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Full text of "Sacred Books East Various Oriental Scholars with Index. 50 vols Max Muller Oxford 1879.1910."

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THE 

SACRED BOOKS OF THE EAST 



03] a 

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Pontoon 
HENRY FROWDE 




OXFOBD ITIJ-IVEBSITY PBESS WABEHOTJSE 
7 PATEENOSTER EOW 



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THE 



SACRED BOOKS OF THE EAST 



TRANSLATED 



BY VARIOUS ORIENTAL SCHOLARS 



AND EDITED BY 



F. MAX MULLER 



VOL. XXIII 




AT THE CLARENDON PRESS 
1883 

[ AH rights reserved] 



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3b 



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THE ZEND-AVESTA 



PART II 
THE S1R6ZAHS, YASTS, AND NYAYIS 



TRANSLATED BY 



JAMES DARMESTETER 



0jrforto 

AT THE CLARENDON PRESS 
1883 

[ All rights reserved] 

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CONTENTS. 

page 

Introduction ix 

TRANSLATIONS. 

Preliminary Observations to the Yarts and Sirdzahs . . i 

Str&zah I • • • 3 

Slr6zah II 13 

I. Ormazd Yart 21 

(Bahman Yart) 31 

II. Haptan Yart 35 

III. Ardibehirt Yart 41 

IV. Khorddd Yart 48 

V. AMn Yart 52 

VI. Kh&rshe^Yart 85 

VII. Mah Yart . . 88 

VIII. Tir Yart 92 

IX. G6s Yart no 

X. Mihir Yart 119 

XL Srdsh Yart Hadhdkht 159 

XII. Rashn Yart 168 

XIII. Farvardin Yart 179 

XIV. Bahram Yart 231 

XV. Ram Yart 249 

XVI. Dfn Yart 264 



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Vlll CONTENTS. 

PACE 

XVII. Ashi Yart 270 

XVIII. Artad Ysut 283 

XIX. Zamyad Ysut 286 

XX. Vana»/ Yart 310 

XXI. Yaft Fragment 311 

XXII. Yart 314 

XXIII. Afrfn Paighambar Zartfut 324 

XXIV. Vutasp Yart 328 

Preliminary Observations to the Nyayu . . . -349 

I. KMrshetf Nyayu 349 

II. Mihir Nyayu 353 

III. Man NyayL? 355 

IV. Aban Ny£yu 356 

V. Mas Nyayu 357 

Index to the Translations of the VendidSd, Sir6zahs, 

Yarts, and Nyayu 363 



Transliteration of Oriental Alphabets adopted for the Trans- 
lations of the Sacred Books of the East . . .381 



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INTRODUCTION. 

The present volume contains a translation of the 
Sirdzahs and Y&rts, and of the Nyayij. This part of 
the Avesta treats chiefly of the mythical and legendary 
lore of Zoroastrianism. 

For a satisfactory translation of these texts, the etymo- 
logical and comparative method is generally considered as 
the best or as the only possible one, on account of the 
entire absence of any traditional interpretation. I have 
tried, however, to reduce the sphere of etymological guess- 
work to its narrowest limits, with the help of different 
Pahlavi, Persian, and Sanskrit translations, which are as 
yet unpublished, and have been neglected by former trans- 
lators. I found such translations for the Sirdzahs, for 
Yarts I, VI, VII, XI, XXIII, XXIV, and for the Nyayi* 1 
(besides the already published translations of Yarts XXI 
and XXII). 

Of the remaining Yarts, which are mostly of an epical 
character, there is no direct translation available; but a 
close comparison of the legends in Firdausi's Shah Namah 
seems to throw some light, even as regards philological 
points, on not a few obscure and important passages. 
This has enabled me, I believe, to restore a few myths to 
their original form, and to frame a more correct idea of 
others 2 . 

In this volume, as in- the preceding one, I have to thank 
Mr. West for his kind assistance in making my translation 
more readable, as well as for valuable hints in the inter- 
pretation of several passages. 

JAMES DARMESTETER. 
Paris, 
13 December, 1882. 



1 These translations have been edited in our Etudes Iraniennes, II, 253 seq. 
(Paris, Vieweg, 1883). 
* See ibidem, II, ao6 seq. 



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YASTS AND SIROZAHS. 



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YASTS ANarrSLROZAHS. 




The word ya*t, in Zend ySHtJmeans properly 'the act of wor- 
shipping,' the performance of the yasna; and it is often used 
in Parsi tradition as synonymous with yasna. But it has also 
been particularly applied to a certain number of writings in which 
the several Izeds are praised and magnified. These writings are 
generally of a higher poetical and epical character than the rest of 
the Avesta, and are most valuable records of the old mythology 
and historical legends of Iran. 

The Parsis believe that formerly every Amshaspand and every 
Ized had his particular Yart, but we now possess only twenty 
Yar ts and fragments of another *. The writings known as Yar t 
fragments, the Afrln Zarturt, and Virtasp Yart (printed as Yarts 
XXI, XXII, XXIII, XXIV in Westergaard's edition), are not proper 
Yarts, and have no liturgical character ; they are not devoted to the 
praise of any Ized. 

The order in which the Yarts have been arranged by the Parsis 
follows exactly the order of the Sir6zah, which is the proper in- 
troduction to the Yarts. 

s!r6zah. 

Str6zah means 'thirty days:' it is the name of a prayer com- 
posed of thirty invocations addressed to the several Izeds who 
preside over the thirty days of the month. 

There are two Strdzahs, but the only difference between them is 
that the formulas in the former are shorter*, and there is also, 
occasionally, some difference in the epithets, which are fuller in 
the latter. 

1 The Bahman Yart (see Yt. I, §§ 24 and following). " 

* In the greater Sirdzah the names of the gods invoked are 
introduced with the word yazamaidS, 'we sacrifice to;' in the 
lesser Sirdzah there is no introductory word, the word khshnao- 
thra, ' propitiation,' being understood, as can be seen from the 
introductory formulas to the several Yarts. 

03] B 



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YASTS AND s!r6zAHS. 



In India the Sirozah is recited in honour of the dead, on the 
thirtieth day after the death, on the thirtieth day of the sixth 
month, on the thirtieth day of the twelfth month, and then every 
year on the thirtieth day from the anniversary day (Anquetil, Zend- 
Avesta, II, 315). 

The correspondence between the formulas of the Sir6zah and 
the Yarts is as follows : 

Ormazd Yart (1, 1-23). 

Bahman Yart (I, 24-33). 

Ardibehert Yart (HI). 



1. Ormazd. 

2. Bahman. 

3. Ardibehert. 

4. Shahrevar. 

5. Sapendarmad. 

6. Khordid. 

7. Murdad. 

8. Dai pa Adar. 

9. Adar. 
Aban. 
KhorshSd. 
Mah. 
Tir. 
G&s. 

Dai pa Mihir. 
Mihir. 
Sr6sh. 

18. Rashn. 

19. Farvardin. 
Bahram. 
Ram. 
Bid. 

Dai pa Din. 
Din. 
Ard. 

26. Aftad. 

27. Asmin. 

28. Zemyad. 

29. Mahraspand. 

30. An6rdn. 

The Yafts that have been lost are, therefore, those of Khsha- 
thra-vairya, Spewta-Armaiti, Amereta7, Atar, Vata, Asman, Mathra- 
Spewta, and Anaghra mokau. The second Yart, or Yart of the 
seven Amshaspands, appears to have been no independent Yart : 
it was common to all the seven Yarts devoted to the several 



10. 
11. 
12. 

13- 

14. 

i5- 
16. 

*7- 



20. 
21. 
22. 

23- 

24. 

25- 



KhordSd Yart (IV). 



AbanYart(V). 
KhorshSdYart(VI). 
Mah Yart (VII). 
Tfr Yart (VIII). 
G6* Yart (IX). 

Mihir Yart (X). 
SrdshYart(XI). 
Rashn Yart (XII). 
Farvardin Yaft (XIII). 
Bahram Yaft (XIV> 
Ram Yart (XV). 



Din Yart (XVI). 
Ashi Yart (XVII). 
Artad Yart (XVIII). 

Zemyad Ya*t (XIX). 



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s{r6zah i. 



Amshaspands, and, accordingly, it is recited on the first seven days 
of the month. One might suppose that it was originally a part of the 
Ormazd Yart, as the Amesha-Spewtas are invoked in company with 
Ahura Mazda (Sir6zah i, 8, 15, 23). There may, indeed, have been 
several Yarts for one and the same formula of the Sirozah, as in 
all of these formulas more than one Ized are invoked : this would 
apply not only to the Yart of the seven Amshaspands, but also to 
the Vanaw/ Yart (Yart XX), which, in that case, ought to follow 
the Tlr Yart (see Sir6zah 13). 

Not every Yart, however, is devoted to the Ized whose name 
it bears : thus the Ardibehert Yart is mostly devoted to Airyaman ; 
the Ram-Yart and the Zemyad-Yart are devoted to Vayu and to the 
JJvaxend : but Airyaman, Vayu, and the Zfoarenfi are invoked in 
the same Sir&zah formulas as Ardibehert, Ram, and Zemy&d, and 
a Yart is named from the opening name in the correspondent Sir6zah 
formula. 

The systematic order so apparent in the Slr6zah pervades the 
rest of the liturgy to a great extent: the enumeration of Izeds 
in Yasna XVII, 12-42 (XVI, 3-6) follows exactly the order of 
the Sirfizah, except that it gives only the first name of each 
formula ; and the question may be raised whether this passage in 
the Yasna is taken from the Sir6zah, or whether the Slr6zah 
is developed from the Yasna. 

The very idea of the Sir6zah, that is to say the attribution 
of each of the thirty days of the month to certain gods, seems 
to have been borrowed from the Semites: the tablets found in 
the library of Assurbanipal contain an Assyrian Sirozah, that is, 
a complete list of the Assyrian gods that preside over the thirty 
days of the month 1 . 



sIrozah I. 

1. Ormazd. 

To Ahura Mazda, bright and glorious 2 , and to 
the Amesha-Spe#tas s . 

1 J. Halevy, Revue des fitudes Juives, 1881, October, p. 188. 
* See Yt. 1,1-23. 3 SeeYt. II. 

B 2 



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YASTS AND slROZAHS. 



2. Bahman. 

To Vohu-Mand 1 ; to Peace 2 , whose breath is 
friendly 3 , and who is more powerful to destroy than 
all other creatures 4 ; to the heavenly Wisdom 8 , made 
by Mazda ; and to the Wisdom acquired through the 
ear 6 , made by Mazda. 

3. Ardibehest. 

To Asha-Vahuta, the fairest 6 ; to the much- 
desired Airyaman, made by Mazda 7 ; to the instru- 
ment made by Mazda 8 ; and to the good Saoka 9 , 
with eyes of love 10 , made by Mazda and holy. 

1 SeeYt. I, 24-33. 

2 Akhfti does not so much mean Peace as the power that 
secures peace; see note 4. 

8 H3m-vai«ti, from ham-vS (Yt. X, 141); possibly from van, 
to strike : ' Peace that smites.' 

4 Taradhatem anyaix dam8n, interpreted: tarvfnit&rtum 
min zaki an daman pun anashtth akar kartan (Phi. Comm.), 
' more destroying than other creatures, to make Non-peace (An&- 
khfti) powerless.' 

5 Asnya khratu, the inborn intellect, intuition, contrasted with 
gaosh6-sruta khratu, the knowledge acquired by hearing and 
learning. There is between the two nearly the same relation 
as between the paravidya and aparavidya in Brahmanism, the 
former reaching Brahma in se (parabrahma), the latter xabda- 
brahma, the word-Brahma (Brahma as taught and revealed). 
The Mobeds of later times interpreted their name Mag<k, (jijA*, 
as meaning, ' men without ears,' (_PyU, ' pour insinuer que leur 
Docteur avait puise" toute sa science dans le ciel et qu'il ne l'avait 
pas apprise par l'ouie comme les autres hommes' (Chardin, 
III, 130; ed. Amsterdam). 

6 SeeYt. III. 7 See Vend. XXII. 
8 The ' golden instrument ' mentioned in Nyayu I, 8. 

* A personification of the Ormazdean weal; cf. Vend. XXII, 
3 [8], andYt. XIII, 42. 
10 Vouru-d6ithra, kamak d6isr; she is 'the genius of the good 



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siRdzAH I. 



4. Shahr£var. 

To Khshathra-vairya; to the metals 1 ; to Mercy 
and Charity. 

5. Sapendarmad. 

To the good Spe»ta-Armaiti 2 , and to the good 
Rita 3 , with eyes of love, made by Mazda and holy. 

6. Khordad. 

To HaurvataV*, the master; to the prosperity 
of the seasons and to the years, the masters of 
holiness. 

7. Murdad. 

To A mere ta/ 6 , the master ; to fatness and flocks ; 
to the plenty of corn ; and to the powerful Gaoke- 
rena 6 , made by Mazda. 

(At the gah 7 Havan): to Mithra*. the lord of 
wide pastures and to Rama //z>astra 9 . 

(At the gah Rapithwin) : to Asha-VahLrta and 
to Atar 10 , the son of Ahura Mazda ". 

eye, mln6i hufoumih' (Vend. XIX, 36 [123]), the reverse of the 
evil eye (Yasna LXVII, 62 [LXVHI, 22]; cf. fitudes Iraniennes, 
II, 182). 

1 Vend. Introd. IV, 33 ; Ormazd et Ahriman, §§ 202-206. 

2 Ibid. 8 Vend. Introd. IV, 30. 

* See Yt. IV. • See Vend. Introd. IV, 34. 

* The white Horn, or plant of immortality ; see Vend. Introd. 
IV, 28. 

7 SeeGahs. 8 SeeYt. X. 

* See Yt XV. Cf. Yasna I, 3 (7-9), where Mithra and Rama 
are invoked in company with the genius of the Hdvani period 
of the day. 

10 The Genius of Fire. 

11 Cf. Yasna I, 4 (10-12), where Asha-Vahuta and Atar are 
invoked in company with the genius of the Rapithwin period 
of the day: 



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YASTS AND siROZAHS. 



(At the gah Uziren): to Apam Napa^ 1 , the tall 
lord, and to the water made by Mazda 2 . 

(At the gah Aiwisruthrem) : to the Fravashis 3 
of the faithful, and to the females that bring forth 
flocks of males 4 ; to the prosperity of the seasons ; 
to the well-shapen and tall-formed Strength, to 
Verethraghna 8 , made by Ahura, and to the crushing 
Ascendant 6 . 

(At the gah Ushahin) : to. the holy, devout, fiend- 
smiting Sraosha 7 , who. makes the world grow; to 
Rashnu Razista 8 , and to Arcta/ 9 , who makes the 
world grow, who makes the world increase 10 . 

8. Dai pa Adar 11 . 

To the Maker Ahura Mazda, bright and glorious, 
and to the Amesha-Spe»tas. 

I Literally ' the Son of the Waters; ' he was originally the Fire 
of lightning, as born in the clouds (like the Vedic Apam nap&t) ; 
he still appears in tbat character, Yt. VIII, 34 ; he is for that 
reason 'the lord of the females' because the waters were con- 
sidered as females. (cf.Yasna XXXVIII, 1 [2]). But, as napa7 
means also ' navel' (the same words having often the two meanings 
of ' navel ' and ' offspring ; ' cf. nSbhi in the Vedas and the Zend 
nslfy6, 'offspring,' from nafa 'navel'), Ap8m Napa/ was inter- 
preted as ' the spring of the waters, the navel of the waters,' which 
was supposed to be at the source of the Arvand (the Tigris; 
Neriosengh ad Yasna I, 5 [15] ) ; cf. Yt. V, 72. 

s CfYasnal, 5 [13-15]. s See Yt. XIII. 

4 Perhaps better: ' to the flocks of Fravashis of the faithful, men 
and women.' 

6 The Genius of Victory; see Yt. XIV. 
« CfYasnal, 6 [16-19]. 

7 See Yt. XI and Vend. Introd. IV, 31 ; Farg. XVIII, 14 seq. 
« The Genius of Truth; seeYt. XII. 

» Truth; seeYt. XVIII. 10 Cf.Yasna I, 7 [20-23]. 

II The day before Adar (Dai is the Persian &, 'yesterday,' 
which is the same word as the Sanskrit hyas, Latin heri). The 
eighth, fifteenth, and twenty-third days of the month are under the 



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SIROZAH I. ^ 



9. Adar. 

To Atar, the son of Ahura Mazda ; to the Glory 
and to the Weal, made by Mazda ; to the Glory of 
the Aryas 1 , made by Mazda; to the awful Glory 
of the Kavis 2 , made by Mazda. 

To Atar, the son of Ahura Mazda ; to king 
Husravah 8 ; to the lake of Husravah*; to Mount 
Asnava#/ S , made by Mazda; to Lake .A'a£iasta 6 , 
made by Mazda ; to the Glory of the Kavis, made 
by Mazda 7 . 

rule of Ahura and the Amesha-Spewtas, like the first day ; they 
have therefore no name of their own and are named from the day 
that follows. The month was divided into four weeks, the first 
two numbering seven days, the last two numbering eight 

1 Or better ' the Glories of the Aryas ' (Eramderarriwam) : the 
Glory or Zfoarend (Vend. Introd. IV, 11, p. lxiii, note 1) is 
threefold, according as it illuminates the priest, the warrior, or the 
husbandman. Yaxt XIX is devoted to the praise of the Hvaxenb. 

3 Or ' the awful kingly glory : ' Kavi means a king, but it is 
particularly used of the kings belonging to the second and most 
celebrated of the two mythical dynasties of Iran. The Kavis 
succeeded the Paradhata or Peshdadians, and Darius Codo- 
manes was supposed to be the last of them. For an enumeration 
of the principal Kavis, see Yt. XIII, 132 seq. The /ft>aren6 alluded 
to in this clause is the /ifpareno of the priest; 'it is the fire 
known as Adarapra [Adar Frobd]; or better Adar Farnbag : 
see Etudes Iraniennes, II, 84 ; its object is the science of the 
priests ; by its help priests become learned and clever ' (Sanskrit 
transl. to the Atash Nyayish). 

3 SeeYt.V, 41, note. 

* See Yt XIX, 56. 

• A mountain in Adarbaig&n (Bundahir XII, 26), where king 
Husravah settled the fire Gushasp. 

« SeeYtV, 49. 

' The glory of the warriors, the fire known as Adar Gushasp 
or Gushnasp ; with its help king Husravah destroyed the idol- 
temples near Lake A*e£ast, and he settled it on Mount Asnavaw/ 
(Bund. XVII, 7). 



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8 YASTS AND s!r6zAHS. 

To Atar, the son of Ahura Mazda; to Mount 
Raeva#/ \ made by Mazda ; to the Glory of the 
Kavis, made by Mazda 2 . 

To Atar, the beneficent, the warrior; the God 
who is a full source of Glory, the God who is a full 
source of healing. 

To Atar, the son of Ahura Mazda, with all Atars 3 ; 
to the God Nairy6-Sangha *, who dwells in the 
navel of kings 5 . 

10. Aban. 

To the good Waters, made by Mazda; to the 
holy water-spring Ardvi Anahita 6 ; to all waters 
made by Mazda ; to all plants made by Mazda. 

ii. Khorshed. 
To the undying, shining, swift-horsed Sun 7 . 

12. Mah. 
To the Moon that keeps in it the seed of the 
Bull 8 ; to the only-created Bull 9 ; to the Bull of 
many species 10 . 

1 A mountain in Khorasan on which the Burzin fire is settled 
(Bund. XII, 18). 

2 ' The fire known as Adaraburag'amihira [Adar Burzin Mihir] ; 
its object is the science of husbandry.' King Gurtisp established 
it on Mount Rae>a«/ (Bund. XVII, 8). 

8 All sorts of fires. See another classification, Yasna XVII, 
ii [63-67] and Bundahu XVII, 1. 

4 See Vend. XXII, 7. 

5 The fire Nairy6-sangha, as the messenger of Ahura, burns 
hereditarily in the bosom of his earthly representative, the king. 

6 SeeYt.V. ' SeeYt.VI. 
• See Yt. VII and Vend. XXI, 1, text and note. 

' Aev6-data gauf ; see Vend. 1.1. and Bundahif IV. 

10 Pouru-saredha gau* : the couple born of the seed of the 



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siRdzAH I. 



13- Tir. 
To Tirtrya 1 , the bright and glorious star ; to the 
powerful Satavaesa 2 , made by Mazda, who pushes 
waters forward ; to the stars, made by Mazda, that 
have in them the seed of the waters, the seed of the 
earth, the seed of the plants 3 ; to the star Vana«/ 4 , 
made by Mazda ; to those stars that are seven in 
number, the Hapt6iri«gas 4 , made by Mazda, glorious 
and healing. 

14. G6s. 

To the body of the Cow, to the soul of the Cow, 
to the powerful Drvaspa 5 , made by Mazda and holy. 

15. Dai pa Mihir. 

To the Maker Ahura Mazda, bright and glorious, 
and to the Amesha-Spe#tas. 

16. Mihir. 

To Mithra 6 , the lord of wide pastures, who has 
a thousand ears and ten thousand eyes, a God 
invoked by his own name ; to Rama //k>astra 7 . 

17. Sr6sh. 

To the holy, strong Sraosha 8 , who is the incar- 
nate Word, a mighty-speared and lordly God. 

18. Rashn. 

To Rashnu Razlyta 9 ; to Arrta^ 10 , who makes the 

only-created Bull, and from which arose two hundred and eighty 
species (Bund. XI, 3). 

1 See Yt. VIII. " * See Yt. VIII, 9. 

3 See Yt. XII, 29-31. * See Yt. VIII, 12. 

5 SeeYt. IX. e SeeYt. X. 

' SeeYt XV. 8 SeeYt. XI. 

9 SeeYt. XII. 10 See Yt. XVIII. 



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IO YASTS AND slROZAHS. 

world grow, who makes the world increase ; to the 
true-spoken speech, that makes the world grow. 

19. Farvardtn. 

To the awful, overpowering Fravashis of the 
holy ones 1 . 

20. Bahram. 

To the well-shapen, tall -formed Strength; to 
Verethraghna 2 , made by Ahura; to the crush- 
ing Ascendant. 

21. Ram. 

To Rama //#astra 3 ; to Vayu 3 , who works 
highly 4 and is more powerful to destroy than all 
other creatures : to that part of thee, O Vayu, that 
belongs to Spe«ta-Mainyu 8 ; to the sovereign Sky, 
to the Boundless Time 6 , to the sovereign Time of 
the long Period 6 . 

22. Bad. 

To the bounteous Wind, that blows below, above, 
before, and behind; to the manly Courage. 

23. Dai pa Din. 

To the Maker, Ahura Mazda, bright and glorious ; 
to the Amesha-Spe«tas. 

24. Din. 

To the most right ATista 7 , made by Mazda and 
holy; to the good Law 7 of the worshippers of 
Mazda. 

1 See Yt. XIII. it a See Yt. XIV. 

8 SeeYt. XV. * Powerfully. 

8 SeeYt. XV, 1. 

6 See Vend. Introd. IV, 39 and lxxxii, 1 . 

7 See Yt. XVI. 



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s!r6zah i. it 



25. Ard. 

To Ashi Vanguhi 1 ; to the good Alsti 2 ; to 
the good Ereth^ 3 ; to the good Rasasti^ 4 ; to the 
Weal and Glory, made by Mazda; to Parewdi 5 , of 
the light chariot ; to the Glory of the Aryas made 
by Mazda ; to the kingly Glory made by Mazda ; 
to that Glory that cannot be forcibly seized 6 , made 
by Mazda; to the Glory of Zarathurtra, made by 
Mazda. 

26. Astad. 

To Arsta/ 7 , who makes the world grow; to 
Mount Ushi-darena 8 , made by Mazda, the seat of 
holy happiness. 

27. Asman. 

To the high, powerful Heavens; to the bright, 
all-happy, blissful abode of the holy ones. 

28. Zemyad 9 . 

To the bounteous Earth ; to these places, to these 
fields ; to Mount Ushi-darena 8 , made by Mazda, the 
seat of holy happiness ; to all the mountains made 
by Mazda, that are seats of holy happiness, of full 
happiness; to the kingly Glory made by Mazda; 

1 See Yt. XVII. 

2 Religious knowledge, wisdom (far^anak ; nirvdnag-wanam). 

3 Thought (£ittam). 4 Thoughtfulness (flttasthiti). 

5 The keeper of treasures ; cf. Vend. Introd. IV, 30. 

6 Atoaretem £»aren6: 'the <4»aren6 of the priests: that it 
cannot be forcibly seized means that one must take possession of 
it through virtue and righteous exertion' (Neriosengh and Pahl. 
Comm. to Yasna I and IV, 14 [42]). 

7 See Yt. XVIII. » See Yt. I, 31, text and note. 
• See Yt XIX. 



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12 YASTS AND siRdZAHS. 

to that Glory that cannot be forcibly seized 1 , made 
by Mazda. 

29. Mahraspand. 

To the holy, righteousness-performing Math r a 
Spe«ta 2 ; to the Law opposed to the Da£vas, the 
Law of Zarathurtra ; to the long-traditional teach- 
ing 3 ; to the good Law of the worshippers of Mazda ; 
to the Devotion to the Mathra Spe«ta; to the 
understanding that keeps 4 the Law of the worship- 
pers of Mazda; to the knowledge of the Mathra 
Spewta ; to the heavenly Wisdom made by Mazda ; 
to the Wisdom acquired through the ear 5 and 
made by Mazda. 

30. An£ran. 

To the eternal 6 and sovereign luminous space 7 ; 
to the bright Gar6-nmana 8 ; to the sovereign place 
of eternal Weal 9 ; to the ATnva^- bridge 10 , made by 
Mazda ; to the tall lord Apam Napa7 » and to the 
water made by Mazda ; to Haoma 12 , of holy birth ; 
to the pious and good Blessing ; to the awful cursing 
thought of the wise 3 ; to all the holy Gods of the 



I See p. 11, note 6. 2 The Holy Word. 

8 Daregha upayana: the Genius of Teaching (iixam adnip- 
rupiwim ; Yasna I, 1 2 [40]). 

* In memory. 6 See above, § 2. 

6 Or boundless (anaghra; the Parsi an§ran). 

7 Or Infinite Light ; see Vend. Introd. p.lxxxii and Bund. I, 2. 

8 The abode of Ahura Mazda; see Vend. XIX, 32. 

• See Vend. XIX, 36, note 1. 
10 See Vend. XIX, 29, note 3. 

II See Sir6zah II, 7, note. 

12 See Vend. Introd. IV, 28. 

18 'The blessing (afriti) is twofold: one by thought, one by 
words; the blessing by words is the more powerful; the curse 



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sJr6zah ii. 13 



heavenly world and of the material one; to the 
awful, overpowering Fravashis of the faithful, to 
the Fravashis of the first men of the law, to the 
Fravashis of the next-of-kin * ; to every God invoked 
by his own name 2 . 



s!r6zah 11. 



1. Ormazd. 

We sacrifice unto the bright and glorious Ahura 
Mazda; we sacrifice unto the Amesha-Spe«tas, the 
all-ruling, the all-beneficent. 

2. Bahman. 

We sacrifice unto Vohu-Man6, the Amesha- 
Spewta; we sacrifice unto Peace, whose breath is 
friendly, and who is more powerful to destroy than 
all other creatures. We sacrifice unto the heavenly 
Wisdom, made by Mazda; we sacrifice unto the 
Wisdom acquired through the ear, made by Mazda. 

3. Ardibehcrt. 

We sacrifice unto Asha-Valmta, the fairest, the 
Amesha-Spe^ta; we sacrifice unto the much-desired 
Airyaman ; we sacrifice unto the instrument made 
by Mazda ; we sacrifice unto the good Saoka, with 
eyes of love, made by Mazda and holy. 



(upamana) in thought is the more powerful* (Neriosengh ad 
Yasna 1, 15 [44]). Upamana is the same as the Vedic manyu. 

1 See Yt. XIII, o. 

2 In contradistinction to general invocations. 



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14 YASTS AND S}R6ZAHS. 

4. Shahrevar. 
We sacrifice unto Khshathra-Vairya, the Ame- 
sha-Spe»ta ; we sacrifice unto the metals ; we sacri- 
fice unto Mercy and Charity. 

5. Sapendarmad. 

We sacrifice unto the good Spe»ta Armaiti; 
we sacrifice unto the good Rata, with eyes of love, 
made by Mazda and holy. 

6. Khordad. 
We sacrifice unto Haurvata/, the Amesha- 
Spe»ta ; we sacrifice unto the prosperity of the 
seasons. We sacrifice unto the years, the holy and 
masters of holiness. 

7. Murdad. 

We sacrifice unto A mere ta/, the Amesha-Spe»ta ; 
we sacrifice unto fatness and flocks ; we sacrifice unto 
the plenty of corn ; we sacrifice unto the powerful 
Gaokerena, made by Mazda. 

(At the gah Havan) : We sacrifice unto Mithra, 
the lord of wide pastures ; we sacrifice unto Rama 
//fastra. 

(At the gah Rapithwin) : We sacrifice unto Asha- 
VahLrta and unto Atar, the son of Ahura Mazda. 

(At the gah Uziren) : We sacrifice unto Apam 
Napa/, the swift-horsed, the tall and shining lord, 
the lord of the females ; we sacrifice unto the water 
made by Mazda and holy. 

(At the gah Aiwisruthrem) : We sacrifice unto the 
good, powerful, beneficent Fravashis of the holy 
ones ; we sacrifice unto the females that bring forth 
flocks of males ; we sacrifice unto the thrift of the 



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s{r6zah ii. 15 



seasons ; we sacrifice unto the well-shapen and tall- 
formed Strength ; we sacrifice unto Verethraghna, 
made by Mazda ; we sacrifice unto the crushing 
Ascendant. 

(At the gah Ushahin) : We sacrifice unto the holy, 
tall-formed, fiend-smiting Sraosha, who makes the 
world grow, the holy and master of holiness ; we 
sacrifice unto Rashnu Razista ; we sacrifice unto 
Arrta/, who makes the world grow, who makes the 
world increase. 

8. Dai pa Adar. 

We sacrifice unto the Maker Ahura Mazda, the 
bright and glorious ; we sacrifice unto the Amesha- 
Spe#tas, the all-ruling, the all-beneficent. 

A 

9. Adar. 

We sacrifice unto A tar, the son of Ahura Mazda ; 
we sacrifice unto the Glory, made by Mazda ; we 
sacrifice unto the Weal, made by Mazda ; we sacri- 
fice unto the Glory of the Aryas, made by Mazda ; 
we sacrifice unto the awful Glory of the Kavis, made 
by Mazda. 

We sacrifice unto Atar, the son of Ahura Mazda ; 
we sacrifice unto king Husravah ; we sacrifice unto 
the lake of Husravah ; we sacrifice unto Mount As- 
navaw/, made by Mazda; we sacrifice unto Lake 
Aae^asta, made by Mazda ; we sacrifice unto the 
awful Glory of the Kavis, made by Mazda. 

We sacrifice unto Atar, the son of Ahura Mazda ; 
we sacrifice unto Mount Raeva»/, made by Mazda ; 
we sacrifice unto the awful Glory of the Kavis, 
made by Mazda. 

We sacrifice unto Atar, the son of Ahura Mazda ; 
we sacrifice unto Atar, the beneficent, the warrior. 



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1 6 YASTS AND SIR6ZAHS. 

We sacrifice unto that God, who is a full source of 

glory. We sacrifice unto that God, who is a full 

source of healing. 

We sacrifice unto Atar, the son of Ahura Mazda ; 

we sacrifice unto all Fires ; we sacrifice unto the 

God, Nairyd-Sangha, who dwells in the navel of 

kings. 

10. Aban. 

We sacrifice unto the good Waters, made by 
Mazda and holy ; we sacrifice unto the holy water- 
spring Ardvi Anahita ; we sacrifice unto all waters, 
made by Mazda and holy; we sacrifice unto all 
plants, made by Mazda and holy. 

ii. KhorshM 

We sacrifice unto the bright, undying, shining, 

swift-horsed Sun. 

12. Mah. 

We sacrifice unto the Moon that keeps in it the 
seed of the Bull. We sacrifice unto the Soul and 
Fravashi of the only-created Bull ; we sacrifice unto 
the Soul and Fravashi of the Bull of many species. 

13- Tir. 
We sacrifice unto T i^trya, the bright and glorious 
star ; we sacrifice unto the powerful Satava£sa, made 
by Mazda, who pushes waters forward ; we sacrifice 
unto all the Stars that have in them the seed of the 
waters ; we sacrifice unto all the Stars that have in 
them the seed of the earth ; we sacrifice unto all the 
Stars that have in them the seeds of the plants ; we 
sacrifice unto the Star Vanatf/, made by Mazda ; 
we sacrifice unto those stars that are seven in num- 
ber, the Hapt6iri»gas, made by Mazda, glorious and 
healing ; in order to oppose the Yatus and Pairikas. 



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s}r6zah ii. 17 



14. G6s. 
We sacrifice unto the soul of the bounteous Cow ; 
we sacrifice unto the powerful Drvaspa, made by 
Mazda and holy. 

15. Dai pa Mihir. 

We sacrifice unto the Maker Ahura Mazda, the 
bright and glorious ; we sacrifice unto the Amesha- 
Spewtas, the all-ruling, the all-beneficent. 

16. Mihir. 

We sacrifice unto Mithra, the lord of wide pas- 
tures, who has a thousand ears and ten thousand 
eyes, a God invoked by his own name ; we sacrifice 
unto Rama //z/astra. 

17. Sr6sh. 

We sacrifice unto the holy, tall-formed, fiend- 
smiting, world-increasing Sraosha, holy and master 
of holiness. 

18. Rashn. 

We sacrifice unto Rashnu Razi-yta; we sacrifice 
unto Arst&t, who makes the world grow, who makes 
the world increase ; we sacrifice unto the true-spoken 
speech that makes the world grow. 

19. Farvardin. 
We sacrifice unto the good, strong, beneficent 
Fravashis of the holy ones. 

20. Bah ram. 
We sacrifice unto the well-shapen, tall-formed 
Strength ; we sacrifice untoVerethraghna,made by 
Ahura ; we sacrifice unto the crushing Ascendant. 
[23] c 



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1 8 YASTS AND siRdZAHS. 

21. Ram. 

We sacrifice unto Rama H #astr a; we sacrifice 
unto the holy Vayu ; we sacrifice unto Vayu, who 
works highly and is more powerful to destroy than 
all other creatures. Unto that part of thee do we 
sacrifice, O Vayu, that belongs to Spewta-Mainyu. 
We sacrifice unto the sovereign Sky ; we sacrifice 
unto the Boundless Time ; we sacrifice unto the 
sovereign Time of the long Period. 

22. Bad. 

We sacrifice unto the beneficent, bounteous Wind ; 
we sacrifice unto the wind that blows below ; we 
sacrifice unto the wind that blows above ; we sacri- 
fice unto the wind that blows before; we sacrifice 
unto the wind that blows behind. We sacrifice unto 
the manly Courage. 

23. Dai pa Din. 

We sacrifice unto the Maker Ahura Mazda, the 
bright and glorious ; we sacrifice unto the Amesha- 
Spe»tas. 

24. Din. 

We sacrifice unto the most right A'ista, made by 
Mazda and holy ; we sacrifice unto the good Law of 
the worshippers of Mazda. 

25. Ard. 

We sacrifice unto Ashi Vanguhi, the bright, 
high, strong, tall-formed, and merciful ; we sacrifice 
unto the Glory made by Mazda ; we sacrifice unto 
the Weal made by Mazda. We sacrifice unto 
Pare«di, of the light chariot; we sacrifice unto the 
Glory of the Aryas, made by Mazda ; we sacrifice 



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s!r6zah ii. 19 



unto the awful kingly Glory, made by Mazda ; we 
sacrifice unto that awful Glory, that cannot be 
forcibly seized, made by Mazda ; we sacrifice unto 
the Glory of Zarathustra, made by Mazda. 

26. Astad. 

We sacrifice unto Arst&t, who makes the world 
grow ; we sacrifice unto Mount Ushi-darena, made by 
Mazda, a God of holy happiness. 

27. Asman. 

We sacrifice unto the shining H eavens ; we sacri- 
fice unto the bright, all-happy, blissful abode of the 
holy ones. 

28. Zemyad. 

We sacrifice unto the Earth, a beneficent God; 
we sacrifice unto these places, unto these fields; we 
sacrifice unto Mount Ushi-darena, made by Mazda, a 
God of holy happiness ; we sacrifice unto all the 
mountains, that are seats of holy happiness, of full 
happiness, made by Mazda, the holy and masters of 
holiness ; we sacrifice unto the awful kingly Glory, 
made by Mazda ; we sacrifice unto the awful Glory 
that cannot be forcibly seized, made by Mazda. 

29. Mahraspand. 

We sacrifice unto the Mathra Spe«ta, of high 
glory; we sacrifice unto the Law opposed to the 
Da£vas ; we sacrifice unto the Law of Zarathustra ; we 
sacrifice unto the long-traditional teaching ; we sacri- 
fice unto the good Law of the worshippers of Mazda ; 
we sacrifice unto the Devotion to the Mathra Spe^ta ; 
we sacrifice unto the understanding that keeps the 
Law of the worshippers of Mazda ; we sacrifice unto 

c 2 



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20 YASTS AND siR6ZAHS. 

the knowledge of the Mathra Spe«ta ; we sacrifice 
unto the heavenly Wisdom, made by Mazda; we 
sacrifice unto the Wisdom acquired through th$ 
ear and made by Mazda. 

30. Aneran. 

We sacrifice unto the eternal and sovereign lumi- 
nous space ; we sacrifice unto the bright Gard- 
nmana ; we sacrifice unto the sovereign place of 
eternal Weal ; we sacrifice unto the -fflnvaZ-bridge, 
made by Mazda ; we sacrifice unto Apam Napa/, the 
swift-horsed, the high and shining lord, who has 
many wives ; and we sacrifice unto the water, made 
by Mazda and holy; we sacrifice unto the golden 
and tall Haoma; we sacrifice unto the enlivening 
Haoma, who makes the world grow ; we sacrifice 
unto Haoma, who keeps death far away ; we sacri- 
fice unto the pious and good Blessing ; we sacrifice 
unto the awful, powerful, cursing thought of the wise, 
a God ; we sacrifice unto all the holy Gods of the 
heavenly world ; we sacrifice unto all the holy Gods 
of the material world. 

I praise, I invoke, I meditate upon, and we sacri- 
fice unto the good, strong, beneficent Fravashis of 
the holy ones 1 . 

1 Cf.YasnaXXVI, 1. 



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ORMAZD VAST. 21 



I. ORMAZD VAST. 

The Ormazd Ya*t, properly so called, ends with § 23. The rest 
of the Yart, from § 24 to the end, is wanting in several manu- 
scripts, and is supposed by the Parsis to be a fragment of the 
Bahman Y&r t. 

The Ormazd Ya-rt is exclusively devoted to an enumeration of 
the names of Ahura and to a laudation of their virtues and efficacy: 
the recitation of these names is the best defence against all dangers. 

§§ 1-6. The names of Ahura Mazda are the most powerful 
part of the Holy Word. 

§§ 7-8. The twenty names of Ahura Mazda are enumerated. 

§§ 9-11. Efficacy of these names. 

§§ 12-15. Another list of names. 

§§ 16-19. Efficacy of Ahura' s names. 

§§ 20-23. Sundry formulas of invocation. 

As may be seen from this summary, the subject has been treated 
twice over, first in §§ i-n, and then in §§ 12-19; vet •' does not 
appear that this Yart was formed out of two independent treatises, 
and it is more likely that the vague and indefinite enumeration in 
§§ 12-15, which interrupts so clumsily the train of ideas, is due 
either to an interpolation or simply to the literary deficiency of the 
writer himself. 

The Ormazd Yart is recited every day at the Hdvan Gah, after 
the morning prayer (Anquetil, Zend-Avesta, II, 143): it is well 
also to recite it when going to sleep and when changing one's 
residence (§ if). 

Speculations on the mystical powers of God's names have always 
been common among Orientals. The number of these names 
went on increasing: Dastur Ndshfrvin wrote on the 10 1 names of 
God; Dastur Marzb&n on his 125 names. With the Musulmans, 
Allah had 1001 names. On the names of God among the Jews, 
see Zeitschrift der Deutschen Morgenlandischen Gesellschaft, 
XXXV, pp. 162, 532. 

We have three native translations of this Yart ; one in Pahlavi 
(East India Office, XII, 39, and St. Petersburg, XCIX, 39 ; edited 
by Carl Salemann), one in Persian (East India Office, XXII, 43), 
and one in Sanskrit (Paris, fonds Burnouf, V, 66) ; the last two 
edited in our Eludes Iraniennes, II, 255). 



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22 YASTS AND sfRdZAHS. 

The second part of the Y&st, the so-called Bahman Yart frag- 
ment, is in a state of the utmost corruption. It is difficult to trace 
any connection in the ideas, yet §§ 28, 29, 30 seem to point rather 
clearly to the final struggle between Ormazd and Ahriman and to 
the annihilation of the Da6vas, and, thereby, some connection is 
established between this fragment and the Pahlavi Bahman Yart 1 , 
which deals with the same subject. If that correspondence be real, 
§ 26 might refer to the beginning of the Pahlavi Bahman Yaxt, in 
which Zarathurtra is shown by Ahura the times to come and the 
end of the world. 

Of this fragment we have only a bad Pahlavi translation in the 
St. Petersburg manuscript mentioned above. 



o 4 . May Ahura Mazda be rejoiced! May Angra Mainyu be 
destroyed ! by those who do truly what is the foremost wish (of 
God »). 

I praise well-thought, well-spoken, and well-done thoughts, words, 
and deeds. I embrace all good thoughts, good words, and good 
deeds ; I reject all evil thoughts, evil words, and evil deeds. 

I give sacrifice and prayer unto you, O Amesha-Spe«tas ! even 
with the fulness of my thoughts, of my words, of my deeds, and 
of my heart : I give unto you even my own life *. 

I recite the 'Praise of Holiness 5 :' 

' Ashem Vohu : Holiness is the best of all good. Well is it for 
it, well is it for that holiness which is perfection of holiness I' 

I confess myself a worshipper of Mazda, a follower of Zara- 
thurtra, one who hates the DaSvas and obeys the laws of Ahura 6 ; 

1 Translated by West (Pahlavi Texts, I). 

s The formulas of this section serve as an introduction to all 
Yarts. 

* The last clause of this sentence is imitated from Yasna XLVI 
[XLV], 19 : 'he who does truly in holiness what was the foremost 
wish of Zarathurtra' (that is, what he ordered most earnestly; 
Pahl. Comm.). 

4 ' If I must give up my life for the sake of my soul, I give it 
up ' (Pahl. Comm.). The two sentences, ' I praise ...,'' I give 
unto you . . . ,' are taken from Yasna XI, 17, 18 [XII]. 

5 The Ashem Vohu, one of the holiest and most frequently 
recited prayers. 

6 The FravarSne' or profession of faith of the Zoroastrian 
(Yasna I, 23 [65-68]). 



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ORMAZD VAST. 1% 



For sacrifice 1 , prayer, propitiation, and glorification unto [Hd- 
vani] 2 , the holy and master of holiness; 

For sacrifice, prayer, propitiation, and glorification unto [Sdvan- 
ghi and Visya] 8 , the holy and masters of holiness; 

For sacrifice, prayer, propitiation, and glorification unto the 
Masters of the days, of the periods of the day, of the months, of 
the seasons, and of the years *-; 

Unto Ahura Mazda, bright and glorious, be 

propitiation, with sacrifice, prayer, propitiation, and 

glorification. 

Yathi ahu vairy 6 : The will of the Lord is the law of holiness : 
the riches of Vbhu-Man6 shall be given to him who works in this 
world for Mazda, and wields according to ihe will of Ahura the 
power he gave him to relieve the poor. 

i. Zarathustra asked Ahura Mazda: ' O Ahiira 
Mazda, most beneficent Spirit, Maker of the material 
world, thou Holy One ! 

' What of the Holy Word is the strongest ? What 
is the most victorious ? What is the most glorious ? 
What is the most effective ? 

2. ' What is the most fiend-smiting ? What is the 
best-healing ? What destroyeth best the malice of 
Daevas and Men ? What maketh the material 
world best come to the fulfilment of its wishes 6 ? 
What freeth the material world best from the 
anxieties of the heart 6 ?' 



1 He shows himself a Zoroastrian by -offering sacrifice .... 

* The actual Gah during which the Yart is being recited must 
be mentioned here. Havani is the first Gah (see Gahs). 

8 The Genii who co-operate with Hdvani, his hamkdrs; for 
each Gah the names of its proper hamkdrs should be mentioned 
(see Gahs). 

4 See Vendiddd VIII, 19, text and notes. 

5 Pun minishn it bard matdrtum, mandum frdrun (Phi. tr.); 
manasas asti prdpakatard (Sansk. tr.); sjjjL#| j>J^ (Pers. tr.). 

6 Pun akhu it bara mushitdrtum : pim(r) u mandum t aparfln 



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24 VASTS AND siROZAHS. 

3. Ahura Mazda answered : ' Our Name, O Spi- 
tama Zarathurtra ! who are the Amesha-Spe«tas, 
that is the strongest part of the Holy Word ; that 
is the most victorious ; that is the most glorious ; 
that is the most effective ; 

4. 'That is the most fiend-smiting; that is the best- 
healing ; that destroyeth best the malice of Daevas 
and Men ; that maketh the material world best come 
to the fulfilment of its wishes; that freeth the material 
world best from the anxieties of the heart.' 

5. Then Zarathustra said : ' Reveal unto me that 
name of thine, O Ahura Mazda ! that is the greatest, 
the best, the fairest, the most effective, the most 
fiend-smiting, the best-healing, that destroyeth best 
the malice of Daevas and Men ; 

6. ' That I may afflict all Daevas and Men ; that 
I may afflict all Yatus and Pairikas * ; that neither 
Daevas nor Men may be able to afflict me ; neither 
Yatus nor Pairikas.' 

7. Ahura Mazda replied unto him : ' My name is 
the One of whom questions are asked 2 , O 
holy Zarathustra ! 

'My second name is the Herd-giver 3 . 
' My third name is the Strong One*. 

(Phl.tr.); vitarkawam asti mushakatara (Sansk. tr.); cyl Li. 
cy;l?' < -£j* ! ? i***- »J^T"a»'> (Pers. tr.). 

1 See Vendtdad, Introd. IV, 20-21. 

s As the revealer of the law, which is generally expounded by 
a process of questions from Zarathortra and answers from Ahura. 
The revelation itself is called spe«t6 frasna, ' the holy questions' 
(Vendidad XXII, 19). 

3 ' That is, I give herds of men and cattle ' (Phi. tr.). 

4 ' Strong, that is, I have strength for the works of the law ' 
(Phi. tr.) ; the Sanskrit translation has, ' powerful, that is, I have 
power to create.' 



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ORMAZD VAST. 25 



'My fourth name is Perfect Holiness 1 . 

'My fifth name is All good things created by 
Mazda, the offspring of the holy principle. 

' My sixth name is Understanding 2 ; 

'My seventh name is the One with under- 
standing. 

' My eighth name is Knowledge; 

'My ninth name is the One with Knowledge. 

8. ' My tenth name is Weal ; 

' My eleventh name is He who produces weal. 

' My twelfth name is Ahura (the Lord) 3 . 

'My thirteenth name is the most Beneficent. 

'My fourteenth name is He in whom there 
is no harm*. 

'My fifteenth name is the unconquerable One. 

'My sixteenth name is He who makes the true 
account 6 . 

' My seventeenth name is the All-seeing One. 

'My eighteenth name is the healing One. 

'My nineteenth name is the Creator. 

' My twentieth name is Mazda (the All-knowing 
One). 

9. 'Worship me, O Zarathu^tra, by day and by 



1 Asha-Vahi^ta, which is the name of the second Amesha- 
Spewta too. The commentary has : ' That is, my own being is all 
holiness.' 

2 Literally: 'My sixth name is that I am Understanding.' 
The same construction is used with regard to the eighth, the tenth, 
and the nineteenth names. 

3 ' It follows from this passage that a man is not fit to be a 
king, unless he possesses twelve virtues ' (Phi. tr.). 

4 ' Some say : I keep harm from man ' (Phi. tr.). 

8 ' That is, I make the account of good works and sins ' (Phi. 
tr.); praka/am gawanakaras kila puwyapipayos sankhy&m aham 
karomi (Sansk. tr.). Cf. Yasna XXXII, 6, b. 



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26 YASTS AND SIR6ZAHS. 

night, with offerings of libations well accepted 1 . 
I will come unto thee for help and joy, I, Ahura 
Mazda ; the good, holy Sraosha will come unto thee 
for help and joy ; the waters, the plants, and the 
Fravashis of the holy ones will come unto thee for 
help and joy. 

10. ' If thou wantest, O Zarathustra, to destroy the 
malice of Daevas and Men, of the Yatus and Pai- 
rikas, of the oppressors, of the blind and of the 
deaf 2 , of the two-legged ruffians 3 , of the two-legged 
Ashemaoghas 4 , of the four-legged wolves ; 

ii. 'And of the hordes with the wide front, with 
the many spears s , with the straight spears, with the 
spears uplifted, bearing the spear of havock ; then, 
recite thou these my names every day and every 
night. 

1 Yas6-bereta: prlptena d&nena; ..j yi.tz tsi\j. 

1 The Kavis and the Karapans, the blind and the deaf, are 
those ' who cannot see nor hear anything of God.' Those terms 
were current in the theological language of the Sassanian times to 
designate the unbelievers. An edict, promulgated by king Yazd- 
gard III (fifth century a. c.) to make Zoroastrism the state religion 
in Armenia, had the following words : ' You must know that any 
man who does not follow the religion of Mazda is deaf, blind, 
and deceived by Ahriman's devs ' (Elisaeus, The War of Vartan). 

8 Or murderers (mairya); according to the Parsis highway- 
men (^ %\j). 

4 The heretics. Casuists distinguish three kinds of Ashemaogha: 
the deceiver (frift&r), the self-willed (kh6t ddshak), and the 
deceived (friftak). The first and worst is one who knowingly 
leads people astray, making forbidden what is lawful, and lawful 
what is forbidden ; the second is one who follows his own will and 
reason, instead of applying to a Dastur (a spiritual guide) for 
direction ; the third is one who has been led astray by another. 

6 Drafra means also banner: the Persian ij^i.i, derived from 
drafra, has preserved the two meanings. The Sanskrit translation 
has jastra, the Persian has ^5L». 



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ORMAZD VAST. 27 



12. ' I am the Keeper 1 ; I am the Creator and 
the Maintainer 2 ; I am the Discerner 3 ; I am 
the most beneficent Spirit. 

'My name is the bestower of health; my name 
is the best bestower of health. 

'My name is the Athravan 4 ; my name is the 
most Athravan-like of all Athravans. 

'My name is Ahura (the Lord). 

' My name is Mazd^u (the all-knowing). 

'My name is the Holy; my name is the most 
Holy. 

'My name is the Glorious; my name is the 
most Glorious. 

'My name is the Full-seeing; my name is 
the Fullest-seeing. 

'My name is the Far-seeing; my name is the 
Farthest-seeing. 

13. ' My name is the Protector; my name is the 
Well-wisher; my name is the Creator; my name 
is the Keeper; my name is the Maintainer. 

'My name is the Discerner; my name is the 
Best Discerner. 

'My name is the Prosperity-producer 8 ; my 
name is the Word of Prosperity 6 . 

' My name is the King who rules at his will; 

1 'I keep the creation' (Phi. tr.). 

2 ' I created the world and I maintain it' (ibid.). 

3 ' I can know what is useful and what is hurtful ' (ibid.). 

4 ' The priest.' 

e ' I impart increase to the righteous ' (Phi. tr.). 

* Doubtful. FjUfd-mSthrd is used in several passages as the 
name of a part of the Avesta, Yasna LVIII [LVII], which appears 
to be called so from the presence in it of the words fru$a, 
ffumaw/, 'thriving, causing to thrive,' which aptly express its 
contents. 



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28 YA5TS AND SIR6ZAHS. 

my name is the King who rules most at his 
will. 

' My name is the liberal King 1 ; my name is the 
most liberal King. 

14. ' My name is He who does not deceive ; my 
name is He who is not deceived. 

' My name is the good Keeper; my name is He 
who destroys malice ; my name is He who con- 
quers at once; my name is He who conquers 
everything; my name is He who has shaped 
everything 2 . 

' My name is All weal ; my name is Full weal ; 
my name is the Master of weal. 

15. 'My name is He who can benefit at his 
wish; my name is He who can best benefit at 
his wish. 

' My name is the Beneficent One; my name is 
the Energetic One; my name is the most Bene- 
ficent. 

' My name is Holiness ; my name is the Great 
One ; my name is the good Sovereign ; my name 
is the Best of Sovereigns. 

'My name is the Wise One; my name is the 
Wisest of the Wise; my name is He who does 
good for a long time. 

16. ' These are my names. 

' And he who in this material world, O Spitama 
Zarathurtra! shall recite and pronounce those names 
of mine 3 either by day or by night ; 

1 Nima, translated ip£t, and interpreted Khut&i r&t. The 
Sanskrit translator has misread izat for ipkt, and translated 
svatantra, independent. 

2 The commentator observes orthodoxly, ' everything good.' 

3 That is to say, who will recite this Yas t. 



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ORMAZD VAST. 29 



1 7. ' He who shall pronounce them, when he rises 
up or when he lays him down ; when he lays him 
down or when he rises up ; when he binds on the 
sacred girdle 1 or when he unbinds the sacred girdle ; 
when he goes out of his dwelling-place, or when he 
goes out of his town, or when he goes out of his 
country and comes into another country; 

18. 'That man, neither in that day nor in that 
night, shall be wounded by the weapons of the foe 
who rushes Adshma-like 2 and is Dru^-minded ; not 
the knife, not the cross-bow, not the arrow, not the 
sword, not the club, not the sling-stone 3 shall reach 
and wound him. 

19. ' But those names shall come in to keep him 
from behind and to keep him in front 4 , from the 
Dru£" unseen, from the female Varenya fiend s , from 
the evil-doer 6 bent on mischief 7 , and from that fiend 
who is all death, Angra Mainyu. It will be as if 
there were a thousand men watching over one 
man 8 . 

20. ' " Who is he who will smite the fiend in order 
to maintain thy ordinances ? Teach me clearly thy 



1 The aiwyaonghanem or k6sti (see Vendidad XVIII, 
p. 191, note 4). 

* Or ' with anger.' 

* Akav6, £akav6, ishavd, kareta, vazra, translated kartari, 
yfcakra, jara, .rastrika, va^ra. 

4 Min akhar u luin (Phi. tr.); pr*'sh/Aa[ta]s purataj/Ja 
(Sansk. tr.). 

6 Interpreted as the demon of lust and envy. Cf. Vendidad, 
Introd. IV, 23. 

* Kayadha, translated kistar (Phi.), 'the impairer;' kadar- 
thaka (Sansk.), 'he who holds for nothing, who makes slight of.' 

7 Doubtful. The Phi. tr. has ' who impairs living creatures,' etc. 

8 Cf. Yt. XIII, 71. 



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30 VASTS AND s!r6zAHS. 

rules for this world and for the next, that Sraosha 
may come with Vohu-Mano and help whomsoever 
thou pleasest 1 ." 

21. ' Hail to the Glory of the Kavis 2 ! Hail to the 
Airyanem Vae^ah s ! Hail to the Saoka 4 , made by 
Mazda! Hail to the waters of the Daitya 6 ! Hail 
to Ardvi 6 , the undefiled well ! Hail to the whole 
world of the holy Spirit ! 

' Yatha ahu vairyd: The will of the Lord 7 

'Ashem Vohu: Holiness is the best of all 
good . . . . 8 

22. 'We worship the Ahuna Vairya 9 . We worship 
Asha-Vahirta, most fair, undying, and beneficent 10 . 
We worship Strength and Prosperity and Might and 
Victory and Glory and Vigour". We worship Ahura 
Mazda, bright and glorious. 

' Yengh£ hatam 12 : All those beings 13 of whom 
Ahura Mazda knows the goodness " for a sacrifice 

1 From Yasna XLIV, 16; cf. Vendidad VIII, 20. 

2 See Sir6zah I, 9, p. 7, note 2. 
8 Iran V&g ; see Vendidad, p. 3. 
4 Saoka; see Sir6zah I, 3. 

8 See Vendidad, p. 5, note 2. 

* Ardvi Sura Anahita, the great goddess of the waters; see 
Yt. V. 

7 See above, p. 23. 8 See above, p. 22. 

9 The prayer yathS ahu vairy6, known as Ahuna vairya 
(Honover), from the first words in it: ahu vairy6. See above, 
p. 23. 

10 Or 'the fairest Amesha-Spewta;' cf. Vend. Introd. IV, 7. 

11 Impersonated as gods, to obtain from them the benefits of 
which they are the impersonations. 

" A formula found at the end of most chapters of the Yasna and 
imitated from Yasna LI [L], 22. 

13 The Amesha-Spe«tas (Pahl. Comm. ad Yasna XXVII, fin.). 

14 The benefits of which they dispose, and which they impart as 
rewards to the righteous. 



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ORMAZD YAST. 3 1 



[performed] in holiness, all those beings, males 1 and 
females 2 , do we worship. 

23. ' Yatha ahu vairy6 : The will of the Lord is 
the law of holiness .... 

' I bless the sacrifice and the prayer unto Ahura 
Mazda, bright and glorious, and his strength and 
vigour V 

(Bahman Yart 4 .) 

24. ' O Zarathurtra ! keep thou for ever that man 
who is friendly [to me] from the foe unfriendly [to 
me]! Do not give up that friend unto the stroke 
(of the foe), unto vexations to be borne ; wish no 
harm unto that man who would offer me a sacrifice, 
be it ever so great or ever so small, if it has reached 
unto us, the Amesha-Spe«tas. 

25. ' Here is Vohu-Man6, my creature, O Zara- 
thurtra ! here is Asha-Vahirta, my creature, O Zara- 
thurtra! here is Kluathra-Vairya, my creature, O 
Zarathurtra! here is Spe^ta-Armaiti, my creature, 
O Zarathurtra ! here are Haurvata/ and Amereta^, 
who are the reward of the holy ones 5 , when freed 
from their bodies, my creatures, O Zarathurtra ! 

26. 'Thou knowest this, and how it is, O holy 
Zarathurtra! from my understanding and from my 
knowledge; namely, how the world first began 6 , 
and how it will end 7 . 

1 The first three. 

2 The last three, whose names are feminine. 

8 Which he will impart in return to his worshippers. 

* See above, p. 21. 

5 As the Genii who preside over plants and waters, they are 
very likely entrusted with the care of feeding the righteous in 
Paradise. Cf. Yt. XXII, 18. 

• From Yasna XXVI II, 12. ' Cf. Yasna XXX, 4. 



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32 YASTS AND s{r6zAHS. 

' A thousand remedies, ten thousand remedies * ! 
' A thousand remedies, ten thousand remedies ! 
' A thousand remedies, ten thousand remedies ! 

27. '[We worship] the well-shapen, tall -formed 
Strength ; Verethraghna, made by Ahura ; the crush- 
ing Ascendant 2 , and Spe#ta-Armaiti. 

28. ' And with the help of Spe«ta-Armaiti, break 
ye 3 asunder their* malice, turn their minds astray, 
bind their hands, make their knees quake against one 
another, bind their tongues 5 . 

'When, O Mazda! shall the faithful smite the 
wicked 6 ? When shall the faithful smite the Druf ? 
When shall the faithful smite the wicked ?' 

29. Then Zarathustra said : ' I threw you back 
into the earth 7 , and by the eyes of Spe»ta-Armaiti 8 
the ruffian was made powerless 9 . 

30. ' We worship the powerful Gaokerena 10 , made 
by Mazda ; the powerful Gaokerena, made by Mazda. 

31. 'We worship the memory of Ahura Mazda, to 
keep the Holy Word. 

* We worship the understanding of Ahura Mazda, 
to study the Holy Word. 

' We worship the tongue of Ahura Mazda, to speak 
forth the Holy Word. 



1 Yasna LXVIII, 15 (LXVII, 50). ! See Sirdzah I, 20. 

8 Refers probably to the Izeds mentioned in the preceding 
paragraph. 

4 Of the foes alluded to § 24. e Derezvan; see Yt. XI, 2. 

• Cf. Yasna XLVIII [XLVII], 2. 

7 I follow the reading zamerena, which is followed by the 
Pahlavi translation too. In the Yasna IX, 1 5 (46) Zarathortra is 
said to have obliged the DaSvas to hide themselves in the earth. 

8 Cf. Yt. XIX, 94. • Cf. Vend. IX, 12-13. 
10 See Sir6zah I, 7. 



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ORMAZD VAST. $$ 



'We worship the mountain that gives under- 
standing, that preserves understanding 1 ; [we worship 
it] by day and by night, with offerings of libations 
well-accepted 2 . 

32. 'We worship that creation [of Ahura's], Spe»ta- 
Armaiti ; and the holy creations of that creature and 
of Asha [Vahi.rta], that are foremost in holiness 3 . 

' Here I take as lord and master 4 the greatest of 
all, Ahura Mazda ; to smite the fiend Angra Mainyu ; 
to smite A&rma of the wounding spear 5 ; to smite 
the Mazainya fiends' 6 ; to smite all the Da£vas and 
the Varenya fiends 6 ; to increase Ahura Mazda, 

1 That mount is called in later literature Mount ()s da^tir (the 
Pahlavi translation of ushi-darena, the keeper of understanding). 
According to the Bundahir (XII, ig), it stands in Seistan. High 
mountains, being nearer heaven, are apt to become in the spirit of 
mythology the seat of heavenly beings or treasures. It was on the 
top of a mountain that Ahura revealed the law (see Vd. XXII, 19 
[53]); the first man and king, Gayomarth, ruled on a mountain 
and was called Gar- shah, the king of the mountain. When the 
Kayanian family failed, the Iranians went to Mount Alborz and 
found there Kai Kobid waiting for his fate. 

2 The order of the text differs in one series of manuscripts, in 
which it begins with § 31 ; then comes § 29 with the following 
additional words : 

'A thousand remedies, ten thousand remedies I (three times; 

cf. above, § 26.) 
We worship the Fravashi of the man whose name is Asm6- 
£z>anva«/; then I will worship the Fravashis of the other 
holy ones who were strong of faith' (Yt. XXlI, 37). 
Asm6-Ananva«/was one of the first followers of Zarathurtra, and with 
his name begins the enumeration of the Fravashis (Yt. XIII, 96). 

Then follows § 30, and then again § 31 with the Ashem Vohu ; 
and then the additional passage, 'We worship ....,' is repeated 
twice. 

3 VispSrad XIX, 2. 

4 As ahu and ratu, that is, as temporal chief and spiritual guide. 
6 See Vend. Introd. IV, 22. « Ibid. 23. 

[23] D 



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34 YASTS AND SIR6ZAHS. 

bright and glorious; to increase the Amesha-Spe#tas; 
to increase the star Tirtrya 1 , the bright and glorious ; 
to increase the faithful men ; to increase all the holy 
creatures of the Beneficent Spirit. 

'Ashem Vohu: Holiness is the best of all 
good . . . . 2 

33. '[Give] unto that man 3 brightness and glory, 
give him health of body, give him sturdiness of body, 
give him victorious strength Qf body, give him full 
welfare of wealth, give him a virtuous* offspring, 
give him long, long life, give him the bright, all- 
happy, blissful abode of the holy Ones 6 . 

' May it come according to my blessing 6 ! 

' A thousand remedies, ten thousand remedies 7 ! 
(three times.) 

' Come to me for help, O Mazda ! 

' We worship the well-shapen, tall-formed Strength, 
and Verethraghna, made by Mazda, and the crushing 
Ascendant 8 . 

' We worship Rama /ft/astra, and Vayu who works 
highly and is more powerful to destroy than all 
other creatures. That part of thee do we worship, 
O Vayu, that belongs to Spe«ta Mainyu. We wor- 
ship the sovereign Sky, the boundless Time, and 
the sovereign Time of the long Period 9 . 

'Ashem Vohu: Holiness is the best of all 
good 

1 See Yart VIII. * As above, p. 22. 

* Who shall offer thee a sacrifice. This paragraph is taken 
from Yasna LXVIII, 11 (LXVII, 32), where it is addressed to the 
Waters : ' Ye, good waters, give unto that man whowillofferyou 
a sacrifice . . . .' 

4 Sufila (Sansk. tr. ad Yasna LXI, 13). 

8 This clause serves as a conclusion to all Yafts. 

* From Yasna LXVIII, 20 (LXVII, 52). 

' Cf. above, § 26. 8 Cf. Sir6zah I, 20. • Ibid. 21. 



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HAPTAN YAST. 35 



II. HAPTAN YA.ST. 

The Yart of the seven Amshaspands is recited on the first seven 
days of the week, that is to say, on the days consecrated to the 
Amesha-Spewtas. In fact it is nothing more than an extract from 
the Sir6zahs, being composed of the first seven formulas in their 
two forms: §§ i-5=Sir6 f zah I, 1-7; §§ 6-io=Sir6zah II, 1-7. 
Then come four sections which are the original part of the Yart 
(§§ »-i5). 



o. May Ahura Mazda be rejoiced 1 ! . . . . 

Ashem Vohu : Holiness is the best of all good 1 .... 

I confess myself a worshipper of Mazda, a follower of Zara- 
thurtra, one who hates the DaSvas and obeys the laws of Ahura ; 

For sacrifice, prayer, propitiation, and glorification unto [Havani], 
the holy arid master of holiness ' . . . . 

I. 

i 2 . To Ahura Mazda, bright and glorious, and 
to the Amesha-Spe#tas ; 

To Vohu-Man6; to Peace, whose breath is 
friendly, and who is more powerful to destroy than 
all other creatures; to the heavenly Wisdom, made 
by Mazda, and to the Wisdom acquired through the 
ear, made by Mazda ; 

2 3 . To Asha-Vahi^ta, the fairest; to the much- 
desired Airyaman; to the instrument made by 
Mazda ; and to the good Saoka, with eyes of love, 
made by Mazda and holy ; 

1 The rest as above, Yt. I, o. ' Sirfizah I, 1-2. 

» SirSzah I, 3-4. 

D 2 



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36 YASTS AND SIR6ZAHS. 

To Khshathra-Vairya; to the metals; to Mercy 
and Charity. 

3 1 . To the good Spewta-Armaiti, and to the 
good Rata, with eyes of love, made by Mazda and 
holy; 

To Haurvata/, the master; to the prosperity 
of the seasons and to the years, the masters of 
holiness ; 

And to Amereta/, the master; to fatness and 
flocks ; to the plenty of corn ; and to the powerful 
Gaokerena, made by Mazda. 

4 2 . (At the Gah Havan) : To Mithra, the lord of 
wide pastures and to Rama //z>astra. 

(At the Gah Rapithwin) : To Asha-Vahista and 
to Atar, the son of Ahura Mazda. 

(At the Gah Uzlren) : To Apam Napa/, the tall 
lord, and to water, made by Mazda. 

5 3 . (At the Gah Aiwisruthrem) : To the Fravashis 
of the faithful and to the females that bring forth 
flocks of males ; to the prosperity of the seasons ; to 
the well-shapen and tall-formed Strength ; to Vere- 
thraghna, made by Ahura, and to the crushing 
Ascendant. 

(At the Gah Usahin) : To the holy, devout, fiend- 
smiting Sraosha, who makes the world grow; to 
Rashnu-Razista and to Arcta/, who makes the world 
grow, who makes the world increase s ; 

Be propitiation, with sacrifice, prayer, propitiation, 
and glorification ! 

Yatha ahu vairyd : The will of the Lord is the 
law of holiness .... 



1 Str6zah I, 5-7. » Sir6zah I, 7. 

' Str6zah I, 7. 



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HAPTAN VAST. 37 



II. 

6 1 . We sacrifice unto Ahura Mazda, bright and 
glorious ; we sacrifice unto the Amesha-Spe#tas, the 
all-ruling, the all-beneficent. 

We sacrifice unto Vohu-Mand, the Amesha- 
Spe#ta ; we sacrifice unto Peace, whose breath is 
friendly, and who is more powerful to destroy than 
all other creatures; we sacrifice unto the heavenly 
Wisdom, made by Mazda ; we sacrifice unto the 
wisdom acquired through the ear, made by Mazda. 

7 2 . We sacrifice unto Asha-Valmta, the fairest, 
the Amesha-Spewta ; we sacrifice unto the much- 
desired Airyaman ; we sacrifice unto the instrument 
made by Mazda ; we sacrifice unto the good Saoka, 
with eyes of love, made by Mazda and holy. 

We sacrifice unto Khshathra-Vairya; we sacri- 
fice unto the metals ; we sacrifice unto Mercy and 
Charity. 

8 3 . We sacrifice unto the good Spe#ta-Armaiti ; 
we sacrifice unto the good Rata, with eyes of love, 
made by Mazda and holy. 

We sacrifice unto Haurvata/, the Amesha- 
Spe»ta ; we sacrifice unto the prosperity of the 
seasons; we sacrifice unto the years, the holy and 
masters of holiness. 

We sacrifice unto A mere ta/, the Amesha-Spe«ta ; 
we sacrifice unto fatness and flocks ; we sacrifice unto 
the plenty of corn ; we sacrifice unto the powerful 
Gaokerena, made by Mazda. 

9*. (At the Gah Havan) : We sacrifice unto 

1 Sir6zah II, 1-2. * Sir6zah II, 3-4. 

s Sir6zah II, 5-7. * Sirdzah II, 7. 



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38 YASTS AND SJR6ZAHS. 

Mithra, the lord of wide pastures ; we sacrifice unto 
Rama //z>astra. 

(At the Gah Rapithwin) : We sacrifice unto Asha- 
VahLrta and Atar, the son of Ahura Mazda. 

(At the Gah Uzlren) : We sacrifice unto Apam 
Napa/, the swift-horsed, the tall and shining lord, 
the lord of the females ; we sacrifice unto the holy 
waters, made by Mazda. 

io 1 . (At the Gah Aiwisruthrem) : We sacrifice 
unto the good, powerful, beneficent Fravashis of the 
faithful ; we sacrifice unto the females who bring 
forth flocks of males ; we sacrifice unto the prosperity 
of the seasons ; we sacrifice unto the well-shapen, 
tall-formed Strength; we sacrifice unto Verethraghna, 
made by Mazda; we sacrifice unto the crushing 
Ascendant. 

(At the Gah Usahin): We sacrifice unto the holy, 
tall-formed, fiend-smiting Sraosha, who makes the 
world grow, the holy and master of holiness; we 
sacrifice unto Rashnu-RazLrta; we sacrifice unto 
Arsta/, who makes the world grow, who makes the 
world increase 

III. 

1 1. Let the Yatus be crushed, O Zarathu^tra 2 ! 
both Da£vas and men 3 . 

Who is he in whose house, O Spitama Zara- 
thiutra ! every Dru^ is destroyed, every Dru^- 
perishes, when he pronounces these words 4 : 

12 5 ? 

13. It is he who takes the seven Amesha-Spe»tas, 

1 Sir6zah II, 7. * Or : Let Zarathiutra crush the Y&us. 

' The YStus are either demons or men : the man-Ydtu is the 
sorcerer, the wizard. Cf. Yt. VIII, 44. 

* Doubtful. 6 1 am unable to make anything of this section. 



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HAPTAN YAST. 39 



the all-ruling, the all-beneficent, as a shield 1 against 
his enemies. 

We worship the Lawof the worshippers of Mazda; 
we worship the waters coming in the shape of a horse 2 , 
made by Mazda. 

14-15. He has renounced trespasses and faults, 
O Zarathu-rtra ! he has renounced all trespasses and 
faults s , O Zarathujtra ! when he throws down * the 
destroyer of Vohu-Man6 and his words 6 , with a 
hundred times hundredfold, with a many times 
manifold preaching and smiting, and he takes away 
the Law of Mazda, that was carried away as a pri- 
soner 6 , from the hands of the [ungodly], who are 
destroyed by his strength. 

Ashem Vohu ; Holiness is the best of all 
good .... 

16. Yatha ahu vairy6: The will of the Lord is 
the law of holiness .... 

I bless the sacrifice and the prayer, the strength 
and vigour 

Of Ahura Mazda, bright and glorious, and of the 
Amesha-Spe«tas ; 

Of Vohu-Man6; of Peace, whose breath is 
friendly 7 . . . . 

1 Doubtful. 2 See Yt. VIII, 5, 42 ; cf. § 20. 

s Atare-vttaremaibyd .... vimrao/; cf. dtar&ish . . . . vl sarem 
mruye" (Yasna XII, 4 [XIII, 16]): atareman seems to be a sin 
by commission, vitareman a sin by omission. 

* Doubtful (frasp&varcr: fraspi is generally translated rami- 
tuntan). 

6 Doubtful. 

* Cf. Yt. XIII, 100; XIX, 86; fravajnam is the reverse of 
uzvazha/(l. 1.). 

7 The rest as above, § 1. 



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40 yasts and s!r6zahs. 

Of Asha-VahLrta, the fairest ; of the much-desired 
Airyaman 1 . . . . 

Of Khshathra-Vairya, of the metals 1 . . . . 

Of the good Spe#ta-Armaiti and of the good 
Rata 2 

Of Haurvat£/, the master 2 . . . . 

Of A mere \&t, the master 2 . . . . 

(At the GSh Havan) : Of Mithra 3 

(At the Gah Rapithwin) : Of Asha-VahLrta 3 . . . . 

(At the Gah Uzfren): Of the high lord Apam 
Napa/ 3 .... 

(At the Gah Aiwisruthrem) : Of the Fravashis of 
the faithful*. . . . 

(At the Gah Usahin); : Of the holy, devout, fiend- 
smiting Sraosha, who, makes the world grow ; of 
Rashnu-Razi-sta. and of Krstikt, who makes the world 
grow, who makes, the world increase. 

Ashem Vohu: Holiness is the best of all good .... 

Give unto that man 6 brightness and glory, give him, health of 
body, give him sturdiness of body, give him victoripus strength of 
body, give him full welfare of wealth, give him a virtuous offspring, 
give him lpng, long life, give him, the bright, all-happy, blissful 
abode of the holy Ones. 

1 The rest as above, § a. a The rest as above, § 3. 

3 The rest, as above, § 4. 4 The rest as above, § 5. 

6 Who shall offer a sacrifice to the. Amshaspands. 



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ARDIBEHLST YAST. 4 1 



III. ARDIBEHI5T 1 YAST. 

This Yart is for a great part devoted to the praise of the Air- 
yaman prayer, which is described as driving away all the diseases 
and plagues that have been brought upon the world by Angra 
Mainyu; and when the writer passes from the glorification of 
Airyaman to that of Asha-Vahuta, which is put into the mouth 
of Angra Mainyu himself (§§ 13 seq.), he makes him speak of Asha- 
Vahurta just in the same way, and ascribe him just the same powers, 
as he himself has done with regard to Airyaman. This is owing 
to the fact of Airyaman being invoked in company with Asha- 
VahLrta in the second formula of the Sir6zah 8 . 

The powers ascribed to Asha-Vahuta have their origin in the 
twofold nature of that Amesha-Spe»ta, who being, in his abstract 
character, the impersonation of the highest element in Mazdeism, 
Divine Order and Holiness', and in his concrete character, the 
genius who presides over the mightiest of physical elements, Fire*, 
is one of the most powerful and dreaded opponents of Angra 
Mainyu 6 . On the other hand, Airyaman is the genius to whom 
Ahura Mazda applied to heat the nine, and ninety, and nine hundred 
and nine thousand diseases created by Angra Mainyu '. 

This Yart is recited every day at the Gihs Ha van, Rapithwin, 
and Aiwisruthrem (Anquetil). 



o. May Ahura Mazda be rejoiced ! ! . . . . 

Ashem VohO,: Holiness is the best of all good .... 

I confess myself a worshipper of Mazda, a follower of Zara- 
thujtra, one who hates the Dadvas and obeys the laws of Ahura ; 

For sacrifice, prayer, propitiation, and glorification unto [Havani], 
the holy and master of holiness 7: . . . . 

1 Ard-l-b&hif t is the Parsi form for Asha vahixta, ard being 
derived from arta, the Persian form corresponding to the Zend 
asha. 

8 See Strdzah I, $, and below the introductory formula. 

8 See Vend, Introd. IV, 30. * Ibid. 33. 

6 See Yt. XVII, 18. « Fargard XXII and Introd. 

7 As above, Yt. I, o. 



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42 YASTS AND sfR6ZAHS. 

Unto Asha-Vahirta, the fairest; unto the much- 
desired Airyaman, made by Mazda, and unto the 
good Saoka, with eyes of love, made by Mazda and 
holy 1 ; 

Be propitiation, with sacrifice, prayer, propitiation, and glori- 
fication. 

Yatha a'hu vairyd: The will of the Lord is the law of holi- 
ness 2 . . . . 

I. 

i. Ahura Mazda spake unto Spitama Zarathuytra, 
saying : ' That thou mayest increase Asha-VahLrta, 
G Spitama Zarathurtra ! with hymns of praise, with 
performance of the office, with invocations, holy 
words, sacrifice, blessings, and adoration — once to 
abide in the shining luminous space, in the beautiful 
abodes 3 — for the sacrifice and invocation of us, the 
Amesha-Spe#tas 4 ' .... 

2. Zarathuytra said: 'Say unto me the right 
words, such as they are, O Ahura Mazda ! that I 
may increase Asha-Vahista, with hymns of praise, 

1 Sir6zah I, 3. 

1 Several manuscripts add here the full invocation of the greater 
Sfrdzah : 

'We sacrifice unto Asha-Vahrsta, the fairest, the Amesha- 

Spewta ; 
We sacrifice unto the much-desired Airyaman ; 
We sacrifice unto the instrument, made by Mazda ; 
We sacrifice unto the good Saoka, with eyes of love, made by 
Mazda and holy.' 
8 The Gar6-nm4nem or Paradise; see Yasna XVI, 7 [XVII, 
42], Phi. tr. 

* The principal clause appears to be wanting, unless Zarathuytra 
is supposed to interrupt Ahura. One might also understand the 
sentence in an optative sense : ' Mayest thou increase . . . .' 



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ARDIBEHLST YAST. 43" 



with performance of the office, with invocations, holy 
words, sacrifice, blessings, and adoration,— once to 
abide in the shining luminous space, in the beautiful 
abodes, — for the sacrifice and invocation of you, the 
Amesha-Spe#tas. 

3 1 . '. . . . I proclaim Asha-Vahwta: if I pro- 
claim Asha-Vahista, then easy is the way to the 
abode of the other Amesha-Spe»tas 2 , which Ahura 
Mazda keeps with Good Thoughts, which Ahura 
Mazda keeps with Good Words, which Ahura Mazda 
keeps with Good Deeds 3 ; 

4. '(Easy is the way to the Gar6-nmana of Ahura 
Mazda) : the Garo-nmana is for the holy souls, and 
no one of the wicked can enter the Gard-nmana and 
its bright, wide, holy ways ; (no one of them can go) 
to Ahura Mazda. 



II. 

5. 'The Airyaman prayer 4 smites down the 
strength of all the creatures of Angra Mainyu, of the 
Yatus and Pairikas 5 . It is the greatest of spells, 
the best of spells, the very best of all spells; the 



1 Here again it seems as if a paragraph had been lost : ' Ahura 
Mazda answered : Proclaim thou Asha-Vahuta ; if thou proclaimest 
Asha-Vahuta . . . . — Then Zarathmtra replied : I proclaim Asha- 
Vahirta . . . .' 

* The Gar6thmin. 

8 An allusion to the three Paradises of Humat, Hukht, Hvarr t 
through which the souls of the blessed pass to Gar6thman (Yt. 
XXII, 15). 

* The prayer known as Airyama-ishy6; see Vendid&d XXI, 
11-12. 

5 See Vend. Introd. IV, 20-21. 



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44 YASTS AND SIR6zAHS. 

fairest of spells, the very fairest of all spells ; the 
fearful one amongst spells, the most fearful of all 
spells ; the firm one amongst spells, the firmest of 
all spells ; the victorious one amongst spells, the 
most victorious of all spells ; the healing one 
amongst spells, the best-healing of all spells. 

6. 'One may heal with Holiness, one may heal 
with the Law, one may heal with the knife, one may 
heal with herbs, one may heal with the Holy Word: 
amongst all remedies this one is the healing one 
that heals with the Holy Word ; this one it is that 
will best drive away sickness from the body of the 
faithful : for this one is the best-healing of all 
remedies \ 

7. 'Sickness fled away [before it], Death fled 
away ; the Daeva fled away, the Daeva's counter- 
work 2 fled away; the unholy Ashemaogha 3 fled 
away, the oppressor of men fled away. 

8. ' The brood of the Snake fled away ; the brood 
of the Wolf fled away; the brood of the Two-legged* 
fled away. Pride fled away; Scorn fled away; Hot 
Fever fled away ; Slander fled away ; Discord fled 
away ; the Evil Eye fled away. 

9. ' The most lying words of falsehood fled away; 
the 6ahi 6 , addicted to the Yatu, fled away ; the 

1 Cf. Vendidad VII, 44 (118). That Airyaman made use of 
the Holy Word (of spells) to cure diseases appears from Vend. 
XXII, 6 seq. 

8 Paityara: every work of Ahura was opposed and spoiled by 
a counter-work of Angra Mainyu. Cf. Bundahif I, 23 seq. ; 
III, 13 seq. ; Vend. I; see Ormazd et Ahriman, §§ 195 seq. 

s See Yt. I, 10 and note 4. 

4 The Ahrimanian creatures belonging to mankind, the Mair- 
yas and Ashemaoghas (Yt. I, 10). 

6 The courtezan; cf. Vend. XXI, 17 (35), and Introd. IV, 25. 



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ARDIBEHLST YAST. 45 



Gahi, who makes one pine 1 , fled away; the wind that 
blows from the North 2 fled away ; the wind that 
blows from the North vanished away. 

10. ' He it is who smites me that brood of the 
Snake, and who might smite those Da£vas by thou- 
sands of thousands, by ten thousands of ten thou- 
sands ; he smites sickness, he smites death, he smites 
the Da£vas, he smites the Daeva's counter-work, 
he smites the unholy Ashemaogha, he smites the 
oppressor of men. 

1 1. ' He smites the brood of the Snake; he smites 
the brood of the Wolf; he smites the brood of the 
Two-legged. He smites Pride; he smites Scorn; he 
smites Hot Fever ; he smites Slander ; he smites 
Discord ; he smites the Evil Eye. 

12. ' He smites the most lying words of falsehood; 
he smites the Gahi, addicted to the Yatu ; he smites 
the Gahi, who makes one pine. He smites the 
wind that blows from the North ; the wind that 
blows from the North vanished away. 

13. 'He it is who smites me that brood of the 
Two-legged, and who might smite those Da£vas, by 
thousands of thousands, by ten thousands of ten 
thousands. Angra Mainyu, who is all death, the 
worst-lying of all Da6vas, rushed from before him : 

14. ' He exclaimed, did Angra Mainyu : "Woe is 
me ! Here is the god Asha-VahLrta, who will smite 
the sickliest of all sicknesses, who will afflict the 
sickliest of all sicknesses ; 

1 The Zend is Kahvaredhaini, a synonym of which, Kah- 
varedha, Yasna LXI, 2 [LX, 7], is translated impairer of 
Glory, which means very likely: he who makes one 'dwindle, 
peak, and pine ' (cf. Vend. XVIII, 62-64). 

2 From the country of hell; cf. Vend. VII, 2; XIX, 1; Yt. 
XXII, 25. 



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46 YASTS AND slR6ZAHS. 



' " He will smite the deadliest of all deaths, he will 
afflict the deadliest of all deaths ; 

' " He will smite the most fiendish of all fiends, he 
will afflict the most fiendish of all fiends ; 

' " He will smite the most counter-working of all 
counter-works, he will afflict the most counter- 
working of all counter-works ; 

"'He will smite the unholy Ashemaogha, he will 
afflict the unholy Ashemaogha ; 

' " He will smite the most oppressive of the 
oppressors of men, he will afflict the most oppres- 
sive of the oppressors of men. 

15. "'He will smite the snakiest of the Snake's 
brood, he will afflict the snakiest of the Snake's 
brood ; 

' " He will smite the most wolfish of the Wolfs 
brood, he will afflict the most wolfish of the Wolf's 
brood ; 

'"He will smite the worst of the two-legged 
brood, he will afflict the worst of the two-legged 
brood ; 

' " He will smite Pride, he will afflict Pride ; 

"'He will smite Scorn, he will afflict Scorn ; 

' " He will smite the hottest of hot fevers, he 
will afflict the hottest of hot fevers; 

' " He will smite the most slanderous of slanders, 
he will afflict the most slanderous of slanders ; 

'"He will smite the most discordant of discords, 
he will afflict the most discordant of discords ; 

' " He will smite the worst of the Evil Eye, he will. 
afflict the worst of the Evil Eye. 

16. '"He will smite the most lying words of 
falsehood, he will afflict the most lying words of 
falsehood ; 



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ARDIBEHIST YAST. 47 



' " He will smite the Gahi, addicted to the Yitu, 
he will afflict the Gahi, addicted to the Y&tu ; 

"'He will smite the Gahi, who makes one pine, 
he will afflict the Gahi, who makes one pine ; 

'"He will smite the wind that blows from the 
North, he will afflict the wind that blows from the 
North." 

17 1 . 'The Dru^ - will perish away, the Druf will 
perish ; the Dru^ will rush, the Druf will vanish. 
Thou perishest away to the regions of the North, 
never more to give unto death the living world of 
the holy spirit 2 . 

18. 'For his brightness and glory I will offer unto him a sacrifice 
worth being heard 8 , namely, unto Asha-Valmta, the fairest, 
the Amesha-Spewta. Unto Asha-VahLrta, the fairest, the Amesha- 
Spewta, we offer up the libations, the Haoma and meat 4 , the 
baresma 6 , the wisdom of the tongue *, the holy spells 7 , the speech, 
the deeds 8 , the libations, and the rightly-spoken words. 

'Y6»h§ hatam : All those beings of whom Ahura Mazda knows 
the goodness ' . . . . 

19. 'Yathd ahu vairy6: The will of the Lord is the law of 
holiness .... 

1 One set of manuscripts insert : ' He will smite the wind that 
blows against the North, he will afflict the wind that blows against 
the North; the wind that blows against the North [will perish].' 
This is most likely an interpolation, as the wind that blows against 
the North (if this is the right meaning of apar6 apikhtara, as 
opposed to pourv6 apakhtara) blows against Angra Mainyu. 

1 Cf. Vendtdad VIII, 21. 

8 That is to say, worth being accepted: cf. Yt. X, 32 ; the Parsis 
translate, ' a sacrifice heard [from the lips of the Dasturs]' (nA-u-i. «-> 
jjjjjji-o ^l^j :l c ^»jj; East India Office, XXV, 42). 

* The Haoma and Myazda. * See Vend. Ill, 1, note 2. 

