of the word itself, or 
by the fact that such or such a word was already appro- 
priated by heterodox sects as a title for their highest 
authority. Thus the etymological meaning of Tirthakara 
is founder of a religion, prophet, and accordingly this title 
was adopted by the 6"ainas and other sects, whereas the 
Buddhists did not adopt it in this sense, but in that of an 
heterodox or heretical teacher, showing thereby their enmity 
towards those who used Tirthakara as an honorific title. 
Again, Buddha is commonly used in about the same 
sense as mukta, that is a liberated soul, and in this 
meaning it is still employed in Gaina writings, whilst with 
the Buddhists the word has become a title of their prophet. 
The only conclusion which might be forced from these 
facts is, that the Buddhists at the time when they formed 



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INTRODUCTION. XXI 



their terminology were opponents of the Gainas, but not 
vice versi. 

Lassen, as a second argument in favour of the priority of 
Buddhism, adduces the fact that both sects worship mortal 
men, their prophets, like gods, and erect statues of them in 
their temples. As Buddhism and Gainism excepted none 
of the many sects, the founders of which pretended, like 
Buddha or Mahavira, to omniscience and absolute perfection, 
have continued long enough to come within the reach of our 
knowledge — and all or many of them may, for aught we 
know, have given the same divine honours to their saints, 
as the Buddhists and Camas did to their own prophets — it 
cannot be alleged that the practice of the Buddhists rather 
than of any other sect was imitated by the Gainas, or vice 
versa. On the contrary, there is nothing in the notion of 
Buddha that could have favoured the erecting of statues 
and temples for his followers to worship them, but rather 
much that is inconsistent with this kind of adoration, 
while the Gainas commit no inconsistency in worshipping 
Mahavira in his apotheosis. But I believe that this worship 
had nothing to do with original Buddhism or Gainism, that 
it did not originate with the monks, but with the lay com- 
munity, when the people in general felt the want of a higher 
cult than that of their rude deities and demons, and when 
the religious development of India found in the Bhakti the 
supreme means of salvation. Therefore instead of seeing in 
the Buddhists the originals, and in the Gainas the imitators, 
with regard to the erection of temples and worship of sta- 
tues, we assume that both sects were, independently from 
each other, brought to adopt this practice by the perpetual 
and irresistible influence of the religious development of 
the people in India. 

The third point of resemblance between both sects, the 
stress which is laid on the ahi/«s& or not killing of living 
beings, will be treated more fully in the sequel. For this 
reason I quickly pass over to Professor Lassen's fourth 
argument, viz. that the Buddhists and Gainas measure the 
history of the world by those enormous periods of time 
which bewilder and awe even the most imaginative fancy. 



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xxii oaina sOtras. 



It is true that regarding this the 6'ainas outdo the Bud- 
dhists, but they have the idea of such periods in common 
not only with the latter but also with the Brahmans. The 
main features of the chronological system of the Gainas 
equally differ from those of the Buddhists as from those 
of the Brahmans. For it is impossible to derive the Ut- 
sarpitt! and Avasarpiwi eras, with their six Aras, from the 
Buddhistical four great and eighty smaller Kalpas, which are 
as it were the acts and scenes in the drama of the suc- 
cessive creations and dissolutions of the universe, nor from 
the Yugas and Kalpas of the Brahmans. I am of opinion 
that the Buddhists have improved on the Brahmanic 
system of the Yugas, while the Gainas invented their 
Utsarpi«l and Avasarpiwi eras after the model of the day 
and night of Brahma. 

We have postponed the discussion of Professor Lassen's 
third argument, the ahimsi, because it will be better 
treated together with the other moral precepts of both 
sects. Professor Weber 1 has pointed out the near relation 
existing between the five great vows of the Cainas and the 
five cardinal sins and virtues of the Buddhists ; and Pro- 
fessor Windisch 2 has compared the 6aina vows (mahavrata) 
with the ten obligations of the Buddhists (dasasil). 

The Ten Precepts for the Buddhist ascetics are the 
following 3 : 

i. I take the vow not to destroy life. 

2. I take the vow not to steal. 

3. I take the vow to abstain from impurity. 

4. I take the vow not to lie. 

5. I take the vow to abstain from intoxicating drinks 
which hinder progress and virtue. 

6. I take the vow not to eat at forbidden times. 

7. I take the vow to abstain from dancing, singing, 
music, and stage plays. 

8. I take the vow not to use garlands, scents, unguents, 
or ornaments. 

1 Fragment der Bhagavatt, II, pp. 175, 187. 

' Zeiischrift der Deutschen Morgenlandischen Gesellschaft, XXVIII, p. 112, 
note. ' Rhys Davids, Buddhism, p. 160. 



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INTRODUCTION. XX111 



9. I take the vow not to use a high or broad bed. 

10. I take the vow not to receive gold or silver. 

The Buddhists have also Eight Precepts (a/7//angasila), 
of which the first five (pawiasila) are binding on every 
Buddhist, while the rest are only recommended to pious 
laymen ' : 

1. One should not destroy life. 

2. One should not take that which is not given. 

3. One should not tell lies. 

4. One should not become a drinker of intoxicating 
drinks. 

5. One should refrain from unlawful sexual intercourse— 
an ignoble thing. 

6. One should not eat unseasonable food at nights. 

7. One should not wear garlands or use perfumes. 

8. One should sleep on a mat spread on the ground. 
The five Buddhist vows nearly agree with those of the 

£aina ascetics, viz. : 

1. Not to destroy life (ahiwtsa). 

2. Not to lie (sunrr'ta). 

3. Not to take that which is not given (asteya). 

4. To abstain from sexual intercourse (brahma£arya). 

5. To renounce all interest in worldly things, especially 
to call nothing one's own (aparigraha). 

The fifth precept of the Cainas is much more compre- 
hensive than the corresponding one of the Buddhists, but 
the other precepts are the same, in a different order, as Nos. 
1-4 of the Buddhists. The agreement is indeed so striking 
that it would seem hard to avoid the conclusion that one sect 
borrowed their precepts from the other. Yet the question 
whether the Buddhists or the Gainas were the borrowers, 
would still remain an open one. It can be shown, how- 
ever, that neither the Buddhists nor the Gainas have in this 
regard any claim to originality, but that both have only 
adopted the five vows of the Brahmanic ascetics (sawnyi- 
sin). The latter must keep the following five vows 2 : 

1 Rhys Davids, Buddhism, p. 139. 

> Baudhayana II, 10, 18 ; see Biihler's translation, Sacred Books of the East, 
vol. xiv, p. 275. 



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XXIV GAINA SUTRAS. 



i. Abstention from injuring living beings. 

2. Truthfulness. 

3. Abstention from appropriating the property of others. 

4. Continence. 

5. Liberality. 
And five minor vows : 

6. Abstention from anger. 

7. Obedience towards the Guru. 

8. Avoidance of rashness. 

9. Cleanliness. 

10. Purity in eating. 

The first four great vows of the Sawmyasin agree with 
those of the Caina Bhikshu, and are enumerated in the 
same order. It is therefore probable that the Gainas have 
borrowed their own vows from the Brahmans, not from the 
Buddhists, because the latter have changed the order of 
the vows, making truthfulness either the third or fourth 
cardinal virtue instead of giving it the second place. Be- 
sides it is highly improbable that they should have imitated 
the Buddhists, when they had in the Brahmanic ascetics 
much older and more respected models. 

It is worth remarking that the fifth great vow or precept 
is peculiar to each of the three religious systems, probably 
because the Brahmanic fifth vow, viz. liberality, could not 
be enjoined on mendicants such as the monks of the 
Buddhists and Camas were. The Gainas previous to 
Mahavtra's time had only four great vows, since the fourth 
was included in the fifth. But Mahavfra brought the 
number of the vows again up to five, a number which seems 
to have been regarded as solemn, since the Buddhists have 
adopted it likewise in their moral code. 

Our foregoing inquiry suggests where we have to look 
for the originals of the monastic orders of the Camas and 
Buddhists. The Brahmanic ascetic was their model, from 
which they borrowed many important practices and insti- 
tutions of ascetic life. This observation is not an entirely 
new one. Professor Max Miiller has already, in his Hib- 
bert Lectures (p. 351), started a similar opinion ; likewise 
Professor Biihler, in his translation of the Baudhayana Stitra 



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INTRODUCTION. XXV 



(passim) ; and Professor Kern, in his History of Buddhism 
in India. In order to show to what extent the life of Gaina 
monks is but an imitation of the life of the Brahmanic 
ascetics, I shall now compare the rules given to the latter 
in Gautama's and Baudhayana's law-books 1 with the rules 
for Caina monks. In most cases the Buddhists conform to 
the same rules ; this will also be briefly noticed. 

ii. 'An ascetic shall not possess (any) store 2 .' The 
Caina and Buddhist monks are also forbidden to have any- 
thing which they could call their own. See the fifth vow 
of the Cainas (aparigraha). Even those things which the 
6aina monk always carries about himself, as clothes, 
alms-bowl, broom, &c, are not regarded as his property, 
but as things necessary for the exercise of religious duties 
(dharmopakara«a). 

12. '(He must be) chaste.' This is the fourth great 
vow of the Camas and in Baudhayana, the fifth of the 
Buddhists. 

13. ' He must not change his residence during the rainy 
season 3 .' Buhler remarks in a note : 'This rule shows that 
the Vasso of the Bauddhas and Cainas is also derived from 
a Brahmanic source.' 

14. ' He shall enter a village only in order to beg.' The 
Cainas are not so strict in this respect, as they allow a 
monk to sleep in a village or town. However he must not 
stay too long 4 . Mahavira did not stay longer than one 
night in a village or five nights in a town*. 

15. ' He shall beg late (after people have finished their 
meals), without returning twice 8 .' The <7aina monks collect 
food in the morning or at noon, probably to avoid meeting 
with their rivals. They generally but once in a day go out 
begging ; but one who has fasted for more than one day 
may go a begging twice a day 7 . 

1 See Buhler's translation, Sacred Books of the East, vol. ii, pp. 191. 192. 
The numbers in the text refer to the paragraphs in Gautama's third book. The 
similar passages of Baudhayana are referred to in the notes. 

' Compare Baudhayana II, 6, n, 16. ' Baudhayana II, 6, 11, 20. 

4 AMrknga Sutra II, a, a, § 6. 

5 Kalpa Sfltra, Lives of the Ginas, $ 1 19. 

* Baudhayana II, 6, 12, 2a. ' Kalpa Sutra, Rules for Yatis, $ 20. 



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XXvi GAINA SUTRAS. 



i 6. 'Abandoning all desires (for sweet food).' The same 
is prescribed in the fourth clause of the fifth great vow of 
the Cainas 1 , and is, besides, the apparent motive in many- 
rules for the acceptance or rejection of alms. 

17. 'He shall restrain his speech, his eyes, (and) his 
actions.' This nearly agrees with the three Guptis of the 
Cainas, or the restraining of the mind, speech, and body 2 . 

18. ' He shall wear a cloth to cover his nakedness V The 
6'aina rules about dress are not so simple ; for they allow 
a Gaina to go naked or to wear one, two, or three garments, 
but a young, strong monk should as a rule wear but one 
robe 4 . Mahavira went about naked 5 , and so did the 
G'inakalpikas, or those who tried to imitate him as much 
as possible. But they also were allowed to cover their 
nakedness 8 . 

19. ' Some (declare that he shall wear) an old rag after 
having washed it.' Baudhayana 7 says : ' He shall wear a 
dress dyed yellowish-red.' This rule agrees more with the 
practice of the Buddhists than that of the Cainas. The latter 
are forbidden to wash or dye their clothes, but they must 
wear them in the same condition in which they are given 8 . 
However, the Gainas have only carried into the extreme 
the original intention of the Brahmanic rule, viz. that the 
dress of ascetics should be as simple and mean as possible. 
For they seem to take a sort of pride in outdoing their 
Brahmanic rivals as regards rigorous conduct, mistaking 
nastiness and filthiness for the highest pitch of ascetic 
virtue 9 , while on the other hand the Buddhists studied to 
bring their conduct in accordance with the dictates of 
humanity. 

ao. ' He shall not take parts of plants and trees except 
such as have become detached (spontaneously).' The 
Cainas have the same precept, but they go still farther 



1 AiAranga Sutra II, 15, v, § 15. 

" Kalpa Sutra, Lives of the Ginas, i 118. 

* Baudhayana, I.e. J 16. * AHringa Sutra II, 5. 1, § 1. 

5 Kalpa Sutra, Lives of the Ginas, § 117. « Aiaringa Sutra I, 7, 7, 1. 

* L. c. 5 31. ' A*araiiga Sfltra II, 5, a, 1, and I, 7, 5, a. 

* Compare Alarai'iga Sfltra II, 2, a, 1. 



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INTRODUCTION. XXVU 



in allowing- a Caina to eat only such vegetables, fruits, &c. 
as have no trace of life left *. 

21. 'Out of season he shall not dwell a second night 
in (the same) village.' We have seen above that Mahavira 
carried out this precept whatever may have been the prac- 
tice of the monks in general. 

22. ' He may either shave or wear a lock on the crown of 
the head.' The Cainas have improved on this rule as they 
make baldness binding for all monks. According to Bau- 
dhayana 2 a Brahman on becoming an ascetic had to cause 
' the hair of his head, his beard, the hair on his body, and 
his nails to be cut.' The same practice, at least as regards 
the cutting of the hair, was observed by the Cainas on the 
same occasion. Hence the phrase: 'becoming bald (or 
tearing out one's hair) to leave the house and enter the 
state of houselessness 3 .' 

23. ' He shall avoid the destruction of seeds.' The reader 
will observe, in many passages of the second book of the 
A/fcaranga Sutra, how careful Caina monks should be of 
avoiding to injure eggs, living beings, seeds, sprouts, &c. 
It seems therefore that the (7ainas have only generalised 
the above rule in applying it to all small beings of the 
animal and vegetable world. 

24. '(He shall be) indifferent towards (all) creatures, 
whether they do him an injury or a kindness.' 

25. 'He shall not undertake (anything for his temporal 
or spiritual welfare).' 

The last two rules could just as well be taken from a 
sacred book of the Camas, for they are in full accordance 
with the drift of their religion. Mahavira strictly carried 
them out. ' More than four months many sorts of living 
beings gathered on his body, crawled about it, and caused 
there pain 4 .' ' Always well guarded, he bore the pains (caused 
by) grass, cold, fire, flies, and gnats ; manifold pains 5 .' ' He 
with equanimity bore, underwent, and suffered all pleasant 



1 AJ&ranga Sfltra II, I, J, 6, and 8th Lesson. 

* Baudhayana II, 10, 17, 10. 

* Munu/e bhavittS agarao anag&riyam pawaie. 

* AHranga Sfltra I, 8, 1, 2. * AiSranga Sfitra I, 8, 3, 1 . 



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xxviii gaina sOtras. 



or unpleasant occurrences, arising from divine powers, men, 
or animals 1 .' It is frequently said of the ascetic in the last 
stage of his spiritual career that 'he does desire neither life 
nor death V 

There are some more precepts in Baudhayana which bear 
a close resemblance to such of the Gainas. 'With the three 
means of punishment, (viz.) words, thoughts, and acts, he 
shall not injure created beings 3 .' This is only an amplifi- 
cation of the first great vow (see above). ' Means of punish- 
ment 'is what the Gainas call weapon (jastra 4 ). 

' He shall carry a cloth for straining water for the sake of 
purification.' ' He shall perform the necessary purifications 
with water which has been taken out (of a well or a tank) 
and has been strained 8 .' These rules are strictly observed 
by the Gaina monks. They also carry a cloth for straining 
water. The commentator Govinda explains pavitra, ' a cloth 
for straining water,' by ' a bunch of Kara grass for removing 
insects from the road V If Govinda be right, and had the 
authority of a really old tradition, which I do not doubt, 
we have here the Brahmanic counterpart of the broom 
(ra£ohara»a or padaproftMana) with which the Gaina monks 
sweep the road and the place where they walk or sit down, 
for removing insects. 

The outfit of a Brahmanic ascetic consists in ' sticks, a 
rope, a cloth for straining water, a water vessel, and an alms- 
bowl 7 .' The Gaina monks also carry sticks, at least now- 
a-days, though I remember no passage in the Pi/akas 
expressly allowing the use of a stick. They have also 
a rope belonging to the alms- bowl 8 , an alms-bowl, and a 
water vessel 9 . Of the cloth for straining water, and the 
broom, we have already spoken. The filter for the mouth 
(mukhavastrika) remains as the only article exclusively used 

1 Kalpa Sfltra, Lives of the Ginas, J 117, towards the end. 

* E. g. Kalpa Sfltra, Rules for Yatis, $ 51. 

' Baudhayana II, 6, 11, 23. * Aiaranga Sfltra, p. I, note 2. 

4 Baudhayana II, 6, 11, 34, 25. 

* See Professor Buhler's translation, p. 260, note. 

» Baudhayana IL 10, 17, 1 1. • JUaranga Sfltra, p. 67, note 3. 

* Though a monk is allowed to carry a water vessel besides his alms-bowl, 
still it is thought more meritorious to have but one bowl. 



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INTRODUCTION. XXIX 



by the Gainas. On the whole, therefore, the Gainas were 
outfitted very much like their Brahmanic models, the 
Sawmyasins or Bhikshus. 

* Let him eat food, given without asking, regarding which 
nothing has been settled beforehand, and which has reached 
him accidentally, so much only as is sufficient to sustain 
life 1 .' The reader will find on perusing the Gaina 'rules 
for begging 2 ' that only that food is considered 'pure and 
acceptable' which has been obtained under exactly the 
same circumstances as have been laid down in the above 
rule of Baudhayana for Brahmanic ascetics. The Bud- 
dhists are not so strict in this regard, as they accept invita- 
tions for dinner, of course, prepared especially for them. 

From the comparison which we have just instituted 
between the rules for the Brahmanic ascetic and those for 
the Gaina monk, it will be apparent that the latter is but a 
copy of the former. But now the question may be raised 
whether the Nirgrantha is a direct copy of the Sawnyasin, 
or an indirect one. For it might be assumed that the Nir- 
grantha copied the Buddhist Bhikkhu, who himself was but 
a copy of the Sawnyasin. As I have hinted above, this 
suggestion is not a probable one, for there being a model 
of higher antiquity and authority, the Gainas would proba- 
bly have conformed rather to it than to the less respected 
and second-hand model of their rivals, the Buddhists. But 
besides this prima facie argument against the assumption 
in question, the adoption of certain Brahmanic rules, noticed 
above, by the Ginas, which were not followed by the Buddhists, 
proves that the latter were not the model of the former. 

There remains another possibility, but a still more im- 
probable one, viz. that the Brahmanic ascetic copied the 
Buddhist Bhikkhu or Gaina monk. I say still more im- 
probable, because, firstly, the Samnyasin makes part of the 
system of the four stages, or Arramas, which if not so old 
as Brahmanism itself, is at least much older than both 
Buddhism and Gainism ; secondly, the Brahmanic ascetics 
were scattered all over India, while the Buddhists were 

1 Baudhayana II, 10, 18, 13. ' AWranga Sutra II, I. 



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XXX GAINA SUTRAS. 



confined, at least in the first two centuries of their church, 
to a small part of the country, and therefore could not 
have been imitated by all the Sa/wnyasins ; thirdly, Gau- 
tama, the lawgiver, was certainly older than the rise of 
Buddhism. For Professor Biihler thinks that the lower 
limit for the composition of the Apastamba Sutra must 
be placed in the fourth or fifth century B. C. ' Baudhayana 
is older than Apastamba ; according to Biihler 2 , the dis- 
tance in years between them must be measured rather by 
centuries than by decades. Again, Gautama is older than 
Baudhayana 3 . Gautama, therefore, and perhaps Baudha- 
yana, must have lived before the rise of Buddhism, and as 
the former teaches already the complete system of Brah- 
manic ascetism, he cannot have borrowed it from the 
Buddhists. But if Biihler should be wrong in his estima- 
tion of the time when those codes of sacred laws were 
composed, and if they should turn out to be younger than 
the rise of Buddhism, they certainly cannot be so by many 
centuries. Even in that case, which is not a probable one, 
those lawgivers are not likely to have largely borrowed 
from the Buddhists whom the Brahmans at that time must 
have despised as false pretenders of a recent origin. They 
would certainly not have regarded laws as sacred which were 
evidently appropriated from heretics. On the other hand 
the Buddhists had no reason not to borrow from the Brah- 
mans, because they greatly respected the latter for the 
sake of their intellectual and moral superiority. Hence 
the Cainas and Buddhists use the word Brahmawa as an 
honorific title, applying it even to persons who did not 
belong to the caste of Brahmans. 

It may be remarked that the monastical order of the 
Gainas and Buddhists though copied from the Brahmans 
were chiefly and originally intended for Kshatriyas. Buddha 
addressed himself in the first line to noble and rich men, 
as has been pointed out by Professor Oldenberg 4 . For 

1 Sacred Laws of the Aryas, part i, introduction, p. xliii. 
5 L. c. p. xxii. ' L. c p. xlix. 

1 Buddha, sein Leben, Sec, p. 157 seq. 



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INTRODUCTION. XXXI 



Buddha, in his first sermon at Benares, speaks of his reli- 
gion as that yass' atthaya kulaputta sammad eva 
agarasma anagariyaw pabba^anti: for the sake of 
which sons of noble families leave the house and enter the 
state of houselessness 1 . That the Camas too gave the 
Kshatriyas the preference over the Brahmans is proved by 
that curious legend about the transfer of the embryo of 
Mahavira from the womb of the Brahma«l Devananda to 
that of the Kshatriyawi TrLrala, it being alleged that a 
Brahman! or another woman of low family was not worthy 
to give birth to a Tirthakara 2 . 

On the other hand it is probable that Brahmanic ascetics 
did not regard fellow-ascetics of other castes as quite their 
equals, though they were just as orthodox as themselves. 
For in later times the opinion prevailed that only Brah- 
mans were entitled to enter the fourth Arrama, and as a 



1 Mabivagga I, 6, 12. 

1 This legend is rejected as absurd by the Digambaras, but the £vetambaras 
staunchly uphold its truth. As it is found in the Aiararrga, the Kalpa Sutra, 
and many other books, it cannot be doubted that it is very old. However, it 
is not at all clear for what reason so absurd a legend could have been invented 
and have gained currency. Yet I may be allowed to offer my opinion on this 
dark point. I assume that Siddhartha had two wives, the Brahman! Devananda, 
the real mother of Mahavira, and the Kshatriyant Triiala ; for the name of 
the alleged husband of the former, viz. Rishabhadatta, cannot be very old, be- 
cause its Prakrit form would in that case probably be Usabhadinna instead of 
Usabhadatta. Besides, the name is such as could be given to a Gaina only, 
not to a Brahman. I therefore make no doubt that /Jishabhadatta has been 
invented by the Gainas in order to provide Devananda with another husband. 
Now Siddhartha was connected with persons of high rank and great influence 
through his marriage with Trisala. It was, therefore, probably thought more 
profitable to give out that Mahavira was the son. and not merely the step-son 
of TrisalS, for this reason, that he should be entitled to the patronage of her 
relations. This story could all the more easily have gained credence as 
Mahavtra's parents were dead many years when he came forward as a prophet. 
But as the real state of things could not totally have been erased from the 
memory of the people, the story of the transfer of the embryos was invented. 
The latter idea was not an original conception of the Gainas, but it is evidently 
borrowed from the Purawic story of the transfer of the embryo of Krishna 
from the womb of Devakl to that of Rohint. The worship of Krishna seems to 
have been popular during the first centuries of the development of the Gaina 
creed ; for the Gainas have reproduced the whole history of Krishna, with 
small alterations, in relating the life of the twenty-second Tirthakara, Arish/a- 
nemi, who was a famous Yadava. 



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xxxii gaina sOtras. 



proof for this theory a verse of Manu, VI, 97, as Professor 
Biihler informs me, was quoted. But not all commentators 
drew the same inference from that verse. Leaving aside 
this controverted point, it certainly became, in later times, 
the custom that a Brahman, as a rule, passed through four, 
a nobleman through three, a citizen through two, a Sudra 
through one of the four Arramas 1 . 

From all this it becomes probable that the non-Brahma- 
nic ascetics even in early times were regarded as an order 
separate and distinguished from the Brahmanic ascetics. 
We can understand that this position of non-Brahmanic 
ascetics led to the formation of sects inclining to dissent. 
That the untrue ascetics had such an origin, may be col- 
lected from a remark of Vasish/Aa. It is known that the 
performance of religious ceremonies was discontinued by 
the ascetics, but some went beyond this and discontinued 
the recitation of the Veda. Against transgressors of this 
kind VasishA&a 2 has the following quotation : ' Let him dis- 
continue the performance of all religious ceremonies, but 
let him never discontinue the recitation of the Veda. By 
neglecting the Veda he becomes a .Sudra; therefore he 
shall not neglect it' An inhibition pronounced so em- 
phatically presupposes the real occurrence of the practices 
forbidden. If therefore some ascetics already had ceased 
to recite the Veda, we may conclude that others began to 
disregard it as revelation and the highest authority. That 
those who were regarded as a sort of inferior ascetics, the 
non-Brahmanic ascetics, were most likely to make this step, 
is easy to imagine. We see thus that the germs of dissent- 
ing sects like those of the Buddhists and the Gainas were 
contained in the institute of the fourth Ajrama, and that 
the, latter was the model of the heretical sects ; therefore 
Buddhism and Gainism must be regarded as religions de- 
veloped out of Brahmanism not by a sudden reformation, 
but prepared by a religious movement going on for a long 
time. 



* Max Miiller, The Hibbert Lectures, p. 343. 
5 Chapter x, 4. Biihler" s translation. 



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INTRODUCTION. XXXlll 



We have seen that neither the Caina legends about their 
last prophet, nor the ascetic life ordained for Caina monks, 
nor any other religious practices adhered to by the faithful, 
warrant our assuming that the Gaina sect has developed, 
in one way or other, out of the Buddhistical church. It 
remains for me to show that the difference of both creeds 
as regards the principal tenets is such as not to admit a 
common origin. Whatever Buddha may have taught and 
thought about the state of Nirvawa, whether he went the 
length to identify it with absolute non-existence, or imagined 
it to be a sort of existence different from all we know or 
can conceive, it is beyond doubt, and a striking feature of 
Buddha's philosophy, that he combated the Brahmanic 
theory of the Atman, as being the absolute and permanent 
soul, according to the pantheist as well as the monadic 
point of view. But the Gainas fully concur in the Brahmanic 
theory of the Atman, with only this difference, that they as- 
cribe to the Atmans a limited space, while the Brahmans of 
the Sankhya, Nyaya, and Vaueshika schools contend that the 
Atmans are co-extensive with the universe. On the other 
hand, the Buddhistical theory of the five Skandhas with their 
numerous subdivisions have no counterpart in the psycho- 
logy of the Cainas. A characteristic dogma of the Camas 
which pervades their whole philosophical system and code 
of morals, is the hylozoistic theory that not only animals 
and plants, but also the smallest particles of the elements, 
earth, fire, water, and wind, are endowed with souls (j'iva). 
No such dogma, on the other hand, is contained in the 
philosophy of the Buddhists. To Indian philosophers the 
various degrees of knowledge up to omniscience are 
matters of great moment. The Gainas have a theory of 
their own on this head, and a terminology which differs 
from that of the Brahmanic philosophers and of the Bud- 
dhists. Right knowledge, they say, is fivefold: (i) mati, 
right perception ; (2) jruta, clear knowledge based on mati; 
(3) avadh i, a sort of supernatural knowledge ; (4) mana/i- 
paryiya, clear knowledge of the thoughts of others; (5) 
kevala, the highest degree of knowledge, consisting in 
omniscience. This psychological theory is a fundamental 



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XXXIV GAINA SOTRAS. 



one of the 6ainas, as it is always before the mind of the 
authors of the sacred books when describing the spiritual 
career of the saints. But we search in vain for something 
analogous in the Buddhist scriptures. We could multiply 
the instances of difference between the fundamental tenets 
of both sects, but we abstain from it, fearing to tire the 
reader's patience with an enumeration of all such cases. 
Such tenets as the (Jainas share with the Buddhists, both 
sects have in common with the Brahmanic philosophers, e. g. 
the belief in the regeneration of souls, the theory of the 
Karman, or merit and demerit resulting from former actions, 
which must take effect in this or another birth, the belief 
that by perfect knowledge and good conduct man can avoid 
the necessity of being born again and again, &c. Even the 
theory that from time immemorial prophets (Buddhas or 
Tirthakaras) have proclaimed the same dogmas and re- 
newed fhe sinking faith, has its Brahmanic counterpart in 
the Avatiras of Vishwu. Besides, such a theory is a 
necessary consequence both of the Buddhistical and Caina 
creed. For what Buddha or Mahavira had revealed was, 
of course, regarded by the followers of either as truth and 
the only truth ; this truth must have existed from the 
beginning of time, like the Veda of the Brahmans; but 
could the truth have remained unknown during the infinite 
space of time elapsed before the appearance of the prophet ? 
No, would answer the pious believer in Buddhism or 
Cainism, that was impossible ; but the true faith was re- 
vealed in different periods by numberless prophets, and so 
it will be in the time to come. The theory of former 
prophets seems, therefore, to be a natural consequence of 
both religions; besides, it was not wholly unfounded on 
facts, at least as regards the Cainas. For the Nirgranthas 
are never spoken of in the Buddhist writings as a newly 
risen sect, nor Nataputta as their founder. Accordingly the 
Nirgranthas were probably an old sect at the time of 
Buddha, and Nataputta only the reformer of the 6"aina 
church, which may have been founded by the twenty-third 
Tirthakara, Parjva. But what seems astonishing is the 
fact that the 6ainas and Bauddhas have hit on nearly the 



Google 



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INTRODUCTION. XXXV 



same number of prophets believed to have risen since the 
creation of the present order of things, the former worship- 
ping twenty-four Tirthakaras, the latter twenty-five Bud- 
dhas. I do not deny that in developing this theory one sect 
was influenced by the other ; but I firmly believe that it 
cannot be made out which of the two sects first invented, 
or borrowed from the Brahmans, this theory. For if the 
twenty-five Buddhas were worshipped by the Buddhists 
of the first centuries after the Nirviwa, the belief in 
twenty-four Tirthakaras is equally old, as it is common 
to the Digambaras and Svetambaras, who separated pro- 
bably in the second century after the Nirva«a. However 
the decision of the question whether the Buddhists or 
the Gainas originally invented the theory of the succes- 
sion of prophets, matters little; it cannot influence the 
result to which the previous discussion has led us, viz. ( i ) 
that Cainism had an origin independent from Buddhism, 
that it had a development of its own, and did not largely 
borrow from the rival sect; (a) that both Gainism and 
Buddhism owed to the Brahmans, especially the Sawmya- 
sins, the groundwork of their philosophy, ethics, and 
cosmogony. 

Our discussion has as yet been conducted on the supposi- 
tion that the tradition of the 6'ainas as contained in their 
sacred books may on the whole be credited. But the intrin- 
sic value of this tradition has been called into question by a 
scholar of wide views and cautious judgment. Mr. Barth, in 
the Revue de l'Histoire des Religions, vol. iii, p. 90, admits 
that an historical personage is hidden under Nataputta, but 
he doubts that valid inferences may be drawn from the 
sacred books of the £ainas which, avowedly, have been 
reduced to writing in the fifth century A. D., or nearly a 
thousand years after the foundation of the sect. For, in 
his opinion, ' the self-conscient and continuous existence of 
the sect since that remote epoch, i. e. the direct tradition of 
peculiar doctrines and records, has not yet been demon- 
strated. During many centuries,' he says, ' the Gainas had 
not become distinct from the numerous groups of ascetics 
who could not boast of more than an obscure floating 

c 2 



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XXXVI GAINA SUTRAS. 



existence/ The tradition of the Gainas appears to Mr. Barth 
to have been formed of vague recollections in imitation of 
the Buddhist tradition. 

Mr. Barth seems to base his theory on the assumption 
that the Gainas must have been careless in handing down 
their sacred lore, since they formed, for many centuries, but 
a small and unimportant sect. I cannot see the force of 
this argument of Mr. Barth's. Is it more likely that a sect 
of which the not very numerous followers are scattered over 
a large country, or a church which has to satisfy the reli- 
gious wants of a great multitude, will better preserve its 
original tenets and traditions? It is impossible to decide 
this question on a priori grounds. The Jews and the 
Parsis may be adduced as instances in favour of the former 
view, the Roman Catholic church as one in favour of the 
latter. But we are not obliged to rely on such generalities 
in order to decide the question at issue with regard to the 
Gainas, for they were so far from having only dim notions 
of their own doctrines that they pronounced as founders 
of schisms those who differed from the great bulk of the 
faithful in comparatively unimportant details of belief. This 
fact is proved by the tradition about the seven sects of the 
^vetambaras made known by Dr. Leumann 1 . The Digam- 
baras also, who separated from the Svetambaras probably 
in the second or third century after the Nirva«a, differ from 
their rivals but little with regard to philosophical tenets ; yet 
they were nevertheless stigmatised by the latter as heretics 
on account of their rules of conduct. All these facts show 
that the G'ainas, even previous to the redaction of their 
sacred books, had not a confused and undefined creed, which 
would have been liable to become altered and denied by 
doctrines adopted from widely different religions, but one 
in which even the minutest details of belief were fixed. 

What has been said about the religious doctrines of the 
G'ainas can also be proved of their historical traditions. 
For the detailed lists Of teachers handed down in the 
several Ga££Aas 2 , and those incorporated in their sacred 

1 Sie Indische Studien, XVI. » See Dr. Klatt, Tnd. Ant. XL 



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INTRODUCTION. XXXV11 



books, show that the G'ainas did possess an interest in the his- 
tory of their church. I do not deny that a list of teachers may 
be invented, or an incomplete one filled up or made pakka, 
as the Hindus would say ; the necessity of proving itself to 
be legitimately descended from a recognised authority may 
induce a sect to invent the names of a line of teachers. 
But what could have caused the Gainas to fabricate 
such a detailed list of teachers, Ca«as, and Sakhas as 
that in the Kalpa Sutra? Of most of the details the 
(rainas of later times knew nothing beyond what they 
found in the Kalpa Sutra itself, — and that is unfortunately 
very little, — nor did they pretend to anything more. For 
all practical purposes the short list of Sthaviras, as it stands 
in the Kalpa Sutra, would have been sufficient ; the pre- 
servation of the detailed list, containing so many bare 
names, proves that they must have had an interest for the 
members of the early church, though the more accurate 
knowledge of the times and events chronicled in that list 
was lost after some centuries. 

However, it is not enough to have proved that the Gainas, 
even before the redaction of their sacred books, possessed 
the qualities necessary for continuing their creed and tradi- 
tion, and preserving them from corruptions caused by large 
borrowings from other religious systems ; we must also 
show that they did do what they were qualified to do. 
This leads us to a discussion of the age of the extant 
Caina literature. For if we succeed in proving that the 
6"aina literature or at least some of its oldest works were 
composed many centuries before they were reduced to 
writing, we shall have reduced, if not closed, the gap sepa- 
rating the prophet of the Cainas from their oldest records. 

The redaction of the 6'aina canon or the Siddhanta took 
place, according to the unanimous tradition, on the council 
of Valabhi, under the presidency of Devarddhi. The date of 
this event, 980 (or 993) A. v., corresponding to 454 (or 467) 
A. D. 1 , is incorporated in the Kalpa Sutra (§ 148). Devard- 
dhi Gawin, says the tradition, perceiving the Siddhanta in 

1 It is possible, but not probable, that the date of the redaction fell sixty years 
later, 514 (527) A. D. ; see Kalpa Sutra, introduction, p. 15. 



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xxxviii gaina sCtras. 



danger of becoming extinct, caused it to be written in 
books. Before that time teachers made no use of written 
books when teaching the Siddhanta to novices, but after 
that time they did use books. The latter part of this 
statement is evidently true. For in olden times books 
were not used, it being the custom of the Brahmans to 
rely rather on the memory than on the MSS., and in this 
they were, almost without doubt, followed by the Cainas 
and Buddhists. But now-a-days Yatis use MSS. when 
teaching the sacred lore to their novices. There is no 
reason why we should not credit the tradition that this 
change in the method of instruction was brought about by 
Devarddhi Gan'm ; for the event was of too great import- 
ance not to be remembered. To provide every teacher or 
at least every Uplrraya with copies of the sacred books, 
Devarddhi Ga«in must have issued a large edition of the 
Siddhanta. This is probably the meaning of the traditional 
record that Devarddhi caused the Siddhanta to be written 
in books, for it is hardly credible that the Caina monks 
should never before have attempted to write down what 
they had to commit to memory ; the Brahmans also have 
MSS. of their sacred books, though they do not use them 
in handing down the Veda. These MSS. were intended 
for private use, to aid the memory of the teacher. I make 
no doubt that the same practice was observed by the <7aina 
monks, the more so as they were not, like the Brahmans, 
influenced by any theory of their own not to trust to MSS., 
but were induced merely by the force of the prevalent 
custom to hand down their sacred lore by word of mouth. 
I do not maintain that the sacred books of the £ainaswere 
originally written in books, for the same argument which 
has been brought forward to prove that the Buddhist 
monks could have had no MSS., as they are never men- 
tioned in their sacred books, in which ' every movable thing, 
down to the smallest and least important domestic utensils, 
is in some way or other referred to 1 ,' the same argument, I 
say, holds good with regard to the 6ainas as long as the 

1 Sacred Books of the East, vol. xiii, introduction, p. xxxiii. 



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INTRODUCTION. XXXIX 



monks led a wandering life ; but when the monks were 
settled in Up&rrayas exclusively belonging to themselves, 
they may have kept there their MSS. as they do now- 
a-days. 

Devarddhi's position relative to the sacred literature of 
the 6'ainas appears therefore to us in a different light from 
what it is generally believed to have been. He probably 
arranged the already existing MSS. in a canon, taking 
down from the mouth of learned theologians only such 
works of which MSS. were not available. Of this canon a 
great many copies were taken, in order to furnish every 
seminary with books which had become necessary by the 
newly introduced change in the method of religious instruc- 
tion. Devarddhi's edition of the Siddhanta is therefore 
only a redaction of the sacred books which existed before 
his time in nearly the same form. Any single passage in a 
sacred text may have been introduced by the editor, but 
the bulk of the Siddhanta is certainly not of his making. 
The text of the sacred books, before the last redaction of 
the Siddhanta, did not exist in such a vague form as it 
would have been liable to if it were preserved only by the 
memory of the monks, but it was checked by MSS. 

On this premise we now proceed to inquire into the date 
of the composition of the sacred books of the Cainas. Their 
own dogmatical theory that all sacred books were revealed 
by the first Ttrthakara, shall only be noticed to be dis- 
missed. We must try to discover better grounds for fixing 
the age when the chief works of the Siddhanta were 
composed. 

As single passages may have crept into the text at any 
time, we can draw no valid inferences from them, even if 
they be sanctioned by Devarddhi's receiving them into his 
revised text. I attach therefore no great weight to the lists 
of barbarous or un- Aryan tribes 1 , nor to the mention of 
all seven schisms, the last of which occurred 584 A.v. 2 
Nothing is more common than that such details should be 

1 Among the latter Arava may denote the Arabs, as Weber thinks, or, as I 
prefer to think, the Tamils, whose language is called Aravamu by the Dravidians. 
' See Weber, Indische Studien, XVI, p. 337. 



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xl GAINA SUTRAS. 



added as a gloss, or be incorporated even in the text, by 
those who transmitted it either in writing or in instructing 
their pupils. But an argument of more weight is the fact 
that in the Siddhinta we find no traces of Greek astro- 
nomy. In fact the Caina astronomy is a system of incre- 
dible absurdity, which would have been impossible, if its 
author had had the least knowledge of the Greek science. 
As the latter appears to have been introduced in India about 
the third or fourth century A. D., it follows that the sacred 
books of the Camas were composed before that time. 

Another argument which offers itself for fixing the period of 
the composition of the sacred books, is the language in which 
they are written. But, unfortunately, it is not at all clear 
whether the sacred books have been handed down in that lan- 
guage in which they were composed, or in that in which they 
were pronounced,and transcribed in later generations, accord- 
ing to the then current idiom, till Devarddhi's edition put an 
end to the modernising of the language of the sacred books. 
I am inclined to believe the latter view to be correct,and look 
upon the absence of a self-consistent orthography of the 
£aina Prakrit as the effect of the gradual change of the 
vernacular language in which the sacred books were re- 
cited. In all MSS. of Caina texts, the same word is not 
always spelt in the same way. The differences of spelling 
refer chiefly to the retention, omission, or attenuation of 
single consonants between vowels, and the retention of the 
vowels e,o, before two consonants, or their change in i, u. It is 
hardly possible that the different spellings of a word should 
all correctly represent the pronunciation of that word at any 
given time, e.g. bhuta, bhuya; udaga, udaya, uaya; 
lobha, loha 1 , &c. ; but probably we must regard these 
methods of spelling as historical spellings, that is to say, that 
all different spellings presented in the MSS.which formed the 
materials for Devarddhi's edition of the Siddhinta, were 
looked upon as authentical and were preserved in all later 
copies of the sacred texts. If this assumption is correct, we 

1 I do not contend that no double forms of any word were current at any 
time, for there must have been a good many double forms, but I doubt that 
nearly every word should have existed in two or three forms. 



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INTRODUCTION. xli 



must regard the most archaic spellings as representing the 
pronunciation at or shortly after the epoch of the composi- 
tion of the sacred books, and the most modern one as repre- 
senting the pronunciation at or shortly before the redaction 
of the Siddhanta 1 . Now on comparing the Gaina Prakrit 
especially in the oldest form attainable with the Pali on one 
side, and the Prakrit of Hala, Setubandha, &c. on the other, 
it will appear to approach more the Pali than the later 
Prakrit. We may therefore conclude that chronologically 
also the sacred books of the Cainas stand nearer those of 
the Southern Buddhists than the works of later Prakrit 
writers. 

But we can fix the date of the Gaina literature between 
still narrower limits by means of the metres employed 
in the sacred books. I am of opinion that the first book 
of the A/fraranga Sutra and that of the Sutrakn'tanga 
Sutra may be reckoned among the most ancient parts of 
the Siddhanta ; the style of both works appears to me to 
prove the correctness of this assumption. Now a whole 
lesson of the Sutrakn'tanga Sutra is written in the Vaitaliya 
metre. The same metre is used in the Dhammapadam and 
other sacred books of the Southern Buddhists. But the Pali 
verses represent an older stage in the development of the 
Vaitaliya than those in the Sutrakn'tanga, as I shall prove 
in a paper on the post-Vedic metres soon to be published in 
the Journal of the German Oriental Society. Compared 
with the common Vaitaliya verses of Sanskrit literature, a 
small number of which occur already in the Lalita Vistara, 
the Vaitaliya of the Sutrakrztanga must be considered to 
represent an earlier form of the metre. Again, ancient Pali 
works seem to contain no verses in the Arya metre; at least 
there is none in the Dhammapadam, nor have I found one 
in other works. But both the AMranga and Sutrakrz'tanga 

1 It might be objected that archaic spellings are due to the influence of the 
knowledge of Sanskrit ; but the Gainas must always have been so well acquainted 
with Prakrit that they needed not any help from the Sanskrit to understand 
their sacred books. On the contrary, in their Sanskrit MSS. we frequently 
meet with words spelt like Prakrit words. Besides, some spellings cannot be 
explained as Sanskriticisms, e.g. daraga for daraya, the Sanskrit prototype 
being daraka. 



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xlii GAINA SUTRAS. 



contain each a whole lecture in Arya verses of a form which 
is decidedly older than, and probably the parent of the 
common Arya, The latter is found in the younger parts 
of the Siddhanta, in the Brahmanical literature, both in 
Prakrit and in Sanskrit, and in the works of the Northern 
Buddhists, e. g. the Lalita Vistara, &c. The form of the 
TrishAibh metre in ancient Gaina works is younger than 
that in the Pali literature and older than that in the 
Lalita Vistara. Finally the great variety of artificial 
metres in which the greater number of the Gathas in the 
Lalita Vistara, &c, is composed and which are wanting 
in the G'aina Siddhanta, seems to prove that the literary 
taste of the G'ainas was fixed before the composition of 
the latter works. From all these facts we must conclude 
that the chronological position of the oldest parts of the 
£aina literature is intermediate between the Pali literature 
and the composition of the Lalita Vistara. Now the Pali 
Pi/akas were written in books in the time of Va//a Gama«i, 
who began to reign 88 B.C. But they were in existence already 
some centuries before that time. Professor Max Miiller 
sums up his discussion on that point by saying: 'We must 
be satisfied therefore, so far as I can see, at present with 
fixing the date, and the latest date, of a Buddhist canon at 
the time of the Second Council, 377 B.C. 1 ' Additions and 
alterations may have been made in the sacred texts after 
that time ; but as our argument is not based on a single 
passage, or even a part of the Dhammapada, but on the 
metrical laws of a variety of metres in this and other Pali 
books, the admission of alterations and additions in these 
books will not materially influence our conclusion, viz. that 
the whole of the G'aina Siddhanta was composed after the 
fourth century B. c. 

We have seen that the oldest works in the Gaina canon 
are older than the Gathas in the Lalita Vistara. As this 
work is said to have been translated into Chinese 65 a. d„ 
we must place the origin of the extant G'aina literature 
before the beginning of our era. If we may judge about 

1 Sacred Books of the East, vol. x, p. xxxii. 



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INTRODUCTION. xltii 



the distance in time of the questionable date from either 
limit by the greater or less resemblance of the oldest 
Gaina works in verse with such of the Southern and North- 
ern Buddhists as regards metrical or stylistic peculiarities, 
we should place the beginning of the G"aina literature 
nearer the time of the Pali literature, rather than that of 
the Northern Buddhists. This result agrees pretty well 
with a tradition of the Svetambaras. For they say 1 that 
after the twelve years' famine, while Bhadrabahu was the 
head of the church, the Angas were brought together by 
the Sangha of Pa/aliputra. Now Bhadrabahu's death is 
placed 170 A.v. by the Svetambaras, and 162 A.v. by the 
Digambaras; he lived therefore, according to the former, 
under Aandragupta, who is said to have ascended the 
throne 155 A.V. Professor Max Miiller assigns to ATandra- 
gupta the dates 315-291 B.C.; Westergaard prefers 320 B.C. 
as a more likely date for ATandragupta, and so does Kern 2 . 
However this difference matters little : the date of the collec- 
tion or, perhaps more correctly, the composition of the Gaina 
canon would fall somewhere about the end of the fourth or 
the beginning of the third century B.C. It is worth noticing, 
that according to the above-cited tradition, the Sangha of 
Pa/aliputra collected the eleven Angas without the assist- 
ance of Bhadrabahu. As the latter is claimed by the 
Digambaras for one of their teachers, and as the Svetambaras, 
though doing the same,still continue the list of Sthaviras from 
Sambhutavi^aya, Bhadrabahu's fellow Sthavira, not from 
Bhadrabahu himself, it seems to follow that the Angas, 
brought together by the Sangha of Pa/aliputra, formed the 
canon of the .Svetambaras only, not that of the whole Gaina 
church. In that case we should not go wrong in placing the 
date of the canon somewhat later, under the patriarchate of 
Sthulabhadra, i. e. in the first part of the third century B. C. 

If the result of our preceding inquiry deserves credit — 
and I see no counter arguments entitling us to mistrust our 
conclusion — the origin of the extant Gaina literature cannot 
be placed earlier than about 300 B.C., or two centuries after 

1 Pari.<ish/a Parvan IX, 55 seqq. 

* Geschiedenis van het Buddhisme in Indie, ii, p. 266 note. 



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xllV GAINA SUTRAS. 



the origin of the sect. But we are not from this fact 
obliged to assume that the 6'ainas in the time intermediate 
between their last prophet and the composition of their 
canon had to rely on nothing more solid than a religious 
and legendary tradition, never brought into a fixed form. 
In that case, Mr. Barth's objections to the trustworthiness 
of the G'aina tradition would, it is true, not be without 
ground. However, we are told by the Svetambaras, as well 
as the Digambaras, that besides the Angas, there existed 
other and probably older works, called Purvas, of which 
there were originally fourteen. The knowledge of these 
Purvas was gradually lost, till at last it became totally 
extinct. The tradition of the .SVetambaras about the four- 
teen Purvas is this : the fourteen Purvas had been in- 
corporated in the twelfth Anga, the Dmh/ivada, which 
was lost before iooo A.V. But a detailed table of con- 
tents of it, and consequently of the Purvas, has survived 
in the fourth Anga, the Samavayanga, and in the Nandi 
Sutra 1 . Whether the Purvas, contained in the Drt'sh/i- 
vada, were the original ones, or, as I am inclined to believe, 
only abstracts of them, we cannot decide; at all events 
there has been a more detailed tradition about what they 
contained. 

Now we should as a rule be careful in crediting any 
tradition about some lost book or books of great antiquity, 
because such a tradition is frequently invented by an 
author to furnish his doctrines with an authority from 
which they may be derived. But in our case, there are no 
grounds for suspecting the correctness of so general and 
old a tradition as that about the Purvas. For the Angas do 
not derive their authority from the Purvas, but are believed 
to be coeval with the creation of the world. As a fraud, 
the tradition about the Purvas would therefore be unin- 
telligible ; but accepted as truth, it well falls in with our 
views about the development of the <7aina literature. 
The name itself testifies to the fact that the Purvas were 
superseded by a new canon, for purva means former, 

1 See Weber, Indiscbe Studien, XVI, p. 341 seqq. 



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INTRODUCTION. xlv 



earlier 1 ; and it is assuredly not by accident that the know- 
ledge of the Purvas is said to have commenced to fade away 
at the same time when the Ahgas were collected by the 
Sangha of Pa/aliputra. For after Bhadrabahu, only ten 
out of the fourteen Purvas were known. 

This then is the most natural interpretation we can place 
on the tradition about the fourteen Purvas, that they were 
the oldest sacred books, which however were superseded by 
a new canon. But as regards the cause of the abolition of 
the old canon and the composition of a new one, we are 
left to conjecture, and only as such I shall give my opinion. 
We know that the Dr*sh/ivada, which included the fourteen 
Purvas, dealt chiefly with the drwhris or philosophical 
opinions of the Gainas and other sects. It may be thence 
inferred that the Purvas related controversies held between 
Mahavlra and rival teachers. The title pravad a, which is 
added to the name of each Purva, seems to affirm this view. 
Besides, if Mahavira was not the founder of a new sect, but 
as I have tried to prove, the reformer of an old one, it is 
very likely that he should vigorously have combated the 
opinions of his opponents, and defended those he had 
accepted or improved. The founder of a religion has to 
establish his own system, he is not so much in danger to 
become a mere controversialist as a reformer. Now if the 
discourses of Mahavira, remembered and handed down by 
his disciples, were chiefly controversies, they must have lost 
their interest when the opponents of Mahavlra had died and 
the sects headed by them had become extinct. Could such 
contentions about philosophical questions which were no 
more of any practical importance, and bickerings of divines 
all but forgotten, though these things were of paramount 
interest to the contemporary world, serve as a canon for 
.later generations who lived in thoroughly changed circum- 
stances ? The want of a canon suiting the condition of the 

1 The Gainas explain the meaning of the word purva in the following way. 
The Ttrthakara himself taught the Purvas to his disciples, the Ganad haras. The 
Ganadharas then composed the Angas. There is evidently some truth in this 
tradition, as it does not agree with the dogma of the Angas, being taught already 
by the first Tlrthakara. See Weber, Indische Studien, XVI, p. 353. 



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xlvi GAINA SUTRAS. 



community must have made itself felt, and it led, in my 
opinion, to the composition of a new canon and the neglect 
of the old one. 

Professor A. Weber 1 assigns as the probable cause of 
the Dn'sh/ivada being lost, that the development of the 
.Svet&mbara sect had arrived at a point where the diversity 
of its tenets from those embodied in that book became too 
visible to be passed over. Therefore the Drtsh/ivada, which 
contained the Purvas, fell into neglect. I cannot concur in 
Professor Weber's opinion, seeing that the Digambaras also 
have lost the Purvas, and the Angas to boot- It is not 
probable that the development of Gainism during the 
two first centuries after the Nirva»a should have gone on 
at so rapid a pace that its two principal sects should have 
been brought to the necessity of discarding their old canon. 
For, as stated above, after the splitting of the church in 
these two sects the philosophical system of the 6"ainas 
remained stationary, since it is nearly the same with both 
sects. As regards ethics, both sects, it is true, differ more. 
But as the extant canon of the Svetambaras is not falling 
into neglect, though many practices enjoined in it have long 
since been abandoned, it is not more probable that they 
should have been more sensible on the same score at the 
time when the Purvas formed their canon. Besides, some 
of the Purvas are said to have continued to be extant long 
after the time which we have assigned for the formation of 
the new canon. At last they disappeared, not by an 
intentional neglect, I presume, but because the new canon 
set into clearer light the 6"aina doctrines, and put them 
forward more systematically than had been done in the 
controversial literature of the Purvas. 

Our discussion, which we here close, has, I hope, proved 
that the development of the Uaina church has not been, at 
any time, violently interrupted by some very extraordinary 
events; that we can follow this development from its true 
beginning through its different stages, and that Gainism 
is as much independent from other sects, especially from 



1 Indische Studien, XVI, p. 248. 



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INTRODUCTION. xlvii 



Buddhism, as can be expected from any sect. We must 
leave to future researches to work out the details, but I 
hope to have removed the doubts, entertained by some 
scholars, about the independence of the Caina religion and 
the value of its sacred books as trustworthy documents for 
the elucidation of its early history. 



It remains for me to add a few remarks about the two 
works which have been translated in this book. 

The A&tranga Sutra, or, as it is sometimes called, the 
Samayika 1 , is the first of the eleven Atigas. It treats of 
the a£ara, or conduct, which falls under the last of the four 
heads, or anuyogas, into which the sacred lore is divided, 
viz. Dharmakatha, Gawita, Dravya, and ATaranakarana. 
The Akarariga Sutra contains two books, or Smtaskandhas, 
very different from each other in style and in the manner in 
which the subject is treated. The subdivisions of the 
second book being called ATulas, or appendices, it follows 
that only the first book is really old. That it was consi- 
dered so even in later times, is apparent from a remark of 
.Stlanka, who wrote the commentary, which is the oldest one 
extant 2 . For speaking of the marigala or auspicious sen- 
tence which, according to a current theory, must occur at 
the beginning, in the middle, and at the end of each work, 
.Silanka points out as such the first sentence of the first 
lesson of the first lecture, the first sentence of the fifth 
lesson of the fifth lecture, and the latter half of the 16th 
verse in the fourth lesson of the eighth lecture of the first 
book. It is evident that he regarded the A^aranga Sutra 
as ending with the last-named passage, which is the last but 
one of the first book. 

The first book, then, is the oldest part of the A^aranga 
Sutra ; it is probably the old A^aranga Sutra itself to which 
other treatises have been added. For it is complete in 

• See Professor Weber's remarks on the possible bearing of this name in the 
treatise I had so often occasion to quote, p. 243 seqq. 

' It was not, however, the first commentary, for Sllinka mentions one by 
Gandhahastin. 



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xlviii gaina sOtras. 



itself; it describes in rather enigmatical language the pro- 
gress of the faithful towards the highest perfection. The 
last lecture, a sort of popular ballad on the glorious suffer- 
ing of the prophet, was perhaps added in later times, but 
as it stands now it serves well to illustrate and to set a high 
example of the true ascetic's life. But the greater part of 
the book is in prose of the most bewildering kind. Fre- 
quently we meet with fragments only of sentences, or with 
sentences which it is impossible to construe. This reminds 
us of the style of the Brahmanical Sutras; but there is 
this difference, that in the last-named works the single 
aphorisms are the necessary links in the logical concatena- 
tion of ideas, while in our book the single sentences or parts 
of sentences do not seem to be connected with one another 
in order to carry on the illustration of an idea. They do 
not read like a logical discussion, but like a sermon made 
up by quotations from some then well-known sacred books. 
In fact the fragments of verses and whole verses which are 
liberally interspersed in the prose text go far to prove the 
correctness of my conjecture ; for many of these ' disjecta 
membra ' are very similar to verses or Padas of verses 
occurring in the Sutrakrttanga, Uttaradhyayana, and 
Daravaikalika Sutras. They must therefore be taken as 
allusions to standard authorities. The same must be 
assumed of at least some prose sentences, especially those 
which are incomplete in themselves. Other passages again 
seem to be added to those quotations in order to explain 
or to complete them. I shall give a few specimens. I, 4, 
1, 3 we read, aho ya rao ^atam4«e dhire; this is a 
Pada of a Trish/ubh, and accordingly a quotation. The 
words which follow, saya agayapannane, explain the 
meaning of that quotation, aho ya rao = saya, £"ata- 
ma»e dhtre = agayapanna«e. The text continues 
pamatte bahiya pasa. This is probably a Pada of a 
51oka ; the rest of the sentence, ap pamatte saya 
parakkame^a, is the moral application of the pre- 
ceding one. We should therefore translate : ' Day and 
night exerting himself and steadfast,' i. e. always having 
ready wisdom. ' Look, the careless stand outside,' (there- 



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INTRODUCTION. xlix 



fore) being careful he should always exert himself. The 
commentator however does not separate the quotations 
from the glosses, but takes all these passages as parts of 
one sentence, which he interprets in the way that it has 
been rendered in the text of my translation, p. 37. 

In this as in many other cases I have preferred to give in 
my translation the meaning which Silanka has given in his 
commentary. For it is sometimes extremely difficult to 
separate the quotations from the remaining text. I have 
never dared to do so when they could not be proved to be 
parts of verses. I had therefore to leave unnoticed all such 
passages which, as the one quoted above, might be taken as 
a Pada of a .Sloka ; for in every prose work such passages 
occur, though they never were meant for verse. They may, 
therefore, only accidentally resemble parts of a .Sloka in 
our book too, though the great number of such passages 
is rather suspicious. The greatest difficulty however we 
should incur if we were to point out the prose quota- 
tions, though there are certainly such, e.g. I, 3, 1, 1, sutta 
amu/zi, munino satataw ^agaranti. Such phrases 
differ in style from the rest of the prose part ; but it would 
be impossible to draw the line between them and the work 
of the real author. From what has been said, it will appear 
how difficult it is to do justice to such a work as the first 
book of the A£aranga in the first attempt to translate it. 
In most cases I have contented myself with rendering the 
text according to the interpretation of the commentator. It 
must be left to future labours to come nearer the meaning 
of the author than it has been preserved by the tradition of 
the scholiasts. 

Formerly the first book contained nine lectures instead of 
eight, one lecture, the Mahaparinna, being now lost. It was, 
according to some authorities, Samavaylnga, Nandf, Ava- 
jyaka Niryukti, and Vidhiprabha l , the ninth lecture; but 
according to the Niryukti of the A&Lranga Sutra, which 
contains a systematic exposition of the subjects treated in 
the single lectures and lessons of the A^aringa itself, and 

1 See Weber, Indiscbe Studien, XVI, p. 251 seq. 
[22] d 



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1 GAINA SfJTRAS. 



to .Silanka and the other commentators, it was the eighth 
lecture. It contained seven lessons, and treated of some 
details of ascetic life 1 . The fact that the same subjects 
were treated in the second book probably occasioned the 
loss of the Mahaparinna, ' because it was superfluous *.' 

The second book consists of four parts (A'ula) or appen- 
dices. There were originally five A"ulas, but the fifth, the 
Nisihiy^gg^awa, is now reckoned as a separate work. The 
first and second parts lay down rules for conduct. Their 
style is very different from that of the first book, being 
rather cumbrous, and not at all aphoristical. The greatest 
difficulty in translating these parts is caused by the numer- 
ous technical terms, some of which remain obscure, notwith- 
standing the explanation of the commentary ; others again 
are simply transcribed into Sanskrit by the scholiast, and 
seem to require no definition to be understood by the 
modern 6'ainas. But it is'different with us, who are fre- 
quently reduced to guessing at the meaning of techni- 
calities which a Yati could explain at once. It is therefore 
to be hoped that some scholars in India, who can avail 
themselves of the instruction of a Yati, will turn their 
attention to this subject, and get an authentic explanation 
of the many technical terms the meaning of which cannot 
be ascertained by a European scholar by the means of 
Caina works only. 

The third and fourth A'ulas have, according to the Pari- 
j-ish/a Parvan IX, been revealed to the eldest sister of Sthu- 
labhadra by Simandhara, a £ina living in Purvavideha, a 
mythical continent This tradition is very remarkable, as 
it assigns what we should call the composition of the two 
last parts of the A^aringa Sutra to the same time when 
the Kalpa Sutra, which treats of a similar subject, was 
composed. 

The third part is of great interest, as it contains the 
materials from which the Life of Mahavira in the Kalpa 
Sutra has been worked out. In fact most of the prose 
paragraphs occur with but small alterations in the Kalpa 

1 See Calcutta edition, I, p. 435 seq., vv. 351-268. 
* Sftisayattanena, Weber, 1. c. 



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INTRODUCTION. li 



Sutra. The latter work adds little that is material from an 
historical point of view, but a great deal of descriptions 
which have become typical and are to be found in other 
6'aina works adapted to similar circumstances. The A£a- 
ranga Stitra contains, besides the above-mentioned para- 
graphs, some verses which are wanting in the Kalpa Sutra. 
On comparing these verses with those in the eighth lecture 
of the first book, we become aware of the great difference 
which subsists between both portions of the A&tranga 
Sutra, for in both, kindred subjects are treated in Arya 
verses, yet the difference in style and in the treatment of 
the metre is such as can only be explained by the assump- 
tion of a considerable distance of time. 

The latter part of the third /Tula, which treats of the five 
great vows, with their twenty-five clauses, calls for no fur- 
ther remark ; nor is anything more to be said about the 
twelve verses which make up the fourth A'ula, but that they 
are probably old, and have been added here for want of a 
better place. 

The translation of the A^aranga Sutra is based on my 
edition of the text in the Pali Text Society 1 , and the 
commentaries printed in the Calcutta edition of the Kkk- 
ranga Sutra. They are : 

i. 71ka of Silanka, also called Tattvaditya, said to have 
been finished in the Saka year 798 or 876 A.D., with the 
helpofVahari Sadhu. 

2. Dipika of G'mahamsa. Suri, a teacher of the Br*hat 
Kharatara Gakk/ta. The Dipika is almost verbally copied 
from the 71ka, which it pretends to reduce to a smaller 
compass. But the reduction consists almost entirely in the 
omission of Silanka's comments on the Niryukti verses, 
which form his introduction to every lecture and lesson. 

3. Panrva&indra's Balavabodha or Gu^erati Gloss. In 
some parts of the second book, which are not explained 
in the older commentaries, this gloss was the only help 
I had. It generally closely follows the explanation of the 
older commentaries, more especially that of the Dipika. 

About the Kalpa Sutra I have spoken at some length in 

1 The Ayaramga Sutta of the fvetambara Jains, London, 1882. 
d 2 



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Hi GAINA SUTRAS. 



the introduction to my edition of that work 1 , to which I 
refer the reader for further particulars. Since that time 
Professor Weber has taken up the subject in his treatise 
on the Sacred Books of the 6'ainas and corrected some 
mistakes of mine. He ascertained that the whole Kalpa 
Sutra is incorporated as the eighth lecture in the Daja- 
jrutaskandha, the fourth Kheda. Sutra. Professor Weber 
concurs in my opinion that the ' Rules for Yatis ' may be 
the work of Bhadrabahu 2 , and that the ' List of Sthaviras ' 
probably has been added by Devarddhi, the editor of the 
Siddhanta. I do not think, however, that Devarddhi was 
the author of the Life of Mahavira also, as Professor Weber 
suggests. For if it were the work of so well known a man, 
tradition would certainly not have allowed such a fact to 
become forgotten. It was a different thing with the List 
of Sthaviras, which consists of four or five distinct treatise's 
only put together and added to the Lives of the Ginas by the 
editor of the work. We cannot argue from the style of the 
Lives of the 6"inas that that part must be younger than 
the Rules for Yatis ; for the same difference of style occa- 
sioned by the diversity of the matter exists between the 
third /STula of the A^aranga Sutra and the two preceding 
ones. Nor can the meagreness of the contents be adduced 
as an argument against the antiquity of the Lives of the 
Ginas, since they were probably not intended for bio- 
graphical treatises, but served a liturgical purpose; for 
when the images of the Tirthakaras are worshipped in 
the temples they are addressed with hymns, one of which 
sums up the Kalyawakas or auspicious moments 3 . It is 

1 The Kalpa Sutra of Bhadrabahu, Leipzig, 1879. Abhandlungen fur die 
Kunde des Morgenlandcs, VII, I. 

* That the ' Rules for Yatis ' must have been composed at least six genera- 
tions after Mahavira is evident from 55 3-8, bat probably the work is still 
younger. For in § 6 the Sthaviras, who come immediately after the disciples of 
the Ganadharas, are spoken of in some contrast to the ' Sramanas Nirgranthas 
of the present time.' Yet the work cannot be comparatively young, because it 
appears from $§ 28-30 that the Ginakalpa had not yet fallen into disuse, as 
it had done in later times. 

* The rites are described and the hymns given in a modem work called 
Katurvimsatitirthankaranam pfi^a, a MS. of which belongs to the Deccan 
College. 



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INTRODUCTION. Illl 



with these Kalyawakas that the Lives of the 6'inas are 
chiefly concerned, and this fact seems to prove that the 
custom of mentioning the Kalyawakas in the worship of 
the Tirthakaras is a very old one ; for otherwise it would 
be impossible to conceive what could have induced an 
author to treat so largely of so barren a subject as has been 
done in the Kalpa Sutra. But whatever may be the age of 
the several parts of the Kalpa Sutra, it is certain that this 
work has been held in high esteem by the 6'ainas for more 
than a thousand years. It therefore deserves a place in 
this collection of translations from the Sacred Books of 
the East. I could only have wished to make my transla- 
tion more worthy of the place where it is to make its 
appearance ; but if I have somewhat fallen short in my 
performance, I hope it will be accepted as an excuse that 
I had to translate into a language which is not my own, 
works of a literature which, notwithstanding all that has 
been done for it, still is all but virgin soil to us. 

HERMANN JACOBI. 

Munster, Westphalia, 
June, 1884. 



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AA^ARANGA SUTRA. 



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Aa-arAnga sOtra. 



FIRST BOOK*. 
FIRST LECTURE 2 , 

CALLED 

knowledge of the weapon. 

First Lesson*. 

O long-lived (£ambusvamin 4 ) ! I (Sudharman) 
have heard the following discourse from the vene- 
rable (Mahavira) : (i) 

Here many do not remember whether they have 
descended in an eastern direction (when they were 
born in this world), or in a southern, or in a western, 
or in a northern direction, or in the direction from 
above, or in the direction from below, or in a direc- 
tion intermediate (between the cardinal points), or in 
a direction intermediate between these (and the 

1 Suyakkhamdha, xrutaskandha. 

* Agghayana., adhyayana. The first lecture is called sattha- 
pari»8&(fastra-pari£ , M), 'knowledge of the weapon.' Weapons 
are divided into material weapon and weapon consisting in a state 
(bh&va). The latter is explained to be non-control (asamyama) 
or the wrong use of mind, speech, and body. Knowledge (pari^wd) 
is twofold : comprehension and renunciation. The subject of the 
first lecture is, therefore, the comprehension and renunciation of 
everything that hurts other beings. 

' Uddesaya, uddaraka. 

* Gambusvimin was the disciple of Sudharman, one of the 
eleven chief disciples (gawadhara) of Mah&vfra. 



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A*AraSga sCtra. 



cardinal points). (2) Similarly, some do not know 
whether their soul is born again and again or not ; 
nor what they were formerly, nor what they will be- 
come after having died and left this world. (3) Now 
this is what one should know, either by one's own 
knowledge or through the instruction of the highest 
(i. e. a Tlrthakara), or having heard it from others : 
that he descended in an eastern direction, or in any 
other direction (particularised above). Similarly, some 
know that their soul is born again and again, that it 
arrives in this or that direction, whatever direction 
that may be. (4) He believes in soul 1 , believes in 
the world 2 , believes in reward s , believes in action 
(acknowledged to be our own doing in such judgments 
as these) : ' I did it;' 'I shall cause another to do it ;' 
'I shall allow another to do it 4 .' In the world, these 
are all the causes of sin 6 , which must be compre- 
hended and renounced. (5) A man that does not 
comprehend and renounce the causes of sin, descends 
in a cardinal or intermediate direction, wanders to all 
cardinal or intermediate directions, is born again and 
again in manifold births, experiences all painful 
feelings. (6) About this the Revered One has taught 



1 I.e. in a permanent soul, different from the body. This is 
said against the ATarvakas. 

* I. e. the plurality of souls, not in one all-soul, as the Vedintins. 

' Kamma (karma) is that which darkens our intellect, &c. Its 
result is the suffering condition of men, its cause is action 
(kiriyS, kriyl). 

4 The different tenses employed in these sentences imply, ac- 
cording to the commentators, the acknowledgment of the reality 
of time, as past, present, future. 

5 Kamma-samarambha. Kamma has been explained above. 
Samarawbha, a special action (kriya), is the engaging in something 
blamable (s&vadyanush/ftana). 



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BOOK I, LECTURE I, LESSON 2. 



the truth (comprehension and renunciation). For 
the sake of the splendour, honour, and glory of this 
life, for the sake of birth, death, and final liberation, 
for the removal of pain, all these causes of sin are at 
work, which are to be comprehended and renounced 
in this world. He who, in the world, comprehends 
and renounces these causes of sin, is called a reward- 
knowing sage (mu«i). Thus I say 1 . (7) 

Second Lesson 2 . 
The (living) world is afflicted, miserable, diffi- 
cult to instruct, and without discrimination. In 
this world full of pain, suffering by their different 
acts, see the benighted ones cause great pain. (1) 
See! there are beings individually embodied (in 
earth ; not one all-soul). See ! there are men who 

1 These words (tti bemi) stand at the end of every lesson. The 
commentators supply them also for the beginning of each lesson. 

* After the chief tenets of Gainism with regard to soul and actions 
have briefly been stated in the first lesson, the six remaining 
lessons of the first lecture treat of the actions which injure the six 
classes of lives or souls. The Gainas seem to have arrived at their 
concept of soul, not through the search after the Self, the self- 
existing unchangeable principle in the ever-changing world of phe- 
nomena, but through the perception of life. For the most general 
Gaina term for soul is life (fiva), which is identical with self (£ya, 
itman). There are numberless lives or souls, not only embodied 
in animals, men, gods, hell-beings (tasa, trasa), and plants (vanassaf, 
vanaspati), but also in the four elements — earth, water, fire, wind. 
Earth, &c, regarded as the abode of lives is called earth-body, &c. 
These bodies are only perceptible when an infinite number of them 
is united in one place. The earth-lives, &c, possess only one organ, 
that of feeling; they have undeveloped (avyakta)intellect and feelings 
(vedani), but no limbs, &c. The doctrines about these elementary 
lives are laid down in fihadrabahu's Niryukti of our Sutra, and are 
commented upon in jilanka's great commentary of it They are 
very abstruse, and deal in the most minute distinctions, which baffle 
our comprehension. 