• Hizv6 danghah: huzvan danakih (Phi. tr.) means 'the 
right formulas.' 

7 'The Avesti'(Phl. tr.). 

8 The several operations of the sacrifice. 
' As above, Yt. I, 22. 



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48 yasts and s!r6zahs. 

' I bless the sacrifice and prayer and the strength 
and vigour of Asha-VahLrta, the fairest; of the much- 
desired Airyaman, made by Mazda ; and of the good 
Saoka, with eyes of love, made by Mazda and 
holy \ 

'Ashem Vohu : Holiness is the best of all good' .... 

' [Give] unto that man 3 brightness and glory, give him health 
of body; .... give him the bright, all-happy, blissful abode of the 
holy Ones.' 



IV. KHORDAD YAST. 

Only the first two sections of this Yart refer to its nominal 
object, Haurvatd/, the Genius of Health and Waters (Vend. Introd. 
IV, 7, 33). The rest of the Yart refers to the performance of the 
Bareshnum ceremony as being the test of the true Zoroastrian. 
As the Bareshnum purification was performed by Airyaman to 
drive away the myriads of diseases created by Angra Mainyu *, its 
laudation is not quite unaptly inserted in a Yart devoted to the 
Genius of Health. 

The Khordad Yart can be recited at any time. It is better to 
recite it during the Gah tTrahin, on the day Khordad (Anquetil). 

The text is corrupt. 



o. May Ahura Mazda be rejoiced 1 . . . . 

Ashem Vohu : Holiness is the best of all good .... 

I confess myself a worshipper of Mazda, a follower of Zara- 
thurtra, one who hates the Da6vas and obeys the laws of Ahura ; 

For sacrifice, prayer, propitiation, and glorification unto [Havani], 
the holy and master of holiness • . . . . 

Unto Haurvata/', the master ; unto the prosperity 



1 Cf. Sir6zah I, 2. * As above, p. 22. 

8 Who shall offer a sacrifice to Asha-Vahirta ; cf. Yt. I, 33 
and notes. 

* Vend. XXII, 20 [54]. 
8 As above, p. 22 and notes. 



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KHORDAD YAST. 49 



of the seasons and unto the years, the masters of 
holiness 1 , 

Be propitiation, with sacrifice, prayer, propitiation, and glori- 
fication. 

Yathd ahu vairyd: The will of the Lord is the law of 
holiness .... 

We sacrifice unto Haurvata/, the Amesha-Spe«ta; 
we sacrifice unto the prosperity of the seasons ; we 
sacrifice unto the years, the holy and masters of 
holiness 2 . 

1. Ahura Mazda spake unto Spitama Zarathuytra, 
saying : ' I created for the faithful the help, the 
enjoyments, the comforts, and the pleasures of 
Haurvata/. We unite them with him who would 
come up to thee as one of the Amesha-Spewtas, 
as he would come to any of the Amesha-Spe«- 
tas, Vohu-Mand, Asha-Vahlrta, Khshathra-Vairya, 
Spewta-Armaiti, Haurvata/, and Amereta/. 

2. 'He who against the thousands of thousands 
of those Daevas, against their ten thousands of ten 
thousands, against their numberless myriads would 
invoke the name of Haurvata/, as one of the 
Amesha-Spe«tas, he would smite the Nasu, he would 
smite Hayi s , he would smite Basi 3 , he would smite 
Sa£ni 3 , he would smite Bu^i 3 . 

3 *. ' I proclaim the faithful man as the first [of 
men]; if I proclaim the faithful man as the first 



1 Sir&zah I, 6. J SJr6zah II, 6. 

* Names of Da6vas. According to the Parsi translator of the 
Dinkart (vol. ii, p. 65), Ha*i is 'he who makes sceptical;' Ba-ri is 
'he who gives rise to the barking disease;' SaSni is ' he who causes 
harm ;' Bfl^i is ' he who preys upon.' 

4 The translation of this paragraph is quite conjectural. 

[23] E 



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50 YASTS AND s!r6zAHS. 

[of men] 1 , then Rashnu Razirta 2 , then every heavenly 
Yazata of male nature in company with the Amesha- 
Spe«tas will free the faithful man 3 

4. ' From the Nasu, from Hasi, from Ga.ri*, from 
Sa£ni, from Bu^i; from the hordes with the wide front, 
from the hordes with the many spears uplifted, from 
the evil man who oppresses, from the wilful sinner 6 , 
from the oppressor of men, from the Yatu, from the 
Pairika, from the straying way. 

5. ' How does the way of the faithful turn and 
part from the way of the wicked*?' 

Ahura Mazda answered : 'It is when a man pro- 
nouncing my spell, either reading 7 or reciting it by 
heart, draws the furrows 8 and hides 9 there himself, 
[saying] : 

6. '"I will smite thee, O Druf ! whomsoever thou 
art, whomsoever thou art amongst the Drupes that 
come in an open way, whomsoever thou art amongst 
the Drupes that come by hidden ways, whomsoever 
thou art amongst the Drupes that defile by contact ; 
whatsoever Dru^ - thou art, I smite thee away from 
the Aryan countries ; whatsoever Dru^ - thou art, I 
bind thee; I smite thee down, O Dru^! I throw 
thee down below, O Dru^I" 



1 If I am one of the faithful. 

2 The Genius of Truth, Yt. XII. 

8 Will free me as one of the faithful. 

4 Sic ; cf. § 2. 

8 Star&i; cf. Etudes Iraniennes, II, 135. 

• How is the wicked known from the faithful one ? 

7 Mardo: Phi. 6jmdrit, Sansk. adhyeti; safarunit, posha- 
yati (pustakayati ? Yasna XIX, 6 [9]). 

8 The furrows for the Bareshnum purification (Vend. IX). 

• Doubtful: gaozaiti; read yaozdditi (? he cleanses). 



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KHORDAD YAST. 5 I 



7. 'He draws [then] three furrows 1 : I proclaim 
him one of the faithful; he draws six furrows 1 : I 
proclaim him one of the faithful; he draws nine 
furrows * : I proclaim him one of the faithful. 

8. ' The names of those (Amesha-Spewtas) smite 
the men turned to Nasus 2 by the Drupes ; the seed 
and kin of the deaf 3 are smitten, the scornful 4 are 
dead, as the Zaotar Zarathustra blows them away to 
woe 6 , however fierce, at his will and wish, as many 
as he wishes. 

9. ' From the time when the sun is down he 
smites them with bruising blows ; from the time 
when the sun is no longer up, he deals deadly blows 
on the Nasu with his club struck down, for the 
propitiation and glorification of the heavenly gods. 

10. ' O Zarathartra ! let not that spell be shown 
to any one, except by the father to his son, or by 
the brother to his brother from the same womb, 
or by the Athravan to his pupil 6 in black hair, 
devoted to the good law, who, devoted to the good 
law, holy 7 and brave, stills all the Drupes 8 . 

11. 'For his brightness and glory, I will offer unto him a sacrifice 
worth being heard, namely, unto Haurvata/, the Amesha-Spewta. 
Unto Haurvata/, the Amesha-Spewta, we offer up the libations, 
the Haoma and meat, the baresma, the wisdom of the tongue, the 

1 To perform the Bareshnum ; cf. Vend. XXII, 20 [54]. 

* Reading nasum kereta; cf. nasu-kereta (Vend. VII, 26 

[67]). 

* See above, p. 26, note 2. 

* Sao/Ja; cf. Yt. XXII, 13. 

* Duzava/: both the reading and the meaning are doubtful. 
Mr. West suggests, 'sends to hell' (reading duzanghva/ or 
duzangha/). 

* Doubtful. 7 Reading ashava instead of as6 ava. 

* Cf. Yt. XIV, 46. 

E 2 



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52 VASTS AND siRdZAHS. 

holy spells, the speech, the deeds, the libations, and the rightly- 
spoken words. 

12. * Yathd ahu vairy6: The will of the Lord is the law of 
holiness .... 

'I bless the sacrifice and prayer, and the strength and vigour 
of Haurvata/, the master ; of the prosperity of the seasons and of 
the years, the masters of holiness. 

'Ashem Vohu : Holiness is the best of all good .... 

' [Give] unto that man l brightness and glory, .... give him the 
bright, all happy, blissful abode of the holy Ones.' 



v. AbAn yast. 

The Ab&n Yart (or Ya^t of the Waters) is devoted to the great 
goddess of the waters, the celebrated Ardvi Sura Anihita, the 
'Awn™ of the Greeks. Ardvi Sura Anahita (' the high, powerful, 
undefiled ') is the heavenly spring from which all waters on the earth 
flow down ; her fountains are on the top of the mythical mountain, 
the Hukairya, in the star region. Her descent from the heavens 
is described in §§ 85 seq.; it reminds one of the Indian legend of 
the celestial Gaftgi. 

This Yast contains much valuable information about the his- 
torical legends of Iran, as it enumerates the several heroes who 
worshipped Ardvi Sftra and asked for her help. First of all is 
Ahura himself (§16); then came Haoshyangha (§ 21), Yima (§ 25), 
Asi Dahaka (§ 29), ThraStaona (§ 33), Keresaspa (§ 37), Fran- 
ghrasyan (§ 41), Kava Usa (§ 45), Husravah (§ 49), Tusa (§ 53), 
VaSsaka's sons (§ 57), Vafra Navaza (§ 61), Gamaspa (§ 68), 
Ashavazdah, the son of Pourudhakhrti, and Ashavazdah and Thrita, 
the sons of Sayuzdri (§ 72), Vistauru (§ 76), Y6Lrta (§81); the 
Hv6vas and the Naotaras (§ 98), Zarathurtra (§ 103), Kava Vfr- 
taspa (§ 107), Zairivairi (§ 112), Are^a/-aspa and Vandaremaini 

(§«6). 

This enumeration is interrupted by a description of the descent 
of Ardvi Sura from the heavens (§§ 85-89), and of certain rules for 
her sacrifice given by herself to Zaralhujtra (§§ 90-97). This in- 
terruption may have been intentional, as it takes place just when 

1 Who shall have sacrificed to HaurvatS/. 



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ABAN YAST. 53 



the course of the enumeration brings us to the times of Zarathustra 
and of the institution of the new religion. 

The Yart is opened with a laudation of the benefits bestowed by 
Ardvi Sura(§§ 1-16), and it closes with a description of her gar- 
ments and apparel. 

The first record of the worship of Ardvi Sura is in a cuneiform 
inscription by Artaxerxes Mnemon (404-361), in which her name 
is corrupted into An ah at a. Artaxerxes Mnemon appears to have 
been an eager promoter of her worship, as he is said 'to have first 
erected the statues of Venus-Anahita ('A^poJmjj, 'Avatriboi) in 
Babylon, Suza, and Ecbatana, and to have taught her worship to 
the Persians, the Bactrians, and the people of Damas and Sardes ' 
(Clemens Alexandrinus, Protrept. 5, on the authority of Berosus; 
about 260 b. a). My friend M. Haldvy suggests to me that the 
detailed and circumstantial description of Anahita's appearance and 
costume (in §§ 126-131) shows that the writer must have described 
her from a consecrated type of statuary. 

The principal data of the Greek writers on Anahita will be 
found in Windischmann's Essay (Die persische Anahita oder 
Anai'tis, 1856). One must be cautious in the use of the Greek 
sources, as the Greeks, with the eclectic turn of their mind, were 
inclined to confound under the name of AnShita all the great 
female deities of Asia Minor, and her name became a common 
appellation for the Aphrodites as well as for the Artemides of the 
East. 

o. May Ahura Mazda be rejoiced ! . . . . 

Ashem Vohu : Holiness is the best of all good .... 

I confess myself a worshipper of Mazda, a follower of Zara- 
thurtra, one who hates the Da6vas and obeys the laws of Ahura ; 

For sacrifice, prayer, propitiation, and glorification unto [Hivani], 
the holy and master of holiness .... 

Unto the good Waters, made by Mazda ; unto the 
holy water-spring Ardvi Anahita ; unto all waters, 
made by Mazda; unto all plants, made by Mazda 1 , 

Be propitiation, with sacrifice, prayer, propitiation, 
and glorification. 

YathS ahu vairy6: The will of the Lord is the law of holi- 
ness .... 

1 Sir6zah I, 10. 



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54 YAJTS AND siR6ZAHS. 

I. 

i. Ahura Mazda spake unto Spitama Zarathu^tra, 
saying : ' Offer up a sacrifice, O Spitama Zarathuytra ! 
unto this spring of mine, Ardvi Sura Anahita, the 
wide-expanding 1 and health -giving, who hates the 
DaeVas and obeys the laws of Ahura, who is worthy 
of sacrifice in the material world, worthy of prayer in 
the material world; the life-increasing 2 and holy, the 
herd-increasing and holy, the fold-increasing and 
holy, the wealth-increasing and holy, the country- 
increasing and holy; 

2. ' Who makes the seed of all males pure 3 , who 
makes the womb of all females pure for bringing 
forth 4 , who makes all females bring forth in safety, 
who puts milk into the breasts of all females in the 
right measure and the right quality ; 

3. ' The large river, known afar, that is as large as 
the whole of the waters that run along the earth ; 
that runs powerfully from the height Hukairya 5 
down to the sea Vouru- Kasha 6 . 

4. ' All the shores of the sea Vouru-Kasha are 

1 ' As she comes down to all places ' (Phi. tr. ad Yasna LX V, 1 
[LXVI, 2]). 

8 Adhu, translated g&n ; 'she makes life longer ' (Aspendisirji). 
Perhaps &dhu will be better translated springs, rivers (reading 
ghy instead of gin ; cf. Yt VIII, 29). 

' ' Pure and sound, without blood and filth ' (Phi. tr.). 

4 ' So that it may conceive again ' (Phi. tr.). 

5 ' Hugar the lofty is that from which the water of Ar£dvivsur 
leaps down the height of a thousand men ' (Bundahif XII, 5, tr. 
West); cf. infra, §§ 96, 121, 126; Yt. XIII, 24. The Hukairya is 
mentioned again § 25 and Yt. IX, 8; Yt. X, 88; Yt. XV, 15; 
Yt. XVII," 28. It appears to be situated in the west (Bundahu 
XXIV, 17; II, 7; Minokhired XLIV, 12). 

• The earth-surrounding Ocean; cf. VendidSd V, 15 (49) seq., 
text and notes. 



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ABAN YAST. 55 



boiling over, all the middle of it is boiling over, when 
she runs down there, when she streams down there, 
she, Ardvi Sura Anahita, who has a thousand cells 
and a thousand channels 1 : the extent of each of 
those cells, of each of those channels is as much as a 
man can ride in forty days, riding on a good horse. 

5. ' From this river of mine alone flow all the 
waters that spread all over the seven Karshvares ; 
this river of mine alone goes on bringing waters, 
both in summer and in winter. This river of mine 
purifies the seed in males, the womb in females, the 
milk in females' breasts. 

6. ' I, Ahura Mazda, brought it down with mighty 
vigour, for the increase of the house, of the borough, 
of the town, of the country, to keep them, to main- 
tain them, to look over them, to keep and maintain 
them close. 

7. ' Then Ardvi Sura Anahita, O Spitama Zara- 
thurtra! proceeded forth from the Maker Mazda. 
Beautiful were her white arms, thick as a horse's 
shoulder or still thicker ; beautiful was her . . . . 2 , 
and thus came she, strong, with thick arms, thinking 
thus in her heart : 

8. ' " Who will praise me ? Who will offer me a 
sacrifice, with libations cleanly prepared and well- 
strained, together with the Haoma and meat ? To 
whom shall I cleave, who cleaves unto me, and 
thinks with me, and bestows gifts upon me, and is 
of good will unto me ? s " 

9. ' For her brightness and glory, I will offer her 

1 See the description §101 seq. 

* Zaos a or zuja, an &ra£ \ey611evov, seems to designate a part 
of the body; cf. § 126. 

• Cf.§§n, 124. 



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56 YASTS AND siR6zAHS. 



a sacrifice worth being heard ; I will offer up unto 
the holy Ardvi Sura Anahita a good sacrifice with 
an offering of libations ; — thus mayest thou advise 
us when thou art appealed to! Mayest thou be 
most fully worshipped, O Ardvi Sura Anahita ! with 
the Haoma and meat, with the baresma, with the 
wisdom of the tongue, with the holy spells, with the 
words, with the deeds, with the libations, and with 
the rightly-spoken words. 

'Y£»he hatam 1 : All those beings of whom 
Ahura Mazda .... 

II. 

io. 'Offer up a sacrifice, O Spitama Zarathiwtra 1 unto this spring 
of mine, Ardvi Sura Anahita, the wide-expanding and health-giving, 
who hates the DaSvas and obeys the laws of Ahura, who is worthy 
of sacrifice in the material world, worthy of prayer in the mate- 
rial world; the life-increasing and holy, the herd-increasing and 
holy, the fold-increasing and holy, the wealth-increasing and holy, 
the country-increasing and holy 1 ; 

ii. ' Who drives forwards on her chariot, holding 
the reins of the chariot. She goes, driving, on this 
chariot, longing for men 3 and thinking thus in her 
heart : " Who will praise me ? Who will offer me 
a sacrifice, with libations cleanly prepared and well- 
strained, together with the Haoma and meat ? To 
whom shall I cleave, who cleaves unto me, and 
thinks with me, and bestows gifts upon me, and is of 
good will unto me ?" 

'For her brightness and glory, I will offer her a sacrifice, worth 
being heard 4 . ... 

1 As above, p. 30 ; § 9 is repeated at the end of every chapter. 

2 § io=§ 2. 

8 Viz. for their worshipping; cf. Yasna XXIII, 2 [5], paituma- 
re«ti=Phl. humltinft, they hope, they expect. Cf. § 123. 
* As above, § 9. 



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Aban yast. 57 



III. 

12. 'Offer up a sacrifice, O Spitama Zarathurtra I unto this spring 
of mine, Ardvi Sura Anahita '. . . . 

13. 'Whom four horses carry, all white, of one 
and the same colour, of the same blood, tall, crush- 
ing down the hates of all haters, of the Da£vas and 
men, of the Yatus and Pairikas, of the oppressors, 
of the blind and of the deaf 2 . 

' For her brightness and glory, I will offer her a sacrifice .... 

IV. 

14. 'Offer up a sacrifice, O Spitama Zarathortra ! unto this spring 
of mine, Ardvi Sura Anahita .... 

1 5. ' Strong and bright, tall and beautiful of form, 
who sends down by day and by night a flow of 
motherly 3 waters as large as the whole of the waters 
that run along the earth, and who runs powerfully 4 . 

' For her brightness and glory, I will offer her a sacrifice .... 

V. 

16. ' Offer up a sacrifice, O Spitama Zarathurtra I unto this spring 
of mine, Ardvi Sura Anahita .... 

1 7. ' To her did the Maker Ahura Mazda offer up 
a sacrifice 5 in the Airyana Vae^ah, by the good river 
Daitya 6 ; with the Haoma and meat, with the baresma, 
with the wisdom of the tongue, with the holy spells, 
with the words, with the deeds, with the libations, 
and with the rightly-spoken words 7 . 

1 As above, § 10. J Cf. p. 26, note 2. 

' Doubtful ; cf. Yt. VIII, 47. 4 Cf. above, § 3. 

* Cf. Vend. Introd. IV, 9, 40. This is the heavenly prototype of 
the Mazdean sacrifice as it was later shown to men by Zara- 
thartra; cf. § 101. 

• Cf. Yt. I, 4 and notes. ' Cf. Yt. Ill, 18. 



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58 YASTS AND siR6zAHS. 

18. 'He begged of her a boon, saying: "Grant 
me this, O good, most beneficent Ardvi Sura Anahita ! 
that I may bring the son of Pourushaspa, the holy 
Zarathu.ytra, to think after my law, to speak after my 
law, to do after my law! " 

19. 'Ardvi Sura Anahita granted him that boon, 
as he was offering libations, giving gifts, sacrificing, 
and begging that she would grant him that boon. 

' For her brightness and glory, I will offer her a sacrifice .... 

VI. 

20. ' Offer up a sacrifice, O Spitama Zarathiutra I unto this spring 
of mine, Ardvi Sura Anahita .... 

21. 'To her did Haoshyangha, the Paradhata 1 , 
offer up a sacrifice on the enclosure 2 of the Hara 3 , 
with a hundred male horses, a thousand oxen, and 
ten thousand lambs. 

22. 'He begged of her a boon, saying : " Grant 
me this, O good, most beneficent Ardvi Sura Ana- 
hita ! that I may become the sovereign lord of 
all countries, of the Da6vas and men, of the 



1 Haoshyangha was the first king of the Paradhata (P6sh- 
didyan) dynasty (cf. above, p. 7, note 2, and Bundahw XXXI, 1). 
It is related in Firdausi's Shah Nimah that he was the grand- 
son of Gayomarth, the first man and king, and the son of Syamak ; 
that his father having been killed by the black Div, he encountered 
him at the head of an army of lions, tigers, birds, and Paris, and 
destroyed him ; he then succeeded his grandfather, and reigned 
supreme over the seven Keshvars of the earth. 

3 Doubtful: upabda=upabanda, as thribda (Yt. VIII, 55)= 
thribanda; it appears from Yt. XV, 7 that the place meant here 
is the TaSra which is said in the Bundahw (V, 7) to be surrounded 
by the Albdrz (the Hara). 

* The Hara berezaiti or Alb6rz, in MftzandarSn, south of the 
Caspian Sea, was supposed to surround the earth ; cf. Yt. X, 56. 



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ABAN YA5T. 59 



Yatus and Pairikas, of the oppressors, the blind and 
the deaf; and that I may smite down two thirds 1 
of the Da£vas of Mazana 2 and of the fiends of 
Varena 8 ." 

23. ' Ardvi Sura Anahita granted him that boon, 
as he was offering libations, giving gifts, sacrificing, 
and entreating that she would grant him that boon. 

' For her brightness and glory, I will offer her a sacrifice .... 

VII. 

24. 'Offer up a sacrifice, O Spitama Zarathurtra! unto this 
spring of mine, Ardvi Sura Anahita .... 

25. ' To her did Yima Khsha£ta 4 , the good shep- 
herd, offer up a sacrifice from the height Hukairya 5 , 
with a hundred male horses, a thousand oxen, ten 
thousand lambs. 

26. 'He begged of her a boon, saying : " Grant 
me this, O good, most beneficent Ardvi Sura Ana- 
hita ! that I may become the sovereign lord of all 
countries, of the Da£vas and men, of the Yatus 
and Pairikas, of the oppressors, the blind and the 
deaf; and that I may take from the Da£vas both 



1 A formula frequently used, not only in the Avesta, but also in 
the Shah Namah. 

2 The Daevas in M&zandarin. Mazandaran was held a place 
of resort for demons and sorcerers, and was in the Iranian legend 
nearly the same as Ceylon is in the Rlmaya»a. The Damavand 
mountain, to which Azi Dahaka was bound, is the southern 
boundary of Mazandaran. 

s See Vend. Introd. IV, 23 ; cf. this Yart, § 33. 

4 Yima Khsha&a (Gemshfd), as an earthly king, ruled over 
the world for a thousand years, while he made immortality reign 
in it (Yt. IX, 8; XV, 15; cf. Vendiddd II, Introd.). 

5 See above, § 3. 



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6o \ASTS AND siR6zAHS. 

riches and welfare, both fatness and flocks, both weal 
and Glory 1 ." 

27. ' Ardvi Sura Anahita granted him that boon, 
as he was offering libations, giving gifts, sacrificing, 
and entreating that she would grant him that boon. 

* For her brightness and glory, I will offer her a sacrifice .... 

VIII. 

28. ' Offer up a sacrifice, O Spitama Zarathurtra ! unto this 
spring of mine, Ardvi Sura Anahita .... 

29. ' To her did Az\ Dahaka 2 , the three-mouthed, 
offer up a sacrifice in the land of Bawri 3 , with a 

1 After his brother Takhma Urupa, who reigned before him, had 
been killed and devoured by Angra Mainyu (Yt. IV, 11, note). 

2 When Yima began to sin and lost the Ifva.rend (Glory), he was 
overthrown by Azi Dah&ka (Zohik), who seized the power and 
reigned in his place for a thousand years (cf. Yt. XIX, 33 seq.). 

Azi Dahika, literally ' the fiendish snake,' was first a mythical 
personage ; he was the 'snake ' of the storm-cloud, and a counter- 
part of the Vedic Ahi or VrAra. He appears still in that 
character in Yart XIX seq., where he is described struggling 
for the Jlvarend against Atar (Fire), in the sea Vourukasha 
(VendidSd, Introd. IV, 38; cf. this Yart, § 90). His struggle 
with Yima Khsha&ta bore at first the same mythological character, 
'the shining Yima' being originally, like the Vedic Yama, a solar 
hero : when Yima was turned into an earthly king, Azi underwent 
the same fate. In the Shah NSmah he is described as a man 
with two snakes springing from his shoulders: they grew there 
through a kiss of Ahriman's. For the myths referring to Azi, see 
Ormazd et Ahriman, §§ 91-95. 

s Babylon (cf. Yt. XV, 19). The usurper Azi, being a non- Aryan, 
was identified with the hereditary foe, the Chaldaeans : the name of 
Babylon united in it, at the same time, a dim historical record of 
the old Assyrian oppression, then shaken off and forgotten, and 
an actual expression of the national antipathy of the Iranians 
for their Semitic neighbours in Chaldaea. After the conquest of 
Persia by the Musulmans, Azi was turned at last into an Arab. 
The original seat of the Azi myths was on the southern coast 
of the Caspian Sea (£tudes Iraniennes, II, 210). 



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abAn vast. 6 i 



hundred male horses, a thousand oxen, and ten 
thousand lambs. 

30. ' He begged of her a boon, saying : " Grant 
me this boon, O good, most beneficent Ardvi Sura 
Anahita ! that I may make all the seven Karshvares 
of the earth empty of men." 

31. 'Ardvi Sura Anahita did not grant him that 
boon, although he was offering libations, giving gifts, 
sacrificing, and entreating her that she would grant 
him that boon. 

' For her brightness and glory, I will offer her a sacrifice .... 

IX. 

32. 'Offer up a sacrifice, O Spitama Zarathtutra! unto Ardvi 
Sura Anahita 

33. 'To her did Thra^taona 1 , the heir 2 of the 
valiant Athwya clan, offer up a sacrifice in the four- 
cornered Varena 3 , with a hundred male horses, a 
thousand oxen, ten thousand lambs. 

34. 'He begged of her a boon, saying: "Grant 
me this, O good, most beneficent Ardvi Sura Ana- 
hita! that I may overcome Azi Dahika, the three- 
mouthed, the three-headed, the six-eyed, who has a 
thousand senses*, that most powerful, fiendish Drug, 

1 ThraStaona (Fertdun), son of Athwya, conquered Azi and 
bound him to Mount Damavand, where he is to stay till the end of 
the world, when he shall be let loose and then killed by Keresaspa 
(Vendidad, Introd. IV, 12, 18; Bahman Y&rt III, 55 seq.; Bund. 
XXIX, 8 seq.). 

2 Vis6-puthra=Pahlavi barbita (see £tudes Iraniennes, II, 

139)- 

* Cf. Vend. I, 18 and Introd. IV, 12. Modern tradition sup- 
poses Varena to have been the region of Ghilan (very likely on 
account of its proximity to Mazandaran and Mount Damavand). 

4 See Yt. X, 82, note. 



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62 YASTS AND sfo6ZAHS. 

that demon, baleful to the world, the strongest 
Dru£" that Angra Mainyu created against the mate- 
rial world, to destroy the world of the good prin- 
ciple 1 ; and that I may deliver his two wives, 
Savanghava^ and Erenava^ 2 , who are the fairest 
of body amongst women, and the most wonderful 
creatures in the world 3 ." 

35. ' Ardvi Sura Anahita granted him that boon, 
as he was offering libations, giving gifts, sacrificing, 
and entreating that she would grant him that boon, 

' For her brightness and glory, I will offer her a sacrifice .... 



36. ' Offer up a sacrifice, O Spitama Zarathiwtra ! unto Ardvi 
Sura Anahita .... 

37. 'To her did Keresaspa 4 , the manly-hearted, 
offer up a sacrifice behind the Vairi Pisanah 6 , with a 



1 Cf. Yt. XIX, 37. 

2 The two daughters of Yima, who had been ravished by Azi : 
they are called in the Shah Nimah Shahrin&z and Arnavaz 
(see Eludes Iraniennes, II, 213, Savanghavai et Erenava/fc). 
Thra&aona delivered them, and then married them ; he had a son, 
Airyu, from Arnavaz, and two sons from Shahrinaz, Tura and 
Sairima; Airyu, Tura, and Sairima became the kings ofMn, Turan, 
and Rum. 

• Cf. Yt. IX, 14; XV, 24; XVII, 34. 

4 Keres&spa (GarsMsp), one of the greatest heroes in the 
Avestean romance, although Firdausi has all but passed him over 
in silence. See his feats, Yt. XIX, 38 seq.; cf. Yt. V, 27 seq. ; 
Yasna IX, 10 (29); Vend. I, 10 (36). 

* The Puin valley, south of Cabool. It was in the land of 
Cabool that the Keresaspa legend had its rise, or at least it was 
localised there. It is in the plain near the Pirfn valley that 
Keresaspa lies asleep, till the end of the world comes (see Yt. 
XIII, 61, note). 



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Aban vast. 63 



hundred male horses, a thousand oxen, ten thousand 
lambs. 

38. 'He begged of her a boon, saying : " Grant me 
this, O good, most beneficent Ardvi Sura Anahita ! 
that I may overcome the golden-heeled Garcdarewa 1 , 
though all the shores of the sea Vouru-Kasha are 
boiling over ; and that I may run up to the strong- 
hold of the fiend on the wide, round earth, whose 
ends lie afar." 

39. 'Ardvi Sura Anahita granted him that boon, 
as he was offering libations, giving gifts, sacri- 
ficing, and entreating that she would grant him that 
boon. 

' For her brightness and glory, I will offer her a sacrifice .... 



1 A Parsi poem, of a very late date, gives further details about 
Ga«darewa. It was a monster who lived ' in the sea, on the moun- 
tain, and in the valley;' he was called P&shnah zarah, because the 
sea did not go above his heel (a misinterpretation of his Avestean 
epithet zairi pashna, golden-heeled, the Zend zairi being mis- 
taken for the Persian zarah s.j, sea); his head would rise to the 
sun and rub the sky; he could swallow up twelve men at once. 
Keresaspa fought him for nine days and nine nights together ; he 
drew him at last from the bottom of the sea and smashed his head 
with his club : when he fell on the ground, many countries were 
spoiled by his fall (Spiegel, Die traditionnelle Literatur der Parsen, 
p. 339, and West, Pahlavi Texts, II, pp. 369 seq.). 

In the Vedic mythology the Gandharva is the keeper of Soma, 
and is described now as a god, now as a fiend, according as he 
is a heavenly Soma-priest or a jealous possessor who grudges it 
to man. What was the original form of the myth in Mazdeism 
is not clear. In the Shall Namah he appears as the minister of 
Azi Dahika. Cf. Yt. XV, 27 seq., and Ormazd et Ahriman, pp. 99, 
note 5; 215, note 1. 



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64 YA5TS AND SlR6zAHS. 



XI. 

40. ' Offer up a sacrifice, O Spitama Zarathortra I unto this spring 
of mine, Ardvi Sura Anihita .... 

41. ' To her did the Turanian murderer, Frangra- 
syan 1 , offer up a sacrifice in his cave under the 
earth 2 , with a hundred male horses, a thousand 
oxen, ten thousand lambs. 

42. 'He begged of her a boon, saying: "Grant 
me this, O good, most beneficent Ardvi Sura Ana- 
hita ! that I may seize hold of that Glory 3 , that is 
waving in the middle of the sea Vouru-Kasha 3 and 

1 Frangrasyan (Afrisyib) was king of Turan for two hundred 
years. The perpetual struggle between Iran and Turin, which 
lasts to this day, was represented in the legend by the deadly and 
endless wars between Afrisyib and the Iranian kings from Mino- 
£ihr down to Kai Khosrav (Kavi Husravah). The chief cause of 
the feud was the murder of Syavakhsh (Syavarshana) by Afrisyib ; 
Syivakhsh, son of Kai Kaus (Kava Usa), having been exiled by 
his father, at the instigation of his mother-in-law, took refuge 
with Afrasyab, who received him with honour, and gave him his 
daughter in marriage : but the fortune of Syavakhsh raised the 
jealousy of Afrasyab's brother, Karsivaz (Keresavazda v i, who by 
means of calumnious accusations extorted from Afrisyib an 
order for putting him to death (see Yt. XIX, 77). Syavakhsh 
was revenged by his son, Kai Khosrav, the grandson of Afrisyib 
(Yt. IX, 22). 

2 Ha«kane: Firdausi speaks of a cave on the top of a moun- 
tain, near Barda (on the frontier of Adarbaigin), where Afrasyab, 
when defeated, took refuge, and was discovered by Kai Khosrav ; 
that cave was called ' the cave of Afrisyib ' (hang i Afrasiab ; Shah 
Naraah, IV, 196). In an older 'form of the legend, that cave was 
a palace built under-ground, with walls of iron and a hundred 
columns : its height was a thousand times a man's size (Aoge- 
maid6, § 61 ; cf. Bund. XII, 20: see £tudes Iraniennes, II, 225, 
Le Hang d' Afrasyib). 

» Yt. XIX, 56 seq. 



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AbAn yast. 65 



that belongs to the Aryan people, to those born and 
to those not yet born, and to the holy Zarathiutra." 

43. 'Ardvi Sura Anahita did not grant him that 
boon. 

' For her brightness and glory, I will offer her a sacrifice .... 

XII. 

44. ' Offer up a sacrifice, O Spitama Zarathujtra ! unto this spring 
of mine, Ardvi Sura Anihita .... 

45. 'To her did the great, most wise Kavi Usa 1 
offer up a sacrifice from Mount Erezifya 2 , with a 
hundred male horses, a thousand oxen, ten thousand 
lambs. 

46. 'He begged of her a boon, saying: "Grant 
me, this, O good, most beneficent Ardvi Sura Ana- 
hita ! that I may become the sovereign lord of all 
countries, of the Da£vas and men, of the Yatus and 
Pairikas, of the oppressors, the blind and the deaf." 

47. 'Ardvi Sura Anahita granted him that boon, 
as he was offering libations, giving gifts, sacrificing, 
and entreating that she would grant him that boon. 

' For her brightness and glory, I will offer her a sacrifice .... 

XIII, 

48. ' Offer up a sacrifice, O Spitama Zarathurtra! unto this spring 
of mine, Ardvi Sura Anih.ta .... 

49. ' To her did the gallant Husravah s , he who 

1 Kavi Usa (Kai Kaus), the son of Kavi Kav&ta (Kai Kob&d) 
and the father of Sydvakhsh (see p. 64, note 1), was the second 
king of the Kayanian dynasty. 

2 Mount Erezifya has been supposed to be the same as the 
Sariphi Montes in Ptolemaeus, which stretch between Margiana 
and Ariana (Burnouf, Commentaire sur Ie Yasna, p. 436). 

8 Kai Khosrav ; cf. p. 64, notes 1 and 2. 

[23] » 



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66 YASTS AND siRdZAHS. 

united the Aryan nations into one kingdom 1 , offer 
up a sacrifice behind the Aae^asta lake 2 , the deep 
lake, of salt waters 3 , with a hundred male horses, a 
thousand oxen, ten thousand lambs. 

50. 'He begged of her a boon, saying: "Grant me 
this, O good, most beneficent Ardvi Sura Anahita ! 
that I may become the sovereign lord of all coun- 
tries, of Da6vas and men, of the Yatus and Pairikas, 
of the oppressors, the blind and the deaf; and that 
I may have the lead in front of all the teams * and 
that he may not pass through 6 the forest e , he, the 
murderer 7 , who now is fiercely 8 striving against me 9 
on horseback 10 ." 

51. 'Ardvi Sura Anahita granted him that boon, 
as he was offering libations, giving gifts, sacrificing, 
and entreating that she would grant him that boon. 

' For her brightness and glory, I will offer her a sacrifice .... 

XIV. 

52. ' Offer up a sacrifice, O Spitama Zarathurtra I unto this spring 
of mine, Ardvi Sura Anihita .... 

53. 'To her did the valiant warrior Tusa 11 offer 

1 Doubtful 

* A lake in Adarbai^Sn, with salt water : fish cannot live in it 
(Bundahir XXII, 2). It is the same as Lake Urumiah. 
is miswritten in Firdausi (Khan^ast for -Afe^ast, 

s Doubtful; see £tudes Iraniennes, II, uruydpa, p. 179. 

* In pursuing his adversary. 6 Doubtful (cf. Yt XV, 32). 
« The White Forest (ibid.). 7 Aurvasara (ibid.). 

* Doubtful. * Trying to flee and escape. 
10 Possibly, ' vieing in horses ' (for the swiftness of the race)-; 

cf.YtXIX, 11. 

u Tusa, in the Shin NSmah Tus; one of the most celebrated 
Fahlavans of Kai Khosrav; he was the son of king Naotara 
(N6dar). 



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AbAn vast. 67 



worship on the back of his horse \ begging swift- 
ness for his teams, health for his own body, and 
that he might watch with full success 2 those who 
hated him, smite down his foes, and destroy at one 
stroke his adversaries, his enemies, and those who 
hated him s . 

54. 'He begged of her a boon, saying: "Grant me 
this, O good, most beneficent Ardvi Sura Anahita! 
that I may overcome the gallant sons of Vaesaka 4 , 
by the castle Khshathr6-saoka, that stands high up 
on the lofty, holy Kangha 6 ; that I may smite of the 
Turanian people their fifties and their hundreds, 
their hundreds and their thousands, their thousands 
and their tens of thousands, their tens of thousands 
and their myriads of myriads." 

55. 'Ardvi Sura Anahita granted him that boon e , 
as he was offering libations, giving gifts, sacrificing, 
and entreating that she would grant him that boon. 

' For her brightness and glory, I will offer her a sacrifice .... 



1 He offers not a full sacrifice, being on horseback. 
3 Not to be taken by surprise. 
8 Cf.Yt. X, 11, 94, 114. 

* VaSsaka was the head of the Visah family, whose foremost 
member was Pirin Vlsah, the clever and upright minister of 
Afr£sy£b, the Turanian Nestor; but his counsels were despised 
for the common ruin, and himself perished with all his sons in the 
war against Ir&n. 

5 Kangha was a town founded by Sy&varshana, during his 
exile, in a part of the land of Khvirizm, which is described as 
an earthly paradise. This city was built on the top of a high 
mountain (Awtare-Kangha, Yt. XIX, 4). The Khshathr6-saoka 
castle is called in the Shab NSmah Kang dez, 'the fortress of 
Kangha;' and, possibly, Khshathr6-saoka is a mere epithet of 
dvarem, ' the castle of kingly welfare.' 

* According to the Shdh Namah, Kang des was stormed by 
Kai Khosrav himself. 



F 2 



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68 YASTS AND siRdZAHS. 



XV. 

56. ' Offer up a sacrifice, Spitama Zarathurtra 1 unto this spring 
of mine, Ardvi Sura Anahita .... 

57. ' To her did the gallant sons of Va6saka offer 
up a sacrifice in the castle Khshathrd-saoka, that 
stands high up on the lofty, holy Kangha, with a 
hundred male horses, a thousand oxen, ten thousand 
lambs. 

58. 'They begged of her a boon, saying: "Grant 
us this, O good, most beneficent Ardvi Sura Ana- 
hita! that we may overcome the valiant warrior 
Tusa, and that we may smite of the Aryan people 
their fifties and their hundreds, their hundreds and 
their thousands, their thousands and their tens of 
thousands, their tens of thousands and their myriads 
of myriads 1 ." 

59. 'Ardvi Sura Anahita did not grant them that 
boon. 

* For her brightness and glory, I will offer her a sacrifice .... 

XVI. 

60. * Offer up a sacrifice, O Spitama Zaratrnutra ! unto this spring 
of mine, Ardvi Sura Anahita .... 

61. 'The old 2 Vafra Navaza worshipped her, when 
the strong fiend-smiter, Thra£taona, flung him up in 
the air in the shape of a bird, of a vulture 3 . 

1 Cf. §§ 53-54- 

* Doubtful (pourv6); perhaps 'the man of the primitive faith' 
(the paoiry6-/ka6sha; cf. Yt. XIII, o, note): the sacrifice he 
offers is quite a Zoroastrian one (cf. §§ 17, 104, and note 2 to the 
latter). 

* An allusion is made here to a myth, belonging to the 
Thra6taona cyclus, of which no other trace is found in the Avesta 
(except in Yt. XXIII, 4). It referred most likely to the time when 



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AbAn YAST. 69 



62. ' He went on flying, for three days and three 
nights, towards his own house; but he could not, he 
could not turn down. At the end of the third night, 
when the beneficent dawn came dawning up, then he 
prayed unto Ardvi Sura Anahita, saying : 

63. ' "Ardvi Sura Anahita! do thou quickly hasten 
helpfully and bring me assistance at once. I will 
offer thee a thousand libations, cleanly prepared and 
well strained, along with Haomas and meat, by the 
brink of the river Rangha, if I reach alive the earth 
made by Ahura and my own house." 

64. 'Ardvi Sura Anahita hastened unto him in 
the shape of a maid, fair of body, most strong, tall- 
formed, high-girded, pure, nobly born of a glorious 
race, wearing shoes up to the ankle, wearing a 
golden ....*, and radiant 2 . 

65. ' She seized him by the arm : quickly was it 
done, nor was it long till, speeding, he arrived at the 
earth made by Mazda and at his own house, safe, 
unhurt, unwounded, just as he was before. 

[66. 'Ardvi Sura Anahita granted him that boon, as 
he was offering up libations, giving gifts, sacrificing, 
entreating that she would grant him that boon 3 .] 

' For her brightness and glory, I will offer her a sacrifice .... 

ThraStaona, on his march to Bawri, the capital of Azi (cf. § 29), 
arrived at the Tigris (the Rangha) ; an angel then came and taught 
him magic to enable him to baffle the sortileges of Azi (Shah 
Nimah). We have in this passage an instance of his talents as 
a wizard, and one which helps us to understand why ThraStaona 
is considered as the inventor of magic, and his name is invoked in 
spells and incantations (Hamzah Ispahanensis, p. 101 ; Anquetil, 
II, pp. 135 seq.). Cf. Yt. XIV, 40 and note. 

1 Urvikh^na, a word of doubtful meaning. 

* Cf. Yt. V, 78, 126. 

8 This clause is no doubt spurious here. 



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70 YASTS AND s!r6zAHS. 



XVII. 

67. ' Offer up a sacrifice, O Spitama Zarathurtra ! unto this spring 
of mine, Ardvi Sura Anahita .... 

68. 'To her did (^amaspa 1 offer up a sacrifice, with 
a hundred horses, a thousand oxen, ten thousand 
lambs, when he saw the army of the wicked, of the 
worshippers of the Da£vas, coming from afar in 
battle array. 

69. ' He asked of her a boon, saying : " Grant me 
this, O good, most beneficent Ardvi Sura Anahita ! 
that I may be as constantly victorious as any one of 
all the Aryans 2 ." 

70. ' Ardvi Sura Anahita granted him that boon, 
as he was offering up libations, giving gifts, sacri- 
ficing, and entreating that she would grant him that 
boon. 

' For her brightness and glory, I will offer her a sacrifice .... 



It. ' Offer up a sacrifice, O Spitama Zarathuxtra ! unto this spring 
of mine, Ardvi Sura Anihita .... 



XVIII. 

> Spitama 2 
72. ' To her did Ashavazdah, the son of Pouru- 

1 (7 Soils pa, the prime minister of Vtrtispa (Kai Gurtasp), 
appears here in the character of a warrior, though generally he is 
described as a sage and a prophet (Yasna XLIX [XLVIII], 9 ; 
LI [L], 8; Zardflft Namah; yet cf. Yt. XXIII, 2). The Sh&h 
N&mah has an episode which recalls this one, although very 
different in its spirit, and more in accordance with the general 
character of (Pamaspa. At the moment when the two armies meet 
together, Gurtisp asks Gamasp to reveal to him the issue of the 
encounter : Gimdsp obeys reluctantly, as the issue is to be fatal 
to the Iranians. <?&m&sp belonged to the Hv6va family. 

2 Or, ' as all the rest of the Aryans together.' 



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ABAN YAST. Jl 



dhaichsti 1 , and Ashavazdah and Thrita, the sons of 
Sayuzdri 2 , offer up a sacrifice, with a hundred horses, 
a thousand oxen, ten thousand lambs, by Ap&m 
Napa/, the tall lord, the lord of the females, the 
bright and swift-horsed 3 . 

73. 'They begged of her a boon, saying : " Grant 
us this, O good, most beneficent Ardvi Sura 
Anihita ! that we may overcome the assemblers of 
the Turanian D&nus *, Kara Asabana 5 , and Vara 
Asabana, and the most mighty Dura£ka£ta, in the 
battles of this world 6 . 

74. 'Ardvi Sura Anahita granted them that 
boon, as they were offering up libations, giving gifts, 
sacrificing, and entreating that she would grant 
them that boon. 

' For her brightness and glory, I will offer her a sacrifice .... 

XIX. 

75. ' Offer up a sacrifice, O Spitama Zarathrotra ! unto this spring 
of mine, Ardvi Sura Anihita .... 

76. ' Vistauru, the son of Naotara T , worshipped 

1 Cf. Yt. XIII, 112. Ashavazdah, the son of PourudhSkhfti, 
is one of the immortals who will come forth to help Saoshya«/ in 
the final struggle (Bundahir XXIX, 6; Yt. XIX, 95). 

3 Cf. Yt. XIII, 113. » Cf. above, p. 6, note r. 

* A Turanian tribe, Yt. XIII, 37-38. 

6 Asabana is very likely an epithet; possibly, 'who kills with 
a stone ' (asan-ban) ; the sling was, as it seems, the favourite weapon 
of the Ddnus (Yt. XIII, 38). 

* This section is the only fragment left of the legend of 
Ashavazdah, which must have been an important one, since 
Ashavazdah is one of the immortals (Yt. XIX, 95). 

7 Cf. Yt. XIII, 102. Vistauru, being the son of Naotara, is the 
brother of Tusa, which identifies him with the Gustahm ( . f- *~) 
in the Shah Nslmah : N6dar had two sons, Tus and Gustahm. 



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72 VASTS AND s1r6zAHS. 

her by the brink of the river Vltanghuhaiti 1 , with 
well-spoken words, speaking thus : 

77 '. '"This is true, this is truly spoken, that I 
have smitten as many of the worshippers of the 
Da£vas as the hairs I bear on my head. Do thou 
then, O Ardvi Sura Anahita ! leave me a dry pas- 
sage, to pass over the good Vltanghuhaiti," 

78. 'Ardvi Sura Anahita hastened unto him in 
the shape of a maid, fair of body, most strong, tall- 
formed, high-girded, pure, nobly born of a glorious 
race, wearing shoes up to the ankle, with all sorts of 
ornaments and radiant 2 . A part of the waters she 
made stand still, a part of the waters she made flow 
forward, and she left him a dry passage to pass 
over the good Vltanghuhaiti s . 

[79. 'Ardvi Sura Anahita granted him that boon, 
as he was offering up libations, giving gifts, sacri- 
ficing, and entreating that she would grant him that 
boon *.] 

' For her brightness and glory, I will offer her a sacrifice .... 

XX. 

80. ' Offer up a sacrifice, O Spitama Zarathurtra 1 unto this spring 
of mine, Ardvi Sura Anahita .... 

81. 'To her did Y&ista., one of the Fryanas 8 , 

1 A river not mentioned elsewhere. 
»Cf.§§6 4 , 126. 

3 Firdausi has no mention of this episode. 

4 Spurious. 

5 This legend is fully told in the Pahlavi tale of G&sti Fryan 
(edited and translated by West) : a sorcerer, named Akht, comes 
with an immense army to the city of the enigma-expounders, 
threatening to make it a beaten track for elephants, if his enigmas 
are not solved. A Mazdayasnian, named G6*ti Fryan, guesses the 



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AbAn vast. 73 



offer up a sacrifice with a hundred horses, a thou- 
sand oxen, ten thousand lambs on the P^dva^pa 1 of 
the Rangha. 

82. ' He begged of her a boon, saying : " Grant 
me this, good, most beneficent Ardvi Sura Ana- 
hita ! that I may overcome the evil-doing Akhtya, 
the offspring of darkness, and that I may answer the 
ninety-nine hard riddles that he asks me maliciously, 
the evil-doing Akhtya, the offspring of darkness." 

'83. 'Ardvi Sura Anahita granted him that boon, 
as he was offering up libations, giving gifts, sacri- 
ficing, and entreating that she would grant him that 
boon. 

' For her brightness and glory, I will offer her a sacrifice .... 



XXI. 

84. ' Offer up a sacrifice, O Spitama Zarathmtra ! unto this spring 
of mine, Ardvi Sura Anahita .... 

85. 'Whom Ahura Mazda the merciful ordered 
thus, saying : " Come, O Ardvi Sura Anahita, come 
from those stars 2 down to the earth made by Ahura, 

thirty-three riddles proposed by Akht; then, in his turn, he 
proposes him three riddles which the sorcerer is unable to guess, 
and, in the end, he destroys him by the strength of a Ntrang. 
Cf. Yt. XIII, 120. This tale, which belongs to the same wide- 
spread cycle as the myth of Oedipus and the Germanic legend of 
the Wartburg battle, is found in the Zarathartra legend too 
(Vendtdad XIX, 4). 

1 Perhaps an affluent of the Rangha (cf. Yt. XIII, 1 9, 1 9 ; X V, 2 7). 

' Between the earth and the region of infinite light there are 
three intermediate regions, the star region, the moon region, and 
the sun region. The star region is the nearest to the earth, 
and the sun region is the remotest from it. Ardvi Sura has 
her seat in the star region (Yasna LXV [LXIV], 1 ; Phi. tr.) ; 
cf. Yt.V, 132. 



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74 vasts and sJr6zahs. 

that the great lords may worship thee, the masters 
of the countries, and their sons. 

86. '"The men of strength 1 will beg of thee swift 
horses and supremacy of Glory. 

' " The Athra vans who read 2 and the pupils of the 
Athravans will beg of thee knowledge and pros- 
perity, the Victory made by Ahura, and the crushing 
Ascendant. 

87. '"The maids of barren womb 3 , longing for 
a lord 8 , will beg of thee a strong husband ; 

' "Women, on the point of bringing forth, will beg 
of thee a good delivery. 

' "All this wilt thou grant unto them, as it lies in 
thy power, O Ardvi Sftra Anahita 1" 

88. 'Then Ardvi Sura Anahita came forth, O 
Zarathmtra ! down from those stars to the earth 
made by Mazda; and Ardvi Sflra Anahita spake 
thus: 

89. '"O pure, holy Zarathurtra ! Ahura Mazda 
has established thee as the master of the material 
world : Ahura Mazda has established me to keep 
the whole of the holy creation. 

' " Through my brightness and glory flocks and 
herds and two-legged men go on, upon the earth: I, 
forsooth, keep all good things, made by Mazda, the 
offspring of the holy principle, just as a shepherd 
keeps his flock." 

90. ' Zarathurtra asked Ardvi Sura Anahita : " O 
Ardvi Sflra Anahita ! With what manner of sacrifice 
shall I worship thee ? With what manner of sacri- 
fice shall I worship and forward thee ? So that 
Mazda may make thee run down (to the earth), that 

1 The warriors. 2 To teach. 8 Doubtful. 



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AbAn vast. 75 



he may not make thee run up into the heavens, 
above the sun 1 ; and that the Serpent 2 may not 
injure thee with . . . , 3 , with . . . . 4 , with ....*, 
and .... poisons 6 ." 

91. 'Ardvi Sura Anahita answered: "O pure, 
holy Spitama! this is the sacrifice wherewith thou 
shalt worship me, this is the sacrifice wherewith 
thou shalt worship and forward me, from the 
time when the sun is rising to the time when the 
sun is setting. 

' " Of this libation of mine thou shalt drink, thou 
who art an Athravan, who hast asked and learnt the 
revealed law, who art wise, clever, and the Word 
incarnate. 

92. ' " Of this libation of mine let no foe drink, 
no man fever-sick, no liar, no coward, no jealous one, 
no woman, no faithful one who does not sing the 
Gathas, no leper to be confined 7 . 

93. '"I do not accept those libations that are 
drunk in my honour by the blind, by the deaf, by 
the wicked, by the destroyers, by the niggards, by 
the . . . . 8 , nor any of those stamped with those 
characters which have no strength for the holy 
Word 9 , 

1 When the beds of the rivers are dry, the cause is that Ardvi 
Sura sends up her waters to the higher heavens (to the sun region) 
instead of sending them down to the earth (cf. p. 73, note 2). 

* The serpent, Azi, is here Azi in his original naturalistic 
character, the storm-fiend (cf. Vend. Introd. IV, 38 and this Yast, 
§29, note). The uncleanness and unhealthiness of the rivers are 
ascribed to his poison. 

* Arethna, an &ra| \ey6p€vov. ' * Vawzaka, idem. 

6 Varenva, idem. 6 Varenva poisons. 

7 Cf. Vend. II, 29. « ? Ranghaw. 

* Which incapacitate one for religious works. 



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76 YASTS AND S1R6ZAHS. 

' " Let no one drink of these my libations who is 
hump-backed or bulged forward; no fiend with 
decayed teeth 1 ." 

94. 'Then Zarathurtra asked Ardvi Sura Anahita: 
" O Ardvi Sura Anahita ! What becomes of those 
libations which the wicked worshippers of the 
Dadvas bring unto thee after the sun has set 2 ?" 

95. 'Ardvi Sura Anahita answered: "O pure, 
holy Spitama Zarathurtra ! howling, clapping, hop- 
ping, and shouting 3 , six hundred and a thousand 
Daevas, who ought not to receive that sacrifice 4 , 
receive those libations 5 that men bring unto me 
after [the sun has set] 6 ." 

96. ' I will worship the height Hukairya, of the 
deep precipices 7 , made of gold, wherefrom this mine 
Ardvi Sura Anahita leaps, from a hundred times the 
height of a man 8 , while she is possessed of as much 
Glory as the whole of the waters that run along the 
earth, and she runs powerfully 9 . 

'For her brightness and glory, I will offer her a sacrifice .... 

XXII. 

97. ' Offer up a sacrifice, O Spitama Zarathurtra 1 unto this spring 
of mine, Ardvi Sura Anahita .... 

98. ' Before whom the worshippers of Mazda 

1 Cf. Vend. II, 29. 

2 Cf. Vend. VII, 79 and note 2 ; cf. above, § 91. 

s For joy. The translations of those several words are not 
certain. 

4 Doubtful. s Perhaps, those cups (yamaw). 

* Filled up from § 94. 

7 The text here has visp6-vahmem, ' worthy of all prayer;' the 
reading visp6-vaSmem from Yt. XII, 24 seems to be better. 

* Cf. §§ 102, 121. * Cf. §§ 4, 102, 121. 



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AbAn vast. 77 



stand with baresma in their hands : the Hv6vas did 
worship her, the Naotaras did worship her 1 ; the 
Hv6vas asked for riches, the Naotaras asked for 
swift horses. Quickly was Hv6va blessed with 
riches and full prosperity ; quickly became Vtrtaspa, 
the Naotaride, the lord of the swiftest horses in these 
countries 2 . 

99. ['Ardvi Sura Anahita granted them that boon, 
as they were offering up libations, giving gifts, sacri- 
ficing, and entreating that she would grant them 
that boon 3 .] 

' For her brightness and glory, I will offer her a sacrifice .... 

XXIII. 

100. 'Offer up a sacrifice, O Spitaina Zarathurtra I unto this 
spring of mine, Ardvi Sura An&hita .... 

10 1. 'Who has a thousand cells and a thousand 
channels : the extent of each of those cells, of each 
of those channels, is as much as a man can ride in 
forty days, riding on a good horse *. In each 
channel there stands a palace, well-founded, shining 
with a hundred windows, with a thousand columns, 
well-built, with ten thousand balconies, and mighty. 

102. * In each of those palaces there lies a well- 
laid, well-scented bed, covered with pillows, and 

1 The Hv6va or Hv6gva family plays as great a part in the 
religious legend, as the Naotara family in the heroic one. Two 
of the Hv6vas, Frashaoi'tra and Gamispa, were among the first 
disciples of Zarathurtra and the prophet married Frashaortra's 
daughter, Hv6gvi (cf. Yt. XIII, 139). For the Naotaras, see above, 
§§ 53> 76. According to the Bundahu, VfotSspa did not belong to the 
Naotara family (XXXI, 28) : perhaps he was considered a Naotaride 
on account of his wife Hutaosa, who was one (Yt. XV, 35). 

3 His very name means ' He who has many horses.' 

3 Spurious. * Cf. § 4. 



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78 YASTS AND slRdZAHS. 

Ardvi Sura Anahita, O Zarathurtra ! runs down there 
from a thousand times the height of a man, and she 
is possessed of as much Glory as the whole of the 
waters that run along the earth, and she runs 
powerfully 1 . 

XXIV. 

103. 'Offer up a sacrifice, O Spitama Zarathurtra! unto this 
spring of mine, Ardvi Sura Anahita .... 

104. ' Unto her did the holy Zarathurtra offer up 
a sacrifice in the Airyana Vae^ah, by the good river 
Daitya ; with the Haoma and meat, with the baresma, 
with the wisdom of the tongue, with the holy spells, 
with the speech, with the deeds, with the libations, 
and with the rightly-spoken words 2 . 

105. ' He begged of her a boon, saying: "Grant 
me this, O good, most beneficent Ardvi Sura Ana- 
hita ! that I may bring the son of Aurva^-aspa s , the 
valiant Kavi Vtrtaspa, to think according to the law, 
to speak according to the law, to do according to 
the law*." 

106. 'Ardvi Sura Anahita granted him that 
boon, as he was offering up libations, giving gifts, 
sacrificing, and entreating that she would grant him 
that boon. 

' For her brightness and glory, I will offer her a sacrifice .... 

1 Cf. § 96. 

* Cf. § 17. It is to be noticed that only Ahura and Zarathurtra 
(and perhaps Vafra Navaza; see p. 68, note 2) offer the pure 
Zoroastrian sacrifice. 

3 Called Lohrasp in Parsi tradition. 

* Cf. § 18. The conversion of Virtaspa by Zarathurtra is the 
turning-point in the earthly history of Mazdeism, as the conversion 
of Zarathurtra by Ahura himself is in its heavenly history. Cf. Yt. 
XXIV and IX, 26. 



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AbAn yast. 79 



XXV. 

107. 'Offer up a sacrifice, O Spitama Zarathurtra ! unto this 
spring of mine, Ardvi Sftra Anihita .... 

108. ' Unto her did the tall 1 Kavi Vtrtaspa 2 offer 
up a sacrifice behind Lake Frazdanava 3 , with a 
hundred male horses, a thousand oxen, ten thousand 
lambs. 

109. 'He begged of her a boon, saying: "Grant 
me this, O good, most beneficent Ardvi Sura Ana- 
hita ! that I may overcome Tathravaw/, of the bad 
law, and Peshana, the worshipper of the Daevas, 
and the wicked Are^aZ-aspa *, in the battles of this 
world!" 

no. 'Ardvi Sura Anahita granted him that 
boon, as he was offering up libations, giving gifts, 
sacrificing, and entreating that she would grant him 
that boon. 

' For her brightness and glory, I will offer her a sacrifice .... 



1 Berezaidhi, translated buland (Yasna LVII, n [LVI, 5, 2]). 

* See Yt. XIII, 99 j V, 98, 105. 

* A lake in Seistan (Bundahw XXII, 5) ; from that lake will rise 
HdshSdar Bamt (UkhshyaZ-ereta), the first of the three sons of 
Zarathurtra, not yet born (Bahman Yart III, 13 ; cf. Yt. XIII, 98). 

4 Of these three, Areg-aZ-aspa alone is known to Firdausi ; he is 
the celebrated ArgSsp, who waged a deadly war against Gu\rt£sp 
to suppress the new religion: he stormed Balkh, slaughtered 
L6hrasp and Zarturt (Zarathuftra), and was at last defeated and 
killed by Gurtasp's son, Isfendy&r. He is the Afrasyab of the 
Zoroastrian period. In the Avesta he is not called a Turanian 
(Tura), but a Hvyaona. ; see Yt. IX, 30. 



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8o YASTS AND sJr6zAHS. 



XXVI. 

in. 'Offer up a sacrifice, O Spitama Zarathiutra! unto this 
spring of mine, Ardvi Sura Anihita .... 

112. 'Unto her did Zairi-vairi *, who fought on 
horseback, offer up a sacrifice behind the river 
Daitya 2 , with a hundred male horses, a thousand 
oxen, ten thousand lambs. 

113. 'He begged of her a boon, saying : " Grant me 
this, O good, most beneficent Ardvi Sura Anahita ! that 
I may overcome Peshd-Aangha the corpse-burier 3 , 
Humayaka * the worshipper of the Da£vas, and the 
wicked Are^a/-aspa 6 , in the battles of this world. 

1 14. 'Ardvi Sura Anahita granted him that boon 6 , 
as he was offering up libations, giving gifts, sacri- 
ficing, and entreating that she would grant him that 
boon. 

' For her brightness and glory, I will offer her a sacrifice .... 

XXVII. 

115.' Offer up a sacrifice, O Spitama Zarathu* tra ! unto this 
spring of mine, Ardvi Sura Anahita .... 

116.' Unto her did Are^aZ-aspa and Va«daremaini 7 

1 Zartr in Firdausi, the brother of VfatSspa ; cf. Yt. V, 117; 
XIII, 101. 

s The Araxes (Vendidad I, 3). 

3 Doubtful (cf. Vend. Ill, 36 seq.). 

4 This is perhaps an epithet to Pesh6-ATangha, 'the most 
malicious.' 

8 See p. 79, note 4. 

6 If we may trust the ShSh N&mah, she did not grant her 
favour to the last, as Zartr was killed by one of the generals of 
Ar^isp, Bidirafsh. 

7 A brother of Ar^isp's : his name is slightly altered in Firdausi 
(AndartmSn miswritten for Vandarfman, ^U^jjl for ^Uj^jJj ; see 
Etudes Iraniennes, p. 228). 



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Aban yajst. 8 i 



offer up a sacrifice by the sea Vouru-Kasha, with a 
hundred male horses, a thousand oxen, ten thousand 
lambs. 

117.' They 1 begged of her a boon, saying : " Grant 
us this, O good, most beneficent Ardvi Sura Anahita! 
that we may conquer the valiant Kavi Vlrtaspa and 
Zairivairi who fights on horseback, and that we may 
smite of the Aryan people their fifties and their hun- 
dreds, their hundreds and their thousands, their 
thousands and their tens of thousands, their tens of 
thousands and their myriads of myriads." 

118. 'Ardvi Sura Anahita did not grant them 2 that 
favour, though they were offering up libations, giving 
gifts, sacrificing, and entreating that she should grant 
them that favour. 

' For her brightness and glory, I will offer her a sacrifice .... 



XXVIII. 

119. 'Offer up a sacrifice, O Spitama Zarathortral unto this 
spring of mine, Ardvi Sura Anahita .... 

1 20. ' For whom Ahura Mazda has made four 
horses — the wind, the rain, the cloud, and the sleet — 
and thus ever s upon the earth it is raining, snowing, 
hailing, and sleeting ; and whose armies are so many 
and numbered by nine-hundreds and thousands. 

121. 'I will worship the height Hukairya, of the 

1 The text has the singular here and in the rest of the sentence : 
the names of the two brothers form a sort of singular dvandva ; 
cf. Franghrasyanem Keresavazdem (Yt. XIX, 77); Ashavazdanghd 
Thritahe" (Yt. XIII, 113 ; and same Yast, 115), and in the present 
passage Vlftisp6 Zairivairi^ (see £tudes Iraniennes, II, 229). 

* Both were killed by Isfendyar (Shah N&mah). 

' Mf sti translated ham^jak, sad& (Yt. VII, 4). 

[»3] G 



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82 YASTS AND siRdZAHS. 

deep precipices, made of gold, wherefrom this mine 
Ardvi Sura Anahita leaps, from a hundred times the 
height of a man, while she is possessed of as much 
Glory as the whole of the waters that run along the 
earth, and she runs powerfully \ 

' For her brightness and glory, I will offer her a sacrifice .... 



XXIX. 

12 2. 'Offer up a sacrifice, O Spitama Zarathiutra! unto this 
spring of mine, Ardvi Sura An&hita .... 

123. 'She stands, the good Ardvi Sura Anahita, 
wearing a golden mantle 2 , waiting for a man who 
shall offer her libations and prayers, and thinking 
thus in her heart : 

1 24. ' " Who will praise me ? Who will offer me a 
sacrifice, with libations cleanly prepared and well- 
strained, together with the Haoma and meat ? To 
whom shall I cleave, who cleaves unto me, and 
thinks with me, and bestows gifts upon me, and is 
of good will unto me 3 ?" 

' For her brightness and glory, I will offer her a sacrifice .... 

XXX. 

125. 'Offer up a sacrifice, O Spitama Zarathurtra! unlo this 
spring of mine, Ardvi Sura Anahita . . . . 

126. 'Ardvi Sura Anahita, who stands carried 
forth in the shape of a maid, fair of body, most 
strong, tall-formed, high-girded, pure, nobly born of .' 

1 § i2i=§§96, 102. 

a PaitidSna, a mantle, a tunic (Vend. XIV, 9 [28]). 

5 See §§8, n. 



* 



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AbAn yas-tY ' ~ / 83 



a glorious race 1 , wearing along her .... 2 a mantle 
fully embroidered with gold ; 

127. ' Ever holding the baresma in her hand, ac- 
cording to -the rules, she wears square golden ear- 
rings on her ears bored 3 , and a golden necklace 
around her beautiful neck, she, the nobly born Ardvi 
Sura Anihita ; and she girded her waist tightly, so 
that her breasts may be well-shaped, that they may 
be tightly pressed *. 

128. ' Upon her head Ardvi Sura Anihita bound 
a golden crown, with a hundred stars 5 , with eight 
rays, a fine . . . . «, a well-made crown, in the 
shape of a .... 7 , with fillets streaming down. 

129. 'She is clothed with garments of beaver 8 , 
Ardvi Sura Anihita; with the skin of thirty beavers 
of those that bear four young ones, that are the 
finest kind of beavers ; for the skin of the beaver 
that lives in water is the finest-coloured of all 
skins, and when worked at the right time it shines 
to the eye with full sheen of silver and gold. 

130. .' Here, O good, most beneficent Ardvi Sura 
Anihita! I beg of thee this- favour: that I, fully 
blessed, may conquer large kingdoms, rich in horses 9 , 
with high tributes, with snorting horses, sounding 
chariots, flashing swords, rich in aliments, with stores 
of food, with well-scented beds 10 ; that I may have 



- » Cf. §§ 64, 78. a Zaora; cf. § 7, note 2. 

8 Doubtful (sispemna, from sif, c> iA«>) v 
« Doubtful. 6 Gems. 

* ? Anup&ithwaitim. 
. 7 ? Ratha; the usual meaning of ratha is 'a chariot;' perhaps 
the round shape of the chest of a chariot is meant. 

8 Possibly otter, Vend. XIV. » Doubtful. 

10 Cf. Yt. XVH, 7. 

G 2 



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84 YASTS AND S1R6ZAHS. 

at my wish the fulness of the good things of life 
and whatever makes a kingdom thrive \ 

131. ' Here, O good, most beneficent Ardvi Sura 
Anahita ! I beg of thee two gallant companions, one 
two-legged and one four-legged 2 : one two-legged, 
who is swift, quickly rushing, and clever in turning 
a chariot round in battle ; and one four-legged, who 
can quickly turn towards either wing of the host 
with a wide front, towards the right wing or the left, 
towards the left wing or the right. 

132. 'Through the strength of this sacrifice, of 
this invocation, O Ardvi Sura Anahita ! come down 
from those stars 3 , towards the earth made by Ahura, 
towards the sacrificing priest, towards the full 
boiling [milk 4 ]; come to help him who is offering up 
libations, giving gifts, sacrificing, and entreating that 
thou wouldst grant him thy favours ; that all those 
gallant warriors may be strong, like king Vtrtaspa. 

' For her brightness and glory, I will offer her a sacrifice .... 

133. ' Yath& ahu vairy6: The will of the Lord is the law of 
holiness .... 

' I bless the sacrifice and prayer, and the strength 
and vigour of the holy water-spring Anahita. 

' Ashem Vohu : Holiness is the best of all good .... 
' [Give] unto that man brightness and glory, .... give him the 
bright, all-happy, blissful abode of the holy Ones!' 

1 The translation of the last clause is doubtful. 

a A good horse and a good driver. 

8 Cf. §§ 85, 88. * Aspendidrji ad Vend. XIX, 40 [133]. 



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Kh6rSHE0 VAST. 85 



vi. kh6rsh£z> yast. 

(Yast to the Sun.) 

This Yart is recited at any time, but particularly on the days 
consecrated to the sun and toKhshathra-Vairya (Shahrivar), Mithra 
(Mihir), Asman (Asman), and Anaghra iao'kau (Aniran *) : the last 
three, Mithra, Asman (the Heaven), Anaghra (the infinite Light), 
have a natural connection with the sun, but its connection with 
Khshathra-Vairya is not so clear. 

Of this Yart we have a Pahlavi (East India Office, XII), a 
Persian (ibid. XXIV), and a Sanskrit translation (Fonds Burnouf V; 
all three edited in litudes Iraniennes, II). 



o. May Ahura Mazda be rejoiced 1 .... 

Ashem Vohu: Holiness is the best of all good . . . . 

I confess myself a worshipper of Mazda, a follower of Zara- 
thurtra, one who hates the Daevas and obeys the laws of Ahura ; 

For sacrifice, prayer, propitiation, and glorification unto [Havani], 
the holy and master of holiness * . . . . 

Unto the undying, shining, swift-horsed Sun 3 ; 

Be propitiation, with sacrifice, prayer, propitiation, 

and glorification. 

Yatha ahu vairyd: The will of the Lord is the law of holi- 
ness 2 . . . . 

i. We sacrifice unto the undying, shining, swift- 
horsed Sun. 

When the light of the sun waxes warmer 4 , when 
the brightness of the sun waxes warmer, then up 

1 Or the nth, 16th, 27th, and 30th days of the month (Anquetil, 

II, 184). 

2 As above, Yt. I, o. * Sir6zah I, 11. 
4 ' That is to say, rises up ' (Phi. tr.). 



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86 YASTS AND stRdZAHS. 

stand the heavenly Yazatas, by hundreds and thou- 
sands : they gather together its Glory, they make its 
Glory pass down, they pour its Glory upon the earth 
made by Ahura, for the increase of the world of 
holiness, for the increase of the creatures of holi- 
ness 1 , for the increase of the undying, shining, swift- 
horsed Sun. 

2. And when the sun rises up, then the earth, 
made by Ahura, becomes clean 2 ; the running waters 
become clean, the waters of the wells become clean, 
the waters of the sea become clean, the standing 
waters become clean ; all the holy creatures, the 
creatures of the Good Spirit, become clean. 

3. Should not the sun rise up, then the DaeVas 
would destroy all the things that are in the seven 
Karshvares, nor would the heavenly Yazatas find 
any way of withstanding or repelling them in the 
material world. 

4. He who offers up a sacrifice unto the undying, 
shining, swift-horsed Sun — to withstand darkness, to 
withstand the Da£vas born of darkness, to withstand 
the robbers and bandits, to withstand the Yatus and 
PairikaSj to withstand death that creeps in unseen — 
offers it up to Ahura Mazda, offers it up to the 
Amesha-Sperctas, offers it up to his own soul 3 . He 
rejoices all the heavenly and worldly Yazatas, who 
offers up a sacrifice unto the undying, shining, swift- 
horsed Sun. 

5. I will sacrifice unto Mithra, the lord of wide 

1 Literally ' of the body of holiness,' that is to say, of the bodily 
creatures that incorporate holiness. 

2 'From the uncleanness that the Da6vas mix with the earth 
during the night' (Phi. tr.). 

3 As he benefits them and himself thereby. 



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pastures, who has a thousand ears, ten thousand 
eyes. 

I will sacrifice unto the club of Mithra, the lord of 
wide pastures, well struck down 1 upon the skulls 
of the Dadvas. 

I will sacrifice unto that friendship, the best of all 
friendships, that reigns between the moon and the 
sun 2 . 

6. For his brightness and glory, I will offer unto- him a sacrifice 
worth being heard, namely, unto the undying, shining, swift- 
horsed Sun. Unto the undying, shining, swift-horsed Sun we offer 
up the libations, the Haoma and meat, the baresma, the wisdom 
of the tongue, the holy spells, the speech, the deeds, the libations, 
and the rightly-spoken words 8 . 

YS«he" hfitam: All those beings of whom Ahura- Mazda .... 

7. YathS ahu vairyd : The will of the Lord is the law of holi- 
ness .... 

I bless the sacrifice and the invocation, and the 
strength and vigour of the undying, shining, swift- 
horsed Sun. 

Ashem Vohu : Holiness is the best of all good 

Give unto that man brightness and glory, give him health of 

body give him the bright, all-happy, blissful abode of the 

holy Ones. 

1 Hunivikhtem: suniyuktam (Sansk. tr.) ; wl+S v^i. (Pers.tr.). 
4 As they succeed one another in regular order. 
» Cf. Yt. Ill, 18. 



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88 YASTS AND s!r6zAHS. 



VII. MAH YAST. 

This Yart to the Moon is recited on the day of the Moon, and 
on those of Bahman, G&s, and Ram 1 (Anquetil, II, 185). Bah- 
man and G6f are so far connected with the Moon that all three 
are gao£ithra: 'Bahman*, the Moon, and G6s\ all three, 
are having in them the seed of the bull; Bahman can neither 
be seen nor seized with the hand; the Moon proceeded from 
Bahman * and can be seen, but cannot be seized with the hand ; 
G&s proceeded from the Moon * and can both be seen and seized 
with the hand '.' Ram is referred to here as being ^pastra, ' lord 
of good pastures V 

Of this Yart we have translations in Pahlavi, Persian, and San- 
skrit (edited in £tudes Iraniennes, II). 



o. May Ahura Mazda be rejoiced ! . . . . 

Ashem Vohu : Holiness is the best of all good .... 

I confess myself a worshipper of Mazda, a follower of Zara- 
thurtra, one who hates the DaSvas and obeys the laws of Ahura ; 

For sacrifice, prayer, propitiation, and glorification unto [Havani], 
the holy and master of holiness .... 

Unto the Moon that keeps in it the seed of the 



1 The 1 2th, and, 14 th, and 21st days of the month. 

* The Amshaspand Bahman is entrusted with the care of cattle 
(Vend. XIX, 20, note 8). 

8 The Genius of Cattle ; see Yt IX. 

4 Bahman is 'good thought, good mind,' Vohu-Man6; 
in the Vedas the moon is said to have been made out of the mind 
(man as) of Purara. For an explanation of that old mystical 
myth, see Ormazd et Ahriman, p. 74, note 3. 

* See Vend. XXI, 9 [51], note 4. 

* Pahlavi commentary to this Yart, I. 

7 Vend. Introd. IV, 16, and £tudes Iraniennes, II, 187 seq. 



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mAh yast. 89 



Bull; unto the only-created Bull and unto the Bull 1 

of many species; 

Be propitiation, with sacrifice, prayer, propitiation, 

and glorification. 

Yatha ahu vairyd: The will of the Lord is the law of holi- 
ness .... 

i. Hail to Ahura Mazda! Hail to the Amesha- 
Spewtas! Hail to the Moon that keeps in it the 
seed of the Bull 2 ! Hail to thee when we look at 
thee ! Hail to thee when thou lookest at us s ! 

2. How does the moon wax ? How does the 
moon wane ? 

For fifteen days does the moon wax*; for fifteen 
days does the moon wane. As long as her waxing, 
so long is the waning 6 ; as long as her waning, so 
long is the waxing. 

' Who is there but thee 6 who makes the moon 
wax and wane'?' 

1 Sir6zah I, 12. * See Vend. XXI, 1, text and note. 

8 When the moon allows itself to be perceived. 

4 The Pahlavi translation has the following interesting details : 
' For fifteen days they take good deeds from the earthly creatures 
and the rewards for virtue from the heavens ; for fifteen days they 
make the rewards pass to the earth and the good deeds pass to 
the heavens.' The moon is thus a sort of moral clearing-house 
between earth and heaven. 

8 According to the Parsis this waning does not refer to the 
moon, but to the constellations that help it in the struggle against 
the planets, which are supposed to belong to the Ahrimanian 
world (see Ormazd et Ahriman, §§ 223-226): 'while it waxes — 
namely, the moon — they wane, — namely, those that are opposed to 
the planets, to the bad stars ; for instance, Haft6iring, Vana«</, 
TLftar, SatvSs ; . . . . while it wanes — namely, the moon — they wax, 
that is to say, they are strong for doing good.' Thus the moon 
and the stars relieve each other in the battle against Ahriman. 

• Ahura. 

7 Quoted from Yasna XLIV [XLIII], 3. 



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90 YASTS AND sfltdZAHS. 

3. We sacrifice unto the Moon that keeps in it 
the seed of the Bull, the holy and master of 
holiness. 

Here I look at the moon, here I perceive the 
moon ; here I look at the light of the moon, here 
I perceive the light of the moon. The Amesha- 
Spe»tas stand up 1 , holding its glory ; the Amesha- 
Spe»tas stand up, pouring its glory upon the earth, 
made by Mazda 2 . 

4. And when the light of the moon waxes 
warmer, golden-hued plants grow on 3 from the 
earth during the spring*. 

We sacrifice unto the new moons, the full moons, 
and the Vlshaptathas 5 . 

We sacrifice unto the new moon, the holy and 
master of holiness ; 

We sacrifice unto the full moon, the holy and 
master of holiness ; 

We sacrifice unto the Vlshaptatha, the holy and 
master of holiness. 

1 As soon as the moon appears. * Cf. Yt. VI, 2. 

* Muti, meaning sada, ».?..,»; cf. mw&£i. 

4 ZaremaSm, meaning vasantamise^L^j l ^-»j>, ', it has the 
same meaning in Vend. XVIII, 9 [23]; cf. Yt. XXII, 18. 

* New moon and full moon are not used here in the English 
meaning : the month was divided into six parts, of five days each 
(the Norse fimt or five days' week ; see Vigfusson, Icelandic 
Dictionary, s.v.): the first five days (pan£ak far turn) formed the 
new moon or awtare-maangha, literally ' the moon within;' the next 
five days (pan£ak datigar) formed the peren6-ma«ngha, literally 
'the moon full,' which in fact partly answered to our first quarter; 
the next five days (pan£ak sittgar), belonging to the full moon, 
were called the Vlshaptatha; no mention is made of the last three 
pan£ak, forming the second half of the month. It may be they 
were not mentioned, as belonging to the waning period, when the 
powers of the moon are suffering an eclipse. Cf. Neriosengh to 
Yasna I, (23.) 



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mAh yast. 91 



5. I will sacrifice unto the Moon, that keeps in it 
the seed of the Bull, the liberal, bright, glorious, 
water - giving 1 , warmth - giving, wisdom - giving 2 , 
wealth-giving 3 , riches-giving, though tfulness-giving*, 
weal-giving, freshness-giving 5 , prosperity -giving 6 , 
the liberal, the healing. 

6. For its brightness and glory, I will offer unto it a sacrifice 
worth being heard, namely, unto the Moon that keeps in it the 
seed of the Bull. 

Unto the Moon that keeps in it the seed of the Bull, we offer 
up the libations, the Haoma and meat, the baresma, the wisdom 
of the tongue, the holy spells, the speech, the deeds, the libations, 
and the rightly-spoken words. 

Y£»he' h&tam : All those beings of whom Ahura Mazda .... 

7. Yatha ahu vairyd : The will of the Lord is the law of holi- 
ness .... 

I bless the sacrifice and prayer, and the strength 
and vigour of the Moon, that keeps in it the seed of 
the Bull, and of the only-created Bull, and of the 
Bull of many species. 

Ashem Vohu: Holiness is the best of all good. 

Give unto that man brightness and glory, give him health of 
body, .... give him the bright, all-happy, blissful abode of the 
holy Ones. 



1 Or possessing: giving may be replaced by possessing 
in this word as in the following. 

2 Vare£angha»tem: d&nak (Phi.); ^Mnitaram (Sansk.). 

3 Klutavawtem: lakshmivantam (Sansk.). 

4 Yaokhftivawtem, 'pondering on what good is to be done' 
(viHryavantam karyany&ysmam ; Ja* j JS %jo.h <sLj j^jjjI). 

6 Zairimyivafltem: haritavar«avantam, kila pn'thivi(m) sdrdra- 
taram karoti (Sansk.). 

* Vohv4va»tem: uttamasamriddhimantam (Sansk.). 



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( 



92 YASTS AND SIRdZAHS. 



VIII. TlR yast. 

Tirtrya is the leader of the stars against the planets, as stars 
and planets belong, respectively, to the worlds of Ahura Mazda 
and Angra Mainyu (Vend. Introd. IV, 36 ; Bund. II, 5 seq.). 

This Yart is a description of the production of the rain through 
the agency of the star Tirtrya. It has to struggle against the Da&va 
of Drought, Apaosha, is first overcome and conquers at last. This 
seems to be a refacimento of the old storm myths, which have 
been in so far renewed as the role of the hero in the original myth 
has been transferred to a star. It is to be noticed, however, that 
Apaosha is not described as a planet. 

Tirtrya is Sirius l . It presides over the first month of summer 
(21 June-21 July). This Yart appears thus to have been written in 
a part of Iran where the dog-days must have fallen in July, and the 
rainy season began in the last days of July, unless the place of 
Tirtrya in the calendar has been changed at some later period. 

This Yart is recited on the days of Tirtrya, Haurvata/ (as the 
Genius of Waters), Farvardin (as the Fravashis are his allies in the 
struggle; § 34), and B&d (the wind; § 32). 

The struggle between Tirtrya and Apaosha is described in the 
Bundahif (VII), but it has there a cosmological character : it has 
not for its object the annual and regular return of the rains after 
the dog-days, but the production of the seas and lakes in the first 
ages of the world. 

o. May Ahura Mazda be rejoiced 1 . . . . 

Ashem Vohu : Holiness is the best of all good .... 

I confess myself a worshipper of Mazda, a follower of Zara- 
thurtra, one who hates the DaSvas and obeys the laws of Ahura ; 

For sacrifice, prayer, propitiation, and glorification unto [H&vani], 
the holy and master of holiness .... 

Unto Tistrya, the bright and glorious star, and 
unto the powerful Satava£sa, made by Mazda, who 
pushes waters forward 2 , 

Em 8' aaripa irpb •niarrav, oTov (pvXwca Ktu irpo&rrniv kyKart <m\at, rbv 
2tipiov (Plutarchus, de Iside et Osiride, § 47 ; cf. infra, § 48). 
* Sirdzah I, 13. 



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t!r yast. 93 

Be propitiation, with sacrifice, prayer, propitiation, 
and glorification. 

Yatha ahu vairy6: The will of the Lord is the law of holi- 
ness .... 

I. 

i. Ahura Mazda spake unto Spitama Zarathurtra, 
saying: 'We worship the lordship and mastership 
[of Tirtrya], whereby he protects 1 the Moon, the 
dwelling, the food, when my glorious stars come 
along and impart their gifts 2 to men. I will sacri- 
fice unto the star Tistrya, that gives the fields their 
share [of waters]. 

2. ' We offer up libations unto TLrtrya, the bright 
and glorious star, that gives happy dwelling and 
good dwelling; the white, shining, seen afar, and 
piercing ; the health-bringing, loud-snorting s , and 
high, piercing from afar with its shining, undefiled 
rays ; and unto the waters of the wide sea, the Van- 
guhi of wide renown 4 , and the species 8 of the Bull, 
made by Mazda, the awful kingly Glory, and the 
Fravashi of the holy Spitama Zarathuytra. 

3. ' For his brightness and glory, I will offer unto 
him a sacrifice worth being heard, namely, unto the 
star Tistrya. 

' Unto TLrtrya, the bright and glorious star, we 
offer up the libations, the Haoma and meat, the 
baresma, the wisdom of the tongue, the holy spells, 
the speech, the deeds, the libations, and the rightly- 
spoken words 8 . 

1 Doubtful. a The rain. 

' In his disguise as a horse ; § 18. 

4 See Vend., pp. 3, 5, note 2. 

8 Namaj see £tudes Iraniennes, II, 124. " Cf. p. 47. 



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94 YASTS AND S1R6ZAHS. 

' Y6#h6 hatam: All those beings of whom 
Ahura Mazda .... 

II. 

4. 'We sacrifice unto Ti-rtrya, the bright and 
glorious star, who is the seed of the waters, 
powerful, tall, and strong, whose light goes afar ; 
powerful and highly 1 working, through whom the 
brightness and the seed of the waters come from 
the .high Apam Napa^ a , 

' For his brightness and glory, I will offer him a sacrifice worth 
being heard .... 

III. 

5. ' We sacrifice unto Tutrya, the bright and glo- 
rious star; for whom long 3 flocks and herds and 
men, looking forward for him and deceived in their 
hope 4 : " When shall we see him rise up, the bright 
and glorious star Tirtrya ? When will the springs 
run with waves as thick as a horse's size and still 
thicker ? Or will they never come ?" 

'For his brightness and glory, I will offer him a sacrifice worth 
being heard .... 

IV. 

6. 'We sacrifice unto Tirtrya, the bright and glo- 
rious star.; who flies, towards the sea Vouru-Kasha 6 , 
as swiftly as the arrow darted through the heavenly 

1 Powerfully. 

2 Or, 'through whom the beauty of the waters comes from 
Bereza, and their seed from Apam Napa/.' Bereza, the high, the 
tall, an epithet of Apam Napa/, became one of his names (Ized 
B6ig ; cf. § 34) ; for Apam Napi/, see above, p. 6, note 1. 

8 Paitumarewti; cf. Yt. V, 123. 
4 Or better, ' in their looking.' 
8 See above, p. 54, note 6. 



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t!r yast. 95 

space 1 , which Erekhsha 2 , the swift archer, the Arya 
amongst the Aryas whose arrow was the swiftest, 
shot from Mount Khshaotha to Mount Hvz.xivz.nt \ 

7. ' For Ahura Mazda gave him assistance ; so did 
the waters and the plants ; and Mithra, the lord of 
wide pastures, opened a wide way unto him. 

* For his brightness and glory, I will offer him a sacrifice worth 
being heard . ^ . . 

V. 

8. 'We sacrifice unto TLrtrya, the bright and 
glorious star, that afflicts the Pairikas, that vexes 
the Pairikas, who, in the shape of worm-stars 4 , fly 

1 Mainivasa«=mainyu-asa« (meaning pun mindi^ivakih, 
svargasthanam, Yasna LVII, 27 [LVI, u, 3]). 

3 Erekhsha khshviwi-ishuf, in Pahlavi Am Shiv&ttr 
(see fitudes Iraniennes, II, 220), or 'Avis of the swift arrow,' 
was the best archer in the Iranian army. When Minosiihr and 
Afrasyab determined to make peace and to fix the boundary 
between Iran and Turin, ' it was stipulated that Ari.r should ascend 
Mount Damavand, and from thence discharge an arrow towards 
the east; and that the place in which the arrow fell should form 
the boundary between the two kingdoms. ArLr thereupon ascended 
the mountain, and discharged towards the east an arrow, the 
flight of which continued from the dawn of day until noon, when 
it fell on the banks of the (rihun (the Oxus),' (Mirkhond, History 
of the Early Kings of Persia, trans, by David Shea, p. 175; cf. 
Noeldeke, Zeitschrift der Deutschen Morgenlandischen Gesellschaft, 
1881, p. 445.) 

s Mount Khshaotha seems to be the same as Mount Damavand 
(see preceding note) ; Mount Zfoanva»/ may be the same as Mount 
BSmfan, from which the Balkh river springs, as according to 
Tabari (trans, by Noeldeke, 1. 1.), Aris' arrow stopped at the Balkh 
river (an affluent of the Oxus). But it may be that the limits given 
refer to the course of TLrtrya; cf. § 38, text and note. 

* Doubtful. Shooting stars are alluded to. Mr. Geiger remarks 
that there is a swarm of shooting stars falling every year just at the 
time when TLrtrya, in the European climate, is supposed to be most 
active, on the 10th of August. 



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96 YA5TS AND sfRdZAHS. 

between the earth and the heavens, in the sea 
Vouru- Kasha, the powerful sea, the large-sized, deep 
sea of salt 1 waters. He goes to its lake in the shape 
of a horse, in a holy shape; and down there he 
makes the waters boil over, and the winds flow 
above powerfully all around. 

9. ' Then Satava£sa 2 makes those waters flow 
down to the seven Karshvares of the earth 3 , and 
when he has arrived down there, he stands, beau- 
tiful, spreading ease and joy on the fertile countries 
(thinking in himself): " How shall the countries of 
the Aryas grow fertile ?" 

'For his brightness and glory, I will offer him a sacrifice worth 
being heard .... 

VI. 

10. ' We sacrifice unto Tirtrya, the bright and glo- 
rious star, who spake unto Ahura Mazda, saying : 
" Ahura Mazda, most beneficent Spirit, Maker of the 
material world, thou Holy One ! 

n. '" If men would worship me with a sacrifice in 
which I were invoked by my own name, as they 
worship the other Yazatas with sacrifices in which 
they are invoked by their own names, then I should 
have come to the faithful at the appointed time 4 ; 
I should have come in the appointed time of my 

1 See above, p. 66, note 3. 

8 SatavaSsais said to be the leader of the western stars (to be 
read southern stars, Bund. II, 7), and has in its protection the 
seas of the southern quarter (ibid. XIII, 12); the SatavaSsa sea is 
the Persian gulf. 

' This seems to be an allusion to the tide in the Arabian sea 
(the sea Vouru-Kasha) and in the gulf of Oman, which, being a 
southern sea, is under the control of SatavaSsa (cf. preceding note 
and Vend. V, 18, note 1). 

* At the right time of the year when rain is expected. 



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tIr yast. 97 

beautiful, immortal life 1 , should it be one night, or 
two nights, or fifty, or a hundred nights." 

12. ' We sacrifice unto TLrtrya ; 

' We sacrifice unto the rains of Ti-rtrya 8 . 

'We sacrifice unto the first star 3 ; we sacrifice 
unto the rains of the first star. 

' I will sacrifice unto the stars Hapt6iri»ga *, to 
oppose the Yatus and Pairikas. 

'We sacrifice unto Vana«/ 6 , the star made by 
Mazda; for* the well-shapen strength, for the Victory, 
made by Ahura, for the crushing Ascendant, for the 
destruction of what distresses us, for the destruction 
of what persecutes us. 

'We sacrifice unto TLrtrya, whose eye-sight is 
sound 7 . 

13. 'For ten nights, O Spitama Zarathurtra ! Tis- 
trya, the bright and glorious star, mingles his shape 



1 Cf. §§ 23-24 and Yt. X, 54~55» 74- 

2 As Tirtrya is the producer of the rain: TwtrySnyas£a=Tistara- 
tSrakasya vr»'sh/im (Khorsh&f Nyayir 8, Sansk. tr.). 

* Tirtrya ; cf. p. 105, note 3. 

4 Hapt6iri«ga (Ursa Major) is the leader of the stars in the 
north (Bund. II, 7). It is 'entrusted with the gate and passage of hell, 
to keep back those of the nine, and ninety, and nine hundred, and 
nine thousand and nine myriad demons, and demonesses, and fairies 
(Pairikas) and sorcerers (Y&tus) who are in opposition to the celestial 
sphere and constellations' (Minokhired XLIX, 15; tr. by West). 

8 Vana«/ is the leader of the stars in the south (read west ; 
Bund. II, 7). Cf.Yt. XX. 

• To obtain .... This invocation is brought about by the very 
name of Vanaw/, which means ' who smites, who overcomes.' The 
peculiar office of Vana»/ is to keep the passes and gates of Mount 
Alb6rz, around which the sun, the moon, and the stars revolve, and 
to prevent the Paris and Da6vas from cutting off and breaking the 
road of the sun (Minokhired XLIX, 12). 

7 ' I sacrifice to TLrtar for (=to obtain) the soundness of the 
sight' (Khorsherf NySyw 8, Pahl. tr.). 

[23] H 



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98 YASTS AND s{r6zAHS. 

with light, moving in the shape of a man of fifteen 
years of age \ bright, with clear eyes, tall, full of 
strength, strong, and clever. 

14. 'He is active as the first man 2 was ; he goes 
on with the strength of the first man ; he has the 
virility 3 of the first man. 

15 4 . 'Here he calls for people to assemble, here he 
asks, saying : " Who now will offer me the libations 
with the Haoma and the holy meat? To whom 
shall I give wealth of male children, a troop of male 
children, and the purification of his own soul? Now 
I ought to receive sacrifice and prayer in the 
material world, by the law of excellent holiness." 

16. 'The next ten nights, O Spitama Zarathu^tra! 
the bright and glorious Tistrya mingles his shape 
with light, moving in the shape of a golden-horned 
bull 5 . 

17. 'Here he calls for people to assemble, here he 
asks, saying : " Who now will offer me the libations 
with the Haoma and the holy meat ? To whom 
shall I give wealth of oxen, a herd of oxen, and the 
purification of his own soul? Now I ought to 
receive sacrifice and prayer in the material world, 
by the law of excellent holiness." 

18. 'The next ten nights, O Spitama ZarathuJtra! 
the bright and glorious Tirtrya mingles his shape 
with light, moving in the shape of a white, beautiful 
horse, with golden ears and a golden caparison. 

1 The age of fifteen is the paradisiacal age in the Avesta 
(YasnalX, 5[i8]). 

* Gay6 maratan. But the translation is doubtful ; possibly ' as 
a first-rate man is.' 

8 Doubtful ; cf. ere zi, Yt. XIV, 29. « Cf. Yt. V, 8. 

• Cf. Vend. XIX, 37 (123). 



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t!r vast. 99 

19. ' Here he calls for people to assemble, here he 
asks, saying : " Who now will offer me the libations 
with the Haoma and the holy meat ? To whom 
shall I give wealth of horses, a troop of horses, and 
the purification of his own soul ? Now I ought to 
receive sacrifice and prayer in the material world, by 
the law of excellent holiness." 

20. 'Then, O Spitama Zarathustra ! the bright 
and glorious Tiytrya goes down to the sea Vouru- 
Kasha in the shape of a white, beautiful horse, with 
golden ears and a golden caparison \ 

21. 'But there rushes down to meet him the 
Da6 va Apaosha, in the shape of a dark horse, black 
with black ears, black with a black back, black with 
a black tail, stamped with brands of terror. 

22. 'They meet together, hoof against hoof, O 
Spitama Zarathurtra! the bright and glorious Tis- 
trya and the Daeva Apaosha. They fight together, 
O Spitama Zarathustra! for three days and three 
nights. And then the Daeva Apaosha proves 
stronger than the bright and glorious Tistrya, he 
overcomes him. 

23. 'And Tistrya flees from the sea Vouru-Kasha, 
as far as a Hathra's 2 length. He cries out in woe 
and distress, the bright and glorious Tistrya : " Woe 
is me, O Ahura Mazda ! I am in distress, O Waters 
and Plants ! O Fate and thou, Law of the worship- 
pers of Mazda ! Men do not worship me with a 

1 ' Tutar was converted into three forms, the form of a man and 
the form of a horse and the form of a bull .... as the astrologers 
say that every constellation has three forms ' (Bund. VII, 4 ; tr. 
West). TLftrya promises his worshippers children (§ 15), oxen 
(§ 17), or horses (§ 19), according as he appears in the form of a 
man (§ 13), of a bull (§ 16), or of a horse (§ 18). 

* A mile (Bundahw XXVI, 1 ; tr. West, note 1). 

H 2 



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I0O YASTS AND s!r6zAHS. 

sacrifice in which I am invoked by my own name, as 
they worship the other Yazatas with sacrifices in 
which they are invoked by their own names \ 

24. ' " If men had worshipped me with a sacrifice 
in which I had been invoked by my own name, as they 
worship the other Yazatas with sacrifices in which 
they are invoked by their own names, I should have 
taken to me the strength of ten horses, the strength 
of ten camels, the strength of ten bulls, the strength 
of ten mountains, the strength of ten rivers V 

25. 'Then I, Ahura Mazda, offer up to the bright 
and glorious Tirtrya a sacrifice in which he is in- 
voked by his own name, and I bring him the 
strength of ten horses, the strength of ten camels, 
the strength of ten bulls, the strength of ten 
mountains, the strength of ten rivers. 

26 s . 'Then, O Spitama Zarathurtra! the bright 
and glorious Tirtrya goes down to the sea Vouru- 
Kasha in the shape of a white, beautiful horse, with 
golden ears and golden caparison. 

27. 'But there rushes down to meet him the 
Da£va Apaosha in the shape of a dark horse, black 
with black ears, black with a black back, black with 
a black tail, stamped with brands of terror. 

28. 'They meet together, hoof against hoof, O 
Spitama Zarathurtra ! the bright and glorious Tir- 
trya, and the Daeva Apaosha ; they fight together, 
O Zarathurtra ! till the time of noon. Then the 
bright and glorious Tirtrya proves stronger than the 
Da6va Apaosha, he overcomes him. 

29. 'Then he goes from the sea Vouru-Kasha 
as far as a Hathra's length: "Hail!" cries the 

1 Cf. § 10 and Yt. X, 54 seq., 74. 

s Cf. Vend. Introd. IV, 27. s §§ 26-27 = §§ 20-21. 



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tJr yast. ioi 

bright and glorious Tbtrya. "Hail unto me.O Ahura 
Mazda ! Hail unto you, O waters and plants ! Hail, 
O Law of the worshippers of Mazda ! Hail will it 
be unto you, O lands ! The life 1 of the waters will 
flow down unrestrained to the big-seeded 2 corn- 
fields, to the small-seeded s pasture-fields, and to the 
whole of the material world!" 

30. 'Then the bright and glorious Tistrya goes 
back down to the sea Vouru-Kasha, in the shape 
of a white, beautiful horse, with golden ears and a 
golden caparison*. 

31. 'He makes the sea boil up and down; he 
makes the sea stream this and that way ; he makes 
the sea flow this and that way : all the shores 
of the sea Vouru-Kasha are boiling over, all the 
middle of it is boiling over. 

32. ' And the bright and glorious TLrtrya rises up 
from the sea Vouru-Kasha, O Spitama Zarathurtra ! 
the bright and glorious Satavaesa rises up from the 
sea Vouru-Kasha; and vapours rise up above Mount 
Us-hindu, that stands in the middle of the sea 
Vouru-Kasha 5 . 

1 Adhavd; possibly 'the streams;' cf. Yt. V, 1, note 2. A 
month in the ancient Persian calendar, supposed to correspond to 
September-October, was called adukani, which might, on that 
hypothesis, mean '(the month) that makes streams spring up.' 

2 Of which the representative is wheat (Bundahw XXIV, 19). 

3 Of which the representative is the summer vetch (ibid. 21). 

* Cf. § 18. 

* ' The Ausind6m mountain is that which, being of ruby, of the 
substance of the sky, is in the midst of the wide-formed ocean 
(the sea Vouru-Kasha),' (Bund. XII, 6; tr.West). Mount Ausinddm 
receives its waters through a golden channel from the height 
Hukairya (cf. Yt. V, 3); ' from there one portion flows forth to the 
ocean for the purification of the sea, and one portion drizzles in 
moisture upon the whole of this earth, and all the creations of 



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102 YASTS AND S1R6ZAHS. 

33. 'Then the vapours push forward, in the regular 
shape of clouds 1 ; they go following the wind, along 
the ways which Haoma traverses, the increaser of 
the world 2 . Behind him travels the mighty wind, 
made by Mazda, and the rain, and the cloud, and the 
sleet, down to the several places, down to the fields, 
down to the seven Karshvares of the earth. 

34. ' Apam Napa^ 3 , O Spitama Zarathurtra ! 

divides the waters amongst the countries in the 

material world, in company with the mighty wind, 

the Glory, made by the waters *, and the Fravashis 

of the faithful 5 . 

' For his brightness and glory, I will offer him a sacrifice worth 
being heard .... 



VII. 

35. 'We sacrifice unto Tirtrya, the bright and 
glorious star, who from the shining east, moves 
along his long winding course, along the path made 
by the gods, along the way appointed for him the 

Auharmazd acquire health from it, and it dispels the dryness of 
the atmosphere ' (ibid. XIII, 5). 

1 Doubtful. 

2 Haoma opens the way for the waters from heaven, as being 
the foremost element in sacrifice (cf. § 24). For the same reason 
the Bundahif numbers Vohu-Mano, ' Good Mind,' amongst the co- 
operators of Tutrya. 

8 See p. 6, note r. 

* Or better, 'seated in the waters;' see Yt. XIX, 56 seq. and 
Yt. XIII, 65. 

5 The Fravashis are active in the world struggle ; cf. Yt XIII, 
43. 'Co-operators with Tfrtar were Vohuman and the angel 
H6m, with the assistance of the angel Btog (the same as Apam 
Napa/; see p. 94, note 2) and the righteous guardian spirits in 
orderly arrangement ' (Bundahif VII, 3, tr. West). 



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TiR YAST. IO3 

watery way, at the will of Ahura Mazda, at the will 
of the Amesha-Spe»tas. 

' For his brightness and glory, I will offer him a sacrifice worth 
being heard .... 

VIII. 

36. 'We sacrifice unto Ti^trya, the bright and 
glorious star, whose rising is watched by men who 
live on the fruits of the year, by the chiefs of deep 1 
understanding 2 ; by the wild beasts in the mountains, 
by the tame beasts that run in the plains ; they 
watch him, as he comes up to the country for a 
bad year, or for a good year 3 , (thinking in them- 
selves): "How shall the Aryan countries be 
fertile ?" 

' For his brightness and glory, I will offer him a sacrifice worth 
being heard .... 

IX. 

37*. 'We sacrifice unto Tirtrya, the bright and 
glorious star, swift-flying and swift-moving, who flies 
towards the sea Vouru-Kasha, as swiftly as the 
arrow darted through the heavenly space, which 
Erekhsha, the swift archer, the Arya amongst the 
Aryas whose arrow was the swiftest, shot from 
Mount Khshaotha to Mount Hva.nva.nt. 

38. ' Ahura Mazda gave him assistance, and the 
Amesha-Spe«tas and Mithra, the lord of wide pas- 
tures, pointed him the way : behind him went the 

1 Doubtful. * The chiefs of the state. 

* For good or bad harvest. * § 37 =§ 6. 



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I0>4 YASTS AND s{r6zAHS. 

tall Ashb Vanguhi x and Pirewdi 2 on her light 

chariot : always till, in his course, he reached Mount 

//z>anva»/ on the shining waters 3 . 

' For his brightness and glory, I will offer him a sacrifice worth 
being heard .... 

X. 

39. ' We sacrifice unto Tistrya, the bright and 
glorious star, who afflicts the Pairikas, who destroys 
the Pairikas, that Angra Mainyus flung to stop all 
the stars that have in them the seed of the waters*. 

40. 'Tirtrya afflicts them, he blows them away 

from the sea Vouru-Kasha ; then the wind blows the 

clouds forward, bearing the waters of fertility, so 

that the friendly showers spread wide over, they 

spread helpingly and friendly over the seven 

Karshvares. 

' For his brightness and glory, I will offer him a sacrifice worth 
being heard .... 

XI. 

41. 'We sacrifice unto TLrtrya, the bright and 
glorious star, for whom long the standing waters, 
and the running spring-waters, the stream-waters, 
and the rain-waters : 

42. ' " When will the bright and glorious Tirtrya 
rise up for us ? When will the springs with a flow 
and overflow of waters, thick as a horse's shoulder, 
run to the beautiful places and fields, and to the 

1 See Yt. XVII. s See above, p. n, note 5. 

* Doubtful. Mount Hmmznt, being situated in the sea Vouru- 
Kasha (as appears from Tirtrya travelling towards that sea, § 38), 
seems to be the same with Mount Ausind6m (§ 32). 

4 Cf. above. § 8. 



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tIr yast. 105 

pastures, even to the roots of the plants, that they 
may grow with a powerful growth ?" 

' For his brightness and glory, I will offer him a sacrifice worth 
being heard .... 



XII. 

43. 'We sacrifice unto Tirtrya, the bright and 
glorious star, who washes away all things of fear 1 , 
who stunts the growth of all .... 2 , and brings health 
to all these creations, being most beneficent, when 
he has been worshipped with a sacrifice and pro- 
pitiated, rejoiced, and satisfied. 

' For his brightness and glory, I will offer him a sacrifice worth 
being heard .... 

XIII. 

44. ' I will sacrifice unto TLrtrya, the bright and 
glorious star, whom Ahura Mazda has established 
as a lord and overseer above all stars 3 , in the same 
■way as he has established Zarathu^tra above men ; 
whom neither Angra Mainyu, nor the Yatus and 
the Pairikas, nor the men Yatus 4 can deliver unto 
death, nor can all the Daevas together prevail for 
his death. 

' For his brightness and glory, I will offer him a sacrifice worth 
being heard .... 

1 Simau, meaning sahmgftn, bhayamkara (Yasna IX, 38 
[93]). 

2 ? Vasdrw. 

8 In the Bundahlr it is especially the leader of the eastern stars ; 
but the Minokhired calls it the first star(XLIX, 5; cf. above, §12). 
4 See above, p. 38, note 3. 



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106 YASTS AND SIR6ZAHS. 

XIV. 

45. 'We sacrifice unto Tirtrya, the bright and 
glorious star, to whom Ahura Mazda has given a 
thousand senses 1 , and who is the most beneficent 
amongst the stars that have in them the seed of the 
waters : 

46. ' Who moves in light with the stars that have 
in them the seed of the waters : he, from the sea 
Vouru-Kasha, the powerful sea, the large-sized, 
deep, and salt of waters, goes to all the lakes, and 
to all the beautiful caves, and to all the beautiful 
channels 2 , in the shape of a white, beautiful horse, 
with golden ears and a golden caparison. 

47. .' Then, O Spitama Zarathustra ! the waters 
flow down from the sea Vouru-Kasha, mother-like 3 , 
friendly, and healing : he divides them amongst 
these countries, being most beneficent, when he has 
been worshipped with a sacrifice and propitiated, 
rejoiced, and satisfied 4 . 

' For his brightness and glory, I will offer him a sacrifice worth 
being heard .... 

XV. 

48. ' We sacrifice unto Ti-rtrya, the bright and glo- 
rious star, for whom long all the creatures of Spe«ta- 
Mainyu, those that live under the ground, and those 
that live above the ground ; those that live in the 
waters, and those that live on dry land ; those that 
fly, and those that run in the plains 6 ; and all those 

1 See Yt. X, 82, note. 

* Those of Ardvi Sura Anahita; cf. Yt V, 4, 10 1. 
s Cf.Yt.V, 15. 4 Cf.§43- 

8 See Yt. XIII, 10, note; cf. Visperad I, 1, and Bundahw 
XXIV, tr. West, note 1. 



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TiR YAST. IO7 

that live within this boundless and endless world of 
the holy Spirit. 

' For his brightness and glory, I will offer him a sacrifice worth 
being heard .... 

XVI. 

49. ' We sacrifice unto TLrtrya, the bright and glo- 
rious star, the healthful, wise, happy, and powerful, 
who is the lord of a thousand boons, and grants 
many boons to that man who has pleased him, 
whether begging or not begging for them. 

50. 'I, O Spitama Zarathustra! have created 
that star TLrtrya as worthy of sacrifice, as worthy 
of prayer, as worthy of propitiation, as worthy of 
glorification as myself, Ahura Mazda 1 ; 

51. 'In order to withstand, to break asunder, to 
afflict, to drive back the malice of that Pairika Du2- 
yairya 2 , whom evil-speaking 3 people call Huyairya 4 . 

52. ' Had I not created that star Tistrya as worthy 
of sacrifice, as worthy of prayer, as worthy of propi- 
tiation, as worthy of glorification as myself, Ahura 
Mazda ; 

53. 'In order to withstand, to break asunder, to 
afflict, to drive back the malice of that Pairika Duz- 
yairya, whom evil-speaking people call Huyairya ; 

1 Cf. Yt. X, 1. 

s Bad year, that is to say, sterility, drought. Darius, the son 
of Hystaspes, also deprecates Duzyairya in one of his inscriptions : 
' May Ahura Mazda keep this country from the hostile host, from 
sterility (duriyara), from lying (disloyalty): may never the 
foreigner enter this country, nor the hostile host, nor sterility, nor 
lying' (Persepolis, H, 15). 

s People who object to rain and are fond of fine weather (?). 

* Good year. 



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108 VASTS AND SIR6ZAHS. 

54. 'Then all daylong, all night long, that Pairika 
Du.syairya would wage war against this material 
world of mine, wanting to extinguish its life \ and 
she goes on, rushing upon and around it. 

55. ' But the bright and glorious Tistrya keeps 
that Pairika in bonds, with twofold bonds, with 
threefold bonds, that cannot be overcome, with 
bonds all over the body: it is as if there were a 
thousand men keeping one man in bonds, a thou- 
sand men of those who are the strongest in 
strength. 

56. ' If the Aryan countries, O Spitama Zara- 
thurtra ! would perform in honour of the bright and 
glorious Tistrya the due sacrifice and invocation, 
just as that sacrifice and invocation ought to be per- 
formed in the perfection of holiness ; never should a 
hostile horde enter these Aryan countries, nor any 
plague, nor leprosy, nor venomous plants 2 , nor the 
chariot of a foe, nor the uplifted spear of a foe.' 

57 3 . Zarathustra asked: 'What is then, O Ahura 
Mazda! the sacrifice and invocation in honour of the 
bright and glorious Ttstrya, as it ought to be per- 
formed in the perfection of holiness ?' 

58. Ahura Mazda answered : ' Let the Aryan 
nations bring libations unto him; let the Aryan 
nations tie bundles of baresma for him ; let the 
Aryan nations cook for him a head of cattle, either 
white, or black, or of any other colour, but all of 
one and the same colour. 

1 Reading ava[-derenam]; cf. Vend. XVIII, 18 [45]. 

2 Kapasti is properly the colocynthis or bitter-apple: 

'Occidet et serpens, et fallax herba veneni 
Occidet.* (Eel. IV, 24, 25.) 

» §§ 57-61 =Yt. XIV, 49-53; cf. Yt.V, 89 seq. 



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t!r yaot. 109 

59. ' Let not a murderer take of these offerings, 
nor a whore, nor a .... l who does not sing the 
Gathas, who spreads death in the world and with- 
stands the law of Mazda, the law of Zarathurtra. 

60. ' If a murderer take of these offerings, or a 
whore, or a ... . who does not sing the Gathas, 
who spreads death in the world and withstands 
the law of Mazda, the law of Zarathurtra, then the 
bright and glorious Tistrya takes back his healing 
virtues. 

61. 'Plagues will ever pour upon the Aryan na- 
tions ; hostile hordes will ever fall upon the Aryan 
nations ; the Aryans will be smitten, by their fifties 
and their hundreds, by their hundreds and their 
thousands, by their thousands and their tens of 
thousands, by their tens of thousands and their 
myriads of myriads. 

62. 'Yath& ahu vairyd: The will of the Lord is the law of 
holiness .... 

1 1 bless the sacrifice and prayer, and the strength 

and vigour of Tutrya, the bright and glorious star, 

and of the powerful Satava6sa, made by Mazda, who 

pushes waters forward. 

' Ashem Vohu : Holiness is the best of all good .... 
' [Give] unto that man brightness and glory, .... give him the 
bright, all-happy, blissful abode of the holy Ones V 

^Ashaovo. * Cf. Yt. I, 33. 



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IIO YASTS AND SiR6zAHS. 



ix. g6s yast. 

Gbs, 'the cow,' itaf tfaxriv, is a personation of the animal king- 
dom which she maintains and protects. She is also called 
Drvaspa and Go* urun : Drvaspa means ' she who keeps horses 
in health,' and is nothing more than an epithet of G&s : G6.rurun 
(from the Zend Gens urvan) means 'the Soul of the Bull* (the 
primeval Bull). Although urvan is a masculine noun in Zend, 
yet G6jurun is considered a female angel, as this name is only 
a substitute for G&s. 

G&s is the angel of the 14th day (Sir6zah 1, 14), and her Ya$t 
is recited during the Gab Ufahin, on the days of G6s, Bahman, 
Mah, and Ram (the same days as those on which the Mah Y&rt 
is recited ; see above, p. 88). 

G&s is hardly described in this Yart (§§ 1-2); the greater part of 
it being filled with the several prayers addressed to her by the 
Iranian heroes, Haoshyangha (§ 3), Yima (§ 8), Thra&aona (§ 13), 
Haoma (§ 17), Husravah (§ 21), Zarathmtra, and Vtataspa. Her 
worshippers and their prayers to her are the same as in the case 
of Ashi Vanguhi (see Yt. XVII). 



o. May Ahura Mazda be rejoiced 1 May Angra Mainyu be 
afflicted I . . . . 

Ashem Vohu : Holiness is the best of all good .... 

I confess myself a worshipper of Mazda, a follower of Zara- 
thmtra, one who hates the DaSvas and obeys the laws of Ahura ; 

For sacrifice, prayer, satisfaction, and glorification unto Havani, 
the holy and master of holiness. 

Unto the powerful Drv&spa, made by Mazda and 
holy 1 , 

Be propitiation, with sacrifice, prayer, propitiation, 
and glorification. 

YathS ahu vairyd : The will of the Lord is the law of holi- 
ness .... 

1 Sir6zah I, 14. 



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g6s yast. hi 

I. 

i. We sacrifice unto the powerful Drvaspa, made 
by Mazda and holy, who keeps the flocks in health, 
the herds in health, the grown-up 1 (cattle) in health, 
the young ones in health ; who watches well from 
afar, with a wide-spread and long-continued welfare- 
giving friendship ; 

2. Who yokes teams of horses, who makes 
her chariot turn and its wheels sound, fat and 
glistening 2 , strong, tall -formed, weal- possessing, 
health -giving, powerful to stand and powerful to 
turn for assistance to the faithful. 

3. To her did Haoshyangha, the Paradh&ta 3 , offer 
up a sacrifice on the enclosure of the Hara, the 
beautiful height, made by Mazda, with a hundred 
male horses, a thousand oxen, and ten thousand 
lambs, and with an offering of libations : 

4. ' Grant me this boon, O good, most beneficent 
Drvaspa ! that I may overcome all the Da£vas of 
Mazana 4 ; that I may never fear and bow through 
terror before the Da£vas, but that all the Da£vas 
may fear and bow in spite of themselves before me, 
that they may fear and flee down to darkness s .' 

5. The powerful Drvaspa, made by Mazda, the 
holy Drvaspa, the maintainer, granted him that boon, 
as he was offering libations, giving gifts, sacrificing, 
and entreating that she would grant him that boon. 

6. For her brightness and glory, I will offer her 
a sacrifice worth being heard; I will offer her a 
sacrifice well performed, namely, unto the powerful 

1 Doubtful ; possibly ' the friend in health, the child in health.' 
8 Doubtful. 8 Cf. p. 58, note 1. 

* Cf. p. 59, note 2. • To hell. 



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112 YASTS AND SfRdZAHS. 

Drvaspa, made by Mazda and holy. We offer up 
libations to the powerful Drvaspa, made by Mazda 
and holy ; we offer her the Haoma and meat, the 
baresma, the wisdom of the tongue, the holy spells, 
the speech, the deeds, the libations, and the rightly- 
spoken words. 

Y£nh& hatam : All those beings of whom 
Ahura Mazda . . . .* 



II. 

7. We offer up a sacrifice unto the powerful Drvaspa, made by 
Mazda and holy, who keeps the flocks in health .... 

Who yokes teams of horses .... for assistance to the faithful *. 

8. To her did Yima Khsha6ta, the good shepherd, 
offer up a sacrifice from the height Hukairya, with a 
hundred male horses, a thousand oxen, ten thousand 
lambs, and with an offering of libations : 

9. ' Grant me this boon, O good, most beneficent 
Drvaspa ! that I may bring fatness and flocks down 
to the world created by Mazda ; that I may bring 
immortality down to the world created by Mazda ; 

10. 'That I may take away both hunger and thirst, 
from the world created by Mazda ; that I may take 
away both old age and death, from the world created 
by Mazda ; that I may take away both hot wind and 
cold wind, from the world created by Mazda, for a 
thousand years 3 .' 

ii. The powerful Drvaspa, made by Mazda, the 
holy Drvaspa, the maintainer, granted him that boon, 



1 As above, p. 30. * § 7=§§ 1-2. 

» §§ 8-io=Yt. XVII, 28-30; cf. Yasna IX, 4-5 [n-20]; Yt. 
V, 25-27. 



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Cbs VAST. 113 

as he was offering up libations, giving gifts, sacrificing, 
and entreating that she would grant him that boon. 

For her brightness and glory, I will offer her a sacrifice worth 
being heard .... 

III. 

12. We offer up a sacrifice unto the powerful Drvaspa, made 
by Mazda and holy, who keeps the flocks in health .... 
Who yokes teams of horses .... for assistance to the faithful. 

13 1 . To her did Thra£taona, the heir of the 
valiant Athwya clan, offer up a sacrifice in the four- 
cornered Varena, with a hundred male horses, a 
thousand oxen, ten thousand lambs, and with an 
offering of libations : 

14. ' Grant me this boon, O good, most beneficent 
Drvaspa! that I may overcome A^i Dahaka, the 
three-mouthed, the three-headed, the six-eyed, who 
has a thousand senses, that most powerful, fiendish 
Dru^ - , that demon, baleful to the world, the strongest 
Dru£- that Angra Mainyu created against the mate- 
rial world, to destroy the world of the good principle ; 
and that I may deliver his two wives, Savanghavai 
and Erenav&£, who are the fairest of body amongst 
women, and the most wonderful creatures in the 
world 1 .' 

15. The powerful Drvaspa, made by Mazda, the 
holy Drvaspa, the maintainer, granted him that boon, 
as he was offering up libations, giving gifts, sacri- 
ficing, and entreating that she would grant him that 
boon. 

For her brightness and glory, I will offer her a sacrifice worth 
being heard .... 

» Yt.V, 34; XV, 24; XVII, 34. 

[23] I 



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114 YASTS AND S1R6ZAHS. 



IV. 

1 6. We offer up a sacrifice unto the powerful Drvaspa, made 
by Mazda and holy, who keeps flocks in health .... 

Who yokes teams of horses .... for assistance to the faithful. 

17 1 . To her did Haoma 2 offer up a sacrifice, 
Haoma, the enlivening, the healing, the beautiful, 
the lordly, with golden eyes, upon the highest height 
of the Haraiti Bareza. He begged of her a boon, 
saying : 

18. ' Grant me this boon, O good, most beneficent 
Drvaspa ! that I may bind the Turanian murderer, 
Franghrasyan 3 , that I may drag him bound, that I 
may bring him bound unto king Husravah, that king 
Husravah may kill him, behind the /sfae^asta lake 4 , 
the deep lake of salt 8 waters, to avenge the murder 
of his father Syavarshana', a man, and of Aghra£- 
ratha, a semi-man 7 .' 



1 §§ i7-i9=Yt. XVII, 37-38. 

2 Cf. Yasna XI, 7 [20-21]. The destruction of the fiends, 
being one of the principal effects of sacrifice, is ascribed to 
Haoma as the most powerful element in the sacrifice. In the 
Shah Nimah, the god Haoma has been turned into a hermit who, 
living near the cave in which Afrasyab had taken refuge (see above, 
Yt. V, 41), overhears his lamentations, takes him by surprise, 
binds him, and delivers him into the hands of Khosrav (fitudes 
Iraniennes, II, 227). 

* See p. 64, note 1. * See above, p. 66, note 2. 

6 See p. 66, note 3. • See p. 64, note 1. 

7 Doubtful (narava, as opposed to nara). AghraSratha (Aghr6- 
rath) was a brother of Afrasyab's; he was a righteous man, and 
Afrasyab killed him for his having saved the Iranian king Mino- 
£ihr with his army, when captive in the Padashkhvar mountains 
(Bundahij XXXI, 21). Yet he is still living as an immortal in the 
land of Saukavastan, under the name of G6patshah (the king of the 
bulls) ; ' from foot to mid-body he is a bull, and from mid-body to 



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Gts YAST. 115 

19. The powerful Drvaspa, made by Mazda, the 
holy Drvaspa, the maintainer, granted him that boon, 
as he was offering up libations, giving gifts, sacri- 
ficing, and entreating that she would give him that 
boon. 

For her brightness and glory, I will offer her a sacrifice worth 
being heard .... 

V. 

20. We offer up a sacrifice unto the powerful Drvaspa, made 
by Mazda and holy, who keeps the flocks in health .... 
Who yokes teams of horses .... for assistance to the faithful. 

2 1 1 . To her did the gallant Husravah, he who 
united the Arya nations into one kingdom, offer up 
a sacrifice, behind the .Afae^asta lake, the deep lake 
of salt waters, with a hundred male horses, a thou- 
sand oxen, ten thousand lambs, and an offering of 
libations : 

22. ' Grant me this boon, O good, most beneficent 
Drvaspa! that I may kill the Turanian murderer, 
Franghrasyan, behind the A"a££asta lake, the deep 
lake of salt waters, to avenge the murder of my 
father Syavarshana, a man, and of Aghra£ratha, 
a semi -man 2 .' 

23. The powerful Drvaspa, made by Mazda, the 
holy Drvaspa, the maintainer, granted him that boon, 
as he was offering up libations, giving gifts, sacri- 



the top he is a man ; at all times he stays on the sea-shore, and 
always performs the worship of God, and always pours holy-water 
into the sea' (Minokhired LXII, 31 seq., tr. West; Bund. XXIX, 
5); according to Bund. XXXI, 20, AghrSrath was not G6patsh&h, 
he was bis father. Cf. Yt. XIX, 93. 

1 §§ 2I-22=Yt. XVII, 41-42. 

8 See p. 114, note 7. 

I 2 



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Il6 YASTS AND s!r6zAHS. 

ficing, and entreating that she would grant him that 

boon. 

For her brightness and glory, I will offer her a sacrifice worth 
being heard .... 

VI. 

24. We offer up a sacrifice unto the powerful DrvSspa, made 
by Mazda and holy, who keeps the flocks in health .... 

Who yokes teams of horses .... for assistance to the faithful. 

25 \ To her did the holy Zarathurtra offer up a 
sacrifice in the Airyana Vae^ah, by the good river 
Daitya, with the Haoma and meat, with the baresma, 
with the wisdom of the tongue, with the holy spells, 
with the speech, with the deeds, with the libations, 
and with the rightly-spoken words. He begged of 
her a boon, saying: 

26. ' O good, most beneficent Drvaspa ! grant me 
this boon, that I may bring the good and noble 
Hutaosa 2 to think according to the law, to speak 
according to the law, to do according to the law, 
that she may spread my Mazdean law and make it 
known, and that she may bestow beautiful praises 
upon my deeds.' 

27. The strong Drvaspa, made by Mazda, the 
holy Drvaspa, the maintainer, granted him that 
boon, as he was offering up libations, giving gifts, 
sacrificing, and entreating that she would grant him 
that boon. 

For her brightness and glory, I will offer her a sacrifice worth 
being heard .... 

1 §§ 25- 2 6=XVII, 44-45; cf. Yt. V, 104. 

* Hutaosa was the wife of king Vfrtdspa; c f. Yt. XV, 37. 



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g6s vast. 117 



VII. 

28. We offer up a sacrifice unto the powerful DrvSspa, made by 
Mazda and holy, who keeps the flocks in health .... 

Who yokes teams of horses .... for assistance to the faithful. 

29 \ To her did the tall Kavi Vistaspa offer up 
a sacrifice behind the waters of the river Daitya, 
with a hundred male horses, a thousand oxen, ten 
thousand lambs, and with an offering of libations : 

30. ' Grant me this boon, O good, most beneficent 
Drvaspa ! that I may put to flight A.rta-aurva»/, the 
son of Vispa-thaurv6-asti, the all-afflicting, of the 
brazen helmet, of the brazen armour, of the thick 
neck, behind whom seven hundred camels . . . . 2 ; that 
I may put to flight the //ipyaona murderer, Are^a/- 
aspa 3 ; that I may put to flight Darsinika 4 , the wor- 
shipper of the Da£vas ; 

31. And that I may smite Tathrava»/ 8 of the 
bad law ; that I may smite Spin^auru^ka*, the wor- 
shipper of the Daevas ; and that I may bring unto 
the good law the nations of the Varedhakas and of 
the //i'yaonas* ; and that I may smite of the Hvyaona. 
nations their fifties and their hundreds, their hun- 
dreds and their thousands, their thousands and their 

1 §§ 29-31 =Yt. XVII, 49-51. 2 ? Gainyivara/. 

3 See above, p. 79, note 4. 4 "AwojJ \ty6ptpot. 

5 Mentioned Yt. V, 109 and XIX, 87. 

* The Zfoyaonas seem to have been the Chionitae, a bellicose 
tribe, near the land of Gilan, often at war with the first Sassanides 
(Amm. Marcellinus XVII, 5). The name of the Varedhakas re- 
minds one of the Vertae who are mentioned once in company with 
the Chionitae (ibid. XIX, 1) ; but their geographical situation is not 
ascertained. In any case the proximity of the Daitya (§ 29) shows 
that both people must have inhabited the western coast of the 
Caspian sea. 



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Il8 VASTS AND s!r6zAHS. 

tens of thousands, their tens of thousands and their 
myriads of myriads. 

32. The strong Drvaspa, made by Mazda, the 
holy Drvaspa, the maintainer, granted him that 
boon, as he was offering up libations, giving gifts, 
sacrificing, and entreating that she would grant him 
that boon. 

For her brightness and glory, I will offer her a sacrifice worth 
being heard; I will offer her a sacrifice well performed, namely, 
unto the powerful Drvaspa, made by Mazda and holy. We offer 
up libations to the powerful Drv&spa, made by Mazda and holy ; 
we offer her the Haoma and meat, the baresma, the wisdom of 
the tongue, the holy spells, the speech, the deeds, the libations, and 
the rightly-spoken words. 

Yathd ahu vairy6: The will of the Lord is the law of holi- 
ness .... 

I bless the sacrifice and prayer, and the strength 
and vigour of the powerful Drvaspa, made by Mazda 
and holy. 

Ashem Vohu : Holiness is the best of all good .... 

[Give] unto that man brightness and glory, give him health of 
body, .... give him the bright, all-happy, blissful abode of the 
holy Ones. « 



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MIHIR YAST. 119 



X. MIHIR YAST. 

This Yart, one of the longest of the Avesta and one of the most 
interesting in a literary point of view, is not very instructive for 
mythology. It consists of long descriptive pieces, sometimes 
rather spirited, and of fervent prayers and invocations for mercy 
or protection. Originally Mithra was the god of the heavenly light 
(§§ I2 » 5°> 67, 104, 124 seq., 136 seq., &c); and in that character 
he knows the truth, as he sees everything ; he is therefore taken 
as a witness of truth, he is the preserver of oaths and good faith 
(§§ 2, 44 seq., 79 seq., 81 seq., &c.) ; he chastises those who break 
their promises and lie to Mithra, destroys their houses and smites 
them in battle (§§ 17 seq., 28 seq., 35 seq., 47 seq., 99 seq., 105 seq., 
112 seq., 128 seq., &c). 

Particularly interesting are §§ 11 5-1 18, as giving a sketch of 
moral hierarchy in Iran, and §§ 121-122, as being perhaps the 
source of the trials in the later Roman Mithriacism. Cf. Vend. 
Introd. IV, 8 and Ormazd et Ahriman, §§ 59-61. 



o. May Ahura Mazda be rejoiced I . . . . 

Ashem Vohu : Holiness is the best of all good .... 

I confess myself a worshipper of Mazda, a follower of Zara- 
thiutra, one who hates the Da6vas, and obeys the laws of Ahura ; 

For sacrifice, prayer, propitiation, and glorification unto [Hdvani], 
the holy and master of holiness .... 

Unto Mithra, the lord of wide pastures, who has a 
thousand ears, ten thousand eyes, a Yazata invoked 
by his own name, and unto Rama H Vastra 1 , 

Be propitiation, with sacrifice, prayer, propitiation, 
and glorification. 

YathS ahu vairyd : The will of the Lord is the law of holi- 
ness .... 

I. 

i. Ahura Mazda spake unto Spitama Zarathurtra, 
saying : ' Verily, when I created Mithra, the lord of 

1 Sfrdzah I, 16. 



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120 VASTS AND sJRdZAHS. 

wide pastures, O Spitama ! I created him as worthy 
of sacrifice, as worthy of prayer as myself, Ahura 
Mazda 1 . 

2. 'The ruffian who lies unto Mithra 2 brings death 
unto the whole country, injuring as much the faithful 
world as a hundred evil-doers 3 could do. Break not 
the contract, O Spitama! neither the one that thou 
hadst entered into with one of the unfaithful, nor the 
one that thou hadst entered into with one of the 
faithful who is one of thy own faith 4 . For Mithra 
stands for both the faithful and the unfaithful. 

3. ' Mithra, the lord of wide pastures, gives swift- 
ness to the horses of those who lie not unto 
Mithra. 

' Fire, the son of Ahura Mazda, gives the straight- 
est way to those who lie not unto Mithra. 

' The good, strong, beneficent Fravashis of the 
faithful give a virtuous offspring to those who lie 
not unto Mithra. 

4. ' For his brightness and glory, I will offer unto 
him a sacrifice worth being heard, namely, unto 
Mithra, the lord of wide pastures. 

'We offer up libations unto Mithra, the lord of 
wide pastures, who gives a happy dwelling and a 
good dwelling to the Aryan nations. 

5. ' May he come to us for help ! May he come 
to us for ease ! May he come to us for joy ! May 
he come to us for mercy ! May he come to us for 
health ! May he come to us for victory ! May he 



1 Cf. Yt. VIII, 50. 

2 The Mithradru^: one might also translate 'who breaks the 
contract,' as mithra, as a common noun, means 'a contract.' 

8 Kayadhas; cf. Yt. I, 19. * Cf. Arda Viraf, chap. lii. 



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MIHIR YAST. 121 



come to us for good conscience 1 ! May he come to 
us for bliss 2 ! he, the awful and overpowering, worthy 
of sacrifice and prayer, not to be deceived anywhere 
in the whole of the material world, Mithra, the lord 
of wide pastures. 

6. ' I will offer up libations unto him, the strong 
Yazata, the powerful Mithra, most beneficent to the 
creatures : I will apply unto him with charity 3 and 
prayers : I will offer up a sacrifice worth being heard 
unto him, Mithra, the lord of wide pastures, with the 
Haoma and meat, with the baresma, with the wis- 
dom of the tongue, with the holy spells, with the 
speech, with the deeds, with the libations, and with 
the rightly-spoken words. 

*Y£#h£ hatam : All those beings of whom 
Ahura Mazda 4 .... 

II. 

7. 'We sacrifice unto Mithra, the lord of wide 
pastures, who is truth-speaking, a chief in assemblies, 
with a thousand ears, wefl-shapen, with ten thousand 
eyes, high, with full knowledge 6 , strong, sleepless, 
and ever awake 6 ; 



1 Cheerfulness at the head of the ^Tlnva/ bridge (Yasna LXII, 6 
[LXI, 17]; cf. Vend. XVIII, 6). 

a The condition of the blessed in the next world. 

5 Vawta, 'assistance, that is, making gida.ng&i' (Yasna LXII 
[LXI], 1 ; ^ddang^i is making a collection for the poor (fitudes 
Iraniennes, II, 155). 

4 As p. 30. 

5 Perethu-vaSdhayana: sampur«avitt&ram k&ryany£yanam 
(Khorsh&/ Ny&yu 6). 

* Gagh&urva anghem : this word, strangely enough, is generally 
translated 'who has most strong arms'(balish/4abhu£am); ^-agiuru 
is translated in the same way. 



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122 VASTS AND sJr6zAHS. 

8. ' To whom the chiefs of nations offer up sacri- 
fices, as they go to the field, against havocking hosts, 
against enemies coming in battle array, in the strife 
of conflicting nations. 

9. ' On whichever side he has been worshipped 
first in the fulness of faith of a devoted heart, to that 
side turns Mithra, the lord of wide pastures, with 
the fiend-smiting wind, with the cursing thought 
of the wise 1 . 

' For his brightness and glory, I will offer him a sacrifice worth 
being heard .... 

III. 

10. 'We sacrifice unto Mithra, the lord of wide pastures, .... 
sleepless, and ever awake. 

11.' Whom the horsemen worship on the back 
of their horses, begging swiftness for their teams, 
health for their own bodies, and that they may watch 
with full success those who hate them, smite down 
their foes, and destroy at one stroke their adver- 
saries, their enemies, and those who hate them 2 . 

' For his brightness and glory, I will offer him a sacrifice worth 
being heard .... 

IV. 

12. 'We sacrifice unto Mithra, the lord of wide pastures 

sleepless, and ever awake ; 

1 3. ' Who first of the heavenly gods reaches over 
the Hara 3 , before the undying, swift-horsed sun 4 ; 



1 See p. 12, note 13. s Cf. Yt. V, 53 ; X, 94. 

3 Mount Alborz, whence the sun rises ; see § 50. 

4 Mithra is closely connected with the sun, but not yet identical 
with it, as he became in later times {^*, the sun; Deo invicto 
Soli Mithrae). 



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MIHIR YAST. 123 



who, foremost in a golden array, takes hold of the 
beautiful summits, and from thence looks over the 
abode of the Aryans with a beneficent eye. 

r 4. ' Where the valiant chiefs draw up their many 
troops in array 1 ; where the high mountains, rich in 
pastures and waters, yield plenty to the cattle 2 ; 
where the deep lakes, with salt waters, stand 8 ; 
where wide-flowing rivers swell and hurry towards 
lskata. and Pouruta, Mouru and Haroyu, the Gava- 
Sughdha and //ipairizem*; 

15. 'On Arezahi and Savahi, on Fradadhafshu 
and Vldadhafshu, on Vourubarerti and Vouru^areyti, 
on this bright Karshvare of //ipaniratha 6 , the abode 
of cattle, the dwelling of cattle, the powerful Mithra 
looks with a health-bringing eye ; 

16. 'He who moves along all the Karshvares, a 
Yazata unseen, and brings glory; he who moves 
along all the Karshvares, a Yazata unseen, and 
brings sovereignty; and increases 6 strength for 



1 In the flat countries. 

* In the mountainous parts of Iran. 

3 In the lake regions (Seistan, Farsistan, Adarbai^n). 

4 In the country of the large rivers in the East. Mouru is Marv 
(Margiana), with the Murgbib river (the Margus); Hardyu is the 
Herat country, with the HarSrud ; Gava-Sughdha and Bb&iizm are 
Sogdiana and Khvarizm, with the Qxus. The situation of Irkata 
and Pouruta is not clear : one might think of Alexander eschata 
on the Iaxartes and the Paretacene country between the Oxus 
and the Iaxartes. 

B The earth is divided into seven Karshvares, separated from one 
another by seas and mountains impassable to men. Arezahi and 
Savahi are the western and the eastern Karshvare ;. Fradadhafshu 
and Vldadhafshu are in the south ;: Vourubarerti and Vouru^-aresti 
are in the north ; /jfoaniratha is the central Karshvare. i/paniratha 
is the only Karshvare inhabited by man (Bundahif XI, 3). 

' Doubtful. 



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124 YASTS AND stltdZAHS. 

victory to those who, with a pious intent, holily 
offer him libations. 

' For his brightness and glory, I will offer him a sacrifice worth 
being heard .... 



V. 

17. 'We sacrifice unto Mithra, the lord of wide pastures, .... 
sleepless, and ever awake ; 

' Unto whom nobody must lie, neither the master 
of a house, nor the lord of a borough, nor the lord 
of a town, nor the lord of a province. 

18. 'If the master of a house lies unto him, or the 
lord of a "borough, or the lord of a town, or the lord 
Of a province, then comes Mithra, angry and offended, 
and he breaks asunder the house, the borough, the 
town, the province ; and the masters of the houses, 
the lords of the boroughs, the lords of the towns, 
the lords of the provinces, and the foremost men 
of the provinces. 

19. ' On whatever side there is one who has lied 
unto Mithra, on that side Mithra stands forth, angry 
and offended, and his wrath 1 is slow to relent 2 . 

20. ' Those who lie unto Mithra, however swift 
they may be running, cannot overtake 3 ; riding, 
cannot . . . . 8 ; driving, cannot . . . . s . The spear that 
the foe of Mithra flings, darts backwards, for the 



1 Mainyu, in the meaning of the Sanskrit manyu (?). 

2 Doubtful; aspa^a/: cf. { jU>j,^, to be late. 

8 Apay6i«ti, frastanvai«ti, framanye'iwtS: these are three 
technical words for the movements of the three classes of soldiers, 
footmen, horsemen, and chariot-men; the last two words are 
probably synonymous with the first, but the exact shades of mean- 
ing are not known. Mr. West suggests, cannot outrun, outride, 
outdrive him. 



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MIHIR VAST. 125 



number of the evil spells that the foe of Mithra 
works out 1 . 

21. 'And even though the spear be flung well, 

even though it reach the body, it makes no wound, 

for the number of the evil spells that the foe of 

Mithra works out 1 . The wind drives away the 

spear that the foe of Mithra flings, for the number 

of the evil spells that the foe of Mithra works out. 

' For his brightness and glory, I will offer him a sacrifice worth 
being heard .... 

VI. 

22. 'We sacrifice unto Mithra, the lord of wide pastures, .... 
sleepless, and ever awake ; 

' Who takes out of distress the man who has not 
lied unto him, who takes him out of death. 

23. ' Take us out of distress, take us out of dis- 
tresses, O Mithra! as we have not lied unto thee. 
Thou bringest down terror upon the bodies of the 
men who lie unto Mithra; thou takest away the 
strength from their arms, being angry and all-power- 
ful; thou takest the swiftness from their feet, the 
eye-sight from their eyes, the hearing from their 
ears. 

24. ' Not the wound 2 of the well-sharpened spear 

or of the flying arrow reaches that man to whom 

Mithra comes for help with all the strength of his 

soul, he, of the ten thousand spies, the powerful, 

all-seeing, undeceivable Mithra. 

' For his brightness and glory, I will offer him a sacrifice worth 
being heard .... 

1 The sacramental words of the contract, by their not being 
kept, turn to evil spells against the contract-breaker. 

8 Doubtful: janamayd, or fanamaoyd; read shanmaoy6 (?), 
from shan, Sansk. kshan. 



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126 YA^TS AND s!r6zAHS. 



VIL 

25. ' We sacrifice unto Mithra, the lord of wide pastures, .... 
sleepless, and ever awake ; 

' Who is lordly, deep, strong, and weal-giving ; 
a chief in assemblies, pleased with prayers 1 , high, 
holily clever, the incarnate Word, a warrior with 
strong arms ; 

26. ' Who breaks the skulls of the Da£vas, and is 
most cruel in exacting pains ; the punisher of the 
men who lie unto Mithra, the withstander of the 
Pairikas ; who, when not deceived, establisheth 
nations in supreme strength ; who, when not de- 
ceived, establisheth nations in supreme victory; 

27. 'Who confounds the ways of the nation that 
delights in havoc, who turns away their Glory 2 , takes 
away their strength for victory, blows them away 
helpless 3 , and delivers them unto ten thousand 
strokes ; he, of the ten thousand spies, the powerful, 
all-seeing, undeceivable Mithra. 

' For his brightness and glory, I will offer him a sacrifice worth 
being heard .... 

VIII. 

28. 'We sacrifice unto Mithra, the lord of wide pastures, .... 
sleepless, and ever awake ; 

' Who upholds the columns of the lofty house and 
makes its pillars* solid ; who gives herds of oxen and 
male children to that house in which he has been 
satisfied ; he breaks to pieces those in which he has 
been offended. 

29. 'Thou, O Mithra! art both bad and good to 

1 Vahm6-sendah; cf. Visp&ad VIII (IX, 1), Phi. tr. 

2 Their Hvzxtnb. * Doubtful. 
4 Aithya ; cf. Lat. antae (Brugmann). 



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MIHIR YAST. 127 



nations ; thou, O Mithra ! art both bad and good 
to men ; thou, O. Mithra ! keepest in thy hands both 
peace and trouble for nations. 

30. ■ Thou makest houses large, beautiful with 
women,- beautiful with chariots, with well-laid found- 
ations 1 , and high above their groundwork 2 ; thou 
makest that house lofty, beautiful with women, 
beautiful with chariots, with well-laid foundations, 
and high above its groundwork, of which the master, 
pious and holding libations in his hand, offers thee 
a sacrifice, in which thou art invoked by thy own 
name and with the proper words. 

31. 'With a sacrifice, in which thou art invoked 
by thy own name, with the proper words will I offer 
thee libations, O powerful Mithra ! 

'With a sacrifice, in which thou art invoked by 
thy own name, with the proper words will I offer 
thee libations, O most beneficent Mithra ! 

'With a sacrifice, in which thou art invoked by 
thy own name, with the proper words will I offer 
thee libations, O thou undeceivable Mithra ! 

32. 'Listen unto our sacrifice 3 , O Mithra! Be 
thou pleased with our sacrifice, O Mithra ! Come 
and sit at our sacrifice ! Accept our libations ! 
Accept them as they have been consecrated 4 ! 
Gather them together with love and lay them in 
the Gar6-nmana! 

33. ' Grant us these boons which we beg of thee, 
O powerful god! in accordance 6 with the words of 
revelation, namely, riches, strength, and victory, 
good conscience and bliss 6 , good fame and a good 

1 Doubtful. " Doubtful. * Cf. Yt. Ill, 18. 

4 By the proper prayers (yartaw). * Doubtful. 

«Cf.§ 5 . 



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128 YASTS AND stRdZAHS. 

soul ; wisdom and the knowledge that gives happi- 
ness 1 , the victorious strength given by Ahura, the 
crushing Ascendant of Asha Vahi^ta, and conversa- 
tion (with God) on the Holy Word 2 . 

34. 'Grant that we, in a good spirit and high spirit, 
exalted in joy and a good spirit, may smite all our 
foes ; that we, in a good spirit and high spirit, exalted 
in joy and a good spirit, may smite all our enemies ; 
that we, in a good spirit and high spirit, exalted in 
joy and a good spirit, may smite all the malice of 
Daevas and Men, of the Yatus and Pairikas, of the 
oppressors, the blind, and the deaf 3 . 

' For his brightness and glory, I will offer him a sacrifice worth 
being heard .... 

IX. 

35. ' We sacrifice unto Mithra, the lord of wide pastures, .... 
sleepless, and ever awake; 

'Victory-making*, army-governing, endowed with 
a thousand senses 8 ; power-wielding, power-possess- 
ing, and all-knowing ; 

36. ' Who sets the battle a going, who stands 
against (armies) in battle, who, standing against 
(armies) in battle, breaks asunder the lines arrayed. 
The wings of the columns gone to battle shake, and 
he throws terror upon the centre of the havocking 
host 

37. 'He can bring and does bring down upon 
them distress and fear; he throws down the heads 
of those who lie unto Mithra, he takes off the 
heads of those who lie unto Mithra. 

1 Spiritual happiness, bliss. * Vend. XVIII, 51 [in]. 

* See above, p. 26, note 2. §§ 30-34 =§§ 56-59. 
4 Doubtful (reading arenaZ-^aSsha?). 

* See § 82, note. 



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MIHIR VAST. 129 



38. 'Sad is the abode, unpeopled with children, 
where abide men who lie unto Mithra, and, verily, 
the fiendish killer of faithful men. The grazing cow 
goes a sad straying way, driven along the vales 1 of 
the Mithradru^es : they 2 stand on the road, letting 
tears run over their chins 3 . 

39. ' Their falcon-feathered arrows, shot from the 
string of the well-bent bow, fly towards the mark, and 
hit it not, as Mithra, the lord of wide pastures, angry, 
offended, and unsatisfied, comes and meets them. 

' Their spears, well whetted and sharp, their long 
spears fly from their hands towards the mark, and 
hit it not, as Mithra, the lord of wide pastures, angry, 
offended, and unsatisfied, comes and meets them. 

40. ' Their swords, well thrust and striking at the 
heads of men, hit not the mark, as Mithra, the lord 
of wide pastures, angry, offended, and unsatisfied, 
comes and meets them. 

' Their clubs, well falling and striking at the heads 
of men, hit not the mark, as Mithra, the lord of wide 
pastures, angry, offended, and unsatisfied, comes and 
meets them. 

41. ' Mithra strikes fear into them ; Rashnu * 
strikes a counter-fear into them 5 ; the holy Sraosha 
blows them away from every side towards the two 
Yazatas, the maintainers of the world 6 . They make 
the ranks of the army melt away, as Mithra, the lord 



1 Doubtful. * The cattle. 

8 The meaning is, that the cattle of the Mithradru^es do not 
thrive, and that their pasture-fields are waste. 

* See Yt XII. 

e As they flee from Mithra, they fall into the hands of Rashnu. 

• Thratara; one might feel inclined to read thrastara, 'the 
fear-striking ;' cf. § 36. 

[23] K 



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I30 YASTS AND siRdZAHS. 

of wide pastures, angry, offended, and unsatisfied, 
comes and meets them 1 . 

42. 'They cry unto Mithra, the lord of wide 
pastures, saying : " O Mithra, thou lord of wide pas- 
tures ! here are our fiery horses taking us away, as 
they flee from Mithra ; here are our sturdy arms cut 
to pieces by the sword, O Mithra !" 

43. ' And then Mithra, the lord of wide pastures, 
throws them to the ground, killing their fifties and 
their hundreds, their hundreds and their thousands, 
their thousands and their tens of thousands, their 
tens of thousands and their myriads of myriads ; 
as Mithra, the lord of wide pastures, is angry and 
offended. 

' For his brightness and glory, I will offer him a sacrifice worth 
being heard .... 

X. 

44. ' We sacrifice unto Mithra, the lord of wide pastures, .... 
sleepless, and ever awake ; 

' Whose dwelling, wide as the earth, extends over 
the material world, large 2 , unconfined 2 , and bright, 
a far-and-wide-extending abode. 

45. ' Whose eight friends 3 sit as spies for Mithra, 
on all the heights, at all the watching-places, observ- 
ing the man who lies unto Mithra, looking at those, 
remembering those who have lied unto Mithra, but 
guarding the ways of those whose life is sought by 



1 Cf. §§ 99-101. 

2 Doubtful. The text is corrupt. 

8 Doubtful. The number eight has probably an astronomical 
signification, each of the eight r&tis of Mithra occupying one of 
the eight points of the compass. 



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MIHIR YAST. 131 



men who lie unto Mithra, and, verily, by the fiendish 
killers of faithful men. 

46. ' Helping and guarding, guarding behind and 
guarding in front, Mithra, the lord of wide pastures, 
proves an undeceivable spy and watcher for the man 
to whom he comes to help with all the strength of 
his soul, he of the ten thousand spies, the powerful, 
all-knowing, undeceivable god. 

' For his brightness and glory, I will offer him a sacrifice worth 
being heard .... 

XI. 

47. ' We sacrifice unto Mithra, the lord of wide pastures, .... 
sleepless, and ever awake ; 

' A god of high renown and old age \ whom wide- 
hoofed horses carry against havocking hosts, against 
enemies coming in battle array, in the strife of con- 
flicting nations 2 . 

48. ' And when Mithra drives along towards the 

havocking hosts, towards the enemies coming in 

battle array, in the strife of the conflicting nations, 

then he binds the hands of those who have lied unto 

Mithra, he confounds their eye-sight, he takes the 

hearing from their ears ; they can no longer move 

their feet; they can no longer withstand those 

people, those foes, when Mithra, the lord of wide 

pastures, bears them ill-will. 

' For his brightness and glory, I will offer him a sacrifice worth 
being heard ...» 

XII. 

49. * We sacrifice unto Mithra, the lord of wide pastures, .... 
sleepless, and ever awake; 

50. ' For whom the Maker, Ahura Mazda, has 

1 Doubtful. .» Cf.§8. 

K 2 



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132 VASTS AND siR6zAHS. 

built up a dwelling on the Hara Berezaiti, the bright 
mountain around which the many (stars) revolve 1 , 
where come neither night nor darkness, no cold 
wind and no hot wind, no deathful sickness, no un- 
cleanness made by the Da£vas, and the clouds 
cannot reach up unto the Haraiti Bareza 2 ; 

51. 'A dwelling that all the Amesha-Spewtas, in 
one accord with the sun, made for him in the fulness 
of faith of a devoted heart, and he surveys the whole 
of the material world from the Haraiti Bareza. 

52. 'And when there rushes a wicked worker of 
evil, swiftly, with a swift step, Mithra, the lord of 
wide pastures, goes and yokes his horses to his 
chariot, along with the holy, powerful Sraosha and 
Nairyd-sangha 3 , who strikes a blow that smites the 
army, that. smites the strength of the malicious*. 

' For his brightness and glory, I will offer him a sacrifice worth 
being heard .... 

XIII. 

53. ' We sacrifice unto Mithra, the lord of wide pastures, .... 
sleepless, and ever awake ; 

54. 'Who, with hands lifted up, ever cries unto 
Ahura Mazda, saying : " I am the kind keeper of all 
creatures, I am the kind maintainer of all creatures ; 
yet men worship me not with a sacrifice in which 
I am invoked by my own name, as they worship the 
other gods with sacrifices in which they are invoked 
by their own names, 

55 6 . '"If men would worship me with a sacrifice 

1 Bundahif V, 3 seq. ; cf. Yt. XII, 13, and Yt. X, 13. 

8 The Haraiti Bareza is the same as Hara Berezaiti. 

3 Sir6zah I, 9, notes 4 and 5. 4 Doubtful (miyaoj). 

8 Cf. Yt. VIII, 11, 24, and Yt. X, 74. 



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MIHIR YAST. 133 



in which I were invoked by my own name, as they 
worship the other Yazatas with sacrifices in which 
they are invoked by their own names, then I would 
come to the faithful at the appointed time ; I would 
come in the appointed time of my beautiful, im- 
mortal life." 

56 \ ' But the pious man, holding libations in his 
hands, does worship thee with a sacrifice, in which 
thou art invoked by thy own name, and with the 
proper words. 

' With a sacrifice, in which thou art invoked by thy 
own name, with the proper words will I offer thee 
libations, O powerful Mithra ! 

' With a sacrifice, in which thou art invoked by thy 
own name, with the proper words will I offer thee 
libations, O most beneficent Mithra ! 

' With a sacrifice, in which thou art invoked by thy 
own name, with the proper words will I offer thee 
libations, O thou undeceivable Mithra! 

57. ' Listen unto our sacrifice, O Mithra! Be thou 
pleased with our sacrifice, O Mithra ! Come and sit 
at our sacrifice ! Accept our libations ! Accept them 
as they have been consecrated ! Gather them toge- 
ther with love and lay them in the Garo-nmana! 

58. ' Grant us these boons which we beg of thee, 
O powerful god! in accordance with the words of 
revelation, namely, riches, strength, and victory, 
good conscience and bliss, good fame and a good 
soul ; wisdom and the knowledge that gives happi- 
ness, the victorious strength given by Ahura, the 
crushing Ascendant of Asha-VahLrta, and conver- 
sation (with God) on the Holy Word. 



1 §§ 5<>-59=§§ 3°-34- 



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134 YASTS AND siRdZAHS. 

59. ' Grant that we, in a good spirit and high spirit, 
exalted in joy and a good spirit, may smite all our 
foes ; that we, in a good spirit and high spirit, 
exalted in joy and a good spirit, may smite all our 
enemies ; that we, in a good spirit and high spirit, 
exalted in joy and a good spirit, may smite all the 
malice of Daevas and Men, of the Yatus and 
Pairikas, of the oppressors, the blind, and the 
deaf. 

' For his brightness and glory, I will offer him a sacrifice worth 
being heard .... 

XIV. 

60. ' We sacrifice unto Mithra, the lord of wide pastures, .... 
sleepless, and ever awake ; 

'Whose renown is good, whose shape is good, 
whose glory is good ; who has boons to give at his 
will, who has pasture-fields to give at his will ; 
harmless to the tiller of the ground, . . . . x , benefi- 
cent; he, of the ten thousand spies, the powerful, 
all-knowing, undeceivable god. 

' For his brightness and glory, I will offer him a sacrifice worth 
being heard .... 

XV. 

61. 'We sacrifice unto Mithra, the lord of wide pastures, .... 
sleepless, and ever awake ; 

' Firm-legged 2 , a watcher fully awake ; valiant, a 
chief in assemblies; making the waters flow for- 
ward ; listening to appeals ; making the waters run 
and the plants grow up ; ruling over the Karsh- 

1 The text is corrupt (vasd-yaonai inatSm ?). 

a Eredhw6-za»gem: sudn'^a^ahghatS, kila kirye yad pada- 
bhyam yu.gyate kartum vyavasayi saktas&a. (Yasna LXII, 5 [LXI, 
13])- 



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MIHIR YAST. I35 



vares 1 ; delivering 2 ; happy 3 ; undeceivable; endowed 
with many senses 4 ; a creature of wisdom ; 

62. 'Who gives neither strength nor vigour to him 
who has lied unto Mithra ; who gives neither glory 
nor any boon to him who has lied unto Mithra. 

63. 'Thou takest away the strength from their 
arms, being angry and all-powerful ; thou takest the 
swiftness from their feet, the eye-sight from their 
eyes, the hearing from their ears. 

' Not the wound of the well-sharpened spear or of 

the flying arrow reaches that man to whom Mithra 

comes for help with all the strength of his soul, he, 

of the ten-thousand spies, the powerful, all-knowing, 

undeceivable god 8 . 

' For his brightness and glory, I will offer him a sacrifice worth 
being heard .... 

XVI. 

64. ' We sacrifice unto Mithra, the lord of wide pastures, .... 
sleepless, and ever awake ; 

' Who takes possession 9 of the beautiful, wide- 
expanding law, greatly and powerfully, and whose face 
looks over all the seven Karshvares of the earth ; 

65. 'Who is swift amongst the swift, liberal 
amongst the liberal, strong amongst the strong, a 
chief of assembly amongst the chiefs of assemblies ; 
increase-giving, fatness-giving, cattle-giving, sove- 
reignty-giving, son-giving, cheerfulness 7 -giving, and 
bliss 7 -giving. 

1 Karrd-rSzanghem: k&var virdi (Pahl. tr. ibid.). 

2 From Ahriman; cf.YasnaXXIX, 6 (vy in a= vi££ru n,vi? uddhati.) 
8 Yaokhftiva«/: kimakdmand (possessing whatever he wishes 

for, Vend. XX, 1 [3]). 

* See Yt. X, 82, note. • From Yt. X, 23-24. 

6 Cf. Yasna XLIII, 7: vydnayi: amat vandinit, yat gnhwati. 

7 Cf. Yt. X, s, p. 121, notes 1 and 2. 



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I36 YASTS AND S1R6ZAHS. 

66. ' With whom proceed Ashi Vanguhi, and Pa- 
re#di on her light chariot 1 , the awful Manly Courage, 
the awful kingly Glory, the awful sovereign Sky, the 
awful cursing thought 2 of the wise, the awful Fra- 
vashis of the faithful, and he who keeps united toge- 
ther the many faithful worshippers of Mazda s . 

' For his brightness and glory, I will offer him a sacrifice worth 
being heard .... 

XVII. 

67. ' We sacrifice unto Mithra, the lord of wide pastures, .... 
sleepless, and ever awake ; 

'Who drives along on his high-wheeled chariot, 
made of a heavenly 4 substance, from the Karshvare 
of Arezahi 6 to the Karshvare of //i>aniratha, the 
bright one; accompanied by 6 the wheel of sove- 
reignty 7 , the Glory made by Mazda, and the Victory 
made by Ahura ; 

68. 'Whose chariot is embraced 8 by the great 
Ashi Vanguhi ; to whom the Law of Mazda opens a 
way, that he may go easily ; whom four heavenly 
steeds, white, shining, seen afar, beneficent, endowed 
with knowledge, swiftly 9 carry along the heavenly 
space 10 , while the cursing thought of the wise pushes 
it forward ; 

69. ' From whom all the Da£vas unseen and the 
Varenya fiends u flee away in fear. Oh ! may we 



1 Cf. Yt. VIII, 38. s See above, p. 12, note 13. 

* Mithra himself (?). 4 Or ' invisible.' 

5 The western Karshvare (see above, p. 123, note 5); this seems 
to refer to the career of Mithra during the night ; cf. § 95. 

6 And rolling upon it ' Cf. Yt. XIII, 89, note. 
' And uplifted. • Doubtful. 

10 See above, p. 95, note 1. " See Vend. Introd. IV, 23. 



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MIHIR YAST. 137 



never fall across the rush of the angry lord 1 , who 

goes and rushes from a thousand sides against his 

foe, he, of the ten thousand spies, the powerful, 

all-knowing, undeceivable god. 

' For his brightness and glory, I will offer him a sacrifice worth 
being heard .... 

XVIII. 

70. ' We sacrifice unto Mithra, the lord of wide pastures, .... 
sleepless, and ever awake ; 

' Before whom Verethraghna, made by Ahura, runs 
opposing the foes in the shape of a boar 2 , a sharp- 
toothed he-boar, a sharp-jawed boar, that kills at 
one stroke, pursuing 8 , wrathful, with a dripping face; 
strong, with iron feet, iron fore-paws 4 , iron weapons, 
an iron tail, and iron jaws ; 

71. ' Who, eagerly clinging to the fleeing foe, along 
with Manly Courage, smites the foe in battle, and 
does not think he has smitten him, nor does he 
consider it a blow till he has smitten away the 
marrow 6 and the column of life •, the marrow 6 and 
the spring of existence. 

72. 'He cuts all the limbs to pieces, and mingles, 
together with the earth, the bones, hair, brains, and 
blood of the men who have lied unto Mithra 7 , 

' For his brightness and glory, we offer him a sacrifice worth 
being heard .... 



1 Cf. § 98. 

2 See Yt. XIV, 15; cf. Yt. X, 127. 

3 AnupSithwa; cf. pdithwa (Vend. XIV [ii4])=rantni*n. 

4 Literally, hands. ' Doubtful. 
6 The spine. 7 Cf. § 80. 



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I38 VASTS AND siR6zAHS. 



XIX. 

73. 'We sacrifice unto Mithra, the lord of wide pastures, .... 
sleepless, and ever awake ; 

'Who, with hands lifted up, rejoicing, cries out, 
speaking thus : 

74. ' " O Ahura Mazda, most beneficent spirit ! 
Maker of the material world, thou Holy One ! 

' " If men would worship me 1 with a sacrifice in 
which I were invoked by my own name, as they 
worship the other gods with sacrifices in which they 
are invoked by their own names, then I should 
come to the faithful at the appointed time ; I should 
come in the appointed time of my beautiful, im- 
mortal life 2 ." 

75. ' May we keep our field ; may we never be 
exiles 3 from our field, exiles from our house, exiles 
from our borough, exiles from our town, exiles from 
our country. 

76. 'Thou dashest in pieces the malice of the 
malicious, the malice of the men of malice : dash 
thou in pieces the killers of faithful men ! 

' Thou hast good horses, thou hast a good 
chariot: thou art bringing help at every appeal, and 
art powerful. 

77. ' I will pray unto thee for help, with many 
consecrations, with good consecrations of libations ; 
with many offerings, with good offerings of libations, 
that we, abiding in thee, may long inhabit a good 
abode, full of all the riches that can be wished for. 



1 They have worshipped him and he has consequently over- 
come the Mithradru^es ; this accounts for the word rejoicing. 

2 Cf. Yt. X, 55. s Iric; cf. linquo. 



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MIHIR YAST. I39 



78. ' Thou keepest those nations that tender a 

good worship to Mithra, the lord of wide pastures ; 

thou dashest in pieces those that delight in havoc. 

Unto thee will I pray for help : may he come to us 

for help, the awful, most powerful Mithra, the 

worshipful and praiseworthy, the glorious lord of 

nations. 

* For his brightness and glory, I will offer him a sacrifice worth 
being heard .... 

XX. 

79. 'We sacrifice unto Mithra, the lord of wide pastures, .... 
sleepless, and ever awake ; 

' Who made a dwelling for Rashnu 1 , and to whom 

Rashnu gave all his soul for long friendship ; 

80. ' Thou art a keeper and protector of the dwell- 
ing of those who lie not: thou art the maintainer of 
those who lie not. With thee hath Verethraghna, 
made by Ahura, contracted the best of all friend- 
ships 2 , and thus it is how so many men who have 
lied unto Mithra, even privily 3 , lie smitten down on 
the ground. 

' For his brightness and glory, I will offer him a sacrifice worth 
being heard .... 

XXI. 

81. 'We sacrifice unto Mithra, the lord of wide pastures, .... 
sleepless, and ever awake ; 

' Who made a dwelling for Rashnu, and to whom 
Rashnu gave all his soul for long friendship ; 

82. 'To whom Ahura Mazda gave a thousand 

1 The Genius of Truth (Yt. XII) ; Mithra gives a dwelling to 
the truthful man in the same way as he destroys the dwelling of the 
liar (§ 80). 

8 Cf. § 70. 

3 Aipi vithifi; Vedic api vyathis (VIII, 45, 19). 



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140 YASTS AND sJr6zAHS. 

senses 1 and ten thousand eyes to see. With those 

eyes and those senses, he watches the man who 

injures Mithra, the man who lies unto Mithra. 

Through those eyes and those senses, he is unde- 

ceivable, he, of the ten thousand spies, the powerful, 

all-knowing, undeceivable god. 

' For his brightness and glory, I will offer him a sacrifice worth 
being heard .... 

XXII. 

83. ' We sacrifice unto Mithra, the lord of wide pastures, .... 
sleepless, and ever awake ; 

' Whom the lord of the country invokes for help, 
with hands uplifted ; 

'Whom the lord of the town invokes for help, 
with hands uplifted; 

84. ' Whom the lord of the borough invokes for 
help, with hands uplifted ; 

' Whom the master of the house invokes for help, 
with hands uplifted ; 

'Whom the ... . 2 in danger of death 3 invokes for 
help, with hands uplifted ; 

' Whom the poor man, who follows the good law, 
when wronged and deprived of his rights, invokes 
for help, with hands uplifted. 

85. ' The voice of his wailing reaches up to the 
sky, it goes over the earth all around, it goes over 

1 Yaokhfti, the root of Persian ny6jfdan, Pahlavi niydkh- 
fltan, to hear; one might be inclined to translate 'a thousand 
ears,' or ' a thousand hearings ;' but the meaning of the word must 
have been rather more general, as Neriosengh translates it 
(prawidhi, IX, 8 [25]). 

2 Dva£ina? 

» PithS : mrrtyu (Yasna LIII [LII], 6). 



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MIHIR YAST. 141 



the seven Karshvares, whether he utters his prayer 
in a low tone of voice * or aloud. 

86. ' The cow driven astray invokes him for help 2 , 
longing for the stables : 

'"When will that bull, Mithra, the lord of wide 
pastures, bring us back, and make us reach the 
stables ? when will he turn us back to the right 
way from the den of the Dru^ - where we were 
driven 3 ?" 

87. 'And to him with whom Mithra, the lord of 
wide pastures, has been satisfied, he comes with 
help; and of him with whom Mithra, the lord of 
wide pastures, has been offended, he crushes down 
the house, the borough, the town, the province, the 
country. 

' For his brightness and glory, I will offer him a sacrifice worth 
being heard .... 

XXIII. 

88. ' We sacrifice unto Mithra, the lord of wide pastures, .... 
6leepless, and ever awake ; 

' To whom the enlivening, healing, fair, lordly, 
golden-eyed Haoma offered up a sacrifice on the 
highest of the heights, on the Haraiti Bareza *, he 

1 Va£em, the so-called vbg. 

3 Most manuscripts have added here, from the preceding 
clauses, ' with hands uplifted 1' 

8 An allusion to a myth in which Mithra was described as an 
Indra delivering the cows carried away by a Vrrtra: Firmicus 
Maternus called him abactorem bourn (De Errore Profan. Belig. 
V) ; Commodianus compares him with Cacus: 

'Vrtebatque boves alienos semper in antris 
Sicut et Cacus Vulcani filius ille.' 
(Apud Windischmann, Mithra, p. 64.) 

4 See above, p. 132, note 2. 



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142 YAtfTS AND siltdZAHS. 

the undefiled to one undefiled, with undefiled 
baresma, undefiled libations, and undefiled words ; 

89. 'Whom 1 the holy Ahura Mazda has estab- 
lished as a priest, quick in performing the sacrifice 
and loud in song. He performed the sacrifice with 
a loud voice, as a priest quick in sacrifice and loud 
in song, a priest to Ahura Mazda, a priest to 
the Amesha-Spe#tas. His voice reached up to the 
sky, went over the earth all around, went over the 
seven Karshvares. 

90. 'Who first lifted up Haomas, in a mortar 
inlaid with stars and made of a heavenly substance. 
Ahura Mazda longed for him, the Amesha-Spe»tas 
longed for him, for the well-shapen body of him 
whom the swift-horsed sun awakes for prayer from 
afar 2 . 

91. 'Hail to Mithra, the lord of wide pastures, who 
has a thousand ears and ten thousand eyes ! Thou 
art worthy of sacrifice and prayer : mayest thou have 
sacrifice and prayer in the houses of men ! Hail to 
the man who shall offer thee a sacrifice, with the 
holy wood in his hand, the baresma in his hand, 
the holy meat in his hand, the holy mortar in his 
hand 3 , with his hands well-washed, with the mortar 
well-washed, with the bundles of baresma tied up, 
the Haoma uplifted, and the Ahuna Vairya sung 
through. 

92. 'The holy Ahura Mazda confessed that reli- 
gion and so did Vohu-Man6, so did Asha-VahLrta, 
so did Khshathra-Vairya, so did Spe»ta-Armaiti, so 



1 Haoma; cf. Yasna IX, 26 [81]. 

2 For the morning service in the GSh U^ahm. 
• Cf.Vend. Ill, 1. 



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MIHIR YAST. I43 



did Haurvata/ and Amereta/ ; and all the Amesha- 
Spe#tas longed for and confessed his religion. The 
kind Mazda conferred upon him the mastership 
of the world ; and [so did they 1 ] who saw thee 
amongst all creatures the right lord and master of 
the world, the best cleanser of these creatures. 

93. 'So mayest thou in both worlds, mayest thou 
keep us in both worlds, O Mithra, lord of wide pas- 
tures ! both in this material world and in the world of 
the spirit, from the fiend of Death, from the fiend 
Aeshma 2 , from the fiendish hordes, that lift up the 
spear of havoc, and from the onsets of Aeshma, 
wherein the evil-doing Aeshma rushes along with 
Vld6tu 3 , made by the Daevas. 

94. ' So mayest thou, O Mithra, lord of wide pas- 
tures ! give swiftness to our teams, strength to our 
own bodies, and that we may watch with full suc- 
cess those who hate us, smite down our foes, and 
destroy at one stroke our adversaries, our enemies 
and those who hate us*. 

' For his brightness and glory, I will offer him a sacrifice worth 
being heard .... 

XXIV. 

95. ' We sacrifice unto Mithra, the lord of wide pastures, .... 
sleepless, and ever awake ; 

' Who goes over the earth, all her breadth over, 
after the setting of the sun 6 , touches both ends of 

1 The Amesha-Spewtas. 

2 See Vend. Introd. IV, 22. 8 See ibid. 
4 See Yt. V, 53 ; X, n, 114 ; V, 53. 

• It should seem as if Mithra was supposed to retrace his steps 
during the night. The Hindus supposed that the sun had a bright 
face and a dark one, and that during the night it returned from 
the west to the east with its dark face turned towards the earth. 



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144 YASTS AND s!r6zAHS. 

this wide, round earth, whose ends lie afar, and 
surveys everything that is between the earth and 
the heavens, 

96. ' Swinging in his hands a club with a hundred 
knots, a hundred edges, that rushes forwards and 
fells men down ; a club cast out of red brass, of 
strong, golden brass ; the strongest of all weapons, 
the most victorious of all weapons 1 ; 

97. ' From whom Angra Mainyu, who is all death, 
flees away in fear ; from whom A£shma, the evil- 
doing Pesh6tanu 2 , flees away in fear ; from whom 
the long-handed Bfishyasta 3 flees away in fear ; 
from whom all the Da£vas unseen and the Varenya 
fiends flee away in fear *. 

98. ' Oh ! may we never fall across the rush of 

Mithra, the lord of wide pastures, when in anger 6 ! 

May Mithra, the lord of wide pastures, never smite 

us in his anger ; he who stands up upon this earth 

as the strongest of all gods, the most valiant of all 

gods, the most energetic of all gods, the swiftest of 

all gods, the most fiend-smiting of all gods, he, 

Mithra, the lord of wide pastures 6 . 

' For his brightness and glory, I will offer him a sacrifice worth 
being heard .... 

XXV. 

99. ' We sacrifice unto Mithra, the lord of wide pastures, .... 
sleepless, and ever awake ; 

' From whom all the Da£vas unseen and the 
Varenya fiends flee away in fear 7 . 

1 Cf. § 132. * See Vend. Introd. V, 19. 

8 See ibid. IV, 24. * Cf. § 69. 

• Cf. Yt. X, 69. « §§ 97"98=§§ 134-135. 
7 Cf. § 97. 



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MIHIR YAST. I45 



'The lord of nations, Mithra, the lord of wide 
pastures, drives forward at the right-hand side of 
this wide, round earth, whose ends lie afar. 

100. 'At his right hand drives the good, holy 
Sraosha ; at his left hand drives the tall and strong 
Rashnu ; on all sides around him drive the waters, 
the plants, and the Fravashis of the faithful. 

101. 'In his might, he ever brings to them falcon- 
feathered arrows, and, when driving, he himself 
comes there, where are nations, enemy to Mithra, 
he, first and foremost, strikes blows with his club 
on the horse and his rider; he throws fear and 
fright upon the horse and his rider. 

' For his brightness and glory, I will offer him a sacrifice worth 
being heard .... 

XXVI. 

102. 'We sacrifice unto Mithra, the lord of wide pastures, .... 
sleepless, and ever awake ; 

'The warrior of the white horse, of the sharp 
spear, the long spear, the quick arrows ; foreseeing 
and clever ; 

103. 'Whom Ahura Mazda has established to 

maintain and look over all this moving 1 world, and 

who maintains and looks over all this moving world; 

who, never sleeping, wakefully guards the creation 

of Mazda ; who, never sleeping, wakefully maintains 

the creation of Mazda. 

' For his brightness and glory, I will offer him a sacrifice worth 
being heard .... 

1 Fravdi.?; Parsi tradition translates large: fr&z (tr. Phi.), 
buland (Asp., Yasna LVII, 15 [LVI, 7, 3]). 

[23] L 

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I46 YASTS AND siRdZAHS. 



XXVII. 

104. ' We sacrifice unto Mithra, the lord of wide pastures, .... 
sleepless, and ever awake ; 

'Whose long arms, strong with Mithra-strength, 
encompass what he seizes in the easternmost river 1 
and what he beats with the westernmost river 2 , 
what is by the Sanaka s of the Rangha and what is 
by the boundary of the earth 4 . 

105. 'And thou, O Mithra! encompassing all this 
around, do thou reach it, all over, with thy arms. 

'The man without glory 6 , led astray from the 
right way, grieves in his heart; the man without 
glory thinks thus in himself : " That careless Mithra 
does not see all the evil that is done, nor all the lies 
that are told." 

106. ' But I think thus in my heart : 

' " Should the evil thoughts of the earthly man be 
a hundred times worse, they would not rise so high 
as the good thoughts of the heavenly Mithra ; 

' " Should the evil words of the earthly man be a 
hundred times worse, they would not rise so high as 
the good words of the heavenly Mithra; 

1 The Sind. 

2 The Rangha or Tigris. The words ig*urvay£iti and 
nighn6, 'he seizes, he beats,' are the words used of the priest 
laying the Haoma in the mortar and pounding it with the pestle 
(Yasna, X, 2 [4-5]). The Sind and the Rangha are thus com- 
pared with the two parts of the Havana, the land between is the 
Haoma, and Mithra's arms are the arms of the priest. 

8 SanakS, an &ra£ Xtyopevov ; opposed to the aodhas of the 
Rangha, Yt. XII, 19. 

4 The Arabian sea (?). Cf. Yt XII, 21. 

B Who has not a ray of the celestial light : here, the man of 
little faith. 



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MIHIR VAST. I47 



' " Should the evil deeds of the earthly man be a 
hundred times worse, they would not rise so high as 
the good deeds of the heavenly Mithra ; 

107. '"Should the heavenly wisdom 1 in the earthly 
man be a hundred times greater, it would not rise 
so high as the heavenly wisdom in the heavenly 
Mithra ; 

' "And thus, should the ears of the earthly man 
hear a hundred times better, he would not hear so 
well as the heavenly Mithra, whose ear hears well, 
who has a thousand senses, and sees every man that 
tells a lie." 

' Mithra stands up in his strength, he drives in 
the awfulness of royalty, and sends from his eyes 
beautiful looks that shine from afar, (saying) : 

108. ' " Who will offer me a sacrifice ? Who will 
lie unto me ? Who thinks me a god worthy of a 
good sacrifice ? Who thinks me worthy only of a 
bad sacrifice ? To whom shall I, in my might, 
impart brightness and glory ? To whom bodily 
health ? To whom shall I, in my might, impart 
riches and full weal ? Whom shall I bless by raising 
him a virtuous 2 offspring ? 