B 2 



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AjtArMga sOtra. 



control themselves, (whilst others only) pretend 
to be houseless (i.e. monks, such as the Bauddhas, 
whose conduct differs not from that of house- 
holders), because one destroys this (earth-body) by 
bad and injurious doings, and many other beings, 
besides, which he hurts by means of earth, through 
his doing acts relating to earth. (2) About this the 
Revered One has taught the truth : for the sake of the 
splendour, honour, and glory of this life, for the sake 
of birth, death, and final liberation, for the removal 
of pain, man acts sinfully towards earth, or causes 
others to act so, or allows others to act so. This 
deprives him of happiness and perfect wisdom. 
About this he is informed when he has understood 
or heard, either from the Revered One or from the 
monks, the faith to be coveted. (3) There are some 
who, of a truth, know this (i. e. injuring) to be the 
bondage, the delusion, the death, the hell. For this 1 
a man is longing when he destroys this (earth-body) 
by bad, injurious doings, and many other beings, 
besides, which he hurts by means of earth, through 
his doing acts relating to earth. Thus I say. (4) 

As somebody may cut or strike a blind man 
(who cannot see the wound), as somebody may cut 
or strike the foot, the ankle, the knee, the thigh, the 
hip, the navel, the belly, the flank, the back, the 
bosom, the heart, the breast, the neck, the arm, 
the finger, the nail, the eye, the brow, the forehead, 
the head, as some kill (openly), as some extirpate 

1 Ikk' attham. The commentators think this to be a reference to 
the sentence, For the sake of the splendour, &c. It would be more 
natural to connect it with the foregoing sentence ; the meaning is, 
For bondage, &c, men commit violence, though they believe it to be 
for the happiness of this life. 



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BOOK I, LECTURE I, LESSON 3. 



(secretly), (thus the earth-bodies are cut, struck, and 
killed though their feeling is not manifest). (5) 

He who injures these (earth-bodies) does not 
comprehend and renounce the sinful acts ; he who 
does not injure these, comprehends and renounces 
the sinful acts. Knowing them, a wise man should 
not act sinfully towards earth, nor cause others to 
act so, nor allow others to act so. He who knows 
these causes of sin relating to earth, is called a 
reward-knowing sage. Thus I say. (6) 

Third Lesson 1 . 

(Thus I say) : He who acts rightly, who does 
pious work, who practises no deceit, is called 
houseless. (1) One should, conquering the world, 
persevere in that (vigour of) faith which one had 
on the entrance in the order; the heroes (of 
faith), humbly bent, (should retain their belief in) 
the illustrious road (to final liberation) and in the 
world (of water-bodies) ; having rightly compre- 
hended them through the instruction (of Mahavlra), 
(they should retain) that which causes no danger 
(i. e. self-control). Thus I say. (2) A man should 
not (himself) deny the world of (water-bodies), nor 
should he deny the self. He who denies the world 
(of water-bodies), denies the self; and he who denies 
the self, denies the world of (water-bodies). (3) 

See ! there are men who control themselves ; 

1 The water-lives which are treated of in this lesson are, as is the 
case with all elementary lives, divided into three classes : the sen- 
tient, the senseless, and the mixed. Only that water which is the 
abode of senseless water-lives may be used. Therefore water is 
to be strained before use, because the senseless lives only are 
believed to remain in water after that process. 



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a*arAnga sOtra. 



others pretend only to be houseless; for one de- 
stroys this (water-body) by bad, injurious doings, 
and many other beings, besides, which he hurts by 
means of water, through his doing acts relating to 
water. (4) About this the Revered One has taught 
the truth : for the sake of the splendour, honour, 
and glory of this life, for the sake of birth, death, 
and final liberation, for the removal of pain, man 
acts sinfully towards water, or causes others to act 
so, or allows others to act so. (5) This deprives 
him of happiness and perfect wisdom. About this 
he is informed when he has understood and heard 
from the Revered One, or from the monks, the faith 
to be coveted. There are some who, of a truth, 
know this (i.e. injuring) to be the bondage, the 
delusion, the death, the hell. For this a man is 
longing when he destroys this (water-body) by bad 
and injurious doings, and many other beings, besides, 
which he hurts by means of water, through his doing 
acts relating to water. Thus I say. (6) 

There are beings living in water, many lives ; of 
a truth, to the monks water has been declared to be 
living matter. See ! considering the injuries (done 
to water-bodies), those acts (which are injuries, but 
must be done before the use of water, e.g. straining) 
have been distinctly declared. Moreover he (who 
uses water which is not strained) takes away what 
has not been given (i.e. the bodies of water-lives). 
(A Bauddha will object) : ' We have permission, we 
have permission to drink it, or (to take it) for toilet 
purposes.' Thus they destroy by various injuries 
(the water-bodies). But in this their doctrine is of 
no authority. 

He who injures these (water-bodies) does not 



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BOOK I, LECTURE I, LESSON 4. 



comprehend and renounce the sinful acts; he who 
does not injure these, comprehends and renounces 
the sinful acts. (7) Knowing them, a wise man 
should not act sinfully towards water, nor cause 
others to act so, nor allow others to act so. He 
who knows these causes of sin relating to water, is 
called a reward-knowing sage. Thus I say. (8) 

Fourth Lesson. 

(Thus I say) : A man should not, of his own 
accord, deny the world (of fire-bodies), nor should 
he deny the self. He who denies the world (of 
fire-bodies), denies the self; and he who denies the 
self, denies the world (of fire-bodies). (1) He who 
knows that (viz. fire) through which injury is done 
to the long-living bodies (i.e. plants) \ knows also 
that which does no injury (i. e. control) ; and he who 
knows that which does no injury, knows also that 
through which no injury is done to the long-living 
bodies. (2) This has been seen by the heroes (of 
faith) who conquered ignorance; for they control 
themselves, always exert themselves, always mind 
their duty. He who is unmindful of duty, and 
desiring .of the qualities (i.e. of the pleasure and 
profit which may be derived from the elements) 
is called the torment 2 (of living beings). Knowing 
this, a wise man (resolves) : ' Now (I shall do) no 
more what I used to do wantonly before.' (3) See ! 
there are men who control themselves; others 
pretend only to be houseless ; for one destroys this 
(fire-body) by bad and injurious doings, and many 

1 The fire-bodies live not longer than three days. 
5 Damifa, 



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8 a*Aranga sOtra. 



other beings, besides, which he hurts by means of fire, 
through his doing acts relating to fire. About this 
the Revered One has taught the truth : for the sake 
of the splendour, honour, and glory of this life, for 
the sake of birth, death, and final liberation, for the 
removal of pain, man acts sinfully towards fire, 
or causes others to act so, or allows others to 
act so. (4) This deprives him of happiness and 
perfect wisdom. About this he is informed when 
he has understood, or heard from the Revered One 
or from the monks, the faith to be coveted. There 
are some who, of a truth, know this (i.e. injuring) 
to be the bondage, the delusion, the death, the hell. 
For this a man is longing, when he destroys this 
(fire-body) by bad and injurious doings, and many 
other beings, besides, which he hurts by means of 
fire, through his doing acts relating to fire. Thus 
I say. (5) 

There are beings living in the earth, living in 
grass, living on leaves, living in wood, living in 
cowdung, living in dust-heaps, jumping beings which 
coming near (fire) fall into it. Some, certainly, 
touched by fire, shrivel up ; those which shrivel up 
there, lose their sense there ; those which lose their 
sense there, die there. (6) 

He who injures these (fire-bodies) does not com- 
prehend and renounce the sinful acts ; he who does 
not injure these, comprehends and renounces the 
sinful acts. Knowing them, a wise man should not 
act sinfully towards fire, nor cause others to act so, 
nor allow others to act so. He who knows the 
causes of sin relating to fire, is called a reward- 
knowing sage. Thus I say. (7) 



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BOOK I, LECTURE I, LESSON 5. 



Fifth Lesson 1 . 

* I shall not do (acts relating to plants) after having 
entered the order, having recognised (the truth about 
these acts), and having conceived that which is free 
from danger (i.e. control).' 

He who does no acts (relating to plants), has 
ceased from works ; he who has ceased from 
them is called ' houseless.' (i) Quality is the whirl- 
pool (ava/la=sa#*s&ra), and the whirlpool is 
quality. Looking up, down, aside, eastward, he sees 
colours, hearing he hears sounds; (2) longing up- 
wards, down, aside, eastward, he becomes attached 
to colours and sounds. That is called the world ; 
not guarded against it, not obeying the law (of the 
Tlrthakaras), relishing the qualities, conducting him- 
self wrongly, he will wantonly live in a house (i.e. 
belong to the world). (3) 

See ! there are men who control themselves ; others 
pretend only to be houseless, for one destroys this (body 
of a plant) by bad and injurious doings, and many other 

1 The discussion of the ' wind-bodies,' which should follow that 
of the fire-bodies, is postponed for two lessons in which the vege- 
table and animal world is treated of. The reason for this inter- 
ruption of the line of exposition is, as the commentators state, 
that the nature of wind, because of its invisibleness, is open to 
doubts, whilst plants and animals are admitted by all to be living 
beings, and are, therefore, the best support of the hylozoistical 
theory. That wind was not readily admitted by the ancient 
Indians to be a peculiar substance may still be recognised in the 
philosophical Sutras of the Brahmans. For there it was thought 
necessary to discuss at length the proofs for the existence of a 
peculiar substance, wind. It should be remarked that wind was 
never identified with air, and that the Gainas had not yet separated 
air from space. 



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io AjcArAnga sOtra. 



beings, besides, which he hurts by means of plants, 
through his doing acts relating to plants. (4) About 
this the Revered One has taught the truth : for the 
sake of the splendour, honour, and glory of this life, 
for the sake of birth, death, and final liberation, for 
the removal of pain, man acts sinfully towards 
plants, or causes others to act so, or allows others 
to act so. This deprives him of happiness and 
perfect wisdom. About this he is informed when 
he has understood, or heard from the Revered 
One or from the monks, the faith to be coveted. 
There are some who, of a truth, know this (i.e. 
injuring) to be the bondage, the delusion, the death, 
the hell. For this a man is longing when he destroys 
this (body of a plant) by bad and injurious doings, 
and many other beings, besides, which he hurts by 
means of plants, through his doing acts relating to 
plants. Thus I say. (5) 

As the nature of this (i.e. men) is to be born and 
to grow old, so is the nature of that (i. e. plants) to be 
born and to grow old ; as this has reason, so that 
has reason 1 ; as this falls sick when cut, so that 
falls sick when cut ; as this needs food, so that needs 
food ; as this will decay, so that will decay ; as this 
is not eternal, so that is not eternal ; as this takes 
increment, so that takes increment ; as this is chang- 
ing, so that is changing. (6) He who injures these 
(plants) does not comprehend and renounce the sinful 

1 The plants know the seasons, for they sprout at the proper 
time, the Aroka buds and blooms when touched by the foot of a 
well-attired girl, and the Vakula when watered with wine; the 
seed grows always upwards : all this would not happen if the 
plants had no knowledge of the circumstances about them. Such 
is the reasoning of the commentators. ... 



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BOOK I, LECTURE I, LESSON 6. II 

acts; he who does not injure these, comprehends 
and renounces the sinful acts. Knowing them, a wise 
man should not act sinfully towards plants, nor cause 
others to act so, nor allow others to act so. He who 
knows these causes of sin relating to plants, is called 
a reward-knowing sage. Thus I say. (7) 

Sixth Lesson. 

Thus I say : There are beings called the animate, 
viz. those who are produced 1. from eggs (birds, 
&c), 2. from a fetus (as elephants, &c), 3. from a 
fetus with an enveloping membrane (as cows, 
buffaloes, &c), 4. from fluids (as worms, &c), 
5. from sweat (as bugs, lice, &c), 6. by coagulation 
(as locusts, ants, &c), 7. from sprouts (as butterflies, 
wagtails, &c), 8. by regeneration (men, gods, hell- 
beings). This is called the Sawsara (1) for the 
slow, for the ignorant Having well considered it, 
having well looked at it, I say thus : all beings, 
those with two, three, four senses, plants, those with 
five senses, and the rest of creation, (experience) 
individually pleasure or displeasure, pain, great 
terror, and unhappiness. Beings are filled with 
alarm from all directions and in all directions. See ! 
there the benighted ones cause great pain. See' 
there are beings individually embodied. (2) 

See ! there are men who control themselves ; 
others pretend only to be houseless, for one destroys 
this (body of an animal) by bad and injurious doings, 
and many other beings, besides, which he hurts by 
means of animals, through his doing acts relating 
to animals. (3) About this the Revered One has 
taught the truth : for the sake of the splendour, 



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12 ajtarAnga sOtra. 

honour, and glory of this life, for the sake of birth, 
death, and final liberation, for the removal of pain, 
man acts sinfully towards animals, or causes others 
to act so, or allows others to act so. This de- 
prives him of happiness and perfect wisdom. About 
this he is informed, when he has understood, or 
heard from the Revered One or from the monks, 
the faith to be coveted. There are some who, of 
a truth, know this (i.e. injuring) to be the bondage, 
the delusion, the death, the hell. For this a man 
is longing, when he injures this (body of an animal) 
by bad and injurious doings, and many other beings, 
besides, which he hurts by means of animals, through 
acts relating to animals. Thus I say. (4) 

Some slay (animals) for sacrificial purposes, some 
kill (animals) for the sake of their skin, some kill 
(them) for the sake of their flesh, some kill them 
for the sake of their blood ; thus for the sake of 
their heart, their bile, the feathers of their tail, 
their tail, their big or small horns, their teeth, their 
tusks, their nails, their sinews, their bones 1 ; with 
a purpose or without a purpose. Some kill animals 
because they have been wounded by them, or are 
wounded, or will be wounded. (5) 

He who injures these (animals J" does not com- 
prehend and renounce the sinful acts ; he who does 
not injure these, comprehends and renounces the 
sinful acts. Knowing them, a wise man should not 
act sinfully towards animals, nor cause others to act 
so, nor allow others to act so. He who knows 

1 The word after bones (a/Mle) is a.t/Mmimg&e, for which 
buffaloes, boars, &c. are killed, as the commentator states. 1 do 
not know the meaning of this word which is rendered asthi- 
miiigL 



BOOK I, LECTURE I, LESSON 7. 1 3 

1 ■ ■■■i|i ■ ■ 

these causes of sin relating to animals, is called a 
reward-knowing sage. Thus I say. (6) 

Seventh Lesson. 

He who is averse from (all actions relating to) 
wind, knows affliction. Knowing what is bad, he 
who knows it with regard to himself, knows it with 
regard to (the world) outside ; and he who knows 
it with regard to (the world) outside, knows it with 
regard to himself: this reciprocity (between himself 
and) others (one should mind). Those who are 
appeased, who are free from passion, do not desire 
to live, (i) 

See! there are men who control themselves; 
others pretend only to be houseless, for one destroys 
this (wind-body) by bad and injurious doings, and 
many other beings, besides, which he hurts by means 
of wind, through his doing acts relating to wind. (2) 
About this the Revered One has taught the truth : 
for the sake of the splendour, honour, and glory 
of this life, for the sake of birth, death, and final 
liberation, for the removal of pain, man acts sinfully 
towards wind, or causes others to act so, or 
allows others to act so. This deprives him of 
happiness and perfect wisdom. About this he is 
informed when he has understood, or heard from 
the Revered One or from the monks, the faith to 
be coveted. There are some who, of a truth, know 
this to be the bondage, the delusion, the death, the 
hell. For this a man is longing when he destroys 
this (wind-body) by bad and injurious acts, and many 
other beings, besides, which he hurts by means of 
wind, through his doing acts relating to wind. Thus 
I say. (3) 



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14 AjcarAnga sOtra. 

There are jumping beings which, coming near 
wind, fall into it Some, certainly, touched by wind, 
shrivel up ; those which shrivel up there, lose their 
sense there ; those which lose their sense there, die 
there. (4) 

He who injures these (wind-bodies) does not com- 
prehend and renounce the sinful acts ; he who does 
not injure these, comprehends and renounces the 
sinful acts. Knowing them, a wise man should not 
act sinfully towards wind, nor cause others to act so, 
nor allow others to act so. He who knows these 
causes of sin relating to wind, is called a reward- 
knowing sage. Thus I say. (5) 

Be aware that about this (wind-body) too those 
are involved in sin who delight not in the right 
conduct, and, though doing acts, talk about religious 
discipline, who conducting themselves according to 
their own will, pursuing sensual pleasures, and en- 
gaging in acts, are addicted to worldliness. He 
who has the true knowledge about all things, will 
commit no sinful act, nor cause others to do so, 
&c. (6) Knowing them, a wise man should not 
act sinfully towards the aggregate of six (kinds of) 
lives, nor cause others to act so, nor allow others to 
act so. He who knows these causes of sin relating 
to the aggregate of the six (kinds of) lives, is called 
a reward-knowing sage. Thus I say. (7) 



End of the First Lecture, called Knowledge of the 
Weapon. 



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BOOK I, LECTURE 2, LESSON I. 1 5 



SECOND LECTURE, 

CALLSD 

conquest of the world. 

First Lesson. 

Quality is the seat of the root, and the seat of 
the root is quality \ He who longs for the qualities, 
is overcome by great pain, and he is careless 2 . 
(For he thinks) I have to provide for a mother, 
for a father, for a sister, for a wife, for sons, for 
daughters, for a daughter-in-law, for my friends, for 
near and remote relations, for my acquaintances 8 , 
for different kinds of property, profit, meals, and 
clothes. Longing for these objects, people are 
careless, suffer day and night, work in the right 
and the wrong time, desire wealth and treasures, 
commit injuries and violent acts, direct the mind, 
again and again, upon these injurious doings (de- 
scribed in the preceding lecture), (i) (Doing so), 
the life of some mortals (which by destiny would 
have been long) is shortened. For when with the 
deterioration of the perceptions of the ear, eye, 
organs of smelling, tasting, touching, a man becomes 
aware of the decline of life, they 4 after a time 

1 1, e. in the qualities of the external things lies the primary cause 
of the Sa/nsara, viz. sin ; the qualities produce sin, and sinfulness 
makes us apt to enjoy the qualities. 

* I. e. gives way to love, hate, &c. 

* Sam thuya. The commentators explain this word acquaint- 
ance or one who is recommended to me. 

4 I. e. these failing perceptions. 



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1 6 AtArA^ga sutra. 

produce dotage. Or his kinsmen with whom he 
lives together will, after a time, first grumble at 
him, and he will afterwards grumble at them. 
They cannot help thee or protect thee, nor canst 
thou help them or protect them. (2) He is not 
fit for hilarity, playing, . pleasure, show. There- 
fore, ah! proceeding to pilgrimage, and thinking 
that the present moment is favourable (for such 
intentions x ), he should be steadfast and not, even 
for an hour, carelessly conduct himself. His youth, 
his age, his life fade away. 

A man who carelessly conducts himself, who 
killing, cutting, striking, destroying, chasing away, 
frightening (living beings) resolves to do what has 
not been done (by any one) — him his relations with 
whom he lived together, will first cherish, and he 
will afterwards cherish them. But they cannot help 
thee or protect thee, nor canst thou help them or 
protect them. (3) 

Or he heaps up treasures for the benefit of some 
spendthrifts, by pinching himself. Then, after a 
time, he falls in sickness ; those with whom he 
lives together will first leave him, and he will after- 
wards leave them. They cannot help thee or protect 
thee, nor canst thou help them or protect them. (4) 

Knowing pain and pleasure in all their variety 2 , 
and seeing his life not yet decline, a wise man should 
know that to be the proper moment (for entering 
a religious life); while the perceptions of his ear, 
eye, organs of smelling, tasting, touching are not 



' I.e. his present life; for the birth in aryakshetra and in a 
noble family is difficult to obtain in this Sawsara. 
* Patteyaw, singly, with regard to the living beings. 



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BOOK I, LECTURE 2, LESSON 2. 1 7 

yet deteriorated, while all these perceptions are not 
yet deteriorated, man should prosecute 1 the real end 
of his soul 2 . Thus I say. (5) 

Second Lesson. 

A wise man should remove any aversion (to con- 
trol 8 ); he will be liberated in the proper time. 
Some, following wrong instruction, turn away (from 
control). They are dull, wrapped in delusion. 
While they imitate the life of monks, (saying), ' We 
shall be free from attachment,' they enjoy the plea- 
sures that offer themselves 4 . Through wrong in- 
struction the (would-be) sages trouble themselves 
(for pleasures); thus they sink deeper and deeper 
in delusion, (and cannot get) to this, nor to the 
opposite shore 6 . Those who are freed (from attach- 
ment to the world and its pleasures), reach the 
opposite shore 6 . Subduing desire by desirelessness, 
he does not enjoy the pleasures that offer them- 
selves. Desireless, giving up the world, and 
ceasing to act, he knows, and sees, and has no 
wishes because of his discernment 7 ; he is called 
houseless. (1) 

1 SamawuvSse^asi (tti bemi) is taken by the commentators 
for the second person, which always occurs before tti bemi, but 
nowhere else. I think si belongs to tti bemi, and stands for se= 
asau. 

* Viz. control. 

* Arati is usually dislike, Su//ai exercise; but, according to the 
commentators, these words here mean sawyamdrati and nivar- 
tayati. 

4 E.g. the Buddhists, &c, SikytdayaA. 

* I. e. they are neither householders nor houseless monks. 

* L e. moksha, final liberation. 

' Viz. between good and bad, or of the results of desire. 

[M] C 



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i 8 AjtArAnga sOtra. 



(But on the contrary) he suffers day and night, 
works in the right and the wrong time, desires wealth 
and treasures, commits injuries and violent acts, 
again and again directs his mind upon these in- 
jurious doings 1 ; for his own sake, to support or 
to be supported by his relations, friends, the an- 
cestors, gods, the king, thieves, guests, paupers, 
6rama»as. (2) 

Thus violence is done by these various acts, 
deliberately, out of fear, because they think ' it is 
for the expiation of sins 2 / or for some other hope. 
Knowing this, a wise man should neither himself 
commit violence by such acts, nor order others to 
commit violence by such acts, nor consent to the 
violence done by somebody else. 

This road (to happiness) has been declared by 
the noble ones, that a clever man should not be 
defiled (by sin). Thus I say. (3) 

Third Lesson. 

' Frequently (I have been born) in a high family, 
frequently in a low one ; I am not mean, nor noble, 
nor do I desire (social preferment).' Thus reflect- 
ing, who would brag about his family or about his 
glory, or for what should he long ? (1) 

Therefore a wise man should neither be glad nor 
angry (about his lot) : thou shouldst know and con- 
sider the happiness of living creatures. Carefully 
conducting himself, he should mind this ; blindness, 
deafness, dumbness, one-eyedness, hunchbacked - 



1 See I, 2, 1, § 1. 

* The sacrificial rites of the Brahmawas are meant. 



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BOOK 1, LECTURE 2, LESSON 3. 1 9 

ness *, blackness, variety of colour (he will always 
experience) ; because of his carelessness he is born 
in many births, he experiences various feelings. (2) 

Not enlightened (about the cause of these ills) he 
is afflicted (by them), always turns round (in the 
whirl of) birth and death. Life is dear to many 
who own fields and houses. Having acquired dyed 
and coloured (clothes), jewels, earrings, gold, and 
women, they become attached to these things. 
And a fool who longs for life, and worldly-minded 2 , 
laments that (for these worldly goods) penance, 
self-restraint, and control do not avail, will igno- 
rantly come to grief. (3) 

Those who are of a steady conduct do not desire 
this (wealth). Knowing birth and death, one should 
firmly walk the path (i.e. right conduct), (and not 
wait for old age to commence a religious life), 

For there is nothing inaccessible for death. All 
beings are fond of life 8 , like pleasure, hate pain, 
shun destruction, like life, long to live. To all life 
is dear *. (4) 

Having acquired it (i.e. wealth), employing bipeds 
and quadrupeds, gathering riches in the three ways 5 , 

1 Hereafter varfabhattaw explained by vinirgatapr*thivi 
va</abha-laksha»a*ff. 

1 Sawpu««a02=sampftrHa»i, lit. complete, i.e. the complete 
end of human existence is enjoyment of the world. 

* Another reading mentioned by the commentator is piySyayS, 
fond of themselves. 

4 The original of this paragraph reads partly metrical ; after the 
verse marked in my edition there follow three final padas of a 
doka. 

* According to the commentators, the three modes of activity 
(yoga), action, order, consent, or the three organs of activity 
(karana), mind, speech, body, are meant. 

C 2 



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20 AtArAn'ga sOtra. 



whatever his portion will be, small or great, he will 
desire to enjoy it. Then at one time, his manifold 
savings are a large treasure. Then at another time, 
his heirs divide it, or those who are without a living 
steal it, or the king takes it away, or it is ruined in 
some way or other, or it is consumed by the con- 
flagration of the house. Thus a fool doing cruel 
deeds which benefit another, will ignorantly come 
thereby to grief. (5) 

This certainly has been declared by the sage 1 . 
They do not cross the flood 2 , nor can they cross 
it ; they do not go to the next shore, nor can they 
go to it ; they do not go to the opposite shore, nor 
can they go to it. 

And though hearing the doctrine, he does not 
stand in the right place ; but the clever one who 
adopts the true (faith), stands in the right place (i.e. 
control) 8 . 

He who sees by himself, needs no instruction. But 
the miserable, afflicted fool who delights in pleasures, 
and whose miseries do not cease, is turned round in 
the whirl of pains. Thus I say. (6) 

1 I. e. the Tirthakara. 

- I.e. the Samsara, represented under the idea of a lake or slough, 
in the mud of which the worldly are sinking without being able to 
reach the shore. 

* Ayani^^am £a adaya tammi //tine na £i//Aai 1 avitahaw pappa 
kheyanne tammi /M»ammi tiHAai 11 These words form a regular 
xloka, which has not been noticed by any commentator. Silanka 
seems to have read vitaham pappa akheyanne, but I consider 
the reading of our MSS. better, for if we adopt it, Mawa retains the 
same meaning (viz. control) in both parts of the couplet, while if 
we adopt Sllanka's reading, ih&na. must in the one place denote 
the contrary of what it means in the other; adaniya, doctrine, lit. to 
be adopted. 



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BOOK I, LECTURE 2, LESSON 4. 21 



Fourth Lesson. 

Then, after a time, he falls in sickness : those 
with whom he lives together, first grumble at him, 
and he afterwards grumbles at them. But they 
cannot help thee or protect thee, nor canst thou 
help them or protect them, (i) 

Knowing pleasure and pain separately 1 , they 
trouble themselves about the enjoyment (of the 
external objects). For some men in this world have 
(such a character that) they will desire to enjoy their 
portion, whether it be large or small, in the three 
ways 2 . Then, at one time, it will be sufficiently 
large, with many resources. Then, at another time, 
his heirs divide it, or those who have no living 
steal it, or the king takes it away, or it is ruined 
in some way or other, or it is consumed by the 
conflagration of the house. Thus a fool, doing 
cruel acts, comes ignorantly to grief. (2) 

Wisely reject hope and desire 3 , and extracting 
that thorn (i. e. pleasure) thou (shouldst act rightly). 
People who are enveloped by delusion do not 
understand this : he who (gathers wealth) will, 
perhaps, not have the benefit of it 

The world is greatly troubled by women. They 
(viz. men) forsooth say, ' These are the vessels (of 
happiness).' But this leads them to pain, to delusion, 

1 The meaning seems to be: If people do not know that 
pleasure and pain are the result of their own works, &c. 

* The commentators give no explanation of what is meant by 
' the three ways,' yet cf. 3, § 5. 

9 The words asaw ka. iAamdmm £a vigi*n£a dhire form a trish/ubh 
pada. 



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22 AitArAnga sOtra. 



to death, to hell, to birth as hell-beings or brute 
beasts. The fool never knows the law. (3) 

Thus spake the hero 1 : 'Be careful against this 
great delusion ; the clever one should have done 
with carelessness by considering death in tranquillity, 
and that, the nature of which is decay (viz. the 
body) ; these (pleasures), look ! will not satisfy (thee). 
Therefore have done with them! Sage, look! this 
is the great danger, it should overcome none whom- 
soever. He is called a hero who is not vexed by 
(the hardships caused) by control. He should not 
be angry because the (householder) gives him little. 
If turned off, he should go. Thou shouldst conform 
to the conduct of the sages.' Thus I say. (4) 



Fifth Lesson. 

That for this (viz. pleasure) the wants of the 
world should be supplied by bad injurious doings : 
for one's own sons, daughters, daughters-in-law, 
kinsmen, nurses, kings, male and female slaves, 
male and female servants, for the sake of hospitality, 
of supper and breakfast, the accumulation of wealth 
is effected. (1) 

(This is) here for the enjoyment of some men. 
(But a wise man) exerting himself, houseless, noble, 
of noble intellect, of noble perception recognises the 
proper moment (for all actions). He should not 
accept, nor cause others to accept, or permit them 



1 The MSS. have udahu dhfre. The last word is a frequent 
mistake for vtre, which is adopted by the commentators. They 
explain udShu by ud-iha=uktavan. 



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BOOK I, LECTURE 2, LESSON 5. 23 

to accept anything unclean 1 . Free from uncleanli- 
ness he should wander about. (2) 

Being not seen in buying and selling, he should 
not buy, nor cause others to buy, nor consent to the 
buying of others. This mendicant who knows the 
time, the strength (of himself), the measure (of all 
things), the practice 2 , the occasion (for begging, &c), 
the conduct, the religious precepts 3 , the true con- 
dition (of the donor or hearer), who disowns all 
things not requisite for religious purposes 4 , who 
is under no obligations, he proceeds securely (on 
the road to final liberation) after having cut off both 
(love and hate). Clothes, alms-bowls, blankets, 
brooms, property 6 , straw mats, with regard to these 
things he should know (what is unclean). When 
he receives food he should know the quantity 
required. This has been declared by the Revered 
One : he should not rejoice in the receipt of a gift, 
nor be sorry when he gets nothing. Having got 
much, one should not store it away; one should 
abstain from things not requisite for religious 
purposes. With a mind different (from that of 
common people) a seer abandons (these things). 
This is the road taught by the noble ones, well 
acquainted with which one should not be defiled (by 
sin). Thus I say. (3) 



1 Amagandha, unclean, is also a Buddhist term; see Rhys 
Davids' Buddhism, pp. 131, 181. 

* Kheda = abhydsa, or the pain of worldly existence. 

3 Samaya. 

4 Pariggaha; it might also be translated, who disowns attach- 
ment. 

8 Oggaha=avagraha property e.g. the ground or space which 
the householder allows the mendicant who stays in his house. 



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24 ajtaranga sOtra. 

Pleasures are difficult to reject, life is difficult to 
prolong. That man, certainly, who loves pleasures, 
is afflicted (by their loss), is sorry in his heart, leaves 
his usual ways, is troubled, surfers pain. The far- 
sighted one who knows the world, knows its inferior 
part (hell), its upper part (heaven), its side-long part 
(the state of brute beasts). He who knows the 
relation (of human affairs, viz.) that he who desires 
for the world is always turned round (in the sam- 
sara), is called among mortals a hero, who liberates 
those who are fettered. (4) 

As the interior (of the body is loathsome), so is 
the exterior ; as the exterior, so is the interior. In 
the interior of the body he perceives the foul interior 
humours, he observes their several courses (or 
eruptions). A well-informed man knowing (and 
renouncing the body and pleasures), should not eat 
(his saliva *) ; he should not oppose himself to the 
(current of knowledge). Certainly, that man who 
engages in worldly affairs, who practises many tricks, 
who is bewildered by his own doings, acts again and 
again on that desire which increases his unrighteous- 
ness 8 . Hence the above has been said for the 
increase of this (life) 8 . (A man addicted to pleasures) 
acts as if immortal, and puts great faith (in pleasure) ; 
but when he perceives that this body sustains pains, 
he cries in his ignorance. Therefore keep in your 
mind what I say. (5) 

1 I.e. what he has thrown away, vomited, as it were; pleasures. 

* Veraw v&ddhei appano, apparently the close of a doka; 
see I, 3, 2, 3. 

* The commentators supply jartrasya, the body. For sinful acts 
injure the bodies of living beings ; therefore they are increased by 
our abstaining from sin. 



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BOOK. I, LECTURE 2, LESSON 6. 25 

A heretic 1 professes to cure (the love of pleasure), 
while he kills, cuts, strikes, destroys, chases away, 
resolves to do what has not been done before. To 
whom he applies the cure — enough of that fool's 
affection 2 ; or he who has (the cure) applied, is a 
fool. This does not apply to the houseless. Thus 
I say. (6) 

Sixth Lesson. 

He who perfectly understands (what has been 
said in the preceding lesson) and follows the (faith) 
to be coveted, should therefore do no sinful act, 
nor cause others to do one. Perchance he meditates 
a sin (by an act against only) one (of the six 
aggregates of lives) ; but he will be guilty (of sin 
against) every one of the six. Desiring happi- 
ness and bewailing much, he comes ignorantly to 
grief through his own misfortune. (1) Through 
his own carelessness every one produces that phase 
of life in which the vital spirits are pained. 
Observing (the pain of mundane existence, one 
should) not (act) with violence. This is called the 
true knowledge (and renunciation). He who ceasing 
from acts relinquishes the idea of property, relin- 
quishes property itself. That sage has seen the 
path (to final liberation) for whom there exists no 
property. Knowing this, a wise man, who knows 
the world and has cast off the idea of the world, 

1 T'amditc = pa.Tidita.mm&m, who believes or pretends to be a 
learned man. 

1 Alam b&iassa samgena, a pada of doka; followed by the 
words in note 2, p. 24, it forms the hemistich of verse 3 in the 
Second Lesson of the next Chapter. 



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26 AtAranga sCtra. 



should prudently conquer 1 the obstructions to 
righteousness. Thus I say. (2) 

The hero does not tolerate discontent, 

The hero does not tolerate lust. 

Because the hero is not careless, 

The hero is not attached (to the objects of the 
senses). 

Being indifferent against sounds (and the other) 
perceptions, detest the comfort of this life. 

A sage adopting a life of wisdom, should treat 
his gross body roughly. 

The heroes who have right intuition, use mean 
and rough food 2 . 

Such a man is said to have crossed the flood (of 
life), to be a sage, to have passed over (the sa.m- 
sara), to be liberated, to have ceased (from all 
activity). Thus I say. (3) 

A sage is called unfit who does not follow the 
law and fails in his office. (But on the contrary) 
he is praised as a hero, he overcomes the connection 
with the world, he is called the guide (or the right 
way). What has been declared to be here the un- 
happiness of mortals, of that unhappiness the clever 
ones propound the knowledge. (4) 

Thus understanding (and renouncing) acts, a man 
who recognises the truth, delights in nothing else ; 
and he who delights only in the truth, recognises 
nothing else. As (the law) has been revealed for 
the full one, so for the empty one ; as for the empty 



1 See p. 17, note 1. 

* These words apparently form a floka, though the third pada 
is too short by one syllable ; but this fault can easily be corrected 
by inserting k&: pamtam luham £a sevanti. The commentators 
treat the passage as prose. 



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BOOK I, LECTURE 2, LESSON 6. 2J 

one, so for the full one 1 . But he (to whom the 
faith is preached) will perhaps disrespectfully beat 
(the preacher). Yet know, there is no good in this 
(indiscriminate preaching). (But ascertain before) 
what sort of man he is, and whom he worships. He 
is called a hero who liberates the bound, above, 
below, and in the sideward directions. He always 
conforms to all knowledge (and renunciation) ; the 
hero is not polluted by the sin of killing. He is 
a wise man who perfectly knows the non-killing 2 , 
who searches after the liberation of the bound. 
The clever one is neither bound nor liberated ; he 
should do or leave undone (what the hero does 
or does not do) ; he should not do what (the hero) 
leaves undone : 

Knowing (and renouncing) murder of any kind 
and worldly ideas in all respects 3 . 

He who sees himself, needs no instruction. But 
the miserable and afflicted fool who delights in 
pleasures and whose miseries do not cease, is turned 
round in the whirl of pains*. Thus I say. (5) 



End of the Second Lecture, called Conquest of the 

World. 



1 The full and the empty designate those who adopt the true 
faith, and those who do not. 

* A»uggh4ya»a. According to the commentator, the destruc- 
tion of karman. 

s This is again a stray half doka. The text abounds in minor 
fragments of verses, trish/ubhs, or dokas. 

4 See the end of the Third Lesson. 



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28 AATARANGA SUTRA. 



THIRD LECTURE, 

CALLED 

hot and cold. 

First Lesson. 

The unwise sleep, the sages always wake. Know, 
that in this world the (cause of) misery 1 brings forth 
evil consequences! Knowing the course of the 
world 2 , one should cease from violent acts. He 
who correctly possesses 3 these (sensual perceptions), 
viz. sounds, and colours, and smells, and tastes, and 
touches (i), who self-possessed, wise, just, chaste, 
with right comprehension understands the world, he 
is to be called a sage, one who knows the law, and 
righteous. He knows the connection of the whirl 
(of births) and the current (of sensation with love 
and hate). Not minding heat and cold, equanimous 
against pleasure and pain, the Nirgrantha does not 
feel the austerity of penance. Waking and free 
from hostility, a wise man, thou liberatest (thyself 
and others) from the miseries. (2) 

But a man always benighted, subject to old age 
and death, does not know the law. Seeing living 
beings suffering, earnestly enter a religious life 4 . 
Considering this, O prudent one, look ! 

Knowing the misery that results from action, 
The deluded and careless one returns to life ; 

1 I. e. ignorance and delusion. 

* Regarding the evil-doer. * And renounces. 

* Again a half .rloka, unnoticed as such by the commentators. 



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BOOK I, LECTURE 3, LESSON 2. 2Q 

Disregarding sounds and colours, upright, 
Avoiding Mara one is liberated from death K 

Carefully abstaining from pleasures and ceasing 
from bad works he is a hero, guarding himself, who 
is grounded in knowledge *. (3) He who knows the 
violence done for the sake of special objects, knows 
what is free from violence 8 ; he who knows what 
is free from violence, knows the violence done for 
special objects. For him who is without karman, 
there is no appellation 4 . The condition of living 
beings arises from karman. 

Examining karman and the root of karman, viz. 
killing *, examining (it) and adopting its contrary 8 , he 
is not seen by both ends 7 . Knowing this, a wise man 
who knows the world and has cast off the idea of 
the world, should prudently conquer the obstructions 
to righteousness 8 . Thus I say. (4) 



Second Lesson. 

Look, Sir, at birth and old age here, 
Examine and know the happiness of the living, 
Thence the most learned, knowing (what is called) 

the highest good, 
He who has right intuition, commits no sin. (1) 

1 A trish/ubh unnoticed by the commentators. 

• Kheyanna=kheda^na nipu«a. I think the Sanskrit would 
rather be kshetra^na. 

s I.e. control. 

• As man, god, hell-being, young, old, &c. 

• See p. 28, note 4. 

• Literally, the left side,(savyam); control is intended. 

7 I. e. he is not touched by love and hate, which cause death. 

• See I, 2, 6 (2). 



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30 AtfARANGA S(>TRA. 



Undo the bond with mortals here ; 

He who lives by sins, is subject to both \ 

Desirous of pleasures they heap up karman, 

Influenced by it they are born again. (2) 

Killing (animals) he thinks good sport, and derives 

mirth from it : 
Away with that fool's company, he increases his 

own unrighteousness. (3) 
Thence the most learned, knowing (what is called) 

the highest good, 
Aware of the punishment, commits no sin ; 
Wisely avoid the top and the root 2 ! 
Cutting them off, he knows himself free from 
karman. (4) 
That man will be liberated from death ; he is 
a sage who sees the danger 3 , knowing the highest 
good in this world, leading a circumspect life, calm, 
guarded, endowed (with knowledge, &c), always 
restrained, longing for death, he should lead a 
religious life. Manifold, indeed, appear sinful 
actions ; therefore prove constant to truth ! Delight- 
ing in it 4 , a wise man destroys all karman. (1) 

Many, indeed, are the plans of this man (of the 
world) ; he will satisfy his desires ; he (thereby 
causes) the slaughter of others, the pain of others, 
the punishment of others, the slaughter, the blame, 



1 Literally, sees both, i.e. experiences bodily and mental (agonies), 
those of this world and of the next. 

* The root means delusion, the top the rest of the sins. 

8 Arising from worldliness. The same words occur in 2, 6, § 2 ; 
but bhae (bhaya) stands here instead of pahe, road. Bhae 
occurs also in the former place in some MSS. 

4 Ettho 'varae is usually ' ceasing from it, ie. activity.' But 
here the commentators explain it as translated above. 



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BOOK I, LECTURE 3, LESSON 3. 3 1 

the punishment of a whole province. Doing such 
things, some have exerted themselves \ (2) 

Therefore the second (i.e. the wrong creed) is 
not adhered to. The knowing one seeing the vanity 
(of the world) [knowing the rise and fall of the 
souls *], the Brahman follows the unrivalled (control 
of the £ainas). He should not kill, nor cause others 
to kill, nor consent to the killing of others. ' Avoid 
gaiety, not delighting in creatures (i.e. women), 
having the highest intuition,' keeping off from sinful 
acts. (3) 

And the hero should conquer wrath and pride, 
Look at the great hell (as the place) for greed. 
Therefore the hero abstaining from killing, 
Should destroy sorrow, going the road of easiness s . 

Here now the hero, knowing the bondage, 
Knowing sorrow, should restrain himself. 
Having risen to birth among men, 
He should not take the life of living beings. 

Third Lesson. 

' Knowing the connection of the world, (careless- 
ness is not for his benefit 4 ).' ' Look at the exterior 

1 Samu/Miya is commonly used in the sense of right effort, and 
thus explained by the commentators in this place, though we should 
expect the contrary. 

* The words in brackets [] are a gloss upon the preceding 
sentence. If we leave them out, the rest forms half a jloka. 

s LaghubMya, i. e. nirvi«a. 

* This is a very difficult passage. Connection (sandhi) is ex- 
plained in different ways, as karmavivara, samyag^wanavapti, and 
the state of the soul, which has only temporarily and not thoroughly 
come to rest. To complete the sentence the commentators add 
pramado na jreyase. As the words of the text form the pada of a 
jloka, it is probable that something like pamao neva se^ase 



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32 AJEA.RANGA sOtRA. 

(world from analogy with thy own) self; [then] thou 
wilt neither kill nor destroy (living beings);' viz. 
out of reciprocal regard [well examining] he does 
no sinful act. What is the characteristic of a sage ? 
' Recognising the equality (of all living beings), he 
appeases hisself.' (i) 
Knowing the highest good, one should never be 

careless ; 
Guarding one's self, always prudent, one should 
pass life on the right road. 
' One should acquire disregard of sensual enjoy- 
ment, being with a great one (i.e. a god) or the 
small ones (men).' When one knows whence men 
come and where they go, and when both ends are 
out of sight 1 , one is not cut, nor slit, nor burnt, 
nor struck 2 (2) by any one in the whole world 8 . 

Some do not remember what preceded the pre- 
sent : ' what has been his past ? what will be his 
future?' Some men here say: 'what has been his 
past, that will be his future V 
There is no past thing, nor is there a future one ; 
So opine the Tathagatas. 
He whose karman has ceased and conduct is right, 

concluded the hemistich. The meaning is, ' Make good use of 
any opening to get out of worldly troubles.' 
1 See 1, lesson 4. 

* The reading of the Nagar^uniyas, according to the com- 
mentary, was, ' Knowing well and essentially the five (perceptions) 
in the object and the three degrees (i. e. good, middle, bad), in the 
twofold (i. e. what is to be avoided and to be adopted), one is not 
marred by either (love and hate).' These words form a floka. 

' The commentary connects these words with the preceding 
sentence, saying that the accusative stands for the instrumental, 
by any one. 

* The words of the original read like a trish/ubh in disorder; the 
same is the case with a different reading quoted by the commentator. 



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BOOK I, LECTURE 3, LESSON 4. 33 

who recognises the truth (stated above) and destroys 
sinfulness (thinks) : 

What is discontent and what is pleasure ? not sub- 
ject to either, one should live ; 

Giving up all gaiety, circumspect and restrained, 
one should lead a religious life. (3) 

Man ! Thou art thy own friend ; why wishest 
thou for a friend beyond thyself ? Whom he knows 
as a dweller on high 1 , him he should know as a 
dweller far (from sin) ; and whom he knows as 
a dweller far (from sin), him he should know as a 
dweller on high. Man! restraining thyself (from 
the outward world) ' thou wilt get free from pain.' 
Man, understand well the truth ! exerting himself in 
the rule of truth a wise man overcomes Mara. (4) 

' The gifted man 2 , following the law, sees well his 
true interest.' In a twofold way 8 , for the sake of 
life's splendour, honour and glory (some men exert 
themselves), wherein they go astray. The gifted 8 , 
touched by calamity, are not confounded. 'Mind 
this ! the worthy one, in this world, gets out of the 
creation 4 .' Thus I say. (5) 

Fourth Lesson. 

That man (i.e. the liberated) conquers wrath, 
pride, deceit, and greed. This is the doctrine of 
the Seer who does not injure living beings and has 
put an end (to acts and to sawsira). Preventing 

1 There is apparently a pun in the text : u££alaiya»» is explained 
by uWalayitaram=remover (of sins), but as contrasted with durS- 
laiya it has the meaning we have adopted above. 

* With knowledge, &c. 

* For the sake of love and hate, or worldly and heavenly bliss. 

* If loyaloya is omitted, the last words form the half of a floka. 

[«] D 



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34 AJCARANGA "sOtRA. 

propensity to sin destroys former actions. He who 
knows one thing, knows all things; and he who 
knows all things, knows one thing 1 . He who is 
careless in all respects, is in danger 2 ; he who is not 
careless in all respects, is free from danger, (i) 

He who conquers one (passion), conquers many ; 
and he who conquers many, conquers one. ' Know- 
ing the misery of the world ' rejecting the connection 
with the world, ' the heroes go on the great journey,' 
they rise gradually ; ' they do not desire life.' (2) 

He who avoids one (passion), avoids (them all) 
severally ; and he who avoids them severally, avoids 
one. Faithful according to the commandment (of 
the Tlrthakaras), wise, and understanding the world 
according to the commandment — such a man is 
without danger 8 from anywhere. There are de- 
grees in injurious acts, but there are no degrees in 
control. (3) 

He who knows 3 wrath, knows pride ; he who knows 
pride, knows deceit ; he who knows deceit, knows 
greed ; he who knows greed, knows love ; he who 
knows love, knows hate ; he who knows hate, knows 
delusion ; he who knows delusion, knows conception ; 
he who knows conception, knows birth ; he who 
knows birth, knows death ; he who knows death, 
knows hell ; he who knows hell, knows animal exist- 
ence ; he who knows animal existence, knows pain. 

Therefore, a wise man should avoid wrath, pride, 
deceit, greed, love, hate, delusion, conception, birth, 
death, hell, animal existence, and pain. 

1 Because true knowledge of one thing is inseparable from true 
knowledge of all things. 

* I. e. he heaps up karman. 

* And accordingly avoids wrath. 



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BOOK I, LECTURE 3, LESSON 4. 35 

This is the doctrine of the Seer, who does not 
injure living beings and has put an end (to acts 
and to sawsara). Preventing the propensity to sin 
destroys former actions. Is there any worldly 
weakness in the Seer ? There exists none, there 
is none. Thus I say. (4) 



End of the Third Lecture, called Hot and Cold. 



d 2 



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36 AjtAranga sutra. 



FOURTH LECTURE, 

CALLED 

righteousness. 

First Lesson. 

The Arhats and Bhagavats of the past, present, 
and future, all say thus, speak thus, declare thus, 
explain thus : all breathing, existing, living, sentient 
creatures 1 should not be slain, nor treated with 
violence, nor abused, nor tormented, nor driven 
away, (i) 

This is the pure, unchangeable, eternal law, which 
the clever ones, who understand the world, have 
declared : among the zealous and the not zealous, 
among the faithful and the not faithful, among the 
not cruel and the cruel, among those who have 
worldly weakness and those who have not, among 
those who like social bonds and those who do not : 
' that is the truth, that is so, that is proclaimed in 
this (creed).' (2) 

Having adopted (the law), one should not hide it, 
nor forsake it. Correctly understanding the law, 
one should arrive at indifference for the impressions 
of the senses 2 , and ' not act on the motives of the 
world.' 'He who is not of this mind 3 , how should 
he come to the other 4 ?' 

1 Pa«a bhfiya givi satta. In the sequel we translate these 
words, all sorts of living beings. 

* Literally, what one sees. 

* Who acts not on worldly motives. * Sinfulness. 



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BOOK I, LECTURE 4, LESSON 2. 37 

What has been said here, has been seen (by the 
omniscient ones), heard (by the believers), acknow- 
ledged (by the faithful), and thoroughly understood 
by them. Those who acquiesce and indulge (in 
worldly pleasures), are born again and again. ' Day 
and night exerting thyself, steadfast,' always having 
ready wisdom, perceive that the careless (stand) 
outside (of salvation) ; if careful, thou wilt always 
conquer. Thus I say. (3) 

Second Lesson. 

There are as many asravas 1 as there are parisra- 
vas, and there are as many parisravas as there are 
asravas. There are as many anasravas as there are 
aparisravas, and there are as many aparisravas as 
there are anasravas. He who well understands 
these words and regards the world according to the 
instruction (and understands), that which has been 
distinctly declared, that 'wise man proclaims (the 
truth) here to men,' who still belong to the sa/»sara, 
who are awakened, and have reached discrimina- 
tion. (1) 

' Those also who are afflicted and careless ' (will 
be instructed). I say this as a truth. There is 
nothing secure from the mouth of death. Those 
who are led by their desires, who are the tabernacle 
of fraud, 'who seized by Time dwell in the heap 
(of karman),' are born again and again. [Many who 
are again and again (immersed) in delusion, (will 

1 Asrava is that by means of which karman takes effect upon the 
soul, parisrava that (nhyara, &c.) by which the influence of karman 
is counteracted. Anasrava is that by which asrava is avoided 
(religious vows), and aparisrava that by which karman is acquired. 



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38 AJrARANGA sfjTRA. 



often renew) their acquaintance with the places of 
pain; they experience the pains inherent in re- 
generation. He who often does cruel acts, often 
undergoes (punishment in hell, &c.) He who 
seldom does cruel acts, seldom undergoes (punish- 
ment).] 1 (2) 

Some say thus, also the wise ones ; the wise ones 
say thus, also some others 2 . Many and several in 
this world, Brahma«as or .Sramawas, raise this dis- 
cussion : We have seen, heard, acknowledged, 
thoroughly understood, in the upper, nether, and 
sidelong directions, and in all ways examined it: 
all sorts of living beings may be slain, or treated 
with violence, or abused, or tormented, or driven 
away. Know about this : there is no wrong in 

it (3) 

That is a doctrine of the unworthy. But those 
who are teachers, have said : You have wrongly 
seen, wrongly heard, wrongly acknowledged, wrongly 
understood, in the upper, nether, and sidelong 
directions, in all ways wrongly examined it, when 
you say thus, speak thus, declare thus, explain 
thus : All sorts of living beings may be slain, or 
treated with violence, or abused, or tormented, or 
driven away. Know about this : there is no wrong 
in it. That is a doctrine of the unworthy. (4) But 
we say thus, speak thus, declare thus, explain thus : 



1 The passage in brackets is introduced by the words pa/#4n- 
taram va\ ' various reading.' It occurs in all MSS. I have consulted, 
and is commented upon by the commentaries as belonging to the 
text. 

* By some is meant the highest class of sages. The meaning 
is that all professors, high or low, say the same, agree in the 
doctrine of ahiwsd. 



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BOOK I, LECTURE 4, LESSON 3. 39 

All sorts of living beings should not be slain, nor 
treated with violence, nor abused, nor tormented, 
nor driven away. Know about this, there is no 
wrong in it. This is the doctrine of the teachers. (5) 

First the persuasion of every one should be 
ascertained, and then we will ask them severally : Ye 
professors ! is pain pleasant to you, or unpleasant ? 
If they give the right answer, reply : For all sorts 
of living beings pain is unpleasant, disagreeable, 
and greatly feared. Thus I say. (6) 

Third Lesson. 

' Reflect and observe that whether you go to this 
world or to that beyond, in the whole world those 
who are discerning beings, who abstain from cruelty 1 , 
relinquish karman. They are flesh-subduing, called 
duty-knowing, upright men, aware that pain results 
from actions.' Thus say those who have right 
intuition. (1) 

All the professors, conversant with pain, preach 
renunciation. Thus thoroughly knowing karman, 
observing the commandment, wise, unattached (to 
the world), recognising thy Self as one 8 , subdue the 
body, chastise thyself, weaken thyself: 'just as fire 
consumes old wood !' Thus with a composed mind, 
unattached, 'unhesitatingly avoid wrath!' Con- 
sidering the shortness of life ' know pain, or what 
will come 3 ;' one shall feel the several feelings; and 
perceive the world suffering under them. (2) 



1 NikkhittadaWa, literally, those who have laid down the rod. 

* I. e. as separate and different from the world. 

3 According to the commentators the present and future pains. 



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40 AjstArAnga sutra. 



Those who are free from sinful acts are called 
anidana 1 . Hence a very wise man should not be 
inflamed (by wrath). Thus I say. (3) 

Fourth Lesson. 

One should mortify (one's flesh) in a low, high, 
and highest degree, quitting one's former connec- 
tions, and entering tranquillity. Therefore a hero is 
careful, a person of pith 2 , guarded, endowed (with 
knowledge, &c), and always restrained. Difficult to 
go is the road of the heroes, who go whence there 
is no return (final liberation). Subdue blood and 
flesh. (1) 

That man is called a worthy one, a hero, one to 
be followed, who living in chastity [guarding his 
eyes] shakes off the aggregate 8 . 

He who desires the current of karman, is a fool 

who has not cut off the fetters of, nor conquered 

the connection with, (the world.) For such as dwell 

.in darkness, and are without knowledge, there is no 

? success in faith. Thus I say. (2) 

'Whence should he have it*, who does not get it 



1 If we read niwu<& pavakammehi»» awiyawa viyahiya, we have 
a hemistich of a jloka. 

* Sarae. The commentators translate it with svarata = su + a 
(a ^ivanamaryadaya) + rata (samyamanush/flane), for ever delighting 
in the exercise of control. I think the Sanskrit prototype of sarae 
is saraka. 

* These words seem to have formed a .rloka, which could 
easily be restored if we read : purise davie vire ayawjgye viyahie I 
vasitta bambhaleramsi ge dhuwai saraussayaw 11 The aggregate is 
either that of the constituent parts of the body, i. e. the body itself, 
or that of karman, i. e. the sum of karman. 

4 Success in faith. 



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BOOK I, LECTURE 4, LESSON 4. 41 

early, late, or in the middle of life ? ' But the dis- 
cerning one is awakened, and ceases to act. See 
that it is good to be so! Cutting off that 'whence 
bondage, cruel death, and dreadful pain,' ' and the 
(desire for) external (objects) flow, he who among 
mortals knows freedom from acts,' ' seeing that acts 
will bear fruit, the knower of the sacred lore, parts 
from (karman).' (3) 

There are those who have established themselves 
in the truth, who (were, are, or will be) heroes, 
endowed (with knowledge), always exerting them- 
selves, full of equanimity \ valuing the world (as it 
deserves) in the east, west, south, north. We shall 
tell the knowledge of them who (were, &c.) heroes, 
endowed (with knowledge), always exerting them- 
selves, full of equanimity, valuing the world (as it 
deserves). 

Is there any worldly weakness in the Seer? There 
exists none, there is none. Thus I say. (4) 



End of the Fourth Lecture, called Righteousness. 



1 Sawgha</ada#*si«o : nirantaradarrinaA mbhlrubhasya. 



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42 AJTARANGA SUTRA. 



FIFTH LECTURE, 

CALLED 

essence of the world. 

First Lesson. 

Many entertain cruel thoughts against the world 
with a motive or without one ; they entertain cruel 
thoughts against these (six classes of living beings). 
To him 1 pleasures are dear. Therefore he is near 
death. Because he is near death, he is far (from 
liberation). But he who is neither near (death) nor 
far (from liberation), considers the life of a slow and 
ignorant fool as similar to a dewdrop trembling on 
the sharp point of the blade of Kusa, grass which falls 
down when shaken by the wind. A fool, doing 
cruel acts, comes thereby ignorantly to grief. 
' Through delusion he is born, dies, &c.' Being 
conversant with the deliberation about this delu- 
sion, one is conversant with the sawzsara ; being 
not conversant with that deliberation, one is not 
conversant with the sawsara. He who is clever, 
should not seek after sexual intercourse. But 
having done so, (it would be) a second folly of the 
weak-minded not to own it. Repenting and ex- 
cluding (from the mind) the begotten pleasures, one 
should instruct others to follow the commandment. 
Thus I say. (i) 

See ! many who desire colours, are led around 

1 The change of number here and in the analogous passages at 
the beginning of the second and third lessons is one of the gram- 
matical irregularities in which our text abounds. 



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BOOK I, LECTURE 5, LESSON 2. 43 

(in the sawsara), they (experience) here again and 
again feelings (i. e. punishment) 1 . Many live by 
injurious deeds against the world, they live by 
injurious deeds against these (living beings) 2 . Also 
the fool, suffering (for his passions), delights in bad 
acts here, mistaking that for salvation which is none. 
Many (heretics) lead the life of a hermit (in order 
to avoid worldly sorrows and pains). (2) 

Such a man has much wrath, much pride, much 
conceit, much greed ; he delights in many (works), 
acts frequently like a stage-player or a rogue, forms 
many plans, gives way to his impulses, is influenced 
by his acts though he pretends to be awakened: 
(thinking) that nobody will see him. Through the 
influence of ignorance and carelessness the fool 
never knows the law. Men! unhappy creatures, 
world-wise are those who, not freeing themselves 
from ignorance, talk about final liberation : they 
turn round and round in the whirlpool (of births). 
Thus I say. (3) 

Second Lesson. 

Many do not live by injurious deeds against the 
world, they do not live by injurious deeds against 

1 This interpretation of the scholiast can scarcely be correct. 
Probably the same ideas which are introduced in the last paragraph 
with the words, Being conversant with, Sec, are to be repeated 
here. For this passage is similar to the commencement of that 
in § 1, or identical if we adopt the piMantaram. 

* This passage is perfectly analogous to that in the beginning of 
the lesson. But the scholiast explains the locatives which we have, 
according to his explanation in the former place, translated 
against the world, against these, here and in the similar 
passages which occur in this lecture, by, in the world, amongst 
these, viz. householders. 



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44 AjtAranga sOtra. 



these (living beings). Ceasing from them, making 
an end of them, he perceives : this is a favourable 
opportunity 1 ; he who searches for 2 the right moment 
for this body (should never be careless). This is the 
road taught by the noble ones, (i) 

When he has become zealous for the law, he 
should never be careless, knowing pain and pleasure 
in their various forms. Men act here on their own 
motives ; it has been declared that they suffer for 
their own sins. Neither killing nor lying, he should 
(patiently) bear (all unpleasant) feelings when affected 
by them. That man is called a true monk. (2) 

Those who are not given to sinful acts are 
(nevertheless) attacked by calamities ; but then the 
steadfast will bear them. (He has to bear) them 
afterwards as (he has done) before (his conversion). 
(The body) is of a fragile, decaying nature, (it is) 
unstable, transient, uneternal, increasing and de- 
creasing, of a changeable nature. Perceive this as its 
true character. For him who well understands this, 
who delights in the unique refuge 3 , for the liberated 
and inactive there is no passage (from birth to birth). 
Thus I say. (3) 

Many are attached to something in the world — 
be it little or much, small or great, sentient or non- 
sentient — they are attached to it (here) amongst these 
(householders). Thus some incur great danger. 
For him who contemplates the course of the world 

and does not acknowledge these attachments (there 

* 

1 For adopting the right conduct. 

* Annesi=anveshin. I think that annesi may be an aorist of 
gn&, knew. 

3 Ayatana, i.e. the triad: right knowledge, right intuition, right 
conduct. 



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BOOK I, LECTURE 5, LESSON 3. 45 

is no such danger). Knowing that that which is well 
understood is well practised, man ! with thy eyes on 
the highest good, be victorious (in control). Among 
such men only is real Brahmanhood. Thus I say. (4) 
I have heard this, and it is in my innermost heart ; 
and the freedom from bonds is in your innermost 
heart. He who has ceased (to have worldly attach- 
ments), the houseless, suffers with patience a long 
time. 

The careless stand outside, the careful lead a reli- 
gious life. 
Maintain rightly this state of a sage. Thus I say. (5) 

Third Lesson. 

Many are not attached to something in this world, 
they are not attached to it among these (house- 
holders). He is a wise man who has heard and 
understood the word of the learned ones. Without 
partiality the law has been declared by the noble 
ones. As I have destroyed here 1 the connection 
with the world, so is the connection elsewhere diffi- 
cult to destroy. Therefore I say : One should not 
abandon firmness. (1) Some who early exert them- 
selves, do not afterwards slide back ; some who early 
exert themselves, afterwards slide back ; those who 
do not early exert themselves, (can of course) not 
slide back. That man also is of this description 2 , 
who knowing the world (as worthless neverthe- 
less) follows its ways. ' Knowing this, it has been 
declared by the sage.' Here the follower of the com- 

1 ' Here ' and ' elsewhere ' mean, in the church of Mah&vtra, 
and in that of the Tirthikas. 

* Belongs to the last category, to which belong the Sakyas, &c. 



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46 ASTARANGA sOtRA. 



mandment, the wise, the passionless, he who exerts 
himself before morning and after evening 1 , always 
contemplating virtue 2 and hearing (the merit of it) 
will become free from love and delusion. ' Fight 
with this (your body) ! why should you fight with 
anything else ?' Difficult to attain is this (human 
body) which is worth the fight. For the clever ones 
have praised the discernment of wisdom ; the fool 
who falls from it, is liable to birth, &c. (2) In this 
(religion of the Cainas the cause of the fool's fall) 
has been declared (to depend) on colour 3 and killing. 
But a sage who walks the beaten track (to libe- 
ration), regards the world in a different way. 
' Knowing thus (the nature of) acts in all regards, 
he does not kill,' he controls himself, he is not 
overbearing. (3) 

Comprehending that pleasure (and pain) are indi- 
vidual, advising kindness, he will not engage in 
any work in the whole world : keeping before him 
the one (great aim, liberation), and not turning 
aside, 'living humbly, unattached to any creature/ 
The rich (in control) who with a mind endowed 
with all penetration (recognises) that a bad deed 
should not be done, will not go after it What you 
acknowledge as righteousness, that you acknowledge 
as sagedom (mauna); what you acknowledge as sage- 
dom, that you acknowledge as righteousness. It is 

1 PuvvavararSyaw, the first and the last wake (ydma) of the 
night ; the intermediate time is allowed for sleep. 

* Sila is either samyama, control with its 18,000 subdivisions, or 
it consists of (1) the five great vows, (2) the three guptis, (3) the 
restraint of the senses, (4) the avoidance of sin (kashaya). 

* Colour stands for all perceptions of the senses. Of course, 
the attachment to sensual pleasures is meant. 



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BOOK I, LECTURE 5, LESSON 4. 47 

inconsistent with weak, sinning, sensual, ill-conducted 
house-inhabiting men. (4) ' A sage, acquiring sage- 
dom, should subdue his body.' ' The heroes who 
look at everything with indifference, use mean and 
rough (food, &c.)' Such a man is said to have 
crossed the flood (of life), to be a sage, to have 
passed over (the sawsira), to be liberated, to have 
ceased (from acts). Thus I say. (5) 

Fourth Lesson. 

For a monk who has not yet reached discrimina- 
tion 1 , it is bad going and difficult proceeding when he 
wanders (alone) from village to village. Some men 
(when going wrong) will become angry when ex- 
horted with speech. And a man with wary pride 
is embarrassed with great delusion 2 . (1) There are 
many obstacles which are very difficult to overcome 
for the ignorant and the blinded. Let that not be 
your case ! That is the doctrine of the clever one 
(Mahavlra). Adopting the (aiarya's) views, imi- 
tating his indifference (for the outer world), making 
him the guide and adviser (in all one's matters), 
sharing his abode, living carefully, acting according 
to his mind, examining one's way 8 , not coming too 
near (die aiarya), minding living beings, one should 
go (on one's business). (2) 

1 Avyakta, either with regard to truta, sacred knowledge, or to 
his age. 

* The result will be that he thinks himself above the admonition 
of the spiritual head (ai&rya) of the chapter (ga£Ma), and leaves 
the chapter, living as a ga&Aanirgata. 

3 The monk must closely inspect everything with which he 
comes in contact in order to avoid killing animals; this holds good 
with regard to walking, sitting, sleeping, eating, drinking, &c. 



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48 axaranga sOtra. 



(A monk should according to the a^arya's or- 
der) go and return, contract or stretch (his limbs), 
thoroughly clean (what ought to be cleaned). Some- 
times, though a monk be endowed with virtue and 
walks in righteousness, living beings, coming in con- 
tact with his body, will be killed. (If this happens 
through mere carelessness) then he will get his 
punishment in this life ; but if it was done contrary 
to the rules 1 , he should repent of it and do penance 
for it 2 . Thus he who knows the sacred lore 3 , recom- 
mends penance combined with carefulness. (3) 

(When a monk) with fully developed intuition and 
knowledge, calm, guarded, endowed (with know- 
ledge), always restrained, perceives (a woman tempt- 
ing him), he should consider within himself: what 
will this person do ? The greatest temptation in 
this world are women. This has been declared 
by the sage. (4) 

When strongly vexed by the influence of the 
senses, he should eat bad food, mortify himself, 
stand upright, wander from village to village, take 
no food at all, withdraw his mind from women. 
First troubles, then pleasures ; first pleasures, then 
troubles*: thus they are the cause of quarrels. Con- 
sidering this and well understanding it, one should 
teach oneself not to cultivate (sensuality). Thus I 
say. He should not speak of women, nor look at 
them, nor converse with them, nor claim them as his 
own, nor do their work. Careful in his speech and 

1 Au//tkammam=aku//ikarman. 

* Vivega=viveka, explained as prayarftttam. ' Vedavid. 

* In order to attain pleasure, one has to work for the means ; 
after the enjoyment of the pleasures one has to undergo punish- 
ment in hell, &c. 



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BOOK I, LECTURE 5, LESSON 5. 49 

guarding his mind, he should always avoid sin. He 
should maintain this sagedom. Thus I say. (5) 

Fifth Lesson. 

Thus I say : a lake is full of water, it is in an even 
plain, it is free from dust, it harbours (many fish) 1 . 
Look ! he (the teacher) stands in the stream (of know- 
ledge) and is guarded in all directions. Look ! there 
are great Seers in the world, wise, awakened, free from 
acts. Perceive the truth : from a desire of (a pious) 
end they chose a religious life. Thus I say. (1) 

He whose mind is always wavering, does not 
reach abstract contemplation 2 . Some, bound (by 
worldly ties), are followers (i. e. understand the 
truth) ; some who are not bound, are followers. 
How should he not despond who amongst followers 
is a non-follower ? ' But that is truth beyond doubt, 
what has been declared by the Ginas.' (2) 

Whatever 3 a faithful, well-disposed man, on enter- 
ing the order, thought to be true, that may afterwards 
appear to him true ; what he thought to be true, 
that may afterwards appear to him untrue ; what he 
thought to be untrue, that may afterwards appear to 
him true ; what he thought to be untrue, that may 
afterwards appear to him true. What he thinks to 
be true, that may, on consideration, appear to him 
true, whether it be true or untrue. What he thinks 
to be untrue, that may, on consideration, appear to 
him untrue, whether it be true or untrue. But he 

1 Like unto it is a teacher who is full of wisdom, who lives in 
a quiet country, is free from passion, and protects living beings. 
1 Sam&dhi, the means of a religious death. 
* Any article of the (Taina faith, 
[aa] E 



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50 AjtAranga sOtra. 

who reflects should say unto him who does not 
reflect : Consider it to be true. Thus the connection 
(i. e. the continuity of sins) is broken. (3) 

Regard this as the course of the zealous one, who 
stands (in obedience to the spiritual guide). In this 
point do not show yourself a fool 1 ! 

As it would be unto thee, so it is with him whom 
thou intendest to kill. As it would be unto thee, so 
it is with him whom thou intendest to tyrannise over. 
As it would be unto thee, so it is with him whom 
thou intendest to torment. Inthesameway(itis 
with him) whom thou intendest to punish, and to drive 
away. The righteous man who lives up to these sen- 
timents, does therefore neither kill nor cause others 
to kill (living beings). He should not intentionally 
cause the same punishment for himself 2 . (4) 

The Self is the knower (or experiencer), and the 
knower is the Self. That through which one knows, 
is the Self. With regard to this (to know) it (the 
Self) is established 8 . Such is he who maintains the 
right doctrine of Self. This subject has truly been 
explained. Thus I say. (5) 



Sixth Lesson. 

Some not instructed (in the true law) make (only 
a show) of good conduct ; some, though instructed, 

1 Fool,b£la; the scholiast explains Mia as Sabya or Pawvastha, 
an outsider, or a follower of F&rsva. (?). 

* For the same pain he has caused to others in this life, he will 
suffer in the life hereafter. 

s This means that knowledge is a modification (parwima) of 
the Self, and therefore one with it, but not as a quality or action 
of the Self different from it. 



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BOOK I, LECTURE 5, LESSON 6. 5 1 

have no good conduct. Let that not be your case ! 
That is the doctrine of the clever one. Adopting 
the (aiarya's) views, imitating his indifference (for 
the outer world), making him the guide and adviser 
(in all one's matters), sharing his abode, conquering 
(sinfulness), one sees the truth; unconquered one 
should be one's own master, having no reliance on 
anything (in the world). He who is great and with- 
draws his mind from the outer world, should learn 
the teaching (of the Tlrthakaras) through the teach- 
ing (of the a^arya) ; by his own innate knowledge, 
or through the instruction of the highest 1 , or 
having heard it from others. A wise man should 
not break the commandment. Examining all (wrong) 
doctrines from all sides and in all respects, one 
should clearly understand (and reject) them. ' Know- 
ing the delight of this world 2 , circumspect and re- 
strained, one should lead the life of an ascetic' 
Desiring liberation 3 , a hero should, through the 
sacred lore, ever be victorious. Thus I say. (i) 

The current (of sin) * is said to come from above, 
from below, and from the sides; these have* been 
declared to be the currents through which, look, 
there is sinfulness. 