109. '"To whom shall I give in return, without 
his thinking of it, the awful sovereignty, beautifully 
arrayed, with many armies, and most perfect; the 
sovereignty of an all-powerful tyrant, who fells down 
heads, valiant, smiting, and unsmitten ; who orders 
chastisement to be done and his order is done at 
once, which he has ordered in his anger ?" 

' O Mithra ! when thou art offended and not satisfied, 
he 8 soothes thy mind, and makes Mithra satisfied. 

1 See above, p. 4, n. 5. * Asna : Sansk. su$ila (p. 34, n. 4). 

* He who offers thee a good sacrifice; cf. § 108. 

L 2 



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I48 YASTS AND s!r6zAHS. 

no. '"To whom shall I, in my might, impart 
sickness and' death ? To whom shall I impart 
poverty and sterility 1 ? Of whom shall I at one 
stroke cut off the' offspring? 

in. '"From whom shall I take away, without 
his thinking of it, the awful sovereignty, beautifully 
arrayed, with many armies, and most perfect; the 
sovereignty of an all-powerful tyrant, who fells down 
heads, valiant, smiting, and unsmitten ; who orders 
chastisement to be done and his order is done at 
once, which he has ordered in his anger." 

'O Mithra! while thou art satisfied and not angry, 
he moves thy heart to anger 2 , and makes Mithra 
unsatisfied. 

• For his brightness and glory, I will offer him a sacrifice worth 
being heard .... 

XXVIII. 

112. 'We sacrifice unto Mithra, the lord of wide pastures, .... 
sleepless, and ever awake; 

'A warrior with a silver helm s , a golden cuirass 8 , 
who kills with the poniard, strong, valiant, lord of 
the borough. Bright are the ways of Mithra, by 
which he goes towards the country, when, wishing 
well, he turns its plains and vales to pasture 
grounds, 

113. 'And then cattle and males come to graze, 
as many as he wants. 

'May Mithra and Ahura*, the high gods, come 
to us for help, when the poniard lifts up its voice 

1 Doubtful. 

4 He who offers thee a bad sacrifice. 3 Doubtful. 

« See Vend. .Introd. IV, 8. 



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MIHIR VAST. 149 



aloud \ when the nostrils of the horses quiver, when 
the poniards . . . . 2 , when the strings of the bows 
whistle and shoot sharp arrows; then the brood of 
those whose libations are hated fall smitten to the 
ground, with their hair torn off. 

114. 'So mayest thou, O Mithra, lord of wide pas- 
tures ! give swiftness to our teams, strength to our 
own bodies, and that we may watch with full success 
those who hate us, smite down our foes, and destroy 
at one stroke our adversaries, our enemies, and 
those who hate us 3 . 

' For his. brightness and glory, I will offer him a sacrifice worth 
being heard .... 

XXIX. 

115. 'We sacrifice unto Mithra, the lord of wide pastures, .... 
sleepless, and ever awake. 

' O Mithra, lord of wide pastures ! thou master 
of the house, of the borough, of the town, of the 
country, thou Zarathurtr6tema 4 ! 

1 16. 'Mithra is twentyfold 6 between two friends or 
two relations; 

'Mithra is thirtyfold between two men of the 
same group 6 ; 

' Mithra is fortyfold between two partners 7 ; 

1 When it clashes with another. * KahvSn. 

• SeeYt. V, 53; X, n, 94. 

• The chief of the sacerdotal order, the so-called Maubed£n- 
maused. 

8 Or 'the contract is twentyfold ....,' that is, twenty times 
more strictly binding than between any two strangers. This pas- 
sage is one of the most important of the Avesta, as a short account 
of the social constitution and morals of Zoroastrian Iran. 

• Of the same gild (svapaftkti, ap. Neriosengh). 

7 Hadha-ga6tha, co-proprietors of a gaetha (a rural estate). 



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150 VASTS AND sfR6ZAHS. 

' Mithra is fiftyfold between wife and husband 1 ; 

'Mithra is sixtyfold between two pupils (of the 
same master); 

'Mithra is seventyfold between the pupil and his 
master ; 

' Mithra is eightyfold between the son-in-law and 
his father-in-law ; 

' Mithra is ninetyfold between two brothers ; 

117.' Mithra is a hundredfold between the father 
and the son ; 

'Mithra is a thousandfold between two nations 2 ; 

'Mithra is ten thousandfold when connected with 
the Law of Mazda 3 , and then he will be every day * 
of victorious strength 5 . 

118.' May I come unto thee with a prayer that 
goes lowly or goes highly! As this sun rises up 
above the Hara Berezaiti and then fulfils its career, 
so may I, O Spitama ! with a prayer that goes lowly 
or goes highly, rise up above the will of the fiend 
Angra Mainyu 6 ! 

' For his brightness and glory, I will offer him a sacrifice worth 
being heard .... 

XXX. 

119. 'We sacrifice unto Mithra, the lord of wide pastures, .... 
sleepless, and ever awake. 

'Offer up a sacrifice unto Mithra, O Spitama! and 
order thy pupils to do the same. 

1 Doubtful. 

2 A fair recognition of the jus gentium. 

' The contract between the faithful and the Law, the cove- 
nant (?). 

* Reading [h]amahS ayan. 

8 The last clause is doubtful ; the text is corrupt. 

* Prayer follows Mithra in his career, rising and setting with him. 



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MIHIR YAST. I5I 



' Let the worshipper of Mazda sacrifice unto thee 1 
with small cattle, with black cattle, with flying birds, 
gliding forward on wings. 

120. 'To Mithra all the faithful worshippers of 
Mazda must give strength and energy with offered 
and proffered Haomas, which the Zaotar proffers 
unto him and gives in sacrifice 2 . Let the faithful 
man drink of the libations cleanly prepared, which 
if he does, if he offers them unto Mithra, the lord of 
wide pastures, Mithra will be pleased with him and 
without anger.' 

121. Zarathurtra asked him: 'O Ahura Mazda! 
how shall the faithful man drink the libations cleanly 
prepared, which if he does and he offers them 
unto Mithra, the lord of wide pastures, Mithra will 
be pleased with him and without anger?' 

122. Ahura Mazda answered: 'Let them wash 
their bodies three days and three nights ; let them 
undergo thirty strokes 3 for the sacrifice and prayer 
unto Mithra, the lord of wide pastures. Let them 
wash their bodies two days and two nights ; let them 
undergo twenty strokes for the sacrifice and prayer 
unto Mithra, the lord of wide pastures. Let no 



1 Mithra. 

2 The translation of this sentence is conjectural. 

3 Thirty strokes with the Sraosh6->iarana (upazanaj see Vend. 
Introd. V, 19); it is an expiation (ikayayawta) which purges 
them from their sins and makes them fit for offering a sacrifice to 
Mithra. One may find in this passage the origin of the painful 
trials through which the adepts of the Mithriac mysteries had to 
go before being admitted to initiation (ovk &v o!p tit avrbv bvvt)- 

trcuTO ris reKeardfjvai, el px) Sid nvav (iad/iav irapc\da>v t&v Ko\d<rea>v &ti(jti 

iavrbv Smou km atradrj, Suidas s. v., ap. Windischmann, fiber Mithra, 
68 seq.). 



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152 VASTS AND s!r6zAHS. 

man drink of these libations who does not know the 
staota y^snya 1 : Vlsp6 ratav6 2 . 

' For his brightness and glory, I will offer him a sacrifice worth 
being heard .... 

XXXI. 

123. ' We sacrifice unto Mithra, the lord of wide pastures, .... 
sleepless, and ever awake; 

' To whom Ahura Mazda offered up a sacrifice in 
the shining Gar6-nmana s . 

1 24. ' With his arms lifted up towards Immor- 
tality 4 , Mithra, the lord of wide pastures, drives 
forward from the shining Gard-nmana, in a beautiful 
chariot that drives on, ever-swift, adorned with all 
sorts of ornaments, and made of gold. 

125. ' Four stallions draw that chariot, all of the 
same white colour, living on heavenly food 6 and 
undying. The hoofs of their fore-feet are shod with 
gold, the hoofs of their hind-feet are shod with 
silver; all are yoked to the same pole, and wear 
the yoke 6 and the cross-beams of the yoke ', 
fastened with hooks e of Khshathra vairya 7 to a 
beautiful . . . . 8 

126. 'At his right hand drives Rashnu-Razista 9 , 
the most beneficent and most well-shapen. 

1 The sutud yeV t; the last chapters of the Yasna, from LVIII 
[LVII] to end, according to Anquetil (Zend-Avesta I, 2, 232). 

s The first words of the VispSrad. 

8 Paradise. 

4 Towards the abode of the Immortals. 

' Fed with ambrosia (apPp6<riov «8ap) like Poseidon's steeds 
(H. XIII, 35; cf. Ovid, Metam. IV, 214). 

* Doubtful (simamia sim6ithram£a). 

7 Metal. See Vend. Introd. IV, 33. 

8 Upairispdta. • See Yt. XII. 



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MIHIR YAST. I53 



' At his left hand drives the most upright A!lsta 1 , 
the holy one, bearing libations in her hands, clothed 
with white clothes, and white herself; and the cursing 
thought 2 of the Law of Mazda. 

127. 'Close by him drives the strong cursing 
thought 2 of the wise man, opposing foes in the 
shape of a boar, a sharp-toothed he-boar, a sharp- 
jawed boar, that kills at one stroke, pursuing, 
wrathful, with a dripping face s , strong and swift 
to run, and rushing all around 4 . 

' Behind him drives Atar 6 , all in a blaze, and the 
awful kingly Glory. 

128. 'On a side of the chariot of Mithra, the lord 
of wide pastures, stand a thousand bows well-made, 
with a string of cowgut; they go through the 
heavenly space 6 , they fall through the heavenly 
space upon the skulls of the Daevas. 

129. ' On a side of the chariot of Mithra, the lord 
of wide pastures, stand a thousand vulture-feathered 
arrows, with a golden mouth 7 , with a horn shaft, 
with a brass tail, and well-made. They go through 
the heavenly space, they fall through the heavenly 
space upon the skulls of the Daevas. 

1 30. ' On a side of the chariot of Mithra, the lord 
of wide pastures, stand a thousand spears well-made 
and sharp-piercing. They go through the heavenly 
space, they fall through the heavenly space upon 
the skulls of the Daevas. 

' On a side of the chariot of Mithra, the lord of 

1 See Yt. XVI. J See above, p. 12, note 13. 8 Cf. Yt. X, 70. 

4 Or better, rushing before (piiri-v&za; cf. the translations of 
pairi-da^yyu, Yt. X, 144 and pairi-v&ra, Yt. I, 19). Cf. Yt. 
XIV, 15. 

* The Genius of Fire. * See p. 95, note 1. 7 A golden point. 



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154 YASTS AND siR6ZAHS. 

wide pastures, stand a thousand steel-hammers, two- 
edged, well-made. They go through the heavenly 
space, they fall through the heavenly space upon 
the skulls of the Daevas. 

131. 'On a side of the chariot of Mithra, the lord 
of wide pastures, stand a thousand swords, two- 
edged and well-made. They go through the hea- 
venly space, they fall through the heavenly space 
upon the skulls of the Daevas. 

'On a side of the chariot of Mithra, the lord of 
wide pastures, stand a thousand maces of iron, well- 
made. They go through the heavenly space, they 
fall through the heavenly space -upon the skulls of 
the Daevas. 

132. 'On a side of the chariot of Mithra, the lord 
of wide pastures, stands a beautiful well-falling club, 
with a hundred knots, a hundred edges, that rushes 
forward and fells men down ; a club cast out of 
red brass, of strong, golden brass ; the strongest of 
all weapons, the most victorious of all weapons \ It 
goes through the heavenly space 2 , it falls through 
the heavenly space upon the skulls of the Daevas. 

133. 'After he has smitten the Daevas, after he 
has smitten down the men who lied unto Mithra, 
Mithra, the lord of wide pastures, drives forward 
through Arezahe" and Savahe, through Fradadhafshu 
and Vldadhafshu, through Vourubarerti and Vouru- 
^arerti, through this our Karshvare, the bright 
/7z>aniratha s . 

134. 'Angra Mainyu, who is all death, flees away 
in fear; A£shma, the evil-doing Peshotanu, flees 

1 Cf. Yt. X, 96. * The text has, they go 

8 See above, p. 123, note 5. 



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MIHJR VAST. 155 



away in fear ; the long-handed Bushyasta flees away 
in fear ; all the Daevas unseen and the Varenya 
fiends flee away in fear. 

135. 'Oh! may we never fall across the rush of 
Mithra, the lord of wide pastures, when in anger ! 
May Mithra, the lord of wide pastures, never smite 
us in his anger ; he who stands up upon this earth 
as the strongest of all gods, the most valiant of all 
gods, the most energetic of all gods, the swiftest of 
all gods, the most fiend-smiting of all gods, he, 
Mithra, the lord of wide pastures 1 . 

' For his brightness and glory, I will offer him a sacrifice worth 
being heard .... 

XXXII. 

136. 'We sacrifice unto Mithra, the lord of wide pastures, .... 
sleepless, and ever awake ; 

' For whom white stallions, yoked to his chariot, 
draw it, on one golden wheel, with a full shining 
axle. 

137. 'If Mithra takes his libations to his own 
dwelling 2 , " Happy that man, I think," — said Ahura 
Mazda, — "O holy Zarathurtra! for whom a holy 
priest, as pious as any in the world 3 , who is the 
Word incarnate, offers up a sacrifice unto Mithra with 
bundles of baresma and with the [proper] words. 

' " Straight to that man, I think, will Mithra come, 
to visit his dwelling, 

138. ' "When Mithra's boons will come to him, as 
he follows God's teaching, and thinks according to 
God's teaching. 

' "Woe to that man, I think," — said Ahura Mazda, — 

1 §§ i34-i35=§§ 97-98- * Cf. Yt. X, 32. 

' Doubtful. Possibly, ' of a pious conscience.' 



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I56 YASTS AND s!r6zAHS. 

" O holy Zarathurtra ! for whom an unholy priest, 
not pious 1 , who is not the Word incarnate, stands 
behind the baresma, however full may be the 
bundles of baresma he ties, however long may be 
the sacrifice he performs." 

139. 'He does not delight Ahura Mazda, nor the 
other Amesha-Spe»tas, nor Mithra, the lord of wide 
pastures, he who thus scorns Mazda, and the other 
Amesha-Spe»tas, and Mithra, the lord of wide 
pastures, and the Law, and Rashnu, and Arstkt, 
who makes the world grow, who makes the world 
increase. 

'For his brightness and glory, I will offer him a sacrifice worth 
being heard .... 

XXXIII. 

140. 'We sacrifice unto Mithra, the lord of wide pastures 

sleepless, and ever awake. 

' I will offer up a sacrifice unto the good Mithra, 
O Spitama ! unto the strong, heavenly god, who is 
foremost, highly merciful, and peerless ; whose house 
is above 2 , a stout and strong warrior ; 

141. 'Victorious and armed with a well-fashioned 
weapon, watchful in darkness and undeceivable. He 
is the stoutest of the stoutest, he is the strongest of 
the strongest, he is the most intelligent of the gods,- 
he is victorious and endowed with Glory : he, of the 
ten thousand eyes, of the ten thousand spies, the 
powerful, all-knowing, undeceivable god. 

' For his brightness and glory, I will offer him a sacrifice worth 
being heard .... 

1 An unqualified priest ; cf. Vend. IX, 47-57 ; XVIII, 1 seq. 
1 Or, ' whose house is great.' 



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MIHIR YAST. 157 



XXXIV. 

142. 'We sacrifice unto Mithra, the lord of wide pastures, .... 
sleepless, and ever awake ; 

' Who, with his manifold knowledge, powerfully 
increases the creation of Spe«ta Mainyu, and is a 
well-created and most great Yazata, self-shining like 
the moon, when he makes his own body shine ; 

143. 'Whose face is flashing with light like the 

face of the star Tistrya 1 ; whose chariot is embraced 

by that goddess who is foremost amongst those who 

have no deceit in them 2 , O Spitama ! who is fairer 

than any creature in the world, and full of light to 

shine. I will worship that chariot, wrought by the 

Maker, Ahura Mazda, inlaid with stars and made of 

a heavenly substance ; (the chariot) of Mithra, who 

has ten thousand spies, the powerful, all-knowing, 

undeceivable god. 

' For his brightness and glory, I will offer him a sacrifice worth 
being heard .... 

XXXV. 

144. 'We sacrifice unto Mithra, the lord of wide 
pastures, who is truth-speaking, a chief in assemblies, 
with a thousand ears, well-shapen, with a thousand 
eyes, high, with full knowledge, strong, sleepless, and 
ever awake. 

' We sacrifice unto the Mithra around countries 3 ; 
'We sacrifice unto the Mithra within countries; 



1 See Yt. VIII. 2 Ashi Vanguhi (?) ; cf. § 68. 

8 Who watches around countries : aiwidaAz»yum is translated 
U^^ y^J^-o^-. (Pers. tr. of Mihir Ny&vu). 



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158 YASTS AND siRdZAHS. 

'We sacrifice unto the Mithra in this country 1 ; 

' We sacrifice unto the Mithra above countries ; 

' We sacrifice unto the Mithra under countries ; 

'We sacrifice unto the Mithra before countries 2 ; 

' We sacrifice unto the Mithra behind countries. 

145. 'We sacrifice unto Mithra and Ahura, the 
two great, imperishable, holy gods 3 ; and unto the 
stars, and the moon, and the sun, with the trees that 
yield up baresma 4 . We sacrifice unto Mithra, the 
lord of all countries. 

' For his brightness and glory, I will offer unto him a sacrifice 
worth being heard, namely, unto Mithra, the lord of wide pastures. 

'YathS ahu vairyfi: The will of the Lord is the law of 
holiness .... 

' I bless the sacrifice and prayer, and the strength 
and vigour of Mithra, the lord of wide pastures, who 
has a thousand ears, ten thousand eyes, a Yazata 
invoked by his own name; and that of Rama 
//z/astra 6 . 

'Ashem Vohu: Holiness is the best of all good .... 
' [Give] unto that man* brightness and glory, .... give him the 
bright, all-happy, blissful abode of the holy Ones!' 

1 Adafeyum: o— 1^ ^ly iT^-.; cf.Yasna XXVI, 9 [28]. 
* Pairidatoyum : c*-.l >±i> -» ^S-j *57 
8 Cf. Vend. Introd. IV, 8. " * Cf. Vend. p. 22, note 2. 
6 Cf. Sir6zah 1, 16. • Who sacrifices to Mithra. 



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sr6sh yast hAdh6kht. 159 



xi. sr6sh ya.st hAdh6kht. 

There are two Yarts dedicated to Sraosha, the angel of divine wor- 
ship 1 : one is a part of the Yasna (LVII [LVI]),and this, the other, 
is called the Sr6sh Yart H£dh6kht. Whether it belonged to the so- 
called Hddh6kht Nosk a , one of the twenty-one Nosks of which 
the original Avesta was formed ", or whether it was recited in the 
Hadh6kht sacrifice 4 , a particular liturgy, is a matter on which we 
have no sufficient information. 

The two Yarts have a few developments in common (see §§ 8- 
9, 10-13): the H&dh6kht is more liturgical, the Yasna Yart is 
more descriptive, and has to a greater degree the poetical imagery 
of a Yart. 

The Sr6sh Yart Hadhokht is recited every day, during any g&h 
except the Rapitvfn. A Pahlavi translation of this Yast is extant 
(East India Office, XII, 102 ; Paris, Supplement Persan, XXXIII, 
259 ; edited in £tudes Iraniennes, II), and Anquetil mentions 
a Sanskrit translation. 



o. May Ahura Mazda be rejoiced ! . . . . 

Ashem Vohu : Holiness is the best of all good .... 

I confess myself a worshipper of Mazda, a follower of Zara- 
thurtra, one who hates the DaSvas and obeys the laws of Ahura; 

For sacrifice, prayer, propitiation, and glorification unto [Htvani], 
the holy and master of holiness .... 

Unto the holy, strong Sraosha, who is the incar- 
nate Word, a mighty-speared and lordly god, 

Be propitiation, with sacrifice, prayer, propitiation, 
and glorification. 

YathS ahu vairy6: The will of the Lord is the law of 
holiness .... 

1 Cf. Vend. Introd. IV, 31. ■ Ibid. Ill, 3. 

8 See an account of the HSdhdkht Nosk in the Dinkart (West, 
Pahlavi Texts, I, 225, note); cf. Introd. to Yt. XXI. 
* Cf. § 18, note. 



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l6o VASTS AND s!r6zAHS. 

I. 

i. We sacrifice unto the holy, tall-formed, fiend- 
smiting Sraosha, who makes the world increase, 
the holy and master of holiness. 

Good prayer, excellent prayer to the worlds 1 , O 
Zarathurtra ! 

2. This it is that takes away the friendship of 
the fiend and fiends, of the he-fiend and of the she- 
fiend ; it turns away in giddiness their eyes, minds, 
ears 2 , hands, feet, mouths, and tongues 3 ; as good 
prayer, without deceit and without harm, is Manly 
Courage 4 , and turns away the Drug- 6 . 

3. The holy Sraosha, the best protector of the poor, 
is fiend-smiting; he is the best smiter of the Drug: 

The faithful one who pronounces most words of 
blessing is the most victorious in victory; the 
Mathra Spe»ta takes best the unseen Drug- away. 
The Ahuna Vairya 6 is the best fiend-smiter among 
all spells ; the word of truth is the fighter 7 that is 
the best of all fiend-smiters. 

The Law of the worshippers of Mazda is the 
truest giver of all the good things, of all those that 
are the offspring of the good principle ; and so is 
the Law of Zarathutfra. 

4. And he who should pronounce that word 8 , 
O Zarathurtra ! either a man or a woman, with a 
mind all intent on holiness, with words all intent on 

1 'Has been taught to the world, namely, the Law' (Pahl. 
Comm.). 
" Doubtful. 8 DerezvS: Pahl. huzvin; cf.Ytl, 28. 

4 Is the same with it, is as powerful. 

5 Doubtful (v&rethrem dire^ta" . . . . zak dr% vartt da\rt3rtum). 
* See p. 23. 

7 Or, ' is the best of all fiend-smiters in battle.' 

8 This chapter (Pahl. Comm.). 



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sr6sh vast hAdh6kht. 161 

holiness, with deeds all intent on holiness, when he 
is in fear either of high waters or of the darkness 
of a rainy night ; 

Or at the fords of a river, or at the branching-off 
of roads ; 

Or in the meeting together of the faithful, or 
the rushing together of the worshippers of the 
Da£vas x ; 

5. Whether on the road 2 or in the law 3 he has 
to fear, not in that day nor in that night shall the 
tormenting fiend, who wants to torment him, prevail 
to throw upon him the look of his evil eye, and the 
malice of the thief* who carries off cattle shall not 
reach him. 

6. Pronounce then that word, O Zarathurtra ! that 
word to be spoken 6 , when thou fall upon the idola- 
ters 6 and thieves and Dae"vas rushing together. 
Then the malice of the wicked worshippers of the 
Da£vas, of the Yatus and their followers, of the 
Pairikas and their followers, will be affrighted and 
rush away. Down are the Daevas ! Down are the 
Da£va-worshippers, and they take back their mouths 
from biting 7 . 

1 Different words are used, as usual, to express the same con- 
flict, according as it refers to the faithful or to the idolaters. 

* Aipi-ayanSm: madam r&s. 

3 Arethyanam : d&dist&n (from aretha, meaning dint, 
dadistin). 

* Gadha: nr«a»»sa (Neriosengh) ; the Pahlavi has 4*, a Saka, 
a Scythe. 

8 The praise of Sraosha. 

* Keresas£a: krasiSk; cf. Neriosengh ad Yasna IX, 24 [75]; that 
name was in the later periods applied to Christians, as if k ere s a 
were the name of Christ ; cf. Bahman Yast II, 19 ; III, 2. 

7 Doubtful. 

[23] M 



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1 6Z VASTS AND sfR6ZAHS. 

7. And therefore we take around us the holy- 
natured Sraosha, the holy, the fiend-smiter, as one 
does with shepherds' dogs; therefore we sacrifice 
unto the holy-natured Sraosha, the holy, the fiend- 
smiter, with good thoughts, good words, and good 
deeds. 

8 \ For his brightness and glory, for his strength 
and victorious power, for his offering sacrifices unto 
the gods 2 , I will offer him a sacrifice worth being 
heard. I will offer up libations unto the holy 
Sraosha, unto the great Ashi Vanguhi 3 , and unto 
Nairy6-sangha 4 , the tall-formed. 

So may the holy Sraosha, the fiend-smiter, come 
to us for help ! 

9. We worship the holy Sraosha ; we worship the 
great master, Ahura Mazda, who is supreme in holi- 
ness, who is the foremost to do deeds of holiness. 

We worship all the words 6 of Zarathurtra, and 
all the good deeds, those done and those to be 
done. 

Y6»h£ hatam : All those beings of whom Ahura Mazda .... 

II. 

io*. We sacrifice unto the holy, tall -formed, fiend-smiting 
Sraosha, who makes the world increase, the holy and master of 
holiness ; 

Who strikes the evil-doing 7 man, who strikes 
the evil-doing woman ; who smites the fiendish 

1 §§ 8-9=Yasna LVII, 3-4 [LVI, 1, 6-12]. 

8 See Vend. Introd. IV, 31. 8 See Yt. XVII. 

4 See Vend. XXII, 7 [22] and Sfr6zah I, 9. 

5 The words of the law. 

« §§ io-i 3 =Yasna LVII, 15-18 [LVI, 7]. 
7 Cf. Yt. I, 19. 



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sr6sh yast hAdh6kht. 163 

Dn^-, and is most strong and world - destroying ; 
who maintains and looks over all this moving 1 
world ; 

11. Who, never sleeping, wakefully guards the 
creation of Mazda; who, never sleeping, wakefully 
maintains the creation of Mazda ; who protects all 
the material world with his club uplifted, from the 
hour when the sun is down ; 

12. Who never more did enjoy sleep from the 
time when the two Spirits made the world, namely, 
the good Spirit and the evil One; who every day, 
every night, fights with the Mazainya Daevas. 

13. He bows not for fear and fright before the 

Daevas : before him all the Daevas bow for fear 

and fright reluctantly, and rush away to darkness 2 . 

For his brightness and glory, for his strength and victorious 
power . . . .* 



III. 

14. YathS ahu vairyd : The will of the Lord is the law of 
holiness .... 

We sacrifice unto the holy, tall-formed, fiend-smiting Sraosha, 
who makes the world increase, the holy and master of holiness ; 

Who with peace and friendship* watches the 
Drug - and the most beneficent Spirit : so that the 
Amesha-Spewtas may go along the seven Karsh- 
vares of the earth 8 ; who is the teacher of the 



1 Cf. above, p. 145, note 1. * To hell. 

8 As above, §§ 8-9. * To the creation of Ormazd. 

* Doubtful. The Yasna has: 'Through whose strength, vic- 
torious power, wisdom, and knowledge the Amesha-Spe«tas go 
(av2n; Phi. s&tunand) along the seven Karshvares of the earth' 
(LVII, 23 [LVI, 10, 2]). 

M 2 



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1 64 YASTS AND sfadZAHS. 

Law 1 : he himself was taught it by Ahura Mazda, 
the holy One. 

For his brightness and glory, for his strength and victorious 
power .... 

IV. 

15. Yatha" ahu vairyd : The will of the Lord is the law of 
holiness .... 

We sacrifice unto the holy, tall-formed, fiend-smiting Sraosha, 
who makes the world increase, the holy and master of holiness ; 

Whom the holy Ahura Mazda has created to 
withstand Aeshma, the fiend of the wounding spear ; 
we sacrifice unto Peace, whose breath is friendly, 
and unto the two withstanders of sin and guilt 2 , 

16. The friends of the holy Sraosha ; 
The friends of Rashnu Razlrta 3 ; 

The friends of the good Law of the worshippers 
of Mazda ; 

The friends of Arsta/ 4 , who makes the world 
grow, who makes the world increase, who makes 
the world prosper ; 

The friends of Ashi Vanguhi 5 ; 

The friends of the good Alsti 6 ; 

The friends of the most right ^Tista 7 ; 

1 He teaches the law to the three saviours to come, OshSdar 
Bamf, Oshgdar MSh, and Soshyds (Yasna LVII, 24 [LVI, 10, 2] ; 
Phltr.). 

* Pareftas^a mravay<?os£a, to be corrected, according to 
various readings, into staretas^a mavayabs&i or something like it ; 
the two genii here alluded to are AnSstareta and Amuyamna, 
Sinlessness and Innocence, who are invoked in company with 
Akh^ti hamvairUi in VispSrad VIII, 4. 

« See Yt. XII. * See Yt. XVII. 

» See Vend. XIX, 39. « See ibid. 

' See Yt. XVI, 1. 



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sr6sh yast hadh6kht. 165 

1 7. The friends of all gods ; 
The friends of the Mathra Spe«ta ; 
The friends of the fiend-destroying Law ; 
The friends of the long-traditional teaching ; 
The friends of the Amesha-Spe#tas ; 
The friends of ourselves, the Saoshyaw/s 1 , the 
two-footed part of the holy creation ; 

The friends of all the beings of the holy world. 

For his brightness and glory, for his strength and victorious 
power .... 

V. 

18. YathS ahu vairy6 : The will of the Lord is the law of 
holiness .... 

We sacrifice unto the holy, tall-formed, fiend-smiting Sraosha, 
who makes the world increase, the holy and master of holiness ; 

The first [Sraosha], the next, the middle, and the 
highest ; with the first sacrifice, with the next, with 
the middle, and with the highest 2 . We sacrifice 
unto all [the moments] 3 of the holy and strong 
Sraosha, who is the incarnate Word ; 

19. The strong Sraosha, of the manly courage, 
the warrior of the strong arms, who breaks the 
skulls of the Da£vas ; who smites with heavy blows * 
and is strong to smite ; the holy Sraosha, who smites 

1 The faithful, as helping through their good deeds in the work 
of final restoration, to be performed by Saoshya«/ (cf. Yt. XIII, 17). 

2 The first sacrifice is the Yasna sacrifice; the next (literally, 
superior) is the Vispe"rad; the middle sacrifice is the Hidhdkht 
[andJSvak h6m&st; the highest sacrifice is the Dv&zdah h6m£st 
(Pahl. Comm.). Sraosha is called the first, next, middle, and highest, 
accordingly as he presides over one or the other of those sacrifices. 
For a definition of the Svak hdm&st and Dv&zdah h&m&st, see 
West, Pahlavi Texts, I, 212, note 5. 

s Vispan, translated harvisp zamdn. 

* Literally, the smiter who smites with smitings. 



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1 66 YASTS AND siRdZAHS. 

with heavy blows ; we sacrifice unto the crushing 
Ascendant of both the holy Sraosha and Ar.yti 1 . 

20. We sacrifice for all the houses protected by 
Sraosha, where the holy Sraosha is dear and friendly 
treated and satisfied, as well as the faithful man 2 , 
rich in good thoughts, rich in good words, rich in 
good deeds. 

21. We sacrifice unto the body of the holy 
Sraosha ; 

We sacrifice unto the body of Rashnu Razista ; 

We sacrifice unto the body of Mithra, the lord of 
wide pastures ; 

We sacrifice unto the body of the holy wind ; 

We sacrifice unto the body of the good Law of the 
worshippers of Mazda ; 

We sacrifice unto the body of Arsta/, who makes 
the world grow, who makes the world increase, who 
makes the world prosper ; 

We sacrifice unto the body of Ashi Vanguhi ; 

We sacrifice unto the body of the good ATisti ; 

We sacrifice unto the body of the most right 
Afista; 

We sacrifice unto the bodies of all the gods ; 

22. We sacrifice unto the body of the Mathra 
Spewta ; 

We sacrifice unto the body of the fiend-destroying 
Law; 

We sacrifice unto the body of the long-traditional 
teaching ; 

We sacrifice unto the bodies of the Amesha- 
Spe»tas ; 

1 The same as AwtaV. Cf. Yasna LVII, 34-35 [LVI, 13, 3-7]. 
1 He receives alms (the ashd-dad). 



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srosh yast hAdh6kht. 167 

We sacrifice unto the bodies of ourselves, the 
Saoshya#/s, the two-footed part of the holy crea- 
tion; 

We sacrifice unto the bodies of all the beings of 
the holy world 1 . 

For his brightness and glory, for his strength and victorious 
power .... 

23. Yatha" ahu vairyd: The will of the Lord is the law of 
holiness .... 

I bless the sacrifice and prayer, the strength and 
vigour of the holy, strong Sraosha, who is the in- 
carnate Word, a mighty-speared and lordly god. 

[Give] unto that man 2 brightness and glory, .... give him the 
bright, all-happy, blissful abode of the holy Ones 1 

1 Cf. §§ 16-17. * Who sacrifices to Sraosha. 



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1 68 YASTS AND s!r6zAHS. 



XII. RASHN YAST. 

Rashnu Razuta, 'the truest True,' is the Genius of Truth: 
he is one of the three judges of the departed, with Mithra and 
Sraosha : he holds the balance in which the deeds of men are 
weighed after their death : ' he makes no unjust balance . . . . , 
neither for the pious nor yet the wicked, neither for lords nor yet 
rulers ; as much as a hair's breadth he will not. vary, and he shows 
no favour 1 .' He is an offshoot either of Mithra, the God of Truth 
and the avenger of lies, or of Ahura Mazda himself, the all-knowing 
lord (§ 2 seq.). 

This Yart seems to be an appeal made to Rashnu to come and 
attend the performance of the var ntrang or ordeal (see p. 170, 
note 3), of which Rashnu, as the Genius of Truth, was the natural 
witness and arbiter (cf. Vend. IV, 54-55 [154-156]). As a god of 
Truth must know everything and be present everywhere, he is 
called from whatever part of the world he may actually be in. 
This brings about an enumeration of all the parts of the world, 
from this earth (§§ 9-22) to the highest heaven (§ 37), passing 
through the Alb6rz (§§ 23-26), the star region (§§ 26-32), the moon 
region (§ 33), and the sun region (§ 34 ; cf. p. 73, note^2). 

This Yajt is recited on the days of Rashn, Murd&d, Ashtad, and 
Zemyad (the 18th, 7th, 26th, and 28th of the month). 



o. May Ahura Mazda be rejoiced ! . . . . 

Ashem Vohu: Holiness is the best of all good .... 

I confess myself a worshipper of Mazda, a follower of Zara- 
thurtra, one who hates the DaSvas and obeys the laws of Ahura ; 

For sacrifice, prayer, propitiation, and glorification unto [HSvani], 
the holy and master of holiness. 

Unto Rashnu Razirta; unto Antat, who makes 
the world grow, who makes the world increase ; unto 
the true-spoken speech, that makes the world grow 2 ; 

1 Minokhirad II, 120-12 1 (tr. West). 
1 Sirdzah 1, 18. 



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RASHN YAST. 1 69 



Be propitiation, with sacrifice, prayer, propitiation, and glorifi- 
cation. 

Yathi ahu vairy6: The will of the Lord is the law of 
holiness .... 

I. 

i. The holy (Zarathu-rtra) asked him 1 : ' O holy 
Ahura Mazda! I ask thee ; answer me with words of 
truth, thou who knowest the truth. Thou art unde- 
ceivable, thou hast an undeceivable understanding; 
thou art undeceivable, as thou knowest everything. 

' What of the Holy Word is created true? what is 
created progress-making ? what is fit to discern ? 
what is healthful ? what is wise ? what is happy and 
more powerful to destroy than all other creatures 2 ?' 

2. Ahura Mazda answered : ' I will declare that 
unto thee, O pure, holy Spitama ! 

'The most glorious Holy Word (itself), this is what 
in the Holy Word is created true, what is created 
progress making, what is fit to discern, what is 
healthful, wise, and happy, what is more powerful to 
destroy than all other creatures.' 

3. Ahura Mazda said : ' Bind up a three-twigged 
baresma against the way of the sun. [Address] 
unto me, Ahura Mazda, these words : " We invoke, 
we bless [Ahura] 3 ; I invoke the friendship [of Ahura] 
towards this var 4 prepared, towards the fire and 
the baresma, towards the full boiling [milk 8 ], towards 
the var* of oil and the sap 6 of the plants." 

1 Ahura Mazda. " Cf. Yt. I, 1 seq. 

8 The text is apparently corrupt and has literally, ' We invoke, 
we bless me, Ahura Mazda.' 

4 See following page, note 3. 

5 Possibly, waters; cf. Yt. V, 132 and Vend. IV, 46 [128], 54 
[154] seq. 

6 Literally, the fat. 



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I70 YASTS AND siR6ZAHS. 

4. 'Then I, Ahura Mazda, shall come for help 
unto thee, towards this var prepared, towards 
the fire and the baresma, towards the full boiling 
[milk], towards the var of oil and the sap of the 
plants ; 

'Along with the fiend-smiting Wind, along with the 
cursing thought of the wise \ along with the kingly 
Glory, along with Saoka 2 , made by Mazda. 

5. ' We invoke, we bless Rashnu, the strong ; I 
invoke his friendship towards this var 3 prepared, 
towards the fire and the baresma, towards the full 
boiling [milk], towards the var of oil and the sap of 
the plants. 

6. ' Then Rashnu the tall, the strong, will come 
for help unto thee, towards this var prepared, towards 
the fire and the baresma, towards the full boiling 
[milk], towards the var of oil and the sap of the 
plants : 

'Along with the fiend-smiting Wind, along with the 
cursing thought of the wise, along with the kingly 
Glory, along with Saoka, made by Mazda. 

7. ' O thou, holy Rashnu ! O most true Rashnu ! 
most beneficent Rashnu ! most knowing Rashnu ! 
most discerning Rashnu ! most fore -knowing 
Rashnu! most far-seeing Rashnu! Rashnu, the 



1 See p. 12, note 13. 2 See Vend. XXII, 3. 

3 Vard; this seems to be the Var nirang or ordeal which 
is alluded to in several passages of the Avesta ; cf. Afrigin I, 9 ; 
Yasna XXXI, 3 b (see Pahl. Comm. ; cf. Comm. ad XXXIV, 4 a) ; 
cf. Vend. IV, 46, 55. According to the Dinkart, there were thirty- 
three kinds of var ordeals (Haug, Ardi Viraf, p. 145); the most 
common was to pour melted copper upon the breast of the man 
whose truth was to be tested : if he went off uninjured, he was 
considered to have spoken the truth. Cf. Vend. Introd. Ill, 9. 



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RASHN YAST. 17I 



best doer of justice 1 ! Rashnu, the best smiter of 
thieves ; 

8. ' The uninjured, the best killer, smiter, de- 
stroyer of thieves and bandits ! in whatever part of 
the world thou art watching the doings 2 of men and 
making the account . . . . 3 . 

II. 

9. 'Whether thou, O holy Rashnu! art in the 
Karshvare Arezahi 4 , we invoke, we bless Rashnu, 
the strong. I invoke his friendship towards this 
var prepared 6 .... in whatever part of the world 
thou art. 

III. 

10. ' Whether thou, O holy Rashnu ! art in the 
Karshvare Savahi 4 , we invoke, we bless Rashnu. 
I invoke his friendship towards this var prepared 
.... in whatever part of the world thou art. 

IV. 

11. 'Whether thou, O holy Rashnu! art in the 
Karshvare Fradadhafshu 4 , we invoke, we bless 
Rashnu, the strong. I invoke his friendship towards 
this var prepared .... in whatever part of the 
world thou art. 

V. 

12. 'Whether thou, O holy Rashnu! art in the 

1 ArethamaZ-bairishta: aretha- is dinS, d£dist&n (law, 
justice). 

* Ke*a=kartarf (Pahl. Comm. ad Vend. XXI, 3 [14]). 

* I cannot make anything of the rest of the sentence hadhana - 
tanasuj; cf. § 38. 

4 See Yt. X, 15, note 5. • The rest as in §§ 5-8. 



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I72 YA5TS AND sfRdZAHS. 

Karshvare Vldadhafshu 1 , we invoke, we bless 
Rashnu, the strong. I invoke his friendship towards 
this var prepared .... in whatever part of the 
world thou art. 

VI. 

1 3. ' Whether thou, O holy Rashnu ! art in the 
Karshvare Vouru-barerti \ we invoke, we bless 
Rashnu, the strong. I invoke his friendship towards 
this var prepared .... in whatever part of the 
world thou art. 

VII. 

14. 'Whether thou, O holy Rashnu! art in the 
Karshvare Vouru-barerti 1 , we invoke, we bless 
Rashnu, the strong. I invoke his friendship towards 
this var prepared .... in whatever part of the 
world thou art 

VIII. 

1 5. ' Whether thou, O holy Rashnu ! art in this 
Karshvare, the bright //z>aniratha 1 , we invoke, we 
bless Rashnu, the strong. I invoke his friendship 
towards this var prepared .... in whatever part 
of the world thou art. 

IX. 

16. ' Whether thou, O holy Rashnu ! art in the 
sea Vouru-Kasha 2 , we invoke, we bless Rashnu, the 
strong. I invoke his friendship towards this var 
prepared .... in whatever part of the world 
thou art. 

1 See Yt. X, 15, note 5. 2 See p. 54, note 6. 



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RASHN YAST. 1 73 



X. 

1 7. ' Whether thou, O holy Rashnu ! art on the 
tree of the eagle \ that stands in the middle of the 
sea Vouru-Kasha, that is called the tree of good 
remedies, the tree of powerful remedies, the tree of 
all remedies, and on which rest the seeds of all 
plants ; we invoke, we bless Rashnu, the strong. I 
invoke his friendship towards this var prepared 

XI. 

18. 'Whether thou, O holy Rashnu! art on the 
Aodhas 2 of the Rangha, we invoke, we bless 
Rashnu, the strong. I invoke his friendship towards 
this var prepared .... 

XII. 

19. 'Whether thou, O holy Rashnu! art on the 
Sanaka* of the Rangha, we invoke, we bless Rashnu, 
the strong. I invoke his friendship towards this 
var prepared .... 

1 The Sa6na, in later mythology the Slnamru or Sfmurgh; 
his 'resting-place is on the tree which is Ja<f-besh (opposed to 
harm) of all seeds; and always when he rises aloft, a thousand 
twigs will shoot forth from that tree ; and when he alights, he will 
break off the thousand twigs, and he sheds their seed therefrom. 
And the bird ChaSmr6sh for ever sits in that vicinity; and his work 
is this, that he collects that seed which sheds from the tree of all 
seeds, which is Jarf-blsh, and conveys it there where Tishtar 
seizes the water, so that Tishtar may seize the water with that 
seed of all kinds, and may rain it on the world with the rain' 
(Minokhirad LXII, 37; tr.West). 

2 By the floods (? Vend. I, 26); it has probably a geographical 
meaning ; cf. the following paragraph ; perhaps the marshy country 
at the mouth of the Tigris. 

8 Cf.Yt. X, 104; aodhas and sanaka may refer to the southern 
and northern basin of the Tigris. 



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174 YASTS AND s!r6zAHS. 

XIII. 

20. 'Whether thou, O holy Rashnu! art at one 
of the angles . of this earth, we invoke we bless 
Rashnu. I invoke his friendship towards this var 
prepared .... 

XIV. 

21. 'Whether thou, O holy Rashnu! art at the 
boundary of this earth, we invoke, we bless Rashnu. 
I invoke his friendship towards this var prepared .... 

XV. 

22. 'Whether thou, O holy Rashnu! art in any 
place of this earth, we invoke, we bless Rashnu. I 
invoke his friendship towards this var prepared .... 

XVI. 

23. 'Whether thou, O holy Rashnu ! art on the 
Hara Berezaiti, the bright mountain around which 
the many (stars) revolve, where come neither night 
nor darkness, no cold wind and no hot wind, no 
deathful sickness, no uncleanness made by the 
Da£vas, and the clouds cannot reach up unto the 
Haraiti Bareza 1 ; we invoke, we bless Rashnu. I in- 
voke his friendship towards this var prepared .... 

XVII. 

24. 'Whether thou, O holy Rashnu ! art upon 
the highest Hukairya, of the deep precipices 2 , made 
of gold, wherefrom this river of mine, Ardvi Sura 
Anahita, leaps from a thousand times the height of 
a man, we invoke, we bless Rashnu, the strong. I 
invoke his friendship towards this var prepared .... 

1 Cf. Yt. X, 50. 

2 Reading visp6-va£mem; cf.Yt.V, 96, note 7. 



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RASHN VAST. I 75 



XVIII. 

25. 'Whether thou, O holy Rashnu! art upon 
the Ta6ra of the height Haraiti, around which the 
stars, the moon, and the sun revolve \ we invoke, 
we bless Rashnu, the strong. I invoke his friend- 
ship towards this var prepared .... 

XIX. 

26. ' Whether thou, O holy Rashnu ! art in the 
star Vana»/ 2 , made by Mazda, we invoke, we bless 
Rashnu, the strong. I invoke his friendship towards 
this var prepared .... 

XX. 

27. 'Whether thou, O holy Rashnu! art in the 
bright and glorious star TLstrya 3 , we invoke, we 
bless Rashnu, the strong. I invoke his friendship 
towards the var prepared .... 

XXI. 

28. 'Whether thou, O holy Rashnu! art in the 
group of the Hapt6iri«ga stars 8 , we invoke, we 
bless Rashnu, the strong. I invoke his friendship 
towards this var prepared .... 

XXII. 

29. ' Whether thou, O holy Rashnu ! art in those 
stars that have the seed of the waters in them 4 , we 

1 See Bund. V, 3 seq. ; cf. Yt. X, 13, 50. 

* Cf. Yt. XX and Yt VIII, 12. 8 Cf. Yt VIII, 1 2. 

4 ' The star of water essence is for the increase of water ; and 
the star of earth essence, for the increase of earth ; and the star of 
tree essence, for the increase of trees ; and the star of cattle essence, 



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I76 YASTS AND stRdZAHS. 

invoke, we bless Rashnu, the strong. I invoke his 
friendship towards this var prepared .... 

XXIII. 

30. ' Whether thou, O holy Rashnu ! art in those 
stars that have the seed of the earth in them \ we 
invoke, we bless Rashnu, the strong. I invoke his 
friendship towards this var prepared .... 

XXIV. 

31. 'Whether thou, O holy Rashnu! art in those 
stars that have the seed of the plants in them 1 , we 
invoke, we bless Rashnu, the strong. I invoke his 
friendship towards this var prepared .... 

XXV. 

32. 'Whether thou, O holy Rashnu! art in the 
stars that belong to the Good Spirit 2 , we invoke, 
we bless Rashnu, the strong. I invoke his friend- 
ship towards this var prepared .... 

XXVI. 

33. 'Whether thou, O holy Rashnu! art in the 
moon which has the seed of the Bull in it 3 , we in- 
voke, we bless Rashnu, the strong. I invoke his 
friendship towards this var prepared .... 

for the increase of cattle ; and the essence of water, and earth, and 
trees, and cattle is created for the increase of man ' (Minokhirad 
XLIX, 7, tr.West). 

1 See preceding note. 

2 Excluding the planets which belong to Ahriman (Minokhirad 
VIII, j 9 ; Bund. Ill, 25 ; V, 1). 

3 See above, p. 8, note 8. 



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RASHN YAST. 1 77 



XXVII. 

34. ' Whether thou, holy Rashnu ! art in the 
swift-horsed sun, we invoke, we bless Rashnu, the 
strong. I invoke his friendship towards this var 
prepared .... 

XXVIII. 

35. 'Whether thou, O holy Rashnu! art in the 
sovereign endless Light, we invoke, we bless Rashnu, 
the strong. I invoke his friendship towards this var 
prepared .... 

XXIX. 

36. ' Whether thou, O holy Rashnu ! art in the 
bright, all-happy, blissful abode of the holy Ones, we 
invoke, we bless Rashnu, the strong. I invoke his 
friendship towards this var prepared .... 

XXX. 

37. 'Whether thou, O holy Rashnu! art in the 
shining Gar6-dem4na 1 , we invoke, we bless Rashnu, 
the strong. I invoke his friendship towards this var 
prepared .... 

XXXI. 

38. 'Whether thou, O holy Rashnu! art ... . 2 
we invoke, we bless Rashnu, the strong. I invoke 
his friendship towards this var prepared .... 

39. ' For his brightness and glory, I will offer unto him a sacri- 
fice worth being heard .... 

1 The highest heaven, the abode of Ormazd. 

8 ?Upa hadhana hadhanl tanasuj; cf. § 8, p. 171, note 3. 

03] N 



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I78 YASTS AND siRdZAHS. 

' YS«he" hatSm : All those beings of whom Ahura Mazda .... 
40. ' YathS ahu vairyd : The will of the Lord is the law of 
holiness .... 

' I bless the sacrifice and prayer, and the strength 
and vigour of Rashnu Razlrta; of Ar-rta/, who 
makes the world grow, who makes the world in- 
crease ; and of the true-spoken speech that makes 
the world grow. 

'AshemVohu: Holiness is the best of all good .... 

' [Give] unto that man 1 brightness and glory, give him health of 
body, .... give him the bright, all-happy, blissful abode of the 
holy Ones.' 

1 Who shall have worshipped Rashnu. 



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farvardIn yast. 179 



xiii. farvardIn vast. 



The Fravashi is the inner power in every being that maintains 
• it and makes it grow and subsist. Originally the Fravashis were 
the same as the Pitr/'s of the Hindus or the Manes of the Latins, 
that is to say, the everlasting and deified souls of the dead (see 
§§ 49~5 2 ) J DUt m course of time they gained a wider domain, and 
not only men, but gods and even physical objects, like the sky and 
the earth, &c. (§§ 85-86), had each a Fravashi (see Ormazd et 
Ahriman, §§ m-113). 

This Yart is to be divided into two parts. The former part 
(§§ 1-84) is a glorification of the powers and attributes of the 
Fravashis in general; the latter part (§§ 85-158) is an enumeration 
of the Fravashis of the most celebrated heroes of Mazdeism, from 
the first man, Gaya Maretan, down to the last, Saoshya«/. 

This latter part is like a Homer's catalogue of Mazdeism. 
The greatest part of the historical legends of Iran lies here con- 
densed into a register of proper names. This enumeration is 
divided into seven chapters : 

The first (XXIV, §§ 85-95) contains the names of several gods, 
of the first man, Gaya Maretan, the first law-giver, Zarathurtra, and 
his first disciple, Maidhyd-maungha ; 

The second part (XXV, §§ 96-110) contains the names of the 
disciples of Zarathurtra, most of them belonging to the epical 
cyclus of Vfataspa (Gurtasp) ; 

The third part (XXVI, §§ m-117) is of uncertain character, 
and no name contained in it is found in the epical legends ; 

The fourth part (XXVII, §§ 118-128) seems to be devoted to 
the heroes of the other Karshvares and to mythical beings, bom 
or unborn (cf. §§ 121, 122, 127, 128); 

The fifth part (XXVIII, § 129) is devoted to Saoshyas/ alone; 

The sixth part (XXIX, §§ 130-138) is devoted to the heroes 
before the time of Zarathurtra ; 

The seventh part (XXX, §§ 139-142) is devoted to the holy 
women of Mazdeism from Hvdvi, Zarathurtra's wife, down to 
SrutaZ-fedhri, Vanghu-fedhri, and EredaZ-fedhri, the future mothers 
of his three unborn sons. 

The second, third, and fourth enumerations all end with the 

N 2 



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l80 VASTS AND S1R6ZAHS. 

name of AstvaZ-ereta (that is to say, Saoshyan/), which shows that 
they do not refer to successive generations, but to three inde- 
pendent branches, which are each developed apart down to the 
time of the Saviour. 



o. May Ahura Mazda be rejoiced I . . . . 

Ashem Vohu : Holiness is the best of all good .... 

I confess myself a worshipper of Mazda, a follower of Zara- 
thurtra, one who hates the DaSvas and obeys the laws of Ahura; 

For sacrifice, prayer, propitiation, and glorification unto [Hivani], 
the holy and master of holiness. 

Unto the awful, overpowering Fravashis of the 
faithful ; unto the Fravashis of the men of the pri- 
mitive law 1 ; unto the Fravashis of the next-of-kin, 

Be propitiation, with sacrifice, prayer, propitiation, and glori- 
fication. 

Yathd ahu vairy6: The will of the Lord is the law of holi- 
ness .... 

I. 

i. Ahura Mazda spake unto Spitama Zarathurtra, 
saying : ' Do thou proclaim, O pure Zarathurtra ! the 
vigour and strength, the glory, the help and the joy 
that are in the Fravashis of the faithful, the awful 
and overpowering Fravashis ; do thou tell how they 
come to help me, how they bring assistance unto 
me, the awful Fravashis of the faithful 2 . 

2. ' Through their brightness and glory, O Zara- 
thurtra ! I maintain that sky, there above, shining 
and seen afar, and encompassing this earth all 
around. 

3. ' It looks like a palace, that stands built of a 

1 The so-called paoiry6-/kaSsha: the primitive law is what 'is 
considered as the true Mazdayasnian religion in all ages, both 
before and after the time of Zaratdrt ' (West, Pahlavi Texts, I, 
242, note 1); cf. § 150. 

2 Cf. § 19. 



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farvard!n yast. 181 



heavenly substance 1 , firmly established, with ends 
that lie afar, shining in its body of ruby over the 
three-thirds (of the earth) 2 ; it is like a garment 
inlaid with stars, made of a heavenly substance, that 
Mazda puts on, along with Mithra and Rashnu and 
Spe#ta-Armaiti, and on no side can the eye perceive 
the end of it. 

4. ' Through their brightness and glory, O Zara- 
thurtra ! I maintain Ardvi Sura Anahita, the wide- 
expanding and health-giving, who hates the Daevas 
and obeys the laws of Ahura, who is worthy of 
sacrifice in the material world, worthy of prayer in 
the material world ; the life-increasing and holy, the 
flocks-increasing and holy, the fold-increasing and 
holy, the wealth-increasing and holy, the country- 
increasing and holy 3 ; 

5 *. ' Who makes the seed of all males pure, who 
makes the womb of all females pure for bringing 
forth, who makes all females bring forth in safety, 
who puts milk in the breasts of all females in the 
right measure and the right quality; 

6. ' The large river, known afar, that is as large 
as the whole of all the waters that run along the 
earth ; that runs powerfully from the height Hukairya 
down to the sea Vouru-Kasha. 

,7. 'All the shores of the sea Vouru-Kasha are 
boiling over, all the middle of it is boiling over, 

1 Reading mainyu-tS.ft6; cf. Yt. X, 90, 143, and in this very 
paragraph vanghanem mainyu-tiftem. 

2 A division of the earth different from and older than the 
division into seven Karshvares ; cf. Yasna XI, 7 [21]; this division 
was derived by analogy from the tripartite division of the universe 
(earth, atmosphere, and heaven). 

3 Yt.V, 1. <§§ 5 -8=Yt.V, 2-5. 



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1 82 YASTS AND stltdZAHS. 

when she runs down there, when she streams down 
there, she, Ardvi Sura Anahita, who has a thousand 
cells and a thousand channels ; the extent of each of 
those cells, of each of those channels, is as much 
as a man can ride in forty days, riding on a good 
horse. 

8. ' From this river of mine alone flow all the 
waters that spread all over the seven Karshvares ; 
this river of mine alone goes on bringing waters, 
both in summer and in winter. This river of mine 
purifies the seed in males, the womb in females, the 
milk in females' breasts *. 

9. ' Through their brightness and glory, O Zara- 
thwtra ! I maintain the wide earth made by Ahura, 
the large and broad earth, that bears so much that 
is fine, that bears all the bodily world, the live and 
the dead, and the high mountains, rich in pastures 
and waters ; 

10. ' Upon which run the many streams and 
rivers ; upon which the many kinds of plants grow 
up from the ground, to nourish animals and men, 
to nourish the Aryan nations, to nourish the five 
kinds of animals 2 , and to help the faithful. 

11. 'Through their brightness and glory, O Zara- 
thustra ! I maintain in the womb the child that has 
been conceived, so that it does not die from the 



M§4-8=Yt.V, 1-5. 

* There are five classes of animals: those living in waters 
(upapa), those living under the ground (upasma=upa-zema), 
the flying ones (fraptar<f at), the running ones (ravas£arant),the 
grazing ones (£angrangha£); VispSrad I, 1 seq.; Yt. XIII, 74. 
The representatives of those several classes are the kar mahl 
fish, the ermine, the karjipt, the hare, and the ass -goat (Pahl. 
Comm. ad Visp. 1. 1.). 



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FARVARDiN VAST. 1 83 



assaults of Viddtu *, and I develop in it 2 the bones, 
the hair, the . . . . 3 , the entrails, the feet, and the 
sexual organs. 

12. ' Had not the awful Fravashis of the faithful 
given help unto me, those animals and men of mine, 
of which there are such excellent kinds, would not 
subsist; strength would belong to the Druf, the 
dominion would belong to the Dru^, the material 
world would belong to the Druf. 

1 3 ' Between the earth and the sky the immaterial 
creatures would be harassed by the Druf ; between 
the earth and the sky the immaterial creatures would 
be smitten by the Dru£* ; and never afterwards would 
Angra-Mainyu give way to the blows of Spe«ta- 
Mainyu. 

14. 'Through their brightness and glory the 
waters run and flow forward from the never-failing 
springs ; through their brightness and glory the 
plants grow up from the earth, by the never-failing 
springs ; through their brightness and glory the 
winds blow, driving down the clouds towards the 
never-failing springs. 

15. 'Through their brightness and glory the 
females conceive offspring ; through their brightness 
and glory they bring forth in safety ; it is through 
their brightness and glory when they become blessed 
with children. 

1 6. ' Through their brightness and glory a man 
is born who is a chief in assemblies and meetings 4 , 
who listens well s to the (holy) words, whom Wisdom 



1 See Vend. IV, 40 [137]. s Doubtful. 

' ? Derewda. * A notf^v Xa&*. 

8 Who learns well, who has the gaoshd-sruta khratu. 



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1 84 YASTS AND siRdZAHS. 

holds dear \ and who returns a victor from discus- 
sions with Gaotema, the heretic 2 . 

' Through their brightness and glory the sun goes 
his way; through their brightness and glory the 
moon goes her way ; through their brightness and 
glory the stars go their way. 

17. 'In fearful battles they are the wisest for 
help, the Fravashis of the faithful. 

'The most powerful amongst the Fravashis of 
the faithful, O Spitama ! are those of the men of 
the primitive law s or those of the Saoshya»/s 4 not 
yet born, who are to restore the world. Of the 
others, the Fravashis of the living faithful are more 
powerful, O Zarathurtra ! than those of the dead, 
O Spitama ! 

18. 'And the man who in life shall treat the 
Fravashis of the faithful well, will become a ruler 
of the country with full power, and a chief most 
strong ; so shall any man of you become, who shall 
treat Mithra well, the lord of wide pastures, and 
Arst&t, who makes the world grow, who makes the 
world increase. 

19. 'Thus do I proclaim unto thee, O pure Spi- 
tama ! the vigour and strength, the glory, the help, 
and the joy that are in the Fravashis of the faithful, 



1 Or, 'who wishes for wisdom' (lore; khratukdta=khratu- 
iinah). 

2 Y6 n&idhyangh6 gaotemahe 1 par6 ayau par.rt6i/avditi. 
This seems to be an allusion to controversies with the Buddhists 
or Gotama's disciples, whose religion had obtained a footing in 
the western parts of Iran as early as the second century before 
Christ. Naidhyangh6 means a heretic, an Ashemaogha 
(see Pahl. Comm. ad Yasna XXXIV, 8). 

3 See above, p. 180, note 1. * See above, p. 165, note 1. 



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the awful and overpowering Fravashis ; and how 
they come to help me, how they bring assistance 
unto me, the awful Fravashis of the faithful V 

II. 

20. Ahura Mazda spake unto Spitama Zara- 
thurtra, saying : ' If in this material world, O Spi- 
tama Zarathurtra! thou happenest to come upon 
frightful roads, full of dangers and fears, O Zara- 
thurtra ! and thou fearest for thyself, then do thou 
recite these words, then proclaim these fiend-smiting 
words, O Zarathurtra! 

21. ' " J praise, I invoke, I meditate upon, and we 
sacrifice unto the good, strong, beneficent Fravashis 
of the faithful. We worship the Fravashis of the 
masters of the houses, those of the lords of the 
boroughs, those of the lords of the towns, those of 
the lords of the countries, those of the Zarathurtrd- 
temas 2 ; the Fravashis of those that are, the Fra- 
vashis of those that have been, the Fravashis of 
those that will be ; all the Fravashis of all nations 3 , 
and most friendly the Fravashis of the friendly 
nations ; 

22. ' " Who maintain the sky, who maintain the 
waters, who maintain the earth, who maintain the 
cattle, who maintain in the womb the child that has 
been conceived, so that it does not die from the 
assaults of Vld6tu, and develop in it the bones, the 
hair, the . . . . , the entrails, the feet, and the sexual 
organs 4 ; 

23. '"Who are much -bringing, who move with 

1 Cf. § 1. * See Yt. X, 115, note. 

* See § 143, text and note. * See § 11. 



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1 86 YASTS AND S{R6ZAHS. 

awfulness, well-moving, swiftly moving, quickly 
moving, who move when invoked ; who are to be 
invoked in the conquest of good, who are to be in- 
voked in fights against foes, who are to be invoked 
in battles; „ 

24. ' " Who give victory to their invoker, who give 
boons to their lover, who give health to the sick 
man, who give good Glory to the faithful man that 
brings libations and invokes them with a sacrifice 
and words of propitiation 1 ; 

25. '"Who turn to that side where are faithful 
men, most devoted to holiness, and where is the 
greatest piety 2 , where the faithful man is rejoiced 3 , 
and where the faithful man is not ill-treated *." ' 

III. 

26. We worship the good, strong, beneficent Fra- 
vashis of the faithful, who are the mightiest of drivers, 
the lightest of those driving forwards, the slowest 
of the retiring 6 , the safest 6 of all bridges, the least- 
erring 6 of all weapons and arms*, and who never 
turn their backs 7 . 

27. At once, wherever they come, we worship 
them, the good ones, the excellent ones, the good, 
the strong, the beneficent Fravashis of the faithful. 
They are to be invoked when the bundles of 
baresma are tied ; they are to be invoked in fights 
against foes, in battles 8 , and there where gallant 
men strive to conquer foes. 

I Cf. § 40. 

* Frentau: cf. fr£reti=farnamun, adcra (YasnaVIII, 2 [4]). 
8 With alms (ash6-dSd). * Cf. § 36. 

II Doubtful. • Defensive arms. 
' To flee. 8 Cf. § 23. 



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farvardIn yast. 187 



28. Mazda invoked them for help, when he fixed 
the sky and the waters and the earth and the plants ; 
when Spe#ta-Mainyu fixed the sky, when he fixed 
the waters, when the earth, when the cattle, when 
the plants, when the child conceived in the womb, 
so that it should not die from the assaults of Viddtu, 

and developed in it the bones, the hair, the , the 

entrails, the feet, and the sexual organs \ 

29. Spe»ta-Mainyu maintained the sky, and they 
sustained it from below, they, the strong Fravashis, 
who sit in silence, gazing with sharp looks ; whose 
eyes and ears are powerful, who bring long joy, high 
and high-girded ; well-moving and moving afar, loud- 
snorting 2 , possessing riches and a high renown. 

IV. 

30. We worship the good, strong, beneficent 
Fravashis of the faithful ; whose friendship is good, 
and who know how to benefit; whose friendship 
lasts long ; who like to stay in the abode where they 
are not harmed by its dwellers ; who are good, 
beautiful afar 3 , health-giving, of high renown, con- 
quering in battle, and who never do harm first. 

V. 

31. We worship the good, strong, beneficent 
Fravashis of the faithful ; whose will is dreadful 
unto those who vex them ; powerfully working and 
most beneficent; who in battle break the dread 
arms of their foes and haters. 

1 Cf. §§11,22. 

a They are compared to horses ; cf. Yt. VIII, 2. 
8 Their beauty is seen afar. One manuscript has ' known afar ; ' 
another, ' whose eyesight reaches far.' 



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1 88 YASTS AND stRdzAHS. 



VI. 

32. We worship the good, strong, beneficent 
Fravashis of the faithful; liberal, valiant, and full 
of strength, not to be seized by thought, welfare- 
giving, kind, and health-giving, following with Ashi's 
remedies, as far as the earth extends, as the rivers 
stretch, as the sun rises 1 . 

VII. 

33. We worship the good, strong, beneficent 
Fravashis of the faithful, who gallantly and bravely 
fight, causing havoc, wounding 2 , breaking to pieces 
all the malice of the malicious, Daevas and men, 
and smiting powerfully in battle, at their wish and 
will. 

34. You kindly deliver the Victory made by 
Ahura, and the crushing Ascendant, most bene- 
ficently, to those countries where you, the good ones, 
unharmed and rejoiced, unoppressed and unoffended, 
have been held worthy of sacrifice and prayer, and 
proceed the way of your wish. 

VIII. 

35. We worship the good, strong, beneficent 
Fravashis of the faithful, of high renown, smiting 
in battle, most strong, shield-bearing and harmless 
to those who are true, whom both the pursuing and 
the fleeing invoke for help : the pursuer invokes 



1 All the beneficent powers hidden in the earth, in the waters, 
and in the sun, and which Ashi Vanguhi (Yt. XVII) imparts to 
man. 

8 Doubtful: urvaSnaitif. 



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farvardIn yast. 189 



them for a swift race, and for a swift race does the 
fleer invoke them ; 

36. Who turn to that side where are faithful 
men, most devoted to holiness, and where is the 
greatest piety, where the faithful man is rejoiced, 
and where the faithful man is not ill-treated \ 

IX. 

37. We worship the good, strong, beneficent 
Fravashis of the faithful, who form many battalions, 
girded with weapons 2 , lifting up spears, and full of 
sheen j who in fearful battles come rushing along 
where the gallant heroes 8 go and assail the Danus*. 

38. There you destroy the victorious strength of 
the Turanian Danus ; there you destroy the malice 
of the Turanian Danus; through you the chiefs 6 are 
of high intellect 9 and most successful ; they, the 
gallant heroes 3 , the gallant Saoshya»/s 7 , the gallant 
conquerors of the offspring of the Danus chiefs of 
myriads, who wound with stones 8 . 

X. 

39. We worship the good, strong, beneficent 
Fravashis of the faithful, who rout the two wings 
of an army standing in battle array, who make the 
centre swerve, and swiftly pursue onwards, to help 
the faithful and to distress the doers of evil deeds. 

XL 

40. We worship the good, strong, beneficent 

1 Cf. § 25. 2 Y3st6-zayau. * Doubtful. 

* Yt. V, 72. • Doubtful. 

• Hvfra; see fitudes Iraniennes, II, 183. 

7 Cf. p. 165, note 1. * Doubtful (asabana). 



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190 YASTS AND siROZAHS. 

Fravashis of the faithful ; awful, overpowering, and 
victorious, smiting in battle, sorely wounding, blow- 
ing away (the foes), moving along to and fro, of 
good renown, fair of body, godly of soul, and holy ; 
who give victory to their invoker, who give boons to 
their lover, who give health to the sick man ' ; 

41. Who give good glory to him who worships 
them with a sacrifice, as that man did worship them, 
the holy ZarathuJtra, the chief of the material world, 
the head of the two-footed race, in whatever struggle 
he had to enter, in whatever distress he did fear ; 

42. Who, when well invoked, enjoy bliss in the 
heavens ; who, when well invoked, come forward 
from the heavens, who are the heads 2 of that sky 
above, possessing the well-shapen Strength, the Vic- 
tory made by Ahura, the crushing Ascendant, and 
Welfare 3 , the wealth-bringing, boon-bringing, holy, 
well fed, worthy of sacrifice and prayer in the per- 
fection of holiness. 

43. They shed Satavaesa 4 between the earth and 
the sky, him to whom the waters belong 6 , who listens 
to appeals and makes the waters flow and the plants 
grow up, to nourish animals and men, to nourish the 
Aryan nations, to nourish the five kinds of animals 6 , 
and to help the faithful 7 . 

44. Satavaesa comes down and flows between 
the earth and the sky, he to whom the waters be- 
long, who listens to appeals and makes the waters 
and the plants grow up, fair, radiant, and full of 

1 Cf. § 24. 

3 • The chief creatures ;' cf. G£h II, 8. 

* Saoka; cf. Sir6zah I, 3, note. 

4 Cf. Yt. VIII, 9, and 34, note. • Ta/-tpem. 

• See above, p. 182, note 2. 7 Cf. § 10. 



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farvardIn yast. 191 



light, to nourish animals and men, to nourish the 
Aryan nations, to nourish the five kinds of animals, 
and to help the faithful. 

XII. 

45. We worship the good, strong, beneficent 
Fravashis of the faithful ; with helms of brass, with 
weapons of brass, with armour * of brass ; who 
struggle in the fights for victory in garments of 
light, arraying the battles and bringing them for- 
wards, to kill thousands of DaeVas. 

When the wind blows from behind them 2 and 
brings their breath unto men, 

46. Then men know where blows the breath of 
victory : and they pay pious homage unto the good, 
strong, beneficent Fravashis of the faithful, with 
their hearts prepared and their arms uplifted. 

47. Whichever side they have been first wor- 
shipped in the fulness of faith of a devoted heart 3 , 
to that side turn the awful Fravashis of the faithful, 
along with Mithra and Rashnu and the awful cursing 
thought * of the wise and the victorious wind. 

48. And those nations are smitten at one stroke 
by their fifties and their hundreds, by their hundreds 
and their thousands, by their thousands and their 
tens of thousands, by their tens of thousands and 
their myriads of myriads, against which turn the 
awful Fravashis of the faithful, along with Mithra 
and Rashnu, and the awful cursing thought of the 
wise and the victorious wind. 



1 Doubtful. * Literally, blows them within. 

* Cf. Yt X, 9. * See above, p. 12, note 12. 



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I92 VASTS AND SIR6ZAHS. 

XIII. 

49. We worship the good, strong, beneficent 
Fravashis of the faithful, who come and go through 
the borough at the time of the Hamaspathma^dha 1 ; 
they go along there for ten nights, asking thus 2 : 

50. ' Who will praise us ? Who will offer us a 
sacrifice ? Who will meditate upon us ? Who will 
bless us 3 ? Who will receive us with meat and 
clothes in his hand * and with a prayer worthy of 
bliss 6 ? Of which of us will the name be taken for 
invocation 6 ? Of which of you will the soul be wor- 
shipped by you with a sacrifice 7 ? To whom will 
this gift of ours be given, that he may have never- 
failing food for ever and ever ?' 

51. And the man who offers them up a sacrifice, 

1 The sixth and last Gahamter (see AMgSn GahambSr), or the last 
ten days of the year(ioth-2oth March), including the last five days 
of the last month, Sapendarmad, and the five complementary days. 
These last ten days should be spent in deeds of charity, religious 
banquets (guran), and ceremonies in memory of the dead. It was 
also at the approach of the spring that the Romans and the 
Athenians used to offer annual sacrifices to the dead ; the Romans 
in February 'qui tunc extremus anni mensis erat' (Cicero, De 
Legibus, II, 21), the Athenians on the third day of the Anthesterion. 
feast (in the same month). The souls of the dead were supposed to 
partake of the new life then beginning to circulate through nature, 
that had also been dead during the long months of winter. 

* Perhaps : asking for help, thus. 

* Frina/: who will pronounce the Afrfn? 

* To be given in alms to poor Mazdayasnians (ash6-d&d). 

* Asha-nasa: that makes him reach the condition of one of 
the blessed (ahl&yth arzanik, Vend. XVIII, 6 [17]): the Sanskrit 
translation has, ' that is to say, that makes him worthy of a great 
reward.' 

* As in the invocations from § 87 to the end. 

7 An allusion to the formula : ' I sacrifice to the Fravashi of my 
own soul,' Yasna XXIII, 4 [6], 



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FARVARDiN vast. 193 



with meat and clothes in his hand, with a prayer 
worthy of bliss, the awful Fravashis of the faithful, 
satisfied, unharmed, and unoffended, bless thus : 

52. 'May there be in this house flocks of animals 
and men ! May there be a swift horse and a solid 
chariot ! May there be a man who knows how to 
praise God x and rule in an assembly, who will offer 
us sacrifices with meat and clothes in his hand, and 
with a prayer worthy of bliss 2 .' 

XIV. 

53. We worship the good, strong, beneficent 
Fravashis of the faithful, who show beautiful paths 
to the waters, made by Mazda, which had stood 
before for a long time in the same place without 
flowing 3 : 

54. And now they flow along the path made by 
Mazda, along the way made by the gods, the watery 
way appointed to them, at the wish of Ahura Mazda, 
at the wish of the Amesha-Spe»tas. 

XV. 

55. We worship the good, strong, beneficent 
Fravashis of the faithful, who show a beautiful 
growth to the fertile* plants, which had stood before 
for a long time in the same place without growing : 

56. And now they grow up along the path made 

1 Stahyd: stutikaro (Sansk. tr. ; cf. Atash Nyayif, 10). 

s §§ 49~5 3 are a P art °f tne so-called Afrtgan Dahraan (a prayer 
recited in honour of the dead); a Sanskrit translation of that 
Afrtgan has been published by Burnouf in his £tudes zendes. 

8 In winter. 

4 Doubtful. The word is Av&vtriia, which Aspendidrji makes 
synonymous with Az/apara, kind, merciful (Vispetad XXI 
[XXIV], 1). 

[23] o 



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194 YASTS AND sfRdZAHS. 

by Mazda, along the way made by the gods, in the 
time appointed to them, at the wish of Ahura 
Mazda, at the wish of the Amesha-Spe#tas. 

XVI. 

57. We worship the good, strong, beneficent 
Fravashis of the faithful, who showed their paths to 
the stars, the moon, the sun, and the endless lights, 
that had stood before for a long time in the same 
place, without moving forwards, through the oppres- 
sion of the Da£vas and the assaults of the Dafivas 1 . 

58. And now they move around in their far- 
revolving circle for ever, till they come to the time 
of the good restoration of the world. 

XVII. 

59. We worship the good, strong, beneficent 
Fravashis of the faithful, who watch over the bright 
sea Vouru-Kasha 2 , to the number of ninety thou- 
sand, and nine thousand, and nine hundred, and 
ninety-nine. 

XVIII. 

60. We worship the good, strong, beneficent 
Fravashis of the faithful, who watch over the stars 
Hapt6iri«ga 8 , to the number of ninety thousand, 
and nine thousand, and nine hundred, and ninety- 
nine. 

XIX. 

61. We worship the good, strong, beneficent 
Fravashis of the faithful, who watch over the body 

1 Bundahlr VI, 3. 

2 To keep the white H6m there from the evil beings that try 
to destroy it (Minokhirad LXII, 28). 

8 See above, p. 97, note 4. 



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farvardJn vast. 195 



of Keresaspa, the son of Sama 1 , the club-bearer 
■with plaited hair, to the number of ninety thousand, 
and nine thousand, and nine hundred, and ninety- 
nine. 

XX. 

62. We worship the good, strong, beneficent 
Fravashis of the faithful, who watch over the seed 
of the holy Zarathurtra 2 , to the number of ninety 
thousand, and nine thousand, and nine hundred, and 
ninety-nine. 

XXI. 

63. We worship the good, strong, beneficent 
Fravashis of the faithful, who fight at the right 
hand of the reigning lord, if he rejoices the faithful s 
and if the awful Fravashis of the faithful are not 
hurt by him, if they are rejoiced by him, unharmed 
and unoffended. 

XXII. 

64. We worship the good, strong, beneficent 
Fravashis of the faithful, who are greater, who are 

1 Keresispa lies asleep in the plain of Pety&ns&i; 'the glory 
(far) of heaven stands over him for the purpose that, when Aa-i- 
Dahak becomes unfettered, he may arise and slay him; and a 
myriad guardian spirits of the righteous are as a protection to 
him' (Bundahir XXIX, 8 ; tr. West). 

2 'Zaratfift went near unto Hv6v (Hv6gvi, his wife) three 
times, and each time the seed went to the ground; the angel 
N§ry6sang received the brilliance and strength of that seed, 
delivered it with care to the angel Anahi</, and in time will blend 
it with a mother' (Bundahu XXXII, 8). A maid, Ereda/-fedhri, 
bathing in Lake Kasava, will conceive by that seed and bring forth 
the Saviour Saoshyaw/; his two fore-runners, Ukhshya/-ereta and 
Ukhshya/-nemah, will be born in the same way of SrutaZ-fedhri and 
Vanghu-fedhri (Yt. XIII, 141-142). 

8 With alms. 

02 



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196 VASTS AND siRdZAHS. 

stronger, who are swifter, who are more powerful, 
who are more victorious, who are more healing, who 
are more effective than can be expressed by words ; 
who run by tens of thousands into the midst of the 
Myazdas. 

65. And when the waters come up from the sea 
Vouru- Kasha, O Spitama Zarathurtra ! along with 
the Glory made by Mazda 1 , then forwards come 
the awful Fravashis of the faithful, many and many 
hundreds, many and many thousands, many and 
many tens of thousands, 

66. Seeking water for their own kindred, for 
their own borough, for their own town, for their 
own country, and saying thus : ' May our own 
country have a good store and full joy!' 

67. They fight in the battles that are fought in 
their own place and land, each according to the 
place and house where he dwelt (of yore) 2 : they 
look like a gallant warrior who, girded up and 
watchful, fights for the hoard he has treasured up. 

68. And those of them who win bring waters to 
their own kindred, to their own borough, to their 
own town, to their own country, saying thus : ' May 
my country grow and increase ! ' 

69. And when the all-powerful sovereign of a 
country has been surprised by his foes and haters, 
he invokes them, the awful Fravashis of the faithful. 

70. And they come to his help, if they have not 
been hurt by him, if they have been rejoiced by him, 
if they have not been harmed nor offended, the 
awful Fravashis of the faithful : they come flying 
unto him, it seems as if they were well-winged birds. 

1 Cf. Yt. XIX, 56 seq.; VIII, 34. » Doubtful. 

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FARVARDiN YAST. 1 97 



71. They come in as a weapon and as a shield, 
to keep him behind and to keep him in front, from 
the Dru^ - unseen, from the female Varenya fiend, 
from the evil-doer bent on mischief, and from that 
fiend who is all death, Angra Mainyu. It will be 
as if there were a thousand men watching over 
one man 1 ; 

72. So that neither the sword well-thrust, neither 
the club well-falling, nor the arrow well-shot, nor the 
spear well-darted, nor the stones flung from the 
arm shall destroy him. 

73. They come on this side, they come on that 
side, never resting, the good, powerful, beneficent 
Fravashis of the faithful, asking for help thus : 
'Who will praise us? Who will offer us a sacrifice? 
Who will meditate upon us ? Who will bless us ? 
Who will receive us with meat and clothes in his 
hand and with a prayer worthy of bliss ? Of which 
of us will the name be taken for invocation ? Of 
which of you will the soul be worshipped by you 
with a sacrifice ? To whom will that gift of ours be 
given, that he may have never-failing food for ever 
and ever 2 ?' 

74. We worship the perception 3 ; we worship the 
intellect; we worship the conscience; we worship 
those of the Saoshya»/s 4 ; 

We worship the souls; those of the tame animals; 
those of the wild animals ; those of the animals that 
live in the waters ; those of the animals that live 
under the ground; those of the flying ones; those 
of the running ones ; those of the grazing ones 6 . 

1 Cf. Yt I, 19. * Cf. § 50. 

* Asna=&zana (?). * Cf. p. 165, note 1. 

" Cf.Yt. XIII, 10. 



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198 YAJTS AND siRdzAHS. 

We worship their Fravashis K 

75. We worship the Fravashis. 
We worship them, the liberal ; 

We worship them, the valiant ; we worship them, 
the most valiant ; 

We worship them, the beneficent ; we worship 
them, the most beneficent ; 

We worship them, the powerful ; 

We worship them, the most strong ; 

We worship them, the light; we worship them, 
the most light ; 

We worship them, the effective ; we worship 
them, the most effective. 

76. They are the most effective amongst the 
creatures of the two Spirits, they the good, strong, 
beneficent Fravashis of the faithful, who stood 
holding fast when the two Spirits created the world, 
the Good Spirit and the Evil One 2 . 

77. When Angra Mainyu broke into the creation 
of the good holiness, then came in across Vohu 
Man6 and Atar s . 

78. They destroyed the malice of the fiend 
Angra Mainyu, so that the waters did not stop 
flowing nor did the plants stop growing; but at 
once the most beneficent waters of the creator and 

1 There seems to be in this paragraph a distinction of five faculties 
of the soul, asna, mana, da£na, urvan, fravashi. The usual 
classification, as given in this Yast, § 149, and in later Parsism 
(Spiegel, Die traditionelle Literatur der Parsen, p. 172), is: ahu, 
spirit of life (?) ; daSn a, conscience; baodh6, perception; urvan, 
the soul; fravashi. 

2 The Fravashis, 'on war horses and spear in hand, were 
around the sky .... and no passage was found by the evil spirit, 
who rushed back ' (Bund. VI, 3-4 ; tr. West). 

* Cf. Ormazd et Ahriman, § 107. 



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farvardIn yast. j 99 



ruler, Ahura Mazda, flowed forward and his plants 
went on growing. 

79. We worship all the waters ; 
We worship all the plants ; 

We worship all the good, strong, beneficent 
Fravashis of the faithful. 

We worship the waters by their names x ; 

We worship the plants by their names 2 ; 

We worship the good, strong, beneficent Frava- 
shis of the faithful by their names. 

80. Of all those ancient Fravashis, we worship 
the Fravashi of Ahura Mazda ; who is the greatest, 
the best, the fairest, the most solid, the wisest, the 
finest of body and supreme in holiness s ; 

81. Whose soul is the M&thra Spe#ta, who is 
white, shining, seen afar ; and we worship the beau- 
tiful forms, the active forms wherewith he clothes 
the Amesha-Spewtas ; we worship the swift-horsed 
sun. 

XXIII. 

82. We worship the good, strong, beneficent 
Fravashis of the Amesha-Spe«tas, the bright ones, 
whose looks perform what they wish, the tall, quickly 
coming to do, strong, and lordly, who are undecaying 
and holy ; 

83. Who are all seven of one thought, who are 
all seven of one speech, who are all seven of one 
deed ; whose thought is the same, whose speech is 
the same, whose deed is the same, whose father and 

1 That is to say, after their different kinds (described in Yasna 
XXXVIII, 3, 5 [7-9, 13-14]; LXVIII, 8 [LXVII, 15]; and 
Bund. XXI). 

8 After their kinds (Bund. XXVII). 3 Cf. Yasna I, 1. 



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200 YASTS AND sfRdZAHS. 

commander is the same, namely, the Maker, Ahura 
Mazda ; 

84. Who see one another's soul thinking of good 
thoughts, thinking of good words, thinking of good 
deeds, thinking of Gard-nmana, and whose ways 1 
are shining as they go down towards the libations 2 . 

XXIV. 

85. We worship the good, strong, beneficent 
Fravashis: that of the most rejoicing 8 fire, the 
beneficent and assembly-making 4 ; and that of the 
holy, strong Sraosha 6 , who is the incarnate Word, 
a mighty-speared and lordly god; and that of 
Nairy6-sangha 8 . 

86. And that of Rashnu RazLrta 7 ; 

That of Mithra 8 , the lord of wide pastures ; 

That of the Mathra-Spe»ta 9 ; 

That of the sky ; 

That of the waters ; 

That of the earth ; 

That of the plants ; 

That of the Bull 10 ; 

That of the living man 11 ; 

That of the holy creation 12 . 

87. We worship the Fravashi of Gaya Maretan 13 , 

I The Vedic devayana. 2 Cf. Yt. XIX, 15, 17. 

s Urvazifta. As a proper name Urvazwta is the name of the 
fire in plants (Yasna XVII, 11 [65], and Bund. XVII, 1). 
4 At the hearth and the altar. 6 See Yt XI. 

• See Vend. XXII, 7. 7 See Yt. XII. 

8 See Yt. X. » The Holy Word. 10 See Sfr6zah I, 12. 

II Of mankind ; possibly, of Gaya (Maretan). 
11 Doubtful. 

15 The first man. On the myths of Gaya Maretan, see Ormazd 
et Ahriman, §§ 129-135. 



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farvardIn yast. 201 

who first listened unto the thought and teaching of 
Ahura Mazda ; of whom Ahura formed the race of 
the Aryan nations, the seed of the Aryan nations. 

We worship the piety and the Fravashi of the 
holy Zarathujtra ; 

88. Who first thought what is good, who first 
spoke what is good, who first did what is good ; who 
was the first Priest, the first Warrior, the first 
Plougher of the ground x ; who first knew and first 
taught ; who first possessed 2 and first took pos- 
session of the Bull 8 , of Holiness 4 , of the Word, the 
obedience to the Word, and dominion, and all the 
good things made by Mazda, that are the offspring 
of the good Principle ; 

89. Who was the first Priest, the first Warrior, 
the first Plougher of the ground ; who first took the 
turning of the wheel 6 from the hands of the Daeva 
and of the cold-hearted man; who first in the material 
world pronounced the praise of Asha 6 , thus bringing 
the Da6vas to naught, and confessed himself a 
worshipper of Mazda, a follower of Zarathurtra, one 
who hates the Dadvas, and obeys the laws of 
Ahura. 

90. Who first in the material world said the 
word that destroys the Daevas, the law of Ahura ; 
who first in the material world proclaimed the word 
that destroys the Dadvas, the law of Ahura ; who 

1 As having established those three classes. His three earthly 
sons, Isa/-vdstra, UrvataZ-nara, and ffvaxe-Mthra. (§ 98), were the 
chiefs of the three classes. Cf.Vend. Introd. Ill, 15, note 3. 

8 Doubtful. ' Cf. Yasna XXIX, 8. 

4 The divine Order, Asha. 

* The wheel of sovereignty (?) ; cf. Yt X, 67 ; this expression 
smacks of Buddhism. 

6 Who first pronounced the Ashem Vohu ; cf. Yt XXI. 



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202 YASTS AND s!r6zAHS. 

first in the material world declared all the creation 
of the Daevas unworthy of sacrifice and prayer ; 
who was strong, giving all the good things of life, 
the first bearer of the Law amongst the nations ; 

91. In whom was heard the whole Mathra, the 
word of holiness ; who was the lord and master of 
the world 1 , the praiser of the most great, most good 
and most fair Ash a 2 ; who had a revelation of the 
Law, that most excellent of all beings ; 

92. For whom the Amesha-Spe#tas longed, in 
one accord with the sun, in the fulness of faith of a 
devoted heart ; they longed for him, as the lord and 
master of the world, as the praiser of the most great, 
most good, and most fair As ha, as having a revela- 
tion of the Law, that most excellent of all beings ; 

93. In whose birth and growth the waters and 
the plants rejoiced ; in whose birth and growth the 
waters and the plants grew; in whose birth and 
growth all the creatures of the good creations cried 
out, Hail 3 ! 

94. ' Hail to us ! for he is born, the Athravan, 
Spitama Zarathurtra. Zarathurtra will offer us 
sacrifices with libations and bundles of baresma; 
and there will the good Law of the worshippers of 
Mazda come and spread through all the seven 
Karshvares of the earth. 

95. ' There will Mithra, the lord of wide pastures, 
increase all the excellences of our countries, and 
allay their troubles ; there will the powerful Apam- 
Napa/ 4 increase all the excellences of our countries, 
and allay their troubles.' 

1 Material lord and spiritual master. 
* The reciter of the Ashem Vohu. 
8 Cf.Vend. XIX, 46 [143]. * See Sirdzah I, 9, note. 



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farvardIn vast. 203 



We worship the piety and Fravashi of Maidhyd- 
maungha, the son of Arasti 1 , who first listened unto 
the word and teaching of Zarathurtra. 

XXV. 

96. We worship the Fravashi of the holy Asmd- 
Ava.nva.nt 2 ; 

We worship the Fravashi of the holy Asan- 
hva.nva.nt. 

We worship the Fravashi of the holy Gavayan. 

We worship the Fravashi of the holy Parsha/- 
gaus 3 , the son of Frata ; 

We worship the Fravashi of the holy Vohvasti, 
the son of Snaoya ; 

We worship the Fravashi of the holy Isva/, the 
son of Varaza. 

97. We worship the Fravashi of the holy Sa£na, 
the son of Ahum-stu/ 4 , who first appeared upon this 
earth with a hundred pupils 6 . 

We worship the Fravashi of the holy Fradhi- 
daya. 

We worship the Fravashi of the holy Usmanara, 
the son of Pa£shata. 

1 Maidhy6-maungha was the cousin and first disciple of Zara- 
thortra ; Zarathartra's father, Pourushaspa, and Arasti were brothers 
(Bund. XXXII, 3); cf. Yasna LI [L], 19. 

■ Cf. p. 33, note 2; Yt XXII, 37. 

8 Another PawaZ-gaur is mentioned § 126. 

4 Possibly, 'the holy falcon, praiser of the lord;' thus the Law 
was brought to the Var of Yima by the bird Kawipta (Vend. II, 
42), who recites the Avesta in the language of birds (Bund. 
XIX, 16): the SaSna-bird (Sfmurgh) became in later literature a 
mythical incarnation of Supreme wisdom (see the Mantik uttair 
and Dabistln I, 55). 

s Who was the first regular teacher, the first aSthrapaiti. 



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204 VASTS AND s1r6zAHS. 

We worship the Fravashi of the holy Vohu- 
rao^ah, the son of Franya ; 

We worship the Fravashi of the holy Ash6- 
raoiah, the son of Franya ; 

We worship the Fravashi of the holy Varesmd- 
raoiah, the son of Franya. 

98. We worship the Fravashi of the holy Isa^- 
vastra, the son of Zarathurtra ; 

We worship the Fravashi of the holy Urvata^- 
nara, the son of Zarathurtra ; 

We worship the Fravashi of the holy Himz.- 
£ithra, the son of Zarathortra \ 

We worship the Fravashi of the holy Daev6- 
tbis, the son of Takhma. 

We worship the Fravashi of the holy Thrimith- 
wa«/, the son of Spitama 2 . 

We worship the Fravashi of the holy Daungha, 
the son of Zairita. 

99. We worship the Fravashi of the holy king 
Vlrtaspa 3 ; the gallant one, who was the incarnate 

1 ' By Zarattot were begotten three sons and three daughters ; 
one son was Isa^vdstar, one Aurvatarf-nar, and one Khursh&Z- 
Miar; as Isarfvastar was chief of the priests he became the 
M6bad of M6bads, and passed away in the hundredth year of 
the religion ; Aurvata</-nar was an agriculturist, and the chief of the 
enclosure formed by Yim, which is below the earth (see Vend. II, 
43 [141]); KMrsheV-iihar was a warrior, commander of the army 
of P§shy6tanu, son of VutSsp (see Yt. XXIV, 4), and dwells in 
Kangdez ; and of the three daughters the name of one was Fr6n, 
of one Srtt, and of one P6ru£ist (see Yt. XIII, 139). Aurvata</-nar 
and Khursh6</-£lhar were from a serving (^akar) wife, the rest 
were from a privileged (pa</akhshah) wife ' (Bund. XXXII, 5-6 ; 
tr. West). 

s According to Anquetil, ' the threefold seed of Spitama Zara- 
thujtra;' cf. above, § 62. 

8 The king of Bactra, the champion of Zoroastrism ; cf. Yt. V, 
98, 108. 



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FARVARDtN YAST. 205 



Word, the mighty-speared, and lordly one; who, 
driving the Dru^ * before him, sought wide room for 
the holy religion; who, driving the Dru^ -1 before 
him, made wide room for the holy religion, who 
made himself the arm and support of this law of 
Ahura, of this law of Zarathmtra. 

ioo. Who took her 2 , standing bound 3 , from the 
hands of the Hunus 4 , and established her to sit in 
the middle [of the world], high ruling, never falling 
back, holy, nourished with plenty of cattle and pas- 
tures, blessed with plenty of cattle and pastures \ 

101. We worship the Fravashi of the holy Zairi- 
vairi 6 ; 

We worship the Fravashi of the holy Yukhta- 
vairi ; 

We worship the Fravashi of the holy Srlraokh- 
shan; 

We worship the Fravashi of the holy Keresaokh- 
shan ; 

We worship the Fravashi of the holy Vanara ; 

We worship the Fravashi of the holy Varaza ; 

We worship the Fravashi of the holy Bu^i- 
sravah 6 ; 

1 Drugu paurvaȣa, possibly, ' with the spear pushed forwards' 
(reading dru£a). 

• Da£na, the religion. * Cf. Yt II, 15. 

4 A generic name of the people called elsewhere Varedhakas (Yt. 
IX, 31 ; XVII, 51) or Zfoyaonas (ibid, and XIX, 87). The Hunus 
have been compared with the Hunni ; but it is not certain that this 
is a proper name ; it may be a disparaging denomination, meaning 
the brood (hunu = Sansk. sunu ; cf. Yt. X, 113). 

8 Zarlr, the brother ofVfrt&spa and son of AurvaZ-aspa (see 
Yt. V, 112). The ten following seem to be the names of the 
other sons of Aurva/-aspa (Bund. XXXI, 29). 

' Possibly the same with Plt-Khosrav, a brother to Vtrtaspa 
in the Yd<Mr-i ZarirSn, as Mr. West informs me. 



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206 YASTS AND s!r6zAHS. 

We worship the Fravashi of the holy Berezy- 
arrti ; 

We worship the Fravashi of the holy Ttsyarrti ; 

We worship the Fravashi of the holy Perethu- 
arsti ; 

We worship the Fravashi of the holy Vteyarrti. 

1 02. We worship the Fravashi of the holy 
Naptya ; 

We worship the Fravashi of the holy Vasaspa ; 

We worship the Fravashi of the holy Habaspa. 

We worship the Fravashi of the holy Vistauru \ 
the son of Naotara. 

We worship the Fravashi of the holy Frar-h&m- 
vareta 2 ; 

We worship the Fravashi of the holy Frashd- 
kareta. 

We worship the Fravashi of the holy Atare- 
vanu; 

We worship the Fravashi of the holy Atare- 
pata; 

We worship the Fravashi of the holy Atare- 
data ; 

We worship the Fravashi of the holy Atare- 
&thra ; 

1 Gustahm, the son of Nodar ; see Yt. V, 76. Strangely enough, 
Tusa is not mentioned here, unless he is the same with one of the 
preceding names : possibly the words ' the son of Naotara ' (Nao- 
tairyana) refer to all the four. 

2 Possibly Frashidvard ^s^ji (misspelt from a Pahlavi form 
Frarinvard ^ipoo*© (?) ; the Ya</kar-i Zartran, as Mr. West informs 
me, has rVxPo and fhnx»*o)- Frashidvard was a son of Gus- 
tasp : he was killed by one of Ar^asp's heroes and avenged by 
his brother Isfendy&r (Spe»t6-data). The following names would 
belong to his brothers : most of them contain the word Atar, in 
honour of the newly-adopted worship of fire. 



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FARVARDtN VAST. 2QJ 



We worship the Fravashi of the holy Atare- 
^parenah ; 

We worship the Fravashi of the holy Atare- 
savah ; 

We worship the Fravashi of the holy Atare- 
zarctu ; 

We worship the Fravashi of the holy Atare- 
danghu. 

103. We worship the Fravashi of the holy 
Huskyaothna ; 

We worship the Fravashi of the holy Visk- 
yaothna ; 

We worship the Fravashi of the holy and gallant 
Spe»t6-d4ta *. 

We worship the Fravashi of the holy Basta- 
vairi 2 ; 

We worship the Fravashi of the holy Kava- 
razem 8 . 

We worship the Fravashi of the holy Frasha- 
ortra *, the son of H v6va ; 

We worship the Fravashi of the holy Camaspa s , 
the son of Hv6va ; w 

1 Isfendyar, the heroic son of Gurtstsp, killed by Rustem. 

s In the Y£<fkar-i Zaririn, according to Mr. West, Bastvar, the 
son of Zairivairi, whose death he avenges on his murderer Vldrafr. 
This makes Bastavairi identical with the Nastur^ji-J of Firdausi 
(read Bastur^i-j). 

* Kavarazem is the Gurezm of later tradition (aJ/i, 'the 
jealous brother of Isfendylr, whom he slandered to his father and 
caused to be thrown into prison' (Burhan qiti'h). Firdausi (IV, 432) 
has only that he was a relation toGurtSsp: l^.-A • £• f»J aS^U* 
*yi ij±>y*. See fitudes Iraniennes, II, 230. 

4 Who gave his daughter, Hv6vi, in marriage to Zarathujtra 
(Yasna L [XLIX], 4, 17). 

8 See Yt. V, 68. 



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208 VASTS AND s{r6zAHS. 

We worship the Fravashi of the holy Avara- 
ojtri 1 . 

104. We worship the Fravashi of the holy 
Hudcyaothna, the son of Frashaortra ; 

We worship the Fravashi of the holy /ifoadaena, 
the son of Frashao-rtra. 

We worship the Fravashi of the holy Hang- 
haurvaungh, the son of 6Smaspa 2 ; 

We worship the Fravashi of the holy Vareshna, 
the son of Hanghaurvaungh. 

We worship the Fravashi of the holy Vohu- 
nemah, the son of Avirao^tri, 

To withstand evil dreams, to withstand evil 
visions, to withstand evil . . . . 3 , to withstand the 
evil Pairikas. 

105. We worship the Fravashi of the holy 
Mathravaka, the son of Slmae^i, the Aethrapati, 
the Hamidhpati *, who was able to smite down 
most of the evil, unfaithful Ashemaoghas, that 
shout the hymns s , and acknowledge no lord and no 
master 6 , the dreadful ones whose Fravashis are 
to be broken 7 ; to withstand the evil done by the 
faithful 8 . 



1 Another brother to Frashaartra (?). 

* The son of Gamasp in the Shah Namah is called Giraml and 
Garamik-karrf in the Y&fkar-t Zarfran. 

8 ? Aoiwra. 

4 A6thrapati, in Parsi hSrbad, a priest,' whose special function 
is to teach; his pupils were called a&thrya. ASthrapati meant 
literally 'the master of the hearth' (cf. hSrkodah, fire-temple). 
Hamidhpati is literally 'the master of the sacrificial log.' 

8 Doubtful. 

* No temporal lord (ahu) and no spiritual master (ratu). 
7 Doubtful (avasfosta-fravashinSm). 

* The evil done by Zoroastrians. This Mathravaka (' Proclaimer 



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farvard!n yast. 209 



106. We worship the Fravashi of the holy Asha- 
stu, the son of Maidhyo-maungha \ 

We worship the Fravashi of the holy Avare- 
thrabah, the son of Rastare-vagha#/. 

We worship the Fravashi of the holy Bu^a, the 
son of Dazgaraspa. 

We worship the Fravashi of the holy Zbaurva«/ ; 

We worship the Fravashi of the holy and gallant 
Karesna 2 , the son of Zbaurva«/; who was the incar- 
nate Word, mighty-speared and lordly ; 

107. In whose house did walk the good, beau- 
tiful, shining Ashi Vanguhi, in the shape of a maid 
fair of body, most strong, tall-formed, high-up girded, 
pure, nobly born of a glorious seed 3 ; who, rushing 
to the battle, knew how to make room for himself 
with his own arms ; who, rushing to the battle, knew 
how to fight the foe with his own arms *. 

108. We worship the Fravashi of the holy 
Vtraspa, the son of Karesna; 

We worship the Fravashi of the holy Azata, the 
son of Karesna : 

We worship the Fravashi of the holy Frayaodha, 
the son of Karesna. 

We worship the Fravashi of the holy and good 
Arshya ; Arshya, the chief in assemblies, the most 
energetic of the worshippers of Mazda. 



of the Holy Word') was apparently a great doctor and confounder of 
heresies. 

1 See above, § 93. 

1 Possibly the eponym of that great Karen family, which played 
so great a part in the history of the Sassanian times, and traced its 
origin to the time of Gurtasp (Noeldeke, Geschichte der Perser 
zur Zeit der Sasaniden, p. 437). 

• Cf. Yt. V, 64. 4 Cf. Yt. XIII, 99. 

03] P 



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2IO YASTS AND sJr6zaHS. 

We worship the Fravashi of the holy Daraya/- 
ratha ; 

We worship the. Fravashi of the holy Fraya/- 
ratha ; 

We worship the Fravashi of the holy Skaraya/- 
ratha. 

109. We worship the Fravashi of the holy 
Arsva.nt ; 

We worship the Fravashi of the holyVyaryva»/; 

We worship the Fravashi of the holy Paityars- 
va»/. 

We worship the Fravashi of the holy Amru 1 ; 

We worship the Fravashi of the holy Aamru \ 

We worship the Fravashi of the holy Dratha ; 

We worship the Fravashi of the holy Paiti- 
dratha ; 

We worship the Fravashi of the holy Paiti- 
vangha. 

We worship the Fravashi of the holy Frasha- 
vakhsha. 

We worship the Fravashi of the holy Nem6- 
vanghu, the son of Vaedhayangha. 

no. We worship the Fravashi of the holy 
Vlsadha. 

We worship the Fravashi of the holy Asha- 
vanghu, the son of Biva»dangha 2 ; 

We worship the Fravashi of the holy 6ar6- 
danghu, the son of Pairirtira 2 ; 

1 Amru and .ffamru are apparently the two mythical birds men- 
tioned above under the names of Sin-amru (the Amru-falcon) and 
J£&mids (p. 173, note 1). 

3 Mr. West compares Ash&vanghu, the son of Biva«dangha, and 
Garddanghu, the son of Paimtira, with the two high-priests of 
the Karshvares of Arezahi and Savahi, whose names are, in the 



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FARVARDiN VAST. 211 



We worship the Fravashi of the holy Nere- 
myazdana, the son of Athwydza. 

We worship the Fravashi of the holy Berezimu, 
the son of Ara ; 

We worship the Fravashi of the holy Kasupatu, 
the son of Ara. 

We worship the Fravashi of the holy Frya. 

We worship the Fravashi of the holy AsTVAr- 

ERETA \ 



XXVI. 

in. We worship the Fravashi of the holy Gaopi- 
vanghu. 

We worship the Fravashi of the holy and gallant 
Ham-baretar vanghvam 2 . 

We worship the Fravashi of the holy Staotar- 
Vahi.rtah£-Ashyehe 3 . 

We worship the Fravashi of the holy Pouru- 
dhakhrti, the son of Khrtava£nya ; 

We worship the Fravashi of the holy Khshoi- 
wraspa, the son of Kh^tava^nya. 

112. We worship the Fravashi of the holy Ay6- 
asti, the son of Pouru-dhaklu ti * ; 

We worship the Fravashi of the holy Vohv-asti, 
the son of Pouru-dhakhsti ; 



BundahLr, AsMshagaha</-6 HvandMn and Hoazar6dathhri-e Par§- 
Jtyar6 (Bund. XXIX, i, notes 4 and 5). 

1 Saoshyaw/; cf. §§ 117, 128. 

8 Possibly, 'the holyHSm-baretar vanghvSm, the son of Takhma.' 
His name means, ' the gatherer of good things.' 

* This name means, 'the praiser of excellent holiness' (the 
reciter of the Ashem Vohu). 

* See preceding paragraph. 

P 2 



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212 YASTS AND sfadZAHS. 

We worship the Fravashi of the holy Gaya- 
dhasti, the son of Pouru-dhakhrti ; 

We worship the Fravashi of the holy Asha-vaz- 
dah, the son of Pouru-dhakhrti x ; 

We worship the Fravashi of the holy Urudhu, 
the son of Pouru-dhakhrti. 

We worship the Fravashi of the holy Khshathrd- 
£inah, the son of Khshvdiwraspa *. 

113. We worship the Fravashi of the holy 
Ashahura, the son of Glsti. 

We worship the Fravashi of the holy Fraya- 
zawta; 

We worship the Fravashi of the holy Frmah, 
the son of Frayaza»ta ; 

We worship the Fravashi of the holy Gar6- 
vanghu, the son of Frayaza»ta. 

We worship the Fravashis of the holy Asha- 
vazdah and Thrita, the sons of S&yuzdri 3 . 

We worship the Fravashi of the holy Vohu- 
rao^ah, the son of Varakasa. 

We worship the Fravashi of the holy Are^an- 
gha»^, the Turanian 4 . 

We worship the Fravashi of the holy Usinemah. 

114. We worship the Fravashi of the holy 
Yukhtaspa. 

We worship the Fravashi of the holy Asha- 
skyaothna, the son of Gayadhasti 6 . 



1 One of the seven immortals, rulers in i/z>aniratha; cf. Yt V, 
72, text and notes, and Yt. XIII, 120, 124. 

a See preceding paragraph. 

8 See Yt. V, 72. The text has 'the Fravashi;' cf. Yt. V, n6> 
note, and Yt. XIII, 115. 

* Cf. Yt. XIII, 143. Possibly, the son of Tura. 

»Cf.§II2. 



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FARVARDiN YAST. 21 3 



We worship the Fravashi of the holy Vohu- 
nemah, the son of Katu ; 

We worship the Fravashi of the holy Vohu- 
vazdah, the son of Katu. 

We worship the Fravashi of the holy Asha- 
saredha, the son of Asha-sairya/6 ; 

We worship the Fravashi of the holy Asha- 
saredha, the son of Zairya£. 

We worship the Fravashi of the holy Aakhshni. 

We worship the Fravashi of the holy Syavaspi. 

We worship the Fravashi of the holy Pourarti, 
the son of Kavi. 

115. We worship the Fravashi of the holy 
Varesmapa, the son of 6anara. 

We worship the Fravashi of the holy Nanaristi, 
the son of Pa£shatah ; 

We worship the Fravashi of the holy Zarazdati, 
the son of Pa£shatah. 

We worship the Fravashi of the holy Ga^vani, 
the son of Vohu-nemah *. 

We worship the Fravashis of the holy Arezva 
and Sruta-spadha. 

We worship the Fravashis 2 of the holy Zrayah 
and Spe»t6-khratu. 

We worship the Fravashi of the holy Vamri, the 
son of Vagereza. 

We worship the Fravashi of the holy Fra^ya, 
the son of Taurvati. 

We worship the Fravashi of the holy Vahma£- 
data, the son of Mathravaka 3 . 

1 There are two men of this name ; one is the son of Katu 
(§ 114), the other is the son of Avaraoftri (§ 104). 

s The text has 'the Fravashi;' cf. preceding page, note 3. 
8 See § 105. 



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214 YASTS AND siRdZAHS. 

We worship the Fravashi of the holy Ustra, the 
son of Sadhanah. 

1 1 6. We worship the Fravashi of the holy 
Danghu-srtita ; 

We worship the Fravashi of the holy Danghu- 
fradhah. 

We worship the Fravashi of the holy Aspd- 
padh6-makluti ; 

We worship the Fravashi of the holy Payanghrd- 
makhsti. 

We worship the Fravashi of the holy Urtaza«ta. 

We worship the Fravashi of the holy Asha- 
savah ; 

We worship the Fravashi of the holy Ashd- 
urvatha. 

We worship the Fravashi of the holy Haom6- 
^z>arenah. 

117. We worship the Fravashi of the holy 
Frava. 

We worship the Fravashi of the holy Usnaka. 

We worship the Fravashi of the holy Hv&nvznt. 

We worship the Fravashi of the holy Da£n6- 
vazah. 

We worship the Fravashi of the holy Are^aona. 

We worship the Fravashi of the holy Aiwi- 
^^arenah. 

We worship the Fravashi of the holy Huyazata. 

We worship the Fravashi of the holy Hare- 
dhaspa. 

We worship the Fravashi of the holy Pazinah. 

We worship the Fravashi of the holy //zdkhsha- 
thra. 

We worship the Fravashi of the holy Ash6- 
paoirya. 



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farvardIn yast. 215 



We worship the Fravashi of the holy Astvajt- 

ERETA \ 

XXVII. 

118. We worship the Fravashi of the holy 
Hug«u. 

We worship the Fravashi of the holy Anghuyu. 

We worship the Fravashi of the holy Gauri ; 

We worship the Fravashi of the holy Yurta, the 
son of Gauri. 

We worship the Fravashi of the holy Mazdra- 
vanghu ; 

We worship the Fravashi of the holy Srlra- 
vanghu. 

We worship the Fravashi of the holy Ayuta. 

We worship the Fravashi of the holy Surd- 
yazata. 

119. We worship the Fravashi of the holy 
Eredhwa. 

We worship the Fravashi of the holy Kavi. 

We worship the Fravashi of the holy Ukhshan, 
the son of the great Vldi-sravah, known afar 2 . 

We worship the Fravashi of the holy Vanghu- 
dhata, the son of Z^adhata ; 

We worship the Fravashi of the holy Uzya, the 
son of Vanghu-dhata ; 

We worship the Fravashi of the holy Frya. 

120. We worship the Fravashi of the holy one 
whose name is Ashem-y6Nh£-rao&?u ; 

We worship the Fravashi of the holy one whose 
name is Ashem-yeNhe-vereza ; 



1 Saoshya«/; cf. §§no, 128. 

2 Perhaps, Ukhshan, the conqueror of glory, known afar, son of 
Berezva«/. 



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2l6 VASTS AND s!r6zAHS. 

We worship the Fravashi of the holy one whose 
name is Ashem-yahmai-urta \ 

We worship the Fravashi of the holy Y6Lrta 8 , 
of the Fryana house. 

We worship the Fravashi of the holy Usmanara, 
the son of Pa&shatah Paitisrira 3 , to withstand the 
evil done by one's kindred *. 

121. We worship the Fravashi of the holy 
Spiti 6 , the son of Uspasnu ; 

We worship the Fravashi of the holy Erezraspa, 
the son of Uspasnu 8 . 

We worship the Fravashi of the holy Usadhan, 
the son of Mazdayasna. 

We worship the Fravashi of the holy Frida^- 
vanghu, the son of Stiva»/. 

We worship the Fravashi of the holy Rao^as- 
£a£shman 7 ; 

We worship the Fravashi of the holy Hvaxz- 
£a£shman 7 . 

We worship die Fravashi of the holy Frasru- 
tara; 

We worship the Fravashi of the holy Visrfttara. 

We worship the Fravashi of the holy Baremna. 

1 One of the immortals, rulers in Zfoaniratha : he is said to 
belong to the FrySna family (Dadistan XC, 3) ; he resides in the 
district of the river Naivtal (Bund. XXIX, 5). 

•SeeYtV, 81. 

8 Paitisrira is perhaps an epithet (most beautiful ?), added to dis- 
tinguish Palshatah from the hero mentioned in § 115. 

* An allusion to some legend of domestic feud of which Pa€sha- 
tah was the hero. 

6 The high-priest of the Fradadhafshu Karshvare (Spltoi</-i 
Ausp&sfnan ; Bund. XXIX, 1 ; tr. West, note 6). 

6 The high-priest of the Vldadhafshu Karshvare (Airfz-rasp 
Ausp6sin£n ; see ibid., note 7). 

7 Cf. §128. 



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FARVARDfN VAST. 21 J 



We worship the Fravashi of the holy Visruta. 

122. We worship the Fravashi of the holy 
Zfoaspa 1 ; 

We worship the Fravashi of the holy jfifathwar- 
aspa 2 . 

We worship the Fravashi of the holy Dawra- 
maeshi. 

We worship the Fravashi of the holy Fraora- 
ostra, the son of Kaosha. 

We worship the Fravashi of the holy Frinaspa, 
the son of Kaeva. 

We worship the Fravashi of the holy Fr&da/- 
nara, the son of Gravaratu. 

We worship the Fravashi of the holy Vohu- 
mtra, the son of Akhnangha. 

We worship the Fravashi of the holy Vivare- 
shva»/, the son of Ainyu. 

123. We worship the Fravashi of the holy 
Frirazi, the son of Ttira 8 . 

We worship the Fravashi of the holy Stipi, the 
son of Rava»/. 

We worship the Fravashi of the holy Parsha#ta, 
the son of Ga«darewa. 

We worship the Fravashi of the holy Avahya, 
the son of Spe«ta. 

We worship the Fravashi of the holy A£ta, the 
son of Mayu ; 



1 Probably the same with Huvlsp, the high-priest in the Vouru- 
barerti Karshvare (Bund. XXIX, 1 ; tr. West, note 8). 

* Possibly the same with the high-priest in the Vouru-^arerti 
karshvare, iSTakhravak (ibid., note 9). Fakhra vak is the generic 
name of the bird Karshipta (Pahl.Comm. ad II, 42 [139]) ; it must 
stand here by mistake for ^Taharasp. 

8 Or, ' the Turanian ;' cf. §113. 



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2l8 YASTS AND s{r6zAHS. 

We worship the Fravashi of the holy Ya&tiu- 
gau, the son of Vyatana. 

We worship the Fravashi of the holy Garsta, 
the son of Kavi. 

124. We worship the Fravashi of the holy 
Pouru-bangha, the son of Zaosha. 

We worship the Fravashi of the holy Vohu- 
data, the son of Kata. 

We worship the Fravashi of the holy Baungha, 
the son of Saungha. 

We worship the Fravashis 1 of the holy Hvareza 
and Arckasa. 

We worship the Fravashi of the holy Aravaostra, 
the son of Erezva^-danghu. 

We worship the Fravashi of the holy Fraiithra, 
the son of Berezva^/. 

We worship the Fravashi of the holy Vohu- 
peresa, the son of Ainyu. 

125. We worship the Fravashi of the holy Pard- 
dasma, the son of Dastaghni, a Mtea man of the 
Mtea land. 

We worship the Fravashis of the holy Frattra 
and Baeshatastlra. 

We worship the Fravashi of the holy and pure 
Avare-gau, the son of Aoighimatastlra. 

We worship the Fravashi of the holy Gaoma»/, 
the son of Zavan, a Raosdya man of the Rao-srdya 
land. 

We worship the Fravashi of the holy Thri/, the 
son of Aevo-saredha-fya&rta, a Tanya man of the 
Tanya land. 



1 The text has 'the Fravashi;' cf. §§ 113, 127. 



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farvardIn yast. 219 



1 26. We worship the Fravashi of the holy Tlrd- 
nakathwa, of the Uspa&rta-Saena house \ 

We worship the Fravashi of the holy Utayuti 
Vi/-kavi, the son of Zighri, of the Sa£na house l ; 

We worship the Fravashi of the holy Frdhakafra, 
the son of Merezlshmya, of the Saena house 1 . 

We worship the Fravashi of the holy Varesm6- 
rao^ah, the son of Perethu-afzem. 

127. We worship the Fravashis 2 of the holy 
Asha-nemah and Vida^-gau, of this country. 

We worship the Fravashis 2 of the holy Par- 
sha/-g#u and Dazgara-gasu, of the Apakhshira 
country. 

We worship the Fravashi of the holy Hufra- 
vakhs, of the Kahrkana house \ 

We worship the Fravashi of the holy Akayadha, 
of the Pidha house \ 

We worship the Fravashi of the holy (^amaspa, 
the younger 3 . 

We worship the Fravashi of the holy Maidhy6- 
maungha, the younger 4 . 

We worship the Fravashi of the holy Urvata/- 
nara, the younger s . 

128. We worship the Fravashi of the holy 
Rao^as-^aesman ; 

We worship the Fravashi of the holy H Vare- 
£ae\mian ; 

We worship the Fravashi of the holy Frada/- 
^arenah ; 

1 See Etudes Iraniennes, II, 142. 

8 The text has ' the Fravashi ;' cf. § 1 13. 

8 Different from G&m&spa, the son of Hv6va (§ 103). 

4 Different from Maidhyd-maungha, the son of Ar&sti (§ 95). 

8 Different from Urvata/-nara, the son of Zarathiwtra (§98). 



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220 YA5TS AND stR6zAHS. 

We worship the Fravashi of the holy Vareda/- 
^parenah ; 

We worship the Fravashi of the holy Vouru- 
nemah ; 

We worship die Fravashi of the holy Vouru- 
savah 1 ; 

We worship the Fravashi of the holy Ukhshya/- 
ereta 2 ; 

We worship the Fravashi of the holy Ukhshya/- 
nemah s ; 

We worship the Fravashi of the holy Astvat- 

ERETA*; 

XXVIII. 

129. Whose name will be the victorious Sao- 
shyajvt and whose name will be Astva/-ereta. He 
will be Saoshyawt (the Beneficent One), because he 
will benefit the whole bodily world; he will be 
Astvap-ereta (he who makes the bodily creatures 

1 The six foremost helpers of Saoshyaw/, each in one of the six 
Karshvares : ' It is said that in the fifty-seven years, which are the 
period of the raising of the dead, R6shan6-£ashm in Arzah, Khur- 
£ashm inSavah,Frada</-gadman(Frada/-Az>aren6, Increaser of Glory) 
in Fradarfafsh, Vareda</-gadman (Vareda/-Awaren6, Multiplier of 
Glory) in Vidarfafsh, Kamak-vakhshim (Vouru-nem6, Prayer- loving) 
in V6rubawt, and Kamak-su</ (Vouru-savd, Weal-loving) in V6ru- 
gaxst, while S6shans in the illustrious and pure Khvaniras is con- 
nected with them, are immortal. The completely good sense, 
perfect hearing, and full glory of those seven producers of the 
renovation are so miraculous that they converse from region unto 
region, every one together with the six others ' (Dadistan XXXVI, 
5-6 ; tr. West). 

8 The first brother and forerunner to Saoshya»/, the Oshedar mih 
of later tradition (see above, p. 196, note 2 ; cf. § 141, note). 

3 The second brother and forerunner to Saoshyaw/, the Oshedar 
bam! of later tradition (ibid.; cf. § 142, note). 

* Saoshya«/; cf. following paragraph and §§ no, 117. 



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FARVARdJn YAST. 221 



rise up), because as a bodily creature and as a living 
creature he will stand against the destruction of the 
"bodily creatures, to withstand the Drug - of the two- 
footed brood, to withstand the evil done by the 
faithful \ 

XXIX. 

130. We worship the Fravashi of the holy Yima 2 , 
the son of Vlvangha»/ ; the valiant Yima, who had 
flocks at his wish 3 ; to stand against the oppression 
caused by the Da6vas, against the drought that 
destroys pastures, and against death that creeps 
unseen *. 

131. We worship the Fravashi of the holy 
Thra£taona, of the Athwya house 5 ; to stand against 
itch, hot fever, humours, cold fever, and incon- 
tinency*, to stand against the evil done by the 
Serpent 7 . 

We worship the Fravashi of the holy Aoshnara, 
the son of Pouru-^tra 8 . 

We worship the Fravashi of the holy Uzava, the 
son of Tumaspa 9 . 

1 He will suppress both the destructive power of the men of 
the Dmg (idolaters and the like) and the errors of Mazdayas- 
nians (?). 

J See above, p. 25, note 4. 

* Vouru-vSthwa; cf. £tudes Iraniennes, II, 182. 

* As he made waters and trees undrying, cattle and men undying. 

* See above, p. 61, note 1. 

* As the inventor of medicine ; see Vend. XX, Introd. 

7 Disease, being a poison, comes from the Serpent ; see ibid. 

8 Or ' Aoshnara, full of wisdom ;' cf. Yt. XXIII, 2, and West, 
Pahlavi Texts, II, 171, note 3. 

* Called in the Shah N&nah Zab, son of TahmSsp, who appears 
to have been a son of Nodar (Bund. XXXI, 23). 



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222 YASTS AND s!r6zAHS. 

We worship the Fravashi of the holy Aghra6- 
ratha, the demi-man \ 

We worship the Fravashi of the holy Manoy- 
£ithra, the son of Airyu 2 . 

132. We worship the Fravashi of the holy king 
Kavata 3 ; 

We worship the Fravashi of the holy king 
Aipivanghu*; 

We worship the Fravashi of the holy king 
Usadhan 6 ; 

We worship the Fravashi of the holy king 
Arshan 6 ; 

We worship the Fravashi of the holy king 
Pisanah 6 ; 

We worship the Fravashi of the holy king 
Byarshan 5 ; 

We worship the Fravashi of the holy king 
Syavarshan 8 ; 

We worship the Fravashi of the holy king 
Husravah 6 ; 

133. For the well-shapened Strength 7 , for the 
Victory made by Ahura, for the crushing Ascendant; 
for the righteousness of the law, for the innocence of 

1 See above, p. 114, note 7 (Yt. IX, 18). 

* Airyu, the youngest of the three sons of ThraStaona (see p. 6 1, 
note 1), was killed by his brothers and avenged by his son Manur- 
£ithra, who succeeded Thra&taona. 

* Kavata, Kai Qobad in the Shah Namah, an adoptive son to 
Uzava, according to Bund. XXXI, 24. 

4 Kai-Apiveh in the Bundahw; he was the son of Kai Qobad. 

5 Usadhan, Arshan, Pisanah, and Byarshan were the four sons 
of Aipivanghu; they are called in Firdausi Kai Kaus, Kai Arish, 
Kai Pashin, and Kai Armin. Kai Kaus alone came to the throne. 

* Syavakhsh and Khosrav ; see above, p. 64, note 1. 

7 To become possessed of Strength, Victory, &c, as Husravah 
did. 



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farvardIn vast. 223 



the law, for the unconquerable power of the law; for 
the extermination of the enemies at one stroke ; 

1 34. And for the vigour of health, for the Glory 
made by Mazda, for the health of the body, and for 
a good, virtuous offspring, wise, chief in assemblies, 
bright, and clear-eyed, that frees [their father] from 
the pangs [of hell], of good intellect ; and for that 
part in the blessed world that falls to wisdom and to 
those who do not follow impiety; 

135. For a dominion full of splendour, for a. 
long, long life, and for all boons and remedies ; to 
withstand the Yatus and Pairikas, the oppressors, 
the blind, and the deaf ; to withstand the evil done 
by oppressors 1 . 

136. We worship the Fravashi of the holy Kere- 
saspa 2 , the Sama 3 , the club-bearer with plaited hair ; 
to withstand the dreadful arm and the hordes with 
the wide battle array, with the many spears, with the 
straight spears, with the spears uplifted, bearing the 
spears of havoc; to withstand the dreadful brigand 
who works destruction*, the man-slayer who has no 
mercy ; to withstand the evil done by the brigand. 

137. We worship the Fravashi of the holy 
Akhrura 5 , the son of Husravah; 

To withstand the wicked one that deceives his 
friend and the niggard that causes the destruction 
of the world 6 . 

1 Like Frangrasyan ; cf. p. 64, note 1. 

»SeeYt.V,37; XV, 27 ; XIX, 38. 

8 Belonging to the Sima family (Yasna IX, 10). 

4 Like the nine highwaymen killed by KeresSspa, Yt. XIX, 41. 

1 Not mentioned in the Shah Namah ; Khosrav was succeeded 
by a distant relation, Lohrasp. 

• An allusion to the lost legend of Akhrura ; see, however, 
West, Pahlavi Texts, II, 375. 



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224 YASTS AND shl6ZAHS. 

We worship the Fravashi of the holy and gallant 
Haoshyangha ; 

To withstand the Mazainya Daevas and the Va- 
renya fiends; to withstand the evil done by the 
Da£vas \ 

138. We worship the Fravashi of the holy Fra- 
dhakhrti, the son of the jar 2 , 

To withstand AGshma, the fiend of the wounding 
spear, and the Da£vas that grow through A£shma ; 
to withstand the evil done by Aeshma. 



XXX. 

139. We worship the Fravashi of the holy 
Hvovi 9 . 

We worship the Fravashi of the holy Freni ; 

We worship the Fravashi of the holy Thriti ; 

We worship the Fravashi of the holy Pouru- 
£ista*. 

We worship the Fravashi of the holy Hutaosa s ; 

We worship the Fravashi of the holy Huma S. 

We worship the Fravashi of the holy ZairL£i. 



1 SeeYt.V, 21-23. 

9 Khumbya, one of the immortals in Zfraniratha; he resides in 
the Petyansai plain : ' he is Zfoembya for this reason, because they 
brought him up in a &>emb (jar) for fear of Khashm' (Bund. 
XXIX, 5). He answers pretty well to the Agastya and Vasish/Aa of 
the Vedic legend (see Ormazd et Ahriman, § 177). 

8 One of the three wives of Zarathartra, the daughter of Frasha- 
ortra ; she is the supposed mother of Saoshya»/ and his brothers 
(see p. 195, note 2). 

* The three daughters of Zarathmtra and sisters to Isarfvastar 
(see p. 204, note 1). 

5 Vtoaspa's wife ; see Yt. IX, 26, and XVII, 46. 

* Virtaspa's daughter, Humai, in the Shah Namah. 



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farvardJn vast. 225 

We worship the Fravashi of the holy Vtspa- 
taurvashi. 

We worship the Fravashi of the holy Urtavaiti. 

We worship the Fravashi of the holy Tu^na- 
maiti. 

140. We worship the Fravashi of the holy Fraii, 
the wife of Usenemah 1 ; 

We worship the Fravashi of the holy Fraii, the 
wife of the son of Frayazawta 2 ; 

We worship the Fravashi of the holy Fraii, the 
wife of the son of Khsh6iwraspa 3 ; 

We worship the Fravashi of the holy Fraii, the 
wife of Gayadhasti *. 

We worship the Fravashi of the holy Asabani, 
the wife of Pourudhakhrti 8 . 

We worship the Fravashi of the holy Ukhsh- 
yemti, the wife of Staotar-VahLrtah£-Ashy6he' 6 . 

141. We worship the Fravashi of the holy maid 
Vadhft/. 

We worship the Fravashi of the holy maid 
Gaghrftdh. 

We worship the Fravashi of the holy maid 
Franghadh. 

We worship the Fravashi of the holy maid Urfl- 
dhayatt/. 

We worship the Fravashi of the holy maid Pa£- 
sanghanu. 

We worship the Fravashi of the holy //&aredhi. 

We worship the Fravashi of the holy Huiithra. 

We worship the Fravashi of the holy Kanuka. 



1 See § 113. * Of Fraiah or (?ar6-vanghu, § 113. 

s Of Khshathr6-/Knah, § 112. 4 See § 112. 

6 See §111. 6 Ibid. 

M Q 



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226 YASTS AND sJr6zaHS. 

We worship the Fravashi of the holy maid 
SrutaZ-fedhri \ 

142. We worship the Fravashi of the holy maid 
Vanghu-fedhri 2 ; 

We worship the Fravashi of the holy maid 
EredaZ-fedhri 3 , who is called Vlspa-taurvairi. She is 
Vlspa-taurvairi (the all-destroying) because she will 
bring him forth, who will destroy the malice of 
Da6vas and men, to withstand the evil done by 
the Gahi*. 

143. We worship the Fravashis of the holy men 
in the Aryan countries ; 

We worship the Fravashis of the holy women in 
the Aryan countries. 

We worship the Fravashis of the holy men in 
the Turanian countries 6 ; 

We worship the Fravashis of the holy women 
in the Turanian countries. 

We worship the Fravashis of the holy men in 
the Sairimyan countries 6 ; 

1 UkhshyaZ-ereta's mother (see above, § 126); the Saddar Bun- 
da!^ (fitudes Iraniennes, II, 209) calls her Bad, from the last 
part of her name (fedhri for padhri), and states that, bathing in 
Lake Kasava, she will become pregnant from the seed of Zara- 
thurtra, that is preserved there (see above, p. 19S, note 2), and she 
will bring forth a son, Oshedar bamt. 

2 UkhshyaZ-nemah's mother, called Vah Bad in the Saddar ; she 
will conceive in the same way as SrutaZ-fedhri. 

8 Saoshya«/'s mother. 

* Cf.Vend. XIX, 5, and Introd. IV, 39-40. 

6 G6g6^asp (a commentator to the Avesta) says, ' There are 
holy men in all religions, as appears from the words tuiryanam 
daAvyunam [We worship the Fravashis of the holy men in the 
Turanian countries],' (Pahl. Comm. ad Vend. Ill, end; and 
Vend. V, 38 [122]); cf. above, §§ 113, 123. 

6 The countries inherited by Sairima (Selm), the third son of 



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FARVARDIN VAST. 227 



"We worship the Fravashis of the holy women in 
the Sairimyan countries. 

144. We worship the Fravashis of the holy men 
in the Saini countries 1 ; 

We worship the Fravashis of the holy women in 
the Saini countries. 

We worship the Fravashis of the holy men in 
the Dahi countries 2 ; 

We worship the Fravashis of the holy women 
in the Dahi countries. 

We worship the Fravashis of the holy men in 
all countries ; 

We worship the Fravashis of the holy women in 
all countries. 

145. We worship all the good, awful, beneficent 
Fravashis of the faithful, from Gaya Mareta'n down 
to the victorious Saoshya»/ 3 . May the Fravashis of 
the faithful come quickly to us ! May they come to 
our help ! 

146. They protect us when in distress with 
manifest assistance, with the assistance of Ahura 
Mazda and of the holy, powerful Sraosha, and with 
the Mathra-Spe»ta, the all-knowing, who hates the 
Daevas with a mighty hate, a friend of Ahura 
Mazda, whom Zarathustra worshipped so greatly in 
the material world. 

147. May the good waters and the plants and 

Thra&aona, as Turan and Iran were inherited by Tura and Airyu. 
Selm's heritage was Rum, that is to say, Europa and Western 
Asia. 

1 China (Bund. XV, 29). 

3 Perhaps the Dahae (Pliny VI, 17; Aeneis VIII, 728) or Adat 
(Strabo), called Ta-hia by Chinese geographers, on the south of 
the Oxus. 

8 From the first man to the last. 



Q 2 

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228 YASTS AND s!r6zAHS. 

the Fravashis of the faithful abide down here ! May 
you be rejoiced and well received in this house! 
Here are the Athravans of the countries 1 , thinking 
of good holiness. Our hands are lifted up for 
asking help, and for offering a sacrifice unto you, 
O most beneficent Fravashis ! 

148. We worship the Fravashis of all the holy 
men and holy women whose souls are worthy of sa- 
crifice 2 , whose Fravashis are worthy of invocation. 

We worship the Fravashis of all the holy men 
and holy women, our sacrificing to whom makes us 
good in the eyes of Ahura Mazda : of all of those we 
have heard that Zarathustra is the first and best, as a 
follower of Ahura and as a performer of the law. 

149. We worship, the spirit, conscience, percep- 
tion, soul, and Fravashi 3 of men of the primitive 
law *, of the first who listened to the teaching (of 
Ahura), holy men and holy women, who struggled 
for holiness 6 ; we worship the spirit, conscience, per- 
ception, soul, and Fravashi of our next-of-kin, holy 
men and holy women, who struggled for holiness/. 

150. We worship the men of the primitive law 
who will be in these houses, boroughs, towns, and 
countries ; 

We worship the men of the primitive law who 
have been in these houses, boroughs, towns, and 
countries ; 

We worship the men of the primitive law who are 
in these houses, boroughs, towns, and countries. 

151. We worship the men of the primitive law 

1 Itinerant priests are received here. 

J Doubtful. 3 Cf. p. 198, note 1. 

4 The Paoiry6-/kae\ras; see p. 180, note 1. 

6 For the triumph of the Zoroastrian law. 



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farvard}n yast. 229 



in all houses, boroughs, towns, and countries, who 
obtained these houses, who obtained these boroughs, 
who obtained these towns, who obtained these coun- 
tries, who obtained holiness, who obtained the Mathra, 
who obtained the [blessedness of the] soul, who ob- 
tained all the perfections of goodness. 

152. We worship Zarathurtra, the lord and 
master of all the material world, the man of the 
primitive law; the wisest of all beings, the best- 
ruling of all beings, the brightest of all beings, the 
most glorious of all beings, the most worthy of 
sacrifice amongst all beings, the most worthy of 
prayer amongst all beings, the most worthy of pro- 
pitiation amongst all beings, the most worthy of 
glorification amongst all beings, whom we call 
well-desired and worthy of sacrifice and prayer as 
much as any being can be, in the perfection of his 
holiness. 

153. We worship this earth ; 
We worship those heavens ; 

We worship those good things that stand between 
(the earth and the heavens) and that are worthy of 
sacrifice and prayer and are to be worshipped by 
the faithful man. 

154. We worship the souls of the wild beasts 
and of the tame \ 

We worship the souls of the . holy men and 
women, born at any time, whose consciences struggle, 
or will struggle, or have struggled, for the good. 

1 Daitika, Persian a; Neriosengh has 'that go by herds,' 
panktiMrin. Aidyu; the Pahlavi translation has ayyar, 'that 
are of help' (domesticated?) ; Neriosengh has misread it as suv&r 
and translated ac vac ar in. The expression daitika aidyu answers 
to the Persian Jj>j a, meaning all sorts of animals (see £tudes 
Iraniennes, II, 150). 



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23O YASTS AND SIROZAHS. 

155. We worship the spirit, conscience, percep- 
tion, soul, and Fravashi of the holy men and holy 
women who struggle, will struggle, or have strug- 
gled, and teach the Law, and who have struggled 
for holiness. 

Y6«hS h&tam: All those beings to whom Ahura Mazda .... 
Yath& ahu vairy6 : The will of the Lord is the law of 
holiness .... 

156. The Fravashis of the faithful, awful and 
overpowering, awful and victorious ; the Fravashis 
of the men of the primitive law ; the Fravashis of 
the next-of-kin ; may these Fravashis come satisfied 
into this house ; may they walk satisfied through this 
house ! 

157. May they, being satisfied, bless this house 
with the presence of the kind Ashi Vanguhi ! May 
they leave this house satisfied ! May they carry 
back from here hymns and worship to the Maker, 
Ahura Mazda, and the Amesha-Spe«tas ! May they 
not leave this house of us, the worshippers of Mazda, 
complaining ! 

158. Yatha ahu vairyo: The will of the Lord is the law of 
holiness .... 

I bless the sacrifice and prayer, and the strength 
and vigour of the awful, overpowering Fravashis of the 
faithful ; of the Fravashis of the men of the primitive 
law ; of the Fravashis of the next-of-kin. 

Ashem Vohu : Holiness is the best of all good .... 
[Give] unto that man 1 brightness and glory, .... give him the 
bright, all-happy, blissful abode of the holy Ones. 

1 Who shall worship the Fravashis. 



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BAHRAM YAST. 23 1 



XIV. BAHRAM YAST. 

Regarding Bahram (Verethraghna), the Genius of Victory, see 
Vend. Introd. V, 8. 

This Yart can be divided into four parts : — 

I (§§ 1-28) An enumeration of the ten incarnations in which 
Verethraghna appeared to Zarathu^tra (as a wind, § 2 ; as a bull, 
§ 7; as a horse, § 9; as a camel, § 11 ; as a boar, § 15; as a 
youth, § 17 ; as a raven, § 19 ; as a ram, § 23 ; as a buck, § 25 ; 
and as a man, § 27). 

II (§§ 30-33). The powers given by Verethraghna to his wor- 
shipper, Zarathmtra. 

III (§§ 34-46). The magical powers, ascribed to the raven's 
feather, of striking terror into an army and dispersing it (the raven 
being the seventh incarnation of Verethraghna). 

IV (§§ 47-64). The glorification of Verethraghna. 



o. May Ahura Mazda be rejoiced ! . . . . 

Ashem Vohu : Holiness is the best of all good .... 

I confess myself a worshipper of Mazda, a follower of Zara- 
trmrtra, one who hates the Da6vas and obeys the laws of Ahura ; 

For sacrifice, prayer, propitiation, and glorification unto [Havani], 
the holy and master of holiness .... 

Unto Verethraghna, made by Mazda, and unto 
the crushing Ascendant l ; 

Be propitiation, with sacrifice, prayer, propitiation, and glorifi- 
cation. 

Yatha ahu vairyd : The will of the Lord is the law of 
holiness .... 

I. 

i. We sacrifice unto Verethraghna, made by 
Ahura. 

Zarathustra asked Ahura Mazda : 'Ahura Mazda, 
most beneficent Spirit, Maker of the material world, 
thou Holy One ! 

1 Sir6zah I, 20. 



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232 YASTS AND s!r6zAHS. 

'Who is the best-armed of the heavenly gods?' 
Ahura Mazda answered: 'It is Verethraghna, 
made by Ahura, O Spitama Zarathu^tra !' 

2. Verethraghna, made by Ahura, came to him 
first, running in the shape of a strong, beautiful 
wind, made by Mazda; he bore the good Glory, 
made by Mazda, the Glory made by Mazda, that is 
both health and strength. 

3. Then he, who is the strongest 1 , said unto him 2 : 
' I am the strongest in strength ; I am the most vic- 
torious in victory ; I am the most glorious in Glory ; 
I am the most favouring in favour ; I am the best 
giver of welfare ; I am the best- healing in health- 
giving. 

4. ' And I shall destroy the malice of all the 
malicious, the malice of DaeVas and men, of the 
Yatus and Pairikas, of the oppressors, the blind, 
and the deaf. 

5. 'For his brightness and glory, I will offer unto 
him a sacrifice worth being heard; namely, unto 
Verethraghna, made by Ahura. We worship Vere- 
thraghna, made by Ahura, with an offering of liba- 
tions, according to the primitive ordinances of 
Ahura ; with the Haoma and meat, the baresma, 
the wisdom of the tongue, the holy spells, the 
speech, the deeds, the libations, and the rightly- 
spoken words. 

' YS«h6 h$t3m : All those beings of whom Ahura Mazda .... 



II. 

6. 'We sacrifice unto Verethraghna, made by 
Ahura.' 

1 Verethraghna. * Zarathurtra. 



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BAHRAM VAST. 233 



Zarathurtra asked Ahura Mazda : ' Ahura Mazda, 
most beneficent Spirit, Maker of the material world, 
thou Holy One ! 

' Who is the best-armed of the heavenly gods ?' 
Ahura Mazda answered : 'It is Verethraghna, 
made by Ahura, O Spitama Zarathurtra!' 

7. Verethraghna, made by Ahura, came to him 
the second time, running in the shape of a beautiful 
bull, with yellow ears and golden horns ; upon whose 
horns floated the well-shapen Strength, and Victory, 
beautiful of form, made by Ahura : thus did he 
come, bearing the good Glory, made by Mazda, 
the Glory made by Mazda, that is both health and 
strength. 

Then he, who is the strongest, said unto him : ' I 
am the strongest in strength . . . . \ 

'And I shall destroy the malice of all malicious 2 ' 

For his brightness and glory, I will offer unto him a sacrifice 
worth being heard .... * 

III. 

8. We sacrifice unto Verethraghna, made by 
Ahura. 

Zarathurtra asked Ahura Mazda : 'Ahura Mazda, 
most beneficent Spirit, Maker of the material world, 
thou Holy One ! 

' Who is the best-armed of the heavenly gods ?' 
Ahura Mazda answered : 'It is Verethraghna, 
made by Ahura, O Spitama Zarathurtra!' 

9. Verethraghna, made by Ahura, came to him 
the third time, running in the shape of a white, beau- 
tiful horse, with yellow ears and a golden caparison ; 
upon whose forehead floated the well-shapen Strength, 

1 As above, § 3. 2 As above, § 4. s As above, § 5. 



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234 VASTS AND s!r6zAHS. 

and Victory, beautiful of form, made by Ahura: thus 
did he come, bearing the good Glory, made by 
Mazda, that is both health and strength. 

Then he, who is the strongest, said unto him : ' I 
am the strongest in strength .... 

'And I shall destroy the malice of all malicious 

For his brightness and glory, I will offer unto him a sacrifice 
worth being heard .... 

IV. 

10. We sacrifice unto Verethraghna, made by 
Ahura. 

Zarathurtra asked Ahura Mazda: 'Ahura Mazda, 
most beneficent Spirit, Maker of the material world, 
thou Holy One ! 

' Who is the best-armed of the heavenly gods ?' 

Ahura Mazda answered : ' It is Verethraghna, 
made by Ahura, O Spitama Zarathurtra!' 

ii. Verethraghna, made by Ahura, came to him 
the fourth time, running in the shape of a burden- 
bearing * camel, sharp-toothed 2 , swift . . . . s , 
stamping forwards, long-haired, and living in the 
abodes of men *; 

12. Who of all males in rut shows greatest strength 
and greatest fire, when he goes to his females. Of 
all females those are best kept whom a burden- 
bearing camel keeps, who has thick forelegs and 
large humps, . . . .*, quick-eyed, long-headed, bright, 
tall, and strong ; 

1 3. Whose piercing look goes afar . . . . 6 , even 
in the dark of the night; who throws white foam 

1 Doubtful (vadhardu). 2 Doubtful (dadas6ij). 

8 ? Urvat6; cf. § 19. 4 Tame, domesticated. 

B ? Smarjn6. * ? HaitahS. 



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BAHRAM YAST. 235 



along his mouth ; well-kneed, well-footed, standing 
with the countenance of an all-powerful master : 

Thus did Verethraghna come, bearing the good 
Glory made by Mazda, the Glory made by 
Mazda .... 

V. 

14. We sacrifice unto Verethraghna, made by 
Ahura. 

Zarathustra asked Ahura Mazda: 'Ahura Mazda, 
most beneficent Spirit, Maker of the material world, 
thou Holy One ! 

' Who is the best-armed of the heavenly gods ?' 
Ahura Mazda answered : 'It is Verethraghna, 
made by Ahura, O Spitama Zarathustra ! ' 

15. Verethraghna, made by Ahura, came to him 
the fifth time, running in the shape of a boar, oppos- 
ing the foes, a sharp-toothed he-boar, a sharp-jawed 
boar, that kills at one stroke, pursuing, wrathful, 
with a dripping face 1 , strong, and swift to run, and 
rushing all around 2 . 

Thus did Verethraghna come, bearing the good 
Glory made by Mazda, the Glory made by 
Mazda .... 

VI. 

16. We sacrifice unto Verethraghna, made by 
Ahura. 

Zarathustra asked Ahura Mazda : ' Ahura Mazda, 
most beneficent Spirit, Maker of the material world, 
thou Holy One ! 

' Who is the best-armed of the heavenly gods ?' 
Ahura Mazda answered : ' It is Verethraghna, 
made by Ahura, O Spitama Zarathustra !' 

1 Cf. Yt. X, 70. 2 Or better, rushing before. Cf. Yt. X, 1 27. 



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236 YASTS AND s!r6zAHS. 

17. Verethraghna,' made by Ahura, came to him 
the sixth time, running in the shape of a beautiful 
youth of fifteen, shining, clear-eyed, thin-heeled. 

Thus did Verethraghna come, bearing the good 
Glory made by Mazda, the Glory made by 
Mazda .... 

VII. 

18. We sacrifice unto Verethraghna, made by 
Ahura. 

Zarathuytra asked Ahura Mazda: 'Ahura Mazda, 
most beneficent Spirit, Maker of the material world, 
thou Holy One ! 

' Who is the best-armed of the heavenly gods ?' 
Ahura Mazda answered : ' It is Verethraghna, 
made by Ahura, O Spitama ZarathartraF 

19. Verethraghna, made by Ahura, came to him 
the seventh time, running in the shape of a raven 
that . . . . * below and . . . . x above, and that is 
the swiftest of all birds, the lightest of the flying 
creatures. 

20. He alone of living things, — he or none, — 
overtakes the flight- of an arrow, however well it has 
been shot. He flies up joyfully at the first break of 
dawn, wishing the night to be no more, wishing the 
dawn, that has not yet come, to come 2 . 

21. He grazes the hidden ways 3 of the mountains, 
he grazes the tops of the mountains, he grazes the 
depths of the vales, he grazes the summits * of the 
trees, listening to the voices of the birds. 

1 ? Urvat6, pishat6. 

2 The raven was sacred to Apollo. The priests of the sun in 
Persia are said to have been named ravens (Porphyrius). Cf. 
Georgica I, 45. 

3 Reading vSgatavd. * Doubtful. 



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BAHRAM YAST. 237 



Thus did Verethraghna come, bearing the good 
Glory made by Mazda 1 , the Glory made by 
Mazda .... 

VIII. 

22. We sacrifice unto Verethraghna, made by 
Ahura. 

Zarathustra asked Ahura Mazda : ' Ahura Mazda, 
most beneficent Spirit, Maker of the material world, 
thou Holy One ! 

' Who is the best-armed of the heavenly gods ?' 
Ahura Mazda answered : ' It is Verethraghna, 
made by Ahura, O Spitama Zarathustra !' 

23. Verethraghna, made by Ahura, came to him 
the eighth time, running in the shape of a wild, 
beautiful ram, with horns bent round 2 . 

Thus did Verethraghna come, bearing the good 
Glory made by Mazda 3 , the Glory made by 
Mazda .... 

IX. 

24. We sacrifice unto Verethraghna, made by 
Ahura. 

Zarathustra asked Ahura Mazda : 'Ahura Mazda, 
most beneficent Spirit, Maker of the material world, 
thou Holy One ! 

'Who is the best-armed of the heavenly gods ?' 
Ahura Mazda answered : ' It is Verethraghna, 
made by Ahura, O Spitama Zarathustra ! ' 

1 The royal Glory is described flying in the shape of a raven, 
Yt. XIX, 35. 

8 Doubtful. 

8 While Ardashir, the founder of the Sasanian dynasty, was flying 
from Ardavan, a beautiful wild ram ran after him and overtook him, 
and Ardavan understood from this that the kingly Glory had left 
him and had passed over to his rival (Shah Namah, Ardashir; 
Kir Namakl Artachshir, tr. Noeldeke, p. 45). 



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238 VASTS AND sIr6zAHS. 

25. Verethraghna, made by Ahura, came to him 
the ninth time, running in the shape of a beautiful, 
fighting buck, with sharp horns. 

Thus did Verethraghna come, bearing the good 
Glory made by Mazda, the Glory made by 
Mazda .... 

X. 

26. We sacrifice unto Verethraghna, made by 
Ahura. 

Zarathartra asked Ahura Mazda: 'Ahura Mazda, 
most beneficent Spirit, Maker of the material world, 
thou Holy One ! 

' Who is the best-armed of the heavenly gods?' 
Ahura Mazda answered : 'It is Verethraghna, 
made by Ahura, O Spitama Zarathustra ! ' 

27. Verethraghna, made by Ahura, came to him 
the tenth time, running in the shape of a man, bright 
and beautiful, made by Mazda: he held a sword with 
a golden blade, inlaid with all sorts of ornaments. 

Thus did Verethraghna come, bearing the good 
Glory made by Mazda, the Glory made by 
Mazda .... 

XI. 

28. We sacrifice unto Verethraghna, made by 
Ahura, who makes virility, who makes death, who 
makes resurrection, who possesses peace, who has 
a free way. 

Unto him did the holy Zarathustra offer up a 
sacrifice, [asking] for victorious thinking, victorious 
speaking, victorious doing, victorious addressing, and 
victorious answering. 

29. Verethraghna, made by Ahura, gave him the 



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BAHRAM YAST. 239 



fountains of manliness t , the strength of the arms, 
the health of the whole body, the sturdiness of the 
whole body, and the eye-sight of the Kara fish 2 , 
that lives beneath the waters and can measure 3 a 
rippling of the water, not thicker than a hair, in the 
Rangha whose ends lie afar, whose depth is a thou- 
sand times the height of a man *. 

For his brightness and glory, I will offer unto him a sacrifice 
worth being heard .... 

XII. 

30. We sacrifice unto Verethraghna, made by 
Ahura, who makes virility, who makes death, who 
makes resurrection, who possesses peace, who has 
a free way. 

Unto him did the holy Zarathustra offer up a 
sacrifice, [asking] for victorious thinking, victorious 
speaking, victorious doing, victorious addressing, 
and victorious answering. 

31. Verethraghna, made by Ahura, gave him the 
fountains of manliness, the strength of the arms, the 
health of the whole body, the sturdiness of the whole 
body, and the eye-sight of the male horse, that, in 
the dark of the night, in its first half 5 and through 
the rain, can perceive a horse's hair lying on the 
ground and knows whether it is from the head or 
from the tail 6 . 

1 Erezi, Pahl. gond (Old Zand-Pahlavi Dictionary, p. 1 1). 

2 See Vendidad XIX, 42. s Possibly, perceive. 

4 Cf. Yt. XVI, 7, and Bundahu XVIII, 6 : ' those fish ... . 
know the scratch of a needle's point (or better hole) by which the 
water shall increase, or by which it is diminishing ' (tr. West). 

6 Avakhshaityau, the night before hu-vakhsha (before the 
time when the light begins to grow ; midnight). 

6 Cf. Yt. XVI, 10, and Bundahu XIX, 32 : ' Regarding the Arab 



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24O YASTS AND siR6zAHS. 

For his brightness and glory, I will offer unto him a sacrifice 
worth being heard .... 

XIII. 

32. We sacrifice unto Verethraghna, made by 
Ahura, who makes virility, who makes death, who 
makes resurrection, who possesses peace, who has 
a free way. 

Unto him did the holy Zarathustra sacrifice, 
[asking] for victorious thinking, victorious speaking, 
victorious doing, victorious addressing, and vic- 
torious answering. 

33. Verethraghna, made by Ahura, gave him the 
fountains of virility, the strength of the arms, the 
health of the whole body, the sturdiness of the 
whole body, and the eye-sight of the vulture with 
a golden collar 1 , that, from as far as nine districts, 
can perceive a piece of flesh not thicker than the 
fist, giving just as much light as a needle gives, as 
the point of a needle gives 2 . 

For his brightness and glory, I will offer unto him a sacrifice 
worth being heard .... 

XIV. 

34. We sacrifice unto Verethraghna, made by 
Ahura. 

Zarathu.rtra asked Ahura Mazda : ' Ahura Mazda, 
most beneficent Spirit, Maker of the material world, 
thou Holy One! 

horse, they say that if, in a dark night, a single hair occurs on the 
ground, he sees it ' (tr. West). 

1 Possibly the Gypaetus, the vautour dore*. 

* ' Even from his highest flight, he (the vulture) sees when flesh 
the size of a fist is on the ground' (Bund. XIX, 31 ; tr. West). 
Cf. Horapollo(I, n). 



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bahrAm yast. 241 



' If I have a curse thrown upon me, a spell told 
upon me by the many men who hate me, what is the 
remedy for it ?' 

35. Ahura Mazda answered : ' Take thou a feather 
of that bird with . . . .* feathers, the Vare#fana, 
O Spitama Zarathustra ! With that feather thou 
shalt rub thy own body 2 , with that feather thou 
shalt curse back thy enemies. 

36. ' If a man holds a bone of that strong bird, 
or a feather of that strong bird, no one can smite 
or turn to flight that fortunate man. The feather 
of that bird of birds brings him help ; it brings unto 
him the homage of men, it maintains in him his 
glory. 

37. ' Then the sovereign, the lord of countries, 
will no longer kill his 3 hundreds, though he is a 
killer of men ; the .... * will not kill at one stroke ; 
he alone smites and goes forwards. 

38. 'All tremble before him who holds the 
feather, they tremble therefore before me ; all my 
enemies tremble before me and fear my strength 
and victorious force and the fierceness established 
in my body. 

39. ' He 5 carries the chariot of the lords ; he 
carries the chariots of the lordly ones, the chariots 
of the sovereigns. He carried the chariot of Kavi 

1 Peshd-parena. The Vareag-ana is the same bird as the Vara- 
ghna, the raven. 

3 The feather of the Vare^ana plays here the same part as the 
Slmurgh's feather in the Shah Namah. When Rudabah's flank 
was opened to bring forth Rustem, her wound was healed by 
rubbing it with a Simurgh's feather ; Rustem, wounded to death 
by Isfendyar, was cured in the same manner. 

s Of him who holds that feather. 

4 ? Va8saSpa. • That bird. 

03] R 



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242 YASTS AND s!r6zAHS. 

Usa 1 ; upon his wings runs the male horse 2 , runs the 
burden-bearing camel, runs the water of the river. 

40. ' Him rode the gallant Thra£taona, who smote 

A21 Dahaka, the three-mouthed, the three-headed, 

the six-eyed, who had a thousand senses ; that most 

powerful, fiendish Druf, that demon, baleful to the 

world, the strongest Dru^ - that Angra Mainyu 

created against the material world, to destroy the 

world of the good principle 3 . 

' For his brightness and glory, I will offer unto him a sacrifice 
worth being heard .... 

XV. 

41. ' We sacrifice to Verethraghna, made by 
Ahura. 

' Verethraghna confounds the glory of this house 

with its wealth in cattle. He is like that great bird, 

the Sa£na 4 ; he is like the big clouds, full of water, 

that beat the mountains. 

' For his brightness and glory, I will offer unto him a sacrifice 
worth being heard .... 

XVI. 

42. 'We sacrifice to Verethraghna, made by 
Ahura.' 

Zarathustra asked Ahura Mazda: 'Ahura Mazda, 
most beneficent Spirit, Maker of the material world, 
thou Holy One ! 

' Where is it that we must invoke the name of 
Verethraghna, made by Ahura ? Where is it that 

1 Kai Kaus; when he tried to ascend to heaven on a throne 
carried by eagles (Journal Asiatique, 1881, 1, 513). 

a A metaphor to express the swiftness of the wind, of the 
camel, and of the rivers. 

8 Cf. Yt.V, 34. 4 The Simurgh; cf. p. 241, note 2. 



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BAHRAM YAST. 243 



we must praise him ? That we must humbly praise 
him ?' 

43. Ahura Mazda answered : ' When armies meet 
together in full array, O Spitama Zarathurtra ! (ask- 
ing) which of the two is the party that conquers 1 and 
is not crushed, that smites and is not smitten ; 

44. 'Do thou throw 1 four feathers 2 in the way. 
Whichever of the two will first worship the well- 
shapen Strength, and Verethraghna, beautiful of form, 
made by Mazda, on his side will victory stand. 

45. ' I will bless Strength and Victory, the two 
keepers, the two good keepers, the two maintainers ; 
the two who . . . . s , the two who . . . . 3 , the two 
who . . . . 8 ; the two who forgive, the two who 
strike off, the two who forget*. 

46. 'O Zarathustra ! let not that spell be shown to 
any one, except by the father to his son, or by the 
brother to his brother from the same womb, or by 
the Athravan to his pupil 5 . These are words that 
are awful and powerful, awful and assembly-ruling, 
awful and victorious, awful and healing; these are 
words that save the head that was lost and chant 
away the uplifted weapon.' 



XVII. 

47. We sacrifice to Verethraghna, made by Ahura : 
who goes along the armies arrayed, and goes here 

1 Doubtful. 

* Or an arrow feathered with four Vareag-ana's feathers. 

* A-dhwaozen, vi-dhwaozen, fra-dhwaozen. 

4 Amarezen, cf. ^Jlj^T; vimarezen, cf. Yt. I, 2 ; fra mare- 
zen, cf. (jij^i. 
8 Cf. Yt. IV, 10. 

R 2 



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244 YASTS AND sJr6zAHS. 

and there asking, along with Mithra and Rashnu : 
' Who is it who lies unto Mithra ? Who is it who 
thrusts [his oath] against Rashnu 1 ? To whom shall 
I, in my might, impart illness and death 2 ?' 

48 s . Ahura Mazda said: 'If men sacrifice unto 
Verethraghna, made by Ahura, if the due sacrifice 
and prayer is offered unto him just as it ought to 
be performed in the perfection of holiness, never 
will a hostile horde enter the Aryan countries, nor 
any plague, nor leprosy, nor venomous plants, 
nor the chariot of a foe, nor the uplifted spear of 
a foe.' 

49*. Zarathurtra asked:' What is then, O Ahura 
Mazda ! the sacrifice and invocation in honour of 
Verethraghna, made by Ahura, as it ought to be 
performed in the perfection of holiness?' 

50. Ahura Mazda answered : ' Let the Aryan 
nations bring libations unto him ; let the Aryan 
nations tie bundles of baresma for him ; let the 
Aryan nations cook for him a head of cattle, either 
white, or black, or of any other colour, but all of 
one and the same colour. 

51. 'Let not a murderer take of those offerings, 

nor a whore, nor a who does not sing 

the Gathas, who spreads death in the world and 
withstands the law of Mazda, the law of Zara- 
thurtra. 

52. ' If a murderer take of those offerings, or a 
whore, or a .... , who does not sing the Gathas, 
then Verethraghna, made by Ahura, takes back his 
healing virtues. 



1 Against truth. 2 Cf. Yt. X, 108 seq. 

8 § 48 ; cf. Yt VIII, 56. * §§ 49-53=Yt. VIII, 57-61. 



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BAHRAM YAST. 245 



53. ' Plagues will ever pour upon the Aryan na- 
tions ; hostile hordes will ever fall upon the Aryan 
nations ; the Aryans will be smitten by their fifties 
and their hundreds, by their hundreds and their 
thousands, by their thousands and their tens of 
thousands, by their tens of thousands and their 
myriads of myriads.' 

54. There Verethraghna, made by Ahura, pro- 
claimed thus : ' The Soul of the Bull \ the wise 
creature, does not receive from man due sacrifice 
and prayer ; for now the Da£vas and the wor- 
shippers of the Da£vas make blood flow and spill it 
like water ; 

55. 'For now the . . . .* DaeVas and the wor- 
shippers of the Da&vas bring to the fire the plant 
that is called Haperesi, the wood that is called 
Neme^ka 3 ; 

56. ' (Therefore) when the . . . . 2 Daevas and the 
worshippers of the Daevas bow their backs, bend 
their waists, and arrange all their limbs 4 , they think 
they will smite and smite not, they think they will 
kill and kill not ; and then the . . . . 2 Da£vas and the 
worshippers of the Daevas have their minds con- 
founded and their eyes made giddy 6 .' 

For his brightness and glory, I will offer unto him a sacrifice 
worth being heard .... 

1 G6f<irun or Drvaspa ; see Yt. IX. The destruction of any living 
being is an injury to Drv&spa. 

2 ? Vy&mbura. 

3 The Haperesi and the Neme/ka are probably some species 
of green wood ; it is forbidden to put green wood in the fire as it 
kills it, and injures the Genius of Water at the same time. 

* In order to strike. 

e The general meaning of the last four clauses is that the 
impious are defeated. 



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246 YASTS AND siR6zAHS. 



XVIII. 

57. We sacrifice to Verethraghna, made by Ahura. 
I offer up Haoma, who saves one's head 1 ; I offer 

up the victorious Haoma ; I offer him up, the good 
protector ; I offer up Haoma, who is a protector to 
my body, as a man who shall drink 2 of him shall 
win and prevail 8 over his enemies in battle ; 

58. That I may smite this army, that I may 

smite down this army, that I may cut in pieces this 

army that is coming behind me. 

For his brightness and glory, I will offer unto him a sacrifice 
worth being heard .... 

XIX. 

59. We sacrifice to Verethraghna, made by Ahura. 
The prince and his son and his sons who are chiefs 

of myriads* offer him up a bright . . . . 6 [saying] : 
'He. is strong, and Victorious is his name; he is 
victorious, and Strong is his name ;' 

60. That I may be as constantly victorious as any 

one of all the Aryans 6 ; that I may smite this army, 

that I may smite down this army, that I may cut in 

pieces this army that is coming behind me. 

For his brightness and glory, I will offer unto him a sacrifice 
worth being heard .... 



1 ? S&iri-baoghem; cf. § 46. 

i Nivazaiti; literally, swallow (?fr6t 6 bun burtan, Vend. V, 
8 [26]). 
5 Literally, overtake. 4 Cf. Yt. V, 85. 

* ? As&nem sighuirS. • Cf.Yt.V, 69. 



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BAHRAM YAST. 247 



XX. 

61. We sacrifice to Verethraghna, made by Ahura. 

YathS ahu vairy6: The will of the Lord is the law of 
holiness .... 

In the ox is our strength, in the ox is our need ' ; 
in the ox is our speech, in the ox is our victory ; in 
the ox is our food, in the ox is our clothing ; in the 
ox is tillage, that makes food grow for us. 

For his brightness and glory, I will offer unto him a sacrifice 
worth being heard .... 

XXI. 

62. We sacrifice to Verethraghna, made by Ahura ; 
Who breaks the columns asunder, who cuts the 

columns to pieces, who wounds the columns, who 

makes the columns shake ; who comes and breaks 

the columns asunder, who comes and cuts the columns 

to pieces, who comes and wounds the columns, 

who comes and makes the columns shake, both of 

Daevas and men, of the Yatus and Pairikas, of the 

oppressors, the blind, and the deaf. 

For his brightness and glory, I will offer unto him a sacrifice 
worth being heard .... 

XXII. 

63. We sacrifice to Verethraghna, made by Ahura. 
When Verethraghna, made by Ahura, binds the 

hands, confounds the eye-sight, takes the hearing 

1 From Yasna X, 20 (62), where, instead of the words, ' in the ox 
is our strength (amem), in the ox is our need,' the text has, ' in the 
ox is his need, in the ox is our need,' meaning, ' when we give 
him his need (water and grass), he gives us our need (milk and 
calves),' (Pahl. tr.). 



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248 YASTS AND s!r6zAHS. 

from the ears of the Mithradru^es 1 marching in 
columns, allied by cities, they can no longer move 
their feet, they can no longer withstand. 

For his brightness and glory, I will offer unto him a sacrifice 
worth being heard .... 

64. Yathl ahu vairyd: The will of the Lord is the law of 
holiness .... 

I bless the sacrifice and prayer, and the strength 
and vigour of Verethraghna, made by Mazda ; and 
of the crushing Ascendant. 

AshemVohu: Holiness is the best of all good .... 

[Give] unto that man 8 brightness and glory, .... give him the 
bright, all-happy, blissful abode of the holy Ones. 



1 See p. 1 20, note 2. 

2 Who shall offer a sacrifice to Verethraghna. 



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RAM YAST. 249 



XV. RAM YA.ST. 

This Yart bears the name of Rama ZMstra, the Genius who 
presides over the 21st day of the month (Sir6zah, § 21), and is 
devoted to his Hamkar, Vayu. 

Regarding Rama ZTolftra, the Genius that gives good abodes 
and good pastures, and his connection with Vayu, see Vend. Introd. 
IV, and Etudes Iraniennes, II, 187. 

This Yart can be divided into two parts. The first part (§§ 1-140) 
contains an enumeration of worshippers who sacrificed to Vayu : 
Ahura Mazda (§ 2), Haoshyangha (§ 7), Takhma Urupa (§ n), 
Yima (§ 15), Aai Dahaka (§ 19), ThraStaona (§ 23), Keresaspa 
(§ 27), Aurvasara (§ 31), Hutaosa (§ 35), and Iranian maids (§ 39). 
The second part (§§ 42-58) contains a special enumeration and 
glorification of the many names of Vayu (§§ 42-50). 



o. May Ahura Mazda be rejoiced 1 . . . . 

Ashem Vohu : Holiness is the best of all good .... 

I confess myself a worshipper of Mazda, a follower of Zara- 
thnrtra, one who hates the Da6vas, and obeys the laws of Ahura ; 

For sacrifice, prayer, propitiation, and glorification unto [Havani], 
the holy and master of holiness .... 

Unto Rama /ft>astra, unto Vayu who works 
highly and is more powerful to afflict than all other 
creatures \ 

Be propitiation from me, for sacrifice, prayer, propitiation, and 
glorification. 

Yatha ahu vairy6: The will of the Lord is the law of 
holiness .... 

I. 

1. I will sacrifice to the Waters and to Him who 
divides them 2 . I will sacrifice to Peace, whose breath 
is friendly, and to Weal, both of them. 

1 Cf. Str6zah I, 21. 

2 ApSm Napa/ (Yt. VIII, 34) or Twtrya (Yt. VIII, 1). 



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250 YASTS AND s!r6zAHS. 

To this Vayu do we sacrifice,' this Vayu do we 
invoke, for this house, for the master of this house, 
and for the man here who is offering libations and 
giving gifts. To this excellent God do we sacrifice, 
that he may accept our meat and our prayers, and 
grant us in return to crush our enemies at one 
stroke. 

2 1 . To him did the Maker, Ahura Mazda, offer 
up a sacrifice in the Airyana Vae^ah 1 , on a golden 
throne, under golden beams 2 and a golden canopy, 
with bundles of baresma and offerings of full-boiling 
[milk] 3 . 

3. He begged of him a boon, saying: ' Grant me 
this, O Vayu ! who dost work highly 4 , that I may 
smite the creation of Angra Mainyu, and that nobody 
may smite this creation of the Good Spirit !' 

4. Vayu, who works highly, granted him that 
boon, as the Maker, Ahura Mazda, did pursue it. 

5. We sacrifice to the holy Vayu : we sacrifice to 
Vayu, who works highly. 

To this part of thee do we sacrifice, O Vayu ! that 
belongs to Spewta Mainyu 5 . 

For his brightness and glory, I will offer unto him 
a sacrifice worth being heard, namely, unto the awful 
Vayu, who works highly. We offer up a sacri- 
fice unto the awful Vayu, who works highly, with 
the libations, with the Haoma and meat, with the 
baresma, with the wisdom of the tongue, with the 



1 Cf. Yt. V, 17. a FraspaV, Persian ^~~ji. 

8 Cf. p. 169, note 5. * See p. 10, note 4. 

6 As Vayu, the atmosphere, is the place in which the conflict of 
the two principles takes place, one part of him belongs to the Evil 
Spirit (see Vend. Introd. IV, 17). 



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RAM YAST. 251 



holy spells, the words, the deeds, the libations, and 
the well-spoken words. 

Y6»h6 hatam : All those beings of whom Ahura Mazda .... 

II. 

6. I will sacrifice to the Waters and to Him who 
divides them .... 

To this Vayu do we sacrifice, this Vayu do we 
invoke . . . .* 

7. To him did Haoshyangha, the Paradhata, offer 
up a sacrifice on the Ta6ra of the Hara, bound with 
iron 2 , on a golden throne, under golden beams and 
a golden canopy, with bundles of baresma and offer- 
ings of full-boiling [milk]. 

8. He begged of him a boon, saying : ' Grant me, 
O Vayu ! who dost work highly, that I may smite 
two-thirds of the Da6vas of Mazana and of the fiends 
of VarenaV 

9. Vayu, who works highly, granted him that 
boon, as the Maker, Ahura Mazda 4 , did pursue it. 

We sacrifice to the holy Vayu .... 

For his brightness and glory, I will offer unto him a sacrifice 
worth being heard .... 

III. 

10. I will sacrifice to the Waters and to Him who 
divides them .... 

To this Vayu do we sacrifice, this Vayu do we 
invoke .... 



1 The rest as in clause 1. 

* Cf.YtV, 21, p. 58, note 2. « Cf.Yt.V, 21-23. 

* Introduced from § 4 into this and all similar clauses, except 
the one relating to Azi Dahaka (§21). 



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252 YASTS AND siR6ZAHS. 

1 1. To him did Takhma Urupa 1 , the well-armed 2 , 
offer up a sacrifice on a golden throne, under golden 
beams and a golden canopy, with bundles of baresma 
and offerings of full-boiling [milk]. 

12. He begged of him a boon, saying : ' Grant me 
this, O Vayu! who dost work highly, that I may 
conquer all Daevas and men, all the Yatus and 
Pairikas, and that I may ride Angra Mainyu, turned 
into the shape of a horse, all around the earth from 
one end to the other, for thirty years.' 

13. Vayu, who works highly, granted him that 

boon s , as the Maker, Ahura Mazda, did pursue it. 

We sacrifice to the holy Vayu .... 

For his brightness and glory, I will offer unto him a sacrifice 
worth being heard .... 

IV. 

14. I will sacrifice to the Waters and to Him who 
divides them .... 

To this Vayu do we sacrifice, this Vayu do we 
invoke .... 

15. Unto him did the bright Yima, the good shep- 

1 Takhma Urupa (in later legend Tahmuraf) was a brother to 
Yima. He reigned for thirty years and rode Ahriman, turned 
into a horse. But at last his wife, deceived by Ahriman, revealed 
to him the secret of her husband's power, and Tahmur&f was 
swallowed up by his horse. But Yima managed to take back his 
brother's body from the body of Ahriman and recovered thereby 
the arts and civilisation which had disappeared along with Tah- 
murif (see Minokhired XXVII, 32 ; Rav&et apud Spiegel, Einleitung 
in die traditionelle Literatur, pp. 317 seq.; Ormazd et Ahriman, 
§ 137 seq.; cf. above, p. 60, note 1). 

2 Azinavaw/ or za6nahva«/: he kept that epithet in later tra- 
dition : Zinavend, ' quod cognomen virum significat armis probe 
instructum' (Hamza Ispahensis, p. 20, tr. Gottwaldt). 

s As told Yt. XIX, 29. 



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rAm vast. 253 



herd, sacrifice from the height Hukairya, the all- 
shining and golden, on a golden throne, under golden 
beams and a golden canopy, with bundles of baresma 
and offerings of full-boiling [milk]. 

16. He begged of him a boon, saying : ' Grant me 
this, O Vayu ! who dost work highly, that I may 
become the most glorious of the men born to behold 
the sun : that I may make in my reign both animals 
and men undying, waters and plants undrying, and 
the food for eating creatures never-failing 1 .' 

In the reign of the valiant Yima there was neither 
cold wind nor hot wind, neither old age nor death, 
nor envy made by the Da£vas 2 . 

17. Vayu, who works highly, granted him that 
boon, as the Maker, Ahura Mazda, did pursue it. 

We sacrifice to the holy Vayu .... 

For his brightness and glory, I will offer unto him a sacrifice 
worth being heard .... 

V. 

18. I will sacrifice to the Waters and to Him who 
divides them .... 

To this Vayu do we sacrifice, this Vayu do we 
invoke .... 

19. Unto him did the three-mouthed Azi Dahaka 
offer up a sacrifice in his accursed palace of Kviri«ta 3 , 

1 Cf. Yasna IX, 4-5 (11-20) and Yt. XIX, 31 seq. 

2 This passage is interpolated from Yasna IX, 5 (17-19). 

8 Or, ' his accursed palace of the Stork' (upa kvirwtem duzitem). 
'Azi Dahaka,' says Hamza (p. 32 in the text, p. 22 in the transla- 
tion), 'used to live in Babylon (cf.Yt.V, 29), where he had built 
a palace in the form of a stork; he called it Kuleng Dis 
(u-j.* ia£ilS), the fortress of the Stork; the inhabitants called 
it Dis Het (vi*» o-^)-' Kuleng Dis was in Zend Kviri«ta 
daSza and Dis Het is nothing else than Duzita. One may doubt 



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254 VASTS AND sfodZAHS. 

on a golden throne, under golden beams and a golden 
canopy, with bundles of baresma and offerings of 
full-boiling [milk]. 

20. He begged of him a boon, saying : ' Grant me 
this, O Vayu ! who dost work highly, that I may 
make all the seven Karshvares of the earth empty 
of men 1 .' 

21. In vain did he sacrifice, in vain did he beg, in 
vain did he invoke, in vain did he give gifts, in vain 
did he bring libations ; Vayu did not grant him that 
boon. 

For his brightness and glory, I will offer unto him a sacrifice 
worth being heard .... 

VI. 

22. I will sacrifice to the Waters and to Him who 
divides them .... 

To this Vayu do we sacrifice, this Vayu do we 
invoke .... 

23. Unto him did Thra£taona, the heir of the 
valiant Athwya clan, offer up a sacrifice in the 
four-cornered Varena, on a golden throne, under 
golden beams and a golden canopy, with bundles of 
baresma and offerings of full-boiling [milk]. 

24. He begged of him a boon, saying : ' Grant me 
this, O Vayu ! who dost work highly, that I may 
overcome Asi Dahaka, the three -mouthed, the 
three-headed, the six-eyed, who has a thousand 
senses, that most powerful, fiendish Dru^ - , that 



whether Kviri»ta is the name of a place or the Zend form of 
Kuleng, a stork : in any case it was a palace in Bawri (Babylon). 
In the Shall N&mah it is called Disukht(duz-ukhta for duz-ita; 
see Etudes Iraniennes, II, 211). 
1 Cf.Yt.V, 30 seq. 



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rAm vast. 255 

demon baleful to the world, the strongest Drug- that 
Angra Mainyu created against the material world, to 
destroy the world of the good principle ; and that I 
may deliver his two wives, Savanghava^ and Erena- 
■v&k, who are the fairest of body amongst women, and 
the most wonderful creatures in the world 1 .' 

25. Vayu, who works highly, granted him that 
boon, as the Maker, Ahura Mazda, did pursue it 

We sacrifice to the holy Vayu .... 

For his brightness and glory, I will offer unto him a sacrifice 
worth being heard .... 

VII. 

26. I will sacrifice to the Waters and to Him who 
divides them .... 

To this Vayu do we sacrifice, this Vayu do we 
invoke .... 

27. To him did the manly-hearted Keresaspa 2 
offer up a sacrifice by the Gudha 3 , a channel of the 
Rangha, made by Mazda, upon a golden throne, under 
golden beams and a golden canopy, with bundles of 
baresma and offerings of full-boiling [milk]. 

28. He begged of him a boon, saying : 'Grant me 
this, O Vayu ! who dost work highly, that I may suc- 
ceed in avenging my brother Urvakhshaya*, that I 
may smite Hitaspa and yoke him to my chariot.' 

The Ga»darewa, who lives beneath the waters, 



1 YtV,34; IX, 14; XVII, 34. 

* Cf.Yt.V, 37 seq. 

* An unknown affluent of the Rangha (Tigris). 

4 Sama had two sons, Keresaspa, a warrior, and Urvakhshaya, 
a judge and law-giver (Yasna IX, 10 [29 seq.]). We have no further 
details about Urvakhshaya's legend than that he was killed by 
* Hitaspa, the golden-crowned' (cf. Yt. XIX, 41), and avenged by 
Keresaspa. 



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256 VASTS AND s!k6zAHS. 

is the son of Ahura in the deep, he is the only 
master of the deep 1 . 

29. Vayu, who works highly, granted him that 
boon, as the Maker, Ahura Mazda, did pursue it. 

We sacrifice to the holy Vayu .... 

For his brightness and glory, I will offer unto him a sacrifice 
worth being heard .... 

VIII. 

30. I will sacrifice to the Waters and to Him who 
divides them .... 

To this Vayu do we sacrifice, this Vayu do we 
invoke .... 

31. To him did Aurvasara 2 ,the lord of the country, 
offer up a sacrifice, towards the White Forest 3 , by the 
White Forest, on the border of the White Forest, on 
a golden throne, under golden beams and a golden 
canopy, with bundles of baresma and offerings of 
full-boiling [milk]. 