' Examining the whirlpool 6 , a man, versed in the 
sacred lore, should keep off from it.' Leaving the 
world to avert the current (of sin), such a great 

1 I. e. the Tfrthakarae. * I. e. self-control. 

* The original has ni/Miya=nishMita. 

* It is called the door of asrava. The three directions men- 
tioned in the text, are the three divisions of the universe. Objects 
of desire in each induce men to sin. The original is a jloka, 
noticed as such by the scholiast. 

* Of worldly desires and their objects. 

E 2 



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52 ajtaranga sOtra. 

man, free from acts, knows and sees the truth ; 
examining (pleasures) he does not desire them. (2) 
Knowing whence we come and whither we go, he 
leaves the road to birth and death, rejoicing in 
the glorious (liberation). ' All sounds recoil thence, 
where speculation has no room,' nor does the mind 
penetrate there 1 . The saint 2 knows well that which 
is without support 3 . (3) 

(The liberated) is not long nor small nor round 
nor triangular nor quadrangular nor circular; he is 
not black nor blue nor red nor green nor white ; 
neither of good nor bad smell ; not bitter nor pun- 
gent nor astringent nor sweet; neither rough nor 
soft ; neither heavy nor light ; neither cold nor hot ; 
neither harsh nor smooth ; he is without body, with- 
out resurrection, without contact (of matter), he is not 
feminine nor masculine nor neuter ; he perceives, he 
knows, but there is no analogy (whereby to know 
the nature of the liberated soul) ; its essence is with- 
out form ; there is no condition of the unconditioned. 
There is no sound, no colour, no smell, no taste, no 
touch — nothing of that kind. Thus I say. (4) 



End of the Fifth Lecture, called Essence of the 
World. 



1 It is impossible to express the nature of liberation in words, 
since it cannot be reached even by the mind. 

' Oe=o^a, he who is free from love and hate. 

* I.e. liberation, or the state of the liberated Support, pati/- 
Ma»a, is the body or karman. 



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BOOK I, LECTURE 6, LESSON I. 53 



SIXTH LECTURE, 

CALLED 

the cleaning 1 . 

First Lesson. 

He who is awakened amongst men, preaches;, 
the man to whom all these classes of lives are 
well known, preaches the unparalleled wisdom. He 
praises the road to liberation for those who well 
exert themselves, who have forsworn cruelty, are 
zealous and endowed with knowledge. Thus some 
great heroes are victorious ; but, look, some others 
who are wanting in control do not understand (the 
welfare of) their souls. Thus I say. (i) 

As in a lake a greedy leaf-covered tortoise cannot 
rise up ; as the trees do not leave their place (though 
shaken by storms, &c.) : thus men, born in various 
families, cry bitterly because they are attached to 
the objects of the senses 2 ; on account of their 
sinfulness they do not reach liberation 8 . (2) 

Now look at those who are born in these families 
to reap the fruit of their own acts 4 : 

Boils and leprosy, consumption, falling sickness, 
blindness and stiffness, lameness and humpbacked- 
ness, 1 

1 Dhuta, literally, shaken. Compare the dhutangas of the 
Buddhists. Childers' Pali Diet. s. v. 

a Literally, the colours. 

* This paragraph reads like prose mixed with parts of verses. 
But it is not possible to restore one complete verse. 

4 ' To reap the fruit of their own acts' is, according to the com- 
mentary, the meaning of ayatt£e=atmatvSya. 



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54 AstArAnga sOtra. 

Dropsy and dumbness, look ! apoplexy (?) and eye- 
disease, trembling and crippledness, elephantiasis 
and diabetes, 2 

These are the sixteen diseases enumerated in due 
order; besides them many illnesses and wounds 
occur. 3 

Contemplating their (i. e. the creatures') death, 
knowing their births in higher and lower regions, 
contemplating the fruit (of their acts), hear about 
this according to truth. 4 

There are said to be blind beings dwelling in 
darkness ; once or frequently meeting this lot, they 
experience pleasant and unpleasant feelings. This 
has been declared by the awakened ones. (3) There 
are beings endowed with voice, with taste, water- 
beings dwelling in water, beings living in the air : 
'beings torment beings. See the great danger in 
this world 1 ;' many pains (are the lot) of the creatures. 
Men who are given to their lusts, come to destruc- 
tion through their weak, frail body. ' The fool works 
hard, thinking' that the unhappy one suffers many 
pains. ' Knowing that these diseases are many, 
should the afflicted search after (remedies)?' See! 
they are of no avail, have done with them ! Sage ! 
see this great danger ! Do not hurt anybody ! 
Contemplate. Be attentive! I shall proclaim the 
doctrine of renunciation *. (4) 

To reap the fruit of their acts they are born in 
these various families, they increase, are born, grow 
up, become awakened, and leave the world in due 
order as great sages. The lamenting parents say to 
them who proceed on the glorious road : ' Do not 

1 The result of former acts. * Dhutavada. 



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BOOK I, LECTURE 6, LESSON 2. 55 

leave us !' (5) Consulting their own pleasure, in- 
dulging their passions, ' making a noise 1 , the parents 
cry:' No man who leaves his parents is (fit to become) 
a flood-crossing sage ! (The ascetic) does not take 
refuge there (in his family); for what could attract 
him there ? 

He should always maintain this knowledge ! Thus 
I say. (6) 

Second Lesson. 

Though some know the misery of the world, have 
relinquished their former connections, have given up 
ease, live in chastity, and, whether monk or layman, 
thoroughly understand the law, they are not able 
(to persevere in a religious life). The ill-disposed, 
giving up the robe, alms-bowl, blanket, and broom, 
do not bear the continuous hardships that are diffi- 
cult to bear. He who prefers pleasures will, now 
or after an hour 2 , be deprived (of the body 3 , not 
to recover it) for an infinite space of time. And 
thus they do not cross (the sawsara), for the sake of 
these pleasures which entail evil consequences and 
are associated with others of their kind. (1) 

But some who embrace the law, will practise it, 
being careful about its outward signs; not giving 
way to worldliness, but being firm. Knowing (and 
renouncing) all lust, a devout man becomes a great 
sage when he breaks all bonds, thinking : Nothing 

1 The commentator explains this passage : * We do your will, 
we depend on you (?),' so shouting they cry, &c. 

* I.e. after a short time. 

1 The body with five organs, in which alone liberation can be 
realised. 



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56 Ajtaranga sOtra. 

belongs to me. A man who, thinking, I am I 1 , 
exerts himself for this (creed), ceases (to act), is 
houseless, walks about bald-headed. The naked, 
fasting (monk), who combats the flesh, will be 
abused, or struck, or hurt 2 ; he will be upbraided 
with his former trade, or reviled with untrue re- 
proaches. Accounting (for this treatment) by his 
former sins, knowing pleasant and unpleasant occur- 
rences, he should patiently wander about. Quitting 
all worldliness 3 one should bear all (disagreeable) 
feelings, being possessed of the right view*. (2) 

Those are called naked, who in this world, never 
returning (to a worldly state), (follow) my religion 
according to the commandment. This highest doc- 
trine has here been declared for men. Delighted 
with this, destroying that (i.e. the effect of works), he 
will successively 5 give up sinfulness 6 , after having 
come to a knowledge of it. Here (in our reli- 
gion) some live as single mendicants. Therefore a 
wise man should lead the life of an ascetic by 
collecting pure alms or any alms in all sorts of 
families. ' If (the food) be of good or bad smell, 
or if dreadful beasts inflict pain on (other) beings' — 



1 I have nothing to do with anybody else. 

2 Lusie. The commentator translates it by luȣita, to tear out 
the hair. This would be a rather difficult operation on the bald 
head of a Gaina monk. Lusiy a is, of course, the Sanskrit lush ita, 
hurt. 

s Visottiyaw. Sanskrit vifrotasika(?)=jank£. 

4 Samiyadawsawe. The commentator explains it by s am ita - 
dar-rana. I think it corresponds to samyagdarrana. 

B Pariyae»a»»=parySya. The commentator interprets it by 
jramawya. 

' Ad£«i^a«=adaniya. It means usually faith; but I have 
here translated it according to the commentary. 



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BOOK I, LECTURE 6, LESSON 3. 57 

all that happens to you, you will firmly bear it. 
Thus I say. (3) 

Third Lesson. 

A sage who is well instructed in the law and leads 
a life of abstinence, is always a destroyer of the 
effects of works 1 . To a mendicant who is little 
clothed 2 and firm in control, it will not occur (to 
think): My clothes are torn, I shall beg for (new) 
clothes ; I shall beg for thread ; I shall beg for 
a needle; I shall mend (my clothes); I shall darn 
them ; I shall repair them ; I shall put them on ; 
I shall wrap myself in them. (1) 

The unclothed one, who excels in this (absti- 
nence), will often be molested by (sharp blades of) 
grass, by cold, heat, gnats, and mosquitoes. The 
unclothed one, who effects scarcity (of his wants 
or of his karman), bears these and various other 
hardships. He is fit for penance, as has been 
declared by the Revered One. Understanding this 
in all respects and with his whole mind, he should 
perfectly know righteousness. The great heroes 
(i. e. the Tlrthakaras) who for a long time 3 walked 



1 Adinam explained as implements which are not requisite for 
the law. 

1 Aiela, literally, unclothed But it has that meaning only when 
it is applied to a ^inakalpika. A ^inakalpika is a monk who 
wears no clothes and uses the hollow of the hand for an alms-bowl. 
The only implements he has are the broom (rug oharawam) and 
the piece of cloth which the monk places before the mouth while 
speaking, in order to prevent insects from getting into his mouth 
(mukhavastrika). 

* jfirarata, literally, long night Compare dirgharatra, which 
the Bauddhas and Gainas employ in the sense we have given to 
Ararat am in the text 



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58 AtAranga sutra. 



in the former years 1 , the worthy ones bore the 
troubles (mentioned above) ; endowed with perfect 
knowledge they had lean arms and very little flesh 
and blood. He who discontinues (to sin) and is 
enlightened, is said to have crossed (the sawsara), to 
be liberated, and to have ceased (to act). Thus I 
say. (2) 

But can discontent lay hold of a mendicant, who 
has ceased to act and leads a religious life, for a 
long time controlling himself? He advances in his 
spiritual career and exerts himself. As an island 
which is never covered with water, so is the law 
taught by the noble ones (a safe refuge for those in 
danger). They are free from desires, free from 
murder, beloved, wise, learned. For their benefit 
has been the exertion of the Revered One ; as birds 
(feed) their young ones, so are the disciples regularly 
to be instructed day and night. Thus I say. (3) 

Fourth Lesson. 

The disciples are thus regularly instructed, day 
and night, by the knowledge-endowed great heroes, 
receiving knowledge from them. Some, being se- 
duced from the calmness of the mind, adopt rough 
manners. Some, living in chastity, dispute the 
authority (of the teacher), others hear and under- 
stand his words ; they intend to lead a godly life, 
but having left the world 2 , they are not qualified (for 
a religious life). Others, being incensed by lusts, 

1 Puvvaim v&siim, the former years are those long periods by 
which the length of the early Tirthakaras' life is measured. Walked 
means walked in righteousness. 

* Or obedience to their teacher ? 



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BOOK I, LECTURE 6, LESSON 4. 59 

greedy, sensual, ' do not care for abstract meditation 
and religious instruction : these men speak harshly 
unto the teacher.' It is a second folly of the slow- 
minded to call virtuous, calm, religiously living men 
worthless. 

Some, turning from (control), assign its difficulty 
as their reason (for doing so) 1 ; others, falling from 
the pure knowledge and defiling the creed, though 
not without devotion, for the love of life change 
(their vows). ' When they feel the hardships (of a 
religious life) they slide back, for their love of life.' 
Their leaving the world is a bad leaving, (i) 

Those who deserve to be called fools, are born 
again and again. Standing low (in learning or con- 
trol) they will exalt themselves (and say) in their 
pride : I am learned. They speak harshly unto the 
passionless ; they upbraid them with their former 
trades, or revile them with untrue reproaches 2 . The 
wise, therefore, should know the law. Thou lovest 
unrighteousness, because thou art young, and lovest 
acts, and sayest : ' Kill beings ;' thou killest them or 
consentest to their being killed by others. (Such a 
man) thinks contemptuously : A very severe religion 
has been proclaimed. Sinking in opposition to the 
law, he is called murderer. Thus I say. (2) 

Some think : What have I to do with this or 
that man ? Thus they leave father and mother, 
kith and kin, like heroes exerting themselves, free 
from murder. Look! the pious and calm become 

1 They do not upbraid their teachers, and hence are not guilty 
of the second folly. 

* Compare second lesson, § 3. Paliy a, which we have here as in 
the passage above translated ' former trade,' is here explained by 
anush/Mna, exertion. 



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60 AjtarAnga sOtra. 

desponding ; the rising, cast down. Those troubled 
with sensuality, the cowardly men become perverters 
of the faith \ Therefore the reputation of some be- 
comes bad. He is an apostate ascetic ! He is an 
apostate ascetic! (3) 

Look ! Some, though living with religious, pious, 
calm, and worthy (monks), are not religious, nor 
pious, nor calm, nor worthy. Knowing them, the 
learned, the wise, the steadfast hero will always be 
victorious through the right faith. Thus I say. (4) 

Fifth Lesson. 

Staying in or between houses, in or between vil- 
lages, in or between towns, in or between counties, 
a monk is attacked by murderers, or is subject to 
the hardships (of a mendicant's life). A hero should 
bear these hardships. (1) 

A saint 2 , with right intuition, who cherishes 
compassion for the world, in the east, west, south, 
and north, should preach, spread, and praise (the 
faith), knowing the sacred lore 3 . He should pro- 
claim it among those who exert themselves, and 
those who do not*, among those who are willing to 
hear (the word). (2) 

Not neglecting tranquillity, indifference, patience, 
liberation, purity, uprightness, gentleness, and free- 
dom from worldly cares 6 , one should, with due con- 
sideration, preach the law of the mendicants to all 
sorts of creatures. (3) 

1 Or breakers of vows. * Oya, see note 2, p. 52. 

3 Veyavi=vedavid. 

* This is equivalent either to believers and heretics, or to clerical 
and lay men. 

* Laghaviya, lightness, explained, freedom from bonds. 



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BOOK I, LECTURE 6, LESSON 5. 6 1 

With due consideration preaching the law of the 
mendicants, one should do no injury to one's self, 
nor to anybody else, nor to any of the four kinds of 
living beings. But a great sage, neither injuring 
nor injured, becomes a shelter for all sorts of afflicted 
creatures, even as an island, which is never covered 
with water. (4) 

Thus a man who exerts himself, and is of a 
steady mind, without attachment, unmoved (by 
passion) but restless (in wandering about), having no 
worldly desires, should lead the life of an ascetic. 

Having contemplated the beautiful law, the dis- 
cerning one is liberated. 

Therefore look at worldliness, ye men, fettered in 
fetters ! 

Those whom lust conquers, sink ; therefore do 
not shrink from the hard (control)! He who knows 
(and renounces) perfectly and thoroughly these inju- 
rious acts, from whom the injurers do not shrink \ 
'who has shaken off wrath, pride,' delusion, and 
greed, 'he is called a removed one.' Thus I 

say (5) 

On the decay of the body (he does not despond, 
but deserves) his appellation, 'the leader of the 
battle.' The sage who has reached the other side, 
unafflicted and unmoved like a beam, being in the 
power of death, desires death as the dissolution of 
the body. Thus I say. (6) 



End of the Sixth Lecture, called the Cleaning. 



1 One expects, who does not shrink from the injurers. 



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62 ajtarAnga sGtra. 



SEVENTH LECTURE, 

CALLED 

liberation. 

First Lesson. 

I say: To friendly or hostile (heretics) one should 
not give food, drink, dainties and spices, clothes, 
alms-bowls, and brooms ; nor exhort these persons 
to give (such things), nor do them service, always 
showing the highest respect. Thus I say 1 , (i) 

(A heretic may say) : Know this for certain : 
having or not having received food, &c. (down to) 
brooms, having or not having eaten (come to our 
house), even turning from your way or passing (other 
houses ; we shall supply your wants). Confessing an 
individual creed, coming and going, he may give, or 
exhort to give, or do service (but one should not 
accept anything from him), showing not the slightest 
respect Thus I say. (2) 

Some here are not well instructed as regards the 
subject of conduct ; for desirous of acts, they say : 
' Kill creatures ;' they themselves kill or consent to 
the killing of others ; or they take what has not 
been given ; or they pronounce opinions, e. g. the 
world exists, the world does not exist, the world is 

1 This and the following paragraph are extremely difficult to 
translate. I have translated the words according to the scholiast, 
and supplied what he supplies ; but his interpretation can scarcely 
be reconciled with the text. 



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BOOK I, LECTURE 7, LESSON I. 63 

unchangeable, the world is ever changing; the 
world has a beginning, the world has no beginning ; 
the world has an end, the world has no end; (or 
with regard to the self and actions) : this is well 
done, this is badly done; this is merit, this is 
demerit ; he is a good man, he is not a good man ; 
there is beatitude, there is no beatitude ; there is a 
hell, there is no hell. When they thus differ (in their 
opinions) and profess their individual persuasion, 
know (that this is all) without reason l . Thus they 
are not well taught, not well instructed in the reli- 
gion such as it has been declared by the Revered 
One, who knows and sees with quick discernment. 
(One should either instruct the opponent in the true 
faith) or observe abstinence as regards speech. 
Thus I say. (3) 

Everywhere 2 sins are admitted ; but to avoid them 
is called my distinction. For ye who live in a 
village or in the forest, or not in a village and not 
in the forest, know the law as it has been declared. 
' By the Brahman, the wise (Mahavfra), three * vows 
have been enjoined.' Noble and tranquil men who 
are enlightened and exert themselves in these (pre- 
cepts), are called free from sinful acts. (4) 

Knowing (and renouncing) severally and singly 



1 The Gainas do not espouse one of the alternative solutions 
of the metaphysical and ethical questions ; but they are enabled by 
the sy&dvada to believe in the co-existence of contrary qualities in 
one and the same thing. 

3 In all other religious sects. 

* Gama = yama. These are, (1) to kill no living being, (2) to 
speak no untruth, (3) to abstain from forbidden things (theft and 
sexual pleasures). Or the three ages of man are intended by 
j^Sma, which we have rendered vows. 



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64 A^ArAnga sOtra. 

the actions against living beings, in the regions 
above, below, and on the surface, everywhere and 
in all ways — a wise man neither gives pain to these 
bodies, nor orders others to do so, nor assents to 
their doing so. Nay, we abhor those who give pain 
to these bodies. Knowing this, a wise man should 
not cause this or any other pain (to any creatures). 
Thus I say. (5) 

Second Lesson. 

A mendicant may exert himself, or stand or sit 
or lie in a burying-place or in an empty house or 
in a mountain cave or in a potter's workshop. A 
householder may approach a mendicant who stays 
in any of these places, and say unto him : O long- 
lived .Srama#a ! I shall give you what I have bought 
or stolen or taken, though it was not to be taken, 
nor given, but was taken by force, viz. food, drink, 
dainties and spices, clothes, an alms-bowl, a plaid, a 
broom — by acting sinfully against all sorts of living 
beings; or I shall prepare you snug lodgings; eat (the 
offered food), dwell (in the prepared house 1 ). (1) 

O long-lived Sramana. ! A mendicant should thus 
refuse a householder of good sense and ripe age : 
O long-lived householder ! I do not approve of thy 
words, I do not accept thy words, that, for my sake, 
thou givest unto me what thou hast bought or stolen 
or taken, though it was not to be taken, nor given, 
but was taken by force, viz. food, drink, dainties and 
spices, clothes, an alms-bowl, a plaid, a broom — by 

1 Later on in the commentary (beginning of the sixth lesson) this 
is called udgamotpadanaishawa. 



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BOOK I, LECTURE 7, LESSON 2. 65 

acting sinfully against all sorts of living beings ; or 
that thou preparest pleasant lodgings for me. O long- 
lived householder! I have given up this, because 
it is not to be done. (2) A mendicant may exert 
himself, &c. (first sentence of § 1). A householder, 
without betraying his intention, may approach him 
who stays in some one of the above-mentioned 
places, and give unto him what has been taken, 
&c. (all as above, down to) or prepare pleasant 
lodgings, and accommodate the mendicant with 
food (and lodging). A mendicant should know it 
by his own innate intelligence, or through the 
instruction of the highest (i. e. the Tlrthakaras), or 
having heard it from others : This householder, for- 
sooth, for my sake injures all sorts of living beings, 
to give me food, &c, clothes, &c, or to prepare 
pleasant lodgings. A mendicant should well observe 
and understand this, that he may order (the house- 
holder) not to show such obsequiousness. Thus 

1 Say * ^ 

Those who having, with or without the mendi- 
cant's knowledge, brought together fetters \ become 
angry (on the monk's refusal) and will strike him, 
saying: Beat, kill, cut, burn, roast, tear, rob, despatch, 
torture him ! But the hero, come to such a lot, 
will bravely bear it, or tell him the code of conduct, 
considering that he is of a different habit; or by 
guarding his speech he should in due order examine 
the subject, guarding himself. 

This has been declared by the awakened ones: 
The faithful should not give to dissenters food, &c, 
clothes, &c, nor should they exhort them (to give), 

1 The above-detailed benefactions, 
[aa] F 



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66 AjpAranga sOtra. 



nor do them service, always showing the highest 
respect. Thus I say. (4) 

Know the law declared by the wise Brahmawa : 
one should give to one of the same faith food, 
&c, clothes, &c, and one should exhort him (to 
give) or do him service, always showing the highest 
respect. Thus I say. (5) 

Third Lesson. 

Some are awakened as middle-aged men and 
exert themselves well, having, as clever men, heard 
and received the word of the learned \ The noble 
ones have impartially preached the law. Those 
who are awakened, should not wish for pleasure, 
nor do harm, nor desire (any forbidden things). A 
person who is without desires and does no harm 
unto any living beings in the whole world, is called 
by me 'unfettered.' (1) 

One free from passions understands perfectly the 
bright one a , knowing birth in the upper and nethei 
regions. 

* Bodies increase through nourishment, they are 
frail in hardships.' See some whose organs are 
failing (give way to weakness). 

A person who has no desires, cherishes pity. He 
who understands the doctrine of sin, is a mendicant 
who knows the time, the strength, the measure, the 
occasion, the conduct, the religious precept ; he dis- 
owns all things not requisite for religious purposes, 

1 The scholiast says that there are three classes of the awakened: 
the Svayambuddha, the Pratyekabuddha, and the Buddhabodhita. 
The last only is treated of in the text. 

8 I. e. self-control. 



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BOOK I, LECTURE 7, LESSON 4. 67 

in time exerts himself, is under no obligations ; he 
proceeds securely (on the road to final liberation) 
after having cut off both (love and hate) 1 . (2) 

A householder approaching a mendicant whose 
limbs tremble for cold, may say : 
% long-lived 3rama»a! are you not subject to 
the influences of your senses ? 

long-lived householder! I am not subject to 
the influences of my senses. But I cannot sustain 
the feeling of cold. Yet it does not become me 
to kindle or light a fire *, that I may warm or heat 
myself; nor (to procure that comfort) through the 
order of others. 

Perhaps after the mendicant has spoken thus, the 
other kindles or lights a fire that he may warm or 
heat himself. But the mendicant should well ob- 
serve and understand this, that he may order him to 
show no such obsequiousness. Thus I say. (3) 

Fourth Lesson. 

A mendicant who is fitted out with three robes 8 , and 
a bowl as fourth (article), will not think : I shall beg 

1 The latter part of this paragraph is nearly identical with 
lecture a, lesson 5, § 3, to which we refer the reader for the ex- 
planation of the dark phrases. 

9 The original has fire-body, which the faithful are enjoined not 
to injure ; see lecture 2, lesson 4. 

8 The three robes allowed to a Gaina monk are two linen under 
garments (kshaumikakalpa) and one woollen upper garment (aurm- 
kakalpa). Besides these (kalpatraya), the monk possesses, 2. an 
alms-bowl (pitra) with six things belonging to it, 3. a broom (ra^-o- 
harana), 4. a veil for the mouth (mukhavastrikS). The alms- 
bowl and the articles belonging to it are specialised in the fol- 
lowing gith&: pattaw pattabawdho paya//Aava»a»» £a payakesariyS I 
pa</alSi rayatt&ffam £a goiM&o pSyanjgyogo ll 

r 2 



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68 atarAnga sOtra. 



for a fourth robe. He should beg for (clothes) which 
he wants, and which are permitted by the religious 
code ' ; he should wear the clothes in the same state 
in which they are given him; he should neither 
wash nor dye them, nor should he wear washed 
or dyed clothes, nor (should he) hide (his garments 
when passing) through other villages, being care- 
less of dress. This is the whole duty 2 of one 
who wears clothes. But know further, that, after 
winter is gone and the hot season has come, one 
should leave off the used-up (garment of the three), 
being clad with an upper and under garment, or 
with the undermost garment, or with one gown, or 
with no clothes — aspiring to freedom from bonds 3 . 
Penance suits him. Knowing what the Revered 
One has declared, one should thoroughly and in all 
respects conform to it. (i) 

When it occurs to a blessed * mendicant that he 
suffers pain, and cannot bear the influence of cold, 
he should not try to obviate these trials, but stand 
fast in his own self which is endowed with all know- 
ledge \ ' For it is better for an ascetic that he 
should take poison.' Even thus he will in due 
time put an end to existence. This (way to 
escape trials) has been adopted by many who were 

1 Things, &c: this is the meaning of the technical term 
ahesanig-^a yathaishawfya, allowed objects of begging. 
a Literally, outfit. Cf. II, 5, 2, § 1. 

* I. e. freedom from worldly cares and interest. 

* Vasumaw : rich (in control). 

1 But he should not, in order to escape these trials, commit such 
suicide as is only permitted to ascetics who have reached the 
highest degree of perfection, when they are ripe for Nirv&ta. 
Suicide only puts off the last struggle for Nirvawa; but it is 
better than breaking the vow. 



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BOOK I, LECTURE 7, LESSON 5. 69 

free from delusion ; it is good, wholesome, proper, 
beatifying, meritorious. Thus I say. (2) 

Fifth Lesson. 

A mendicant who is fitted out with two robes, 
and a bowl as third (article), will not think : I shall 
beg for a third robe. He should beg for robes 
which are allowed to be begged for ; he should wear 
the clothes, &c. &C. 1 This is the whole outfit of 
one who wears clothes. But know further, that 
after the winter is gone and the hot season has come, 
one should leave off the used-up garments ; having 
left off the used-up garments, (one should) be clad 
with the undermost garment, with a gown 2 , or with 
no clothes at all — aspiring to freedom from bonds. 
Penance suits him. Knowing what the Revered 
One has declared, one should thoroughly and in all 
respects conform to it. (1) 

When the thought occurs to a mendicant that 
through illness he is too weak, and not able to beg 
from house to house — and on his thus complaining 
a householder brings food, &c, obtained (without 
injuring life 3 ), and gives it him — then he should, 
after deliberation, say 4 : O long-lived householder ! it 
does not become me to eat or drink this 3 food, &c, 
or (accept) anything else of the same kind. (2) 

1 See lesson 4, § 1. 

* The MSS. are at variance with each other in adapting the 
words of the former lesson to the present case. As the com- 
mentaries are no check, and do not explain our passage, I have 
selected what seemed to me to be the most likely reading. 

* Abhiha</a=abhy&hr/'ta : it is a typical attribute of objection- 
able things. The commentator explains it here by ^ivopamardani- 
vn'tta. 

4 The original has only aloe^a, he should examine whether 



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W0S 



•jo AkArAnga s6tra. 



A mendicant who has resolved, that he will, when 
sick, accept the assistance of fellow-ascetics 1 in good 
health, when they offer (assistance) without being 
asked, and that vice versa he, when in health, will 
give assistance to sick fellow-ascetics, offering it 
without being asked — (he should not deviate from 
his resolution though he die for want of help). (3) 

Taking the vow to beg (food, &c.) for another 
(who is sick), and to eat (when sick) what is brought 
by another; taking the vow to beg, &c, and not 
to eat what is brought ; taking the vow not to beg, 
&c, but to eat what is brought; taking the vow 
neither to beg, &c, nor to eat what is brought — 
(one should adhere to that vow). Practising thus 
the law as it has been declared, one becomes tran- 
quil, averted from sin, guarded against the allure- 
ments of the senses. . Even thus (though sick) he 
will in due time put an end to existence 2 . This 
(method) has been adopted by many who were 
free from delusion ; it is good, wholesome, proper, 
beatifying, meritorious. Thus I say. (4) 

the food &c. is acceptable or not This is called the grahawai- 
shawi. 

1 S&hammiya=s&dharmika, one who follows the same rule 
in cases where different rules are left to the option of the mendi- 
cants. Theword abhikawkha=abhikankshyais not translated, 
the commentator makes it out to mean, wishing for freedom from 
sinful acts. 

* As in the preceding lesson a man who cannot conquer his sen- 
suality, is permitted to commit suicide (by hanging himself, &c), in 
order to put an end to his trials and temptations, so in this lesson 
a man whose sickness prevents him from persevering in a life of 
austerities, is permitted to commit suicide by rejecting food and 
drink. This is called bhaktap&napratyakhyanamukti. It 
seems therefore to have been regarded as leading to final liberation 
(mukti). 



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BOOK I, LECTURE J, LESSON 6. 71 



Sixth Lesson. 

A mendicant who is fitted out with one robe, and 
a bowl as second (article), will not think : I shall beg 
for a second robe. He should beg for such a robe 
only as is allowed to be begged for, and he should 
wear it in the same state as he receives it. This 
is, &c. (see lesson 4, § 1). 

But when the hot season has come, one should 
leave off the used-up clothes ; one should be clad 
with one or no garment — aspiring to freedom from 
bonds. Knowing what the Revered One, &c. (see 
lesson 5, § 1). 

When the thought occurs to a mendicant : ' I am 
myself, alone ; I have nobody belonging to me, nor 
do I belong to anybody,' then he should thoroughly 
know himself as standing alone — aspiring to freedom 
from bonds. Penance suits him. Knowing what the 
Revered One has declared, one should thoroughly 
and in all respects conform to it. (1) 

A male or female mendicant eating food &c. 
should not shift (the morsel) from the left jaw to 
the right jaw, nor from the right jaw to the left jaw, 
to get a fuller taste of it, not caring for the taste 
(of it) — aspiring to freedom from bonds. Penance 
suits him. Knowing what the Revered One has 
declared, one should thoroughly and in all respects 
conform to it. (2) 

If this thought occurs to a monk : ' I am sick 
and not able, at this time, to regularly mortify the 
flesh,' that monk should regularly reduce his food ; 
regularly reducing his food, and diminishing his 
sins, ' he should take proper care of his body, being 



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72 AjtAranga sOtra. 



immovable like a beam ; exerting himself he dis- 
solves his body 1 .' (3) 

Entering a village, or a scot-free town, or a town 
with an earth-wall, or a town with a small wall, or 
an isolated town, or a large town, or a sea-town, 
or a mine, or a hermitage, or the halting-places of 
processions, or caravans, or a capital 2 — a monk 
should beg for straw ; having begged for straw he 
should retire with it to a secluded spot After 
having repeatedly examined and cleaned the ground, 
where there are no eggs, nor living beings, nor 
seeds, nor sprouts, nor dew, nor water, nor ants, 
nor mildew, nor waterdrops, nor mud, nor cobwebs — 
he should spread the straw on it. Then he should 
there and then effect (the religious death called) 
itvara 8 . (4) 

1 There is no finite verb in this sentence, nor any word 
which could supply its place. The old Gaina authors were so 
accustomed to surround their meaning with exclusions and excep- 
tions, and to fortify it with a maze of parentheses, that they some- 
times apparently forgot to express the verb, especially when they 
made use of fragments of old verses, as in the present case. 

* This is one of the most frequent gam as or identical passages 
which form a rather questionable ornament of the Sutra style. The 
gamas are usually abbreviated, «.g. villages, &c, all down to 
capital, or eggs, &c, all down to cobwebs, which we shall 
presently meet with. 

3 Itvara or ingitamarana consists in starving oneself, while 
keeping within a limited space. A religious death is usually 
permitted only to those who have during twelve years undergone 
preparatory penance, consisting chiefly in protracted periods of 
fasting. The scholiast says that in our case the itvara is not 
enjoined for sick persons who can no longer sustain austerities ; 
but they should act as if they were to commit the itvara suicide, 
hoping that in five or six days the sickness would leave them, in 
which case they are to return to their former life. But if they should 
not get better but die, it is all for the best. 



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BOOK I, LECTURE J, LESSON 7. 73 

This is the truth : speaking truth, free from pas- 
sion, crossing (the samsara), abating irresoluteness, 
knowing all truth and not being known, leaving this 
frail body, overcoming all sorts of pains and troubles 
through trust in this (religion), he accomplishes this 
fearful (religious death). Even thus he will in due 
time put an end to existence. This has been adopted 
by many who were free from delusion ; it is good, 
wholesome, proper, beatifying, meritorious. Thus 
I say. (5) 

Seventh Lesson. 

To a naked 1 monk the thought occurs : I can bear 
the pricking of grass, the influence of cold and heat, 
the stinging of flies and mosquitos ; these and other 
various painful feelings I can sustain, but I cannot 
leave off the covering of the privities. Then he 
may cover his privities with a piece of cloth 2 . 

A naked monk who perseveres in this conduct, 
sustains repeatedly these and other various painful 
feelings : the grass pricks him, heat and cold attack 
him, flies and mosquitos sting him. A naked monk 
(should be) aspiring to freedom from bonds. Pen- 
ance suits him. Knowing what the Revered One has 
declared, one should thoroughly and in all respects 
conform to it. (1) 

A monk who has come to any of the following 
resolutions, — having collected food, &c, I shall give 
of it to other monks, and I shall eat (what they 
have) brought; (or) having collected food, &c, I 
shall give of it to other monks, but I shall not eat 

» A*ela. 

* This is the ka/ibandhana or £olapa//aka; it should be 
four fingers broad and one hasta long. 



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74 AstArAnga sutra. 



(what they have) brought; (or) having collected 
food, &c, I shall not give of it to other monks, but 
I shall eat (what they have) brought; (or) having 
collected food, &c, I shall not give of it to other 
monks, nor eat (what they have) brought ; (2) (or) 
I shall assist a fellow-ascetic with the remnants of 
my dinner, which is acceptable 1 and remained in 
the same state in which it was received 2 , and I shall 
accept the assistance of fellow-ascetics as regards 
the remnants of their dinner, which is acceptable 
and remained in the same state in which it was 
received ; — (that monk should keep these vows even 
if he should run the risk of his life) (3) — aspiring to 
freedom from bonds. Penance suits him. Knowing 
what the Revered One has declared, one should 
thoroughly conform to it. (4) 

(The last two paragraphs of the last lesson are 
to be reproduced here.) 

Thus I say. (5) 

Eighth Lesson. 
The wise ones who attain in due order 3 to one of 
the unerring states (in which suicide is prescribed), 
those who are rich in control and endowed with 
knowledge, knowing the incomparable (religious 
death, should continue their contemplation). (1) 

1 Ahesa«i^a: it had those qualities which are required of a 
thing the mendicant may accept. 

' Ahapariggahiya=ahaparign'hita. 

8 The preceding lessons treated of suicide conceded to sick 
persons as a means of entering Nirvana. The eighth lesson, which 
is written in jlokas, describes the different kinds of religious deaths 
which form the end of a twelve-years' mortification of the flesh 
(sawlekhana). But the ascetic must ask and get the permission of 
his Guru, before he commits suicide. 



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BOOK I, LECTURE J, LESSON 8. 75 

Knowing the twofold (obstacles, i.e. bodily and 
mental), the wise ones, having thoroughly learned 
the law, perceiving in due order (that the time for 
their death has come), get rid of karman. (2) 

Subduing the passions and living on little food \ 
he should endure (hardships). If a mendicant falls 
sick, let him again take food. (3) 

He should not long for life, nor wish for death ; 
he should yearn after neither, life or death. (4) 

He who is indifferent and wishes for the destruc- 
tion of karman, should continue his contemplation. 
Becoming unattached internally and externally, he 
should strive after absolute purity. (5) 

Whatever means one knows for calming one's own 
life 2 , that a wise man should learn (i. e. practise) in 
order to gain time (for continuing penance). (6) 

In a village or in a forest, examining the ground 
and recognising it as free from living beings, the 
sage should spread the straw 3 . (7) 

Without food he should lie down and bear the 
pains which attack him. He should not for too 
long time give way to worldly feelings which over- 
come him. (8) 

When crawling animals or such as live on high 
or below, feed on his flesh and blood, he should 
neither kill them nor rub (the wound). (9) 

Though these animals destroy the body, he should 
not stir from his position. 



1 Compare lecture 7, lesson 6, § 3. 

* I. e. for preserving the life, when too severe penance brings on 
sickness and the probability of instant death. 

1 Here commences the description of the bhaktapratyikhyd- 
namarawa, suicide by rejecting food. 



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76 AjtarAnga sutra. 

After the asravas have ceased, he should bear 
(pains) as if he rejoiced in them. (10) 

When the bonds fall off, then he has accomplished 
his life. 

(We shall now describe) a more exalted (method 1 ) 
for a well -controlled and instructed monk, (n) 

This other law has been proclaimed by Gh%X.ri- 
putra : 

He should give up all motions except his own in 
the thrice-threefold way 2 . (12) 

He should not lie on sprouts of grass, but in- 
specting the bare ground he should lie on it. 

Without any comfort and food, he should there 
bear pain. (13) 

When the sage becomes weak in his limbs, he 
should strive after calmness 8 . 

For he is blameless, who is well fixed and im- 
movable (in his intention to die). (14) 

He should move to and fro (on his ground), 
contract and stretch (his limbs) for the benefit of 
the whole body ; or (he should remain quiet as if 
he were) lifeless. (15) 

He should walk about, when tired of (lying), or 
stand with passive limbs ; when tired of standing, he 
should sit down. (16) 

Intent on such an uncommon death, he should 
regulate the motions of his organs. 



1 Viz. the ingitamara/»a, which differs from the preceding one 
by the restriction of the motions of the candidate for suicide to a 
limited space. 

8 I. e. of body, speech, and mind; doing, or causing, or allowing 
to be done. 

' He should not give way to melancholy thoughts. 



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BOOK I, LECTURE 7, LESSON 8. 77 

Having attained a place swarming with insects, 
he should search for a clean spot. (17) 

He should not remain there whence sin would 
rise. 

He should raise himself above (sinfulness), and 
bear all pains. (18) 

And this is a still more difficult method \ when 
one lives according to it : not to stir from one's 
place, while checking all motions of the body. (19) 

This is the highest law, exalted above the pre- 
ceding method: 

Having examined a spot of bare ground he should 
remain there ; stay O Brahma»a ! (20) 

Having attained a place free from living beings, 
he should there fix himself. 

He should thoroughly mortify his flesh, thinking : 
There are no obstacles in my body. (21) 

Knowing as long as he lives the dangers and 
troubles, the wise and restrained (ascetic) should 
bear them as being instrumental to the dissolution 
of the body. (22) 

He should not be attached to the transitory 
pleasures, nor to the greater ones ; he should not 
nourish desire and greed, looking only for eternal 
praise. (23) 

He should be enlightened with eternal objects 2 , 
and not trust in the delusive power of the gods; 

1 It is called pSovagamawa, translated by the commentators 
p&dapopagamana, remaining motionless like a felled tree. This 
etymology, which is generally adopted by the Gainas, is evidently 
wrong; for the Sanskrit prototype is the Brahmanical prSyopa- 
gamana. 

* This is the scholiast's interpretation of nimamtej^a' niman- 
trayet. 



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78 AjArAnga sOtra. 

a Brahma»a should know of this and cast off all 
inferiority 1 . (24) 

Not devoted to any of the external objects he 
reaches the end of his life ; thinking that patience 
is the highest good, he (should choose) one of 
(the described three) good methods of entering 
Nirva#a. (25) Thus I say. 



End of the Seventh Lecture, called Liberation. 



1 Nfimam karma maya va. 



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BOOK I, LECTURE 8, LESSON I. 79 



EIGHTH LECTURE, 

(called) 
the pillow of righteousness. 

First Lesson. 

As I have heard it, I shall tell how the Venerable 
Ascetic, exerting himself and meditating, after having 
entered the order in that winter, wandered about 1 , 

'I shall not cover myself with that robe 8 ,' only 
in that winter (he used it). He had crossed (the sa.m- 
sara) for the rest of his life. This (refusing of dress) 
is in accordance with his doctrine, (i) 

More than four months many sorts of living beings 
gathered on his body, crawled about it, and caused 
pain there. (2) 

For a year and a month he did not leave off his 
robe. Since that time the Venerable One, giving up 
his robe, was a naked, world-relinquishing, houseless 
(sage) 3 . (3) 

Then he meditated (walking) with his eye fixed 
on a square space before him of the length of a 

1 The commentators call this passage a xloka, though only the 
beginning of it looks like a p&da, the rest showing no metrical 
law. The beginning of the last passage looks also like the first 
pada of a jloka ; but the rest requires some violent alterations to 
answer the metrical laws of a doka. 

2 The divine robe given him by Indra. 

9 The commentator says that this happened at the Suvarwabd- 
luk& river. 



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80 AjtarA&ga sutra. 

man 1 . Many people assembled, shocked at the sight ; 
they struck him and cried. (4) 

Knowing (and renouncing) the female sex in 
mixed gathering places 2 , he meditated, finding his 
way himself : I do not lead a worldly life. (5) 
/ Giving up the company 3 of all householders 
whomsoever, he meditated. Asked, he gave no 
/answer; he went, and did not transgress the right 
[path. (6) 

For some it is not easy (to do what he did), not 
to answer those who salute; he was beaten with 
sticks, and struck by sinful people. (7) 

Disregarding slights difficult to bear, the Sage 
wandered about, (not attracted) by story-tellers, 
pantomimes, songs, fights at quarter-staff, and 
boxing-matches. (8) 

At that time the son of Giiktri saw without 
sorrow (or pleasure) people in mutual conversation. 
£»at/7putra obtained oblivion of these exquisite 
sorrows. (9) 

For more than a couple of years he led a reli- 
gious life without using cold water; he realised 
singleness, guarded his body, had got intuition, and 
was calm. (10) 

Thoroughly knowing the earth-bodies and water- 
bodies and fire-bodies and wind-bodies, the lichens, 
seeds, and sprouts, (11) 

He comprehended that they are, if narrowly 



1 Tiriyabhittiffl is left out in the translation. I cannot make out 
the exact meaning of it, perhaps : ' so that he was a wall for the 
animals.' 

* Sayawehun in the original. 

* Literally, the mixed state. 



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BOOK I, LECTURE 8, LESSON I. 8 1 

inspected, imbued with life, and avoided to injure 
them ; he, the great Hero. (12) 

The immovable (beings) are changed to mova- 
ble ones, and the movable beings to immovable 
ones; beings which are born in all states become 
individually sinners 1 by their actions. (13) 

The Venerable One understands thus : he who is 
under the conditions (of existence) 2 , that fool suffers 
pain. Thoroughly knowing (karman), the Venerable 
One avoids sin. (14) 

The sage, perceiving the double (karman) 3 , pro- 
claims the incomparable activity*, he, the knowing 
one; knowing the current ofworldliness, the current 
of sinfulness, and the impulse, (15) 

Practising the sinless abstinence from killing, he did 
no acts, neither himself nor with the assistance of others ; 
he to whom women were known as the causes of all 
sinful acts, he saw (the true state of the world). (16) 

He did not use what had expressly been pre- 
pared for him 8 ; he well saw (that bondage comes) 
through action. Whatever is sinful, the Venerable 
One left that undone : he consumed clean food. (17) 

He did not use another's robe, nor does he eat 
out of another's vessel. Disregarding contempt, he 
went with indifference to places where food was pre- 
pared. (18) 

Knowing measure in eating and drinking, he was 
not desirous of delicious food, nor had he a longing 
for it. A sage should not rub his eyes nor scratch 
his body. (19) 

1 Or sinful? bM. * Upadhi. 

' Present and future. * I. e. religious life. 

' Ahakaifam: yath£ yena prakirewa pr»*sh/vd apri'sh/vS v& 
kr/taw yathakntam idhakannadini. 

[32] G 



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82 ajtAranga sutra. 



Looking a little sideward, looking a little behind, 
answering little when spoken to, he should walk 
attentively looking on his path. (20) 

When the cold season has half-way advanced, the 
houseless, leaving off his robe and stretching out 
his arms, should wander about, not leaning against a 
trunk. (21) 

This is the rule which has often been followed by 
the wise Brahmawa, the Venerable One, who is free 
from attachment : thus proceed (the monks). 

Thus I say. (22) 

Second Lesson. 

Whatever different seats and couches have been 
told, whatever have been used by the great Hero, 
these resting-places are thus detailed 1 . (1) 

He sometimes lodged in workshops, assembling- 
places, wells, or shops ; sometimes in manufactories 
or under a shed of straw. (2) 

He sometimes lodged in travellers' halls, garden- 
houses, or towns ; sometimes on a burying-ground, 
in relinquished houses, or at the foot of a tree. (3) 

In these places was the wise *Srama»a for thirteen 
long years ; he meditated day and night, exerting 
himself, undisturbed, strenuously. (4) 

The Venerable One, exerting himself, did not seek 

1 .Silarika remarks : ' This verse has not been explained by the 
author of the old /Ika. Why? Either because it offers no difficulty, 
or because it was wanting. Yet it is found in the MSS. of the text 
alone. We do not exactly know the reason.' Which old /iki is 
meant by .Silanka we cannot tell with certainty. It scarcely can 
be the ifurwi, for in the Bombay MS. of it the text of the verse in 
question is given, but no explanation beyond the words: es£ 
puikhi, this is (given as an answer to) a question. 



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BOOK I, LECTURE 8, LESSON 2. 83 

sleep for the sake of pleasure ; he waked up himself, 
and slept only a little, free from desires. (5) 

Waking up again, the Venerable One lay down, 
exerting himself; going outside for once in a night, 
he walked about for an hour. (6) 

In his resting-places he sustained fearful and mani- 
fold calamities; crawling or flying animals attack 
him. (7) 

Bad people, the guard of the village, or lance- 
bearers attack him ; or there were domestic tempta- 
tions, single women or men ; (8) 

Fearful and manifold (calamities) of this and the 
next world; pleasant and unpleasant smells, and 
manifold sounds : (9) 

Always well controlled, he bore the different sorts 
of feelings ; overcoming carelessness and pleasure, the 
Brahma«a wandered about, speaking but little. (10) 

In the resting-places there once, in a night, the 
single wanderers asked him (who he was, and why 
he was there) ; as he did not answer, they treated 
him badly; but he persevered in his meditations, 
free from resentment. (11) 

(Sometimes to avoid greater troubles when asked), 
'Who is there within?' he answered, ' It is I, a ' 
mendicant.' But this is the best law: silently to 
meditate, even if badly treated. (1 2) 

When a cold wind blows, in which some feel pain, 
then some houseless monks in the cold rain seek 
a place sheltered from the wind. (13) 

(Some heretical monks say), 'We shall put on 
more clothes ; kindling wood or (well) covered, we 
shall be able (to bear) the very painful influence of 
the cold.' (14) 

But the Venerable One desired nothing of the kind ; 
G 2 



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84 ajtAranga sOtra. 



strong in control, he suffered, despising all shelter. 
Going outside once of a night, the Venerable One 
was able (to endure all hardships) in calmness. (15) 

This is the rule which has often been followed by 
the wise Brahma»a, the Venerable One, who is free 
from attachment : thus proceed (the monks). 

Thus I say. (16) 

Third Lesson. 

Always well guarded, he bore the pains (caused by) 
grass, cold, fire, flies, and gnats; manifold pains. (1) 

He travelled in the pathless country of the 
Lafl^as, in Va^yabhumi and Subbhabhumi ' ; he used 
there miserable beds and miserable seats. (2) 

In \Adhz. (happened) to him many dangers. Many 
natives attacked him. Even in the faithful part of 
the rough country 2 the dogs bit him, ran at him. (3) 

Few people kept off the attacking, biting dogs. 
Striking the monk, they cried 'Khukkhh,' and made 
the dogs bite him. (4) 

Such were the inhabitants. Many other men- 
dicants, eating rough food in Va^^abhumi, and 
carrying about a strong pole or a stalk (to keep off 
the dogs), lived there. (5) 

. Even thus armed they were bitten by the dogs, torn 
by the dogs. It is difficult to travel in Lad^a. (6) 

1 Va^rabhumi and .Subhrabhumi (or SVabhrabhumi) are, accord- 
ing to the commentaries, the two divisions of L&dfta. I think that 
L&dAa. may be identical with the classical RaVM or western Bengal 
and the Lala of the Buddhists, the native country of Vi^aya, the 
legendary conqueror of Ceylon. Subbhabhumi is probably the 
country of the Suhmas, who are also identified with the Rarf&as. 

* The commentator seems to understand the words Iukkhadesie 
bhatte in the sense: There the living also was rough; for they 
used clothes of grass instead of cotton. 



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BOOK I, LECTURE 8, LESSON 4. 85 

Ceasing to use the stick (i. e. cruelty) against 
living beings, abandoning the care of the body, the 
houseless (Mahavtra), the Venerable One, endures 
the thorns of the villages (i.e. the abusive language 
of the peasants), (being) perfectly enlightened. (7) 

As an elephant at the head of the battle, so was 
Mahavtra there victorious. Sometimes he did not 
reach a village there in Laa^a. (8) 

When he who is free from desires approached the 
village, the inhabitants met him on the outside, and 
attacked him, saying, 'Get away from here.' (9) 

He was struck with a stick, the fist, a lance, hit 
with a fruit, a clod, a potsherd. Beating him again 
and again, many cried. (10) 

When he once (sat) without moving his body, they 
cut his flesh 1 , tore his hair under pains, or covered 
him with dust. (1 1 ) 

Throwing him up, they let him fall, or disturbed 
him in his religious postures ; abandoning the care 
of his body, the Venerable One humbled himself and 
bore pain, free from desire. ( 1 2) 

As a hero at the head of the battle is sur- 
rounded on all sides 2 , so was there Mahavtra. 
Bearing all hardships, the Venerable One, undis- 
turbed, proceeded (on the road to Nirviwa). (13) 

This is the rule which has often been followed, &c. 

Fourth Lesson. 

The Venerable One was able to abstain from 
indulgence of the flesh 3 , though never attacked by 



1 Or his mustaches. * Or is on his guard. 

" Omodariya. 



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86 AjtArAnga sutra. 



diseases. Whether wounded or not wounded, he 
desired not medical treatment, (i) 

Purgatives and emetics, anointing of the body 
and bathing, shampooing and cleansing of the teeth 
do not behove him, after he learned (that the body 
is something unclean). (2) 

Being averse from the impressions of the senses 1 , 
the Brahma«a wandered about, speaking but little. 
Sometimes in the cold season the Venerable One was 
meditating in the shade. (3) 

In summer he exposes himself to the heat, he sits 
squatting in the sun ; he lives on rough (food) : rice, 
pounded jujube, and beans. (4) 

Using these three, the Venerable One sustained 
himself eight months. Sometimes the Venerable 
One did not drink for half a month or even for a 
month. (5) 

Or he did not drink for more than two months, 
or even six months, day and night, without desire 
(for drink). Sometimes he ate stale food. (6) 

Sometimes he ate only the sixth meal, or the 
eighth, the tenth, the twelfth ; without desires, 
persevering in meditation. (7) 

Having wisdom, Mahavira committed no sin him- 
self, nor did he induce others to do so, nor did he 
consent to the sins of others. (8) 

Having entered a village or a town, he begged for 
food which had been prepared for somebody else. 
Having got clean 2 food, he used it, restraining the 
impulses. (9) 

When there were hungry crows, or thirsty beings 
stood in his way, where he begged, or when he saw 
them flying repeatedly down, (10) 

1 Gamadhamma. ' I. e. free from faults. 



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BOOK I, LECTURE 8, LESSON 4. 87 

When a Brahma»a or Sramana., a beggar or guest, 
a Aattt&la 1 , a cat, or a dog stood in his way, (i i) 

Without ceasing in his reflections, and avoiding 
to overlook them 2 , the Venerable One slowly wan- 
dered about, and, killing no creatures, he begged for 
his food. (12) 

Moist or dry or cold food, old beans, old pap, or 
bad grain, whether he did or did not get such food, 
he was rich (in control). (13) 

And Mahavlra meditated (persevering) in some 
posture, without the smallest motion ; he meditated 
in mental concentration on (the things) above, below, 
beside, free from desires. (14) 

He meditated free from sin and desire, not attached 
to sounds or colours ; though still an erring mortal 
(^admastha), he wandered about, and never acted 
carelessly. (15) 

Himself understanding the truth and restraining 
the impulses for the purification of the soul, finally 
liberated, and free from delusion, the Venerable One 
was well guarded during his whole life. (16) 

This is the rule which has been followed, &c. 



End of the Ninth Lecture, called the Pillow of 
Righteousness. 



End of the First Book. 



1 .SVapaka. 

* Tassa appattiyaw pariharawto, avoiding the non-percep- 
tion of it, i. e. the interruption of his reflections. 



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SECOND BOOK 



FIRST PART 1 . 



FIRST LECTURE, 

CALLED 

begging of food 2 . 

First Lesson. 

When a male or a female mendicant, having 
entered the abode of a householder with the inten- 
tion of collecting alms, recognises 3 food, drink, dainties, 
and spices as affected by, or mixed up with, living 
beings, mildew, seeds or sprouts, or wet with water, 
or covered with dust — either in the hand or the pot 
of another* — they should not, even if they can get it, 
accept of such food, thinking that it is impure and 
unacceptable 6 , (i) 

But if perchance they accept of such food, under 
pressing circumstances', they should go to a secluded 
spot, a garden, or a monk's hall — where there are no 

1 KML « Pi»</aisha»&. 

s This is the typical beginning of most precepts or sutras in this 
tddi : se bhikkhft va bhikkhuwi va gahavaikulam pi»i</avayapa<fiyae 
a»upavi//Ae sama»e se gg&m puna g&neggi. In the sequel I have 
shortened this rather lengthy preamble. 

* By the other is meant the householder or the giver (ddtr»). 

* This is the typical conclusion of all prohibitions : aphasuyam 
unesattiggzm ti mannamne labhe sawte no padigg&hegg&. In the 
translation the plural is used throughout, in order to avoid the 
necessity of always repeating 'he or she.' 

* As e. g. total want of another opportunity to get suitable food 
during famine and sickness. 



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BOOK II, LECTURE I, LESSON I. 89 

eggs, nor living beings, nor sprouts, nor dew, nor 
water, nor ants, nor mildew, nor drops (of water), nor 
mud, nor cobwebs — and rejecting (that which is 
affected by), and cleaning that which is mixed up 
(with living beings, &c), they should circumspectly eat 
or drink it. But with what they cannot eat or drink, 
they should resort to a secluded spot, and leave it 
there on a heap of ashes or bones, or rusty things, 
or chaff, or cowdung, or on any such-like place which 
they have repeatedly examined and cleaned. (2) 

A monk or a nun on a begging-tour should not 
accept as alms whatever herbs they recognise, on 
examining them, as still whole, containing their 
source of life, not split longwise or broadwise, and 
still alive, fresh beans, living and not broken; for 
such food is impure and unacceptable. (3) 

But when they recognise after examination that 
those herbs are no more whole, do not contain their 
source of life, are split longwise or broadwise, and 
no more alive, fresh beans, lifeless and broken, then 
they may accept them, if they get them ; for they 
are pure and acceptable. (4) 

A monk or nun on a begging-tour should not 
accept as alms whatever flattened grains, grains con- 
taining much chaff, or half-roasted spikes of wheat, 
&c, or flour of wheat, &c, or rice or flour of rice, 
they recognise as only once worked 1 ; for such food 
is impure and unacceptable. (5) 

But when they recognise these things as more than 
once worked, as twice, thrice worked, then they may 
accept them, if they get them ; for they are pure and 
acceptable. (6) 

1 Pounded or cooked or roasted, Ac, because after only one 
operation sperms of life might still be left. 



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go ajtArAnga sutra. 



A monk or a nun desiring to enter the abode of a 
householder for collecting alms, should not enter or 
leave it together with a heretic or a householder ; 
or a monk who avoids all forbidden food, &c, to- 
gether with one who does not. (7) 

A monk or a nun entering or leaving the out-of- 
door places for religious practices or for study 1 
should not do so together with a heretic or a house- 
holder; or a monk who avoids all forbidden food, 
together with one who does not. (8) 

A monk or a nun wandering from village to 
village should not do so together with a heretic or 
a householder ; or a monk who avoids all forbidden 
food, together with one who does not. (9) 

A monk or a nun on a begging-tour should 
not give, immediately or mediately, food, &c, to a 
heretic or a householder ; or a monk who avoids all 
forbidden food, to one who does not. (10) 

A monk or a nun on a begging-tour should not 
accept food, &c, from a householder whom they know 
to give out of respect for a Nirgrantha, in behalf of 
a fellow-ascetic, food, &c, which he has bought or 
stolen or taken, though it was not to be taken nor 
given, but was taken by force, by acting sinfully 
towards all sorts of living beings ; for such-like food, 
&c, prepared by another man 2 or by the giver himself, 
brought out of the house or not brought out of the 
house, belonging to the giver or not belonging to 
him, partaken or tasted of, or not partaken or tasted 
of, is impure and unacceptable. 

1 These are the viHrabhumi and viharabhflmi. 

8 Purisawtarakarfa. I have rendered this word according to 
the interpretation of the commentators ; but in a similar passage, 
8, 3, §§ 2 and 3, they understand the word to mean appropriated 
by another person. 



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BOOK II, LECTURE I, LESSON I. 9 1 

In this precept substitute for 'on behalf of one 
fellow-ascetic,' (2) on behalf of many fellow-ascetics, 
(3) on behalf of one female fellow-ascetic, (4) on be- 
half of many female fellow-ascetics ; so that there 
will be four analogous precepts. (11) 

A monk or a nun should not accept of food, 
&c, which they know has been prepared by the 
householder for the sake of many .Sramawas and 
Brahma»as, guests, paupers, and beggars, after he 
has counted them, acting sinfully towards all sorts of 
living beings ; for such food, whether it be tasted of 
or not, is impure and unacceptable. (1 2) 

A monk or a nun should not accept of food, &c, 
procured in the way described in § 1 1 for the sake of 
the persons mentioned in § 12, if the said food, &c, 
has been prepared by the giver himself, has been 
brought out of the house, does not belong to the 
giver, has not been partaken or tasted of; for such 
food, &c, is impure and unacceptable; but if the 
food, &c, has been prepared by another person, has 
been brought out of the house, belongs to the giver, 
has been partaken or tasted of, one may accept it ; 
for it is pure and acceptable. (13) 

A monk or a nun wishing to enter the abode of a 
householder with the intention of collecting alms, 
should not, for the sake of food or drink, enter or leave 
such always liberal, always open houses, where they 
always give a morsel, always the best morsel, always 
a part of the meal, always nearly the half of it. 

This certainly is the whole duty of a monk or a 
nun in which one should, instructed in all its mean- 
ings and endowed with bliss, always exert oneself. 

Thus I say. (14) 



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92 AjstarAnga sOtra. 



Second Lesson. 

A monk or a nun on a begging-tour should not 
accept food, &c, in the following case : when, on the 
eighth or paushadha day, on the beginning of a 
fortnight, of a month, of two, three, four, five, or six 
months, or on the days of the seasons, of the junction 
of the seasons, of the intervals of the seasons, many 
•Sramattas and Brahma»as, guests, paupers, and 
beggars are entertained with food, &c, out of one 
or two or three or four vessels, pots, baskets, or 
heaps of food ; such-like food which has been pre- 
pared by the giver, &c, (all down to) not tasted of, 
is impure and unacceptable. But if it is prepared by 
another person, &c. (see first lesson, § 13), one may 
accept it; for it is pure and acceptable. (1) 

A monk or a nun on a begging-tour may accept 
food, &c, from unblamed, uncensured families, to wit, 
noble families, distinguished families, royal families, 
families belonging to the line of Ikshviku, of Hari, 
cowherds' families, Vawya families, barbers' families, 
carpenters' families, /akurs' families, weavers' families; 
for such food, &c, is pure and acceptable. (2) 

A monk or a nun on a begging-tour should not 
accept food, &c, in the following case : when in 
assemblies, or during offerings to the manes, or on a 
festival of Indra or Skanda or Rudra or Mukunda 
or demons or Yakshas or the snakes, or on a festival 
in honour of a tomb, or a shrine, or a tree, or a hill, 
or a cave, or a well, or a tank, or a pond, or a river, 
or a lake, or the sea, or a mine — when on such-like 
various festivals many 5Vama«as and Brahmawas, 



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BOOK II, LECTURE I, LESSON 2. 93 

guests, paupers, and beggars are entertained with 
food, &c. (all as in § i , down to) acceptable. (3) 

But when he perceives that all have received their 
due share, and are enjoying their meal, he should 
address 1 the householder's wife or sister or daughter- 
in-law or nurse or male or female servant or slave 
and say : ' O long-lived one ! (or, O sister !) will you 
give me something to eat ?' After these words of 
the mendicant, the other may bring forth food, &c, 
and give it him. Such food, &c, whether he beg for 
it or the other give it, he may accept ; for it is pure 
and acceptable. (4) 

When a monk or a nun knows that at a distance 
of more than half a yq^ana a festive entertainment 2 
is going on, they should not resolve to go there for 
the sake of the festive entertainment. (5) 

When a monk hears that the entertainment is given 
in an eastern or western or southern or northern 
place, he should go respectively to the west or east 
or north or south, being quite indifferent (about the 
feast) ; wherever there is a festive entertainment, in 
a village or scot-free town, &c. (see I, 7, 6, § 4), he 
should not go there for the sake of the festive 
entertainment. 

The Kevalin assigns as the reason for this precept, 
that if the monk eats food, &c, which has been given 
him on such an occasion, he will incur the sin of one 



1 Puvvam eva $.\oegg&, he should first look at him or .her 
(and then say). 

1 Sa«kha</i, somewhere explained odanap&ka, cooking of 
rice ; in the commentary the following etymology is given : sa/»- 
khaiufyante viradhyante prawino yatra sa sawkharfi. But the Guzerati 
commentator explains it : g\h£m gha»a gzn nimitti ahara kelvivi 
bhanl 



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94 a*ArA£ga sOtra. 



who uses what 1 has been prepared for him, or is 
mixed up with living beings, or has been bought or 
stolen or taken, though it was not to be taken, nor 
was it given, but taken by force. (6) 

A layman 2 might, for the sake of a mendicant, 
make small doors large, or large ones small; put 
beds 3 from a level position into a sloping one, or from 
a sloping position into a level one ; place the beds 8 
out of the draught or in the draught ; cutting and 
clipping the grass outside or within the uplyraya, 
spread a couch for him, (thinking that) this mendicant 
is without means for a bed 8 . Therefore should a 
well-controlled Nirgrantha not resolve to go to any 
festival which is preceded or followed by a feast. 

This certainly is the whole duty, &c. (see end of 
lesson i). 

Thus I say. (7) 

Third Lesson. 

When he has eaten or drunk at a festive enter- 
tainment, he might vomit (what he has eaten), or not 
well digest it ; or some other bad disease or sickness 
might befall him. (1) 

The Kevalin says this is the reason : 
A mendicant, having drunk various liquors, to- 
gether with the householder or his wife, monks or 
nuns, might not find the (promised) resting-place 
on leaving the scene of entertainment and looking 

1 This stands for Shakammiya and uddesiya, pure and impure 
food prepared for a mendicant. 

* Asam^ae, the uncontrolled one; it denotes a layman or a 
householder. 

* Scggi^sayyiL, bed; but the scholiast explains it by vasati, 
dwelling, lodging. 



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BOOK II, LECTURE I, LESSON 3. 95 

out for it ; or in the resting-place he may get into 
mixed company; in the absence of his mind or in 
his drunkenness he may lust after a woman or a 
eunuch ; approaching the mendicant (they will say) : 
' O long-lived 3rama#a ! (let us meet) in the garden, 
or in the sleeping-place, in the night or in the twi- 
light.' Luring him thus by his sensuality (she says) : 
' Let us proceed to enjoy the pleasures of love.' 
He might go to her, though he knows that it should 
not be done. 

These are the causes to sin, they multiply con- 
tinuously. Therefore should a well-controlled Nir- 
grantha not resolve to go to any festival which is 
preceded or followed by a feast. (2) 

A monk or a nun, hearing or being told of some 
festivity, might hasten there, rejoicing inwardly : 
'There will be an entertainment, sure enough!' It 
is impossible to get there from other families alms 
which are acceptable and given out of respect for 
the cloth 1 , and to eat the meal. As this would lead 
to sin, they should not do it 2 . But they should enter 
there, and getting from other families their alms, 
should eat their meal. (3) 

A monk or a nun, knowing that in a village or a 
scot-free town, &c. (see I, 7, 6, § 4), an entertainment 
will be given, should not resolve to go to that village, 
&c, for the sake of the entertainment. The Kevalin 
assigns as the reason herefore : When a man goes to 

1 Esiyaw vesiya/w. The latter word is explained by ra^o- 
haraȣdiveshal labdham, what one gets for the sake or one's 
apparel, the broom, &c. 

* M&i/th&nam samphdse, no evam kaxeggi, i. e. m&trtsthanam 
samspmet, na cvzm kuryat: matr/sthana is somewhere ex- 
plained karmopadanasthSna. 



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96 AtAranga sOtra. 



a much-frequented and vulgar entertainment some- 
body's foot treads on his foot, somebody's hand 
moves his hand, somebody's bowl clashes against his 
bowl, somebody's head comes in collision with his 
head, somebody's body pushes his body, or some- 
body beats him with a stick or a bone or a fist or a 
clod, or sprinkles him with cold water, or covers him 
with dust ; or he eats unacceptable food, or he re- 
ceives what should be given to others. Therefore 
should a well-controlled Nirgrantha not resolve to 
go to a much-frequented and vulgar entertainment 
to partake of it. (4) 

A monk or a nun on a begging-tour should not 
accept such food, &c, about the acceptability or un- 
acceptability of which his (or her) mind has some 
doubts or misgivings ; for such food, &c. (5) 

When a monk or a nun wishes to enter the abode 
of a householder, they should do so with the complete 
outfit 1 . (6) 

A monk or a nun entering or leaving the out-of- 
door places for religious practices or study, should 
do so with the complete outfit. (7) 

A monk or a nun wandering from village to village 
should do so with the complete outfit 2 . (8) 

A monk or a nun should not, with the complete 
outfit, enter or leave the abode of a householder to 
collect alms, or the out-of-door places for religious 
practices and study, or wander from village to village 
on perceiving that a strong and widely-spread rain 
pours down, or a strong and widely-spread mist is 

1 See I, 7, 4, note 1. 

' These Sutras are perfectly analogous with §§ 7, 8 of the first 
lesson. 



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BOOK II, LECTURE I, LESSON 4. 97 

coming on, or a high wind raises much dust, or 
many .flying insects are scattered about and fall 
down. (9) 

A monk or a nun on a begging-tour should not 
accept food, &c, in the houses of Kshatriyas, kings, 
messengers, and relations of kings, whether they are 
inside or outside, or invite them ; for such food, &c, 
is impure and unacceptable. Thus I say. (10) 

Fourth Lesson. 

A monk or a nun on a begging-tour should not 
resolve to go to a festival, preceded or followed by 
an entertainment, to partake of it, when they know 
that there will be served up chiefly meat or fish or 
roasted slices of meat or fish ; nor to a wedding 
breakfast in the husband's house or in that of the 
bride's father ; nor to a funeral dinner or to a family 
dinner where something is served up, — if on their 
way there, there are many living beings, many seeds, 
many sprouts, much dew, much water, much mildew, 
many drops (of water), much dust, and many cob- 
webs ; or if there have arrived or will arrive many 
.Sramawas and Brahma«as, guests, paupers, and beg- 
gars, and if it will be a crowded assembly, so that a 
wise man may not enter or leave it, or learn there 
the sacred texts, to question about them, to repeat 
them, to consider them, to think about the substance 
of the law. (i) 

A monk or a nun may go to such an entertain- 
ment (as described in the preceding Sutra), provided 
that on their way there, there are few living beings, 
few seeds, &c. ; that no *Srama»as and Brahma»as, 
&c, have arrived or will arrive; that it is not a 
O] H 



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98 AjstArAnga sOtra. 

crowded assembly, so that a wise man may enter 
or leave, &C. 1 (2) 

A monk or a nun desirous to enter the abode 
of a householder, should not do so, when they 
see that the milch cows are being milked, or the 
food, &c, is being cooked, and that it is not yet dis- 
tributed. Perceiving this, they should step apart and 
stay where no people pass or see them. But when 
they conceive that the milch cows are milked, the 
dinner prepared and distributed, then they may cir- 
cumspectly enter or leave the householder's abode 
for the sake of alms. (3) 

Some of the mendicants say to those who follow 
the same rules of conduct, live (in the same place), 
or wander from village to village: 'This is indeed 
a small village, it is too populous, nor is it large ; 
reverend gentlemen, go to the outlying villages to 
beg alms 8 .' 

Some mendicant may have there kinsmen or rela- 
tions, e. g. a householder or his wife, or daughters, 
or daughters-in-law, or nurses, or male and female 
slaves or servants. Such families with which he is 
connected by kindred or through marriage, he intends 
to visit before (the time of begging) : ' I shall get there 
(he thinks) food or dainties or milk or thick sour milk 
or fresh butter or ghee or sugar or oil or honey or 
meat or liquor, a sesamum dish 3 , or raw sugar, or 
a meal of parched wheat*, or a meal of curds and 
sugar with spices 6 ; after having eaten and drunk, 
and having cleaned and rubbed the alms-bowl, I shall, 

' This precept applies, according to the commentator, only to 
sick monks, or such as can get nothing elsewhere. 

* The just arrived monks should do as they are bidden. 

* Sawkuli. * Puya. • Sikhariwt. 



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BOOK II, LECTURE I, LESSON 5. 99 

together with other mendicants, enter or leave the 
abode of a householder to collect alms.' As this 
would be sinful, he should not do so. (4) 

But, at the proper time, entering there with the 
other mendicants, he may there in these or other 
families accept alms which are acceptable and given 
out of respect for his cloth, and eat his meal. 

This certainly is the whole duty, &c. (see end of 
"lesson 1). 

Thus I say. (5) 

Fifth Lesson. 