32. He begged of him a boon, saying : 'Grant me 
this, O Vayu ! who dost work highly, that the gallant 
Husravah, he who unites the Aryan nations into one 
kingdom 4 , may not smite us; that I may flee from 
king Husravah 6 ; . . . . 



1 A disconnected allusion to the struggle of Keresaspa with the 
Ga»darewa (Yt.V, 38, text and notes; XIX, 41). On the words 
' the son of Ahura . . . . ' cf. Ormazd et Ahriman, p. 215, note 1. 

2 No other mention is made of Aurvasara in the Avesta, unless 
he is alluded to in Yt.V, 50. He does not appear to have been 
known to Firdausi. 

8 SpaStinij razura is called 'the chief of forests' (Bund. 
XXIV, 16). According to the Bahman Yaft (III, 9), it was the 
seat of the last and decisive battle between Aig£sp and Gfiftasp. 

4 Cf.YtV, 49 ; IX, 21. - 6 Cf.Yt.V, 50. 



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RAM YAST. 257 



'That king Husravah and all the Aryans in the 
Forest may smite him 1 .' 

33. Vayu, who works highly, granted him that 
boon, as the Maker, Ahura Mazda, did pursue it. 

We sacrifice to the holy Vayu .... 

For his brightness and glory, I will offer unto him a sacrifice 
worth being heard .... 

IX. 

34. I will sacrifice to the Waters and to Him who 
divides them .... 

To this Vayu do we sacrifice, this Vayu do we 
invoke .... 

35. To him did Hutaosa, she of the many 
brothers 2 , of the Naotara house 3 , offer up a sacri- 
fice, on a golden throne, under golden beams and a 
golden canopy, with bundles of baresma and offerings 
of boiling milk. 

36. She begged of him a boon, saying : 'Grant me 
this, O Vayu ! who dost work highly, that I may be 
dear and loved and well-received in the house of 
king Vtrtaspa.' 

37. Vayu, who works highly, granted her that 
boon, as the Maker, Ahura Mazda, did pursue it. 

We sacrifice to the holy Vayu .... 

For his brightness and glory, I will offer unto him a sacrifice 
worth being heard .... 

X. 

38. I will sacrifice to the Waters and to Him who 
divides them .... 

1 This line looks as if it should belong to a counter-prayer by 
Husravah, which was heard by Vayu, as appears from Yt. V, 50. 

2 See Yt. IX, 26. 8 See p. 77, note 1. 



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258 YASTS AND S1R6ZAHS. 

To this Vayu do we sacrifice, this Vayu do we 
invoke .... 

39. To him did 1 the maids, whom no man had 
known, offer up a sacrifice on a golden throne, under 
golden beams and a golden canopy, with bundles of 
baresma and offerings of boiling milk. 

40. They begged of him a boon, saying : ' Grant 
us this, O Vayu ! who dost work highly, that we 
may find a husband, young and beautiful of body, 
who will treat us well, all life long, and give us off- 
spring ; a wise, learned, ready-tongued husband.' 

41. Vayu, who works highly, granted them that 
boon, as the Maker, Ahura Mazda, did pursue it 

We sacrifice to the holy Vayu .... 

For his brightness and glory, I will offer unto him a sacrifice 
worth being heard .... 

XI. 

42. I will sacrifice to the Waters and to Him who 
divides them .... 

To this Vayu do we sacrifice, this Vayu do we 
invoke .... 

We sacrifice to that Vayu that belongs to the 
Good Spirit 2 , the bright and glorious Vayu. 

43. My name is Vayu, O holy Zarathuftra ! My 
name is Vayu, because I go through (vy£mi) the 
two worlds 3 , the one which the Good Spirit has 

1 It may be doubted whether the allusion here is to a legend of 
marriage en masse, following the marriage of Hutaosa with Vfo- 
tstspa, or whether the aorist is used with an indicative meaning : 
• To him do the maids who have known no man .... They beg 
of him a boon, saying . . . .' Cf.Yt. XVI, 17. 

* Cf. § 5, note 5. 

8 An attempt to an etymological explanation of the name Vayu. 
Cf.§53- 



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rAm vast. 259 



made and the one which the Evil Spirit has 
made. 

My name is the Overtaker (apa£ta), O holy 
Zarathiutra ! My name is the Overtaker, because I 
can overtake the creatures of both worlds, the one 
that the Good Spirit has made and the one that the 
Evil Spirit has made. 

44. My name is the All-smiting, O holy Zarathustra ! 
My name is the All-smiting, because I can smite the 
creatures of both worlds, the one that the Good 
Spirit has made and the one that the Evil Spirit 
has made. 

My name is the Worker of Good, O holy Zara- 
thurtra ! My name is the Worker of Good, because 
I work the good of the Maker, Ahura Mazda, and of 
the Amesha-Spetftas 1 . 

45. My name is He that goes forwards. 
My name is He that goes backwards. 
My name is He that bends backwards. 
My name is He that hurls away. 

My name is He that hurls down. 

My name is He that destroys. 

My name is He that takes away. 

My name is He that finds out. 

My name is He that finds out the Glory (//z>aren6). 

46. My name is the Valiant ; my name is the Most 
Valiant. 

My name is the Strong ; my name is the Strongest. 
My name is the Firm ; my name is the Firmest. 
My name is the Stout ; my name is the Stoutest. 
My name is He that crosses over easily. 
My name is He that goes along hurling away. 

1 He is their agent and instrument 
S 2 



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260 VASTS AND sfodZAHS. 

My name is He that crushes at one stroke. 
My name is . . . .* 

My name is He that works against the Daevas. 
My name is ... , 2 

47. My name is He that prevails over malice ; my 
name is He that destroys malice. 

My name is He that unites ; my name is He that 
re-unites ; my name is He that separates. 

My name is the Burning ; my name is the Quick 
of intelligence 3 . 

My name is Deliverance ; my name is Welfare 4 . 

My name is the Burrow 6 ; my name is He who 
destroys the burrows 5 ; my name is He who spits 
upon the burrows 6 . 

48. My name is Sharpness of spear ; my name is 
He of the sharp spear. 

My name is Length of spear ; my name is He of 
the long spear. 

My name is Piercingness of spear; my name is 
He of the piercing spear. 

My name is the Glorious ; my name is the Over- 
glorious. 

49 6 . Invoke these names of mine, O holy Zara- 
thustra ! in the midst of the havocking hordes, in the 
midst of the columns moving forwards, in the strife 
of the conflicting nations. 

1 Ainiva(?). * Keredharua(P). 

* Doubtful ; bao£a, cf.j^j. 

* Reading sudhij. 

* Geredha is the burrow of an Ahrimanian creature (see Vend. 
Ill, 10 [33] ; VII, 24 [61]) : Vayu, in that half of him that belongs 
to the Evil Spirit, is the seat (the burrow) of Ahriman ; but with 
his better half, he struggles against the fiend and destroys him. 

6 Cf.Yt. I, n, 16. 



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rAm vast. 261 



50. Invoke these names of mine, O holy Zara- 
thurtra! when the all-powerful tyrant of a country 
falls upon thee, rushes upon thee, deals wounds upon 
thee, or hurls his chariot against thee, to rob thee 1 
of thy wealth, to rob thee of thy health. 

51. Invoke these names of mine, O holy Zara- 
thurtra! when the unholy Ashemaogha falls upon 
thee, rushes upon thee, deals wounds upon thee, or 
hurls his chariot against thee, to rob thee of thy 
strength, to rob thee of thy wealth, to rob thee of 
thy health. 

52. Invoke these names of mine, O holy Zara- 
thiutra ! when a man stands in bonds, when a man 
is being thrown into bonds, or when a man is being 
dragged in bonds : thus the prisoners flee from the 
hands of those who carry them, they flee away out 
of the prison 2 . 

53. O thou Vayu ! who strikest fear upon all men 
and horses, who in all creatures workest against the 
Da£vas, both into the lowest places and into those 
a thousand times deep dost thou enter with equal 
power 3 . 

54. ' With what manner of sacrifice shall I worship 
thee ? With what manner of sacrifice shall I forward 
and worship thee ? With what manner of sacrifice 
will be achieved thy adoration, O great Vayu ! thou 
who art high-up girded, firm, swift-moving, high- 
footed, wide-breasted, wide-thighed, with untrembling 
eyes, as powerful in sovereignty as any absolute 
sovereign in the world?' 



1 Literally, coveting. 

2 The translation of this clause is doubtful ; the text is corrupt. 
8 Cf. § 42. 



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262 YA-STS AND siltdzAHS. 

55. 'Take thou a baresma, O holy Zarathustra ! 
turn it upwards or downwards, according as it is full 
day or dawning; upwards during the day, down- 
wards at the dawn 1 . 

56. ' If thou makest me worshipped with a sacri- 
fice, then I shall say unto thee with my own voice 
things of health, made by Mazda and full of glory, 
so that Angra Mainyu may never do harm unto thee, 
nor the Yatus, nor those addicted to the works of the 
Yatu, whether Daevas or men.' 

57. We sacrifice unto thee, O great Vayu! we 
sacrifice unto thee, O strong Vayu ! 

We sacrifice unto Vayu, the greatest of the great ; 
we sacrifice unto Vayu, the strongest of the strong. 

We sacrifice unto Vayu, of the golden helm. 

We sacrifice unto Vayu, of the golden crown. 

We sacrifice unto Vayu, of the golden necklace. 

We sacrifice unto Vayu, of the golden chariot. 

We sacrifice unto Vayu, of the golden wheel. 

We sacrifice unto Vayu, of the golden weapons. 

We sacrifice unto Vayu, of the golden garment. 

We sacrifice unto Vayu, of the golden shoe. 

We sacrifice unto Vayu, of the golden girdle. 

We sacrifice unto the holy Vayu ; we sacrifice unto 
Vayu, who works highly. 

To this part of thee do we sacrifice, O Vayu ! that 
belongs to the Good Spirit. 

For his brightness and glory, I will offer unto him a sacrifice 
worth being heard, namely, unto the awful Vayu, who works 
highly .... 

58. Yatha ahu vairy6 : The will of the Lord is the law of 
holiness .... 

I bless the sacrifice and invocation unto, and the 
1 Etudes Iraniennes, II, no. 



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rAm vast. 263 



strength and vigour of Rama Zfoastra, and Vayu, who 
works highly, more powerful to afflict than all the 
other creatures : this part of thee that belongs to 
the Good Spirit. 

Ashem Vohft : Holiness is the best of all good .-. . . 
[Give] unto that man brightness and glory, .... give him the 
bright, all-happy, blissful abode of the holy Ones. 



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264 YAJTS AND SJR6ZAHS. 



XVI. DlN yast. 

Din (Da6na) presides over the 24th day of the month (Sirdzah 24) 
and gives it her name ; she is invoked in company with JsTista, and 
in fact this Yast, though it bears the name of Daena, is consecrated 
to Arista (§§ 2, 7). These two Genii are, however, very closely 
connected in their nature, as Da6na is the impersonation of the 
Zoroastrian Law or Religion, and Arista is religious knowledge, 
the knowledge of what leads to bliss (far^Snak, nirvawa^wina ; the 
same as A*isti). 

The description of Aista is rather pallid, and does not rise above 
abstractions (see, however, Mihir Yswt, § 1 26). She was not wor- 
shipped by the old epic heroes as An&hita was, but by Zarathurtra 
and his wife, because she must have been, from her very name and 
nature, a goddess of Zoroastrian origin and growth. 



o. May Ahura Mazda be rejoiced ! . . . . 

AshemVohu: Holiness is the best of all good .... 

I confess myself a worshipper of Mazda, a follower of Zarathuj tra, 
one who hates the Da6vas and obeys the laws of Ahura ; 

For sacrifice, prayer, propitiation, and glorification unto [HSvani], 
the holy and master of holiness .... 

To the most right A'ista, made by Mazda and 
holy, and to the good Law of the worshippers of 
Mazda, 

Be propitiation from me, for sacrifice, prayer, 
propitiation, and glorification. 

Yatha" ahu vairy6: The will of the Lord is the law of 
holiness .... 

I. 

1. We sacrifice to the most right Alsta, made by 
Mazda and holy : we sacrifice to the good Law of 
the worshippers of Mazda, the supplier of good 



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dIn vast. 265 

stores, who runs quickly to the goal and frees one 
best from dangers 1 , who brings libations, who is 
holy, clever, and renowned, speedy to work and 
quick of work ; who goes quickly and cleanses well ; 
the good Law of the worshippers of Mazda ; 

2. To whom Zarathartra did sacrifice, saying: 
' Rise up from thy seat, come forward from the 
Abode 2 , thou most right ICista, made by Mazda and 
holy. If thou art before me, stay for me ; if thou 
art behind me, overtake me. 

. 3. ' Let everything be as friendly to us as any- 
thing can be : may we go smoothly along the roads, 
find good pathways in the mountains, run easily 
through the forests, and cross happily the rivers!' 

4. For her brightness and glory, I will offer unto 
her a sacrifice worth being heard, namely, unto the 
most right ICista., made by Mazda and holy. I will 
offer up a sacrifice unto the most right A"ista, 
made by Mazda and holy, with the libations, with 
the Haoma and meat, with the baresma, with the 
wisdom of the tongue, with the holy spells, with the 
words and deeds, with the libations, with the well- 
spoken words. 

Y6#h£ hatam: All those beings of whom 
Ahura Mazda .... 

II. 

5. We sacrifice to the most right A'ista, made by 
Mazda and holy : we sacrifice to the good Law of 
the worshippers of Mazda . . . , 3 

1 Reading nimarezifta; cf. vimareziftem, Yt. I, 2. 

2 The heavenly abode, the Gar6thman. 

3 The rest as in § 1. 



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266 YASTS AND sflldZAHS. 

6. To whom Zarathurtra did sacrifice for right- 
eousness of thought, for righteousness of speech, for 
righteousness of deed, and for this boon, 

7. That the most right A'ista, made by Mazda 
and holy, would give him the swiftness of the feet, 
the quick hearing of the ears, the strength of the 
arms, the health of the whole body, the sturdiness of 
the whole body, and the eye-sight of the Kara fish, 
that lives beneath the waters, and can measure 
a rippling of the waters not thicker than a hair, in 
the Rangha, whose ends lie afar and whose depth is 
a thousand times the height of a man 1 . 

For her brightness and glory, I will offer unto her a sacrifice 
worth being heard .... 

III. 

8. We sacrifice to the most right A"ista, made by 
Mazda and holy : we sacrifice to the good Law of 
the worshippers of Mazda .... 

9. To whom Zarathustra did sacrifice for righteous- 
ness of thought, for righteousness of speech, for 
righteousness of deed, and for this boon, 

10. That the most right Alsta, made by Mazda 
and holy, would give him the swiftness of the feet, 
the quick hearing of the ears, the strength of the 
arms, the health of the whole body, the sturdiness 
of the whole body, and the eye-sight of the male 
horse, that, in the dark of the night, through the rain, 
the snow, the hail, or the sleet, from as far as nine 
districts, can perceive a horse's hair, mingled with 
the earth, and knows whether it is from the head or 
from the tail 2 . 

1 CC Yt. XIV, 29. » Cf. Yt. XIV, 3 1 . 



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d}n vast. 267 

For her brightness and glory, I will offer unto her a sacrifice 
worth being heard .... 

IV. 

11. We sacrifice to the most right A'ista, made 
by Mazda and holy : we sacrifice to the good Law 
of the worshippers of Mazda .... 

12. To whom Zarathurtra did sacrifice for right- 
eousness of thought, for righteousness of speech, for 
righteousness of deed, and for this boon, 

13. That the most right A'ista, made by Mazda 
and holy, would give him the swiftness of the feet, 
the quick hearing of the ears, the strength of the 
arms, the health of the whole body, the sturdiness 
of the whole body, and the eye-sight of the vulture 
with a golden collar, that, from as far as nine dis- 
tricts, can perceive a piece of flesh, not thicker than 
a fist, giving just as much light as a needle gives, as 
the point of a needle gives '. 

For her brightness and glory, I will offer unto. her a sacrifice 
worth being heard .... 

V. 

14. We sacrifice to the most right Jfista,, made by 
Mazda and holy : we sacrifice to the good Law of 
the worshippers of Mazda .... 

15. To whom the holy Hv6vi 2 did sacrifice with 
full knowledge, wishing that the holy Zarathurtra 
would give her his good narcotic 3 , that she might 

1 Cf. Yt. XIV, 33. a Zarathurtra's wife. 

* Bangha; the so-called Bang of Zoroaster (Vend. XV, 14 
[44] ; Phi. tr.). What must have been its virtue may be gathered 
from the legends of Gu.rt£sp and ArdS Viraf, who are said to have 
been transported in soul to the heavens, and to have had the higher 



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268 YASTS AND S1R6ZAHS. 

think according to the law, speak according to the 
law, and do according to the law. 

For her brightness and glory, I will offer unto her a sacrifice 
worth being heard .... 



VI. 

1 6. We sacrifice to the most right .A'ista, made 
by Mazda and holy : we sacrifice to the good Law 
of the worshippers of Mazda .... 

1 7. To whom the Athravans, sent afar x , did sacri- 
fice 2 , wishing a good memory to preach the law, and 
wishing strength for their own body. 

For her brightness and glory, I will offer unto her a sacrifice 
worth being heard .... 



VII. 

1 8. We sacrifice to the most right -/crista, made by 
Mazda and holy: we sacrifice to the good Law of 
the worshippers of Mazda .... 

19. To whom the king of the country, the lord of 
the country does sacrifice, wishing peace for his 
country, wishing strength for his own body. 

For her brightness and glory, I will offer unto her a sacrifice 
worth being heard .... 

20. YathS ahu vairy6: The will of the Lord is the law of 
holiness .... 

I bless the sacrifice and prayer, and the strength 



mysteries revealed to them, on drinking from a cup prepared by 
the prophet (Zardurt N&mah), or from a cup of Gujtdsp-bang 
(ArdS Viraf, II, 29). 

1 The itinerant priests, the ancestors of the modern dervishes. 

2 Or better, do sacrifice ; cf. Yt. XIV, 39. 



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DiN YAST. 269 

and vigour of the most right A'ista, made by Mazda 
and holy, and of the good Law of the worshippers 
of Mazda. 

Ashem Vohu : Holiness is the best of all good .... 

[Give] unto that man brightness and glory, .... give him long, 
long life, give him the bright, all-happy, blissful abode of the holy 
Ones. 



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27O YASTS AND s!r6zAHS. 



XVII. ASHI YAST. 

Ashi Vanguhi or 'the good Ashi 1 ' is a feminine impersonation 
of piety *, and she is, at the same time, the source of all the good 
and riches that are connected with piety 3 . She is described, there- 
fore, as a goddess of Fortune and Wealth, and is invoked in com- 
pany with Parewdi, the goddess of Treasures (Sir6zah 25) 

She appears in the latter character in the first part of the Yart 
(§§ 1-14); she praises and loves Zarathurtra (§§ 15-21). She is 
worshipped by Haojyangha (§ 26), Yima (§ 28), Thra&aona (§ 33), 
Haoma (§ 37), Husravah (§ 41), Zarathujtra (§ 45), and Vfot&spa 
(§ 49)*. She rejects the offerings of all sterile people (old men, 
courtezans, and children, §§ 53-6 1). 

I. 

i . We sacrifice to Ashi Vanguhi, who is shining, 
high, tall-formed, well worthy of sacrifice, with a 
loud-sounding chariot, strong, welfare-giving, healing, 
with fulness of intellect 6 , and powerful; 

2. The daughter of Ahura Mazda, the sister of 
the Amesha-Spe»tas, who endows all the Sao- 

1 In Parsi Ardijvang or Ard (Ardij from Arti-t, the Persian 
form of Ashi s); she presides over the 25th day of the month ; cf. 
Sirozah 25. 

8 Ashi is not the feminine adjective of As ha, as the i was 
originally short (genitive ash6i$, not ashyau); ashi is ar-ti, and 
means bhakti, piety (Neriosengh). 

8 The so-called Ashi's remedies (ash6w baSshaza; cf. Yt. 
XIII, 32). 

4 This enumeration is the same as in the G&s Yart (§§ 3, 8, 14, 
17, 21, 26, 29). 

8 Perethu-vira; see £tudes Iraniennes, II, 183. 



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ASHI VAST. 271 



shya#/s x with the enlivening intelligence ; she also 
brings heavenly wisdom at her wish, and comes to 
help him who invokes her from near and him who 
invokes her from afar, and worships her with offerings 
of libations. 

3 2 . For her brightness and glory, I will offer her 
a sacrifice worth being heard ; I will offer up unto 
Ashi Vanguhi a good sacrifice with an offering of 
libations. We sacrifice unto Ashi Vanguhi with 
the libations ; with the Haoma and meat, with the 
baresma, with the wisdom of the tongue, with the 
holy spells, with the words, with the deeds, with 
the libations, and with the rightly-spoken words. 

Y£»he' hatam: All those beings of whom Ahura 

Mazda .... 

II. 

4. We sacrifice to Ashi Vanguhi, who is shining, high, tall- 
formed, well worthy of sacrifice, with a loud-sounding chariot, strong, 
welfare-giving, healing, with fulness of intellect, and powerful. 

5. Homage unto Haoma, and unto the Mathra s , 
and unto the holy Zarathustra ! 

Homage unto Haoma, because all other drinks 
are attended with A£shma 4 , the fiend of the wound- 
ing spear : but the drinking of Haoma is attended 
with Asha and with Ashi Vanguhi herself 6 . 

6. Ashi is fair ; Ashi is radiant with joy ; she is 
far-piercing with her rays. Ashi gives good Glory 

1 The allies of Saoshyaw/, who are to be active in the restoration 
of the world to eternal life (frashd-kereti). Cf. p. 165, note 1. 
Ashi gives them the ' intelligence of life' (frasha khratu), through 
which they will be enabled to perform their task. 

8 Cf. Yt. V, 10. * The Holy Word. 

* The DaeVa of anger. 

B As drinking Haoma is an act of religion (cf. Yasna XI, 12 
[31] seq.). 



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272 YASTS AND sikdZAHS. 

unto those men whom thou dost follow, O Ashl! 
.Full of perfumes is the house in which the good, 
powerful Ashi Vanguhi puts her . . . .* feet, for long 
friendship. 

7. Those men whom thou dost attend, O Ashi ! 
are kings of kingdoms, that are rich in horses, with 
large tributes, with snorting horses, sounding chariots, 
flashing swords, rich in aliments and in stores of 
food 2 ; well-scented where the beds are spread and 
full of all the other riches that may be wished for. 
Happy the man whom thou dost attend ! do thou 
attend me, thou rich in all sorts of desirable things 
and strong ! 

8. Those men whom thou dost attend, O Ashi Van- 
guhi! have houses that stand well laid up, rich in 
cattle, foremost in Asha, and long-supported. Happy 
the man whom thou dost attend ! Do thou attend 
me, thou rich in all sorts of desirable things and 
strong ! 

9. The men whom thou dost attend, O Ashi Van- 
guhi ! have beds that stand well-spread, well-adorned, 
well-made, provided with cushions and with feet 
inlaid with gold. Happy the man whom thou dost 
attend ! Do thou attend me, thou rich in all sorts 
of desirable things and strong ! 

10. The men whom thou dost attend, O Ashi 
Vanguhi ! have their ladies that sit on their beds, 
waiting for them : they lie on the cushions, adorning 
themselves, . . . . s , with square bored ear-rings and 
a necklace of gold : ' When will our lord come ? 
when shall we enjoy in our bodies the joys of love ? ' 



1 ? Agairimaitij. * Cf. Yt. V, 130. 

8 ?A«kupasmanau. 



I 



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ASHI YAST. 273 



Happy the man whom thou dost attend ! Do thou 
attend me, thou rich in all sorts of desirable things 
and strong ! 

11. The men whom thou dost attend, O Ashi 
Vanguhi ! have daughters that sit ... .*; thin is 
their waist, beautiful is their body, long are their 
fingers ; they are as fair of shape as those who look 
on can wish. Happy the man whom thou dost 
attend ! Do thou attend me, thou rich in all sorts 
of desirable things and strong ! 

12. The men whom thou dost attend, O Ashi 
Vanguhi ! have horses swift and loud-neighing ; 
they drive the chariot lightly, they take it to the 
battle 2 , they bear a gallant praiser (of the gods), 
who has many horses, a solid chariot, a sharp spear, 
a long spear, and swift arrows, who hits his aim, 
pursuing after his enemies, and smiting his foes. 
Happy the man whom thou dost attend! Do thou 
attend me, thou rich in all sorts of desirable things 
and strong ! 

13. The men whom thou dost attend, O Ashi 
Vanguhi ! have large-humped, burden-bearing camels, 
flying from the ground or fighting with holy fieri- 
ness 3 . Happy the man whom thou dost attend! 
Do thou attend me, thou rich in all sorts of desirable 
things and strong ! 

14. The men whom thou dost attend, O Ashi 
Vanguhi ! have hoards of silver and gold brought 
together from far distant regions ; and garments of 
splendid make. Happy the man whom thou dost 
attend ! Do thou attend me, thou rich in all sorts 
of desirable things and strong ! 

1 ?Agam6-paidhi*a. 2 Doubtful. 8 Cf.Yt. XIV, n. 
[23] T 



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274 YASTS AND s!r6zAHS. 

15. Do not turn thy look from me! turn thy 
mercy towards me, O great Ashi ! thou art well- 
made and of a noble seed 1 ; thou art sovereign at 
thy wish ; thou art Glory in a bodily form. 

16. Thy father is Ahura Mazda, the greatest of 
all gods, the best of all gods ; thy mother is Armaiti 
Spewta ; thy brothers are Sraosha 2 , a god of Asha, 
and Rashnu s , tall and strong, and Mithra *, the lord 
of wide pastures, who has ten thousand spies and 
a thousand ears ; thy sister is the Law of the wor- 
shippers of Mazda. 

1 7. Praised of the gods, unoffended by the right- 
eous 5 , the great Ashi Vanguhi stood up on her 
chariot, thus speaking : ' Who art thou who dost 
invoke me, whose voice is to my ear the sweetest 
of all that invoked me most ?' 

18. And he 6 said aloud: 'I am Spitama Zara- 
thustra, who, first of mortals, recited the praise of 
the excellent Asha 7 and offered up sacrifice unto 
Ahura Mazda and the Amesha-Spewtas ; in whose 
birth and growth the waters and the plants rejoiced ; 
in whose birth and growth the waters and the plants 
grew ; in whose birth and growth all the creatures 
of the good creation cried out, Hail 8 ! 

19. 'In whose birth and growth Angra Mainyu 
rushed away from this wide, round earth, whose 
ends lie afar, and he, the evil-doing Angra Mainyu, 
who is all death, said : " All the gods together 

1 Bom from the gods; cf. Yt. XXII, 9. 

* See Yt. XI. » See Yt XII. 

4 See Yt. X. 

B Or, ' doing no harm to the righteous.' 

' Zarathiwtra. 7 The Ahuna Vairya. 

8 Cf. Yt. XIII, 93. 



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ASHI YA-ST. 275 



have not been able to smite me down in spite 
of myself, and Zarathurtra alone can reach me in 
spite of myself. 

20. ' " He smites me with the Ahuna Vairya, as 
strong a weapon as a stone big as a house 1 ; he 
burns me with Asha-Vahirta, as if it were melting 
brass 2 . He makes it better for me that I should 
leave this earth, he, Spitama Zarathurtra, the only 
one who can daunt me.'" 

21. And the great Ashi Vanguhi exclaimed: 
' Come nearer unto me, thou pure, holy Spitama ! 
lean against my chariot !' 

Spitama Zarathurtra came nearer unto her, he 
leant against her chariot. 

22. And she caressed him with the left arm and 
the right, with the right arm and the left, thus 
speaking : ' Thou art beautiful, O Zarathurtra ! thou 
art well-shapen, O Spitama ! strong are thy legs and 
long are thy arms : Glory is given to thy body and 
long cheerfulness 8 to thy soul, as sure as I proclaim 
it unto thee.' 

III. 

23*. We sacrifice to Ashi Vanguhi, who is shining, high, tall- 
formed, well worthy of sacrifice, with a loud-sounding chariot, 
strong, welfare-giving, healing, with fulness of intellect and 
powerful. 

24*. To her did Haoshyangha, the Paradhata, 
offer up a sacrifice, upon the enclosure of the Hara, 
the beautiful height, made by Mazda. 

25. He begged of her a boon, saying: 'Grant 

1 Cf.Vend. XIX, 4 (13). s Cf. Yt III. 

3 Bliss after death. 4 As § 1. 

6 For §§ 24-26, cf. Yt. IX, 3-6. 

T 2 



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276 YASTS AND siRdZAHS. 

me this, O great Ashi Vanguhi ! that I may over- 
come all the DaeVas of Mazana ; that I may never 
fear and bow through terror before the Daevas, but 
that all the Da£vas may fear and bow in spite of 
themselves before me, that they may fear and flee 
down to darkness.' 

26. The great Ashi Vanguhi ran and came to his 
side : Haoshyangha, the Paradhata, obtained that 
boon. 

For her brightness and glory, I will offer her a sacrifice .... 

IV. 

27. We sacrifice to Ashi Vanguhi, who is shining, high .... 
and powerful. 

28 \ To her did Yima Khshadta, the good 

shepherd, offer up a sacrifice from the height 

Hukairya. 

29. He begged of her a boon, saying: 'Grant me 
this, O great Ashi Vanguhi ! that I may bring fatness 
and flocks down to the world created by Mazda ; that 
I may bring immortality down to the world created 
by Mazda ; 

30. ' That I may take away both hunger and 
thirst, from the world created by Mazda; that I 
may take away both old age and death, from the 
world created by Mazda; that I may take away both 
hot wind and cold wind, from the world created by 
Mazda, for a thousand years.' 

31. The great Ashi Vanguhi ran and came to his 
side : Yima Khsha£ta, the good shepherd, obtained 
that boon. 

For her brightness and glory, I will offer her a sacrifice .... 

1 For §§ 28-31, cf. Yt. IX, 8-1 1. 



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ASHI YAST. 277 



V. 

32. We sacrifice to Ashi Vanguhi, who is shining, high .... 
and powerful. 

33 *. To her did Thra£taona, the heir of the 
valiant Athwya clan, offer up a sacrifice in the four- 
cornered Varena. 

34. He begged of her a boon, saying : 'Grant me 
this, O great Ashi Vanguhi ! that I may overcome 
Azi Dahaka, the three-mouthed, the three-headed, 
the six-eyed, who has a thousand senses, that most 
powerful, fiendish Drug; that demon, baleful to the 
world, the strongest Druf that Angra Mainyu created 
against the material world, to destroy the world of 
the good principle ; and that I may deliver his two 
wives, Savanghava^ and Erenavai, who are the 
fairest of body amongst women, and the most won- 
derful creatures in the world.' 

35. The great Ashi Vanguhi ran and came to his 
side. Thra£taona, the heir of the valiant Athwya 
clan, obtained that boon. 

For her brightness and glory, I will offer her a sacrifice .... 

VI. 

36. We sacrifice to Ashi Vanguhi, who is shining, high .... 
and powerful. 

37 2 . To her did Haoma offer up a sacrifice, 
Haoma, the enlivening, the healing, the beautiful, 
the lordly, with golden eyes, upon the highest 
height of the Haraiti Bareza. 

1 Cf.Yt.V, 34 ; IX, 14; XV, 24. 
8 For §§ 37-39, cf. Yt.IX, 17-19. 



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278 YASTS AND stRdZAHS. 

38. He begged of her a boon, saying: 'Grant me 
this, O great Ashi Vanguhi ! that I may bind the 
Turanian murderer, Franghrasyan, that I may drag 
him bound, that I may bring him bound unto king 
Husravah, that king Husravah may kill him, behind 
the .ATae^asta lake, the deep lake of salt waters, to 
avenge the murder of his father Syavarshana, a 
man, and of Aghra£ratha, a semi-man.' 

39. The great Ashi Vanguhi ran and came to his 
side. Haoma, the enlivening, the healing, the 
beautiful, the lordly, with golden eyes, obtained 
that boon. 

For her brightness and glory, I will offer her a sacrifice .... 

VII. 

40. We sacrifice to Ashi Vanguhi, who is shining, high .... 
and powerful. 

41 x . To her did the gallant Husravah, he who 
united the Aryan nations into one kingdom, offer up 
a sacrifice, behind the ■A'ae^asta lake, the deep lake 
of salt waters. 

42. He begged of her a boon, saying: 'Grant me 
this, O great Ashi Vanguhi! that I may kill the 
Turanian murderer, Franghrasyan, behind the Ka&- 
£asta lake, the deep lake of salt waters, to avenge 
the murder of my father Syavarshana, a man, and of 
Aghra£ratha, a semi-man.' 

43. The great Ashi Vanguhi ran and came to his 
side. The gallant Husravah, he who united the Aryan 
nations into one kingdom, obtained that boon. 

For her brightness and glory, I will offer her a sacrifice worth 
being heard .... 

1 For §§ 41-43, cf. Yt. IX, 21-23. 



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ASHI YAST. 279 



VIII. 

44. We sacrifice to Ashi Vanguhi, who is shining, high .... 
and powerful. 

45 l . To her did the holy Zarathartra offer up a 
sacrifice in the Airyana Vae^ah, by the good river 
Daitya, with the Haoma and meat, with the baresma, 
with the wisdom of the tongue, with the holy spells, 
with the speech, with the deeds, with the libations, 
and with the rightly-spoken words. 

46. He begged of her a boon, saying: 'Grant me 
this, O great Ashi Vanguhi ! that I may bring the 
good and noble Hutaosa to think according to the 
law, to speak according to the law, to do according 
to the law, that she may spread my law and make 
it known, that she may bestow beautiful praises 
upon my deeds.' 

47. The great Ashi Vanguhi ran and came to his 

side : the holy Zarathurtra obtained that boon. 

For her brightness and glory, I will offer her a sacrifice worth 
being heard .... 

IX. 

48. We sacrifice to Ashi Vanguhi, who is shining, high .... 
and powerful. 

49. To her did the tall Kavi Vktaspa offer up a 
sacrifice behind the waters of the river Daitya. 

50. He begged of her a boon, saying : ' Grant me 
this, O great Ashi Vanguhi! that I may put to flight 
Asta-aurvan^, the son of Visp6-thaurv6-asti, the 
all-afflicting, of the brazen helmet, of the brazen 
armour, of the thick neck, behind whom seven 

1 For §§ 45-47, cf. Yt. IX, 25-27. 



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280 YASTS AND s!r6zAHS. 

hundred camels . . . . ; that I may put to flight the 
//z>yaona murderer, Are^aZ-aspa ; that I may put to 
flight Damnika, the worshipper of the Daevas ; 

51. 'And that I may smite Tathrava#/ of the bad 
law; that I may smite Spin^auru^ka, the worshipper 
of the Da£vas ; and that I may bring unto the good 
law the nations of the Varedhakas and of the 
/Z&yaonas ; and that I may smite of the Zfoyaona 
nations their fifties and their hundreds, their hun- 
dreds and their thousands, their thousands and their 
tens of thousands, their tens of thousands and their 
myriads of myriads.' 

52. The great Ashi Vanguhi ran and came to his 

side : the tall Kavi Vlrtaspa obtained that boon. 

For her brightness and glory, I will offer her a sacrifice worth 
being heard .... 

X. 

53. We sacrifice to Ashi Vanguhi, who is shining, high .... 
and powerful. 

54. And the great Ashi Vanguhi said : ' None of 
those libations will be accepted by me, which are 
sent to me either by a man whose seed is dried out 1 , 
or by the courtezan who produces untimely issues 2 , 
or by young boys, or by girls who have known no 
man 3 . 

' When the Turanians and the swift-horsed Nao- 
taras *, clapping their hands, ran after me, 

1 See Vend. Ill, 20 [63], note. 

2 By procuring abortion. 

8 She refuses the offerings of all barren beings. 

4 Cf. Yt. V, 98. The following clauses allude to some myth of 
Ashi Vanguhi connected with the conflict between the Turanians 
and the Naotaras (either Tusa and Vistauru ; cf. p. 71, note 7, or 
more likely Vtotaspa himself, to whom the preceding chapter 



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ASHI VAST. 28l 



55. 'I hid myself under the foot of a bull walking 
under his burden ; then young boys, and girls who 
had known no man, discovered me, even while the 
Turanians and the swift-horsed Naotaras, clapping 
their hands, were running after me. 

56. 'Even I hid myself under the throat of a ram 
of hundredfold energy : then again young boys, and 
girls who had known no man, discovered me, even 
while the Turanians and the swift-horsed Naotaras, 
clapping their hands, were running after me.' 

57. The first wailing of the great Ashi Vanguhi 
is her wailing about the courtezan who destroys her 
fruit: ' Stand thou not near her, sit thou not on her 
bed!'— 'What shall I do? Shall I go back to the 
heavens ? Shall I sink into the earth ?' 

58. The second wailing of the great Ashi Vanguhi 
is her wailing about the courtezan who brings forth 
a child conceived of a stranger and presents it to 
her husband : ' What shall I do ? Shall I go back 
to the heavens ? Shall I sink into the earth V 

59. This is the third wailing of the great Ashi 
Vanguhi : ' This is the worst deed that men and 
tyrants do, namely, when they deprive maids, that 
have been barren for a long time, of marrying and 
bringing forth children. What shall I do ? Shall 
I go back to the heavens ? Shall I sink into the 
earth ?' 

60. Ahura Mazda answered : ' O fair and wise 
Ashi, go not back to the heavens, sink not into the 



[§§ 48-52] and the last but one clause of the Yart refer). She tried 
to flee in the way practised by Ulysses in the Cyclops' cavern; both 
parties were pursuing the animal that bore her, though they knew 
not what it bore, till children discovered her. 



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282 VASTS AND stRdZAHS. 

earth ! Stay here and walk inside the fine kingly 
palace.' 

61. I shall worship thee with such a sacrifice, I 
shall worship and forward thee with such a sacrifice 
as Vlstaspa offered unto thee, behind the river 
Daitya 1 . The Zoatar lifted up a loud voice, with 
baresma before him. With that sort of sacrifice 
shall I worship thee ? With that sort of sacrifice 
shall I worship and forward thee, O fair and wise 
Ashi ? 

For her brightness and glory, I will offer her a sacrifice worth 
being heard .... 

62. Yatha ahu vairy6 : The will of the Lord is the law of 
holiness .... 

I bless the sacrifice and prayer, and the strength 
and vigour of Ashi Vanguhi ; of the good ^fisti ; of 
the good Erethf?; of the good Rasasta^; of the 
Glory and Weal, made by Mazda 2 . 

Ashem Vohu: Holiness is the best of all good .... 

[Give] unto that man brightness and glory, give him health of 
body, .... give him the bright, all-happy, blissful abode of the 
holy Ones. 

' Cf. §§ 49 seq. a Cf. Sirdzah, § 25. 



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AstXd vast. 283 



XVIII. ASTAD YAST. 

Ar$ta7 is Truthfulness: she is invoked in company with the 
Genius of Truth, Rashnu Razuta (Sfr6zah, § 18), on the day Rashn. 
On the day especially dedicated to her, the 26th day of the month, 
she is invoked in company with Mount Ushi-darena, which accounts 
for the singular fact that her Yart is wholly devoted to the IfvaTtnd, 
and thus is hardly distinguishable from the ZamySd Yart, as Mount 
Ushi-darena is the actual seat of the ffvaieud (Yt. I, 31, text and 
note ; cf. Yt. XIX, 66). Whence comes this particular connection 
of Awta7 with Mount Ushi-darena is uncertain, unless it alludes to 
the fact that the possession of the .ffparend can be secured only 
through truthfulness : as soon as Yima ' began to find delight in 
words of falsehood and untruth,' the iifoaren6 flew away from him 
(Yt. XIX, 34). 

o. May Ahura Mazda be rejoiced 1 . . . . 

AshemVohu: Holiness is the best of all good .... 

I confess myself a worshipper of Mazda, a follower of Zarathurtra, 
one who hates the DaSvas and obeys the laws of Ahura; 

For sacrifice, prayer, propitiation, and glorification unto [Hdvani], 
the holy and master of holiness .... 

Unto the Glory of the Aryans, made by Mazda, 
Be propitiation, with sacrifice, prayer, propitiation, 
and glorification. 

Yatha" ahu vairyfi: The will of the Lord is the law of 
holiness .... 

i. Ahura Mazda spake unto Spitama Zarathu.ytra, 
saying : ' I made the Aryan Glory, rich in food, rich 
in flocks, rich in wealth 1 , rich in Glory ; provided with 
full store of intelligence, with full store of money, to 
withstand Need, and to withstand enemies. 

1 As it gives food, flocks, and wealth to those who get possessed 
of it. 



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284 YAtfTS AND SiR6ZAHS. 

, 2. ' It destroys Angra Mainyu, who is all death ; 
it destroys A6shma, the fiend of the wounding spear 1 ; 
it destroys the yellow Bushyasta 2 ; it destroys the 
contagion 3 of A^kha 4 ; it destroysjhe fi**M of Heathy 
Ajaosha^; it destroys the non-Aryan nations. 

3. 'And I made the great Ashi Vanguhi; she 
comes in, amid the family ; she comes in, inside the 
fine royal palace 9 . 

4. ' Let Ashi, with fulness of welfare, follow the 
man who gladdens the faithful with his gifts 7 ! she 
comes in, inside his family; she comes in, inside his 
fine royal palace. 

' With all sorts of flocks, with all victory, with all 
intelligence, with all Glory, the great Ashi Vanguhi 
puts one foot 8 inside his family ; she comes in, inside 
his fine royal palace. 

5. ' Horses multiply a thousandfold, flocks multi- 
ply a thousandfold; and so does his virtuous off- 
spring, (as) the bright, glorious star Twtrya moves 
on equally 9 , and so does the strong wind made by 
Mazda, and so does the Glory of the Aryas. 

6. 'And they bring increase on the tops of all 
mountains, down the depths of all vales ; they bring 
increase to all the growing plants 10 , the fair, the 
golden-hued. And they bring (away) 11 the contagion 



1 See Vendfdad, Introd. IV, 22. 

1 Ibid. Introd. IV, 24. s Doubtful. 

4 ? A daSva or a disease. 5 See Yt. VIII, 22. 

• See Yt. XVII. 

7 Who gives alms to the poor Mazdayasnians. 

8 Even one foot(?), when she stays not there 'for long friend- 
ship ' (Yt. XVII, 6). 

• So that the rain falls in due time (Yt. VIII, n). 

10 Cf.Yt.VIII.29. M Cf.§2. 



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AstAd \ast. 285 



of Aekha, they bring (away) the fiend of death, 
Apaosha. 

7. ' Hail to the bright and glorious star TLrtrya ! 

Hail to the strong wind, made by Mazda ! Hail to 

the Glory of the Aryas ! 

'YathS. ahu vairy6: The will of the Lord is the law of 
holiness .... 

'Ashem Vohu : Holiness is the best of all good .... 

8. ' We worship the Ahuna Vairya. 

' We worship Asha-VahLyta, the fairest Amesha- 
Spe«ta. 

'We worship the rightly-spoken Words 1 , fiend- 
smiting and healing. 

' We worship the healing, well-spoken Words, the 
fiend-smiting. 

' We worship the Mathra Spe«ta and the Law of 
Mazda, and (piety) that delights in Haoma 2 . 

' We worship the Glory of the Aryas. 

'YSwhe' httam : All those beings of whom Ahura Mazda .... 

9. 'YathS ahu vairy6 : The will of the Lord is the law of 
holiness .... 

' I bless the sacrifice and prayer, and the strength 
and vigour of the Glory of the Aryas, made by 
Mazda. 

'Ashem Vohu : Holiness is the best of all good .... 
'[Give] unto that man 8 brightness and glory, .... give him 
the bright, all-happy, blissful abode of the holy Ones.' 

1 Arshukhdha va£6, the words conformable to the rites. 
8 Haoma&nem; see fitudes Iraniennes, II, 148. 
8 Who shall have sacrificed to the Aryan Glory. 



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286 YASTS AND siR6ZAHS. 



XIX. zamyAd YAST. 



This Yart, inscribed to the Genius of the Earth, is devoted to 
a description of the mountains and the kingly Glory (kavaSm 
Zfoaren6), which are invoked, together with the Earth, in the 
corresponding formula of the Sirdzah (§ 28): there is no Yart 
devoted to the Earth itself. 

The mountains are simply enumerated (§§ 1-8). The rest of 
the Yart is devoted to the praise of the ZT»aren5, or, more pre- 
cisely, to that of those who possessed it, whose powers or feats 
are described. The list begins with Ahura Mazda (§ 10), and closes 
with Saoshya«/ (§89); that is to say, it begins with the beginning 
of the world, and closes with its end. It includes the Amesha- 
Spe«tas (§ 15), Haoshyangha (§ 26), Takhma Urupa (§ 28), Yima 
(§ 31), Mithra (§ 35), Thra&aona (§ 36), Keres&spa (§ 38), the 
kings of the Kaianyan dynasty (§§ 66-72), Kavi Husravah (§ 74), 
Zarathurtra (§ 79), Virtaspa (§ 84). The unsuccessful efforts of 
Franghrasyan to take possession of it are described at length 

(§§ 96-64). 

This Yart would serve as a short history of the Iranian monarchy, 
an abridged Shah Namah. 



o. May Ahura Mazda be rejoiced ! . . . . 

Ashem Vohu : Holiness is the best of all good .... 

I confess myself a worshipper of Mazda, a follower of Zara- 
thurtra, one who hates the Daevas and obeys the laws of Ahura ; 

For sacrifice, prayer, propitiation, and glorification unto [HSvani], 
the holy and master of holiness .... 

Unto Mount Ushi-darena, made by Mazda, the 
seat of holy happiness ; unto the kingly Glory, made 
by Mazda ; unto that Glory that cannot be forcibly 
seized, made by Mazda 1 , 

1 Sfr6zah I, 28. 



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zamyAd yast. 287 



Be propitiation, with sacrifice, prayer, propitiation, 
and glorification. 

Yath£ ahu vairy6 : The will of the Lord is the law of 
holiness .... 

I. 

i. The first mountain that rose up out of the 
earth, O Spitama Zarathartra ! was the Haraiti 
Barez 1 . That mountain stretches all along the 
shores of the land washed by waters 2 towards 
the east. 

The second mountain was Mount Zeredh6, out- 
side 3 Mount Manusha 4 : this mountain too stretches 
all along the shores of the land washed by waters 
towards the east. 

2. From there grew up Mount Ushi-dhau 
Ushi-darena 6 , Mount Erezifya*, and Mount 
Fraorepa. 

The sixth was Mount Erezura 7 . 

The seventh was Mount Bumya 8 . 

The eighth was Mount Raoidhita 9 . 

1 The same as the Hara Berezaiti, the later Albdrz; see 
p. 58, note 3. 

* The Caspian sea. 

8 Doubtful: p&re»tarem aredhd; possibly beyond. 

4 According to the Bundahif, Manusha is another name of 
Mount ZeredhS (XII, 2). It is the mountain on which Mdnuf^ihar 
was born (ibid. 10). 

6 'The mountain that gives understanding, that preserves under- 
standing,' the later Mount 6*dastar; see p. 33, note 1. 

6 See p. 65, note 2. 

7 Mount Arzur 'is a summit at the gate of hell' (Bundahis 
XII, 8 ; cf. Vend. Ill, 7 (23); XIX, 140). 

* The Arzur Bum of Bundahif XII, 2, which ' is in the direction 
of Arfim ' (Asia Minor, Bundahu XII, 16). 

9 The R6yun-6mand mountain of Bundahif XII, 27; its name 



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288 VASTS AND s!r6zAHS. 

The ninth was Mount Mazi-yuvdtu. 
The tenth was Mount Awtare-danghu. 
The eleventh was Mount Erezisha. 
The twelfth was Mount Vaiti-gadsa 1 . 

3. And Mount Adarana, Mount Bayana, Mount 
Ijkata Upairi-sa£na 2 , with the . . . . 8 snows; 
die two Hamankuna mountains, the eight Vasna 
mountains, the eight powerful Frava#ku, the four 
Vidhvana summits; 

4. Mount A£zakha, Mount Ma6nakha, Mount 
Vakhedraka£, Mount Asaya, Mount Tudhaskae", 
Mount lsava.6, Mount Draoshisvau, Mount Sai- 
rivau, Mount Nanghu-ymau, Mount Kakahyu, 
Mount A^tare-Kangha*; 

5. Mount Si^idava 5 , Mount Ahuna, Mount 
Ra6mana, Mount Asha-stembana, Mount Uru- 
ny6-vaidhka£, Mount Asnava»/ 9 , Mount Usha- 
oma, Mount Usta-^arenah, Mount Syamaka 7 , 
Mount Vafrayau, Mount Vourusha; 



means 'the mountain on which vegetation has grown' (ibid. tr. 
West). 

1 The BSdghSs mountain near Herat, y-^cib.. 

2 Or ' Mount Ifkata (" rugged "), belonging to the Upairi-saena 
ridge.' The Upairi-sa6na ridge or AparsSn ridge is ' the moun- 
tain of Persia, and its beginning is in Seistan and its end in 
Susiana' (Bund. XII, 9). 

* ?Kas6-tafedhra; possibly the name of a mountain : Mount 
Kas6-tafedhra Vafra. 

* See p. 67, note 4. 

6 'SWid&v, a mountain among those which are in Kangdez' 
(Bund. XII, 2, tr.West). 

' See p. 7, note 5. 

7 The Mount SiySk-6mand (' the black mountain') and Mount 
Vafar-6mand ('die snowy mountain') of Bundahw XII, 22, 
which are said to have grown out of the Ap£rs6n ridge and to 
extend towards China. 



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zamyad yast. 289 



6. Amongst which stand Mount Ga.ta.ra., Mount 
Adhutavau, Mount Spitavarena, Mount Spe#t6- 
data 1 , Mount Kadrva-aspa 2 , Mount Kaoirisa 3 , 
Mount TaSra 4 , Mount Bard-srayana, Mount Ba- 
rana, Mount Frapayau, Mount Udrya, and 
Mount Ra£va«/ S , and all those heights to which 
men have given the name of mount, 

7. To the number of two thousand mountains, 
and two hundred and forty and four 6 , O Spitama 
Zarathuytra ! 

8. For its brightness and glory, I will offer it a 
sacrifice worth being heard, namely, unto the awful 
kingly Glory. Unto the awful kingly Glory we offer 
up the libations, the Haoma and meat, the baresma, 
the wisdom of the tongue, the holy spells, the speech, 
the deeds, the libations, and the rightly -spoken 
words 7 . 

Y£«h6 hatam: All those beings of whom Ahura 
Mazda 7 .... 

II. 

9. We sacrifice unto the awful kingly Glory, made 
by Mazda; most conquering, highly working, that 
possesses health, wisdom, and happiness, and is 
more powerful to destroy than all other creatures ; 

1 The Spendydd mountain, near Mount RSvand (Bundahu 
XII, 23). 

* The K6ndrdsp mountain, by the town of Tus (in Khorasan, 
Bund. XII, 24). 

8 The K6fras mountain in fiin-Ve^ (Bund. XII, 25). 
4 Cf. Yt. XV, 7, and p. 58, note 2. 

6 See p. 8, notes 1 and 2. 

• ' The other mountains have grown out of Alburs, in number 
2244 mountains' (Bund. XII, 2). 

7 See notes to Yt. Ill, 17 (p. 47)- 

[23] U 



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290 YASTS AND siR6ZAHS. 

10. That belongs to Ahura Mazda, as (through it) 
Ahura Mazda made the creatures, many and good, 
many and fair, many and wonderful, many and pros- 
perous, many and bright ; 

n 1 . So that they may restore the world, which 
will (thenceforth) never grow old and never die, 
never decaying and never rotting, ever living and 
ever increasing, and master of its wish, when the 
dead will rise, when life and immortality will come, 
and the world will be restored at its wish ; 

1 2. When the creation will grow deathless, — the 
prosperous creation of the Good Spirit, — and the 
Drug' shall perish, though she may rush on every 
side to kill the holy beings ; she and her hundred- 
fold brood shall perish, as it is the will of the 
Lord 2 . 

13. For its brightness and glory, I will offer it a sacrifice .... 

III. 

14. We sacrifice unto the awful kingly Glory, made by 
Mazda . . . . 3 

1 5 4 . That belongs to the Amesha-Spe#tas, the 
bright ones, whose looks perform their wish, tall, 
quickly coming to do, strong, lordly, who are un- 
decaying and holy ; 

16. Who are all seven of one thought, who are all 
seven of one speech, who are all seven of one deed ; 
whose thought is the same, whose speech is the 
same, whose deed is the same, whose father and 
commander is the same, namely, the Maker, Ahura 
Mazda. 



1 §§ n-i2=§§ 19-20, 23-24, 89-90. * Doubtful. 

» As above, § 9. * §§ i5-i7=Yt. XIII, 82-84. 



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ZAMYAD YAST. 29 1 



1 7. Who see one another's soul thinking of good 
thoughts, thinking of good words, thinking of good 
deeds, thinking of Gar6-nmana, and whose ways are 
shining as they go down to the libations ; 

18. Who are the makers and governors, the 
shapers and overseers, the keepers and preservers 
of these creations of Ahura Mazda. 

19 1 . It is they who shall restore the world, which 
will (thenceforth) never grow old and never die, 
never decaying and never rotting, ever living and 
ever increasing, and master of its wish, when the 
dead will rise, when life and immortality will come, 
and the world will be restored at its wish ; 

20. When the creation will grow deathless, — the 
prosperous creation of the Good Spirit, — and the 
Dru£* shall perish, though she may rush on every 
side to kill the holy beings ; she and her hundred- 
fold brood shall perish, as it is the will of the Lord. 

For its brightness and glory, I will offer it a sacrifice .... 

IV. 

21. We sacrifice unto the awful kingly Glory, made by 
Mazda .... 

22. That belongs to the gods in the heavens and 
to those in the material world, and to the blessed 
ones, born or not yet born, who are to perform the 
restoration of the world 2 . 

23 s . It is they who shall restore the world, which 
will (thenceforth) never grow old and never die, 
never decaying and never rotting, ever living and 

1 §§ I9-20=§§ 11-12. 

8 The Saoshya»/s; see p. 165, note 1. 
3 §§23-24= §§19-20. 

U 2 



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292 YASTS AND siRdZAHS. 

ever increasing, and master of its wish, when the 
dead will rise, when life and immortality will come, 
and the world will be restored at its wish ; 

24. When the creation will grow deathless, — the 
prosperous creation of the Good Spirit, — and the 
Dru^ shall perish, though she may rush on every 
side to kill the holy beings ; she and her hundred- 
fold brood shall perish, as it is the will of the Lord. 

For its brightness and glory, I will offer it a sacrifice .... 

V. 

25. We sacrifice unto the awful kingly Glory, made by 
Mazda .... 

26. That clave unto Haoshyangha, the Paradhata, 
for a long time 1 , when he ruled over the seven 
Karshvares of the earth, over the Daevas and men, 
over the Yatus and the Pairikas, over the oppressors, 
the blind, and the deaf; he who smote two-thirds of 
the Daevas of Mazana and of the Varenya fiends 2 . 

For its brightness and glory, I will offer it a sacrifice .... 

VI. 

27. We sacrifice unto the awful kingly Glory, made by 
Mazda .... 

28. That clave unto Takhma Urupa, the well- 
armed, while he ruled over the seven Karshvares of 
the earth, over the Da£vas and men, the Yatus and 
Pairikas, the oppressors, the blind, and the deaf; 

29. When he conquered all Daevas and men, all 
the Yatus and Pairikas, and rode Angra Mainyu, 

1 For forty years, according to the Bundahu (XXXIV, 4) ; for 
thirty years, according to Firdausi. 
' SeeYt.V,22. 



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ZAMYAD YAiST. 293 



turned into the shape of a horse, all around the earth 
from one end to the other, for thirty years 1 . 
For its brightness and glory, I will offer it a sacrifice .... 

VII. 

30. We sacrifice unto the awful kingly Glory, made by 
Mazda .... 

31. That clave unto the bright Yima, the good 
shepherd, for a long time 2 , while he ruled over the 
seven Karshvares of the earth, over the Da£vas and 
men, the Yatus and Pairikas, the oppressors, the 
blind, and the deaf; 

32. He who took from the Daevas both riches 
and welfare, both fatness and flocks, both weal and 
Glory 3 ; 

In whose reign both aliments 4 were never failing 
for feeding creatures, flocks and men were undying, 
waters and plants were undrying ; 

33. In whose reign there was neither cold wind 
nor hot wind, neither old age nor death, nor envy 
made by the Daevas 6 , in the times before his lie, 
before he began to have delight in words of false- 
hood and untruth. 

34. But when he began to find delight in words 
of falsehood and untruth 6 , the Glory was seen to 
flee away from him in the shape of a bird. When 
his Glory had disappeared, then the great 7 Yima 

1 Cf. Yt. XV, 12, and notes. 

2 For six hundred and sixteen years and six months (Bundahij 
XXXIV, 4). 

8 See Yt. V, 26, text and note. 

4 Food and drink. B Cf. Yt. XV, 16. 

e He pretended to be a god (Firdausi). 

7 Doubtful: fraSna. 



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294 VASTS AND sfltdZAHS. 

Khshaeta, the good shepherd, trembled and was in 
sorrow before his foes 1 ; he was confounded, and 
laid him down on the ground. 

35. The first time 2 when the Glory departed from 
the bright Yima, the Glory went from Yima, the son 
of Vivangha«/, in the shape of a Varaghna bird 8 . 

Then Mithra seized that Glory, Mithra, the lord 
of wide pastures, whose ear is quick to hear, who 
has a thousand senses. We sacrifice unto Mithra, 
the lord of all countries, whom Ahura Mazda has 
created the most glorious of all the gods in the 
heavens. 

36. The second time when the Glory departed 
from the bright Yima, the Glory went from Yima, 
the son of Vivanghaw/, in the shape of a Varaghna 
bird. 

Then Thraetaona seized that Glory, he, the heir 
of the valiant Athwya clan, who was the most vic- 
torious of all victorious men next to Zarathurtra ; 

37. Who smote Azi Dahaka, the three-mouthed, 
the three-headed, the six-eyed, who had a thousand 
senses, that most powerful, fiendish Dru£", that 
demon baleful to the world, the strongest Druf that 
Angra Mainyu created against the material world, 
to destroy the world of the good principle 4 . 



1 Asi Dah&ka and his followers. 

2 The Glory is described as departing three times, because it is 
threefold, according as it belongs to the king considered as a 
priest, a warrior, or a husbandman. In that threefold character 
it is identical with Adar Frobd, Adar Gushasp, and Adar Burzin 
Mihr (p. 7, notes). 

8 A raven, one of the incarnations of the Genius of Victory 
(Yt. XIV, 18-21; cf. ibid. § 35). 
« Cf. Yt. V, 34. 



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ZAMYAD YAST. 295 



38. The third time when the Glory departed from 
the bright Yima, that Glory went from Yima, the son 
of Vivangha#^, in the shape of a Varaghna bird. 

Then the manly-hearted Keresaspa 1 seized that 
Glory; he who was the sturdiest of the men of 
strength, next to Zarathurtra, for his manly courage. 

•39. For Manly Courage clave unto him. We 
worship Manly Courage, firm of foot, unsleeping, 
quick to rise, and fully awake, that clave unto 
Keresaspa ; 

40. Who killed the snake Srvara, the horse- 
devouring, men-devouring, yellow, poisonous snake, 
over which yellow poison flowed a thumb's breadth 
thick. Upon him Keresaspa was cooking his food 
in a brass vessel : at the time of noon, the fiend felt 
the heat, and stood upon his feet : he rushed from 
under the brass vessel and upset the boiling water : 
the manly-hearted Keresaspa fell back affrighted 2 ; 

41. Who killed the golden-heeled Ga«darewa, 
that was rushing with open jaws, eager to destroy 
the living world of the good principle 3 ; 

Who killed the brood of Pathana, all the nine 4 ; 



1 See V, 37 (pp. 62-63, an( * notes); XIII, 136 ; XV, 27. 

4 Cf. Yasna IX, 1 1 (34-39). This tale belongs to the wide- 
spread cyclus of the island-whale (a whale whose back is mistaken 
by sailors for an island ; they land upon it, cook their food there, 
and the monster, awaked by the heat, flies off and carries them 
away : see Arabian Nights, Seventy-first Night ; BaM BathrS, 5).' 

3 SeeYt.V, 38. 

4 Known in the Minokhired (XXVII, 50) as 'the wolf Kap6<f' 
(perhaps 'the blue wolf,' as Mr. West suggests), 'which they also call 
Ptfhan.' Those nine sons of Pathana were nine highwaymen (the 
very word Pathana seems to have that meaning): their defeat is 
told by Keresaspa in a Pahlavi Riv&yat as follows : ' I have slain 
the highwaymen who were so big in body that, when they were 



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296 YASTS AND SlRdZAHS. 

and the brood of Nivika, and the brood of Dasta- 
yana; 

Who killed the golden-crowned Hitaspa 1 , and 
Vareshava, the son of Dana 2 , and Pitaona, attended 
by many Pairikas 3 ; 

42. Who killed Arez6-shamana, him of the manly 
courage, who was strong, well-beloved 4 , hail, energe- 
tically rushing, fully awake, never falling back. . . . 6 ; 

43. Who killed Snavidhaka, him who killed with 
his nails, the stone-handed : thus did he exclaim to 
all around : ' I am an infant still, I am not yet of 
age : if I ever grow of age, I shall make the earth a 
wheel, I shall make the heavens a chariot ; 

44. ' I shall bring down the Good Spirit from the 
shining Gar6-nmina; I shall make the Evil Spirit 
rush up from the dreary Hell. They will carry my 

walking, people considered in this way, that " below them are the 
stars and moon, and below them moves the sun at dawn, and the 
water of the sea reaches up to their knees." And I reached up to 
their legs, and they were smitten on the legs by me ; they fell, and 
the hills on the earth were shattered by them' (West, Pahlavi 
Texts, II, 376). Keresaspa's Fravashi, accordingly, is invoked 
against thieves (Yt. XIII, 136). Perhaps the assimilation of the 
wolf Kap6</ with Pdian is merely a guess of the author of the 
Minokhired. 

1 The murderer of Keresaspa's brother, Urvakhshaya (Yt. 
XV, 28). 

* Doubtful: danayana. Varesha is the Pahlavi name of a 
bird of prey (Bund. XIV, 30), which might induce us to identify 
Vareshava with the gigantic bird Kamak, 'which overshadowed 
the earth and kept off the rain till the rivers dried up' (West, 1.1. 
378), and whose destruction was one of the feats of Keresaspa. 

s Like the Pairika Knathaiti, who clave to Keresaspa (Vend. I, 
10 [36]). 

4 Doubtful: frazuftem. 

5 The rest of the sentence is obscure, and the text seems to be 
corrupt. 



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ZAMYAD VAST. 297 



chariot, both the Good Spirit and the Evil One, 
unless the manly-hearted Keres&spa kill me.' 

The manly-hearted Keresaspa killed him, his life 
went away, his spirit vanished l . 

For its brightness and glory, I will offer it a sacrifice .... 

VIII. 

45. We sacrifice unto the awful Glory, that cannot be forcibly 
seized 8 , made by Mazda .... 

46. For which the Good Spirit and the Evil One 
did struggle with one another 3 : for that Glory that 
cannot be forcibly seized 2 they flung each of them 
their darts most swift. 

The Good Spirit flung a dart, and so did Vohu- 
Man6, and Asha-Vahirta and Atar, the son of Ahura 
Mazda. 

The Evil Spirit flung a dart, and so did Akem- 
Mano*, and A£shma of the wounding spear, and 
Azi Dahaka and Spityura, he who sawed Yima in 
twain 6 . 

1 Snavidhaka reminds one vividly of the Titanic Otus and 
Ephialtes (Odyssea XI, 308) : 

'Such were they youths! Had they to manhood grown, 
Almighty Jove had trembled on his throne : 
But ere the harvest of the beard began 
To bristle on the chin, and promise man, 
His shafts Apollo aim'd.' (Pope.) 

2 The sacerdotal Glory; see p. n, note 6, cf. § 53. 

* When it had departed from Yima. 

4 Bad Thought, the demoniac counterpart ofVohu-Man6(Vend. 
Introd. IV, 34). 

* Spityura was a brother of Yima's (Bund. XXXI, 3 : ' Spitur 
was he who, with Dahak, cut up Yim,' ibid. 5, tr. West). Nothing 
more is known of him, though he appears to have played a great 
part in the original Yima legend, and to have stood to his brother 
in the same relation as Barmayun and Katayun to Feridun, or 



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298 VASTS AND sk6zAHS. 

47. Then forward came Atar 1 , the son of Ahura 
Mazda, thinking thus in his heart : ' I want to seize 
that Glory that cannot be forcibly seized.' 

But hzi Dahaka, the three-mouthed, he of the evil 
law, rushed on his back, thinking of extinguishing it: 

48. 'Here give it up to me 2 , O Atar, son of 
Ahura Mazda : if thou seizest that Glory that 
cannot be forcibly seized, I shall rush upon thee, 
so that thou mayest never more blaze on the earth 
made by Ahura and protect the world of the good 
principle.' 

And Atar took back his hands, as the instinct of 
life prevailed, so much had Azi affrighted him. 

49. Then Az\, the three-mouthed, he of the evil 
law, rushed forward, thinking thus in his heart : ' I 
want to seize that Glory that cannot be forcibly 
seized.' 

But Atar, the son of Ahura Mazda, advanced 
behind him, speaking in these words : 

50. 'There give it up to me 2 , thou three-mouthed 
Azi Dahaka. If thou seizest that Glory that cannot 
be forcibly seized, then I will enter thy hinder part, 
I will blaze up in thy jaws, so that thou mayest 
never more rush upon the earth made by Mazda 
and destroy the world of the good principle.' 

Then Azi took back his hands, as the instinct of 
life prevailed, so much had Atar affrighted him. 

51. That Glory swells up and goes to the sea 

Shagad to Rustam. Firdausi does not mention him, and makes 
Dahak himself saw Gemshid. 

1 Adar Froba (the Glory of the Priest) is meant here : ' when 
they sawed Yim, Adar Froba' saved his Glory from the hand of 
Dahak ' (Bund. XVII, 5 ; fitudes Iraniennes, II, 70, 84). 

2 Doubtful. 



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zamyAd vast. 299 



Vouru-Kasha. The swift-horsed Son of the Waters x 
seizes it at once : this is the wish of the Son of the 
Waters, the swift-horsed : ' I want to seize that 
Glory that cannot be forcibly seized, down to the 
bottom of the sea Vouru-Kasha, in the bottom of 
the deep rivers.' 

52. We sacrifice unto the Son of the Waters, the 
swift-horsed, the tall and shining lord, the lord of 
females; the male god, who helps one at his appeal; 
who made man, who shaped man 2 , a god who lives 
beneath waters, and whose ear is the quickest to 
hear when he is worshipped. 

53. 'And whosoever of you, O men,' — thus said 
Ahura Mazda, — 'O holy Zarathuytra ! shall seize 
that Glory that cannot be forcibly seized, he has the 
gifts 3 of an Athravan * ; whosoever shall long for 
the illumination of knowledge, he has the gifts of 
an Athravan; whosoever shall long for fulness of 
knowledge, he has the gifts of an Athravan; 

54. 'And Riches will cleave unto him, giving him 
full welfare, holding a shield before him, powerful, 
rich of cattle and garments ; and Victory will cleave 
unto him, day after day ; and likewise Strength, 
that smites more than a year. Attended by that 
Victory, he will conquer the havocking hordes ; 
attended by that Victory, he will conquer all those 
who hate him.' 

For its brightness and glory, I will offer it a sacrifice .... 



1 Apam NapiY; see p. 6, note 1. 

2 An allusion to old myths on the igneous origin of life (Ormazd 
et Ahriman, § 78). 

• Doubtful. 

4 As that Glory is the one that belongs to the Athravan. 



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30O YA5TS AND S{r6zAHS. 



IX. 

55. We sacrifice unto the awful Glory, that cannot be forcibly 
seized, made by Mazda .... 

56. Which the Turanian ruffian Frangrasyan 
tried to seize in the sea Vouru-Kasha. He stripped 
himself naked, wishing to seize that Glory that 
belongs to the Aryan nations, born and unborn, and 
to the holy Zarathurtra '. But the Glory escaped, 
the Glory fled away, the Glory changed its seat, 
and an arm of the sea Vouru-Kasha was produced, 
namely, that lake that is called Lake Husravah 2 . 

57 3 . Then the most crafty Turanian Frangrasyan 
rushed out of the sea Vouru-Kasha, O Spitama 
Zarathurtra ! thinking evil thoughts : ' . . . . * I 
have not been able to conquer the Glory that 
belongs to the Aryan nations, born and unborn, and 
to the holy Zarathustra. 

58. ' Then I will defile all corn and liquors 5 , as to 
greatness, goodness, and fairness.' 

— 'Ahura Mazda will come against thee, ever 
eager to create new creatures 6 .' 

Then the most crafty Turanian Frangrasyan 
rushed down into the sea Vouru-Kasha, O Spitama 
Zarathastra ! 

1 See fitudes Iraniennes, II, 227 ; cf. § 82. 

2 'Lake Husru is within fifty leagues (parasang) of Lake 
.fi^ast' (Lake Urumiah, Bund. XXII, 8, tr. West). 

8 Cf. §§ 60, 63. 

4 Itha itha yathana ahmai. 

8 Tarshu>&a khshudra£a, translated dh&nySni madhuni^a 
(Sansk. tr. to Afrig&n G&hambir, § 12).. Afr&sy&b was charged 
with having laid Iran waste by filling up or conducting away rivers 
(Hamzah Ispahensis, p. 34 ; cf. Bund. XXI, 6). 

* This looks like an answer to AMsy&b's threats. 



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ZAMYAD YAST. 30I 



59. A second time he stripped himself naked, 
wishing to seize that Glory that belongs to the 
Aryan nations, born and unborn, and to the holy 
Zarathuytra. But the Glory escaped, the Glory fled 
away, the Glory changed its seat, and an arm of the 
sea Vouru-Kasha was produced, namely, that lake 
that is called Lake Vanghazdau \ 

60 2 . Then the most crafty Turanian Frangrasyan 
rushed out of the sea Vouru-Kasha, O Spitama 
Zarathustra ! thinking evil thoughts : '. . . . 3 I have 
not been able to conquer the Glory that belongs to 
the Aryan nations, born and unborn, and to the 
holy Zarathustra. 

61. 'Then I will defile all corn and liquors, as to 
greatness, goodness, and fairness.' 

— 'Ahura Mazda will come against thee, ever 
eager to create new creatures.' 

Then the most crafty Turanian Frangrasyan 
rushed down into the sea Vouru-Kasha. 

62. A third time he stripped himself naked, 
wishing to seize the Glory that belongs to the 
Aryan nations, born and unborn, and to the holy 
Zarathustra. But the Glory escaped, the Glory fled 
away, the Glory changed its seat, and an arm was 
produced in the sea Vouru-Kasha, namely, the water 
that is called Aw^r-danva. 

63*. Then the most crafty Turanian Frangrasyan 
rushed out of the sea Vouru-Kasha, O Spitama 
Zarathuytra ! thinking evil thoughts : ' . . . . 5 I have 

1 The situation of that lake is not stated. * Cf. §§ 57, 63. 

9 Itha itha yathana ahmai avatha itha yathana ahmai. 

* Cf. §§ 57, 60. 

* Itha itha yathana ahmai avatha itha yathana ahmai avoya itha 
yathana ahmai. 



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302 YASTS AND S1R6ZAHS. 

not been able to conquer the Glory that belongs to 
the Aryan nations, born and unborn, and to the 
holy Zarathurtra!' 

64. He was not able to seize the Glory that 
belongs to the Aryan nations, born and unborn, and 
to the holy Zarathurtra. 

For its brightness and glory, I will offer it a sacrifice .... 

X. 

65. We sacrifice unto the awful Glory that cannot be forcibly 
seized, made by Mazda .... 

66. That cleaves unto him x who grows up there, 
where lies Lake Kasava 2 , along with the Ha6tu- 
ma«/ 3 river; there where stands Mount Ushidhau 4 , 
surrounded by waters, that run from the mountain. 

67. It 8 runs unto him, it flows and swells unto 
him, bringing good pastures and fine horses, bringing 
plenty, full of glory; with beauty and weal ; powerful 
and friendly, rich of pastures, prolific and golden. It 
runs unto him, it flows and swells unto him, bright 
and glorious, making the white . . . . 6 grow, smiting 
away all plagues. 

68. And there comes with him a horse's strength, 
there comes with him a camel's strength, there 

1 That is to say, to any one who .... The Kavis or Kings 
of Iran are meant : Lake Kasava was supposed to be ' the home of 
the Kayin race ' (Bund. XXI, 7). The Kavis are enumerated in 
the following clauses (§§ 7 1 seq.). 

2 The present Zarah or Hamun sea in Seistan. 
8 The Helmend ('Ert)ftai«8pof ; cf.Vend. 1, 14). 

* The seat of the Zfoarend ; see p. 33, note 1, p. 287, note 5, 
and Introduction to Yt. XVIII. 

* The water of the rivers in which the Glory lies, and in the 
midst of which the Kavi has been nourished. 

* ? Varemu. 



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ZAMYAD YAST. 303 



comes with him a man's strength, there comes with 
him the kingly Glory : and there is in him, O holy 
Zarathiutra! so much of kingly Glory as might 
extinguish at once all the non-Aryan nations. 

69. And then (through it) living creatures may 
keep away 1 hunger and death, living creatures (may 
keep away) cold and heat 1 . Such is the kingly 
Glory, the keeper of the Aryan nations and of the 
five kinds of animals 2 , made to help the faithful and 
the Law of the worshippers of Mazda. 

For its brightness and glory, I will offer it a sacrifice .... 

XI. 

70. We sacrifice unto the awful kingly Glory, made by 
Mazda .... 

71. That clave unto Kavi Kavata, and unto Kavi 
Aipiv6hu, and unto Kavi Usadha, and unto Kavi 
Arshan, and unto Kavi Pisina, and unto Kavi 
Byarshan, and unto Kavi Syavarshan 3 ; 

72. So that they were all of them brave, all of 
them strong, all of them healthful, all of them 
wise, all of them happy in their wishes, all of them 
powerful kings. 

For its brightness and glory, I will offer it a sacrifice .... 

XII. 

73. We sacrifice unto the awful kingly Glory, made by 
Mazda .... 

74*. That clave unto Kavi Husravah for the well- 

shapen Strength, for the Victory made by Ahura, 

for the crushing Ascendant; for the righteousness 

of the law, for the innocence of the law, for the 

1 Doubtful. a Seep. 182, note 2. s See Yt. XIII, §132. 
4 §§74-76=Yt. XIII, 133-135. 



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304 YASTS AND siRdZAHS. 

unconquerable power of the law ; for the extermina- 
tion of the enemies at one stroke ; 

75. And for the vigour of health, for the Glory 
made by Mazda, for the health of the body, and for 
a good, virtuous offspring, wise, chief in assemblies, 
bright, and clear-eyed, that frees [their father] from 
the pangs [of hell], of good intellect ; and for that 
part in the blessed world that falls to wisdom and 
to those who do not follow impiety ; 

76. And for a dominion full of splendour, for a 
long, long life, and for all boons and remedies ; 

77. So that king Husravah [had the lead] all 
along the long race, and he could not pass through 
the forest, he 1 , the murderer, who was fiercely striving 
against him on horseback ; the lord Kavi Husravah 
prevailed over all; he put in bonds Frangrasyan 
and Keresavazda 2 , to avenge the murder of his 
father Syavarshana, a man, and of Aghraeratha, a 
semi-man 3 . 

For its brightness and glory, I will offer it a sacrifice .... 

XIII. 

78. We sacrifice unto the awful kingly Glory, made by 
Mazda .... 

79. That clave unto the holy Zarathmtra, so that 
he thought according to the Law, spake according 

1 Aurvas&ra; see Yt. XV, 32 ; cf. Yt. V, 50 (where the words 
all along the long race have been omitted in the translation). 
The words have the lead here have been supplied from Yt V, 
50: the text here has two words, tSm keresem, of which both 
the reading and the meaning are doubtful. 

2 Keresavazda, the Karsivaz of Firdausi, the brother of 
AMsySb and the murderer of Syivarshana : he was put to death 
by Husravah in company with his brother (£tudes Iraniennes, 
II, 227). 

* See p. 114, note 7. 



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ZAMYAD YAST. 305 



to the Law, and did according to the Law ; so that 
he was the holiest in holiness in all the living world, 
the best-ruling in exercising rule, the brightest in 
brightness, the most glorious in glory, the most 
victorious in victory. 

80. At his sight the Da£vas rushed away ; at his 
sight the (demoniac) malices were extinguished ; at 
his sight the Gainis x drew back their ways from the 
mortals and, lamenting 2 and wailing, laid violent 
hands on the Daevas. 

81. And that one prayer, the AhunaVairya, which 
the holy Zarathurtra sang and repeated four times, 
with a song that waxed louder and louder, drove 
back all the Da£vas beneath the earth, and took off 
from them sacrifice and prayer 3 . 

82. It was it, the Glory of Zarathurtra, that the 
Turanian ruffian Frangrasyan tried to seize to rule 
over all the Karshvares; round about the seven 
Karshvares did that ruffian Frangrasyan rush, trying 
to seize the Glory of Zarathurtra *. But that Glory 
escaped to hidden inlets of the sea 5 ; and there those 
two 6 made my will 7 roll on 8 ; they entered my will, 
as it was my wish, Ahura Mazda's, and as it was the 
wish of the Law of Mazda. 

For its brightness and glory, I will offer it a sacrifice .... 



1 See Vend. XX, 10. 

4 Doubtful. Perhaps: and lamenting and wailing the 
Da&vas left off injuring. 
8 Cf. Yt XIII, 90. 

4 See above, §§ 56-64. » Cf. §§ 56, 59, 62, 

* Zarathurtra and Virtaspa(?); cf. §§ 84-87. 
7 Meaning my law. 8 Cf. Yt. XIII, 89, note 5. 



03] X 

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306 YA5TS AND s}r6zAHS. 



XIV. 

83. We sacrifice unto the awful kingly Glory, made by 
Mazda .... 

84. That clave unto king Vtotaspa, so that he 
thought according to the Law, spake according to 
the Law, and did according to the Law ; so that he 
professed that Law, destroying his foes and causing 
the Da£vas to retire. 

85 \ Who, driving the Dru£- before him 2 , sought 
wide room for the holy religion ; who, driving the 
Dru£- before him, made wide room for the holy 
religion ; who made himself the arm and support of 
this law of Ahura, of this law of Zarathurtra ; 

86. Who took her, standing bound, from the hands 
of the Hunus, and established her to sit in the middle 
[of the world], high ruling, never falling back, holy, 
nourished with plenty of cattle and pastures, blessed 
with plenty of cattle and pastures. 

87. The valiant king Vtrtaspa conquered all 
enemies, Tathravaw^ of the evil law, Peshana, the 
worshipper of the Da£vas, and the fiendish wicked 
Are_f a/-aspa and the other wicked Zfoyaonas 3 . 

For its brightness and glory, I will offer it a sacrifice .... 

XV. 

88. We sacrifice unto the awful kingly Glory, made by 
Mazda .... 

89*. That will cleave unto the victorious Sao- 

shya«/ and his helpers 6 , when he shall restore the 

1 §§ 85-86 =Yt. XIII, 99-100. 

8 Or ' with his spear pushed forwards ;' see p. 205, note 1. 
' Cf. Yt. V, 109. « §§ 8 9 - 9 o=§§ n-12. 

• See p. 117, note 6. 



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ZAMYAD YAST. 307 



world, which will (thenceforth) never grow old and 
never die, never decaying and never rotting, ever 
living and ever increasing, and master of its wish, 
when the dead will rise, when life and immortality 
will come, and the world will be restored at its 
wish ; 

90. When the creation will grow deathless, — the 
prosperous creation of the Good Spirit, — and the 
Dru^ shall perish, though she may rush on every 
side to kill the holy beings ; she and her hundred- 
fold brood shall perish, as it is the will of the Lord. 

For its brightness and glory, I will offer it a sacrifice .... 

XVI. 

91. We sacrifice unto the awful kingly Glory, made by 
Mazda .... 

92. When Astva^-ereta x shall rise up from Lake 
Kasava 2 , a friend of Ahura Mazda, a son of Vispa- 
taurvairi 3 , knowing the victorious knowledge. 

It was that Glory that Thra£taona bore with him 
when Azi Dahaka was killed 4 ; 

93. That Frangrasyan, the Turanian, bore when 
Drvtfu 5 was killed, when the Bull was killed 6 ; 

That king Husravah bore when Frangrasyan, the 
Turanian, was killed 7 ; 

1 Saoshya*/; cf. Yt. XIII, 129. 
" Cf. § 66 and Vend. XIX, 5 (18). 

* See Yt. XIII, 142. 4 Cf. § 36. 6 Or 'the demon.' 

* This line is in contradiction with what we know of the Frangra- 
syan legend, unless the text is corrupt and the name of Frangrasyan 
has been introduced here by mistake (for KeresSspa?). Yet it 
may allude to brighter sides, unknown to us, of the Turanian hero : 
the Bull (gaus) may be his brother AghraSratha, the Bull-man 
(Gdpatishih) ; see p. 114, note 7. 

7 See § 77. 

X 2 



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308 YASTS AND siR6ZAHS. 

That king Vlrtaspa bore, when he victoriously 
maintained Holiness against the host of the fiends 
and took off the Druf from the world of the good 
principle \ 

94. He 2 , with the eye of intelligence 3 , shall look 
down upon all the creatures of the Pae\siy *, her of 
the evil seed : he shall look upon the whole living 
world with the eye of plenty, and his look shall 
deliver to immortality the whole of the living 
creatures. 

95. And there shall his friends 5 come forward, 
the friends of Astva/-ereta, who are fiend-smiting, 
well-thinking, well-speaking, well-doing, following the 
good law, and whose tongues have never uttered 
a word of falsehood. 

Before them shall Aeshma of the wounding spear, 
who has no Glory, bow and flee ; he shall smite the 
most wicked Dru^ - , her of the evil seed, born of 
darkness. 

96. Akem-Man6 6 smites, but Vohu-Mand shall 
smite him ; the Word of falsehood smites, but the 
Word of truth shall smite it. Haurvata/ and Ame- 
retai 17 shall smite both hunger and thirst: Haur- 
vata/ and Amereta/ shall smite the evil hunger and 
the evil thirst. The evil-doing Angra Mainyu bows 
and flees, becoming powerless. 

For its brightness and glory, I will offer it a sacrifice .... 

97. Yatha ahu vairy6: The will of the Lord is the law of 
holiness .... 



1 Cf. § 84. 2 Saoshya»/. ' Cf. Yt. I, 28. 

* A name of the Dru^-. * See p. 220, note 1. 

' See p. 297, note 4. 

7 The Genii of the waters and of the plants (cf. Vend. Introd. 
IV, 34). 



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ZAMYAD YAST. 3OQ 



I bless the sacrifice and prayer, and the strength 
and vigour of Mount Ushi-darena, made by 
Mazda, the seat of holy happiness ; of the kingly 
Glory, made by Mazda; of the Glory that cannot 
be forcibly seized, made by Mazda 1 . 

Ashem Vohu : Holiness is the best of all good .... 
[Give] unto that man * brightness and glory, .... give him the 
bright, all-happy, blissful abode of the holy Ones. 



1 Cf. §0. 2 Who sacrifices to the kingly Glory. 



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310 YASTS AND sJr6zAHS. 



XX. VAN ANT YAST. 

This Yart ought to follow immediately after the Ttr Yart, as it 
is derived from the same Str6zah formula ; the one in which Tis- 
trya is invoked along with Vana»/ and Hapt6iri«ga (Slr6zah, § 13). 
It is a mere supplement to that Yart. On Vanaw/, see p. 97, note 6. 



o. May Ahura Mazda be rejoiced I . . . . 

AshemVohu: Holiness is the best of all good .... 

I confess myself a worshipper of Mazda, a follower of Zara- 
thurtra, one who hates the Da6vas and obeys the laws of Ahura ; 

For sacrifice, prayer, propitiation, and glorification unto [Havani], 
the holy and master of holiness .... 

Unto the star Vana»/, made by Mazda, 
Be propitiation, with sacrifice, prayer, propitiation, 
and glorification. 

Yatha ahu vairy6 : The will of the Lord is the law of 
holiness .... 

1. We sacrifice unto the star Vana»/, made by 
Mazda, the holy and master of holiness. 

I will sacrifice unto Vana»^, strong, invoked by 
his own name 1 , healing, in order to withstand the 
accursed and most foul Khrafstras 2 of the most 
abominable Angra Mainyu. 

2. Yatha ahu vairyd: The will of the Lord is the law of 
holiness .... 

I bless the sacrifice and prayer, and the strength 
and vigour of the star Vana«/, made by Mazda. 

Ashem Vohu : Holiness is the best of all good .... 
[Give] unto that man 8 brightness and glory, .... give him the 
bright, all-happy, blissful abode of the holy Ones. 

1 See p. 13, note 2. 

2 The reptiles and other Ahrimanian creatures (Vendid&d, Introd. 
V, n) which are destroyed by the rain (Bund. VII, 7). 

8 Who sacrifices to Vanaw/L 



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YAST FRAGMENT. J 3 1 1 



XXI AND XXII. YAST FRAGMENTS. 

These two Yarts or Yart fragments are known among the Parsis 
as the Hadh&kht Nask, though their context does not correspond 
to any part of the description of that Nask as given in the Din- 
kart (West, Pahlavi Texts, I, 224, note 8). A Pahlavi translation 
of these Yarts has been edited by Haug and West (The Book of 
Arda Vtraf, p. 269 seq.). 



XXI. YAST FRAGMENT. 

Yaft XXI is a eulogy of the Ashem Vohu prayer, the value 
of which rises higher and higher, according as the. circumstances 
under which it is being recited are of greater importance. 



i. Zarathustra asked Ahura Mazda: 'O Ahura 
Mazda, most beneficent Spirit, Maker of the mate- 
rial world, thou Holy One! 

' What is the only word in which is contained the 
glorification of all good things, of all the things that 
are the offspring of the good principle ?' 

2. Ahura Mazda answered : ' It is the praise of 
Holiness 1 , O Spitama Zarathu-rtra ! 

3. ' He who recites the praise of Holiness 1 , in the 
fulness of faith and with a devoted heart, praises 
me, Ahura Mazda ; he praises the waters, he praises 
the earth, he praises the cattle, he praises the plants, 
he praises all good things made by Mazda, all the 
things that are the offspring of the good principle. 

4. ' For the reciting of that word of truth, O 
Zarathartra ! the pronouncing of that formula, the 
Ahuna Vairya, increases strength and victory in 
one's soul and piety. 

1 Asha: the Ashem Vohu. 



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312 YASTS AND s}r6zAHS. 

5. ' For that only recital of the praise of Holiness 
is worth a hundred khshnaothras of the beings 
of Holiness 1 , when delivered while going to sleep, a 
thousand when delivered after eating, ten thousand 
when delivered during cohabitation, or any number 
when delivered in departing this life.' 

6. 'What is the one recital of the praise of 
Holiness that is worth ten others in greatness, good- 
ness, and fairness ? ' 

7. Ahura Mazda answered : 'It is that one, O 
holy Zarathustra ! that a man delivers when eating 
the gifts of Haurvata/ and Amereta^ 2 , at the same 
time professing good thoughts, good words, and 
good deeds, and rejecting evil thoughts, evil words, 
and evil deeds.' 

8. 'What is the one recital of the praise of 
Holiness that is worth a hundred others in great- 
ness, goodness, and fairness ? ' 

9. Ahura Mazda answered : 'It is that one, O 
holy Zarathurtra ! that a man delivers while drinking 
of the Haoma strained for the sacrifice, at the same 
time professing good thoughts, good words, and 
good deeds, and rejecting evil thoughts, evil words, 
and evil deeds.' 

10. 'What is the one recital of the praise of 
Holiness that is worth a thousand others in great- 
ness, goodness, and fairness ? ' 

11. Ahura Mazda answered: 'It is that one, 
holy Zarathuitra ! that a man delivers when starting 

1 A hundred times the formula: 'Be propitiation (khshnao- 
thra) unto N. . . . , the holy and master of holiness' (cf. p. 1, note 2). 

2 Eating or drinking (see Vendidad, Introd. IV, 33). 



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VAST FRAGMENT. 313 



up from his bed or going to sleep again, at the same 
time professing good thoughts, good words, and 
good deeds, and rejecting evil thoughts, evil words, 
and evil deeds.' 

12. 'What is the one recital of the praise of 
Holiness that is worth ten thousand others in great- 
ness, goodness, and fairness ? ' 

1 3. Ahura Mazda answered : ' It is that one, O 
holy Zarathustra ! that a man delivers when waking 
up and rising from sleep, at the same time professing 
good thoughts, good words, and good deeds, and 
rejecting evil thoughts, evil words, and evil deeds.' 

14. ' What is the one recital of the praise of 
Holiness that is worth this Karshvare of ours, 
//paniratha 1 , with its cattle and its chariots, without 
its men, in greatness, goodness, and fairness ? ' 

15. Ahura Mazda answered: ' It is that one, O 
holy Zarathustra ! that a man delivers in the last 
moments of his life, at the same time professing 
good thoughts, good words, and good deeds, and 
rejecting evil thoughts, evil words, and evil deeds.' 

16. 'What is the one recital of the praise of 
Holiness that is worth all that is between the earth 
and the heavens, and this earth, and that luminous 
space, and all the good things made by Mazda, that 
are the offspring of the good principle in greatness, 
goodness, and fairness ?' 

17. Ahura Mazda answered: ' It is that one, O 
holy Zarathustra ! that a man delivers to renounce 
evil thoughts, evil words, and evil deeds V 

1 See p. 123, note 5. 

8 In a conversion, or in the recital of the penitential prayers. 



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s 



3 H vasts and sIr6zahs. 



YAST XXII. 

This Yart is a description of the fate that attends the soul of the 
righteous (§§ 1-18) and the soul of the wicked (§§ 19-37) a f ter 
death. They spend the first three nights (the sadis or sidds; cf. 
Commentaire du Vendfdad, XIII, 55) amongst the highest enjoy- 
ments or pains ; they are then met by their own conscience in the 
shape of a beautiful heavenly maiden (or a fiendish old woman 1 ), 
and are brought in four steps up to heaven or down to hell, through 
the three paradises of Good -Thought, Good -Word, and Good- 
Deed, or the three hells of Evil -Thought, Evil -Word, and Evil- 
Deed : there they are praised and glorified by Ahura, or rebuked 
and insulted by Angra Mainyu, and fed with ambrosia or poison. 

Similar developments are to be found in Yart XXIV, 53-65 ; 
Arda Viraf XVII ; Minokhired II, 1 23-1 94. 



I. 

i. Zarathurtra asked Ahura Mazda: 'O Ahura 
Mazda, most beneficent Spirit, Maker of the material 
world, thou Holy One ! 

' When one of the faithful departs this life, where 
does his soul abide on that night ?' 

Ahura Mazda answered : 

2. 'It takes its seat near the head, singing the 
Ustavaiti Gatha 2 and proclaiming happiness: 
" Happy is he, happy the man, whoever he be, to 
whom Ahura Mazda gives the full accomplishment 
of his wishes !" On that night his soul tastes 8 as 
much of pleasure as the whole of the living world 
can taste.' 

1 See p. 319, note 1. 

s The name of the second Gatha, which begins with the word 
ujta : the words in the text, 'Happy the man ....,' are its opening 
line (Yama XLII, 1). 

8 Literally, sees, perceives. 



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VAST XXII. 315 



3. — ' On the second night where does his soul 
abide ?' 

4. Ahura Mazda answered: 'It takes its seat near 
the head, singing the U^tavaiti Gatha and pro- 
claiming happiness : " Happy is he, happy the man, 
whoever he be, to whom Ahura Mazda gives the full 
accomplishment of his wishes!" On that night his 
soul tastes as much of pleasure as the whole of the 
living world can taste.' 

5. — 'On the third night where does his soul 
abide V 

6. Ahura Mazda answered : ' It takes its seat 
near the head, singing the U.ytavaiti Gatha and 
proclaiming happiness : " Happy is he, happy the 
man, whoever he be, to whom Ahura Mazda gives 
the full accomplishment of his wishes!" On that 
night his soul tastes as much of pleasure as the 
whole of the living world can taste.' 

7. At the end 1 of the third night, when the dawn 
appears, it seems to the soul of the faithful one as 
if it were brought amidst plants and scents : it 
seems as if a wind were blowing from the region of 
the south, from the regions of the south, a sweet- 
scented wind, sweeter-scented than any other wind 
in the world. 

8. And it seems to the soul of the faithful one as 
if he were inhaling that wind with the nostrils, and he 
thinks : ' Whence does that wind blow, the sweetest- 
scented wind I ever inhaled with my nostrils ?' 

9. And it seems to him as if his own conscience 
were advancing to him in that wind, in the shape 
of a maiden fair, bright, white-armed, strong, tall- 

1 Thraofta: in Pahlavi r6uman. 



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316 YASTS AND s{r6zAHS. 

formed, high-standing, thick-breasted, beautiful of 
body, noble, of a glorious seed 1 , of the size of a 
maid in her fifteenth year, as fair as the fairest 
things in the world. 

10. And the soul of the faithful one addressed 
her, asking : ' What maid art thou, who art the 
fairest maid I have ever seen ? ' 

ii. And she, being his own conscience, answers 
him : ' O thou youth of good thoughts, good words, 
and good deeds, of good religion, I am thy own 
conscience ! 

' Everybody did love thee for that greatness, good- 
ness, fairness, sweet-scentedness, victorious strength 
and freedom from sorrow, in which thou dost 
appear to me ; 

12. 'And so thou, O youth of good thoughts, 
good words, and good deeds, of good religion ! didst 
love me for that greatness, goodness, fairness, sweet- 
scentedness, victorious strength, and freedom from 
sorrow, in which I appear to thee. 

13. ' When thou wouldst see a man making deri- 
sion 2 and deeds of idolatry, or rejecting 3 (the poor) 
and shutting his door *, then thou wouldst sit singing 
the Gathas and worshipping the good waters and 
Atar, the son of Ahura Mazda, and rejoicing 6 the 

"faithful that would come from near or from afar. 



1 ' That is to say, from the gods' (Pahl. Comm.). 

1 Of holy things. 

8 Doubtful. The Pahlavi commentary has the following gloss: 
' He would not give his friends what they begged for,' 

* To the poor: — Urvard-straya: urvar babai£ kart (Pahl. 
Comm.): aighshan baba bara asrunast (star, to tie, as in frasta- 
retem baresma> Cf. Yt. XXIV, 37, 59. 

8 With alms to the poor Mazdayasnians (ash6-dad). 



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VAST XXII. 317 



14. ' I was lovely and thou madest me still 
lovelier ; I was fair and thou madest me still fairer ; 
I was desirable and thou madest me still more 
desirable; I was sitting in a forward place and thou 
madest me sit in the foremost place, through this 
good thought, through this good speech, through 
this good deed of thine ; and so henceforth men 
worship me for my having long sacrificed unto and 
conversed with Ahura Mazda. 

^15. 'The first step that the soul of the faithful 
man made, placed him in the Good-Thought 1 
Paradise ; 

' The second step that the soul of the faithful 
man made, placed him in the Good-Word 2 
Paradise ; 

' The third step that the soul of the faithful man 
made; placed him in the Good-Deed 8 Paradise; 

' The fourth step that the soul of the faithful man 
made, placed him in the Endless Lights V 

16. Then one of the faithful, who had departed 
before him, asked him, saying : ' H ow didst thou 
depart this life, thou holy man ? How didst thou 
come, thou holy man ! from the abodes full of cattle 
and full of the wishes and enjoyments of love ? 
From the material world into the world of the spirit ? 
From the decaying world into the undecaying one ? 
How long did thy felicity last ?' 

17. And Ahura Mazda answered i 'Ask him not 
what thou askest him, who has just gone the dreary 



I The so-called Hilmat Paradise (cf.Yt. Ill, 3). 

II The so-called Hfikht Paradise. 

8 The so-called Hvarsht Paradise. 
* The seat of the Gar6thman. 



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318 VASTS AND sir6zahs. 

way, full of fear and distress, where the body and the 
soul part from one another. 

1 8. ' [Let him eat] of the food brought to him, of 
the oil of Zaremaya ] : this is the food for the youth 
of good thoughts, of good words, of good deeds, of 
good religion, after he has departed this life ; this is 
the food for the holy woman, rich in good thoughts, 
good words, and good deeds, well-principled and 
obedient to her husband, after she has departed 
this life.' 

II. 

19. Zarathurtra asked Ahura Mazda: 'O Ahura 
Mazda, most beneficent Spirit, Maker of the material 
world, thou Holy One ! 

'When one of the wicked perishes, where does his 
soul abide on that night ?' 

20. Ahura Mazda answered : ' It rushes and sits 
near the skull, singing the Kima 2 Gatha, O holy 
Zarathurtra ! 

'"To what land shall I turn, O Ahura Mazda? 
To whom shall I go with praying ?" 

' On that night his soul tastes as much of suffering 
as the whole of the living world can taste.' 

21. — 'On the second night, where does his soul 
abide ?' 

22. Ahura Mazda answered: 'It rushes and sits 
near the skull, singing the Kima Gatha, O holy 



1 Zaremaya is the spring: the word translated oil (raoghna, 
Persian ^jy) might perhaps be better translated 'butter;' the 
milk made in the middle of spring was said to be the best (Vis- 
p6rad I, 2 ; Pahl. Comm.; cf. DMstan XXXI, 14). 

a The Gatha of lamenting, beginning with the word Kam (Kam 
nem6 zam : 'To what land shall I turn ?') ; Yasna XL VI (XLV). 



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VAST XXII. 319 



Zarathortra ! " To what land shall I turn, O Ahura 
Mazda ? To whom shall I go with praying ?" 

' On that night his soul tastes as much of suffering 
as the whole of the living world can taste.' 

23. — 'On the third night, where does his soul 
abide ?' 

24. Ahura Mazda answered : ' It rushes and sits 
near the skull, singing the Kima Gatha, O holy 
Zarathurtra ! " To what land shall I turn, O Ahura 
Mazda ? To whom shall I go with praying ?" 

' On that night his soul tastes as much of suffering 
as the whole of the living world can taste.' 

25. At the end of the third night, O holy Zara- 
thuytra! when the dawn appears, it seems to the 
soul of the faithful one as if it were brought amidst 
snow and stench, and as if a wind were blowing 
from the region of the north, from the regions of 
the north, a foul-scented wind, the foulest-scented 
of all the winds in the world. 

26-32. And it seems to the soul of the wicked man 
as if he were inhaling that wind with the nostrils, and 
he thinks: 'Whence does that wind blow, the foulest- 
scented wind that I ever inhaled with my nostrils 1 ?' 

1 A development similar to that in §§ 9-14 is to be supplied 
here : in the Arda" Viraf and the Minokhired the soul of the wicked 
is met by a horrid old woman, who is his own conscience : ' And 
in that wind he saw his own religion and deeds, as a profligate 
woman, naked, decayed, gaping, bandy-legged, lean-hipped, and 
unlimitedly spotted, so that spot was joined to spot, like the most 
hideous noxious creatures (khrafstar), most filthy and most 
stinking' (cf. § 9). 

Then that wicked soul spoke thus : ' Who art thou ? than whom 
I never saw any one of the creatures of Auharmazd and Akharman 
uglier, or filthier or more stinking' (cf. § 10). 

To him she spoke thus : ' I am thy bad actions, O youth of 
evil thoughts, of evil words, of evil deeds, of evil religion 1 It 



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320 YASTS AND siRdZAHS. 

33. The first step that the soul of the wicked 
man made laid him in the Evil-Thought Hell ; 

The second step that the soul of the wicked man 
made laid him in the Evil-Word Hell ; 

The third step that the soul of the wicked man 
made laid him in the Evil-Deed Hell ; 

The fourth step that the soul of the wicked man 
made laid him in the Endless Darkness. 

34. Then one of the wicked who departed before 
him addressed him, saying: 'How didst thou perish, 

wicked man ? How didst thou come, O fiend ! 
from the abodes full of cattle and full of the wishes 
and enjoyments of love ? From the material world 
into the world of the Spirit ? From the decaying 

is on account of thy will and actions that I am hideous and vile, 
iniquitous and diseased, rotten and foul-smelling, unfortunate and 
distressed, as appears to thee (cf. §§ 11-12). 

' When thou sawest any one who performed the Yazishn and 
Dr6n ceremonies, and praise and prayer and the service of God, 
and preserved and protected water and fire, cattle and trees, and 
other good creations, thou practisedst the will of Akharman and 
the demons, and improper actions. And when thou sawest one 
who provided hospitable reception, and gave something deservedly 
in gifts and charity, for the advantage of the good and worthy 
who came from far, and who were from near, thou wast avaricious, 
and shuttedst up thy door (cf. § 13). 

'And though I have been unholy (that is, I have been considered 
bad), I am made more unholy through thee ; and though I have 
been frightful, I am made more frightful through thee; though 

1 have been tremulous, I am made more tremulous through thee ; 
though I am settled in the northern region of the demons, I am 
settled further north through thee; through these evil thoughts, 
through these evil words, and through these evil deeds, which thoa 
practisedst. They curse me, a long time, in the long execration 
and evil communion of the Evil Spirit (cf. § 14). 

'Afterwards that soul of the wicked advanced the first footstep 
on Dush-humat (the place of evil thoughts), &c.' (The Book 
of Ard£ Viraf, XVII, 12-27, as translated by Haug). 



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VAST XXII. 321 



world into the undecaying one ? How long did thy 
suffering last ?' 

35. Angra Mainyu, the lying one, said: 'Ask 
him not what thou askest him, who has just gone 
the dreary way, full of fear and distress, where the 
body and the soul part from one another. 

36. ' Let him eat of the food brought unto him, 
of poison and poisonous stench l : this is the food, 
after he has perished, for the youth of evil thoughts, 
evil words, evil deeds, evil religion after he has 
perished; this is the food for the fiendish woman, 
rich in evil thoughts, evil words, and evil deeds, 
evil religion, ill-principled, and disobedient to her 
husband. 

37 2 . 'We worship the Fravashi of the holy man, 
whose name is Asm6-^anva»/ 3 ; then I will worship 
the Fravashis of the other holy Ones who were 
strong of faith*. 

38 2 . ' We worship the memory of Ahura Mazda, 
to keep the Holy Word. 

' We worship the understanding of Ahura Mazda, 
to study the Holy Word. 

'We worship the tongue of Ahura Mazda, to 
speak forth the Holy Word. 

' We worship the mountain that gives under- 
standing, that preserves understanding ; [we worship 

1 Cf. Yasna XXXI, 20 : 'He who would deceive the holy One, to 
him afterwards (will be) a long weeping in the dark place, bad 
food and words of insult. O wicked 1 this is the place down which 
your own conscience will bring you through your own deeds.' 

2 §§ 37 - 38> 39-40, 41-42 are separate fragments. 

3 One of the first disciples of Zoroaster ; cf. Yt. XIII, 96. 
* Cf. p. 33, note 2. 

[23] Y 



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322 VASTS AND stRdZAHS. 

it] by day and by night, with offerings of libations 
well-accepted \ 

39 2 . ' O Maker ! how do the souls of the dead, the 
Fravashis of the holy Ones, manifest* themselves * ?' 

40. Ahura Mazda answered: 'They manifest 
themselves from goodness of spirit and excellence 
of mind 5 .' 

41 6 . Then towards the dawning of the dawn 7 , that 
bird Parddar^ 8 , that bird Karet6-dasu 9 hears the 
voice of the Fire. 



» § 3 8=Yt. I, 31. 

1 A Pahlavi translation of the following two fragments is found in 
MS. 33, Paris, Supplement Persan (edited in £tudes Iraniennes.il). 

5 ^"ithra (Paris MS. p. 255). 

4 ' How do they manifest their assistance?' (Pahl. tr. ibid.); that 
is to say, when do they assist their relations and countrymen ? (see 
Yt. XIII, 49 seq.) 

6 When men are instinct with good spirit and good thought. 

* The Pahlavi translation of this fragment has here §§ 14-16 of 
the Atash NySyw, then §§18-19 of Vendid&d XVIII. Therefore 
the whole passage is to be restored as follows : 

Atar looks at the hands of all those who pass by: 'What does 
the friend bring to his friend ....?' (Atash N. 14.) 

And if that passer-by brings him wood holily brought, or bundles 
of baresma holily tied up .... , then Atar .... will bless him 
thus: 

May herds of oxen grow for thee .... (Atash N. 15-16). 

In the first part of the night, Fire, the son of Ahura Mazda, calls 
the master of the house for help, saying : 

'Up I arise, thou master of the house . . . .' (Vend. XVIII, 
18-19). 

'Then towards the dawning of the dawn . . . .' (see the text). 

7 Cf. Vend. XVIII, 23. 

8 'He who has knowledge made,' or 'He who has the know- 
ledge of what is made'(kartak danishn); his other name Pard- 
dar.v is 'He who foresees.' 

9 Here again a large passage is omitted : it can only partly be 



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YAST XXII. 323 



42. Here the fiendish Bushyasta, the long-handed, 
rushes from the region of the north, from the 
regions of the north, speaking thus, lying thus : 
' Sleep on, O men ! Sleep on, O sinners ! Sleep 
on and live in sin.' 



supplied from the Pahlavi translation ; the words in brackets refer 
to Zend texts lost to us : 

' Then he flaps his wings and lifts up his voice, saying : "Arise, 

O menl [and also women, grown-up people, and children, &c 

Put on well your girdle and shirt, wash your hands, put your 
girdle around your body, go and give food to the cattle and recite 
aloud the five holy GSthas of Spitama Zarathujtra."] 

' Here the fiendish BushySsta . . . .' (see the text). Then the 
Pahlavi translation has : ' Never care for the three excellent 
things, good thoughts, good words, good deeds' (cf. Vend. 
XVIII, 25). 



Y 2 



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324 YASTS AND sIr6zAHS. 



xxiii-xxiv. AfrIn paighambar zar- 

TtiST AND Vl^TASP YAST. 

'God taught the Zendavasta to Zartusht — a sublime work .... 
God said to Zartusht, "Go and before Shah Gushtasp read this 
book, that he may come into the faith .... keep all my counsel 
and repeat it word by word to Shah Gushtasp V 

Zartusht, in obedience to God, went to the court of Gushtasp: 'He 
came forward and called down a blessing on the Shah 8 .' Then he 
read to him the Zandavasta and said : ' Learn its statutes and walk 
therein. If your desire is towards its laws, your abode shall be in 
the paradise of heaven. But if you turn away from its command- 
ments, you shall bring down your crowned head to the dust. Your 
God will be displeased with you, and will overthrow your pros- 
perous condition. At the last you shall descend into hell, if you 
hear not the counsel of the Almighty 3 .' 

These lines of the Zartusht-Namah are a summary of the following 
two Yarts. The first, entitled ' The blessing of the prophet Zarturt,' 
contains the words of blessing addressed by Zarathartra when 
appearing before the king. These words seem to have followed 
a similar blessing pronounced by Gimaspa 4 , the prime minister of 
Vis taspa B . 

Yajt XXIV contains the exhortations of the prophet to the 
king to follow and closely adhere to the Law of Mazda. It is a 
counterpart to the XlXth Fargard of the Vendfdad, as Zarathurtra 
plays here the same part to Vfrtaspa as Ahura does there to Zara- 
thmtra. It is, therefore, a summary of the Law, of the duties it 

1 The Zartusht-Namah, translated by E. B. Eastwick, in Wilson's 
Parsi Religion, p. 495. 

2 Ibid. p. 499. * Ibid. p. 501. 

* See Yt. XXIII, 2 ; whether Anquetil's statement to that effect 
(Zend-Avesta II, 623) rests on independent tradition or only on the 
text of our Yart is not clear. 

6 See above, p. 70, note 1. 



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afr!n paighambar zartuct. 325 

enforces and of the rewards it promises. This accounts for the 
strange disconnection apparent in it, which makes it a crux 
interpretum, as, besides the very corrupt state of the text, the 
chief difficulty of this Yart arises from the fact that many passages 
in it are incomplete quotations from the Vendidad, or allusions 
to statements therein *, which, when supplied, help a good deal to 
relieve this Ya$ t from its apparent state of utter incoherence. 

For this translation I was able to avail myself of a Pahlavi trans- 
lation, of which a copy was kindly lent to me by Mr. West. 
That translation is apparently of late date and often manifestly 
wrong ; yet it was very useful to me in several passages, besides its 
giving a Zend text generally more correct and more correctly 
divided than the text in Westergaard's edition 2 . 

Yart XXIII was originally no independent Yart, being nothing 
more than the beginning of Yart XXIV, detached from it, with 
some slight alterations and inversions. 



XXIII. AfrIn paighambar zartOst. 

1. ' I am a pious man, who speaks words of 
blessing.' 

— ' Thou appearest unto me full of Glory.' 
And Zarathu-rtra spake unto king Vfataspa, say- 
ing : ' I bless thee, O man ! O lord of the country ! 
with the living of a good life, of an exalted life, of 
a long life. May thy men live long! May thy 
women live long ! May sons be born unto thee of 
thy own body ! 

2. ' Mayest thou have a son like Gamaspa, and 
may he bless thee as (tramaspa blessed) Vfotaspa 
(the lord) of the country 3 ! 

1 For instance, §§ 28, 30, 31, 39, &c. 

a The various readings in Mr. West's manuscript are indicated 
by the letter W. in the notes. 
3 See the introduction to this Yart and Yt. XXIV, 3, text and note. 



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326 YASTS AND sIr6zAHS. 

' Mayest thou be most beneficent, like Mazda ! 
' Mayest thou be fiend-smiting, like Thraetaona x ! 
1 Mayest thou be strong, like £amaspa 2 ! 
' Mayest thou be well-armed, like Takhma- 
Urupa 8 ! 

3. ' Mayest thou be glorious, like Yima Khsha6ta, 
the good shepherd ! 

' Mayest thou be instructed with a thousand 
senses, like Azi Dahaka, of the evil law * ! 

'Mayest thou be awful and most strong, like 
Keresaspa 8 ! 

' Mayest thou be a wise chief of assemblies, like 
Urvakhshaya 6 ! 

' Mayest thou be beautiful of body and without 
fault, like Syavarshana 7 ! 

4. ' Mayest thou be rich in cattle, like an Athwya- 
nide 8 ! 

' Mayest thou be rich in horses, like Pouru?-aspa 9 ! 

' Mayest thou be holy, like Zarathurtra Spitama ! 

' Mayest thou be able to reach the Rangha, whose 
shores lie afar, as Vafra Navaza was 10 ! 

' Mayest thou be beloved by the gods and reve- 
renced by men u ! 

1 Cf. Yt. V, 33. a Cf. Yt. V, 68. 

' Cf. Yt.XV, 11. 

4 Cf. Yt. V, 29. • Cf. Yt. V, 37. 

• See Yt.XV, 28. ^ T See p. 64, note 1. 

8 One belonging to the Athwya family, of which Thra6taona was 
a member. All of them bore names that show them to have 
been rich in cattle : Pur-t6r&, S6k-t6r3, Bdr-tM, &c. ('one with 
abundant oxen, with useful oxen, with the brown ox, &c.,' Bundahir, 
tr.West, XXXI, 7, note 8). 

8 Pounu-aspa was the father of Zarathujtra. His name means, 
'He who possesses many horses,' iro\i-iwiros. 

10 Cf. Yt V, 61. » Cf. Yt. XXIV, 4. 



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Afr!n paighambar zartOst. 327 

5. ' May ten sons be born of you * ! In three of 
them mayest thou be an Athravan! In three of 
them mayest thou be a warrior! In three of them 
mayest thou be a tiller of the ground 2 ! And may 
one be like thyself, O Vtrtaspa ! 

6. ' Mayest thou be swift-horsed, like the Sun 3 ! 
' Mayest thou be resplendent, like the moon ! 

' Mayest thou be hot-burning, like fire ! 
' Mayest thou have piercing rays, like Mithra ! 
' Mayest thou be tall-formed and victorious, like 
the devout Sraosha * ! 

7. 'Mayest thou follow a law of truth, like 
Rashnu 6 ! 

' Mayest thou be a conqueror of thy foes, like 
Verethraghna 6 , made by Ahura ! 

' Mayest thou have fulness of welfare, like Rama 
//z>astra 7 ! 

' Mayest thou be freed from sickness and death, 
like king Husravah 8 ! 

8. 'Then the blessing goes for the bright, all- 
happy, blissful abode of the holy Ones 9 . 

' May it happen unto thee according to my 
blessing ! 

<10 Let us embrace and propagate the good thoughts, 
good words, and good deeds that have been done 
and that will be done here and elsewhere, that we 
may be in the number of the good. 

1 Of Vtot&spa and his wife Hutaosa. 

9 Cf. Yt. XXIV, 4. 3 Cf. Sir6zah, § 1 1. 

4 Cf. Yt. XI. B Cf. Yt. XII, Introduction. 

• Cf. Yt. XIV. ' Cf. Yt. XV. 
8 Kai Khosrav went alive to Paradise (Firdausi). 

• He closes his blessing by wishing him bliss in heaven. 

10 Yasna XXXV, 2 (4-5). 



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s 



?28 YASTS AND sJr6zAHS. 



'YathS ahu vairyo: The will of the Lord is the law of 
holiness .... 

'Ash em Vohu : Holiness is the best of all good .... 

' [Give] unto that man brightness and glory, .... give him the 
bright, all-happy, blissful abode of the holy Ones.' 



XXIV. VtSTASP YAST. 

I. 

i. 'I am a pious man, who speaks words of 
blessing,' thus said Zarathustra to the young king 
Vistaspa \ — ' She 2 appears to me full of Glory, O 
Zarathustra!' — 'O young king Vfotaspa! [I bless 
thee 3 ] with the living of a good life, of an exalted 
life, of a long life. May thy men live long ! May 
thy women live long ! May sons be born unto thee 
of thy own body 4 ! 

2. ' Mayest thou thyself 5 be holy, like Zarathustra! 

'Mayest thou be rich in cattle, like an Athwya- 
nide 6 ! 

' Mayest thou be rich in horses, like Pourus-aspa 7 ! 

' Mayest thou have a good share of bliss 8 , like 
king Husravah ! 

' Mayest thou have strength to reach the Rangha, 
whose way lies afar, as Vafra Navaza did 9 . 

1 Literally, O young king VktSspa ! (or, O my son, king 
Vhtaspa !) 

2 The law of Mazda (Pahl.). 

3 Understood in afri-va^au (who speaks blessing). 

* Cf.Yt. XXIII, i. 

6 Khay^uf (=naff man) belongs to § 2 (W.). 
e See p. 326, note 8. 7 See p. 326, note 9. 

8 Immortality (cf. Yt. XXIII, 7). W. has ashem merez6= 
ahldyrh patmanik, amargtg (Pahl.). 

• Cf. Yt. XXIII, 4. 



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viyrAsp ya,st. 329 



3. ' May ten sons be born of thy own body 1 ! three 
as Athravans 2 , three as warriors 3 , three as tillers of 
the ground 4 ! May one of them be like ^amaspa 5 , 
that he may bless thee with great and ever greater 
happiness 8 ! 

4. ' Mayest thou be freed from sickness and death, 
like Pesh6-tanu 7 . 

' Mayest thou have piercing rays, like Mithra ! 
' Mayest thou be warm, like the moon ! 
' Mayest thou be 8 resplendent, like fire ! 
' Mayest thou be long-lived, as long-lived as an 
old man can be 9 ! 

5. ' And when thou hast fulfilled a duration of a 
thousand years, [mayest thou obtain] the bright, all- 
happy, blissful abode of the holy Ones ! 

'Ashem Vohu: Holiness is the best of all good .... 



1 Cf. Yt. XXIII, 5. 

2 ' Like AturpSt, the son of M&hraspand ' (Pahl. Comm.). 

3 ' Like Spenddit (Isfendyir), the son of Gils tasp ' (ibid.). 

* ' Like Zav' (Uzava ; ' Zav .... urbes et castella, quae Afras- 
siab deleverat, refici jussis, aperuit fluvios, quos ille operuerat, .... 
agros denuo coluit, qui in optimam, qua antehac floruerant, 
conditionem redierunt,' Hamzah Ispahensis, p. 24 of the Gottwaldt 
translation). 

6 Cf. Yt. XXIII, 2. 

6 W. has the same text as Yt. XXIII, 2 : yatha dangh^uj Vtrt&s- 
p&i, which is interpreted ifrin pat&r obdunat £igun Cramasp kart 
madam matSpat Gflftdsp. 

7 Pesh6tanu was a son of Vlrtaspa: Zarathu^tra made him drink 
of a certain sort of milk, and ' he forgot death.' He is one of the 
seven immortals, and reigns in Kangdez (Zartusht-Namah and 
Bundahw XXIX, 5). 

8 Bavihi (W.). 

8 Doubtful. The Pahlavi translation follows Yt. XXIII, 4, 
though the text is the same as in Westergaard (only bavSi and 
zarnumat6 instead of bavahi, zaranumat6). 



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33° YASTS AND S1R6ZAHS. 



II. 

6 \ ' Give 2 him strength and victory ! Give him 
welfare in cattle and bread 8 ! ' thus said Zarathurtra 
to the young king Vktaspa ! ' Give him a great 
number 4 of male children, praisers 5 [of God] and 
chiefs in assemblies, who smite and are not smitten, 
who smite at one stroke their enemies, who smite 
at one stroke their foes, ever in joy and ready to 
help. 

7. ' Ye gods of full Glory, ye gods of full healing, 
let your greatness become manifest ! ' 

8. Zarathustra addressed him, saying : * O young 
king Vktaspa ! May their greatness become manifest 
as it is called for ! 

' Ye Waters, impart and give your Glory to the 
man who offers you a sacrifice ! 

'This is the boon we beg (for thee) of Ashi 
Vanguhi 6 , of Rata 7 , with eyes of love.' 

9. Pare«di 8 , of the light chariot, follows : ' Mayest 
thou 9 become manifest unto him, the young king 
Vfotaspa ! 

'May plenty dwell in this house, standing upon 
high columns and rich in food 10 ! Thou wilt never 



1 For §§ 6-7, cf. Mah Nyayu, 10-n. 

2 The prayer is addressed to Waters. 

3 i/i/athrd-nahtm: £sanih lahmak. 
* Paourvatatem: kebad farzand. 

5 Stahyanam : kebad stSyMr. 

« See Yt. XVI. " 7 See Vend. Introd. IV, 30. 

8 See p. 11, note 5. • Parewdi. 

10 Plenty will reign in thy house, if thou wilt be liberal to the 
priest. 



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vfoTASP VAST. 33I 



offer and give bad food to a priest : for a priest 
must be to thee like the brightest x offspring of thy 
own blood.' 

10. Zarathuitra spake unto him : ' O young king 
Vlstaspa ! 

' He who supports the Law of the worshippers of 
Mazda, as a brother or as a friend, he who treats 
her friendly in any way, looks to keep off want of 
food from her V 

11. The holy Zarathurtra preached that law to 
Frashao-rtra 3 and G&maspa : ' May ye practise 
holiness and thrive, O young Frashaostra (and 
Camaspa)!' 

12. Thus said Ahura Mazda unto the holy Zara- 
thustra, and thus again did Zarathustra say unto the 
young king Vlstaspa : ' Have no bad priests or 
unfriendly priests; for bad priests or unfriendly 
priests, will bring about much harm, and, though 
thou wish to sacrifice, it will be to the Amesha- 
Spewtas as if no sacrifice had been offered 4 . 

' Ashem Vohu: Holiness is the best of all good .... 

III. 

1 3. ' When I teach thee, that thou mayest do the 
same to thy son 5 , O Vfataspa ! receive thou well 
that teaching ; that will make thee rich in children 
and rich in milk ; rich in seed, in fat, in milk 6 . 

1 RaSvatam ka. (not rashvatam ^a) belongs to § 9 (W.). 

2 W. has, hanairS va6m aiwi vaina/(va£m=Sansk.vayas?). 
8 See Yt. XIII, 103. Frashacwtra and G&m&spa were brothers. 

4 Cf. Vend. XVIII, 1-13. Perhaps, ' Be not bad to the priests! 
Be not unfriendly to the priest ! For he who is bad to the priest, 
he who is unfriendly to the priest . . . .' 

• Doubtful. 6 Cf. Vend. XXI, 6-7. 



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332 YASTS AND siR6zAHS. 

14. ' Thus do we announce unto thee, Ahura 
Mazda, and Sraosha, and Ashi, and the Law of the 
worshippers of Mazda, with the whole of all her 
hymns, with the whole of all her deeds, with the whole 
of her performances ; the Law of Mazda, who obtains 
her wishes, who makes the world grow, who listens 
to the songs and rejoices the faithful man at his 
wish ; who protects the faithful man, who maintains 
the faithful man ; 

15. 'From whom come the knowledge of holi- 
ness and the increase in holiness of the world of the 
holy Principle, and without whom l no faithful man 2 
can know holiness. 

'To thee 3 come every Havanan, every Atare- 
vakhsha, every Frabaretar, every Abere/, every 
Asnatar, every Rathwiskar, every Sraosha-varez * ; 

1 6. ' Every priest, every warrior, every husbandman ; 
every master of a house, every lord of a borough, 
every lord of a town, every lord of a province ; 

1 7. ' Every youth of good thoughts, good words, 
good deeds, and good religion; every youth who 
speaks the right words; every one who performs 
the next-of-kin marriage 5 ; every itinerant priest ; 
every mistress of a house ; every wandering priest, 
obedient to the Law. 

18. 'To thee come all the performers 6 (of holi- 
ness), all the masters of holiness, who, to the 

1 Doubtful. 

2 Saoshyawtem. W. has srashya«tem. s To the Law. 

4 The seven priests engaged in the sacrifice (Vendidad, p. 64, 
note 1). 

8 The A»a6tv6datha (Vend. Introd. p. xlv, note 7 ; see West, 
Pahlavi Texts, II, 389 seq.). 

6 Thatuj: kar kartar (Pahl.). 



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vlsrAsv vast. 333 



number of three and thirty 1 , stand next to Havani, 
being masters of holiness. 

1 9. ' May they be fully protected 2 in thee, O 
young king Vistaspa ! While thou smitest thy ad- 
versaries, thy foes, those who hate thee, a hundred 
times a hundred for a hundred 8 , a thousand times 
a thousand for a thousand, ten thousand times ten 
thousand for ten thousand, myriads of myriads for 
a myriad. 

20. ' Proclaim thou that word, as we did proclaim 
it unto thee ! 

' O Maker of the good world ! Ahura Mazda, 
I worship thee with a sacrifice, I worship and for- 
ward thee with a sacrifice, I worship this creation 
of Ahura Mazda.' 

2 1 4 . The young king Vfataspa asked Zarathurtra : 
' With what manner of sacrifice shall I worship, with 
what manner of sacrifice shall I worship and forward 
this creation of Ahura Mazda ?' 

22. Zarathustra answered : ' We will make it 
known unto thee, O young king Vlstaspa ! 

' Go towards that tree that is beautiful, high- 
growing, and mighty amongst the high-growing trees, 
and say thou these words : "Hail to thee ! O good, 
holy tree, made by Mazda ! Ashem Vohu !" 

23. ' Let the faithful man cut off twigs of baresma, 
either one, or two, or three : let him bind them and 



1 See Yasna I, 10 (33). 

2 Thratdtemd belongs to § 19 (W.). 

* He kills a hundred times a hundred of them, while they kill a 
hundred of his people. 

4 For this clause and the following two, cf. Vend. XIX, 17 seq., 
text and notes. 



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/ 



334 vasts and s!r6zahs. 

tie them up according to the rites, being bound and 
unbound according to the rites. 

' The smallest twig of Haoma, pounded according 
to the rules, the smallest twig prepared for sacrifice, 
gives royalty to the man (who does it).' 

Ashem Vohu : Holiness is the best of all good .... 

IV. 

24 \ Zarathustra said : ' O young king Vtstaspa ! 

' Invoke Ahura Mazda, who is full of Glory, Ahura 
Mazda, and the sovereign Heaven, the boundless 
Time, and Vayu who works highly. 

25. ' Invoke the powerful Wind, made by Mazda, 
and Fate. 

' Repeat thou those words, that the god invoked 
may give thee the boon wished for; that thou, 
strong, and belonging to the creation of the good 
Spirit, mayest smite and take away the Dru^ and 
watch with full success those who hate thee ; smite 
down thy foes, and destroy at one stroke thy adver- 
saries, thy enemies, and those who hate thee 2 . 

26. ' Proclaim thou those prayers : they will cleanse 
thy body from deeds of lust 3 , O young king Vfataspa ! 

' I will worship thee, O Fire, son of Ahura 
Mazda, who art a valiant warrior. He falls upon 
the fiend Ku«da * who is drunken without drinking, 
upon the men of the Druf, the slothful ones 6 , the 
wicked Daeva-worshippers, who live in sin. 

1 Cf. Vend. XIX, 13. 2 Cf. Yt. V, 53. 

* Paourvd vasta .raota: read fkyaothna (cf. § 40), as in 
Vend. XVI, 14 (paourvd-vasna skynothna). 

* Cf. Vend. XI, 9 and Bundahw XXVIII, 42. 

6 Cf. Vend. XIX, 41 ; better : 'on the Drcgask&n' (the sons of the 
Dru^? see Bund. XXXI, 6). 



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VJLSTASP YAST. 335 



27. 'He 1 trembles at the way 2 made by Time 
and open both to the wicked and to the righteous. 

' They 3 tremble at the perfume of his soul *, as 
a sheep does on which a wolf is falling. 

28. 'Reciting the whole collection of the Staota 
Y6snya 6 prayers brings one up all the way to the 
blessed Gar6-nmana, the palace beautifully made. 
That indeed is the way. 

29. ' That man does not follow the way of the Law, 
O Zarathurtra 6 ! who commits the Baodh6-(varrta) 
crime 7 with a damsel and an old woman 8 / said 
Zarathustra to the young king Vfrtaspa. 

' Let him 9 praise the Law, O Spitama Zarathustra ! 
and long for it and embrace the whole of the Law, 
as an excellent horse turns back from the wrong 
way and goes along the right one, smiting the many 
Druf es ltf . 

30. ' Go forward with praises, go forward the 
way of the good Mazdean law and of all those who 
walk in her ways, men and women. 

1 The dead man. 

* The .ffinvaZ-bridge (Vend. XIX, 29). 

* The fiends (Vend. XIX, 33). * The soul of the righteous. 
8 See page 152, note 1. 

* The Pahlavi has, 'the way of Zarathurtra' (la Zartuhjtig 
ras yakhsunft). 

7 Wilful murder (Vend. p. 84, note 1). 

8 To procure miscarriage (see Vend. XV, 12-14). 

9 The sinner. 

10 'As a horseman on the back of a good horse, when he has 
gone the wrong way, perceiving that he has lost his way, turns 
back his horse from that direction and makes him go the right 
way ; so thou, turn back thy horse to the right way ; that is to say, 
turn him to the way of the Law of Mazda ; that is to say, receive 
the Law' (Pahl. Comm.). 



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336 YASTS AND S1R.6ZAHS. 

' He who wishes to seize the heavenly reward 1 , 
will seize it by giving gifts to him who holds up 
(the Law) to us 2 in this world here below s . . . . 

31. 'Let him* give (the Law) to him who is 
unfriendly to her, that he may become friendly. 

'Wash thy hands with water, not with g6mez 5 , 
and let thy son, who will be born of thy wife 6 , do 
the same. 

' Thus thy thought will be powerful to smite him 7 , 
who is not so 8 ; thy speech will be powerful to smite 
him, who is not so ; thy deed will be powerful to 
smite him. 

32. '"Hear me! Forgive me 9 !" — We, the A me- 
sha-Spe«tas, will come and show thee, O Zara- 
thustra ! the way to that world 10 , to long glory in 
the spiritual world, to long happiness of the soul in 
Paradise ; 

33. ' To bliss and Paradise, to the Gar6-nmana of 
Ahura Mazda, beautifully made and fully adorned, 

1 Bliss, eternal life. 

2 Y6 n6 nidar6 anghS: lanman dm bara dashtar (Pahl). 

8 Na6dh£a vanghS paiti usta. vangh6 buya/; saoshySs 
dlj verethraga. I cannot make anything of these words, nor 
reconcile them with the Pahlavi translation : ' It is not fair when he 
wishes weal for his own person ; that is to say, when, being satisfied 
himself, he does not satisfy other people and wishes comfort for 
himself. (Make the Law of Mazda current, till the time when) 
the victorious S6shy6sh will make it current.' The last three Zend 
words appear to be abridged from a longer passage. 

4 The faithful man. 

5 This is an allusion to the Bareshnum purification (Vend. VIII, 
39). The unclean man washes himself with gom£z first and with 
water last. 

6 Doubtful. 7 The sinner. 8 Friendly to the Law. 

9 He recites the prayer Sraota m£, meresd&ta me 1 (Yasna 
XXXIII, 1 1). * w The world above. 



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vIstAsp vast. 337 



when his soul goes out of his body through the will 
of fate, when I, Ahura Mazda, when I, Ahura 
Mazda, gently show him his way as he asks for it 
'Ashem Vohfi : Holiness is the best of all good .... 

V. 

34. ' They J will impart to thee full brightness and 
Glory. 

'They will give him 2 quick 3 and swift horses, 
and good sons. 

' He wishes to go to the Law, the young king 
Vtrtaspa.' 

Zarathustra said : ' Let him who is unfriendly to 
her become a follower of the Law of Mazda, such 
as we proclaim it. 

35. ' Proclaim thou ever (unto the poor) : " Ever 
mayest thou wait here for the refuse that is brought 
unto thee, brought by those who have profusion of 
wealth 4 !" Thus the Dru^will not fall upon thee 
and throw thee away ; thou wilt wield kingly power 
there 5 . 

36. ' The Law of Mazda will not deliver thee unto 
pain 6 . Thou art entreated (for charity) by the 
whole of the living world, and she 7 is ever standing 
at thy door in the person of thy brethren in the 
faith : beggars are ever standing at the door of the 
stranger, amongst those who beg for bread. 

1 The Amesha-Spe«tas (see § 46). 

2 To Vktaspa. 8 Hathwadh£a: PahL tiz£i. 
4 Cf. Vend. Ill, 29. 

8 If he practises charity he will be a king even in Gar6thman. 
• AspahS, from a-spa (no comfort, anasanih tangih, Pahl. 
Comm.). 
7 The Law. 

03] z 



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338 YASTS AND S$r6zAHS. 

' Ever will that bread be burning coal upon thy 
head \ 

'The good, holy Rata 2 , made by Mazda, goes and 
nurses thy bright offspring V 

37. Zarathurtra addressed Vlrtaspa, saying: 'O 
young king Vlrtaspa ! The Law of Mazda, O my 
son ! will give thy offspring the victorious strength 
that destroys the fiends. 

' Let no thought of Angra Mainyu ever infect 
thee, so that thou shouldst indulge in evil lusts, 
make derision and idolatry, and shut (to the poor) 
the door of thy house *. 

38 s . ' Atar thus blesses the man who brings in- 
cense to him, being pleased with him and not angry, 
and fed as he required : " May herds of oxen grow 
for thee, and increase of sons ! May fate and its 
decrees bring thee the boons thou wishest for! 
Therefore do thou invoke and praise (me) excel- 
lently in this glorious world ! That I may have 
unceasing food, full of the glory of Mazda 6 and with 
which I am well pleased." 

39. ' O Mazda ! take for thyself the words of our 
praise : of these words I speak and speak again, the 
strength and victorious vigour, the power of health 
and healing, the fulness, increase, and growth. 

' Bring it together with the words of hymns up 
to the Gar6-nmana of Ahura Mazda. He will 7 first 



1 Hvarishnt dagh punr6umani lak yahvunat (Pahl. Comm.). 

2 Charity. 

* If thou art charitable, thy children will thrive. 
4 See Yt. XXII, 13. • Cf. Vend. XVIII, 27. 

a i/z>arnamazd«u(W.). 

7 He who will pronounce all prayers and hymns : the full 
formula is found in the Aban Nyayw, § 8. 



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vtoTASP yast. 339 



enter there. Therefore do thou pronounce these 
prayers. 

' Ashem Vohu : Holiness is the best of all good .... 

VI. 

40. ' Converse ye with the Amesha-Spewtas,' said 
Zarathmtra unto the young king Vlstaspa, 'and 
with the devout Sraosha, and Nairyd-sangha, the 
tall-formed, and Atar, the son of Ahura Mazda, and 
the well-desired kingly Glory. 

41. ' Men with lustful deeds address the body * ; but 
thou, all the night long, address the heavenly Wis- 
dom 2 ; but thou, all night long, call for the Wisdom 
that will keep thee awake. 

' Three times a day raise thyself up and go to 
take care of the beneficent cattle. 

42. ' Of these men may the lordship s belong to the 
wisest of all beings, O Zarathuytra ! May their lord 
belong to the wisest, O Zarathu.stra ! Let him show 
them the way of holiness, let him show them at once 
the way thereto, which the Law of the worshippers 
of Mazda enters victoriously. Thus the soul of 
man, in the joy of perfect holiness, walks over the 
bridge, known afar, the powerful AmvaZ-bridge 4 , 
the well-kept, and kept by virtue. 

43. ' How the worlds were arranged was said to 
thee first, O Zarathustra ! Zarathu^tra said it again 
to the young king Vfotaspa; therefore do thou 8 
praise him 6 who keeps and maintains the moon 
and the sun. 

1 Cf. § 26. • Cf. Vend. IV, 45 ; XVIII, 6. 

8 The supervision and care. * See § 27. 

6 Thou Vis taspa. 6 Ahura Mazda. 

Z 2 



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340 YASTS AND SIR6ZAHS. 

' He who has little friendship for the Law, I have 
placed him down below to suffer.' 

44. Thus said Angra Mainyu, he who has no 
Glory in him, who is full of death : ' This is an 
unbeliever, let us throw him down below ; this is a 
liar, or a traitor to his relatives, and like a mad dog 
who wounds cattle and men ; but the dog who in- 
flicts wounds pays for it as for wilful murder 1 . 

' The first time he shall smite a faithful man, the 
first time he shall wound a faithful man, he shall pay 
for it as for wilful murder. 

'Ashem Vohu : Holiness is the best of all good .... 

VII. 

45. ' Mayest thou receive 2 , O holy young king 
Vfotaspa ! (a house) with a hundred . . . . 3 , ten thou- 
sand large windows, ten thousand small windows, 
all the year long 4 , O holy Vfataspa ! never growing 
old, never dying, never decaying, never rotting, 
giving plenty of meat, plenty of food, plenty of 
clothes to the other worshippers of Mazda. 

46. ' May all boons be bestowed upon thee, as I 
proclaim it unto thee! May the Amesha-Spewtas 
impart to thee their brightness and glory and plenty 5 ! 
May they give him quick and swift horses and good 
sons, strong, great in all things, powerful to sing the 
hymns. 



1 See Vend. XIII, 31. 

2 In Paradise ; see Vend. XVIII, 28, text and note. 

3 Satayare: that stands a hundred years (?). The Vend. 
XVIII, 28 has 'with a hundred columns.' 

4 Uninjured by the changes of temperature. 
6 Cf. § 34. 



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VfSTASP YAST. 341 



47. 'He wields his power according to the wish 
of Ahura Mazda, the Good Spirit, and for the de- 
struction of the Evil Spirit, whichever of two men 
goes quicker to perform a sacrifice (to Ahura) ; but 
if he chooses to perform the sacrifice and prayer to 
us not in the right way, he does not wield the right 
power, he will not reign 1 . 

48. ' He will receive bad treatment in the next 
world, though he has been the sovereign of a country, 
with good horses to ride and good chariots to drive. 
Give royalty to that man, O Zarathustra ! who gives 
royalty unto thee with good will 2 . 

49 s . ' Thou shalt keep away the evil by this holy 
spell : " Of thee [O child !] I will cleanse the birth 
and growth ; of thee [O woman !] I will make the 
body and the strength pure ; I make thee a woman 
rich in children and rich in milk ; a woman rich in 
seed, in milk, and in offspring. For thee I shall 
make springs run and flow towards the pastures that 
will give food to the child." 

50. ' Do not deliver me * into the hands of the 
fiend 6 ; if the fiend take hold of me, then fever with 
loss of all joy will dry up the milk of the good 
Spewta-Armaiti 6 . The fiend is powerful to distress, 
and to dry up the milk of the woman who indulges 
in lust and of all females. 

51. 'The perfume of fire, pleasant to the Maker, 

1 In Paradise (Pahl. Comm.). 

2 Doubtful. 3 Cf. Vend. XXI, 6-7. 
4 The Law. 

6 That is to say, let not impiety prevail. 

* If impiety prevails, the earth will grow barren (cf. Vend. 
XVIII, 64). 



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342 YASTS AND stR6ZAHS. 

Ahura Mazda, takes them 1 away from afar ; . . . . 2 ; 
and all those that harm the creation of the Good 
Spirit are destroyed 3 ; 

52. 'Whom Mithra, and Rashnu RazLyta, and the 
Law of the worshippers of Mazda wish to be taken far 
away, longing for a man who is eager to perform and 
does perform the ceremonies he has been taught ; . . .* 

' Ashem Vohu : Holiness is the best of all good .... 

VIII s . 

53. 'The words of the Vahirtdirti 8 Gatha are to 
be sung : " Happy is he, O holy Vlrtaspa ! happy the 
man, whoever he be, to whom Ahura Mazda gives 
the full accomplishment of his wishes." 

' Where does his soul abide on that night 7 ? ' 

54. Ahura Mazda answered : ' O my son, Frashao- 
stra. ! It takes its seat near the head, singing the 
Urtavaiti Gatha and proclaiming happiness : " Happy 
is he, happy the man whoever he be ! " 

' On the first night, his soul sits in Good Words 8 ; 



1 The demons (see Vend. VIII, 80). 

2 N6i/ ta/ paiti vohu mand katha slsraya aya/ia. The 
Pahlavi Commentary has : ' That is to say, good will happen to 
thee through the good will of Atar (fire).' 

3 Te £nashanya(W.;— read ta^a nashanya?); &gh harvaspin 
bSshitaran min splnak mm6i damdn lvit apStak avtn yahvunlt 
(Pahl. Comm.). 

4 Yatha ya/tS fravao^imi (fravao>?ama,W.) puthr6 bere- 
thya7sairimananam (sairi manan8m,W.)bakhedhrdi (trans- 
lated as hakhedhr^i: d6stlh, friendship). 

6 This chapter is borrowed, though slightly altered, from Yt. XXII. 

6 Read ujtavaiti (?cf. § 54 andYt. XXII, 2): theValmtdini 
Gatha is the fifth and last G^tha. 

7 On the night of his departing. 

" Not in the Good-Word Paradise, to which he will go later 



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vtotAsp yast. 343 



on the second night, it sits in Good Deeds ; on the 
third night, it goes along the ways (to Gar6-nmana). 

55. 'At the end of the third night, O my son, 
Frashaortra ! when the dawn appears, it seems to the 
soul of the faithful one as if it were brought amidst 
plants [and scents : it seems as if a wind were blow- 
ing from the region of the south, from the regions 
of the south] \ a sweet-scented wind, sweeter-scented 
than any other wind in the world, and it seems to his 
soul as if he were inhaling that wind with the nose, 
and it asks, saying : " Whence does that wind blow, 
the sweetest-scented wind I ever inhaled with my 
nose ? " 

56. ' And it seems to him as if his own conscience 
were advancing to him in that wind, in the shape 
of a maiden fair, bright, white-armed, strong, tall- 
formed, high-standing, thick-breasted, beautiful of 
body, noble, of a glorious seed, of the size of a maid 
in her fifteenth year, as fair as the fairest things in 
the world. 

57. ' And the soul of the faithful one addressed 
her, asking : " What maid art thou, who art the fairest 
maid I have ever seen ? " 

58. ' And she, being his own conscience, answers 
him : " O thou youth, of good thoughts, good words, 
and good deeds, of good religion ! I am thy own 
conscience. 

1 " Everybody did love thee for that greatness, 
goodness, fairness, sweet-scentedness, victorious 
strength, and freedom from sorrow, in which thou 



(§ 61). but in the thought and delightful remembrance of his good 
words (cf.Yt. XXII, 2). 
1 Supplied from Yt XXII, 7. 



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?44 vasts and sJr6zahs. 



dost appear to me ; [and so thou, O youth of good 
thoughts, good words, and good deeds, of good 
religion ! didst love me for that greatness, goodness, 
fairness, sweet-scentedness, victorious strength, and 
freedom from sorrow, in which I appear to thee. 

59. ' " When thou wouldst see a man x ] making 
derision and deeds of idolatry, or rejecting (the 
poor) and shutting (his door), then, thou wouldst 
sit, singing the Gathas, and worshipping the good 
waters, and Atar, the son of Ahura Mazda, and 
rejoicing the faithful that would come from near or 
from afar. 

60. ' " I was lovely, and thou madest me still 
lovelier ; I was fair, and thou madest me still fairer ; 
I was desirable, and thou madest me still more 
desirable ; I was sitting in a forward place, and thou 
madest me sit in the foremost place, through this 
good thought, through this good speech, through 
this good deed of thine ; and so henceforth men 
worship me for my having long sacrificed unto and 
conversed with Ahura Mazda." 

61. 'The first step that the soul of the faithful 
man made, placed him in the Good-Thought 
Paradise ; the second step that the soul of the 
faithful man made, placed him in the Good- Word 
Paradise ; the third step that the soul of the faithful 
man made, placed him in the Good-Deed Paradise ; 
the fourth step that the soul of the faithful man 
made, placed him in the Endless Light. 

62. ' Then one of the faithful, who had departed 
before him, asked, saying : "How didst thou depart 
this life, thou holy man? How didst thou come, 



1 From Yt. XXII, 12-13. 



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visTAsp vast. 345 



thou holy man ! from the abodes full of cattle and 
full of the wishes and enjoyments of love? from 
the material world into the world of the spirit ? 
from the decaying world into the undecaying one ? ' 
How long did thy felicity last ? " ' 

63. And Ahura Mazda answered : ' Ask him not 
what thou askest him, who has just gone the dreary 
way, full of fear and distress, when the body and the 
soul part from one another. 

64. ' [Let him eat] of the food brought to him, of 
the oil of Zaremaya : this is the food for the youth 
of good thoughts, of good words, of good deeds, of 
good religion, after he has departed this life ; this is 
the food for the holy woman, rich in good thoughts, 
good words, and good deeds, well-principled, and 
obedient to her husband, after she has departed 
this life.' 

65. Spitama Zarathurtra said to the young king 
Vfataspa : ' To what land shall I turn, O Ahura 
Mazda ? To whom shall I go with praying 1 ?' 

Ashem Vohu: Holiness is the best of all good .... 



1 This clause, taken from Yt. XXII, 20, shows that the second 
part of Yt. XXII (§§ 19-36), describing the fate of the wicked, 
should be inserted here. 



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NYAYIS. 



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NYAYIS. 



A Nyayu is properly a begging prayer, as opposed to Sitayu, 
a prayer of praise. It is a term particularly applied to five prayers 
addressed to the Sun, to Mithra, to the Moon, to Waters, and to 
Fire. Every layman over eight years old is bound to recite the 
Ny&yu : he recites it standing and girded with his K6stt 

The Sun Nyayif is recited three times a day, at the rising of the 
sun (Gah Havan), at noon (Gih Rapitvin), and at three o'clock in 
the afternoon (Gah Uziren). The Mithra NyayLr is recited with 
the Sun Nyayir, as Mithra follows the sun in its course (see 
Yt.X,i 3 ). 

The Moon Nyayu is recited three times a month : first, at the 
time when it begins to be seen ; second, when it is at the full ; 
third, when it is on the wane. 

The Waters Nyayir and the Fire Nyayij are recited every day, 
when one finds oneself in the proximity of those elements. The 
Fire Nyayu is recited with the Pendm on (see Vend. p. 168, 7). 

The first four Nyayu must be recited especially on the days over 
which the Izads invoked preside ; that is to say, on the Kh6rsh§</, 
Mihir, Mah, and Aban days (the eleventh, sixteenth, twelfth, and 
tenth days of the month) 1 . 



i. kh6rsh£z> nyAyis. 

1. [Hail unto the Sun, the swift-horsed ! May 
Ahura Mazda be rejoiced 2 !] 

1 Anquetil, Zend-Avesta II, pp. 6, 22, 565-566. 

2 This clause is wanting in most manuscripts. 



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350 NYAY1S. 



Hail unto thee, O Ahura Mazda, in the threefold 
way 1 ! [Hail unto thee] before all other creatures! 

Hail unto you, O Amesha-Spe#tas, who are all of 
you of one accord with the Sun ! 

May this prayer come unto Ahura Mazda ! May 
it come unto the Amesha-Spewtas ! May it come 
unto the Fravashis of the holy Ones ! May it come 
unto the Sovereign Vayu of the long Period 2 ! 

2. [Hail unto the Sun, the swift-horsed !] 

May Ahura Mazda be rejoiced ! May Angra Mainyu be destroyed! 
by those who do truly what is the foremost wish (of God). 
I recite the ' Praise of Holiness 3 .' 

3. I praise well-thought, well-spoken, and well-done thoughts, 
words, and deeds. I embrace all good thoughts, good words, and 
good deeds ; I reject all evil thoughts, evil words, and evil deeds *. 

4. I give sacrifice and prayer unto you, O Amesha- 
Spe«tas ! even with the fulness of my thoughts, of 
my words, of my deeds, and of my heart : I give 
unto you even my own life. 

I recite the 'Praise of Holiness 8 :' 

'Ashem Vohu : Holiness is the best of all good. Well is it for 
it, well is it for that holiness which is perfection of holiness 4 !' 

5 6 . Hail to Ahura Mazda ! 

Hail to the Amesha-Spe»tas ! 

. Hail to Mithra, the lord of wide pastures ! 

Hail to the Sun, the swift-horsed ! 

Hail to the two eyes of Ahura Mazda ! 

Hail to the Bull ! 

Hail to Gaya 6 ! 

1 In thought, speech, and deed (Pers. and Sansk. transl.). 

2 Vayu, as being the same with Fate (Vend. Introd. IV, 17), be- 
came identified with Time. 

3 The Ashem Vohu. 4 See p. 22. 
8 § 5=Yasna LXVIII (22-23 [LXVII, 58-67]). 

6 Gaya Maretan, the first man. 



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kh6rsh£d nyAyw. 351 

Hail to the Fravashi of the holy Spitama Zara- 
thurtra ! 

Hail to the whole of the holy creation that was, 
is, or will be ! 

May I grow in health of body through Vohu-Man6, 
Khshathra, and Asha, and come to that luminous 
space, to that highest of all high things 1 , when the 
world, O Spe»ta Mainyu ! has come to an end! 

AshemVohu: Holiness is the best of all good .... 

6. We sacrifice unto the bright, undying, shining, 
swift-horsed Sun. 

We sacrifice unto Mithra, the lord of wide pas- 
tures, who is truth-speaking, a chief in assemblies, 
with a thousand ears, well-shapen, with ten thousand 
eyes, high, with full knowledge, strong, sleepless, 
and ever awake 2 . 

7. We sacrifice unto Mithra, the lord of all coun- 
tries, whom Ahura Mazda made the most glorious 
of all the gods in the world unseen s . 

So may Mithra and Ahura, the two great gods, 
come to us for help ! 

We sacrifice unto the bright, undying, shining, 
swift-horsed Sun. 

8. We sacrifice unto Ti^trya, whose sight is 
sound *. 

We sacrifice unto Twtrya; we sacrifice unto the 
rains of Tistrya 6 . 

We sacrifice unto Tistrya, bright and glorious. 

We sacrifice unto the star Vanaw/ 6 , made by 
Mazda. 



1 The sun: 'May my soul arrive at the sun-region 1' (Pahl. transl.) 
8 Yt. X, 7. 3 In heaven. * See Yt. VIII, 12, note 7. 

6 See Yt.VIII, 12, note 2. • See Yt. XX. 



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352 NYAYIS. 



We sacrifice unto Tistrya, the bright and glorious 
star. 

We sacrifice unto the sovereign sky. 

We sacrifice unto the boundless Time. 

We sacrifice unto the sovereign Time of the long 
Period. 

We sacrifice unto the beneficent, well-doing Wind. 

We sacrifice unto the most upright .Afista \ made 
by Mazda and holy. 

We sacrifice unto the good Law of the wor- 
shippers of Mazda. 

We sacrifice unto the way of content 2 . 

We sacrifice unto the golden instrument 3 . 
We sacrifice unto Mount Saoka«ta, made by 
Mazda 3 . 

9. We sacrifice unto all the holy gods of the 
world unseen. 

We sacrifice unto all the holy gods of the mate- 
rial world. 

We sacrifice unto our own soul. 

We sacrifice unto our own Fravashi. 

We sacrifice unto the good, strong, beneficent 
Fravashis of the holy Ones. 

We sacrifice unto the bright, undying, shining, 
swift-horsed Sun. 

10. I confess myself a worshipper of Mazda, a follower of 
Zarathiu tra .... 



1 See Yt. XVI. 2 Or, of pleasure. 

3 ' On Mount Saoka«ta there is a golden tube coming from the 
root of the earth ; the water that is on the surface of the earth 
goes up through the hole of that tube to the heavens, and being 
driven by the wind, spreads everywhere, and thus the dew is 
produced' (Sansk. transl.). 



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MIHIR NYAYIS. 353 



Unto the bright, undying, shining, swift-horsed 
Sun; 

Be propitiation, with sacrifice, prayer, propitiation, and glori- 
fication . . . . 1 

Ash em Vohu : Holiness is the best of all good .... 

[We sacrifice] unto the Ahurian waters a , the waters of Ahura, 
with excellent libations, with finest libations, with libations piously 
strained 8 . 

Ashem Vohu : Holiness is the best of all good .... 

[Give] unto that man brightness and glory, give him health of 
body, .... give him the bright, all-happy, blissful abode of the 
holy Ones. 

II. MIHIR NYAYIS. 

i 4 . Hail unto thee, O Ahura Mazda, in the threefold way! 
[Hail unto thee] before all other creatures ! 

Hail unto you, O Amesha-Spe«tas, who are all of you of one 
accord with the Sun ! 

May this prayer come unto Ahura Mazda I May it come unto 
the Amesha-Spe«tas 1 May it come unto the Fravashis of the holy 
Ones I May it come unto the sovereign Vayu of the long Period 1 

2. May Ahura Mazda be rejoiced 1 . . . . 

3. I praise well-thought, well-spoken, and well-done thoughts, 
words, and deeds .... 

4. I give sacrifice and prayer unto you, O Amesha-Spe»tas 1 

5. Hail to Ahura Mazda ! . . . . 

May I grow in health of body through Vohu-Man6, Khshathra, 
and Asha, and come to that luminous space, to that highest of all 
high things, when the world, O Spe«ta Mainyu, has come to an end! 

6 5 . We sacrifice unto Mithra, the lord of wide 
pastures, who is truth-speaking, a chief in assemblies, 
with a thousand ears, well-shapen, with ten thousand 

1 The whole of the Kh6rshei Yajt is inserted here. 

2 Rivers considered as Ahura's wives (cf. Ormazd et Ahriman, 
§32). 

' s From Yasna LXVIII, io(LXVII, 30); cf. p. 34. 
* §§ 1-5= Kh6rshetf Nyayij, §§ 1-5. 
5 §§ 6-7=Kh6rsh§<£ Nyayw, §§ 6-7. 
[23] A a 



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354 NYAYLS. 

eyes, high, with full knowledge, strong, sleepless, and 
ever awake. 

7. We sacrifice unto Mithra, the lord of all 
countries, whom Ahura Mazda made the most 
glorious of all the heavenly gods. 

So may Mithra and Ahura, the two great gods, 
come to us for help ! 

We sacrifice unto the undying, shining, swift- 
horsed Sun. 

8 '. We sacrifice unto Tutrya, whose sight is sound .... 
9. We sacrifice unto all the holy gods of the world unseen .... 
10 *. I confess myself a worshipper of Mazda, a follower of 
Zarathurtra .... 

li 3 . We sacrifice unto Mithra, the lord of wide 
pastures, who is truth-speaking, a chief in assemblies, 
with a thousand ears, well-shapen, with a thousand 
eyes, high, with full knowledge, strong, sleepless, and 
ever awake. 
..We sacrifice unto the Mithra around countries ; 

We sacrifice unto the Mithra within countries ; 

We sacrifice unto the Mithra in this country ; 

We sacrifice unto the Mithra above countries ; 

We sacrifice unto the Mithra under countries ; 

We sacrifice unto the Mithra before countries ; 

We sacrifice unto the Mithra behind countries. 

12. We sacrifice unto Mithra and Ahura, the two 

great, imperishable, holy gods ; and unto the stars, 

and the moon, and the sun, with the trees that 

yield baresma. We sacrifice unto Mithra, the lord 

of all countries. 

13*. For his brightness and glory, I will offer unto him a sacri- 
fice worth being heard ..... 

1 §§ 8- 9 =Kh6rshe^ Nyayb, §§ 8-9. a Yt. X, o. 

3 §§ n-i2=Yt. X, 144-145- * §§ i3-i5=Yt- X, 4-6. 



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MAH NYAYLS. 355 



We offer up libations unto Mithra .... 

14. May he come to us for help! May he come to us for ease ! . . . . 

15. I will offer up libations unto him, the strong Yazata, the 
powerful Mithra .... 

Y6»hS hatam : All those beings of whom Ahura Mazda .... 

16'. Yathd ahu vairyd: The will of the Lord is the law of 
holiness .... 

I bless the sacrifice and prayer, and the strength and vigour of 
Mithra .... 

Ashem Vohu : Holiness is the best of all good .... 

[Give] unto that man brightness and glory, .... give him the 
bright, all-happy, blissful abode of the holy Ones. 



in. mAh nyAyis. 

1 *. Hail to Ahura Mazda I Hail to the Amesha-Spe«tas ! Hail 
to the Moon that keeps in it the seed of the Bull ! Hail to thee 
when we look at thee ! Hail to thee when thou lookest at us ! 

2 s . Unto the Moon that keeps in it the seed of the Bull; unto 
the only-created Bull and unto the Bull of many species ; 

Be propitiation .... 

3. Hail to Ahura Mazda !..'.. 

4. How does the moon wax? How does the moon wane? .... 

5. We sacrifice unto the Moon that keeps in it the seed of the 
Bull 

6. And when the light of the moon waxes warmer .... 

7. I will sacrifice unto the Moon .... 

8. For its brightness and glory .... 

9. Yath& ahu vairy6: The will of the Lord is the law of 
holiness .... 

10 4 . Give us strength and victory! Give us wel- 
fare in cattle and in bread! Give us a great number 
of male children, praisers [of God] and chiefs in 
assemblies, who smite and are not smitten, who 
smite at one stroke their enemies, who smite at one 
stroke their foes, ever in joy and ready to help. 

1 Yt. X, r 4 6. « § 1 =Mah Yart, §1. 8 §§ 2- 9 =M4h Yart. 
* §§10-11; c£Yt. XXIV, 6-8. 

A a 2 



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356 nyAyw. 

ii. Ye gods of full Glory, ye gods of full 

healing, let your greatness become manifest! let 

your assistance become manifest as soon as you are 

called for! and ye, Waters, manifest your Glory, 

and impart it to the man who offers you a sacrifice. 

Ashem Vohu: Holiness is the best of all good .... 
[Give] unto that man brightness and glory, .... give him the 
bright, all-happy, blissful abode of the holy Ones. 



IV. ABAN NYAYIS. 

I. May Ahura Mazda be rejoiced ! .... 

Unto the good Waters, made by Mazda; unto the 
holy water-spring Ardvi Anahita; unto all waters, 
made by Mazda ; unto all plants, made by Mazda, 

Be propitiation * . . . . 

2*. Ahura Mazda spake unto Spitama Zarathurtra, saying : 'Offer 
up a sacrifice, O Spitama Zarathurtra 1 unto this spring of mine, 
Ardvi Sura Anahita .... 

3. 'Who makes the seed of all males pure, who makes the womb 
of all females pure for bringing forth .... 

4. 'The large river, known afar, that is as large as the whole of 
the waters that run along the earth .... 

5. 'AH the shores of the sea Vouru-Kasha are boiling over, all the 
middle of it is boiling over, when she runs down there .... 

6. 'From this river of mine alone flow all the waters that spread 
all over the seven Karshvares ; 

7. ' I, Ahura Mazda, brought it down with mighty 
vigour, for the increase of the house, of the borough, 
of the town, of the country 3 . 

8. ' He from whom she will hear the staota 
y£snya 4 ; he from whom she will hear the Ahuna 

1 As Ab&n Yart, o. 2 §§ 2-6=Ab&n Yast, §§ 1-5. 

8 Cf. AbSn Yart, § 6. * See above, p. 152, note 1. 



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AT AS NYAYLS. 357 



vairya 1 ; he from whom she will hear the Asha- 
vahista 2 ; he by whom the good waters will be 
made pure ; with the words of the holy hymns 3 , he 
will enter first the Gard-nmana of Ahura Mazda : 
she will give him the boons asked for 4 . 

9 6 . ' For her brightness and glory, I will offer her 
a sacrifice worth being heard ; I will offer her a 
sacrifice well-performed. Thus mayest thou advise 
us when thou art appealed to ! Mayest thou be 
most fully worshipped. 

' We sacrifice unto the holy Ardvi Sura Anahita with libations. 
We sacrifice unto Ardvi Sura Anahita, the holy and master of holi- 
ness, with the Haoma and meat, with the baresma, with the 
wisdom of the tongue, with the holy spells, with the words, with 
the deeds, with the libations, and with the rightly-spoken words. 

•YSwhe - hatam : All those beings of whom Ahura Mazda .... 

10. ' Yath& ahu vairyd: The will of the Lord is the law of 
holiness .... 

' I bless the sacrifice and prayer, and the strength and vigour of 
the holy water-spring Anihita. 

' [Give] unto that man brightness and glory, .... give him the 
bright, all-happy, blissful abode of the holy Ones.' 



V. ATA6" NYAYI6". 

1 •. Take me out 7 , O Ahura ! give me perfect piety and 
strength .... 
4 8 . May Ahura Mazda be rejoiced I . . . . 

1 The Yathi" ahu vairyd prayer. 

* The Ashem Vohu prayer. 

8 Cf. Yt. XXII, 2, and Yt. XXIV, 39. 

4 Cf. Aban Yart, §§ 19, 23, 27, 35, 39, 47, &c. 

8 Cf. Aban Ysut, § 9. 

' §§ i-3=Yasna XXXIII, 12-14. 

7 ' Deliver me from Ahriman ' (Pahl. Comm.). 

8 As in Ormazd Yaft, o. 



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358 nyAyis. 



Hail unto thee, O Fire, son of Ahura Mazda, 

thou beneficent and most great Yazata ! 

1 Ashem Vohu : Holiness is the best of all good .... 

I confess myself a worshipper of Mazda .... 

For sacrifice, prayer, propitiation, and glorification .... 

Unto Atar, the son of Ahura Mazda; unto thee 
Atar, son of Ahura Mazda ! 

5 2 . Unto Atar, the son of Ahura Mazda; unto the 
Glory and the Weal, made by Mazda; unto the Glory 
of the Aryas, made by Mazda ; unto the Glory of 
the Kavis, made by Mazda. 

Unto Atar, the son of Ahura Mazda ; unto king 
Husravah ; unto the lake of Husravah ; unto Mount 
Asnava?^, made by Mazda; unto Lake Aae^asta, 
made by Mazda; unto the Glory of the Kavis, made 
by Mazda. 

6. Unto Atar, the son of Ahura Mazda; unto 
Mount Raeva«^, made by Mazda; unto the Glory 
of the Kavis, made by Mazda. 

Unto Atar, the son of Ahura Mazda. 

Unto Atar, the beneficent, the warrior ; the God 
who is a full source of Glory, the God who is a 
full source of healing. 

Unto Atar, the son of Ahura Mazda, with all 
Atars ; unto the God Nairy6-sangha, who dwells in 
the navel of kings; 

Be propitiation, with sacrifice, prayer, propitiation, and glori- 
fication. 

Yath& ahu vairyd: The will of the Lord is the law of 
holiness .... 

7 8 . I bless the sacrifice and invocation, and the 



1 As in Ormazd Yart, o. 2 Cf. Sir6zah, § 9. 

8 §§ 7-i6=Yasna LXII, 1-10 (LXI). See the Sanskrit transla- 
tion in fitudes Iraniennes, II. 



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ATAS NYAVL?. 359 



good offering, the beneficent offering, the offering of 
assistance offered unto thee, O Atar, son of Ahura 
Mazda ! 

Thou art wqrthy of sacrifice and invocation ; 
mayest thou receive the sacrifice and the invoca- 
tion in the houses of men. 

Well may it be unto the man who ever worships 
thee with a sacrifice, holding the sacred wood in his 
hand, the baresma in his hand, the meat in his hand, 
the mortar l in his hand. 

8. Mayest thou have the right 2 wood! Mayest 
thou have the right incense! Mayest thou have 
the right food ! Mayest thou have the right fuel 3 ! 

Mayest thou be full-grown for protecting (this 
house)! Mayest thou grow excellent for protecting! 

9. Mayest thou burn in this house ! Mayest thou 
ever burn in this house ! Mayest thou blaze in this 
house ! Mayest thou increase in this house ! Even 
for a long time, till the powerful restoration of the 
world, till the time of the good, powerful restoration 
of the world ! 

A 

10. Give me, O Atar, son of Ahura Mazda ! lively 
welfare, lively maintenance, lively living ; fulness of 
welfare, fulness of maintenance, fulness of life ; 

Knowledge, sagacity ; quickness of tongue ; (holi- 
ness of) soul ; a good memory ; and then the under- 
standing that goes on growing and the one that is 
not acquired through learning 4 ; 



1 The mortar for pounding the Haoma. 
s In quality and quantity. 

3 UpasaySni : what is added to keep up the fire when lighted 
(Pers. transl.). 

4 The gaoshd-sruta khratu and the asna khratu (see p. 7, 
note 1). 



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360 nyAyw. 



And then the manly courage, 

11. Firm-footed, unsleeping, (sleeping only) for a 
third part of the day and of the night, quick to rise 
up from bed, ever awake ; 

And a protecting, virtuous offspring, able to rule 
countries and assemblies of men, well growing up, 
good, freeing us from the pangs (of hell), endowed 
with a good intellect, that may increase my house, 
my borough, my town, my country, my empire. 

12. Give me, O Atar, son of Ahura Mazda! how- 
ever unworthy I am 1 , now and for ever, a seat in 
the bright, all-happy, blissful abode of the holy 
Ones. 

May I obtain the good reward, a good renown 2 , 
and long cheerfulness for my soul 3 ! 

13. Atar, the son of Ahura Mazda, lifts up his 
voice to all those for whom he cooks their evening 
meal and their morning meal 4 . From all those he 
wishes a good offering, a beneficent offering, an 
offering of assistance, O Spitama ! 

14. Atar looks at the hands of all those who pass 
by : ' What does the friend bring to his friend ? 
What does he who comes and goes bring to him 6 
who stays motionless ?' 

We sacrifice unto Atar, the valiant warrior 6 . 

1 5. And if the passer-by brings him wood holily 
brought, or bundles of baresma holily tied up, or 

I Ya m§ afrasaunghou angha/: yi me abhflt ayogyata (Sansk. 
transl.). 

II Here. s Above. 

4 Khshafnim, suirim (fitudes Iraniennes, II, 161). 

5 Atar. 

* 'Bodily he is infirm (arm § st, motionless); spiritually he is a 
warrior' (Pahl. Comm.). 



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Atas nyAyis. 361 



twigs of Hadhana^pata 1 , then Atar, the son of Ahura 
Mazda, well pleased with him and not angry, and 
fed as required, will thus bless him : 

16. 'May herds of oxen grow for thee, and in- 
crease of sons; may thy mind be master of its 
vow, may thy soul be master of its vow, and mayest 
thou live on in the joy of the soul all the nights of 
thy life.' 

This is the blessing which Atar speaks unto him 
who brings him dry wood, well-examined by the 
light of the day, well-cleansed with godly intent 2 . 

17. YathS ah A vairy6: The will of the Lord is the law of 
holiness 

I bless the sacrifice and prayer, and the strength and vigour of 
Atar, the son of Ahura Mazda s . . . . 
Ashem Vohu: Holiness is the best of all good .... 

18 s . We gladden by our virtue thy mighty Fire, 
O Ahura ! thy most quick and powerful Fire, who 
shows his assistance 4 to him who has ever com- 
forted him, but delights in taking vengeance with 
his hands on the man who has harmed him. 



1 See Vend. p. 94, note 1. 

* Cf. Vend. XVIII, 26-27. 
s From Yasna XXXIV, 4. 

* ' In the var ntrang' (Pahl. Comm.), that is to say, in the fire 
ordeal ; see above, p. 170, note 3. 




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INDEX TO THE VENDtDAD, 

VOLUME IV; 



AND TO THE 



SIROZAHS, YASTS, AND NYAYIS, 

VOLUME XXIII. 



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INDEX TO VOLS. IV AND XXIII. 



The references in small Roman numerals are to the Introduction to the 
Vendidad; those preceded by II are to this volume; the others are 
to the Vendidad. 



Aal, fairy, page xciii. n 4. 

Aban Nyayu, II, 35^-357- 

Aban Yajt, II, 52-84. 

Abarta, xxx. n 1. 

Abere*, priest, 63, 64. n 1, 78, 79 ; II, 

332. 
Abortion, 175. 

Adar, god, II, 7» *5- See Atar. 
Adarana, II, 288. 
Adarapra, fire, II, 7- n 2. See Adar 

Froba. 
Adarbad Mahraspandan, man, xxxiii, 

xxxvii. 
Adarbfean, land, 1. n 2 ; II, 123. n 3. 
Adar Burzin Mihr, fire, II, 8. n 2, 

294. n 2. 
Adar Farnbag, fire, II, 7. n 2. 
Adar Froba, fire, II, 294- n 2 > 2 98. 

n i. See AdaraprS. 
Adar Gushasp, fire, II, 294. n 2. See 

Gushasp. 
Adhutavau, mount, II, 289. 
Adityas, lx. 

Adukani, month, II, 101. n 1. 
Agkha, demon, II, 284, 285. 
A&hma, demon, lxvii, 136, 141. n 3, 

142, 143, 218 ; II, 33, 1431 i54» 

164, 224, 271, 284, 297, 308. 
Aeta, man, II, 217. 
Aethrapaiti, 45. 

A£vo-saredha-fyae\rta, man, II, 218. 
Aezakha, mount, II, 288. 
Afrasyab, man, II, 64. n 2, 67. n 4, 95. 

n2, 114. n2, 300. ns, 3°4- n *• 

See Frangrasyan. 
AfrigSn, xxx. 

ifrtn Paighambar, II, 324-328. 
Agastya, man, II, 224. n 2. 
Agerepta, 39, 40, 41. 



Aghragratha, man, lxxvi; II, 114, 
115, 222, 278, 304, 307. n 6. 

Agriculture, 28. 

Ahriman, demon, xliv, lxx, lxxi, 
lxxvi, xcii,59.n 4,99. ni; 11,26. 
n 2, 135. n 2, 176. n 2, 252. n 1, 
260. n 5. See Angra Mainyu. 

Ahfim-stu>, man, II, 203. 

Ahuna, man, II, 288. 

Ahuna Vairya, prayer, lxix, lxxviii, 
98, no, 139, 206. n 5; II, 3; 
serves as a weapon, II, 275. 

Ahura Mazda, god, lviii, lxi ; 4 (his 
creations), 207; 208 (his Fra- 
• vashi); II, 3, «, 9> 1°, 13, 15; 
21-34 (Ormazd Yajt) ; 57 (sacri- 
fices to Ardvi Sura Anahita) ; 86, 
116,119,138,142,151,152,154, 
155, 156, 157, 162, 164, 169, 180, 
199, 201, 227, 228, 230, 231, 232 
seq.; 250 (sacrifices to Vayu), 
274, 3'7, 35i, &c. 

Ahuranis, 140. n 2. 

Ainyava, II, 217, 218. 

Aipivanghu, II, 222, 303. See Apivgh. 

Aipivohu, II, 303. 

Airla-rasp Afisp6sinan, II, 216. n 6. 

Airyaman, 140, 222, 228, 229, 230- 
235; II, 4, 13, 35, 37, 4i, 42, 
43-45, 48. 

Airyanem vae^ah, 2, 5, 1 3, 15, «»• ns, 

3°, 57, 7 8 > Il6 > 2 79- See I r ^ n 

\ig. 
Airyu, II, 62. n 2, 222, 226. n 6. 
AiwUroarenah, man, It, 214. 
Akatasha, demon, 136, 218. 
Akayadha, man, II, 219. 
Akem Mano, demon, lxxii; II, 297, 

308. 



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366 



INDEX TO VOLS. IV AND XXIII. 



Akhnangha, man, II, 217. 
Akhrflra, man, II, 223. , 
Akluti, genius, II, 4, 13, 35, 37, 39, 

&c. See Peace. 
Akht, sorcerer, II, 72. n 5. 
Akhtya, sorcerer, II, 73. 
Alborz, mount, 225; 11,97. n 6, 122. 

n 3, 287. n 1, 289. n 6. See 

Hara Berezaiti. 
Alexander, man, xxxii. 
Alexander eschata, land, II, 123. n4. 
Ambrosia, II, 152. n 5. 
Ameretaf, god, lx, lxxi; II, 5, 31,361 

37, 4°, 49, M3, 3°8» 31*- 

Amesha-Spentas, gods, lix, lxxi, 207, 
209; II, 3,6, 9, 10, 13, 15, 34, 
35-40 (Haftin Ysut), 43, 49, 86, 
90, 103, 132, 142, 143. n 1, 156, 
163, 164, 166, 193, 194, 199, 202, 
230,290, 29:, 336, 339, 340, 350. 

Amru, bird, II, 210. 

Amuyamna, genius, II, 164. n 2. 

Anahata, goddess, II, 53. 

AnahW, goddess, II, 195. n 2. 

Anahita, goddess, lv. See Ardvi Sura. 

'Avavrts, goddess, II, 53. 

Anaperetha, c. 

Anashavan, lxxi v. 

Anastareta, genius, II, 164. n 2. 

An€r3n, genius, II, 12, 20, 85. 

Anghuyu, II, 215. 

Angra Mainyu, demon, lvi, lxii, 4 
(his counter-creations), 24, 142- 
143 (expelled), 204-207 (tempts 
Zarathujtra), 217-218 (in des- 
pair), 228, 229, 230 (creates 
diseases) ; II, 29, 33, 44, 105, 
"3,144,150,154.198,242; 250 
(a part of Vayu belongs to him) ; 
252, 292 (turned to a horse), 
255 > 2 74 (dismayed by the birth 
of Zarathujtra), 284, 308, 310; 
317 (mocks the souls of the 
wicked in hell), 338, 340. 

Animals, lxxiii ; five classes of, 1 1, 1 8 2 . 

Ankata, mount, II, 218. 

Anquetil Duperron, xiv. 

A»tare-danghu, mount, II, 288. 

Antare-kangha, mount, II, 67. n 5, 
288. 

Anthesterion, month, II, 192. n 1. 

Ants, 167. 

Aodhas, II, 173. 

Aoighimatastira, man, II, 218. 

Aoshnara, man, II, 221. 

Apagadha, 224. 



Apakhshfra. land, II, 219. 

Apam Napa/, god, II, 6, 12, 14, 20, 

36, 38, 39,7i, 94, 102, 202. 
Apaosha, demon, lxiii; II, 92, 99, 

100, 284, 285. 
Aparavidyi, II, 4. n 5. 
Aparsm, land, II, 288. n 2, n 7. 
Apiveh, king, II, 222. n 4. See Aipi- 

vanghu. 
Apollo, II, 236. n 2. 
Ara, man, II, 211. 
Arabian sea, II, 146. n 4. 
*Ap<i^<»ror, 7. n 10. 
Aras, river, xlix, 3. 
ArSsti, man, II, 203. n 1. 
Aravaojtra, man, II, 218. 
Araxes, river, 3. 
Ard, goddess, II, 270. n 1. See Ashi 

Vanguhi. 
ArdasMr, king, xxxv; II, 237. n 3. 
Ardavan, king, xxxv; II, 237. n 3. 
Ardt Vtraf, man, 166. n 2 ; II, 267. 

n3. 
Ardibehijt, god. See Asha Vabjjta. 
Ardijvang, goddess, II, 270. n 1. 

See Ashi Vanguhi. 
Ardvi Sflra Anahita, goddess, 78; 

11,8, 16, 30,52-84, 106. n2, 174, 

181, 182, 356. 
Areduj, 39, 41. 
Aredvi, measure, 16. 
Aregimghant, man, II, 212. 
Are^aona, man, II, 214. 
Are^az-aspa, man, II, 79, 80, 117, 

289. See Ar^asp. 
Arezahi, region, 216; II,. 12 3, 136, 

154,171. SeeArzih. 
Arez6-shamana, man, II, 296. 
Arezura, demon, 24. 
Arezva, man, II, 213. 
Ar§-asp, man, II, 206. n 2, 256. n 3. 
Arij, king, II, 222. n 5. See Arshan. 
Arlf shivatir, man, II, 95. n 2. 
Armlsht, 64. n 3. 
ArmSsht-gSh, xciv, 27. n :, 62. n 1, 

64. n 4, 128. 
Armin, king, II, 222. n 5. 
Arnavaz, woman, II, 62. n 2. 
Arsacides, xxxiii. 
Arshan, king, II, 222, 303. 
Arshya, man, II, 209. 
Awtaf, genius, II, 6,9, 15, 17, 19, 36, 

38, 156, 166, 168, 178, 184, 283- 

285 (AjtadYart). SeeArtad. 
Arjti, genius, II, 166. 
Arsvant, man, II, 210. 