When a monk or a nun on entering the abode 
of a householder sees that the first portion of the 
meal is being thrown away 1 or thrown down, or 
taken away, or distributed, or eaten, or put off, or 
has already been eaten or removed; that already 
other 6rama»as and Brahma«as, guests, paupers, 
and beggars go there in great haste; (they might 
think), ' Hallo ! I too shall go there in haste.' As 
this would be sinful, they should not do so. (1) 

When a monk or a nun on a begging-tour comes 
upon walls or gates, or bolts or holes to fit them, 
they should, in case there be a byway, avoid those 
(obstacles), and not go on straight. 

The Kevalin says : This is the reason : Walk- 
ing there, he might stumble or fall down ; when 
he stumbles or falls down, his body might become 
contaminated with faeces, urine, phlegmatic humour, 
mucus, saliva, bile, matter, semen, or blood. And if 
his body has become soiled, he should not wipe or 

1 In honour of the gods. 
H 2 



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mm0B 



ioo AjtarAnga sOtra. 



rub or scratch or clean 1 or warm or dry it on the 
bare ground or wet earth [or dusty earth 2 ] on a 
rock or a piece of clay containing life, or timber 
inhabited by worms, or anything containing eggs, 
living beings, &c. (down to) cobwebs; but he 
should first beg for some straw or leaves, wood 
or a potsherd, which must be free from dust, resort 
with it to a secluded spot, and on a heap of ashes or 
bones, &c. (see II, i, i, § 2), which he has repeatedly 
examined and cleaned, he should circumspectly wipe 
or rub, warm or dry (his body). (2) 

When a monk or a nun on a begging-tour per- 
ceives a vicious cow coming towards them, or a 
vicious buffalo coming towards them, or a vicious 
man, horse, elephant, lion, tiger, wolf, panther, bear, 
hyena, Jarabha, shakal, cat, dog, boar, fox, leopard 
coming towards them, they should, in case there be 
a byway, circumspectly avoid them, and not walk 
on straight. (3) 

When a monk or a nun on a begging-tour comes 
on their way upon a pit, pillar, thorns, or unsafe, 
marshy or uneven ground, or mud, they should, 
in case there be a byway, avoid these (obstacles), 
and not walk on straight. 

When a monk or a nun on a begging-tour per- 
ceives that the entrance of a householder's abode 
is secured by a branch of a thorn bush, they should 
not, without having previously got the (owner's) 
permission, and having examined and swept (the 
entrance), make it passable or enter and leave (the 

1 This stands for uvvale^g-a va uwa//egg£ va (udvaled va udvar- 
ted va), for which words, denoting some rather indistinct varieties 
of rubbing, I know no adequate English words. 

' The words in brackets are the translation of varia lectio. 



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BOOK II, LECTURE I, LESSON 5. IOI 

house). But they may circumspectly do so, after 
having got the (owner's) permission, and having 
examined and swept it. (4) 

When a monk or a nun on a begging-tour knows 
that a .Srama»a or a Brahmawa, a guest, pauper or 
beggar has already entered (the house), they should 
not stand in their sight or opposite the door 1 . 

The Kevalin 2 says : This is the reason : Another, 
on seeing him, might procure and give him food, &c. 
Therefore it has been declared to the mendicants : 
This is the statement, this is the reason, this is the 
order, that he should not stand in the other mendi- 
cants' sight or opposite the door. 

Knowing this, he should go apart and stay where 
no people pass or see him. Another man may bring 
and give him food, &c, while he stays where no 
people pass or see him, and say unto him : ' O long- 
lived .Sramawa ! this food, &c, has been given for the 
sake of all of you ; eat it or divide it among you.' 
Having silently accepted the gift, he might think : 
'Well, this is just (enough) for me !' As this would 
be sinful, he should not do so. 

Knowing this, he should join the other beggars, 
and after consideration say unto them 3 : 'O long-lived 
5rama«as ! this food, &c, is given for the sake of all 
of you ; eat it or divide it among you.' After these 
words another might answer him: 'O long-lived 

1 This might also be translated : at an opposite door. 

• The following passage is not explained in the commentaries, 
and is wanting in the oldest MS., though supplied on the margin. 
It may therefore be concluded that the whole passage, the greater 
part of which is typical, is a later addition. 

s Aloe^S. The scholiast explains it here by darxayet, he 
should show the food, &c. Professor Oldenberg has identified this 
word with the Pdli Sro^eti. 



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io2 AjcAranga s<jtra. 



.SVamawa ! distribute it yourself.' Dividing the food, 
&c, he should not (select) for himself too great a 
portion, or the vegetables, or the conspicuous things, 
or the savoury things, or the delicious things, or 
the nice things, or the big things; but he should 
impartially divide it, not being eager or desirous or 
greedy or covetous (of anything). When he thus 
makes the division, another might say : ' O long-lived 
tSrama»a ! do not divide (the food) ; but let us, 
all together, eat and drink.' When he thus eats, 
he should not select for himself too great a portion, 
&c. ; but should eat and drink alike with all, not 
being desirous, &C. 1 (5) 

When a monk or a nun on a begging-tour per- 
ceives that a *Srama»a or Brahmawa, a beggar or 
guest has already entered the house, they should not 
overtake them and address (the householder) first. 
Knowing this, they should go apart and stay where 
no people pass or see them. But when they per- 
ceive that the other has been sent away or received 
alms, and has returned, they may circumspectly enter 
the house and address the householder. 

This certainly is the whole duty, &c. 

Thus I say. (6) 

Sixth Lesson. 

When a monk or a nun on a begging-tour per- 
ceives that many hungry animals have met and 
come together in search of food, e.g. those of the 
chicken-kind or those of the pig-kind, or that crows 

1 The scholiast says that the way to procure food, &c, as 
described in this paragraph, should only be resorted to under 
pressing circumstances. 



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BOOK II, LECTURE I, LESSON 6. IO3 

have met and come together, where an offering is 
thrown on the ground, they should, in case there be 
a byway, avoid them and not go on straight, (i) 

A monk or a nun on a begging-tour should not 
stand leaning against the door-post of the house- 
holder's abode, or his sink or spitting-pot, nor in 
sight of, or opposite to his bathroom or privy ; nor 
should they contemplate a loophole or a mended spot 
or a fissure (of the house) or the bathing-house, 
showing in that direction with an arm or pointing 
with a finger, bowing up and down. (2) 

Nor should they beg, pointing with a finger at 
the householder, or moving him with a finger, or 
threatening him with a finger, or scratching him 
with a finger, or praising him, or using coarse 
language. (3) 

If he sees somebody eating, e.g. the householder 
or his wife, &c, he should after consideration say : 
' O long-lived one ! (or, O sister !) will you give me 
some of that food?' After these words the other 
might wash or wipe his hand or pot or spoon 
or plate with cold or hot water \ He should after 
consideration say: 'O long-lived one ! (or, O sister!) 
do not wash or wipe your hand or pot or spoon or 
plate ! If you want to give me something, give it as it 
is !' After these words the other might give him a 
share, having washed or wiped his hand, &c, with 
cold or hot water. But he should not accept any- 
thing out of such a hand, &c, which has been before 
treated thus ; for it is impure and unacceptable. (4) 

It is also to be known that food, &c, is impure 

1 Siodagavigaifo, uswodagavigsufe. Vigarfa, Sanskrit vika/a, 
is explained apkaya. It is therefore cold or hot water which is 
to be considered as containing life. 



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j 04 AjtArAnga sOtra. 



and unacceptable, which is given with a wet hand, 
though the hand be not purposely wetted. (5) 

The same rule holds good with regard to a 
moistened hand, &c, and a dusty hand, &c, and 
a hand which is soiled with clay, dew, orpiment, 
vermilion, realgar, collyrium, white chalk, alum, 
rice-flour, kukkusa, ground drugs. (6) 

It is also to be known that he may accept such 
food, &c, which is given with a soiled hand, &c, to 
one similarly soiled (i. e. with what one is to receive), 
or to one unsoiled, with hand similarly soiled ; for 
such food, &c, is pure and acceptable. (7) 

A monk or a nun on a begging-tour should not 
accept flattened grains, grains containing much chaff, 
&c. (see II, 1, 1, § 5), which a layman, for the sake of 
the mendicant, has ground 1 , grinds, or will grind, has 
winnowed, winnows, or will winnow on a rock or 
a piece of clay containing life, &c. (see II, 1, 5, § 2, 
all down to) cobwebs; for such large, parched 
grains, &c, are impure and unacceptable. (8) 

A monk or a nun on a begging-tour should not 
accept fossil salt or sea salt which a householder, 
for the sake of the mendicant, has ground or 
pounded, grinds or pounds, will grind or pound on 
a rock or a piece of clay containing life, &c; for 
such-like fossil salt or sea salt is impure and 
unacceptable. (9) 

A monk or a nun on a begging-tour should not 

1 The subject asam^ae, the uncontrolled one, i.e. layman, 
stands in the singular, but the verb in the plural. The same 
irregularity occurs in the next paragraph. The commentator 
accounts for it simply by saying: ekavaianddhikare pi Manda- 
satvit tadvyatyayena bahuvaAanaflt drash/avyam, purvatra vi git&v 
ekava£anam. 



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BOOK II, LECTURE I, LESSON 7. IO5 

accept food, &c, which is prepared over the fire ; 
for such food is impure and unacceptable. The 
Kevalin says : This is the reason : A layman will 
kill the fire-bodies, by wetting or moistening, wiping 
or rubbing, throwing up or turning down the food, 
&c, for the sake of the mendicant Hence it has 
been declared to the mendicants: This is the state- 
ment, this is the reason, this is the order, that they 
should not accept food, &c, which has been pre- 
pared over the fire, &c. 

This certainly is the whole duty, &c. 

Thus I say. (10) 

Seventh Lesson. 

A monk or a nun on a begging-tour should not 
accept food, &c, which has been placed on a post or 
pillar or beam or scaffold or loft 1 or platform or roof 
or some such-like elevated place; for such food 
fetched from above is impure and unacceptable. The 
Kevalin says : This is the reason : The layman 
might fetch and erect a stool or a bench or a ladder 
or a handmill, get upon it, and getting upon it fall 
or tumble down. Thus he might hurt his foot or 
arm or breast or belly or head or some other part of 
his body ; or he might kill or frighten or bruise or 
smash or crush or afflict or pain or dislocate all sorts 

1 Mala. The word is not explained in the 7*ika and Dtpika; 
the Guzerati translation says that the word is lokapratlta, com- 
monly understood. It is probably the Marathf ma/ or ma/a ; the 
former word denotes a loft, floored with bamboos ; the second, the 
room formed by overlaying with slight sticks the cross-beams of 
a house, a loft, an erection or stand in a cornfield, scaffolding (of a 
building). Molesworth, Marathf and English Dictionary, s. v. 



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io6 axArAnga sCtra. 



of living beings. Therefore he should not accept 
such-like food, &c, fetched from above, (i) 

A monk or a nun on a begging-tour should not 
accept food, &c, which a layman, for the sake of the 
mendicant, has taken from a granary or vault by 
contorting himself up and down and horizontally; 
thinking that such-like food is brought from under- 
ground 1 . (2) 

A monk or a nun on a begging-tour should not 
accept food, &c, which is kept in earthenware. 
The Kevalin says : This is the reason : The layman 
might, for the sake of the mendicant, break the 
earthen vessel containing the food, &c, and thereby 
injure the earth-body; in the same way he might 
injure the fire-body, the wind-body, plants and ani- 
mals ; by putting it again (in earthenware), he 
commits the pa^fcakamma sin. Hence it has been 
said to the mendicant, &c, that he should not accept 
food, &c, which is put in earthenware. (3) 

A monk or a nun on a begging-tour should not 
accept food, &c, placed on the earth-body, the wind- 
body, the fire-body, for such food is impure and 
unacceptable. The Kevalin says : This is the 
reason : A layman might, for the sake of the men- 
dicant, stir or brighten the fire, and taking the food, 
&c, down from it, might give it to the mendicant 
Hence it has been said, &c, that he should accept 
no such food. (4) 

When a monk or a nun on a begging-tour sees 
that a layman might, for the sake of the mendicant, 

1 The original has bho maloharfaw ti na££a. Bho maloha</a is 
explained adhomilihntam. Maloha</a, which I translate 
' fetched from above,' is the technical term for things affected by 
the dosha under question. 



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BOOK II, LECTURE I, LESSON 7. 107 

cool too hot food, &c, by blowing or fanning with 
a winnowing basket or fan or a palm leaf or a 
branch or a part of a branch or a bird's tail or a 
peacock's tail or a cloth or a corner of a cloth or the 
hand or the mouth, they should, after consideration, 
say (to the householder or his wife): 'O long-lived 
one I (or, O sister !) do not blow or fan the hot food, 
&c, with a winnowing basket, &c; but if you want 
to give it me, give it as it is.' After these words 
the other might give it after having blown or fanned 
it with a winnowing basket, &c ; such-like food they 
should not accept, because it is impure and unac- 
ceptable. (5) 

A monk or a nun on a begging-tour should not 
accept food, &c, which is placed on vegetable or 
animal matter * ; for such food is impure and unac- 
ceptable. (6) 

A monk or a nun on a begging-tour should not 
accept water which has been used for watering flour 
or sesamum or rice, or any other such-like water 
which has been recently used for washing, which has 
not acquired a new taste, nor altered its taste or nature, 
nor has been strained ; for such-like water is impure 
and unacceptable. But if it has long ago been used 
for washing, has acquired a new taste, has altered 
its taste or nature, and has been strained, it may be 
accepted, for it is pure and acceptable. (7) 

When a monk or a nun on a begging-tour finds 
water used for washing sesamum, chaff or barley, or 
rainwater 2 or sour gruel or pure water, they should, 
after consideration, say (to the householder or his 
wife): 'O long-lived one ! (or, O sister!) will you give 

1 Varcassaikayapati/Miya and tasak£yapati/Miya. 
* Ayima, 2U&mlam avajySnam. 



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108 AjtArAnga sOtra. 

me some of this water ?' Then the other may 
answer him: 'O long-lived .Srama«a! take it your- 
self by drawing it with, or pouring it in, your bowl !' 
Such-like water, whether taken by himself or given 
by the other, he may accept. (8) 

A monk or a nun on a begging-tour should not 
accept such water as has been taken from the bare 
ground, &c. (see II, i, 5, $ 2, all down to) cobwebs, 
or water which the layman fetches in a wet or moist 
or dirty vessel, mixing it with cold water. 

This certainly is the whole duty, &c. 

Thus I say. (9) 

Eighth Lesson. 

A monk or a nun on a begging-tour should not 
accept juice of mangos, inspissated juice of mangos, 
juice of wood-apples, citrons, grapes, wild dates, 
pomegranates, cocoa-nuts, bamboos, jujubes, myro- 
balans, tamarinds, or any such-like liquor containing 
particles of the shell or skin or seeds, which liquor 
the layman, for the sake of the mendicant, pressed, 
strained, or filtered through a basket 1 , cloth, or 
a cow's tail; for such liquor is impure and unac- 
ceptable. (1) 

When a monk or a nun on a begging-tour 
smells, in travellers' houses or garden houses or 
householders' houses or ma/^s, the scent of food or 
drink or sweet scents, they should not smell them, 
being indifferent against smell, and not eager or 
desirous or greedy or covetous of the pleasant 
smell. (2) 

1 AT^avva, Sanskrit Mabdaka (sic). The Hindi has khxvdi, 
basket. 



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BOOK II, LECTURE I, LESSON 8. IO9 

A monk or a nun on a begging-tour should not 
accept raw things which are not yet modified by 
instruments l , as bulbous roots, growing in water or 
dry ground, mustard stalks ; for they are impure 
and unacceptable. The same holds good with regard 
to long pepper, ground long pepper, common pepper, 
ground common pepper, ginger or ground ginger. (3) 

A monk or a nun on a begging-tour should not 
accept such raw fruits which are not yet modified 
by instruments, as those of Mango, Amra/aka, Gtiig- 
ghir$.\ Surabhi 3 , Sallakl *; for they, &c. (4) 

The same holds good with regard to raw shoots 
which, &c, as those of A^vattha, Nyagrodha, 
Pilawkhu 6 , Ntyura 6 , Sallaki. (5) 

The same holds good with regard to raw berries 
which, &c, as those of Kapittha 7 , pomegranate, 
or Pippala. (6) 

A monk or a nun on a begging-tour should not 
accept raw, powdered fruits which are not well 
ground and still contain small seeds, as those of 
Umbara, Pila*»khu, Nyagrodha, and Asvattha; for 

&c (7) 

A monk or a nun on a begging-tour should not 
accept unripe wild rice 8 , dregs, honey, liquor, ghee, 
or sediments of liquor, if these things be old or if 
living beings are engendered or grow or thrive in 



1 I. e. when they have undergone no operation which takes the 
life out of them. 

* Name of a shrub. ' Explained by xatagru. 

* Boswellia Thurifera. 8 Explained by pipparf. 

* Cedrela Toona. 

7 The wood-apple tree, Feronia Elephantum. 
' Ama</Sga, explained in the commentary dmapannam, unripe 
or half ripe, aramkatandullyak&di. 



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IIO AJtArANGA stiTRA. 

them, or are not taken out, or killed or destroyed in 
them. (8) 

A monk or a nun on a begging-tour should not 
accept any such-like raw plants 1 as Ikshumeru, An- 
kakarelu, Ka$eru, Sawghi/ika, Putialu. (9) 

A monk or a nun on a begging-tour should not 
accept any such-like (vegetables) as Nymphaea or 
stalk of Nymphaea or the bulb of Nelumbium or 
the upper part or the filament of Lotus or any part 
of the plant. (10) 

A monk or a nun on a begging-tour should not 
accept such-like raw substances as seeds or sprouts, 
growing on the top or the root or the stem or the 
knots (of a plant), likewise the pulp or blossoms of the 
plantain, cocoa-nut, wild date, and palmyra trees, (n) 

A monk or a nun on a begging-tour should not 
accept any such-like raw unmodified substances as 
sugar-cane, which is full of holes, or withering or 
peeling off or corroded by wolves ; or the points of 
reeds or the pulp of plantains. (12) 

The same holds good with regard to garlic or its 
leaves or stalk or bulb or integument. (13) Likewise 
with regard to cooked fruits of Atthiya 2 , Tinduka s , 
Vil va *, ..Srlparcri 6 . (14) 

A monk or a nun on a begging-tour should not 
accept such raw, unmodified substances as corn, 
clumps of corn, cakes' of corn, sesamum, ground 
sesamum, or cakes of sesamum. 

This is the whole duty, &c. 

Thus I say. (15) 

1 Of these plants only Kareru, a kind of grass, and Samgha/ika 
Trapa Bispinosa are specialised in our dictionaries. 
* A certain tree. s Diospyros Glutinosa. 

3 Aegle Marmelos. • Pistia Stratiotes. 



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BOOK II, LECTURE X, LESSON Q. Ill 



Ninth Lesson. 

In the east or west or south or north, there are 
some faithful householders, &c, (all down to) ser- 
vants who will speak thus: 'It is not meet that 
these illustrious, pious, virtuous, eloquent, restrained, 
controlled, chaste ascetics, who have ceased from 
sensual intercourse, should eat or drink food, &c, 
which is adhikarmika 1 ; let us give to the ascetics 
all food, &c, that is ready for our use, and let us, 
afterwards, prepare food for our own use.' Having 
heard such talk, the mendicant should not accept 
such-like food, &c, for it is impure and unac- 
ceptable. (1) 

A monk or a nun on a begging-tour or in their 
residence or on a pilgrimage from village to village, 
who know that in a village or scot-free town, &c, 
dwell a mendicant's nearer or remoter relations — viz. 
a householder or his wife, &c. — should not enter or 
leave such houses for the sake of food or drink. 
The Kevalin says : This is the reason : Seeing him, 
the other might, for his sake, procure or prepare 
food, &c. Hence it has been said to the mendi- 
cant, &c, that he should not enter or leave such 
houses for the sake of food or drink. 

Knowing this, he should go apart and stay where 
no people pass or see him. In due time he may 
enter other houses, and having begged for alms 
which are acceptable and given out of respect for 

1 For tha meaning of this frequently used term, see note 5 on 
p. 81, and note 1 on p. 94. 



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ii2 AtArAnga sOtra. 



his cloth, he may eat his dinner. If the other has, on 
the mendicant's timely entrance, procured or prepared 
food, &c, which is adhakarmika, he might silently 
examine it, and think : 'Why should I abstain from 
what has been brought.' As this would be sinful, 
he should not do so. But after consideration he 
should say: 'O long-lived one! (or, O sister!) as it is 
not meet that I should eat or drink food, &c, which is 
adhakarmika, do not procure or prepare it.' If after 
these words the other brings and gives him adha- 
karmika food which he has prepared, he should not 
accept such-like food, &c, for it is impure and 
unacceptable. (2) 

When a monk or a nun on a begging-tour sees 
that meat or fish is being roasted, or oil cakes, 
for the sake of a guest, are being prepared, they 
should not, quickly approaching, address the house- 
holder ; likewise if the food is prepared for the sake 
of a sick person. (3) 

A monk or a nun on a begging-tour might, of 
the received quantity of food, eat only the sweet- 
smelling parts and reject the bad-smelling ones. As 
this would be sinful, they should not do so ; but they 
should consume everything, whether it be sweet 
smelling or bad smelling, and reject nothing. (4) 

A monk or a nun on a begging-tour might, of 
the received quantity of drink, imbibe only the well- 
flavoured part, and reject the astringent part As 
this would be sinful, they should not do so ; but 
they should consume everything, whether it be well 
flavoured or astringent, and reject nothing. (5) 

A monk or a nun, having received a more than 
sufficient quantity of food, might reject (the super- 
fluous part) without having considered or consulted 



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BOOK II, LECTURE I, LESSON IO. 1 13 

fellow-ascetics living in the neighbourhood, who 
follow the same rules of conduct, are agreeable and 
not to be shunned ; as this would be sinful, they should 
not do so. Knowing this, they should go there and 
after consideration say : ' O long-lived 3rama«as ! 
this food, &c, is too much for me, eat it or drink it!' 
After these words the other might say: 'O long- 
lived 6rama»a! we shall eat or drink as much of 
this food or drink as we require ; or, we require the 
whole, we shall eat or drink the whole.' (6) 

A monk or a nun on a begging-tour should not 
accept food, &c, which for the sake of another has 
been put before the door, if the householder has 
not permitted him to do so, or he gives it him ; 
for such food, &c. But on the contrary he may 
accept it. 

This is the whole duty, &c. 

Thus I say. (7) 

Tenth Lesson. 

A single mendicant, having collected alms for 
many, might, without consulting his fellow-ascetics, 
give them to those whom he list; as this would be 
sinful, he should not do so. Taking the food, he 
should go there (where his teacher &c. is) and speak 
thus : ' O long-lived .Srama»a ! there are near or 
remote (spiritual) relations of mine : a teacher, a 
sub-teacher, a religious guide, a Sthavira, a head of 
a Ga»a, a Gawadhara, a founder of a Ga«a; forsooth, 
I shall give it them.' The other may answer him : 
• Well now, indeed, O long-lived one ! give such a 
portion!' As much as the other commands, thus 
much he should give ; if the other commands the 
whole, he should give the whole. (1) 
[«] 1 



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ii4 AjcAranga sOtra. 



A single mendicant, having collected agreeable 
food, might cover it with distasteful food, think- 
ing : • The teacher or sub-teacher, &c, seeing what 
I have received, might take it himself; indeed, I 
shall not give anything to anybody ! ' As this would 
be sinful, he should not do so. 

Knowing this, he should go there (where the 
other mendicants are), should put the vessel in his 
out-stretched hand, show it (with the words) : ' Ah, 
this ! ah, this !' and hide nothing. (2) 

A single mendicant, having received some food, 
might eat what is good, and bring what is dis- 
coloured and tasteless ; as this would be sinful, he 
should not do so. (3) 

A monk or a nun on a begging-tour should not 
accept any part of the sugar-cane 1 , whether small 
or large, pea-pods, seed-pods, of which articles a 
small part only can be eaten, and the greater part 
must be rejected; for such things are impure and 
unacceptable. (4) 

A monk or a nun on a begging-tour should 
not accept meat or fish containing many bones, so 
that only a part of it can be eaten and the greater 
part must be rejected ; for such meat or fish, &c, is 
impure and unacceptable. (5) 

A monk or a nun on a begging-tour may be 
invited to meat or fish containing many bones, (by 
the householder who addresses him thus): 'O long- 
lived tSrama»a ! will you accept meat with many 
bones ?' Hearing such a communication, he should 

1 They are detailed in the original : a.mtZTukkAuya.m, a piece 
between two knots; ukkh\igamdiya.m, a piece containing a knot; 
u££Au£oyagam (?), u££Aumeragam, top of a stalk; u^AAusa- 
lagam, long leaf; uk&Aud&\aga.m, fragment of a leaf. 



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BOOK II, LECTURE I, LESSON IO. II5 

say, after consideration : ' O long-lived one ! (or, O 
sister !) it is not meet for me to accept meat with 
many bones ; if you want to give me a portion of 
whatever size, give it me ; but not the bones!' If 
after these words the other (i.e. the householder) 
should fetch meat containing many bones, put it in a 
bowl and return with it, (the mendicant) should not 
accept such a bowl, whether out of the other's hand 
or a vessel 1 ; for it is impure and unacceptable. But 
if he has inadvertently accepted it, he should not 
say : ' No, away, take it ! ' Knowing this, he should go 
apart, and in a garden or an uplrraya, where there 
are few eggs, &c, (all down to) cobwebs, eat the 
meat or fish, and taking the bones, he should resort 
to a secluded spot and leave them on a heap of 
ashes, &c. (see II, i, I, § 2). (6) 

If a householder should fetch fossil salt or sea 
salt, put it in a bowl and return with it, a monk or 
a nun on a begging-tour should not accept it out 
of the other's hand or vessel ; for, &c. 

But if he has inadvertently accepted it, he should 
return with it to the householder, if he is not yet 
too far away, and say, after consideration 2 : 'Did 
you give me this with your full knowledge or with- 
out it?' He might answer : 'I did give it without 
my full knowledge ; but indeed, O long-lived one ! 
I now give it you; consume it or divide it (with 
others) !' 

Then being permitted by, and having received it 
from, the householder, he should circumspectly eat 
it or drink it, and what he cannot eat or drink he 

1 Parahatthawsi va parapayamsi va. This is a typical phrase, 
and seems rather out of place here. 

* Aloe^i, he should show, would perhaps be better. 

I 2 



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n6 AjcAranga sOtra. 

should share with his fellow-ascetics in the neigh- 
bourhood, who follow the same rules of conduct, are 
agreeable, and not to be shunned ; but if there are 
no fellow-ascetics, the same should be done as in 
case one has received too much food. 

This is the whole duty, &c. 

Thus I say. (7) 

Eleventh Lesson. 

Some mendicants say unto (others) who follow the 
same rules of conduct, or live in the same place, or 
wander from village to village, if they have received 
agreeable food and another mendicant falls sick ' : 
'Take it! give it him ! if the sick mendicant will not 
eat it, thou mayst eat it.' But he (who is ordered to 
bring the food) thinking, ' I shall eat it myself/ covers 
it and shows it (saying) : ' This is the lump of food, 
it is rough to the taste 2 , it is pungent, it is bitter, it 
is astringent, it is sour, it is sweet ; there is certainly 
nothing in it fit for a sick person.' As this would be 
sinful, he should not do so. But he should show 
him which parts are not fit for a sick person (saying): 
' This particle is pungent, this one bitter, this one 
astringent, this one sour, this one sweet.' (1) 

Some mendicants say unto (others) who follow the 
same rules of conduct, or live in the same place, or 
wander from village to village, if they have received 
agreeable food and another mendicant falls sick : 
' Take it ! give it him ! if the mendicant will not eat 
it, bring it to us!' 'If nothing prevents me, I shall 

1 This is the way in which the commentator construes the sen- 
tence. There is some confusion in the text, which cannot easily 
be removed. 

* Loe, Sanskrit ruksha? 



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BOOK II, LECTURE I, LESSON II. 117 

bring it.' (Then he might act as stated in § i, which 
would be sinful.) (2) 

For the avoidance of these occasions to sin there 
are seven rules for begging food and as many for 
begging drink, to be known' by the mendicants. 

Now, this is the first rule for begging food. 
Neither hand nor vessel are wet * : with such a hand 
or vessel he may accept as pure, food, &c, for which 
he himself begs or which the other gives him. That 
is the first rule for begging food. (3) 

Now follows the second rule for begging food. 
The hand and the vessel are wet. The rest as in 
the preceding rule. That is the second rule for 
begging food. (4) 

Now follows the third rule for begging food. In 
the east, &c, there are several faithful householders, 
&c, (all down to) servants : they have put (food) 
in some of their various vessels, as a pan, a pot, a 
winnowing basket, a basket, a precious vessel. Now 
(the mendicant) should again know : is the hand not 
wet and the vessel wet ; or the hand wet and the 
vessel not wet ? If he collect alms with an alms-bowl 
or with his hand 2 , he should say, after considera- 
tion : ' O long-lived one ! (or, O sister !) with your not- 
wet hand, or with your wet vessel, put (alms) in this 
my bowl, or hand, and give it me !' Such-like food, 
for which he himself begs or which the other gives 
him, he may accept ; for it is pure and acceptable. 
That is the third rule for begging food. (5) 

Now follows the fourth rule for begging food. A 

1 SamsatfAa ; it would perhaps be more correct to translate this 
word, soiled with the food in question. 

* These are the parfiggahadhSrl and the pSwiparfiggahiya, 
lit. one who uses his hand instead of an alms-bowl. 



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n8 ajtaranga sOtra. 



monk or a nun may accept flattened grains, &c. (cf. 
II, i, i, § 5), for which they beg themselves or which 
the other gives them, if it be such as to require little 
cleaning or taking out (of chaff); for it is pure, &c. 
That is the fourth rule for begging food. (6) 

Now follows the fifth rule for begging food. A 
monk or a nun may accept food which is offered on 
a plate or a copper cup or any vessel, if the moisture 
on the hands of the giver is almost dried up; for, &c. 
That is the fifth rule for begging food. (7) 

Now follows the sixth rule for begging food. A 
monk or a nun may accept food which had been 
taken up from the ground, either taken up for one's 
own sake or accepted for the sake of somebody else, 
whether it be placed in a vessel or in the hand ; for, 
&c. That is the sixth rule for begging food. (8) 

Now follows the seventh rule for begging food. 
A monk or a nun may accept food of which only a 
part may be used, and which is not wanted by bipeds, 
quadrupeds, 5rama»as, Brahmawas, guests, paupers, 
and beggars, whether they beg for it themselves, or 
the householder gives it them. That is the seventh 
rule for begging food. (9) 

These are the seven rules for begging food ; now 
follow the seven rules for begging drink. They are, 
however, the same as those about food, only the 
fourth gives this precept : A monk or a nun may 
accept as drink water which has been used for 
watering flour or sesamum, &c. (II, 1, 7, § 7), if it be 
such as to require little cleaning and taking out (of 
impure) articles ; for, &c. (10) 

One who has adopted one of these seven rules 
for begging food or drink should not say : ' These 
reverend persons have chosen a wrong rule, I alone 



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BOOK II, LECTURE I, LESSON II. 119 

have rightly chosen.' (But he should say) : ' These 
reverend persons, who follow these rules, and I who 
follow that rule, we all exert ourselves according to 
the commandment of the Cina, and we respect each 
other accordingly.' 

This certainly is the whole duty, &c. 

Thus I say. (n) 



End of the First Lecture, called Begging of 
Food. 



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120 AJTARANGA SUTRA. 



SECOND LECTURE, 

CALLED 

begging for a couch 1 . 

First Lesson. 

If a monk or a nun want to ask for a lodging, 
and having entered a village or scot-free town, &c, 
conceive that lodging to contain eggs, living beings, 
&c, they should not use it for religious postures, 
night's-rest, or study 2 , (i) 

But if the lodging contains only few eggs or few 
living beings, &c, they may, after having inspected 
and cleaned it, circumspectly use it for religious 
postures, &c. Now, if they conceive that the house- 
holder, for the sake of a Nirgrantha and on behalf 
of a fellow-ascetic (male or female, one or many), 
gives a lodging which he has bought or stolen or 
taken, though it was not to be taken nor given, but 
was taken by force, by acting sinfully towards all sorts 
of living beings, they should not use for religious 
postures, &c, such a lodging which has been appro- 
priated by the giver himself, &c. (see II, i, i, § 1 1). 

The same holds good if there be instead of a fel- 
low-ascetic many *Srama#as and Brahma#as, guests, 
paupers, and beggars. But if the lodging has been 

1 Seggl 

* Tahappagare uvassae no tMn&m va seggam va nisihiyaw va 
keteggi. 7^i»a = sthana is explained kayotsarga; segg&= 
jayya, sarastaraka; nisihiya=nijithika, svadhylya; Aetegg&=&a- 
tayet. The last word is elsewhere translated dadyat. 



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BOOK II, LECTURE 2, LESSON I. 121 

appropriated by another man than the giver, &c, 
they may, after having inspected and cleaned it, 
circumspectly use it for religious postures, &c. (2) 

A monk or a nun, knowing that the layman has, 
for the sake of the mendicant, matted the lodging, 
whitewashed it, strewn it (with grass, &c), smeared 
it (with cowdung), levelled, smoothed, or perfumed it 
(or the floor of it), should not use that lodging, which 
has been prepared by the giver himself, &c, for 
religious postures. But if it has been prepared by 
another person, &c, they may circumspectly use it 
for religious postures. (3) 

A monk or a nun, knowing that a layman will, for 
the sake of a mendicant, make small doors large, &c. 
(all as in II, 1, 2, § 7, down to) spread his couch or 
place it outside, should not use such a lodging which 
has been appropriated by the giver himself, &c, for 
religious postures, &c. But if it has been appropriated 
by another person, &c, they may circumspectly use it 
for religious postures, &c. (4) 

Again, a monk or a nun, knowing that the layman, 
for the sake of the mendicant, removes from one 
place to another, or places outside, bulbs or roots or 
leaves or flowers or fruits or seeds or grass-blades of 
water plants, should not use such a lodging, which is 
appropriated* by the giver himself, for religious pos- 
tures, &c. But if it has been prepared by another 
person, &c, they may circumspectly use it for religious 
postures, &c. (5) 

A monk or a nun, knowing that the layman, for 
the sake of the mendicant, removes from one place 
to another, or places outside, a chair or a board or a 
ladder or a mortar, should not use such a lodging- 
place, &c. (all as at the end of the last paragraph). (6) 



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122 AiTARANGA sOTRA. 

A monk or a nun should not use for religious pos- 
tures, &c, a lodging-place above ground, as a pillar 
or a raised platform or a scaffold or a second story 
or a flat roof, likewise no underground place (ex- 
cept under urgent circumstances). If by chance 
they are thus lodged, they should there not wash or 
clean their hands or feet or eyes or teeth or mouth 
with hot or cold water ; nor should they put forth* 
there any other secretion, as excrements, urine, 
saliva, mucus, bilious humour, ichor, blood, or any 
other part of the bodily humours. 

The Kevalin says : This is the reason : Making 
secretions he might stumble or fall; stumbling or 
falling he might hurt his hand, &c. (II, i, 7, § 1), 
or any other limb of his body, or kill, &c, all sorts 
of living beings. Hence it has been said to the men- 
dicant, &c, that he should use no above-ground 
lodging-place for religious postures, &c. (7) 

A monk or a nun on a begging-tour should not 
use, for religious postures, a lodging-place used by 
the householder, in which there are women, children, 
cattle, food, and drink. This is the reason: A mendi- 
cant living together with a householder's family may 
have an attack of gout, dysentery, or vomiting ; or 
some other pain, illness, or disease may befall him ; 
the layman might, out of compassion, smear or 
anoint the mendicant's body with oil or ghee or 
butter or grease, rub or shampoo it with perfumes, 
drugs, lodhra, dye, powder, padmaka, then brush 
or rub it clean ; clean, wash, or sprinkle it with hot 
or cold water, kindle or light a fire by rubbing wood 
on wood; and having done so, he might dry or warm 
(the mendicant's body). 

Hence it has been said to the mendicant, &c, 



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BOOK II, LECTURE 2, LESSON I. 1 23 

that he should not use for religious postures, &c, a 
lodging-place which is used by the householder. (8) 

This is (another) reason : While a mendicant lives 
in a lodging used by the householder, the house- 
holder or his wife, &c, might bully, scold x , attack 
or beat each other. Then the mendicant might 
direct his mind to approval or dislike: 'Let them 
bully each other !' or, ' Let them not bully each 
other!' &c. &c. 

Hence it has been said to the mendicant, &c, 
that he should not use, for religious postures, &c, a 
lodging-place used by the householder. (9) 

This is (another) reason : While the mendicant 
lives together with householders, the householder 
might, for his own sake, kindle or light or extinguish 
a fire-body. Then the mendicant might direct his 
mind to approval or dislike: ' Let them kindle or light 
or extinguish a fire-body;' or, ' Let them not do so.' 

Hence it has been said to the mendicant, &c. 
(see above). (10) 

This is (another) reason: While the mendicant 
lives together with householders, he might see the 
householder's earrings or girdle or jewels or pearls 
or gold and silver 2 or bracelets (those round the 
wrist and those round the upper arm) or necklaces 
(those consisting of three strings, or those reaching 
halfway down the body, or those consisting of eighty 

1 Vaharati. The Guzerati translation renders it mrbhimkAe, 
which is derived from Sanskrit nirbharts. 

* Hiranwe suvanne. The commentators explain these two 
words, which are synonyms in the later language, as 'raw and 
wrought gold, or coined gold.' I translate 'gold and silver,' 
because the distinction of the commentators seems rather far- 
fetched, and because silver would be missed in enumerations like 
the present one. 



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124 Ajstaranga sOtra. 

strings or forty strings or one string or strings of 
pearls, golden beads or jewels) or a decked or orna- 
mented girl or maiden. Thus the mendicant might 
direct his mind to approval or dislike : ' Let her be 
thus;' or, ' Let her not be thus.' So he might say, so 
he might think. Hence it has been said to the 
mendicant, &c. (see above), (n) 

This is (another) reason : While a mendicant lives 
together with householders, the householder's wives, 
daughters, daughters-in-law, nurses, slave-girls or 
servant-girls might say: 'These reverend 6rama#as, 
&c, have ceased from sexual intercourse; it behoves 
them not to indulge in sexual intercourse : whatever 
woman indulges with them in sexual intercourse, will 
have a strong, powerful, illustrious, glorious, victorious 
son of heavenly beauty.' Hearing and perceiving 
such talk, one of them might induce the mendicant 
ascetic to indulge in sexual intercourse. 

Hence it has been said to the mendicant, &c, 
that he should not use for religious postures, &c, a 
lodging used by the householder. 

This is the whole duty, &c. 

Thus I say. (12) 

Second Lesson. 

Some householders are of clean habits and the 
mendicants, because they never bathe, are covered 
with uncleanliness ; they smell after it, they smell 
badly, they are disagreeable, they are loathsome. 
Hence the householders, with regard to the mendicant, 
put off some work which otherwise they would have 
done before, and do some work which otherwise 
they would have put off. 

Hence it has been said to the mendicant, &c, 



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BOOK II, LECTURE 2, LESSON 2. 1 25 

that he should not use, for religious postures, &c, a 
lodging used by the householder, (i) 

This is the reason : While a mendicant lives 
together with householders, the householder might, 
for his own sake, have prepared something to eat. 
Then, afterwards, he might, for the sake of the 
mendicant, prepare or dress food, &c, and the men- 
dicant might desire to eat or drink or swallow it. 

Hence it has been said to the mendicant, &c. 
(see above). (2) 

This is the reason : While the mendicant lives 
together with a householder, there may be ready 
wood cleft for the use of the householder. Then, 
afterwards, (the householder) might, for the sake of 
the mendicant, cleave or buy or steal wood, kindle 
or light, by rubbing wood on wood, the fire-body, 
and the mendicant might desire to dry or warm 
himself at, or enjoy, the fire. 

Hence it has been said to the mendicant, &c. 
(see above). (3) 

When in the night or twilight a mendicant, to 
ease nature, leaves the door open, a thief, watching 
for an occasion, might enter. It is not meet for 
the mendicant to say : This thief enters or does not 
enter, he hides himself or does not hide himself, he 
creeps in or does not creep in, he speaks or does not 
speak ; he has taken it, another has taken it, it is 
taken from that man ; this is the thief, this is the 
accomplice, this is the murderer, he has done so 1 . 
The householder will suspect the ascetic, the men- 



1 For if he gives warning of the thief, the warner or the thief 
might be slain ; but if he gives no warning, no life will be lost, 
though the mendicant's integrity may be doubted. 



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126 AjcArAnga s6tra. 



dicant, who is not a thief, to be the thief. Hence it 
has been said to the mendicant, &c. (4) 

A monk or a nun should not use, for religious 
postures, &c, sheds of grass or straw which contain 
eggs, living beings, &c. But they may do so if they 
contain few eggs, few living beings, &c. (5) 

A mendicant should not stay in halting-places, 
garden houses, family houses, monasteries, where 
many fellow-ascetics are frequently arriving. 

1. If the reverend persons continue to live in those 
places after staying there for a month * in the hot or 
cold seasons or for the rainy season (he should say) : 
' O long-lived one ! you sin by overstaying the fixed 
time.' (6) 

2. If the reverend persons repeatedly live in 
halting-places, &c, after staying there for the proper 
time, without passing two or three intermediate 
months somewhere else, (he should say) : ' O long- 
lived one ! you sin by repeating your retreat in the 
same place.' (7) 

3. Here, in the east, west, north, or south, there 
are, forsooth, some faithful householders, house- 
holders' wives, &c, who are not well acquainted with 
the rules of monastic life (with regard to the fitness 
of lodging-places) ; nevertheless they believe in, per- 
ceive, are convinced of, (the merit of) giving lodging 
to mendicants. They (accordingly) give lodging- 
places for the sake of many 6rama»as and Brah- 
mawas, guests, paupers, and beggars, in workshops, 
chapels, temples, assembly halls, wells, houses or 
halls for shopkeeping or for keeping or building 
carriages, distilleries, houses where Darbha-grass, 

1 Or any fixed period, which the mendicant has vowed not to 
exceed staying in one place. 



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BOOK II, LECTURE 2, LESSON 2. 1 27 

bark, trees, wood or charcoal are being worked, 
houses on burial-places, rooms for retirement near 
the place of sacrifice 1 , empty houses, hill-houses, 
caves, stone -houses, or palaces. He should say to 
those reverend persons who live in such-like places 
as workshops, &c, together with other guests : ' O 
long-lived one ! you sin by living in a place frequented 
by other sectarians.' (8) 

4. Here, in the east, &c. They accordingly give, 
&c. (all as in § 8 down to) palaces. If the mendi- 
cants come there while the other religious men do 
not come there, they sin by living in a place not 
frequented by other mendicants. (9) 
. 5. In the east, west, north, or south there are 
faithful householders, viz. a householder or his wife, 
&c, who will speak thus : ' It is not meet that these 
illustrious, pious, virtuous, eloquent, controlled, chaste 
ascetics, who have ceased from sexual intercourse, 
should dwell in a lodging which is adhakarmika 2 : 
let us give to the mendicants the lodgings which are 
ready for our use, viz. workshops, &c, and let us, 
afterwards, prepare lodgings for our own use, viz. 
workshops, &c.' Hearing and perceiving such talk, 
if the reverend persons frequent such-like lodgings, 
viz. workshops, &c, and live in them which are 
ceded by other people (they should be warned) : ' O 
long-lived one ! that (lodging is infected by the sin 
called) var^akriya.' (10) 

6. Here, in the east, &c. (see § 8 all down to) 
they give lodging-places for the sake of many .Sra- 
ma»as and Brahma«as, guests, paupers, and beggars, 
after having well counted them, in workshops, &c. 

1 5Sntigr»ha. * See note 5 on p. 81. 



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128 AutArAnga sOtra. 

If the reverend persons frequent such-like lodgings, 
viz. workshops, &c, and live in them which are ceded 
by other people (they should be warned) : ' O long- 
lived one! that (lodging is infected by the sin called) 
mahavar^akriya.' (n) 

7. Here, in the east, &c. They accordingly give, 
for the sake of many sorts of -SVamattas 1 , after having 
well counted them, lodging-places, viz. workshops, 
&c. If the reverend persons frequent such-like lodg- 
ings, viz. workshops, &c, and live in them which 
are ceded by other people (they should be warned) : 
' O long-lived one ! that (lodging is infected by the 
sin called) sivadyakriya.' (12) 

8. Here, in the east, &c. They accordingly pre- 
pare, for the sake of one sort of .Srama#as, lodgings, 
viz. workshops, &c, for which purpose great injury is 
done to the earth, water, fire, wind-bodies, plants, and 
animals, great injury, great cruelty, great and mani- 
fold sinful acts ; by wasting cold water or strewing 
(the ground), smearing it with cowdung, shutting the 
doors and securing the bed, lighting a fire. If the 
reverend persons frequent such-like lodgings, viz. 
workshops, &c, and lead in such ceded lodgings an 
ambiguous 2 life (they should be warned) : ' O long- 
lived one ! that (lodging is infected by the sin called) 
mahasavadyakriya.' (13) 

9. But if the lodgings, viz. workshops, &c, are 

1 There are five sorts of .Sramawas enumerated in the following 
hemistich, which occurs not only in .STlanka's commentary, but 
also in that of the Sthananga Sutra, as Dr. Leumann informs me : 
Niggawtha, Sakka, Tavasa, Gerua, A^tva pam£ah£ samawa. Nir- 
granthas, 5akyas, TSpasas, Gairikas, A^ivakas. 

* Dupakkham te kanirna sevamti, lit. use twofold work; the 
meaning is, according to the commentary, that they act like house- 
holders, though they make a show of monastic life. 



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BOOK II, LECTURE 2, LESSON 3. 1 29 

prepared by the householders for their own sake 
under the same circumstances as detailed in the 
preceding paragraph, and the reverend persons fre- 
quent such-like lodgings, they lead, in those lodgings, 
an unambiguous life. ' O long-lived one ! that (lodg- 
ing is infected by the very small sin called) alpasd- 
vadyakriya.' 

This is the whole duty, &c. 

Thus I say. (14) 

Third Lesson. 

'It 1 is difficult to obtain pure, acceptable alms ; it 
is indeed not free from such preparations as strewing 
the ground (with Darbha-grass), smearing it (with 
cowdung), shutting the doors and securing the beds. 
And he (the mendicant) delights in pilgrimage, 
religious exercises, study, begging for a bed, a couch, 
or other alms.' 

Some mendicants explain thus (the requisites of 
a lodging) ; they are called upright, searching after 
liberation, practising no deceit. 

Some householders (who, having learned the 
requisites of a lodging- place, fit one out accord- 
ingly, try to deceive the mendicants, saying): ' This 
lodging, which we offer you, has been assigned to 
you, it has been originally prepared for our sake, or 
for the sake of some relations, it has been used, it 
has been relinquished.' 

Explaining 2 thus, he truly explains. (The teacher 
says) : Well, he is (an explainer of the truth). (1) 

1 The commentators say that this passage contains the mendi- 
cant's answer to an invitation to live in this or that village. By 
the second it is meant the lodging. 

* The commentator supposes here the householder to further 

[23] K 



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I30 AtfARANGA S^TRA. 



If a mendicant, at night or at the twilight, leaves 
or enters a small lodging, one with a small door, a 
low or crammed lodging, (he should put forward) 
first his hand, then his foot, and thus circumspectly 
leave or enter it. 

The Kevalin says : This is the reason : There 
might be a badly bound, badly placed, badly fastened, 
loose umbrella, pot, stick, staff, robe, hide, leather 
boots or piece of leather belonging to JSramawas or 
Brahma»as; and the mendicant, when leaving or 
entering (the lodging) at night or twilight, might 
stumble or fall ; stumbling or falling he might hurt 
his hand or foot, &c. (see IV, 1, 7, § 1), kill, &c, all 
sorts of living beings. 

Hence it has been said to the mendicant, &c, 
that one (should put forward) first the hand, then 
the foot, and thus circumspectly leave or enter such 
a lodging. (2) 

He (the mendicant) should, at halting-places, &c, 
ask for a lodging-place, after having inquired who is 
the landlord or who is the tenant. He should ask 
permission to use the lodging-place in this way : ' By 
your favour, O long-lived one ! we shall dwell here 
for a while (for the time and in the place) which you 
will concede.' (If the landlord should object and say 
that he owns the lodging for a limited time only, or 
if he asks for the number of monks for which the 
lodging is required, he should answer) 1 : ' As long as 
this lodging belongs to you, (or) for the sake of as 



inquire after the requisites of, and the objections to, the lodging- 
place. The mendicant should explain them. 

1 The passage in parentheses contains what the commentator 
supplies. 



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BOOK II, LECTURE 2, LESSON 3. 131 

many fellow-ascetics (as shall stand in need of it), 
we shall occupy the lodging; afterwards we shall 
take to wandering.' (3) 

A monk or a nun may know the name and 
gotra of him in whose lodging he lives ; in that case 
they should not accept food, &c, in that house 
whether invited or not invited ; for it is impure and 
unacceptable. (4) 

A monk or a nun should not use for religious 
postures, &c, a lodging-place which is used by the 
householder, which contains fire or water ; for it is 
not fit for a wise man to enter or leave it, &c. (cf. II, 

i»4. $0- (5) 
A monk or a nun should not use for religious 

postures, &c, a lodging for which they have to pass 
through the householder's abode, or to which there 
is no road; for it is not fit, &c. (see last para- 
graph). (6) 

A monk or a nun should not use for religious 
postures, &c, a lodging where the householder or his 
wife, &c, might bully or scold, &c, each other (see 
II, 2, i, § 9) ; for it is not fit, &c. (7) 

A monk or a nun should not use for religious 
postures, &c, a lodging where the householder or his 
wife, &c, rub or anoint each other's body with 
oil or ghee or butter or grease ; for it is not 
fit,&c. (8) 

A monk or a nun should not use for religious 
postures, &c, a lodging where the householder or his 
wife, &c, rub or shampoo each other's body with 
perfumes, ground drugs, powder, lodhra, &c. (see II, 
2, 1, $ 8); for it is not fit, &c. (9) 

A monk or a nun should not use for religious 
postures, &c, a lodging where the householder or his 

K 2 



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132 AjtAraAga sOtra. 



wife, &c, clean, wash, or sprinkle each other's body 
with cold or hot water ; for it is not fit, &c. (10) 

A monk or a nun should not use for religious 
postures, &c, a lodging where the householder or 
his wife, &c, go about naked or hide themselves, or 
talk about sexual pleasures, or discuss a secret plan ; 
for it is not fit, &c. (i i) 

A monk or a nun should not use for religious 
postures, &c, a lodging which is a much-frequented 
playground 1 ; for it is not fit, &c. (12) 

1. If a monk or a nun wish to beg for a couch, they 
should not accept one which they recognise full of 
eggs, living beings, &c. (13) 

2. If the couch is free from eggs, living beings, but 
is heavy, they should not accept such a couch. (14) 

3. If the couch is free from eggs, living beings, 
light, but not movable, they should not accept such 
a couch. (15) 

4. If the couch is free from eggs, living beings, 
&c, light, movable, but not well tied, they should not 
accept such a couch*. (16) 

5. If the couch is free from eggs, living beings, 
light, movable, and well tied, they may accept such 
a couch. (17) 

For the avoidance of these occasions to sin there 
are four rules, according to which the mendicant 
should beg for a couch. 

1 Ai««asa»»lekkha«. I am not certain whether I have found 
the correct meaning. 

a In the first case, there would be sawyamaviridhani, or 
obstruction to control ; in the second, Stmavir&dhanS, injury to 
him who lifts the couch j in the third, tatparitySga; in the fourth, 
bandhanldipalimantha, friction of the ropes. The word which 
I have translated movable is parfihiriya pratihSruka. The 
translation is conjectural. 



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BOOK II, LECTURE 2, LESSON 3. 1 33 

Now this is the first rule for begging for a couch. 

If a monk or a nun beg for a couch, specifying 
(its quality), viz. one of Ikka/a-reed, a hard one, one of 
(^antuka-grass, of Para-grass 1 , of peacock feathers, 
of hay, of Kuya-grass, of brush-hair, of Pa££aka, of 
Pippala, of straw, they should, after consideration, 
say: ' O long-lived one! (or, O sister!) please give 
me this here!' If the householder prepares one of 
the above-specified couches, or if the mendicant asks 
himself, and the householder gives it, then he may 
accept it as pure and acceptable. 

This is the first rule. (18) 

Now follows the second rule. 

If a monk or a nun beg for a couch (of the above- 
detailed description) after having well inspected it, 
they should, after consideration, say : ' O long-lived 
one! &c.' (all as in the first rule). 

This is the second rule 2 . (19) 

If a monk or a nun beg for a couch of the above- 
detailed description, viz. one of Ikka/a-grass, &c, 
from him in whose house he lives, they may use it 
if they get it ; if not, they should remain in a squat- 
ting or sitting posture (for the whole night). 

This is the third rule. (20) 

Now follows the fourth rule. 

If a monk or a nun beg for a couch such as it 
is spread, either on the ground or on a wooden 
plank, they may use it if they get it ; if not, they 



1 The commentator says that from this grass artificial flowers are 
produced. 

* According to the commentary the first and second rules may 
not be adopted by a ga^Ma-nirgata, or a monk who is attached 
to no order of monks. 



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134 AjtAraAga sOtra. 



should remain in a squatting or sitting posture (for 
the whole night). 

This is the fourth rule. (21) 

A monk who has adopted one of these four rules, 
should not say, &c. (all as in II, 1, 11, § 12, down 
to) we respect each other accordingly. (22) 

If a monk or a nun wish to give back a couch, 
they should not do so, if the couch contains eggs, 
living beings, &c. But if it contains few living 
beings, &c, they may restrainedly do so, after having 
well inspected, swept, and dried it 1 . (23) 

A monk or a nun on a begging-tour or in a 
residence or on a pilgrimage from village to village 
should first inspect the place for easing nature. The 
Kevalin says : This is the reason : If a monk or a 
nun, in the night or the twilight, ease nature in 
a place which they have not previously inspected, 
they might stumble or fall, stumbling or falling they 
might hurt the hand or foot, &c, kill, &c, all sorts of 
living beings. (24) 

A monk or a nun might wish to inspect the 
ground for their couch away from 2 that occupied by 
a teacher or sub-teacher, &c. (see II, 1, 10, § 1), or 
by a young one or an old one or a novice or a 
sick man or a guest, either at the end or in the 
middle, either on even or uneven ground, or at a 
place where there is a draught or where there is no 
draught. They should then well inspect and sweep 



1 One past preterite participle vim/Mumya is left out in the 
translation, as I do not know its meaning. 

" Nannattha with instr., here explained muktvi. Though I 
suspect the correctness of this translation, I have nothing better 
to offer. 



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BOOK II, LECTURE 2, LESSON 3. 1 35 

(the floor), and circumspectly spread a perfectly pure 
bed or couch. (25) 

Having spread a perfectly pure bed or couch, 
a monk or a nun might wish to ascend it. When 
doing so, they should first wipe their body from 
head to heels ; then they may circumspectly ascend 
the perfectly pure bed or couch, and circumspectly 
sleep in it. (26) 

A monk or a nun sleeping in a perfectly pure bed or 
couch (should have placed it at such a distance from 
the next one's) that they do not touch their neigh- 
bour's hand, foot, or body with their own hand, foot, 
or body ; and not touching it, should circumspectly 
sleep in their perfectly pure bed or couch. (27) 

Before inhaling or breathing forth, or coughing or 
sneezing or yawning or vomiting or eructating, a 
monk or a nun should cover their face or the place 
where it lies ; then they may circumspectly inhale or 
breathe forth, &c. (28) 

Whether his lodging 1 be even or uneven ; full of, 
or free from, draughts ; full of, or free from, dust ; 
full of, or free from, flies and gnats ; full of, or free 
from, dangers and troubles — in any such-like lodging 
one should contentedly stay, nor take offence at any- 
thing. '■ 

This is the whole duty, &c. 

Thus I say. (29) 



End of the Second Lecture, called Begging 
for a Couch. 

1 Segg&, here explained by vasati. 



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136 A^ArAnga sOtra. 



THIRD LECTURE, 

CALLED 
WALKING 1 . 

First Lesson. 

When the rainy season has come and it is raining, 
many living beings are originated and many seeds 
just spring up, the roads between (different places) 
contain many living beings, seeds, &c. (see II, 1, 1, 
§ 2), the footpaths are not used, the roads are not 
recognisable. Knowing this (state of things) one 
should not wander from village to village, but 
remain during the rainy season in one place 2 . (1) 

When a monk or a nun knows that in a village 
or scot-free town, &c. (see I, 7, 6, § 3), there is no 
large place for religious practices nor for study; 
that there cannot easily be obtained a stool, bench, 
bed, or couch, nor pure, acceptable alms ; that there 
have come or will come many .Srama«as and Brah- 
mawas, guests, paupers, and beggars ; that the means 
of existence are extremely small ; that it is not fit 
for a wise man to enter or leave it, &c. (see II, 1,4, 
§ 1) ; in such a village, scot-free town, &c.,they should 
not remain during the cold season. (2) 

When a monk or a nun knows that in a village 
or scot-free town, &c, there is a large place for 
religious practices or for study ; that there can easily 

1 IriyS. * I. e. keep the partisan. 



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BOOK II, LECTURE 3, LESSON I. 1 37 

be obtained a stool, bench, bed, or couch, or pure, 
acceptable alms ; that there have not come nor will 
come -Sramawas and Brahma#as, guests, paupers, 
and beggars ; that the means of existence are not 
small, &c, they may remain in such a village, &c, 
during the rainy season. (3) 

Now they should know this : After the four months 
of the rainy season are over, and five or ten days of 
the winter have passed, they should not wander from 
village to village, if the road contains many living 
beings, &c, and if many .Sramawas and Brahma»as, 
&c, do not yet travel 1 . (4) 

But if after the same time the road contains few 
living beings, and many .Sramawas and Brahma#as, 
&c, travel, they may circumspectly wander from vil- 
lage to village. (5) 

A monk or a nun wandering from village to village 
should look forward for four cubits, and seeing 
animals they should move on by walking on his toes 
or heels or the sides of his feet. If there be some 
bypath, they should choose it, and not go straight 
on ; then they may circumspectly wander from village 
to village. (6) 

A monk or a nun wandering from village to village, 
on whose way there are living beings, seeds, grass, 
water, or mud, should not go straight if there be an 
unobstructed byway; then they may circumspectly 
wander from village to village. (7) 

A monk or a nun on the pilgrimage, whose road 
(lies through) places belonging to borderers, robbers, 
Mlei^as, non-Aryan people 2 , half-civilised people, 

1 He should in that case stay in the same place for the whole 
month Margarfrsha, where he was during the rainy season. 

' According to the commentary vale A k An (milakkhu) means 



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138 AitarAnga sOtra. 

unconverted people, people who rise or eat at an 
improper time, should, if there be some other place 
for walking about or friendly districts, not choose 
the former road for their voyage. (8) 

The Kevalin says: This is the reason: The 
ignorant populace might bully, beat, &c, the mendi- 
cant, in the opinion that he is a thief or a spy, or 
that he comes from yonder (hostile village) ; or they 
might take away, cut off, steal or rob his robe, alms- 
bowl, mantle, or broom. Hence it has been said 
to the mendicant, &c, that one whose road (lies 
through) places belonging, &c. (all as in the last 
paragraph); then he may circumspectly wander 
from village to village. (9) 

A monk or a nun on the pilgrimage, whose road 
(lies through) a country where there is no king or 
many kings or an unanointed king or two govern- 
ments or no government or a weak government, 
should, if there be some other place for walking about 
or friendly districts, not choose the former road for 
their voyage. The Kevalin says : This is the reason : 
The ignorant populace might bully or beat, &c, the 
mendicant, &c. (all as in § 9). (10) 

A monk or a nun on the pilgrimage, whose road 
lies through a forest 1 which they are not certain of 
crossing in one or two or three or four or five days, 
should, if there be some other place for walking 
about or friendly districts, not choose the former 
road for their voyage. (11) 

The Kevalin says : This is the reason : During 

the Varvara, .Sarvara, Pulindra, &c; the non-Aryans are those 
who live not in the 36$ countries. 

1 Vihaw, forest, as explained in the third lesson. But the 
commentator here explains it, a journey of some days. 



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BOOK II, LECTURE 3, LESSON I. 1 39 

the rain (he might injure) living beings, mildew, 
seeds, grass, water, mud. Hence it has been said 
to the mendicant that one whose road lies through 
such a forest, &c. (all as in the last paragraph) ; 
then he may circumspectly wander from village to 
village. (12) 

A monk or a nun on the pilgrimage, on whose 
way there is some watercourse which must be crossed 
by a boat, should not ascend such a boat which plies 
up or down or across (the river), neither for one 
yo^ana's or half a yo^ana's distance, neither for a 
shorter nor a longer voyage, if they know that the 
householder 1 will buy or purloin the boat, or doing 
the work necessary to put the boat in order, pull it 
ashore out of the water, or push it from the shore 
into the water, or bale it, if it is filled (with water), 
or cause a sinking boat to float. (13) 

A monk or a nun, knowing that a boat will cross 
the river, should, after having received the owner's 
permission, step apart, examine their outfit, put aside 
their provender, wipe their body from head to heels, 
reject the householder's food, and putting one foot 
in the water and the other in the air 2 , they should 
circumspectly enter the boat. (14) 

A monk or a nun in entering the boat should not 
choose for that purpose the stern or the prow or the 
middle of the boat ; nor should they look at it hold- 
ing up their arms, pointing at it with their finger, 
bowing up and down. (15) 

If, on board, the boatman should say to the monk, 
' O long-lived .Sramawa 1 pull the boat forward or back- 

1 By householder is here intended the host of the mendicant. 
1 Thale=sthale. The commentator explains it by akixe. 



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140 AjtArAAga s6tra. 

ward, or push it, or draw it with the rope towards 
you, or, let us do it together,' he should not comply 
with his request, but look on silently. (16) 

If, on board, the other should say to him,' O long- 
lived .5rama»a! you cannot pull the boat forward 
or backward, or push it, or draw it with a rope 
towards you ; give us the rope, we will ourselves pull 
the boat forward or backward, &c.,' he should not 
comply with his request, but look on silently. (17) 

If, on board, the other should say to him, 'O long- 
lived «Srama»a ! if you can, pull the boat by the oar, 
the rudder, the pole, and other nautical instruments 1 ,' 
he should not comply with his request, but look on 
silently. (18) 

If, on board, the other should say to him, 'O long- 
lived .Srama«a 1 please, lade out the water with your 
hand, or pitcher 2 , or vessel, or alms-bowl, or bucket,' 
he should not comply with his request, but look on 
silently. (19) 

If, on board, the other should say to him, 'O long- 
lived -Sramawa ! please, stop the boat's leak with your 
hand, foot, arm, thigh, belly, head, body, the bucket, 
or a cloth, or with mud, Ku^a-grass, or lotus leaves,' 
he should not comply with his request, but look on 
silently. (20) 

If a monk or a nun see that water enters through 
a leak in the boat, and the boat becomes dirty all 
over, they should not approach the boatman and say: 
' O long-lived householder 1 water enters through a 
leak into the boat, and it becomes dirty all over.' 

1 Rudder is a guess for pt<Ma, nautical instruments for valaya 
and avallaya. 

* Pae»a=patre»a. The Guzerati commentator takes it for 
padena, foot 



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BOOK II, LECTURE 3, LESSON 2. I4I 

One should not think so or speak so; but undis- 
turbed, the mind not directed outwardly, one should 
collect one's self for contemplation ; then one may 
circumspectly complete one's journey by the boat 
on the water. 

This is the whole duty, &c. 

Thus I say. (21) 

Second Lesson. 

If, on board, the boatman should say to the mendi- 
cant, ' O long-lived Sramana ! please, take this um- 
brella, pot, &c. (see II, 2, 3, § 2), hold these various 
dangerous instruments 1 , let this boy or girl drink/ 
he should not comply with his request, but look on 
silently. (1) 

If, on board, the boatman should say to another of 
the crew, ' O long-lived one ! this «Srama#a is only a 
heavy load for the boat, take hold of him with your 
arms and throw him into the water!' hearing and 
perceiving such talk, he should, if he wears clothes, 
quickly take them off or fasten them or put them in 
a bundle on his head. (2) 

Now he may think : These ruffians, accustomed 
to violent acts, might take hold of me and throw me 
from the boat into the water. He should first say 
to them : ' O long-lived householders ! don't take hold 
of me with your arms and throw me into the water ! 
I myself shall leap from the boat into the water ! ' 
If after these words the other, by force and violence, 
takes hold of him with his arms and throws him into 
the water, he should be neither glad nor sorry, 
neither in high nor low spirits, nor should he offer 

1 Sattha^4ya = *astra^ata. About xastra, see 1, 1, 2, 



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142 A*ArAnga sOtra. 



violent resistance to those ruffians ; but undisturbed, 
his mind not directed to outward things, &c. (see II, 3, 
1, $ 21), he may circumspectly swim in the water. (3) 

A monk or a nun, swimming in the water, should 
not touch (another person's or their own ?) hand, foot, 
or body with their own hand, foot, or body; but 
without touching it they should circumspectly swim 
in the water. (4) 

A monk or a nun, swimming in the water, should 
not dive up or down, lest water should enter into 
their ears, eyes, nose, or mouth ; but they should cir- 
cumspectly swim in the water. (5) 

If a monk or a nun, swimming in the water, should 
be overcome by weakness, they should throw off 
their implements (clothes, &c), either all or a part 
of them, and not be attached to them. Now they 
should know this : If they are able to get out of the 
water and reach the bank, they should circumspectly 
remain on the bank with a wet or moist body. (6) 

A monk or a nun should not wipe or rub or brush 
or stroke 1 or dry or warm or heat (in the sun) their 
body. But when they perceive that the water on 
their body has dried up, and the moisture is gone, 
they may wipe or rub, &c, their body in that state ; 
then they may circumspectly wander from village 
to village. (7) 

A monk or a nun on the pilgrimage should not 
wander from village to village, conversing with 
householders ; they may circumspectly wander from 
village to village. (8) 

If a monk or a nun on the pilgrimage come 

1 The original has six words for different kinds of rubbing, which 
it would be impossible to render adequately in any other language. 



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BOOK II, LECTURE 3, LESSON 2. 1 43 

across a shallow water 1 , they should first wipe their 
body from head to heels, then, putting one foot in 
the water and the other in the air, they should wade 
through the shallow water in a straight line 2 . (9) 

If a monk or a nun on the pilgrimage come 
across a shallow water, they should wade through it 
in a straight line, without being touched by or 
touching (another person's or their own ?) hand, foot, 
or body with their own hand, foot, or body. (10) 

A monk or a nun, wading through shallow water 
in a straight line, should not plunge in deeper water 
for the sake of pleasure or the heat ; but they should 
circumspectly wade through the shallow water in a 
straight line. Now they should know this : If one 
is able to get out of the water and reach the bank, 
one should circumspectly remain on the bank with 
a wet or moist body. (11) 

A monk or a nun should not wipe or rub, &c. 
(all as in § 7). (12) 

A monk or a nun on the pilgrimage, with their 
feet soiled with mud, should not, in order that the 
grass might take off the mud from the feet, walk out 
of the way and destroy the grass by cutting, trampling, 
and tearing it. As this would be sinful, they should 
not do so. But they should first inspect a path con- 
taining little grass ; then they may circumspectly 
wander from village to village. (13) 

If a monk or a nun on the pilgrimage come 
upon walls or ditches or ramparts or gates or bolts 

1 GaraghasaratSrime udae, literally, a water which is to be 
crossed by wading through it up to the knees ; or perhaps water 
to be crossed on foot 

1 Ah£riyaffi=yath& rtgn bhavati. It might also mean, in the 
right way. Another explanation is yathataryam. 



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144 AatarMga sGtra. 

or holes to fit them, or moats or caves, they should, 
in case there be a byway, choose it, and not go 
on straight. (14) 

The Kevalin says : This is the reason : Walking 
there, the mendicant might stumble or fall down ; when 
he stumbles or falls down, he might get hold of trees, 
shrubs, plants, creepers, grass, copsewood, or sprouts 
to extricate himself. He should ask travellers who 
meet him, to lend a hand ; then he may circumspectly 
lean upon it and extricate himself; so he may cir- 
cumspectly wander from village to village. (15) 

If a monk or a nun perceive in their way (trans- 
ports of) corn, waggons, cars, a friendly or hostile 
army 1 , some encamped troops, they should, in case 
there be a byway, circumspectly choose it, and not 
walk on straight. One trooper might say to an- 
other : ' O long-lived one ! this .Sramawa is a spy upon 
the army; take hold of him with your arms, and 
drag him hither!' The other might take hold of 
the mendicant with his arms and drag him on. He 
should neither be glad nor sorry for it, &c. (see § 3) ; 
then he may circumspectly wander from village to 
village. (16) 

If on his road travellers meet him and say, ' O 
long-lived •Sramawa ! how large is this village or 
scot-free town, &c. ? how many horses, elephants, 
beggars, men dwell in it ? is there much food, 
water, population, corn ? is there little food, water, 
population, corn?' he should not answer such 
questions if asked, nor ask them himself. 

This is the whole duty, &c. 

Thus I say. (17) 

1 Sva£akr£»i va para^akrSai v£. My translation is merely a guess. 



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BOOK II, LECTURE 3, LESSON 3. 145 



Third Lesson. 

A monk or a nun on the pilgrimage, in whose 
way there are walls or ditches or ramparts or 
gates, &c. (see II, 3, 2, § 14), hill houses, palaces, 
underground houses, houses in trees, mountain caves, 
a sacred tree or pillar, workshops, &c. (see II, 2, 2, 
$ 8), should not look at them holding up their arms, 
pointing at them with their fingers, bowing up and 
down. Then they may circumspectly wander from 
village to village. (1) 

A monk or a nun on the pilgrimage, on whose 
way there are marshes, pasture-grounds, moats, forti- 
fied places, thickets, strongholds in thickets, woods, 
mountains, strongholds on mountains, caves 1 , tanks, 
lakes, rivers, ponds, lotus ponds, long winding ponds, 
water-sheets, rows of water-sheets, should not look at 
them holding up their arms, &c. (see § 1). (2) 

The Kevalin says : This is the reason : The deer, 
cattle, birds, snakes, animals living in water, on land, 
in the air might be disturbed or frightened, and 
strive to get to a fold or (other place of) refuge, 
(thinking) : ' The .Sramawa will harm me !' 

Hence it has been said to the mendicant, &c, 
that he should not look at the objects (mentioned 
in § 2) holding up his arms, &c. a (3) 

1 The word aga</a has been left out in the translation. 

* The passage closes : ' then he may circumspectly wander from 
village to village together with the master and teacher (Syariova^- 
ghkya.).' But as the master and teacher have not been mentioned 
before, and will be mentioned in the next Sutra, it is almost certain 
that the words in question have been brought over from the next 
Sutra, or that they ought to be supplied to all Sutras from the 
beginning of the third lesson. 

[22] L 



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146 AjtAranga sOtra. 

A monk or a nun, wandering from village to village 
together with the master or teacher, should not touch 
the master's or teacher's hand with their own, &c; 
but without touching or being touched they should 
circumspectly wander from village to village together 
with the master or teacher. (4) 

A monk or a nun, wandering from village to 
village together with the master or teacher, might 
be met on the road by travellers and asked: 'O long- 
lived .Sramawa! who are you ? whence do you come, 
and where do you go ?' The master or teacher 
may answer and explain ; but whilst the master or 
teacher answers and explains, one should not mix in 
their conversation. Thus they may wander from vil- 
lage to village with a superior priest 1 . (5) 

A monk or a nun, wandering from village to 
village with a superior priest, should not touch the 
superior's hand with their own, &c. (see § 4). (6). 

A monk or a nun, wandering from village to 
village with superior priests, might be met on the 
road by travellers, and be asked : ' O long-lived Sra.- 
ma»a ! who are you ? ' He who has the highest 
rank of them all, should answer and explain ; but 
whilst the superior answers and explains, one should 
not mix in their conversation, &c. (see § 5). (7) 

A monk or a nun, wandering from village to 
village, might be met on the road by travellers, and 
be asked : ' O long-lived •5rama»a ! did you see 
somebody on the road ? viz. a man, cow, buffalo, 
cattle, bird, snake, or aquatic animal — tell us, show 

1 AharSti»iyae, Com. yatharatnadhikam. Ratiwiya is 
opposed to seha (disciple) ; it is elsewhere explained by ^yeshMa ; 
see Kalpa Sutra, Sam. 59. I am not sure if the phrase ought not 
to be translated, with due respect for his superior. 



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BOOK II, LECTURE 3, LESSON 3. 147 

us!' The mendicant should not tell it, nor show it, 
he should not comply with their request, but look 
on silently, or, though knowing it, he should say 
that he did not know. Then he may circumspectly 
wander from village to village. (8) 

He should act in the same manner, if asked about 
bulbs of water-plants, roots, bark, leaves, flowers, 
fruits, seeds, water in the neighbourhood, or a 
kindled fire; (9) 

Likewise, if asked about (transports of) corn, 
waggons, cars, &c. (see II, 3, 2, § 16). (10) 

Likewise, if asked : ' O long-lived .Sramawa 1 how 
large is this village or scot-free town, &c. ?' (11) 

Likewise, if asked: 'O long-lived 6Yama#a! How 
far is it to that village or scot-free town, &c. ?' (12) 

If a monk or a nun, wandering from village to vil- 
lage, sees a vicious cow coming towards them, &c. 
(see II, 1, 5, § 3), they should not, from fear of them, 
leave the road, or go into another road, nor enter a 
thicket, wood, or stronghold, nor climb a tree, nor 
take a plunge in a large and extended water-sheet, 
nor desire a fold or any other place of refuge, or an 
army or a caravan ; but undisturbed, the mind not 
directed to outward things, they should collect them- 
selves for contemplation ; thus they may circum- 
spectly wander from village to village. (13) 

If the road of a monk or a nun on the pilgrimage 
lies through a forest, in which, as they know, there 
stroll bands of many thieves desirous of their pro- 
perty, they should not, for fear of them, leave the 
road, &c. (all as in § 13). (14) 

If these thieves say, 'O long-lived *Srama«a ! bring 
us your clothes, &c, give them, put them down!' 
the mendicant should not give or put them down. 

L 2 



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148 AjtAranga sCtra, 



Nor should he reclaim (his things) by imploring 
(the thieves), or by folding his hands, or by moving 
their compassion, but by religious exhortation or 
by remaining silent. (15) 

If the thieves, resolving to do it themselves, bully 
him, &c, tear off his clothes, &c, he should not lodge 
an information in the village or at the king's palace ; 
nor should he go to a layman, and say, 'O long- 
lived householder! these thieves, resolving to do 
(the robbing) themselves, have bullied me, &c, they 
have torn off my clothes,' &c. He should neither 
think so, nor speak so; but undisturbed, &c. (see 

§ 13). 

This is the whole duty, &c. 
Thus I say. (16) 



End of the Third Lecture, called Walking. 



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BOOK II, LECTURE 4, LESSON I. 1 49 



FOURTH LECTURE, 

CALLED 

modes of speech 1 . 

First Lesson. 

A monk or a nun, hearing and perceiving these 
uses of speech, should know that the following ones 
are not to be employed and have not hitherto been 
employed (by persons of exemplary conduct); those 
who speak in wrath or in pride, for deception or for 
gain, who speak, knowingly or unknowingly, hard 
words. They should avoid all this, which is blam- 
able. Employing their judgment, they should know 
something for certain and something for uncer- 
tain 2 : (1) (N.N.) having received food or not 
having received food, having eaten it or not having 
eaten it, has come or has not come, comes or does 
not come, will come or will not come. (2) 

Well considering (what one is to say), speaking 
with precision, one should employ language in 
moderation and restraint : the singular, dual, plural ; 
feminine, masculine, neuter gender; praise, blame, 

1 BhSsa^dya. 

1 The commentator understands this passage and the following 
paragraph in a different way: a man of ripe judgment should 
utter no such positive assertions, e. g. it is certain (that it will rain), 
or it is not certain, &c. He seems to have been of opinion that the 
prohibition in the last sentence, sawam eta»i s&vaggam vaggeggi, 
extends also to the following sentence. But this is not probable, 
as etam generally refers to what precedes, and imam to what 
follows. 



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150 AxAranga sOtra. 



praise mixed with blame, blame mixed with praise ; 
past, present, or future (tenses), the first and second, 
or third (person) 1 . If one thinks it necessary to 
speak in the singular, he should speak in the sin- 
gular; if he thinks it necessary to speak in the 
plural, he should speak in the plural, &c. Consider- 
ing well : this is a woman, this is a man, this is a 
eunuch, this is to be called thus, this is to be called 
otherwise, speaking with precision, he should em- 
ploy language in moderation and restraint. (3) 

For the avoidance of these occasions to sin, a mendi- 
cant should know that there are four kinds of speech : 
the first is truth ; the second is untruth ; the third is 
truth mixed with untruth ; what is neither truth, nor 
untruth, nor truth mixed with untruth, that is the 
fourth kind of speech : neither truth nor untruth a . 
Thus I say. 

All past, present, and future Arhats have taught 
and declared, teach and declare, will teach and de- 
clare these four kinds of speech ; and they have 
explained all those things which are devoid of intel- 
lect, which possess colour, smell, taste, touch, which 
are subject to decay and increase, which possess 
various qualities. (4) 

A monk (or a nun should know that) before (the 
utterance) speech is speech in (antecedent) non- 
existence 3 ; that while uttered, it is (real) speech; 

1 PaWakkhavayawaw, parokkhavayawaw. 

2 The first, second, and third cases refer to assertions, the fourth 
(asatyamrj'sha) to injunctions. 

8 Literally, non-speech. The commentary has the terms used 
in the translation, which are taken from theValreshika philosophy. 
But it is well known that many Gainas have adopted and written on 
the Vaueshika philosophy, and that the Gainas themselves maintain 



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BOOK II, LECTURE 4, LESSON I. I51 

that the moment after it has been uttered, the spoken 
speech is speech in (subsequent) non-existence. (5) 

A monk or a nun, well considering, should not 
use speech whether truth or untruth, or truth mixed 
with untruth, if it be sinful, blamable, rough, 
stinging, coarse, hard, leading to sins, to discord and 
factions, to grief and outrage, to destruction of living 
beings. (6) 

A monk or a nun, considering well, should use 
true and accurate speech, or speech which is neither 
truth nor untruth (i.e. injunctions); for such speech 
is not sinful, blamable, rough, stinging, &c. (7) 

A monk or a nun, if addressing a man who, if 
addressed, does not answer, should not say: 'You 
loon! you lout 1 ! you .Sudra! you low-born wretch! 
you slave! you dog! you thief! you robber! you 
cheat! you liar! &c; you are such and such! your 
parents 2 are such and such !' Considering well, they 
should not use such sinful, blamable, &c, speech. (8) 

But in that case they should say : ' N. N.! O long- 
lived one ! O long-lived ones ! O layman ! O pupil ! 
O faithful one ! O lover of faith ! ' Considering 
well, they should use such sinless, blameless, &c, 
speech. (9) 

A monk or a nun, if addressing a woman who, if 
addressed, does not answer, should not say: 'You 
hussy! you wench! &c.' (repeat the above list of 

that one of their own creed, Ajfculuya-Rohagutta, is the author of 
the Vaueshika Darranam ; see Kalpa Sutra, p. 119. 

1 The original has hole, gole, which are said by the com- 
mentator to have been used, in another country, as abusive words. 
My conjectural translation is based on the meaning of the Sanskrit 
words ho da., gold. 

* It is well known that the Hindus include, the parents of the 
abused party in their maledictions. 



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152 



AjstArAnga sOtra. 



abusive words adapted to females). Considering 
well, they should not use such sinful, blamable, &c, 
speech. (10) 

A monk or a nun, if addressing a woman who, 
if addressed, does not answer, should say : ' O long- 
lived one ! O sister ! madam ! my lady ! O lay-sister ! 
O pupil! O faithful one! O lover of faith!' Con- 
sidering well, they should use such sinless, blame- 
less, &c, speech, (n) 

A monk or a nun should not say: 'The god 1 of 
the sky! the god of the thunderstorm ! the god of 
lightning ! the god who begins to rain ! the god 
who ceases to rain ! may rain fall or may it not fall ! 
may the crops grow or may they not grow ! may the 
night wane or may it not wane ! may the sun rise or 
may it not rise ! may the king conquer or may he not 
conquer!' They should not use such speech. (12) 

But knowing the nature of things, he should say : 
' The air ; the follower of Guhya ; a cloud has 
gathered or come down ; the cloud has rained.' 

This is the whole duty, &c. 

Thus I say. (13) 

Second Lesson. 

A monk or a nun, seeing any sort (of diseases), 
should not talk of them in this way : ' He has got 
boils, or leprosy, &c. (see I, 6, 1, § 3) ; his hand is 
cut, or his foot, nose, ear, lip is cut.' For as all 
such people, spoken to in such language, become 

1 This prohibition to use the word god in such phrases as the 
god (deva) rains, is a curious instance of the rationalism of the 
early Gainas. As they were allowed to speak nothing but the 
truth, they were enjoined not to say, ' the god rains,' but ' the air 
(awtalikkhaw) rains.' 



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BOOK II, LECTURE 4, LESSON 2. 1 53 

angry, hence, considering well, they should not speak 
to them in such language, (i) 

A monk or a nun, seeing any sort (of good quali- 
ties), should speak thus : ' He is strong, powerful, 
vigorous, famous, well-formed, well-proportioned, 
handsome.' For as all such people, spoken to in 
such language, do not become angry, they should, con- 
sidering well, speak to them in such language. (2) 

A monk or a nun, seeing any sort of such things 
as walls or ditches, &c. (see II, 3, 2, § 14), should 
not speak of them in this way: 'This is well-executed, 
finely executed, beautiful, excellent, (so done) or to 
be done;' they should not use such sinful, &c, 
language. (3) 

A monk or a nun, seeing walls, &c, should speak 
about them in this way : ' This has been executed 
with great effort, with sin, with much labour ; it is 
very magnificent, it is very beautiful, it is very fine, 
it is very handsome;' considering well, they should 
use such sinless, &c, language. (4) 

A monk or a nun, seeing food, &c, prepared, 
should not speak about it in this way : ' This is well 
executed, finely executed, beautiful, excellent, (so 
done) or to be done ;' considering well, they should 
not use such sinful, &c, language. (5) 

A monk or a nun, seeing food, &c, prepared, 
should speak about it in this way : ' This has been 
executed with great effort, with sin, with much 
labour; it is very good, it is excellent, it is well 
seasoned, it is most delicious, it is most agreeable;' 
considering well, they should use such sinless, &c, 
language. (6) 

A monk or a nun, seeing a man, a cow, a buffalo, 
deer, cattle, a bird, a snake, an aquatic animal of 



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154 a^ArAnga sOtra. 

increased bulk, should not speak about them in this 
way : 'He (or it) is fat, round, fit to be killed or 
cooked ;' considering well, they should not use such 
sinful, &c, language. (7) 

A monk or a nun, seeing a man, a cow, &c, of in- 
creased bulk, should speak about them in this way : 
'He is of increased bulk, his body is well grown, 
well compacted, his flesh and blood are abundant, 
his limbs are fully developed;' considering well, 
they should use such sinless, &c, language. (8) 

A monk or a nun, seeing any sort of cows (or 
oxen), should not speak about them in this way : 
' These cows should be milked or tamed or covered, 
should draw a waggon or car ;' considering well, they 
should not use such sinful, &c, language. (9) 

A monk or a nun, seeing any sort of cows (or 
oxen), should speak about them in this way : ' It is 
a young cow, a milch cow, she gives much milk, it 
is a short or a large one, a beast of burden;' con- 
sidering well, they should use such sinless, &c, 
language. (10) 

A monk or a nun, seeing big trees in parks, on 
hills, or in woods, should speak about them in this 
way : ' These (trees) are fit for palaces, gates, houses, 
benches, bolts, boats, buckets, stools, trays, ploughs, 
mattocks (?), machines, poles, the nave of a wheel(?), 
gandl 1 , seats, beds, cars, sheds ;' considering well, they 
should not use such sinful, &c, language. (1 1) 

A monk or a nun, seeing big trees in parks, on 
hills, or in woods, should speak about them in this 
way: ' These trees are noble, high and round, big; 

1 The Guzerati commentator explains g&ndi by a kind of utensil. 
The Sanskrit commentaries give no explanation. 



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BOOK II, LECTURE 4, LESSON 2. 155 

they have many branches, extended branches, they 
are very magnificent/ &c. (see § 4) ; considering well, 
they should use such sinless, &c, language. (12) 

A monk or a nun, seeing many wild fruits, should 
not speak about them in this way : ' They are ripe, 
they should be cooked or eaten, they are just in 
season, or soft, or they have just split ;' consider- 
ing well, they should not use such sinful, &c, lan- 
guage- (13) 

A monk or a nun, seeing many wild fruits, should 
speak about them in this way : ' They are very plen- 
tiful, they contain many seeds, they are fully grown, 
they have developed their proper shape ; ' consider- 
ing well, they should use such sinless, &c, lan- 
guage. (14) 

A monk or a nun, seeing many vegetables, should 
not speak about them in this way : ' They are ripe, 
they are dark coloured, shining, fit to be fried or 
roasted or eaten ;' considering well, they should not 
use such sinful, &c, language. (15) 

A monk or a nun, seeing many vegetables, should 
speak about them in this way: 'They are grown 
up, they are fully grown, they are strong, they are 
excellent, they are run to seed, they have spread 
their seed, they are full of sap;' considering well, 
they should use such sinless, &c, language. (16) 

A monk or a nun, hearing any sort of sounds, 
should not speak about them in this way: 'This is a 
good sound, this is a bad sound;' considering well, 
they should not use such sinless, &c, language ; but 
they should call them good, if they are good ; bad, if 
they are bad ; considering well, they should use such 
sinless, &c, language. (17) 

In the same manner they should speak about the 



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156 . AtArAnga sOtra. 



(five) colours, as black, &c; the (two) smells, as 
pleasant or unpleasant; the (five) tastes, as sharp 
&c; the (five) kinds of touch, as hard, &c. (18) 

A monk or a nun, putting aside wrath, pride, 
deceit, and greed, considering well, speaking with 
precision, what one has heard, not too quick, with 
discrimination, should employ language in modera- 
tion and restraint. 

This is the whole duty, &c. 

Thus I say. (19) 



End of the Fourth Lecture, called Modes of 
Speech. 



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BOOK II, LECTURE 5, LESSON I. 1 57 



FIFTH LECTURE, 

CALLED 

begging of clothes 1 . 

First Lesson. 

A monk or a nun wanting to get clothes, may beg for 
cloth made of wool, silk, hemp, palm-leaves, cotton, 
or Arkatula, or such-like clothes. If he be a youthful, 
young, strong, healthy, well-set monk, he may wear 
one robe, not two ; if a nun, she should possess four 
raiments, one two cubits broad, two three cubits 
broad, one four cubits broad 2 . If one does not 
receive such pieces of cloth, one should afterwards 
sew together one with the other, (i) 

A monk or a nun should not resolve to go further 
than half a yo^ana to get clothes. As regards the 
acceptance of clothes, those precepts which have 
been given in the (First Lesson of the First Lecture, 
called) Begging of Food 3 , concerning one fellow- 
ascetic, should be repeated here ; also concerning 
many fellow-ascetics, one female fellow-ascetic, many 
female fellow-ascetics, many .Srama#as and Brah- 
ma»as ; also about (clothes) appropriated by another 
person 4 . (2) 

A monk or a nun should not accept clothes which 
the layman, for the mendicant's sake, has bought, 

1 Vatthesa«a\ 

* The first to wear in the cloister, the second and third for out- 
of-door, the fourth for assemblies. 

• See II, 1, 1, § 11. * See II, 1, 1, § 13. 



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158 AjtArA&ga sOtra. 



washed, dyed, brushed, rubbed, cleaned, perfumed, 
if these clothes be appropriated by the giver him- 
self. But if they be appropriated by another person, 
they may accept them; for they are pure and accept- 
able. (3) 

A monk or a nun should not accept any very ex- 
pensive clothes of the following description : clothes 
made of fur, fine ones, beautiful ones ; clothes made 
of goats' hair, of blue cotton, of common cotton, of 
Bengal cotton, of Pa#a, of Malaya fibres, of bark 
fibres, of muslin, of silk; (clothes provincially called) 
Desaraga,Amila,Ga,£fala, Philiya, Kayaha ; blankets 
or mantles. (4) 

A monk or a nun should not accept any of the 
following plaids of fur and other materials : plaids 
made of Udra, Pera fur \ embroidered with Pera fur, 
made of the fur of black or blue or yellow deer, 
golden plaids, plaids glittering like gold, interwoven 
with gold, set with gold, embroidered with gold, 
plaids made of tigers' fur, highly ornamented plaids, 
plaids covered with ornaments. (5) 

For the avoidance of these occasions to sin there 
are four rules for begging clothes to be known by 
the mendicants. 

Now, this is the first rule : 

A monk or a nun may beg for clothes specifying 
(their quality), viz. wool, silk, hemp, palm-leaves, 
cotton, Arkatula. If they beg for them, or the house- 
holder gives them, they may accept them ; for they 
are pure and acceptable. 

This is the first rule. (6) 

Now follows the second rule : 

1 According to the commentary udra and pexa are animals 
in Sindh. 



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BOOK II, LECTURE 5, LESSON I. 1 59 

A monk or a nun may ask for clothes which they 
have well inspected, from the householder or his wife, 
&c. After consideration, they should say : ' O long- 
lived one! (or, O sister!) please give me one of 
these clothes ! ' If they beg for them, or the house- 
holder gives them, they may accept them ; for they 
are pure and acceptable. 

This is the second rule. (7) 

Now follows the third rule : 

A monk or a nun may beg for an under or upper 
garment. If they beg for it, &c. (see § 7). 

This is the third rule. (8) 

Now follows the fourth rule : 

A monk or a nun may beg for a left-ofF robe, 
which no other Sramana. or Brahmawa, guest, pauper 
or beggar wants. If they beg, &c. (see § 7). 

This is the fourth rule. 

A monk or a nun who have adopted one of these 
four rules should not say, &c. (all as in II, 1, 11, 
$i2,downto)we respect each other accordingly. (9) 

A householder may perhaps say to a mendicant 
begging in the prescribed way : ' O long-lived .Sra- 
ma«a ! return after a month, ten nights, five nights, 
to-morrow, to-morrow night ; then we shall give you 
some clothes.' Hearing and perceiving such talk, 
he should, after consideration, say: 'O long-lived 
one ! (or, O sister !) it is not meet for me to accept 
such a promise. If you want to give me (something), 
give it me now ! ' 

After these words the householder may answer : 
'O long-lived .Srama«a! follow me! then we shall 
give you some clothes.' The mendicant should give 
the same answer as above. 

After his words the householder may say (to one 



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160 AjtArAnga sOtra. 



of his people): 'O long-lived one! (or, O sister!) 
fetch that robe ! we shall give it the .Sramawa, and 
afterwards prepare one for our own use, killing all 
sorts of living beings.' 

Hearing and perceiving such talk, he should not 
accept such clothes; for they are impure and un- 
acceptable. (10) 

The householder 1 may say (to one of his people): 
' O long-lived one ! (or, O sister !) fetch that robe, 
wipe or rub it with perfume, &c. (see II, 2, 1, § 8) ; 
we shall give it to the .Sramawa.' 

Hearing and perceiving such talk, the mendicant 
should, after consideration, say: 'O long-lived one! 
(or, O sister !) do not wipe or rub it with perfume, 
&c. If you want to give it me, give it, such as 
it is ! ' 

After these words the householder might never- 
theless offer the clothes after having wiped or 
rubbed them, &c. ; but the mendicant should not 
accept them, for they are impure and unaccept- 
able. (11) 

The householder may say (to another of his 
people): ' O long-lived one! (or, O sister!) bring 
that robe, clean or wash it with cold or hot water ! ' 

The mendicant should return the same answer as 
above (in § 11) and not accept such clothes. (12) 

The householder may say (to another of his 

1 Here and in the following paragraph the original adds netta, 
which may be = nttva, bringing (the clothes); but the following 
words seem to militate against this rendering. For the house- 
holder's order to fetch (ahara) the clothes would be superfluous, if 
he had already brought (netta) them. Unless ahara has here some 
other meaning than the common one, perhaps ' take it,' netta can- 
not be translated ' having brought them.' 



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BOOK II, LECTURE 5, LESSON I. l6l 

people) : ' O long-lived one ! (or, O sister !) bring 
that cloth, empty it of the bulbs, &c. (see II, 2, 1, 
§ 5); we shall give it to the .Srama#a.' Hearing and 
perceiving such talk, the mendicant should say, after 
consideration : ' O long-lived one ! (or, O sister !) do 
not empty that cloth of the bulbs, &c. ; it is not meet 
for me to accept such clothes.' After these words 
the householder might nevertheless take away the 
bulbs, &c, and offer him the cloth ; but he should not 
accept it; for it is impure and unacceptable. (13) 

If a householder brings a robe and gives it to 
the mendicant, he should, after consideration, say: 
'O long-lived one! (or, O sister!) I shall, in your 
presence, closely inspect the inside of the robe.' 

The Kevalin says : This is the reason : There 
might be hidden in the robe an earring or girdle or 
gold and silver, &c. (see II, 2, 1, § 11), or living 
beings or seeds or grass. Hence it has been said to 
the mendicant, &c, that he should closely inspect 
the inside of the robe. (14) 

A monk or a nun should not accept clothes 
which are full of eggs or living beings, &c; for they 
are impure, &c. A monk or a nun should not accept 
clothes which are free from eggs or living beings, 
&c, but which are not fit nor strong nor lasting 
nor to be worn 1 — which though pleasant are not 
fit (for a mendicant); for they are impure and 
unacceptable. (15) 

1 If they contain stains of mustard or Angina, &c. The com- 
mentator quotes two dokas which, as I understand them, assign to 
the different parts of the cloth different significations as omina. 
They run thus : Aattari deviya bhaga do ya bhaga ya ma/msa I 
asuraia ya do bhSga magghe vatthassa rakkhaso 11 devesu uttamo 
lobho mSmisesu ya magghimo I asuresu ya gahnnam maranam 
g&m. rakkhase II 

[aa] M 



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1 62 AjcArMga sOtra. 

A monk or a nun may accept clothes which are 
fit, strong, lasting, to be worn, pleasant and fit for a 
mendicant; for they are pure and acceptable. (16) 

A monk or a nun should not wash his clothes, 
rub or wipe them with ground drugs, &c, because 
they are not new. 

A monk or a nun should not clean or wash his 
clothes in plentiful water, because they are not 
new. (17) 

A monk or a nun should not make his clothes 
undergo the processes (prohibited in § 1 7), because 
they have a bad smell. (18) 

A monk or a nun wanting to air or dry (in the 
sun) their clothes, should not do so on the bare 
ground or wet earth or rock or piece of clay con- 
taining life, &c. (see II, 1, 5, § 2). (19) * 

A monk or a nun wanting to air or dry (in the 
sun) their clothes, should not hang them for that pur- 
pose on a post of a house, on the upper timber of a 
door-frame, on a mortar, on a bathing-tub, or on any 
such-like above-ground place, which is not well fixed 
or set, but shaky and movable. (20) 

A monk or a nun wanting to air or dry (in the 
sun) their clothes, should not lay them for that pur- 
pose on a dyke, wall, rock, stone, or any such-like 
above-ground place, &c. (21) 

A monk or a nun wanting to air or dry (in the 
sun) their clothes, should not do it on a pillar, a raised 
platform, a scaffold, a second story, a flat roof, or 
any such-like above-ground place, &c. (22) 



1 If the garment falls on the ground, it would come in contact 
with dust, &c, then it would contain living beings and be no more 
pure. 



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BOOK II, LECTURE 5, LESSON 2. 1 63 

Knowing this, he should resort to a secluded spot, 
and circumspectly air or dry his clothes there on a 
heap of ashes or bones, &c. (see II, i, i, § i), which 
he has repeatedly inspected and cleaned. 

This is the whole duty, &c. 

Thus I say. (23) 

Second Lesson. 

A monk or a nun should beg for acceptable 
clothes, and wear them in that state in which they get 
them ; they should not wash or dye them, nor should 
they wear washed or dyed clothes, nor (should they) 
hide (their clothes) when passing through other vil- 
lages, being careless of dress. This is the whole 
duty for a mendicant who wears clothes 1 . 

A monk or a nun wanting, for the sake of alms, 
to enter the abode of a householder, should do so 
outfitted with all their clothes ; in the same manner 
they should go to the out-of-door place for religious 
practices or study, or should wander from village 
to village. 

Now they should know this : A monk or a nun 
dressed in all their clothes should not enter or 
leave, for the sake of alms, the abode of a house- 
holder, &c. &c, on perceiving that a strong and widely 
spread rain pours down, &c. (see II, 1, 3, § 9). (1) 

If a single mendicant borrows for a short time a 
robe 2 (from another mendicant) and returns after 
staying abroad for one, two, three, four, or five days, 

1 See I, 7, 4, § 1. 

* Pa<rthariyam, which is translated pratiharuka. There 
are various readings as parihariya, parfihariya; but the 
meaning of the word remains uncertain, and my translation is 
but conjectural. 

M 2 



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1 64 AjstAraSga sOtra. 



he (the owner) should not take such a robe for 
himself, nor should he give it to somebody else, 
nor should he give it on promise (for another robe 
after a few days), nor should he exchange that robe 
for another one. He should not go to another 
mendicant and say : ' O long-lived »Srama#a ! do 
you want to wear or use this robe ?' He (the 
owner of the robe) should not rend the still strong 
robe, and cast it away ; but give it him (who had 
borrowed it) in its worn state ; he should not use 
it himself. (2) 

The same rule holds good when many mendicants 
borrow for a short time clothes, and return after stay- 
ing abroad for one, &c, days. All should be put in 
the plural. (3) 

' Well, I shall borrow a robe and return after stay- 
ing abroad for one, two, three, four, or five days; 
perhaps it will thus become my own.' As this would 
be sinful, he should not do so. (4) 

A monk or a nun should not make coloured 
clothes colourless, or colour colourless clothes ; nor 
should they give them to somebody else thinking 
that they will get other clothes; nor should they 
give it on promise (for other clothes) ; nor should 
they exchange them for other clothes ; nor should 
they go to somebody else and say : ' O long-lived 
Sra.ma.n3. ! do you want to wear or use these clothes ?' 
They should not rend the still strong clothes, and 
cast them away, that another mendicant might think 
them bad ones. (5) 

If he sees in his way thieves, he should not from 
fear of them, and to save his clothes, leave the road 
or go into another road, &c. (see II, 3, 3, § 13), but 
undisturbed, his mind not directed to outward things, 



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BOOK II, LECTURE 5, LESSON 2. 165 

he should collect himself for contemplation; then 
he may circumspectly wander from village to 
village. (6) 

If the road of a monk or a nun on the pilgrimage 
lies through a forest in which, as they know, there 
stroll bands of many thieves desirous of their clothes, 
they should not from fear of them, and to save their 
clothes, leave the road or go into another road, &c. 
(all as in § 6). (7) 

If these thieves say: 'O long-lived 3rama«a! 
bring us your robe, give it, deliver it !' he should 
not give or deliver it He should act in such cases 
(as prescribed in II, 3, 3, §§ 15 and 16). 

This is the whole duty, &c. 

Thus I say. (8) 



End of the Fifth Lecture, called Begging of 
Clothes. 



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166 AjtArAnga sOtra. 



SIXTH LECTURE, 

CALLED 

begging for a bowl 1 . 

First Lesson. 

A monk or a nun wanting to get a bowl, may 
beg for one made of bottle-gourd or wood or clay, 
or such-like bowls. If he be a youthful, young, &c. 
(see II, 5, i, J i) monk, he may carry with him one 
bowl, not two 2 . 

A monk or a nun should not resolve to go farther 
than half a Yo^ana to get a bowl. 

As regards the acceptance of a bowl, those four 
precepts which have been given in (the First Lesson 
of the First Lecture, called) 8 Begging of Food, con- 
cerning one fellow-ascetic, &c, should be repeated 
here, the fifth is that concerning many 6rama«as 
and Brahmarcas. 

A monk or a nun should not accept a bowl 
which the layman has, for the mendicant's sake, 
bought, &c. (see the Lecture called Begging of 
Clothes*), (i) 

A monk or a nun should not accept any very 
expensive bowls of the following description : bowls 
made of iron, tin, lead, silver, gold, brass, a mixture of 

1 Paesaal 

4 This applies, according to the commentator, to Ginakalpikas, 
&c. Ordinary monks may have a drinking vessel besides the alms- 
bowl. 

•See II, i, i, ft i. MI, 5, t, §3. 



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BOOK II, LECTURE 6, LESSON I. 167 

gold, silver, and copper, pearl, glass, mother of pearl, 
horn, ivory, cloth, stone, or leather; for such very 
expensive bowls are impure and unacceptable. (2) 

A monk or a nun should not accept bowls which 
contain a band of the same precious materials 
specialised in $ 2 ; for &c. (3) 

For the avoidance of these occasions to sin there 
are four rules for begging a bowl to be known by 
the mendicants. 

Now this is the first rule : 

A monk or a nun may beg for a bowl specifying 
its quality, viz. bottle-gourd or wood or clay. If they 
beg for such a bowl, or the householder gives it, 
they may accept it, for it is pure and acceptable. 

This is the first rule. (4) 

Now follows the second rule : 

A monk or a nun may ask for a bowl, which they 
have well inspected, from the householder or his wife, 
&c. After consideration, they should say : ' O long- 
lived one ! (or, O sister !) please give me one of 
these bowls, viz. one made of bottle-gourds or wood 
or clay.' If they beg for such a bowl, or the house- 
holder gives it, they may accept it ; for &c. 

This is the second rule. (5) 

Now follows the third rule : 

A monk or a nun may beg for a bowl which has 
been used by the former owner or by many people. 
If they beg for it, &c. (see § 5). 

This is the third rule. (6) 

Now follows the fourth rule : 

A monk or a nun may beg for a left-off bowl 
which no other .Sramawa or Brahma»a, guest, pauper, 
or beggar wants. If they beg for it, &c. (see § 5). 

This is the fourth rule. 



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1 68 atarAnga sOtra. 



A monk or a nun having adopted one of these 
four rules should not say, &c. (see II, i, u, J 12, all 
down to) we respect each other accordingly. (7) 

A householder may perhaps say to a mendicant 
begging in the prescribed way : ' O long-lived .Sra- 
masa! return after a month,' &c. (all as in the 
Lecture called Begging of Clothes 1 ). (8) 

The householder may say (to one of his people) : 
' O long-lived one ! (or, O sister !) fetch that bowl, 
rub it with oil, ghee, fresh butter or marrow, we shall 
give it,' &c. (see II, 5, 1, $ 1 1) ; or' wash, wipe, or rub 
it with perfumes,' &c. ; or ' wash it with cold or hot 
water;' or 'empty it of the bulbs,' &c. (see II, 5, 1, 
§§ 11 and 12). (9) 

The householder may say (to the mendicant) : 
' O long-lived .5rama»a ! stay a while till they have 
cooked or prepared our food, &c, then we shall give 
you, O long-lived one ! your alms-bowl filled with 
food or drink ; it is not good, not meet that a mendi- 
cant should get an empty alms-bowl.' After con- 
sideration, the mendicant should answer : ' O long- 
lived one ! (or, O sister !) it is indeed not meet for 
me to eat or drink food &c. which is adhakarmika ; 
do not cook or prepare it; if you want to give me 
anything, give it as it is.' After these words the 
householder might offer him the alms-bowl filled 
with food or drink which had been cooked or pre- 
pared : he should not accept such an alms-bowl, 
for it is impure and unacceptable. (10) 

Perhaps the householder will bring and give the 
mendicant an alms-bowl ; the mendicant should then, 
after consideration, say : ' O long-lived one ! (or, O 



1 II, 5, 1, § 10. 



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BOOK II, LECTURE 6, LESSON 2. 1 69 

sister !) I shall in your presence closely inspect the 
interior of the bowl.' 

The Kevalin says : This is the reason : In the 
alms-bowl there might be living beings or seeds or 
grass. Hence it has been said to the mendicant, 
&c, that he should closely inspect the interior of 
the alms-bowl, (n) 

All that has been said in the Lecture called 
Begging of Clothes (II, 5, 1, § 15 down to the end) is 
mutatis mutandis to be repeated here. (In § 15, 
add before perfumes) with oil, ghee, butter or 
marrow. 

This is the whole duty, &c 

Thus I say. (12) 

Second Lesson. 

A monk or a nun, entering the abode of a house- 
holder for the sake of alms, should after examining 
their alms-bowl, taking out any living beings, and 
wiping off the dust, circumspectly enter or leave the 
householder's abode. 

The Kevalin says : This is the reason : Living 
beings, seeds or dust might fall into his bowl. Hence 
it has been said to the mendicant, &c, that he should 
after examining his alms-bowl, taking out any living 
beings, circumspectly enter or leave the householder's 
abode. (1) 

On such an occasion the householder might per- 
haps, going in the house, fill the alms-bowl with 
cold water and, returning, offer it him ; (the mendi- 
cant) should not accept such an alms-bowl 1 either in 

* Though the alms-bowl is expressly mentioned, it must stand 
here for water, as the commentators interpret the passage. 



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170 AjtAranga sOtra. 

the householder's hand or his vessel ; for it is impure 
and unacceptable. (2) 

Perhaps he has, inadvertently, accepted it ; then 
he should empty it again in (the householder's) 
water-pot; or (on his objecting to it) he should 
put down the bowl and the water somewhere, or 
empty it in some wet place. (3) 

A monk or a nun should not wipe or rub a wet 
or moist alms-bowl. But when they perceive that 
on their alms-bowl the water has dried up and the 
moisture is gone, then they may circumspectly wipe 
or rub it. (4) 

A monk or a nun wanting to enter the abode of 
a householder, should enter or leave it, for the sake 
of alms, with their bowl ; also on going to the out-of- 
door place for religious practices or study; or on 
wandering from village to village. 

If a strong and widely spread rain pours down, 
they should take the same care of their alms-bowl 
as is prescribed for clothes (in the preceding Lecture, 
Lesson 2, § 1). 

This is the whole duty, &c. 

Thus I say. (5) 



End of the Sixth Lecture, called Begging for 
a Bowl. 



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BOOK II, LECTURE 7, LESSON I. 171 



SEVENTH LECTURE, 

CALLED 

regulation of possession 1 . 

First Lesson. 

' I shall become a 6rama«a who owns no house, 
no property, no sons, no cattle, who eats what others 
give him ; I shall commit no sinful action ; Master, I 
renounce to accept anything that has not been given.' 
Having taken such vows, (a mendicant) should not, 
on entering a village or scot-free town, &c, take him- 
self, or induce others to take, or allow others to take, 
what has not been given. A mendicant should not 
take or appropriate any property, viz. an umbrella * 
or vessel or stick, &c. (see II, 2, 3, § 2), of those 
monks together with whom he stays, without getting 
their permission, and without having inspected and 
wiped (the object in question) ; but having got their 
permission, and having inspected and wiped (the ob- 
ject in question), he may take or appropriate it 8 . (1) 

He may beg for a domicile in a traveller's hall, &c. 



1 OggaharWimi. 

* The commentator (5flahka) states that the monks in Kun- 
kanadeja, &c, are allowed to carry umbrellas, because of the heavy 
rains in that country. 

* Oginheggi va 1 pzgginheggS. va. The commentators explain 
these words ' to take for once' (sakrt't) and ' to take repeatedly' 
(anekaxas). Later on the Guzerati commentator explains oggi»- 
heggi by mige, 'he should ask.' 



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172 AtfARANGA SUTRA. 



(see II, i, 8, § 2), having reflected (on its fitness for 
a stay) ; he should ask permission to take possession 
of it from him who is the landlord or the steward of 
that place : ' Indeed, O long-lived one ! for the time, 
and in the space which you concede us, we shall dwell 
here. We shall take possession of the place for as 
long a time as the place belongs to you ; and of as 
much of it as belongs to you ; for as many fellow- 
ascetics (as shall stand in need of it) ; afterwards we 
shall take to wandering 1 .' (2) 

Having got possession of some place, a mendicant 
should invite to that food, &c, which he himself 
has collected, any fellow-ascetics arriving there who 
follow the same rules and are zealous brethren ; but 
he should not invite them to anything of which 
he has taken possession for the sake of somebody 
else. (3) 

Having got possession of some place (in a tra- 
veller's hall, &c), a mendicant should offer a foot- 
stool or bench or bed or couch, which he himself has 
begged, to any fellow-ascetics arriving there who 
follow other rules than he, yet are zealous brethren ; 
but he should not offer them anything of which 
he has taken possession for the sake of somebody 
else. (4) 

Having got possession of some place in a tra- 
veller's hall, &c, a mendicant might ask from a 
householder or his sons the loan of a needle or 
a Pippalaka 8 or an ear-picker or a nail-parer, he 
should not give or lend.it to somebody else ; but 



1 Compare the corresponding precept in II, a, 3, § 3. 
* The Guzerati commentator only says that pippalakais some 
utensil. The older commentators do not explain this passage. 



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BOOK II, LECTURE 7, LESSON 2. 173 

having done that for which he wanted one of the 
above articles, he should go with that article there 
(where the householder, &c, is), and stretching out 
his hands or laying the article on the ground, he 
should, after consideration, say : ' Here it is ! here it 
is !' But he should not with his own hand put it in 
the hand of the householder. (5) 

A monk or a nun should not take possession 
of anything 1 on the bare ground, on wet ground, 
where there are eggs, &c; nor on pillars or such 
an above-ground place (II, 2, 1, § 7) ; nor on a wall, 
&c. ; nor on the trunk of a tree, &c. ; nor where the 
householder or fire or water, or women or children 
or cattle are, and where it is not fit for a wise 
man to enter or to leave, &c, nor to meditate on 
the law; nor where they have to pass through the 
householder's abode or to which there is no road, 
and where it is not fit, &c; nor where the house- 
holder or his wife, &c, bully or scold each other, &c. 
(see II, 2, 1, I 9, and 3, § 7) ; nor where they rub or 
anoint each other's body with oil or ghee or butter 
or grease; nor where they take a bath, &c; nor 
where they go about naked, &c. (all as in II, 2, 3, 
§§ 7-12); 

This is the whole duty, &c. 

Thus I say. (6-12) 

Second Lesson. 

He may beg for a domicile in a traveller's hall, 
&c. (see II, 1, 8, § 2), having reflected (on its fit- 
ness) ; he should ask permission to take possession 

1 Oggaba. 



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174 A/tArAi&ga sOtra. 

of it from the landlord or the steward of that place : 
' Indeed, O long-lived one ! for the time and in 
the space you concede us, we shall dwell here 1 ,' &c. 
(see i, § 2). Now what further after the place is taken 
possession of? He should not remove from without 
to within, or vice versa, any umbrella or stick, &c. 
(see II, 2, 3, § 2) belonging to *Srama»as or Brah- 
ma»as (previously settled there) ; nor should he 
wake up a sleeping person, nor offend or molest the 
(inmates). (1) 

A monk or a nun might wish to go to a mango 
park; they should then ask the landlord's or steward's 
permission (in the manner described above). Now 
what further after the place is taken possession of ? 
Then they might desire to eat a mango. If the monk 
or the nun perceive that the mango is covered with 
eggs, living beings, &c. (see II, 1, 1, § 2), they should 
not take it ; for it is impure, &c. (2) 

If the monk or the nun perceive that the mango 
is free from eggs, living beings, &c, but not nibbled 
at by animals, nor injured, they should not take it ; for 
it is impure, &c. But if they perceive that the mango 
is free from eggs, living beings, &c, and is nibbled 
at by animals and injured, then they may take it ; for 
it is pure, &c. 2 (3) 

The monk might wish to eat or suck one half of 
a mango or a mango's peel or rind or sap or smaller 
particles. If the monk or the nun perceive that 
the above-enumerated things are covered with eggs, 
or living beings, they should not take them ; for they 
are impure, &c. But they may take them, if they are 



1 § 2 of the preceding Lesson is repeated word for word. 
» See II, 1, 1, §§ 3, 4. 



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BOOK II, LECTURE J, LESSON 2. 1 75 



free from eggs, &c, and nibbled at by animals or 
injured 1 . (4) 

A monk or a nun might wish to go to a sugar- 
cane plantation. They should ask permission in the 
manner described above. The monk or the nun 
might wish to chew or suck sugar-cane. In that case 
the same rules as for eating mango apply also ; like- 
wise if they wish to chew or to suck the sugar-cane's 
pulp, fibres, sap, or smaller particles. (5) 

A monk or a nun might wish to go to a garlic 
field. They should ask permission in the manner 
described above. The monk or the nun might wish 
to chew or suck garlic. In that case the same rules 
as for eating mangoes apply also ; likewise if they 
wish to chew or suck the bulb or peel or stalk or 
seed of garlic 2 . (6) 

A monk or a nun, having got possession of a place 
in a traveller's hall, &c, should avoid all occasions 
to sin (proceeding from any preparations made by) 
the householders or their sons, and should occupy 
that place according to the following rules. (7) 

Now this is the first rule : 

He may beg for a domicile in a traveller's hall, 
&c, having reflected (on its fitness for a stay), &c. 
($ 2 of the preceding Lesson is to be repeated here). 

This is the first rule. (8) 

Now follows the second rule : 

A monk resolves : ' I shall ask for possession of a 
dwelling-place, &c, for the sake of other mendicants, 



1 In the text § 3 is repeated with the necessary alterations. 

' .Stl&hka, in his commentary, remarks that the meaning of the 
Sutras about eating mangoes, sugar-cane, and garlic should be 
learned from the Sixteenth Lesson of the Nishftha Sutra. 



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176 AjcarA&ga sOtra. 

and having taken possession of it for their sake, 
I shall use it/ 

This is the second rule. (9) 

Now follows the third rule : 

A monk resolves : ' I shall ask for possession of a 
dwelling-place, &c, for the sake of other mendicants, 
and having taken possession of it for their sake, I 
shall not use it.' 

This is the third rule. (10) 

Now follows the fourth rule : 

A monk resolves : ' I shall not ask for possession 
of a dwelling-place, &c, for the sake of other mendi- 
cants; but if the dwelling-place, &c, has already 
been ceded to them, I shall use it.' 

This is the fourth rule. (11) 

Now follows the fifth rule : 

A monk resolves : ' I shall ask for possession of a 
dwelling-place for my own sake, not for two, three, 
four, or five persons.' 

This is the fifth rule. (12) 

Now follows the sixth rule : 

If a monk or a nun, occupying a dwelling-place in 
which there is Ikkadfa reed,&c. (see II, 2, 3, $ 18), get 
this thing, then they may use it; otherwise they 
should remain in a squatting or sitting posture. 

This is the sixth rule. (13) 

Now follows the seventh rule : 

A monk or a nun may beg for a dwelling-place 
paved with clay or wood. If they get it, then 
they may use it ; otherwise they should remain in a 
squatting or sitting posture. 

This is the seventh rule. 

One who has adopted one of these seven rules, 
should not say, &c. (all as in II, 1, 1 1, § 12). (14) 



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BOOK II, LECTURE 7, LESSON 2. 1 77 

I have heard the following explanation by the 
venerable (Mahavlra) : The Sthaviras, the venerable 
ones, have declared that dominion * is fivefold : 

The lord of the gods' dominion ; 

The king's dominion ; 

The houseowner's 2 dominion ; 

The householder's 8 dominion ; 

The religious man's * dominion. 

This is the whole duty, &c. 

Thus I say. (15) 



End of the Seventh Lecture, called Regulation 
of Possession. 



1 Oggaha, avagraha. 

1 GaMvaf, gnhapati. In another part of the commentary it is 
explained gr&mamahattar&di, his dominion is gramap&Va- 
k&dikam. 

* Sigiriya, sagSrika. It is explained jayyStara, host His 
dominion is shampasdladi. 

* S&hammiya, sSdharmika. His dominion is vasatyidi, his 
domicile which extends for a Yq^ana and a quarter. When he 
takes possession (parigraha) of it, he must ask permission of the 
possessors. 



[33] N 



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178 A/tArAnga sutra. 



SECOND PART. 



THE SEVEN LECTURES 1 . 

Eighth Lecture 2 . 

When a monk or a nun wishes to perform religious 
postures 3 , they should enter a village or a scot-free 
town, &c ; having entered it, they should not accept a 
place, even if it is offered, which is infected by eggs 
or living beings, &c ; for such a place is impure and 
unacceptable. In this way all that has been said 
about couches (in the Second Lecture) should be 
repeated here as far as 'water-plants' (II, 2, 1, 

Avoiding these occasions to sin, a mendicant may 
choose one of these four rules for the performance 
of religious postures. 

This is the first rule : 

I shall choose something inanimate 4 , and lean 
against it ; changing the position of the body, and 
moving about a little, I shall stand there. 

This is the first rule. (2) 

Now follows the second rule : 

I shall choose something inanimate, and lean 

1 Sattikao. 

* 7%a»asattikkayam, sthanasaptaikakam. 

* Th&nm /Aaittae. * As a wall, &c 



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BOOK II, LECTURE 9. I 79 

against it ; changing the position of the body, but 
not moving about a little, I shall stand there. 

This is the second rule. (3) 

Now follows the third rule : 

I shall choose something inanimate, and lean 
against it; not changing the position of the body, 
nor moving about a little, I shall stand there. 

This is the third rule. (4) 

Now follows the fourth rule : 

I shall choose something inanimate, but I shall 
not lean against it ; not changing the position of the 
body, nor moving about a little, I shall stand there. 
Abandoning the care of the body, abandoning the 
care of the hair of the head, beard, and the other 
parts of the body, of the nails, perfectly motionless, 
I shall stand there. 

This is the fourth rule. (5) 

One who has adopted one of these four rules, &c. 
(see II, 1, 11, § 12). 

This is the whole duty, &c. 

Thus I say. 

Ninth Lecture 1 . 

When a monk or a nun wishes to go to a pure 
place for study, they 2 should not accept one which is 
infected by eggs or living beings, &c. ; for it is im- 
pure and unacceptable. But if that place for study 
to which they wish to go, is free from eggs or living 
beings, &c, they may accept it; for it is pure and 
acceptable. 

1 Nisihiyasattikkayaw ; nishithika=svadhyayabhumiA. 
* The original has the first person Jetissami. 
N 2 



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180 AkArAnga sutra. 



In this way all that has been said in the corre- 
sponding passage about couches 1 should be repeated 
here as far as 'water-plants.' (i) 

If parties of two, three, four, or five (mendicants) 
resolve to go to the place for study, they should not 
embrace or hug, bite with their teeth or scratch with 
their nails each other's body. 

This is the whole duty, &c. 

Thus I say. (2) 

Tenth Lecture 2 . 

A monk or a nun being pressed by nature 
should, in case they have not their own broom, 
beg for that of a fellow-ascetic. A monk or a nun, 
seeing that the ground is infected by eggs or living 
beings, &c, should not ease nature on such an unfit 
ground. But if the ground is free from eggs or 
living beings, &c, then they may ease nature on 
such a ground. (1) 

A monk or a nun, knowing that the householder 
with regard to such a place for the sake of one 
or many, male or female fellow-ascetics, for the 
sake of many 6rama«as or Brahmawas whom he has 
well counted, kills living beings and commits various 
sins, should not ease nature on such a place or any 
other of the same sort, whether that place be appro- 
priated by another person or not 3 , &c. (see II, 1, 1, 
$ 1 3). (2 and 3). 



1 Se^i-game/ia. 

* U^arapasavanasattikkao, discharging of feces and urine. 

* Purisawtarakarfa, here translated svikrrta. The text pro- 
ceeds g&va. bahiya nihadam \k, which I do not know how to apply 
to the object in question. As § 3 differs from § 2 only in giving 



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BOOK II, LECTURE *IO. \\si 

Now he should know this : If that place has not 
been appropriated by another person, &c, he may 
ease nature on such a place (after having well 
inspected and cleaned it). (4) 

A monk or a nun should not ease nature on a 
ground which for their sake has been prepared or 
caused to be prepared (by the householder), or has 
been occupied by main force, or strewn with grass, 
or levelled, or smeared (with cowdung), or smoothed, 
or perfumed. (5) 

A monk or a nun should not ease nature on a 
ground where the householders or their sons remove 
from outside to inside, or vice versa, bulbs, roots, 
&c. (see II, 2, 1, § 5). (6) 

A monk or a nun should not ease nature on a 
pillar or bench or scaffold or loft or tower or 
roof. (7) 

A monk or a nun should not ease nature on the 
bare ground or on wet ground or on dusty ground 
or on a rock or clay containing life, or on timber 
inhabited by worms or on anything containing life, 
as eggs, living beings, &c. (8) 

A monk or a nun should not ease nature in a 
place where the householders or their sons have, 
do, or will put 1 by bulbs, roots, &c. (9) 

A monk or a nun should not ease nature in a 
place where the householders or their sons have 
sown, sow, or will sow rice, beans, sesamum, pulse, 
or barley. (10) 

A monk or a nun should not ease nature in a 
place where there are heaps of refuse, furrows, mud, 

the negative attributes (apurisamtaraka</am), I have contracted both 
paragraphs in the translation. 
1 Paris&femsu vi, explained parikshepawadik&A kriyaA kuryuA. 



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1 82 asarAnga sCtra. 



stakes, sprigs, holes, caves, walls, even or uneven 
places 1 , (u) 

A monk or a nun should not ease nature in fire- 
places, layers (or nests) of buffaloes, cattle, cocks, 
monkeys, quails, ducks 2 , partridges, doves, or franco- 
line partridges. (12) 

A monk or a nun should not ease nature in a 
place where suicide is committed, or where (those 
who desire to end their life) expose their body to 
vultures, or precipitate themselves from rocks or 
trees 3 , or eat poison, or enter fire. (13) 

A monk or a nun should not ease nature in 
gardens, parks, woods, forests, temples, or wells. (14) 

A monk or a nun should not ease nature in 
towers, pathways, doors, or town gates. (15) 

A monk or a nun should not ease nature where 
three or four roads meet, nor in courtyards or 
squares. (16) 

A monk or a nun should not ease nature where 
charcoal or potash is produced, or the dead are burnt, 
or on the sarcophagues or shrines of the dead. (17) 

A monk or a nun should not ease nature at 
sacred places near rivers, marshes or ponds, or in a 
conduit. (18) 

A monk or a nun should not ease nature in 
fresh clay pits, fresh pasture grounds for cattle, in 
meadows or quarries. (19) 

A monk or a nun should not ease nature in a 
field of shrubs, vegetables, or roots. (20) 

1 The translation of some of the words in the text is merely 
conjectural. 

2 Va//aya. I think this is the modern ba//ak, duck. 

* The commentator says : where they fall like a tree, having 
starved themselves to death, or where they fall from trees. 



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BOOK II, LECTURE II. 1 83 

A monk or a nun should not ease nature in 
woods of Asana 1 , .Sana 2 , Dhatakt 3 , Ketaki*, Mango, 
Ajoka, Punnaga, or other such-like places which con- 
tain leaves, flowers, fruits, seeds, or sprouts. (21) 

A monk or a nun should take tfonr own chamber- 
pot or that of somebody else, and going apart with it, 
they should ease nature in a secluded place where no 
people pass or see them, and which is free from eggs 
or living beings, &c. ; then taking (the chamber-pot), 
they should go to a secluded spot, and leave the excre- 
ments there on a heap of ashes, &c. (see II, 1, 1, § 2). 

This is the whole duty, &c. 

Thus I say. (22) 



Eleventh Lecture*. 

A monk or a nun should not resolve to go 
where they will hear sounds of a Mrzdaiiga, Nandt- 
mWdanga, or G^allarl 4 , or any such-like various 
sounds of drums. (1) 

If a* monk or a nun hear any sounds, viz. of the 
Vl#a, Vipafl&St, Vadvtsaka, Tu«aka, Pa#aka, Tumba- 
vi»ika, or Dhawku»a, they should not resolve to go 
where they will hear any such-like various sounds of 
stringed instruments. (2) 

The same precepts apply to sounds of kettle- 
drums, viz. of the Tala, Lattiya, Gohiya 7 , or Kiri- 
kiriya; (3) 

1 Terminalia Tomentosa. * Crotolaria Juncea. 

9 Grislea Tomentosa. * Pandanus Odoratissimus. 

* Saddasattikkayam. Lecture on Sounds. 

• These are different kinds of drums. 

7 Lattiya and gohiya would be in Sanskrit lattika and go- 
dhika; both words are names of lizards. 



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1 84 As-Ara^ga s6tra. 



Also to sounds of wind instruments, viz. the 
conch, flute, Kharamukhi, or Piripiriya. (4) 

A 1 monk or a nun should not, for the sake of 
hearing sounds, go to walls or ditches, &c. (see II, 
3, 3, §§ 1 and 2); (5) 

Nor to marshes, pasture grounds, thickets, woods, 
strongholds in woods, mountains, strongholds in 
mountains ; (6) 

Nor to villages, towns, markets, or a capital, her- 
mitages, cities, halting-places for caravans ; (7) 

Nor to gardens, parks, woods, forests, temples, 
assembly halls, wells ; (8) 

Nor to towers, pathways, doors, or town gates ; (9) 

Nor where three or four roads meet, nor to 
courtyards or squares; (10) 

Nor to stables (or nests) of buffaloes, cattle, 
horses, elephants, &c. (see 10, § 12); (11) 

Nor to places where buffaloes, bulls, horses, &c, 
fight; (12) 

Nor to places where herds of cattle, horses, or 
elephants are kept; (13) 

Nor to places where story-tellers or acrobats per- 
form, or where continuously story-telling, drama- 
tical plays, singing, music, performance on the Vl»a, 
beating of time, playing on the Turya, clever playing 
on the Pa/aha is going on ; (14) 

Nor to places where quarrels, affrays, riots, con- 
flicts between two kingdoms, anarchical or revolu- 
tionary disturbances occur ; (15) 

1 The beginning, 'If a monk or a nun hear particular sounds 
somewhere, viz.,' and the end.'they should not resolve to go to such- 
like or other places for the sake of hearing sounds,' are in the text 
repeated in all, §§ 5-16. In the translation the text has been 
somewhat abridged. 



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BOOK II, LECTURE 12. 1 85 

Nor to places where a young well-attended girl, 
well-attired and well-ornamented, is paraded, or where 
somebody is led to death. (16) 

A monk or a nun should not, for the sake of 
hearing sounds, go to places where there are many 
great temptations \ viz. where many cars, chariots, 
Mle&Was, or foreigners meet. (17) 

A monk or a nun should not, for the sake of 
hearing sounds, go to great festivals where women 
or men, old, young, or middle-aged ones are well- 
dressed and ornamented, sing, make music, dance, 
laugh, play, sport, or give, distribute, portion or 
parcel out plenty of food, drink, dainties, and 
spices. (18) 

A monk or a nun should not like or love, desire 
for, or be enraptured with, sounds of this or the other 
world, heard or unheard ones, seen or unseen ones. 

This is the whole duty, &c. 

Thus I say. (19) 

Twelfth Lecture. 

If a monk or a nun see various colours (or forms), 
viz. in wreaths, dressed images, dolls, clothes 2 , wood- 
work, plastering, paintings, jewelry, ivory-work, 
strings, leaf-cutting, they should not for the sake of 
pleasing the eye resolve to go where they will see 
various colours (or forms). All that has been said 

1 Mahasava, mahasrava. The word has probably here the 
original meaning, conflux ; or mahasava is a mistake for maho- 
sava, which would be identical with mahussava, great festivals, 
in the next paragraph. 

* I have translated the last four words, gamthimam, vcdMm&ni, 
purimani, samghatimam, according to the commentary. Later on 
I shall translate them garlands, ribbons, scarfs, and sashes. 



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1 86 AjtArAnga sutra. 

in the last chapter with regard to sounds should be 
repeated here with regard to colours (or forms) ; only 
the passages on music are to be omitted, (i) 

Thirteenth Lecture. 

One should neither be pleased with nor prohibit 
the action of another which relates to one's self, and 
produces karman. 

One should neither be pleased with nor prohibit it ' ; 

If another (i. e. a householder) wipes [or rubs] 
the mendicant's feet; (i) 

If he kneads or strokes them ; (2) 

If he touches or paints them ; (3) 

If he smears or anoints them with oil, ghee, or 
marrow; (4) 

If he rubs or shampoos them with Lodhra, ground 
drugs, powder, or dye ; (5) 

If he sprinkles or washes them with hot or cold 
water; (6) 

If he rubs or anoints them with any sort of oint- 
ment; (7) 

If he perfumes or fumigates them with any sort 
of incense; (8) 

If he extracts or removes a splinter or thorn from 
them; (9) 

If he extracts or removes pus or blood from 
them. (10) 

If he wipes or rubs the mendicant's body, &c* 
(see §§ 2-8 down to) if he perfumes or fumigates 
it with any sort of incense, (n) 

If he wipes or rubs a wound in (the mendicant's) 

1 In the text these words are repeated after each Sfltra in §§ 1-10. 
1 The text gives the whole in extenso. 



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BOOK II, LECTURE 1 3. 187 

body (&c.\ down to) if he sprinkles or washes it 
with hot or cold water; (12) 

If he cuts or incises it with any sharp instrument ; 
if after having done so, he extracts or removes pus 
or blood from it. (13) 

If he wipes or rubs a boil, abscess, ulcer, or fistula 
(&C 1 , down to) if he cuts or incises it with any 
sharp instrument ; if after, having done so, he ex- 
tracts or removes pus or blood from it; (14) • 

If he removes, or wipes off, the sweat and un- 
cleanliness on his body; (15) 

If he removes, or wipes off, the dirt of his eyes, 
ears, teeth, or nails. (16) 

If he cuts or dresses the long hair of his head or 
his brows or his armpits ; (17) 

If he removes, or wipes off, the nit or lice from 
his head. (18) 

One should neither be pleased with nor prohibit 
it, if the other, sitting in the Anka or Paryanka 
posture, wipes or rubs (the mendicant's) feet ; in 
this way the §§ 1-18 should be repeated here. (19) 

One should neither be pleased with nor prohibit 
it, if the other, sitting in the Anka or Paryanka 
posture, fastens or ties a necklace of many or less 
strings, a necklace hanging down over the breast, a 
collar, a diadem, a garland, a golden string ; (20) 

If the other leading him to, or treating him in, a 
garden or a park, wipes or rubs (the mendicant's) 
feet, &c. (all as above) ; similarly with actions done 
reciprocally. (21) 

One should neither be pleased with nor prohibit 
it, if the other tries to cure him by pure charms ; 

1 The text gives the whole in extenso as in § 11. 



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i 88 A^ArAnga sutra. 



If the other tries to cure him by impure charms ; 

If he tries to cure him, digging up and cutting, 
for the sake of a sick monk, living bulbs, roots, rind, 
or sprouts. (22) 

For sensation is the result of former actions ; all 
sorts of living beings experience sensation. 

This is the whole duty, &c. 

Thus I say. (23) 

Fourteenth Lecture. 

One should not be pleased with nor prohibit a 
reciprocal action, which relates to one's self, and 
produces karman. 

A mendicant should not be pleased with nor pro- 
hibit it, if (he and the other) wipe or rub each other's 
feet, &c. 

In this way the whole Thirteenth Lecture should 
be repeated here. 

This is the whole duty, &c. 

Thus I say. (1) 



End of the Second Part, called the Seven 
Lectures. 



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BOOK II, LECTURE 1 5. 189 



THIRD PART. 



FIFTEENTH LECTURE, 

CALLED 
THE CLAUSES 1 . 

In that period, in that age lived the Venerable 
Ascetic Mahavlra, the five (most important moments 
of whose life happened) when the moon was in con- 
junction with the asterism Uttaraphalgun! 2 ; to wit: 
In Uttaraphalgun! he descended (from heaven), and 
having descended (thence), he entered the womb (of 
Devananda); in Uttaraphalgun! he was removed 
from the womb (of Devananda) to the womb (of 
Tiirala); in Uttaraphalgun! he was born; in Utta- 
raphalgun! tearing out his hair, he left the house, 
and entered the state of houselessness ; in Uttara- 
phalgun! he obtained the highest knowledge and 
intuition, called Kevala, which is infinite, supreme, 
unobstructed, unimpeded, complete, and perfect. 
But in Svati the Venerable One obtained final libe- 
ration 3 . (1) 

When in this Avasarpi«l era, the Sushama-sushama 
period, the Sushami period, the Sushamadu^shama 
period, and much time of the Du^shamasushama 
period had elapsed, seventy-five years nine and a half 

1 Bhavawa. The bhSvanSs are subdivisions of the five great 
vows. 
» Hatthottarit in the original. s Kalpa Sutra, § 1. 



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190 A^ArAnga sOtra. 

months of it being left ; in the fourth month of sum- 
mer, in the eighth fortnight, in the light fortnight 
of Ashaa^a, on its sixth day, while the moon was 
in conjunction with Uttaraphalgunl, the Venerable 
Ascetic Mahavlra descended from the great Vimana 1 , 
the all-victorious and all-prosperous Pushpottara, 
which is like the lotus amongst the best (and highest 
flowers), and like the Svastika and Vardhamanaka 
amongst the celestial regions, where he had lived 
for twenty Sagaropamas till the termination of his 
allotted length of life, (divine) nature and existence 
(among gods). Here, forsooth, in the continent of 
Gambudvlpa, in Bharatavarsha, in the southern 
part of it, in the southern brahmanical part of the 
place Ku»dapura, he took the form of an embryo 
in the womb of Dev&nanda, of the <74landhara- 
ya»a gotra, wife of the Brahmawa ./fo'shabhadatta, of 
the gotra of Ko^ala, taking the form of a lion 8 . (2) 
The knowledge of the Venerable Ascetic Maha- 
vlra (with reference to this transaction) was three- 
fold: he knew that he was to descend; he knew 
that he had descended ; he knew not when he was 
descending. For that time has been declared to be 
infinitesimally small. (3) 

Then in the third month of the rainy season, the 
fifth fortnight, the dark (fortnight) of Ajvina, on its 
thirteenth day, while the moon was in conjunction 
with Uttaraphalgunl, after the lapse of eighty-two 
days, on the eighty-third day current, the com- 
passionate god (Indra), reflecting on what was the 
established custom (with regard to the birth of 
Tlrthakaras), removed the embryo from the southern 

1 Vimanas are palaces of the gods. * Cf. Kalpa Sfitra, § 2. 



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BOOK II, LECTURE 1 5. 19I 

brahmanical part of the place Ku«*/apura to the 
northern Kshatriya part of the same place, rejecting 
the unclean matter, and retaining the clean matter, 
lodged the fetus in the womb of Tmala of the 
Vasish/^a gotra, wife of the Kshatriya Siddhartha, 
of the K&ryapa gotra, of the clan of the Gn&trts, 
and lodged the fetus of the Kshatriya»l Trwala in 
the womb of Devananda of the ^alandharaya^a 
gotra, wife of the Brahma«a j&'shabhadatta, of the 
gotra of Koo&la, in the southern brahmanical part of 
the place Ku«^apur!. (4) The knowledge of the 
Venerable Ascetic Mahavlra (with regard to this 
transaction) was threefold : he knew that he was to 
be removed; he knew that he was removed; he 
also knew when he was being removed. (5) 

In that period, in that age, once upon a time, after 
the lapse of nine complete months and seven and 
a half days, in the first month of summer, in the 
second fortnight, the dark (fortnight) of Aaitra, on 
its thirteenth day, while the moon was in conjunction 
with Uttaraphalgunl, the Kshatriyawt Truala, per- 
fectly healthy herself, gave birth to a perfectly 
healthy (boy), the Venerable Ascetic Mahavlra. (6) 

In that night in which the Kshatriya»t Trisala, 
perfectly healthy herself, gave birth to a perfectly 
healthy (boy), the Venerable Ascetic Mahavlra, 
there was one great divine, godly lustre (originated) 
by descending and ascending gods and goddesses 
(of the four orders of) Bhavanapatis, Vyantaras, 
Cyotishkas, and Vimanavasins ; and in the conflux of 
gods the bustle of gods amounted to confusion 1 . (7) 

In that night, &c, the gods and goddesses rained 

1 Cf. Kalpa Sfitra, § 97. 



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192 Ajcaranga sOtra. 



down one great shower of nectar, sandal powder, 
flowers, gold, and pearls 1 . (8) 

In that night the gods and goddesses (of the 
above-mentioned four orders) performed the cus- 
tomary ceremonies of auspiciousness and honour, 
and his anointment as a Tlrthakara. (9) 

Upwards from the time when the Venerable 
Mahavlra was placed in the womb of the Kshatri- 
yawl Trisala, that family's (treasure) of gold, silver, 
riches, corn, jewels, pearls, shells, precious stones, 
and corals increased 2 . (10) When the parents 
of the Venerable Ascetic Mahavlra had be- 
come aware of this, after the lapse of the tenth 
day, and the performance of the purification, 
they prepared much food, drink, sweetmeats, and 
spices; and having invited a host of friends, near 
and remote relatives, they distributed, portioned 
out, bestowed (the above-mentioned materials) to 
*Srama»as, Brihma«as, paupers, beggars 3 , eunuchs, 
&c, and distributed gifts to those who wanted to 
make presents ; then they gave a dinner to the host 
of friends, near and remote relatives, and after 
dinner they announced the name (of the child) to 
their guests: (11) 'Since the prince was placed in 
the womb of the Kshatriya»! Truali, this family's 
(treasure) of gold, silver, riches, corn, jewels, pearls, 
shells, precious stones, and corals increased ; there- 
fore the prince shall be called Vardhamana (i.e. the 
Increasing).' (12) 

The Venerable Ascetic Mahavlra was attended 
by five nurses : a wet-nurse, a nurse to clean him, 

- » Cf. Kalpa Sutra, § 98. * Cf. Kalpa Sutra, § 90. 

* The next word, bhivvumdaga, has been left out in the translation. 



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BOOK II, LECTURE 1 5. 1 93 

one to dress him, one to play with him, one to carry 
him ; being transferred from the lap of one nurse to 
that of another, he grew up on that beautiful ground, 
paved with mosaic of precious stones, like a Kam- 
paka 1 tree growing in the glen of a mountain. (13) 

Then the Venerable Ascetic Mahavira, after his 
intellect had developed and the childhood had passed 
away, lived in the enjoyment of the allowed, noble, 
fivefold joys and pleasures : (consisting in) sound, 
touch, taste, colour, and smell 2 . (14) 

The Venerable Ascetic Mahavira belonged to the 
K&yyapa gotra. His three names have thus been 
recorded by tradition : by his parents he was called 
Vardhamana, because he is devoid of love and hate ; 
(he is called) .Srama»a (i.e. Ascetic), because he sus- 
tains dreadful dangers and fears, the noble naked- 
ness, and the miseries of the world ; the name 
Venerable Ascetic Mahavira has been given to him 
by the gods*. 

The Venerable Ascetic Mahavlra's father belonged 
to the Klryapa gotra ; he had three names : Sid- 
dhartha, *SVeya*»sa, and £asa/»sa*. His mother 
belonged to the Vasish/>4a gotra, and had three 
names : Trirala, Videhadatta, and Priyakari»l. His 
paternal uncle Suparxva belonged to the K&jyapa 
gotra. His eldest brother, Nandivardhana, and his 
eldest sister, Sudanrana, belonged both to the Ka- 
jyapa gotra. His wife Yaroda belonged to the 
Kauwafinya gotra. His daughter, who belonged to 
the Kasyapa gotra, had two names: Anoggii and 

1 Michelia Champaka. * Cf. Kalpa Sfltra, § 10. 

8 Cf. Kalpa Sutra, § 108. 

* The spaced words are Prakrit, the Sanskrit form of which can- 
not be made out with certainty. 

[aa] O 



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194 AjstArAnga sOtra. 

Priyadaryana. His granddaughter, who belonged to 
the Kamika gotra, had two names : *Seshavatt and 
Yarovatt 1 . (15) 

The Venerable Ascetic Mahavlra's parents were 
worshippers of Parjva and followers of the .Srama- 
»as. During many years they were followers of the 
•Sramaaas, and for the sake of protecting the six classes 
of lives they observed, blamed, repented, confessed, 
and did penance according to their sins. On a bed 
of Kara-grass they rejected all food, and their bodies 
dried up by the last mortification of the flesh, which 
is to end in death. Thus they died in the proper 
month, and, leaving their bodies, were born as gods 
in Adbhuta Kalpa. Thence descending after the 
termination of their allotted length of life, they will, 
in Mahavideha, with their departing breath, reach 
absolute perfection, wisdom, liberation, final Nir- 
va#a, and the end of all misery. (16) 

In that period, in that age the Venerable Ascetic 
Mahavtra, a Gnktri Kshatriya, Gn&triputra., a Vi- 
deha, son of Videhadatta, a native of Videha, a 
prince of Videha, lived thirty years amongst the 
householders under the name of 'Videha 2 .' 

After his parents had gone to the worlds of the 
gods and he had fulfilled his promise, he gave up 
his gold and silver, his troops and chariots, and 
distributed, portioned out, and gave away his valuable 
treasures (consisting of) riches, corn, gold, pearls, 
&c, and distributed among those who wanted to 
make presents to others. Thus he gave away during 
a whole year. In the first month of winter, in the 
first fortnight, in the dark (fortnight) of Margafiras, 

* Cf. Kalpa Sfltra, § 109. * Cf. Kalpa Sfttra, §110. 