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INDEX TO VOLS. IV AND XXIII. 



367 



Artaxerxes, xliv, lv; II, 53. 
Arfim, country, II, 287. n 8. See 

Rum. 
Arvastani R(un, land, 3, 9. n 7, n 8. 
Aryaman, 229. - 
Aryans, II, 68, 70, 8i, 108, 109, 120, 

123,182,190, 191, 201, 226, 244, 
^257. 
ArzSh, region, II, 210. n 2, 220. n 1. 
Arzfir, mount, II, 287. n 7. 
Arzfir bfim, mount, II, 287. n 8. 
Asabana, man. See Kara Asabana, 

Vara Asabana. 
Asabani, woman, II, 225. 
Asan h-m.nva.nt, man, II, 203. 
Asaya, man, II, 288. 
Ascendant (UparatS/), genius, II, 6, 

15. 3 6 , 38,128,133,188,189, &c. 
Asha, lxx. 

Ashahura, man, II, 212. n 2. 
Ashanemah, man, II, 219. 
Asbasairyas, man, II, 213. 
Ashasaredha, man, II, 213. 
Ashasavah, man, II, 214. 
AshashagalW-e H-vandaAan, II, 210. 

n 2. 
Ash&rkyaothna, man, II, 212. 
Asha-stembana, mount, II, 288. 
Ashastu, man, II, 209. 
Asha Vahbta, god, lx, lxxii, 207 ; II, 

4, 5,i3,i4» 3°, 31, 33/Hi, 35, 

36, 37, 38, 4°, 41-48 (Ardi- 

behut Yart), 49, 128, 133, 142, 

275, 285, 297, 351. 
Ashavanghu, man, II, 210. 
Ashavazdah, son of Pourudhakhrti, 

II, 70, 71. n 1, 212. 
Ashavazdah, son of S3yu*dri, II, 71, 

212. 
Ashemaogha, xl. n 2, lxxiv, 47, 60, 

192, 224; II, 26, 45, 46, 184. 

n 2, 261. 
Ashem-yahmSi-urta, man, II, 216. 
Ashem-ye»h§-raoitfu, man, II, 215. 
Ashi Vanguhi, goddess, lxx; II, 11, 

18, 104, 136, 157. n 2, 162, 164, 

188, 209, 230, 270-282 (Ashi 

Yajt), 284, 330. 
AshS-paoirya, man, II, 214. 
AshS-rao/Sah, man, II, 204. 
Ashd-urvatha, man, II, 214. 
Ashfi-zurta, bird, 188. n 2. 
Asklepios, 85. n 5, 219. n 6. 
Asman, II, 85. 
Asmo-i6a>anvan/, man, II, 33. n 2, 

203, 320. 



Asnatar, priest, 63, 64. n 1, 78, 79 ; 

, II, 332. 

Asnava»/, mount, II, 7, 15, 288, 358. 

Aspahe artra, xcvi. n 3. 

Aspendyarji's translation, ci. 

Asp8-padh6-makhrti, man, II, 214. 

Assaults, xcvi, 39-44. 

Assyrian SirSzah, II, 3. 

Arta-aurva»<, man, II, 279. 

Artad Yart, II, 283-285. 

Arti, measure, 159. 

Ast6-vid6tu, demon, lxviii, 46, 51, 

87. n 4. 
Artra, 168. n 5. 
Ajtra mairya, 190. 
Astvaf-ereta, man, II, 211, 215, 220, 

307, 308. 
Asura, lviii, lxxv. 
Atare, god, lxii, lxv, 180; II, 5, 8, 

*5, 16, 36, 38, 15,3, 198, 297, 
„ 339, 344, 357-361 (AtafNyayb). 
Atare-danghu, man, II, 207. 
Atare-data, man, II, 206. 
Atare-j&'Wirenah, man, II, 207. 
Atare-iithra, man, II, 206. 
Atare-pata, man, II, 206. 
Atare-savah, man, II, 207. 
Atare-vakhsha, priest, 63, 64. n 1, 78, 

. 795 II, 33*- 
Atare-vanu, man, II, 206. 
Atare-za»tu, man, II, 207. 
Athenians, xcviii; II, 192. n 1. 
Athravan, priest, li, 98; II, 74, 228, 
A 268, 299. 
Athwya family, II, 61, 113, 221, 254, 

326, 328. 
Atropatene, land, xlviii. See Adar- 

bigan. 
Aturpat, man, II, 329. n 2. See 

AdarbSd. 
Aurvasara, man, II, 256. 
Aiirvata^-nar, man, II, 204. n 1. See 

Urvata/-nara. 
Aurvaf-aspa, king, II, 78, 205. n 5. 

See Ldhrasp. 
Ausinddm, river, II, 101. ns, 104. 

n 3. See Us-hindu. 
Avahya, man, II, 217. 
Avaoiruta, 39, 40. 
Avaraojtri, man, II, 208. 
Avarcgau, man, II, 218. 
Avarethrabah, man, II, 209. 
Avesta, Hi. n 2. Meaning of the 

word, xxx. See Abarta and 

Zand Avasta. 
Awz-danva, lake, II, 301. 



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368 



INDEX TO VOLS. IV AND XXIII. 



Ay Shi, demon, 328. 

Ay6asti, man, II, 211. 

Ayuta, man, II, 215. 

Azata, man, II, 209. 

Azerekhsh, xlix. 

Azi, demon, lxv, 194. 

Azi Dahaka, demon, lxii, lxv, 2, 9, 

206. 114; II, 60, 61, 68. n 3, 

75. n 2, iij, 195. m, 242, 251. 

n 4, 253. 254> 294, 297. 3«7> 326. 

See Dahak. 

Babylon, land, II, 60. n 3, 253. n 3. 
Bactra, land, 3, 6. n 4 ; II, 204. n 3. 
Bactria (Zoroaster in), xlvii. 
Bad, woman, II, 226. n 1. 
Bid, day, II, 92. 
Badghes, land, II, 288. n 1. 
BaSshatastlra, man, II, 218. 
Bahman, day, II, 88. 
Bahman, god. See Vohu-man8. 
Bahman Ya/t, II, 22, 31-34. 
Bahram fire, lxxxix, 60. n 2, 62. n 2, 

112-116. 
Bahram, god. See Verethraghna. 
Bahram Ya/t, II, 231-248. 
Bakhdhi, land, 2, 6. 
Bimiln, land, II, 95. n 3. 
Bang of Zoroaster and Gfbtasp, II, 

267. n 3. 
Banga,i75. 
Baodhd-varjta, 84. n 1, 154, 175. n 1 ; 

",335. 
Barana, mount, II, 289. 
Barashnum, xciv. n 7, 26. n 1, 63. n 1, 

119-129, 183. n i, 210. n 4; II, 

Barda, land, II, 64. n 2. 
Baremna, man, II, 217. 
Baresma, 22. n 2, 191. n 1, 209. 
Barmayfln, man, II, 297. n 5. 
Bar8-srayana, mount, II, 289. 
Bastavairi, man, II, 207. 
B&ri, demon, II, 49. 
Bathing forbidden, xc. 
Baangha, man, II, 218. 
Bawri, land, II, 60, 68. n 3. 
Bayana, mount, II, 288. 
Berezitnu, man, II, 211. 
Berezvaaf, man, II, 215, 218. 
Berezy-anti, man, II, 206. 
Bidirafsh, man, II, 80. n 6. 
Bitch (killing a), 173 ; how treated, 

175-180. 
Bivandangha, man, II, 210. 
Bodily punishments, xcix. 



Bohlen (P. de), xxii. 

Bdrg, genius, II, 94. n 3, 102. n 5. 

Borrowing, 34. n. 3. 

B8r-t6rS, man, II, 326. n 8. 

Brisson, xiii. 

Buddhists, II, 184. n 2. 

B%i, demon, II, 49, 50. 

Bfl^i-sravah, man, II, 205. 

B%ra, man, II, 209. 

Bflidhi, demon, 141, 142. 

Buidhiza, demon, 141, 142. 

BQiti, demon, 204, 218. 

Bull, 224; II, 8, 16, 89, 245. 

Burial, xlv. 

Burnouf, xxiii. 

Bushyasta, demon, Ixvii, 141, 142, 

193; H» 154.284,287, 323. 
Byirshan, prince, II, 223. ns, 303. 

Caboul, land, II, 62. n 5. 

Carrier alone, 26. 

Caspian sea, II, 117. n 6. 

Cerdo, man, xli. n 5. 

Ceylon, land, II, 59. n 2. 

Chanmrosh, bird, II, 173. n 1. 

China, land, II, 227. n 1, 288. n 7. 

Chinon (G. Du), xiii, 167. n 1-3. 

Chionitae, people, II, 117. n 6. 

Christianity, xli. 

Christians, II, 161. 

Cleanser, false, 131. 

Cleanser's fees, 129. 

Clothes of the unclean woman,63-64; 

thrown on the dead, 65 ; defiled 

by the dead, 77 ; how cleansed, 

78-79. 
Clouds destroy diseases, 224. 
Cock. See Par8dar*. 
Commodianus quoted, II, 141. n 3. 
Contracts, xcv, 35-39, 45. 
Corpse, eating, 79, 80. 
Corpses exposed, xci, 52. n 5, 74. 
Courage, genius, II, 10, 18. 
Cow, formula to cleanse the, 140. 
Croesus, li. 

Curse, II, 12. n 13, 153. 
Cyclops, II, 280. n 4. 
Cyrus' dream, 13. n 1; introduces 

Magism to Persia, li. 

DaenS-vazah, man, II, 314. 

DaSvas, lxxx, 30, 102, 205 ; II, 32, 
1 10, 126, 153, 154, 161, 163, 188, 
194, 201, 245, 262, 292. 

Da$v6-/bu, man, II, 204. 

Dahae, people, II, 227. n 2. 



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INDEX TO VOLS. IV AND XXIII. 



369 



Dahak, demon, II, 298. ni. See Azi 
Dahaka. 

Dahi countries, II, 227. 

Dai, II, 6. n 11. 

Daitik river, 5. n 2, n 3. 

Daitya river, 15, 204; II, 30, 57, 78, 
80, 116, 117, 279, 282. 

Daity6-g3tu, xc, 113-116. 

Daiwi, demon, 218. 

Dakhmas, xc, 24,26,52,73-74,86-88, 
94. n 3. 

Damavand, mount, 2; II, 59,61, 95. n 2. 

Dana, man, II, 296. 

Danghu-fradhah, man, II, 214. 

Danghu-srfita, man, II, 214. 

Danus, men, II, 71, 189. 

D3raya/-ratha, man, II, 210. 

Dare,ja river, xlix, 205, 207. 

Darius, II, 107. 

Darjinika, man, II, 117, 280. 

Dashtanistan, xciv. n 3, 180-183. 

Dajtighni, man, II, 218. 

Diftayana, man, II, 296. 

Datem, lxxviii. n 3. 

Daungha, man, II, 204. 

Dawramaeshi, man, II, 217. 

DSzgaragau, man, II, 219. 

Dazgaraspa, man, II, 209. 

Dead matter, c, 49, 50. 

Deva, Ixxx. 

DSn Yajt, II, 264-269. 

Dinkar/, xxxii ; II, 159. n 3, 170. n 3. 

Diseases created by Ahriman, xciii, 
230; cured by Thrita,2i9-223; 
by Airyaman, 233-235. See 
Medicine, Thraetaona. 

Dis Het, place, II, 253. n 3. 

Dijti, measure, 187. 

Dizukht, II, 254. 

Dog, 58, 180; described, 151-172, 
161-163 ; praised, 163 ; how 
fed, 173; offences to, 153-155; 
mad, 159-160; yellow-eared, 
lxxxviii. See Sagdid, Vanghl- 
para, Vohunazga, Zairimyan- 
gura. 

Drafra, II, 26. n 5. 

Draona, 56. See DrSn. 

Draoshijvau, mount, II, 288. 

Drat ha, man, II, 210. 

Dregva»/, demon, Ixvii. 

Dried corpse, 103. 

Driwi, demon, 218. 

Dr6n ceremony, II, 319. n 1. 

Dru^, demon, Ixxxvi, 24 ; her para- 
mours, 196-200, 217; II, 29, 47, 



59,141, 160, 163,183,197,205, 
221, 290, 291, 292, 306, 307, 

335- 
Dru^askSn, demon, II, 334. n 5. 
Drvasf, demon, lxvii, lxxii, Ixxiv. 
Drvaspa, genius, II, 9, 17, 110-118, 

245. n 1. 
Dram, II, 307. 

Dualism, xliii, xliv. n 1, lvi, lxxi, 
Duraekaeta, man, II, 71. 
Dush-humat Hell, II, 317. n 1. 
Duzaka, animal, 152. 
Duzyairya, II, 107, 108. 
Dvara»«, lxvii, 205. 
Dvazdah homast, II, 165. n 2. 

Earth, worshipof the, xci.n3; genius 
of the, II, 11, 19 ; what pleases 
and what grieves her, 21-33; 
formulas to purify her, 1 40 ; ho w 
long unclean from the dead, 
66-67 ; Ya/t to the, II, 286. 

Elements (worship of), liv. 

Elisaeus on the Fire-worship, 50. n 3. 

Ephialtes, II, 297. n 1. 

Epic (the Persian), lv. 

Ereda/-fedhri,woman,II,i95.n2,226. 

Eredhwa, man, II, 215. 

Erekhsha, man, II, 95, 103. 

Erenav3i,woman,II,62, 113,255,277. 

Ereth^, genius, II, 11, 18, 282. 

Erezifya, mount, II, 65, 287. 

Erezisha, mount, II, 288. 

Erezraspa, man, II, 216. 

Erezura, mount, II, 287. 

Erezvanf-danghu, man, II, 218. 

Erskine, xxii. 

'"Ervjxav&pos, 8. n 2. 

Eudemos, liv. 

Evil eye of Ahriman, 230. n 4. 

Evil-Thought Hell, II, 320. 

— Word Hell, II, 320. 

— Deed Hell, II, 320. 

Farhangi Jehangiri, xxii. 

Farsistan, II, 123. n 3. 

Farvardin Yajt, II, 179. 

Feridfln, II, 297. n 5. 

Fimbul winter, 11. 

Firdausi quoted, 167. n 3; II, 58. n r, 
60. n 2, 62. n 2, n 4, 63. n 1, 
64. n 2, 66. n 2, n ii, 67. n 4, 
n 5, n 6, 68. n 3, 71. n 7, 80. n 1, 
n 6, n 7, 81. n 2, 114. n 2, 207. 
n 3, 208. n 2, 222. n 5, 223. n 5, 
224. n 6, 237. n 3, 241. n 2, 



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370 



INDEX TO VOLS. IV AND XXIII. 



253. n 3, 292. n i, 393. n 6, 
297- n 5, 327- n 8. 

Fire, its purity, xx, lxxxix ; how de- 
filed, 9, 80, no, 168. n 7 ; how 
purified, 135; its innocuity, 51 ; 
sonof Ahura Mazda, II, 322.115. 

FireNyayw, II, 349,356-361. 

Forest of the holy questions, 234. 

Formulas to cleanse a house, fire, 
water, &c, 133-138, 139-140. 

Frabaretar, priest, 63, 64. n 1, 78, 

79. 33*- 
Frada^-gadmin, man, II, 220. n 1. 
Fradadhafshu, region, 216; II, 123, 

154, 171, 216. n 5, 220. n 1. 
Fradaf-Avarenah, man, II, 219. 
Fradaf-nara, man, II, 217. 
Fradhakhjti, the son of the jar, II, 

224. 
Fradhidhaya, II, 203. 
FraJithra, II, 218. 
FnUya, II, 213. 
Franghadh, woman, II, 225. 
Frangrasyan, man, II, 64, 114, 115, 

223. n 1, 278, 3°°;3°2, 3°4> 3°5> 

307. See AfrisySb. 
Franya, man, II, 204. 
Fraoraojtra, II, 217. 
Fraorepa, mount, II, 287. 
FrSpayau, mount, II, 289. 
Frarizi, man, II, 217. 
Fraser, xiv. 

Frat-ham-vareta, man, II, 206. 
Frashaartra, man, II, 77. n 1, 207, 

208, 224. n 3, 331, 342, 343. 
Frashavakhsha, man, II, 210. 
Frashidvard, man, II, 206. n 2. 
Frashokareta, man, II, 206. 
Fraspata, 175. 
FrasrfitSra, man, II, 216. 
Frata, man, II, 203. 
Frattra, man, II, 218. 
Frava, man, II, 214. 
Fravawku, mount, II, 288. 
Fravashis, lxxiv. n 1, 215 ;• II, 6, 10, 

13, 14,17, 20, 26, 33. n 2, 36, 38, 

102,120,136,145,322,350,352. 
Frayaodha, man, II, 209. 
Frlya/-ratha, man, II, 210. 
Friyazanta, man, II, 212, 225. 
Frazdanava, lake, II, 79. 
Fren, woman, II, 204. n 1. See 

Fraii, 
Frenah, man, II, 212. 
Fr^ni, woman, i° II, 224; — 2°II, 225. 
Frinaspa, man, II, 217. 



Frogs, Ahrimanian creatures, 59. n4, 

167. 
Fr&hakafra, man, II, 219. 
Frya, man, II, 211, 215. 
Fryana, family, II, 71, 216. 
Fjfba-mathra, II, 27. 
Funerals, 26, 94-97. 
Furrows for purification, 122; II, 

5°. 5i. 

Gadha, 224. 

Gaevani, man, II, 213. 

Gah, xxx. 

Gahambar, II, 192. n 1. 

Gandarewa, demon, II, 63, 217, 255, 

256. n 1, 293. 
Gaokerena, plant, lxix, 219, 221 ; II, 

5, 14. 32. 36, 37. 
Gaomanf, man, II, 218. 
Gaopi-vanghu, man, II, 211. 
Gaotema, man, II, 184. 
Gar6-dem3na, II, 177. See GarS- 

nmana and Garothman. 
Gar6-nmana, 214, 215, 225; II, 43, 

I27.I33.I52. 200, 291, 335, 336, 

356. 
Gar6thman, II, 317. n^ 337. n5. 
Garshah, II, 33. ni. 
Garjta, man, II, 218. 
Gaji, demon, II, 50. 
Gathas, liii, 215. 
Gaumata, man, lv. n 1. 
Gauri, man, II, 215. 
Gavayan, man, II, 203. 
Gayadhasti, man, II, 212, 225. 
Gaya, man, II, 350. See Gaya Mare- 
tan and Gayomari. 
Gaya Maretan, man, lxxviii; II, 

98. n 3, 200, 227. 
Gay6mar</, man, 20. n 4 ; II, 33. n 1, 

58. n 1. 
Ghilan, land, II, 61. n 3, 117. n 6. 
Ghnana, 175. 
Ghosel, xcv. 

Giraml, man, II, 208. &s. 
Glory (kingly), II, 7, 8, n, 15, 18, 

136,153.156,170,232; praised, 

280-309. 

— (Aryan), 216. 
Gogojasp, man, II, 226. n 5. 
Gomez, lxxxvi, lxxxviii. 
Good-Thought Paradise, II, 317. 

— Word Paradise, 11,317,342.08. 

— Deed Paradise, II, 317. 
Gopatishah, man, 20. n 2; 11,114. 

n 7, 307. n 6. 



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INDEX TO VOLS. IV AND XXIII. 



371 



G6\», genius, II, 9, 17, 88, 110-118 

(G6j Yajt). 
G6vti Fryan, II, 72. n 5. 
G6jflrfln, genius, II, 245. n 1. 
Gotama, man, II, 184. n 2. 
Gravaratu, man, II, 217. 
Greeks on Magism, xii. 
Gudha, river (?), II, 255. 
Gurezm, man, II, 207. n 3. See 

Kavarazcm. 
Gushasp (fire), II, 7. n 5. 
Gusbnasp (fire), II, 7. n 5. 
Gustahm, II, 71. n7, 206. n 1. 
Gibtasp, man, II, 8. n 2, 70. n 1, 

207. n 3, 256. n 3, 267. n j. See 

VutSspa. 

Gad b6sh, II, 173. n 1. 

Gaghrfidh, woman, II, 225. 

Gahi, demon, lxvii, 200, 224, 228; 

}h 45, 47, 226. 
Gaini, demon, 222, 223, 224, 228. 
Gamasp, man, xxxviii; II, 70. n 1, 

77. n 1, 329. n6. 
Gamaspa, man, II, 70, 207, 208, 219, 

325, 326, 328, 331. 
Gamshed, man, 10. See Yima. 
Ganara, man, II, 213. 
Gar6-danghu, man, II, 210. 
Gar6-vanghu, II, 212; 
Gatara, mount, II, 289. 
Gihfin, river, II, 95. n 2. 
Gwti, man, II, 212. 

Habaspa, man, II, 206. 
Hadhanaepata, 94. n 1, 166 ; II, 361. 
Hadh6kht Svak h6mast, II, 165. n 2. 
HadhSkhtNask, xxxi; II, 159, 311. 
Ha£tuma»f, river, 2, 8, 216; 11,302. 
Haftoiring, II, 89. n 5. See HaptSi- 

rwga. 
Hair, how disposed of, 186. 
Hamankuna, mount, II, 288. 
Hamaspa/maedha, II, 192. 
Ham-beretar vanghvam, man, II, 

211. 
Hamfin, sea, II, 302. n 2. 
Hana, 27. 

Hanghaurvaungh, man, II, 208. 
Haoma, lii. n 1, lxix, 23. n 1, 72 ; II, 

12,20,47,102, 114, 141,146. n 2, 

246, 271, 277, 312. 
Haom6-i>i>arenah, man, II, 214. 
Haoshyangha, king, II, 58, 224, 251, 

275, 292. 
Haperesi wood, II, 245. 

B 



Hapta Hindu, 2. 

Hapt6irwga, II, 9, 16, 97, 175, 194. 

See Haftoiring. 
Hara Berezaiti, mount, 213,225,226, 

227, 228; II, 58, 122, 132, 150, 

174,251, 275. 
Harahvaiti, river, 2. 
Haraiti Bareza, mount, II, 114, 132, 

141, 174, '75,277,287. 
Haredhaspa, man, II, 214. 
Harerfid, river, II, 123. n 4. 
Harfiyu, river, 2, 7 ; II, 123. 
Harflt, river, 7. n 10. 
Harvispotokhm tree, 54. n 2. 
Ha.fi, demon, II, 49, 50. 
Hathra, measure, 156. 
HaurvataY, genius, lxx, lxxi; II, 5, 14, 

31,37,40,48-52 (KhordadY&rt), 

92, 143, 308, 312. 
Havanan, priest, 63, 64. n 1, 78, 79 ; 

II, 332. 
Havani, 23. n 2. 
Hawk, lxxiii. 

Head, people without a, 9. n 8. 
Heaven, 207, 208; II, 11, 19. 
Hell, 24. n 1, 75. n 2, 204. n 2, 218 ; 

II, 320. 
Hell's dog, lxxxvii. 
Helmend, river, 8. n 2 ; II, 302. n 3. 

See Haetumanf. 
Herat, land, II, 123. n 4, 288. 
Heresy, 172. 

Heretics. See Ashemaogha. 
Hermippus, xlii. 
Herodotus, xliv, lix, 169. 
Highwaymen, m. n 1. 
Hitaspa, man, II, 255, 296. 
HoazarSdathhri-e - Pare\rtyar6, man, 

II, 210. n 2. 
Holy word, 208. See Mathra Spenta. 
Horn, 59. n 4. See Haoma. 
Honover, lxix, 98. n 2. See Ahuna 

Vairya. 
Horapollo, II, 240. n 2. 
House, formula to purify a, 139. 
Hufravakhs, man, II, 219. 
Hugau, man, II, 215. 
Hukairya, mount, II, 52, 54, 76, 81, 

112,174,181, 253. 
Hukht Paradise, II, 317. 
Hu&thra, II, 225. 
Huma, woman, II, 224. 
Humai, woman, II, 224. n 6. 
Humat Paradise, II, 317. 
Humayaka, people, II, 80. 
Hunni, II, 205. n 4. 

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372 



INDEX TO VOLS. IV AND XXIII. 



Hunus, people, II, 205. 

Husravah, king, II, 65, 114, 115, 222, 
223, 256, 257, 278, 303, 307,327, 
328, 338. See Khosrav. 

— lake, II, 7, 15, 300. n 1, 358. 
See Husru. 

Husrfl, lake, II, 300. n 2. 
Hujkyaothna, man, II, 207, 208. 
Hutaosa, woman, II, 77. n 1, 116, 

224, 257, 258. n 1, 279, 327. n 1. 
Huvasp, man, II, 217. n 1. 
Huyairya, II, 107. 
Huyazata, man, II, 214. 
ifoadhata, man, II, 215. 
J/i>aStvadatha, xlv. 
/feiairizem, land, II, 123. 
/fc&khshathra, man, 214. 
jf/winiratha, lix. n 4, 123, 136, 154, 

171, 2i6. n 1, 313. 
Hvanvant, man, II, 214. 

— mount, II, 95, 103, 104. n 3. 
ffaiaredhi, woman, II, 225. 
H-vare-iaejman, man, II, 218, 219. 
H-uare-iithrz, man, 21. n 2 ; II, 201. 

n 1, 204. 
ifoarenb, lxii, lxiii. n 1 ; II, 283, 

286-309. See Glory, 
/foareza, man, II, 218. 
Hvarsht Paradise, II, 317. 
Hvaspa, II, 217. 
/foembya, man, II, 224. n 2. 
H-vogvi, woman, lxxix. 
Hvov, woman, II, 195. n 2. 
Jff6va, family, II, 77, 207. 
H-vdvi, woman, II, 207, 224, 267. 
ifoyaona, people, II, 79. n :, 117, 

205. n 4, 280. 
Hyde, xiv. 

Iaxartes, river, II, 123. n 4. 
Indo-Iranian elements in Mazdeism, 

lvii. 
Indra, a demon, lxxii, lxxx, 1 35, 2 18 ; 

II, 141. n 3. 
Indus, river, 3. 
Inexpiable crimes, c. 
Infanticide, II, 335. 
Iran, land, II, 123. n 2. 
IrJnve^-,land,xlix, 5.n4; 11,289^3. 
Isa</vastar,man, 21. n2; II, 204. ni, 

224. n 4. 
Isaf-vastra, man, II, 201. n 1, 204. 
Isfendyar, 220. n 2 ; II, 79. n 4, 81, 

206. n 2, 241. n 2, 329. n 3. 
Ishuj jtaathakhto, lxviii. 
Isva/, man, II, 203. 



hava&, mount, II, 288, 
Ijkata, land, II, 123, 288. 
Ithye,j8, demon, lxviii. 

Joint responsibility, 36. n 1. 
Jones (William), xv. 

Kadrva-aspa, mount, II, 289. 
Kaeva, man, II, 217. 
Kahrkana family, II, 219. 
Kahrkatas, bird, 193. 
KaAraredha, demon, Ixix; II, 45. n 1. 
KaAimzi, demon, 228. 
Kakahyu, mount, II, 288. 
Kalasyak, Hi. n 1. See Krasiak. 
Kamak, bird, II, 296. n 2. 
Kamak-sui/, man, 220. n 1. 
KSmak-vakhshijn, man, II, 220. n 1. 
Kang dez, land, II, 67, 68, 204. n 1, 

288. n 5, 329. n 7. 
Kanuka, woman, II, 225. 
Kaoirisa, mount, II, 289. 
Kapasti, 141. 
Kapdt, wolf, II, 295. n 4. 
Kapul, land, 2. 
Kara, fish, 217 ; II, 239, 266. See 

Kar maht. 
Kara Asabana, man, II, 71. 
Karapan, II, 26. n 2. 
Kardfin. See Cerdo. 
Karen, man, II, 209. 
Karesna, man, II, 209. 
Karet6-dasu, II, 322. 
Kar mahi, 59. n 4. See Kara. 
Karshiptan, bird, lxxviii, 21 ; II, 

203. n 4, 217. n 2. 
Karshvares, lix. n 4, 207, 216; II, 

123, 134, Mi, 142, 154, 163, 

181. n 2, 182, 254, 292, 293. 
Karsivaz, man, II, 64. n 1, 305. n 2. 

See Keresavazda. 
Kasava, lake, lxxix, 206 ; II, 195. n 2, 

226. n 1, 302, 307. 
Kasupatu, man, II, 211. 
Kasvi, 218. 
Kata, II, 218. 
Katayfln, II, 297. n 5. 
Katu, man, II, 213. 
Kaus, king, II, 222. n 5, 242. n 1. 

See Usa, Usadha. 
Kavanda, demon, 141. 
Kavarazem, man, II, 207. See Gu- 

rezm. 
Kavata, king, II, 65. n 1, 222, 303. 

See Qobad. 
Kavis, heretics, II, 26. n 2. 



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INDEX TO VOLS. IV AND XXIII. 



373 



Kavis, kings, II, 213, 215, 218. See 
Aipiv6hu, Aptveh, Arij, Armin, 
Arshan, Byarshan, Husravah, 
KavSta, Kaus, Khosrav, Pashin, 
Qpbad, Syilvakhsh, Syavar- 
shana, Usa, Usadha. 

Kayadha, lxix. 

Kayan race, II, 302. n 1. 

Keresani, man, lii. n 1. 

Keresaokhshan, man, II, 205. 

KeresSspa, man, lxv, lxxvi, 2, 7, 61. 
n 1, 62, 195, 223, 255, 256. n 1, 

295-297. 3°7- 
Keresavazda, man, II, 304. See 

Karsivaz. 
Khashm, demon, II, 224. n 2. See 

Aeshma. 
Khnathaiti, demon, lxvi, 7, 205 ; II, 

296. n 3. 
Khnenta, land, 7. 
Khorda Avasta, xxx. 
Khordad. See Haurvataf. 
KhordSd Yait, II, 48-52. 
KMrsheW Yajt, 11,87. 
Khosrav, king, II, 64. n 1, 67. n 6, 

114. n 2, 222. n 6, 223. n 5, 

327. n 8. See Husravah. 
Khosrav AnSshirvan, king, xxxiii. 
Khrafstra,lxxiii,5.n 3,75,76; 11,310. 
Khrafstraghna, 168. 
Khratu Ssna, gaoshS-srfita, II, 4, 13, 

35, 37- 
Khru, demon, 141, 142. 
Khruighni, demon, 141, 142. 
Khshaotha, mount, II, 95, 103. 
Khshathra vairya, genius, lx, lxxii, 

207, 220; II, 5, 14, 34, 36, 37, 

4°, 49, 95, i°3, 142, 35i- 
Khshathr6->Hnah, man, II, 212. 
Khshathro-saoka, II, 67, 68. 
Khshvoiwraspa, man, II, 211, 212. 

n2, 225. 
Khjtavaenya, man, II, 211. 
Khumbya, man, lxxvi; II, 224. n 2. 

See Jfoembya. 
Khflr-Aashm, II, 220. n 1. 
Khursh&/-/fcihar, II, 204. n 1. 
Khvaniras, region, II, 220. n 1. See 

ifoaniratha. 
Khvarizem, land, II, 123. n 4. 
Kima Gatha, II, 318. 
Kirman, land, 2. 
Kissahi San^-ah, xxxvii. 
Kleuker, xvii. 
Koiras, river, II, 289. n 3. 
K6ndrasp, mountain, II, 289. n 2. 



Kosti, 189. n 3, 191. n 4 ; II, 349. 
Krasiak, II, 161. n 6. 
Kr*"s3nu, man, lii. n 1. 
Kuleng Dis, place, II, 253. n 3. 
Kuwda, demon, 217 ; II, 334. 
Kundi, demon, 141, 142. 
Kundiza, demon, 141, 142. 
Kvirinta, place, II, 253. 

ATae^asta, lake, II, 7, 15, 66, 114, 

115, 278, 300. n 2. 
Fakhra, land, 2, 9. 
Afakhravak, bird, II, 217. n 2. 
ATakhshni, man, II, 213. 
ATamru, bird, II, 210. 
ATathrujamrflta, 134. 
ATathwaraspa, man, II, 217. 
Kin va/-bridge, lxxxviii, 1 5 2, 1 90, 2 1 2 - 

213, 215; II, 12, 20, 121. n 1, 

335- n 2, 339. 
Afista, genius, II, 10, 18, 153, 164, 

166, 216, 264-269, 352. 
ATisti, genius, 216; II, 11, 18, 164, 

166, 282. 

Law of Mazda, II, 10, 12, 18, 19, 39, 

153, 160, 164, 274, 352. 
Libations unclean, 93. 
Light (endless), lxxxii; II, 177, 317, 

344- 
L6hrasp, man, II, 78. n 3, 223. n 5. 
See Aurvaf-aspa. 

Maenakha, mount, II, 288. 

Magi as a Median tribe, xlvi, xlvii. 

Magism, xxxiv. n 3, liv. 

Magophonia, 1. 

Maguj, II, 4. n 5. 

Mahabidian, 102. n 2. 

Mah Yajt, II, 88-91. 

Mahraspand, man, 1 1, 3 29. n 2 ;genius: 

see Mathra Spe«ta. 
Maid, at the AHnvaz-bridge, 213. 
Maidhy6-ma«ngha, man, 1° II, 203, 

209; — 2° II, 219. 
Malkojan, rain, 16. n 1. 
Man, formulas to purify, 140. 
Manes, II, 179. 
Mani's heresy, xxxviii. 
Manichees, xxxix, xl. 
Manusha, mount, II, 287. 
Manflj-/Mhar, man, II, 287. n 4. 
Manu;-£ithra, man, II, 222. 
Marcellinus, xlvi. 
Marcion, xli. n 5. 
Maretan, man. See Gaya. 
Margiana, land, II, 123. n 4. 



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374 



INDEX TO VOLS. IV AND XXIII. 



Margus, river, II, 123. n 4. 

Maruts, lxxvii. 

Marv, land, II, 123. n 4. 

Masan, land, 2. 

Masmoghan, xlviii. 

Matemus, II, 141. n 3. 

Mathra Spenta, lxxviii. n 6, 2 30, 2 3 1 ; 

11, 12,19,160,164,166,200,285. 
MathravSka, man, II, 208, 213. 
Maubedan Maubed, II, 149. n 4. 
Maubeds, xlvii. 
Miyava, man, II, 217. 
MSzana, Daevasof.lxvii.n 2, 1 37, 1 88; 

II, 33, no, 163, 224, 251, 276. 
Mazda. See Ahura Mazda. 
Mazdak, man, xxxvi, xli. n 2. 
Mazdeism, evolution of, lxxxi. 
MazdrSvangha, man, II, 215. 
Mazubvou, mount, II, 288. 
Measures. See Aredvi, A*ti, Dijti, 

Hithra, Vitazu, Vitara, Vitasti, 

Yu^yejti. 
Media, seat of Magism, xlvi. 
Medicine, 83-86. 
Meiners, xvi. 
Melek Taus, lxxiii. n 4. 
Menstruation, xciii ; caused by DSe- 

vas, 183. See Menstruous woman. 
Menstruous woman, treatment of a, 

1 81-183 ; intercourse with, 173, 

184, 185, 202. 
Merezishmya, man, II, 219. 
Merezu, man, 217. 
Microcosm, 187. n 2. 
MihirNyayij, II, 349, 353-355- 
Mihir Yajt, II, 119-158. 
Mino&br, man, xlvii; II, 95. n 2, 

114. n 7. 
Mithra, genius, created by Ahura, 
lxi ; his attributes, lxi. n 1 ; co- 
equal to Ahura, lx; praised, II, 
1 19-158 (Mihir Yajt), 23, 87. 
n4, 208; 11,5,9, 14, 17,36,38, 
39, 86, 87, 95, 166, 181, 184, 191, 
200, 202, 244, 274, 327,329, 342. 
35°, 35'5 seizes the glory of 
Yima, II, 294 ; God of contracts, 

48; Mihir NyEyb, II, 353-355- 
Mithra and Ahura, II, 148, 158, 351, 

Mithradru,?es, 48. n 2 ; II, 120. n 2, 

129, 138. n 1, 248. 
Mithriac mysteries, II, 151. n 3. 
Mitnl-VaruflS, lx. 
Miza, land, II, 218. 
Moghu-/bi/, lii. 



Moon, 226-227 ; II, 8, 16, 176, 88-91 
(Mlh Yajt), 355 (Mill Nyayij). 

Mountain of the holy questions, 234. 

Mountains, II, 11, 19; enumerated, 
287-289. 

Mouru, land, 2, 6 ; II, 123. 

MQidhi, demon, 141, 142. 

Murghab, river, II, 123. n 4. 

Myazda, lxix. 

Nabanazduta, 36. n 3. 

Naglfar, 186. n 3. 

Nails, xcii, 187. 

Nairy8-sangha, god, lxx, 214, 231- 
233; II, 8, 16, 132, 162, 339, 
358. See Neryosengh. 

Natvtak, river, II, 216. n 1. 

Nanarasti, man, II, 213. 

Nanghujmau, mount, II, 288. 

Naotara, family, II, 66. n n, 71, 77, 
206 ; Naotaras, II, 257 ; pursue 
Ashi, II, 280-281. See Nodar. 

Naptya, man, II, 206. 

Narajansa, god, lxx, 231. n 2. 

Nasa-burner, in. 

Nasatyas, lxxxi. 

Nastfir, man, II, 207. n 2. 

Nasu, demon, 26 ; contagion of, 75, 
76-77, 57-6o, 70, 71, 72, 80, 
103-110, 205; expelled, 122- 
129,143; II, 49, 50, 51. 

N/jungbaitya, demon, lxxii, 135, 218. 

Nemetka wood, II, 245. 

NemSvanghu, man, II, 210. 

Neo-Platonicians, xiii: 

Neremyazdana, man, II, 211. 

Neryosengh, 1 1, 195. n 2. SeeNairy6- 
sangha. 

Nikolaus, li. 

Nirang, 63. 

N«r<ua, 6. n 6. 

Nisaya, land, 2, 6. 

Nivika, man, II, 296. 

Nodar, man, II, 206. n 1, 221. n 9. 

See Naotara. 
Nosks, xxxii; II, 159. See Hadhokht. 
Nflzadi, 119. 
Nyayij, xxx ; 11,349-361. 

Oath, formula of, 48. n 1 ; false, 46. 

Oedipus, II, 72. n 5. 

Ormazd, II, 177. n 1. See Ahura 

Mazda. 
6shdashtar, mount, II, 33. n 1, 287. 

n 5. See Ushi-darena. 
dsMdar Bamt, man, II, 79. n 3, 164. 

n 1, 220. n 3, 226. n 1. 



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INDEX TO VOLS. IV AND XXIII. 



375 



dshcdar Mah, II, 164. n 1, 220. n 2. 

Otus, II, 297. n 1. 

Oxus, river, 3 ; II, 123. n 4, 227. n 2. 

Padashkhvargar mountains, 2; II, 
114. n 7. 

Paesanghanu, man, II, 225. 

Paeshata, man, II, 203. 

Paeshatah, man, II, 213. 

Paeshatah Paitisrfra, man, II, 216. 

Pa&rij, demon, II, 309. 

Pairikas, demons, lxvi, 112, 142, 222, 
223,228; 11,26,43,50,57,59, 
66, 86, 95, 97, 104, 105, 128, 134, 
161, 223, 232, 247, 252, 296. 
See Khnathaiti, Duzyairya. 

Pairuta-khshudra, 27. 

Pairwtira, man, II, 210. 

Paitidratha, man, II, 210. 

Paitua, demon, 218. 

Paitivangha, man, II, 210. 

Paityarjvan/, man, II, 210. 

Paoiry6-*kaesha, II, 68. n 2, 180. n 1. 

Paradhata, man, 220. n 3 ; II, 7. n 2, 
58, 251. 

Paradise, 213; II, 317, 344. 

Paravidya, II, 4. ns> 

Parendi, genius, lxx; II, 11, 18, 104, 
136, 330. 

Paretacene, land, II, 123. n 4. 

Pari. See Pairikas. 

Par&dar-r, bird, 193, 194 ; II, 322. 

ParSdasma, man, II, 218. 

Parshanta, man, II, 217. 

Parsha/-gauj, man, II, 203, 219. 

Parsis, xi. 

Pashln (Kai), prince, II, 222. n 5. 

Patet, c, 32. n 3, 56. n 2. 

Pathana, man, II, 293. 

Pat-Khosrav, man, II, 205. n 6. 

Paulo de St. BartheUemy, xxi. 

Pausanias, xlii. 

Payanghr6-makhjti, man, II, 214. 

Pazinah, man, II, 214. 

Peace, II, 164, 249. See Akhrti. 

Peacock, lxxxiii. n 4. 

P«lvaSpa, II, 73. 

Pfhan, man, II, 293. n4. 

Penalties, in the Vendidld, xcviii ; 
for a woman unclean drinking 
water, 91 ; for breach of con- 
tract, 37; for burning dead 
matter, in; for burying a 
corpse, 31 ; for defiling fire or 
water, 80-81 ; a river or trees, 
118; the ground, 67-69; for 



eating of a corpse, 80 ; for giv- 
ing bad food to a dog, 156-158; 
for a false oath, 47-48 ; for a 
false cleanser, 131; for inter- 
course with a menstruous wo- 
man, 184-185, 202; for killing 
a VanghSpara dog, 153; — any 
dog, 165-169 ; for smiting a dog, 
153-155 ; — a bitch pregnant, 1 80 ; 
for sodomy, 1 1 1. n 1 ; for sowing 
or watering the ground un- 
clean, 67 ; for throwing clothes 
on the dead, 99-100. 

Penitence, c, 32. See Patet. 

Penom, xciii, 168. n 7. 

Perethu-afzem, man, II, 219. 

Perethu-arjti, man, II, 206. 

Persian inscriptions, xxv. 

— religion, liv. 
Peshana, man, II, 79. 
PeshdSdians, men, II, 58. n 1. See 

Paradhata. 
Pesh6-£angha, man, II, 80. 
Peshdtanu, lxxvi, xcvi, 39, 40, 41, 42, 

43. 44. 49, 5°, 61, 67, 68, 74, 

91, 103, 144, 154, 157, 160, 

172-174. 

— prince, II, 329. 
Peshyansai, land, 2; II, 195. n 1, 

224. n 2. 
PeshyStanfl, prince, II, 204. n 1. 
Physicians, 83-86. 
Pidha family, II, 219. 
Pinm Visah, man, II, 67. n 4. 
Pisanah, lake, II, 62. 
— prince, II, 222, 303. 
Pijin, valley, II, 62. n 5. 
Pijkyaothna, man, II, 207. 
Pitaona, man, II, 296. 
Pitr/s, lxxiv. n I ; II, 179. 
Planets, II, 92, 176. n 2. 
Pliny, 9. n 8 ; II, 227. n 1. 
Plutarchus, xlvii ; 11,92. 
Pollution, 100-101, 198. 
Poseidon, II, 152. n 5. 
Pouru-bangha, man, II, 218. 
Pourudhakhfti, II, 70, 211, 212, 225. 
Pouru-^tra, man, II, 221. 
Pouru-jHsta, man, II, 204. n 1, 224. 
Pourushaspa, man, 205, 206, 218; 

II, 58, 203. n 1, 325, 328. 
Pourarti, man, II, 213. 
Pouruta, land, II, 123. 
Priest, wandering, 157.0.1,163:111; 

unworthy, 189. 
Priesthood, xlvii. 



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376 



INDEX TO VOLS. IV AND XXIII. 



Proclus, xiii. 

Prodicus, xiii, xlii. n i. 

Pfiitika sea, 53, 54. 

Puramdhi, goddess, lxx. 

Purification, of clothes, 77-79, 209. 
n 8 ; corpse-bearers, 96 ; cow, 
92 ; earth, 86 ; Haoma, 72 ; 
house, 93-94; fire, 110-112; 
man, 103-110, 1 19-129; sacri- 
ficial implements, 60; water, 
69-72 ; ways, 97-99 ; woman 
delivered of a child, 61, 89-91; 
wood, 81-83; i° the wilder- 
ness, 116-119. See Barashnfim, 
Ghosel, Si-shti. 

Purity, lxxxv, 55. 

Pur-t6ra, man, II, 326. n 8. 

Purusha, II, 88. n 4. 

Qobad, king, II, 222. n 3. See 
Kavata. 

Raemana, mount, II, 288. 

RaSvan/, mount, II, 8, 15, 289, 356. 

Ragha, land, 2, 8. See Rai. 

Rai, land, xlvii. 

Rama ffwlstra, genius, lxiv, 23; II, 
5, 9,14,17,18, 34, 36, 38, 119, 
158, 249, 263, 327. 

Ram day, II, 88. 

Ram Yajt, II, 249. 

Rangha, river, 3 ; II, 69, 73, 146, 173, 
255, 326, 328. 

Raoidhita, mount, II, 287. 

Raoias-iaejman, man, II, 216, 219. 

Raozdya, country, II, 218. 

Rapitvin, II, 159. 

Rasa, 3. 

Rasastaf, genius, II, 11, 18, 282. 

Rashidaddin, xliii. 

Rashn Yart, 11,168-178. 

Rashnu, genius, lxi, xcix, 48, 87. n 4 ; 
II. 6 , 9. '5, i7,3 6 ,38, 4°, 129, 
139, MS, 152, 156, 164, i<> 6 , 
168-178, 181, 191, 200, 244,274, 

283, 327, 342. 
Rask, xxii. 

Raspi. See Rathwbkare. 
Rastare-vaghanf, man, II, 209. 
Rata, genius, lxx, 209; II, 5, 14, 36, 

37, 40, 33°, 338. 
Rathwukare,priest,64, 78,79; 11,3 32. 
Ratu, priest, 56, 91. 
RavawV, man, II, 217. 
Raven, an incarnation of Victory, II, 

236; of Glory, 294. n 3. 



RSvand, mount, 289. n 1. 

Richardson, xvi. 

Rivers, Seven, 9. 

Romans on Manes, II, 192. 

Romer, xxv. n. 

Rdshand-ia/m, man, II, 220. n 1. 

Royishndmand, mount, II, 287. n 9. 

Rfidabah, woman, II, 241. n 2. 

RQm, country, II, 226. n 6. See 

Arfim. 
Rustam, man, II, 241. n 2, 297. n 5. 

Sacrifice, Mazdean, lxviii ; to Ahura 

Mazda, 209 ; to Ashi Vanguhi, 

II, 275-280 ; its rules, 280-282 ; 

to Ardvi Sflra Anahita. 
Sacrificial implements, how cleansed, 

60. 
Sacy (S. de), xix. 
Sadhanah, man, II, 214. 
Sadis, 87. n 4; II, 314. See Sidos. 
Saena, bird, II, 203, 219, 242. 
Saeni, demon, II, 49, 50. 
Sagdid, lxxxvi, 26. n 2, 75, 97, 117. 

n 2, n 3. 
Saini countries, II, 227. 
Sairima, II, 62. n 2, 226. n 6. 
Sairimyan countries, II, 226, 227. 
Sairivau, mount, II, 288. 
Saka, II, 161. n 4. 
Sama, man, II, 195, 223, 255. n 4. 
Sanaka, II, 146, 173. 
Saoka, genius, 215, 230, 231 ; II, 4, 

i3.3o.35,37,48,i6o. 
Saokaata, mount, II, 352. 
Saoshya«f, man, lxvii, lxxix, 205 ; 

II, 165, 167, 184, 189, 195. n 2, 

197, 211. n 1, 220, 224. n 3, 226. 

n 3, 227, 270, 306. See S6shy6s. 
Sarana, 221. n 1. 
Sardar, 166. n 5. 
Sariphi, II, 65. n 2. 
Satavaesa, star, II, 9, 16, 92, 96, 190. 
Satves, star, II, 89. n 5. 
Saukavastan, land, II, 114. 
Soungha, man, II, 218. 
Sauru, demon, lxviii, lxxii, lxxxi, 

135,218; 11,123,136,154,171. 
Savahi, region, II, 210. n 2, 216. 
SavanghaviU, woman, II, 62, 113, 

255, 277- 
Siyuzdri, man, II, 71, 212. 
Scythes, II, 161. n 4. 
Scythian theory of Magism, lvi. 
Seistan, land, II, 123. n 3, 288. n 2. 
Selm, man. See Sairima. 



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INDEX TO VOLS. IV AND XXIII. 



377 



Seoses, man, xlv. 

Shadow, xliii. n 2. 

Shaeta, 175. 

Shagad, man, II, 297. n 5. 

Shahrinaz, II, 62. n 2. 

Shahrfvar, II, 85. See Khshathra 

vairya. 
Shapur II, xxxiii, xxxvii. 
Shiz, land, xlvii, xlix. 
Sidds, II, 314. See Sadis. 
Stfidava, II, 288. 
Stfidav, II, 288. ns. 
Simaes;i, II, 208. 

SimOrgh, II, 173. m, 203. n4, 241. 
n 2. See Sinamru and Saena. 
Sinamrfl,54.n 2; II, 173.11 i,2io.n 1. 
Sind, II, 146. n 2. 
Singular dvandva, II, 81. n 1. 
Sirius, II, 82. 
SirSzah, xxx; II, 1-20. 
Si-shO, 117, n 2. 
Skarayaf-ratha, II, 210. 
Slavonian fire-worship, 168. n 7. 
Smerdis, xlvi. 

Snaoya, man, II, 203. 

Snavidhaka, man, II, 296-297. 

Sodomy, 101-102. 

S6k-t6ra, II, 326. n 8. 

Solomon, 18. n 3. 

Soma, 221. n 2. 

S6shy6s, II, 164. n 1, 220. n 1. 

Soul's fate after death, 212; II, 
314-321, 342-345. 

Sozomenos, xlvi. n i. 

Space, luminous, lxxxii; II, 12, 20. 

Spells, 226; II, 51, 241, 341. 

Spendarmad, genius, II, 192. n 1. 

Spend-dat, man, II, 329. n 3. 

Spen^aghra, demon, lxiii, 217. 

Spemjauratka, man, II, 117, 280. 

Spe»ta, man, II, 217. 

Spe»ta Armaiti, genius, lx, lxix, lxxii, 
13, 15, 20. n 4, 31, no, 207, 208; 
H,5,i4, 31,32, 33- n 1, 36, 37, 
40,49,142,181, 274, 340. 

Spenta Mainyu, II, 10, 18, 34, 157, 
183, 187, 297, 351. 

Spe»t6-data, man, II, 207, 289. 

Spent6-khratu, man, II, 213. 

Sphinx, 205. n 2. 

Spiritual weapons, 206. 

Spitama, man, II, 204. 

Spitavarena, mount, II, 289. 

Spiti, man, 11, 216. 

Spit6W-i Aflsp6sinan, II, 216. n$. 

Spltfir, man, II, 297. n 5. 



Spityura, man, II, 297. 

Sraosha, genius, lxx, 87. n 4, 194, 
208, 216, 217 ; II, 6, 15, 25, 30, 
38, 40, 129, 132, 145, 159-167 
(Sr6sh Yajt), 200, 227, 274, 327, 

332, 339- 
Sraosha-varez, 56, 64, 78, 79, 91, 

192; II, 332. 
Sraoshd-iarana, xliv. n 3, 56. n 2, 

151. n 3, 169. 
Sravah, 217. 

Sriraokhshan, man, II, 205. 
Srlravanghu, man, II, 215. 
Srit, woman, II, 204. n 1. 
Sr6sh, 20. n 2 ; II, 9, 17. See 

Sraosha. 
SrSsh Yzst HadhSkht, II, 159-167. 
Srflta^-fedhri,woman, II, i95.n 2,226. 
Srutaz-spadha, man, II, 213. 
Srvara, II, 293. 
Staotar vahutahe' ashye1i6, II, 211, 

225. 
Staota yesnya, II, 335. 
Star region, II, 73. n 2. 
Stars, lxxiv, 227 ; II, 9, 16, 89. n 5, 

92, 176. 
Stipi, man, II, 217. 
Stivan/, man, II, 216. 
Strabo, xlvi, 22. n 2 ; II, 227. n 2. 
Strength, genius, II, 6, 15, 36, 38, &c. 
Sugdha, land, 2, 5 ; II, 123. 
Suidas, II, 151. n 3. 
Sun, 225; II, 8, 16, 85-87 (Sun 

Yajt), 177, 349 (Sun Nyayu). 
Sflroyazata, man, II, 215. 
Susiana, land, II, 288. n 2. 
Sutfid Ye\rt, II, 152. ni. 
Syak-6mand, mount, II, 288. n 7. 
Syamak, man, II, 58. n 1. 
Syamaka, mount, II, 288. 
Syavakhsh, prince, II, 64. n 1, 222. 

n 6. See SyivarshSna. 
Syavarsh&na, prince, II, 67. n 5, 1 14, 

115,222, 278, 303-304, 326. See 

Syavakhsh. 
Syavaspi, man, II, 213. 

Sabdabrahma, II, 4. n 5. 

Taera, mount, II, 58, 175, 251, 289. 
Ta-hia, people, II, 227. n 2. 
Tahmuraf, prince, II, 252. n 1. 
Tahmurath, prince, lxxxii. 
Takhma-Urupa, prince, II, 60. n 1, 

204, 252, 292, 326. 
Tanaffihr, xcvi. 



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378 



INDEX TO VOLS. IV AND XXIII. 



Tanuperetha, xcvi. 

Tanya, land, II, 218. 

Tathravan/, man, II, 79, 117, 280. 

Tauru, demon, lxxii, 1 35, 2 1 8 ; 1 1, 2 1 3. 

Theopomp, xliii. 

Thraetaona, kills Azi, xxiv, lxiii, 2, 
9; II,6i, 63, 113, 221, 222. n 2, 
226. n 6, 242, 254, 277, 294, 307, 
326 ; as a physician, 219. 

Thrimithvan/, man, II, 204. 

Thruamrfita, 134. 

Thri/, man, II, 218. 

Thrita, man, 219-223; II, 212. See 
Ashavazdah. 

Thriti, woman, II, 224. 

Tigris, river, 3 ; II, 146. n 2, 173. n 2, 

Time, as the first principle, lxxxii ; 

sovereign, II, 10, 18, 34, 352; 

boundless, 207, 208. 
Timotheus, xli. n 6. 
Tiridates, prince, xxxiv. 
Tn-6-nakathwa, man, II, 219. 
Ttr Yajt, II, 92-109. 
Tlrtrya, star, lxiii, lxviii, lxxiv, 54. 

n2, 215; II, 9, 16, 34, 89. n 5, 

92-109 (Ttr Yart), 157, 173. n 1, 

175, 284, *85, 351, 354. 
Tteyanrti, man, II, 206. 
Tortoise, to be killed, 167. 
Traditional teaching, II, 12, 19, 165, 

166. 
Traitana, man, lxiii. 
Tree of the eagle, II, 173. 
Trita Aptya, man, lxiii, 219. 
Tudhaskal, mount, II, 288. 
Tfimaspa, man, II, 221. 
Tfira, man, II, 62. n 2, 212. n 4, 217, 

226. n 6. 
Turanians, II, 67, 71, 189, 226; and 

Naotaras, II, 280-281. 
Tus, a city, 7. n 6. 
— man, II, 66. n 11, 71. n 7. See 

Tusa. 
Tusa,man,II,66,68,2o6.ni,28o.n4. 
Tiunamaiti, woman, II, 225. 
Tychsen, xviii. 

Udrya, mount, II, 289. 
Ukhshan, man, II, 215. 
Ukhshya/-ereta,man, II, 79,195^2, 

220, 226. n 1. 
Ukhshyaf-nemah, man, II, 195. n 2, 

220, 226. n 2. 
Ukhshyinti, woman, II, 225. 
Ulysses, II, 280. n 4. 



Unlawful unions, 174-175. 

Upaman, duration of the, 145-151. 

Urfidhayan/, woman, II, 225. 

Urfidhu, man, II, 212. 

Urumiah, lake, II, 66. n 2, 300. n 2. 

Uruny8-v3idhka£, mount, II, 288. 

Urva, land, 2. 

Urvakhshaya, man, II, 255, 326. 

Urvaran, 190. n 1. 

Urvasni, 94. n 1. 

Urvataf-nara, man, 2 1 ; 11,201,204, 

219. 
Usa, king, II, 65, 242. n 1. 
Usadhan, king, II, 216, 222, 303. 

See Kaus. 
Usenemah, man, II, 212, 225. 
Ushaoma, mount, II, 288. 
Ushi-darena, mount, II, 11, 19, 33. 

n 1, 283, 285, 287, 309. 
Ushi-dhmi, mount, II, 287, 302. 
Us-bwdu, mount, II, 101. See Au- 

sindom. 
UsmSnara, man, II, 203, 215. 
Usnaka, man, II, 214. 
Uspae\rta-saSna family, II, 219. 
Uspasnu, man, II, 216. 
Ujta-j&varenah, man, II, 288. 
Urtavaiti, II, 225, 314. 
Ujtaza«ta, man, II, 214. 
Ultra, man, II, 214. 
UrtGnavand, land, xlviii. 
Utayuti-Vi/kavi, man, II, 219. 
Uzava, king, II, 221, 222^3,329.114. 
Uzya, man, II, 215. 

Vadhfi/, woman, II, 225. 

Vaedhayangha, II, 210. 

Va§kereta, land, 2, 7. 

VaSsaka, man, II, 67, 68. 

Vafra Navaza, man, II, 68, 78. n 2, 

326, 328. 
Vafrayau, mount, II, 288. 
Vafr6mand, mount, II, 288. n 7. 
VSgereza, man, II, 213. 
Vah Bad, woman, II, 226. n 2. See 

Vanghu-fedhri. 
VahmaSdata, man, II, 213. 
Vai, the two, lxv. 
Viiti-gagsa, mount, II, 288. 
VikhedhrakaS, mount, II, 288. 
Valkash, man, xxxiii, xxxiv, xxxv. 
Vanand,star,II,89.n5. SeeVananf. 
Vanawf, star, II, 9, 16, 97. n 6, 175, 

310,351. 
Vanara, man, II, 205. 
Vandaremaini, man, II, 80. 



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INDEX TO VOLS. IV AND XXIII. 



379 



VanghSpara, 152. 
Vanghazdau, II, 301. 
Vanghu-dhata, man, II, 215. 
Vanghu-fedhri, woman, II, 195. n 2, 

226. 
Vanguhi Daitya, river,xlix,9 3 . n 3, n 5 . 
VarNlrang, II, 169, 170. n 3. 
Vara (Yima's), 16-21. 
Vara Asabana, man, II, 71. 
Varakasa, man, II, 212. 
Varasio, 210. n 2. 
Varlza, man, II, 203, 205. 
Vareda</-gadman, II, 220. n r. 
Vareda/-/£n>arenah, man, II, 220. 
Varedhakas, people, II, 117, 205^4, 

280. 
Varena, land, lviii, lxiii, 2, 9, 113; 

II, 254. See Varenya. 
VSren.gana, bird, II, 241. 
Varenya Dadvas, lxvii, 1 36 ; II, 29, 33, 

59, 136, 144, 154, 197, 224, 251. 
Viresha, bird, II, 296. n 2. 
Vareshava, II, 296. 
Vareshnu, II, 208. 
Varesmapa, man, II, 213. 
Varesm6-rao£ah, man, II, 204, 219. 
Var.jemkard, 16. n 4. 
Vawni, man, II, 213. 
Varuna, god, xxix, lviii. 
Vasish/£a, II, 224. n 2. 
Vasna, man, II, 188. 
Vaya, 51. 
Vayu, genius, lxiv, 87. n 4, 207, 208 ; 

II, 10, 18, 34, 334; his names, 

II, 258-260; his Yart, II, 249- 

263. SeeVai. 
V&yu, god, lxiv. 
VazSspa, man, II, 206. 
Vazuta (fire), lxiii, 216. 
Veh, river, 3. 
Vehrkana, land, 2, 7. 
Vendidtd, contents, lxxxiii. 
Verethraghna, genius, lxiv, 215 ; II, 

6 > 10, i5» i7, 33. 3«> 38, 137, 

139,327; Yt. XIV (231-248); 

his incarnations, 232-238. 
Vertae, people, II, 117. n 6. 
Vibazu, measure, 120. 
VWadafsh, region, II, 220. n 1. 
Vidadhafshu, region, II, 123, 154, 

171, 216. 
Vida/-gau, man, II, 219. 
Vidhvana, mount, II, 288. 
Vtai-sravah, man, II, 213. 
Vtd6tu, demon, II, 143, 183. 
Viraspa, man, II, 209. 



Visadha, man, II, 210. 

Visah, man, II, 67. n 4. 

Vishaptatha, II, 90. 

Vtspa-taurvairi, woman, II, 225, 226, 
307. 

V?spa-taurvashi, woman, II, 225. 

Vtsperad, xxx; II, 165. n 2. 

Vispfi-daSva, 102. n 1. 

Vtsp8-tbaurv6-asti, man, II, 279. 

Visrflta, man, 217. 

VTsrutara, man, II, 218. 

VfrtSspa, man, II, 70.11 1, 77, 78, 79, 
81, 117, 204, 205. n 5, 224. ns, 
n 6, 257, 258. n 1, 280. n 4, 
306, 308 ; sacrifices to Ashi, II, 
279 ; to Ahura, II, 282. 

Vutasp Yajt, II, 328-345. 

Vistauru, man, II, 71, 206. 

Virve deva, 102. n 1. 

Vitanguhaiti, river, II, 72. 

Vitara, measure (?), 171. 

Vttasti, measure, 187. 

Vivanghat, man, 10, 11, 13 ; II, 217, 
221, 293, 294i 295- 

V{zareja,demon,lxviii.n7, 87.n4, 212. 

Vtayarjti, man, II, 206. 

Vohu-man6, god, lx, lxxii, 46, 207, 
209; II, 4, 13, 30, 31, 35, 37, 
39, 49, 88, 102. n 2, 142, 198, 
218, 297, 308, 351 ; door-keeper 
of Paradise, 2 1 3 ; his riches, 204 ; 
righteous man, 209; clothes,2io. 

Vohunazga, dog, 153, 156, 157, 161. 

Vohu-nemah, man, II, 208, 213. 

Vohu-peresa, man, II, 218. 

Vohu-raoiah, man, II, 204, 212. 

Vohu-urtra, man, II, 217. 

Vohu-vazdah, II, 213. 

Vohv-asti, man, II, 203, 211. 

Vologeses, king. See Valkash. 

Vouru-bare.tti, region, 216 ; II, 123, 

154, 171, 217- n 1, a2 °- n '• 
Vouru-^arerti, region, 216; II, 123, 

154, 171, 217. n i, 220. n 1. 
Vouru-Kasha, sea, lxiii, 5 3, 54, 59. n 4, 

214, 225, 226, 227; II, 54, 63, 

64. 81, 94, 9 6 > 99, «°°> IO '» »°3, 
104, 106,172,173, 181, 194,196. 

Vouru-nemah, man, II, 220. 

Vouru-savah, man, II, 220. 

Vourusha, man, II, 288. 

Vr/'tra, demon, II, 141. n 3. 

Vr/trahan, lxiv. 

Vyjimbura, demon, II, 245. n a. 

Vyar;va»f, man, II, 210. 

Vyatana, man, II, 218. 



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38o 



INDEX TO VOLS. IV AND XXIII. 



Walking without Kosti, 199. 
War implements, 169. 
Wartburg battle, II, 72. n 5. 
Water, 50, 53; II, 8, 16. SeeAban 
and Ardvi Sura. 

— formula to cleanse, 140. 

— Nyayu, II, 349, 356-357. 
Weasel, 59. n 1. 

White Forest, II, 256. 

Wind, II, 18, 19, 352. 

Winter, disposal of the dead in, 52. 

Wisdom, heavenly or acquired, II, 

12, 20. 
Wolf, born of dogs, 161. 
Woman, delivered, xcii, 89-91. 

— menstruous, xcii. 

Xanthus, on the Avesta, xii. 

Yadkar i Zariran, II, 205, 206. n 2, 
208. 

Yaetat-gau, man, II, 218. 

Ya^ata, lxxx. 

Yama, man, xxiv, lxxv, 12. n 1. 

Yaqflt, xlviii. 

Yasna, II, 165. n 2. 

Yajts, II, 21-345. 

YathS ahfi vairy6, 128; II, 23, 30, 
39, &c. 

Yitus, demons, lxvi, 8, 112, 199, 200, 
222, 223, 228 ; II, 26, 38, 43, 50, 
57, 59, 66, 86, 97, 105, 128, 134, 
161, 223, 232, 247, 252, 262. 

Yazata, lxxii, lxxx, 86, 96, 100. 

Yazdgard's edict, xli ; II, 26, 2. 

Yazishn, II, 319. n 1. 

Yim's var, II, 204. n 1. 

Yima, man, lxxv, 7 ; legends of, 12-21, 
216; II, 59,60. n 2, 1 12, 221,252, 
253, 276, 283 ; his Glory, 293 ;— 
lost, 297 ; his lie, 297 ; sawed in 
twain, 297. See Gamshed. 

YSLrta, man, II, 72, 216. 

Yu^yejti, measure, 156. 

Yfikhtaspa, man, II, 212. 

Yukhtavairi, man, II, 205. 

YQjta, man, II, 215. 

Zab, king, II, 221. n 9. See Uzava. 
Zadmarg, 52, 95. n 1. 
Zairi, demon, lxxii, 135, 218. 
ZairUi, woman, II, 224. 
Zairimyangura, animal, 153. 
Zairita, man, II, 204. 
Zairivairi, prince, II, 80, 81, 205. 



Zairyas, man, II, 213. 

Zamyad Y«ut, II, 286-309. 

Zand Avast!, its authenticity, xv; 
interpretation, xxv ; contents, 
xxx ; age, xxxviii; revealed to 
Zarathurtra, 204-218; — to Vtr- 
taspa, II, 324. 

— language, xxxvi. 

— meaning of the word, xxx. n 1. 
Zanda, demon, lxix, 199, 200. 
Zanda ravin, 132. n4, 165. n 1. 
Zaosha, man, II, 218. 

Zaotar, priest, 63, 64. n 1, 78, 79. 
Zaothra, lxix. 
Zarah sea, II, 302. n 2. 
Zarathwtra's birth, xlix, 218; he 

destroys the Daevas, 1 1, 304-305 ; 

founds the Law, II, 201; his 

sacrifices, II, 74, 78, 265-267, 

279 (see Zartusht and Zoroas- 

trian) ; reveals the Law, II, 324 ; 

his Glory, 205 ; II, 11, 19, 300 ; 

Fravashi, II, 351; his sons, 21. 

n 2 ; II, 204 ; his seed, II, 195 ; 

tempted, 204-207 ; leader of 

men, II, 105 ; ratu in the Yima 

Var, 21 ; his narcotic, II, 267 ; 

converses with Ashi,II, 274-275 ; 

with Ahura Mazda, II, 31, 32, 

38, 58, 119, 151, 155, 162, 207. 

n 4, 224. n 3, 114, 227, 228, 229, 

231, 232 seq., 328. 
Zarathujtrdtema, II, 149, 185. 
Zarazdata, man, II, 213. 
Zaremaya, month, II, 318. n 1. 
Zarir, prince, II, 80. n 1, 205. n r. 

See Zairivairi. 
Zartusht's sacrifice in IranVe£, xlix. 
Zarvandad, man, xli. n 3. 
Zaurura, 27. 
Zaurva, man, 218. 
Zav, king, II, 329. D4. See Zab and 

Uzava. 
Zavan, man, II, 218. 
Zbaurvanf, man, II, 209. 
ZeredhS, mount, II, 287. 
Zervan, lxxxii. n 1. 
Zighri, man, II, 219. 
Zohak, demon, lxv. 
Zoroaster's AoyLa, li ; apocrypha, xiii, 

xlii. n 1 ; legend, lxxvi. 
Zoroastrian sacrifice, II, 57. n 5, 68. 

n 2,78. 
Zrayah, II, 213. 



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TRANSLITERATION OF ORIENTAL ALPHABETS. 



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3 82 TRANSLITERATION OF ORIENTAL ALPHABETS 



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Sacred Books of the East 

TRANSLATED BY VARIOUS ORIENTAL SCHOLARS 
AND EDITED BV 

THE RIGHT HON. F. MAX MOLLER. 

V This Series is published with the sanction and co-operation of the Secretary of 
State for India in Council. 

BBBOBT presented to the ACADBKIE DEB IB8CBIPTIOJTS, Kay 11, 
1883, by M. BBHEST BEBAV. 

' M. Renan presente trois nouveanx une seconds, dont l'interSt historiqne et 
volumes de la grande collection des religienx ne sera pas moindre. M. Max 
"Livres sacr^s de l'Orient" (Sacred Miiller a sn se procurer la collaboration 
Books of the East), qne dirige a Oxford, des savans les plus eminens d'Europe et 
avec une si vaste erudition et une critique d'Asie. L'UniversM d'Oxford, que cette 
si sflre, le savant associe 1 de l'Academie grande publication honore au plus haut 
des Inscriptions, M. Max Miiller. ... La degr<5, doit tenir a continuer dans les plus 
premiere serie de ce beau recueil, com- larges proportions une ceuvre aussi philo- 
pos^e de 24 volumes, est presque achevee. sopbiquement concue que savamment 
M. Max Miiller se propose d'en publier executee.' 

EXTBACT from the QVABTEBX.T BEVXEW. 
' We rejoice to notice that a second great edition of the Rig- Veda, can corn- 
series of these translations has been an- pare in importance or in usefulness with 
nounced and has actually begun to appear, this English translation of the Sacred 
The stones, at least, out of which a stately Books of the East, which has been devised 
edifice may hereafter arise, are here being by his foresight, successfully brought so 
brought together. Prof. Max Miiller has far by his persuasive and organising 
deserved well of scientific history. Not power, and will, we trust, by the assist- 
a few minds owe to his enticing words ance of the distinguished scholars he has 
their first attraction to this branch of gathered round him, be carried in due 
study. But no work of his, not even the time to a happy completion.' 

Professor E. KABBY, Inaugural Lecture in the University of Freiburg, 1 887 . 
' Die allgemeine vergleichende Reli- internationalen Orientalistencongress in 
gionswissenschaft datirt von jenem gross- London der Grundstein gelegt worden 
artigen, in seiner Art emzig dastehenden war, die Ubersetzung der heiligen Biicher 
Unternehmen, zu welchem auf Anregung des Ostens' {the Sacred Books of the 
Max MUllers im Jahre 1874 auf dem East). 

The Hon. ALBERT 8. G. CAVBTVO, 'Words on Existing; Beliglons.' 
' The recent publication of the " Sacred a great event in the annals of theological 
Books of the East" in English is surely literature.' 

©jcfo*& 

AT THE CLARENDON PRESS 
LONDON: HENRY FROWDE 

OXFORD UNIVERSITY PRESS WAREHOUSE, AMEN CORNER, E.C. 



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SACRED BOOKS OF THE EAST: 



FIRST SERIES. 

Vol. I. The Upanishads. 

Translated by F. Max Muller. Part I. The JOandogya- 
upanishad, The Talavak&ra-upanishad, The Aitareya-Srawyaka, 
The Kaushitaki-brahmawa-upanishad, and The Va^asaneyi- 
sawhila-upanishad. Second Edition. 8vo, cloth, 10s. 6d. 

The Upanishads contain the philosophy of the Veda. They have 
become the foundation of the later Veddnta doctrines, and indirectly 
of Buddhism. Schopenhauer, speaking of the Upanishads, says: 
' In the whole world there is no study so beneficial and so elevating 
as that of the Upanishads. It has been the solace of my life, it will 
be the solace of my death.' 

[See also Vol. XV.] 

Vol. II. The Sacred Laws of the Aryas, 

As taught in the Schools of Apastamba, Gautama, Vasish//;a, 
and Baudhayana. Translated by Georg BOhler. Part I. 
Apastamba and Gautama. Second Edition. 8vo, cloth, 10s. 6d. 

The Sacred Laws of the Aryas contain the original treatises on 
which the Laws of Manu and other lawgivers were founded. 

[See also Vol. XIV.] 

Vol. hi. The Sacred Books of China. 

The Texts of Confucianism. Translated by James Legge. 
Part I. The Shu King, The Religious Portions of the Shih 
King, and The Hsiao King. Second Edition. 8vo, cloth, i is. 6d. 

Confucius was a collector of ancient traditions, not the founder of 
a new religion. As he lived in the sixth and fifth centuries B. C. 
his works are of unique interest for the study of Ethology. 
[See also Vols. XVI, XXVII, XXVIII, XXXIX, and XL.] 

Vol. IV. The Zend-Avesta. 

Translated by James Darmesteter. Part I. The Vendidad. 
Second Edition. 8vo, cloth, 14$. 

The Zend-Avesta contains the relics of what was the religion of 
Cyrus, Darius, and Xerxes, and, but for the battle of Marathon, 



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EDITED BY F. MAX MULLEN. 



might have become the religion of Europe. It forms to the present 
day the sacred book of the Par sis, the so-called fire-worshippers. 
[See also Vols. XXIII and XXXI.] 

Vol. V. Pahlavi Texts. 

Translated by E. W. West. Part I. The Bundahw, Bahman 
Yart, and Shiyast la-shayast. 8vo, cloth, 1 2 s. 6d. 

The Pahlavi Texts comprise the theological literature of the revival 
of Zoroaster 's religion, beginning with the Sassanian dynasty. They 
are important for a study of Gnosticism. 

[See also Vols. XVIII, XXIV, XXXVII, and XLVII.] 

Vols. VI and IX. The Qur'an. 

Parts I and II. Translated by E. H. Palmer. Second Edition. 
8 vo, cloth, 2 1 s. 

This translation, carried out according to his own peculiar views 
of the origin of the Qur'dn, was the last great work ofE. H. F aimer, 
before he was murdered in Egypt. 

Vol. VII. The Institutes of Vishwu. 

Translated by Julius Jolly. 8vo, cloth, \os. 6d. 

A collection of legal aphorisms, closely connected zvilh one of the 
oldest Vedic schools, the Ka/Aas, but considerably added to in later 
time. Of importance for a critical study of the Laws of Manu. 

Vol. VIII. The Bhagavadgita.with The Sanatsufatiya, 
and The Anuglta. 

Translated by KAshinAth Trimbak Telang. Second Edition. 
8vo, cloth, \os. 6d. 

The earliest philosophical and religious poem of India. It has been 
paraphrased in Arnold's 'Song Celestial.' 

Vol. X. The Dhammapada, 

Translated from Pali by F. Max Muller ; and 

The Sutta-Nipata, 
Translated from Pali by V. FausbSll ; being Canonical Books 
of the Buddhists. Second Edition. 8vo, cloth, 10s . 6d. 

The Dhammapada contains the quintessence of Buddhist morality. 
The Sutta-Nipdta gives the authentic teaching of Buddha on some 
of the fundamental principles of religion. 



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SACRED BOOKS OF THE EAST: 



Vol. XI. Buddhist Suttas. 

Translated from Pali by T. W. Rhys Davids, r. The Maha- 
parinibbana Suttanta; 2. The Dhamma-Aakka-ppavattana 
Sutta. 3. The Tevi^g-a Suttanta; 4. The Akankheyya Sutta ; 
5. The Ajetokhila Sutta; 6. The Maha-sudassana Suttanta; 
7. The Sabbasava Sutta. 8vo, cloth, 10s. 6d. 

A collection of the most important religious, moral, and philosophical 
discourses taken from Jhe sacred canon of the Buddhists. 

Vol. XII. The .Satapatha-Brahmawa, according to the 
Text of the Madhyandina School. 

Translated by Julius Eggeling. Part I. Books I and II. 
8vo, cloth, \2S. 6d. 

A minute account of the sacrificial ceremonies of the Vedic age. 
It contains the earliest account of the Deluge in India, 
[See also Vols. XXVI, XLI, XL1II, and XLIV.] 

Vol. XIII. Vinaya Texts. 

Translated from the P&li by T. W. Rhys Davids and Hermann 

Oldenberg. Parti. The P£timokkha. The Mah&vagga, I-IV. 

8vo, cloth, 1 of. 6d. 

The Vinaya Texts give for the first time a translation of the moral 

code of the Buddhist religion as settled in the third century B. C. 

[See also Vols. XVII and XX.] 

Vol. XIV. The Sacred Laws of the Aryas, 

As taught in the Schools of Apastamba, Gautama, Vasish/Aa, 
and Baudhayana. Translated by Georg Buhler. Part II. 
V&sish/Aa and Baudh&yana. 8vo, cloth, 10s. 6d. 

Vol. XV. The Upanishads. 

Translated by F. Max Muller. Part II. The Ka/>5a-upanishad, 
The Mu»<feka-upanishad, The Taittiriyaka-upanishad, The 
Brzhadarawyaka-upanishad, The .Svetajvatara-upanishad, The 
Pra«»a-upanishad, and The Maitriya«a-brShma«a-upanishad. 
Second Edition. 8vo, cloth, \os. 6d. 

Vol. XVI. The Sacred Books of China. 

The Texts of Confucianism. Translated by Tames Legge. 
Part II. The Yf King. 8vo, cloth, 10s. 6d. 
[See also Vols. XXVII, XXVIII.] 

Vol. XVII. Vinaya Texts. 

Translated from the P&li by T. W. Rhys Davids and Hermann 
Oldenberg. Part II. The MahSvagga, V-X. The ATullavagga, 
I— III. 8vo, cloth, 10s. 6d. 



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EDITED BY F. MAX MULLER. 



Vol. XVIII. Pahlavi Texts. 

Translated by E. W. West. Part II. The Darfistan-i Dfnik 
and The Epistles of Manu.?£thar. 8vo, cloth, 1 2s. 6d. 

Vol. XIX. The Fo-sho-hing-tsan-king. 

A Life of Buddha by Awaghosha Bodhisattva, translated from 
Sanskrit into Chinese by Dharmaraksha, a.d. 420, and from 
Chinese into English by Samuel Beal. 8vo, cloth, 10s. 6d. 

This life of Buddha was translated from Sanskrit into Chinese, 
A.D. 420. // contains many legends, some of which show a certain 
similarity to the Evangelium infantiae, tfc. 

Vol. XX. Vinaya Texts. 

Translated from the P&li by T. W. Rhys Davids and Hermann 
Oldenberg. Part III. The JTullavagga, IV-XII. 8vo, cloth, 
1 of. 6d. 

Vol. XXI. The Saddharma-pu»<ferlka ; or, The Lotus 
of the True Law. 

Translated by H, Kern. 8vo, cloth, 1 2s. 6d. 

' The Lotus of the True Law' a canonical book of the Northern 
Buddhists, translated from Sanskrit. There is a Chinese transla- 
tion of this book which was finished as early as the year 286 A.D. 

Vol. XXII. Gaina-Sutras. 

Translated from Prakrit by Hermann Jacobi. Part I. The 
A&lranga-Sutra and The Kalpa-Sutra. 8vo, cloth, 10s. 6d. 

The religion of the Gainas was founded by a contemporary of Buddha. 
It still counts numerous adherents in India, while there are no 
Buddhists left in India proper, 

[See Vol. XLV.] 

vol. xxiii. The Zend-Avesta. 

Translated by James Darmesteter. Part II. The Sirdzahs, 
Yajts, and Nyayif. 8vo, cloth, ioj. 6d. 

Vol. XXIV. Pahlavi Texts, 

Translated by E. W. West. Part III. Dina-i Main6g- 
Khind, >Sikand-gumantk Vig&r, and Sad Dar. 8vo, cloth, 
io s. 6d. 



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SACRED BOOKS OF THE EAST: 



SECOND SERIES. 

Vol. XXV. Manu. 

Translated by Georg Buhler. 8vo, cloth, 21s. 
This translation is founded on that of Sir William f ones, which 
has been carefully revised and corrected with the help of seven native 
Commentaries. An Appendix contains all the quotationsfrom Manu 
which are found in the Hindu Law-books, translated for the use of 
the Law Courts in India. Another Appendix gives a synopsis oj 
parallel passages from the six Dharma-sHtras, the other Smniis, 
the Upanishads, the Mahdbhdrata, &;c. 

Vol. XXVI. The .Satapatha-Brahmatfa. 

Translated by Julius Eggeling. Part II. Books III and IV. 
8vo, cloth, us. 6d. 

Vols. XXVII and XXVIII. The Sacred Books of China. 

The Texts of Confucianism. Translated by James Legge. Parts 
III and IV. The Li K\, or Collection of Treatises on the Rules 
of Propriety, or Ceremonial Usages. 8vo, cloth, 25^. 

Vol. XXIX. The GWhya-Sutras, Rules of Vedic 
Domestic Ceremonies. 

Part I. .Sankhayana, Ajvalayana, Paraskara, Khadira. Trans- 
lated by Hermann Oldenberg. 8vo, cloth, \2s. 6d. 

Vol. XXX. The Gnhya-Sutras, Rules of Vedic 
Domestic Ceremonies. 

Part II. Gobhila, Hira»yake«n, Apastamba. Translated by 
Hermann Oldenberg. Apastamba, Ya^nfa-paribhasha-sutras. 
Translated by F. Max Muller. 8vo, cloth, 12s. 6d. 
These rules of Domestic Ceremonies describe the home life of the 
ancient Aryas with a completeness and accuracy unmatched in any 
other literature. Some of these rules have been incorporated in the 
ancient Law-boohs. 

Vol. XXX I. The Zend-Avesta. 

Part III. The Yasna, Visparad, Afrfnagan, Gahs, and 
Miscellaneous Fragments. Translated by L. H. Mills. 8vo, 
cloth, 12s. 6d. 

Vol. XXXII. Vedic Hymns. 

Translated by F. Max Muller. Part I. 8vo, cloth, lis. 6d. 
[See also Vol. XLVI.] 

Vol. xxxiii. The Minor Law-books. 

Translated by Julius Jolly. Part I. Narada, Br/baspati. 
8vo, cloth, jos. 6d. 



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EDITED BY F. MAX MULLER. 



Vol. XXXIV. The Vedanta-Sutras, with the Com- 
mentary by .Sankaraiarya. Part I. 

Translated by G. Thibaut. 8vo, cloth, 1 2s. 6d. . - 
[See also Vol. XXXVIII] 

Vols. XXXV and XXXVI. The Questions of King 
Milinda. 

Translated from the Pdli by T. W. Rhys Davids. 
Part I. 8vo, cloth, ios. 6d. Part II. 8vo, cloth, 12s. 6d. 

Vol. xxxvil. Pahlavi Texts. 

Translated by E. W. West. Part IV. The Contents of the 
Nasks, as stated in the Eighth and Ninth Books of the 
Dinkard. i$s. 

vol. XXXVIII. The Vedanta-Sutras. Part II. 8vo, 
cloth, with full Index to both Parts, 1 2s. 6d. 

Vols, xxxix and XL. The Sacred Books of China. 
The Texts of Taoism. Translated by James Legge. 8vo, 
cloth, 21s. 

Vol. xli. The .Satapatha - Brahmawa. Part III. 

Translated by Julius Eggeling. 8vo, cloth, 12s. 6d. 

Vol. XLII. Hymns of the Atharva-veda. 
Translated by M. Bloomfield. 8vo, cloth, 2 if. 

VOL. XLIII. The vSatapatha-Brahmawa. 

Translated by Julius Eggeling. Part IV. Books VIII, 
IX, and X. 12s. 6d. 

Vol. XLIV. The 5atapatha-Brahma«a. 

Translated by Julius Eggeling. Part V. Books XI, XII, 
XIII, and XIV. iSs. 6d. 

vol. XLV. The Gaina-Sutras. 

Translated from Prakr/t, by Hermann Jacobi. Part II. The 
UttarSdhyayana Sutra, The SutrakrMnga Sutra. 8vo, cloth, 
12s. 6d. 

Vol. XLVI. Vedic Hymns. Part II. 8vo, cloth, 14.?. 

Vol. XLVII. Pahlavi Texts. 

Translated by E. W. West. Part V. Marvels of Zoroas- 
trianism. Ss. 6d, 

Vol. XLVIII. The Vedanta-Sutras, with Ramanufa's 
Srlbhashya. 

Translated by G. Thibaut. [In the Press.] 

Vol. XLIX. Buddhist Mahayana Texts. Buddha- 
iarita, translated by E. B. Cowell. Sukh&vatf-vyuhaVa^ra^Me- 
dika, &c, translated by F. Max Muller. Amitayur-Dhy&na- 
Sutra, translated by J. Takakusu. 8vo, cloth, 12s. 6d. 



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RECENT ORIENTAL WORKS. 



&nec&ota ©xomensta. 

ARYAN SERIES. 
Buddhist Texts from Japan. I. Va^ra/^edika ; The 
Diamond-Cutter. 

Edited by F. Max Muller, M.A. Small 4to, 3-r. 6d. 
One of the most famous metaphysical treatises of the MaMyana Buddhists. 

Buddhist Texts from Japan. II. Sukhavatf-Vyflha : 
Description of Sukhdvati, the Land of Bliss. 

Edited by F. Max Muller, M.A., and Bunyiu Nanjio. With 

two Appendices : (i) Text and Translation of Sanghavarman's 

Chinese Version of the Poetical Portions of the Sukhdvati- 

Vyuha ; (2) Sanskrit Text of the Smaller SukMvati-Vyuha. 

Small 4to, is. 6d. 

The edit to princeps of the Sacred Book of one of the largest and most 

influential seels of Buddhism, numbering more than ten millions of followers 

in Japan alone. 

Buddhist Texts from Japan. III. The A ncient Palm' 
Leaves containing the Pra^«a-Paramita-Hmlaya- 
Sutra and the Ush«lsha-Vifaya-Dhara«i. 

Edited by F. Max Muller, M.A., and Bunyiu Nanjio, M.A. 
With an Appendix by G. Buhlkr, CLE. With many Plates. 
Small 4to, 10s. 
Contains facsimiles of the oldest Sanskrit MS. at present known. 

Dharma-Sawgraha, an Ancient Collection of Buddhist 
Technical Terms. 

Prepared for publication by Kenjiu Kasawara, a Buddhist 
Priest from Japan, and, after his death, edited by F. Max 
Muller and H. Wenzel. Small 4to, is. 6d. 

Katyayana's Sarvanukrama«l of the Bigyeda. 

With Extracts from Sha</guru.?ishya's Commentary entitled 
Ved&rthadipika\ Edited by A. A. Macdonell, M.A., Ph.D. 16s. 

The Buddha-Aarita of Asvaghosha. 

Edited, from three MSS., by E. B. Cowell, M.A. 12s. §d. 

The Mantrapatha, or the Prayer Book of the Apa- 
stambins. 

Edited, together with the Commentary of Haradatta, and 
translated by M. Winternitz, Ph.D. First Part. Introduc- 
tion, Sanskrit Text, Varietas Lectionis, and Appendices. 
Small quarto, io.r. 6d. 

AT THE CLARENDON PRESS 

LONDON : HENRY FROWDE 

OXFORD UNIVERSITY PRESS WAREHOUSE, AMEN CORNER, E.C. 

T3 549 1 

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