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BOOK II, LECTURE 1 5. 1 95 

on its tenth day, while the moon was in conjunction 
with Uttaraphalgunl, he made up his mind to retire 
from the world. (17) 

A year before the best of Cinas will retire from 
the world, they continue to give away their property, 
from the rising of the sun. i. 

One krore and eight lacks of gold is his gift at the 
rising of the sun, as if it were his morning meal. ii. 

Three hundred and eighty-eight krores and eighty 
lacks were given in one year. iii. 

The Ku#<tfaladharas of Vaiyramawa, the Laukan- 
tika and Maharddhika gods in the fifteen Karma- 
bhumis 1 wake the Tirthakara. iv. 

In Brahma Kalpa and in the line of Krzshnas, the 
Laukantika Vimanas are eightfold and infinite in 
number, v. 

These orders of gods wake the best of Ginas, the 
Venerable Vtra : 'Arhat! propagate the religion which 
is a blessing to all creatures in the world ! ' vi. 

When the gods and goddesses (of the four orders 
of) Bhavanapatis, Vyantaras, ^yotishkas, and Vi- 
manavasins had become aware of the Venerable 
Ascetic Mahavlra's intention to retire from the world, 
they assumed their proper form, dress, and ensigns, 
ascended with their proper pomp and splendour, 
together with their whole retinue, their own vehicles 
and chariots, and rejecting all gross matter, retained 
only the subtile matter. Then they rose and with 
that excellent, quick, swift, rapid, divine motion of 
the gods they came down again crossing numberless 
continents and oceans till they arrived in Cambu- 

1 Those parts of the world which are inhabited by men who 
practise religious duties, are called Karmabhumi. In Gambu- 
dvipa they are Bharata, Airavata, and Videha. 

O 2 



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196 AjtAranga sOtra. 



dvlpa at the northern Kshatriya part of the place 
Kutfdapura ; in the north-eastern quarter of it they 
suddenly halted. (18) 

.Sakra, the leader and king of the gods, quietly and 
slowly stopped his vehicle and chariot, quietly and 
slowly descended from it and went apart. There 
he underwent a great transformation, and produced 
by magic a great, beautiful, lovely, fine-shaped divine 
pavilion \ which was ornamented with many designs 
in precious stones, gold, and pearls. In the middle 
part of that divine pavilion he produced one great 
throne of the same description, with a footstool. (19) 

Then he went where the Venerable Ascetic Maha- 
vlra was, and thrice circumambulating him from left 
to right, he praised and worshipped him. Leading 
him to the divine pavilion, he softly placed him with 
the face towards the east on the throne, anointed him 
with hundredfold and thousandfold refined oil, with 
perfumes and decoctions, bathed him with pure water, 
and rubbed him with beautifying cool sandal 2 , laid 
on a piece of cloth worth a lack. He clad him in 
a pair of robes so light that the smallest breath 
would carry them away ; they were manufactured 
in a famous city, praised by clever artists, soft as 
the fume of horses, interwoven with gold by skilful 
masters, and ornamented with designs of flamingos. 
Then (the god) decked him with necklaces of many 
and fewer strings, with one hanging down over his 
breast and one consisting of one row of pearls, 
with a garland, a golden string, a turban, a diadem, 
wreaths of precious stones, and decorated him with 



1 Deva£//amdaya in the original. My translation is but a guess. 
1 Gostrsha and red sandal. 



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BOOK II, LECTURE 1 5. I97 

garlands, ribbons, scarves, and sashes like the 
Kalpavrzksha. (20) 

The god then, for a second time, underwent a 
great transformation, and produced by magic the 
great palankin, called A'andraprabhd 1 , which a thou- 
sand men carry. (This palankin) was adorned with 
pictures of wolves, bulls, horses, men, dolphins, birds, 
monkeys, elephants, antelopes, .yarabhas 2 , yacks, 
tigers, lions, creeping plants, and a train of couples 
of Vidyadharas ; it had a halo of thousands of rays ; 
it was decorated with thousands of brilliant glittering 
rupees; its lustre was mild and bright; the eyes 
could not bear its light; it shone with heaps and 
masses of pearls; it was hung with strings and 
ribbons, and with golden excellent necklaces, ex- 
tremely beautiful ; it was embellished with designs 
of lotuses and many other plants ; its cupola was 
adorned with many precious stones of five colours, 
with bells and flags; it was conspicuous, lovely, 
beautiful, splendid, magnificent (21) 

This palankin was brought for the best of £inas, 
who is free from old age and death ; it was hung 
with wreaths and garlands of divine flowers, grown 
in water or on dry ground, vii. 

In the middle of the palankin (was) a costly throne 
covered with a divine cloth, precious stones and silver, 
with a footstool, for the best of £inas. viii. 

He wore on his head a chaplet and a diadem, 
his body was shining, and he was adorned with many 
ornaments ; he had put on a robe of muslin worth 
a lack. ix. 



1 I. e. shining like the moon. 

1 A fabulous animal with eight legs. 



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1 98 AjcarAnga sutra. 

After a fast of three days, with a glorious reso- 
lution he ascended the supreme palankin, purifying 
all by his light, x. 

He sat on his throne, and .Sakra and lsana, on 
both sides, fanned him with chowries, the handles of 
which were inlaid with jewels and precious stones, xi. 

In front it was uplifted by men, covered with 
joyful horripilation ; behind the gods carried it : the 
Suras and Asuras, the Garu^as and the chiefs of 
Nagas. xii. 

The Suras carried it on the eastern side, and the 
Asuras on the southern one; on the western side 
the Garudas carried it, and the Nagas on the 
northern side. xiii. 

As a grove in blossom, or a lotus-covered lake 
in autumn looks beautiful with a mass of flowers, 
so did (then) the firmament with hosts of gods. xiv. 

As a grove of Siddhartha \ of Kar«ikara 2 or of 
Aampaka 3 looks beautiful with a mass of flowers, 
so did (then) the firmament with hosts of gods. xv. 

In the skies and on earth the sound of musical 
instruments produced by hundreds of thousands of 
excellent drums, kettle-drums, cymbals, and conches 
was extremely pleasant, xvi. 

Then the gods ordered many hundreds of actors 
to perform a very rich concert of four kinds of 
instruments : stringed instruments and drums, cym- 
bals and wind-instruments, xvii. 

At that period, in that age, in the first month of 
winter, in the first fortnight, the dark (fortnight) 
of Margariras, on its tenth day, called Suvrata*, in 

1 White mustard. 8 Cassia Fistula. 

' Michelia Champaka. 

4 Correct suvvate»a/» in the printed text. 



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BOOK II, LECTURE 1 5. I99 

the Muhurta called Vi^aya, while the moon was in 
conjunction with the asterism UttaraphalgunI, when 
the shadow had turned towards the east, and the 
first Paurush! 1 was over, after fasting three days 
without taking water, having put on one garment, 
the Venerable Ascetic Mahavira, in his palankin 
A'andraprabha, which only a thousand men can carry, 
with a train of gods, men, and Asuras left the 
northern Kshatriya part of the place Ku»</apura 
by the high way for the park Gnktri Sha«afa. There, 
just at the beginning of night, he caused the palankin 
Aandraprabha to stop quietly on a slightly raised 
untouched ground, quietly descended from it, sat 
quietly down on a throne with the face towards the 
east, and took off all his ornaments and finery. (22) 
The god Vaijrama^a, prostrating himself 2 , caught 
up the finery and ornaments of the Venerable Ascetic 
Mahavira in a cloth of flamingo-pattern. Mahaviia 
then plucked out with his right and left (hands) on 
the right and left (sides of his head) his hair in five 
handfuls. But 3akra, the leader and king of the 
gods, falling down before the feet of the Venerable 
Ascetic Mahavira, caught up the hair in a cup of 
diamond, and requesting his permission, brought 
them to the Milk Ocean. After the Venerable 
Ascetic Mahavira had plucked out his hair in five 
handfuls (as described above), he paid obeisance to 
all liberated spirits, and vowing to do no sinful act, 
he adopted the holy conduct. At that moment the 



1 Wake, Y£ma, or time of three hours. 

' GamtuvSyaparfe, according to the Guzerati Balbodh this 
means making obeisance to the Lord of the world by touching his 
feet. Another MS. has : Then .Sakra the chief and king of the gods. 



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200 AJCARANGA sOtRA. 



whole assembly of men and gods stood motionless, 
like the figures on a picture. 

At the command of 6akra, the clamour of men 
and gods, and the sound of musical instruments 
suddenly ceased, when Mahavtra chose the holy 
conduct, xviii. 

Day and night following that conduct which is a 
blessing to all animated and living beings, the zealous 
gods listen to him with joyful horripilation, xix. 

When the Venerable Ascetic Mahavtra had 
adopted the holy conduct which produced that 
state of soul in which the reward of former actions 
is temporarily counteracted, he reached the know- 
ledge called Mana^paryaya 1 , by which he knew 
the thoughts of all sentient beings, with five organs, 
which are not defective, and possess a developed 
intellect, (living) in the two and a half continents 
and the two oceans. Then he formed the following 
resolution : I shall for twelve years neglect my body 
and abandon the care of it ; I shall with equani- 
mity bear, undergo, and suffer all calamities arising 
from divine powers, men or animals 2 . (23) 

The Venerable Ascetic Mahavtra having formed 
this resolution, and neglecting his body, arrived in 
the village Kummara when only one Muhurta of 
the day remained. Neglecting his body, the Vene- 
rable Ascetic Mahavira meditated on his Self, in 
blameless lodgings, in blameless wandering, in re- 
straint, kindness, avoidance of sinful influence (sa*»- 
vara), chaste life, in patience, freedom from passion, 
contentment ; control, circumspectness, practising 
religious postures and acts ; walking the path of 

1 Or ManaAparyaya. * Cf. Kalpa Sfitra, § 117. 



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BOOK II, LECTURE 15. 201 

Nirvawa and liberation, which is the fruit of good 
conduct. Living thus he with equanimity bore, 
endured, sustained, and suffered all calamities aris- 
ing from divine powers, men, and animals, with 
undisturbed and unafflicted mind, careful of body, 
speech, and mind. (24) 

The Venerable Ascetic Mahavira passed twelve 
years in this way of life ; during the thirteenth 
year in the second month of summer, in the fourth 
fortnight, the light (fortnight) of Vaijakha, on its 
tenth day, called Suvrata, in the Muhftrta called 
Vi/aya, while the moon was in conjunction with 
the asterism Uttaraphalgunl, when the shadow had 
turned towards the east, and the first wake was 
over, outside of the town GWmbhikagrama \ on the 
northern bank of the river .tf^fupalika 2 , in the field of 
the householder Samaga, in a north-eastern direc- 
tion from an old temple 3 , not far from a Sal tree, 
in a squatting position with joined heels exposing 
himself to the heat of the sun, with the knees high 
and the head low, in deep meditation, in the midst 
of abstract meditation, he reached Nirva»a 4 , the com- 
plete and full, the unobstructed, unimpeded, infinite 
and supreme, best knowledge and intuition, called 
Kevala. (25) When the Venerable One had become 
an Arhat and Gina., he was a Kevalin, omniscient and 
comprehending all objects, he knew all conditions 
of the world, of gods, men, and demons ; whence 

1 GambhiyagSma in Prakrit ' U^fupaliya* in Prakrit. 

s Or, a temple called Vjg-aySvartta. 

* Niwa»e or newiwe ; it may also be an adjective, belonging to 
nirvana. This is of course not the final nirv&wa, which is reached 
at the dissolution of the body, but that state which the orthodox 
philosophers call ^fvanmukti. 



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202 AjtArAnga sOtra. 



they come, where they go, whether they are born 
as men or animals (>£yavana), or become gods or hell- 
beings (upapada) ; their food, drink, doings, desires, 
open and secret deeds, their conversation and gossip, 
and the thoughts of their minds ; he saw and knew all 
conditions in the whole world of all living beings. (26) 

On the day when the Venerable Ascetic Maha- 
vira reached the Kevala, the gods (of the four 
orders of) Bhavanapatis, Vyantaras, Gyotishkas, and 
Vimanavasins descended from, and ascended to 
heaven, &c. (as on the moment of his birth, see 
above, $ 7). (27) 

Then when the Venerable Ascetic Mahavira had 
reached the highest knowledge and intuition, he 
reflected on himself and the world : first he taught 
the law to the gods, afterwards to men. (28) 

The Venerable Ascetic Mahavira endowed with 
the highest knowledge and intuition taught the five 
great vows, with their clauses, the six classes of lives 
to the 6rama«as and Nirgranthas, to Gautama, &c. 

The six classes of lives are earth-body, &c. (down 
to) animals. (29) 



i. The first great vow, Sir, runs thus : 
I renounce all killing of living beings, whether 
subtile or gross, whether movable or immovable. 
Nor shall I myself kill living beings (nor cause 
others to do it, nor consent to it). As long as I 
live, I confess and blame, repent and exempt my- 
self of these sins, in the thrice threefold way 1 , in 
mind, speech, and body. 

1 I.e. acting, commanding, consenting, either in the past or the 
present or the future. 



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BOOK II, LECTURE 1 5, 1, 4. 203 

There are five clauses. 

The first clause runs thus : 

A Nirgrantha is careful in his walk, not careless 1 . 
The Kevalin assigns as the reason, that a Nirgrantha, 
careless in his walk, might (with his feet) hurt or 
displace or injure or kill living beings. Hence a 
Nirgrantha is careful in his walk, not careless in his 
walk. 

This is the first clause, (i) 

Now follows the second clause : 

A Nirgrantha searches int£> his mind (i.e. thoughts 
and intentions). If his mind is sinful, blamable, in- 
tent on works, acting on impulses 2 , produces cutting 
and splitting (or division and dissension), quarrels, 
faults, and pains, injures living beings, or kills crea- 
tures, he should not employ such a mind in action ; 
but if, on the contrary, it is not sinful, &c, then he 
may put it in action. 

This is the second clause. (2) 

Now follows the third clause : 

A Nirgrantha searches into his speech ; if his 
speech is sinful, blamable, &c. (all down to) kills 
creatures, he should not utter that speech. But if, 
on the contrary, it is not sinful, &c, then he may 
utter it. 

This is the third clause. (3) 

Now follows the fourth clause : 

A Nirgrantha is careful in laying down his uten- 
sils of begging, he is not careless in it. The Kevalin 
says : A Nirgrantha wh© is careless in laying down 
his utensils of begging, might hurt or displace or 

1 This could also be translated : he who is careful in his walk is 
a Nirgrantha, not he who is careless. 

9 Aflhayakare explained by karmasravakari. 



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204 AjtarAnga sutra. 



injure or kill all sorts of living beings. Hence a 
Nirgrantha is careful in laying down his utensils 
of begging, he is not careless in it. 

This is the fourth clause. (4) 

Now follows the fifth clause : 

A Nirgrantha eats and drinks after inspecting his 
food and drink ; he does not eat and drink without 
inspecting his food and drink. The Kevalin says : 
If a Nirgrantha would eat and drink without inspect- 
ing his food and drink, he might hurt and displace 
or injure or kill all sorts of living beings. Hence 
a Nirgrantha eats and drinks after inspecting his 
food and drink, not without doing so. 

This is the fifth clause. (5) 

In this way the great vow is correctly practised, 
followed, executed, explained, established, effected 
according to the precept. 

This is, Sir, the first great vow : Abstinence from 
killing any living beings, i. 



ii. The second great vow runs thus : 

I renounce all vices of lying speech (arising) from 
anger or greed or fear or mirth. I shall neither 
myself speak lies, nor cause others to speak lies, nor 
consent to the speaking of lies by others. I confess 
and blame, repent and exempt myself of these sins in 
the thrice threefold way, in mind, speech, and body. 

There are five clauses. 

The first clause runs thus : 

A Nirgrantha speaks after deliberation, not with- 
out deliberation. The Kevalin says : Without deli- 
beration a Nirgrantha might utter a falsehood in his 
speech. A Nirgrantha speaks after deliberation, not 
without deliberation. 



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BOOK II, LECTURE 1 5, 111, I. 205 

This is the first clause, (i) 

Now follows the second clause : 

A Nirgrantha comprehends (and renounces) anger, 
he is not angry. The Kevalin says : A Nirgrantha 
who is moved by anger, and is angry, might utter 
a falsehood in his speech. A Nirgrantha, &c. 

This is the second clause. (2) 

Now follows the third clause : 

A Nirgrantha comprehends (and renounces) greed, 
he is not greedy. The Kevalin says : A Nirgrantha 
who is moved by greed, and is greedy, might utter 
a falsehood in his speech. A Nirgrantha, &c. 

This is the third clause. (3) 

Now follows the fourth clause : 

A Nirgrantha comprehends (and renounces) fear, 
he is not afraid. The Kevalin says : A Nirgrantha 
who is moved by fear, and is afraid, might utter 
a falsehood in his speech. A Nirgrantha, &c. 

This is the fourth clause. (4) 

Now follows the fifth clause : 

A Nirgrantha comprehends (and renounces) mirth, 
he is not mirthful. The Kevalin says : A Nirgran- 
tha who is moved by mirth, and is mirthful, might 
utter a falsehood in his speech. A Nirgrantha, &c. 

This is the fifth clause. (5) 

In this way the great vow is correctly practised, 
followed, &c. 

This is, Sir, the second great vow. ii. 



iii. The third great vow runs thus : 

I renounce all taking of anything not given, either 
in a village or a town or a wood, either of little or 
much, of small or great, of living or lifeless things. 
I shall neither take myself what is not given, nor 



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206 AjtArAnga sOtra. 

cause others to take it, nor consent to their taking 
it. As long as I live, I confess and blame, &c. (all 
down to) body. 

There are five clauses. 

The first clause runs thus : 

A Nirgrantha begs after deliberation, for a limited 
ground, not without deliberation. The Kevalin 
says : If a Nirgrantha begs without deliberation for 
a limited ground, he might take what is not given. 
A Nirgrantha, &c. 

This is the first clause, (i) 

Now follows the second clause : 

A Nirgrantha consumes his food and drink with 
permission (of his superior), not without his per- 
mission. The Kevalin says : If a Nirgrantha con- 
sumes his food and drink without the superior's 
permission, he might eat what is not given. 
A Nirgrantha, &c. 

This is the second clause. (2) 

Now follows the third clause : 

A Nirgrantha who has taken possession of some 
ground, should always take possession of a limited 
part of it and for a fixed time. The Kevalin says : 
If a Nirgrantha who has taken possession of some 
ground, should take possession of an unlimited part 
of it and for an unfixed time, he might take what is 
not given. A Nirgrantha, &c. 

This is the third clause. (3) 

Now follows the fourth clause : 

A Nirgrantha who has taken possession of some 
ground, should constantly have his grant renewed. 
The Kevalin says : If a Nirgrantha has not con- 
stantly his grant renewed, he might take possession 
of what is not given. A Nirgrantha, &c. 



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BOOK II, LECTURE 1 5, IV, 3. 20J 

This is the fourth clause. (4) 

Now follows the fifth clause : 

A Nirgrantha begs for a limited ground for his 
co-religionists after deliberation, not without deliber- 
ation. The Kevalin says : If a Nirgrantha should 
beg without deliberation, he might take possession 
of what is not given. A Nirgrantha, &c. 

This is the fifth clause. (5) 

In this way the great vow, &c. 

This is, Sir, the third great vow. iii. 



iv. The fourth great vow runs thus : 

I renounce all sexual pleasures, either with gods 
or men or animals. I shall not give way to sensu- 
ality, &c. (all as in the foregoing paragraph down 
to) exempt myself. 

There are five clauses. 

The first clause runs thus : 

A Nirgrantha does not continually discuss topics 
relating to women. The Kevalin says : If a Nir- 
grantha discusses such topics, he might fall from the 
law declared by the Kevalin, because of the destruc- 
tion or disturbance of his peace. A Nirgrantha, &c. 

This is the first clause. (1) 

Now follows the second clause : 

A Nirgrantha does not regard and contemplate the 
lovely forms of women. The Kevalin says : If a Nir- 
grantha regards and contemplates the lovely forms 
of women, he might, &c. A Nirgrantha, &c. 

This is the second clause. (2) 

Now follows the third clause : 

A Nirgrantha does not recall to his mind the 
pleasures and amusements he formerly had with 
women. The Kevalin says : If a Nirgrantha recalls 



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2o8 a^Aranga sOtra. 



to his mind the pleasures and amusements he formerly 
had with women, he might, &c. A Nirgrantha, &c. 

This is the third clause. (3) 

Now follows the fourth clause : 

A Nirgrantha does not eat and drink too much, nor 
does he drink liquors or eat highly-seasoned dishes. 
The Kevalin says : If a Nirgrantha did eat and 
drink too much, or did drink liquors and eat highly- 
seasoned dishes, he might, &c. A Nirgrantha, &c. 

This is the fourth clause. (4) 

Now follows the fifth clause : 

A Nirgrantha does not occupy a bed or couch 
affected 1 by women, animals, or eunuchs. The 
Kevalin says : If a Nirgrantha did occupy a bed or 
couch affected by women, animals, or eunuchs, he 
might, &c. A Nirgrantha, &c. 

This is the fifth clause. (5) 

In this way the great vow, &c. 

This is, Sir, the fourth great vow. iv. 



v. The fifth great vow runs thus : 

I renounce all attachments 2 , whether little or much, 
small or great, living or lifeless ; neither shall I my- 
self form such attachments, nor cause others to do 
so, nor consent to their doing so, &c. (all down to) 
exempt myself. 

There are five clauses. 

The first clause runs thus : 

If a creature with ears hears agreeable and dis- 
agreeable sounds, it should not be attached to, nor 
delighted with, nor desiring of, nor infatuated by, 

1 This may mean belonging to, or close by. 
a This means the pleasure in external objects. 



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BOOK II, LECTURE 1 5, V, 5. 209 

nor covetous of, nor disturbed by the agreeable 
or disagreeable sounds. The Kevalin says : If 
a Nirgrantha is thus affected by the pleasant or 
unpleasant sounds, he might fall, &c. (see above, 
IV, i). 

If it is impossible not to hear sounds, which 
reach the ear, the mendicant should avoid love or 
hate, originated by them. 

A creature with ears hears agreeable and dis- 
agreeable sounds. 

This is the first clause, (i) 

Now follows the second clause : 

If a creature with eyes sees agreeable and dis- 
agreeable forms (or colours), it should not be attached, 
&c, to them. 

The Kevalin says, &c. (the rest as in the last 
clause. Substitute only see and forms for hear 
and sounds). 

This is the second clause. (2) 

Now follows the third clause : 

If a creature with an organ of smell smells 
agreeable or disagreeable smells, it should not be 
attached to them. (The rest as above. Substitute 
smell and nose.) 

This is the third clause. (3) 

Now follows the fourth clause : 

If a creature with a tongue tastes agreeable or 
disagreeable tastes, it should not be attached, &c, 
to them. (The rest as above. Substitute taste 
and tongue.) 

This is the fourth clause. (4) 

Now follows the fifth clause : 

If a creature with an organ of feeling feels agree- 
able or disagreeable touches, it should not be 



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2io AjtArAnga sCtra. 



attached to them. (The rest as above. Substitute 
feel and touch.) 

This is the fifth clause. (5) 

In this way the great vow, &c. (see above), v. 

He who is well provided with these great vows 
and their twenty-five clauses is really Houseless, if 
he, according to the sacred lore, the precepts, and 
the way correctly practises, follows, executes, ex- 
plains, establishes, and, according to the precept, 
effects them. 



End of the Fifteenth Lecture, called 
the Clauses. 



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BOOK II, LECTURE 1 6. 211 



FOURTH PART. 



SIXTEENTH LECTURE, 

CALLED 
THE LIBERATION. 

The creatures attain only a temporary residence 
(in one of the four states of being) ; hearing this 
supreme truth (i. e. the doctrine of the Tirthakara's) 
one should meditate upon it. The wise man should 
free himself from the family bonds ; fearless should 
he give up acts and attachments, (i) 

A mendicant, living thus \ self-controlled towards 
the eternal (world of living beings), the matchless 
sage, who collects his alms, is insulted with words 
by the people assailing him, like an elephant in 
battle with arrows. (2) 

Despised by such-like people, the wise man, with 
undisturbed mind, sustains their words and blows, 
as a rock is not shaken by the wind. (3) 

Disregarding (all calamities) he lives together with 
clever (monks, insensible) to pain and pleasure, not 
hurting the movable and immovable (beings), not 
killing, bearing all : so is described the great sage, 
a good 6rama»a. (4) 

As the lustre of a burning flame increases, so 
increase the austerity, wisdom, and glory of a stead- 
fast sage who, with vanquished desires, meditates 

* Tah&gaya, i. e. tathagata. 
P 2 



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212 Ajtaranga sOtra. 



on the supreme place of virtue 1 , though suffering 
pain 2 . (5) 

The great vows which are called the place of 
peace, the great teachers, and the producers of dis- 
interestedness have, in all quarters of the earth, 
been proclaimed by the infinite <7ina, the knowing 
one 3 , as light, illumining the three worlds, (repels) 
darkness. (6) 

The unbound one, living amongst the bound (i.e. 

\ householders), should lead the life of a mendicant ; 

unattached to women, he should speak with reverence. 

\ Not desiring this or the next world, the learned one 

1 is not measured by the qualities of love. (7) 

The dirt (of sins) formerly committed by a thus 
A_ liberated mendicant who walks in wisdom (and 

restraint), who is constant, and bears pain, vanishes 
as the dirt covering silver (is removed) by fire. (8) 

He lives, forsooth, in accordance with wisdom 
(and restraint), and walks free from desire, and 
with conquered sensuality. As a snake casts off 
its old skin, so is the Brahma«a freed from the bed 
of pain. (9) 

As they call the great ocean a boundless flood 
of water, difficult to traverse with the arms (alone), 
so should the learned one know (and renounce) it 
(the sawsara) : that sage is called ' Maker of the 
end.' (10) 

Here amongst men bondage and deliverance have 

1 Dhammapadara. 

8 Vidunate, which I take to be the genitive of the present parti- 
ciple corresponding to vidunvataA. The commentators divide the 
word into vidu «ate=vidvan nataA, which gives no sense. 

* Natiwi in the original. I would prefer to translate it gnairi, the 
name of the clan to which NStaputta belonged. 



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BOOK II, LECTURE 1 6. * 213 

been declared ; he who, according to that doctrine 
(of the church), knows bondage and deliverance : 
that sage is called 'Maker of the end.' (n) 

He for whom there is no bondage whatever in 
this world, and besides in the two (other continents, 
or heaven and hell), is indeed a (monk needing) no 
support and no standing place ; he has quitted the 
path of births. (12) 



End of the Sixteenth Lecture, called 
the Liberation. 



End of the Second Book. 



End of the Aiaranga Sutra. 



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X. 



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THE KALPA SUTRA 



OF 



BHADRABAHU. 



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Google 



KALPA SOTRA. 



LIVES OF THE GINAS. 



LIFE OF MAHAvlRA. 

Obeisance to the Arhats! * 

Obeisance to the Liberated Ones! 

Obeisance to the Religious Guides! 

Obeisance to the Religious Instructors ! 

Obeisance' to all Saints in the World ! 

This fivefold obeisance, destroying all sins, is of 
all benedictions the principal benediction. 

In that period, in that age lived the Venerable 
Ascetic Mahavlra, the five (most important moments 
of whose life happened) when the moon was in con- 
junction with the asterism Uttaraphalguni ; to wit, 
in Uttaraphalgun! he descended (from heaven), and 
having descended (thence), he entered the womb (of 
Devinanda) ; in Uttaraphalguni he was removed from 
the womb (of Devinanda) to the womb (of Triyala) ; 
in Uttaraphalguni he was born ; in Uttaraphalguni, 
tearing out his hair, he left the house and entered 
the state of houselessness ; in Uttaraphalguni he 
obtained the highest knowledge and intuition, called 
Kevala, which is infinite, supreme, unobstructed, 



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2l8 KALPA SOTRA. 



unimpeded, complete, and perfect. But in Svati the 
Venerable One obtained final liberation, (i) 1 

End of the First Lecture 2 . 



In that period, in that age the Venerable Ascetic 
Mahavira, having on the sixth day of the fourth 
month of summer, in the eighth fortnight, the light 
(fortnight) of Ash&dfa, descended from the great 
Vimana, the all-victorious and all-prosperous Push- 
pottara, which is like the lotus amongst the best 
things, where he had lived for twenty Sagaropamas 
till the termination of his allotted length of life, of 
his (divine nature, and of his existence (among gods); 
here in the continent of 6ambudvlpa, in Bharatavar- 
sha, — when of this Avasarpi«l era the Sushamasu- 
shama, the Sushama, and Sushamadu^shama periods, 
and the greater part of the Du^shamasushama period 
(containing a Kodakodi 8 of Sagaropamas, less forty- 
two thousand years) had elapsed, and only seventy- 
two years, eight and a half months were left, after 
twenty-one Tlrthakaras of the race of Ikshvaku 
and of the K&ryapa gotra, and two of the race of 
Hari and of the Gautama gotra, on the whole twenty- 
three Tlrthakaras had appeared, — the Venerable 
Ascetic Mahavira, the last of the Tlrthakaras, took 
the form of an embryo in the womb of Devinanda, 
of the G&landharaya#a gotra, the wife of the Brah- 
ma«a ^'shabhadatta, of the gotra of Kod&la, in the 

1 Cf. A/fcaranga Sutra II, 15, § 1. 

1 Vi/fcanS. These v&Sanas are the parts into which the Kalpa 
Sutra is generally divided by some commentators. I have adopted 
the distribution of Samayasundara. 

3 A ko/i of ko/is or 100,000,000,000,000. 



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LIVES OF THE GINAS. 219 

brahmanical part of the town Ku«*fegrama in the 
middle of the night, when the moon was in con- 
junction with the asterism Uttaraphalgunt, after his 
allotted length of life, of his (divine) nature, and of 
his existence (amongst gods) had come to their 
termination. (2) 1 

The knowledge of the Venerable Ascetic Mahi- 
vlra (about this) was threefold ; he knew that he 
was to descend, he knew that he had descended, he 
knew not when he was descending, 2 . 

In that night in which the Venerable Ascetic 
Mah&vtra took the form of an embryo in the womb 
of the Brahma#l Devananda of the CPalandharaya«a 
gotra, the Brahmawt Devananda was on her couch, 
taking fits of sleep, in a state between sleeping and 
waking, and having seen the following fourteen illus- 
trious, beautiful, lucky, blest, auspicious, fortunate 
great dreams, she woke up. (3) To wit : 

An elephant, a bull, a lion, the anointing (of the 
goddess Srt), a garland, the moon, the sun, a flag, 
a vase, a lotus lake, the ocean, a celestial abode, a 
heap of jewels, and a flame. (4) 

When the Brahmazrf Devananda, having seen 
these dreams, woke up, she — glad, pleased, and 
joyful in her mind, delighted, extremely enraptured, 
with a heart widening under the influence of happi- 
ness, with the hair of her body all erect in their 
pores like the flowers of the Kadamba touched by 
rain-drops — firmly fixed the dreams (in her mind), 
and rose from her couch. Neither hasty nor trem- 
bling, with a quick and even 8 gait, like that of the 

1 Cf. AJSranga Sfltra II, 15, § 2. 

* Cf. JUaraiiga Sfltra II, 15, § 3. 

* Add in the text asawbhawtae after avilawbiyae. 



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220 KALPA SUTRA. 



royal swan, she went to the Brahmawa ifoshabha- 
datta, and gave him the greeting of victory. Then 
she comfortably sat down in an excellent chair 
of state ; calm and composed, joining the palms of 
her hands so as to bring the ten nails together, 
she laid the folded hands on her head, and spoke 
thus: (5) 

' O beloved of the gods, I was just now on my 
couch taking fits of sleep, in a state between sleep- 
ing and waking, when I saw the following fourteen 
illustrious, &c, great dreams; to wit, an elephant, 
&c. (6) 

' O beloved of the gods, what, to be sure, will be 
the happy result portended by these fourteen illus- 
trious, &c, great dreams ?' (7) 

When the Brahma^a i?zshabhadatta had heard 
and perceived this news from the Brahma»t Deva- 
nanda, he, glad, pleased, and joyful (see § 5, down to) 
rain-drops, firmly fixed the dreams (in his mind), and 
entered upon considering them. He grasped the 
meaning of those dreams with his own innate intellect 
and intuition, which were preceded by reflection, 
and thus spoke to the Brahma»l Devananda : (8) 

' O beloved of the gods, you have seen illustrious 
dreams; O beloved of the gods, you have seen 
beautiful, lucky, blest, auspicious, fortunate dreams, 
which will bring health, joy, long life, bliss, and 
fortune! We shall have success, O beloved of the 
gods, we shall have pleasure ; we shall have happiness, 
O beloved of the gods, we shall have a son ! Indeed, 
O beloved of the gods, after the lapse of nine com- 
plete months and seven and a half days you will give 
birth to a lovely and handsome boy with tender 
hands and feet, with a body containing the entire 



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LIVES OF THE GUNAS. 221 

and complete five organs of sense, with the lucky 
signs, marks, and good qualities ; a boy on whose 
body all limbs will be well formed, and of full 
volume, weight, and length, of a lovely figure like 
that of the moon ! (9) And this boy, after having 
passed his childhood \ and, with just ripened intel- 
lect, having reached the state of youth, will repeat, 
fully understand, and well retain (in his mind) the 
four Vedas : the ./?zg-veda, Ya^ur-veda, Sama-veda, 
Atharva-veda — to which the Itihasa 2 is added as 
a fifth, and the Niggha«Ai 3 as a sixth (Veda) — to- 
gether with their Angas and Upangas, and the 
Rahasya 4 ; he will know the six Angas, he will be 
versed in the philosophy of the sixty categories 6 , 
and well grounded in arithmetic, in phonetics, 
ceremonial, grammar, metre, etymology, and as- 
tronomy', and in many other brahmanical [and 
monastic] sciences besides. (10) Therefore, O 
beloved of the gods, you have seen illustrious 
dreams, &c. (see § 9).' 

In this way he repeatedly expressed his extreme 
satisfaction. (11) 

When the Brahmawl Devananda had heard and 
perceived this news from the Brahmawa ^shabha- 
datta, she — glad, pleased, and joyful, &c. (see § 5) — 



1 That is, having reached his eighth, year. 
8 Pura»a. * Dictionary. 

4 According to the commentators, works which treat of the 
aidamparya of the Vedas. 

• The SShkhya philosophy of Kapila, according to the com- 
mentary; but see Max Mttller, What can India teach us? p. 362. 

* These are the six Angas which in the same order occur in the 
well-known versus memorialis. Indeed, that verse is nearly iden- 
tical with the passage in our text. 



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222 KALPA SUTRA. 



joining the palms of her hands, &c. (see § 5, down 
to) and spoke thus: (12) 

' That is so, O beloved of the gods ; that is exactly 
so, O beloved of the gods ; that is true, O beloved of 
the gods ; that is beyond doubt, O beloved of the 
gods ; that is what I desire, O beloved of the gods ; 
that is what I accept, O beloved of the gods ; that is 
what I desire and accept, O beloved of the gods ; that 
matter is really such as you have pronounced it' 

Thus saying, she accepted the true meaning 
of the dreams, and enjoyed together with ifo'sha- 
bhadatta the noble permitted pleasures of human 
nature. (13) 

In that period, in that age, .Sakra, — the chief and 
king of the gods, the wielder of the thunderbolt, the 
destroyer of towns, the performer of a hundred sacri- 
fices, the thousand-eyed one, Maghavan, the punisher 
of the Daitya Paka, the lord of the southern half of 
the earth \ the lord of the thirty-two thousand celestial 
abodes, the bestrider of the elephant A iravata, the chief 
of the Suras, who wears spotless clothes and robes 2 , 
and puts on garlands and the diadem, whose cheeks 
were stroked by fine, bright, and trembling earrings 
of fresh gold [the most prosperous, the most brilliant, 
the most mighty, the most glorious, the most power- 
ful, and the most happy one], with a splendid body, 
ornamented with a long down-reaching garland, — this 
.Sakra was in the Saudharma Kalpa, in the celestial 
abode Saudharma Avatawsaka, in the council-hall 
Sudharman, on his throne Sakra ; he who exercises 
and maintains the supreme command, government, 

1 I. e. of that part of it which lies to the south of mount Meru. 
* According to the commentators, wearing clothes resembling 
the dustless sky. 



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LIVES OF THE GIN AS. 223 

management, guidance, direction, and sovereign 
power and generalship over the thirty-two thousand 
gods of the celestial abodes, the eighty-four thou- 
sand gods of a rank equal with that of himself, the 
thirty-two chief gods, the four guardians of the world, 
the eight principal queens with their trains, the three 
courts, the seven armies, and the seven commanders 
of these armies. He was then enjoying the permitted 
pleasures of divine nature under the great din of 
uninterrupted story-telling, dramatical plays, sing- 
ing, and music, as beating of time, performance on 
the Vl»a, the Turya, the great drum, and the Pa/u- 
pa/aha. (14) 

And he viewed this whole continent Gambudvlpa 
with his extensive (knowledge called) Avadhi. There 
he saw in the continent (Jambudvtpa, in Bhirata- 
varsha, in the southern half of Bharata, in the brah- 
manical part of the town Ku»</agrama, the Venerable 
Ascetic Mahavira taking the form of an embryo in the 
womb of the Brahma»l Devinanda of the G&landha- 
raya»a gotra, wife of the Brahma»a 7?«shabhadatta 
of the gotra of Ko^ila ; and — glad, pleased, and joyful 
in his mind, delighted, extremely enraptured, with 
a heart widening under the influence of happiness, 
with the hair of his body bristling and erect in their 
pores like the fragrant flowers of Nlpa when touched 
by rain-drops, with his eyes and mouth open like full- 
blown lotuses, with his excellent, various 1 , trembling 
bracelets, with diadem and earrings, his breast lighted 
up by necklaces, wearing long and swinging orna- 
ments with a pearl pendant — the chief of the gods rose 

1 Karfaga, turfiya, keura. Ka/aka is the well-known kankana, 
tru/ika is explained by bahurakshika, keyura by ahgada. The last 
two are bracelets worn on the upper arm. 



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224 KALPA sOtRA. 



with confusion, hasty and trembling from his throne, 
descended from the footstool, took off his shoes 
which were by a clever artist set with Vaidurya and 
excellent Rish/a and A«£ana \ and ornamented with 
glittering jewels and precious stones, threw his seam- 
less robe over his left shoulder, and, arranging the 
fingers of his hands in the shape of a bud, he ad- 
vanced seven or eight steps towards the Tlrthakara. 
Bending his left knee and reposing on the right one, 
he three times placed his head on the ground and 
lifted it a little ; then he raised his bracelet-encum- 
bered arms, and joining the palms of his hands so as 
to bring the ten nails together, laid the hands on his 
head and spoke thus : (15) 

' Reverence to the Arhats and Bhagavats ; to the 
Adikaras, the Ttrthakaras, the perfectly-enlightened 
ones ; to the highest of men, the lions among men, the 
flowers among mankind 2 , the Gandhahastins among 
men ; to the highest in the world, the guides of the 
world, the benefactors of the world, the lights of 
the world, the enlighteners of the world ; to the givers 
of safety, to the givers of sight, to the givers of the 
road, to the givers of shelter, to the givers of life, to 
the givers of knowledge 3 ; to the givers of the law, 
the preachers of the law, the lords of the law, the 
leaders of the law, the universal emperors of the best 
law ; to the light, the help, the shelter, the refuge, 
the resting-place, the possessors of unchecked know- 

1 Names of precious stones. 

* The text has literally, the best lotus among men. 

8 These words are variously and always somewhat fancifully in- 
terpreted. One explanation is ascribed to the Aupanishadikas, 
whom I do not remember to have found noticed anywhere else in 
Gaina books. 



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LIVES OF THE GIN AS. 225 

ledge and intuition who have got rid of unrighteous- 
ness ; to the conquerors and the granters of conquest, 
the saved and the saviours, the enlightened and the 
enlighteners, the liberated and the liberators, to 
the all-knowing ones, the all-seeing ones, to those 
who have reached the happy, stable, unstained, 
infinite, unperishable, undecaying place, called the 
path of perfection, whence there is no return ; reve- 
rence to the (Tinas who have conquered fear. 

' Reverence to the Venerable Ascetic Mahavira, 
the Adikara, the last of the Tlrthakaras who was pre- 
dicted by the former Tlrthakaras, &c. * I here adore 
the Revered One yonder, may the Revered One 
yonder see me here !' With these words he adored, 
he worshipped the Venerable Ascetic Mah&vlra, and 
sat down on his excellent throne facing the east. 
Then the following internal, reflectional, desirable 
idea occurred to the mind of .Sakra, the chief of 
kings and gods : (16) 

' It never has happened, nor does it happen, nor 
will it happen, that Arhats, A'akravartins, Bala- 
devas, or Vasudevas, in the past, present, or future, 
should be born in low families, mean families, de- 
graded families, poor families, indigent families, 
beggars' families, or brahmanical families. (17) 
For indeed Arhats, Aakravartins, Baladevas, and 
Vasudevas, in the past, present, and future, are 
born in high families, noble families, royal fami- 
lies, noblemen's families, in families belonging to 
the race of Ikshv&ku, or of Hari, or in other such- 
like families of pure descent on both sides. (18) 

1 According to the commentary all the epithets from 'the enlight- 
ened one ' down to ' who has reached ' are intended by this ' &c.' 

["1 Q 



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226 KALPA S6TRA. 



Now this is something which moves the wonder 
of the world : it happens in the lapse of numberless 
Avasarpiwis and Utsarpi»!s, because the imperish- 
able, indescribable, and undestroyable Karman re- 
lating to name and gotra must take effect, that 
Arhats, &c, in the past, present, and future, descend 
in (i. e. take the form of an embryo in the womb of a 
woman belonging to) low families, &c. ; but they 
are never brought forth by birth from such a 
womb. (19) This Venerable Ascetic Mahavira, now, 
in the continent Gambudvipa, in Bharatavarsha, in 
the brahmanical part of the town Kuw^agrama, has 
taken the form of an embryo in the womb of the 
Brahmani Devanandi of the <7alandharaya»a gotra, 
wife of the Brahma»a -tfzshabhadatta of the gotra of 
Koa&la. (20) Hence it is the established custom 
of all past, present, and future 6akras, chiefs and 
kings of the gods, to cause the Arhats and Bhaga- 
vats to be removed from such-like low, mean, &c, 
families, to such-like high, noble, &c, families. (21) 
It is, therefore, better that I should cause the 
Venerable Ascetic Mahavira, the last of the Tir- 
thakaras who was predicted by the former Tlrtha- 
karas, to be removed from the brahmanical part 
of the town Ku«dfagrama, from the womb of the 
Brahmawi Devananda of the G&landhariyarta gotra, 
wife of the Brahmawa ./fo'shabhadatta of the gotra of 
Kodak, to the Kshatriya part of the town Ku»aa- 
grama, and to be placed as an embryo in the womb 
of the Kshatriya«l Truala of the VasishMa gotra, 
wife of the Kshatriya Siddhartha of the Klryapa 
gotra, belonging to the clan of the Gn%Xri Ksha- 
triyas ; and to cause the embryo of the Kshatriya«l 
Tmala of the Visish^a gotra to be placed in the 



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LIVES OF THE GINAS. 22 7 

womb of the Brahma«i Devananda of the G&landha- 
raya#a gotra.' 

Thus he reflected and called Hari«egamesi ', the 
divine commander of the foot troops ; having called 
him, he spoke thus : (22) 

' Well, now, beloved of the gods, it never has hap- 
pened, &c. (§§ 17-20 are verbally repeated). (23-25) 

' Therefore, go now and remove the Venerable 
Ascetic Mahavlra from the brahmanical part, &c, 
and place the embryo of the Kshatriya»l TrLyala, &c. 
(see § 21). Having done this, return quickly to 
report on the execution of my orders.' (26) 

When Hari«egamesi, the divine commander of 
the foot troops, was thus spoken to by .Sakra, the 
chief and king of the gods, he — glad, pleased, and 
joyful, &c. (see § 1 5) — laid his folded hands on his 
head and modestly accepted the words of command, 
saying, 'Just as your Majesty commands.' After 
this he left the presence of vSakra, the chief and 
king of the gods, and descended towards the north- 
eastern quarter ; then he transformed himself through 
his magical power of transformation, and stretched 
himself out for numerous Yo^anas like a staff, (during 
which he seized) jewels, Va.fra, Vau/urya, Lohi- 
taksha, Masaragalla, Hawsagarbha, Pulaka, Sau- 
gandhika, Gyotisara, A»^ana, Aaganapulaka, <7ata- 
rupa, Subhaga, Spharika, and Rishfo; (of these 
precious materials) he rejected the gross particles, 
and retained the subtle particles. (27) Then 



1 This name is rendered Hariwaigamaishin in Sanskrit. He is 
represented in pictures as a man with the head of an antelope 
(hari«a). This is apparently the effect of a wrong etymology, 
interesting as the fact itself is. 

Q 2 



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228 KALPA stiTRA. 



for a second time he transformed himself through 
his magical power of transformation, and pro- 
duced the definitive form (which gods adopt on 
entering the world of men); having done so, he 
passed with that excellent, hasty, trembling, active, 
impetuous, victorious, exalted, and quick divine mo- 
tion of the gods right through numberless continents 
and oceans, and arrived in Gambtidvlpa, in Bha- 
ratavarsha, in the brahmanical part of the town 
Ku«dfagrama, at the house of the Brahma#a /frsha- 
bhadatta, where the Brahma#t Devananda dwelt. 
Having arrived there, he made his bow in the sight 
of the Venerable Ascetic Mah&vlra, and cast the 
Brahma»l Devananda, together with her retinue, 
into a deep sleep ; then he took off all unclean par- 
ticles, and brought forth the clean particles, and 
saying, ' May the Venerable One permit me,' he 
took the Venerable Ascetic Mahivtra in the folded 
palms of his hands without hurting him. Thus he 
went to the Kshatriya part of the town Ku#aagrama, 
to the house of the Kshatriya Siddhartha, where 
the Kshatriyawl Trbala dwelt ; he cast her and her 
attendants into a deep sleep, took off all unclean 
particles, and brought forth the clean particles, and 
placed the embryo of the Venerable Ascetic Maha- 
vira in the womb of the Kshatriya»l Trisala, and 
the embryo of the Kshatriya«l Tmala he placed in 
the womb of the Brahma»l Devananda of the G&- 
landharaya«a gotra. Having done so, he returned 
in that direction in which he had come 1 . (28) 
With that excellent, &c. (see § 28), divine motion 



1 The contents of §§ 14-28 are contained in AHringa Sutra II, 
»5.§4- 



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LIVES OF THE GINAS. 229 

of the gods, he flew upwards right through number- 
less continents and oceans, taking thousands of 
Yq^anas in each motion, and arrived in the Sau- 
dharma Kalpa, in the divine abode called Saudharma 
Avataawsaka, where *Sakra, the chief and king of the 
gods, sat on the throne called vSakra, and reported 
to .Sakra, the chief and king of the gods, on the exe- 
cution of his orders. 

In that period, in that age the knowledge of the 
Venerable Ascetic Mahavira was threefold; he 
knew that he was to be removed; he knew that 
he was removed ; he knew not when he was being 
removed 1 . (29) 

In that period, in that age, on the thirteenth day 
of the third month of the rainy season, in the fifth 
fortnight, the dark (fortnight) of A^vina, after the 
lapse of eighty-two days, on the eighty-third day 
current (since his conception), the embryo of the 
Venerable Ascetic Mahavira was, on the command 
of .Sakra, safely removed by Hari«egamesi from the 
womb of the Brahma«i Devananda to that of the 
Kshatriya#l TrLsala 2 , in the middle of the night, 
when the moon was in conjunction with the asterism 
Uttaraphalgunt. (30) 

End of the Second Lecture. 



In that night in which the embryo of the Venerable 
Ascetic Mahavira was removed from the womb of 
the Br4hma«l Devananda of the G&landharayawa 
gotra to that of the Kshatriya»i TrLrala of the 

1 In some MSS. the last part of this paragraph is placed at the 
end of the next one. 
* The text repeats the corresponding passage of § 2 1. 



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23O KALPA SfJTRA. 



Vasish/^a gotra, the former was on her couch taking 
fits of sleep in a state between sleeping and 
waking; and seeing that these fourteen illustrious, 
beautiful, lucky, blest, auspicious, fortunate, great 
dreams were taken from her by the Kshatriya«i 
Trisala, she awoke. (31) 

In that night in which the embryo of the Venerable 
Ascetic Mah&vira was removed from the womb of 
the Brahmatti Devananda of the <7alandharaya«a 
gotra to that of the Kshatriyawi Trwali of the 
Vasish/^a gotra, the latter was in her dwelling-place, 
of which the interior was ornamented with pictures, 
and the outside whitewashed, furbished and cleansed, 
the brilliant surface of the ceiling was painted, the 
darkness was dispelled by jewels and precious stones, 
the floor was perfectly -level and adorned with auspi- 
cious figures ; which, moreover, was furnished with 
offerings of heaps of delicious, fragrant, strewn 
flowers of all five colours, was highly delightful 
through curling, scented fumes of black aloe, the 
finest Kundurukka and Turushka 1 , and burning 
frankincense ; was exquisitely scented with fine per- 
fumes, and turned as it were into a smelling-bottle ; 
on a couch with a mattress of a man's length, with 
pillows at head and foot, raised on both sides and 
hollow in the middle, soft as if one walked on the 
sand of the banks of the Ganges, covered with the 
cloth of a robe of ornamented linen, containing a 
well-worked towel, and hung with red mosquito 
curtains, delightful, soft to the touch like fur, wad- 
ding, Pura 2 , butter, or cotton, with all the comforts of 



1 Different kinds of the resin of Boswellia. 

2 Name of a tree. 



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LIVES OF THE GINAS. 23 1 

a bed, such as fragrant, excellent flowers and sandal- 
powder — (in such a room and on such a bed Trwala 
was) taking fits of sleep between sleeping and 
waking, and having seen the following fourteen, 
&c, (see § 3), dreams, viz. an elephant, &c. (see § 4), 
she awoke. (32) 

1. Then Trisala saw in her first dream a fine, enor- 
mous elephant, possessing all lucky marks, with 
strong thighs and four mighty tusks; who was 
whiter than an empty great cloud, or a heap of 
pearls, or the ocean of milk, or the moon-beams, or 
spray of water, or the silver mountain (Vaitad^ya) ; 
whose temples were perfumed with fragrant musk- 
fluid, which attracted the bees ; equalling in dimension 
the best elephant of the king of the gods (Air&vata) ; 
uttering a fine deep sound like the thunder of a big 
and large rain-cloud. (33) 

2. Then she saw a tame, lucky bull, of a whiter hue 
than that of the mass of petals of the white lotus, illu- 
mining all around by the diffusion of a glory of light; 
(a bull) whose lovely, resplendent, beautiful hump 
was delightful through the collection of its charms, 
whose glossy skin (was covered with) thin, fine, soft 
hairs; whose body was firm, well made, muscular, com- 
pact, lovely, well proportioned, and beautiful ; whose 
horns were large, round, excellently beautiful, greased 
at their tops, and pointed; whose teeth were all 
equal, shining, and pure. He foreboded innumerable 
good qualities. (34) 

3. Then she saw a handsome, handsomely shaped, 
playful lion, jumping from the sky towards her face ; 
a delightful and beautiful lion whiter than a heap of 
pearls, &c. (see § 33), who had strong and lovely 
fore-arms, and a mouth adorned with round, large, 



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232 KALPA SOTRA. 



and well-set teeth ; whose lovely lips, splendent 
through their proportions, and soft like a noble 
lotus, looked as if they were artificially ornamented ; 
whose palate 1 was soft and tender like the petals of 
the red lotus, and the top of whose tongue was pro- 
truding; whose eyes were like pure lightning, and 
revolved like red-hot excellent gold just poured out 
from the crucible; (a lion) with broad and large 
thighs, and with full and excellent shoulders, who 
was adorned with a mane of soft, white, thin, long 
hair of the finest quality ; whose erect, well-shaped, 
and well-grown tail was flapping ; the tops of whose 
nails were deeply set and sharp; whose beautiful 
tongue came out of his mouth like a shoot of 
beauty. (35) 

4. Then she, with the face of the full moon, saw the 
goddess of famous beauty, Sri, on the top of Mount 
Himavat, reposing on a lotus in the lotus lake, 
anointed with the water from the strong and large 
trunks of the guardian elephants. She sat on a lofty 
throne. Her firmly placed feet resembled golden 
tortoises, and her dyed, fleshy, convex, thin, red, 
smooth nails were set in swelling muscles*. Her 
hands and feet were like the leaves of the lotus, and 
her fingers and toes soft and excellent ; her round 
and well-formed legs were adorned with' the Kuru- 
vindavarta 8 , and her knees with dimples. Her fleshy 
thighs resembled the proboscis of an excellent ele- 
phant, and her lovely broad hips were encircled by 
a golden zone. Her large and beautiful belly was 

1 Another reading noticed in the commentary has tala, upper- 
side of the tongue, instead of taiu, palate. 

* Literally, elevated and fat. 

* An ornament according to the commentary. 



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LIVES OF THE GIN AS. 233 

adorned by a circular navel, and contained a lovely 
row of hairs (black as) collyrium, bees, or clouds, 
straight, even, continuous, thin, admirable, handsome, 
soft, and downy. Her waist, which contained the 
three folds, could be encompassed with one hand. 
On all parts of her body shone ornaments and trin- 
kets, composed of many jewels and precious stones, 
yellow and red gold. The pure cup-like pair of her 
breasts sparkled, encircled by a garland of Kunda 
flowers, in which glittered a string of pearls. She 
wore strings of pearls made by diligent and clever 
artists, shining with wonderful strings, a necklace of 
jewels with a string of Dinaras 1 , and a trembling 
pair of earrings, touching her shoulders, diffused a 
brilliancy; but the united beauties and charms" of 
these ornaments were only subservient to the loveli- 
ness of her face 2 . Her lovely eyes were large and.* 
pure like the water lily. She sprinkled about the 
sap from two lotus flowers which she held in her 
splendid hands, and gracefully fanned herself. Her 
glossy, black, thick, smooth hair hung down in 
a braid. (36) 

5. Then she saw, coming down from the firma- 
ment, a garland charmingly interwoven with fresh 
Mandara flowers. It spread the delicious smell of 
A'ampaka 3 , Aroka 4 , Naga 6 Punnaga 8 , Priyangu 7 , 



1 This word, corresponding to the Greek Srivdptov, proves the 
late composition of this part of the Kalpa Sutra. 

* I cannot accurately construe this passage ; my translation is 
therefore rather free, but, I believe, comes near the meaning of the 
original. 

' Michelia Champaka. 4 Jonesia Asoka. 

• Mesua Roxburghii. * Rottlera Tinctoria. 
7 Panicum Italicum. 



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234 KALPA SOTRA. 



Sirtsha 1 , Mudgara 2 , Mallika 3 , G&ti*, Yuthika 8 , An- 
kolla •, Kora»/akapatra 7 , Damanaka 8 , Navama- 
lika», Bakula 10 , Tilaka 11 , Vasantika 12 , Nuphar, 
Nymphaea, Pa/ala 13 , Kunda 14 , Atimukta", and 
Mango ; and perfumed the ten divisions of the uni- 
verse with its incomparably delightful fragrance. 
It was white through wreaths of fragrant flowers of 
all seasons, and brilliant through splendid, beautiful 
embellishments of many colours. Towards it came 
humming swarms of different kinds of bees 16 , and 
filled with their sweet noise the whole neighbour- 
hood. (37) 

6. And the moon : white as cow-milk, foam, spray of 
water, or a silver cup, glorious, delighting heart and 
eyes, full, dispelling the compact darkness of the thick- 
est wilderness, whose crescent shines at the end of the 
two halves of the month, opening the blossoms of 
the groups of Nymphaeas, adorning the night, resem- 
bling the surface of a well-polished mirror. She 
was of a white hue, like a flamingo, the stars' head- 
ornament, the quiver of Cupid's arrows, raising the 
waters of the ocean, burning as it were disconsolate 

I Acacia Sirisa. 2 A species of jasmine. 

8 Jasminum Zambac. * Jasminum Grandiflorum. 

5 Jasminum Auriculatum. • Alangium Hexapetalum. 

' Not specialised in our dictionaries. ' Artemisia Indica. 

8 The many-flowered Nykanthes or Jasminum Zambac. 

10 Mimusops Elengi. 

II Clerodendum Phlomoides or Symplocos Racemosa. 

11 Gaertnera Racemosa. " Bignonia Suaveolens. 

14 Fragrant Oleander. 

15 Diospyros Glutinos or Dalbergia Ougeinense. 

" Sha/pada, madhukari, bhramara. The sha/pada are literally 
six-footed bees, as Stevenson correctly translated, but he strangely 
reckons them among the preternatural animals, like the four-tusked 
elephants, dear to the imagination of the Gains! 



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LIVES OF THE GINAS. 235 

people when absent from their sweethearts, the 
large, glorious, wandering headmark of the celestial 
sphere — beloved in heart and soul by Rohiw! 1 . Such 
was the glorious, beautiful, resplendent full moon 
which the queen saw. (38) 

7. Then she saw the large sun, the dispeller of 
the mass of darkness, him of radiant form, red like 
the Asoka, the open Kiawsuka, the bill of a parrot, 
or the Guȣardha 2 , the adorner of the lotus groups, 
the marker of the starry host, the lamp of the firma- 
ment, throttling as it were the mass of cold, the 
illustrious leader of the troop of planets, the 
destroyer of night, who only at his rising and setting 
may be well viewed, but (at all other times) is diffi- 
cult to be regarded, who disperses evil-doers that 
stroll about at night, who stops the influence of cold, 
who always circles round Mount Meru, whose thou- 
sand rays obscure the lustre of other lights 8 . (39) 

8. Then she saw an extremely beautiful and very 
large flag, a sight for all people, of a form attractive 
to the beholders. It was fastened to a golden staff 
with a tuft of many soft and waving peacock's 
feathers of blue, red, yellow, and white colours, and 
seemed as if it would pierce the brilliant, celestial 
sphere, with the brilliant lion on its top, who was 
white like crystal, pearlmother, Anka-stone, Kunda- 
flowers, spray of water, or a silver cup. (40) 



1 The commentators understand this passage (Rohi»fma»ahiya- 
yavallabhaw) differently by explaining hiyaya by hitada, the lover 
of Rohiw! who did her mind good. 

s According to Stevenson : the red side of the retti seed. 

s Or if we adopt a various reading, mentioned in the com- 
mentary, payarfya, we must translate : whose luminous glory was 
set forth by his thousand rays. 



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236 KALPA sOTRA. 



9. Then she saw a full vase of costly metal 1 , 
splendent with fine gold, filled with pure water, 
excellent, of brilliant beauty, and shining with a 
bouquet of water lilies. It united many excellencies 
and all-auspicious marks, and stood on a lotus- 
(shaped foot), shining with excellent jewels 2 . It 
delighted the eyes, glittered and illumined all about ; 
it was the abode of happy Fortune, free from all 
faults, fine, splendid, exquisitely beautiful, entwined 
with a wreath of fragrant flowers of all seasons. (41) 

10. Then she saw a lake, called Lotus Lake, 
adorned with water lilies. Its yellow water was 
perfumed by lotuses opening in the rays of the morn- 
ing sun ; it abounded with swarms of aquatic animals, 
and fed fishes. It was large, and seemed to burn 
through the wide-spreading, glorious beauty of all 
kinds of lotuses 3 . Its shape and beauty were pleasing. 
The lotuses in it were licked by whole swarms of gay 
bees and mad drones. Pairs of swans, cranes, Aakra- 
vakas, ducks, Indian cranes, and many other lusty 
birds resorted to its waters, and on the leaves of its 
lotuses sparkled water-drops like pearls 4 . It was a 
sight, pleasing to the heart and the eye. (42) 

11. Then she whose face was splendid like the 

1 The original has rayaya, silver, but as the commentary re- 
marks, this would be in conflict with the epithet which we have put 
next, but which, in the original, is separated from it by many lines. 
Unless the author has blundered, which from his vague style seems 
far from impossible, the word must here have a more indefinite 
meaning than it usually has. 

* This passage may also be translated : standing on a lotus filled 
with pollen, of excellent workmanship. 

9 Specialised in the text as kamula, kuvalaya, utpala, tamarasa, 
and pumfarika. 

4 According to the commentary ; the textus receptus is, many 
water-drops. 



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LIVES OF THE GINAS. 237 

moon in autumn, saw the milk-ocean, equalling in 
beauty the breast of Lakshml, which is white like 
the mass of moon-beams. Its waters increased in 
all four directions, and raged with ever-changing 
and moving, excessively high waves. It presented 
a splendid and pleasant spectacle as it rushed to 
and from the shore with its wind-raised, changeable, 
and moving billows, its tossing waves, and its rolling, 
splendid, transparent breakers. From it issued 
camphor-white foam under the lashing (tails) of 
great porpoises, fishes, whales, and other monsters 
of the deep 1 . Its agitated waters were in great 
uproar, occasioned by the vortex Gangavarta, which 
the vehemence and force of the great rivers pro- 
duced; they rose, rushed onwards and backwards, 
and eddied. (43) 

12. Then she saw a celestial abode excelling 
among the best of its kind, like the lotus (among 
flowers). It shone like the morning sun's disk, and 
was of a dazzling beauty. Its thousand and eight 
excellent columns (inlaid with) the best gold and 
heaps of jewels diffused a brilliant light like a hea- 
venly lamp, and the pearls fastened to its curtains 
glittered. It was hung with brilliant divine garlands, 
and decorated with pictures of wolves, bulls, horses, 
men, dolphins, birds, snakes, Kinnaras, deer, Sa- 
rabhas, Yaks, Sawsaktas 2 , elephants, shrubs, and 
plants. There the Gandharvas performed their 
concerts, and the din of the drums of the gods, 

1 The original has timingila-niruddha-tilitilika. 

* Sa/wsakta, which I do not find mentioned elsewhere, is ex- 
plained, 'a kind of beast of prey;' I think that samsakta may be 
an adjective specifying the following word, and mean 'fighting' 
elephants. 



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238 KALPA SOTRA. 



imitating the sound of big and large rain-clouds, 
penetrated the whole inhabited world. It was highly 
delightful through curling, scented fumes of black 
aloe, the finest Kundurukka and Turushka, burning 
frankincense and other perfumes. It (shed) conti- 
nuous light, was white, of excellent lustre, delighting 
the best of gods, and affording joy and pleasure. (44) 

13. Then she saw an enormous heap of jewels 
containing Pulaka, Vafra, Indranlla, Sasyaka, Kar- 
ketana, Lohitaksha, Marakata, Prabala, Saugandhika, 
Spha/ika, Ha/#sagarbha, A»fana, and Aandrakanta. 
Its base was on the level of the earth, and it illu- 
mined with its jewels even the sphere of the sky. 
It was high and resembled Mount Meru. (45) 

14. And a fire. She saw a fire in vehement 
motion, fed with much-shining and honey-coloured 
ghee, smokeless, crackling, and extremely beautiful 
with its burning flames. The mass of its flames, 
which rose one above the other, seemed to inter- 
penetrate each other, and the blaze of its flames 
appeared to bake the firmament in some places. (46) 

After having seen these fine, beautiful, lovely, 
handsome dreams, the lotus-eyed queen awoke on 
her bed while the hair of her body bristled for joy. 

Every mother of a Tlrthakara sees these fourteen 
dreams in that night in which the famous Arhat 
enters her womb. (46 b) 

End of the Third Lecture. 



When the Kshatriyi«l TrLvala, having seen these 
fourteen illustrious, great dreams, awoke, she was 
glad, pleased, and joyful, &c. (see § 5, down to) rose 
from her couch, and descended from the footstool. 
Neither hasty nor trembling, with a quick and even 



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LIVES OF THE OINAS. 239 

gait like that of the royal swan, she went to the couch 
of the Kshatriya Siddhartha. There she awakened 
the Kshatriya Siddhartha, addressing him with kind, 
pleasing, amiable, tender, illustrious, beautiful, lucky, 
blest, auspicious, fortunate, heart-going, heart-easing, 
well-measured, sweet, and soft words. (47) 

Then the Kshatriya#l TrLyala, with the permission 
of king Siddhartha, sat down on a chair of state 
inlaid with various jewels and precious stones in the 
form of arabesques ; calm and composed, sitting on 
an excellent, comfortable chair, she addressed him 
with kind, pleasing, &c. (see last paragraph), words, 
and spoke thus : (48) 

' O beloved of the gods, I was just now on my 
couch (as described in § 32), &e. (see § 5), and awoke 
after having seen the fourteen dreams; to wit, an 
elephant, &c. What, to be sure, O my lord, will be 
the happy result portended by these fourteen illus- 
trious, great dreams ?' (49) 

When the Kshatriya Siddhartha had heard and 
perceived this news from the Kshatriya«l Tri.sala, 
he glad, pleased, and joyful, &c. (see § 5, down to) 
firmly fixed the dreams in his mind, and entered 
upon considering them ; he grasped the meaning of 
those dreams with his own innate intelligence and 
intuition which were preceded by reflection, and 
addressing the Kshatriyawt Triiala with kind, 
pleasing, &c, words, spoke thus : (50) 

'O beloved of the gods, you have seen illus- 
trious dreams, Ac. (see § 9, down to) you will 
give birth to a lovely, handsome boy, who will be 
the ensign of our family, the lamp of our family, 
the crown 1 of our family, the frontal ornament 

1 Vadiwsaya (avatawsaka) is here rendered by jekhara. 



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24O KALPA SUTRA. 



of our family, the maker of our family's glory, 
the sun of our family, the stay of our family, the 
maker of our family's joy and fame, the tree of our 
family, the exalter of our family ; (a boy) with tender 
hands and feet, &c. (see § 9, down to the end). (51) 
And this boy, after having passed childhood, and, 
with just ripened intellect, having reached the state 
of youth, will become a brave, gallant, and valorous 
king, the lord of the realm, with a large and exten- 
sive army and train of waggons. (52) Therefore, O 
beloved of the gods, you have seen illustrious, &c, 
dreams, &c. (see § 9).' 

In this way he repeatedly expressed his extreme 
satisfaction. 

When the Kshatriya»l Trwala had heard and 
perceived this news from king Siddhirtha, she 
glad, pleased, and joyful, &c. (see § 12, down to) 
and spoke thus: (53) 

4 That is so, O beloved of the gods, &c. (see § 13, 
down to) as you have pronounced it' 

Thus saying she accepted the true meaning of 
the dreams, and with the permission of king Sid- 
dhartha she rose from her chair of state, inlaid with 
various jewels and precious stones in the form of 
arabesques. She then returned to her own bed, 
neither hasty nor trembling, with a quick and 
even gait like that of the royal swan, and spoke 
thus: (54) 

' These my excellent and pre-eminent dreams shall 
not be counteracted by other bad dreams.' 

Accordingly she remained awake to save her 
dreams by means of (hearing) good, auspicious, 
pious, agreeable stories about gods and religious 
men. (55) 



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LIVES OF THE GIN AS. 241 

At the time of daybreak the Kshatriya Siddhartha 
called his family servants and spoke thus : (56) 

' Now, beloved of the gods, quickly make ready, 
or have made ready, the exterior hall of audience ; 
see that it be sprinkled with scented water, cleaned, 
swept, and newly smeared, furnished with offerings 
of fragrant, excellent flowers of all five colours, 
made highly delightful through curling scented 
fumes, &c. (see $32, down to) and turned, as it 
were, into a smelling box ; also erect my throne, 
and having done this quickly return, and report on 
the execution of my orders.' (57) 

When the family servants were thus spoken to 
by king Siddhartha, they — glad, pleased, and joyful, 
&c. (see § 1 2, down to) on their heads, and modestly 
accepted the words of command, saying, ' Yes, 
master !' Then they left the presence of the Ksha- 
triya Siddhartha, and went to the exterior hall of 
audience, made it ready, and erected the throne (as 
described in the last paragraph). Having done this, 
they returned to the Kshatriya Siddhartha ; joining 
the palms of their hands so as to bring the ten nails 
together, laid the folded hands on their heads, and 
reported on the execution of their orders. (58) 

Early at the wane of the night, when the bright 
morning disclosed the soft flowers of the full-blown 
lotuses and Nymphaeas, rose the sun : he was red like 
the A^oka, the open Kiamika, the bill of a parrot 
or the Gu%ardha ; of an intense redness like that 
of the Bandhuflvaka 1 , the feet and eyes of the turtle 
dove, the scarlet eyes of the Indian cuckoo, a mass 
of China roses, or vermilion. He, the thousand-rayed 
maker of the day, shining in his radiance, awakened 

1 Pentapetes Phoenicea. 
["] R 



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242 KALPA stiTRA. 



the groups of lotuses. When in due time the god 
of the day had risen and by the blows of his hands 
(or rays) the darkness was driven away, while the 
inhabited world was, as it were, dipped in saffron by 
the morning sun, the Kshatriya Siddhartha rose 
from his bed, (59) descended from the footstool, 
went to the hall for gymnastic exercises, and entered 
it. There he applied himself to many wholesome 
exercises, jumped, wrestled, fenced, and fought till 
he got thoroughly tired : then he was anointed with 
hundredfold and thousandfold refined different kinds 
of oil, which nourished, beautified, invigorated, exhi- 
larated, strengthened, and increased all senses and 
limbs. On an oiled hide he was shampooed by 
clever men with soft and tender- palms of the hands 
and soles of the feet, who were well acquainted 
with the best qualities of the practices of anointing, 
kneading, and stretching ; well trained, skilful, excel- 
lent, expert, intelligent, and never tiring. When by 
this fourfold agreeable treatment of the body the 
king's bones, flesh, skin, and hair had been bene- 
fited, and his fatigues banished, he Jeft the hall for 
gymnastic exercises, (60) and entered the bathing- 
house. The pleasant bathing-room was very agree- 
able, and contained many windows 1 , ornamented 
with pearls; its floor was decorated with mosaic 
of various jewels and precious stones. On the bath- 
ing-stool, inlaid with various jewels and precious 
stones in the form of arabesques, he comfortably 
sat down and bathed himself with water scented 
with flowers and perfumes, with tepid water and 
pure water, according to an excellent method of 

1 Gala, windows formed by flat stones which are perforated so 
as to produce a network of more or less intricate design. 



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LIVES OF THE GINAS. 243 

bathing, combined with healthy exercises. When 
this healthy excellent bathing under many hundred- 
fold pleasures was over, he dried his body with 
a long-haired, soft, scented, and coloured towel, put 
on a new and costly excellent robe, rubbed himself 
with fresh and fragrant Gorirsha 1 and sandal, and 
ornamented himself with fine wreaths and sandal-oint- 
ment. He put on (ornaments) of jewels and pearls, 
hung round his neck fitting necklaces of eighteen, 
. nine, and three strings of pearls, and one with a 
pearl pendant, and adorned himself with a zone. He 
put on a collar, rings, and charming ornaments of 
the hair, and encumbered his arms with excellent 
bracelets : he was of excessive beauty. His face was 
lighted up by earrings, and his head by a diadem ; 
his breast was adorned and decked with necklaces, 
and his fingers were, as it were, gilded by his rings. 
His upper garment of fine cloth contained swinging 
pearl pendants. He put on, as an emblem of his 
undefeated knighthood, glittering, well-made, strong, 
excellent, beautiful armlets, made by clever artists 
of spotless and costly jewels, gold, and precious 
stones of many kinds. In short, the king was like 
the tree granting all desires, decorated and orna- 
mented ; an umbrella, hung with wreaths and gar- 
lands of Kori«/a flowers, was held above him. He 
was fanned with white excellent chowries, while his 
appearance was greeted with auspicious shouts of 
victory. Surrounded by many chieftains, satraps, 
kings, princes, knights, sheriffs, heads of families, 
ministers, chief ministers, astrologers, counsellors, 
servants, dancing masters, citizens, traders, mer- 
chants, foremen of guilds, generals, leaders of cara- 

1 Gos irsha is a superior kind of sandal. • 

R 2 



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244 KALPA sOTRA. 



vans, messengers, and frontier-guards, he — the lord 
and chief of men, a bull and a lion among men, shining 
with excellent lustre and glory, lovely to behold like 
the moon emerging from a great white cloud in the 
midst of the flock of the planets and of brilliant 
stars and asterisms — left the bathing-house, (61) 
entered the exterior hall of audience and sat down 
on his throne with the face towards the east. (62) 

On the north-eastern side he ordered eight state 
chairs, covered with cloth and auspiciously deco- 
rated with white mustard, to be set down. Not 
too far from and not too near to himself, towards 
the interior of the palace, he had a curtain drawn. 
It was adorned with different jewels and precious 
stones, extremely worth seeing, very costly, and 
manufactured in a famous town; its soft cloth was 
all over covered with hundreds of patterns and deco-* 
rated with pictures of wolves, bulls, horses, men, 
dolphins, birds, snakes, Kinnaras, deer, 6arabhas, 
Yaks, Sawzsaktas, elephants, shrubs, and plants. Be- 
hind it he ordered to be placed, for the Kshatri- 
ya#t TrLyala, an excellent chair of state, decorated 
with arabesques of different jewels and precious 
stones, outfitted with a coverlet and a soft pillow, 
covered with a white cloth, very" soft and agreeable 
to the touch. Then he called the family servants 
and spoke thus : (63) 

* Quickly, O beloved of the gods, call the inter- 
preters of dreams who well know the science of 
prognostics with its eight branches, and are well 
versed in many sciences besides!' 

When the family servants were thus spoken to 
by king Siddhartha, they — glad, pleased, and joyful, 
&c. — laid the folded hands on their heads and 



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LIVES OF THE GINAS. 245 

modestly accepted the words of command, saying, 
'Yes, master!' (64) 

Then they left the presence of the Kshatriya 
Siddhartha, went right through the town Kundapura. 
to the houses of the interpreters of dreams, and 
called the interpreters of dreams. (65) 

Then the interpreters of dreams, being called by 
the Kshatriya Siddhartha's family servants, glad, 
pleased, and joyful, &c, bathed, made the offering 
(to the house-gods) 1 , performed auspicious rites and 
expiatory 2 acts, put on excellent, lucky, pure court- 
dress, adorned *heir persons with small but costly 
ornaments, and put, for the sake of auspiciousness, 
white mustard and Durva grass on their heads. 
Thus they issued from their own houses and went 
right through the Kshatriya part of the town Ku#aa- 
pura to the front gate of king Siddhartha's excellent 
palace, a jewel of its kind. (66) 

There they assembled and went to the exterior 
hall of audience in the presence of the Kshatriya 
Siddhartha. Joining the palms of their hands so as 
to bring the ten nails together, they laid the folded 
hands on their heads and gave him the greeting of 
victory. (67) 

The king Siddhartha saluted and honoured the 
interpreters of dreams, made them presents, and re- 
ceived them with respect. They sat down, one 
after the other, on the chairs of state which had 
been placed there before. (68) Then the Kshatriya 
Siddhartha placed his wife Tri-rala behind the cur- 
tain, and taking flowers and fruits in his hands, 

1 Balikarman. 

5 Paya£Mitta = prayaj£itta. The commentators explain it by 
padaMupta, touching their feet in order to avoid the wicked eye.^ 



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246 KALPA SUTRA. 



addressed with utmost courtesy the interpreters of 
dreams : (69) 

'O beloved of the gods, the Kshatriya#l Trisala 
was just on her couch, &c. (see § 32, down to the 
end). (70 and 71) What to be sure, O beloved of 
the gods, will be the result portended by these four- 
teen illustrious great dreams ?' (72) 

When the interpreters of dreams had heard and 
perceived this news from the Kshatriya Siddhartha, 
they — glad, pleased, and joyful, &c. — fixed the dreams 
in their minds, entered upon considering them, and 
conversed together. (73) 

Having found, grasped, discussed, decided upon, 
and clearly understood the meaning of these dreams, 
they recited before king Siddhartha the dream-books 
and spoke thus : 

'O beloved of the gods, in our dream-books are 
enumerated forty-two (common) dreams and thirty 
great dreams. Now, O beloved of the gods, the 
mothers of universal monarchs or of Arhats wake 
up after seeing these fourteen great dreams out 
of the thirty great dreams, when the embryo of 
a universal monarch or an Arhat enters their 
womb ; (74) viz. an elephant, a bull, &c. (75) The 
mothers of Vasudevas wake up after seeing any 
seven great dreams out of these fourteen great 
dreams, when the embryo of a Vasudeva enters their 
womb. (76) The mothers of Baladevas wake up after 
seeing any four great dreams out of these four- 
teen great dreams, when the embryo of a Baladeva 
enters their womb. (77) The mother of Ma»^alikas 
wake up after seeing a single great dream out of 
these fourteen great dreams, when the embryo of a 
Mawaalika enters their womb. (78) Now, O beloved 



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LIVES OF THE GINAS. 247 

of the gods, the Kshatriya»t Tri.sala has seen these 
fourteen great dreams, &c. (see $ 51, down to the 
end). (79) And this boy, &c. (see § 52, down to) the 
lord of a realm with a large and extensive army and 
train of waggons, a universal emperor or a <7ina, 
the lord of the three worlds, the universal emperor 
of the law. (80). Therefore, O beloved of the 
gods, the Kshatriya«t TrLrala has seen illustrious 
dreams,' &c. (see § 9). (8 1 ) 

When king Siddhartha had heard and perceived 
this news from the interpreter of dreams, he — glad, 
pleased, and joyful, &c. — spoketo them thus: (82) 

' That is so, O beloved of the gods, &c. (see § n, 
down to) as you have pronounced it' 

Thus saying he accepted the true meaning of the 
dreams, and honoured the interpreters of dreams 
with praise and plenty of food, flowers, perfumes, 
garlands, and ornaments. He made them a present 
in keeping with their station in life l and dismissed 
them. (83) 

After this the Kshatriya Siddhartha rose from his 
throne, went to the Kshatriya»t TrLrala behind the 
curtain, and addressed her thus : (84) 

' Now, O beloved of the gods, you have seen 
these fourteen great dreams, &c. (see §§ 79, 80, down 
to) emperor of the law.' (85, 86) 

When the Kshatriyawl Trwala had heard and 
perceived this news, she — glad, pleased, and joyful, 
&c. — accepted the true meaning of the dreams. (87) 
With the permission of king Siddhartha she rose 
from her chair of state which was decorated with 
arabesques of various jewels and precious stones, 

1 Or a life annuity. 



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248 KALPA S<)TRA. 



and returned to her own apartments, neither hasty 
nor trembling, with a quick and even gait like that 
of the royal swan. (88) 

From that moment in which the Venerable Ascetic 
Mahavira was brought into the family of the Gn&trts, 
many demons 1 in Vai.n*ama#a's service, belonging 
to the animal world, brought, on .Sakra's command, 
to the palace of king Siddhartha, old and ancient 
treasures, of which the owners, deponers, and fami- 
lies to whom they originally belonged were dead 
and extinct, and which were hidden in villages, or 
mines, or scot-free towns, or towns with earth walls, 
or towns with low walls, or isolated towns, or towns 
accessible by land and water, or towns' accessible 
either by land or by water only, or in natural strong- 
holds, or in halting-places for processions or for 
caravans, in triangular places, or in places where 
three or four roads meet, or in courtyards, or 
squares, or high roads, or on the site of villages or 
towns, or in drains of villages or towns, or in bazaars, 
or temples, or assembling halls, or wells, or parks, or 
gardens, or woods, or groves, or burying-places, or 
empty houses, or mountain caves, or hermits' cells, 
or secret places between walls, or in houses on an 
elevation, or houses for audience, or palaces. (89) 

In the night in which the Venerable Ascetic 
Mahavira was brought into the family of the 
Gnttris their silver increased, their gold increased ; 
their riches, corn, majesty, and kingdom increased ; 
their army, train, treasure, storehouse, town, seraglio, 
subjects, and glory increased ; their real valuable 
property, as riches, gold, precious stones, jewels, 

1 Gra«bhaya=GWmbhaka; what they are is not said in the 
commentaries. 



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LIVES OF THE GINAS. 249 

pearls, conches, stones, corals, rubies, &c, the inten- 
sity of their popularity and liberality highly in- 
creased. At that time the following personal, 
reflectional, desirable idea occurred to parents of 
the Venerable Ascetic Mahavlra: (90) 

' From the moment that this our boy has been 
begotten, our silver increased, our gold increased, 
&c. (see § 90, down to) the intensity of our liberality 
and popularity highly increased. Therefore when 
this our boy will be born, we shall give him the fit 
name, attributive and conformable to his quality — 
Vardhamana V (91) 

Now the Venerable Ascetic Mahavlra, out of 
compassion for his mother, did not move nor stir 
nor quiver, but remained quiet, stiff, and motionless. 
Then the following, &c. (see § 90, down to) idea 
occurred to the mind of the Kshatriya#l Tri.rala : 
' The fruit of my womb has been taken from me, 
it has died, it is fallen, it is lost. Formerly it 
moved, now it does not move.' Thus with anxious 
thoughts and ideas, plunged in a sea of sorrow and 
misery, reposing her head on her hand, overcome 
by painful reflections, and casting her eyes on the 
ground she meditated. And in the palace of king 
Siddhartha the music of drums and stringed instru- 
ments, the clapping of hands, the dramatical per- 
formances, and the amusements of the people ceased, 
and mournful dejection reigned there. (92) 

Then the Venerable Ascetic Mahavlra, knowing 
that such an internal, &c. (see § 90, down to) idea 
had occurred to the mind of his mother, he quivered 
a little. (93) 

1 I.e. 'the increasing one' not as we should expect, and Steven- 
son translated, the Increaser. 



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25O KALPA SOTRA. 



Feeling her child quivering, trembling, moving, 
and stirring, the Kshatriyiwl Tiiyala — glad, pleased, 
and joyful, &c. — spoke thus : ' No, forsooth, the fruit 
of my womb has not been taken from me, it has not 
died, it is not fallen, it is not lost. Formerly it did 
not move, but now it does move.' Thus she was 
glad, pleased, and joyful, &c. 

Then the Venerable Ascetic Mahavira, while in 
her womb, formed the following resolution : ' It will 
not behove me, during the life of my parents, to 
tear out my hair, and leaving the house to enter the 
state of houselessness.' (94) 

Bathing, makingofferings to the house-gods, perform- 
ing auspicious rites and expiatory acts, and adorning 
herself with all ornaments, the KshatriyawlTrisalakept 
off sickness, sorrow, fainting, fear, and fatigue by food 
and clothing, perfumes and garlands, which were not 
too cold nor too hot, not too bitter nor too pungent, 
not too astringent nor too sour nor too sweet, not too 
smooth nor too rough, not too wet nor too dry, but 
all just suiting the season. In the proper place and 
time she ate only such food which was good, suffi- 
cient, and healthy for the nourishment of her child. 
She took her walks in pla'ces which were empty and 
agreeable as well as delightful to the mind; her 
desires were laudable, fulfilled, honoured, not disre- 
garded, but complied with and executed ; she most 
comfortably dozed, reposed, remained, sat, and laid 
on unobjectionable and soft beds and seats, and 
thus most comfortably carried her unborn child. (95) 

In that period, in that age the Venerable Ascetic 
Mahavtra l — after the lapse of nine months and 

1 The whole passage is in some disorder ; for the subject is she 
(TriralS) and the object is 'boy,' yet 'the Venerable Ascetic Mahi- 



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LIVES OF THE GIN AS. 25 I 

seven and a half days, in the first month of summer, 
in the second fortnight, the dark (fortnight) of 
A!aitra, on its fourteenth day, [while all planets were 
in their exaltations, the moon in her principal con- 
junction, and the sky in all its directions clear, 
bright, and pure ; while a favourable and agreeable 
low wind swept the earth; at the time when the 
fields were green and all people glad and amusing 
themselves] 1 in the middle of the night while the 
moon was in conjunction with the asterism Uttara- 
phalgunl — (TrLyala), perfectly healthy herself, gave 
birth to a perfectly healthy boy. (96) 2 
End of the Fourth Lecture. 



In that night in which the Venerable Ascetic 
Mahavlra was born, there was a divine lustre ori- 
ginated by many descending and ascending gods 
and goddesses, and in the universe, resplendent with 
one light, the conflux of gods occasioned great 
confusion and noise. (97)* 

In that night in which the Venerable Ascetic 
Mahavlra was born, many demons in VaLyramawa's 

vira ' is also put in the nominative. It seems that the author or 
the copyists added the three words Samane Bhagavam Mahavire 
because they usually followed the beginning : tenam kale»a»j tenam 
samaeaaw. The same disorder occurs in all corresponding passages 
which we shall meet with later on. 

1 The passage in brackets seems to be a later addition ; for it 
is wanting in my oldest MS., and the commentator says that it was 
not seen in many books. The occurrence of the astrological term 
exaltation (u£Aa=ttya>/ta) in this passage proves it to be inserted 
after 300 a.d. For about that time Greek astrology had been intro- 
duced in India, as I have shown in my dissertation : De Astrologiae 
Indicae 'Hora' appellatae originibus, Bonn, 1873. 

* Cf. Aiiranga Sutra II, 15, § 6. 

• Cf. AJaranga Sutra II, 15, § 7. 



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252 KALPA stiTRA. 



service belonging to the animal world, rained down 
on the palace of king Siddhartha one great shower 
of silver, gold, diamonds, clothes, ornaments, leaves, 
flowers, fruits, seeds, garlands, perfumes, sandal, 
powder, and riches. (98) ' 

After the Bhavanapati, Vyantara, Gyotishka, and 
Vaimanika gods had celebrated the feast of the 
inauguration of the Tlrthakara's birthday, the Ksha- 
triya Siddhartha called, at the break of the morning, 
together the town policemen and addressed them 
thus : (99) 

* O beloved of the gods, quickly set free all 
prisoners in the town of Ku«dapura, increase 
measures and weights, give order that the whole 
town of Kuwdapura with its suburbs be sprinkled 
with water, swept, and smeared (with cowdung, &c.) 
that in triangular places, in places where three or 
four roads meet, in courtyards, in squares, and in 
thoroughfares, the middle of the road and the path 
along the shops be sprinkled, cleaned, and swept ; 
that platforms be erected one above the other ; that 
the town be decorated with variously coloured flags 
and banners, and adorned with painted pavilions 2 ; 
that the walls bear impressions in Goslrsha, fresh 
red sandal, and Dardara 3 of the hand with out- 
stretched fingers ; that luck-foreboding vases be put 
on the floor, and pots of the same kind be disposed 
round every door and arch ; that big, round, and 
long garlands, wreaths, and festoons be hung low 

1 Cf. A*aringa Sutra II, 15, § 8. 

2 According to the commentary this may also be translated : 
smeared (with cowdung) and whitewashed. 

* Dardara is sandal brought from Dardara. All who have tra- 
velled in India will have noticed on walls the impressions of the 
hand mentioned in the text. 



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LIVES OF THE GINAS. 253 

and high ; that the town be furnished with offerings, 
&c. (see § 32, down to) smelling box ; that players, 
dancers, rope-dancers, wrestlers, boxers, jesters, 
story-tellers, ballad-singers, actors 1 , messengers 2 , 
pole-dancers, fruit-mongers, bag-pipers, lute-players, 
and many Talaiaras 3 be present. Erect and order 
to erect thousands of pillars and poles, and report 
on the execution of my orders.' (ioo) 

When the family servants were thus spoken to by 
king Siddhartha, they — glad, pleased, and joyful, &c. 
(see § 58) — accepted the words of command, saying, 
'Yes, master!' 

Then they set free all prisoners, &c. (see § ioo, 
down to) pillars and poles. Having done this, they 
returned to king Siddhartha, and laying their hands 
on their heads, reported on the execution of his 
orders. (101) 

The king Siddhartha then went to the hall for 
gymnastic exercises, &c. (see §§ 60 and 61 4 ). (After 
having bathed) the king accompanied by his whole 
seraglio*, and adorned with flowers., scented robes, 
garlands, and ornaments, held during ten days the 
festival in celebration of the birth of a heir to his 
kingdom ; (it was held) under the continuous din 
and sound of trumpets, with great state and splen- 
dour, with a great train of soldiers, vehicles, and 
guests, under the sound, din, and noise of conches, 

1 LasakS. bha»</a. 

* Arakshakas talari, akhyayaka vS. The translation is conjectural. 

3 Tala£aras are those who by clapping the hands beat the time 
daring a performance of music. 

4 The text has down to 'with his whole seraglio.' But as no 
such words occur in the passage in question, they seem to point to 
the description in § 115, which contains the latter part of this 
passage. 



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254 KALPA SUTRA. 



cymbals, drums, castanets, horns, small drums, kettle 
drums, Murafas, Mmlangas, and Dundubhis 1 , which 
were accompanied at the same time by trumpets 2 . 
The customs, taxes, and confiscations were released, 
buying and selling prohibited, no policemen were 
allowed to enter houses, great and small fines were 
remitted, and debts cancelled. Numberless excel- 
lent actors performed 3 and many Tala^aras were 
present, drums sounded harmoniously, fresh gar- 
lands and wreaths were seen everywhere, and the 
whole population in the town and in the country 
rejoiced and was in full glee. (102) 

When the ten days of this festival were over, the 
king Siddhartha gave and ordered to be given 
hundreds and thousands and hundred-thousands of 
offerings to the gods, gifts, and portions (of goods) ; 
he received and ordered to be received hundreds, 
thousands, and hundred-thousands of presents. (103) 4 

The parents of the Venerable Ascetic Mahivlra 
celebrated the birth of their heir on the first day, on 
the third day they showed him the sun and the 
moon, on the sixth day they observed the religious 
vigil ; after the eleventh day, when the impure ope- 
rations and ceremonies connected with the birth of 
a child had been performed, and the twelfth day had 
come, they prepared plenty of food, drink, spices, 
and sweetmeats, invited their friends, relations, kins- 
men, agnates, cognates, and followers, together with 
the GniXrika. Kshatriyas. Then they bathed, made 



1 Mura^as, Mndangas, Dundubhis are different kinds of drums. 
s Samaga-^amaga-turiya, 

* This is the translation of a varia lectio. The adopted text 
has : while courtezans and excellent actors performed. 
4 Cf. A*Mnga Sutra II, 15, § 1 1. 



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LIVES OF THE GINAS. 255 

offerings (to the house-gods), and performed auspi- 
cious rites and expiatory acts, put on excellent, 
lucky, pure court-dress, and adorned their persons 
with small but costly ornaments. At dinner-time 
they sat down on excellent, comfortable chairs in the 
dining-hall, and together with their friends, relations, 
kinsmen, agnates, cognates and followers, and with 
the Gnktrika. Kshatriyas they partook, ate, tasted, 
and interchanged (bits) of a large collation of food, 
drink, spices, and sweetmeats. (104) 

After dinner they went (to the meeting hall 1 ) after 
having cleansed their mouths and washed ; when 
perfectly clean, they regaled and honoured their 
friends, &c. (see § 104, down to) Gn&trika. Kshatriyas 
with many flowers, clothes, perfumes, garlands, and 
ornaments. Then they spoke thus to their friends, 
&c: (105) 

' Formerly, O beloved of the gods, when we had 
begotten this our boy, the following personal, re- 
flectional, desirable idea occurred to our mind: 
" From the moment that this our boy has been 
begotten, our silver increased, our gold increased, 
&c. (see § 91, down to) Vardhamana, Now our 
wishes have been fulfilled, therefore shall the name 
of our boy be Vardhamana." ' (106, 107) 2 

The Venerable Ascetic Mahavira belonged to the 
Ka^yapa gotra. His three names have thus been 
recorded : by his parents he was called Vardhamana ; 
because he is devoid of love and hate, he is called 
vSYamawa (i. e. Ascetic) ; because he stands fast in 
midst of dangers and fears, patiently bears hard- 
ships and calamities, adheres to the chosen rules of 

1 This is an addition of the commentator. 
* Cf. Ai&ranga Sfltra II, 15, § 12. 



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256 KALPA SOTRA. 



penance, is wise, indifferent to pleasure and pain, 
rich in control, and gifted with fortitude, the name 
Venerable Ascetic Mahavira has been given him by 
the gods. (108) 1 

The Venerable Ascetic Mahivlra's father belonged 
to the Klryapa gotra ; he had three names : Siddhar- 
tha, .SVeyawsa, and (^asa/wsa, &c. (see A^aranga 
Sutra II, 15, § 15, down to) £eshavatt and Yaro- 
vatl. (109) 

The Venerable Ascetic Mahavira — clever, with 
the aspirations of a clever man, of great beauty, con- 
trolling (his senses), lucky, and modest; a Giiktri 
Kshatriya, the son of a Gn&tri Kshatriya; the 
moon of the clan of the Gnktris ', a Videha, the 
son of Videhadatta, a native of Videha, a prince of 
Videha — had lived thirty years in Videha when his 
parents went to the world of the gods (i. e. died), 
and he with the permission of his elder brother and 
the authorities of the kingdom 2 fulfilled his promise. 
At that moment the Laukantika gods, following the 
established custom, praised and hymned him with 
these kind, pleasing, &c. (see § 47, down to) sweet, 
and soft words : (no) 

' Victory, victory to thee, gladdener of the world ! 
Victory, victory to thee, lucky one ! Luck to thee, 
bull of the best Kshatriyas ! Awake, reverend lord 
of the world! Establish the religion of the law 
which benefits all living beings in the whole uni- 
verse! It will bring supreme benefit to all living 
beings in all the world!' 

Thus they raised the shout of victory. (1 1 1) 

1 See AMrSnga Sutra II, 15, § 15. 

* Guru-mahattara is the original of the last words, which I have 
translated according to the explanation of the commentary. 



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LIVES OF THE OINAS. 257 

Before the Venerable Ascetic Mahavira had 
adopted the life of a householder (i.e. before his 
marriage) he possessed supreme, unlimited 1 , unim- 
peded knowledge and intuition. The Venerable 
Ascetic Mahivtra perceived with this his supreme 
unlimited knowledge and intuition that the time 
for his Renunciation 2 had come. He left his silver, 
he left his gold, he left his riches, corn, majesty, 
and kingdom ; his army, grain, treasure, storehouse, 
town, seraglio, and subjects ; he quitted and rejected 
his real, valuable property, such as riches, gold, pre- 
cious stones, jewels, pearls, conches, stones, corals, 
rubies, &c. ; he distributed presents through proper 
persons, he distributed presents among indigent 
persons. (112) 3 

In that period, in that age, in the first month of 
winter, in the first fortnight, in the dark (fortnight) 
of Marga.riras, on its tenth day, when the shadow 
had turned towards the east and the (first) Paurushl 4 
was full and over, on the day called Suvrata, in the 
Muhurta called V^aya, in the palankin Aandra- 
prabha, (Mahavtra) was followed on his way' by 
a train of gods, men, and Asuras, (and surrounded) 
by a swarm of shell-blowers, proclaimers, pattivallas, 

1 Abhogika. It is inferior to the Avadhi knowledge. In a quo- 
tation it is said that (the knowledge) of the Nairayikas, Devas, and 
Tlrthakaras does not reach the Avadhi ; it is total with them, but 
with others only partial. 

* Nishkrama»a=pravra£ya\ 

3 Cf. A/fcaraftga Sutra II, 15, § 17. 

4 Yama or time of three hours. 

* Sama»ugammama»a-magge. The commentator divides sama- 
migammama»am agge, and explains the passage thus : him who 
was followed by, &c, and surrounded by, &c. (agre parivri'tam) they 
praised and hymned, and the authorities spoke thus to him. 

[22] S 



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■■' 5 *B-Jfilg^a=g'~r ^ ■-- ■— S^r - 



258 KALPA SUTRA. 



courtiers, men carrying others on the back, heralds, 
and bell bearers. They praised and hymned him 
with these kind, pleasing, &c. (see $ 47, down to) 
sweet and soft words: (113) 

• Victory, victory to thee, gladdener of the world ! 
Victory to thee, lucky one ! Luck to thee ! with undis- 
turbed knowledge, intuition, and good conduct con- 
quer the unconquered Senses ; defend the conquered 
Law of the .Srama#as ; Majesty, conquering all ob- 
stacles, live in Perfection ; put down with thy devo- 
tion Love and Hate, the (dangerous) wrestlers ; 
vigorously gird thy loins with constancy and over- 
come the eight Karmans, our foes, with supreme, 
pure meditation ; heedful raise the banner of content, 
O Hero ! in the arena of the three worlds gain the 
supreme, best knowledge, called Kevala, which is free 
from obscurity ; obtain the pre-eminent highest rank 
(i. e. final liberation) on that straight road which the 
best G'mas have taught ; beat the army of obstacles ! 
Victory, victory to thee, bull of the best Kshatriyas ! 
Many days, many fortnights, many months, many 
seasons, many half-years, many years be not afraid 
of hardships and calamities, patiently bear dangers 
and fears ; be free from obstacles in the practice of 
the law !' 

Thus they raised the shout of victory. (1 14) 
Then the Venerable Ascetic Mahivlra — gazed on 
by a circle of thousands of eyes \ praised by a circle 
of thousands of mouths, extolled by a circle of thou- 
sands of hearts, being the object of many thousands 
of wishes, desired because of his splendour, beauty, 
and virtues, pointed out by a circle of thousands of 

1 Literally, by thousands of circles of eyes, &c. &c. 



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LIVES OF THE GINAS. 259 

forefingers, answering with (a salam) of his right 
hand a circle of thousands of joined hands of thou- 
sands of men and women, passing along a row of 
thousands of palaces, greeted by sweet and delightful 
music, as beating of time, performance on the Vi«a, 
Turya, and the great drum, in which joined shouts 
of victory, and the low and pleasing murmur of 
the people ; accompanied by all his pomp, all his 
splendour, all his army, all his train, by all his 
retinue, by all his magnificence, by all his grandeur, 
by all his ornaments, by all the tumult, by all the 
throng, by all subjects, by all actors, by all time- 
beaters, by the whole seraglio ; adorned with flowers, 
scented robes, garlands, and ornaments, &c. (see 
§ 102, down to) which were accompanied at the 
same time by trumpets — went right through Kunda- 
pura to a park called the Sha«dfovana of the GMtris 
and proceeded to the excellent tree Aroka. (115) 
There under the excellent tree Asoka he caused 
his palankin to stop, descended from his palankin, 
took oft" his ornaments, garlands, and finery with 
his own hands, and with his own hands plucked 
out his hair in five handfuls. When the moon 
was in conjunction with the asterism Uttaraphal- 
gunt, he, after fasting two and a half days * without 
drinking water, put on a divine robe, and quite 
alone, nobody else being present, he tore out his 
hair and leaving the house entered the state of 
houselessness. (116) 2 

The Venerable Ascetic Mahavlra for a year and 



1 I. e. taking only one meal in three days. He fasted therefore 
two continuous days and the first part of the third. 
* Cf. AHranga Sutra II, 15, § 22. 

S 2 



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260 KALPA sfJTRA. 



a month wore clothes; after that time he walked 
about naked, and accepted the alms in the hollow 
of his hand. For more than twelve years the 
Venerable Ascetic Mahavtra neglected his body 
and abandoned the care of it ; he with equanimity 
bore, underwent, and suffered all pleasant or un- 
pleasant occurrences arising from divine powers, 
men, or animals. {117) 1 

Henceforth the Venerable Ascetic Mahavlra was 
houseless, circumspect 2 in his walking, circumspect 
in his speaking, circumspect in his begging, circum- 
spect in his accepting (anything), in the carrying of his 
outfit and drinking vessel ; circumspect in evacuating 
excrements, urine, saliva, mucus, and uncleanliness of 
the body ; circumspect in his thoughts, circumspect 
in his words, circumspect in his acts 3 ; guarding his 
thoughts, guarding his words, guarding his acts, 
guarding his senses, guarding his chastity ; without 
wrath, without pride, without deceit, without greed ; 
calm, tranquil, composed, liberated, free from temp- 
tations 4 , without egoism, without property; he had 
cut off all earthly ties, and was not stained by any 
worldliness : as water does not adhere to a copper 
vessel, or collyrium to mother of pearl (so sins 
found no place in him) ; his course was unobstructed 
like that of Life ; like the firmament he wanted no 
support ; like the wind he knew no obstacles ; his 
heart was pure like the water (of rivers or tanks) 
in autumn ; nothing could soil him like the leaf of 

1 Cf. Ajaranga Sutra II, 15, § 23. 

* Circumspect is samita, guarding gupta ; the former relates to 
execution of good acts, the latter to the abstinence from bad ones. 
' This is the triad manas mind, va£ speech, kaya body. 
4 Asrava. 



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LIVES OF THE GINAS. 26 1 

a lotus ; his senses were well protected like those 
of a tortoise ; he was single and alone like the horn 
of a rhinoceros ; he was free like a bird ; he was 
always waking like the fabulous bird Bharu^a 1 , 
valorous like an elephant, strong like a bull, difficult 
to attack like a lion, steady and firm like Mount 
Mandara, deep like the ocean, mild like the moon, 
refulgent like the sun, pure like excellent gold 2 ; 
like the earth he patiently bore everything; like 
a well-kindled fire he shone in his splendour. 

These words have been summarised in two 
verses : 

A vessel, mother of pearl, life, firmament, wind, 
water in autumn, leaf of lotus, a tortoise, a bird, 
a rhinoceros, and Bhanwaa; I 

An elephant, a bull, a lion, the king of the moun- 
tains, and the ocean unshaken — the moon, the sun, 
gold, the earth, well-kindled fire. II 

There were no obstacles anywhere for the Vene- 
rable One. The obstacles have been declared to 
be of four kinds, viz. with regard to matter, 
space, time, affects. With regard to matter : in 

1 Each of these birds has one body, two necks, and three legs. 

9 The last three similes cannot be translated accurately, as they 
contain puns which must be lost in the translation. The moon is 
somalese, of soft light, but Mahavtra has pure thoughts (le.rya, 
manaso bahirvikara) ; the sun is dittateo of splendent light, 
MahavSra of splendent vigour; gold is ^ayaruva, a synonym of 
ka«aga gold, Mahavira always retains his own nature. It is 
worthy of remark that only two regular puns (for the second is 
but a common metaphor) occur in a passage in which a later 
writer would have strained his genius to the utmost to turn every 
simile into a pun. The difference of style is best seen on comparing 
this passage with e. g. the description of the nun Sarasvati and of 
autumn in the Kalak&t&rya Kath&naka ; see my edition, Zeitschrift 
der Deutschen Morgenl. Gesellschaft, XXXIV, pp. 260, 263. 



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262 KALPA SfJTRA. 



things animate, inanimate, and of a mixed state ; 
with regard to space : in a village or a town or 
in a wood or in a field or a threshing-floor or a 
house * or a court-yard ; with regard to time : in 
a Samaya 2 or an Avalika or in the time of a respir- 
ation or in a Stoka or in a Ksha«a or in a Lava 
or in a Muhurta or in a day or in a fortnight or in 
a month or in a season or in a half year or in a year 
or in a long space of time ; with regard to affects : 
in wrath or in pride or in deceit or in greed or in 
fear or in mirth or in love or in hate or in quarrelling 
or in calumny or in tale-bearing or in scandal or in 
pleasure or pain or in deceitful falsehood, &c. (all 
down to) s or in the evil of wrong belief. There was 
nothing of this kind in the Venerable One. (118) 

The Venerable One lived, except in the rainy 
season, all the eight months of summer and winter, 
in villages only a single night, in towns only five 
nights ; he was indifferent alike to the smell of 
ordure and of sandal, to straw and jewels, dirt and 
gold, pleasure and pain, attached neither to this 
world nor to that beyond, desiring neither life nor 
death, arrived at the other shore of the sawsara, 
and he exerted himself for the suppression of the 
defilement of Karman. (119) 

1 Ghare v£, omitted in my edition. 

* Different names of divisions of time ; a Stoka contains seven 
respirations, a Ksha«a many (bahutara) respirations (according to 
another commentary a Kshawa contains six Narfikas, it is the sixth • 
part of a Gha/i), a Lava contains seven Stokas, and a Muhurta 
seventy Lavas. This system of dividing time differs from all other 
known; compare Colebrooke,Misc.Essays,IP,pp.540,54i. Wilson, 
Vishnu Pura»a,I*,p.47,note2. — Expunge pakkhe va in my edition. 

' The same passage occurs in the Aupapatika Sutra (ed. Leu- 
mann, § 87), but without an indication that it is not complete. 



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LIVES OF THE GINAS. 26.3 

With supreme knowledge, with supreme intuition, 
with supreme conduct, in blameless lodgings, in 
blameless wandering, with supreme valour, with 
supreme uprightness, with supreme mildness, with 
supreme dexterity, with supreme patience, with su- 
preme freedom from passions, with supreme control, 
with supreme contentment, with supreme under- 
standing, on the supreme path to final liberation, 
which is the fruit of veracity, control, penance, and 
good conduct, the Venerable One meditated on him- 
self for twelve years. 

During the thirteenth year, in the second month 
of summer, in the fourth fortnight, the light (fort- 
night) of Vaisakha, on its tenth day, when the shadow 
had turned towards the east and the first wake was 
over, on the day called Suvrata, in the Muhurta 
called Vi^aya, outside of the town (Jmnbhikagrama 
on the bank of the river Ri^upalika, not far from an 
old temple, in the field of the householder Samaga 1 , 
under a Sal tree, when the moon was in conjunction 
with the asterism Uttaraphalgunl, (the Venerable One) 
in a squatting position with joined heels, exposing 
himself to the heat of the sun, after fasting two 
and a half days without drinking water, being 
engaged in deep meditation, reached the highest 
knowledge and intuition, called Kevala, which is 
infinite, supreme, unobstructed, unimpeded, complete, 
and full. (120) 2 

When the Venerable Ascetic Mahavira had 
become a G'mz. and Arhat, he was a Kevalin, 
omniscient and comprehending all objects; he 
knew and saw all conditions of the world, of gods, 

1 Or SSmaka. J Cf. AAiranga Sfitra II, 15, § 25. 



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264 KALPA SOTRA. 



men, and demons : whence they come, whither they 
go, whether they are born as men or animals 
(^yavana) or become gods or hell-beings (upapada), 
the ideas, the thoughts of their minds, the food, 
doings, desires, the open and secret deeds of all 
the living beings in the whole world; he the 
Arhat, for whom there is no secret, knew and saw 
all conditions of all living beings in the world, 
what they thought, spoke, or did at any mo- 
ment. (121) 1 

In that period, in that age the Venerable Ascetic 
Mahavlra stayed the first rainy season in Asthika- 
grama 2 , three rainy seasons in Aampa and Vrtshti- 
£ampa, twelve in VaLrall and Va»i^agrama, fourteen in 
Ra^agrzha and the suburb 3 of Nalanda, six in Mithila, 
two in Bhadrika, one in Alabhika, one in Pawita- 
bhumi*, one in .Sravastl, one in the town of Papa 6 
in king Hastipila's office of the writers : that was 
his very last rainy season. (122) 

In the fourth month of that rainy season, in the 
seventh fortnight, in the dark (fortnight) of Kart- 
tika, on its fifteenth day, in the last night, in the 
town of Papa, in king Hastipala's office of the 
writers, the Venerable Ascetic Mahavlra died, went 
off, quitted the world, cut asunder the ties of birth, 
old age, and death; became a Siddha, a Buddha, 

1 Cf. kkirkhga. Sutra II, 15, § 26. 

* According to the commentary it was formerly called Vardha- 
mSna, but it has since been called Asthikagr&ma, because a Yaksha 
Sulapawf had there collected an enormous heap of bones of the 
people whom he had killed. On that heap of bones the inhabitants 
had built a temple. 

3 Bihirika? 

4 A place in Va^rabhumi according to the commentaries. 
6 MaggMm& Papi, the middle town PSpl 



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LIVES OF THE GINAS. 265 

a Mukta, a maker of the end (to all misery), finally 
liberated, freed from all pains. (123) 

This occurred in the year called Aandra, the 
second (of the lustrum) 1 ; in the month called 
Prltivardhana ; in the fortnight Nandivardhana ; 
on the day Suvratagni 8 , surnamed Upa^ama ; in 
the night called Devananda, surnamed Nim'ti ; in 
the Lava called Anfcya; in the respiration called 
Mukta*; in the Stoka called Siddha; in the Kara«a 
called Naga; in the Muhurta called Sarvartha- 
siddha ; while the moon was in conjunction with the 
asterism Svati he died, &c. (see above, all down 
to) freed from all pains. (124) 

That night in which the Venerable Ascetic Maha- 
vira died, &c. (all down to) freed from all pains, 
was lighted up by many descending and ascending 
gods. (125) 

In that night in which the Venerable Ascetic 
Mahavlra died, &c. (all down to) freed from all 
pains, a great confusion and noise was originated 
by many descending and ascending gods. (126) 

In that night in which the Venerable Ascetic 
Mahavlra died, &c. (all down to) freed from all 
pains, his oldest disciple, the monk Indrabhuti of 
the Gautama gotra, cut asunder the tie of friend- 
ship which he had for his master 4 , and obtained the 



1 The yuga or lustrum contains five years ; the third and fifth 
years are leap years, called abhivardhita, the rest are common years 
of 354 days and are called £andra. The day has 1362 bh&gas. 

3 Some MSS. and the commentary have aggivesa. 
' Or Supta. 

4 Indrabhuti was on a mission to convert somebody when 
Mahivfra died. Being aware that love had no place in one who is 
free from passion, he suppressed his friendship for his teacher and 



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266 KALPA SfJTRA. 



highest knowledge and intuition, called. Kevala, which 
is infinite, supreme, &c, complete, and full. (127) 

In that night in which the Venerable Ascetic 
Mahavlra died, &c. (all down to) freed from all 
pains, the eighteen confederate kings of K&st and 
Kosala, the nine Mallakis and nine Li^i^avis 1 , on 
the day of new moon, instituted an illumination 2 
on the Poshadha, which was a fasting day ; for they 
said : ' Since the light of intelligence is gone, let us 
make an illumination of material matter!' (128) 

In that night in which the Venerable Ascetic 
Mahavlra died, &c. (all down to) freed from all 
pains, the great Graha 8 called Kshudratma, re- 
sembling a heap of ashes, which remains for two 
thousand years in one asterism, entered the natal 

became a Kevalin; he died twelve years after, having lived fifty years 
as a monk, and altogether ninety-two years. 

' They were tributary to A*e/aka, king of Vairilf and maternal 
uncle of Mahavlra. Instead of Li£Mavi, which form is used by the 
Buddhists, the Gainas have Lekk/taki as the Sanskrit form of the 
Prakrit Le££Aat, which may be either. 

* P4r&bhoya« or vdribhoyaw. The meaning of this word is not 
clear, and the commentator also did not know, anything certain 
about it. He therefore tries three different etymological explana- 
tions, which are all equally fanciful. I have adopted one which 
makes varibhoya to stand for Sanskrit dvaribhoga, which is 
explained pr&dtpa, lamp; for this best suits the meaning of the 
whole passage. The (Tainas celebrate the NirvS«a of MahSvJra 
with an illumination on the night of new moon in the month 
Kirttika. 

3 It is not clear what is intended by this Graha, the thirtieth in 
the list of Grahas. Stevenson supposes it to have been a comet 
appearing at that time. There was a comet at the time of the battle 
of Salamis, as Pliny tells us, Hist. Nat. II, 25, which would answer 
pretty well as regards chronology. But it had the form of a horn 
and not that of a heap of ashes. We must therefore dismiss the 
idea of identifying it with the Graha in question, and confess that 
we are at a loss to clear up the mystery of this Graha. 



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LIVES OF THE GIN AS. 267 

asterism of the Venerable Ascetic Mahavira. (129) 
From the moment in which the great Graha, &c, 
entered the natal asterism of the Venerable Ascetic 
Mahavira, there will not be paid much respect and 
honour to the .Sramawas, the Nirgrantha monks 
and nuns. (130) But when the great Graha, &c, 
leaves that natal asterism, there will be paid much 
respect and honour to the .Srama«as, the Nirgrantha 
monks and nuns. (131) 

In that night in which the Venerable Ascetic 
Mahavira died, &c. (all down to) freed from all 
pains, the animalcule called Anuddharl was origi- 
nated : which when at rest and not moving, is not 
easily seen by Nirgrantha monks and nuns who 
have not yet reached the state of perfection, but 
which when moving and not at rest, is easily seen 
by Nirgrantha monks and nuns who have not yet 
reached the state of perfection. (132) On seeing 
this (animalcule) many Nirgrantha monks and nuns 
must refuse to accept the offered alms. 

' Master, why has this been said ?' 'After this time 
the observance of control will be difficult.' (133) 

In that period, in that age the Venerable 
Ascetic Mahavira had an excellent community 1 of 
fourteen thousand 6rama»as with Indrabhuti at 
their head; (134) thirty-six thousand nuns with 
bandana at their head; (135) one hundred and 
fifty-nine thousand lay votaries with .Sankhasataka 
at their head; (136) three hundred and eighteen 

1 The original has: ukkosiya samawasawpaya ; ukkosiya is 
translated utkrt'sh/a; in the sequel I abridge the similar passages 
which are all constructed on the same model as § 1 34. It is to be 
noticed that these numbers though exaggerated are nevertheless 
rather moderate. Compare the note to the List of the Sthaviras, § 1 . 



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268 KALPA SfjTRA. 



thousand female lay votaries with Sulasa and Revat! 
at their head ; (137) three hundred sages who knew 
the fourteen Purvas, who though no 6"inas came 
very near them, who knew the combination of all 
letters, and like Gina. preached according to the 
truth; (138) thirteen hundred sages who were 
possessed of the Avadhi-knowledge and superior 
qualities; (139) seven hundred Kevalins who pos- 
sessed the combined 1 best knowledge and intui- 
tion; (140) seven hundred who could transform 
themselves, and, though no gods, had obtained 
the powers (rc'ddhi) of gods; (141) five hundred 
sages of mighty intellect 2 who know the mental 
conditions of all developed beings possessed of 
intellect and five senses in the two and a half conti- 
nents and two oceans ; (142) four hundred professors 
who were never vanquished in the disputes occurring 
in the assemblies of gods, men, and Asuras ; (143) 
seven hundred male and fourteen hundred female 
disciples who reached perfection, &c. (all downto) 
freed from all pains; (144) eight hundred sages in 
their last birth who were happy as regards their 
station, happy as regards their existence 8 , lucky as 
regards their future. (145) 



1 Sambhinna. According to the commentary this word has been 
explained in two opposite ways. Siddhasena Divikara makes it out 
to denote that knowledge and intuition functionate at the same 
time, while Ginabhadragam in the SiddhSntahr/daya says that in 
our case knowledge and intuition do functionate alternately. 

9 This is that knowledge which is called mana£parydya or the 
knowledge which divines the thoughts of all people. 

' Station (gati) is explained devagati, state of the gods, ex- 
istence (sthiti), devasthiti, deviyurupa, existence of the gods, 
having the length of life of the gods. 



Google 



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LIVES OF THE CINAS. 269 

The Venerable Ascetic Mahavlra instituted two 
epochs in his capacity of a Maker of an end : the 
epoch relating to generations, and the epoch relat- 
ing to psychical condition; in the third generation 
ended the former epoch, and in the fourth year of 
his Kevaliship the latter. (146) 1 

In that period, in that age the Venerable Ascetic 
Mahavlra lived thirty years as a householder, more 
than full twelve years in a state inferior to perfec- 
tion, something less than thirty years as a Kevalin, 
forty-two years as a monk, and seventy-two years 
on the whole. When his Karman which produces 
Vedaniya (or what one has to experience in this 
world), Ayus (length of life), name, and family, had 
been exhausted, when in this Avasarpi«l era the 
greater part of the Du^shamasushama period had 
elapsed and only three years and eight and a half 
months were left, when the moon was in conjunction 
with the asterism Svati, at the time of early morning, 
in the town of Papa, and in king Hastipala's office 
of the writers, (Mahavlra) single and alone, sitting 
in the Samparyahka posture, reciting the fifty-five 
lectures which detail the results of Karman, and the 
thirty-six 2 unasked questions, when he just explained 
the chief lecture (that of Marudeva) he died, &c. 
(see § 124, all down to) freed from all pains. (147) 

1 The meaning of this rather dark passage is according to the 
commentary that after three generations of disciples (Vira, Sudhar- 
man, Gambusvamin) nobody reached Nirvana ; and after the fourth 
year of Mahavlra's Kevaliship nobody entered the path which ends 
in final liberation, so that all persons who before that moment had 
not advanced in the way to final liberation, will not reach that state 
though they may obtain the Kevalam by their austerities and 
exemplary conduct. 

* This is the Uttaridhyayana Sutra. 



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27O KALPA S6TRA. 



Since the time that the Venerable Ascetic Maha- 
vira died, &c. (all down to) freed from all pains, 
nine centuries have elapsed, and of the tenth century 
this is the eightieth year. Another redaction has 
ninety-third year (instead of eightieth) 1 . (148) 



End of the Fifth Lecture. 



End of the Life of Mahavfra. 



1 To what facts the two dates in this paragraph relate, is not 
certain. The commentators confess that there was no fixed tradi- 
tion, and bring forward the following four facts, which are applied 
at will to either date : 

1. The council of Valabhi under the presidency of Devarddhi, 
who caused the Siddhanta to be written in books. 

2. The council of Mathura under the presidency of Skandila, 
who seems to have revised the Siddhanta. 

3. The public reading of the Kalpa Sutra before king Dhruva- 
sena of Anandapura, to console him on the death of his son. 
Anandapura is identified with Mahasthina by Ginaprabhamuni, and 
with IWanagara by Samayasundara. Some scholars have assumed, 
but not proved, that this Dhruvasena is identical with one of the 
Valabhi kings of the same name. 

4. The removal of the Paggusan by KalakaMrya from the fifth 
to the fourth Bhadrapada. 



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LIVES OF THE GINAS. 27 1 



LIFE OF PARSVA. 

In that period, in that age lived the Arhat Parcva, 
the people's favourite l , the five most important 
moments of whose life happened when the moon 
was in conjunction with the asterism VLyakha : in 
Vi^ikha he descended (from heaven), and having 
descended thence, entered the womb (of his mother); 
in Visakha he was born ; in VLrakha, tearing out his 
hair, he left the house and entered the state of 
houselessness ; in VLrakha he obtained the highest 
knowledge and intuition, called Kevala, which is 
infinite, supreme, unobstructed, unimpeded, complete, 
and full ; in Vwakha he obtained final liberation. (149) 

In that period, in that age, in the first month of 
summer, in the first fortnight, the dark (fortnight) of 
A!aitra, on its fourth day, the Arhat Par^va, the 
people's favourite, descended from the Pri«ata 
Kalpa 2 , where he had lived for twenty Sagaropamas, 
here on the continent £ambudvlpa, in Bharatavarsha, 
in the town of Benares ; and in the middle of the 
night when the moon was in conjunction with the 
asterism Visakha, after the termination of his allotted 
length of life, divine nature, and existence (among 
the gods), he took the form of an embryo in the 
womb of the queen Varna, wife of Asvasena, king 
(of Benares). (150) 

The knowledge of the Arhat Parrva, the people's 

1 Purisadl»tya, explained: who is to be chosen among men 
because of his preferable karroan. 
* This is the tenth world of the gods. 



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272 KALPA SfJTRA. 



favourite, (about this) was threefold, &c. (repeat 
§§ 3-95 after making the necessary substitutions, 
and omitting what exclusively applies to Maha- 
vira, all down to) comfortably carried her unborn 
child. (151) 

In that period, in that age the Arhat Pirjva, the 
people's favourite l — after the lapse of nine months 
and seven and a half days, in the second month of 
winter, in the third fortnight, the dark (fortnight) of 
Paushya, on its tenth day, in the middle of the night 
when the moon was in conjunction with the asterism 
Vbakhi — (Varna), perfectly healthy herself, gave 
birth to a perfectly healthy boy. (152) 

In that night in which the Arhat Parrva, the 
people's favourite, was born, &c. (repeat §§ 97-107 
with the necessary alterations, all down to) therefore 
shall the name of our boy be Parsva 2 . (153, 154) 

The Arhat Parsva, the people's favourite, clever, 
with the aspirations of a clever man, of great 
beauty, controlling his senses, lucky, and modest, 
lived thirty years as a householder. Then the 
Laukantika gods, following the established custom, 
addressed him with these kind, pleasing, &c, sweet, 
and soft words: (155) 

' Victory, victory to thee, gladdener of the world!' 
(see § in, down to) Thus they raised the shout of 
victory. (156) Before the Arhat Parrva, the people's 
favourite, had adopted the life of a householder, &c. 
(see {112, down to) indigent persons. 

1 As regards the construction of this passage compare § 96, 
note 1. 

1 This name was given him because before his birth his mother, 
lying on her couch, saw in the dark a black serpent crawling about 
This is the account given by the commentator, who forgets to tell 
us how it comes to bear on the name Pawva. 



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LIVES OF THE GINAS. 273 

In the second month of winter, in the third 
fortnight, the dark (fortnight) of Paushya, on its 
eleventh day, in the middle of the night, riding in 
his palankin called Vwala, followed on his way 
by a train of gods, men, and Asuras, &c. (Parcva) 
went right through the town of Benares to the park 
called Asramapada, and proceeded to the excellent 
tree A^oka. There, &c. (see § 116, down to) five 
handfuls. 

When the moon was in conjunction with the 
asterism Vwakha, he, after fasting three and a half 
days without drinking water, put on a divine robe, 
and together with three hundred men he tore out 
his hair, and leaving the house entered the state of 
houselessness. (157) 

The Arhat Panva, the people's favourite, for 
eighty-three days neglected his body, &c. (see ^117, 
down to) animals. (158) 

Thereafter the Arhat Panrva, the people's favourite, 
was houseless, circumspect, &c. (see §§ 1 18-1 20, down 
to) meditated upon himself for eighty-three days. 

During the eighty-fourth day — it was in the first 
month of summer, in the first fortnight, the dark 
(fortnight) of .Afaitra, on its fourth day, in the early 
part of the day, when the moon was in conjunction 
with the asterism Vi^akha — Parrva, under a Dhataki 
tree, after fasting two and a half days without 
drinking water, being engaged in deep meditation, 
reached the infinite, &c. (see § 120, down to) highest 
knowledge and intuition called Kevala, &c. (see 
§ 121, down to) moment. (159) 

The Arhat Parsva, the people's favourite, had 
eight Gawas and eight Gawadharas (enumerated in 
a 51oka) : 

[aa] T 



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2 74 KALPA SUTRA. 



.Subha and Aryaghosha, Vasish/^a x and Brahma- 
>£arin, Saumya and .Srldhara, Vlrabhadra and 
Yaras. (160) 

The Arhat Parsva, the people's favourite, had an 
excellent community of sixteen thousand 5rama«as 
with Aryadatta 8 at their head; (161) thirty-eight 
thousand nuns with Pushpa/'ula at their head; (162) 
one hundred and sixty-four thousand lay votaries 
with Suvrata at their head; (163) three hundred 
and twenty-seven thousand female lay votaries with 
Sunanda at their head; (164) three hundred and fifty 
sages who knew the fourteen Purvas, &c. (see § 138) ; 
(165) fourteen hundred sages who were possessed 
of the Avadhi knowledge ; one thousand Kevalins ; 
eleven hundred sages who could transform them- 
selves, six hundred sages of correct knowledge, one 
thousand male and two thousand female disciples 
who had reached perfection, seven hundred and fifty 
sages of vast intellect, six hundred professors, and 
twelve hundred sages in their last birth. (166) 

The Arhat Parcva, the people's favourite, insti- 
tuted two epochs in his capacity of a Maker of an 
end : the epoch relating to generations and the 
epoch relating to psychical condition; the former 
ended in the fourth generation, the latter in the 
third year of his Kevaliship. (167) 

In that period, in that age the Arhat Parrva, the 
people's favourite, lived thirty years as a house- 
holder, eighty-three days in a state inferior to per- 
fection, something less than seventy years as a 
Kevalin, full seventy years as a 5rama«a, and a 
hundred years on the whole. 

1 C. has Visi/Ma, i. e. Vwish/a. ' Ariyadinna in the original. 



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LIVES OF THE GINAS. 275 

When his fourfold Karman 1 was exhausted and in 
this Avasarpi«l era the greater part of the Du^sha- 
masushama period had elapsed, in the first month of 
the rainy season, in the second fortnight, the light 
(fortnight) of .Sravawa, on its eighth day, in the early 
part of the day when the moon was in conjunction 
with the asterism Visakha, (Parcva), after fasting a 
month without drinking water, on the summit of 
mount Sammeta, in the company of eighty-three 
persons, stretching out his hands, died, &c. (all down 
to) freed from all pains. (168) 

Since the time that the Arhat Par^va, the people's 
favourite, died, &c. (all down to) freed from all 
pains, twelve centuries have elapsed, and of the 
thirteenth century this is the thirtieth year. (169) 



End of the Life of Parrva. 



1 See § 147- 



T 2 



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276 KALPA SOTRA. 



LIFE OF ARISH7ANEMI. 

In that period, in that age lived the Arhat 
Arish/anemi, the five most important moments of 
whose life happened when the moon was in conjunc- 
tion with the asterism A!ltra. In A~itra he descended 
from heaven, &c. (see § 149, down to) obtained final 
liberation. (170) 

In that period, in that age, in the fourth month of 
the rainy season, in the seventh fortnight, the dark 
(fortnight) of Karttika, on its twelfth day, the Arhat 
Arish/anemi descended from the great Vimana, 
called Apar&fita, where he had lived for thirty-six 
Sagaropamas, here on the continent (Sambudvipa, in 
Bharatavarsha, in the town of .Sauripura 1 , and in the 
middle of the night when the moon was in conjunc- 
tion with the asterism A'itra, he took the form of 
an embryo in the womb of the queen .Siva, wife 
of the king Samudravi^aya, &c. (the seeing of the 
dreams, the accumulation of riches, &c, should be 
repeated here). (171) 

In that period, in that age the Arhat Arish/a- 
nemi — after the lapse of nine months and seven and 
a half days, in the first month of the rainy season, in 
the second fortnight, the light (fortnight) of .Srava»a, 
on its fifth day, &c. — (-Siva), perfectly healthy herself, 
gave birth to a perfectly healthy boy. (Repeat the 
account of the birth, substituting the name Samudra- 



1 The Prakrit form is Soriyapura, which would correspond to 
Sanskrit .Saurikapura. It is, of course, Krishna's town. 



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LIVES OF THE GINAS. 277 

vi^aya, all down to) therefore shall the name of our 
boy be Arish/anemi \ 

The Arhat Arish/anemi, clever, &c. (see §§ 155— 
157, all down to) indigent persons. (172) In the first 
month of the rainy season, in the second fortnight, 
the light (fortnight) of .Sravawa, on its sixth day 
riding in his palankin called Uttarakura, and fol- 
lowed on his way by a train of gods, men, and 
Asuras, &c. (Arish/anemi) went right through the 
town of Dvaravatl to the park called Revatika, and 
proceeded to the excellent A$oka tree. There, &c. 
(see $ 116, down to) five handfuls. When the moon 
was in conjunction with the asterism A"itra, after 
fasting two and a half days without drinking water, 
he put on a divine robe, and together with a thou- 
sand persons he tore out his hair, and leaving the 
house entered the state of houselessness. (173) 

The Arhat Arish/anemi for fifty-four days neg- 
lected his body, &c. (see §§ 11 7-1 20). During the 
fifty-fifth day — it was in the third month of the rainy 
season, in the fifth fortnight, the dark fortnight of 
A^vina, on its fifteenth day, in the last part of the 
day, when the moon was in conjunction with the 
asterism A'itra — (Arish/anemi) under a Ve/asa 2 tree 
on the summit of mount Girnar 3 , after fasting 
three and a half days without drinking water, &c, 
obtained infinite, &c, highest knowledge and in- 
tuition called Kevala, &c. (see § 121, down to) 
moment. (174) 

1 His mother saw in a dream a nemi, the outer rim of a wheel, 
which consisted of rish/a stones flying up to the sky. Hence the 
name Arish/anemi. 

* Va/a in some MSS.; it is the Banyan tree. 

* Ug^inta in the original. 



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278 KALPA SOTRA. 



The Arhat Arish/anemi had eighteen Ga»as and 
eighteen Ga«adharas. (175) 

The Arhat Arish/anemi had an excellent commu- 
nity of eighteen thousand .Srama«as with Varadatta 
at their head ; (176) forty thousand nuns with Arya 
Yakshi«i at their head ; (1 77) one hundred and sixty- 
nine thousand lay votaries with Nanda at their head ; 
( 1 78) three hundred and thirty-six thousand 1 female 
lay votaries with MahAsuvrata at their head; (179) 
four hundred sages who knew the fourteen Purvas, 
&c; (180) fifteen hundred sages who were possessed 
of the A vadhi knowledge ; fifteen hundred Kevalins ; 
fifteen hundred sages who could transform them- 
selves ; one thousand sages of vast intellect ; eight 
hundred professors; sixteen hundred sages in their 
last birth ; fifteen hundred male and three thousand 
female disciples who had reached perfection. 

The Arhat Arish/anemi instituted, &c. (see § 146, 
down to) the former ended in the eighth generation, 
the latter in the twelfth year of his Kevaliship. (181) 

In that period, in that age the Arhat Arish/anemi 
lived three centuries as a prince, fifty-four days in 
a state inferior to perfection, something less than 
seven centuries as a Kevalin, full seven centuries as 
a >Srama#a, a thousand years on the whole. When 
his fourfold Karman was exhausted and in this Ava- 
sarpiwi era a great part of the Du^shamasushama 
period had elapsed, in the fourth month of summer, 
in the eighth fortnight, the light (fortnight) of 
AshaaJfca, on its eighth day, in the middle of the 
night when the moon was in conjunction with the 
asterism A"itra, (Arish/anemi), after fasting a month 

1 Read Mattisaw in the printed text. 



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LIVES OF THE GIN AS. 279 

without drinking water, on the summit of mount 
Girnar, in the company of five hundred and thirty- 
six monks, in a squatting position, died, &c. (all 
down to) freed from all pains. (182) 

Since the time that the Arhat Arish/anemi died, 
&c. (all down to) freed from all pains, eighty-four 
thousand years have elapsed, of the eighty-fifth 
millennium nine centuries have elapsed, of the tenth 
century this is the eightieth year. (183) 



End of the Life of Arish/anemi. 



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280 KALPA SUTRA. 



EPOCHS OF THE INTERMEDIATE 
TlRTHAKARAS. 

Since the time that the Arhat Nami died, &c. 
(all down to) freed from all pains, 584,979 years 
have elapsed, this is the eightieth year 1 . (184) 
Since the death of Munisuvrata this is the year 
1,184,980. Since Malli 2 this is the year 6,584,980. 
Ara died 10,000,000 years before Malli; Kunthu a 
quarter of a Palyopama before Malli; >S"anti three- 
quarters of a Palyopama; Dharma three Sagaro- 
pamas before Malli; Ananta seven Sagaropamas 
before Malli; Vimala sixteen Sagaropamas before 
Malli; Vasupu^ya forty Sagaropamas before Malli; 
■SYeyawsa a hundred Sagaropamas before Malli. 
.Sttala died a krore of Sagaropamas, less 42,003 
years and eight and a half months, before the death 
ofVlra. Suvidhi, surnamed Pushpadanta, died 
ten krores of Sagaropamas before .Sltala ; A"andra- 
prabha a hundred krores of Sagaropamas before 
61tala ; Suparsva a thousand krores of Sagaro- 
pamas before iSltala ; Padmaprabha ten thousand 
krores of Sagaropamas before .Sltala ; Sumati one 
hundred thousand krores of Sagaropamas before 
iSltala; Abhinandana one million krores of Sagaro- 
pamas before .Sltala ; Sambhava two million krores 
of Sagaropamas before 51tala; A^ita five million 
krores of Sagaropamas before .Sltala. (185-203) 

1 The numbers are given in the same way as in § 183. I have 
abridged these tedious accounts. All Tirthakaras except Mahavira 
have the title Arhat, which I have dropped in the sequel. 

' Read Malli (for Mali) in the printed edition of the text. 



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LIVES OF THE GINAS. 28 1 



LIFE OF /?/SHABHA. 

In that period, in that age lived the Arhat 
/frshabha, the Koralian 1 , four important moments 
of whose life happened when the moon was in con- 
junction with the asterism Uttarashaa^a; the fifth, 
when in conjunction with Abhi^it : (204) in Uttara- 
shaa^a he descended from heaven, &c. (all down to) 
in Abhifit he obtained final liberation. (205) 

In that period, in that age, in the fourth month 
of summer, in the seventh fortnight, the dark (fort- 
night) of AshadJ6a, on its fourth day, the Arhat 
/frshabha, the Koralian, descended from the great 
Vimana called Sarvarthasiddha, where he had lived 
for thirty-three Sagaropamas, here on the continent 
Gambudvipa, in Bharatavarsha, in Ikshvakubhfimi, 
and in the middle of the night, &c, he took the form 
of an embryo in the womb of Marudevl, wife of 
the patriarch 2 Nabhi. (206) 

The knowledge of the Arhat ifrshabha about 
this, &c. (all as in the case of Mahavlra, but note 
the following differences : the first dream is a bull 
' coming forward with his face,' the other (mothers 
of Tlrthakaras see -first) an elephant. She (Maru- 
devl) relates them to Nabhi, the patriarch ; there 

1 Kosaliya=Kaujalika. He is thus called because he was bom 
in KoszM or AyodhyS. 

* Kulakara; these Kulakaras were the first kings and founders of 
families at the time when the rest of mankind were ' Yugalins.' 
The first Kulakara was Vimalavahana ; the seventh and last of the 
line Nabhi. 



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282 KALPA sOtRA. 



are no interpreters of dreams ; Nabhi, the patriarch, 
himself interprets them). (207) 

In that period, in that age the Arhat Rishabha., 
the Koyalian,- — in the first month of summer, in the 
first fortnight, the dark (fortnight) of Aaitra, on its 
eighth day, &c, — (Marudevi), perfectly healthy her- 
self, gave birth to a perfectly healthy boy. (208) 

(The circumstances connected with the birth of 
jRishabha. are the same as in the case of that of 
Mahavtra, only that the contents of §§ 100 and 10 1 
do not apply to the present case.) (209) 

The Arhat ^'shabha, the Koyalian, belonged to 
the Ka^yapa gotra, and he had five names : ifo'sha- 
bha, First King, First Mendicant, First Cina, and 
First Tirthakara. (210) 

The Arhat jRishabha., the Koralian, clever, with 
the aspirations of a clever man, of great beauty, 
controlling (his senses), lucky, and modest, lived two 
millions of former years 1 as a prince, and six mil- 
lions three hundred thousand former years as a king. 
During his reign he taught, for the benefit of the 
people, the seventy-two sciences, of which writing is 
the first, arithmetic the most important, and the 
knowledge of omens the last, the sixty-four accom- 
plishments of women, the hundred arts, and the 
three occupations of men 2 . At last he anointed his 

1 See A&iranga Sutra 1, 6, 3, § 2, note 1. 

a The arts, as those of the potter, blacksmith, painter, weaver, 
and barber, each of which five principal arts is subdivided into 
twenty branches, are inventions and must be taught ; while the occu- 
pations, agriculture, trade, &c. have everywhere developed, as it 
were, of themselves. The accomplishments of women are dancing, 
singing, &c. The commentator adds to these a detailed list of 
those questionable accomplishments which VatsySyana has so 
curiously described, and refers the reader to the Gayamangala for 
further details. The latter work, a still extant commentary on the 



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LIVES OF THE GIN AS. 283 

hundred sons as kings, and gave each a kingdom. 
Then the Laukantika god, following the established 
custom, &c. (see §§ 1 10-1 1 2, down to) indigent per- 
sons. In the first month of summer, in the first 
fortnight, the dark (fortnight) of Aaitra, on its eighth 
day, in the latter part of the day, riding in his palan- 
kin called Sudarsani, followed on his way by a train 
of gods, men, and Asuras, &c. (Jftshabha) went right 
through the town Vintta to the park called Siddhar- 
tha Vana, and proceeded to the excellent tree Asoka. 
There, &c. (see § 116, down to) four handfuls. 
When the moon was in conjunction with the asterism 
Ashaa^a, he, after fasting two and a half days 
without drinking water, put on a divine robe, and 
together with four thousand of high, noble, royal 
persons, and Kshatriyas, he tore out his hair, and 
leaving the house entered the state of houseless- 
ness. (211) 

The Arhat ^'shabha, the Koyalian, for one thou- 
sand years neglected his body, &c. (see $ 11 7-1 20, 
down to) meditated upon himself for one thousand 
years. Thereupon — it was in the fourth month of 
winter, the seventh fortnight, the dark (fortnight) of 
Phalguna, on its eleventh day, in the early part of 
the day, when the moon was in conjunction with the 
asterism Asha«$4a, outside of the town Purimatala, 
in the park called vSaka/amukha, under the excellent 
tree Nyagrodha — (Z&shabha) after fasting three and 
a half days without drinking water, being engaged in 
deep meditation, reached the infinite, &c. (see § 1 20, 
down to) highest knowledge and intuition called 
Kevala, &c. (see $121, down to) moment (212) 

Kama Sfitra, must therefore be older than 1307, the date of Ginapra- 
bhamuni's commentary on the Kalpa Sutra. 



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284 KALPA SCTRA. 



The Arhat ifoshabha, the Kosalian, had eighty- 
four. Ga«as and eighty-four Ga#adharas. (2 1 3) 

The Arhat ^z'shabha, the Kosalian, had an excel- 
lent community of eighty-four thousand .Sramawas 
with -tfzshabhasena at their head; (214) three hun- 
dred thousand nuns with Brahmlsundart at their 
head; (215) three hundred and five thousand lay 
votaries with .SVeyawsa at their head; (216) five 
hundred and fifty-four thousand female lay votaries 
with Subhadra at their head; (217) four thousand 
seven hundred and fifty sages who knew the fourteen 
Purvas, &c. ; (218) nine thousand sages who were 
possessed of the Avadhi knowledge; (219) twenty 
thousand Kevalins ; (220) twenty thousand six hun- 
dred sages who could transform themselves ; (221) 
twelve thousand six hundred and fifty sages of vast 
intellect, &c; (222) twelve thousand six hundred 
and fifty professors ; (223) twenty thousand male 
and forty thousand female disciples who had reached 
perfection ; (224) twenty-two thousand nine hundred 
sages in their last birth, &c. (225) 

The Arhat .tf/shabha, the Kosalian, instituted, &c. 
(see § 146, down to) the former ended after number- 
less generations, the latter from the next Muhurta 
after his Kevaliship. (226) * 

In that period, in that age the Arhat ifrshabha, 
the Koyalian, lived two millions of former years 
as a prince, six millions three hundred thousand 
former years as a king, together eight millions 
three hundred thousand former years as a house- 
holder ; a thousand (former) years in a state 
inferior to perfection, nine-and-ninety thousand 
former years as a Kevalin, together a hundred 
thousand former years as a .Sramawa, and eight 



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LIVES OF THE GINAS. 285 

millions four hundred thousand years on the whole. 
When his fourfold Karman was exhausted, and in 
this Avasarpiwi era the Sushamadu^shama period 
had nearly elapsed, only three years and eight and a 
half months being left, in the third month of winter, 
in the fifth fortnight, the dark (fortnight) of Magha, 
on its thirteenth day, in the early part of the day 
when the moon was in conjunction with the asterism 
Abhi^it, (/frshabha), after fasting six and a half 
days without drinking water, on the summit of 
mount Ash&pada, in the company of ten thousand 
monks in the Samparyanka position, died, &c. (all 
down to) freed from all pains. (227) 

Since the time that the Arhat Rtshabha., the 
Koyalian, died, &c. (all down to) freed from all 
pains, three years and eight and a half months 
elapsed; thereupon one ko/i of ko/is of Sagaropamas, 
less forty-two thousand and three years and eight 
and a half months, elapsed. At that time the Vener- 
able Ascetic Mahavlra died ; after his Nirva»a nine 
centuries elapsed, of the tenth century this is the 
eightieth year. 

End of the Life of ^fo'shabha. 



End of the Lives of the Cinas. 



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286 KALPA SOTRA. 



LIST OF THE STHAVIRAS. 

At that period, at that age the Venerable Ascetic 
Mahavlra had nine Ga«as and eleven Ga«adharas. 

' Why, now, has it been said, that the Venerable 
Ascetic Mahavlra had nine Ga»as, but eleven 
Ga«adharas?' 

' The oldest monk of the Venerable Ascetic Ma- 
havlra was Indrabhuti of the Gautama gotra, who 
instructed five hundred 6"rama«as ; the middle-aged 
monk was Agnibhuti of the Gautama gotra, who in- 
structed five hundred .Srarnawas ; the youngest was 
Vayubhuti of the Gautama gotra, who instructed 
five hundred .Srama#as. The Sthavira Arya-Vyakta 
of the Bharadvi^a gotra instructed five hundred Sra.- 
ma«as ; the Sthavira Arya-Sudharman of the Agni- 
veryayana gotra instructed five hundred .5rama»as ; 
the Sthavira MaWikaputra * of the VasishMa gotra 
instructed two hundred and fifty .Srama»as ; the 
Sthavira Mauryaputra of the KeLsyapa gotra in- 
structed two hundred and fifty .Srama«as ; the 
Sthavira Akampita of the Gautama gotra and Stha- 
vira A^alabhratW of the Haritayana gotra, both 
Sthaviras instructed together three hundred «Sra- 
mawas each ; the Sthaviras Metarya and Prabhasa, 
both of the Kaundinya gotra, instructed together 

1 Some spell this name Ma»<fi/aputra ; he and Mluryaputra were 
sons of the same mother, Vi^ayadevJ, but different fathers ; the 
former of Dhanadeva, the other of Maurya. I do not know any legend 
which connects this Maurya with a king of the Maurya dynasty, 
which besides would be impossible from a chronological point of 
view. 



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LIST OF THE STHAVIRAS. 287 

three hundred »Srama#as each *. Therefore, Sir, has 
it been said that the Venerable Ascetic Mahivlra 
had nine Gawas, but eleven Gawadharas.' (i) 

All these eleven Ga«adharas of the Venerable 
Ascetic Mahivira, who knew the twelve Angas, the 
fourteen Purvas, and the whole Siddhanta of the 
Ga#ins, died, &c. (all down to) freed from all pains 
in Ri^agrzha after fasting a month without drink- 
ing water. The Sthaviras Indrabhuti and Arya 
Sudharman both died after the Nirva«a of Mahi- 
vira. The Nirgrantha .5rama#as of the present time 
are all (spiritual) descendants of the monk Arya 
Sudharman, the rest of the Ga»adharas left no 
descendants. (2) 

The Venerable Ascetic Mahivira was of the Ki- 
.yyapa gotra. His disciple was 2 : 

1. Arya Sudharman of the Agniveyyiyana gotra ; 

2. Arya <7ambuniman of the Kisyapa gotra ; 

3. Arya Prabhava of the Kityiyana gotra ; 

4. Arya -Sayyambha, father of Manaka, was of 

the Vatsa gotra ; 

5. Arya Ya^obhadra of the Tungikiyana go- 

tra. (3) 
In the short redaction the list of Sthaviras after 
Arya Ya.robhadra is the following : 

6. Arya Sambhutavi/aya of the Mi/yfcara gotra 

and Arya Bhadrabihu of the Prifcina gotra; 

7. Arya Sthulabhadra of the Gautama gotra ; 

8. i. Arya Mahigiri of the Ailipatya gotra and 

1 The sum total of .SramaHas is therefore 4711, while in § 134 it 
is stated to have been 14,000. 

9 I only give the facts. The names of those Sthaviras who con- 
tinue the line are spaced. The names are given in their Sanskrit 
form which in many cases is well known, in others can easily be 
made out. In doubtful cases I have put the Prakrit form in brackets. 



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288 KALPA S0TRA. 



ii. Arya Suhastinof the VasishMa gotra ; 
9. Susthita and Supratibuddha, surnamed Ko- 
/ika and Kakandaka, of the Vyaghrapatya 
gotra ; 

10. Arya Indradatta (Indadinna) of the Kaurika 

gotra; 

1 1. Arya Datta (Dinna) of the Gautama gotra ; 

12. Arya Siwhagiri Gatismara of the Kaurika 

gotra; 

13. Arya Va,f ra of the Gautama gotra; 

14. Arya Va^rasena of the Utkrzsh/a gotra 1 . 
He had four disciples : Arya Nagila, Arya Pad- 

mila, Arya Gayanta, and Arya Tapasa, each of 
whom founded a .Sakha called after his name, viz. 
the Aryanagila .Sakha, the Aryapadmila Sakha, the 
Arya^ayanti Sakha, and the Aryatapasi Sakha. (4) 

In the detailed redaction the list of Sthaviras after 
Arya Yarobhadra is the following : 

6. i. Arya Bhadrabahu of the Pr4#na gotra, who 
had four disciples of the Kasyapa gotra : 
a. Godasa, founder of the Godasa Gawa 2 , 
which was divided into four Sakhis : 
a. The Tamraliptika Sakha, 
j8. The Ko/ivarshtyS Sakha, 
y. The Purcafravardhaniya Sakha, and 

1 He is left out in some MSS. 

1 It is not quite clear what is meant by Gana, Kula, and Sakhi. 
Ga«a designates the school which is derived from one teacher; 
Kula the succession of teachers in one line ; Sakha the lines which 
branch off from each teacher. These terms seem to be disused in 
modern times, for the four principal divisions called after Nagendra, 
A r andra,Nivr»'tti, and Vidyadhara are generally called Kulas, but also 
occasionally .Sakhas. They go back to Va^ra according to some, 
to Va^rasena according to others. The modern GakAAa. appears 
equivalent with the ancient Gana. 



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LIST OF THE STHAVIRAS. 289 

8. The Daslkharbarika Sakha. 

b. Agnidatta, 

c. Ganadatta, 

d. Somadatta. 

ii. Arya Sambhutavi^aya of the MaMara 
gotra, who had twelve disciples : 
7. a. Nandanabhadra, 

b. Upananda, 

c. Tishyabhadra 1 , 

d. Yayobhadra, 

e. Sumanobhadra 2 , 

f. Mawibhadra, 

g. Pu»yabhadra s , 

h. Sthulabhadra of the Gautama gotra, 
i. i?e^umati, 
k. Gambu, 
1. Dirghabhadra, and 
m. Pa«dfabhadra ; 
and seven female disciples : 

a. Yaksha, 

b. Yakshadatta (Yakshadinna), 

c. Bhuta, 

d. Bhutadatta (Bhutadinna), 

e. Sena (also E«a), 

f. Ve«a, 

g. Re«a. 

S. i. Arya Mah&giri of the Ailapatya gotra, who 
had eight disciples : 

a. Uttara, 

b. Balissaha, who both together founded the 

Uttarabalissaha Gawa, which was di- 
vided into four .Sakhas : 

1 Tisabhadda, translated Tridarabhadra. 
* Or Sumanabhadra. * Or Pflrwibhadra. 

[32] U 



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29O KALPA SOTRA. 



a. Kausambika, 
j8. Sautaptika (Pr. Soittiya), 
y. Kau/umbint (or Ku«</adhart), 
8. Aandanagarl. 

c. Dhanarddhi (Pr. Dhanauidfo), 

d. .Slrarddhi (Pr. Svclddfo), 

e. Kocfwya,, 

f. Naga, 

g. Nagaputra, 

h. A'Aaluka Rohagupta of the Kaurika gotra, 
founder of the Trairlrika .Sakha, 
ii. Arya Suhastin 1 of the Vasish/^a gotra, who 
had twelve disciples : 
a. Arya Roha»a of the Klryapa gotra, 
founder of the Uddeha Ga#a, which 
was divided into four .Sakhas : 
a. Udumbarika (Pr. Udumbariggiya), 
j8. Masapurika, 
y. Matipatrika, 

8. Puraapatrika (Pr. Punnapattiya, Panna", 
Sunna", or Suvanna") ; 
and into six Kulas: 
a. Nagabhuta, 
P. Somabhuta, 

y'. Ullaga>£/kfca (or Ardraka£/&£a ?), 
8", Hastilipta (Pr. Hatthiligga), 
«'. Nindika (Pr. Nandig^a), 
C Parihasaka. 



1 Suhastin is said to have converted Samprati, grandson and suc- 
cessor of Aroka. The correctness of this statement is open to 
doubt ; but at any rate Suhastin must have been one of the most 
important patriarchs, for under and immediately after him the spread 
of <?ainism must have been uncommonly vigorous, as is proved by 
the great number of Kulas and -Sakbls at that time. 



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LIST OF THE STHAVIRAS. 2C;l 



b. Bhadrayaras of the Bharadviga gotra, who 

founded the Udiiva/ika Gawa, which 
was divided into four .Sakhas : 

a. Kamplyika (Pr. Kawpiggiya), 

P. Bhadriyikfi (Pr. Bhaddi^iya), 

y. Kakandika, 

8. Mekhaliyika (Pr. Mehalig^rya) ; 
and into three Kulas: 

a. Bhadrayaska (Pr. Bhadda^asiya), 

P'. Bhadraguptika, 

y'. Y&robhadra (Pr. Gasabhadda). 

c. Megha. 

d. Kamarddhi (Pr. Kami^j^i) of the Ku^ala 

gotra, who founded the Verava/ika 
Ga«a, which was divided into four 
.Sakhas: 

a. iSravastika, 

P. Rdgyapalika (Pr. Rajgapaliya), 

y. Antarawgika (Pr. Antariggiya), 

8. Kshemaliptika (Pr. Khemaligg-iya); 
and into four Kulas: 

a'. Ga»ika, 

P'. Maighika, 

y'. Kamarddhika, 

V. Indrapuraka. 

e. .Srlgupta of the Harita gotra, founder of 

the Tarawa Ga»a, which was divided 
into four .Sakhas : 
o. Haritamalakari, 
P. Sawklrika, 
y. Gavedhuka, 
8. Vafranagari; 
and into seven Kulas : 

a. Vatsaltya (Pr. VaAbblgga), 
u 2 



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292 KALPA SOTRA. 



/S'. Pritidharmika, 

y. Haridraka (Pr. m\igga), 

8". Pushyamitrika (Pr. Pusamittigga), 

«'. Malyaka (Pr. Maligna), 

C. Arya£e/aka, 

vf. Kmhtfasakha (Pr. Kanhasaha). 

f. ^'shigupta Kakandaka of the Vasish/zfca 

gotra, founder of the Manava Ga«a, 
which was divided into four .Sakhas : 

a. Kasyapiya (Pr. Kasaviggiya), 

j8. Gautamlya (Pr. Goyamegfiya), 

y. VasishMiya (Pr. Vasi///«ya), 

8. Saurashfrika ; 
and into three Kulas : 

a. isYshiguptika, 

&. ^'shidattika, 

y. Abhiyasasa. 

g. and h. Susthita and Supratibuddha, 

surnamed Kaulika and Kakandaka, of 
the Vyaghrapatya gotra, founders of 
the Kau/ika Ga«a, which was divided 
into four .Sakhas : 

a. U^anigarl, 

j3. Vidyidhari, 

y. Vagri, 

8. Madhyamika (Pr. Ma^f^imilla) ; 
and into four Kulas : 

a. Brahmaliptaka (Pr. Ba/wbhaligga), 

jS'. Vatsallya (Pr. Vak&foligga., cf. e. a'.), 

y. Viwlya (Pr. \kn\gga), 

8". Prarnavahanaka. 
Both Sthaviras had together five disciples : 
io. a. Arya Indradatta (Pr. Indadinna) of the 
Kayyapa gotra, 



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LIST OF THE STHAVIRAS. 293 

b. Priyagantha, founder of the Madhyama 

Sakha, 

c. Vidyadharagopila of the Kasyapa gotra, 

founder of the Vidyadhart Sakha, 

d. 7?/shidatta, 

e. Arhaddatta (Pr. Arihadatta). 

1 1. Arya Datta (Pr. Dinna) of the Gautama gotra, 

who had two disciples : 

12. i. Arya Santisenika of the Ma//fcara gotra, 

founder of the U>&6anagarl .Sakha, who 
had four disciples : 

a. Arya Senika, founder of the Aryasenika 

Sakha, 

b. Arya Tapasa, founder of the Aryatapasf 

Sakha, 

c. Arya Kubera, founder of the Aryakubera 

Sikha, and 

d. Arya .tfzshipalita, founder of the Aryar*- 

shipalita Sakha, 
ii. Arya Siwzhagiri Catismara of the Gau- 
tama gotra, who had four disciples : 

13. a. Dhanagiri, 

b. Arya Samita of the Gautama gotra, founder 

of the Brahmadvlpika Sakha, 

c. Arya Va^ra of the Gautama gotra, 

founder of the Aryavafra Sakha, 

d. Arhaddatta (Pr. Arihadinna). 

14. i. Arya Va^rasena, founder of the Aryanagila 

Sakha, 
ii. Arya Padma, founder of the Aryapadma 

^ Sakha, 
iii. Arya Ratha of the Vatsa gotra, founder 

of the Aryafayantt Sakha. 

15. Arya Pushyagiri of the Kausika gotra. 



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294 KALPA S^TRA. 



16. Arya Phalgumitra of the Gautama gotra. 

1 7. A rya Dhanagi ri of the Vasish/^a gotra. 

18. Arya .Sivabhuti of the Kautsa gotra. 

19. Arya Bhadra of the K&syapa gotra. 

20. Arya Nakshatra of the Kasyapa gotra. 

21. Arya Raksha of the K&ryapa gotra. 

22. Arya Naga of the Gautama gotra. 

23. AryaG ; ehila 1 of the Vasish/^a gotra. 

24. Arya Vish#u of the Ma/^ara gotra. 

25. Arya Kalaka of the Gautama gotra. 

26. Arya Sampalita and Bhadra, both of the 

Gautama gotra. 

27. Arya VWddha of the Gautama gotra. 

28. Arya Sanghapalita of the Gautama gotra. 

29. Arya Has tin of the K&syapa gotra. 

30. Arya Dharma of the Suvrata gotra. 

31. Arya Siwha of the Kasyapa gotra. 

32. Arya Dharma of the Kasyapa gotra. 

33. Arya S&ndi\ya. a . 

1 A various reading has (Je/Zflila = ffyesh/Aa. 

* This list in prose from 1 7 down to 33 is wanting in some MSS. 
I think that S&ndAya. is the same as Skandila, who was president of 
the council of MathurS, which seems to have been the rival of that 
in Valabht ; see notes to my edition of the Kalpa Sutra, p. 1 1 7. 

It deserves to be noticed that the gotra of •SaWilya is not given, 
while that of the remaining Sthaviras is specialised. This seems to 
prove that his name is a later addition to the list 

After the prose list all MSS. have eight g&th&s, in which the 
names 16-32, given above, are repeated. Instead of translating 
these verses, which contain little more than a string of names, I only 
note down the differences from the above list. After 18 is added 
Duiyaya Krishna, a Kau/ika ; Nakshatra is shortened, metri causa, 
to Nakkha ; the gotra of Sanghapalita is Klryapa instead of Gau- 
tama; after 30 are inserted Hasta of the K&syapa gotra and 
Dharma. 

After these gSthas follow five more, which are wanting in some 
MSS., and are not commented upon. The last (14th) gSthS is 



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LIST OF THE STHAVIRAS. 295 

Bowing down my head, I pay my reverence to 
the Sthavira Gambu of the Gautama gotra, who 
possessed steady virtue, good conduct, and know- 
ledge, ix. 

I prostrate myself before the Sthavira Nandita 
of K&syapa gotra, who is possessed of great 
clemency and of knowledge, intuition, and good 
conduct, x. 

Then I adore the Kshamawamawa Desiga«in of 
the Kaiyapa gotra, who, steady in his conduct, pos- 
sesses the highest righteousness and virtue, xi. 

Then I prostrate myself before the Kshamasra- 
ma»a Sthiragupta of the Vatsya gotra, the preserver 
of the sacred lore, the wise one, the ocean of wisdom, 
him of great virtue, xii. 

Then I adore the Sthavira prince, Dharma, the 
virtuous Ga/rin, who stands well in knowledge, in- 
tuition, good conduct, and penance, and is rich in 
virtues 1 , xiii. 

I revere the Kshama*rama#a Devarddhi of the 
Kasyapa gotra, who wears, as it were, the jewel of 
the right understanding of the Sutras, and pos- 
sesses the virtues of patience, self-restraint, and 
clemency, xiv. 

End of the List of the Sthaviras. 

found in all MSS. It brings the list down to the president of the 
council of Valabhf. (The translation of the gath&s ix-xiv is given 
in full in the text.) 

1 The Sthaviras named in verses ix— xiii are probably not to be 
regarded as following each other in a continuous line, but rather as 
famous Sthaviras praised here for some reason or other (pu^irtham). 
At least the first, Crambu, seems to be the same with Gambu, the 
second of the list, who was also a K&ryapa. 



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296 KALPA sfiTRA. 



RULES FOR YATIS 1 . 

1. In that period, in that age the Venerable 
Ascetic Mahavlra commenced the Pajgusan when a 
month and twenty nights of the rainy season had 
elapsed. 

' Why has it been said that the Venerable Ascetic 
Mahavlra commenced the Paggusan when a month 
and twenty nights of the rainy season had 
elapsed ?' (1) 

' Because at that time the lay people have usually 
matted their houses, whitewashed them, strewn 
them (with straw), smeared them (with cowdung), 
levelled, smoothed, or perfumed them (or the floor 
of them), have dug gutters and drains, have fur- 
nished their houses, have rendered them comfort- 
able, and have cleaned them. Hence it has been 
said that the Venerable Ascetic Mahavlra com- 
menced the Pagfusan when a month and twenty 
nights of the rainy season had elapsed.' (2) 

As the Venerable Ascetic Mahavlra commenced 
the Pagfusan when a month and twenty nights of 
the rainy season had elapsed, so the Ga»adharas 
commenced the Pa^fusan when a month and twenty 
nights of the rainy season had elapsed. (3) As the 
Gawadharas have done, so the disciples of the 
Ga#adharas have done. (4) As they have done, 

1 Sam&*Srt. 



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RULES FOR YATIS. 297 

so the Sthaviras have done. (5) As they have done, 
so do the Nirgrantha .Sramawas of the present 
time. (6) 

As they do, so our masters, teachers, &c. do. (7) 
As they do, so do we commence the Paggiisan after 
a month and twenty nights of the rainy season have 
elapsed. It is allowed to commence the Pa^usan 
earlier, but not after that time. (8) 

2. Monks or nuns during the Partisan are allowed 
to regard their residence as extending a Yqfana and 
a Kmra. all around, and to live there for a moderate 
time. (9) 

3. During the Pagfusan monks or nuns are allowed 
to go and return, for the sake of collecting alms, not 
farther than a Yo^ana and a Krosa (from their 
lodgings). (10) If there is (in their way) an always 
flowing river which always contains water, they are 
not allowed to travel for a Yq^ana and a Kraya. (1 1) 
But if the river is like the Eravatl near Kuwala, such 
that it can be crossed by putting one foot in the 
water and keeping the other in the air, there it is 
allowed to travel for a Yq^ana and a Kroya. (12) 
But where that is impossible, it is not allowed to 
travel for a Yq^ana and a Krosa. (13) 

4. During the Pa,£fusan the Aiarya will say, 
'Give, Sir!' Then he is allowed to give (food to 
a sick brother), but not to accept himself. (14) If 
the Aiarya says, 'Accept, Sir!' then he is allowed 
to accept (food), but not to give. (15) If the A^arya 
says, 'Give, Sir! accept, Sir!' then the patient is 
allowed to give and to accept (food). (16) 

5. Monks or nuns who are hale and healthy, and 
of a strong body, are not allowed during the Pa^fusan 
frequently to take the following nine drinks : milk, 



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298 KALPA SOTRA. 



thick sour milk, fresh butter, clarified butter, oil, 
sugar, honey, liquor, and meat. (17) 

6. During the Pa^^aisan a collector of alms might 
ask (the A^arya), * Sir, is (anything of the just-men- 
tioned articles) required for the sick man ?' he (the 
Aiarya) says, 'Yes, it is.' Then (the sick man) 
should be asked, ' How much do you require ?' The 
A^arya says, ' So much is required for the sick man : 
you must take so much as he told you.' And he 
(the collector of alms) should beg, and begging he 
should accept (the required food). Having obtained 
the quantity ordered, he should say, ' No more ! ' 
Perchance (the giver of food) might ask, ' Why do 
you say so, Sir?' (Then he should answer), 'Thus 
much is required for the sick man.' Perchance, after 
that answer the other may say, ' Take it, Sir ! You 
may after (the sick man has got his share) eat it or 
drink it.' Thus he is allowed to accept it, but he is 
not allowed to accept it by pretending that it is for 
the sick man. (18) 

7. In householders' families which are converted, 
devoted, staunch adherers (to the law), and honour, 
praise, and permit (the visits of monks), Sthaviras, 
during the Paggusan, are not allowed to ask, ' Sir, 
have you got such or such a thing ?' if they do not 
see it. 

' Why, Sir, has this been said ?' ' Because a devout 
householder might buy it or steal it' (19) 

8. During the Paggusan a monk eats only one 
meal a day, and should at one fixed 1 time frequent 
the abodes of householders for the sake of collecting 



1 I.c. after the sutra and artha paurushls or the religious 
instruction in the morning. 



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GoogTe 



RULES FOR YATIS. 299 

alms, except when he does services for the Afcarya, 
the teacher, an ascetic, or a sick man, likewise if he 
or she be a novice who has not yet the marks of ripe 
age 1 . (20) To a monk who during the Pagfusan 
eats only one meal on every second day, the follow- 
ing special rule applies. Having gone out in the 
morning, he should eat and drink 2 his pure dinner, 
then he should clean and rub his alms-bowl. If his 
dinner was sufficient, he should rest content with it 
for that day ; if not, he is allowed for a second time 
to frequent the abodes of householders for the 
sake of collecting alms. (21) A monk who during 
the Pa^fusan eats on every third day, is allowed 
twice to frequent the abodes of householders for the 
sake of collecting alms. (22) A monk who during 
the Pa < ggusan eats one meal on every fourth day, is 
allowed three times to frequent the abodes of house- 
holders for the sake of collecting alms. (23) A 
monk who keeps still more protracted fasts, is allowed 
at all (four) times to frequent the abodes of house- 
holders for the sake of collecting alms. (24) 

9. A monk who during the Paggusan eats one 
meal every day, is allowed to accept all (permitted) 
drinks. A monk who during the Paggnsan eats 
one meal on every second day, is allowed to accept 
three kinds of drinks : water used for watering flour, 
sesamum, or rice 3 . A monk who eats one meal 



1 I. e. on whose belly, armpits, lips, &c. hair has not yet grown. 
The last part is also explained : except an A^arya, teacher, ascetic, 
sick monk, and novice. 

* ViA&i is the reading of the commentaries. 

* Cf. Aj&ringa Sutra II, 1, 7, § 7. The definitions given in our 
commentary are the following : the first is water mixed with flour, 
or water used for washing the hands after kneading flour; the 



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300 KALPA SOTRA. 



on every third day, is allowed to accept three kinds 
of drinks : water used for washing sesamum, chaff, 
or barley 1 . A monk who during the Pa^gusan eats 
one meal on every fourth day, is allowed to accept 
three kinds of water : rain-water, or sour gruel, or 
pure (i. e. hot) water. A monk who during the 
Pa^^fusan keeps still more protracted fasts, is allowed 
to accept only one kind of drink : hot pure water. 
It must contain no boiled rice 2 . A monk who ab- 
stains from food altogether, is allowed to accept only 
one kind of drink : pure hot water. It must contain 
no boiled rice ; it must be filtered, not unfiltered ; it 
must be a limited quantity, not an unlimited one ; 
it must be sufficient, not insufficient. (25) 

10. A monk who during the Pagg-usan restricts 
himself to a certain number of donations 8 , is allowed 
to accept (e. g.) five donations of food, and five of 
drink ; or four of food, and five of drink ; or five of 
food, and four of drink. He may accept one dona- 
tion of salt for seasoning his meat*. He should 

second, water with which squeezed leaves, &c. are sprinkled ; 
the third, water used for washing threshed and winnowed rice 
(tam/ula). 

1 A^ranga Sutra II, 1, 7, § 8. The first is water used for washing 
sesamum, or, in Mahirish/ra, husked sesamum ; the second, water 
used for washing rice, &c. (vrlhyidi) ; the third, water used for 
washing barley. 

* The commentator says that the body of monks who fast 
longer than four days is usually inhabited by a deity ; this seems to 
denote, in our language, mental derangement as a consequence of 
starving oneself. 

* Datti. The commentator does not explain this word. It seems 
to denote the quantity of food or drink which is given by one 
man. 

4 The one donation of salt is meant to make up the five donations 
to which the monk confines himself. But he should not reckon 



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RULES FOR YATIS. 3OI 

rest content for that day with the dinner he has 
brought together, and is not allowed a second time 
to frequent the abodes of householders for the sake 
of collecting alms. (26) During the Pagfusan monks 
or nuns who restrict their visits to certain houses 
may go to a place where rice is cooked 1 , if it is the 
seventh house from that where they are lodged. 
According to some, the lodging is included in the 
seven houses which such a mendicant must pass 
before he may participate in the festive entertain- 
ment ; but according to others, it is not included in 
those seven houses. (27) 

1 1. During the Pagfusan a monk who collects alms 
in the hollow of his hand, is not allowed to frequent 
the abodes of householders, &c, if rain 2 , even in the 
form of a fine spray, falls down. (28) During the 
Paggusan a monk who collects alms in the hollow of 
his hand, is not allowed to stay anywhere except in a 
house after having accepted alms, for it might begin 
to rain. But he should eat a part, and put back the 
rest (if it then begins to rain), covering his hand 
with the other hand, and laying it on his bosom or 
hiding it under his armpit 3 ; then he should go to 
well-covered (places), to a cave or the foot of a tree, 
where no water or drops of water or spray of water 
falls in his hand. (29) 

12. During the Paggusan a monk who collects 

the donations of food above the fixed number as donations of drink 
if the latter have not yet reached the fixed number. 

1 Samkhati!, the word which, in the Aiarahga Sutra II, 1, 2, &c, 
we have translated ' festive entertainment' 

* Rain is here and in the sequel called rain-body, i. e. rain-drops 
considered as containing life, apkaya. 

8 To render kaksha. 



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302 KALPA S6TRA. 



alms in the hollow of his hand, is not allowed to 
collect alms if rain, even in the form of a fine spray, 
falls down. (30) 

13. During the Paggusan a monk who uses an 
alms-bowl is not allowed to frequent the abodes of 
householders for the sake of collecting alms if it 
rains fast, but he is allowed to do so if it rains but 
little ; but they must wear then an under and upper 
garment (31) During the Paggnsan, a monk who has 
entered the abode of a householder while there are 
single showers of rain, is allowed (when the rain 
ceases for a moment) to stand under a grove, or in 
his residence, or in the assembling-hall of the village 1 , 
or at the foot of a tree. (32) If before his arrival a 
dish of rice was being cooked, and after it a dish of 
pulse was begun to be cooked, he is allowed to 
accept of the dish of rice, but not of the dish of 
pulse. (33) But if before his arrival a dish of pulse 
was being cooked, and after it a dish of rice was 
begun to be cooked, he is allowed to accept of the 
dish of pulse, but not of the dish of rice. (34) If 
both dishes were begun to be cooked before his 
arrival, he is allowed to accept of both. If both 
dishes were begun to be cooked after his arrival, he 
is not allowed to accept of either. He is allowed to 
accept of what was prepared before his arrival ; he 
is not allowed to accept of what was prepared after 
his arrival. (35) During the Pa < gjaisan, &c. (see 
§ 32, down to) tree; he is not allowed to pass 
there his time with the food he had collected be- 
fore. But he should first eat and drink his pure 
(food and drink), then rub and clean his alms-bowl, 



1 Vika/agr/ha. 



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RULES FOR YATIS. 303 

and, putting his things together, he should, while 
the sun has not yet set, go to the place where he 
is lodged ; but he is not allowed to pass the night 
in the former place. (36) During the Paggnsan, 
&c. (see § 32, down to) tree. (37) It is not allowed 
that there at the same place should stand together 
one monk and one nun, nor one monk and two nuns, 
nor two monks and one nun, nor two monks and two 
nuns. But if there is a fifth person, a male or female 
novice, or if that place can be seen (by those who 
pass) or doors open on it, then they are allowed to 
stand there together. (38) During the Pajgoisan, 
&c. (see § 32, down to) tree. It is not allowed that 
there at the same place should stand together a 
monk and a lay woman, &c. (through the four cases 
as in § 28). But if there is a fifth person, a Sthavira 
or a Sthavira, or if that place can be seen (by those 
who pass) or doors open on it, then they are allowed 
to stand there together. The same rule applies to 
a nun and a layman. (39) 

14. During the Paggusan monks or nuns are not 
allowed to accept food, drink, dainties, and spices for 
one who has not asked them, and whom they have 
not promised to do so. (40) 

' Why has this been said, Sir ?' ' Because one 
who collects alms for another without being asked 
for it, might eat them or not, just as he lists.' (41) 

15. During the Pa,gfusan monks or nuns are not 
allowed to take their meals as long as their body is 
wet or moist (42) 

* How has this been said, Sir ?' ' Seven places 
which retain the moisture have been declared : the 
hands, the lines in the hand, the nails, the top of 
the nails, the brows, the under lip, the upper lip.' 



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304 KALPA S6TRA. 



But when they perceive that the water on their body 
has dried up and the moisture is gone, then they are 
allowed to take their meals. (43) 

16. There are these eight classes of small things 
which a mendicant ought diligently to perceive, 
observe, and inspect, viz. living beings, mildew, 
seeds, sprouts, flowers, eggs, layers, and moisture. 

What is understood by the small living beings ? 
The small living beings are declared to be of five 
kinds : black, blue, red, yellow, and white ones. 
There is an animalcule called Anuddhart, which 
when at rest and not moving is not easily seen by 
monks and nuns who have not yet reached perfection, 
which when not at rest but moving is easily seen by 
monks and nuns who have not yet reached perfec- 
tion. Monks and nuns who have not yet reached 
perfection must diligently perceive, observe, and 
inspect this. Those are the small living beings. (44) 

What is understood by small mildew ? Small 
mildew has been declared to be of five kinds : black, 
blue, &c. There is a kind of small mildew which 
has the same colour as the substance on which it 
grows. Monks, nuns, &c. (see § 44, down to) inspect 
this. That is small mildew. 

What is understood by small seeds ? Small seeds 
are declared to be of five kinds : black, blue, &c. 
There is a kind of small seeds of the same colour 
as grain 1 . Monks and nuns, &c. (see § 44, down to) 
inspect this. Those are the small seeds. 

What is understood by small sprouts ? Small 
sprouts are declared to be of five kinds: black, 
blue, &c. There is a kind of small sprouts of 

1 Kanikl 



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RULES FOR YATIS. 305 

the same colour as earth. Monks and nuns, &c. 
(see § 44, down to) inspect them. Those are the 
small sprouts. 

What is understood by small flowers ? Small 
flowers are declared to be of five kinds : black, 
blue, &c. There is a kind of small flowers of 
the same colour as the tree (on which they grow). 
Monks and nuns, &c. (see § 44, down to) inspect 
them. Those are the small flowers. 

What is understood by small eggs ? Small eggs 
are declared to be of five kinds : eggs of biting 
insects ', of spiders, of ants, of lizards (or wasps) 2 , 
and of chameleons 8 . Monks and nuns, &c. (see 
§ 44, down to) inspect them. Those are the small 
eggs. 

What is understood by small caves or lairs ? 
Small caves or lairs are declared to be of five 
kinds : lairs of animals' of the asinine kind, chasms, 
holes, cavities widening below like the stem of a 
palm tree, and wasps' nests. Monks and nuns, &c. 
(see § 44, down to) inspect them. Those are the 
small caves or lairs. 

What is understood by small moisture? Small 
moisture is declared to be of five kinds : dew, hoar- 
frost 4 , fog, hailstones, and damps. Monks and nuns, 

1 Uddamra, mosquitoes, gadflies, bugs. 

* Halika, explained by gnbakokila, which I take to mean the 
same as grriiagoliki, a kind of lizard ; and vrahmani, a kind of 
wasps, ditto, of lizards. 

* Hallohaliya, which is declared by the commentator to be 
synonymous with ahilorfi, sararf, and kakki/ufi. Of these words 
only saracfi is known ; for it seems to be the same with Sanskrit 
sara/a or saraAi, ' chameleon, lizard,' and Marathi sara/a, ' hedge- 
lizard.' 

* Him&A styanodakaA. 



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306 KALPA SOTRA. 



&c. (see § 44, down to) inspect this. That is small 
moisture. (45) 

17. During the Pa^usan 1 a monk might wish to 
frequent the abodes of householders for the sake of 
collecting alms. He is not allowed to go without 
asking leave of the teacher, or sub-teacher, or reli- 
gious guide, or Sthavira, or head of the Ga»a, or 
Ga«adhara, or founder of the Ga«a, or whom else 
he regards as his superior ; he is allowed to go 
after having asked leave of one of these persons 
(in this way) : ' I want with your permission to fre- 
quent the abodes of householders for the sake of 
collecting alms.' If he (the superior) grants per- 
mission, one is allowed to go; if not, one is not 
allowed to go. 

'Why has this been said, Sir?' 'The teacher 
knows how to make good what has been done 
wrong.' (46) The same rule applies concerning 
the visits to temples and leaving the house for 
easing nature 2 , or any other business, also the 
wandering from village to village. (47) 

18. During the Paggusan a monk might wish to 
take some medicine; he is not allowed to take it 
without asking leave of the teacher, &c. (see § 47, 
down to) founder of the Ga«a ; but he is allowed 
to take it after having asked leave of one of these 
persons (in this way) : ' I want, Sir, with your per- 
mission to take some medicine,' viz. so much or so 
often. If he, &c. (see § 46, down to) wrong. (48) 

1 The whole of the seventeenth rule holds good not only for the 
rainy season, but also for the rest of the year (rjtubaddhak&la). 

1 Viharabhumi and viMrabhumi, which in the AMranga Sutra 
I have, according to the explanation of the commentary, translated 
' places for study and religious practices.' 



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RULES FOR YATIS. 307 



The same rule applies if a monk wants to undergo 
some medical cure. (49) Also if he wants to do 
some exalted penance. {50) Also if he intends, 
after the last mortification of the flesh which is to 
end in death, to wait for his last hour without 
desiring it, in total abstinence from food and drink 
or in remaining motionless ; also if he wants to go 
out or to enter, to eat food, &c, to ease nature, to 
learn his daily lesson, to keep religious vigils — he 
is not allowed to do it without asking leave. (51) 

19. If during the Pa < g£"usan a monk wants to dry 
or warm (in the sun) his robe, alms-bowl, blanket, 
broom, or any other utensil, he is not allowed with- 
out asking one or many persons to frequent the 
abodes of householders for the sake of collecting 
alms, to eat food, &c, to visit temples or leave the 
house for easing nature, to learn his daily lesson, 
to lie down with outstretched limbs or stand in some 
posture. If there is somebody near, one or many 
persons, then he should say : ' Sir, please mind this 
(robe, &c.) while I frequent the abodes of house- 
holders, &c. (see above, down to) posture.' If that 
person promises to do it, then he (the monk) is 
allowed to go ; if he does not promise it, then he 
is not allowed to go. (52) 

20.. During the Pa^^usan monks or nuns are not 
allowed to be without their proper bed or bench 1 . 
This is the reason : A mendicant whose bed and 
bench are not reserved for his own use, are low 
and rickety, not sufficiently fastened, without a 
fixed place, and never exposed to the sun, and 

1 The commentator translates pi/Aa, ' stool,' and phalaka, 'bench ; ' 
they are of course not the property of the mendicant, but only 
temporally reserved for his use. 

X 2 



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308 KALPA SOTRA. 



who is not circumspect in what he does, nor accus- 
tomed to inspect and clean the things of his use, 
will find it difficult to exercise control ; (53) but on 
the contrary, control will be easy to him. (54) 

21. During the Pa^fusan monks or nuns must 
always inspect three spots where to ease nature; 
not so in the summer and winter, as in the rainy 
season. 'Why has this been said, Sir?' 'For in 
the rainy season living beings, grass, seeds, mildew, 
and sprouts frequently come forth.' (55) 

22. During the Paggusan monks or nuns must have 
three pots, one for ordure, one for urine, and a 
spitting-box. (56) Monks and nuns, who wear after 
the Pa < ggnsan their hair as short as that of a cow, 
are not allowed to do so during the Pa j gfusan after 
that night (of the fifth Bhadrapada) ; but a monk 
should shave his head or pluck out his hair 1 . 
Shaving with a razor every month, cutting with 
scissors every half-month, plucking out every six 
months. (57) This is the conduct chiefly of Stha- 
viras during the rainy season*. 

1 After these words the text has pakkhiya arovaai, which is 
explained in two ways : 1. every half-month the tied strings on the 
bed should be untied and inspected ; the same should be done with 
wicker-work (? davaraka ; cf. Hindi daura, ' basket') ; 2. every half- 
month praya-r/fcitta should be made. The commentator Samaya- 
sundara says that these words are not connected with the preceding 
and following ones ; their import (paramartha) should be learned 
from a well-instructed brother (gitartha). I think that pakkhiya is 
not connected with paksha, 'half-month,' but with k&rapaksha, 
'braid of hair, tresses;' the two words, or rather the* compound, 
would in that case denote arrangement of (or in) tresses or braids, 
and relate to nuns who do not, as far as I know, shave their head. 
A precept for nuns is just what would be expected at this place, 
after one for monks (arya) has been given. 

* The last words are variously interpreted by the commentators. 



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RULES FOR YATIS. 309 

23. During the Partisan monks or nuns should 
not use harsh words after the commencement of 
the Pa^gf usan ; if. they do, they should be warned : 
' Reverend brother (or sister), you speak unman- 
nerly.' One who (nevertheless) uses harsh words 
after the commencement of the Pa^/usan, should be 
excluded from the community. (58) 

24. If, during the Paj^usan, among monks or 
nuns occurs a quarrel or dispute or dissension, the 
young monk should ask forgiveness of the superior, 
and the superior of the young monk. They should 
forgive and ask forgiveness, appease and be ap- 
peased, and converse without restraint 1 . For him 
who is appeased, there will be success (in control) ; 
for him who is not appeased, there will be no suc- 
cess; therefore one should appease one's self. 'Why 
has this been said, Sir?' ' Peace is the essence of 
monachism.' (59) 

25. During the Pa^usan monks or nuns should 
have three lodging-places ; (two) for occasional use, 



Therakappa is said to mean ' old monks,' for young and strong 
ones must pluck out their hair every four months. It usually 
denotes the conduct of ordinary monks, in opposition to the Giwa- 
kappa ; if taken in this sense, the whole passage is made out to 
mean that even one who, because of sickness of his scalp, is dis- 
pensed from tearing out his hair, must do it in the rainy season, for 
then the precept is binding both for Ginakalpikas and Sthavira- 
kalpikas. According to the interpretation I have followed the 
words sa«va£Marie v& therakappe are a sort of colophon to 
the rules 17-22, and indicate that these rules apply to Sthavirakal- 
pikas, but not exclusively (v£), as some apply to (Sinakalpikas also. 
The phrase sawvaiMariya therakappa occurs also at the beginning 
of § 62, and has there a similar meaning. 

1 According to the commentary, they should ask each other the 
meaning of the Sutras. 



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3IO KALPA SOTRA. 



which must be inspected ; one for constant use, which 
must be swept 1 . (60) 

26. During the Pagfusan monks or nuns should give 
notice of the direction or intermediate direction in 
which they intend to go forth for the sake of begging 
alms. ' Why has this been said, Sir ?' ' During the 
Paggusan the reverend monks frequently undertake 
austerities ; an ascetic becoming weak and exhausted 
might swoon or fall down. (In case of such an 
accident the remaining) reverend monks will under- 
take their search in that direction or intermediate 
direction (which the ascetic had named them). (61) 

27. During the Pa^usan monks or nuns are not 
allowed to travel farther than four or five Yo^anas*, 
and then to return. They are allowed to stay in 
some intermediate place, but not to pass there (at 
the end of their journey) the night. (62) 

Of those Nirgrantha monks who follow, &c. (see 
Aiaranga Sutra II, 15, v end, down to) ... . these 
(rules regulating) the conduct of Sthaviras in the 
rainy season, some will reach perfection, &c. (see 
§ 124, down to) be freed from all pains in that same 
life, some in the next life, some in the third birth ; 

1 I deviate from the interpretation of the commentators, who give 
veuvviya (or veu//i ya v. 1.), which I have rendered ' for occasional 
use,' the sense of ' repeatedly.' But as they give sai^iya the 
meaning ' used,' and as the practice justifies my translation, I am 
rather confident about the correctness of my conjecture. The 
practice, as related by the commentator, is this: The Upaxraya 
where the monks live must be swept in the morning, when the 
monks go out begging, at noon, and in the afternoon at the end of 
the third prahara ; the other two Uplrrayas must be daily inspected, 
lest somebody else occupy them, and be swept every third day. 

* And this only in case of need, to fetch medicine, &c. In 
ordinary cases the third rule applies. 



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RULES FOR YATIS. 3II 

none will have to undergo more than seven or eight 
births. (63) 

In that period, in that age the Venerable Ascetic 
Mahavlra, in the town of Ra.fagrzha, in the ^Taitya 
Gimarilaka, surrounded by many monks and nuns, 
by many men and women of the laity, by many gods 
and goddesses, said thus, spoke thus, declared thus, 
explained thus ; he proclaimed again and again the 
Lecture called Paryushawakalpa with its application, 
with its argumentation, with its information, with its 
text, with its meaning, with both text and meaning, 
with the examination of the meaning. 

Thus I say. (64) 



End of the Rules for Yatis. 



End of the Kalpa Sutra. 



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INDEX. 



Abhjgit, name of an asterism, p. 281. 
Abhinandana, name of the fourth 

Tfrthakara, 280. 
Abhiyajasa, name of a Kula, 292. 
Accomplishments, the sixty-four, of 

women, 282. 
Adbhuta Kalpa, 194. 
Adhakarma, 81 n 2, 127. 
Adikara= Tfrthakara, 224. 
Affects, enumerated, 262. 
Ajita, name of the second Ttrtha- 

kara, 280. 
Agnibhflti, name of a Ganadhara, 

286. 
Agnidatta, 289. 
Agnivcjyaj ana, name of a gotra, 

286, 287. 
Ahakamma, ahakammiya=adbakar- 

ma, °ika, 94 n 1, tn n 1. 
Aharatiniya, 146. 
Ahimsl, doctrine of, 38. 
Ailipatya, name of a gotra, 287, 

289. 
AAalabhrltrr, name of a Ganadhara, 

286. 
Akampita, name of a Ganadhara, 286. 
Aiela, a naked monk, 57 n 2. 
Alabhika, name of a town, 264. 
Alms-bowls, what they should be 

made of, 16$. 
Amagandha, 23 n 1. 
Ananta, name of the fourteenth Tfr- 
thakara, 280. 
Anlbrava, 37. 
Anga, title of works, 221. 
Anidana, 40. 

Animals, eight kinds of, 11. 
Arika, a certain posture, 187. 
Anoggi, daughter of Mahavira, 193. 
AntaranWkS (Antarjgjiysl), name of 

a Sakha, 291. 
Anuddbart, name of small insects, 

267. 
Apara^-ita, name of a Vimana, 276. 
Ara, name of the eighteenth Ttrtha- 

kara, 280. 



Arati, 17. 

Arhaddatta, 293 (bis). 
Arhat, title of Cinas, 36, 225, &c. 
Arish/anemi, name of the twenty- 
second Tirthakara, 276. 
Arithmetics, 221. 
Ar^ya, name of a Lava, 265. 
Arts, hundred, 282. 
Aryadatta, 274. 
Arya^ayanti, name of a 5akh3, 288, 

, *93- 

Aryaghosha, 274. 

Arya^e/aka, name of a Kula, 292. 

Aryakuberf, name of a Sakhl, 293. 

Aryanagil3, name of a Sikhi, 288, 

, *93- 

AryapadmS, name of a Sakha, 293. 

Aryapadmila, name of a 53kha, 

288. 
Arya/vshipSlita, name of a Sakha, 

, *93- 

Aryatapasi, name of a Sakha, 288, 

. *93- 

Aryava^rS, name of a Sakha, 293. 
Ascetic, compared to a warrior, 
258. 

— different kinds of, 128 n 1. 

— untrue, 17. 

Asha/tta, name of an asterism, 278. 

AshaViia, name of a month, 281. 

A'ramapada, name of a park, 283. 

Asrava, 37, 76. 

Asthikagrama, name of a town, 264. 

Astronomy, 221. 

Asura, 198. 

Ajvasena, king of Benares, 271. 

Aivina, name of a month, 191. 

Atharva-veda, 221. 

Avadhi knowledge, 223. 

Avalika, a division of time, 262. 

Avasarpint era, 189, 218, &c. 

Ayatana, 44. 

Ayus, 269. 

B31a, 25 n 2. 
Baladeva, 225. 



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GAINA SUTRAS. 



Balissaha, 289. 

Bathing-room, described, 242. 

Bauddba, 4. 

Bhadra, name of a Sthavira, 294 

(bis). 
Bhadrabahu, name of a Sthavira, 

287, 288. 

Bhadrapjda, name of a month, 308. 
Bhadrayajas, 2511. 

Bhadrayajaska, name of a Kula, 291. 
Bhadrika, name of a nun, 264. 
Bhadriyika, name of a Sakha, 291. 
Bhagavat, title of Ginas, 36. 
Bharadva^a, name of a gotra, 286, 

291. 
Bharatavarsha, 190, 218, &c 
BharuWa, a fabulous bird, 261. 
Bhavanapati, one of the four orders 

of gods, 191, &c. 
Bhuta, 289. 

Bhfltadattl fdinna), 289. 
Birds, young, likened to disciples, 

58. 
Birth, 18. 
Bodies, 3 n 2. 
Brahmadvipika, name of a Sakha, 

293. 
Brahma Kalpa, 195. 
BrahmaHrin, name of a monk, 274. 
Brahmaliptika, name of a Sakha, 

292. 
Brahmanas and Sramanas, 38, &c. 
Brahmasundarl, name of a nun, 

284. 
Buddha, epithet of Mahavira, 264. 
Buddhabodhita, 66 n 1. 

Categories, sixty, 221. 
Ceremonial, 221. 

Clothes, what they should be made 
of, 157, &c. 

— how many to be worn, 157. 

— should not be dyed, 163. 

DaWa, 7. 

Daslkarba/ika, name of a Sakha, 

289. 
Datta (Dinna), name of a Sthavira, 

288, 293. 

Dejiganin, name of a Sthavira, 295. 
Devinanda, 190, 218, &c. 

— name of a night, 265. 
Devarddhi, name of a Sthavira, 295. 
Dhammapada, 212 n 1. 
Dhanagiri, name of a Sthavira, 293, 

294. 



Dhanarddhi, 290. 

Dharma, name of different Stha- 
viras, 294 (bis), 295. 

— name of the fifteenth Ttrtha- 

kara, 280. 
Dinara, denar, 233. 
Dirghabhadra, 289. 
Diseases, various kinds of, 18, 19. 

— enumerated, 53. 
Dream-book, 246. 

Dreams, interpreters of, 244, &c. 

— various kinds of, 246. 

— those of Truala described, 230, 

&c. 
Dushamasushama period, 189, 218, 
&c. 

Earth-bodies, how they are in- 
jured, 4. 
Ena, 289. 
Eravati, name of a river, 297. 

Fire-bodies, 7. 
Flood = Samsara, 20. 
Flowers, various kinds enumerated, 
*33- 

Gaikba., chapter of monks, "nirgata, 

47 n 2, 113 n 2. 
Gama, identical passages, 72 n 2. 
Gana, 113, 273, 286, 306. 

— founder of a, 1 1 3. 
Ganadatta, 289. 

Ganadhara, 1 n 4, 113, 273, 286. 
Gandharvas, 237. 

Gahgavarta, name of a whirlpool, 

237. 
Ganika, name of a Kula, 291. 
GaiWas, gods, 189. 
Gautama, name of a gotra, 286, 289, 

293, 294- 

— the Nirgrantha, 202. 
Gautamiya, name of a Sakha, 292. 
Gavedbuka, name of a Sakha, 291. 
Girnar, a mountain, 277, 279. 
Godasa, name of a Sthavira, 288. 

— name of a Gana, 288. 
Graha, 266, 267. 
Grammar, 221. 
Guhya, 152. 

Gymnastic exercises, hall for, 242. 

Calandharayana, name of a gotra, 

190, 218. 
Gambfi, name of a Sthavira, 295. 

— name of another monk, 289. 



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INDEX. 



315 



GambOdvTpa, 190, ai8, &c. 

GambGnSman ■= GambQ, 287. 

Gambusvimin = GambQ, 1. 

Gasamsa, name of Mahavira, 193, 
256. 

Gayanta, name of a Sthavira, 
288. 

Gehila (Ge«<Mla), name of a Stha- 
vira, 294. 

Gina, title, 201, 203. 

Ginakalpika, 57 n 3, 308 n 2. 

Giva, identical with atman, 3 n 2. 

CnaXri or C«atWka, clan of Kshatri- 
yas, 191, 226, &c. 

G«atr»'putra, name of Mahavira, 76, 
80. 

G»atr/'shan/ia, name of a park, 199. 

Gnmbhikagrama, 201, 263. 

Gyotishka, one of the four orders of 
gods, 191, 195, 252. 

Haridraka, name of a Kula, 292. 
Harinegamesi, 227, 229. 
Harita, name of a gotra, 291. 
Haritamalagari, name of a SikhS, 

291. 
HSritlyana, name of a gotra, 286. 
Harivaw/a, 92. 
Hastilipta (Hatthilh*ga), name of a 

Kula, 290. 
Hastin, name of a Sthavira, 294. 
Heretic, 25. 

Ikshvaku, 92, 218. 
Indra, 92. 

IndrabhQti, name of a Ganadhara, 
286. 

— name of another man, 265. 
Indradatta (Dinna), name of a Stha- 
vira, 288, 292. 

Indrapuraka, name of a Kula, 291. 
Ingitamarana, a religious death, 72 

uana, different from Indra, 198. 
Island, never covered with water, 

likened to an ascetic, 58, 61. 
Itihasa, 221. 
Itvara, a religious death, 72 n 3. 

Jewels, different kinds of, 238. 

— sixteen kinds of, 227. 

Kakandaka, 284, 292. 

Kakandika, 291. 

Kllaka, name of a Sthavira, 294. 



Kamarddhi, 291. 

Kamarddhika, name of a Kula, 391. 

Karana, 19 ns, 265. 

Karmabhumi, 193 n 1. 

Karman, 2. 

TCarttika, name of a month, 276. 

Kan, kings of, 266. 

Kiuyapa, name of a gotra, 193, 218, 

226, 286, 294. 
Kasyapiyi, name of a Sakha, 292. 
Kar ibandhana, 7 3 n 2. 
Katyayana, name of a gotra, 287. 
KauWinya, name of a gotra, 193, 

286. 
Kaujambika, name of a Sakha, 290. 
Kausika, name of a gotra, 290, 293. 
Kau/ika, 288, 292. 
Kautsa, name of a gotra, 294. 
Kau/umbinT, name of a Sakhi, 290. 
Kevala, 2, &c. 
Kheyanna, 29. 
Kinnaras, 237. 
Ko<£Ua, name of a gotra, 190, 219, 

&c. 
Ko//inya, 290. 
Kojala, kings of, 266. 
Kosalian, native of AyodhyU, 281. 
Ko/ivarshiya, name of a Sakha, 288. 
Krishna, the line of, a celestial 

region, 195. 
KWshnasakha, name of a Kula, 292. 
KriyS, 2 n 3. 
Kroja, 297. 

KshamaVramana, a title, 295. 
Kshaoa, a division of time, 262. 
Kshemaliptika, name of a Sakha, 291. 
Kshudratman, name of a graha, 265. 
Kubera, 293. 
Kula, 288, &c. 
Kulakara, 281 n 2. 
Kunala, name of a town, 297. 
Kun^adhari. See Kau/umbinT. 
Ku«<fagrama,Mahavira's birth-place, 

219, &c. 
Kunrfala, name of a gotra, 291. 
Kun</apura, Mahavira's birth-place, 

190; °purl, 191. 
Kunthu, name of the seventeenth 

Tirthakara, 280. 

ATaitra, name of a month, 273, 382. 
•ATakravartin, 225. 
ATampa, name of a town, 262. 
ATampiyika, name of a Sakha, 291. 
ATandana, name of a nun, 267. 
Afandanagari, name of a Sakha, 290. 



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GAINA SUTRAS. 



ATandra, name of a year, 265. 
ATandraprabha, name of the eighth 

Tirthakara, 280. 
.Kandraprabha, name of a palankin, 

197. 257. 
Parana, name of a Garza, 291. 
A^aluya, or Kbuluya. See Roha- 

gupta. 
KbuitbQ, an interjection, 84. 
JTitra, name of an asterism, 276. 
ATolapattaka, 7 3 n 2. 
ATyavana, 202, 262. 

LiL/Aa, name of a country, 84, 85. 
Lake, compared to a teacher, 49. 
Laukantika, gods, 195, 256, 272. 
Lava, a division of time, 262, 265. 
Leader of the battle, epithet of a 

monk, 61. 
LeJbJtbaki. See LiMbavi, 266 n 1. 
Liberation, its nature inexpressible 

in words, 52. 
LiMAavi, princes of Kosala, 266. 
Lives, six kinds of, 14. 
Living beings, all sorts of, 14, &c. 

Madhyama, name of a Sakha, 293. 
Madhyamika (Ma,ggi>imilla), name of 

a Sakha, 292. 
Mahagiri, name of a Sthavira, 287, 

289. 
Maharddhika, 165. . 
Mahasuvrati, female lay votary, 278. 
Mahavidcha, name of a country, 

'94- 

Mahavira, venerable ascetic, 191, 
&c. 

Maighika, name of a Kula, 291. 

Maker of an end, 269, &c. 

Mallaki, princes of Kaji, 266. 

Malli, name of the nineteenth Tir- 
thakara, 280. 

MalolWa, 106 n 1. 

Malyaka, name of a Kula, 292. 

Manaka, 287. 

Manava, name of a Gana, 292. 

Mandara, mount, 261. 

MWikaputra, name of a Gaaa- 
dhara, 2S6. 

Manibhadra, 289. 

Mara, 29, 30. 

Marg&riras, name of a month, 194, 

MisapQrika, name of a Sakha, 290. 
Mlitara, name of a gotra, 287, 288, 
293. 



Matipattriki, name of a Sakha, 29. 
Mauryaputra, name of a Ganadhara, 

286. 
Megha, 291. 
Mekhaliyika (Mehali < gyiy3), name of 

a Sakha, 291. 
Metarya, name of a Ganadhara, 286. 
Metre, 221. 
Milk Ocean, 199. 
Mithili, name of a town, 264. 
Mleiibz, 137, 185. 
Monk's hall, 88. 
Mukhavastrika, 57 n 2. 
Mukta, name of a respiration, 265. 

— epithet of Mahavira, 265. 
Mukunda, 92. 

Munisuvrata, name of the twentieth 

Tirthakara, 280. 
Musical instruments, different kinds, 

183. 

Nabhi, first king, 287. 
Naga, gods, 198. 

— name of a Karana, 265. 

— name of a Sthavira, 294. 

— proper name, 290. 
NagabhQta, name of a Kula, 290. 
Nagaputra, 290. 

Nagaryuna, 32 n 2. 

Nagila, name of a Sthavira, 288. 

Nakshatra, name of a Sthavira, 294. 

Nalanda, name of a town, 264. 

Name and gotra, Karman relating to, 
226. 

Nami, name of the twenty-first Tir- 
thakara, 280. 

Nanda, a lay votary, 278. 

Nandanabhadra, 289. 

Nandika (Nandigga), name of a 
Kula, 290. 

Nandita, name of a Sthavira, 295. 

Nandivardhana, name of the elder 
brother of Mahavira, 193. 

— name of a fortnight, 265. 
Nigghanru, 221. 
Nirgrantha, 28, &c. 
Nirriti, name of a night, 265. 
Non- Aryan people, 137. 
Nurses, five kinds of, 192. 

Occupations, the three, of men, 

282. 
Oggaha (avagraha), 23 ns. 

Pa</iggahadhari, 117 n 2. 
Padma, 293. 



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INDEX. 



317 



Padmaprabha, name of the sixth 

Tirthakara, 280. 
Padmila, name of a Sthavira, 288. 
Pa^usan, 1 30 n 2, 296, &c. 
Palyopama, a long period of time, 

280. 
PaWubhadra, 289. 
Panipa</iggahiya, 1 17 n 2. 
PanitabhQmi, 264. 
Paovagamana, a religious death, 73. 
Pip3, name of a town, 269. 
Parigraha, 23. 

Parihasaka, name of a Kula, 290. 
Parinna, comprehension and renun- 
ciation, 1 n 2. 
Parisrava, 37 n 1. 
Pax»va, name of the twenty-third 

Tirthakara, 194, 271. 
Paryanka, a certain posture, 187. 
Passions, enumerated, 35. 
Paurushi, wake of the day or night, 

»57- 
Paushya, name of a month, 273. 
Phalgumitra, name of a Sthavira, 

294. 
Plants, endowed with intellect, 10. 
Players and other performers, 253. 
Policemen, 252. 
Poshadha, 266. 

Prabhasa, name of a Ganadhara, 286. 
Prabhava, name of a Sthavira, 287. 
PriUina, name of a gotra, 287, 288. 
Pranata Kalpa, 271. 
Pr&rnavahanaka, name of a Kula, 

292. 
Pratyekabuddha, 66 n 1. 
Preaching, 27. 

PrtshfUampi, name of a town, 264. 
Prt tidharmika, name of a Kula, 292. 
Pritivardhana, 265. 
Priyadanrana, daughter of Mahavlra, 

193- 
Priyagantha, 293. 
Priyakarint, name of Tri/alS, 193. 
Pronunciation, 221. 
Pum/ravardhaniyi, name of a Sakha, 

288. 
Punyabhadra, 289. 
Purimatala, name of a town, 283. 
Purisantarakai/a, 90 n 2. 
PQroapattrikS, name of a SakhS, 

290. 
Pflrva, 274, *7*» 284. 
Pushpadanta, name of the ninth 

Tirthakara, 280. 
Pushpagiri, name of a Sthavira, 293. 



Pushp&f 013, name of a nun, 274. 
Pushpottara, name of a Vimtna, 

190, 2l8. 
Pushyamitrika, name of a Kula, 292. 

Quality, is. 

Ra^agriha, capital of Magadha, 264, 

287. 
Ragoharana, broom, 57 n 2. 
Ra^yapalikl, name of a A"akh3, 291. 
Rahasya, 221. 

Raksha, name of a Sthavira, 294. 
Ratha, name of a Sthavira, 293. 
Reciprocity, law of, 13. 
Rent, 289. 

Renunciation of Mahavira, 257. 
Retinue of a king, 243. 
Revatt , name of a female lay votary, 

268. 
Revatika, name of a park, 277. 
Ri^-upalika, name of a river, 263. 
Rohagupta, 290. 
Rohana, 290. 
Rudra, 92. 

Rigumati, 289. 
J6'g-veda, 221. 
JRjshabha, name of the first Ttrtha- 

kara, 281, &c. 
ftshabhadatta, 190, 281, &c. 
ftishabhasena, 284. 
JUshidatta, 293. 

JUshidattika, name of a Kula, 292. 
Jtrshigupta, 292. 

fo'shiguptika, name of a Kula, 292. 
itishipalita, 293. 

Sldharmika, 70. 

Sagaropami, a long period of time, 
190, 218, 271, &c. 

Samadhi, 49 n 2. 

Samaga, 201,263. 

Sama-veda, 221. 

Samaya, 23 n 3. 

— a division of time, 262. 

Sambhava, name of the third Tir- 
thakara, 280. 

Sambhfitavijaya, name of a Stha- 
vira, 287, 288. 

Samita, 293. 

Samkiiiki (Samkifyiki ?), name of 
a Sakha, 291. 

Samkha</i, 93 n 2. 

Samlekhani, 74 n 3. 

Sampalita, name of a Sthavira, 294. 



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3*8 



GAINA SOTRAS. 



Samparyanka, a certain posture, . 

269. 
Samudravig-aya, king of Sauripura, 

276. 
Sandhi, 31 n 4. 
Sarvarthasiddha, name of a Vim&na, 

281. 

— name of a Muhfirta, 265. 
Sattha (Sastra), 1 n 2. 
Saudharma Kalpa, a celestial re- 
gion, 222. 

— Avatamsaka, a celestial abode, 

222. 
Saumya, 274. 
Saurash/riki, name of a Sakha, 

292. 
Sautaptikl, name of a Sakha, 290. 
Sciences, seventy-two, 28a. 
Self, the Knower, 50. 
Sena, 289. 
Senika, 295. 

Shaiu/avana, name of a park, 259. 
Siddha, epithet of Mahavira, 264. 

— name of a Stoka, 265. 
Siddhartha, father of Mahavira, 191, 

&c, 226, &c. 
Siddhartha vana, name of a park, 

283. 
Simha, name of a Sthavira, 294. 
Simhagiri Gatismara, name of a 

Sthavira, 288, 293. 
Sin, causes of, 2. 
Skanda, 92. 
Snake gods, 92. 
Soittiya. See Sautaptikl 
Somabhuta, name of a Kula, 290. 
Somadatta, 289. 

Soul, 2. 

Sthavira, 286. 

Sthiragupta, name of a Sthavira, 

295. 
Sthulabhadra, name of a Sthavira, 

287. 
Stoka, a division of time, 262, 265. 
Subbhabhflmi, name of a country, 

84. 
Subhadra, name of a female lay 

votary, 284. 
Sudar/ani, elder sister of Mahavira, 

193. 
Sudharman, name of a Ganadhara, 

1, 286, 287. 

— name of a council hall of the 

gods, 22 2. 
Suhastin, name of a Sthavira, 288, 
290. 



Suicide, 68 n 5. 

Sulasa, name of a female lay votary, 
268. 

Sumanobhadra, 289. 

Sumati, name of the fifth Tirtha- 
kara, 280. 

Sunanda, name of a female lay vo- 
tary, 274. 

Supatvva, name of the seventh Tir- 
thakara, 280. 

— paternal uncle of Mahavira, 193. 
Supratibuddha, name of a Sthavira, 

288, 292. 
Suras, 198. 
Sushama, name of a period, 189, 

218. 
Sushamasushama, name of a period, 

189, 218. 
Susthita, name of a Sthavira, 288, 

292. 
Suvidhi, name of the ninth TSrtba- 

kara, 280. 
Suvrata, name of a lay votary, 274. 

— name of a day, 198, 257, 263. 

— name of a gotra, 294. 
Suvratagni, name of a day, 265. 
Svastika, 190. 

Svati, name of an asterism, 189, 218, 

269. 
Svayambuddha, 66 n 1. 

Sakatamukha, 283. 

Sakra, 222. 

Sam/ilya, name of a Sthavira, 

*94- 
Sahkhasataka, name of a lay votary, 

267. 
Santi, name of the sixteenth Ttr- 

thakara, 280. 
Santisenika, 293. 
Sauripura, name of a town, 276. 
Sayyambhava, name of a Sthavira, 

287. 
Sirarddhi, 290. 
Sttala, name of the tenth Ttrtha- 

kara, 280. 
Siva, name of a queen, 276. 
SivabhOti, name of a Sthavira, 294. 
Sramasas, 194, &c. 
Sravana, name of a month, 275, 

*77- 
Sravasti, name of a town, 264. 
Sravastika, name of a Sakhi, 291. 
Sreyimsa, name of the eleventh 

Tirthakara, 280. 

— name of Mahavira, 193, 356. 



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INDEX. 



319 



Sreyamsa, name of a lay votary, 

274. 
Sridhara, 274. 
Srigupta, 291. 
Subha, 274. 
Sudra, 151. 

Tamraliptika, name of a Sakha, 

288. 
Tapasa, name of a Stbavira, 288. 
Tasa = trasa, 3 n 2. 
Tirthakara, 224. 
Tishyabhadra, 289. 
Trairinka, name of a Sakha, 290. 
Treasures, hiding-places of, 248. 
Tree, likened to a worldly man, 53. 
Truala, mother of Mahavira, 191, 

193, 226, &c. 
Tortoise, likened to a worldly man, 

53- 
Tungikayana, name of a gotra, 53. 

Uddeha, name of a Gana, 290. 
U</umbarika, name of a SSkha, 

290. 
U</uva/ika, name of a Gana, 291. 
Ujbfanagari, name of a Sakhi, 292, 

293. 
UllagaMAa, name of a Kula, 290. 
Upananda, 289. 
Upaiiga, 221. 
Upapada, 202, 264. 
Upajama, name of a day, 265. 
Uplrraya, 115. 
Utsarpini era, 189, 218, &c. 
Uttara, 289. 
Uttarabalissaha, name of a Gana, 

289. 
Uttarakura, name of a palankin, 

*77- 
Uttaraphalguni,name of an asterism, 

189, &c, 217, &c. 
Uttarasha^M, name of an asterism, 

28l, &G. 

Va^abhOml, name of a country, 

84. 
Vaj-ra, name of a Sthavira, 288, 

*93- ^ 

Va^ranagari, name of a Sakha, 

291. 
Va^rasena, name of a Sthavira, 288, 

193- . . 

Va^ri, name of a Sakha, 292. 
Vauakha, name of a month, 201, 

203. 



Vai/ali, capital of Videha, 264. 
Vauramana, or Vairravana, 195, 

199. 
Varna, name of a queen, 271. 
Vanassai Vanaspati, 3 n 2. 
Vani^agrama, name of a town, 

264. 
Vanfya, name of a Kula, 292. 
Varadatta, 277. 
Vardhamana, name of Mahavira, 

J9*. '93,249, 255. 

Vardhamanaka, 190. 

Vasish/Aa, 274. 

Vasish/ifra, name of a gotra, 191, &c, 
226, &c, 286, 288, 290, 294. 

Vasish/Aiya, name of a Sakha, 292. 

Vasudeva, 225. 

Vasup(h*ya, name of the twelfth Ttr- 
thakara, 280. 

Vatsa, name of a gotra, 287, 293. 

Vatsaliya, name of two Kulas, 291, 
292. 

Viyubhflti, name of a Ganadhara, 
286. 

Vedana= feeling, 3 n 2. 

Vedantya, 269. 

Vena, 286. 

Vesamana, 248, 251. 

Vejavi/ika, name of a Gana, 291. 

Videha, native country of Mahavira, 
286. 

Videhadatta fdinna), name of Tri- 
jall, 193, 194, 256. 

Vidyadharagopala, 293. 

Vidyadharas,' 197. 

Vidyadhari, name of two Slkhls, 
292, 293. 

Vu*aya, name of a muhQrta, 199, 
201, 257, 263. 

ViharabhQmi, 90 n t, 306. 

VUarabhGmi, 90 n 1, 306. 

Vimala, name of.the thirteenth Ttr- 
thakara, 280. 

Vimana, celestial abode, 190, 218. 

Vimanavasin, one of the four orders 
of gods, 191. 

Vinita, name of a town, 283. 

Virabhadra, 274. 

Vbakha, name of an asterism, 
271. 

Vijila, name of a palankin, 273. 

Vishnu, name of a Sthavira, 294. 

Vows, three, 63. 

-r- five, 203. 

Water-bodies, 5. 



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320 GAIN A SOTRAS. 



Water-lives, 5 n 1. Yakshini, name of a nun, 278. 

Whirlpool = Samsara, 9. Yajas, 274. 

Wind-bodies, 9. Yasobhadra, name of a monk, 289. 

Women, 2i. — name of a Kula, 291. 

— name of a Sthavira, 287. 

Yarur-veda, 221. Ya>oda, wife of M ahlvira, 19}. 

Yaksha, 289. Years, former, 58. 

Yakshadatta' (Minna), 289. Yoga, 15 ns* 

Yakshas, 92. Yqyana, 297, &c. 



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Dtctmber, 1884, 

Clatentrott $tess, <&xfotto 

A SELECTION OF 

BOOKS 

PUBLISHED FOR THE UNIVERSITY BY 

HENRY FSOWDE, 

AT THE OXFORD UNIVERSITY PRESS WAREHOUSE, 

AMEN CORNER, LONDON. 

ALSO TO BE HAD AT THE 

CLARENDON PRESS DEPOSITORY, OXFORD. 
[Every book is bound in cloth, unless otherwise described^ 



LEXICONS, GFRAHMARS, &0. 
(See also Clarendon Press Series, pp. 14, 18, 21, 24, 25.) 

Anglo-Saxon. — An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary, based on the 
MS. Collections of the late Joseph Bosworth, D.D., Professor of Anglo-Saxon, 
Oxford. Edited and enlarged by Prof. T. N. Toller, M.A. (To be completed 
in four parts.) Parts I and II. A— HWISTLIAN (pp. vi, 576). 188a. 410. 
15 s. each. 

CHINESE.— A Handbook of the Chinese Language. Parts I 
and II, Grammar and Chrestomathy. By James Summers. 1863. 8vo. 
half bound, \l. is. 

English. — A New English Dictionary, on Historical Prin- 
ciples: founded mainly on the materials collected by the Philological Society. 
Edited by James A. H. Murray, LL.D., President of the Philological Society ; 
with the assistance of many Scholars and men of Science. Part I. A — ANT 
(pp. xvi, 352). Imperial 4to. \*s. 6d. 

— — An Etymological Dictionary of the English Language. 

By W. W. Skeat, M.A. Second Edition. 1884. 4to. 2I. +r. 

Supplement to the First Edition of the above. 1884. 

4to. 2s. 6d. 

—— A Concise Etymological Dictionary of the English Lan- 
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GREEK. — A Greek-English Lexicon, by Henry George 
Liddell, D.D., and Robert Scott, D.D. Seventh Edition, Revised and Aug* 
men ted throughout. 1883. 4to. 1/. i6>. 

A Greek-English Lexicon, abridged from Liddell and 

Scott's 4to. edition, chiefly for the use of Schools. Twentieth Edition, 
Carefully Revised throughout. 1883. Square 1 amo. js. 6d. 

[9] 



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CLARENDON PRESS, OXFORD. 



Greek. — A copious Greek-English Vocabulary, compiled from 
the best authorities. 1850. 241110. 3/. 

A Practical Introduction to Greek Accentuation, by H. 

W. Chandler, M.A. Second Edition. 1881. 8vo. 10s. 6d. 

Hebrew.— The Book of Hebrew Roots, by Abu 'l-Walid 

Marwan ibn Janah, otherwise called Rabbi Yonah. Now first edited, with an 

Appendix, by Ad. Neubauer. 1875. 4to. 2/. 7*. 6d. 

A Treatise on the use of the Tenses in Hebrew. By 

S. R. Driver, M.A. Second Edition, Revised and Enlarged. 1881. Extra 
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Hebrew Accentuation of Psalms, Proverbs, and Job. 

By William Wickes, D.D. 1881. Demy 8vo. stiff covers, e,s. 

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MS. collections of the late Richard Cleasby. Enlarged and completed by 
G. Vigfiisson. M.A. With an Introduction, and Life of Richard Cleasby, by 
G. Webbe Dasent, D.C.L. 1874. 4to. 3/. js. 

A List of English Words the Etymology of which is 

illustrated by comparison with Icelandic. Prepared in the form of an 
ArPENDix to the above. By W. W. Skeat, M.A. 1876. stitched, is. 

An Icelandic Prose Reader, with Notes, Grammar and 

Glossary, by Dr. Gudbrand Vigfiisson and F. York Powell, M.A. 1879. 
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